Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society. Volume XIX Oregon Historical Society 1918

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0339887.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0339887-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0339887-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0339887-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0339887-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0339887-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0339887-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Oregon Historical Society
MARCH, 1918
Copyright,,1918, by the Oregon Historical Society
The Quarterly disavows responsibility for the positions taken by contributors to its paces.
R. A. BOOTH—History of Umpqua Academy':0&^%%'^ 1-26
GEO. B. KUYKENDALL—Reminiscences of Early Days
at Old Umpqua Academy •- '^^^Yj^^^s^fê.' 37-36
AUSTIN MIRES—Some Recollections of Old Umpqua   J     &**$g
Academy - * '~ef^0^^Â "P^^^^-T' k<^'^^" 37-48
J. H. BOOTH—The Umpqua Academy Students* Associa-
t*on ^»^1^#^'^'^^''%^^^ 49-52
BINGER   HERMANN — Early   History   of   Soufhern
Oregon ^^^^^^^^^^^^W^^&â^-'^^- 53-68
GEORGE STOWELL—Joel Ware—A Sketch ^ ^pjlpl^ 69-71
NEWS AND COMMEN'&r^- 'J^SÊ^^^^S^   72"87
Entered at the post office at Portland, Oregon, as second-class matter  THE
MARCH, 1918—DECEMBER, 1918
Edited by
Portland, Oregon
The Ivy Press
Academy, Umpqua (See Umpqua Academy)
Annals of Oregon, The Spirit and the Objectives in the
By F. G. Young 177-179
Astoria, The Surrender at, in 1818
By T. C. Elliott 271-282
Ebbert, George Wood
Autobiographical Sketch of  235-262
Federal Relations of Oregon
By Lester Burrell Shippee 89-133, 189-230, 283-331
Henderson, Enoch Pinkney
By George Stowell 164-166
Hundred Years Ago, An Event of One
By T. C. Elliott 181-187
Oregon, Early History of Southern
By Binger Hermann      53-68
Oregon, Federal Relations of
By Lester Burrell Shippee 89-133, 189-230, 283-331
. Pioneers, Deaths of
By George H. Himes 81-2, 176, 269-270, 373-4
Umpqua Academy, History of
By R. A. Booth      1-26
Umpqua Academy, Reminiscences of Early Days at Old
By Geo. B. Kuykendall     27-36
Umpqua Academy, Some Recollections of
By Austin Mires     37-48
Umpqua Academy, The, Students' Association
By J. H. Booth     49-52
Ware, Joel—A Sketch
By George Stowell     69-71
News and Comment
By Leslie M. Scott 72-87, 167-175, 232-233
Fisher, Reverend Ezra, Correspondence of
Edited by Sarah Fisher Henderson, Nellie Edith Latourette,
By Leslie M. Scott. 72-87, 167-175, 231-233
Puget's Sound Agricultural Company, Prospectus
BpOTH, /. H., The Umpqua Academy Students' Association    49-52
Booth, R. A., History of- Umpqua Academy..      1-26
Ebbert, GeorgekWood, Autobiographical Sketch of 268-867
Elliott, T. C, An Event of One Hundred Years Ago 181-187
 The Surrender of Astoria in 1&18J. 271-282
Hermann, Binger, Early History of Southern Oregon.     53-68
Himes, Geo. H., Deaths of Oregon Pioneers, June i-September
30, IÇT8- 269-270
Kuykendall, Geo.  B., Reminiscenses  of Early Days at" Old
Umpqua Academy       27-36
Mires, Austin, Some Recollections of Old Umpqua Academy..   37-48
Scott, Leslie M., "News and Comment" 72-87, 167-175, 231-233
Shippee, Lester Burrell, Federal Relations of Oregon ■..
 89-133,  189-230, 283-331
Stowell, George, Joel Ware—A Sketch     69-71
 Enoch Pinkney Henderson 164-166
Young, F. G., The Spirit and the Objectives, in the Annals of
Oregon  177-179
Oregon Historical Society
MARCH, 1918
Copyright, 1918, by the Oregon Historical Society
The Quarterly disavows responsibility for the positions taken by contributors to its pages.
By R. A. Booth
Umpqua Academy, located at Wilbur, Douglas County, Oregon, was chartered by the Territorial Legislature of Oregon,
January 15, 1857, and its history as an academy ended October,
1900. Before the granting of the charter a school was taught
in the same locality that bore the same name and was the
shadow of the coming event.
James H. Wilbur was its founder and distinctively the author of the early events that led to its establishment and splendid career. Any historical sketch, therefore, that does not at
least recite the principal events of his life and work will fail
to satisfy those readers who are the grateful inheritors of his
great work. He was born in Lowville, New York, September
11, 1811, and died at Walla Walla, October 8, 1887. He was
married to Lucretia Ann Stevens, March 9, 1831. She died
September 13, 1887, less than a month prior to her husband's
death. From this union came one child, a daughter, who was
married to Rev. St. Michael Fackler, an Episcopal clergyman,
in 1849. She died the following year, leaving a daughter who
died in her eleventh year.
Mr. Wilbur's life was truly one of ministry. The pioneer
spirit was in his blood and the call of God in his heart. He
was one of the best of a type of early Methodist ministers,
who were thrilled by the "Go Ye" of the Galilean and whose
life work was mapped on a plan that made service to others
of primary importance.   To him, as to others of his time, the R. A. Booth
Christian religion was the all embracing philosophy that ennobled manhood and gave boundless possibilities to human
It was natural, therefore, that he should seek his commission from the Church. He received it at the hands of the constituted authorities of the Methodist Episcopal Church. His
antecedents were Presbyterian but according to the usage of
the Methodists he was licensed to exhort by William S. Bow-
dish, in 1840, and two years later he was licensed to preach by
Aaron Adams, Presiding Elder, and joined the Black River
Conference, in the State of New York.
On September 27, 1846, he sailed from New York on the
Bark Whitton via Cape Horn, for the Columbia River and
reached Oregon City June 22, 1847. Then the work of the
Methodist Church of the Northwest was under the "Oregon
Mission" and George Gary, who was once Presiding Elder in
the Black River Conference, was superintendent.
The "Oregon and California Mission Conference" was organized at Salem in 1849. Here Wilbur answered the roll
call and was elected secretary. The boundaries of this conference were co-extensive with the Pacific Coast country but
there were few ministers and consequently many points were
not occupied. Six men constituted its membership. Two of
this number were appointed to work in California and four
in Oregon. Of the former was William Taylor, later the
flaming evangel of South America and Africa. This conference appointed Wilbur to Oregon City and Portland.
Here he began to make history that stands out prominently
among the events of the Oregon Country, for it was his
thought, energy and largely his hands that built the first
church and the first school in Portland—the Taylor Street
Methodist Church and the "Portland Academy and Female
Seminary." He advocated the needs, solicited the funds, aided
in clearing the ground,.in hewing the logs and driving the
nails that made these buildings possible. The academy was
completed November 17, 1851. It was incorporated in 1854
and Wilbur was one of its first trustees.    Both of the acad- Umpqua Academy
emies named were under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Before the Portland school had been incorporated Wilbur
had been appointed by Bishop Edward R. Ames as Superintendent of the "Umpqua Mission." This was in March, 1853,
at Salem, when the M. E. Church of the Northwest was
formed into an annual conference and separated from. California. Writing of this event, Rev. H. K. Hines says in
substance that "Methodism here passed into the third stage—
the first being purely missionary and the second under a Mission Conference. Now it had reached full autonomy of a conference and had taken its place in the records and constitution
of the church."
Let it be said here that it is no part of the aim of the
writer to put into this narrative an undue portion of church
history. But it has been said by others and certainly is true
that the history of Oregon cannot be written apart from the
events in which the Methodist missionaries and pioneers were
the principal actors. They, more than the members of any
other organization, saved Oregon to the Union.
It was under the circumstances attending these times that
this stronger organization sent this strong man into a great
field for a great work.
Willamette University at Salem, the oldest educational institution west of the Rocky Mountains, had been organized
for some years and was well calculated as the center of a
school system as well as to serve a local need. It was Wilbur's idea that academies, correlated to Willamette University,
should be established at different points that reasonable facilities might be thus offered for a liberal education to the pioneer
families. How natural to his thought, then, that in this
"Umpqua Mission," comprising the entire Umpqua basin, the
Umpqua Academy should: be established !
Among the early farmers, stockmen and miners of Southern
Oregon, this messenger of the gospel and apostle of education
moved freely and found a welcome wherever there was a
hungry soul and a task wherever he could plant ambition in a R. A. Booth
boy or girl. The admiration and high regard in which Mr.
Wilbur was uniformly held by all who came under his benediction, mellowed into an affection that compelled the title "Father
Wilbur" and ever afterward it clung to him. He seemed an
essential part of the early growth and development of the
Umpqua country, as he formerly had been in each western
community, where his lot had been cast. It was but natural
that the seat of the Umpqua Academy should be named for
him and thus the village that grew about the school that he
established, took its name from his. Formerly the locality had
been known as Bunton's Gap.
Rev. Thomas Fletcher Royal, one of the early fathers of
Southern Oregon, a man of liberal learning and for years
principal of Umpqua Academy, left valuable manuscripts concerning the early history of Southern Oregon. From them it
is intensely interesting to learn that "Two Sunday Schools and
two public schools were organized in Douglas County as early
as 1851. The first Sunday School was opened by A. R. Flint,
in his own home on the site where Winchester was built ; the
second was organized about the same time at Bunton's Gap,
afterward known as Wilbur. This Sunday School was organized by B. J. Grubbe and Dr. Calvin Reed. In the same year
one of the first public schools was conducted under a temporary shed made by leaning long planks against a pole that
rested on pins driven into oak trees, near where the Wilbur
Methodist Parsonage now stands. Mr. Eason was the first
teacher." The other school he says was located on a "mound
on Thomas Smith's land claim, in a log cabin, conducted by
James Walton, known familiarly in Douglas County and Salem
as 'Judge Walton'."
The academy came into history in 1854. The first building
occupied was a rough log structure located just east of the
residence built by Father Wilbur on his land claim, upon which
he settled September 8, 1853. This residence stood long in
a well known location, as a pioneer land mark. It was known
as the first Methodist Parsonage of Southern Oregon. It will
serve as an additional help in locating the first school building Umpqua Academy
to place it about a quarter of a mile east of where the first
Academy building proper stood.
It may thus be seen that the institution that became so prominent in Southern Oregon in later years had its beginning in a
very modest structure. It is written by one of the first students: "The school house had a few rude pine desks, un-
painted except by ink we pupils spilled over them and unadorned except by a few pictures drawn by our hands or
carved with our knives."
The first principal was Rev. Jas. H. B. Royal, who served
two years. He was educated at the Rock River Seminary
and McKendree College, Illinois. Mary Elizabeth Royal, his
sister, was "Preceptress and teacher of physiology and mental
philosophy." She later became the wife of the late Rev. John
Flinn and is now living in Portland.
Mr. A. R. Flint, formerly of Boston, succeeded Mr. Royal
as principal. He was long a resident of Southern Oregon and
was well known as a civil engineer and surveyor of public
lands. He located the claim on the north bank of the Umpqua
River about three miles east of Winchester that is still known
as the "Flint Place." He was a pioneer merchant of Douglas
County and also served a term as Receiver of Public Moneys
at the Roseburg Land Office. Miss Helen Flint, a daughter
of the principal, was preceptress. She became Mrs. A. H.
Dearborn, now of Portland, and is the mother of Prof. R. H.
Dearborn, of the Oregon Agricultural College. Other assistants who taught in the first building were Miss Charlotte S.
Grubbe, later wife of Dr. E. R. Fisk, one time Dean of the
Medical College of Willamette University.
Among the early students attending at the old building were
many names later and even now familiar on this coast. It is
to be regretted that the complete enrollment of the first year
cannot be given.   Here are some of them :
Dr. Geo. B. Kuykendall, now of Pomeroy, Wn.
Rev. John Wesley Kuykendall, who died many years ago in
California. '* ° - |'?1
Hon. Geo. W. Riddle, former County Judge of Douglas R. A. Booth
County and Receiver of Public Moneys at the Roseburg Land
Helen Flint and C. S. Grubbe, later becoming assistants.
Geo. W. Grubbe, pioneer merchant of Wilbur.
Elizabeth Knott, later Mrs. Robt. Ladd, Portland.
Sarah Watson, later Mrs. Dr. S. Hamilton, mother of Judge
J. W. Hamilton.
Miss Kahler, a sister of Judge Wesley Kahler, late of Jacksonville.
Sarah Tibbetts, sister of Mrs. Binger Hermann, of Roseburg.
Geo. and Nancy Stephenson, the latter now Mrs. John Party,
of Roseburg.
Lucy Rose, later Mrs. Rufus Mallory, Portland.
Nelson and Frank Reed.
Thomas Jenkins and Henry Jenkins; the latter became a
member of the Oregon conference.
It doubtless has not escaped the notice of the reader that
the going of Mr. Wilbur to the Umpqua Country and the
founding of the Umpqua Academy were simultaneous events,
and it is a matter of no small concern whether in estimating
the force and character of Wilbur, or the people to whom he
had come, that in less than twelve months from the date of
his appointment Umpqua Academy had a beginning. Perhaps
nothing less should be expected from a field where the chief
laborer for a time was to be the great stalwart who had turned
his face westward from New York in the early strength of
his manhood to find work, helpful work, work that would
endure. A new dream was in his'mind—no, not a dream, but
the vision of a statesman. Before him was a need and an
opportunity. This both thrilled and emboldened him. He had
proven already that he was a finisher of tasks. He now knew
the bounds of his territory and the hearts of his people. Here
as a minister he met every incumbent duty, whether in the
home, by the church altar or at the new made grave. His
name had become a household word. He had become counsellor and arbiter to the rancher and miner and inspiration to
the young and hope to the mature. To all of these he preached
the gospel of education.    They heard it with willing minds Umpqua Academy
and accepted it with fixed purpose to do their part. For the
furtherance of the plan he showed the necessity of a suitable
building properly furnished and offered as a gift, from his
own claim, land upon which to locate it. He had won the confidence of all and they generously responded to his solicitations. It was difficult of course to accomplish such an undertaking but the well-founded belief that it was not insurmountable was sufficient for the man of the hour. What if some
men of less heroic mould should have been the leader of the
enterprise? Or suppose Wilbur had not been rescued when
he fell overboard from the ship—as he did on his western trip !
He was discovered far to the rear, a mere speck on the ocean
wave, and when picked up by the sailors he said in reply to
an inquiry: "I knew help would come and I kept in motion
so I would not sink." This Umpqua Mission was a dry land
job; just how dry we cannot now tell, but it is evident that
our hero kept in motion and help came.
Nevertheless, the destiny of many a young man and woman
then living in the Umpqua Region and of others yet to be,
was in the balance during the years intervening between the
date of Wilbur's assignment to the mission work in 1855 and
1857, the date of chartering the Academy and of occupying
the first substantial building.
How splendid that no sad words of "might have been" are
strewn along Father Wilbur's pathway! Let us not forget,
however, that the settlers were poor and they were seekers
of wealth rather than possessors of it. They were home builders and the fathers and mothers of boys and girls. The home
and the children were to become their riches. Money and
other things of value were contributed—willing hands and
strong arms were mighty adjuncts for they felled the trees,
hauled the logs, sawed them into lumber and fashioned it into
a building. Father Wilbur in his work was day laborer and
architect. He chopped, sawed, drove ox-team and worked in
the mill six days and the seventh met the men with whom he
had worked and others at the house of worship.
The first academy building was well proportioned, sttbstan- R. A. Booth
tially built and well adapted to the needs of the times. Terraced on the south side of the mountain around which the
village clings, at an elevation of about 200 feet above the level
of the surrounding valley, it commanded an excellent view.
It could be seen from some directions a distance of ten miles
and the bell rang out good cheer that could be heard miles
around. The supporting mountain was named Lincoln by
vote of the students in 1874.
The building was two stories high, well finished and suitably
ornamented. How indelibly its great white form is fixed in
the minds of teachers, students, patrons and passers-by! It
seemed the very eye of the mountain looking out into a world
of opportunity! It stood there for nearly two generations, a
veritable monument to heroic deeds, revered by the thousands
who wrought within its walls and the beacon of hope to the
many who sacrificed that their children might be educated.
The date of the beginning of Umpqua Academy was about
midway between territorial organization and statehood. The
legislative enactment that became its charter was signed by
Jas. K. Kelly, President of the Council, and Lafayette F.
Grover, Speaker of the House of Representatives. Both of
these men were prominent in the political history of the state.
Kelly, in the order named, was candidate for Congressman,
Governor and Senator. To the latter office he was elected in
1870. Grover was, successively, Congressman, Governor and
Senator. These names thus connected with the founding of
Umpqua Academy fittingly become a part of a long list that
might be mentioned.    Others well known will follow.
Sec. 1 of the charter reads :
be established at Wilbur, in the County of Douglas, an institution of learning to be called 'The Umpqua Academy' and that
James H. Wilbur, James O. Raynor, Hon. M. P. Deady,
Addison R. Flint, Benjamin J. Grubbe, Willis Jenkins, Fleming
R. Hill, John Kuykendall and William Royal, and their associates and successors, are hereby declared to be a body corporate and politic in law, by the name and style of 'The Trustees
of the Umpqua Academy.' " Umpqua Academy
Some of these trustees served for many years and all of them
became more or less prominent in the state.
James O. Raynor was a Methodist preacher, a pioneer of
1847, a member of the Oregon Conference, and was appointed
in 1853 to work as assistant to Wilbur. He became a chaplain
in the U. S. Army.
Addison R. Flint has already been mentioned in this article,
once being principal of the Academy.
Willis Jenkins was a pioneer settler and was the father of
two of the first students that answered the roll call in the
school in 1854.
Wm. Royal, truly was king of the Royal tribe. He was the
father of T. F. Royal, Dr. Wm. Royal and Mary Royal, one
of the first teachers of the Academy. His family became
prominent in Oregon affairs and their name and work are
highly honored.
Fleming R. Hill was long an active participant in all that
related to the school. He was the builder and for a long time
proprietor of the Wilbur House and active in the industrial
and political life of the county. Mrs. Geo. W. Short and Mrs.
Fannie Hart of Douglas County are his daughters.
Matthew P. Deady, once a boy blacksmith in Ohio, became
in turn Justice of the Peace and embryo lawyer in the Umpqua
country, chairman of the State Constitutional Convention,
Regent of Leland Standford, Jr. University, First President
of the Board of Regents of the University of Oregon and
Federal Judge of the district.
Benjamin J. Grubbe, was a promoter of the first effort ever
put forth in Southern Oregon to organize a school, primitive
and unsheltered as it was. He raised a large family, nearly
all, if not every one of them, being in some way, to some
extent, educated at the Academy. William became a physician ;
Caroline and Angeline were assistants at the Academy ; George
was Wilbur's pioneer merchant ; Quincy was one of the early
prominent graduates; Jeptha is still active in business in
Douglas County; and so the mention of the children's names
connecting this pioneer family, long associated with the school,
might be extended. Luella was the youngest child and the
last to become a part in keeping green the memories that cling
about the old institution. She was early widowed and died in
1910. She left the impress of a sweet character and a son and
daughter as worthy successors.
John Kuykendall, located in Douglas County the year Wilbur 10
R. A. Booth
was assigned to Umpqua work. His family was large and the
most of them were educated at the Academy. He was therefore not only a patron of many years by his children's attendance but a part of all that made the school, its life eventful and
its character and work noble and: continued. His children
have been and are not only prominent citizens of the Northwest but are worthy beneficiaries of their splendid heritage.
His grandchildren are numerous, active and favorably known
in every section of the state and his great grandchildren are
now taking their place among the state's forces for advancement. His last child to be educated at the Academy was
Celestia. She was a bright girl, a splendid woman and a fine
mother. She has just left us and enrolled with the great majority of students in the unknown beyond. Her husband,
General Abner Pickering, is now actively training the U. S.
