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A voyage to the Pacific Ocean : undertaken by the command of His Majesty for making discoveries in the… King, James, 1750-1784 1785

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Array     VOYAGE
TO     THE
PACIFIC      OCEAN.
UNDERTAKEN,
BY THE  COMMAND  OF  HIS  MAJESTY,
FOR     MAKING
Difcoveries in the Northern Hemifphere.
Performed under the Direftion of Captains COOK, CLERKE, and GORE,
In His Majefty's Ships the Refolution and Di/covety; in the Years 1776, .1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780.
IN   THREE   VOLUMES.
VOL. I. and II. written by Captain JAMES   COOK,   F.R.S.
VOL.111, by Captain  JAMES   KING,   LL.D. and F.R.S.
Publifhed by Order of the Lords Commiffioners of the Admiralty.
THE   SECOND   EDITION
V O L.     III.
LONDON:
PRINTED    BY    H.    HUGHS,
FOR  G. NICOL, BOOKSELLER TO HIS MAJESTY, IN THE STRANDj
AND   T.   CADELL,   IN   THE   STRAND.
M.DCC.IXXXV,  CONTENTS
OF   THE
THIRD      VOLUME.
BOOK     V.
CAPTAIN    KTNG'S    JOURNAL    OF    THE   TRANSACTIONS   ON
RETURNING   TO   THE   SANDWICH   ISLANDS.
CHAP.   I.
T\Efcription of Karakakooa Bay.—Vaft Concourfe of the Natives.—Power of tbe Chiefs over the inferior People.—Vi-
Jit from Koah, aPrieft and Warrior.—The Morai at Kakooa
defcribed.—Ceremonies at the Landing of Captain Cook.—
Obfervatories erecled.—Powerful Operation of the Taboo.—
Method of falting Pork in tropical Climates.—Society of
Priefls difcovered.—Their Hofpitality and Munificence.—Reception of Captain Cook.—Artifice of Koah.—Arrival of
Terreeoboo, King of the IJland.—Singular Ceremony.—Vifit
from the King.—Returned by Captain Cook. Page i.
Vol. III.
CHAP. CONTENTS.
• '«Mi tiSJffc -CHAP.   •«"
Farther Account of TranfacJions with the Natives.-Their
Hof0alitf,f-Prompy to Tbej%±-Defc%iptio^ of a Boxing
Match.—Death of one of'our Seamen.—Behaviour of the
Priefts at his Funeral.—The Wood Work and Images on the
Moral purcbafed.—The Metfves. mquifitive about our Departure—Their Opinion about the Defign of our Voyage.—
Magnificent Prefents of Terreeoboo to Captain Cook.—The
Mips -leave the Ifiand&ThelRefolutian damaged in a Gale,
and obliged to return. 20
CHAP.   III.
Sufpicious Behaviour *oj tbe-Natives, 4n our Return to Kara-
kakooa Bay.—Theft on board ibe Difcovery, and its Confe-
quences.—The Pinnace attacked, and the Crew obliged to
quit her.—Captain Cook's Obfervations on the Occafion*—
Attempt at the Obfervatory.—The Cutter of the Difcovery
fiolen.—Meafures taken by Captain Cook for its Recovery.	
Goes on Shore, to invite the King on board.—The King
* bein$\fiopped by his Wife, and the Chiefs, a Contefl arifes.	
, News arrives of one of the Chiefs being killed, by one of
our People.—Ferment on this Occafion.—One of tbe Chiefs
-threatens Captain Cook, and is Jhot by him.—General Attack by the Natives.—Death of Captain Cook.—Account of
tbe Captains-Services, and a Sketch of his Character.      35
CHAP.    IV.
TranfacJions at Owhyhee, fubfequent to the Death of Captain
Cook,—Gallant Behaviour of the Lieutenant of Marines.—
Dangerous CONTENTS.
Dangerous Situation of the Party at the Morai.—Bravery
of one of the Natives.—Confutation refpecling future Mea-
fures.—Demand of the Body of Captain Cook. — Evafive
and infidious ConduSi of Koah, and tke Chiefs^-^Inf^nt Behaviour of tbe Natives.—Promotion of Officers.—Arrival
of two Priefts with Part of tbe Body.—Extraordinary Behaviour of two Boys.—Burning of the Village of Kqkooa.—
Unfortunate DeflrucJion of the Dwellings of the Priefis.—
Recovery of the Bones of Captain Cook.—Departure from
Karakakooa Bay. 53
CHAP.   V.
