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Yukon gold fields. Map showing routes from Victoria, B.C., to the various mining camps on the Yukon River… Lugrin, Chas. H.; Ogilvie, William, 1846-1912 1897

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Following are the Regulations governing placer mining along the Yukon
River and its tributaries, in the Northwest Territories, fixed by a recent Order-
in-Council of the Dominion Government :
" Bar diggings " shall mean any part of a river over which the water extends
when the water is in its flooded state, and which is not covered at low water.
Mines on benches shall be known as " bench diggings," and shall for the
purpose of defining the size of such claims be excepted from dry diggings.
" Dry diggings " shall mean any mine over which a river never extends.
M Miner" shalj mean a male or female over the age of eighteen, but not
under that age.
" Claim " shall mean the personal right of property in a placer mine or diggings during the time for which the grant of such mine or diggings is made.
' ' Legal post " shall mean a stake standing not less than four feet above the
ground and squared on four sides for at least one foot from the top. Both sides
so squared shall measure at least four inches across the face. It shall also mean
any stump or tree cut off or squared or faced to the above height and size.
"Close season" shall mean the period of the year during which placer
mining is generally suspended. The period to be fixed by the Gold Commissioner
in whose district the claim is situated.
' ' Locality " shall mean the territory along a river (tributary of the Yukon
River) and its affluents.
" Mineral " shall include all minerals whatsoever other than coal.
i. " Bar diggings," a strip of land ioo feet wide at high water mark and
thence extending into the river to its lowest water level.
2. The sides of a claim for bar digging shall be two parallel lines run as
nearly as possible at right angles to the stream, and shall be marked by four legal
posts, one at each end of the claim at or about the edge of the water. One of the
posts at high water mark shall be legally marked with the name of the miner and
the date upon which the claim was staked. 3- Dry diggings shall be ioo feet square and shall have placed at each of its
four corners a legal post, upon one of which shall be legally marked the name of
the miner and the date upon which the claim was staked.
4. Creek and river claims shall be 500 feet long measured in the direction
-of the general course of the stream, and shall extend in width from base to base of
the hill or bench on each side, but when the hills or benches are less than 100 feet
apart, the claim may be 100 feet in depth. The sides of the claim shall be two
parallel lines run as nearly as possible at right angles to the stream. The sides
shall be marked with legal posts at or about the edge of the water and at the rear
boundaries of the claim. One of the legal posts at the stream shall be legibly
marked with the name of the miner and the date upon which the claim was staked.
5. Bench claims shall be 100 feet square.
6. In defining the size of claims they shall be measured horizontally irrespective of inequalities on the surface of the ground.
7. If any person or persons shall discover a new mine and such discovery
shall be established to the satisfaction of the gold commissioner a claim for bar
diggings 750 feet in length may be granted.
A new stratum of auriferious earth or gravel situated in a locality where the
claims are abandoned shall for this purpose be deemed a new mine, although the
same locality shall have been previously worked at a different level.
8. The forms ôf application for a grant for placer mining and the grant of
the same shall be those contained informs "H" and "I" in the schedule hereto.
9. A claim shall be recorded with the gold commissioner in whose district it
is situated within three days after the location thereof if it is located within ten
miles of the commissioner's office. One extra day shall be allowed for making
such record for every ten miles or fraction thereof.
10. In the event of the absence of the gold commissioner from his office,
entry by a claim may be granted by any person whom he may appoint to perform
his duties in his absence.
11. Entry shall not be granted for a claim which has not been staked by the
applicant in person in the manner specified in these regulations. An affidavit that
the claim was staked out by the. applicant shall be embodied in form " H " of the
schedule hereto.
12. An entry fee of $15 shall be charged the first year, and an annual fee of
$100 for each of the following years. This provision shall apply to locations for
which entries have already been granted.
13. After the recording of a claim the removal of any post by the holder
thereof or by any person acting in his behalf for the purpose of changing the
boundaries of his claim shall act as a forfeiture of the claim. 14. The entry of every holder of a grant for placer mining must be renewed
and his receipt relinquished and replaced every year, the entry fee being paid each
15. No miner shall receive a giant of more than one mining claim in the
same locality, but the same miner may hold any number of claims by purchase,
and any number of miners may unite to work their claims in common upon such
terms as they may arrange, provided such agreement be registered with the gold
commissioner and a fee of five dollars be paid for each registration.
