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Report of the Public Archives for the year 1950 Public Archives of Canada; Lamb, W. Kaye (William Kaye), 1904- 1951

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Array 
Public
Archives
CANADA
Report for the Year
1950    REPORT OF
THE PUBLIC ARCHIVES  REPORT
PUBLIC ARCHIVES
FOR THE YEAR
1950
WM. KAYE LAMB
Dominion Archivist
OTTAWA
EDMOND CLOUTIER, C.M.G., O.A., D.S.P.
PRINTER TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY
CONTROLLER OF STATIONERY
1951
! Price, 25 cents
73350—1|  Ottawa, March 15, 1951.
To the Honourable F. Gordon Bradley,
Secretary of State,
Ottawa.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual
Report of the Public Archives for the year 1950.
Many interesting items were added to the collections
during the year, and the more important of these are listed in
the notes describing the activities of the various Divisions.
The Report appears this year as a separate publication, and
the intention is that it should be printed in this way hereafter.
Calendars, catalogues, guides, etc., will be published separately
instead of as appendices to the Report, as heretofore.
Respectfully submitted,
Wm. Kaye Lamb,
Dominion Archivist.  Report of The Public Archives for the Year 1950
The past year was an active and interesting period for the
Public Archives. Developments can best be described by
detailing events and acquisitions in the various divisions.
MANUSCRIPT DIVISION
The department's ability to expand its collections and to
serve both the Government and the public effectively depends
in great part upon the storage space and working facilities that
are at its disposal. The difference that can result from even an
extremely modest increase in accommodation was well illustrated
in 1950. Early in the year a room on the third floor, similar in
size to the main manuscript stack-room on the second floor, was
fitted with steel shelving and quarters for staff use. This additional space made it possible to acquire a number of important
files from various departments of the Government, and, by
taking care to limit accessions to material of major historic
interest, the Archives has been able to strengthen very considerably its collection of post-Confederation records. The files
transferred include the following:
Privy Council. Orders-in-Council, 1867-1900. These papers
include both the original orders themselves, and the
submissions upon which they were based.
Privy Council. Despatches, 1867-1911. Consists of correspondence received by the Governor General from the
Colonial Secretary, the Lieutenant Governors, the
High Commissioner, and His Majesty's Minister in
Washington.
Governor General's Papers, 1867-1935. These files complete
the series, part of which was transferred to the Archives
some time ago.
Department of External Affairs. Miscellaneous files. The
material received includes printed and manuscript
documents relating to the Alaska boundary and Bering
Sea questions.
Use of some of the more recent papers included in these
files is restricted. In particular, documents received from the
British Government or its representatives are subject to the 6 PUBLIC ARCHIVES
regulations governing the use of similar material in the Public
Record Office, in London. At present students are not permitted
to use files later in date than December 31, 1902.
Secretary of State. General files, from 1867. This transfer
was in progress at the end of the year. The Department of the Secretary of State has retained all files
relating to incorporated companies. The Archives will
screen out and, when authorized, destroy routine files
of no permanent value.
Shipping Registers. The Department of Transport is engaged upon a systematic effort to call in all non-
current registers and transaction books from all ports
of registry in Canada, and to deposit them in the
Archives for safekeeping and research purposes. In all
146 books were received during the year, and the whole
collection now consists of nearly 400 volumes. The
prospect is that all non-current records will have been
received in Ottawa by the end of 1951.
Smaller lots of miscellaneous records were received from a
number of sources, including the Department of Transport, the
Public Works Department and the Department of Resources and
Development.
These files, together with some additional material which
is to be transferred shortly to the Archives, will fill virtually
all the empty shelving available in the Division. Additional
space will have to be provided before the department can
function effectively as a public record office. As suggested a
year ago, the first requirement is a "half-way house" for departmental files, controlled and staffed by the Public Archives. To
this depository the departments would be invited to send all
records not required for day-to-day use. As long as reference
to files was required, the Archives staff would service them and
produce the necessary papers on request. When they ceased to
be of interest to a department, records would be reviewed by
Archives personnel, and those containing material of permanent
historic interest would be transferred to the Archives proper.
The rest would be destroyed.
In the spring of 1950 the Government decided to construct
a building which would in effect constitute such a half-way
house, and the first unit should be completed in the spring of
1951.    To begin with, the floor area available to the Archives is REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950 7
expected to be about 10,000 sq. ft. ; this will increase progressively
until the entire building, totalling 80,000 sq. ft., is devoted to
record office purposes. In addition to transforming the Archives
scene, this building should be of direct benefit to many branches
of the Government, for at present non-current records are
occupying large areas of badly needed office space in many
departments.
The Archives has once again been able to make additions
of the first importance to its special collections of private papers.
Last autumn the department acquired the famous Levis Papers,
the most valuable group of original manuscripts relating to the
last years of French rule in Canada known to remain in private
hands. The collection was formed originally by the Chevalier
de Levis (later the first Duc de Levis), Montcalm's second-in-
command. After the fall of Quebec and the death of Montcalm,
in 1759, Levis gathered together both his own papers and many
of those of his late commander-in-chief. Eventually he took
them to France, where they were sorted, bound up in eleven
volumes, and placed in the private archives of the Levis family.
They first came to public notice in 1888, when the late
Abbé H. Casgrain heard of them while he was in Paris, searching
for manuscripts relating to New France. The papers were then
in the possession of Comte Raimond de Nicolay, nephew and heir
of the last Duc de Levis. The Comte agreed to have them transcribed, and to present the copy to the Province of Quebec, on
condition that the documents were printed in full. They were
published shortly afterwards under the supervision of the Abbé
Casgrain.
Two of the original volumes—fortunately the two that contain the material of least general interest—were detached from
the collection and sold in New York in 1947. The other nine,
still in their original 18th century bindings, arrived in Ottawa
in December.    Their contents may be summarized as follows:
1. Campaign journals of the Chevalier de Levis, 1756-1760.
The magnificent coloured map of the Battle of Ste. Foy,
and various other maps and plans included in the
volume, are not reproduced in the Casgrain edition.
2. Letters written by Levis from Canada, 1756-1760.
Copies in a secretary's hand.
