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Account of the Russian discoveries between Asia and America. To which are added, the conquest of Siberia,… Coxe, William, 1747-1828 1780

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     VlL.HkJAL.MUR STEFAN SSON
27 WEST AA STREET
new york       March 25, 1933
Coxe's RUSSIAN DISCOVERIES was issued in at
least five editions, the first, second and fifth 4to,
the third and fourth 8vo. Both the first edition and
the "Second Edition, Revised and Corrected" appeared
in 1780; the rest were 1787, 1803 and 1804. What
really is the fifth edition is, however, (judging from
Stevens' catalog 1927) labelled "Fourth Sdition Considerably Enlarged".
A seeker of rarities will look out for
A COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE RUSSIAN DISCOVERIES WITH
THOSE MADE BY CAPTAINS COOK AND CLERKE, etc., 4to,
London 1787, which Stevens offered in 1927 for £-15-0-0.
For a working library it is better to pick up the third
edition 8vo Coxe in which the COMPARATIVE VIEW has been
reprinted as appendix. The third edition has been cataloged at various prices ranging from ^2-0-0 to "^4-0-0.
Part of the above is inference drawn from catalogs for I have seen only the first and second (4to) and
the third (8vo) editions. Judging from frequency of appearance in catalogs, the first is the commonest as well
as the poorest of the editions; the third is also fairly
common.
^\A^^    C     OU     N     T
OF   THE
RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES
BETWEEN
ASIA    AND    AMERICA.
Ta.WHICH   ARE   ADDED,
THE    CONQUEST    OF   S I BE R I A?
A ND
THE  HISTORY  OF THE  TRANSACTIONS  AND
COMMERCE BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA.
BY    WILLIAM    C O X E,    A. M.
Fellow of King's College,. Cambridge^ and Chaplain to his Grace the
Duke of Marlborough.
THE SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND CORRECTED.
LONDON,
PRINTED   BY   J.   NICHOLS,
FOR   T.   CAD ELL,   IN   THE   STRAND.
«■"* \'P-     MDCCLXXX. I
Ml
te IP! O
/M T O
JACOB B R Y A NT, ESQ.
AS  A  PUBLIC  TESTIMONY
O F
THE  HIGHEST  RESPECT  FOR
HIS DISTINGUISHED LITERARY ABILITIES,
THE  TRUEST  ESTEEM  FOR
HIS PRIVATE VIRTUES,
AND THE  MOST GRATEFUL SENSE OF
MANY  PERSONAL  FAVOURS,
THE FOLLOWING   PAGES  ARE  INSCRIBED,
BY
HIS  FAITHFUL  AND  AFFECTIONATE
HUMBLE   SE RVA N T,
WILLIAM   COXE.
Cambridge,
March 27, 1780.  C   v   1
R
A
E.
^ I ^ HE late Ruffian Difcoveries between A fia and
-** America have, for fome time, engaged the attention of the curious; more efpecially fince Dr. Robertfon's
admirable Hiftory of America has been in the hands of
the public. In that valuable performance the elegant
and ingenious author has communicated to the world,
with an accuracy and judgement which fo eminently dif-
tinguifh all his writings, the moft exact information
at that time to be obtained, concerning thofe important
difcoveries. During my flay at Peterfburg, my inquiries
were particularly directed to this interefting fabject, in
order to learn if any new light had been thrown on an
article of knowledge of fuch confequence to the hiftory
of mankind. For this purpdfe I endeavoured to collect
the refpective journals of the feveral voyages fubfequent
to the expedition of Beering and Tfchirikoff in 1741,
with which the celebrated Muller concludes his account
of the firft Ruffian navigations.
During PREFACE,
During the courfe of my refearches I was informed,
that a treatife in the German language, publifhed at
Hamburg and Leipfic in 1776, contained a full and
exact narrative of the Ruffian voyages, from 1745 ta
1770*.
As the author has not prefixed his name, I mould
have paid little attention to an anonymous publication,
if I had not been affured, from very good authority, that
the work in queftion was compiled from the original
journals. Not refting however upon this intelligence, I
took the liberty of applying to Mr. Muller himfelf, who,
by order of the Emprefs, had arranged the fame journals, from which the anonymous author is faid to
have drawn his materials. Previous to my application,
Mr. Muller had compared the treatife with the original
papers ; ancl he favoured me with the following
ftrong teftimony to its exactnefs and authenticity :
fi Vous ferès bien de traduire pour Tufage de vos com-
S patriotes le petit livre fur les ifles fituées entre le Kamt-
" chatka et l'Amérique. Il n'y a point de doute, que
u l'auteur n'ait été pourvu de bons memoirs, et qu'il ne
" s'en foit fervi fidèlement.    J'ai confronté le livre avec '
* The title of the book is, Neue Nachndhtfeh yon denen Neuendeck-
ten Infuln in der See zwifçhen Afia und Amerika aus mitgetheilten Ur-
kunden und Aufzuegen verfaflet von J. L. S.
1 les PREFACE.
" les originaux." Supported therefore by this very re-
fpectable authority, I confidered this treatife as a performance of the higheft credit, and well wortfey of being
more generally known and perufed. I have accordingly,
in the firft part of the prefent publication, fubmitted a
tranflation of it to the reader's candour ; and added occa-
fional notes to fuch pafTages as feemed to require an explanation. The original is divided into fections without any
references. But as it feemed to be more convenient to
divide it into chapters ; and to accompany each chapter
with a fummary of the contents, and marginal references;
I have moulded it into that form, without making however any alteration in the order of the journals.
The additional intelligence which I procured at Petersburg, is thrown into an appendix : It confifts of
fome new information, and of three journals *, never
before given to the public. Amongft thefe I muft
particularly mention that of Krenitzin and LevalhefF,
which, together with the chart of their voyage, was
communicated to Dr. Robertfon, by order of the
Emprefs of Ruffia; and which that juftly admired
hiftorian has, in the politeft and moft obliging manner,
* The journal of Krenitzin and LevalhefF, the fhort account of Synd's.
voyage, and the narrative of ShalaurofFs expedition, N° I. IX. XI.
permitted '^SF'Ér^^
■mm
Wi=^s
PREFACE,
permitted me to make ufe of in this collection. This
voyage, which redounds greatly to the honour of the
fovereign who planned it, confirms in general the authenticity of the treatife above-mentioned; and afcertains
the reality of the difcoveries made by the private merchants.
As a farther illuftration of this fubject, I collected the
beft charts which could be procured at Petersburg,
and of which a lift will be given in the following ad-
vertifement. From all thefe circumftançes, I may venture, perhaps, to hope that the curious and inquifitive
reader will not only find in the following pages the
moft authentic and circumftantial account of the pro-
grefs and extent of the Ruffian difcoveries, which has
hitherto appeared in any language ; but be enabled hereafter to compare them with thole more lately made by
that great and much to be regretted navigator, Captain
Cooke, when his journal fhall be communicated to the
public. ^p4
As all the furs which are bromght from the New-
difcovered Iflands are fold to the Chinefe, I was natu^L
rally led to make enquiries concerning the commerce:
between Ruffia and China; and finding this branch of
traffic much more important than is commonly imagined,
I thought that a general  fketch   of its   prefent   ftate,
together PREFACE.
together with a fuccinct view of the tranfactions between
the two nations, would not be unacceptable.
The conqueft of Siberia, as it firft opened a communication with China, and paved the way to all the in-
terefting difcoveries related in the prefent attempt, will
not appear unconnected, I truft, with its principal de-
The materials of this fécond part, as âlfo of the preliminary obfervations concerning Kamtchatka, and the
commerce to the New-difcovered Iflands, are drawn from
DÛftjsLS of eltablifhed and undoubted reputation. Mr. Mul-
ftiSand Mr. Pallàs, from whofe înterefting works thefe
. hiuoricâl and commercial f abjects are chiefly compiled,
are too Well kntfwh in the literary world to require any
other vouchers, for their judgment, exactnefs, and/fide-
lity, than the bare; mentioning of their names. I have
only fârtlier tô àpfnze^éhe reader, that, befides the intelligence extracted from thefe publications, he will firaf
fome additional èircumftanees relative to the Ruffian commerce with tjhîrfa,: wM'ch ï ctftltèâfêâ "during my continuance îîi Rufîia.:
I CAN- [ x ]
I CANNOT clofe this addrefs to the reader without
embracing with peculiar fatisfaction the juft occafion,
which the enfuing treatifes upon the Ruffian difcoveries
and commerce afford me, of jofning with every friend
of fcience in the warmeft admiration of that enlarged
and liberal fpirit, which fo ftrikingly marks the character of the prefent Emprefs of Ruffia. Since her
acceffion to the throne, the inveftigation and difcovery
of ufeful knowledge has been the confiant object of her
generous encouragement. The authentic records of the
Ruffian hiftory have, by her exprefs orders, been properly
arranged; and permiffion is readily granted of infpect-
ing them. The mofl diftant parts of her vaft dominions
have, at her expence, been explored and defcribed by
perfons of great abilities and extenfive learning ; by
which means new and important lights have been thrown
upon the geography and natural hiftory of thofe remote,
regions. In a word, this truly great princefs has contributed more, in the compafs of only a few years, towards
civilizing and informing the minds of her fubjects, than
had been effected by all the fovereigns her predeceflbrs
fince the glorious sera of Peter the Great.
In [  xi  ]
In order to prevent the frequent mention of the full
title of the books referred to in the courfe of this performance, the following catalogue is fubjoined, with
the abbreviations.
Muller's Samlung Ruflifcher Gefchichte, IX volumes, 8vo. printed at
St. Peterfburg in 1732, and the following years ; it is referred to in the
following manner : S. R. G. with the volume and page annexed.
From this excellent collection I have made ufe of the following
tr^eatifes :
vol. II. p. 293, &c. Gefchichte der Gegenden an dem Fluffe Amur.
There is a French tranflation of this treatife, called Hiftoire du
Fleuve Amur, i2mo, Amfterdam, 1766.
vol. III. p. 1, &c. Nachrichten von See Reifen, &c.
There is anEnglifh and a French tranflation of this work ; the former
is called " Voyages from Alia to America for completing the Difcoveries
of the North Weft Coaft of America," 410, London, 1764. The
title of the latter is " Voyages et Découvertes faites par les Ruffes," &c.
12mo, Amfterdam, 1766. p. 413. Nachrichten Von der Handlung in Sibirien.
Vol. VI. p. 109, Sibirifche Gelhichte.
Vol. VIII. p. 504, Nachricht Von der Ruflifchen Handlung nach
China.
Pallas Reife durch verchiedene Provinzen des Ruflifchen Reichs, in
Three Parts, 4to, St. Peterfburg, 1771, i773> and 1776, thus cited,
Pallas Reife.
Georgi Bemerkungen einer Reife im Ruflifchen Reich in Jahre, 1772,
III volumes, 410, St. Petersburg, 1775, cited Georgi Reife.
Fifcher Sibirifche Gefchichte, 2 volumes, 8vo, St. Petersburg, cited
Fif. Sib. Gef.
Gmelin Reife durch Sibirien, Tome IV. 8vo, Gottingen, 1752, cited
Gmelin Reife.
b 2 There There is a French tranflation of this work, called " Voyage en Sibérie," &c. par Gmelin.    Paris, 1767.
Neuefte Nachrichten von Kamtchatka aufgefetft im Junius des
j^fteOjfahren Von dem dafigen-Befehls-haber Herra Kapitain Smalfew.-
Aus dem abhandlungen der freyen Ruflifchen Gefellfchaft Mofkau.
In the journal of St. Petersburg, April, 1776,—cited-Journal of St. Pet.
Explanation of fome Ruffian words made ufe of in the.
following work.
Baidar, a fmall boat.
Guba, a bay.
Kamen, a rock.
Kotche, a veffel.
Ktepqfi, a regular fortrefs.
No/s, a cape. ySj^T'
. Ojirog, a fortrefs furrounded with palifadoes*
Oftroff, an ifland.
Oftrovdy iflands.
^uafsy a fort of fermented liquor.
Reka, a river.
The Ruffians, in their proper names of perfbns, make ufe of patronymics; thefe patronymics are formed in fome cafes by adding Vitih to
the chriftian came of the father ; in others Off or Eff: the former termination is applied only to perfons of condition 5 the latter to thofe of
an inferior rank. As, for inftance,
Among perfons of condition——fçap foansvitch,   ")T       .    ,.
of inferior rank, Ivan hanoff )Ivan'tbe fon of Ivan'
Michael dlexievitchA Michael  the fon
Michael Alexeeff,      J       of Alexèy.
Sometimes a furname is added, Ivan Ivanovitch Rompnoff.
Table
I [    xiii    ]
Table   of Ruffian   Weights, Meafures  of Length, and
Value of Money.
WEIGHT.
A pood weighs 40 Ruffian pounds = 36 Englifh.
MEASURES    OF   LENGTH.
16 verlhocks = an arlheen.     f^,^T*
An arfheen = 28 inches.
Three arfheens, or feven feet, =: a fathom *, or fazfhen.
500 fazfhens =5 a verft.
A degree of longitude comprifes 104 i verfts ~ 69 4 Englifh miles.    A
mile is therefore 1,515 parts of a verft ;   two miles may then be efti*
mated equal to three verfts, omitting a fmall fraction. -
VALUE   OF   RUSSIAN   MONEY.
A rouble =  100 copecs: Its value varies according to the exchange
from 3 s. 8 d. to 4 s. 2 d.    Upon an average, however, the value of a J
rouble is reckoned at four fhillings.
* The fathom for meafuring the depth of water iff the fame as theEnglim fathom»
s=; 6 feet..
ADVER-  C     XV     ]
ADVERTISEMENT.
A S no aftronomical obfervations have been taken in
"^- ^ the voyages related in this collection, .the longitude
and latitude afcribed to the New-difcovered Iflands in the
journals and upon the charts cannot be abfolutely depended upon. Indeed the reader will perceive, that the
pofition* of the Fox Ifl%nds upon the general map of
Ruffià is materially different from that affigned to them^
upon the chart of Krenitzin and Levafheff. Without
endeavouring to clear up any difficulties which may
arife from : this uncertainty, I thought it would be moft
fatisfactory to have the beft charts engraved: the reader
will then be able to compare them with each, other, and
with the fe ver al journals. Which reprefentation of the
New-difcovered Iflands deferves the preference, will probably be afcertained upon the return of captain Clerke
from his prefent expedition.
■• See p. 286.
Lift [ m i
Lift of the Charts, and Directions for placing them.
CHART I. A reduced copy of the general map of Ruffia, pub-
lifhed by the Academy of Sciences at St. Peterfburg, 1776, to face the title-page.
If. Chart of the voyage made by Krenitzin and Leva-
fhefF to the Fox Iflands, comnmnicated by Dr.
Robertfon, to face p. 251.
III. Chart   of Synd's   Voyage towards  TfchukotJEkoi-v;
Nofs, p» 300.
IV. Chart of Shalauroff's Voyage to. Shelatfkoi-Nofs,
with a fmall Chart of the Bear-Iflands, p. 323.
View of Maimatfchin, p. 211.
Communicated by a gentleman who has been upon I
the fpot.
CON- £   xvii   ]
N
N
Dedication,                          A^. p. iii*
Preface, p. v.
Catalogue of books quoted in this work, p. xu
Explanation of fome Ruffian words made ufe of p. xiii.
'fable of Ruffian Weights, Meafures of Length, and Value
of Money, p. xiv.
Advertifement, p. xv.
Lifl of Charts, and Directions for placing them, p. xvi.
PART     I.
Containing Preliminary Obfervatiohs concerning Kamtchatka, and Account of the New Discoveries made
by the Russians, p. 3—16*
Chap. I. Difcovery and Conqueft of Kamtchatka—Prefent
flate of that Peninfula—Population—Tribute—Produc*
tions, &x. p. 3»
Chap. II. General idea of the commerce carried on to the
New-difcovered Iflands—Equipment of the veffels—Rifks
of the trade, profits, &:c. p. 8.
Chap. III. Furs and fkins procured from Kamtchatka and
the New-difcovered Iflands, p. 12.
c Account CONTENTS..
Account of the Russian Discoveries, p. 19.
Chap. I. Commencement ~andprogrejs 0} the Ruffian J)if^
cover ies in. the fea of Kamtchatka—General divijion of
the New-difcovered Iflands, ibid.
Chap. II. Voyages in 1745 — Firfl difcovery of the Aleutian,
Hies, by Michael NevodtfikofF, p. 29;
Chap. III. Succeffwe - voyages, from 1747 to 1753, to
Beering's and Copper Ifland, and to the Aleutian Ifles—*■
Some accowtt of the inhabitants, p. 37»
Chap. IV. Voyages from 17 53 to 1756. Some of the further Aleutian or Fox Iflands touched at by Serebrani-
koff's veffel—Some account of the natives, p. 48»
Chap. V.  Voyages from 175 6 to 17 5 8, p. 5 4.
Chap. VI. Voyages in 1758, 1759? and 1760, to the-
Fox Iflands, m the St. Vladimir, Jetted out by Trapef-*
nikoff—and in the Gabriel, by Bethfhevin-*-f/fe latter^
under the command of PufHfeareffj! fails to Alakfu, or
Alachfhak, one of the remotefi Eafiekri\Ifiands hitherto*,
vif ted—Some account of its inhabitants, and productions, wMcb latter are different from tbofe of the more
Wefiern iflands, p. 61 «,
Chap. VII. Voyage o/Andrean Tolftyk^ in the St.Andrean
and Natalia—Difcowry of fome New Iflands, called
AndreanofFsky Oftrova—Defcription of fix of thofet
iflands, £t#itfj p. 71.
Chap, VIII.  Voyage of the ;?ucharias and Elizabeth, fitted
out CONTENTS.
■eut by Kulkoff, and commanded by Drufinin—f hey fail
to Umnak and Unalafhka,   and winter upon the latter
ifiand-—The vejfel deflroyed, -and all the crew, except
four, murdered by the ifiaj^ders—The advenÈures of tbofe
four Ruffians, and their wonderful efcape, p. 80.
Chap. IX. Voyage of thcvggfel tailed the Trinity, under
4be command of Korovin—Sails to the Fox Iflands—**
Winters at UnalaiTika—P&£r to fea the fpring following—The vejfel is flranded in a bay 'of the ifiand Ura*
xiak, and the crew attacked by the natives—Many of
them killed—others carried off by ficknefs—'Tbey are reduced to great fir eight s—Relieved by Glottoff, twelve of
the whole company only remaining—Defeription of Um-
nak and Unalafhka, p. 89.
Chap. X. Voyage of £fej^en Gloffoff—He reaches the
Fox Iflands—Sails J^^^.vgri|Ja|hfk.a t&i\j&&igJÊi—
Winers upon that ifiand—Repeated attempts of the natives U'deflroy tk^prr^w—They pre :mfulfed^ %eÇPffî$$tïà
und ffi$3>&}lfd Upon to iKa((e,wMi)$èe -Ruffians—Account
of Kadyafcrrr-iVj'. M'àaiàitanjs,. .animals, .pm^aMions—
GlottofFy^/Zf bask to Umnaki^iw&ters there^-ireturns to
Kamtchatka—Journal of his voyage, p. 106.
Chap. XI. SoloviofPs voyaged—He reaches Unalafhka, and
paffes two winters upon that ifiand—-Relation of what
paffed there—fruitlefs attempts of the natives to deflroy
the crew—Return 0/ SoloviofF to Kamtchatka—Journal
of his voyage in returning—Defcription of the iflands of
c  2 Umnak CONTENTS.
Umnak and Unalafhka, produirions, inhabitants, their
manners, cufioms, &c. &c. p. 131.
Chap. XII. Voyage of Otcheredin—He winters upon
Umnak—Arrival of LevafhefF upon Unalafhka—Return of Otcheredin to Ochotfk, p. 156.
Chap. XIII. Conclufion—General pofition and Jituation of
the Aleutian and Fox Iflands—their difiance from each
other-—Further defcription of the drefs, manners, and
cufioms of^ the inhabitants——their feafls and ceremonies,
&£* p.  164*
PART
II.
Containing the Conqueft of Siberia, and the Hiftory of
the Tranfactions and Commerce between Russia and
China, p. 175.
Chap. I. Firfi irruption of the Ruffians Into Siberia—-fécond
inroad—Yermac, driven by the Tzar of Mufeovy from
the Volga, retires to- Orely a Ruffian fettlement—Enters
Siberia, with an army of Coffacs—bis progrefs and exploits—Defeats Kutchum Chan—conquers his dominions
—cedes them to the Tzar—receives a reinforcement of
Ruffian troops——is furprized by Kutchum Chan—his
defeat and death—veneration paid to his memory—Ruffian troops evacuate Siberia—re-enter and conquer the
country—their progrefs flopped by the  Chinefe,
p. 177-
Chap. CONTENTS.
Chap. II. Commencement of bofiilities between the Ruffians
and Chinefe—difpu tes concerning the limits of the two
empires—treaty of Nerfhinsk—embaffies from the court
of Ruffia to Pekin—treaty of Kiachta—efiablifhment of
the commerce between the two nations,, p. 197.
Chap. III. Account of the Ruffian and Chinefe fettlements
upon the confines of Siberia—defcription of the Ruffian.
frontier town Kiachta— of the Chinefe frontier town
Maimatfchin—its buildings, pagodas, Sec. p. 211,
Chap. IV. Commerce between the Chinefe and Ruffians—
lift of the principal exports and imports—duties—average,
aniount of the Ruffian trade, p. 231.
Chap. V. Defcription o/Zuruchaitu—and its trade—trajifi
port of the merchandize through Siberia, p, 244..
PART    IIL
Appendix I. and II. containing Supplementary
Accounts of the Russian Discoveries, &c. &c.
Appendix I. Extraclfrom the journal of a voyage made by
Captain Krenitzin and Lieutenant LevafhefF to ^Fox.
Iflands, in 1768, 1769, by order of theEm-pxefs of Ruffia
—they fail from   Kamtchatka—arrive ' at  Beering's
and Copper Iflands—reach the Fox Iflands—Krenitzin.
winters at Alaxa—LevafhefF upon Unalafhka—productions of Unalafhka—defcription of the inhabitants of therj
Fox Iflands—their manners and cufioms, &c.  p- 25i*.
N° IL m mmjï
■^pyr
CONTENTS.
N° II. Concerning the longitude of Kamtchatka, and of the
Eaflern extremity of Afia, as laid down by the Ruffian
geographers, p. 267.
N° III. Summary of the proofs tending tojbew, that Beer-
ing and TfchirikofF either reached America in 1741,
or came very near it* p. 277.
N° IV. Lift of the principal charts reprefenting the Ruffian
Difcoveries, p. 281.
N° V. Pofition of the AndreanofFfky Ifles afcertained—
number of tbe Aleutian Ifles, p. 288.
N° VI. Conjectures concerning tbe proximity of the Fox
Iflands to tbe continent of America, p. 291.
N° VII. Of tbe Tlchutfki—reports of the vicinity -of America to their coaft, firfi propagated by them, feem to be
confirmed by laiemccquMâ from thofe parts,      p. 293.
N° VIII. Lift of the New-difcovered Iflands, procured from
an Aleutian chief—catalogue of iflands called by different
names'in the account of tbe Ruffian.difcoveries, p. 29 j.
N° IX. Voyage of Lmttgnant Synd to the North Eafi of
Siberia—be difaovers a clufier of iflands, and a promontory, which hefjuppofes to belong to tbe continent of America, lying near the coaft of the Tfchutski, p. 300.
N° X. Specimen of the Aleutian language, p. 303.
N° XL Attempts of tbe Ruffians to difcoper a North Eafi
paffage—voyages from Archangel towards the Lena—
from tbe  Lena   towards .Kamtchatka—extraSl from
Mailer's account of DefhnefF's voyage round Tfchukot-
> 4 skoi CONTENTS.
skoi Nofs—narrative of a voyage made by ShalaurofF
from the Lena to Shelatskoi Nofs, p. 304.
Appendix II. Tartarian rhubarb brought to Kiachta by the*
Bucharian merchants—method of examining and pur-
chafing the roots—different fpecies of rheum which yield
the finefi rhubarb—price of rhubarb in Ruffia—exportation—fuperiority of the Tartarian over the Indian
rhubarb, p. 332.
Table of the longitude and latitude of the principal places
mentioned'in this work% p. 344*.
BAuRTT  R
CONTAINING
I  PRELIMINARY  OBSERVATIONS
CONCERNING KAMTCHATKA.
II. ACCOUNT OF THE NEW DISCOVERIES
MADE BY THE RUSSIANS.  I    3 ]
PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS
CONCERNING
KAMTCHATKA,    &c
CHAP.     I.
Difcovery and Conquefi of Kamtchatka—Prefent fiate of
that Peninfula—Population—Tribute—Produclions, ft.
T
HE Peninfula of Kamtchatka was not difcovered FirftDifcovery
of Kamtchat-
by the Ruffians before the latter end of the laftka-
century. The firft expedition towards thofe parts was
made in 1696, by fixteen CofFacs, under the command
of Lucas SemaenofF Morofko, who was fent againft the
Koriacks of the river Opooka by Volodimir AtlaiFofF
commander of Anadirfk. Morofko continued his march
until he came within four days journey of the river
Kamtchatka, and having rendered a Kamtchadal village
tributary,  he returned to Anadirfk*.
• S. R. G. V. III. p. 72.
B  2
The PRELIMINARY   OBSERVATIONS
The following year AtlafiofF himfelf at the head of
a larger body of troops penetrated into the Peninfula,
took ppfFeffion of the river Kamtchatka by erecting a
crofs upon its banks ; and built fome huts upon the
fpot,  where Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog now ftands.
jjj     Thefe expeditions were continued during the foliowiag
.  years :  Upper and Lower Kamtchatkoi Oftrogs and Bol-
cheretfk were built; the Southern diftrict conquered and
colonifed;  and in 17 n the whole Peninfula was finally
reduced under the dominion of the Ruffians.
During fome years the poflèffion of Kamtchatka
brought very little advantage to the crown, excepting
the fmall tribute of furs exacted from the inhabitants.
The Ruffians indeed occasionally hunted in that Peninfula foxes, wolves, ermines, fables, and other animals,
whofe valuable fkins form an extenfive article of commerce among the Eaftern nations. But the fur trade
carried on from thence was inconfiderable ; until the
Ruffians difcovered the iflands fituated between A fia and
America, in a feries of voyages, the journals of which
will be exhibited in the fubfequent tranflation. Since
thefe difcoveries, the variety of rich furs, which are
procured from thofe Iflands, has greatly encreafed the
trade of Kamtchatka, and rendered it a very important
branch of the Ruffian commerce.
The
I CONCERNING   KAMTCHATKA,  &c. 5
The Peninfula of Kamtchatka lies between 51 and
. 62 degrees of North latitude, and 173 and 182 of
longitude from the Ifle of Fero. It is bounded on the
Eaft and South by the Sea of Kamtchatka, on the Weft
by the Seas of Ochotfk andPenfhinfk, and on the North
by the country of the Koriacs.
It is divided into four diftricts, Bolcherefk,, Tigilfkaia^^5^
' •> o of Kamtchac-
Krepoft, Verchnei or Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog, andka*
Nifhnei or Lower Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. The govern^ Government.
ment is vefted in the chancery of Bolcherefk, which
depends upon and is fubject to the infpection of the
chancery of Ochotfk. The whole Ruffian force ftationed
in the Peninfula confifts of no more than three hundred
men.*..
The prefent population of Kamtchatka is very fmall, poPuIation-
amounting to fcarce four thoufand fouls. Formerly the
inhabitants were more numerous; but in 1768, that
country was greatly depopulated by the ravages of the
fmall-pox, by which diforder five thoufand three hundred and fixty-eight perfons were carried off. There are
now only feven hundred and fix. males in the whole
Peninfula who are tributary, and an hundred and fourteen in the Kuril Ifles,, which are fubject to Ruffia.
* Journal of St. Peterfburg. for April 1777.
The PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS
The fixed annual tribute confifts in 279 fables, 464
red foxes, 50 fea-otters with a dam, and 38 cub fea-
otters. All furs exported from Kamtchatka pay a duty
of 10 per cent, to the crown; the tenth of the cargoes
brought from the new difcovered iflands is alfo delivered
into the cuftoms.
Many traces of Volcanos have been obferved in this
Peninfula; and there are fome mountains, which are at
prefent in a burning ftate. The moft confiderable of
thefe Volcanos is fituated near the Lower Oftrog. In
1762 a great noife was heard ifFuing from the infide of
that mountain, and flames of fire were feen to burft from
difFerent parts. Thefe flames were immediately fucceeded
by a large ftream of melted fnow-water, which flowed
into the neighbouring valley, and drowned two Kamt-
chadals, who were at that time upon an hunting party.
The afhes, and other combuftible matter, thrown from
the mountain, fpread to the circumference of three hundred verfts. In 1767 there was another difcharge, but
lefs confiderable. Every night flames of fire were obferved ftreaming from the mountain ; and the eruption,
wrhich attended them, did no fniall damage to the inhabitants of the Lower Oftrog. Since that year no
flames have been feen ; but the mountain emits a confiant fmoke. The fame phaenomenon is alfo obferved
upon another mountain, called Tabaetfhinfkian.
The CONCERNING   KAMTCHATKA,  &c. 7
The face of the country throughout the Peninfula Produ6Hon8«
is chiefly mountainous. It produces in fome parts birch,
poplars, alders, willows, underwood, and berries of different forts. Greens and other vegetables are raifed with
great facility; fuch as white cabbage, turneps, radifhes,
beetroot, carrots, and fome cucumbers. Agriculture is
in a very low ftate, which is chiefly owing to the nature
of the foil and the fevere hoar frofts : for though fome
trials have been made with refpedb to the cultivation of
oats, barley, and rye; yet no crop has ever been procured fufficieht ki quantity or quality to anfwer the
pains and expence of railing it. Hemp however has
of late years been cultivated with great fuccefs *.
Every year a vefFel, belonging to the crown, fails
from Ochotfk to Kamtchatka laden with fait, provi—
lions, corn, and Ruffian manufactures; and returns in
June or July of the following years with fkins and.
furs,
fj Journal of St, Peterfburg.,
CHAP. PRELIMINARY  OBSERVATIONS
CHAP.
II.
General idea of the commerce carried on to the New Dif-
covered Iflands.—Equipment of tbe veffels.—Rifks of tbe
trade, profits, &c.
ClNCE the conclufion of Beering's Voyage, which
- was made at the expence of the crown, the profe-
cution of the New Difcoveries begun by him has been
almoft entirely carried on by individuals. Thefe perfons
wrere principally merchants of Irkutfk, Yakutfk, and
other natives of Siberia, who formed themfelves into
fmall trading companies, .and fitted out vefFels at their
joint expence.
al'vt.S^ Moft of the vefFels which are equipped for thefe expeditions are two-mafted : they are commonly built without iron, and in general fo badly conftructed, that it is
wonderful how they can weather fo ftormy a fea. They
are called in Ruffian Skitiki or fewed vefFels, becaufe the
planks are fewed together with thongs of leather. Some
few are built in the river of Kamtchatka; but they are
for the moft part conftructed at the haven of Ochotfk.
The largeft of thefe vefFels are manned with feventy men,
.and the fmalleft with forty. The crew generally confifts
of an equal number of Ruffians and Kamtchadals.    The
latter
I CONCERNING KAMTCHATKA, &c. $
latter occafion a confiderable faving, as their pay is
fmall;. they alfo refift, more eafily than the former,
the attacks of the fcurvy. But Ruffian mariners are.
more enterprifing and more to be depended upon in.
time of danger than the others ; fome therefore are
unavoidably neceffary..
The expences of building and fitting out the vefFels j^f^S*
are very, confiderable:. for there is nothing at Ochotfk
but. timber for their conftruction. Accordingly cordage,-
fails, and fome provisions, muft be brought from Ya-
kutfk upon horfes. The dearnefs of corn and flour,,
which muft be tranfported from the diftricts lying about
the river Lena, renders, it impoffible to lay-in any.
large quantity for thé fubfiftence of the5 crew during,
a voyage, which commonly lafts three or four years^.
For this reafon no more is provided, than is necefFary
to fupply the Ruffian mariners with quafs and other-
fermented liquors...
From the exceffiye fcarcity of cattle both at Ochotfk
and * Kamtchatka   very   little  provision   is   laid  in  at :
either of thofe places : but the crew provide themselves,
* In 1772 there were only 570 head of cattle upon the whole Pénîn»-
fula.    A cow fold from 50 to 60 roubles, an ox from 60 to 100.    A
pound of frefh beef fold upon an average for -124- copecs..  The excef-
five.dearnefs of this price will be eafily conceived, when it is known,...
that at Mofcow a pound of beef fells, for about three copecs,. .Joura..:,
St. Peterflv. $$§£'
G
.vdtfe PRELIMINARY   OBSERVATIONS
with a large store of the flefli of fea animals, which
are caught and cured upon Beeri-ng's Ifiand, where the
vefFels for the moft part winter.
After all expences are paid, the equipment of each
vefFel ordinarily cofts from 15,000 to 20,000 roubles :
and sometimes the expences amount to 30,000. Every
vefFel is divided into a certain number of fhares, generally from thirty to fifty; and each fhare is worth
from 3co to 500 roubles,
The rifk of the trade is very great, as fhipwrecks are
common in the fea of Kamtchatka, which is full of rocks
and very tempestuous. «Besides, the crews are frequently
furprifed and killed by the iflanders, and the vefFels
deftroyed. In return the profits arising from thefe
voyages are very confiderable, and compenfate the in-
conveniencies and dangers attending them. For if a
fhip comes back after having made a profitable voyage,
the gain at the moft moderate computation amounts
to cent, per cent, and frequently to as much more.
Should the vefFel be capable of performing a fécond
expedition, the expences are of courfe considerably
lefFened, and the fhares are at a- lower price.
Some notion of the general profits arising from
this trade (when the voyage is successful), may be
deduced from the fale of a rich cargo of furs, brought
to CONCERNING   KAMTCHATKA,   &c.
to Kamtchatka, on the 2d of June, 1772, from the
New-difcovered iflajids, in a vefFel belonging to Ivan
PopofF.
The tenth part of the fkins being delivered to the
cuftoms, the remainder was distributed in fifty-five
fhares. Each fhare consisted of twenty fea-otters,
fîxteen black and brown foxes, ten red foxes, three
lea-otter tails ; and such a portion was fold upon the
fpot from 800 to 1000 roubles : fo that according to
this price the whole lading was worth about 50,000
Baubles *.
*> Georgi Reife.Tom. I. p. 23, k feq. Journal of St. Peterfburg.j
C.flk
C Il:A-'P,. PRELIMINARY   OBSERVATIONS
C HAP.    III.
Furs and Jkins procured from Kamtchatka and the New:
Difcovered Iflands.
H E principal furs and fkins procured from the
Peninfula of Kamtchatka and the New Difcovered
Iflands are fea-otters, foxesr fables, ermines, wolves, bears,
&c.—Thefe furs are tranfported to Ochotfk by fea, and
from thence carried to * Kiachta upon the frontiers of
Siberia ; where the greatest part of them are fold to
the Chinefe at a very confiderable profit.
Of all thefe furs the fkins of the fea-otters are the
richest and moft valuable. Thofe animals refort in great
numbers to the Aleutian and Fox Iflands : they are
called by the Ruffians Bobri Morfki or fea-beavers, and
fbmetimes Kamtchadal beavers, on account of the re-
femblance of their fur to that of the common beaver.
From thefe circumstances feveral authors have been led
into a mistake, and have fuppofed that this animal is
of the beaver fpecies ;  whereas it is the true fea-otter t,
* See Part E. Chap. III.
■f- S. R. G. III. ,p. 530. For a defcription of the fea-otter, Lutra
Marina, called by Linnaeus Muflela Lutris, fee Nov. Comm, Pet. Vol.
II. p. 367, &c.
t . :; The CONCERNING   KAMTCHATKA,   kc.
The female are called Matka or dams ; and the cubs
till five months old Medviedki or little bears, becaufe their
coat refembles that of a bear ; they fofe that coat after
five months, and then are called Kofchloki.
The fur of the finest fort is thick and long, of a dark
colour, and a fine glofFy hue. The methods of taking
thefe fea-otters are, by striking them with harpoons
as they are fleeping upon their backs in the fea ; by
hunting them down in boats; by furprifing them in
caverns ; or taking them in nets.
Their fkins bear different prices according to their
quality.
At Kamtchatka £ the beft fell for
per ikin from    —    — 30 to 40 roubles.
Middle fort 20 to 30
Worst fort 1.5 to 25
At Kiachtat^the old and middle-
aged fea-otter fkins are fold
-to the Chinefe per fkin from 80 to 140
The worst fort 30 to    40
"* Journal St. Peterfburg.
f Pallas Reife. Part III. p. 137,
*3
As 1.4' PRELIMINARY   OBSERVATIONS
As thefe fvirs are fold at fo great a price to the-
Chinefe, they are ieldom brought into Ruffia for falet
and fever al, which have been carried to Mofcow as a
tribute^ were purchafed for 30 rëubles per fkin ; and
fent from thence to the Chinefe frontiers, where they
were difpofeçt of at a very high interest %
JQirferent Species of Foxes.
There are feveral fpecies of Foxes, whofe fkins are-
fent from Kamtchatka into Siberia and Ruffia. Of thefe
the principal are the black foxes, the Petfl or Arctic-
foxes, the red and stone foxes.
The fîneft bkék foxes are caught in different parts
of Siberia, and more commonly in the Northern regions
between the Rivers Lena1, Indigirka, and Kovyma : the
black foxes found upon the remotest Eastern iflands-
difcovered by the Ruffians,, or the Lyffie Oftrova, are not
fo valuable. They are very Mack and large; but the
coat for the moft part is as coarfe as that of a wolf.
The great difference in the finenefs of the . fur, between thefe foxes and those of Siberia, arifes probably
from the following circumstances. In thofe iflands
the cold is not fo fevere as in Siberia ; and as.
there is no wood, the foxes live in holes and caverns of the rocks ^ whereas in the: abovementioned
parts of Siberia, there are large tracts of forests in
which   they  find fhelter.     Some   black   foxes   how-
S. R. G. V. IIL Pallas Reife. CONCERNING   KAMTCHATKA,  &c.
^ever are occasionally caught in the remotest Eaftern
Iflands, not wholly destitute of wood, and these are
of great value. In general the Chinefe, who pay the
dearest: for black furs, do not give more for the black
foxes of ' the New-difcovered iflands titan from 20 to
.30 roubles per fkin.
The Arctic or ice foxes are very common upon fome of -j§*
the New-difcovered Iflands. They are called Petfi by the
Ruffians, and by the Germans blue foxes. Their natural g6™!?*
<3olour is of a bluifh grey or afli colour; but they change
their coat at different ages, and in different feafons of
the year. In general they are born brown, are white in
winter, and brown in summer; and in Ipring and autumn,
as the hair gradually falls off, the coat is marked with
different fpecks and crosFes.
At Kiachta* all the feveral varieties fell upon an average to the Chinefe per fkin from 50
. copëcs to    —    —    —*•    ||f* 2j roubles.
-Stone foxes at Kamtchatka per fkin
from     —     —     —     — 1 to 2j
Red foxes from* 80 copecs to      — 1  80 copecs,
At Kiachta from 80 copecs to    — 9
Common wolves fkins at per fkin 2
Best fort per fkin from        — 8  to 16
Sables per ditto     —■     —     —«^ 2^ to 10
* Pallas Reife.
**'
A pood PRELIMINARY   OBSERVATIONS
A pood of the beû fea-horfe teeth* fells
At Yakutfk for        - 10 roubles».
Of the middling - *-      ~.     - 8
Inferior ditto -        ' from 5 to 7.
Four, five, or fix teeth generally weigh a pood, and
fometimes, but very rarely, three. They are fold to the
Chinefe, Monguls, and Cal mues.
I S. R.G. V. III..
CHAP. ACCOUNT
O F     T H E
NEW    DISCOVERIES
MADE    BY    THE
RUSSIANS
IN   THE   EASTERN   OCEAN,
BETWEEN KAMTCHATKA AND AMERICA.
TRANSLATED   FROM  THE   GERMAN.:
WITH  JSTOTES  BY   THE   TRANSLATOR.
K
B  I    19    1
A      C      G      O      U      N      T
OF     THE
RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
G H A K    1
^Commencement and progrefs of the Ruffian Wfc&verfes
in the fea of Kamtchatka—General divifion of the
New Difcovered Iflands. vSfel0
A Thirft after riches was the chief motive which
*■ excited the Spaniards to the difcovery of America ;
and which turned the attention of other maritime nations
to that quarter. The fame paffion for riches occasioned,
^àbout the middle of the sixteenth century, the difcovery
andoonqueft of Northern Alia, a country, before that time
^unknown -to the 'Europeans. The firft foundation of this '^JJJgf* *f
'conquest was laid by the celebrated Yermac % at the head
of a band of adventurers, less civilized, but at the fame
time not fo inhuman as the conquerors of America.
By the acceffion of this vast territory, now known by the
name of Siberia, the Ruffians have acquired an extent of
^empire never before attained by any other nation.
* The reader will find an aecoaat of this conguefl by Yermac in
Part II. Chap. L '$jjjfc
D %
The Commence*
ment of the
Is'ew Difcoveries.
ACCOUNT   OF   THE
The firft project* for making-difcoveries in that tempestuous fea, which lies between Kamtchatka and America, was conceived and planned by Peter I. the greatest:
fbvereign. who ever, fat upon, the Ruffian throne, until
it was adorned by the present empress. The nature and
completion of this project under his immediate fuccef-
fors are well known to the public from the relation of
the celebrated Muller.    No sooner had  t Beering and;
* There feems.a want of connection in this place, which will be cleared
up by confidering, that, by the conquer! of Siberia, the Ruffians advanced to the fliores of the Eafrenr Ocean, the fbeneof the difcoveries
here alluded to.
•j» Beering had already made feveral. expeditions in the fea of Kamtchatka, by orders of the crown, before he undertook the voyage mentioned in the text.
In 1728, he departed from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river^ m.
company with TfchirikofF.. The object of this voyage was to afcer-
tain, whether, the two Continents of Afia and America were feparated ;,
and Peter I. a lhort time before his death, had drawn up mftructions
with his own hand for that purpofe. Beering coafted- the Eaftern fhôpe
of Siberia as high- as latitude 670 iB'j. but made no difcovery of the
oppofke Continent..
In 1729, he fet fail again for the profecution of the fame defign ; but
this fécond attempt equally failed of fuccefs.
In 1741* Beering and Tfchirikoff went out upon the celebrated. exps-
dition. (alluded to in.the text,, and. which is fo-often mentioned in the
courfe of this work) towards the coafts of America. This expedition led
the way to all the important difcoveries fince made by the Ruffians.
Beering'S venel was-wrecked'Sr¥, December of the fame year; and
TfchirikofF landed at Kamtchatka on the 9th of October, 1742.
S. R. G. III. Nachrichten von See Reifen, &c. and Robertfon's Hiftory of America, Vol. I. p. 273, & feq.
TfchirikofF, RUS-SUN   DISCOVERIES.
TfchirikofF, in the profecution of this plan, opened their
way to iflands abounding in valuable furs* than private
merchants immediately engaged with ardour in fimilar
expeditions ; and, within, a period of ten years,, more im=- Their Proportant difcoveries were made by thefe individuals, at
their own private cost, than had been hitherto, effected by.
all the expensive efforts of thé crown*
Soon after the return of Reeling's crew from the?
kland- where he was (hip-wrecked, and died,, and which,
is called after his name,, the inhabitants of Kamtchatka
ventured over to that iflandr to which the fea-otters and?
other fea-animals were accustomed- to* refort in great
numbers. Mednoi Oftrofly or Copper Ifiand,. which
takes that appellation from, large- maffes of native copper
found upon, the beachr and which lies full in fight of
Beering's I fie, was an eafy and fpeedy difeovery-
Thefetwo>fmall uninhabited fpots were for fome. time*
the only iflands that were known ; until a fcarcity of land)
and fea-animals, whole numbers were greatly diminifhed.
by the Ruffian hunters, occafioned other expeditions..
Several of the vefFels which, were fent out. upon thefe;
voyages were driven by stormy weather to the Southeast ; by which means the Aleutian Ifles, situated about
the 195th*-degree of longitude, and but moderately
peopled, were difcovered..
From;
I The author reckons, throughout this, treatife^ the longitude from,
the.- ACCOUNT   OF   THE £
From the year 1.745, when it feems thefe iflands were
first visited, until 1750, when sthe '§&& tribute of furs
was brought from thence to Ochotfk, the government
appears not to have been fully informed of their difcovery.
In the last mentioned year, one LebedefF wTas commander
of Kamtchatka. From 1755 to .1760, Captain TfheredofF
and Lieutenant Kafhkareff were his fuccefiors. In 1.760.
Feodor Ivanovitch Soimonoff, governor of Tobolfk, turned
his attention, to the -abovementioned iflands ; and, the
fame year, Captain Rtiftfliefr^ at Ochotfk, instructed Lieutenant Shmaleff, the fame who was afterwards commander
in Kamtchatka, to promote and favour all expeditions in
thofe leas. Until this time, all the difcoveries fubfe-
quent to Beering's voyage were made, without the interposition of the court, by private merchants in imall ve£-
fâs fitted out at -their own expence.
The Emprefs     'The prefent Empref&(to whom every circumftance which
promotes all
Attempts ». .contributes to aggrandize the Ruffian empire>is an object of
wards New o© -i J
Slovenes. attent}on) }ias given new life -to* thefe difcoveries. The merchants who engaged in i:hem have been animated by
recompenees..    The importance and .true position of the
the firft raerJaaaruDf the ifle of Fero. TheSongkude and latitude, which
he gives to the Foxlflands, correfponds exactly with thofe in which they
-are laid doton upon the General Map of Ruffia. The longitude of
TBeering's, Copper Ifiand, and of the Aleutian Ifles, are Somewhat different. See Advertifement relating to -the Charts, and alfo Appendix I. N° IV. p. 2860
Buflian R U S S T A N   DISCOVERIES.
Ruffian iflands have been afcertained by an expensive
■voyage*, made by order of the crown ; and much additional uiformation will be derived from the journals
and charts of the officers employed in that expedition^,
whenever they fhall be publifhedv
Meanwhile, we may rest affured, that feveral modënr
geographers have erred in advancing, America too much
to the Wefïjand in questioning the extent of Siberia Earthwards, as laid down by the Ruffians- It appears, indeed,
evident,, that the accounts and even conjectures of the
celebrated Muller,.concerning the position of thofe distant
regions-, are more and more confirmed by facts ; in the
fame manner as the juftnefs of his fuppofition- concerning the form of the coaft of the fea of Ochotfk -j- has
been lately eftabliihed.- With, refpect to the extent of
Siberia, it appears almost beyond a doubt from the most
recent obfervations,. that its Eastern extremity is situated:'
beyond J 200 degrees of longitude. In regard to the.
Western coaft of America, all the navigations to the
New Difcovered Iflands evidently fliew,. that between 50D
* The author here alludes to the fecret expedition of Captain Krenitzin and LevahefF,whofè journal and chart were fent, by order of the,-
Emprefs-of Ruffiâ, to Dr. Roberufon.. See Robertfon's Hiftory of Ame^
rica, Vol. I. p. 276 and 460.    See Appendix I..N0 II.
-f Mr. Muller formerly conjectured,. that the coaft- of the fea of
Ochotfk ftretched South>weft towards the river Ud;, and from thence tow
the mouth of the Amoor South-eaft :. and the truth of this conjecture.
had been fince confirmed by a coafting voyage made by Captain .Synd.,
% Appendix I. N° L
ftlft and *4 ACCOUNT   OF   THE
and 60 degrees of latitude, that Continent advances no
where nearer to Afia than the * coasts touched at by
Beering and Tfchirikoff, or .about 236 degrees of longitude.
As to the Newr Difcovered Iflands, no credit muft be
^given fto a chart publifhed in the .Geographical Calendar
of St. Peterfburg for 1774; m which they are inaccurately laid down. Nor is the antient chart of the New
Difcoveries, publifhed by the Imperial Academy, and
which feems to have been drawn up from mere reports,
;more deferving of attention t.
ifwDifco*6 The late-navigators-give a far different defcription of
ancs. ^e ]sjorthern Archipelago. From their accounts we
iearn, that Beering's Ifiand is situated due East from Kamt-
.chatkoi Nofs, in the 18 5 th degree of longitude. Near it is
Copper Island,; and, at fome distance from them, Eaft-
fouth-eaft, there are three fmall iflands, named by their
inhabitants, Attak, Semitfhi, and Shemiya-: thefe are
iproperly the Aleutian Ifles ; they stretch from West-
north-weft towards Èaft-fouth-eaft, in the fame direction
;as Beering's and Copper Iflands, in the longitude of
£95, and latitude 54.
|l|J * Appendix I. N° III.
-j- Appendix L N° IV»
To RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES,
*J
To the North-eaft of thefe, at the diftance of 600 or
Soo verfts, lies another gcoup of fix or more iflands,
known by the name of the Andreanofffkie Oftrova.
South-east, or Eaft-fouth, -of thefe, at the diftance of
•about fifteen degrees, and North by Eaft of the Aleutian,
begins the chain, of Lyme Oftrova, or Fox Iflands: this
chain of rocks and ifles stretches Eaft-north-eaft between
56 and 61 degrees of North latitude*, from 211 degrees
*>f longitude moft probably to the Continent of America;
and in albajejO"f tlirection, which crofFes with that in which
fthe Aieiitâaja ifles rlie. The largest: and moft remarkable of
thefe iflands are Umnak^ &gji$*$alafhka, or, as it is com-
aiiorily lhortoa@ài tmalafhka., Kadf^ak, and Alagfhak.
Of thefe and the Afeiitian Ifles, the diftance and pofi-
*km are tolerably weE afcertaTO^j/by fhips reckonings,
and latitudes taken by pilots. But the^ijkuation of the
Andreanoffsky Isles t is âàftj&mewhat doubtful, though
probably their direction is East and Weft; and fome of
fchem may unite with that part of the Fox Iflands which
are moft cojat^tmts to t&e opposite ^Continent.
* See p. 286.
if Thefe are the fame Iflands which are called, by Mr. St&hlih, Ana-
dirfky Iflands, from their fuppofed vicinity to the river Anadyr. See
Appendix I. N° V. p. 289.
The ACCOUNT    O F    T H E
The main land of America has not been touched at by
any of the vefFels in the late expeditions ; though poffibly
the time is not far distant when fome of the Ruffian
adventurers will fall in with that coaft ff. More to the
North perhaps, at least as high as 70 degrees latitude,
the Continent of America may stretch out nearer to
the coaft of the Tfchutfki ; and form a large promontory,
accompanied with iflands, which have no connection
with any of the preceding ones. That fuch a promontory really exifts, and advances to within a very fmall
diftance from Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, can hardly be doubted;
at least it feems to be confirmed by all the latest accounts
which have been procured from thofe parts t. That
prolongation, therefore, of America, Which by Delifle is
made to extend Westward, and is laid down juft opposite
to Kamtchatka, between 50 and 60 degrees latitude,
muft be entirely removed; for many of the voyages re*
lated in this collection lay through that part of the ocean»
Where this imaginary Continent was marked down.
It is even more than probable, that the Aleutian, and
fome of the Fox Iflands, now well known, are the very
fame which Beering fell-in with upon his return ; though
from the unfteadinefs of his courfe, their true position
Appendix I. N° VI.
+ Appendix I. N° VII.
could RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
could not be exactly laid down in the chart of that expedition jÉ
As the fea of Kamtchatka is now fo much frequented,
thefe conjectures cannot remain long undecided; and it
is only to be wifhed, that fome expeditions were to be
made North-east, in order to difcover the nearest coasts
of America. For there is no reafon to expect a fuccefs-
f ul voyage by taking any other direction ; as all the vefFels, which have steered a more foutherly courfe, have
failed through an open fea, without meeting with any
signs of land.
A very full and judicious account of all the difcoveries
hitherto made in the Eastern ocean may be expected from
the celebrated Mr. Muller t. Meanwhile, I hope the
following account, extracted from the original papers,
and procured from the best intelligence, will be the more
acceptable to the public; as it may prove an inducement
to the Ruffians to publifh fuller and more circumstantial
* This error is however fo final!,, and particularly with refpect to the
more Eaftern coafts and iflands, as laid down in Beering's chart, fuch as
Cape Hermogenes, Toomanoi, Shumaghin's Ifiand, and mountain of St.
Dolmat, that if they were to be placed upon the general map of Ruffia,
which is prefixed to this work, they would coincide with the very chain
of the Fox Iflands.
ji; Mr, Muller has .already arranged and put in order feveral of the
journals, and fent them to the board of admiralty at St. Peterfburg,
where they are at prefent kept, together with the charts of the refpective
voyages.
E  2 relations.
27 ACCOUNT    OF    THE
relations. Besides, the reader will find here a narrative
more authentic and accurate, than what has been publifhed in the abovementioned calendar*;, and feverafc
mistakes in that memoir are here corrected..
* A German;copy? ©f the treatife allucfedpfn'in the text, was fèntr,, by
its author, Mr. Staehlin Counfellor of State to the Erogrefe of Ruffia, to.
the late Dr. Maty; and it is mentioned, in the Philofophical Transitions
for 1774, under the following title: "A New Map and Preliminary
IS Deferipdon of the New Archipelago m the North, difcovered a few
" Years ago by the Ruffians in the N. E. beyond Kamchatka.** A
tranflation of this treatife was publifhed the fame year by Heydioger».
CHAP. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
*9
CHAP.
II.
Voyages m 17 45*—-Firft difcovery of the Aleutian Ifles by
Michael Nevodtfikoff.
A   Voyage made in the year 1745 by Emilian BafFofF
is fcarce worth mentioning; as he only reached
Beering's Ifiand,   and two smaller ones,  which lie South;/
of the former, and returned on the 31ft of July, 1746.,.
The firft voyage which is in any wife remarkable, was voyage of
undertaken in the year 1745.. The vefièl was a Shitikinl74^
named Eudokia, fitted out at the expence of AphanafFei
Tfebaefskoi, Jacob Tfiuproff and others ; me. failed from
the Kamtchatka ri ver. Sept. faÈL under the command of
Michael Nevodtfikoff a native of Tobolfk. Having difcovered. three unknown iflands, they wintered upon one f$Wrs <L
Aleutian
of theirs, ki order to kill fea-otters, of which there was,1{buKls«
a large quantity.     Thefe iflands were undoubtedly the
nearest* Aleutian Iflands: the language of the inhabi-
* The fmall group of iflands lying S. E. of Beering's Ifiand, are the
real Aleutian ifles: they are fometimes called the Nearefl,Aleutian.Iflands;
and the Fox Iflands the Furtheff Aleutian Mes..
talith m.
3°
ACCOUNT    OF    THE
tants was not understood by an interpreter, whom they
had brought with them from Kamtchatka. For the
purpofe therefore of learning this language, they carried
back with them one of the Iflanders ; and prefented him
to the chancery of Bolcheretfk, with a falfe account of
their proceedings. This iflander was examined as foon
as he had acquired a flight knowledge of the Ruffian
language ; and as it is faid, gave the following report.
He was called Temnac, and the name of the ifiand of
wThich he was a native was Att. At fome diftance from
thence lies a great ifiand called Sabya, of which the inhabitants are denominated Kogii : thefe inhabitants, as
the Ruffians understood or thought they understood him,
made croffes, had books and fire arms, and navigated
in baidars or leathern canoes. At no great diftance
from the ifiand where they wintered, there were two
well-inhabited iflands: the firft lying E. S. E. and S. E.
by- South, the fécond East and East by South. The
above-mentioned Iflander was baptised under the name
of Paul, and fent to Ochotfk.