Forces for service abroad. She was the mother of four children, two sons, John and Wood, commissioned officers in the
U. S. Army, and two girls, Marie and Yeteve, wives of commissioned officers now in France.
The inclination to connect those who were early associated
with the school, to the present, through their children and
to extend personal mention, seems impelling to one whose
life was so bound up in personal relationship with many of
the people who were the principal actors of the times covered
by this sketch, and it appears difficult to discriminate between
personal interest and historical value. But the history of institutions cannot be written separately from the history of
peoples and Oregon is yet far from the outer boundary of the
influence that grew out of the educational effort at Umpqua
The essential features of the charter do not differ materially
from those of other educational institutions of later date. The
corporation was given the right to "acquire, receive and possess,
by donation, gift or purchase, and to retain and hold property,
real, personal and mixed." The entire use of the property
was limited entirely to educational purposes, and the annual
income was limited to $10,000. This probably was meant to
limit the burdens of the patronizing community that might
be solicited for aid and: was indicative of the sentiment that
belonged to the simple life of the time. Umpqua Academy
Vacancies in the Board of Trustees were to be filled by the
Oregon conference of the Methodist Episcopal church and additions made by the same authority. The church Conference
was to appoint from its members each year a visiting committee of three who were to "visit and examine into the
financial and other affairs of said institution and meet and
confer with the trustees."
It is a fair implication of the charter that the faculty, trustees
and visiting committee could make rules and regulations for
the conduct of the school. This they did not fail to do. These
"Rules and Regulations" made some hundreds of years after
the landing of the Pilgrims, clearly indicate that "there were
puritans in those days" and likewise testify that human nature
in all its strength and embarrassment was the chief characteristic of boys and girls of the times. And, too, the minutes in
the Record Book show that there were prophets and sages
yet alive and also scribes, for the writings were profuse.
There are suggestions in the preambles that the authority
of the corporate body was somewhat called into question by
the patrons. And the faculty watch over the students does not
seem to have been limited by the sunrise and sunset. And
even certain things were not to be permitted at any time "save
in the presence of parents or other revered personages."
No record, however, is found that all of these "Rules and
Regulations" were observed and there are those yet alive who
testify to the contrary. It may seem tedious to go into the
record of discipline,. expressions of assumed "authority and
justification".that surrounded the school and really surcharged
the village air, but these things were a peculiar part of its life
and without them it would not have been Umpqua Academy,
as then known, and that stood out the more prominently in
Southern Oregon history because "of the extreme care and the
right influences that were meant to be thrown about those committed to the care of these early Oregon educators. Some
recitation may therefore be permitted.
The schools that were the educational forerunners of the
Academy, as well as other schools of the state or Coast, were 12
R. A. Booth
quite primitive. The method of their support varied. The
legal taxing power and the sentiment later supporting it were
yet undefined. Voluntary subscriptions for the support of district schools were common and boundaries were not established.
The school facilities offered were the response, not by any
means uniform, to the fundamental need of education. Then,
as now, there were differences of opinion and resultant bickering and strife. These perhaps were not serious at Wilbur but
were in evidence. The same contentions, somewhat modified,
have generally if not uniformly followed the establishment of
all schools in the state, except the public grammar and high
schools. Some adjustments, not always pleasantly made, between the district authorities and those of the higher state
institutions of all classes, have generally attended the establishment of all our advanced schools and it was uniformly so
in the independent colleges under church patronage. This was
but natural when there appeared some duplication of effort.
The nearly sixty-five year old record book of the Academy
has been carefully reviewed for the preparation of this article.
It would be difficult to find in the west a more interesting book.
From the recitals found in the journal it may be well established
that there was need for missionaries and reformers. We read
that "Godless Directors" were sometimes elected and were
"aided and abetted by other kindred spirits." Partial justification of this statement is found in the following quotation from
the preambles to the "Rules and Regulations :" "Thus a party
IN the school, allied with kindred spirits WITHOUT united
with the spirit of the PIT to corrupt our youth and children
among decent people and sap the foundations of civil society in
our midst."
Here is another one: "They acknowledged the school authority of the institution but denyed the right of any and all
the powers of the concern to meddle with their outside conduct
and unfortunately older persons were not entirely wanting to
endorse their declaration of rights. Several families seemed to
measure the prerogatives of the academy managers by their
notions of common schools." Umpqua Academy
Again: "The campus rang with strange sounds at night
and sometimes in day light all manner of loaf ish gestures and
waggish ways disgraced the social intercourse of some of the
Were it not for the incriminating evidence of the record
it would be a delightful task to write of the manliness of the
young men and the womanly virtues that adorned the sweet
girls, but the stated necessity of so many "Rules and Regulations" and the preambles that precede them, suggest that
no such extended comment be made just here. Read this:
"Night revelings was [sic] sometimes indulged even to very
late hours. Profane swearing was slyly but to an alarming
extent practiced so extensively indeed that before the knowledge thereof came to the faculty nearly a dozen boys were
involved therein, and some of them quite young boys, too."
Alas, we are prone to evil as the sparks are to fly upward !
"and not content with these sly immoralities, the designing
came boldly into our religious meetings and there for weeks
persisted in acts, gestures, whisperings, laughing and other
measures of disrespect and disturbances which for weeks greatly
annoyed these gatherings."
After noting "a painful sense of the defect in our academic
relations" it was decided to invade Gaul, so the Rubicon was
crossed and we find: "This defect became still more apparent when on the trustees convening and taking legal counsel
the Judge decided that without some further laws enacted by
the corporate body the school was as powerless as a common
school and could only* have supervision of its students while
in or about the school, or in school groups. That after their
dispersion at night they might do as they pleased either singly
or in groups, even to drunkenness and profanity and existing
authority could not recognize them till again collected in school
groups next morning."
A trustee meeting was called for March, 1859, attending
were "Dr. Miller, Judge Deady and Messrs. Kuykendall, Hill
and Grubbe, forming a legal quorum according to the charter.
Also Rev. T. F. Royal, Agent.   E. Arnold in behalf of the 14 l
R. A. Booth
faculty presented the following bill which after deliberation
was adopted by the board and agreed to by the directors."
It cannot be expected that all that may be related here of the
conditions surrounding early pioneer school life, especially as
related to any one institution, will be of equal interest to all
who may read, but bearing in mind that another half century
must place beyond reach some of the sources and records from
which this is gathered and feeling assured that for purposes
of contrast it will progressively become of greater interest,
some further recital seems justified.
The rules were the joint work of trustees, official visitors
and faculty. They were not hasty enactments. With the
present plan of student government of colleges they constitute
the extremes of the past 50 years and are recorded for their
future historical significance rather than for purpose of present
comparison. They are a faithful portrayal of the combined
judgment of anxious parents, conscientious faculty and relentless guardians. College work then was not only a matter of
recitation at stated periods, with large liberty to students at
all other hours, but was a constant supervision over all registrants under the requirements of daily chapel attendance and
continual presence during regular school hours and authority
and vigilance did not cease at the tapping of the bell at 4
P. M.—it continued until the nine o'clock morning roll call and
overlapped the week ends.
"Explanation of our position as an academy : This institution was founded as a SELECT HIGH SCHOOL, designed
to be firm and UNCOMPROMISING in the maintenance of a
high and refined standard of morals and general deportment.
This design must not be forgotten or lost sight of but carried
and supported under all circumstances.    *    *    *"
"The connection of the academy with the school district is
designed for mutual benefit and not as any compromise of
the HIGH ORDER OF THE ACADEMY. Neither the directors ask, or the trustees concede any such compromise, nor
can the connection be considered a blessing any longer than
the High Standard is maintained." Umpqua Academy
A few "Rules" also will be quoted.
"Such as reside outside of the district shall present satisfactory evidence of good moral character and also satisfactory
evidence of disposition to obey all the regulations."
"This institution can admit of no immoral principles or
practice among its members, nothing poisonous in principle
inculcated; nothing poisonous or improper in the reading indulged and nothing corrupting in the influence reflected by
the students among students or elsewhere."
"But in addition to these general prohibitions the trustees
deem it proper to note some few things particularly because
they are more extensively practiced among immoral youthl"
Some things could not be tolerated—a partial list is submitted:
"Irreverent remarks about the Christian Religion."
"Profane, obscene or vulgar language or unchaste yarns or
narratives, or immoral gestures or hints."
"Any degree of tippling anywhere."
"Any sort of night reveling ;" and so on ad infinitum.
"The only athletic recreations allowable by our students are
such as exclude all vulgar or clownish ways, particularly such
as wrestling, cuffing, kicking, scuffling, boxing or tumbling
"No uncouth noises are allowed by students especially such
as hooting, screaming or vulgar salutations."
"This institution being open for both sexes, we will define
their relative positions ; they are to have no intercourse in
school hours or recitations. Under no circumstances are they
to join in plays either about the school or elsewhere, unless at
home and members of the same family. In short, their intercourse, if any, shall be confined to polite, respectful conversation such as would be entirely becoming if it were in the
presence of their parents or other revered personages." 16
R. A. Booth
"We expect no student to retain connection with this institution who will not heartily and diligently study to make
himself or herself an orderly and respectable exemplar of good
morals and good manners and of diligent attention to study
and also of strict obedience to the school rules."
The Rules and Regulations quoted were enacted in 1858-9,
soon after the corporate life of the school began. It does not
appear that they were ever abrogated but it is found that late
in the life of the academy they are referred to in resolutions
and recitations at meetings of trustees. As late as 1874 there
is a minute as follows :
"RESOLVED : That the teachers recommend to the scholars
to observe the Sabbath and to attend religious service and Sunday School and said teachers are enjoined to absolutely prohibit the attendance of dancing parties by the students; and
by precept and example the teachers are expected to carry
•out the spirit of this institution in respect to the above habits
and to publish the rules at the opening of each term of school."
The chartering, the completion of the building and the promulgation of these rules belong to the same chapter, an important one in the history of this academy of Southern Oregon,
the state and many of its citizens. Following were many years
of unbroken success. The wavelet put in motion by the efforts
of the scholarly men of indomitable will and untiring energy,
who stood at the helm became an important part of the surging,
restless educational sea that swept over Oregon and the world.
We now come to the larger and more distinct beginning of
the academy life. The telling of who was principal and assistants for the different periods naturally follows and necessarily with more or less dull routine.
Before the beginning of this, may there not be a bit more of
generalization to give better perspective to what was the academy community or patronizing territory ? Bear in mind we are
now reciting events of the early 50's. It was in these years
that the heavy immigation came overland to Oregon. It came
through Eastern Oregon, down the Columbia to Portland, an'd Umpqua Academy
from there spread out fan-like over the Willamette Valley in
that part immediately tributary to Portland. As Portland was
the port of entry, so it was naturally their trading center. The
country was still very new, almost distressingly so, and the
educational work which was linked with and promulgated by
the church was in its missionary period.
In many ways the Willamette Valley is very different from
Southern Oregon. The Valley lies between two parallel ranges
of mountains that feed the many streams that flow from east
and west into the Willamette River. The river flows gently
northward and very naturally the travel and trade did and does
follow it. But the Umpqua and Rogue river valleys tip westward and their splendid rivers with a mighty rush, characteristic of no other Oregon streams, go by leaps and bounds to
the Pacific, cutting in their way mighty gashes in the Coast
Range for their channels. Furthermore, these southern valleys
are separted from the Willamette by the Calapooia Mountains,
a short range extending east and west at the head of the
Willamette Valley and connecting the Cascade and Coast Range
of mountains.
These sections were connected by the "Applegate Trail"
made in 1846 by a party led by Levi Scott, hereafter mentioned
in this article. This trail began at a point near Cottage Grove
and led across the mountains via streams known as Lee Creek,
Thief Creek, Elk Creek and thence southward.
The gold discoveries of the West were yet new and the gold
fever was acute. Prospecting was carried on extensively in
Southern Oregon and Northern California and here mines were
discovered and opened that are still being worked. It meant
prominence to the section and attracted not only miners but,
settlers as well and these two classes strove together in their
interdependence for supplies and market. Their trade followed
their streams, and thus in these early years the Umpqua river
became prominent as a port of entry. A military road was
constructed to open a way from the head of navigation to the
There were, therefore, two distinct sections of Western Ore- 18
R. A. Booth
gon at the time of which we write—distinct in products, markets and to an extent in the character of the inhabitants.
Into the Willamette section Mr. Wilbur came early, did his
work as a minister and builder of schools and met with abundant success as measured by the time. He thus ended the
first chapter of his western work. Now, as above recited, he
belongs to the southern valleys totally different, devoted to a
similar work and with like success writes well the second and
last chapter of his Oregon work. In 1860, he was appointed
to work in Washington among the Indians.
To return to the academic work, in the building just being
completed :
The curriculum became at once more pretentious, the faculty
enlarged and the work intensified. Some advertising was being
done, mostly though by traveling agents, who were looking
for students and soliciting funds to further develop the work
and sustain that begun.
Prof. Ebenezer Arnold was the first principal in the new
building, covering the year 1858-9. He was assisted by Mrs.
Mary A. Merchant, preceptress and teacher of preparatory department; Mrs. Lucretia G. Arnold, physiology and assistant
to the principal ; Mrs. Isaac Dillon, French ; Mrs. E. A. Lathrop
and Miss Ann Augusta West, assistants.
The closing of the school year was made to correspond with
the conference year. The work, so the record says, was much
interfered with because of incompleted state of the building,
and the "continual noise and dust from jointer work and shavings were constant annoyances." There were "no stoves during
the first third of the year, and there was suffering from cold."
The record speaks of Prof. Arnold's physical infirmities, the
fact that he did much more work than intended and was compelled to resign to conserve his health. There were 46 students
"subscribing to the rules and scarcely one of them who did not
become prominent in Oregon."
Rev. Isaac Dillon was the second principal. He was later
editor of the Pacific Christian Advocate and a well-known
member of the Oregon conference.    His assistants were his Umpqua Academy
wife and J. R. Stork. The school year then and continuously
afterward was divided into three terms—the fall and spring
terms—12 weeks each—and the winter term—16 weeks. The
records of these early years were faithfully kept. The name
of student was entered into the record book, a large journal,
and opposite each name was entered the receipt of cash for
initiation fee and tuition. The total receipts for the school year
1859-60 (40 weeks) was $805.50.
The student roll was being rapidly extended. My, the names
on those pages! If they could all be named here! Surely
they are a part of Oregon history ! The Dillons, the Casebeers,
Watsons, Grubbes, Stearns, Kuykendafls, Millers, Pinkstons,
Reeds, Chapmans, Slocums, Tiptons, Wades, Fitzhughs,
Mires, Hills, Clinkinbeards, Oteys, Akins—but I must not—let
it be known always that they were a royal tribe.
Rev. T. F. Royal was the succeeding principal, serving from
1859-60 to 1866-7, inclusive. He was perhaps the best known
of any of the principals for he was longer in control and prior
to his work directly connected with the academic work, he
was agent for the school and had traveled much in Southern
Oregon in its interest. He has a long and honorable record in
the Oregon Conference and is remembered by thousands as
benefactor and friend.
He was assisted during his incumbency at various times by
his wife, E. A. Lathrop, Miss C. S. Grubbe, Mrs. M. Y. Miller,
Mrs. Mary A. Clinkinbeard, Geo. B. Kuykendall, Mrs. R. J.
Greer, Miss A. T. Royal and during the last two years of his
principalship, Mr. Clark Smith was his first assistant.
It was during the principalship of T. F. Royal in 1864 that
the first class was graduated. William Henry Byars, Anina
Tenna Royal, Stanley Olin Royal and Miller Gould Royal comprised the class. Three of the members were children of the
Mr. Byars has been a constant resident of the state, has led
a useful life and is today one of the best beloved men in the
state. He was once surveyor general of Oregon. He will be
mentioned again in turn as an assistant teacher of the academy. 20
R. A. Booth
Miss Royal taught one year as an assistant at the Academy,
also one year as assistant principal at the Portland Academy
and Female Seminary. She became the wife of Professor
Smith and went with him as a missionary to Africa, where she
Stanley Royal took degrees from Willamette University
and Drew Theological Seminary and spent the remainder of
his life as a member of the Cincinnati Conference, where he
was popular and effective. Miller received the degrees of
A. B. and A. M. at Willamette University, preached for a time
and taught school many years as President of Ashland Academy, Olympia Collegiate Institute and Weston State Normal.
Later he practiced law and died at Walla Walla in 1910.
Mr. Smith, former assistant, succeeded to the principalship
for 1867-8, serving only one year. He was assisted by Miss
Marietta Smith, Miss Mary Chapman and Mrs. M. A. Clinkin-
beard, Miss Chapman became Mrs. Wilson. She now resides
at Wilbur, where for many years she served as postmistress.
Professor Smith married Anina Royal, the eldest child of
Rev. T. F. Royal. They became missionaries to Africa, as
stated. Mr. Smith returned to the Untied States and became
a physician.    He practiced for a time in Washington County.
In the educational report to the Oregon conference at its
1868 session, we find the following :
"Umpqua Academy for fourteen years has enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity. With pleasant surroundings and increased
facilities for instruction, a well- selected course of study and
a highly moral and religious influence, this institution justly
has the confidence and patronage of a large part of Southern
Oregon. The Academy has been conducted the past year by
Rev. Clark Smith . . . The number of pupils in attendance has been 119, many of whom have been converted and
many become teachers."
By this period the attendance at the school had entirely outgrown the facilities offered and the building and equipment,
once ample, became entirely inadequate to meet the growing
attendance.    An additional building of much greater dimen- Umpqua Academy
sions was now erected. The upper part was used as a dormitory and the lower floor for the advanced grades. The primary and intermediate grades were continued in the older
building. The new structure finished in 1868 and first occupied under the principalship of Professor Deardorff, came to
be known as the "New Building."
Prof. James G. Deardorff was next in order as principal.
He served two years and' was assisted by his wife, Rev. J. H.
Skidmore and W. H. Byars. Of the old days at least these
were the very best in point of attendance and in intensive work
and accomplishment.
Prof. J. A. Jackson was elected principal in 1870, but resigned at mid-year and was succeeded by Prof. I. G. Herron,
who continued until the close of the year 1873-4. His assistants were Mrs. Herron, Angie Grubbe, M. E. Chapman, Mrs.
C. W. Todd and Mrs. S. H. Todd.
In 1873, the "New Building" burned. The old building—
the first academy building—early outgrown, now by no means
met the needs. Thereupon it was decided by the trustees to
change the location of the school buildings and a new site was
purchased about one-half mile to the west near the center of
the village.
The ground, 58.43 acres that had been donated by Father
Wilbur and that long served as the academy campus, was
sold in 1877 for $410 to J. T. Cooper and the old historic
building was sold for $300 to D. R. B. Winniford, March 9,
1878. His note, with F. R. Hill as security, was accepted in
On the new site selected and purchased the last academy
building was erected in 1874. The contract for the carpenter
work was let by competitive bid to R. and D. R. B. Winniford,
February 20, 1874. It was accepted, subject to certain alterations and additions, on December 4, 1874. The new building,
the last in line of succession, the new location and apparently
a newer generation of men were now upon the scenes and
a splendid interest attached. Prof. Edward D. Curtis was
elected principal and served for two years, ending in 1876. 22
R. A. Booth
He is now principal of the Sunnyside School at Portland and has a long, successful record to his credit as an
Oregon teacher. His sister, Mrs. Josephine Robb, now of
Portland, was vice-principal. They left their impress upon
the students of old Umpqua as few other teachers have done.
Nellie Spencer assisted them.
In 1876-7 Prof. F. H. Grubbs became principal. His wife,
an only daughter of Rev. Jason Lee, Missionary, was preceptress and Miss Mary Hill, now Mrs. Capt. G. W. Short,
was assistant. Other assistants were Miss Mary A. Goodsell,
now Mrs. Henry Burt, of Yoncalla, and Miss Sue Clinkinbeard,
later Mrs. E. T. Woodruff, of Coles Valley.
In the fall of 1880, H. L. Benson, now associate Supreme
Judge, became principal under a contract extending over three
years. With him came his brother, Frank W. Benson, later
Secretary of State and Governor, as vice-principal. These
men, splendid educators, full of vim and ambition, gave the
best within them to the academy work. They rendered splendid service and became immensely popular, laying the foundation for their succeeding wide and favorable acquaintance.
They were assisted by Mrs. H. L. Benson, Miss Emma Benson,
Miss Mary Hill and Miss Helena Holman.
Next as principal came Willis C. Hawley, now serving in
Congress. He was elected in 1884 and was assisted by Miss
Anna Geisendorfer, who later became Mrs. W. C. Hawley.
They made many friends who have remained steadfast and
many students remember them with delight.