"Departure from Karakakooa in Search of an Harbour on
the South Eaft Side of Mowee.—Driven to Leeward by the
Eafierly Winds and Current.—jpa/i the Ifiand of Tahoorowa.
—Defcription of the South Wefl Side of Mowee.—Run along
the Coajls of Ranai and Morotoi to^ Woahoo.—Defcription
of the North Eafl Coafl of Woahoo.—Unfuccefsful Attempt
to water.—Paffage to Atooi.—Anchor in Wymoa Bay.—
Dangerous Situation of the Watering Party on Shore.-*$$&
vil DiffettfiOns in the IJlan^ls^Vifit from the contending
Chiefs.—Anchor offOneeheow.—Final Departure from the
Sandmcb JJlands. 83
CHAP.   VI.
General Account of the Sanchtoicb I/lands.—Their Number,
Names, anM^t-iiation.—Owhyhee.—Its Extent, and Di-
vifion into DifiriBs.—Account of its Coajls, and the atya£&nt
Country. — Volcanic Appearances. —Snowy Mountains. —
Their Height determined.—Account of a Journey into the
A 2 interior CONTENTS.
■interior Farts of the Country.—Mowee.—Tahqorowa.—
Morotoi.—Ranai.—Woahoo.—Atooi.—Oneeheow.
Oreehoua.—Tahoora.—Climate.— Winds.—Currents.
—Tides. — Animals and Vegetables. — Aftronomical Obfer-
vations. m\s?& ioo
CHAP.   VII.
General Account of the Sandwich IJlands continued.—Of the
Inhabitants.—Their Origin.—Perfons.—Pernicious EJfeBs
of the Ava.—Numbers.—Difpofition and Manners.—Rea-
fons for fuppofing them not Cannibals.—Drefs and Ornaments.—Villages and Houfes.—Food.—Occupations and
Amufements.—AddiBed to Gaming.—Their extraordinary
Dexterity in Swimming.—Arts and ManufaBures.—Curious Specimens of their Sculpture.—Kipparee, or Method of
painting Cloth.—Mats.—Fijuing Hooks.—Cordage.—Salt
Pans.—Warlike Inftruments. 124
CHAP.   VIII.
General Account of the Sandwich IJlands continued.—Government.—People divided into three Clajfes.—Power of Eree-
taboo.—Genealogy of tbe Kings of Owbyhee and Mowee.	
Power of the Chiefs .—State of the inferior Clafs.—PuniJJo-
ment of Crimes.—Religion.—Society of Priefis.—The Orono.
—Their Idols.—Songs chanted by the Chiefs, before they
drink Ava.—Human Sacrifices.—Cufiom of knocking out
the Fore-teeth.—Notions with regard to a future State.—
Marriages.—Remarkable Infiance of Jealoufy.—Funeral
Rites.
J53
BOOK CONTENTS.
BOOK     VI.
TRANSACTIONS DURING THE SECOND EXPEDITION TO THE
NORTH, BY THE WAY OF KAMTSCHATKA ', AND ON THE
RETURN HOME, BY THE WAY OF CANTON, AND THE CAPE
OF   GOOD   HOPE. \
CHAP.   I.
Departure from Oneeheow.—Fruitlefs Attempt to difcover
Modoopapappa.—Courfe Jleered for Awatfka Bay.—Occurrences during that Pajffage.—Sudden Change from Heat to
Cold.—Diftrefs occafioned by the leaking of the Refolution.—
View of the Coaji of Kamtfchatka. — Extreme Rigour of
the Climate.—Lofe Sight of the Difcovery.—Tbe Refolution
enters the Bay of Awatfka.—ProfpeB of the Town of Saint
Peter and Saint Paul.—Party fent ajhore.—Their Reception by the Commanding Officer of the Port.—Meffage dif-
patched to the Commander at Bolcheretfk.—Arrival of the
Difcovery. — Return of the Meffengers, from the Commander.—Extraordinary Mode of travelling.—Vifit from
a Merchant, and a German Servant belonging to the
Commander. 171
CHAP.   II.
