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Account of the Russian discoveries between Asia and America, to which are added, the conquest of Siberia,… Coxe, William, 1747-1828 1803

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Array       ACCOUNT
) J tig e, Much VI, X1 So,  [  v  ]
THE firft edition of this work gave to the
public the earlieft account-of the Ruffian
Difcoveries between Afia and America, which.
were fo little known even to the Ruffians themfelves, that a tranflation was printed at St. Pe-
terfburgh. It commenced with the voyages
made by merchants fubfequent to Beering's expedition in 1740, and terminated with that of
Krenitzin and Levafhef in 1769.
The work being long out of print the author
was repeatedly urged to give a new edition, and
to add thofe accounts which \vould render this
feries of voyages complete, from the earlieft attempts of Beering to the prefent • time. The
reader will therefore find in this edition, a complete feries of voyages from 1711 to 1792, com-
prifing all that is known on the fubjecL Among
thefe additions are Steller's interefting Narrative
of Beering's fatal Expedition from Kamtchatka
to the.Coaft of America ; the Account of She-
lekof's Voyage and Settlement in Kadiak, and
the Voyages of Ifmaelof and Betfharof from
Kadiak to the Coaft of America. Thefe narra-
a 3 tive^ tives, publilhed in the Netie  Nordifche Bey-
traege by Pallas, in the German tongue, have
,' never before been fubmitted to the   Englifh
The author has alfo given abftrafts of Billing's
two voyages, from Mr. Sauer's narrative of the
expedition; and among the Supplementary
Accounts of the Ruffian Difcoveries is in-
ferted an abftracl of Tfchitfchagof's Voyage
towards the North Pole, which is contained
in the Nordifche Beytraege, and for the firft
time given in an Englifh drefs. This voyage is
the more curious as it was performed before the
expedition of Captain Phipps, and fully afcer-
tains the impracticability of penetrating into the
high northern latitudes.
By a careful examination the author has been
able to identify many of the difcoveries of the
Ruffians with thofe of our navigators, and to
clear up much of the obfcurity which has hitherto
enveloped this fubjeft. To give place to thefe
additions he has excluded feveral conjectural
chapters relative to the vicinity of Afia and
America, and refpe&ing the longitude and latitude of the different places which fubfequent
difcoveries have rendered unneceffary. To
elucidate the whole, has given, with the affift-
ance of Mr. Arrowfmith, a new chart of the
Ruffian and Englifh. difcoveries in the North
Pacific Ocean. [ vii]
HP1 HE late Ruffian Difcoveries between Afia
-*- and America have, for fome time, engaged
the attention of the curious; more efpecially
fince Dr. Robertfon's admirable Hiftory of
America has been in the hands of the public.
In that valuable- performance the elegant and
ingenious author has communicated to the world,
with an accuracy and judgment which fo eminently diftinguifh all his writings, the moft exact
information at that time to be obtained, concerning thofe important difcoveries. During
my ftay at Peterfburgh, my inquiries were particularly direfted to this interefting fubjeQ:, in order to learn if any new, light had been thrown on
an article of knowledge of fuch confequence to
the hiftory of mankind. For this purpofe I endeavoured to collect the refpeflive journals of
the Several voyages fubfequent to the expedition"
of Beering and Tfchirikof in 1741, with which
the celebrated Muller concludes his accunt of
the firft Ruffian navigations.
a 4 During During my refearches I was informed (hat a
treatife in the German language, publifhed at
Hamburg and Leipfic in 1776, contained a full
and exa£t narrative of the Ruffian voyages, from
1745 to 1770 *.
But I fhould have paid little attention to the
anonymous publication, had I not been afiured,
from very good authority, that it was compiled
from original journals. Not refting, however,
upon this intelligence, I took the liberty of applying to Mr. Muller himfelf, who, by order of
the Emprefs, had arranged the fame journals,
from which the anonymous author is faid tQ
have drawn his materials. Previous to my application, Mr. Muller had compared the treatife
with the original papers; and he favoured me
with the following ftrong teftimony to its exact-
nefs and authenticity: " Vous feres bien de
*' traduire pour l'ufage de vos compatrioteitip^
" petit livre fur les ifles fitu€s entre le Kamt-
" chatka et l'Amerique. II n'y a point, de
" doute, que l'auteur n'ait ete pourvu de bons
" memoirs, et qu'il ne s'en foit fervi fideleraent.
" J'ai confronts le livre avec les originaux."
Supported by this very refpectable anthority, I
* The title of the book is, Neue Nachrichten von denen
Neuendeekten Insuln in der See zwischen Asia und Amerika
aus mitgetheilten Urkunden und Auszuegen verfasset von.
J, L, S.
confidered this treatife as a performance of the
higheft credit, and well worthy of being moret
generally known and perufed, and I have therefore in the firft part of-the prefent publication,
fubmitted a tranflation of it to the reader's candour ; adding occafional notes to thofe paflages
which feemed to require explanation. The original is divided into feftions without any references j but as it feemed more convenient to divide it into chapters; and to accompany each
chapter with a fummary of the contents, and
marginal references; I have moulded it into that
form, without making, however, any alteration in
the order of the journals.
The additional intelligence which I procured.,
at Peterfburg is thrown into a Second Part: it
confifts of fome new information, and of three
journals *, never before givfcti to the public.
Amongft thefe I moft particularly mention that
of Krenitzin and Levafhef, which, together with
the chart of their voyage, was communicated to
Dr. Robertfon, by order of the Emprefs of
Ruffia ; and which that juftly admired hiftorian
has, in the politeft and moft obliging manner,
permitted me to make ufe of in this collection.
* The journal of Krenitzin and Levashef, the short account of Synd's voyage, and the narrative of Shalaufof's expedition, Part II. Chapters I. VII. VIII,
This voyage, which redounds greatly to the honour of the fovereign who planned it, confirms
in generatthe authenticity of the work which I
have tranflated, and afcertains the difcoveries
made by the private merchants.
As a further illuftration of this fubject, I collected the beft charts which could be procured at
Peterfburg, of which a lift will be given in the
following advertifement. From all thefe circumftances, I may venture, perhaps, to hope
that the curious and inquifitive reader will not
only find in the following pages the moft authentic account of the progrefs and extent of the
Ruffian difcoveries, which has hitherto appeared
in any language; but be enabled hereafter to
compare them with thofe more lately made by
that great and much to be regretted navigator,
Captain Cooke, when his journal fhall be communicated to the public.
As all the furs which are brought from the
new-difcovered iflands are fold to the Chinefe,
I was naturally led to make enquiries concerning the commerce between Ruffia and China ;
and finding this branch of traffic much more important than is commonly imagined, I thought
that a general fketch of its prefent ftate, together
with a fuccin.ct view of the tranfactions between
the two nations, would not be-unacceptable.
The conqueft of Siberia, as it firft opened a
com- communication with China, and led to all the
fubfequent difcoveries defcribed in this volume,
will not appear unconne&ed, I truft, with its
principal defign.
The materials of this fecond part, as alfo of
the preliminary obfervations concerning Kamt-
chatka, and the commerce to the New-difcovered
Iflands, are drawn from books of eftablifhed and
undoubted reputation. Mr. Muller and Mr.
Pallas, from whofe interefting works thefe hifto-
rical and commercial fubjefts are chiefly compiled, are too well known in the literary world to
require any other vouchers for their judgment,
exactnefs, and fidelity, than the bare mention of
their names. I have only further to apprize the
reader, that, befides the intelligence extracted
from thefe publications, he will find fome additional circumftances relative to the Ruffian commerce with China, which I collected during my
continuance in Ruffia.
I cannot clofe this addrefs to the reader without embracing with peculiar fatisfaction the juft
occafion, which the enfuing treatifes upon the
Ruffian difcoveries and commerce afford me, of
joining with every friend, of fcience in the warm-
eft admiration of that enlarged and liberal fpirit,
which fo ftrikipgly marks the character of the
prefent Emprefs of Ruffia.    Since her accef-
fion fion to the throne, the inveftigation of ufeful
knowledge has been the conftant object of her
generous encouragement* The authentic records of the Ruffian hiftory, have, by her ex-
prefs orders, been properly arranged; and per-
miffion tainfpect them is readily granted. The
moft diftant parts of her vaft dominions have, at
her expence, been explored and defcribed by
perfons of great abilities and extenfive learning ;
by which means new and important lights have
been thrown upon the geography and natural
hiftory of thofe remote regions. In a word,
this truly great princefs has contributed more,
in the compafs of only a few years, towards civilizing and informing the minds of her fubjefts,
than had been effected by all the fovereigns her
predeceflbrs fince the glorious sera of Peter the
March 27* 1780 EXPLANATION
Of some Russian Words made use of in the follow^
ing Work.
Baidar, a small boat.
Guba, a bay.
Kamen, a rock.
Kotche, a vessel.
Krepost, a regular fortress.
Noss, a cape.
Ostrog, a fortress surrounded with palisadoes.
Ostroff, an island.
Ostrova, islands.
Quass, a sort of fermented liquor. ,
Reka, a river.
The Russians- in their proper names of persons,
make use of patronymics ; these patronymics are
formed in some cases by adding Vitch to the christian name of the father; in others Off or Eff ■ the
former termination is applied only to persons of
condition ; the latter to those of an inferior rank.
As, for instance,
Among persons 5 } Ivan the son
ne ju: t Ivan Ivanovitch, e      cr
ot condition -) 'J    of Ivan.
Of inferior rank, Ivan Ivanoff,
Michael Alexievitch,) Michael the
Michael Alexeeff,     ) son of Alexey.
Sometimes a surname is added, Ivan Ivanovitch
TABLE Of Russian Weights, Measures of Length, and
Value of Money."
WEIGHT.* Jg   C     .
A pood weighs 40 Russian poods—36 English.
Sixteen vershocks—an arsheen.
An arsheen—28 inches.
Three arsheens, or seven feet,—a fathom*, or
Five hundred sazshens—a verst.   '
A degree of longitude comprises 104| versts—6Q§
English miles. A mile is therefore 1,515 parts
of a verst; two miles may then be estimated
equal to three versts, omitting a small fraction.
A rouble—100 copecs; its value varies according
to the exchange from 3s. Sd. to 4s. 2d. Upon
an average, however, the value of a rouble is
throughout this work, reckoned at four shillings f.
* The fathom for measuring the depth of water is the
same as the English fathom,—6 feet.
t The value of a rouble (1503) is only 2s. 6d. i"
1. Reduced Copy of the Map of Siberia, published
by the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh,
in J 777.,      -    -    -   -   to face the title page.
2. Chart of the Russian and English Discoveries in
the North Pacific Ocean,    -   to face page 21.
3. Chart of the Voyage made by Krenitzin and
Levashef to the Fox Islands - to face p. 248.
4. Chart of Synd's Voyage  -----   p. 264.
5. Chart of Shalaurof's Voyage    -   -   -   p. 367-
6. View of Maimatschin     -   -   -   -   -   p. 451*  CONTENTS.
Preliminary Observations concerning
1. .Discover* and Conquest of Kamtchatka—Present
State—Government—Population—Tribute—Volcanoes - page 1
2. General Idea of the Commerce carried on to the New-
discovered  Islands—Equipment  of the  Vessels—
Risks of the Trade, Profits, &c. - 10
3. Furs and Skins procured from Kamtchatka and the
New-discovered   Islands — Sea-Otters —- Different
Species of Foxes - - -13
Account of the Russian Discoveries,
Period 1—1711 to 1741.
From the Conquest of Kimdchatha to the Conclusion of
Beering's and Tchirikqf's Expeditions.
1. Origin of the Russian Discoveries—Voyage of Beer-
ing towards the Northern Ocean - 21
2. Steller's Journal  of Beering's Voyage of Discovery
from Kamtchatka   to  the Coast of America, in
1741 * 30
b Sect, an I
at by
1. Departure   from   Kamtchatka—Discovery
onerica—Description of the Coast—Account of
which Stelle.r landed—Animal, vege-
, 'and marine' Productions—Indisposition of
ng, and Insubordination of the Crew—Re-
towards Kamtchatka—Incidents of the Voyage
stresses of the Crew - -     page 33
2. Remarks on Steller's Narrative, and Con-
res relative to the Parts of America touched
and Tchelekof    - - Q4
Account of the Russian Discoveries.
From 1741 to 1778.
. Conquest of Siberia—Commencement of the NcjraM^&
coveries—Their- Progress^—Encouraged by the Empress—Position of the New-discovered Islands   103
. Voyages in 1745—First  Discovery of the Aleutian
Isles by Michael Nevodsiikof    - - 112
. Successive Voyages from 1747 to 1753, to Beering's
and Copper Island, and to the Aleutian Isles—
Voyage of Emilian Yugof—Of the Boris and Glebb
—Of Andrew Tolstyk to the Aleutian Isles, 1749
—Voyage of Vorchief, 1750—Of Novikof and
Baccof from Anadytsk—Shipwreck upon Beering's
Island—Voyage of Durnef, in the St. Nicholas,
1754—Narrative of the Voyage—Description of
the Aleutifl|p Isles—Some Account of the Inhabitants - - - - 119
Voyages from 1753 to 1756.
4. Kolodilof's Ship sails from Kamtchatka, 1753—De
parture of Serebranikof's Vessel—Shipwrecked
upon one of the distant Islands—Account of the
Inhabitants—The Crew construct another Vessel
and return to Kamtchatka—Departure of Krassil-
nikof's Vessel—Shipwrecked upon Copper Island
x—The Crew reach Beering's Island ip two Baidars
page 130
5. Voyages from 1756 to 1758—Voyage of Andrean Tol-
styk in 1756 to the Aleutian Isles—Voyage of Ivan
-   Shilkin in the Capiton,  1757—Shipwrecked upon
one of the Fox Islands—The Crew  construct  a
small Vessel, and are again'Shipwrecked    -      136
6. Voyages in 1758, 1759, and 1760—to the Fox Islands
—in the St. Vlodimir, fitted out by Trapesnikof,
and commanded by Paikof, 1758—and in the Ga-,
briel, by Betshevin—Account of the Inhabitants of
Alaksu or Alachskak—Voyage of the Peter and
Paul to the Aleutian Islands, 1759    -       -      142
7. Voyage of Andrean Tolstyk in  the St. Andrean and
Natalia, 1760—Discovery of some new Islands
called Andreanofskie Ostrova—Description of six
of those Islands—Account of the Inhabitants—
The Vessel wrecked upon the Coast of Kamtchatka
, Voyage of the Zacharias and Elizabeth, fitted out by
. Kulkoff,.and commanded by Drusinin, 1762—They
sail to Umnak, and to Unalashka, where they winter
-?The Vessel destroyed; and all the Crew murdered by the Islanders, except four—Their Adventures and wonderful Escape - - 159
b 2                           9* Voy- ■sa
9. Voyage of the Vessel called the Trinity, under the
Command of Korovin, 1762—Winters at Una-
lashka—-Puts to Sea in the Spring—Stranded in-a
Bay of the Island Umnak, and the Crew attacked
by the Natives—Many of them killed —Others carried off by Sickness—Are reduced to great Streights
—Relieved by Glottof, twelve of the whole Company
only remaining—Description of Umnak- and Una-
lashka—and Account of the Inhabitants, page l68
• 10. Voyage of Stephen Glottof in the Andrean and Natalia, 1762— He reaches the Fox Islands—Sails'
beyond Unalashka to Kadyak—Winters on that
Island—Repeated Attempts of the Natives to destroy the Crew—They are repulsed, reconciled, and
prevailed on to trade with the Russians—Account
of Kadyak— Its Inhabitants—.Animals—Productions
—Glottof sails back to Unmake-Winters there—'Returns to Kamtchatka—Journal of his Voyage,   185
11. Voyage of Soloviofin the St. Peter and Paul,  1764
—He passes two Winters upon Unalashka—Attempts of the Natives to destroy the Crew—Return of Soloviof to Kamtchatka—Journal of his
Voyage—Description of the Islands Umnak and Unalashka—Productions—Inhabitants—Their Manners
—Customs, &c. &c.      - « 208
12. Voyage  of Otcheredin   in the St. Paul,   1765—He
winters on Umnak—Arrival of Levasheff upon Unalashka—Return of Otcheredin to Ochotsk   -    231
53, Conclusion-—General Position and Situation of the
Aleutian and Fox Islands—Further Description of
the Dress, Manners, and Customs of the Inhabitants
—Their Feasts and Ceremonies - 238
14. Voyage of Captain Krenitzin and Lieutenant Levashef,
to the Fox Islands in 17 68 and 17 69—Krenitzin
winters CONTENTS. 2nd
■winters at Alashka, Levashef upon Unalashka—
Productions of Unalashka-i-Description of the Inhabitants of the Fox Islands .- - page 248
L Voyage of Lieutenant Synd, to the North-East of Siberia—He discovers a Cluster of Islands, and a
Promontory, which he supposes to belong to the
Continent of America, lying near the Coast of the,
• Tchutski 264
Account of the Russian Discoveries.
1 1778 to the Termination of the Voyage of Billings
in 1792.
Tarratwe of Shelekof's Voyage to Kadiak, from 1783
to 1787- Sails from Okotsk to Kadiak—Attacked by the Konaghi—Succeeds in terrifying them
by the Effects of Fire-arms—Forms a Settlement-
Other Engagements with the Natives—Conciliates
their Affection—The Party afflicted by the Scurvy
—Expeditions to the neighbouring Islands, and the
Coast of America—Description of the Climate-
Returns—Destination of the two Vessels during his
Absence—Reaohes Bolcherretsk—Arrival of an English Ship in the Port of St. Peter and St. Paul— ,
•Proceeds to Irkutsk—General Account of the In-
. habitants and Productions of the Islands, and of
the American Coasts     *       -       .   -   267, 269
2. Voy- ■H
2, Voyage of Ismaelof and Betsharoff—Touch at Kadiak
—See Suklia or Montague Island—Enter Prince
William's Sound—Anchor in Nutcheck Bay or
Port Etches—Transactions—Visited by Nekshulk
Atascha, a native Chief—Description of the Animals
and Productions of the Bay of Tchugatsk, or Prince
William's.Sound      - - page 302
3> Quit Prince William's Sound—Steer to the Island At-
chaka, or Vancouver's Middleton's Island—Kill
a Chief who attempted to assassinate one of the
Russians—Sail to Koiac or Kaye's Island—Description—Proceed along the American Coast—Visited
by the Natives—Anchor in the Bay of Yakutat,
or Port Mulgrave—Description of the Dwellings,
Manners, &c. of the Inhabitants—Visited by the
Chief Ilchack - - - 313
4. Quit  the Bay of Yakutat—Sail along  the Coast-
Explore the River Ralco—Enter the Bay of Ltoua,
probably Portlock's Harbour—Visited by a native
Chief—Discover an Anchor which had been lost
by an European Ship—Description of the Bay of
Ltoua—Lose an Anchor—Quit the Bay—Reach
Kadiak - 333
5. Additional Remarks on the Russian Settlement inKadiak,
from Vancouver - - - 344
6. Voyage of Discovery made by Captain Billings, from
1785 to 1794—Departure from Kamtchatka—
Touches at Kadiak—Account of Shelekof's Establishment—Reaches Prince William's Sound—Error
concerning the Position of Cape St. Elias—Kaye's ■
Island—Return to Kamtchatka—Second Expedition
—Passes the Chain of Aleutian Islands to Unalashka
—Sails to the Bay of St. Laurence—Traverses the
Country of the Tchutski—The Ships return to and CONTENTS.
it Unalashka—Distresses of the Crews—
: of the Inhabitants, and the Mode of carry-
the Russian Trade—Final return to Kamt-
-     page 349
Supplementary Account of the Russian
1. Attempts of the Russians to discover a North-East
Passage—Voyages from Archangel towards the
Lena—From the Lena towards Kamtchatka—Extract from Muller's Account of Deshneff's. Voyage
round Tschukotskoi Noss—Narrative of a Voyage
made by Shalauroff from the Lena to Shelatskoi
Noss - 366
2. Expedition of Captain Billings into the Frozen Ocean,
from the Mouth of the Kovyma - 394
3. Attempt df Tchitschagof to discover a North-East Pas
sage—Stopped by the Ice—Winters in Bell Sound-
Endeavours to force a Passage round Spitzbergen—
Returns—His Remarks on this Navigation—Second
Voyage - 398
4. Concluding Remarks on the Discoveries of Vancouver,
and the Desiderata in the Geography of these Regions - 408 wm
Conquest of Siberia.
1. Irruptions of the Russians into Siberia—Exploits ami
Progress of Yermac—Defeats Kutchum Chan-
Conquers his Dominions—Receives a Reinforcement
of Russian Troops—His Defeat and Death—Veneration paid to his Memory—Russian Troops eva*
cuate Siberia—Re-enter and conquer the whole
Country—Their Progress stopped by the Chinese
- - - page 417
Transactions between Russia and China.
2. Commencement of Hostilities between  the Russians
and Chinese—Disputes concerning the Limits of
the two Empires—Treaty of Nershinsk—Embassies
from the Court of Russia to Pekin—Treaty of
Kiakta—Establishment of the commercial Intercourse between the two Nations - 435
3. Account of the Russian and Chinese Settlements on.
the Confines of Siberia—Description of the Russian
frontier Town Kiakta—of the Chinese frontier Town
Maimatschin—its Buildings, Pagodas, &c.   -    448
4. Commerce between the Chinese and  Russians—List
of the principal Exports and Imports—Duties-
Average Amount of the Russian Trade -    466
5. Description of £urukaitu—and its Trade—Transport
of the Merchandise through Siberia      - 477
6. Tartarian Rhubarb brought to. Kiakta by the Bucha-
rian Merchants—Method of examining and purchasing the Roots—Different Species of Rheum
which yield the finest Rhubarb—Price of Rhubarb
in Russia-r-Exportation—Superiority of.the Tartarian over the Indian Rhubarb - 482 PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS
Difcovery and Conquejl of Kamtchatka—Prefent
:. State-r—Govemment"*-Population —Tribute—-
X HE Peninfula of Kamtchatka was difcovered by the Ruffians the latter end of the feventeenth century. The firft expedition was made in
thefe latitudes in 1696, by fixteen Coffacs, under
the command of Lucas Semgenof Morofko, who
was fent.a^aBoft ihe. Koriacs of the river Opooka
by Vlodimir Atlaffof commander of Anadirfk,
Morofko penetrated within four days journey
of the river KamlchatKa^and returned to Anadirfk*, after exafting tribute from a fingle village.
In the following year Atlaffof,at the head
of a larger body, penetrated into the Penin*
fula, took poffeffion of the river Kamtchatka
* S. R, G. V. 3. p. 7
by ttH
by erecting a crofs upon it& feanks, and built
fome huts upon the fpot, where the Upper
i Oftrog now ftands.
Thefe expeditions were continued.during feveral year's: Upper and Lower Kamtchatkoi
Oftrogs and Bolcheretfk were built, the Southern diftricl conquered and colonifed, and in
1711 the whole Peninfula was reduced under
the Ruffian dominion.
During fome years the pofleffion of Kamtchatka brought little advantage to the orown,
except a fmall tribute of furs exafted from the
inhabitants. The Ruffians indeed occafionally
hunted foxes, wolves, ermines, fables, and other
animals, whofe valuable fkins form an important
article of commerce among the Eaftern nations.
But the fur trade was inconfiderable, until the
Ruffians difcovered the iflands between Afia
and America. Since thefe difcoveries, the variety of rich furs, procured from thofe iflands,
has greatly increafed the trade of Kamtchatka,
and rendered it an important branch of Ruffian
The Peninfula of Kamtchatka lies between
51 and 62 degrees of North latitude, and 1720
and 186° of longitude from the ifle of Fero;
or Weft from Greenwich. It is bounded on the
Eaft and South by the fea of Kamtchatka, on
the Weft by the feas of Okotfk and Penfliinfk,
and on the North by the country of the
It is divided into four diftrifts, Bolcheretfkt
Tigilfkaia Krepoft, Verchnei or Upper Kamtr
chatkoi Oftrog, and Nifhnei or Lower Kamt-
chatkoi Oftrog. The government is vefted
in the chancery of Bolcheretfk, which depends
upon the chancery of Ochotfk. The whole
Ruffian force, ftationed in the Peninfula, con-
fifted in 1777, of no more than three hundred
The prefent population of Kamtchatka
amounts to fcarce four thoufand fouls. Formerly the inhabitants were more numerous;
but in 1768, the fmall-pox,' carried off five
•thoufand three hundred and fixty-eight perfons.
In 1776 there were only feven hundred and fix
males in the whole Peninfula who were tributary,
and an hundred and fourteen in the Kuril Ifles,
which are fubjecl to Ruffia.
The fixed annual tribute confifted of 279
fables, 464 red foxes, 50 fea-otters, with a dam,
and 38 cub fea-otters. All furs exported from
Kamtchatka pay a duty of 10 per cent, to the
crown; the tenth of the cargoes brought from
the new-difcovered iflands is alfo delivered into
the cuftoms.
* Journal of St. Petersburg for April 1777,
Many traces of volcanoes have been obferved
in this Peninfula; and fome mountains are ftill
in a burning ftate. The moft confiderable of
thefe volcanos is fituatednear the Lower Oftrog.
In 1762 a greafc inoife was heard within the
mountain, and flames of fire burft from different
parts. Thefe flames were immediately fuc-
ceeded by a large ftream of melted fnow-water,
which flowed into the neighbouring valley, and
drowned two Kamtchadals, who were upon a
hunting party." The afhes, and other combuftiblje '
m&tter, thrown from the mountain, fpread to the
circumference of two hundred miles. In 1767
there was another difcharge, but lefs confider*
able. Every night flames were obfer^sdiffuing
from the mountain, and the eruption, which attended them, did no fmall damage to the inhabitants of the Lower Oftrog. Since that year
no flames have been feen; but the mountain
emits a conftant fmoke. The fame phenomenon
was obferved upon another mountain, called
The face of the country is chiefly mountain*
ous. It produces in fome parts birch, poplars,
alders, willows, underwood, and berries, of different forts. ■ Many vegetables - are raifed with
great facility; fuch as white cabbage, turnips,
radifhes, beet-root, carrots, and; cucumbers.
Agriculture is in a low ftate, which is chiefly
owing to the nature of the foil and the fevere
hoar frofts; for notwithftanding various attempts
to cultivate[oats, barley, and rye, no crop has ever
been fufficiently productive to anfwer the labour
and expence. Hemp however has been recently
cultivated with great fuccefs*.
Every year a veffel, belonging to the crown,
fails from Okotfk to Kamtchatka, laden with
fait, provifions, corn, and Ruffian manufactures;
and returns in June or July the following year
with fkins and furs.
Additions to the Account of Kamtchatka.
The three divifions of Tygil, Nifhni, and
Virchin, were each commanded by a ferjeantj
and Bolcheretsk was the refidence of the commander in chief and his affiftant, who were
dependant on the chancery of Ochotsk. In
1783, the Emprefs removed the feat of government, from Bolcheretfk to Nifhni Kamtchatka, under the name of a city, eftablifhing a
military commandant of the rank of lieutenant
colonel, and a court of juftice for civil and criminal caufes, (called Bemfkoi Sud) the prefident
of which muft go once a year round the peninfula, to keep order and decide trivial difputes,
* Jouri#l of St. Petersburg,
alfo to recover tribute. He was alfo the Capi-
tan Ifpravnick, a magiftracy of which all the
members were merchants, and prefided over
commerce and trade.
In 1787, Kozloff Ugrinin, commandant of
Okotfk, vifited Kamtchatka, and divided it into two diftricts, Nifhni and Petropaolof fki, the
former comprehending Virfhni and Tygil, the
• latter the harbour and Bolcheretfk. The whole
force confifted in 1793, in only about 300 Cof-
facs. An application was made for as many
more, which was probably granted.
The rivers are the Kamtchatka, the greateft,
and in fact the only one that deferves the name,
winding in a fouthern direction to Nifhni,
where it turns eaftward, and falls into the fea of
Kamtchatka, in the latitude 560. Its courfe is
about 800 verfts, 500 of which it is navigable
in fmall veffels. The aeftuary is full of fhifting
banks, and very fhallow; the wTater is clear,
and the river abounds with the fineft fifh :
falmon of different forts, falmon trout, and trout,
and immenfe fhoals of herrings afcend to Nifhni in May and Q&ober. The fecond river is
Byftria, which rifes clofe to the fource of the
Kamtchatka, and flows to the fouth. It is only
navigable in fmall boats 30 verfts upwards from
Bolcheretfk: here it is joined with the Natfkike,
and bears the name of the Bolfhoi■Reka.    It
falls into the bay of Whekafka, in the fea of
Ochotfk. The Natfkike flows no verfts in a
direction nearly weft. In the fame mountain
rifes the Avatfha, which, after a courfe of 70
verfts, enters the bay of Avatfha, 12 verfts weft
of Petropauloffky. The . Paratounka takes a
circuitous courfe of about 70 verfts from the
vicinity of the Villuitfh, and flows into the N. W.
extremity of the bay of Avatfha, only 5 miles
from its fource. It is navigable at high-water
for fmall boats to the village of Paratounka, only
6 verfts from its mouth. Numberlefs rivulets
flow into the fea of Ochotfk, but except the Bol-
fhoi Reka, the Tygil and Itfha are the moft
confiderable, and their fources are only 40 verfts
from the fea.
The volcanoes are, Klutfhieffky, 80 verfts
from Nifhni, up the river Kamtchatka. On the
20th of November, 1789, a great rumbling noife,
with a fmart fhock of an earthquake, preceded a
violent eruption of fmall ftones, afhes, and
flames, which continued, with daily fhocks, until
the 21ft of February, 1790. From the information of Captain Billings, the city was illuminated by the flame. The afhes were fcattered
800 verfts from the mountain, and at half that
diftance fo thickly as to prevent travelling in
fledges. Auguft 21ft, 1792, about five in the
morning, a fudden explofion of large ftones and
afhes was immediatehjd followed by a dreadiJl
earthquake, continuing with aftonifhing-viofei£e
three quarters of an hour. It was felt through
the whole peninfulai even to Bolcheretfk, where
its duration was only a few feconds. All the
brick ovens and chimnaes were thrown down at
Nifhni, and the people in confirmation crawled over the bed of the river Raduga, which was
dry for half an hour, to the mountains.
Shaevelutfh, a volcano, eighty verfts north of
Klutshevfky, from which fmoke fometimes if-
fues. Tolbatfh, or Tolbatfhuifk, 200 verfts
fouth of Klutfheffkoijconftantly emits fmoke on
the north fide near the fummit, and along a
ridge which feems to unite it to the northern
chain. Avatfha, or Avatfhinfk, 40 verfts to the
north-eaftward of the harbour of St. Peter and
Paul^or Petropauloffki. In 1785 was a violent eruption, and a confiderable part of the
fummit fell in; and in 1799,another covered the
neighbourhood for many miles with afhes and
pumice-ftone. Conftant fmoke iflues from the
fummit, particularly in wet weather. Ozernoi
Sopka (Yavina, by the Kamtchadals) on the Lo- '
patka, about 60 verfts from the fouth point of
the peninfula, began burning in 1792. The
neighbouring vallies abound in hot fprings. Vil~
lutfh, called by Cook Paratounka Sopka, is anex-
tinguifhed volcano.    Alaid, a lofty mountain, of *!'CONCERNING   KAMTCHATKA.
fugar-loaf.'form, rifing out of the fea, twelve
miles weft of the fouth point of Kamtchatka;
jbwrhtvvijolently in 1792.
Hot fprings are found all over the peninfula.
Two villages on the river Kamtchatka, are
inhabited by a fmall colony of Ruffian peafants ;
the one is 15 verfts below Virfhni, the other at
the fort of Klutfheffky mountain.
Rye is here cultivated; but the ground would
probably produce wheat. The farmers are very
few in number, fubject to heavy taxes, feverely
treated by people in office, and find a greater
profit in felling liquors to the hunting Kamtcna!* \
dais, than they would obtain from agriculture;
they grow juft fufficient for their own provifion,
and are employed as pedlars and hawkers by
the merchants refiding at Ochotfk; moft of
them are (Meftfhanins) privileged traders, for
which they pay a ftipulated fum to the magistracy.
All garden vegetables are raifed with great
facility; potatoes, cabbagesj! tiSFnips, radifhes,
beet-root, carrots, &c.; falads of all kinds; the
foil is very good.
Two tranfport veffels belonging to the crown,
fail from Ochotfk every year; one to Tygil, the
other to Nifhni Kamtchatka; the latter generally calls at Petropaoloffkoi, as does,the former
fometimes at Bolfheretfk; they carry fait, pro-
srifions, flour, and manufactures; and return if
fuccefsful, the fame year with tribute, a few furs,
and faltecLfaJmon, particularly the fpecies called
General idea of the commerce carried on to the
New-difcovered Iflands—Equipment of the
veffels—Rifks of the trade, profitSy &c.
SINCE the conclufion of Beering's voyage,
which was made at the expence of the
crown, the profetkition of the New Difcoveries
.begun by him has been almoft entirely carried
on by individuals. Thefe perfons were principally merchants of I rkutfk, Yaktufk, and other
natives of Siberia, who formed themfelves into
fmall trading companies, and fitted out veffels at
their joint expence.
Moft of the veffels equipped for thefe expeditions are two-mailed, commonly built without
iron, and in general fo badly conftru&ed, that
they appear ill calculated to weather fo ftormy a
fea. They are called in Ruffian Shitiki,or feWed
veffels, because the planks are fewed together
with thongs of leathe r. Some few are built in the
river of Kamtchatkaji|i|fc they are for the moft
part constructed at the haven of Okotfk. The
largeft are manned with feventy men, and the
fmalleft with forty. The crew generally confifts
of an equal number of Ruffians and Kamtcha-
dals. The Kamtchadals occafion a confiderable
faving, as their pay is fmall; they are alfo lefs
fubject to the fcurvy. But as Ruffian mariners
are more enterprifing, and more to be depended
upon in time of danger, a proportion of them is
unavoidably neceffary.
The expences of building and fitting out the
veffels are confiderable : for there is nothing at
Okotfk but timber for their conftruftion. Cordage, fails, and fome provifions, muft be brought
from Yakutfk upon horfes. The dearnefs of
corn and flour, which muft be tranfported from
the diftri&s lying about the river Lena, renders
it difficult to lay-in any large quantity for the
fubfiftence of the crew during a voyage, which
commonly lafts three or four years. For this
reafon no more is provided than is neceffary to
fupply the Ruffian mariners with quafs and
other fermented liquors.
