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Guide to the Yukon Klondike mines; full information of outfit, climate, Dawson City; with notes on alluvial… Henley, G.F. 1898

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  Prkfac
The Ala
Fort \
All-Can;
Gleno
Teslin
Hoota
Sticki
j Taku R<
Tread we
Glacier j
A Silent
Lynn Ca
Chilcoot
An In;
Skagwa1
White P
Dimer
Bennet ]
Caribou
Nares L*
' Tagish I
Taku Ar r_^^^^^^^mm
Weather in May .. 21
Thinklet Indians   21
Marsh   21
Lynx River   21
Miles Canyon  22
White Horse Rapids  23
Tahk-heena River   23
Lake Le Barge ,   23
Open Water   23
Lewes River.   24
Big Salmon River   24
Little Salmon River  24
Five Finger Rapids   24
Rink Rapids   24
Pelly River   24
Fort Selkirk   25
White River  25
Stewart River   25
The Valley of the Yukon   25
Klonjec Indian Village   26
Dawson City   27
Amusements   27
Stores   28
Wages   28
Gold Output   28
)awson
amps.
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bid
Pay-
St. Michael's Route
Fort Yukon	
Circle City .......
Forty Mile	
Old WomanJRockJ
Dalton Trail..
The Poor Man
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Prospecting for Mineral Bearing Ores	
How to Distinguish the Precious Metals	
Composition of Rocks	
Nature of a Few Minerals	
Mine Surveying	
Calculation of Areas	
Cubic Measure	
Location of Claims	
Customs Stations	
Commissioner Ogilvie's Lecture
Explorers and prospectors	
Discovery of Gold on Klondike
A Stampede	
Area of Gold Fields	
Rich Quartz Located	
Diary of Archbishop Seghers	
Taiya River jg
Out Into the Torrent	
Chilcoot Pass ,	
The Run of the River	
A Hermit	
Scenery of the^ Lakes	
Timber...... T	
Berries	
Birds 	
Bears and Other Animals	
Notes in French on the Conduct
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63 li
TABLB  OF DISTANCES  FROM  VICTORIA X>R VANCOUVER.
VIA STIKINK RIVER.
Miles.
Wrangel, steamship  750
Wrangel to Glenora, river steamer  140
Glenora to Telegraph Creek, boat       12
Telegraph Creek to Teslin Lake, trail  153
Teslin Lake to Dawson, boat  561
VIA LYNN  CANAIv.
Taiya (Dyea), steamship 1,000
Skagway, steamship  995
DISTANCES FROM SKAGWAY BAY TO
Head of Bennett Lake, trail       38
Foot of Bennett Lake, boat       64
Nares Lake (Caribou Crossing), boat..,       67
Tagish Lake, boat '.       83
Pow Wow River, boat       88
Marsh Lake, boat  .... 108
Head of Miles Canyon, boat  134
Foot of Miles Canyon, boat  134.62
Head of White Horse Rapids, boat  136.20
Foot of White Horse Rapids, boat  136.58
Tahk-heena River, boat ...  151
Head of Lake LeBarge, boat f  163
Foot of Lake LeBarge, boat  194
Hootalinqua, boat  225
Big Salmon, boat.^|§*.  258
Little Salmon, boat '.'. :  293
Five Finger Rapids, boat ;  352
Rink Rapids, boat  358
Pelly River, boat j  411
White River, boat  478
Stewart River, boat .: | 483
Sixty Mile Creek, boat .:.....:. 504
Dawson City, boat  549
Forty Mile, boat *  597
Circle City, boat   j 847
Victoria to St. Michael, boat 2,200
St. Michael to Dawson, boat 1,650
U INSCRIBED  TO
MY  FRIEND
W.   J.   CTJSACK. GUIDES
""YUKON-    jg
KLONDIKE
MINES
Full Information of Outfit, Climate, Dawson City,
with Notes on Alluvial and Metalliferous
Prospecting.
ROUTES DESCRIBED IN DETAIL
Report of Wm. Ogilvie, F.R.G.S.
Diary of the late Archbishop Seghers,
(Murdered on the Yukon.)
BY G. F. HENLEY.
i HSS> PREFACE.
UNDER the idea that there are a large number of people
living far from the Pacific Coast whose, minds have been
fired by accounts from the Klondike goldfields, and
whose opportunities for obtaining reliable information on this
subject are at best poor, I have prepared from my own experience, and from the most authentic sources, some matter which
I hope may prove useful to them.
Under the heading of the j 'Tourist Route to Alaska,'' will
be found ajbrief description of the trip from Victoria, to the
point of disembarkation, which for the most part is one of
pleasure.
TMen follows a description in some detail of the overland
journey to the lakes, and along the lakes and streams connecting them, together with the relative distances between
points, down to, and along the swift current of the Yukon to
Dawson.
The list comprising the articles of an outfit is intended to
give, in a general way, the requirements of a region, frozen
the greater part of the year, and difficult and expensive to
reach.
The notes on alluvial prospecting, and those on searching
for metalliferous ores are necessarily brief, and can only be of
use to the inexperienced prospector who, it is hoped, may
find something in them to inform or to guide him in his search
for the precious metals, f^pffej
The statement of the climatic conditions of the Yukon basin
is taken from the meteorological reports furnished by the
.United States and Canadian authorities. I have given the substance of a lecture delivered by Mr.
Wm. Ogilvie, Boundary Commissioner, believing it to be the
most important recital of the history and resources of the
Yukon country that has been made.
That portion of the diary, appended, of the late Archbishop
Seghers, whom I had the honour of knowing in the years gone
by, will be read, no doubt, by many with a very great interest.
I must not omit acknowledging my indebtedness to my constant young friend, Mr. S. H. F. Rowlinson. I have also to
thank the local press, and the proprietor of the San Francisco
Mining Journal.
Victoria, B.C., December 31, 1897.
XJ THE TRIP
-TO THE-
Land of the Midnight Sun.
-THE-
ALASKA m TOURIST.
PART I.
Never before have the wandering steps of the adventurous
miner carried him into stranger or wilder lands than lie before
him on his journey to the far-famed Klondike. Nevertheless,
he goes off, undaunted, and the hardships and dangers which
accompany his varied life, vanish before the fascinating dream
of acquiring a share of the golden sands of the north.
He constantly, during his ups and downs, is buoyed up
with the pleasing hope of some day returning to home and
friends, having, as the phrase goes, "made his pile.,,
THE   START.
Starting from Victoria, the ship follows a wavering northern
course, through the grandest scenery, affording a fine view of
evergreen islands, the forests, and icy mountains of the Coast.
Victoria is a handsome town, a section of old England set
down nearly unchanged in the west. It is situated on the
south east end of Vancouver Island, which is 289 miles long,
the largest of the archipelago that stretches northward along
the margin of the continent for nearly a thousand miles.
h 10
Tourists usually stop here for a few days, and most of them
go to the famous stores of the Hudson's Bay Company, to purchase furs or some wild Indian trinket. In the warehouses
may be seen the clothing of bears, panthers, foxes and musk-
rats, and many others of "our poor earth-born companions
and fellow mortals."
leaving Victoria we move into a narrow sea, so narrow
that we seem to be tracing a
MAJESTIC RIVER
with lake-like expansions, the tide-currents, the drift wood
brought down by avalanches, the inflowing torrents, and the
luxuriant foliage of the shores making the likeness complete.
Then rounding some cape, the eye perchance is called away
into a far receding vista, head lands on each side in charming
array.
Five hundred and fifty miles of this scenery and we reach
the boundary line, "Forty-four forty," at the head of Queen
Charlotte Islands. We are now in Alaska. This is the name
of all that portion of the northwest extremity of this continent, which, until '67 was known as Russian America.
One hundred and fifty miles further on and the ship
arrives at
FORT  WRANGEI,,
on Wrangel Island, near the mouth of the Stickine River.
It is a quiet, dreamy old place, of a few hundreds of whites,
and Indians living in their own strange way, midst the most
delightful scenery imaginable. Baron Wrangel established a
trading post here about a century ago, and the fort, a massive
stockade, was built by the United States. Indians mostly of
the Stickine tribe occupy the two long draggled ends of the
town along the shore, the whites numbering about 50, the
middle portion.
CURIOS OF WRANGEIv.
On the arrival of the steamer, most of the passengers go
ashore to see the curious totem-poles in front of the massive
timber houses of the Indians, and to buy curiosities, such as
carved spoons, shaman rattles, miniature canoes, silver bracelets hammered from dollars and tastefully engraved by Indian
workmen; paddles, baskets, mats, etc. The traders in these
curious wares are mostly women, who sit in front of the stores,
the girls, brilliantly arrayed in ribbons and calico, the older
ones sitting in their blankets, seemingly careless whether they
sell anything or not. These Indians are proud and intelligent,
and maintain an air of self-respect which tattered blankets and
blackened faces cannot wholly subdue. 11
THE FOOD  OF THE INDIANS.
What the mustang is to the Mexican vaquero the canoe is
to the Indian of the Coast. In summer they may be seen in
merry bands skimming over the glassy and sheltered waters,
the long beak-like prow, and stern of their canoes blithely
decorated * with purple epilobium, on their way to fish or
gather berries, and perhaps no where else can be seen so
many berries, the woods and the meadows, and open spaces
along the shore are full of them, hundreds of tons might
easily be gathered, and yet sufficient for every one in the
territory remain. The Indians press them into cakes and dry
them for winter use, to be eaten as bread with their salmon.
WOODS.
Going into the woods almost anywhere, you have first to
force a way through an outer tangle of Robus, huckleberry,
dogwood, and elder bushes, and a strange woody plant several
feet high} with limber, rope-like stems beset with thorns, and
a head of broad leaves like the crown of a palm. This is the
devil's club {Echino panax horrida) it is used by the Indians
for beating witches. Back in the shady depths of the woods
where the walking is free, you will be charmed with the
beauty and grandeur of the trees, as well as the solemn stillness of the forest. Wander where you may, wilderness ever
fresh and ever beautiful, meets you in endless variety.
THE  WEATHER  ON THE  COAST.
The climate of that portion of the Coast that is washed by
the Japan current, is remarkably mild and free from extremes
of heat and cold. An Alaskan midsummer day is a day without night. At Sitka and Wrangel the sun sinks only a few
degrees below the horizon, so that the rosy colors of the
evening blend with those of the morning, leaving no gap of
darkness between. In late autumn and winter roaring storms
come down and fill the days and nights with steady rains and
winds.
ALL-CANADIAN ROUTE.
The prospector who proposes taking this route will now
have to disembark from the ocean steamef and transship his
supplies to a river steamer, which will take him up the
Stickine River, the mouth of which, at Rothsay Point, is
12 miles from Wrangel. The river has a swift current and is
usually open for navigation between the end of April and
middle of May. Steamers of a light draft can ascend to
Glenora, 140 miles from Rothsay Point, and canoes to Telegraph Creek, 12 miles further on, At Glenora, the banks are low and slope gently to the water.
Ice beins to run about the end of November, and a little later
the river freezes over. In winter months miners haul their
supplies, loaded on sleds, on the ice, and dogs and other
hardy animals are pressed into service to aid in this toilsome
work.
From Glenora to Lake Teslin, the commencement of the
inland fresh waterway, the distance is said to be 153 miles,
over a comparatively level country, dotted by marshes,
swamps, ponds and lakes,
THE FIRST  OBSTACLE
met with on the journey is the Taltal River, which is 21 miles
from Glenora. This river is swift, and at this point runs
between high gravel banks.
THE SECOND  OBSTACLE
we meet is also a river, the Nialino, and this, like the first,
is swift but shallow, ahd somewhat wider than the Taltal. In
this district the foothills are timbered with spruce, hemlock
and pine. Further on stretches of marsh are met, which
would, unless corduroyed, necessitate a considerable divergence to the side hills. Now comes Lake Teslin, about 100
miles long, at which boats are built, and from which on the
water journey presents no great difficulties.
If improvements were made on this trail packing could be
done from May to the middle or end of October, at which time
the lakes and rivers commence to freeze. Sawmills and boatbuilding would then enliven the scene around Lake Teslin.
THE HOOTALINQUA
or Tes-lin-loo, as the Indians call this river, leaves Lake
Teslin and follows a northwesterly direction to its confluence
with the Lewes River, 28 miles below Lake Le Barge. In its
course of about 120 miles, it receives numerous tributaries, and
wherever prospecting has been done gold has been found.
From Seymour Creek, entering about midway of its course,
good reports have come, but owing to the difficulty in the
past of getting in sufficient supplies, miners were obliged to
abandon their prospects.
When the spring is well advanced, the country at intervals
provides good grazing for pack animals, but cannot be depended on to supply grass at the close of the summer season.
We now return to the
STICKINE RIVER.
The scenic glories of the river country cannot fail to excite
wonder and admiration, and the thousands of tourists who 13
will come to the Coast to see Alaska, and the extraordinary
sights accompanying the rush to the gold fields will be well
repaid for their trouble.
The Stickine River follows a westerly course through
grassy plains, then curving southward and receiving numerous
tributaries from the north, it enters the coast range and
sweeps across it to the sea, through a valley that is from i to 3
miles broad, and marvelously beautiful from end to end.
The canon of the river is a gallery of sublime pictures, an
unbroken series of high mountains, glaciers, waterfalls, cascades, groves and grassy meadows, and above them all many
peaks and spires tower grandly into the sky.
Leaving Wrangel and continuing the journey northward,
the ship passes through the picturesque Wrangel Narrows into
Souchoi Channel and Frederick Sound. Near Cape Fanshaw
you are opposite a group of glaciers, the largest of which is the
Patterson glacier. At Sum Dum or Halkam Inlet, another
fleet of icebergs come in sight. The scenery in this inlet is of
the wildest description. About 40 miles up the Coast more icebergs appear; this is the entrance to Taku Inlet. It is 18
miles long, and in this distance you may count 45 glaciers, a
sight worth coming round the world to see. The beautiful
Taku glacier might well be mentioned here, but by and bye
we will see the grandest of them all.
TAKU   ROUTE.
This route starts at the head of Taku Inlet, and involves
considerable hardships. Small boats take travellers to the
head of the inlet. Then the inland journey commences. The
trail crosses a high mountain, and then following the canon of
the Taku River for some distance, turns a little to the east
and follows the side hills of an opening in the Coast range of
mountains to the Inklin river, a distance of about 80 miles.
Here rafts or boats are built, and the long water journey commences. This route avoids the Grand Canyon and the White
Horse Rapids, but the avoidance of these wild waters is
scarcely sufficient compensation when weighed With the uphill and down-hill toil of a long and rough trail.
A little down the inlet is Juneau, hemmed in in front by the
water, and a towering mountain rising like a wall at the back.
Just across on Douglas Island is the great
TREAD WELL  QUARTZ MINE.
Dense columns of smoke are seen issuing from the chlori-
nation works which" are here, burning that part of the ore
which the batteries have not been able to separate from the 14
gold. Its poisonous vapors that the humid atmosphere has
crowded down the mountain sides have bleached the timber
almost white. SPl
Passing between Douglas and Admiralty Islands the
steamer turns to the south into Icy Strait, and moves across to
GLACIER BAY.