73350—2 8 PUBLIC ARCHIVES
3. Letters from the Court of Versailles to Montcalm, Levis, and
others. The volume includes an interesting letter from
William Pitt, dated March 24, 1761, granting Levis the
right to serve in Europe.
4. Letters from Colonel de Bourlamaque to Levis, 1759-60.
The Colonel was the French third-in-command in
Canada.
5. Letters from the Marquis de Montcalm to Levis, 1756-1759.
Perhaps the most interesting volume of the series. It
contains over 150 letters, more than 60 of which are
entirely in Montcalm's own handwriting; the rest are
signed by him.
6. Montcalm's campaign journals, 1756-1759.   The volume
consists of a series of journals, varying slightly in size,
bound up in a single cover. The text was apparently
dictated by Montcalm, who added notes and corrections in his own handwriting.
7. Letters from the Marquis de Vaudreuil, Governor of Canada,
to Levis, 1756-1760. Two letters to Montcalm are
included.
8. Letters from the Intendent Bigot to Levis, 1756-1760.
9. Miscellaneous letters to Levis, 1756-1760.
The seven volumes of letters contain in all nearly 900
documents. The acquisition of these letters and the campaign
journals of Montcalm and Levis gives the Public Archives a
pre-eminent collection of original documents relating to the
critical years 1756-1760. The department already possessed
the papers of Bourlamaque, which closely resemble the Levis
Papers in general character. The same period is covered from
the British point of view by the manuscripts presented to the
people of Canada in 1923 by Sir Leicester Harmsworth, as a
memorial to his brother, Viscount Northcliffe. They relate in
great part to Wolfe and to Monckton, who served under Wolfe
at the siege of Quebec.
Arrangements completed late in 1950 will bring another
outstanding collection—in this instance relating to more recent
times—to the Archives. Thanks to the generous co-operation of
Mrs. O. D. Skelton, and to Dean W. A. Mackintosh of Queen's
University, the papers of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, now on deposit at
Queen's will find a permanent home in Ottawa.    The Archives REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950 9
already possessed an important segment of Sir Wilfrid's papers,
and much will be gained by adding to this the material lately
at Queen's. The Archives has undertaken to start work immediately on the cataloguing of the entire collection, and has agreed
further to microfilm the files, when they have been placed in
proper order, and to give a positive print to the Douglas
Library at Queen's University. While work on the papers is in
progress it will be necessary to restrict access to them, but when
the cataloguing is finished the expectation is that they can be
made available to anyone for purposes of serious research. An
exception will have to be made in the case of files including
United Kingdom documents, as these will be governed by the
Public Record Office rules to which reference has already been
made.
The importance of the Laurier Papers requires neither
explanation nor emphasis, and this further addition to the
collections of material in the Archives relating to the prime
ministers of Canada is most welcome. It will be recalled that
the papers of Sir John Thompson, Prime Minister in 1892-94,
were received in 1949. Work on them has gone forward steadily,
and the cataloguing is almost finished. Important additions
have also been made to the very large collection of papers
deposited in the Archives by the late Rt. Hon. W. L. Mackenzie
King. Here again the work of cataloguing is well advanced. In
accordance with the expressed wish of Mr. King, his literary
executors have stated their intention of placing all his papers in
the Public Archives as soon as the biography of the late prime
minister is completed.
Two other acquisitions call for special mention. In March,
1950, the Archives purchased from the Champlain Society the
extensive collection of letters relating to the fur trade known as
the Hargrave Papers. James Hargrave (1798-1865) was for
many years a leading figure in the service of the Hudson's Bay
Company. For 24 years he was stationed at York Factory, the
centre of the Company's northern department, where he had
unusual opportunities to hear the news and gossip of the fur
trade. He was a tireless correspondent, and scores of colleagues
scattered over half a continent depended upon the letters he
wrote them once or twice a year to keep them informed of the
latest happenings. Hargrave in turn gathered much of his news
from the letters they wrote to him. The Papers consist of four
parts: (1) Hargrave's letter-books, which are complete for the
years 1826-1858; (2) about 1,500 letters addressed to Hargrave,
73350—2* 10 PUBLIC ARCHIVES
176 of which were printed by the Champlain Society in the
volume entitled The Hargrave Correspondence; (3) a series of
letters written by Hargrave's wife, Letitia, most of which are
printed in The Letters of Letitia Hargrave, and (4) a few score
miscellaneous papers. The collection as a whole is one of the
most important in existence outside the archives of the Hudson's
Bay Company, and compares favourably with the well-known
Ermatinger Papers, and with the Donald Ross Papers. The
latter, now preserved in the Archives of British Columbia, are so
closely related to the Hargrave Papers at many points that it
seemed worth while to try and bring the two together. Both
are to be microfilmed in the near future, and an exchange of
films will accomplish the end in view.
In October a collection of a very different character was
received. To be known henceforth as the Boyd Papers, this
collection consists of records relating to the various enterprises of
Mossom Boyd, his son, Mossom Martin Boyd, other members
of the Boyd family, and their associates, over the period 1852—
1900. The papers, which occupy about a hundred feet of
shelving, were the gift of Miss Sheila Boyd, of Bobcaygeon,
Ontario. Her grandfather, Mossom Boyd, came to Canada in
1833, settled in Bobcaygeon, and soon engaged in both lumbering
and farming. About 1870 he undertook large-scale logging
operations for the Colonial Land and Emigration Company,
which was clearing its holdings in preparation for settlement.
As his business expanded, Boyd established members of his
family in Albany, New York, and in Quebec, where he purchased timber rights in the Saguenay District. He also managed
the Trent Navigation Canal. His son, Mossom Martin Boyd,
extended the family business westward; he engaged in cattle
raising in Alberta, and lumbering in British Columbia. The
papers are remarkably complete, and document many of the
family enterprises in detail. They consist of correspondence,
ledgers, and account books from the head office in Bobcaygeon,
and records from many individual activities, including the Trent
River Navigation Company. Some of the material may well
be unique, notably the correspondence, foremen's records, etc.,
from no less than forty "shanties", as logging camps were called
at the time.
Acquisitions of political interest, in addition to those already
mentioned, included a long series of personal letters written by
the fourth Viscount Monck to his son. Lord Monck was
Governor General of Canada in 1867, at Confederation, and REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950 11
the letters were the gift of his grandson, the present Viscount.