16. Any miner or miners may sell, mortgage or dispose of his or their
claims, provided such disposal be registered with, and a fee of two dollars paid to
the gold commissioner, who shall thereupon give the assignee a certificate in form
" J " in the schedule hereto.
17. Every miner shall, during the continuance of his grant, have the exclusive right of entry upon his own claim, for the miner-like working thereof, and the
■construction of a residence thereon, and shall be entitled exclusively to all the proceeds realized therefrom; but he shall have no surface rights therein; and the gold
commissioner may grant to the holders of adjacent claims such right of entry
thereon as may be absolutely necessary for the working of their claims, upon such
terms as may to him seem reasonable. He may also grant permits to miners to
■cut timber thereon for their own use, upon payment of the dues prescribed by the
regulations in that behalf.
18. Every miner shall be entitled to the use of so much of the water naturally flowing through or past his claim, and not already lawfully appropriated, as
shall, in the opinion of the gold commissioner, be necessary for the due working
thereof; and shall be entitled to drain his own claim free of charge.
19. A claim shall be deemed to be abandoned and open to occupation and
•entry by any person when the same shall have remained unworked on working
•days by the grantee thereof or by some person on his behalf for the space or
seventy-two hours, unless sickness or other reasonable cause be shown to the satisfaction of the gold commissioner, or unless the grantee is absent on leave given by
*he commissioner, and the gold commissioner upon obtaining evidence satisfactory
to himself that this provision is not being complied with may cancel the entry
given for a claim.
20. If the land upon which a claim has been located is not the property of
the crown it will be necessary for the person who applied for entry to furnish proof
that he has acquired from the owner of the land the surface rights before entry can
be granted.
21. If the occupier of the lands has not received a patent therefor, the pur-
•chase money of the surface rights must be paid to the crown, and a patent of the
.surface rights will issue to the party who acquired the mining rights. The money
so collected will either be refunded to the occupier of the land, when he is entitled
to a patent therefor, or will be credited to him on account of payment for land. âw
22. When the party obtaining the mining rights to lands cannot make an
arrangement with the owner or his agent or the occupant thereof for the acquisition of his surface rights, it shall be lawful for him to give notice to the owner or
his agent or the occupier to appoint an arbitrator to act with another arbitrator
named by him, in order to award the amount of compensation to which the owner
or occupant shall be entitled. The notice mentioned in this section shall be
according to a form to be obtained upon application from the gold commissioner
for the district in which the lands in question lie, and shall, when practicable, be
personally served on such owner, or his agent if known, or occupant; and after
reasonable efforts have been made to effect personal service, without success, then
such notice shall be served by leaving it at, or sending by registered letter to, the
last place of abode of the owner, agent or occupant. Such notice shall be served
upon the owner or agent within a period to be fixed by the gold commissioner
before the expiration of the time limited in such notice. If the proprietor refuses
or declines to appoint an arbitrator, or when, for any other reason no arbitrator is
appointed by the proprietor in the time limited therefor in the notice provided for
by this section, the gold commissioner for the district in which the lands in question, lie, shall, on being satisfied by affidavit that such notice has come to the
knowledge of such owner, agent or occupant, or that such owner, agent or occupant wilfully evades the service of such notice, or cannot be found, and that reasonable efforts have been made to effect such service, and that the notice was left at
the last place of abode of such owner, agent or occupant, appoint an arbitrator on
his behalf.   '
23. (a.) All the arbitrators appointed under the authority of these regulations shall be sworn before a Justice of the Peace to the impartial discharge of the
duties assigned to them, and they shall forthwith proceed to estimate the reasonable damages which the owner or occupant of such lands, according to their several
interests therein, shall sustain by reason of such prospecting and mining operations.
(b. ) In estimating such damages, the arbitrators shall determine the value of
the land irrespectively of any enhancement thereof from the existence of minerals
(c. ) In case such arbitrators cannot agree, they may select a third arbitrator,
and when the two arbitrators cannot agree upon a third arbitrator the Gold Commissioner for the district in which the lands in question lie shall select such third
(d. ) The award of any two such arbitrators made in writing shall be final,
and shall be filed with the Gold Commissioner for the district in which the lands
In any cases arising for which no provision is made in these regulations, the
provisions of the regulations governing the disposal of mineral lands other than
coal lands approved by His Excellency the Governor in Council on the 9th of
November, 1889, shall apply. Form  H.—Application for grant for  Placer  Mining  and
Affidavit of Applicant.
