Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Tales of travels west of the Mississippi, by Solomon Bell late Keeper of the Traveller's Library, Province-House… Snelling, William Joseph, 1804-1848 1830

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0308177.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0308177-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0308177-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0308177-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0308177-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0308177-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0308177-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

       GRAY & BOWEN
Have in course of publication, a series of Works for
Youth, which will appear under the general title of
TALES OF TRAVELS, by  Solomon Bell, late
Keeper of the Traveller's Library, Province-House
Court, Boston.
The design of this series is to supply to the children of the United
States, an entertaining abstract of the most popular books of travels,
which have lately appeared.   They will be written in a style of great
simplicity, will possess the attractions of continuous narrative, and
be divested of everything which ought not to be exhibited to the
youthful mind.   They will be richly embellished with pictures, from
original and correct designs j each volume will be accompanied by a
map showing the routes of the travellers ; and the whole will be executed in the most elegant and pleasing style in all respects.   While
these volumes are designed to be in the highest degree entertaining
and attractive, tlfey will yet be perfectly authentic.
The first of this series, will be entitled, Tales of Travels West of
the Mississippi.—This will contain the most interesting details in the
various narratives of Lewis and Clark, Major Long, Jewitt, and others, and will present a correct picture of the vast country that lies
West of the Mississippi,—including the various tribes of Indians and
their modes of life j and an account of the most remarkable animals.
It will also be enlivened with the personal adventures of the several
individuals noticed in the aforesaid works.
One volume will exhibit the Polar Regions, and detail the substance of the several narratives of Parry, Franklin, Lyon, &c. One
will be given upon Mexico, and another upon South America.
Three volumes will be given upon Africa, which will embrace
the travels of Lyon, Lang, Denham, Clapperton, Cailiie, Salt,
Burchel, Thomson, and others.
Four volumes will be given upon Europe, and three or four upon
Asia. The most recent and valuable works will be selected as the
imsis of these volumes, and great pains will be taken to adapt them
4o the design of the publication.
When completed* the above series will contain travels in all parts
riof the world, and convey correct ideas of the inhabitants, the animals,
mid the geography of the various countries and nations on the globe.
x The price of these works will be very low, so as to enable every
child to possess the whole series. They will appear about one volume in two months, and will be sold separately, or in sets, at the
option of purchasers. Each book will be complete in itself, and
have no necessary, connexion with any other volume.
      TAL.ES of travels
lewis and ceark's travels; long's expedition;
jewitt's narrative.
Late Keeper of the Traveller's Library, Province-House Court, Boston.
 /J? & £ ^
5 73
District Clerk's Offices
Be it remembered, That on the nineteenth day of October, A. Do
1830, in the fiftyfifth year of the Independence of the United States
of America, Samuel G. Goodrich, of the said district, has deposited
in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as
proprietor, in the words following, to wit:—
* Tales of Travels West of the Mississippi. By Solomon Bell,
late Keeper of the Traveller's Library, Province-House Court, Boston.   With a Map and numerous Engravings.'
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled ' An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the
copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of
such copies during the times therein mentioned j' and also to an
act, entitled ' An act supplementary to an act, entitled " An act for
the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps,
charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies dur-
ring the times therein mentioned; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and
other prints.'"
Clerk of the District of Massachusetts.
X have had my share of adventures and vicissitudes in life,
'but now for the first time do I come before the public as an
author. One might suppose, that a man who was in the
battle of Tippecanoe, — to say nothing of other perilous
chances by flood and field,—would not feel his hand tremble
at dipping his pen in ink. But the fact is otherwise; and I
am obliged to attest, what has often been affirmed before, that
experience in one situation does not necessarily qualify us to
act with decision in another. It is no new thing, to find a
soldier brave in the field, who yet quivers like an aspen leaf
before a ghost.
But I have put my hand to the plough, and what is more, I
have given my portrait in the titlepage. Those who do not
recollect the features of the ' Late Keeper of the Trailer's Library, Province-Hotise Court, Boston,1 may perchance recognise the lineaments of a well-known individual,
1 i
who, being pleased with all the world, is of course not very
much out of humor with himself. If they fail to discover
the likeness of an acquaintance, I have only to recommend to
their attention the quaint motto appended to the portrait of
an ancient divine:
1 Good Wilson this ; behold his looks :
Nay more—proceed, and read his books.'
I might now go on to say something more distinctly of myself and my plan. But I make no pretences to learning, and
I never had anything to do with ambition. I court not
Fame; and if I did, the goddess would not listen to such
humble addresses as mine. Nor do I seek Fortune; for that
blind deity has had sufficient eye-sight always to elude my
pursuit. I may add, that the tide in the affairs of men, of
which the poet speaks, has irrevocably ebbed beyond my
Why do I write, then 1 — I answer to the critics with my
hand on my heart—partly because I have been somewhat of a
traveller myself, and would fain edge in a few of my adventures with those of other people; partly because I have
nothing else to do; partly because I am like my neighbour,
Peter Parley, and love to see the eyes of children glisten at
hearing a good story; and partly because I am not willing
to let the world roll round beneath my feet, and bring me to
my grave, leaving no record behind of any serious effort, on
my part, to benefit mankind.
So much for myself. As for my plan, I meant to say something about it; but I perceive that the advertisement of my
publishers, at the beginning of the volume, has set that forth
better than I could do it myself.
So I have but a word more to say, and that is for my little
readers. They are the only critics I am anxious to please.
Their verdict will be founded in nature and truth; and as I
cannot say as much of others, I turn to them.
I am going to tell you about various travellers in different
parts of the world.   I shall relate their adventures, and tell
you of the countries which they explored, the wild animals
they saw, and the people they met with.   As I have seen
something of the world myself, I shall occasionally make some
observations of my own; but I shall not, like Mr Parley, always introduce myself as the hero of the story.   On the contrary, my chief business will be to tell what has happened to
others.   As I am a great lover of truth, and detest exaggeration,
I shall only present you with tales entitled to your full belief.
Still, if you are fond of strange stories, you shall not l*e disappointed.
We shall have occasion, ere we part, to cljmb over rocky
mountains, range through deep forests, traverse wide deserts*
and meet with many curious, and some perilous, adventuress.
These things you will probably find amusing; but it is more
important that they prove instructive.