In August, 1886, Prof. L. A. Edwards was elected principal. He was assisted by his sister, Miss Edwards, who recently visited the scenes of her former labor. He was succeeded in 1887 by Prof. A. J. Garland, who was the last of
the academy teachers.
The work heretofore done by the academies of the state was
being superseded by the public schools. The church felt that
it had fulfilled its mission in pioneering the educational work
and with common accord it appeared best to abandon further
denominational effort in the school work at the old stamping Umpqua Academy
ground, made sacred by sacrifice of parents and teachers and
memorable through efforts and life work of students. Accordingly, it was voted on June 30, 1888, to lease the premises to
the public school district for the term of 10 years for $500*, the
rental money to be applied in improvement of the building and
On October 30, 1900, resolution was adopted to sell the
premises to the district for $400. At the meeting G. W.
Grubbe was president and E. E. LaBrie, secretary. Here the
record closes.
It's a bit difficult to write the last word, for there is more
than a suspicion that Wilbur town may not seem as important
to those who now hurriedly pass by in autos or Pullmans as
it did to those students of early times. The location will seem
more definite to say that it is at the junction of the "Old
Scottsburg Military Road" with the main state thoroughfare,
8 miles north of Roseburg. This place was known by early
travelers as Bunton's Gap, named for Elijah Bunton, who settled there in 1850. He sold his claim to B. J. Grubbe, frequently mentioned in this article. A considerable portion of
the town of Wilbur was built on the claim of James L. Clink-
inbeard, but no town plat was filed. Mr. Clinkinbeard gave
a few acres of bis claim to the academy trustees but the tract
upon which the academy buildings stood, the old play ground
and all that pertained, were the gift of Father Wilbur—a
total of 58.43 acres. This is the same tract that was sold at
auction in 1877 to James T. Cooper.
The Scottsburg' road was no by-trail in the early days. It
was constructed by the government in the early 50's under the
supervision of Colonel, later General, Joe Hooker. Its southern terminus was Ft. Lane in Jackson County. In those days
Portland was not as large as Scottsburg. The town was the
jobbing center for a large area, covering all Southern Oregon
and reaching into Northern California and supplying many
mining camps and settlers. There were no less than 15 stores
there, doing retail and wholesale business, and 500 pack mules,
at one time, was not an unusual sight in the streets.   After
m\\ 24
R. A. Booth
the construction of the wagon road an immense freight business was carried on by teams. Schooners, many of them built
on the river, brought freight to Scottsburg from San Francisco
and other points and carried away such farm and ranch products as could be spared for export.
The town was named for Levi Scott, who settled there in
1850 and laid out a town. Soon after Scott's arrival, James
McTavish opened a store made from the sails of the wrecked
Bostonian, a schooner that was sent from Boston and wrecked
on the bar at the mouth of the Umpqua River, in attempt to
enter, October 1st, 1850. The same year Geo. Snelling built
the first permanent building in the town from zinc taken from
the cargo of the same vessel. The Bostonian floated into the
river to a point opposite the present site of the town of Gardiner. Its cargo was mostly saved and was very helpful in
filling the new stores and in building the far away western
town that flourished for nearly a quarter of a century as a
trading metropolis.
The Bostonian was sent out by a Boston merchant named
Gardiner and was intended as a Pacific Coast trader. Mr.
Snelling who had charge of the trading expedition was a
nephew of Mr. Gardiner and Captain Coffin, of the schooner,
took up as a donation land claim the present town site of
Gardiner (so named in honor of the Boston merchant) and
sold it to Addison C. Gibbs, who came to Oregon in 1850
and who was elected Governor of Oregon in 1862. Gardiner
is 18 miles below Scottsburg and 9 miles from the mouth of
the river.
The business that centered around Scottsburg attracted many
of the early settlers of the country. It was here that Matthew
P. Deady, later the learned and just judge, so honored
throughout the northwest, early practiced law and held court
under the oaks that stood near the Umpqua River—the same
good man that was named in the charter as a member of the
first Board of Trustees of Umpqua Academy, and later the first
president of the Board of Regents of the University of Oregon,
and whose picture is a benediction to the hundreds who assemble in Villard Hall. Umpqua Academy 25
Here also the ambitious young lawyer, Rufus Mallory, who
became the brilliant congressman from Oregon in 1886, plead
his first cases and became thrilled with his own ambitions and
where his success became a certainty because of his own determinations.
This region was then in Umpqua County. The history of
its formation and boundary as well as the organization of
Douglas County was in the plans of this article and would be
except for its length, probably already too long. Yet it appears to one so closely connected with the events of which
he writes, to be naturally connected, for did not Umpqua
Academy, helped on by these very men, send out from its
walls the men and women whose footsteps became the bright
pathways that threaded all the Southern Oregon country and
whose splendid characters became a part of the warp and woof
of our commonwealth?
The building of the O. & C. R. R. to Roseburg in 1872
diverted from the Umpqua River, once the second in importance in the state, the trade of the territory it served. The
floods had also played havoc with the town.
Under the newer conditions Mr. Cyrus Hedden became the
only merchant at Scottsburg. He long survived, an honored
citizen and trusted friend. His successor in business, John
Hedden, a son, is a prince of the realm. But he deserves no
credit for it—it could not have been otherwise, for he was a
student of old Umpqua.
It is easily discernible and realized also by the writer that
he has backed into the latter part of his narrative. It seemed
the most gentle way to lead many into an acquaintance with
the early history of this interesting section and its important
There is another story that far antedates anything thus far
cited, in this sketch. It was of a time when the Castilian was
monarch along the Pacific. The story, years ago printed in
Southern Oregon papers, says, substantially that in 1732 a
disabled Spanish vessel entered the Umpqua, drifted to a point
near Scottsburg.   From the forests the crew cut trees and 26
R. A. Booth
made repairs to the vessel, left some of the crew to their fate
in the new wilderness and then sailed away. Further credit is
given the story because of stumps, apparently a hundred or
more years old that were said to have been found by Scott and
his party. This legend, or fact, if it is such, is mentioned in
Walling's history of Jackson, Josephine, Douglas, Coos and
Curry Counties.
With this bit of background the story must end. The imagination of the reader will supply the picture of the beloved
Umpqua Country, once the "Umpqua Mission" in which Father
Wilbur went in 1853. The happenings since give ample justification to his vision. He labored in a fertile field. Upon it
he left his impress. Without what he did and the opportunities he made, many a boy and girl would never have opened
the heavy educational gateway that led into the big world
and many a life big with results would have been barren of
culture. He built moral courage and a sturdy sense of right
into a thousand souls.
He believed in a divine ambassadorship that caused him to
"speak as one having authority" and his hopes and their
fruition truly magnified his faith. He and his contemporaries
were worthy forerunners of the best that we can hope for our
children and our beloved state. It is related of him that while
soliciting aid for the building of the first academy he met a
captain who was hurrying from his schooner lying at Scottsburg, to some interior point on an important mission. Being
no réspector of persons Father Wilbur sought his aid. The
captain replied: "No, why should I help build your school?
I never expect to be here again." "Then leave your mark and
let it be known that you have passed this way," said Father
Wilbur. Thereupon the captain pulled from his pocket a
"slug," a coin of California mintage, worth $50, and gave it
with apparent wonderment to himself. He had met a man
with a mission.
What finer message was ever given to a man ? Leave your
mark—let it be known- that you have passed this way. REMINISCENCES OF EARLY DAYS AT THE OLD
By Geo. B. Kuykendall,  M. D.
With recollections of the Umpqua Academy fifty-five to
sixty-four years ago, what a. panorama of memory pictures
come trooping up.
What a throng of faces young and fair, of forms youthful
and strong, what a chorus of voices joyous in song, sport,
laughter or screams of delight. What pictures of school days
and social life ; the old time school exhibitions, Saturday fishing excursions, with the inevitable swim in the Umpqua river,
the Christmas anniversaries, Fourth of July celebrations,
strawberry parties, rambles over the hill back of the academy,
and rolling those great stones of conglomerate that went
bounding and thundering down among the oaks, laurels and
brush, and broke into thousands of pebbles that went sprawling
everywhere, to the terror of chipmunks and cotton-tails.
Then their pensive strollings, book in hand, among the
trees, or sitting in the shade, conning over amo-amas-amat,
or trying to conjugate some tough Greek verb or figure out
a problem in logarithms, while robins sang in the boughs above,
or saucy little chipmunks with striped backs, and with tails
erect and bright inquisitive eyes crept over logs and stumps
about you. Those were halcyon days. Ah, the soft, balmy,
dreamy atmosphere, the deep blue sky, the beautiful oak and
laurel crowned hills and the enchanting valley spread out between!
Such are the memory pictures that come to me like a dream
of a long past, far away fairyland.
Through the mists of over sixty years there comes to me a
picture of the old Umpqua Academy, standing up like a great
white sentinel, against the tree clad hill back of it. Here
I see a group of boys playing marbles, there a bevy of girls
with wild flowers, decorating each other's hair or arranging
inds and bouquets; down on the campus I see a game Geo. B. Kuykendall
of "town ball" or "three cornered cat" being played, while
others are running "lickety-split" in games of "black man"
or "dare base."
Just across to the west of the building on the level grade
and under spreading oaks I see little fellows down on their
knees, with faces near the ground imploringly calling, "Doodle
bug, Doodle bug, Doo-oo-dle bug, half bushel of corn's burning up," and others nearby are playing "mumble-peg." I
seem to hear other voices—"Keep a calling him he'll come
out," or "Augh, get back there don't fudge ! knuckle down
when ye go to shoot," or "Get down close to the ground and
get the peg between yer teeth." Up from the grounds below
comes a sound whack, whack, whack, "One, two, three, good-
When I think of this scene, there comes up the question,
"Where are all those faces and forms so vibrant with joy and
animation ?
There are, alas, but very few of the earliest students of the
old Umpqua Academy left, nearly all have answered the last
summons, the school of life with them has closed, and
"The names we loved to hear,
Have been carved for many a year
On the tomb."
But many of them left their mark and we are proud of
them today. Whenever we think of the old! Umpqua Academy
there come up many incidents, some joyous or inspiring, some
sad and pathetic, others of ludicrous nature.
Among the early students that attended the academy, there
were a number that boarded at the home of John Kuykendall,
some were there two or three winters. Among these there
were tall Frank Carter, and small George Yale, both of whom,
when seen together seemed to belong to the "odd sizes." We
boys had beds up stairs in my father's house. Early one morning the sight of Frank's pants and clothes on a chair, by the
side of his bed suggested a practical joke and some sport. One
of the boys slipped into Frank's room and took his clothes and
left in their place a suit of George Yale's.   He then hid all Umpqua Academy 29
other clothes leaving Frank the option of going without, staying in bed, or of coming down to breakfast with Yale's clothes
The rest of the folks were duly notified of the arrangement,
so that all might be ready with appropriate remarks, questions
and witticisms when Frank appeared in the dining room.
When Frank got up he discovered his clothes were gone,
and there was nothing to do but get into Yale's little breeches.
So he managed to squeeze into them, and then had considerable pulling and straining to get the coat on. Being duly
rigged out he came down to breakfast, and was greeted with a
fusilade of well chosen facetious remarks about the fit of his
clothes, such as, "What's the matter ? A snake bit you ? you're
terribly swelled up this morning." "How did you get your
clothes on ?" "Never saw a man grow so much in one night."
"Going into the show business, Frank, you'd make a dandy
clown." "That suit is a beautiful fit, never saw you look so
He really did look comical, about like a giant in a little
boy's knickerbockers. Frank had arms and legs of the Abe
Lincoln pattern, with a good deal of spread and reach to them.
We had been used to seeing him with coat sleeves which
reached only to within wistful distance of his hands, and pants
that left considerable unoccupied territory far up his boot leg.
We all wore top bots those days, when we could get the money
to buy them. The picture he made that morning was certainly "fetching," and we all shook with laughter, while good
natured Frank smiled as if enjoying a delightful reception
which he gratefully appreciated. He showed no signs of irritation or of temper, but sat down to the table in his comic rig
and ate his breakfast with as much complaisance as if the
whole proceeding was just what he had ordered.
While we had fun at his expense we felt deep down in our
hearts that he was one of the best fellows in the world. Years
afterward he took the degree of M. D., became an excellent
physician and held an honorable position in his profession and
in his community, and the state of Oregon. Geo. B. Kuykendall
How the years have flown by since we were boys together.
The last time I saw him was at Newport, Oregon; he was
going to see his married daughter who was dangerously ill.
When the old Umpqua Academy was in the height of its
usefulness and influence, there used to be a number of boys
and young men come in from distant parts of the country and
"kept batch," or boarded themselves and went to school. They
came in from southern Oregon, from about Jacksonville, Le-
land, Canyonville, Cow Creek, Looking Glass and from the
northerly parts of the county, from Yoncalla, Elk Creek, Green
Valley and the classic precincts of "Tin Pot" and "Shoestring."
Among the boys that "batched" were Henry Byars, Calvin
and David West, Lowery and Ed Watson and P. L. Willis,
John Allen and sisters, the Applegate boys, and many more.
Most of these attended and belonged to the debating society
at the Academy, and some, if not most of them, there had their
first experience in "speaking in public."
The Academy boys were a pretty good lot, generally free
from drinking, card playing, and worse vices, but they were
a lively lot, and some of the old folks said they were "a leetle
too full of vinegar," and of course the vinegar would slop
over occasionally.
There used to live just a short distance below the academy,
Dr. Miller, a large, rather tall, sedate man, who administered
allopathic doses of medicine during the week, and on Sunday
gave good strong doses of orthodoxy from the pulpit. He
was of the old style physician who bled people, not when they
settled with him, but with a lancet. The doctor had two
daughters, the younger of whom, Ella, was regarded as quite
handsome and good looking. Some of the young fellows
found the Miller home an exceedingly attractive place to visit,
but the doctor was a little inclined to be austere, and was not
in favor of alliances, taking a neutral position usually, but
assuming a belligerent attitude on provocation. He had a
brother-in-law that lived with him, George Young, who was
a capital hand at a practical joke, and hearing of the success
of the clothes stealing raid on Frank Carter, concluded to Umpqua Academy
work up a similar scheme on Lowery Watson, acting in collusion with some of the other bachelors' roost boys. One
evening Lowery called at the Miller home and stayed quite
late and George proposed that he remain until morning.
Lowery retired to bed, and along a little before daylight, he
reached out for his clothes and found1 them gone. He got
up and found that while there were none of his own clothes,
there was a pair of Dr. Miller's long-legged trousers placed
for his use. Dismayed, he began a search for his clothes
but was unable to find them. He did not feel bike calling on
the family for assistance, or advertising his predicament. The
position was certainly disconcerting. The Bible says somewhere that, "Some bless with their mouths, while they curse
It is easy to imagine one could, under such circumstances,
have some of the "cuss inwardly" feeling. There seemed to
be no other alternative, and so Lowery pulled on the doctor's
pants, rolled up the redundant length and then made a flying
dash out into the rain, across the prairie, making a halo of
webfoot spray around him as he paddled his way to the bachelors' roost. There he found his chums were ready to open up
their artillery on him. Of course they guyed him, but he took
his medicine and was game. He lived to distance some of his
practical joker friends in the race of life, became an honored
member of the legal profession and sat on the judge's bench.
Even while yet in school, some of the students exhibited general talents or abilities that foreshadowed their future. Henry
Byars, who was in my classes, excelled in mathematics and
mechanical and engineering drawing. Parrish Willis was good
at mathematics and bookkeeping, and was very studious and
methodical. He then had a heavy, shocky head of hair that
was inclined to kink and curl about his neck and ears. It
was probably this that gave him the "nick-name" "Kink"
He had a good mind and was a credit to the Academy,
became an attorney of ability, and held positions of honor and
trust in Portland and Multnomah County, Oregon. Geo. B. Kuykendall
Ed Watson had a fine mind and abundant ability to acquire
learning. After graduating in the Willamette University went
back and graduated at Harvard, and was chosen to go back
and take part in college boat races on the Thames in England.
It would be easy to extend this list and note characteristics
of many of the Umpqua Academy early students, and tell how
they came off with honors and success in life. My space limits
will permit the names only of a few, among which were Stanley O. Royal, Miller G. Royal and his younger brother and
Anina T. Royal, who married Rev. Clark Smith and went as
a missionary to Africa, where she died of African fever at
her post of duty, proving the stuff of which some of the
academy students were made. Then there was George W.
Riddle, who has written his name in the annals of home regions and the state of Oregon, Dr. W. P. Grubbe, Angeline
Grubbe, Morris Harkness, Homer Harkness, Chas. Wesley
Kahler, George Kahler, the Applegate boys and many more.
School government at the old academy a few years after
it opened up, took a sort of Puritanical trend, with the idea
predominant that the "old Adam" (some said it was the devil)
in the boys and girls, had to be held down and squelched out.
Very strict rules were made in regard to the associations of
sexes, it being assumed that the devil in them was bound to
break out unless the lid was screwed on tight and held down.
It was a rule that the boys and girls should not walk side by
side going to school, and all exhibitions of gallantry were to
be taboo ; they should be kept separate and under strict surveillance, and "raked over the coals" for the slightest overstepping.
This, as should have been foreseen, had exactly the opposite
effect from what was intended. It was like trying to stop
the water of a garden hose by placing a thumb against it,
there was no stop, but a big splatter. The young folks could
not be kept under thumb, and the trustees had a troublesome
time enforcing the adopted regime.
While people in the country around sometimes thought that
the old academy and vicinity was a sort of slow place, an ex- Umpqua Academy
perience of some of the hallowe'en pranks "pulkd off" around
there sometimes would have dispelled this illusion.
When Dr. Miller found his gates off the hinges, his pigs
turned out of the pen, and F. R. Hill had a new wagon dissected, one wheel hung up in the top of a tree over the road
to the academy, and the other wheels and gears scattered to
the four winds and several other breezes of heaven, or sunk
in the "old swimmin' hole," and when neighbor Clinkinbeard,
who had his wagon loaded with wheat, ready to go to mill,
found it next morning sitting astride the "comb" of his barn,
all loaded up, just as he had left it the evening before, and
his forty-foot well rope tied in the top of a tall oak, it looked
as if there had been something doing around there. He might
well have wished he had an Aladdin's lamp to rub, to summon
the aid of genii to get his wagon down from its exalted position. At midnight, when the old Academy bell rang out a
wild alarm by the spooks, through the medium of a long rope
reaching from the bell to the neck of a wild calf on the campus,
it was an indubitable proof of the operation of spirits, but the
trustees interpreted it as the work of the devil in the boys. We
have all read how persons in sleep, or the somnambulistic state,
could lift or carry in the night a stone or other heavy object
that they could not budge when awake in the day time. It
was a matter of fact that four Academy boys could lift with
ease, and carry an outhouse and set it up on Dr. Miller's or
Flem Hill's porch that would have taken a team to move. The
psychology of this is commended to the investigation of mental
This sort of proceedings received a heavy jolt, or at least
John Clinkinbeard did, during a series of meetings held at
the academy.
There was no church building in the vicinity then, and
church services were held in the academy. While the church
people were holding a revival, his satanic majesty often stirred
up a revival of his work among the boys. During one of
these meetings the spirit of deviltry became rampant. One
evening there was a large crowd in the chapel room above, 34
Geo. B. Kuykendall
and some of the boys tied a rope across the bottom of the
door, at the head of the "boys' stairway." John Clinkinbeard
came out, and was just about to start down, when his foot
tripped on the rope or cord, and he pitched headlong down the
stairway, bruised himself up severely and dislocated one of his
thumbs. It was lucky for him that it was not a broken neck
instead of a disjointed thumb.
This brought matters to a head, with a storm of indignation
and protest, and criminal proceedings were threatened and
about to be instituted, but the matter was some way quieted
and never got into court.
During one of the revivals when an invitation was given
for "seekers" to come forward to the altar, many "made a
move," and the altar was crowded. No doubt nearly all were
sincere and deeply in earnest, but there were mischievous
scamps that seemed to be making it an occasion for sport.
One boy got up among the others, and while they were all
down and praying, he made himself busy pinning papers or
rags to the tails of some of their coats. When he had succeeded in getting one pinned on, he would clap his hands and
shout, "Glory to God, Hallelujah !"
The capers of the young scapegrace were soon detected and
his particular line of devotions was abruptly cut short. Rev.