Two items from the papers of the Hon. David Laird were purchased. One is a memorandum book on Indian affairs in the
North West dated 1874; the other is a private letter-book of
1875-76. Both date from the period when Laird was Minister of
the Interior. One new original letter by Sir John A. Macdonald
was received. The gift of Mr. J. H. Ferguson, M.P., it was
written to Ogle R. Gowan on August 10, 1858. Another
interesting document consists of replies given by Sir Richard
Cartwright to questions on political events in 1863-66. The
questions, which deal chiefly with the position of Sir John A.
Macdonald and George Brown, were asked by his secretary,
F. C. T. O'Hara, who took down the replies. Through the
courtesy of Mr. J. S. M. Langlois, the Archives secured a photostat copy of an interesting journal covering the period September 9, 1837, to March 5, 1838, kept by John Sandfield Macdonald. He commenced the journal on March 5th, in order to
recapture the events and impressions of the previous six months,
during which he had been too busy to keep a diary. Three
original letters by Sir Wilfrid Laurier were acquired. Two were
addressed to J. Castell Hopkins in 1897 and 1898; the third was
written to Sir Joseph Pope in 1918. A typewritten copy of a
fourth letter, written to W. L. Fauvel in 1893, was also added
to the file. A collection of 59 personal letters addressed to
Lady Laurier over the period 1899-1906, and to her secretary,
Miss Yvonne Coutu, at various dates between 1902 and 1929,
was presented by the Misses Jacqueline and Marthe Mineau.
They are all of a social nature.
The Manuscript Division also received the following:
Blathwayt, Sir William. Letter from Sir William Phippard
(Mayor of Poole) and Solomon Merritt (merchant),
May 21, 1702, on the need to protect the fisheries
between Cape St. Francis and Green's Pond, Newfoundland.
Christie, John (Ensign, 60th Regiment). Letters, July 10,
1765, February 24, 1768, and September 6, 1768, to
General Thomas Gage, relating to Indians (1765) and
to the accusations against Major Robert Rogers.
Photostats from Gage Papers, William Clements
Library, Ann Arbor.
Brooks j Hon Samuel (1793-1849).    Genealogy. PUBLIC ARCHIVES
Doughty, Sir Arthur G. Diaries kept in England and France
in 1916-17, and in England in 1923 ; draft manuscript of
recollections; miscellaneous correspondence files.
Fisheries. Regulations governing the river fishery adopted
in General Sessions of the Peace, 1794.    Original.
Fraser Family. Militia commissions and certificates issued
by the School of Military Instruction, Toronto, to
George Salmon (1812), Alexander Fraser (1822), and
W. B. Fraser (1864 and 1865).    Photostats.
Fravel, John H. Extracts copied from his diary and
account books, 1867-1874, mostly relating to the
telegraph line from New Westminister to the interior
of British Columbia.
Graphic Publishers. Correspondence, catalogues, etc., relaw
ing to the failure of this firm in 1932. Presented by
Mr. Charles Clay.
Helmcken, John Sebastian (1825-1920). Reports written
from Fort Rupert to Richard Blanshard, first Governor
of Vancouver Island, in July, 1850, regarding difficulties
with the coal miners, and the murder of three of their
number by the Indians. Photostat. Originals in the
Archives of British Columbia.
Historical Manuscripts Commission.    Minutes, 1907-1915.
Manning and Marceau. Eighteen documents relating to
Thomas J. Manning and Louis Marceau, Odell Town
and Napierville, 1812-1876. Presented by Miss A.
Irene Marceau, of Montreal.
Norfolk County Historical Society Papers. Letters and
papers of Thomas Welch, Surveyor and Commissioner
of the Peace for London District, 1797-1816; also
7 letters to F. F. Walsh, M.P., 1821-1860. Photostat.
Originals in the possession of the Society.
Oil Lease of lands in Enniskillen Township, dated April
10th, 1861 ; registered April 13th. Photostat. One of
the early leases of the kind taken out in Canada.
Rae, Dr. John, Hudson's Bay Company Chief Factor and
Arctic explorer. Four letters to his niece, Jessie
Hamilton   (Mrs.  W.   B.   Scarth),  dated  1866, REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950
1890 and 1892; two letters from his wife to Mrs. Scarth
giving details of his death ; photograph of Dr. Rae, with
autobiographical details in his own hand.
Microfilm promises to play an important part in the future
activities of the Public Archives. In this field the outstanding
event of the year was the conclusion, in October, of an agreement
between the Hudson's Bay Company and the department under
the terms of which the microfilming of the Company's archives is
being undertaken as a joint project.
The archives of the Hudson's Bay Company comprise by
far the largest and most valuable collection of records relating to
the history of Canada outside the national collections of Great
Britain, France, and this country itself. The portion to be
photographed immediately consists of the papers dating from the
earliest times to 1870. Included in these files are such items as
the minute books of the Company, which have been preserved
in a virtually unbroken series commencing in 1671; the voluminous reports and correspondence of Sir George Simpson, chief
representative of the Company in Canada during the important
period from 1821 to 1860; and all surviving fort journals and
district letter books. The collection as a whole includes thousands of bound volumes and portfolios of loose papers containing
in all several million pages. Though nominally the records of a
privately owned corporation, these papers throw a flood of new
light upon the history of the Arctic regions and the whole
Canadian West over a long period. The Hudson's Bay Company
was for most practical purposes the government and representative of Great Britain in these entire regions for more than a
century, and both exploration and the economy of the country
developed in great part under its auspices.
The purpose o£ the microfilming programme is twofold.
First, the existence of film copies will offer a safeguard against
the irreparable loss to scholars and research workers in many
fields that would be occasioned by accidental destruction of the
originals. With this in mind, the negative films will be stored
by the Company for safekeeping in a vault in Canada. In the
second place, the films will make it possible for research workers
in Canada to study the contents of the documents without making an expensive journey to England. For this purpose, positive
prints made from the master negative will be filed in the Public
Archives in Ottawa. 14 PUBLIC ARCHIVES
Access to the facsimiles in Ottawa will be governed by the
same conditions that govern use of the original documents in
the Company's archives in London. The right to reproduce
the complete text of any document, or series of documents, is
reserved by the Company for itself and the Hudson's Bay
Record Society, *but sympathetic consideration will be given to
requests from responsible scholars studying specific topics who
wish to publish extracts relating to those topics.