Let me, therefore, here ask one favor of you. At the beginning of each volume of these Tales of Travels, you will
find a little map. This map gives a view of the countries,
the course of rivers, the position of mountains, and the situation of towns, where the travellers performed their journeys.
Now I request you all, as you proceed in the story, to consult
the map, and trace the route of each traveller, as you pursue
his narrative. You will enjoy the stories better, if you understand the maps.
I shall now tell you of travels in the unsettled parts of our
Own country. I shall afterwards tell you of the cold regions
far to the North; I shall tell you of Europe, where kings live
in palaces; of Asia, where tigers and rhinoceroses roam at
large; and of Africa, where the lion, the leopard, and the
ostrich may be seen in the desert. I shall tell you of South
America, where the mountains spout forth fire; and the
Islands of the Pacific Ocean, where the people live amidst
trees that never lose their verdure, and where the plants are
always in bloom.
I shall not, like a certain Friend of yours, attempt to amuse
you with fanciful descriptions; I shall tell you only of Truth,
and that in a simple and plain way.
About the river Mississippi.—The Prairies.—How the Indians
set them on Fire, and destroy many Wild Animals.—About
Buffaloes, and how the Indians hunt them       .       .      ,     Page
S?                               CHAPTER II.
About Captain Lewis and Captain Clark.—How they set out on
their Expedition up the Missouri.—About Shags and* Sawyers,
and Kickapoo Indians	
The Travellers continue their Voyage up the River Missouri.—
Carious Story of the Osages, and other Things       .       .       .
Barrows or Mounds.—Wolves.—How the two Captains held a
Council with the Indians at the River Platte.—About the
Otoes.—Red Pipe Stone	
How an Indian Chief poisoned many People.—How he died, and
how he was buried.—About the Small Pox.—How the Travellers caught Fishes in a Bush Net.—What the Captain said
to the Indians.—Another Talk with the Indians.—How Charles
Floyd died.—About a strange Hill, and little Spirits
How Sergeant Pryor went to the Dahcotah Camp, and how the
Dahcotahs treated him.—About the Dahcotahs, and how they
treat their children.—How the Dahcotahs came to the Boats,
and what they did.—About the Peace Pipe.—How the Dahcotahs promised to behave well.—What a strange Society
they had among them       ......
About the Poncara Indians' Mud Village.—About Prairie
Dogs.—How the Captains talked with the Dahcotahs, and
how they attempted to rob Captain Clark.—How they gave
the White Men a Dog to eat.—An Indian Dance.—How the
Dahcotahs promised to make Peace 31
How the Dahcotahs were dressed.—How an Indian beat two
Squaws for Quarrelling.—About an Indian Constable—About
Leather Boats.—How the Ricarees behaved.—A Talk with
the Ricarees, and what they said.—About their mud Houses.—What Images there are on Stone Idol Creek       .       .       34
~Ji . ■  CHAPTER IX. Jj
About the Mandans—A Mandan Story.—How the White Men
spent their Time.—How the Minnetaree Chief came to see
them, and how the Indians killed Buffaloes on the Ice.—-The
Party sets out again.—About Mrs Chaboneau.—How she robbed the Mice.—About Yellow Stone River.—Captain Lewis
kills a Grisly Bear 41
How Captain Clark killed a Grisly Bear, and how another was
near devouring some of the People.—About a Panther.—How
a Buffalo got into the Camp.—How the Indians drive Buffaloes over steep Places 45
The Travellers come to a Fork in the River.—How a Grisly
Bear chased a Man up a Tree.—About the Falls of the Missouri.—How Captain Lewis was near being killed by a Grisly
Bear.—How he slept close to a Rattlesnake.—How the Bears
troubled the People.—Captain Clark is near being drowned.—
About the Gates of the Missouri 49
They come to the Great Ferks.—Captain Lewis sees a Sho-
shonee Indian.—He meets with more Shoshonees.—HJow the
Indians hunted the Wild Goats on Horseback.—*How Captain
Lewis made a Pudding 53
The Shoshonees go with Capt. Lewis to the Place where Captain
Clark is waiting.—Mrs Chaboneau finds her Relations.—The
Captains buy Horses, and Captain Clark goes to explore the
Columbia River.—He meets with a good many Indians, and
sees them spear Salmon.—They pass over high Mountains
Description of the Country Capt. Clark saw.—About Columbia
River.—How the Men were almost starved.—How the Indians
live a great while without eating.—What Capt. Lewis and his
Men did.—How Drewyer was nigh being robbed        .        •       57
How the Shoshonees behaved.—What the Travellers did with
their Canoes.—How they went over Mountains.—About the
Shbshonee Village.—How the Soldiers fiddled and danced.
—Description of the Shoshonees      .       .       ... 60
How the Travellers went over the Mountains, and saw wild
Sheep.—About the Ootlashoots.—How the White Men suffered in Trav elling.—About the Chopunnish       .       . 63
How the Travellers made Canoes.—How they went over the
Rapids, and saw a crazy Squaw.—How they ate Dogs.—
About the Chopunnish Indians, and Prickly Pears . 67
How the Party went down the River, and came to the So-
kulks.—About the Sokulks.—How they flatten the Heads of
female Infants.—How the Pishquitpaws were frightened      .    69
About the Pishquitpaws.—An Indian Tomb.—About the Columbia River.—The Falls of the Columbia.—About the Eche-
loots, and their Houses under Ground . . .        72
About the Chilluckittequaws, and other Indians the Travellers
saw.—About the Shilloots and Wahkiacums.—How the Party came to the Sea . . . . .        .     75
About the Catlahmas, and Chinnooks, and Chiltz, and Clatsops.
How the White Men  built   Houses.—About the Indian
Canoes.—About a Whale.—About the Chinnooks
Description of the Indians near the Mouth of Columbia River.—
How the Travellers returned up that River, and other
Matters . . . . . . .    81
The Travellers proceed.—How they left their Canoes, and went
over the Mountains.—How the Willetpos ran Races.—How
the Party separated ..... 83
About Capt. Lewis and his Men.—How a Bear drove a Man up
a Tree.—How they saw some Blackfoot Indians on Maria
River.—How the Indians behaved.—How the White Men
fought with the Blackfeet
The Travellers proceed on their Journey.—Capt. Lewis is shot
by one of his own Men.—He joins Capt. Clark.—Capt.