Wm. Taylor, a nephew of the noted Bishop Taylor, missionary in India, after he learned of the urchin's tagging operations made a suitable diagnosis of the situation and suggested
the proper remedy, "That boy needs to be taken out with a
good hazel and labored with a while, for the good of his soul."
I just now remember that I saw a few days ago, in the
Oregonian, an account of the death of John Clinkinbeard, near
Marshfield. John's mother was a sister of Dillard Holman,
of the pioneer Oregon family, well known in the state. I am
also reminded of the tragic death of Mrs. Clinkinbeard, many
years ago on the beach. While standing upon a drift log she
was watching the coming-in and receding waves. While gazing in awe and admiration upon the majesty of the ocean, she
had just repeated the words, "Thus far shalt thou come, but Umpqua Academy
here thy proud waves shall be stayed." The log upon which
she stood broke loose, turned over, rolled upon her and crushed
her to death.
But the limits set have been far transcended. It would
have been interesting to have said something concerning Prof.
T. F. Royal, principal of the Umpqua Academy for years. He
had many noble traits, fine teaching ability, great sincerity,
earnestness and integrity. His wife, Mrs. M. A. Royal, was
a noble woman, intelligent, cultured, tactful, a fine teacher of
music, drawing and botany, who had skill in making her lessons intensely interesting.
At this moment I recall that the first school paper at the
academy was called The Rosebud. It consisted of hand written articles by the pupils. It had a back made of white drawing paper, fastened with a ribbon. Underneath the outside title
was the picture of a rose bud, painted in water colors by Mrs.
Royal.   The date was May, 1856.
How interested and proud all were when the little paper was
read that Friday afternoon.
There cornel to mind many incidents preceding, during, and
just after the Civil War. A number of the older of the early
students went to Roseburg to hear speakers during the various campaigns. I remember well &f hearing Delazon Smith,
Geo. L. Woods, Tom Dryer and numerous others. There were
hot times politically then, and the academy boys were all intensely loyal to the Union. How the war news stirred us, and
how we waited almost holding our breath for the thrilling news
of the battles, and how the boys, and girls, too, rang out the
war songs of the times. How the patriotic thrills ran to our
very finger tips.
When the news of Lincoln's assassination came, what an
overwhelming tide of grief swept over us ! We held a memorial meeting just afterwards in the Academy, which was public
for all. I wrote a dirge, and a class of us sang it. That
evening the building was crowded, and the air was vibrant with
deep emotion.   There was sobbing and crying all over the 36 Geo. B. Kuykendall
audience. It seemed that every one was weeping. I never saw
anything like it.
There was a feeling of deep, heartfelt mourning, but a look
of determination on the faces of people. The older students
of the Academy were saying all about, "If the country wants
me I am ready."
The influence of the Umpqua Academy in keeping the country around loyal to the Union was certainly very considerable.
There are many things that could have been said of different
persons, who were once students of the old Academy, and of
their lives, works and influence. The longer the matter is held
under consideration the more of submerged recollections come
i The founder and early patrons and supporters of Umpqua
Academy belonged to that incomparable band of men and
women known, and to be remembered, as the Oregon Pioneers. Most of them had crossed the plains with ox teams,
consuming from five to six months in the journey, hauling
their families and their effects in their immigrant wagons or
"prairie schooners," as they were called.
In that long journey those sturdy people had encountered
difficulties and endured hardships, a true recitation of which,
at this later day, is calculated to stagger the credulity of the
hearers. Those immigrants who succeeded in reaching the
Oregon Country were true types of the "survival of the fittest,"
and in their short lexicon there was no such word as fail.
Those who had been neighbors and acquaintances in the
"States" as well as those who had met and become acquainted
on the way and shared in common the hardships and dangers
of the journey, settled here and there in the Willamette,
Umpqua and Rogue river valleys of Western Oregon. For
some years after such settlement these good people interchanged periodical visits to the homes of each other, sometimes for a distance of more than a hundred miles, and a feeling akin to family relationship prevailed1. People were better
acquainted, thougli living more than a hundred miles apart,
in those early days than are families living on the opposite
sides of the streets of our cities today.
James H. Wilbur, or Father Wilbur, as he is better known,
had labored at Oregon City, Portland and Salem in church
and educational work, and when he finally went to Southern
Oregon and took up a donation land claim and established! an
academy at the place, henceforth to be called! Wilbur, it may
be readily understood why the people throughout the settled
portion of Oregon Territory, should generally know of and 38
Austin Mires
take some appreciative interest in the new institution of learning. And though the people were rated poor in worldly effects, their children were sent to the Umpqua Academy in its
earliest days from miles away. It is no exaggeration to say
that a majority of the young men, and many of the young
women, attending the school, whose parents resided any considerable distance away from Wilbur, "bached," as that mode
of living was termed ; this being the only way in which it was
possible for them to meet the necessary expense to attend school
at all.
In the early days there were no church buildings in the country, with regular services. On occasion a preacher came along
and held "meeting," as it was called, in the log school house
or other available structure. And again camp meetings were
appointed here and there at appropriate places, where the people came and put up tents and brought a few household effects,
such as stoves, cooking utensils, bedding, etc., and there camped
for days together, worshipping in their own simple way, and
visiting and interchanging views upon current questions in the
intervals. When these occurrences came about the people living in the country donned their best clothes, called their Sunday or meeting clothes, and the father yoked his patient oxen
and hitched them to the old immigrant wagon (horses were
used in some instances by those who had them), and when the
family were all loaded in, drove to meeting, sometimes several miles distant. After the services were over, it was the
custom for one or more families to accompany some neighbor
home and there take dinner and visit the remainder of the day.
And the preachers who conducted these meetings, as well as
those who held forth at the camp meetings in those days, all
had their headquarters at Wilbur, either residing there or
directed from that place. So that Wilbur was the center from
which radiated all religious and educational activity in Umpqua
valley at the very first, and Umpqua Academy was the main
spring, so to speak, of it all.
The first preacher I now remember of ever seeing was T. F.
Royal (Fletcher Royal, as he was better known among the old Umpqua Academy
timers), one of the very early principals of Umpqua Academy.
I was then about five years old. We lived on our old homestead near the foot of Tyee mountain in lower Calapooia valley. Mr. Royal and some members of his family came to our
'home^dongllate in the afternoon, intending to stay over night.
I was afraid of strangers, and especially of preachers, although I did not then know what the term preacher meant,
so it required some persuasion from my father to induce me
to let Mr. Royal take my hand. He smiled and tried to be
pleasant, but that was all camouflage to my thinking. For
several years one of his knees was stiff, and by some irreverent
persons he was called "Peg Leg." Years afterward, by an
accident, the nature of which my memory now fails to recall,
his knee was severely wrenched and thereby restored to mobility. It seems now that he was never absent from any meeting or camp meeting in those early days. I have heard him
preach many times at Wilbur, Calapooia and Coles Valley.
He was six feet or more in height, dark of complexion, straight
and quick of movement. He served one term, at least, as
County School Superintendent for Douglas County, and he
was a genuine enthusiast in religious and educational work.
Be it remembered there were no railroads in those days.
No automobiles, no carriages or buggies, no stage coaches and
few horses at the first.
The mail was carried on horseback and, when sufficient to
require it, by pack horses. W. H. Byars, later a member of
the first graduating class of Umpqua Academy, carried the
U. S. Mail from Winchester south across Southern Oregon,
over primitive roads and trails, via Roseburg, Canyonville,
Jacksonville, over the Siskiyou Mountains to Yreka in Northern California, when but sixteen years old. His hair breadth
escapes from Indians and highwaymen, when told now sound
like fable. Soon horses became more plentiful and everybody
rode horseback, and hacks and buggies came into use.
I cannot now recall the occasion of my first visit to Wilbur,
but it was some time during the very early days of the Academy when I was a little boy.   My mother was a devout Metho- 40
Austin Mires
dist, and more than once, at her suggestion, father dtove the
family over there, in the primitive way, to attend meeting.
Besides, the cemetery, or graveyard, as it was then called, in
which the dead of our vicinity were laid to rest, was located
just southwest of the Academy building, some two or three
hundred yards distant, on an even sloping ridge studded with
the native oak trees of that section. And upon a few sad
occasions in my early youth, which are still vivid in my mind,
I visited this spot as well. And upon all occasions my wondering eyes were attracted to the showy academy building,
standing out so stately on the terraced hillside, which seemed
to beckon me to it. A little later I was sent over there with
my elder brother, who was baching and attending school, to
bring back the horse he had ridden. At that time there was
a building just south from where Mr. Champan's hotel was
later located, and it had a sign which read : "Putnam's Hotel."
Another feature which remains fresh in my memory, was the
long plank bridge spanning the channel of the swale a few
rods east of the Wilbur House, kept by F. R. Hill.
But my first attendance at Umpqua Academy, as a student,
was in 1868, or 1869, during the principalship of James G.
Deardorff. The teachers, as I recall them now, were James
G. Deardorff, principal, and W. H. Byars and J. H. Skid-
more, assistants. At that time the old academy building and
the new building just north of it were both occupied. The new
building contained one large class room on the ground floor,
with living rooms above; in the, north part of which Professor Deardorff with his family, consisting of his wife and
two little girls and Mary and Delman Ross, children of his
sister from Portland, Oregon, resided. In the old building
was located a small sized museum. I remember it contained
some jars of snakes, frogs, fishes, etc., preserved in alcohol,
specimens of Indian quivers, bows and arrows, some Indian
stone implements, mounted birds, a variety of birds' eggs, fossils, etc. ; a goodly portion of which had been donated by L. L.
Williams, the old pioneer, Indian fighter, county clerk, unfaltering friend, and useful citizen.   There were some electric Umpqua Academy
appliances, a galvanic battery, globes, and long blackboards,
used for making demonstrations to the classes. I wish I had
the time and possessed the memory sufficient to name all the
boys and girls (young men and women) who attended the
academy along with me at the different times. Some of them
that come to my mind at the moment were, M. M. Oglesby,.
William Leaper, John, William and George Booth, Marion,
Pat., Webb, and Albert Parker, Child Brummet, Orva Williams, James, Quincy and Jeptha Grubbe, Harry and Clay
Pinkston, Robert Watson, Albert Deardorff, Horris Grubbe,
Charles and William Kuykendall, Lige Otey, Robert A. Booth,
Arthur Alysom, John I. Chapman, Frank Hamilton, George
Chapman, Jesse Hockett, Robert Ashworth, Andrew J. Lock-
hart, Frank Niday, John Clinkinbeard, Zach Smith. And the
girls ! When I attempt to name them, a subtle something that
is beyond my ability to describe, grips my being and quickens
the currents of my heart. I venture to enumerate a few of
those names that are never absent from my memory when old
Umpqua Academy is in contemplation: Luetta Grubbe, Ella
Grubbe, Hortense Reed, Mary Hill, Emma Chapman, Alice
Chapman, Martha Pinkston, Lucy Pinkston, Emma Redfield,
Florence Elliff, Ada Alysom, Hattie Dodge, Susan and Adelia
Slocum, Ada Qinkinbeard, Mary Smith, Berenice McBride,
Josephine Haines, Sarah Booth, Frances Chapman and Mollie
Watson—but—when the vision presents itself, showing its
array of bewitching daughters of old Umpqua Academy, it is
hard to prevent a mental endorsement of the system of plural
wives established by Jacob as he herded the flocks of old Laban
on the plains of Paran-Aram, and afterwards so amplified by
the now sainted David the psalmist, and Solomon the proverb-
ist, of ancient story, and by Brigham Young of later day saint-
dom.    But I can only suppress a sigh and let it pass.
In those good old days the fads and foibles of insipid society
were unknown. The "four hundred" virus of later days never
infected the blood of the old' pioneer settlers. Such have
origin, always, like other vermin, in luxury and laziness. The
pusillanimous "frat" that breeds snobbishness and caste, when- 42
Austin Mires
ever and wherever permitted to thrive, never polluted the
student body of Umpqua Academy. There was a genuine
democracy, recognizing no aristocracy except the aristocracy
of honest endeavor.
Motherhood and maidenhood were held in greater venera- I
tion by the young men of the Academy than by those of these
faster times. I can recall no instance in all the history of the
Academy of any young man contributing to the delinquency
of any young woman student. Should a young man so far
transgress as to use language calculated to disparage the good
reputation of a young woman student in those elder days, he
would likely receive a smash in the mouth from the fist of
some companion for his pains. The spirit of moral rectitude
in this particular direction, I can agree, was largely due to the
impression received from the stern example and wholesome
precepts of the teachers, but in no small measure was it due
as well to the very environment surrounding the Academy.
And the individual students were probably all unconscious of
the righteous influence thus being exerted upon them.
At the time of my first attendance at the Academy the rigid
Puritanism of the early directors of its destiny had begun to
relax, but the old rules still stood, rigid as ever.
Prayer meetings were as regular as school days all through I
the life of the Academy, and about as well attended, and
revival meetings were not infrequent. At these prayer meetings it was customary, in the earlier days, for all to kneel during
prayer. Some of the good old matrons, it would seem irreverent to mention any names in this connection, were prone to
make exceeding long prayers, thus lengthening the meetings
unreasonably, as was thought by some of us young fellows,
who perhaps still possessed some ungodly tendencies. So we
organized to stop it. We took seats in different parts of the
audience on these occasions, and when we thought such prayers
had gone on long enough would commence dragging our feet
over the floor with so much noise that the one doing the
praying would think everybody was rising from their knees
and would reach the amen point without delay.   We usually Umpqua Academy
brought the thing to a close in this way and it was a long time
before our ruse was discovered.
Card playing, dancing, drinking and swearing were all
strictly prohibited. The moment one of those old professors
saw a playing card his bristles would rise, figuratively speaking,
for he imagined he could see therein the leering countenance
of Old Nick, staring him in the face. But from my advent
on, the boys and girls, maybe I should say young men and
women, communed with each other with less restraint than of
yore, still they were sufficiently hampered to cause much chaffing and some resentment among the young people, and divers
ways and means were invented and employed to effect the
evasion of the more rigid rules without detection. Marconi
is considered the inventor of wireless telegraphy, but our first
mother, Eve, understood and put in operation the same when
our race and time were new, and her worthy daughters have
continued adepts in the same right along down the line. A
young woman who is not able to convey her feelings, without
words and without writing, but in a subtle language that any
young man of common sense can readily understand if directed
to him, is fit only to become and remain an inmate of some
institution for defectives. So with all the rules and all the
vigilance the young men and women found ways of discovering their feelings for and to each other "in tricks that were
dark and ways that were vain" to their respected professors.
A smile or gesture, all meaningless to any except the one for
whom intended, and the hurried1 warm pressure of the hand
as the pupils passed from one class and class room to another,
could not be successfully forestalled, and conveyed more meaning than the stern professor could crowd into whole volumes
of theses. And I dare say these little blessings and blessed
moments are still fresh, like oases of the desert, in the minds
and the hearts of the now aged men and women who were students in old Umpqua Academy.
Cupid was busy there as ever he is where healthy young
men and women congregate, shooting his arrows, rather aimlessly perhaps, just practicing, so to speak; but he finally went 44
Austin Mires
gunning for one of our professors and got him. Some brief
reminiscences here may not be out of place.
While these rules of inhibition of communication between
the young men and women pupils were being enforced with
some rigidity, one of our distinguished professors, whose name
I forbear to mention, but whose fame as a mathematician will
continue long, suddenly and without warning commenced paying court to a comely maiden of the village. She had another
suitor who resided some distance away, but who made frequent
visits to her home ; but our professor proved too fast for him,
and soon, in an old time phrase, "cut him out." His love quests
were not long in attracting the notice of the young folks, if
entirely unobserved by the other members of the faculty.
Upon one of these, his frequent visits, some three young fellows whose names I might mention, but I wont, happened ( ?)
to be in the vicinity after the curfew hour. The coy maiden
had neglected to lower the shade of her parlor window so as
to entirely exclude all vision from without. The said young
fellows peeped through the opening beneath the window shade
and there saw their respected teacher, shorn of all professional
dignity, engaged in assiduous courtship in the human way of
wooing. Be the remainder of this recitation only whispered
—they saw him fold his dulcinea in his strong arms and repeatedly kiss her cheeks and lips and gently stroke her fair
head with his bear-like hand, and heard him call her endearing
names—all in like manner as all red blooded men have always
done, and, let us hope for the felicity of the courted, always
will ; and this performance went on all to the sore envy of those
on-lookers outside. It is yet believed that had that same professor discovered one of those young men performing in like
manner with himself on that occasion, there would have been
a swift expulsion from the Academy the next morning.
It is astonishing how readily the ordinary human being always detects the mote in his brother's eye, while utterly oblivious to the beam in his own eye.
There used to live an old man by name of French near the
ferry landing, on the north bank of the Umpqua river at Win- Umpqua Academy
Chester. He kept a little way station where he dealt in a few
such articles as tobaccos, canned foods, crackers, oysters, sardines, nuts, candies, etc., and occasionally furnished a traveler
with a meal and bed perhaps, but his main source of income
was from the disposal of intoxicating drinks. He had no
license, so he would sell a stick of candy, a bunch of grapes,
or some such article, and give the purchaser a glass of beer,
whiskey or wine, according to his desire. The boys, or rather,
some of them, from the Academy, would make clandestine
visits, occasionally, to this old man's resort some two or three
miles distant, and indulge in his forbidden fruit. I cannot now
recall that any such visit of students ever came to the attention of the Academy "over-seers."
During the time Professor Herron was principal of the Academy he lived in the old T. F. Royal home, located down in the
bottom west of the Academy, some two hundred yards. At
this time there was a small building in the yard and near the
professor's dwelling, occupied by Miss Florence Elliff, a daughter of Hardy Elliff, who resided out beyond Canyonville, on
Cow Creek, and another young lady, who were attending the
Academy. One evening a rather unruly young man from
Calapooia, then about eighteen years of age, escorted Miss
Elliff, on horseback, out to Edwin Otey's, some three miles
in the country, to attend a dance. They returned before daylight the next morning, but the fact became known among
the friends of the young people, and several of them determined to go and do likewise. During the week the trip was
fairly planned, and when the night set for the occasion arrived
the boys had borrowed a wagon and, with the assistance of
Charles Kuykendall, they purloined a team of horses from
the stable of his father, John Kuykendall, and had collected,
boys and girls, under the oak trees around the Academy
building, preparatory to starting. In the meantime, Will Kuykendall had become suspicious in some way, and went to the
barn, to discover the horses were gone, and just as we were
making ready to start Mr. Kuykendall, with his sons William
and Henry, appeared on the scene looking for their horses ; and
of course our game was up. 46
Austin Mires
The next Monday morning, after chapel exercises, the professor proceeded to recite the recent occurrences—and ended
by expelling several of the students, first on the list, Austin
I find written in my diary, under date June 9, 1876, the day
of my graduation under Professor Edward D. Curtis, the following statement: "Afterwards Charles Kuykendall, Frank
Niday and I were arrested, charged with disturbing the peace
of a civil assembly. We went to Roseburg and stood trial.
Finley Watson and Judge L. F. Mosher appeared for us, Watson volunteering his services. We were fined $10 each and
costs. Several students were expelled, some suspended, and
others quit the Academy. Harry Pinkston and Jep. Grubbe
were expelled with me, but they both made apologies and were
finally taken back. I refused to apologize and was never
formally reinstated. I have, however, been granted a diploma,
and one of the members of the Board of Trustees voting to
issuing the diploma to me is the same I. G. Herron by whom
I was expelled."
By that affair my education, in schools, what little I have
acquired, was doubtless retarded for a few years. But the
only regret I ever experienced on account of the adventure was
the heart aches and tears it must have caused my good old
I attended the Academy during the incumbency of Professor Jackson. He was a splendid young man and was well
liked by the students. In his time the assistant teachers, I believe, were Angie Grubbe, Mary Chapman and W. H. Byars.
Professor Herron was a man of sterling character, and of
strong patriotic impulses. He, with -two or three of his
brothers, fought for the Union under General Grant at the
battle of Shiloh. His assistants were W. H. Byars, Angie
Grubbe and Miss Kent, as I remember.
On Sunday, October 24, 1875, Hortense Reed, sister of Mrs.
F. R. Hill, and Thomas Applegate were married at the residence of F. R. Hill. Immediately after the marriage ceremony
we all proceeded to kiss the bride.   In doing so Jim Grubbe Umpqua Academy
remarked, "Well, Tensa, I guess this will be the last time."