The largest of the seven glaciers that discharge into Glacier
Bay is the Muir. The front is about three miles wide, but the
central berg-discharging portion, which extends across the
inlet; like a huge blue barrier, is only about half as wide.
The height of the ice-wall above the water is about 300 feet,
and 720 feet of the wall is below the surface, while still a third
unmeasured portion is buried beneath the material that is
being constantly deposited at the foot of it. Therefore, were
the water and rocky detritus removed, there would be presented a sheer precipice of ice a mile and a half wide and more
than 1,000 feet in height. The bergs given off fall with tremendous noise like distant thunder. The average rate is
about one in six minutes. The largest and most beautiful of
the bergs, instead of falling from the exposed wall, rise from
the submerged portion with grand commotion, heaving aloft
tons of water, while they plunge and heave before they sail
away as crystal islands, free at last, and happy, one might
think, after being held in an icy grasp for centuries. This
grand glacier, draining an area of perhaps 1,000 square miles,
and reaching back fifty miles into mysterious solitudes, is two
hundred times as large as the Mer de Glace of the Alps. The
rate of the motion in the central cascading portion is from
seven to ten feet a day. Think of Niagara Falls frozen stiff
and you have a slight idea of the terminus of Muir Glacier ;
picture a background of Snow-capped mountains 15,000 feet
high, and then imagine, if you can, the effect* of the sunshine
pouring in iris colors on the crystal ice.
jj||j|| A SILENT  CITY.
An unknown city is said to have been seen by Professor
Davis, in mirage over Muir glacier. The buildings seemed to
him of massive dimensions, extending in solid and unbroken
blocks as far as the eye could reach. The entire limits of the
city were confined within a halo of light, dense yet transparent,
pouring its soft glow upon roof and wall in glorious transformation. To the right and left a range of mountains, covered with the garb of winter, formed the background.    The 15 W
top of a high monument in the center of a broad street seemed
to pierce its ghostly robes. At one end of the street a large
building with a dome, while near the other end a piazza having beneath it an excavation running out to the sea appeared.
At the other end of the excavation the walls of a building
stood apparently uninjured, while the roof had disappeared
and smoke seemed to issue from the interior. From beyond
the burning building a driveway, in the form of a crescent,
seemed to encircle a portion of the city. Yet within the whole
of its length and breadth not one soul could be seen. AH was
silent as a grave. When suddenly the vision began to move
away. Its glories and grandeur lured with a fascination which
he could not resist. But as he walked forward it seemed to
recede with every pace, and before he could get within the
silent portals it was wafted into space and lost to view.
The city is said to resemble Bristol, England, but beyond
that it remains unidentified.
The summers in Alaska are delightful—never oppressively
warm ; the long nightless days never lose their spell, and in
retrospect the wonders of the Northland appear the greater.
Leaving Glacier Bay the steamer proceeds northward into
Lynn Canal, the most beautiful of all the mountain-walled
channels you have yet seen. The Auk and Eagle glaciers
appear in one view on the right as you enter ; but it is on the
west side, near the head of the canal, that the most striking
feature of the landscape is seen—the wonderfully picturesque
Davidson glacier. Shortly after passing this glacier the
northernmost point of the trip is reached at Taiya, the head of
Chilcoot Inlet—the east Arm of Lynn Canal—a little above
590, and distant from Victoria 1,000 miles.
This is the Alaska of the tourist, famous for its glaciers, its
beautiful inlets, and its picturesque Indians and their totem
poles. But beyond the big white range is another and a
totally different country, the valley of the Yukon. Just across
the coast range from Taiya is a chain of lakes surrounded by
snowy mountains and coneected by a narrow stream, which,
after receiving numerous tributaries, swells into a great river
and pours its huge flood into Behring Sea. On the lower half
of its course the river receives the waters of the Porcupine,
Tanana, Kokukuk and numerous small streams, until the
mountain brook has, in the 2,400 miles of its course, become
one of the greatest rivers on the earth. Leaving the tourist at
the head of Lynn Canal the prospector's holiday ends, and he
prepares for the more serious task of crossing the mountains. 535P
16
At the head of the canal there are two trails over the mountains, which unite at the lakes beyond.
CHILCOOT PASS TRAIL.
Landing at Taiya, or Dyea, as the miners call it, the plan
is to follow the usual route Of miners bound for Dawson City
—to cross the Chilcoot Pass and descend to the lakes on the
other side, dragging the outfit on hand-sleds across these lakes
to a point where there are trees to build a boat in which to
continue the journey. Near the landing place there is a
village of Thlinket Indians, who assist travellers in packing
their supplies at so much per pound. In August the price
was eight cents to the summit and twenty-five cents to the
lakes.
The route lies up the valley of the Dyea River, and at certain
stages of the water, boats can ascend to within a mile of the
canon, a distance of five miles, and canoes can go one mile
further. Here packing commences, and a little further on the
sled is loaded, and the mountain climb commences up a steep
incline to Sheep Camp, a distance of eleven or twelve miles
from the shore. The elevation of this point is about 800 feet.
Looking up a large gorge, flanked by precipitous snow-covered
mountains, you can see at the summit a little notch known as
the Chilcoot Pass, the gate to the Yukon treasures. The seriousness of the task is not apparent. In April the snow had
disappeared at sea level, but a short distance up the cafion the
ground was covered with it. A few hours' hard climbing
brings us to the scales, where supplies are weighed, near the
last and hardest part of the ascent.    This point is about five
I miles from Sheep Camp.    A toilsome and terrible journey of
about a mile up an incline rising at an angle of about forty-
five degrees, and we reach the summit. From this lofty and
, narrow crest of snow and ice we see below the tortuous zigzag
trail and ahead the valley of the Yukon stretching away in
billows of spotless white.
The elevation of the pass is 3,378 feet. The upper limit of
timber is reached near the foot of the dreaded pass on the
south side, at an elevation of 2,300 feet, and on the north side
1,000 feet below the summit.
Preparations are now made for the descent—the sled is
loaded, and everything made secure for the wild ride down the
icy slope. The route is through a gorge and the sled shoots
along like an arrow with the motion of a boat in a choppy
sea.    All goes well while it remains on an even keel, but if it 17
should strike a rock or other obstacle in its flight the consequences, in all likelihood, would be serious.
Leaving the gorge the sled runs on to a sort of bench or
flat, and four miles down the ravine brings us to a clump of
dwarfed spruce trees, the upper limit of timber. A few miles
further on and we reach Lake Linderman. The work of
getting supplies over the mountain when the snow is soft
entails labor of the most slavish kind. If the lake is clear of
ice the usual course is to build a raft and float down to the
end, and then pack the supplies over the ridge to the head of
Lake Bennet.
Lake Linderman is five miles long and half a mile wide,
and the first of the chain of six lakes of the Upper Yukon.
It is shut in by glacier-worn granite hills, and here and there
along its shores are a few small pine and spruce trees. All of
these lakes remain frozen until May. The trail comes out at
the east side of the lake. The timber is not sufficiently long
for boats, and instead of taking to the stream, a crooked and
rocky one, and dangerous for boats, which connects Linderman with Lake Bennet, the trail follows a sandy ridge three-
quarters of a mile long to the head of Lake Bennet, where the
trails unite.
Here the following
INSCRIPTION
was nailed to a tree over eleven years ago :
"Archbishop of Victoria, V.I., accompanied by Fathers
Tosi and Robant, camped here and offered the holy sacrifice,
July 30, 1886."
The above was written by the late Archbishop Seghers
scarcely four months before the tragedy (see diary) of Melozi-
kakat, on the lonely banks of the Yukon.
We will now return to the coast, and as a very large proportion of the travel was over the White Pass, it will here be described in detail.
SKAGWAY.
The town is situated about two miles south of the head of
Chilcoot Inlet, and about four miles from Dyea, from which
it is separated by a rocky point. When the reports came out
in June of the great discoveries of gold, Skagway was a desolate looking place, without accommodation of any kind for
the thousands that were soon to land on its long sandy
beach. Now, twenty-six hotels and saloons are open day and
night, and all the concomitants of a fast town are present.
The population has grown to about 3,000, and frame build- 18
ings occupy the place where tents were a few months ago.
The cost of living has dropped from the boom prices of early
spring to a rate very little in excess of those in the larger
.towns to the south. The difficulties, too, of landing freight
have largely disappeared. Three fine wharves running out to
deep water have been built, and no longer will be seen the
pull-dog pull-devil struggle of horses, dogs and men on the
beach.
WHITE PASS TRAIL.
Starting from the bay, about half a mile in width, at the
mouth of the Skagway River, the trail follows the southerly
bank for about a mile, then crosses over the bridge and continues on for about three miles to the foot of the hill, at which
place there was a little colony of campers who christened the
place Eden. There was one lady, a Mrs. Etelstone, from
Kentucky, in the camp in August. Up to this point the trail
is over level bottom land and admits of the use of wagons ;
but here the mountains close in, and the trail rises up the side
for about three miles till it reaches an elevation of about 1,000
feet, when it descends to a large tributary of the Skagway
called Porcupine Creek, which it crosses over a bridge,
and after winding along a hillside known as the Porcupine
Hill, descends to the bank of the river, which it follows for
about 400 yards to the next bridge, a distance of about four
miles from Porcupine Creek. Just below this crossing the
river is contracted to a width of about eight feetv The trail
now follows the south bank of the river for about two miles,
when it again crosses, and, rising over a spur of the mountains, about 150" feet above the river, descends to the fourth
crossing, a distance of about half a mile from the third crossing. From this point there are two trails, one known as the
"cut-off" and the other as the "turtle-back." The cut-off
follows along the river and is used by packers, while the main
trail follows down stream for a little way and then crosses the
Turtle-back Mountain at an elevation of about 1,300 feet above
the level of the river. This part of the trail over the ■' turtle-
back, " which is about two miles, is conceded to be worse for
horses than any other. At the river the trails re-join, and
following the bank for about half a mile cross the river for the
fifth and last time at the ford which brings us to the foot of
the summit. Up to this point there is a good deal of timber,
but from the ford to the summit, a distance of two miles, and
from the summit to the first meadow, three miles further on,
there is no timber.
jr==^=	 19
THE PASS
is perhaps a mile wide, and its height is hardly more than
1,000 feet above the ford. The view is grand on a clear day.
Looking backward the dark valley of the Skagway can be
traced winding its way through the white domes looming in
the azure of the sky, while in front, on either side, stretches
an elastic carpet of golden mosses dotted by miniature lakes
and ponds, and flanked by an unbroken series of peaks in
spotless white, down which avalanches from the snow-laden
heights boom and reverberate. Here storm-winds gather in
the early spring, choking the air with snow and sweep over
the lakes beyond. From the summit to the first meadow the
descent is very gradual. The First Meadow, as it is called, is a
long strip of peat marsh, rather than meadow land. Here a
number of horses, too weak from want of food—the miners,
trusting to the meadows, packed no hay over the summit—
were abandoned during the summer. It is four miles from the
first meadow to the second which is similar to the first, but
less in area, and about eight miles to the Rocky Ford which
crosses Shallow Lake, a strip of water several miles in length.
The trail now skirts the lake for over a half a mile and continues through a better timbered country over ridges and
marshy places. After passing through about six miles of this
kind of country the trail comes out at the lower end of Lake
Linderman, and turning to the right follows along the ridge
above the rapids to the head of Lake Bennett, the junction of
the Dyea and White Pass trails.
The heavy demands made upon the trail by the thousands
of men and horses churned every marshy spot into a mud hole.
Arriving at the head of Bennett Lake before June there are
two courses open to the traveller, either to proceed over the
ice with his sleigh or to go into camp and build a boat. If he
should decide to push on at once he may, if fortune favours
him with a good breeze, make good time by putting on the
front of the sled a V-shaped mast and rigging up a sail with a
tent-fly or blanket. If, on the other hand, he determines to
wait for open water, he can buy boards at the mill, 200 yards
away, or fell trees, construct a % saw-pit," a scaffolding about
eight feet high, and whip-saw the timber into suitable lengths
for his boat. The whipsaw is an instrument about eight feet
long with a handle at either end.
DIMENSIONS OF BOATS.
When you make or buy a boat have it at least twenty-two
feet long on the bottom, with a prow projecting two feet.
Have the widest part of the boat about one-third of the dis- 20
tance aft from the bow. From there have it taper somewhat
to the stern. Have the stern with quite a rake, otherwise it
will be swamped in the rapids, and the bottom should be four
or five inches higher at the stern than amidships.
The cost of boats varies very considerably at the lakes. In
last August the price for a good boat was two hundred
dollars. Timber for boat building is sawed into straight
boards a suitable length, and ten inches wide and three-
fourths of an inch thick.
Lake Bennett is 25.8 miles long, and the upper end is about
half a mile wide, and lies between beetling granite ranges
which rise from the water to heights of 3,000 and 4,000 feet.
About midway of its length another arm, called Wheaton
River, comes in from the west. This arm is wider than the
other and terminates in rugged and bare mountains. The
region is in every sense an Alpine one. The lower part of the
lake is over a mile wide, with deep muddy water. Here a
broad valley opens to the north, and the beach is low and flat.
To the east. *are high hills, around which the water turns in
in a channel called Caribou crossing, about 300 feet wide,
and which soon expands into another lake.
Caribou Crossing, so called because great bands of caribou
cross here. These splendid animals roam over the great unexplored region extending to the head waters of the Dease
and Liard Rivers, and hundreds of miles beyond to the
Mackenzie River, which flows from the Great Slave Lake in
the Northwest, and pursuing a northerly course empties into
the Arctic Ocean. A short stretch of river joins Bennett with
Nares.
Lake Nares is the shortest of the system; it is 2.7 miles
long, and its greatest width is about a mile. On the east
side the mountains rise abruptly from the shore. It is joined
with Bove Lake by a channel of about 600 yards long. Low
alluvial land covered with willows extends along the channel
to the west end of Bove Lake.
Bove or Tagish Lake is about a mile wide for the first two
miles of its length, when it is joined by the Bras des Vents
(Windy Arm). Here the lake expands, but soon narrows
again to about half a mile. Ten miles from its head the Taku
Arm enters from the south. The region of the lakes is most
picturesque, abounding in striking points of view, and in landscapes pleasing in variety, and grand and impressive in their
rugged forms. The elevation of this remarkable system of'
lakes above the sea, by aneroid barometer, is 2,088 to 2,150
feet. 21
Taku Arm, twenty miles long, is narrowed at the entrance
to a width of about a mile, and is bordered on the west side by
a uniform wall-like range of limestone mountains sloping to
the water. The lower end of Tagish Lake occupies a valley
which runs through to Bennet Lake. The west side is very
flat and shallow, and is usually followed as it affords some
shelter from the strong winds which come up from the south.