From the great fcarcity of cattle both au
Okotfk and * Kamtchatka little provifion is laid
* In J 772, there were only £70 head of cattle upon t
whole Peninsula.    A cow sold from 50 to 60 roubles, an PRELIMINARY   OBSERVATIONS
in at either of thofe places: but the crew provide themfelves with the flefh of fea animals,
which are caught and cured upon Beering's
Ifland, where the vefiels for the moft part winter.
The equipment of each veffel ordinarily cofts
from 15,000 to 20,000 roubles; and fbmetimes
the expences amount to 30,000. Every veffel
is divided into a certain number of fhares, generally from thirty to fifty; and each fliare is
worth from 300 to 500 roubles.
The rifle of the trade is great, as fhipwrecks
are common in the rocky and tempeftuous fea
of Kamtchatka: the crews are alfo frequently
furprifed and killed by the iflanders, and the
veffels deftroyed. In return, the profits are
confiderable, and compenfate the inconvenien-
cies and dangers. On an advantageous voyage,
the gain at the moft moderate computation
amounts to cent, per cent, and frequently to as
much more. Should the veffel be capable of
performing' a fecond expedition, the expences
are confiderably leffened; and the profits of
courfe increafed.
Some notion of the general profits arifing from
from 60 to 100. A pound of fresh beef sold upon an average for 12| copecs. The excessive dearness-of this price
wip be easily,conceived/when it is known, that at .Moscow
a pound of beef sells for abatiftthfee copecs.—Journ. St,
this trade may be deduced from the fale of a rich
cargo of furs, brought to Kamtchatka, on the 2d
of June, 1772, from the New-difcovered iflands,
in a veffel belonging to Ivan Popof.
The tenth part of the fkins being delivered to
the cuftoms, the remainder was divided in fifty-
five fhares. Each fhare confifted of twenty fea-
ottser, fixteen black and brown foxes, ten red
foxes, three fea-otter tails, and produced from
800 to 1000 roubles; fo that according to this
price the whole lading was worth about 50,000
Furs andjkins procured from Kamtchatka and the
New - difcovered Iflands—Sea - Otters—Different fpecies of foxes.
THE principal furs and fkins procured from
the Peninfula of Kamtchatka and the New-
difcovered iflands are fea-otters, foxes, fables,
ermines, wolves, bears, <^e.—Thefe furs are
tranfported to Okotfk by fea, and from thence
carried to t Kia6ta upon the frontiers of Siberia;
* Georgi Reise, torn. 1. p. 23, & seq. Journal of St.
t See the account of Kiacta.
where m
where the greater part is fold to the Chinefe at a
confiderable profit.
. The fkins of the fea-otters are the richeft and
moft valuable. Thofe animals refort in great
numbers to the Aleutian and Fox Iflands : they
are called by the Ruffians Bobri Morjki, or
fea-beavers, and fometimes Kamtchadal beavers,
on account of the refemblance of their fur to
that of the common beaver. From thefe circumftances feveral authors have fuppofed this
animal to be of the beaver fpecies; whereas it is
the true fea-otter *. The females are called
Matka, or dams; and the cubs, till five months
old, Medviedki, or little bears, becaufe their
coat refembles that of a bear; they lofe that
coat after five months, and then are called
The fineft fort of fur is thick and long, of a
dark colour, and a fine gloffy hue. Thefe fea-
otters are taken by ftriking them with harpoons
as they fleep on their backs in the fea, hunting
them down in boats, furprifing them in caverns,
or taking them in nets.
Their fkins bear different prices, according
to their quality.
* S. R. G. 3. p. 530. For a description of the sea-
otter, Lutra Marina, called by Linnaeus Mustela Lutris,
see Nov. Comm. Pet. V. 2. p. 367, &c.
At Kamtchatka * the best fell j
per fkin from    -   -    30 to 40 roubles. ■
Middle fort    20 to 30
Worft fort     15 to 25.
At Kiacta t the old and middle-
aged fea-otter fkins are fold to
the Chinefe per fkin from 80 to 140
The worft fort 30 to 40.
As thefe furs bear fo great a price among
the Chinefe, they are feldom brought into Ru$Hi
for fale; and feveral, which have been carried
to Mofcow as a tribute, were purchafed for 30
roubles per fkin ; and fent from thence to the
I Journ. St. Petersburg.
Prices of furs at Kamtchatka, in 1793.
Sables, 2§- to 10, 15 and 20 roubles each.
Fox skins, fire red (Ogntfka) 15 roubles.
Common red, 3 to 5 roubles.
Black continental, 50 to 80 roubles.
From the islands,   10 to 15.
"'  Wolf, 8 to 16 roubles.
Hare skins, 10 to 15 roubles.
Ermin, 10 to 15 roubles.
Stone fox Pestsi, 30 copecs to 1 rouble.
Sea-otter skins from the Kuril Islands, 300 to 400 roubles.
From America,    --   100 to 250.
The most valuable furs are always brought to Kazan and
Moscow, and sold to the Armenians and Greeks.
t Pallas Reise, part 3. p. 137.
Chinefe frontiers, where they were difpofed of
at a great profitt.
Several fpecies of fox fkins are fent from
Kamtchatka into Siberia and Ruffia. Of thefe
the principal are the black foxes, the Pefji or
Arctic foxes, the red and ftone foxes.—The
fiaeS. black foxes are caught in differ#9t-parts of
Siberia, and more commonly in the Northern regions between the Rivers Lena, Indf^fika, and
JKfey5?raa: the black foxes found upon the re-
moteft Eaftern-iflagds difcovered by the Ruffians
or the Lyffie Oftrova, are not fo valuable.
They are very black and large ; and the coat is
ufually as coarfe as that of a wolf. The great
difference in the finene'fs of the fur, between
thefe foxes and thofe of Siberia, arifes probably from the fdllowing circumftances. In the
iflands the cold is not fo fevere as in Siberia;
and, as there is no wood, the foxes live in holes
and caverns of the rocks; whereas in Siberia
there are large tra£ts of forefts in which they
find fhelter. Some black foxes, however, which
are occafionally caught in the diftant iflands, not
wholly deftitute of wood, are of great value. In
general the Chinefe, who pay the moft for black
furs, do not give more for the black foxes of
the New-difcovered iflands than from 20 to 30
roubles per fkin.
I S. R. G. V. 3. Pallas Reise.
The Arttic or ice foxes are very common
upon fome of the New-difcovered Iflands.
They are called Peflfi by the Ruffians, and by
the Germans, blue foxes*. Their natural colour is an afh or bluifh-igrey; but they change
their coat at different ages, and in different fea-
fons. In general they are born brown, become
white in winter, and brown again in fummer;
in fpring and autumn, as the hair gradually falls
off, the coat is marked with different fpecks and
At Kia&at the feveral varieties fell upon an
average to the Chinefe, per fkin from 50 copecs
to   -----        2t roubles.
Stone foxes  at Kamtchatka
per fkin from        -        -        1 to 2$
Red foxes from 80 copecs  to 1 rouble..
80 copecs.
At Kia&a from 80 copecs to     9 roubles.
Common wolves' fkins at per fkin 2
Befl fort per fkin from     I       8 to 16
Sables per ditto        -       -        z~ to 10.
* Pennant's Synopsis.
+ Pallas Reise.    The latest prices were, stone foxeSj at
Kamtchatka, per skin  -   40 cop. to 1 rouble.
Red foxes -       -       3 to 15 roubles.
At Kiacta -       -       from 10 to 25 roubles.
Sables -       -       -   10 to 25 roubles.
A pood of the befl fea-horfe teeth * fells at
Yakutfk for      -        -        -      10 roubles.
Of the middling -j        -       8
Inferior ditto   - -        from 5 to 7.
Four, five, or fix teeth generally weigh a pood,
and fometimes, but very rarely, three. They
are fold to the Chinefe, Monguls, and Calmucs.
Ca   '! I f I
Ia»£ Period l—1711 to 1741.
From $ae Conquest of Kamtchatka to the conclusion of
Beering's and Tchirjkof's Expeditions.
Origin of the Ruffian Difcoveries—*Voyage of
peering towards the Northern Ocean.
THE poffeffion of Kamtchatka was foon
followed by voyages of difcovery to, the
North Pacific Ocean. The vague accounts
collected from the Kamtchadals concerning the
vicinity of America to their coafts were transmitted to Peterfburg, and inflamed the zeal of
Peter the Great.
That monarch accordingly formed the plan of
a voyage of difcovery to afcertain the Separation, contiguity, or connection of Alia and Ame-?
rica, and wrote inftructions with his own hand.
His death did not prevent the execution of the
project, for the Emprefs Catharine commenced
her reign with ordering an immediate expedition under the command of Vitus Beering, «|
conformity to the following inftru&ions of her
deceafed hufband :
£< 1. You fhall caufe one or two convenient
veffels to be built at Kamtchatka, or elfewhere.
—2. You fhall endeavour to difcover, by coaft-
ing with thefe veffels, whether the country towards the north, of which at prefent we have no
diftinct knowledge, is a part of America or not.
—3. If it joins the continent of America, you
fhall endeavour, if poffible, to reach fome colony
belonging to fome European power; or in cafe
you meet with any European fhip, you fhall diligently enquire the name of the coafts, and fuch
other circumftances as it is in your power to
learn; and thefe you fhall commit to writing, fo
that we may have fome certain memoirs by
which a chart may be conftructed."
On the 14th of July, having recommended
himfelf to the protection of the Almighty, Beer-
ing quitted the river of Kamtchatka, in a veffel
called the Fortune, having on board Spanberg
and Tfchirikof ashis two lieutenants, and a crew
of forty men. He failed north-eaft within fight
of land, in order to delineate the coaft of Kamtchatka. On the 8th of Auguft, in latitude 640.
30'. he was vifited by eight natives, in a baidar,
Who acquainted him by means of a Koriak interpreter, that they were Tfchutfki; that* the
coaft for a confiderable extent was inhabited by
their FROM   17II   TO   I74I.
their nation, and that the land trended towards the
weft. They likewife informed him of an ifland •
fituated not far diftant, which he difcovered on
the 10th, and called the ifland of St. Laurence.
An officer who was twice difpatched to examine
it, obferved feveral houfes, but no inhabitants,
who, probably from fear, or fome other motive,
concealed themfelves.
Beering continued his courfe till the 15th of
the fame month, when he found himfelf in the
latitude of 67°. 18'. and conceiving that he had
now fully executed his orders, as he faw no
land either to the north or eaft, he refolved to
return, deeming it ufelefsto continue his voyage
towards the weft, or to run the hazard of being
prevented by contrary winds from gaining Kamtchatka during the fummer, and obliged to winter
in a country where he was fure of meeting with
little or no wood, and which might be inhabited
by fome nation enemies to the Ruffians.
From the mouth of the river Kamtchatka, to
the utmoft point of their voyage, they faw nothing upon the coaft but great ridges of rocks,
the tops of which were covered with fnow though
k was fummer. They traverfed, according to
their reckoning, about ten leagues of latitude,
and thirty of longitude; their departure eaftward was 3^2 German leagues. On the 20th of
Auguft, in their return, they were vifited by
C 4 forty
iil SS&
forty perfons in four fmall boats, who, from
their appearance feemed to be Tchutfki. They
brought dried flefh, fifh, and water contained in
whales bladders ; fifteen fox fkins, and four nar-
val's teeth, which they exchanged for pins and
needles. They faid their nation travelled with
rein''deer as far as the river Kovyma, which
rims into the Northern Ocean, but had never at*.
tempted any paffage by fea; they inhabited along
tract of country upon the coaft, and had poffeffed
it many years; one of them particularly added,
that he had vifited the fortrefs of AnadiHk,
where they had traded with, and been well treated
by the Ruffians.
On the 29th of Auguft a violent ftorm, attended with a thick fog, drove the veffel upon the
coaft of fome country eaft of Kamtchatka, where
they were obliged to come to anchor. On the
2d of September they arrived fafely in the mouth
of the river Kamtchatka, and, having fecured
their veffel in a oreek, went to the lower fortrefs,
and paffed the winter*.
This is the only accurate account ever given
to the public of this interefting expedition, which
afcertained the feparation of the two continents,
at leaft as high as latitude 670. the moft northe*A
* Harris's Complete Collection of Voyages and Travels,
vol. 2. p. 1020,1021.
point FROM   I7II   TO   I74I.
point of Beering's voyage. Muller, in his Account of the Ruffian Difcoveries, has given a
Jhort abftraft of this voyage, and has added fome
conjectures which only embarrafs the narrative,
and render it more difficult to be underftood.
He was at that time bewildered with the vague
accounts of the Ruffians and Coffacs, who had
vifited the land of Tchutfki, and with the uncertain reports of the Tchm&i themfelves concerning the form and fituation of Tchukotlkoi
Nofs, which he placed in latitude 70°; miftakes
which he afterwards candidly acknowledged and
In 1729 Beering made another attempt to
difcover the continent of America, which the
natives of Kamtchatka defcribed as lying not far
diftant to the eaft of their peninfula. He failed
on the 5th of June, but was prevented by adverfe
winds from proceeding more than two hundred
verfts; and meeting with no land, fleered round
.the fouthern promontory of Kamtchatka, entered
the river Bolfchaia, and arrived at Okotfk on the
23d of July. $$j$0&
From this period no attempt was made to
difcover the American continent until 1741,
when Beering and Tfchirikof failed upon their
ever memorable expedition. The whole account which Muller has given of this voyage is
extremely fcanty and confufed, and the narrative
of ?6
of the tranfactions relating to their difcoveries on
the coaft of America is comprifed in a few lines:
" Nothing particular happened till the 18th
of July, when Captain Beering, after giving orders for fleering more and more northerly,
came in fight of the continent of America in
580. 28'. north latitude, and believed, according
to his journal that he had failed 500. eaft long,
from Avatcha. Tchirikof reached the fame
coaft three days before, viz. on* the 15th of
July in 560. north lat. and according to computation, 60°. longitude from Avatcha.
<c The coaft made by Tchirikof being fteep
and rocky, and without iflands, he anchored at
fome diftance. Ten men being fent in the longboat on fhore, to provide water and reconnoitre
the country, were to land, and make the appointed fignals, but never returning, were fuppofed to be maffacred by the inhabitants. | Six,
difpatched in another boat to their affiftance,
probably fhared the fame fate, as they never returned. After cruifing feveral days, and receiving no tidings of their unfortunate comrades,
Tchirikof could not venture to continue any
longer on the coaft, but on the 27th of July
took his departure for Kamtchatka. Being impeded by contrary winds and ftormy weather, he
did not enter the bay of Avatcha before the 9th
pf October, after lofing twenty-one men by the
fcurvy, FROM   I7II   TO   1741
fcurvy, and want of frefh water, out of feventy,
of which the crew confifted; among thefe was the
celebrated de l'lfle de la Croyere, who fell down
on the deck, and died at. the very moment he
was going to difembark.
I At the fame time Beering attempted to explore the coaft which he had difeovered, and to
provide himfelf with frefh water. The country
confifted of ftupendous mountains covered with
fnow." He failed towards it, but variable breezes
blowing, he could not reach it fooner than the
20th of July, when, under a tolerably large ifland,
not far from the continent, he anchored in twenty-two fathoms water, and a foft clayey bottom.
A point of land, which here projects into the fea,
was called the Cape of St. Elias, becaufe it
was obferved on the day of St. Elias. Another
head-land, that afterwards appeared oppofite the
firft, towards the weft, received its fiame from
St. Hermogenes. Between thefe points there
was a bay which was deemed fecure.
" For the purpofe of reconnoitring this bay,
Beering fent the mafter, Kytrof, with fome armed
men; another boat, in which was Steller, was
difpatched at the fame time for water. Kytrof
found between fome iflands a convenient anchor-
ing-place, fecure from all winds. Landing on
an ifland, he obferved fome empty huts, but faw
no inhabitants, who were fuppofed to come from
the continent for the purpofe of fifhing."
•  " ,   Muller *8
Muller then gives a brief account of Steller's
obfervations, which I fhall omit, becaufe they
are more circumftantiaUy related in his own
ft On the 21 ft of July they again put tofeaj
and attempted to trace the coaft as far as 650.
N. latitude, but they could proceed no farther
to the north, and were even obliged* to fail continually to the fouth, becaufe the fhores trended
fouth-weft. At the fame time they were impeded by numerous iflands, in parts contiguous
to the continent. When they hoped to fail in fe-
curity, land was difcovered a-head, apd on both
fides, wherefore they were obliged feveral time$
to turn and feek a free paffage. It occafionally
happened at night, that with the fame wind and
weather, they at one time failed in calm water,
and at another in a boifterous fea, where they
could hardly govern the fhip. What elfe could
this indicate, than that in the calm they had,
failed in fheltered water, between iflands which
the darknefs of the night did not permit them to
i Some days paffed without feeing land, when,
on the 27th of July, about midnight, they came
jnto twenty fathoms water. They could not
difcover whether it was a fand bank, or whether
continent or an ifland, on account of the dark-
* Muller, S. R. G. V.
nefs. *ROM   I71I   TO  I74I.
nefs. They fleered fome times on one fide and
fometimes on the other; every where they found
lefs water; they durftnot venture to anchor, for
the wind was ftrong and the waves high. Moreover it was to be feared they might be too far
from the continent, or too near. At laft it was
concluded to hazard failing to the fouth, in which
they fucceeded, and after fleering fome hours
longer in1 twenty fathoms water, they regained
an open fea.
"An ifland, difcovered on the 30th of
July, in foggy weather, was called Tumanooi
Oftrof, that is, The Foggy Ifland. They
approached it till they had only feven or eight
fathoms water, and anchored: but when the
weather began to clear up found themfelves
more than a verfl from the ifland. The whole
month of Auguft elapfed with fimilar occurrences ; when the fhip's crew began to be much
afflicted with the fcurvy, and particularly the
- From this fcanty and uncertain account, much
doubt was entertained, whether Beering and
Tchirikof ever reached America; and fince later
difcoveries have removed that doubt, fubfequent
navigators have differed about the precife parts
explored by Beering and Tchirikof. Cook
places Beering's Bay in one place; Vancouver
in another; and the Ruffians in Prince William's Sound.
.CHAP. 3°
Steller's Journal of Beering's Voyage of Difcovery
from'Kamtchatka to the Coafl of America^ in
PALLAS has given to the public * the Journal
of Steller, who accompanied Beering in this
memorable expedition. As it contains the only
circumftantial relation of that expedition, rectifies feveral errors in Muller's account, and as
it has never made its appearance in Englifh, I
deemed it neceffary, for the complete elucidation of the Ruffian Difcoveries, to fubmit to the
public a tranflation of thofe parts which detail
the principal events of the voyage; but have
omited feveral prolix accounts of his difputes with
the officers, and fome of his frequent digreffions
concerning the fuppofed fituation of America.
The narrative is preceded by an Introduction,
in which Steller cenfures the preparations and
conduct of the expedition, and lays down an
hypothefis of the relative fituations of Afia and
America towards the North. As this point is
no longer doubtful, it is needlefs to enter into
I In the 5th volume of his Neue Nordische Beytraege.
the i74i-
the difcuffion; and therefore only that part of
the Introduction which relates to himfelf, and
to his engagement in the expedition is fubjoined.
" I fhall omit,'' he fays," any account, as well
of the ten years' preparations, as of Spanberg's
voyage to Japan, and confine myfelf to the narrative of Beering's and Tchirikof's voyage, as
long as the two veffels continued together, and
from their feparatibn to the particulars of Beering's voyage, and the fate of the crew, until their
return to Kamtchatka on the 26th of Auguft,
1742. But as it is well known that I was fent in
1738 from St. Peterfburg to Kamtchatka, folely
for the purpofe of examining the natural hiftory
of thofe regions, and had not the fmalleft fhare in
the preparations, it is incumbent on me to relate
the manner in which I engaged in the expedition.
<f In 1740 I fent a petition from Kamtchatka
to the fenate, requefting permiffion to accompany Captain Spanberg in another voyage to
Japan, to obtain authentic information concerning the intermediate iflands, as well as Japan it-
felf. Meanwhile, Captain Beering being informed of my infatiable defire to explore new regions,
invited me to Avatcha, and perfuaded me to accompany him to America, undet the promife of
juflifying my conduct to the fenate, andoffup-
plying me with every meansjn his power to forward 3*
Ward my refearches. He alfo fent me a minute
of a general confultation with his officers, wherein I was charged with the examination of the minerals. I therefore undertook this office from
difinterefted motives, which, I truft will plead
my excufe for quitting Kamtchatka without orders. And I dare anticipate my pardon, although I have made fo few difcoveries. The
fcantinefs of my information was chiefly occafi-
oned by the failure of the Captain's promifes,who
only fhewed me the continent of America at a
diftance, and with great difficulty confented to fet
me afhore on three iflands, without affiftance,
like a criminal, and difcouraged my zeal with
the moft peevifh expreffions. My advice was
alfo contemptuoufly rejected by the officers, who,
difgufled with their long refidence in Siberia,
were eager to return, and endeavoured to complete in one, fummer what could not be ac«
cornplifhed in lefs than two.'* FROM   I7H   TO   I714.
Departure from Kamtchatka—Difcovery ofAme~
rica—Defcription of the Coajl—Account of an
Ifland on which Steller landed—Animal, vegetable, and marine Productions—Indifpoftion
cf Beering, and Infubordination of the Crew—'
Return towards Kamtchatka—Incidents of the
Voyage—Difreffes of the Crew.
The expedition confifted of two packet-boats,
the St. Peter, commanded by Beering, and the
St. Paul by Tchirikof. The St. Peter, in which '
fhip I failed, carried, befides the captain, Waxel
the chief lieutenant, Kytrof the mafter, and other
officers, feventy-fix men.
June 4, we took our departure from Avatcha,
and failing with fouth, weftj- and fouth-weft
winds, E. S. E. and S. E. by E. were on the
11th 135 dutch miles from Avatcha, and in
latitude 460. 47'. On the 12th we firft perceived
tokens which indicated the vicinity of land, fuch
as marine plants, and flocks of ducks and fea-
gulls. In latitude 510. we were feparated from
the St. Paul during a thick fog, and never again
came in fight of her, though we failed to the 46°.
of latitude, in hopes of rejoining her. Oh the
18th we altered our courfe, and fleered north-
eaftward, making two degrees of longitude to
one degree of latitude. On reaching 520. lati-
' tude, we again perceived many tokens of land, to
the north, but did not difcover it till the 18th of
July in 59°. and fome minutes of latitude, and
490. longitude eaft from Avatcha, or about 500
dutch miles. I truft I may be juftified for
thus briefly relating the events of a month's
voyage, as we had favourable wind and weather ;
faw nothing but fky and water, and heard from
the officers only expreffions of aftonifhment, at
the grofsmiftake of fuppofing that Kamtchatka
was only feparated from America by a narrow
Channel. During this period the Captain being
confined by conftant indifpofition to his cabin,
was deceived by the reports of the officers,
and his opinion for fleering towards the north
conftantly over-ruled.
After detailing at fome length, his altercations With the officers, for not crediting his
affertions that they were not far from land,
and for. not fleering towards the north, Steller
continues his journal.
Though land was difcovered on the 15th of
July, yet as it was not fufficiently vifible to be
delineated, it was according to cuftom called my
fancy* ' FROM   I7H   TO   I7I4;
fancy, although the next day it was more clearly
difcerned in the fame place. It was very elevated, and we obferved a mountain ftretching
inland, whofe height was fo great as to be vifible
at fea at the diftance of fixteen dutch miles. I
do not recollect to have noticed a higher mountain either in Siberia or Kamtchatka. The coaft
df the continent was much broken, and indented
with many bays and harbours.
It is eafy to conceive the general joy which
the fight of landoccafioned, and all congratulated
the captain on this important difcovery, which
would redound fo much to his honour : but he
coldly received their congratulations, and even
fhrugged up his fhoulders on the occafion. He
alfo faid afterwards to me and Plenisner in the
cabin, " We think we have completed our difcoveries, and many entertain great expectations,
but we do not confider our diftance from home,
and what accidents may yet happen. We are unacquainted with the country, we are unprovided
with provifions, and perhaps contrary winds may
impede our return." As we approached land, it
was ridiculous to hear the difcordant exclamations of the crew, priding themfelves on the importance of the difcovery, anticipating great rewards, or pathetically bewailing their fituation.
Some propofed to feek a convenient harbour,
others reprefented the danger of drawing near to
the land. All clamoroufly urged their refpeftive
opinions, but no one made any reprefentation to
the captain. General confultations, though formerly held upon every trifle, were omitted in
this important bufinefs, the chief object of this
expenfive expedition, which had already employed ten years, in preparation; and the only union
which appeared among us was that of being confined in the fame veffel.
On the 17th we flowly approached the land
with a gentle breeze, and on Saturday the 18th
came fo near that we difcovered, with great
fatisfaction, large tracts of foreft and extenfive
plains ftretching at the feet of the mountains.
The fhore was flat, level, and apparently fandy.
We now left the continent on our right, and
failed to the north-weft under a lofty ifland, con-
fifting of a fingle mountain cloathed with firs ;
and, on account of contrary winds, paffed the
night in repeated tacks.
Sunday the 19th in the morning, being two
miles from the northern extremity of the ifland,
a trifling conteft arofe. On the preceding day
we faw the ftrait between the continent and the
ifland, into which a confiderable river feemed to
flow, as I conjectured from the current vifible
two miles from fhore, the colour and frefhnefs
of the water, and the various drifted fubftances.
I therefore propofe.d to enter this ftrait, and
anchor FROM I7H '
.anchor in the mouth of the river where we
fhould probably find fufficient water for our veffel which drew only nine feet, and it would have
been a more commodious fituation than under
the ifland where we anchored on the 20th : but
my propofal was rejected.
We paffed the remainder of the day in tacking
to approach the ifland, to enter the great bay
which we faw at fome diftance, and at the fame
time get under the land, which we effected on the
soth, though not without confiderable terror on
account of the numerous iflands between which
we anchored. The outermoft of thefe was called
. Cape St. Elias, becaufe we paffed it on St. Elias's
day, and it was a fingular circumftance that the
officers perfifted in calling that ifland a cape, although a cape is a promontory of the continent.
In this ftate of affairs, inftead of amicably
agitating the queftion concerning their future
proceedings, whether they fhould explore the
coaft, or pafs the winter in thefe parts, or return
without delay to Kamtchatka; no regular con-
fultation was held, but every one was filent and
acted as he pleafed. It was however unanimoufly
agreed that a boat fhould be fent for water, and
I could not avoid obferving that we were only
come to convey American water to Afia. It
was fettled that the fmall boat fhould be fent for
the purpofe of procuring water, and the mafter
Kytrof fhould be difpatched in the large boat
with a fufficient number of men and fire arms to
explore the land. In vain I requefted to accompany Kytrof, who was willing to receive me;
my requeft was rejected, and it was not without
difficulty that I was permitted to go on fhore
with the watering party with my fervant, Thomas
Lepekin, a Coffac. They endeavoured to alarm
me with terrible accounts pf the ferocity of tho
natives; but I was not to be deterred, and I
landed with the watering party.
I had no fooner landed than I went towards
the continent in company with my Coffac, and
within a verft found marks of inhabitants. I
obferved a trunk of a tree hollowed like a trough,
in which the natives, according to the cuftom in
Kamtchatka, had recently boiled meat by means
pf hot ftones: feveral large bones were fcattered
about, which appeared to have been roafted;
they feemed to be the bones of a land animal,
and probably of a rein-deer, which may have
been brought from the continent. I likewife
noticed remains of Yukola, or dried fifh, which
the Kamtchadals ufe in Head of bread; alfo fhells
of large mufcles, fome of which were eight inches
in diameter, and fweet grafs * prepared in the
I The Sphondilium foliolis pinnatifidis of Linm TROM  I7H   TO  I7I4.
Kamtchadal manner. Near the fame place were
the embers, which were flill glowing, and a wooden tinder-box, fimilar to thofe ufed in Kamtchatka ; but the tinder was different, beingformed
of.white mofs, bleached by the fun*. From
thefe circumftances we may conclude that the
natives were of the fame origin as the Kamtcha-
dals ; but we muft fuppofe that the continent of
America trends farther to the weft, and is much
hearer to Kamtchatka to the north; fpr it is not
credible that the Kamtchadals fhould be able
with their crazy veffels to perform a voyage of
near five hundred miles.
Having fatisfied my curiofity, I continued my
progrefs, and at the diftance of three verfts
found a way leading through a thick foreft, near
the fhore. Many of the trees were ftripped of
their bark, which I prefume was ufed to cover
the habitations. On the fkirt of the foreft I
found frefh grafs, fire wed on the ground, and on
removing it obferved a layer of ftones, under
which was a bark covering fupported by poles,
which concealed a cellar (or cabin) containing
feveral houfehold utenfils, particularly-veffels
. made of bark; alfo falmon and fweet herb, from
r,   that this* tinder,
, is composed of
and rubbed betw
which 40
which brandy is diftilled at Kamtchatka, and
which was prepared with more cleanlinefs, and
better tafted than I had before feen. I likewife
obferved a fpecies of hemp, which I thought was
.prepared from nettles, and was probably ufed
for making fifhing nets as in Kamtchatka : alfo
rolls of the inner bark of larch or pine, dried,
which in cafe of neceffity is ufed as food in many
parts of the Ruffian empire : great quantities of
thongs made of fea-weed, which were of extraordinary ftrength. I found arrow's much larger
than thofe ufed by the Kajntchadals, and fimilar to
thofe of the Tungufes and Tartars, well polifhed
and ftreaked, indicating that they were fafhioned
with iron tools.
I fent my Coffac with two bundles of dried
fifh, fome arrows, a wooden tinder-box, fome
thongs made of bark, and feveral kinds of grafs,
to .the watering party, with orders to deliver them
to the captain, and to requeft two or three men to
affift me in exploring the country. I then
covered the cabin again, proceeded alone, and
having continued fix verfts, came to a fleep
rock, extending into the fea, which I climbed
with much difficulty; but perceiving that the
eaftern fide was perpendicular, I turned towards
the fouth, hoping to reach the other fide of the
ifland, proceed along the ftrait, and explore the
river and harbour. On defending the mountain,
which FROM  I7II  TO I7I4.
which was overfpread with forefts, without any
traces of a road, finding it impaffible, I reafcended,
looked mournfully at the limits of my progrefs,
turned my eyes towards the continent, which it
was not in my power to explore, and obferved,
at the diftance of afew verfts, fome fmoke afcend-
ingfrom a wooded eminence, which gave me
hopes that I fhould meet with fome of the natives. ' P^"--
I haftened back to the place where I had
landed, and fent an account to the captain, re-
quefting the fmall boat with fome men for a few
hours, and in the mean time employed myfelf in
defcribing the fcarceft plants which I had difcovered ; but to my inexpreffible concern, I received a meffage to return inftantly on board, or
I fhould be left behind. I flill however continued on fhore, fent my Coffac to fhoot fome
rare birds, which I difcovered at a little diftance,
and again proceeded towards the weft, reconnoitring the country, and did not return till fun-
fet, laden with plants and other curiofities.
Having again received a pofitive order to repair
on board, I reached the veffel with my collection.
Soon after my return I advifed the officers to
fend fomeprefents to the fubterraneous dwelling,
and particularly fpecified knives and hatchets :
but objecting to thefe inftruments, which might
be 42
be confidered as fymbols of hoftility, they left
an iron kettle, a pound of tobacco, a Chinefe
pipe, and a piece of filk*.
An hour after my arrival Kytrof returned in
the great boat; he had found a harbour between
fome iflands, clofe to the continent, where we
could remain in fecurity. He faw no inhabitants, but found a wooden dwelling, from which
* I have been thus minute in specifying these things, which
were sent to the cabin, because they furnish an unquestionable proof that this was Kaye's Island, as will appear from a
passage in Sauer's Account of Billings's Expedition.
" An old man came on board the 25th, who seemed very
good natured and intelligent. Mr. Saretsheff and I entered
into conversation with him through our American interpreter, and asked\ him how long it was since the first ships made
their appearance among them; and whether he remembered
any boats having been lost ? He answered, that several boats
had" been lost, which by his account we thought to be Spaniards. He said that they'frequented (on'the chace in summer)
an island, which he described so particularly as convinced us
beyond a doubt, that it was the Kay's Island of Captain
Cook. He remembered, that when he was a boy, a ship had
been close into the bay, on the west side of the island, and
had sent a boat on shore; but on its approaching land the
natives all ran away. When the ship sailed, they returned
to their huts, and found in their subterraneous store-room,
spine' glass beads, leaf tobacco, an iron kettle, and something
else. This perfectly answers to Steller's account of the Cape
St. Elias ofBcering, and is undoubtedly the very spot Where
Steller landed, and where the things above-mentioned were
left in the cellar."   P. 193.
he FROM  1711   TO  1714.
he brought feveral utenfils, particularly a hollow
globe of hard burnt clay, inclofing a little clapper-ftone, which appeared to be a child's toy,
and a whet-ftone whereon copper inftruments,
had been fharpened.
• Thefe were all our tranfactions and obfervaT
tions, not on the continent on which no one
landed, but on a fmall ifland which feemed about
three miles * long, and half a mile broad ; near
the continent, (which here formed a great bay, covered with many iflands) and only feparated from
it by a ftrait lefs than half a mile in breadth.
The only reafons why no landing was attempted
on the continent, were indolence, obftinacy, an
untimely fear of a few unarmed and terrified
favages, and a daftardly impatience to return
home; fo that the time beftowed on making obfervations had a geometrical proportion to the
preparations; ten years being employed in the
preparations, and ten hours in making obfervations. We have indeed a fketch of the continent on paper, but a very imperfect idea of the
country itfelf, founded on a few difcoveries,
upon a fingle ifland, and grounded on mere
fuppofition. The following is drawn from a
curfory view of the American continent.
This part of America is fuperior in climate to
the north-eaftern coaft of Afia; for though the
country, as well near the coaft as at fome diftance inland, abounds with very high mountains,
moft of whofe fummits were covered with perpetual fnow; yet thefe mountains are much
more fertile than thofe of Afia, which produce
fmall quantities of ftunted trees, fcanty herbage,
and are principally bare rock, or covered with
mofs and aqueous plants; whereas the mountains of America are thickly oveffpread to a confiderable height with the fineft trees* and clothed
with rich herbage. The fprings, of which we
noticed a large number, rife in the vales, or at
the foot of the mountains, and do not burft from
the fides, and even near the fummits of the rocks,
as in Siberia.