Microfilm will also play an important part in the future
activities of the branch offices of the Archives in London and
Paris. Hitherto the bulk of the material received from abroad
has been in the form of hand-written transcripts. The ease wit™
which these can be read is an advantage to students, but copying
by hand is so time consuming, especially if a document is at all
difficult to decipher, that the cost is prohibitive. There is
the further consideration that most of the great archival collections in Europe have been twice in dire peril within a relatively
brief period, and it seems only prudent to take advantage of
microfilming techniques, and to secure as much material as
possible as quickly as possible.
In London, thanks to the courtesy and co-operation of Sir
Hilary Jenkinson, Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, and his
staff, a microfilm camera owned and controlled by the Public
Archives of Canada has been installed in the Public Record
Office. Some mechanical difficulties have unfortunately occurred, but these are being dealt with, and the camera should be
operating full time in the near future. In Paris, permission
cannot be secured to use a camera of our own, and it will therefore be necessary to purchase microfilm copies of documents from
the photographic departments of the various institutions in
which material relating to Canada is housed. Test films have
already been received from both the Archives Nationales and
the Bibliothèque Nationale. These have been found to be quite
satisfactory, and orders for films will be placed as rapidly as
funds permit.
The over-all result of the change from copying by hand
to copying by photography promises to be startling. Including
the films produced by the cameras in the archives of the Hudson's
Bay Company, at least a million pages of material should be
received in Ottawa per annum, instead of approximately fifteen
thousand pages, as in recent years. REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950
15
It may be well to interpolate here a list of the transcripts
that were received from the London and Paris offices in 1950.
The London list is as follows:
Hutton Papers. The major copying effort of the staff
centred upon the private papers of Lieutenant General
Sir Edward Hutton, C.B., K.C.M.G., which are in the
British Museum. The items copied relate chiefly to
the period of his command in Canada (1898-1900), and
include a chapter of his unfinished memoirs. The
original papers are not to be made available for research
until 1956, and a similar restriction will, of course,
apply to the transcripts. Permission to copy the
material of Canadian interest at this time was kindly
granted by Lady Hutton and the Keeper of Manuscripts in the British Museum.
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
Correspondence, Diocese of Nova Scotia, 1790-1850.
Letters from Nova Scotia clergy to the Secretary of the
Society. The correspondents are: Rev. M. Twining,
1790-1826; Rt. Rev. C. Inglis, 1791, 1811-1812; Rt.
Rev. R. Stanser, 1794-1831; Rev. John Millidge,
1804-1829; Rev. Charles Inglis, 1811-1850; Rev. Roger
Aitken, 1813-1825. There is also a file on King's
College, Windsor, 1803-1822.
War Office 1, Vol. 558. In-letters, Military Correspondence,
Canada, 1847.
War Office 34, Vol. 68. Amherst Papers, Vol. 68. Correspondence between the Commander-in-Chief and the
Commissary of Stores and Provisions, July 1758-June
1762.
Transcripts received from Paris included the following:
Archives des Colonies, Series G 2, Vol. 191. Conseil
Supérieur de Louisbourg, 1731-1740. Acts concerning
appeals of sentences, suits, trustees for minors, arrests
for theft and murder, inquests, damages, and registration of purchases.
Archives Nationales. Archives Charente Inférieure, Etude
Benniot. Registre Demontreau, 1659-1664. Contracts
with Jeanne Mance for loans, labour and transportation
for Montreal. PUBLIC ARCHIVES
Series ZXD, No. 104.   Amirauté, 1629-1640.   Authorizations i
for seizures and sales of goods for debt ; appointments of \
officers; valuation of prizes; confirmation of judgments;
statements of duties paid for permits to sail,  1630; j
judgments affecting Guillaume  de  Caen and  Louis
Kirke.
Ministère des Affaires Etrangères. Consulat de France à
San Francisco. Vol. 3, 1854-59; Vol. 4, 1860-66.
Correspondence between the consular agents and the
French Ministers relating to the gold rush to the Fraser
River, in British Columbia; the French population of
Victoria, etc.
Bibliothèque Nationale.    Collection Clairambault:
Vol. 881. Reports of the two expeditions made in
1696 to explore La Baie des Espagnols and la Baie de
Plaisance; expeditions against Hudson Bay, 1693-96;
petitions by the Jesuits to the French Minister, 1696;
an undated document from the Jesuits complaining of
being prevented from attending to their Indian missions
by Frontenac.
Vol. 882. Letter of Abbé La Corne to the Pope asking
approval of the selection of Mgr. Jean Olivier Briand
as Bishop of Quebec, 1765; Cardinal Castelli's answer,
1766; extract, letter from the Duke of Praslin to the
Chevalier de la Houze and reply, 1763; four letters of
La Mothe-Cadillac to the Minister in which he discusses
affairs in Canada, 1689-95; letters from Le Borgne
Belleisle to the King, 1688 ; two letters of Le Danois to
the Minister, 1685; a third letter, 1689.
Vol. 883. Memorandum by François Lefevre, Sieur
Duplessis Faber, Commander of the Forces, on the
money spent for the fortification of Chambly, 1687 ; plan
by Duplessis Faber for the fortification of Port Royal,
1693; letters relating to Duplessis Faber.
Vol. 884. Documents, 1678-1738, chiefly requests for
appointments or remuneration of services, certificates of
service, and a general list of officers who served in
Canada between 1683 and 1738.
Vol. 1016. Most of the papers in this volume are
copies made by the Abbé Bernou, and many of them
are in his handwriting.    They relate in great part to REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950 17
Cavelier de La Salle and his travels. La Salle's own
narrative is included. Only documents relating to
Canada are included in the transcript, but the Paris
office also secured a microfilm copy that includes the
complete volume.
Through the kindness of Monsieur J. Denys de Bonaventure,
of Beaumont-en-Veron, France, a kinsman of the celebrated
Nicolas Denys, the Paris office was also able to send to the
Archives microfilm copies of a number of documents in the
collection of the Denys family.