The Pow-Wow, a short tranquil reach of river, five miles in
length and about 170 yards wide, connects Tagish with Marsh
Lake. This stream was open in mid-channel in the early
part of May. The weather had been quite warm for several
days, and the snow had benun to melt in the valley of the
river. About four miles down on the west bank there is a nice
camping ground, and directly opposite are Indian log houses,
the yearly rendezvous of bands of natives.
The Thinklet Indians from Chilcat, Taiya, and the Tenne-
hes, from as far away as the mouth of the Pelly River, meet on
this neutral ground to trade, and indulge in their great annual
drunk with the accompanying feasts and dances. In this
vicinity there is good timber for boat building. On May 13
the air was alive with geese on their northward migration,
and a day or two later came the wavies (anser hypirboreus) ;
small game, such as ducks, rabbits and grouse are plentiful.
Marsh Lake is nearly twenty miles long and about two
miles wide. It lies in a continuation of the same wide valley
occupied by the lower end of Tagish Lake. On the east side
the banks are high and gravelly and lolty mountains in the
distance bound the view. On the left are low grassy meadows beyond which broken hills are seen. At the lower end
McClintock river enters from the east, bringinn down great
quantities of drift wood, which is banked high near its mouth.
Between Lake Marsh and Lake LeBarge, which is the last
and longest of the chain of lakes, there are fifty-five miles of
river, but in this distance are the two greatest obstacles to
navigation in the whole Yukon system—Miles Canon and
White Horse Rapids. Spring had advanced with such astonishing rapidity that the snow had almost disappeared on May
14, and the weather was superb.
Lewis River, where it leaves Marsh Lake has received the
name of Lynx River. It is about two hundred yards wide
and averages this distance as far as the canon. Twenty-five
miles from Lake Marsh we come to a bend, and now see
ahead a brown rocky ridge divided by a slit less than 50 feet
wide, and at the same time hear the roar of the rapids in their
wild rush through the canon.
To make the run successfully is easily practicable, but it is
J 22
imperative to keep in the centre of the channel and not to
allow the boat to be caught in the eddies.
There are two ways of passing the rapids, one by portaging
over the hill on the east bank, and the other by boldly
running through. To utilize the portage the boats are unloaded and dragged out of the water, and by means of a windlass drawn up the hill slope, about 100 feet high, and then
pulled on rollers for three-quarters of a mile to the river.
The Archbishop, whose diary is appended, describes the
rapids as follows :
"Miles Cation, about five-eighths of a mile in length, lies
betweeu two steep, almost perpendicular cliffs of basalt about
ioo feet in height, in the shape of columns, through which
the whole river, compressed into a space of 50 feet, rushes
with tremendous velocity. The water boils up in large waves,
having a depression in the centre so that no floating object
can possibly strike against the rocks of the bank. For about
a quarter of a mile the banks are nearly parallel; then they
widen out, the current being more slack between two eddies,
the water after leaving this wide circular basin rushes over a
large rock into another channel and leaves the Canon roaring
and foaming, as if to testify to its fury. One boat was unloaded and the supplies packed across the trail along the
Cation. Fuller, an attendant, took the helm, Father Robaut
took an oar, the miner we had picked up took another, and as
I did not want to see my people jeopardise their lives without
sharing their danger, I took my place in front of the boat, my
watch in hand, to measure the velocity of our locomotion.
My presence seemed to remove from my followers all dread of
the gloomy Cation. We started off at 1 p.m., and in a
moment the swift current caught our boat and whirled it
between the breakers on each side of the Cation. It was a
terrible scene. We were visibly on an incline and rushing
down hill with the speed of a locomotive. The roaring of the
water, the spray that filled the air all around us, the waves
that struck our scow, which rolled and pitched as if on the
billows of the sea, made an impression on our minds that will
not easily be forgotten. But we had no time for reflection.
In a few moments we found ourselves in a slack current and
between two eddies, which we had to avoid most carefully.
Then another plunge into the rest of the 'Canon. Passing
over a rock over which the water poured and foamed a liquid
hill behind us that screened from our view the head of the
Canon; we were hauled right and left, tossed and shaken,
shipping the water at intervals and merging from the dark
place, having made a mile in three minutes and twenty-five 23
seconds. A quick motion of the rudder gave a sharp turn to
our scow and brought her into slack water, whilst we landed
where three of the miners waved their hats to congratulate us
on the success of our achievement.
On Wednesday morning, August 25, we left the foot of
Miles Canon, and reached safely the head of White Horse
Rapids, a distance of about two miles. Here we had to unload our boat again and pack the supplies once more a distance
of about a mile. Next day we let our boat down the Cafion,
holding her stern from the shore with a line and pushing her
off the rocks with poles.. This Canon has not the same dreadful appearance as Miles Canon, but the water is shallow and
very boisterous, it rushes over boulders and dashing against
them, it recoils and boils backwards, covering itself with a
white crest which some extravagant imagination has compared to the mane of a white horse. At one moment our boat
was in imminent danger of perishing. She filled with water,
sank, and carried away by the current, snatched away the
lines from the hands that were holding them, when, in the
nick of time, Fuller caught the lines with a pole, all joining
in a supreme effort got control of the boat and brought her
to an eddy. She was promptly bailed out and landed safely
at the foot of White Horse Rapids."
TAKH-HEENA RIVER,
Fifteen miles from White Horse Rapids, we come to the
Takh-heena River, which has its source in the Chilkat.mountains to the west, and is joined by the Nat-sun-tur River near
the falls, about 40 miles from its mouth, which is 12 miles
from S||K
LAKE LE BARGE.
This lake was frozen May 18, although the river was open.
It is 31 miles long and from three to six miles wide. The
upper end is enclosed by sandstone hills through which there
are several channels. When the lake is clear of ice, boats
should be headed for an island in the centre, and then cross to
the right hand and follow close to the bank as a safeguard in
case a storm should be encountered. The lake, which has an
elevation of 2,088 feet,, lies between broken hills, around
which it takes a sharp turn to to the east, with a current of
perhaps six miles an hour. Near the end of May the weather
was warm and
OPEN WATER
was reached on leaving Lake Le Barge on the 20th May.
From here to its mouth the Yukon is unobstructed, save by a
U f
24
couple of unimportant rapids, and the remainder of the journey with fine weather, may be a delightful excursion.
x^EWES RIVER.
The Lewes River, on leaving the lake, is 600 feet in width,
This part of the stream from Lake Le Barge to the Pelly River,
is called by the miners, Lewes River; it is, as a matter of fact,
part of the Yukon. The surface of the country is rolling and
hilly, backed by low mountains, and generally wooded in the
valleys, the uplands being bare. Caribou and moose are
occasionally seen. 31 miles from Lake Le Barge we come
once more to the Hootalinqua, and 33 below, the
BIG  SALMON
enters, coming from Lake Quiet, 150 miles or more to the south
east, and beyond which is an unexplored country. This river
received its name from the quantity of salmon in its waters.
It is wonderful how this beautiful fish forces its way over bars
and rapids for nearly 1,800 miles from Behring Sea. 35 miles
further on at the mouth of the Little Salmon the Tinueh
Indians have a camp. They are a fine looking lot of people,
dressed in skins and furs.    Long before we reach the
FIVE FINGER  RAPIDS,
which are 59 miles from Little Salmon, we can see the five
columns of rock in the channel of the river. By keeping to
the right no difficulty will be found in running through. Six
miles lower down are the
RINK  RAPIDS.
These rapids are formed by a bar of rocks extending some
distance out from the west side of the river. On the east side
the passage is quite clear. Light draught steamers with
powerful machinery, could ascend to the head of Teslin Lake,
300 miles from Five Fingers. The river is here much swifter
than above, and we need row only enough to break the
monotony of lounging about in the boat as we drift along past
the hills which close in at the west side 25 miles from
PELLY RIVER,
which is about 300 miles long. It flows from Lake Francis,
in the south east, aud follows a north-westerly course to its
junction with the McMillan, a large river, coming from a
great unexplored country extending to the rocky mountains,
and then bends, following a westerly course to its junction
with the Lewes River, 53 miles from the Rink Rapids. 25
FORT SELKIRK.
Nothing now remains of this old fort but a blackened chimney. It is a little distance below the junction of the Lewes
and Pelly, and here Harper, whose history is so closely connected with the country, has a trading post.
Leaving Fort Selkirk, islands are numerous, and the valley
preserves its usual depth of about 800 feet. Cliffs of basaltic
rocks are passed, and gravel terraces occur occasionally, decreasing in height as we descend. The river now follows a
W. N. W. bearing, but lower down bends to the E. and
follows a north-easterly direction. Wooded banks and steep
slopes with rocky bluffs above, are the chief features of this
part of the country.    We now reach the
WHITE  RIVER,
which is 95 miles from the Pelly, a great stream fed by tributaries coming from as far away as Mt. St. Elias in the west.
A view up it showed a wide valley filled with countless bars
and islands, between which the swift stream threads its tortuous
course and enters the Yukon with a force sufficient to drive its
white muddy water half way across and to change the colour
of the Yukon from a pale green to white, for a distance of over
100 miles.     Ten miles below the
STEWART RIVER
enters the Yukon from the east. A number of prospectors
were at work on its branches near the mouth during the summer. A hundred miles up, it receives the McQuestion, where
it is 400 feet wide and it is deep enough and sufficiently free
from bars and rocks to be navigated by flat-bottomed steamers
that distance. Moose are plentiful and fish abnndant. Along
the valley of the river are great quantities of berries, such as
black and red currants, gooseberries, raspberries, cranberries,
and huckleberries. Recent accounts of an official character
from this district declare it to be exceedingly rich.
An important feature of the river is the constant recurrence
along it of high gravel terraces, most of which are more or
less auriferous. It is possible that the gold found on the bars
in the river is concentrated from these.
Twenty-one miles further on we pass Sixty-Mile Creek.
THE VALLEY OF THE YUKON.
Leaving the Stewart the river maintains a general northerly
course, and in the expanded stretches islands occupy much of
the surface.    Beaches line the shore and tracking is possible
u 26
for the remainder of the journey. The current is swift and
uniform, and at a medium state of the waters runs about 5
miles an hour. The width of the river occasionally exceeds a
mile, but it narrows as we approach our destination. The
valley of the Yukon from the Pelly is cut through an elevated
plateau, on which rest low ranges of partially bare hills, which
afford some grand views. Bluffs of rocks and bold rampartlike cliffs are of constant occurrence. The width of the valley
varies from one to three miles.
We are beside the Indian village Klonjec, from which it is
thought Klondike comes.. It matters little, however, our objective point is here, we have come 66 miles from the Stewart
River, the mighty Yukon continues its uninterrupted course
to the sea, and we are now at Dawson, the city of gold. 27
DAWSON CITY.
The townsite is regularly laid out and comprises an area
of 160 acres. A broad avenue separates the town from the
Yukon. The south portion is on the lower side of the Klondike River where it joins the Yukon and the trail to the mines
leads through it and along the side hill at the back. A few
hundreds live on this side. The north side, on the opposite
bank, is a low and rather marshy piece of ground of about 100
acres and is covered with moss. In cold weather a strong
wind usually blows up the Yukon, and Dawson, being on the.
bend of the river, receives the full force of the blast. But
when the temperature is very low a dead calm prevails. The
population was over 5,000 in September and increasing daily;
hundreds are scattered along the route. Most of the houses
are constructed of logs, hewn so as to rest flat on each other.
Poles are placed across the roofs and layers of moss and earth
of fifteen or twenty inches cover them and serve to keep out
the winter's cold. The heavy frost cracks green logs and enters
the huts, making less comfortable the lives of the inmates.
As in old Cariboo, so also in Klondike, the miner piles up
great quantities of earth around the walls to keep out the cold
blast which sweeps down from the north through the valley
of the Yukon.
The buildings of the Commercial Companies are large and
substantial; these have double walls of boards with saw-dust
between.
AMUSEMENTS.
The chief objects of interest are the dance halls and gambling games. Games involving very large sums are running
night and day. The loss or gain of a couple of thousands is
scarcely, noticed.
The dance halls open about eight o'clock in the evening
and the morning is well advanced before the bands and the
belles retire and the festivities draw to a close. Gallant beaux,
equipped in blanket suits and heavy nailed boots grace the
floor and pay $1.00 for the luxury.
Drinks and cigars retail at 50 cents, and such is the thirst-
for beer that two breweries cannot supply the demand at $125
a keg.
Saloons are run "wide open" and do not pay a license. The
individual who does the honours, in liquidating his debt,
passes his sack over to the bar-keeper, who usually pours out
enough dust to settle the amount. There are over sixteen
saloons and their receipts are very large.   One is said to have 28
taken $60,000 in sixty days last spring, and on the day the
successful miners took their departure on the first steamer of
the season the receipts amounted to $6,500.
STORES.
Together with the general stores there are barbers's shops,
laundries, restaurants, jewellery stores, physicians, a half a
dozen or so, and real estate offices. The laundries charge
$1.50 for washing a white shirt and 75 cents for flannels; shaving is 50 cents and a hair-cut $1.00; loaves of bread, and small
at that, cost 50 cents.
A drove of cattle arrived in September, and as a consequence two butcher's shops were opened and meat was sold
at $1.00 a pound, which made work for the solitary dentist,
who charges $3.50 to extract a tooth.
WAGES.
Mechanics receive an ounce of gold for nine hours' work
and some of them $20 to $25-a day. There was no sign, up to
September, of any diminution of labourers' wages; they
received from $10 to $15 a day.
churches.
There are two churches, Catholic and Episcopal, and an
hospital in charge of ladies of the order of Sisters of Charity.
GOLD  OUTPUT.
From careful enquiries from the best authorities, the quantity of gold said to have been -taken out of Bonanza and
Eldorado Creeks alone, up to September 1st of last year, would
weigh not far from five tons, and yet nothing like a fifth of
the claims have been properly worked and some hardly prospected. It is hard to realize how plentiful the gold really is
in some of the claims. Those yielding less than $2,000 or
$3,000 a day scarcely excite a passing comment.
Aside from the holders of rich claims everybody is in a
state of feverish excitement and ready at any moment to make
a grand dash for any new diggings. The slightest rumour of
th'j discovery of a new creek is enough to cause a stampede,
and women, not to be outdone, close their stores and join in
the wild rush. During these stampedes men rarely take time to
cook a proper meal.   Off a man will start with nothing more
iLJi 29
than a "slap-jack" in his fe^^ftS^S^S
tunes are made by men who work on the lay, that is to say,
the ownerT rent out their prospects to the workmen for one
half the gold product.
ST. MICHAEL'S ROUTE.
There are, in general, two ways of reaching the Klondike
The easier way, but the longer, is entirely by water an<Toccupies about thirty-five days. The traveller, taking ship at Victoria, sails direct for St. Michael, seventy miles from the
mouth of the Yukon River, a distance of 2,200 miles. Enormous quantities of supplies are shipped here every year for the
trading posts and missions on the river. v„i-™
Steamers drawing four feet of water can ascend the Yukon
for a distance of ifsoo miles to the Pelly River, and smafler
boats, with powerful machinery would be able to pass the Five
Finger Rapids, and ascend to the head of Teslin Lake .Navigation on the lower part of the river usually opens about the
fnd of June and closes in the early days of October; the upper
part of the river is clear of ice a couple of weeks earlier and ice
Lgins to run again about the end of October. For two weeks
speeding September 29th of the present year, ice cut off all
entrance to the river channel: then a hard thaw came, lasting
a few davs. On the 16th of October, at St. Michael, the
weather indicated that winter had set mm earnest.