She answered back with manifest resentment, on account of
the presence of her newly wedded husband, I presume, "Yes,
and the first time, too."
On October 28, 1875, Clay Pinkston died at Salem, Oregon,
and all were affected with genuine sadness, for he was one
of us.
On Tuesday, December 7, 1875, Lyda Dimmick and! Harry
Pinkston were married. A band of boys, led by Harry's old
friend, Jep. Grubbe, went over that evening and executed an
old time charivari. Harry threw a boot jack out of the window, and hit Ota Reed, knocking him senseless for a time.
On Thursday, May 18, 1876, Ada Alysom and William
Kuykendall were married at Wilbur. The Academy adjourned
school for the day at forenoon recess, and all attended the
wedding. That evening, after prayer meeting, we held a sociable in the Academy in honor of the occasion, where we marched
and sang and all enjoyed themselves.
We lived about eight miles north of Wilbur, on the Calapooia. My father, John H. Mires, had no education, but our
family, at different times, sent eight pupils to Umpqua Academy, five of whom graduated. They were W. H. Byars, Elizabeth B. Byars, afterwards Mrs. Lewis Stout; Austin, Benton,
Anna, Margaret, Addie and John S. Mires. W. H. Byars
graduated in the first class along with Nina Stanley and Miller
Royal, children of the then principal, T. F. Royal.
Austin Mires graduated June 9, 1876, in the class with
Emma Chapman, John I. Chapman and P. H. Burt.
Margaret and Addie Mires graduated June 23, 1882, in the
class with Hattie Benjamin (later Mrs. Frank Benson) and
Bina Maupin. The present judge of the Supreme Court of
Oregon, H. L. Benson, was then principal, with Frank Benson
assistant, I believe.
John S. Mires graduated in 1884, in the class with Addie
Smith, Cora Booth, George M. Brown (now attorney general
of Oregon) and J. I. Creteser.   I do not have the date.
Professor Curtis was assisted by his sister, Josephine Curtis, 48
Austin Mires
and at the same time Luetta Grubbe was teacher of music.
Curtis possessed a kindly, humane disposition, and loved to
associate with young people and to see them advance.
At the first home calling of her children by the old Umpqua
Academy, June 1, 1917, among the prominent speakers were
Judge J. W. Hamilton, George M. Brown and Robert A.
Booth. These three gentlemen indulged in unrestricted crimination and re-crimination, in which not only they were included
but others of the old students as well. These accusations went
not only to the transgressions of the rigid rules of the Academy, but also to the laws of the State, such as chicken and
watermelon stealing, and other such misdemeanors, and as the
statutes of limitation had long since run, we heard no denials.
To the later generation, and especially those who were never
fortunate enough to come within the magic circle of the moral
influence of the old Umpqua Academy, it can be but a matter
of wonder how such youth, as the aforesaid were shown to
have been, could ever develop into law-abiding, law-enforcing,
useful citizens. But the facts only demonstrate the mighty
influence for good exercised by that pioneer institution of
learning. It was, indeed, the crucible into which was cast the
crude ore of youth, full of human frailties and baseness, to
yield a product of unalloyed manhood and womanhood.
That youth would have proven morally leprous, indeed, who
could for any considerable time abide under her influence and
receive no permanent impression of righteousness.
The children of Umpqua Academy are to be met with all
over the northwest, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana,
Utah and Alaska. The boys, now men, are patriotic, industrious, capable and useful citizens. The girls are now mothers
and grandmothers, and their sterling precepts and examples
guarantee through their offspring for time to come a citizenry
upon which our country may rely with simple faith.
Umpqua Academy, insofar as its corporate entity is concerned, is now a thing of the past, but its spirit, like the soul
of old John Brown as portrayed in song, is marching on, and
the force of its influence will not end with this generation. THE UMPQUA ACADEMY  STUDENTS'
By   J.   H.   Booth.
Last year the faculty of the public school of Wilbur, Oregon, was making a study of the history of the early educators
and educational centers of Oregon. It was impressed with
the prominent part the old Umpqua Academy had played in
the educational foundation of the State. It seemed important
that this evidence should be gathered into permanent form.
Upon the suggestion of Mrs. Inez Miller, principal of the
school, it was decided to undertake the holding of a reunion
of the old students. It seemed, also, a fitting way to close the
commencement exercises for the first class of the new Standard High School.
Former students, residing both within and without the district, were communicated with and the idea received with
favor, though not without misgivings, as to its sucpess. The
residents of the little town, however, entered whole-heartedly
into the plan. Then began the hunt to locate the former students. In this effort Mrs. Miller and her co-teachers worked
long and faithfully. Invitations were sent out for June first
and bore addresses from California to New York. The wonderful response received in answer to these invitations can be
realized only by those who attended the reunion. More than
three hundred came.
June first of las,t year was a bright, beautiful day. The
season being late, Nature was at her best. The green carpet
of the Umpqua hills was a-gleam with the bloom of wild
flowers, which nowhere grow in more profusion. Birds sang
from the trees and the fields, and as the old bell in the high
belfry rang to call the assembled crowd together, men and
women met who had been boys and girls in school there forty
years ago.   Many had not seen one another since.
The exercises were held out of doors in the school yard,
with the porch of the former academy as the stage.   A pro- 50
J. H. Booth
gram of speeches and songs was given by old-time students
and teachers. Beneath the oak trees nearby the Wilbur people
had prepared and spread an excellent noon-time meal.
To perpetuate the ideas inculcated by the old institution and
to preserve the history and strengthen the ties of early association, it was decided to form a permanent organization.
Officers for the year were elected. A committee was appointed to draft articles of association for adoption at the
next yearly meeting. From these proposed articles the real
object of the association can best be set out by quoting:
i. To unite in a permanent organization all students and
teachers of the Umpqua Academy; to renew and extend
acquaintance and friendship of students and teachers and
patrons of the school.
2. To gather, publish and preserve the history of the Umpqua Academy, its teachers, students and patrons.
3. To mark the location of the first building and provide
a fitting memorial to Rev. James H. Wilbur, the founder.
4. To stimulate the interest of education in the Wilbur
Public School.
The affairs of the association are to be handled by an
executive committee, which is to be elected annually. An historian is provided to "gather, edit and present in proper form
all historical data in harmony with the objects of this association." Funds are provided through initiation, annual dues and
voluntary contributions.
It is difficult to measure the influence of such an institution as the Umpqua Academy upon a community. To do so
it is necessary to know both the principles upon which it was
founded and the character of its founders. Founded by Father
Wilbur, who was himself missionary, Indian agent, and "circuit rider" for the Methodist Church, a man of great physical
endurance and courage, as well as moral force and high intellectual endowment; and maintained by far-seeing pioneers of
sterling worth and integrity, it is not strange that its influence
extends and is felt far beyond the picturesque village named
for its founder, or the boundaries of the county in which lie
the various valleys of the Umpqua rivers. Umpqua Academy
Says a prominent stock buyer whose operations range
throughout Northern California and the five southwestern
counties of Oregon to the Klamath and Goose Lake basins :
"Wherever night overtakes me I am sure of hanging my
hat on the walls of a home from which some member of the
family went to school in the old days at the Umpqua Academy
and reminiscently recalls them in conversation."
A prominent educator of the state, formerly a student there,
recently said to the writer :
"For many years the Academy was the only institution of
higher learning between Salem and Sacramento, and thus
drew its students from a large part of two states, and as they
returned to take up their various occupations in life, they
carried with them the high ideals of the old school and wove
them into the fabric of two commonwealths. They have been
constructive state builders."
A glance at the old school roster will verify his statement.
Students of the old Academy have gone to our legislative
halls. Some have gained prominence in the profession of
medicine and of law. Many eminent educators, editors and
statesmen who have gained the top round in these professions
received their first inspiration and early training at the old
school. Successful business men and those following vocational fines of work recall with musing pleasure the days
profitably and happily spent under its roof.
It is safe to venture the statement that no institution of
similar size has wielded a greater influence for good than has
By Binger Hermann.
Four score years and more have already passed away in the
revolving circle of time since the beginning of American settlement west of the Rocky mountains.
First came the American missionary, and with him came the
trader and commercial adventurer, although these latter had
long before made fruitless endeavors here. Soon there followed by sea and by land, the homebuUder, the settler and
empire founder. These brought that characteristic American
spirit for civil government, by consent of the governed, which
began with a Provisional Government, expanding into a Territorial government, after the acquisition of national title, and
thence into statehood Feb. 14, 1859, the close of our pioneer
history. Though marvelous have been these evolutions in the
conquest of the wilderness and comparatively remote the time,
yet there are those still living who remember seeing, and perhaps standing, on the very site of the present magnificent
metropolis and city of Portland! in which this historic body is
now assembled. It was then a dense, primeval forest, unclaimed and uninhabited by the white man.
Perhaps a fair object lesson in the progress of events may
be that in the present change of quarters of the Oregon Historical Society from their long tenanted, obscure and insufficient offices to these modern and capacious rooms in this
palatial auditorium.
This all reminds us that we are in a new West—a new age—
and that the old pioneer West is past and gone—a thing of
splendid history and instructive memories. No portion of
the national domain is so fortunate as Oregon in the fullness
and accuracy of its historic record.
Beginning with Lewis and Clark, Hall J. Kelley, Washington Irving, Gray's, Hines' and Bancroft's histories, with the in-
nnual meeting of the members of the Oregon 54 Binger Hermann
valuable memoirs of McLoughlin, Nesmith, Applegate, Deady
and other eminent pioneer writers, our libraries and this association are stored with a wealth, rich beyond computation.
To one who has the honor of addressing this valued association, the mind first reverts to the distinguished men and revered
pioneers who have preceded him in the discharge of the same
duty. The contributions they have made to our pioneer history are a precious legacy to those who shall succeed us.
They were themselves all actors in the great drama of empire building, and have placed on record the parts they each
have played. They have enabled us to see as in a moving
picture the events long since past and the men and women
who shaped them in the discovery, the conquest, and development of the vast empire of which we are a part.
Though the actors themselves have nearly all gone and
those that remain are old and gray, yet their memories are
embalmed in these reminiscences and in the grateful remembrance they have left behind them.
Lastly, let us not forget what we owe to the conservators
and zealous keepers of these cherished records, for if it were
not for them the accumulation we now possess in our pioneer
library would not have been contributed, or would have been
lost in the mutilations of time.
To this end let us weave a chaplet of thanksgiving and appreciation though in words far too poor, to one more than all
the rest and while he still lives—your honored curator, George
H. Himes.
In other addresses more thought has been given to our pioneer history as a whole, or to some special event or individual
relators composing a part of it. To me as a pioneer of the
Territorial days and one who has made Southern Oregon his
home and his study for much over half a century, the pleasant
task has been assigned to address you upon that subject alone.
It was Caesar in his opening "Commentaries" without preface
and very abruptly, who says: "Gaul is divided into three
parts." So we may say of Oregon, that it too is really divided
into three parts.   All that portion east of the Cascade Moun- Early Southern Oregon
tains is one; that portion north of the waters of the Umpqua
is another, while all that south is the third, and may be said,
to embrace Southern Oregon.
Of all the parts, indeed of all the Pacific Northwest, or of
the entire Pacific Coast states, none has contributed so complete a history in stirring details of the desperate struggle and
daring adventure and varied developments in industrial progress as Southern Oregon.
In no other portion have the aborigines so stubbornly and
so savagely resisted the white man's invasion of their abode.
In no other portion was the advancing civilization so remote
and so dependent upon the lone efforts of the explorer and
home builder. Long following the days of Captain Gray, the
Lewis and Clark, and the Astorian sea and land expeditions,
the Columbia was the Mecca of the sailor and the fur hunter,
and yet then and later upon the waters of the lower Columbia
and Willamete, the natives were far less hostile and received
the oncoming whites with more welcome than in the Southern
Oregon country after its exploration. Even the Hudson's Bay
Company had their friendship.
Tidewater navigation has ever been the most potent agency
in the civilization and development of all countries and quickly
overcame the hostility of the original inhabitants. It became
the easy and attractive highway of most all mankind.
Southern Oregon until a later day was without this great
auxiliary, and1 portions of it never became directly accessible
by water. It also followed as a sequence that the more remote
and inaccessible a region, the more inhospitable and irreconcilable were the native inhabitants to the white man's entrance.
They were also noted as more brave, more savage, and unconquerable than those nearer the Coast. Their approach was
by Indian trail with its tortuous windings over the mountains,
through hidden canyons and across impassable streams; and
not by the easy current of the ebb and flow of the sea. In the
settlement of all new countries the boat first came before the
For long years and until gold discoveries, Southern Oregon 56
Binger Hermann
suffered the lack of a local market with long and costly outlet
to that more remote,- while the Willamette and lower Columbian settlements had the early ship arrivals with the steady
demand of a Hudson's Bay Company. Later on and in 1843,
greater facilities opened up there to increased population by
the old Emigrant Road from Fort Hall. Lewis and Clark believed the Multnomah—the Willamette now—"watered the vast
extent of country as far perhaps," they say, "as the waters of
the Gulf of California." Vigilant explorers they were, yet
to them it was the terra incognito, or "dark Continent."
"Nor dint of hoof nor print of foot
Lay in the wild and arid soil;
No sign of travel, none of toil.
The very air was mute."
The first white man's voice from that benighted region was
in a cry of distress. This was in 1828, when Jedediah Smith,
that intrepid American explorer and trapper, suffered an Indian massacre of most of his party when crossing the lower
Umpqua river en route from California up the Coast heavily
laden with furs valued at $40,000.
He with two others safely reached Vancouver. He was a
most remarkable man, and the first white man to lead a party
across the Rocky Mountains to California.
Two years later the Hudson's Bay Company established
their first trading post in Southern Oregon upon the Umpqua
River opposite Elk Creek and named it Fort Umpqua.
Other trappers from the Willamette visited the country in
1832, and later, but it was not until 1837 that Ewing Young,
a name afterwards noted in Oregon pioneer annals, with a
party of other settlers from the Willamette, traveled through
the country for purposes in aid of civilization. They were
traveling to California to purchase cattle for Willamette settlers, and though they later returned over the same trail with
a large herd of cattle, they were several times attacked by
hostile Indians on the Klamath and Rogue Rivers, but more
severely at Rock Point, on the latter river in September, where
one of the whites was killed! and two others wounded, who Early Southern Oregon
later died on reaching the Umpqua Valley. These attacks deterred other whites from traveling there for some time.
A few years after this tragedy, another visit for a peaceable
purpose in the Christianizing of the Indians, was that by Jason
Lee and Gustavus Hines, the pioneer Methodist Missionaries,
who sought to establish a mission among the Umpqua River
Indians. This was in 1840. The outlook they found was too
discouraging and the Indians too treacherous to hazard a mission there. These Indians were the same tribe that twelve
years before had massacred the first coming of the white men
under Jedediah Smith.
The first most public attraction to the country since then
was in 1846, when it was believed that a shorter and easier
route for the incoming immigration than others had already
traveled down the waters of the Snake and Columbia Rivers
and the Barlow Pass, was by the Southern Pass from Fort
Hall by the Humboldt, the Modoc and Klamath countries, and
thence by the Rogue River and through the almost impassable
Umpqua Canyon. This route was attempted with a caravan
of nearly 100 wagons carrying immigrants and supplies. These
Argonauts were sustained with the spirit of hope and confidence as they mentally chanted the pioneer refrain :
"We cross the prairie as of old
The Pilgrims crossed the sea,
To make the West as they the East,
The household of the free."
By incredible effort and much suffering and property loss,
the way was opened. The next year many again traveled it
to avoid the hostile Cayuse Indians on the upper Columbia.
But with all this travel through Southern Oregon, none remained to settle it.
It was not until 1848, the first white men ventured into the
country to make settlement. But these were only a few courageous settlers who settled choice land claims in the Yoncalla
and Looking Glass Valleys, though it is believed that as early
as 1847 Warren N. Goodell located upon the land now the
site of the town of Drain.   No earlier settlements than these 58
Binger Hermann
were known to have been in entire Southern Oregon. That
well remembered man in Oregon history—Jesse Applegate—
settled in 1849 in the Yoncalla Valley and lived there to his
death long years after.
It remained, however, for California gold discoveries in 1848 I
to give a new life to Southern Oregon in the passing hosts of I
gold seekers from the Willamette settlements. The trails were
crowded with horses and mules carrying the excited travelers I
with their packs to the new Eldorado. To these, however, I
the fertile lands passed over had no attractions. The quest
was only for gold.
But it was in 1850 the real promise and active influence came
toward the most effective future and permanent awakening
of Southern Oregon.   It came in the exploring party in the
ship Samuel Roberts in the early part of that year into the
Umpqua River.   They came to explore, to invest and to settle. ■
Their primary purpose was to seek a river or bay with a safe
and navigable outlet to the high seas, and with a deep tidewater  channel  into the  interior.   This  they  found  in the
Umpqua.   Their further purpose united with this was the
opening of a practicable land communication from their sea
port to the nearest point in the gold mining regions of North-
ern California, over which supplies and miners could be trans- I
ported more easily, quickly and cheaply than by the long trav- I
eled route from Portland or San Francisco.    For this public I
convenience, but more for their own investment, sites for towns I
were to be located at eligible points, and were regularly surveyed and laid out as at Umpqua City, at the mouth of the
river, Scottsburg at the head of tidewater, Elkton on Elk ;
Creek opposite the old Fort Umpqua, and Winchester on the
North Umpqua, where travelers and pack trains were crossing
over on their way to the mines.   From Scottsburg trails were I
opened and improved ferries established, and soon a lively I
traffic ensued from that place to the south.    It was to the '■
magnetic attraction of gold in California that these evolutions I
were due.
A still greater attraction was now to have origin within | Early Southern Oregon 59
Southern Oregon itself and was to do more toward its real
settlement and permanent development than all the rest. This
was in the accidental discovery of gold within our own bounds
by Cluggage and Pool, in 1851, upon the site of the present
town of Jacksonville. They were packers, and were passing
through the country and when seeking for water at their evening camp the shining nuggets came to view. This so stimulated prospecting and exploiting in other sections as to uncover other deposits and soon rich discoveries gave sudden
wealth to many seekers in all parts of Southern Oregon.
Though thieving and murderous Indians lay in wait and ambush to rob and to massacre, yet population poured in both
from California and from the Willamette settlements. This,
therefore, may be said to have been the third most notable
event in Southern Oregon history. Scottsburg, Winchester
and the newer town of Jacksonville, were given added importance by these later developments.
Yet to the seekers, it was not all gold that glitters. To the
far-seeing and energetic the way places over which they passed
presented to view another wealth in that of the fertile lands,
the grassy meadows and pure waters. A vision of home and
state building arrested their feverish and now more toilsome
search for gold. Their packs were opened, their tents spread,
and lands selected under the Donation and Pre-emption law,
and cabins followed in the wake toward the social and political
system of an advanced civilization.
One of these wayfarers was Aaron Rose, who on returning
from the mines on September 23, 1851, located upon the beautiful site, now the city of Roseburg, which he soon platted for
a town, and which grew so rapidly as in two years to outrank
Winchester, the capital of the county of Douglas created in
1852, and so to absorb its traffic as to require the removal to
Roseburg, and to cause its decline, and virtual disappearance.
It was in the year 1851 Port Orford upon the sea coast
was located, and claimed under the Donation law by Captain
William Tichenor, afterwards a noted man in our pioneer history.   He was captain of the pioneer steamer Sea Gull which 60
Binger Hermann
ran between Portland and San Francisco. He conceived the
same idea as that of the Samuel Roberts Umpqua Expedition,
to establish a base at Port Orford, from which supplies could
be transported more directly over the mountains to the gold
mines to the south, and for this purpose the location and construction of a trail or roadway. He selected a small company of volunteers at Portland, and located them on June v9th,
1851, at Port Orford, and intended to continue onward to San
Francisco and there enlist a larger number as an increased
force, and promised to return with them within a short and
fixed time. Those left at Port Orford made their camp upon
a rocky islet, connected with the main land only at low water.
They fortified themselves with the ship's cannon left with them,
as from the appearance and character of the Indians there, they
deemed such precaution necessary. Soon, as they had feared,
they were attacked by a much larger force than themselves,
and a severe struggle ensued. The little cannon placed upon
the narrow and steep ridge, or approach to the summit, faced
the attacking Indians, and with an enfilading fire, swept those
in advance into the sea, killing some fifteen of them. The
others retreated upon the beach and awaited reinforcements.