In the course of the year a considerable number of documents were microfilmed in Ottawa, and preparations were made
to continue this work on a much larger scale. The work done
illustrates well a few of the many purposes for which film copies
can be of great value. In my last report, to cite one example, I
referred to the letter books of Sir John A. Macdonald. These
are of the old tissue-paper variety, and the ink has been fading
rapidly in recent years. A trial run indicated that most of the
pages would still photograph clearly. The entire series has now
been microfilmed, and the contents thereby preserved permanently, regardless of the further deterioration that will inevitably
overtake the originals.
A second example illustrates the way in which microfilming
can enable a number of institutions to pool their resources to
mutual advantage. Collections of original papers frequently
become scattered. This is true of the records of the American
Fur Company, many of which are of interest to Canadian
historians. The bulk of them are in the keeping of the New York
Historical Society, but important fragments have found a home
in a number of other depositories, including the Public Archives.
Each of the institutions owning a portion of the papers has agreed
to microfilm its share, and to make a print of the film available
to the others. The American Fur Company papers in the
Archives were microfilmed last summer, and copies were distributed in accordance with this pooling agreement. The first of
the shipments of films that will come to the Archives in return
will arrive shortly.
Microfilm also furnishes a means whereby facsimile copies
of material of special interest to some province or region can be
made available there at reasonable cost. To cite an instance,
the despatches that passed in colonial days between the Governor
of New Brunswick and the Colonial Office,  in London, are 18
PUBLIC ARCHIVES
naturally of peculiar interest to that province. Last year the
University of New Brunswick inquired if it would be possible for
the Archives to furnish it with microfilm copies of the complete
series. Only a portion of the original despatches are preserved in
Ottawa, but transcripts of the rest have been secured from
London, and it was therefore possible to furnish the required
films. In the same way, microfilm copies of the famous Selkirk
Papers have been made available to the Archives of Manitoba
and the Archives of British Columbia.
Whenever copying of this kind is done the original negative
film is retained by the Archives. Indeed, care has been taken
to see that all the larger copying projects fit into the large-scale
microfilming programme that the department is undertaking as
a precautionary measure. The intention is to place all major
files in the Archives on film, and thereby make provision against
the loss that would result from damage to or total destruction of
the original. Quite as important for purposes of research is thj|
fact that the existence of the negative films should make it
possible eventually for the Archives to build up a library of
positive copies which can be made available on loan in any
institution throughout the country.
MAP DIVISION
The Map Division has two major projects in hand: the
reclassification and recataloguing of the map collection, and the
preparation of a new printed catalogue to replace the previous
work, which appeared as long ago as 1912. In the course of the
year the very considerable task of rearranging the maps themselves in the filing drawers in order to make them conform with
the new classification was completed. Work is now proceeding
on the revised card catalogue.
A memorandum prepared by the Division outlines the
general character of the proposed new printed catalogue as
follows:
"The map collection is now more than five times its size
when the last catalogue was published in 1912. Even at that
period it required a volume of over 500 pages to list all the items,
and this was a mere list of titles without any critical comment
on the maps. It is thus impossible in one or two convenient
volumes to present the wealth of our map material so as to
provide both a satisfactory reference list and a clear picture of
the strength and weakness of the collection.    The mapping of REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950   * 19
Canada has been one of the greatest achievements in our history
and also (both from the historical and scientific points of view)
in the story of cartography; it is felt that since we possess easily
the finest record of that achievement, we should now produce
a catalogue that would illustrate and emphasize it, rather than a
mere list that would provide little stimulus for the student. This
would involve notes pointing out the importance of the more
significant maps and groups of maps, and it also calls for an
introduction outlining the whole story of Canadian cartography
and its relation to the larger picture. No comprehensive study
of Canadian cartography since 1700 has yet appeared, as the
staff of the Map Division have had much occasion to realize
during their preliminary work on the catalogue. Moreover, a
high percentage of the earlier maps in the collection have never
been dated and the standard reference works in the field actually
confuse the student as to the dating and authorship in a surprising number of cases. The catalogue can only be of real value
to scholars if it fills in the majority of the gaps and corrects the
errors, and the sum total of this work involves such a revision
of current ideas as to make the catalogue unacceptable without
notes and documentation."
A catalogue that will run to half a dozen volumes may well
be the final result. The arrangement will follow the new filing
system, and each part will be made available as it is completed.
The first section will list and describe all maps in the
Archives relating to the French occupation of North America
before 1763. As the thousand or so items that relate to the
French regime in Canada and in the Ohio and Mississippi
valleys may well turn out to be the most complete collection of
the kind on the continent, this volume should be of great interest
to historians, map librarians, and cartographers. Moreover,
since the maps in question relate to the least documented periods
in the history of Canada, and include a large number of important
anonymous items, this first volume may well break more new
ground than any other in the series. Experience has shown that
for this particular group of maps a comprehensive basic work is
lacking, and the Division hopes to produce a first draft upon
which a definitive study can later be built. With this in mind,
the new catalogue will first be issued in a preliminary edition.
This will be circulated both for comment and criticism, and in
the hope that other institutions may be willing to check the
contents against their holdings, and report any material in their
possession that is not listed. 20 PUBLIC ARCHIVES
Progress on a catalogue of this character is necessarily
slow, but well over half the material for the first volume has now
been assembled in rough form. The text of the preliminary
edition should be completed before the end of 1951.
Over 950 maps were added to the collection in 1950. About
500 of these came from the Boyd Papers, to which reference is
made elsewhere, and another 200 consisted of newly-issued
sheets in the official series published by various departments of
the Government. The remainder included a number of interesting and valuable maps transferred to the Archives by the
Library of Parliament, the Post Office Department, the Army
Survey Branch of the Department of National Defence, and the
Privy Council Office. Some items were sent to the Map Room
from the Manuscript Division.
Maps of the World, North America, or the whole of Canada
to the number of approximately a hundred were received during
the year. The following eleven photo-copies were particularly
useful acquisitions:
The world map of Albertinus de Virga, 1415.
Seven of the beautiful maps in the manuscript atlas in the
Archives du Ministère de la Guerre, Paris, "Achevé Par
guillaume Le Testu Le cinquiesme Jour dapvril 1555
Avant pasques." According to Anthiaume, this work
is unapproached by any other 16th century cartographical work for "la finesse du dessin et le luxe
d'ornementation. ' '
Part of a portolano made about 1565 by the Portuguese
Bertholameu Lasso. This was unrecorded until it was
purchased by the Rosenbach Company about two
years ago. Our photograph was the gift of Dr. M. A.