Clark's Adventures ......
How one of Capt. Clark's Men hurt himself.—How the Indians
stole twentyfour Horses.—How the Wolves carried off some
Meat.—;About the Horses.—How the Buffaloes stopped the
Party.—How a Grisly Bear attacked the Men.—About the
Musquitoes.—How a Wolf bit Sergeant Pry or .        . 94
About the Rickarees and Shiannes.—About Porcupines.—How
the Tetons acted —How the Yanktons behaved.—How the
White Men arrived at St Louis . . . 100
How Captain Clark was rewarded.—How Captain Lewis became
deranged, and shot himself.—About the Missouri Indians.—
A Story of Colter and the Blackfoot Indians . .      1(KI
How Major Long went op the Missouri, and who went with»
him.—Mr Say and others go on an Exploring Party.—About
the Konzas .... . . 107
Description of the Konzas.—How Mr Say and his Party were
robbed by the Pawnees.—How they built Houses near Council Bluffs, and were visited by various Tribes of Indians.—
About the Pawnees.—How the Party set out for the River
Platte.—Their Adventures . . . 109
Buffaloes again, and wild Horses.—About the Mirage.—How the
Party arrived at the Rocky Mountains.—How they went to
the River Arkansas.—How they separated.—How the Wolves
fell upon a Buffalo.—Description of the Kaskaias.—Adventure with an Elk.—About creasing wild Horses.—The Party
meet with some Cherokees, and arrive at Belle Pointe       .     114
The Travellers meet with various Tribes of Indians.—About
a Shianno War Party.—'Herds of Buffaloes and Wolves of
various Colors.—They meet with some Tetons, and three
Soldiers run away.—The Osages.—Lizards.—A great Spider.—The Party arrive at Belle Pointe . . .    120
Jewitt's Birth and Education.—He goes to Sea.—About Maqui-
na and the Nootkas ... ...   125
Maquina takes the Ship, and kills the Crew.—Jewitt is wounded with an Axe.—Maquina saves Jewitt's Life.—How Thompson is found alive, and knocks an Indian down with his Fist     129
Two Ships come to Nootka.—Strange Visiters.—How Maquina
treated them.—How the Ship was burned.—How the Indians
all got drunk.—How Jewitt worked for the Indians.—Why
Maquina was going to kill Thompson.—How Thompson be-
Jewitt endeavours to please the Indians.—Description of the
Nootkas and other Indians.—How they left their Village.—
About Maquina's new Coat .....   137
How the Nootkas catch Bears.—A religious Ceremony.—The
Nootkas remove.—A great Feast.—About a crazy Chief-—
How he was whipped.—Jewitt makes a Harpoon for Maquina,
and becomes a Man of Consequence . . .     142
The crazy Chief dies.—Maquina makes War upon the Ay-
charts.—The neighbouring Chiefs try to buy Jewitt.—How
the Indians were frightened by an Eclipse of the Moon       .      147
A further Description of the Nootkas, their Manners and Customs.—About the Climate.—A Ship arrives at Nootka.—Maquina goes to it with a Letter from Jewitt . . 150
CHAPTER XL.      |R£'
Maquina goes on board the Ship, and is put in Irons.—Thompson
and Jewitt are released.—The Articles belonging to the Boston are restored.—Maquina is set free v .      **    .     155
The Vessel sails, and they traffic with various Tribes of Indians.—They go to the Columbia River, and find Capt.
Lewis's Letter.—Return to Nootka.—Meeting with Maquina.—Farewell.—The Brig goes to China, and Jewitt arrives at Boston.—He writes his Book, and settles in Berlin,
Connecticut.—His Death . . . .    160
About the River Mississippi.—The Prairies.—How the
Indians set them on Fire, and destroy many Wild
Animals.—About Buffaloes, and how the Indians hunt
I suppose my readers have all heard of the River
Mississippi. There is a picture of it on the map, at
the beginning of this book. It is a great stream flowing from north to south. It is in some places a mile
wide, and hundreds of steam boats are constantly
navigating its waters.
On the map you see a place called St Louis. This
is a town where there are several thousand people. St
Louis is about 1100 miles from New York; it is 1300
miles from Boston, and 1000 miles from Philadelphia.
It would take you about fourteen days to go by stage
and steam boat from New York to St Louis. This*
town is in a direction nearly southwest from Boston*
The map which I have mentioned before, gives you
a picture of a vast country west of the Mississippi.
It is about this country I am going to tell you.
You observe, nearly in the middle of the map, a
dark range of mountains running from north to south.
These are the Rocky Mountains. They are very
high, and their tops are always covered with snow.
Between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi,
the country is a wide prairie, through which many rivers flow, and empty their waters into the Mississippi.
I suppose you have never seen a prairie ; so I will describe one to you.
A prairie is a piece of ground without trees or bushes. In summer it is covered with tall grass. Sometimes the prairies are quite flat, and stretch out to an
immense extent, resembling the boundless sea.
Sometimes they are uneven, or rolling, as they are
Trees grow along the banks of rivers which flow
through the prairies, and around the lakes and ponds
which lie within them: sometimes, too, there are
small spots in the midst of a prairie where there is no
water, covered with trees. These places the people
call islands.
But except the woods which grow upon the margins of rivers and other waters, and the little groups
mentioned above, the whole region, which spreads
out between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi, being about 1000 miles from eastlo west, and near
800 miles from north to south, is a wide prairie.
Over this vast space there are only a few small
settlements, and not many white people.   It is chiefly
occupied by wandering tribes of savages, and multitudes of wild beasts, of various kinds. The Indians
live chiefly by hunting wild animals, which they sometimes shoot with arrows, and sometimes with guns.
I suppose you never saw an Indian. Here are
pictures of some Indians ; one has a bow and arrow,
the other is in full dress. The Indians have dark
skins, the^ color of copper, and dress, as you see, very
differently from white people.
They have a curious custom of burning the prairies every year. In the fall, when the grass becomes
dry, they set it on fire, and the flame spreads far and
wide with astonishing rapidity. The wild animals
fly from it, with the greatest terror. Horses, buffaloes, deer, elks, bears, and other creatures, may be
seen running away from the fire, which, however,
often overtakes them, and burns them to death.
A prairie on fire at night is a truly sublime spectacle.