The productions in the vegetable kingdom are
earlier, more abundant, and more regular in
their growth than thofe of Siberia, and rich forefts
overfpread the coafts even as high as 6o°. latitude. I am therefore of opinion that the continent of America extends from Cape Elias to
beyond 700. of latitude, and protects this part of
the coaft from the north winds, while towards
the eaft it is covered by a high range of mountains.
I found all the common berries in great abundance, and alfo a new kind of rafpberry, which
though not quite ripe, from its fize and excellent
tafte, *ROM I7II TO I714.
tafle, deferved to be tranfplanted to St. Petert-
I The land animals that fell under my obfervation, befides the rein deer, which from the fcat-
tered bones I judged to be natives of the continent, were black and red foxes, not wild. Of com-*
mon birds I perceived only the raven and magpie, but above ten foreign and unknown fpecies*
which from the brilliancy of their plumage were
eafily diftinguifhed from the feathered tribes of
Siberia; one in particular of lively colours, of
which I recollected to have feen a figure in a recent account of Carolina*. The appearance of
this bird convinced me that we were on the coaft
of America.
The tnildnefsof the climate, brings the fhoals
of fifh foorrer near the fhore than at Kamtchatka.
Befides whales and dog-fifh, fea-otters frequent the
fhore in prodigious numbers; a proof that they are
probably a little difturbed by the natives, otherwife
they would be as fcarce as on the coaft of Kamtchatka. In regard to minerals, the fcanty information which I am able to give cannot be attributed
* Steller alludes to Catesby's Carolina, 15th plate, which
represents the North American blue jay, to which Steller's
bird bears some resemblance, but is of a different species.
Hence this bird was no proof of their vicinity to the Ameri-
pan continent, though no one caji doubt that Steller was
close to the coast.    Pallas.
to my negligence, when it is confidered how
little a fingle man can perform in ten hours, in A
fmall ifland, and without affiftance; and I will
freely own that I obferved nothing but fand and
grey rock.
On the 21ft of July, impreffed with an anxious
• defire to return, Beering appeared on deck, contrary to his ufual cuftom, and without confulting
any of the officers, ordered the anchor to be
weighed, notwithstanding the remonftrances of
Lieutenant Waxel to remain on the coaft till all
the veffels were filled with water. A few days
afterwards the captain propofed to the officers,
though without a regular confultation, that as
winter was approaching, and they were una-
qu.ainted with the country,, fea, and winds, they
fhould be contented with their difcoveries, and
return immediately homewards ; adding, that
though the land probably extended towards the
weft, yet it might alfo tend to the fouth. He
expreffed his apprehenfion left the veffel might
be ftranded in the night or in foggy weather, or
in cafe of autumnal ftorms be wrecked upon fome
unknown ifland in an unknown fea.
This propofal, continues Steller, being thwarted by Lieutenants Waxel and Kytrof, we failed
along the coaft, until the 26th of July, for it
was thought proper to follow the coaftA though
it would have been fufficient after failing one
hundred FROM I7II TO I7I4.
hundred verfts to have fleered one or two degrees to the north.
^ On the 27th, at night, a gale drove us towards a bank, ftretching into the fea, on which
we found fixty * fathoms water; but the land
could not be difcerned t.
July 28 and 29, ftormy and rainy weather,
we perceived many figns of a contiguous land,
from various drifted fubftances.
July 30, £31. In clear weather and a calm
fea, we purfued our courfe, with a favourable
fouth-eafieriy wind.
* According to Muller, they came into twenty fathoms
water. " They could not know," he-says,." Whether it was
j a sand bank, or whether they ought to take care of the continent, or of an island,, for jt was quite dark. Every where
they found less water; to come to an anchor they durst not
venture, for the wind was strong, and the waves high. Moreover it was to be feared that they might be either too far from
the shore, or too near it. At last it was concluded to hazard
sailing to the south, in which they succeeded so well, that
after steering some hours longer in twenty fathoms 'water,
they regained a secure sea."    S. A. Q. p. 1.
f Muller says it was quite dark.
t According to Muller, on the 30th of July, they discovered an inland which they called Toomanoi Ostrof, or
Foggy Island, near which they anchored in seven or weight
fathoms water; and it is laid down under that name in
Muller's chart of Beering's expedition. But Cook thinks it
there misplaced, and gives the name to another island not
% distant.   Vol. 2. p. 407; 410.
Auguft i. At one o'clock in the morning
we found ourfelves by foundings in no more
than four fathoms water, which was otherwife
reported to the captain ; but the weather being
. calm we got fo far from land, that we anchored
in eighteen or twenty fathoms till day-break.
Auguft 2. We found ourfelves in the morning about three verfts from an ifland*, which was
tolerably large, and cloathed with forefts. The
weather was warm and agreeable, the fun fhone
brightly, and the wind was flill. In vain I de-
fired permiffion to land only for two hours; my
requeft was rejected. Towards the evening we
hove anchor, and fleering wefterly, paffed the
ifland into the open fea.
Auguft 3. We came in fight of the continent
in latitude 560. at the diftance of about fourteen
miles N. N. W. ■§ W. and had a diftinct view of
high mountains covered with fnowt. With an
eafterly wind we failed to the fouth, becaufe the
continent ftretched to the weft, and found ourfelves in a kind of bay; the continent to the
W. and N. and the ifland to the E. before which
we anchored on the 2d;£.
* Probably one of the islands in the vicinity of Kodiak.
t This is plainly that country which the Russians call
X The following part, from the 2d to the 11th, is taken
from a Russian translation of Steller'^ journal, a leaf of the
original being defective.    Pallas.
Auguft FROM I7II  TO  I74I. 49
Auguft 4 to g. Steering S. we faw feveral
high, large, and woody iflands, lying about S. and
W. about the diftance of two or three miles, in-
fomuch that we feemed inclofed on all .fides with
land. This group of iflands fo much impeded
our progrefs, that although the wind was E. and
S. E. and would have carried us feveral hundred
miles in our courfe toward Kamtchatka, yet we
loft the whole time in making repeated tacks.
In thefe parts we perceived numerous herds of
fea-dogs, fea-bears, fea-lions (Foca rejina et
'Leonina), fea-otters and porpoifes, which were
fhe harbingers of a violent ftorm.
Auguft 11. We proceeded with a gentle
S. E. wind out of this land-locked bay due weft.
Auguft 12. The wind falling calm, it was
unanimoufly determined, on account of the late
feafon, and other circumftances, not to explore
the continent farther, but to return to Kamtchatka. This determination, although figned by
all the officers, from the captain to the boat-
fwain's mate, except myfelf, furprifed me exceedingly. We did not, however, follow the
neareft courfe to Avatcha, but ran under the
land, which was the fame as if we had followed
the American coaft. Between the 13th and
17th; the wind being weftward, we continued
tacking north and fouth in order to reach the
latitude of 530 but made little way.
On the 18th, at four in the morning, fur-
prifed with hearing the people on deck talking
of land, I went up and found that they had re-
folved not to mention this difcovery, becaufe it
appeared in. the fouth. This land, though vifible
before fun-rife, was afterwards covered by a fog;
yet its vicinity was evident from the quantity of
drifted fea-weeds, and the hidden ceffation of the
weft wind proved that we were between the continent and an ifland.
The officers feemed averfe to make any farther difcovery ; yet it was unpardonable not to
explore it, and lay it down upon the map.
But it was aftonifhing that they did not attribute the continual weft wind to the.vicinity
of land, and endeavour to run fouthward till they
came oppofite the open channel, where they
might have expected a north or north-eaftwind,
which from the experience of Beering himfelf
was known to prevail in the autumn.
The 19th, at three in the morning, with an
eaft wind we ran due weft. Towards noon the
wind fubfiding, and the horizon clearing up, the
continent was perceived to the north, but notwithstanding the quantity of drifted fubftances',
and the appearance of numerous animals and birds,
none believed it except myfelf and a few more.
Steering foutherly,. on the 20th neither the land
nor any figns of it were vifible.
From FROM 1711 TO I741.
From the 20th to the 23d we plied under the
parallel of 530., and obferved numerous whales*
no longer fingle, but in couples. On the 25th
we experienced a violent ftorm from the weft,
which compelled us to drive; the 26th we paffed
in tacking, and on the 27th the horizon was
clear, the air cold, and the wind continued
Oh this day it was determined on account of
contrary winds, and the fcarcity of water, to take
a north-eafterly courfe and return to the land."
On the 28th we faw feveral fea-lions, a kind of
haddock which is feldom found in more than
ninety fathoms water, and a black fea-gull;
foon afterwards we imagined we faw land N. by
E., andon the morning of the 29th wedifcovered
five iflands, behind which the continent appeared
at the diftance of eleven or twelve miles. The
weather was clear and pleafant, and at three
o'clock in the afternoon we reached the fore-
jnoft of thefe iflands, lying north and fouth, and
late in the evening anchored hear a fmall rocky
iflet, about three verfts from it, to the eaft*.
At the largeft of thefe iflands they took in water,
* Muller says these islands are situated in lat. 55°. 25'.
and were called Schumagin Isles, from the first of the crew
who died and was buried here. They are situated on th,»
east side, and near the promontory of Alaska.
E 2
and Steller landed for a few hours, and found
feveral excellent fprings which he in vain recommended, for the cafks were filled from
braekifh water, to which he attributes the fcurvy
and other diforders afterwards prevalent among
the crew.
After detailing his numerous fquabbles with
the officers, Steller thus defcribes the ifland and
its productions. It appeared to be the largeft
of eight contiguous iflands, lying within the
compafs of fix german miles; it was between
three and four german miles long, and three or
four verfts in breadth; though as we could not
fee the extremity, it is doubtful whether this
land did not form part of the continent, which
appeared north and weft at the diftance of ten
miles. This ifland, like the others, confifts of
high rocks overfpread with herbage: the rock is
principally of a yellowifli grey hue, and in fome
places I obferved fand flone and black flate.
The coaft is rocky and abounds with fprings.
The firft animal I obferved was a black fox,
which I miftook for a dog, as he barked and was
not timid. We alfo faw red foxes in different
places, and Marmots in great numbers; I perceived the track of an unknown animal which
refembled that of a wolf, though it was much
larger. The fea birds were two fpecies of
fwans, pelicans (pelicani)i razor-bills (torda)t
ffPrcll ducks, FROM   I7H   TO   I74I.
ducks, fnipes, fand-pipers, many forts of gulls,
puffins (alca arctica), Greenland pigeons, divers,
and tufted auks (alca cirrhata), among which
there is an unknown fpecies. But of lahd birds
I only perceived ravens, fly-catchers (grifola),
fnow birds (emberiza navalis), and moor-hens.
The fifh were, malma, a fpecies of falmon (tetrae
lagopus), and father-lafhers (coitusfcorpiusJ.
No trees were difcerned either on this or
any of the contiguous iflands, nor on one which
we difcovered on the 14th, under the fame latitude, and which could not be above forty miles
diftant. All the iflands, likewife, which we
afterwards obferved in our voyage towards
Kamtchatka, were deftitute of wood; a circumftance probably arifing from their pofition and
narrownefs, for from this point to the coaft of
America they lie in the direction of north-eaft
and fouth-weft; and thofe ftretching towards
Kamtchatka north-weft and fouth-eaft. Being
long therefore, and narrow in proportion to their
length, they experience the moft fudden tranfi-
tions from heat to cold, and are expofed to the
violent ftorms from the north and fouth to which
thefe regions are peculiarly fubject. Even the
lowefl fhrubs are fo crooked, that not one
ftraight flick two ells long can be found in a
whole diftrict.
All the fhrubs growing in thefe ifles, except
the dwarf willow, which does not rife more than
two ells high, have been defcribed in another
,place. In general I fhall only add that the moft
rare American, productions, growing on rocks,
are found here as well as at Cape St. Elias, and
were afterwards obferved in Beering's Ifland,
and during the autumn in Kamtchatka. The
plants growing in vallies and moift places are
the fame as thofe which are natives of Europe,
■ Afia, and America, under the fame latitude.
The vegetable productions, which we found of
the greateft ufe, were, befides the red bilberries
and whortle berries, the excellent antifcorbutic
herbs, cochiearia, lapathum folio cubital* (.heidel
leren), or rafpberry empetrum or fchikfcha,
gentian, and a fpecies of creffes which I collected
for the captain and myfelf. In vain" I repre-
fented, that the medicine cheft contained no remedies for the fcuryy and afthma, the moft
common difeafes in fea voyages, and requefted
fome men to gather antifcorbutic herbs for the
ufe of the crew : my propofal was contemptu-
oufly rejected, even after the captain had recovered the ufe of his limbs by means of fcurvy-
grafs, and the lapathum folio cubitali, which \
prescribed, in three days, had again fattened the
teeth of feveral of the crew.
As it rained in the evening, I built a fhed for
the purpofe of pafling the nightf on fhore; but
returned FROM   I7II   TO   1741.
Teturned to the veffel and reprefented the bad-
nefs of the water, and urged the necefllty of
gathering herbs. My remonftrances had no effect: and I was ordered to gather the herbs myfelf, as if I had been a furgeon's apprentice.
On the 31ft of Auguft I again went on fhore,
continuing my occupations and exploring the
country ; but towards evening I was fummoned
haftily to the veffel, on account of a rifing ftorm,
of which not the leaft fign appeared on fhore, as
the whole crew were to be collected on board,
that we might be ready to put to fea, fhould the
ftprm drive the veffel from her anchorage, although the place was before faid to be protected
on all fides.
We all haftened to the eaftern fhore of the
ifland, and found every thing in great confufion;
the fick, who were landed the day before, could
hardly be conveyed to the boat, the furf running
fo high that we were obliged to wade through
the water up to the middle. This day we interred the firft of our crew who died, of the
name of Schumagin, -and called the ifland after
him, Schumagin's Ifland.
On reaching the veffel we had the difappoint-
ment to find that Kytrof and his party, who had
been fent on fhore, were not returned, and a
violent ftorm blowing from the north-eaft we
were apprehenfive left we fhould be obliged to
leave them on, fhore. Fortunately however, the
captain, during the firft ftorm at midnight, did
not permit the cable to be cut, but threw out
another anchor, which faved us from being
wrecked in the darknefs of the night, and in the
confufion which reigned among the crew; and
the wind at length fhifted to the weft, on which
quarter we were covered by the land.
September l. The wind being ftill high, with
continual rain, we paffed the day with confiderable anxiety, becaufe Kytrof had not yet arrived.
If we had not been detained by his abfence we
might have availed ourfelves of the favourable
gale which continued five days, and made more
than one hundred miles in our courfe*. On
the 3d, Kytrof and his party being returned, we
weighed anchor, and with a fouth-weft wind,
paffed round the rocky iflet, as we could not
ftand out to fea till we had cleared the outermoft
ifland to the fouth-eaft. At two in the afternoon
we reached the back part of the ifland, and came
to anchor two verfts from land.
On the 4th we made an attempt to purfue our
voyage by paffing round the weft fide of the
ifland; but being prevented by a contrary
wind, we returned to our former anchorage.
* Notwithstanding the frivolous complaints of Steller
own account clearly justifies the conduct of Beering. FR0N   I7II   TO   I74I.
Here we unexpectedly faw fome Americans:
we heard a loud cry near a rock to the fouth,
which we miftook for the roaring of a fea-lion,
as we did not expect to find inhabitants in a
defolate ifland, at the diftance of twenty miles
from the continent. Soon after two fmall bai,
dars, each containing one man, were obferved
approaching our veffel. At the diftance of half
a verft they commenced a long and uninterrupted oration, which none of our interpreters .
underflood, and which we fuppofed to be a
prayer, conjuration, or a compliment to welcome us as ftrangers,' fimilar to the ceremonies
ufed in Kamtchatka and the Kuril Iflands. As
they drew near we beckoned them to approach
us without fear. But as they by figns invited us
to land, and feemed to offer us wood and water,
we again beckoned them, and pronounced the
word, Nitifchi, which according to Baron La-
hontan in his description of North America,
fignifies water : this word they repeated feveral,
times, and. again pointed to the land. One
however, as he came near, took out from his
bofom fome iron or lead-coloured micaceous
earth, and drew marks with it acrofs his cheeks
in the fhape of two pears, fluffed his noftrils with
grafs, and thrufl thin pieces of bone through the
cartilige of his nofe. He then took up a rod
three ells in length, coloured red, refembling
abil- n
a billiard flick*, fattened two hawk's wings to
it by means of whalebone, difplayed it to us, and
threw it laughing towards our veffel into the
water. We in return tied two Chinefe tobacco-
pipes and fome glafs beads to a little board, and
threw it towards him : he took it up, examined
it, and gave it to his companion, who laid it
upon his baidar. Becoming bolder, he approached nearer, but with great' caution, tied
the body of a hawk embowelled to another
ftick, and held it out to our Koriac interpreter,
to receive from us a piece of Chinefe filk and a
looking-glafs. But the interpreter pulling the
flick towards him, inftead of fattening the filk to
it, the American alarmed, let it go, and paddled
to a little diftance. We then threw him the
filk and looking-glafs, and they both rowed to
land,- beckoning us to follow them. During this
interview fome natives on the fhore continued
fliouting, and calling to their companions.
After a fhortconverfation the boat was hoifted
out, in which I refolved to go on fhore with
Lieutenant Waxel, the Koriac interpreter, and
* This rod, with its ornaments, was-probably the Calumet
of the American tribes, which is occasionally used both as a
symbol of peace and war. It is a pipe, the bowl of which
is made of red marble, with a tube of a long reed, and
ornamented with feathers and winge of birds.  | FROM   I7II   TO  I74I. 59
nine of the crew. We were provided with
lances, hangers, and guns, which we concealed
under a fail-cloth to caufe no fufpicion; we alfo
,took bifcuit, brandy, and other trifles as preferits.
Unfortunately we could not land, the coaft being rocky, and the furf fo violent that the boat
with great difficulty was prevented from being
dafhed to pieces. On our approach, both men
and women flocked towards the fhore, appearing
full of admiration, and inviting us in the moft
friendly manner to land. The drefs of both
fexes was fo much alike, as to be fcarcely diftin-
guifhed from each other.
We accordingly ordered our interpreters to
Itrip, and wade through the water. The-iflanders
received them in a friendly manner, and holding
them under the arms, which among them is a
great mark of refpect, led them to the place where
they had been fitting. They then prefented them
with a piece of whale blubber, talked inceffantly,
and pointed towards the other fide of the hills,
as if to notify the place of their dwelling, as we
afterwards fuppofed from obferving fome huts
in that direction, when we coafted the ifland
Several of the iflanders remained gazing at us,
and repeatedly invited us to fhore; and when
we made figns that it was impoffible to v^eptuie
near the fhore, one of them lifted his baidar
into the water, and rowed towards us. NoU.
withftanding my remonftrances he was welcomed
with a cup of brandy, which he, imitating us,
emptied quickly, but as quickly fpit up again,
appearing indignant at this fuppofed deception.
Our men however, thought the Americans had
failor's flomachs, and , endeavoured to remove
his difguft by prefenting him with .a lighted
pipe of tobacco, which he accepted : but being
equally difgufted with his attempt to fmoke,
rowed away with great marks of difpleafure.
The moft civilized European would be affected
in the fame manner if prefented with toad-ftool,
or rotten fifh and willow bark, which are delicacies with the Kamtchadals.
The wind increafing we called back the interpreters ; but the iflanders, who appeared de-
firous of their company, would not permit
them to return. They teftified a particular
partiality to our Koriac, who refembled them
jn countenance and pronunciation. They firft
endeavoured to detain them by offering whale
blubber and paint; but finding gifts ineffectual
they held them by the arms, others waded
through the water, feized a rope which was
fattened to our boat, and not perhaps aware
of our danger, endeavoured to draw it a-fhore.
The iflanders not being diffuaded by our figns,
we difcharged three mufkets over their heads,
which m
which fo terrified them that they fell as if
tbuhderftruck. Our interpreters, availing themfelves of this opportunity, rufhed into the water,
and waded to the boat.
On recovering from their alarm the natives;
made figns for us to depart, and fome even took
up ftones. We inftantly returned to our veffel, much diffatisfied with our adventure; but
We had reafon to congratulate ourfelves on our
fafe arrival, for a brifk fouth wind arofe immediately, and it foon afterwards began to rain,
wr&eh continued the whole night.
I fhall here mention a few circumftances
which attracted my attention during the fhort
time of our continuance on the fhore. The
baidars of the Americans are about twelve feet
long, two high, and two broad on the deck,
pointed before, flat and fquare at the flern.
The frame appears to be of ribs joined at each
extremity, and extended within by crofs bars.
They are covered with fkins, probably of feals,
and flained brown or black.
The iflanders, whom I obferved, were moftly
young or middle aged; they are of moderate
ftature, but tolerably well proportioned; their
arms and legs very flefhy. Their hair is ftraight
and of a gloffy blacknefs; their face Jarown and
flat, the nofe is likewife flat, but not broad or
large, the eyes black, the lips thick and turned
upwards. Their necks are fhort, fhoulders
broad, bodies thick but not. corpulent. They
wore fhirts made with the inteftines of whales,
either tied round the waift with a thong, or
hanging loofe. They had boots and breeches
like thofe of the Kamtchadals, made of feal
fkin, ftained of a brownifh red with alder bark,
and at the girdle a long iron knife hanging in a
Iheath of very bad workmanfhip, like the Ruffian
peafants, which appeared to be of their own manufacture.
While one of the natives was cutting a bladder with a knife, we examined it as accurately as
the diftance would permit, and could perceive,
that it was not like European workmanfhip. It
may therefore be conjectured, that they do not
poffefs iron ore, of which hitherto few or no
traces have been difcovered at Kamtchatka, and
are alfo not acquainted with the method of fmelt-
ing it. The neatnefs of the arrows found in the
hut near Cape St. Elias, proves doubtlefs, that
the favages muft have iron or copper knives.
On the contrary I know from certain information, that the Tchutfki traded from one of the
jieighbouring iflands to America; and though
this intercourfe, from fome difagreement has
been interrupted, it has been carried on through
the inhabitants of the ifles. The chief articles of thb traffic are knives, hatchets, lances,
and 1
FROM   I7H   TO   1741. 63
and iron arrow heads, which the Tchutfki purchafe at a very high price from Anadyrfk, and
barter for a much higher with the Americans for
the fkins of fea-otters, foxes, and martens.
Now, if the Americans themfelves could fmelt
iron, and fabricate thefe goods, why fhould they
buy them at a dear rate from others ?
September 8, k rained much in the forenoon,
bvJt grew variable in the afternoon. The wind
being fouth~eaft, we were afraid of being driven
on fhore, and weighed anchor. At the fame
time we obferved two baidars going towards the
fhore. We fought for an anchorage, where we
might be fheltered towards the weft, and found
one at five o'clock. About an hour afterwards
nine Americans came in their baidars drawn up
in a line, and performed the fame ceremonies
which Ihave already mentioned. They wore
hats of bark, coloured green and red, open at
top and fhaped like candle fcreens, apparently
for protecting the eyes againft the rays of the
fun. Some of thefe fcreens were ornamented
with hawks feathers and grafs, in the fame manner as the natives of Brazil adorn themfelves with
tufts of feathers. Thefe hats might lead us to
fuppofe, that the natives of this part of America
are defcendedfrom Afia; for the Kamtchadals and
Koriacs wear the like, of which feveral fpecimens,
may be feen in the mufeum of St. Peterfburg. '6*4 RUSSIAN  DISCOVERIES
In exchange for a rufty kettle, five needles,
ind fome thread, we procured two of thefe hats;
on one of which was a little image or idol in
a fitting poflure, with a feather behind, probably to reprefent the tail. Having exchanged
thefe articles they paddled to fhore without
any further ceremony, made a great fire, and
fhrieked for a confiderable time: foon after
it became dark, and we did not fee them
On this occafion I again obferved, that thefe
people deem it a particular ornament to bore
holes in various parts of the face, as we do in the
ears, and to infert ftones and bones. One of them
had put a kind of flate pencil, above two inches
long, through the cartilege of the nofe; a fecond
ftuck a bone, three inches long, between the
chin and under-lip, and a third in both noftrils.
Finally, I obferved that the greater part of thefe
Americans have little or no beard, in which
they agree with the inhabitants of Kamtchatka
and other Siberian nations. It is however ftill
to be decided, whether thefe people inhabit the
continent or the iflands. According to my
Opinion they vifit the iflands during the fummer, for the fake of birds and their eggs; others
for hunting whales and feals, and are probably
compelled to return to the continent in winter
fpr want of fuel.
From FROM  17II  TO I74I. 05
From the beginning of September, when they
(item to have fallen in with the chain-of the Fox
Iflands in latitude 50°. to the middle of October,
the weather was extremely variable: they ess-
perienced a■feries©Fflbrms, fuch as appalled the
moft courageous fpirit, and induced the pilot,
Haffelberg, to declare, that during the experience of fifty years, he- had never witneffed fuch
violent tempefts. During this -dangerous navigation, in which they were repeatedly entangled
with 'iflands, and -narrowly efcaped fhipwreck,
the ifliiery and defpondency of the crew were
inexpreflible; and their condition was rendered
ftill more deplorable, by difcontent andinfubor-
dination, and by the -helplefs ftate of Beering.
At one period only ten perfons were capable of
duty, and they were too weak to furl the failsj "
fo that the fliip was left to the mercy of the
, Steller draws a ftriking picture of their extreme mifery :—" The general diftrefs and mortality," he fays, " increafed fofafh>that not only
the fick died, but thofe who pretended to be
healthy, when relieved from their pofts fainted;
and fell down dead, of which the fcantinefs of
water, the want of bifcuits and brandy, cold,
wet, nakednefs, vermin, fear, and terror were not
the leaft caasfes." In this condition they paffed
tw© months, the fport of winds and waves, un-
F certain
certain where they were, and what courfe to
purfue; at one time attempting to return to the
coaft of America, and at another fleering towards
At length, on the 5th of November, when their
' water was nearly exhaufted, they were gratified
with the fight of land, which was fuppofed to be
Avatcha, though by their reckoning they were
between 550 and 560 latitude,'or about 2° to the
north of that place. But finding from obfervation that their reckoning was nearly correct, they
perceived their miftake, and endeavoured to return to an ifland which they had paffed, and fuppofed to be Ifopa, which lies near the peninfula of Kamtchatka, to the north of Avatcha.
Towards evening they flood off the land, to
avoid falling in with it in the night, which threatened to be flormy. It afterwards blew hard,
and as they were incapable of furling the fails,
the fhrouds of the main-maft were broken.
November 6. Lieutenant Waxel, and the
mate, Kytrof, over-ruled Beering's opinion to
direct their courfe to Avatcha, and perfuaded
the crew to fleer towards the bay laft feen, by
affuring them that it was Kamtchatka, although
neither its pofition or appearance refembled any
part of that coaft, and it afterwards proved to be
Beering's Ifland. Thefe officers juftified this
meafure from the fcantinefs of water, of which
only PROM I7H  TO 174t.
only fix barrels remained; and by obtaining a
certificate from Steller of the fickly ftate of the
i They accordingly Hood towards the land,
without taking fufficient precautions ; for the officers were fo negligent, that none of them made
their'appearance on deck for three hours. And
though in confequence of Steller's reprefentation,
Beering ordered the lieutenant and mate to their
duty, they merely directed the fteerfman to approach the land, f Soon after fun-fet, we,"
lays Steller, '* anchored about a verft from the
fhore, in nine fathoms water, and within half-an-
hour, though the night was fine, and the moon
Ihone extremely bright, a dreadful fwell arofe,
which beat the fhip about like a ball, broke one
of the cables, and we expected every moment to
be driven on fhore and dafhed to pieces. Disorder and difrnay . inftantly fpread through the
whole crew, and the officers for a while were incapable of determining what meafures to purfue.
At length, by the advice of Lieutenant Offzin
and the boatfwain, they fuffered the veffel to
drive, and afterrlofing their fecond anchor, fortunately came into ftill-water, where they eaft
November 7. Steller was employed in packing
up his baggage, as he forefaw that the veffel would
be driven on fhore or dafhed to pieces by the
Fa firft
firit ftorm. He then landed with Plenifner his
Coffac, and fome of the fick; they fhot feveral
moor-hens, fea-otters, and fea-hounds which they
dreffed, and fent Jto the commander and their
companions on jfeoard. The cffiher officers, particularly Lieutenant Waxel, flill flattered them-
feivtes that the fliore on which they were driven,
was part of Kamtchatka; they; were however,
not acquainted with the animal called the fea-
otter, which at firft was miftaken for a bear, and
afterwards.for an hyasna. Towards evening the
. fsacty on fhwe formed a hut of drift-wood, and
covered it with an old fail, in asbich they paffed
ifo£ night." From this place I fhall continue the
tranflation of •Seller's Journal.
NovemJ3elf .8. The weather was flill agreeable.
M. Plenjfiier agreed with me this morning, that
he would fliQpt-'birds, and I fhould feek other
provifions; and at noon we were to meet at '4$a
place, I went accordingly- with my Coffac,
eaftward along the fhore^-calte'tted feveral natural curiofities, and hunted fea-otters ; but my
Coffac fhot eight flone-foxes, the tamenefs and
fatnefs of which aftonifhed me much. Towards
noon I returned to our hut, and after dinner
went with M. Plenifner and our Coffac along
the fhore, weftward, to look for wood or
poles, but found nothing. We faw fome fea-
otters, and i^le4 feveral ftone-foxes and moorhens. FROM  1711   TO  1741.
hem. In returnrngj we fat down at a Kitle
rivulet, refrefhed ourfelves ,with tea, and thanked!
God heartily that we had good water, and flood
again on firm land.
This day the fhip was fecured as much as pof-
fible, by calling all the anchors, fo the boat did
BOt come a-fhore. After fupper, as we were
fitting by a fireyaftone-fox took away two moorhens in our prefence, which Was the firWhtftance
©C thofe artful tricks and thefts committed by
thofe animals.
-'. I encouraged my fick Coffac, who confidered
&e as the caufeothis misfortune, and reproached
mefbr ifey curiofity which had brought him into'
tMf trouble, and made the beginning of the en-
, .firing fellowfhip.—<f Be of good cheer," I faid,
" God will help us : if this is not our country,
ye'flwe have hopes to reach it. You fhall not
ftatve; if you cannot work and wait on me, I
will affift and'jfesiiv^ you. I know your integrity
and fidelity; all I have is yours, afk me only,
and I wilhdivide every thing with you." He
replied, " I am willi'ngtdferve her majefty, but
you brourght me into this mifery: who forced
you to go wi^i'thefe people? could you not
have enjoyed the good living at the Bolchaia
Reka?" His fiiiberity made me laugh heartily,
faying, " thank God we are both alive: as I
broughe youf into thisviSHery, you will, if God
F3   - helps
§1 I
helps us, have in me a conftant friend and benefactor. My intentions were good, Thomas!
let yours be the fame; you know not what might
have befallen you at home.''
Meanwhile I entered into- an engagement
with M. Plenifner to build a hut for our winter
refidence, and to afford each other mutual af-
fiftance in cafe we had landed upon an ifland.
November 9. The weather being fine, we
made an excurfion to collect wood, and fixed on
the fpot where we, with the reft of the crew*
afterwards built our huts: we alfo employed
ourfelves in hunting foxes, of which we killed
no lefs than fixtyfwith our hatchets and daggers.
Towards evening we returned to our old hut,
where feveral fick had been landed from the
November 10. The wind was eafterly, the
weather clear in the forenoon, and cloudy in the
afternoon, but the night was fnowy and windy.
We tranfported all our baggage to the place
chofen the day before for building a hut, which
was at the diftance of a verft. In the mean
time more fick were brought on fhore, and
among thefe the commander, who paffed the
night under a tent, and furprifed us by his patience and refignation. He afked my opinion
of the country; I replied, § It cannot be Kamtchatka, as the great number and tamenefs of the
animals,, FROM   I7H   TO   I74I. 71
animals plainly demonftrate that it is either very
thinly or not inhabited. It cannot however, be
far diftant, becaufe the vegetable productions are
fimilar to thofe of that peninfula, and none of
the American plants are found here. Moreover, I difcovered the cafement of a window of
Ruffian workmanfhip, probably drifted from
the Kamtchatka river. Should it, however, be
any part of the peninfula, it muft be Kronotfki
Nos, which I think doubtful from the following
circumftances; a part of a fox-trap, which I
difcovered on the fhore, was not formed with
iron teeth as in Kamtchatka, and I therefore infer
that it was brought from the coaft of America.
I likewife obferved a fpecies of fea animals
(manati) not known in the peninfula, and the
fogs which rife to the fouth feem to prove, that
there is no neighbouring land in that direction.''
On thefe obfervations the commander only exclaimed; "Our veffel cannot be faved; God
preferve our long-boat 1"
After flipping with the commander, on the
moor-hens fhot by Plenifner, .1 told the fur-
geon's-mate, Betge, that if he pleafed he might
join with us, for which he thanked me, and
we were now four in company. We went to
our new abode, fat by the fire, and fettled
our plan over a difh of tea. I then raifed a
fmall hut, which I covered with my two great
F 4 coats 72
coats and an old blanket. The air-holes on
the fides were clofed with foxes which we
had killed this day in great abundance. So
we went to reft, and M. Betge returned to the.
commander. Near midnight, a violent wind,
accompanied with much fnow, tore off our
covering, and we ran towards the fhore to col-
left wood, and brought it to a pit hollowed like
a grave, capable of containing not more than
two perfons. Having laid fome flicks acrofs
and covered it with our clothes, we made a
fire, warmed ourfelves, and paffed the night in
the pit, God be thanked, tolerably well.
November 11. I went to the fhore and
caught a fea-dog, boiled its lard with peafe, and
fhared it with my three companions, who in
the mean time had made two fhovels, and began
to widen our pit. In the afternoon the Captain Commander was brought on poles, and
lodged in. a tent formed with a fail, at the place,
we had fit ft chofen for our habitation. We
treated him and two other officers who came to
our pit with tea. The officers returned to the
fhip, and M. Kytrof propofed to Lieutenant
Waxel to pafs the winter on board, as being
more warm and comfortable than living in a
tent on fhore with a fcarcity of fuel:. he came
a-fhore however the third day, and could not
be prevailed on to return to the fhip. We now
enlarged ***
enlarged the pit which formed our dwelling,
collected wood for a roof, and for boarding it
within. In the evening we made a flight roof,
arid received iftto our dtoellii^ Rofeling, gun*
ner's-mate. At the fame tirne.fome of the crew
who were capable of workings dug a fquare pie
and covered it with double failsy:_for the ufe of
the fick.