As the mifconduct of the fliip's crew towards the natives was fufpected, partly from the lofs of feveral men,
and partly from the report of thofe Ruffians, who were
not concerned in the diforderly conduct of their companions, a strict enquiry was instituted ; in confequence of
which the following circumstances relating to the voyage
were brought to light.
4     fc^| According RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES. 3t
According to the account of fome of the crew, Qpd^JJjïV*
particularly of the commander, after fix days failing they
came in fight of the firft ifiand on the 24th of September,
at mid-day. They paffed it, and towards evening they
diFcovered the fécond ifiand; where they lay at anchor
until the next morning*.
The 25th feveraF inhabitants appeared on the coast,
and the. pilot was making towards fhore in the fmall
boat, with an intention of landing; but observing their
numbers increafe to about an hundred, he was afraid of
venturing among them, although they beckoned to him.
He contented himfelf therefore with flinging fome
needles amongst them : the iflanders in return threw
into the boat fome fea-fowl of the cormorant kind. .
He endeavoured to hold a converfation with them by
means of the interpreters,, but no one could understand their language. And now the crew attempted to
row the vefFel out to fea; but the windïbeing contrary,
they were driven to the other fide of the fame ifiand*,
where they caft anchor.
The 26th, Tfiuproff having landed with fome of the
crew in order to look for water, met feveral inhabitants 1
he gave them fome tobacco and fmall Chinefe pipes.;
. and received in return a prefent of a stick, upon which the
head of a feal was carved. They endeavoured to wreft his
hunting; ACCOUNT    OF    THE
hunting gun from him; but upon his refusing to part
with it and retiring to the fmall boat, the iflanders ran
after him; and feized the rope by which the boat was
made faft to fhore. This violent attack obliged TfiuprofF
to fire; and having wounded one perfon in the hand^
they all let go their hold; and he rowed off to the fhip.
The Savages no fooner faw that their companion was
hurt, than they threw off their cloaths, carried the
wounded perfon naked into the fea, and wafhed him.
In confequence of this encounter the (hip's crew would
not venture to winter at this place, but rowed back again
to the other ifiand, where they came to an anchor.
The next morning TfiuprofF and one Shaffyrin landed
with a more confiderable party : they obferved feveral
traces of inhabitants ; but meeting none they returned
to the fhip, and coasted along the ifiand. The following day the CofFac Shekurdin went on fhore, accompa^
nied by five failors : two of whom he fent back with a
fupply of water ; and remained himfel'f with the others
in order to hunt fea-otters. At night they came to fome
dwellings inhabited by five families: upon their.approach
the natives abandoned their huts with precipitation, and
hid themfelves among the rocks. Shekurdin no fooner
returned to the. fhip, than he was again fent on fhore
with a larger company, in order to look out. for a
proper place to lay up the vefFel during winter : In their
way  they obferved fifteen  illanders upon an   height;
and RUSSIAN.  DISCOVERIES.
and threw them fome fragments of dried fifh in order to
entice them to approach nearer. But as this overture
did not fucceed, TfiuprofF, who was one of the party,
ordered fome of the crew to mount the height, and to
feize one of the inhabitants, for the purpose of learning
their language : this order was accordingly executed,
notwithstanding the refiftance which the iflanders made
with their bone fpears ; and the Ruffians immediately
returned with their prifoner to the fhip. They were
foon afterwards driven to fea by a violent storm, and
beat about from the 2d to the 9th of October, during
which time they loft their anchor and boat ; at length
they came back to the fame ifiand, where they pasted
the winter.
Soon after their landing they found in an adjacent hut
the dead bodies of two of the inhabitants, who had probably been killed in the last encounter. In their way the
Ruffians were met by an old woman, who had been taken
prifonêr, and let at liberty. She was accompanied with
thirty-four islanders of both fexes, Who all came dancing
to the found of a drum; and brought with them a prefent of coloured earth. Pieces of cloth, thimbles, and
needles, were distributed among them in return ; and
they parted amicably. Before the end of October, the
fame persons, together with the old womm and feveral
children, returned dancing as before, and brought birds,
fifh, and other provision. Having pasted the night with
F the
33 .       ACCOUNT   OF   THE
the Ruffians, they took their leave. Soon after their departure, TfiuprofF, Shaffyrin, and Nevodtfikoff, accompanied
with feven of the crew, went after them, and found them
among the rocks. In this interview the natives behaved
in the moft friendly manner, and exchanged a baidar and
fome fkins for two fhirts. They were obferved to have
hatchets of fharpened ftone, and needles made of bone $
they lived upon the fiefls of fea-otters, feals, and fea-
lions, which they killed with clubs and bone lances.
So early as the 24th of October, TfiuprofF had fent
ten perfons, under the command of Larion BelayefF, upon,
a reconnoitring party. The latter treated the inhabitants
in an hostile manner ; upon which they defended them-
felves as well as they could with their bone lances. This
resistance gave him a pretext for firing; and accordingly^
he fhot the whole number, amounting to fifteen men*
in order to feize their wives.
Shekurdin, fhocked at thefe cruel proceedings^ retired unperceived to the fhip, and brought an account of
all that had pafFed. * TfiuprofF, instead of punifhing thefe
cruelties as they deferved, was fecretly pleafed with them ;
for he himfelf was affronted at the iflanders for having
refufed to give him an iron bolt, which he faw in their
poffeffion. He had, in confequence of their refusal,
committed feveral acts of hostilities against them ; and
had even formed the horrid design of poifoning
them with a mixture of corrosive fublimate.    In order
however- RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
howTever to preferve appearances, he difpatched Shekurdin and Nevodtfikoff to reproach Belayefffor his diforderly
Conduct; but fent him at the fame time, by the above-?
mentioned persons, more powder and ball.
The Ruffians continued upon this ifiand, where they
caught a large quantity of fea otters, until the 14th
of September, 1746 ; when, no longer thinking them-
felves fecure, they put to fea wi$s an intention of looking
out for some uninhabited iflands. Being however overtaken by a violent storm, they were driven about until
the 30th of October, when their vefFel struck upon a\
rocky fhore, and was fhipwrecked, with the lofs of almost all the tackle, and the greatest part of the furs.
Worn out at length with cold' and. fatigue, they ventured,
the firft of November, to penetrate into the interior
part of the country, which they found rocky and uneven. Upon their coming to fome huts, they were informed, that they were cast away upon the ifiand of
Karaga, the inhabitants of which were tributary to Ruffia,
and of the Koraki tribe. The iflanders behaved to them
with great kindnefs, until Belayeffhad the imprudence
to make propofals to the wife of the chief, The woman
gave immediate intelligence to her hufband ; and the
natives were incenfed to fuch a degree, that they threatened.the whole crew with immediate death : but means
were found to pacify them, and they continued to live
with the Ruffians upon the fame good terms as before.
F 2
The ACCOUNT   OF   THE
The 30th of May, 1747, a party of Olotorians made a
defcent upon the ifiand in three baidars, and attacked
the natives ; but, after fome lofs on both fides, they went
away. They returned foois after with a larger force, and
were again compelled to retire. But as they threatened
to come again in a fhort time, and to destroy all the inhabitants who paid tribute, the latter advifed the Ruffians
to retire from the ifiand, and affifted them in building
two baidars. With thefe they put to fea the 27th of
June, and landed the 21ft of July at Kamtchatka, with
the reft of their cargo, consisting of 320 fea-otters, of
which they paid the tenth into the customs. During
this expedition twelve men were loft.
CHAP. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
CHAP.     III.
Succeffive voyages, from 1747 to 1753, to BeeringV and
Copper Ifiand, and to the Aleutian Ifles.—Some account
of the inhabitants*
IN the year 1747"*. two vefFels failed from the Kamtchatka river,, according to a permiffion granted by the
chancery of Bolckeretfk for hunting fea-otters. One
was fitted out by Andrew Wfevidoff, and carried forty-
fix men, besides eight Coffacs: the other belonged, to
Feodor Cholodiloff, Andrew Tolftyk, and company ; and.
had on board a crew, consisting of forty-one Ruffians and..
Kamtchadals, with fix Coffacs...
The latter vefFel failed the 20th of October, and was.
forced, by ftrefs of weather and other accidents, to winter,
at Beering's Ifiand. From thence they departed May the
31ft,, 1748, and touched at another fmall ifiand, in order
to provide themfelves with water and other neceffaries^
They  then steered S..E. for a confiderable way without
* It may be necefTary to inform the reader, that, in this and the two
following chapters, fome circumftances are occafionally omitted, which*
are to be found in the original. Thefe omiffions relate chiefly to the
names of fome of the partners engaged in the equipments, and to. a de^
tail of immaterial occurrences prior to the actual departure of the vefTels.
discovering ACCOUNT   OF   THE
difcovering any new iflands ; and, being in great want
of provisions, returned into Kamtchatka River, August
14, with a cargo of 250 old fea-otter-fkins, above 100
young ones, and 148 petfi or arctic fox-fkins, which were
all killed upon Beering's Ifiand.
We have no fufficient account of Wfevidoff's voyage.
All that is known amounts only to this, that he returned
the 25th of July, 1749, after having probably touched
upon one of the nearest Aleutian Ifles which was uninhabited : his cargo consisted of the fkins of 1040 fea-
otters, and .2000 arctic foxes.
Emilian Yugoff, a merchant of Yakutfk, obtained from
the fenate of St. Peterfburg the permission of fitting out
four vefFels for himfelf and his affociates. He procured, at
the fame time, the exclusive privilege of hunting fea-
otters upon Beering's and Copper Ifiand during thefe
expeditions ; and for this monopoly he agreed to deliver
to the customs the third part of the furs.
October 6, 1750, he put to fea from Bolcherefk, in
the floop John, manned with twenty-five Ruffians and
Kamtchadals, and two Coffacs : he was foon overtaken
by a ftorm, and the vefFel driven on fhore between the
mouths of the rivers Kronotfk and Tfchafmi&fk* ■•.:■
October 1751, he again fet fail.    He had been commanded to take on board fome officers of the Ruffian
navy; RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES. 39
navy; and, as he difobeyed this injunction, the chancery
of Irkutsk; iffued an order to confifcate his fhip and cargo
upon his return. The fhip returned on the 22d of July,.
1754, to New Kamtchatkoi Oftrog, laden with the fkins
of 755 old féa-otters, of 35 cub fea-otters, of 447 cubs
of fea-bears, and of 7044 arctic fox-fkins : of the
latter 2000 were white, and 1765 black. Thefe furs
were procured upon Beering's and Copper Ifiand. Yu-
koff himfelf died upon the laft-mentioned ifiand. The
cargo of the fhip was, according to the above-mentioned
order, fealed and properly fecured. But as it appeared
that certain persons had deposited money in Yugoff's
hand, for the purpofe of equipping, a fécond vefFel, the
crown delivered up the confifcated cargo, after referving
the third part according to the original stipulation.
This kind of charter-company, if it may be fo called,,
being foon diffolved for mifconduct and want of fufficient ;
ftock, other merchants were allowed the privilege of fitting out vefFels, even before the return of Yugoff's fhip ; :
and thefe perfons were more fortunate in making newj
difcoveries than the above-mentioned monopolist.
Nikiphor Trapefnikoff, a merchant  of Irkutfk,. ob- voyage of the
Boris and j
tained the'permission of fending out a fhip, called theGlebb-
Boris and Glebb, upon the condition of paying, besides
the tribute which might be exacted, the tenth of all the
furs.     The Coffac Sila Sheffyrin  went on  board this
veffeîï 4o ACCOUNTOFTHE
vefFel for the purpofe of collecting the tribute. They failed
in August:, 1749, fr°m the Kamtchatka river; and reentered it the 16th of the fame month, 1753, with a
large cargo of furs. In the fpring of the fame year,
they had touched upon an unknown ifiand, probably one
of the Aleutians, where feveral of the inhabitants were
prevailed upon to pay a tribute of fea-otter fkins. The
names of the iflanders who had been made tributary,
were Igya, Oeknu, Ogogoektack, Shabukiauck, Xlak,
Tutun, Ononufhan, Rptogèi, Tfchinitu, Vatfch, Afhagat,
Avyjanifhaga, Unafhayupu, L,ak, Yanfhugalik, Umgali-
kan, Shati, Kyipago, and Olofhkot | ; another Aleutian
had contributed three fea-otters. They brought with
them 320 of the best fea-otter fkins, 480 of the fécond,
and 400 of the third fort, 500 female and middle aged,
and'220 medwedki or young ones.
XewTo°i%k"     Andrew Toi ft y k,   a merchant of Selenginfk, having
Ses,61749uan obtained   permission from the chancery of Boliheretfk,
refitted the fame fhip which had made a former voyage ;
he failed from Kamtchatka August the 19th,  1749, anc^
returned July the 3d, 1752.
According to the commander's account, the fhip lay
at anchor from the 6th of September, 1749,. t0 tne 2Cth
*- The author here remarks in a note, that the proper, names of the
iflanders mentioned in this place, and in other parts, bear a furprifing
refemblance, both in their found and termination, to thofe of the Green-
landers.
of RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
of May, 1750, before Beering's Ifiand, where they caught
£»iy 47 fea-otters. From thence they made to thofe
Aleutian Iflands, which were jj firft difcovered by Nevodtfikoff, and flew there 1662 old and middle-aged fea-
otters-, and 119 cubs ; besides which, their cargo consisted of the fkins of 720 blue foxes, and of 840
young fea-bears.
4*
The inhabitants of thefe iflands appeared to have never before paid tribute ; and feemed to be a-kin to the.
Tfchutfki tribe, their women being ornamented with
different figures fewed into the fkin in the manner of that
people, and of the Tungufians of Siberia. They differed
however from them, by having two fmall holes cut
through the bottom of their lander-lips, through each of
which they pafs a bit of the fea-horfe tufts, worked into
the form of a tooth, with a fmall button at one end to
keep it within the mouth when it is placed in the
hole. They had killed, without being provoked, two of
the Kamtchadales who belonged to the fhip. Upon the
third Ifiand fome inhabitants had payed tribute $ their
names were reported to be Anitin, Altakukor, and Alefh-
kut, with his fon Atfchelap, The weapons of the whole
ifiand consisted of no more than twelve fpears pointed
with flint, and one dart of bone pointed with the fame.;
and the Ruffians obferved in the poffeffion of the natives two figures, carved out of wood, refembiing fea-lions.
See Chap. IL
G
August n^
A C C O U N T   OF   THE
August 3, 1750, the vefîel Simeon and-John, fitted'
out by the above-mentioned Wfevidoff, agent for the
Ruffian merchant R. Rybenfkoi, and manned-with four*-
teen Ruffians (who were partly merchants and partly
hunters) and thirty Kamtchadals, failed out for the
difcovery of new iflands, undëir the command, of the
CosTac Vorobieff. They were driven by a violent current?
and tempestuous weather to a fmall defert ifiand, the
pofition whereof is not-determined ; but which was pro*-
bably one of thofe that'lie near Beering^ Ifiand. The fhip
being fo fhattered by the Storm, that it was no longer in a
condition to keep the fea, Vorobieff built another fmall
veffeF with drift-wood, which he called Jeremiah ; in.
which he. arrived at Kamtchatka, in-autumn, 17 52..
Upon the above-mentioned'ifiand were caught 70 a
old and 120 cub fea-otters, 1900 blue foxes, 5700 black
fea-bears, and 1310 Kotiki, or-cub fea-bears*
Voyage of
fro'vikotf and-
Bacchoff froHi
Anadyrik.
A voyage1 made about this time from AnadyrilL.de*
ferves* to-be mentioned*
August 24, 17,49, Simeon Novikoffof Yâkutfk, and-
Ivan Bacchoff of Ustyug,, agents for Ivan Shilkin, failed
from Anadyrik into the mouth of the Kamtchatka river.
They affigned. the infecurity of the road's as their reaibn
for coming, from Anadyrfk to Kamtchatka by fea; on
this account^ having determined « to rifk alLthe dangers-
of H U S S I A N   DISCOVERIES.
•of a fea voyage, they built a vefFel one hundred and
thirty verfts above Anadyr, after having employed two
years and five months in its construction.
43
The narrative of their expedition is as follows.   In !Jar"tive of
■r the Voyage.
1748, they failed down the river Anadyr, and through
two bays, called Kopeikina and Onemenfkaya, where they
found many fand banks, but pasted round them without
difficulty. From thence they Steered into the exterior
gulph, and waited for a favourable wind. Here they faw
lèverai Tfchutfki, who appeared upon the heights Singly
and,not in bodies, as if to reconnoitre; which made
them cautious. They had defcended the river and its
bays in nine days. In palling the large opening of the
exterior bay, they Steered between the beach, that lies to
the left, and a rock near it ; where, at about an hundred
and twenty yards from the rock, the depth of water is
from three to four fathoms. From the opening they
fleered E. S. E. about 50 verfts, in about four fathom
water ; then doubled a fandy point, which runs out directly against the Tfchutfki coaft, and thus reached
the open fea.
From the 10th of July to the 30th,, they were driven
about by tempestuous winds, at no great diftance from
the mouth of the Anadyr ; and ran up the fmall river
Katirka, upon whofe banks dwell the Koriacs, a people
G  2 tributary ACCOUNT   OF   THE
tributary to Ruffia, The/ mouth of the river m from*
sixty to eighty yards broad, from three to four- fathoms*
deep, and abounds in fifh.. From thence they put again
to fea, and after having beat about for fome tkner they
shipwreck up-at  length reached Beering's Ifiand.    Here they lay at
.:—>s
anchor from the 15th of September to the 30th of Oc-*
tober,.when a violent storm blowing right from the fea,,
drove the vefFel upon the rocks,,and dafhed her to pieces.
. The crew however were, faved r and now they looked*;
out for the remains of Beerhi^fs- wreck, in order to employ the materials fo&the conftructing of a boat.. They
fbund= indeed fome remaining materials, but almost entirely rotten,- and the iron-work corroded with ruftv
Having felected however the best: cables, and what*
iron-work was immediately necefiary, and- collected^
drift-wood during the winter,, they builfc with great dif—
Iteulty a fmalkboat, whofe keel:was only.fèventeen Ruffian ells and an half long, and whichtfhey named Capiton.
Î11 this they put to* fea, and/failed- in fearch of an unknown iiland, which they thought they faw lying;
North-east ; but finding themfelves mistaken, they
tacked about, and Stood for Copper Ifiand: from,
thence they failed to Kamtchatka,, where they arrived-at^
the time above-mentioned»
The new conftructed' veffel was granted in property ta'
Ivan Shilkin as fome compenfation for his loffes, and
with the privilege of employing it in a future expedition
to RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
to, the New Difcovered Iflands. Accordingly he failed
herein on the 7th of October, 1757, with a crew of
twenty Ruffians, and the fame number of KamtchadaJ^g
teiwas accompanied by Studentzoff a Coffac, who was
fent to collect the tribute for the crown. An account of
$iis expedition will be given hereafter &*
45
DurnefF, in the-'
August, 1754, Nikiphor Trapefnikoff fitted out thej^*g
Shitik St. Nicholas,, which failed from Kamtchatka *under i|§? *?
Hke command of the Coffac Kodion DurnefF.- He first
^uehed at two of the Aleutian Ifles, and afterwards upon
a third, which had not been yet difcovered. He returned
&> Kamtchatka in 1757.* His cargo- consisted of the
ffems of 1220 fea-otters, of 410 female^ and 665 cubs |
IgfcJLdes which, the crew had obtained in barter from the
ifi&nders the fkins-of 65 2-fea-otters, of 30 female ditto,,
and  50 cubs.
From an account delivered" in the 3d of May, 1758, Narrative of
f? J J      ' J    7 the Voyage.
By DurnefF and Sheffyrin, who was fent as collector of
the tributes, it appears that they failed in ten days as far
as Ataku, on& of the Aleutian Iflands ; that they remained*
there until the year 1757, and dived upon amicable terms;
With the natives,.
The fécond iftgnd,> which is nearest to Ataku, and Defcription of
the Aleutian
which contains the greatest number of  inhabitants,, is m^
* See Chap. V,
«aHed- *&
Account of
Inhabitants.
ACCOUNT   OF    THE
called Agataku ; and the third Shemya : they lie from
forty to fifty verfts asunder. Upon all the three iflands
there are (exclusive of children) but fixty males, whom they
made tributary. The inhabitants live upon roots which
grow wild, and fea animals : they do not employ themfelves
in catching fifh, although the rivers abound with all kinds
of falmon, and the fea with turbot. Their cloaths are
made of the fkins of birds and of fea-otters. The Toigon
or chief of the firft ifiand informed them, by means of a
boy who understood the Ruffian language, that Eastward there- are three large and well-peopled iflands,
Ibiya, Kickfa, and Olas, w'hofe inhabitants fpeak a different language. Sheffyrin and DurnefF found upon the
ifiand three round copper plates, with fome letters engraved upon them, and ornamented with foliage, which
the waves had cast upon the fhore : they brought them,
together with other trifling curiosities, which they had
procured from the natives, to New Kamtchatkoi Oftrog»
Another fhfip built of larchwood by the fame Trapef-
nikoff, which failed in 1752 under the conduct of Alexei
Drufinin.a merchant of Kurfk, had been wrecked at Beering's Island, where the crew conftructed another vefFel
out of the wreck, which they named Abraham. In this
veffel they bore away for the more distant iflands; but
being forced back by contrary winds to the fame ifiand,
and meeting with the St. Nicholas upon the point of failing
for the Aleutian Ifles, they embarked on that fhip, after
having left the new conftructed veffel under the care of
four RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.-
fbur of their own failors. The crew had flain upon Beer- '
mgs Ifiand five fea-otters, 1222 arctic foxes, and 2500
fea-bears; their fhare of the furs, during their expedition
m the St. Nicholas, amounted to the fkins of 500 fea-
otters, and of 300 cubs, exclusive of 2oafeàK)tters-fkînsj»
which they procured by barter.
m
C HAP. A C C O U N f   OF   T#t
c h a p.  m
Voyages from 1753-/0 1756.
Some of tbe further Aleutian or Fox Iflands touched at by>
Serebranikoff's veffeL—Some account of th£ Natives.
* I ^ H R E E vefFels were fitted out for the iflands in
1753, one by Cholodiloff, a fécond by Serebrani-
koff agent for the merchant Rybenfkoy, and the third by-
Ivan Kraffilnikoff a merchant of Kamtchatka.
SpSIÔm Cholodiloff's fhip failed from Kamtchatka the 19th of
1753.°at *' August, the crew whereof consisted of thirty-four per-
fons ; and anchored the 2&th before Beering's Ifiand,
where they propofed to winter, in order to lay-in a
stock of provisions : as they were attempting to land,
the boat overfet, and nine of the crew were drowned.
June 30, 1754? they flood out to fea in quest of new
difcoveries : the weather however proving Stormy and
foggy, and the fhip fpringing a leak, they were all in
danger of perishing : in this situation they unexpectedly-
reached one of the Aleutian Iflands, where they lay from
•îhé-itjtlv'of September until the 9th of July, 1755-. In
5 Sift} the 1TJSSÎA N   D IS € O V E R I E S.
î&eautumn of 1754 they were joined by a Kamtchadal,
and a Koriac : thefe perfons, together with four others,
had deferted from TrapefmkbffV creW; -and had remained upon the ifiand in order to catch Fea-otters for their
own profit. Four of thefe deferters were killed by the
islanders for having debauched their wives : but as the
two perfons above-mentioned were not guilty of the fame
diforderly conô^§S, the inhabitants fupplied them with
women, and lived with them upon the best terms. The
crew killed upon this ifiand above 1600 fea-otters, and
came back fafe to Kamtchatka in autumn 1755.
45>
Seréferàhikoff's vveffel failed in July *753> -manned
alfo with thirty-four RuiBans and Kamtchadals : they
difcovered feveral new iflands, which were probably
fome of the more diftant ones ; but were not fo fortunate ?eerKSoft\
in hunting fea-otters as Cholodiloff's crew. They fleered
S. E. and on the 17 th of August anchored under an unknown ifiand ; whofe inhabitants fpoke a language they
did not understand. Here they propofed looking out for
a fafe harbour ; but were prevented by the coming on of
a fuddënj7florm, which carried away their anchor. The
fhip being toft about for feveral days towards the East,
they difcovered not far from the first ifiand four others :
it ill more to the East three other iflands appeared in fight;
but on neither of thefe were they able to land. Tjf\e
^vfcaÉèi continued driving until the 2d of September, an$
^as considerably fhattered, when they fortunately came
H near 50 A C:jT O U NT   OF   T H E
near an ifland and cast anchor before it^ they were how^-
shipwrecked ever asgèn forced from this station, the ve^l^wi^ckedt
upon one of °
î^tMands^" upon the coaft,. and-the crew with diffict^ty. reached the
fhore.
This ifiand feemed to be oppofîtev$p Katyrfkoi:ï|f/a^^
in the peninsula of Kamtchatka, and near it they faw
three others. Towards trie end of September Demitriî
Trophin, accompanied with nine med^ went out in;
the boat upon an hunting. and reconnoitring* party t:
they were attacked by a large body of inhabitants,- who*
hurled darts from a fmall wooden engine, and wounded ^
one of the company. The firft fire however drove them:
back ; and aMfrough they returned feveral times to the
attack in numerous bodies,\ yet they were, always re^-
pulfed without difficulty.
Account of the     Thefe favascs ma&k and cokftjr their faces late the
Inhabitants. °
Iflanders  abové-mentioacd; f.   and- alfo thruft pieces   of
bone through holes made in thefe under-lipe.*; 3
Soon afterwards the Ruffians were Jwnediin a friendly
manner by ten iflanders, who brought the flefh of fea-
aSimals. and of fea-otters ; this p^fent was thcL more
welcome, as they had lived for feme time upon nothing
but fmall fhell^ftfti and roots; anft hadifiiffered greatly
from hunger.     Several toys were  in celuni dajtri&nfc-*
ed H U S S I A Tf JE) S $/£ O VARIES.
e& among the favages.
June, 1754, ùpon KÛà$ ifland: at that time they departed 33a a fmall vefigl, conftjE^i^teçl Jrom the remains of
the Wreck, and dialled the St. Peter and jfcpjL? in this they
(Handed at Katyrf&oi Nofs:; where having, collected 140
ièa-horfe teeth, they got fafe\4@ the mouth of the Kamtchatka river. lÉÉS
S&
ftruft another.
Veffel, and
'Duong this* voyage twelvje Kamtchadals deferred';
of whom ûk were ffain,, together with a female in-
.3sabfebi{» !U]ê@© oiane of life most distant i$gnds. The
'^eBSfeânJier, upoa^lSbe*r return -to Kamtchatka, were
«examined ; and from them the following circumffances
were: collected. Th^fMan^.ti^here the fhip was wrecked,
is about 7$ i1*erfetaig, and 20 broad. Around it lie
twelve other JUaaids of different Sizes, from five to ten
^verfts disantHorn, each pother. Eight of them appear
to be no^niaTe than ^ive ver% long., .A.11 thefe iflands
«contain about a thoufanql fe?#. The dwellings of the
inhabitants are provided with no other furniture tl^aia
lynches, and mats of platted grafs*. Their drefs consists
<x6 a kind of ^htefe ma$e of bird-fl^ins^ and of an upper
garmeaai:. of intestines stitclaed together;; $hey wear woodmen caps, cffnamented wit&va fmall piece of j board pro-
je«5ting "forwards, asdte feemed, for a defence against the
arrows.    Theyram(S^>pfo^ided w^Ji ;ftone knives, and a
* Matten aus einem gevifTen Krautgeflochten-,
few Shipwrecked
upon Copper
Ifiand.
A CHOMEE 'N T   OF   T & ET
few of them poffefs iron ones: their only weapons-afe
arrows with points of* bone or flint, which they fh©0#;
from a wooden instrument* There are no trees upon;
the ifland: it produces however the cow-parfSrip*, whieiis
grows at Kamtchatka. The climate is by no meaaasi
fevere^ for the fnow does not-lie upon-tfe ground above-
a month, in the year.» pptrib.;
Kraffihsikoff's vefleF failed in 1754; and anchoredjoœ
the 18th of October before Beering's ifland ; I  where alb
the fhips wlftehmake to the New -Difcovered Iflands arei*
accuftomed to winter, in ordèrto procure a flock of falted-
provisions from the fea-cows and other* amphibious a»&£
mais, that are found in  great abundance.     Here they*
refitted the vefFel, which-had been damaged by driving',
upon her anchor ;  and having laid in a sufficient ftoref
of all  neceffaries^  weighed the   rft of Auguny 1754*
The 10th they were in fight'' of an   ifland, the: coafb
whereof was  lined with such a number of^ifi&abitants^
that they durst not venture afhore.    Accordingly they,
flood out to fea, and being overtaken- by a storm,  they,
were reduced to great diflrefs  for  want of water;: "at*
length they were driven upon Copper Ifland, where they
landed ; and having taken in wood and water, they agai»
fet fail.    They  were  beat  back however by  contrary
winds, and dropped both^heir anchors near the fhore ;
but the ftorm increasing at night, both the cables were
broken, and the fhip dafhed to pieces upon the coaft.
* Heracleum»
All RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
All the crew were fortunately faved ; and means were
found to get afhore the fhdp's tackle, ammunition, guns,
and the remains of the wreck ; the provisions, however,
were moftly fpoiled. Here they were expofed to a variety of misfortunes ;• three* of them were drowned on the
115th of October, as they wrere going, to hunt ; others
almost perifhed with hunger, having no ndurifhment but
fmall fhell-fifh and roots. On the 29th of December great:
part of the fhip's tackle, and- all the wood, which > they
had collected from the wreck, was wallied.away during;
an high fea., Notwithstanding their diftreffes, they com-
tinued their hunting parties, and caught. 10.3 Fea-otters,,
together with 1390 blue foxes..
S3
In fpring they put to fea for Beeririg's Ifland in twoThéCrèw>
* ° ■ J ■  r ° -   - reach Beering'»-
baidars, : carrying with them . all the ammunition, 5 fire^ BatdarJ.n two
arms,, and remaining tackle. Having reached that ifland,;
they found the. fmall. veffel Abraham, under the care of
the four failors who had been left afhore-by the crewr of
TrapefnikofPs fhip* : but as that veffel was not large
enough to contain the whole.number, together with their
«egjgo of furs, they staid until Serebranikoff's and Tolftyk's
vefFels arrived.. Thefe took in eleven of the crew, with
;'ÂEÎË:part-. of the furs. Twelve remained at Beering's
Ifland,. where they killed great numbers of arctic foxes,
and returned to Kamtchatka in the Abraham, excepting,
two, who joined Shilkin's crew.j
See the preceding chapter.
C H A R .**
AC C OîîNT   OJF   TH'I
(C H AV.    V*
'Voyage
AndreaU
ftyk
the Aleutian
.Mes.
Voyages from 17 56 to r75 8.
;nofTolOEPTEMBER 17, 1756, the -veffël Andrean and
-6toO Natalia, fitted out by Andrean "Tdlftyk, merchant
of Selenginfk, and manned with tthirty-eight Ruffians
and Kamtchadals, failed from -the mouth of the Kamtchatka river. The autumnal storms coming on, and
a fcarcity *of .provifions enfuing, they made to Beering's
Jfland, wliere ?they ^continued until Êhe 14th of June,
1757. A-s no 3ea-0£ters came on fhore that winter, they
skilled ^nothing but ieals, fea-lions, and fea-cows ; whole
flefh ferved them for provision, and their #ins for the
^coverings of baidars.
June 13, 1757, t^eT weighed anchor, and -after
eleven days farfâng came to Ataku, one of the Aleutian
ifles difcovered by Nevodtfikoff. Here they found the
inhabitants, as well of that as of the other two iflanlfej
affembled; thefe iflanders had jaffc taken leave of the
crew of Trapefnikoff's vefFel, which had failed for
Kamtchatka. The Ruffians feized -this oppca^&ariity of
jperfuading them to pay tribute,;   with this view they
beckoned RUSSIAN DISCOVERIES. 5$
beckoned the Toigon, whofe name was Tunulgafen : the
latter recollected one of the crew, a Koriac,,who Had;
formerly been left upon thefe iflands, and who knew
fbmewhat of their language.    A copper kettle, a fur
and cloth coat, a pair of breeches* stockings and boots*,
were bestowed* upon this chief,. who was prevailed upoçt^ .-.
by thefe prefents to pay tribute.    Upon his departure
for his own ifland, he lefrbehind him^three women and;
a boy, in order to be taughç the. Ruffian .language,-whicht
the latter very foon learned..
The Rhffians wintered upon this ifland,, and divided ]
themfelves,;as usual, into different hunting parties : they
were-, compelled,, by ftormy weather, to remain there-
until the 17th of June, 1758 : before they went away,,
the above-mentioned chief returned with his family, and*
paid \ a year's, tribute...
This veflef brought to Kamtchatka the most circum--
ffantial account of the Aleutian ifles which had been, y^fr
received.*
The two  largest' contained at that: time about1 fifty ^^S^,
ipales, with whom the Russians had live^-.^great hgr- -_
mony.    They heard of a fourth- ifland, lying at fome
diftance frçH9^ the third, called by the natives Iviya, j $$i$::
which they did not reach ! on account of ; the tempestuous:.
weather.
TJbte ACCOUNT   OF   THE
The firft ifland is about an hundred verfts long and.
from five to twenty broad. They estimated the diftance
from the firft to the fécond, which lies 'East by South, to
be about thirty verfts, and about forty from the latter to
the third, which stands South East. 'The original drefs
of the iflanders was made of the fkins of birds, fea-otters
and feals, which were tanned ; but the greatest part had
procured from the 'Ruffians dog-fkrn coats, and undergarments of fheep-fkin, which they were very fond of.
They are reprefented as naturally talkative, quick of apprehension, and much attached to the Ruffians. Their
dwellings are .hollowed in the ground, and covered with
wooden roofs refembling the huts in the peninfula of
Kamtchatka. "Their principal food is the rlefh of fea
a«imals, "which they harpoon with their bone lances;
they alfo feed upon lèverai Species of roots and berries :
namely •* cloud-berries, crake-berries, bilberries, and fer-
vices. The rivulets abound with falmon, and other
fifh of the trout kind Similar to thofe of Kamtchatka ;
and the fea with turbot, which are caught.with bone
hooks.
Thefe iflands produce quantities of small ofiers and
underwood, but no large trees ? the sea however drives
afhore fir and larch,  sufficient for the construction }ox*
Rubus Chamasmorus—Empetrum—Myrtillus — Sorbm
their RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
their huts. There are a great number of arctic foxes
upon the first ifland, as well as fea-otters ; and the
fhores, during ftormy weather, are covered with wild
geefe and ducks.
The Ruffians, according to the order of the chancery
of Bolcheretfk, endeavoured to perfuade -the Toigon of
thefe iflands to accompany them to Kamtchatka, but
without fuccefs: upon their departure they distributed
among the iflanders fome linen, and thirteen nets for
the purpofe of catching fea-otters, which were very
thankfully received. This vefFel brought to Kamtchatka
the fkins of 5030 old and'young fea-otters, of 1040
old and young arctic foxes, and of 330 Medwedki or
cubs of fea-otters.
ïn the year 1757, Ivan Nikiphoroff, a merchant of
Mofcow, fitted out a veffel : but we have no further account of this voyage, than that Use failed to the Fox
iflands, at least as far as Umnak.
57.
The fmall véffel Capiton,   the fame that was  built voyage of
Ivan Shilkin ia
upon Beering's Ifland, and which was given to the mer-tkCaPitoa
chant * Ivan Shilkin, put to fea September 26,   1757,
carrying on board the Coffac Ignatius Studentfoff, who
has given the following account of the voyage.
See chap. III.
I
Thev 58
ACCOUNT    OF    THE
Shipwrecked
upon one of
the Fox
Iûands.
They had not long failed, before they wrere driven
rback to the fhore of Kamtchatka by ftrefs of weather,
and the vefFel stranded; by which accident they loft the
rudder and one of the crew. This misfortune prevented
•them from putting to fea again until the following year,
with thirty-nine of the orignal crew, feveral perfons
being left behind on account of sîçknefs. They made
^atectly to Beering's Ifland, where they took up two
of Krafilnikoff's crew *, who had been fhipwrecked.
They again fet fail-in August of the fame year, and
touched at the nearest Aleutian Ifles, after fuffering
greatly from storms. Ti*ey then contim*ed their courfe
to Jthe remoter iflands lying between East and South
East; and having paffed by the firft, tfeey anchored before the fécond. A boat being immediately lent out
towards the fhore, the crew was attacked by a numerous, body of Iflanders in fo sudden a manner,
that they had feareely ;time to fecure themfelves by returning to the veffel. .They had-no fooner got aboard,
than a violent gale of wind blowing from the fhore
broke the cable, and drove them out tOj^ea. The weather became fudjdenly thick and foggy ; and render thefe
circumstances the vefFel was force(Jr*apon arjjgnall ifl^HSÎ-'
at no great diftance from the oti^er, and, f^pwtfieltfô-
The crew got to fhore with (M^cajgy, and were able ta
fave nothing but the fire arms and ammunition.
* See chap. IV.
They RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
£3
They had fcarcely got to land, before they were befet
by a number of favages, rowing in baidars from the
Western point of the ifland. This attack was the more
to be dreaded, becaufe feveral of the Ruffians were dif-
abled by cold and wet; and there remained only fifteen
capable of defending themfelves. They advanced however without hesitation to the iflanders; and one Nicholas TfiuprofF (who had a flight knowledge of their
language) accosted and endeavoured to footh them, but
without fuccefs. For upon their approach the favages
gave a fudden fhout, and faluting them at the fame
time with a volley of darts, wounded one perfon in the
hand. Upon this the Ruffians fired, killed two of the
affailants, and forced the remainder to retire ; and although a frefh body appeared in fight, as if they were
coming to the affiftance of their companions, yet no
new attack was made. Soon afterwards the favages
left the ifland, and rowed acrofs the ftrait.
From the 6th of September to the 23d of April, they
underwent all the extremities of famine : during that period their beft fare was lhell-fifh and roots ; and they
were even at times reduced to still the cravings of their
appetite with the leather, which the waves wafhed afhore
from the wreck. Seventeen died of hunger, and the rest
would foon have followed their companions, if they had
not fortunately difcovered a dead whale, which the fea
I  2 had ACCOUNT    OF    THE
had càft afhore. They remained upon this ifland another
winter, where they killed 230 fea-otters; and having
built a fmall vefFel out of the remains of the wreck,
they put to fea in the beginning of fummer 1760.
They had fcarcely reached one of the Aleutian iflands,
where Serebranikoff's veffel lay at anchor, when they
were again fhip wrecked, and loft all the remaining,
tackle and furs. Only thirteen of the crew now remained, who returned on board the above-mentioned,
VefFel to Kamtchatka July 17 51.
CHAP. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
6*
CHAP.
VL
Voyages in 1758, 1759, and-1*760—to tbe Fox Iflands—
in tbe St. Vl&àimiVrfitted out by Trapefnikoff—and in
theGabriel, ^y'Betfhevin—The latter under the command
of Pufhkareff fails to Alakfuflr Alachfkak, one of the
remotefi- Eafiern Iflands. hitherto, vifited—Some account
of its inhabitants,, and productions, which latter are d/f*
I   forent from thofe of the more, Weftern Iflands.
QEPTEM'BER 1758, the merchant ^^^^^Ê^J^fj^
*-* nikoff and Nikiphor Trapefnikoff fitted out two vef- SSf.f^l'
fels for the purpofe. of. catching fea otters. One of thefe
vefFels, called the St. Vladimir, failed*the 28th under the
command of Demetri Paikofly carrying on board the Coffac Sila Shaffyrinc'as collector of the tribute, and a crew
of forty-five mem In-twenty-four hours they reached
Beering's Ifland, where they wintered. July 16, 1759*
they fleered towards the South in order to difcover land;
but being difappointed, they bore away, to the North for
the Aleutian Ifles :: being prevented however by contrary
winds from reaching them,, they failed ftreight towards
the distant iflands,. which are known at prefent under
the name of Lyffie Oftrova or the Fox Iflands,   Septem-'Arnvai at &*
J r Fox Ifland...
ber i, they reached the first: of thefe, called by the natives*
Atehu, and by the Ruffians Goreloi. orthe Burnt Iflands
but». ACCOUNT    OF    THE
but as the coaft s were very Steep and craggy, they made
to Amlak, lying at a fmall diftance, where they determined to pafs the winter. They divided themfelves accordingly into three parties; the firft, at the head of
which was Alexey Dioifi-ntrl, Went over to a fmall ifland
called in the journal Sitkin ; the Coffac Shaffyrin led the
fécond, consisting of ten perfons, to the ifland Atach;
and Simeon Polevoi remained aboard with the reft of the
crew. All thefe iflands were well peopled; the men had.
bones thrust through their ears, under lips, and- griftle
of their nofes; and the faces of the women wer emarked
with blackifh streaks made with a needle and thread in
the fkin, in the fame manner as a Goffac one of the crew
hjad' obferved before upon fome of the Tfchutfki. The
inhabitants had no iron; the points of their darts and
laâces were tipped with bone and flint.
They at firft imagined, that Amlak was uninhabited ;
but in one of their hunting parties they found a boy of
eight years old, whom they brought with them: they
gave him the name of Hermolai, and taught him the
Ruffian language, that he might féftye as antlnterpreter.
After penetrating further they difcovered an hut, wherein
were two women, four men, and as many boys, whom-
they treated kindly, and employed in hunting, fifhing,
and in digging roots. This kind behaviour encouraged
odïers to pay frequent visits, and to exchange fifh and
fiefh for goats hair, horfës manes, and glafs beads.
i They RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
They procured alfo four other iflanders with their wives,
who dug roots for them : and thus the winter palFed
away without any difturban.ee.
In the spring the hunting parties returned ; during
thefe excursions one man alone was killed upon the ifland
Atach, and his fire-arms taken away by the natives.
June 1760, the fame parties were fent again to the fame
iflands. Shaffyrin, who headed one of the parties, was
foon afterwards killed, with eleven men, by the inhabitants of Atach, but for what reafon is not known.—
Drufinin received the first information of this masTacre
from fome inhabitants of Sitkin,, where he then was;
and immediately fet out with the remaining hunters to
join their companions, who were left on board. Although he succeeded in regaining the vefFel,, their number was by. this time fo considerably reduced that their
fituâtion appeared:very dangerous: he was foon however
.Sieved from his àff|?rehenflons---ifr the arrival of the
merchant Betflsevki's veffel at the ifland of Atchu*. The
two crews  entered into partnership:   the  St. Vladimir
-jgeeived twenty-two men, and-transferred eleven of her
own- to the other veffel. The former wintered at Amlak,
and the latter continued at anchor before Atchu.
63
I At-ach'and Atchurafe-tw^-.names for the fame ifland, called alfo by
the Ruffians Goreloi or Burnt Ifland.   This ifland and Amlak are pro-
;'bablytv¥o-Gf the-AEdreaH-offs'ky ïlLes,  'See-p. 289.^
This-* ^
A C C 0
O E    THE
This veffel-, fitted out at the expence of Betfhevin, a
merchant of Irkutfk, -was called Gabriel ; and put to fea
from the mouth of the Bolfhaia Reka July 31ft, 1760.
She wTas manned with forty Ruffians and twenty Karnt-
chadals, and carried on board Gabriel Pufhkareff, of the
•garrifon of Ochotfk, Andrew Shdanoff, Jacob Sharypoff,
Prokopèi Lobafhkoff, together with Nikiphor Golodoff,
and Aphanaffèi Ofkoloff, Betflievin's agents.
Having failed through the fécond strait of the Kuriil
I lies, they reached the Aleutian Ifles on the 24th of
August. They Stood out from thence in order to make
new difcoveries among thofe more remote iflands, which
lie in one continued chain to the extent of 15 degrees of
longitude.
aTowof* September 25 they reached Atchu, or Burnt Ifland,
•saefoxiflands. and found the above-mentioned fhip, the St. Vladimir,
lying twenty verfts from that ifland, before Amlak, in
danger of being attacked by the iflanders. They immediately joined crews in order to enable the enfeebled company of the St. Vladimir to continue hunting; and, as it is
ufual in fuch cafes, entered into a contract for the division
of the profit. During that winter the two crews killed
partly upon Siguyam, abosit 800 fea otters of different
sizes,  about 100 medwedki or cubs, fome river otters
above RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
above 400 red, greyi$i,  and black foxes, and collected
twelve pood of jfea-horlVfëetru tiffin
65
In June, of the following year, the two crews were *
distributed equally on bo^rd the two vefFels : Kraffilni-
koff's remained at Aaifek, with an intention of returning
tfl Kamtchatka ; and Betfligvin's put to fea from Atchu in
quest of other iflands. They touched first at Umnak, departs from
where they met Nikiphoroff's veffel. Here they took
in wood and water, and repaired their fails: they then
failed to the moft rejnote ifland AJafefu % or Alachfhak, ^S. upoa
where, having laid up the fhip in a bay, they built huts,
and made preparations for wintering. This ifland was
V^ry well inhabited, and the natives behaved at firft in a
ygcy^iy^ndly manner, for$fe#y traJRelçed with the Ruffians, awJ even delivered up nine of -their children as
hoftages; ku£ fuch was the lawlefs and irregular behaviour of thfk§|w, : th&t the iflanders were foon irf&tated
^an^ provojfeed to hostilities.
In January 1762, Golodofj£$nd Pufhkareff went with
a#ajBlffrbf twenty men along the fhore; and, as they were
afMPpting to violate fome girls upon the ifland Uny-
umga, were Furprifed by a numerous body of the natives : Golodoff and another Ruffian were killed, and
three were wounded.    Not long afterwards the watch of
* This is probably the fame ifland which is laid down in Krenitzin's
chart under the name of Alaxa.
K
the A C C au NT    OF    THE
the crew was Fuddenly attacked by the iflanders; four
men were flain upon the fpot, as many wounded, and'
the huts reduced to afhes.-
May 3-, Lobafchkoff and another Ruffian were killed J
as they were going to bathe in the warm fprings, which-
lie about five verfts from the haven: upon which feven
of the hostages were put to death.   The fame month the
natives attempted to furprife the Ruffians- in their-huts;
but being fortunately difcovered in time were repulfed byn
means of the fire arms.   At length the Ruffians, finding*
themfelves in continual- danger   from   thefe   attempts,
weighed'anchor, and failed for Umnak, where they took
up two inhabitants with their wives and  children,   in*
order to fhew them other iflands.   They were prevented*'
however by tempestuous weather from reaching them;-
and were driven out to fea Westward with such violence,
that all their fails were carried'away : at length on the-
23d of September they struck against land, which they
took for the peninfula of Kamtchatka;  and they found
it to be the district of Stobblfkoi Oftrog.    Six men were
immediately difpatched in the fmall boat and two baidars
to land: they carried with them feveral girls (who had-
been brought from the New-difcovered iflands)' in order
to gather berries.   Mean while the crew endeavoured to-
ply the fhip to the windward.   When the boat returned,,
thofe on board were fcarcely able, on  account of the
ftorm, to row to the fhip, and to catch hold of a rope^
4 which* RtSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
*which was flung out to them. Two men remained with
*the baidars, and were afterwards carried by fome Kamt-
xhadals to New Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. The fhip without
one fail remaining was driven along the coaft of Kamtchatka towards Avatcha, and about feventy verfts from
that harbour'rati into the bay of Kalatzoff on the 25 th
of September. Their cargo consisted of the fkins of
900 old and young fea-otters, and of 350 foxes.
67
Pufhkareff and his crew had during this voyage behaved with such inhumanity towards" the iflanders, that
they were brought to trial in the year 1764; and the
above-mentioned account is taken from the concurring
evidence of feveral Witneffes. It appears alfo, that they
brought away from Atchu and Amleg two Aleutian men
and three boys, Ivan an Aleutian interpreter, and above
twenty women and girls whom they debauched. Ivan,
and one of the boys whom they called Mofes, were the
only perfons who arrived at Kamtchatka. Upon their
first approach to that coaft, fourteen women were fent
afhore to dig roots and to gather berries. Of thefe, two
ran away, and a third was killed, as they wrere returning
to the fhip by one Gorelin : upon this the others in a fit
of defpair leaped into the fea and were drowned. All
the remaining Aleutians, excepting the two perfons above-
mentioned, were immediately thrown overboard by Pufh-
karefPs order. The account which follows, although it
is found in the depositions, does not deferve to be entirely
credited in all particulars.
K  2 The 63
ACCOUNT    OF    THE
Account of
the Inhabitant
of Alakftt.
The natives of the above-mentioned iflands are very
tall and strongly made.- They make their cloaths of
the fkins of birds; and thrust bones through their un-
der-lips by way of ornament. They were faid to strike
their.nofes until they bled, in order to fuck the blood;
but we are informed from fubfequent accounts, that the
blood thus drawn from themfelves was intended for other
purpofes || They were accufed even of murdering their
own children in order to drink their blood;, but this
is undoubtedly an invention of the criminals, who re-
prefented the iflanders in the moft hideous colours,, ia
order to excufe their own cruelties. Their dwellings
under-ground are Similar to thofje of the Kamtchadals ;;
and have several openings on the fides, through which
they make their efcape when the principal entrance is,
befet by an enemy. Their weapons consist of arrows
and lances pointed with bone, which they dart at at
confiderable diftance.
The ifland Alakfu is faid to contain rein-deer, bears,.
wild boars,  wolves,  otters, and a fpecies of dogs with
..long ears,, which are very fierce and wild.    And as the.
greatest part of thefe animals are not found upon thofe
Fox Iflands which lie nearer to the weft, this circum-
* It appears in the lafl .chapter of this tranflation, that the iflanders are
accuftomed to glue on the point of their darts with blood ; and that this.
Tfras the real motive to the practice mentioned, in. the text.
fiance; RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
ffance feems to prove that Alakfu is situated at no great
diftance from the Continent of America. As to red,
black, and grey foxes, there is fo large a quantity, that
they are feen in herds of ten or twenty at a time. Wood
is driven upon the coaft in great abundance'. The
ifland produces no large trees, having only fome underwood, and a great variety of bulbs,, roots, and berries.
The coasts are frequented by large flocks of fea-birds,
the fame which are obferved upon the fhore of the fea_
©f Penfhinfk*.
69
August 4, 175 9, the Peter and Paul, fi tted out at the J°]r
expence of the merchant Rybenfkoi by his agent An- 5^
drew Serebranikoff, and manned, with thirty-three perfons, fet fail from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river.
They fleered fouthwards until the 20th of September
without feeing any land, when they flood for the Aleutian Ifles, one of which they reached the 27th of September. They remained there until the 24th of June,
1761 ; during which time they killed upon this and
the two other iflands 1900 old and young fea-otters?
and obtained 450 more by bartering with the iflanders.
The Coffac Minyachin, who was on board as collector
of the tribute, calls in his account the first ifland by the
Ruffian name of Krugloi,. or Round Ifland, which he
fuppofes to be about sixty verfts in circumference : the
largest ifland lies thirty verfts from thence, and is about
an hundred and fifty round :, the smallest is about thirty
verfts
age of the
and Paul
Aleutian 531
7o AOCOUNTOE   THF
verfts from the latter, and is forty in circumference*
Thefe three iflands contain feveral high rocky mountains. The number of inhabitants were computed to
be about forty-two men, without reckoning women
and children.
CHAP. RUSSIAN   BISCOVERIES,
C H A jg   vm
Voyage of Andrean Tolftyk in the'St. Andrean and Nata^
lia;—Difcovery of fome New Iflands called AndreanofF- -
fkye Oftrova—Defcription of fix of thofe Iflands*.
K | .^HE most remarkable voyage hitherto made*is that
of the St. Andrean and Natalia, of which the fol—
lowing extract is drawn from the Journals of the two !
Coffacs, Peter-Wafyutinfkoi and Maxim Lafaroff.    This
veffèl, fitted out by the above-mentioned merchant An*
drean Tolftyk, weighed from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river -September 27, 176©;. fhe stood out to fea
right Eastwards,   and on the   29th  reached*Beering's-
Iflands There fhe lay at anchor in a bay, from whence
the crew brought all the tackle and lading afhore.   Soon,
afterwards they were driven upon the fhorer by a violent
autumnal ftorm, without any other damage than the lofs
of an anchor*   Here they paffed the winter;; and, having |
refitted their veffel,   put to fea June 24, 1761 :  they
paffed by Copper Ifland, which lies about an hundreds
and fifty.verfts from the former, and fleered 'S. E. forwards the Aleutian Ifles, which they did not reach before
the 6th of August.    They cast anchor in an open bay
near Attak^in-order to procure an interpreter from the .
Toigom. 7a
Reaches
Ayaghi «
the And]
nofflky*
ïflaods.
4 8Q0UNT    OF    THE
Toigon Tunulgafen; but the latter being dead, they fent
prefents to the Toigon Bakutun. As there were already
three fhips lying at anchor before this ifland, on the 19th
they again Stood out to fea in quest of the more distant
iflands, for the purpofe of exacting a tribute. They
carried on board a relation of the Toigon Bakutun, who
had a flight knowledge of the Rufîïàn language. They
fleered N. E. and N. E. by E. and were driven, on the
28th, by a high gale of wind towards an ifland, before
which they immediately cast anchor. The fc^owiqg
morning the two Coffacs with a party of eight perfons
went afhore to reconajpitre the ifland ; they j&sv no inha* '
bttants. August 30, the vefM was brought into a fafe
bay. The next day fome of the crew were fent afh&ce
to proaire wood, that the fhip might be refitted; bmfc
thecewere no large Arees to be met wâtk upon the whole
ofifland.   Lafkx^jaiio was one of the party,  had been
"there before hi §©rcbranikofPs veffel: he called the ifland
{*îàyagh orKayaghii; and another, which lay about the
diffance of twenty verfts, Kanaga. As they were re-
ttuening to tke fhip, they faw two iflanders rowing in
fmall canoes towards Kanaga, one of whom hadifèrtved
-as an interpreter, and was known to Lafaroff. The latter accordingly made tihem a prefent of fornp;frefh provision, which the others gratefully accepted, and then :
continued their conrfe acrofs the ftrait to Kanâga. Soon
afterwardsilUafaroff 3nâ eight men roared over to èhat
ifland ; and having invited the Toigon, who was a relation RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
tion of the above-mentioned interpreter, to pay them a
visit at Kayachu, they immediately returned to the fhip.
Near the place where they lay at anchor, a rivulet
falls into the bay; it flows from a lake that is about
two or three verfts in circumference, and which is formed
"from a number of fmall Springs. Its courfe is about
«eight verfts long; and in fummer feveral fpecies of Salmon and other fifh, similar to thofe which are found at
Kamtchatka, afcend the stream as far as the lake.
n
Lafaroff was employed in stfhing in this rivulet, When
the Toigon of Kanaga, accompanied with a confiderable
number of the natives in fifteen baidars, arrived at the
fhip : he was hofpitably entertained, and received feveral
prefents. The Ruffians feized this opportunity of per-
•fuading the iflanders to acknowledge themfelves fubject
fto the Emprefs, and to pay a regular tribute i to which
they made no great objection. By means of the interpreter, the following information was obtained from the
Toigon. The natives chiefly fubfift upon dried fifh and
other fea animals. They catch * turbot of a very large
size, and take Teals by means of harpoons, to which they
fasten ]bladders. They fifh for cod with bone hooks,
and lines made of a long and tough fpecies of fea-wTeed,
N The author adds, that thefe turbot [paltus] wei^h; occafionaljy 4ëréa\
or eight pood.