The flames appear like a burning sea, and the clouds
of smoke that roll up to the heavens, tinged with the
light, spread over the scene a terrific gloom.
These fires prevent the wood from growing; for
as fast as the trees come up, they are burnt to the
ground. Thus where there are Indians to burn
them over every year, prairies continue destitute of
trees. But when white people settle in the prairies,
these fires are not kindled, and so the trees come up,
and what was before a prairie, becomes a forest.
Around the town of St Louis, the country for fifty
miles in extent is covered with woods. Twentyfive
years ago, it was an open prairie.
In the prairies, there are multitudes of buffaloes.
A Buffalo is a great, ill-looking animal, something like
an ox, but larger. His head and neck are covered
with long shaggy hair. He has a long beard too.
His neck and his fore parts are thick and strong, but
his hind parts are small in proportion to the rest.
In the summer he has no hair from his shoulders
Buffaloes go in great droves, and as fast as they
eat up the grass in one place they move to another.
In the spring they are fat, and their meat is very
good to eat.   In the fall they are lean.
I have seen droves of them that covered the
ground farther than the eye could reach, and I have
travelled three days through a herd, without coming
to the end of it. They are afraid of a man, and will
run away from him. But when they are wounded,
they will turn upon him and attack him with g^reat
fury. 1*
The Indians hunt buffaloes sometimes on foot, and
sometimes on horseback. When they hunt them on
foot, they take care that the wind blows from the
buffaloes to them; for these creatures have a very keen
scent. They can smell a man more than a mile,
when the wind blows from him toward them.
When the hunter has got as near as he can without being seen, he lies down flat in the grass.
Then he drags himself along, till he is near enough.
Then he fires at the buffalo's heart, and kills him.
If he were to shoot at the head, it would be of no use,
for the skull is so hard and thick, that a bullet will
not enter it.
The Indians have horses trained to hunt the buffalo. They ride into a drove, and fire at the fattest
and best, and then ride to another. This is a very
dangerous sport; for the buffalo, when he is wounded,
turns upon his enemy, and sometimes kills both
horse and rider.
I should not omit to tell you that the buffalo has a
great hump on his shoulders, and that this is better to
eat than any other part.
There are two kinds of bears in this country.
One is the Black Bear. He eats mice, and frogs, and
fish, and nuts, and corn, and climbs trees. He sleeps
all winter in a hollow tree. He seldom attacks men.
The other is called the Grisly Bear. This creature is a dreadful enemy, and attacks men whenever
he can get an opportunity. He has terrible teeth,
and claws longer than a man's finger. He is of a dark
grey color. He runs very fast. It is very difficult
to kill one of these  animals, for they have been
known to live several hours after having ten bullets
shot into them. They feed altogether upon flesh.
They are not afraid of fire, as other wild beasts are.
The Elk is a four-footed beast, very like a deer,
but almost as big as a horse. The females have no
horns, but the males have very large ones. You
may have seen their horns in a museum. Elks are
peaceable creatures. They do no harm to anything,
and live on grass and the small branches of trees.
I have seen five hundred of them in one drove, and
they were a beautiful sight.
Thus I have told you something of the country between the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi.
But little is known of the country west of the
Rocky Mountains. Very few white men have been
there. There is a river which runs from the mountains into the Pacific Ocean, called the Columbia River. This you will see on the map. It comes within forty miles of the springs where the Missouri river begins. On the river Columbia, which is a very
large one, the country is full of hills and mountains.
There are few trees, and no buffaloes. But there
are bears, and elks, and mountain goats, and sheep
with great horns. The Indians that live there are
very poor, and have but little clothing.
Before you get through with this book, 1 trust you
will be better acquainted with this country.
 AMERICAN  ELK. The American Elk is one of the finest animals of the deer
kind ; it is found only in America. The Elk of Europe is
common in this country, but it is called Moose.
About Captain   Lewis and  Captain   Clark.—How they
set out on their Expedition up the Missouri.—About
Snags and Sawyers, and Kickapoo Indians.
I am now going to tell you all about Captain Lewis and Captain Clark. They travelled up the great
river, which you will see on the map, called the Missouri, to the Rocky Mountains. Then they crossed the
mountains to Columbia River. Then they made canoes out of great trees, and went down that river to
the Pacific Ocean. The next year they came back
by the same way they went. They were the first
travellers who wrote anything about Columbia River.
As this great country was not known about thirty
years ago, Congress agreed to send some people to
find out what kind of a river the Missouri was, and
see if it was possible to make a road from the Mis^-
souri to the great Pacific Ocean which lies far to
the west. So President Jefferson, who was a great
man, chose to send Captain Lewis and Captain Clark
to learn these things.
He gave them many articles for the Indians, such
as beads, and ribbons, and powder, and balls, and silver medals for the chiefs of the Indians, and a great
many other things. He told them to write down all
they saw on paper. But for fear the paper should be
spoiled by getting wet, he told them to write on birch
bark too.
He told them to find out the names of all the Indian tribes they might see, and what lands they
owned. They were to learn all they could about the
languages of the Indians, and about their way of living, and in short all about them, and the country.
When they came to the ocean, if they could not
return safely by land, they were told to try to find a
ship on the coast, and return by water.
The next year, in the month of May, 1804, the two
Captains started from St Louis. They took with
them twentyseven white men, and a negro, who was
named York. They went on board three boats.
One of them was a large one, with a deck and.a cabin.   The other two were small open boats.
Captain Lewis and Captain Clark soon found that
the Missouri ran very fast. The banks were constantly falling in, and the trees along with them.
Some of these trees get fast in the bottom, and stick
up straight. They are called snags. Others get fast
in the same way, and the tops are always moving,
sometimes under the water, and sometimes above it.
These are called sawyers, and they are very dangerous to boats. Great trees are always floating down
this river; so that our travellers found it very hard to
get along. In three days they came to a town of
French people, called St Charles. Here they staid
three days. Two days after, they came to some
Kickapoo Indians, who had been hunting. The Indians gave them four deer, and they made the Indians a present in return.
The Travellers continue their Voyage up the River Missouri.—Curious Story of the Osages, and other Tilings'.
The next day they came to a river called the
Osage Woman River. You will see it on the map.
