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The bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland; being an illustrated historical sketch… Rev. Charles. H. Mockridge 1896

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Array       THE BISHOPS OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND
IN CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND.  The Bishops
Church of England
CANADA and NEWFOUNDLAND
An Illustrated Historical Sketch of the Church of England
in Canada, as traced through her Episcopate.
Rev. Charles H. Mockridge, M.A., D.D.
Canon of St. Alban's Cathedral, Toronto, and Secretary-Treasurer
of the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of
the Church of England in Canada.
TORONTO:
F. N. W. BROWN. Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year
thousand eight hundred and ninety-six, by F. N. W. Brown,
at tbe Department of Agriculture.
h7 TO   THE
Right Reverend Arthur Sweatman, D.D., D.C.L.
LORD BISHOP OF TORONTO
THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED
BY THE AUTHOR,
IN GRATEFUL REMEMBRANCE OF AN UNVARYING FRIENDSHIP
MANY KIND DEEDS WHICH CAN NEVER BE FORGOTTEN.  PREFACE
The History of the Church of England in Canada
has never yet been written in one complete work. The
present book is designed to furnish an outline for such
a work should it ever be undertaken, and to supply information regarding all the bishops of British territory
in North America which at present is not readily obtainable. Should this prove useful to the Church, the
author will be more than compensated for his labour.
C.H.M.
Toronto, fuly nth, 1896.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Diocese of Algoma : PAGE
First Bishop—Dr. F. D. Fauquier  267
Second Bishop—Dr. E. Sullivan  328
Diocese of Athabasca :
First Bishop—Dr. W. C. Bompas  285
Second Bishop—Dr. R. Young ,  341
Diocese of Caledonia :
First Bishop—Dr. W. Ridley  316
Diocese of Columbia :
First Bishop—Dr. G. Hills  163.
Second Bishop—Dr. Perrin  373
Diocese of Fredericton :
First Bishop—Dr. J. Medley  112
Second Bishop—Dr. H. Kingdon  326
Diocese of Huron :
First Bishop—Dr. B. Cronyn  150-
Second Bishop—Dr. I. Hellmuth  250
Third Bishop—Dr. M. S. Baldwin  334
Diocese of Mackenzie River :
First Bishop—Dr. W. C. Bompas  283
Second Bishop—Dr. W. D. Reeve  36a x# Table of Contents.
Diocese of Montreal : pace.
First Bishop—Dr. J. Fulford  z33
Second Bishop—Dr. A. Oxenden  ^44
Third Bishop—Dr. W. B. Bond ■ • 3°2
Diocese of Moosonee :
First Bishop—Dr. J. Horden  256
Second Bishop—Dr. J. A. Newnham  375
Diocese of Newfoundland :
First Bishop—Dr. A. G. Spencer  96
Second Bishop—Dr. E. Feild  101
Third Bishop—Dr. J. B. Kelly  239
Fourth Bishop—Dr. Ll. Jones  297
Diocese of New Westminster :
First Bishop—Dr. A. W. Sillitoe  322
Second Bishop—Dr. John Dart  377
Diocese of Niagara :
First Bishop—Dr. T. B. Fuller  291
Second Bishop—Dr. C. Hamilton  351
Third Bishop—Dr. J. P. DuMoulin  379
Diocese of Nova Scotia :
First Bishop—Dr. C. Inglis     1
Second Bishop—Dr. R. Stanser  ,7
Third Bishop—Dr. J. Inglis  .-,
Fourth Bishop—Dr. H. Binney  I4I
Fifth Bishop—Dr. F. Courtney  360
Diocese of Ontario :
First Bishop—Dr. T. T  Lewis
  *75
Diocese of Ottawa :
First Bishop—Dr. C. Hamilton  35, Table of Contents xi.
Diocese of Qu'Appelle : PAGE
First Bishop—Dr. A. J. R. Anson  339
Second Bishop—Dr. W. J. Burn  371
Diocese of Quebec :
First Bishop—Dr. J. Mountain  26
Second Bishop—Dr. C. J. Stewart  50
Third Bishop—Dr. G. J. Mountain  58
Fourth Bishop—Dr. J. W. Williams  196
Fifth Bishop—Dr. A. Hunter Dunn  369
Diocese of Rupert's Land :
First Bishop—Dr. D. Anderson  123
Second Bishop—Dr. R. Machray  209
Diocese of Saskatchewan :
First Bishop—Dr. J. McLean  275
Second Bishop—Dr. W. C. Pinkham  356
Diocese of Selkirk :
First Bishop—Dr. W. C. Bompas  283
Diocese of Toronto :
First Bishop—Dr. J. Strachan  78
Second Bishop—Dr. A. N. Bethune  231
Third Bishop—Dr. A. Sweatman  309    THE   BISHOPS   OF  THE   CHURCH   OF
ENGLAND IN CANADA AND
NEWFOUNDLAND.
i. The Right Rev: Charles Inglis, D.D., First
Bishop of Nova Scotia, and First Colonial Bishop.
CHARLES INGLIS was by birth an Irishman.
He came of a clerical race, his father, grandfather, and great grandfather having been
clergymen of the Church of England. He was born
in the year 1734, when his father, the Rev. Archibald
Inglis, was living in Glen and Kilcarr, Ireland. The
thirteen colonies of the new world were then British
territory, and many a young man left the old land
with high hopes for the future as he went forth to seek
his fortune. Of these was young Inglis. We find
him as a very young man teaching in the free school
at Lancaster, Pennsylvania. This was a school established by a society in England for the purpose of
educating the children of German colonists. It was' a
Church school, the Archbishop of Canterbury being
its head.
The heart of the young Briton, however, seems
to have been set upon  the  sacred ministry, but to 2 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
obtain Holy Orders in those days was a difficult matter
for those living in the colonies. It meant a journey
across the Atlantic—in days when navigation was
perilous and slow. Mr. Inglis went, and in the year
1758, at the hands of the Rt. Rev. Thomas Hayter,
Bishop of London, was admitted to the diaconate, and
also to the priesthood. Armed with the Bishop's
license, with an appreciation of Holy Orders which
such an effort to obtain them alone could give, he
returned to his home in the colonies, where we find
him in the year 1759 ministering to a scattered people
at Dover, in the State of Delaware, a narrow strip of
land lying between Maryland and the Atlantic Ocean,
and touching at its northern extremity the State of
Pennsylvania.
His mission comprised a whole county, the
County of Kent. It was thirty-three miles long and
thirteen broad, and had a population estimated at
seven thousand. Here, in an unhealthy climate, he
laboured with unflagging zeal. Two churches enlarged, one rebuilt, and a fourth erected were visible
fruits of his labour. In 1763 the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (which in
future we shall designate by its well-known initials,
" S.P.G."—a society formed in England in the year
1701 for the purpose indicated by its name—a society
without which the Church could scarcely have existed
in early days in the colonies) received" a letter' from
him, in which he said that his mission was in «a
flourishing state, if building and repairing churches if
crowds attending the public worship of God and other
religions ordinances, if some of other denominations Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (17S7-1816). 3
joining, and a revival of a spirit of piety in many, can
denominate it such"; though there were still "left
lukewarmness, ignorance, and vice enough to humble
him sufficiently, and exercise, if he had it, an apostolic
zeal."*
The unenlightened condition of the Indians—Mohawks, Oneidas, and Tuscaroras—gave Mr. Inglis
much concern, and through his efforts the S.P.G., that
ever-ready society, sent missionaries and teachers to
Schenectady, Fort Hunter, and Johnstown. He himself also worked vigorously amongst them.
After a missionary career of six years in this district, Mr. Inglis, having lost his wife, and suffered
considerably in his own health, accepted, in 1765, the
position of assistant minister of Trinity Church, New
York, then described as "a small square edifice," but
having a wealthy and aristocratic congregation. Two
years after his appointment, Mr. Inglis received the
honorary degree of M.A. from King's College, New
York, and three years later became a governor of the
college. A few years after he received the same degree
from Oxford.f
The rector of the church was Dr. Samuel Auch-
muty, who soon found Mr. Inglis to be a worthy and
valuable assistant. But dark and dreary days set in
for both, and for all Church people throughout the
colonies, as they struggled with the mother land for
their independence. Though Washington was himself
a member of the Church, the great bulk of Church
people were Loyalists, and, as such, suffered greatly as
*See Digest of S.P.G. Records, p. 36.
t" The Church in Nova Scotia."    By Rev. A. W. Eaton, p. 127. 4 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
the struggle continued. In 1774, Mr. Inglis, in a letter
which he wrote to the S.P.G.,* gives a most harrowing
description of the sufferings that the Loyalist clergy
were called upon to endure. What wonder if many of
them fled, as we know they did, to places of safety ?
In the spring of 1776, Washington entered New
York. Dr. Auchmuty, Rector of Trinity Church, felt
unable, through failing health, to face the troubles that
threatened, and withdrew to Brunswick, in New Jersey.
Mr. Inglis remained at his post. On one Sunday he
received a message that Washington intended to be
present at the church service, and desired the omission
of the State prayers. To this, however, no attention was
paid. On another occasion a band of soldiers marched
to the church with fixed bayonets and to the sound of
fife and drum, as Mr. Inglis was officiating. Women
fainted and children cried. Every one felt that if Mr.
Inglis should venture to say the prayers for the King,
he would be shot. The intrepid parson, however,
faltered not, but did what he felt to be his duty. No
harm came to him, though he had very good reason to
believe afterwards that harm was intended. God had
more work for His valiant servant to do.f
In July, 1776, the Declaration of Independence
was made. Clearly, then, there could be no permanent
place in New York for a man like Mr. Inglis.   After con-
* Anderson's " History of the Church of England in the Colonies," iii., p. 464.
tThis circumstance has its counterpart in an incident in the Fnfflkh Pivi'l w,-
rdated by Rev. H. G. Youard, Vicar of Whitegate, CtWicTin IZ CWW,
SS'ffiEST TrVic^ t^to^an^^ * ^ ^"JF* ,he
do your duty, and I will do mine "-and continued c-"-' ■• :
ding the pra Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1787-1816). 5
ference with his vestry, the churches, Trinity and St.
Paul's,were closed. Mr. Inglis himself withdrew to Long
Island. He had married as his second wife Margaret,
daughter of John Crooke, Esq., of Ulster County, New
York, and he now sends her and their " three helpless
babes " seventy miles up the North River. In September, British troops marched into New York. The
hopes of Loyalists revived. Mr. Inglis returned, found
his house pillaged and most of his property destroyed.
He held service on Wednesday, but before the week
ended a fire broke out in the city, by which over one
thousand buildings were destroyed, and among them
Trinity Church, with its library and schools. Whether
this was an accident or the work of an incendiary is
not known. St. Paul's Chapel and King's College were
saved, it is said, through the exertions of Mr. Inglis
himself.
Dr. Auchmuty dragged himself to New York-to
witness the wreck of his property and work. Nothing
was left to him. Even his wife and daughters were in
the hands of the enemy. Still he resumed his work,
occupying St. Paul's Chapel. Melancholy work must
this have been for both rector and assistant. It soon
proved too much for the older man. In March, 1777,
he died. The vestry met and elected Charles Inglis
Rector of Trinity parish. The church was in ruins, and
property to the extent of £22,000 sterling had been
lost. Mr. Inglis was inducted in the presence of a few
people, by placing his hand upon the blackened ruins
of the church that had been burnt. In the following
year, 1778, the University of Oxford conferred upon the
new rector the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. 6 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
During the War of Independence the Church of
England in the colonies suffered terribly. Congregations were dispersed, and clergymen fled to England
or elsewhere. As the war drew to a close, it was but a
shattered remnant of its former self. In Virginia
alone, where, at the beginning of the war, there were
one hundred and sixty-four churches and ninety-one
clergymen, most of the churches at its close were in
ruins, and twenty-eight clergymen only remained.
But out of this gloom sprang a fresh light. When
it was seen that Independence was inevitable, some of
the clergy met in March, 1783, to select one of their
number to be their bishop. Dr. Seabury was chosen
to be Bishop of Connecticut, as soon as consecration
could be obtained from the Old Country. At this
meeting a letter was drawn up and addressed to " His
Excellency, Sir Guy Carleton," who was then in chief
command of the British forces in the American colonies.* The subject of this letter was the great need
that existed for appointing a Bishop for Nova Scotia.
Amongst other reasons given the following is worth
recording, as showing the mind of the leading colonial
Churchmen of the da}-:
" While orders are only to be had in England, the
danger of the sea, the expense of the voyage, and the
difficulties of transacting business among strangers will
ever, as it ever has done, discourage the greater part
of those gentlemen who would go into orders if the
danger, expense, and difficulty attending a voyage to
England could be avoided. We do know that many
nearly a fourth part of those who have encountered
'See " The Irishman in Canada."    By Nicholas Flood Davin. Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (17' --18 jfj). 7
this danger, have lost their lives in the attempt. We
also know that many have been obliged to incur debts
on this occasion, which the scanty subsistence they
were obliged to return to has scarcely enabled them to
discharge in many years. To this also it has, in a
great measure, been owing that while dissenters have
had ministers enough to satisfy every demand, and
even to crowd into every place where they could
possibly support themselves, the Church has never
had clergymen enough to supply the larger towns, and
when any vacancy has happened it has been so long
before another incumbent could be procured that the
congregation has, in a manner, been dispersed, and
the labours of his predecessor nearly lost."
There is something truly pathetic in this appeal,
especially when it is added: " We beg leave to observe
that the clergy of most of the colonies have been
soliciting the appointment of American bishops at
different times for many years past, and the answer
ever has been that the present time was not a proper
one, but a more favourable opportunity must be waited
for."*
Such was the touching complaint of early days;
and if Churchmen are ever inclined to wonder why the
Anglican Church is not as strong in America and the
colonies as they may think it ought to be, the wonder
really is that it is as strong as it is, and that it did not
become extinct when forced to be so long without the
episcopate.
The letter above mentioned was dated New York,
March 21st, 1783, and is signed  by Charles  Inglis,
*See Archives', Nova Scotia Historical Society. 8 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Samuel Seabury, and sixteen others. A second letter,
dated the 26th of March, briefly recommends the
Reverend Dr. Thomas Bradbury Chandler, " now in
London," as " the gentleman to be appointed the
Bishop for Nova Scotia." The second letter is signed
by the same names as the first, except that it is wanting in that of Thomas Moore, and that Jeremiah
Learning in the first is written Jeremiah Learning in
the second, and John O'Dell becomes Jonathan
O'Dell, and Isaac Browne, Isaac Brown without the e.
Probably clergymen and others were not as particular
about their names in those days as they are now; but
so, with these variations, the names are published.
In July, by a final treaty with Great Britain, the
United States of America became a separate and
independent nation. Then followed the persecution
of those who had been loyal to the British crown, the
confiscation of their property, resulting in their hasty
flight from everything that had been dear to them at
home. Dr. Inglis lingered after thousands and thousands had gone, and then at length departed to begin
life over again on British soil. About this time also
his second wife died, leaving three motherless children,
one son—his firstborn son having died when nine years
old—and two daughters, to the unfortunate refugee as
all that remained of his old and once happy home.
Dr. Seabury, after many vexatious delays and
complications, was consecrated by the non-juring
bishops of Scotland on the 14th of November, 1784,
and returned to Connecticut, the first bishop to occupy
a diocese anywhere on earth (outside of Great Britain
and Ireland) in connection with   the Anglican com- Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1787-1816I. 9
; the first bishop on the honoured roll of the
American episcopate,
which to-day has attained to the number
of about eighty prelates.
The great bulk of
refugees who came to
be known as United
Empire Loyalists fled
to Nova Scotia, some
to New Brunswick,
and other parts of
what is now called
Canada. Dr. Inglis
Bishop Seabury. seems to have gone to
Nova Scotia, and from there to England, where he
was as early as May, 1785.* He took with him to the
motherland a letter from Sir Guy Carleton to Lord
North, recommending him to his Lordship's favourable
notice as being | the rector of the principal church in
New York, a zealous Loyalist, who, on that account,
had lost a considerable landed estate by confiscation,
and was at length obliged to relinquish a valuable
living in the Church."
Here Dr. Inglis met his friend, Dr. Chandler,
whom he had recommended for the proposed bishopric
of Nova Scotia. He found that England had treated
him well, Oxford having conferred upon him her
highest degree, and the Government having increased
his stipend from £50 to £200 a year.f
* I The Church in Nova Scotia," etc.    Eaton, p. 124.
t Anderson's " History of the Colonial Church," vol. iii, p. 469- io The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Early in 1787 two clergymen arrived in England
from the United States seeking apostolic consecration
at the hands of the Archbishop of Canterbury. These
were Dr. William White, Bishop-elect of Pennsylvania, and Samuel Provost, Bishop-elect of New York.
They were consecrated on the 4th of February at
Lambeth Palace by Dr. John Moore, Archbishop of
Canterbury, assisted by Dr. Charles Moss, Bishop of
Bath and Wells, and Dr. John Hinchcliffe, Bishop of
Peterborough. It was a very quiet service, the congregation consisting chiefly of the Archbishop's family
and household, together with the officiating clergy.*
Whether Dr. Inglis was present at this service or not,
he must have taken a lively interest in it, as it was an
important step in setting the infant Church of the
United States (with which in colonial days he had
been so'closely connected) on its feet.f
Before the year closed, the arrangements for
establishing the bishopric of Nova Scotia were completed. Dr. Inglis did all he could, while in England,
towards the accomplishment of this much-desired
work. The S.P.G. had started, in 1711, an "American
Colonial Bishops' Fund," the interest on which was
now available for the support of a bishop as soon as
one could be obtained. This has been paid regularly
ever since to each occupant of the see of Nova
Scotia.J    Dr. Inglis and the English authorities tried
'"American Church History," vol. vii. (Tiffany), p. 363.
,^ +Dr-J^^Madison was consecrated in England Bishop of Virginia in  1700,
a      ■       IhC   gge^uWas consecrated Bishop of Maryland in  1792 by the four
fte United sttePsS:    ThUS Comraenced the ab^^ independence of th/church i,
Thus commenced the absolute
nited States.
JThe income from this fund is now ^203 10s., but is
ance of the see. Besides this, however, there is an incon
fund belonging to the see in the hands of the S.P.G.
it the r Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (17S7-1816). 11
to induce Dr. Chandler, who had been recommended
by the American clergy for the post, to accept the
position ; but, through failing health, he declined.
The bishopric was then offered to Dr. Inglis, who
accepted it.
Thus a devoted Loyalist, who had lost his all
through unswerving attachment to his king and country, was rewarded by being placed first on the list of
colonial bishops. It is an honoured list, embracing
the names of noble missionaries who are world-
renowned for apostolic zeal and self-denying work.
These bishoprics now number close upon one hundred
(to say nothing of the seventy dioceses in the United
States), marking the growth of a little over a century,
and at their head stands the honoured name of Dr.
Charles Inglis.
He was consecrated at Lambeth on the 12th of
August, 1787, by Dr. John Moore, Archbishop of
Canterbury, assisted by Bishop John Thomas, of
Rochester, and Bishop Beilby Porteous, of Chester.
It now becomes necessary to go back a little in
the course of time in order to get some knowledge of
the diocese over which Dr. Inglis was called upon to
preside. The ownership of Acadia, or L'Acadie, as
the French called it, the territory now embraced by
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, was, in early days,
in constant dispute between England and France.
It was definitely settled by the " Peace of Utrecht,"
which was made in 1713, that the disputed territory,
along with Newfoundland and " Hudson's Bay " (then
a trackless wilderness, with here and there a trading
post), should belong  to  England, while Quebec (then 12 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
known as "Canada"), Prince Edward Island (then
called Isle St. Jean), and Cape Breton Island should
be the property of the French.
England thus found herself possessed of a large
territory inhabited almost exclusively by French,—an
alien people, differing from themselves in forms of
religion and in language, and rebellious at heart. To
induce English settlers to come in and occupy the
land a proclamation was issued in 1749, calling upon
English people to emigrate to Nova Scotia. As a
result, a number of people left the motherland in
thirteen transports and a sloop of war, all under the
command of Colonel the Hon. Edward Cornwallis,
fifth son of Baron Cornwallis. They sailed into Che-
bucto, the finest harbour in the world, moored their
vessels, cut down trees, and erected a- primitive town,
to which they gave the name of Halifax, in honour of
George Montague, Earl of Halifax, then President of
the Board of Trade and Plantations. These were, in
the main, Churchmen; they had with them a "Mr.
Anwell, clergyman," the Rev. Wm. Tutty, and Mr.
Moreau, a schoolmaster. The surveyors, in laying
out the town, were instructed to set apart a square or
block of land for the site of a church. On this was
afterwards built a church, the frame of which had to
be brought from Boston, then a thriving colonial town.
It was dedicated to St. Paul, and, though altered
somewhat in form from its original shape by some
additions made to it at different times, stands still on
the same site, the oldest church in the whole of
British North America.
Mr. Tutty, supported by the S.P.G., was the first
incumbent of Halifax.    Mr. Moreau was placed over Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1767-1816). 13
the French Protestants. Mr. Anwell, not proving
satisfactory, was recalled. The Rev. John Breynton
was appointed assistant to Mr. Tutty in 1752, and
soon afterwards succeeded him as second " missionary
at Halifax."
Ik
PI
n
tt'\i
B^ggfN
St. Paul's Church, Halifax, N.S.
By degrees other posts throughout Nova Scotia
were occupied, the earliest being Lunenburg, Annapolis, and the wide missions of Hants and King's and
Cumberland counties. There seemed but little chance
for the Church, because the inhabitants in the very
best parts of the province were almost entirely French 14 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Acadians, who, of course, were Roman Catholics.
But two events happened in the course of a few years
which gave the Church an unlooked-for impetus. One
was the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755—the French
inhabitants of the lovely Annapolis valley having been
Rev. Dr. Breynton, first Rector of St. Paul's, Halifax, 1752.
forcibly ejected from their homes ; and the other was
the capture of Quebec by General Wolfe in 1759, by
which the whole of Canada passed into the possession of the British crown. Thus when the United
Empire Loyalists were obliged to leave   the  United Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1737*1816). 15
States in 1783, there was British territory on their
own continent ready to receive them. Then came to
Nova Scotia thousands and thousands of United
Empire Loyalists, many of them clergymen, who
began spiritual ministrations among the refugees as
they formed for themselves new homes.* In the
following year, 1784, New Brunswick (which had been
known simply as the County of Sunbury) was separated
from Nova Scotia, and formed into a new province—
made ready, as it were, to receive the refugees as they
still kept arriving from the United States.
Such, then, was a portion of the diocese over
which the first colonial bishop was called upon to
preside. To it was added, as if a mere trifle, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and Upper and
Lower Canada! Halifax, the first see city, commanded then, as she does now, a magnificent view of
her peerless harbour, where the great warships of the
Empire may ever find security and rest. On the crown of
the hill was built the first block house, and the wooden
dwelling places clustered round it. Here lived the
governors of Nova Scotia from the days of Lord Cornwallis till 1786, when Lord Dorchester (formerly Sir
Guy Carleton) was appointed Governor-General over
all the British provinces in America. Then there
lived at Halifax a Lieutenant-Governor, the first of
whom was Captain General John Parr. St. Paul's
Church was then surrounded by ample grounds, where
British forces from time to time were wont to parade.
To this pioneer city came, in the year 1787, the
Right Reverend Charles Inglis, D.D., to be bishop of the
*About 18,000 arrived in Nova Scotia, 11,000 in New Brunswick, and 10,000
in the valley of the St. Lawrence.   H. Y. Hind, " The University of King's College." j 6 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Church of England " as by law established." No
doubt he was welcomed with firing of guns and much
parade, as was fitting in those days when a bishop was
an officer alike of Church and State.
The following is the list of parishes and clergy as
the new Bishop found them :*
Annapolis,
Cornwallis and Horton,
Cumberland,   -
Digby,        -       -        -
Guysboro,
Halifax, St. Paul's,      -
"       Garrison Chapel,
"      St. George's, J
Lunenburg,
Parrsboro,
Shelburne,
Sydney (Cape Breton),     -
Windsor,     -
"       (unattached),
Rev. Jacob Bailey.
Rev. John Wi swell.
Rev. J. Eagleson.
Rev. Roger Viets.
Rev. P. De la Roche.
Rev. J. W. Weeks, t
Rev. Dr. Mather Byles.
Rev. B. H. Howseal.
Rev. R. Money.
Rev. T. Shreve.
Rev. William Walter.
Rev. Rana Cossitt.
Rev. W. Ellis.
Rev. Isaac Brown.
NEW BRUNSWICK.
Fredericton,        -        -       -    Rev. S. Cooke.
Gagetown, -        -       -        Rev. R. Clarke.
Kingston,   - Rev. J. Scovil.
Maugerville, -        -        -        Rev. John Beardsley.
St. Andrews,       -        -        -    Rev. S. Andrews.
St. John, -       -        -        Rev. George Bissett.
*For a very interesting account of the clergy of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
itioned in this list see "The Church in Nova Scotia," etc., by Rev. A. W. Eaton ;
and for an equally interesting account of those in Canada see " The Church of
England in Canada, 1759-1793." hy Rev. H. C. Stewart. The Newfoundland list is
gathered from the S.P.G. Digest.
tMr. Weeks was curate-in-charge. The Rector, Rev. Dr. Breynton, was in
England at the time, and never returned to Halifax.
JThis is not the present St. George's, but a little wooden Lutheran chapel, that
was built for the Germans. They afterwards, however, connected themselves with
the Church of England. This quaint little building still stands in Halifax, and is
attached to St. George's Parish. Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1787-1816).
LOWER CANADA (QUEBEC).
Rev. David C. de Lisle.
Rev. James Tunstall.
Montreal,   -
"        (assistant),
Quebec,
"      (unattached),
Sorel,
Three Rivers,   -
Rev. David F. De Montmollin.
Rev. Philip Toosey.
Rev. John Doty.
Rev. L. J. B. N. Veyssiere.
UPPER CANADA (ONTARIO).
Cataraqui (Kingston),      -       Rev. John Stuart.
Ernestown (Bath),      -       -    Rev. John Langhorne.
NEWFOUNDLAND.
Harbour Grace a
Carboneer,
Placentia,
St. John's,
Trinity Bay,    -
Rev. J. Balfour.
Rev. John Harris.
Rev. Walter Price.
Rev. J. Clinch.
Besides these, there were five livings in Bermuda
(where the Church was and is " Established "), and
probably as many clergymen.
We have taken the trouble to compile this list
(chiefly from the S.P.G. Digest) because it shows the
condition of the Church when the episcopate started
on its way in Canada (with Newfoundland). All told,
Bishop Inglis could not have had more than forty
clergymen throughout the vast extent of country that
composed his diocese.
One of the first concerns of the Bishop was with
regard to the establishment of a Public Grammar
School and College for the education of the youths of
the country, chiefly with a view to procuring men
properly qualified for the sacred ministry of the
Church.    The Assembly of Nova Scotia met towards 18 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
the end of October, 1787, and voted the sum of £400
towards the establishment of an academy, as requested
by the Bishop, who had great influence with the Government at Halifax. The headmaster was to be a
" clergyman of the Established Church, with a salary
of £200 sterling, and to have under him a professor of
mathematics and natural philosophy, to receive £100."
The governing body was to consist of the Lieutenant-
Governor, the Bishop, the Chief Justice, the President
of the Council, and the Speaker of the House of
Assembly.
One would have supposed that a school of this
kind would have been established at Halifax, the see
city and the capital of the province, but for some
reason this was not done. The place chosen was
Windsor, which then must have been but a very small
village. It is situated on the banks of a tidal river or
arm of the sea which sweeps in and out from the Bay of
Fundy with the rise and fall of the tide. Here was
once a flourishing Acadian village with two (Roman
Catholic) churches. Its French name was Pizequid,
the name also that was given to the river. But when
the French were ejected, and their houses and churches
destroyed, the French names were changed to English
ones, the river being called the Avon, and the town
Windsor.    It is about forty miles from Halifax.
Here the new academy was established. It was
opened in a private house (rented for the occasion) on
November the 1st, 1788, with Mr. Archibald Peane
Inglis, a nephew of the Bishop's, as the first headmaster. It opened with seventeen pupils, of whom
John Inglis, the Bishop's son, was one. Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1787-1816).
19
n 1788,
The Bishop's first visitation was made
when he paid a visit to New Brunswick. In the
absence of railways and steamboats and public conveyances, except of the slowest and most cumbersome
kind—if, indeed, there were these—at a time when
good roads were unknown in Nova Scotia, and when
forests were thick and parishes or missions very few
and far between, the journeys of Bishop Inglis must
have been tedious and laborious. But how glad must
have been the exiled clergy to see him !
In the following year the Bishop paid a visit to
Quebec and Montreal. He reached Quebec on the
nth of June " on His Majesty's frigate Dido." He
was received by a salute of eleven guns, and welcomed
by the Rev. Mr. De Montmollin, rector, and Rev.
Mr. Toosey, minister of the church in Quebec. From
Quebec he went to Three Rivers. Here he preached
in the church of the Recollet Fathers, loaned for the
occasion, and presented a hundred loaves of bread to
be distributed to the poor. Reaching Montreal on the
gth of July, he was warmly received by the rector
(Rev. D. C. de Lisle) and churchwardens, who saw in
this visit the " smiling prospect that the Protestant
Church in Canada would emerge from obscurity, and
acquire under the auspices of a bishop a full enjoyment
of her rights."
At this time there was no Anglican church in
Montreal, but the Bishop procured for them from the
Government the use of the chapel of the Jesuits, and
gave them an " English assistant minister," the Rev.
Mr. Tunstall. This was the commencement of Christ
Church (now the Cathedral), Montreal.    On returning 20 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
to Quebec the Bishop seems to have visited Sorel,
where there was a church. At Quebec the Bishop
delivered his injunctions to the clergy. They were
fourteen in number, and indicated the mind of a kind,
wise, and pious ruler. It was about this time that the
Bishop appointed Rev. John Stuart his commissary for
Upper Canada. The number of candidates Confirmed
at Quebec was 130, and at Montreal 170.* The clergy,
eight in number, whose names we have already given,
. y presented the Bishop with an affectionate address, to
which he gave a suitable reply. He preached his
farewell sermon in the Recollet church at Quebec,
and then embarked on a sloop of war; where he was
received with a salute of eleven guns, and immediately
started for Halifax with a fair wind.
An Act was passed in this year, much to the
gratification of the Bishop, by the Nova Scotia Legislature, for founding, establishing, and maintaining a
college in the province. This was the beginning of
King's College, which was established at Windsor,
close to the Academy. The Rev. William Cochran,
an Irishman, and a graduate of Trinity, Dublin, having
laboured for a while in the United States as a teacher
and professor, and having been ordained by Bishop
Inglis, was appointed Principal of the Academy in
succession to Mr. A. P. Inglis, and was also appointed
in the following year temporary principal of the college.
Bishop Inglis visited Shelburne in this year. This
was a village in the woods, hastily built by refugees
from the United States. Here the Bishop met many
old friends, with whom, no doubt, he conversed freely
*See " Annals of the Colonial Church (Quebec)."    Hawkins. Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1787-1816). 21
over the miseries of civil, war. The devout people had
built a wooden church, and this the Bishop consecrated. When Lieutenant-Governor Parr died in
1791, Bishop Inglis officiated at his funeral with all the
pomp of State ceremonial. John (afterwards Sir John)
Wentworth succeeded him.
In 1793 Bishop Inglis had the extreme happiness
of seeing Quebec set apart as a separate diocese, and
this relieved him of all responsibility as to Canada and
the distant west. Up to this time five parishes or
missions had been added to the roll in Nova Scotia
(viz., Preston, Falmouth, Wilmot and Aylesford, Granville, and Yarmouth), and four in New Brunswick
(Nashwack, Sussex, Woodstock, and Belle Isle).*
In 1794 the building of King's College at Windsor
was completed. It is built in the old-fashioned German style, of stone; but, being sheathed with wood,
has the appearance of a frame building. It stands on
a fine commanding site, with beautiful scenery around
it, both far and near.
It was about this time that the Bishop began to
fail in health. The winds fresh from the ocean were
too strong for him in Halifax. He purchased a farm
in the township of Aylesford, about ninety miles from
Halifax, in the valley of the Annapolis River, and built
a house there, which he called " Clermont." Here he
found rest from the worries of his public life in Halifax.
11 have leisure," he wrote, " for those literary pursuits
which my station requires, and which from inclination
and habit are now become my greatest amusement and 22 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
gratification." "Clermont" still stands, a remnant
of the earliest colonial days in Nova Scotia. Close to
it is St. Mary's Church, built of wood—nearly all the
King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia.
churches of Nova Scotia to this day are built of wood-
—of a stout frame, which so far has defied the ravages
of time.    Though built in 1790, it is still substantially Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1787-1816). 2 3
the same church as when Bishop Charles Inglis used
to worship within its walls. The shingles which cover
it are said to be the same as those included in the
original bill of costs. The cost of the building, it may
be mentioned, was £475 is. 5d., of which £222 4s. 6d.
was given by Governor Parr.
This enforced retirement from active work on the
part of the Bishop had a bad effect upon the diocese,
and especially upon King's College, the management
of which was left to the governors without the supervision and firm hand of the head of the diocese, which,
in its infant days, was sorely needed. In drawing up
the new statutes, Judge Croke, a man of stubborn will
and strong prejudices, insisted that a clause should be
introduced requiring all matriculants to sign the
Thirty-nine Articles.    Bishop Inglis held this to be a 24 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
great mistake, especially in an infant colony, which
could hope to have but one university. The effect
would be not only to prevent all dissenters from
attending King's College, but also to shut off many
even of those who were members of the Church. He
wanted to have King's College the general university
for the province, and was quite satisfied that it should
be under the control of the Church of England.
Events showed that the Bishop's policy was the true
one. In defiance of him the statutes were published
with the objectionable clause inserted. In fact, he
seems scarcely to have been consulted in the affairs of
King's College. Dr. Cochran was not eligible under
the statutes to be principal, and one Dr. Cox, in 1804,
was sent out from England to occupy the post, but he
died in the following year. Then followed much
wrangling and disputing. Dr. Cochran put in a
claim for the principalship, and was supported by the
Bishop. The governors, however, without the knowledge of the Bishop, appointed a Mr. Porter, of " Bra-
zennose" College, Oxford. The Bishop's letters to
Dr. Cochran on the subject show a kind disposition,
and a desire to accept the inevitable, rather than contend with men who determined to pay but little deference to his authority. King's College has never
recovered from this unfortunate dispute, for though
the objectionable statutes were modified in after years
the estrangement had taken place, and the worst fears
of the Bishop were realized. The immediate result
was that the attendance at the college, which, from
1790, had averaged eighteen, fell, in 1803, when the
statutes were published, to 3.5, and would have ceased
entirely but for the grammar school.*
* "The University of King's College," by Henry Youle Hind, p. 46. Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1787-1816). 25
It is to be noticed in the correspondence of this
period that Bishop Charles Inglis is always addressed
as I Right Reverend Sir," not as " My Lord," a title
which, it is said, he never assumed.
In 1815 we find that the parishes and missions of
the dioceses were, in Nova Scotia, fifteen (Chester,
Sackville, and Rawdon having been added) ; New
Brunswick, eight; Newfoundland, three; or twenty-
six in all, exclusive of the five or six " fixed quantities "
in Bermuda.
' In the year 1816 Bishop Charles Inglis died at
the age of eighty-two. He had had many troubles,
but had met them all with quiet, Christian fortitude,
and in a manner which left behind him a revered
memory.
Of his children, John became the third Bishop of
Nova Scotia ; Margaret was married, September 19th,
1799, to Sir Brenton Halliburton, Chief Justice of
Nova Scotia ; and Anne was married to the Reverend
George Pidgeon, for many years rector of Fredericton,
New Brunswick, and afterwards of St. John. Mrs.
Pidgeon died at Halifax in 1827, aged fifty-one. Sir
Brentori Halliburton describes his father-in-law as a
gentleman of the old school, dignified, but not formal,
with a slight figure, and an open, intelligent countenance. In preaching he had great energy and earnestness, he says, and in conversation was cheerful and
communicative. He was of studious habits, and was
well read, but was free from pedantry.*
•"The Church in Nova Scotia," by Rev. A. W. Eaton, p. 128. The Right Rev. Jacob Mountain, D.D., First
Bishop of Quebec.
THE original name of the Mountain family, we
are told, was De Montaigne.* They were
refugees from France, who, to escape the persecutions to which the " Revocation of the Edict of
Nantes" by Louis XIV. subjected them and all.
Huguenots or French Protestants, fled to England.
The representative of the family at that time was
Monsieur Jacob de Montaigne, who was glad to settle
down to the quietude of rural life in the county of
Norfolk. He purchased a small estate, which was
known as Thwaite Hall, near the city of Norwich.
A son of this M. de Montaigne married in England, and, dying young, left a widow with two sons,
the younger of whom bore the family name of Jacob.
He was born in 1751. He graduated at Caius College, Cambridge, and was admitted to holy orders.
In 1781 he married a Miss Kentish, co-heiress with
two sisters, of Little Bardfield Hall, in the county of
Essex, and was presented to the living of St. Andrew's,
Norwich. The Bishop of Lincoln (Dr. Pretyman)
subsequently appointed him examining chaplain, and
presented him with the living of Buckden, in Huntingdonshire.
n,. \S?e r Thf »lSt £hre? Bishops APP°inted W the Crown for the Anglican
Church in Canada," by Fennings Taylor, p. 140. THE RT. REV. JACOB MOUNTAIN, D.D.
First Bishop of Quebec.
Born, 1751.    Consecrated, 1793.   Died, 1825.  Jacob Mountain, of Quebec (1793-1825). 27
Here he was when the call came to him to go
forth beyond the seas to be Bishop of Quebec.
Quebec was then but a little primitive town,
situated on a rocky promontory in the broad St. Lawrence River—a town filled with French and Indians,
kept in place by the ubiquitous British soldier.
Lower Canada, from " time immemorial," has
been largely connected with the French ; but, in 1759,
on the capture of Quebec by General Wolfe, it was
ceded to Great Britain. Still the French element was
allowed to remain, possessed of rights which one would
hardly have supposed would have been granted to a
conquered people.
With the British troops came Rev. Michael Hou-
din, of New Jersey (then a British colony), and Rev.
John Ogilvie, of Albany, New York, both S.P.G. missionaries. Mr. Houdin remained a couple of years in
Quebec, and Mr. Ogilvie was stationed at Montreal
till 1764, when he went to be assistant minister of
New York.*
We next read of Rev. John Brooke and a Rev.
Mr. Bennet, army chaplain, as ministering in Lower
Canada,f but their positions were not permanent.
With a view to affording spiritual ministrations to the
French, the S.P.G. sent, in 1764, three French-speaking clergymen in English orders. Of these, two were
Swiss, Rev. M. de Montmollin, who was stationed at
Quebec, and Rev. D. C. de Lisle, who was placed at
Montreal.   The third, who rejoiced in the name of Le-
* His associate in this work, under the rector, Dr. Auchmuty, was Rev. Charles
Inglis, afterwards first Bishop of Nova Scotia.
+ See S.P.G. Digest, p. 137. 28
The Bishops of Canada and Newfc
mdland.
gere Jean Baptist Noel Veyssieres, was a " discredited
Recollet friar," but was accepted for English orders,
and stationed at Three Rivers. This gentleman does
not seem to have been much more credit to his j\nglican
than he had been to his Roman orders. This movement was not attended with success, for these foreign
clergy did little or nothing among the French, and
were despised by the English-speaking people for their
broken English.* In 1774 one Rev. Lewis Guerry
was sent from England to take charge of the " fourth
parish " in Canada, which was Sorel. He found the
country, however, in such a disturbed state that after
a year's residence in Quebec he returned to England,
where he resided for ten years, receiving from the
Government regularly £200 a year as the " holder of a
Canadian benefice " ! In 1777 the Rev. John Doty,
S.P.G. missionary at Schenectady, New York, took
refuge in Canada from the troublesome times that set
in with the War of Independence. With him also
came a number of people, like himself, refugees. He
was allowed to minister to some Mohawk Indians who
had established themselves near Montreal. In 1784
he was appointed to Sorel, Mr. Guerry having " exchanged his benefice " with a Rev. Philip Toosey, who
came to Canada, but does not seem to have been
attached to any parish.
These clergy, with a Mr. Tunstall, who had been
appointed assistant (English) minister at Montreal,
six in number, were the only clerical staff in Lower
Canada when Bishop Charles Inglis visited it in 1789.
I759-I793-"    By E
)f these clergymen, see " The Church of Englar Jacob Mountain, of Quebec (1793-1825). 29
At that visitation the Bishop appointed Rev. Mr.
Toosey as his commissary in Canada.
When, therefore, in 1793, it was determined in
England, by a more rapid movement than the British
Government was wont to make in such matters, to
establish a bishopric at Quebec, Mr. Toosey naturally
expected to be appointed bishop, and sailed to the
motherland with that object in view ; but his expectations were doomed to disappointment. The younger
Pitt, on the advice of Dr. Pretyman, Bishop of Lincoln,
appointed the Rev. Jacob Mountain to that  position.
After being duly consecrated (on the 7th of July,
1793), he set sail on the 13th of August for Quebec.
To leave England for Quebec was regarded in those
days as practical expatriation, an exile from hearth and
home. Dr. Mountain, therefore, took his hearth and
home with him. His being made Bishop was a great
family event, for his own household and immediate
relations accompanied him to the new land. The
inventory was as follows : The Bishop, his wife, four
children, two sisters, one brother, one sister-in-law,
one nephew, and two nieces—in all, thirteen. After a
voyage of thirteen weeks these thirteen Mountains
arrived in Quebec* The brother that came with him
was Rev. Dr. Jehoshaphat Mountain, who resigned the
rectory of Peldon, in Essex, to share the Bishop's
fortunes in Quebec. He was accompanied by his wife,
son, and two daughters.
It is said that the Roman Catholic Bishop of
.Quebec saluted his Anglican brother with a kiss on
*So it is quaintly stated by Rev. A. W. Mountain in his " Memoir of G. J. 3o The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
both cheeks, and said that "it was time he should
come to keep his people in order."
The scenery in and about Quebec is surpassingly
lovely, and in a beautiful spot, amidst trees, where
were
And purling rivulets and deep cascades,"
the Bishop took up his residence. It was called
Woodfield, and was situated about three miles from
Quebec. Here Bishop Mountain spent many happy
years, as his family grew up around him. His son
George, who afterwards became the third Bishop of
Quebec, always used to speak in terms of deep affection of this old home. The children all had a loving
veneration for their father, who seemed to them " like
some superior being moving in and out amongst them."
The first Bishop of Quebec occupied the see for
thirty-two years, during which time his labours were
abundant, and his journeys long and tedious. He
appointed his brother assistant minister to M. Veys-
siere at Three Rivers, and he seems to have taken
complete charge of the parish, for M. Veyssiere's
name does not appear any more in the register. On
his death in 1800 Dr. Mountain became rector of
Three Rivers.
The Rev. Mr. Toosey, who had expected the
bishopric.of Quebec, received from the English Government ^150 in compensation for his disappointment.
He returned to Canada as bishop's commissary, and
ministered to the congregation at Quebec. On his
death in 1797 the Bishop appointed his nephew, Rev.
Salter Jehoshaphat Mountain, to succeed him. Jacob Mountain, of Quebec (1793-1825). 31
At this time the Bishop called the attention of
King George III. to the fact that there was no Anglican church in Quebec. The congregation had been
using the Jesuit chapel. We are told that the king, at
his own expense, proceeded to build a church in 1799,
The Anglican Cathedral.'Quebec. 32 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
on the site of the Recollet property, of which the
Government had taken possession. The corner stone
was laid by His Excellency R. S. Milnes, Lieutenant-
Governor of Quebec, assisted by " the Right Rev.
Jacob, Lord Bishop of the Diocese," on the nth of
August, 1800. The necessary funds were provided by
the Commissariat Department in sums of /300 at a
time. The cost of its erection was about S8o,ooo.*
It was consecrated on the 28th of August, 1804. The
organ, imported from England, was the first ever heard
in Canada.f This church, a plain but substantial
rectangular edifice, still stands, and serves as the
cathedral church of the diocese. It was built first to
be a "Metropolitan Church," the Government evidently intending that Quebec should be the metropo-
litical see of Canada. When the cathedral was opened
it was provided with a surpliced choir ; but this continued only for about twenty years after the Bishop's
death, when it was discontinued.
