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Summary observations and facts collected from late and authentic accounts of Russian and other navigators,… [Unknown] 1776

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A _        "     - SUMMARY
♦OBSERVATIONS J And - REACTS
9
COLLECTED
•       • .■ *
» « ■• . » «... *     ■
I      From   LATE   and   AUTHENTIC   ACCOUNTS
4 -'of U.    | H
RUSSIAN^  and    other  'NAVIGATORS,
TO   «HOW        *
Thi  PRACTICABILITY and oood PROSPECT   or SUCCESS :
IN   ENTERPRISES   TO   DISCOVER
*• • * %
• •*
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«   AM   0*.
».     •    •
» •
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For   VESSELS 'by    S E A,
A NORTHERN  PASSAGE
^The-ATLANTIC and PACIFIC- OCEANS;!^-^
BKTWII»
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OR    NEARLY   TO    APPROACH
'   TThe;   N  0  R  T  H      P  O  t  E; »
For which the Offers of Reward are renewed by a late ACt of
7 Parliament.
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Sold by JOHN NOURSE, Bookfeller Wto«KING,-':
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2*-^^~    "iur^:       ^-r** SUMMARY
i
OBSERVATIONS   and   FACTS,
f       Shewing the Proipeft of Succefs
• *
In Attempts to difcover
A   NORTHERN   PASSAGE
TO    TH1
m-i
PACIFIC    OCEAN.
THE late renewal of an offer of reward for discovering a
Northern PaSTage into the Pacific Ocean, feeming to call
upon every Perfon, converfant in the Subject, to contribute to its
performance consistently with the grand view of the Legislature;
the Writer of thefe pages thinks it a duty to bring in his-mite,
and hopes to prove from authentic fads and practical obferva/ >ns,
that a iuccefsful event may confidently be expelled from a well-
condu&cd jenterprife. . W;   ■
It is generally known, that the firft Voyage to the Eaft Indies
was made feme time about the end of the fifteenth century,
round by the Cape of Good Hope. That track ever Since
followed, has often been attended with danger and diftreft, from
violent Storms raging in thofe feas, more or Ids throughout the
1 :  If     ' '  Ê   **       .r     'é';.' yearl
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&HO 1
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i
% OBSERVATIONS^
year i from t fcarcity, Sometimes « want of good prwifit>Q%
particularly of frcSh water j and from difcafes contra&ed in
voyages of the length of many thousand miles, in a ftate of
confinement, through climates fubjedl to viciSfitudes which frequently prove injurious to the human frame» The nations that
have Suffered mod from thoic evils, have been induced to encou-
rage Navigators to find out an opposite route, by the North, not
lubjcdt tofucb calamitous incidents. The English nation Stands
forward in this, holding out rewards to. thofe whofe attempts
/ball be moil fortunate ; and it is the defign of thefe iheets, ta
aflure the Ad venturers, there are not any of the already enumerated mi/chiefs to apprehend ia a well-concerted undertaking.
From the firft attempts of a Difcovcry through the Northern
Seas, it was averred by able Navigators, that ftorms were unknown beyond the latitude of 70 degrees, excepting near the
two Greenlands, Spitsbergen, and Some other coafts in the like
Situation : and that winds have fo little force in higher latitudes,
even when contrary, as not to impede Navigation. But from
fub/èquent accounts of injmJicioully conducted enterprises, a
prejudice arole, that Northern /eas were full of ice, and that
engaging in them was wilfully encountering the utmoft dangers.
An opinion fo erroneous, having milled Several, who, once undeceived, would have known how to avoid difficulties, muft no
longer be allowed to exift, but be removed as .a real obstacle
to the free entrance into that Space where the important discovery
is to be made \ w     „
The ftorms not confined to particular coafts, it is alledgtd
in this belief, accumulate ice as high as mountains, which
breaking loofe, and impetuously meetingligain, do at cine time
crufli a Ship, and at another form a /pacious bay capable of con
taining
7"5T~
.:.. < 7 ■BIHi—P
» 3
ÉP ' '        *WD   ? À C T S. 1.     r' , ^
tainfag thirty or forty Veffels; Thèfe dangets, whethci* exag*
geràted or imaginary, do not, if array be objeded, enough
affright thofe who fit out Ships for the Whale Fifhtity* tè leffeh
the number fent, which annually iridréafes, as it did this vcty laft
year. ' But the obvious anfwer to this will be, that they* are not
deftined to work through the ice to the Pole; and that they know
hfow to get back with the profitable return that aigres them
to venture in. j # • -;$r ■ •   $
The Northern Sea bears various aSpeds in dîfferéht quarters :
to the Weft of Spitfietgen; and South of Nova Zembtâi it Seems
full of fee ; between Spitjbtrgen and Nova Zembht, it bears i
better appearance, hating' only feme floating Shoals ; atid ià tfc*
open fpace to the North and Eaft of both/ it look» far Aroré
pleaSïng, none being found there. Not the lead mention is rrtadé
of ice met with in that Sêâ, by thd ttyo Dutch Ships that proceeded fo far North in the year t$fo* They found thé Péhi
Ocean calnr, deep, and free. Their purfeitfor à difcovéry Was
earneft, but defeated by the jealouSy and powerful influence of
the Eaft-dfadïa'èortiptny in Holland. Art account of the matter is
published among the Tranfadions of the Royal Society : and a
more aniple State <tf the cafe is found in thtf writing^of thb famous
Fojfius, with the memorials on both fidb. Thtf-'Narrative of thofe
Navigators- is confirnifed by the teftifaony of the renowned Ad«*
mirai Heemfkerke, and cot^oborated by the report of Captain
Baremsi one o£ the ibleft failbrs of that: time j; he made feveral
voyages to the North, bent upon making difeoveries, and died
at Nona Zembla in 1597, having explored it* Southern coaft
through tKe ice; gone about its Eaftèrn part, and convinced *
himfelf, as he declared inJiis laft moments, that a paflage would
certainly be found when attempted from the moft Northern part
'^'1    ; B a of 1
4 OBSERVATIONS
of that island. His opinion refted partly upon the following*
fads : that on the 22d of February,, at the distance of five or fix
leagues from land, he, faw the fea open in feveral parts to the
Eaft 1 and that on the 9th of March, he found it wholly open
to the North.