1. (or we), of hereby apply, under the Dominion Mining
Regulations, for a grant of a claim for placer mining as defined in the said regulations, in                                 (Here describe locality.)
and I (or we) solemnly swear :
i. That I (or we) have discovered therein a deposit of (here name the metal
or mineral.)
2. That I (or we) am (or are) to the best of my (or our) knowledge and
belief, the first discoverer (or discoverers) of the said deposit ; or,
3. That the said claim was previously granted to (here name the last
grantee), but has remained unworked by the said grantee for not less than
4. That I (or we) am (or are) unaware that the land is other than vacant
Dominion land.
5. That I (or we) did, on the day of mark out on the ground
in accordance in every particular with the provisions of the mining regulations for
the Yukon River and its tributaries, the claim for which I (or we) make this
application, and that in so doing I (or we) did not encroach on any other claim
or mining location previously laid out by any other person.
6. That the said claim contains, as nearly as I (or we) could measure or
estimate, an area of square feet, and that the description (and sketch, if any),
of this date hereto attached, signed by me (or us) sets (or set) forth in detail, to the
best of my (or our) knowledge and ability, its position, form and dimensions.
7. That I (or we) make this application in good faith, to acquire the claim
for the sole purpose of mining, to be prosecuted by myself (or us) or by myself
and associates, or by my (or our) assigns.
Sworn before me at this day of 18
Form I.—Grant for Placer Mining.
No. Department of the Interior.
Agency, 18
In consideration of the payment of five dollars, being the fee required by the
provisions of the Dominion Mining Regulations, clauses four and twenty, by
(A. B.)  of ,   accompanying his   (or their)  application   No. ,
dated 18 , for a mining claim in (here insert description
of locality. )
The Minister of the Interior hereby grants to the said (A. B. ) ,
for the term of one year from the date hereof, the exclusive right of entry upon
the claim (here describe in detail the claim granted) for the miner-like working thereof and the construction of a residence thereon, and the
exclusive right to all the proceeds realized therefrom.
The said (A. B. ) shall be entitled to the use of so much of the
water naturally flowing through or past his (or their) claim, and not already
lawfully appropriated, as shall be necessary for the due working thereof, and to
drain his (or their) claim, free of charge.
This grant does not convey to the said (A. B. ) any surface rights
in the said claim, or any right of ownership in the soil covered by the said claim ;
and the said grant shall lapse and be forfeited unless the claim is continuously and
in good faith worked by the said (A. B.) or his (or their) associates.
The rights hereby granted are those laid down in the aforesaid mining regulations, and no more, and are subject to all the provisions of the said regulations,
whether the same are expressed herein or not.
Gold Commissioner.
Form J.—Certificate of the Assignment of a Placer Alining Claim.
No. Department of the Interior,
Agency, 18
This is to certify that (B.C.) of has (or have)
filed an assignment in due form dated 18        , and accompanied by a
registration fee of two dollars, of the grant to (A.B.) of
of the right to mine in (insert description of claim)
for one year from the 18
This certificate entitles the said (B.C.) to all the rights
and privileges of the said (A. B. ) in respect of the claim
assigned, that is to say, to the exclusive right of entry upon the said claim for the
miner-like working thereof and the construction of a residence thereon, and the
exclusive right to all the proceeds realized therefrom, for the remaining portion of
the year for which the said claim was granted to the said (A. B. ) ,
that is to say, until the day of 18
The said (B. C.) shall be entitled to the use of so much
of the water naturally flowing through or past his (or their) claim and not already
lawfully appropriated, as shall be necessary for the due working thereof, and to
drain the claim free of charge.
This grant does not convey to the said B. C. any surface
rights in the said claim, or any right of ownership in the soil covered by the said
claim ; and the said grant shall lapse and be forfeited unless the claim is continuously, and in good faith, worked by the said . (B. C.) or his
(or their) associates.
The rights hereby granted are those laid down in the Dominion Mining
Regulations, and no more, and are subject to all the provisions of the said regulations, whether the same are expressed herein or not.