Buchanan, of Toronto.
The elaborately engraved map entitled "Nova Francia, alio
nomine dicta Terra Nova," by Plancius, c. 1598, with
the inset view that is probably the most beautiful early
picture of whaling.
The John Carter Brown Library's manuscript "Carte de
l'Amérique Septentrionale Depuis l'embouchure de la
Riviere St. Laurens jusques au Sein Mexique."    This REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950 21
has been attributed to Frontenac's engineer Randin,
but this particular manuscript, perhaps a contemporary
copy, is in a hand resembling that of the noted draughtsman Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin.
The collection of mid-nineteenth century maps of Canada
was strengthened by a purchase of two dozen items, including
several fine early productions of John Bartholomew, and the file
of current maps was broadened by the acquisition of fifty sheets
of particular use to the economist. These include road maps,
postal maps, climate, population and industrial maps, and maps
showing air routes.
About 300 of the maps received related to Eastern Canada,
that is, to Newfoundland, the Maritimes, Quebec and Ontario.
About 200 of these came from the Boyd Papers; they helped
greatly to build up the file of maps illustrating the development
of the back areas of Quebec and Ontario between 1850 and 1920.
The Boyd items relate chiefly to the Trent Valley, the Lake
Nipissing area, the North shore of Georgian Bay, the upper
St. Maurice and Saguenay valleys, and the neighbouring part
of Labrador.
Photographs of four maps of particular interest were
received from the Paris office of the Archives:
The engineer Villeneuve's "Carte Des Environs de Quebec
En La Nouvelle France," of 1688, a surprisingly
accurate survey for the period; it shows every house,
clearing and road in the region.
A curious bird's-eye view of the Island of Orleans and neighbouring shores; undated and unsigned.
"Cours de Pitchitaouichetz ou de Saguenay . . . par le
Père Laure," 1731, the prototype of the map of the
Saguenay in Charlevoix's History. Photograph of an
elaborate contemporary manuscript copy by the Sieur
Guyot.
"Le Cours du Saguenay depuis son entrée, jusque à la rivière
de Chékoutimi," a beautifully drawn map dated 1748.
One original manuscript map dating from the French regime
was received. This is entitled: "Carte du Détroit de BelTsle
Levée Par G. Pelegrin, en 1735." The interesting manuscript
maps included in the Levis Papers have not yet been examined
and recorded in the Division's catalogue. 22 PUBLIC ARCHIVES
A score of items relating to the English period in the history
of Eastern Canada deserve detailed mention ; all but the last item
are photostat copies:
A set of 16 manuscript plans and elevations of military
buildings, etc., at Quebec, Chambly, Niagara-on-the-
Lake, Chippewa, Fort Erie, Amherstburg and St.
Joseph's; from the originals in the British Museum.
These drawings were made in 1800 by Lt. J. B.
Duberger, who built the famous model of Quebec now
in the Archives Museum. They are the finest examples
yet acquired of the Royal Engineer draftsmanship of
the period.
"The Northern Extremity of Labrador with Ungava Bay
Explored by the Missionaries of the Uni tas Fratrum in
1811." Photostat copy of an engraved map, probably
the first detailed survey of this coast.
Photostats of three manuscript plans of Moraviantown,
U.C.: two made in 1793; the third in 1813 by Captain
Robert B. McAfee, of the United States Army; also
another plan by McAfee, showing the battle. The
originals are in the Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pa;
"A Nautical Chart of the North Shore of Lake Erie, from
Point Abino up to Pt. Pelee Islands by Capt. Alexr.
McNeilledge of Port Dover, C.W." Photograph of an
early printed chart, dated 1848; with some very individual details, and pictures of a number of the vessels
operating in the area.
"Map of the District of St. Francis, Canada East," by O. W.
Gray, 1863. A fine copy of this large map, which shows
the location and ownership of every building in the
district.
New maps of the Prairie Provinces, North-West Territories
and British Columbia, totalled about 280. The majority of
these came from the Boyd gift, and they nearly all relate to
British Columbia. They consist for the most part of comparatively recent manuscript surveys of timber limits, railway
lines, mills, etc., in the Cowichan Lake and Shawnigan Lake
areas. REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950 23
The most interesting items received from other sources
were the following:
"Carte des Nouvelles Découvertes dans Loues t du Canada."
An original 18th century manuscript transferred from
the Manuscript Division. Not recorded hitherto, but
apparently a contemporary copy of the map in the
Bibliothèque du Service Hydrographique de la Marine,
Ms. 4044-B, No. 22, which bears the additional note,
"Drescée Suivant Les Mémoire de Monsieur De Laver-
andrie."
Map of North America west of Lake Superior and north of
the 43rd parallel, with part of Siberia, bearing the note:
"Copied from the Original sign'd P. Pond, Araubaska,
6th December 1787." Photostat copy of the original
in the Public Record Office, London (Colonial Office
Maps, America North & South, No. 54). The largest
and fullest known map by Pond ; perhaps an early copy
of the map prepared for Catherine the Great which
Prof. H. A. Innis considers to have been lost (Innis,
Peter Pond, p. 147).
Map covering the same area as the preceding but in a different hand; listed in the catalogue of Colonial Office
Maps as "Chart called Mackenzie's Map" and dated
"[1795]". Shows Mackenzie's route, but is not the map
published in the Voyages of 1801. Photostat; from the
same series as the above, No. 49.
Tracings of three manuscript surveys of the Pacific Coast by
Captain Vancouver; from originals in the Public Record
Office (CO. 5, Vol. 187). These were forwarded to the
Admiralty with Vancouver's "Narrative" of September
26, 1792. They differ from those published in 1798 in
scale or nomenclature (for example, Cape Flattery
appears as Cape Claaset).
"Discoveries of the Honble. Hudson's Bay Company's
Arctic Expedition A.D. 1838-39" and "Winter Discoveries on Great Bear Lake and Routes through the
Barren Lands to the Coppermine River by Thomas
Simpson A.D. 1837-39." Photostat copies of the
original maps, which are in the collection of the Royal
Geographical Society, London. 24 PUBLIC ARCHIVES
Manuscript map of British Columbia, scale 8 miles to 1
inch, signed by Alfred Waddington, January 26, 1870.