In the years 1594 and 95, Lynfcboten prepofTeSïèd with the
mistaken no tion,. that the near eft advance, to the Pole was the
mofl certain and inextricable entanglement in the ice, fought a
paffage through the Straits of Waygat, where he got into the
cmbarrafsmcnt he meant to avoid : the danger was great in the
narrowest part, and toward the States Ifiand. The floating ice
brought to the lower feas, by the general current from the Eaft,
has made others believe, that an open fea, like an ocean, would
be found in that quarter, to the North Eaft. The Samoyedes, old
inhabitants of the Northern coaft of Afia, well acquainted with
thefe fads, inform us, that the Great Sea never is frozen, not
even in winter; but that the Leffer Sea, which receives freSh
water from the Oby and other great rivers1 of Siberia and Tartary»
does produce ice regularly.—«That from the middle of Auguft
forward, for the Space of Six. weeks, there is none at its entrance*
though before that time it be quite full. Lynfcboten in his
dread of the accumulated maffes he few,, forming islands and
mountains, conceited them more than a hundred years old* aad
believed that they never melted down» 1
The Ruffian accounts agree with thofe here mentioned of the
ftate of the feas and Shores Eaft of Nova Zembla: their tradition
confirms that the broken ice floating along the coaft, has not for
160 years hindred the poor inhabitants from uSing the Eaftern
fea as far as Kofyma, and from thence, Since a number of years,
to the Strait of Anian, and the Weft Shore of America., Iff
Some
^ 7 *\
if AUD  pacts,   . J '
I Some perfons eluding the confequence of thefe fafts, havf
mamtamed that the Cape between Tamura and Cbatanga, run-
T kP V° 77\   gr* a0d bcfet Wi*Icc' could **«* ^ doubled,
M   ^f "I     te0tB,nCe ff0m thenCC int0 *e Polar fea wa
unpoffible : but the weaknefs of this allegation will appear in *"
fequel, as the truth is farther difclofed -
^      The Ruffians defervedly credited, becaufe they relate facia
plainly and circumrtantially, tell us, that when their Z^
o djfeover the ftate of the fca and coafts to the Eaft and Weft of
the Lena, Protfcbmfcbev, doubled that fame Caoe ^nhl        .
latit nffl«o\«„j    _. —, *"*!* (probably in the
wri^ï«ï g °   T"* Thelear«dProf.Giha.
written an authentic account of the Voyaee-'and the &~ •
prof. »*smm * ft* *,'&£ S STu
only co„«™«d a* „«taa... u,., „0 ice ^£ «"; ^
foips, note outw,rd „„r h01newaid ^j    R        »  ™f
pote ou. te i. tab. ft : „othiag „ fc_t, J£",_jM*
te., th. w.TO, Acmnd,, ,h. current. §    JTfe
,0 «mam.   Y« ,0 tic Writ of îi,W„ « 76 tfarr ,J,l
. cap. i, dtferib* by ,h. Rnffi,»,.  , pilo,^S?m ) T
pretend, * W te j cbain of iidaVnteby ££?t.
winch h. confiderud a, th. produaion „„,  | ^™_ -
beyond te, how.™,, h. ftw w 4e Nord,, „„, ™"f *"
How n«r ,0 N. ZanM, te ic. „„ r«„, i, no^lliT," £"
J»"1 "dd"M>Ml P"»t * found, te tit. __. &f""SÉ
NorA « op», «* „„, ..„ jjgj _„, j^J, * »£
fouggltng Ate b« teu/ « Cup,. A»™, ûy, £ j"™' ! few
W. «tencu wi.. te conte/te 4. ^bS^ÎT Ln
è  s
J$
6 O B S fi Jt V A TIONS
Supposing foi* once all the ftraits cboaked up whh iceand
utterly, impaiîâble, nothing conclusive can thence be inferred
againft a near approach to the Pole j all agree that no ice it
found at 20 or 30 leagues North of the côaft» ; what fixes there
-will not hort the Ships that keep x9. or 2°. higher, as is recommended to them to do ; the Shoals will then become ufeful, as
beacons to keep the unwary from Shores, capes, and,ftraits. An
attentive Navigator will Steer clear of ice, if in the wide /pace
between Spitjbergen and Nova Zembh he fets his courfe 4 or £
degrees (8o»or 100 leagues) North Eaft of the latter, running up
in thé feme direction to So, 82, and 8 jf degrees, as opportunity
may offer. All fears of ice then ceafing, he will find himfelf at eafe
in a vaft ocean* extending1 over all America to w$q> degrees Eaft
longitude from Lop don ; and as to Nova Zembla from jj± to
çp degr. Eaft latit. that ië I2*i" degr. or 250 leagues—and from
the coafts at 70 to 90 degr. latit. is 400 league»; an immenfe
main, where hitherto not an island, or any thing rising in the
water,  has been deferied to obftrud navigation.
An invariably mild temperature of air, makes Sojourning in
thofe feas . very healthy for crews upon- difeoveries. Captain
Pbipps found it So ainidft towering maffes of ice, which in common opinion imprefs a Sharp fenfeofcold. TheAnonimaus
Journal goes farther: it tells us, that about the 15th of July the
heat was fo great as to melt the tar in #ie Seams of the Ships—
the feme has happened before in that latitude, though it be uncommon between the Tropics, where the length of twelve hours
night refreshes the air enough to prevent fuch effedsi. When
thi» degree of heat came on, a thermometer from 56 degr. i»
the cabin, rofe to 90 in the open air, and to iqo on the top of a
mountain in Marble IJland.    The effeds of thisiicat, and the
f danger -latemi..
^iiiïi'ir-,''T'-fii,-.f 'wP^^^r *' - «*à*ï
^iiji. m*mmË*&àtÈMmmiwum mi
~ ^ ■ ajtd   FACTS, J
danger'incurred where the ice accumulates, will appear from
what follows.    On the ill of Auguft, fomewhat freft of the Seven islands, the Ships were embayed in fields of ice.   ad Auguft,.
die Pilots apprehcnfive of long detainment, became urgent for
attempts to get out :   Vigorous efforts were made to break and
cut through ; the flakes crowded on each other proved too thick
for man to feparate, and rendered the trial quite hopelefs.    It -
might have occurred, that the heat of the feafon would foori
break down thofe maSTes and form a more enlarged moveable
furface, that would, by force of wind and current, bear hard upon the (hips ; yet, that providing feme fence again ft its effedts,
and relying on phyfical conlequences, the ice muft Shortly dif-
perfc, and the Ships be fuddenly diiengaged.   Their reliance was .
not Such, they, had recourfe to their own'exertions, and  attempted to get off.with their boats, leaving the Ships ; but they
made fo little way over the ice, that they began to delpair.   On.
the nth of Auguft, the flakes broke, and an unexpected relief followed ;—the next day they failed to the harbour of Smcerenierg,
a place of reSbrt for the lateft Whale FiShers, where overjoyed,
they met again with feme known veffels then returning to Europe.
It may here again be observed, relatively to the feafon, that
it was the very time when in thoSe feas, as in all others, the heat
is greateft and moft confiant. Above two hundred years ago,
the Samoyeda declared, that from thence for fix weeks forward, no ice was fecn in thofe very places where at other times
it always was found.     |! pi
Difeafe and ficknefs are not to be feared in thofe climates.