Entering the river, which flows into Behrmg Sea through
several mouths, the greatest north being about sixty-five miles
from the most southern artery, the direction is easterly but
soon bends round to the north and follows a general northeast
bearing for about 200 miles to Nulato, where the river bends
to the east. About sixty miles further on we come to Melozi-
kakat From this on the course is a little to the north of east
to the Tanana River, which enters from the southwest and is
several hundred miles long. Before reaching the Lower Ramparts, abrupt limestone cliffs, Minook Creek is passed. Here
gold was discovered, giving rise to a mild stampede in 96.
At the Shaman Village the river broadens out, and further on
islands occur, with which the river is thickly dotted for the
next seventy or eighty miles.
FORT YUKON
now abandoned, is situated nearly two miles above the
mouth of the Porcupine, a great stream coming from the
region of McKenzie Bay in the north, and is distant from btr
II 30
Michael's about 1,300 miles. At the Yukon Flats, a short distance above, the river has practically no confining valley and
the bordering plains extend to the horizon on either side,
unbroken by a single elevation, and having the appearance of
the existence, at one time, of a lake basin or an abnormal expansion of the river which is here divided into numberless
channels by a labyrinth of islands.
Owing to the unusual lowness of the water on the flats there
were only two small steamers able to make the ascent of the
river after August 12th. One of these was the Weave, whose
arrival in Dawson with 160 tons of provisions was hailed with
rapturous delight.
Near the head of the islands we pass the camp of Senatee,
the most powerful chief in the whole Yukon country, and at
one time a murderous cannibal; but time has now tamed his
ferocious disposition, and a handful of tea is enough to draw
from him a long oration descriptive of his enduring love for
the white race.
CIRCLE CITY.
This is the distributing point for the mines of the district
of Birch Creek, the upper waters of which are reached by a
portage of six miles to the east. Birch Creek is about 150
miles long and runs nearly parallel with the Yukon from the
bend above the flats. At Fort Cudahy, about 250 miles further up the river, there are several stores and places of amusement. The post is at the mouth of Forty Mile River, said to
have a total length of more than 100 miles of which the lower
twenty-three are in Canadian territory. Its position on the
map is defined by the intersection of the 64th degree of north
latitude and 141st degree of west longitude. Its bars have
yielded a large quantity of gold, one man having taken
$52,000 in the season of '96. The average value of labour is
$10 a day, and bars yielding less have been abandoned.
Fifteen miles below Forty Mile Post a large mass of rock-
stands on the east bank, known as Old Woman's Rock, and
according to an Indian legend represents a scolding wife who,
for her viciousness, received a powerful blow from her husband that sent her clean across the river, here half a mile
wide. On her landing she was converted into a mass of rock,
which remains to this day a memorial of the unhappy woman.
A similar rock on the west side, being known as Old Man's
Rock, testifies to the power of the Shaman (akin to magi),
and is all that remains of her husband who, seeing the terrible
result of his unkindness, it is reasonable to suppose, was petrified with astonishment.    Fort Reliance is about fortv miles 31
from Cudahy and six and a half miles from the Klonjec village at the mouth of the best salmon stream in the whole
Yukon country. It is a small river about forty yards wide at
the mouth and of a beautiful blue colour. Lieutenant
Schwatka, of the United States Navy, named it Deer River,
but it is known to the world as the Klondike.
dai/ton trail.
The trail (so far as there is any trail) is from the head of
the western arm of Lynn Canal and starts at Portage Cove,
across the peninsula to the eastern banks of the Chilcat River,
thence along the banks of the river for six miles, when it
crosses and follows the western bank for about thirty miles to
Klukwan on the Kleheena River, thence six or eight miles
to the British line, thence about 150 miles to the Dalton Trading Post on a branch of the Alsec River, thence in a northerly
direction about 160 miles to Fort Selkirk at the mouth of the
Pelly River.. This is the favourite route for live stock. There
is a good deal of timber along the route and large stretches of
open grass land are met.
THE POOR  MAN'S ROUTE.
This is an overland route, for which Kamloops and Ash-
croft in the interior of British Columbia, and on the line of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, are the outfitting points. The
, route lies over an old trail from Lac La Hache to Soda Creek
along the Fraser River to Quesnelle, thence to a settlement
on Fraser Lake 152 miles further on. In the next stretch of
135 miles Mud, Nechaco and Blackwater Rivers are crossed,
several Indian settlements are met and excellent grazing for
cattle can be found. We next come to Stewart and from
there to Hazleton it is 235 miles, or as the Indians say, "it is
twenty pounds of fish," meaning seven days' travel. From
Hazleton to Glenora is about 200 miles. From this point to
Teslin Lake the country affords good grazing in the spring
and early summer, as already mentioned. The distance between these two points over a route recently discovered is said
to be only 130 miles.
The country in the region of the lakes is not now considered
inaccessible, and if official reports of the United States and
Canadian authorities, together with the statement of Mr. Xeill
McArthur, who spent eight years on the Y'ukon and tributaries, are to be relied upom the country is exceedingly rich.
But the old story of scarcity of provisions obliged men to
abandon their prospects. 32
MISCELLANEOUS  INFORMATION.
The following articles should be included in the outfit: i
mortar and pestle, i sieve of 40-mesh, 1 magnifying glass, 1
magnet, 3 canvas sample bags, 1 compass, 8 lbs. of oakum, 6
lbs. of pitch, 1 pair rowlocks, 3 lbs. candle wick, pail and
saucepan.
RAIN AND SNOW AT DAWSON CITY,  1896.
Snow fell four days in January, five in March, four in April,
one in May, two in September, six in November and six in
December. In the same year it rained two days in April, four
in May, twelve in June, three in July, eight in August, two in
September, and one in October. The coldest day of the year
was January 26th—68 degrees., and the warmest days were
July 1st and 2nd—81 degrees.
WORK  ON  THE TRAILS.
The material for three aerial cable freight tramways has arrived at Dyea. These facilities for moving freight should
entirely alter and simplify the mountain climbing ordeal and
render the journey to the lakes a far less arduous task.
WHITE  PASS.
A large number of men are now at work constructing
bridges and making a waggon road to the lakes where, it is
fully expected, steamers will be ready to accommodate the
great rush in the coming spring. The completion of these
improvements will so alter the character of the journey as to
make a degree of pleasure possible, where toil and trouble
were experienced before.
WHITE  HORSE  RAPIDS.
A tramway, intended to take boats, passengers and their
supplies, is being built around the rapids. A party of experienced men have been engaged for some time piloting miners'
boats.
SOME FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY.
The country is well timbered along the margin of the river,
but inland the ground is covered with what is locally known
as nigger grass. This is a coarse' grass which falls each year
and tangles in such a way as to make walking very difficult.
On this a scrubby growtfy of trees is found extending up the 33
mountains. Above the timber line the rocks are bare; the
miners keep to the top of the ridge when travelling; below the
recks are covered with from twelve to fourteen inches of moss.
Prospecting is done in winter. The moss and decayed rubbish is cleared away and fire is applied to burn down to the
bed-rock. The frost gives way before the fire twelve to sixteen inches in a day. Having burned down to bed-rock, it
may be fifteen feet or so below the surface, and found the pay-
streak, drifting is started. The upper part is usually barren,
and the pay dirt lies on the rock beneath, and above it in some
instances to a depth of "four feet.
The accompanying map of Alaska and the Northwest Territory, in which the mines are located, shows the Mackenzie
River, referred to in the report of Commissioner Ogilvie, and
an immense extent of country that has never been explored.
The mines so far discovered are the gravel deposits in an
area of country small compared with all that in which other
deposits may be found. So far as thorough prospecting is
concerned, the basin of the Yukon has hardly been entered.
The tributaries of the Yukon vary in length from 60 to 300
miles.
That there are possibilities of discoveries of much more
wealth cannot be doubted.
' The headwaters of" the Klondike have not yet been explored owing to the difficulty in getting in provisions. Hunker Creek is held in high esteem. It has two forks, one known
as Gold Bottom, the other as Last Chance; both are fully
staked and each stands well. Too Much Gold Creek (so called
because Indians saw specks of mica at the bottom) enters the
Klondike fully fifty miles above the mouth, and as high as
half an ounce has been taken out of a prospect hole.
Recent reports from Sulphur and Dominion creeks confirm
the early accounts of their richness. Dominion is longer than
Bonanza and Sulphur is about fifteen miles long with a bottom averaging 600 feet from base to base of hills. Bear Creek
is said to be as rich as Bonanza below Discovery claim. Prospects 011 Victoria Creek have shown as high as $150 to a pan.
Skookum Pup promises immensely. This stream enters
Bonanza at No. 26 above Discovery. The two claims were
sold for $25,000 and a little later $30,000 was taken from the
lower claim and only three box lengths had been worked.
The pay gravel runs thirty feet wide, ten feet deep and about Tj
34
a mile up the gulch. Eldorado meets Bonanza at No. 7 above
Discovery, from which a single clean-up yielded 365^ ounces,
and claim No. 67 is at the source of the main stream of the
tributary. It is extremely rich from its mouth to the forks at
No. 47.
A party of twenty-five men, arriving in Victoria as late as
December 3rd from Dawson, bring down astonishing accounts of the output of gold, not only of Bonanza and Eldorado, but also of Sulphur Gulch, Hunker, Gold Bottom and
Last Chance Creeks. The problem of how to export the full
volume of the yellow dust, which has been largely increased
since the discovery of Davis, Mosquito, Cricken, Miller,
Glacier and several other creeks, becomes a really serious one.
At a modest calculation there will be twenty-five to thirty-
five millions to add to the world's treasure next spring.
It may be said that the opinion that ranks these placers
peerless seems just.
Indian Creek joins the Yukon midway between the Klondike and Stewart Rivers and all along the creek good pay"
has been found. Further up lies the head of several branches
of the Stewart on which good prospects have been found.
Gold has been found in several of the streams joining the
Pelly and on the west side above Selkirk some work has been
done with good results, and on a«Jarge creek, some thirty or
forty miles below Selkirk, fair prospects have been found, but
the difficulty of getting supplies prevented extensive prospecting.
Gold has been found on the head of the Alsec River near
Chilcat Inlet, and all along the Hootalinqua. There is a belt
of silver-bearing ledges which extends from the Pelly to the
Stickeen. In this region, without doubt one of the richest
in the entire country, argentiferous galena is known to occur
in great deposits. A very large percentage of the streams
between the Stickeen and Skeena give placers of $5.00 to $10
a day. From the district of Teslin Lake, where gold quartz
and especially copper ores abound, to Quesnelle, mineral-bearing ledges have been noted by early explorers.
From what has been said it may be assumed that in all this
country there is gold, while in this particular zone it is especially abundant. This zone lies outside of the Rocky Mountains and distant from them by about 150 miles.
There is no doubt that this country offers to men of fortitude
and steadiness an opportunity to make more money in a given
time than they possibly could make anywhere else.
With the improved means of transportation new camps
and towns are springing up like magic. 35
-CAMP  LIEE.
Going into camp the first thing to do is to put up the tent;
then a quantity of dry wood is collected to make a fire and
prepare the hurried camp meal, which usually consists of flapjacks (pan-cakes), bacon and coffee, after which the weary
traveller lights his pipe and prepares a spring mattress of
cedar and spruce boughs on which to spread his blankets or
sleeping-bag. If he is in a sheltered spot the ice and snow
and howling wind without will not disturb him.
A NEW  DISCOVERY.
The latest rush was to Dean Creek, heading towards Eldorado and about two miles south of Dawson.
WOMEN ON THE TRAIL.
So far from women being a bar or a hindrance to men, the
writer having seen them on the trail, believes they are rather
a help and a spur when difficulties arise. Few men would
falter or turn back when a brave woman was leading the way.
Miss Alice Hyde was met at the summit of the White Pass,
her face turned towards the wonderland of the North. The
"first meadow" was ahead —a veritable quagmire—but nothing daunted she pushed on and to-day owns a claim having
"pay-dirt" six feet in depth and) twenty-two feet in width.
Writing from Dawson she says: "During the month of November the sun only showed his face for about three hours
each day, but there was twilight for two or three hours longer.
The northern lights are very grand, the sky appearing to be
ablaze at times; their beams darting through the air make a
whizzing noise and cast a shadow on the ground. It is strange
that the lights appear in the South in this latitude.
"Once over the mountains the trip was by no means as
I had been led to believe. When I think of the wildness and
grandeur of the scenery along the route, and of being in the
heart of a country I had only heard of as the home of the
grizzly bear, I feel like one in a dream. There are about thirty
families here. The town is very orderly, but not picturesque.
Last summer there were only two things more plentiful than
dogs—mosquitoes and gold dust. The mosquitoes were a
plague, and no one should be without netting to protect the
face; the dogs continue a menace to limb by day and a howling horror by night. The people are very kind and seem
anxious to help one another. No one should come without
ample provisions as it is not considered likely that the transportation companies on the river will be able to bring up suf- 36
ficient supplies for the thousands said to be on the way.
"The following list may be of value to those intending to
make the trip: 3 suits winter underwear, 1 suit Mackinaw and
bloomers, 3 pairs wool stockings, 1 undervest (chamois), 1
warm dress, 1 short slyrt of heavy material to wear over
bloomers, 1 pair heavy wool gloves, 2 pair heavy wool mittens,
1 cap, 1 night dress (flannel), 1 wrapper, snow glasses, 2 pair
slippers, 1 pair walking shoes, 1 pair felt boots, 4 pair heavy
stockings, 1 pair gum boots, 4 pair moccassins, 1 warm hood. 4
suits summer underwear, 1 suit summer waist and bloomers, 1
dress (summer), 3 shirt waists, gloves to protect hands from
mosquitoes, aprons, hat with broad brim to keep netting
away from face, light night dress.
"The following articles should be packed in a box in sufficient quantities for the journey (a month) to prevent opening
of large packages: Flour, bacon, germea, rice, beans, sugar,
extract of beef, baking powder, salt, pepper, pilot bread, dried
fruits, canned beef, chocolate and condensed cream. A separate canvas bag will be found a convenience for the following
articles of'bedding: 1 feather pillow, 3 pair of good blankets,
1 piece of canvas, instead of sleeping bag, 1 water-proof sheet,
1 ready-sewed tick can be filled with dried moss, 1 small hand
bag for sundries. A lady's outfit for a year will cost at the
least $400—this sum will not purchase a good outfit for a man. 37
CLIMATE OF THE YUKON.
From observations by U.S. authorities in the Autumn of
'89, the temperature first touched zero on Nov. 4th, and the
last zero recorded in the spring of '90 was on April 30th. The
lowest temperature being 59 ° below zero on January 1st.