Photostat copy from the original in the collection of the
Royal Geographical Society, London. This was probably the most detailed general map of the province
before the Trutch map of 1871.
Eleven printed maps relating to the North-West Rebellion
of 1885. This fine collection, showing the route and
operations of the expeditionary force, was transferred
to the Archives by the Library of Parliament.
Defences of Esquimalt. A set of 42 manuscript plans providing a detailed record of the work done between
1903 and 1905. Transferred to the Archives by the
Army Survey Branch of the Department of National
Defence.
From Mr. J. Neilson Barry, of Portland, Oregon, the Division received a photostat copy of a manuscript map of the upper
Columbia, Clark, and Snake rivers and their tributaries, in the
Oregon country. The original bears a note in the hand of
William Clark that reads: "This Sketch was given to me by a
Skaddat a Chopunnish & a Skellute at the Falls of Columbia
18 April 1806." At that time Lewis and Clark were on their
return journey from the Pacific Coast. Mr. Barry states that
this was "the first map of . . . all of the Oregon country" and
that Lewis and Clark used it as the basis for their own map,
published in 1814.
Other items received that are of American interest include
a group of fifteen printed maps contemporary with and illustrating various operations of the American Revolution during
the years 1775 to 1777. Most of these are northern operations,
and among the maps is a large-scale representation of the battle
of Valcour Island: Faden's "The Attack and Defeat of the
American Fleet under Benedict Arnold" (1776).
Few maps relating to regions outside North America were
received. Outstanding amongst them was a fine large-scale
coloured reproduction of Abel Tasman's map of New Holland,
1644. This was received from the Mitchell Library, Sydney,
N.S.W., which possesses the original.
The twenty atlases acquired were all relatively modern,
but two of them are particularly good examples of the early
Victorian atlas.    These are John Arrowsmith's London Atlas of REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950 25
1842, and Alexander Keith Johnston's National Atlas of 1844.
The former was a purchase from Mr. G. H. Green, of Goderich,
Ontario, the latter was amongst the items presented by the
Privy Council Office,
Ship plans have long been of interest to the Division, even
though its collection of them was very small. Last summer the
Archives was able to take advantage of the fact that Lt. Colonel
Howard I. Chapelle, the noted authority on early shipbuilding,
was making a careful check of the large collection of plans from
the Admiralty that have been deposited in the National Maritime
Museum at Greenwich. Colonel Chapelle kindly agreed to
watch out for plans of Canadian interest, and photostats relating
to fourteen vessels were secured as a result. The ships in
question are the Maria, Carleton and Royal George, built at
St. John's, P.Q., in 1776-77; the Ontario, constructed at Carleton
Island in 1780; the Princess Charlotte, Niagara, Wolfe, Canada,
St. Lawrence, Psyche, Montreal and Prince Regent, all built at
Kingston, and the Tecumseh and Newark, built at Chippewa.
The plans of the last ten vessels are record plans, drawn in 1815.
PICTURE DIVISION
Two paintings of note were added to the collections in
1950. In May the Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario
presented to the Archives a fine portrait of Mrs. Adelaide
Hoodless, founder of the Women's Institutes, painted in oils by
Marion Long, R.C.A., after J. W. Forster, O.S.A. The painting
was accepted by the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Louis S.
St. Laurent, who expressed the Government's appreciation of
the gift. The second picture, quite different in character, is a
coloured aquatint entitled "Indian Days—Banff", the work of
the well-known Canadian artist, W. J. Phillips.
Two interesting, collections of water-colour sketches were
purchased. The first consists of nearly a hundred sketches by
Sir James B. Bucknall-Estcourt, of the 43rd Light Infantry,
who served in Canada between 1838 and 1844. Most of the
scenes depicted are in the vicinity of Niagara Falls. The forty
sketches in the other collection were executed by Major George
Seton, who accompanied an exploring expedition into the
Canadian West in 1857-58. Fort Garry appears in a number of
them, while others give graphic glimpses of buffalo hunts and
various incidents of life and travel on the great plains. Of
kindred interest are the photostat reproductions of four sketches 26
PUBLIC ARCHIVES
by Viscount Wolseley which were secured by the London office
of the Archives. The originals are in a regimental museum in
Great Britain.
Photographs of a number of interesting portraits were
received in the course of the year. In January the Rt. Hon.
Francis M. Forde, High Commissioner for Australia, acting on
behalf of the National Library in Canberra, presented photographs of portraits of a number of men who played a prominent
part in the history of both Canada and Australia. Later in the
year additions to the series were received from the Trustees of
the Mitchell Library, in Sydney. From the Royal Geographical
Society, in London, came a fine reproduction of the striking
painting of Captain John Palliser that hangs in the office of the
Director. Mr. William Hebden, of Halifax, England, presented
a coloured copy of a portrait of Adjutant John Hebden of the
Canadian Voltigeurs, who served at Chateauguay in 1813.
Mr. T. J. Allen, of Peterborough, presented copies of two
portraits of Captain Charles Rubidge, R.N. Captain Rubidge
served with Nelson, was wounded, and later came to Canada to
settle on free land granted to service men. He was Registrar of
the County of Peterborough at the time of his death.
An interesting collection of photographs taken during the
construction of the Trent waterways system was received with
the Boyd Papers, to which reference has already been made.
Another item of economic as well as historical interest consisted
of eleven photographs of the Silver Island Mine, in Lake
Superior, the extraordinary story of which is now well-nigh
forgotten. These pictures were secured through the kindness of
Mrs. CH. Philpot, of Fort William.
Mention of a few of the other items received will give some
idea of the great variety of material that flows into the Division
in the course of a year. Prints of Grandtully Castle, Scotland,
and of its owner, Sir William Drummond Stewart, were presented by Mr. and Mrs. Clyde Porter, of Kansas City. These
are of interest because Stewart was the patron of Alfred Jacob
Miller, the painter, forty of whose pictures are in the Archives.