Captain Pbipps had none in his crew ; the man who died was
wern out by a confumptive diferder of long duration.    Other
accounts agreeing with his, form a happy contrast with thofe of
* ' \M. Sir
V
■A
I
\ff I
8 OBSERVATIONS |"
: Sir Robert Harkmdtt fleet,, between Madras and the Cape of
Good Hope, & lately as the year 1774 : bcfide 160 dead, there
were not leis than 480 hands Sick, as, the public papers informed
us. How defirable the route not liable to fuch diStrefs ! How
agreeable the profped hi fo healthy a State, to difcover a paffage
in the latitude of 68 degr» from whence fouth ward, no more
than common incidents can be encountrcd, and to fee a tedious
voyage thus fortunately and considerably Shortened !
. From the meridian of London to the Strait of Anion, or Behring,
the distance is no more than 180 degr. of longit. Let 200 be fup-
pofed, and the medium between y 5 and 85 of latit; be taken at
K^| 80 degr. the produce will be lefs than 700 leagues of one hour
I        . }** each.    Lynfcboten in the lower fea, with a contrary wind, went
fourteen leagues in twelve hours : Stating the rate at one league
in an hour, there will not be leagues enough to require thirty
days failing. The time proper for departure from home, hereafter te be Spoken of, is now fuppofed early enough for letting
nrt,~— out from Cape North ift E. longit. 25°. on the eleventh of June,
when all idle fears about ice muft vaniSh, many travellers, as well
' as the Sampyedes, affuring it all gone before that time j then firft
fubftrading thefe 25 degr. from the 200, or rather 90 leagues
%   from the 700, there will remain 610, and reducing the number
of 30 days by 4, the remainder will be 26,   to be found in the
good ieafon, from that time to the middle of September and
k • farther, a Space which will afford 90 days, and Surely muft be Suf
ficient to explore that whole fea, and to return at leifure after
examining the feveral parts of the Strait from the 67 to the 60
degr. of latitude, or te go on to Canton at option, without an
obstacle either way, but the uncertain and insignificant meeting
. with flakes of ice*
U "      ' 5' * h To
» JL *  *   ~7    M JL**
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... „.-■-•-.•
J
A
/
â^y/^^
and     FAX T S. 9
To fay much about provisions in healthy climates and roomy
Ships, muft be deemed fuperfluous. Victualling is now fp well
understood, that bad provisions are not received on board private
veffels, but by neglect of duty: and where abundant Space is
not taken up with guns and ammunitiop, there muft be in Ships
fitted out for difeoveries, room enough for water, which keeps
better in thqfc feas than in others, and can occasionally be replaced
by ice when met with, as many Navigators befide Captain»Phipps
report has been ufefully done. ft f       >      H
If it he certain that Captain Cook, conveying Omiab home $*± fataCfa*~--_
to Otaheite, intends to explore the Weft coaft of America, up .yhstr* « tWVe,
into the Strait leading to the North Séa, an accurate description |jjj|j //^/r, t ■/ f
of that part will certainly be obtained.—-If, as others furmife, feme A </ t.ysj&<s
Ships are to be fent from Europe to Canton, thence to attempt the ,
paiTage upward, perhaps to 68 degr. or thro' the Straits of Behring}   ?   Y
it is apprehended an undertaking of that kind would not anfwer
the expelled end.—To multiply hazards by the wear, tear, and great
expençe of a voyage to China; there, perhaps, to complete a
crew,  renew Ships Stores, careen bottoms, in order to begin
difeoveries, by the South and Weft of Japan, up to the North,
is at a dear rate to procure feme information, only to be had at a
feafon when prejudice and accident will Strongly operate againft
zealous endeavours ; and, after all, to have as long % voyage home
to Europe,  whilft no approach to the Pole,. no Shortening.
ftretch through the Polar Seas to the North Cape of Europe,
forms a part of tl\e defign?  muA appear upon the whole a*
very unadvifeable enterprise»   '&^i'■■&^ -* ».- 4|f^  *' f% \ I
Rational, plans, well conduced bear the beft proSpeâ of fuc-.
cefs, and have with them, the chance of fortunate events*. .The.
experience of au able Navigator, and the knowledge of a Man!
I-.-.   '     ■!.".'.    '    * .•* C '       1 '"• Of
/■
/' *-
j
I m %
io OBSERVATIONS f    .
of Study, are equally requisite to form them. The Navigator*
vérfed in what4 belongs to equipments, is expert in managing 4
fuch matters, and knows how to coridud an enterprîfe tôad-
vantage—he can cautioufly tread new paths through unknown
feas—is able to bring AStronomy in aid of other ufeful means,
and by pradicte and obfervarion can difcriminately avoid what
others have fplit upon. The Man of Learning propofes what is
ufeful and profitable, what has not yet been done, and accounts
for failures in what has been attempted—he Sketches out the
road to new difeoveries ; points out where danger may exiSt, and
where not ; folves what is problematical in natural philofophy,
and accounts for phenomena which diScbncertperfens unacquainted with colmography: he Shows how to explore unfrequented regions, diverted of prejudice: and he benefits the world with many
improvements made or related by other Men of Letters, with whom
he interchanges information on all ufeful and curious fubjeds—
Such different abilities combined, unite found theory with con-
fummate experience-—How to be availed of both in one enterprise
may be a question ?—The two accomplished men can perhaps not
be fent out together—neither will do alone ; the execution would
be deficient—yet it is poSfible to find a perfon in whont both are
or can be conjoined. Among the able Navigators this kingdom
can boaftof, feme are poffeffed, others ready to be availed of what
thePhilofopher is willing to impart, from Studies which in younger
years the Mariner's attachment to the pradicc of his profeffion,
has not allowed him to acquire. This fort of knowledge, fitted
to his experience, muft open to him the faireft field of fuccefs,
remove all apprehension of diiaftrous events that can be forefeen,
and leave him liable to fuch cafualties only as human prudence
cannot prevent, $ f
To
r ^ b^vv^Mi^^
<.
j|. - # ••' ij   and   FACTS.      â  -M    ;*:■   ii I
• ♦ ^ . •
To form a lyftcm of the prefcnt purfuit, it is neccffary, among
other points, to determine the place and time of departure, and
the courfe to be held ; it u éffential alfe, clearly to State what is
to be obferved by way of prevention againft future miscarriage. |p
Previous to thefe difeuSfions, it is of moment to remove feme "
opinions, which unconfuted might operate againft what is here-      §
after lad down. . Mr. Dobbs in 1746 was earneft and fuccefsful
in promoting the belief that a paffage by the North Weft was        |||
practicable.   Disproving his reafons may ferve to eftabliSh ufeful
truths.'
i°. He takes for granted, from former accounts, destitute of       ~3m
proofs, that the paffage was once made through Hud/bn's Bay, from
661* degr. upward by an opening into a wide boundlefs ocean. •
Not to wafte words in arguing againft what never happened,
it will fuffice to fay that his  own experience destroyed his
affertion : afcer the moft diligent fearch, and unwearied attempts,
no opening was difcovered, no paffage was made.    Capt. Ellis
owned it, Some years Since, to a perfon of note at Leghorn—iaid        Ipf
he believed it practicable in two other parts—yet apprehended '     ,W>
little ufe would be made of it when found.