•nNavember 12. We worked very hard to
complete our dwelling, and others following our
example made-the third abode in the fame manner, :which was named after its beginner (life
boatfwaift) Alexei Iwanof. To-day many fick
were brought from the veffel, fome of whom
died as foon'as they came into the air, others
during the paffage in the boat, and fome on
reaching, the fhore. We faw the moft! difmal
and terrifying objects; the foxes mangled the
dead before they could be buried, anJirMte'r*evert
not-afraid to approach the living and helplefs,
who lay fcattered here and there, and fmell to
them like dogs. One exclaimed, that he was-
perifhing with cold; another complained of
hunger and thirft, as their mouths were fo much
affected by the fcurvy, that thea* gums-grew over
their teeth like a fpunge. The Hone-foxes,
which fwarmed around our dwellings, became fo
bold and mifchievous as to calory away and de-
ftroy different articles of provifiontand cloathing.
One took a fhoe, another a boot, a third a glove,
and a fourth a coat; they even flole the iron
implements. All our attempts to drive them
away were ineffectual, and all the punifh-
rnents we inflicted on them ferved only to
increafe their audacity : they forced themfelves into our dwellings, and carried away
whatever they could find ; but their artful
and comical tricks diverted us in fpite of our
November 14. I went in the afternoon with
Plenifner and Betge on a hunting party: we
killed four fea-otters, of which we threw the
offal into a brook; the flefh, the fkins, and entrails we brought home, which we did not reach
till night. We made palatable food of the
livers, kidneys, hearts, and flefh; but we put no
value on the coftly fkins, and as we had no leifure
to dry and prepare them, they were thrown
afide until they were damaged and gnawed by
the foxes. We now began to prize thofe articles
which we had not efteemed before, as hatchets,
knives, punches, needles, thread, twine, fhoes,
fliirts, ftockings, poles, cords, &c.: we were
fenfible that rank or learning would give us
here no preference, nor contribute to our maintenance, and therefore refolved to work without
compulfion. To-day I offered the commander
a young fea-otter, recommending him to have it
dreffed FROM 1711 TO I74I.
dreffed in different ways, as a fubftitute for other
frefh meat. But he exprefled a great antipathy
to this'kind of food, and preferred moor-hens, of
which we fent him more than he could confume.
At this period we were employed in conftruct-
ing our huts, and divided ourfelves into three
parties; the firft went to the veffel to land the fick
and provifions; the fecond drew large pieces of
timber the diftance of four verfts ; but I and a
fick gunner remained at home. Befides performing the office of cook, I vifited the captain,
whofe two fervants could render him but little
affiftance, and attended the fick, fupplying them
with warm foup, and other comforts. This day
the dwellings being finifhed, we conveyed thither
many fick in the afternoon, who for want of
room lay promifcuoufly on the ground, with no
other covering but their clothes. They were
unable to affift each other; and nothing was
heard but cries and groans, accompanied with
imprecations on the authors of their mifery.
November 15. All the remaining patients
were landed. One of them called Boris Saend
we took into our abode, and he recovered in
three months. M. Kytrof alfo earneftly be-
fought us to admit him into our fociety, as he
was afraid to remain among the failors,who continually reproached and threatened him; but as
our dwelling was full, and he was confidered as
the author of bur misfortune,'his requeft was^nofc-
complied with. In the enfuing days our labour
and wants increafed. Lieutenant Waxel was
alfo landed, fo much afflicted with the fcurvy,
that we relinquifhed all hopes of his recovery:
he received from us all the affiftance in our
power, and we anticipated his lofs as an incalculable misfortune, -becaufe Kytrof, the next in-
command, wasTo detefted by all, that eonfufiow
and infubordination would have enfued. We
built a feparate hut for him and fome other patients, and lodged him in the barrack till it was;
firiifbed. At this time, the party difpvatehed to
examine the country returned, with the unpfca*N
fing intelligence that it was not connected with? -
Kamtchatka to the weftward, and thatthfere were
no traces of inhabitants.- We were alfo in continual apprehenfion left the inceffant ftorms
fhould drive our veffel to fea, and with it all our
provifions: for, on account of the high, fda^wef
were unable for feveral days to reach the flrijp*
and in addition to our misfortunes, ten or twelve
of the crew fell fick m confequence of their re-
peated exertions to remove the provifions and
ftores; on the whole, want, nakednefs, cold,
ficknefs, impatience and defpair were our daily
At length, towards the end  of November,
& ftorm fortunately^ fttanded   the  veffel, bet- I7H  TO  I74I
ter tha« pejhaps human fkill could have effected,
atifehfrfevived our hopes of grefcrving the provifions and materials, as we were no longer compelled to wade through the fea ; and we now
rep.ofed ourfelves a few days to recover our
ftrength, abstaining from all Work except do-
mcftic occupations,   "a-
:. During this terriporaiy pefpite, three perfons
were- again dtfpatched to explore the country
towards the eaft ; for all hopes were not yet
rclinquifhcd that we were on fome part of
b:r{n <the midft of thefe flattering expectations,
ieve*al perfisgs expired on fhore ; among them
we greatly regretted the experienced pilot, Andrew Haflelberg, who had fefved at fea more
than fifty years, and continued till the age of
feventy in an unremitting difcharge of his duty.
Sefil&s him died two grenadiers, a gunner, the
. iBSftfefsfervant, and a mariner.
• On the 8th of December Captain Beering
died, two days after we loft the mate, Chi-
taifog&fyand on the 8th of January Enfign Lar
glflS^,- who was the thirtieth and laftof our company that died on the ifland.
As the lamentable end of the commander
made different impreffions on different people, I
cannot omit a few particulars relative to his
chara&er and life.
Vitus Beering was a native of Denmark; he
was an upright and pious Chriftian, a friendly
quiet man, and univerfally beloved. After two
voyages to the Indies, he entered in 1704 into
the Ruffian fervice, as lieutenant, and in 1741
was for his merit advanced to the rank of captain commander. He was employed in feveral
expeditions, particularly the two voyages from
Kamtchatka. Impartial perfons muft allow*
that in this fatal voyage he ufed his utmoft
endeavours to perform his duty; he often complained that his ftrength was no longer adequate
to fuch arduous and diftant expeditions, and
frequently lamented that a younger and more
active perfon had not been appointed to the
command. He was more diftinguifhed for prudence and circumfpection than for promptnefs
of refolution, or activity of enterprife. His
principal defect was extreme mildnefs, and too
great facility in adopting the opinions of others,
which occafioned the infubordination and want
of difcipline fo fatal to the expedition. As he
frequently expreffed his gratitude to the Al-
.nrighty for his former fuccefs and recent happi-
nefs, his death was more lamentable, particularly
when it is confidered, that he might have fur-
yived had he reached Kamtchatka, and enjoyed
£he comforts of a warm dwelling and frefh provifions; whereas  hunger, thirft, cold, fatigue
and FROM   I7II   TO   I74I. 79
and defpondency brought him to the grave. He
had ueen long afflicted with a tertian ague, and
a fwelling in his feet, which being driven by-
cold to his vital parts, terminated in a gangrene.
He difplayed the moft affecting refignation to
the will of the Supreme Being, and enjoyed his
underftanding and fpeech to the laft moment.
He was convinced that we were driven on an unknown land, yet would not terrify others by declaring his opinion, but cherifhed their hopes,
and encouraged their exertions. He died on
the 8th of December, and was buried the enfu-
ing day, according to the proteftant ritual. His
body was placed between his adjutant, a com-
miffary, and two grenadiers, and we erected a
crofs over the grave to indicate the place of interment, and ferve as a mark that we had taken
poffeffion of the country.
Soon after the death of our commander, the
whole crew were fheltered from the feverity
of the winter in fubterraneous dwellings, contiguous to each other, which were called the
barrack, the hut of the lieutenant, mine, Alexei
Iwanof's, and Luka Alexeef's.
On Chriftmas day moft of the crew were recovered by the excellent water and the flefh of
fea animals, and turned their principal attention
to the means neceffary for their deliverance.
One of their chief employments was' to hunt
fea Bo
fea animals for the purpofe of procuring food,
and of favi($g their meal; which was distributed
with the ftricteft ceconorpy- From the middle
of November to the beginning of May, the
gjjonjhly allowance for each perfon was thirty
- gguj&ds, and for the firft two months feveral
pounds of barley. In May and June it was reduced to twenty pounds, and totally withheld during July and Auguft, as twenty-five pood were
;6©ferved for the voyage to Kamtchatka, of which
£yve&$ji, refrained on our arrival at Avatcha.
As the meal,.however, had been kept for. three
5!firs.iajieaflheilaags, and had been drenched
Mtfcbitbe fait water, in .-which the gunpowder &nd
ether articles wece .diffolved, the. tafte was extremely aku&i*u>:*^and until we were habituated
to the ufe of ityiproduced difagneeable effects.
For fome time we prepared the meal by
jpfck;ing fmall cakes, arid frying them with train
eily or the fat of the fiea cow; but having erected
two ovens ibefore our depaitufcejj we .once more
^joyed the luxury of eating bread. We had
ftp ^ij&9©lfiyuinj^0curing food from the fea animals, which abounded in this part of the ifland,
until the crew imprudently .depive them from
the neighbourhood, by wantonly and unasecelftB.
rily annoying: the«i-; hence our labour was con*
fiderably increafed, and we were compelled to
hunt at a great diftance &om qui habitations.. I
To ]?RbM  1711 TO 1
To fupply ourfelves with fuel, was likewife
a confiderable labour, as the ifland produced
nothing but willow bufhes,. and the drift-wood
was often deeply buried in the fnow. Till the
end of March we were compelled to bring it
from the s diftance of even fifteen br fixteen
verfts. Our load on thefe expeditions amounted
from fixty to eighty pounds, befides our hatchets
and kettlesj and the neceffary implements for
mending our fhoes and clothes. In April,
however, we were relieved from this labour by
the thaw, and breaking up of the veffel.
A regular diftribution of our labour was alfo
eftablifhed by our party j and afterwards adopted
by all; a German and. a Ruffian daily hunted,
others were employed in fetching wood, and a
German and Ruffian ftaid at home to cook for
their companions.
. On the 26th of December the fecond party
fent on difcovery returned with the report
that we were upon an ifland, the coaft of which
they had traced, weft ward ; but from the oars,
parts of fifh barrels, and other articles drifted on
the ftrand, they inferred that Kamtchatka was at
no great diftance.
January 29.    Our company killed the firft
fea-lion, the flefh of which was delicious,   refembling veal, and the fat was like the marrow
of an ox.    On the lft of February, a violent
north-weft wind and high tide drove our veffet
into fuch a fituation that we flattered ourfelves
we fhould float it at high water, could we recover
our anchors; but on examination we found it
filled with fand. We were however confoled
for this difappointment, as it diminifhed the
labour of breaking up the veffel.
In fpring, the fnow being melted, we could
proceed over land to the fouth, where the otters
and fea-=dogs had not yet been frightened, and
■ were found in great numbers. We often vifited
thefe parts, notwithftanding the diftance, and
fteepnefs of the mountains. During one of
thefe expeditions we nearly loft a third of our
party. The ill of April, the gunner Rofdig,
the furgeon's mate Betge, the midfhipman Sind,
and a Coffac went on a hunting excurfion, and
| were overtaken towards the evening with fuch a
violent hurricane that no one could ftand upon
his legs, nor fee a flep before him, which was
followed at night by a fall of fnow not lefs than
fix feet in depth. After lying the whole night
under the fnow, they had the greateft difficulty
in working their way through it, to reach the
fhore; but the midfhipman had left them, and
feemed to be loft. During this time we were
under the greateft alarm left our companions
hadperifhed, but fortunately we had fcarcely
opened a paffage to our hut, when three of the
people FROM   I7H    TO   I74I.
people arrived benumbed and fpeechlefs, and
the furgeon's-mate was quite blind. We in-
ftantly undreffed them, covered them with feather beds, and recovered them with tea. About
an hour afterwards three of our men brought
back the midfhipman whom they difcovered
wandering near the fhore. Having fallen during
the night into a brook his cloaths and his limbs
were frozen, and we were apprehenfive left his
hands and feet would mortify; but he gradually
recovered, from the ftrength of his conftitution,
and the furgeon's-mate regained his fight -in a
On the 25th of February the mildnefs of the
feafon induced us to difpatch the mate Yufchin ;
with four men to explore the country weftward,
but in fix days they only reached the northern
point of land fixty verfts from our abode, and
after amufing themfelves with hunting beavers
they returned on the 8th of March, with a falfe
account that the fteep rocks extending into the
fea had prevented them from proceeding,
' On the 10th of March it was refolved to
fend a party with Alexei Iwanof, one of the
failors, by Lefnaya Retfchka over the land to
the fouth, and then along the fhore till he
fhould reach the end of the ifland or the continent, as we then thought we were ftranded on
Kronozki Nofs. Thefe fcouts began their ;
journey the 15th of March, but returned unexpectedly the 19th alfo with the report that they
could not proceed farther fouthward on account
of the precipitous rocks.. During this expedi- -
tion they difcovered fome of the pieces of the
.floop which was built the laft winter at Avatcha,
which the carpenter Akalof, recollected; they
alfo faw an animal which from their defcription
appeared to be a fea-bear.
On the 22d of March, the fame party were
ordered to proceed to the northernmoft point,
and from thence fouthward, unlefs they fhould
meet with infurmountable obftacles : in that cafe,
they were to return to the north, or by croffing
the mountain, continue till they reached the
continent or difcovered the termination of the
ifland. In the latter cafe they fhould inftantly
return and profecute the building of the veffel ;
but fhould they reach the continent or Kamtchatka, half of the party were to proceed to
Avatcha, and the remainder bring the information to our abode.
I, together with three of my companions,
went with this party, and croffed the country for
the firft time near Lefnaya Retschka. There
we killed feveral fea-otters, which were fo numerous that we might have flaughtered a hundred, had we not been more defirous of their
flefh than of their coftly fkins.
On FROM   ,171
On the 5th of April, during a gleam of favourable weather, Plenifner, and myfelf, with
my Coffac and a fervanf of Beering, went on a
hunting expedition. Having killed as many
fea-otters as we were able to carry, we made a
fire in a cliff, where we propofed to1 pafs the
night. At midnight a violent hurricane arofe,
and the fnow fell in fuch quantities that we fhould
have been buried had we not run continually
backwards and forwards. In the morning,
after a long and fruitlefs fearch for fhelter, we
refigned ourfelves to our fate; but the Coffac
fortunately difcovered a large cavern, which
feemed to have been formed by an earthquake. Here we entered with our provifion
and wood. This cave afforded a fecure retreat
from the weather, contained a cavity in which we
could hide our provifions from the depredations
of the ftone-foxes, and was provided with an
aperture which ferved the purpofe of a chimney.
This cave and the bay were named in compliment to me. The cavern was inhabited by numerous foxes, which retired on our approach
« through the chimney ; but the fmoke from cur-
Are caufed fuch fneezing and fpitting amongft
them as gave rife to no fmall diverfion ; but at
night they occafionally returned into the cave,
and amufed themfelves with taking our caps
and other fimilar gambols. On the 4th we re-
turned to our abode with a rich booty, and
were received with great delight by our companions, who thought us loft.
Some days before, a hunting party was undertaken by the mate Yufchin, three men, and the
fhip carpenter, (who had engaged to build a new
veffel from the wreck) and upon whom therefore
all our hopes of deliverance depended. Having
fought a retreat from the violence of the ftorm
in a cave near the fhore, the high water confined them feven days without nourifhment and
fuel, and they did not return till the ninth day,
when we thought them either drowned or buried
in the fnow, which fell from the mountains.
On coming home the 8th of April, we heard
the agreeable news, that this ufeful perfon was
returned: the mariner and his party had alfo arrived on the 6th of April, with the information
that we were really upon an ifland, and that
they defcried high mountains to the north-eaft.
According to the latitude I think this high land
could not be confidered as part of America, but
as another ifland unknown at Kamtchatka*.
As we had no other chance of reaching Kamtchatka than by building a fmall veffel, we fub-
fcribed on the 9th of April the following refolu-
tions.    1. The twelve men   who could work
I Steller was in the right; for "this high land seen to the
N, E, was Copper Island.—Pallas. PR0JM   I73LI   TO   I74I1. £7
with .the hatchet fhould affift the carpenter,
g. Yhe others (except the two officers and myfelf) fhould alternately hunt and work. .3. The
^provifions fhould be depofited in one place, and,
every morning a non - commiffioned officer
fhould give the cook of each party his (hare,
that the carpenter might fuffer no want." On
the following day the firft preparations were
made $ the veffel was cleared, and the materials
put on fhore. Whet-ftones were cut and put
into troughs, the inftraments ground, the forge
conftructed, iron claws, wedges and hammers
forged, wood collected and charcoal made, which
laft occafioned the greateft delay.
As the diftance of the place where we hunted
was eighteen or twenty verfts, we were greatly-
relieved by catching two fea-bears, weighing
twenty pood each, two or three of which were
fufficient for a week's provifion. We were flill
more benefited by a frefh whale thrown up five
verfts weftward from our dwelling on the 20th
of April; it was fifteen fathoms long, and produced fo much oil and lard that fome barrels of
it remained at our departure. The flefh of the
young fea-bears and of female bears maintained
us during May and part of Junef
The 5th of May the beginning of our veffel,
and future deliverance was made, by laying the
ilern and fore-pofts of the keel, which was ce-.
lebrated at the invitation of Lieutenant Waxel,
for want of other liquor, with Mongolian Saturn,
or tea-foUp, prepared with flour and butter.
The mild weather in the fpring having dif-
folved the fnow, much drift wood was found on
fhore, which furnifhed charcoal fufficient for the
forge; we alfo procured many herbs and roots,
which afforded us an agreeable and wholefome
change of diet. On the nth of May and following days, it not only thawed, but the continual rain with fouth-eaft winds caufed fuch an
inundation that ■ the rivulets overflowed our
fubterraneous dwellings to the depth of two
feet; we therefore built fummer huts above'
ground. The conflruction of our veffel was
delayed on this account, for a few days, but was
again refumed and our ardour inpreafed, as we
hoped to fail for Kamtchatka in Auguft. The
maintenance of the people being facilitated by
the flefh of fea-cows, which we caught in great
abundance, we were no longer under the ne-
ceffity of hunting, and the men were thus relieved from undertaking troublefome journies
over the mountains, without flioes or clothes.
By the conitant exertions, and encouragement of Lieutenant Waxel, the veffel, which
was thirty-fix feet long in the keel, and forty-two
over the ftern *, was ready to be launched in July*
nthe original, but probably an error. FROM  I7II  TO  1741. 89
From that time to the 13th of Auguft we
were employed in preparing the tackling, and
building the frame for launching the veffel,
which was a difficult undertaking, as we were ill
provided with materials, particularly wood,
which was conveyed from the moft diftant parts
of the fhore. Mean-while fome raifed a ftore-
houfe to preferve the remainder of the materials ; fome built an oven, and baked bifcuits
for the voyage ; others prepared barrels ; fome
took foundings, and not a fingle perfon was idle
in promoting our deliverance from this defert
On the 8th of Auguft, every thing was in order and ready for the voyage. After offering
j up public prayers for fuccefs in our enterprife,
we gave the veffel the name of St. Peter, and all
affifted in launching it. But to pur great con-
fternation the veffel hung on the flocks, and it
was not without difficulty that we floated it the
following day. We continued our exertions
night and day ; on the 1 ith the veffel was malted
and rigged; then the water and provifions were
put on board, and finally the remains of the
baggage. Mean-while a fmall. boat was con-
ftrutted by the carpenter. Our provifion confifted of four pounds of butter for each man,
twenty-five pood of rye-meal, five barrels of
pickled fea-cow or manati flefh, two pood of
peafe, and a barrel of pickled beef, which nou
withftanding our neceffities had been faved for
pur return.
Auguft 13, we quitted our dwellings with
mixed fenfations of hope and fear, and repaired
fo the veffel, which was to carry us home, or
terminate our exiftence. The veffel was fo final!
that the crew were obliged to creep over each
pther as they lay down in their refpectjve places $
Lieutenant Waxel, M. Kytrof, I, and the fon of
the lieutenant, had the befl birth in the cabin $
the other forty-two men occupied the hold,
which was fo full of water barrels, provifions
and baggage that there was fcarcely room to lie
down. The crew being divided into three
watches, two places were affigned to three men 5
but as the veffel was flill too fmall we threw beds
and clothes into the fe^. We had fcarcely
reached the veffel hefore we obferved the flone-
foxes bufy in examining our dwellings, and dividing the remains pf the provifions ^hich we
left behind.
Auguft 14. Having addrefled a fervent prayer
jfbr the affiftance of the Almighty, we weighed
anchor, and as the weft wind was favourable to,
pafs the eaft point of the ifland, we chofe the
direct courfe to Avatcha, though the mouth of
the Kamtchatka river was twice as near, and pur
veffel ill calculated tp fuftain an autumnal,
ftorm. FROM   I7II   TO  1741. 91
ftorm. We advanced fo far with a moderate
wind, that in the evening we reached the fputh-
eaft part of our ifland. The weather being pleafant, we paffed the day in coafting the ifle, and
recollecting the names we had given to each vale
and mountain, which we had fo often, and with
fo much difficulty traverfed, in fearch of provifions..
Late in the evening we were a-breaft of the
fartheft point of land, and on Sunday the 15th,
the wind being moderate in the forenoon, we
ftill defcried the fouth part of the ifland, which,
as the wind increafed, we loft fight of towards
night. We continued now fleering between
weft and fouth to Avatcha, with favourable wind
and weather. But at midnight we were much
terrified, as we perceived water in the veffel,
which being crowded, it was difficult to find the
leak. Having omitted to place kettles under
the pumps, they were foon choaked by the chips
in the hold, and the danger increafed every moment, the wind being high and the veffel weakly
built. In this alarming fituation the fails were
furled, and the place cleared; fome bailed out
the water, and others threw the balls and cartridges overboard. Fortunately the carpenter.
fucceeded in difcovering and flopping the leak,
and we were providentially faved.
Auguft 16. We purfued our courfe, and
early on Tuefday the 17th faw the continent of
Kamtchatka. We made the land near Cape
Kronozkoi, but the weather being foggy we did
not fee it till we were within a mile of the fhore.
It was notwithftanding, refolved to fleer for
the harbour from which we were not lefs than
thirty miles. On account of contrary winds and
calms nine days were fpent in tacking, and it
was not till the night of the 26th of Auguft,
after continually rowing for twenty-four hours,
that we came into the bay at night, and entered
on the 21ft in the evening the long wifhed for
Notwithftanding our deliverance and happy
arrival, the accounts received from a Kamtcha-
dal at the entrance gave us great affliction.
Being fuppofed either dead or fhipwrecked, the
greater part of our property had fallen into the
hands of flrangers. Mean-while we were fo ac- .
cuftomed to mifery, that inftead of new projects
we only thought of continuing our ufual manner
of living, and confidered our prefent fituation as
a dream. After offering up on the following
day hearty thanks to Heaven, in a common
prayer, for our miraculous" prefervation and
happy return, the fea-officers refolved to pro-
peed immediately to Okotfk. But I took my
leave of them, and walked thirty miles to Bol-
cheretfkoi Oftrog, where I fafely arrived jn the .
bofom FROM I7II  TO I74I. 93
• bofom of my family the 5th of September, and
celebrated the birjh day of our moft gracious
emprefs. After fome weeks the report reached
Bolcheretfk that the veffel appointed for Okotfk
was driven back into the harbour: but as the
commander neglected to fend the account of
our return by the galliot which failed after to
Okotfk, eight months elapfed before it was
known at Peterfburg that we were not dead.
I 94
Remarks on Steller's Narrative, and Conjectures
relative to the Parts of America touched at by
Beering and Tchelekof.
According to Steller's narrative, that Beering firft difcovered the continent of America in
latitude 590. and fome minutes, and longitude
490. or five hundred dutch miles, from Avatcha,
or 2160. from Ferro.
Should this computation be deemed accurate,
it would carry them no farther than that part of
the American continent which lies near Shoal
Nefs, confiderably to the weft of Cook's River.
There was probably little deficiency in the latitude, but from the authority of Steller himfelf
we may infer that the longitude was extremely
erroneous; for he obferves many errors concerning the diftance of the two continents muft
have occurred, as no notice was taken of the impediments arifing from currents; it likewife appears, that no aftronomical obfervations were
made; but the longitude computed from the
fhip's reckoning. Hence Muller fays, Beering
difcovered the continent of America in 580. 28'.
latitude, and 500. eaft longitude from Avatcha
accord- FROM I7II TO 1741. 95
according to computation, andTfchirikoffin 560.
latitude, and 606. longitude; but he fuppofes
that both may have been miftaken, for if we
compare their voyage thither, with their return,
it feems that Captain Beering was on the coaft
of America, in longitude 6o°. from Avatcha, or
2360. from Fero, and Tfchirikof in 650. from
Avatcha, or 2410. from Fero.
Confidering thefe uncertain data, and the
fcanty information contained in Muller's Account, it is no wonder that doubts fhould be
entertained, whether Beering and Tfchirikof
reached America; and that fince later difcoveries have removed thofe doubts, fubfequent navigators have not afcertained the precife parts
which they reached. For fome of the late Ruffian
navigators lay down the utmoft limits of Beering's Voyage, too near the weftern fhore of
Montague ifland, at the entrance of Prince William's Sound, place Mount St. Elias upon that
ifland, and fuppofe the part of the continent firft
difcovered by Beering, to be that land which lies
between Prince William's Sound, and Cook's
Inlet; but this fuppofition is wholly incompatible with both Muller's and Steller's Narrative.
Captain  Cook, after candidly allowing  the
difficulty of afcertaining the difcoveries of the
Ruffians from a confufed and uncertain narrative, conjectures that Beering reached the continent a little to the northward of Cape Fair-
weather, where he perceived an appearance of a
bay and an ifland off the fouth point of it, that
was covered with wood. He confiders this bay-
as fituated in latitude 590. 18'. and longitude
221°. eaft from Greenwich, and diftinguifhes it
by the name of Beering's bay : the high mountains which he faw in 5 8°. 53'. at forty leagues
diftance, he calls Beering's Mount St. Elias.
Vancouver however afferts that no fuch bay
or ifland exifts in that latitude, and that Cook
was led into the miftake by the great diftance
at which he faw the coaft. He therefore places
Beering's Bay a little farther to the north w'eft,
at Dixon's Admiralty Bay*, in latitude 590. 33'.
and longitude 2200. 30'. weft from Greenwich.
He cenfures Portlock and Dixon for laying
down Beering's and Admiralty Bays as two bays,
declares that the minute examination with which
he furveyed the coaft, enabled him to affert,
that between Capes Suckling and Fairweather,.
Admiralty Bay is the only bay, which according to Kytrof's defcription, " affords between
. * Called by Perouse, Bale de-Moi
4to. edition.
Tome 2> p. l60,
iflands FROM   I7II   TO   I74L
iflands a convenient anchoring place, fecure from
all winds-," that its latitude accords nearly with
that affigned by the Ruffians to Beering's difcovery," hence he fuppofes it to be the fame
as that defcribed by Cook, calls it Beering's
Bay, and confiders a cove denominated by
Dixon, Port Mulgravej as the anchoring place
explored by Kytrof. But notwithftanding the
minutenenefs of Vancouver's examination, Cook
is juftified in placing a bay which he calls Beering's Bay, between Admiralty Bay and Cape
Fairweather; for exactly in the latitude and
longitude mentioned by Cook, La Peroufe
difcovered a bay with one or two iflands off
its fouth point, into which a river empties
itfelf, called by him Beering's River.*
But it fufficiently appears from Steller's Narrative, that neither of thefe bays could be that
difcovered by Beering and explored by Kytrof;
for neither of them is diftinguifhed by that long,
narrow, and mountainous ifland lying off the
continent, which was examined by Steller, and
is too remarkable to be overlooked.
In fact, the only bay hitherto difcovered between Prince William's Sound and Cape Fair-
weather, which   anfwers   Steller's   defcription.
' Voyage de la Perouse, torn. 2, p. 142.—144.
H and
and by its pofition fuits the courfe of the voyage
is Cook's Comptroller's Bay, fituated near the
latitude of 6o°, and longitude 2160. 20'. eaft from
Greenwich, or 2340. from Fero. At the mouth
of this bay is* a long narrow and mountainous
ifland, called by Cook, Kaye's Ifland, which is
feparated from the eaftern extremity of Cape
Suckling, by a ftrait about a mile and a half
broad, with a fmaller ifland towards the weft, denominated by Vancouver Wingham's Ifland, and
between which there is good anchorage. Towards
the entrance of the bay are feveral rocky iflets;
within are many fmall iflands, and a large river
empties itfelf towards the north-weftern extre-1
mity. Vancouver afferts, that Comptroller's
Bay, and Kaye's Ifland, could not be the places
firft difcovered by Beering, becaufe " that bay is
rendered inacceffible by fhoals, and incapable of
affording any fhelter to fhipping." But he
makes this affertion without fufficient evidence,
and the furvey of thofe parts taken by Mr. Puget,
under his orders, proves that there was a good
paffage between Wingham's and Kaye's Ifland,
and the continent, and good anchorage in the vicinity of both thefe iflands ; there is no reafon
therefore to fuppofe that Beering's veffel, which
only drew nine feet water, could not have paffed
the fhoal into the bay, for Mr. le Mefurier, who
founded FROM  I7II TO 1741.
founded the paffage, found at leaft 2% fathoms
of water at the edge of the fhoal. The affertion
that it is incapable of affording fhelter to fhip—
ping can only be proved from experience, and
Cook defcribes it as covered from almojl all
-winds. Mr. Puget found excellent anchorage
on the eaft fide .of Wingham's Ifland, and the
place where the Chatham anchored off Kaye's
Ifland, was well protected from the moft prevailing winds. It is not probable, therefore, when we
confider the form of the bay, and the protection
afforded by Kaye's and Wingham's Iflands, and
a fpit of land extending from Cape Suckling to
the north-weft, that it fhould not afford protection to a fmall veffel like Beering's, between the-
iflands, which according to Cook it contains.
The afpect of the country, partly low and
and fandy, partly elevated tracts of thick foreft,
and rifing into mountains covered with fnow,
anfwers to the defcription of Steller, and the
ftupendous fummit of Mount St. Elias, refem-
bles the mountain noticed by Steller, as the
higheft he had ever feen, and which he difcerned
at the diftance of fixteen dutch miles from
land. Cook obferved Mount St. Elias at the
diftance of forty leagues, and Vancouver fays,
*f till eleven at night Mount St. Elias was yet
within our vifible horizon, appearing like a
lofty mountain, although at the diftance of onte
hundred and fifty geographical miles*."
After endeavouring to reconcile the accounts
of Muller and Steller, and comparing their narratives with Cook's and Vancouver's journals, I
am induced to conje£ture, that Beering firft difcovered the continent of America in the neighbourhood of Kaye's Ifland, and after much op-
pofition from contrary winds, anchored either
between Wingham's and Kaye's Ifland, or between Kaye's Ifland and Cape Suckling. They
remained only one day on this fpot, during
which Steller explored Kaye's Ifland, and
Kytrof difcovered the anchorage in the bay.
Kaye's Ifland was probably the Cape St. Elias.
Sailing from Kaye's Ifland, they continued
along the coaft until they fell in with the fand
* Vol. 3, p. 210.
I am informed by Mr. Menzies,. who accompanied Vancouver, that according to geometrical observations taken by
the commander of the Spanish expedition, it was 2,792 toises
in neight, or 16,752 French feet; but according to Dagelet
the geographer, who accompanied La Perouse, 1,980, or
11,880 French feet.—Voyage de la Perouse, torn. 2, p. 141.
If we credit the Spanish observations, it exceeds the height
of Mont Blaric by 2,406 French feet, if Dagelet's, it is lower
by 4,872 French feet.—(See Travels in Switzerland, Letter 36). An interesting view of this stupendous mountain,
Which seems wholly covered with snow, is given in Vancouver's Voyage, yoL 3, p. 204.
bank, FROM   lyil   TO   I74I. 101
bank, which, according to, Vancouver, ftretches
from the north eaftern point of I-I in chin brook
Ifland to Cape Suckling. Steering inftantly
fouth to avoid this fhoal, they miffed the en-»
trance of Prince William's Sound, and failing through the open fea for feveral days, anchored under a woody ifland, tolerably large,
which Beering called Toomanoi Oftrof or Foggy
Ifland, and which was probably that lying in latitude 560.10'. and longitude 202°. 45'. eaft from
Greenwich. Directing their courfe due weft, they „
difcovered that land in 560. latitude which is now
called Alafka, Being prevented from running
either north or weft by the prolongation of the
continent, they failed fouth and fouth-weft, and,
became entangled among the Schumagm' Iflands,
which are fituated inlatitude 550.25'." When they
had cleared thefe iflands, which employed them
feveral days, they feem to have paffed fouth of
the Aleutian and Fox Iflands, occafior.,ally dif-
covering land, which they confidered as the continent, and after being driven about by violent
dorms, miftook their courfe, and were fhip—
wrecked on Beering's Ifland.  FROM I74I  TO  I778.
From 1741 to 1778.
Conqueft of Siberia—Commencement of the New
Difcoveries—Their Progrefs—Encouraged by,
the Emprefs—Pojition of the New-difcovered
A Thirft after riches incited the Spaniards to
the difcovery of America, and turned the
attention of other maritime nations to that quarter ; and the fame pafiion occafioned, about the
middle of the fixteenth century," the difcovery
and conqueft of Northern Afia, a country
before unknown to Europeans. The foundation, of this conqueft was laid by the celebrated
H 4 Yer, i04
Yermac*, at the head of a band of adventurers,
lefs civilized, but lefs inhuman than the conquerors of America. By the acceflion of this
vaft territory, now known by the name of Siberia, the Ruffians acquired an extent of empire
never before attained by any nation.