Snow storms may occur between September and May. In
June the sunrises at about 2 a.m. and sets at 10:30 p.m.,
giving more than 20 hours of daylight, and twilight the remainder of the time. The mean summer temperature rises to
between 60 ° and 70 ° . There is almost a continuous sun in
summertime. Evaporation is very slow, owing to the thick
moss which will not conduct the heat.
Report from the Northwest Mounted Police under Staff
Sergt. Hayne of the Meteorological Service.
Table showing the Highest and Lowest Temperature at Fort Constantine, Yukon.
Winter 1895 and 1896.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.
Date.
High Low
High Low
High Low
High Low
High Low
High Low
High Low
1
25 0  15 0
-14 0 260
-240-380
-20O-32O
-7 0-26 0
110-24 0
30 0    5°
5
26     11
-6   -16
-54   -61
-5   -21
18      0
8   -38
50     3o
10
11     -1
7     -6
-12   -25
-27   -45
12   -20
15   -31
61     30
15
0     -4
9     -8
-31   -42
-35   -55
39        6
21        1
56     38
20
1     -9
-21   -45
-16   -42
4   -20
33     14
33     20
55     37
25
26     12
-25   -49
-48   -56
-3   -15
28      11
43-   27
58     35
30
-13   -27
-13    -26      J
-13   -42
9     -5
39     19
63     33
WINTER OF 1896 AND 1897.
No continuous fine weather occurred until May 4th, after
which date and during the balance of the month the
temperature frequently rose above 60 ° . The Yukon River
froze up on Nov. 5th and broke on May 17th. Forty Mile
River broke up on May 15th and on the 31st the temperature
reached 75 ° . In June the reading was 70 ° for twelve days
and on the 31st, 80 ° . The highest temperature in July was
83 ° ; rain fell 11 days, and in October 12 days.
It may be said winter set in about the end of September.
Zero was first touched on October 5th, and the average temperature of that month was 26 ° .
MINER'S CABIN.
The miner's cabin is a small affair, about 12x14 feet. The
roof is heavily earthed and is usually very warm. Miners who
do not work their claims in winter, very often, become very
indolent, only eating those things most easily cooked.      This 38
manner of living sometimes leads to scurvy. It is therefore
best to procure the most varied outfit of food that can be
obtained.
•
MINER'S OUTFIT.
It would be unwise to go to the Yukon placing any dependence on a certainty of obtaining what was required from the
leading houses in the country. A number of steamers were
unable to get up the Yukon River with supplies, (as mentioned
in the notes on the St. Michael's route.) The gold seeker
should therefore go prepared to be independent for a year.
For convenience the outfit is divided into three parts.
It is winter that one must think of in preparing, not summer.
Clothing.
3 Suits heavy wool underwear.
3 Heavy wool overshirts.
i Heavy wool sweater.
2 Pair trousers, one close-woven for winter wear. Would
be improved by cotton batting quilting in seat and
over thighs and knees.
2 Pair good overalls, one felt lined,
i Vest.
i Sack coat.
3 Jumpers.
i Coat (skin preferable with hair on, turned inside) with
warm lining and belt,
i Wide brim hat for summer.
i Fur cap, large enough to pull down over head and with
fur-lined ear flaps.
i Wool neck scarf,
i Pair heavy nailed boots   for prospecting   on   rocky
ground.
2 Pair gum boots, leather soled and nail-protected, for
work in the cold and marshy ground in winter.
. 3 Pair seamless felt ankle moccasins,
i Pair of strong slippers for indoor wear.
2 Pair heavy blankets (wool.)
i Fur robe for sled travel and cover at night (sheepskin
is good and not expensive)
20 Yards mosquito bar netting for veiling to protect from
mosquitoes in summer. laBi
i Sheet rubber water-proof cloth, 12 feet square.
2 Leather or deer hide packing cases for small articles.
Towels, etc. 39
i Set pack straps.
i Tent,    i sleeping bag.
i Pair blue goggles to prevent snow blindness.
In the matter of food, individual tastes differ, and the range
of selection is wider than  with the  clothing.    Life  in the
Yukon is not all a picnic.    One going there eats to live.
l    The following is a good list:—
300 Pounds flour.
50       "     Germea, contains more nutriment than oatmeal, and is very easily prepared.
15       "     Rice.
150       "     Bacon, boneless, sliced, packed in tins.
100       "     Beans.
80      "     Potatoes (peeled) evaporated.
100      <c     Dried fruit, stoned  and peeled, and seedless
raisins.
25      B     Dried beef, chipped, in tin.
25      |     Tea.
80      |     Sugar.
5       \ *     Coffee extract.
Condensed milk (20 cans).
75       1     Vegetable biscuits.
40       "     Lard.
5       \ \     Beef extract.
2      * -     Pepper.
10      p     Baking powder.
10      |     Salt.
60      il     Dried soup vegetables.
Most of the above articles should have water-proof covering.
Avoid carrying waste—for example,  the bones and rind  of
bacon, the stones of fruit, etc.  All the articles which are com- .
pressible have compressed.      From the dried soup, vegetables
and beef extract, a considerable quantity of soup can be made
at one time, frozen in cakes,  and then used as needed.     To
prepare it,  thaw and, heat over a fire,   adding  water.    The
packages should, as near as possible,  be of a uniform weight,
50 or 70 pounds, otherwise it will be difficult to handle them.
KITCHEN UTENSILS.
1 Stove and pipe,  the latter in   flat sheets, with seam
edge crimped for joining.
1 Fry pan, with folding handle.
2 Pots, with cover and bail, sizes to nest together.
1 Kettle.
1 Tea pot.
2 Pans for bread baking, sizes to nest. 40
2 Soup plates, blue or granite ware.
2 Cups | |
i Can opener, knives, forks, spoons.
Aluminum ware is light and easily cleaned.
TOOLS.
Gold pans, i flask quicksilver.
3^2 inch pick, with large eye, and one for heavy work,
handles.
Shovel.
Axe.
Hatchet, hammer head, claw,    i
Timber saw.
Riphand saw.
Brace and bits.
Saw set and file.
Square.
Jack plane,
io pounds 12-penny nails. PSPf
20      |      assorted nails.
2 Pair 8 inch strap butts.
MISCELLANEOUS.
6o Pounds candles.
io       "      Soap.
i       1      Glycerine.     It does not freeze.     Most valuable
in the cold north for medicinal use.     Good for cuts,
bruises, frost bite.    Apply ^externally for sore throat,
use internally for bowel complaint.
A combined rifle and shotgun, and ammunition.
Fishing tackle,    ioo feet % inch hemp rope.
A small roll of surgeon's plaster, antiseptic gauze for dressing wounds, and an assortment of medicines in the form of
pellets and capsules, particularly laxatives and remedies for
dysentery.
This list will look large to men not accustomed to mining
or out-door life. It is difficult for them to realize the requirements for a year in the frozen North. To some of those who
now go in search of gold the reward in the end will prove to
have justified their action ; but will it to the many ? Anyway,
if you must go, go prepared to preserve life and health, and to
mine without unnecessary waste of time, which in the Yukon
is both valuable and costly. To accomplish these things, be
sure in preparing to have as efficient an outfit as money will
buy. A dependence on what is being offered as an outfit by
San Francisco advertisers and others who know nothing about
the requirements is only a form of premeditated suicide. PART 3.
Geology of the Yukon,
Notes on Alluvial and Metalliferous
Prospecting,
Regarding the geology of the Upper Yukon Prof. L,inderman,
who explored the region in '73 and'73, says: "The mineral
zone extends east and west. The geological formation where
gold is found is a black slate of the carboniferous age.''
" I think the entire country is mineral territory and the
Eastern Alaskan range gold bearing. The placers being
found on every stream* leading from the range. I crossed and
examined fifty-two streams and rivers and panned gold in all
of them. I took gold out of the Katrin Hills about 230 miles
north of Cook's Inlet. On Porcupine I found gold and some
nuggets."
' I The dip rock varies from 11 ° to 7 ° . There were
tremendous ledges of low grade ore that would be profitable
to big mills."
This extract from Prof. Iyinderman's report coincides, in a
wonderful manner, with the report of Boundary Commissioner
Ogilvie, just issued.
GOLD.
Gold has ever been, from the earliest ages, one of the most
potent factors in the affairs of men.. In what country or in
what age it was first discovered history does not tell. Some
accounts point to India, but all are mere conjecture.    Certain v^f 42
it is however, that it possesses a remarkable influence and a
power, before which men and even nations bow. With the
discovery of gold cities and civilization spring into being and
everywhere, as a result, the arts and sciences flourish. Several
theories have been advanced to account for its origin, one is
that gold in nature is always found associated with silver, and
the ratio of gold to silver is not uniform. If silver never
occurs without some gold it follows that the gold has grown
from the silver, and the varying proportions found in different
mines are due to the length of time the growth has been going
on. Another writer says, that the scientific world generally
in later years concedes the fact that the metals are a product
from the solutions precipitated by nature's electrical forces,
and adds, it is also an ascertained fact that the nearer we
approach to the North Pole the stronger are the electromagnetic forces precipitated.
Everywhere the origin of gold is the same. It is liberated
from its rock matrix by the natural processes of the erosive
agencies of frost and disintegration, and is placed where found
by glacial action or by running water. The action of frost is
principally in breaking the lodes in place into fragments, the
grinding together of these fragments in the streams and
gradually wearing away liberates the gold. Once freed it
works its way downward to bedrock, while its once rock
matrix is carried on as sand to the sea.
ALLUVIAL PROSPECTING.
The water washing away gold-bearing matter carries the
lighter particles down the stream while the heavier
particles are left behind. The point where the stream changes
direction is very often the richest. The sides of swift currents
and the inner rim of curves should be examined. Where, an
accumulation of gravel occurs on the slope of a hill or along
the course of a stream where gold has been found, a portion
of it should be "panned " as it may contain rich runs of gold
near the bedrock.
Wherever drift matter may be found or supposed to exist,
do not neglect it though it be covered with vegetation. The
deposits of rich alluvial matter found in the tributaries of the
Klondike were covered with twelve and fourteen inches of
moss. Along the course of a river there may be many bends,
these bends are much more likely places to find rich deposits
than where the stream is straight. In ages gone by the
gold-bearing drifts may not have followed the existing course
of streams, but may have been at an angle to the present
channels,   wherever   these   old  channels   are found  careful 43
search should be made and an endeavour to trace them from
the points where the present streams cut away. The trouble
taken in this work is often well repaid by the discovery of
rich diggings. Not only should the beds of streams and dry
creeks at the bottom of valleys be examined, but the characteristics of loose rocks in gulches and ravines should be
observed. Eddies and water holes are likely places, and
should the body of water in a stream be too great it must be
turned by digging trenches.
The appliances used in prospecting are the pick, shovel and
pan.
To "pan out" gold.
The operation is very simple yet it requires some skill.
Fill the pan with gravel or other matter, as you find it
where working. Then pour in water and shake round about
and from side to side, allowing all soluble matter to pass
over the edge.    This is done by tilting the pan to one side.
It is convenient to have two pans or else a second vessel,
so as to save time. In this way the rough'work can be done
rapidly, the fine stuff containing gold being thrown together
and washed carefully over the other pan, the prospector
keeping in mind the number of pans. A heaped pamload
weighs about twenty pounds, so that one pan represents the
iooth part of a short ton. The size of a gold pan used in
California is about twenty inches circumference and four or
five inches deep.
THE AVERAGE VALUE OF GOLD.
A grain of pure gold is worth a little less than 4^ cents.
The average of gold from many placers is about 3^ cents per
grain. About 1% yards of gravel when dug is equal to one
yard before being dug. Several pans of dirt can be measured
and the number to the yard determined. In sinking shafts
for testing purposes energy should not be wasted in making
them too large, 2^ feet is large enough for considerable
depths.
THE METHOD  OE REACHING PAY-DIRT.
It is always the case that pay-dirt—dirt containing gold—
lies next to the rock. This being the case it is necessary to
clear away the gravel or dirt that lies between the surface and
the bed-rock.
'In the Klondike the ground is frozen to a depth of between
10 and 20 feet. To reach the bed-rock large fires are made—
wood is plentiful—this naturally thaws out the frost. The
bed-rock being   reached  and sufficient  pay being found to 44
warrant a continuance of the'work, the prospector then commences tunnelling or drifting. The dirt then removed is
hoisted to the top and placed on the dump to await the coming
of spring.
This method of thawing out the frozen ground enables the
miner to remove the pay-dirt, thus doing away with the long
period of idleness.
WASHING THE PAY-DIRT.
After working until April or May the water begins to run.
Then the timber is prepared and the sluice boxes put in.
SLUICE  BOXES.
After the course of the water is turned along the hill-side,
a dam is built and sluice boxes erected. These boxes consist
of a series of wooden troughs, having a suitable inclination,
across the inside of the bottom small strips of wood are fixed.
If the gold is fine the grade is slight, if coarse a greater pitch
is given. By making one end of the box narrower than the
other end, they can be made to fit one into the other, thus
making a sluice of any length desired. The earth is then
thrown in and the running water washes it away leaving the
particles of gold in front of the bars on the bottom of the
sluice boxes.
ROCKERS.
When it happens that a claim is too far from water, a rocker
is used. The rocker is just what its name indicates. The
dirt is placed within it and it is rocked until the dirt and gold
have been shaken apart.
PROSPECTING FOR MINERAL-BEARING ORES.
No advantage would come to the prospector from a discussion of the origin of mineral-bearing ores, but it is well
something should be known of their depositions.
* It is a generally accepted belief that in creation's early days
the earth was a molten mass, and that the metalliferous ores
were ejected from the interior by volcanic action/ through
fissures in the outer crust formed by a more or less lengthy
period of cooling.
In any particular district mineral lodes usually follow the
same direction and will be found to run parallel. In some
districts a second series occur and run right across the first,
but these are generally less rich and are of a different nature
of mineral. 45
PROSPECTING.
Prospecting on the hills may be done with comparative ease
if the country is exposed, by observing the outcrops and
tracing them to lower ground. The sides of valleys, land
slips, cliffs, gulches and canons exposed to view by the action
of water should be studied carefully. On rough ground the
direction of a lode will appear crooked.
If j float " (fragments of mineral-bearing rock) occurs the
prospector should follow it up, "panning" as he goes until
he ceases to find any more float and the indications of colour
in the pan lessen, then skirmish on the side or end hills for a
lode, remembering that the float was washed down according
to the law of gravity. If he succeeds it is not likely to be
isolated, it may represent many more richer or poorer in the
district.
Long exposure to the weather may have rendered the float
quite barren, while the mother lode may be very rich. The
nearer to the lode the more angular and less worn it is. The
better locations for the occurrence of mineral deposits are at
or near the contact of two different formations. Notice sudden
changes and faults in the ridge. Search should be made for
the rock known to be the matrix of veins. The matrices are
fluor spar and calc spar, but quartz is the most general. When
the float is found to be honeycombed and stained a reddish
brown by iron oxide, it is considered an excellent indication.