The work in Lower Canada proved to be discouraging. Little or no addition was made to the clerical
staff till the year 1800, when the S.P.G. opened two
fresh missions, one at Quebec, under Rev. J. S. Rudd,
and the other at St. Armand and Dunham, under
Rev. R. Q. Short. As yet there were only three
parishes, viz., Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers,
that were able to maintain themselves ; the rest had to
be supported entirely from England by the S.P.G.
By the Act of Parliament, 31 George III., one-
seventh of all lands, known as " Clergy Reserves," was
* See "The English Cathedral of Quebec," a valuable pamphlet by Fred  C
t S.P.G. Digest, p. 144. Jacob Mountain, of Quebec (1793-1825). 33
to be set apart for the maintenance of" a Protestant
clergy," but this seems to have been but of little use
to the clergy of Lower Canada. The Roman Catholics had great privileges, which enabled them to build
churches and establish parishes, while the Anglican
missions were languishing. For this there seemed to
be no redress. The liberal terms granted to the
French at the time of the conquest now began to tell
for their benefit. Hence the work of the Anglican
Church never was of an encouraging nature in Lower
Canada (Quebec).
But the diocese of the first Bishop of Quebec
stretched far into the west, and was bounded only by
the Pacific Ocean. To the west, then, as far as the
track of man could be followed, the Bishop would
occasionally go. Journeys of this kind he took, as a
rule, every three years. An attempted trip from
Quebec to Montreal, in 1813, is worth mentioning.
The Bishop, with two sons and a daughter, and
two servants, embarked at Quebec in a bateau. This
vessel was provided by the Government. In the middle
of it, under a neat awning, sat the Bishop in a great
old armchair. The crew consisted of a pilot and four
rowers, for whom fifty pounds of pork and thirty loaves
were provided by agreement, in addition to which the
pilot was to receive £4, and the men nine dollars each.
Owing to the sudden illness of the Bishop's daughter the company had to return to Quebec after having
spent three days in going only fifteen miles ! On the
22nd of July the Bishop left Quebec for a second and
more successful attempt with his own horses. He
reached Montreal on the 27th.    At Lachine the party 34 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
embarked in a bateau for " Upper Canada." The first
point reached was Cornwall, where Rev. W. Devereux
Baldwin, D.D. (or Baldwyn), was stationed. The
next was Williamsburgh, in charge of Rev. J. G.
Weagant (or Weageant), who officiated alternately in
German and English. He had been a Lutheran minister, but the Bishop ordained him, and his congregation joined the Anglican Church with him.* Kingston
was reached on the 8th of September, where the Bishop
was entertained by Rev. Mr. Stuart. From Kingston
he went up the Bay of Quinte in a canoe, with ten
Indians and an interpreter, provided by the Governor,
Sir G. Prevost.
Journeys of this kind were very expensive. The
cost of a canoe trip from Montreal to Detroit is set
down by the Bishop at £150, or about $750. He spent
money freely on these occasions, on the grounds' that
his salary was given him, not for his private benefit,
but as the means of usefulness, and also to maintain
the dignity of the episcopal office. Though his salary
was large, he did not save any of it for himself.    Some
times, of course, he travelled by land, " in waggons,"
as he himself described it, " over high mountains and
through deep valleys and woods, on roads composed
of rocks and roots, only exchanged occasionally for
short, but deep black swampy soil." Yet the Bishop
never suffered from fatigue.    " I never took cold," he
says, " though wet thr<
on the ^
ater, and sleeping
on the shores of the lakes in tents and often in strange
houses." Wherever he went he preached, and made
arrangements for the establishing of future churches.
* At this place we are told that the collections were taken up in a little bag at
the end of a long stick, and in the bag was a hell, which was intended to wake anv Jacob Mountain, of Quebec (1793-1825). 35
Bishop Jacob Mountain gives now and then quaint
descriptions of things he saw. on his visitations. He
describes the old church at Barton (near Hamilton,
Ontario) as " the property of the public, and accessible
to teachers of all persuasions " ; and of the Methodists
he says : " There are a. few Methodists of the worst
description wandering about the country, but much
discouraged by the discerning part of the people, and
in no great credit with the rest."
In his son George, afterwards to be more fully
spoken of, the Bishop had an unfailing comfort. Ordained by himself, as he had been previously baptized
and confirmed by him, he was appointed, after a brief
residence in Fredericton, to the incumbency of Quebec
Cathedral. This was in 1816, when Rev. S. J. Mountain moved to Cornwall, in Upper Canada. In 1821
the cathedral parish was made a rectory, with the
Bishop's son as first rector. At the same time he was
made Archdeacon of Lower Canada, and was always
of great assistance and comfort to his father.
In 1815 the S.P.G. placed at the Bishop's disposal
/200 a year for the support of students in divinity
while studying with clergymen of experience and learning. This, in the absence of a theological college, was
a great boon to a young country. Several young men
educated in this way proved themselves afterwards to
be very excellent clergymen.
In a colony of such early date there were but few
facilities of education, but the first Bishop of Quebec
lost no opportunity in urging upon the Government the
necessity of establishing grammar schools throughout
the whole country, and also of setting up a university. 36 The Bishops of Canada and -Newfoundland.
The Bishop did not see much result from this, but it
bore fruit in due time. The foundation of McGill
College, Montreal, is directly due to him.
Eight times the Bishop went over his enormous
diocese, making the journey, which amounted to about
3,000 miles, every three years.
Early in 1825 the Bishop, feeling the infirmities of
age, sent his son, the Archdeacon, to England to make
what arrangements he could for granting him some
relief in his onerous duties ; but before the date of
the letter which the Archdeacon addressed to his
father announcing the success of his mission, the good •
Bishop had gone to his rest. He died unexpectedly on
the 18th of June, 1825, at the age of seventy-four,
having been thirty-two years a bishop.
He left sixty-one clergymen (including three Archdeacons) in the whole diocese, where, at his arrival
thirty-two years before, he had found but nine. This
increase, however, was mainly in the west, eleven only
being in that territory now known as the Diocese of
Quebec. When appointed, there was a church only at .
Sorel, and the foundations of one at Niagara. He left
sixty churches, either built or in progress of building.
He is spoken of as an excellent preacher, indeed,
one of the greatest preachers of the age, a man of
unsullied piety and unflagging zeal. Through modesty
on his part very few of his charges or sermons were
published, enough only, it has been said, to make us
wish that he had given to the world a great deal more.  THE RT. REV. ROBERT STANSER, i
Second Bishop of Nova Scolia. 3.    The Right Rev. Robert Stanser, D.D., Second
Bishop of Nova Scotia.
THE early history of the Church of England in
Nova Scotia is closely connected with that of
St. Paul's Church, to which reference has been
already made. The aged and revered Dr. John Breyn-
ton, the first rector, after years of hard toil, retired to
England, apparently with the intention of returning to
his work ; but this he did not do. He resigned in
. 1790, and in the following year Rev. Robert Stanser,
M.A., of Jesus College, Cambridge (son of Dr. Stanser,
Rector of Bulwell), was sent out as a " candidate for the
rectory" of St. Paul's, the actual appointment of a
rector in Nova Scotia being in the hands of the congregation.
The date of Mr. Stanser's birth .we have been
unable to ascertain. Nor of himself have we been able
to glean many particulars. He was not sent out, however, till " his character in learning, morals, and ability
had been thoroughly investigated," with the result
that he was found to possess " a truly Christian spirit,
as well as the other qualifications of a minister of the
Gospel." The congregation unanimously elected him
as second Rector of St. Paul's. He appears to have
discharged his duties at St. Paul's with great diligence
and assiduity, in doing which he was much assisted by 38 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
his amiable and accomplished wife.* In 1798 the
S.P.G, on the recommendation of Bishop Charles
Inglis, increased his salary to ^70'a year as " a mark of
their approbation of his diligent conduct in the duties
of his mission," and, at the same time, he was allowed
an assistant. In 1800 (after a return from a visit to
England) a new rectory was built, and completely
furnished by the parishioners. In 1812 he was voted
an additional £300 a year, and no less than three hundred persons joined his congregation.
He had a congregation which included the Lieutenant-Governor, officers of the army, minister's of
State, and even (as in the case of the Duke of Kent,
Queen Victoria's father, who for a time was commander-
in-chief of the forces in Halifax) royalty. He had as
well some of the poorest of the poor, and a few Indians,
yet to all he was the true pastor, and took his place
easily amongst all sorts and conditions of men.
When Bishop C. Inglis died in 1816, his son, Rev.
John Inglis, who had been his father's mainstay and
ready co-worker, naturally expected to be offered the
bishopric, and with a view to that sailed for England.
But in the meantime a number of the influential men
of Halifax secured a petition from the Provincial Legislature requesting the appointment of the Rector of
St. Paul's, who was also chaplain to the House of
Assembly, to the bishopric. The petition went over in
the same ship which conveyed the Rev. John Inglis,
who, shortly after his arrival, was not a little surprised
to find that his expectations regarding himself were not
s for May, i838.
Fredericton) Robert Stanser, of Nova Scotia (1816-1829). 39
to be realized. The bishopric was given to Dr.
Stanser ; but because of this advancement the Crown
claimed the privilege of appointing the next Rector of
St. Paul's, and gladly bestowed it upon Mr. Inglis, in
consideration of his important services in the active
superintendence of the diocese during the long illness
of the late Bishop, giving him at the same time £200 a
year additional salary, and ^100 for an assistant.
In 1815 Dr. Stanser lost his wife, and, overwhelmed
with grief, went to England for rest. He was, therefore, in England at the time of his appointment, and
was consecrated on May 16th, 1816, at Lambeth.
But this whole action proved to be a great mistake. Dr. Stanser's working days were over. He had
received, a short time before his wife's death, injuries
in helping to extinguish a fire in Halifax,* and the two
events together, coupled with approaching age, rendered
him unfit for the work of a diocese like Nova Scotia.
Having met his clergy, and with the utmost difficulty
performed the offices of visitation, confirmation, and
ordination, he returned to England in the spring of
1817 in broken health, and did not see his diocese
■ again, t
The need of a bishop at this time was sorely felt
in King's College, Nova Scotia. Bishop Stanser seems
to have attended four meetings of the Board of Governors, two in 1816 and two in 1817. An earnest effort
was made to remove from the statutes the stringent
clauses against dissenters by an appeal to the Arch's. P. G. Digest, p. 863.
+S.P.G. Digest, p. 119. But in the "Historical Sketch of Newfoundland,"
published in pamphlet form by the S.P.G., it is said that Bishop Stanser visited
Newfoundland in 1816, etc.    This must be an error. 4o The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
bishop of Canterbury. The effort was unsuccessful.
The secret of the dislike of the Government at home to
dissenters lies in the suspicion entertained regarding
their loyalty. The Imperial Government was spending
$30,777.00 towards the maintenance of the Church in
the Diocese of Nova Scotia, feeling sure that this would
best promote attachment to the British Crown. At
this time Lieutenant-General George Ramsay, ninth
' Earl of Dalhousie, was Lieutenant-Governor at Halifax, and was much opposed to the exclusiveness of
King's College. Through his influence another college
was built in Halifax—a college that should be open to
all. It was called after him, Dalhousie College. Thus
a golden opportunity, never to recur, was lost by the
Church people of Nova Scotia.
In 1821 the Rev. John Inglis, D.D., commissary of
the diocese, was elected a member of the Board of
King's College, and a substantial stone building, at a
cost of $25,526, was erected in the college grounds for
the Academy, or school for boys. The money was
obtained from duties collected at Castine, which was
captured by the British in the war of 1812. In the
following years an agitation took place in favour of
removing the college from Windsor to Halifax, uniting
it with Dalhousie College, but Chief Justice Blowers
entered such a strong legal protest against it in 1824
that the project was abandoned.
And during all these years Nova Scotia was without a bishop. Earl Bathurst, in the House of Lords,
explained that he had asked Bishop Stanser to resign,
but that the Bishop, who had " very little private fortune," declared he could not do so.   "What could I do •    Robert Stanser, of Nova Scotia (1816-1829). 41
my Lords?" he further said, "could I have said to him,
' Go back to Halifax and die, or stay in this country and
starve' ? [Loud cheers.] If there be blame for having
acted thus I am alone responsible ; the society (S.P.G.)
are exonerated."*
Earl Bathurst, however, procured for him an
allowance of £350 per annum from the Government at
Nova Scotia, ^250 from New Brunswick, and £200
from the S.P.G., and on this annuity, about $3,500 a
year,which the noble Earl thought was not an "extravagant sum," Bishop Stanser resigned.
He resigned in 1824, and died in London in 1829.
Thus through the infirmities' of the first Bishop and ill-
health of the second, Nova Scotia had been either practically or actually without an episcopal head for seventeen years—a disaster which must have told heavily
upon her early worjk. About this time it was estimated
that only about one-fourth of the population of the
Diocese of Nova Scotia belonged to the Church of
England.
While in England Bishop Stanser was ^addressed
always as " My Lord," a title which has been extended
to colonial bishops ever since, though the first colonial
bishop had never assumed it. It came about, we are
told, in this way. When consecrated, a question arose
as to whether he should be designated or addressed the
same way as the English bishops. The point was
settled by the Prince Regent emphatically saying to
him, when introduced at a levee, " How do you do, my
Lord Bishop ?    I am glad to see your Lordship."
•See "The University of King's College," etc., by Henry Youle Hind. 42
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
The Bishop had three sons and five daughters.
His sons died unmarried, so that his name has died
out. The daughters all married, and we were able to
get, about five years ago, the silhouette likeness of the
Bishop which accompanies this sketch (the only portrait of him, we believe, that exists) from his granddaughter, Mrs. Ingles, of Radcliffe-on-Trent, Notts,
England.
St. Mary's Church, Aylesford, N.S.   The   Rig
Bishop
Rev.   John   In
' Nova Scotia.
rLis,   D.D.,  Thii
JOHN INGLIS, the only surviving son of the first
Bishop of Nova Scotia, was born in New York in
1777, the year when his father was inducted
Rector of Trinity Church by placing his hand upon its
blackened ruins.* He was therefore a boy of ten years
of age when his father arrived in" Halifax as Bishop
of Nova Scotia. He was the first boy who entered the
Academy at Windsor. He received also his higher
education at King's, of which University he was one of
the earliest graduates. His father intended to send
him to Oxford, but he does not seem to have done so.
He was in England, however, in the year 1800, for Sir
John Wentworth sent a despatch through him to the
Under Secretary of State. " This will be presented to
you," he says, " by Mr. Inglis, only son of our Bishop.
He is a sensible, discreet gentleman." He was ordained to the sacred ministry by his father in 1801, and
was appointed the second missionary at Aylesford,
where also he had been made a justice of the peace.
He thus lived with his father at " Clermont," and
proved to be a valuable assistant to him, not only in
Aylesford parish, but also throughout the diocese as
his commissary. 44 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Recovering from his disappointment at not receiving the bishopric at his father's death (an account of
which has already been given in the life of Bishop
Stanser), he found ample occupation in his duties.as
Rector of St. Paul's, Halifax, and as the ecclesiastical
commissary of the diocese. Dr. Inglis went to England
in 1824 to solicit subscriptions for King's College. In
the same year Bishop Stanser resigned the bishopric,
and Dr. Inglis was appointed in his place. The result
of his visit was an accession to the funds of King's
College to the extent of ^3,823. He procured also
donations of books to the library. On the 25th of
March, 1825, he was consecrated in England third
Bishop of Nova Scotia. . On his return to Halifax he
was welcomed by a salute of twenty-six guns from the
frigate Ttveedzxid from Fort Charlotte, and by the ringing
of the church bells. Proceeding at once to the work of
his extensive diocese, he divided it into four archdea-.
conries : (1) Nova Scotia, under Venerable Robert
Willis, who succeeded him as Rector of St. Paul's,
Halifax ; (2) New Brunswick, under Venerable George
Best, Rector of Fredericton; (3) Bermuda, under
the Venerable Aubrey G. Spencer, who was also made
Rector of Paget and Warwick; (4) Newfoundland,
under Venerable George Coster, visiting missionary.
During the first year of his episcopate he consecrated forty-four churches, and confirmed 4,367 persons.
In 1826, in a man-of-war, he visited Bermuda, and was
probably the first bishop who had ever been there. Divided into nine parishes, each having church and glebe, it
could muster but four resident clergy. Here the Bishop
confirmed   1,200  people, of whom 100 were negroes. John Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1825-1850). 45
He also made arrangements for the establishment of
schools among the poor, and also for the higher class of
pupils.
During the summer of 1827, having the Government brig, I Chebucto," and sometimes a frigate, at his
command, he visited the different parishes and missions
in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and also the out
harbours of Newfoundland. He found that there were
. twenty-three schoolmasters in the island, each receiving
from the S.P.G. ^20 a year over and above the pupils' fees.
He visited also Cape Breton, where he placed a missionary, Rev. James A. Shaw, who could speak French, and
thus reach the settlers from the Channel Islands. Up
to this time Rev. Charles Ingles, Rector of Sydney, had
been the only clergyman in Cape Breton.
In 1828 the Bishop reports 3,500 communicants in
the diocese, with twenty missions marked " no returns."
In this year a charter was obtained for King's College,
Fredericton, which, as then constituted, was open to all
denominations, but was under the management of the
Church of England. In time all religious tests were
abolished in this institution, which therefore ceased to
be in any sense a Church university.
Bishop J. Inglis speaks at this time in the highest
terms of his clergy, whom he found, as a general rule,
1 laboriously engaged." But he evidently felt, at the
same time, that there was sore need for many more missionaries in almost every part of his enormous diocese.
In 1829 the parishes and missions supplied with
clergy- are reported as follows :* Nova Scotia, 30;
Fredericton,  23; Newfoundland, 9 ;   Bermuda,  6—in 46 The Bishops of Canada and Newfa
The new places added  sine
ndland.
■   I787t
all, 68.
follows :
Nova Scotia : Amherst, Antigonishe, Aylesford,
La Have, Dartmouth, Horton, Liverpool, Newport,
Truro, Weymouth. Cafe Breton : Sydney, Arichat.
Prince Ed-ward Island : Charlottetown, St. Eleanor's.
'New Brwiswick : Bathurst, Carleton, Douglas,
Grand  Lake,   Hampton, Miramichi,  Prince Wijy^^
West-
,  Shedia
:rryland,
Somerset, Smith
Gree
me
Colleg
e tests
)f
Sackville, St. George's, St. Stephe
field.
Newfoundland:   Bonavista,    I
Pond, Port des Grave, Twillingate.
Bermuda : Paget and Warwic
and Hamilton, Pembroke and Devo
Bishop John Inglis proved him
pion for the welfare and rights c
Largely through his influence th
Churchmanship—tests which debarred all dissenters
from entering its walls—were removed. Professors and
fellows, however, out of deference to the wish of the
. Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. William Howley), were
still required to sign the Thirty-nine Articles. The
internal discipline of the college also was rigorously
scrutinized, and found so defective that strenuous
efforts had to be made to bring recalcitrant students
into subjection to lawful authority.
Bishop John Inglis lived at a time when many
reform questions were disturbing the minds of men
both in the old land and abroad. They all pointed in
the direction of curtailing the power and emoluments
of the Church and all her institutions.   Church " tests'"
fSee pages 16 and 17. John Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1825-1850).
everywhere were being removed, and State aid for
Church purposes withdrawn. They were the troubles
which led to the rebellion in Upper Canada, and, of
course, they touched Nova Scotia. After due notice
all grants to King's College from the English Government were withdrawn. This the Bishop and other
governors of King's were unable to prevent, but when a
demand was made that the college should surrender its
charter it was met with a respectful, but firm refusal.
Sir Peregrine Maitland (who had been Governor in
Upper Canada) was Lieutenant-Governor at the time
in Nova Scotia. In 1830 he brought before the Provincial Assembly the desirability of uniting King's
College at Windsor with Dalhousie College at Halifax.
From this action the Home authorities seem to have
inferred that this was a burning question in the colony.
When it was found out that this was not the case the
matter subsided, and King's was allowed to remain at
Windsor, and in possession of its royal charter. Bishop
John Inglis was the chief mover in this matter, and
secured the valuable interference of the Archbishop of
Canterbury on behalf of the rights of the college, his
Grace being by statute its patron. The number of
students, however, at King's College, it is only right to
remark, has never been very large, and during the
unhappy discussions regarding it there were two years,
1834 and 1835, when only two entries were made each
year.* Rev. Dr. Porter resigned the principalship in
April, 1836. He was succeeded by Rev. Dr. McCaw-
ley, Professor of Hebrew.and Mathematics in King's
College,   New  Brunswick.    He  received  a  salary  of
*"The University of King's College," etc., by Dr. Hind, p. 82. The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
from the S.P.G. for
>se days fc
: together
foundatic
;esan Chu
• the clerg
in synods
i for it ii
ch Society
£400 sterling, besides a stipend
doing clerical duty at Falmouth.
It was not the fashion in th
and laity of the Church to mee
but Bishop John Inglis laid the
Nova Scotia by forming the Dio
It was formed to supply books, and tracts, and missionary visits to destitute settlements, sustaining King's
College, aiding students in theology, and assisting in
the erection and enlargement of churches. In 1846 he
formed the " Alumni Association of King's College,"
which has proved to be ever since a valuable support to
the institution.
It is unnecessary to speak in any further detail of
the continued visitations and
gable Bishop. Suffice it to saj
and systematic. In 1846 he r
men in Halifax. Thirty were present, and of these
twenty-six were King's College men, and, with few
exceptions, had been ordained by himself. He lived
to see undoubted signs of progress and development in
the Church he loved. In 1839 he saw the formation of
two dioceses, one for Upper Canada (Toronto
other for Newfoundland and Bermuda. In
had the extreme happiness of seeing New I
formed into the separate Diocese of Fredericton. Sine
then no further diminution of the Diocese of Nov;
Scotia has been made. He lived also to see a dioces-
formed (in 1849) in Rupert's Land, among the Indian
and fur traders' of the far Northwest, and still anothe
(in 1850) at Montreal. But this he saw and little more
The first Bishop of Montreal was consecrated in Eng
any furthf
ours of th
indefati-
cle
, and the
1845 he John Inglis, of Nova Scotia (1825-1850). 49
land in August, 1850, and in the following October the
third Bishop of Nova Scotia, who had gone to England
with the hopes of recruiting his failing health, departed
to his long rest. He died in London on October 27th,
1850, and was buried in the churchyard of Battersea.
Though buried in England, a tablet to his memory was
placed, as was fitting, in St. Paul's Church, Halifax.
Bishop John Inglis was in possession, it is said, of
a princely income, amounting in all to about $12,000
per annum,* but owing to expensive journeys, generous
hospitality, and unstinting charity, he died possessed of
very little. " Clermont," his paternal estate at Aylesford, he bequeathed to King's College.
His wife was the daughter of the Hon. Thomas
Cochran, Speaker of the House of Assembly, to whom
were born three sons and three daughters. The second
son is well known in history as Sir John Eardly Wilmot
Inglis, who distinguished himself in the Indian Mutiny
of 1857.
Bishop John Inglis was noted for his genial and
pleasant disposition. He was called the Chesterfield
of the episcopal bench, and, " next to George IV., the
most polished gentleman of his time." His memory
still lingers in Nova Scotia, where, for twenty-five years,
he was known as the " good Bishop," or, towards the
last, " the dear old Bishop."
See "The Church ii
■ the Imperial Gon
by A. W. Eai 5.    Hon. and Ri<
D.D., Secc
Rev. Charles James St
Bishop of Quebec.
THE progress of the Church in Lower Canada at
first was very slow. In 1815, after twenty-two
years of the Quebec episcopate, there seems to
have been only two missions added to those in existence when it was established. These two were South
Armand and Dunham. At the former was stationed
the Hon. and Rev. C. J. Stewart, -at the latter Rev.
Charles C. Cotton. The story of the career of the
Hon. Charles J. Stewart is in a high degree creditable
to himself and the holy religion which he professed.
He was the fifth son of the Earl of Galloway, and was
born on the 13th of April, 1775. His education was
begun at home under a private tutor, and completed at
Corpus Christi, Oxford. His mind from the first was
naturally drawn to the alleviation of suffering humanity.
His sympathies were strongly with those who were
trying to abolish slavery. As a student he would jiot
take sugar in his tea, because sugar was a product of
slave labour. This showed an element of consistency
rare in humanity. After Mr. Stewart had graduated
M.A., his cousin, the Earl of Aboyne, presented him
with the united rectories of Orton, Longueville, and
Botolph Bridge, which he held for eight years, at which
time a desire to perform missionary work began to "stir
within him.    While considering to what field he should THE HON. AND RT. REV. CHARLES JAMES STEWART, D.D.
Second Bishop of Quebec.  Charles James Stewart, of Quebec (1826-1837). 51
go, being himself first inclined to go to India, he fell in
with an appeal from Bishop Jacob Mountain, who at
the time was in England, and who was greatly in need
of missionaries in Canada. This determined him. He
gave himself for missionary work in Canada.
It was at a time when the missionary spirit was at
a very low ebb in England, and men wondered that
the son of a British nobleman should give up comfort
and ease at home to live a lonely and sequestered life
abroad. Had he gone to increase his fortune by work
in some distant gold mine they would have understood
it, but when he went to spend it for the spiritual welfare
of man the so-called Christian world of the day looked
On in wonder.
Mr. Stewart arrived at Quebec on the 27th of
September, 1807, where he remained for a few weeks.
Though a most excellent man he was not prepossessing
in appearance. Miss Mountain thus wrote of him on
his first arrival in Canada :
" We have had a most wonderful young man here
who has charmed us all, and, indeed, even those who
were prejudiced against him. I mean Mr. Stewart,
who, you doubtless know, has come to act here as a
missionary, and so unusual an undertaking in a man of
family independence could not by the world in general
be attributed to any but an enthusiast and a Methodist.
The papers mentioned his coming to convert the
Indians. You see the effect of such conduct as his.
With no advantages of person or address, with real disadvantages of voice and manner in the pulpit, before he
left Quebec he gained general respect, and certainly did
make converts of those who were disposed at first to 52 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
call the real goodness of his designs in question. He
met with every discouragement here, except from a very
few persons, yet he continued steadfast in his perseverance." He reached St. Armand, a seigniory situated about seventy miles southeast from Montreal, on
Saturday, the 21st of October. Some one there endeavoured to discourage him from attempting to hold
services, assuring Tiim that some clergyman had tried
it before, but was obliged to leave because of the great
wickedness of the people. "Then," he replied, "this
is the very place for me; here I am needed, and, by
God's grace, here I will remain."
And here he
did remain until ^ ^ -^ ^
the place became >^
aflourishingmis- l!!!!^ ^Jsss&-
built two church- ;      '-'wigi)B|
es, one  at Fre- feag '^^^|ifek|^^^
lighsburg, and -      /mmm
the other at Phil- flU
ipsburg.     The itllilSffpPI ^SpErifjlP
great cost of the j^^i§|i|iiM^lM^ls^
building of these Sill
churches   was ^^^^Sl^^jUf^^w,^^
met    by    Mr. ^^^^^^^^^
Stewart himself. "^^^^^^^^^^^^RS^
"Devotion   tO Freli h b r
God's  service
made me a missionary " was his motto. It is doubtful whether any devotee of wealth, or agnosticism, or
profligacy,  ever  had  as great a joy  as that of Mr. Charles James Stewart, of Quebec (1826-1837). 53
Stewart when the Frelighsburg church—" the first
place of worship in this whole region of country "—
was finished. It was opened and consecrated by
Bishop Jacob Mountain on the 20th of January, 1809,
in the presence of a large number of people, some of
whom had come hundreds of miles to see what, to
many of them, was a curiosity—a church in the wilderness. A picture of this church has been preserved.
It formed the model for many others which were afterwards erected by the energy and liberality of this
apostle of the woods.
In Frelighsburg there still stands, in a dilapidated
   condition, the
1 small  frame
I buildingwhich
I was occupied
I byMr.Stewart
and his serv-
an t    man.*
Here the missionary   lived
inthesimplest
manner  possible.
In 1815, Mr. Stewart left his mission for a visit to
England. Great grief was felt by his people at his
departure. But he remembered them when away, for
in England he collected ^2,000 to help him in further
missionary work. After taking the degree of Doctor of
Divinity he returned to Canada in 1817.
* So we are informed by the present esteemed Incumbent o
Canon Davidson, D.D. It is a pity that some steps could not
this building, or save it at least from dilapidation.
.lighsl)
Finding St. 54 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Armand in a flourishing condition under Rev. J. Reid,
who had been his co-worker as schoolmaster, he would
not disturb it, but, giving it up to him entirely, he
took up work in a neglected district named Hatley.
Here Dr. G. J. Mountain (the.Bishop's son) found him
occupying a small garret in a wooden house, reached
by something more like a ladder than a staircase ; here
he had one room, in which were his little open bed,
his books, and his writing table—everything of the
plainest possible kind. The farmer's family, who lived
below, boarded him and his servant. "And here,"
says Dr. Mountain, " buried in the woods and looking
out upon the dreary landscape of snow, some thousands
of miles away from all his connections, many of whom
were of the highest nobility of Britain, this simple and
single-hearted man, very far from strong in bodily
health, was labouring to build up the Church of God
among a people who were utter strangers to the
Church of England"*—or, indeed, it might be added,
to religion of any kind.
Here he lived on the simplest fare : on Fridays
he subsisted upon potatoes and salt only, his practice
being to spend every Friday in " fasting, meditation,
and prayer."
He considered himself a " missionary on a large
scale," and, therefore, remained single, although " to
do so," he said himself, "involved a great sacrifice.
But to the Church it is a great advantage. I am
always ready to go or to stay anywhere for a long or a
short time, and no place and every place is my home."
He computed his personal expenses—for himself and
* See " Lives of Missionaries, North America," S.P.C.K., p. 184. Charles James Stewart, of Quebec (1826-1837).
servant—as amounting to about £250 a year. "This
leaves me," he remarks, " of my income ^400 a year
for public arid private beneficial purposes."
In his missionary work Dr. Stewart is said to have
built or commenced twenty-four churches, nearly all
on the model of the Frelighsburg Church.
About this time large numbers of emigrants from
the Old World began to pour into Canada. In the
year 1819, we are told that as many as 12,000 arrived.
Dr. Stewart, therefore, thought it best to give himself
lip to the work of a travelling missionary. With this
end in view he resigned Hatley in 1819. In the first
six months of 1820 he travelled through a circuit of
i_8o miles. We hear of him in the far west of " Upper
Canada" (Ontario), and in every direction. Greeted
everywhere by the sound of the woodman's axe, this
• modern apostle went from place to place, over roads
that beggar description, and suffering discomforts that
would scarcely be believed.
In 1821 he was in England; in 1822 he was
travelling again through the woods of Canada ; in 1823
he returned to England as the Bishop's commissioner
to defend the claim of the Church to her rights under
"Act 31, George III.," which set apart one-seventh of
the land for ecclesiastical revenue. This Act the
Canadian House of Assembly had begun to attack.
It was the first onslaught upon the "Clergy Reserves."*
Returning in November, 1824, he continued his unwearied missionary labours, and on the death of
Bishop Jacob Mountain, in June, 1825, Dr. Stewart
was appointed by the Crown authorities  in England 56
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland,
the second Bishop of Quebec. He was consecrated in
England on the 21st of January, 1826, by Archbishop
Sutton (of Canterbury), assisted by Bishops Howley,
Van Mildert, and Blomfield. Returning to America,
he preached, at the request of Bishop Hobart, in
Trinity Church, New York. On June 4th, 1826, he
was installed in Quebec Cathedral.
The details of ten succeeding years of watchful,
steady, and severe labour need not be given here. It
was the repetition, at regular intervals, of the long
journeys he had already taken as a travelling missionary. His journeys, as a rule, were made on horseback. He soon found that his enormous diocese, the
western portion of which was rapidly increasing in
population, was entirely beyond his strength.* He
therefore urged upon " His Majesty's Government " to
appoint a coadjutor bishop. This was granted, and
Archdeacon George J. Mountain was selected for that
post, and consecrated in England on February 14th,
1836, with the title of Bishop of Montreal.
Weak and enfeebled in body, Bishop Stewart left
the care of his diocese to this younger and stronger
bishop, and sought rest in the land that had given
him birth. He was only sixty-one years old, but his hair
was very white, and his face pallid ; his limbs were
weak, and supported him but feebly. He lived a short
time with his brother, the Hon. Edward Stewart, at
Brighton. Here the Rev. J. S. M. Anderson, incumbent of St. George's Chapel, visited him, and at the
Bishop's request read for him the Order for the Visita-
During   Bishop
"The populatio
l of Upper Can
da in  I
826 was
/art's ten years' e
piscopate it had re
ore than
doubled Charles James Stewart, of Quebec (1826-1837). 57
tion of the Sick. All the responses, even to the
alternate verses of the seventy-first psalm, he repeated
accurately from memory. At the conclusion he asked
Mr. Anderson to say over him the prayer for a sick
child, making necessary alterations in a few of the
words. " But read it all," he said ; " weak and aged
as I am, I desire to draw near, with the guileless spirit
of a child, unto my God and Saviour."
He took up his residence in London with his
nephew, the Earl of Galloway, where, accompanied by
two faithful servants, whom he had brought with him
from Canada, he lingered till the thirteenth of July,
1837, when he quietly passed away. He was buried
in the family vault at Kensal Green, near London, by
the side of his brother and sister.
Though not handsome in face, and somewhat
ungainly in build, without any pulpit gifts whatever,
his utterance and delivery being against him, this
missionary of the western world was a man of noble
mind and sterling worth. Canada has been the gainer
to an extent not generally known by his self-denying
devotion to the cause of God. Right Rev. Gi
n, D.D., D.C.L.
orge jeho
Third Bi:
WHEN Dr. Jacob Mountain, first Bishop of
Quebec, arrived in his diocese, he had
with him four children. The second o
these was born in Norwich, England, on July 27th,
1789, and named George Jehoshaphat. Amid the
lovely scenery and rural quietude of Woodfield (his
father's residence), about three miles from Quebec,
he was brought up. His father had a private tutor
for him. It is recorded in the Bishop's journal, March
28th, 1796, " This day George began his Latin grammar," before he was seven years old.
At sixteen he was sent to England, and entered at
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in
1810. His regret at leaving his father's roof was most
marked. It drew from him a poem which, considering
his youth, is one of decided merit. It is entitled, " O,
Must I Leave Thee, Woodfield ? "* and reminds one
of Eve's lamentation, " Must I Leave Thee, Paradise?"
Returning to Canada in 1811, he had the happiness of preparing for Holy Orders under the direction
of his father, and of assisting him in his duties as
his private secretary. His father, who had already
baptized and confirmed him, also ordained him.    He
* The  poem is given in externa in " Memoir of G. J.  Mountain," by his son,
Rev. Armine W. Mountain. n
THE RT. REV. GEORGE 3EH0SHAPHAT MOUNTAIN, D.D., D.C.L.
Third Bishop of Quebec.
Born, 1789.    Consecrated, 1836.    Died, 1863.  George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 59
was made a deacon on August 2nd, 1812, and priest
on January 16th, 1814. He assisted his cousin in the
parish duties of Quebec. Exactly two years after his
admission to the diaconate (August 2nd, 1814), his
father married him in the cathedral of Quebec to
Mary Hume, daughter of Deputy Commissary General
Thomson, and immediately afterwards the young
couple left for Fredericton, New Brunswick, which for
a short time was to be their home. By water on
transports, by land on horseback or on foot, by penetrating forests and crossing rivers, they arrived on the
27th of September.
After two years' work as Rector of Fredericton, he
was called back again to Quebec to be the incumbent
or " officiating clergyman " of Quebec, his cousin, Rev.
Salter J. Mountain, having gone to Cornwall (Upper
Canada). He was then made "official" of the diocese,
and assisted his father continually in his duties.
In 1819 he received, the degree of D.D. from the
Archbishop of Canterbury, and accompanied his
father in his last visitation to Upper Canada. In 1821
he> was made Archdeacon of Lower Canada, in which
capacity he made long and extensive journeys from
Montreal on the west to distant Gaspe" on the east.
In May, 1825, his father sent him to England to procure, if possible, assistance for him in his episcopal
duties; but when the Archdeacon had completed
satisfactory arrangements he heard of his father's
death, which took place suddenly on the 18th of June.
With a heavy heart he returned and resumed his
archidiaconal duties, which he was to continue under
the saintly and apostolic Bishop Stewart.    The great- 60 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
est affection and confidence subsisted between them.
They were co-workers for the Church which they both
deeply loved.
In 1826 the Archdeacon visited Gaspe for the
second time, and then journeyed to York (Toronto), in
the distant west of Upper Canada, visited the Eastern
Townships (about Montreal), and the districts contiguous to Quebec—long and tedious journeys, taxing
greatly the strength of man. His own account of his
journeys, sent to the S.P.G, are most interesting.
He was a keen lover of nature, a close observer, and
this enabled him to use his fine descriptive powers to
the best possible advantage. The roads may have
been rough and tedious, but the forests and rivers
were grand, and while the birds sang in the branches,
and the waters murmured in current and cascade,
there was poetry amidst the hardships of life.
In 1832 Quebec was visited with cholera. In
little more than two months one-tenth of the
population of Quebec, which then numbered 28,000,
was carried off. In two consecutive days the Archdeacon himself buried more than seventy bodies. He
never left his post for a day, but gave himself up
entirely to ministering to the sick and dying. These
sad duties extended even into the country. A horse
was kept saddled in his stable night and day to enable
him and his curate to meet the calls from a distance.
Their rule was to take night calls alternately, but on
many nights they were both out, and for whole days
together unable to return home.
Bishop Stewart soon began to grow feeble, and
by the year 1835 he felt that he must have a coadjutor. . George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 61
Dr. Stewart, at the time, as Bishop of Quebec, was in
the receipt of £3,000, or $15,000 a year. This he
received from the Imperial Government. One-third of
this (nearly $5,000) he was willing to devote to the
support of an assistant. ■ But this was considered in
those days an exceedingly small income for a bishop.
Dr. Mountain, therefore, went to England in August,
^ZSi to try to find some clergyman of " ample
private means " who would accept the position. But
being unable to do this, he was induced to accept it
himself. He was therefore consecrated at Lambeth
on Sunday, February 14th, 1836, by the Archbishop
of Canterbury (Dr. William Howley), assisted by the
Bishops of London (Dr. C.J. Blomfield), Winchester
(Dr. Charles R. Sumner), and Gloucester (Dr. J. H.
Monk). He was consecrated under the title of Bishop
of Montreal.
Shortly after his arrival in Quebec, in September,
1836, Bishop Stewart was obliged to seek rest in
England, where, in the following year, he died. Thus
Dr. Mountain assumed the duties of the whole
diocese almost at once. Yet it was not for many years
that he consented to be called Bishop of Quebec.
Montreal was rapidly becoming a place of size and
importance, and Dr. Mountain longed to see a
bishopric established there, and the retention of the
title would have a tendency, he hoped, to bring the
wished-for consummation into nearer view.
On the death of Bishop Stewart, the income voted
by the Imperial Parliament to the Bishop of Quebec
ceased, but a vote of £1,000 a year was granted to
Dr.   Mountain   for   life.    Besides   this,   he   received 62 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
another .£1,000 as Archdeacon and Rector of Quebec,
which he was allowed to retain. A portion of the
income as rector, however, he surrendered to the
assistant clergy of Quebec."*
The number of clergy in the diocese in 1836 was
as follows :
In District of Quebec 17!
"        " Montreal 17
" Upper Canada 51
In all 85
There now follows an active career of journeying
about from place to place, in and about Quebec, Montreal, and Gaspe in the far east, followed by a visit to
Upper Canada, which in itself occupied a period of upwards of three months. This was in 1838. His spirit
was stirred within him because of these sheep in the
wilderness, that had no chief pastor. The wilderness
was fast giving way to the industry of man, and flourishing towns, villages, and settlements were springing
up everywhere. It was already vastly superior to
Lower Canada in the number of clergy and in Church
population, yet had no bishop. He saw also that the
prospects of support for the Church from Government,
either at home or abroad, were very dark indeed. He
pointed this out to the clergy and laity of Upper
Canada, at a visitation held at York (Toronto), and
urged the immediate adoption of some plan whereby
the Church might be supported by voluntary conlribu-
* See " Memoir of G. J. Mountain," by Rev. Armine W. Mountain.
tThe parishes and mission stations of this district were Quebec, Three
Rivers, Leeds, Dru.iimondville, Melbourne, Lennoxville, Eaton, Hatley, Gaspe"
Basin, and Carlisle. George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 63
tions. Had this principle been more widely depended
upon, it would have been far better for the Church of
the present day than the reliance upon Government
or societies in England. At the close of this visitation
the Bishop made a full report upon the state of the
Church in Upper Canada to Lord Durham, Governor-
General. This report gives the number of clergy in
Upper Canada as seventy-three, the number of
churches as ninety, and the number of adherents of
the Church of England 150,000.
In the following year, 1839, to the Bishop's great
satisfaction and relief, Upper Canada was taken off
his hands by the formation of the Diocese of Toronto.
In the same year the far east also received a new
diocese in the separation of Newfoundland from Nova
Scotia.
The "Bishop of Montreal" could now address
himself more closely to his duties in Lower Canada.
During the years 1839 and 1840 he visited assiduously
and particularly in the neighbourhood of Montreal,
with the hope of seeing a bishopric established there.
Through the liberality of the S.P.G., the Bishop was
able to establish a Divinity School at Three Rivers,
under the charge of Rev. S. S. Wood, in the autumn
of 1840. But the Rev. Lucius Doolittle, Rector of
Sherbrooke and Lennoxville, offered through himself
and his parishioners a large sum of money if a school
and college should be set up in their midst. This led "
to the establishment of Bishop's College at Lennoxville. A preparatory school was opened there in 1842
under Mr. Edward Chapman. After the interruption
of a severe illness, we find the Bishop in   Montreal 64
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
again, where in July, 1842, he was instrumental in
forming the Church Society of the Diocese of Quebec—
a wise measure designed to bring out the self-supporting powers of the people.
Soon after the formation of this society there was
established (in 1842) a fund for the support of the
widows and orphans of the clergy. This fund became
very popular, and increased rapidly.
Bishop G. J. Mountain was a man in whom the
missionary spirit burned with a fire that was strong
and pure. Indeed the missionary spirit was beginning
to assert itself with some show of vigour in many parts
of the British Empire. Already, the colonial episcopate was beginning to diffuse itself throughout the
world. Already besides the four dioceses of British
North America, there were three in India, four in the
West Indies (with Guiana), two in Australia, one in
Gibraltar, and one in New Zealand, whither, in 1841,
went the missionary apostle of the age, George
Augustus Selwyn.
In keeping with this spirit Bishop Mountain now
looked far off to the distant west, with a longing desire
that a bishopric should be established there.
In 1799, some enthusiastic Churchmen of the
Evangelical school formed, in England, a Church
Missionary Society, which was to be for the heathen
what the S.P.G. had been for the colonists. This
C.M.S., as we shall in future designate it, established
a mission in 1822 at the " Red River Settlement," in
Rupert's Land, which was then an indefinite term by
which the vast territory of British North America was
designated.    The  mission   was   established  for   the George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 65
purpose of ministering to the Indians, who were living
in a most degraded condition of heathenism.
After some years of correspondence, the " Bishop
of Montreal" made up his mind to visit this country,.
with a view to
establishing,
if possible, a
bishopric
there.    This
proved to be
one   of   the
53 most   famous
2 missio n ary
\ g journeys ever
' -2 taken.   It was
% arranged  for
1 •£ under the aus-
° pices   of   the
1 C.M.S.    The
I Bishop could
^not,   as  the
^Bishop    of
% Quebecisable
to do to-day,
get into a palatial   C.P.R.
"coach" and,
in the midst of
every comfort,
reach Winnipeg in a few
days.   The journey involved a trip of about 1,800 miles
by canoe, and was taken along the lonely route of the 66
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
lakes and rivers, which then had very little but the
sounds of nature as heard in the wilderness to awake
their echoes. The canoe journey began at Montreal,
which place the Bishop and his party reached from
Quebec by steamer. The craft itself was of colossal
proportions for a birch bark canoe, and was known as
a " canot de maitre." It was thirty-six feet long, and
was manned by fourteen voyageurs, each of whom
was armed with a paddle. Six were French-Canadians
and eight were Iroquois Indians. The Bishop had
with him his chaplain (Rev. J. P. Maning), and his
servant, who sat together in the centre of the canoe.