They saw a large cave, too, where a great rock hangs
over the water. There are strange figures painted
on this rock* Two days after, they came to the Gasconade River, and stopped to hunt. The trees they
saw were cotton wood, which is a species of poplar;
hickory, walnut, and willow. They found plenty of
rushes, and some grape-vines.
Then they came to the Osage River. The Osage
Indians live on this stream. There are more than a
thousand of them. They have a story about themselves, which I will tell you.
There was a snail crawling on the bank of the
Osage. The river washed him away and carried him
to the Missouri. Here the sun shone on him, and he
turned into a man. Then he returned to the place
where he was born, on the Osage River. He came
near being starved to death, but God gave him a
bow and arrow, and showed him how to kill deer.
Then he found a beaver who spoke to him, and told
him he would not let him hunt there. While they
were quarrelling, the beaver's daughter came and
made the quarrel up. The man married'the female
beaver, and their children were the first Osages.
This is a silly story, but the Osages believe it. They
are an ignorant people, and do not know how to read.
Our travellers now passed by several rivers. The
Konzas was the largest of these. They stopped at the
mouth of Good Woman River, and killed three bears,
and some rattlesnakes. Rattlesnakes you know are
poisonous. They have a kind of bony rattle at the
end of the tail. They never bite without sounding
this rattle first. I once saw an Indian boy bit by one,
and he soon died.   Here is a picture of a Rattlesnake.
The captains found good plums on the river. They
met a man going down the river in a canoe, named
Durion. He could speak the language of the Sioux
Indians, and they hired him to go with them for an
After this our travellers passed Grand River, and
saw a strange snake that made a noise like a turkey.
The banks kept falling into the river all the time.
They found thousands of musquitoes, and were stung
very badly. Then they saw some pelicans. A Pelican is a very large white bird, that lives on fish. It
has a great bag under its bill.   This bag wpl hold
four or five  gallons.    Sometimes the pelicans fill
these bags with fish.
liiliK I
The party continued to proceed, and saw a great
many deer, and parroquets, and wild turkeys, and
beavers, and goslings, and swans, and wolves. They
killed a wolf, and they passed a great many more
I suppose you never have heard of all these creatures;
so I will show you pictures of them. Here is a Parro-
quet, which is a beautiful bird, with green and yellow
feathers, something like a parrot, and can be easily
taught to e
ms^SBBSS^B   -=3SS5iiiaB
K, *"-
is buried. This man bought arsenic and other poisons of the white traders who came there, who
taught him how to use it. He would prophesy that
a man would die, and then poison him, that his
prophecy might come to pass.
The Omahaw people knew nothing of his poison,
and believed him to be a great prophet. They were
all afraid of him, and did as he bade them. He was
a terrible tyrant. At last he died of the small pox.
He left directions how he would be buried, and these
were obeyed.
A great hole was dug on the top of a hill, on the
bank of the river. They then put a horse into it,
and placed the body of Blackbird astride upon it.
They also put into the hole Ms gun, and all his
weapons of war, and a great many other things, which
they thought he would want in the next world. Then
they covered him all up with earth, and raised a
mound over him.
His face had been placed toward the river, because he said he wished to see the traders as they
came up the stream. They placed food on his grave,
and continued to do so many years afterwards.
Every one that goes up or down the Missouri, sees
Blackbird's grave. Four hundred Omahaws died of
the small pox at the same time that this chief died.
When the small pox came among these Indians,
they did not know what to make of it. Seeing their
people die in great distress, and that they could not
help them, they became mad. Some of them killed
their wives and children, that they might not suffer
with the sickness. Then they burnt their village,
and went to another place.
At length the travellers came to a spot on the river,
where they .tried their luck at fishing. They made a
net of bushes, and caught more than a thousand fish.
You may think a bush net a strange thing, but I have
seen a great many bush nets, and I assure you they
do very well.
The next day, the Otoes and Missouris came
again to see the two Captains. The Captains wanted
to make peace between these two tribes and the
Omahaws. The Indians told them how the war
broke out.
They said that two of the Missouris who were living with the Otoes had gone to the Omahaw village
to steal horses. The Omahaws caught the two Missouris and killed them, and that had caused the war.
Now you must know that the Indians on the Missouri consider it very meritorious to steal horses. This
may seem very strange, but the poor Indians have
not been taught better.
The next day, the Captains held a talk with these
Indians, and gave them some presents. They behaved very politely. I will tell you a few of their titles,
to show you what strange names they have. There
was Crow's Head, Iron Eyes, Great Blue Eyes,
Black Cat, Big Ox, and Brave Man. They tried
to get some whiskey of the travellers, but they did
not succeed, for the Captains knew that it would do
them more hurt than good.
The day after this talk, one of the soldiers died,
and was buried.    Guns were fired over the grave,
and a cedar post was set up to mark the spot. His
name was Charles Floyd.
On the twentyfifth of August, the two Captains, and
ten of their men, went to see a great mound near
Whitestone River. After walking nine miles across
an open prairie in the hot .sun, they came to it. It
was larger and longer and higher than the New
Market in Boston. They climbed to the top, and
found a beautiful prospect.
The Indians believe that this mound is inhabited
by little devils, shaped like men, with great heads,
and a foot and a half high. These little devils,
they say, have bows and arrows, with which they kill all
that come to the mound. When a man is lost in the
prairie, they think he has been killed by these wicked little spirits. None of the Indians will now go
near the place. But the travellers did not see any of
the little spirits; and I venture to say there were
never any there. The Indians, as I shall have occasion
to tell you, have many very absurd superstitions of this
sort among them.
Aboui this mound, the Captains saw a great many
insects, and thousands of birds were catching and
eating them. Among the rest were some martins,
so tame, that they would come close to the men.
On their way back to their boats, they found wild
plums, grapes, and currants, as good as those you find
in gardens.
How Sergeant Pry or went to the Dahcotah Camp, and how
the Dahcotahs treated him.—About the Dahcotahs, and
how they treat their Children.—How the Dahcotahs came
to the Boats, and what they did.—About the Peace Pipe.
—How the Dahcotahs promised to behave well.— What
a strange Society they had among them.
The travellers now sent Sergeant Pryor to the
Dahcotah camp, to invite the Indians to come and
have a talk with them, i When the Sergeant was
nigh to the village, he met some of the Indians, who
wanted to carry him into the camp on a buffalo robe
as a mark of respect, but he would not suffer it. The
tents or houses of these Indians were made of leather, and shaped like a sugar-loaf.   The fire was made
in the middle, and a hole was left open at the top to
let the smoke out. Each tent held ten or fifteen persons.