L which 74"
ACCOUNT    OF    THE
which they dip in frefh water and draw out to the Size
of a fine packthread.
As foon as the vefFel was laid up in a secure place*
Tolftyk,. Vaffyutin, and Lafaroff, with feveral others,
went in four baidars to Kanaga. The firft remained
upon that ifland; but the two others rowed in two baidars to Tfetchina, which is feparated from Kanaga by a.
strait about feven verfts in breadth: the iflanders received them amicably, and promifed to pay tribute».
The feveral parties returned all fafe to Kayachu, without
having procured any furs. Soon afterwards Tolftyk dif-
patched fome hunters in four baidars to Tagalak, Atchu,
and Amlak, which lay to the Eafi of Kayachu: none of
thefe parties met with any opposition from the natives t
they accordingly remained with great tranquillity upon
thefe feveral iflands until the year 1764^ Their success
in hunting was not however very great ; for they caught
no more than 18 80 full grown fêa-otters, 778 middle-
aged, and 372 cubs.
ofSnTrea-     Tne following is LafarofPs defcription of the above-
Sands*       mentioned fix, iflands *• which lie in a chain fomewhat
to the North Weft of the Fox Iflands, and muft not be
blended with them.     The   first   certain   account  was.
brought by  this vefielr the St.  Andrean and Natalia,
* Thefe are the fix Iflands defcribed by Mr. Stœhlin in his defcriptioa.
of the New Archipelago.   See Appendix I. N° V.
from, ■■I
RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
from whence they are called the Andreanofflkie Oftrova,
or the Iflands of St. Andrean.
Ayagh is about an hundred and fifty verfts in circum- Ayash*
ference: it contains feveral high and rocky mountains, ;
the intervals of which are bare heath and moor ground :
not one forest tree is to be found upon the whole iiland.
The vegetables feem for the moft part like thofe which ffe
grow in Kamtchatka.    Of berries there are found I crow
or crake-berries and the larger fort of bilberries, but in
fmall quantities.   -Of the roots of burnet and all kinds of
fnake weed, there is fuch an abundance as to afford, in
cafe of neceffity, a plentiful provision for the inhabitants.
The above-mentioned rivulet is the only one upon the
ifland.    The number of inhabitants cannot fufficiently
-be afcertained, hecaufe the natives pàfs continually from
ifland to ifland in their baidars.
:_ Kanaga ftands Weft from Ayagh, and is two hisndred Kanaga.
"verfts in circumference. It contains an high volcano,
where the natives find fulphur in fummer. At the foot
of this mountain are hot fprings, wherein they occasionally boil their provision. There is no rivulet upon this
ifland : and the low grounds are similar to thofe of
Ayagh. The inhabitants are reckoned about two hundred fouls.
* Empetrura, Vaccin, Uliginofum, Sanguiforba, & Biftorta. ^*i" ,
L   2 Tfetchina 76
ACCOUNT    OF    THE
Tfètchina fies Eastward about forty verfts from Kanaga^,
and is about eighty in circumference.   It is full of rocky
mountains, of which the Bielaia ISopka, or the White
Peak, is the highest:.    In the valley there are alfo fome >
warm  fprings, but  no rivulet abounding in fifh : thé ;
ifland contains only four families*.
Tagalak is forty verfts in circumference, ten Eafi from •
Tfetchina: it contains a few rocks, but neijther rivialets-,
with fifh, nor any vegetable production fit for nourifh-
nxent. The coasts are rocky, and dangerous to approach
in baidars. Tim idland is alfo inhabited by na more;
than four families.
Ateta lies in the fame pofttioa. forty verfts diftânt
from Tagalak, and is about ui$e& fandised in circumfe->
rence :. near it is an harbour,, where fhips may ride fe—
ourely at anchor. It contains many rocky mountains;
and feveral small rivulets fchat fall into the fea, and of
which one running Eastwards abounds in fifh. The
•roots which tiave just before been mentioned, and bulbs
of white lilies, are found there in plenty.. Ils inhabitants
amount to about Sixty ionfe WM
Amlak is a mountainous ifland Standing to the Eaft
more than feven verfts from Atchn, and is alfo three
hundred in circumference.    It contains the fame number RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
ber of inhabitants as Atchu, has a commodious haven,
and produces roots in abundance. Of feveral fmall
rivulets there is one only which flows towards the
North, that contains any fifh. Besides thefe a cluster of
other iflands were obferved stretching farther to the
j^aft, which were not touched upon *
The inhabitants of thefe fix iflands are tributary to
Ruffia. They live in holes dug in the earth, in which t
$jsey make no fires even in winter. Their clothes are \
made like fhirts, of the fkins of the * guillimot and puffin, which they catch with fpringes. Over thefe in rainy
weather they wear an upper garment, made of the bladders and other.dried intestines of feals and fea-lions oiled
and stitched together. They catch.cod and turbot with,
bone-hooks, and eat them raw. As they never lay-in a
store of provision, they fuffer greatly from hunger in
ftormy weather, when they cannot go out to fifh; at
wfcich time they are red&ced to live upon fmall fhel3-
fifli and fea-wrack, wrhich they pick up upon the beach
and eat raw. In May and June they kill fea-otters in the
following manner : When the weather is calm, they
row out to fea in feveral baidars: having found the animal, . they strike him with harpoons, and follow him foci ofely, that he cannot easily efcape. They take fea dogs:
in the fame manner. In the fevereft weather they make.
no addition to their usual cloathing.., In order £q. warm
* Golymbus Troile-, Alca Arctica. •
4 themfeLves.-. ACCOUNT    O
THE
themfelves in winter, whenever it freezes very hard,
they burn a heap of dry grafs, over which they stand
and catch the heat under their clothes. The clothes of
the women and children arejmade of fea-otter fkins, in
the fame form as thofe belonging to the men. Whenever they pals the night at a diftance from home, they
dig a hole in the earth, and lay themfelves down in it,
covered only with their clothes and matts of platted grafs.
Regardlefs of everything but the prefent moment, destitute
of religion, and without the least-appearance of decency^
they feem but few-degrees removed from brutes.
As foon as the feveral baidars fent out upon hunting
parties were returned, and the veffel got ready for «their
departure, the Toigons of thefe iflands (excepting Kanaga) came in baidars to Tolftyk, accompanied with a
Confiderable number .of the natives; their names were
Tfarkulini, Tihunila, Kayugotlk and Mayatok. They
brought with them a voluntary tribute, making prefents
of pieces of. dried falmon, and unanimouily exprefling
their fatisfaction upon the good conduct of the Ruffians.
Tolftyk gave them in return fonae toys and other trifles,
and defired them to recommend to the inhabitants of the
other iflands . the like friendly behaviour towards the
Ruffian merchants who fhould come amongft them, if
they had a mind to be treated in the fame manner.
June RUSSIAN   DI SCO V E R^I ES. 79
June 14, 1764, they failed for Kamtchatka, and anchored on the 19th before Shemiya, one of the Aleutian
Iflands. The 2 $&j they .were forced from their anchor
by tempeftuous winds, and driven upon a rocky fhore.
This accident obliged them to fend the lading afhore, and
to draw the fhip upon land in order to repair the damage;
which" was done not without great difficulty. On the
18th of August they stood out to fea and made towards >^%'
Atchu, which they reached on the 20th. Having
lpTung a leak they again refitted the veffel ; and, after
taking on board the crew of à-'fhip which had been
lately cast: away, they failed for Kamtchatka. On the ™^Vetei .
4th of September they came in fight of that peninfula KamtdmkL/
near TZafchminfkoi Oftrogi and on the 18th, as they
were endeavouring to run into the mouth of the Kamtchatka river, they were forced by a florin upon the
eoaft. The veffel was destroyed-, and the greatest: part
©I/thevcargo loft.'
C H A PV ACCOUNT    OF    THE
m   h   a   p.
.vm*
Voyage of the Zacharias and Elisabeth, fitted out by Kul*
koff, and commanded by Drufinin—They fail to Umnak
and Unalafhka, and winter upon the latter ifiand-^-Tbe
veffel deftroyed; and -all the crew, except four, murdered
by the iflanders—-The adventures of thefe four Ruffians,
and their wonderful efcape.
T SHALL here barely mention that a vçffçl was fitted
out in Auguft, 1760, at the expence of Terrenti
Tfebaëffkoi : but I fhall have occasion to.be very cir*
cumstaatial in my aeCQU&ts concerning feveral others
which failed during the following years a more copious
information concerning the Fox iflands having he§n,
procured from thefe voyages, although for the moft
part unfortunate, than from all the preceding ones.
In  1762  four vefFels failed for the Fox Iflands:
thefe only one returned fafe to Kamtchatka.
of
The firft was the Zacharias and Elizabeth, fitted out
be^by Kulkoff, a merchant of Vologda, and Company, under
the command of Drufinin, and manned by thirty-four
Saffians, and three Kamtchadals-»
September RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
September the 6th, they weighed anchor from Ochotfk,
and arrived October the i ith in the haven of St. Peter
>and Paul, where-they wintered. June the 24th, 1763,
they again put to fea, and having reached^ after eleven
days failing, the nearest Aleutian Iflands, they anchored
before Attak. They ftaid here about fourteen days,
and took up feven Ruffians who had been fhipwrecked
on this coaft. Among thefe was Korelin,. who returned
to Kamtchatka, and brought back the following account
of the voyage.
July the 17th, they failed from Attak towards the
more distant iflands. In the fame month they landed
upon an ifland, w7here the crew of the Andrean and
Natalia was engaged in hunting ; and, having laid in a
provision of wrater, continued their voyage.
In the beginning of September they arrived at Um- a^m
nakj one of the Fox Iflands, and cast anchor about a
verft from the fhore» They found there Glottoff's veffel,
WhoFe voyage will be mentioned in a succeeding chapter*.
Drufinin immediately difpatched his firft mate Maefhifk
and Korelin, with thirty-four of the crew, to land. They
pafled over to the Eastern extremity of the ifland, which
was distant about feventy verfts from the veffel ; and returned fafe on the 12th of September.     During this ex-
Chap. X.
M
pedition, ACCOUNT   OF   THE
pedition, they faw feveral remains of fox-traps which
had been fet by the Ruffians ; and met with feveral
natives who fhewed fome tribute-quittances. The
fame day letters were brought by the iflanders from
Medvedeff and Korovin*, who were juft arrived at
Umnak and Unalafhka in two vefFels fitted out by the
merchants Protaflbff and Trapefnikoff. Anfwers were
returned by the fame mencngers.
On the 2 2d, Drufinin failed to the Northern point of
Unalafhka, which lies about fifteen verfts from Umnak:
the crew, having laid up the veffel in a fafe harbour,
and brought the lading afhore, made preparation to construct an hut. Soon after their arrival, two Toigon s
of the nearest: village brought hostages of their own accord ; their example was immediately followed by feveral
of the more distant villages. Here they received information of an hunting party fent from Trapefnikoff's
fhip. Upon which Maefnifk alfo difpatçhed three companies upon the fame errand, one confining of eleven
men, among whom was Korelin, under the command of
Peter Tfekaleff; a fécond of the fame number, under
Michael Kudyakoff; and a third of nine men, under
Yephim Kafkitfyn. Of thefe three parties, TfekalefPs
was the only one of which we have received any circumstantial account : for not a Angle perfon of the
other two parties, or of the crew remaining on board,
ever returned to Kamtchatka.
* See the following chapter,
Kafkitfyn RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
Kafkitfyn remained near the haven, and the two
other companies were difpatched to the Northern point
of the ifland. Kudyakoff flopped at a place called
Kalaktak, which contained about forty inhabitants; Tfe-
kaleff went on to Inalok, which lies about thirty verfts
from Kalaktak. He found there a dwelling with about
feventy inhabitants, whom he behaved to with kindnefs :
he built an hut for himfelf and his companions, and
kept a confiant watch.
December the 4th, fix of the party being difpatched ah *e a*»»'
to look after the pit-falls, there remained only five Ruf- j^ïî^Ae
fians : namely, Peter TfekalefF, Stephen Korelin, Dmitri
Bragin, Gregory Shaffyrin, and Ivan Kokovin : the
iflanders took this opportunity of giving the firft proofs
of their hostile intentions, which they had hitherto,
concealed. As TfekalefF and Shaffyrin were upon a
visit to the iflanders, the latter fuddenly, and without
any provocation, struck TfekalefF upon the head with
a club, and afterwards stabbed him with knives. They
next fell upon Shaffyrin, who defended himfelf with an
hatchet ; and, though defperately wounded, forced his
way back to his companions. Bragin and Korelin, who
remained in the hut, had immediate recourfe to their
fire-arms; but Kokovin, who was at a fmall diftance,
was furrounded by the favages, and thrown down.
They continued stabbing him with knives and darts,
until Korelin came to his affiftance; the latter, having
M 2 -   wounded ACCOUNT   OF    THE
wounded  two   iflanders,  and  driven  away   the others,
Kokovin half-dead to the hut.
Soon afterwards the natives furrounded the hut, which
the Ruffians had taken the precaution to provide with
fhooting holes. The Siege lafted four days without in-
termiffion. The iflanders were prevented indeed by the
fire-arms from Storming the hut ; but whenever the
Ruffians made their appearance, darts wrere immediately
fhot at them from all fides; fo that they could not
venture to go out for water. At length, when Shaffyrin
and Kokovin were a little recovered, they all sallied out
upon the iflanders with their guns and lances ; three
perfons were killed upon the fpot, and feveral wounded ;
upon which the others fled away and difperfed. During the fiege the favages were feen at a little diftance
bearing fome arms and caps, and holding them up in
triumph : thefe things belonged to the fix Ruffians, who
had been fent to the pit-falls, and had fallen a facrifice
to the. refentment of the natives.
The latter no fooner difappeared, than the Ruffians
dragged the baidar into the fea, and rowed without molestation out of the bay, which is about ten verfts broad.
They'next landed near a fmall habitation: finding it
empty, they drew the baidar afhore, and went with their
fire-arms and lances acrofs the mountains towards Ka-
laktak, where they had left Kudyakoff's party.    As they
approached RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
approached that place towards evening, they fired from
the heights ; but no Signal being returned, they concluded, as was really the cafe, that this company had
likewife been .maffacred by the inhabitants. They themfelves narrowly efcaped the fame fate ; for, immediately
upon the report of the fire-arms, numerous bodies of the
iflanders made their appearance, and clofely pursued the
Ruffians : darknefs however coming on, the latter found
means to efcape over the fandy fhore of a bay to a rock,
where they were fheltered, and could defend themfelves.
They here made Co good a ufe of their arms,- that the
iflanders thought proper to retire : the fugitives, as foon
as their pursuers were withdrawn, feized the opportunity of proceeding towards the haven, where their
veffel lay at anchor ; they ran without interruption during
the whole night, and at break of day, when they were about
three verfts from the haven, they efpied a locker of the
veffel lying on the fhore. Struck with aftonifhment at
this alarming difcovery, they retreated with precipitation
to the mountains, from whence they defcried feveral
iflanders rowing in canoes, but no appearance of their
own veffel. During that day they kept themfelves clofely
concealed, and durst not venture again towards the haven
before the evening. Upon their arrival they found the
vefFel broken to pieces, and the dead bodies, of their companions lying mangled along the beach. Having collected all the provision which had been untouched by
the favages, they returned to the mountains.
85
The ACCOUNT   OF   THE
The following day they fcooped out a cavity at the
foot of a mountain situated about three verfts from the
haven, and covered it with a piece of a fail. In the
evening they returned to the haven, and found there an
image of a faint and a*prayer book ; all the tackle and
lading were taken away, excepting the facks for provision.
Thefe facks were made of leather : the natives had
ript them up, probably to fee if they contained any iron,
and had left them, together with the provision, behind
as ufelefs. The Ruffians collected all that remained, and
dragged as much as they w:ere able to carry into the
mountains to their retreat, where they lived in a very
wretched ft ate from the 9th of December to the sd of
February, 1764.
Mean while they employed themfelves in making a
little baidar, which they covesed with the leather of the
facks. Having drawn it at night from the mountains to
the fea, they rowed without waiting for break of day
"along the Northern coaft of Unalafhka, in order to reach
TrapefoikofPs veffel, which, as ithey had reafon to think,
lay at anchor fome where upon the coaft. They rowed
at fome diftance from the fhore, and by that means paffed three habitations Tanperceived. The following day
they obferved at fome diftance five iflanders in a baidar*
who  upon feeing I them  made  to Makufhinfk, before
which RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
which place the fugitives were obliged to pafs. Darknefs
coming on, the Ruffians landed on a rock, and pafïèd the
night afhore. Early in the morning they difcovered the
iflanders advancing towards them from the bay of Ma-
kufhinfk. Upon this they placed themfelves in an ad^-
vantageous poft, and prepared for defence.
The favages rowed clofe to the beach : part landings
and part remaining in their baidars, they commenced
the assault by a volley of darts $ and notwithstanding, the
Ruffians did great execution with their fire arms^ the
fkirmifh continued the whole day. Towards evening the
enemy retired, and the fugitives betook themfelves with-
their canoe to an adjoining cavern. The attack was again
renewed during the night; but the Ruffians were fo ad*-
vantageoufly posted, that they repulfed the affailants
without much difficulty. In this encounter Bragen
was flightly wounded. They remained in this place
three days \ but the fea rising at a spring-tide into the
rock, forced them to fally out towards a neighbouring
cavern, which they reached without lofs, notwithstanding the opposition of the iilandersv
*7
They were imprifoned in this cave five*wee&, and kept-
watch by turns. During that time they féldom ventured twenty yards from the entrance;: and were obliged
to quench their thirst with fnow-water,. and with the
moisture dripping from the rock^    They suffered alfo
greatly A C C O U NT   O
T H E
greatly from hunger, having no fuitenance but fmalP
fhell-filh, which they occasionally found means to collect upon the beach. Compelled at length by extreme
want, they one night ventured to draw their baidar into
the fea, and were fortunate enough to get off unper-
ceived.
Their Efcape
from Unalafhka to Trapef-
ftikoff's Veffel.
"hey continued rowing at night, but in the day they
. hid themfelves on the fhore; by this means they efcaped
unobferved from the bay of Makufhinfk, and reached
Trapefhikoff's veffel the 30th of March, 1764. What
happened to them afterwards in company with the
crew of this veffel will be mentioned in the fucceeding
chapter, Shaffyrin alone of all the four died of fick-
nefs during the voyage; but Korelin, Kokovin, and
Bragin *, returned fafe to Kamtchatka. The names of
thefe brave men deferve our admiration, for the courage
and perfeverance with which they supported and overcame fuch imminent dangers.
* Thefe Ruffians were well known to feveral perfons of credit, who
have confirmed the authenticity .of this relation. Among the reft the
celebrated naturalift Mr. Pallas, whofe name is well known in the lite^
rary world, faw Bragin at -Irkutsk : from him he had a narrative of their
adventures and efcape ; which, as he allured me, perfectly tallied with
the above account, which is drawn from the journal of Korelin.
CHAP. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES,
89
CHAP.    ÎX.
Voyage of the veffel called the Trinity, under the command
o/Korovin—Sails to tbe Fox Islands^—Winters at Unalafhka—Puts to fea the fpring following-—The veffel is
firanded in a bay of the ifiand Umnak, and the crew
attacked by tbe natives—Many of them killed—-Others
carried off by ficknefs—They are reduced to great fir-eights
—Relieved by Glottoff, twelve of the whole company only
remaining—Defcription of Umnak and Unalafhka,
T
H E fécond veffel which Failed £r®m Kamtchatka in-Voyage or
•7» qfeorovui/x 764.
the year 1762, was the Trinity, fitted out by the
trading company of Nikiphor Trapefnikoff merchant of
Irkutfk, under the command of Ivan Korovin, and
manned with thirty-eight Ruffians and ûx Kamtchadals.
September 15, they failed down the Kamtchatka river, j^J^
^id Stood out to fea the 29th, when they wrere driven
at large for ten days by contrary winds. At last upon
the 8th of October they canae in fight of Beering^s and
Copper Ifland, where they cast anchor before the South
fide of the former. Here they were refolved to winter
on account of the late feafon of the year. Accordingly
they laid up the veffel in a fecure harbour, and brought
N all 9&
ACCOUNT   OF   THE
"S££.upoB all the lading afhore. They ftaid here until the first of
August, 1763: during that time they killed about 500
arctic foxes and 20 fea-otters ; the latter animals re-
forted lefs frequently to this ifland, in confequence of
the difturbance given them by the Ruffian hunters,
Korovin, having collected a fufficient store of provision, feveral fkins of fea-cows for the coverings of baidars, and fome iron which remained from the wreck of
Beering's fhip, prepared for his departure. Upon his
arrival at Beering's Ifland the preceding autumn, he
found there a veffel fitted out by Jacob Protaffoff, merchant of Tinmen, under the command of Dennis Medvedeff*. Korovin had entered into a formal contract
with Medvedeff for the division of the furs. Here he
took on board ten of MedvedefPs crew, and gave him
feven in return.
August 1, Korovin put to fea from Beering's Ifland with
thirty-feven men, and Medvedeff with forty-nine. They
failed without coming in fight of the Aleutian Ifles : on
fihklT Una" the 15th, Korovin made Unalafhka, where Glottoff lay
at anchor, and Medvedeff reached Umnak. Korovin
received the news of the latter's fafe arrival, first by
fome iflanders, and afterwards by letters ;   both vefFels
* This is the fourth vefîèl which failed in 1762. As the whole crew
was mafiacred by the favages, we have no account of the voyage.
Short mention of this maffacre is occaiionally made in this and the following chapters.
lay RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
lay at no greater diftance from each other than about
an hundred and fifty verfts, taking a ftreight line from
point to point acrofs the firth.
Korovin caft anchor in a convenient bay at the diftance
of sixty yards from the fhore.    On the 16th he landed
with fourteen men, and having found nothing but an
empty fhed, he returned to the vefiel.     After having
.  taken a reinforcement, he again went afhore in order to
look for fome   inhabitants.    About feven verfts from
the haven, he came to two habitations, and faw three,
hundred   perfons   affembled   together.     Among  them
were three Toigons, who recollected and accosted in a
friendly manner one Barnafheff,   a native of  Tobolfk,
who had been there before with Glottoff;   they fhewed
fome tribute-quittances, which they had lately received
from the Coffac Sabin Ponomareff.    Two of thefe Toigons  gave  each   a boy of twelve  years  of age as an
hoftage, whom they paffed for their children ;   and the
third delivered his fon of about  fifteen years of age,
the fame Who had been Glottoff's hoftage,  and whom
Korovin called Alexèy.   With thefe hostages he returned
to the fhip, which he laid up in the mouth of a river,
after having brought all the provision and lading afhore,
Soon   afterwards  the   three  Toigons   came  to   fee the
hostages ;  and informed Korovin, that Medvedeff's veffel
rode fecurely at anchor before Umnak.
9t
N   2
September $%
ACCOUNT   OF   THE
September 15,, wïœn every thing Was prepared for
wintering, Korovin and Barnàfheff ftt-tmt in two baidàpai,
each-with nine men and one of the hostages, who had
a flight knowledge of the RufBafrs language. They
went along, tbe Northern coaft of the ifland, towards
its Western extremity, in order to hunt, and to enqttire
after a certain interpreter called Kafhmak^ Who had been
employed by Gtottoff on a forrrjfer oooafion. Havfeg
n©Wed about twenty Verfts, they pafted by a village,
and landed at another which lay about five verfts fta£*
fher. Btft- as the number of inhabitants feémèd to
amount to two hundred, they durfl not venture to the
dwellings, but stayed by the baidar. Upon this the
Ifoigon of the f&ace cariîe to them, with las wife and
fon : he fhewed a tîtlDtàte*€^ttanee, and delivered his
fôn, a boy of fMrteen years of age and whom Korovin
called Sfepanka, as an hoftage, for which he received a
^fiefent of corals.
They rowed n#w fîâ$fher to a third :viH.age, about
fifteen verfts from the former, where they found the
interpreter Kafhmak;, the latter accompanied them t€*
the two Toigons, wis© gave t&em a fcîendly reee(ptk!n*
and fhèwed thefe>tribute-quitt^ices. A few satires only
iaade thek^pearaÈncié $* the others^ as the Toigpns $fce*
tended, were gone out to fifh. The next morai^ eacl*
Toigon gave a boy as an hoftage ; one of the boys Ko-
Sêvin called Gregory, and the other Alexèy, The Ruffians RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES. 53
fians were detained there two days by a violent Storm ;
during which time a letter from Medvedeff was brought
by an Aleutian, and an anFwer was returned by the fame
perfon. The storm at length fomewhat abating, they
rowed back to the next village, where they continued
two nights without any apprehensions from the favages.
At length Korovin returned in fafety with trie hostages
to the crew.
■In the beginning of October they built a winter-hut,-BuiMsj»H&t»-
partly of wood and partly of feal-fkins, and made all %£wTnïrbg..
the neee-ffary preparations for hunting. On the 14th,
two companies, each consisting of eleven men, were fent
out upon an hunting party to the Eastern point of the
ifland ; they returned in four days with hostages.
About sixty verfts from the haven, they had met a
party of twenty-five Ruffians, commanded by Drufinin.
About the fame time fome Toigons brought a prefent of
sturgeon and whale's blubber, and received in returns
fo*rne beads and provision.
Korovin and his company now thought themfelves-
feoure ; for which reafon twenty^thrree men, under the^
command of the above-menti®ned BarnafhefÇ, were dif-
patched ki two baidars upon an hunting, party towardss
the Weffefn point of the iftaaswi. Eight mnfkets were?
dutribttted to each boat, a pjiffcaL and a lance to e<wkm
man, 94 ACCOUNTOFTHE
man, and alfo a fufficient Store of ammunition and provision. The following day two accounts were fent from
Barnafheff; and letters were alio received from the crew
of Protaffoff's veffel. From the 2d of November to the
8th of December, the Ruffians, who remained with Korovin, killed forty-eight dark-coloured foxes, together
with an hundred and feventeen of the common fort :
during this expedition one man was loft. Some of the
natives came occasionally in baidars, and exchanged fea-
otters and fox-fkins for corals. On the 8th of December letters were again brought from Barnafheff and alfo
from the crew of Protaffoff's fhip. AnFwers were returned by the Fame meffengers.
After the departure of thefe meffengers, the mother
of Alexèy came with a meffage from the Toigon her huf-
band, importing, that a large number of iflanders were
making towards the fhip. Upon this Korovin ordered
the men to arms, and foon after feventy natives approached, and held up fome fea-otter fkins. The Ruffians cried
out that no more than ten at a time fhould come over the
brook towards their hut : upon which the iflanders left
their fkins with Korovin, and returned without attempting any hostilities. Their apprehensions were now fome-
what quieted, but they were again raifed by the arrival
of three Kamtchadals belonging to Kulkoff's fhip, who
flew for protection to Korovin.: they brought the account that the crew had been killed by the favages, and
the RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES. ;
the vefFel destroyed. It was now certain that the feventy
iflanders above-mentioned had come with hostile intentions. This information fpread fuch a fudden panic
among the Ruffians, that it was even propofed to burn
the veffel, and to endeavour to find their companions,
who were gone upon hunting parties.
That day however, paffed without any attack :   but to- The Ruffian
J r J attacked by tl
wards the evening of the i oth of December, the favages Namcs-
affembled in large bodies, and invested the hut on all
fides. Four days and nights they never ceafed annoying
the Ruffians with their darts; two of the latter were
killed, and the survivors were nearly exhausted by continual fatigue. Upon the fifth day the iflanders took post
in a neighbouring cavern, where they continued watching the Ruffians fo clofely during a whole month, that
none of the latter durft venture fifty paces from
their dwelling. Korovin, finding himfelf thus annoyed
by the natives, ordered the hut to be deftroyed : he
then retired to his veffel, which was brought for greater
fecurity out of the mouth of the rivulet to the diftance of
an hundred yards from the beach. There they lay at
anchor from the 5th of March to the 26th of April,
during wmich time they fuffered greatly from want of
provision, and still more from the fcurvy.
During ACCOUNT   OF   THE
During this period they were attacked by a large body
of the natives, who advanced in forty baidars with the
hopes of furprifing the veffel. Korelin had been warned
of their approach by two of the inhabitants, one of whom
was a relation of the interpreter Kaihmak : accordingly
he was prepared for their reception. v As foon as
the favages came near the veffel, they brandifhed
their darts and got ready for the attack. Korovin however had no fooner fired and killed one perfon, than they
were struck with a panic and rowed away. They were fo
incenfed at this failure of fuccefs, that they immediately
put to death the two good-natured natives, who had betrayed their design to the Ruffians. Soon afterwards the
father of Alexèy came and demanded his fon, who was
restored to him: and on the 30th of March Korovin and
his three companions arrived as it is mentioned in the
preceding chapter. By this reinforcement the number
of the crew amounted to eighteen perfons.
April 26, Korovin put to fea from Unalafhka with the
crew and eleven hoftages. The veffel was driven until
the 28 th by contrary winds, and then stranded in a bay
of the ifland Umnak. The ammunition and fails, together with the fkins for the construction of baidars,
were brought afhore with great difficulty. During the
difembarkation one sick man was drowned, another died
as foon as he came to land, and eight hoftages ran away
amidst RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
amidft the general confufion. There still remained the
faithful interpreter Kafhmak and three hoftages. The
whole number of the Ruffians amounted to only fix-
teen perfons ; and of thefe three were Sick of the fcurvy.
. Under thefe circumstances they fecured themfelves between their baidar and fome empty barrels, whicù they
covered with feal-fkins, while the fails were fpread over
them in form,of a tent. Two Rviffians kept watch ;
and there being no appearance of any iflanders, the
others retired to fleep.
m
Before break of day, about an hundred favages advancing fecretly from the fea-fide, threw their darts at
the diftance of twenty yards with fuch force, that many
of them pierced through the baidar and the fkins;
others fell from above through the fails. By this discharge, the two perfons who kept watch, together with
the three hoftages, were killed on the fpot; and all
the Ruffians were wounded. - The latter indeed were fo
effectually furprifed, as to be prevented from having
recourfe to : their sire-arms. ; In this diftrefs Korovin
fallied out, in company with four Ruffians, and attacked the enemy with lances : two of the favages were
killed, and the others driven to flight. Korovin and
his party were fo feverely wounded, that they had
fcarcely strength fufficient to return to their tent.
The Ruffians
in Danger of
being defttoy-
ed by the Natives.,
The.latter
repulfed.
o
During ACCOUNT   OF   THE
During the night the ftorm increafed to fuch a de*
gree, that the veffel was entirely dafhed to pieces.. The
greatest part of the wreck, which was cast on fhore
by the fea, was carried away by the iflanders. They
alfo broke to pieces the barrels of fat, emptied the facks
of provision, and destroyed most of the furs : having
thus fatisfied their refentment, they went awTay ; and
did not again make their appearance until the 30 th of
April. Upon their retiring, the Ruffians collected the
wretched remains which had been left untouched by
the favages, or which the waves had cast on fhore since
their departure.
April 30, a body of an hundred and fifty natives
advanced from the Eastern point of the ifland towards
the tent ^ and, at the diftance of an hundred yards,
fhot at the Ruffians with, fee-arms, but luckily without
execution. They alfo fet on fire the high grafs, and
the wind blew the flames towards the tent ;. but the
Ruffians firing forced the enegsy to flight,, and gained
time to extinguifh the flames.
This was the fast attack whjëh was made upon Korovin ;.
although ficknefs and mifery detained him and his companions upon this fpot until the 21 ft of July. They then
put to fea in a baidar eight, yards long, which they
had constructed in order to make to Protaffoff's veffel,,
with RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
with whofe fate they were as yet unacquainted. Their
number was now reduced to twelve perfons, among
whom were fix Kamtchadals.
After having rowed ten days they landed upon the ^J^^*
beach of the fame ifland Umnak ; there they obferved S counny-
the remains of a vefFel which had been burnt, and faw feeen murdered
by the Natives.
fome clothes, fails, and ropes, torn to pieces. At a fmall
•diftance was an empty Ruffian dwelling, and near it a
bath-room, in which they found, to their inexpressible
terror, twenty dead bodies in their clothes. Each of
them had a thong of leather, or his own girdle, faffened
about the neck, with which he had been dragged along,
Korovin and his companions recollected them to have
been fome of thofe who had failed in Protafl©fPs veffel ;
and could diftinguifh among the rest the commander
Medvedeff. They difcovered no further traces of the
remaining crew ; and as none ever appeared, we have
no account of the circumstances with which this catastrophe was attended.
After having buried his dead countrymen, Korovin ^eve
S from
ftreffes
and his companions began to build an hut : they were 0J ciott™
prevented however from finifliing it, by the unexpected
arrival of Stephen Glottoff*, who came to them with
a fmall party by land. Korovin and his companions
accordingly joined Glottoff, and rowed the next day to
his veffel. ffi?9
* See the following chapter.
O   2
Soon ACCOUNT   OF    THE
Soon afterwards Korovin was fent with a party of
twenty men to coaft the ifland of Umnak, in order to
difcover if any part of Medvedeff's crew had made their
efcape from the general maffacre : but his enquiries
were without fuccefs. In the courfe of this expedition,
as he lay at anchor, in September, before a fmall ifland
situated between Umnak and Unalafhka, fome favages
rowed towards the Ruffians in two large baidars ; and
having fhot at them with fire-arms, though without
effect, instantly retired.. The fame evening Korovin
entered a bay of the ifland. Umnak, with an intention
of paffing the night on fhore : but as he came near
the coaft, a large number of lavages in an hundred baidars funrounded and faluted him with a volley of darts.
Korovin fired, and foon difperfed them ù and" immediately made to a large baidar, which he faw at fome diftance, in hopes of finding fome Ruffians. He was
however mistaken ;. the iflanders who were aboard landed at his approach, and, after fhooting at him from their
fire-arms, retired to the mountains.
Korovin found there an empty baidar, which he knew
to be the fame in which Barnafheff had Failed, when he
was fent upon an hunting party. Within were nothing
but two hatchets and fome iron points for darts. Three
women were feized at the fame time ; and two natives,
who refufed to furrender themfelves^ were put to death.
They RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
They then made to the dwelling, from which all the
inhabitants had run away, and found therein pieces of
Ruffian leather, blades of fmall knives, fhirts, and other
things, which had belonged to the Ruffians. All the
information which they could procure from the women
whom they had taken prifoners, was, that the crew had
been killed, and this booty taken away by the. inhabitants, who had retired to the ifland Unalafhka. Korovin
gave thefe women their liberty, and, being apprehensive
of frefh attacks, returned to the haven.
Towards winter Korovin, with a party of twenty-two
men, was fent upon an hunting expedition to the Western point of Unalafhka: he was accompanied by an
Aleutian interpreter, called Ivan Glottoff. Being; informed by fome iflanders, that a Ruffian fhip, under
the command of Ivan Solovioff*, was then lying before-
Unalafhka, he. immediately rowed, towards the haven*
where fhe was at anchor* On the. way he had a Sharp
encounter with the natives,, who endeavoured to prevent him from landing : of thefe, ten were killed
upon the fpot ; and the remainder fled away, leaving
behind them fome women and children,
Korovin staid three days aboard Solovioff's vesTLi,:
and then returned to the place where he had been fo-
lately   attacked.    The   inhabitants   however,    for   this-
'     * Chap. XL.
time*. ACCOUNT   OF   THE
time, made no opposition to his landing; on the contrary, they received him with kindnefs, and permitted
him to hunt: they even delivered hoftages; and entered
into a friendly traffic, exchanging furs for beads. They
were alio prevailed upon to restore feveral mufkets
and other things, taken from the Ruffians who had
been  maffacred.
A fhort time before his departure, the inhabitants
again fhewed their hostile intentions ; for three of them
came up to the Ruffian centinel, and suddenly fell upon
him with their knives. The centinel however difen-
gaging himfelf, and retreating into the hut, they ran
away. The Toigons of the village protested ignorance
of this treachery ; and the offenders were foon afterwards difcovered and punifhed. Korovin, as he was
returning to Glottoff, was forced to engage with the
iflanders upon Unalafhka, and alfo upon Umnak, where
they endeavoured to prevent him from landing. Before the end of the year a Storm drove the baidar upon
the beach of the latter ifland ; and the tempestuous
wreather fetting in, they were detained there until the
6th of April, 1765. During this time they wrere reduced, from a fcarcity of provision, to live chiefly upon -
fea-wrack and fmall lhell-fifh. On the 2 2d they returned to Glottoff; and as they had been unfuceefsful
in hunting, their cargo of furs was very inconsiderable.
Three days after his arrival, Korovin quitted Glottoff,
and went over with five other Ruffians to Solovioff, withv
4 whom RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES. ioj
whom he returned the following year to Kamtchatka.
The fix Kamtchadals of Korovin's party joined Glottoff.
According to Korovin's account, the iflands Umnak S'^
and Unalafhka are situated not much more Northwards uShkL
than the mouth of the Kamtchatka river ; and, according to the fhip's reckoning, about the diftance of 1700
verfts Eafi wards from the fame place. The circumference of Umnak is about two hundred and fifty verfts;
Unalafhka is much larger. Both thefe iflands are wholly,
destitute of trees ; drift-wrood is brought afhore in large
quantities. There were five lakes upon the Northern
coast of Unalafhka, and but one upon Umnak, of which
none were more than ten verfts in circumference. Thefe
lakes give rife to feveral fmall rivulets,, which flow only
a few verfts before they empty themfelves into the fea:
the fifh enter the rivulets in the middle of April,
they afcend the lakes in July, and continue there until
August. Sea-otters and other fea-animals refort but
feldom to thefe iflands ; but there is great abundance of
red and black foxes. North Eastwards from Unalafhka
two iflands appeared in fight, at the diftance of five or
ten verfts ;   but Korovin did not touch at them.,
The inhabitants of thefe iflands  row in their fmall ^™arb°f
^baidars from  one ifland   to   the   other.    They  are fo tants*
numerous, and their manner of  life fo unfettled,  that
their number   cannot   exactly   be   determined.    Their
Wtouvî dwelling;. 104 A C C O U N T   O F   T H E
dwelling caves are made in the following manner..    They
first: dig an hole in the earth proportioned to the Size ot
their   intended habitation, of  twenty,   thirty, or forty
yards in length,   and  from fix   to   ten broad.     They
then fet up poles of larch, firs, and am driven on the
coaft by the sea.     Acrofs the top of thefe poles they
lay planks,   which   they   cover   with grafs  and earth.
They enter through holes in the top by means of ladders.     Fifty, an hundred, and even an hundred and fifty
perfons dwell together in fuch a cave.    They light little
or no fires within, for which reafon thefe dwellings are
much cleaner than thofe of  the Kamtchadals.    When
they want to warm themfelves in the winter, they make
a fire of dry herbs, of which they have collected a large
Store in summer,  and stand over it until they are fuf-
ficiently warmed.     A few of thefe iflanders wear fur-
ftockings in winter ;  but the greatest part go bare-footed,
and all are without breeches.    The fkins of cormorants,
puffins, and fea-divers, ferve for the mens cloathing ; and
the women wear the fkins of fea-bears, feals, and fea-otters.
They fleep upon thick mats, which they twist out of a
foft kind of grass that grows upon the fhore, and have
no other covering but their ufual clothes.    Many of the
men have five or fix wives ;    and he that is   the best -
hunter or fifher has the greateft number.    The women
make their needles of the bones of birds wings, and ufe
finews for thread.
Their R U S S I A N -D 1 SCO V E RU E S.
Their weapons are bows and arrows,, lances and darts,
which they throw like toe Greenlanders to the diftance of
sixty yards by means of a little hand-board, l&oth. the darts
and arrows are feathered : the former are about an ell and
an half long ; the fhaft, which is well made considering
their want of instruments, is often compofed of two pieces
that join into each other : the point is of flint, fharpened
by beating it between two stones. Thefe darts as well as
theJ,ances were formerlyJtipped with bone, but at prefent
the points are commonly made of the iron which they
procure from the Ruffians, and out of which they
ingenioufly form little hatchets and two-edged knives.
They fhape the iron by rubbing it between two ftones,
and whetting it frequently vwith fea-water. With thefe
instruments and-stone hatchets they build their baidars.
They have a strange cuftom of cutting holes in the
under-lip and through the gristle of the nofe. They
place in the former two little bones, wrought in the
form of teeth, which project fome inches from the
face. In the nofe a piece of bone is placed crofsways.
The deceafed are buried with their boat, weapons, and
clothes *.
v* The author repeats here feveral circumftances which have been
mentioned before, and many of them will occur again : but my office
as a tranflator would not fufFer me to omit them.
C  H A P. PUS
ic6
ACCOUNT   OF   THE
C  HAP.      X.
Voyage of Stephen Glottoff—He reaches the Fox Iflands—
Sails beyond Unalafhka to Kadyak—Winters upon that.
Ifiand—Repeated attempts of tbe Natives to defiroy the
Crew—They are repulfed, reconciled, and prevailed upon
to trade with the Ruffians—Account of Kadyak—Its
inhabitants—animals—productions—Glottoff fails back
to Umnak—Winters there—Returns to Kamtchatka—-
Journal of bis voyage.
* | ^HE following voyage, which extended farther, and
X
terminated more fortunately, than the last: menti
oned expeditions, is one of the most memorable yet made.
GiJttoffïn the Terenty Tfebaefffkoi and company, merchants of
Nauiia^iTel.L3^? fitted out the Andrean and Natalia under the command of Stephen Glottoff, an experienced and fkilful
feaman of Yarenfk. This veffel failed from the bay of
the river Kamtchatka the ift of October, 1762, manned'
with thirty-eight Ruffians and eight Kamtchadals. In
eight days they reached Mednoi Oftroff, or Copper Ifland,
where having Fought out a convenient harbour, they
winters «pon unloaded and laid up the veffel for the winter.    Their
CopperIfland.
first care was to fupply themfelves with provisions ; and
they RUS-SIAN   DISCOVERIES.
they killed afterwards a quantity of ice-foxes, and a confiderable number of fea-otters.
For the benefit of the crown and their own ufe in cafe
of need, they refolved to take on board all the remaining
tackle and iron work of Beering's fhip, which had been
left behind on Commander's Ifland, and was buried in
the beach. For this purpofe they difpatched, on the 27th
of May, Jacob Malevinfkoy (who died foon after) with
thirteen men in a baidar to that ifland, which was feventy
verfts distant. They brought back with them twenty-
two pood of iron, ten of old cordage fit for caulker's ufe, •
fome lead and copper, and feveral thoufand beads.
Copper Ifland has its name from the native copper
found on the coaft, particularly at the Western point on
its South fide. Of this native copper Malevinfkoy brought
with him two large pièces weighing together twelve
pounds, which were picked up between a rock and the
fea on a ftrand of about twelve yards in breadth. Amongst
other floating bodies which the fea drives upon the fhores
of this ifland, the true right camphor wood, and another
fort of wood very white, foft, and fweet-fcented, are
occasionally found.
107
Every  preparation  for continuing the voyage being sails to th
made, they failed from Copper Ifland the 26th of July,
1763,  and fleered for the iflands Umnak and Aguna-
P  2
lafhka, ACCOUNT   OF   T H ET
lafhka, where Giàt^É*'had formerly*observed great num~
hers of black foxes. On account of storms and contrary
winds, they were thirty days before they fetched Umnak.
Here they arrived the 24th of August, and without dropping anchor or losing any time, they refolved to fail further for the difcovery of newHfiands : they paffed eight
contiguous to each other and fepàrated by straits, which,,
according to their estimation, were from twenty to an
hundred verfts broad. Glottoff however did not land,
till he reached the last and moft Eastward of thefe iflands,
called by the inhabitants Kadyak, from which the natives faid it was not far to1 the coast of a wide extended
woody continent. No ïaëtd howrever was to be feen from,
a little ifland called by the natives Aktunak, which is situated about thirty verfts more to the East than .Kadyak*,
September 8 th, the vessel ran tip a creek,,. lying South
Eafi of Aktunak, through wbSfch a rivulet empties itfelf
into the fea ; this rivulet comes from a lake fix venfe
long, one broadband about fifty fathoms deep. During
the ebb of the tide the veffel was left aground ; but tlïês?
return of the water fet her again, afloat. Near the fhore
wrere four large huts, fo crouded with people^-that their
number could fcarcely be counted : however, foon after
Glottoff's arrival, all thefe inhabitants quitted their dwellings, and retired with precipitation. The next day fome
iflanders in baidars approached the veffel, and accosted
the RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
the people on board : and as Ivan Glottoff, the Aleutian
interpreter, did not well underftand the language of thefe
iflanders, they foon afterwards returned with a boy whom,
they had formerly taken prifoner from Ifanak, one of
the iflands which lie to the Weft of Kadyak. Him the
Aleutian interpreter perfectly understood : and by his
means every neceffary explanation could be obtained i
from the iflanders.
In this manner they converfed with the favages, and ;
endeavoured to perfuade them to become tributary ;  they
ufed alfo every argument in their power to prevail sipon •
them to give up the boy for an interpreter ; but all their
entreaties were for tj§e. prefent without > effect..   The .fa-.,,
vages rowed back to the cliff called Aktalin, which lies
about three verfts to the South of Kadyak,. where they
feemed to have habitations* ,
109.
On the 6th of September Kaplin was fent with thirteen men to the cliff, to treat peaceably with the iflanders..
He found there ten huts, from which about an hundred
of the natives came out. They behaved feemingly in a
friendly manner, and anfwered the interpreter by the
boy, that they had nobody proper for an hoftage; but,
that they would deliver up the boy to the Ruffians agreeably to their délire. Kaplin received him very thankfully, and brought him on board,, where he was properly taken care of:   he. afterwards accompanied Glottoff
'Çl^' to. ACCOUNT   OF   THE
to Kamtchatka, and was baptized by the name of Alexander Popoff, being then about thirteen years of age.
For fome days after this conference the iflanders came off
in companies of five, ten, twenty, and thirty : they were
admitted on board in fmall numbers, and kindly received,
but with a proper degree of circumfpection.
On the 8th of September the veffel was brought further up the creek without unloading her cargo ; and on
the 9th Glottoff with ten men proceeded to a village on
the fhore about two hundred yards from the veffel,
where the natives had begun to reside : it consisted of
three mmmer-huts covered only with long grafs ; they
were from eight to ten yards broad, twelve long, and
about four high. They faw there about an hundred men,
but neither women nor children.
Finding it impoffible to perfuade the favages to give
hoftages, Glottoff refolved to let his people remain together, and to keep a ftrong guard.
The Natives
attack the
Rurhans, bui
are defeated.
The iflanders visited them ftillin fmall 'bodies1; it was
however more and more visible that their intentions were
hostile. At last on the ift of October, by day-break, a
great number having affembled together in the remote
parts of the ifland, came unexpectedly acrofs the country. They approached very near without being difcovered by the watch, and feeing nobody on deck but thofe
on RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
on duty, fhot fuddenly into the vefïèl with arrows. The
watch found refuge behind the quarter boards, and gave
the alarm without firing. Glottoff immediately ordered
a volley to be fired over their heads with fmall arms ;
upon which they immediately retreated with great expedition. As foon as it was day there was no enemy to be
feen : but they difcovered a number of ladders, feveral
bundles of hay in which the favages had put fulphur,
likewife a quantity of birch-tree bark, which had been
left behind in. their precipitate flight*
They now found ibvery neceffary to be on their guard 1
against the attempts of thefe perfidious incendiaries.
Their fufpicions- were ftilL further increafed by the fubfe-
quent conduct of the natives : for though the latter came
to the veffel in Fmall bodies, yet it was obFerved that they
examined every thing, and more particularly the watch,
with the. strictest attention ; and they always returned
without paying any regard to the friendly propositions
of the Ruffians ».
On the 4th of October about two hundred iflanders
made their appearance, carrying wooden fhields before
them, and preparing with bows and arrows for .an attack.
Glottoff endeavoured at first by persuasion to prevail
upon them to delist. ; but ôbferving .that they still continued advancing, he refolved to venture a fall y. This in-
4 txepklity ACCOUNT   OF   T-H E
trepidity dïfêoncerted the iflanders, and they immediately
retreated- without making the least-resistance,
The Natives
are finally re-
pulfed by ths
Rubans.
The 26th of-October they • ventured a third attack,
and advanced towards1 "the veffel for that- purpose by daybreak : the -watch however gave the alarm in due time,
and thCiwhole crew-were immediately under arms. The
approach of day-light difcovered to their view different
parties of the enemy advancing under the protection of
wooden fcreens. Of thefe moving breaft-works*.they
-counted feven ; and behind each from thirty to forty
men armed with bone lances. Besides thefe a croud of
armed men advanced feparately to the attack, fome of
them bearing whale jaw-bones, and others wooden fhields.
Diffuafion proving ineffectual, and the arrows beginning
to fall even aboard the fhip, Glottoff gave orders to fire.
The fhot from the fmall arms however not being of force
enough to pierce the fcreens, the iflanders advanced under
their protection with fleadinefs and intrepidity. Glottoff
neverthelefs determined to rifle a fally of his whole crew
armed with mufkets and lances. The iflanders instantly
threw down their fcreens, and fled with precipitation until
:they gained their boats, into which they threw themfelves
and rowed off. They had about feventeen large baidars
and a number of fmall canoes. The fkreens which they
ieft behind were made of three rows of stakes placed perpendicularly, and bound together with fea-weed and osiers ;
they were twelve feet broadband above half a yard thick.
The R U S-S-ï AN   DISCOVERIES.
The iflanders now appearing to be fufficiently intimi- The Ruffian*
winter at
dated, the Ruffians began to build a winter hut of floated kadyak. .
wood,,^and.waited in a body the appearance of fpring
without further annoyance. Although they faw none of
theinhabitants before the 25thof December, yet Glottoff
kept his r^oole together ; fending out occasionally fmall
hfrBlii^and fifhing parties to the lake, which lay about
five verfts from the creek. During the whole winter
they caught in the lake feveral different fpecies of trout
sgyd falmon, foles, and herrings of a fpan and a half
l^ng, and even turbot and cod-fifh> which came up with
the flood into the lake.
ij^tlaft, on.,the 25 th of December, two iflanders came
to the fhip, and converfed at a diftance by means of
interpreters. Although propofals of peace and trade
were held out to them in the moft friendly manner,
yet they went off without feeming to put much confidence in thefe offers : nor did any of them appear
again before the 4th of April, 1764. Want of sufficient exercife in the mean time brought on a violent
fcurvy among the crew, by which diforder nine perfons
were carried off
:.cf^ the 4tjspf April four of the natives made their appearance, anf} feemed to pay more attention to the propofals: one of them at last advanced, and offered to barter"
two fox-fkins for beads.    They did not fet the least: va-
Q lue O t   THE
lue upon other goods of various kinds, fuch as ftiirts,
linen, and nankeen, but demanded glafs beads of different
colours, for which they exchanged their fkins with
pleafure. This friendly traffic, together with Glottoff's
entreaties, operated fo powerfully, that, after holding a
confutation with their countrymen, they returned with
a folemn declaration, that their brethren would in future
commit no hostilities against me Ruffians. From that
time until their departure a daily intercourfe was carried
on with the iflanders, who brought all xbrts of fox and
fea-otter flcins, and received' m exchange à ftiptilated
number of beads. Some of them were even persuaded
to pay a tribute of fkins, for which receipts were given.
Amongst other wares the lluffiahs^prôcured twofinall
carpets, worked or platted"îh a curious manriér, ancfofi1
one fide fet clofe with beaver-wooi like velvërPihey
could not however learn whetner thefe carpets were
wrought by the iflanders. The latter orou^Kt ïffo for
fale well-dreffed Fea-otter flcins, the haïr ôf which was
fhorn quite fhort with fharp stones, in fuch a manner,
that the remainder, which was of a yellowifh brown
colour, glistened and appeared like velvet. Their caps
had surprising and fometimes very ornamental decorations : fome of them had on the forepart combs adorned
with manes like an helmet ; • oâiers, fèemingly peculiar
to the females, were made of intestines ftitched toge—
ther with rein-deer hair anoHBnews in a moft elegant
taste* RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
tafte^/jand ornamented on the crown with long streamers
-of Ihair died of a beautiful red. Of all thefe curiosities
Glottoff carried'&jtoples to Kamtchatka-.
^ilEhe natives differ confidcrably in drefsj and language
from the inhabitants ofjtfoe other Fox Iflands : and feveral fpecies of aninoraisiiwerer: obferved upon Kadyak,
which are not to be found upon the other iflands, viz.
easnines, martens, bearers* river-otters, wolves, wild boars, Kandyak!°f
and bears : the kflrmjéntioned aâimal was not indeed
jajctmlJy feen by thelliiflians, but the prints of its feet
were traced. Some of theinhabitants toad clothes made
of the fkins of rein-deer and jevras; the latter of which
is a fort of fmall marmofet. Both thefe fkins were probablyjjnocured from the continent of Americas. Black,
brown, and red foxes, were feen in great numbers ; and
the coaft abounds with fea-dogs, fea-bears, fea-lions, and
fea-ottiars. The birdsnare cranes, geefe, ducks, gulls,
ptarmigans, crows, and magpies; but no uncommon
fpecies rwas any where difcoveœd.    The vegetable pro-
* Thefe and feveral other ornaments of a fimilar kind are preferved
in the cabinet of curiofities at the Academy of Sciences of St. Peterfburg: a cabinet which well merits the attention of the curious traveller ; for it contains a large collection of the drefles of the Eaflern
nations. Amongft the reft one compartment is entirely filled wi:h the
dreffes, arms, and implements, brought from the New-difcovered iflands.
-j- Although this ccnjefture is probable, yet, when the reader recollées that the ifland Alakfu is faid to contain rein-d^er, he will perceive
ibitahe inhabitantsoflKadyak might have been fupplied wirhï^he fkirts
tâ that animal from thence.   See p. 68.
Q % ductions ne ACCOUNT    OF    THE
Pioiuaionc. ductions are bilberries,, cranberries, wortleberries^ and
wild lily-roots. Kadyak like wife yields willows'and alders, which circumÉanee affords the strongest proof that
it lies at no great diftance ficomjthe continent of America.-
The extent of Kadyak cannot be exactly afcertained,'
as the Ruffians, through apprehetifion of the natiyes, did
not venture to explore the country.
Account of the     The inhabitants, like thofé of the Aleutian and neal^r
lnhabitants.
iflands, make holes in the underHips and through the
gristle of the nofe, in whicnBthey infert the bones of
birds and animals worked into the form of teeth. Their
clothes are made ofj" the fkins of birds, foxes, fea-otters*
young reih-deer, andmarmofeJts; theyfew them together
with sinews. They wear alfo fur^ftockings of "i?^n-deer
fkins, but no breeches- Their arms are bows, arrows*
and lances, whofe points, as well as their fmall hatchets,
are of fharp flint : fome few make knives and lance
points of rein-deer bones. Their wooden fhields are
called kuyaky, which amongst the Greenlanders Signifies
a fmall canoe. Their manners are altogether rude..
They have not the least difpofition to give a courteous
- reception to strangers : nor does there appear amongst
themfelves any kind of deference or fubmiffion from
one to another. îièW:
Their canoes are fome of them fo< fmalfc as to contain-
only one or two perfons ; others are large baidars fimilar
to RUSSIA NODTffC-a V E R I E S.