Embarking at Lachine on the 16th of May, 1844, they
proceeded up the Ottawa river. After about a week's
travel they entered the river Mattawa, passed through
several small lakes and other rivers till they reached
Lake Huron, along the northern shore of which they
coasted for 190 miles, when they arrived at Sault
Ste. Marie, at the lower extremity of Lake Superior.
Along the northern shore of this great lake (in itself
a large'inland sea) they coasted until they reached
Fort William, where there was a station of the Hudson's Bay Company. " Here," the Bishop wrote
himself in 1844, " is the boundary between Canada
and the Hudson's Bay Company; and here you reach
a height from which the waters fall either way."* At
Fort William the large canoe was abandoned, and
two smaller ones taken, they being more suitable for the
difficulties they would have to encounter through the solitary regions of Rupert's Land. By the Rainy Lake and
the Lake of the Woods, with here and there a river,
* The " Bishop of Montreal's " Journal, etc. (now a very rare book). George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 67
they reached Lake Winnipeg. In this part of their
journey they met with many obstructions which obliged
them to unload the canoes, divide all the " luggage "
among the men, except those who had to carry the
canoe, and walk past the barrier to where the water
was again navigable. Of these portages, as they are
called, there were many.
On this journey the ordinary rules of canoe travelling were observed. The party rose at three o'clock
in the morning and journeyed till eight, then landed
for breakfast and a halt of one hour. Then on again
till two o'clock, when there is a halt of half an hour for
a cold dinner, the journey being resumed till sunset.
Then a tent is erected for the Bishop and his chaplain.
Fires are lit, kettles are boiled, and a "supper"
cooked. The men sleep on the ground in blankets or
under the canoe, which is always pulled ashore and
turned bottom upwards. If there is a good, fair wind,
they sometimes do not land at all in the evening, but
push on all night by means of a sail.
By extra exertion towards the last of the journey
the Bishop was able to arrive at his destination at
nine o'clock on Sunday morning, June 23rd, 1844,
after a canoe journey of five weeks and two days. He
found the Christianized Indians assembling in their
little wooden church for divine service, and they, to
their great satisfaction, heard the voice of a Bishop, and
gave him a right royal welcome to the wilderness.
His stay was brief, for the navigation season was
very short. On their way up they encountered thin
coatings of ice, through which they had to paddle, and
■on their way back they must escape the high winds of September, w
very dangeroi
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
ch make all canoeing on the bi
The Bishop, therefore, departed on the home
journey on the ioth of July, and arrived at Lachine on
the 14th of August; but the few weeks of his residence
at Red River were a bright spot for the missionaries
and their Indian converts in and among whom he
went preaching and confirming, and imparting the
episcopal benediction.
Shortly after his return from Red River, the
Bishop had the satisfaction of laying the corner stone
of Bishop's College, Len'noxville. The ceremony took
place on the 18th of September, 1844.
The year 1845 was a year of importance for the
Diocese of Quebec. In that year a very modest beginning was made in the way of instruction at Lennox-
ville.    Owing to a munificent donation of/6,ooo from George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 69
an old friend of his, Bishop G. J. Mountain was
enabled to engage a principal for the infant institution.
Such was found in Rev. Jasper Hume Nicolls, a
nephew of the Bishop's, a young man whom he induced
to leave England for the purpose at a salary of £100
per year. He began his duties in a little old wooden
house in the village, part of which was used as a store,
the number of students in his charge being eight. The
house was miserably cold, the rooms low and small,
the discomforts many ; yet the genial young Englishman made time for all concerned pass pleasantly and
happily away.*
In that year, also, the Church Society was incorporated by Act of Parliament. It thus became a
properly legalized body. From it the Bishop hoped
great things, but his expectations were greater than
the realization. He wanted it to be the means of
forming an endowment for the work of the Church.
Some subscriptions were given, and some land, but
they were mainly gifts made by the Bishop himself
and members of his family. The people of Canada
little realized how much the Church owes, in property
and prosperity, to the Mountain family.f
This Church Society was the foundation of those
funds, which in every diocese are essential to its efficiency, such as Diocesan Mission Fund, Widows and
Orphans' Fund, Superannuation Fund, etc. It was a
useful provision, formed only just in time, to enable
the infant Church to subsist when it should have to
walk alone.
* Memoir of late Dr. Nicolls in " The Mission Field," 1879.    S.P.G.
tSee Archdeacon Roe's "Jubilee Memoirs of the Church Society of the Diocese 70
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoum
In 1845, also, the Bishop had *he -satisfaction of
hearing that New Brunswick had been set off from
Nova Scotia as a separate diocese, with Fredsricton
as its see city—where he, at the beginning of his
ministerial life, had been a pioneer rector.
It is not necessary here to give in detail the unwearied journeys of this indefatigable Bishop, as he
went now to Lennoxville, now to Montreal, and now
to distant parts of his own districts, in performance of
his laborious duties. Enough to say that he knew
nothing but work.
Mention, however, must be made of the terrible.
visitation of ship fever which afflicted Quebec in 1847.
In the midst of poor creatures dying by the hundreds
of a loathsome and virulent disease, the Bishop and.
his clergy, many of whom came from their quiet,
healthy country parishes for the purpose, moved
incessantly night and day, ministering to the dying as
best they could. Of the fifteen who devoted themselves in this way, five caught the plague and died, to
their own lasting glory, but to the great loss of the
diocese. The Bishop, though himself in the thickest
of the fight, was amongst those who escaped.
In 1849 his exertions on behalf of Rupert's Land
received their reward in the establishment of the new
diocese, which bore its name, and in 1850 his golden
dream for Montreal, too, was realized, for in that year
the great, growing, commercial city received its first
bishop. Then, and only then, the title of " Bishop of
Montreal," which he had purposely held all this time,
belonged to him no more. Henceforth he took his
proper title of Bishop of Quebec. George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 71
Thus, in 1850, the Diocese of Quebec, in its
present size and form, started on its new career. It
commenced with a clerical staff of thirty-eight.
In 1851 the Bishop, after several years of correspondence, brought about a meeting of the Bishops of
British North America. Bishop Fulford (Montreal),'
Bishop Strachan (Toronto), Bishop Medley (Fredericton), and Bishop Feild (Newfoundland) attended.
Bishop Anderson (Rupert's Land) and Bishop Binney
(Nova Scotia) were unable to be present. This was
the first meeting of bishops in Canada, and it was held
with a view to the establishment of synods and to the
unification of the Church, at as early a date as
possible. The Bishop of Quebec was the moving
spirit in this conference, which lasted for a period of
ten days, and resulted in a very able manifesto, which
was issued and published abroad amongst the different
dioceses of the country.*
This document was submitted to the Archbishop
of Canterbury, with the hopes that the authority of the
Imperial Parliament might be obtained for the holding
of synods in the colonies. The reply of the Archbishop was unfavourable. Bishop G. J. Mountain,
therefore, went to England in 1852. Here he met
Bishop Feild (Newfoundland), Bishop Binney (Nova
Scotia), Bishop Broughton (Sydney), Bishop Gray
(Capetown), and Bishop Davis (Antigua), all of whom
were interested in the question of self-government for
the  Church i
Bishops took
colonies,
in   Engl;
Conferences  of these
nd.    Here were voices 72 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
not only from British North America, but from Australia, Africa, and the West Indies. In these.conferences
the Bishop of Quebec presided. A joint conference
was also held of these colonial bishops and eighteen
English bishops, presided over by Archbishop Sumner
of Canterbury.* The result was that a bill was introduced into Parliament by the Archbishop, and taken
in hand by Mr. Gladstone in the House of Commons.
¥#!^s^i3l*§|
^B*-!
Lennoxville University in Olden Days.
But the bill did not pass, and the colonial bishops
were as they were. But this was all for the best in
the end. They returned to their distant dioceses
resolved to take the matter into their own hands, and
establish diocesan synods as soon  as  circumstances
* This gathering might be regarded as a prelude to the Lambeth Conferences
not many years afterwards to be inaugurated. George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 73
would permit of it. At this conference it was arranged
that Quebec was to be the metropolitical see of British
North America.
In 1853 a royal charter was granted by the Queen
to Bishop's College, Lennoxville, by which it became a
university.
At this time Bishop G. J. Mountain was sixty-
one years old, but his work was by no means done.
He had now a comparatively compact diocese, and
there remained yet much to be done to set it in order.
Besides a spiritual father, it is necessary for a Bishop
to be something of a statesman. Such was Bishop
G. J. Mountain. The time was fast approaching when
the Church must become absolutely self-reliant. The
S.P.G." had notified the Bishop, in 1856, that the
Society would have to decrease the amounts paid to
the clergy—the first year from £100 sterling to £8o,
the next three years to £50, after which the grants
would cease altogether. This was a grave moment,
for no reliance whatever could be placed any longer
upon State aid. The Crown and the Church had
parted company.
In this severance between Church and State, the
Church did not suffer an absolute loss. In 1857 the
Canadian Government paid over in debentures to the
Diocese of Quebec $53,341-59 as compensation money
for those clergymen who had been relying upon State
aid, the clergy having themselves presented the amount
to the Church, they to receive their incomes as usual.
This was placed under the management of a committee known as " The Clergy Trust," with the provision   that   as   the   clergymen   who   were  receiving 74 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
incomes from the interest on it should die (or as the
fund might otherwise admit of it) other clergymen
taking their places might receive a like benefit.
The ever-liberal S.P.G. also handed over to the diocese in this year $75,000, a balance of "Clergy Reserve"
revenue which that Society was entitled to use to
recoup itself for its expenditure upon its missions in
the Province of Quebec. Instead of keeping it, the
Society generously handed it over to Quebec as an
episcopal endowment fund. This was a timely provision for the days of scarcity at hand, when with the
death of Bishop G. J. Mountain the episcopal income
was to cease.
Now that the days of ecclesiastical independence
were at hand, the Bishop, by means of correspondence
with the Home authorities and others, at last secured
an enactment by which the Church might assemble
her members in synod and transact her own temporal
affairs. In this matter he was following the example
of the Diocese of Toronto, whose clergy and laity met
together for the first time in Synod in the year 1857,
under the presidency of the 'Hon. and Right Rev.
Dr. Strachan, Bishop of the diocese.
All preliminaries having been at last settled, the
Bishop called the clergy and lay representatives of
the parishes and missions together for the first meeting
of Synod, on July 6th, 1859. The address of the
Bishop on that occasion was a masterly production.
Indeed, there were few men who could deliver more
able addresses than he.
Though over seventy years of age, the Bishop commenced, in 1861, his eighth and last triennial circuit in George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). 75
January, and encountered some hardships of travel
which, at his advanced age, were of serious import. His
wife, too, his partner of forty-seven years, died on the
23rd of August. Still, though shaken in health, he
continued his duties. To his own Synod in 1861 he
gave his clergy and laity a useful caution as to the election of their bishop—for their next bishop would have
to be chosen by their own votes—and he expressed a
hope that all canvassing and caballing would be not
even named among them. The good Bishop's caution
was needed. Episcopal elections were henceforth to be
the rule in Canada as in the United States. They
have not always, however, been free from the very
■ actions which this saintly Bishop of the old school so
much feared. Yet another diocese was formed in
Upper Canada, in that of Ontario ; and now the time
had come when the dioceses of Upper and Lower
Canada were to meet together in Provincial Synod, by
means of equal representation from each. It was a day
much to be remembered. Here were assembled the
Bishops of Montreal (who had been constituted Metropolitan of Canada), Quebec, Toronto, Huron, and the
Bishop-elect of Ontario, together with twelve clergymen
and twelve laymen from each diocese. The clergy that
represented Quebec were: Rev. Dr. Falloon, Rev. G.
V. Housman, Rev. Dr. Nicolls, Rev. Armine W.
Mountain, Rev. E. C. Parkin, Rev. C. P. Reid, Rev.
S. S. Wood, Rev. H. Roe, Rev. Charles Hamilton,
Ven. Dr. Hellmuth, Rev. A. J. Woolryche, Rev. E. W.
Sewell. The lay representatives were : Lt.-Col. Rhodes,
Right Hon. Lord Aylmer, Dr. F. D. Gilbert, and
Messrs. B. T. Morris, W. G. Wurtele, W. R. Doak, 76 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
G. Irvine, H. S. Scott, C. N. Montizambert, G. Okill
Stuart, J. B. Forsyth, and Philip Viberts. All these
were present except Rev. E. C. Parkin and Messrs.
Stuart and Viberts. The venerable Bishop of Quebec
was now so feeble that he could not take his place
in the procession to the cathedral; but to him, as was
most fitting, was allotted the task of preaching the
sermon, which, it is needless to say, was suitable to the
important occasion.
After this we still find the aged Bishop at his work,
confirming and ordaining. He was present at Kingston
(Upper Canada) at the consecration of the Bishop-
elect of Ontario in March, 1862, but before the end of
that year he was prostrated with an illness that proved
to be his last. He lived, however, long enough to see
the establishment of a diocesan board (consisting of an
equal number of clergy and laity) for the administration of the funds of the diocese. The S.P.G., by
special arrangement, agreed to pay the amount of
money represented by the salaries of the missionaries
supported by it to the Society en bloc. This led to
a system of management for the support of country
parishes which in time proved to be most successful,
and which has made Quebec the admiration of other
dioceses. But the faithful old Bishop lived only to see
its establishment. It came into operation on January
1st, 1863. Five days later the beloved Bishop died.
He died quietly, like an infant, in his son's arms, on
January 6th (the festival of the Epiphany, 1863), at the
age of seventy-four, full of hope of a blessed immortality. And thus passed away one of the noblest
workers, one of the most devoted Churchmen, one of George J. Mountain, of Quebec (1836-1863). yj
the kindliest spirits, one of the gentlest souls that ever
lived. He lived as he died, and of his death Bishop
Feild, of Newfoundland, remarked, " I have never heard
of any person's departure respecting which I could
more earnestly and sincerely say and pray, ' Let my
last end be like his.' "
originally in the Dio
represented above se
which now stands in j.    The Hon. and Right Rev. John Strachan, D.D.,
LL.D., First Bishop of Toronto.
JOHN STRACHAN was born at Aberdeen, in
Scotland, on April 12th, 1778. His father, John
Strachan, was an overseer of granite quarries
near Aberdeen.* His mother was a rigid Presbyterian. Her maiden name was Elizabeth Finlayson.
Though his father seems to have been rather inclined to
Scotch Episcopalianism, the son was certainly brought
up a Presbyterian. He was only fourteen years old
when his father died, and the burden of supporting his
mother made him thoughtful beyond his years. The ,
best way to support her, as he thought, was to qualify
himself for school teaching. With this end in view, he
entered the University of Aberdeen at the age of
sixteen, and during the long vacation earned money by
teaching. After holding one or two situations as a
teacher he was offered a position in Upper Canada
by the Governor, to take charge of an academy there
at a stipend of £80 sterling a year. He arrived in
Canada, as he himself used to put it, " on the last day,
of the last week, of the last month, of the last year, of
the last century." He arrived, however, only to meet
with a great disappointment. The scheme for the
proposed college had failed. The poor young Scotchman found himself a stranger in a strange landi with
* See " Memoir of the Rt. Rev. John Strachan."   By Bishop Bethune. THE HON. AND RT. REV. JOHN STRACHA1  John Strachan, of Toronto (1839-1867). 79
only about twenty shillings in his pocket. He made a
friend, however, in Richard Cartwright, Esq., who
engaged him as private tutor in his own house. This
brought him other pupils.
At this time there were only three clergymen in
the whole of Upper Canada. The Rev. John Stuart
was at Cataraqui (Kingston); Rev. John Langhorn
was at Ernest Town, on the Bay of Quinte; Rev.
Robert Addison was at Niagara.* But others were
destined very soon to be added. The Rev. George
Okill Stuart (son of Rev. John Stuart) was appointed
to York (Toronto) in 1800, and Rev. J. S. Rudd to Cornwall in 1801. Mr. Rudd, who was a B.A. of Queen's
College, Cambridge, removed to Sorel in 1803, where
he died in 1808, after having buried his wife and all
his children save one.f These clergymen received
about £100 a year, paid partly by Government and
partly by the S.P.G.
The four places mentioned are of historic interest.
At Niagara (called at first Newark) the first Government of Upper Canada was formed under Governor
Simcoe.J This shortly afterwards was moved to York
(Toronto).% It must be borne in mind that they were
all mere villages, nestling amidst the trees of a primeval
*A very interesting account of these pioneer clergy is to be found in "The
Church in the Colonies, Toronto," by Rev. Ernest Hawkins.    The  Rev.  H.  C.
: Church of England in Canada, I7S9-I793." makes it quite
evident that, in addition to these, a Rev. Mr. Bryan had r
somewhere about 1786 or 1788 (see pp. 88, 89).    There is no
Mr. Bryan in the " Digest of S.P.G. Records."    It would be ii
could throw some light upon his history.
t Digest of S.P.G. Records.
% " Life and Times of Governor Simcoe."   By D. B. Reid
IT Rev. Dr. Scadding, in his  "Toronto of Old," makes
" Toronto " was the ancient name of this historic place.    An i
change it to York, but the old name, fortunately, was soon rev
ention, however, of
nesting if some one The Bishops of Canada and Newfo;
ndland.
forest. The first church built at York was one of
primitive simplicity, constructed of wood and surrounded by trees.
Such was the state of the country when Mr. John
Strachan was tutoring children at Kingston. His
intercourse with the rector, Rev. Dr. Stuart, and with
other Churchmen of strict integrity and noble mind,
soon led the young Scotchman to incline to his father's
predilections and to claim the Episcopal Church as his
own. He studied for Holy Orders, and was ordained by
the first Bishop of Quebec (Dr. Jacob Mountain) in
1803, and was appointed to Cornwall at £130 a year.
Here he opened a grammar school, which for nine years
was the seminary of higher learning in Canada. He
taught in a little wooden building, which, scarred with
the initials of the pupils—many of them afterwards men
of renown in Church and State in Canada—still stands
in Cornwall.*
In 1807 he married the young widow of Mr. Andrew McGill, of Montreal. She was the daughter of Dr.
Wood, a physician of Cornwall, and being possessed of
an annuity in her own right was able to be of considerable assistance to her husband in his work. In Cornwall
Mr. Strachan built a church of wood, and this primitive
building he always regarded with much affection.j- In
1811 his own University of Aberdeen conferred upon
him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, and in that year
his old and valued friend at Kingston, Rev. Dr. John-
Stuart, the pioneer clergyman of Upper Canada, died.
*The writer saw this venerable building in 1889.    It was then used as a cow John Strachan, of Toronto (1839-1867). 81
Dr. Strachan hoped to succeed him at Kingston, but
Rev. G. O. Stuart, the rector's son, received at the
hands of the Bishop (Dr. Jacob Mountain) the position,
somewhat to the doctor's disappointment. However,
fie contented himself with accepting the rectory of York
(Toronto), which in the end proved to be by far the
better appointment.
This was early in 1812, the year of the war between
Great Britain and the United States. The new rector
at the capital showed himself equal to the circumstances
of the country, even to heroism. In 1813 he was
appointed a member of the Executive Council of Upper 82              The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Canada.    This  honour was  bestowed upon him  on
account of " his zealous and valuable services during
the late war."    When peace was established the work
of the Church went on.   Dr. Strachan, as was his wont,
opened a school; and thus, with all the irons he had in
the fire, his hands were full.    York was but a small
place, yet it was a city in miniature, having within itself
all classes of people, from the representatives of royalty
to the poorest in the land, with here and there a red
man of the forest to remind all of its primitive condition.
In the little square wooden church, painted as it was
of a bluish tint, was the  Governor's pew,  and when
occupied  by such personages as   Sir   Peregrine  and
Lady Sarah Maitland—zealous  Church people—was
a place indicative of some power both in Church and
State.    The church had no vestry ; the clergy robed
under the pulpit in full sight of the people.
In  1820  there were  only sixteen   clergymen  in
Upper  Canada,   classified  by districts, corresponding
with dioceses afterwards formed, as follows:
Huron.—Romaine Rolph, Amherstburg; R. Pollard,
Sandwich.
Niagara.—Ralph Leeming, Ancaster ; R. Addison,
Niagara ; Wm. Leeming, Chippawa; Wm. Sampson,
Grimsby; B. B. Stevens, Queenston.
Toronto.—Joseph    Thompson,   Cavan;    William
Macaulay, Cobourg (then Hamilton township) ; J.
Strachan, Toronto.
Ontario.—John Stoughton, Ernestown (Bath); John
Leeds, Brockville  (Elizabethtown) ;   G.  Okill Stuart,
Kingston ; F. Myers, Matilda. John Strachan, of Toronto (1839-1867). 83
Ottawa.—S. J. Mountain, Cornwall; M. Harris,
Perth ; J. G. Weagant, Williamsburg.
There was a memorable gathering of these clergy
in this year (1820), when the Bishop (Dr. Jacob
Mountain) visited Upper Canada.
In 1824 Dr. Strachan went to the old country, and
had the great happiness of seeing the land of his birth
and childhood. But the affairs of the Church in
Canada occupied his attention. The struggle regarding
the " Clergy Reserves " had begun. The land which
was set apart for the maintenance of the Church in
every township was claimed by the Presbyterians as belonging to them as well"as to the Church of England ;
and a similar claim was soon made by all denominations
of Protestants. This arose from the loose wording of
the Act which designated the beneficiaries as " a Protestant clergy," and. it became a very vexed question,.
and involved Dr. Strachan in much political dispute.
and agitation.
General Simcoe, first Governor of Upper Canada,
as far back as 1792 had two great objects in view for
the benefit of the new colony. One was the appointment of a bishop, and the other the establishment of a
Hmwlgrsity. Dr. Strachan, thirty-two years afterwards,
felt how pressing these two needs were. The university received his earliest attention. Like all true
Churchmen, he knew that education and religion should
go hand in hand. Largely by his exertions, grammar
schools were established in various places, and in 1826,
after having paid a visit to England for the purpose, he
had the proud satisfaction of having a university promised for Toronto.    It was to have a royal charter, 84
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
and was to bear the title of King's College. In 1827
Upper Canada was divided into two archdeaconries,
York in the west, and Kingston in the east. The arch- .
deacons respectively were Dr. Strachan, of York, and
Dr. G. Okill Stuart, of Kingston. Sir John Colborne
became Lieutenant-Governor in succession to Sir
Peregrine Maitland in 1828. Through him Upper
Canada College was established. Sir John was favourable to the claims of the Church, and in his time fifty-
seven parishes were formed into rectories, with suitable
endowments. This led to the exhibition of much
rancour throughout the country on the part of those
opposed to the Church.
Some of these parishes failed to comply with the
necessary preliminary steps, and therefore lost their
endowment, but the others have retained it to the
present day.
The rectories that obtained their glebe lands in
1836, arranged in districts corresponding to the present
dioceses, are as follows :
Toronto.—St. James', York Mills, Mimico, Cobourg,
Peterborough, Cavan, Thornhill, Port Hope, Markham,
Darlington, Barrie, Newcastle.
Huron.—Woodhouse, Woodstock, London Township, St. Paul's (London), Warwick, Adelaide, Am-
herstburg, Maiden.
Ontario.—Kemptville, Picton, Prescott, Elizabeth-
town, Kingston, Belleville, Napanee, Adolphustown,
Fredericksburgh, Bath.
Niagara.—Grimsby, Ancaster, Wellington Square,
Niagara, St. Catharines, Stamford, Chippawa, Guel'ph,
Thorold, Bertie (Fort Erie), Louth (Dalhousie). John-Strachan, of Toronto (1839-1867). 85
Ottawa.—Perth, Cornwall, Williamsburg, Richmond, Beckwith (Carleton Place).
Sir John Colborne was succeeded in 1836 by Sir
Francis Bond Head, whose first Government was so
intensely Conservative that the Radicals and Liberals
of the country resented it. What is known as "the
rebellion" broke out in 1837. When this was over
the new Governor exerted himself on behalf of the
formation of Upper Canada into a separate diocese,
and this was at last effected in 1839. Early in that
year the newly-erected Church of St. James was
destroyed by fire, to the great grief of the Archdeacon.
He was, however, cheered with the fact that Toronto was
to be formed into a diocese, and that he was to be the
first bishop.
" The Diocese of Toronto was set apart without any
endowment. That was to be an after consideration.
The Archdeacon was to have his present income,
about £1,000, less what he might have to pay for an
assistant in the parish.
In the summer of 1839 Dr. Strachan was conse- .
crated in England, by Archbishop Howley (Canterbury),
Bishop of Toronto, and with him was consecrated Dr.
Aubrey G. Spencer, Bishop of Newfoundland. On his
return to Toronto the Bishop found his church rebuilt
and restored; the body being of stone, the tower of
wood.    Such was the first cathedral of Toronto.
Dr. Strachan, at the age of sixty-one, began his
active career as first Bishop of Toronto.* In 1840 the
much-vexed question of the Clergy Reserves was for the
* The diocese at this time numbered seventy-one clergymen. Jubilee Volume,
Diocese of Toronto, p. 140. 86 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
time settled by Act of Parliament, the Church of
England receiving benefit to the extent of two-thirds
and the Church of Scotland one-third of a portion of
the property involved, the remaining portion, which
was half of the unappropriated lands, to be devoted by
the Government to purposes of public worship and
religious instruction in Canada.*
In 1844 an elaborate tabulated statement was made,
showing the clergy with their parishes and missions in the
diocese at that time. It is interesting to compare it
with the list of 1820. It is as follows, divided into districts corresponding with the dioceses afterwards formed.
A clergy list changed from seventeen to one hundred
and five in twenty-four years showed a large increase
in the population of the country, and also a fair amount
of Church energy and work :
Huron.—Wm. Bettridge, Woodstock; D. E.
Blake, Adelaide; M. Boomer, Gait; C. C. B rough,
London Township ; M. Burnham, St. Thomas ; R. F.
Campbell, Goderich; J. Carey, Walpole Island; H.
C. Cooper, Usborne, Biddulph, McGillivray, etc.;
B. Cronyn, London; Adam Elliot, Tuscarora; F.
Gore Elliott, Colchester; Francis Evans, Wood-
house (Simcoe)j Richard Flood, Caradoc (Muncey) ;
John Hickie, Blenheim, etc.; W. H. Hobson, Chatham; F. Mack, Amherstburg; W. Morse, Paris; A.
Mortimer, Warwick; A. Nelles, Mohawk; G. Petrie,
Burford; A. Pyne, Moore; T. B. Read, Port Burwell;
W. Ritchie, Sandwich; J. Rothwell, Ingersoll, Oxford,
etc.; James Stewart, Tyrconnell; J. C. Usher, Brant-
ford.
*See Bishop Bethune's "Memcir of Bishop Sliachan," p. 179. John Strachan, of Toronto (1839-1867). 87
Algoma.—F. A. O'Meara, Manitoulin Island,
Sault Ste. Marie, etc.
Niagara.—James L. Alexander, Binbrook; John
Anderson, Fort Erie; G. M. Armstrong, Louth (Port
Dalhousie); A. F. Atkinson, St. Catharines; T.
Creen, Niagara ; T. B. Fuller, Thorold; J. G. Geddes,
Hamilton; G. Graham, Nassagaweya; Thos. Greene,
Wellington; G. R. F. Grout, Grimsby; B. C. Hill,
Cayuga, etc. ; W. Leeming, Chippawa; W. McMurray,
Ancaster and Dundas ; F. W. Miller, Chippawa Forces ;
J. Mockridge, Elora, etc. ; A. Palmer, Guelph; A.
Townley, Dunnville; G. W. Warr, Oakville.
Toronto.—S. B. Ardagh, Barrie; Samuel Armour,
Cavan; A. N. Bethune, Cobourg; W. S. Darling,
Scarborough; Thomas Fidler, Fenelon Falls; John
Gibson, Georgina; H. J. Grasset, Toronto, Assistant;
George Hallen, Penetanguishene ; R. Harding, Pene-
tanguishene; G. S. J. Hill, Chinguacousy, Tullamore,
etc. ; A. Jamieson, Brock, Uxbridge, etc. ; T. S. Kennedy, Darlington, Bowmanville; R. J. McGeorge,
Streetsville; John Mclntyre, Orillia; J. M. A. McGrath, Springfield; V. P. M. A. Meyerhoffer, Markham;
George Maynard, North Gate (Toronto Township); G.
Mortimer, Thornhill; F. L. Osier, Tecumseth; H. B.
Osier, Lloydtown; J. Pentland, Whitby ; T. Phillips,
Weston; W. H. Ripley, Toronto, Trinity; C. Ruttan
(Assistant), Cobourg; A. Sanson, York Mills ; H. Scad-
ding (Assistant), Toronto ; Wm. Shaw, Colborne ; Jonathan Shortt, Port Hope ; Bishop Strachan, Toronto ;
G. C. Street, Newmarket;. R. J. C. Taylor, Peterborough; John Wilson (Curate), Cobourg. r
88 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Ontario.—W. A. Adamson, Amherst Island; T.
H. M. Bartlett, Kingston Garrison; Ph. G. Bartlett,
Carrying Place; Robert Blakey, Prescott; Job Deacon,
Adolphustown ; E. Denroche, Brockville; S. Givens,
. Napanee; John Grier, Belleville; W. H. Gunning,
New Dublin; W. F. S. Harper, Bath; Catechist,
Marysburgh; W. Herchmer (Assistant), Kingston Township ; W. Macaulay, Picton; E. Morris, Lansdowne,
etc.; H. Patton, Kemptville; R. V. Rogers, Kingston;
Paul Shirley, Camden, Loughboro, etc.; Ven. G. Okill
Stuart, Kingston.
Ottawa.—E. J. Boswell, Carleton Place; John
Flood, Richmond ; M. Harris, Perth ; M. Ker, March ;
J. G. B. Lindsay, Williamsburg; H. Mulkins, Paken-
ham ; J. Padfield, Franktown ; R. Rolph, Osnabruck ;
S. S. Strong, Bytown (Ottawa) ; A. Williams, Cornwall.
This amounts to 105, viz., Huron 26, Algoma 1,
Niagara 18, Toronto 32, Ontario 18, Ottawa 10.
The detail of visitations in all parts of Upper
Canada for the next twenty years, when some relief was
granted by the subdivision of his enormous diocese,
presents a picture of energy and perseverance that
crown with glory a consecrated old age. There are
some people still living who remember the short yet
sturdy frame of the Bishop, as he drove about in his
own carriage over rough roads and log bridges, and his
appearance at distant missions to confirm the candidates
awaiting him. His Aberdeen accent never left him,
though there were times when he himself fancied that
it had; but without those well-known northern tones
the good old Bishop would not have been Bishop
Strachan. John Strachan^ of Toronto (1839-1867). 89
During his triennial visitations of the diocese, there
were many things of a public nature which caused him
hard and unceasing toil. Some method had to be
adopted for enabling the diocese to do the work of the
Church on proper systematic and business lines. This
was done by the formation, in 1842, of the " Church
Society," which, until the establishment of a diocesan
synod, and even for some time after it, was the great
means by which all Church work in the diocese was
done.
St. James' Cathedral was again destroyed by fire
in the great conflagration of 1849, but the result was
the erection of a building somewhat in keeping with the
growing size and importance of Toronto. It still
stands a monument of the zeal and good taste of the
Bishop and the congregation. It also remained a
parish church, though other churches in the meantime
had been built throughout the city ; but the Bishop had
placed his chair there, and had made it the cathedral
church of the diocese.
Bishop Strachan in his work was .doomed at times
to many disappointments. King's College, for instance,
which he had hoped he had secured as a Church
university, was pronounced the property of all denominations, and therefore was lost to the Church.
Nothing daunted, the Bishop called upon the
Church people of the diocese to subscribe towards a
new university, heading the list himself with a subscription of £1,000 ($5,000) ; and, at seventy-two years of
age, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, made appeals to the
societies in England and to individuals there, and
secured sufficient encouragement to enable him, on his go The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
return, to establish a Church university, so guarded and
protected that it could not be alienated from the purposes for which it was formed.
This was the origin of Trinity University. Up to
this time a divinity school, established in 1841 at
Cobourg, was the only means in the diocese for training
young men for the ministry.
Trinity College, T
In the year 1851 the first Diocesan Synod was held
in Toronto. One hundred and twenty-four clergymen
and one hundred and twenty-seven laymen assembled John Strachan, of Toronto (1839-1867). 91
in the Church of the Holy Trinity on Thursday, May
1st. On Thursday, January 15th, 1852, Trinity
University was formally opened, with the Rev. George
Whitaker as Provost.
In 1854-5 fresh struggles arose over the Clergy
Reserves ; the Provincial Parliament could not rest till
every vestige of Church and State was removed from
Canada ; hence the renewed agitation, which was finally
settled by a compromise. The Government, for the
future, would pay no more stipends to the clergy, except
to those already on their list. It was then that the
happy expedient was hit upon of asking the Government for a gross amount to be paid to the clergy in lieu
of the promised incomes. To this the Government
consented, and handed over £188,342 (not far from a
million dollars) to the Church Society of the diocese.
The clergy, with one exception, agreed to leave
this large sum as an endowment for the Church, they
individually to receive the interest on their own proper
share during their lifetime. The Bishop spoke highly
of this "noble and disinterested" act, which was to
their " lasting honour," and by it they had " merited
the gratitude of the Church in Canada forever, and
won for themselves the cordial admiration of true
Churchmen throughout the world."*
In September, 1861, Bishop Strachan was present
at the first meeting of the Provincial Synod of
Canada, an event which marks an epoch in the history
of the Church. "The delegates appointed to attend
this meeting from the Diocese of Toronto were as
follows :
* For the names of these clergy, see " Hiitory of Church and State in Canada."
By Rev. E. R. Siimson. 92 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
St. James' Cathedral, Toro. John Strachan, of Toronto (1839-1867). 93
Clerical.—Rev. James Beaven, D.D. ; Ven. A. N.
Bethune, D.D., D.C.L. ; Rev. T. B. Fuller, D.D. ;
Rev. G. Whitaker, Rev. S. Givins, Rev. E. Denroche,
Rev. W. S. Darling, Rev. E. H. Dewar, Rev. H. T.
Holland, Rev. Stephen Lett, LL.D. ; Rev. J. G.
Geddes, and Rev. T. S. Kennedy.
These were all present except the Provost and
Dr. Lett.
Lay.—Hon. J. H. Cameron, Hon. G. W. Allan,
Dr. Bovell, Hon. J. Patton, Hon. George Boulton,
Judge Boswell, and Messrs. S. B. Harman, T. C.
Street, R. B. Denison, J. W. Gamble, and E. G.
O'Brien.
Judge Boswell and Messrs. Campbell, Street,
Patton, and Harman were not present.
By the subdivision of the diocese into Huron, on
the west, in 1857, and Ontario, on the east, in 1861,
Bishop Strachan, in his old age, found himself responsible for a much smaller territory than had hitherto
fallen to his lot. But his strength was visibly beginning to fail. In 1865 the Synod made provision for
the election of a coadjutor bishop. A school for boys,
under Rev. C. H. Badgley, was also established at
Weston. In that year the Bishop sustained a great
loss in the death of Mrs. Strachan, who, for fifty-eight
years, had been his valuable assistant in all his work.
The synod of 1866 elected the Venerable Archdeacon A. N. Bethune coadjutor, with the title of
Bishop of Niagara. Bishop Strachan, to his great grief,
was obliged to decline the invitation to attend the Pan-
Anglican conference of bishops, which, for the first
time, was appointed to be held on the 24th September, 94 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
1867, at Lambeth. He did this on account of his
failing strength—he was just entering upon his ninetieth year.
He had the satisfaction of seeing a Church school
for girls started about this time in Toronto, and was
pleased to give his permission that it should be called
" The Bishop Strachan School." It has continued an
efficient school for girls ever since.
Bishop Strachan died on All Saints' Day, November ist, 1867. His little town of York had become a
great city, and was known as the " Queen City of the
West," and its inhabitants turned out in great force to
pay the last marks of respect to him whose name had
been connected with the history of Upper Canada
from its earliest days.
He was buried in a vault expressly constructed
for the purpose, beneath the chancel of St. James'
Cathedral.
The good Bishop was short in stature ; his face
wore that resolute expression which was but an index
to his character ; he was one on whom men would
instinctively rely in any time of anxiety or danger ;
he knew nothing but duty ; when lumbering over rough
roads, sometimes he would not stop, after confirmation
service, even for dinner, if by doing so he would be
late for the next appointment. The rector's wife and
daughters might have ready their very best dinner,
the savory odors whereof might float ever so temptingly into the room. " Na, na!—we must move on,"
was the inexorable order, and his hungry and disappointed chaplain, or chaplains, had to forego the
expected repast for several hours more rough shakings John Strachan, of Toronto (1839-1867). 95
on the country road, winding its way in and out of
the woods, because " the Bishop must not be late."
The Bishop, though apparently stern in manner,
was kind at heart. Nor was he without a sense of
humour. When a number of gentlemen who had been
his pupils at school gave a dinner to their aged Bishop
—they themselves at the time being well advanced
in life—they instinctively, yet laughingly, came to
order when his lordship, in his old schoolmaster-voice,
said, on coming to the table, " Boys, tak' your places! "
Many anecdotes are told of his life and dealings
with men, but upon these we cannot dwell. Our
space has permitted us to do little else than speak of
his active life and work, and that only in a condensed
form ; but many monuments of Church work throughout Ontario still remain to mark the devoted spirit
and heroic soul of the first Bishop of Toronto. 8.    The Right Rev. Aubrey George Spencer, D.D.,
First Bishop of Newfoundland.
AUBREY GEORGE SPENCER was the son of
Z\ the Hon. William Spencer. He was born in
England in 1795, and was educated at Greenwich. He served for a time in the Royal Navy, but,
not liking the sea, he returned, gave what money he
had earned to his mother, and somewhat late in life
entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford. Here he won two
prizes for poems, one of which, entitled " The Colis-
seum," was said to be of great merit.
Having received Holy Orders, and after a year's
work as curate in England, he resolved to go abroad
as a missionary.    The field chosen was Newfoundland;
In 1819 this gifted young Englishman left the
genial surroundings of English home life to undergo
all the fatigues and dangers of a missionary in a distant land; but after a couple of years' work in the rigorous climate of that island, he was obliged, for his
health's sake, to remove to Bermuda, where, while
Rector of Paget and Warwick, he exercised his missionary spirit by endeavouring to improve the condition
of the negroes.
The Bermudas are a group of islands lying between
six and seven hundred miles to the south of Newfoundland, about in line with the State of Georgia. They
were discovered, shortly after the time of Columbus, THE RT. REV. AUBREY GEORGE SPENCER, D.D.
First Bishop of Newfoundland and Second Bishop of Jamaica.
95.    Consecrated, 1839.    Resigned Newfoundland, 1843, Jamaica, 1853.    Die  Aubrey G. Sper,
of Newfoundland (1839-1872).        97
by a Spaniard named Bermudaz. But little was
known of them till early in the reign of James I.,
i6og, when a vessel was wrecked close to them,
and all the ship's company, who were on their way
to the new colony of Virginia, numbering one hundred and fifty, were cast upon them. Among them
was a lovely island, twenty-five miles long and three
wide, of which they took possession in the name of
King James. In time these islands were all occupied by English people, and were divided into five
Church " livings." These livings have had rectors
since the year 1622. They are situated six hundred
miles from Newfoundland, and, possessing a tropical
climate, form a lovely place of refuge for the Bishop of
Newfoundland in the winter.
Newfoundland* is the oldest of the British colonies,
its history dating back to the reign of Henry III.; but
nothing is recorded in a missionary way until the
S.P.G. was formed in 1701.
In 1702 there were two clergymen working in
Newfoundland. In 1704 it is reported as having
"several settlements of English, with many occasional
inhabitants, such as workers, mariners, etc., at fishing
seasons to the number of several thousands, but no
public exercise of religion except at St. John's (the
capital), where there is a congregation, but unable to
sustain a minister."
Bishop John Inglis, as already related, appointed
Mr. Spencer Archdeacon of Bermuda, and visited the
island   in   1826.    He   also  visited   Newfoundland  in
* It is a large island,
to Labrador (Quebei 98
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
1827. In 1839 Newfoundland and Bermuda were set
apart by the S.P.G. as a diocese, and Archdeacon
Spencer was appointed the first bishop. He was consecrated in England, in 1839, side by side with Archdeacon
Strachan, the bishop-designate of Toronto, by Archbishop Howley (Canterbury). The S.P.G. helped
Bishop Spencer generously with its funds, the inhabitants of Newfoundland being able to do little or
nothing to help themselves.
The Society undertook the full  payment of the
clergy, offering £200 a year as a stipend for each mis-
Off the Coast of Newfoundland.
sionary. The result of this was a considerable increase
in the clerical staff of Newfoundland. Bermuda, except among the negroes, offered no field for missionary
work. The parishes were supported by glebe lands
and by Government.    Bishop  Spencer  made heroic Aubrey G. Spencer, of Newfoundland (1839-1872). 99
efforts to subdue the difficulties of his enormous mission field, but too long visitations by sea, for the most
part in open boats, coupled.with severity of climate,
difficulty of locomotion, having no mission ship at his
command, seemed to dishearten him.*
Still he visited not only the northern parts of
Newfoundland, but also the coast of Labrador. He
founded. a small theological institution, maintained
principally by the S.P.G., for training men specially
for work in Newfoundland. In 1842 there were twenty-
seven missionaries and sixty-four churches and chapels
in Newfoundland. In Bermuda there were nine clergy
and eighteen churches and chapel schoolhouses. In
1843 Bishop Spencer was offered by Lord Stanley the
bishopric of Jamaica, and, owing to his weak state of
health, he accepted it. He had the will to do the
work in Newfoundland, but not the physical power.
In his own words, "A missionary in Newfoundland
must have a strength of constitution to support him
under a climate as rigorous as that of Iceland ; a
stomach insensible to the attacks of sea-sickness ;
pedestrian powers beyond those of an Irish gossoon ;
and the ability to rest occasionally on the bed of a fisherman, or the hard boards in a woodman's hut."
He was allowed to work for nearly ten years in
Jamaica, when his physical strength again gave way,
and he was obliged to retire to England. For a time
he assisted some of the English bishops in their work,
but was obliged to remove to the genial, soft climate
of Torquay for quiet and rest. Here he won the love
of all who crossed his path.    He died on St. Matthias'
* See " Life of Bishop Feild."    By Rev. H. W. Tucker. ioo The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Day, 1872, in the seventy-seventh year of his age,
leaving his wife, who had been his companion for fifty
years, to mourn his loss. A cross was erected to his
memory in Collaton churchyard, Devonshire, on which
he is described as " Beloved pastor, faithful friend,
true poet. His songs were the songs of Zion. His
memory blest in many lands." A handsome three-
light window is erected to his memory in St. Andrew's
Church, Halfway Tree, Jamaica, and is designed to
show the varied character of his work. On one side
is a tropical scene, with the radiant sun and palm trees,
and, on the other, the cold northern seas, with their
icebergs.
Labrador Waters.—Seal Boats Escaping from the Ice.  THE RT. REV. EDWARD FEILD, D.D.
Second Bishop of Newfoundland.
Born, ,Sot.    Consecrated, 1844.    Died, 1877. 9.    The Right Rev. Edward Feild, D.D., Second
Bishop of Newfoundland.
EDWARD FEILD was of a distinguished and
ancient family. He was born at Worcester
on June 7th, 1801. At Rugby and Oxford he
received his education. He passed his University
with first-class mathematical and second-class classical honours. He was made a deacon on May 21st,
1826, and ordained priest in 1827 by Bishop Lloyd,
and served as curate at Kedlington. He proved himself a pastor able to grapple with the practical questions of the day, and when he was appointed Rector
of English Bicknor he put forth this ability with
energy and zeal for ten years. Those were days when
workmen were resisting the introduction of machinery,
on the grounds that it would diminish the prospects of
labourers. Mr. Feild reasoned strongly with them,
and to good purpose, showing that machinery would
greatly help labour by the largely increased manufacture of articles of every description, in which a correspondingly increased number of labourers would be
required. The clergy are of more use to the State in
such matters than is generally known.
Mr. Feild manifested his love for children, for
which he was always noted, by establishing day and
Sunday schools, and supporting them at his own cost.
It was highly suitable to his disposition when he was 102 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
appointed Inspector of Schools in the Diocese of
Salisbury.
In 1844 he was offered the bishopric of Newfoundland, and, to the great grief of his parishioners, he
accepted it. He was consecrated at Lambeth on the
28th of April, and sailed from Liverpool on the 5th of
June. He arrived first at Halifax, where he spent a
short time conferring with the Bishop of Nova Scotia,
Dr. John Inglis, from whom he gained much valuable
information regarding the nature of his future work.