Not willing to hazard another engagament with their diminished ammunition and confined position, the little band of
whites awaited the protection of night, and then stealthily made
their escape into the trackless interior. This episode has since
been known as the "Siege of Battle Rock," and its full narration would furnish material for a Sir Walter Scott or a Feni-
more Cooper.
Another attempt was made to continue the proposed road
construction by another party under Col. W. G. T'Vault, on
August 23, 1851. They were all well armed and mounted,
but becoming lost in the mountains, they were reduced to the
verge of starvation but found an outlet to the Coast where
they were beset by hostile Indians near the mouth of the
Coquille river just as they were landing. A murderous conflict ensued. It was an intended massacre of the whole party. I
The most of them were slain or severely wounded and the Early Southern Oregon
survivors escaped after incredible hardships, adding another
thrilling story to the long record of Oregon pioneer suffering
and sacrifice.
The quick requisition of the U. S. troops from California to
redress these outrages brought on a campaign against those
Indians, and this gave a wide publicity of the country, and the
coming of more whites soon after. A portion of the troops
were sent by sea in the ship Captain Lincoln in January, 1852,
and were wrecked on the beach two miles north of Coos Bay.
They were compelled to remain in this isolated portion of the
world for four months before a rescue force came to their
relief. This narrative alone reads more like fiction. The ship
Nassau was brought to Coos Bay, the first ship ever to enter
upon its waters, to bring away the wrecked supplies saved from
the Lmcobi.
A garrison post was now established by the Government at
Port Orford from which for several years military relief was
sent out at different times in the Rogue River Indian War.
Some of its officers became eminent in our Nation's history,
and were commanders of its armies in the great Civil war.
Indeed, Oregon may be said to have been the nursery for our
country's greatest generals in that terrible conflict.
At this point it may be pertinent to say—as our history now
verges upon the several Indian wars to follow—that the Coast
Indians as a whole were naturally friendly to the whites and
averse to engaging in hostilities against them, but were in
awe and terror of the warring tribes of the Rogue River and
Shasta Indians. They were the bandits and outlaws of the
tribes. They would visit the Coast from their interior battle
grounds and infuse mischief and fear among the more peaceful natives, and compel them to unite in acts of thievery and
massacre. These interior tribes were from the very beginning
of the white man's coming his inveterate and most savage foe,
and so continued down to the last day of their surrender in
It was in the month of May, 1853, that another event of
leading importance in Southern Oregon settlement occurred. 62
Binger Hermann
This was in the exploration of the Coos Bay Country by a
party of miners from Jacksonville, under their leader, Perry
B. Marple. Visiting Indians to the interior gave information
of the immense deposits of coal in the Bay Country, of its splendid harbor and deep sea entrance, of the gigantic timber and
of its fisheries, and its gold deposits along the Coquille waters.
At a public meeting of citizens at Jacksonville, a company
was organized to visit and explore that country, to select and
appropriate town sites, mining claims, and timber holdings.
This was all done in a manner that makes another rich narrative of adventure, and danger, in what is now Oregon's
second greatest commercial entrepot. Empire City was the
name given the first townsite, and located by Captain Wm. H.
Harris ; Marshfield was the second by J. C. Tolman, and North
Bend by F. G. Lockhart. Soon thereafter coal mines at West
Port were opened by Flanagan and Mann, who were of the
Umpqua Exploration of 1850, and ship-building was commenced by Captain A. M. Simpson at North Bend with a sawmill beginning by H. H. Luse at Empire City.
In January, 1854, the ship Daemons Cove was the first vessel
ever to enter Coos Bay for purpose of settlement and development and the second ship after the Nassau.
The fertile valley of the Coquille nearby had been slowly
visited by trappers, miners and stockmen from the Bay, until
1858, when my father, Dr. Henry Hermann, brought to it
for permanent settlement, a colony of Baltimoreans. At the
mouth of that river, still earlier; indeed as early as 1853, and
following the Coos Bay Exploration, gold was discovered on
the beach a short distance north of the Coquille river, which
yielded immense returns of fine gold, washed from the beach
sand. It attracted large numbers of miners and traders and
soon a town known as Randolph arose with lucrative business, which continued there for several years until the mines
were exhausted and the town disappeared, with all its inhabitants.
In 1852 another gold discovery was made which opened up
to notice and development that portion of Southern Oregon Early Southern Oregon
now forming a part of Josephine County. It was made by a
party of sailors, from which in early days the place was known
as Sailors' Diggings, but later on as Waldo. It became a
prosperous town, and is still the center of many well known
and very rich placer mines.
It was not long before other discoveries were made in other
parts of the same region, and which have made Josephine one
of the richest mining counties in the state.
So important in 1852 had the shipping of Scottsburg become to Southern Oregon and Northern California that often
as many as 500 pack mules in one day awaited supplies for
the mines, and the United1 States Government in that year was
induced to provide for the construction of a Military Wagon
Road beginning there and extending through to Camp Stewart,
following closely the old trail. Congress appropriated $120,-
000 for the work, and it was placed under the superintendency
of Col. Joseph Hooker, afterwards the great Union General
in the Civil War, and known as "Fighting Joe Hooker of Lookout Mountain."
This further greatly aided in the increase of population and
prosperity of entire Southern Oregon. Ashland was that year
located by R. B. Hargadine.
Thus far in serial order the finding and material development of Southern Oregon has been followed by its pioneer
To review in conclusion the desperate struggles of the
aborigines to retain possession of their ancestral inheritance
would require space «not permitted here.
Reference has already been made to occasional hostilities at
various times and places prior to 1852, but it was not until
1853, after increased white arrivals were tempted by exploitation and gold discoveries and with actual appropriation of the
Indian lands for permanent homes, that occasional resistance
turned to continuous and aggressive warfare.
A compact for this purpose was entered into between the
hostiles and including those east of the Cascades. It was to
have been a war of extermination.   It began in most united 64
Binger Hermann
attacks in 1853 upon the whites at Grave Creek, Table Rock,
Stewart Creek and Evans Creek, when General Joseph Lane,
Captain J. W. Nesmith, Col. John E. Ross, were in command
of the volunteer forces and Captain A. J. Smith, Captain Alden
and Lieutenant A. V. Kautz of the regulars, against the attacking Indians, led mainly by Chiefs Joe, Sam and John.
After heroic struggle on both sides, with a number of killed
and wounded of whites and Indians, an armistice was entered
into with an agreement that a council should be held at Table
Rock on September 10, 1853, and a treaty made whereby the
Indians should relinquish their claim to the main Rogue River
Valley, and go peaceably upon a reservation to be provided
for them in the northern part of the state, and with payments
of annuities and other benefits to be made the Indians by the
U. S. Government.
Such a council and such a treaty was had with ceremonies
and unexpected treachery that approached the verge of a tragedy. From that treaty it was hoped that a lasting peace would
result. The volunteer military forces, were disbanded and returned to their homes. The Treaty Indians were temporarily
held at Fort Lane until they could be moved to the reserve.
The year 1854 passed away with continued assurance that the
peace would be permanent. Settlers and miners had returned
to their homes and their mines and resumed their avocations
with no further apprehensions. But, alas! their hopes were
delusive. There were quarrelsome whites as well as hostile
Indians. Slight offenses were- magnified. In the Klamath
Country an Indian uprising was defeated by the military, with
losses on both sides. Still the Treaty Indians refrained from
open hostilities, until a most unfortunate and most unprovoked
assault by a company of whites was made at dawn of day upon
a little band of peaceful Indians quietly encamped on Butte
Creek. These Indians were mainly old men, women and
children. About 20 of them were killed, consisting mainly of
decrepit old men, and a number of children and several squaws. I
This atrocious massacre was severely condemned by Captain
A. J. Smith, in command at Fort Lane nearby. Early Southern Oregon
It is true that preceding this hostile act, some murderous
hostiles had attacked the Harris home, killing him, and then
were driven off by the heroic defense of Mrs. Harris. Other
offenses were instigated by the more hostile Indians who complained at the delay in the observance by the Government of
the treaty obligations which was represented as an evidence of
treachery and bad faith toward the Treaty Indians, and soon
conflicts followed at many places. Mounted volunteer troops
were called into action. The Governor issued a proclamation
ordering out nine different companies. The battle of Hungry
Hill had before been fought with unsatisfactory results. The
troops were later met by the hostiles at the Meadows where
a severe engagement followed, in which one white was killed
and five wounded, with but one Indian wounded.
In the midst of this excitement, however, the greater body
of the Treaty Indians were kept under guard and were removed to the reservation.
The last and most eventful year of the war came in 1856 at
the Big Meadows on Rogue River near where the hostiles had
forted up for a final test. Gen. Lamerick, Col. Kelsay, Col. W.
W. Chapman and Major Bruce, were active in command of the
volunteers. The battle began but was maintained by the volunteers with so little energy and daring that the casualties were
small on both sides. It was really a draw. The Whites
went into camp and the Indians withdrew.
The Government was discouraged with these ineffectual attempts to overcome the hostilities, and resolved upon a more
determined and decisive prosecution of the war. Regular
troops were ordered up from California, in addition to those
already in the country. The Indians observing these preparations, assembled in their natural fortifications in the mountain fastnesses, for defense, along the Rogue river. The military plan entered upon was for the California troops to move
up the Coast and ascend the river, and for those on the upper
river to descend! and there to concentrate, and between them
to crush the hostiles on their own ground. These movements
had their influence upon the hostiles, who being communi- 66
Binger Hermann
cated with agreed to a conference with the military authorities at a place upon the Illinois river.
Lieutenant Colonel Buchanan was in command and most of
the regular troops, with throngs of Indians, were present, at
the time and place agreed upon. The main body of the assembled Indians agreed to remove to the reservation; all
except their great Chief John who insisted on remaining upon
his own favorite grounds, otherwise he said he would fight.
Another council, to meet at Big Meadows on May 26th, was
mutually agreed upon, when the removal to the reservation
should begin.
The Military under Captain A. J. Smith with his 80 dragoons, were present on the day named, but no Indians came.
The wretched weather seemed an excuse. Toward evening
two squaws came into camp with a message from Chief George
to Captain Smith, warning him to expect an attack. The
Captain at once removed his troops to a more elevated and
defensive position, and there he prepared to meet the enemy.
Early on the 27th he dispatched an aid over the mountains
to Col. Buchanan, announcing the expected attack. The aid
returned with the Colonel's request to know if reinforcements
were desired, to which the Captain explained the necessity for
such. But his messengers becoming lost upon the trails, delayed the reply for some hours, but when received a company
under Captain Augur, afterwards a great General in the Civil
War, hurried to Smith's relief, and came suddenly in view just
as the savages were making their last assault upon three sides
of the beleaguered fort. The troops had fought all day and
already nearly one-half had been slain and wounded. They
had been cut off from all water and their ammunition was
nearly exhausted, while the Indians were being continually
reinforced. The loud commanding voice of Chief John could
be distinctly heard sending forth his orders, with all the deliberation and saneness of a military disciplinarian.
The onrush of Captain Augur's company was a surprise to
the Indians, who now being attacked in the rear, made a hurried flight down the hillsides and away into forest cover to Early Southern Oregon
the Chief's headquarters. The siege was turned and the day
This defeat with much loss of life to the Indians, compelled
their surrender on May 30th, with Chief John and a few of
his renegades still holding out. But by July 1st all had come
in, including John, and the Indian Wars of Southern Oregon
were forever at an end.
The captives were all assembled at Port Orford and they
numbered when there 1,300. From there all were removed to
the reservation.
Of all the Pacific. Coast Indians Chief John ranks as the
ablest, most heroic and most tactical of chieftains. Our army
officers in pursuit, and in fight with him all testify to his remarkable strategy, daring and dash.
Of the perils and sacrifices of the early pioneer homeseekers
during these hostile conflicts with the Indians, none can surpass that of the Geisel family near the mouth of the Rogue
River. The settlers were having a dance at Gold Beach on
the night of February 22, 1856. Most of them were there,
but none of the Geisels. At the midnight hour, their Indian
servant returning from his usual visit to the Indian rancherie
some miles away, rapped at the door for admission. Geisel
opened the door, when to his amazement, a crowd of infuriated
savages burst in upon him, and with a blow upon his head,
felled him to the floor, but in the midst of this his wife with
infant in arms, moved to his rescue as he was falling. Taking
her with the infant and her 13-year-old daughter to the outside,
into the custody of others of the Indians, those inside awakened
the three little boys from their sleep, and one by one they massacred them over the father's body. Then despoiling the
dwelling of its most valued contents, they destroyed it by fire,
with the bodies inside, and then with the survivors of the
family, the Indians marched With their captives to their
rancherie in the mountains some miles away. Three years
later the writer passed by the ruins of the once happy home,
and the ashes, and blackened stones, broken crockery and
rusted stove still lay upon the ground, mute witnesses of the
terrible conflict there. 68
Binger Hermann
The wild grasses and dense briars nearby seemingly refused
to encroach upon the accursed spot, and a sense of loneliness
and despair pervaded the scene.
The escaping settlers all fled to a previously prepared fort
on the north side of Rogue River, where for an entire month
they were isolated and cut off from rescue. Many besides
the Geisels were slain on that night, among them being the
Indian Agent, Ben Wright, who was lured to his death. Time
and space do not permit the full story of those events, or of
the captivity and ransom of the captives, and the rescue of the
forted settlers.
The career of Chief John, his exploits in war and surrender,
his impatience and royal demeanor, when under military custody, on the reserve, his respect for and assumed equality with
Lieutenant Phil. Sheridan, his custodian, in command, with
the story of his enforced removal by ship to the California
prison, and his attempted capture of the ship on the journey
when opposite the mouth of Rogue River, all form a narrative
of thrilling interest.
As a memoir and fitting close to these observations upon the
pioneer history of Southern Oregon, a less brief recital should
do credit to many persons, men and women who achieved distinction in those pioneer days and became in later years eminent in all walks of life, many in the state's history and others
in the annals of our nation. And such is but a glimpse of
early Southern Oregon.
To its departed ones in the stirring scenes we linger in
fondest memory and inscribe in tenderest words our thoughts :
"Warm summer sun
Shine kindly here.
Warm southern wind
Blow softly here.
"Green sod above,
Lie light, lie light,
Good night, dear hearts;
Good night, good night." JOEL WARE
A Sketch.
Joel Ware was a pioneer of Lane County, Oregon, and although he did not attain statewide celebrity, his local distinction and worth were such as to entitle him to worthy mention
in the annals of the state.
Joel Ware was living in Eugene when the writer of this
sketch came to that place in the fall of 1858. He was a compositor by vocation and at that time was employed on the People's Press* a free soil paper, which had been established during the previous summer. As the writer recollects it, in addition to being a typesetter for that paper he was proof reader
and pressman as well ; he also had charge of the local column
and occasionally did editorial writing. Mr. Ware had fine
mental poise, sound judgment and a dry humor which enlivened whatever he said or wrote. His editorials were models
of clearness and directness. I do not suppose he ever attempted to compose an ornate or eloquent sentence. To express his thoughts in plain vigorous language was always his
aim. This was manifest not only in his occasional editorial
writing but also in the reports he prepared for the Surveyor
General when chief clerk in his office.
How long he remained with People's Press is not remembered by the writer, but probably until the midsummer of 1861,
when he was appointed to a position in the U. S. Surveyor
General's office by B. J. Pengra, Surveyor General, one of the
founders of the People's Press, who consequently had personal
knowledge of Ware's capability for any Une of service he engaged to perform. The Surveyor General made no mistake in inducting him into his official family when it is remembered that he continued his connection with the Surveyor
General's office nine years, the greater part of the time as chief
draftsman and chief clerk, when he voluntarily resigned in
order to answer the call of his fellow-citizens to come up
higher.   This call may truly be considered a reward of merit
) long and ably 70 George Stowell
In the spring of 1870 Mr. Ware was prevailed upon by his
party friends to become a candidate for County Clerk of Lane
County, and although the county was strongly Democratic,
and he a candidate on the Republican ticket, he was elected
by a handsome plurality. This result was not entirely due to
Ware's popularity, but largely to the fact that there were two
rival candidates voted for by the opposite party.
That Ware was the right man in the right place is manifest,
for he was re-elected nine times consecutively, thus having an
unbroken tenure of the office for the fifth of a century, and
for the greater part of that time the county was Democratic.
This certainly was a tribute to his capability and trustworthiness in his office.
Ware's clarity of mind, and close application to the duties
of the positions he occupied will be realized by the fact that
he attained a thorough mastership in them all. When in the
Surveyor General's office he became a recognized authority on
every feature of the U. S. Land Laws and departmental regulations thereunder. As a draftsman in the Surveyor General's
office he attained such proficiency in all branches of the work
pertaining to such position as to rival James Curley, his illustrious co-laborer in that department ; as a compositor he gave
eminent satisfaction to his employers ; and his long tenure of
office as County Clerk is proof of his thoroughness and efficiency as such functionary.
After retiring from the County's Clerk office he engaged in
the abstract and real estate business, for which no one was
better qualified. He continued in this business until the infirmity incident upon old age necessitated complete retirement from
life's activities.
Ware was married to Miss "Bettie" Cochran, of Mohawk,
Oregon, in 1859, and raised quite a family. He was an unusually kind and indulgent father. He died in the spring of
1901 aged seventy-one years.
Mr. Ware was a native of Ohio, of Quaker parentage. Although he discarded the most of the peculiarities of that sect,
he rigidly adherred to its cardinal tenets, namely, industry, Joel Ware
honesty and morality, for he possessed those ethic and civic
virtues to a marked degree. He was a genial companion, a
loyal friend and an upright generous citizen, and the lingering
relics of the generation to which he belonged and which had
the good fortune to enjoy his friendship will cherish the
memory of him while life lasts. George Stowell.
Portland, Oregon, December 10,1917.
Coquille River, near Coos Bay, is entitled to the right pronunciation of its name, whether French ko-keel or Indian ko-
quell, but the pronunciation has been in dispute for, lo, these
many years. Mr. S. B. Cathcart, pioneer of 1853, wrote to
The Oregonian February 22 last, that the word should be
spoken ko-quell, in reply to that newspaper's acceptance of
the other pronunciation.
The question seems to hang on the origin of the name, and
that is disputed. If the French word coquille, meaning "shell,"
is the source, then ko-keel is as near as the American tongue
can say it. Scoquel is the form of the name appearing in The
Oregonian January 7, 1854, in an advertisement of Perry B.
Marple, whose Coose Bay Company of adventurers, from Jacksonville, was then exploring and exploiting Coos Bay. Marple
said in the advertisement that Scoquel River was the Indian
name of an eel, and that he hoped Coquell would not supplant
Scoquel. In Walling's History of Jackson, Josephine, Douglas
and Curry Counties (p. 496), the source of the name is given
as Nes-sa-tU-cut. Like many other paleface theories pertaining to the dusky Indians, this relating to Coquille may be only
partly true or wholly fanciful.
In the earliest map known to contain the name of this river,
that of John B. Preston, Surveyor General of Oregon in 1851-
54, it appears Coquette, under date of October 20, 1851. This
form, Coquette, could easily have been an error in place of
Coquette. The name appears Coquille in a map, dated 1856, of
J. W. Trutch (assistant to Surveyor General Preston, and the
surveyor who located the base line of all surveys in the Pacific
Northwest) and G. W. Hyde. Coquille also appears in a map
of 1855, made by G. H. Goddard, "from explorations of Governor Stevens," and published at San Francisco by Britton
and Rey.
B. J. Pengra, Surveyor General of Oregon in 1861, made 74
News and Comment
a map in that year, showing Coquille, and a similar map in J
1863. In 1869 Harvey W. Scott "wrote up" the Coos Bay I
and Coquille country in The Oregonian, and brought back the J
pronunciation ko-keel. A recent letter from Binger Hermann, j
whose life-long familiarity with Coos Bay matters makes him |
an authority, likewise favors ko-keel. He cites the similar I
French word, and suggests that the name may have come from j
the French-Canadian trappers of the North-West Company!
and the Hudson's Bay Company, who scoured the coast coun-1
try from a time perhaps earlier than 1815. These trappers may |
have left the word coquille among the Indians. The latter may!
have imitated the word in ko-quell, which early white settlers in I
Coquille Valley yet pronounce that way. Frequent names in I
Oregon have mysterious origin, and efforts to derive them!
from French or Spanish or Indian forms are not satisfactory. I
Oregon is such a name, and Rickreall and Luckiamute andil
Long Tom. Meanwhile, as to ko-quell or ko-keel, the evidence!
seems to favor the latter.   The accepted spelling is CoquilleM
Mr. Bancroft, the most voluminous of Pacific West historians, may have left a fame more enduring in the long lapse of |
time than that of any other person who has lived and wrought
in this area.    His thirty-nine volumes show immense labor J
and perseverance, and represent large sacrifice of personali!
fortune.   His death took place March 2,   1918, near  San
Francisco, at the age of 86 years.