117
to the women's boats of the Greenlanders.    Their food
ié&fifts chiefly of raw and dried fifh^;<pa«àyiîca]aghtâ-a^:
fea wit& bone hooks^and partl$Intrivùletë^ ah bag-nets-
made of  finews platted together.     They   call  them-
fëtves Kanagift, a name that has ri®>* fin all refemblance to-
Karalit ; by which appellation, the Greenlanders and Esquimaux on the coaft of Labradore diftinguifh. themfelves ;
the difference between thefe two denominatiolismioeca*-
fioneo>perhaps -Ifcy, a change of p^onumdaÉioaà,  or.hyr^
mistake of the Ru^âbàiffiatos^ wha^may have givejanV
this variation.    Their numb^rsl'.&emïivjary confiderable
on that part of the ifland, where they had their  ùmtt*
habitations..
The ifland Kadyak * makes, withiAghunaIàfîïk%> lïms -
nak, and the fmall iflands lying: between them,, a codtifiuedi
Archipelago, extending N. E. and E.N.E. towards America : it lies by the fhip/s reclioâiMig,'. in 230 degrees of
ÏSî^itude ;:*ifo that it cannotedâeolàir distanbiîfimm;; that
part of the American coaft. which Beering) formerly.
touched at;
The large island Alakf% lying Northwardfrom Ka*.
dyakwfeere Bulhkareff wintered^maafelsd^ïÊ&Bearer.the
* Kadyak is not laid dowu upon ,any chart of- die. New difcovered ■
iflands :. for we have no chart of GlottofPs voyage ;:„àrid no* Qtlrer Ruffian navièât£>r toucfrë^?^h%£4!Qà$a& h
f See Chap.'VI;.
continent:. Kadyak,
ACCOUNT    OF    THE
coaâânéat : andrthe accoaat given by its! iilfea^ant&c*f #
great prorndntory, called Atachtak, ftre$ching froaa the
continent ÎS.fL of Alakfu, isrite^at alleirtiprftbable.
Although the condajct €3f the iflanders appeared Uiqp
friendly, yet on accountrdf their numbejâ>Étlottoffref>l^^
not to pafs another wihte^uf©is.Kadyak, and accogflifijfjf*
prepared for his departure; He wanted hoopsrjftfc £ ffr
pairing Ms^rater-caiks ; andrheing told by the natjbgl
that there were treesDda the ifland at no great difta^ee;
fèdmthe bay, faedifpatehed, on liie 25th of April, Lukas
Ftorufkin with eleven men for the purpofe of felling
wood. Ftorufkin returned the fame day with the following intelligence : that after rowing along the South
coaft of the ifland forty or fi&^ivéj^firjQm thei fotyen,
he obferved, about half a verft from the fhore, a c^afigfeïh
able number of alders^ ifimilar to thofe .found in Kamtchatka, growing in vallies between the rocks. Therlargeft
trunks were from tHto to four verihocks in diameter.
Of this wood he felîfedàs much as he had occasion For ;
and returned without having met with either Iflander
or habitation.
They brought!tine veffel down the creek in May ; and,
after taking in all the peltry and flores, left Kadyak on
the 24th. Contrary winds retarded their voyage, and
drove them near the ifland Alakfu, which they paffed ;
their  water  being   nearly exhausted,   they   afterwards
landed RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES. 119
landed upon another ifland, called Saktunak, in order
to procure a frefli flock. At laft on the 3d of Jp^Jy^^
they arriyeçL'again at Umnak, and anchored in a bay
Which Glottoff? iJiad formerly visited. He immediately
went afhore in ;$ bajcjarfc and foon found out his former
hut, which, was in .ruins: near it he obferved another
.Rpgian dwelling* that had been built in his abfence,,
in which, lay a murdered Ruflian, but whofeface none
of them knew.    GlottofFjrr^efolving to procure further in-*
rJÉ^rniatjioji, went acrofeithe ifland the 5th of July, accompanied by sixteen ofhis crew. He difcovered the remains
of a burnt yj§gçl^|fpmeigra^er books, images, See. ; all the
iron woijè and cordage^ p^gce- qarried off.    Near the fpot he
, feuj^jy&gwife a: kathapg/room filled ^itlpt^m^fdered Ruf-
:e|i^s in their clç^es. Frcm fome marks,, he concluded
that tj#s w^g: the veffel £$£$ oju) by Protaûoff;., nor was
lJ&8 mjfta^en in tocpnje^çy;çs.f.) r/v
^îâftJ^rmed at tfe^ fate o^i^i^icq^a^men, Glottoff re-
vitTOfied to; tfe^dfl^ip, and held a confultatiç^ upon the
measures necjeffary to be taken ; and it was unanknoufly
n^^tesSlitf1^*: they fhould   endeavour to procure more
^fcteJll}geBp§ concerning the veffel.    In the mean time
feven iflanders came rowing off in baidars, ua#d pretended  tr^ they -wanted to trade.    They fhewed.^a^otter
fkins at  &3#$anee,, bu| M^^^jf^y¥fP^lirQ °®. hoard ;
aa&S IS
A C C 0> U' tf T    O F- t &%<*
and hfL the interpi'eter^^fii^S'GlottofF and two of his
r.«fSfeple   to come f^hftrliore anëf barter.     Glottoff however, havfr^WflScient caufe te^flfftMst the favages, refufed
^iô^wB^ff'^Ùi their démïfe^sTr'upon this they immediately îafYded,  and fh^from the fhore with fire-arms,  but
without doing any execution. They were even bold enough
to get into their canoe? a fécond tïrïiel and tô^roW near the
- vefFel.    In orde^lf poffible to prëolKre intelligeri&ë*$ré$fi
them, every metho^iFperfuading them to,peace w^s^rkd
by means of the interprl&ërs ; and at laft ^one of them
approached the fhip and demanded victuals, which being
thrown*to him, he came on board.    He thêri téîâtéd the
fate of the above-mentioned veffel, of WM^the iflanders
*^fèmfB89ie themseWès^ïrÈfe^s ; and gave like#ïWlblûe intelligence concerning the remaining fmall body of fugitives
under the command of Korovin.     He alfo confefied,
that thek design was to entice G3$ttoff on fhore,   and
then to kill liim ; for which purpofe more than thirty
*CflaWêWr were  polled in ambufh behind the  nearest
-fcêdcs.    After cutting off the leader, they imaged %
would be an eaFy matter to feize upon the fhip.    Up.
on   thiy^^lformation Glottoff detained the islander on
board, and-Mndfing with  a îfUring :party attacked the
favages;   the lë^èr foot with arrows, as well as from
the mufkers whiclsthey had feized, but without effect,
and were foon forced to&efSre lb their canoesV ":
Mr RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
July the 14th a violent storm arofe, in which Glot-*
toff's veffel parted her ■ cable, and was forced on fhore
'without any other -loss than that of an anchor. The
crew Ukewjf^f trough want of frefh provisions, began
to grow {o fickly, that tbgywpe almost: in a defencej#ijs
state.' Glottoff however, with ten men, fetoutthe 28th
.ofc^f.uly for that part of the ifland, where according to
î&jfeff'tog&on they expected to find Korovin. They dif-
covered; only parts of the wreck, but none of the crew,
fo that they now gave fttft&c&p for loft. But on the
jfc&.of August, as Glottoltt" was on his way back, five
-ifiandto approached hinferin canoes, and afked why the
teaMar had been out; to which a fgjfe anfwer being
given,, they told him, that on the other fide of the ifland
he would find Korovin with his people, who were
è^Uding an hut on the fl$e of the rivulet. Upon re-
xfôÉtông thiseÂntelligénce, Gtotoff and his companions
wejnt over land to the place pointed out by the iflandgfls,.
amd/ifqimd every thing agreeable to t^eja? information :
in thi& Stromal bad not the least fhare, not having
been made privy to the tranfaction. The circumftan^es
of his joining, and afterwards feparating from Glottoff,
have already been mentioned *.
* See the preceding chapter.
R
Glottoff ACCOUNT   OF   THE
Glottoff now refolved to winter upon Umnak, and accordingly laid up his veffel for that purpofe. On the 2d
of September Korovin, as is before related, was at his
own defire fent out with a hunting party in two baidars.
On his return, in May 1765, they had the firft intelligence
of the arrival- of Solovioff's veffel, which Fay before
Unalafhka, and of which art account fhall be given*.
None of the iflanders appeared near the harbour during
the winter, and there were none probably at that time
upon Umnak ; for Glottoff made excursions on all fides,
and went once round the ifland. He like wife looked
into the habitations of the iflanders, and found them
empty : he examined the country, and caufed a strict feareh
to be made after the remains.of the plundered veffel.
According to his account Umnak is about 300 verfts in
circumference. It contains feveral fmall rivulets, which
take their rife from lakes, and fall into the fea after a
very fhort courfe. No trees were obferved upon the
ifland, and the vegetables were the fame as thofe of
Kamtchatka.
* Chap. XI
The RUSSIAN   DISCOVE RI E S.
m
The following summer fmall parties of the inhabitants
were feen ; but they immediately sled upon the approach
of the Ruffians. /Some of them however were at last;
1 perfuaded to a friendly intercourfe and to pay a tribute f<
by thefe means they got back part of the arms, anchors,
and iron work, of the plundered vefFel. They continued
to barter with the.natives during the fummer of 1765,
exchanging beads for the fkins of foxes and fea-otters.
The following winter hunting parties were fent out^muSL]
in Umnak as well as to Unalafhka; and in July 1766
Glottoff, without meetings with any more difficulties,
began his voyage homewards. We fhall here conclude
with giving a copy of the journal kept on board Glottoff's
veffel, the Andrean and Natalia ; from which inferences with regard to the fituatiojtipf the iflands may
be drzmmd Saiiy*
R 2
Journal 124
A C C OXTK T   OF   THE
Jou
rnal of Glottoff, on board the Andrean and Natalia*
176
1.
fegl^^   oa
. r.
Sailed from Kamtchatka Bay..
2.
Wind Southerly, fleered between E. and S. E;.
three hours.
3-
Wind S. E. worked at N. E. courfe, r6 hours.
4-
From midnight failed East with a fair wind, 1 &
hours..
!:|]
5*
At fix o'clock A. M. difcovered Beering's Ifland
distant about 18 verfts.
6. At 1 o'clock came to. anchor on the South East;
point of Copper Ifiafâéb
7. At 3 A. M. failed to the South fide of the Ifland,.
anchored there at 1 o o'clock.
1763.
July 26.  Sailed fron* Copper Ifland at 5 P. M. %k:
27. Sailed with a fak S. S. W. wind, 17 hours*.
28. Made little way.
29. Drove—wind E. N. E*
30. Ditto.
31. Ditto.
Aug.  i.  Ditto.
2. At 11 A. M.. wind N. E. fleered E.
3. Wind W. S. W. failed 8 knots an hour,  25^
verfts.
4. Wind South*7-failed 150 verfts.
5. Wind ditto—failed 126 verfts►
6» Wind RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
n$
6. Wind ditto, 3 knots, 45 verfts.
7. Calm.
8. During the night gentle S. E. wind, fleered N. E.
at 2j knots.
9. Forenoon calm. At 2 o'clock P. M. gentle
N. E. wind, fleered between E. N. E. and S. E.
at the rate of three knots.
10. Morning,windE. N..E. afterwards S..S.W. with
which Steered N. E.
11. At 5 o'clock the wind S. S. E. fleered E. N. E..
at the rate of three knots*
12. Wind S..fleered E. at 27 knots, failed 50 verfts.
13. Wind S.S. E. fleered E. at 47 knots, failed 90
verfts.
>39|$ Wind W, N. W. at 2 knots, failed 30 verfts.
15. The wind   frefhened, at 4 knots,   failed   6a-.
16. Wind N. N. E. fleered E. S. E. at 3 knots, failed
30. verfts. .
17. Wind   E. S.E. jand S. Ev light   breezes   and
changeable.
18. Wind S. E. fteer^^I., at %M knots,   failed
<..Am x 2 hours 2 2T verfts.
19. Wind S. and light breezes,, fleered E. at 3 knots,
failed in 8 hours 11 verfts.;
so. Before day-break calm ; three houjp&'after fun-
rife a breeze fprung sip at S. E. fleered E. N. Ea..
at 3 knots, and failed 20 verfts,...
:A 22.* Calrm- ACCOUNT   OF   T H E
22. Calm.
23. Wind S. S. E. during the night, the fhip failed
at the rate of two knots; the wind afterwards
came round to the S. S. W. and the fhip failed
at 5 to 6 knots thefe 24 hours 150 verfts.
24. Saw land at day-break, at 3 knots failed 45
verfts.
25. Wind W. S. W. failed along the coaft thefe 24
26. Wind N. W. fleered N. E. at 5^ knots,. 100
verfts.
27. Wind  E. N. E. the fhip  drove   towards   land,
on which difcovered a high mountain.
28. Wind N. E. and Stormy, the fhip drove.
29. Wind N. W. fleered E. N. E. at the rate of 3
knots.
30. Wind S. S. E. at  6 knots, fleering again towards land.  •
31. A violent storm, wind weft. •
Sept. 1. Wind  Weft,   Steered N. E. at the rate of  3
knots towards land.
2. Wind S. W. Steered Nl1§Jtowar4s land at 5 knots.
3. Wind S. W. drove N. N. E. along the coaft.
4. Wind W.NT. W. Steered N. E. at 4 knots, failed
100 verfts.
5. Wind N. W. fleered E. N. E. at 3 knots, and towards evening came to anchor off the Ifland
Kadyak.
H        1764. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
1764.
May 24. Sailed from Kadyak.
25. Wind N. W. and made but little way W. S. W.
26. 'Wifcd W. fhip drove towards S. E.
27. Wind W. S. W. fhip drove E. S. E. The fame
day the wind came round to the S. when fleered again towards Kk'dyak.
2.8. Wind E. S. E. fell in with the ifland Alafka or
Alakfu,
29. Wind S. W. fleered N. W.
30. Wind W. N. Wv. the. fhip drove under the
forefail.' !
31. Wind W. drove to the Southward.   .
June r. WindW.-S;gW. landed on the Ifland SaMunak,..
for a fupply of water.
2. Wind S. E. fleered S. W. along the ifland at
3 knots.
3*< Wind N. E. fleered W. SvW. at the rate of 3 to
4 knots, failing in thefe 24 hours 100 verfts.
4. Calm.
5. At 8 o'clock A. M." a fmall breeze S. E.
6. Wind E.  afterwards cairns   Towards evening
the Wind S. E. fleered S. W. at 3 knots, and-
unexpectedly   difcovered   land   ahead,    which:.
kept clear of with difficulty.
From the 7th to the 10th at anchor off a fmall
cliff.
ro. A' hard gale at S* the fhip drove foul of the
anchor, flood out to fea steering E^.
m. An*-- Ill
11.
13.
14.
15-
16.
I7«
18.
ACCOUNT   OF   THE
Anchored again at a fmall diftance from land.
Wind  S. S. W. flood out to  fea   and   fleered
E. S. E.
Wind W. S. W. fleered S. S, E. at the rate of
1 knot»
Calm.
Wind S. fleered W. at 1 knot, the fhip drove
a little to the Northward,
Wind S. S. E. Steered W. S. W. at 3 knots,
Calm.                                i^<1î
19.
:D'mxs.:l
20.
Wind N. E. fleered S. W, an&3àï^ï this day
about 87 verfts.
21.
The   wind   blowing   right   ahead,    came   to
anchor off   an unknown iflaâd^ where continued till the
*5-
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
When Stood out to fea early jsjothe morning.
Wind W. N. W7 stewards W. steered S. E.
Calm,   in   the   night a fmall but   favourable
breeze*
Wind N. W.  continued   the   courfe,   at   the
rate of 2 to  3 knots *.
Wind N. E. fleered W. at 3 to 4'j knots, and
faw .land.
Wind  N. E.  fleered   S, W.   at the rate of 7
knots.
* Lief man bey nordweft wind auf den curs zu 2 bis 3 knoten.
July RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES,
July i. With the fame wind and courfe, at the rate of
5 knots, failed 200 verfts.
2. Fell in with the ifland Umnak, and came to
an anchor iin#cfr a fmall ifland until next
day; when brought the fhip into the harbour, and Ifid her up»
1766.
June 13. Brought the fhip into the hajrbour, and continued at anchor there until the 3d of July,
July 3. Got under way,
4. Wind E.
Égii5. A Sou^/ West w$ad 4rove the fhip about 50
verfts N. E.
6. Wind;>#.ofe|le/d about 6*> verfts W.
7. Wi&d W. S. W/ ]te fhip drove to the Northward. f^e$
rro^d^idK»W. fteeyed^. at the rate of one knot,
9. Wind N. W. fleered the whole day W. S. W.
ïo, Win4^.g*^5.;f#e4 about 40 verfts W. N. W.
11. Wind S. WfiSP^pued the fame courfe, failing
only■■$ verfts.
12. Gontirij&ed the fame courfe, and failed $$ verfts.
ï 3. For the moft part oal$i.
;  14* $pnd W. N. W. and ftormy, the fhip drove
under the forefail.
15. Wind5. failed on the proper courfe 100 verfts.
ï6. Wind E. S. E. failed W.$. W. at the rate of 6
knots, 100 verfts.
17. Wind N. N. W* failed S. W. at the rate of  2
fei^Ç knots, 30 verfts.
S 18 Wind
. ï*9 ?3°
19.
20.
21.
22.
24.
M
26.
27.
28.
29
30
ACCOUNT   OF   THE
Wind S. fleered W. at the rate of 5 knots, and
failed 130 verfts.
Wind S. W. the fhip drove under the foresail.
Wind "E. N. E, fleered W. N. W. at the rate of
3 knots.
Wind E. N. E. at the rate of 4 to 5 knots,, failed
aoo verfts.
Wind N. E. at 4I knots, 150 verfts.
Wind E. N. E. fleered W. at 3 knots, 100 verfts.
Wind E. Steered W. at the rate of 3 knots, 50
verfts.
Wind N. E. fleered W. at 5 knots 100 verfts.
The wind continued N. E. and frefhened, fleered
W. at the rate of 7 knots, 200 verfts.
A fmall breeze N. N. W. with which however
failed 150 verfts.
Wind being W. S. W. drove 24 hours under
bare-poles. IfpP
Wind South, fleered W. at the rate of 2 knots,
48 verfts—this day faw land.
, Wind S. S. E. failed, at the rate of 4 knots, 96
verfts, and approached the land, which found
to be the ifland Karaga—From the ift to the
13th of August, continued our voyage towards
the mouth of Kamtchatka river, fometimes,
plying to windward, fometimes driving, and at
last arrived happily with a rich cargo.
CHAP* RUSSIAN   D l£tf O V E R I E S.
n*
CHAP.     XI.
Solovioff's voyage—be reaches Unalafhka, and paffes two
winters upon that ifiand—relation of what paffed there
—fruitlefs attempts of the natives to defiroy the crew—*
Return of Solovioff to Kamtchatka—journal of his
voyage in returning—defcription of the iflands Umnak
and Unalafhka—productions—inhabitants—their manners—cufioms, &C. tSfV.
i
N the year 1764, Jacob Ulednikoff, merchant of Ir-^JH-JfL
kutfk, and company, fitted out a fhip called the Holy SdPaST*
Apoftl^i; Peter and Paul, under the command of Ivan
Solovioff: fhe failed from the mouth of Kamtchatka
river the 25th of August. The crew confifted of fifty-
five min, amongft whom were fome of the owners,
and thirteen Kamtchadals.
They fleered at firft S. E. with the wind at N. W. but
on its coming. foutherly they afterwards fhaped their
courfe E. N. E. The 27th one of the Ruffian failors
died off Kamtchatka point ; the 31ft they made Beering's
Ifland, whipji they paffed leaving it on their left. The
1 ft and 2d of September they were becalmed, and afterwards the wind fpringing up at W. S. W. they continued
S  2 their ACCOUNT  # IH T H E
their former courfe ; until the 5th they failed on with
the wind at South ; but on the 5th and 6th,iT frons
changeable breezes and dead calms, made no progrefs \...
from the 7th to the 13th, they failed E. S. E. with
Southerly and Westerly winds ; and from that time to
the 15th East, with the wind at Weft.
September 16, they made the ifland Umnak, ' where-
Solo vioff had formerly been in Nikiphoroff's veffel. As
they failed along the Northern coast, three iflanders came
to them in baidars ; but, the crew having no interpreter,,
they would not come on board. As they found no good
bay on that fhore, they proceeded through a strait of
about a verft broad, which feparates Umnak from Unalafhka. They lay-to during the night;, and early on.
the 17 th dropped anchor at the diftance of about two
hundred yards from the ffiotë^in a bay on the North».
fide of the last mentioned ifland..
From thence the captain difpatched Gregory Korenoff
at the head of twenty men in a baidar, with orders to
land, reconnoitre the country, find out the nearest habitations, and report the disposition of the people. Korenoff returned the fame day, with an account that he had
difcovered one of the dwelling-caves of the favages, but,
abandoned and demolifhed, in which he had found traces
of Ruffians, viz. a written legend, and a broken mufket-
flock.    In confequence of this intelligence, they brought
the RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
the fhip near the coaft, and endeavoured to get into the
Eftotithiftf a river called by the natives Tfikanok, and by
tlas RuffianjSiOfeîfai^î&jnt were prevented by fhallow water.
They Itetnded however their tackle and lading. No na-
*|1&ês made their appearance until the 2 2d, when two of
them came of their own accord, and welcomed the Ruffians on their arrival. They told their names, and were
recognized by Solovioff; he had known them on a
former expédition, when Agiak,. one of the two, had
ferved as an interpreter; the other, whofe name was^
Kafhmak, had voluntarily continued', fome time with the
crew on the fame occasion.  jf&&!
133
Thefe tw& perfons recdimted the particular circum*
jiance&iwhkh attended the lof&l of Kulkoff^^rotaffoff%^
and Trapeftâkoff's vefFels ; from the last: of which K.afh-
mak had,- with great hazard of :his life, efcâped. by slight,
Agiak had ferved as interpreter to Protaffoff's company,
arid related that the. iflanders, after murdering the hunting detachments.of the Ruffians, came to the harbour,.
and entered the fhip under the moft friendly appearances.
Finding-; the crew in perfect fecurity, they fuddenly attacked and flew them, together with their commander..
He added, that *he had hid himfelf under a bench until
the murderers were gone : that fince that time,., he,,, as;
well as Kafhmak, had lived as fugitives ; and in the
çourfe of their wanderings had learned the following;
intelligence from the girls who were gathering berries-ku
. \ the:: ACCOUNT   OF   THE
the fields. The Toigons of Umnak, Akutan, and
Tofhko, with their relations of Unalafhka, had formed a
confederacy. They agreed not to disturb any Ruffians
on their firft landing, but to let them go out on different
hunting excursions ; being thus feparated and weakened,
the intention of the Toigons was to attack and cut
them off at the fame time, fo that no one party fhould
have affiftance from any of the others. They acquainted
him alfo with Glottoff's arrival at Umnak.
Thefe unfavourable reports tilled Solovioff with anxiety ; he accordingly doubled his watch, and ufed every
precaution in his power against: attacks from the favages.
But wanting wood to repair his veffel, and wifhing for
more particular information concerning the situation of
the ifland, he difpatched the 29th a party of thirty men,
with the above-mentioned interpreter, to its western extremity. In three or four hours they rowed to Anko-
nom, a point of land, where they faw a village, confifting
of two large caves, and over against it a little Mand at no
great diftance. The moment the inhabitants faw them
approaching, they got into their baidars, and put outép
fea, leaving their dwellings empty. The Ruffians found
therein feveral fkeletons, which, in the interpreter's
opinion, were the remains of ten murdered failors of
Trapefnikoff's company. With much persuasion the
interpreter prevailed on the iflanders to return to the place
which they had just quitted :   they kept however at a
wary RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES. 131
wary diftance,   and were armed for whatever  might
occur.
Solovioff attempting to cut off their retreat, in order Hominies bell       O ' twecn Solovi-
to fecure if poffible fome hoftages, they took the alarm, fj£if*
and began themfelves the attack. Upon this the Ruffians
fired upon and purfued them ; four were killed, and
feven taken prifoners, among whom was the Toigon of
the little ifland Sedak. Thefe prifoners, being bound
and examined, confeffed that a number of Korovin s crew
had been murdered in this place ; and the Toigon fent
people to bring in a number of mufkets^ fome kettles
and tackle, which the natives had taken upon that occasion. They alfo brought intelligence that Korovin, with
a party in two baidars, had taken fhelter at a place called
Inalga. Upon this information, letters were immediately
fent to Korovin ; upon the receipt of which he joined
them the 2d of October.
At the time of Korovin's arrival, the favages made
another attack on Solovioff's watch with knives ; which
obliged the latter to fire, and fix of the affailants were
left dead on the fpot. The captive Toigon excufed
this attempt of his people by afcribing it to their fears,
left Korovin out of revenge fhould put all the prifoners to
death ; on which account this effort was made to refcue
them. Solovioff, for the greater fecurity, fent the prifoners by land to the haven* while Korovin  and his
4 party ACCOUNT   OF   THE
party went to the fame place by féa. The Toigon however was treated kindly, and even permitted to return
home on condition of leaving his fon as an hoftage. In
confeq*ufence of this kind behaviour the inlifelstaÉMJS' of
three other villages, Agulak, Kutchlok, and Makufki, pre-
fented hoftages of their own accord.
From the remaining timber of the old dwelling the
na- Ruffians built a new hut ; and on the fourteenth they
laid up the vefFel. Koronoff was then lent upon à>8&-
connoitring party to the Southern fide of the iflani^wfafeii.
in that part was not more than five Or fix verfts broad :
he proceeded on with his companions, Çfofftëtimes rowing
in canoes, fometimes travelling by land and dragging
them after. He returned the twë®ti£îfe, and reported
that he had found upon the coast on the further fide of
the ifland an empty habitation. That he rowed from
thence East ward along the fhore, and behind the firft tpMÈk
of land came to an ifland in the next bay ; there he found
about forty iflanders of both fexes lodged unÉerîÛieir
baidars, who by his friendly behaviour had been induced
to give him three hoftages. Thefe people afterwards
fettled in the above-mentioned empty hut, and came frequently to the harbour.
On the 28 th of October, Solovioff himfelf went alfo
upon a reconnoitring, party along the North coaft, towards
the North-Eaft end of the ifland.    He rowed from She
firft RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
*37
firft promontory acrofs a bay ; and found on the opposite
point of land a dwelling place called Agulok, which lies
about four hours row from the harbour. He found there
thirteen men and about forty women and children, who
delivered up feveral gun-barrels and fhip-flores, and like-
wife informed him of two of Korovin's crew who had
been murdered.
November 5, they proceeded farther; and after five or
fix hours rowing, they faw on a point of land another
dwelling called Ikutchlok, beyond which the interpreter
fhewed them the haven, where Korovin's fhip had been
àt anchor. This was called Makufliinfky Bay ; and on-
an ifland within it they found two Toigons, called Itch-
adak and Kagumaga, with about an hundred and eighty
people of both fexes employed in huntings fea-bears.
Thefe natives we're not in the least hostile, and Solovioff
endeavoured to eftablifli and confirm a friendly intercourfe
between them and his people. He remained with them
until the 10th, when the Toigons invited him to their
winter quarters, which lay about five hours fail farther
Eafi : there he found two dwelling caves, each of forty
yards fquare, near a rivulet abounding with fifh which
fell from a lake into a little bay. In the neighbourhood
of this village is a hot fpring below the fea mark, which
is only to be feen at ebb tide. From hence he departed
T   feLi* the ACCOUNT    OF    THE
the 25th, but was forced back by ftorms, and detained
there until the 6th of December.
Kagumaga then accompanied him to another village
called Totchikala; both the Toigon and the interpreter
advifed him to be on his guard against the natives, whom
they reprefented as very favage, fworn enemies to the
Ruffians, and the murderers of nine of Kulkoff's crew.
Solovioff for thefe reafons paffed the night on the open
coast, and next morning fent the Toigon before to infpire
the natives wittr more friendly fentiments. Some of
them listened to his representations ; but the greatest part
fled upon Solovioff's approach, Fo that he found the place
confifting of four large dwelling caves almost empty, in
which he fecured himfelf with fuitable precaution. Here
he found three hundred darts and ten bows with arrows,
all which he destroyed, only referving one bow and fè-
venteen arrows as fpecimens of their arms. By the moft
friendly arguments he urged the few natives who remained to lay aside their enmity, and to persuade their
leaders and relations to return to their habitations and
live on terms of amity and friendfhip.
On the 10th about an hundred men and a still greater
number of women returned.     But the fairest fpeeches -
had no effect on thefe favages, who kept aloof and prepared for hostilities, which they began on the 17th by
an open attack.    Nineteen of them were killed, amongfl
Whom RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
whom was Inlogufak one of their leaders, and the moft
inveterate fomenter of hostilities against the Ruffians.
The other leader Aguladock being taken alive confeffed,
that on receiving the firft news of Solovioff's arrival,
they had refolved to attack the crew and burn the
fhip. Notwithstanding this confeffion, no injury was
offered to him : in confequence of this kind ufage, he wras
prevailed sipon to give his fon as an hoftage, and to
order his people to live on friendly terms with the
Ruffians. During the month of January the natives delivered in. three anchors, and a quantity of tackle, which
had been faved from a veffel formerly wrecked on -that
coast ; and at the fame time they brought three boys
and two young girls as hostages and pledges of their
future fidelity.
January 25, Solovioff fet out for the haven where
his fhip lay : before his departure the Toigons of Maku-
fhinfk paid of their own accord a double tribute.
February 1, Kagumaga of Makuihinfk, Agidalok of
Totzikala, and Imaginak of Ugamitzi, Toigons of Unalafhka, with a great number of their relations, came to
Solovioff; they acquainted him with the arrival of a Ruffian fhip at Unimak, the fixth ifland to the East of
Agunalafhka, adding that they knew none of the crew
excepting a Kamtchadal named Kirilko, who had been
there on a former occafion. They likewife informed
him that the natives, after having cut off part of the
T  2 crew 140
ACCOUNT    OF    THÉ
crew who had been fent out in two baidars, had
found means to overpower the remainder and to deftroy
the veffel. From the name of the Kamtchadal they concluded that this must have been another vefFel fitted out
by Nikiphor Trapefnikoff and company, of which no
farther intelligence was ever received. Willing to procure farther intelligence, they endeavoured to perfuadg
the Toigons to fend a party of their people t© the above-
mentioned ifland ; but the latter excufed themfelves, on
account of the great diftance and their dread of the
iflanders.
February 16, Solovioff fet out a fécond time for the
Weft end of the ifland, where they had formerly taken
p>rifoner, and afterwards fet at liberty, the Toigon of
Sedak. From thence he proceeded to Ikolga, which
lies on the bay, and conflits of only one hut. On the
26th he came to Takamitka, where there is likewise
only one hut on a point of land by the fide of a rivulet,
which falls from the mountains into the fea. Here he
met with Korovin, in whofe company he cut the blubber
of a whale, which the waves had cast on fhore ; after
this Korovin went acrofs the gulph to Umnak, and he
proceeded to Ikaltfhinfk, where on the gth one of his
party was carried off by ficknefs.
March 15, he returned to the haven, having met with
no opposition from the iflanders during this excursion.
1 On RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
On his return he found one of the crew dead, and a
dreadful fcurvy raging amongst the reft ; of that distemper five Ruffians died in March, eight and a Kamtchadafc
in April, and fix more in May. About this time theiflan-
ders were obferved to pay frequent vifits to the hoftages ;
and upon enquiring privately into the reafon, fome of
the latter difcovered* that the inhabitants of Makufisinfk
had formed the design of cutting off the crew, and of
making themfelves mailers of the veffel.. Solovioff had
now great reasons to be apprehensive, for the crew were
afflicted with the fcurvy to fuch a violent degree, that out
of the whole number only twelve perfons were capable
of defending themfelves. Thefe circumstances did not
efcape the obfervation of the natives;, and they were accordingly infpired with frefh courage to renew their
hostilities.
141
On the 27th of May the Ruffians perceived the Toigort
of Itchadak, who had formerly paid a voluntary tribute,
near the fhore : he was accompanied by feveral iflanders
in three baidars. Solovioff calling to him by the interpreter, he came on fhore, but kept at a diftance desiring,
a conference with fome of his relations. Solovioff gave
orders to feize nim ; and they were lucky enough to take
him prifoner, together with two of his companions. He
immediately confesTed, that he had come with a view of
enquiring of the hoftages how many Ruffians were still
remaining:   having procured the neceffary intelligence,,
his ACCOUNT    OF    THE    .
his intention was to furprife the watch at a convenient
feafon, and afterwards to fet fire to the fhip. As they
faw feveral iflanders row paft the harbour at the fame
time, and the Toigon Hkewife informed them that they
were affembling to execute the above mentioned design ;
Solovioff refolved to be much upon his guard. They
feparated, however,  without attempting any hostilities.
June 5, Glottoff arrived at the harbour on a vifit, and
returned on the 8th to his fhip. The captive Toigon
was now fet at liberty, after being ferioufly exhorted to
delist from hostilities. In the courfe of this month two
more of the crew died ; fo that the arrival of Korovin,
Who joined them about this time, with two of his own
and two of Kulkoff's crew, was of courfe a very agreeable circumstance. The sick likewife began to recover
by degrees.
July 22, Solovioff, with a party of his people, in. two
baidars, made another excursion Northwards; he paffed
by the places formerly mentioned as far as Igonok,
which lies ten verfts beyond Totzikala. Igonok consists
of one dwelling cave on the fide of a rivulet, which falls
from the mountains, and empties itfelf into the fea. The
inhabitants amounted to about thirty men, who dwelt
there with their wives and children. From thence
Solovioff proceeded along the fhore into a bay ; five verfts
further RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
further he   found another  rivulet,  which has its fource
among the hills, and flows through a plain.
'43
Upon the Shore of the fame bay, opposite to the
mouth of this rivulet, lay two villages, one of which
only was inhabited ; it was called Ukunadok, and eon-
fisted of fix dwelling caves. About thirty-five of the
inhabitants were at that time employed in catching fal-
mon in the rivulet. Kulkoff's fhip had lain at anchor
. about two miles from thence ; but there were no remains of her to be found.     After coming; out of the bay
o J
he went forwards to the fummer village Umgaina, distant
about feven or eight leagues, and fituated on the fide
of a rivulet, which takes its rife in a lake abounding with
falmon. Here he found the Toigon Amaganak, with
about ten of the natives, employed in fifhing. Fifteen
verfts farther along the fhore they found another fummer village called Kalaktak, where there was likewife
another rivulet, which came from the hills. The inhabitants were Sixty men and an hundred and feyenty
women and children : they gave Solovioff a very friendly
reception ; and delivered up two hoftages, who were
brought from the neighbouring ifland Akutan ; with
thefe he fet out on his return, and-on the 6th of August
joined his crew.
On 144
ACCOUNT    OF    THE
On the nth he went over to the ifland Umnak, accompanied by Korovin, to bring off fome fliips Stores
left there by the' latter ; and returned to the haven on
the 27th. On the 31ft Shaffyrin died, the Fame perFon
whofe adventures have been already related-,
Sept. t 9, Korenoff wras fent northwards upon an
hunting party ; he returned the 30th of January, 1766.
Although the Ruffians who remained at the haven met
with no molestation from the natives during his abfence ;
yet he and his companions were repeatedly attacked.
Having distributed to the inhabitants of the feveral villages through which he palled nets for the purpofe of
catching fea-otters, he went to the Eafi part of the ifland
as far as Kalaktak, with an intention of hunting. Upon
his arrival at that place, on the 31ft of October, the in^
habitants fled with precipitation ; and as all his efforts to
conciliate their affections were ineffectual, he found it requisite to be upon his guard. Nor was this precaution un-
neceffary ; for on the following day they returned in a
confiderable body, armed with lances, made with the
iron of the plundered vefFels. Korenoff, however, and
his companions, who were prepared to receive them,
killed twenty-fix, and took feveral prifoners ; upon
which the others became more tractable.
* Chap. VIII.
Nov. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
Nov. 19, Korenoff, upon his return to the haven, came
to Makufhinfk, where he was kindly received by a Toigon
named Kulnmaga ; but with regard toltchadak, it was plain
that his designs were still hostile. Instead of giving an
account of the nets which had been left with him, he
withdrew privately : and on the 19th of January, accompanied by a numerous body of iflanders, made an attempt to furprife the Ruffians. Victory, however, again
declared for Korenoff; and fifteen of the affailants,
amongst whom was Itchadak himfelf, remained dead
upon the fpot. Kulumaga affured them, in the strongest
manner, that the design had been carried on without his
^knowledge ; and protested, tihat he had often prevented
his friend from committing hostilities against the Ruf-
.fians. ?$$&9
Korenoff returned to the haven on the 30th of January ; and on the 4th of February he went upon another
iwaintkigexpedition toward the Western point of the ifland.
During this excursion he met with a party fent out by
Glottoff, at a place called Tifa^aifcka ; he then rowed
cover to Umnak, where he collected a fmall tribute, and
returned on the 3d of Mascih. During his abfence
Kyginik, Kulumaga's fon, paid a visit to the Ruffians, and
requested that he might be baptized, and be permitted to
go aboard the veffel ; his demand was immediately complied with.
31 u May ACCOUNT   OF   THE
May 13th, Korovin went, with fourteen men, to
Umnak, to bring off an anchor, which was buried in the
fand. On his return preparations were made for their
departure. Before the arrival of Korovin the hunters
had killed 150 black and brown foxes, artdnthe fame
number of old and young fea-otters ; Since his arrival
they had caught 350 black foxes, the fame number of
common foxes, and 150 fea-otters of different  sizes.
This cargo being put on board, the interpreter Kafis-
mak fet at liberty, with a certificate of, and prefents for
his fidelity, and the hoftages delivered up to the Toigons
and their relations, who had affembled at the haven,
Solovioff put to fea on the ift of June, with an Easterly
wind. Before his departure he received a letter, from
Glottoff, informing him that he was likewife preparing
for his return.
The wind being contrary, they got but a fmall
way from land.
Steered again towards the fhore, came to an
anchor, and fent a boat for a fupply of water,
which returned without having feen any
body. 5}f^&
6. Weighed and fleered W. with a S. E. wind.
7. Favourable wind at N.E. and in the afternoon
at N.
8. Wind RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
j 8. Wind at N. W. and stormy, the  fhip drove
under the forefail.
9 & iOi Sailed Northwards, with a Westerly wind.
n. Calm till noon; afterwards breeze .fprung
up at S. with which they fleered W. till next
day at noon ; when the wind coming round
to the Weft, they changed their courfe, and
Steered N. W.
12. Calm during the night.
13. A fmall breeze of Northerly wind, with
which they fleered W. in the afternoon it
fell calm, and continued fo till the
16. At noon, when a freeze ipringing sip at
East, they fleered W. on which courfe they
continued during the
18. with a S.'S. E. wind.
From the  19 to the 22.     The  wind  was changeable
from the S. W. to N. W.  with which they
still made a fhift to get to the Westward.
23. The wind E. they fleered betwixt N. & W.
which courfe they continued the
24th, 25th, 26th, with a Northerly wind.
27. A. M. the wind changed to S. W.
28, 29,  30.  Wind at Weft.
July i. The wind changed to E. with which they fleered
between W. and S. W. with little variations, till
x47
the sd.
s
U 2
4. They ACCOUNT   OF   THE
4. They reached Kamtchatkoi Nofs, and on the
5 th. Brought the fhip, in good condition, into Kamtchatka river.
Solovioff's defcription of thefe îflarîds and the inhabitants, being more circumstantial than the accounts
given by former navigators, deferves to be inferted at
full length. According to his estimation, the ifland
Unalafhka lies between 1500 and 2000 verfts due East
from the mouth of the Kana*efeatka river : the other
iflands to the Eastward ftretch towards N. E. He reckons the length of Akutan at eighty verfts ; Umnak at
an hundred and fifty, and Unalafhka at two hundred. No
large trees were feen upon any of the iflands which he
touched at. They produce underwood, fmall fhrubs, and
plants, for the moft part fimilar to the common fpecies
found in Kamtchatka. The winter is much milder than
in the Eastern parts of Siberia, and continues only from
November to the end of March. The fnow feldom lies
upon the ground for any time.
Rein-deer, bears, wolves, ice-foxes, are not to be
found on thefe iflands ; but they abound in black, grey,
brown, and red foxes ; for which reafon they have got
the name of Lyffie Oftrova, or Fox Iflands. Thefe foxes
are stronger than thofe of Yakutsk, and their hair is
much coarfer.    During the day they lie in caves and
clifts RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
clifts of rocks; towards evening they come to the fhore
in fearch of food ; they have long ago extirpated the
brood of mice, and other fmall animals. They are not
in the fmalleft degree afraid of the inhabitants, but dif-
tinguifh the Ruffians by the fcent ; having experienced
the effects of their fire-arms. The number of fea-animals, fuch as fea-lions, fea-bears, and fea-otters, which
refort to thefe shores, are very confiderable. Upon fome
of the iflands warm fprings and native fulphur are to be
found.
*49
The Fox-iflands are in general very populous; Una-Mam
lafhka, which is the largest ifland, is fuppofed to contain
several thoufand inhabitants. Thefe favages live together
in feparate communities, compofed of fifty, and fome-
times of two or even three hundred perfons ; they dwell
in large caves from forty to eighty yards long, from fix
to eight broad, and from four to five high. The roof of
thefe caves is a kind of wooden grate, which is firft fpread
over with a layer of grafs, and then covered with earth.
Several openings are made in the top, through which
the inhabitants go up and down by ladders : the fmalleft
dwellings have two or three entrances of this fort, and
the largest five or fix. Each cave is divided into a certain
number of partitions, which are appropriated to the feveral families ; and thefe partitions are marked by means
of stakes driven into the earth.    The men and women fit
on
Cuftoms of the
Inhabitants. ACCOUNT   OF   THE
oil the ground ; and the children lie down, having their
legs bound together under them, in order to make them
learn to fit upon their hams.
Although no fire is ever made in thefe caves, they
are generally fo warm, that both fexes fit raked.
Thefe people obey the calls of nature openly, and without esteeming it indecent. They wafh themfelves first
with their own urine, and afterwards with wTater. In
winter they go always bare-footed : and when they
want to warm themfelyes, efpecially before they go to
fleep, they fet fire to dry grafs and-walk over it. Their
habitations being almost dark, they ufe particularlyijijil
winter a fort of large lamps, made by hollowing out a
Stone, into which they put a rufh-wiek and burn train
oil. A stone fo hollowed is called Tfaaduck, The natives * are whites with black hair; they have flat faces,
and are of a good stature. The men fhave with a fharp
Stone or knife the circumference and top of the head,
and let the hair w7hich remains hang from the crown -f.
The women cut their hair in a ftreight line over the forehead ;   behind they let it grow to a confiderable length,
* Von geficht find fie platt undweifs durchgaengig mit fchwarzen
haaren.
«t The original in this paffage is fomewhat obfcure.    Die maenner
. fcheeren mit einem Scharfen Stein oder méfier den Umkreifs des haar-
kopfs und die platte, und laflen die haare urn die krone des kopfs run-
dum ueberhangen.
and «M
RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES,
and tie it in a bunch.    Some of the men  wear their
beards ;   others fhave or pull them out by the roots.
They mark various figures on their faces, the backs
of their hands, and lower parts of their arms, by pricking them firft with a needle, and then rubbing the parts
with a fort of black clay. They make three incisions in
the under-lip ; they place in the middle one a flat bone,
or a fmall coloured ftone ; and in each of the fide-
ones they fix a long pointed piece of bone, which
bends and reaches almost to the ears, They likewife
make a hole through the gristle of the nofe, into which
they put a fmall piece of bone in fuch a manner as
to keep the nostrils extended; They alfo pierce holes
in their ears, and wear in them what little ornaments
they can procure.
Their drefs conflits of a cap and a fur-coat, which
reaches down to the knee. Some of them wear common caps of a party coloured bird-fkin, upon which
they leave part of the wings and tail. Oh the fore-part
of their hunting and fifhing caps they place a fmall
board like a fcreen, adorned with the jaw-bones of fea-
bears, and ornamented with glafs beads, which they receive in barter from the Ruffians. At their festivals and
dancing parties they ufe a much more flsowy fort of caps.
Their fur-coats are made like fhirts, being clofe behind
and before,   and   are   put   on   over  the head.      The
drefs ACCOUNT   OF   THE
drefs of the men is made of bird fkins, that of the
women of fea-otters and fea-bears. Thefe fkins are
died with a fort of red earth, and neatly fewed with
finews, and ornamented with various stripes of fea-
otter fkins and leathern fringes. They have alfo upper
garments made of the intestines of the largest lea-
calves and fea-lions.
Their vefFels conflit of two forts : the larger are leathern boats or baidars, which have oars on both fidf§§,
and are capable of holding thirty or forty people. The
fmaller vefFels are rowed with a double paddle, and re-
femble the canoes of the Greenlanders, containing only
one or two perfons : they never weigh above thirty
pounds, being nothing but a thin Jffcejeton of a boat
covered with leather. In thefe however they pafs from
one ifland to another, and even venture out to fea to a
confiderable diftance. In calm weather they go out in
them to catch turbot and cod >wàth bone-hooks and lines
made of sinews or fea-weed. They Strike fifh in the
rivulets with darts. Whales and other f^a^ariimals
thrown afhore by the waves are carefully looked after,
and no part of them is loft. The quantity of provisions which they procure by hunting and fifhing
being far too fmall for their wants, £he greatest #art of
their food consists of fea-wrack and ffiell-fifh, which
they find on the fhore.
No RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES,
»53
No stranger is allowed to hunt or fifh near a village,
or to carry off any thing fit for food. When they are
on a journey, and their provifions are exhausted, they
beg from village to village, or call upon their friends
and relations for affiftance.
They feed upon the flefh of all forts of fea-animals,
and generally eat it raw. But if vat any time they
choofe to drefs their victuals, they make ufe of an hollow stone ; having placed the fifh or flefh therein, they
cover it with another, and clofe the interstices with
lime or clay. They then lay it horizontally upon two
stones, and light a fire under it. The provision intended for keeping is dried without fait in the open
air. They gather berries of var.'oss forts, and lily
roots of the fame fpecies with thofe which grow wild
at Kamtchatka. They are unacquainted with the manner of dressing the cow-parfnip, as practifed in that
Peninfula ; and do not understand the art of distilling
brandy or any other strong liquor from it. They are
at prefent very fond of fnuff, which the Ruffians have
introduced among them.
No traces were found of any worfhip, neither did
they feem to have any forcerers* among them.     If a
* In the lalt chapter it is faid that there are forcerers among them.
X whale
i i& ACCOUNT   OF   THE
whale happens to be cast on fhore, the inhabitants af-
femble with great marks of joy, and perform a number
of extraordinary ceremonies. They dance and beat
drums * of different Sizes : they then cut up the fills,
of which the greatest and best part is confumed on
the fpot. On fuch occasions they wear fhowy caps ;
and fome of them dance naked in wooden mafks, which
reach down to their fhouiders, and reprefent various forts
of fea-animals. Their dances confift of fhort Steps forwards, accompanied with many strange gestures.
Marriage ceremonies are unknown among them-;
and each- man takes as many "wives as he can maintain,
but the number feldom exceeds four. Thefe Women
are occafionally allowed to cohabit with other men ;
they and their children are* alfo not unfrequentsy bartered in exchange for commodities. When an iflander
dies, the body is bound with thongs, and afterwards ex-
pofed to the air in a fort of wooden cradle hung upon
* The ëxprefSon in the original is " Schlagen auf grofTen platteSi
" handpauken von verfchiedenen Klang," which, being literally tran-
ilated, fignifies " They beat upon large flat hand-kettle drums of dif-
4t ferent founds."
By the accounts which I procured at Peterfburg, concerning the
form of thefe drums, they feem to referable in fhape thofe made ufe of
by the forcerers of Kamtchatka, and are of different fizes. I had an
"opportunity of feeing one of the latter in the Cabinet of Curiofities. In
is of an oval form, about two feet long and one broad ^ it is covered
only at one end like the tambour de bafque, and is worn upon the arm
like a fhield.
a crofs- RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
a crofs-bar, fupported by forks.    Upon thefe occasions
they cry, and make bitter lamentations.
Their Toigons or Princes are thofe who have numerous families, and are fkilful and fuccefsful in hunting
and fifhing.
Their weapons confift of bows, arrows, and darts :
they throw the latter very dexteroufly, and to a great
diftance, from a hand-board. For defence they ufe
wooden fhields, called kuyakin. Thefe iflanders are,
notwithstanding their favagenefs, very docile ; and the
boys, whom the Ruffians keep as hoftages, foon acquire a knowledge of their language.
*&
S
X    2
C HAP. 156
ACCOUNT   OF   THE.
G  HAP.     XII.
Voyage of Otcheredin—He winters upon Umnak—Arrival
of LevafhefF upon Unalafhka—Return of Otcheredin to
Ochotfk.
oXredLiin T^ t^ie year 17^S three merchants, namely, Orechoff
l»iV *' of Yula, Lapin of Solikamfk, and Shiloff of Uf-
tyug, fitted out a new veffel called the St. Paul, under
the command of Aphanaffei Otcheredin. She was built
in the harbour of Ochotfk : his çrew consisted of fixty-
two Ruffians and Kamtchadals ; and fhe carried on boarcF
two inhabitants of the Fox Iflands, named John and Timothy Surgeff, who had been brought to Kamtchatka
and baptifed.
September 10, they failed from Ochotfk, and arrived
the 2 2d in the bay of Bolcherefk where they wintered.
August j, 1776, they continued their voyage, and
having paffed the fécond of the Kuril Ifles, fleered on the
6th into the open fea ; on the 24th they reached the
nearest of the Fox Iflands, which the interpreters called
*Atchak. A storm arising, they cast anchor in a bay,
hut faw no inhabitants upon the fhore.    On the  26th
Called in a former journal Atchu, p. 63
they RUSSIAN. DISCOVERIES.
they failed again, difcovered on the 27th Sagaugamak,
along which they fleered North East, and on the 31ft
came within feven miles of the ifland Umnak ; where, **
on account of the latenefs of the feafon and the want of
provision and water, they determined to winter. Accordingly on the 1 ft of September, by the advice of the
interpreters, they brought the veffel into a convenient
bay near a point of land lying N. W. where they fattened it to the fhore with, cables.
Upon their landing* they difcovered feveral pieces of a
wreck ;- and two iflanders, who dwelled on the banks of
a rivulet which empties itfelf into the bay, informed
them, that thefe were the remains of a Ruffian veffel,
whofe commander's name wras Denys. From this intelligence they concluded that this was Protaffoff's vefFel,
fitted out at Ochotfk. The inhabitants of Umnak,. Unalafhka, and of the Five Mountains,. had affembled and
murdered the crew, when feparated into different hunting parties. The fame iflanders alfo mentioned the fate
of Kulkoff's and Trapefnikoff's fhips upon the ifland
Unalafhka. Although this information occafioned ge^
neral apprehensions, yet they had no other refource than
to draw the veffel afhore, and to take every poffible precaution against a furprize. Accordingly they kept a confiant watch, made prefents to the Toigons and the principal inhabitants, and demanded fome children- as hostages.
For fome time the iflanders behaved very peaceably, until the Ruffians endeavoured to perfuadethem to become
4 tributary fc,
'57
W* ACCOUNT   OF   THE
tributary : upon which they gave fuch repeated signs of
their hostile intentions, that the crew lived under continual alarms. In the beginning of September information was brought them of the arrival of a "veffel, fitted
out by Ivan Popoff, merchant of Lalfk, at Unalaûika..
About the end of the faid month the Toigon of the
Five Mountains came to Otcheredin, and was fo well fa-
tisfied with his reception, that he brought hoftages, and
not only affured them of his own friendfhip, but pro-
mi-fed to ufe his imfl«ence with the other Toigons, and
to perfuade them to die fame peaceable behaviour. But
the other Toigons not only paid no regard to his perfua-
fions, but even barba»oufly killed one of fate Children,
From thefe and other circumstances the crew paffed the
winter under continual apprehensions, and durft not venture far from the harbour upon hunting parties. Hence
enfued a fcarcity of provMons ; and hunger, joined to
the violent attacks of the fcurvy, made great havoofc
amongft them, infomuch that fix of them died, and feveral of the furvivors were reduced to fo weak a condition^
that they were fcarce able to move.
The health of the crew being re-eltaiblifhëd in ths
fpring, twenty-three men were I fent on the 24>th of
June in two boats to the MvenMountaMs, in order to
perfuade the inhabitants to pay tribute. On the 26th
they landed on the ifland Ulaga, where ihey were attacked RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
tacked with great fpirit by a large body of the inhabité** i and though three of the Ruffians were wounded,
yet the favages ËËt^ rePulfed wit^ confiderable lofs : they
were fo terrified by their dere*!, that ttKi fled before ttie
Ruffians during their continuance on that ifland. j The
latter were detained there by tempestuous, weather until
the 9th of July ; during which time they found two
rufty firelocks belonging to Protaffoff's crew. On the
1 oth they returned to the harbour ; : and it was imme-r
lately refolved to diFpatch fome companies upon hunt*.-.
i@g expeditions.
W
Accordingly on the 1 ft of Augiift Matthew Polofkoff/
a native of Ilinfk, was  fent with  twenty-eight men in
two   boats   to Unalafhka, with  the  following   orders ;
that if  the weather and'." other circumstances were fa- •
vourable, they were to make to Akutan and Akun, the*
two nearest iflands to the Eafi, but to proceed no. further.
In coafequence of this, Polofkoff reached Akutan about
the end of the month ;   and being kindly, received by
the inhabitants, he left fix of his. party to hunt ;   with.
the • remainder he went-to Akun, which lies about two
verfts from Akutan.     From  thence he difpatched five
merrto the neighbouring islands, where he was informed
by the interpreters there were great quantities of foxes. r
Polofkoff and   his companions continued the whole
autumn upon Akun.withoutv being,., annoyed ; but on the-
12^: ACCOUNT   OF   THE
I2th of December the inhabitants of the different iflands
affembled in great numbers, and attacked them *gj jancJ
and Fea.      They informed Polof^ hj means of tbe
Interrret.!r!, !2X aie. Ruffians whom he had fent to
the neighbouring iflands were killed ; that the two
vefFels at Umnak and Unalafhka were plundered, and
the crew put to death ; and that they were now come
to make him and. his party fhare the Fame fate. The
Ruffian firé arms however kept them in due refpect ;
and towards evening they difperfed. The fame night
the interpreter deferted, probably at the instigation of
his countrymen, who neverthelefs killed him, as it was
faid, that winter.
January 16, the favages ventured to make a feco^ffct
attack. Having furprifed the guard by night, 'they tore
off the roof of the Ruffian dwelling, and fliot down
into the hut, making at the fame time great outcries :
by this unexpected affault four Ruffians were killed,
and three wounded; but the furvivors no fooner had
recourfe to their fire-arms, than the enemy was driven
to flight. Meanwhile another body of the natives attempted to Teize the two vefFels, but without FucceFs^
they however cut off the party of fix men left by Polofkoff at Akutan, together with the Rve -hunters difi.
patched to the contiguous iflands, and twro of Popoff's
crew who were at the Wefternmoft part of Unalafhka.
Polofkoff RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES,
1.61.
Polofkoff continued upon Akun in gre#t danger until
the 20th of February ; when, the wounded being recovered, he failed over with a fair wind to Popoff's veF-
fel at Unalafhka ; and on the i oth of May returned to.