Gold Commissioner. Extracts from Mr. Ogilvie's Reports to the Dominion
William Ogilvie, of the Department of the Interior, in his report to the Surveyor-General of Canada, dated November 6th, 1896, says the name Klondak,
Klondyke, or Clondyke, as it is variously spelled, is "a mispronunciation of the
Indian word or words Thron-dak or Duick, which means plenty of fish, from the
fact that it is a famous salmon stream. It is marked Tondack on old maps. It
joins the Yukon from the east a few miles above the site of Fort Reliance.
Concerning the discovery of gold on this stream, he says :—"The discovery, I believe, was due to the reports of Indians. A white man named G. W.
Carmach, who worked with me in 1887, was the first to take advantage of the
rumors and locate a claim on the first branch, which was named by the miners
Bonanza Creek. Carmach located here late in August, but had to cut some logs
for the mill here to get a few pounds of provisions to enable him to begin work on
his claim, the fishing at Klondak having totally failed him. He returned with a
few weeks' provisions for himself, his wife and brother-in-law (Indians), and
another Indian in the last days of August and immediately set about working his
claim. As he was very short of appliances he could only put together a rather
defective apparatus to wash the gravel with. The gravel itself he had to carry in
a box on his back from 30 to 100 feet. Notwithstanding this the three men working very irregularly washed out $1,200 in eight days, and Carmach asserts with
reason that had he had proper facilities it could have been done in two days, besides having several hundred dollars more gold, which was lost on the tailings
through defective apparatus. On the same creek two men rocked out $75 in
about two hours, and it is asserted that two men in the same creek took out
$4,008 in two days with only two lengths of sluice boxes. This last is doubted,
but Mr. Leduc assures me he weighed that much gold for them, but is not positive
where they got it. They were newcomers and had not done much in the country,
so the probabilities are they got it on Bonanza Creek. A branch of Bonanza,
named Eldorado, has prospected magnificently, and another branch named Tilly
Creek has prospected well ; in all there are some four or five branches to Bonanza
Creek which have given good prospects. There are about 170 claims staked on
the main creek and the branches are good for about as many more, aggregating
say 350 claims, which will require over 1,000 men to work properly.
A few miles further up Bear Creek enters Klondak, and it has been prospected
and located on. Compared with Bonanza it is small and will not afford more
than 20 or 30 claims, it is said.
About 12 miles above the mouth of Gold Bottom Creek joins Klondak, and
on it and a branch named Hunker Creek after the discovery very rich ground has
been found. One man showed me $22.75 ne took out in a few hours on Hunker
Creek with a gold pan prospecting his claim on the surface, taking out a panful
here and there as fancy suggested.    On Gold Bottom Creek and branches there If
will probably be two or three hundred claims. The Indians have reported
another creek much farther up, which they call Too Much Gold Creek, on which
the gold is so plentiful that as the miners say in joke, " You have to mix gravel
with it to sluice it."    Up to date nothing definite has been heard from this creek.
From all this we may, I think, infer that we have here a district that will
give 1,000 claims of 500 feet in length each. Now, 1,000 such claims will require
at least 3,000 men to work them properly, and as wages for working in the mines
are from $8 to $10 per day, without board, we have every reason to assume that
this part of our territory will in a year or two contain 10,000 souls at least, for the
news has gone out to the coast and an unprecedented influx is expected next
spring. And this is not all, for a large creek called Indian creek joins the Yukon
about midway between Klondak and Stewart river, and all along this creek good
pay has been found. All that has stood in the way of working it heretofore has
been the scarcity of provisions and the difficulty of getting them up there even
when here. Indian creek is quite a large stream, and it is probable it will yield
500 or 600 claims. Farther south yet lies the head of several branches of Stewart
river, on which some prospecting has been done this summer and good indications
found, but the want of provisions prevented developmant. Now gold has been
found in several of the streams adjoining Pelly river, and also along the Hoota-
linqua. In the line of these finds further south is the Cassiar gold field in British
Columbia, so that the presumption is that we have in our territory along the
easterly watershed of the Yukon a gold bearing belt of indefinite width and upwards of three hundred miles long, exclusive of the British Columbia part of it.
On the easterly side of the Yukon prospecting has been done on a creek a short
distance above Selkirk with a fair amount of success, and on a large creek some
30 or 40 miles below Selkirk fair prospects have been found, but as before remarked the difficulty of getting supplies here prevents any extended prospecting.
