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BC Historical Books

A history of Rossland and the Trail Creek District Harold, Kingsmill 1897

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Array First History of Rossland, B* G
Bet! Ettaie finfett.
JSSmbud, .  . B.C.
STUNDEN & PERINEr Rossland, B. C
PRICE 50c.
nee earth's primal days,
o light and life,
beir mystic ways,
human strife,
rt for a day,
pngth alway.
ud imperial Rome ;
hadman's dream ;
it. Peter's dome ;
araoh's pride,
y peaks besides Î
We proudly choose some fondly cherished spot,
And rear our shafts for future eyes to see,
A little time, and lo! our works are not ;
They perish as the leaves that fall, but ye
Have stood in strength since immemorial time,
And still shall stand, forever more sublime.
Beloved by Nature fond, the sun's first rays
Bask on each crown in ecstasy of bliss
With soft caress, and his last lingering blaze
The towering purple summits softly kiss,
Ere yet he sinks within the golden west
And leaves the world to solitude and rest.
The mountains have been Freedom's safe retreat
From tyranny, since Time's first early dawn ;
Here Liberty has fled with bleeding feet
When in the plain all light and hope had flown ;
And standing proudly on the towering height
Has bid definance to the tyrant's might.
O mighty peaks, so all supremely grand !
Springing to meet the azure vault above,
Warding from storm the slumbering, peaceful land,
Bending o'er all with tender, ceaseless love ;
Watch still, mute sentries, set by Him on high
To guard us during life and point us to the sky. A History of Rossland and the Trail Creek District
In the late fifties and the earlier years of
the sixties, the province of British Columbia was. the scene of placer gold mining
excitements. Golden Cariboo, and Cassiar
in the north were turning out their millions of the yellow metal in nuggets and
dust. When the news reached Victoria of
the fabulously rich diggings on Wild
Horse Creek in far away East Kootenay,
there was another stampede; and to facilitate the transportation of supplies, and to
Pacific coast points, the existing government undertook the construction of the
now celebrated Dewdney trail. This trail
started from Shope on the Fraser river
and as nearly as possible paralleled the
international . boundary line to Wild
Horse creek in East Kootenay. At the
Columbia river crossing a small stream
was followed from its mouth to its source,
and from this fact was called Trail creek.
The work of construction was under the
direct supervision of Edgar Dewdney, a
young civil engineer, and now lieutenant-
governor of this province. This part of
the trail was completed in the summer of
1861. This is also the first authentic
account of the advent of the white man in
the uow celebrated Trail Creek district,
though it is presumed that the trappers and
traders of the Hudson Bay company had
been through the country many years anterior to the advent of trail builders' visit.
It is definitely known that these early
pioneers did not find any evidences of the
existence of the mineral deposits of this
camp. How they missed it is a wonder,
and is only explained by the fact that
they did not want quartz mines, and
would not have been in a position, by
reason ot transportation, smelting, and
other.difficulties, to have worked them
successfully. Nothing is now known of
the district's history, or lack of it, f
period of twenty-five years.
In the y
eighty mil
1884, :
1886, a pla-
gold quartz lead on th
caused not a little excitf
few hardy pioneers who
try at that time. As a d
of this strike a fe\
started prospecting all ov<
ig country. Two prospecte
-man and George Leyse
way eastward, following the
among the
in the coun-
the surround-
., George Bow-
pushed their
course of the
old Dewdney trail as nearly as possible.
In July, 1887, they uncovered ore on
what is now known as the Lily May mine-
Retracing their steps to Rock creek they
exhibited their samples and a small excitement was caused at once. The ore
was there assayed by a man named Reed,
and the results obtained were, as nearly as
Bowerman remembers, 242 and 276 ounces
in silver to the ton, with very fair values
in lead and gold. They returned to the
claim and commenced work. A shaft
was started and for the first week development proved the claim a bonanza, but before it had attained a depth of twenty
feet, in mining parlance, they had blown
out all the ore in sight, and the walls of
vein came together so that a knife blade
could not be placed between them. They
at once became discouraged, abandoned
the location, and left the country. Leyson
never returned to the camp, but last summer George Bowerman held a position as
foreman on the Mayflower mine, within
sight of his camp of nine years before.
The same summer a party consisting of
the Thrasher Brothers; Billy Moore, Rice
and Mike Mahoney came over the Dewdney trail from Rock creek. However
they only stayed two days in the district,
and contrary to much that has been
written, did not visit the Red mountain.
Discouraged, like Bowerman and Leyson
before them, they left the country. In
the following year but one, Oliver Bordeau
and Newlin Hoover relocated Bowerman's
July, 1890, Joseph Moris and Joseph Bourgeois (both men had been working with
Bordeau during the previous winter), during the latter's absence at Nelson, left his
employ and started on a prospecting trip.
They discovered ore on Red mountain,
about a mile and one half to the northeast of the Lily May, and staked in one
day the following claims: the Le Roi,
War Eagle, Centre Star, Virginia and
Idaho. A group of claims, a low estimate
of the value of which is f 15,000,000.00.
At that time Nelson was the only recording office in the district, and thither went
wen the pair to have their claims
recorded, and assays made on the ore.
While there they met E. S. Topping, and,
under the law being unable to hold more
than two (one each) locations on the
same ledge, and as the Le Roi, Centre
Star and Idaho appeared to be located on
the same lead, they offered him his
choice of the group upon the condition
that he should pay the costs of recording
the five claims. The ore was assayed by
the late G. E. R. Ellis of Nelson, and the
following results obtained: the Le Roi ore
went #38.00 and f40.oo in gold; the War
Eagle $24; and the Centre Star showed
about the same values.   The Virginia ore
1e offer
of the '
tained. He then made a tri
prepared to make his residf
open up his find. Topp
sampled the property, anc
pies he went to Spokane,
duced a syndicate with Mr.
at its head to take a bond o ROSSLAND AND THE TRAIL CREEK DISTRICT
ton, Harry Sheran and Jemmy Maher.
and others arrived in the district.
Among others, the following locations
made by them are still alive, though
none of them are in the hands of the
locators. The Monte Cristo, Iron Horse,
Enterprise, Josie, St. Elmo, Mountain
View, Columbia and C. and C. Next
came George C. Tunstall, Tom Ward,
Phil Aspinwall, Billy Perdue, Joe Midland (now dead), Billy Sheffield, George
Sheppard, Alec Currie, Felix Ruel, Tom
Duffy, and Jimmy Johnson. Their locations were the Consolidated St. Elmo,
Kootenay, Zilor, Iron Colt, Gopher,
Georgia, Pride of Trail Creek, Cliff and
Mayflower.    Ore from the last mentioned
As soon as practicable after he had bonded the Le Roi, Mr. Durant commenced
foreman. During the winter the new
owners bought the mine outright from
Topping. About the same time Mr. Durant disposed of his interest in the Le Roi
bond, and immediately bonded the Centre
Star from the original locators. In a desultory manner development was kept
going on the Le Roi, and in the fall of
1891, seven tons of ore was packed out to
the Columbia river on mules' backs, and
from that point shipped to one of the
many smelters at Butte, Montana. The
returns from this ore showed a combined
gold and copper value of $84.60 per ton.
Except on the Le Roi little or no work
was being done elsewhere in the camp,
though a 2,500 pound shipment from the
Iron Mask went $23.00 in gold; and Durant and Tarbet in 1892 had shipped a few
tons from the Centre Star, the results of
which are not obtainable. Then came a
period in which the future of the camp
was both black and gloomy, but the strike
of a fine body of ore in the Le Roi made
this property amine beyond peradventure.
The War Eagle was also bonded to Du-
to Mr. Pugh of the Pyritic Smelting com-
tion of the wagon road to Trail landing,
for the dual purpose of bringing in
machinery and hauling out ore. In
August, 1893, Brig Atkinson started hauling ore from the Le Roi to Trail, and the
Le Roi company has  been shipping ore
In the same year Frank Loring, on the
strength of some large assays, bonded the
Josie for Patsy Clark, but Clark afterwards declared he had been salted, as he
only obtained $8.00 gold values. From
the same pulp Loring got returns as high
as $40.00 in gold. Loring then made
Clark a proposition to take the bond off
his hands, which was accepted. Mr. Loring took the Sonnemann Brothers, of
Kellogg, Idaho, in with him, and they
immediately began work. George Sonnemann carefully sampled the dump all
summer, but could never get more than
$20.00 in gold per ton from the ore. In
the fall of 1894 Joseph L. Warner sampled
the dump, and on the strength of the
assays made by himself purchased it, and
made a shipment of some 70 odd tons to
a Tacoma smelter. He got $43.00 per ton
from the smelter. Up to this time assay-
ers apparently had been unable to determine the value of the ore. Ell is, who had
made the first assays for Topping, Moris
and Bourgeois, being the only one whose
assays ran even with the smelting returns.
In the summer of 1894, Ed. Havey and
the Carter Bros., then owners of the
Nickel Plate, put a hoist on this property
and sank the shaft to a depth of 66 feet.
About the same time Patsy Clark had a most
careful survey made of the workings of
the War Eagle, and it was found that the
tunnel had left the ledge, and instead of
following the course of the vein (southwest) that the tunnel had been driven due
west, consequently much to the north of
the vein.    A crosscut was started for  the
y feet.
Eagle v>
Smelting Co. to furnish them a n
of 1000 tons per month of War Eagle.
The purchase of the War Eagle and the
terms of this contract were given much
publicity by the Spokesman-Review and
other papers in the State of Washington,
and immediately the Trail Creek district
became the cynosure of the eyes of every
prospector and mining man in the northwest. The stampede which resulted in
giving the Trail Creek camp, a world wide
reputation at once began. From that
moment to the present day there never
has been a doubt as to the wonderful
future of this more wonderful camp. In
January 1895 nearly every well known
prospector in the northwest was heading
for Trail Creek, and by the middle of
March every available piece of ground
had been located, in fact in some places
several locations had been made to cover
one vacant claim. Capital soon followed
and among a host others the following
well known operators were early on the
ground. John M. Burke, J B. Jones, C. S.
Warren, A. W. McCune, A. E. Humphreys, Chas. Sweeney, S. I. Silverman, and
L. P. Merrill. Early in the month of
April every claim within a close radius of
Red Mountain had been bonded, disputes
involving title to good mineral claims
notably in the case of the present West
Le Roi and Josie consolidated, had been
adjusted and forces of men put to work
on the various properties, clearing away
brush, trees and other obstacles prepara-
In June the snow had entirely disappeared and the hills adjacent and tribu- .
tary to the Trail Creek camp were literally
alive with men, prospecting for precious
metals. The Commander and Crown
Point mines are the two most important
finds of the early months of the year 1895.
In July operations were resumed on the
Centre Star, a property which had laid
idle for three years, and from the Jumbo
on the' West to the Kootenay on the east
mining development was being carried on
on nearly every claim. Orders for the
installation  of compressor
stalling the speedy erection of a smelting
plant in close proximity to the mines of
the camp reduced the figure of freight
and treatment of sulphide ores five dollars
and fifty cents per ton, thereby giving
much encouragement to the owners of low
grade ores. Too much cannot be said in
praise of Mr. Heinze for his unbounded
faith in the Trail Creek district at a period
when mining development had not nearly
proved the possibilities of the  district as
ed have
The place of erection of the Smelter at
first caused much speculation, but the
ground for the works was broken at Trail
in September, and the work of construction carried rapidly forward. The plant
was first placed in operation in February
of the following year and has from that
day employed 20D men in the reduction
of Trail Creek ores.
In the year 1896 development work
proceeded steadily onward in the mines
of the camp. Each day's work showed up
more ore in sight than the day before.
Innumerable companies good, fly-by-night
and indifferent were formed for the development of the Trail Creek mines; and
hundreds of thousands of shares were
placed throughout the length and breadth |
of the land. Much has been said for and
against this method of obtaining funds
for the development of mines and the |
writer in this article has neither the space I
:he   other.
- the!
ing the promoters of two railroad companies that the mines of the camp yielded
enough tonnage of ore and other business
to warrant construction. The Columbia
and Western was completed in June 1896,
the Red Mountain (a branch of the Spokane Falls and Northern) six months
The resume comes to the  Trail  Creek
The consensus of opinion of unbiased
inining men being that it is without a
peer (for its age and advantages) as a
gold copper producer in America. Six
mines are weekly shipping an aggregate
of 2000 tons, the valus of which may be
roughly placed at $50,002. j Development
work in half a dozen other properties
warrants the belief that this present output will be doubled if not trebled during
of the record of the camp, a
no fear for its future. The reasons for
this belief are manifold. The construction of the Crow's Nest Pass railway will
reduce materially the cost of smelting,
and though the Le Roi smelter is being
built in the dominions of Uncle Sam, it
will no doubt give much needed competition in the smelting business, thereby
helping the owners of Trail Creeks' mammoth deposits of low grade sulphideores.
In the formation of the district the prevailing rock is a greenstone in all its
various refinements of nomenclature, but
mostly diorite, syenite, porphyry—diorite
of all shades and textures, owing to its
constituents, viz.: feldspar, pyroxene and
hornblende being variously proportioned.
These mountain masses of diorite are
riven in several directions, but mainly on
east and west lines; by a series of true
fissure veins.    These veins are filled with
pickel, in a quartz and calcspar gangue.
amount of s
ounces to the
Had Ross 1
ly for the w
Bonner's Fer
1891, the site
e the 1
1 the i
r of the
province of British Columbia would have
another name than Rossland. Ross
Thompson landed at Trail in the fall of
1891, and after some prospecting trips
through the district, he concluded that
the Trail Creek district was good enough
for him, and with an eye to future business he filed a pre-emption on the one
and for three years, in addition to being
the home of the builder, it was a refuge
at times forevery old timer in the district
who was unable to get the bearings of his
In May, 1894, Mr. Thompson obtained
and farm produce. Accordingly, in the
following month, the owners, Mr. Thompson having in the meantime traded an
interest in the townsite to John R. Cook,
struck a bargain with J. Fred Ritchie,
then the leading land surveyor at Nelson,
and the townsite was platted. It was decided to call the town Thompson, in
honor of its locator, but this name not
being sonorous enough, at least so considered by the postal authorities, who
also raised the point that the name
would conflict with villages of the same
nomenclature in other parts of the province, a change was made to Rossland.