%cheredin^
In April, Popoff's veffel beiaggot ready for the voyage, all the hoftages, whofe number amounted to forty,,
were delivered to Otcheredin.. July the 30th a veffel
belonging to the fame Popoff arrived from Beering's
Ifland,. and caft anchor in the fame bay where Otchere-
din's lay ; and both crews entered into an agreement
to fharein common the profits^ of hunting. Strengthened by this alliance,. Otcheredin prevailed upon a number of the inhabitants to pay tribute. August the 2 2d
Otcheredin's mate was fent with fix boats and fifty-
eight men to hunt upon Unalafhka and Àkutan ; and:
there remained thirty men with the veuelsin the harbour,  who kept confiant watch.
Soon afterwards Otcheredin and the other commander otcheredin receives an Ac-
received a letter from LevafhefF Captain Lieutenant of JXff°js Ar-
the  Imperial fleet, who accompanied! Captain Krenitzin laihka.
in  the  fecret  expedition to  thofe iflands.     The letter
was dated September  11,   1768.: it informed them he
was  arrived at  Unalafhka in the St. Paul,  and  lay at
anchor in the fame bay in which Kulkoff's veffel -had*
Y been: ACCOUNT    OF    THÉ
been lost. He likewife required a circumstantial account of their voyages. By another order of the 24th
he fent for four of the principal hoftages, and demanded
the tribute of fkins which had been exacted from the
iflanders. But as the weather was generally tempestuous
at this feafon of the year, they deferred fending them
till the fpring. May the 31ft LevafhefF fet fail for
Kamtchatka; and in 1771 returned fafely from his expedition at St. Peterfburg.
The two vefFels remained at Umnak until the year
1770, during which time the crews met with, no opposition from the iflanders. They continued their hunting parties, in which they had fuch good fortune, that
the fhare of Otcheredin's veffel (whofe voyage is here
chiefly related) confifted in 530 large Fea-otter fkins,
40 young ones and 30 cubs, the fkins of 656-fine black
foxes, t o ô of an inferior fort, and about 1250 red fox
fkins.
With this large cargo of furs Otcheredin fet fail on the
2 2dofMay, 1770, from Umnak, leaving Popoff's crew
behind. A fhort time before their departure, the other
interpreter Ivan Surgeff, at the instigation of his relations,
deferted.
Return of
Otcheredin
Ochotfk,
After having touched at the nearest of the Aleutian
Iflands, Oeheredin and his crew arrived on the 24th of
July RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
July at Ochotfk. They brought two iflanders with
them, whom they baptized. The one was named
Alexèy Solovieff; the other Boris Otcheredin. TheFe
iflanders unfortunately died on their way to Peterfburg ;
the firft between Yakutfk and Irkutfk ; and the latter
at Irkutfk, where he arrived on the ift of February*
I77I*
163
* *
€H&H ACCOUNT   OF    THE
G $ A P.    XIII.
Conclufion—General pofition and fituation of the Aleutian
and Yox Iflands—their diftance from each other—Further defcription of the drefs, manners, and cufioms of
the inhabitants—their feafis and ceremonies, &f*c.
Behind     ACCORDING   to   the lateft  informations brought
Copper Iflands.    I    %" , ■      - ,. ,    __ —,, rr- t i •*.-,        ■•
by Otcheredin s and Popoff s vefFels, the North
Weft point of Gommandorfkoi Ostroff, or Beering's
Ifland, lies due Eaii from the mouth of the Kamtchatka
80 verfts long, and ftretches from North Weft to South
Eafi, in the fame direction as Copper Ifland. The latter
is fituated about 60 or 70 verfts from the South East
point of Beering's Ifland,  and is about 50 verfts in length.
About 300 verfts East by South of Copper Ifland lie
the Aleutian Ifles, of which Attak is the nearest : it is
rather larger than Beering's Ifland, of the fame
fis ape, and ftretches from Weft to South Eafi. From
thence about 20 verfts Eastwards is fituated Semitfhi,
extending from Weft to Eafi, and near its Eastern point
another fmall ifland. To the South of the lirait, which
feparates the two latter iflands, and at the diftance of
I  I 40
Cf the Aleutian Ifles. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES. 165
40 verfts from both of them, lies Shemiya in a fimilar
position, and not above 25 verfts in length. All thefe
iflands stretch between 54 and 55 degrees of North
latitude.
The Fox Iflands are fituated E. N. E. from the Aleii-S^Fox
tians : the nearest of thefe, Atchak, is about 800 verfts
diftant; it lies in about 56 degrees North latitude, and extends from W. S. W. towards E. N. E. It greatly re-
fembles Copper Island, and is provided with a commo-
d^us harbour on the North. From thence all the
.other iflands of this chain stretch in a direction towards
N. E. by Eafi.
The next to Atchak is Amlak, about 15 verfts diftant ;
it is nearly of the fame fize ; and has an harbour
on its Soutjh fide. Next follows Sagaugamak, at about
the fame cjiftance^ but fome what fmaller ; from that it
is 50 verfts to Amuchta, a fmall rocky ifland ; and the
fame asftance from the latter to Yunakfan, another fmall
ifiand. AbO/Ut 20 verfts from Yunakfan there is a cluster
of five fmall iflands, or raj^er mountains, Kigalgift,
-QWïMPQfii aF§^#akj -ïftaga,; and Tana-Unok, and which
are therefore called by the Ruffians Pat Sopki, or the
F|yejV|Qjmtains. Of thefp'jJFana-Unok lies most: to the
r^J>Ç. towarçjs (jwtwcfe ^iP iW'fferJbl&i^A: °£ Umnak ad-
vaisceswithinrthe-diftance of 20 verfts.
Umnak. ACCOUNT    O F    T H E
Umnak stretches from S. W. to N.E.; it is 150 verfts
in length, and has a very confiderable bay on the Weft
end of the Northern coaft, in which there is a fmall
ifland or rock, called Adugak ; and on the South fide is
Shemalga, another rock. The Weftern point of Aghuna-
lafhka, or Unalafhka, is feparated from the Eafi end of
Umnak by a strait near 20 verfts in breadth. The position of thefe two iflands is fimilar ; but. Aghunalafhka
is much the largest, and is above 200 verfts long. It is
divided towards the N.E. into three promontories, one
of which runs out in a Wefterly direction, forming one
fide of a large bay on the North coaft of the ifland r
the fécond ftretches out N. E. ends in three points, and
is connected with the ifland by a fmall neck of land.
The third or most Southerly one is feparated from the
last mentioned promontory by a deep bay. Near Unalafhka towards the East lies another fmall ifland, called!
Skirkin.
About 20 verfts from the North Eaft promontory of
Aghunalafhka lie four iflands r the firft, Akutan j is
about half as big as Umnak ; a verft further is the fmafl-
ifland Akun ; -a little beyond is Akunok ; and lastly Ki-
galga, which is the fmalleft of thefe four, and ftretches
with Akun and Akunok almost from N. to S. Kigalga
is fituated about the 6-1 ft degree of latitudei     About
100 RUSSIAN    DISCOVERIES.
,100 verfts from thence lies an ifland called Unimak*,
upon which Captain Krenitzin wintered; and beyond it
the inhabitants faid there was a large tract of country
called Alafhka, of which they did not know the boundaries.
The Fox Iflands are in general very rocky, without
containing any remarkable high mountains : they are
destitute of wood, but abound in rivulets and lakes,
which are mostly without fifh. The winter is much
milder than in Siberia ; the fnow feldom falls before
the beginning of January, and continues on the ground
till the end of March.
. There is a volcano in Amuchta ; in Kagamila fulphur
flows from a mountain; in Taga-Unok there are warm
fprings hot enough to boil provisions ; and flames of
fulphur are occasionally feen at night upon the mountains of Unalafhka and Akutan.
167
The Fox Iflands are tolerably populous in proportion Ac(
to their fize. The inhabitant^&re entirely free, and pay
tribute to no one : they are of a middle flature ; and
live, both in fummer and winter, in holes dug in the
earth.    No Signs of religion were found amongst them.
* Krenitzin wintered in the Straits bf Alaxa, which feparate Unimak
from Alaxa.    See Appendix I. N° I. p. 254.
Inhabitants t»f
the Fox Iflands.
Several i68 ACCOUNT    OF    THE
Several perfons indeed pafs for forcerers, pretending f».
know things paft and to come, and are accordingly
held in high efteem, but without receiving any emolument. Filial duty and refpect towards the aged are
not held in estimation by thefe iflanders. They are
not however deficient in fidelity to each other ; they
are of lively and chearful tempers, though rather impetuous, and naturally prone to anger. In general, they
do not obferve any rules of decency, but follow all the
calls of nature publicly, and without the leaft referve..
They wafli themfelves with their own urine..
Their Food. Their principal food conflits in fifh and other
fea-animals, fmall fhell-fifh and fea-plants : their
greatest delicacies are wild lilies and other roots, together with different kinds of berries. When they have
laid in a flore of provisions, they eat at any time of the-
day without distinction ;. but in cafe of neceffity they
- are capable of fasting feveral days togefher. They fel-
dom heat their dwellings ;. but when they are desirous
of warming themfelves, they light a bttbdle of hay, and
Hand over it; or elfe they fet fire to train oil, which
they pour into a hollow stone.
They feed their children when very young with the
coarfeft flefh, and for the most part raw^ If an infant
cries, the mother immediately carries it to the fea-fide,
and  be   it fummer or winter   holds   it naked in   the
water RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
water until it is quiet. This custom is fo far from doing
the children any harm, that it hardens them againfl
the cold, and they accordingly go bare-footed through
the winter without the least inconvenience. They are
alfo trained to bathe frequently in the fea; and it is
an opinion generally received among the iflanders, that
by that means they are rendered bold, and become fortunate in fifhing.
169
The men wear fhirts made of the fkins of cormo-Drefs-
rants, fea-divers, and gulls ; and, in order to keep out
the rain, they have upper garments of the bladders and
pther intestines of fea-lions, fea-calves, and whales,
blown up and dried. They cut their hair in a circular
form clofe to their ears ; and fhave alfo a round place
upon the top. The women, on the contrary, let the
hair defcend over the forehead as low as the eye-brows,
and tie the remaining part in a t knot upon the top of
the head. They pierce the ears, and hang therein
bits of coral which they get from the Ruffians. Both
fexes make holes in -the gristle of the nofe, and in
the under-lips, in which they thruft pieces of bone,
and are very fond of fuch kind of ornaments. They
mark alfo and colour their faces with different figures.
They barter among one another fea-otters, fea-bears,
clothes made of bird-fkins and of dried intestines, fkins
of fea-lions and fea-calves for the coverings of baidars,
Z wooden i7o ACCGUNTOFTHE
wooden mafks, darts, thread made of finews and reindeer
hair, which they get from the country of Alafka.
Their houfhold utenfils are fquare pitchers and large
troughs, which they make out of the wood driven afhoré
Arms. by the fea, Their weapons are bows and arrows pointed
with flints, and javelins of two yards in length, which
they throw from a fmall board. Instead of hatchets they
ufe crooked knives of flint or bone. Some iron knives,
hatchets, and lances, were obferved amongst them, which
they had probably got by plundering the Ruffians.
According to the reports of the oldest inhabitants of
Umnak and Unalafhka, they have never been engaged
in any wrar either amongst themfelves or with their
neighbours, except once with the people of Alafhka, the
occafion of which was as follows : The Toigon of Um-
nak's fon had a maimed hand ; and fome inhabitants of
Alafhka, who came upon a vifit to that ifland, fattened
to his arm a drum, out of mockery, and invited him to
dance. The parents and relations of the boy were iip-
fended at this infult : hence a quarrel enfued ; and from
that time the two people have lived in continual enmity,
attacking and plundering each other by turns. According to the reports of the iflanders, there are mountains
upon Alafhka, and woods of great extent at fome diftance from the coaft.    The natives wear clothes made of
the RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES,
the fkins of reindeer, wolves, and foxes, and are not
tributary to any of their neighbours. The inhabitants
of the Fox-iflands feem to have no knowledge of any
country beyond Alafhka.
Feasts are very common among thefe iflanders ; and Fcafts-
more particularly when the inhabitants of one ifland are
visited by thofe of the others. The men of the village
meet their guefts beating drums, and preceded by the
women, Who ling and dance. At the conclusion of the
dance the hosts invite them to partake of the feast ; after
which ceremony the former return firft to their dwellings, place mats in order, and ferve up their belt provision. The guefts next enter, take their places, and
after they are fatisfied the diversions begin.
171
Firft, the children dance and caper, at the fame time
making a noife with their fmall drums, while the owners of the hut of both fexes ling. Next, the men dance
almost naked, tripping after one another, and beating
drums of a larger fize : when thefe are weary, they are
relieved by the women, who dance in their clothes, the
men continuing in the mean time to ling and beat their
drums. At last the fire is put out, which had been kindled for the ceremony. The manner of obtaining fire is
by rubbing two pieces of dry wood, or molt commonly by
fhiking two flints together, and letting the fparks fall
Z  2 upon 172 ACCOUNT   OF   THE
upon fome fearotter's hair mixed with fulphur. If any
forcerer is prefent, it is then his turn to play his tricks*®
the dark ; if not, the guefts immediately retire to their
huts, which are made on that ocpafion of their canoes
and mats. The natives, who have feveral wives, do not
withhold them from their guefts ; but where the owner
of the hut has himfelf but one wife, he then makes the
offer of a female fervant.
Their hunting feafon is principally from the end of
October to the beginning of December, during which
time they kill large quantities of young fea-bears for their
clothing. They pafs all December in feaftings and di-
verfions fimilar to that above mentioned : with this difference, however, that the men dance in wooden mafks,
reprefenting various fea-animals, and painted red, green,
or black, with coarfe coloured earths found upon thefe
iflands.
During thefe festivals they vifit each other from village to village, and from ifland to ifland. The feafts
concluded, mafks and drums are broken to pieces, or deposited in caverns among the rocks, and never afterwards made ufe of. In fpring they go out to kill old fea-
bears, fea-lions, and whales. During summer, and even
in winter when it is calm, they row out to fea, and catch
cod and other fifh.    Their hooks are qf bone ; and for
'**<*&$ lines m
RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
lines they make ufe of a firing made of a long tenacious
fea-weed, which is fometimes found in thofe feas near one
hundred and fixty yards in length.
Whenever they are wounded in any encounter, or
bruifed by any accident, they apply a fort of yellow root
to the wound, and fast for fome time. When their
head achs, they open a vein in that part with a stone
lancet. When they want to glue the points of their arrows to the fhaft, they strike their nofe till it bleeds, and
ufe the blood as glue.
Murder is not punifhed amongft them, for they have
no judge. With refpect to their ceremonies of burying
the dead, they are as follow : The bodies of poor people
are wrapped up in their own clothes, or in mats ; then
laid in a grave, and covered over with earth. The bodies
of the rich are put, together with their clothes and arms,
in a fmall boat made of the wood driven afhore by the
fea : this boat is hung upon poles placed crofs-ways ;. and
the body is thus left to rot in the open air.
The cuftoms and manners of the inhabitants of the
Aleutian Ifles are nearly fimilar to thofe of the inhabitants of the Fox Iflands.    The former indeed are rendered
173 i74 ACCOUNT,   &c.
dered tributary, and entirely fubject to Ruffia ; and moft
of them have a flight acquaintance with the RuffiaQ
language, which they have learned from the crews of the
different veflèls who have landed there.
PART PAR?       IL
CONTAINING
THE    CONQUEST    OF    SIBERIA,
AND
THE        HISTORY
OF     THE
TRANSACTIONS     AND     COMMERCE
BETWEEN   RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.  l m 1
CHAP.    I,
Firft irruption of the Ruffians into Siberia—^fécond inroad
—Yermac^ ' driven by the Tzar of Mufcovy from the
Volga, retires to Orel, a Russian feulement—Enters
Siberia, with an army of Coffacs—his progrefs and
exploits—Defeats Kutchum Chan — conquers his dominions—cedes them to the Tzar—receives a reinforcement of Ruffian troops—is furprized by Kutchum
-Chan—his defeat and death-—veneration paid to his
memory—Ruffian troops evacuate Siberia—m-enter
and conquer the whole country—their progrefs flopped by
tbe   Chinefe.
SIBERIA was fcarcely known to the Ruffians before r ["<; ^t'*
J oftheKulnan*
the middle of the fixteenth century * :   for although jgjgJ^f*»
an expedition was made, under the reign of Ivan Vafli- vXkvkchL
lievitch I. into the North-Weftern Parts of that country,
as far as the river Oby, by which feveral Tartar tribes
were rendered tributary, and fome of their chiefs brought
prifoners to Mofcow ; yet this incursion bore a greater
refemblance to the defultory inroads of barbarians, than
to any permanent eftablifhment of empire by a civilized
nation.     Indeed the effects of that expedition foon va-
* S. R. G. VI. p. 119—211.   Fif. Sib. Gef. Tom. I.1
A a nifhed ; 1,73   , CON Q,U EST   OF   SIBERIA.
nifhed ; nor does any trace of the least fubfequent communication with Siberia appear in the Ruffian hiftory
before the reign of Ivan Vaffilievitch II. At that period
Siberia again became an object of attention, by means
of one Anika Strogonoff, a Ruffian merchant, who had
eftablifhed fome falt-works at Solvy tfhegodfkaia, a town*
in the government of Archangel.
Anika Strogonoff trades
with the People of biberia
This perfon carried on a trade of barter with the in-
, habitants of the North-Weftern parts. of Siberia, who
brought every year to the abovementioned town large
quantities of the choicest furs. Upon their return to*
their country, Strogonoff was accuftomed to fend with
them fome Ruffian merchants, who crossed the mountains, and traded with the natives. By thefe means a confiderable number of very valuable furs were procured at
an eafy rate, in exchange for toys and other commodities
of trifling value.
This traffic was continued for feveral years, without
any interruption ; during which Strogonoff rapidly
amaffed a very confiderable fortune *. At length the
Tzar Ivan Vaffilievitch II. forefeeing the advantages
which would accrue to his fubjects, from eftablifhing a
more general and regular commerce with thefe people,
* S. R. G. VI. p. 220—223.    Fif. Sib. Gef. p. 182.
determined CON Q^U EST   OF   SIBERIA,
determined to enlarge the communication already opened
with Siberia. Accordingly he fent a body of troops into
that country. They followed the fame route which had
been difcovered by the Ruffians in the former expedition,
and which wras lately frequented by the merchants of
Solvytfhegodfkaia. It lay along the banks of the Pctf-
chora, and from thence croffed the Yugorian mountains,
which form the North-Saltern boundary of Europe.
Thefe troops, however, do not feem to have paffed the
Irtifh, or to have penetrated further than the Weftem
branch of the river Oby. Some Tartar tribes were indeed laid under contribution; anda chief, wiiofe name
was Yediger, confented to pay an annual tribute of a.
thoufand fables. But this expedition was not productive
of any lasting effects ; for foon afterwards Yediger was
defeated, and taken prifoner by Kutchum Chan ; the latter
was a lineal defcendant of the celebrated Zinghis Chan ;
and had newly eftablifhed his empire in thofe parts.
This fécond inroad was probably made about the middle of the sixteenth century ; for the Tzar Ivan Vaffilievitch affirmed the title of Lord of all the Siberian lands
fo early as 1558, before the conquests made by Yermac in that kingdom #. But probably the name of
Siberia was at that time only confined to   the district
179
nd Irrtip-
Rèis?n of
VafliUevi
* S.R.G. VI. p. 217.
A a  2
then rSa CON QJJ EST   OF   SIBERIA.
then rendered tributary ; and as the Russians extended
their conquests, this appellation was afterwards applied
to the whole tract of country which now bears that
name.
For fome time after the above-mentioned expedition,
the Tzar does not appear to have made any attempts towards recovering his loft authority in thofe diftant regions. But his attention was again turned to that quarter by a concurrence of incidents ; wThieh, though begun
without his immediate interposition, terminated in a vaft
atxeffion of territory..
w^Sde-       Strogonoff, in recompence for having first opened a
!henKama°aDd trade with the inhabitants of Siberia,  obtained from the
Tchuflftvabu.
Tzar large grants of land. Accordingly he rounded colonies upon the banks of the rivers Kama and Tehuffovaiar;
and theFe fettlements gave rife to the entire fubjection of
Siberia by the refuge which they not long afterwards afforded to Yermac Timofeeff..
This perfon was nothing more than a fugitive Coffac
of the Don, and chief of a troop of banditti who infelied
the fhores of the Cafpiaa fea. But as he was the instrument by which fuch a vafl extent of dominion was added'
to the Russian Empire, it will not be uninteresting to.
- develop the principal' circumstances,, which brought this-
Coffac CONQUEST   OF   SIBERIA.
Coffac from the mores of the Cafpian to the banks of the
Kama; and to trace the progrefs which he afterwards
made in the diftant regions of Siberia.
By the victories which the Tzar Ivan Vaffilievitch had
gained over the Tartars of Cafan and Aftracan, that monarch extended his dominions*as far as the Cafpian Sea;
and thereby eftablifhed a commerce with the Persians and
Bucharians. But as the merchants, who traded to thofe
parts were continually pillaged by the Coffacs of the
Don ; and as the roads which lay by the fide of that
river, and of the Volga, were infested with thofe banditti ; the Tzar fent a confiderable force against them..
Accordingly, they were attacked and routed ; part were
flain, part made prifoners, and the reft efcaped by slight:
among the latter was a corps of fix thoufand Coflacs,
under the command, of the above-mentioned Yermac
Timofeeff*..
Yermac is
driven from
the Shores of
the Cafpian
Sea.
A. D. 1577.
This  celebrated adventurer,   being driven   from his He retires to
_ . .        Orel, one of
ufual haunts, retired, with his followers, into the interior the Ruffian.
Settlements.
part of the province of Cafan. From thence he directed
his courfe along the banks of the Kama, until he came
to Orel f. That place was one of the Ruffian fettlements
recently planted, and was governed by Maxim grandfon?
* S. R. G. VI. p. 232. Fif. Sib. Gef. I. p. 185..
f S. R..G.VI. p.233;   * l32
Deteltoijàfes to
invade Sibt
CON q_U EST   OF   SIBERIA.
of Anika Strogonoff. Yermac, inftead of ftorming the
place, and pillaging the inhabitants, acted with a degree
of moderation unufual in a chief of banditti. Being
hofpitably received by Strogonoff, and * fupplied with
every thing that was neceffary for the fubfiftence of his
troops, he fixed his winter quarters at that fettlement.
His reftlefs genius however did not fuffer him to continue
for any length of time in a state of inactivity ; and from
the intelligence he procured concerning the situation of
•J° the neighbouring Tartars of Siberia, he turned his arms
toward that quarter.
State of
Siberia.
Siberia was at that time partly divided among a number of feparate princes ; and partly inhabited by the
various tribes of independent Tartars. Of the former
Kutchum Chan was the moft powerful Sovereign. His
dominions confifted of that tract' of country which now
forms the South-Western part of the province of Tobolfk ;
and stretched from the banks of the Irtifls and Oby to
thofe of the Tobol and Tura. His principal refidence
was at Sibir*| a fmall fortrefs upon the river Irtifh, not
far
* Several authors have fuppofed the name of Siberia to derive its
origin from this fortrefs, foon after it was firft taken by the Ruffians
under Yermac. But this opinion is advanced without fufficient foundation ; for the name of Sibir was unknown to the Tartars, that fort being
by them called Ilker. Befides, the Southern part of the province of
Tobolfk, to which the name of Siberia was originally applied, was thus
deno- CON QJJ EST    OF   SIBERIA.
far from the prefent town of Tobolfk ; and of which
fome ruins are ftill to be feen. Although his power
was very confiderable, yet there were fome circumstances which feemed to enfure fuccefs to an enterpriz-
ing invader. He had newly acquired a large part of
his territories by conquest ; and had, in a great meafure,
alienated the affections of his idolatrous fubjects by the
intolerant zeal, with which he introduced and diffeminated
the Mahometan religion *.
183
Strogonoff did not fail of difplaying to Yermac this
inviting pofture of affairs, as well with a view of removing him from his prefent station, as becaufe he himfelf
was perfon ally exafperated against Kutchum Chan : for
the latter had fecretly instigated a large body of Tartars
to invade the Ruffian fettlements upon the river Tchuffo-
vaia; and had afterwards commenced open hostilities
against them with a body of forces under the command
of his coufin Mehemet Kul. And although both thefe
attempts had failed of fuccefs, yet the troops engaged in.
them had left traces of havock and devastation too lasting
to be eafily effaced t.
denominated by the Ruffians before the invafion of Yermac. This
denomination probably firft came from the Permians and Sirjanians,
who brought the firft accounts of Siberia to the Ruffians.
S.R.G.VI.p. 180,
* S.R.G. VI. p. 180.
f Fif. Sib. Gef. I. p. 187.
All 184
CON Q^U EST    OF   SIBERIA.
Marches towards Siberia
All thefe various confiderations were not lost upon
Yermac : having therefore employed^ the winter in preparations for his intended expedition, he began his
march in the summer of the following year, 1578, along
the banks of the Tchufîbvaia. The Want of proper
guides, and a neglect of other neceffary precautions,
greatly retarded his march; and he was overtaken by the
winter before he had made any confiderable progrefs.
And at the appearance of fpring he found his flock of
provisions fo nearly exhausted, that he was reduced to the
neceffity of returning to Orel,
"But this failure of fuccefs by no means extinguifhed
his ardour for the profecution of the enterprize ; it only
ferved to make him flill more folickous in guarding
against the possibility of a future miscarriage. By threats
he extorted from Strogonoff every affiftance which the
nature of the expedition feemed to require. Befides a
sufficient quantity of provisions, all his followers, who
were before unprovided with fire-arms, were fupplied
with mufkets and ammunition ; and, in order to give
the appearance of a regular army to his troops, colours
were distributed to each company, which were ornamented, with the images of faints, after the manner
-of the Ruffians.
Having CON QJJ EST   OF   SIBERIA.
185
Having thus made all previous arrangements, he
thought himfelf in a condition to force his way into
Siberia. Accordingly, in the month of June, 1579, he
fet out upon this fécond expedition. His followers
amounted to five thoufand men ^ adventurers inured to
hardfhips, and regardlefs of danger : they placed implicit confidence in their leader, and feemed to be all
animated with the fame fpirit. He continued his
route partly by land, and partly by water : the navigation however of the rivers was fo tedious, and
the roads fo rugged and difficult, that eighteen months
elapfed before he reached Tchingi, a fmall town upon
*he banks of the Tura #,
His fécond
Expedition.
Arrives upon
the Banks of
the Tura.
Here he muftered his troops, and found his army considerably reduced : part had been exhausted by fatigue,
part carried off by ficknefs, and part cut off in fkir-
mifhes with the Tartars. The whole remaining number amounted to about fifteen hundred effective men*;
.and yet with this handful of troops Yermac did not
^hesitate a moment in advancing against Kutchum Chan.
That prince was already upon his guard ; and refolved
to defend his crown to the lait extremity. Having collected his forces, he difpatched feveral flying
parties against Yermac, himfelf remaining behind with
* S. R. G. VI. p. 243—248—262.
B b
the i86 CON (^U EST   Os    ùiiithU,
the flower of his troops : but all thefe detachments were
driven back with confiderable lofs ; and worsted in many
fucceffive fkirmifhes. Yermac continued his march
without intermission, bearing down all refiftance until
he reached the center of his adverfary's dominions-
Defeats,
Kutchum
Chan.
IS» ».
Thefe fuccefres however were dearty bought; for his*
army was now reduced fo five hundred men. Kutchum
Chan was encamped'* at no great diftance upon the
banks of the srtifhy wkh a very fuperior force, and' determined to give him battle. Yermac, who was not to
be daunted by the inequality of numbers, prepared for
the engagement with a confidence which never forfook
him ; his troops were equally impatient for action, and
knew no medium between conquest and death. The
event of the combat corresponded with this magnanimity.
After an obstinate and well-fought battle^ victory declared
Si favour of Yermac : the- Tartars were entirely routed*,
and • the carnage was fo general^ that Kutchum Chan
àimfelf efèaped with difficulty..
This defeat proved deeifive : Kutchum Chan was deferred by his fubjeeis ; and Yermac, who knew how to
improve as well as gain   a  victory,   marched without
* The place where the Tartar army lay encamped was called Tfchu-
vatch : it is a neck of land warned by the Irtifh, near the fpot wherer
the Toboi falls into that river.    Fif». Sib. Gef. I. p. 203..
delay CON Q^U EST   OF   SIBERIA.
delay to Sibir, the refidence of the Tartar princes. He
was well aware, that the only method to fecure his con-
queft was to get poffeffion of that important fortrefs.
He expected therefore to have found in that place a
confiderable garrifon, determined to facrifice their lives
in its defence. But the news of the late defeat had
diffufed univerfal consternation ; and a body of troops
whom he fent before him, to reduce the fortrefs,
found it quite deferted : he himfelf foon after made
his triumphant entry, and feated himfelf upon the {***
throne without the leaft oppofition. Here he fixed
his refidence, and received the allegiance of the neighbouring people, who poured in from all quarters upon the news of this unexpected revolution. The
Tartars were fo struck with his gallant intrepidity and
brilliant exploits, that they fubmitted to his authority
without hesitation, and acquiefced in the payment of
the ufual tribute.
Seats himfelf
upon the
Throne.
Thus this enterprising Coffac was fuddenly exalted
from the ftation of a chief of banditti to the rank
of a fovereign prince. It does not appear from hiftory
whether his firft defign wTas to conquer Siberia, or
folely to amafs a confiderable booty. The latter- indeed feems the more probable conjecture. The rapid tide of fuccefs with which he was carried orî,
and the entire defeat of Kutchum Chan, afterwards
expanded his views, and opened a larger fcene to his
B b 2 ambition. CON QJJ EST    OF   SIBERIA.
ambition- But whatever were his original projects,
he feems worthy, fo far as intrepidity and prudence-
form \ a basis of merit, of the final fuccefs which
flowed in upon him. For he was neither elated with*
unexpected profperky, nor dazzled with the fuddera
glare of royalty : on the contrary,, the dignity of his
deportment was as conffftent and unaffected, as if he;
had been born a fovereign.
And now Yermac and his followers feemed to enjoy
thofe rewards which they had dearly purchased, by a
courfe of unremitted fatigue, and by victories which
almost exceeded belief. Not only the tribes in the
neighbourhood of Sibir wore the appearance of the moft
unreferved fubmiffion ;. but even princes continued*
flocking in from diftant parts,, to acknowledge them*-
felves tributary, and to claim his protection. However,
this calm was of fhort duration. Issiurrections were
concerted by Kutchum Chan ;: who,, though driven from,
his dominions, yet still retained no fmall degree of
influence over his former subjects.
Yermac faw and felt the precarioufhefs of his prefent grandeur; the inconfiderable number of his followers,
who had furvived the conqueft of Sibir, had been still
further diminifhed by an ambufcade of the enemy ;
and as he could not depend on the affection of his
new subjects, he found himfelf under the neceffity either
of CON Q^U EST   OF   SIBERIA.
of calling in foreign affiftance, or of relinquifhing his
dominion. Under thefe circumftances he had recourfe
to the Tzar of Mufcovy ; and made a tender of his new
acquisitions to that monarch, upon condition of receiving
immediate and effectual Fupport. The judicious manner
in which he conducted this measure fhews him no lefs
able in the arts of negotiation than of war.  :*|§||§i
One of his moft confidential followers was difpatched
to Mofcow at the head of fifty Cofiacs. He had
orders to reprefent to the court the progrefs which
the Russian troops, under the command of Yermac, had
made in Siberia: he was artfully to add, that an exten five cedes his
I " Conquerts to
empire was conquered in the name of the Tzar ; that MUJovy.of
the natives were reduced to fwear allegiance to that
monarch, and confented to pay an annual tribute.
This reprefentation was accompanied with a prefent of
the choicest and moft valuable furs *. The embaffador
was received at Mofcow with the strongest marks of fatis-
faction :: a public thankfgiving was celebrated in the cathedral ; the Tzar acknowledged and extolled the good ls2*-
fervices of Yermac ; he granted him a pardon for all
former offences ;. and, as a testimony of his favour, distributed prefents for him and his followers. Amongft
thofe that were fent to Yermac was a fur robe, which
the Tzar himfelf had worn, and which was the greatest:
* S. R. G, VI. p. 304.
mark CON QJJ EST   OF   SIBERIA.
mark of distinction that could be conferred upon a fubject.
To thefe wras added a fum of money, and a promife of
fpeedy and effectual affiftance.
Meanwhile Yermac, notwithftanding the inferior number of his troops, did not remain inactive within the
fortrefs of Sibir. He defeated all attempts of Kutchum
Chan to recover his crown ; and took his principal general prifoner : he made occasional inroads into the adjacent provinces, and extended his conquefts up to the
fburce of the river Taffda on one fide, and on the other
as far as the district which lies upon the river Oby above
its junction with the Irtifh.
forcement of
Ruffian
Troops. 5
At length the promifed fuccôurs arrived at Sibir. They
confifted of five hundred Ruffians, under the command
of prince Bolkofky, who was appointed wayvode or governor of Siberia. Strengthened by this reinforcement,
Yermac continued his excursions on all fides with his
ufual activity; and gained feveral bloody victories over
different princes, who were imprudent enough to affert
their independence.
In one of thefe expeditions he laid liege to Kullara,
a fmall fortrefs upon the banks of the Irtifh, which still
belonged to Kutchum Chan : but he found it fo bravely
defended by that monarch, that all his efforts to carry it
by ftorm proved ineffectual.    Upon his return to Sibir
he CON QJJ EST   OF   SIBERIA. 191
he was followed at fome diftance by that prince, who
hung unperceived upon his rear; and was prepared to
feize any fortunate moment of attack which might occur ;
nor was it long before a favourable opportunity prefented
itfelf. The Ruffians to the number of about three hundred lay negligently posted in a fmall ifland, formed by
two branches of the Irtifh. The night was obfcure and Sum by
rainy; and the troops, who were fatigued with a long
march, repofed themfelves without fufpicion of danger.
Kutchum Chan, apprifed of their situation, filentjy advanced
at midnight with a felect body of troops; and, having forded
the river, came with fuch rapidity upon the Ruffians, as to
preclude the ufe of their arms. In the darknefs and
eonfufion of the night, the latter were cut to pieces
almost, without opposition ; and fell a refiftlefs prey to
thofe adverfaries, whom, they had been accustomed.to conquer and defpife. The maffacre was fo univerfal, that
only one man is recorded to have efcaped, and to have
brought the news of this catastrophe to his countrymen
at Sibir.
Yermac himfelf perifhed in the rout, though he didÇ*Ith°f
not fall by the fword of the enemy. In all the hurry
of furprife, he was not fo much infected with the general panic, as to forget his ufual intrepidity, which fèemed
to be encreaféd rather than abated by the danger of his
prefent fituation.     After many defperate acts of heroism, 192 • CON Q^U EST    OF    SIBERIA.
he cut his way through the troops who furrounded
him, and made to the banks of the Irtifh*. Being
clofely purfued by a detachment of the enemy, he endeavoured to throw himfelf into a boat which lay near
the fhore ; but stepping fhort, he fell into the water,
and, being incumbered with the weight of his armour,
funk inftantly to the bottom t.
His body was not long afterwards taken out of the
Irtifh, and expofed, by order of Kutchum Chan, to all
the insults which revenge ever suggested to barbarians
in the frenzy of fuccefs. But thefe firft tranfports of
refentment had no fooner fubfided, than the Tartars
testified the moft pointed indignation at the ungenerous
* Many difficulties have arifen^concerning the branch of the Irtifh in
'which Yermac was drowned; but it is now fufficiently afcertained that
it was a canal, which fome time before this cataftrophe had been cut by
order of that Coffac : Not far from the fpot where the Vagai falls into
the Irtifh, the latter river forms a bend of. fix verfts.; by cutting a canal
in a ftreight line from the two extreme .points of this Sweep» he fhortened
the length of the navigation.    S. R. G. p. 365, 366.
f Cyprian was appointed the firft archbifhop of Siberia in 4621. Upon
■his arrival at Tobollk, he enquired for feveral of the antient followers
of Yermac who were Mill alive ; and from them he made himfelf acquainted with the principal circumftances attending the expedition of
that Coffac, and the conqueft of Siberia. Thofe -circumftances he committed to writing ; and thefe papers may be confidered as the archives of
the Siberian hiftory; from which the feveral hiftorians.of that country
have drawn their relations. Sava Yefimoff, who was himfelf one of Yer-
mac's followers, is one of the moft accurate hiftorians of thofe times. He
carries down his hiftory to the year 1636.   Fif. Sib. Gef. I» p. 430.
ferocity CON QJU EST   OF   S I BE R I A.
ferocity of their leader. The prowefs of Yermac, his
eonfummate valour and magnanimity, virtues which
barbarians know how to prize, rofe upon their recollection. They made a fudden transition from one extreme to the other : they reproached their leader for
ordering, and themfelves for being the instruments of indignity to fuch venerable remains. At length their heat*
ed imaginations proceeded even to confecrate his memory :
they interred his body with all the rites of Pagan fuper-
ftition.; and offered upfacrifices to his manes»
»93
Many miraculous stories were foon fpread abroad, and veneration
? -*• ? paid to hi*
met with implicit belief. The touch of his body was Memory-
fuppofed to have proved an inftantaneous cure for all dif-
orders ; and even his clothes and arms were faid to be
endowed with the fame efficacy. A flame of fire was
reprefented as fometimes havering about his tomb, and
fometimes as stretching in one luminous body from the
fame fpot towards the heavens. A presiding influence
over the affairs of the chace and of war was attributed
to his departed f pi rit ; and numbers reforted to his tomb
to invoke his tutelary aid'in concerns fo interefting to
uncivilized nations. Thefe idle fables, though they
evince the fuperftitious credulity of the Tartars, convey
at the fame time the ftrongeft teftimony of their veneration for the memory of Yermac ; and this veneration
C c greatly CON QJJ EST   OF   SIB El I A.
greatly contributed to the   fubfequent  progrefs  of the
Ruffians in thofe regions-*i
With Yermac expired for a time the Ruffian  empire
in Siberia.    The news of his defeat and death no fooner
reached the garrifon of Sibir, than an hundred and fifty
troops, the fad remains of that formidable army which
had gained fuch a feries of almost incredible victories,
retired from the fortrefs, and evacuated Siberia.      Notwithstanding this dîfâtler, the court of Mofcow. dido^fift:
abandon its design upon that country ;   wiiich a variety
of favourable circumstances- still concurred to render a-
flattering object of Russian ambition.    Yermac's fagacity.:
had  difcovered   new   and commodious   routes   for  the
march of troops acrofs thofe inhofpitable regions :   the
rapidity with which  he had overrun  the  territories of
Kutchum  Chan, taught  the  Ruffians ta consider   the
Tartars as an eafy prey.    Many of the tribes who had
been rendered tributary by Yermac, had testified a cheer~
j Even fo late as the middle of the next century, this veneration for
the memory of Yermac had not fubfid^. Allai, a powerful prince of'
the Calmucs, is faid to have been cured of a dangerous difbfder, by
mixing fome earth taken from Yermac's tomb in water, and drinking
the infufion. That prince is alfo reported to have carried with him a
fmall portion of the fame earth, whenever he engaged in any important
enterprize. This earth he fuperftitioufly confidered as â kind of charm j -
and was perfuaded that he always fecured a prosperous iffue to his affairs
by this precaution,   S. R. G. VI. p. 391.
ful CONt^UE^Î   OF   SIBERIA.
fui acquiefcence under the fovereignty of the Tzar; and
were inclined to renew their allegiance upon the firft
opportunity : others looked upon all refiftance as unavailing, and had learned, from dear-bought experience,
to tremble at the very name of â Ruffian. The natural
strength of the country, which proved not to be irrefifl-
ible even when united, was considerably weakened by its
intestine commotions. Upon the retreat of the garrifon
of Sibir, that fortrefs, together with the adjacent district,
was feized by Seyidyak, fon of the former fovereign,
Whom Kutchum Chan had dethroned and put to death ;
other princes availed themfelves of the general confufion
to affert independency ; and Kutchum Chan was able to
regain only a fmall portion of thofe dominions, of which
he had been stripped by Yermac.
19$
Influenced by thefe motives, the court of Mofcow
fent a body of three hundred troops into Siberia,
wTho penetrated to the banks of the Tura as far as
Tfchingi almost without opposition* There they built
the fort of Tumen, and re-eftablifhed their authority
over the neighbouring district. Being foon afterwards
reinforced by an additional number of troops, they were
enabled to extend their operations, and to erect the for-
treffes of Tobolfk, Sirgut, and Tara. The erection of
thefe and other fortreffes was foon attended with a
C c 2 fpeedy
The Ruffians
re-enter
Siberia. Progrefs of
the Ruffians
CON QV- EST    OF   S I BE R I A.
fpeedy recovery of the whole territory, which Yermac
had reduced under the Ruffian yoke.
This fuccefs was only the fore-runner of ftiil greater
acquisitions. The Ruffians pufhed their conquest far
and wide : wherever they appeared, the Tartars were
either reduced or exterminated ; new towns were built ;
and colonies were planted on all fides, Before a century
1 and had well elapfed, all that vast tract of country now called
Siberia, which ftretches from the confines of Europe to
the Eastern Ocean, and from the Frozen Sea to the* prefent frontiers of China, Was annexed to the Ruffiarr
dominions.
A still larger extent of territory had* probably beerr
won ; and all the various tribes of independent Tartary
which lie between the South-Eaftern extremity of the
Ruffian empire, and the Chinefe Wall, would have followed the fate of the Siberian hordes ; if the power ot
China had not fuddenly interpofed;
CHAP. WW 1
C H A P.    IL
Commencement of ' hofiilities between • the Russians   and
Chinefe—Difputes   concerning  the limits of tbe  two •
empires—Treaty o/Nerfhinfk—Emhaffies from the court
of Ruffia to  Pekin—Treaty of Kiachta—Efiabllfhmeni ■
of the commerce between the two nations.  .
npOWARDS the middle of the Seventeenth century
the Ruffians were rapidly extending themfelves
Eastward through that important territory, which iies
on each fide of the river *Amoor. They foon reduced
feveral independent Tungufian hordes ; and built a chain
of fmall fbrtreffes along thé banks of the above-mentioned river, of which the principal "were Albafin, and
Kamarfkoi Oftrog. Not long afterwards, the Chinefe
under -f Camhi conceived' a fimilar design of fubduing
the
Rîfeof'Âfiiffi»-
fnies b'etWvjn
the Ruffians
and Chinefe,
*" Amoor is the name giyen by the Ruffians to this river ; it is called
Sakalin-Ula by the Manfhurs, and was formerly denominated Karamu-
ran,,orthe Black Riyer, by the Mongols. S. R..G..II. p. 293.
-j: Camhi was the fécond emperor of. the Manfhur race,, who- made
themfelves mafters of China in 1624.,,..^ \f ^
The Manlhurs were originally an obfeure tribe of the Tungufian Taiv-
tars, whofe territories lay South of the Amoor^ and., bordered upon the
kingdom of Corea, and the province of Leaotong.: They beganto emerge
from. ï?8
ftroved-bv the
Chinefe. '
TRANSACTIONS   BETWEEN
the fame hordes. Accordingly the two great powers of
Ruslia and China, thus pointing their views to the fame
object, unavoidably.claused ; and, after feveral jealoufies
and intrigues, broke out into open hostilities about the
year 1680. The Chinefe laid fiege to Kamarfkoi Oftrog,
and, though repulfed in this attempt, found means to cut
off feveral straggling parties of Ruffians. Thefe animo-
fities induced the Tzar Alexèy Michaelovitch to fend an
embaffy to Pekin ; but this meafure did not produce the
desired effect. The ChineFe attacked Albafin with a confiderable force : having compelled the Ruffian garrifon
to capitulate, they demolifhed that and all the Ruffian
forts upon the Amoor; and returned, with a large number of prifoners, to their own country.
by thèïuffi-c     Not long after their departure, a body of Sixteen hun-
«ns. is bcfieged
e cni-   dred Ruffians advanced along the Amoor ; and constructed
nefe.
a new fort, under the old name of Albafin.    The Chinefe were no fooner apprifed of their return, than they
from obfeurity at the beginning of the feventeenth century. About that
time their chief Aifchin-Giord: reduced feveral neighbouring hordes.;
and, having incorporated them with his own tribe, under the general
name of Manmur, he* became formidable even to the Chinefe. Shuntfchi,
grandfon of this chief, by an extraordinary concurrence of circumftances,
was raifed while an infant-to the throne of China, of which his fucceflbrs
Hill continue in pofleffion. Shuntfchi died in 1662, and was fucceeded
by Camhi, who: is well known from the accounts of the jeiuit mifEon*
aries.
For an account of the revolution of China, fee Duhalde Defer, ^de là
Chine, Bell's Journey to Pekin, and Fif. Sib. Gef. torn. I. p. 463.
marched RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
màrcliëc£ instantly towards that river, and fat down before Albafin with an army of feven thoufand men, and
a;, large train of artillery.,  They battered the new fortrefs for feveral weeks, without being able to make a
breach, and without attempting to take it by ftorm.   The
besieged, though not much annoyed by the   unfkilful .
operations of the enemy, were exhaufted with the com-. -
plicated miferies of ficknefs and famine ;    and not with-,
standing they continued  to   make  a gallant refiftance, .
they muft foon have funk  under their diftreffes, if the
Chinefe had not voluntarily retired, in confequence of a !
treaty being fet afoot between the two courts of Mofcow *
and Pekin.    For this   purpofe   the...Ruffian embaffador
Golovin had left Mofcow fo early as the year 1685,  accompanied by a,large body of - troops, in order to fee use
his perfon, and enforce refpect•.••-. to  his  embaffy.    The
difficulty of procuring fubfiflënce for. any confiderable
number of men in thofisdefolate regions, joined to the
ruggednefs of the roads^^nd the length of the march,
prevented his arrival at Selengirifk until the year 1687.
From   thence  meffengers were immediately  difpatched
with overtures of peace to the Chinefe government at
Pekin* .
19?
After feveral days,  occafioned partly by policy, and
partly by the posture of affairs  in the Tartar  country
through which the Chinefe were to pafs, embaffadors
a left i Treaty of
Ne» flunk.
TRAN S tA CT I O N S   BE»*E;E N
left Pekin in the beginning of June 1689. Golovin
had propofed receiving them at Albafin; but. while he
was proceeding to that fortrefs, the Chinefe erribaffadors
prefented themfelves at the gates of Nerfhinfk, efcorted
by fuch a numerous army, and fuch a formidable train
of artillery, that Golovin was constrained, from motives
of fear, to conclude the negotiation almost: upon their
own terms. -.'dq
The conferences were held under tents, in an open
plain, near the town of Nerfhinfk ; where the treaty
was signed and fealed by the plenipotentaries of the two
courts. When it was propofed to ratify it by oath, the
Chinefe embaffadors offered to fwear upon a crucifix ;
but Golovin preferred their taking an oath in the name
of their own gods.
This treaty firft checked the progrefs of the Ruffian
arms in thofe parts ; and laid the foundations of an important and regular commerce between the two nations*
By the firft   and   fécond articles, the  South-Eaftern j
boundaries of   the Ruffian  empire were formed  by  a
ridge   of   mountains,   stretching  North of  the Amoor
from the fea of Ochotfk to the fource of the fmall?river
,Gur- R US S I A   AND   CHINA,
^•ofbitzaf,. then by that river to its influx into the
Amoor, and lastly by the Argoon, from its junction with
^he &h€ka up to its four ce.
By the fifth article reciprocal liberty of trade was
grantedno all the fubjects of the two empires, who fhould
be provided with tranfports from their refpective courts t.
This treaty was figned on the 37th of Auguft, in the
year 1689, under the reign of Ivan and Peter Alexie-
witch, by which the Ruffians loft, exclufively of a large
territory, -the navigation of the river Amoor. The im-
tportanee of this lofs was not at that time under flood ;
iand has only been felt fince1 the difcovery of Kamtchatka,
rand of the iflands between Alia and America. The pro-
« ducts "of thefe new-sdifcovered countries might, -by means
e>f the Amoor, have been conveyed by water into the
^district of   Nerfhinfk,   from whence there is ^an eafy
* There are two Gorbitzas ; the firft fails into the Amoor, near the
•^oafiux of the Aargoon and Shilka; the fécond falls into the Shilka. The
former was meant by the Ruffians ; but the Chinefe fixed upon the latter
for the boundary, and have carried their point. Accordingly the prefent
limits are fomewhat different from thofe mentioned in the text. They
are' carried from the point, where-the Shilka- and Argoon unite to form
the Amoor, Weftw%rd along the Shilka-, until they reach the mouth of
the Weftern Gorbitza •, from thence they are continued to the fource of
the lafl>mentioned river, and along the chain of mountains as before. By
this alteration the Ruffian limits are fqme^hat abridged.
f S.R. G.II.p/435-
D d transport T R A- N S A C T I O N S   BE T W E E N
tranfport by land to Kiachta : whereas the fame merchandise,, after being landed at Ochotfk, is now carried-
over a large tract of country, partly upon rivers of difficult navigation, and partly along rugged and-almost im^
paffable roads. nn!
Rife of the
Commerce
vyith China.
In return, the Ruffians* obtained What they long antB
repeatedly aimed at, a regular and permanent trade with-,
the Chinefe. The first intercourfé between Ruffia and"
China commenced* in the beginning of the féventèentsr
century *. At that period a fmalf quantity of Chinefe'
merchandife was procured, by the merchants of TomfK
and ether adjacent towns, from the Càlmucs. The rapid:
and profitable fale of thefe commodities encouraged'
certain wayvbdes of Siberia to attempt a direct and open
communication with China. For this purpofe feveral'
deputations were fent at different times to Pekin from
Tobolfk, Tomfk, and'other Rssffian fettiêments : thefe
deputations, although they failed of obtaining the grant
of a regular commerce, were neverthelefs attended with -
fome important confequences. The general good reception, which the agents met with, tempted the Ruffian merchants to fend occafional traders to Pekin. By
thefe means a faint connection with that metropolis was
kept alive; the  Chinefe learned the advantages of the
I S. R. G.VIII. p.504, &feq.
Ruffian f -R V S S I A   AND   CHINA.
■Ruffian trade, and were gradually prepared for its fub-
fequent eftablifhment. This commerce, carried on by
intervals, was entirely fufpended by the hostilities upon
the river Amoor : but no fooner was the treaty of Ner-
ihinfk concluded, than the Ruffians engaged with extraordinary alacrity in this favourite branch of traffic. The
advantages of this trade were foon found to be fo confiderable, that Peter I. conceived an idea of flail farther
enlarging it. Accordingly, in 1692, he fent Ifbrand
>Ives, a Dutchman in his fervice, to Pekin, who requefted
and obtained, that the.liberty of trading to China, which c.
by the late treaty was granted to individuals, fhouldt0 Pcki
be extended to caravans.
203
ans al-
rade
In confequenee of this arrangement, fucceffive caravans went from Ruffia to Pekin, where a caravanfary
Was allotted for their reception ; and all their expences
during their continuance in that metropolis defrayed by
the Emperor of China. The right of fending thefe caravans, and the profits refulting from them, belonged to
the crown of Ruffia. In the mean time, private merchants continued as before to carry on a feparate trade
with the Chinefe, not only at Pekin, but alfo at the head
quarters of the Mongols. The camp of thefe roving
Tartars was generally to be found near the conflux of the
Orchon and Tola, between the Southern frontiers of
Siberia and the Mongol defert. A kind of annual fair
D d 2 was 204 TRANSACTIONS   BETWEEN1
was held at this fpot by the Ruffian and Chinefe'&&!*-
chants : where they brought their refpective goods fôfc*
fale; and continued'until they were difpO&eL of. This
rendezvous foon became a fcene of riot and cot^fiâa'$:
and repeated complaints were tranfported to the Chinefe
Emperor of the drunkennefs and mifeoftdu^t o# t^ R>$É*
fians. Thefe complaints made a. ftill greater ïtû^g&xom
from, a coincidenee of fimilar exceffe%, Fof which the Ruffians at Pekin. had become notorious..
Exafperated by the frequent reprefentations of his
fubjects, Camhi threatened to expell. the Ruffians from*
his dominions, and to prohibit them from carrying on»
any commerce, as well in China as im the country of the
Mongols.
EmbaiTyofif-     Thefe   untoward   circtimftanees   occafibned" another-
ifiailoffto Pe-
kin- embaffy to Pekin in the year 17,19.    Leff'Vaffilievitch;
Ifmailoff, a captain of the Ruffian guards, who was fent-
einbaffador upon this occafion, fucceeded kii the negotiation, and adjufted every difficulty to the fatisfactioii:
of both parties. At his departure he was permitted'
to leave behind Laurence Lange, who had accompanied";
him to Pekin, in the character of agent for the caravans ;.
for the purpofe of fuperintending.the conduct of the Ruffians. His refidence however in that metropolis was but
fliort ; for he was foon afterwards compelled, by the
i;^S~i'. Chinefe* MV&S1K   AND   CHINA.. aoj
Chinefe, t& return. His xlifoaiîffboaii was cm&xg* partly,
to a fu^afen caprice of that" fJiMf&Éious people, and. pattlfr
to a miilunderftancMn^ wfaich had receéJily broke out
between t±te*twt* courts,, inr relation to fome Mbng^lrifee>
who bordered upon Siberia. A frnaM nminèer of theife
Mongols had put themfelves under the protection of
Eufi&a,. and. were immedia^^ -demanded by tzbe Ghtefe ■£.
tat the* Ruffians refused compliance,, under pretence that-
bd article in the treaty nf Nerfhinfk coulM^ with any appearance of probability r. be construed as extending to thae
Mongols. The Chinefe were incenfed- at this refufal ;
and their refentment was still farther inflamed by the
éiforderly condiÀ of the Ruffian traders, who, freed
from all contrôlai by the departure of their agent, had
mdulged,, without reftraint,. their ufual propensity to
excefs. This concurrence, of unlucky incidents extorted,,
in 1722, aborder from;Càmhi for the total expression of *u®JfaJJ*".-
Pekin
the Ruffians* from, the Chinefe and Mongol territories.
Ttefe orders were rigotpou^y executed ;. and all inter-
eourfe between the two nations immediately ceafed.
'> RagufinfkU.
when the counteSava Vladiflavitch Ragufinfki,. a Dalmatian in the fervice of Rti-fHa, was difpatohed to Pekin.
His orders were at all events to compofe the differences
between the two courts relating to the Mongol tribes; to
fettle; TRANS AC TIONS   BETWEEN
fettle the Southern frontiers of the Ruffian empire in
that quarter ; and to obtain the permission of renewing
the trade with Ghiaa. Accordingly that embaffador
preFented a new plan for a treaty of limits and commerce to Yundfchin, fon and fucceffor of Camhi ; by
which the frontiers of the two empires were finally
traced as they exift ;at prefent, and the .commerce efta-
blifhed upon a permanent basis, calculated to prevent
as far as possible all future fources of mifunderfland-
ing. This plan being approved by the emperor, Chinefe commiffioners were immediately appointed to negotiate with the Ruffian embaffador upon the banks
©f the Bura, a fmall river which flows, South of the
confines of Siberia, into .the Orchon near its junction
with the Selenga.