Exposure to the atmosphere decomposed the iron or copper
pyrites and stained the rock. When such rock is found no
experienced miner will neglect the opportunity of having it
tested. If he submits it to the camp expert, his opinion may
be no more reliable than the average weather prophet. The
best plan is to have an assay made by a competent authority,
but the miner may make a test himself which, with some
practice, may give fair results.
The prospector should become familiar with the appearance
of the oxides in the outcrop as they indicate the nature of the
sulphides in the rock beneath.
HOW   TO   DISTINGUISH  THE  PRECIOUS METALS.
Silver is white, but when found on the surface is usually
tarnished ; it can be flattened by beating and is easily cut; the
ore usually contains a percentage of gold and copper. It is
found in limestone, sandstone, trap, porphyry and slate; its
gangue is usually quartz, fluor spar and calc spar. Silver
glance (sulphide of silver) is usually found along with copper 46
lead, iron, zinc, antimony, etc.; its colour is greyish or blackish;
in the sunlight it has a bright lustre. It is soft and is fusible
at a very low temperature.
If silver-bearing ores be heated in the fire and dropped into
water drops of the metal will appear on the surface.
Strenuous efforts are being made by the Bi-metallic League
in the United States, England and other countries to advance
the price of silver, but unfortunately the best efforts have so
far proved unavailing. The prospector, however, should not
be indifferent to silver-bearing ores. Chloride of silver (horn
silver) found in some districts—notably in the Slocan and
Trail districts of B.C.—contains a very large percentage of the
metal. This is a soft mineral looking like horn or wax and cutting like it ; occurs (often with carbonate of lead) in the upper
parts of lodes.
Ores of copper occur in every age and in lodes and deposits.
The oxide stain of decomposed pyrites containing copper is
black, unless iron is present; the ores can be cut with a knife.
A boiling solution of nitrate of soda and citric acid will dissolve copper p3^rites. The solution will cover a steel blade
with a copper film. To test copper ores in camp, roast and
drop while hot into grease. When exposed to a flame a green
colour may be seen if copper is present. Native copper is
found in tree-like and fanciful shapes—colour red. The ore
usually carries gold and silver.
Lead.—The ores of lead, like copper, occur in many rocks,
some of which are limestone, granite, sandstone, &c. Galena
and carbonate (white lead ore) are the principal ores of lead.
They are often very rich in silver. Galena is easily known by
»its bright appearance when cut. Carbonate is of a dull colour
and when broken up is like clay or earth.
COMPOSITION OF ROCKS.
The first rocks formed were the lower crystalline, Archaean
granite, and, as the earth cooled, solidified, forming a crust
and, owing to the shrinkage of the interior, cracked and
through these cracks streams of the molten matter poured.
Then through disintegration aided by the destructive agency of
carbonic acid gas, began the slow process of forma don of sedimentary rocks, which in turn, from pressure and other causes,
were to harden into rocks.
Rocks consist essentially of minerals, and the minerals of
the common rocks are of four groups: i. Quartz, called in
chemistry silica; 2. silicates or compounds of silica; 3.
carbon ;   4.   carbonates, or compounds of carbon. 47
Quartz is the commonest of all species and is one of the
hardest minerals. Most sandstones and conglomerates consist largely of quartz (nearly every colour, generally white or
brownish.)
Fragmental rocks include sandstones, shales and conglomerates. Stratified rocks are in beds and sedimentary are deposited as a sediment out of the decomposition and washing
down of the rocks of the age preceding.
Crystalline Rocks.—Some metamorphic, some igneous meta-
morphic rocks are those changed by heat or pressure; examples,
marble, mica, schist, gneiss and much granite, &c.
Igneous rocks have come up melted through volcanic
fissures from the heated interior of the earth; they include
lavas, porphyry and granite.
Porphyritic rocks are those having distinct feldspar crystals.
Sandstones are made up of particles of sand cemented
together; colour gray, brown, white, red, &c;
Conglomerate. —Consolidated gravel.
Slate.—A slaty rock imperfectly formed (schists applied to
certain slaty rocks.)
Metamorphic Rocks.—Granite, a crystalline rock of quartz,
feldspar and mica or hornblende : colour light or dark gray.
Gneiss—Is like granite in construction, and is made up of
the same minerals as granite, only containing them in parallel
layers.
NATURE OF A FEW MINERALS.
Schists—Mica schist consists of fine layers of quartz and
mica ; talc" schist, fine layers of quartz and talc ; chlorite
schist, fine layers of quartz and chlorite; hornblende schist,
fine layers of quartz and hornblende.
Feldspar—Colour usually white or red, sometimes gray,
black or green, so very hard will scratch glass.
Talc—A greenish, yellowish white, or sometimes colourless
mineral of a pearly or resinous lustre. Is greasy to the touch,
soft, yields to the finger nail.
Chlorite—A dark green, generally foliated and scaly mineral.
Hornblende—Of many varieties, mostly greenish black,
and also whitish colour.
Fluor-spar—Is usually purple, sometimes yellow, white,
green or blue. If heated in a dark place a phosphorescent
light appears, not unlike a precious stone.    It is soft.
Calc-spar^-(Carbonate of lime) generally transparent, and
of a gray-rose, honey-yellow or violet shade.
I 48
MINE SURVEYING.
Mineral Deposits—The deposit rests on the foot-wall and
that covering the deposit is the hanging wall. These are
known as the floor and roof respectively.
The Strike or Course of a Deposit—Is the angle formed
with the plane of the lode and the plane of the horizon. Its
dip is the inclination downward measured in degrees from the
horizontal. When the dip is great it is measured from the
vertical and is then termed the underlie or hade.
Out-crop—The portion of the mineral deposit at the surface
is known as the out-crop or apex.
Cross Courses—These are veins coursing at nearly right
angles to the chief lodes of any particular district.
A Shaft—Is a pit sunk down from the surface.
Levels—Are horizontal excavations along the course of a
vein, or horizontal passages by which access is gained to
workings of a mine.
A Slope—Is a working from which the ore is extracted.
Above a level the working is an overhead or back slope. An
1 I underhand '' slope is the working downward from the floor
of the level.
CALCULATION OF AREAS.
Gunter's chain, 66 feet long, is most frequently used in
measuring lengths. liBS
To find the area in a piece of Ground :
i. If rectangular, multiply the length by the breadth.
2. If triangular, multiply the base by half the perpendicular
height.
SOLID OR CUBIC MEASURE.
1728 cubic inches equal 1 cubic foot
27        " ■   feet      "     1    "    yard
4 feet x 4 feet x 8 feet=i28 cubic yards...    "    1 cord wood
TROY MEASURE.
24 grains equal 1 pennyweight (dwt.)
20 pennyweights      "    1 ounce (oz.)
12 ounces      "    1 pound (lb.)
Standard gold consists of 22 parts pure gold alloyed with
two parts copper or other metal, and according to the quantity
of alloy is called 9, 12, 15, or 18 carat—i.e> that number of
parts of gold out of 24. Standard silver is of finest 11 oz.
2 dwts. fine to 18 dwts. alloy. 49
A cubic foot of pure gold weighs 1,210 lbs., pure silver 655
lbs., cast iron 450 lbs., copper 550 lbs., lead 710lbs., platinum
1,220 lbs.
A ton weight of the following will average in cubic feet:
earth 21, clay 18, river sand 19.
LOCATING CLAIMS.
The method of locating a placer claim is simple. The
prospector must not exceed 100 feet up and down the creek,
in the general course of the valley. The width of the claim
can run from base to base of the hills. If there are no claims
located on this particular stream, the claim is known as the
" discovery claim," and the stakes are marked O. The next
claim up the creek is marked No. 1, as is the next going down
the stream. There can be but two claims marked No, 1 on
any one stream.    Discoverer's claim may be 500 feet.
Every miner and employer of a miner will require to take out
a license, the fee for which will be $10. In case of a company it
will be $50 or $100, according to the amount of the capital stock.
The fee for recording and renewing mining claims will be $15.
A royalty of 10 per cent on the gold mined will be collected
by the government if the claim produces $2,500 per year;
smaller claims are exempt.
If a prospector should locate a claim on any creek or river on
his way to Dawson, he will not have a legal title to it unless
he is in possession of a license. The towns in which certificates
are issued are Victoria, the Provincial capital of British Columbia; Vancouver, the terminus of the C.P.R., andNanaimo,
the chief seat of the coal industry of the coast. From these
points steamers run to the North.
The Mining Regulations are not printed here, as it is
expected they will undergo some change in the early spring
of i8q8.
THE CUSTOMS STATIONS.
On the routes to Dawson City are Glenora, head of navigation on the Stickine River, Lake Tagish, about 72 miles
from the coast, Fort Selkirk, on the Pelly River, a post near
Klukwan, on the Dalton Trail, and Dawson City.
Invoices of goods should be produced in duplicate when
they are purchased, and collections will be made in accordance
with prices therein named,   not on the value of the goods 50
where the collection is made. On most goods subject to
ad valorem duty, the weight of the receptacle is included and
assessed the same as the coutents.    The exceptions are :—
Miners' blankets in use, personal clothing in use, cooking
utensils in use, such quantities of each as will make the
owner comfortable for a reasonable time.
All kinds of machinery imported exclusively for the mining
of ores, free.
The duties on the most important articles are:—Flour, .60
per barrel; beans, .15 per bushel; bacon, .2 per pound; meat
and meat extracts, .25 ad valorem; and tobacco, .50 specific. COMMISSIONER OGILVIE'S  LECTURE
On the History, Resources and Probable Future of the Yukon Country.
The distinguished explorer, Wm. Ogilvie, F.R.G.S., of the
Alaska Boundary Commission, having returned to Victoria
after an absence of several years in the North, addressed a
public meeting on November 5th, on the subject of the Yukon
Goldfields. As no other report of equal weight and importance, on this subject, has reached the outside world, the following extracts from the lecture will be read with interest as an
authoritative statement of facts.
After describing the routes he said :
In 1872, September 2nd, two Irishmen named Harper and
F, W. Hart and Sam Wilkinson an Englishman, left Manson
Creek to go on a prospecting trip down the Mackenzie River.
They made their way down to Nelson River, where they made
a cache and a dug-out with which to descend the river.
In 1891, he, Mr. Ogilvie, was sent by the Dominion to the
Northeast portion of the Province, and going in the trail followed by Harper saw the cache they had told him about in
1887. Harper and his companions made their way down to
the Liard River, where Wilkinson left them, and then down
the Mackenzie across to the Peel and thence over to Bell's
River, an affluent of the Porcupine, down the Porcupine to
Fort Yukon, (380 miles from Dawson) and up to White
River a distance of 400 miles, where they found some gold.
The result of their prospecting was as follows: On the Nelson,
nothing; on the Liard, colours; on the Mackenzie, nothing;
on the Peel, fair prospects; on the Porcupine, colours; and
prospects everywhere along the Yukon. Provisions giving
out they made their way down the Yukon to St. Michael's.
Next summer Harper returned and built Fort Reliance,
six and-a-half miles from the Klondyke, and for many years
traded and hunted, but never prospected on that river,
and if he had he would not have found anything, for it is a
swift mountain stream which has washed away all the fine sand
and gravel, consequently the gold would sink out of sight,
i 52
and in those days no prospecting was done but on the bars
in the rivers and creeks.
In 1882 gold was found on the Stewart River, and in 1886
Harper established a trading post at Fort Selkirk, and in the
same year some prospectors found gold at Forty-mile, (so
called because it is forty miles from Fort Reliance).
This took all the miners up to Forty-mile, coarse gold being what every miner is looking for, and the excitement continued to draw till 1891, when gold was found on Birch Creek,
six miles from Circle City and nearly 200 miles below Forty-
mile.
This discovery of course boomed Birch Creek and in 1891
everyone went down there.
Gold was found at the head of Forty-mile on Napoleon
Gulch and was rich in nuggets. Franklin Gulch is pretty
rich as are also David, Mosquito and Chicken Creeks. The
last named was discovered in 1896 and was considered very
rich until overshadowed by Eldorado and Bonanza.
DISCOVERY OF GOLD ON THE KLONDIKE.
The discovery of gold on the Klondike (Indian name Tron-
dak, of diuck) was made by three men, Robert Henderson,
Frank Swanson and another named Munson, who in July,
1896 were prospecting on Indian Creek. They proceeded
up the creek until they reached Dominion Creek, and then
crossed over the divide and found gold bottom, got good prospects and went to work.
Provisions running short they made their way to Sixty-mile
to obtain a fresh supply, where Harper had established abrading post. Striking upwards to Forty-mile they came across a
Californian, George Carmack, and Two Canadian Indians, or
King George men,* as they called themselves.
Now one of the articles of the miner's code of procedure is
that when he makes a discovery he shall lose no time in proclaiming it, and the man felt bound to make the prospectors
acquainted with the information that there was rich pay to be
got in Gold Bottom. The two Indians showed a route to
this creek and from there they crossed over the high ridge to
Bonanza (two miles from the mouth of the Klondike.)
From there to Eldorado, which joins the Bonanza about
midway, its length is three miles, they climb over the ridge
and went to Gold Bottom, (twelve miles above the mouth of
^Canadian Indians are called King George men to distinguish them
from those of the United States. 53
the Klondike. Here they did half a day's prospecting, and
came back, striking into Bonanza about ten miles beyond
where they they took out from a little nook in a few pans.
$12.75 0^2 I2S0-
In August, 1896, George Carmack went down to Forty-
mile to get provisions. He met several miners on his way
and told them "of his find, showing the $12.75 which he had
put in an old Winchester cartridge.
Well, that tells the story of the discovery of the creeks, that
have excited and will continue to excite thousands for many a
day to come.
A STAMPEDE.
" Boatload after boatload of men went up at once. Men
who had been drunk for weeks in fact had been tumbled into
the boats and taken up without being conscious that they
were travelling. One of these only woke up when he was a
third of the journey, and he owns one of the best claims on
the Klondyke to-day.
The whole creek, a distance of about twenty miles, giving in
the neighbourhood of about 200 claims was staked in a few
weeks. Eldorado Creek, eight miles long, providing eighty
claims, was staked in about the same time.
Boulder, Adams and other gulches were prospected, and
gave good surface showings, gold being found in the gravel
in the creeks. Good surface prospects may be taken as an
indication of the existence of very fair bedrock. It was in
December, 1896 that the character of the diggings was established. " Twenty-one," above Discovery on Bonanza, was
the one which first proved the value of the district. Claim
No. 5, Eldorado was the next notable one here, a pan of $112
was taken out. There was then a pan of even greater amount
on No. 6, and they continued to run up every day. The news
went down to Circle City, which emptied itself at once and
came up to Dawson City.. The miners travelled at all hours
of the day and night, some with provisions, some without."
AREA OF THE GOLD FIELDS.