Lots were immediately placed on sale,
William Melville (otherwise Judge) Newton having been made agent for the town-
The choicest lots readily brought $30.00
apiece, the purchasers mainly being the
prospectors and miners who had acquired
mining interests in the camp. David
Stussi was the first to erect a small building out of lumber that had been saved
from the raging waters of the Columbia
at Boundary City. This building stood on
the site of the present Pacific hotel, near
the west end of Columbia avenue. He
put in a limited stock of goods, and in
addition his store constituted the post-
office of the place. The next building
was built by Thomas Miller and John
McDonald out of hewn logs. This building was recently torn down, and its site
is now occupied by the handsome block
of Goodeve Brothers, the druggists. For
a period of one year this building was
used as the offices of the Provincial
Government at Rossland, and in addition
to being the recording office of the district, it was also the gaol and the court
house. The third building was soon
afterwards erected at the north-west corner of Columbia avenue and Spokane
street by John Edgren, who, upon its
completion opened a small store. About
the same time the townsite company
commenced the erection of the Clifton
hotel. This building was completed early
in July, and on the  twelfth  day  of that
»nth it
:. Ly
present local n
& Co., of this city), and J. M. Stewart.
Messrs. Lynch and Stewart brought a
stock of goods from Trail, and opened a
small store in the Clifton in the space now
occupied by the dining room. Early in
August Ross Thompson started work on
the  Rossland hotel  building;  and Elie
1 fan
Louis Blue, in July, brought in a portable saw mill from Stevens county, state
of Washington, and in August started
sawing lumber on an order from Stack and
McDonnell, for the Grand hotel. McDonnell himself going to work in the
mill. From that time the town began to
grow slowly. Carraher and Manly of
Grand Forks established a butcher shop.
This shop was located on Spokane street,
and is now the place of business of the
Okanogan meat market. Next, Joseph
C. Luckenbel put up a building on Columbia avenue for the purposes, of a bath
house and barber shop. At this time this
building was the only one on the south
side of Columbia avenue, and was considered to be in the outskirts of the new '
village. Today this building is almost in
the heart of the city. For the past year
it has been the home of the Bank of British
North America. Shortly afterwards David
Stussi built himself a dwelling house on
the lot where the Crescent dry goods
store now stands, and Joe Vogel, a well-
known character of the camp, erected a
log cabin where Hunter Brothers general
merchandise store is now situated. To the
north, of the townsite, in the afterwards
somewhat classic regions of the famous
Sour Dough, probably twenty or thirty
prospectors and miners, either unable
or unwilling to purchase lots on the town-
site, had reared their humble, homes.
This was the Rossland of the days when
the wonderful strike was made in the
War Eagle. In November, this mine's
management signing a contract to ship
250 tons of ore per week for three months,
attracted the attention of outsiders.
George Tunstall, of Nelson, erected the
store and office building now occupied by
C. O. Lalonde and the Reddin-Jackson
Co. Dad McKellar, in December, put a
stage on the Northport road, and transient
travel at once increased to an alarming
extent, sleeping accommodations especially being taxed to their utmost; a bed
was often unobtainable, while shakedowns
were at a premium.
By the first of January, 1895, the town
of Rossland consisted of about half a hundred buildings, cabins and shacks, the
inhabitants of which numbered two hundred souls. As yet there had been no
rapid rise in the value of real estate,
though lots on Columbia avenue were
s for figures ranging from
speaks in most glowing terms of the character of the men and women who were the
pioneers of the now thriving city of Rossland. Although at this time the town
had the most congested means of communication with the outside world, there
has been no very material change in the
prices of the necessaries of life; flour was
two dollars and one half per hundredweight, and whisky sold at the usual
western price of twelve and a half cents
per drink.
In the middle of January G. A. Bigelow,
Chas. Van Ness, W. R. Will, John Malone,
W. F. Teetzel, J. H. Nolan, George Tunstall and other business men from Nelson
and New Denver, looked the town over,
bought thirty iots, let contracts for buildings, and in less than thirty days from
that time Mr. Van Ness was doing business
in a two story building, now known as
the War Eagle hotel, and Mr. Bigelow
was selling merchandise in the largest
building in the town. This building, with
a few changes, is now occupied by A.
McBride & Co., the hardware merchants.
Lots had quickly advanced, the best in-
sides being held at five hundred dollars.
There was no boom; that is, lots were
not being sold to real estate speculators.
Purchasers in the main were men who believed the town had a future, and believing so embarked in business in it. They
said, here is a camp in which hoisting
works were erected at the mines before
saloons were built; one whose payroll is
all within a radius of two and one half
miles of Rossland, consequently there
must be substantial reasons for the existence of a big city.
the building boom. In rapid
did the inception of one building follow
the completion of another. Hunter Brothers came to Rossland during this month
from Coulee City, and were soon impressed with the business activity of the
place, and the second day after their arrival they purchased for a modest price
(judged by its present value), from Joe
Vogel, the lot upon which their commodious store building now stands. A
contract for the erection of the store was
let, and before the first of April they were
doing business. Almstrom Brothers, of
Northport, had erected and were occupying the Victoria hotel. Larige and Peter-
i opened the pioneer restaurant of
The month of February also saw the^
establishment of the first newspaper in
Rossland. The first copy of a newspaper
ever printed in the town appeared on
Thursday, February 28th, although two
issues of the Rossland Record had been
issued previously, before Eber C. Smith,
the proprietor of the paper, had been
able to get a team to haul up the plant
from Northport, so busy were the freighters hauling lumber. The paper was a
very creditable production indeed, and
spoke volumes for the stability ■ and
energy of the new town. When the
Record came to Rossland- its plant and
composing room occupied the space over
Edgren's general merchandise store at
the corner of Spokane street and Colum-
On March 2nd, i895,in its first issue, the
Rossland Miner, which was temporarily
housed in Ross Thompson's long suffering
cabin, tersely summed up . Rossland as
follows: "Rossland has already, four hotels,
three restaurants, three general merchandise stores, three fruit and news
stores, two barber shops, one bath house,
one bakery, .one tin shop, one blacksmith shop, one shoemaker shop, three
doctors, one lawyer, one landsurveyor,
one custom house, two saw mills, two •
newspapers, and neither a real estate
agent or a constable. Justice is dispensed
by one justice of the peace, and straight
whisky by four bartenders. The town is
orderly, and there are already more than
enough children to start a school." The
Miner at that period was owned by
Messrs. Houston (now mayor) and Dake,
of Nelson. David B. Bogle, was the
editor. The Miner in its original dress was
a three column eight page paper, and had
the distinction of being printed on book
paper.    For many months the Rossland
rafand Rossland Mint
lad the
nalistic and job printing busine
selves.    Well and ably too did they cover
the field.
March,   1895,   was a   very
,month in  the history of the
new town.
Great was the building and n
îany  were
the changes.    The early opera
tion of the
plant of the Nelson  Sawmill
which was situated down on 1
rail creek,
almost on the present site of the power
house of the Rossland Water
and Light
company, at once relieved the
pressure at
■■  the
t this t
1 the
sted c
îe Spoka
f the
doing a
r.   Th
r other
the 1
ear of the
a fact
on Spokane  and night,- ROSSLAND AND THE TRAIL CREEK DISTRICT                                      5
teams could haul, building
affairs were in
city.    Between the Ritchie block and the
McLean & Morrow, pending the erection
a   most   congested   state.
During this
present Kootenay Hotel, then the eastern
of the handsome shop on Spokane street
month work was started o
n the Ritchie
limits of the town, the creek passing down
in which they have been doing business
block for J. Fred. Ritchie
and Brig At-
Centre Star gulch seemed to cut off what
ever since.    Billy  Perdue has  since left
kinson.    Gus Wassholm bu
ilt the Moun-
is now the best business part of the city.
the partnership.    Charles W. Cluett was
tain  View  (now the Clar
ndon Hotel).
However, the erection of a tailor shop by J.
the pioneer assayer and had his office and
W. F. Teetzel built the bl
sck now occu-
Àlbano, in the building now occupied by
furnace room in a shack to   the   rear   of
pied   by the drug store   c
f McLean   &
Paterson, Johnson & Co., the construction
Kellem's restaurant, which  was situated
Morrow and the Vancouv
r Cigar store.
of the  White  House  building and the
right at the head of Spokane street and
H. F. McLean was the pi
neer druggist
Kootenay Hotel, at once and forever set-
was the western terminus of Sour Dough
in the then thriving town,
and has been
Alley.    Frank Davey came  next in   the
doing business ever since
at the same
of the business portion of the town would
assaying business, his domicile is now the
place in which he opened, tl
be.    Soon after work was commenced on
home of the Queen   restaurant   next   to
weeks he was temporarily i
nstalled in G.
the Kootenay Hotel, the Rossland Miner
Jerry Spellman's hotel.   Jerry, too, is an
A. Bigelow &  Co's genera
tion of it, which now stands at the north
oi^hrRos^id^hoteT1 Ïr   KeUaTwâs
Hotel during the month an
d at the same
east corner of Washington and Columbia
the pioneer light of the  medical  profes
time Jones & McDonald c
pened up the
avenue, where Martin Bros, are conduc
sion,  settling here in the latter part of
Belmont Hotel on Sour Do
agh Alley.
ting their hardware business.     Though
January.    Towards the end of February,
The  recording office  fo
the  district,
all this building was going on in the east
he put up his house and office building
which up to the present time
had been loca-
end of the town, it must not be presumed
on the lot to  the east of the  recording
ted at Trail, to the great in
that this section of the town  had all the
office.    Dr. Bowes  came  soon  after, and
every mining man, miner a
nd prospector
improvements,   for   buildings   were  be
he also in the spring built the house on
in the district, was moved
to  Rossland,
ing erected very quickly in the west end
Columbia   avenue,   which   he   occupied
and   Wm.  Newton  was te
inporarily ap-
of the avenue.    During March and April,
appointment of John Kirki
Mr. H. S. Wallace.    The portion of the
and Government agent gav
e general sat-
building now  occupied by the   Ensign
the course of erection, were occupied and
isfaction.     The  recording
office  was at
Cigar store,   Mr.  Stussi  utilized as the
once moved from the  Cusi
om House  to
post office, and though only ten feet wide
business in them.     Early in this month,
McDonald  &   Miller's lo
I building   at
and forty feet long, for six months it had
EberC.Smith  let a contract for the con-.
the east end of Columbia A
ample space for the modest  needs of the
struction of the Record  block, and Jno.
In January the Dominio
l Government
town.    A. J.  Shirley's  was the  pioneer
Watson had laborers and miners at work
made Rossland a sub-port c
f entry to the
bakery of the town, though Billy Kellem
tearing away the bluff for a site for the
port of New Westminster
W. S. Jones
was running a bakery in connection with
new Pacific hotel.   Jno. Watson was   at
the8 cTenirrfenf Ïenuoa
tot noToccupied  bv "rravfre' hardware
haï eÏr bee^li RosÏnd^ThomafÏ
opening a Customs office
here, averring
Smith  also  erected a commodious  feed
that the office would not p
y running ex-
About the same time too 'Bob' Lemon
penses.    It was only  upon
the manage-
the irrepressible one of the pioneer mer
ent   is   the   site of the Bank of British
ment of the War Eagle Con
pany agreeing
chants of Nelson, Three Forks and other
North America.     Up to this time there
to pay the   Collector's   s£
lary that the
places in the upper country, arrived  in
had   been   but   few  residences   erected.
office was opened.    For a
period of four
town  and bought the lot to the west of
There were   many  reasons  for this, the
weeks Rossland's Collecto
was  without
the War Eagle Hotel and commenced the
principal   one for   which   was   the fact
that lumber for residential purposes was
at this time unobtainable at any  price.
men of the town.
moved in one of the most complete stocks
was green and was taken from the saw as
In  March, "Spud" Mui
•phy also com-
of  mining  supplies   ever   seen   in    the
soon as it was cut by eager teamsters.
imen^cTo em
T^e^Fork^'^towi/Thicir uporT the
For the most part, the people who had
so far so materially aided in the up-build
tions, the initial capacity c
f the brewery
birth  of Sandon  as  the  natural  supply
ing of the  new  city were  about equally
being fifteen barrels per da
point of the mines of Carpenter Creek, on
divided   between   native Canadians and
n's history all
the Slocan, was rapidly becoming deserted.
Americans.      As   to  day,  there   existed
the   buildings    were   erec
ted   within   a
James Price, the tailor, in  April  erected
the utmost good  feeling and  friendship
close radius of the Clifton Hotel,  and for
the building in which he has been  doing
among    them,    and    the     one    object
that the main business port
ion of the town
BurnsTrrived about the  same "time, and
Lakee RoTsW* ^premier dty Tthe
would gradually work its
from that time on the  corner on porter
Kootenays, and how well they succeeded
but the townsite company
ieclined to re-
house steaks and sweet breads was "off."
is easily seen in the magnificent appear
move the rock bluff, which
to this day is
This   firm   first   opened  in  the  Teetzel
ance of the Rossland of to-day.    To illus
a veritable bete noir to this
portion of the
building, next door to the drug store  of
trate    more    fully    the     friendship    of ROSSLAND AND THE TRAIL CREEK DISTRICT
the Canadians and Americans living at
that time in Rossland and how little attention was paid to the customs of either
country, it is a well-recorded fact that
Postmaster Dave Stussi kept the local
office open on Dominion Day and closed
it on Fourth of July.
Though up to this time little or no improvements in the way of street grading
or laying sidewalks had been made, the
appearance of the place had vastly improved during the first six months of the
year 1895. Spokane street and Columbia
avenue were rapidly building up, and the
Clifton corner, as it was popularly known,
was fast giving the place the symmetrical
appearance of a well laid out city. Buildings were being painted, and the more
public-spirited of the citizens were laying
sidewalks in front of their places of bus-
As yet there had been no real estate
boom, and up to the present day it may be
truthfully said that Rossland has never
suffered from this greatest curse, which
at different periods in their history has
inflicted nearly every town in the West.
Business lots certainly had advanced
to double and treble their original
prices, but when transfers were made the
purchaser generally only paid such price
as in his judgment the lot was worth as a
building site for the erection of a business block. There was little or no demand at this period for residence property,
as it was a matter of great uncertainty as
to the location which the residence portion of the city would occupy. The numerous cabins and shacks in the east end
of the city, in addition to being the tenderloin district, effectually prevented the
erection of homes in this neighborhood.
There was no change in original list prices
in property south of Le Roi avenue for a
period of nearly a year.
Commencing in July, a better class of
buildings than those previously erected
began to make their appearance. Mrs.