His work did not escape criticism, for there have been many I
persons who delighted in picking errors or in finding faults
with Mr. Bancroft's "compilation" methods—history by wholesale—contrasted with the "digestive" methods of more skill- J
ful historians. But the volumes are a reference library that J
will last for all time, and if Mr. Bancroft had not devoted his I
fortune and his energy to them, they would not have beenl
published, nor would the great Bancroft Collection, now the! News and Comment
property of the University of California, be in existence.
Much of the labor of collecting and writing he assigned to
his assistants, for its magnitude was beyond the powers of any
one person.
Among the writers who will be remembered along with Mr.
Bancroft is the Oregon author and historian, Mrs. Frances Fuller Victor. She was the ablest of his assistants, and it is fair to
both of them, in paying tribute to the Bancroft publications,
to point out that she contributed much to their success. "At
least six of the volumes which today pass as the works of
Hubert Howe Bancroft were written by her," says William A.
Morris, one of Bancroft's editors, in the Quarterly of December, 1902 (Vol. Ill, No. 4). "These are the History of Oregon, in two volumes, the History of Washington, Idaho and
Montana (in one volume), the History of Nevada, Colorado
and Wyoming (in one volume) and the sixth and seventh
volumes of the History of California. . . . Parts of the
Bancroft History of the Northwest Coast and numerous biographies throughout the series are also from her pen." The
Quarterly, in recording the great and indispensable service of
Mr. Bancroft, has thought it fitting to remember also that of
Frances Fuller Victor.
That the name Zigzag River originally was applied not to
the present stream, along the Barlow Road below Laurel Hill,
but to a stream east of Government Camp, is asserted by Mr.
Ed. C. Ross, of Portland, a well known writer on pioneer subjects, who cites, as his authority, the testimony of members of
the Barlow party (1845-46). Mr. Ross believes that the name
Zigzag originally designated the present Barlow Creek, tributary of White River and the Deschutes.
The streams east and southeast of Government Camp
the Barlow Road are Salmon River and its tributaries, Red
Creek and Sand Creek, all of whose waters flow into Sandy
River ; and on the east side of the divide, Barlow Creek, Bar- 76
News and Comment
low Camp, on the latter stream, where the Barlow party cached
its wagons, in the winter of 1845-46, is some thirteen miles
southeast of Government Camp. The first crossing of the
present Zigzag River was some seven miles west of Government Camp. So that, if Mr. Ross is correct, the old name
Zigzag was used about twenty miles distant from the old road
crossing of the stream that now bears the name. This seems a
wide stretch of probability. Names are rarely so readily
changed in geographical nomenclature. In fact, names have
been known to survive the ravages of time almost as firmly as
mountains themselves.
The writer has found the name Zigzag, in its present location, as far back as 1852, in the pioneer journal of John T.
Kerns, printed in the Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association (1914). For September 29, 1852, the Kerns journal
reads: "Descended the remainder of Laurel Hill, drove five
miles, crossed one fork of Zigzag Creek, then two miles more
and crossed it twice in succession."
The question is, however, not of great importance, and the
name is now attached to a well-known stream, where it will
remain for all time. The history of the name is unknown.
Joel Palmer, in his Journal, who, by the way, explored the
course of the Barlow Road ahead of the Barlows and led the
way through the Cascade Mountains, uses the word zigzag
to designate the manner of descent to one of the streams flowing from Mount Hood. This was in the proximity of Zigzag
River, not of Barlow Creek.
The Mullan Road in Montana recently has been marked by
installation of eight monuments, and work is under way to
mark it in Idaho, a monument having been already placed at
Kellogg. This road, originally an Indian trail, was opened in
1859-62, by Captain John Mullan, with Government funds, between Fort Benton, head of steam navigation of the Missouri News and Comment
River, and Wallula, on the Columbia River, 624 miles. The road
was intended not only to connect the navigable waters of the
two great rivers, across the continental divide, but also to provide a shorter route from Fort Laramie into the Pacific Northwest. The road was not a successful through highway, but
served the uses of local progress and has important historical
Death of Hiram M. Chittenden, at Seattle, October 9, 1917,
takes away one of the foremost historians of the early pioneer
West and a distinguished military engineer. He was a brigadier-general in the United States Army and almost reached
the age of sixty years. His History of the Fur Trade of the
Far West, published in 1902, is probably the most comprehensive and easy-reading authority on the subject Collaborating with Alfred Talbot Richardson, he edited Life, Letters and
Travels of Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, published in 1905.
His earlier work included The Yellowstone National Park:
Historical and Descriptive (1893). The eighth edition of this
book came out in March, 1917, and he was writing a final
revision at the time of his death. The American Historical
■ Review last year contained a review, written by him, of David
Thompson's narrative. He was author, also, of several engineering treatises on Western subjects. He rendered distinguished service in engineering problems in the city of Seattle.
His departure leaves widespread regret in historical circles and
in his technical profession. He was born in New York state
October 25, 1858, and graduated from West Point Military
Academy in 1884. A small volume of his poems, written in
his early life, was published in 1916 for Christmas distribution. 78
News and Comment
Latourell Falls, the scenic cataract of the Columbia River
Highway, will live as a memorial to Joseph and Grace Latourell, whose name it bears. This couple was separated by death
November 2, 1911, when the husband passed away, and, on
March 6, 1917, the wife also joined the silent majority. Both
were early pioneers, who made their home near the falls after
their marriage February 14, 1859. Mr. Latourell was born
at Keesville, New York, in 1831. He came to Oregon in 1855,
and settled near the falls that bear his name in 1857. Grace
Qugh, who became his wife, was born in the Tualatin country
in 1843. Her father was an employe of the Hudson's Bay
Company, named Richard Ough, who came to Oregon in 1838.
Guy W. Talbot, of Portland, presented Latourell Falls to the
State of Oregon in 1914.
Joseph Latourell was the best known settler between Trout-
dale and Lower Cascades during many years of the pioneer
period. He engaged in farming and mercantile business, and
served as postmaster thirteen years at Latourell. Four of
eight children survive : H. A. Latourell, of Gresham ; J. C. and
Clara E. Latourell, of Troutdale ; Alice J. Courter, of Latourell.
"Across the Plains in 1852," jpurneyed by the family of
John Tucker Scott, is recorded in the extant journal of Abigail
Scott Duniway and is expected in the near future to be published. Among others of the family, well known in Oregon
affairs, were Harvey W. Scott and Catharine A. Coburn. The
family of eleven members started from Groveland, Illinois,
April 2, 1852, with five wagons and sixteen yoke of oxen,
and arrived at Oregon City September 28, 1852, after losing
on the journey the mother, the youngest child, of four years,
many of their oxen, and practically all of their worldly possessions.   The father of John Tucker Scott had been the first News and Comment
settler in Groveland township, Illinois, in 1824, from Kentucky, and it seemed natural for the next generation in 1852
to join the early settlers in Oregon. The journal, as recorded by Abigail Scott, then seventeen years of age, contains
some 35,000 words, and would fill a volume of nearly 100
printed pages, if not abridged. It is in the possession of Dr.
Clyde A. Duniway, son of Mrs. Duniway, president of Colorado College, at Colorado Springs, who will edit and annotate it
for publication.
Sons and Daughters of Oregon Pioneers had their annual
dinner at Portland in the main dining room of the Chamber
of Commerce, February 14, Oregon's anniversary of statehood.
The attendance of pioneer descendants at this gathering was
large, and betokened the growing importance of this organization amid the changing times that are giving the places of the
commonwealth builders to their sons and daughters. Mrs.
David P. Thompson, as president of the organization, arranged
the event. Frederick V. Holman, president of the Oregon
Historical Society, acted as toastmaster. The chief speakers
were Frederick W. Mulkey, on "Oregon's Fifty-ninth Birthday" ; Milton A. Miller, on "Oregon Pioneer Statesmen," and
George H. Himes, on "Oregon's Historic Spots." Mr. Mulkey
reviewed the pioneer and later progress of Oregon. Mr.
Miller recalled the services of Oregon's most distinguished
men, including Joseph Lane, Jesse Applegate and John McLoughlin, and paid particular tribute to Harvey W. Scott.
This dinner of the Sons and Daughters of Oregon Pioneers
will be repeated each year on February 14.
angus Mcdonald reminiscences
Publication of reminiscences of Angus McDonald, in the
Quarterly of the Washington Historical Society July, 1917, is a 80
News and Comment
recent history contribution of value.    The text is a narrative,
written in 1881 by Mr. McDonald during and after a journey
made by him in that year from his home on the Flathead Indian
reservation, in Montana, to Victoria, British Columbia.    The
narrative contains observations and reminiscences running back
forty years.   For more than thirty years he served the Hudson's Bay Company as clerk and chief trader.   He was the last
in charge of that company's post at Fort Colvile, on the Colum- si
bia River, in which capacity he annually exchanged furs for
trading goods at Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia River, then
at Fort Nisqually, at Puget Sound, and later, at Fort Hope
and Victoria, in British Columbia.    His service was contem- ;
porary with the placer gold activities of British Columbia and
the Columbia River country, the beginning of territorial gov- I
ernment in Washington, Idaho and Montana, and the con-
struction of the Northern Pacific Railroad to the Coast.    His :
participation in the events of his time and his many associa- I
tions, together with a rather unexpected knowledge of classical j
literature and a lively imagination enabled him to write a very*!
interesting narrative.   The text is copiously annotated by three I
close readers of Northwest History." The manuscript is preserved I
in the State Historical Library at Helena, Montana.   The edi- <|
tors are Judge F. W. Howay, William S. Lewis and Jacob A. A
Meyers.   The title is, "Angus McDonald : A Few Items of the I
Death has claimed six members of the Oregon Historical
Society so far this year : Charles W. Fulton, William W. I
Cotton, David C. Burns and Theodore B. Wilcox, of Portland, I
and Nathaniel Webb, of Walla Walla, and Charles W. Young,
of Eugene.
Mr. Fulton passed away January 27, aged 65 years.   He'j
came to Oregon in 1876, and represented this state in the
United States Senate in 1903-09.   He was widely beloved and News and Comment
had a larger personal following, probably, than anybody else in
political life in this commonwealth.
Mr. Cotton was a foremost lawyer of Oregon, a kindly and
lovable man, and his passing is deeply regretted. He died at
Los Angeles March 13, 1918. His residence in Oregon began
in 1889. His native state was Iowa, where he was born in
1859. Mr. Cotton's eminence in his profession and in the rail-
roal world never barred1 him from the approach of deserving
persons, or caused him to overlook the little acts of kindness
which men and women and children admire and carry in their
Mr. Burns died February 19. He was a resident of Portland since 1880, in which year he came from Scotland. He
engaged in the grocery business and was highly esteemed. He
represented Multnomah County in the Legislature.
Theodore Burvey Wilcox came to Portland forty-one years
ago, as a bank clerk, and, in a few years, became a very valuable asset of the Ladd and Tilton Bank, and assistant to William S. Ladd. His organizing and enterprising talents brought
him into the flour milling business, and he made it one of the
leading industries of Portland, both in production and commerce. Production of wheat and trade and transportation
of this cereal, and the manufacture of flour have been activities
vital to the whole Northwest country. Mr. Wilcox may be
considered the most active figure in the progress of this great
industry. His importance is not a posthumous realization; it
won him the attention of his fellow citizens many years before
his death.   His is'one of the big names of the Northwest.
Many pioneers have yielded to the final summons this year.
Those who have passed out since the year began have been
recorded in the lists of the Oregon Historical  Society as
follows :
Aiken, Andrew G., b. Pa., 1837; 1853; d. Dec 31, 1917.
Baltimore, David C., b. Ind., 1849;  1853; d. Jan. 9, 1918.
1        Bolton, Mrs. Oliva, b. Va., 1831; 1852; d. Feb. 19. 1918. 82
News and Comment
*Burns,  Mrs. Milicent Conyers, b. Ky.,  1826;  1852;  d.  March   17,
Casey, James, b. Ireland, 1827; 1851; d. March 20, 1918.
Chapman, George,  1852; d.  March  16,  1918.
Cheadle, Raphael, b. Ohio, 1829; 1852; d. Feb. 26, 1918.
Clark, B.  S.,  1853; d. Jan.,  1918.
Cornelius,  Mrs. Rachel McKinney, b.  Ind.,   1833;   1845;  d.  Feb. :
Debel,  Mrs.  Margaret,
Devlin, John, b. Ireland,
Drewry, David T., b. Ky.
Dofflemyer,  Cyrus W., b.
*Gile, Henry S., b.  ; <
Ground, Luther, b. 111., i
Ground, Robert, b. 111., 1840;
Griffin, Mrs. Catherine, b. C
Hailey, Mrs. Louisa Griffin,
Hall, Mrs. Mary A., b. 111.,
Hill, W. G., b. 1832; 1847;
I.  March  :
5; 1858; d. March 2, 1918.
537; 1853; d. Thurston Co., Wn., Jan. 15,
. T.,  1858;  d. Portland, Jan. 22,  1918.
; d. March 20, 1918.
;  1853; d. Feb. 20,  1918.
1853; d. Jan. 4, 1918.
1, 1853; d. Feb. s, 1918.
>. Mo., 1833; 1847   d. Boise, Ida., Feb. 1,
[838;  1852;  d. Feb. s,  1918.
. Feb. 25,  1918.
■'    d,  1854;  d. Cal., Feb   14,
,  io12,  u.  Eugene, Jan.  3,   1918.
Johns, 1 Mrs. Julia, b. Va.,  1824;   1851; d. March 7,  1918.
Tones, William L., Or.; 1855; d. Jan. 27,1918.
Latourell, Mrs.  Grace Ough, b. Or.  1843; d. March 6,  1918.
•Litchfield, Mrs. Mary A. Craft, b. Or., 1847; d. Salem, Feb. 3, 1918.
Lotan, Mrs. Emma Carroll, b. Mass., 1852; 1854; d. Jan. 23, 1918.
Lowden, Francis M., b. Ky., 1832; 1849; d. Feb. 28, 1918.
Mays, William Burton, b. Or., 1854; d. Pendleton, Jan, 6, 1918.
McQuowen, Mrs.  Mary, b. Or.,  1847;  d. Jan.  15,  1918.
*Moreland, Julius C, b. Tenn.,  1844;  1852; d.  Salem, Feb. 2,  1918.
*Miller, Mrs. Betsy A., b. Mo., 1832;  1850; d. Portland, Feb. 18, 1918.
Newland, Thompson W., 1828;  1853; d. Tacoma, Wn., Jan. 8,  1918.
*Powell, William S., Ohio, 1831;  1853; d. Portland, Jan. 24,  1918.
Riggs,  Mrs. Talitha Cumi Bowman, b. Ky.,   1837;   1844;   d.  Orchard,
Feb. 4,  1918.
Robinette, Mrs. Tempy Walker, b. Ark., 1850; 1852; d. Wasco, Feb. 17,
Shelton, J. L., b. Mo., 1842;  1844; d. Cottage Grove, Jan, 3,  1918.
Spurgeon, Matthias, b. Iowa, 1838;  1852; d.  March  12,  1918.
Stouder, Jacob, b. 1827; 1852; d. March 9, 1918.
Thomas, L. H., b. 1840;  1848; d. Feb. 7, 1918.
Thompson, Robert Henry, b. Or., 1850   d. Los Gatos, Cal., Jan. 12, 1918
Thompson, Mrs. Rebecca Jane, b. Ark., 1841; 1845; d. Feb. 20, 1918.
Wait, Mrs. Ellen M. Campbell, b. Mass., 1836; 1849; d. March 3, 1918.
*Webb, Nathaniel, b. Conn., 1833; Cal., 1855—Oregon, 1863; d. Walla V
Mar. 9, 1918.
Westcott, Mrs. Christina, b. 1842;  1857; d. Portland, Jan. 16, 1918.
White, Mrs. Nancy M. Hoffman, b. 111.,  1841 ;  1852; d. March 3,  1
Williamson,  Mrs. Jennie Kerns, b. Ind,  1841;   1852; d.  Oaklar *
13, 1918.
Wood, Hiram, b. Mo., 1827;  1852; d. March 6, 1918.
Woodard, Alonzo B., b. Mich., 1840;  1852; d. Olympia, Feb. 24. 1018
Wyatt, E.  F, 1852;  d.  Sierra Madré, Cal,  Feb.,  1918. '
*Young, Charles Walker, b. Mo.,  1830; 1852; d. Dec. 28, 1917.
•Members Oregon Pioneer Association.
, 1018.
, Cal.,
"Hall Jackson Kelley, Prophet of Oregon," written by Fred
Wilbur Powell and published in the Quarterly of the Oregon
Historical Society as a serial in the four issues of the year 1917
(Vol. XVIII), has been reprinted as a monograph by the publishers of the Quarterly in 185 pages. The author has made
a close study of the New England schoolmaster and his rela- News and Comment
tion to settlement of the Oregon Country and has written the
most important biographical narrative that has yet appeared.
Mr. Powell quotes from Harvey W. Scott's tribute to the
queer schoolmaster : "This strange, eccentric man can almost
be called the prophet of Oregon, the father of emigration to
Oregon, the man who hastened the fulfillment of Oregon's
destiny." The edition is limited to one hundred copies and
copies available for outside distribution will be rare.
The pioneer monument at Vancouver, Washington, erected
in June, 1916, has been replaced on new foundations. The
first foundations were damaged by the summer flood of the
Columbia in the year 1917. The monument stands at the
north end of the inter-state bridge. It is the gift of the Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution. The inscription
reads: "In Memory of the Pioneers of the Oregon Trail,
1844." Two water founts are attached, and water flows from
cups supported on the horns of bronze buffalo heads. This is
one of several pioneer monuments placed in the State of Washington by Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution.
For mention of the others see the Quarterly, September, 1917.
The fiftieth anniversary of the Young Men's Christian Association, of Portland, was the occasion of a jubilee, on Easter
Sunday, March 31, 1918, on the spot where the organization
was formed, now occupied by the Ladd and Tilton Bank. The
site was formerly that of the First Presbyterian Church. The
chief speakers at the anniversary celebration were Edward
Quackenbush, Edward C. Frost, H. W. Stone, F. S. Akin,
D. W. Wakefield, J. Thorburn Ross, J. K. Gill, John Bain,
G. A. Mooney, C. H. Dodd, Henry L. Pittock and George H.
Himes. Messrs. Quackenbush, Akin and Himes were charter
members. Full narratives of the event are contained in the contemporary newspapers. 84 News and Comment
Old Oregon Trail marking in Nebraska has been one of the
important activities of the Nebraska State Historical Society,
as shown in volume XVIII of its Publications, recently issued,
covering the years 1908-16, inclusive. The volume narrates
frequent anecdotes of travel on the Old Oregon Trail. The
historical society has had the co-operation of the state legislature, the Daughters of the American Revolution and numerous
other patriotic societies. The trail crosses fifteen counties in
A centennial celebration of statehood will be held this year,
on an extensive scale, in Illinois. The state was admitted into
the Union in December, 1818. The state board of agriculture
is planning a great fair and exposition, and the city of Springfield is making extensive preparations. Several counties have
formed centennial associations. Numerous pageants will be
displayed. A special state commission is making the general
Reminiscences of William Craig, the frontier trapper and
plainsman, associate of Joseph L. Meek, Robert Newell and
Joseph Gale, well known figures in early Northwest affairs,
appear in the Lewiston Morning Tribune of March 3, 1918,
written by Thomas J. Beall. Craig was engaged in the Rocky
Mountain fur trade, first went to the Lewiston country in 1829
and died there in September, 1868. The reminiscences contain numerous interesting narratives of the life of Craig.