Dalton informed me be has found good prospects on a small creek nearly
midway between the coast range and Selkirk on his route. His man showed me
some coarse gold, about a dollar's worth, he found on the head of a branch of the
Aetsek river, near the head of Chilcat Inlet, which is of course inside the summit
of the coast range and of course in our territory. From this you will gather that
we have a very large area all more or less gold bearing and will all yet be worked.
Good quartz has been found in place just across the line on Davis creek (see
my map of the 141st sent you), but of what extent is unknown, as it is in the bed
of the creek and covered with gravel. Good quartz is also reported on the hills .
around Bonanza creek, but of this I will be able to speak more fully after my proposed survey. It is pretty certain from information I have got from prospectors,
that all or nearly all of the northerly branch of White river is on our side of the
line, and copper is found on it, but more abundantly on the southerly branch of
which a great deal of it is in our territory also, so it is probable we have that metal
too. I have seen here several lumps of native copper brought by the natives from
White River, but just from what part is uncertain. I have also seen a specimen
of silver ore said to have been picked up in a creek flowing into Bennet Lake,
about 14 miles down it on the east side. Before closing I may say that every report that comes in from Bonanza Creek
is more encouraging than the last. Prospecting has only begun, and up to the
date of mailing, November 22nd, very rich prospects have been found on the few
daims prospected on. From one dollar to the pan of dirt up to twelve dollars
are reported and no bed rock found yet. This means from $1,000 to $12,000 per
day per man sluicing. The excitement is intense, but at this season of the
year it is naturally very local.
Writing on December 9th, 1896, Mr. Ogilvie said :
Since my last the prospection Bonanza Creek and tributaries are increasing
in richness and extent, until now it is certain that millions will be taken out of the.
district in the next few years. On some of the cfeams prospected the pay dirt is
of great extent and very rich. One man told me yesterday that he washed out a
single pan of dirt on one of the claims on Bonanza, and found $14.25 in it. Of
course that may be an exceptionally rich pan, but $5 to $7 per pan is the average
on that claim, it is reported with five feet pay dirt and the width yet undetermined,
but is known to be thirty feet ; even at that figure, the result at nine or ten pans
to the cubic foot, and five hundred feet long is nearly $4,000,000 at $5 per pan.
One-fourth of this would be enormous.
Another claim has been prospected to such an extent that it is known there
is about five feet pay dirt, averaging $2 per pan, and not less than thirty feet.
Enough prospecting has been done to show that there are at least fifteen miles of
this extraordinary richness, and the indications are that we will have three or four
times that extent, if not all equal to the above at least very rich.
On January nth, 1897, he wrote :
The reports from the Klondak region are still very encouraging. So much
so that all the other creeks around are practically abandoned, especially those on
the head of Forty Mile, in American territory and nearly one hundred men have
made their way up from Circle City, hauling their sleds themselves many of them.
Those who cannot get their claims are buying in on those already located. Men
cannot be got to work for love or money, and development is consequently slow ;
one and a half dollars per hour is the wages paid the few men who have to work
for hire, and work as many hours as you like. Some of the claims are so rich
that every night a few pans of dirt suffices to pay the hired help when there is
any. As high as $204 has been reported to a single pan, but this is not generally
' credited. Claim owners are now very very reticent about what they get, so you
can hardly credit anything you hear, but one thing is certain, we have one of the
richest mining areas ever found, with a fair prospect that we have not yet discovered its limits.
Miller and Glacier Creeks, on the head of Sixty Mile River, which my survey of the 141st meridian determined to be in Canada, were thought to be very
rich, but they are poor both in quality and quantity compared with Klondak.
Chicken Creek, at the head of Forty Mile, in Alaska, discovered a year ago, and
rated very high, is to-day practically abandoned. tf
January 21st, 1897.—There are applications in for about 380 acres of land on
the flat north of the-Klondak, on the east side of the Yukon, while all the extent
of land available for use on it is about 200 acres. Joseph Leduc, who applied for
160, has only about 110 available for use in building on, the rest being steep hillside, and the most of the flat is a moss-covered swamp. He had laid out and disposed of a few lots for building on in it, making his streets only 50 feet wide, and
the main streets along the river even less, the builders going often close to the
bank for convenience in getting water ; but I stopped all that, and have the river
front at least 66 feet wide, in most places much more. All streets parallel to the
river are 66 feet, and all at right angles to those I have left at 50, as Laduc had
them. It seems to me that 50 feet is wide enough in this country, as it is hardly
likely there will be much heavy traffic on them. Had I made the streets running
from the river 66 feet wide it would have put a good many people much inconvenience. I will send out by the next mail a sketch showing the position of all the
applications so far. The American Government has given a contract for four
mails this winter to Circle City, at $1,700 each mail, in and out. The mail
carriers will take out letters at $1 each.