Scarcity of Provifions and Stores at the Harbour of Saint
Peter and Saint Paul.— A Party fet'out to vifit the
Commander at Bolcheretfk.—Pajfage up the river Awatfka. CONTENTS.
fka.-*Account of their Reception by tbe Toion of Karat-
chin.—Defcription of a Kamtfchadale Drejs.—Journey on
Sledges. —Defcription of this Mode of Travelling.—Arrival at Natcheekin.—Account of hot Springs.—Embark
on the Bolchoireka. — Reception at tbe Capital.—Generous and hofpitable ConduB of the Commander and the
Garrifon.—Defcription of Bolcheretfk.—Prefents from tbe
Commander .—Ruffian and Kamtfchadale Dancing.—Af-
feBing Departure from Bolcheretfk. — Return to Saint
Peter and Saint Paul's, accompanied by Major Behm, who
vifits the Ships.—Generofity of the Sailors.—Difpatcbes fent
by Major Behm to Petersburg.—His Departure and Cha-
raBer.       , 196
CHAP-     III-
Continuation of TranfaBions in the Harbour of St. Peter and
St. Paul. — Abundance of Fi/b.—Death of a Seaman belonging to the Refolution.—The Ruffian Hofpital put under
the Care of the Ship's Surgeons. — Supply of Flour and
Cattle. — Celebration of the King's Birth-day. — Difficulties
in failing out of tbe Bay .—Eruption of a Volcano.—Steer
to the Northward.—Cheepoonfkoi Nofs.—Errors of the Ruffian Charts.—KamtfchatfkoiNofs.—OlutorJkoi Nofs.—TJcbu-
kotjkoi Nofs.—Ifiand of St. Laurence.—View, from the fame
Point, of the Coajls of Afia and America, and tbe IJlands
of St. Diomede.—Various Attempts to get to the North, between the two Continents.—ObfiruBed by impenetrable Ice
—Sea-horfes and white Bears killed.—Captain Gierke's Determination, and future Defigns. 228
CHAP. CONTENTS;
CHAP.    IV.
Fruitlefs Attempts to penetrate through tbe Ice to tbe -North
Weft.—Dangerous Situation of tbe Difcovery .—Sea-borfes
kilted.—Frejb ObftruBions from tbe Ice.—Report of Da-
i Gierke's Deter-
foy of tbe Ships
mages received by tbe Difcovery.—Captai
mination to proceed to tbe So\
Crews on that Occafion.—Pa,
■hward,
Serdzt
through Beering's Strait.—Inquiry into tbe Extent of tbe
North Eafi Coafi of Afia.—Reafons for rejeBing Mutter's
Map of tbe Promontory of the Tfcbutfki.—Reafons for believing tbe Coafi does not reach a higher Latitude than yo°k
North.—General Obfervations on tbe Impracticability of a
North Eafi, or North Weft Paffiage from tbe Atlantic into
tbe Pacific Ocean.—Comparative View of tbe Progrefs
made in tbe Tears 1778 and 1779.—Remarks on tbe Sea,
and Sea-coafis, North of Beering's Strait.—Hifiory of tbe
Voyage refumed.—Pafs tbe Ijland of St. Laurence.—Tbe
I [land of Mednoi.—Death of Captain Clerke.—Short Account of bis Services. 1$$
CHAP.    V.
Return to tbe Harbour of Saint Peter and Saint Paul.—
Promotion of Officers.—Funeral of Captain Clerke.—Damages of tbe Difcovery repaired.—Various other Occupations
of tbe Ships Crews .—Letters from tbe Commander.—Supply of Flour and Naval Stores from a Ruffian Galliot.—Account of an Exile.—Bear-bunting and Fifbing Parties.—
Difgrace of tbe Serjeant.—Celebration of tbe King's Coro- CONTENTS.
nation Day, and Vifit from the Commander .-The Serjeant
reinftaied. — A Ruffian Soldier promoted at our Requeft.—
Remarks on the Difcipline of the Ruffian Army. —Church
■"•ut Paratounca.—Method of Bear-hunting. — Fantker Account of the Bears and Kamtfchadales .—Infer iptioH to the
Memory of Captain Gierke.—Supply of Cattle.—Entertainments on the Emprefs's Name Day.— Prefent from the
Commander.—Attempt of a Marine to defert.—Work out
of the Bay. —Nautical and Geographical Defcription of
Awatfka Bay.—Afironomical Tables, and Obfervations.   282
A C H A P.    VI.
General Account of Kamtfcbatka. — Geographical Defcription .—Rivers.—Soil.—Climate.—Volcanos.—Hot Springs.
—ProduBions.—Vegetables.—Animals.—Birds.—Fijh. 324
CHAP.    VII.
General Account of Kamtfcbatka continued.—Of tbe Inhabitants.— Origin of the Kamtfchadales.— Difcovered by tbe
Ruffians.—AbftraB of their Hifiory.—Numbers.—Prefent
State.—Of the Ruffian Commerce in Kamtfcbatka.—Of tbe
Kamtfchadale Habitations and Drefs. — 0/ the Kurile
IJlands.—The Koreki.—The Tfcbutfki. 358
CHAP.    VIII.