•    It may be alledged in fupport of the affertion, that Capt. Cluny
did  afterwards find this paffage; but that is alfe meer matter     É
of belief: he worked through a deal of ice, and perhaps only got        f||
farther on the Continent : that thole who beft can come at truth
are not convinced, appears certain from the renewal of the offer of
reward.    But fuppofing a paffage found, what purpofe can it pof-
fibly anfwer in that quarter ? it will only lead into an immensity
of ice from which a Ship cannot be difentangled. '-' The reader    If
jnuft often be reminded, that all the ice from the Eaft, is crowded f    f|§
and Shelved upon the Weft quarter. Rudforis Strati can hardly be r.
1
l2 OBSERVATIONS.  I
« •
got through after the middle of July j and the Bay is not «fed
after Auguft, without.great danger from the huge; floating maffes.
Supposing the Strait never filled with ice, veffels going through it
might in September get to the Northern coaft of America, and
then not know where to winter. So affrighting a Situation does
not exift in the fearch of a North Eaft paffage; the leaft extent
of open fea is of 15 degr. breadth between Spitjbergen and Nova
Zemblai Ships cannot be blocked up there, and if a harbour
were wanted,  enough would be found.
2a. The account of De Fonte, another prop to Mr. Dobbs's
affertion, is a narrative Stamped with the charader of fidion
that never met with credit from men of knowledge.  Don Antonio
• -etUMoa, that learned man and great navigator, now commanding
the  Spani(h fleet to Vera Cruz, was taken by the English
returning to Spain m#a French Ship j was brought up to London
defpoiled of all he had, but was received with regard, and treated
with generofity : he had leave  to take from the papers of the
Ship, deposited in the Admiralty-Houfe, what he  liked  to reclaim : he took only fuch as were in his own hand writing,
leaving many curious astronomical obfervations, and phyfical and
geographical remarks : among the papers of little estimation he
left the original account of the voyage of that De Fonte, who
commanded one of the cruifing veffels employed in the South
Sea : he was fent in it by the Viceroy upon a difcovery, and all
he brought back was an uninteresting journal, and a declaration
that hq found not the leaft appearance of a paffage beyond California-,   with this  vague  anfwer his attempt  ended.     Don
Utioa repeated this to credible perfens, with fo many circumstances
rcndring the notion of any difcovery then made/ too abfurd to
leave a doubt, with, unprejudiced enquirers.
« & The
s y 55553*3 ^^^^K^53w«*T*7E^OTT3!^^*~- m ^9 -«'. ' -■^A+îl^pPjpB^"'^ *-* ■ ■**M''**',^*WftW«W|Wlfc*â6a^J
AMD       FACT S. f J
> The better route for aPaffage propofed by the North EaSt, wquld
long ere now have been found, had not that unfortunate prejudice
of endlefs ice fettered people's understanding : during the Space
of a century, in which that notion has prevailed, every attempt
made, has Served to prove it falfe : a few remarks will plainly
evince this.
1 °. AlLthe charts of Spitjbergen published fince+a hundred years,
and allowed to be authentic, Show the Eaft coaft of that clufter of
islands between ^yandSo degr. (or more)of latit. as accurately delineated, as'any European iflands. The moflEaftern point is called
Difco, about 30 degr. E.longit. In the fpace to the South is written Wbàle-Fijhery > a designation conveying the idea that whales
were in greater plenty or eafier caught there, for a length
of time, than nearer the coaft of Greenland: buta multitude of
fmall iflands and banks to the S. Eaft from 20 to 28 degr. longit.
with intervals generally filled with ice (common in that part) have
given caufe, from veflels getting among them and being locked
up, to remove tne fishery,, and difeommend the Eaft part as
unfafe; an instance of no older date than 1769, will confirm this
fuppofition. The Surgeon of awhale-fiShing veffcl belonging to
Bremen, reported, on a particular enquiry, that they got among
iflands and banks S. E. of Spitjbergen, farther than they intended,
and were locked in for three or four weeks j that getting loofe
again, they run away N. Weft to Greenland, as far as 80 degr.
latit. and upwards, refolved never to return to that fpot a rain.
Running affrighted from danger, feldom diredts, the Steps to the
place of real fafety :—the hazard Westward is known, and may
prudently be avoided: in attempts to higher degrees of latitude,
a courfe bent nearly N.N. Eaft from 76° latitude will clear a Ship
from molt of the dangers to. which She would be éxjpofed on the
weftern fide, and in the Strait between Old Green/and and Sphjber-
'■•-"■   :.  È'ï • - &*>
\
-*
1
% .
* I
I
14        I        OBSERVATIONS §
I    «J**! where many Ships are loft.    It is an advantage, that in the
f charts above feoken of, the capes, bays, and ftraits, that called
Way gat, and other Eaft parts-of Spitjbergek, up to 81 and 82 ° lat.
including the Seven islands, and the Rykiffe Iflands, ate laid down
with that precision which denote them very acceffible.
2°. The narrative of the Ruffian Sailors eaft on a deSert ifland of
Eaft Spitsbergen,'written by Profeflbrir/?^at Petersburg, and published in English firft in 1774, bears all poffible marks of authenticity. • It fpeaks of Maloy Broun, or Eafl Spitjbergen, di/lindively
from Bolfcboy Broun, the great Broun, or proper Spitjbergen, feated
* between 770 25' and 780 45' pointing that out as a place of refort
for the Ruffians to take feals and manaties, found there in abundance: Which nearly agrees with the Spot here above defcribed.
?- ■ This ifland, fe well traced out, breaks the imaginary projed-
ing bar of ice placed there to frighten all but Ruffian.mariners,
N    -\ ; who, though neither regularly inftruded nor bold, find their way
thither frequently.   What they do with difficulty, our Navigators
i may do with eafe : if they mean to know the locality, there will be no
1   obstacle to their defcrying Difco, and the State of the fishery near it;
then the Seven Iflands, afterRykiffe and Maloy Broun, without keep-
I ing Weftwardfor fear of too much lee-way, but Steering North Eaft
from 34 td 80 and more degrees of longitude, and to 83 or 84 degr.
latitude, a pleafant courfe will be traced out, and the Polar Sea
\ I enough explored for the choice of a track to the Ruffian Strait;
3°. The original drawing of the Chart of Captain Gilles, noted
for his difcoverieîs to the Eaft of Spitsbergen in 1707, is Still in
the hands of the Hollanders, who intend to make it public : the
Dutch Navigators who have feen it, hold the opinion that voyages
, to the Eaft in high latitudes may be made without danger. |
». A belief of fo much pradicability in enterprifes of fuch moment
I as thefc, muft naturally ftart the question, why thofe  able men
''do
S ** -TTjrr
and   FACTS. 15
do not avail themfelves of that perSuafion ?   Two reafons  may    ir%
be given [ why no individuals of that nation are benefited by it.