January 22nd, 1897.—A quartz lode showing free gold in paying quantities
has been located on one of the creeks, but I cannot yet send particulars. I am
confident from the nature of the gold found in the creeks that many more of them»
and rich too, will be found.
January 23rd.—I have just heard from a reliable source that the quartz mentioned above is rich, as it tested over $100 to the ton! The lode appears to run
from three to eight feet in thickness, and is about 19 miles from the Yukon River.
I will likely be called on to survey it and will be able to report fully.
Placer prospects continue more and more encouraging and extraordinary ; it
is beyond doubt that three pans of different claims on Eldorado turned out $204,
$212 and $216, but it must be borne in mind that there were only three such pans,
though there are many running from $10 to $50.
I have just received a petition from the miners to attend to the survey of their
claims, they doing all the work and boarding and lodging me. I will begin at it
in about ten days, and it will likely take me upwards of two months. I am glad
to have the opportunity of doing it, for I think I can considerably, if not altogether, straighten out the tangle there is there. The Yukon Gold Fields.
George M. Dawson, C.M.G., describes the Canadian Yukon as bounded to
the south by the northern limit of the Province of British Columbia (Lat. 6o°), to
the west by the eastern line of the United States Territory of Alaska ; to the east
by the Rocky Mountain Ranges and the 136th meridian ; and to the north by the
Arctic Ocean. The district, as above defined, has a total area of approximately
192,000 square miles, of which, according to the most recent information, 150,768
square miles is included in the watershed of the Yukon. " The superficial extent
of the district may perhaps best be realized when it is stated that it is nearly equal
to that of France, greater than the United Kingdom by 71,000 miles, ten times
the area of the Province of Nova Scotia, and nearly three times that of the New
England States."
Whether or not the whole of this vast area is auriferous cannot now be said,
but there is reason to hope that in all parts of it paying deposits of gold and silver
may be found. Sufficient is already known, although only a very small part of
the district has been prospected, to rank the Yukon as among the greatest placer
gold fields that have ever been discovered.
Gold was first discovered in the Yukon Basin in 1881, when a party went up
the Big Salmon River, a tributary of the Lewis, for a distance of two hundred
miles and found gold on all its bars, many of them paying very well. During the
next few years some mining was done on the Hootalinqua, which flows out of
Teslin Lake and into the Yukon. In 1886 gold was dug out of the Cassiar bar
on the Stewart River in considerable quantities. Since then gold has been found
on Forty Mile Creek, Sixty Mile Creek, Miller Creek, Glacier Creek, Birch
Creek, and last, but by no means least, the creeks tributary to the Klonkyke.
Forty Mile Creek is for the most part in Alaska, that is in United Slates territory; the head waters of Sixty Mile Creek are also in Alaska. Miller, Glacier,
and Birch Creeks were once thought to be in Alaska, but are nov known to be in
Canada, and Stewart River and the wonderfully rich Klondyke are wholly in
Canadian territory. The latter flow into the Yukon from the eastward, and the
whole of the Lewis, Big .Salmon and Hootalinqua Rivers are in Canada.
The Klondyke enters the Yukon near the 64th parallel of North Latitude.
As yet no paying deposits of gold have been found in the main river itself, the
rich placers, which have excited attention all over the world, being upon its
tributaries which enter it from the south. The Klondyke may be reached from two directions. One is by ocean steamer
to St. Michael's Island in Bering Sea, and thence up the Yukon River, the distance up the river being 1,679 miles and navigable for vessels of 400 tons. The
other is by crossing over the Coast Range of mountains to the head waters of
the Lewis branch of the Yukon and descending by boat. The shortest route
from Victoria is that via the White Pass and is approximately 1,594 miles. This
journey is made up as follows :—
From Victoria to Skagway Bay, near the head of Lynn
Canal (ocean steamers)    1,024 miles.