Bonanza and Eldorado Creeks afford between them 278
claims; the several affluents will yield as many more, and all
of these claims are good. Mr. Ogilvie had no hesitation in
saying that about 100 of those on Bonanza will yield upwards
of $30,000,000. Claim 30, below on Eldorado, will yield a million in itself; then others will yield from $100,000 up.   These (W
54
two creeks will, he was quite confident, turn out from $60-,
000,000 to $70,009,000, and he could safely say that there
was no other region in the world of the same extent that has
offered in the*same length of time so many homestakes—
fortunes enabling the owners to go home and enjoy the
remainder of their days. He would state a fact, he said, and
one that was easily demonstrated, which was that we had in this
province an area of from 550 to 600 miles in length and from
100 to 150 miles in width, over the whole of which prospects
had been found, and we had from 90,000 to 100,000 square
miles which, with better facilities for the transportation of
food, would be the largest, as it was the richest, goldfield the
world had ever, known.
Stewart and Pelly Rivers, in the gold-bearing zone, also
give promising indications. Everywhere good pay had been
found on the bars, and there was no reason why when good
pay was obtained on the bars the results should not be richer
in the creeks.
RICH  QUARTZ  LOCATED.
In regard to quartz claims, seven have already been located
in the vicinity of Forty Mile and Dawson, and there was also
a mountain of gold-bearing ore in the neighbourhood yielding from $5.00 to $7.00 a ton. It may be mentioned here that
the great Douglas Island quartz lode yields about $2.50 per
ton, but it is on the coast, the other inland.
THE MOTHER LODE.
A party arriving as recently as the 9th of December report
the discovery of a quartz ledge which is said to have been
traced through a number of rich mining streams of the district. If this should prove to be the mother lode of the
wealth of Eldorado, the permanency of the Upper Yukon as
a great mining camp will be assured for years to come. ftk
LAST WRITINGS FROM THE DIARY
OF THE
LATE ARCHBISHOP SEGHERS.
Addressed to Vicar-General Jonckaw, Victoria, B.C.
NOTES ON FULLER'S CONDUCT WRITTEN IN
FRENCH.
The very interesting story told by the missionary archbishop who, while carrying the message of Christianity into .
a remote and unexplored land, met with a sad and tragic end,
will have another interest for the traveller to the Yukon, that
of being a faithful record of a journey fraught with many
hardships and some dangers.
The Archbishop left Victoria, as he tells us, in July '86, full
of hope for the success of his mission, and proceeding on his
way crossed the mountains and reached the upper waters of
the Yukon at Lake Bennett, where he wrote the following
account of his travel:—
"It was on July 13th (1886) as you know," the diary reads,
"that I left Victoria to establish a permanent mission in the
heart of this territory and carry out the design I had conceived during.my first exploration of the Yukon country in
1877 for the Christianizing of the natives.
"Two routes lay before us, either the mouth or the headwaters of the Yukon. I went to Alaska through the mouth
of the Yukon in 1877. This time I chose the other route—
first, because, though the mouth of the river is easy of access,
yet the navigation of the river up stream is long, tedious and
difficult, whereas the trip from Victoria to the headwaters of
the Yukon is almost one straight line a little more than 1,000
miles and lasted only thirteen days. It is true the portage
across the Coast Range and some of the rapids is  a  labour
U 56
of the most exhaustive kind, but those difficulties once overcome navigation down the Yukon River from one end of
Alaska to the other is free from toil and danger, and comparatively pleasant.
"We left Juneau on Monday, July 18th at 7 p.m.. Next
morning we were steaming up Lynn Canal, which is flanked
by ranges of lofty peaks, each gorge of which is filled with a
glacier almost to the edge of the salt water. The. Indians left
their former village on the Chilcat Inlet and built up a new
one on the Chilcoot Inlet, making more than a living by packing for white men. They extort as much money
asvthey can from every miner that crosses the country. Not
only did they charge $13 per 100 pounds, but they made us
pay them for guiding us, for ferrying us across the river, for
looking after our safety and that of our packs, as they termed
it, and then they exacted a 'present' for having faithfully stuck
to their bargain.
"All arrangements being made, we started for the Chilcoot
village in a canoe and reached the mouth of a small river
called the Taiay. Here we met a most kindly disposed
Hibernian, named Healey, who placed us under many and lasting obligations. Finally we left Healey's place and salt water
navigation to ascend the rugged and lofty slope of the Coast
Range, and to force our way through a pass into the basin of
the Yukon. We formed a numerous party. Besides the five
of us there were five miners and some sixty Indian packers,
some with over a hundred pounds on their backs, but all in
good spirits and great glee to begin our wearisome and arduous trip. It was Saturday, July 24th, the feast of Saint Fran-
ciscus Solano, whose mass I had celebrated in the morning.
A fleet of canoes conveyed most of our baggage to the head of
canoe navigation, some seven miles from Healey's place, but
we had to walk. We first waded through the tributary of the
Taiay, where we had the water to our thighs and were subsequently carried by canoes five times across the Taiay and.
moved into our camp early in the afternoon, the water being
judged too high by the Indians to be forded. We said good
bye to our canoes and slept soundly all night and prepared
ourselves the following morning for the two worst crossings
of the Taiay, in one of which a traveller lost his life last summer.-   The first crossing was pretty rough.
"Advancing cautiously with heavy gum boots over gravel
pebbles and large boulders through the swift current of a
seething, foaming torrent, nerving myself to the utmost to
sustain the powerful velocity  of the liquid  element which SIPSM
57      **.**£
seemed at every moment to lift me from my feet, I reached the
opposite bank, having had the water well nigh to my hips, but
^though the water was icy cold, covered with perspiration and
panting for breath and my heart beating violently. A f^w
minutes were spent in drying ourselves from our drenching,
after which we directed our steps to the next crossing, which
we found worse than the former. Here we stood at the mouth
of the Canon, from which the Taiay, nearly fifty feet wide,
burst forth at the rate of thirteen miles an hour. Some of the
Indians formed a chain, taking each other by the hand and
marching in a line which extended downward with the current. Preceded by an Indian packer and followed by another,
I resolutely marched
OUT INTO THE TORRENT
which seemed as if boiling around me. I was Very successful until I found myself within a few yards of the other bank,
when the velocity of the water forced my feet so wide apart
that I felt I could hold the ground no longer. One of my
knees bent in spite of me, notwithstanding all the efforts I
made to brace myself up against the whirling, dashing torrent. One of the Indians saw the danger I was in and reached
me his hand, and so I found my way out of the wild and furious stream. All of my companions behaved most gallantly
and appeared to encounter less trouble and difficulty than I
experienced. We now entered the narrow gorge through
which the Taiay flows, marching most of the time due north
and on the right or eastern bank, going up stream of the river.
We crossed it again and again, passed several of the tributaries, sometimes on logs, at others wading through the water.
"At last, about 6 p.m., wearied and hungry, we arrived at
the foot of the glacier, the principal feeder, I presume, of the
Taiay, and there we saw a splendid camping place made by
Nature, consisting of immense boulders so arranged that they
; gave perfect shelter both from wind and from rain. This place
is called Sheep Camp, because I suppose it used to be the
favourite resort of mountain sheep, and in one part of it the
boulders were so ingeniously placed alongside of one another
that they form a perfect hiding place, called by the Indians
'Stone House.'
"The next morning, July 26th, we were all up at four
o'clock and left Sheep Camp a little after six full of courage
and eagerness to reach and pass the summit. Here the ascent
became very steep until we stood at the foot of an almost perpendicular wall formed of rocks, boulders and stones of every 	
: = —    " —
58
description, the top of which appeared to be lost in the
clouds. It was a novel sight to see our Indian packers ascending the natural ladder, clambering the best they could, helping themselves with poles and now and then with their hands,
and appearing at some distance as if standing one on the head
of the other, the highest ones disappearing in the fog. The
summit is said to be 3,800 feet high. We reached it at six
o'clock p.m. The view is decidedly beautiful. To the south
we commanded the view of the Canon through which we had
painfully travelled, the snow-capped mountains on the side of
Lynn Canal forming the background. East and west of us
were high peaks, which, however, were hid from our sight by
clouds and thick fog, and north of us lay the extensive country of the Yukon, and a red looking peak touring above the
rest of the mountains, the foot of which, as we saw afterwards,
was
WATERED BY THE GREAT RIVER
of Alaska. At our feet lay a carpet of snow and ice of dazzling
whiteness, and below still, a beautiful lake, with azure water
and the edges covered with ice. If, as it appears reasonable,
we consider that lake—Crater Lake—as the source of the
Yukon, then it is a remarkable coincidence that I saw the
Yukon the first time this year on the same feast that I did in
1877, *ne feast of St. Anne."
In that year the Archbishop went into the country from St.
Michael's at the mouth of the Yukon. His reason, he said,
"in coming this way lay in the object he had in view of visiting new regions and of exploring countries never before
visited, and labouring among natives never preached to by
missionaries of any denomination.
"Great care was needed to pass the snow and ice, which
formed a steep incline from the edge of the mountain to the
edge of the lake.. A single mis-step would have sent us sliding down, and once started, there was no possibility of stopping before reaching" the edge of the lake below. Fortunately,
by extreme caution, we avoided all accidents and got safely
over the. dangerous spot. We had scarcely got over the summit when we met two white men returning for their sled,
which we had noticed a few minutes before.
"These two men had been abandoned before reaching the
summit by their Indian packers and were now themselves
attending to their own packing, and as I afterwards saw, they
got along remarkably well. After marching down the hill,
either on the bank of the river that flows out of the Crater 59
Lake or at a short distance from it, we reached the shores of
a small lake—Linderman Lake—some six miles long by one
mile wide, and camped at the mouth of the river we had been
following all day long. It was about 3 p.m. when we reached
the lake, having made in a little less than three days a trip
of only twenty nine miles from Healey's Camp at the mouth of
the Taiay. Next day a serious disappointment happened to
us. Antoine Prevost, who had followed us from Juneau and
on whom we relied to help us in building a raft, left us and
disappeared without saying a word. Fortunately three of the
miners with whom we had travelled most generously offered
their services to help in building a raft and took on their own
that part of our luggage which two Indians had left behind,
after taking the rest to the foot of Linderman Lake. Here
that you may the better understand our movements I ought
to describe
THE RUN OF THE RIVER.
Crater Lake, as I have already mentioned, lies this side, that
is, northeast of the divide, and is the first reservoir containing
water that empties into the Behring Sea, a distance of more
than 2,000 miles the way the river flows. From this lake an
impetuous torrent rushes foaming through a narrow channel
and empties into Linderman Lake, which is fed also by another farther west. There is a northwest current in this lake
plainly visible, and it finds its outlet through a narrow pass
in'which the water furiously dashes over rocks and flows' into
Bennett Lake. The river furnishing the link between Bennett
Lake and Linderman is less than a mile long. It is not safely
navigable and is consequently avoided by a portage called
Perrier Portage. Lake Bennet, some twenty-seven miles
long, discharges itself through a short river into Lake Nares,
and this one into Tagish Lake, after which the river runs
swiftly through narrow canons until it reaches Lake Le Barge.
Past Lake Le Barge the river follows a uniform course, receiving several very large tributaries, until after uniting itself
with Stewart River, it definitely receives the name Yukon and
flows placidly toward the Behring Sea.
"I left our camp and our party at the head of Linderman
Lake in a small canoe with two Indians to remain at the foot
of the same lake some six miles distant and to keep an eye on
the baggage which those Indians had already conveyed there
in their canoes. The next day Father Robaut joined me,
arriving also in a canoe and bringing my altar so that on the
following morning, for the first time, I had the happiness to — .-—-
H
60
celebrate the holy sacrifice of the mass on the headwaters of
the Yukon where I believe no mass had ever been celebrated
before.
"But where was I ? Was I still in Alaska, inside of the line
that runs parallel with the coast, or was I in the vicarate apostolic of British Columbia, or in my own diocese in the far
end of the Northwest Territories of the Dominion? This is
difficult to determine. At all events, before leaving the place
I nailed to a tree the following inscription:
"Archbishop of Victoria, V.I., accompanied by Fathers
Tosi and Robant, camped here and offered the holy sacrifice,
July 30th, 1886."
"The miners who had traveled with us here divided into
two parties, each party building a raft for itself at the head
of Linderman Lake, because the timber was not long enough
to be sawn into planks to make a boat.
"The next day Father Tosi and Fuller arrived with the
other party of miners on a raft. That day we had a sumptuous
repast on a duck killed by Fuller. Four days previous it was
Father Robaut that shot our dinner for us, in the shape of a
partridge. After some deliberation it was decided that the
three miners, with Father Robaut and Fuller, should preceed
on a raft to a place where the size of the timber would justify
them in stopping for the construction of the boat They went
twelve miles distant, camping on the west shore of Bennett
Lake, and began to saw planks with their whip-saw." After
referring with numerous interesting illustrations from his
personal experience to the plentiful supply of both game and
fish, the former principally bear and mountain sheep, in the
region which they had reached, the Archbishop in his diary
proceeds:
"Without delay we loaded our boats with all our stuff and
returned at once, reaching the camp where we had left the two
miners on Thursday morning. We discharged our cargo and
th^ miners placed on board of our boat all that part of our
baggage which they had been compelled previously to put
ashore and leave in my charge, and as Father Losi had been
left alone on so many days, I volunteered
TO BE A HERMIT
in my turn; so that the two miners left with Father Tosi,
Father Robaut and Fuller, leaving me alone to watch
over our baggage.    The arrangement was that as soon as the 61
miners had reached their new camping place, the boat would
undergo a thorough overhauling, and after being made safe
and watertight should be brought back to my camp to load
our baggage and to make a definite start down the lakes and
the Yukon. During my lonely stay at that camp on the shores
of Lake Bennett nothing remarkable occured except a visit I
received from four miners who had travelled overland thirteen
days from the Salmon River, being nearly starved to death.
I gave them supper, as many provisions as they needed to
reach Juneau, and they were very grateful indeed, particularly one who hailed from Ireland and whose name was Harrington. It was nothing but shortness of provisions that
di ove them from their camping ground. Their prospects were
good, but the water remained too high to allow them much
work in the shape of mining. They said they intended to
return next spring a little earlier than they had done this year.
To complete my account of my lonely stay at camp No. 3 on
the lakes I must say that I availed myself of the absence of
others to subject my clothing to washing and repairing. So Saturday, August 14, was a general washing day,
not only the altar linen but towels, handkerchiefs, etc., underwent a thorough cleansing. If you had seen my clothes pins
you would have been very much amused; some of them burst,
but of course my discomfiture was all to myself. Monday,
August 16, was general mending day. I had to remain under
my blankets to subject some of my clothes to necessary repairs;
perfectly safe from any intruders' visit. I hope you will pardon *
me the minuteness of these private details. They serve at any
rate to give a complete description of a missionary's life in a
new country. The aspect of the country is grand beyond
description. The mountains on either side of the lake are lofty,
SHAGGY,   RUGGED  AND  STKKP,
" They range, I presume, from three to four thousand feet .J§|||
above the level of the sea. Balsam, fir, hemlock, alder, cotton-
wood and willow are on the slopes of the mountains. I saw
wild salmon berries, etc., I noticed also some rose bushes, but
the flowers were not yet open. Eagles, gulls, ducks, partridges, robins, kingfishers, swallows, some other birds and
some singing birds gave a lively appearance to the country,
even around the lakes. Bears are numerous, so are also
ground squirrel, rabbits and mountain sheep. Father Tosi saw
an animal like a very large cat standing on the other side of
the river connecting Linderman and Bennett lakes, but the
shouting of some Indians frightened it away.   It is supposed 62
to be a lynx. Finally, the abundance of fish is literally incredible. To my great joy my lonely stay on the west shore of
Bennett Lake was brought to an end on Thursday, August
19th, by the return of Father Tosi, Robaut and Fuller in our
own boat, which was now strong and water-tight and capable
of carrying us down the Yukon River. We made a definite
start the following day, Friday, August 20th, followed by the
two miners in their own boat.