The Spirit.anddefirefor difeoveries and extenfion of commerce,
are cruShed and kept under by the cruel ufage given to the
owners of the two Ships above fpoken of; indefatigable pains, great   ■</
expence, and good fuccefs, were rewarded with oppreflion and
di/grace : they were hrow-beaten 'till they abandoned the purfuit. |
Where the love of immediate profit reigns, men do not look far;   *11
the private intereft of all people in the whale-fiShery admits of no
more than going through that bufinefs with expedition, and making the moft of a voyage.    Such cramps to exertion admit of no
more than keeping the fubjed alive*    A Captain in the Dutch
navy has with uncommon induftry colleded a number of relations
from Mariners fubjeds of that Republic, containing proofs of
feveral fads here related, and of others not yet reduced to order :
unfortunately recourfe  cannot be had to them at prefent,   the
Officer being out on a cruize with Some men of war.
The rationality of conduding enterprifes for discovering a
paffage preferably by the North Eaft, being thos>eftablifhed from
fads; the fame kind of argument, with the Strideft attention to #
prudence,  will point out the fureft method of approaching the
North Pole. ^ -i
Tthe inflances of Navigators who have reached high Northern'®
latitudes, colleded and publiïhed by the Hon. Daines Barrington
throw much light upon the fubjed: the proofs bear that degree of authenticity which temoves all doubt; yet his candour
is fo great as Still to offer the means of ascertaining fads to the
incredulous. In that colledion are undoubted instances of approaches to the Pole fo near as 87 degr. feme without meeting
With much, others without any embarraffment from ice; that
circumftance always depends upon the courfe hçld : and it is
remarkable,
«
t
•   r
* *
jP \
M
il
â y
*•
V
"O B S E R V A T I Q N 8.
•***♦
. markable, that thofe ufeful fads vrçere produced in thccpiuma%
courfeof events, not in purfuit of the great difeoveriçs awed at
t>y others. The fequcl of the work offers a fair field of physical
arguments to fupport thofe already adduced, againft theprejudiccd
opinion which has proved So baneful to many of our Navigators.
Men of phiJofophica! knowledge agree that ice, wherever forced, is compo&d of no other than frcSh water, which at the time
çf congelation was in contad with Something more Solid, to
which it did adhere—That the quantity fcen in large flakes, great
maffes, and Shoals, about Nova Zembla, Sjpitjbergen, Green-
land, Hudfons Straits, and other parts, comes from the rivers of
Afia, running teto the North Sea, the Lena, the Oby, and other»
of equal or lefs note r and of more riverq alfe flowing into it from
the Continent of America, but too little known to be found in.
any map. :jjj§:       : f
The ice formed in. winter breaks l.oofe in. milder or in Stormy1
weather, and is driven to fea, where perhaps it joins feme older
maffes floating, and not yet reduced. Accounts fufficientjy.to be relied on, and Simple experiments inform us, that fea water is warmer
than fre/h water, that its warmth is augmented by attrition in proportion to the. degree of agitation, as Captain ^hipps alfe affirms *f-*
and that ice is diffolved in it, not only in its flaky State, but in 4
concreted State it is So much melted down under water, that the
highermaSfes overfet, breakdown, and from-narrower bounds
arc forced put and Spread, as at the end of fumjrièr from the Strait»
of Frobijher, aboijt 63 degr. l*tfc they are faid to cover a fur-
fece of ten leagues,, and arc foon after fo cffedualjy deftroyrd
that fcarce a veftige of them remains :. thus the fea between
:  H   v.   Hudfons
t An Experiment miJe by Dr. Irving, proved, that below the furface, fea
water flrongly agitated, was warmer than the atmçfpheriç air.. \
pwaton.".1
IT
' %: AND    FACTS. Ï      17
Hud/bn Y Strait, the coaft of Norway, and that of Greenland,
from 70 to 74 degr. are either full; or in feme meafure free, ac* »
cording   to feafon and circumftances—whilft in a much lower
degree of latitude, at 50, the river of St. Laurence likewifc forms
and floats to fea l^rgc maffes, which Speedily Share thé Same fate.
An undoubted fad Strengthens this argument. I The Shoals of
ice coming from th&Eaft,' bring with them a prodigious quantity
of timber, which furely does not grow at or near the fea-fide, but
is detached from the banks of rivers, whofe rapid currents loofen
and float away fuch'quantities as form heaps upon the North coafts
of Afia, and to the Eaft fide of Jan Moyen*s ifland, into two bays*
thence called the Bays of Wood, fo filled, that whole Ship loads
might be had when freed from the conveying ice. Crantz,
the only writer who has exadly defcribed Greenland, accounts it a
kind difpenfation of Providence, that the inclement vehicle brings
thither a plentiful fupply of a mbft effential article, in the
want of which the inhabitants Would be greatly diftreffed. All
authors agree that this timber comes from the Afiatic and
American rivers, and Crantz confirms the opinion with a moft
convincing fed.   .      '^ '";'•-.•*•, ■ ■   - •       ' • |:j®B^
The floated trees, by common accounts, are pines, firs, larches,
and of fuçh kinds growing in thofe two quarters of the globe, and
never coming from the Eaft coaft of America, whence they would
be blended with oaks growing there in plenty, but not feen
among thofe above named, the forts of which foon become di-
ftinguiShable, after they get aground and free of ice. #   :"fl
/'A question now naturally arifes; whence come thefevery
great maffes fo Strangely Shaped, of a larger SJzc than' can float
out of 4 river, Since one Of them having an arch of forty feet
high, offered room enough for a vcflel to pais through it, to join
;: 1 D 'I '   '• the
.,.-,-
».
w
9 /i
//!
i     '     '      |;'    ' ,    W      *        /     •       •   ^:   ' •  111
18    . . .'        OBSERVATIONS
the Ships of Captain Fhipps* in 1773: : and the ice not in heap»
(hewed fields of many league? extent.    |^ , ,        ,
•   The anfwer to that, flows from the knqwi* fed, that the flake»
Coming from the Eaft, are caught, flopped, and held by every;
folid projecting body, headlands* Shores, or by other pieces of ice.