King (then Mrs. Allan) leased the lot at
the southwest corner of Columbia avenue
and Washington street from Elling Johnson, and immediately let a contract for a
$4,500 hotel. The Montana (the original
name of the Hotel Allan) was opened
with a grand ball early in August. The
McMillan Brothers, of Ottawa, had the
construction of the Butte and Windsor
Hotels started during this month, and
they were both ready for occupancy in
the month of September, the latter being
opened by Mrs. Lewis. Work was started
on the International Hotel, Donahue block
and the Ragland and  Shirley buildings
on Spokane street. These buildings were
soon ready for occupancy, and were well
rented from the first. At this time, too,
building was going on at a rapid rate on
the east end of Columbia avenue. Campbell Brothers opened a furniture store in
the building now occupied by the Queen
Saloon. Messrs. Armstrong & McLaren
built their hotel, and the Stock Exchange
was put on during the same month. Dur-
the summer, Broderius Brothers opened
the general merchandise store which they
afterwards sold to Empey. W. S. Weeks,
of the Weeks, Kennedy Co., late in the
fall also opened up a small fish, fruit and
commission business in the stand now occupied by Weeks, Kennedy Co. E. A.
Spencer, a contractor who was here at
that time, built the Shaw Hotel, which
was opened during the month of October
by Mrs. Shaw. The Leland Hotel opened
for business in that month, also. C. O.
Lalonde opened a straight boot and shoe
business in the Teetzel block, and Martin Brothers, having ousted D. B. Bogle,
the virile editor of the Rossland Miner,
in August, they having bought the building from the Nelson syndicate which
owned it, opened a large hardware
store. The Rossland Record also moved
into its new quarters in the Record block,
and the C. P. R. Telegraph Co. opened its
office in the same building. With the
exception of the erection of the residence
of John Kirkup and a few others, and
and the building of the Opera House by
Messrs. Blue, Pfeifer and Waldbeser, be^
hind the Hotel Allan, and the building of
innumerable cabins and shacks at all
points of the compass, the foregoing list
constitutes nearly all the principal buildings that were erected in Rossland during
the year of 1895.
A question likely to be propounded at
this period of the town's history is what
was there to justify this amount of building at that time? This is easily answered.
Although the value of the mines had not
been fully proved, the magnificent appearance of the Le Roi, Josie, War Eagle
and Centre Star encouraged mining operations all over, and many properties were
under bond and working large forces of
men. And the showings on these properties were daily growing better. There
was a pay roll of $500,000 a year behind the
camp at this time to support the town,
and the transient travel had increased to
such an extent that two stage companies,
one operated by George Breckenridge,
the other by Sears & Son, were competing with Dad McKellar for the passenger
traffic from Northport. All were doing a
rushing business.
Mining operators were coming in from
all points, and among the first to come
during this summer and to invest their
money in mining properties and real estate of the camp were : A. W. McCune,
C. S. Warren, T. E. Jefferson, D. M. Lin-
nard, A. E. Humphreys, F. A. Heinze,
John M. Burke and a dozen others. The
demand for good mining property was
great, and in the earlier days of the
camp, the only mining broking offices
were the curbstone at various places, a
big lumber pile that stood where the
Rossland Mercantile Co. is now doing
business, and the card rooms in the Clifton and War Eagle Hotels. This fact induced C. O'Brien Reddin and Merton
Jesseph to form a brokerage partnership
under the firm name of Reddin & Co.
Mr. Jesseph afterward retired from the
business, Mr. Reddin continuing. This
was the pioneer brokerage office in Rossland; that of C. M. Cowper-Coles and C. E.
Wynn Johnson was the next.
The signing of the 75,000 ton ore contract between the Le Roi Company and
F. A. Heinze, and the selection in the
latter part of August of Trail as the site
for the new smelter had a most beneficial
effect on the future of the town.
The building of the smelter for the reduction of the Trail Creek ores by such
a practical man as Mr. Heinze, set the
tongues of every mining man in the Pacific north-west, going and very soon business men from all parts were looking for
an opening in Rossland. Again, a syndicate of mining men who had made their
money in the camp was incorporated into
a company for the purpose of supplying
the new town with water and electric
light. This syndicate consisted of J. A.
Finch, Patsy Clark, W. S. Norman and
others. The company at once commenced
work, and by December had completed
the flume to the reservoir. The power
house and dynamo had been put in. On
third day of January, 1896, the Hotel
Allan was lighted by electricity. By the
middle of the month electric lights were
general throughout the city. Ground
was thawed and the water mains laid on
Spokane street and Columbia avenue.
The population of the town was now
about three thousand. This may be considered an outside figure.
Starting in January, 1896, the town
seemed to take on new life. The Columbia
& Western road from Trail, another of
Mr. Heinze's enterprises, had been surveyed and the actual work of construction
commenced. Numerous articles in eastern papers by local writers had had great
effect   in   eastern Canada,  and a   great ROSSLAND AND THE TRAIL CREEK DISTRICT
many eyes were turned towards Rossland.
A well written article read by Mr. James
D. Sword before the Canadian Mining
Association, had a like effect upon eastern
mining men and others who quickly became interested in Rossland mines. In
January and February very little building was done, but in March a regular old fashioned Puget Sound building boom struck the town, and store
and office buildings were soon going up
in all directions. F. W. Hart bought the
Opera House from Waldbeser and Pfeifer,
at the same time purchasing the two lots
on the south side of Columbia avenue at
the corner of Washington street opposite
the Hotel Allan, and at once commenced
the erection of a large store and office
building. Soon after its completion the
Postoffice was moved into it. This was the
signal for building in the east end of town.
John A. Cook, one of the original owners of
the townsite, built on the two lots west.
Mrs. Lewis undertook the construction of
the building now occupied by the Grand
Union hotel. Pat Burns also commenced
the construction of a block on the vacant
lot between the Kootenay hotel and the
White House building.
In April occurred the famous race between the two most conservative and
well-established banking institutions in
the world, to see which would first be open
for business in Rossland. The Bank of
British North America officials were on the
ground first, and secured a year's lease of
an office in the Luckenbel block, where
they posted a sign to the effect that the
bank would be open for business on Monday, April 4. Friday night, April 1, the
manager of the Bank of Montreal at Nelson arrived in Rossland, and had a big
sign printed for the Bank of Montreal, intending to open in the office of the R. J.
Bealey Co. in the morning. However, the
news of his arrival had been bruited
about, and in the morning the Bank of
British North America was doing business in a barber shop. It is probably the
only time on record when a bank and j
barber shop were doing business in the
same office—bankers shaving notes and
cheques at one end, while the barbers
were complacently shaving chins at the
other. The Bank of Montreal, however,
opened for business on Monday morning
in the Lemon block, at the' west end of
Columbia avenue, which they occupied
until their present commodious and well
appointed office was constructed.
The opening of both these banks in the
town, in addition to filling a long-felt
want, gave added confidence in the town,
next few months In rapid
the Scott-Hewitt, Kellar, Lalonde and
Rodier buildings were built on the north
side of Columbia avenue in the east end
of the town. Washington street too, was
being partiall}' opened, and the Collins
House was finished. Manly and Klock-
mann also put a large extension on to the
International, and opened therein a concert and beer hall.
By subscription and government aid,
about this time, considerable grading was
done on Columbia avenue. The bluff in
front of the post office was removed, and
the gulch which cut Columbia avenue in
twain at the Burns' block was filled up.
From this time on the improvements in
the town were rapid. Chiefly noticeable
were the building changes; block after
block was erected in the east end of the
city; in fact, so rapidly did they spring up
that from memory it is almost impossible
to recall the chronological order of the
upbuilding of the city at the east end of
Columbia avenue. The attention of eastern Canadians to the marvellous wealth
of Trail Creek, which had been attracted
by Mr. Sword's and other articles, was
bearing fruit, and a score of brokers were
doing a lucrative business in the stocks of
British Columbia companies. Money
came easy, and went the same way. Business in all lines was brisk; especially were
those merchants who were dealing in
mining supplies successful, as many prospects had been snapped up by eastern investors, and men were being put to work
daily, opening them up. The main street
was crowded all day and up to ten o'clock
at night, but it must be candidly confessed that these crowds were for the most
part very orderly. Transient travel was
and the hotels were constantly
nd 1
ied  :
1  the
crowded with investors and mining men
and engineers, who had been sent here to
report on the camp.
In June, Eber C. Smith established the
Evening Record, a paper which filled the
local field of daily journalism for six
months. It fully covered the local district, and its files for that period certainly
are a very complete history of the town,
camp and happenings. In July, the
Rossland Miner appeared in a new dress,
coming out as a six column, eight folio
paper, devoted almost entirely to the
mining interests of the camps of Kootenay, and the Trail Creek camp in particular. The Rosslander, the third paper
which filled the field of local journalism,
by an oversight has been overlooked. It
came here in July, 1895. The peripatetic
press of the Prospector, which had previously done service in Kaslo, New Den
ver and Three Forks, having been moved
here. W. A. Pratt was the editor. In
April, 1896, he sold the plant and paper
to Messrs. Jones and Northey. The
Ro.'slander commands a liberal share of
the local subscription and advertising
patronage. David B. Bogle and A. R.
Macdonald, in September established the
Mining Review. This paper has since
gone the way of all flesh. It is the- only
newspaper ever established in Rossland
that has been stranded 011 the rocks of
During this period the town was growing apace. The completion of the Columbia & Western railroad into Rossland in
the latter part of June, in a measure relieved the congested condition of transportation facilities, which were hampering
the progress and improvement of the
town. The construction of the Red
Mountain railway from Northport was
undertaken during this month, and the
future camp was made brighter. Half-a-
dozen Eastern newspapers had special
correspondents in the town, writing up
the camp and town. The telegraph companies receipts were growing fatter daily
with the reports that were being  sent
In October, Mrs. King (then Mrs. Allan)
commenced the erection of the first brick
building in the city. This building was
completed in February. In October also,
through the agency of Jim Wardner, a
Montreal syndicate purchased 842 or the
remaining unsold lots of the original
Rossland townsite. John Ferguson Mc-
Crea was appointed agent for the new
owners, and lots were immediately placed
on sale. Ross Thompson was the first
purchaser, buying four lots, upon which
he has built the finest residence in the
In December the Rossland Miner Printing and Publishing company issued the
first morning daily, with the fullest Associated Press reports ever printed in the
Kootenay district.
As a daily the Rossland Miner has been
issued as a six and seven column four folio
newspaper. In addition to containing
the telegraphic news report as furnished
by the Canadian Pacific Telegraph company, the columns of the Miner are replete with the mining news of the whole
Kootenay district. It has been remarked
on all sides that the Rossland Miner is a
newspaper that would credit many a town
much older and more centrally located
than Rossland. It is only another evidence of the energy and determination of
e time picturesque   camp is const
:n- historic and at the sam
îe, Sour Dough alley w;
m-   wiped off the map.
s for
:   opera
who h
a great boon to the ! small trails leading the pedestrian through   the
abled them to land freight in bulk. The the results accomplished Mr. Scott has larj
road has also given increased freight facili- made a most excellent chief executive, | fan-
ties for handling the output o"f the mines, and the people of Rossland have no corn-
In winter a mining camp is never seen plaint to enter against the City Council,
at its best. This is so for various reasons. They had innumerable obstacles to con-
The snow obstructs building operations, tend against when they took hold. They
and except in the case of developed have certainly made a most creditable
mines, mining operations are impeded, showing in the short time they have been
Such has been the case with Rossland, in charge of the city government with
though last winter much, building was the means at their command. As soon as
done, the Cosmos, Creedmore, and other the city was incorporated another build-
blocks having been erected. ing boom struck the town, and in a short
During last winter the town moved on- space of time a great many buildings were
wards in the even tenor of its way. There erected on the northern part of Washing-
are no especially noteworthy facts to be ton street, on First and Second avenues,
recorded other than the arrival of many This is the Rossland of today,
business and mining men from other A glance at the condition of the city
camps and towns of the United States, today discloses the information that Ross-
Among these arrivals were John McKaue, land has a population of nearly six thou-
Richard Plewman, John W. Fear, Fred. J. sand people. The town has resolved
Ferine, George M. Stunden and others. itself down to a pay roll basis. The
The progress  Rossland made was sub-   days of the will
:k and who are familiar with the
nd likes of the inhabitants of a
large mining camp. People who are unfamiliar with the mining camps of the
west, as a rule have no business here,
though there are individual cases where
"tenderfeet" have done well.
No young man excepta first-class miner
or one who has capital should come to
Rossland in search of employment. Both
in the town and at the mines the supply
of labor has always,been in excess of the
demand,   with  the  single   exception  of
s  paid
at the
h not as
as in £
ome of
îr Mo
ntana ca
the ex-
the    different
1 the lab
or market, ar
n  receh
e $3
50 per
shaft w
; $3.o:
lace the
back. The town sub- | as it were, Rossland is no m
11 of the mines. Stock It has more to support it t
rowing less and on arri- I town in Kootenay. In tht
i practically dwindled   Rossland has sprung from
ck broker $3.00. Mine blacksmiths and carp:
he city are I $4.00. Engineers $3.50 and $4.00, ac
tied in the to the size of plant which is
irsupport. operated. Blacksmith helpers $3.00.
n a night, vellers, carmen and surface rousta
Domtown. !$2.50.    In the city the ruling wage
nd Virgin
y for
y had a
arch   the   Provincial  legislature I minds of a few far-seei
the   act   authorizing   the  incor-   deluded
of Rossland, thereby giving the   a large <
inning men :
J    With its i
■ic government. I appointed hotels, its s
Lalonde  were   all   kinds   of  mercha
impartial  observer
network    of   min
;  nearly   reached   i
enture that
mcleus of a
rderly  plac
. not be understo
I making mone}- i
: I are all gone.    1 Business and Biographical Sketches.
Many Old Pioneers.    Some Later Arrivals, and all Men, Firms and Corporations of Ability and Standing.
Importers, Wholesale and Retail Merchants.
It may be doubted if in any other mining camp in the whole world its settlers
have possessed greater advantages of civilization than are enjoyed by the miners
and dwellers in the great Trail Creek
mining district. In the majority .of
camps a scarcity of provisions and exorbitant prices have been the rule. Here
there is an abundance of the best of everything, and at prices to compare favorably
with those of much older communities.
Among the individual merchants and
firms whose enterprise and business ability
have contributed most to bring prices to a
reasonable figure, there are none who
have done more than the subject of this
The brothers, James and Robert Hunter,
established in business here in 1895.