As soon as Sergeant Pry or got into one of ^he tents,
a squaw spread a bearskin for him to sit upon.
Another knocked a dog on the head with a hatchet
and killed it. Then the dog was held in the fire till
all the hair was burned off. Then it was cut in pieces, and boiled. When it was done, it was set before the Sergeant to eat.
This is the way the Dahcotahs receive strangers.
They like to eat dogs better than anything else, and
therefore think that others do. They are, indeed, not
bad food.    They taste something like mutton.
The men in the Dahcotah camp, were dressed like
the other Indians I told you about. The women
wore short petticoats and leggins, with beads about
their necks. They carried their children about, strapped to a board; and when they had anything to do,
set them up against a tree, or hung them to a branch.
This does not hurt them: it is very seldom you hear
an Indian child cry.
On the 30th of the month, seventy of the Dahcotahs came to the boats, where the Captains received
them under a great oak tree. An American flag
was hoisted. Captain Lewis made a speech, and
gave the Indians some presents. Then one of the
Indians lighted the pipe of peace, and it was passed
from one to the other, till each one had smoked a
few whiffs. Then the pipe was given to Captain
Lewis to keep, and the Indians had a council by
The bowl of the peace pipe is made of red stone.
The stem, which is of wood, is more than a yard
long, and about three inches broad. It is ornamented
with porcupine's quills, beads, ribbons, and horse-hair
dyed red. On the whole, the peace pipe is a beautiful thing, and is always smoked by the Indians, on
important occasions.
In the afternoon, the Indians shot at a mark with
their arrows, for beads, which the travellers gave to
the best marksmen. Then they all danced and sung.
Besides the music of voices, they had drums and rattles.
After breakfast the next morning, the chiefs all
sat down on the ground in a row, and spread some
skins for the Captains to sit upon. They then spoke,
one after another, promising to behave well, and
make peace with their enemies.   They also asked
for tobacco and whiskey.   Some of them promised
to go to Washington city, and see the President.
These Indians were stout, handsome men. Some
of them wore necklaces made of the claws of the
Grisly Bears, they had killed. Most of them were
armed with bows and arrows, which they use very
expertly; and I have seen one of them drive an arrow through a buffalo, so that it fell on the other
side. They sometimes fight their enemies on horseback; but in this case they have spears and sometimes shields, as well as bows and arrows.
On the next page you will see a picture of one of
these warriors on horseback, charging his enemy with
a spear.
The Captains found four men among them, who
belonged to a curious society. At first it consisted of
twentytwo. They had agreed with one another ne-*
ver to turn aside for any danger, however great. As
they crossed the Missouri, they came to a hole in
the ice, but would not turn aside for it. The foremost ones plunged in and were drowned, and the
rest would have followed, if they had not been dragged away by those who did not belong to the society.
As they never took any care of themselves, they
were all dead but these four whom the Captains saw.
AUmt the Poncara Indians' Mud Village.—About Prai
He Dogs.—How the Captains talked with the Dahcotahs,
and how they attempted to rob Captain Clark.—How they
gave they White Men a Dog to eat.—An Indian Dance.—
How the Dahcotahs promised to make Peace.
On the 5th of September, the travellers came to
the mud village of the Poncara Indians. The savages were all away hunting. One of the soldiers killed a buffalo in the village. The current of the river
was now so rapid, that the party were often obliged
to drag their boats up with a rope. They now began to see plenty of buffaloes, deer, elks, and wild
turkeys. They also saw some antelopes. These
are beautiful little animals, and they run so fast that no
dog nor horse can overtake them. On 'the next page
is an engraving' of two of these animals. The travel-
lers also caught some catfishes, which are very large
and ugly. They look much like the fish that we
call pout.
The next day, they came to a village of prairie
dogs, or marmots. These pretty little creatures, are
as big as rabbits, and burrow in the ground like them.
When they see a man, they sit up and bark; but when
he comes near, they run into their holes. They
abound on the Upper Missouri. At page 32 is a picture of a marmot village. The travellers also saw
deer with black tails, and black and white wolves.
On the 25th Sept., they had a talk with some more
of the Dahcotahs, who begged very hard for whiskey, and were very saucy.   When the Indians cross-
ed the river to go home, Captain Clark went over
with them in one of the small boats. When they got
on shore, the Indians laid hands upon Captain Clark's
boat, and said they would not let him have it, if he
did not give them more presents. He had some hard
words with them, and at last they offered to seize
him. He drew his sword to defend himself, and the
Indians fitted their arrows to their bows. At this
moment, when blood was about to be shed, the people in the great boat pointed a small cannon at the
Indians, and ten of the soldiers came across to help
the Captain. Then the Indians let go of the boat,
and talked one to another. Captain Clark offered
to shake hands and be friends with them, but they
refused. At last two of the chiefs went back to the
other side of the river with him.
The next day, the Dahcotahs seemed to be in better humor. There was a crowd of them on the bank,
and Captain Lewis and Captain Clark went on shore.
The Indians invited them to a dance. They took
the two Captains upon buffalo robes, and carried
them to a large tent, where they were requested to sit
They were treated with great ceremony and civility.
A dog was set before them to eat, as well as buffalo
flesh, and other meat. These things were served
up in wooden bowls, and horn spoons were given to
the visitors to eat with. Then the Indian men danced
for their amusement.
After this, the women danced, with poles in their
hands, to which were tied the scalps their people
had taken in war.   There was a great beating of
drums, and singing, and shaking of rattles- The
men, in dancing, would jump about, but the squaws
only shuffled from side to side. One would sing, and
all the rest would join in the chorus.
These Dahcotahs had with them twentyfive Oma-
haw women, whom they had taken in war. They
promised the Captains, that they would restore these
captives to their relations, and make peace with the
Omahaws and with the Mandans also.
How the Dahcotahs were dressed.—How an Indian beat
two Squaws for Quarrelling.—About an Indian Constable.—About Leather Boats.—How the Ricarees behaved.
—A Talk with the Ricarees, and what they said.—About
their mud Houses.— What Images there are on Stone
Idol Creek.