When thus Stopped, the following are Shoved^againft and lifted
upon them, by the currents and wavçs, wlych* when ftrongly
agitated, will heap them upon each other, and by, tarions effort»
raife and force them into odd Shaped Tflergt and thofe huge
maffes juft Spoken of 1 whilft the thinner ice from the Shallows, need only join to form the largeft fields.    Thus variously
Shaped»   the coafts and iflands facing the  Eaft are   covered
with them*, the pdTagcs and (traits are filled, and what (tops near
Shores often cncompailcs Ships, blocking them up in a very critical
State: Captain Phipps was thus detained for ten days in Auguft*
and convinced no paS&gcto the Pole could be found that way. The
Eaft becomes clear» by loading the Weft coafts : no ice is Seen between DeerfiiU^sAMoffni Ifland, or to the Eaft and North of thefe
but fmall flakes that float to and fro where no land is near, either
coming over from the American rivers, or loofened and drives
by #rong Southerly winds from  lower Shores.    The instances
adduced by Mr. Harrington make thefe prcgreffive positions very
certain i^efpeçially the testimony pf Captain C/uny, who in
map prefixed to his Atperkan Traveler, printed at tendon _
4769, p^p^o^t,places çf rgnwfl^le events * one of which at
791 degr. N, latit. is tlju* rel^çd, ifere the. Traveller wasfbip-
vtnchedm 1746: and. anotfca; at |$£ degr, is in thefe words,
kr* tht fravfller^h^ i&m   7*0 add
Amqphtt. tQ  tfà f«rl,f|f. Captain. CJun/s  awo^nt, » cir*
^mftançe.tïw efthemift n^gfct be loft, mu<l; here be worded.
k ' I        * a
a
m et
^H^ •     |§   *    A«fb'  FACTS."       x      ' É.:       19
A gentleman who few the Captain in Auguft,  1769, afked him
feme queftions about the book juft published, particularly the
following:—t€ Quer.  i.   Is eveiy thing traced on the map      >    *f^?
49 cxadly conformable to truth?   He anfwered, yes ; he Could     à
*• prove every particular by his jourrraL—Quen 2. Why did he fk^
*' not go forward to the Pole, when neither ice rior land appeared
4t to obftrud him ?—Hefaid, hé had indeed no realon to àp- t#| % '-fll
tf prehend fuch obstacles, being perfuaded the Polar Sea was free
ff and open : but having no other Ship with him, he could receive   *Z, /        'IflÊjP
no affiStance in any utifofefeen diftrefs proceeding from caufes W'        ^^:.-
of prejudice or acèideht, which" he muft lie open lib in à |T
W totally unkncmrri navigation; and therefore! thought it prudent |;"     fÉÊ^M
94 to ventthfe no farther.** |    ."'   '^; % '^1       ;|   .%^-'   ^ W^W$^
' The Captain died iti the beginning of V776 : his manufcripts
and papers are-Straying, but gttatly worth the trouble of being
recovered.   ^M
\ Such feds and proofs as thefe, Support the confident affertion,
that in the higheft latitude no embarraffment of ice is to be feared.
II Nevertheless, as it may Still be urged, that danger fubfifts     I ^*
between the Northern latitude of 79 and 81 degr. admitting feme
from hard gales, irregular currents, and accidental occurrences,
we do not allow* fo much as other voyages'are liable to, for the
length of night between the Tropicris produdive of unfortunate
incidents not heard of where day light is continual. The
greâteft hasard proceeds' from die efieds of prejudice: if 3
Navigator allows hitpfelf to be guided by a Whale-fiSher's Pilot,
he will be led into the ice, and muft there take his chance : but
if he will choofe a trad unknown tô them, leading immediately 1^
to fafety, he will find little ice in his way, and but a Small part
of it where he need exert hnnfelf ; the approach to fce is foretold
WÊ-' & I   •   '    »■  D'*ft- I *' '     ', ty
vt
£ a--
i .
ap /I- '    iOBSERVATlONS   '§..    I |§§
by distant fogs, or by its blink and glare : the courfe Eastward is always freeft, and the weather is regularly progreffive with the feafon.
There is, in appearance only, a considerable quantity of ice fent
forward by that common current from.the Eaft, which prevails
all over the globe without interrupting particular local currents.
The fpreading of that ke over many coafts and feas*. has led to
conclude, that the greater fea whence it comes* does Still constata more. The inference is not juft j a confiant expenefc, from a
temporary fupply» does not argue a remaining ftorc. It is a certain
fad, that at the feafon when the ice is moft driven about, none
is forming any where.   Mr. S teller, one of the learned men fent
• from Petersburg to Kamfcbatka, and who took great pains to
acquire information about a variety of matters* imagined* that the
neceffary effed of the common current driving fo much ice forward againft the Western coafts, particularly of Greenland, muft
be to /helve and force it up to fuch enlarged maffes as would
never melt, when out of the reach of the Sea water : but the
event could not confirm his conjedure.    The moft consolidated
piles wear down, and as much ice is melted and destroyed at one
part of the year, as is produced at another.     *   '$*   f
The common current from the Eaft is ftrong and rapid in
thofe feas; and from many fads, will appear fo likewise in other
parts of the globe,' fubjed only to feme local variations* as has
above been laid. It will therefore be conceived to have the moft
powerful effed upon ice, when in a Short Space of time it forces
great quantities forward into open .Spaces fo rapidly as to crush,"
break, and deftroy them to prevent an endlefs accumulation. '%
. It is now the place, after, what has been premifed of the nature
of the voyage, to determine the time moft «proper for Ships to fet
out upop difeoveries.   Were* not a long continued night of dark»
nefs
/" JC i^ii|ri'tfJïïi,*T''h*"T-'-
t '
<'4
21
§       \       ano   F A,C T S.
neâ a deterring obstacle beyond duration, the. Ships Jpight get
into the North Seas early in the feafon, and be fully availed of
what the Samoyedes declare ; and in th-at way, to prevent what has
been apprehended, there would be but little objedion to begin an
expedition toward the end of our common winter months<—Why
it is thought eligible to depart no fooner rthan June,   is not
éafily understood : the Ships for whale-fiShing, going to the worft
parts for ice, fet out in April, and often get back in May and
June, when our Difcovcrers are preparing for % voyage, where *
every Step is to be considered and noted : fuppofing them con-
vinced and refolved to feek the promising track North Eaftward,
their knowledge as able navigators, muft tell them they are lofing
the time of advantageoufly entering the ocean  where the grand
defign is to he executed.    The Ruffians Stay for no feafon to. go
to Maloy Broun.   Merchant Ships fent to Archangel, go early
enough to leave the North. Cape of Europe at 71 degr. in the
month of June.    Why Should not the Ships fitted out for difeoveries do the fame, proceed to that Maloy Broun, which is Eaft
Spitsbergen," between 78 and 79 degr. and thence get farther on into a roomy Sea and line weather ? Apprehensions that might operate
at other times, cannot intimidate in June, when it is vouched
by the Samoyedes and other «accounts, that ice difeppears, that
any then Still floating muft foon be destroyed, -that the lower
feas, the rivers, and other frefh waters are then free ; and when
the fairefl: proSped opens for the difcovery of a paffage that can
thenltUl be explored as far as Japan and China. Should any Seeds of
fear remain, to Shoot out upon emergencies, or to branch out
unfavourably as with Captain Cluny-, their growth may be presented by means of an affociation for keeping, two or more Ship!
together in- aid and countenance of each Jbthtr, and for the
farther advantage of enlarged Difeoveries. Capt f
r.