They had previously been in business at
Coulee City, Washington, with a branch
store at Conconnully, Washington, and are
experienced general merchants.
Hunter Brothers' business property, 30
x 200 feet, fronting on the principal
street of Rossland, is, with its basements,
one of the largest in the city. The firm
has also a commodious warehouse on the
Red Mountain track, and is able to receive
and ship goods in quantities.
The stock carried by Hunter Brothers
is almost as diverse as are the needs of the
community. That it is especially full
and complete in all that pertains to
miners' supplies might be expected; but
we may add. that being agents for giant
powder, Goodwin candles, Canton and
Black Diamond steel, and other specialties
of the miner, this firm sells both to dealers
districts.     The   firm   is   also   agent for
tured at London, Ontario. The stock
includes, as well, a full line of plumbers'
supplies and steam fittings.
Hunter Brothers have a completely
equipped tin and sheet metal shop, where
tinware, sheet ironware, and galvanized
iron pipe and other mining supplies are
manufactured both to order anct for the
terprise which has helped to make the
prosperity of this city and great mineral
district, and that the house has become
an acknowledged leader in its severa.
lines of trade.
James and Robert Hunter were born in
Oxford county, province of Ontario. The
deservedly high standing to which they
have attained in business circles and as
citizens has been gained by a course of
fair and honorable dealing which has
made the name of-the firm a-guarantee of
integrity. They have, besides their main
store in Rossland, a branch house at San-
don, in the Slocan country, the latter-
being in charge of Charles D. Hunter.
The merchant, the prospector, the
miner, the home builder, and all those
wishing goods in the several lines carried
by this firm can make no mistake in dealing with Hunter. Brothers. The firm's
guarantee covers the lowest market price
of the article sold, and its quality as well.
If,   ;
■r of a c
, the
tries may be best judged by the character
and standing of its banks, the great mining industry of the Trail Creek  di
may  be  regarded  as pen
bright future for Rossland
That a comparatively new mi
trict and its trade center, scare
than two years old, should have
to their gates so great and conse
financial institution as the Bank of Mon
treal, is no less surprising in itself than i
is an endorsement of the most favorabl
published reports of the great minera
resources of this section of British Colum
bia.    The three words, Bank of Montreal
l has a capital (all p,
Drummond, Vice-President; A. T. Patterson, Esq.; Hugh McLennan, Esq ; Edward
B. Greenshields, Esq.; R. B. Angus, Esq.;
W. C- McDonald, Esq.; A. F. Gault, Esq.;
W. W. Ogilvie, Esq.; E. S. Clouston,
General Manager; A. Macnider, Chief Inspector and Superintendent of Branches;
A. B. Buchanan, Inspector of Branch
Returns; W. S. Clouston, Assistant Inspector; James Aird, Secretary.
The bank has thirty-nine branches in
Canada, one in Newfoundland, two in the
United States, and one in London, England. Its bankers in Great Britain are
the Bank of England and a number of
others of the most stable banks of the
mother country. Its correspondents and
agents in the United States are the
greatest banks of New York, Boston,
Buffalo, San Francisco, and Portland,
It is worthy of note, as showing the high
regard in which the president of this great
financial institution is held by the government of Great Britain, that he was one of
those on whom Her Majesty bestowed
Jubilee honors, changing his title from
Sir Donald A. Smith to Rt. Hon. Lord
Glencoe, G.C.M.G.
The Rossland branch of the Bank of
Montreal was established in April, 1896.
H. Stikeman, Esq., Montreal, Gen. Manager.
Rossland, like all Canadian towns having a business sufficient to justify the
presence of a bank, has just cause to be
proud of her banking facilities. The Bank
which   was   established in' Rossland in
April,   1896, had its beginning in  1836,
Hamilton, Brantford, London; Nova Scotia: Halifax; New Brunswick: St. John,
Frederickton; British Columbia: Victoria,
Manitoba: Winnipeg, E
The Bank of British 1
a paid up capital  of .
reserve  fund  of ^275,uuu.    111c gcu-
business is conducted by a court of
directors and  a general
court of din
s held their sixty-first
annual meeting at the London office, on
March 2, 1897. The report of that meeting was in a very large sense a happy
repetition of the many that have preceded
it, all of which justify the statement with
which we began this article.
The Bank of British North America's
London bankers are the Bank of England
and Messrs. Glyn, Mills, Currie & Co.
Agencies in America: New York agents—
Messrs. W. Lawson and J. C. Welsh, 52
Wall Street; San Francisco agents-
Messrs. H. M. J. McMichael and J. R.
Ambrose, 120 Sansome street.
The Rossland branch of this great banking institution has been a great factor, not
only in facilitating exchanges and affording other banking accommodations, but,
as well, in giving stability and standing
to the great mining industry of the district, and in building a city of homes and
business enterprises, where, but a few
months before there was little but a wil-
Mrs. ME. Allan, Proprietress.
The Hotel Allan is the -pride of Rossland, and par excellence the best hotel of
the British Columbia gold fields. It is the
tourists' resort, the commercial travelers'
choice, and a first favorite of the traveling
n buildings, one of brick. It was
ed and built with especial reference
itness for a first-class hotel suited to
imate. The house occupies one of
st business corners in Rossland, and
pular place of resort for capitalists,
» men, financiers and business men
city. The house has eighty-five
•ooms, is lighted by electricity, and
1 modern improvements and con-
Mrs. Allan's maiden name was McLaughlin, and her native province,
Ontario. She came to Rossland in 1896
from Nakusp, B. C , where she kept the
Nakusp hotel. She resided for some time
at Hastings, B. C, where she also kept a
hotel. Besides her hotel business Mrs.
Allan has valuable mining interests, and
is developing some promising -mining
In assuming and conducting successfully so important enterprises in addition
to the management of her hotel, Mrs.
Allan has manifested a grasp of business
affairs both gratifying and surprising to
her many friends. She is a lady of education and culture, of graceful mai
with the ready and tender sympath
mother,  and a tact and judgme
s affair;
It is hardl3
eluding this too brief sketch of the finest
hotel in this section of British Columbia,
that ladies or gentlemen desiring first-
class accommodation can make no mistake by putting up at the Hotel Allan.
and a sheet metal shop fully equipped for
the execution of large or small contracts
or jobbing, and for the manufacture of
galvanized iron pipes for mines. Another
department is devoted to plumbing and
gas and steam fitting. In this connection
it is pertinent to state that the hrm carries
supplies. Skilled workmen are employed
in the shops, and none but first-class work
is turned out.
'Messrs. J. M. and W. C. Martin are
natives of Renfrew county, province of
Ontario. They served their time in a
mercantile house at Ottawa, and have
been ever since entering the mercantile
business for themselves associated together, and known as Martin Brothers.
They were pioneers to Calgary, N. W.
Territory, and were for a number of years
the leading hardware merchants of that
place. Later they disposed of their
interests at Calgary and went to the coast,
and thence to Vernon, from which place
they came to Rossland two and a half
years ago. The firm still owns the leading hardware store in Ver:
M. Martin will be long
having been one of Vernor
Hardware Merchants.
It may be. doubted if there is a mercantile house in Rossland better or more
widely known throughout the Kootenay
country than that owned and conducted
by Martin Brothers. This house was established in the spring of 1895, and is the
largest establishment of the kind in Rossland.    The business  occupies the  entire
located, and two warehouses besides.
The salesroom is eligibly located at the
corner of Columbia avenue and Washington street, and is stocked to its full capacity with everything pertaining to a
first-class hardware  stock in demand in
Of the immense stock carried 1
have space  to speak o
- thi;
1 fur
general terms. Everything'in the
shelf and heavy hardware is carriea, including stoves, ranges, builders' hardware,
mechanics' tools, nails, mine and mill
supplies, prospectors' supplies, blacksmiths' supplies, saws, belting, steel and
iron, tin and agate ware, cooking utensils,
novelties, and the thousand and one
articles which go to make up the complete
retail and jobbing stock of the hardware
merchant. A specialty is made of powder,
fuse, candles, and all the prerequisites of
oor.    The bar and card  rooms
It is worthy of note that the firm sells
lest in the city.
the justly celebrated Burrow, Stewart &
tel  was  built by  Mrs.   M.   E.
Milne stoves and ranges, the James Stew
he property is one of the best,
art Manufacturing company's stoves and
improvements and location, in
ranges, and the Copp Brothers company's
heating stoves.    These are all of superior
The   building   has   modern
and the most complete sanitary
quality, and have given gratifying satisfaction in Rossland and elsewhere.    The
3nal  charge  in  conducting her
firm sells and puts in furnaces, and will
on, and Mr. J.
Rossland the
Martin Brothers bought considerable real
estate, of which the lot on the corner of
Columbia avenue and Washington street
is a part. They at once erected the building they now occupy at that location, and
put in a complete hardware stock. They
are, as are nearly all of our merchants,
interested to some extent in mining and
real estate, and it is not too much to say
their enterprise has had much to do with
the growth and prosperity of Rossland.
O. M. FOX & CO.,
Importers and 'Wholesale and Retail Grocers.
store, with its thousand delicacies gathered
from every country and clime, has been
developed within the last quarter of a
century, and almost within the last
decade. It is still unknown in many
cities much larger than Rossland and it
The fine modern store which forms the
subject of this sketch was founded in
November, 1896, by O. M. Fox, E. C.
Lockwood, and W. J". Cusack, under the
firm name of O. M. Fox & Co. The business occupies a large and well-filled salesroom, eligibly located on Columbia
avenue, and an outside warehouse as well.
The amount, variety and quality of goods
carried in stock, the attractive manner in
which they are displayed, and the careful
are served, warrant us in saying this is
one of the most complete modern grocery
stores in the Kootenay country. While
this house does a very large retail busi- land, and that a very considerable wholesale trade is done with mines and miners.
O. M. Fox & Co. are importers from
England and the United States, and buying  largely  in  carload lots,
r low
d their
well as to their whol<
of canned goods is especially ^full and
complete, comprising California and
Eastern canned fruits and vegetables. In
fancy groceries, teas, coffees and spices,
the best is the rule. Flour, salt meats,
produce and all other staples, are handled
in quantities, and a complete and well-
selected stock of crockery, glassware,
tinware, graniteware, and other needs of
the camp and the home, completes one of
the largest stocks of the kind in Rossland.
Mr. Fox was formerly connected with
the Great American Importing Tea company, and the firm carries a full line of
their popular goods, and is the company's
sole agent for Rossland.
Wagons are run in the city and suburbs
for the free delivery of all goods sold, and
a very large local trade is done with
hotels, restaurants and families, and with
mines immediately surrounding Rossland.
The cosmopolitan character of Rossland
's well illustrated in the personnel of this
firms.    Mr. Fo
y other of h
. Mr.
. Englishman,
previous to coming to Rossland, in business in San Diego, California. Messrs.
Lockwood and Cusack were travelling for
a New York house, the former having his
headquarters at Spokane, Washington,
and the latter at Victoria, B. C. It is
interesting to note that the firm, in its
membership, represents three of the
greatest nations in the world, but it is of
greater interest of patrons to know that
both as a firm and individually, Messrs.
Fox, Lockwood and Cusack command
the entire esteem and confidence of the
W. H. Bell, Proprietor.
s more worthily
popular with the traveling public than
the Hotel Bellevue. The Bellevue is
most conveniently located, at the corner
of Washington street and Second avenue,
less than a block and a half from the Red
Mountain depot. The site is one of the
most elevated occupied by any hotel
building in Rossland, and commando an
excellent view of the camp and surround-
The Bellevue was built and opened to
the public  by W. H. Bell, the present
the present year. The building is a substantial, two story structure, containing
besides the office, dining room and bar
room, some thirty odd guest rooms. Mr.
Bell has spared no expense in furnishing
his hotel, and every room is fitted with
"   I furniture and carpets.
fitted throughout with modem conveniences, including electric lights, hot and
cold baths, electric bells, etc., etc.
Comfort of guests is the first law of the
management of the Bellevue. Mr. Bell
is his own manager, and conducts his
hotel with a view of giving the best accomodations to be had in the city. The
dining room is presided over by courteous
and attentive waiters, the culinary department is in the hands of an experienced
chef, and the table is in itself a compliment to the caterer. The bar is one of
the best in the city, and over it are served
the best drinks and fine imported cigars.
The Bellevue is conducted on both the
American and the European plans. A
free 'bus meets all incoming and departing trains, baggage, mail and telegrams
of guests receive careful attention, rooms
are reserved when ordered by telegraph,
and every courtesy and convenience extended to the public by first-class hotels
elsewhere is here observed.
W. H. Bell -is a native of the Province
of Ontario. He was formerly in the stock
business at Quapalle, Northwest Territory, and it was from that place he
came to Rossland a little over a year ago.
As proprietor of the Bellevue, he has one
of the best and most popular hostelries of
Rossland, and his house is a resort for
mining men, business men and commercial travelers. It is interesting to
note that Mr. Bell has just built a dancing pavilion adjoining the hotel, and it
will add no little to the popularity of the
Bellevue, as offering a place of entertainment and recreation for guests of the
house and others seeking an evening's
ihing it. More prospectors came in.
s great Le Roi and other prospective
les showed increasingly favorable indi-
stands, and laid (
less to add that he  builded better than
he knew.
Mr. Thompson showed his confidence
by putting up the first building himself.
He sold lots on favorable terms to investors, and in not a few instances gave
lots to those who would build upon them.
This liberality made the popularity of
Rossland, which led to its doubling in
population every few months, until it has
grown from nothing, in 1894, to being a
city of eight thousand, inhabitants, in 1897.
Of Mr. Thompson's personal popularity,
we may say it is only less wide than that
of the city he founded. It is said of him
that he is connected with and an officer
in more companies and enterprises than
any other man in British Columbia. It is
gratifying to add that prosperity and
fortune have apparently made no change
m Mr. Thompson's manners towards his
fellow men. His old friends still call him
"Ross" as familiarly as when he handled
the pick and drill, and everyone knowing
him holds him in high esteem for his
many excellent   qualities of  head   and
Mayor of Rossland.
tobert   Scott,   Esq.,   Rossland's   i
vor, came to Rossland in August, ii
at Gait,  Ontario.    He
y of Rossla
to the town, but who was its founder
as well. Ross Thompson was a farmer's
boy, and was born in the county of Bruce,
in the province of Ontario, Canada. He
was taken when a child to Portage la
Prairie, Manitoba, where he lived until
his   majority.     Young   Thompson    had
tions necessary to the building of new
towns in that province. His later experiences and observations in Montana, Idaho,
Washington, and other mountain states,
enabled him to witness the birth and
rapid growth of mining towns.