On his arrival at St. John's he was taken much by
surprise by the imposing reception given him. A boat
containing the clergy of St. John's (two in number),
with their churchwardens and others, and another from
H.M.S. Eurydice, having on board the Governor's son
and Private Secretary, met the ship. In this latter he
and the clergy were taken to the wharf, where he found
companies of soldiers with their officers drawn up to
receive him, which they did by presenting arms.
Bishop Feild, by his actions, soon showed that he
understood what the life of a missionary bishop ought
to be. His income was £1,200 (about $6,000) a year
—£500 from the S.P.G, and £700 from parliamentary
and colonial funds. He did not live, however, in accordance with this income. His furniture was of pine,
and of the simplest kind. He had no looking-glasses,
except a few small hand mirrors, which were fastened
to the walls. He had no carpets upstairs. His living
was of the plainest kind. Beer or wine he never used.
He used to say that a man who worked hard must live
plainly. We are told that he offered to give up £560
a year of his salary to the S.P.G., if it would be the
means of procuring for him five additional clergymen. Edward Feild, of Newfoundland (1844-1877). 103
He found the little theological seminary in a very
poor condition, but his energy soon gave a new impetus
to it. His demand of the S.P.G. was for more men.
Two clergymen he maintained himself, and supported
two students at the college. Never Was man better
fitted for missionary work, both physically and men-
 :  tally,    than
sailor, patient and cheerful, he learned to love his
work, and was thankful that God had called him to
do it. Instead of complaining of the hardships and
rigorous climate of Newfoundland, he was always ready
to state that even on the Labrador coast it was a
healthier climate than England, and this in a country
where patches of snow were frequently to be seen
lying on the fields in July ! In 1846 he was cheered
by the sympathy of Queen Adelaide, who, on hearing
that the church at Placentia Bay had fallen into
decay, generously restored it. This church had been
built by Prince William (afterwards William IV.) in
1785. But in that year Newfoundland met with a
oreat disaster in the almost complete destruction of jo4 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
the capital, St. John's, by fire. In this conflagration
the parish church was destroyed. Upon this the
Bishop went to England with a view to building at
St. John's a fine cathedral church. Money to the
extent of $35,*ooo had been promised towards this
object, and Sir Gilbert Scott presented Bishop Feild
with the plans for the future building. He returned
to his work greatly cheered at the prospect of being
able to build the church. He had also been promised
in England a mission ship, which was to be his own,
to enable him to do effective work in his aquatic
dioceses. In 1847, when the first sod was turned for
the cathedral, the mission ship arrived, " a bonnie
wee thing," presented by the primus of Scotland, and
called The Hawk; yet she was none too small, for
she was quite equal to a voyage across the Atlantic,
and was destined to cross more than once.
With this the Bishop was as pleased as a child
with a toy. She was fitted up so that her hold formed
a long room, which served as a church. With a
chaplain and a couple of students who were thus being
trained for their future work, Bishop Feild, every
other year, sailed this ship in and out of the harbours
and coves of Newfoundland. Sometimes he ran great
risks from being ignorant of the waters and having no
pilot, but as time went on this danger was diminished
by his experience. This ship brought many a blessing
to a long-neglected and isolated people, and the
Bishop, while thankful to have been able to impart
some spiritual gifts, would be full of sorrow at his
inability to do more. Bishop Feild saw, with true
wisdom,  that people ought to be trained to support Edward Feild, of Newfoundland (1844-1877). 105
their own clergymen to as great an extent as possible.
There were two things that he saw that militated
against this. Qne was relying too much upon endowments, and the other receiving too much support from
• English societies. With the former of these he was
not much troubled, but, as to the latter, he requested
the S.P.G. to diminish the salaries of the missionaries
by one-half, and to treat his own in the same manner.
Bishop and clergy threw themselves upon the generosity of the people, and did not do so in vain. The
S.P.G. was thus saved a large sum of money annually,
and the people of Newfoundland, poor as they were,
were provided with the best possible endowment for
the Church in the future by-the inculcation of that
spirit of liberality and independence which forms the
best support for church and congregation anywhere.
In 1847 Bishop Feild was gladdened by the
arrival of Rev. Jacob George Mountain, great grandson of the first Bishop of Quebec. His father, the
grandson of the Bishop, was Rev. Dr. J. H. Brooke
Mountain, Rector of Blunham, Bedfordshire, England.
Mr. Mountain was stationed first at Harbour Briton,
in Fortune Bay, on the southern coast of Newfoundland.*
In 1848 Bishop Feild visited the dreary coast of
Labrador, where, as a rule, a few shivering Indians
alone are to be found.
He met here with a worthy couple who had been
married by their Roman Catholic servant, whom they
caused to read the marriage  service to them  out of 106 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. Indeed the
Bishop and his missionaries frequently met with good,
honest couples who, after having their children baptized, asked for the blessing of holy matrimony, which
hitherto they had been unable to procure. Such had
been the spiritual destitution of this rugged sea-girt
mission.
Bishop Feild, though glorying in privations and
discomforts himself, had such a tender heart that he
never sent a missionary to a lonely spot without feelings of sympathy amounting to sorrow. He said of a
Mr. Gifford, whom he left at Labrador, " Here he must
stay alone, among utter strangers, common fishermen,
without house or home., with no probability of retreat
or escape, no prospect of seeing a friend, or even getting a letter for nearly a year. He must eat fish, and
little else, in a small kitchen. What a contrast to an
English curacy !"
When the Bishop went to Bermuda, where everything was on a very small scale, he delighted in paying
personal visits to parishioners of the clergy. He once
rode nine miles to see a poor old man who had desired
to see him.
In 1850 the nave of the cathedral, which was to
be known as that of St. John the Baptist, was completed. Though it was the fashion of those days to
sell the pews of a newly-erected church, Bishop Feild
was able to open his cathedral with the seats all free.
Long journeys were an easy matter for Bishop
Feild. We are not surprised, therefore, to find him at
Quebec, the guest of Bishop G. J. Mountain, attending
the  conference  of bishops   held in Quebec in  1851. Edward Feild, of Newfoundland (1844-1877). 107
The Metropolitan, Bishop Fulford of Montreal, Bishop
Strachan of Toronto, and Bishop Medley of Fredericton, were also present.*
L John's Cathedral, St. John'
In 1854 cholera visited Newfoundland, and the
Bishop, with his clergy, worked heroically through it.
So  many children were left orphans by it   that the
it of this conference has aire 108 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Bishop started the Church of England Orphanage for
boys and girls, which afterwards grew into two separate establishments. He had in mind the education of
young Eskimo, who should be sent as missionaries to
their own people ; but he was never able to carry this
out to any great extent.
In that year (1854) the Bishop induced the Rev.
Jacob G. Mountain, who for seven years had been a
hard-working missionary at Harbour Briton, to move to
St. John's, to be Principal of the Theological College.
In July of that year, Mr. Mountain went to England
and married a lady whom he had known in early life ;
but they were destined to live together only for a short
time. Early in 1856, Mr. Mountain was made Rector
of St. John's Cathedral, but in the autumn he was
attacked with typhus fever and died.
In 1857 the Bishop asked the S.P.G. for a coadjutor bishop. He offered to give up all his salary, if
necessary, and he added, with sweet humility, "I
should be quite willing, and in some respects prefer,
that another bishop, as Bishop of Newfoundland, be
appointed, and I act as his coadjutor, without any stipend, save that of a missionary." One would imagine
from offers of this kind that Bishop Feild was a man
of ample private fortune, but this was not the case.
He had little or nothing of his own.
In 1858 the Bishop was enabled to establish a
Widows and Orphans' Fund for his diocese, and received subscriptions for it to the amount of about four
thousand dollars. By 1864 this had been increased to
ten thousand dollars. Edward Feild, of Newfoundland (1844-1877). 109
Bishop Feild was continually moving about in his
mission ship. In 1861 he had the great pleasure of
encountering in the Strait of Belle Isle Bishop G. J.
Mountain and his son (and future biographer), Rev. A.
Mountain. Bishop Mountain, as Bishop of Quebec,
was also upon a visitation in his part of Labrador. It
was delightful for these two missionary Bishops to
meet thus in the dreary waters of Labrador. The
Bishop of Newfoundland entertained his unexpected
but warmly welcomed guests upon his ship, and only
on the third day would he let them depart. The day
following this departure was the Bishop of Quebec's
seventy-second birthday.
In 1866 Bishop Feild was in England, and in the
spring of 1867 he was married to the widow of his
former missionary and rector in Newfoundland, Rev.
Jacob Mountain. In that year also he procured the
appointment of his Archdeacon, Ven. J. B. Kelly, as
his coadjutor, who came to England for consecration,
and, with his Bishop, attended the Lambeth Conference.
On his return to Newfoundland, Bishop Feild
made another voyage of visitation in The Hawk; but
this vessel, which had done such faithful service for
twenty-five years, was, in time, pronounced dangerous,
and sold. Another ship, the Star, had been lost, but in
1872 Lieutenant Curling, officer of engineers, admiring
the life, labours, and character of Bishop Feild, presented for Church work in Newfoundland his own
splendid yacht, the Lavrock, and along with it the giver
gave himself as a missionary in one of the roughest
fields of Newfoundland. I
no The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
In 1870 the Bishop was able to form an endowment fund for the bishopric of Newfoundland, which to
him was a great source of satisfaction, as a large portion of the episcopal income would die with him.
Bishop Feild tried to keep pace with his age. It
was an age when synods were beginning to be formed.
In 1871 he was able to preside over his own first
synod. Feeling the end of his days approaching, the
Bishop retired to Bermuda, where he died on the 8th
June, 1877. He was buried in Bermuda, much to the
regret of the Church people of Newfoundland, who
would have deemed themselves highly honoured if the
remains of such a man could have rested with them.
Bishop Feild was a man of indomitable courage
and perseverance. A greater man for work probably
has never been known. He would encounter dangers
which he would not allow others to meet. Towards
the close of his life a dangerous journey had to be
taken by a young missionary. The Bishop would not
let him go, but declared he would go himself, and
when the annoyed clergyman asked for an explanation
of this the Bishop told him that' he was young yet,
and had many years of usefulness left in him for the
Church, but as for himself his days were nearly ended,
and, should he perish, it did not matter. He was a
High Churchman, and never sought to disguise the
fact, but he always took great pains to show reasons
for everything that he did. He was not a ready
speaker. When told of the sudden death of the great
Bishop Wilberforce (in 1873), he said : "Think of my
inability to address a congregation of even poor fishermen with readiness and effect, but  the   stammering Edward Feild, of Newfoundland (1844-1877). in
tongue may speak when the dead is silenced forever."
He was a man who walked with God by a constant
round of devotion and prayer. If he could not obtain
privacy for his devotions, as upon the deck of a vessel,
he would not omit them because of the presence of
others, but aloud he would repeat them, because they
brought him nearer to God. He was frequently heard
at night repeating his psalmody and prayers, when he
supposed that all near him were asleep.
His energy was great. He left fifty clergy where
he had found but twelve. He had established a good
theological college, raised a Widows and Orphans'
Fund, and an Episcopal Endowment Fund (of about
$60,000). He had also built a cathedral, which for
many years was the pride of all Newfoundland. Fire
has since destroyed it, but it stood for years as he left
it, the rudiments of the most imposing specimen of
pointed architecture on this side of the Atlantic. io. The Most Rev. John Medley, D.D., First
Bishop of Fredericton and Second Metropolitan of (Eastern) Canada.
INTO the wilderness of New Brunswick came, in
1783,  and  afterwards, many thousands  of  loyal
British subjects, seeking a refuge from the oppressions of rebellion in the United States. Many of these
were Church people; some of them, indeed, were
clergymen. As already noticed, parishes were gradually formed by these people, and, as time went on, the
Church gathered strength. But it was left for many
years practically without episcopal supervision, for,
though it formed part of the Diocese of Nova Scotia, it
received at first but little benefit from the Bishop, owing
to the enormous territory of which it formed a part;
and what little benefit it did receive was soon discontinued. For the last ten years of the life of Bishop
Charles Inglis that distinguished prelate was unable,
through failing strength, to take any active supervision
of the diocese ; and for seven years the second Bishop
of Nova Scotia, at the very beginning of his episcopate,
was obliged to reside in England. It was not till Dr.
John Inglis, the third Bishop of Nova Scotia, commenced his work that the diocese began to realize that
there was a hand at the helm.
The division of New Brunswick into a separate
archdeaconry, coupled with occasional visitations by the THE MOST REV. JOHN MEDLEY, D.D.
First Bishop of Fredericton and Second Metropolitan of Canada.
Born, 1804.   Consecrated, 1845.   Died, 1892.  John Medley, of Fredericton (1845-1892). 113
Bishop, gave a new and vigorous impetus to Church
work within its bounds. The Archdeacon of New
Brunswick, the Venerable G. Coster, was a practical
leader, and under him a Church Society was formed
on September 8th, 1836, the first systematic attempt
made in a British colony for the more full and efficient
support of its own Church.*
At this time there were in New Brunswick eighty
parishes, twenty-eight clergymen, and forty-three
churches or chapels. A great many parishes, therefore,
were vacant, and the few clergy that occupied positions
were supported almost entirely by the S.P.G. In 1843
this Society voted the munificent sum of £20,000
(nearly $100,000) towards the endowment of a bishop-
■ ric in New Brunswick.
In the meantime, the Chief Justice, the Solicitor-
General, and other leading persons in the colony itself,
had managed to raise over $10,000 towards the same
object.t Thus was the proposed diocese liberally and
substantially endowed from the very outset. The position was offered by the Archbishop of Canterbury to the
Rev. John Medley, Vicar of St. Thomas' Church, Exeter,
and Prebendary of Exeter Cathedral.
Born on December 19th, 1804, deprived of his
father, Mr. George Medley, of Grosvenor Place,
London, when he was a little child, he was early taught
to lean upon his mother, in whom he had a safe and
pious guide. From her journal it transpired that he
began Latin when he was six years old, Greek when he
* " Annals of the Colonial Church."    By Ernest Hawkins.
+ "The Life and Work of the Most Rev. John Medley, D.D." By Rev. Canon
W. Q. Ketchum, D.D. 114 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
was ten, and Hebrew when he was twelve. He was
educated at Wadham College, Oxford, where he graduated with honours in 1826. In the hall of this college
there is a life-size painting of him as Bishop in his robes.
He was ordained deacon in 1828, and priest in 1829.
He served as curate at Southleigh, Devonshire, incumbent of St. John's,Truro, and vicar of St.Thomas', Exeter.
He was consecrated Bishop of Fredericton (the capital
of New Brunswick) on the 4th May, 1845, at the chapel
of Lambeth Palace, London. At this time he was a
widower, his wife having died in 1841, leaving six
children to her husband's care. His eldest daughter,
who succeeded to the management of his house, had
also died ; and, strange to say, his mother, who broke up
her own home to take care of his, was killed by being
thrown from a carriage, while seated by her son's side.
Thus it was an afflicted man who accepted the bishopric of Fredericton. Indeed, the entire change from
English life to hard missionary labours in New Brunswick may have been hailed by him as a blessing.
The newly appointed Bishop arrived in Fredericton on St. Barnabas' Day, 1845, and met with an
enthusiastic reception. In the autumn of that year he
prepared to build a cathedral. Fresh from Exeter, he
had a natural desire to reproduce in his distant diocese
some grand edifice that might, alike, remind him of his
home and form a centre of Church activity and power.
A site was presented, the stone promised, and £4,500
(in five years) subscribed. The foundation stone was
laid on the 15th of October, 1845, in the presence of
the Lieutenant-Governor, members of the Legislative
Council, the officers of the 33rd Regiment, and many John Medley, of Fredericton (1845-1892). 115
others. The work, however, went on slowly, for the
people did not show much enthusiasm about it.
In 1846 the Bishop paid an extended visit through
his diocese. There were no railways, and but few
steamers, yet we read that he travelled 2,859 miles in
that year. He also ordained five deacons and two
priests, confirmed 504 candidates, and consecrated two
churches. Full and graphic descriptions of his journeys are to be found in the reports of the S.P.G.
He was delighted with his new work, and had no
hard words to say of his life in the wilderness. He
expressed admiration for the climate, which, though
hotter and colder than that of England, yet had none
of the chilly, starving feeling .of cold and wet together.
"The sunshine on the snow" was a thing of great
beauty to him.
In 1847 the number of his clergy had increased
from twenty-nine to forty-three, and in that year he
divided the diocese into seven deaneries, a rural dean
for each being appointed by the clergy.
But funds were needed for the building of his
cathedral, and for travelling missionaries ; candidates
were needed for Holy Orders, and books for his cathedral
library. To procure aid toward all these objects he went
to England in 1848. His family accompanied him. He
received aid for his cathedral to the extent of about
$15,000, chiefly through the Society for the Promotion
of Christian Knowledge. £350 were granted by the
S.P.G. for additional missionaries, and the University
of Oxford gave £100 towards his cathedral library—
besides which he received many gifts in books. He
also procured an organ for his chapel. ii6
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Bishop Medley was not only a good scholar, but
he was also a man of refined tastes and many accomplishments. He was much interested in architecture,
and was a good musician. Church music was beginning
to change, from the style of Tate and Brady to that
which produced Hymns Ancient and Modern ; and the
Bishop did all he could to
in his own diocese. A specis
which served for use in the
Hymns Ancient and Mode:
and services were compose
pleased, on his return to Fre
>mote thi
Many
y him.
;ton, to
)laced by
i anthems
He
ofNe
Bish
I to Mo:
han,   of
Quebec
opsth
.1,   \vh(
id
1 JOUl
! the]
The"
P1
enerable
:d them,
to New
; United
i seems to have been to
in the chapel.   Ini85i,
visited Fredericton.    T
together to Boston anc
met  by  Bishop  Strac
Bishops   then went to
Bishop, Dr. G. J. Mountain,
From there Bishop Medley ]
York, Philadelphia,   and  oth.
States.
The object of his journe
collect money for the cathedral, for we read that the
Bishop, through the liberality of many friends, especially in New York, secured £180 for that purpose. The
work of the cathedral went on very slowly. At one time
it came to a standstill—there was no money. The
Bishop betook himself to prayer, spending a whole
night in supplication, that he might be able to finish the
work which he had begun. In those days the English
mail came but once a ■month. On the morning after
this night  of prayer it  arrived,   and  brought  him   a John Medley, of Fredericton (1845-1892).
117
cheque for £500, accompanied merely by the words, " To
the glory of God, and for the completion of Fredericton
Cathedral. F.S.M." This turned the scale; more
money came in ; the cathedral was completed. On a
stone in the southwest pier of the tower arch are the
m
The Anglican Cathedral, Fredericton, N.E
letters "F.S.M."    This was the first stone laid after
the Bishop's prayers were so signally answered.    The n8 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Bishop became personally responsible for the remaining
debt, and the cathedral was consecrated on the 31st
of August, 1853. At this service the venerable Bishop
G. J. Mountain, of Quebec, was happily present.
Fredericton had been his first charge after his father
had ordained him to the sacred ministry.
Before the close of the year 1854, by subscriptions
and money received from England, the Bishop was
relieved of the personal responsibility he had assumed.
In connection with this there is a very pleasing incident
related of an old Sunday-school pupil of the Bishop's.
His name was George Hatherley. Being a traveller for
a tea merchant in Bristol, he carried with him wherever
he went a subscription book for his old Sunday-school
teacher's cathedral, and pleaded so earnestly that he
was able to send contributions to the Bishop amounting
to about $2,500.
On the 19th of December, 1854, the Bishop wrote
these words : " On my birthday received a letter from
Mr. Hatherley, who has collected sufficient to pay off
all the cathedral debt, for which great mercy all praise
be to God. Thus is the year of trouble and perplexity
joyfully ended through the never-ending goodness of
my God."
The Bishop, though apparently stern, was uniformly kind, and especially so towards those who
differed from him in their views. A clergyman of well-
known evangelical views, on hearing the Bishop preach
on one occasion, accused him of not preaching Christ;
on which the Bishop sat down beside him and explained
matters so gently and clearly that the clergyman was"
ever afterwards his true friend.    Another said to him John Medley, of Fredericton (1845-1892). 119
once, rather boastfully, "You know, my lord,. I am a
Low Churchman." " I hope, sir," said the Bishop,
"that you area humble one." The Bishop also was
not without a sense of humour. On one of his voyages
across the Atlantic, a lady—one of the autograph-
hunting type—besieged the Bishop for his signature.
For the sake of peace he wrote in her book, "J.
Fredericton." Not satisfied, the lady, handing the
book to him again, said : " I want you to say what you
are"; whereupon the Bishop wrote beneath his name,
I A miserable sinner."
His mode of life at Bishopscote (his residence,
close to the cathedral) was exceedingly plain and simple,
and in this way money was saved for the poor and for
the Church. Yet there was ever a warm welcome at
the See house, where high culture and good taste were
always evident. Bishop Medley did not readily take
up the idea of forming a diocesan synod. One was.
formed, however, in 1862, and was incorporated by the
Provincial Legislature.
We have stated elsewhere that the dioceses of
Quebec, Toronto, Huron, Montreal, and Ontario formed
a Provincial Synod in 1861, with the Bishop of Montreal as Metropolitan. This Provincial Synod met
again in 1865, 1868, 1871, 1872, and 1873; but by this
time the word Canada had been enlarged so as to
embrace the whole of British territory in America,
extending from the Atlantic Ocean on the east to the
Pacific Ocean on the west. This led, naturally, to an
extension of the Provincial Synod, and the dioceses to
the east of Quebec, namely, Nova Scotia and Fredericton (Newfoundland not having been included in the r
120 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Dominion of Canada), were invited to send delegates to
this Synod.
Accordingly at the eighth session held in Montreal,
from the 9th to the 16th of September, 1874, delegates
from Nova Scotia and Fredericton were present.
The clergy from Fredericton were Rev. F. H. J.
Brigstocke, Rev. Canon de Veber, Rev. Canon Medley (son of Bishop Medley), Rev. Canon Scovil,
Rev. Canon Ketchum, Rev. John Pearson, Rev. F.
Partridge, Rev. T. E. Dowling, Rev. G. M. Armstrong,
Rev. Dr. Jarvis, Rev. G. G. Roberts, and Rev. G.
Schofield.
The laity appointed were Hon. Chief Justice
Ritchie, Hon. R. D. Wilmot, Lieutenant-Colonel
Maunsell, and Messrs. H. W. Frith, C. W. Weldon,
G. Sydney Smith, W. Carman, Hurd Peters, W.
Wilkinson, R. T. Clinch, D. Street, and G. W.
Whitney.
All these were present except Mr. Peters. With
these, of course, came the Bishop of Fredericton and
the Bishop of Nova Scotia, who took their seats in the
Upper House.
In the year 1878, the Bishop of Fredericton, being
the senior bishop of the Ecclesiastical Province of
(eastern) Canada, was appointed by the House of
Bishops, Metropolitan, and in that year he attended
the second meeting of the Lambeth Conference in
England. The first meeting of the Provincial Synod
under his presidency was opened in Montreal on September 8th, 1880, on which occasion the Synod presented His Lordship with a handsome crozier, or metropolitan  staff,   which   for  several   sessions   afterwards John Medley, of Fredericton (1845-1892).
processions  con-
preceded his venerable form in the
nected with them.
In 1881 the venerable Metropolitan began to feel
the weight of years, and, fearing that his diocese might
suffer through that, he asked his Synod to give him a
coadjutor. The Synod expressed its willingness to do
so, and, by the recommendation of the Metropolitan,
the choice fell upon the Rev. H. Tully Kingdon, Vicar
of Good Easter, Essex, his own city. The Metropolitan
made over the half of his income for the support of
Bishop Kingdon.
In 1885 Bishop Medley completed the fortieth
year of his episcopate, to mark which event the clergy
and laity of the diocese subscribed about $6,000 towards what they knew would please him best, the
assistance of candidates for the ministry in their col
lege course.     It wa
Scholarship Fund."
At the age of
tended the third L;
July, 1888. H(
September of th
On the 25tl
son, Charles (th
death  from car
died
'The
Medle
tur
ghty-four th
beth Confer
ed safely to
nd
>f August, 1889, the Bishop'
Rev. Canon Medley), died a painful
;r of the throat. He had been his
father's companion and right-hand man in the many
years of his long episcopate, and his melancholy death
had a visible effect upon his aged father, yet he persevered in his work. He sprained his right hand, but,
with characteristic energy, he learned to write with "
left hand.
*gy> 122 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
On the 17th July, 1892, he preached in St. Paul's
Church, St. John, a touching and impressive sermon,
which was heard distinctly in all parts of the church.
In a few days he returned to Fredericton, where he
was taken ill, but lingered until the summer began to
pass away. He frequently became' unconscious, but
the cathedral bells chiming for evensong always revived him. " Why, there are my bells ! Yes, they are
my bells," he would say, with a pleased expression
upon his face. His last connected words were, "O
Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world,
grant me Thy peace." He died on Friday, September
9th, 1892, at half-past eight in the morning, at the
advanced age of eighty-eight.
The Old Trinity Chui
ince been replaced by t!  THE RT. REV. DAVID ANDERSON, D.D.
First Bishop of Rupert's Land.
n, 1814.   Consecrated, 1849.    Resigned, 1864.    Died, ii.    The Right Rev. David Anderson, D.D., First
Bishop of  Rupert's Land.
THE term Rupert's Land was originally a very
extensive one. It embraced that enormous territory which Captain Sir W. F. Butler, in the
fascinating book which he wrote on the subject, so aptly
termed 1 The Great Lone Land." It was discovered
by Hudson in 1610, and his name is still connected
with that great northern sheet of water well known as
Hudson's Bay. In the reign of Charles II., in the
year 1670, an incorporated body known as the Hudson's Bay Company was formed in England by letters
patent under the great seal of England, with Prince
Rupert at its head. In these letters patent it was ordained that the territories granted to the company
should be " reckoned as one of the King's plantations
and colonies in America called Rupert's Land." This
company formed trading posts in different parts of
the wide territory, for the purpose of trading with the
Indians. The officers and clerks of this company were
content to live very lonely lives. The only news they
received from the outside world was on the arrival of
the Hudson's Bay ship from England once a year.
Latterly some letters were brought in by the Governor
of Rupert's Land, Sir G. Simpson, when he came in
spring from Montreal by canoe to attend the Counci
of Rupert's Land. 124 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
It is related of one of the chief factors or managers of this company that he, being a subscriber;;
to the Times, was content to receive a whole year's
supply of the paper—over three hundred copies—at
once ! He managed the reading of all this literature,
however, quite systematically. His instructions to
his servants were to put one paper on his breakfast
table every morning, in the strict order of the dates,
beginning at the first even unto the last, and there
in the lone wilderness this contented man read his
newspaper every day, quite regardless of how old the
news might be. He knew he had a year for it all,
and it might as well dawn upon him gradually.
By trading in valuable furs, and other commodities of a cold region, much wealth was amassed ; but
for two hundred years nothing was done in a spiritual
way either for the people connected with the fort, or for
the aborigines. The prayers of the Anglican Church,
it is true, were read at the Hudson's Bay forts, and
occasionally an officer interested himself in the people
at his post. In 1815 the Governor of this country,
Major Semple, reported on this subject as follows :
" I have trodden the burnt ruins of houses, barns,
a mill, a fort, and sharpened stockades, but none of a
place of worship, even upon the smallest scale. I
blush to say that over the whole extent of the
Hudson's Bay territories no such building exists."
Five years after this the company itself sent out a
chaplain, the Rev. John West. Mr. West was also
appointed a missionary by the C.M.S. He proceeded
to the Red River Settlement. Here he built a church
and a schoolhouse on a lot set apart for Church pur-
% David Andei
of Rupert's Land (1849
poses by the Hudson's Bay Company, which has
been since known as St. John's Church lot, and is
within the city of Winnipeg. He visited several
Hudson's Bay posts, and ministered, in addition to
the company's officers and servants, to a small Scotch
colony and to retired servants of the company and
their families of mixed blood. But he took great
interest in the Indian natives. He had brought down
with him from York Factory two Indian boys, one of
whom, after fourteen months'instruction, he baptized
and named Henry Budd, after his rector in England,
the Rev. Henry Budd, one of the founders of the
C.M.S. This society sent out another missionary,
the Rev. David Jones, in 1823, who agreed to fill the
place of Mr. West during a visit he paid to England.
But on Mr. West remaining in England, the Rev. D.
Jones was appointed as chaplain by the Hudson's Bay
Company, and the C.M.S. then sent out in 1825
another missionary, the Rev. A. Cochrane. Mr. Jones
built at Image Plain a church, which is now St. Paul's
Church. Mr. Cochrane settled at the Grand Rapids
of the Red river, now known as St. Andrew's, where
he built a church, the third church of the settlement.
This able missionary was everything to these people,
I minister, clerk, schoolmaster, arbitrator, peacemaker, and agricultural director." In 1832 Mr.
Cochrane established a mission further down the river
among the Indians. Though up to this time there
had been no direct effort on any Indian tribe, there
had been a number of Indian pupils received and
instructed in the Mission House at St. John's, and
careful attention and  instruction given   to   the  large I
.
126 The 'Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
body of at least 1,500 halfbreeds who had settled in
the districts round the missions. Visits had also been
paid to the nearer tribes. In i^i the Rev. Abraham
Cowley joined the mission. It was no easy matter
either to reach the Northwest in those days, or to live
in it. He came to Quebec with his wife, hoping to
join an expedition to the Northwest, but found that,
after all, his shortest route would be to return to .
England and take the first vessel bound from thence
to Hudson's Bay. So back to England he went, and
from thence to Hudson's Bay, from which he and
Mrs. Cowley journeyed for 800 miles by canoe, and
at length reached Red River.
Such was the state of things when, in 1844,
Bishop G. J. Mountain, of Quebec, paid, at the
request and by the arrangements of the C.M.S., his
memorable visit to the Red River Settlement.
The total population of the Red River was then
5,143, of whom 2,798 were Roman Catholics.* Bishop
Mountain found four churches attended by 1,700
persons, and nine schools with 485 scholars. Including halfbreeds and Europeans, 846 persons were confirmed. The number of communicants was 454, but
in two of the churches " there was no communion
table, and no place reserved^for it."
In his report of this visit, the Bishop makes an
incidental reference to the " Leith bequest."f This
was a sum of money £12,000 ($60,000) bequeathed by
Mr. Alexander Leith, a chief factor of the Hudson's
Bay Company, for missionary purposes.    The trustees
* S.P.G. Digest., p. 178.    See also under Bishop G. J. Mountain, p. 68.
t See "Journal of Bishop of Montreal," C.M.S. David Anderson, of Rupert's Land (1849-1864).
127
of Leith's charity obtained a decree from the Court of
Chancery, approving of a scheme for the due administration of the funds of the charity, and carrying into
effect in the way that seemed most fitting the charitable purposes designed by Mr. Leith's will. This
scheme for establishing a bishopric was aided by the
Hudson's Bay Company binding themselves at the
same time to contribute ^300 ($1,500) per annum towards the Bishop's stipend. When Bishop G. J.
Mountain heard of this he wrote to the S.P.G., "I bless
God to learn that my prayers have been heard on
behalf of Red River."
The bishopric was offered to the Rev. David
Anderson and accepted by him. He was born in 1814,
and was educated with Archibald Campbell Tait, late
Archbishop of Canterbury, as one of his classmates at
Edinburgh Academy. He became a scholar of Exeter
College, Oxford, from which he graduated in honours in
1836. In 1841 he married the eldest daughter of
James Marsden, Esq., of Liverpool.    His wife died in
1848, leaving him with three sons. He was consecrated at Canterbury Cathedral  on the 29th of May,
1849, and arrived at York Factory (Hudson's Bay) on
the 16th of August. He was accompanied by his sister, Miss Anderson, and his three sons. His sister
was his constant companion in all his work. They
reached the Red River Settlement on the third of
October.
On the very day of his arrival, Rev. John Macal-
lum, who for years had successfully carried on, under
the name of the Red River Academy, the school established  by the Rev. D. Jones, died,  and  the   Bishop, I
128 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
being an accomplished scholar, immediately took up
his work as that which first came to his hand. The
first church the Bishop preached in was the old one at
St. Andrew's. The Bishop said of it: " The appearance of the congregation is very devotional ; they
respond well ; they sing with heart and soul. The
first burst of music, when they all joined in the psalm
of praise, quite upset and overpowered me ; indeed, I
have not heard any sound sweeter in my ears since I
left England." A glance at a map of North America
will show what an enormous territory had fallen to his
lot as a diocese. In the "Great Lone Land" he was
''monarch of all he surveyed."
The winters were long and dreary, and travelling
tedious—in summer by canoes or boat, in winter by
dog-sleighs. The Bishop's first confirmation took
place in May, 1850, the candidates numbering nearly
four hundred. At his second ordination, also in that
year, Mr. Henry Budd, the native Indian already mentioned, was ordained deacon, and proved to be for
years a most useful and faithful pastor. He had
already been a most successful catechist.
At the request of the Bishop, in 1850, the S.P.G.
sent Rev. W. H. Taylor, of Newfoundland, to take
charge of a small settlement on the Assiniboine river,
now St. James' parish, a great part of which is in the
city of Winnipeg.
He thus speaks of his journey: "We had been
six weeks or more journeying over the extensive
prairies which lie between the United States and this
country. We had been in the wilderness exposed to
the savage hordes of Indians, and the wild beasts, David Anderson, of Rupert's Land (1849-1864). 129
scarcely less fearful; and the sight of neat and quiet
dwellings, with their apparent safety and comfort, was
most pleasing. So we travelled down the Assiniboine
to the settlement on the Red river; we could see the
little farms on the river's side, and the banks filled
with stacks of corn and fodder, with vast herds grazing
at large in the plains. Then the French church, the
fort, and in the distance the English church and the
.Bishop's house, told us that we were again in a land
where  the  true   God  was   known  and worshipped."
Here, near Fort Garryy within sight of the scalps
suspended over the graves of the dead on the very spot
where for years the heathen revels had been performed,
.was built in due time, by the Society's aid, a temple to
the living God. In May, 1852, before either church
or parsonage was finished, a devastating flood swept
over the surrounding district, and the parsonage and
glebe became a place of safety for a homeless, houseless population, including the Bishop and his family.
When the Bishop arrived in his diocese there
were only five clergymen in it. In 1851 there were
nine; four having parochial charges, and the others
being purely missionaries. In 1852 he visited the
shores of James' Bay. The journey was made in a
birch-bark canoe, and occupied twenty-six days and a
half. Here he ordained to the diaconate Mr. John
Horden, who had been sent out by the Church Missionary Society to labour at Moose Fort, in the region
of Hudson's Bay, and before his departure for home
he ordained him priest. This was the future Bishop
of Moosonee. In 1853 Mr. (afterwards Archdeacon)
Cochrane was sent out as a missionary to Portage la The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
13.
Prairie, where, with the aid of the Bishop, the Governor,
and other friends, he built a church, and there he remained till his death in 1865. In 1855 the Rev. Mr.
Taylor's mission became the organized parish of St.
James', Assiniboine. The church was consecrated on
the 29th of May, and lent its aid in raising the tone of
public worship in the diocese.
Bishop Anderson had worked at the school unexpectedly cast upon his hands by the death of Mr.
Macallum. The Bishop thus referred to it in his
primary charge: " Dying the day of my entrance
into the Red River, his wish was that the first offer of
it should be made to me by those whom he had left
behind; and God seemed to direct me not to refuse.
It has laid upon me more of labour, but that labour
has been its own reward. To it, in anticipation of the
future, I have given the name of ' St. John's Collegiate School.' Should I be permitted to rebuild the
church there, it would be St. John's, my own cathedral
church, called so after the apostle of whom we think
to-day. Near it would be rebuilt, then, if circumstances permit, with more of architectural plan, the
collegiate school. As a part of it at present, and hereafter it may be a separate building, would be the
institution for the training of a native ministry, St.
John's College ; and over all, whether the youth training in wisdom's ways and growing daily in earthly
knowledge, or those to be prepared in theological
study for the service of the sanctuary, I would write
as the motto of duty and hope, ' In Thy light shall
we see light.' " The Bishop later on gave the school
the name of St. John's College, and formed a College David Anderson, of Rupert's Land (1849-1864).
131
Board ; but after some years the college was closed,
and remained closed for about nine years.
In 1856 Bishop Anderson visited England, where
he secured some money to help him build a cathedral
and further other missionary work. The Hudson's
Bay Company subscribed ^500 towards the cathedral,
St. John's Cathedral, Winnipeg.
and a similar amount was given by the Society for the
Promotion of Christian Knowledge. The building was
erected according to English plans that were reduced,
but through imperfect workmanship proved a failure.
The tower, being unsafe, had to be taken down. The
cathedral is still used as such, but is quite different
from what was contemplated ; yet its cost was out of
all proportion to its real value. In 1862 the S.P.G.
formed a mission at Fort Ellice, or Beaver Creek,
two hundred and forty miles west of Winnipeg, on the 132 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Assiniboine river, where the Rev. T. Cook, a native
of the country, ministered to the Indians, as well as to
the few English settlers in reach of him, and to halfbreeds.
Of the labours of Bishop Anderson we cannot
speak in detail. By 1864 his clergy had increased to
twenty-three. In that year he returned to England,
where he remained, resigning the see on the 4th of
October. He was a man of sympathetic and gentle
nature. The Indians were special objects of his
anxious care. He was known to them as their great
praying father; he rejoiced in their conversion ; he
grieved over their sad condition as heathen.
The accounts of his journeys throughout his
boundless see are deeply interesting. All signs of
improvement were to him a great joy. By his gentle,
pious, and devoted life he witnessed in the midst of
his clergy and people, for fifteen years, a good confession, which left its impression long after his bodily
presence was removed from their midst. On his
resignation of the diocese his old friend, Bishop Tait,
then Bishop of London, made him Chancellor of St.
Paul's Cathedral. He subsequently became Vicar of
Clifton. A sad and lingering illness, which deprived
him of all power of thought and speech, attacked him
in 1878, and in this condition he lingered till 1885,
when he passed quietly away to his eternal rest.  v  'Mm
\ *$•%
THE MOST REV. FRANCIS FULFORD, D.D.
First Bishop of Montreal and First Metropolitan of Canada.
Born, 1803. Consecrated, 1850. Died, 1868. 12. The Most Rev. Francis Fulford, D.D., First
Bishop of Montreal, and First Metropolitan of (Eastern) Canada.
WHEN Jacques Cartier, in 1535, sailed up "the
goodly great gulf full of islands, passages, and
entrances," on St. Lawrence Day, he gave for
all time to the noble river the name of the saint commemorated ; and on his journey halted at the promontory since called Quebec, but then known as Stadacona.
Here he met some Indians whose chief was Donnacona,
"the lord of Canada"; but he did not linger long;
before him lay the noble river which he greatly desired
further to explore. He pushed westward until, on the
3rd of October, 1535, he reached the Indian village of
Hochelaga, a mere collection of cabins, surrounded by
palisades, and built amid fields of Indian corn. Here
dwelt fully a thousand natives, who extended to the
bold navigator a cordial welcome. Cartier called this
place Mount Royal, and hence its name Montreal.
Seventy-three years afterwards (in 1608) Champlain
laid the foundation of the present city of Quebec, and
one hundred and five years afterwards (in 1640) a few
houses were built on the site of the Indian village of
Hochelaga, and formed the commencement of the city
of Montreal.
From the very beginning it became noted as a
trading post.    In 1720 it was said to have had a popu- 1
p
than English.    The
David Chabrand de
134 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
lation of 3,000. When Quebec was captured by
General Wolfe, in 1759, Montreal in the following year
was taken possession of by the British troops. But its
former occupants, the French, were treated with a
liberality not usually granted to the vanquished, with
the result that the city has ever been as it is now, in
point of numbers, mote French
S.P.G., therefore, sent the Rev.
Lisle, a French-
speaking clergyman, a native of
Switzerland, to
minister to French
and English as best
he could in Montreal. This did
not prove to be a
very good policy,
for the British did
not like Mr. de
Lisle's broken
English, and the
French did not
care very much for
his religion.
The first service was held in a
church which formerly belonged to 01d Christ Church> Montreal<
the Jesuits' college,
on December 20th, 1789.   This church was called Christ
Church, at the suggestion, it is said, of Bishop Charles Francis Fulford, of Montreal (1850-1868). 135
Inglis, of Nova Scotia. In it ministered Rev. Mr. de
Lisle, then Rev. Mr. Tunstall, and in 1801 Rev. Dr.
Mountain, brother of the first Bishop of Quebec. In
1803 the church was burned, and in 1805 the foundation stone of a new and substantial Christ Church was
laid, but the church was not opened for worship till
1814.
In 1815 Dr. Mountain died, and was succeeded by
his curate, Rev. John Leeds. In 1820 Montreal was
made a rectory by royal letters patent, and Rev.
John Bethune (who had been a pupil at Cornwall to
Rev. Dr. Strachan, afterwards Bishop of Toronto) was
appointed first rector.
Early in 1836 Dr. G. J. Mountain was consecrated
Coadjutor Bishop of Quebec, with the title of "Bishop
of Montreal," but it was a mere title. The Bishop of
Quebec (Dr. Stewart) died almost immediately afterwards, and Bishop Mountain succeeded him. At that
time (1836) the parishes and missions in the Montreal
part of the diocese were Montreal, Sorel, Abbots-
ford, Chambly, St. John's, Clarenceville, Frelighsburg,
Philipsburgh, Stanbridge, Dunham, Shefford, Rawdon,
St. Andrews, Grenville, Hull, and Coteau du Lac.
Bishop G. J. Mountain's ardent desire to see
Montreal formed into a separate diocese was at length,
after much patient waiting, gratified. In 1849 Rupert's
Land was formed into a separate diocese largely by his
exertions, and in the following year he received intimation that Her Majesty had been pleased to form a new
diocese with Montreal as its see city. The clergyman
chosen for the position was Rev. Francis Fulford, minister of Curzon Chapel, Mayfair.    He was the second 136 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
son of Baldwin Fulford, Esq., of Great Fulford, England, and was born at Sidmouth on the 30th of June,
1803. He graduated from Exeter College, Oxford, in
1824, and was made a deacon in 1826, and a priest in
1828. He occupied successively the rectories of Trowbridge (Wiltshire) and Croydon (Cambridgeshire) before he was minister at Mayfair.
He was consecrated Bishop of Montreal in Westminster Abbey on the 25th of July, 1850, at the age of
47. It was at a time when great burning questions
began to agitate the Anglican Church. The Oxford
movement was causing intense excitement, not only at
home, but abroad. It was felt in Canada as elsewhere.
The men who originated that movement were contemporaries of Francis Fulford. The arrival of the new
Bishop was, therefore, eagerly looked for. This took
place on the 12th of September, 1850, when His Lordship and Mrs. Fulford, with their son and daughter,
took up their abode in the city of Montreal.
Hard work lay before the new Bishop, but from it
he flinched not. A month after his arrival the Church
Society of the Diocese of Montreal was formed. Soon
he held visitations of his clergy, and the general work
of diocesan machinery began to tell for good upon the
Church.
In 1856 the old Christ Church, which had been
made the cathedral church of the diocese, was totally
destroyed by fire. At first this was looked upon as a
disaster; but it eventuated in the construction of
another building on a different site—a structure which
was somewhat worthy of the fine city of which it was to
be the cathedral.    It stands to-day a fitting monument Francis Fulford, of Montreal (1850-1868). 137
to the memory of the first Bishop of Montreal and a
bright ornament to the city. ^When, however, the cost
Christ Church C
of this building came to be counted up, it was found
that a very heavy debt rested on. it, to lessen which the 138
The Bishops of Can,
id Newfoundland.
Bishop cut off all possible expenditure in his household,
moving to a small dwelling and submitting to the discomfort of rigid economy. Thus do clergymen often
submit to personal sacrifice on account of burdens which
a wealthy laity could easily relieve. The Bishop lived,
however, to see much reward for his self-denial, as the
debt was greatly diminished before his death.
Bishop Fulford wielded considerable influence
over all men in his diocese. He was not allied to any
particular party in the Church, but gave himself to the
general welfare of the great body in which he was an
important officer. His prudence, firmness, and devotion
made him a good and wise ruler ; and many a dispute
and misunderstanding was quietly repressed by his own
unostentatious exertions. He was unwearying in his
journeys, in holding meetings and devising plans for the
welfare of his diocese. He spoke readily and earnestly
when addressing the young people at his confirmations,
and his sermons were usually characterized with much
force and fervour. Under his rule the Church exhibited
signs of life and activity it had never possessed before.