Plan of our future Proceedings.—Courfe to tbe Southward,
along the Coafi of Kamtfcbatka.-Cape Lopatka.—Pafs tbe
IJlands Shoomjka and Paramoufir.—Driven to tbe Eafl-
wardofthe Kuriles.-Singular Situation with refpeB to the
pretended CONTENTS.
pretended Difcoveries of former Navigators.—Fruitlefs At*
tenipts to reach the IJlands North of Japan.—Geographical
Conclufions.—View of the Coafi of Japan.—Run along tbe
Eafi Side.—Pafs two Japanefe Veffels.—Driven ofi'tbe Coafi
by contrary Winds.—Extraordinary EfifeB of Currents.—
Steer for tbe Bajhees.— Pafs large Quantities of Pumice
Stone.—Difcover Sulphur Ifiand.—Pafs the Pratas.—Ifies
of Lema, and Ladrone Ifland. — Chinefe Pilot taken on
board the Refolution.—Journals of the Officers and Men
■ fecured. 38a
CHAP.    IX.
Working up to Macao.—A Chinefe Comprador.—Sent on Shore
to vifit the Portuguefe Governor.—EJfeBs of the Intelli*
gence we received from Europe.—Anchor in the Typa.—
Paffage up to Canton.—Bocca Tygris.—Wampu.—Defcription of a Sampane.—Reception at the Englifh FaBory.—
Infiance of tbe fufpicious CharaBer of the Chineje.—Of
their Mode of trading.—Of the City of Canton.—Its Size.
—Population.—Number of Sampanes.—Military Force.—
Of the Streets and Houfes.—Vifit to a Chinefe.—Return
to Macao.—Great Demand for the Sea-otter Skins.—Plan
of a Voyage for opening a Fur Trade on the Wefiern Coafi
of America, and profecuting further Difcoveries in the
Neighbourhood of Japan.—Departure from Macao.—Price
of Provifions in China. 417
CHAP.    X.
Leave the Typa.—Orders of the Court of France refpeBing
Captain Cook.—Refolutions in confequence thereof.—Strike
Vol. III. a Soundings  CONTENTS.
APPENDIX.
I. Tables of the Route of the Refolution and Difcovery, the
Variation of the Compafs, and Meteorological Obferva-
tions, during tbe Voyage. 491
II. A comparative Table of Numerals, exhibiting the Affinity
and Extent of Language, which is found to prevail in
all the IJlands of tbe Eafiern Sea, and derived from
that fpoken on the Continent of Afia, in the Country of
the Malay es. fronting 528
III. Vocabulary of tbe Languages of the Friendly IJlands.   529
IV. Vocabulary of the Language of Nootka, or King George's
Sound. 540
V. Vocabulary of the Language of Atooi, one of the Sandwich
IJlands. 547
VI. Table to Jhew the Affinity between the Languages fpoken
at Oonalajhka and Norton Sound, and tbofe of the
Greenlanders and Efquimaux. 552
VII. Table of the Variations of the Compafs, obferved by Captain Cook during his Pajfagefrom England to tbe Cape
of Good Hope.    See Vol. I. p. 49. SS^c    VOYAGE
TO     THE
PACIFIC     OCE AN,
BOOK     V.
CAPTAIN    KING'S    JOURNAL    OF    THE    TRANSACTIONS   ON
RETURNING    TO    THE    SANDWICH   ISLANDS,
CHAP.    I.
Defcription of Karakakooa Bay.—Vafi Concourfe of the Natives.—Power of the Chiefs over the inferior People.—Vifit.
from Koah, a Priefi and Warrior.—The Moral at Kakooa
defcribed.—Ceremonies at the Landing of Captain Cook.—
Obfervatories ereBed.—Powerful Operation of the Taboo.—
Method of falting Pork in tropical Climates.—Society of
Priefts difcovered.—Their-Hofpitality and Munificence.—Reception of Captain Cook.—Artifice of Koah.—Arrival of
Terreeoboo, King of the Ifiand.—Singular Ceremony.—Vifit
from the King.—Returned, by Captain Cook.
KARAKAKOOA Bay is fituated on the Weft fide of the      ,779.
ifiand of Owhyhee, in a diftrict caUed Akona.    It is  ;Jatmary',
about a mile in depth, and bounded by two low Sunday 17,
.points of land, at the diftance of half a league, and bearing
South South Eaft and North North Weft from each other.