The firft project for making difcoyeries in
that tempeftuous fea, which lies between Kamtchatka and America, was conceived and planned
by Peter I. the greateft fovereign who ever fat
upon the Ruffian throne, until it was adorned by
Catherine the fecond. The nature and completion of this project under his immediate fuccef-
fors are well known to the public from the relation of the celebrated Muller. No fooner
had Beering and Tchirikof opened their way to
iflands abounding in valuable furs, than private
merchants engaged with ardor in fimilar expeditions ; and, within a period of ten years, more
important difcoveries were made by individuals,
at their own private coft, than had been hitherto
effected by all the expenfive efforts of the
Soon after the return of Beering's crew, the
inhabitants of Kamtchatka ventured over to the
ifland, on which Beering was fhipwrecked and
* The reader will find an account of the conquest of
Siberia, related in the subsequent part of this work,
died, Vfti
died, where fea-otters and other fea-animals
reforted in great numbers. Mednoi Ofrof, or
Copper Ifland, which takes that appellation from
large maffes of native copper found upon the
beach, and which is feen from Beering's Ifle, was
an eafy and fpeedy difcovery.
Thefe two fmall uninhabited fpots were for
fome time the only iflands known until a fcarcity
of land and fea-animals occafioned other expeditions. Several of the veffels fent out upon
thefe voyages were driven by ftormy weather to
the fouth-eaft j by which means the AJeutian
Ifles, fituated about the 195th * degree of longitude, and but moderately peopled, were firft
From 1745, when thefe iflands were firft
vifited, until 1750, when the firft tribute of furs
was brought to Okotfk, the government was
not fully informed of their difcovery. In that
year, Lebedef was commander of Kamtchatka.
From 1755 to 1760, Captain Theredof and
-Lieutenant Kafhkaref were his fucceffors.    In
* The author reckons, throughout this treatise, the longitude from the first meridian of the isle of Fero. The longitude
and latitude, which he gives to the Fox Islands, correspond
exactly with those in the general map of Russia, The longitude of Beering's Island, Copper Island, and of the Aleutian
Isles, are somewhat different. See advertisement relating to
the Charts.
1760, io6
1760, Feodor Ivanovitch Soimonof, governor
of Tobolfk, turned his attention to thofe iflands;
and, the fame year, Captain Rtiftfhef,- at Okotfk,
inftructed Lieutenant Shmaleff, the fame officer
who was afterwards commander in Kamtchatka,
to promote expeditions in thofe feas.
The prefent Emprefs (to whom every circumftance which contributes to aggrandize the
Ruffian empire is an object of attention) has
given new life to thefe difcoveries. The merchants who engaged in them have been animated by rewards, and the importance and true
pofition of the Ruffian iflands have been afcer-
tained by an expenfive voyage * made by order
of the crown.
Meanwhile, we may reft affured, that feveral
modern geographers have erred in advancing
America too much to the weft, and in queftion-
ing the extent of Siberia eaftwards, as laid down
by the Ruffians. It appears, indeed, evident,
that the accounts and even conjectures of Muller, concerning the pofition of thofe diftant regions, are more and more confirmed by facts;
in the fame manner as the juftnefs of his fuppo-
* The author here alludes to the secret expedition of
Captain Krenitzin and Levashef, whose journal and chart
were sent, by order of the Empress of Russia, to Dr. Robertson, and are given in a subsequent chapter of this work.
fition K
FROM   I741   TO   1778.                   107     -
fit ion concerning the coaft of the fea of Okotfk *
has been lately eftablifhed.    With refpect to the
extent of Siberia, it appears almoft beyond a
doubt, from, the moft recent obfervations, that
its eaftern extremity is fun a ted beyond 200°.
Of* longitude. In regard to the weftern coaft of
America, all the navigations to the new-difcovered iflands evidently fhew, that between
50 and 6o°. of latitude, that continent advances
no where nearer to Afia than die coafts touched
at by Beering and Tchirikof, or about 2360. of
As to the new-difcovered iflands, no credit
muft be given to a chart publifhed in the Geo-
graphical Calender of St. Peterfburg for 1774;
nor is the antient chart of the difcoveries, publifhed by the Imperial Academy, which feems
to have been drawn up from mere reports, more
deferving of attention.
The late navigators give a far different description of the northern Archipelago. From
their accounts we learn, that Beering's Ifland is
fituatcd due eaft from Kamtchatkoi Nofs, in the
* Muller formerly conjectured, that the coast of the sea
of Okotsk stretched south-west towards the river Ud, and
from thence to the mouth of the Amour south-east; and the
troth of this conjecture has been since confirmed by a coasting voyage made by Captain Synd. -
185th degree of longitude. Near it is Copper
Ifland j and, at fome diftance from them, eaft-
fouth-eaft, are three fmall iflands, named by the
inhabitants, Attak, Semitfhi, and Shemiya: thefe
are properly the Aleutian ifles; they ftretch
from weft-north-weft towards eaft-fouth-eaft, in
the fame direction as Beering's and Copper
Iflands, in the longitude of 1950. and latitude
To the north-eaft, at the diftance of fix or
eight hundred verfts, lies another group of fix or
more iflands, known by the name of the Andrea-
nofffkie Oftrova.
South-eaft, or eaft-by-fouth of thefe, at the
diftance of about fifteen degrees, and north by
eaft of the Aleutian, begins the chain of Lyflie
Oftrova, or Fox Iflands : this chain of rocks
and ifles ftretches eaft-north-eaft between 56
and 6i°. of north latitude, from 211°. of longitude moft probably to the continent pf America;
and in a line of direction, which croffes with
that in which the Aleutian ifles lie. The largeft
and moft remarkable of thefe iflands are Umnak, Aghunalafhka, or, as it is commonly fhortened, Unalafhka, Kadyak, and Alagfhak.
Of thefe and the Aleutian Ifles, the diftance and pofition are tolerably well afcertained
by fhips reckonings, and latitudes taken by
pilots.   But the fituation of the Andreanofffky
Ifles rkoM 1741 to 1778.
Ifles* is flill doubtful, though probably their direction is eaft and weft; and fome of them may
unite with that part of the Fox Iflands which is
moft contiguous to the oppofite continent.
No veffels have yet reached the main land of
America, though poffibly the time is not far
diftant when fome of the Ruffian adventurers
will fall in with that coaft. More to the north
perhaps, at leaft as high as 700. latitude, the
continent of America may approach the coaft of
the Tfchutfki, and form a large promontory,
accompanied with iflands, which have no con- '
nection with any of the preceding ones. That
fuch a promontory really exifts, and advances
near to Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, can hardly be doubted; at leaft it feems to be confirmed by all the
lateft accounts which have been procured from
thofe parts. That prolongation, therefore, of
America, which by Delifle is made to extend
weftward, and is laid down oppofite to Kamtchatka, between 50 and 6o°. latitude, muft be
entirely removed; for many of the fhips whofe
voyages are related in this collection, paffed
through that part of the ocean where this imaginary continent was placed.
* These are the same islands which are called, by Mr.
Straehlin, Anadirsky Islands, from their supposed vicinity to
the river Anadyr, and are probably part of the Fox Islands.
It is even^nore than probable, that the Aleutian, and fome of the Fox Iflands, are the
fame which Beering fell in with upon his return ; though, from the unfteadinefs of his courfe,
their true pofition could not be exactly laid
down in the chart of that expedition* .
As the fea of Kamtchatka is now fo much frequented, thefe conjectures cannot remain long
undecided; and it is only to be wifhed, that fome
expeditions were made north-eaft, to difcover
the neareft coafts of America. For there is no
reafon to expect fuccefs by taking any other
dire£tion; as all the veffels, which have fleered
a more foutherly courfe, have failed through
an open fea, without perceiving figns of land.
A full and judicious account of all the difl
coveries hitherto made in the Eaftern ocean
may be expected from Mullerf.    Meanwhile,
* This error is however s© small, and particularly with
respect to the more eastern coasts and islands, such as Cape
Hermogenes, Toomanoi, Shumagin's Island, and mountain
of St. Dolmat, that their situation corresponds with that of
the Fox Islands in the general map of Russia, prefixed to '
this work.
•f Muller has already arranged several of the journals,
and sent them to the fooard of admiralty,at St. Petersburg,
wheaje they are at present kept, together with the .charts.
of the respective voyages.   -
the FROM I74I TO I778. Ill
the following narrative, extracted from Original
papers, and procured from the beft intelligence,
may be acceptable to the public; and induce
the Ruffians to publifh more circumftantial relations. Befides, the reader will here find a
more authentic and accurate account than has
been publifhed in the calendar of St. Peterf-
burg*; and feveral miftakes in that memoir
are corrected.
* A German copy of the treatise alluded to in the text,
was sent, by its anthor, Mr. Staehlin, Counsellor of State
to the Empress of Russia, to the late Dr. Maty; and it is
mentioned in the Philosophical Transactions for 1774,
under the following title: "A new Map and Preliminary
Description of the New Archipelago in the North, discovered a few years ago by the Russians in the N. E. beyond Kamtchatka." A translatio:" of this treatise was
published the same year by Heydinger. RUSSIAN  DISCOVERIES
CHAP. 2.
Voyages in 1745—Firfl difcovery of the Aleu-*
tian Ifles by Michael Nevodjiikof.
A Voyage made in the year 1745 by Emilian
Baffof fcarcely deferves notice, as he
only reached Beering's Ifland, and two fmaller
ones to the fouth, and returned on the 31ft of
July, 1746.
The firft remarkable voyage was undertaken
in the year 1745. The veffel was a Shitik
named Eudokia, fitted out at the expence of
Aphanaffei Tfebaeffkoi, Jacob Tfiuprof, and
others; flie failed from the Kamtchatka river
Sept. 19, under the command of Michael Ne-
vodtfikof, a native of Tobolfk. Having difcovered three unknown iflands, they wintered
upon one of them, in order to kill fea-
otters, which were numerous. Thefe were undoubtedly the neareft* Aleutian iflands: the
language of the inhabitants was not underftood
by a Kamtchatkan interpreter. For the purpofe therefore of learning this language, they
* The small group lying S. "E. of Beering's Island, are
the real Aleutian isles: they are sometimes called the
Nearest Aleutian Isles; and the Fox Islands, the Furthest
Aleutian Isles.
carried FROM   1741   TO   I778. 113
Carried back with them one of the iflanders,
and prefented him to the chancery of Bolcheretfk, with a falfe account of their proceedings.
This iflander was examined as foon as he had
acquired a flight knowledge of the Ruffian lanl
guage, and, as it is faid, gave the following
report. He was called Temnac, and the name
of the ifland of which he was a native, was Att.
At fome diftance from thence is a great ifland
called Sabaya, of which the inhabitants are denominated Kogii, who, as the Ruffians under-
ftood or thought they underftood him, made
croffes, had books and fire arms, and navigated
in baidars or leathern canoes. At no great
diftance from the ifland where the Ruffians wintered, were two well inhabited iflands: the firft
lying E. S. E. and S. E. by S., the fecond
E. and E. by S. Temnac was baptized under
the name of Paul, and fent to Okotfk.
As the mifbehaviour of the fhip's crew towards the natives was fufpected, partly from
the lofs of feveral men, and partly from the
report of thofe Ruffians, who were not concerned in the diforderly behaviour of their companions, a ftrict enquiry was inftituted; and
. the following circumftances tranfpired from
the relations of the commander and fome of
the  crew.
After fix days failing, they came in fight of
I the 114
the firft ifland on the 24th of September, at midday, paffed it, and towards evening difcovered
the fecoad ifland; where they lay at anchor until
On the 25th feveral inhabitants appearing
on the coaft, the pilot rowed towards fhore
in the fmall boat, with an intention to
land; but, obferving their numbers increafe to
about an hundred, he was afraid of venturing,
although they beckoned to him. He contented
himfelf, therefore, with flinging fome needles
amongfi them, and the iflanders, in return
threw into the boat fome fea-fowl of the cormorant kind. The captain endeavoured to
hold a convcrfation with them by means of
the interpreters, but no one underftood their
language. The crew now attempted to row
the veffel out to fea; but the wind being contrary, they were driven to the other fide of
the ifland, where they eaft anchor.
The next day Tfiuprof, having landed with
fome of the crew to look for water, met feveral
inhabitants: he gave them fome tobacco and
fmall Chinefe pipes, and received in return a
prefent of a flick, upon which the head of a
feal was carved. They endeavoured to wreft
his mufket from him, but without effect; and as
he was retiring towards the boat, they feized the
rope which fattened it to the fhore. This attack
compelled Tfiuprof to fire, and having wounded
one FROM   I741   TO   1778. llg
one perfon in the hand, they quitted their hold,
and he rowed back to the fhip. The lavages
inftantly threw off their clothes, carried the
wounded perfon into the fea, and wafhed him.
In confequence of this encounter, the fhip's
crew would not venture to winter at this place;
but rowed back to the other ifland, where they
Came to anchor.
The next morning Tfiuprof and Shaffyrin
landing with a larger party, obferved traces of
inhabitants; but meeting none, returned to the
fhip, and coafted the ifland. The following
day the Coffac Shekurdin went on fhore, accompanied by five failors, two of whom he fent
back with a fupply of water, and remained with
the others to hunt fea-otters. At night the
party came to fome dwellings inhabited by five
families; but, upon their approach the natives
abandoned their huts, and hid themfelves among
the rocks. Shekurkin having returned to the
fhip, was again fent on fhore with a larger company, to difcover a proper place for laying
up the veffel during winter. In their way they
obferved fifteen iflanders upon a height, and
threw them fome fragments of dried fifh, in order
to induce them to approach nearer; but as
this overture did not fucceed, Tfiuprof ordered
fome of the crew to feize one of them for the
purpofe of learning their language. This order
I 2 was
I n6
was executed, notwithftanding the refiftance
of the iflanders with their bone-fpears; and the
Ruffians immediately returned with their prifoner to the fhip. They were foon afterwards
driven to fea by a violent ftor'm, and beat about
from the fecond to the ninth of October, during
which time they loft their anchor and boat: at
length they came back to the fame ifland, I
where they paffed the winter.
Soon after landing, they found in an adjacent
hut the bodies of two inhabitants, who were
probably killed in the laft encounter. In their
way the Ruffians were met by an old woman who
had been taken prifoner, and fet at liberty. She
was accompanied with thirty-four iflanders of
both fexes, dancing to the found of a drum, and
brought a prefent of coloured earth. Pieces of
cloth, thimbles, and needles, were diftributed
among them in return, and they parted amicably.
Before the end of October, the fame perfons, together with the old woman and feveral children, returned dancing as before; brought birds, fifh,
and other provifion, and paffed the night with
the Ruffians. Soon after their departure,
Tfiuprof, Shaffyrin, and Nevodtfikof, accompanied with feven of the crew, followed them, and
found them among the rocks. In this interview the natives behaved in the moft friendly
manner; and exchanged  a baidar and   fome
rjtti FROM   I74I 'TO   I778. 117
fkins for two fhirts. They were obferved to
have hatchets of fharpened flone, and needles
of bone; they lived upon the flefh of fea-otters,
feals, and fea-lions, which they killed with clubs
and bone-lances.
On the 24th of October, a party of ten
perfons, fent by Tfiuprof under the command
of Larion Belayef, treating the inhabitants in
a hoflile manner, they defended themfelves
with their bone-lances. This refiftance gave
the Ruffians a pretext for firing, and they killed
fifteen men, in order to feize their women.
Shocked at thefe barbarous proceedings, She-
kurdin retired privately to the fhip, and made
a report to Tfiuprof, who countenanced in-
flead of punifhing thefe cruelties, as he was
incenfed againft the iflanders for refufing to
- give him an iron bolt, which he faw in their
poffeffion. He had even committed feveral
acts of hoflility againft them,and had formed
the horrid defign of poifoning them with a mixture of corrofive fublimate. To preferve appearances however, ' he difpatched Shekurdin
and Nevodtfikof to reproach Belayef for his
diforderh/ conduct; but fent him at the fame
time a fupply of ammunition.
The   Ruffians   continued   upon this   ifland,
where they caught many fea-otters, until the
14th  of  September,   1746; but dreading the
I 3 refent- n8
refentment of the natives, they put to fea with
an intention'of feeking for fome uninhabited
iflands. They were however overtaken by a
violent ftorm, and were driven about until the
30th of October, when their veffel ftruck upon
a rocky fhore, and was wrecked, with the lofs
of almoft all the tackle, and the greater part of
the furs. Worn out with cold and fatigue,
they ventured, the firft of November, to penetrate into the interior of the country, which
they found rocky and uneven, and were informed by fome of the natives that the ifland
was called Karaga, and that the inhabitants
were tributary to Ruffia, and of the Koriac
tribe. The iflanders behaved to them with
great kindnefs, until Belayef attempted to feduce
the wife of the chief. The woman gave intelligence to her hufband, and the natives threatened
the whole crew with immediate death;, but
means were found to pacify them.
The 30th of May, 1747, a party of Olo-
torians made a defcent upon the ifland in three
baidars, and attacked the natives; but; after
fome lofs on both fides, they went away. They
foon after re-appeared with a larger force, and
were again compelled to retire; but as they
threatened to return in a fhort time, and de-
ftroy all the inhabitants who paid tribute, the
iflanders .advifed the Ruffians to depart, and
affifted FROM   1741    TO    I778. 119
affifted them in building two baidars. They
put to fea the 27th of June, and landed on the
2 j ft of July at Kamtchatka, with the remainder
of their cargo, confiding of three hundred and
twenty fea-otters, of which they paid the tenth
into the cuftoms. Twelve men were loft
during this expedition.
CHAP. 3.
Succeffive Voyages, from 1747 to 1753, to Beering's and Copper Ifland, and to the Aleutian
Ifles—Voyage of Emilian Yugof—Of the Boris
and Glebb—Of Andrew Tolflyk to the Aleutian
Ifles, 1749—Voyage of Vorobief 1750—Of
Novikof and Baccof from Anadyrfk—Shipwreck upon Beering's If and—Voyage of Dur-
nef in the St. Nicholas, 1754—Narrative of
the Voyage—Defcription of the Aleutian Ifles
—Some Account of the Inhabitants. ~ •
IN 1747 * two veffels failed from the Kamtchatka   river, according to   a   permiffion
granted by the chancery of Bolcheretfk   for
* It may be necessary to inform the reader, that, in this
and the two following chapters, some circumstances are
occasionally omitted, which are found in the original.
These omissions relate chiefly to the names of some of the
partners engaged in the equipments, and to a detail of immaterial occurrences prior to the departure of the vessels.
hunting fea-otters. One was fitted out by Andrew
Wfevidof, and carried forty-fix men, befides
eight Coffacs : the other belonged to Feodor
Kolodilof, Andrew Tolftyk, and company; her
crew, confifted of forty-one Ruffians and Kamt-
• chadals, with fix Coffacs.
The latter veffel failed the 20th of October,
and was forced by.ftrefs of weather and other accidents, to winter at Beering's Ifland. From
thence they, departed May the 31ft, 1748, and
touched at another finall ifland to take in water
and other neceffaries. They then fleered S. E.
for a confiderable way without difcovering any
new iflands; and, being in great want of provifions, returned to the Kamtchatka river, Auguft
14, with a cargo of two hundred and fifty old
fea-otter fkins, about one hundred young ones,
and one hundred and forty-eight petfi or arctic
fox fkins, which were all killed on Beering's
We have no account of Wfevidof's voyage,
except that he reached an uninhabited ifland,
probably one of the neareft Aleutian Ifles, and
returned the 25th of July, 1749, with the fkins
of one thoufand and forty fea-otters, and two
thoufand arctic foxes.
Emilian Yugof, merchant of Yakutfk, obtained
from the fenate of St. Peterfburg permiffion to
fit out four veffels for himfelf and his affociates,
and FROM   I74I   TO   I778. 121
and procured the exclufive privilege of hunting
fea-otters upon Beering's and Copper Iflands
during thefe expeditions, for which monopoly he
agreed to deliver to the cuftoms the third part
of the furs.
October 6, 1750, he put to fea from Bolche-
reflc, in the floop John, manned with twenty-five
Ruffians and Kamtchadals, and two Coffacs; he
was foon overtaken by a ftorm, and the veffel
driven on fhore between the mouths of the
rivers Kronotfk and Tfchafrmnfk.
October, 1751, he again failed, and returned
on the 22d of July, 1754, to New Kamtchatkoi
Oftrog, with the fkins of feven hundred and
fifty-five old fea-otters, thirty-five cub fea-
otters, four hundred and feventeen cubs of
fea-bears, and feven thoufand and forty-four arctic fox fkins ; of the latter; two thoufand were
white, and one thoufand feven hundred and
fixty-five black. Thefe furs were procured
upon Beering's Ifland and Copper Ifland,
where Yugof died. Having difobeyed an injunction to take on board fome officers of the
Ruffian navy, to accompany him in the expedition, the fhip and cargo were feized by order
of the chancery of Irkutfk, but as it appeared
that certain perfons bad depofited money in
Yugof's hand, for equipping a fecond veffel, the
crown delivered up the cargo, after referving the
third part, according to the original flipulation.
This kind of charter-company being foon
diffolved through mifconduct and want of capital, other merchants were allowed the privilege
of fitting out veffels, even before the return of
Yugof's fhip; and were more fortunate in
making difcoveries.
Nikiphor Trapefnikof, a merchant of Irkutfk,
fent out a fhip, called the Boris and Glebb, upon
condition of paying, befide the ufual tribute, the
tenth of all the furs ; the Coffac Sila Sheffyrin
went on board for the purpofe of collecting it.
They failed in Auguft, 1749, from the Kamtchatka river ; and returned the 16th of Auguft,
1753, with a large cargo of furs. They vifited
an unknown ifland, probably one of the Aleutians, where feveral of the inhabitants were per-
fuaded to pay a tribute of fea-otter fkins, the
names of thefe iflanders, were Igya, Oeknu,
Ogogoektack, Shabukiauck, Alak, Tutun, Ono-
nufhan, Rotogei, Tfchinitu, Vatfch, Afhagat,
Avyjanifhaga, Unafhayupu, Lak, Yanfhugalik,
Umgalikan, Shati, Kyipago, and Olofhkot *;
another Aleutian contributed three fea-otters.
The cargo confifted of three hundred and twenty
prime fea-otter fkins, four hundred and eighty
* The author here remarks in a note, that the proper
. names of the" islanders mentioned in this place, and other
parts, bear-a surprising resemblance, both in their sound
and termination, to those of the Greenlanders.
of FROM  1741   TO 1778. 12g
of the fecond, and four hundred of the third
fort, five hundred female and middle aged, and
two hundred and twenty medwedki or young
Andrew Tolftyk/a merchant of Selenginfk,
having obtained permiffion from the chancery
of Bolcheretfk, refitted a fhip which had made
a former voyage; he failed from Kamtchatka
Auguft the 19th, 1749, and returned July the
- According to the commander's account, they
lay at anchor from the 6th of September, 1749,
to the 20th of May, 1750, off Beering's Ifland,
where they caught only forty-feven fea-otters;
proceeded from thence to the Aleutian Iflands*,
firft difcovered by Nevodtfikof, and killed one
thoufand fix hundred and fixty-two old and
middle-aged fea-otters, and one hundred and
nineteen cubs; their cargo confifted befides of
the fkins of feven hundred and twenty blue foxes,
and of eight hundred and forty young fea-bears.
The inhabitants of thefe iflands did not appear
to have ever before paid tribute; and feemed
to be a-kin to the Tfchutfki tribe, their women
being ornamented with different figures traced
in the fkin by means of needles, in the manner of
that people, and of the Tungufians of Siberia.
chap. 2.
They differed however from them, by having
two fmall holes cut through the bottom of the
under-lip, through each of which they pafs a bit
of the fea-horfe tufh, worked into the form of a
tooth, with a fmall button at one end, to keep it
within the mouth. Thefe people killed, without
provocation, two Kamtchadals belonging to the
fhip. Upon the third ifland fome inhabitants
had paid tribute : their names were reported to
be Anitin, Altakukor, and Alefhkut, with his
fon Atfchelap. The weapons of the whole ifland -
confifted of only twelve fpears and one dart of
bone, all pointed with flint, and the Ruffians obferved two figures carved in wood, refembling
Auguft 3, 1750, the veffel Simeon and John,
fitted out by Wfevidof, agent for the Ruffian
merchant R. Rybenfkoi, and manned with fourteen Ruffians (partly merchants, and partly
hunters), and thirty Kamtchadals, failed under
the command of the Coffac Vorobief. They
were driven by a violent current and tempeftu-
ous weather to a fmall defert ifland, the pofition
of which s not determined, but it was probably
one of thofe near Beering's Ifland. The fhip
being fo fhattered by the ftorm, that it was no
longer in a condition to keep the fea, Vorobief
built a fmall veffel with drift-wood which he
called Jeremiah, and. arrived at Kamtchatka in
autumn, 1752.
Upon F,ROM 1741 TO 1778.
Upon the fmall ifland were caught feven
hundred old and one hundred and twenty cub
fea-otters, one thoufand nine hundred blue foxes,
five thoufand feven hundred black fea-bears, and
one thoufand three hundred and ten Kotiki, or
cub fea-bears.
A voyage made about this time from Ana-
dyrfk deferves particular mention.-
Aug. 24, 1749, Simeon Novikof of Yakutfk
and Ivan Baccof of Uftvug, agents for Ivan
Shilkin, having determined to proceed from
Anadyrfk to Kamtchatka by fea, built a veffel
one hundred verfts above Anadyrfk, which
employed two years in conftructing.
In 1748, they failed down the river Anadyr,
and through the bays of Kopeikina and One-
menfkaya, where they paffed many fand-banks,
entered the exterior gulph, which they reached
in nine days, and waited for a favourable wind,
here they faw feveral Tfchutfki, who appeared
upon the heights fihgly and not in bodies, as if
to reconnoitre, which made them cautious. In
paffing the large opening of the exterior bay,
they fleered between the beach, on the left, and
a contiguous rock; where, at the diftance of a
hundred and twenty yards the depth of water is
from three to four fathoms; failed E. S. E.
about fifty verfts, in four fathoms water; doubled
a fandy 126
a fandy point,   which ftretches   towards   the
Tfchutfki coaft, and reached the open fea.
From the 10th of July to the 30th, they were
driven by tempeftuous winds, not far from the
mouth of the Anadyr, and ran up the fmall
river Katirka, upon whofe banks dwell the
.Koriacs, a people tributary to Ruffia. The
mouth of the Katirka is from fixty to eighty
yards broad, from three to four fathoms deep,
and abounds in fifh. They again put to fea;
and at length reached Beering's Ifland, where
they lay at anchor from the 15th of September
to the 30th of October, when a violent ftorm
dafhed the veffel to pieces upon the rocks. The
crew efcaping, fearchedfor the remains of Beering's wreck, to employ the materials in conftructing a boat, but found nothing but rotten
planks, a few cables, and iron-work corroded
with ruft. Having felected the befl cables, and
what iron-work.was immediately neceffary,and
gathered drift-wood during the winter, they
built a fmall boat, whofe keel was only feventeen
Ruffian ells and an half long, and named it Ca-
ipiton. In this they put to fea, and failed in
fearch of an unknown ifland, which they thought
they faw lying North-eaft: but being miftaken,
tacked, and flood for Copper Ifland, from
whence they failed to Kamtchatka,
The FROM  1741 TO I778.
The veffel being granted in property to Ivan
Shilkin, as fome compenfation for his loffes*
with the privilege of employing it in a future
expedition to the new-difcovered iflands, he
failed the 7th of October, 1757,. with a crew of
twenty Ruffians, and the fame number of Kamtchadals; accompanied by Studentzof, a Coffac,
who was fent to collect the tribute for the
crown. An account of this expedition will be
given hereafter*.
Auguft, 1754, Nikiphor Trapefnikof fitted
out the St. Nicholas, and failed from Kamtchatka
under the command of theCaffac Kodion Dur-
nef. After touching at two of the Aleutian Ifles,
and vifiting a third, which had not before been
difcovered, he returned to Kamtchatka in 1757.
His cargo confifted of the fkins of one thoufand
two hundred and twenty fea-otters, of four hundred and ten female, and fix hundred and fixty-
five cubs; befide whfch, the crew had obtained
in barter from the iflanders the fkins of fix hundred and fifty-two fea-otters, of thirty female,
and fifty cubs.
According to an account delivered in the
die third of May, 1758, by Durnef and Sheffy-
rin, who was fent as collector of the tribute, they
reached in ten days Ataku, one of $#Aleutian
I See chap. 5
Iflands, where they remained until 1757, and
lived upon amicable terms with the natives.
The fecond ifland, which is neareft to Ataku,
and which contains the greateft number of inhabitants, is called Agataku; and the third Shemya;
they lie from forty to fifty verfts afunder. Upon
all the three iflands there are (exclufive of
children) but fixty males, whom they rendered
tributary. The inhabitants live on wild roots
and fea-animals; but do not employ themfelves
in catching fifh, although the rivers abound with
all kinds of falmon, and the fea with turbot;
their cloatbs are made of the fkins of birds and
of fea-otters. The Toigon, or chief, of the firft
ifland informed them, by means of a boy who
underftood the Ruffian tongue, of three large
and well-peopled iflands, lying eaftward, Ibiya,
Kickfa, and Olas, whofe inhabitants fpeak a
different language. Sheffyrin and Durnef found
upon the ifland three round copper-plates, containing an infcription, and ornamented with foliage, which the waves had eaft upon the fhore;
and brought them, togetherwith other trifling cu-
riofities, procured from the natives, to New
Kamtchatkoi Oftrog.
Another fhip built with, larchwood by Trape-
fnikof, which failed in 1752 under the condu6t of
Alexei Drufinin, a merchant of Kurfk, was oaft
away at Beering's Ifland.  The crew having con-
ftruaed FROM I74I  TO I778.
ftructed a veffel out of the wreck, which they
named Abraham, bore away for the more diftant
iflands; but being forced by contrary winds, and
meeting with the St. Nicholas upon the point of
failing for the Aleutian Ifles, embarked on board
that fhip, after leaving the new-conftructed veffel under the care of four failors. The crew
took upon Beering's Ifland five fea-otters, one
thoufand two hundred and twenty-two arctic
foxes, and two thoufand five hundred fea-bears;
their fhare of the furs, during the expedition in
the St. Nicholas, amounted to five hundred
fea-otter fkins, procured by barter. ' If
Voyages from 1753 to 1756.
Kolodilofs Ship fails from Kamtchatka, 1753—
Departure of Serebranikoff's Veffel—Ship- '
wrecked upon one of the diftant Iflands—Account of the inhabitants—The crew conftrubt
another Veffel and return to Kamtchatka—Departure of Kraf/ilnikoff's Veffel—Shipwrecked
upon Copper Ifland—The Crew reach Beering's Ifland in two baidars.
rTPHREE veffels were fitted out in 1753:
-*• one by Kolodilof, a fecond by Serebrani-
kof, agent for the merchant Rybenfkoy, and a
third by Ivan Kraffilnikof, a merchant of Kamtchatka.
Kolodilofs fhip failed from Kamtchatka the
19th of Auguft, with a crew of thirty-four per-
fons, and anchored the 28th off Beering's Ifland,
where they propofed to winter, in order to lay
in a flock of provifions; but in attempting to
land, the boat overfet, and nine of the crew
were drowned.
June 30, 1754* they flood out to fea: the
weather however proving ftormy and foggy, and
the FROM I74I  TO I7784
iheibipfp*in#D^#4eak, they were in danger
of peri filing; but unexpectedly . reached- one of
.the Aleutian Iflands, where they lay from the
15th of September until the 9th of July, 1755.
,In-the autumn of 1754 they were joined by a
Kamtchadal, and a Koriac, who, with four
others, had deferted from Trapefriikof's crew 1
and remained upon the ifland in order to catch
fea-otters for theirown advantage. Four of thefe
deferters were killed by the iflanders forfeducing
their wives; but thefe • two not being guilty of
the fame diforderly conduct, the inhabitants
lived with them upon the befl terms. The
crew killed upon this ifland above one thoufand
fii hundred fea-otters, and returned to Kamtchatka in autumn 1755.
Serebranikof's veffel failed in July 1753,
■manned alfo with thirty-four Ruffians and Kamtchadals : they difcovered feveral new iflands,
which were probably fome of the more diftant
ones; but were lefs fortunate in hunting fea-
otters than Kolodilof's crew. They fleered'
S. E. and on the 17th of Auguft anchored under
an unknown ifland, whofe inhabitants fpoke a
a language they did not underftattd. Here they
propofed looking out for a fafe harbour; but
were prevented by a fudden ftorm, which drove
them from their anchor. The fhip being toft
about for feveral days towards the eaft, they
difcovered not far from the firft ifland, four
others; flill more to the eaft three other iflands
appeared in fight; but they were unable to land.
The veffel continued driving until the 2d of
September, and was confiderably fhattered,
when they fortunately came near an ifland and
eaft anchor; they were however forced from
this, ftation, the veffel wrecked upon the coaft,
and the crew with difficulty reached the fhore.
This ifland feemed to be oppofite to Katyfkoi
Nofs in the peninfula of Kamtchatka, and near
it they faw three others. Towards the 'end of
September, Dmitri Trophin, accompanied with
nine men, went in the boat on an hunting
and reconnoitring party ; they were attacked
by a large body of inhabitants, who threw darts
from a fmall wooden engine, and wounded one
of the company. The firft fire however drove
them back ; and although they returned feveral
times to the attack in numerous bodies, yet they
were eafily repulfed.
Thefe favages mark and colour their faces
like other iflanders, and alfo thruft pieces of
bone through holes in their under-lips.
Soon afterwards the Ruffians were joined in a
friendly manner by ten iflanders, who brought
the flefh of fea-animals and fea-otters : a prefent
the more welcome, as they had lived for fome time
upon fmall fhell-fifh and roots, and had fuffered
greatly FROM  I741   TO   I778. 133
greatly from hunger. Several toys were distributed in return. The Ruffians remained
until June, 1754, upon this ifland; when they
departed in a fmall veffel, conftructed with the
remains of the wreck, and called the St. Peter
and Paul, in which they landed at Katyrfkoi
Nofs, where having collected one hundred and
forty fea-horfe teeth, they reached the mouth of
the Kamtchatka river.
During this voyage twelve Kamtchadals defeated. ; of whom fix were flain, together with a
female inhabitant, upon one of the moft diftant
iflands. The remainder, upon their return to
■Kamtchatka, were examined ; and gave' the following account. The ifland, where the fhip was
wrecked, is about feventy verfts long, and
twenty broad ; around it lie twelve other iflands
. of different fizes, from five to ten verfts diftant
from each other, and eight of them appear to
be no more than five verfts long: all thefe
iflands contain about one thoufand fouls. The
dwellings of the inhabitants are provided with
no other furniture than benches, and mats
of platted grafs. Their drefs confifts of a
fhirt of bird-fkins, and an upper garment
made of inteftines Hitched together; they
wear wooden caps, ornamented with a fmall
piece of board projecting forwards, apparently,
as it feemed, for a defence againft arrows.