In 1859 the diocesan synods of Quebec, Toronto,
and Montreal petitioned the Queen to appoint one of
the Canadian bishops to preside over the general
assemblies of the Church in the province, the result of
which was that Bishop Fulford was appointed Metropolitan of Canada, with Montreal as the metropolitical
' see; and in 1861 the first Provincial Synod was
organized and held in that city. The delegates
appointed to represent the Diocese of Montreal at that
Synod were as follows : Francis Fulford, of Montreal (1850-1868). 139
Clergy.—The Very Rev. John Bethune, D.D. ;
Rev. Joseph Scott, D.D. ; Rev. William T. Leach,
D.C.L., LL.D. ; Rev. Charles Bancroft, D.D. ;
Rev. E. DuVernet, M.A. ; Rev. William Anderson,
Rev. G. Slack, M.A., Rural Dean ; Rev. D. Lindsay,
M.A. ; Rev. Gerald de C. O'Grady, M.A., Rural
Dean ; Rev. W. B. Bond, Rev. J. Flanagan, Rev. J. C.
Davidson.
Laity.—Hon. George Moffatt, Hon. Judge Mc-
Cord, Major Campbell, C.B. ; Hon. Hiram Foster,
M.L.C. ; Hon. Philip H. Moore, M.L.C. ; and Messrs.
Edward Carter, Hugh Taylor, J. Armstrong, L. S.
Huntingdon (M.P.P.), Charles Smallwood (M.D.),
R. A. Young; and William Barrett.
The Metropolitan presided over this meeting with
dignity and ability. His address to the Synod was
worthy of the occasion. It may be interesting, as a
matter of history, to recall a few of his opening words :
" There are two of my Right Reverend brethren
who, from their age and long and active labours, no
less than their office, may in an especial manner be
looked upon as fathers of the Church in Canada, and
of many of its important institutions Our senior
prelate, the Lord Bishop of Quebec, in an address he
made to his own synod last year, spoke of the commencement, within the recollection of some aged men
still living, of the episcopate of the first Anglican
bishop in this country, with but five clergymen in the
whole province, with which his diocese was co-extensive.
Though the clergy had been largely increased, yet still
they were but few and widely scattered when my Right
Reverend brother himself succeeded as the bishop of the 140 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
same undivided diocese, now upwards of a quarter of a
century ago ; while my Right Reverend brother of Toronto has stated that at the time of his ordination by the
first Bishop of Quebec, in 1803, he made but the fifth
clergyman in the whole of the Upper Province. We
are assembled here as the representatives of five separate
dioceses (reckoning that of Ontario), with not less than
three hundred and fifty clergy officiating in them."
The first suggestion to hold a "Pan-Anglican"
Synod—a synod which was to embrace representative
Churchmen of the Anglican communion throughout
the world—came from the newly-formed Ecclesiastical
Province of Canada. In this great assembly, which was
duly held in England, the Metropolitan of Canada
took a prominent part ; but on his return to Montreal
in 1868 he gave unmistakable signs of failing health,
and on the 9th of September, 1868, while the Provincial Synod was in session, the good Bishop, at the
close of the day, quietly passed to his place in the
Church at rest. He had arrived in Montreal on the
12th of September, 1850, and on the same day, eighteen years afterwards, his remains were placed in the
quiet earth. All classes of people mourned his loss.
The tolling of the bell of the Anglican cathedral was answered by the tolling of the great bell of the Roman
Catholic Church of Notre Dame, as a sorrowing
procession followed his remains to the cemetery of
Mount Royal.  •^^^^^^^S^^^^^^vV'v            >»\w%-lK^
~M
i'^Hil^I
T^
KS
(, IlilllH
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^
THE RT. REV. HIBBERT BINNEY, D.D.
Fourth Bishop of Nova Scotia.
Born, 1819.    Consecrated, 1851.   Died, 1887. 13-     The    Right    Rev.    Hibbert    Binney,   D.D.,
Fourth Bishop of Nova Scotia.
ON the death of Bishop John Inglis, the Rev.
Hibbert Binney was appointed by the British
Crown to succeed him. His father, Rev.
Hibbert Binney, was of New England descent, the Binney family having moved to Nova Scotia from Massachusetts. He graduated from King's College, Windsor, in 1811, and received from that college, in 1827,
the degree of D.C.L. He was stationed at Granville,
Sackville, and finally at Sydney and Arichat, in Cape
Breton Island. He married Henrietta Lavinia,
daughter of the Honourable Richard Stout, of Cape
Breton. While in Cape Breton Island his son, the
future bishop, was born—on August 12th, 1819. His
.father soon afterwards returned to England, where, in
1838, he became rector of Newbury, in Berkshire.
The younger Hibbert received his education at
King's College, London, and afterwards at Worcester
College, Oxford. From here he graduated, in 1842,
with first-class honours in mathematics. He became
a fellow of his college and tutor, and was also appointed bursar.
In 1842 he was made deacon, and in the following year he was admitted to the priesthood. At the
age of thirty-two he received the appointment to the
bishopric of Nova Scotia, and was consecrated on the 142
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
festival of the Annunciation (March 25th), 1851, in
Lambeth Chapel, by Archbishop Sumner of Canterbury, assisted by Bishops Blomfield of London, Wil-
berforce of Oxford, and Gilbert of Chichester. He
arrived in Halifax on July 21st, 1851, and on the following Sunday preached in St. Paul's.
It was a flattering position for this young Nova
Scotian to return to his native land with the sacred .
trust of a diocese placed in his hands. Possessed of
good bodily health and sound English training, his
career, in every sense of the word, promised to be a
successful one. Almost immediately upon his arrival
he found himself plunged into the ever-recurring business of a large diocese.
His attention was first drawn to King's College,
Windsor, which, from a Church point of view, was not
in a satisfactory condition. It was under the rule of
a political governing body, seven of whom belonged to
the Church of England, three were Presbyterians, and
one " not a member of the Church of England."
This, for a Church of England institution, was considered anomalous. Strenuous efforts, therefore, were
made to place the college in the hands of its own natural friends. This was finally effected through the
local legislature in 1854, and by it it was enacted that
the Bishop was to be president of the governing body,
and that all the governors were to be members of the
Church of England.
Bishop Binney opened a chapel known as "Salem,"
largely at his own cost. It was to be a church for the
poor, and came to be known as " Bishop's Chapel." Hibbert Binney, of Nova Scotia (1850-1887).
143
It was placed in the charge of Rev. J. C. Cochran,
whom he afterwards made a canon.
The Bishop held strong views regarding the distinctive claims of the Church of England as a branch
of the ancient Catholic Church of Christ, and this led
him to encounter some difficulties and anxieties.
From the first moment of his landing he experienced
the most bitter opposition from most of those from
whom he should have received support.* On his
arrival he continued to use St. Paul's Church for the
cathedral church of the diocese, as his predecessors
had done, and as was fitting and proper. St. Paul's
was the old historic church—the mother church of the
.diocese, and in it was the proper place for the Bishop's
chair. But the new Bishop had an objection to the
use of the black gown in 'preaching, and also to the
placing of the elements of the Holy Communion on the
Lord's table before the beginning of the office.
These sedm small matters now, but then they were
questions on which there were very strong feelings.
His wishes were opposed at St. Paul's, and also at his
own chapel at Salem.
In the meantime a " chapel of ease," which had
been struggling for existence in the southern part of
the city for several years, and which had been consecrated by Bishop Binney a few months after his
arrival in Halifax, and in 1856 had been set apart as
a parish church under the title of St. Luke's, seemed
to afford the Bishop an opportunity of worshipping
where  the   service  could  be   rendered  somewhat   in 144
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
accordance with his wishes. This church was made
into a separate parish in 1858, and in 1865 Bishop
Binney constituted it the cathedral of the  diocese, :
St. Luke's Cathedra]
and set up a dean and chapter connected with it.
The Rector of St. Luke's, Rev. W. Bullock, was
was appointed the first dean.    St.  Luke's  is   but a Hibbert Binney, of Nova Scotia (1850-1887). 145
plain wooden edifice, and, as a building, can put in no
claim whatever to be a cathedral. But the same,
indeed, may be said of St. Paul's, which, though larger
than St. Luke's, is but a plain wooden structure.
Bishop Binney all his life had a great longing for
a cathedral, some building that should be worthy of
the Church and city that it was to represent. When
Salem had to be given back to the Congregationalists,
to whom it belonged, the Bishop purchased a disused
Methodist building, with a view to providing a place
of free worship for the poor, but afterwards abandoned
this idea, and built Trinity Church by his own contributions and those of his immediate friends. This
building, however, "in the interests of peace," he gave
up to St. Paul's.
There seemed at one time a prospect of having
a cathedral in the southwestern part of the city.
Judge Bliss had given a magnificent site for it, and
ten thousand dollars were promised if a cathedral was
begun within a certain time. This did not lead to the
construction of a cathedral, but close to the site the
Bishop built a chapel which might be used, on the
erection of the cathedral, as a chapter house and
synod hall. This came to be known as " Bishop's
Chapel," and in it regular services were held, the
Bishop himself providing a chaplain and ministering
there when his other duties would admit of it.
Bishop Binney always had a great desire to
increase the funds of his diocese. The Diocesan.
Church Society had been fourteen years founded when
he arrived, and had an income of $3>884- Before his
death this had increased to within the neighbourhood 146 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
of $9,000. To this also he added a Church Endowment Fund, which is much the same as a diocesan
mission fund, and this by degrees grew till it had an
income of about $7,000 a year. A Widows and
Orphans' Fund and a Superannuation Fund were also
formed, both of which are in a position to yield what I
may reasonably be demanded of them.
The Bishop was strongly in favour of the formation of a diocesan synod. As early as February,
1854, he expressed a wish to have one established in
his diocese, but this met with an unexpected opposition, chiefly on the grounds of the proposed admission
of the laity to the councils of the Church. Pamphlets
were written against it, and a.general agitation kept
up, which caused the Bishop much anxiety. But his
great learning and strong logic enabled him to show
the undoubted superiority of his position. Application
was made to the Provincial Legislature for an act of
incorporation, but through the opposition given to it
it was rejected. In 1864, however, another application
was made, and this time consent was obtained, but it
was through the personal exertions of the Bishop. He
could not find a lawyer willing to undertake the
matter, so he appeared before the bar of the Legislative Council himself, and pleaded his cause with such
ability that his point was carried. A lawyer remarked,
" If the Bishop had been brought up a lawyer, he
would have beaten us all." " Clearly," was the
response, " for he has beaten you all as it is."
The utility of the synod has since abundantly
proved the wisdom of the Bishop. The Synod of
Nova Scotia, however, as in Quebec, meets but once Hibbert Binney, of Nova Scotia (i8so-*i887).
in every two years. The Bishop was a good chairman,
and kept every matter before the synod well in hand.
His rebukes sometimes were stern, but they fell
mercilessly upon friend and foe alike.
In September, 1874, Bishop Binney, with twelve
representative clergymen of his synod and as many
laymen, presented themselves as members of the
Provincial Synod which met in Montreal. The members were as follows:
Clergy.—Rev. Dr. White, Rev. J. J. Ritchie, Rev.
T. Maynard, Rev. Canon Townshend, Rev. J. Ambrose, Rev. P. J. Filleul, Rev. H. L. Owen, Rev. J. A.
Kaulbach, Rev. Dr. Nichols, Ven. Archdeacon Gilpin,
Rev. J. B. Richardson, Rev. John Abbott.
Laity.—Col. Wood, Hon. W. B. Vail, Dr. J. R.
De Wolf, and Messrs. Peter Lynch, E. P. Archibald,
W. Gossip, W. C. Silver, G. Reading, E. Kaulbach,
A. M. Cochran, P. C. Hill, and C. Bullock.
Many churches were built during Bishop Binney's
episcopate, and always with an improved style of
architecture. His visitations throughout the diocese,
especially in the early days, were long and laborious,
yet he spared no effort to keep his diocese visited.
On September 22nd, 1871, the Collegiate School
at Windsor was destroyed by fire. It was not until
1877 that the new and present building was erected.
It is built of wood. In 1875 the president of King's
College, Rev. Dr. McCawley, resigned, and Rev. John
Dart was appointed his successor. In 1878 the Hens-
ley Memorial Chapel was built, close to the college.
The greater portion of the cost ($14,000) was generously met by the late Edward Binney, a near relative r
148
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
of the Bishop. In 1881 the Government grant ($2,400)
was withdrawn altogether from King's, and the Alumni,
with the encouraging support of the Bishop, resolved,
Hensley Memorial Chapel.
if possible, to add $40,000 to the further endowment of
the institution. Of this amount $16,000 was paid in.
But besides this, a Mr. Roach, of England, contributed ^500 on condition that no confederation
between King's and Dalhousie colleges should ever
take place. A contingency legacy (in time to revert
to the college) of about $30,000 was also left by the
late Rev. E. W. Hodgson.
Bishop Binney had tried to establish at Halifax
a school for girls, but in this he met with some difficulties which caused him much trouble—in the midst
of which he unexpectedly died on the 30th of April,
1887, at the age of sixty-eight, and after an episcopate
of thirty-six years. He died in New York, while on a
visit to the city, but his remains were brought ' to
Halifax and buried there on May 6th, 1887. Hibbert Binney, of Nova Scotia (1850-1887). 149
In 1855 Dr. Binney married Mary, daughter of
the Hon. William Blowers Bliss, first puisne Judge of
Nova Scotia. She and three children, Rev. Wm.
Hibbert Binney, M.A., Oxon., Vicar of Wilton, Cheshire ; Miss Binney, and Mr. John Edward Binney,
B.A., Oxon., survived him.
The Bishop was possessed of ample means, and
at times the diocese and the poor felt substantial benefit from it.
He had looked forward to the centennial celebration of the Nova Scotia episcopate, Bishop Charles
Inglis, the first colonial bishop, having been consecrated in 1787. There was to be a grand celebration
of this event in Halifax, and then the foundation stone
of a new and grand cathedral was to be laid. It was
to be a monument of the growth of the Anglican episcopate throughout the world.
But a few months before the time the Bishop died.
The first Bishop was consecrated in 1787 ; the fourth
Bishop died in 1887. The whole projected celebration was overcast with gloom, and the prospects of the
new cathedral seemed as far away as ever.
1 Hall, King's College, Windsor. 14-    The Right Rev. Benjamin Cronyn, D.D., First
Bishop of Huron (London, Ont.).
IN the old maps of Upper Canada (nowthe Province
of Ontario), the western part of the colony was
divided into the London and Western districts,
and contained the counties of Essex, Kent, Middlesex,
Oxford, and Norfolk. As far back as 1700 there was a
village of Mohawk Indians established on the banks of
the Grand river, east of the Oxford district, by the
New England Company, the oldest society for the welfare of the Indians known. Its charter dates back to
1661. Here there stood, as early as 1711, a little
mission chapel, to which Queen Anne at that date
presented a set of communion plate of solid silver.
This church was replaced by another and a better one
in 1773, through the exertions of the celebrated Indian
Tyendenaga, or Captain Joseph Brant. When it was
first built the country for miles around was a dense
forest. Now it stands in the centre of a richly cultivated district, crowned by the beautiful city of Brant-
ford. This is the oldest church in Western Ontario,
and still remains a link between the present and the
past.
Another place of early mention is Sandwich, on
the St. Clair river, in the extreme west. In 1797
Sandwich was then the chief town of the western district, as Niagara, Kingston, and  Cornwall were of the THE RT. REV. BENJAMIN CRONYN, D.D.
First Bishop of Huron (London, Ontario).  Benjamin Cronyn, of Huron (1857-1871). 151
districts lying eastward. At these four points Governor Simcoe, in 1797, hoped to establish grammar
schools.*
In the memory of people still living, the western
portion of "Upper Canada" was a wilderness. The
steady flow of immigration, the rapid felling of trees,
the hasty building of log houses, the frequent "clearances," the constant smoke from the burning up of
"underbrush," the fencing of newly-made fields, the
gradual formation of roads, villages, and towns, was a
leading characteristic, not many years ago, of this
region, now a magnificent territory, with several large
towns (four of them citiesf), farms of the very best
quality, and villages numerous.
In 1825 the Hon. and Rev. Mr. Stewart, when on
an extended missionary tour, visited the Mohawk
church. He says : " On my arrival at the Grand
river, on the land of the Six Indian Nations, I found
that a new village of British inhabitants had sprung
up in their neighbourhood. It is Brantford, and is
two miles from the Mohawk church."J In 1828 Dr.
Strachan, at that time Archdeacon of York, visited
Brantford, Burford, Oxford, and the River Thames.
He speaks of Sandwich and of Chatham, and of the
extensive property owned by Colonel Talbot. It was
a feature of this new colony that many gentlemen of
the old country, chiefly retired officers from the army
and navy, were found living in the wilderness, hoping
* "The Church in the Colonies,
'Tor
t London, Brantford, Stratford,
and
% " The Church in the Colonies,
'Tor 152 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
soon to become a landed gentry—a hope which, owing
to the rigorous toil involved in it, was never realized,
except in a few cases.
In 1838 Bishop G. J. Mountain, of Quebec, reported that "in travelling from the town of London
(on the Thames, in Middlesex county) to Goderich
(then in a very distant region on the banks of Lake
Huron), he passed through a tract of country sixty
miles in length, in which there was not one clergyman
or minister of any denomination." He speaks of the
same destitution between " Wodehouse," on Lake
Erie (near the town of Simcoe), and St. Thomas (about
seventeen miles south of London), a distance of about
fifty miles.
In 1842 Bishop Strachan, of Toronto, speaks of
visiting the Mohawk church and Tuscarora, where
" there are two excellent missionaries, Rev. Adam
Elliot and the Rev. Abraham Nelles." In that visita^
tion he mentions Dunwich, Paris, and Gait as mission
stations. In 1847 there is the further mention of
Westminster (near London), Malahide, Woodstock,
Blenheim, Wilmot, Stratford, and Zorra; and also of
Owen Sound, far up in the north on the banks of the
Georgian Bay ; and of Simcoe, in Norfolk county.
Among the many places of this most interesting
part of " Upper Canada," it was soon very evident
that London was destined to outstrip them all in
population and importance. In 1822 the Hon. and '
Rev. Dr. Stewart speaks of " the very rapid progress
in wealth and population of London," where, on
Sunday, July 28th, he ministered to a congregation of Benjamin Cronyn, of Huron (1857-1871).
153
nearly 250 persons. He earnestly recommended the
Society (S.P.G.) to send a missionary to London.*
Yet it was ten years before a missionary arrived,
and then it was apparently more by accident than
design. Of this missionary it becomes us now to
speak.
Benjamin Cronyn was the son of Thomas Cronyn,
Esq., of Kilkenny, Ireland, and was born in that place
on July nth, 1802. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated in 1822; in 1824 he was
divinity prizeman, and took his master's degree in
1825, in which year he was admitted to the diaconate
by the Bishop of Raphoe. He was priested by His
Grace the Archbishop of Tuam on Trinity Sunday,
1827. 1° x^32, at the age of thirty, he resolved to
emigrate to Canada, and with his wife (the daughter
of J. Bickerstaff, Esq., of Lislea, Longford, Ireland)
and two small children he set sail. He carried with
him many good wishes, and among them those of Rev.
Peter Roe, Rector of Kilkenny, who gave him a letter
on his departure full of friendship and good wishes.
It was a long, tedious journey by sea and by land.
His destination was Adelaide, in the west of Upper
Canada. Through the woods in a rough " lumber
wagon"—lumbering, indeed, over roads that did not
deserve the name—for days he toiled on, till, his
wife becoming tired  and ill, he was obliged to stop.
* " Annals of the Colonial Church," Quebec, Hawkins, p. 74. This does not
agree with the statement made by a contributor in Dr. Langtry's " Eastern Canada
and Newfoundland" that the first house had been erected in London in 1827. In
" Canada Past and Present"—W. H. Smith—it is said that London was first laid
out (surveyed) in 1826. There must have been many houses in it by that time, so
that Dr. Stewart's report (which was made by himself to the S.P.G.) must have
been correct. 154 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
The place where he halted was London, or " The
Forks," as it was sometimes called. It was only
twenty-six miles from Adelaide, but the emigrants for
the present could travel no further.
Though, twenty years before this,the Hon. and Rev.
Dr. Stewart spoke of London as a place of size and
wealth, his words must be understood in a comparative
sense only, for in 1832 London was but a hamlet. Yet
it was growing, and there were many Church people in
and about it. When it was noised abroad that a
clergyman was in their midst, there were many baptisms, and weddings, and services that kept Mr.
Cronyn busy. How great had been the neglect of the
Church! He officiated here on Sunday in a farm
house which had served as a court house.
Here, then, Mr. Cronyn remained. He had many
hard experiences as a pioneer clergyman. On one
occasion, shortly after his arrival, he started on foot for
Adelaide with his friend, Colonel Curran, the two
carrying between them a quarter of beef for a needy
settler. They lost their way at night in the woods.
Wolves, attracted by the smell of the beef, hovered
near them. They were found in the morning by some
people who, expecting them, had gone to look for them.
They were nearly exhausted by their adventure.
A good horseman, a bold swimmer, a practical
farmer, architect, and engineer—sufficient for backwoods purposes—he proved himself of great use to the"
community, both in a temporal and spiritual way.
He taught the farmers how to improve their pigs .and
cattle, and how to enrich the soil of their farms; and
himself, more than once, accepted the position of path- Benjamin Cronyn, of Huron (1857-1871). 155
master, that he might do something to improve the
vile roads, in the mud of which he and his weary horse
often had to pursue a monotonous and tardy way.*
London grew, and as it grew the inhabitants
determined that it should be London. The river hard
by was the Thames; the bridges, Westminster and
Blackfriars; the market, " Covent Garden Market";
the county, Middlesex—a slice of the old world in the
bush—and when, in 1835, a church was built, of
course it was called St. Paul's, destined to be St.
Paul's Cathedral. This was a frame building, and
was pronounced " one of the finest, and certainly one
of the neatest, churches in the province." In 1836
London was made a rectory.
This pioneer church
was destroyed by fire in
1844, and very soon afterwards a good substantial
brick building was erected,
and was "the largest
church west of Toronto."
In 1852 a beautiful chime
of bells was placed in the
St. Paul's Church and Rectory, London,    tower.
In the meantime great improvements were taking
place in all the western portion of the province. The
original five counties were increased by those of
Lambton, Huron, Bruce, and Grey in the west and
northwest, Elgin (in the south of Middlesex), and of
Brant, Perth, and Waterloo in the Oxford and Norfolk
Canada and Newfoundland." 156 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
region, making in all thirteen. The Diocese of Toronto
had become unwieldy in the extreme. The formation
of two new dioceses, one in the west and the other in
the east of " Upper Canada " (Ontario), was.impera-
tive, and resolved upon.
The necessary endowment was raised (chiefly by
subscription) in the western section first, and the
thirteen counties mentioned were formed into a
diocese, with London as the see city. The name of
the new diocese became a question. There could not
well be two bishops of London, it was thought. The
name " Huron " was finally chosen, probably because
of the great lake of that name which washes its
northern and northwestern shores.
A new state of things had set in for the Church
of England in Canada. The Crown was to have
nothing more to do with matters ecclesiastical. The
people must learn to support the clergy, and the
clergy must learn to govern the Church as best they
might. Bishops were no longer to be Government
officers. If the clergy and laity wanted bishops, they •
must devise some plan of procuring them irrespective
of politics or governments. The only plan that could
be devised was the primitive one of election. This
was settled. The clergy were to meet in London,
and with their lay representatives from the different
parishes to elect a bishop.
This led to the canvassing of names. The Re7.
Benjamin Cronyn had received from his Irish alma-
mater the degree of D.D. He was rector of the first
church in the new district. He had been a hardworking missionary, and was a  man of good ability Benjamin Cronyn, of Huron (1857-1871). 157
and genial, kindly spirit. But he was of " pronounced
evangelical views," and this caused some of the
clergy and laity to look elsewhere. In the eastern
portion of the province was the Venerable Dr. Bethune,
Archdeacon of York, whose views were known to be
of an opposite character. He was selected as one
who many thought would make a good bishop. The
evils of the elective system showed themselves in
things that were said and done on behalf of the two
I candidates " by their ardent supporters. The election was held in St. Paul's Church, London, on July
9th, 1857, the Bishop of Toronto (Dr. Strachan) presiding. On the first ballot Dr. Cronyn received
• twenty-two clerical votes and twenty-four lay votes,
and Archdeacon Bethune twenty clerical and ten lay.
Dr. Cronyn was therefore declared first Bishop of
Huron. Such was the result of the first episcopal
election in Canada.
The parishes and clergy of the diocese at that time
were :—
Gait, Rev. M. Boomer ; London Township, Rev.
C. C. Brough ; Woodstock, Rev. W. Bettridge ; Bayfield, Rev. F. Campbell ; St. Thomas, Rev. A. St.
George Caulfield ; London, Rev. B. Cronyn, Rev. H.
O'Neill ; Sandwich, Rev. M. Dewar ; Goderich, Rev.
M. Ellwood ; Tuscarora, Rev. A. Elliott ; Colchester,
Rev. F. G. Elliott ; Simcoe, Rev. F. Evans, D.C.L.,
Rev. R. S. Birch ; Huntingford, Rev. F. D. Fauquier;
Delaware, Rev. R. Flood ; Dawn or Zoan Mills, Rev.
J.-Gunn; Saugeen, Rev. T. P. Hodge; Tyrconnell,
Rev. H. Holland; Port Burwell, Rev. H. P. Jessop ;
Morpeth, Rev. C. C. Johnson ; Walpole Island, Rev. 158 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Andrew Jamieson ; Ingersoll and Beachville, Rev. J.
W. Marsh ; Amherstburg, Rev. W. Mack ; Port Stanley, Rev. J. Mockridge ; Adelaide, Rev. H. Morr
timer ; Owen Sound, Rev. A. H. R. Mulholland ;
Mohawk, Rev. A. Nelles ; Grand River, Rev. J. Kennedy ; Stratford, Rev. E. Patterson ; Burford, Rev.
J. Padfield; Haysville, Rev. W. B. Rally; Eastwood,
Rev. T. B. Robarts ; Sarnia, Rev. G. J. R. Salter
Moore, Rev. A. Williams ; Chatham, Rev. F. W.Sandys; Warwick,Rev. T. Smyth; Mount Pleasant and
Waterloo, Rev. E. R. Stimson; Paris, Rev. A. Townley;I
Brantford, Rev. J. C. Usher ; St. Marys, Rev. A,
Lampman ; Dereham, Norwich, and Otterville, Rev-
Mr. Young.
Dr. Cronyn proceeded to England, and was consecrated at Lambeth in 1857 by the Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1858 the first session of the Diocesan
Synod was held, and a constitution adopted.
The diocese began its career with forty-one clergymen. In i860 these had increased to sixty-nine. Of
these, twelve were chosen as representatives to the
first Provincial Synod, or, as they termed it, "General
Assembly," held in Montreal in September, 1861.
The twelve were : Rev. M. Boomer, LL.D., the
Venerable Archdeacon C. C. Brough, Rev. E. L. El-
wood, Rev. R. Flood, Rev. W. Bettridge, Rev. B.
Smythe, Rev. F. W. Sandys, D.D., Rev. J. W.
Marsh, Rev. St. G Caulfield, LL.D., Rev. A. Nellec'
Rev. J. Padfield, Rev. J. C. Usher—all of whom were
present except Mr. Padfield. The lay representatives
were Messrs. L. Lawrason, A. Shade, W. Watson, J.
Johnson, I.   Cottle,   H.  Johnson,   G.   Kains,   W.   D. Benjamin Cronyn, of Huron (1857-1871). 159
Allan, J. Keefer, I. Farrell, H. Ingles, and Dr. Dewson.
Messrs. J. and H. Johnson and J. Keefer were absent.
The whole of the territory forming the Diocese of
Huron is composed, almost without exception, of the
very best farming land in Canada. The result is that
commercial prosperity has always marked its. course.
The rapid change from forest and hamlet to splendid
farms, villages, towns, and cities, is amongst the brightest
pages of Canadian history. Bishop Cronyn had the
pleasure of seeing marked improvements in the parishes
under his care—and a frequent subdivision of them,
which taxed his ability to the utmost to keep them supplied with men. To Ireland, his native land, he went
again and again to get men, and to his exertions are due
the importation to Canada of men like the present Bishop
of Algoma (Dr. Sullivan), the present Dean of Montreal
(Dr. J. Carmichael), and the present Bishop elect of
Niagara (Canon DuMoulin). These all began work
under Bishop Cronyn, who frequently expressed himself
as well satisfied with "his boys," except, perhaps, when
they left him at comparatively early dates for higher
positions elsewhere.
In the early days of his episcopate Bishop Cronyn'
became involved in a controversy regarding the teaching of Trinity College, Toronto, which he considered
unsound. The corporation of that institution placed
these charges before the other bishops of the "Province,"
viz.: The Metropolitan (Dr. Fulford), the Bishop of
Toronto (Dr. Strachan), the Bishop of Ontario (Dr.
Lewis), and the Bishop of Quebec (Dr. Williams), all
of whom upheld the teaching of the College ; but the
Bishop of Huron was not satisfied, and therefore ex- 160 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
erted himself to establish at London a college over
which he himself could exercise more immediate control. This led to the formation and partial endowment
—through subscriptions made for the purpose—of
Huron College, which was opened in 1863, under the
presidency of Rev. Isaac Hellmuth, D.D., about whom
we shall hear more presently.
In 1864 the clergy of the diocese had increased to
seventy-nine, and thirteen students had matriculated at
the college ; but the funds of the Church Society (which
had been continued as begun in the Diocese of Toronto),
had fallen off a little—a fact which the Bishop deplored •
in his charge of 1865 ; but steady growth, nevertheless,
continued to characterize the diocese. A great domestic affliction fell upon the Bishop in the death of
Mrs. Cronyn. The kind sympathy which he received
on that occasion the Bishop touchingly referred to in
his address to Synod in June, 1867. In that year
(1867) the clergy in the diocese numbered eighty-eight,
and the churches 145. Indeed, the Bishop found it
very difficult to keep his diocese supplied with pastors,
for at this time there were twelve vacant missions. In
that year (1867), also, Bishop Cronyn attended the first
Lambeth Conference in England, the expense of his
journey being met by an assessment on the parishes of
the diocese. The Bishop, on his return, viewing
matters from his own standpoint, did not draw a very
glowing picture of the condition of the Church in tfos
motherland.
Bishop Cronyn, from his consecration, had retained
the rectory of St. Paul's, London; but on his return
from England a see house was purchased for him, in Benjamin Cronyn, of Huron (1857-1871).
161
which he resided with his second wife, a lady of culture
whom he had married in the Old Country.
The S.P.G., which had helped the diocese in its
infancy, now began to expect the child to stand alone ;
and, in the prospect of losing support from it, a susten-
tation fund was formed, subscriptions to which in 1869
amounted to $30,000, and to double that sum in 1870.
In that year the clergy had increased to 93, and it
became evident that the rapid growth of population in
the diocese was beginning to make it a matter of great
moment as to how the Church was to keep pace with
it—and all the more so because the health of the Bishop
began to fail. In June, 187,1, he said to his Synod that
his medical advisers had informed him that to continue
the same course of over-exertion that he had done in
the past would be little short of suicide, and that he
was unable any longer to perform those duties of the
episcopate which required constant physical exertion ;
and hoped the Synod would take some, steps to provide
for the discharge of the more arduous labours of the
episcopal office for the future.
In accordance with this request, a special meeting
of the Synod was held in Bishop Cronyn Hall, London,
a few weeks after the regular meeting, viz., on the 19th
of June, for the purpose of electing a coadjutor bishop.
The choice fell upon Dr. Hellmuth, who had risen to
the position of Dean of Huron. He took the title of
Bishop of Norfolk. In a few months, however, he was
called upon to be Bishop of Huron, for on the 22nd of
September (1871) Dr. Cronyn died of heart disease.
The Bishop left three daughters and two sons.
The oldest  daughter  married   Colonel Burrows;  the r
162 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
next, Edward Blake, Esq.; and the youngest, S. H.
Blake, Esq. The sons are Benjamin, now living in the
United States; and Verschoyle, Chancellor of the
Diocese of Huron.
His family and friends erected to his memory the
church known as the Bishop Cronyn Memorial Church,
now in charge of Rev. Canon Richardson. A hall for
Synod purposes was also erected in the grounds of St.
Paul's Church, and was called " Bishop Cronyn Hal
_	
The Mohawk Church, near Brantford.    Built about 1773, through the
ily of Brant, the celebrated Theyendenaga. '  «
THE RT. REV. GEORGE HILLS. D.D.
First Bishop of Columbia.
Born, 1816.   Consecrated, 1859.    Resigned, 1892.    Died 15-    The   Right Rev. George Hills, D.D., First
Bishop of Columbia (British Columbia).
ON the distant Pacific coast lies a beautiful, yet
rocky and mountainous island, two hundred
miles long, and from ten to seventy miles broad.
The ownership of it lay between England and Spain.
George Vancouver, master of a ship out on an exploring expedition, claimed it for England. Bodega y
Cuadra, in command of a Spanish vessel, claimed it
for Spain. The two commanders, sitting amicably
together on the island, in 1792, agreed to call it for the
present Cuadra and Vancouver Island. The Spanish
part was soon dropped, which meant that the island
had passed into the possession of Great Britain. The
bold, rocky mainland of North America adjacent to it
also became British territory. This island remained
for many years what it had been for ages before, the
home of roving Indians and wild animals of the
forest.
Then came the fur trader and the officers of the
Hudson's Bay Company. The southern part of Vancouver Island, with its excellent and well-tprotected
harbour, was selected as an admirable spot for a fort
and trading post. The natives called the place
Camosun, and here James Douglas, an astute Scotchman of the Hudson's Bay Company, erected the plain
wooden buildings, well and substantially fortified, that 164 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
were to stand for many years. The greater portion
of it was built by the year 1844, and was called Fort
Camosun, but in 1845 the name was changed, with
much loyal ceremony, to that of Fort Victoria.
About three miles from it was an Indian village
called Esquimalt, where was another harbour even
better than that of Camosun, and great trading ships
used to arrive from England on the business of the
company. By degrees land was cultivated, and the
fort was well supplied by the produce of the island
itself. It was soon found that coal also was to be
obtained on this new domain, and this led to further
investigation and to the establishment of other places
on the Island, such as Fort Rupert, Ellenborough, and
Nanaimo.
These people, exiled a very long distance from
the Old Country, were not altogether without the
ministrations of the Church, for the Hudson's Bay-
Company at times had a chaplain, one of whom, Rev. R. George Hills, of Columbia (r859-1892). 165
J. Staines, of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, tried to teach
the people to establish homes for themselves, and so
to induce colonization. This, however, did not receive
the support of the company, whose business was best
served by keeping the place, as long as possible, a
wilderness. The first governor of the colony was
Richard Blanshard, who was appointed in 1850, but
on his arrival he found there was little to govern, and
soon resigned the charge.
In the following year, James Douglas, chief factor
of the fort, was made governor. Victoria was laid out
as a town, but it lacked population. In 1856 the
Island was divided into four districts, viz., Victoria,
Esquimalt, Nanaimo, and Soke, and seven men were
appointed to represent these places in an assembly
which Her Majesty's Government required Governor
Douglas to set up. There were then on the Island
only about two hundred and fifty white men.
About this time, in October, 1857, Mr. William
Duncan arrived from England, sent out by the C.M.S.
as a missionary to the Indians on the North Pacific
coast.    His work will be noticed elsewhere.
In 1858 it was noised abroad that there was gold
in Vancouver Island and British Columbia.* Then took
place an extraordinary influx of people. From California and elsewhere they came—twenty thousand
of them—with eager faces, to seek their fortunes.
Three thousand of them arrived in Victoria in one
day, and encamped round the fort. Things were
changed.   The terra incognita became suddenly known.
* In this year this term was applied for the first I
ment, to this territory; but it did not include Vancouv
separate colony, with its own Governor and Assembly. r
166 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
The cry of gold has a wonderful attraction for the
masses. Many of the gold-seekers, it is true, returned
to their homes disappointed, but fresh arrivals for
several years took their places, and many villages and
towns sprung up throughout the hitherto silent and
unoccupied land.
In 1859 the colony was separated entirely from
the Hudson's Bay Company, and Douglas, who had
been serving in the dual capacity of governor of the
colony and chief factor of the great trading monopoly,
had to resign one or the other. He elected to remain
governor of the colony. In this year the Rev. R.
Dowson, sent out from England by the S.P.G.,
arrived inVictoria to open up work among the "heathen
Indians." He found but one small village situated
near Victoria, and the men were "idle and diseased";*
but he started on a voyage of discovery in a vessel
of the Hudson's Bay Company, touched at Nanaimo,
where he found a wretched little village, built of wood,
"amongst mud and stumps," and having a population
of 160 whites and halfbreeds, with a few hundred
Indians camped about it. Here Mr. Dowson held
service in a room which had been used as a school,
established by the Hudson's Bay Company. At Fort
Rupert, two hundred miles further north, where there
were only six white people, he found encamped a
thousand Quackolls, the most blood-thirsty of all Indian
tribes on the Northwest coast.
Plenty of heads and other human remains lay on
the beach.   A prisoner taken captive in war was landed
* Digest of S.P.G. Records, p. 181. George Hills, of Columbia (1859-1892). 167
among them, They all rushed down from their houses
and ate the poor wretch alive.
On Mr. Dowson's return to Victoria, he endeavoured to teach the wretched Indians something
about God and the soul; but he met with no encouragement, either from the whites or themselves ; yet within
a year he had won the hearts of many of the poor
savages, who said to him, "You teach Indian good—
Indian's heart good to you." In the same year, 1859,
a second missionary, Rev. J. Gammage, was sent out
by the S.P.G., who began work among the miners on
the mainland.
It was about this time that the S.P.G., through the
munificence of Miss (now Baroness) Burdett-Coutts,
who endowed a bishopric and two archdeaconries for
Columbia to the extent, in all, of about $120,000,* was
enabled to send a missionary bishop to Victoria. The
man selected for this pioneer work was the Rev. George
Hills, an Englishman, born in the year 1816 at Eg-
thorne, Kent. He was the eldest son of the late Rear-
Ad miral Hills, and received his education at the
University of Durham, where he took the successive
degrees of B.A., M.A., B.D., and D.D. Admitted to
the diaconate by Bishop Bowstead, of Lichfield, in 1839,
and subsequently priested by Bishop Maltby, of Durham, he served as' curate at North Shields, Northumberland, and at Leeds, under Dean Hook. He was, also,
incumbent of St. Mary's, Leeds, and of Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, and, in 1850, received the appointment of Honorary Canon of Norwich Cathedral. He
was   consecrated   % Bishop  of   Columbia"   in   West-
* " Stranger than Fiction."   S.P.C.K. r
168
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
minster Abbey on St. Matthias' Day (Feb. 24th), 1859,
by Archbishop Sumner, of Canterbury. Bishop Feild,
of Newfoundland, and Bishop DeLancey, of New York,
assisted at the consecration, as well as Bishop Tait
(London), Bishop S. Wilberforce (Oxford), and Bishop
J. T. Pelham (Norwich). After spending several months
in England, collecting money for his diocese, the new
bishop set sail for the distant West. He arrived in'
i860, just as the Rev. Mr. Dowson, through the illness
of his wife, returned to England.
Victoria he found a strange mixture of almost all
nations and tribes under the sun; white people of all
nationalities and tongues, blacks from Africa, Mongols,
Chinamen, Polynesians, Malays, Americans, Mexicans,
Indians, and many others were there to greet the Bishop
with wondering looks as he sauntered through the busy
little streets. In 1863 Governor Douglas, who had seen
the very beginnings of Victoria in 1843, retired from his
position. In doing so he received the honour of knighthood, and, with every mark of respect shown by the
people he had governed, he left as Sir James Douglas,
K.C.B. He was succeeded in 1864 by Captain Kennedy,
at which time the white population of Vancouver Island
was about 7,500.
Such was the community in which Bishop Hills
had undertaken to live. He had two colonies under
his charge, comprising a territory as large as France I
and England put together. Rough miners, keen specu- j
lators, wretched Indians, many of them without even
the glory of savagery, but degraded with the white
man's rum and the white man's diseases—a motley,
wretched, excited crowd, either wallowing in wretched- George Hills, of Columbia (1859-1^
169
ness or moving ceaselessly on to some place in the
wilderness where had been set up the all-powerful cry
of gold.
How to reach these was the great care of the
pioneer Bishop. He found substantial assistance in
the ever-ready S.P.G., which, between the years i860
and 1865, added twelve missionaries to the Bishop's
slender staff, and Victoria^Nanaimo, Esquimalt, and
Bastion of Old Hudson Bay Forts, Nanaimo, B.C.
Saanich, on Vancouver Island; Lilloet, New Westminster, Hope Sapperton, on the mainland (or " British
Columbia"), with other stations, were regularly sup- 170 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
plied with services. The Rev. A. C Garrett helped •
among the Indians at Victoria ; Rev. R. C Lundin
Brown tried the thankless task of work among the
miners.* Rev. John B. Good toiled long and earnestly
among the Indians at Victoria, Nanaimo, and elsewhere. The Rev. John Sheepshanks ministered at New
Westminster—the fast rising capital of the mainland—
and so, with here and there a missionary, the work
went on. The Bishop himself travelled continuously
from post to post, by canoe, by Hudson's Bay steamboat, or on horseback. Long, solitary journeys he
took as he went* about " confirming the churches."
Great were the hindrances that he met with from the
elements above, the sparse accommodation and the uncouth jargon of the Indians (called the Chinook), which,
through an interpreter, formed the only means by which
he could make known the message which was ever
ready to break from his lips ; yet he persevered, though
the progress was unsatisfactory and slow. The typical
missionary—described by the Bishop himself—was "a
man with stout country shoes, corduroy trousers, a
coloured woollen shirt, a leather strap round his waist,
and an axe upon his shoulder, driving a mule or horse
laden with packs of blankets, a tent, bacon, a sack of
flour, a coffee pot, a kettle, and a frying-pan." j*
In this manner, halting at intervals for rest and
cooking, which involved the making of his own bread,
the missionary would travel for hundreds and hundreds
of miles to minister to Indians and miners only.
*His book  published by the  S.P.CK.  (England),  " Klatsassan, or'Life in
British Columbia," is very interesting.
t" Under His Banner."    By Rev. H. W. Tucker, M.A. George Hills, of Columbia (1859-1892).
171
And to visit the haunts of the miners—what sanctified courage it meant! Often it was pandemonium—
often 'twas like the mouth of hell. Yet the missionary,
finding sometimes no one willing to attend his service,
stands outside a drinking saloon and boldly denounces
the wickedness of the people. It may be—and such
has happened—that one at least of the carousing
gamblers will listen and stand firmly by the man who
dares to tell the truth in such a dangerous place.
Bishop Hills himself spent weeks at a time among
men of this description. Such was British Columbia,
and such it remained for several years.
In 1865 the Bishop married Maria Philadelphia
Louisa, eldest daughter of Admiral Sir Richard King,
Bart., K.C.B.
In 1866 Vancouver Island was united to the mainland, and the two colonies were heneeforth to be known
as one, under the title of British Columbia. Bishop
Hills, however, still retained for the diocese the title of
Columbia only. In 1867 the " British North America
Act" was passed, whereby the colonies could unite at
will in a confederation to be known as the Dominion of
Canada. But British Columbia did not join this confederation till 1871. One of the conditions of its joining
was that a railway was to be built connecting the Pacific
coast with the Atlantic. It was commenced in 1871,
and completed in 1885. This marked a ne^era in this
distant colony. It was henceforth to be known as the
Province of British Columbia.
The Church in this province had a favourable
start. It was provided with a bishop in its very early
days.    In fact, the bishop was almost the first among 172 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
the missionaries. It had a good endowment from the
beginning and received aid from two great missionary
societies, and has met with a fair amount of progress;
yet it has not been without its troubles.
The Bishop had set up his cathedral in Victoria,
and the Rev. Edward Cridge was made dean;   buj:
mi
1 KHP^fiHll
L€*ilISl!
troubles arose which ended in the disaffection of the
Dean, and^in his putting himself at the head of the Reformed Episcopal movement.
Two new dioceses were formed on the mainland— I
one in the north in 1879, and the other in the south in
1880.    Bishop Hills was thus confined to Vancouver
Island, which is still called the Diocese of Columbia. George Hills, of Columbia (1859-1892).