We are justified in assuming it was this
knowledge of the necessary factors of town
building, supplemented by a habit of
close observation, no less than his faith
in the Trail Creek district, of whicli Rossland is now the business center, that
prompted Mr. Thompson to purchase a
tract of land from the government, and
lay out the town of Rossland. Be that as
it may, Mr. Thompson had, in 1890, after
spending a number of years in prospecting, mining, and other ventures in mining
states* and the provinces, come to the
Trail Creek district as a prospector. If
anyone had before that time thought of
locating a townsite in the district, he had
. id, if we may rightly judge
from The Evening Reformer, of March
27th, 1897, a Gait paper, his previous experience in municipal affairs has been
such as to amply qualify him for the high
duties as first mayor of our magic city.
Following, we reprint the passage referred to in the preceding paragraph :
"Ever since the announcement, made
some time ago, that ex-Mayor Rob't
Scott would be a candidate for the
position of first Mayor of Rossland, Gait
citizens have taken a more lively interest
in Rossland matters, and have been
eager to obtain news concerning the
thriving young city of West Kootenay.
People here are only beginning to realize
the marvelous growth of Rossland, which
in one short year has increased in population  from  £
: tim
o pers
point to a populatic
20,000 within the next twe
What was a few months ago
vill  <
Butte and Johanm
not be surprised if there is a gi
to Rossland and the diffère
Columbia mining camps than
place in the places mentioned.
"To be the fii
Rossland is a di:
any man might
of a c n
proud of. As our readers are aware, Mr.
Scott, with his son J. H. Scott, is the
owner of the Victoria Wheel Works, one
of Gait's most important manufacturing
industries, and when he went to Rossland
a little less than a year ago, Mr. Scott
announced his intention of remainingthere
if what was claimed for the new mining
town proved correct. Such has evidently
been the case, as he has invested largely
in real estate, besides being associated
with others in the ownership of what are
claimed to be among the best mining
properties there. Mr.- Scott's friends
would naturally like to see him elected
as Mayor—not that they have anything
against his opponent, Mr. Lalonde—but
because he has always been one of our
most enterprising citizens, and they also
point with pride to his excellent record
in municipal matters in Gait. In 1873 he
represented Ward 3 in the council, and
in 1875 sat as councilor for Ward 2. In
1876 and 1877 he was Deputy-Reeve, and
was elected as Reeve in 1878, 1879,
1880 and again in 1892. He is the only
gentlemen who ever filled the position
of Mayor of Gait three years in succession, holding as he did this position during 1885, 1886 and 1887. That Mr. Scott
was popular with the rate payers and
made a good Mayor must be clear, when
it is taken  into   consideration   that in
he is able to say he was never yet beaten
in a municipal contest. Gait citizens will
wish him still further success 'in his
election to the Mayoralty of Rossland,
and we make the prediction that if he is
elected he will fill the position with
credit to both himself and the City of
: is interesting as showing the favor
vhich this section is held by old miners
■ one may find in Rossland very many
he best and most experienced mining
1 on the Pacific slope.    Among them
da, for the lâte U. S. Senator, Leland
iford.    He was with Mackay & Fair
to a greater or less extent, interested in
about twenty different properties. He is
a stock-holder in the Colonna and manager of its properties, stockholder in the
Monte Cristo Company, and manager
of its properties, a stockholder in and
manager of the Morning Star Company,
a stockholder in and manager of the
Detroit Company, a stockholder in and
manager of the Erie, and is general manager of St. Paul properties belonging to
Toronto people.
George E. Pfunder comes of Alsatian •
German stock, and was born on the Rhine
in 1849. He was brought by his parents
to America when but three years of age,
and, with the exception of being away
at school, may be said to have grown up
and lived among mines and mining people all his life. He began mining while
yet in his 'teens.
In reviewing the success of Mr. Pfunder, we are reminded of a statement of
one of the American consuls, viz : The
German excels in perseverence, patience
under the most trying circumstances, industry and economy. These virtues enable him to accomplish great results in
almost any fields of science, industry, or
enterprise he may choose to enter." It
need hardly be added that Mr. Pfunder
is one of the busiest men in the Trail
Creek district, and that he is an authority
on mining processes and   mining   pro-
It is noteworthy as showing the interest
which attaches to newly developing mining camps, that the rich mineralized
section of which Rossland is the financial
center has attracted to Rossland so many
gentlemen of the professions and of the
press. Edward C. Finch belongs to the
latter class. He was, before coming to
British Columbia, in 1896, a citizen of the
state of Washington, where he was connected with the press for ten years.
Mr. Finch is an Ohioan by birth. He
has, however, been many years on the
Pacific coast, and during the thirteen
years he resided in Washington, acquired an extensive acquaintance among
the leading men of that and adjoining
states, and attained considerable prominence in business and political circles.
During the legislative session of 1895, in
of Ret
immediate opportunity to handle some of
the many fine properties about Rossland
and adjoining districts. After careful investigation of different properties, by the
aid of experts, and becoming sufficiently
acquainted in mining and financial circles to enable him to "set his stakes'' intelligently, Mr. Finch bonded the Silver
Queen Mine, one of the finest properties
in the Cariboo Creek Camp, Slocan Division, West Kootenay, and, chartering The
Silver Queen Mining Company, limited
liability, obtained for that company a title
to the property in fee. The Silver Queen
was stocked at $1,250,000.00 with$35o,ooo
in the treasury. The mine is now developed, No. 1 tunnel on the Black Fox
claim having already been driven a distance of over sixty feet into the finest
body of silver ore which has yet been •
shown in that rich district ; and it is expected that The Silver Queen will before
very long become a very profitable producer.    '
We could hardly conclude this too
brief sketch of one of Rossland's now
most popular promoters better than by
appending the personnel of the officers
and directors of The Silver Queen
Mining Company. They are : President, Hon. George E. Foster, M. P. and
ex-Minister of Finance; Vice-President,
C. C. Woodhouse, Jr., Esq., Engineer and
ex-Mining Expert for the State of Washington; General Manager, Edward C.
Finch, Esq.; Secretary-Treasurer, Leo H.
Schmidt, Esq. Directors : Hon. Thomas
May ne Daly, Q. C, ex-Minister of the
Interior; Edward C. Finch, Mining Operator; Richard Maxwell, Mine Owner;
Hon. Geo. E. Foster, M. P., Ex-Minister
of Finance; Wm. F. Hayward, Mine
Owner; Joseph B. Dabney, President
Keystone Gold Mining Company; C. C.
Woodhouse, Jr., Mining Engineer; Leo
H Schmidt, Capitalist; R, W. Grigor,
We may add that while Mr. Finch is
connected with a number of other Rossland enterprises, in all of which he takes
more or less an active part, The Silver
Queen • is his chiefest pet, and  engages
ere is hardly anything more inte
in the history of any town or
is fpund in the personal confid:
struggles of those  whose  enter;
;  state of  Washing
those whose purchased property and remained in the Province, D. M. Linnard is
conspicuous for his unbounded recognition of its resources and confidence in the
future of its towns and cities. It is an
interesting fact in this connection, to
state that there has hardly been a time
since Mr. Linnard made his first purchase
of property in Vancouver, that he has not
had one or more buildings in process of
construction in some town or city of the
Mr. Linnard came to Rossland in May,
1895, and with the ken of a practical
observer foreseeing its immediate future
bought all the desirable property his funds
in hand would justify. The wisdom of his
selection is manifested in the fact that his
purchase embraced nineteen business lots
on Columbia avenue. It is significant,
too, that he declined to sell at a profit of
one hundred per cent, on his investment
within thirty days after his purchase, and
f the
to sell at the first opportunity. It may,
too, be written, as a historical fact, that
Mr. Linnard was the first investor in
Rossland property whose action in holding it for a good speculative profit justified his confidence in the future of the
place. Besides the first purchase of nineteen business lots, he bought an interest
in the original town company, and a con-
properties,  and has since been  actively
Kaslo. Among improvements now being
made upon its property, it is building a
large hotel at Kaslo.
Conspicuous as he is as one of Rossland's
most trusted and energetic promoters of
large enterprises, Mr. Linnard is more
honored as one of its thoroughly respected
and esteemed citizens.
Of the early pioneers to the great
mineral belt of which Rossland and
Grand Forks are two of the principal
centers of trade and enterprise, Hon.
John A. Manly is one of the most widely
known and distinguished. Born in the
state of Ohio among the most enterprising people on the continent, and educated to the profession of a civil engineer at Ann Arbor, Michigan, young
Manly received both by precept and education such incentives to exertion and enterprise as seldom fail to manifest themselves in the career of their recipients.
At the age of twenty-one years, young
Manly had become prominent in his profession, and at twenty-two, he, as Civil
Engineer-in-Chief, built the Chicago &
West Michigan Railway. From railroad
"      he engaged '     " '
the  (
ts of this
ing districts as well.
Mr. Linnard chartered no less than
seven mining companies, in all of which
he retained large holdings. They are the
Red Mountain View Gold Mining Company, limited; Mineral City Townsite Company, limited; The Rossland Syndicate,
limited; Carbonate Silver Mining Company, limited; Gopher Gold Mining Company, limited; The Rossland Homestake
Gold Mining Company, limited; and the
R. E. Lee Gold Mining Company,  lim-
Mr. Linnard has been successful in interesting British capitalists in British Columbia mines. He spent two months in
London last winter, and, among other
deals, sold a one-third interest in the
Gopher Gold Mining Company, limited,
the Rossland Homestake Gold Mining
Company, limited, and the R. E. Lee
Gold Mining Company, limited.    We un-
ing to unite all the interests of these three
companies into a company to be chartered in London, with a capital of 150,000
One of Mr. Linnard's most important
enterprises is The Rossland Syndicate, a
close corporation of which W. G. Johnson,
It is mor
s Britis
specially, however, of Mr.
h Columbia life and enter-   .
designed to speak.    At the
beginning of this we are reminded of an
oft' repeated statement of his, viz:   "No |,
good country can be so remote and inac-1
cessible from civilization that it can for a  ■
long time remain so in this age of enter-  :
prise."    We are inclined to the opinion
that the  education, observation and experience which gave that thought to John
A. Manly prompted him also to look for
such an unoccupied country, and looking
to the Northwest, he si
with cattle. The result was that when
the rush finally came it found him prepared to feed it, and he did furnish much
of the beef that was eaten in the district
for three years from his own ranch. But
he had builded even better than he knew ;
for having selected his Kettle river property solely with reference to its desirability as a farm and ranch, he has been
greatly suprised to find upon it and in the
mountains surrounding it, some of the
richest mineral veins in British Columbia.
The result has been that a new mining
section has sprung into existence and the
town of Grand Forks has sprung up on
his Kettle river ranch, which, at less than
twelve months of age, numbers 1,000
souls. Naturally and very fortunately for
the town, Mr. Manly was made the first
Mayor of Grand Forks. We say fortunately for the town, for we chance to know
that his study and close observation of
municipal affairs have given Mayor Manly
advanced ideas on the duties and prerogatives of public officials, as well as of the
people's rights to public utilities. We
feel safe in venturing the assertion that
free franchise hunters will find little opportunity to fatten on any town where
John A. Manly has a voice in its municipal affairs.
Mayor Manly has not, however, confined his enterprises to the Kettle River
country. He built and still owns the
International Hotel at Rossland, and is
the owner of much other valuable property here. He has mining property galore, and is a recognized prophet of prosperity. Perhaps, after all, the most interesting and satisfying th' -
of Mayor Manly is that, '
inch hand or othe
g a man of
1 and infor-
1 fool
His c
f Rossla
is president, and Mr.
-. The Syndicate has a
it, and the scope of its
as comprehensive. It
ys, sells and improves
operty, bonds, develops
used trails to the
Kettle River and Kootenay country
eleven years ago was the natural sequence
of a thought over which the reader of
these lines will do well to ponder. The
writer having had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Manly at intervals of a few years
during the last decade, remembers well
how, at one of California's palatial hotels,
Mr. Manly tried to impress his fellow
guests with the great future in store for
this section. He remembers, too, that
while all admired the colored photographs of Mr. Manly's Kettle River
ranch and his beautiful Holstein cattle,
that they gave an unwilling ear to Mr.
Manly's statements of the great mineral
resources of this section. All can now
see that had he been absolutely sure of
his predictions, Mr. Manly could hardly
have laid his plans more wisely.
The first necessity of all enterprises is
food ; to provide that for the commg rush
of prospectors, miners and others whom
I he saw in the distance, Mr. Manly began
I ten years ago to stock his 4,000 acre ranch
He may
be a theoretical man w
complish good work, on account of the
blunders he will make owing to his lack
of experience. He may be a practical
man with little theoretical knowledge;
in this case he works to a disadvantage,
by not understanding the fundamental
principles of the profession. Therefore,
in order to attain the highest degree of
accomplishment in the profession of mining engineering the subject must begin
young in school, and get a good education; then, upon this general knowledge for a foundation, he must take
up the special branches of science which
will especially qualify him for the
profession, namely: assaying, chemistry, mineralogy, geology, surveying,
mechanics and bookkeeping. This being accomplished at the age of, say
twenty-one, he  is now ready to   begin ROSSLAND AND THE TRAIL CREEK DISTRICT
e, and of the   of them are in the  Kootenays,  among
i years  more   which are some fine properties,
office, smelt- I     The Comnanv's Canadian office  is lo-
building, I
worthy of note 1
I the supplies I
y for its surveyc
i of the  Clifton  I
e of the best on First avenue. I the firm of Ly
L as a good min- ! The office is tastefully fitted, with many second or thir
itinue to study, of the modern conveniences, and is one part of the Cli
experience, un- of the neatest and roomiest in E.ossland. by the dining
les the western This office and the Canadian business are | Mr. Lynch i
men willingly in charge of W. H. Corbould, as general since 1895, a:
.ere must ever manager and A. B. Irwin, as local secre- in the general
11 of honesty in tary, Both are too well known in British
îe who would Columbia mining circles to need intro-
Dut is like unto duction or encomium, but it may be ad-
.essly lead the ded that Mr. Corbould is a London, Eng-
: sake of plun- | land, man, whose experiences as a mining
engineer and manager of mining proper-
mining engi- ties have been many and valuable. Mr
the ] Irwin is an American, who,  having been
of the pioneers of the Trail Creek word
I district, is one among the best informed howe
men in the district on Kootenay proper-  say   1
le of Thos.