At this conference, the old limits, fettled by the
treaty of Nerfhinfk, were continued from the fource
of the Argoon -Weftwards as far as the mountain Sa-
byntaban, which is fituated at a fmall diftance from
the fpot where the conflux of the two rivers Uleken and
Kemtzak form the Yenisei : this boundary feparates the
Ruffian dominions from the territory of the Mongols^
who are under the protection of China.
It was likewife stipulated, that for the future all negotiations fhould be tranfacted between the tribunal of
foreign 'fflfS SIA   AND   CHINA.
foreign affairs at Pekin, and the board of foreign affairs
at St. Peterfburg; or in matters of inferior moment
between the two commanders of the frontiers*;
The moft important articles  relating to  commerce,*
were as follow : -
207
A caravan was  allowed to go to Pékin every three Account of**--
0 ' Treaty rela-
years, on condition of its not confifting of more than *7r£.C°m"
two hundred perfons; during their refidence in that
metropolis, their expences were no longer to be defrayed'
by the emperor of China. Notice was to be fent to the
Chinefe court immediately upon, their arrival at the
frontiers ;* where an officer was to meet and accompany
them to Pekin.
The privilege before enjoyed by individuals of carrying on a promifcuous traffic in the Chinefe and Mongol
territories was taken away ; and no merchandize belonging to private perfons-was permitted to be brought for
fale beyond the frontiers. For the purpofe of pre-
ferving, confiftently with this regulation, the privilege
of commerce to individuals, two places of refort were
jj This article was inferted, becaufe the Chinefe emperor, from a ridiculous idea of fuperiority, had contemptuoufly refufed to hold any cor- -
• refppndence with the court of Ruffia.
appointed a<$. TRANSACTIONS  IETWEEN
appointed on the confines of Siberia j: one called Kiachta, from a rivulet of that name n^airwhieh it ftarids^
and the other Zuruchaitu : at thefe places a free trade
was reciprocally indulged ?to the fubject s of the two
na&ons.
A permiflion was at the fame time obtained for
building a Russian church within the precincts of their
caravanfary ; and for the celebration of divine fervice,
four priests were allowed to re fide at Pekin %. The
fame favour was alfo extended to fome Ruffian fcholars t,
* The firn; -Ruffian church at Pekin was built for the accommodation
of the ifeaffians taken prifeoers at Albafin. Thefe per{©•nfr were carried
to Pekiq, and the place agppinted for their habitetkffcjiîiT^hat city was
called the "Ruffian Street, a name it Hill retains. They wene fo well received by the Chinefe, that, upon the eonclufion of the treaty of Ner-
ihinfk, they refufed to return to their native country. And as they
intermarried with the^^ittffe women, thei^^^pfçenda^ÉSî are^yaite naturalized ; and have for the .molt part adopted not only the language, but
cveivthe religiouof the-Chinefe. Hence, the above**mentioned church,
though it ftill exifts, is no longer applied to tke purpofe of divine wop-
fhip : its prie II was transferred to the church, which w*& built within
the walls of the-caravanfary,
f The good effects of this infl*itution hmç, already been perceived.
A Ruffian, whofe name is Leontieff, after having refided ten years at Pekin, is returned to Petersburg. He has given feveral tTanflations andex-
tra&s of fome intercfting Chinefe publications, viz. Part of the Hiftory of
China j the C®de of the Chinefe Laws ; Account of die Towns and Revenues, &c. of the Chinefe empire, extracted hem a Treatife of Geography, lately printed at Pekin. A ftrort account of this Extract is given
.in the Journal of. St. Petersburg for April, 1779.
for RUSSIA    AND    CHINA.
for the purpofe of learning the Chinefe tongue : in order to qualify themfelves for interpreters between the
two nations.
This treaty, called the treaty of Kiachta, was, on the
fourteenth of June, 1728, concluded and ratified by the
count Ragufinfki and three Chinefe plenipotentaries upon
the fpot where Kiachta was afterwards built ; it is the
balls upon which all the fubfequent tranfactions between
Ruffia and China have been founded-.
209.
One .innovation in the mode of carrying on the trade
to China, which has been introduced fince the accession
of the prefent emprefs Catherine II. deferves to be mentioned in thisiplace. Since the year 1755 no caravans
have been feat to Pekin. Their firft'difcontinuance wascara
occasioned by a mifunderftanding between the two courts
*>f Peterfburg and Pekin in 1759. Their difufe after
the reconciliation had taken place arofe from the following circumftances. The exportation and importation
«of many principal commodities, particularly the moft
valuable furs, were formerly prohibited to individuals,
and folely appropriated to caravans belonging to the
•crown. By thefe reftrictions the Ruffian trade to China
was greatly fhackled and circumfcribed.    The prefent
* S.R.G. VIII. p. 513.
E e
emprefs 2tm TRANSACTIONS   BETWJlfN
emprefs. (who, amidst many e^çe^ljçia^ Regulations whicfk
eharacterife her reign* Jias flsewn her^lf invariably attentive to the improvement of the Ruffian commeçce^
Monopoly of abolifhed,. irs 17^62,, the monopoly of the fur trade; and
the Fur Trade
*boiiiiied. -feîio»aced: in favour- of her ^^gsttse Çffijffiffi-jMi**'
vilege whirffe the crown^oyed of fen^jng car^-ar^ ta
Pekin *. ' By thefe conceffionsthe profits of the trade
have been confMe^fely enç^^fqd^ the^ .great expence,
hazard, and delay, of l^^j^gj^ef fmgrchan<^^. occa-
fionally from the frontiers of $jjt$p§.v$£ JJ^io, has ^fg%
retrenched; and Kiachta is now rendered the center;,
of the Ruffian and Qhie^fe^pmn^^qi, f
■ S.R..G.VIII. p. S^q.
CHAP* L  Il US fil A    ANB   CHIKA»
CHAP.
HI.
Account of the Ruffian and Chinefe fettlemenis upon the
confines of Siberia-^-defcription of the Ruffian frontier
$1figffcfl£iachta—*of the Chinefe frontier town Maimatf-
chin—-its buildings,. pagodas, &c.
ID Y the kit mentioned treaty it was stipulated, that
|k| the commerce between Ruffia and Chinafhould.be
tranfacted at the frontiers.-r.. Accordingly two fpots were
marked out for that purpofe upon the confines, of Siberia,
where they border upon the Mongol defert^ one near Ruffian and
Chinefe Settle-
the brook Kiachta, and the other at Zuruchaitu.    The-5?ent1uPontl«
"   XSTIIj ,'c Brook
defcription of the former of thefe places fhall be the fub^-Kiachw-
ject of the prefent chapter.
This fettlement conflits of a Ruffian and Chinefe
town, both fituated in a romantic valley, furrounded
by high, rocky, and for the moft part well-wooded, mountains. This valley, is inter feet ed by the brook Kiachta,
which rifes in-Siberia, and, after wafhing both the Ruffian
and Chinefe town, falls into the Bur a, at a final 1 distance
from the frontiers.
The   Ruffian fettlement is  called  Kiachta from, the IXanVron-6
*M5ovementioned brook: it lies in 124 degrees  18 mi-ISaduTn
E e  2 nutes 2i2 COMMERCE   BETWEEN
nutes longitude from the hie of Fero, and 35 degrees*
N. latitude, at the diftance of 5514 verfts- from Mofcow»,
and 153 2 frorrs Pekin.
The Fortrefs, Tt conflits of a fortrefs and a fmall fuburb; The
fortrefs, which is built upon* a gentle rife, is a fquare
enclofed with palifadoes, and ftrengthened with wooden
bastions at the feveral' angles-. There are three gates,,
at which: guards are conftantly stationed : one of the
gates faces the North, a fécond the South towards the
Chinefe frontiers, and' a third the Eaft clofe to the brook
Kiachta. The principal public buildings in the fortrefs
are a wooden church, the governor/s houfe, the custom-
houfë, the magazine for provisions, and the guard-^houfe*
It contains alfo a range of fhops and warehoufes, barracks for the garrifon, and feveral houfes belonging tr>
aie crown ; the latter are generally inhabited by the
principal merchants. Thefe buildings are mostly of>
wood.
suburb «phe fuburb,. which is furroundêd'with a wooden wall
covered at the- top with chevaux dé frize, contains no
more than an hundred and twenty houfes very irregularly built ; it has the fame number of gates as the
fortrefs, which are alfo guarded. "Without this fuburb,
upon the high road?, leading to Selenginfk,. ftand a few
houfes, and. the magazine for rhubarb..
• 4 This- RU S ST A   AND   CHINA.
213
This fettlement is but indifferently provided with
water both in quality and quantity ; for although the
brook Kiachta is dammed up as it flows by the fortrefs,
yet it is fo.fhallow in fummer^ that, unlefs after heavy
rains, it is fcarcely fufficient to fupply the inhabitants.
Its stream is turbid, and unwholefome, and the fprings
which rife, in the. neighbourhood are either fouf or
brackifti : from thefe circumftances,. the principal inhabitants are obliged to fend for water from a spring in
the Chinefe district. The foil of the adjacent country
is moftly fand or rock, and extremely barren.: If the
frontiers of Ruffia were extended, about nine verfts more
South to the rivulet of Bura ; the inhabitants of Kiachta
would enjoy good water, a fruitful-foil, and plenty of
fifh, all.which advantages are at prefent confined to the
Chinefe*.
The garrifon of Kiachta conflits of: a company of
regular foldiers, and a certain number of Coffacs; the
former are occasionally changed, but the latter are fixed
inhabitants of the place. It is the province of the
commander to inspect the frontiers, and, in conjunction
with the president of the Chinefe merchants, to^ fettle
alfaflairsof an. inferior nature; but in matters of. im*
portance recourfe must be had to the chancery offSelen-*
ginik,   and to. the governor of Irkutfk.    The Ruffian.
merchants.,. ai4
CO M MERGE   R E T W E EN
merchants, and the agents of the Ruffian trading company, are the principal inhabitants "of'Kiachta.
The limits Westwards from "this fettlement to tne
river Selenga, and Eastwards as far as Tchikoi, are
bounded with chevaux de fiizë, placed there to pre*
vent a contraband trade in cattle, for the exportation of
which a confiderable duty is paid to the crown. All
the outposts along the frontiers Weflwards as far as Safe
government of Tobolfk, and Eastwards to the mountains
of fnow, are under the command of the governor^oT
Kiachta.
The molt elevated of the mountains that furround
the valley of Kiachta, and which is called by the Mongols Burgultei, commands the Russian as well as the
Chinefe town ; for this reafon, the Chinefe, at the con-
clufion of the laft frontier treaty, demanded the cession
of this mountain, under the pretext that fome of their
deified ancestors were buried upon itst summit. The
Ruffians gave way to their request, and fuffefed the
boundary to be brought back to the ÎSforth fide"'of tne
mountain. .
The Chinefe town is called, by the Chinefe and Mon-3
,jgf^s, Maimatfchin, which lignifies fortrefs of commerce.
The Ruffians term  it  the Chinefe  Village   (Kitaifkaia
Sloboda) RU S S I A   AND   CHIN A.
M
Sloboda) and alfb Naimatlchin, which is a corruption of
Maimatfchin. It is fituated about an hundred and forty
yards South of the fortrefs of Kiachta, and nearly parallel to it. Midway between, this place and the Ruffian
fortrefs, two poils about ten feet high are planted in
order to mark the frontiers of the two empires : one is
infcribed. with Ruffian, the other with Manfhur characters **._.
Maimatfchin has'no other fortification'than a wooden
wall, and.afmalK ditch of about three feet broad ; the
latter was dug in. thee year 1756, during the war between Che Chinefe and the Calmues* The town is of
an ^oblong form : its'length is about feven hundred yards,
and its-breadthVfourhuhdred. On each of the four
fides a large gate faces the principal streets ; over each
of thefe gates there is a wooden guard-houfe for the
Chinefe garrsfon, which conflits of Mongols in tattered
clothes, and a«meà^WÎth clubs fc With out the gate, which
looks to r the Ruffian frontiers, and about the diftance of
eight yards from the entrance, the Chinefe have raifed
a wooden screen,. fb. conftructed as to intercept all view
of the streets from without;
* Upon the mountain, to- iljiej We^ °f KM**3? the limit is• agair&
marked ; on the Ruffian fide by an heap of ftones and earth, ornamented
©n the top with a crofs ;. and on the Chinefe oy a pile of ftones* in thee
*&ape of a pyramid.. Vdîis Reife, P. III. p. no.,
*Ihi& ■m
216
c o
R CE   BETWEEN
This town- contains two hundred houfes and about
twelve hundred inhabitants. It has two principal streets
of about eight yards broad, croffing each other in the
middle at right angles, with two by-ftreets running from
North to South. They are not paved, but are laid with
gravel, and kept remarkably clean.
The houfes are fpacious, -uniformly built of wood, of
only one Story, not more than fourteen feet high, plaif-
tered and white-wafhed ; they are conftructed round a
court yard of about feventy feet fquare, which is itrewed
with gravel, and has an .appearance of neatnefs. Each
ho ufe conflits of a fitting room, fome warehoufes,
and a kitchen. In the houfes of the wealthier fort
the roof is made of plank; hut in meaner habitations of lath covered over with turf. Towards tbe
streets most of the houfes have arcades of wood projecting forwards from the roof like a penthoufe, and
fupported by strong pillars. The windows are large
after the European manner, but on account of the dearnefs of.glafs and Ruffian talc .are generally of paper,
excepting a few panes of glafs in the fitting room.
The fitting room is féldom turned towards the streets ;
it is a kind of fhop, where the feveral patterns of
merchandize are placed in receffes, fttted up with lhelves,
and RUSSIA   AND    CHINA.
md! secured with paper-doors for the purpofe of*keeping
©tot the duff. The windows are generally ornamented
with little paintings, and the walls are hung with
Chinefe paper. Half the floor is of hard beaten
day ; the other half is covered with boards, and rifes
about two feet. Here the family fit in the day-time
and fleep at night. By the fide of this raifed part,
and nearly upon the fame level, there is a fquare brick
stove, with a ftreight perpendicular cylindrical excavation, which is heated with fmall pieces of wood. From
the bottom of this stove a tube defcends, and is carried
zigzag under the boarded floor above-mentioned, and
from thence to a chimney which opens into the street.
By this contrivance, although the stove is always open
and the flame vifible, yet the room is never troubled'
in the least degree with fmoke. There is fcarcely any
furniture in the room, excepting one large dining-table
in the lower part, and two fmall lackered ones upon
the raifed floor : one of thefe tables is always provided
with a chafsing*difh, which ferves to light their pipes
wlfen the" teve is not heated.
217
In this room there are feveral fmall niches covered
with filkem •curtains, before which are placed lamps
that are lighted upon festivals ; thefe niches cofi*
tain painted paper idols, a ftone or metal veffel, wherein
the afhes of incenfe are collected, feveral fmall orna-
F f ments 2l8
The Govern*
of Maimatf-
chin.
COMMERCE   BETWEEN
ments and artificial flowers : the Chinefe readily allow
strangers to draw aside the curtains, and look at the
idols.
The Bucharian* merchants inhabit the South West
quarter of Maimatfchin. Their houfes are not fo large
nor commodious as thofe of the Chinefe, although the
greateft part of them carry on a very confiderable
commerce. KlBE
r The Surgutfchèi, or governor of Maimatfchin, has the
care of the police, as well as the direction of all affairs
relating to commerce ; he is generally a perfon of
rank, oftentimes a Mandarin, who has misbehaved
himfelf in another station, and is fent here as a kind
of punifhment. He is diftinguifhed from the reft by
the cryflal button of his cap, and by a. peacock's f fea-
* " The chief merchandizes which the Buchanans bring to Ruffia^
" are cotton, fluffs, and half-filks, fpun and raw cotton, lamb-fkins,
" precious ftones,, gold-duft, unprepared nitre, fal-ammoniac, &C.'*
See Ruffia, or a complete Hiftorical Account of all. the nations that
compofe that Empire, V. II. p, 141, a very curious and interesting work
lately publiihed by Mr. Tooke.
°f In China the princes of the blood wear three peacock's feathers ;
nobles of the higheft diftinction, two; and the lower clafs of the nobility,
one. It is alfo a mark of high rank to keep a. carriage .with four
wheels. The governor of Maimatfchin rode in one with only two
wheels. All the Chinefe wear buttons of different colours in their caps,
which alfodeaote the rank.   Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 126.
ther RUSSIA   AND   CHINA, 21c
ther hanging behind. The Chinefe give him the
title of Amban, which fignifies commander in chief;
and no one appears before him without bending the
knee, in which posture the perfon who brings a petition
muft remain until he receives the governor's anfwer.
His falary is not large ; but the prefents which he receives from the merchants amount annually to a considerable fum.
The moft remarkable public buildings in Maimatfchin, are the governors houfe, the theatre, and two
pagodas. ZlSÉ
The governor's  houfe is larger than the others, and u™re of **
° > o ' Governor.
better furnifhed ; it is diftinguifhed by a chamber where
the court of justice is held, and by two high poles before
the entrance ornamented with flags.
The theatre is fituated clofe to the wall of the town Theatre.
near the great pagoda: it is a kind of fmall fhed, neatly
painted, open in front, and merely fpacious enough to
contain the stage ; the audience fland in the street.
Near it are two,high poles, upon which large flags with
Chinefe infcriptions are hoisted on festivals. On fuch
occafions the fervants belonging to the merchants act
fhort burlefque farces in honour of their idols.
F f 2
The The fmall
Pagoda.
The Idol
Tien.
COMMERCE   BETWEEN
The fmalleft of the two Pagodas is a wooden bunding,
ftanding upon pillars, in the centre of the town, at the
place where the two principal streets crofs. It is a Chinefe tower of two stories, adorned on the outside with'
feall columns, paintings, and little iron bells, Sec.
The firft Story is fquare, the fécond octangular. In the
lower story is a picture reprefenting the God Tien, which
•signifies, according to the explanation of the moft intelligent Chinefe, the moft high God, who rules over the
thirty-two heavens. The Manfhurs, it is faid, call this
idol Abcho; and the Mongols, Tingheru heaven, or the
God of heaven. He is reprefented fitting with his head
uncovered, and encircled with a ray* of glory fimilar to
that which funrounds the head of our Saviour in the Roman catholic paintings ; his hair is long and flowing ;
he holds in his right hand a drawn fword, and his left
is extended as in the act of giving a benediction. On one
fide of this figure two youths, on the other a maiden
and a grey-headed old man, are delineated.
* When Mr. Pallas obtained permiffion of the governor to fee this
temple, the latter alTured him that the Jefuits of Pekin and their converts adored this idol. From whence he ingeniouily conjectures, either
that the refemblance between this idol, and the reprefentation of ou&
Saviour by the Roman Catholicks, was the oceafion of this anertion ; or
that the Jefuits, in order ta excite the devotion of the converts, have,,
out of policy, given to the picture of our Saviour a refemblance to the
Tien of the Chinefe.   Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 119.
The RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
The upper story contains the picture of another idol in
a black and white checquered cap, with the fame figures
of three young perfons and a little old man. There are
no altars in this temple, and no other ornaments excepting thefe pictures and their frames. It is opened only on
festivals, and strangers cannot fee it without permiffion.
The great Pagoda*, fituated before the governor's™,eaSfi»*
houfe, and near the principal gate looking to the South, cos*
is larger and more magnificent than the former.
Strangers are allowed to fee it at all times, without the
least difficulty, provided they are accompanied by one of
the priests, who are always to be found in the area of
the temple. This area is furrounded with chevaux de
frize : the entrance is from the South through two gates
with a fmall building between them. In the inside of
this building are two recefies with rails before them, behind which the images of two horfes as big as life are
coarfely moulded out of clay ; they are faddled and bridled,
and attended by two human figures drefied like grooms :
the horfe to the right is of a chefnut colour, the other
is dun with a black mane and tail, the former is in the
* The great Pagoda is omitted in the engraving of Maimatfchin
prefixed to this chapter ; this omiffion was owing to the artifl's being
obliged to leave Kiachta before he had time to finifh the drawing.
In every other refpect, the view, as I was informed by a gentleman
who ; has been on the fpot, is complete, and reprefentéd with the
greatest exactnefs.
attitude COMMENCE   B E T W E E N
attitude of fpringing, the latter of walking. Near each
horfe a banner of yellow filk, painted with fil ver dragons,
is difplayed.
In the middle of this area are two wooden turrets fur-
rounded with galleries ; a large bell of caft iron, which is
struck occafionally with a large wooden mallet, hangs in
the Eastern turret ; the other contains two kettle-drums
of an enormous fize, fimilar to thofe made ufe of in the
religious ceremonies of the Calmucs. On each fide of
this area are ranges of buildings inhabited by the priests
of the temple.
This area communicates by means of an handfome
gateway with the inner court, which is bordered on each
fide by fmall compartments open in front, with rails before them ; in the infide of thefe compartments the
legendary flories of the idols are exhibited in a feries
of historical paintings. At the farther extremity
of this court stands a large building, conftructed in the
fame Style of architecture as the temple. The infide is
sixty feet long and thirty broad: it is stored with antient
weapons, and instruments of war of a prodigious fize;
fuch as fpears, fçythes, and long pikes with broad
blades, fhields, coats of arms, and military ensigns re-
prefenting hands*,   dragons  heads,   and  other carved
* Thefe hands refemble the manipulary Standards of the Romans.
figures. RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
figures. All thefe warlike instruments are richly gilded,
and ranged in order upon fcaffolds along the wall. Op-
pofite the entrance a large yellow standard, embroidered
wkh foliage and silver dragons, is erected ; under it, upon
a kind of altar, there is a feries of little oblong tables,
bearing Chinefe infcriptions.
An open gallery, adorned on both fides with flower~
pots, leads from the back-door of the armoury to the colo-
nade of the temple. In this colonade two flate tablets
are placed j in wooden frames, about fix feet high and
two broad j with long infcriptions relating to the building
of the temple. Before one of thefe plates a fmall i; ol of
an hideous form stands upon the ground, enclofed in a
wooden cafe.
223
The temple itfelf is an elegant Chinefe building,
richly decorated on the outside with columns, lackered
and gilded carved-work, fmall bells, and other, ornaments peculiar to the Chinefe architecture. Within there
is a rich profufion of gilding, which correfponds with
the gaudinefs of the exterior. The_ walls are covered
thick with paintings, exhibiting the moft celebrated exploits of the principal idol...
This temple contains five idols of a coloffal stature,,
fitting d^ofs-legged upon pedestals in three receffes, whkh
fill- the whole Northern fide.
The 224
COMMERCE   BETWEEN
GhelTur Chan,
the principal'
The principal idol is feated alone, in the middle re-
cefs, between two columns ornamented with gilded dragons. Large streamers of silk, hanging from the roof
of the temple, veil in fome meafure the upper part of
the image. His name is Ghedfur, or Gheffur Chan*;
the Chinefe call him Loo-ye, or the firft and moft an-
tient ; and the Manfhurs, Guanloe, or the fuperior god.
He is of a gigantic fize, furpaffing more than fourfold
the human stature, with a face gliftening like burnifhed
gold, black hair and beard. He wears a crown upon
his head, and is richly dreffed in the Chinefe fafhion :
his garments are not moulded out of clay, as thofe of
the other idols; but are made of the finest filk. He
holds in his hands a kind of tablet, which he feems to
read with deep attention. Two fmall female figures, re-
fombling girls of about fourteen years of age, Stand on
* The Mongols and Calmucs call him by this name of GhelTur Chan ;
and although they do not reckon him among their divinities, yet they
coÈffidfer him as a great hero, the Bacchus arid Hercules of Eailern Tar-
tary, who was born at the fource of the Koango, and who vanquifhed
many monflers. They have in their language a very long hiftory of
his heroical deeds. His title, in the Mongol tongue, is as follows<
Arban Zeeghi EfEa Gheffur Bogdo <2ka"a : tbe king of the ten points of
the compafs, or the monarch Gheffur Chan.
I have in my poffeffion a copy-of this manufcript, containing the Hiftory ;
of Gheffur Chan ; it is in the original Mongol language, and was a prefent to me from Mr. Pallas : I ihould be very happy to" communicate it to
any perfon verfedin the Eastern languages.
each R. U ;S ST A   AND   CHINA,
each fide of the idol, upo& the fame pedeftal ; one of
which grafps a roll of paper. At the right-hand of the
idol lie feven golden arrows, and at his left a bow.
Before the idol is a fpacious enclofure, furrounded
with rails, within which stands an altar with four colof-
fal figures, intended probably to reprefent the principal
'mandarins of the deified Gheffur. Two of thefe figures
are dreffed like judges, and hold before them fmall
tablets, fimilar to that in the hands of the principal idol.
The two other figures areiaccoutred in complete armour :
one wears a turban; and carries, mj&on the left fhoulder,
a large fword  fheathed,  with the hilt upwards.    The
"Other has an hideous copper-coloured face, a large belly,
and grafps in his -jjghb&and a lance with a broad
blade. u&M-
Although all the 'remaining idols in the temple are of
an enormous fize, yet "they are greatly furpaffed in
magnitude by Gheffur Chan.
The firft idol in the recess to the right is called Maoo-Mac
ang, or the Otfchibanni of the Mongols. He has three
ghastly copper-coloured faces, and fix arms ; two of his
arms brandifh two fabres crofs-ways over the head.? a
sftad bears a (feoking-glafs, and a fourth a kind of fquare,
which refembles a piece of ivory. The two remaining
G g arms COMMERCE   BETWEEN
arms are employed in drawing a bow, with an arrow laid
upon it, ready to be difcharged. This idol has a mirror upon his breast, and an eye in his navel : near it are
placed two fmall figures; one holds an arrow, and the
other a little animal.
Tfaudfmg. xhe next idol in the fame recefs is called by the Chi-*
nefe Tfaudfing, or the gold and silver god ; and by the
Mongols Tfagan-Dfambala. He wears a black cap, and?
is dreffed, after the Chinefe fafhion, in fumptuous robes
of state ; he bears in his hand a fmall jewel cafket. Near
him alfo stand two little figures, one of. which holds a
truncated branch..
amino. *rn the recefs to the left is the god Chufho, called by
the Manfhurs Chua-fchan; and by the Mongols Galdi, or
the Fire God. He is reprefented with a frightful fiery
reddlfh face ; clàd in complete armour he wields a sword
half-drawn out of the fcabbard, and feems as in the act
of starting up from his feat. He is attended by two
little halberdeers, one of whom is crying ; and the other
bears a fowl upon his hand,, which refemhles a fea-
pheafant.
The other idol in the fame recefs is the god of oxen*
Niu-Oi    He appears to be fitting in a compofed posture*
is habited  like   a- Mandarin,   and  diftinguifhed   by   a
4 crov&fe. RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
crown upon his head. He has, in common with the
other idols, a mirror upon his breaft. The Chinefe
imagine him to be the fame with the Yamandaga of the
Mongols ; and It is faid his Manfhurifh name is Chain
Killova ; his Mongol name, which relates to the hiftory
of Gheffur, is Bars-Batir, the Hero of Tygers.
Before thefe feveral idols there are tables, or altars, on
which cakes, paltry, dried fruit, and flefh, are placed
on feftivals and prayer-days : on particular occasions
even whole carcaffes of ïlieep are offered up. Tapers
and lamps are kept "burning day and night before the
idols. Among the utensils of the temple, the moft remarkable is a veffel fhaped like a quiver, and filled with
flat pieces of cleft reed, on which fhort Chiriefe devices
are infcribed. Thefe devices are taken-out by the Chinefe -on new-year's day ; and' are confidered as oracles,
which foretell the good or ill luck of the perfon, by whom
they are drawn, during the following year. There lies
alfo upon a table an hollow wooden black lackered helmet, which all perfons of devotion strike with a wooden
hammer, whenever they enter the temple. This helmet is regarded with fuch peculiar awe, that no strangers
are permitted to handle it, although they are allowed to
touch even the idols themfelves.
The firft day of the new and full moon is appointed
for the celebration of worfhip.    Upon each of thofe days
G g  2 no 228 COMMERCE   BETWEEN-
no Chinefe ever fails to make his appearance once in the
temple ; he enters without taking off his cap*, joins his
hands before his face, bows five times to each idol,
touches with his forehead the pedestal on which the idol
fits, and then retires. Their principal festivals are held
in the firft month of their year, which anfwers to February. It is called by them, as well as by the Mongols, .
the white month ; and is considered as a lucky time for
the tranfaction of bufinefs ; at that time they difplay flags-
before the temples, and place meat upon the tables of.
the idols, which the priefts take away in the evening, and eat in the fmall apartments of the interior
court. On thefe folemnities plays are performed in the
theatre, in honour of the idols: the pieces are generally
of the fatyrical kind, ■ and pointed against unjust magistrates and judges*
aJcÏS of ■But although the Chinefe have fuch few ceremonies in
their fyftem of religious worfhip, yet they are remarkably infected with superstition. Mr. Pallas gives the
following defcription of their behaviour at Maimatfchin during an eclipfe of the moon. At the clofe of
the evening in which the eclipfe appeared, all the inhabitants feemed to vie with each other indefatigably in
* Among the Chinefe, as well as other Eaftern nations, it is reckoned
a mark of difrefpect to uncover the head before a fuperior.
railing RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
;$&ifing an inceâànt upfiQsr, fome by hideous fhrieks,
others by knocking wood, and beating cauldrons ; the
din was heightened by striking the bell and beating the
kettle-drums, of the great Pagoda. The Chinefe fuppofe,
that during an eclipfe the wicked fpirit of the air, called
by the Mongols Arachulla, is attacking the moon ; and
that he is frightened away by thefe hideous fhrieks and
noifes. Another instance of fuperflition fell under the
obiervation of Mr. Pallas, while he was at Maimatfchin.
A fire broke out in that town with fuch violence that fe^
veral houfes were in flames. None of the inhabitants, .
however, attempted to extinguifh it ; they flood indeed in
idle consternation round the fire ; and fome of them .
fprinkled occasionally water, among the flames, in order to.
footh the fire god, who, as they imagined, had chofen their
houfes for a facrifiee. Indeed if the Ruffians had not exerted themfelves in quenching the fire, the whole place;
would probably have been reduced to afhes *. .
4 This account of Kiachta and Maimatfchin is taken from Mr. Pal-
las's defcription of Kiachta, in the journal of his travels through Siberia* .
P. Ill, p. 109—126. Every circumftance relating to the religious wor-
fhip of the Eafterh nations is- in itfelf fo ' interefting, that I thought it
would-not be unacceptable to my readers to give a tranflation of the
above palTages refpeéfing the Chinefe Pagodas and Idols ; although in a
work treating of the new difcoveries, and the commerce which is connected with them. In the abovementioned journal the ingenious author
continues to defcribe from his own obfervations the manners, eufloms,
drefs, diet, and feveral other particulars relative to the Chinefe ; which,
although exceedingly curious and interefting,. are too foreign-touhe immediate purpofe of thefe fheeta to have been inferted. in .ther-p^fent
"Work.
229
No COMMERCE,   &c.
No writer has placed the retëj-jion and hiftory of the Tartar-nations
in a more explicit point of view than Mr. Pallas ; every page in his interesting journal affords ftriking proofs of this affertion. He has lately
thrown new lights upon this obfcure fubject, in a recent publication
concerning the Tartars, who inhabit parts of Siberia, and the territory
which iies- betwen that country and the Chinefe-wall. Of this excellent
work the firft volume appeared in 1776, and contains the genealogy,
hiftory, laws, manners, and cuftoms, of this extraordinary people, as
they are divided into Calmucs, Mongols, and Burats. The fécond
volume is expected with impatience, and will afcertain, with minutenefs
and accuracy, the tenets and religious ceremonies which diftinguifti the
votaries of Shamanifm from the followers of Dalai-Lama, the two
great feels into which thefe tribes are diftinguifhed. Pallas Samlung
hiftorifcher Nachrichten ueber die Mongolifchen Volkerfchafter.
CHAP, [   231    3
CHAP.    IV,
Commerce between the Chinefe and Ruffians—/^ of the
principal exports and imports—duties^—average amount"
of the Ruffian trade*
THE   merchants of  Maimatfchin  come from the^r01""?/*
JVIaitliaUchiQ*
Northern provinces of China, chiefly from Pékin*
Nankin, Sandchue, and other principal" towns. They
are not fettled at this place with/their wives and families : for-it is a remarkable circumstance, that there is-
not one woman in Maimatfchin. This reftriction arifes
from: the policy of the Chinefe government, which
totally prohibits the women from having the flighteit
intercourfe with foreigners* No Chinefe merchant
engages in the trade to Siberia who has not a partner* Thefe perfons mutually relieve each other.
One remains for a stated time, ufually a year, at
Kiachta; and when his partner arrives with a frefis,
cargo of. Chinefe merchandize, he then returns home;
with the Ruffian commodities É»
Molt of the Chinefe merchants understand th
gpl tongue,  in  which language commercial ant
% Pallas Reife,.P. Ill, p. 125. 232
COMMERCÉ   BETWEEN
generally tranfacted. Some few indeed fpeak broken
Ruffian, but their pronunciation is fo foft and delicate,
that it is difficult to comprehend them. They are not
able to pronounce the R, but instead of it make ufe of
an L; and when two confonants come together, which
frequently occurs, in the Ruffian tongue, they divide
them by the' interpofition of a vowel*. This failure
in articulating the Ruffian language fee m s peculiar to
the Chinefe, and is not obfervable in the Calmucs,
Mongols ; ,and other neighbouring nations f.
The commerce between the Ruffians and Chinefe is
entirely a.trade of barter, that is, an exchange of one
merchandize for another. The Ruffians are prohibited
to export their own coin, nor indeed could the Chinefe
* Bayer, in his Mufeum Sinicum, gives feveral curious inftancesof
the Chinefe mode of articulating tlï6fê$^§isâ^iwhich they have not in
their own language.    For inftance they change BDRXZ into PTLSS.
Thus for Maria they fay Ma-li-ya ;
for crux,
for baptiteo, :
for cardinalis,
for fpiritus,
for Adam,
; for Eva,
for Chriftus,
cu-lu-fu ;
pa-pe-ti-fc*ç
kia-ul-fi-na-li-fu ;
fu-pi-li-tu-fu ;
va-tam ;
nge-va ;
ki-li-fu-tu-fu;;
Hoc, e% corpus, meum -ho-ke,  nge-fu-tu, co-iil-pu-fu, me-vum.
Bayer, Mûf."Sin, Tom.$.|>. 15.
f Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 134. RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
péèeive it, even fhould that prohibition be taken off;
for no fpecie is current amongst them except bullion *,
And the Ruffians find it more advantageous to take
merchandize in exchange, than to receive bullion at
the Chinefe itandard. The common method of transacting bufinefs is as follows. The Chinefe merchant
comes firft to Kiachta, and examines the merchandize he
has ocoafion for in the warehoufe of the Ruffian trader ;
* The Chinefe have no gold or filver coin. Thefe metals are always
praia ki bullion ; and for the purpofè of afcertaining the weight, every
Chinefe merchant is conftantly provided with a pair of fcales. As gold
is very fcarce in China, filver is the great medium of commerce. When
feveral authors affirm that the Ruffians draw large quantities of filver
from G-brfoa* -tbtey miftake an accideâiflal iOicourrence for a general and
flanding fact. During the war between the Chinefe and Calmucs, thç
former had occafion to purchafe at Kiachta provifion, horfes, and camels,
for which they paid filver. This traffic brought fuch a profulion of that
metal into Siberia, t,hj5t its price was greatly reduced below its real value.
A pound of filver was at that period occasionally fold at the frontiers for 8
or 9 roubles, tôàich at profent is worth 15 or *6. But firrcejtfe.e conclufion
ef ^feefe wars by the iotal -reduction of the Calmucs under the Chinefe
yoke, Ruffia receives a very fmall quantity of hiver from the Chitfèîei
%: R, G. III. p. 593 & feq.
The filv€r-hnporteti to >Ki«fehta Is 3chfe% -brought by the BucharJ#a
•meifeharats, -who fellxatde to the Chinefe in exchange for that metal,
which they afterwards difpofe of to the Ruffians for European manufactures. Gold-duft is alfo occàfianâ-SJ'^bKÔ-Bèâèîffltai the fame merchants; the quantity however of thofe metals procured at Kia^hta is fo
inconfiderable, as fcarcely to deferve mention. The whole fum of gold
and filver imported to Kiachta, in 1777» amounted -uo m\y 18,215 roubles.
See p.;242. -v
H  h
he 2:j4 COMMERCE   BETWEEN
he then goes to the houfe of the latter, and adjufts
the price over a difh of tea. Both parties next return to the magazine, and the goods in question are
there carefully fealed in the prefence of the Chinefe
merchant. When this ceremony is over, they both
repair to Maimatfchin ; the Ruffian choofes the commodities he wants, not forgetting to guard against fraud by
a strict inflection. He then takes the precaution to leave
behind a perfon of confidence, who remains in the ware-
houfe until the Ruffian goods are delivered, when he returns to Kiachta with the Chinefe merchandize %
Ruffian Exports.
The principal commodities which Ruffia exports to
China are as follow :
FURS   and   PELTRY.
It would be uninteresting to enumerate all the furs
and fkins + brought for fale to Kiachta, which form
the moft important article of exportation on the fide of
the Ruffians. The moft valuable of thefe firs are the
ikins of fea-otters, beavers, foxes, wolves, bears, Buchanan lambs, Altracan lheep, martens, fables, ermines,
grey-fquirrels.
* Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 135.
f The lift of all the furs and fkins brought to Kiachta, with their
feveral prices, is to be found in Pallas Reife, Part HI. p. 136 to p. 14**
The WHÊ
RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
235
The greatest part of thefe furs and fkins are brought
from Siberia and the New-difcovered Iflands : this iup-
ply however is not alone fully adequate to the demand
of the market at Kiachta. Foreign furs are therefore
imported to St. Peterfburg, and from thence fent to the
frontiers. England alone furnifhes a large quantity of
beaver and other fkins, which fhe procures from HucW
fan's Bay and Canada*.
CLOTH.
Cloth forms the fécond article of exportation which
Ruffia exports to China.
Beaver-fkins.
Otter-lkins.
1775»
1776,
46460
27700
27316
7*43
12086
10703
* Lift of furs  fent  from England to Petersburg  in the following
years :
The fmeft Hudfon's beavers have been fold upon an average at Petersburg, from 70— qo'roubles per 10 fkins.
Inferior ditto and belt Canada beavers from 50— 75
Young or cub-beavers from 20— 35
Beft otter-fkins from 90—100
Inferior ones from 60— 80
The qualities of thefe fkins being very different occafion great variations in the prices.
At Kiachta, the beft Hudfon's Bay beaver
is fold from — — 7 to 20 roubles per ikin.
Otter's ditto —- —        6—35
Black foxes fkins from Canada are alfo fometimes fent from England
to Petersburg.
At Kiachta they fetch from 1 to 100 roubles per skin."
H h  2 The ■ *3* C O M M E R C E   B E T W E E N
The coarfe fort is manufactured in Ruffia ; the finer
fort is foreign, chiefly Englifh, Pruffian, and French.
An arfhire of foreign cloth fetches, according to its finenefs, from 2 to 4 roubles.
Camlets.
yV ^Sàfimaneoes.
Druggets.
White flannels, both Ruffian and foreign
The refnajniiig articles are,
Rich fluffs.
Velvets.
Coarfe linen, chiefly manufactured in Ruffia.
Ruffia leather.
. Tanned hides.
Glafs ware and looking glafies.
Hardware, namely knives, fciffars, locks, See.
Tin.
Ruffian talk.
Cattle, chiefly ca^aels, horfes, and horned cattle.
The Chinefe alfo pay very dear for hounds, grey-
bounds, barbets, and dogs for hunting wild boars.
Provisions*.
* In the year, 1772, the Chinefe purchafed meatat Kiachta, at the
following prices :
A poaad of beef 3.J, copecs.
lamb 2|
Horfe-flelh for the Tartars %   Pallas Reife P. IH.
4 Meal* RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
2S7
Meal. — The Chinefe no longer import fuch large
quantîltiçs of meal as formerly, Since they have employed the Mongols to cultivate the lands lying near the
river Orchon % 8cc. &c*
Lift  of the moft valuable  commodities  procured
r*-T*L from^ China.
RAW AND MANUFACTURED SILK. {£$$}
The exportation of raw filk is prohibited in China
under pain of death : large quantities however are fmug-
gled every year into Kiachta, but not fufficient to anfwer
the demands of the Ruffian merchants.
A pood of the beft fort is estimated at 150 roubles ;
of the worst fort at 75
The manufactured filks are of various forts, f aillions,
and prices, viz. fat^s, taffaties, damafks, and gauzes,
icanes of filk died of all colours, ribb^n^s, 8cc. 8cc.
RAW AND MANUFACTURED COTTON.
Raw cotton is impgife^ in very larg^ quantities;
a great part [of this commodity isusmployed in packing
up the china ware, and by thefe means is conveyed into
* S.H.G. HI. p. 495—571.   Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 136—144.
the 238 C O M M E R C E   B E T W E E N
the inland part of Ruffia without any additional expence
of carriage.
A pood fells for -—from 4 roubles, 80 cop. to 12.
Of the manufactured cotton, that which the Ruffians
call Kitaika, and the Englifh Nankeen, has the moft
rapid fale. It is the moil durable, and, in proportion
to its goodnefs, the cheapeil of all the Chinefe fluffs ;
it is flained red, brown, green, and black.
TEAS.
The teas which are brought into Ruffia are much
fuperior in flavour and quality to Jthdfé-*winch are fent
to Europe from Canton. The original goodnefs of the
teas is probably the fame in ^ïfàth cafes : but it is conjectured, that the tranfport by fea considerably impairs
the aromatic flavour of the plant. This ilômmodity,
now become fo favourite an obje^ef 'European luxury,
is efteemed by the Ruffian merchants the moft profitable
article of importation.
At îêiéehta a pound of the beft-'tea N is
estimated at —W J^oroffloo 2 roubles-; rtg 1
Common ditto at 1
Inferior at        — — 40 copecs.
* At Petersburg a pound of the beft green tea fetches 3 roubles.
P O R C E- RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
239
PORCELAIN OF ALL SORTS.
For fome years past the Chinefe have brought to
Kiachta, parcels of porcelain, painted with European
figures, with copies of feveral favourite prints and images
of- the Grecian and Roman deities.
Furniture, particularly Japan cabinets and cafes, lackered and varnifhed tables and chairs, boxes inlaid with
mother-of-pearl, Sec. &c.
Fans, toys, and other fmall wares.
Artificial flowers..
Tiger and panther fkins.
Rubies,*, but neither in.large quantities nor of great
value.. ^'l-A
White lead, vermilion, and other colours.
Canes.
Tobacco. i'jÊM
Rice.
Sugar Candy.
Preferved ginger,
Rhubarb -f.
Mufk, &c. Sec.
and other fweetmeats.
* Rubies are generally procured by fmuggling ; and by the fame
means, pearls are occafionally difpofed of to the Chinefe, at a very dear
rate. Pearls are much fought for by the Chinefe ; and might be made
a very profitable article.
f See Appendix II.
It 240
COMMERCE   BET'WËÈN
It is very difficult to procure the genuine Thibet
mufk, becaufe the Chinefe purchafe a bad fort, which
comes from. éiberia, with which they adulterate that
which is brought from Throet^/;   -^
Advantages of     Ruffia derives sreat ànva&taSé^îÇotn fMe^n^Sb^ade;
this Trade to    a     ,t   -     ' »tA'iù?f: -t:      x> '
Ruina. -gy this tramciJ its natural ^rbducxi6ns, and particularly
its furs and fkihs, are aispoîèfï of in a Very profitable
manner. Many of thefe furs; ^r^OTr^rTOfii the
moft eafterly parts o*f~ Moertà; are r3f -iueh little fâlue
that they would not anfwer the expense *bf carriage into
Ruffia; while the richer fuf§^f*vvnicîi .Mïe-fèld to the
Chinese at a very hi^^'rrce^^riul^i JÔh<àée^tert of
their dearnefs, feldom meet with purchafers in the Ruffian dominions. ïri èxctl&U$è for theïer conrh^bffiëës the
Ruffians receive from China feveral valuable aMQes of
commerce, which they would otherwife bei(ôblijêd to
buy at a much dearer rate from the European ^@wfers,
to the great difadvantage of the balance of fωr'&ade.
I have before obferved, that formerly thfe^^wtfafion
and importation of the moft valuable -gèfed^w^e' prohibited to individuals ; at prefent only the following articles are jprohibited. Àmbng the exports, fire-arfms and
fsàrâlïery; gun-powder and ball; gold W^^vè¥fl<sSÊÊÊB.'
* S. R. G. III. p. 572—592.   Pallas Reife, P. HE ^.'fiji^i^.  ;
and RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
and uncoined, stallions and mares ; fkins of deer, reindeer, elks, and hôrfes ; beaver's hair, potafh, rofin,
thread, and ■* tinfel-lace : among the imports, fair,"
brandy, poifons, copper-money,  and rhubarb.
241
%
The duties paid by the Ruffian merchants are very
confiderable; great part of the merchandife is taxed
at 25 per cent.
Furs, cattle, and prpvifions, pay a duty of 23.
Ruffian manufactures 18.
One per cent, is alfo deducted from the price of all
goods for the expence of deepening the river Selenga ;
and 7 per cent for the fupport of the euftom-houfe.
Some articles, both of export and import, pay no duty.
The exported are, writing, royal, and poll paper, Ruffian
cloth of all forts and colours, excepting peafants cloth.
The imported are, fattins, raw and flained cottons, porcelain, earthen-ware, glafs corals, beads, fans, all musical instruments, furniture, lackered and enamelled ornaments, needles, white-lead, rice, preferved ginger,
and other fweet-meats t. JêSÊ
* Tinfel-lace is fmuggled to the Chinefe, with confiderable profit ;
for they pay nearly as much for it as if it was folid filver.
S. R.G. III. p. 588.
f Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 154.
I i
The 24*
COMMERCE   BETWEEN
Table of Exportation and
Importation.
The importance of this trade will appear from the following table.
Table of exportation and importation at Kiachta,
in the year 1777.
Cuftom-houfe duties,
Importation of Chinefe goods, to
the value of
Of gold and filver
Total of Importation
Roubles.   Cop.
481,460.  59].
1,466,497.     3|.
18,215.
1,484,712.     3|.
Exportation of Ruffian commodities   1,3 8 5,6 21. 35.
From this table it appears, that the
total fum of export and import a-
mounts to , 2,868,333.
In this calculation however the contraband trade is
not included, which is very large ; and as the year
1777 was not fo favourable to this traffic as the preceding years*, we may venture to eftimate the grofs
amount
* In the year 1770, 1771» x772> the euftom-houfe duties at Kiachta
(a:cording to Mr, Pallas, P. III. p. 1^4.) produced  550,000 roubles.
By RUSSIA    AND    CHINA.
amount of the average trade to China at near 4,000,000
Roubles.
243
By taking therefore the médium between iJhat Sum and 481,460, the
amount of the duties in 1777, the average fura of the duties will be
515,730 ; and, as the duties in 1777 make nearly a fixth of the whole
fum of exportation «àâ importation, by îr^ut^î^K^ 5*5*7 3° by 6, we
have thetgrofs amount of the average exports and imports at 3,094,380.
But as feveral goods pay no duty, and as the contraband trade according
to the loweft valuation is eftimated at the fifth part of the exports and
imports, the grofs amount of the average trade to China may be fairly
Computed at near 4>ooo,ooo, the fum ftated above.
I i 2
CHAP. 244
COMMERCE   BETWEEN
CHAP.
V.
Defcription  of Zuruchaitu—and its trade—Tranfport of
tbe merchandife through Siberia.
S almost the whole traffic between Ruffia and China
1 is confined to Kiachta, the general account of that
has been given in the preceding chapter- The defcription
therefore of Zuruchaitu, the other place fixed upon by
the treaty of Kiachta for the purpofe of carrying, on the
fame trade, will necefiarily be comprifed in a narrow
compafs.
Zuruchaitu.
Zuruchaitu is fituated in 137° longitude, and 490 20'
N. latitude, upon the Weftern branch of the river Ar-
goon, at a fmall diftance from, its fource» It is provided
with a small garrifon, and a few wretched barracks fur-
rounded with chevaux de frife. No merchants are fettled
at this place ; they come every fummer from Nerfhinfk,,
and other Ruffian towns, in order to meet two parties of
Mongol troops : thefe troops are fent from the Chinefe
towns Naun and Merghen, and arrive at the frontiers
about July. They encamp near Zuruchaitu upon the
other fide  of the river Argoon,   and barter with the
Siberian R U S S I A    A N D    C H I N A. 245
Siberian  merchants a few Chinefe commodities, which
they bring with them.
Formerly-the commerce carried on at Zuruchaitu was
more confiderable ; but at prefent it is fo trifling, that
it hardly deferves to be mentioned. Thefe Mongols
furnifh the district of Nerfhinfk with bad tea and to-Commerce-
bacco, bad filks, and fome tolerable cottons. They receive in return ordinary furs, cloth, cattle, and Ruffian
leather. This trade laits about a month or fix weeks,
and the annual duties of the cuftoms amount upon an
average to no more than 500 roubles. About the middle of August the Mongols retire ; part proceed immediately to China, and the others defcend the stream of
the Amoor as far as its mouth, in order to obferve if
there has been no usurpation upon the limits. At the
fame time the Ruffian merchants return to Nerfhinfk,
and, were it not for the fmall garrifon, Zuruchaitu
would remain uninhabited*.
» . and Chi:
From thence comma
The Ruffian commodities  are   transported   by
from Peterfburg and Mofcow to Tobolfk
the merchants fometimes embark upon the Irtifh down togg
its junction with the Oby ;    then they   either tow  up
their boats, or fail up the laft mentioned river as far as
~ n r"| Tranfport of
aUUthe Ruffian
* S. R. G. III. p. 465.    Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 428.
Nary m » COMMERCE   BETWEEN
Narym, where they enter the Ket, which they afcend
to Makofffkoi Oftrog. At that place the merchandize is
carried about ninety verfts by land to the Yenisei. The
merchants then afcend that river, the Tungufka, and
Angara, to Irkutfk, crofs the lake Baikal, and go up
the river Selenga almost to Kiachta.
It is a work of fuch difficulty to afcend the streams
of fo many rapid rivers, that this navigation Eastwards
can hardly be finifhed in one fummer*; for which
reafon the merchants commonly prefer the way by land.
Their general rendezvous is the fair of Irbit near To-
bolfk ; from thence they go in fledges during winter to
Kiachta, where they arrive about February, the feafon
in which the chief commerce is carried on with the
Chinefe. They buy in their route all the furs they find
in the fmall towns, where they are brought from the
adjacent countries. When the merchants return ;n
fpring with the Chinefe goods, which are of greater bulk
and weight than the Ruffian commodities, they proceed
by water : they then defcend the ftreams of moft of
the rivers, namely, the Selenga, Angara, Tungufka, Ket,
and Oby to its junction with the Irtifh ; they afcend
that river to Tobolfk, and continue by land to Mofcow
and Peterfburg.
* Some of thefe rivers are only navigable in fpring when the fnow
water is melting ; in winter the rivers are in general frozen.
Before RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
247
Before the pafiage from Ochotfk to Bolcherefk was
difcovered in 1716, the onjy communication between
Kamtchatka and Siberia was by land ; and the road lay
by Anadirfk to Yakutfk. The furs * of Kamtchatka
and of the Eaftern Ifles are now conveyed from
that peninfula by water to Ochotfk ; from thence
to Yakutfk by land-on horfe-back, or by rein-deer:
the roads are fo very bad, lying either through a
rugged mountainous country, or through marfhy forests, that the journey lafts at leaft fix weeks. Yakutfk
is fituated upon the Lena, and is the principal town,
where the choiceft furs are brought in their way fo
Kiachta, as well from Kamtchatka as from the Northern
parts of Siberia, which lie upon the rivers Lena, Yana,
and Indigirka. At Yakutfk the goods are embarked
upon the Lena, towed up the stream of that river as far
as Vercholenfk, or still farther to Katfheg ; from thence
they are tranfported over a flsort tract of land to the
rivulet Bitguldeika, down that stream to the Jake Baikal,
acrofs that lake to the mouth of the Selenga, ■ and up
that river to the neighbourhood of Kiachta.
ifport of
Kamtchatka
Kiachta.
* The furs, which are generally landed upon the Eaftern coaft of
Kamtchatka, are either fent by fea to Bbtekerefk, or are tranfported
acrofs the peninfula in fledges drawn by dogs. The latter conveyance
is only ufed in winter : it is the common mode of travelling in thai: country. In fummer there is no conveyance, as the Peninfula contains neither oxen,, horfes, or rein-deer.    S.R, G. Ill, p. 478..
In 248 COMMERCE   BETWEEN
In order to give the reader fome notion of that vast
tract of country, over which the merchandize is frequently tranfported by land-carriage, a lift of the dif-
tances is here fubjoined.
From Peterfburg to Mofcow 734 verfts.
Mofcow to Toboifk — 2385
Tobolfk to Irkutfk — 2918
Irkutfk to Kiachta — 471
6508
From Irbit to Tobolfk
420
From Irkutfk to Nerfhinfk
1129
Nerfhinfk to Zuruchaitu
370
From Ochotfk: to Yakutfk           —
927
Yakutfk to Irkutfk           —
2433
From Selenginfk to Zuruchaitu
850
Zuruchaitu to Pekin         —
1588
Kiachta to Pekin             —
I532
The Chinefe tranfport their goods to Kiachta chiefly
upon camels. It is four or five days journey from Pekin
to the wall of China, and forty-fix from thence acrofs
the Mongol defert to Kiachta*.
* Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 134.
PART PART IIL
APPENDIX    L   &   IL
CONTAINING
SUPPLEMENTARY    ACCOUNTS
'OF     THE
RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES,   8cc.   8cc.
K k  XA/ T^â&ûi SenrSe<ufa" B^vyi
E    asi    ]
APPENDIX     I.
Wàéracl from the journal of a voyage made iky (Mptam
Krenitzin and Lieutenant LevafhefF to the 5?&x Iflands,
in 1768, 1769, by order of the Emprefs of Russia—~
they fail from Kamtchatka—arrhes at Beering's and
Copper Iflands—reach the Fox Iflands—Krenit£ià ;
winters at Alaxa—Levafhefi* upon Unalafhka—pro*
dudlions of Unalafhka—defcription of tbe inhabitants of
the Sox Iflands—<ib$ir manners and cufioms, "&c.
o
N the 2 qd of Tuly Captain Krenitzin failed in the Krenitzin and
° J       J t LevalhefF fail
Galliot St. Catherine from the mouth of the Kamt- {™m ,thef k
Mouth of the
chatka river towards America : he was accompanied by R?v^hxa^5.
Lieutenant LevafhefF, in the Hooker St. Paul. Their
inftriié&efns were regulated by (information derived from
Beering's expedition in 1741. Shaping their courfe accordingly, they found themfelves more to the North
thaïs they expected ; and weçe told by the Ruffian
traders and hunters, that a fimilar * miftake was com-
* This paflage is obfcurely exprefled. îts meaning may be afcer-
tained by comparing Krenitzin's chart with that of Beering's voyage prefixed to Muller's account of the Ruffian Difcoveries. The route of
Krenitzin's veffel was confiderably to the North of the courfe held by
Beering and Tfchirikoff, and confequently he failed through the middle
of what they had fuppofed to be a continent, and which he found to be
an open fea. See Robertfon's Hiftory of America, p. 461 j and p. 26, of
this work.