173
It started its fresh career in 1880, with eleven clergymen. In 1885 the Canadian Pacific Railway—one of
the greatest triumphs of the age—was finished, and the
Pacific province brought much closer to the rest of the
Dominion, of which it formed an important part.
Victoria gradually became a city of no mean proportions or appearance. Its population in 1881 was 5,925;
in 1891, 17,000.
Bishop Hills thus spoke to his Synod in June,
1892, of the progress of the Church :
I From the census of 1891, it appears that the
Church of England has made greater progress in
British Columbia than any other religious body, the
progress being thirty-one per cent, of the whole increase
of population during the decade. Considering how
peculiarly cosmopolitan, from special circumstances, the
Pacific province has always been, its population having
been gathered from all points, rather than direct from
the mother country, this result is an encouragement to
both clergy and laity of the Church of England."
In that year, 1892, Bishop Hills resigned his work
and returned to England. On account of his wife's ill-
health he had contemplated resignation some years
previously, but, her death removing the cause of his
proposed retirement, he bravely settled down to his
work again; but in 1892 his failing strength warned
him that his active days were over. He said good-by
to a people loath to lose him. He had seen great
changes. He had seen a wilderness grow into a province, a diocese subdivided into three, a staff of two clergymen enlarged to seventy, a little wooden town for his
see city expanded into a beautiful  city, the   Pacific 174 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Ocean, which bounded his diocese, connected by a I
trans-continental railway with the Atlantic, and then
he went back to his native land. Shortly after his
arrival he was stricken with paralysis, from which, I
however, he slowly recovered. He returned to his old
diocese of Norwich, whose bishop was now Dr. Sheepshanks, who had been one of his clergy in the wilderness of British Columbia.
It was a graceful act which led the former priest
to give his old Bishop a quiet little English living,
where he spent, in calm retirement, the rest of his days.
He sank to rest on Tuesday, December the ioth, 1895,
at Parkham, Suffolk, at the age of seventy years.
A writer in an English paper * thus speaks of
him :—
" He could create enthusiasm in his workers and
draw out their strong affection.    This was partly due I
to his fine presence, his magnificent voice and his rare
powers of conversation,  but chiefly to his wonderful :;
energy, his great gifts of organization, and his unwaver-
ing faith that if a work was God's He would make it I
grow in His own time."
* Quoted in The Canadian Church Magazine and Mission News, Feb., 1896.  THE MOST REV. JOHN TRAVERS LEWIS, D.D., LL.D.
Archbishop of Ontario and Third Metropolitan of (Eastern) Cam
First Bishop of Ontario (Kingston). 16. The Most Reverend John Travers Lewis,
D.D., LL.D., Archbishop of Ontario and
Third Metropolitan of (Eastern) Canada;
First Bishop of Ontario (Kingston).
WE have already seen that the eastern part of
" Upper Canada" was the cradle of Church
work in what is now known as the Province
of Ontario. Here it was that the early pioneer clergymen, John Stuart and John Langhorn, commenced
their work, the former at Cataraqui (now Kingston) in
1786, and the latter at Ernestown (now Bath) in 1787.
Dr. Stuart was "commissary" for Upper Canada,
which was under the episcopal control, first, of Bishop
Charles Inglis, of Nova Scotia, and from 1793 of Dr.
Jacob Mountain, first Bishop of Quebec. In April of
that year a small wooden church, forty by thirty-two
feet, was built at Kingston, and dedicated to St.
George. One of the churchwardens at the time was
Captain Robert Macaulay, father of Hon. John and
Rev. William Macaulay. St. John's Church, Bath,
was opened for divine service on June 3rd, 1795, and
still exists. Cornwall, in the extreme east of the
district, was occupied by the Rev. John Strachan in
1803.
In or about 1808, the Rev. John G. Weagant,
Lutheran minister at Williamsburgh, on the St.
Lawrence, not far from Cornwall, connected himself I"
176
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
with the Church, bringing his congregation with him.
In 1814, Elizabethtown and Augusta were formed into
. a parish under Rev. John Bethune, brother of Alexander Neil Bethune, afterwards Bishop of Toronto.
In 1823, Augusta was separated from Elizabethtown
(or Brockville), and was placed in charge of the Rev.
St. George's Church (afterwards Cathedral), Kingston, Ontario.
Robert Blakey.    About the same time Adolphustown
and Fredericksburgh,   on  the  Bay  of Quinte, were j
detached from Ernestown, and placed under Rev. Job
Deacon, the Rector of Ernestown being Rev. John John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862). 177
Stoughton. In 1827, a new stone church, of the
Queen Anne style of architecture, replaced the wooden
structure at Kingston. For many years this remained
the chief ecclesiastical edifice of that city. In that
year the Rev. William Macaulay was sent to Hallowell
(Picton), in Prince Edward County—a lovely county,
almost an island, lying between Lake Ontario and the
Bay of Quinte.
This portion of the province was divided into
districts and counties, as follows :
The Eastern District, containing the counties of
Glengarry, Stormont, and Dundas, on the St. Lawrence.
Ottawa District, containing Russell and Prescott,
on the Ottawa.
yohnstown District, containing Grenville and
Leeds, on the St. Lawrence.
Bathurst District, containing Carleton, on the
Ottawa, and Lanark, extending north to the Ottawa.
Midland District, containing Frontenac, Lennox
(and Addington) and Hastings, on Lake Ontario and
the Bay of Quinte, and Prince Edward, lying between
the lake and the bay.
The County of Victoria also lay within the Midland District, but was not separated from the Diocese
of Toronto.
Other parishes were formed, such as Belleville,
Camden, Tyendinaga, or Mohawk mission to the
Indians, in the Midland District; Lamb's Pond (as
distinct from Brockville) and Osnabruck, in the Johnstown District; and Bytown (afterwards Ottawa),
March,   Richmond,   Beckwith (or   Franktown),  and 178 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Perth, in the Bathurst, or, as would be better understood at the present time, the Ottawa District. The
population of this district in 1824 was 10,000, and in
1832 it had increased to 32,000.
In 1834 Carleton Place was opened in the
Bathurst District, and Murray, or Carrying Place, in
Prince Edward County, on the narrow neck of land
between it and the mainland.
Thus, when Upper Canada was formed into a
separate diocese under Bishop Strachan in 1839, the
eastern portion of his diocese was composed of twenty-
one parishes, with a population of 150,000.
By 1849 ten new parishes were added, or one for
each year since Bishop Strachan took charge of the
work. These parishes were all in the neighbourhood
of Kingston, viz. : St. James' and St. Paul's, Kingston,
Barriefield, Wolfe Island, Amherst Island, Napanee,
Marysburg ; west of Kingston was Trenton ; in Gren-
ville County, Merrickville; and in the Bathurst (Ottawa) District, Pakenham.
In 1850 the parish of West Hawkesbury, beautifully situated on the Ottawa river, in the County of '
Prescott, in a line directly north from Cornwall, was
formed, and the Rev. John Travers Lewis placed in
charge of it. This accomplished young clergyman
was born in 1825, at Garry Cloyne Castle, County
Cork, Ireland. He was the son of Rev. John Lewis,
M.A. Having received his primary education at
Hamblin and Porter's school, Cork, he entered Trinity
College, Dublin, from which he graduated in 1847,
after a very distinguished career, in which he carried
off the  highest  honours,   being  senior moderator in John Tra
is, of Ontario (1862).
Ethics and Logic, and gold medallist in Mathematics.
He also obtained honours in Classics.
Receiving his Divinity Testamur in 1848, he was
made deacon by the Bishop of Chester (Dr. John
Graham), acting for Archbishop Beresford, of Armagh,
and admitted to the priesthood by Right Reverend Dr.
Knox, Bishop of Down. After a curacy of two years
at Newton Butler, he emigrated to Canada in 1850,
and, as we have seen, was appointed to West Hawkes-
bury. Here he met with true missionary work, for he
was practically travelling missionary for a large portion
of the Ottawa district. In 1851 Mr. Lewis married Anne
Henrietta Margaret, daughter of the Hon. Henry Sherwood, sometime Attorney-General for Upper Canada.
Mr. Lewis soon showed himself to be, not only a
brilliant scholar, but an able and fluent speaker—not
of the impassioned kind, but of that deliberate and
calm style which indicated a sound and logical mind.
He came to the province at a time when men of ability were needed, and when opportunities were opening
for the use and display of their powers. Bishop
Strachan summoned a conference of the clergy and lay
representatives of the various parishes in April and
May, 1851, to prepare the way for regular synodical
meetings. At this meeting the Rev. "J. T. Lewis,
A.B.," was present—the last name on the list.
In 1854 the travelling missionary of Hawkesbury
was promoted to the rectory of Brockville, a rising
town on the frontier. In the autumn of that year the
first Synod of Toronto was held, at which, as rector of
Brockville, Mr. Lewis was present. In 1855 he received the degree of LL.D. from his University, and 180 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
soon after he proceeded to the degrees of B.D. and
D.D.
In the Synod of 1856 very encouraging reports
were given from the west (Huron) regarding the raising of funds for the endowment of a new see ; but
those from the east were not so favourable. There
seemed to be a hesitancy to subscribe until it should
be made quite clear that the clergy and laity were to
be allowed to choose their own bishop. The necessary
endowment was not made up till the year 1861. In
the meantime Rev. Dr. Lewis had taken a good position in the Synod of Toronto. He was a member of
the Executive Committee, and first among the delegates
elected to the first Provincial Synod, which was soon
to meet.
Since West Hawkesbury had been formed in 1850,
the following parishes were added to the list : Smith's
Falls (1851), Stirling, Hillier, Loughborough, Portsmouth, Mountain (all in 1853) ; Gananoque (1854), .
Mission in Renfrew (1855), Osgoode (1856), Newboro
(1857), Huntley (1858), Roslin, Lansdowne Rear,
Matilda (all in 1859) ; and North Gower, i860.
On the 12th of June, 1861, at the call of Bishop
Strachan, the clergy and laity of the newly-formed
diocese met in Kingston for the purpose of electing a
bishop.
At this Synod there were 53 clergymen present,
and 112 laymen, representing 41 parishes. On the
first ballot the Rev. Dr. Lewis received 31 clerical and
39 lay votes, Archdeacon Bethune one clerical and
one lay, and Rev. W. Macaulay one lay vote: Upwards of 20 of the clergy seem  to have withdrawn or John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862).
to have abstained from voting. This made a two-
thirds vote of the clergy present a necessity, provided
also that a quorum (37 at least) were present. The
roll of the clergy, therefore, was called,, and 38 answered
to their names. Dr. Lewis accordingly was declared
elected. The name of the new see was left to Bishop
Strachan, who designated it "Ontario"—probably because of the lake which washed part of its shores, as
Lake Huron did part of the recently formed diocese
in the west.
In September of that year (1861) the first Provincial Synod was held at Montreal. The following
were the members appointed to represent the new
diocese :
Clerical.—Ven. George Okill Stuart, D.D.; Rev.
J. A. Mulock, Rev. W. B. Lauder, Rev. J. S. Lauder,
Rev. T. H. M. Bartlett, Rev. W. Bleasdell, Rev. R.
L. Stephenson, Rev. J. G. Armstrong, Rev. C. Forest, Rev. F. R. Tane, Rev. H. Mulkins, Rev. H.
Patton, D.C.L.
Lay.—Hon. J. Shaw, Hon. G. Crawford, Hon. J.
Hamilton, Sheriff T. Corbett, and Messrs. T. Kirk-
patrick, G. P. Baker, W. B. Simpson, W. Ellis, D.
B. O. Ford, E. J. Sisson, S. G. Chesley, and D. F.
Jones.
These were all present but Rev. J. S. Lauder,
Hon. J. Shaw, and Hon. J. Hamilton.
Owing to some delay in granting the " letters
patent"—a piece of routine ever since dispensed with
—Dr. Lewis had not yet been consecrated. He was
appointed Secretary, however, of the Upper House,
and therefore sat with the bishops. 182 The Bishops of Canada and- Newfoundland.
It was not until March 25th of the following year
(1862) that the consecration took place. Dr. Lewis
was consecrated in St. George's Cathedral, Kingston,
by the Most Reverend Dr. Fulford, Metropolitan of
Canada, assisted by the aged Bishop Strachan (then
85 years old), Bishop G. J. Mountain (73 years old),
the newly-elected Bishop of Huron, Dr. Cronyn, and
Dr. McCoskry, Bishop of Michigan.
This was the first episcopal consecration held in
Canada, and the Church had thus attained to a new era
in her history.
Bishop Lewis was very young for a bishop, being
only thirty-seven years of age ; but his scholarship,
executive and speaking ability, marked him as one well
chosen for the position. He was called upon very
early in his episcopate to declare his position ecclesiastically. The Bishop of Huron (Dr. Cronyn) had
taken exception to the teaching of Trinity College,
Toronto. The corporation of that institution placed
the matter before the other bishops for their pronouncement upon it. They all declared in favour of
Provost Whitaker's teaching. The reply of Bishop
Lewis was characteristically brief, and showed that he
allowed full play for differences of opinion in many
matters of Church doctrine, but thought that these
might be held without attaching blame to any one.
As to his diocese an herculean task lay before him.
The country was growing rapidly. His own diocese,
though new, was in point of territory immense, and
was almost entirely a missionary field. The Bishop
moved cautiously, though very anxious to build up the
Church.    He was able to announce to his Synod in John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862). ' 183
1864 that the clergy had increased from fifty-one to
seventy-three, and he added : "It would have been
possible to have added largely to this number if I
had seen my way clear to the decent maintenance
of additional labourers ; but it seemed to me better
policy to increase our missionaries only in the ratio of our
ability to support them, rather than run the risk of
encountering afterwards all the disheartening effect of
a reaction and a diminution in the number of the
clergy, who would inevitably have been forced to leave
the diocese."
In fact the Bishop began to realize how little
Church of England people had been taught to give,
but he did not feel that it was too late to begin the
instruction. The total contributions for diocesan purposes for the twenty-two years previous to the formation of the diocese, and taken up within the territory
comprised by it, amounted only to $24,580, or an
average of $1,229 Per annum.* The total amount
subscribed for purely missionary purposes during the
first five years of the existence of the new diocese was
$86,228.40, or an average per year of $17,245^
Bishop Lewis, from time to time, urged the necessity
of liberality on the part of the members of the Church
as the only sure method of securing progress. He
urged the formation of a Sustentation Fund and a
Widows and Orphans' Fund, and was able to state to
his Synod in 1865 that nearly $12,000 had been subscribed towards the $20,000 that  he was anxious to
* Rev. Canon Spencer, in The Canadian Church Magazine and Mission News,
June, 1887, p. 295.
t "Journal of Ontario Synod," sixth edition, p. 449- 184 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
raise for a Mission Fund or a Sustentation Fund for
the diocese. The S.P.G. had promised $5,000 provided $20,000 should be raised within the diocese.
This good beginning, however, does not seem to have
been so well followed up, for it was not till 1870,
apparently, that this fund reached $21,000.
Bishop Lewis was always very happy in his confirmation services. His able
much to recommend the Chun
he visited, for her distinctive
forcibly dwelt upon. No one-
meaning of confirmation after 1
Lordship's addresses. In calm,
without notes of any kind to rely up
before his hearers a train of s
reasoning that would defy refut
to show the importance of the I
reception of which, he always ins:
duty of every member of the Ch
time when quarterly, or, at the
brations were largely the practice, and Bishop Lewis,,
in words which sometimes seemed startling, always
pointed out the weakness of this practice. His great
desire always was to make communicants of all the
candidates confirmed by him, and, therefore, he almost
invariably himself administered the Holy Communion
immediately after the confirmation service. To see on
a week day a crowded church, perhaps in some rural
district; to see people listening earnestly, even won-
deringly, to the Bishop, still a young man, tall and
commanding in appearance, with a handsome, intellectual face, as he pleaded for obedience to the touching
addr
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cele- John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862). 185
command of the Saviour, " This do in remembrance of
me" ; to see young people on whom he had just laid
his hands in confirmation coming forward and kneeling
to receive the blessed sacrament for the first time then
and there, followed by their relations and friends, and
then by others, till frequently the incumbent himself ■
was often surprised at the number of communicants
that received—all this was by no means an infrequent
sight, and it was as encouraging as it was delightful.
In the "Journal of the Sixth Session" (1867) of the
Ontario Synod, the Bishop says :
■ Since we first met in synod five years ago, 6,007
persons have been confirmed, and, as the result, 5,500
new communicants added to the Church. This estimate of new communicants I believe to be below the
truth, because I have been informed that on almost
every occasion of confirmation persons who had been
confirmed in former years came forward to communion
for the first time, and of these persons I have not been
able to keep any account. During the same period
thirty-one new churches have been built, many of them
costly and ecclesiastically correct. The total number
of our church edifices is 216. Nor has the erection of
parsonages been neglected. Fifteen new ones have
been provided, in many cases with glebes attached,
making a total of thirty-eight parsonages now in the
diocese."
In this year (1867) the Bishop attended the Lambeth Conference, the expenses of the journey being met
by the diocese. This great gathering of Anglican
bishops from all parts of the world, which has since
become  a  decennial feature of the Church, was first 186 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
suggested by Bishop Lewis; or, if not so, he certainly
was one of its original promoters.
The stand which the Bishop took relative to
Church matters naturally raised some opposition to
him on the part of those who differed from him; and
" there were those who had grave fears lest he had allied
himself too closely with the High Church party ; but, in
1869, he clearly showed to his Synod that he was not in
favour of extreme ritual. " The session of the last
Provincial Synod," he said, in his charge that year,
" was rendered memorable by the passing of a resolution which has done much good in allaying alarm,
caused by fear lest unlawful or obsolete practices should
be introduced into the ceremonial of the Church."The
resolution referred to was one disapproving of the elevation of the elements in the celebration of the Holy
Communion, the use of incense, mixing of water with
the sacramental wine, the use of wafer bread, lights on
the Lord's table, vestments other than surplice, stole,
and hood. Although this was not couched in the form
of a canon, still it undoubtedly showed the mind of the
Provincial Synod of the period.
The Bishop early developed much tact and ability
in the management of his Synod. His plan usually was
to give full scope for debate, and then, if he deemed it
necessary, express his own views immediately before
putting the question. This as a rule determined the
fate of a measure, however strongly men may have
differed regarding it. The weak points of the argument,
as viewed by the chair, were mercilessly dragged to
light, and the strong points skilfully marshalled so as
to influence the vote about to be taken. The Synod, as
a rule, stood by him by overwhelming majorities. John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862). 187
The patronage question may be cited as an instance
of this. It is a misfortune that the Church in Canada
has no settled method of filling up vacancies in parishes.
In some dioceses, as Nova Scotia and Fredericton, the
patronage lies in the hands of the congregations ; in
others, as in Montreal, a compromise is effected between bishop and people; in others, as in Toronto and
Niagara, a " consultation " has to take place between
the bishop and representatives of the people. This
want of uniformity is much to be deplored. In the
United States there is one undeviating law for the whole
country, and with great advantage to the prosperity of
the Church.
In Ontario the right of appointment to vacant
parishes was put into the hands of the Bishop, without
any restriction whatever. This led to occasional discontent ; and attempts were made, from time to time,
to alter the law, so as to give the people a voice in the
appointment of their rector or incumbent; but they
were always defeated by overpowering majorities.
A break, however, occurred in this influence of the
Bishop over the Synod in the year 1871, and, to understand it, it must be borne in mind that there were within the Diocese of Ontario two prominent cities, Kingston and Ottawa, the latter having the immense advantage of being the capital of the Dominion. As
early as 1868 a motion was made in Synod in favour of
establishing a bishopric at Ottawa, and a committee,
in the following year, reported a scheme for providing
an episcopal income without an endowment ; but, this
not being adopted, it was moved in the Synod of June,
1870, that the Bishop be requested to remove the seat 188 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
of the see to Ottawa. This was carried by the clergy,
but rejected by the laity, and was therefore lost.
Somewhat to the surprise of many, however, the
Bishop removed to Ottawa. The Synod was called
together in the middle of winter, January 12th, 1871,-
to consider the question of electing a coadjutor bishop
"to reside in Kingston," which meant that the Bishop
had resolved to leave Kingston and remove to Ottawa.
This Synod was largely attended, and splendid speeches
were made. It was evident that men's minds were
deeply stirred on the question. The Synod had already declared against such a step—was it now to approve of it ? The Bishop used all his powers in favour
of it, but in the end it failed. The clergy, by a majority of nine, supported the measure. The laity, by a
majority of ten, were against it, and it was lost.
The Bishop, for the time being, had lost the firm
hold that he once had upon the Synod. In the regular meeting which followed this somewhat disturbing
Synod, viz., in June, 1871, the Bishop, though he had
taken up his residence in Ottawa, made no allusion
to the matter. His address was very brief, and simply
referred to the business of the diocese. In it he stated
that the average number confirmed in the diocese each
year since its formation was 1,033. The funds of the
diocese were in a satisfactory condition, with the exception of the Widows and Orphans' Fund, for which
the Bishop made an urgent appeal.
Kingston was now without the bodily presence of
a bishop, but the question of a coadjutor was still kept
before the diocese, especially as about this time the
health of Bishop Lewis began evidently to fail. John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862). 189
St. George's Church, Kingston, remained the
cathedral of the diocese, but in Ottawa a chapel of
ease to Christ Church, the old parish church of the
city, was handed over to the Bishop as his church.
Here, Sunday after Sunday, assisted by Rev. H.
Pollard as his curate, the Bishop officiated, the building being called the "Bishop's Chapel."
In 1874, the number of the clergy having increased
to eighty-six, the diocese was divided into two archdeaconries, that of Kingston and Ottawa, the former
embracing the counties of Prince Edward, Hastings,
Lennox, Addington, Frontenac, Leeds, and Grenville,
and the latter comprising the counties of Renfrew,
Lanark, Carleton, Russell, Prescott, Glengarry, Stor-
mont, and Dundas ; and at the same time a cathedral
chapter was set up, and five canons were appointed.
Thus there was a bishop, a dean, two archdeacons,
and five canons, and the foundation laid for a new diocese, to consist of the archdeaconry of Ottawa.
In 1877 the Bishop urged upon his Synod the importance of dividing the diocese. It had become unwieldy, and he could no longer visit every congregation as he had hitherto striven to do, but must confine
himself to visiting every parish only. Within the fifteen years previous to 1877 one hundred new churches
had been built. The Bishop of Montreal was quite
willing to give up a portion of his diocese towards helping to form a new see at Ottawa, and Bishop Lewis
expressed the hope that an endowment for the purpose
might soon be raised. The Synod appointed a committee to consider the matter.
In  that year  (1877)  the   Bishop  attended   the 190 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
second Lambeth Conference in England, at which
one hundred bishops of the Anglican communion
assembled from all parts of the world to confer
together on matters affecting the welfare of the Church
—the size and importance of which was becoming a
matter of great congratulation. No Synod of Ontario
was held in 1878, the Bishop being in the Old Country.
In 1879 the diocese was divided into eight rural deaneries, five in the Kingston and three in the Ottawa
archdeaconry. These were afterwards increased to -
eleven, six in Kingston and five in Ottawa. In
that year the Bishop confirmed 1,645 people, 1,564
of whom received their first communion at the time
of their confirmation. In the following year over'
1,200 were confirmed. In 1881, owing to the Bishop's
absence from home to recruit his health in Switzerland and elsewhere, the Synod did not meet till the
month of December. In 1883 the Bishop again urged
upon his Synod the division of the diocese, which he
declared had outgrown his ability to perform the
duties of as they should be done. He had a diocese
of 20,000 square miles—a territory as large as Scotland—and the interests of the Church loudly called for
its subdivision. Of this the Synod approved, and
appointed a committee this time to arrange all preliminaries to the election of a bishop for the new
diocese. Time, however, afterwards showed that the
bull was not so easily taken by the horns as that. In
that year also the Bishop called the attention of the
Synod to the fact that the diocese did not own an
episcopal residence. As the Bishop was still residing
in Ottawa, the question of a see house was naturally John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862).
a difficult one ; but the people of Kingston began to
show a willingness to secure a house provided the
Bishop would come back to the original home of the
diocese.
It was in 1883 that the Provincial Synod formed
the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the
Church of England in Canada, and Bishop Lewis
presided at the first regular meeting of its Board of
Management. It was his suggestion that the Church
should ask for at least sixty thousand dollars for the
domestic and foreign work of the Church. That sum,
however, has not yet been reached, though the contributions are creeping up towards it.
In 1885 the Committee on the Division of the
Diocese reported a feasible plan by which an endowment of forty thousand dollars might be raised for the
proposed see at Ottawa, and the Bishop was requested
to arrange for contributions for that object from the
English societies. In the following year (1886) the
committee were able to report a small amount received
—only a few dollars—towards the endowment of the
new see, but still it was a beginning, and in that year
the Bishop stated that " two new parishes, six new
churches, and more than one thousand confirmed
members have been added to the diocese every year
for the last twenty-four years."
In 1886, the Bishop met with a heavy affliction in
the death of Mrs. Lewis. The surviving children of
this marriage are: Travers Lewis, of the firm of
Chrysler & Lewis, barristers, etc., Ottawa, and Clement,
also resident at Ottawa ; Mrs. R. C. Hamilton, of Eastbourne, Eng., whose husband is a nephew of Bishop The Bishops of Canada and Ne
Lie
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his absence from
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In
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i new
tally on the sum of
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had completed the
In that time the
a fifty to one hun-
7und amounting to
enabled to attend his
third Lambeth Conference in England, and in the following year (1889) he was married in Paris to Miss
Ada Leigh, the celebrated head of charitable homes
for English girls in the great French metropolis.
On his return to Canada (in 1889) he took up his
residence in Kingston. Thus the wanderer had returned to his own see city. The Synod of that year
enthusiastically congratulated His Lordship on the
attainment of his sixty-fourth birthday, and most
respectfully renewed the expression of affectionate confidence and esteem felt by its members towards His
Lordship, earnestly hoping that, in God's good providence, their Right Reverend father in God might long be John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862).
J93
spared to preside over the diocese. The Bishop, with
manifest emotion, acknowledged briefly this kindly act.
His health to a great extent had been restored.
In 1890 the beautiful residence of Sir Richard
Cartwright, in full view of Lake Ontario, was purchased
for a see house at a cost of $12,000, the diocese
assuming all necessary debt in connection with the
purchase.
In 1892, St. George's Cathedral, which had been
undergoing enlargement and improvement, was completed and reopened for divine service. By the
erection of a large dome, transepts, and chancel—all i94 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
as an addition to the solid old church which had stood
for so many years—a complete cathedral was constructed, a credit to Kingston and the diocese. It is
in some respects a miniature St. Paul's.
In September (1892) the Most Rev. Dr. Medley,
Metropolitan of Canada, died, and at the Provincial
Synod which was held in Montreal, Bishop Lewis, as
senior bishop, opened and closed the Lower House, and
presided in the Upper House and House of Bishops.
In January, 1893, Dr. Lewis was elected Metropolitan
of Canada in succession to Bishop Medley, but there
was some informality connected with the election,
which caused the title to be deferred till the 13th of
September of the same year.
This was the day before the opening of the first
General Synod which met in the city of Toronto. It
embraced all the dioceses of Canada, from the Atlantic
to the Pacific. Fourteen bishops were present, viz. :
eight from (Eastern) Canada, three from Rupert's
Land, and two from British Columbia.
At this Synod it was resolved to bestow upon
the Metropolitans in Canada the title of Archbishop.
Dr. Lewis thus became His Grace the Archbishop of
Ontario and Metropolitan of (Eastern) Canada.
The growth of the Diocese of Ontario is set forth
clearly in tabular form in the Journal of 1895. We
give below a comparison between its first year and its
last:
1863.        1895.
Number of parishes and missions        58 113
Diocesan collections - - - - $5,618.52 $11,652.28
Domestic and Foreign Missions, nothing       4,313.00 John Travers Lewis, of Ontario (1862). 195
The completion of the endowment of the new
Diocese of Ottawa was at last effected, and its formal
separation from Kingston took place. On the 18th
of March (1896) the new Synod met, and on the third
ballot elected the Right Reverend Charles Hamilton,
Bishop of Niagara, its first diocesan.
The Journal of Synod for the Diocese of Ontario
for 1895 was therefore its last embracing the territory
originally set off from Toronto. The bishop then
appointed has lived through its eventful history, and
has had the satisfaction of seeing a new diocese formed
from it and started on its way.
(V View of Kingston, See City of the Dio. 1?he Right Revere
D.D., Fourth B:
3 William Wi
Quebec.
WHEN Bishop George J. Mountain died at
Quebec on the 6th of January, 1863, a link
between the Canadian Church of the past
and that of modern days was broken. He had come
out with his father, the first Bishop of Quebec, in 1793,
as a child. He had been intimately acquainted with I
the struggling Church of pioneer days. He had been
largely instrumental in causing the Church to grow
and to keep pace with a rapidly-increasing population.
Diocese after diocese, to his great satisfaction, he saw
established in territory of which he himself for several
years was sole overseer. He had been, to a certain
extent, a Crown officer. From the Crown he received
his appointment, and from the Crown a great portion
of his salary came. This died with him, and the era
of self-support and self-management had set in for the
now growing and important Anglican Church in
Canada.
The Synod of "The United Church of England
and Ireland" of the Diocese of Quebec assembled on
the 4th day of March, 1863, for the purpose of electing
a bishop. Forty clergymen were present, and a large
number of laymen.
At the service which began at ten o'clock in the
cathedral,   the sermon  was  preached by Rev.  J. W. ["HE RT. REV. JAMES WILLIAM WILLIAMS, D.D.
Fourth Bishop of Quebec. I James W. Williams, of Quebec (1863-1892). 197
Williams, M.A., Professor of Belles Lettres in the
University of Bishop's College, Lennoxville, and rector
of the Grammar School.
The first ballot showed that the Rev. A. W.
Mountain commanded very nearly the requisite number of clerical votes; but the laity stood more aloof.
For any one person to obtain two-thirds of both
orders was a difficult matter. It is said that Mr.
Mountain himself was the means of having the law so
made ; if so, it was his own law which excluded him
from the bishopric. As a son of the beloved old
Bishop, his chances were good; but the first ballot
showed that he was not likely to be elected. The
second ballot, however, increased h
29 and his lay vote to 31—electing 1
but not by the laity. It was not
ballot that an election was made.
fell upon the Rev. J. W. Wil
necessary number
votes, or ten more 1
clerical vote to
m by the clergy,
till the eleventh
The choice then
, who obtained the
erical votes (28), and 52 lay
an the necessary number.
James William Williams was an Englishman, the
son of the late Rev. David Williams, Rector of Bang-
hurst, Hampshire, and was born at Overton, Hants,
in 1825. The saintly Isaac Williams was his father's
cousin, and he, with Archdeacon Sir George Prevost,
who had married Isaac Williams' sister, were godparents to the infant. The father of Sir George Prevost had been Governor-General of Canada, and in
the newly-born infant the connection between the two
countries was destined to be continued.
At the  age of seventeen, young Williams went
out with a party of engineers to New Zealand.    Here i98
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
he had the good fortune to meet Bishop Selwyn, the
apostle of the Pacific isles, and his intercourse with
him was highly beneficial. After three years he
returned to his native land, and graduated at Pembroke College, Oxford, where he read for Holy Orders,
and was made a deacon by Bishop Wilberforce, ot
Oxford, in 1852. He was ordained a priest by Lord
Auckland, Bishop of Bath and Wells, in 1855.
After serving as curate of High Wycombe, Bucks,
and afterwards at Huish Champflower (where he married, in 1854, Maria Waldron, of Wiviliscombe, Somersetshire), he spent two years at Leamington, as
assistant master in the college there, when he resolved
to remove to Canada. He felt naturally drawn towards the education of boys, and for this he was
greatly wanted in the Diocese of Quebec. The grammar school of Lennoxville had been closed for three
years. In 1857 it was resolved to reopen it, and as
Mr. Williams had just arrived in the country he was
appointed to take charge of it. He and Mrs. Williams
occupied for a boarding school a large house in the
village square of Lennoxville, which for winter accommodation was none of the warmest. Mr. Williams was
known to say that he used to go round early in the
winter mornings to see if the water in the jugs, or perchance the boys, were frozen.*
As rector of this school Mr. Williams proved a
great success. He knew how to deal with boys, and
parents soon found that out. In a short time a large
handsome new building was erected on the college
grounds, between the rivers St. Francis and Massa- James W. Williams, of Quebec (1863-1892). 199
wippi, and in 1863 the school was filled to overflowing
with one hundred and fifty boys.
At the episcopal election held in that year in
Quebec, Mr. Williams, by appointment, preached the
sermon. He preached from the words, " Stand ye in
the ways and see, and ask for the old paths" (Jer. vi.
16). His sermon was a masterly exposition of the
episcopal office, many quotations from Scripture and
from the fathers being given to show the importance of
it. It was no doubt this sermon which specially called
the attention of the Synod to him, and led it, when the
friends of Rev. A. W. Mountain and Bishop Anderson
could not secure the end they had in view, to fix its
choice on him. And events proved that the choice
made was a good one.
Dr. Williams was consecrated in Quebec Cathedral on Sunday, June the 21st, 1863, by the Most Rev.
Dr. Fulford, Metropolitan of Canada, assisted by
Bishop Strackan of Toronto, Bishop Cronyn of Huron,
Bishop Lewis of Ontario, and Bishop Hopkins of
Vermont.
The Bishop commenced his career at the age of
thirty-seven, and much hard work lay before him in
the management of his large and somewhat discouraging diocese. It was large, for it was six hundred miles
long ; it was discouraging because the French Roman
Catholic population was always increasing, whilst.
English-speaking people in numbers were constantly
decreasing. Perhaps the knowledge of this fact made
the young Bishop brace himself for work, and throw
all his influence in favour of providing for the Church
in the future.    Men work best when they pull against 200 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
the stream.    But whether or  not,  Bishop Williams
soon proved himself a man for the times.
In the year after his consecration (1864), he held
a visitation of his clergy at Lennoxville, at which he
delivered a very able charge, which was printed and
circulated. It dealt with some of the great questions
of the day of vital importance to the Church. In
speaking of preaching, he opposed the popular fallacy
that clergymen, as compared with barristers, for
instance, are wanting in powers of public speech. " Of
the few eminently eloquent men of an age," he quietly
remarked, " the fair proportion, it seems to me, are, and
have been, ecclesfastics. And I have seen nothing
tending to show that if all the occupants of the
back benches of the court house were required to
produce two original compositions, upon a limited
range of subjects, for the same audience, for the rest
of their natural lives, I have seen nothing tending
to show that these productions, viewed as literary
performances, would be in any way superior to the
sermons now usually delivered." The Bishop was
himself somewhat reticent in public meetings. He
rarely spoke; but when he did speak there was often
a force and quiet humour about his utterances, all the
more noticeable, perhaps, because usually characte--
istically brief. The thought of true spirituality was
always uppermost in his mind. "After all," he added,
while speaking of sermons, " the most powerful
element of preaching, the most persuasive and most
instructive, is the spirituality of the preacher's character. The most eloquent of sermons is a holy life.
It is useless to preach the Gospel   unless we live it. James W. Williams, of Quebec (1863-1892).
I speak not simply of the effect of example. What I
mean is that if the utterance of the mouth is to be
effectual, it must proceed from the fulness of the
heart."
As to the diocese the Bishop remarked :
" Twelve months ago there were four vacant missions, and little prospect of filling them. I now see
my way to the filling of them all,  and  filling  them
well I have held confirmations in almost
all the missions of the diocese, with the exception of
those in the Gulf. The number of those confirmed
amounts to 987."
The sum of money which, with proper foresight,
had been secured by Bishop G. J. Mountain for an
episcopal endowment fund had increased in 1864 to
a little more than $100,000. This was yielding a
handsome income, but, as a matter of justice, it was
divided with Montreal, when a balance was left of
$85,755. From this the Bishop received a stipend of
$5,000 a year.
The Diocese of Quebec forms a remarkable example of funds carefully and well guarded, so that
nothing has been lost; and judiciously invested, so
that an encouraging increase from time to time has
been reported. A suitable provision for the country
clergy was always a subject of much anxious thought,
both on the part of the bishop and the various finance
committees. In Quebec the rural work is unusually
hard. The different stations are situated at long distances from one another, involving tedious drives.
Large Roman Catholic churches are passed everywhere as the Anglican parson toils on to his modest 202 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
little church with its handful of people. Thus it is in
most places—in fact, nearly everywhere. The winters
are long and trying. It is only the very strong who
can do the work.
Yet, by a good system of finance, the missionary is
not dependent upon the fitful and precarious-" payments" of the people, but is paid regularly out of a
common fund.
In 1867 a scale of payment, according to length of
service, was adopted, by which a clergyman received for
the first year's work four hundred dollars ; for the next I
four years, five hundred; for the next twenty years, six
hundred;  and, after that, seven hundred.    This was J
afterwards improved ; but, even as it was, it was a wise.l
and merciful provision.    Whether a man might stay or
go elsewhere, he was certain of some promotion—however small it might be.
In  that  year,   also,   a superannuation  fund  was I
started  for providing pensions for aged and disabled
clergy.    Fifteen hundred dollars was secured and invested as a beginning.
But the care for these hard-working clergy did not
cease here. A system of local endowment was commenced which has made Quebec famous among the
churches. Every parish was encouraged to set apart
a sum of money—however small—to be capitalized as
an endowment for the future. At this juncture the right
man appeared upon the scene, in Mr. Robert Hamilton,
of Quebec, who, possessed of means, wanted to use
them for God's glory and the advancement of His
Church. Mr. Hamilton offered to present to each of a
certain number of missions two hundred dollars, pro- James W. Williams, of Quebec (1863-1892).
203
vided a like sum was raised by each, for a local endowment. This was afterwards extended, until $10,535
was spent by Mr. Hamilton in this way.
This endowment scheme was a great delight to
Bishop Williams, who in 1876 made an urgent appeal
on its behalf—an appeal which was responded to year
by year with the very best results.
In 1877 the Rev. A. W. Mountain made over to
the Church Society, as a gift from the Mountain family,
eight thousand dollars as an endowment of one or more
archdeaconries in the diocese, with the stipulation that,
with the consent of the Bishop, it might be used as an
endowment for a new diocese, if such should be formed.
This sum was carefully invested, but not immediately
made use of.
In this year Rev. Dr. Nicolls, who had been principal of Bishop's College, Lennoxville, for over thirty
years, died. His is a name much to be remembered in
the annals of the Diocese of Quebec. Many are those
who knew his saintly character and faithful work in building up good and holy men for the work of the Church.
The Rev. J. A. Lobley, Principal of the Montreal
Diocesan College, was appointed principal in his place ;
but under him the headship of the Boys' School was
combined with that of Bishop's College. Dr. Lobley
was head over both institutions—an experiment which,
we believe, worked well under him, and also ever since
under his successor, Dr. Adams.
Bishop Williams was assiduous in visiting his
diocese, even in the most remote parts of it. Some of
the trips—on the Labrador coast and in the Gulf of St.
Lawrence—involved at times positive danger.    In an f1
204 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
open boat, sometimes on a rough sea, appointments had :
to be kept.     These trips were taken in the summer.
To visit Labrador in the winter would have been a task I
of unnecessary toil and hardship.   There the missionary J
does his work on snow-shoes or by means of dog-sleighs ;
and often he has to contend with blinding snow-storms
and numerous other discomforts and dangers.    " He
has the usual perils of the sea," the Bishop says, " to
encounter in open boat along 275 miles of rocky coast
in the summer, and the chance of being lost in a snowstorm in the winter."
About  this time   (1877)  the grant  of $g,66i.io,
hitherto paid in block sum to the Diocesan Board of I
the diocese to aid in the support of its country missions, I
was decreased to $8,709.99.    This came at a time of I
considerable  financial depression  felt throughout the
whole country ;   but a call was made by the   Bishop
upon the people of the country missions themselves to
increase their assessment so as  to  make up the deficiency.   This was done without any loss to the clergy;
but some of the missions failed, through  poverty,  to
make up what was required of them.
In 1879, at the earnest request of the clergy and
laity of the Synod, Bishop Williams took a trip to
Europe for a brief rest from his incessant toil. During
his absence the Rev. Charles Hamilton acted for him
as his commissary.
In 1881, the Bishop, writing to the S.P.G., says
that he is anxious to get the co-operation of the other
Canadian dioceses for the spiritual assistance of emigrants on their arrival. "I find," he remarks, "that
in Upper Canada   (where  all  the emigrants  go)   the James W. Williams, of Quebec (1863-1892).
Church had gained, during the last ten years, twenty
thousand, the Methodists a hundred and twenty thousand"; and adds with some force, "They did not come
out in these proportions."
The Church Society Report for 1883 shows that
the S.P.G. had made a further decrease in their grant,
which was then $6,751.10. In this year the Bishop
paid another of his visits to the coast of Labrador,
where he heard the usual melancholy tale of dangers
there in the winter. Inquiring for the man who had
been his host on his previous visit, he was told that,
having gone out to hunt, he had been lost in the snow.
His body was found within a few yards of his house.
In 1884 progress was reported from Lennoxville
College, which was prospering under Rev. Dr. Lobley.
I During the last seven years," he writes, " the chapel
has been enlarged, an organ placed in it, and two
new special endowments made—the Harrold Fund,
$25,000; and the Principal's Endowment Fund,
$10,000. The formation of these funds is due principally to the liberality of Mr. Robert Hamilton, of
Quebec, and the exertions of the Rev. Henry Roe, D.D.,
Professor of Divinity."
Dr. Lobley resigned the principalship of the
College in 1885, and the Rev. Thomas Adams, M.A.,
D.C.L., of St. John's College, Cambridge, was appointed in his place. The memory of Bishop Williams,!
however, had never died away from Lennoxville. A
permanent memorial of him was built by the " Old
Boys" of that institution in 1888 in the Bishop
Williams wing, replaced by the still handsomer Bishop
Williams Hall of 1891. n
206 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
By this time (1888) the Diocesan Board of Missions was able to adopt an improved scale of stipends
for the clergy, which were to rise steadily from $600
to $850 per annum during twenty-five years of service.
The Church Society's Report for 1889 spoke very
hopefully of the financial prospects of the diocese. I
The plan of local endowments began to show good
fruits, and to enable the Board to look forward to the
expansion of Church work, owing- to the endowments
of some parishes supported by it having become available. The principle of capitalizing a small sum of money
works wonders as time goes on. Several new dioceses
might have been formed in Canada had this principle I
been adopted. Bishop Williams always watched the
progress of this fund with great satisfaction. It saved
his diocese from ruin, and enabled it soon to sail out into
clear water without any aid even from the faithful S.P.G.
To his Synod of 1888, Bishop Williams spoke of
"the unwelcome conviction obtruding upon him that
his faculties for sustained exertion were growing less,"
and added, " I shrink from the thought of hanging on
with impaired powers, a weight and * a drag upon I
the diocese," but concluded with the hope that the
failure of his strength to work and his strength to live
might come together. He was then sixty-four years
old, yet we find him two years afterwards (in 1891)
taking his usual long journey through the diocese. He
is once more out upon the Labrador coast, tossing
about in an open boat, ministering to the lonely people,
who dearly loved to see him. From April to August
his journeys were incessant. He returned home in
August, having travelled in all about 2,800 miles. James W. Williams, of Quebec (1863-1892). 207
This was his last prolonged trip. He died in
Quebec unexpectedly on April 20th, 1892, to the great
grief of the city, the diocese, and the Province of
Quebec.
He had the satisfaction of living long enough to
see his diocese placed on a good sound financial basis.
A short time before his death he wrote to the S.P.G,
stating that very soon the Diocese of Quebec would be
able to do without any outside assistance whatever—
and this was carried out a few months after his death.
July the 7th, 1892, was the fiftieth anniversary—the
jubilee—of the Church Society. That date also was
within one year of the centennial of the foundation of
the diocese. Had the good Bishop lived, both these
days would have been days of proud satisfaction for
him. As it was, they were observed somewhat quietly;
but the Venerable Archdeacon Roe pointed out the
healthy growth which had taken place in all that had
to do with the sustentation and prosecution of Church
work. When Bishop G. J. Mountain died, the episcopal
income died with him. - The income which came to
him as Rector of Quebec he distributed among the city
clergy. I That, too, ceased. Beginning with almost
nothing in 1842, the Church Society had made such
good provision that it was able to face the battle for
life with good hope ; and in 1892, when the grave of the
old Bishop's successor was but newly covered, the diocese had a clergy trust fund yielding $7,000 a year;
an archdeaconry fund yielding $600 ; a widows' and
orphans' fund sufficiently strong to pay each widow
$400 a year, and $50 for each child up to four in
number ; besides the endowment of nearly all the weak 208 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
parishes, and a sustentation fund which enables the
diocese to make a fair income to the clergy a certainty, I
according to length of service, no matter how poor his
parish may be.   The Church Society has, in all, a funded
income of over half a million of dollars.