Ir. Lynch having the îr
business. Of the man
sts and individuals that co
king a city of Rossland, tli
re been few conflicting on.
.e creditable to all of the
that they, all and each, ha
to say  of each  other.    1
/er, without reflection on
Wilson &
contractor and
-. Woodhous
eer mining c
srn United S
and "specialVof
It may be safely  stated  th
not another name in the mini
t a number of old
of British Columbia that is so
g men are engaged
mentioned as that of P. Burns
the cattl
ess in the district.
king of the  Kootenays.     Th
less in' Rossland,
found in the fact that Mr. Bur
is feeds th
people.    It is also asserted wit
pearance of truth,   that   the
ng sections of the
British Columbia are, as a cla
ss, the bes
ich.     Abbreviated
fed laborers 111 the  world.'
One of th
11 British Columbis
amps.    He was one of the tive  abilities,  that  Mr. Burns furnishes
if the celebrated Stunkeen fresh beef, mutton and pork at wholesale
he was in the Boise basin to all   the   retail  butchers in Rossland,
'-  Creek in Trail, Nelson, Ainsworth,  Quartz Creek,
here by many who do not dig for it. We state of Washington,
may add, however, that Mr. Burns is, has turned his hand
like almost all business men in a mining  to do, having been
but that sucl
icidental to
Mr. Burr
in 1892.
that :
; busi:
1 the Kootei
trade had extended ti
djstrict,  and he establ
Rossland.    His trade h
stated,   extended  to  every
P. Burns is still in the ve
young, vigorous manhood,
judge   rightly   from   his
smile and manner, his num
cares sit very lightly upon
By  1895,  his I ;
Trail  Creek I :
camp in  the !
ry prime of a j
ner. While making no pretense of be-
g an expert, it may be said of Mr. Cole
at he is one of Rossland's practical
ning men who have succeeded without
pert knowledge. It may be added,
so, that he stands deservedly well in
ning and business circles.
Lumber Producer and Dealer
f the t
The 1
111 the Trail Creek distric
instances, to have been d
to personal tact and abili
tional opportunities! As
point we cite Mr. John Y. Cole, a youn;
man, who; coming to British Columbia ii
1892 as an employee of the S. F. & N. R
Co., and without previous experience ii
a mining camp, left that company to en
gage in prospecting and mining. Hi
first work in the camp was employmen
as a hand in the I. X. L. mine, and s.
rapid was his advancement that he wa
within two months after begining work I th
given   entire  charge  as  foreman  of the I la
1  excep-1 Bou
hich is situated at
north slope of Red Moun-
Creek, before the townsite
ossland was platted, and was, until
jaratively recently, the only lumber
it in the'Trail Creek district,
sides his saw mill and lumber yards
tony Creek, Mr. Blue is the owner of
lills at Ymir and at Greenwood City,
idary Creek. He is a. producer of
re. lumber, in larger quantities than
other man in the Trail Creek dis-
He can, therefore, successfully
; all competitors, both as to quality
as to prices. He supplies the bulk
Lmber consumed in the Trail Creek,
r and  Bounda
Kootenay coi
Creek, being
Red M0Î11
cts thr.
; of h
ictful   (
kane, Washington. Three years latei
founded the town of Kettle Falls, one
the prosperous little towns of northe;
ern Washington, situated at the c
fluence of the Col ville and the Colum'
He was one of the first alderman
Kettle Falls, and a portion of the tow
Blue Town.'
Among the prominent mere!
have purchased real estate in
none have taken a more acti-
promoting the growth of the to-
the interests ot schools and pi
ities than Charles O. Lalonde
porter and dealer in boots, shoe
rubber goods, etc.
Mr. Lalonde came to Rosslan
and established the pioneer
shoe store of the place. Boots
were then sold by all general r
hence, in spite of Mr. Lalon
complete stock, he found at firs
for his goods. This fact, add
faith in the future of Rossland,
purchase business property and
building, the result of which
most gratifying. One of the U
finest business blocks in the cif
as the Lalonde & Rodier Block.
Mr. Laloiide's outside ventun
■  how!
ind sho
ed ,
located the 11
After incorporating a compa
K. property, he sold out his
est in the property, in 18c
was fortunate also in his pu
property known as the Whit
of which he is the general 1
principal owner.
The White Bear Mine ad
Roi, and is one of Rossland'
and . equipped, that h
f Creek, Ross- ; constantly mcicascu w.
known as the I the town and the incre
The laundry is now the one of the li
iducted by the in this part of British C
is is an enter- Charles O. Lalonde v
is long felt the I reun, Province of Que
sponse to the left his native Province
îment for pat- tling at Port Arthur,
nee of the  ap-   clerk in a mercantile  1
t  thon
100-foot 1(
ten to tw
to the ton i6
It is, we think, permissible to say that      By the character of the patrons he
the high personal esteem in which Mr. tracts, no less than by his success in c
Lalonde is held by so many of the best ducting  "The  Queen,"  Mr.  Myers
people  of Rossland ought to be ample shown himself well qualified as a
compensation for his defeat for the may- to the public palate, and, as well,
oralty.    We may add that  Mr. Lalonde's ble  and successful  business man.     The
business and property interests are such reader can make no mistake in patroniz-
in Rossland that he could hardly feel less ing  "The Queen,"   especially  for   short
desirous of seeing a wise municipal gov- orders,
ernment of the city and  its permanent
prosperity, in his private  capacity as a
property   owner   and   citizen,   thar   u~
could have desired as mayor.
wm. McQueen, b. a.
City Clerk and Treasurer of Rossland.
Wm. McQueen, Rossland's first City
Clerk, was a farmer's boy, and was born
in the county of Huron, Province of Ontario, in 1862. Inheriting a taste for
study, common to his Scotch ancestry,
the farmer boy became a school teacher
at the age of eighteen, and later completed his education at the University of
Toronto, at Toronto, Ontario. After finishing his university course, young McQueen again took up his work as teacher,
which he followed as a profession up to
the time of his resigning his position in
the Park Hill, Ontario, High School, with
a view of coming to Rossland, B. C.
Mr. McQueen arrived in Rossland in
February of the present year, and although a comparative stranger, was honored by the appointment to his present
position of trust and responsibility,
scarcely three months following the date
of his arrival.
George V. Myers, Proprietor.
the busi
tpry of Rossland to give, those which are
representative in their lines. In the subject of this sketch, the public will recog-
in Jul:
Jackson & Almstrom, Proprietors.
It is an interesting fact that Rossland's
best buildings have been built and are
owned by former prospectors and miners.
Among the hotel business this is conspicuously so, the last prominent instance
being in the building and furnishing of
the Central Hotel, completed in May, and
now just opened to the public.
The Central is not one of Rossland's
largest hotels, but it is a little gem with
40 guest rooms and all modern improvements, including furnace heating, electric
lights, electric call and return call bells,
baths, rooms single and en-suite, and
every comfort and convenience of the
modern first-class hotel. The furniture
is all new, the parlor, dii
and many of the guest i
one of the most attractive views in tne
The Central is a fine, modern three-
story structure, with a wide veranda, extending completely around two sides of
the building. The location, only one
block from the business portion of the
city, but far enough to a '"
all that could be desi:
building fronts on two si
all the guests rooms ar
The offices, writing
and bar
1, office
void the
•ed, and, as the
reets, practically
e outside rooms.
oui, dining room
n the ground floor. The
md floor, and, like
nd ï
Myers, the pre:
1896.    It may t
. W.
1 Rossland.
department is presided over
chef, and the tables are
supplied with the best the
ds of everything. A spec-
of short orders, and in this
The Queen" is furnished to
ieople at one sitting. There
booths for those desiring
e service is all that can  be
the forty guest rooms, are all that could
be desired in size, sunlight, ventilation
and furnishings. The house has scientific
sanitary plumbing throughout, and conveniently located baths with hot and cold
water. In short, the Central Hotel is
strictly first-class. It is conducted on
both the American and European plans,
and guests are provided with every convenience and luxury obtainable in any
mining town in British Columbia or elsewhere.
The Central was built, and is owned
and conducted by August Jackson and J.
E. Almstrom. Mr. Jackson is an old
prospector and miner, who, coming to
Trail Creek in 1891, engaged in prospecting and mining, and was here at the laying out of the town in 1894. He is well-
known in mining and business circles,
and has contributed in no small degree
to the building of Rossland. Mr. Almstrom, who came more recently to Rossland, from St. Paul, Minn., is an old hotel
man, and, as such, is very well known to
the traveling public.
Messrs. Jackson  and Almstrom   built
stocked bar and
and, connected
well-appointed c
May sigh to think he still has found
The International Hotel is only less
celebrated than Rossland. The latter is
known throughout the commercial world
as the center of one of the most richly-
mineralized sections on the continent of
North America; the latter is known to all
visitors to the magic city of Rossland,
and is famed abroad for its good cheer
and hospitality.
The International is a two-story structure of sixty guest rooms, with modern
improvements, wide halls, the largest
public reception room in the city, well-
^tractive billiard room,
th them, a large and
cert room for the free
ent of guests.
To be known and fully appreciated the
International must be enjoyed. A distinguished "globe-trotter," in speaking
of the International, said: "I can find a
hotel having more pretensions and capacity in almost every city on the continent;
but there is only one like this, and for
good cheer and entertainment there is
not another on the continent to compare
with the International Hotel at Rossland."
The International was built in 1895 by
Hon. John A. Manly, a personal sketch
of whom will be found on another page.
It is almost needless to add that the
International is easily one of the most
popular hotels and resorts in Rossland.
Free concerts and theatricals are given
every evening, and the best of everything
in the way of refreshments is served by
polite and attentive waiters.
The electric plant of the Rossland Water
& Light Company, limited, consists of the
A large, heavy frame building, 32x100
feet, with sheet iron roof, covers the entire plant. A battery of three boilersj 80
horse-power each, with a large duplex
Worthington steam pump and feed-water
heater occupies the first forty feet from
the east end of the building, which is
partitioned off from the dynamo and engine room. The steam pump is used
only in case of trouble with the water
mains, the water and light company being
one corporation.
At the power-house there is an hydraulic pressure of 200 pounds to the
Fire hydra '
hose and other fire apparatus. They i
prepared to answer the call of their ch
at any moment of the day or night tl
forming, under the excessive pressi
and system, one of the most efficient i
brigades ever organized. Another unie
feature that is worthy of note, in conn
tion with the a 24 inch Pelton wa
motor, substantially built to operate 1
der the above pressure. This motor
belted  to  the   main   counter-shaft    a
s of considerable value and impôr-
as 50 HP. is obtained from this
wheel,  working  under the   given
The engines are a beautiful pair of Corliss engines, with one main crank shaft
and a fifteen foot driving wheel hung be-
™een }h~m- •They were buiIt by tlie
Edward P. Allis Co., of Milwaukee; who
have won the enviable reputation of being ]
one of the best (if not the best) machinerv
builders in the States. A 26 inch double
leather belt, of the celebrated "Crown"
brand, of Robin, Saddle & Haworth, !
Montreal, transmits the power generated j
by these engines to the main countershaft, which runs the full width ' of the
building, and to which are belted the !
four Edison dynamos. Two of these
dynamos are of 750 light capacity each,
and the other two are of 750 lights for the j
The machines are connected upon the j
"three wire" system, and the arrange-1
ment of switches on the switch-board is
such that the smaller machines can be
thrown in together in multiple, either on
the positive or negative side, thus taking
the place of either of the large machines
in case of a burn out ; or they can be
switched in on the bus bars, one on each
side of the system. Thermostats are
placed on all the principal bearings and
connected with an annunciator in the
chief's house, which is close to the plant.
As soon as any of _ the bearings rise to a
given  temperature, the alarm  is  given,
id the bearing getting hot is registered
al estate in this city than t
nan in Rossland. This i
:omplimeiit to Rossland 1
of Mr. Miller's clear ken   ]
on the
The above plant is only in
temporary one, as the compî
for purpose of giving light ai
the West Kootenay district. 1
the present plant, in equipm
sign, is worthy of a better fat
signment to the bone vard wl
the transmission plant, takei
of the field.
rided a
there were many doubting Thomases.
We need not forbear to add that Mr.
Miller might find it to his interest to become a Rosslander in fact, as he evidently
is in faith. He has many warm friends
here, and would be welcomed by our
merchants, especially if he kept up his
line of samples and continued to wear his
usual genial smile.
Scott & Plue, Props.
Assayers and Chemists.
of Rossland's 1
It may be doubted if there  is another turned out is the bet. __
assaying firm in the whole of the world- master mechanics with the best modern
famous Kootenay country the individual equipped plant.
members of which enjoy a better reputa- This is a custom mill,  and  a general
tion for their  scientific attainments and planing mill business is done.    The scope
valuable experience than  those of  the of work is too broad to admit of going
firm of Robbins & Long. into details in the space accorded to this
Chas. P. Robbins was born in the state sketch, but we may name  as specialties
of Idaho, and spent his early life in the the manufacture of sash,  doors,  blinds,
mining sections of his native  state.    He mouldings,   turnings,   brackets,    screen
was for a number of years connected with doors, windows, etc.   A specialty is also
the Eureka  Consolidated  Mining Com-1 made of fret work and grill  work, bank
pany, at Eureka, Nevada, and was, prior office and saloon fixtures, etc.
to coming to Rossland three  years ago, I     The facilities of this planing mill are
located in the Cœur d'Alênes of Idaho, unexcelled in the Trail Creek district.    It
ireceded   him   to has a capacity for about twenty-five work-
■iving   :
J. R. Miller, thé pioneer commercial
traveler to the Kootenays, is spending a
month at the Allan House, and besides
holding the key to one of the hotel's
largest sample rooms, is looking over his
real estate interests.
Mr. Miller first came to the Kootenays
with his samples, in 1888.   He represents
and travels from Montreal. He makes
two trips each year to all the cities, towns
and mining camps of the Kootenays, and |
Up  to  a  ;
as assayer for the celebrated War perintendence c
I Eagle mine, and since as a member of glad to submit
one of Rossland's leading assaying firms, application for
Leo H. Long is a native of the state of the acceptance
Utah. He has been among the mines may be taken
since his childhood, and like his business tion.
associate, Mr. Robbins, came to Rossland It is a fact wc
from  the Cœur d'Alenes.    He arrived in   in no sense ente
connected with the War Eagle mine up confines its woi
to the time he became a member of the facturing, and
firm of Robbins & Long. His experience are contractors
in the mining districts of Utah, Montana, ! The N. P. Sas
Idaho and British Columbia has been ex- j cated at the cor
tensive, and like Mr. Robbins, he may be j Davis street. E
said to be a graduate of the school of | tain tracks, it p<
practical experience.