K
is 'OBSERVATIONS
Capt. Wood was adive In fprcading the erroneous belief, thatl
4 one continued field of ice filled the vàft Space between Greenland;
Spitsbergen, Nova Zembla, and the Pole; but did not fee forth
the dodrine Syftcmatically ; he gave with it a fed flatly contra-*
didory : he related that on the 2*d of June, at'75° $9' N. latit.
he was without ice, having Seen only feme- flakes- at the distance
of a league ; and that on the 29th he was Shipwrecked in floating
ice which violently beat his Ship againft rocks, upon which he
fplit, and from whence he foon got on Shore. Admiral Hems-
kerke and Captain Barents explored the Weft part about Nova
Zembla from 70 degr. to 770. 20'. then coafted along the Eaft
fide of it ; and at laft failed to the North point at 76 degr. latit.
? where the Admiral wintered, and always had. feme floating ice.
« To fum up the argument about the vague opinion of frozen
feas and continents of ice, let it be Stated from reafen and feds,
that the Northern coafts, especially thofe feeing the Eaft,  are
s
loaded with ice, to the extent of 20,^30, and more leagues; but
that from thence, particularly Eastward, and in higher latitudes,
the idea of obftrudions'from ice, cannot be admitted. Thofe
who may be peduaded to go up Né Eàftward from 79 tp 84°
latit, will be convinced there is none to hurt them in that direction and in thofe parts*   ■& • . ••        *£  #
' % The mode of conduding the voyage for the1 difeovery of a
paffage by the N. Eaft, is now to be oftercd, as moft feaiible;
It has already been faid that the enterprise need only be Spoken
of, at the Setting out from the North Cape above Lapland at
71 ° latit. From thence it is advifeHe to ftretch doe North to
73a lat. and there to fet the firf* courfe at North Eaft by Eaft
for a run of rooo miles, up between N. Zembla and Spitsbergen,
j *° s3i° **t. and 92 *> E. longit. where it is propofcd to fet the
Second
I
r éÇ
'   *     - fissrr
*mm^.
ai êbts=,
** r^l»tfl'< .» N. «M«U *»■'*.. àW." >»»■
f-n.itiT*,',^iaMpm,,ii4>"j
ii»i<M.[>-",Tin,-~*UÏ»tiffH 1l'H*»IH»»W
fe ' V-".   •* i  AN*>   FACTS.   . . £•. .;a3
Second courfe South Eaft for 1500 miles upon the rhomb line
leading diredly to the opening of the fir ait s of Behring and Anian,
at 68? or 700 lat. and 182 com. longit. where an opening from
150 to200 léag. wide, allows an cafy admiffion into a paflage which
narrows at 66°, and then widens again, to offer thepleafing.pro-
fpcd of a mild Southern fea» in amends for the over-rated
Northern colds. yj|    & M <
This endeavour of uniting the European with the A fia tic
traces in fearch of a paflage into the Pacific Ocean, and the attempt nearly to approach the N. Pole, may in point of prudence*
for the firft undertakings, be regarded as Separate objeds, and kept
diSlind;r left the incidents to which the one is fubjed, Should
prove fttbverSjwe of the fuccefs {due to the other : for although
the Polar Ocean appears fmooth, pleafant, and not dangerous,
yet the undecided effitds of magnetifm,. the uncertainty of
courfes to be changed every moment where the meridians fo
nearly converge, and feme other dubious points, - are circum-
ftances every tnftant to be considered in that attempt, and little
conncded with the enterprife to find out the paffage ; whilft
the particulars of the latter, especially the pradical knowledge
of fetting the courfe between 330 afcd 840 in various longitudes,
with So much certainty as to reach the ferait or other intended
place, .will afford great fecility to the former, befide fixing fure
points whence to Start, and where to return. It is therefore to
be hoped that die approach to the Pole* will not precipitately
be attempted/ till the difcovery of the Eaft paffage has been
purfued and accomplished. |t i*■•?!■: • \
Hdwttext, difcriftvinatcly to guide the fteps of adventurers
from ¥hd above 6W hit. forward thro' die ftrait of Behring, is
the moft rtctot chart*, even thefe of 1773; do leaft allow to
fell-'    It    #4h" t*' '-'"''      '    «'   .v"|;;":i&S^ point
>
Ù
È %
II
I
i
24 .       >      OBSERVATIONS   I lj\ ..
point out : information is indeed little wanted where danger dorfs    *M
not exift : yet Somewhat muft and can he learntfrom a comparison
between the new and the old delineations, fufficient to distinguish
an apparently true Situation from ' that drawn  by fancy and
credulity.
.   The alterations in the modern maps expunge the track of the
Tzcbutjki, inhabiting the N. Eaft part of Afia below Cape Scbla-
'ginjkoy ; of the Navigator Defchnew, and others ; likcwife thofe*
of Behring and Tfcberikdw: no notice is taken of thofe of the
Spaniards,and nothing authen tic is introduced to fill up the chafm
or to account for the fuppreffion.
Some of thofe above named Speak of two or three final] iflands (t
found between 65 and 67 degr. latit. where others deferibe one
of a considerable magnitude : but all the old agree when Speaking   M
of the E. and W. continents, they believe them at an inconfider-
able distance from each other.
.   Thole who confiait foreign maps, or compare them with others,    I!
muft advert that their firft meridian is generally that of the ifland
of F^rre, the moft Weftern of the Canaries, differing from ours
nearly  17° 35' which fubftratted from their  longitude, fhews^
in our maps the fpot correfponding with theirs. \ (É
The new charts delineate in thefe. ftraits a large ifland called
Jlafcbka, about 80 leagues in length: to the North Eaft ofthjs, five*
/mailer are placed j South of it are eight more, and to the South
Weft is an Archipelago, rated at feventy iflands and more, reaching down as low as 57 degr. but without name or time of dif- IS
covery : all this bears fo little of the lqok.of truth, and js fo un-   §i
like the notion Behring conveys of thefe ftraits, .that .no. credit
can be given to it, no more than to the very great diftance they v
fancy at the narrow part between Kamjcbatka and America,     ,
which is erroneous, for the following" reafons.
I The   .
*x
r «CT ,   And    FACT S. 2$
0
The great distance of the two coafts is contradided by all
Spanish and other maps of feme Standing* and repute. The
learned Mr. Steller, vstry exad as to fads, fays, that in one particular plaice the American Shore is not farther distant than four
or five leagues from that of Afia. The attempts now
making by order of the king of Spain, will probably, ere long,
produce a concurrent testimony and description of that part which
is already entered, according to very recent information, of which
a translation Shall here be added to corroborate the opinion, and
to confirm the account published in 1774» by Mr. Stceblin, Secretary of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Petersburg. Befide
all this, feme immediate proof may be led from conclusive
arguments.    - v^   ';. . .■, "'%• •     '     '   #'
The Spaniards trace on the Weft coaft of America nearly at 60
degr. latit. what they calf the grandes Corrientes, meaning the great
and rapid river. The Tzcbutjki report, by tradition% from their
neighbours the Americans, that Somewhat S. Eaft of their fouther-
moft Cape, was Situated the large river that floated down the great
trees, roots, earth and all; pines, larches, firs, and fuch like. It will
be allowed that river muft run down a great way through the
country to become fo large as to loofen fuch great bodies, and So
rapid as to drive them forward impetuoufiy into and through part of
the fea, to fend them over to the Kamtfcbadales near the ifland
ofKaraga, who tell us they have not of their own growth that.