The Dahcotahs, of which I have been telling you,
had all the hair shaved off their heads, except a small
tuft on the crown, and they wore a great many eagle's
feathers in the little hair they had left. They were
smeared with grease and charcoal. In other respects,
they resembled the Indians I have described already.
Some of the bravest, who had killed enemies in battle, had skunk skins fastened to their heels. Each
of them carried in his hand his tobacco pouch, made
of the skin of some animal.
The women had their hair parted on their foreheads, and tied up ,in a thick queue behind.   When*
ever the camp moves from one place to another, they
load the horses and dogs; for dogs are made to work
by the Indians. What the horses and dogs cannot
carry, the women carry on their heads, for the men
will carry nothing but their guns, and bows, and arrows.
While the Captains were with the Dahcotahs, two
of the squaws quarrelled, but an Indian came, and
beat them both. This man was a kind of constable, or, as the Indians call him, a soldier, and it is.
his business to prevent disturbance. He is at liberty
to beat anybody. He wore a raven skin on his head,
and two or three more in his belt. These were the
signs of his authority. *
The next day the Dahcotahs danced again, to
amuse the travellers; but toward night they showed
an inclination to rob them. On the morrow there
was a great deal of trouble to get rid of these Indians;
but finally the Captains and their men went forward
in peace. As they went along, up the river, they
saw many more of the Dahcotahs, but as they had
already received such treatment from the tribe, they
would have nothing to say to them.
On the 8th of October, they came to an island,
three miles long, in the river. There was a village
of Ricaree Indians on it. Here the travellers saw
the squaws paddle across the river in leather boats.
These boats are constructed in the following manner.
In the first place, they make a kind of frame of willow
branches, something like a great basket. Then they
lay the frame in the middle of a raw buffalo skin.
They gather the folds all round, and sew them to the
p. ii
frame, and the canoe is finished. It looks outside
like a great tub.
The Ricarees had never seen a negro, and were surprised at the appearance of Capt. Clark's black man,
York. York told them that his master caught him running wild in the woods, and tamed him, and the Indians
believed the story. These Indians would not drink
the whiskey which the Captains gave them, but rebuked them for offering them any.
A council was held with the Ricarees, like those held
with the Dahcotahs and Otoes. The Indians gave our
travellers corn, and beans, and squashes, and behaved
very kindly. One of the chiefs agreed to go with the
boats, and make peace between the Mandans and his
own people.
These Ricarees lived in houses made of mud,
each with a hole in the top for the smoke to get out.
They were round like the dome of the State House
in Boston, and about as large inside as a large chamber.   They were very warm and comfortable.
On the thirteenth, the travellers came to a little
stream, called Stone Idol Creek. On the banks they
saw two rocks; one looked like a man and woman,
and the other like a dog. One of them had something like a bunch of grapes in its hand. The Ricarees have a very strange story about these stones,
which I will tell you.
There was once, according to this story, a Ricaree,
who fell in love with a Ricaree girl, and wanted to
marry her. He was poor, and her parents would not
consent. So he went into the woods, to cry about it,
and his dog followed him. When he got into the woods*
he found the girl he loved there.
Then they agreed to run away together. They
wandered up and down, and could find nothing to eat
but wild grapes. The Great Spirit took pity on
them, and changed them and their dog into stone, and
there they remain now. The Ricarees hold them in
great respect, and worship them.
The next day, one of the soldiers was whipped by
order of Captain Lewis, for some crime he had committed. There was an Indian chief on board, who had
pity on the soldier, and cried all the time the punishment was going on. The day after, the party came
to some more Ricarees. The Indian children were
afraid of black York, and ran away from him.
On the sixteenth of the month, they came to a place
where the Indians had driven a flock of wild goats
into the river. They were shooting them with
their guns, and the Indian boys were killing them
with sticks. The boys alone killed fiftyeight On
the next page is a picture of one of these Goats.
The next day the travellers met two Frenchmen
coming down the river in a log canoe. They had
been on a hunting expedition, but the Mandans had
taken away their guns and traps, and the skins of the
creatures they had killed. The Indians are very apt
to commit such robberies.
On the 21st they came to a great oak tree, standing alone in the prairie—all the rest of the trees had
been destroyed by fire. The Indians think that this
tree can do wonderful things. They cut a hole in the
skin of their necks, and puo a string through it. They
tie the other end of the string to the tree, and stand
there a while. They think this makes them very brave.
Six days after, the party arrived at the village of the
Mandans. The grand chief came to see them. One
of his relations had lately died, and he had cut off
two joints from each of his little fingers, to show his
sorrow. This is the way the Mandans go in mourning.
Capt. Clark and some of the soldiers went to the
village and smoked with the people. They wanted
him to eat with them, but as he was sick, he refused.
They did not like this at all, and thought it very uncivil. But the squaws gave the soldiers corn, and
other provisions.
The Captain had a council with these Indians, and
gave them some presents. In the night, the grass in
the prairie took fire. It burnt so fast, that a man
could not outrun the flames. One Mandan and his
wife were burned to death, and another man with his
wife and child were burned very badly.
There was one woman with her little boy in the
prairie, when it took fire. The little boy could not
run fast, so she made him lie down, and then threw her
buffalo robe over him. She escaped herself, and the
boy was not hurt. The flames passed over the buffalo robe without burning him. The burning prairie
is a terrible thing, and a good many Indians perish
in the flames.
One of the chiefs invited Capt. Clark to the village ;
and he went accordingly. When he entered the
hut, the chief made him sit down on a fine skin, and
gave him a beautiful robe of skins. Then the chief
promised to make peace with the Ricarees, and return the things that had been stolen from the two
Frenchmen. He also gave the Captain twelve bushels of corn.
The Captains now concluded to stop all winter at
this place. So they began to cut down trees, and
build huts. In seventeen days, they built eight huts.
These were made of great logs, and the chinks were
plastered with mud. The chimneys were also built of
mud. I have lived in such houses in the Indian country, and found them very comfortable.
Then the party set about killing buffaloes, and lay-
ixg up provisions. There were five Indian villages
near them. These consisted of Mandans, Ahnaha-
ways, and Minnetarees, or Big Bellies. They were
all very kind and peaceable. They visited the huts
every day.