The  spiritual  tone  imparted  to  the diocese  by
Bishop Williams showed  that a higher considerationI
than that of finance rested upon his mind.    This, emanating from him, influenced others. Free from all ambition, he dwelt among his own people, and seemed to care I
only to be known by them.    Everything that he could
do to promote their spiritual welfare was done by him.
A great gloom fell over all when he was unexpectedly
taken away.    His wife, who had endeared herself to -
every one, and  his son, Rev. Lennox  W. Williams,
Rector of St. Matthew's Church, were left specially to
mourn his loss.    As his chaplain, his son administered
to him his last communion, and stayed with him till
his gentle spirit had gone to the God who gave it.  THE MOST REV. ROBERT MACHRAY, D.D., LL.D.
Archbishop of Rupert's Land and Primate of All Canada.
Prelate of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George. 18. The Most Rev. Robert Machray, D.D., LL.D.,
Archbishop of Rupert's Land and Primate
of all Canada.
WHEN  Bishop  Anderson  resigned  the see of
Rupert's  Land in October, 1864, the Rev.
Robert Machray was asked by the Colonial
Secretary to allow his name to be placed before the
Queen ; but the offer of the bishopric from the Queen
was not formally made till the following January.
Robert Machray bore the same name as his father, ;
Robert Machray, Advocate, of Aberdeen Scotland.
He was born in 1831, and in due course became a
student of King's College, Aberdeen. He was a prizeman in mathematics, natural philosophy, and moral
philosophy, and on graduating in 1851 gained the
Hutton prize (^65) for general scholarship and the
Simpson prize (£60) for pure and mixed mathematics.
In October, 1851, he entered Sidney Sussex College,
Cambridge, being elected a Foundation scholar in
December, 1851 ; Taylor scholar in May, 1852. He
obtained various money prizes and exhibitions, being
college prizeman in classics, mathematics, divinity,
Latin theme, and English essay. He graduated as a
Wrangler in 1855, and was elected three months later
a Foundation Fellow, a position he still holds. He
was ordained deacon in 1855, and priest the year after,
by Dr. Thomas Turton, Bishop of Ely.    In  1858  he 210 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
was elected dean of his college. In i860 and 1861 he
was University Examiner, and in 1865 was appointed
University Ramsden preacher. He assisted the Vicar
of Newton and Hawton for three years, and in 1862
was collated by the Bishop of Ely to the Vicarage
of Madingley, a small parish adjoining Cambridge,
which he served from college. He at the same time
filled various honorary offices, as Honorary Secretary,
for the University, town, and county, of the Church
Pastoral Aid Society, in which office he succeeded
the Bishop of Madras; Honorary Secretary of the
Army Scripture Readers' Society; Honorary Secretary of the Servants' Training Institution ; and he took
an active part in the work and classes of the Church
of England Young Men's Society. He was consecrated at Lambeth on June 24th, St. John Baptist's
Day, 1865. The prelates officiating were Archbishop
Longley, of Canterbury ; Bishop Tait, of London ;
Bishop Harold Browne, of Ely ; Bishop Suther, of
Aberdeen ; and Bishop Anderson. He had previously
received the degree of D.D. from the University of
Cambridge, and LL.D. from the University of Aberdeen. His first episcopal act was the ordination, at
the request of the Bishop of London (Dr. Tait), of"
Rev. W. C. Bompas to the priesthood. Mr. Bompas
left at once for North America to serve as one of.
Bishop Machray's missionaries. His career will be
noticed later in these pages.
Bishop Machray had to sail for his diocese within
two months of his consecration. He made good use
of this brief period in the interests of his new work..
The Diocesan Fund formed by Bishop Anderson was. Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865). 211
exhausted. The new bishop must have a new fund.
He therefore visited many places and addressed a
number of meetings, procuring in this way £500
($2,500), one-fifth of which he had subscribed himself.
Bishop Machray arrived at his destination on
the 12th of October (1865), and on the 5th of December he held a meeting in " Bishop's Court " of all the
clergy of " the settlement," with a view to establishing
. some system of self-help among them, and of promoting systematic giving. The offertory as yet had
only been begun in the cathedral and three other
churches. It was begun at the cathedral on Advent
Sunday, the Bishop taking as his text, " Not because I
desire a gift: but I desire fruit that may abound to
your account " (Phil. iv. 17). It was now resolved to
make use of it at all services. On the nth of January
following (1866) he set out to visit a portion of his
diocese. He was out for seven weeks, in which time
he made a circuit by Portage la Prairie, Westbourne,
Fairford, Swan Lake, Cumberland, and the Nepo-
wewin (near Prince Albert), returning by the Touchwood Hills, Qu'Appelle Lakes, and Fort Ellice. The
distance travelled by dog-train must have considerably-
exceeded a thousand miles. In his own words : "We
slept during seventeen nights by the camp fire in the
open air. But the perfect comfort of this, when
proper arrangements are made, although the thermometer may be lower than 400 below zero, is sur-
prising to a traveller who first experiences it.
"At other times we slept in an old deserted log
house or an Indian tent. The solitariness of the
country in  the interior must be felt to be realized. I
212 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
During the whole journey we scarcely saw a dozen
Indians in all, excepting those we met with in the
immediate neighbourhood of a fort or mission station.
At Fairford, and at the Pas, Cumberland, there were
congregations of upwards of a hundred at both morning and evening service, but the bulk of the Indians,
even in these stations, were in their hunting grounds.
There were forty-eight communicants at the celebration of the Lord's Supper at the Pas. The offertory
had been commenced there, and upwards of £j, was
paid into my hands, being the first payment from the.
country to the Diocesan Fund. At Touchwood Hills,
Assiniboia, I found a congregation of upwards of fifty.
In other places I found but few Indians. They were
scattered throughout the country, and are so always,
with the exception of a few weeks twice in the year.
The difficulty of missionary work is therefore very
great."
On Wednesday, the 30th of May, 1866, the
Bishop assembled the first conference of clergy and
lay delegates- of the Diocese of Rupert's Land.
The clergy in the diocese, which was then the whole
of the Northwest, were twenty-three in number; but, of
these, two were only nominally connected with the diocese.    They were in England, and did not return.
It was a brave attempt to hold a conference of
clergy in a diocese so vast as Rupert's Land was then.
Yukon was distant 2,500 miles; Mackenzie river,
2,000; Albany and Moose, 1,200; York Factory, 800;
English river, 700; and this in a country where boats,
canoes, and dog-sleighs, with perhaps an occasional
Hudson's Bay steamer (for a few months in the year), Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865). 213
were the only means of travel. But Bishop Machray
meant work, and he got as many of the clergy as possible
together. Ten clergymen were present, and eighteen lay
delegates, representing nine parishes or missions. At
this conference the Bishop spoke strongly about the
low state of education in the §f settlement." Nothing
grieved him more than the state of the schools. "We
must rise," he said, " to the effort of supporting our
own schools," and His Lordship propounded an
elaborate scheme whereby the whole community,
Hudson's Bay people and all, might be benefited by
the circulation of books and the establishment of
parochial schools. The large population of heathen
Indians in the dioceses greatly distressed the Bishop.
From English societies, especially the C.M.S. and
I The New England Company," he hoped to get large
aid in missionary work among these poor children of
.the wilderness.
Bishop Michrayknew well the value of a higher
education for the clergy. He therefore lost no time in
establishing a college in his wilderness which might be
the means of supplying him with young men properly
trained for the ministry. He was the right man for a
new country. He saw what was needed, and rested
not day nor night till the need was supplied.
He now resolved, to revive the old St. John's College.
To the excellent library collected by Bishop Anderson
he added by himself presenting seventy volumes, some
of which were valuable works.
Bishop Machray had already engaged an old classmate of his—like himself, a Scotchman ; a distinguished •
graduate of King's College, Aberdeen, a High Bursar 214 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
and prizeman in Latin, Greek, Natural Philosophy,
Moral Philosophy, and Chemistry—to be warden and
theological tutor in the new institution. This was the
Rev. John McLean, M.A., whom he also made Archdeacon of Assiniboine. At that time he was curate at
St. Paul's Cathedral, London, Diocese of Huron.
With himself as one of the staff, and with two others
(besides the warden), he hoped to make a good beginning. The Bishop was not married. His whole
energies, his income, his house, seemed always at the
disposal of the Church. The old buildings at St.
John's must be torn down, as they were quite uninhabitable, except the back part, which might be raised
and a kitchen added; and for the rest the Bishop's
own house might be available! For the proposed
work the Bishop had already secured the necessary
lumber. Immediately after the conference he accompanied Governor MacTavish by boat to Norway House,
and from there proceeded to York Factory, where he
held two confirmations, confirming fifty-six Indians.
He found most of the Indians in that district professing
Christians, and showing great propriety in their outward profession, frequently reading the Word of God
in the syllabic character and maintaining regularly
family prayer.
The second conference of clergy and lay delegates
met in St. John's on May 29th, 1867, and unanimously
resolved itself into a synod of the diocese.
He did not attend the Lambeth Conference in
1868, as he felt he had too recently left England to
allow of this. But in this summer he visited the
missions along James' Bay,   confirming  at   Rupert's Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865). 215
House, Albany, and Moose Factory. The visit to
Rupert's House was especially interesting. He spent
a week examining, by the help of Mr. Horden, all the
candidates for confirmation separately, and confirming
some eighty adults. On his way back through Canada
he laid the foundation stone of Hellmuth Ladies'
College in London, and preached the sermon at the
opening of the Provincial Synod of Canada. Passing
on to New York he was present at the General Convention held there; and at the request of the presiding
bishop, the Bishop of Kentucky, he consecrated at the
great opening service in Trinity Church.
He met with much courtesy at the hands of the
Governor of Rupert's Land and of the officers of the
Hudson's Bay Company, some of whom subscribed
handsomely to his funds.
By that time (1869) the Clergy Endowment Fund
had reached $3,900, and was yielding an income of
$200 a year; the Widows and Orphans' Fund had a
capital of only $380, but still it was a beginning. The
college he helped as a master, taking the mathematical
department; his clergy he helped with his kind words
and frequent visits; his people he helped by the strong
hopes he had for the future; and all he encouraged to
work for the Church which he was so anxious to
establish on good, firm foundations among them. But
there were most serious discouragements. A plague of
grasshoppers had visited the country in their path as
they swept on ; and when everything was eaten they
devoured one another, till heaps of corruption were left
everywhere throughout the land. This the Bishop
graphically described to his Synod in  1869, and de- 216 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
plored the severe blow that the plague had been to the
country. The following year brought the rebellion,
which caused much anxiety and trouble. But still for-
the Church he was hopeful. And when the Synod met
again, which was not till 1873, he had better news to-"--
tell. Winnipeg, his " see city," from a place with but
a few houses, had grown to be a village of 1,500 inhabitants, and other settlements had sprung up. The
immediate territory in which it was situated was formed
into a province, to be known as Manitoba, the fifth
province to enter the confederation forming the Dominion of Canada. The Canadian Pacific Railway
was in course of construction, and the amount of
prosperity that this might bring to the country was
naturally gilded with a glowing hope. And, besides
that, the Bishop had been to England, and had had
important interviews with the English societies, especially the C.M.S., with the result that three new
dioceses were to be established in " Rupert's Land."
Two of these were to be in the extreme north, one with
its centre at Moose Fort (Moosonee), in the region of
the Hudson's Bay, and the other with its centre at
Fort Simpson, Mackenzie river, bordering upon the
Arctic Circle. The missionaries already there, Mr.
Hordenat Moose Fort and Mr. Bompas at Fort Simpson, were to be the respective bishops. The third
diocese was to be the immediate region of the Saskatchewan, extending far to the west, where the Rocky
Mountains separate the "Great Lone Land" from
British Columbia. Arrangements were being made for
the endowment of this see. A canon was passed by
the Synod dividing the diocese into the four dioceses Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865
217
of Rupert's Land, Saskatchewan, Moosonee, and Athabasca, determining-their boundaries and arranging for
the calling of a Provincial Synod. Through his own
exertions in England, and the warden's in Canada, the
endowment and equipment of St. John's College were
considerably augmented by this year^(i873), and the
Bishop announced that he was gradually endowing a
professorial chair himself. The funds had increased
as follows : St. John's College, $30,000 ; Church Endowment, $7,000 ; Native Pastorate, $2,000 ; Widows
and Orphans', $1,100.
When the Synod met again, on June 10th, 1875,
the boundaries of Rupert's Land had been curtailed
so that it consisted 'of the Province of Manitoba with
the districts of Cumberland (except Fort la Corne),
Swan River, Norway House, and Lac la Plaine, the
three dioceses of Moosonee, Athabasca, and Saskatchewan having been formed. Seventeen clergymen
were present at this Synod.
The Bishop's wise policy in securing land and endowments now began to show itself. He was enabled
to found six canonries, four besides the two archdeaconries, which ware to be more or less connected with
the professorial work of St. John's College. The
position of dean was also being provided for, but till
fully endowed wa^s filled by the Bishop himself. In the
Journal of Synod for 1895, after describing the endowment of these canonries, from about $1,000 to $600
each, we find the words :
I There is also a tract of over six hundred acres
(including the hay privilege land) of very valuable land
in  the neighbourhood of the city of Winnipeg,   from 218 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
which in the course of a few years the cathedral may
be expected to derive a considerable income."
Such was the progress that Bishop Machray's
diocese made in ten years, with three new dioceses
formed into the bargain. The four dioceses of the
Northwest were formed in this year (1875) into a Provincial Synod, to be known as the Synod of the Prov- .
ince of Rupert's Land. It was to consist of two houses;
the Upper House composed of the bishops, and the
Lower House of delegates from their several dioceses.
The first session was held in Winnipeg on August 4th, I
1875. Bishop Bompas, of Athabasca, was not present.
The other three bishops formed the first Upper House.
The Apostolic Bishop Whipple, of Minnesota, preached
the sermon.
At this meeting a letter was read from Bishop
Anderson (then in England), in which he said: " Too
grateful I cannot be to Almighty God for having I
spared me and permitted me to behold in the flesh
and hear of so mighty a stride in what was as the I
wilderness, and which now in so many parts begins to
bud and blossom. What a change in the half century!
How great a change in the quarter of a century ! How
migthy a one in your own ten years ! Surely the Lord
hath done great things, whereof we rejoice."
By the formation of the Provincial Synod, Bishop
Machray became Metropolitan as well as Bishop of
Rupert's Land. To the Diocesan Synod of 1887 the
Bishop was able to speak of continued prosperity.
"We are no longer," he said, "isolated. By
means of telegraphic communication connecting us
with the States  and   Canada,  newspaper  enterprise Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865). 219
presents us daily with the latest telegrams from all
parts of the world. The telegraph already has been
carried for about a thousand miles to the west of us."
St. John's College is a college in the University
of Manitoba having a separate Faculty of Theology
for conducting all the theological examinations required
by its students for the degree of B.D. or D.D. There is
also a literary examination conducted by the general
examiner of the University. Colleges connected with
other religious bodies may have the like privilege.
Besides St. John's Cathedral and College there
was now in Winnipeg the Church of the Holy Trinity,
under the Rev. O. Fortin. The College School (for
boys) was flourishing under the Bishop as headmaster, with the Rev. Canon Grisdale, Rev. Canon
O'Meara, and others, as assistants. What a parable
on the importance of training a child in the way he
should go, that the Bishop took charge of his boys'
school himself!
In 1878 the Bishop attended the Lambeth Conference, and was assigned a seat along with the other
Metropolitans by the side of the Archbishop of Canterbury. On his return he was presented by some of his
clergy and laity with $800. This he afterwards gave
to a fund for Machray exhibitions at St. John's College
for sons of the clergy.
The second Provincial Synod was held in Winnipeg in 1879, at which the Widows and Orphans'Fund,
which was for the whole original Diocese of Rupert's
Land, was recognized as provincial, and, in accordance
with a proposal of the Diocesan Synod of Rupert's
Land, placed   under   provincial  control,   so that,   as 220 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
hitherto, the bishops and clergy of the whole province
should be participants in the benefits of the funds.
To his Diocesan Synod of 1880 the Bishop described the change that had taken place within  the -
short period of ten years.    " Ten years ago," he said, |
" there was only one village in the country with about
three hundred of a population.    There was scarcely a I
house a quarter  of a mile  from   Red   river  or the I
Assiniboine.    To-day we have a country one hundred
and twenty miles in breadth by two hundred miles in |
length, covered with small settlements, being dotted^
ove'r with homesteads, and yet this country is but theI
gateway to the vast region of fertile land beyond.   The
village of three hundred people has become a city of |
twelve thousand inhabitants, with a business that is,
perhaps, only exceeded now by six or eight cities in the
whole   Dominion.    This   past   year  has   seen   nearly
three hundred houses wholly or partially built,  at a I
cost of nearly a million of dollars.    In 1870 there were I
established nineteen post offices.  There are now nearly j
one hundred and fifty."
But all this made the Bishop feel more than ever
the great responsibility resting upon him.    The church
of the city of Winnipeg was fairly well off with the
help of endowments, but in the rest of the diocese—
how was provision to be made for the needs of strug- ;
gling settlers ?    This was the problem.    Appeals were I
made to England and to the eastern part of Canada, I
with results somewhat disappointing to the Metropolitan, but at the same time every effort possible was ;
made in the way of self-help.    There was a debt also
on St. John's College, incurred by continual additions Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865). 221
made to the building—a debt of about $13,000, but
still they must enlarge. For this they needed $20,000.
There was also by this time established, chiefly through
the liberality of Prebendary Wright, Hon. Secretary
of the C.M.S., St. John's Ladies' College. Prebendary
Wright gave $10,000, the Bishop gave about $8,000,
and other friends contributed from $1,500 to $2,000.
The next year (1881) saw still greater progress in
Winnipeg, especially in the rise of the value of land.
The city was becoming a great railway centre. The
C.P.R. was pushing its way to the west of it with an
energy which meant not to stop till the Rocky Mountains were crossed and a way made to the shores of the
Pacific Ocean.
The clergy list for 1883 showed a large increase to
the clerical staff. They numbered forty-seven. The
progress in the country'still went on. The population
had nearly doubled since the census of 1881. There
was now railway communication from Lake Superior
to the Saskatchewan, a distance of about 1,000 miles.
Winnipeg, the hamlet of a few years ago, stood third in
foreign importations in the list of Canadian cities. But
all this meant anxiety for the Church. Fifty municipalities had been formed in Manitoba. Fifteen of these
only' had been provided with a resident clergyman.
There was also the newly-formed Province of Assini-
boia, to the west of Winnipeg, in the whole of which
there were but three clergymen, viz.: two travelling
missionaries and one permanently stationed at Regiha.
The Provincial Synod also met in 1883, in the
month of August. In 1884 the clergy list of Rupert's
Land Diocese had grown from forty-five to fifty-two, ilS
222 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
though four or five were removed on account of the I
formation of the Diocese of Saskatchewan. The Dio-1
cese of Qu'Appelle was also formed that year, and.^
Mackenzie River was separated from Athabasca.
When the Bishop took charge of the diocese in
1865, there were no endowments in money except the
Bishopric Fund.    There were only a few glebe lands,I
at that time of little or no value.    In 1884 there were!
about thirty trusts or endowments, which had accumu-'l
lated gradually, and were all held by the Bishop himself |
as a corporation sole. However, a considerable portion of
this amount consisted of mortgages on Church land||
which had been sold in the time of the boom.    The instalments due on those mortgages were not paid, arid the
land in time reverted to the Church for the foreclosure
of mortgages or otherwise.    By 1884, also, a new stoneH
building had been erected for St. John's College, withul
the general structure of which all were well satisfies^!
but this raised the debt on that institution to aboutI
$55,000.    The addition to the debt had, however, been
contracted on the security of subscriptions which at the-
time were considered good and trustworthy, but which,
from the failure in means of so many were never paid.
These subscriptions included sums of $1,000 and $500,.
that were regarded as absolutely safe.    The sale of a.
valuable field of some fifteen acres, and other land belonging to the college and adjacent to it, could have
greatly reduced this debt, but it was not considered-
advisable  to  sell.    The  canons of the cathedral  are.
professors and instructors in the college.
But the reaction which many wise-headed men had
foreseen,   consequent   upon   the   headlong  rush   into- Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865). 223
speculation caused by the " boom " in prosperity, had
set in, and a change came over the spirit of the dream.
The next year the Metropolitan deplored the scarcity
of funds for the prosecution of his diocesan work, and
the small amount of help received from Eastern Canada.
He urged the great necessity of liberality. This he
could do with a clear conscience, for he had been most
liberal with his own means. To St. John's College
alone he had given from time to time much, besides the
main portion of the endowment of the chair of Ecclesiastical History.
The Bishop was rejoiced by a gift to the college of
$3,000 from Sir Donald A. Smith. This enabled him
to receive the grant of $5,000 made by the S.P.G. on
condition that $20,000 should be otherwise subscribed.
But still the financial condition of the college gave the
Bishop such anxiety that he went to England to get, if
possible, some help for this small endowment fund of
the college that was being raised, and for which $20,000
was yet required to secure the £1,000 promised by the
S.P.C.K.; but in this he was not very successful. He
secured, however, about $6,000 for various objects in
his diocese. The expense of journeys of this kind
Bishop Machray bore himself.
Archdeacon Pinkham, financial secretary of the
diocese, and Canon O'Meara made excursions to Eastern
Canada and collected some money for the Home Mission Fund. This became a regular institution, and
brought to the diocese between three and four thousand
dollars a year.
The Metropolitan was again in England in 1888
for two months, attending the Lambeth Conference, a 224 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
full account of which he gave to his Synod. That year I
he received the unwelcome intelligence that the C.M.S. j
intended to reduce by degrees the grants made for the
{support of his missionaries. During this visit to Eng- J
land he preached the Commencement Sermon before I
the University of Cambridge, and received the degree I
of D.D. from the University of Durham.
In 1889 it was reported that six new missions had I
been formed in the diocese. The debt on St. John'sl
College, however, was becoming a burden. It amounted |
to $61,618.85 in 1888, the addition being made by|
various additions and improvements in the college. All |
the debt, except a mortgage of $14,450, was due to somel
of the capitalized funds of the college. The college, of |
course, was paying these funds interest; but it was not I
satisfactory. The Bishop about this time ceased to be I
bursar of the college.
The Provincial Synod of Rupert's Land, which
was held in Winnipeg in August, 1890, received a de-f
putation from the various dioceses of (Eastern) Canada-;
relative to the formation of a General Synod for the I
whole Dominion.    The Bishop of Rupert's Land wasf
always most favourable to this, and supported the proposition in every possible way in his diocese; but on
the condition that the Provincial Synod should continue to exist, and that certain matters, for which he
considered himself and his province in honour pledged,
should remain with the Provincial Synod.    His episcopate had grown, in a sense, with the growth of the
whole Northwest itself;   and  the building  up  of an
ecclesiastical provincial system with Winnipeg, his own
see city, as its metropolitical centre, had called forth his Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865).
225
energies and enlisted his warmest feelings; but the object
had been realized only by the warm sympathy and
cordial help of the English Church societies (especially
of the C.M.S.) in their support of the bishoprics. The
Bishop considered it both honourable and necessary to
secure its interests. This he had already expressed to
his own Diocesan and Provincial Synods. His Lordship
received the deputation from the east with every mark
of courtesy, and the joint conference between the
representatives of the two provinces at which he presided came to an understanding regarding a basis on
which a General Synod might be formed. This the
Metropolitan of Rupert's Land stated, with evident
feelings of satisfaction, to his own Synod, which met in
October of the same year (1890).
In the end of 1890 a testimonial in money was presented to the Bishop by Churchmen of the diocese, on
the completion of the twenty-fifth year of his episcopate. Of this money the Bishop gave $1,526 to the
General Endowment Fund of St. John's College, and
the balance he spent in purchasing a very fine massive
eagle lectern for the cathedral. In 1891 the Diocese of
Selkirk was formed from Mackenzie River. This made
the eighth diocese formed out of territory once presided
over by Bishop Machray alone.
To his Synod assembled in October, 1891, the
Bishop was able to report a considerable increase in
the diocesan Clergy Endowment Fund through the gift
of $1,000 from a farmer in Manitoba, which enabled the
diocese to claim some grants made by the English
societies. The same kind-hearted person gave $1,000
to St. John's College.    The next Synod did not meet 226
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
till January, 1893, when preparations were made for
the first General Synod to be held in Toronto in the
autumn of that year. It was a year of synods for the
Metropolitan, for his Provincial Synod met in Winnipeg
on the? 9th of August, at which further preparations
were made in order that the approaching General
Synod might have full legal sanction. It was a year
also of honour and distinction for the Metropolitan of
Rupert's Land. In it Her Majesty the Queen was
graciously pleased to appoint His Lordship to the office
of " Prelate of the most distinguished Order of St.
Michael and St. George." The first bishop honoured
with this title was George Augustus Selwyn, Bishop
of New Zealand, and afterwards of Lichfield. The
next was Bishop Perry, of Melbourne, Australia. After
him, Bishop Austin, of British Guiana, on whose death
the title was bestowed upon the Metropolitan of
Rupert's Land.
On September the 13th, the first General Synod
of the Church of England in the Dominion of Canada
was held in the city of Toronto. It was a goodly sight
to see bishops, and leading clergymen and laymen
assembled together from all parts of the Dominion,
from Nova Scotia to British Columbia. Prominent
amongst all, striking in height, size, and appearance,
was the great missionary bishop, the Most Reverend
Robert Machray, Metropolitan of Rupert's Land. For
twenty-eight years he had battled with hard pioneer
work, with an attention which never allowed diversion,
and a zeal which knew no flagging. He had never
taken to himself a wife—the Church needed all his
With pen, and voice, and energy, with his open
care. Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865). 227
purse ever ready to help his struggling work, he was
beloved by those who knew him; and those who did
not know him saw in him one who was no ordinary
man. In a room, among a crowd, *one would immediately ask, on seeing him : " Who is that ?"
In debate, while important preliminaries were
being arranged in the General Synod, he took a prominent part. Questions on which he felt deeply were
raised at times, and he spoke so that no one could
misunderstand him. When at last all difficulties were
adjusted, no one appeared better pleased than the
Metropolitan of Rupert's Land.
The enactment that the Metropolitans in Canada
should have the title of Archbishop met with hearty
approval. And when it was known that his brother
bishops had elected the Metropolitan of Rupert's Land
chairman of the Upper House, and, therefore, the first
Primate of all Canada, it was felt that a worthy choice
had been made.
At a great missionary meeting held in St. James'
Schoolhouse, Toronto, His Grace the Archbishop of
Rupert's Land, and Primate of all Canada, presided.
His first act as Primate of all Canada was thus, by a
pleasing coincidence, to preside at a meeting on behalf
of the cause for which the best part of his life had
been spent.
The Archbishop returned to his home in Winnipeg and prosecuted his ordinary duties as of old. There
was a deficiency of $3,291.64 in his Home or Diocesan
Mission Fund, yet he resolved to supply a clergyman
wherever the people in a new district would properly
laeet a grant.    His Grace depended now upon regular 228 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
aid from Eastern Canada, chiefly through the exertions
of the Rev. George Rogers, financial secretary of the
diocese.
The financial condition of St. John's College in
1894 had been considerably improved. The debt had
been decreased by $15,000 by the sale of land. The
General Endowment Fund had also been increased by
a bequest from Miss Clouston, in memory of her
nephew, the Rev. W. R. Flett, who had been a pupil,
scholar, and master of the college. This bequest, in
addition to a considerable sum raised in the diocese,
enabled the college to claim about seven thousand
two hundred dollars in grants from English societies.
To his Synod of last year (1895) His Grace, for
the first time apparently, was obliged to speak of an
illness which had prevented him from performing some
of his duties. These were kindly taken for him by
Bishop Young, of Athabasca, who happened to be
spending the winter in Winnipeg. The Archbishop's
health, however, was soon restored.
He had to lament a deficiency in his Home Mission Fund of $4,249.31, largely due, His Grace remarked, to the receipts from Eastern Canada having
fallen under what was expected, and also to some
special payments which were made. The receipts from
Eastern Canada were acknowledged as $5,239.25, including $657 collected by Canon 0'Meara,'and over
$4,000 by Rev. George Rogers ; but this may well be
considered small when the great responsibility resting
upon the Primate as a diocesan bishop is considered.
Outside of the city of Winnipeg~his diocese is almost
entirely missionary; that is to say, the  clergy could Robert Machray, of Rupert's Land (1865).. 229
not exist were it not for assistance from some common
fund. No one can read the charges of the Archbishop,
or note his own example and work, without coming to
the conclusion that he has done all that a strong, hopeful man could do to induce his own people to support
the work growing up around them. But that work grew
with such surprising rapidity that, taking into account
the peculiar conditions attending a new country, self-
help could not possibly keep pace with what had to be
done. When he went out to that country as a missionary bishop in 1865, the sound of a human voice was to
be heard only here and there, and at long, long intervals apart. His first clergy list practically amounted
to 18, distributed over districts as follows :
The present Diocese of Rupert's Land 8, Moosonee 3, Saskatchewan .3, Qu'Appelle with part of Rupert's
Land 1, Athabasca o, Mackenzie River 2, Selkirk 1.
There were also two clergymen in England nominally
connected with the diocese.
These are all now separate dioceses, with clergy
(including the bishops) as follows :
Rupert's Land (Manitoba) 76, Moosonee 8, Saskatchewan (and Calgary) 29, Qu'Appelle 19, Athabasca
6, Mackenzie River 8, Selkirk 4 ; in all, 152.
Such has been the growth of thirty years. His
Grace the Lord Archbishop of Rupert's Land and
Primate of all Canada has been through all the phases
of the rise and growth of the " Great Lone Land."
He is still only sixty-five years old, and as assiduous
as ever in the performance of his duties.
The Archbishop is well known in Winnipeg and
elsewhere in Manitoba, and even beyond it, as a public 230
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
officer. He has been chairman of the Board of Public
Education almost from its commencement, and Chancellor of the University of Manitoba from its foundation. He has written long and .exhaustive charges and
articles in favour of religious education in the schools,
and has proved himself a public educator as well as a
spiritual guide to his own flock.
His Grace is now preparing to receive the second
General Synod of the Dominion of Canada, which is to
meet in Winnipeg in September of this year (1896). In
Winnipeg he first presided over his own diocesan-
Synod ; there, too, he first presided over the Provincial
Synod of the Northwest ; and there, if spared for a
short time longer, he will preside over the legislative
body of the Church gathered together from all parts of
the Dominion of Canada.
St. John's College School (Boys'), Wir  ^%>(
THE RT.  REV.  ALEXANDER NEIL BETHUNE, D.D.
Second Bishop of Toronto. 19.    The  Right  Rev. Alexa
D.D., D.C.L., Second
l  Bethune
Toronto.
ALEXANDER NEIL BETHUNE was born at
Williamstown, County of Glengarry, in Upper
Canada, on August 28th, 1800. He was the
fifth son of a Presbyterian (" Old Kirk ") minister, who
came to Canada from North Carolina with the United
Empire Loyalists in 1783. Two of his sons became
staunch Episcopalians and honoured dignitaries of the
Church, viz., John, who became Dean of Montreal, and
Alexander, who became Bishop of Toronto. As a boy
young Bethune was sent to school to Rev. Dr. Strachan,
at Cornwall; and from that time there commenced an
acquaintance between master and pupil destined. to
continue for many years.
When Dr. Strachan was appointed rector of York
(Toronto), in 1812, he opened a grammar school there,
and there, in 1891, Mr. A. N. Bethune joined him as
his assistant master, and as a student in divinity. His
journey from Montreal to Toronto was made by lumber
•wagon, open boat, steamer, and stage; and when he
reached his destination he found it " a little town of
about one thousand inhabitants, with but three brick
houses in the whole place." *
Mr. Bethune was ordained deacon in 1823, and
priest in 1824, by Dr. Jacob Mountain, and was ap- 232 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
pointed incumbent of Grimsby. Here he married Jane
Eliza, eldest daughter of the Hon. James Crooks, of
West Flamboro. In 1826 Dr. Strachan, then Archdeacon of York, paid him a visit on his way to the Old
Country (to take preparatory steps for founding a'\
university for Upper Canada), and left in his charge
his second son George.
In 1827 Mr. Bethune was appointed rector of
Cobourg, in succession to Rev. W. Macaulay,* who
had removed to Hallowell (Picton). In Cobourg Mr.
Bethune remained for many years. He took part in
all the great public movements which agitated the
period, and on which we have already dwelt in the life
of Bishop Strachan. In all Dr. Strachan's battles,
both as archdeacon and bishop, for the rights of the
Church in the " Clergy Reserves " question ; in aH his I
struggles for the establishment of educational institutions and their endowments, as well as the endowment
of the Church, the Rector of Cobourg was always his
faithful abettor and assistant.
As a means of placing the rights of the Church
well before the public, or at all events before her own
sons and daughters, it was resolved, in 1856, at a
meeting of the clergy, to establish a Church newspaper,
the management of which was put in the hands of Dr.
Bethune, who, in May, 1837, issued a specimen number of The Church. The publication proved so far
successful that it was enlarged after the completion of
the first year, and again at the end of its second
volume.    Here Dr.  Bethune could work in his' most Alexander N. Bethune, of Toronto (1867-1879
powerful way. He had the pen not only of a ready but
of a graceful writer; and, in days when periodicals,
were not as numerous as they are now, the weekly
arrival of The Church was eagerly looked for by a large
number of readers. It is pleasant to read its columns
now.    Several bound volumes of it still exist.
When the Diocese of Toronto was formed in 1839,
Bishop Strachan appointed his friend and former pupil
one of his chaplains; and in 1841 he was entrusted
with the important business of training young men for
the ministry. The Theological School at Cobourg
soon became an important and highly useful institution.
Many young men were carefully and conscientiously
prepared in it for the ministry, and from time to time
took missionary work under the direction of Dr.
Bethune. The instructions were carried on in a small
brick building which, slightly altered and added to,
still stands in Cobourg. It formed, in fact, the nucleus
of the divinity school in Trinity University, which was
afterwards established at Toronto. Its average attendance of students was fifteen; its whole number of
members, from its opening to its close, being forty-five.
When, in 1846, Bishop Strachan resigned the
Archdeaconry of York, Dr. Bethune was appointed in
his place. Thus was he once more an official assistant
to his old master.
At the first episcopal election ever held in Canada,
Archdeacon Bethune was the favourite candidate of a
large number of the clergy, for it was he alone who (in
1857), as we have already mentioned, contested the
bishopric of Huron with Dr. Cronyn.
At the Synod held in August, 1S66, the venerable r
234 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland* .
Bishop, bowed down with the weight of eighty-eight
years, was at last obliged to tell his Synod that he
could no longer do the work of the diocese single-
handed. A Synod was therefore convened for the 19th
of September, for the purpose of electing a coadjutor.
The " High Church " party were divided between I
Archdeacon  Whitaker,   Provost  of Trinity   College,
who received the largest support, and Dr. Bethune ;
the " Low Church " voted for Rev. H. J. Grasett, and
the moderately  inclined  for the  Rev. T. B. Fuller.
After  balloting ineffectually   for  two   days,   Provost |
Whitaker in a few graceful words withdrew from the I
contest, requesting his friends to cast no more votes  :
for him.    Dr. Bethune was then elected by fifty-three |
clergy  (necessary  forty-seven)   and   forty-seven   lay
(necessary forty-six).
Dr. Bethune was consecrated under the title of
Bishop of Niagara, on the 25th of January, 1867, in I
St. James' Cathedral, Toronto, by Bishop Strachan,
assisted  by   Bishop   Cronyn of Huron   and   Bishop
Lewis of Ontario.
It was interesting to see the man of sixty-seven
kneeling before his old friend and master, now eighty-
nine years of age, and receiving the touch of his
trembling hand upon his head, the aged pair'lnH
associated together in work. First they stood to one.
another in the relation of teacher and pupil, then of
headmaster and assistant, then of bishop and archdeacon, and lastly of bishop and coadjutor. Bishop
Bethune was of fragile build, and he looked thin and
wan, yet he proved himself possessed of considerable
vitality, and  addressed  himself with   energy to  the Alexander N. Bethune, of Toronto {i867-1
235
duties of his new office. The diocese was divided
into two archdeaconries, named respectively Toronto
and Niagara, and occupied by Rev. T. B. Fuller,
D.D. (Toronto), and Rev. A. Palmer, M.A., of Guelph
(Niagara). A cathedral chapter was also formed with
the Rev. H. J. Grasett, B.D., Rector of St. James'
Cathedral, Toronto, as Dean. Four canonries and
four honorary canonries were also formed. The number of rural deans was also increased to eight. The
Episcopal Endowment Fund had by this time reached
$41,518.13, and from the interest of this sum the
coadjutor bishop was maintained.
After making confirmation tours in several places
in the diocese, including a trip to the distant region
of Algoma, Bishop Bethune, in August, 1867, proceeded to England and was present at the Lambeth
Conference, at which seventy-six prelates were gathered : twenty-three from England and Ireland, six
from Scotland, twenty-eight from the colonies and
mission fields, and nineteen from the United States.
Bishop Strachan died as his coadjutor was on his
way home, and Bishop Bethune arrived just in time
to take a last look at the remains of his venerated
friend, and to attend his funeral.
Dr. Bethune was now, by the right of succession,
the second Bishop of Toronto. The boys' school,
which had been commenced in Weston in 1865, was
moved to Port Hope in 1868, and was placed in charge
of the Bishop's eldest son, the Rev. Charles James
Stewart Bethune, M.A.—a name which connected
him with the early days of Church history. The
diocese was rapidly growing in size and importance. 236 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Bishop   Bethune  was now close upon the threescore
years  and ten  allotted to man, and he had not the' f
abnormal   physical   strength,   the   strong  voice   and
resolute   will,  that  his  predecessor  had  when   that I
advanced period of age was  reached.    Strong party^
feeling in  the  Church  began to   disturb  the  peace. I
Men's  minds  were  stirred  to  the very depths over,
questions   that  were  considered   on   the   one  .hands
"high" and the other "low."    This feeling began to
show itself in the discussions in Synod first  on the
" patronage   question,"   which   was   left   over   from.*'
year to year, each year producing the same wearisome^
debates.    It had been the privilege of the Bishop tov
appoint   clergymen   to  vacant   parishes.    The   laity
began to   claim this  privilege.    The clergy by very
large majorities resisted it, the laity by small majorities^,
supported it.    It was at last arranged in 1871 that the
Bishop should have the right to the patronage, but
that no appointment  should  be   made  without consultation with   the churchwardens   and lay delegates
of the vacant parish.    The aged   Bishop must have
breathed a sigh of relief when this question was ended.
Further relief,  but of another  nature,  came to him
also in 1873, when the Diocese of Algoma was formed,
and also in 1875, when the Diocese of Niagara was
set apart.    This limited the Diocese of Toronto to the
bounds which it still possesses, and left it consisting of
the city of Toronto and the counties of Peel, York,
Simcoe, Ontario, Durham, Victoria, Northumberland,
Peterborough, and Haliburton.    Territorially, this was
a great relief to the Bishop, but it left him still with a
clerical staff of about one hundred, and with eighty-
seven parishes and missions. Alexander N. Bethune, of Toronto (1867-1879).
A " Church Association" was formed in 1873 to
inculcate evangelical principles and put some check
upon the growth of what was called " sacerdotalism."
This Association embraced a few of the clergy of the
diocese, and a large number of earnest-minded, wealthy,
and influential laymen. From time to time tracts were
issued and manuals published, setting forth the principles of the Association, and calling attention to
certain practices introduced into some of the churches
which it considered subversive of them. A weekly
paper was also commenced in 1876, and was called
The Evangelical Churchman. Trinity College, under
Provost Whitaker, was looked upon with such marked
disfavour by this Association that a theological college
was resolved upon. It began in a very small way in
St. James* Schoolhouse in 1877, voluntary instruction
being given by some of the sympathizing city clergy
to a few young men whose desire was to be prepared
for Holy Orders. A college was afterwards secured,
and a regular course of instruction established under
Rev. James P. Sheraton, B.A.
The Church Association in time established its
own Mission Committee, its own Widows and Orphans'
Committee, for receiving contributions for the benefit
of their sympathizers. All these organizations, however necessary they may have been regarded by those
who established them, were very distressing to the
Bishop. They affected the funds of the diocese to a very
grave extent—the mission fund especially, which was
overdrawn each year until a heavy debt was incurred.
The Synods, during these years, were too frequently
characterized by acrimonious debates, which often got 238 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
beyond the control of the chair. The two parties were
very closely defined, and regarded one another with no
small amount of animosity.
In this state of things the aged Bishop—seventy- \
eight years old—called the Synod together, in March,
1878, to elect a coadjutor bishop. By this time the J
diocese had grown to one hundred parishes and mis- «
sions, and it was a large gathering that assembled fori
the purpose of electing a coadjutor bishop.
The first ballot showed that a " split " had taken
place in the High Church vote, which it was thoughts
would go solidly for the venerable Provost of Trinity!
College. Twenty-eight clergymen and ten laymenl
voted for Rev. W. D. MacLagan, of England—now
Archbishop of York—and though they soon abandoned!
this policy it was shortly found that no election could be?
made. The voting continued till late at night, andrl
extended to the following day.
At  two  o'clock  on  the   second   day,   the  aged
Bishop,  much  grieved and  disappointed, prorogued!
the Synod with the resolve to continue the work of the!
diocese  as  far as  his  failing  strength would  allow.!
His  Lordship  was  permitted   to  preside   over   thej
Synod  of   1878,   at  which   he  deplored  greatly  the J
unhappy  divisions  in  the  diocese,   and   begged  the!
members to seek measures for godly union and concord.    In that year he went to England and attended
the  second  Lambeth  Conference, but in the follow-1
ing year (February 3rd,  1879) he passed quietly away, ■
leaving the Diocese of Toronto once more vacant.  rHE RT. REV. JAMES BUTLER KNITT KELLEY. D.D., D.C.L.
Third Bishop of Newfoundland. The Right Rev. James Butler Knitt Kelly,
D.D., D.C.L., Third   Bishop of Newfound-
BISHOP KELLY was born in England in 1832.
He entered at Clare College, Cambridge, graduating in 1854, was ordained deacon in 1855, and
priest in 1856 by the Bishop of Peterborough. He proceeded to M.A. and D.D. in course. In 1855 he was
curate of Abington, Northamptonshire. In the following year he was made Chaplain to the Bishop of Sodor
and Man, and in i860 became Vicar of Kirk Michael
and Registrar of the Diocese of Sodor and Man, and it
may be incidentally mentioned that his position enabled
him, to his great pleasure, largely to aid the sainted
Keble in his work on the life of the elder saint, Bishop
Wilson. He resided at Bishop's Court, and was also
diocesan inspector of schools.
On March 18th, 1864, Bishop Feild, of Newfoundland, wrote a most earnest appeal to England for men.
"A good clergyman or a kind letter, or both together,"
he wrote, "will be highly appreciated." In response to
this the Rev. Mr; Kelly went at once to Newfoundland,
and Bishop Feild found in him a "good clergyman"
indeed. He was appointed incumbent of St. John's,
Newfoundland, and Archdeacon of that diocese.
Bishop Feild for a long time had been asking for a
coadjutor.    When he was in England in 1867 he man- 24o The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
aged to arrange for one, and he himself was permitted,
to nominate the man of his own choice. He nominated s=
his Archdeacon, who came to England, arid was conse-
crated on August the 25th, 1867, at the ArchiepiscopaL
Chapel at Croydon, by the Archbishop of Canterbury
and tha Bishops of Rochester and Gibraltar. He was
the junior bishop present at the Lambeth Conference
that year.
Bishop Feild had sailed until now in his Church
ship, with the Homeric name, The Hawk, when a new
vessel was needed, and Bishop Kelly went to Nova
Scotia and superintended her building at Mahone Bay.
She was a very perfect model, and was christened The
Star. On July 21st, 1869, Bishop Kelly started on his I
first voyage to White Bay and the Labrador stations.