Rescue of the Georgiana party of Americans from Indians
of Queen Charlotte Islands, in December, 1851, was so expensive that its propriety was questioned by the Treasury Department, on the ground that the rescue should not have been
effected by Simpson P. Moses, collector of customs at Olympia,
but either by the territorial officers of Washington or by the
navy. The cost, according to report rendered by Moses, was
$11,017.01. A letter defending his action, written by Mr.
Moses and directed to the Secretary of the Treasury, dated News and Comment
June 29, 1852, will be reproduced in an early issue of the
Quarterly. The American victims of the Indians, about 28 in
number, were wrecked on the shore, while on a gold-seeking
expedition, and were held for ransom by the Indians 54 days
in November and December, 1851.
Joseph Burr Tyrrell has received the Murchison medal from
the Geological Society in London. He is one of Canada's foremost geologists, explorers and mining engineers, an Ontario
man by birth and a graduate of Toronto University. The
medal is founded in memory of Sir Robert Impey Murchison,
a famous British geologist, who died in 1871. Tyrrell has
done much exploratory work for the geological survey of
Canada. He has practiced mining engineering extensively in
the Yukon. Ontario's five-mile railway strip through the wilds
of Keewatin to Hudson's Bay was located by him.
"California; the Name," is the title of a 72-page publication of the University of California, December 19, 1917, written by Ruth Putnam, in collaboration with Herbert I. Priestly,
assistant professor of history in that institution. This study
of the name California is a far-reaching one.
A review of the Revolutionary period of the Ohio River
country, entitled, "Frontier Retreat on the Upper Ohio," 1779-
1781, being a symposium of letters and documents edited by
Louise Phelps Kellogg, of the Wisconsin Historical Society,
has been published by that society at Madison, Wisconsin.
Captain Robert Gray, discoverer of the Columbia River, in
1792, had aboard his ship Columbia a ship's painter named
George Davidson, who was something of a pencil artist.
Photographs of two of Davidson's sketches have come to the
Oregon Historical Society from Mrs. Gertrude Peabody, great
granddaughter of Robert Gray, of Boston.
. "Origin of Washington Geographic Names" is the title of a
noteworthy series of articles written by Edmond S. Meany, of
Seattle, and running in the Quarterly of the Washington Uni- 86 News and Comment
versity State Historical Society, of which he is editor. The
series began in the issue of July, 1917, has continued in the
subsequent issues and promises to run through numerous numbers in the future. "It is proposed to continue this series of
articles until all the important geographic names in the state
are published," says the foreword to the issues of January,
The American Historical Association held its thirty-third
annual meeting at Philadelphia December 27-29, 1917. Kenneth S. Latourette, professor of history in Denison University,
a native Oregonian, whose home is at Oregon City, spoke on
"American Scholarship in Chinese History." Frank A. Golder,
of the Washington State College, spoke on the Russian revolution of March, 1917.
Daughters of the American Revolution in Oregon held their
fifth annual conference at Portland March 15-16. They elected
Mrs. F. M. Wilkins, of Eugene, state regent ; Mrs. Walter F.
Burrell, of Portland, vice-regent; Mrs. Pearl Gregory Cart-
lidge, of Oregon City, recording secretary ; Miss Bertha Cum-
mings, of Eugene, corresponding secretary ; Mrs. W. E. Pearson, of Portland, treasurer; Mrs. J. Thorburn Ross, historian;
Mrs. Charles Worrell, of Coos Bay, auditor ; Mrs. Levi Tracey,
Bancroft is the Oregon author and historian, Frances Fuller
of Albany, chaplain; Mrs. John Porter Gibson, of Portland,
consulting registrar.
Oregon derived from Wau-re-gon, Indian for "beautiful
water," is the explanation given by Dean Alward Chamberlain,
of Saint Michael's cathedral, Boise, as quoted in the Statesman
of that city, March 11, 1917. This explanation has freshness
and novelty, if other merit be lacking. It should be said, however, that the name Oregon was first recorded by Jonathan
Carver, from his travels in the Minnesota country in 1766-68.
Mazama, the official magazine of the mountain-climbing club
of that name, has been issued for December, 1917, with special
features devoted to Mount Jefferson. News and Comment
A new and revised edition of Joseph Shafer's History of the
Pacific Northwest is one of the new offerings of the Macmillan Company. Professor Shafer is head of the department
of history in the University of Oregon. He wrote the original
book in 1905 and has rewritten the new edition. Delivery of
the new book has been delayed by railroad congestion, and the
writer of these lines has not yet obtained a copy for review.   THE OREGON HISTORICAL SOCIETY!
Organized December 17.1888
FREDERICK V. HOLMAN -   ^^0^^^^M§<\^^^^-'    ™*«*$
LESLIE M. SCOTT       ^^f^^ra^^^^^M^^^^V''     VteeJPreslienig
F. G. YOUNG^^^%^^1,^^p^^^^^^fe^S%^^^^        Secretars
LADD & TILTON BANK     ^^^^^©^M^'^^^^S^^j        Treasurer
GEORGE H. HIMES. Curator and Assistant Secretary
Term expires at Annual Meeting in December, 1918
Term expires at Annual Meeting in December, 1919.
Term expires at Annual Meeting in December, 1920.'
Term expires at Annual Meeting in December, 1921.
The annual dues are two dollars.
Contributions to The Quarterly and correspondence relative to historical n
o the affairs of this Society, should be addressed to.
* •/ ^.- I r Secretary,
/ •    ■ Eugene, Oregon. ~
Subscriptioos for TA* Quarterly, or for the othei publications of the Society, should be sei
Curator and Assistant Secretary,
Public Auditorium,
y*$$$J; Third Street, between Clay and Market Strjj§§§ij
Portland, Oreson THE QUARTERLY
Oregon Historical Society
JUNE, 1918
Copyright, 1918, by the Oregon Historical Society
The Quarterly disavows responsibility for the positions taken by contributors to its pages.
JESTER  BURRELL' SHIPPEE—The  Federal  Relations
/   ;of Oregon   I j S5^3sS8j^^^^^%BB "     I        89-133
REV. EZRA FISHER—É<bgèspondence of 'jwBKiï.' 134-163
GEORGESTOWELL—Enoch Pinkney Henderson      -   . 164:166
^MEWS À'NDnGGMSÎENT       -     _ -       -      ^ÊÊ^S^^^^
Qj:#Ëfàertd at the post office at Portland, Oregon, as second-class matter  THE QUARTERLY
of the
Oregon Historical Society
j Volume XIX
Copyright. 1918. by the Oregon Historical Society
The Quarterly disavows responsibility for the positions taken by contributors to its pages
By Lester Burexij. Shippee, Ph. D.
The Situation in 1819.
By the close of the year 1819 all the essential properties for
setting of the stage of the "Oregon question" were prepared.
With the exception of the slight difference, removed with little difficulty, with Russia as to the extent of claims upon the
Northwest Coast of America, there were brought forward no
new factors during the long diplomatic controversy which extended to 1846, although certain relatively unimportant but
irritating residual questions persisting for many years after.
The Spanish aspect of the matter as such no longer existed
after 1819. With Great Britain the matter stood in June
of 1846 on exactly the same footing as it had in October of
1818, despite the interchange of numerous diplomatic communications between that government and the United States,
despite more than one measure in Congress, a body which occupied weeks, even months, in debating the ever-resurgent
"Oregon Question."
The interval between the ending, as between the United
States and Spain, of the claim of the latter to the region north
of 42° north latitude and west of the Rockies, and the admission of Oregon as a State of the Union in 1859, was one in
which may be perceived the gradual development of interest 90
Lester Burrell Shippee
in a far-off land. In 1819 few knew and fewer cared anything
about the region on the Northwest Coast of America. By
1846 it had become an issue, national and international. The
"Oregon Question** more than the Oregon Country was the
touchstone of political sentiment in the West ; that is, in the region along the Ohio and Mississippi, which was then looked upon by the greater part of the people of the United States as the
outermost frontier of the landl A prominent factor in the
presidential campaign of 1844, one of the two uppermost topics for Congressional consideration after that campaign, it also
presented itself as the foremost international issue confronting the United States and one over which a goodly portion of
our people would have lightly entered upon a war.
It is important to glance summarily at the major events
which brought about the situation of 1819, and to consider
how much—or perhaps better, how little—the Oregon or Columbia River country figured in the public consciousness at
the time.
Early discoveries and explorations1 which, during the period
of the territorial controversy, entered so extensively into the
discussions, seem to have begun, so far as the Northwest
Coast is concerned, with those of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo,
who, under orders from Viceroy Mendoza, in 1542-3 sailed
north along the western coast of America where Cabrillo's
lieutenant, Bartholomé Ferrelo, temporarily in command, observed land at 44° north latitude. The next European to venture into those parts was Sir Francis Drake, who, in the
course of his long semi-piratical expédition beginning in 1577,
touched the Northwest Coast at 43° N. L. (according to some
accounts 48°) and claimed the land for his sovereign under
the name of New Albion.
Following these pioneers were many others, Spanish, Russian, English, French and American. The following list enumerates the more important of them.
x Greenhow, History of Oregon and California, (1844) gives the story of early
discoveries. The various works of H. H. Bancroft are based upon much original
material and together form the most comprehensive study of the whole subject' Federal Relations of Oregon
Sebastian Viscaino in 1603 reached and named Cape
Sebastian in latitude 42° north. A branch of his
•expedition reached a point perhaps as far north as 43°.
Juan Peres in 1774 saw land at about 54° N. L., and shortly
after landed at a bay in 50° 30' called by him Port San Lorenzo, the same indentation being called Nootka Sound by the
English a short time later. Bruno Heceta, with Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra and Juan de Ayala in command
of two vessels, started from Mexico in 1775. By Heceta and
Bodega y Quadra Port Trinidad (41° 10') was taken in the
name of the Spanish sovereign. Land was next seen at 48°
27' N. L. A portion of the expedition had trouble with the
Indians at 47° 20', and the painful experience caused a cape
and an island to receive the names of Punta de Martires and
Isla de Dolores. The expedition separated, and Heceta went
as far north as about 50° N. L.; returning south he had a
landfall at 48°, although he did not perceive the entrance to
the strait of Juan de Fuca. Off the coast at 46° 17' there was
a current strong enough to prevent his entering the inlet which
he called Assumption Inlet (Ensefiada de Asuncion). From
this point he proceeded south to Monterey. Bodega y Quadra
proceeded northward until land was seen at a point beyond
56° N. L., and a tall mountain seen there was called San Jacinto. Although this portion of the expedition did not reach
65°, which was "the goal, it did get as far as 58°. In 1779 an
expedition under Ignacio Artega and Bodega went over much
the same course as that followed by Cook in the following year,
searching especially for a northwest passage througn* the Arctic Ocean. In 1788 owing to the activities of mariners of
many lands the viceroy of Mexico sent out Martinez and Haro,
who spent some three months in northern waters.
Vitus Behring, a Dane in the employ of the Russian government, sailed along the coast of Asia as far as 67° 18' N. L. in
1728, passing through the strait which separates the Asiatic
Ê 92
Lester Burrell Shippee
from the American continent; he did not discover the land to
the east of the strait, however. In 1732 Krupischef was
dlriven by storms upon the eastern shore opposite the easternmost point of Asia. In 1741 Behring again was sent out by the
Russian government and reached the islands on the American
side of the Pacific as far north as 60°, also discovering the
Shumagin and Aleutian Islands. The expedition, which remained under the direct command of Behring, wintered at
Behring's Island, and there the commander died. A second
part of the expedition under Tchirikof discovered land at 56°
N. L. In 1788 Synd went along the Kamtchatka shore to 66°
and the next year landed, it is supposed, on the American
coast. Krenitzin arid Levaschef discovered Fox Island in
1768. In 1781-3 Gregory Schelikaf and Ivan Gollikoff, with
a group of fur traders explored the American coast from the
extreme western point of Alaska to Prince Williams Sound,
devoting especial attention to Kodiak Island. A Russian establishment was founded at Cook's River in 1787.a
The British pursued exploratory attempts in the Northwest
both overland from Canada and by sea, but not until long
after the pioneer work of Drake. Samuel Hearne from 1769
to 1772 made explorations in the interior, having started from
Canada and discovered Great Slave Lake and Copper Mine
River, the first stream of the Northwest known to discharge
into the western ocean. In 1776 Captain James Cook was
commissioned for an extensive exploring expedition by the
British Government. After his work in the South Seas, during which he discovered the Sandwich Islands, he reached the
American coast at about 44° N. L., from which point he
carefully explored the coast as far north as 70° 29' on the
American side of the Pacific and to 68° 56' on the Asiatic side.
He gave English names to many of the places which had been
named by Heceta or Bodega y Quadra three years before. Port-
I found in Golder, Federal Relations of Oregon
lock and Dixon made explorations about Cook's River, Noot-
ka Sound, and Prince Williams' Sound for the King George's
Sound Company in 1785-7. Dixon claimed to have discovered
the region between 54° and 52° on the ground that it had not
been seen by Cook, and he called the land he found Queen
Charlotte's Island, although he did not prove the truth of his
suspicions that this was not a portion of the mainland. Captain
Meares wintered in 1786-7 at Prince William's Sound. Duncan and Colnett in 1787 explored about Queen Charlotte's
Island and demonstrated the truth of Dixon's assumption.
Berkley, as commander of the Austrian East India Company's
vessel, discovered the Strait of San Juan de Fuca in 1787.
In 1787-8 Captain Meares, in the employ of a Portuguese
merchant, made his headquarters at Nootka, making expeditions from there, especially to try to find the great river said by
the Spanish to be at about 46° N. L. He failed to do this
and maintained that there was no such stream.3
In 1786 La Perouse received elaborate instructions from
tiie French government, by which he was commissioned, among
other things, to explore the Northwest Coast of America. All
he did, however, was to spend a short time in the neighborhood
of Mt. Fairweather, whence he sailed for Monterey.
The year 1790 marks an important episode in the affairs of
the Northwest Coast. By this time no nation and certainly no
trader gave serious attention to the Spanish claim to exclusive
rights along the entire litoral of the Pacific. English, American and Russian adventurers were drawn by the lucrative fur
trade, and merchants of other nations were looking that way.
Yet the Spanish government was unwilling to forego its pretensions ; the Spanish commandant at the Island of Juan Fernandez was cashiered for allowing the American ship Columbia, Captain Kendrick, to leave after having put in for repairs ;
the expedition of Martinez and Haro was sent particularly to
3 The troth of Greenhow's assertion that the accounts of Meares are not to be
relied upon has been upheld by other and more recent investigators. Lester Burrell Shippee
investigate the activities of the Russians, and the protest of the
Spanish to the Russian government appeared appeased by a
statement that Russian subjects had been ordered not to make
setttlements in regions possessed by other nations.
As noted above, Captain Meares, in the employ of a Portuguese merchant, was at Nootka Sound in 1789, where he
made some sort of bargain for a post with a native chief. The
Portuguese merchant failed, and his interest and a vessel at
Nootka were taken over by an agent of the English King
George's Sound Company, who increased the establishment
apparently with the intention of making it permanent. It was
at this juncture that Martinez appeared at Nootka, when (May,
1789) only two vessels were in the bay, the Iphigenia, of the
English company, and the Columbia. Upon the arrival of the
second Spanish vessel under Captain Haro, the captain and
one other from the Iphigenia were arrested by Martinez while
the vessel with her papers and crew was seized. Subsequently
arrangements were made to release the vessel and two other
vessels belonging to the company were seized. The whole affair
seems to have been based upon various assumptions and rmV
understandings ; in the first place there was an avowed intention on the part of the Englishmen to establish a permanent
post at Nootka, an act sure to be officially condemned by the
Spanish; then Martinez was evidently misled by the Portuguese and British aspects of ownership of the vessels, as well
as being possibly intentionally deceived by Meares, who, in
making an arrangement for the release of the-Iphigenia, might
have taken advantage of Martinez' ignorance of English. The
two vessels which had been seized after the release of the
Iphigenia were taken to Mexico and finally set free on condition that they should not be found anywhere upon Spanish
coasts, although it was maintained that Martinez was sustained by Spanish law in his seizure of them.
In London, however, the matter was not dropped, but became the subject of diplomatic interchanges leading to the Federal Relations of Oregon 95
agreement known as the Nootka Convention,* a treaty figuring
largely in later discussions between representatives of Great
Britain and the United States. After providing that the buildings and tracts of land, of which British subjects had been dispossessed, should be restored, and that reparation would be
made, the Convention (Art. III.) proceeded to state:
"And, in order to strengthen the Bonds of Friendship, and
to preserve in future a perfect Harmony and good Understanding between the two Contracting Parties, it is agreed that their
respective subjects shall not be disturbed or molested, either
in navigating or carrying on their Fisheries in the Pacific
Ocean, or in the South Seas, or in landing on the Coasts of
those Seas, in places not already occupied, for the purpose of
carrying on their commerce with the Natives of the Country,
or of making Settlements there; the whole subject, nevertheless, to the Restrictions and Provisions specified in the three
following Articles."
The restrictions included (Art. IV.) a promise on the part
of His Britannic Majesty to take effectual measures to prevent
navigation and fishing by British subjects from becoming the
pretext for illicit trade with Spanish settlements, with the express stipulation that British subjects should not go within ten
sea leagues of the coasts already occupied by Spain. Furthermore, it was allowed that at Nootka and other parts of the
Northwest Coast, north of the Spanish settlements, "wherever
the subjects of either of the two powers shall have made settlements since the month of April, 1789, or shall hereafter
make any, the subjects of the other shall have free access, and
shall carry on their trade without any disturbance or molestation."
As to the coasts of South America (Art. VI.) no settlements
were to be made, although "the said respective subjects shall
retain the liberty of landing on the coasts and islands so situated for the purpose of their fishery, and erecting thereon huts
. Traites . . . depuis 1761.   HI, 185-01.    Signed at 96
Lester Burrell Shippee
and other temporary buildings serving only for these purposes."
The fact of the collision between the Spanish and the English is evidence of the value attached to the growing fur trade,
a trade which consisted in obtaining various peltries from Indians by barter, and then selling the same at high prices in
China. Spanish and British alike had their interest in the
Northwest increased by the Nootka affair, and both govern- .■
ments renewed their exploring ardor, while citizens of other
lands also sought those waters.
Among the earliest American adventurers were Kendrick,
captain of the Columbia, and Robert Gray of the Washington,
who reached the Northwest coast late in 1788. In 1789 Gray
explored the east coast of Queen Charlotte's Island and later
entered the opening between 48° and 49°, sailing therein for
some distance. Subsequently Kendrick and Gray exchanged
commands, the former remaining in Pacific waters, where he
may have sailed quite through the Strait of Juan de Fuca,
and Gray proceeding to China with furs and thence to Boston.
Captain George Vancouver was appointed British commissioner to adjust the claims at Nootka. His instructions directed
him to survey the coast between 35° and 60° N. L., and to seek
a waterway between the Atlantic and Pacific, especially "to examine the supposed Strait of Juan de Fuca, said to be situated between the 48th and 49th degrees of north latitude, and
to lead to an opening through which the sloop Washington is
reported to have passed in 1789, and to have come out again
to the northward of Nootka/'s Vancouver left England early
in 1791 and reached the Northwest Coast in March, 1792.
While the Vancouver expedition was preparing and during
the time it was on the way to the Northern Pacific, both Spanish and Russians renewed their explorations. The Spanish
Captain Eliza, who replaced Martinez, sent a vessel under
Lieutenant Quimper, who noted a number of islands and
passages in the region about Nootka. Alexandra Malaspina ex-
5 Quoted by Greenhow (ai6) from the instructions to Vancouver. Federal Relations of Oregon
plored farther north, up to about 60° N. L., especially seeking
the supposed passage to the northwest denominated the Strait
of Anian.
In addition to these expeditions more information was obtained as a result of the zeal of several English and American
traders, as well as by a French expedition which made some
examination of the coasts southward from 56° in the summer
of 1791. Among the American adventurers was Captain Robert Gray again. He left Boston in September, 1791, again in
command of the Columbia, which had been refitted by her
owners for a further venture. Upon his arrival in northern
Pacific waters Captain Gray explored some of the inlets between 54° and 56° and wintered near Nootka Sound. In the
spring of 1792 he resumed his cruising to the south, where
he fell in with Vancouver, to whom he communicated the belief that a large river emptied into the ocean at 46° 10' N. L.,
but Vancouver was convinced that Gray was mistaken. In
May he was again off what he suppose