Miss Jacqueline Mineau presented a number of pictures of Sir
Wilfrid and Lady Laurier. A photograph of the Mace presented by the Province of British Columbia to the Province of
Newfoundland was received from Mr. W. M. Carson, of Henry
Birks & Sons, Vancouver, who made the Mace. A photograph
of Champlain's ship Le Don de Dieu, as reconstructed for the
Quebec Tercentenary of 1908, was presented by Mr. Joseph REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1960
27
Belleau, of Quebec. Interesting old cartoons were the gifts of
Miss Grace S. Lewis, of Ottawa, and Miss Freda Waldon, of
Hamilton. The Burton Historical Collection of the Detroit
Public Library passed on to the Archives various photographs
of Canadian interest, including pictures of Edward Blake and
Sir Richard Cartwright. The Department of External Affairs
presented a collection of very fine photographic portraits of
eminent Canadians, and of group photographs taken at various
conferences.
As experience suggests that it would be well worth while for
the Division to acquire photographs of all past and present
Members of the House of Commons and Senators, a start was
made on this project in 1950. The collection of portraits of the
present Senators and the Members of the 21st Parliament is
now virtually complete. As time goes on, efforts will be made
to fill the gaps in the sets of portraits of earlier Members of
both Houses.
Last summer the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation transferred to the Public Archives an important collection of recordings relating to World War II. Most of these were made during
the campaigns in Sicily, Italy, and Northwest Europe by CBC
correspondents, and consist of first hand accounts of day-to-day
fighting in those areas. There are about 500 discs in all. The
Picture Division seemed to be the most suitable place for these
recordings, and they are now housed there in special cabinets
acquired for the purpose.
The number of requests for information or for pictorial
material has increased sharply in recent years. In 1949 enquiries
numbered 373. In 1950 the total rose to 460, an increase of
almost 25 per cent. Teachers, students, historical research
workers, authors, publishers and the film industry made frequent
use of the Archives, and few books and films relating in any
important way to the history of Canada are now produced
without making use of material secured directly or indirectly
from the Picture Division.
LIBRARY
Slightly over a thousand volumes were added to the Library
in 1950. All but a few fell into one of three categories, namely,
new publications relating to the history of Canada; bibliographies, indexes, etc., that would assist the staff in their reference
work; and volumes that filled in obvious gaps in series and
collections. 28
PUBLIC ARCHIVES
Some additional shelving became available in the basement, and by transferring to this space material that is used
relatively seldom, a little room for sorting and expansion was
provided in the Library proper. All new books were catalogued
as they were received, and some of the arrears of uncatalogued
material were cleared away as well.
Books and pamphlets now number approximately 61,000,
not including newspapers, nor a great amount of duplicate or
unsorted material in the basement. A total of 6,706 cards were
added to the main catalogue. In addition to the great amous
of material used in the library itself for immediate reference
purposes, over 4,000 volumes were issued for use in the search
room, or by the staff in other offices.
MUSEUM
No attendance register is kept in the Museum, but there
was a marked increase in the number of visitors in 1950 as
compared with 1949. As usual, they included many groups of
students from public and secondary schools. If notified in
advance that such groups are coming, the staff always try to
have on view any items in the collections that may be of special
local interest in the particular school from which the pupils
One important new acquisition was the magnificient model
of a British man-of-war which was presented by Mrs. Harold L.
Seifert, of Toronto, in accordance with the wishes of the late
Mr. Seifert. Reference to this gift was made in the last report,
but the model was not actually received until 1950. It was built
at Irvine, Scotland, by French prisoners captured during the
Napoleonic wars, and represents a line-of-battle ship of the
period. The model is remarkable both for its size—42 inches
overall—and for perfection of workmanship.
Other items added to the collections included several relics
of the North-West Rebellion of 1858, and squares from a lace
cloth made by Anne of Austria (1601-1666) for the Ursuline
Convent, in Quebec.
In the field of numismatics the principal project of the year
was prompted by the fact that the issuing of notes by private
banks ceased in Canada as from January 1st, 1950. With the
kind co-operation of the Department of Finance, the Bank of
Canada, and the various chartered banks, an attempt was made
to assemble samples of the last notes issued by each of the latter. REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1950 29
Though some items are still lacking the resulting collection is
broadly representative and is already of considerable historical
interest. A gift from the Canadian Bank Note Company that
included no less than 172 specimen bills not only filled many
gaps the banks themselves were unable to fill, but added many
earlier items as well.
PUBLICATIONS
The illustrated catalogue of the collection of water-colour
paintings by Alfred Jacob Miller, to which reference was made
last year, will be published in the spring of 1951. One volume
about Miller and two other books in which many of his paintings
are used as illustrations have appeared recently, and the publication of our catalogue is therefore most timely.
Some time ago a detailed subject index to the celebrated
Confederation Debates of 1865 was compiled at McGill University
by Mr. Murray A. Lapin. This most useful reference aid will
be printed by the Archives in 1951. The text is now being
checked, and in addition all entries are being expanded so as to
include the name of the speaker in each instance. A French
edition is being prepared concurrently.
Two major publications are in preparation—a new catalogue of maps, and a comprehensive guide to material in the
manuscript collection. Some details of the map project have
already been given. All being well, the first section should be
ready for publication in a preliminary edition by the autumn of
1951. The manuscript guide is in an earlier stage, but it is
conceivable that the first section will be ready for the press a
year hence.
The Annual Report of the Archives is intended to appear
henceforth as a separate publication. Calendars, catalogues, etc.,
will appear separately, instead of as appendices to the Report
as heretofore.
OTHER SERVICES
Other Divisions and Branches were fully employed
throughout the year.
The Research Division dealt with 2066 inquiries in 1950,
as compared with 1902 in 1949 and 1750 in 1948.
The Bindery placed more emphasis than usual on book
repairs and bookbinding, a change that was made necessary by
the shaken and damaged condition of many valuable items in 30 PUBLIC ARCHIVES
the Library. Arrears in all types of bindery work are serious,
and illness amongst the bindery staff has caused added difficulties.
In addition to his usual work, our photographer made
various tests and experiments with microfilm. Following these,
several larger-scale microfilming projects were carried out under
contract by the Microfilm Committee of the Canadian Library
Association. The expectation is that a second photographer
will be added to the staff in the spring of 1951, and that the
equivalent of the full time of one operator will be devoted thereafter to a comprehensive microfilming programme.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Wm. Kaye Lamb,
Dominion Archivist.

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