K k 2 mitted 252-
Tftey reach
Beering's
Ifland;
APPENDIX      I.
mitred in the chart of that expedition. Thefe traders,
who for fome years past were accuftomed to ramble to
the diftant iflands in queft of furs, faid that they were
fituated mueh more to the South, and farther Eafi, than
was imagined. On the.2.7th they faw Commodore's or
Beering's Ifland, which is low and rocky, efpecially to
the Si W... On this fide they obferved a fmall harbour,
diftinguifhed' by two hillocks like boats,, and not far
from it they found a frefh-water, lake.
and Copper-.
Ifland.
To the S. E. lies another ifland,, called by the Ruffians
Mednoi OftrofF, or Copper Ifland, from a great quantity
of copper found upon its N. E. coast, the^aly-fide-which
is known to the Ruffians. It is wafhed up- by the fea,
and covers the fhore in fuch abundance, that many fhips
may load with it. Perhaps an India-trader might make
a profitable voyage from thence to China, where this
metal is in highSâemand. This copper is mostly in a
metallic- or malleable flate, and many pieces feem as if
they had formerly been in fusion* The ifland is not
high, but has many hillocks, each of which has the
appearance of having formerly been the funnel, of a
volcano. We rriay here,, once for all,, obferve, that.Mj:
the iflands reprefented in this>charts abound,with fuch
funnels, called in Ruffian Sopka, in fo much that no
ifland,   however fmall,   was found without one;   and
* Namely,,the chart prefixed, to this journal.
man£- .A   P   P   E   N   D   I   Xr    g
îiîtoy of Hfeyem confifted of nothing elfe. In fliort,
the chain of Iflands here laid down may, without any
violent stretch of imagination, be confidered as thrown
up by fome late volcanos. The apparent novelty of
#5*ery thing feems to juftify this conjecture: nor can any
objectfe^ be derived from the vegetable productions
with which thefe iflands abound; for the fummer after
the lower diltriét of Zutphen in Holland was gained
from the fea, it was< covered over with wild muftard.
-^y-thefe lands are fubject to violent and frequent earth-
:gjgiakes) and abound in fulphur. The writer of the
journal was not able to inform us whether any lava was
found upon them ; but he fpeaks of a party-coloured
flone as heavy as iron. From this account it is by no
means improbable, that the copper above-mentioned has
been meïfâi in fome eruption.
253
After leaving Copper Ifland, no land was feen from ^SJ8
ej&ber of the fhips (which had parted company in a fog)
till, on the S. E. quarter of their track, was difcovered
the chain of iflands or head-lands laid down in the
©hârti Thefe in general appeared low, the fhore bad,
without creeks, and the.j^ater betwqen them very fhalr
low. During their courfe outwards, as well as during
their return, they hadfrequentf.fogs. It appears from
■Séjournai, as well as from the relation of the hunters,
•   v,   - that 254 A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X      I.
«ïrVat it is very uncommon to have clear weather fornfi^fé
days together* even duringnfoâimer.
Krenitzin
winters at
Alaxa.
The St. Catherine wintered in the ftr^fê of AllaSttf,
where they hastled her into fhoal water. The inltruel^îtfe
given to the captain fét forth, that a private fhip liM
in 1762 found there a commodious haveé; but he
tooted for it in vain. The entrance of this strait frofà
the N.E. was extremely difficult on account of flats, ana
strong currents both flood and ebb : the entrance however
from the S. E. was afterwards found to be much easier
with not lefs than 54 fathoms water. Upon fiirvey-
ing this strait, and the coaft of Al$£a, many fBfti
nels were obferved in the low grounds clofe to the
fhore, and the foil produced few plants. May not
this allow one" to fuppofe that the coaft had suffered
confiderable changes since the year 1762? Few of
the iflands ^produce wood, and that only iMr^ehe vallies
by the rivulets. tFnàlga and Alaxa contain the! moft ;
they abound with frefh water streams, and even râveffal
from which we may infer that they are extëhfîve. The
foil is in general boggy, and covered With mofs; b4s&
Alaxa has more foil, and produces much grafs.
The St. Paul wintered in Unalafhka.    This wtfitGÉftg "
place was obferved to lie in 530 29' North latitude, and
its  longitude   from   the  mouth of  Kamtchatka river,
com- APPENDIX      I 255
computed by the fliip's jouEnal, was %7 ° o 5' Eaft %    Unalafhka is about' fifty, miles, long  from N. E.  to S, W.
and has o*giithfi/N. E._ fide, three bays.    One of thejagj,,
called  ydaghà,   ftretches  thiftçfr   miles  E. N. E.  an$
Tàf.. S. W.  nearly through the  middle? pf  the   ifland.
Another caned Igunok,   lying N.,.N. E. and 9. S, W,
is a pratty good harbour, with three and a half fathom
water at high tide, and fandy ground.    It is well fhel-
terédj ! from the North fwell at its entrance by roclj.s&
foiaie of. which, are under water.   The tide flows hgrO; .
five feet at full and change, and tigftj&pre is in general
bold and rocky, except in the bay, at the mouth of a
lkaalltirifeer.    TIiçeô; aare. two burning mountains on this
inland, onejcalled Ayaghifh,   and tins other (by tto Ruf-
Ûôfî«$  the Roaring Mountain.     Near the former is a
very isopjkjus hofcipring.    The land. i§:jjj general rocky,
with lqamy and clayey grounds-;ife-Ut the grafs is ex-
tremei^eoarife, and unfit for pafture.    Hardly any wood
\Sifco be found on it.    Its plants are dwarf cherry (t:X^un^kTsof
lofteum of Tournefort), wortle berry  (Vaccinium Uli-
ginofum of Linkœus), rafberry, farana and fhikfhu of
Kamtchatka and kutage, larch, white poplar, pine, and*
* According to the general map of Ruffia, the mouth of the Kamt-
chatka river is in 1780 25' from Fero. Unalatfhka therefore, according
to this eflimation, is 2050 30' from Fero, or 1870 55' 15'' ffgSèJi^e^awich.
^ftiJrdThe Lonte'a Pyrenaica of Linnj-qjis..   It is ^jt* a dwa^^cherry,
but a fpecies of honeyfuckle.
birch* APPENDIX      I
birch*. The land animals are foxes of different colours, mice, and weafels ; there are alfo beavers f r fea
cats, and fea lions, as at Kamtchatka. Among their fifh
we may reckon cod, perch, pilchards, fmelts, roach,
needle fifh, terpugh, and tchavitcha. The birds are
eagles, partridges, ducks, teals, urili, ari, anduigpdi*
The animals, for whofe Ruffian names I can find no
tranflations, are (excepting the Ari) deibiâbed in Krafhi-
ninikofPs Hiftory of Kamtchatka, or in Steller's relation
contained in the fécond volume of the Memoirs of the
Academy of St, Peterfburg.
feS^Srf The inhabitants of Alaxa, Usnnak, Unalafhka, and
Mauds. the neighbouring iflands, are of a middle ftâEure, tawny
brown colour, and black hair. In fummer they w©a£
coats (parkij) made of bird fkins, over whichifidn bad
weather, and in their boats, they throw cloaks, caflèÉ
kamli, made of thin whale guts. On theitoiheads they
wear wooden caps,   ornamented   with  duckjs  feathers^
* All the other journalifts uniformly defcribe Unalafhka as containing
nothing but underwood; we muft therefore fuppofe that the trees here
mentioned were very low and fmall -, and this agrees with what goes before,
<f hardly any wood Isïq be found on it.'*
+ By beavers the journalifts certainly mean fea-otters, called by the
Ruffians fea-beavers.    See p. 12. 1P*
X Parki in Ruffian lignifies a fhirt, the coats of thefe iflanders being
made like fhirts-
3 and APPENDIX     I.
and the ears of the fea-animal, called Scivutchà or fea-
lion ; they alfo adorn thefe caps with beads of different
colours, and with little figures of bone or Stone. In
the partition of the nostrils they place a pin, about
four inches long, made of bone, or of the ftalk of
a certain black plant ; from the ends of this pin or
bodkin they hang, in fine weather and on festivals, rows
of beads, one below the other. They thrufl beads, and
bits of pebble cut like teeth, into holes made in the un-
der-lips. They alfo wear firings of beads in their
ears, with bits of amber, which the inhabitants of the
other iflands procure from Alaxa, in exchange for arrows and kamli.
*57
They cut their hair before juft above the eyes, and
fome fhave the top of their heads like monks. Behind
the hair is loofe. The drefs of the women fcarcely differs from that of the men, excepting that it is made
of fifh-fkins. They few with bone needles, and thread
made of fifh guts, fattening their work to the ground
before them with bodkins. They go with the head
uncovered, and the hair cut like that of the men before, but tied up behind in a high knot. They paint
their cheeks with strokes of blue and red, and wear
nofe-pins, beads,.and ear-rings like the men ; they hang
beads round their neck, and checkered firings round
their arms and legs.
L 1
In
Hi 258
APPENDIX
Manners and
Cuftoms.
In their perfons we fhould reckon them extremely
nafty. They eat the vermin with which their bodies
are covered, and fwallow the mucus from the nofe*
Having wafhed themfelves, according to custom, first
with urine, and then with water, they fuck their hands
dry. When they are lick, they lie three or four days
without food ; and if bleeding is neceflary, they open a
vein with lancets made of flint, and fuck the blood.
Their principal nourifhment is- fifh and whale fat,,
which they commonly eat raw. They alfo feed upon,
fea-wrack and roots, particularly the faran, a fpecies o£
lily ; they eat an herb, called kutage, on account of its
bitternefs, only with fifh or fat. T&ey fometimes kindle
fire by catching a fpask among dry leaves and powder of
fulphur : but the most common method is by rubbing
two pieces of wood together, in the manner practifed at
Kamtchatka*, and which Vakfel, Beering's lieutenant,
found to be in ufe in that part of North America which
he faw in 1741. They are very fond of Ruffian oil
and butter, but not of bread.    They could not be pre-
* The infforument made ufe of by the Karjatchadals, to procure fire,,
is a board with feveral holes in it, and a nick; the latter is put into
the holes, and turned about fwiftly, until the wood within the holes
begins to burn, and the fparks fall upon the tinder placed in fuch a
manner as to receive them.
vailed APPENDIX     L
vailed upon to tafte any fugar until the commander
fhewed the example ; finding it fweet, they put it up
to carry it home to their wives.
The houfes of thefe iflanders are huts built precifely
in the manner of thofe in Kamtchatka, with the entry
through a hole in the middle of the roof. In one of
thefe huts live feveral families, to the amount of thirty
or forty perfons. They keep themfelves warm by
means of whale fat burnt in fhells, which they place
between their legs. The women fit apart from the
men.
259
Six or feven of thefe huts or yourts make a village,
of which there are sixteen in Unalafhka. The iflands
feem in general to be well inhabited, as may be conjectured from the great number of boats which are feen
continually plying along the fhore. There are upwards
of a thoufand inhabitants on Unalafhka, and they fay
that it was formerly much more populous. They have
fuffered greatly by their difputes with the Ruffians, and
by a famine in the year 1762 ; but most of all from
a change in their way of life. No longer contented
with their original simplicity, they long for Ruffian
luxuries : in order therefore to obtain a few delicacies,
which are prefently confumed, they dedicate the greatest
part of their time to hunting, for the purpofe of pro-
L 1  2 curing
il z6o A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X     L
curing furs for the Ruffians : by thefe means, they
neglect to lay up a provision of fifh and roots ; and
fuffer their children frequently to die of hunger.
Their principal food is fifh, which they catch with
bone hooks. Their boats, in which they row to a
great diftance from land, are made, like thofe of the
Innuet or Efquimaux, of thin flips of wood and fkins :
thefe fkins cover the top as well as the fides of the
boat, and are drawn tight round the waist of the
rower. The oar is a paddle, broad at both ends. Some
of their boats hold two perfons ; one of wThom rows,
and the other fifties : but this kind of boats feem
appropriated to their chiefs. They have alfo large
boats capable of holding forty men. They kill birds
and beafts with darts made of bone, or of wood tipped
with fharpened ftone : they ufe thefe kind of darts in
war, which break with the blow given by them, and
leave the point in the wound.
The manners and character of thefe people are what
we fhould expect from their necessitous situation, extremely rude and favage. The inhabitants however of
Unalafhka are ibmewhat lefs barbarous in their manners
and behaviour to each other, and alfo more civil to
strangers than the natives   of the  other  iflands ;   but
even APPENDIX     I.
even the former are engaged in frequent and bloody
quarrels, and commit murder without the least compunction. Their difpofition engages them in continual
wars, in which they always endeavour to gain their
point by stratagem. The inhabitants of Unimak are
formidable to all the reft; they frequently invade the
other iflands, and carry off women, the chief object of
their wars. Alaxa is moft fubject to thefe incurfions,
probably becaufe it is more populous and extenfive.
They all agree in hating the Ruffians, whom they consider as general invaders, and therefore kill them where-
ever they can. The people of Unalafhka however are
more friendly ; for Lieutenant LevafhefF, being informed that there was a Ruffian vefFel in the straits of
Alaxa, prevailed on fome Unalafhkans to-carry a letter^
which they undertook, notwithftanding the danger they
were expofed to from the inhabitants of the intervening iflands.
261
The journalist fays, that thefe people have no kind
of religion, nor any notion of a God» We obferve
however among them fufficient marks of fuch a religion
as might be expected from people in their situation.
For the journalist informs us, that they have fortunetellers employed by them at their feftivals. Thefe perfons pretend to foretel events by the information of the
Kugans or Daemons.    In their divinations they put on
wooden, 262 A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X     I.
wooden - mafks, made in the form in which they fay
the Kugan appeared to them ; they then dance with
violent motions, beating at the fame time drums covered
with fifh lkins. The inhabitants alfo wear little figures
on their caps, and place others round their huts, to keep
off the devils. Thefe are. fufiscient marks of a favage
religion,   .
It is common for them to have Çwo, three, or four
wives, and fome have alfo an object of unnatural affection, who is dreffed like the women. The wives do not
all live together, but, like the Kamtchadals, in different
yourts. • It is not unufual for the men to exchange their
wives, and even fell them, in time of dearth, for a bladder of fat ; the hufband afterwards endeavours to get
back his wife, if fhe is a favouf^e^ and if unfuccefs-
ful he fometimes kills himfelf. When strangers arrive at a village, it is always cuftomary for the womeiito
go out to meet them, while the men remain at home :
this is confidered as a pledge of friendfhip and fecurity.
When a man dies in the hut belonging to his wife, fhe
retires into a dark hole, where fhe remains forty days.
•* *' The hufband pays the fame compfiment to his favourite
wife upon her death. When both parents die, the children are left to fhift for themfelves* The Ruffians found
many in this fituation, and fome were brought for
.Tale.
In APPENDIX     I.
In each village there is a fort of chief called Tookoo :
he decides differences by arbitration, and the neighbours enforce the fentence. When he goes out to
fea he is exempt from working, and has a fervant,
called Kalè, for the purpofe of rowing the canoe ; this is
the only mark of his dignity : at all other times he labours
like the reft. The office is not hereditary ; but is generally conferred on him who is moft remarkable for his
perfonal qualities ; or who pofTefles a great influence by
the number of his friends. Hence it frequently happens, that the perfon who has the. largest family is
ehofen.
During their festivals, which are held after the fishing
feafon ends in April, the men and womennfing fongs *r
the women dance fometimes' singly,, and sometimes in
pairs, waving in their hands blown bladders ; they begin
with gentle movements, which become at lait extremely
violent-
2S3
I} jw
The inhabitants of UnaJafhka are called' KogholaghL
Thofe of Akutan, and farther East to Unimak, are called
Kighigufi ; and thofe of Unimak and Alaxa are called
Kataghayekiki. They cannot tell whence they have
thefe names, and now begin to call themfelves- by the
general name of Aleyut, given them by the Ruffians,
4 and, 264
D   I
I.
and borrowed from fome of the -'Kuril iflands. Upon
being afked concerning their origin, they faid that they
had always inhabited thefe iflands, and knew nothing.of
any other country beyond them. All that could be gathered from them was, that the greatest numbers came
from Alaxa, and that they did not know whether that
land had any bounds. The Ruffians furveyed this ifland
very far to the N. E. in boats, being otit about a fortnight, and fet up a crofs at the end of their furvey. The
boats of the iflanders are like thofe of the Americans. It
appears however from their cuftoms and way of life, fo
far as thefe are not necefiarily prefcribed to them by
their fituation, that they are of Kamtchadal original;.
Their huts, their manner of kindling fire, and their objects of unnatural affections, lead to this conjecture. Add
to this, the almost continual Weiterly winds, which muft
render the paffage Westward extremely difficult. Beering
and TchirikofF could never obtain Easterly winds but by
going to the Southward.
The Ruffians have for fome years paft been accuftomed
to go to thefe. iflands in queft of furs, of which they
have impofed a tax on the inhabitants. The manner of
carrying on this trade is as follows. The Ruffian traders
go in Autumn to Beering's and Copper Ifland, and there
winter:   they then employ themfelves in catching the
* I cannot find, that any of the Kuril Ifles are called Aleyut in the
catalogue of thofe iflands given by Mr. Muller, S. R, G. III. p. 86—92.
Neither are any of them laid down under that name in the Ruffian charts.
fea- APPENDIX      L
fea-cafjjfcnd afterwards the Scivutcha, or fea-lion. The
flefh of the latter is prepared for food, and it is very delicate. They carry the fkins of thefe fea-animals to the
Eaftéri^ifflandarll nNext fummer they go Eastward, to the
Fox-iflands ; and again lay their fhips up for the winter.
They then endeavour to procure, either t>y perfuafion or
fOîksê,' the children of the inhabitants, particularly of the
T6bkëd$>- as hoftages. This being accomplished, they
deliver to the inhabitants fox-traps, and alfo fkins for
their boats, for which they oblige them to bring furs
and precisions during the winter; After obtaining from
thémraicèrtSih!q\iiantityel,^fHrs, by way of tax, for which
tHey give.them quittances; the Ruffians pay for the reft
in beads, fmë pearls, goat's wool, copper kettles, hatchets,
Sec. In the fpring* they get back their traps, and deliver
up their hoftages. They dare not hunt alone, nor in
fmall numbers, on account of the hatred of the natives.
Thefe people could not, for fome time, comprehend for
what purpofe the Ruffians impofed a tribute of fkins,
which were not to be their own property, but belonged
to an abfent perfon; for their Tookoos have no revenue.
Nor could they be made to believe, that there were any
more Ruffians than thofe who came among them ; for
in their own country all the men of an ifland go out
together. At prefent they comprehend fomething of
K'amto&atka, I by means of the Kamtchadals and (KOriacs
who come with the Ruffians; and on their arrival love
M m Sn£ï        to
2 H 266 APPENDIX     I.
to associate with people whofe manner of life referable
their own.
Krenitzin and LevafhefF returned from this expedition
into the mouth of Kamtchatka river in autumn 1769.
The chart which accompanies this journal was com*
pofed by the pilot Jacob YakofF, under the inflection of
the commanders * Krenitzin and LevafhefF. The track
of the St. Paul is marked both in going out and returning. The harbour of the St. Paul in the ifland Unalafhka, and the straits of Alaxa, are laid down from
obfervations made during the winter 1768; and the
iflands connected by bearings and diftances taken during
a cruife of the St. Paul twice repeated.
In this chart the variation is faid to be
In Lat. Long, Points
2: Eafi.
É       w
I
1
1
1
°t
But the arrows in thecompafs imply that the vacation
is Weft; probably the miftake is in the arrows.
* Krenitzin was drowned foon after his return to Kamtchatka in a
canoe belonging to the natives.
N°
54° 40'.
204,
52 20
201
52 50
198
53 20
192
30
53 4°
188
54 5o
182
30
55  00
180
30 APPENDIX     I.
267
N° IS
oncerning the longitude of Kamtchatka, and of the
Eaftern extremity of Alia, as laid down by the Russian
Geographers.
*"■ * H E important question concerning the longitude
"** of the extreme parts of Alia has been fo differently stated by the moft celebrated geographers, that
it may not. be amifs to refer the curious reader to the
principal treatifes upon that fubject. The proofs by
which Mr. Muller and the Ruffian geographers place the
longitude of the Eaftern extremity of Afia beyond 200
degrees from the firft meridian of Fero, or 18o° 6' 15"
from Paris, are drawn from the obfervations of the fa-
tellites of Jupiter, made by KraffilnikofF at Kamtchatka,
and in different parts of Siberia, and from the expeditions of the Ruffians by land and fea towards Tfchukot -
fkoi Nofs,
Longitude of
the extreme
Parts of Afia$
by Mr. Muller and the
Ruffian Geographers ;
Mr. Engel calls  in  queftion  the exactnefs of thefe byMr.Engd.
obfervations, and takes off twenty-nine degrees from the
Mm 2 longitude a68
by Mr. Vau-
'gbady.
APPENDIX      I.
longitude of Kamtchatka,, as laid down by the Ruffians*»
To. this purpofe he has given to the public,
i. Mémoires et obfervations géographiques et critiques fur la situation des Pays Septentrionaux de l'Afie et
de l'Amérique..    A Laufanne,  1765..  'fàjfÂ
2. Geographifche und Critifche Nachrîcht ueber die
Lage der noerdltchen Gegenden von Allen und America»
Mittau,, 1772..
It appears to Monsieur de Vaugondy, that therejare
not fuffîcient grounds for fo extraordinary a diminution t
accordingly he fhortens the continent of A fia only eleven
degrees, of longitude 'r and upon this fubject he has given
the two following treatifes r
1. Lettre au fujet d'une carte fyfte^fiatHjue des Pays
Septentrionaux de l'Asie et de l'Amérique.    Paris, if&&'+.'
2. Nouveau fyfteme géographique,, par lequel on:
concilie les anciennes connoifTances- fur les Pays au,
Nord Ouest de l'Amérique.    Paris,.  1774.
MonftBuaci*     in oppofition to thefe authors- Moniteur Buache has
fupports the
l£nfthe -publifhed. an. excellent treatife,   entitled  Mémoires fur
Sv^fdy. les Pays de l'Afie. et. de L'Amérique..   Paris,   1.7.7^.^ .IA £ f Ç tf D t "g Afin this memoir /hfc difients from the opinions of
Meflrs Engel and Vaugondy ; and defends the fyftem
of the Ruffian geographers in the foljqwirjg manner.
Monfieur Maraldi, after comparing the obfervations >pf
the fatellites of Jupiter, taken at Kamtchatka by Kraf-
eiilnikoff", with the tables, has determined the longitude
of Ochotfk* tBolcherelk:, and the port of St Peter and
Paul, from the firft meridian of Paris as follows:
h     J
* Longitude of (j^otfjc 9  23  30
of Bolcherefk     10   17   17.
of the Port 1025     5
Latitude of Ochotfk 590 22', of Bolcherefk 520 55', of
the Port 530 5
The
2^9
* KrafHmikofF compared his obfervatïa"fts with corresponding ones taken
at Peterfburg, which gave refaits as follow :
From comparing an obfervation of an eclipfe of the firft Satellite, taken
at Ochotfk the 17th of January, 1743, with an obfervation of an eclipfe
of the fame Satellite taken at Peterfburg on the 15th of January in the
fame year, the difference of longitude between Petersburg and Ochotfk
appeared to be yh 31 29"; from a comparifon of two other fimilar obfervations the difference of longitude was f1 31' 34", a mean of which
(rejecting the 4- fécond) is 7h 31' 31", being the true difference between
the meridians of Petersburg and Ochotfk according to thefe obfervations.
By adding the difference of the longitude between Petersburg and Paris,
which is ih 52' 25", we have the longitude of Ochotfk from Paris
7h 23' 56"}  which differs only 26" from the refult of Monf. Maraldi..
Nov. Cornra. Pet. III.. p. 47°-
In. *7o APPENDIX     I.
The comparifon of the following results, deduced
from correfponding obfervations* of the eclipfes of
Jupiter's fatellites taken at Bolcherefk and at the port of
Peter and Paul by KraffilnikofF, and at Pekin by the
Jefuit miffionaries, will fhew from their near agreement
the care and attention which muft have been given to
the obfervations-; and from hence there is reafon to
fuppofe, that the fufpicions of inaccuracy imputed to
KraffilnikofF are ill founded.
I
74T>
Old
Stile.
Jan. 27.,
Em.
I Sat.
b.
12
9
25
at the port of St. Pett
and Paul.
e meridia
n at Pekin
9
20
35
at
Pekin*
Difference of th
and the Pore
2
48
50
Jan. 30, Imm.  in Sat.       12       5     30 at the Port.
9     16     30 at Pekin.
49
In the fame manner the longitude of Bolcherefk appears from the corresponding obfervations taken at that place and at Petersburg to be
ioh 20' 22",- differing from Mr. Maraldi about zf 5".   Nov. Com. p. 469.
But the longitude of the port of St. Peter and Paul, eftimated in the
fame manner from correfponding obfervations, differs from the longitude
as computed by Manf. Maraldi no more than 20 féconds ; p. 469.
* Obf. Aft. Ecc. Sat. Jovis, &c. Nov. Com. Potr. vol. III. p. 452,
&c. Obf. All. Pekini facte. Ant. Hallerftein—Curante Max. Hell.
Vindibonaé, \i768.
Feb. APPENDIX      I.
Feb. 5,  i Sat.
Feb. 12, Em.  i Sat.
8     33     26 at the Port.
5    43    45 at Pekin.
49    4i
10    28    49
7     39     29
271
49     20
And the longitude from Paris -_ _ r-        - J
to Pekin being 7        3°        23
The différence of the meridians of T _ 1 ^ x;
Paris and the Port will be A °        a 5        3D
Which differs only 31 féconds from the determination of Mr. Maraldi.,
1741.
OldS
itylè.
March 23, Em. n Sat.
h
10
55
2 at Bolcherefk.
8
14
0 at Pekin.
2
4i
2
Dec. 31,. Im.  1 Sat.
h
IO
8
9
à
45
Difference of the meridian at Pekin
and Bolcherefk
2
42
*3
58 at Bolcherefk,.
45 at Pekin.
By taking the medium the difference of the longitude
between Bolcherefk and Pekin will be found to L>e
41     37
Between Bolcherefk and Paris 1 0        I 8 0
Which differs only one minute and one fécond from the determination of Mr, Maraldi.
In %ï%
A   P   P   E (N   D
In order to call in question the conclusions drawn from
the obfervations of KraffilnikofF, Moniteur de Vaugondy
pretends that the instruments and pendulums, which he
made ufe of at Kamtchatka, were much damaged by the
length of the journey; and that the perfon. who was
fent to repair them was ah unfkilful workman. But
this opinion feems to have been advanced without fufli-
cient foundation. Indeed KraffilnikofF^ himfelf allows
that his pendulum occasionally ftopt, even when ne-
cefTary to afcertarn the true time of the obfervation. He
admits therefore that': tho obfervations which he took
under thefe difadvantages (when he could not correct:
them by preceding or fubfequent obfervations of the fun
or stars) are not to be depended upon, and has accordingly
diftmgmfhed tbfem-b^iân<afterisk; there are however a
number of others, W&ifch w^re not liable to any-exception
of this kind ; and the obTef vations already mentioned in
this number are comprifed under this clafs.
ytf the arguments which have been already produced
fhould not appear fufficiently fatisfaétory, we have the
further testimony of Mr. Muller, who was in thofe parts
at the fame time with KraffilnikofF, and who is the only
competent judge of this matter now alive.   For that re*-
• Nov. Com.4%t. III. p. 444.
fpedtable PHH
APPENDIX     I. 273
fpedtable author has given me the moft pofitive affur-
ances, that the inftruments were not damaged in fuch a
manner as to afFect the accuracy of the obfervations when
in the hands of a fkilful ohferver.
That the longitude of Kamtchatka is laid down with ^Skf
fufficient accuracy by the Ruffian geographers, will ap- eograp ers"
pear by comparing it with the longitude of Yakutfk ; for
as the latter has been clearly eftabliflhed by a variety of
obfervations, taken at difFerent times and by different
perfons, if there is any error in placing Kamtchatka fo
far to the East, it will be found in the longitude between
Yakutfk and Bolcherefk. A fhort comparifon therefore
of fome of the difFerent obfervations made at Yakutfk
will help to fettle the longitude of Kamtchatka, and
will flill farther confirm the character of a fkilful ohferver, which has been given to KraffilnikofF.
KraffilnikofF in returning from Kamtchatka obferved
at Yakutfk feveral eclipfes of the fatellites of Jupiter,
of which the following are mentioned by him as the
moft exact:.
1744, old Style.
i Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
7. Imm.    1. Sat. 11  18 35 fomewhat doubtful.
22. Imm. 11. Sat. 10 31
29. Imm. 11. Sat. 13    6
i. Imm.    1. Sat. 11 23
9. Em.      1..Sat. 12 23 5c
31 11)
6 541
50J
all exact:.
Nov. Comm. Petr. T. III. p. 460.
N n
The »H
APPENDIX
The fame eclipfes* as calculated by the tables of Mr.
Wargentuij for the Meridian of Paris, are as follow :
h     / // UiP:^ h      f       „
Feb.    7. Imm»    1.. 2 49    o
27. Imm. 11.2    3 10
29. Imm. 11. 4 38 17
Mar. 1. Imm. 1. 3 3 37
Apr*   9.. Esa.      fg 3 54 12
Difference of 8 29 35,
the meridians 8 28 *i
of Paris — 8 28 37
and Yakutfk 829 2.3,
8 29 46
The mean of which is
8 29    5
The obfervations of Mr. IflenkfF*, made at Yakutfk in
the year 1769, to which place he was fent to obferve
the transit of Venus, have received the fanction of the
Imperial Academy.. The longitude which he fixes for
Yakutfk is 8h 29' 34". this correfponds, to a fufficient
degree of exaditnefs, with the longitude inferred from,
the obfervations of KraffilnikofF..
Thus the. longitude of Yakutfk from Paris being;
8h 290 4//. or in degrees 127 16 o. and of Bolcherefk 10 17 17, or in degrees 1500 i9/ 15. the difference of the longitude of thefe two places, from astronomical obfervations, amounts to 1 48 8. or in de- *
grées 270 3/ o". The latitude of Bolcherefk is 520 55''otf*
and that of Yakutfk 620 i' $0". and the  difference of
* For Iflenieff's obfervations at Yakutfk, fee Nov ..Com. Tom. XIV..
Part IIL p^. 268 to 32X.
their APPENDIX     I.
their longitude being from the preceding determination 27 3 o. the direct: diftance between the places
measured on a great circle of the earth will appear by
trigonometry to be 160 57*. or about 1773 verfts, reckoning 1044 verfts to a degree. This diftance conflits
partly^M fea, and partly of land ; and a confiant inter-
courfe is kept up between * the-two places by means of
Ochotfk, which lies between them. The diftance by fea
from Bolcherefk to Ochotfk is estimated by fhips reckonings to be 1254 verfts, and the diftance by land from
Ochotfk to Yakutfk is 927 verfts, making altogether
2181. The direct: diftance deduced by trigonometry
(on a fuppofition that the difference of longitude between
Bolcherefk and Yakutfk is 270 3'.) is 1773, falling
fhort of 2181 by 408. a difference naturally to be expected from considering, that neither roads by land, or
the courfe of fhips at fea, are ever performed precifely
on a great circle of the earth, which is the fhorteft line
that can be drawn on the earth's surface between two
places. 'mMÈ
m
«
By this agreement between the diftance thus estimated,
and that deduced by computation, on fuppofing the difference of longitude between Yakutfk and Bolcherefk to
be 270 37. it feems very improbable, that there fhould
be an error of many degrees in the astronomical determination.
L
ill!
N n  2
Since 276
APPENDIX     I.
Since then the longitude between Fero and Peterfburg is acknowledged to be 480—that between Peterfburg and Yakutfk 990 2i/—and as the diftance in longitude between Yakutfk and Bolcherefk cannot be materially lefs than 270 of. it follows that the longitude of
Bolcherefk from Fero cannot be much lefs than 1740 24'.
Where then fhall we find place for fo great an error as
27 degrees, which, according to Mr. Engel, or even of
n°. which, according to Monf. Vaugondy, is imputed
to the Ruffian geographers in fixing the longitude of
Kamtchatka ?
Longitude of Yakutfk
of Ochotfk
of Bolcherefk
From the ifle of Fero
— 147     o     oe
— 160     7     o»
— 174  13     o
of the Port of St. Peter and Paul 176   10     a
Longitude of      As no aftronomical obfervations have been made fuiv
the Extreme
deSmfned% ther to the East than the Port of St. Peter and Paul, it is
the Ruffians»   . ,-»-,, r> •  •. -i r .-.it
impoffible to fix, with any degree or certainty, the longitude of the North-Eaftern promontory of Alia. It appears however from Beering's and Synd's coasting voyages
towards Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, and from other expeditions
to thofe parts by land and fea, that the coaft of Afia in
lat. 64. ftretches at least 230 2 30. from the Port, or
to about 2000 longitude from the ifle of Fero.
NT 1IL A   P   P   E?-N   DIX     I.
277
N°    III.
Summary of the proofs tending to fioew, that Beering and
TfchirikofF either reached America in 174I5. or came
very near it.
* I ^HE coaft which Beering reached, and called Cape
"^ St. Elias, lay, according to his estimation, in
5 8° 28' N. latitude, and in longitude 2 3 6° from Fero :
the coaft tosicheo; at by TfchirikofF was fituated in lat.
56° long. 241 ° *.
Steller,  who accompanied" Beering in his expedition Arguments
towards America, endeavours to prove,, that they difco- pro""tJ°c   ,
vered that continent by the following' arguments f :  The TfcSôff
difcovered
coasts  were bold,   prefenting continual chains of  high A""nca.
mountains, fome of which were fo elevated, that their
tops were covered with fnow, their fides were cloathed
* The reader will find the narrative of this voyage made by Beering
and TfchirikofF in Muller's account of the Ruffian Difcoveries,
S. R. G. III. p. 193, &c.
<f See KrafhininikofPs account of Kamtchatka, Chap. X. French,
Tranflation ; Chap. IV. Englifh tranflation.
from 278 A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X     I.
from the bottom to the ' top with large tracts of thick
and fine wood*.
Steller went afhore, where he remained only a few
hours ; during which time he obferved feveral fpecies of
birds which are not known in Siberia : amongst thefe was
the bird defcribed by fCatefby, under the name of Blue
Jay ; and which has never yet been found in any country
but North America. The foil was very difFerent from
that of the neighbouring iflands, and at Kamtchatka:
and he collected feveral plants, which are deemed by
botanifls peculiar to America.
The following lift of thefe plants wras communicated
to me by Mr. Pallas : I infert them however without pre-
* The recent navigations in thofe feas ftrongly confirm this argument.
For in general all the New-difcovered Iflands are quite destitute of trees ;
-even the largefl produce nothing but underwood, one of the moft Eaf-
terly Kadyak alone excepted, upon which fmall willows and alders were
obferved growing in vallies at fome diftance from the coaft. See
p. ii8.
-f See Catefby's Natural Hiftory of Florida, Carolina, &c. This bird
is called by Linnaeus Corvus Chriftatus. I have feen in Mr. Pennant's
MS account of the hiftory of the animals, birds, &c. of N. America,
and the Northern hemifphere, as high as lat. 60, an exaét defcription of
this bird. "Whenever that ingenious author, to whom we are indebted
for many elegant and interefting publications, gives this part of his labours to the world, the zoology of thefe countries will be fully and accurately confidered.
3 fuming APPENDIX     I.
fuming to decide, whether they are the exclufive growth
of North America : the determination of this point is the
province of botany.
Trillium Erectum.
Fumaria Gucullaria.
A fpecies of Dracontium, with leaves like the Canna
Indica.
Uvularia Perfoliata.
Heuchera Americana.
Mimulus Luteus, a Peruvian plant. -
A fpecies of Rubus, probably a variety of the Rubus
Idaeus, but with larger berries,, and a large lacinated
red calyx.
None of thefe plants are found in Kamtchatka, or in
any of the.neighbouring, iflands *v   ;
* According to Mr. Pallas,, the plants of the New-difcovered Iflands^
are moftly alpine, like thofe of Siberia ; this he attributes to the fliort-
nefs and coldnefs of the fummer, occafioned. by the frequency of the
North winds. His words are :. " Quoique les hivers de ces ifles foient
affez tempérés par l'air de la mer, de façon que les neiges ne -couvrent
jamais la terre que par intervalles, la plupart des plantes y font alpines,
comme en Sibérie, par la raifon que l'été y eft tout aufîr courte et froide,
à caufe des vents de nord qui y régnent." This paffage is taken from a
MS treatife in the French language, relative to the New-difcovered Iflands,
communicated to me by my very learned and ingenious friend Mr. Pallas,.,
profeffor of natural hiftory at St. Peterfburg ; from which I have been
enabled to collecta confiderable degree of information. This treatife was
fent to Monf. BufFon ; and that celebrated naturalift has made great ufe
©f it in the fifth volume of his Supplement à l'Hiftoire Naturelle.
Though*
279 i-So
APPENDIX     I.
Though thefe circumflances fhould not be confidered
as affording decifive proofs, that Beering reached America; yet they will surely be admitted as strong presumptions, that he very nearly approached that continent p
* The reader will recollect in this place, that the natives of the
contiguous iflands touched at by Beering and TfchirikofF " prefented to
" the Ruffians the calumet, or pipe of peace, which is a fymbpl of
" friendfhip univerfal among the people of North America, and an
" ufage of arbitrary institution peculiar to them." See Robertfon's
Hift. Am. vol. L p. 276.    S. R. G. III. p. 214.
N°IV-. APPENDIX    X.
281
N°    IV.
Lift of the principal charts reprefenting the Ruffian
difcoveries.
* I ^HE following is an authentic lift of the principal
•*•   charts of the Ruffian difcoveries hitherto publifhed.
It is accompanied with a few explanatory remarks.
ï. Carte dés nouvelles découvertes au nord de la mer Lift of the
Charts of the
du fud, tant à l'Est de la Sibérie et du Kamtchatka, mi'à£u5ian •
' '    -1        Diicovenes.
POueft de la Nouvelle France drefîee fur les mémoires de
Mr. de l'Ifle, par Philippe Buache, 1750. A memoir relative to this chart was foon 'afterwards publifhed, with
the following title, Explication de la carte des nouvelles,
découvertes au Nord de la mer du fud par Mr. de l'Ifle ;
Paris, 1752, 4to.
This map is alluded to, p. 26 of this work,
2. Carte des nouvelles découvertes entre la partie
orientale de l'Afie et l'Occidentale de l'Amérique, avec des
vues fur la grande terre réconnue, par les Ruffes, en 17 41,
par Phil. Buache, 1752.
3. Nouvelle carte des découvertes faites par des vaif-
feaux Ruffiens aux côtes inconnues de l'Amérique fepten-
trionale avec les pais àdjacens, drefiee fur les mémoires
O o authentiques ATT
N   D   I   X     L
authentiques de ceux qui ont affilié à ces découvertes, et
fur d'autres connoifFances ; dont on rend raifon dans un
mémoire feparé : à St. Peterfburg, à l'Académie Impériale
des fciences, 1754.   1758.
This map,was publifhed under the inflection of Mr.
Muller, and is flill prefixed to his account of the Ruffian
difcoveries*. The part whkh exhibits the New-difcovered
Ifles and the côaft of America was chiefly taken from
the chart of Beering's expedition. Accordingly that continent is reprefented as advancing, between 50 and 60
degrees of latitude, i® within a fmall diftance of Kamtchatka. Noor cotildi there be any reafon to fufpect, that
ftich experienced! £aàlors as Beering and TfchirikofF had
miftaken a chain of iflands for promontories belonging to
America, uaafâi fubfequent navigators had actually failed
through that very part which was fuppofed to be a
continent.
4. A fécond chart publifhed by the Academy, but not
under the infpection of Mr. Muller, bears the fame title
as the former.
Nouvelle carte des découvertes faites par des vaifïèaux
Ruffiens aux côtes inconnues de l'Amérique,. &c. 1773-
* This map was published by Jefferys under the following title : " A
*f Map of the Difcoveries made by the Kraffians on the North Weft
" coaft of America, publifhed by the Royal Academy of Sciences at
" Peterfburg. Republifhed by Thomas JefFerys, Geographer to his
" Majefty, 1761." |?*f^
It APPENDIX     I
It is for the moft part a copy of a manuscript cjiart
known in Ruffia by the name of the chart of the Promy-
fchlenics, or merchant adventurers, and which was
fketched from the mere reports of perfons who had failed
to the New^Hifcovered Iflands. As to the fize and po-
fition of the New-dlicovered Iflands, this chart of the
Academy is extremely erroneous : it is however free
&om the above-mentioned miffcake, which runs through
all the former charts, namely» the reprefenting of the
coajft of America, between 50 and .60 degrees of latitude, as coEktigjjons to Kamtchatka. It likewifè removes that part of the fame continent lying in latitude
66, from 2100 longitude to 224°, and in its Head lajs
down a large ifland» which stretches between latitude
640 and 710 30', from 20 7 ° longitude to 218°, to
within a fmall diftance of both continents. But whether this latter alteration be equally justifiable or not,
is a queftion, this decision of which jn>uft he left to future navigators *.
5. Carte
* Mr. Muller has long ago acknowledged, in die moft candid and
public manner, the incorrectnefs of the former chart, as far as it relates
to the part which rçprefents America as contiguous to Kamtchatka :
but he ftill maintains l*is jqpinion concerning thç.,a£fcual vicinity of the
two consents in-an-^ig^er latitude. The following qijpjafction is taken
from a letter written by Mr. Muller in 1774, of which I have a copy
snmy pofteffioTi. " Pofterity muft juclge if the new chart of the&ca-
*e demy is to be preferred to the former one for removing the conti-
O o 2 " nent A   P   P
N i> i x   r.
5. Carte du nouvel A rchipeî du Nord découvert par
les Rufles dans la mer de Kamtchatka et d'Anadir.
This chart is prefixed to Mr. Stsehlin's account of the
New Northern Archipelago. In the Englifh tranflation
it is called, A Map of the New Northern Archipelago,
difcovered by the Ruffians in the feas of Kamtchatka
and Anadyr. It differs from the last-mentioned chart
only in the fize and pofition of a few of the iflands,
and in the addition of five or fix new ones, and is
equally incorrect. The New-difcovered Iflands are
clafFed in this chart into three groups, which are called
the Ifles of Anadyr*, the Glutoriant Ifles, and the Aleutian Ifles. The two last-mentioned charts are alluded
to, p. 26 of this work»
6. An
te nent of America (which is* reprefented as lying near the coaft of
" Tfchutfki) to a greater diftance. Synd, who is more to be trufted
" than the Promyfchlenics, perfifts in the old fyftem- Hè places Amb-
w rica as near as before to Tfchukotfkoi Nofs* but knows nothing ©f a
" large ifland called Alafhka, which takes up the place of the conti—
a nent, and which ought to be laid down, much- more to the South or
" South Eaft."
* Monfieur BufFon has adopted the appellation and erroneous repre-
fentation of the ifles of Anadyr in his Carte de deux regions Polaires,
lately publifhed.    See Supplement à PHift. Nat. vol. V. p-, 6t$~
•f* The Olutorian Ifles are fo named from the fmall river of Olutora^
which flows into the fea at Kamtchatka, about latitude 6i°.   The foL-
lowing APPENDIX
2Ï<
6. An excellent map of the Empire of Ruffia, publifhed by the geographical department of the Academy
of Sciences at St.. Peterfburg in 1776, comprehends the
greatest part of the New-difcovered Iflands. A reduced
copy of this chart being prefixed to this work,. 1 fhall
only mention the authorities from, whence the compilers have laid down the New-difcovered Iflands*
The Aleutian ifles are partly taken from Beering's
chart, partly from | Otcheredin's, whofe voyage is related
in   the   eleventh   chapter,  and  partly from other MS.
lowing remarks upon this group of iflands are taken from Mr. Mutter's
letter mentioned in the note, p. 283. " This appellation of Olutorian
*c Ifles is not in ufe at Kamtchatka. Thefe iflands,. called upon this '
<c chart Olutorians, lie according to the chart of the Promyfchlenics,
" and the chart of the Academy, very remote from the river Olutora :
"* and it feems as if they were advanced upon this chart nearer to
" Kamtchatka only in favour of the name. They cannot be fituated fo
" near that coaft, becaufe they were neither feen by Beering in 1728,
nor by the Promyfchlenics, NovikofF and BacchofF, when they failed in
x* 1728 from the Anadyr to Beering's Ifland."   See p. 42.
' * I have a MS. copy of Otcheredin's chart in*rny pofleinon ; but as
the Fox Iflands, in the general Map of Ruffia, are copied from thence,
the reader will find, them laid down upon the reduced map prefixed to
this work. The anpnymous author of the account of the Ruffian Difcoveries, of whole work T have given a tranflation in Part I. feems to
have followed, in. moft" particulars, Otcheredin's chart and journal for
the longitude, latitude, fize, and pofition of the New-difcovered Iflands;
For this reafon, Ifhould have had his chart engraved if the Fox Iflands
upon the general map had ' not been taken from thence : there feemed
no occafibn therefore for encreafing thfe expence of this work, already
too great from the number of charts, by the addition of another not
abfolutely necefTary.
2 charts 286
P   P   E   N
I   X     î&
charts of difFerent navigators. The iflands near the
coaft of the Tfchutfki are copied from Synd's chart.
The Fox Iflands are laid down from the chart of Otcheredin. The reader will perceive, that the pofi'Son of
the Fox Iflands, upon this general map of Ruffia, is
materially difFerent from that affigned to them iri the
chart of Krenitzin's and LevafhefF's voyage. In the
former they are reprefented as ftretening -between
560 6i/ North latitude, and 2100 and 230° longitude
from the ifle of Fero : in the latter they are fituated
between 510 4o/ and 550 20' latitude, and 199° 30' and
2070 30'' longitude. According to the moft recent accounts received from Peterfburg, the position given to
them upon this general map is considerably too much
to the North and Eafi ; confequently that affigned to
them upon Krenitzin's chart is probably the moft to be
depended Hspon.
7. Carte des découvertes Ruffes dans la mer orientale et en Amérique, pour fervir à l'Effai* fur le commerce
I The twelfth chapter of this EfTay relates to the difcoveries and
commerce of the Ruffians in the Eaftern Ocean. The account of the
Ruffian difcoveries is a tranflation of 'Mr. Stœhlin's Defcription of the
New Northern Archipelago. In addition, he has fubjoined an account
of Kamtchatka, and a fhort fketch of the Ruffian commerce to the New-
difcovered Iflands, and to America. If we may believe the author of
this EfTay, the Ruffians have not only difcovered America, but they alfo
every year form occafional fettlements upon that continent, fimilar to
thofe of the Europeans in Newfoundland.   His words are : " II eft done
certain, APPENDIX     I.
merce de Ruffle, 1778, Amfterdam. It is natural to
expect, that a chart fo recently publifhed fhould be superior to all the preceding ones ; whereas, on the contrary, it is by far the moft incorrect reprefentation of
the New-difcovered Iflands which has yet appeared.
2S7
certain, que les RufTes ont découvert le continent de l'Amérique ; mais
on peut afFurer qu'ils n'y ont encore aucun port, aucun comptoir.
Il en eft des établilFements de cette nation dans la grande terre, comme
de Ceux des rratioris Européennes dans l'ifle de Terre Neuve. Ses vaif-
feaux ox$ frégates- arriverai en Amlrique ; leurs equipages et les Cofaques
chaffeurs s'ètablifFent fur la côte ; les uns fe retranchent, et les autres
y font la chafîe et la pêche du chien marin et du narval. Ils revien-
flerît erîfûite âti Kamtchatka, après avoir été relevés par d'autres frégates fur les nàêiûeff parages, ou à des (finances plus orç- moins eloigrçiëâa
&c. &c." See Efîài for le commerce de la Ruffie,.p. 292, 293. Thus
the public is impofed upon by fictious» and exaggerated accounts, 288
P   P   E   N   D T   X     I.
m V.
Pofition of tbe Andreanoffsky Ifles afcertained—Number
of the Aleutian Ifles.
\X7 HEN the anonymous author published his account of the Ruffian Difcoveries in 1766, the
pofition of the Andreanoffsky Ifles was not afcertained.
It was generally fuppofed, that they formed part of that
clutter of iflands, which Synd* fell in with in his voyage towards Tfchukotfkoi Nofs,; and Bufîbnt reprefèû^
them to be the fame with thofe laid down in Staehlin's
chart, under the name of Anadirfky Ifles. The anonymous author, in the paffage here referred to, fuppoies
them to be N. E. of the Aleutian Ifles ; " at the diftance
" of 600 or 800 verfts; that their direction is probably
" Eafi and Weft, and that fome of them may unite
r with that part of the Fox Iflands which are moft
" contiguous to the oppofite continent.'' This conjecture was advanced upon a fuppofition that the
Andreanoffsky Ifles lay near the coaft of the Tfchutfki ;
* See N° IX. of this Appendix.
-f Ifles Anadyr ou Andrien. Supp. vol. V. p. 591.
and A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X      I. 289
«find that fome of the Fox Iflands were fituated in latitude 61, as they are laid down upon the general map
of Ruffia. But according to fubfequent information
the Andreanoffsky Ifles lie between the Aleutian and the 5^^^
Fox Iflands, and complete the connection between
Kamtchatka and America *• Their chain is fuppofed to
begin in about latitude 53, near the moft Easterly of the
Aleutian Ifles, and to extend in a fcattered feries towards
the Fox Iflands. The moft North Easterly of thefe
iflands are faid to be fo near the moft Southerly of the
Fox Iflands, that they feem occafionally to have been
taken for them. An inftance of this occurs in p. 61
and 62 of this work; where Atchu and Amlak are
reckoned among the Fox Iflands. It is however more
probable, that they are part of the group called by the
Aleutian chief Negho +, and known to the Ruffians
under the name of Andreanoffsky Iflands, becaufe they
were fuppofed to have been firft difcovered by Andrean
Tolftyk, whofe voyage is related in the feventh chapter of the Firft Part.
I take this opportunity of adding, that the anonymous -jjjg^sjj^
author, in  defcribing  the  Aleutian  Ifles, both  in  the
first and laft chapter of the  account of   the Ruffian
* P. 58. Some of the remoter iflands are faid to be E. S. E. of the
Aleutian Ifles j thefe munn be either part of the Andreanoffsky Ifles, or
the moft Southerly of the Fox Iflands.
f See N° VIII. of this Appendix.
P p difco- 2£0
AFP
N   D   I   X
difcoveries, mentions only three ; namely, Attak, Se-
mitfhi, Shemiya. But tbe Aleutian Ifles conflit of a
much larger number; and their chain iteludes all the
iflands comprehended by the iflander in the two groups
of Khao and Safignan*. Many of them are laid down
"upon the general map of Ruflia ; and fome of them
are occafionidly alluded to in the journals of the Ruffian voyages t.
* See N° VIII.
+ See p. 30, and particularly p. 46, where fome of thefe iflands are
mentioned under the names of Ibiya, Kifka, and Olas..
n°vi; APPENDIX
N° VI.
■ConjeSkar-es concerning the proximity of- the Fox Iflands to' .
the continent of America.
*TP*HE anonymous author,  in the courfe of his ac-
count of the Ruffian difcoveries, endeavoured to -ff^
prove, by many circumftances drawn from natural hiftory, that the Fox Iflands muft lie near the continent of
America : hence he grounds his conjecture, that (C the
time is not far diftant when fome of the Ruffian
navigators will fall-in with that coast."
The fmall willows and alders which, according to
Glottoffv were found growing upon Kadyak, do not appear to have been fufficient either in fize or quantity Proofs of the
*f ~X J \1Cmity of the
to ascertain,, with any degree of certainty, the clofe^1^^510
viçiaity of that ifland to America. River-otters, wolves^
bears, and wild boars, which were obferved upon the ? y.' ,
faaae ifland, will perhaps be thought to afford a stronger
prefurnption in, favour of a neighbouring continent;
martens were alfo caught there,, an animal which is not
known in the Eaftern parts of Siberia, nor found upon
any of the other iflands^ Alt the above-mentioned animals, martens alone excepted, were feen upon Alakfu,
which is fituated more to the North East than Kadyak,
P p 2 and APPENDIX      L
and alfo rein-deers and wild dogs. To thefe proofs
drawn from natural hiftory, we muft add the reports
of a mountainous country covered with forests, and of
a great promontory called Atachtak, lying still more to
the N. E. which were prevalent among the inhabitants^
of Alakfu and Kadyak*
Although thefe circumfiances have been already mentioned *, yet I have thought proper to recapitulate them
here, in order to lay before the reader in one point of
view the feveral proofs advanced by the anonymous
author, which feem to fhew, that the Fox Iflands are
fituated near America. Many of them afford, beyond a
doubt, evident signs of a lefs open fea ; and give certain
marks of a nearer approach towards the oppofite continent. But how far that diftance may be fuppofed,
muft be left to the judgment of the reader; and remains to be afcertained by fubféquent navigators. All?
that we know for certain is, that, as far-as any Ruffian:
vefïèls have hitherto failed, a chain of iflands has been
difcovered lying E. or N. E. by E. from Kamtchatka,
and stretching towards America. Part of this chaia
has only been touched at; the reft is unknown? and.
all beyond is uncertainty and conjectures
* See p. 68 and 69—116—118—170*
N° VII. APPENDIX     I.
N° VII.
Of the Tfchutfki—Reports of tbe vicinity of America to
their coaft, firfi propagated by them, feem to be confirmed by late accounts from thofe parts.
rpHE Tfchutfki, it is well known, inhabit the North '
"**• Eaftern part of Siberia ; their country is a fmall
tract o£ land, bounded on the North by the Frozen Sea,
on the East by the Eaftern Ocean ; on tie South it borders
upon the river Anadyr, and on that of Kovyma to the
Weft. The N. E. cape of this country is called Tfchu-
kotfkoi-Nofs, or the promontory of the Tfchutfki. Jts
inhabitants are the only people of Siberia who have not
yet been fubdued by the Ruffians.
293
The anonymous author agrees with Mr. Muller in
fuppofing, that America advances to within a fmall
diftance of the coaft of the Tfchutfki; which he.fays
"is confirmed by the latest accounts procured from
thefe parts."
The firft intelligence concerning the fuppofed vicinity
between Alia and America was derived from the reports
Û of 294
A    P   P
N    D   I   X
of the Tfchutfki in their intercourfe with the Ruffians.
Vague and uncertain accounts, drawn from a barbarous
people, cannot deferve implicit credit; but as they have
been uniformly and invariably propagated by the inhabitants of thofe regions from the middle of the lait cenfàr^
to the prefent time, they must merit at least the attention
of every curious enquirer.
The Reports      Thefe reports were firft related in Muller's account of
concerning the     I
AmeS»f' t^ie Ruffian difcoveries, and have been lately thought
'™ oa worthy of notice by Dr. Robertfon*, in his Hiftory of
America. Their probability feems ftill further increafed
by the following circumstances. One Plenifner, a native of Courland, was appointed commander of Ochotfk,
in the year 1760, with an exprefs order from the court
to proceed as far as t Anadirfk, and to procure all possible intelligence concerning the North Eaftern part of
Siberia, and the opposite continent. In confequence of
this order Plenifner repaired to Anadirfk, and proceeded
like wife to Kovimfkoi Oftrog : the former of thefe Ruffian
fettlements is fituated near the Southern, the latter near
the Weftern limits of the Tfchutfki. Not content however with collecting all the information in his power from
the neighbouring Koriacs, who have frequent intercourfe
* Hifl. ef AmeFÎÈa, vol. I. p. 274—ify.
f Anadirfk has been lately deflroyed by the Ruffians themfelves.