"On Saturday evening, we camped at the foot of Bennett
Lake. We reached the foot of Tagish Lake the following
evening, passed Lake Marsh on Monday and entered the river
that connects Lake Marsh with Lake Le Barge about noon
on the same day.
"It was on the river between Marsh, or Mud Lake, and
Lake Le Barge that we met the most serious obstacle to navigation in the shape of a succession of rapids about four miles
long. These rapids are between two canons—Miles Canon
and White Horse Canon. Each canon is less than one mile
long, and they necessitated, consequently, two portages, the
packing over which was done by ourselves."
The Archbishop, after describing the rapids, continues:—
"We left camp at the foot of White Horse on the afternoon
of the same day, killed four ducks and went into camp two
miles below the mouth of Takeena River. Next day, August
27th, we camped at the head of Lake Le Barge, which is
about thirty-two miles long, and was crossed by us on Saturday, August 28th. Finally starting again on Monday, which
was yesterday, we made sixty-five miles in eight hours, travelling not infrequently at the rate of ten miles an hour. A
loon brought down by the gun of Fuller gave us last night
our supper. We are now about to push on northward, and
are within a few days' navigation from the mouth of the
Stewart River, where we shall decide on selecting our winter
quarters."
Arriving at the Big Salmon (or Ton) River on the 31st
August in the year referred to, the Archbishop said adieu to
Fathers Tosi and Robaut and continued down the river, and
it is a matter worthy of note that he camped on the present
site of Dawson City and celebrated the mass of the Holy
Angels.
The following entries clearly show the growing insanity of
Fuller:
"21st October.—Colere de Fuller au dejeuner, m'accuse de
vouloir le miner. (Anger of Fuller at breakfast; accuses me
of trying to ruin him.) 1
63
12th November.—Fuller m'accuse d'avoir refuse de lui ap-
prendre le Russe. (Accuses me of refusing to teach him the
Russian language.)
"Sunday, 21st—Fuller me demande pourquoi j'ai envoye un
de nos Indiens en avant pour bruler le traineau et lui—meme.
(Fuller asks me why I sent an Indian ahead of him to burn up
our sleigh and himself, Fuller.)
"24th November.—Fuller veut etre tue par moi tout-de-
suite    (Fuller wishes me to have him killed at once.")
THE  LAST  ENTRY.
Fuller lui dit que Walker* lui avait predit que je lui donerai
une mauvaise renommee. (Fuller said that Walker* predicted that I would give him a bad name.")
Proceeding on his journey the Archbishop at length reached
a point 261 miles from salt water, known as
MKLOZIKAKAT.
Winter had now set in, and the whole Yukon land was
merged in solemn darkness, and covered deep in a mantle
of snow and ice.
On the fatal morning of November 28th, the Archbishop
slept on; he had written his last note, but Fuller was astir at
an early hour (3 a.m.) "He could not sleep," he said. Wild
hallucinations, intensified by the solitude and the oppressive
stillness of the place, haunted him; every object seemed to
him an enemy.
Peering into the darkness the Indian guides saw him
attending to the fire, but nothing happening to awaken their
suspicions they drew back to their blankets. All was still as
the grave. In a little while they heard Fuller say: "Bishop,
it is time to get up," and then came the loud report of a rifle
—the Archbishop fell lifeless on the frozen ground—Fuller
had deliberately shot him.
Little more remains to be told. The murderer was secured
by the Indians and carefully watched through the gloom of the
winter. Close by, resting on the ice, his rude coffin covered
with snow, lay the body of the martyred bishop. And when
at last spring came round and the bonds of the great river
broke, his body was taken to Fort Yukon and then to St.
Michael's, where it lay until the autumn of the following year.
A United States gunboat arriving conveyed it to Victoria
where it now lies under the cathedral altar. Requiescat in
pace. 64
BRUNSWICK HOTEL
-VICTORIA, B.C.-
CORNER YATES and
DOUGL/S STS.
TEMPERANCE HOUSE. \ i
. . .CENTRAI+IyY I.OCATED.
Newly Furnished,  Four-Story Brick Building, with   Electric Bells   and   lights.
Baths and other modern conveniences.
Board and Room, $1.00 per day up.
Special Rates by week or month.
P.O. Box 541. -^^MEALS 25 CENTS.
BRICK BUILDING.    FIRE ESCAPES. Mrs. White, Proprietress.
Soenoer's rtroade,
. . .Government Street. ..
VICTORIA'S LARGEST STORE^>
Has Opened a Department on the First Floor Devoted to
KL0NDYKE OUTFITTING
SPECIAL   LINES   SUITABLE   FOR   THE   NORTHERN   COUNTRY  HAVE   BEEN
STOCKED. PROMINENT AMONG WHICH ARE
FUR COATS, FUR CAPS, FUR AND OTHER
SLEEPING BAGS, HEAVY WOOL BLANKETS.
SCOTCH KNIT UNDERWEAR, HEAVY WOOL
SOCKS, GERMAN AND ALASKA STOCKINGS,
MACKINAW CLOTHING, HOMESPUN TWEED
SHIRTS, ENGLISH CORD JACKETS, MINERS9
BOOTS, RUBBER BOOTS, RUBBER CAMP
SHEETS, TENTS, SLEDS, and everything necessary for a Yukon trip at as low prices as is
consistent with reliable articles.
D. SPENCER,
GOVERNMENT STREET.
Special terms to large parties.
Correspondence attended to.
N.B.—All Goods  purchased in the United States are subject to Duty
averaging 30 per cent.   Goods bought in Victoria pay no Duty. 65
Campbell & Co.,
FASHIONABLE
T0ILO^S^^#
Cor. Broad and Trounce Ave. \/iVfAv<m     D f*
Opp. The Driard. VlCCOFlCl,   D.O.
IMPORTERS OF FINE
SCOTCH and ENGLISH GOODS.
Ho
For
Klondyke
f Outfit at
IE. J. Saunders & Go.
I GROCERS.
=    Having had years of experience in this
line we know just what is needed and
Z    how to pack outfits.
1,1,1 Johnson St. Victoria, and Alberni,
M
ESTABLISHED 1858.
Wholesale
and Retail
oore A Co.:
Miners' Medicines and
Medicine Chests a Specialty.
31 Yates Street.    -    -    Victoria, B.C.
1 66
The Hickman, Tye
Hardware Co., Ltd.
IMPORTeHS    OP
IRON, STEEL, HARDWARE and CUTLERY.
Clondyke Outfits a Specialty.
32-34 Yates St.  -   Victoria, B.C.
L. STEMLER.
STEMLER & EARLE
ESTABLISHED 1875.
Pioneer Steam Coffee and Spice Mills,
MANUFACTURERS OF
Coffees, Spices, Cocoa, Cream Tartar,
Mustard and Baking Powder.—    ——>
TELEPHONE 597.
PEMBROKE STREET. Vi^trn-isi   T* C
Bet. Government & Douglas. Y A^*-^1 *«*> J-*«v-i«
PACIFIC SAUCE AND VINEGAR WORKS
 ESTABLISHED 1885	
PIONEER FACTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Manufacturers of Worcester Sauce, Pickles of all kinds, Tomato
Catsup, Concentrated Vinegars, Extract of Beef, Champagne and Bulk
Ciders, Flavouring Extracts, Curry Powder etc.
<D$r goods are carried by the following Victoria Houses: Simon L/Eisbr
& Co., R. P. Rithet & Co., Wilson Bros., Thomas Earle, Erskine
Wall & Co.
Our Concentrated Vinegars and Extract of Beef are just
the thing for the Klondyke.
Goods especially packed for the long haul.
H. J. BRADY & CO. Props.
Factory & Office, 66-68 Blanchard St, VICTORIA, B.C. BS^SB
67
Weiler Bros, flm* u.
Largest complete House Furnishing Establishment on the Pacific Coast. Hotels,
Boarding Houses, Steamboats and Storekeepers supplied at lowest possible prices.
Correspondence Solicited.
Showrooms     -    51 to 55 Fort St.
CH. PICHON =
Guns, Ammunition, Fishing Tackle, Cutlery, etc—Repairing
of all kinds done.—Reboring, Restocking, Browning, etc.—
Fishing Tackle and Bicycles repaired.—Skates, Knives and
Scissors polished and sharpened.
54 JOHNSON STREET, VICTORIA, B.C.
A. BARKER,
Manufacturer of Cooking Utensils, Stoves, Lamps,
Lanterns, Candle Moulds, and all kinds of
General Hardware and Miners' Tools.
88^ Douglas St., VICTORIA, B.C.
ARTHUR J. GARE3CHE, D.D.8.
DENTIST.
Graduate from the University of Pennsylvania
and Royal University of Havana.
Rooms 24 and 26, Entrance bu
Five Sisters* Block. Savannah's Photo Galleru.
^F THE
Yukon Transit
..Outfitters for the..
Klondyke Mines.
We furnish through the wholesale houses every article
necessary to carry on mining, and further, 'we will have
heavy clothing made TO ORDER at wholesale prices, if
measurement be sent. EVERY LINE OF TRAVEL will soon
be crowded, and fares are going up. Write us to secure
ticket; and at the same time send approximate cost (at
present $25 to $50) to Bank British North America in your
own name, and we will have your passage sectored and outfit ready if desired. By doing this great delay and expense
will be saved and no possible risk incurred.
Samples of Heavy Clothing, such as Mackinaw, Corduroy, etc.
Dates on which steamers sail for the North.
Cost of Outfit.
Conditions and comparative merits of  the different Passes
up to date.
Full weather report.
New Mining Laws and latest information from  the   Mines,
Price 35c.
LAnUL UULUnLl) MAP CHH,KOOTPASS,showmg tram road.
Map of KLONDIKE RIVER and tributaries, from official Survey, 10c.
Table of Distances from which boats sale for the North. The entire
list (eleven items), PRICE 30 CE N TS.
S. F. H. ROWLINSON,
Secretary.
1 69
Tai Soong & Co.
 IMPORTERS—
Wholesale and Retail Dealers In Tea, Rice, Opium, Nut Oil, Ghinaware.
Chinese and Japanese Fancy Goods, Curios, Etc.
TEA,   RICE,  TENTS,   OVERALLS.   ETC..   IN STOCK-
VICTORIA, B.C.
£^*DRY GOODS STORK AT ASHCROFT, B.C.-^El
No. 40 CORMORANT STREET, VICTORIA,   B.C.
SAM KEE
TAILOR and TENT MAKER.
46 CORMORANT STREET,    ^.VICTORIA, B.C.
Two doors below Gov't St. BOX 213.
WING ON,
DEALER   IN   RICE   AND TEA.
COMMISSION AGENT.
24 CORMORANT STREET,  VICTORIA,   B.C.
HOR KEE,
x35^   Government Street.
. . MERCHANT   TAILOR . .
—AND—
Manufacturer of Miners9 Clothing. 70
ON HINQ & BRO.,
♦ MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN ♦
Overalls, Tents, Waterproof Bags.
Heavy Wool Socks, Indian Make.
box 238.      ^       « store St., VICTORIA, B.C.
SUN, LUEN. HING & GO.
IMPORTERS OF MERCHANDISE, ETC.
All kinds of contracts for Chinese labour furnished.
VICTORIA, B.C.
28 Cormorant Street,
Wo Hope & Co.
Mackinaw Suits, etc.,
Made at Short Notice.
27 Store Street, Victoria, B.C.
MUTMI'C    Klondyke
Mill UN 0    Never Slips
62 Government St., Victoria. Fits any Shoe or Boot. 71
M. R. SMITH & CO.
Biscuit Manufacturers, VICTORIA, B.C.
Take SMITH'S VEGETABLE BISCUITS.   Especially prepared for Mining Camps.     SMITH'S DOG BISCUITS are
cheapest and best in the Market.
The Vernon,
66 Douglas Street,
VICTORIA, B.C.^^g^
FURNISHED IN FIRST-CLASS STYLE.
ROOMS SINGLE OR EN SUITE.
WELL HEATED, ELECTRIC LIGHT, BATHS, ETC.
TERMS MODERATE. MRS. M. WALT, - Proprietress.
9WJ. H. BAKER'S
For the Finest Assortment of high-grade
Boots and Shoes
Also the most approved
i h baker    Kl°"dyke Goods
J. n, DHrvcrv, To he had in the market
59 Government St. at Rock-Bottom Prices.
SOAPS    FOB THE
^KLONDYKE
The best kind of Soaps to take with you are
^"■^K^WHITE SWAN, HOME  RULE,
^BLUE MOTTLED AND TAR SOAP.
Be sure you tske some of PENDRAY'S CONCENTRATED VINEGAR with you.
 MANUFACTURED BY	
W. J. PENDRAY.     -     -     -     VICTORIA, B.C.
"C. J. MTJLLINS.(Miner) endorses above Soaps.
1  Purchased
From
Place of Purchase
Price
v^JUvv*-
n 6j>
7Uw4«5K/l
car^o ship-Richard III.
Passenger Steamer
I C/Yy 0/ Nanaimo |
W. D. Owen, Master.
Will leave Victoria every
alternate Thursday for
1 Wrangel, Juneau,       \
Skagway ^d Dyea I
•=      Commencing on or about
Thursday\ Feb. 3, 6 p.m.
Calling at Nanaimo, Vancouver and Northern
British Columbia Ports.
=:      The Company reserves the right to change this time table at any  T3S
5 time without notification.   For freight and passage apply to 5
F. C. Davidge & Co. Agents.
^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii^ iipiJjiiSiiJjJiJiBSSijS^^
The^Klondike Minings
Trading and Transport
Corporation Limited.  .
23 LEftDENHALL STREET, LONDON.
30 BROAD STREET, VICTORIA. B.C.
OWNING ITS OWN OCEAN AND RIVER STEAMERS.
|)  Persons desiring transportation for themselves or merchandise  ^|
to all Yukon points should correspond with
i^fc& the Victoria Office.
;S£|P$v CHAIRMAN:
Sir Charles Tupper, Bart.
BOARD OF* MA3SAGIDRS:
Hon. Edgar Dewdney, J. T. Bethune,
C. H. Lugrin, C. Ashworth.

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