The fin
a contractor and
: Oree-on   and seven years in the mountains, five of them   Rossland   branch
"state     Mr having been  spent at  Butte,  Montana,   the high esteem entertained for the  par-
mill  business where he was connected with the Mutual | ent house at Seattle;
Lossland from Collection Company of Montana.' we cannot do more
was formerly      He has been " ''""
of the
"Jetty" Spellman, Proprietor.
Lippmanu has qui
e recently
d the Mutual  Colle
of the Mi
tion Company of M
ntana.    T
oughly  up-to-date
îen, as well as to th
The general plan c
f the bus
John Murphy, Proprietor.
place for "old-timers."
The bar of the Rossland is
with the finest wines, whiskies, a
ters, beers and other liquor tha
can buy, and its stock of importe
is second to no other in the city
a mining deal has here been prop
closed, with an accompanimen
Scotch, Canadian Club and Ha vat
Such places of popular resort
and it may be doubted if they do
as important a part in the deve
of the great natural resources
Northwest as other concomitants
wn, and, asking no
vo of the first lots
npany, upon which
tance is commonly attached.
J. C. Spellman, proprietor of The Ross
land °dwas NbUtabtrth ataYankee bufT
Lumber Dealers.
adoption and by twenty years 'residence
in the mountains and on the Pacific slope
he has become a typical western man, with
all the geniality and bon homie that com
prehensive term implies.    Mr. Spellman
than that of A, S. Kerry.     Mr.  K
was formerly in business for some years
in Spokane, and more recently at Bound
ary City.    He came from the latter place
interested in some of Rossland's develop
ed mines, is the owner of some valuable
prospects.    Mr. Spellman is exceptionally
ager and secretary-treasurer, respe
may add there is no citizen of Rossland
to whom a stranger may go  for informa
tion with a greater certainty of getting an
impartial statement of facts respecting the
ber, lath, shingles, doors, window
brick, etc.    The company is als
land  agent for R. Miller,  of th
large  produce
Harrry E. Lippmann, Secretary and Manager
: better known, and noi
favorably so than Harry E. Li]
secretary and manager of the
Collection Company. Mr. Lipp
a native of Brooklyn, N. Y.    He
The success of the Rossland house!
dates from its establishment, and it is
safe to say there have been few buildings
erected in Rossland since the begining of
the present year, in which this house has
not placed some of its material.    This is |
>r a long time, notwithstand-
:nt building of larger and
ious breweries in Rossland.
Geo. Baker & Co.
y & Co. are
Rosleaf and    Kibh
also the largestand most completely equipped stables in the camp, and the building   -
occupied is the  finest in  use  for livery   :
purposes in the whole of the Trail Creek   :
For. the past two years The Pioneer
Livery Stables have been owned and conducted by Geo. Baker and Wm. Shoryer
under the firm name of Geo. Baker & Co.
Both Mr. Baker and Mr. Shoryer are old
and experienced liverymen, and are well-
known throughout the Trail country.
In point of stock, vehicles and the general paraphernalia which constitute a first-
class livery stable, no expense has been
spared. The rolling stock includes buggies, surries, hacks, buck-boards, mountain wagons and everything usually
found in the best stables of mountain
towns. From twenty to twenty-five
horses are kept for livary purposes, among
them gentlemen's and ladies' driving
horses, saddle horses, pack horses and experienced mountain horses.
The firm makes a specialty of supplying hunting, fishing and prospecting
parties with horses and outfits, and does
a very large business with miners and
prospectors. They will furnish experienced drivers, acquainted with the surrounding country, who will accompany
patrons when desired.
Besides doing a general livery business
Geo. Baker & Co. board horses by the day
week or month, and care for private rigs,
giving them the same careful attention
their own vehicles receive. They also
buy and sell horses, and it may be doubted if there are two better judges of horses
in the Province than Messrs. Baker and
We should not omit to mention the
fact that the Rossland-Trail Stage, which
runs between Rossland and Trail, is
owned by Geo. Baker & Co., and is conducted as a part of the livery business.
It is interesting, too, that the railroad
does not visibly affect the business of
this stage route, so many preferring the
open air and pleasant drive to the trip by
Geo. Baker was born and raised in the
city of Philadelphia, but has lived many
years in the West. He was a pioneer to
the Kootenay country, having come here
as early as 1890. He came to British
Columbia first in 1885. Wm. Shoryer is
a native of the Hoosier state. He was
an early comer to Rossland, and like his
partner in business is more or less interested in mining and real estate.
which institution he is a graduate. He
has been in the undertaking and embalming business all his life, and for the
past ten years has been in the West.
He came to Rossland from Spokane,
'      "       imber of years in
Mr. Beatty is a dealer in and maker of
all kinds of undertakers' supplies, including wood and steel caskets, coffins
and burial cases, trimmings, burial robes,
etc. He has had adequate facilities for
performing the last, sad offices for the
dead in accordance with the best modern system of embalming and inter-
Mr. Beatty owns the building he occupies, which is located in Commercial
Court. It was built expressly for its
purpose and use as an undertaking establishment, and the rooms are provided
with the latest improvements to the end
that the mortal remains may be embalmed in the best manner possible known
to modern science.
When it is remembered that Mr. Beatty
is a graduate of the celebrated Philadelphia School of Embalming, and that he
he has had a life-long experience in the
undertaking business, it is redundancy
to say that he is thoroughly skilled and
efficient in every department of his business. He makes a specialty of shipping
remains, and takes pleasure in rendering
any services possible to the bereaved.
We should not omit to add that Mr.
Beatty owns a fine hearse.
Undertaker and Embilmer.
There are few business or professions
callings in which so marked a chang
has taken place in the last two decades a
in that of the undertaker and embalmei
• Volumes have been written about th
lost art of embalming possessed by th
Egyptians, but modern science has s
far surpassed the ancients in the art c
embalming that regrets for the lost art c
the Egyptians are no longer heard.
Malty-Ward Simpson, proprietor of
Rossland's leading news, book and stationery store, established his business in
1896. Up to that time Rossland had not
had a first-class store of the kind, but the
time was rife for it, and Mr. Simpson's
venture met with universal appreciation
and his store has since its opening been
known as a place where the latest and
best in daily, weekly and monthly publications can always be found on sale.
This house is recognized as headquarters for school books. The stock of library
and miscellaneous books, although not
large, is well chosen in works suited to
n their ;
ading periodicals of England,
1 the United States and Canada are carried
' and subscriptions are received for all of
I them. In office supplies the line is very
j complete and includes all kinds of filing
devices, inks, mucilage, letter and pencil
tablets, blank books, etc. In addition to
j carrying in stock everything usually
found in a first-class book and stationery
store, Mr. Simpson carries a choice and
complete line of imported and domestic
' cigars and tobacco. A very complete
line of maps of the British Columbia
I mining sections is also carried in stock,
tario, worked at his profess
1885, when he went to Man
gaged in the agricultural ir
grain business. He arrivée
from Manitoba in April, !
soon thereafter establishe.
E. H. Ragland, Manager.
It may be doubted if there is another
single enterprise in Rossland that has
been so closely identified with the building interests of the city or that has had
so much to do with the construction of
our residences and business blocks as
The Rossland Mill and Lumber Company.
This was the first industry of the kind
in Rossland. The plant comprises the latest improved machinery, and no expense
has been spared to make this mill one of
the best in this section of British Columbia. Only the most skilled and competent workmen are employed, and the
best of materials used. ' At the present
writing, there are employed about eight
skilled mechanics, drawing an average
pay of $3.00 per day. All lumber is
bought at wholesale, and every facility
afforded to reduce the cost of production
to the minimum and make the quality of
the product all that it can be made by
Ai materials, the best modern plant and
the most skilled workmen.
The company does" a general milling
and contracting business. Regarding the
class of work done, we may say it is
uniform in excellence, and has won for
the  company  a most gratifying reputa-
Lumber Company,
supplies the yard
cost, thus enablinj
meet all competit
and to quality.
E. H. Ragland, 1
land Mill & Lumb
ed the business in 1
formerly a contrac
Angeles, California
from Spokane, Wa
his former experie
surprising Mr. Rag
the Company's bui
It is not too mue
Grocers and Commission Merchants.
• from  the   Uu
ies two well-filled
 ly devoted  to furniture, and the  greater part of the other
„, .    .                 .                ,   .      ,     .•       to carpets, mattings,  portieres,   curtains»
This  is  not only  one  of the  leading Ltc     fjndertakers>  goods  form   an   im-
houses of the kind m Rossland, but in  portant but inconspicuous part   of the
this section of British  Columbia as well.   stock an(j funeral directing, embalming
Besides being wholesale and  retail  gro-   an(j   '
     Empey   Broth—   	
merchants and wholesale dealers i
grain, vegetables and other prodi
the farm, garden and dairy. Thei
ialties are fancy groceries, staple
ies, fancy butter, fresh eggs, cream
cured meats, cured fish, poulti
game, fresh fruits, fresh vegetabl
Empey Brothers have  two
one on Columbia avenue and one on First
uid have a large fire-proof ware-
i  Firs
a skilled undertaker, an
the U. S. College of Em
J. M.Jordan is a-nati.
pection. All garmen
Mr. Price's direct supervision, and
but the most skilled journeyman t
are   employed.    Mr.   Price    make
It is gratifying to be able to state
Mr. Price counts amonghis patrons
of the best dressed gentlemen of Roe
uid hotels.
F. E. and F. A. Empey are natives of \
the state of Michigan. They came to •
the mountains in 1886, and  for the past |.
olumbia in  February  of last year, he
by Wm. Rolls had
if^ng^sectfo^of  the   Provlfce^and!
cquainted   with    Mr.   Lockhart,    they
le first large and complete stock of fur-
remedies, toilet a
iture,  carpets and   undertakers'   goods
dries, etc., is kept
ver brought to  Rossland, opened their
Putting up presc
Importers and Dealers in Furniture, Carpets and Undertakers' Goods.
Merchant Tailor.
since the beginning of the present  year, <
none   are   more  worthy  of conspicuous <
and favorable mention than Lockhart & 1
Jordan.    The stock carried by this house i
is so plainly indicated in the head of this 1
article, that it only remains to say that it J
«ri .^eludes 'eve^thing"^ the^Ce of 1
homes of the  wealthy.     The  extensive !
stock of furniture  is supplemented by a :
general line of carpets, floor cloths, mat- :
ting rugs,  mats,  draperies, window cur- :
nd  1
meer tailoring business   ence
had been  the  leading ! skilled  prescription pharm
iere  found   many    old | many preparations manufac
I household words all over tl
•st. so is Mr.  Price the   district :    Alaskan    Balsam
l | Cholera  Cordial and Rolls'
: sold t(
1 and Irish goods, and it is  he almost immediate!
o say the display of trouser-  and  came  to  Rossla:
from the best factories of Canada, and is, j plat ROSSLAND AND THE TRAIL CREEK DISTRICT
Blue & Hirsh, Proprietors.
has been amply merited by a course of sisted of a few dozen-huts and shacks
fair and honorable dealing, and he oc- scattered here and there, he may be said
cupies a prominent place among the to have begun business here with the
leading and respected merchants of Ross- beginning of the town. He is, by trade,
land. a carpenter and builder, and for the first
year of his residence here was employed
as foreman for a leading contractor. In
January, 1896, Mr. Rolf established his
present business, and has since been
known as one of Rossland's leading
supply men.
Mr. Rolf has on hand at all times a full
The  Queen  Steam  Laundry was built  and complete stock of sash, doors, mould-
by Louis Blue and operated by S. Hirsh  ings anri builders' supplies.   He buys on
for the  firm of Blue  & Hirsh.    This is  both sides of the line, principally from
the only steam laundry in Rossland, and  Winnipeg, Vancouver, Tacoma and Port-
'"""o business. land.   He has a shop back of his stock
laundry   may be  r0om, where odd sizes and special patterns
The modern  steam
said to have had its birth in Troy, New I 0f sash and doors a
York.    It was there that the first mod-1 order,  and employs a
in this department
. Rolf was born  :
l laundry mach
the first modern laundry operated,
it is in Troy that the most perfect laundry machinery now in use the world over
is manufactured. It is, therefore, appropriate to state that the Queen Steam
Laundry is newly equipped with the latest improved machinery, most of which
came from the Troy manufactures.
Though recently established, this laundry has already built up an important
business, and gives employment to from
ten to a dozen people. Only the most
skilled white labor is employed, and the
best wages are paid.    Wagons
He c
the   '
to Rossland from Spokane, Wash-
He is a thorough business man, a
past, record in Rossland justifi
statement that he is a man of £
integrity as well.
Graden & Gaul, Proprietors.
rnmodation of ,
laundry is called for and delivered free of
While doing all maimer of laundry
work in the very best style, the specialty
of this laundry is fine family and gentlemen's work. Respecting the class of
work done, we may say that it is uniform
in excellence, and approaches perfection
as nearly as can be done by competent
:xperts operating the best modern ma-
The Columbia Brewei
and  September, 1895, 1
; built
Louis Blue, the senior member of the
firm of Blue & Hirsh, is too well and
widely known to need introduction here.
He is a prominent citizen of Rossland,
and is closely identified with the interests of this section. Mr. Hirsh was formerly a merchant of Tacoma, Washington, and on coming to Rossland, his as
business   with   Mr.  Blue brewerv.
Dreyer & Hoffmeir until March of the
present year, in which month the present
firm Graden & Gaul succeeded to the plant
The output of the Columbia Brewerj
is lager. The brewery is well equipped,
and no inferior materials are used. The
firm imports malt from San Francisco,
and hops from the rich fields of Washington. Mr. Gaul is a scientific brewer of
long experience, and it is not too much
*** of the Col '
or to many of the
business education is necessary to success,
so also is it no less necessary in all legit-
Richard Plewman was born in Ireland,
was educated to business in England, and
for over twenty years, first as a commercial
traveler for English firms in the leather
factoring business, and afterwards representing his own firm, he traveled all over
England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1887
he came to Toronto, Canada, where most
of his family now reside. His acquaintance with influential members of the
Victoria Consolidated Hydraulic Mining
company, one of the largest and strongest
companies of the kind in Canada, led to
his going to the Cariboo country in 1895.