With APPENDIX      I.
with the Tfchutfki; he alfo fent one Daurkin into their
country. This perfon was a native Tfchutfki, who had
been taken prifoner, and bred up by the Ruffians : he
continued two years with his countrymen; and made
feveral expeditions With them to the neighbouring iflands.
Which, lie off the Eaftern coaft of Siberia.
The fum of the intelligence brought back by this
Daurkin was as follows: that Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs is a
very narrow peninfula; that the Tfchutfki carry on a
trade of barter with the inhabitants of America ; that
they employ fix days in palling the strait which feparates
the two continents : they direct their courfe from ifland
to ifland, and the distance from the one to the other is
fo fmall, that ' they are able to pafs every night afhore.
More to the North he defcribes the two continents .aè
approaching still nearer to each other, with only two
iflands lying between them.
295
This intelligence remarkably coincided with the accounts collected by Plenifner himfelf among the Koriacs.
Plenifner returned to Peterfburg in 1776, and brought
with him feveral P maps and charts of the North Eaftern
parts
* The moft important of thefe maps comprehends the country of the
Tfchutfki, together with the nations which border immediately upon them.
This map was chiefly taken during a,fécond expedition made by major
PauiofFsky igS A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X      I.
parts of Siberia, which were afterwards made ufe of in
the compilation of the general map of Ruffia, publifhed
by the academy in 1776 *. By thefe means the country
of the Tfchutfki has been laid down with a greater degree of accuracy than heretofore. Thefe are probably
the late accounts from thofe parts which the anonymous
author alludes to.
Pauloffsky againft the Tfchutfki; and his march into that country is traced
upon it. The firft expedition of that Ruffian officer, in which he penetrated as far as Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs, is related by Mr. Muller, S. R. G. III.
p. 134—138. We have no account of this Second expedition, during
which he had feveral fkirmifhes with the Tfchutiki, and came off vi&orious ;
but upon .his return was furprifed and killed by them. This expedition
was made about the year 1750.
* The circumftances mentioned in the text were communicated to me
during my continuance at Peterfburg by feveral perfons of credit, who
had frequently converfed with Plenifner fince his return to the capital,
where he died in the latter end of the year 1778.
N° VIII. APPENDIX    î,
207
N*    VIIL
Lift of tbe. NeW'difi'omred Iflands, procured from an
Aleutian tkief—Catalogue of iflands called by different
names in tbe Accmnt of the Ruffian Qifcoveries*
*HT*HE fubfequent lift of the New-difcovered Iflands
was procured from an Aleutian chief brought to
Peterfburg in 1771, and examined at the desire of the
Emprefs by Mr» Muller, who divides  them into four Mr.Muiie*
*■ J * dWtdes the
principal groups.    He regulates this division partly by SÊds
a Similarity of the language fpoken by the inhabitants, Groups?
and partly by vicinity of situation.
The firft  group*,  called   by   the iflander Safignan, F\r,^rorup
comprehends,   1. Beering's Ifland.      2. Copper Ifland.nan*
3. Otma.    4. Samya, or Shemiya.     5. Anakta.
The fécond group is called Khao, and comprifes eight fe£"S g%u-
iflands:    1. Immak.   2. Kifka.   3. Tchetchina.   4. A va.
5. Kavia.     é. Tfchagulak.     7» Ulagama.      8. Amtf-
chidga.
* Thefe two first groups probably belong to the Aleutian Ifles.
Q q The A   P   P   E   N   D* I   X\   p
The third general name is Negho, and- comprehends
the iflands known by the Ruffians under the name of
Andreanoffsky e Oftrova i fixteen were mentioned by the
iflander, under the following names ::
i. Amatkinak. 2. Ulak. 3. Unalga. 4. Navotfha...
5. Uliga. 6. Anagin. 7. Kagulak.. 8. Illafk, or
lllak. 9. Takavanga, upon which is a volcano. 10. Kanaga, which has alfo a-volcano. i-i.Leg. s 2. Shet-
fhuna. 13. Tagaloon : near the coaft of the three
laft mentioned iflands feveral fmall rocky ifles are fitvs-
ated.. 14. An ifland without a name, called by the
Ruffians GoreloL*..    15. Atchu.     x6. Amla.
founha(froup The fourth group is denominated Kavalang, and
comprehends fixteen iflands : thefe are called by the Ruffians Lyffie Oftrova, or the Fox Iflands.
1. Amuchta. 2. Tfchigama. 3. Tfchegula. 4. Unif-
tra. 5. Ulaga.. 6.. Tana-gulana. 7. Kagamin. 8. Ki-
galga. 9. Schelmaga. 10. Umnak. n. Aghun-Alafhka. 12. Unimga. At a fmall diftance from Unimga,
towards the North, ftretches a promontory called by the
islanders the Land of Black Foxes, with a fmall river
called Alafhka, which empties itfelf opposite to the laft-
* Goreloi is fuppofed by the Ruffian navigators to be the fame ifland
as Atchu, and is reckoned by them among the Fox Iflands.. See Part I,
p. 61. and N° V. of this Appendix.
mentioned APPENDIX     I.
mentioned ifland into a gulf proper for a haven. The
extent of this land is not known. To the South Eaft of
this promontory lie four little iflands. 13. Uligan.
14. Antun-duflisme.     15. Semidit.     16. Senagak.
29»
Many of thefe names are not found either in the
journals or charts : while others are wanting in this lift
which are mentioned in both journals and charts. Nor
is this to be wondered at ; for the names of the iflands
have been certainly altered and corrupted by the Russian
navigators. Sometimes the fame name has been applied
to different iflands by the different journalists ; at other
times the fame ifland has been called by difFerent names.
Several inftances of thefe changes feem to occur in the
account of the Ruffian Difcoveries : namely,
Att, Attak, and Ataku.
Shemiya and Sabiya.
Atchu, Atchak, Atach, Goreloi or Burned Ifland.
Amlak, Amleg. ^êSbal
Ayagh, Kayachu.
Alakfu, Alagfhak, Alachfhak.
Aghunalafhka, Unalafhka.
Iflands called
by different
Names in the
Ruffian
Journals.
Qq2
N°IX. 3oo
APPENDIX     Ï.
N* IX.
Voyage of Lieutenant Synd to tbe North Eafi of Siberia—
He difiovers a clufler of iflands, and a promontory^
which he fuppofts to belmg to the continent ef America,
lying near tbe coaft of tbe TfchutikL
T N 1764 lieutenàa&fc Synd failed from Ochotfk, upon a
•*- voyage of dUbovery towards t&e confiaient of America..
He was ordered to take a difFerent courfe fFOfia that held
by the late ftuifl&an veflèfs, wMch lay eue Esfeftfrom ther
coaft of Kamtchatka. As he fteere^i therefore his courfe*
more to the North East than any of the preceding navigators, and as it appears from all the voyages related ins
the firft part of this work*, that the vicinity of America*,
is to be fought for in that quarter alone,, any accurate:
account of this expedition would not fail of fcekig highly
interesting. It is therefore a great morti-ééaïion to me,,
that, while I raife the reader's curiosity, I am not able
fully to fatisfy it. The following intelligence concerning this voyage is all which I was able to procure. It is*
accompanied with an authentic chart-
* See p. 27»
In   wm
APPENDIX     I.
301
In 17 64 Synd put to fea from the port of Ochotfk, but
èiâ not pais (we know not by what accident) the
Southern Gape of Kamtchatka and Shufliu, the first Kuril
Ifle, before 1766* He then fleered his courfe North at
no great diftance from the coaft of the peninfula, but
made very little progrefs that year, for he wintered South.
©f the river Uka»
The following year he sailed from Ukinfki Point due
Eafi and North. Eafi, until he fell in with a. clutter of
iflands* stretching between 61 and 62 degrees of latitude,
and 19 50 and 20a.9 longitude. Thefe iflands lie South
Eaft andEaftof the coaft of the Tfchutfki; and feveral
of them are fituated very near the fhore. Besides thefe
fmall iflands^ he discovered alfo a mountainous coaft
lying within one degree of the coaft of the Tfchutfki,
betweers 64 and 66 North latitude ; its- moft Western
extremity was fituated in, longitude 3 8° 15' from
Ochotfk, or 1990 1/ from Fero. This land is laid
down in his chart as part of the- continent of America ; but we cannot determine upon what proofs he
grounds this reprefentation, until a more circumstantial
account of his voyage is communicated-to the public.
» Thefe are certainly fome of the iflands which the Tfchutfki refort
tain their, way to what they call the, continent of America.
Synd. A   P   P   E   N   D -ï   X     I.
Synd feems to have made but a fhort flay afhore. Instead of endeavouring to survey its coafts, or of fleering
more to the Eafi, he almoft instantly fhaped his courfe
due Weft towards the courfe of the Tfchutfki, then
turned directly South and South Weft, until he came
oppofite to Chatyrfkoi Nofs. From that point he continued to coaft the peninfula of Kamtchatka, doubled the
cape, and reached Ochotfk in 1768.
N° X. APPENDIX    I.
3°3
N»   X.
Specimen of the Aleutian language.
Sun
Agaiya
One
Tagatak
Moon
Tughilag
Two
Alag
Wind
Katfhik
Three
Kankoos
Water
Tana
Four
Setfchi
Fire
Kighenag
Five
Tfhaw
Earth hut
Oollae
Six
Atoo
Chief
Toigon
Seven.
Ooloo
Man
Taiyaga
Eight
Kapoé
Wood
Yaga.
Nine
Shifet
Shield
Kuyak
Ten^
Afok.
Sea-otter
Tfcholota
Name of the
nation.
Kanagift
It is very remarkable^ that none of thefe words bear
the least refemblance to thofe of the fame Signification,
which are found in the different dialects fpoken by the
Koriaks, KamtchadalSj and the inhabitants of the Kuril
Ifles..
N°XL 3°4
APPENDIX     I.
N°    XL
Attempts of tbe Ruffians to difcover a North Eafi paffage—
^Voyages from Archangel towards the Lena—From tbe
Lena towards Kamtchatka—ExtraB from Mullet's etc*
count of DefchrkefPsvoyage ro^^Tfchukotfkoi Nofs—
Narrative of a voyage made by Shalauroffjfa?*» the Lena
to Shelatfkoi Nofs.
r I ^ H E only communication hitherto known between
"*" the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, or between Europe
and the East Indies, is made either by failing round the
Cape of "Good Hope, or by doubling Cape Horn. But as
both thefe navigations are very long and dangerous, the
great object of feveral late European voyages has been
turned towards the difcovery of a North East or a North
Weft paffage. As this work is entirely confined to the
Ruffian navigations, any difquifition concerning the
North Weft pafFage is totally foreign to the purpole ; and
for the lame reafon, in what relates to the North Eaft,thefe
refearches extend only to the attempts of the lluffians for
the difcovery of that paffage.
The advocates for the North East paffage have divided
that navigation into three principal parts ; and by endeavouring to fhew that thefe three parts have been
palled APPENDIX    I.
pasted at difFerent times,   they conclude from thence,
that the whole when taken collectively is practicable.
Thefe three parts are, «i. from Archangel to the Lena ;
2. from the Lena to Kamtchatka ; 3. from Kamtchatka
to Japan. With refpect to the latter, the connection
between the leas of Kamtchatka and Japan first appeared from fome Japanefe vefFels, which were wrecked
upon the coaft of Kamtchatka in the beginning of this
century ; and this communication has been unquestionably proved from feveral voyages made by the Ruffians
from Kamtchatka to Japan**,
305
No^one ever afFerted that the firft part from Archangel
to' the Lena was ever performed in one voyage ; but feveral.perfons having advanced that this navigation has
1)een made by the Ruffians at different times, it becomes
neceflary to examine the accounts of the Ruffian voyages
in thofe feas>
In T734 lieutenant MoroviefF failed from Archangel ^f« J™
rtoward the river Oby; and got no farther the first yearMe
than the mouth of the Petfchora. The next fummer he
paffed through the straits of Weygatz into the fea of
Kara; and coasted along the Eaftern fide of that fea, as
high as latitude 720 30', but did not double the promontory which feparates the fea of Kara from the Bay of
* S. R. G. III. p. 78, and p. 166, &c.
R 1 '   Oby. 3c6
Unfuccefs
Attempc t
Çifc from
enisèi tc
Lena.
APPENDIX     I..
Oby. In 1738, the lieutenants Malgyin and SkurakofF
doubled that promontory with great difficulty, and entered the bay of Oby. During thefe expeditions the navigators met with great dangers and impediments from
the ice. Several unfuccefsful attempts were made to pass-
from the bay of Oby to the Yenisei,, which was at last
effected in 1738 by two* vefFels commanded by lieute-
£ul nants Offzin and KofkelefF. The fame year the pilot
^ihe Feodor Menin failed from the Yenisei towards the Lena :
he fleered North as high as lat. 72?. 15'. and when he
came to the mouth ©f the Piafida he was flopped by the
ice ; and finding it impossible to fOBce a paffage, he returned to the Yenisei *%
pSftLfr     JNyV  *73S>   lieutenant   PronfcfisiftfheflF failed  ffor^
t^Srdsetheena Yakutfk  up the Lena to its mouth,   in order to> pafs
Yenisei.
from thence by fea to the Yenisei. The Western-mouths-
of the Lena were fo choakeeb up wit^ice^ that he was
obliged to pafs through the mofë Easterly one ; and was-
prevented by contrary winds from getting out until the
13th of August.. Having fleered North West along the
iflands which lie fcattered before the mouths of the Lena,
he found himfelf in lat. 700 4'; He faw much ice to
the North and North Eafi; and obferved ice-mountains
from twenty-four to fixty feet in height. He fleered betwixt the ice, which in no place left a free channel of.
• ?.. 145 to 149.
greater APPENDIX    I.
greater breadth than an.hundred or two hundred yards.
The vefFel being much damaged, on the lit of Septem-
feet* he ran up the mouth of the Olenek, which, accord-
tog to his eftimation, lies in 7 a° 30', near which place
he paffed the winter*.
He got out of the Olenek the beginning of August in
WÈk following yeaar^ and arrived on the third at the mouth
<*f the Anabara, which hé found to lie in lat. 730 i\
There he continued until the 1 oth, while fome of the
crew went up the country in fearch of fome mines. On
the i$$h he proceeded on his voyage: before he reached
the mouth of the Ghatanga he was fo entirely furrounded
and hemmed in with ice, that it was not without great
idinaculty and danger he was able to get loofe. Fie then
obferved a large field of ice stretching into the fea, on
which account he was obliged to continue near the fhore,
and to run up the Chatanga. The mouth of this river
was in lat. 740 9'. From thence he bent his courfe mostly
Northward along the fhore,. until he reached the mouth
of the Taimura on the 18th. He then proceeded further, and followed the coaft towards the Piafida. Near
the fhore were feveral fmall iflands, between which and
the land the ice was immovably fixed. He then directed
his courfe toward the fea, in order to pafs round the
* Gmelin Reife, II. 425 to 427.
3*>7
I       I
|I|
!§
R r 2
chain 3°8
Prevented "b
a Chain of
Iflands and
les from gi
ting to-.the
Yenisei.
A   P   P   E   N   D   I- X-    L
chain of iflands. At firft he found the fea more free
to the North of the iflands, while he obferved much ice
lying between them. He came at length to the laft ifland,
fituated in lat, 770 25'. Between this ifland and the
fhore, as well as on the other fide of the ifland which lay
moft to the North, the ice was firm and immovable. He
attempted however to fleer still more to the North ; and
having advanced about fix., miles,. he was prevented by
a thick fog from proceeding:- this fog being difperfed^
he faw on each fide, and. before him, nothing but ice ;n
y that towards the fea was not fixed; butethe accumulated»
£r mafles- were all To clofe, that the fmalleft veffel could nofc
have worked its way through. Still attempting however?
to pafs to the North/; he. was forced by the ice N. E^..
Apprehensive of being hemmed in,e he. returned to tha
Taimura ; and from thence got, with much: difficulty
and^nger, to the 01enek,.on the 29th of August.
This narrative of Prontfhiftflieff'S expedition is ex~
tracted from the account of profeffbr * Gmelin : according to Mr. Mullër tj. who has given a curfory relation*
of the fame voyage, Prontfhiftsheffdid not quite reach the
mouth of the Taimura ; for he there found the chain of
iflands stretching from the continent far into the fea*
The channels between the iflands were fo ehoaked up
* Gmelin Reife, vol. II. p. 42-7 to p. 434.
•f S. R. G. III. p. 149, 150.
with APPENDIX     L
with ice, that it was impoffible to force a paffage : after
steering as high as lat. 770 25', he found fuch a plain
of fixed ice before him, that he had no profpect. of
getting any farther* Accordingly he returned to the
Olenek.
Another attempt was made to pafs from the Lena to
the Yenisei in 1739, ^J Chariton LaptiefF, with equal
bad fuccefs ;: and he relates, ..that between the rivers
Piafida and Taimura a promontory ftretches into the
fea which he could not double, the fea being entirely
frozen up before he could pafs round *. .
From all thefe circumftances we muft collect:, that the -cape !>««*
7 the Rivera
whole fpace between Archangel and the Lena has never rS^X
yet been navigated; for in going Eaft from the Yenisei'56
the Ruffians could get no farther than the mouth of the
Piafida ;  and, in coming Weft from the Lena, they were
flopped,   according to Gmelin,   North of  the Piafida ;
and, according to Muller, Eaft.of the Taimura..
309
The Rsiffiàns, who fail almoft annually from Archangel, and other towns, to Nova Zemla, for the pur-
pofe of catching fea-horfes, feals, and white, bears, make-
* Gmelin Reife, p. 440. Mr. Muller fays only, that LaptiefF met
with the fame obfiaeles which forced ProntfhiflfherTto return... S.R.G~
III. p. 150V
4
torn A   P   P   E   N   D   I
I
to the Western Coaft ;   and no Ruffian velïel has ever
paffed round its North Eaftern extremity *.
The
* Although this work is confined to the Ruffian Difcoveries, yet as
the N. E. paffage is a fubjeâ: of fueh interesting -curiofity, it might feem
an omiffidh in not jflendoajng, that feveral Englifh and Dutch veffels
have paffed through the Straits of Weygatz into the fea of Kara ; they
all met w ith great obftructions froth the tee, and had much difficulty in
getting through.    See HiftoireGen. Deé^oyages, tome XV. paffim.
In 1696 Heemfldrk and Barentz, after having failed along the Weftern
coaft of Nova Zemla, doubled the North Eaftern cape lying in latitude
770 20', and got no lower along the Eaftern coaft than 760, where they
wintered.
See an account of this remarkable voyage in Girard Le Ver's Vraye
Defcription des Trois Voyages De Mer, p. 13 to 45; and Hift. Gen.'
des Voy. torn. XV. p. in to 139.
No veffel of any nation has ever paffed round that Cape, which extends
to the North of the Piafida, and is laid down in the Ruffian charts in
about 7 8° latitude. We have already feen that no Ruffian veffel has
ever got from the Piafida to the Chatanga, or from the Chatanga to the
Piafida ; and yet fome aut&ots have pefi&vely affetBed, that this promontory has been failed round. In order therefore to elude the .Ruffian accounts, which clearly affert -the contrary, it is pretended, "thatGmelin
and Muller have purpofely concealed fome parts of the Ruffian journals,
and have impofed upon the world by a mifreprefentation of facts. But
without entering into any difpute on this head, I can venture to affirm,
that no Sufficient proof has been as yet advanced in fupport of this af-
fertion ; and therefore, until fome pofitive information fhall be produced,
we cannot deny plain facts, or prefer hearfay evidence to circumstantial
.and well-attefted accounts.
Mr. Engel has a remarkafele paffage in "his Effai fur une route par la
Nord Eft, which it may be proper to confider in this place, becaufe
he afferts in the moft pofitive manner, that two Dutch veffels formerly
paffed three hundred leagues to the North Eaft of Nova Zemla ; from
thence A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X       I. 311
The navigation from the Lena to Kamtchatka now re-ttSwa
mains to be considered.    If we may believe fome authors, uLlT y-
Kamtchatka.
this
thence he infers that they muft have doubled the above-mentioned Cape,
which extends to the North of the Piafida, and have got at leaft as far
Eaft as the mouth of the Olenek. His words are, L'llluftre Société Royale, fous Tan 1675,rapporte ce voyage, et dit, que peu d'années auparavant une Société de merchands d'Amfterdam avait fait une tentative pourr
chercher le pafïage du Nord Eft, et équippa deux vaiffeaux les quels étant
paffé au.fegtante neuf ou huitantieme degré de latitude, avoient poufsè felon Wood, jûfqti'à trois cent lieues à l'Eft de la Nouvelle Zemble,&c.&c.
Upon* this fact he founds his proof that the navigation from Archangel
to the Lena has beeiLperfbrmed. Par confequent cette partie de la route
a été faite. He refts the truth of this account on the authority of the
Philofophical Tranfactions, and of Captain Wood, who failed upon a
voyage for the difcovery of the North Eaft paffage in 1676. The latter,,
in the relation of his voyage, enumerates feveral arguments which induced him to believe the practicability of the North Eaft paffage.*—
" The feventh argument," he fays, " was another narration, printed in
" the Tranfactions, of two fhips of late that had attempted the paffage,
" failed 300 leagues to the Eaftward of Nova Zemla,.and had after profe-
" cuted thevoyage, had there not a difference arofe betwixt the undertakers
" and the Eaft-India company.''' We here find that Captain Wood refers to the Philofophical Tranfactions for his authority. The narration
printed in the Tranfactions, and which is alluded to by both Captain.
Wood and Mr. Engel, is to be found in VoL IX. of the Philofophical
Tranfactions, p. 2Ô9r.for December 1674. It confifts of a very* curious
" Narrative of fome obfervations made upon feveral voyages, under-
" taken to find a way for failing about the North to the Eaft-Indies ;
" together with inftructions given by the Dutch Eaft-India Company;
" for the difcovery of the famous land of Jeffo near Japan." Thefe inftructions were, in 1643, given to Martin Geritfes Vries, captain of the
fhip Caftrieunv" who fet out to difcover. the unknown^ Eaftern coaiï
" of. A   P
E ' N * D ■ î   X     Ï.
this navigation has been open for above a century and
an half;     and   feveral vefFels have  at  different times
,paffed
"fn of Tartary, the kingdom of Kata, and the Weft coaft of America,
" together with the ifles fituate to the Eaft of Japan, cried up for their
ti riches of gold and filver." Thefe instructions contain no relation of
-two Dutch veffels, who paffed 300 leagues Eaft of Nova Zemla»
Mention is made of two Dutch veffels, " who were fent out in the
** year 1639, under the command -of Captain Kwaft, to difcover the
" Eaft coaft of the Great Tartary, efpecially -the -famous gold and filver
•" iflands; though, by reafon of Several unfortunate accidents, they
iC both returned re^infectà." Short mention is afterwards made of Captain Kwaft's journal, together with the writings of the .-merchants who
were with him, as follows : " That in the South Sea, at the 371 de-
" grees Northern latitude, and about 400 Spanilh, or 343 Dutch miles,
(i that is, 28 degrees longitude Eaft of Japan, there lay a very great
"> and high-ifland,.inhabited by a white, handfome, kind and civilized
" people, exceedingly .opulent in .gold and filver, &c. -&C."
From thefe extracts it appears, that, in the fhort account of the jour»
nais of the two Dutch-veffels, no longitude is mentioned to the Eaft of
Nova Zemla ; but the difcoveries of Kwaft were made in the South
fea, to which place he, as well as Captain Vries afterwards, muft have
failed round the Cape of Good Hope. The author of the narrative
concludes, indeed, that the N. E.. paffage is, practicable, in the following words : " To promote this paffage out of the Eaft-Indies to the
" North into Europe, it were neceffary to fail from the Eaft-Indies to
<c the Weft ward of Japan, all along Corea,. to fee- how the fea-coafts
te tend to the North of the faid Corea, and with what conveniençy
" fhips might fail as- far as Nova Zemla, and to the North of the fame.
" Where our author faith, that undoubtedly it would be» found, that
" having paffed the North corner of Nova Zemla, or, through Wey-
fl gatz, the North end of Yelmer land, one might go on South-Eaft-.
kf ward, and make a fuccefsful voyage." But mere conjectures cannot
be admitted as evidence.    As we can find no other information relative
to APPENDIX     I.
passed round the North Eaftern extremity of Afia. Rut
if we confult the Ruffian accounts, we fhall find, that
frequent expeditions have been unqueftionably made
from the Lena to the Kovyma ; but that the voyage
from the Kovyma round Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, into the
Eaftern ocean, has been performed but once. According
to Mr. Muller, this formidable cape was doubled in the
year 1648. The material incidents of this remarkable
voyage are as follow §. :
3r3
I In 1648 feven kotches or vefFels failed from theN»rratl1Leof
mouth of the river Kovyma t, in order to penetrate into SlLXi-
the Eaftern Ocean.     Of thefe, four were never moreNofs*
heard of:   the remaining  three were commanded   by
Sifififon DefhnefF, Gerafim AnkudinofF, two chiefs of the
GofFacs, and Fedot AlexeefF, the head of the Promyfh-
knics.    Defhnélf and AnkudinofF quarrelled before their
to the fact mentioned by Captain Wood and Mr. Engel, (namely, that
two Dutch veffels have paffed 300 leagues to the Eaft of Nova Zemla)
we have no reafon to credit mere affertions without proof: we may
therefofe? advance as a fact, that hitherto we have no authentic account,
that any veffel has ever paffed the cape & She Eafi of Nova Zemla,
wtiîch lies North of the river Piafida. See Relation of Wood's Voyage,
&c. in the Accoun-cie^'feveral late Voyages and Difcoveries to the South
and North, &c. London, 1694, p. 148. See alfo Engcl, Mem. et
Obf. Geo. p.-231—234.
* I fhould not have Swelled my book with this extraft, if the Englifh
tranflation of Mr. Mullet's worfcwas* not extremely erroneous in fome
material paffages.    S. R. G. III.. pS $<"£$?-
f Mr;:Muller calls it Korytiiav
.   S s departure : 3*4
APPENDI.X     I.
-departure : this difpute was owing to the jealoufy of
DefhnefF, who was unwilling that AnkudinofF fhould
fharé with him the honour, as well as the profits, which
might refult from the expected difcoveries. Each veffel
was probably manned with about thirty perfons ; Anku-
dinofPs, we certainly know, carried that number.
DefhnefF promifed before-hand a tribute of feven fables,
to be exacted from the inhabitants on the banks of Anadyr ; fo fanguine were his hopes of reaching that river*
This indeed he finally effected ; but not fo foon, nor with
fo little difficulty, as he had prefumed.
On the 20th of June, 1648, the three veffels failed
upon this remarkable expedition from the river Kovyma.
Considering the little knowledge we have of the extreme
regions of Alia, it is much to be regretted, that all the
incidents of this voyage are not circumstantially related*
DefhnefF*,   in  an account of his  expedition   fent  to
Yakutfk,
* In order thoroughly to underftand this narrative, it is neceffary to
inform the reader, that the voyage made by DefhnefF was entirely forgotten until the year 1736, when Mr. Muller found, in the archives of
Yakutfk, the original accounts of the Ruffian navigations in the Frozen
Ocean.
Thefe papers were extracted, under his inspection, at Yakutfk, and
fent to Petersburg ; where they are now preferved in the library belonging to the Imperial Academy of Sciences : they confift of feveral folio
volâmes. The circumftances relating to Defhneff are contained in the
fécond volume.   Solijerftoff and Stadukin, ha?ing laid claim to the dif.
covery jUSF1
APPENDIX     n
Yakutfk, feems only as it were accidentally to mention
his adventures by fea ; he takes no notice of any occurrence
3*5
covery of the country on the mouth of the Anadyr, had afferted, in
confequence of this claim, that they had arrived there by fea, after
having doubled Tfchukotfkoi Nofs. Deitineff, in anfwer, fent feveral
memorials, petitions, and complaints, againft Stadukin and Soliverftoff,
to the commander of Yakutfk, in which he fets forth, that he had
the fole right to that difcovery, and refutes the arguments advanced by
the others. From thefe memorials Mr. Muller has extracted his account
of Defhneff's voyage. When I was at Petersburg, 1 had an opportunity
of feeing thefe papers : and as they are written in the Ruffian language,
I prevailed upon my ingenious friend Mr. Pallas to infpect the part
which relates to DefhnefF. Accordingly Mr. Pallas, with His ufual readi-
nefs to oblige, not only compared the memorials with Mr. Mailer's account, but even took the trouble to make fome extracts from the moft
material parts : thefe extracts are here fubjoined ; becaufe they will not
only ferve to confirm the exactnefs of Mr. Muller, but alfo becaufe they
tend to throw fome light on feveral obfcure paffages. In one of Defh-
neff's memorials he fays, " To go from the river Kovyma to the Anadyr,
'* a great promontory muft be doubled, which ftretches very far into
<f the fea : it is not that promontory which lies next to the river
" Tfchukotfkia. Stadukin never arrived at this great promontory :
" near it are two iflands, whofe inhabitants make holes in their under-
" lips, and infert therein pieces of the fea-horfe tufh, worked into the
" form of teeth. This promontory ftretches between North and North
" Eaft : It is known on the Ruffian fide by the little river Stanovie,
u which flows into the fea, near the fpot where the Tfchutfki have erected
* a heap of whale-bones like a tower. The coaft from the promon-
*J| tory turns round towards the Anadyr, and it is poffible with a good
" wind to fail from the point to that river in three days and nights ; and
" it will take up no more time to go by land to the fame river, becaufe
" it difcharges itfelf into a bay." In another memorial DefhnefF fays,
" that he was ordered to go by fea from the Indigirka to the Kovyma j
S s s " and 3u6 APPENDIX     I.
rence until he reached the great, promontory of the
Tfchutfki ; no obflructions from the ice are mentioned,
and probably there were none ; for he obferves upon
another occafion, that the fea is not every year fo free
" and from tkence with his crew to,the Anadyr, -which was the» newly
" difcovered. That the firft time he failed from the Kovyma, he
" was forced by the ice to return to that river ; but that next
i( year he again failed from thence by fea, and after great danger, mif-
(i fortunes, and with the lofs of pact of his (hipping, arrived at laft at
tc the mouth of the Anadyr. Stadukin, having in vain attempted to go
" by fea, afterwards ventured to pafs over the chain of mountains then
" unknown;^and reached by that means the Anadyr. SoliverftofF and.
" his party, who quarrelled with DefhnefF, went to the fame place from-
" the Kovyma by land ; and the tribute was afterwards fent to the laft
(l mentioned river acrofs the mountains, which were very dangerous toi
" pafs amidft the tribes of Koriacs and Yukagirs, who had: been lately re-
" duced by the Ruffians."
In another memorial DefhnefF complains bitterly of SoliverftofF;
and aliens, " that one Severka Martemyanoff, who had been gained
" over by SoliverftofF, was fent to Yakutfk, with an account that he*
" (SoliverftofF) had difcovered the coafts to the North of the. Anadyr,
ft where large numbers of fea-horfes are found.*' DefhnefF hereupon '
«c fays, that SoliverftofF and Stadukin never reached the rocky promon»
li tory, which is inhabited by numerous bodies of- the Tfchutfki ; o*wer-
if againft which are iflands whofe inhabitants wear artificial teeth thrufl'
" through their under lips. This is not the firft promontory from the
" river Kovyma, called Svatoi Nofs ; but another far more confiderable,
'"■ and very well known to him (DefhnefF), becaufe the vefFel of Anku-
il nidoff was wrecked there ; and becaufe he had there taken prifoners
" fome of the people, who were rowingin their boats; and feen the'
" iflanders with teeth in their lips. He alfo well knew, that it was ftill
" far from that promontory to the river Anadyr/'
from APPENDIX     I.
fromf ice as. k was at this time. He commences his narrative with a de-fc-Diptaon of the great promontory : " It
1 is,"' fays he, f« very difFerent from that which fituated
** Weft of theeKovyma, near the river Tfchukotfkia. It
« lies between North and North East, and bends, | in a
tt circular direction, towards the Anadyr. It is dsfMif-
" guifhed on the Ruffian (namely, the Western) fide,, by
" a rivulet which falls into the fea, clofe to which the
*♦ Tfchutfki have raifed a pile, like a tower, with the
" bones of whales. Opposite the promontory (it is not
w faid on which fide) are two iflands,. on which he ob-
" ferved people of the nation of the TfchutfM, who had
u pieces of the fea horfe tooth thrust into holes made in
ft their lips. With a good wind it is poffible to fail frôntf
" this'promontory to the Anadyr in three days ; andymW
" journey by land may be performed in the fame fpace
" of time, becaufe the Anadyr falls into a bay." An-
kudinofPs kotche was wrecked on this promontory, and:
the crew was diftributed on board the two remaining
veffels. On the 20th of September, DefhnefF and Fedot
Alexeef went on fhore, and had a fkirmifh with the-
Tfchutfki, in which Alexeef was wounded. The two
vefFels foon afterwards loft fight of each other, and never
again rejoined. DefhnefF was driven about by tempestuous winds until October, when he was fhip wrecked
(as it appears from circumstances) confiderably to the
South of the Anadyr, not far from the river Olutora.
What
317 38 APPENDIX     I.
What became of Fedot Alexeef and his crew will be mentioned hereafter* DefhnefF and his companions, who
amounted to twenty-five perfons, now fought for the
Anadyr ; but being entirely unacquainted with the
country, ten weeks elapfed before they reached its banks
at a fmall diftance from its mouth : here he found neither wood nor inhabitants, &c.
The following year he went further up the river, and
built Anadirfkoi Oftrog : here he was joined by fome
Ruffians on the 25th of April, 1650, who came by land
from the river Kovyma. In 1652, DefhnefF having
conftructed a veffel, failed down the Anadyr as far as
its mouth, and obferved on the North fide a fand bank,
which stretched a confiderable way into the fea. A
fand bank of this kind is called, in Siberia, Korga. I Great
numbers of fea-horfes were found to refort to the
mouth of the Anadyr. DefhnefF collected feveral of
their teeth, and thought himfelf amply compenfated by
this acquifition for the trouble of his expedition. In
the following year, DefhnefF ordered wood to be felled
for the purpofe of conftruc~ting a veffel, in which he
propofed fending the tribute which he had collected by
fea to Yakutfk *•    But this design was laid afide from the
* That is, by fea, from the mouth of the Anadyr, round Tfchukotfkoi
Nofs to the river Lena, and then up that river to Yakutfk.
want 7âG&$_
mœ
■pss
APPENDIX     I.
want of other materials. It was alfo reported, that the
fea about Tchukotfkoi Nofs was not every year free
from ice.
3*9
Another expedition was made in 1654 to the;Korgar
for the purpofe of collecting fea-horfe teeth... A, Coffac,
named Yufko' SoliverftofF, was one of the party, the
fame who not long before had accompanied the CofTae
Michael Stadukin, upon a voyage of difcovery in the
Frozen Sea. This perfon was fent from Yakutsk to
collect: fea-horfe teeth, for the benefit of the crown. In
his instructions mention is made of the river Yentfhen-
don, which falls into the bay of Penfhinfk, and of the
Anadyr; and he was ordered to exact a tribute from
the inhabitants dwelling near thefe rivers ; for the adventures of DefhnefF were not as yet known at Yakutsk.
This was the occasion of new difcontents. SoliverftofF
claimed to himfelf the difcovery of the Korga, as if he
had failed to that place in his voyage with Stadukin in
1649. DefhnefF, however, proved that SoliverftofF had
not even reached Tfchukotskoi Nofs, which lie defcribes
as nothing but bare rock, and it was but too well known
to him, becaufe the veffel of AnkudinofF was flsip-
wrecked there. " Tfchukotskoi Nofs," adds DefhnefF,
" is not the firft promontory f which prefents itfelf
g under
■[.
* We may collect from Defhneff's reafoning, that SoliverftofF, in endeavouring to prove that he had failed round the Eaftern extremity of
Afia, APPENDIX     I.
u under the name of Svatoi Nofs. It is known by the
" twoiMands fituated oppofite to it, whofe inhabitants:
" (as is before-mentioned) place pieces of the fea-horfe
" tufh into holes made in their lips. DefhnefF alone
<* had feen thefe people, which neither Stadukin nor
« SoliverftofF had pretended to have done : and the
" Korga, or fand-bank, at the mouth of the river Ana-
" dyr,  was at fome diftance from thefe iflands."
While DefhnefF was furveying the fea-coaft, he faw
in an habitation belonging to fome Koriacs a woman of
Yakutsk, who, [ as he recollected, belonged to Fedot
Alexeef. Upon his enquiry concerning the fate of her
mafter, fhe replied, « that Feàot and Gérante (Ankudi-
" nofF) had died of the fcurvy; that part of the crewhâér
" been flain; that a few had efcaped in fmall veffels,
" and have never since been heard of." Traces of the
latter were afterwards found in the peninfula of Kamt-
Afia, had miftaken a promontory called Svatoi Nofs for Tfchukotikoi
Nofs : for otherwife, why fhould DefhnefF, in his refutation of SoliverftofF, begiu by afferting, that Svatoi Nofs was not TfcKukcafkoi*Nof^|n
The only cape laid down in the Ruffian maps, under the>.najne. of Svatoi
Nofs, is fituated 25 degrees to the Weft of the Kovyma : but we cannot
poffibly fuppofe this to be the promontory here alluded to ; becaufe, in
failing from the Kovyma towards the Anadiyr., ** the- firft prornoBter^
" which prefents itfelf " muft neceffarily be Eaft of the Kovyma. Svatoi^
Nofs, in the Ruffian language, fignifies Sacred Promontory; and the
Ruffians occasionally apply it to any cape which it is difficult to double.
It therefore moft probably here relates to the firft cape, which SoliverftofF reached after he had failed from Kovyma.
chatka ; EH
mf
APPENDIX     I.
chatka; to which-place they probably arrived with a
favourite wind, by following the coaft, and running up
the Kamtchatka river.
When Volodimir AtlafibfF> in 1697, first entered upon
the»reduction of Kamtchatka, he found that the inhabitants had already fome knowledge of the Ruffians. A
common tradition still preva^amongft them, that, long
before the expedition of- Atlaflbff", one * FedotofF (who
was probably the fon of Fedot AlexeefF) and his companions had resided amongft them, and had intermarried
withthe natives. They still fhew the fpot where trie Ruffian habitations flood ; namely, at the mouth of the fmall
river Nikul, which falls into the Kamtchatka river, and ter
called by the Ruffians Fedotika. Upon AtlafTofPs arriv'àlP
none of the firft Ruffians remained. They are faid to
have been held in great veneration, and almofl deified
by the inhabitants, who at firft imagined that no human
power could hurt them, until they quarreled amongft
themfelves, and the blood was feen to flow from the
wounds which they gave each other : and upon a fepara-
tion taking place between the Ruffians, part of them had
been killed by* the Koriacs, as they were going to the
fea of Penfhinfk, and the remainder by the Kamtcha-
dals. The river Fedotika falls into the Southern fide of
the Kamtchatka river about an hundred and eighty verfts
* FedotofF, in the Ruffian language, Signifies the fon of Fedot.
T t
belov 322 A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X     I.
below Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. At the time of the
firft expedition to Kamtchatka, in 1697, the remains of
two villages ftill fubfifted, which had probably been inhabited by FedotofF and his companions : and no one
knew which way they came into the peninfula, until it
was difcovered from the archives of Yakutfk in 1636."
If No other navigator, fubfequent to DefhnefF, has ever-
pretended to have paffed the North Eaftern extremity of -
Alia,.:
* Mr-Engel indeed pretends that lieutenant LaptiefF, in 1739, don:-,
bled Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs, becaufe Gmelin fays, that •* he paffed from the
" Kovyma to Anadirfk partly by water and" partly by land."   For Mr.
Engel afferts the impoffibility of getting from the Kovyma to Anadirfk,
partly by land and partly by water, without going from the Kovyma to the .
mouth of the Anadyr by fea» and from thence to Anadirfk by land.    But
Mr. Muller (who has given a more particular account of the conclufion
of this expedition) informs us, that LaptiefF and his crew, after having- •
wintered near the Indigirka, paffed from its mouth in fmall boats to the?.
Kovyma ; and as it was dangerous, on account of the Tfchutski, to follow the coaft any farther, either by land' or water, he went through the
interior part of the country to Anadirsk, and' from thence to the mouths
of the Anadyr.    Gmelin Reife, vol. II..p. 440.    S..R» G.III. p. 157..
Mention is alio made by Gmelin of a man who paffed in a fmall boat
from the Kovyma round* Tfcukotskoi-Nofs into the fea of Kamtchatka ;
and' Mr. Engel has not omitted to bring this- paffage in fupport of hk-
fyftem, with this- difference,, that he refers-ta the authority of. Muller,
inftead of Gmelin, for the truth o£ tbe fact*. But as we have no.account
of this expedition, and as the manner in which it is mentioned by Gmelin
implies that he. had it merely from tradition* we cannot lay any ftrefs upon"
fuch vague and uncertain reports. The paflage is as follows: fj Es find
" fo gar Spuren vorhanden, dafs ein Kerl mit einem SchifHein, das nicht
" viel groeffer als ein SchifFerkahn gevefen^.von Kolyma bis Tfchukotskoi-
" Nofs  J? 's    Ybyag-e. .
O     Z    [E    JV O     C    E  ^A    JV
F JR     O    Z    JE    2T
îttyHOuZèlZïn, tfutSérand:
ZlSfo/ahJaiTScutyu
~ '- -—"- APPENDIX     ï.
Afia, notwithstanding all the attempts which have been
made to accomplifls this paffage, as well from * Kamtchatka as from the Frozen Ocean.
3*3
The following narrative of a late voyage, performed
by one ShalaurofF, from the Lena towards Tfchukotfkoi-
Nofs,, will fhew the great impediments which obstruct a
coasting navigation in the Frozen Sea, even at the moft
favourable feafon of the year. r^3**.
ShalaurofF, a Ruffian merchant of Yakutfk, haviii£ Voyase of
' ô ShalaurofF.
constructed a fhitik at his own expence, went down the
Lenaini76if. He was accompanied by an exiled mid-
fhipman, whom he had found at Yakutfk, and to whom
f< Nofs vorbey, und bis nach Kamtfchatka gekbmmen fey.'** Gmelin
Reife~II. p. 437. Mem. et Obf. Geog. &c. p. 10.
I Reering, in his voyage from Kamtchatka, in 1628, towards Tfchu-
kotskoi-Nofs, failed along the coaft of the Tfchutski as high as lat. 670.18'.
and obferving thecoaft-'take a Wefterly direction, he too haftily concluded,
that he had paffed "the North Eaftern extremity. Apprehenfive, if he
had.attempted to proceed, of being locked in by the ice, he returned to
Kamtchatka. If he had followed the fhore, lie would have found that
what he took for the Northern ocean was nothing more than a deep bay;
and that the coaft of the Tfchutski, which he confidered as turning uniformly to the Weft, took again a Northerly direction. S. R. G. IIS. p. 117.
f According to another MS. account of Shalauroff's voyage, which I
have in my poffeffion, he is faid to have fet out upon this expedition in
1760; and was prevented by the continued drifts of floating ice, which
the Northerly winds drove towards the fhore, from penetrating that year'
any further than the mouth of the Yana, where he wintered. In 1761,
he put to fea on the 2.9th of July, paffed Svatoi-Nofs, &c. &c.
T t  2 we APPENDIX     L
we are indebted-forrirhe-chart of this expedition.    Sha^-
laurolf got out of the - Southern mouth' of the Lena in
July, but was.fo much embarraffed by the ice, that he ran
the veffel into the mouth of the Yana, where he was detained by the ice until'she 2 9th of August, when he again
fet fail.    Seing pre^eci^edJbyQhéff4êe foom keeping the
open  fea,. [he <5Safted  the Jhope; and, having doubled
Svatoi-Nofs en the 6th ©f September, ditevgred at a fmall
diftance out at Sea, to the North, a mo&nftainous  land*,,
which is probably fome unknown island in the Frozen Sea.
He was employed from the 7 th to the 15 th in getting
through the strait between Diomed's ifland and the coaft
of Siberia ; which he efîècted,.not without great difficulty*.
From the 16th he had a free fea and a fair S. W. wind,„
which carried them, in 2 4,hours beyond the mouth of the
Indigirka.    The favourable breeze continuing, he paffed
on  the  18th  the Alafca.     Soon afterwards, the vefFel
approaching too near the fhore was entangled amongst
vaft floating rnafles of ice,, between^ fomie "Iftaaés:* and.
the
* Thefe iflands are Medviedkie Oftrova, or the Bear Iflands ; they
are alfo called Kreffftoffskie Qftrova,, becaufe they lie opposite the mouth
of the fmall river Kreftova. For a long time vague reports were propagated that the continent of America ftretched along the Frozen Ocean,.
very near the coafts of Siberia ; and fome perfons pretended to have difcovered its fhore not far from the rivers Kovyma and Kreftova. But the
falfity of thefe reports was proved by an expedition made in 1764, by
fome Ruffian officers fent by Denys Ivanovitch Tfchitcherin, governor of
Tobolsk. WF
APPENDIX     |
the main land. And now the late feafon of the year
obliged 'ShalaurofF to look: out for a wintering place ; he
accordingly ran the veffel into one of the mouths .of the
niasr Kovyma, where fhe was laid up. The crew ina*
mediately conftructed an hut, which they.fecured.with
a. rampart of frozen fnow, and a battery of the fmall
guns. The wsïd rein-dee* refopted to tj^s place in
large herds, and were fliot in great plenty from the enclosure. Before the fetting-m of winter, various fpecies
of fahnpn and trout came up the river in fhoals : thefe
fifh afforded the crew a plentiful fubfiftence, and pre-
ferved them from the fcurvy K.
3*5
Winters at the
Mouth of tlu
The mouth of the Kovyma was not freed from ice £eParti
before the a lit of July,  tf6&y wfom J&akiurofF agai»l!ljuljfi
ll^olsk. Thefe officers went in whiter, when the fea was frozen, in
fledges drawn by dogs, from the mouth of the Kreflova. . They
found nothing but five fmall rocky iflands, fince calied the Bear
Rands,, which- were quite uninhabited-, but foraeeerased were found:
of former, inhabitants, namely, the ruins of huts. They, obferved alfo
on one of the iflands a kind of wooden ftage built of drift-wood,
which feemed as, if it had been intended for defence. As far as they
durit venture out over the Frozen Sea, no;>$în*àrà|old be feen, but ■
high mountains of ice obftruâed their paffage; and forced them to return. See the map of this expedition upon the chart.of ShalaurofF's
voage. .
* Raw fifh are confidered in thofe Northern couiaa&s-jis .a j-Hfefemtive
againft the. fcurvy. APPENDIX     h
.put to* fea, and. fleered until the 2.8th N. E. by N. E.
I E. Here he obferved- the variation of the compafs
afhore, and found it to-be. ii° 15" Eaft. The 28th a
contrary wind, which was followed by a calm, obliged
him to come to an anchor, and kept him stationary
until the coth of August, when a favourable breeze
fpringing up, he fet fail ; he then endeavoured to fleer
at fome diftance from fhore, holding a more Eaflerly
courfe, and N. E. by E. But the veffel was impeded by
large bodies of floating ice, and a ftrong current, which
feemed to bear Weft ward at the rate of a verft an hour.
Thefe circumstances very much retarded his courfe. On
the 18th, the weather being thick and foggy, he found
himfelf unexpe6tedly near the coaft with a number of
ice iflands before him, which on the 19th entirely fur-
rounded and hemmed in the vefFel. He continued in
that situation, and in a continual fog, until the 23d,
when he got clear, and endevoured by fleering N. E.
to regain the open fea, which was much lefs clogged
with ice than near the fhore. He was forced, however, by contrary winds, S. E. and E« .among large
mafTes of floating ice. This drift of ice being paffed,
he again flood to the N. E. in order to double-She-
latfkoi-Nofs*; but before he could reach  the iflands
* He does not feem to have .been deterred from proceeding by any
fuppofed difficulty in paffing Shelatskoi-Nofs, but to have veered about
nerely on account of the late feafon of the year. Shelatskoi-Nofs is fo
called from the Shelagen, a tribe of the Tfchutski, and has been fuppofed to be the fame as Tfchukotskoi-Nofs. S.B.G.UI. p. 53.
lying n/ii^SF
«■F
*
APPENDIX     I. 327
lying near it, he was.fo retarded by contrary winds,
that he was. obliged, on account of the advanced fea-
fon, to fearch for a wintering place.    He accordingly. S^wfsS
failed  South towards an open bay, which  lies  on the rSJns to-''
wards .the Ko-
Weft fide of Shelatfkoi-Nofs, and Which no navigator nma-
had explored before him.    He  fleered into, it on ~the-
25th,  and got  upon a fhoal. between., a  fmall  ifland,-
and  a  point  of- land   which juts  from   the-Eaftern
coaft of this  bay...    Having got clear with much dif*
ficulty, he continued for a  fhort  time à S. E. courfe,.
then turned S. W.    He then landed in order to difcover.
anfpot proper for their winter refidence ;  and found two.
fmall rivulets, but neither trees nor. drift wood. .. The
veffel was towed along the Southerly fide of the bay as.
far as the ifland Sabedèi.    On the 5th of September, he
faw  fome huts  of the Tfchutfki  clofe  to the  narrow
channel between Sabadèi  and  the. main land;  but the
inhabitants sled on his approach.
Not having „met with with a proper situation, he.flood
out to fea,. and got round the ifland Sabadèi on the
8th, when he fattened the-velTel. to a large body of ice,.
and was carried along by a current towards W. S. W.
at the rate of five verfts an hour. On the 10th, he
faw far to the  N. E. by N. a mountain, and fleered the
,   .       r . , Winters a Û-.
iithand 12th towards his former wintering place m c,onci Time at
the Kovyma,
the river Kovyma,     ShalaurofF propofed to have -made^e Lena.rns t(*
the
: 7j©( A    P    P
N      D      I      X Ir
the following year another attempt to double Shelatfkoi-
Nofs ; but want of provifion, and the' mutiny of the
-crew, forced him to return to the Lena in 1763. It
is worth remarking, that during his whole voyage he
found the currents fetting in almost uniformly from
the Eaft. Two remarkable rocks were obferved by
ShalaurofF near the point where the coaft turns to
the N. E. towards the channel which feparates the
ifland Sabadèi from the continent; thefe rocks may
ferve to direct: future navigators : one is called Saetfhie
Kamen, or Hare's Rock, and rifes like a crooked horn ;
the other Baranèi Kamen, or Sheep's Rock ; it is in
the fis ape of a pear, narrower at the bottom than at top,
and rifes twenty-nine yards above high-water mark.
Second Expedition of ShalaurofF. 1
ShalaurofF, who concluded from his own experience,
that the attempt to double Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs, though
difficult, was by no means impracticable, was not dif-
couraged by his former want of fuccefs from engaging
a fécond time in the fame enterprize ; he accordingly
fitted out the fame fhitik, and in 1764 departed as before from the river Lena. We have no pofitive accounts of this fécond voyage : for neither ShalaurofF or
any of his crew have eveS returned. The following
circurhftances lead us to conclude, that both he and
his crew were killed near the Anadyr by the Tfchutfki,
about the third year after their departure from the Lena.
4 About HHH
iœr
WÊÊËmÊKMÊm
A   P   P   E
D   I   X     I.
329
About that time the Koriacs of the Anadyr refufed to
take from the Ruffians the provision of flour, which
they are accuflomed to purchafe every year. Enquiry
being made by the governor of Anadirfk, he found that
they had been amply fupplied with that commodity
by the Tfchutfki.. The latter had procured, it from the
plundgrof ShalaurofF's veffel, the crew of which appeared S^E^Si-
to have perifhed near the Anadyr.     From  thefe facts, hTcreVbeiog
.       . J ' killed by the-
which have been Since; confirmed by repeated intelli-Tfchutài«
gence from the Koriacs and Tfchutfki, it has been af-
ferted, that ShalaurofF had doubled the N. E. cape of
Afia. But this alTertion amounts only to conjecture; for
the arrival of the crew at the mouth of the Anadyr
affords no decisive proof that they had paffed round the
Eaftern extremity of Afia; for they might have penetrated
to that river by land, from the Western fide of
Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs.
In reviewing thefe feveral accounts of the Ruffian
voyages in the Frozen Sea, as far as they relate to
a North Eaft paffage, we may obferve, that the cape
which ftretches to the North of the Piafida has never
been doubled ; and that the exiftence of a paffage round
Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs refis upon the single authority of
DefhnefF. Admitting however a pradicable navigation
round thefe two promontories, yet when we confider
the difficulties and dangers which the Ruffians en-
U u countered APPENDIX     I.
countered in thofe parts of the Frozen Sea which they
have unquestionably failed through ; how m$&li time
they employed in making an inconfiderable progrefs, and
how often their attempts were unfuccefsful ; when we
reflect: at the fame time, that thefe voyages can only be
performed in the mid ft of a flsort fummer, and evëii
then only when patfâiùlar winds drive the ice into the
fea, and leave the fhores lefs obftriï6têd ; we fhall reafon-
ably conclude, that a navigation, pursued along the
coafls in the Frozen Ocean, would probably be ufelefs
for commercial |)érpofes.
A navigation therefore in theTrozen Ocean, calculated
to anfwer any end of general utility, muft (if poffible) be
made in an higher latitude, at fome diftarlâé from the
fhores of Nova Zemla and Siberia. And fhould we
even grant the poffibility of failing -N. E. and Eaft of
Nova Zemla, without meeting with any infurmountable
obitacles from land or ice ; yet the final completion
of a N. E. voyage muft depend upon the ex-
iflence of a free paffage* between the* coast of the
Tfchutfki and the continin^oTKrae^icai z:$kkt fuch dif-
* I have faid afret paffage, becaufe if ,we conclude from the narrative of
DefhnefTs voyage, that there really does exift fuch a paffage j yet if that
paffage is only occafionally navigable (and thefeuffians do not pretend to
have paffed it more than once) it can never be of any general and commercial .utility,
quifitionS; APPENDIX    1
quifîtions as thefe do not fall under the intention of
this work, which is meant to state and examine fadls,
not to lay down an hypothecs, or to make theoretical
enquiries *.
* 1 beg leave to aflure the reader, that throughout this whole work
Ï have entirely confined myfelf to the Rnffian accounts; and hare carefully avoided making ufe of any vague reports concerning the difcoveries
lately made by captains Cooke and Clerke in the fame feas. Many of
the geographical queftions which have been occafionally treated in the
courfe of this performance, wS1 probably be cleared up, and the true
pofition of the Weft em coafts of America afcertained, from the journals of thofe experienced navigators.
331
U u 2
APPENDIX E   333   ]
a p p e n mm x -^
Tartarian rhubarb brought to Kiachta by the Bucharian Merchants—'Method of examining andf^cbafir$gi
the roots—Different fpecies of rheum which yield the
finefl rhubarb—Price of rhubarb in Ruffia—Exportation—Superiority of the Tartarian over the Indian
rhubarb.
Tartarian,
Turkey,
Rhubarb.
TTUROPE is fupplied with rhubarb from Ruffia and
^^ the Eaft-Indies. The former is generally known by
the name of Turkey rhubarb, becaufe we ufed to import it from the Levant in our commerce with the Turks,
who procured it through Perfia from the Bucharians*
And it ftill retains its original name, although inftead of
being carried, as before, to Constantinople, it is now
brought to Kiachta by the Bucharian merchants, and
there difpofed of to the Ruffians. This appellation is
indeed the moft general; but it is mentioned occasionally
by f