They are all provided with ftone-knives, and
a few of them ipoffefs iron ones : their only
weapons are arrows with points of bone or
fHafiivabi^ 'they fhoot from a wooden inftru-
ment. There are no trees upon the ifland:
it produces however the cow-parfnip*, which
grows at Kamtchatka. The climate is by no
means fevere, for the fnow does not lie upon
the ground above a month in the year.
Kraffilnikof's veffel failed in 1754, and anchored on the 18th of October off Beering's
Ifland; where all the fhips which make to the
new-difcovered iflands are accuftomed to winter, in order to procure a flock of provifions
from the fea-cows and other amphibious animals. Here they refitted the veffel which had
been damaged by driving upon her anchor; and
having laid in a fufficient ftore of all neceffaries,
weighed the ift of Auguft, 1754. The 10th
they were in fight of an ifland, but the coaft was
lined with fo many inhabitants, that they durft
not venture a-fhore, and flood out to fea.
Being overtaken by a ftorm, they were reduced
to great diftrefs for want of water; at length
they were driven upon Copper Ifland, where
they landed; and, having taken in wood and
* Heracleurn,
water, FROM   1741   TO   I778.
water, they again fet fail. They were beat back
however by contrary winds, and dropped both
their anchors near the fhore; but the ftorm in-
creafing at night, both cables were broken, and
the fhip dafhed to pieces. All the crew were
fortunately faved; and means were found to get
a-fhore the fhip's tackle, ammunition, guns, and
the remains of the wreck; but the provifions
were moftly fpoiled. Here they were expofed
to a variety of misfortunes; three were drowned
on the 15th of October, as they were going to
hunt, and the others almoft perifhedwith hunger,
having no nourifhment but fmall fhell-fifh and
roots. On the 29th of December great part of
the fhip's tackle, and all the wood collected from
the wreck, was wafhed away during an high fea.
Notwithftanding their diftreffes, they continued
their hunting parties, and caught one hundred
and three fea-otters, together with one thoufand
three hundred and ninety blue foxes.
In fpring they put to fea in two baidars, carrying with them all the ammunition, fire-arms,
and remaining tackle, and reached Beering's
Ifland, where they found the fmall veffel Abraham, with the four failors left a-fhore by the crew
of Trapefnikof's fhip*. But as that veffel was
not large enough to contain the whole number,
' See the preceding chapter.
together with their cargo of furs, they ftaid until
Serebranikof's and .Tolftyk's veffels arrived,
which took in eleven of the crew, with their part
of the furs. Twelve remained at Beering's
Ifland, where they killed great numbers of arctic
• foxes, and all returned to Kamtchatka in the
Abraham, excepting two, who joined Shilkin's
CHAP. 5.
Voyages from 1756 to 1758—Voyage of Andrean
Tolftyk in 1756 to the Aleutian Ifles—Voyage
of Ivan Shilkin in the Capiton, ij 57—Shipwrecked upon one of the Fox Iflands—The
Crew confruB a fmall Veffel, and are again
SEPTEMBER 17, 1756, the veffel Andrean
and Natalia, fitted out by Andrean Tolftyk>
merchant of Selenginfk, and manned with thirty
eight Ruffians and Kamtchadals, failed from the
mouth of the Kamtchatka rive r to Beering's
Ifland, where they continued until the 14th of
June. As no fea-otters came on fhore that
winter, they killed nothing but feals, fea-lions,
and fea-cows, whofe flefh ferved them for pro-
vifion, and their fkins for covering "baidars.
June 13, 1757, they weighed anchor, and in
eleven days reached Ataku, one of the Aleutian
ifles FROM I74I TO I770. 137
ifles difcovered by Nevodtfikof. Here they
found the inhabitants, as well of that as of the
other two iflands affembled, having juft taken
leave of TrapefnikoPs crew, who had failed for
Kamtchatka. The Ruffians feized this opportunity of perfuading them to pay tribute, which
they effected by means of the Toigon, whofe
name was Tunulgafen. He recollected one of
the crew, a Koriac, who was formerly left upon
thefe iflands, and acquainted with the language.
A copper kettle, a fur and cloth coat, a pair of
breeches, ftockings, and boots, were beftowed
upon this chief, and on his departure for his
own ifland, he left three women and a boy, to
acquire the Ruffian language.
The Ruffians wintered upon this ifland, and
divided themfelves, as ufual, into different hunting parties : they were compelled by flormy
weather to remain there until the 17th of June,
1758, and before their departure, Tunulgafen
returned with his family, and paid a year's
This veffel brought to Kamtchatka the moft
circumftantial account of the Aleutian ifles yet
The two largeft contained at that time about
fifty  males, with whom  the Ruffians lived in
great harmony.    They heard of a fourth ifland
at fome diftance, called by the natives Iviya,
which they did not vifit on account of tempeftu-
ous weather.
The firft ifland is about one hundred verfts
long, and from five to twenty broad. They
eftimated the diftance from the firft to the fecond,
. which lies Eaft-by-South, to be about thirty
verfts, and about forty from the fecond to the
third, which flands South-Eaft. The original
drefs of the iflanders was made with the fkins of
birds, fea-otters, and feals, which were tanned ;
but the greater part had procured from the Ruffians dog-fkin coats, and under garments of
fheep-fkin, of which they were very fond. They
are reprefented as naturally talkative, quick of
apprehenfion, and much attached to the Ruffians. Their dwellings are hollowed in the
ground, and covered with wooden roofs refembling the huts of Kamtchatka. Their principal food is the flefh of fea-animals, which they
harpoon with bone lances ; they alfo feed upon
feveral fpecies of roots and berries, namely *,
cloud-berries, crake-berries, bilberries, and fer-
vices. The rivulets abound with falmon, and
other fifh of the trout kind, fimilar to thofe of
Kamtchatka, and the fea with turbot which are
caught with bone hooks.
Thefe iflands produce fmall ofiers and un-
* Rubus Chamcemorus— Empetrum—Myrtillus—Sorbus.
derwood, FROM  I74I TO I778. I39
derwood, but no large trees; the fea however
drives afhore fir and larch, fufficient for the con-
ftruction of the huts. Arctic foxes and fea-
otters frequent the firft ifland in great numbers;
and the -fhores, during ftormy weather, are
covered, with wild geefe and ducks.
The Ruffians, according to the, order of the
chancery of Bolcheretfk, endeavoured to per-
fuade the Toigon of thefe iflands to accompany
mem to Kamtchatka, but without fuccefs.
Upon their departure they diftributed among
the iflanders fome linen, and thirteen nets for
the purpofe of patching fea-otters, which were
thankfully received. This veffel brought to
Kamtchatka the fkins of five thoufand and
thirty old and young fea-otters, of ten hundred
and forty old and young arctic foxes, and of
three hundred and thirty Medwedki or cubs of
The fmall veffel Capiton, which was built
upon Beering's Ifland, and which was given
to the merchant * Ivan Shilkin, as fome com-
penfation for his loffes, put to fea September 26, 1757, carrying on board the Coffac
Ignatius Studentfof^ who has given an account
of the voyage.
Soon after their departure they were driven
back to the fhore of Kamtchatka by ftrefs of
] See chap. 3.
weather, and the veffel ftranded, by which accident they loft the rudder and one of the crew.
This misfortune prevented them from putting to
fea again until the following year, when they
failed with thirty-nine of the original crew,
feveral being left behind on account of ficknefs.
At Beering's Ifland they took up two of Kra-
filnikoPs crew *, who had been fhipwrecked.
They again fet fail in Auguft, and touched at the
neareft Aleutian Ifles, after fuffering greatly from
ftorms, they continued their courfe to the remoter
iflands lying between Eaft and South-Eaft, and
having paffed by the firft, anchored off the fecond. A boat being fent towards the fhore,
the crew were fuddenly attacked by a numerous
body of iflanders, and had fcarcely time to fave
themfelves by returning to the veffel. They
had no fooner got aboard, than a violent gale of
wind broke the cable, drove them to fea, and
wrecked the veffel upon a fmall ifland at no
great diftance. The crew reached the fhore
with difficulty, and faved nothing but the firearms and ammunition.
They had fcarcely landed before they were
befet by a number of favages, rowing in baidars
from the weftern point of the ifland. Though
feveral of the Ruffians were difabled by cold and
* See chap. 4- FROM   I74I   TO   177°
wet, and-only fifteen remained Capable of de>-
fending themfelves, they advanced without hefi-
tation to the iflanders ; and Nicholas Tfiuprof,
who had a,flight knowledge of their language, in
vain endeavoured to footh them; but thefavages
gave a fudden fhout, and faluted them with a
volley of darts. The Ruffians then fired, killed,
two of the affailants, and forced the remainder
to retire $ and although a frefh body appeared in
fight, no new attack was made. The favages
foon afterwards left the ifland, and rowed acrofs
the ftrait.
From the 6th of September to the 23d of
April, the crew underwent all the extremities of
famine; their belt fare was fhell-fifli and roots,
and they were even at times reduced to flill the
cravings of appetite with the leather which the
waves wafhed from the wreck. Seventeen died
of hunger ; and the reft would foon have fhared
the fate of their companions, had they not fortunately difcovered a dead whale, which the fea
had eaft afhore. They remained upon this
ifland another winter, where they killed two
hundred and thirty fea-otters; and, having built
a fmall veffel out of the remains of the wreck,
put to Tea in the beginning of fummer 1760.
Having reached one of the Aleutian iflands,
where Serebranikof's veffel lay at anchor, they
were again fhipwrecked, and loft all the remain- 142
ing tackle and furs. Only thirteen of the crew
now remained, who returned on board the above-
mentioned veffel to Kamtchatka,' July 1761.
CHAP. 6.
Voyages in 1758, 1759, and 1760—to the Fox
Iflands—in the St. Vlodimir, fitted out by
Trapefnikof, and commanded by Paikof, 1758.
—and in the Gabriel, by Betflievin—Account
of the inhabitants of Alakfu or Alachjkak—
Voyage of the Peter and Paul to the Aleutian
Iflands, 1759.
SEPTEMBER 1758, the merchant Simeon
Krafilnikof and Nikiphor Trapefnikof fitted
out two veffels for the purpofe of catching fea-
otters. One of thefe, called the St. Vlodimir,
failed the 28th under the command of Dmetri
Paikof, carrying the Coffac Sila Shaffyrin as
collector of the tribute, and a crew of forty-five
men. In twenty-four hours they reached
Beering's Ifland, where they wintered.
July 16, 1759, they fleered South in fearch of
land; but, being difappointed, bore away to
the North for the Aleutian Ifles; and baffled
by contrary winds, failed towards the diftant
iflands, known at prefent under the name of
Lyffie i74t
- Lyffie Oftrova, or the Fox Iflands. Sep. r,
they reached the firft, called by the natives
Atchu, and by the Ruffians Goreloi, or the
Burnt Ifland; but, as the coaft was fteep and
craggy, they made to Amlak, lying at a fmall
, diftance, where they determined to pafs the
winter. They divided themfelves into three
parties: the firft, at the head of which was
Alexey Drufinin, went to a fmall ifland called
in the journal Sitkin; the Coffac Shaffyrin led
the fecond, confifting of ten perfons, to Atak;
and Simeon Polevoi remained aboard with the
reft of the crew. All thefe iflands were well
peopled; the men wore bones thruft through
their ears, under the lips, and the griftle of
the nofe; and the faces of the women were
marked with blackifh ftreaks made with a needle
and thread in the fkin, in the fame manner as a
Coffac, one of the crew, had obferved before
upon fome of the Tfchutfki. The inhabitants
had no iron ; the points of their darts and lances
were tipped with bone and flint.
The Ruffians firft imagined that Amlak
was uninhabited; but in one of their hunting
parties they found a boy of eight years old, whom
they brought with them ; they gave him the name
of Hermolai, and taught him the Ruffian language, that he might ferve as an interpreter.
After penetrating  further, they  difcovered a
hut, "^
hut, wherein were two women, four men, and
as many boys, whom they treated kindly, and
employed in hunting, fifhing, and digging roots.
This kind behaviour encouraged others to pay
frequent vifits, and exchange fifh and flefh for
goats hair, horfes' manes, and glafs beads. They
procured alfo four other iflanders with their
wives, who dug roots for them; and thus the
winter paffed without any disturbance.
In fpring the hunting parties returned; during
thefe excurfions only one man was killed upon
the ifland Atak, and his fire-arms taken away
by the natives. June 1760, the fame parties
were fent to the fame iflands. Shaffyrin, who
headed one of the parties, was foon afterwards
killed, together with eleven men, by the inhabitants of Atak, but for what reafon is not known.,
Drufinin received the firft information of this
maffacre from fome inhabitants of Sitkin, where
he then was, and immediately fet out with the
remaining hunters to join their companions on
board. Although he fucceeded in regaining the
veffel, their number was fo confiderably reduced that their fituation appeared very dangerous ; he was foon however relieved from
his apprehenfions by the arrival of the merchant
Betfhevin's veffel at the   ifland   of   Atchu*.
* Atak and Atchu are two names for the same island;
called also by the Russians Goreloi, or Burnt Island.
The PROM 1741 TO 1778. 145
The two crews entered into partnerfhip: the
St. Vlodimir received twenty-two men, and
transferred eleven to the other veffel; the
- former wintered at Amlak, and the latter continued at anchor before Atchu.
This veffel, fitted out at the expence of Bet-
fhevin, a merchant of Irkutfk, was called Gabriel, and put to fea from the mouth of the Bol-
fliaia Reka July 31ft, 1760. She was manned
with forty Ruffians and twenty Kamtchadals, >
and had on board Gabriel Pufhkaref of the
garrifon of Ochotfk, Andrew Shdanof, Jacob
Sharypof, Prokopei Lobafhkof, with Nikiphor
Golodof, and Aphanaffei Ofkolof, Betfhevin's ,
agents. '
Having paffed the fecond ftrait of the Kuril
Ifles, they reached the Aleutian Ifles on the 24th
of Auguft, and failed among thofe more remote
iflands which lie in one continued chain to the
extent of 15 degrees of longitude.
. September 25 they reached Atchu, or Burnt
Ifland, and found the St. Vlodimir lying twenty
verfts from that ifland, before Amlak, in danger of
being attacked by the iflanders. They immediately ,
joined crews, in order to enable the enfeebled
company of the St. Vlodimir to continue hunting ; and, as it is ufual in fuch cafes, entered into
a contract for the divifion of the profit. During
the winter the two crews killed, partly upon
Siguyam, about eight hundred fea-otters of different fizes, about one hundred medwedki or
cubs, fome river otters, above four hundred red,
greyifh, and black foxes, and collected twelve
pood of fea-horfe teeth.
In June 1761, the crews were diftributed
equally on board the two veffels: Kraffilnikof's
remained at Amak, with an intention of returning to Kamtchatka, and Betfhevin's put to
fea from Atchu, in queft of other iflands. They
touched firft at Umnak, where they met Niki-
phorof's veffel, took in wood and water, and repaired their fails; they fleered for the moft remote ifland Alakfu, or Alakfhak, where, having
laid up the fhip in a bay, they built huts, and
made preparations for wintering. This ifland
was well inhabited, and the natives behaved at
firft in a very friendly manner, for they trafficked
with the Ruffians, and even delivered nine of
their children as hoftages; but the lawlefs and
irregular behaviour of the crew foon irritated
and provoked the iflanders to hoftilities.
In January 1762, Golodof and Pufhkaref
went with a party of twenty men along the fhore;
and, in attempting to violate fome girls on
the ifland Unyumga, were furprifed by a numerous body of natives: Golodof and another
Ruffian were killed and three wounded. Not
long afterwards, the watch of the crew was fud-
denly FROM I741 TO I778. 147
dcnly attacked by the iflanders; four were flain,
as many wounded, and the huts reduced
to afhes.
May 3, Lobafchkof and another Ruffian "were
killed*, as they were going to bathe in the warm
fprings, which lie about five verfts from the
haven; on which feven of the hoftages were
put to death. The fame month the natives attempted to furprife the Ruffians, but being difcovered, were repulfed by means of the fire arms.
At length the Ruffians, finding themfelves in
continual danger, weighed anchor, and failed for
Umnak, where they took on board two inhabitants with their wives and children in order to
Ihew them other iflands; but were prevented
by tempeftuous weather from reaching them, and
were driven weftward, with fuch violence, that
• all their fails were carried away. At length,
on the 23d of September, they ran a-ground in
the diftrict of Stobolfkoi Oftrog. Six men were
immediately difpatched in the fmall boat and two
baidars to land, and were accompanied with feveral girls who had been brought from the new-
difcovered iflands in order to gather berries.
Meanwhile the crew endeavoured to ply to windward, and the party in the boat were fcarcely able,
on account of a ftorm, to reach the fhip, and catch
hold of a rope, which was flung out to them.
Two men remained with the baidars; and were
afterwards carried by fome Kamtchadals to New
Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. The fhip, without one
fail remaining was driven along the coaft of
Kamtchatka towards Avatcha, and about feventy
verfts from that harbour ran into the bay of
Kalatzoff on the 25th of September. The cargo
.^confifted of the fkins of nine hundred old and
young fea-otters, and of three hundred and fifty
Pufhkaref and his crew during this voyage
treated the iflanders with great inhumanity ; they
were brought to trial in 1764; and the preceding
account is drawn from the concurring evidence
of feveral witneffes. It appears alfo, that they
brought away from Atchu and Amleg two
Aleutian men and three boys, Ivan an Aleutian
interpreter, and about twenty women and girls
whom they feduced. Ivan, and one of the boys
whom they called Mofes, were the only perfons
who arrived at Kamtchatka. On their firft
approach to that coaft, fourteen women were fent
afhore to dig roots and gather berries; of thefe
two ran away, and a third being killed, as they
were returning to the fhip, by Gorelin, the reft
in a fit of defpair leaped into the fea and were
drowned. All the remaining Aleutians, excepting Ivan and Mofes, were immediately thrown
overboard by Pufhkaref's order. The account
which FROM   1741   T
0   17
which follows, although it is found in the depofi-
tions, does not deferve to be entirely credited.
The natives are very tall and ftrong. They
make their clothes of the fkins of birds; and
wear bones in their under lips by way of ornament. They were faid to ftrike their nofes until
they bled, in order to fuck the blood; but we
are informed from fubfequent accounts, that
the blood was intended for other purpofes*.
They were accufed even of murdering their
own children, in order to drink their blood;
but this is undoubtedly an invention of the
criminals, who reprefented the iflanders in the
moft hideous colours, as an excufe for their own
cruelties. Their fubterraneous dwellings are
fimilar to thofe of the Kamtchadals; and have
feveral openings on the fides, through which they
make their efcape when the principal entrance is
befet by an enemy. Their weapons confift of
arrows and lances pointed with bone, which they
dart to a confiderable diftance.
The ifland Alakfu is faid to contain rein-deer,
beats, wild boars, wolves, otters, and a fpecies of
the islanders s
r of this
s the real motive for the
dogs with long ears, which are very fierce and
wild. The greater part of thefe animals not being found upon thofe Fox Iflands which lie
nearer to the weft, this circumftance feems to
prove that Alakfu * is fituated at no great diftance from the continent pf America. Red and
black foxes are fo numerous that they are feen in
herds of ten or twenty. Wood is driven upon,
the coaft in great abundance. The ifland produces no large trees, but under-wood, and a great
variety of bulbs, roots, and berries. The coafts
are frequented by large flocks of fea-birds, the
fame which are obferved upon the fhore of the
fea of Penfhinfk.
Auguft 4, 1759, the Peter and Paul, fitted out
at the expence of the merchant Rybenfkoi, by his
agent Andrew Serebranikof, and manned with
thirty-three perfbns, fet fail from the mouth of
the Kamtchatka river. They fleered fouthwards
unfil the 20th of September, without feeing land,
when they flood for the Aleutian Ifles, one of
which they reached on the 2 7th. They remained
there until the 24thof June, 1761; duringwhic£
time they killed one thoufand nine hundred fea-
otters, and obtained four hundred and fifty by
* Alaksa or Alaxa is laid down hy Cook in his chart as
a promontory of the American continent;-but subsequent
navigators in conformity with these daily accounts still
suppose it to be an island,—Sauer, p. 174.
barter FROM I74I TO I778.
barter with the iflanders. The Coffac Minya-
ehin,whowas on board as collector of the tribute,
in his account calls the firft ifland by the Ruffian name of Krugloi, or Round Ifland, which
he fuppofes to be about fixty verfts in circumference: the largeft ifland lies thirty verfts
from thence, and is about an hundred and
fifty round; the fmalleft is about thirty verfts
from the latter, and is forty in circumference.
Thefe three iflands contain feveral high rocky
mountains. The number of inhabitants was
eomputed to be about forty-two men, befides
women and children.
CHAP. 7.
Voyage of Andrean Tolftyk in the St. Andrean
and Natalia, 1760.—Difcovery of fome new
Iflands called Andreanoffkie Oftrova.—De-
fcription of fix of thofe Iflands.—Account of
the Inhabitants^—The Veffel wrecked upon the
Coaft of Kamtchatka.
THE moft remarkable voyage hitherto made
is that of the St. Andrean and Natalia, of
which a narrative is extracted from the journals
of the two Coffacs, Peter Wafyutinfkoi and
Maxim Lafarof. This veffel, fitted out by
Andrean Tolftyk, left the mouth of the Kamt- ,
chatka river September 27, 1760, flood out to
L4 fea
fea eaftward; and on the 29th reached Beering's
Ifland. There fhe lay at anchor in a bay, from
whence the crew landed all the tackle and lading.
Soon afterwards they were driven afhore by a
violent autumnal ftorm, withouti any other damage than the lofs of an anchor. Here they
• paffed the winter; and after refitting, put to
fea June 24, 1761; paffed Copper Ifland, and
fleered S. E. towards the Aleutian ifles, which
they did not reach till the 6th of Auguft.
They eaft anchor in an open bay near Attak,
in order to procure an interpreter from the
Toigon Tunulgafen; but he being dead, they
fent prefents to the Toigon Bakutun. As
three fhips were already lying at anchor before
this ifland, on the 19th they again flood out to
fea in queft of the more diftant iflands, for the
purpofe of exacting a tribute, carrying on board
a relation of the Toigon Bakutun, who had a
flight knowledge of the Ruffian language. They
fleered N. E. and N. E. by E. and were driven,
on the 28th, by a gale of wind towards an ifland,
where they immediately call anchor. The following morning the two Coffacs, with a party
of eight perfons, went afhore, but faw no inhabitants. Auguft 30, the veffel was brought
into a fafe bay, and the next day fome of the
crew were fent- afhore to procure wood for
refitting, but no large trees were found upon
the FROM 1741 TO 1
the whole ifland. Lafarof, one of the party,
who had been there before in Serebranikof's
veffel, called the ifland Ayagh -or Kayaku, and
smother, which lay about the diftance of twenty
verfts, Kanaga. In returning to the fhip, they
faw two iflanders rowing in baidars towards
Kanaga, one of whom had ferved as an interpreter, and was known'to Lafarof; he pre-
fented them with fome frefh provifion, which
they gratefully accepted, and continued their
courfe acrofs the ftrait to Kanaga. Soon afterwards Lafarof and eight men rowed over to
that ifland, and invited the Toigon, who was a
relation of the interpreter, to pay them, a vifit
at Kayaku.
Near the place where the veffel lay at anchor,
a rivulet falls into the bay; it flows from a
lake two or three verfts in circumference,
and formed from a number of fmall fprings.
The courfe of the rivulet is eight verfts, and
in fummer feveral fpecies of falmon and other
fifh, fimilar to thofe found at Kamtchatka,
afcend the ftream as far as the lake.
Lafarof was employed in fifhing in this rivulet, when the Toigon of Kanaga, accompanied
with a confiderable number of the natives in
fifteen baidars, arrived at the fhip:. they were
hofpitably entertained, and received feveral
prefents. The Ruffians embraced this opportunity linni
tunity of perfuading the iflanders to acknowledge
themfelves fubject to the Emprefs, and to pay
a regular tribute.
As foon as the veffel was laid up in a fecure
place, Tolftyk, Vaffyutin, and Lafarof, with feveral others, went in four baidars to Kanaga.
Tolftyk remained upon that ifland; but Vaffyutin and Lafarof rowed in two baidars to
Tfetchina, which is feparated from Kanaga by
a ftrait about feven verfts in breadth; the
iflanders received them amicably, and promifed
to pay tribute. The feveral parties returned
all fafe to Kayaku, but without having procured any furs. Soon afterwards Tolftyk dif-
patched fome hunters in four baidars to Ta-
galak, Atchu, and Amlak, which lay to the eaft
of Kayaku; as none of thefe parties met with
any oppofition from the natives, they remained
in great tranquillity upon thefe feveral iflands
until 1764. Their fuccefs in hunting was not
great, for they caught no more than one
thoufand eight hundred and eighty full grown
fea-otters, feven hundred and feventy-eight
middle-aged, and three hundred and feventy-
two cubs.
Lafarof thus defcribes the fix iflands*, which
'* These vare the six islands described by Mr. Stsehlin-
in his description of the New Archipelago.
lie FROM  I741   TO I778.
lie in a chain fomewhat to the north-weft of
the Fox Iflands, and muft not be confounded
with them.- The firft certain account was
brought by this veffel, the St. Andrean and Natalia, from whence they are called the Andrean-
»flSrie Oftrova, or the Iflands of St. Andrean.
Ayagh is a hundred and fifty verfts in circumference, contains feveral high and rocky
mountains, the intervals of which are bare heath
and moor ground. Not. one foreft tree is to be
found upon the whole ifland. The vegetables
feem for the moft part like thofe of Kamtchatka,
alfo crow* or crakeberries and the larger fort of
bilberries, but in fmall quantities, and an abundance of the roots of burnet and all kinds of
fnake weed, fufficient in cafe of neceffity, to
furnifh a plentiful provifion for the inhabitants.
The rivulet already defcribed is the only one in
the ifland. The number of inhabitants cannot
be afcertained, becaufe the natives pafs continually from ifland to ifland in their baidars.
Kanaga lies weft from Ayagh, is two hundred
verfts in circumference, and contains a high volcano, where the natives find fulphur in fummer; at the foot of this mountain are hot
fprings, in which they occafionally boil their pro-
* Empefasun,   Vaccin.   Uliginosum,   Sanguisorba,   &
vifion. 1*6
vifion. On this ifland there is no rivulet, and
the low grounds are fimilar to thofe of Ayagh.
The inhabitants amount to two hundred.
Tfetchina lies eaftward forty verfts from Kanaga, and is eighty in circumference. It is full
of rocky mountains, of which the moft lofty is
. the Bielaia Sopka, or White Peak. In the
valley there are alfo fome warm fprings, but no
rivulet abounding in fifh; the ifland contains
only four families.
Tagalak is forty verfts in circumference, ten
eaft from Tfetchina; it contains a few rocks,
but neither rivulets with fifh, nor any vegetable
production fit for fuftenance. The coafts are
rocky, and dangerous; this ifland is alfo inhabited by no more than four families.
Atchu lies in the fame pofition forty verfts
diftant from Tagalak, is three hundred in
circumference, and provided with a harbour,
where fhips may ride fecurely at anchor. It
contains many rocky mountains, and feveral
fmall rivulets that fall into the fea, one of which
running eaftwards abounds in fifh. The roots
juft mentioned, and bulbs of white lilies are
found in plenty. The inhabitants amount to
about fixty.
Amlak is a mountainous ifland more than
feven verfts eaftward from Atchu, and is alfo
three hundred in circumference.    It contains
the FROM   I74I   TO   1778.
the fame number of inhabitants as Atchu, has a
commodious haven, and produces roots in abundance. Of feveral fmall rivulets, one only,
which flows towards the north, contains any
fifh. Befides thefe, a clufter of other iflaijds
was obferved ftretching farther to the eaft.
The inhabitants of thefe fix iflands are tributary to Ruffia; they dwell in fubterraneous
cabins, in which they make no fires but in
winter when the weather is cold; they burn a
heap of dry grafs, over which they fland and
catch the heat. Their clothes are made like
fhirts, of the fkins of the *guillimot and puffin,
which they catch with fpringes. Over thefe in
rainy weather they wear an upper garment,
made of the bladders and other dried inteftines
of feals and fea-lions oiled and ftitched together.
The clothes of the women and children are
made of fea-otter fkins in the fame form as
thofe of the men. They catch cod and tufhot
with bone-hooks, and eat them raw. As they
never collect a ftore of provifion, they fuffer
greatly from hunger in ftormy wreather, when
they cannot venture out to fifh, at which time
they are reduced to live upon fmall fhell-fifb
and fea-wrack, which they gather' upon the
beach.    In May and June when the weather
* Colymbus Troile, Alca Arctjca,
is calm they row out in their baidars, and harpoon fea-otters and fea-dogs.
Whenever they pafs the night at a diftance
from home, they dig a hole in the earth, and lay
themfelves down, covered only with their
clothes and mats of platted grafs. Regardlefs
of every thing but the prefent moment, deftitute
of religion, and without the leaft appearance of
decency, they feem but few degrees removed
from brutes.
As foon as the hunting parties were returned,
and the veffel prepared for departure, the Toi-'
gons of thefe iflands (excepting Kanaga) came
in baidars to Tolftyk, accompanied with a confiderable number of natives; their names were
Tfarkulini, Tfhunila, Kayugotfk and Mayatok.
They brought a voluntary tribute, with prefents
of dried falmon, and unanimoufly expreffed fa-
tisfaction at the good conduct of the Ruffians.
Tolftyk gaye them in return toys and other trifles, and defired them to recommend to the inhabitants of the other iflands the like friendly
behaviour towards the Ruffian merchants who
Ihould vifit them.
June 14, 1764, they failed for Kamtchatka,
and anchored on the 19th before Shemiya, one
of the Aleutian Iflands. The 21ft they were
forced from their anchor by tempeftuous, winds,
and driven upon a rocky coaft. This accident
obliged^ FROM 1741 TO 1778. ' 153
obliged them to fend their lading afhore, and to
draw the fhip on land in order to repair the
damage, which was effected with much difficulty.
On the 18th of Auguft they flood out to fea,
and reached Atchu, on the 20th. Having
fprung a leak, they again refitted the veffel;
and, after taking on board the crew of a fhip
lately eaft away, failed for Kamtchatka. On
the 4th of September they came in fight of that
peninfula near Tzafchminfkoi Oftrog, and on
the 18th, as they endeavoured to enter the
mouth of the Kamtchatka river, were forced by
a ftorm upon the fhore ; the veffel was deftroyed,
and great part of the cargo loft.
CHAP. 8.
Voyage of the Zacharias and Elizabeth, fitted
out by Kulkoff, and commanded by Drufinin,
\n6%—'Theyfail to Umnak and to Unalafhka,
where they winter—The Veffel defiroyed; and
all the Crew murdered by the Iflanders., except
four—Their Adventures and wonderful Efcape.
I SHALL here barely mention that a veffel
was fitted out in Auguft, 1760, at the ex-
pence of Terrenti Tfebaeffkoi; but I fhall have
occafion to be very circumftantial in my accounts ill .lilt
counts concerning feveral others, which failed
during the following years, as more copious information concerning the Fox Iflands was procured from thefe voyages, although for the
moft part unfortunate, than from all the preceding ones.
In 1762 four veffels failed for the Fox
Iflands; of which only one returned to Kamtchatka.
The firft was the Zacharias and Elizabeth,
fitted out by Kulkof, a merchant of Vologda,
and Company, under the command of Drufinin,
and manned by thirty-four Ruffians, and three
September 6, they departed from Okotfk, and
arrived October the 11th in the haven of St.
Peter and Paul, where they wintered. June
24, 1763, they again put to fea, and having
reached, in eleven days, the neareft Aleutian
Iflands, anchored before Attak. They remained here about fourteen days, and took on
board feven Ruffians who had been fhipwrecked
on this coaft. Among thefe was Korelin, who
returned to Kamtchatka, and gave this account
of the voyage.
July the 17th, they failed from Attak towards
the more diftant ifles, landed upon an ifland,
where the crew of the Andrian and Natalia was FROM   1741   TO   I778.
engaged in hunting, and, having laid in a fupply
of water, continued their voyage.
In the beginning of September they arrived
•at Umnak, one of the Fox Iflands; call anchor
about a verft from the fhore, and found Glot-
tof's,veffel, whofe voyage will be mentioned in
a fucceeding chapter*. Drufinin immediately
difpatched bis firft mate Maefnifk, and Korelin,
with thirty-four of the crew on fhore. They
paffed over to the eaftern extremity of the ifland,
which was diftant about feventy verfts from the
veffel, and returned on the 12th of September.
During this expedition, they faw feveral remains
of fox-traps fet by the Ruffians, and met with
fome natives who fhewed tribute-quittances..
The fame day letters, were brought by the
iflanders from Medvedef and Korovint, who
were juft arrived at Umnak and Unalafhfka in
two veffels fitted out by the merchants Protaffof
and Trapefnikof, and anfwers were returned by
the fame meffengers.-
On the 22d, Drufinin failed to the northern
point of Unalafhka, which lies about fifteen
verfts from Umnak; the crew having laid up
the veffel in a fafe harbour, and brought the
lading afhore, made preparation to conftruct an
I Chap. 10.
t See the following chapter.
hut. Soon after their arrival, two Toigons of
the neareft village voluntarily brought hoftages,
and their example was immediately followed by
feveral of the more diftant villages. Having received information of an hunting party fent from
Trapefnikof's fhip, Maefnifk difpatched three
companies on the fame errand, one confifting
of eleven men, among whom was Korelin, under
the command of Peter Tfekalef; a fecond of
the fame number, under Michael Kudyakof;
and a third of nine men, under Yephim Kaflrit-
fyn. Tfekalef's was the only one of which we
have received any circumftantial account; for
not a fingle perfon of the other two, or of the
crew remaining on board, ever returned to
Kafkitfyn remained near the haven, and two
other companies were difpatched to the northern
point of the ifland. Kudyakof flopped at a
place called Kalaktak, which contained about
forty inhabitants. Tfekalef went to Inalok,
which lies about thirty verfts from Kalaktak.