The experience and observation in mining
gained in two years' connection with that
company, together with the favorable
reports of the Kootenays, led him in
January, 1897, to come to Rossland as a
more desirable field for engaging in business on his own account. His knowledge
of men and affairs, and his antecedents
being such as to commend him to influential people, and the time being
favorable, it is hardly surprising that
within a few months after his arrival here,
a comparative stranger, Mr. Plewman
should be secretary of La Regina Mining
company, official broker of the Cumberland Gold Mining company, and has been
nominated by the Old National Bank of
Spokane for the receivership of the O. K.
Mining company, and
land's prominent and
perience, and
to say of the prodi
brewery, that it is su_
imported beers of commerce.
Messrs. Graden & Gaul do not at present sell to the trade, but will in the  neai
future enlarge their facilities and extend
their business accordingly.     At present,
,,r:    !:.    ,,„„:,, .,.. .they sell from the  tap and  the  path  to
pie introduction for the people of the   their brewery is well  beaten  by  carriers
lil Creek district. of "growlers.»    1 heir place is a favorite
resort for prospectors and miners  who
want to  get the  worth  of their money,
T7    A    Dr>TTT I and lovers of the amber beverage cannot
E, A. KULf, j dQ bgtter thau to ..rush the  can" at the
Dealer in Sash, Doors, Glass, Mouldings and  Columbia brew
Builders' Supplies. j    fe®"1^
brokers" and dealers   in   mining   stocks
and mining properties.
That events and business move fast in
Rossland is well indcatèd by the fact that
two such old and conservative institutions
as the Bank of Montreal and the Bank of
British North America should actually
race with each other for the advantage of
a day in opening. Imbued with that
spirit of alertness ï"
e ofSw
) busi:
able from the progress andprosperity of a
new community than that which contributes to the building of homes, so.there
is no class of men more justly deserving
of favorable mention in a first history of
any community than those connected
with the builders' trades. It is, therefore, I
with pleasure we cite the subject of this It «■:
sketch. . !        nV!.mj ;M „.
It may be doubted if there is any other  cated for ot
-one man who has been so intimately asso-1 gaged ™ <
ciated with the building interests of this
.city as E. A. Rolf.    Coming to Rossland
in   February,  1895, when the town  con-
,„■■ .  - -   •     -•  Plewm.    .
business. His energy, his enterprise and
his wide and influential acquaintance in
mining and financial circles gained him
an immediate clientage and brought to
him many propositions to incorporate
companies and promote enterprises. He
accordingly secured the services of a
reputable firm of consulting engineers,
and having a careful examination of properties made, accepted or rejected propositions in accordance with the engineers'
official report. The wisdom of Mr.
Plewman's plan of procedure is seen in
the fact that every company with which
his name is connected will stand the most
I searching testas to properties upon which
itzerland, tne capitalization is made, the protection
They are 0f treasury stock, and the peremptory
here Mr. pooling of all promoters' stock.
:   general       Mi\  Plewman has now in the press a
judge from the
iterprises late in life I
.th exceptional success, it would seem
at, as in commercial pursuits, banking
id 'other branches of business, a thorough |
daims, from the mere
1 few hundred dollai
derable j Mountain properties, :
:du-  up to $300,000.00.
Among the
Creek distric
indeed any, h
ing of our city than the i
J. B. Johnson first came
August, 1895, when the no
solicitors for the Bank of Mot
was born at Stratford, provinc
>. He was educated at th
lada College, at Toronto,  an
his profe
most favorable aus]
admitted that he h<
a fact that Mr. Clute
for the good of the c
dene   '
the darkest days of the camp.
Satisfying himself on. the permanency
of the camp, Mr. Johnson began to look \
about him for the most profitable investments then open, aud soon became extensively interested in both city real estate and" valuable mining property.     He
Mr. Joh
nson wa
fthe locators of
the  Big
Four   n
properties,   now
bonded tc
W. S.
-orbould, of the Cana-
dian Paci
fie Expl
Limited, and is
. The Brandon & G
the Goodeve Brothers are extern
terested, and of the Leap Ys
Mining Company, incorporated a
The 1
tion feature of his bus
ant, and demands much of his attention.
J. B. Johnson was born in London, Ontario; but has been twelve years in British
Columbia. He came to Rossland from
New Westminster, where he was formerly
engaged in the real estate and brokerage
business. Of his standing and reputation
in Rossland, there could hardly be a
better index than the vote of our citizens
at the- late  election, when  Mr. Johnson
Barrister and Solictor.
■Tew   for Yale district during the  construction
 j  of of the C. P. railroad, and became  widely
e precep-  known as "Jack" Kirkup, "Sheriff of the
torship of Judge Bole,.now local judge of Kootenays.'
the Supreme Court of British Columbia, Mr. Kirkup can
and was in 1893 admitted to the bar by 1895, direct from
the Supreme Court of the Province. Im- from Revelstoke,
mediately following his admission, Mr. | the Government s>
Clute began the practice of h
ï to Rossland in March
ictoria, but indirectly
'here he had been in
rvice for the preceding
me in accordance w " "
ent appointment as Recorder,
outside of his native bailiwick was in the He, however, retained his position with the
1 Columbia is distinguished for summer of 1895, when he came with the Provincial Police, and, accordingly acted
acter of people she attracts to her rush to the Trail Creek district. Arriving as chief constable of the town until its
is well as for her phenomenal in Rossland, he found himself to be the incorporation, in April of the present
of natural resources. Among second regularly admitted barrister and year. Mr, Kirkup makes as capable and
red j solicitor in   the district.    Mr. Clute  is I popular a Recorder as he has always been
those  :
honors   and   distinction   before
their lot with us, none are more \
or favorably known throughout th
minion   of Canada than  the  subj<
this sketch.
Hon. T. Mayne Daly is senior m
of the law firm of Daly & Hamilt
nd the many brotherh
eived and the friendly
fraternal circles, :
greetings he re- ;
/elcome by old :
ded him, added
i  he;
>e said of him that he
i he has ever been
Barristers and Solicitors.
P. McL. Forin and A. C. Gait, leading
barristers and solicitors of Rossland, formed a co-partnership in May of the present
vear. Besides their mutual professional
Interests, Forin & Gait are owners of
some valuable mining properties now undergoing development, and are interested
in several promising mining companies.
P. McL. Forin came to British Columbia in 1891, and to Rossland in May,
1896. He was born in the Province of
Ontario. He was educated at Belleville
High School, and at the Toronto University, and studied law at the Inner
Temple, London, England. On returning to Canada, he came to British Columbia, and engaged in the practice of his
profession at New Westminster. He
subsequently removed his office to Vancouver, and came from Vancouver to
A. C. Gait is also a native of the Province of Ontario. He was educated at
the Upper Canada College, and at the
Toronto University, and had attained
distinction in his profession, at Toronto,
where he practiced for a number of years
before coming to British Columbia. Mr.
Gait came to the Province and to Rossland, in 1896. He is a member of the I
family of Gaits, well-known in Canadian
politics and for the number of its able |
professional men.
Among the many favors of Chance or
of Fortune, for which Rossland has
reason for gratification, the character and 1
standing of its professional men is not the
least. Some have come from their Canadian Alma Mater, or a more celebrated
school in England, some from both, as in
the case of Mr. Forin ; some have won
honors in the older provinces before
coming ; all, without a known exception,
are men of commenelable attainments and
worthy character.
The year 1896 marked the arrival in
Rossland of many men prominent in
mining, business and professional circles.
W. J. Nelson is one among the latter who
remaining, has established himself permanently and will practice his profession
in Rossland and in all the  courts of the
Mr. Nelson was born at Brampton, in
the county of Peel, Province of Ontario.
He was educated in the best schools of
his native Province, and studied law at Osgood Hall, Inns of Court, at Toronto. He
engaged in the practice of his profession
at Toronto ; but went as a member, and
officer of the Queen's Own Rifles, of
Canada, in 1885, to assist in quelling the
Reil rebellion. On being mustered out
of the service, he resumed the practice of
law, as a member of the firm of McDonald
& Nelson, Barristers, of Toronto, which
firm acted as agents for the Attorney
General of Canada, in the Province of Ontario. In 1890 having withdrawn from
the firm, Mr. Nelson went to the Northwest Territory and engaged in the practice of law at Moose Jaw, where he became prominent both as a barrister and
Mr. Nelson came to the Trail Creek
district in August, 1896. It might also
go without saying that he very soon became interested in mining to the extent
of investing, and that he owns and has
interests in some valuable properties. It
is worthy of note, however, that his investments and mining interests are' more
as incidental to exceptional opportunities
offered him and incidental to his residence in a mining district, than as indicating that he. will allow the alluring
promise of mining to interfere with his
chosen profession.
Having practised in the courts of two
Provinces, and having eaten salt with
men of all ranks of life from Premiers of
the Dominion, to cowboys of the Northwest Territory, Mr. Nelson is a man of
wide experience, and is exceptionally
well qualified both as a barrister for the
Province and as a valuable citizen of
Rossland. As a criminal lawyer, he
ranked first in the Territories, and many
a guilty cow-puncher and bronco-buster
owes   his   liberty   to   Mr.   Nelson's ad-
General Mining Machinery.
Notwithstanding all that has been
written of the wonderful richness of our
mines and the magic city which they
have built, neither could ever have been
but for the machinery which has rendered
possible the development of the former
and the consequent building of the latter.
It is fitting then that the agency which
has furnished the means whereby were
made Rossjand and her mines should
occupy a prominent place in a historical
review of the camp.
F. R. Mendenhall is the pioneer machinery agent of Rossland. He came to
the Trail Creek district in the summer of
1895, and in October of the same year
began business as an agent of the Canadian Rand Drill company, of Sherbrooke,
Quebec, and the Jenckes Machine company, for which companies he is now
general agent for the whole of British
If Mr. Mendenhall was fortunate in securing the general agency of the Canadian Rand Drill company and the Jenckes
Machine company, those corporations
were no less fortunate in securing Mr.
Mendenhall as their general agent for
British Columbia, for there is how more
Canadian Rand and Jenckes machinery in
use in British Columbia than all other
makes of machinery combined. In proof
of the preceding statement we append the
following list of well-known mines which
Mr. Mendenhall has fully or partially
equipped with machinery.
Iron Horse
Crown Point
Palo Alto
Red Eagle
Blue Bird
Nest Egg
Silver Bell
City of Spokan
White Bear
St. Paul
Gre  ' —
Morning Star        "        "
Hattie "        '.' —
Mr.. Mendenhall's office is eligibly located on Columbia avenue, Rossland,
and his commodious warehouse on the
Columbia & Western track affords exceptional facilities for receiving and forwarding machinery. The stock in store is
always sufficient to meet the immediate
demand and is being constantly replenished from the factory. Mr. Mendenhall
attends in readiness to supply rock drills,
air compressors and all kinds of general
mining machinery at a day's notice.
F. R. Mendenhall was born in the
"Buckeye" state, but has been west for
the past ten years, He was, before coming to Rossland, connected with the Parke
& Lacy Manufacturing-company's branch
at Spokane, Washington. His experience
has ably fitted him for the responsible
position he holds as general agent of such
great corporations as the Canadian Rand
Drill company and the Jenckes Machine
company, and it is not too much to say
Mr. Mendenhall has made the names of
those companies, in British Columbia as
elsewhere, a synonym for quality and
durability in mining machinery.
Sanitary Plumber.
C. M. Weller is a native of Wurtenberg
Germany, but came to the United States
when a youth. He was for a number of
years a resident of the state of Kansas and
later of Tacoma, Washington, from which
place he came to Rossland in August,
1896. He was formerly connected with
the leading plumbing establishments of
Tacoma, and on arriving here immediately set up shop and began business on his
Mr. Weller's shop is located on the S.
W. corner of Spokane street and Columbia
avenue, under one of the first hotel
buildings put up in Rossland. It is
equipped with all the latest improved
machine tools and appliances for the
modern plumbing shop, and is stocked
with everything necessary in the way of
lead and iron pipe, sheet metal for the
manufacture of bath-tubs, sinks, wash-
stands, water closets, tubs, etc.
J 24
Mr. Weller will gladly submit
for work in his line, and his praiseworthy-
record for the past year in Rossland justifies the assertion that any contract he
may enter into will be executed in the
most satisfactory manner and in strict accordance with specifications.
It might go without saying that Mr.
Weller can furnish references. He has
done much of the best work that has been
Goodeve Block, Butte Hotel, Hotel Shaw,
Hotel Cardiff, Western Hotel, Goff building, the Bank building at Trail, residences
of H. S. Wallace, Charles R. Hamilton,
barrister, H. Stevens and others.
Address C. M. Weller, Rossland, B. C,
P. O. Box 271.
operation  of  the   reverberate
calciners have not been used.
The dust chamber is 180 feet
now five furnaces
additions under <
fully treble the ca; President, HON. GEO. E. FOSTER, M. P., late Minister of Finance, Ottawa, Ont.      Secretary, LEO H. SCHMIDT, Rossland, B. C.
EDWARD C. FINCH, General Manager, Rossland, B. C.
ueen Mining oa
Silver Queen; locati
ly, B. C.
four claims have bee
lied for, and will be iss
mneland 70 feet of
mse, bunk house  an
ithshop, ore dump ar
iivision of West Kootenay
output of the Silver Queen -si
ill its n<
of Umber
lis propert
suitable fo
■ Black Fo:
>uth of tu
nnel No. 1
affords i
offers 1
rking the
property a
nagnitude of the proposit
A Very Large Shipping Mine.
Of the Company's Capital Stock
350,000 snores nave seen pieced in me Treasury
For the purpose of providing a Development Fund. The proceeds of the sale of
this stock can be used for no other purpose
than that of placing the property on a shipping basis, purchasing machinery, etc.
This Treasury Fund, despite the extensive
development which the property has already received, is still intact. The Company have now decided to place on the
market a block of	
50,000 snares 01 this siock oijen cenispersnare
Looks Exceedingly Well.
Thomas H. Fraser, the noted South African
Brft?srh  Columwl, ^ecentiy  visited g*^1*™'
JnMh'gmcerte spoke as7oUows of this property:
A Silver and Gold Proposition
WÊÊÊÊÊË îfe.siÎ7T?r.-9"eei5w-e *' 


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