Sort of wood thus conveyed to them in Spring with* the ice, as they \
believe, in the Space of twice or7 thrice 24 hours, from the time
it breaks forth from the river. That length of time is not
more than what. is required to force it acrofe a paflage of a few
leagues breadth ; which proves as much for the Strength of the \
current» as for the nearnefs of the Shores j and this Singular cir-
E cumftance
\
i
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I]
I
26 O BSER VATIO N S
floating maflê, immediately to KaraJa fit-ZT T'!?™* '*
nearly at 58 degr. latit. and I?SÉfï^T^****1*
P-tadon. The Ruffian.make^i^^^f"-
miles, which would too much mm^L^TT'91^'
conveyingit tWil-rfathaitofp^^^^^0^'
. ance be made, «he reft* will ^sIoTLZ^ aIW
difbnt, «dtheremrethecoaftnrroffrwt"^ °0t
Map-makers.   Some in this inftance omi  Ae ^H ^^ °f
f "**»"~ * '79 degr. longit.Tna|ff   £' *Û
American coaft above 1ft» *. %H\&Zt. 1*Jne^
** Wd *33 longit, and that oppofit to J^     "    *° dCgf'
W ^«ceopeningtoehe^E ZÏwfZsV}5 fe
than 6s degr. of diflance, a pofitioT dfaS^     ^ ^ 00t ,cfs
c^n^ted   *«.^^^****
*e entrance at 68 or 7o dl d^n f "î™ «^ ***
/<i>*ti4t ends: that, tkoc^L "* S* **&' whcre ***-
of «lands called Mm^^?*"*. *■£;
«»il it will, then  be eafv to f^l L u *** *»»**
Canton in China, iJ^£^ **<**•** £'
Performed the voyage, will return m thîl Pf WV Wc
t "* found» or ^P-autior„;cdeto^ Tf t0 ^^
America
v;
h
/'-«r %
'   ' I   ' .   an*   FACTS. | -f       27
America froin the narrowest part of the Strait up to the opening at Stacbtan Nitada, about 68 or 70 degr. the late Spanish
attempts leading diredly to it. .'BjBk% $'• •'
What has above been offered for Serious consideration, muft now
be concluded with the following information, that the coaft of
Afia cannot be truftcd to for provisions,, none being obtainable in
that part. ' When Peter the Great iSTued out the moft pofitive order* for victualling and providing neceSTary Stores to the Ships of
Behring's firft expedition* much time,pains, and money, were Spent
to obey them ; and at laft the things provided were fech* aa the
Samoyedes themfelves would have been aShamed of. Father Du
Halde, who relates the matter at large» may be confulted about
the particulars. M-   \ |||fe>.   .   .;.■."'   J
u      »
«    *.
•       ■ * .
W$X:
W
I >
..*>#' • »
à  I » •
3B
i
1
. Jul
«      !k
*
Shori
■/Hfl
./^3 /
I
r'r<    r
...       *•
mm )
• •
xmumxmyommxmmymm^
*\
X)'J
*^  •.»*.<« *-**--#
*S#*r/ account of f<me Fojages ptade by, order of the
': King £^ Spain, to difcover the State of > the Weft
4 American Coaft from California ufmardi: 1 Dated
: Madrid, 34 March, 1770. - ^ :  ^c T    'T
■'V#<;.#\ <
THE fpirited attempts made in compliance with his Catholic MajeSty's commands   arifing from  the laudable
intention of Spreading the knowledge of the Gofpel to the utmoft
bounds of his extenfive empire, efpecially thofe direded  to  the
remote parts of the Continent North of California, where the in-
habitants are Still fuppofed immerfed in the darknefs of Paganifm;
and the Steady endeavours for a happy. event, having in fome
ineafure been attended with fuccefs, in two expeditions made in-
the years 1769 and 1770, one* by land, the other by fea ; the harbour of Monterey having been difcovered in latit. 36°, 40'. and a
Court of Presidency, with a miffionary delegation, being eftabiithed
there, under the patronage of St. Charles: His Majefty in pursuance of the pious defign, ordered a Second expedition thither in
1774, with the frigate Santiago, commanded by Don Juan Perez,
who explored that coaft up to 55°. 49'. latit. and landing there
found a civilifed people, well-looking, and accuftomed to wear
clothes.   The fortunate event of that voyage has farther induced
his
%
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\ Y  ' [29] ■        -
his Catholic Majcfty, to fend to Port Sanblas, in New Gallicia,
feme officers of the Navy, ciireded thence to extend that navi- m
gation, and carry on the difcovery as far as pofiible.   In obedience to the injundion, a new expedition took place and three
Ships were fent out.     Don Bruno d'Aceta commanding the'fj
Santjago, and Don Juan Francifco de la Bordega in the Senora, ï|
failed from the harbour of Sanblas in the beginning of 1775, at
the fame time that Don Juan et Ayala, in the St. Charles, fet Sail
for Monterey.    The Sirft proceeded as far as $o° latit. the Second  '
got up to 58°. and the third went only to 370 42'.-f*    Each
of the commanders explored the intermediate coaft, between the   *
lower and the higher degree of latitude—inSpedcd the great harbour of St. Francis, and attentively examined the gulphs, bays, and I -
rivers of thofe parts, which they found inhabited by natives of a
veiy mild and fociable diSpofition.    The good fuccefs of this enterprise is chiefly owing to the wife «Urçdion of Don Antonio %
Maria Bucarelli, Viceroy of New Spain, and to the zeal he hasj$f
always Shewn for the honour of the fervicc and the execution of
his Majesty's great designs.    The favourable report this Viceroy
has made of the Steady and intelligent condud of the commanders,
officers and pilots, through the courfe of the expedition» has given
his Catholic MajeSty a frcSh opportunity of bestowing favour upoa   \
merit and Services : thefe navigators and" mariners have been honoured fcverally with a degree of yank above the Station in which
they went out..-^^S
•tasE'^
t Poffiblj thetrue fit* of Mmttrv» in famtr tt^tticm pltced it 39e tnd 40» latit;
"r&M*
---■■
"»  *■
E UKAT UM. ; f. 16. £.11. fer HuéfptftJhrtif^wA Otfiwrêljh-éitt.
.-.M1». .W?" --«.Va ». */.\. ,-- #£5;
'* i'V    '; '-»*  •. V     *• * ■ "fut
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