Vol. III. B On A    VOYAGE    TO
On the North point, which is flat and barren, ftands the
, village of Kowrowa; and in the bottom of the bay, near a
grove of tall cocoa-nut trees, there is another village of a
more confiderable fize, called Kakooa : between them runs
a high rocky cliff, inacceflible from the fea more. On the
South fide, the coaft, for about a mile inland, has a rugged
. appearance; beyond which the country rifes with a gradual afcent, and is overfpread with cultivated inclofures
and groves of cocoa-nut trees, where the habitations of the
natives are fcattered in great numbers. The more, all
round the bay, is covered with a black coral rock, which
makes the landing very dangerous in rough weather; except at the village of Kakooa, where there is a fine fandy
beach, with a Moral, or burying-place, at one extremity,
and a fmall well of frefh water, at the other. This bay
appearing to Captain Cook a prapeiLplace to refit the fhips,
and lay in an additional fupply of water and provifions, we
moored on the North fide, about a quarter, of a mile from
the fhore, Kowrowa bearing Weft North Weft.
As foon as the inhabitants perceived our intention of
anchoring in the bay, they came off from the more in afto-
nifhing numbers, and exprefled their joy by fingirig and
fhouting, and exhibiting a variety of wild and extravagant
geftures. The fides, the decks, and rigging of both mips
were foon completely covered with them ; and a multitude
of women and boys, who had not been able to get canoes,
came fwimming round us in fhoals; many of whom not
finding room on board, remained the whole day playing in
the water. 6
Among the chiefs who came on board the Refolution,
was a young man, called Pareea, whom we foon perceived
to be a perfon of great axithority.   On preferring himfelf to
1 Captain THE   PACIFIC   OCEAN.
Captain Cook, he told him, that he was Jakanee M to the
king of the ifiand, who was at that time engaged on a military expedition at Mowee, and was expected to return
within three or four days. A few prefents from Captain
Cook attached him entirely to our interefts, and he became
exceedingly ufeful to us in the management of his countrymen, as we had foon occallon to experience. For we had
not been long at anchor, when it was obferved that the
Difcovery had fuch a number of people hanging oh one
fide, as occafioned her to heel confiderably; and that the
men were unable to keep off the crowds which continued
prefling into her. Captain Cook, being apprehenfive that
fhe might fuffer fome injury, pointed out the danger to
Pareea, who immediately went to their affiftance, cleared
the lliip of its incumbrances, and drove away the canoes
that furrounded her.
The authority of the chiefs over the inferior people
appeared from «this incident to be of the moft defpotic
kind. A fimilar inftance of it happened the fame day
on board the Refolution ; where the crowd being fo
great, as to impede the necelTary buiinefs of the fhip,
we were obliged to have recourfe to the affiftance of
Kaneena, another of their chiefs, who had likewife attached himfelf to Captain Cook. The inconvenience we
laboured under being made known, he immediately ordered his countrymen to quit the veffel; and we were
not a little furprized to fee them jump overboard, without a moment's hefitation; all except one man, who loitering behind, and fhewing fome unwillingnefs to obey,
* We afterward met with feveral others of the fame denomination ; but whether it be
an office, or fome degree of affinity, we could never learn with certainty.
B 2 Kaneena A    VOYAGE    TO
Kaneena took him up in his arms, and threw him into the
Both thefe chiefs were men of ftrong and well-proportioned bodies, and of countenances remarkably pleafing.
Kaneena efpecialfy, whofe portrait Mr. Webber has drawn,
was one of the fineft men I ever faw. He was about
fix feet high, had regular and expreflive features, with
lively, dark eyes; his carriage was eafy, firm, and graceful.
It has been already mentioned, that during our long
cruife off this ifiand, the inhabitants had always behaved
with great fairnefs and honefty in their dealings, and had
not fhewrn the flighteft propenfity to theft; which appeared
to us the more extraordinary, becaufe thofe with whom we
had hitherto held any intercourfe, were of the loweft rankr
either fervants or fifhermen. We now found the cafe exceedingly altered. The immenfe crowd of iflanders, which
blocked up every part of the mips, not only afforded frequent opportunity of pilfering without rifk of difcoveryv
but our inferiority in number held forth a profpect of
efcaping with impunity in cafe of detection. Another cir-
cumftance, to which we attributed this alteration in their
behaviour, was the prefence and encouragement of their
chiefs; for, generally tracing the booty into the pofieffion
of fome men of confequence, we had the ftrongeft reafBn?
to fufpect that thefe depredations, were committed at their
inftigatiom
- Soon after the Refolution had got