It was an anxious time, for The Star as yet was an untried ship. She acquitted herself, however, gallantly;
and, after affording the means of episcopal visitation
to many a dreary spot, and comfort to many a ChrisfalU
soul, she returned safe and sound on the 16th of
October to the harbour at St. John's.
In 1871, when visiting the Bermudas, it was represented to him that several young people in the flagship Royal Alfred had been for some time looking for a
chance to be confirmed, and he most kindly offered to
hold a special service for them, at which eight young
officers of the Royal Navy renewed their baptismal
vows. Only three months before he had done the same
thing for several young Churchmen on board H.M.S.
Pylades. His words on these occasions were ever
" warm, earnest, and affectionate." In May, 1876, he,
was again in Bermuda, confirming, the Bishop of New- James B. K. Kelly, of Newfoundland (1867-1877).      241
foundland not being able to attend. On his way he
preached in the Bishop's Chapel, Halifax, and won the
hearts of those who heard him.
On the 8th of July, 1871, Bishop Kelly arrived at
Sydney, C.B., in the The Star. On the following day
he sailed to visit the harbours and settlements of his
charge round Newfoundland. The Star presented a
beautiful sight under the favouring breeze, with her
white sails and tapering masts, surrounded by various
ensigns—above all the cross of St. George.
Among other good deeds, Bishop Kelly gave a
prize at King's College, Windsor, for Greek Testament.
He married, in 1871, Miss Louisa Bliss, daughter of
the first Puisne Judge of Nova Scotia. By this marriage Bishop Kelly became brother-in-law to Bishop
Binney, whose widow is the eldest sister of Mrs. Kelly.
The new mission ship/77^ Star, was not destined
to the long years of service which had characterized
her predecessor. During Bishop Kelly's next trip she
came to a sudden end. Says the S.P.G. Report for
1871 : " The Church ship, with Bishop Kelly on board,
was totally wrecked on the coast of Newfoundland."
She was insured for barely half her value, and there
was great doubt of its being possible to replace her.
The attempt, however, was made, and subscriptions
amounting to about $5,000 were given. But it was
then that Lieutenant Curling came forward with his
magnificent offer of his yacht, The Lavrock, for missionary work.* The money subscribed was funded,
the interest to be used  for  the  maintenance of the
* See under Bishop Feild, p. 109.
16 1
242 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
mission ship.    The Coadjutor Bishop lost no time in
making use of this fine new ship.
In 1872 he visited in her the distant stations of the
diocese. After this Bishop Kelly went to England in
the interest of the Episcopal Endowment Fund. He
was there on the first "Day of Intercession for Missions," December 20th, 1872. It was a day of importance for Newfoundland, for several men willingly
offered themselves for .missionary work, and accompanied Bishop Kelly on his return to the diocese
in 1873. It was then that Lieutenant Curling, who
had given his yacht for God's work, now gave himself,
and asked to be sent to some mission which it had been
found more than ordinarily difficult to fill.*
Bishop Feild died on June 8th, 1876, at Bermuda.
A few months before his death a touching address was
presented to him by the people of the cathedral and
other churches in St. John's ; and in his affectionate
reply he spoke warmly of the great benefit conferred
upon the diocese by the appointment of Bishop Kelly
by the Synod, and expressed his deep satisfaction that
he was succeeded by his " faithful, able, and experienced coadjutor."
Bishop Kelly is of fine presence and winning
manners, and a most effective preacher. In both Newfoundland and Bermuda this is too well known to need
stating. On his visits to Nova Scotia, the people both
in city and country, whether "high" or "low," were'
glad indeed to hear him.
In September, 1876, he inaugurated a subscription
for a memorial to his sainted predecessor, by finishing
* " Life of Edward Feild."    Rev. H. W. Tucker. James B. K. Kelly, of Newfoundland (1867-1877).       243
the cathedral which Bishop Feild had so zealously'
begun. The records which we have before us of his
visit to the Labrador coast, starting July, 1870, tell
what labours and trials he endured—all the greater as
he was by no means so good a sailor as Bishop Feild.
Failing to get a coadjutor appointed, and not being
able to keep up the sea voyages necessary to his work,
he resigned, July 1st, 1877, an^ returned to the Old
Country, where he became vicar of St. Chad, Kirkby,
in the parish of Walton-on-the-Hill, Diocese of Chester,
whose Bishop (Dr. Jacobson). found in him an able
assistant. On the death of Bishop Jacobson, Dr. Kelly
became coadjutor to the Right Rev. Robert Eden, D.D..,
Bishop of Moray and Ross, and Primus of Scotland ;
and when that noble  prelate  died,  in   1885,  Bishop
Kel
y succee
ded
him.
1
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The Star Mission Ship of Newfou 2i. The Most Reverend Ashton Oxenden, D.D.,
Second Bishop of Montreal and Second
Metropolitan of [Eastern] Canada.
WHEN the Most Rev. Dr. Fulford died in
Montreal, in 1868, a twofold vacancy was .
created. The Diocese of Montreal was without a bishop. The Province of Canada (which at that
time consisted of the Dioceses of Quebec, Toronto,
Montreal, Huron, and Ontario) was without a Metropolitan. The filling of this twofold vacancy had been
arranged for. The House of Bishops was to nominate
a person or persons to the Synod of Montreal, and the
Synod was to elect. Names were to be submitted to
the diocese until an election should be secured.
This led to a serious difficulty. The Bishops
naturally did not desire a bishop newly chosen from the
clergy to be their chief.
The Synod of Montreal assembled in that city on
November 10th, 1868. The House of Bishops was
present, and consisted of the Bishops of Huron (Dr.
Cronyn), Ontario (Dr. Lewis), Quebec (Dr. Williams),
and Toronto (Dr. Bethune).* Their Lordships sent
down their own names, together with those of the
Bishop of Fredericton (Dr. Medley) and the Bishop of
Nova Scotia (Dr. Binney). The Synod failed to .elect
any one of these prelates.
* The Very Rev. Dean Bethune presided over the Synod of Montreal. Thus
two aged brothers, sons of a Presbyterian minister of Montreal in its pioneer days,
met as Dean and Bishop in a memorable Church event. II
THE MOST REV. ASHTON OXENDEN, D.D.
Second Bishop of Montreal and Second Metropolitan of (Eastern) Canada.  Ashton Oxenden, of Montreal (1869-1878). 245
The Bishops then submitted the names of Bishop
Hills, of (British) Columbia, Bishop Feild, of Newfoundland, and Bishop H. Cotterill, of Grahamstown,
Africa.   These names were also rejected by the Synod.
On the following day other names were sent down
(all bishops but one—the Dean of Norwich, England),
but to no purpose.
The Synod then adjourned without any choice
having been made. On reassembling on the 13th of
May, 1869, the House of Bishops twice nominated some
distinguished clergyman of England, but without effect.
Ballots were then taken, again and again, on all the
names that had been submitted by the Bishops at the
last Synod and the present one, but without result. On
the fourth day the wearisome balloting continued, the
election settling down at last to a contest between Bishop
Cronyn, of Huron, and Rev. Dr. Meyrick, of England,
but still without effect, owing to non-concurrence between the clerical and lay votes—the former being in
favour of Dr. Meyrick, and the latter of the Bishop of
Huron. Finally, as if in despair, a conference between
the bishops and the Synod was held, when their Lordships submitted two new names, both clergymen in
England : Rev. Ashton Oxenden and Rev. Dr. Monsell.
A ballot was then taken, which resulted in the election
of Rev. Mr. Oxenden by fifty-seven clerical and forty-
four lay votes ; whereat there was great rejoicing. It
was evident to all that a law so glaringly defective
would have to be altered as speedily as possible.
Ashton Oxenden was born at Broome Park, Kent,
in 1808. He was the fifth surviving son of the late Sir
Henry Oxenden, Bart.    In 1831 he graduated at Uni- 246
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
versity College, Oxford, and two years later was admitted to the diaconate, and in 1834 to the priesthood,
by Archbishop Howley, of Canterbury. After doing
some parish work in Barham, near Canterbury, he was
appointed rector of the quaint little village of Pluckley,
in Kent, which he retained till his election to the
Bishopric of Montreal. The only honour that had
come to him, in the meantime, was an Honorary
Canonry of Canterbury Cathedral.
The name of Ashton Oxenden was a household
word in countless Christian homes before it was thus
brought prominently before them. His tracts and
books reached the working class, and were couched in
the simplest possible language, as if Written for children.
This was their great charm, and they obtained a very
wide circulation. The author had lived himself among
simple villagers, and he understood how to write what
they would understand.
It was owing to this fame that he was elected
Bishop of Montreal and Metropolitan of Canada. Mr.
Oxenden was consecrated in Westminster Abbey in
August, 1869, by Archbishop Tait, of Canterbury, assisted by Bishop Jackson, of London, Bishop Claughton,
of Rochester, and Bishop Harold Browne, of Ely.
On his arrival in Montreal he soon made himself
acquainted with his diocese. How vast everything
must have seemed to him, after his long residence in
quiet little Pluckley! But though the diocese was
territorially large, he must have been surprised at the
small number of parishes in it, and their great distances
from one another. They numbered fifty-nine, " having
many of them from two to four churches or congrega- Ashton Oxenden, of Montreal (1869-1878). 247
tions attached to them." * Of these only eight were
self-supporting, the others being to a greater or less
extent dependent upon the Church at large for their
maintenance. The Metropolitan, as bishop of his own
diocese, was always extremely anxious to strengthen the
mission stations in his diocese, and to increase their
number; and in this, to some extent, he was successful.
He was moderate in his Churchmanship, and always
counselled forbearance. He would have liked the disuse of the black gown in the pulpit on the one hand,
and of the " turning away from the people at Holy Com-
. munion on the other." Indeed, he greatly wished to
have uniformity of practice, as to the rendering of the
services, throughout his whole diocese ; but this ideal
point was never absolutely reached.
Bishop Oxenden published in 1871, in England, a
little book called " My First Year in Canada," from
which it appears that many things, prosaic enough here,
were matters of curiosity and amusement to one fresh
from England. In it he tells of his first intimation of
his election to the Bishopric of Montreal. Seated at
breakfast one morning in his "sweet Kentish rectory,"
the postman brought him a letter addressed, " Rev.
Ashton Oxenden, Bishop-Elect of Montreal." He was
taken much by surprise; but, after consultation with
his wife, he saw his way clear to accept the distant call.
In 1871 he presided over the Provincial Synod,
exercising with much courtesy and ability his position
as Metropolitan of Canada. He presided over the
Provincial Synod again in  1872, and also in 1873—
* Bishop's charge to his Synod,  1870. 248 The.Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
special meetings that were called for the election of a
bishop for the newly constituted Diocese of Algoma.
The episcopate of Bishop Oxenden was marked
by the formation of a Sustentation Fund for the diocese,
which in 1873 was producing an income of $1,250.
It was also marked by the formation of the Montreal
Diocesan Theological College. The Metropolitan felt
very much the need of young men to fill his vacant
missions. Bishop's College, Lennoxville, was his chief
source of supply, but this did not yield the numbers he
wanted. Yet he hesitated before forming another college, for he did not wish to weaken Lennoxville. How- -
ever, in the end, he arranged, through the liberality of
the Montreal laity, for the establishment of a divinity
school, which was looked upon by many as practically
the revival, for the Church of England, of the Divinity
Faculty of McGill University, and a means of preventing the frustration of the wishes of the founder—Mr.
McGill—who left the property for the benefit of the
Church of England, and especially with a view to the
supply of men for the ministry. But McGill, like
King's College, Toronto, was secularized and lost to
the Church. Hence Lennoxville was established, as
Trinity was in Toronto, a purely Church university.
The Montreal Diocesan Theological College was
opened in September, 1873, under the Rev. J. A. Lobley, M.A., the first Principal, an able scholar obtained
from England. The Synod Hall was first used in lieu
of a proper building.    It opened with eleven students.
Dr. Oxenden, as Metropolitan, presided over the
Provincial Synod again in 1-874, and also in 1877. In
1878 he went to England to attend the Lambeth Con- Ashton Oxenden, of Montreal (1869-1878). 249
ference, and while there he resigned his bishopric.
The Dean of Montreal, the Very Reverend Wm. Bond,
LL.D., presided at the Montreal Synod of 1878. In
that year also Dr. Lobley resigned the principalship of
the College, and Rev. Canon Henderson, D.D., T.C.D.,
was appointed in his place.
The resignation of the Metropolitan was as sudden
and unexpected as it was deeply regretted. Various
acts of generous sympathy had endeared him to many.
He was ever as ready to help the country clergy as
those in the more attractive parishes of the city. Called
to the episcopate in disturbed if not in troublous times,
he lifted the diocese to a higher plane and, by his personal example, awakened alike in clergy and laity a
. sense of the beauty and power of the religious life.
After his resignation, Bishop Oxenden was appointed
Vicar of St. Stephen's, Canterbury, but he soon withdrew from all active work and resided in the south of
France, where, occasionally, at Biarritz, he did a little
light duty. At Biarritz he died on the twenty-third of
February, 1892, at the ripe age of eighty-four. Right   Re
Second 1
Hellmu
f Huron
D.D., D.C.L.,
THE name of Isaac Hellmuth was connected with
the Church of England in Canada for a num- I
ber of years.    He was a man of Jewish extraction, and was educated a Jew, but at the age of twenty-|
four, in 1841, he was led to see that Jesus Christ was
the true Messiah, and accordingly became a Christian.
He was a Pole, born in Warsaw, on the  14th of
December, 1817, and was educated  at Breslau University.    In   England   he  became   a  member of the
Anglican Church, and, on his resolve to emigrate to
Canada, received from Archbishop  Sumner, of Can- I
terbury,   and   other  eminent   Churchmen,   high   and
flattering testimonials.    The young  Pole,  the young
"converted   Jew," with  his foreign   cast of   countenance, round, black eyes, and short, plump form, was §
regarded as an   interesting  personage.    He came to I
Canada in  1844, and  presented   his   excellent  testimonials to Bishop G. J.  Mountain, of Quebec, who
gave him Holy Orders—the diaconate and priesthood
—in 1846.
Mr. Hellmuth, as a young man of learning, being
well skilled in Hebrew, was placed by Bishop Mountain as a Professor in Lennoxville University, and
Rector, as well, of St. Peter's Church, Sherbrooke—
Lennoxville and Sherbrooke being but a short distance >^lp
Hi
THE RT. REV. ISAAC HELLMUTH, D.D.D.CL
Second Bishop of Huron.
Bom, 1817.   Consecrated, 1871.    Resigned, 1883.  Isaac Hellmuth, of Huron (1871-1883). 251
•apart. Here Mr. Hellmuth remained for eight years.
In his deep searchings into the Christian faith he was
led to study with much fervour and strong admiration
the doctrines of the German and English Reformers,
and became much imbued with evangelical views.
This soon involved him in controversy with prominent
Churchmen of Canada who could not follow him in
his teaching.   They were days of strong party feeling.
On receiving the appointment of General Superintendent for the Colonial and Continental Church
Society in British America, Mr. Hellmuth gave up
his place in the Diocese of Quebec. The controversy
•between Bishop Cronyn, of Huron, and Provost
Whitaker, of Trinity College, Toronto, attracted his
attention to the west, and some pamphlets that he
had written commended him somewhat to the western
Bishop. He accordingly migrated to London the less,
.where speedy promotion awaited him.
The new Diocese of Huron was rising fast in
-importance, and men were wanted badly. Dr. Hellmuth, looked upon as a man of eminence, was made
by his new Bishop, in 1863, Archdeacon of Huron
..and first Principal and Divinity Professor of Huron
College? His object from the first was to make the
see city a great educational centre, and, therefore,
two years after his arrival in London, he commenced
a college for boys, known as Hellmuth Boys' College.
In 1867 he appears as Rector of St. Paul's Cathedral
and Dean of Huron, but his parochial and diocesan
responsibilities did not curb his passion for establishing schools. Possessed of large private means, he
invested them and used them freely in the college and 252 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
school already mentioned, and in 1869 we find another
institution launched on its way, to be known as Hellmuth Ladies' College.
The Dean thus became a prominent man in the
diocese, and as Bishop Cronyn's health failed so he
rose in importance. When, therefore, the Synod of
Huron was called together on the igth of July, 1871,
to elect a coadjutor bishop, his name stood forward as
that of the coming man. There was one other name,
however, prominently mentioned, and that was the
name of the Rev. J. Walker Marsh, the secretary of
the Synod. Dr. Hellmuth, however, was elected on
the first ballot by 53 clergy (42 necessary) and 78 laymen (66 necessary). Mr. Marsh received 27 clerical
and 45 lay votes. The laity vote in this diocese as in- I
dividuals, and not bv parishes.
Dr. Hellmuth was consecrated in London the less
on August 24th, 1871, by Bishop Oxenden, Metropolitan, assisted by Bishop Bethune (Toronto), and
Bishop Lewis, Ontario. The title of " Bishop of Norfolk" was given Dr. Hellmuth, but this title he bore
but a short time, for Bishop Cronyn died in the
following September, and the coadjutor became second
Bishop of Huron.
In his first charge, which was to the Synod of
187,2, Bishop Hellmuth recommended the Canons
of the Church of Ireland—by way of preventing anything like ritualism—for use in his diocese. He also
strongly condemned " Hymns Ancient and Modern,"
and spoke in warning tones of the growing evils, as he
termed them, of the " Catholic revival." He spoke
highly of the Book of Common Prayer, especially the Isaac Hellmuth, of Huron (1871-1883). 253
Thirty-nine Articles, and expressed himself as ready to
"banish and drive away." from his diocese "all erroneous and strange doctrine contrary to God's Word."
As to his own diocese, the Bishop pointed out that
there was a great dearth of clergy compared with other
dioceses. Toronto, with a population of over 600,000,
had 139 clergymen ; Ontario, with 391,600, had 75
clergy ; while Huron, with a population of 782,000,
had only 90. This sad state of things he hoped to
remedy. 1 We are living," he observed, "in a day of
unprecedented prosperity in every department and
branch of industry. Many have become rich who a
few years ago had to struggle with difficulties." This
prosperity, he argued, should show itself in the
advancement of the interests of the Church.
On the day of the opening of this Synod, June 5th,
1872, the corner stone of what was to be a great diocesan cathedral was laid. It was the project of the
Bishop himself, and his heart was set upon its completion. Large sums were subscribed for the erection
of this cathedral, including $1,000 from the Bishop
himself. By 1874 the project had so far advanced
that the Synod was able to meet for worship and legislation in a commodious and well-appointed chapter
house which had been erected. This was to serve as
a pro-cathedral, and regular services were held in it..
But while this was going on in the city the Bishop had
to report that there were thirty-six townships with
61,000 members of the Church " totally destitute of the
means of grace." This pressed heavily upon him. In
that year (1874) the Synod of the Diocese of Huron
was incorporated by the Provincial Legislature. 254 • The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Another project was entered into, known as the
Western   University.     In    1877    Bishop    Hellmuth'
greatly desired that a university should be established I
in  connection with  Huron  College,   the   property  of
which, had reached the value of about  $^cx,ooo, withI
divinity .and   classical    chairs   "well    and   securely'
endowed."    The divinity chair was endowed by Rev.
Alfred Peache, of England, by the munificent gift of'
$25,000.    At   that  time  the   Bishop  computed   the:
population  of the  diocese to be about 700,000, and-r
comprised 13 counties, 148 townships of 12,000 square;
miles, with numerous flourishing towns and villages.
In 1878 Bishop Hellmuth held "the largest ordination that ever took place in the Canadian Church."*^
Nine were ordained deacons and seven advanced to
the priesthood. In that year also the Bishop attended
the Lambeth Conference in England, and visited, on a;
confirmation tour for the Bishop of London, Norway, >>
Sweden, and Denmark. He returned to England again-
in 1880 to obtain subscriptions for the "Western Uni-,-
versity." In his absence the diocese was administered
by the Right Rev. Dr. Alford, sometime Bishop of Victoria and Hong-Kong. The diocese continued to be
characterized by marks of prosperity. The S.P.G.;
withdrew its last shilling of aid in 1881, and " Huron,
the Garden of Canada, no longer needed assistance
from the mother country."
To the Bishop's great satisfaction, the Western
University was opened on the 5th of October, 1881,
and in connection with it a medical faculty was formed.
But, in the midst of all these projects, the Boys'
* Huron "Journal of Synod," 1879, p. 25. Isaac Hellmuth, of Huron (1871-1883).
School, the Girls' School, the Divinity College, the
Western University, the Diocesan Cathedral—which,
by the way, had never advanced beyond the opening
of the chapter house in 1872—in the midst of all,
Bishop Hellmuth suddenly resigned the diocese in
1883 and took up his residence in England.u Here he
was appointed Suffragan Bishop of the Diocese of
Ripon, but on the death of the Bishop (Dr. Robert
Bickersteth) the office of suffragan ceased, and Bishop
Hellmuth was subsequently appointed Rector of Bridlington, Yorkshire.
Among the literary works of Bishop Hellmuth may
be mentioned " The Authenticity of the Pentateuch,"
and " The Divine Dispensation." His crowning work,
however, is a critical commentary on the Hebrew
Scriptures.
The Bishop has been twice married, first to
Catharine, daughter of General Evans, of the British
army, by whom he had two sons and one daughter.
The daughter married Captain Glancy of the Royal
Engineers. The second son is now dead, but the
elder son, Mr. Isidore Hellmuth, a graduate with
honours at Cambridge, is at the present time a barrister in London, Ontario. The Bishop married again
a lady of high standing in England. 23-    Right Rev. John Horden, D.D., First Bishop
of Moosonee.
JOHN HORDEN was an Englishman, and was
born of humble parents at Exeter, in 1828. His
father is said to have been a printer, but he and
his mother were excellent Christian people, who
brought up their boy " in the nurture and admonition
of the Lord." At seven years of age he was entered
at St. John's School, Exeter, a charity of long foundation. Here, under religious influences, those influences
which English schools so often give, and which here,
alas, they do not, John Horden resolved, when quite
a child, that he would be a missionary. In those
days the same impulse to missionary work was not
given in England as is given now, yet this fine English
lad never forgot his childish resolution, though the
chance for carrying it into effect seemed long delayed.
He had to go to work, and was therefore apprenticed to a trade, in which he learned that ready use
of his hands which in after life stood him in good stead
in the holy calling which came to him. In 1850 he
offered himself to the Church Missionary Society, and
was accepted, to be sent to the foreign field when
opportunity should offer.
This was not long delayed. On the 10th of May,
1851, the expectant missionary received a letter from
the secretary of the C.M.S., telling him that he had THE RT. REV. JOHN HORDEN, D.D.
First Bishop of Moosonee.  John Horden, of Moosonee (1872-1893).
257
been appointed to Moose Factory, on James' Bay,
the southern point of Hudson's Bay in British North
America. His work was to be amongst the Indians
there. It was a dreary post, where no white people
'were, except the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company. He had but a few weeks to decide, and, moreover, the C.M.S. required that he should go as a
married man. He at once resolved to go. Miss
Elizabeth Oke had already given him her heart,
and, on application, hasty though it was, gave her hand,
too. On the 8th of June (1851) the young couple
were on the ship and on their way to the new world
of icebergs, exile, and Indians. But the hopes of a
young man of twenty-three are not easily chilled.
On the 26th of July they had reached Hudson's
Bay. Before them to the right lay a barren, bleak,
but lofty and majestic shore ; to the left an immense
field of ice, extending many miles. The blocks of ice,
floating about in all directions, piled in upon them
from right and left, and for a whole week—in the
middle of August—they were locked in their cold
embrace, unable to move.
On the 26th of August, however, the missionary
and his bride were safely landed at Moose Fort. The
fort is situated on a large island, and is surrounded
by the wigwams of the Indians, with here and there a
house and the old factory and its stores, while in the
distance stood " a neat little church, with a suitable
tower." The Wesleyan Methodists had had a mission
here, but had abandoned it. Mr. Horden came into
undisputed possession. No other denomination of
Christians disturbed him. 258
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Mr. Horden set to work at once. Within a few
hours of his arrival he had visited some three hundred
people—all that were on the island. On the following
day he began to learn the Cree language, and in eight I
months, to the great joy of the Indians, he was able to I
preach to them without an interpreter. It was a language, too, he said himself, harder than Latin and
Greek. At first, of course, he made the usual mistakes
of one trying a new language. Somewhat to the
amusement of his Indians, he told them once that
Eve was made out of one of Adam's pipes !
He had much to teach these people. Their customs were barbarous and cruel. Old people were
strangled by their children when they wanted them no
longer to live.
In the summer—the short summer—of 1852, the
missionary was gladdened by the arrival of good Bishop
Anderson, who had travelled fifteen hundred miles
over lake and river to welcome the new addition to
his staff. To his surprise he found him already at
work, teaching the Indians in their own language, and
so beloved by them that he could not remove him as he
had thought of doing, that he might prepare for the
ministry. Therefore, like a good and sensible Bishop,
having duly examined the excellent young man before
him, he made him a deacon in the presence of his own
people, and, before he left, ordained him a priest also.
Thus was he honoured among those he was serving.
From that time Mr. Horden began a great missionary career. In winter he travelled by dog-sleighs or_
on snow-shoes, clad in a pilot coat with scarf and heavy
mittens and a flannel and fur cap.    He soon learned John Horden, of Moosonee (1872-1893). .  259
the distressing condition of the Indians owing to lack
of food. One man lived through a winter on his own
children ! There were six little ones; he killed and ate
them all. This was a heathen Indian. Many heroic
battles against hunger by Christian Indians are afterwards described, sometimes even to death, without such
revolting expedients being resorted to.
Mr. Horden was a great linguist. Besides the
Cree language he learned a little Norwegian, for there
were some of that tongue about the fort. He learned
Eskimo and Ojibbeway, and studied also Hebrew,
in order that he might make better translations of the
Old Testament into his various new languages.
When he had translated the Gospels into the sign
or syllabic language, he sent them to England to be
printed. As there was no one to correct the proof-
sheets in England, the C.M.S. sent him a printing
press and outfit, and told him to print it himself ! Of
this art he knew nothing, but he determined to learn.
He soon had the press put together and his type
sorted. Then laboriously he set up part of his work,
and  with  some  anxiety put  it on the  press.     The 26o   ■ The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
Indians had seen him go day after day to his office,
and return with marks of anxiety upon his face. They
feared he was losing his reason, and for the insane they I
have a great awe. But suddenly they were rejoiced
when their missionary rushed out with his face radiant
and his hands full of the precious leaves, which he
scattered to the people and said, " See here, see here ,
what God has done for you !" Mr. Horden had added
to his list of trades and accomplishments that of
printer.    The book proved to be a great success.
By the year 1864 it was estimated that Mr.
Horden had baptized about 1,800 Indians, and in that
year he resolved to pay a visit to England. Three of
his children were old enough to go to school, and he
and his wife were to leave for England on the arrival
of the ship. But the ship came not. She had been
wrecked within the bay, and nearly everything but the
letters was lost. In 1865 they tried again, and after
encountering great dangers arrived safely at Exeter.
In 1867 Mr. and Mrs. Horden were back at their work
again. They returned by steamer to Montreal, and
then took a canoe journey through the wilderness of
twelve hundred miles. It was trying for them. Three
children were left behind—when were they to see them
again ? The long separation of father and mother from
their children is not the least of the many trials of a
missionary's life. Two little ones were with them, but
it was difficult to care for them well on so hard a
journey. Mr. Horden brought a harmonium with him
from England for his church, and, with characteristic
energy, learned to play it.
We have not space to describe his frequent jour- John Horden, of Moosonee (1872-1893). ' 26r
neyings and unwearied labours as he went from post
to post and taught the people committed to his care.
But at length his toil was rewarded by a call to the
episcopate, and in connection with this he went to
England in 1872. By that time he had built five
churches in different parts of his wide field. He aided
largely in the erection of these churches by his own
manual labour, his early training as an artisan being,
in that particular, of great use to him. He also had
taught the Indians to work and to give, so that the
churches were really the product of their own energy
and self-denial. Heathenism had become almost extinct. Twelve native teachers, trained by him, were
ministering to their brethren ; and the number of
declared Christians in his mission was estimated at
1,625.*
Dr. Horden (for the Archbishop of Canterbury had
conferred upon him the degree of D.D.) was consecrated in Westminster Abbey, on December 15th,
1872, by the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Tait),
assisted by the Bishop of London (Dr. Jackson) and
other English prelates ; also his old diocesan, Bishop
Anderson, whose hands had previously been laid on
his head in the wilderness to give him the Holy Orders
of the diaconate and priesthood. How different the
scene—from the little wooden church at Moose Fort
to the stately and magnificent building where the two
missionaries again meet for the highest honour that can
be given to man, by the laying on of hands !
The new diocese was to be called Moosonee. It
embraced, as it still does, the shores of Hudson's Bay,
* " Splendid Lives Series : John Horden."    By A. R. Buckland, M.A. 262
The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
a strip of land running up the eastward and westward
sides of it,   indefinitely to the north, and  extending
southward to the Canadian Pacific Railway.    Territorially it is the largest diocese in the world.
Besides the small
^Sftrt
English-speaking communities scattered
throughout the diocese,
there were in it four
different and distinct
peoples, inhabiting different localities and
speaking different languages, the Crees,
Ojibbeways, Eskimos,
and Chipewyans.
Bishop Horden left
England in May, 1873,
and returned to Moose by Montreal as before, battling
with hardships, scanty fare, and mosquitoes as he went.
His first ordination was that of two native teachers
whom he had trained himself. He placed them among
the Ojibbeway Indians.
In 1885 the Bishop attended the first Provincial
Synod held in Rupert's Land. Two new dioceses had
been formed, so that there were now four in all—
Rupert's Land, Moosonee, Saskatchewan, and Athabasca. Bishop Horden helped to form the first House
of Bishops for the Northwest.
Returning to his work he pursued his journeys
with all his old-time enthusiasm and energy, his chief
home employment being the translation of Scripture, John Horden, of M
(1872-1893).
263
Prayer Book, hymns, etc., into the languages of his
people. He had but a small staff. The Rev. J. H.
Keen worked at Moose and Rupert's House. Rev. Mr.
(afterwards Archdeacon) Winter was at York Factory,
and in 1878 the Bishop ordained Mr. Peck, who had
been labouring among the Eskimo.
The second Provincial Synod of Rupert's Land
was opened in Winnipeg on August the 13th, 1879.
Bishop Horden preached the opening sermon. It was
* the discourse of a good, spiritually-minded man. He
showed great solicitude for the red man, especially
as to his probable future.
When Bishop Horden was at Winnipeg, he was
really on his way to visit the western portion of his
Cree Church at York. F
own diocese,  the leading station of which was York
Factory, which he reached after a long and desolate 264 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
journey. It is situated at the mouth of the Nelson
river. From thence he pushed northward, in the
month of February, along the western shore of Hudson's Bay to Fort Churchill, the most northerly spot
of the diocese where man is to be found. In a temperature varying from twenty-eight to forty degrees
below zero, often against a cutting wind, he pushed
on with a guide and attendants in his cariole,
drawn by dogs. At night they camped out and slept
in the open air. Clearing the snow from the ground,
raising a wall of pine trees four feet high as a protection against the wind, building a large fire in front of
it, carpeting the space between with pine brush,
cooking and taking supper, listening perhaps to a
story from some hunter in the party, joining in a short-
service of praise and thanksgiving, lying down upon
the pine brush carpet as a bed, and sleeping soundly
—such was the programme at night.
Churchill is one of the coldest spots on earth,
having eight months of continuous winter and only six
weeks of real summer. The wife of the agent there
was often years without seeing the face of a civilized
woman. Here, however, the Bishop was enabled to
place a missionary, whose labours in time were so
greatly blessed that nearly all the residents were to be
found in attendance upon the Holy Communion.
The Bishop returned to York Factory, and from
there sailed for England, which, in reality, was the
most expeditious way by which he might return to
Moose Fort. He returned by way of Montreal and
Mattawa in 1882. Cheers, and flag, and bell announced his arrival. John Horden, of Moosonee (1872-1893).
265
The scarcity of food was a terrible spectre in
Moosonee. Every dependence had to be placed upon
the arrival once a year of the Hudson's Bay ship. In
1883 this ship did not arrive till towards the close of
September. Had she not come it would have meant
a winter of misery for all, and death to many. The
Bishop suffered from anxiety till the good ship came,
and then he procured money for an extra supply, so
that, should the ship ever fail them, they might have
enough to sustain life. This custom has been continued ever since.
We are sorely tempted here to give some of the
.Bishop's own picturesque descriptions of his journeys
and of the grand scenes of nature by which he was
surrounded, the expeditions over the snow, the Eskimo
dog teams, the breaking up of the ice, attended almost
by the terrors of an earthquake, followed by a mighty
rush of waters ready to sweep away everything before
it, the people being warned by the alarm bell, and
having sometimes to take refuge in the Hudson's
Bay Factory, that ever-constant friend of the white
man and the Indian alike, then the coming of summer,
the trips by canoe—but space forbids.
Since 1882 Mrs. Horden had been in England.
After six years of separation the Bishop, in 1888, resolved to pay another visit to his native land. After
a long and tedious canoe journey, the privations of
Which he now began to feel keenly, he reached Montreal, and was soon again in England. He was now
sixty years old, and at the anniversary meeting of the
C.M.S., held in 1889, in Exeter Hall, the venerable
missionary was a conspicuous figure.     He was loudly 266 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
cheered. In a few days he said good-by to England
—his last good-by—and returned by Montreal again
to his old work. But he was not what he had been. He
still journeyed to distant places, but he could no longer
" sleep in the open air, with the thermometer forty
degrees below zero." Like Moses, he must seek for
the Joshua that was to succeed him. He had met
the Rev. J. A. Newnham, of Montreal, and recommended him to the C.M.S. for that position.
Mr. Newnham reached Moose Fort in 1891 to
work for a while as a missionary with the Bishop in
preparation for his future work. Bishop Horden contemplated returning to England for a few years' rest
before his final call should come.
But his precious translations were not yet finished.
On these he worked steadily, till on the 21st of
November (1892) he was stricken down with rheumatism, and unable to work any more. He died somewhat unexpectedly on the. morning of January 12th,
1893. His daughter, Mrs. Broughton, was present
to close his eyes. For a time he lay in state in the
little church that had been his cathedral, and all,
young and old, took a last lingering look at the face
of him whom they loved, before he was laid to rest
in his own churchyard, among a people whose missionary, pastor, and friend he had been for over forty
years. In England a monument now stands in Exeter
Cathedral to his memory, and also one in the school
which he attended as a boy, and under this are the
appropriate words :
" Faithful unto death."  THE RT. REV. FREDERICK DAWSON FAUQUIER, D.C.L.
First Bishop of Algoma.
Born, 1817.   Consecrated, 1873.   Died, 1881. 24.    Right Reverend Frederick Dawson Fauquier,
D.C.L., First Bishop of Algoma.
FREDERICK DAWSON FAUQUIER was born
at Malta in June, 1817. He came to " Upper
Canada" in 1836, and commenced life as a
farmer near Woodstock; but his superior education,
gentlemanly bearing, and .consistently religious life
recommended him as a young man well suited for the
sacred ministry. The country was then young, and
men were sorely needed to fill the clerical ranks. At
that time the Rev. Dr. Bethune had his theological
school at Cobourg, and here Mr. Fauquier studied his
divinity. In 1845, in his 28th year, he was made a deacon by Bishop Strachan, who also in the following year
priested him. He was placed in charge of South Zorra,
in the County of Oxford, and there he quietly and
faithfully laboured year in and year out, his congregations increasing and improving as the population grew
apace and the land yielded wealth to those who tilled it.
Mr. Fauquier was present at the formation of the
Diocese of Huron, in which district of country his lot
had been cast. He was a warm supporter of Archdeacon Bethune, his quondam instructor, and would
have been glad to see him bishop ; but when the suffrages of his brethren said otherwise, he became a faithful priest to Dr. Cronyn, his new diocesan.
He was a man of quiet and gentle disposition, and 268 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
one whose sweet piety made itself felt.   Though differing I
from the views of most of his  colleagues  in  Huron I
Diocese, he was respected by all, and in 1865 he was
chosen as one of the delegates to the Provincial Synod,
and also for the session which was held in 1871, and :
was present at a special meeting called in the following I
year for the purpose of electing a missionary bishop
to oversee the great stretch of northern country known
as Algoma.
This was rather a memorable session. It lasted
four days, though called together for the one definite
object of framing a canon for the establishment of
missionary bishoprics, and for the election of a mission- ;
ary bishop. At last everything was ready. The Upper
House was to send down a name or names for selection
by the Lower House. On the morning of the fourth
day (December 14th, 1872) the Bishops, that is to say,
Dr. Oxenden, Montreal (Metropolitan) ; Dr. Lewis,
of Ontario; Dr. Williams, of Quebec; and Dr. Hellmuth, of Huron, sent down the name of Rev. F. D. ?
Fauquier. On the first ballot it became very evident that it would probably be a difficult matter to
choose any one, for the clergy voted "Yes" by 31
(necessary 25), and the laity "no" by 26 (necessary
18). Other names were sent down, but to no purpose.
After the eighth ballot a conference was held, and it was
agreed to unite upon the name of Rev. J. P. DuMoulin,
who accordingly was elected on the ninth ballot by 27
clerical votes (necessary 23), and 33 lay (necessary 19).
Shortly after the Synod separated, however, Mr.
DuMoulin withdrew from the offered post.
The Provincial Synod, therefore, had to assemble F,
'ederick D. Fauquier, of Algoma (1873-1881).        269
again in t
down the
who,  how
he following year (1872).    The Bishops sent
name of Rev. Charles Hamilton, of Quebec,
ever,  stated that under no   circumstances
could he i
undertake the office.    By this time the Rev.
Mr. Fauq
uier had been  made an Archdeacon in his
:se, and the Upper House returned to his
name as t(
tion.    Th
but the 1
d their first love.    It was sent down for elec-
e clergy accepted it by a handsome majority,
tity by four votes refused it.    On the third
ballot, hoi
deacon F;
■vever, they, by four votes, accepted it.    A re h -
mquier was therefore declared elected.   With
such diffu
that the fi
Thee
:ulty was it—owing, alas, to party feeling—
rst missionary bishop of Algoma was secured.
iiocese over which he was to preside is con-
nected in
Indians ol
the first instance with the aborigines—the
: this country.
Whei
1 the Hon. and Right Rev. Dr. Stewart was
Bishop  o]
f Quebec,   with   jurisdiction   over   " Upper
Canada,"
a society was formed in York (Toronto) for
" Convert:
ing and civilizing the Indians and propagat-
ing  the   i
Gospel   among  destitute   settlers  in   Upper
Canada."
when ther
It was formed in the year 1830, at a time
heathen s
tate.    This society sent a layman, a Mr. J.
D. Camei
station of
■on, to Sault Ste. Marie, which was then a
the Hudson's Bay Company, to be a teacher
among the
> Indians ; but this gentleman proving unsat-
isfactory—
-having, in fact, himself left the Church—the
Society se
nt Mr. William McMurray, in 1832, to take
charge of
the mission.    Mr. McMurray had the good
will and si
apport also of Sir John Colborne, the Lieu-
tenant-Go
vernor of Upper Canada, who  was  deeply 270 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
interested in the conversion and care of the poor I
Indians—once the lords of the soil, now being driven
far away to the west, where the forests alone were will- I
ing to shelter them. In 1838 Rev. Mr. McMurray (for
he was ordained by Bishop Stewart in 1833) retired
from this mission, having built a log church there, and
was succeeded by Rev. F. A. O'Meara, an enthusiastic
and unwearying Worker among the Indians. Mr.
O'Meara afterwards, at Manitoulin Island, in the
Georgian Bay, spent many years of isolation among
them. Other missionaries followed—Rev. G. A.
Anderson, Rev. James Chance, Rev, Peter Jacobs—the
last named being stationed at Manitowaning.
Bishop  Strachan,  in  1842, paid a visit to these
regions, and officiated at Sault Ste. Marie.    Far-se<eJ[^B
as he always was, he stated that a bishopric ought to
be established there, to be  known as the Diocese of
St. Mary.
The Rev. J. F. Sims appears as a missionary at
Manitoulin in 1865, Mr. Chance being still at Garden
River, and Rev. J. Carry at Sault Ste. Marie. In 1867
the name of Rev. H. B. Wray is added as being
stationed at " Muskoka "—a large district destined to
be well known in Canadian history. Sault Ste. Marie
lay vacant for several years, and in 1870 was joined to
Garden River under Mr. Chance. In that year also
Manitoulin Island was placed in charge of Rev. Rowland Hill—Rev. Mr. Sims having lost his life by falling
from his boat in calm weather. He was drowned in
the presence of his wife and child. Muskoka, having
lost Mr. Wray, was placed in charge of Rev. Thomas
Ball.    Parry Sound also, in 1870, was provided with a Frederick D. Fam
of Algoma (1873.1881).
clergyman, Rev. Robert Mosley. In 187.1 a clergy-
■ man,   Rev.   W.   Newton,   Ph.D.,  was   stationed   at
Rosseau, in the District of Muskoka; Rev. E. F.
-Wilson was placed  in  charge of Garden  River and
Sault Ste. Marie; and in 1872 Rev. C. B. Dundas was
Hudson's Bay Factory, Fort William.
Arthur's   Landing "—no
died
a.t Sault Ste. Marie.    Close to
am, an old station of the Hud-
Port Arthur—on Thunder Bay, La
Rev. J. W. Rolph w
this place is Fort W
son's Bay Company.
Such was the state of things when Archdeacon
Fauquier was elected bishop of the great straggling
territory henceforth to be known as the Diocese of
Algoma. The consecration took place in Montreal on
October 28th, 1873, by the Metropolitan (Bishop
Oxenden), assisted by Bishop Lewis (of Ontario),
Bishop Williams (of Quebec), and other prelates.
By the first steamboat, after his consecration, the 272 The Bishops of Canada and Newfoundland.
new Bishop left Collingwood, and after a rough passage
arrived at Sault Ste. Marie on the 6th of November.
He visited Garden River, where he was addressed by
the Indian chief, who gave His Lordship a warm welcome. Returning to Collingwood on November 13th,
the Bishop proceeded at once to England, where he
arranged with the S.P.C.K. and the Colonial and
Continental Church Society for grants in aid of his
work. A lady had sent out from England to the
Metropolitan of Canada over $2,000, to be applied to
the erection of a see house at Sault Ste. Marie. This
lady presented the Bishop, when in England, with the
further sum of $4,500 for the same object.
Returning to England in May, 1874, the Bishop
again visited the Sault, and also the Muskoka, Parry
Sound, and Algoma districts. In his report to the
Provincial Synod of that year, he pointed out the self-
denial and hardships of the few clergy under his charge,
and hoped that their isolation might arouse the kindlM
sympathies of the Canadian Church on their behalf.
By 1877 the clerical staff had increased to nine,
and sixteen lay readers had been appointed, who began
to prepare the way for new missions. The churches
numbered eleven, and were all free from debt. The
Bishop taught his people to put up buildings, however
lowly, which should serve as churches—buildings to be
used for no other purposes than the worship of God.
Rev. E. F. Wilson had erected at Garden River the
famous Shingwauk Home, to be an industrial school
for Indian boys.
The Bishop, however, began to feel sorely the need
of funds.   The Provincial Synod, in setting off Algoma Frederick D. Fauquier, of Algoma (1873-1881). 273
as a missionary diocese, had made no provision beyond
the stipend of the Bishop, who, therefore, found it incumbent upon him to collect money for his diocese,
wherever it might be procured. As early as 1877 the
Bishop requested the Synod to make some definite
arrangement to relieve him of this irksome duty, but
no steps to do so were taken by it.
The episcopal visitations in Algoma involved
long, tedious, and sometimes perilous journeys, yet
Bishop Fauquier was most assiduous in this as well as
in all his other duties. His visits to Muskoka were
paid usually in the winter. Day by day he penetrated the great wilds, seeking for new places, sometimes tramping wearily through the snow and sleeping
in settlers' huts amidst great discomfort and cold. In
summer his custom, was to visit the islands in the
great Georgian bay and the stations along Lake
Superior. He sailed from day to day in an open boat,
accompanied by a missionary, sleeping under canvas
at night, sometimes in clothes never quite dry. Such
was his work. Yet this was more pleasant to him
than visiting wealthy congregations to beg from them
money for the support of his work. It was only the
urgency of the case that forced him to do it. The
white population kept increasing beyond his ability to
supply the clergymen to minister to them. And this
was a grief to the Bishop.
The consta