Having found a dwelling with about feventy inhabitants, to whom he behaved with kindnefs,
he built an hut, and kept a conftant watch.
December 4, fix of the party being difpatched
to look after the pit-falls, there remained only
five Ruffians, Peter Tfekalef, Stephen Korelin,
Dmitri Bragin, Gregory Shaffyrin,   and Ivan
rMtwii FROM   I74I   TO   I778. 163
Kokovin, the iflanders therefore feized this op*
portunity of giving the firft proof of their hoftile
intentions. As Tfekalef and Shaffyrin were
upon a vifit to the iflanders, they fuddenly,
and without any provocation, ftruck Tfekalef
upon the head with a club, and ftabbed him
with knives. They next fell upon Shaffyrin,
who defended himfelf with a hatchet; and though
defperately wounded, forced his way back to his
companions. Bragin and Korelin, who remained in the hut, had immediate recourfe to
their fire-arms; but Kokovin, who was at a
fmall diftance, was furrounded by the favages>
thrown down, and ftabbed with knives and
darts, until Korelin came to his affiflance ; who
having wounded two, and driven away the
others, brought his companion half-dead to the
Soon afterwards the natives furrounded the
hut, which the Ruffians had taken the precaution to provide with loop holes. The fiege
lafted four days without intermiffion. The v
iflanders were prevented indeed by the firearms from ftorming the hut; but whenever the
Ruffians made their appearance, darts were immediately fhot at them from all fides; fo that
they could not venture out for water. At
length, when Shaffyrin and Kokovin were a
little recovered, they all fallied out upon the
M 2 iflanders nwiirtrftq
iflanders with their guns and lances; killed
three, wounded feveral, and difperfed the reft.
During the fiege the ravages were obferved at
a little diftance holding up in triumph fome
arms and caps, which belonged to the fix Ruffians who were fent to the pit-falls, and had
been maffacred by the natives.
The natives at length difappearing, the Ruffians dragged the baidar into the fea, rowed
without moleftation out of the bay, which is
about ten verfts broad, landed near a fmall habitation, and finding it empty, drew the baidar
afhore, and traverfed, with their fire-arms and
lances, the mountains towards Kalaktak, where
they had left Kudyakof's party. As they approached that place towards evening, they fired
from the heights; but no fignal being returned,
they concluded as was really the cafe, that this
company had alfo been maffacred by the inha-
? bitants. They themfelves narrowly efcaped the
fame fate ; for, on the report of the fire-arms,
numerous bodies of the iflanders made their appearance, and clofely purfued them; the night
however favoured their efcape over the fandy
fhore of a bay to a rock, where they were fliel-
tered, and with their fire-arms, obliged the
iflanders to retire. As foon as their affailants
were withdrawn, the Ruffians proceeded towards
the haven, where they had left their veffel at anchor. FROM 1741 TO 1778.
chor. They ran without interruption during
the whole night; and at break of day, when
they were about three verfts from the haven,
efpied a locker of the veffel lying on the fhore.
Struck with this alarming difcovery, they precipitately retreated to the mountains; from
whence they defcried feveral iflanders rowing
in baidars, but faw no appearance of their own
veffel. During that day they concealed themfelves
and did not venture again towards the haven
till the evening. Upon their arrival they found
the veffel broken to pieces, and the mangled bodies of their companions fcattered on the beach.
Having collected all the provifion which had
been untouched by the favages, they returned
to the mountains.
The following day they fcooped out a cavity
at the foot of a mountain about three verfts
from the haven, and covered it with a piece of a
fail. In the evening they again repaired to the
haven, where they found an image of a faint and
a prayer-book; but all the tackle and lading
were taken away, excepting the leather facks
for provifion, which the natives had ripped up,
and left as ufelefs. The Ruffians collected all
that remained; and dragged as much as they
were able to their retreat in the mountains,
where they lived in a very wretched ftate from
the 9th of December to the 2d of February,
Mean while they employed themfelves in
making a little baidar, which they covered with
the leather of the facks. At night they drew it
from the mountains to the fea, and rowed along
the northern fhore of Unalafhka, in hopes of
reaching Trapefnikof'&■ veffel, which they fuppofed. lay at anchor upon the coaft. They
kept at fome diftance from the fhore, and by
that means paffed three habitations unperceived.
The following day they obferved five iflanders
in a baidar, who feeing them retired to Maku-
fhinfk, before which place they were obliged to
pafs. Darknefs coming on, the Ruffians landed
on a rock, and paffed the night afhore. Early
in the morning, difcovering the iflanders advancing towards them from the bay of Ma-
kufhinfk, they placed themfelves in an advantageous poft and prepared for defence.
The favages rowed clofe to the beach; part
landing, and part remaining in their baidars,
they commenced the affault by a volley of darts,
and notwithftanding the Ruffians did great execution with their fire-arms, the fkirmifh continued the whole day. Towards evening the
enemy retired, and the fugitives betook themfelves with their baidar to an adjoining cavern.
The FROM  1741  TO  I778.
The attack was again renewed during the night;
but the Ruffians repulfed the affailants without
much difficulty. In this encounter Bragin was
Hlghtly wounded. They remained in this place
three days; but the rife of the fpring-tide
forced them to fally out towards a neighbouring cavern, which they reached without lofs,
notwithftanding the oppofition of the iflanders.
They were confined in this cave five weeks,
and kept watch by turns. During that time
they feldom ventured twenty yards from the
entrance; and were obliged to quench their
thirft with fnow-water, and with the moifture
dripping from the rock. They alfo fuffered
greatly from hunger, having no fuftenanee but
fmall fhell-fifh, which they occafionally collected on the beach. Compelled at length
by extreme want, they one night ventured to
draw their baidar into the fea, and fortunately
efcaped without being perceived
They continued their progrefs at night, but
in the day, hid themfelves on the fhore, by
which means they reached Trapefnikof's veffel
the 30th of March, 1764. What happened to
them afterwards in company with the crew of
this veffel will be mentioned in the fucceeding
chapter. Shaffyrin died during the voyage;
M 4 but 1
but Korelin, Kokovin, and Bragin*, returned
fafe to Kamtchatka. The names of thefe brave
men deferve to be recorded for the courage
and perfeverance with which they fupported
and overcame fuch imminent dangers.
CHAP. 9.
Voyage of the Veffel called the Trinity, under the
command of Korovin, 1762—Winters at Una-
laflika—Puts to Sea in the Spring—Stranded
in' a Bay of the Ifland Umnack, and the Crew
attacked by the Natives—Many of them killed
—Others carried off by Sicknefs—Are reduced
to great Streights—Relieved by Glottof, twelve
of the whole Company only remaining—Defcrip-
tion of Umnack and Unalafhka—and Account
of the Inhabitants.
f I -HE fecond veffel which failed from Kamt-
-** chatka in the year 1762, was the Trinity,
fitted out by the trading company of Nikiphor
I These Russians were well known to several persons of
credit, who have confirmed the authenticity of this rela>«
tion. Among the rest, the celebrated naturalist Pallas
saw Bragin at Irkutsk: from him he had a narrative of
their adventures and escape; % which, as he assured me,
perfectly tallied with the above account, drawn from the
journal of Korelin,
Trapef. FROM   I74I   TO   I77S
Trapefnikof, merchant of Irkutfk, under the command of Ivan Korovin, and manned with thirty-
eight Ruffians and fix Kamtchadals.
September 15, they failed down the Kamtchatka river, flood out to fea the 29th, were
driven at large for ten days by contrary winds,
on the 8th of October call anchor on the fouth
fide of Beering's Ifland, laid up the veffel in
a fecure harbour, and brought the lading afhore.
They ftaid here until the'firft of Auguft, 1763,
and killed about five hundred arctic foxes and
only twenty fea-otters, which reforted lefs frequently to this ifland, in confequence of being
difturbed by the Ruffian hunters.
Korovin, having collected a fufficient flore of
provifions, feveral fkins of fea-cows for the
coverings of baidars, and fome iron which remained from the wreck of Beering's fhip, prepared to depart. Upon his arrival at Beering's
Ifland the preceding autumn, he^ found there a
veffel fitted out by Jacob Protaffof, merchant of
Tiumen, under the command of Dennis Med-
vedef*, with whom Korovin entered into a
formal contract for the divifion of the furs,.    He
. * This is the fourth vessel which sailed in 176*2.    As the
whole crew were massacred by the savages, we have no account  of the voyage; mention of thi
sionally made in this and the following chapti I7O RUSSIAN DISCOVERIES
took onboard ten of Medvedef's crew, and gave
him feven in return.
Auguft 1, Korovin put to fea from Beering's
Ifland with thirty-feven men, and Medvedef
with forty-nine. They failed without coming in
fight of the Aleutian Ifles; and on the 15th,
Korovin made Unalafhka, where Glottof lay at
anchor, and Medvedef reached Umnak. Korovin received the news of his fafe arrival by
fome iflanders, and afterwards by letters, as both
veffels lay at no greater diftance from each
other than a hundred and fifty verfts.
Korovin anchored in a convenient bay at the
diftance of fixty yards from the fhore. On the
16th he landed with fourteen men ; but finding
only an empty fhed, returned to the veffel.
After having taken a reinforcement, he again
went afhore in fearch of inhabitants. About
feven verfts from the haven, he came to two
"habitations, and faw three hundred perfons,
among them three Toigons, recollected and
jtccofted in a friendly manner Barnafhef, a
native of Tobolfk, who had been there before
with Glottof. They fhewed fome tribute-quittances, which they had lately received from
the Coffac Sabin Ponomaref. Two of thefe
Toigons gave each a boy of twelve years of age
as an hoftage, whom they paffed for their
.children ; and the third delivered his fon of
S^V" *,: about FROM   I74I   TO   I778.
about fifteen years of age, the fame who had been
Glottof's hoftage, and whom Korovin called
Alexey. With, thefe hoftages he returned to
the fhip, which he laid up in the mouth of a
river, and brought all the provifion and lading
afhore. Soon afterwards the three Toigons
came to fee the hoftages, and informed Korovin, that Medvedef's veffel rode fecurely at
anchor off Umnak.
. September 15, every thing being prepared for
wintering, Korovin and Barnafhef fet out in two
baidars, each with nine men and one of the
hoftages, who had a flight knowledge of the
Ruffian language. They went along the northern
coaft of the ifland, towards its weftern extremity,
in order to hunt, and to enquire after an interpreter called Kafhmak, who had been formerly employed by Glottof. Having rowed
about twenty verfts, they paffed a village, and
five verfts beyond, landed at another; but as the
number of inhabitants amounted to two hundred,
they durft not venture to the dwellings. Upon
this the Toigon of the place came to them with
his wife and fon; he fhewed a tribute-quittance,
and delivered his fon, a boy of thirteen years of
age, whom Korovin called Stepanka, as a
hoftage, for which he received a prefent of
They now rowed to a third village, five Verfts
from the former, where they found the interpreter Kafhmak: he accompanied them to the
two Toigons who gave them a friendly reception, and fhewed tribute-quittances. A few natives only made their appearance ; the reft as
• the Toigons pretended were gone out to fifh.
The next morning each Toigon gave a boy as
a hoftage; one of the boys Korovin called
Gregory, and the other Alexey. The Ruffians
were detained two days by a violent ftorm:
during which time a letter from Medvedef was
brought by an Aleutian, and an anfwer returned
by the fame perfon. The ftorm at length
abating, they rowed back to the next village;
where they continued two nights without any
apprehenfions from the favages, and Korovin
returned in fafety with the hoftages.
In the beginning of October they built a hut,
partly of wood, and partly of feal-fkins, and
made preparations for hunting. On the 14th,
two companies, each confifting of eleven men,
were fent on a hunting party to the eaftern
point of the ifland, and returned in four days
with hoftages. About fixty verfts from the
haven, they met a party of twenty-five Ruffians,
commanded by Drufinin; at the fame time fome
Toigons brought a prefent of flurgeon and
whales' blubber, and received in return beads
"and provifion.
Koro- FROM   1741   TO   I778. I73
Korovin and his company now thought themfelves fecure, and twenty-three men, under the
command of Barnafhef, were difpatched in two
baidars on a hunting party towards the weftern
point of the ifland. Eight mufkets were dif-
tributed to each boat, a piftol and a lance to each
man, and a fufficient ftore of ammunition and
provifion. The following day two accounts
were fent from Barnafhef, and letters were alfo
received from the crew of Protaffof's veffel.
From the 2d of November to the 8th of December, the Ruffians who remained with Korovin,
-killed forty-eight dark-coloured foxes, together
with a hundred and feventeen of the common
fort; during this expedition one man was lost.
Some of the natives came occafionally in baidars, and exchanged fea-otter and fox fkins for
corals. On the 8th of December letters were
again brought from Barnafhef, alfo from the crew
of Protaffof's fhip, and anfwers were returned
by the fame meffengers.
After their departure the mother of Alexey
came with a meffage from the Toigon her huf-
band, importing that a number of iflanders were
advancing towards the fhip. Korovin accordingly ordered the men to arm, and foon after
feventy natives approached, and held up fome
fea-otter fkins. The Ruffians cried out that no
more than ten at a time fhould come over the
brook towards their hut; upon which the
iflanders left their fkins with Koroyin, and returned without hoftilities. Their apprehenfions
were now fomewhat quieted, but again.excited
by the arrival of three Kamtchadals belonging to
Kulkof's fhip, who flew for protection to Korovin j they brought an account that the crew
had been killed by the favages, and the veffel
deftroyed. It was now certain that the feventy
iflanders had come with hoftile intentions. This
information fpread fo hidden a panic among the
Ruffians, that it was even propofed to burn the
veffel, and to endeavour to find their companions, who were difperfed on hunting parties.
The day however paffed without any attack,
but towardSs the evening of the 10th of December, the favages affembled in large bodies, and
invefted the hut on all fides, and for four days
and nights inceffantly annoyed the Ruffians with
their darts; two of them were killed, and the
furvivors nearly exhaufted by continual fatigue.
On the fifth day the iflanders took poll in a
neighbouring cavern, where they continued
watching the Ruffians fo clofely during a whole"
month, that none of them durft venture fifty
paces from their dwelling. Korovin, finding
himfelf thus harraffed, ordered the hut to be
deftroyed, and then- retired to his veffel, which
was brought for greater fecurity out of the
mouth from 1741 to 1778. iy*
mouth of the rivulet to the diftance of a hundred
yards from the beach: there they lay at anchor
from the .5th of March to the 26th of April,
fuffering greatly from want of provifion, and frill
more from the fourvy.
During, this period they were attacked by a
large body of the natives, who-advanced with
forty baidars, in hopes of furprifing the veffel.
Korovin was warned of their approach by two
of the inhabitants, one of whom was a relation of
the interpreter Kafhmak, and prepared for their
reception. On their approach Korovin fired
and killed one perfon, when they were ftruck
with a panic and rowed away. Incenfed at this
failure they immediately put to death the two
natives, who had betrayed their defign to the
Ruffians. Soon after the father of Alexey came
and demanded his fojr, who was reftored to
him: and on the 30th of March Korelin and
his three brave companions arrived as is mentioned in, the preceding, chapter:; by which reinforcement the number of the crew amounted
to eighteen perfonS.
April 26, Koiovin put to fea from Unalafhka
with eleven hoftages. The veffel was driven
until the 28th by contrary winds, and then
Branded in a bay of the ifland Umnak. The
ammunition and fails, together with the fkins for
the conftruction of baidars, were brought afhore
- with great difficulty. During the difembark*-
ation one fick man was drowned; another died
as foon as he reached the land, and eight hoftages
ran away amidft the general confufion. The
faithful interpreter Kafhmak and three hoftages
however remained. The whole number of the
Ruffians amounted only to fixteen, and of thefe
three were afflicted with the fcurvy. Under
thefe circumftances they fecured themfelves .
between their baidar and fome empty barrels,
which they covered with feal fkins, while the
fails were fpread over them in form of a tent.
Two Ruffians kept watch; and there being no
appearance of iflanders, the others retired to
Before break of day, about an hundred favages advancing fecretly from the fhore threw
their darts at the diftance of twenty yards with
fuch force, that many pierced the baidar and
fkins; others paffed through the fails. By this
difcharge, the two perfons who kept watch, together with the three hoftages, were killed on
the fpot, and all the Ruffians wounded. They
were indeed fo effectually furprifed, as to be
prevented from having recourfe to their firearms. In this diftrefs Korovin fallied forth
with four Ruffians and attacked the enemy with
lances ; two of the favages were killed, and the
others driven to  flight; but Korovin and his
party FROM   1741   TO   177?.
party were fo feverely wounded, that they had
fcarcely ftrength fufficient to return to their
During the night the ftorm increafed and
dafhed the veffel to pieces, and the greater part
of the wreck which was eaft on fhore, was carried
away by the iflanders. After breaking the barrels of fat, emptying the facks of provifion, and
deftroying moft of the furs, they went away, and •
did not again make their appearance until the
30th of April. When they retired, the Ruffians
collected the wretched remains which had been
left untouched by the favages, or which the
waves had eaft a-fhore fince their departure.
April 30, a body of one hundred and fifty
natives advanced from the eaftern part of the
ifland towards the tent; and at the diftance of a
hundred yards, fhot at the Ruffians with firearms, but luckily without effect. They alfo fet
on fire the high grafs, and the wind blew the
flames towards the tent; but the Ruffians having
forced the enemy to retreat, gained time to ex-
tinguifh the flames.
This was the laft attack, although fickriefs and
mifery detained Korovin and his companions on
this fpot until the 21ft of July. They then put
to fea in, a baidar eight yards long, which they
had conftructed in order to make to ProtaffoPs
veffel, with whofe fate they were as yet un-
N ac- Ill; -M*
acquainted. Their number was now reduced
to twelve, among whom were fix Kamtchadals.
After rowing ten days, they landed on the
beach of the fame ifland Umnack; and there
obferved the burnt remains of a veffel, and
fragments of clothes, fails, and ropes. At a
fmall diftance was an empty Ruffian dwelling,
and near it a bath-room, in which they found, to
their inexpreffible terror, twenty dead bodies in
their clothes. Each of them had a thong of
leather, or his own girdle fattened about his
neck, with which he had been ftrangled. Korovin and his companions recognifed them as
part of Protaffof's crew ; and diftinguifhed
among the reft the commander Medvedef. They
difcovered no traces of the remainder; and, as
none ever appeared, we have no account of the
circumftances attending this cataftrophe.
Having buried their countrymen, Korovin
and his companions began to build a hut; but
were prevented from finifhing it, by the unexpected arrival of Stephen Glottof*, who came
to them with a fmall party by land. Korovin
and his companions joined Glottof, and rowed
the next day to his veffel.
Soon afterwards Korovin was fent with a
party of twenty to coaft the ifland of Umnack,
g chapter. FROM   I74I   TO   1778.
in order to difcover if any part of Medvedef's
crew had madeUheir efcape; but his enquiries
were without fuccefs. In the courfe of this expedition, as he lay at anchor, in September,
before a fmall ifland fituated between Umnack
and Unalafhka, fome favages rowed towards the
Ruffians in two large baidars; and fhot at them
with fire-arms, though without effect. The fame
evening Korovin entered a bay with an intention
of paffing the night on fhore; but, as he approached the coaft, a number of favages in a
IflinlSred baidars furrounded and faluted him with
a volley of darts. Korovin fired, and having dif-
perfed them, made to a large baidar, which he
faw at fome diftance, in hopes of finding Ruffians. He was however miftaken; the iflanders
who were aboard landed at his approach; and,
after fhooting at him with fire-arms, retired to
the mountains.
Korovin there found the fame baidar in which
Barnafhef had failed, on a hunting party; within
were 1 only two hatchets and fome iron points
for darts. Three woman were feized at the fame
time; and two natives, who refufed to furrender
themfelves, were put to death. They then went
to the dwelling from which all the inhabitants-had
fled, and found therein pieces of leather, blades of
fmall knives, fhirts, and other things, which had
N 2 be- i8o
belonged to the Ruffians. All the information
which they could procure from the women was,
that the crew had been killed, and this booty
taken away by the inhabitants, who had retired j
s to Unalafhka. Korovin gave thefe women their
• liberty; and, being apprehenfive of frefh attacks, returned to the haven.
Towards winter Korovin, with a party of
twenty-two men, and Ivan Glottof an Aleutian
interpreter, was fent on a hunting expedition
to the weftern point of Unalafhka. Being
informed by fome iflanders, that a Ruffian
fhip, under the command of Ivan Soloviof *,
was then lying before Unalafhka, he rowed towards the haven where fhe was at anchor. On
the way he had a fharp encounter with the
natives, who endeavoured to prevent his landing : of thefe, ten were killed; and the reft fled,
leaving behind fome women and children. Korovin ftaid three days aboard Soloviof's veffel,
and then returned to the place where he had
been attacked. The inhabitants however, made
no oppofition to his landing; but on the contrary, received him with kindnefs, and permitted-
him to hunt: they delivered hoftages, entered
into a friendly traffic, exchanging furs for beads,
! Chapter 11. FROM 174t TO 1778.
and even reftored feveral mufkets and other
things, taken from the Ruffians who had been
A fhort time before his departure, the inhabitants agalttPuieWed hoftile intentions; for
.three of them fuddenly attacked the Ruffian
centinel, with knives, but the centineldifengaging
himfelf, and retreating into the hut, they ran
away. The Toigons of the village affected ignorance of this treachery; and the offenders
were foon afterwards difcovered and punifhed.
Korovin, as he was returning to Glottof, was
forced to engage with the iflanders on Unalafhka, and alfo on Umnak, where they endeavoured to prevent him from landing. Before the end of the year a ftorm drove the baidar on the beach of Umnak, and the tempef-
tuous weather fetting in, they were detained
until the 6th of April, 1765, and were reduced
to live chiefly upon fea-wrack, and fmall fhell-
fifh. On the 22d they returned to Glottof, with
an inconfiderable cargo of furs. Three days
after his arrival, Korovin quitted Glottof, and
went with five other Ruffians to Soloviof, with
whom he returned the following year to Kamtchatka. The fix Kamtchadals of Korovin's
party joined Glottof.
According to Korovin's account, the iflands
Umnak and Unalafhka are fituated not much
N 3 more j8? RUSSIAN    DIS^O/VBRIES
more nqfth than the mouth of the Kamtchatka
river; and, according to the fhip's reckoning,
about the diftance of one thoufand feven hundred verfts eaftwards from the fame place. The
circumference of Umnak is about two hundred
. and fifty verfts; Unalafhka is much, larger.
Both iflands are wholly deftitute of trees; but
drift-wood is brought a-fhore in large quantities!.
There are five lakes on the northern coaft .of
Unalafhka, and one only upon Umnak, of which
none exceeded ten verfts in circumference'.
From thefe lakes iffue feveral fmall rivulet!,'
which flow only a few verfts before they fall into
the fea. The fifh enter the rivulets in: the
middle of April; afcend the lakes in July, and
continue there till Auguft. Sea-otters and
other fea-animals refort but feldom to thefe
iflands; but there are abundance of red and black
foxes. North-eaftward from Unalafhka two
iflands appeared in fight, at the diftance of five
or ten verfts; but Korovin did not' touch at
The inhabitants row in fmall baidars from one
ifland to the other, and from this unfettled manner of life their numbers cannot be afcertained.
Their dwellings are made in the following manner : having dug a hole in the earth proportioned
to the fize of theMjintended habitation, of twenty,
jtjlfty, or forty yards in length, and from fix,to
ten FROM   I74I   TO   I778. 183
ten broad, they fet up poles of larch, firs, and
afh, and lay planks acrofs, which they cover
with grafs and earth. They enter through
aperturesan. the top by means of ladders. Fifty,
a hundred, and even a hundred and fifty perfons
dwell together in a cave. As they feldom make
fires within, thefe dwellings are much cleaner
than thofe of the Kamtchadals; but in winter
they warm themfelves by kindling dry herbs.
Several of thefe iflanders wear fur-ftockings
in winter; but the greater plrt go bare-footed, and all without breeches. The fkins of
cormorants, puffins, and fea-divers, ferve for
the mens' cloathing; and the women wear the
fkins of fea-bears, feals, and fea-otters. They
fleep on thick mats, which they twift of a foft
kind of grafs growing on the fhore, and have
no other covering than their ufual clothes.
Many of the men have five or fix wives; and
the befl hunter or fifher' has the greateft
number. The women make their needles of the
bones of birds' wings, and ufe finews for thread.
Their weapons are bows and arrows, lances
and darts, which, like the Greenlanders, they
throw to the diftance of fixty yards by means of
a little hand board. Both darts and arrows are
feathered; the arrows are an ell and a half
long; the fhaft, which is well made confidering
the want of inftruments, is often compofed of
two pieces joined together, and the point is
formed of flint, fharpened by beating it between
two ftones. The darts as well as the lances were
formerly tipped with bone ; but the points are
now commonly made of iron procured from the
Ruffians, and from which they ingenioufly form
little hatchets and two-edged knives. They
lhape the iron by rubbing it between two ftones,
and wetting it frequently with fea-water. With
thefe inftruments and ftone hatchets they build
their baidars. They have a ftrange cuftom of
cutting holes in the under-lip and through the
griftle of the nofe; they place in the lip two
little bones, wrought in the form of teeth which
project fome inches from the face, and in the
nofe a piece of bone is inferted crofsways. The
dead are buried with their boat, weapons, and
*The author repeats here several circumstances which
have been mentioned before, and many of them will occur
again: but my office as a translator would not surfer me to
omit them. from 1741 to ¥fff$:
CHAP. 10.
Voyage of Stephen Glottof in the Andrean and
Natalia, 1762—He reaches the Fox' Iflands
—Sails beyond Unalafka to Kadyak—Winters
on that Ifland—Repeated Attempts of the
Natives to deftroy the Crew—They are re-
pulfed, reconciled, and prevailed on to trade
with the Ruffians—Account of Kadyak.—Its
Inhabitants — Animals—Productions — Glottof fails back to Umnak—Winters there—"
Returns    to   Kamtchatka—Journal  of   his
THE following voyage, which extended
further, and terminated more fortunately
than the laft expeditions, is one of the moft memorable yet made.
Terenty Tfebaeffskoi and company, merchants of Lalfk, fitted out the Andrean and
Natalia under the command of Stephen Glottof, an experienced and fkilful feaman of Ya-
renfk. This veffel, manned with thirty-eight
Ruffians and eight Kamtchadals, failed from
the bay of the river Kamtchatka the ill of
October, 1762. In eight days they reached
• Mednoi Oftrof, or Copper Ifland, and having
found a convenient harbour, unloaded and laid
up the veffe for the winter. They firft fup-
plied themfelves with provifions; and afterwards killed a quantity of ice-foxes, and a confiderable number of fea-otters.
For the benefit of the crown and their own
ufe in cafe of need, they refolved to take on
board all the remaining tackle and iron-work
of Beering's fhip, which was buried in the
beach of Commander's Ifland. For this purpofe
they difpatched, on the 27th of May, Jacob
Malevinfkoy with thirteen men in a baidar to
that ifland, who brought back twenty-two pood
of iron, ten of old cordage fit for caulkersVufjig
fome lead and copper, and feveral thoufand
Copper Ifland has its name from the native
copper found on the coaft, particularly at the
fouth weftern point. Of this native copper
Malevinfkoy brought two large pieces, weighing
twelve pounds. Amongft other floating bodies^
the fea drives on the fhores of this ifland, the
true camphor wood, and another fort very white,
foft, and fweet-fcented, is found.
After making the neceffary preparations for
continuing the voyage, they failed from Copper
Ifland the 26th of July, 1763, and fleered for
Umnak and Agunalafhka, where Glottof had
formerly obferved great numbers of black foxes.
On account of ftorms and contrary winds, they
did FROM   1741   TO   I778.
did not reach Umnak till the 24th of Auguft;
and without lofing time, refolved to fail further
for the difcovery of new iflands. They paffed
eight, feparated only by ftraits, which, according
to their eftimation, were from twenty to an
hundred verfts broad. Glottof did not land till
he reached the laft and moft eafterly of thefe
iflands, called by the inhabitants Kadyak, which
according to the natives was not far diftant from
the coaft of a wide-extended woody continent.
No land however was to be feen from a little
ifland denominated by the natives Aktunak,
fituated thirty verfts eaft of Kadyak.
September 8, the veffel ran up a creek, fouth
eaft of Aktunak, where a rivulet falls into the
fea, which flows from a lake fix verfts long, one
broad, and fifty fathoms deep. During the ebb,
the veffel was left aground; but the return of
the water fet her again afloat. Near the fhore
were four large huts, fo crouded with people,
that their number could fcarcely be counted:
but foon after GlottoPs arrival, ,they quitted
their dwellings, and retired with precipitation.
The next day fome iflanders in baidars approached the veffel, and accofted the people on
board: and a* Ivan Glottof, the Aleutian interpreter, did not well underftand the language,
they foon afterwards returned with a boy
whom they had formerly taken prifoner from
Ifanak, an ifland to the weft of Kadyak. Him
the Aleutian interpreter perfectly underftood;
and by his means they converfed with the favages, and endeavoured to perfuade them to
become tributary. They ufed every argument
in their power to prevail on therroio' deliver
the boy for an interpreter, but all entreaties
were ineffectual, and the favages rowed back
towards the cliff called Aktalin, which lies three
verfts to the fouth of Kadyak, where they
feemed to have habitations.
On the 6th of September, Kaplin, who was
fent with thirteen men to the cliff, found ten
huts, which contained a hundred natives. They
behaved in a friendly manner, and anfwered
the interpreter by the boy, that they had nobody
proper for an hoftage, but that they would deliver the boy. Kaplin received him thankfully,
and brought him on board; he afterwards accompanied Glottof to Kamtchatka, and was
baptized by the name of Alexander Popof, being
then thirteen. For fome days after this conference, the iflanders came off in companies of
five, ten, twenty, and thirty; were admitted on
board in fmall numbers, and kindly received,
but with a proper degree of circumfpection. ♦
On  the  8th of September the  veffel was
brought further up the creek, and on the 9th
Glottof with ten men proceeded to a village,
where FROM   I74I   TO   I778.
where the natives had begun to refide : it confifted of three fummer-huts covered with long
grafs, from eight to ten yards broad, twelve long,
and four high. They faw there about an hundred men, but neither women nor children, and
as they could not perfuade the favages to give
hoftages, Glottof refolved to keep a ftrong
■Although the iflanders vifited them flill in
fmall bodies, their hoftile intentions became
more and more apparent. At laft on the ift of
October, by day-break, a great number having
affembled in the remote parts of the ifland, approached without being difcovered by the watch;
and feeing no one on deck but thofe on duty,
fhot fuddenly into the veffel with arrows. The
watch found refuge behind the quarter boards,
and gave the alarm without firing. Glottof
immediately ordered a volley to be fired over
their heads with fmall arms; upon which they
inftantly retreated. At break of day, no enemy
was feen; but they difcovered feveral ladders,
bundles of hay in which the favages had put ful-
phur, and a quantity of birch-tree bark, left
behind in their precipitate flight.
Glottof now found it neceffary to be on his
guard againft their evil attempts, and his fuf-
picions were further increafed by the fubfequent
conduct.of the natives; for though they came I9O RUSSIAN  DISCOVERIES
to the veffel in fmall bodies, yet they examined
every thing, and particularly the watch, with
the ftriQteft attention, and always returned
ii&tjiout paying regard to the friendly proportions of the Ruffians..
On the 4th of October two hundred made
their appearance, carrying wooden fhields before
them, and preparing with bows and arrows for
an attack. Glottof endeavoured at firft by
perfuafion to prevail upon them to defift'; but
obferving them to continue advancing, he ventured a fally. The enemy difconcerted by this
intrepidity, retreated without refiftance.
The 26th of October they made a third attack, and advanced towards the veffel by daybreak; the alarmhowever was given in due time,
and the whole crew were under arms. The approach of day-light difcovered different parties
of the enemy advancing under the protection of
wooden fcreens. Of thefe moving breaft-works
they counted feven, covering from thirty, to
forty men armed with bone lances. Befide
thefe a croud of armed men advanced feparately
to the attack, fome bearing whale jaw-bones,
and others wooden fhields. Diffuafion proving
ineffectual, and the arrows beginning to fall
even aboard the fhip, Glottof gave orders to
fire. As the fhot from the fmall arms did not
pierce the fcreens, the iflanders advanced with
with FROM   I74I TO I778. lgi
with Aetdfnefs and intrepidity. In this im-
■' minent danger Glottof rifked a fally of his
whole crew, armed with mufkets and lances; the
iflanders mftantly threw down their fcreens,
fled with precipitation to their boats, and rowed
off. They had feventeen large baidars and
feveral fmall canoes. The fkreens which they
left behind were made of three rows of flakes
placed perpendicularly, and bound together
with fea-weed and offers, twelve feet broad,.
and above half a yard thick.
The iflanders now appearing fufficiently intimidated, the Ruffians built a winter hut of
drift wood, and waited the approach of fpring
without further annoyance. Although they
faw none of the inhabitants, yet Glottof kept
his people together; fending out occafionally
fmall hunting and fifhing parties to a lake, five
verfts from the creek. During the whole winter
they caught in the lake feveral different fpecies
of trout and falmon, foles, and herrt3Bfgs,"a fpan
and a half-long, and even turbot and cod-fifh,
which afcended with the flood.
At laft, on the 25 th of December, two
iflanders vifited the fhip, and converfed at a
diftance by means of interpreters; but foon
departed without paying any attention to the
propofals of peace and trade made by the Ruffians; nor did any of them appear again
before Ii
before the 4th of April. Want of fufficient
exercife in the mean time brought on a violent fcurvy among the crew, of which nine
On the 4th of April four natives made
their appearance, and feemed to pay more attention to the propofals; at laft one of them
advanced, and offered to barter two fox-fkins
for beads. They did not fet the leaft value
upon other goods of various kinds, fuch as
ihirts, linen, and nankeen; but demanded glafs
beads of different colours, for which they exchanged fkins with pleafure. This friendly
traffic, together with Glottof's entreaties, operated powerfully, and after holding a conful-
tation with their countrymen, they returned
with a folemn declaration, that their brethren
would in future commit no hoftilities. From
that time until their departure a daily intercourfe
was carried on with the iflanders, who brought"
fox and fea-otter fkins, and received in exchange
a ftipulated number of beads. Some were even
perfuaded to pay a tribute of fkins, for which
receipts were given.