"    Skagway  Bay over the White  Pass  to  Lake
Tagish (pack trail)         36      "
"    Lake Tagish to Klondyke, down river       534      "
1,594 miles.
Another available route to the Lewis River is from Dyea or Tya, at the head
of Lynn Canal, via the Chilcoot Pass. This distance is a slightly longer than
that via the White Pass.
A third route to the Lewis River is via the Stickeen River to Telegraph
Creek and thence overland by pack train to Lake Teslin. The distance is approximately as follows :—
From Victoria to Fort Wrangel (ocean steamers)  801 miles.
"    Fort Wrangel to Telegraph Creek (river steamers)  148 "
"    Overland travel to Teslin Lake  150 "
"    Head of Teslin Lake to Klondyke  584 "
1,683 miles.
Still another route is from the head of Taku Inlet, a little south of Juneau,
thence overland by the valley of the Taku River to Lake Teslin. The distance
to Lake Teslin by this route is approximately the same as via the Stickeen route.
To Klondyke, might be somewhat shorter, according to the point at which the
trail will strike the Lake.
The White Pass route starts from Skagway Bay, which is five miles below
Dyea, the head of Lynn Canal. The bay is a fine natural harbor with good
anchorage for vessels of any size. The largest ocean vessels can steam directly
into this bay. From the harbor the trail follows the Skagway River to its head,
which is near the summit of the Pass, a distance of 16 miles. The first four miles
are in the bed of the river and the ascent is gradual. At four miles the canyon
is reached, and here the route becomes more difficult. For seven miles the trail
works its way along the mountain side rising steadily for almost the entire distance. This is the only hard part of the route. The next three miles is a gentle
rise, and they carry the trail to the summit, an elevation of 2,600 feet above the
sea level.    The country here broadens out into a valley five miles wide, having a gentle slope to the east. In the twenty miles between the Summit and Windy
Arm on Tagish Lake, the total descent is only, 340 feet. From the summit valleys also extend to Lindeman Lake and Taku Arm on Tagish Lake.
As this date, July 20th, the trail has been cut through to the Summit and
work is steadily in progress eastward. A trail has been blazed through to Taku
Arm on Tagish Lake and can be used for pack animals now. In fact several
trains are preparing to start over the trail, and a large consignment of horses
has beer sent up to be put on the regular transportation business over this route,
which is now open for business.
The final location of the trail from the Summit to the Lake has not been
decided upon, as the Company making it are seeking for the easiest route, but the-
country being open and comparatively level, after the Summit has been passed, the
lack of a graded trail will not be a serious impediment. A liberal allowance of
time would be two days for a pack train from Skagway Bay to Tagish Lake, of
which not more than six or eight hours would be needed to reach the Summit
from salt water.
This trail has been made by the British Yukon Company, the head office of
which is in London, and of which E. E. Billinghurst, Board of Trade Building,
Victoria, B. C, i^. the agent in British Columbia. The Company has an excellent wharf at Skagway, a hotel in course of construction, a saw mill and store.
The plans of the Company are to act as a general transportation company
from Skagway Bay to all points in the British Yukon, and for that purpose to
provide pack horses on the trail, and later to construct a railway, a survey for
which is in progress, and to put steamers on the Yukon and its tributaries. The
route from the Tagish Lake north has not been finally determined upon. For the
present boats will go through Tagish Lake and down the Lewis River ; but it is
possible that the trail and afterwards the railway, will be continued to the Hota-
linqua River, which is believed to afford the best and safest navigation of any of
the branches of the Yukon.
Skagway Bay and the trail as far as the Summit are in territory over which
the United States Government now exercises jurisdiction, but the final ownership
of which will depend upon the delimitation of the boundary. Beyond the Summit the trail is all in Canadian territory.
For winter travel the trail is the most available. The average snowfall on
the Summit is not more than four feet, and the company expect to be able to
keep the route open to the Lake all winter and maintain a freight train of sleighs
on the river, so that at any season of the year they can carry goods and passengers
from Skagway Bay as far north as Dawson City, at the mouth of the Klondyke.
The Chilcoot route starts from Dyea or Ty-a, at. the extreme northern end of
Chilcoot branch of Lynn Canal. There is a trading post here. Dyea is accessible to large ocean going steamers. Like Skagway Bay it is in territory over
which the United States at present exercises jurisdiction. For six miles from Dyea the route lies up a river valley, the stream being
navigable for canoes in the summer. The canon is then reached, and here begins a sharp ascent to Sheep Camp. From Sheep Camp the trail extends for
eight miles up the rugged sides of the mountain, and is impassable for horses.
From the Summit to Lake Linderman, nine miles, there is an easy descent, that
is easily traversed when the snow is on the ground, but is very rough in the summer season. The total distance from Dyea to Lake Linderman is twenty-seven
miles. The lake is five miles wide, and at its foot a short portage is necessary.
Lake Behnet is reached at about a mile and is twenty-four miles long. From this
point the route is by water down the Lewis River, being the same as that at present taken from Tagish Lake by the British Yukon Company's route.
The Stickeen route, when opened, will have the advantage of being wholly
in British territory, for although the mouth of the river is in United States territory, British subjects have the same right to navigate it as American citizens.
Goods and passengers intended for this route would have to be transhipped from
ocean going steamers to river steamers at Fort Wrangel or some other point near
the mouth of the Stickeen. Of the river itself Dr. Dawson says : " It is navigable for stern-wheel steamers of light draft and good power to Glenora, 126 miles
front-Rothsay Point at its mouth, and under favorable circumstances to Telegraph
Creek, twelve miles further. The current is swift, but there are no rapids properly so-called. Stern-wheel steamers for the navigation of the Stickeen should
have good engine power, and should not draw more than four feet of water when
loaded. The river usually opens for navigation between April 20th and May 1st.
The river generally freezes over before the end of November, although ice runs
somewhat earlier. On the low lands there is good grazing for horses and cattle
from April 20th to about December 1st."
The distance from the Stickeen at Telegraph Creek to Teslin Lake the source
of the Hootalinqua River is about one hundred and fifty miles. The trail now in
use is considerably longer than this, but exploratory surveys are in progress, and it
is confidently believed that a nearly direct route will be found, over comparatively
level country. A company has been incorporated to build a railway over this
portion of the route. Traffic going by way of Teslin Lake would reach the main
Yukon by way of Hootalinqua River, above referred to.
The Taku route has not been opened, or even surveyed. A company has
been incorporated to build a railway by it to Teslin Lake. Taku Inlet is an
extensive harbor, somewhat open to south-west winds, but would serve very well
for the terminus of a route into the interior.
Other overland routes by which the Yukon can be reached are the Chilcat Pass,
the trail to which leaves tide water near the beginning of the Chilcoot and White
Pass routes. It is a difficult route and is not used ; the Dalton trail, which starts
from the same point and passes overland, a distance approximately four hundred I :
miles to the Yukon waters ; and the route via Dease Lake, the Frances and Pelly
Rivers. Both the latter are easy lines. Ultimately, if the development of the Yukon
warrants, there will be no difficulty in finding an easy and all rail route from the
head of some of the inlets in northern British Columbia.  PuRCmASED.Q^^rr.^i-JJU. QLA^.-iQ.^	
From S^£Wtu*«**fc  „
^wPBMUUuW-      1 ^
Later Catalogued Prices g:T<$the. Klondyke
\Wa   #-—è TO   THE	
tTbe JJJukort.
(j Connection  made at VICTORIA, B. C,   with   all
m Steamers going North to the Goldfields.
{ , -;/;  .-_"■" !      -
4  For all Information, Rates and Steamer Accommodation, apply to nearest  W
VA Canadian Pacific Railway Agency, or to
/ Freight and Passenger Agent, D. P. A.,
FORT WRANCEL,    ---/.. 80! miles
SKAGWAY BAY,     -    -    -/- - 1024
LAKE TAGISH, --./-.. |£)60
LAKE IEBARCE (via Ghiidat) - 1174
FORT SELKIRK»          ■  A    - - 1418
STEWART RIVER,  -      / -    - - 1524
OAWSON CITY (Clondyfce)    - E594
FORT CUDAHY,     -   f   -    - - 1647
TELEGRAPH CREEK, /-    -    - - 949
DEi\SE UKE,           /- - 1024
TESLIN U\KE (via Stickeen) - 1079
TESUN U\KE (vîa/raku)     - - 1079
QUESNELLE,     -   /         -    - • 443


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