Among other wares the Ruffians procured
two fmall carpets, curioufly platted and interwoven with beaver-wool like velvet. The
iflanders brought alfo for fale, well dreffed fea-
otter fkins, the hair of which was fliorn with
■3&& iharp FROM  I74I   TO t778. 193
fharp ftones, and appeared like velvet. The caps
of the natives had furprifing and fometimes not
ungraceful decorations, fome being adorned with
manes like a helmet; others, feemingly peculiar
to the females, were made of inteftines flitched
together with rein-deer hair and finews in a
moft elegant tafte, and ornamented on the crown
with long ftreamers of hair died a beautiful red.
Of all thefe curiofities Glottof carried famples
to Kamtchatka*.
The natives differ confiderably in drefs and
language from the inhabitants of the other Fox
Iflands; and feveral fpecies of animals were
obferved upon Kadyak, which are not to be
found on the other iflands, viz. ermines, martens,
beavers, river-otters, wolves, and wild boars.
The tracks of bears were alfo obferved. Some
of the inhabitants had clothes made with the
{kins of rein-deer and the jevras, a fort of fmall
marmofet.    Both thefe fkins were probably pro-
* These and several similar ornaments are preserved
in a cabinet of curiosities at the Academy of Sciences of
St. Petersburg: a cabinet which well merits the attention
of the curious traveller; for it contains, a large collection
of the dresses of the Eastern nations. Amongst the rest,
one compartment is entirely filled with the dresses, arms,
and implements, brought from the New-dkcovered islands.
Engravings of these caps, dresses, and ornaments, are
found in Cook, Vancouver, and Sauer.
cured from the continent of America. Black,
brown, and red foxes, were feen in great number ; and the coaft abounds with fea-dogs, feaj
bears, fea-lions, and fea-otters. The birds are
buanes, geefe, ducks, gulls, ptarmigans, crows,
and magpies; but no uncommon fpecies was
difcovered. The vegetable productions are bil-
berries^aranfbeilries, whortleberries, and wild .
lily-roots. Kadyak likfewife yields willows and
alders, which affords the ftrongeft proof of its
Vicinity to the continent. The extent of Kadyak cannot be exactly afcertained; as the
Ruffians, through fear of the natives, did not
venture to explore the country.
The inhabitants; like thofe of the Aleutian
and nearer iflands, perforate holes in the under-
Kps and.fcbe griftle of the nofe, in which they
infert the -bones of birds and animals worked
into the form of teeth. Their clothes are made
with, the fkins of birds, foxes, lea-otters, young
rein-deer, and marmofets, fewed together with
finews. They wear alfo fur-ftockings of reindeer fkins, but no breeches. Their -arms are
h&ftii arrows, and lances, whofe points, as well as
their fmall hatchets, are of fharp flint: fome few
make knives and lance-points of rein-deer bones.
Their wooden fhields are called kuyaky, which
amongft the Greenlanders fignifies a fmall canoe.
Their manners are altogether rude; they are not
courteous IR0M 1741 TO 1778.
courteous to ftrangers, nor do they fliew any
kind of deference or fubmiffion to each other.
Some of their, canoes contain only one or two
perfons; others are larger, and fimilar to the
womens' boats of the Greenlanders. Their food
^0m5fb)( .chiefly of raw and dried fifh, partly
caught at fea with bone hooks, and partly in rivulets, by means of bag-nets made of finews.
They call themj^tyes Kanagift, a nam«}that has
no fmall refeaibjance to Karalit; by which appellation the Greenlanders and Efquimaux on
the coaft of Labradore diftinguifh themfelves:
the difference between thefe two denominations
is occafioned perhaps by a change of pronunciation, or by a miftake of the Ruffian failors.
Their, numbers feem very confiderable on that
part of the ifland where they had fixed habitations.
Kadyak makes with Aghunalafhka, Umnak,
and the fmall intermediate iflands, a continued
Archipelago, extending N. E. and E. N. E.
towards America: it the fhip's reckoning in 230°of longitude; fo that it cannot be
far diftant from that part of the AmeBSan coaft
which Beering formerly reached.
The large ifland Alakfu, lying northward
from Kadyak where' Pufhkaref* wintered, muft
, * See chapter 6.
be flill nearer the continent: and the account
given by its inhabitants of a great promontory,
called Ataktak, ftretching from the continent
N. E. of Alakfu, is not improbable.
Although the conduct of the iflanders appeared more friendly; yet on account of their
numbers Glottof refolved not to pais another
winter on Kadyak, and prepared for his departure. He wanted hoops for repairing his water-
cafks, and learning from the natives that there
were trees at no great diftance from the bay, he
difpatched, on the 25th of April, Lukas Ftoruf-
kin with eleven men to fell wood. After rowing
along the South coaft forty or fifty verfts, he ob.
ferved, half a verft from the fhore, in vallies between the rocks, alders, fimilar to thofe of
Kamtchatka; the largeft of which were from
four to feven inches in diameter. After felling
as much wood as he wanted, he returned the
fame day without perceiving an iflander or habitation.
They brought the veffel down the creek in
May; and, after taking in all the peltry and
ftores, left Kadyak on the 24th. Contrary
winds retarded their voyage, and drove them
near the ifland Alakfu, which they paffed; their
water being nearly exhaufted, they afterwards
landed upon another ifland, called Saktunak, in
order to procure a fuppiy.   At laft on the 3d
of FROM  I74I   TO  I778. I97
of July, they reached Umnak, and anchored in
a bay which Glottof had formerly vifited. Going ,a-fhore in a baidar, he found his hut,
which was in ruins; and near it obferved
another Ruffian dwelling, that had been built in
his abfence; in which lay a murdered Ruffian.
Refolving to procure further information, he
croffed the ifland the 5th of July, with
fixteen of his crew, and difcovered the remains of a burnt veffel, fome prayer-books,
images, &c.; but all the iron-work and
cordage were carried off. Near the fpot he
found alfo a bathing room filled with murdered
Ruffians in their clothes. From fome marks,
he concluded that this was the crew of the veffel fitted out by Protaffof; nor was he miftaken
. in his conjectures.
Alarmed at the fate of his countrymen,
Glottof returned to the fhip. Seven iflanders
now advanced in baidars, and expreffed a de-
fire to trade. They held up fea-otter fkins at a
diftance, but would not venture on board; and
by the interpreter defired Glottof and two of his
people to come on fhore and barter. Glottof,
diftrufting the favages, refufed to comply with
their demands; on which they landed, and fired
at the veffel, but without effect. They were
even bold enough to row towards the veffel a
fecond time. In order if poffible to procure
O 3 intel-
if »
198 Russian na«cpy.ERiEs
intelligence, every method of conciliating them
was tried by means of the interpreters; and at
laft one approached the fhip, and demanded victuals, which being thrown to him, he came on
board. He then related the fate of the veffel
•feized by the iflanders; and gave fome intelligence concerning the fugitives under the command of Korovin. He confeffed, that their I
defign was to entice Glottof on fhore, kill
him, and make themfelves matters of the fhip;
for which purpofe more than thirty iflanders
were polled in ambufh behind the neareft rocks.
Glottof having detained the iflander on board,
landed with a ftrong party, attacked the favages:
who fhot both with arrows and mufkets, but
("without effect, and were foon forced to retire to
their canoes.
July 14, a violent ftorm arofe, in which Glottof's veffel parted her cabley and was forced on
fhore, but without any other lofs than that of an
anchor. The crew through want of frefh provifions, became fo fickly, that they were almoft
defencelefs. On the 28th of July, Glottof, with
ten men, went for that part of the ifland, where,
according to information he expected to find Korovin; but difcovered only parts of the wreck.
On the 2d of Auguft, as he was returning, five
iflanders approached him in canoes, and informed him, that on the other fide of the
ifland FROM   I74I   TO   I778. 199
ifland he would find Korovin with his people,
who were building a hut on the bank of a rivulet. Glottof and his companions accordingly
went over land to the place pointed out by the
iflanders, and found Korovin conformable to
their information. The circumftances of their
junction and reparation are related in the preceding chapter.
Glottof having now refolved to winter on Umnak, laid up his veffel. On the 2d of September
Korovin, was at his own defire difpatched with
a hunting'party in two baidars. On his return,
in May i765r they received the fh?ft intelligence
of the arrival of Soloviof's veffel, which lay before Uhatafoka*. None %f the iflanders appeared near the harbour during winter, and
there were none probably at that time upon
Umnak; for Glottof made excurfions on all
fides, went once round the ifland, and found all
the habitations empty. He likewife examined
the country, and caufed a ftrict fearch to be made
after the remains* of the plundered veffel.
According to Glottof's account, Umnak is
about three hundred verfts in circumference.
It contains feveral rivulets, which take their rife
from lakes, and fall into the fea after a Vjeigr
Ihort courfe.    No trees were obferved on the
* Chapter 11.
ifland, *taErJ!i
ifland, and the vegetables were the fame as thofe
of Kamtchatka.
The following fummer fmall parties of the inhabitants were feen; but they fled upon the approach of the Ruffians. Some of them were at
laft perfuaded to hold a friendly intercourfe,
and pay tribute; by which means the Ruffians
recovered part of the arms, anchors, and ironwork of the plundered veffel. They continued
to trade with the natives during the fummer of
1765, for the fkins of foxes and fea-otters.
In the winter hunting parties were fent out
in Umnak as well as to Unalafhka; and in
July 1766, Glottof, without meeting with more
difficulties, began his voyage homewards. We
fhall here conclude with a copy of his journal
kept on board; from which, inferences with regard to the fituation of the iflands may be
Journal of Glottof, on board the Andrean
and Natalia.
Oct. 1. Sailed from Kamtchatka Bay.
2. Wind Southerly, steered between E. and
S. E. three hours.
3. Wind S. E. worked at N. E. course six
teen hours.
4. From, midnight sailed East with  a fair
wind, eighteen hours,
Oct. "FROM  I74I   TO  I778. 201
5. At six o'clock A. M. discovered Beering's
Isfand distant about eighteen versts.
6. At one o'clock came to .anchor on the
South East point of Copper Island.
7. At eight A. M. sailed to the/'South side of
the Island, anchored there at ten o'clock.
July 26. Sailed from Copper Island at five P. M.
27. Sailed with a fair S. S. W. wind, seventeen
y28. Made little way.
29. Drove—wind E. N. E.
SO. Ditto
31. Ditto
Aug. 1. Ditto
2. At eleven A. M. wind N. E. steered E.
3. Wind W. S. W. sailed eight knots . aft
hour, two hundred and fifty versts.
4. Wind South—sailed one  hundred   and
fifty versts.
5. Wind   ditto—sailed   one   hundred   and
twenty-six versts.
6. Wind ditto, three knots, forty-five versts.
7. Calm.
8. During the night gentle S. E. wind, steered
N. E. at two and a half knots.
9. Forenoon  calm.   At two  o'clock, P. M.
gentle N. E. wind, steered between E.
N. E. and S. E. at the rate of three
1 202
Aug. 10. Morning,   wind   E. N. E. afterwards S.
S. W. with which steered N. E.
11. At five o'clock the wind S. S. E. steered
E. N. E. at the rate of three knots.
- 1$. Wind S. steered E. two and a half knots,
sailed fifty versts.
13. Wind S. S. E. steered E. four and a half
knots, sailed ninety versts.
14. Wind W. N. W. aUwo knots, sailed thirty
15. The wind freshened, at four knots, sailed
sixty versts.
16. Wind N. N. E. steered E. S. E. at three
knots, sailed thirty versts.
17. Wind E. S. E. and S. E. fight breezes and
18. Wind S. E. steered N. E. at three and a
half knots, sailed in twelve hours twenty-
two versts.
19. Wind S. and light breezes, steered E. at
three tnots, sailed in eight hours eleven
20. Before day-break calm; three hours after
sun-rise a breeze sprung up at S. E.
steered E. N. E. at three knots, and
sailed twenty versts.
22. Calm.
23. Wind S. S. E. during the night, the ship
sailed at the rate of two knots; the wind
afterwards came round to the S. S. W. :
and the ship sailed at five to six knots
these FROM   1741  TO   I778.
these twentyj-fbm* hours, one hundred
and fifty versts.
Aug' 24. Saw land at day-break;  at three knots,
sailed forty^five versts.
25i Wind W. S. W. sailed along' the coast -
these twenty-four hours, fifty versts...
26. Wind N. W. steered N. E. at five and a
half knots, one hundred versts.
27. Wind E. N. E. the ship drove  towards
land, on which discovered a high mountain.
28. Wind N. E. and stormy, the ship drove.
.   29. Wind N. W. steered E. N. E. at the_ rate
of three knots.
30. Wind S. S. E. at six knots, steering again
towards land.
31. A violent storm, wind west.
Sept, I. Wind West, steered N. E. at the rate of
three knots towards land.
2. Wind S. W. steered N. E. towards land
at five knots.
3. Wind -S. W. drove N. N. E.  along the
4. Wind W. N. W. steered  N. E. at four
knots, sailed one hundred versts.
5. Wind N. W. steered E. N. E. at three
knots, and towards evening came to anchor off the Island Kadyak.
•May 24. Sailed from Kadyak. 204 RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES
Jfoy25.Wind N. W. and made   but little  way
26. Wind W. ship drove towards S. E.
27. Wind W. S. W. ship drove E. S. E.   The
same day the wind came round to the S-
when steered again towards Kadyak.
28. Wind E. S. E.  fell  in with  the island
Alaska or Alaksu.
29. Wind S. W. steered N. W.
. 30. Wind W. N. W. the ship drove under
the foresail.
31. Wind W. drove to the Southward.
June 1. Wind W. S.W. landed on the Island Sak-
tunak, for a supply of water.
2. Wind S. E. steered S. W. along the island
at three knots.
3. Wind N. E. steered W. S. W. at the rate
of three to four knots, sailing in these
twenty-four hours one hundred versts.
4. Calm.
5. At eight o'clock A.M. a small breeze S.E.
6. Wind E. afterwards calm. Towards even
ing the Wind S. E. steered S. W. at
three knots, and unexpectedly discovered land ahead, which kept clear of
with difficulty.
From the 7th to the 10th at anchor off a
small cliff.
10. A hard gale at S. the ship drove foul of
the anchor, stood out to sea steering E.
11. Anchored again at a small distance from
.   . June EROM I74I TO I778.
June 13. Wind S. S. W.   stood out to   sea and
steered E. S. E.
14. Wind W. S. W. steered S. S. E. at the
rate of one knot.
15. Calm.
16. Wind S. steered W. at one knot, the ship
* drove a little to the Northward.
17. Wind S. S. E. steered W. S. W.' at three
18. Calm.
19. Ditto.
20. Wind N. E. steered S. W. and sailed this
day about eighty-seven versts.
21. The wind blowing right ahead, came to
anchor off an unknown island, where continued till the
25th, when stood out to sea early in the morning.
26. Wind W. N. W. afterwards W. steered
S. E.
27. Calm, in the night a small but favourable
28. Wind N. W. continued the course, at the
rate of two to three knots*.
29. Wind N. E. steered W. at three to four
knots, and saw land.
30. Wind N. E. steered S. W. at the rate of
seven knots.
July 1, With the same wind and course, at the
• lief man bey nordwest wind auf den ours zu 2 bis 3
II 205
rate of five knots, sailed two hundred
July 2. Fell in with the island Umnak, and came
to an anchor under a small island until
next day; when brought the ship into
the harbour, and laid her up.
June 13. Brought the ship ino the harbour, and
continued at anchor there until the third
of July.
July 3. Got under weigh.
4. Wind E.
5. A South West wind drove the ship about
fifty versts N. E.
6. Wind S. sailed about sixty versts W.
Wind W. S. W. the  ship drove to the
8. Wiiid N. W. steered S. at the rate of one
g. Wind  N. W.   steered  the   whole   day
W. S. W.
10. Wind S. S. W. sailed about forty versts
W. N. W.
11. Wind S. W. continued the same course,
sailed only five versts.
12. Continued the same  course, and sailed
fifty-five versts.
13^ For the most part calm.
14. Wind W. N. W.  and stormy, the ship
drove under the foresail.
15. WindS. sailed on the proper course one
/hundred versts.
July JR0M   I74I   TO   1778. $07
July 16. Wind E. S. E. sailed W. S. W. at the rate
of six knots, one hundred versts.
17. Wind N. N. W. sailed S. W. at the rate
of two knots, thirty versts.
18. Wind S. steered W. at the rate of five
knots, and sailed one hundred and thirty
19. Wind  S. W. the ship drove under the
20. Wind E. N. E. steered W. N. W. at the
'rate of three knots.
'    21. Wind E. N. E. at the rate of four to five
knots sailed two hundred versts.-
22. Wind N. E. at four and a half knots, one
hundred and fifty versts.
23. Wind E. N. E. steered W. at three knots,
one hundred versts.
24* Wind E. steered W. at the rate of three
knots, fi&y versts.
25. Wind N. E. steered W. at five knots, one
hundred versts.
f&6. The wind continued N. E. and freshened,
steered W. at the' rate of seven knot?.
two hundred versts.
27. A small breeze N. N. W. with which how
ever sailed one hundred and fifty versts.
28. Wind-being W. S. W. drove twenty-four
hours under bare-poles.
29. Wind South, steered W. at the rate of
two knots, forty-eight Versts—this day
saw land.
30. Wind S. S. E. sailed, at the rate of four
knots, 1
30$                  RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES
M ;,' ■ lp|
knots, ninety-six versts, and approached
mliy i\M
the land, which found to be the island
From the 1st to the 13th of August, continued
H •
our voyage towards the mouth of Kamtchatka ri-
H ■
. ver, sometimes plying, sometimes driving, and at
1 ' I;|
last arrived happily with a rich cargo.
CHAP. n.
Voyage of Soloviof in the St. Peter and Paul,
111      :j||-|
xj64.—hepaffes two Winters upon Unalafhka—
Attempts of the Natives to defiroy the Crew—
Return of Soloviof to Kamtchatka—Journal of
1         his Voyage—Defcription of the Iflands Umnak
and Unalaflika—•Productions —Inhabitants —
Their Manners—Cuftoms, &c. (3c.
TN 1764, Jacob Ulednikof, merchant of Ir-
**■ kutfk, and company, fitted out a fhip called
the Holy Apoftles Peter and Paul* under the
command of Ivan Soloviof: which failed from
the mouth of Kamtchatka river on the 25th of
Auguft.    The crew confifted of fifty-five men,
among whom were fome of the owners, and
thirteen Kamtchadals.
They  fleered at firft  S. E. with the wind
N. W. but on its turning foutherly they fliaped
their courfe E. N. E.    On the 27th one of the
Ruffian fROM I74I TO I778.
Ruffian failors died off Kamtchatka point; and
the 31ft they made Beering's Ifland, which they
paffed on their left. The lfl and 2d of September they were becalmed, and the wind fpringing
up at W. S. W. Continued their former courfe ;
the 5th they failed with the wind at South; but
that day and the 6th, from changeable breezes
and calms, made no way; from the 7th to the
13th, they failed E. S. E. with Southerly and
Wefterly winds; and from that time to the 15th
Eaft, with the wind at Weft.
September 16, they made the ifland Umnak,
where Soloviof had formerly been with Niki-
phorof. As they failed along the Northern
fhore, three iflanders approached in baidars;
but, the crew having no interpreter, they would
not venture on board. Finding no good bay,
Soloviof proceeded through a ftrait, which fe-
parates Umnak from Unalafhka, lay-to' during the night, and early on the 17th dropped
anchor at the diftance of two hundred yards
from the fliore, in a bay on the North fide of
From thence the captain difpatched Gregory
Korenof with twenty men in a baidar, with orders to land, reconnoitre the country, find out
the neareft habitations, and report the difpo-
fition of the people. Korenof returned the
fame day, with the account that he had difcovered
dwellings abandoned and demolifhed, in which
be had found traces of Ruffians, viz. a written
legend, and a broken mufket-ftock. In confequence of this intelligence, they endeavoured
to enter the mouth of a river called by the natives Tfikanok, and by the Ruffians Ofernia,
but the water was too fhallow. They landed
however'.their tackle and lading. No natives
made their appearance until the 22d, when two
came and welcomed the Ruffians. They told
their names, and were recognized by Soloviof,
who had known-., them on a former expedition,
when Agiak, one of the two, ferved as an interpreter; the other, whofe name was Kafhmak„
had continued fome time with the crew in the
fam e capacity.
They recounted the circumftances which attended the lofs of Kulkof's, Protaffof's, and
Trapefnikof's veffels; from the laft of which
Kafhmak had efcaped by flight. Agiak had been,
interpreter to Protaffof's company; and related
that the iflanders, after murdering the hunting
detachments of the Ruffians, came to the harbour, and having entered the fhip under the
moft friendly appearances, fuddenly attacked
and flew the crew. He had concealed himfelf
under a bench till the departure of the murderers,
and fince that time, Kafhmak and himfelf had
lived as fugitives; and in the courfe of their
wander- FROM I74I TO 1778. 2il
wanderings had learned the following intelligence
from the girls who were gathering berries in the
fields. The Toigons of Umnak, Akutan* and
Tofhko, with their- relations of Unalafhka, had
formed a confederacy? they agreed not to dif-
turb any Ruffians on their firft. landing, hut to
attack them at the fame time in their different
hunting excurfions. They acquainted him alfo
with Glottof's arrival at Umnak.
Soloviof alarmed by thefe unfavourable reports, doubled his watch; and ufed every precaution againft attacks. But wanting wood to
repair his veffel, and defirous to afcertain the
fituation of the ifland, he difpatched on the 29th
a party of thirty men, with the interpreter, to
its weftern extremity. In three or four hours
they rowed to Ankonom, a point of land, where
they found a village, confifting of two large
dwelling. caves, Oppofite to which was* a fmall
ifland. As foon as the inhabitants faw them
approaching, they efcaped in their baidars, leaving their dwellings empty; in which the Ruffians
found feveral fkeletons, fuppofed by the interpreter to be the remains of ten murdered failors
©f Trapefnikof's company. With much per-
fuafion «he interpreter prevailed on the iflanders
to return, but they kept at a wary diftance.
Soloviof attempted to cut off their retreat,
with a view to insure fome heftages, but they"
took the alarm and began an attack. The
Ruffians then fired and purfued them; four were
killed, and feven taken prifoners, among whom
was the Toigon of the little ifland Sedak.
Thefe prifoners, being bound and examined,
confeffed that many of Korovin's crew had been
here murdered; and the Toigon fent people to
bring mufkets, fome kettles and tackle, plu^gl
dered by the natives. They alfo brought intelligence that Korovin, with a party in two
baidars, had taken fhelter at a place called Inalga.
On this information letters being difpatched to
Korovin, he joined them the 2d of October.
At the time of his arrival, the favages made
another attack on Soloviof's watch with knives;
which obliged them to fire, and fix of the af-
failants were killed on the fpot. The captive
Toigon excufed this attempt of his people, by
afcribing it to their fears, left out of revenge
Korovin fhould put all the prifoners to death.
Soloviof, for the greater fecurity, fent the prifoners by land to the haven; while Korovin
and his party went by fea. The Toigon however
was treated kindly; and even permitted to return home on condition of leaving his fon as an
hoftage. In confequence of this kind behaviour,
the inhabitants of three other villages, Agulak,
Kutchlok, and Makufki, prefented hoftages of
their own accord.
From FROM I74I TO I778.
From the remaining timber of the old dwelling the Ruffians built a new hut; and on the
14th laid up the veffel. Koronof being fent
on a reconnoitring party to the fouthern fide
of the ifland, which in that part was not
more than five or fix verfts broad, proceeded
with his companions, fbmetimes rowing in canoes,
and fometimes dragging them over by land.
On the 20th he returned and reported, that he
had found an empty habitation upon the coaft
on the further fide of the ifland; he rowed from
thence eaftward along the fhore, and behind the
firft point of land came to an ifland in the next
bay; where he difcovered forty iflanders of both
fexes lodged under their baidars, who by his
friendly behaviour had been induced to give
three hoftages. Thefe people afterwards fettled
in the empty hut, and came frequently to the
On the 28th of Oftober, Soloviof himfelf went
on a reconnoitring party towards the north-eaft
end of the ifland. He rowed from the firft promontory acrofs a bay; and found on the oppofite point of land a dwelling-place called Agulok,
about four hours row from the harbour; it was
occupied by thirteen men and about forty women and children, who delivered feveral gun-
barrels and ihips-ftores, and" informed him of
P 3 two 214 '     B,0««TAasr DI6ft©V£RIES
two of Korovin's crew  who had   been murdered.
November 5, they proceeded; and after five or
fix hours rowing, faw on a point of land another
dwelling ©ailed Ikutchlok, beyond which the h>
terpreter fhewed them the haven where Korovin's
fhip had anchored. This was called Makufhin-
fky Bay; and on an ifland within it they found
two Toigons, Itcljadak and Kagumaga, with an
hundred and eighty people of both fexes employed
, in hunting fea-bears. Thefe natives not being
hoftile, Soloviof eftablifhed a friendly intercourfe
with them. He remained there until the ldtbj,
when the Toigons invited him to their winter-
quarters, which lay about five hours fail to the
eaft: there he found two dwelling caves, each
forty yards fquare, near a rivulet, abounding with
fifh, which fell from a lake into a little bay. In
the neighbourhood of this little village is a hot
fpring, whicb is only to be feen at ebb tide;
from thence he departed the 25th, but was forced
back by ftorms, and detained until the 6th of
Kagumaga then accompanied him to another
dwelling-place called Totzikala; both the ToU
gon and the interpreter advifed him to be on his
guard againft the natives, whom they reprefented.
as favgge, fworn ehemies to the Ruffians, and the FROM 1741 TO 1778. 215
murderers of nine of Kulkof *s crew. For thefe
reafons Soloviof paffed the night on the open
coaft, and next morning fent the Toigon to in-
fpire the natives with more- friendly fentiments.. .
Some liftened to his reprefentations; but the
greater part fled on his approach,, and he found
four dwelling' caves, almoft empty-, in which he
feburexL himfelf with fuitable precaution. Here
he difcovered three hundred darts and ten bolfs
with arrows, which he deftroyed, after referving
one bow and feventeen arrows' s^uri^fijaes. By
friendly arguments he urged the few natives who
' fgmained to lay afide their enfhijby, and perfuade
their leaders and relations to return.
On the 10th about a hundred men Sndiasfliill
greater number of women returned; but the
faireft fpeeches had no effe£l jv/daey. kept aloof
and prepared for hoftilities^ Whieh they began cm,
the 17th by an open attack. Nineteen of them
were killed, amongftwhom waslnlogufak one of
their leaders, and the moft inveterate, fomenter
of hoftilkibs againft the Ruffians. The other
leader Aguladock being taken, confeffed, that,
on receiving the firft news of Soloviof's arrival,
they had refolved to attack the crew, and btu^
the fhip. But notwithftanding this confeffion,
no injury was offered-to-him; he was3$revaHed_
upon tor give his fon as an hoftage, and order his
people to live on friendly terms wirfrthe Ruf-
P 4 fians. 216
fians. In January, the natives delivered in
three anchors, and a quantity of tackle, which
had been faved from a veffel formerly wrecked
on the coaft; and at the fame time brought three
boys and two young girls as pledges of their
future fidelity.
January 25, Soloviof fet out for the haven
where his fhip lay, and before his departure the
Toigons of Makufhinfk paid of$heir own accord
a double tribute.
February 1, Kulumaga of 'Makufhinfk, Agi-
dalok of Totzikala, and Imaginak of Ugamitzi,
Toigons of Unalafhka, with their relations, came
to Soliviof antkfiequainted him with the arrival
of a Ruffian fhip at Unimak, the fixth ifland to
the eaft of Agunalafhka; adding, that they knew
none of the crew except a Kamtchadal named
Kirilko, who had been there on a former occafion ; that the natives, after cutting off part of
the crew in two baidars, had found means to
overpower the remainder, and deftroyed the
veffel. From the name of Kamtchadal, they
concluded that this muft have been another veffel fitted out by Nikiphor Trapefnikof and company, of which no further information was ever
received. Willing to procure better intelli'
gence, they endeavoured to perfuade the Toigons to fend a party of their people to Unimak,
but the people excufed themfelves, on account of
the FROM   1741   TO   I770. 217
the great diftance and their dread of the inhabi-
Februaryi6, Soloviof fet out a fecond time
for the weft end of the ifland, where they had
formerly taken prifoner, and afterwards liberated,
the Toigon of Sedak, and proceeded to Ikolga,
a fingle hut which lies on the bay. On the
26th he came to Takamitka, where there is
only one hut on a point of land by the fide
of a rivulet. Here he met with Korovin, in
whofe company he cut the blubber of a whale,
which the waves had call on fhore; after this
Korovin croffed the gulph to Umnak, and Soloviof proceeded to Ikaltfhinfk, where on the
9th one of his party was carried off by ficknefs.
March 15, he returned to the haven, having
met with no oppofition from the iflanders during
his excurfion. On his return he found one of
the crew dead, and a dreadful fcurvy raging
among the reft; of which five died in March,
eight and a Kamtchadal in April, and fix more in
May. About this time the iflanders'were obferved to pay frequent vifits to the hoftages;
and on inquiring privately into the reafon, fome
of them owned that the inhabitants of Makufhinfk had formed the defign of cutting off the
crew, and making themfelves matters of the veffel.    Soloviof had now great reafon to be ap-
prehenfive; for his people were affii£ted with the
fcurvy to fo violent a degree, that only twelve
were capable of defending themfelves. Thefe
circumftances did not efcape the obfervation
of the natives; and they were infpired with
frefh courage to renew their hoftilities.
On the 27th of May the Ruffians perceived
the Toigon of Itchadak, who had formerly paid
a voluntary tribute, near the fhore, accompanied
by feveral iflanders in three baidars. Soloviof
.calling to him by the interpreter, he landed, but
kept at a diftance, defiring a conference with
fome of his relations. Soloviof gave orders to
feize him; and he was taken with two of his
companions. He immediately icSnfeffed, that
he had come with a view to inquire of the hoftages how many Ruffians were flill remaining;
having procured the neceffary intelligence, his
intention was to furprife the watch and afterwards fet fire to the fhip. He pointed out feveral iflanders who were paffing the harbour as
affembling to execute that defign. They fepa-
rated, however, without attempting any hoftilities.
June 5, Glottof vifited the harbour and returned on the 8th to his fhip. The captive
Toigon was now fet at liberty, after being
ferioufly exhorted to defift from hoftilities. In
the courfe of'this month two more of the crew
died; FROM 174t TO I778.
died; fo that'the. arrival of Korbvhi, who joined
""them with two of his own and two of Kulkof 's
crew, was a fiorftinate circumftance. The fick
began to recover gradually.
July 22, Soloviof, with a party, in two baidars, made another* excurfion northwards ; he
paffed the places formerly mentioned as far as
Igonok, which lies ten verfts beyond Totzikala,
and confifts of one dwelling cave on the fide of
a rivulet, which was inhabited by thirty men,
with their wives and children. From thence
Soloviof proceeded along the fhore into a bay ;
five verfts further he found another rivulet,
which has its fource among the hills, and flows
through a plain.
Upon the fhore of the fame bay, oppofite the
mouth of this rivulet, lay two villages, one of
which only was inhabited; it was called Ukuna?
dok, and confifted of fix dwelling caves. About
thirty-five of the inhabitants were employed in
^atfehing falmon in the rivulet. Kulkof's fhip
had lain at anchor at the diftance of two miles,
but no remains were to be found. Hence Soloviof proceeded forward to the fummer village
Umgaina, diftant feven or eight leagues, and
fituated on the fide of a rivulet abounding with
falmon. Here he found the Toigon Amaga-
nak, with ten of the natives employed in fifhing.
Fifteen verfts beyond was another fummer village 220 RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES
lage called Kalaktak, alfo by the fide of a rivulet.
The inhabitants were fixty men and an hundred
and feventy women and children : they gave
Soloviof a friendly reception, and delivered two
hoftages, who were brought from the' neighbouring ifland Akutan ; with thefe he returned,
and on the 6th of Auguft joined his crew.
On the nth, he went over to the ifland Umnak, to bring off fome fhips' ftores left there by
Korovin, who accompanied him, and returned to
the haven on the 27th. On the 31ft Shaffyrin
died, whofe adventures have been already related*.
Sept. 19, Koronof being fent northwards upon
an hunting party, returned the 30th of January,
1766. Although the Ruffians who remained at
the haven met with no moleftation from the natives during his abfence; yet, he and his companions were repeatedly attacked. Having dif-
tributed to the inhabitants of the feveral villages
through which he paffed, nets for catching fea-
otters, he went to the eaft part of the ifland as
far as Kalaktak, with an intention to hunt.
Upon his arrival at that place, the 31ft of October, the inhabitants fled with precipitation; and
all his efforts to conciliate their affections were
vain.    On the following day they returned in a
\ Chapter 8. *R0M   I741   TO   I778. 221
confiderable body, armed with lances, made from
the iron of the plundered veffels. Korenof and
his companions were prepared to receive them,
killed twenty-fix, and took feveral prifoners;
upon which the reft became more tractable.
November 19, Korenof, on his return, came
to Makufhinfk, where he was kindly received by
the Toigon Kulumaga; but the defigns of Itch-
adak were flill hoftile. Inftead of giving an account of the nets which had been left with him, he
withdrew privately ; and on the 1 gth of January,
accompanied by a numerous body of iflanders,
made an attempt to furprife the Ruffians. Victory again declared for Korenof; and fifteen of
the affailants, amongft whom was Itchadak himfelf, were killed. Kulumaga affured them in
the ftrongeft manner, that the defign had been
formed without his knowledge ; and protefted,
that he had often prevented his friend from committing acts of hoftility. "
Korenof returned to the haven on the'30th of
January ; and on the 4th of February went upon
another hunting expedition towards the weftern
point of the ifland. During this excurfion he
met with a party, fent out by Glottof, at a place
called Takamitka; he then rowed over to Umnak, where he colleEted a fmall tribute, and returned on the 3d of March. During bis abfence
Kyguaik, Kulumaga's fon, paid a vifit to the
Ruffians, and requefted that he might be baptized, which was complied with.
May 13th, Korovin went with fourteen men
to Umnak, to bring off an anchor, which was
buried in the fand. On his return preparations
were made for their departure. Before the arrival of Korovin the hunters had killed one hundred and fifty black and brown foxes, and the
fame number of old and young fea-otters : fince
his arrival they had caught three hundred and
fifty black foxes, the fame number of common
foxes, and one hundred and fifty fea-otters of
different fizes.
This cargo bei