On the 30th of November, an Indian came
to the opposite bank of the river, and called for a
boat. He said he had news for the white men. He
was soon brought across. He told the Captains that
as the Mandans were hunting, the Dahcotahs had
attacked them and killed one man. They had wounded two more, and stolen nine horses. The Mandans
thought they should be attacked in their villages by
these Dahcotahs.
Capt. Clark now went with twentythree of his soldiers to assist the Mandans. The Mandans were very
much pleased with this, and it gained the white men
their good will.
About the Mandans.—A Mandan Story.—How the White
Men spent their Time.—How the Minnetaree Chief came
to see them, and how the Indians killed Buffaloes on the
Ice.—The Party sets out again.—About Mrs Chdboneau.
—How she robbed the Mice.—About Yellow Stone River.
—Captain Lewis kills a Grisly Bear.
The Mandans are a peaceable and good kind of
people. They say their fathers lived a long time
under ground. The root of a grape-vine broke
through the earth, and then they first saw the sunshine. A great many of them climbed up the grapevine, and got on the prairie. At last a great fat woman tried to climb up. The vine broke with her
weight—the woman fell to the bottom of the cave, and
the rest of the Mandans remained under ground.
The Mandans think, when they die, they shall return
to their friends in the cave.
The weather was soon very cold; colder than you
have ever known it to be where you live ; yet the travellers were able to kill buffaloes, and the Indians still
came to visit them. On Christmas day, the men
danced and feasted, and all were happy. On New
Year's day, the soldiers went to the Mandan village,
and danced to please the Indians. They were delighted, and gave the soldiers corn and buffalo robes.
The great chief of the Minnetarees, who had but
one eye, came now to see the white men. He said some
foolish people had told him that there was a black
man among them. He did not believe it. When
York came, he thought he was painted. He spit on
his skin, and tried to wash off the paint. He could
scarcely believe that York was not a painted white
At the approach of spring, the travellers saw the Indians kill buffaloes on the ice. These creatures try to
cross the river, when the ice is breaking up, and get
afloat on cakes of it. They cannot walk steadily in
this way, and the Indians go close to them, and stab
them with their knives.
The travellers had passed the winter very pleasantly.
They hunted and danced, and visited the Indians. The
blacksmith made tools and battleaxes for the savages,
O 7
and they gave him meat and corn for his trouble.
The weather was very cold, and some of the men
who were out hunting had their feet frozen. But in
the huts, they were warm, and had plenty to eat.
On the 7th of April, they set out to pursue their
long journey in their boats. There were thirtytwo
persons on board. These were three sergeants, twen-
tythree privates, the two captains, the black man, and
two interpreters. One of the interpreters, who was
named Chaboneau, had his squaw and a small child
with him. She belonged to a tribe of Indians in the
Rocky Mountains. She had been taken prisoner
when she was a child, by the Mandans, who sold her
to Chaboneau. When she grew up, he married her.
One of the Mandans also went with the party, to
make peace with the Snake Indians. They all started in eight canoes, made of wood.
Two or three days after, Mrs Chaboneau went on
shore, and found where some mice had made their nests
in the ground. She dug them open, and got a bushel
of wild artichokes which the mice had gathered and
laid up for their winter store. The Indians frequently rob the mice and squirrels in this way to get food for
On the 23d, the travellers killed a buffalo calf, and
a Mule Deer. This latter animal is a fine species of
deer, peculiar to these regions, and found in no other
part of the world. There is a picture of one on the
next page.
On the 26th of the month, they came to the
mouth of the Yellow Stone River. This is a very
large stream, that comes from the Rocky Mountains, and falls into the Missouri. It is quite as
large as the Missouri is where the two rivers unite.
Deer, buffaloes, elks, and other beasts, are found
on its banks.
On the 29th, Capt. Lewis went on shore, with one
of the men, to hunt. They met with two Grisly Bears.
They fired their guns at these animals, and wounded
both: One ran away, but the other came towards the
hunters, and pursued Capt. Lewis with all his might.
However, the creature was so much hurt that he could
not run fast, and Capt. Lewis loaded his gun as
he ran, and shot the bear again; the other man did
the same, and then he fell down and died. He was a
young one, but weighed three hundred pounds. If he
could have caught Capt. Lewis, he would have torn
him to pieces.
How Captain Clark killed a Grisly Bear, and how another
was near devouring some of the People.—About a Panther.—How a Buffalo got into the Camp.—How the
Indians drive Buffaloes over steep Places.
The travellers now found deer, elks, buffaloes, wild
goats, and wolves very abundant along the bank of the
river Missouri, which they were ascending. All along,
the country continued to be an open plain as before.
There were also wild ducks, geese, and swans'in great
abundance, on the water.
On the 5 th day of May, Capt. Clark and one of the
men were out hunting. They came across a very
large Grisly Bear. They shot ten balls into him, and
he ran away, roaring terribly. Though he was so
badly hurt, he jumped into the river, and swam to an
island in the middle. There he laid down, and in
about twenty minutes he died.
Nine days after, as the party were sailing along,
they saw a monstrous Grisly Bear on the shore, and
six of the men got out to kill him. They approached
pretty near to him, and four of them fired. Every
ball entered his body.
But the bear was not killed: he ran at the men with
his mouth wide open. Just as he was about to catch
the hmdmost of them, the two others fired, and broke
his shoulder. Then he came at them again, and they
jumped into their canoe, and put off into the river. He
ran so fast, though his shoulder was broken, that they
had no time to load their guns. The four men on
the shore hid themselves in the willows, and kept
firing at him. The oftener they hit him, the angrier
he grew. At last he got so near two of them, that
they threw away their guns, and jumped into the river. The bear jumped in too, and swam after them.
Just as he was going to lay hold of one of them with
his teeth, a man on shore shot him in the head, and
killed him. They dragged him ashore, and found that
eight balls had passed through his body.
The hunters now entered their boats, but one of
them forgot his coat and left it on shore. By and by a
Grisly Bear came, and they saw him tear it to pieces.
The same day the people saw a Panther devouring* a
deer that he had killed. They fired at him, and hurt
him, but he got away. They also saw a great many
One night, the travellers had gone ashore, made
their fires, and had gone to sleep. It so happened
that a buffalo took it into his head to swim across the
river where their canoes were lying. He ran into the
camp, and was very nigh trampling some of the men
to death. As soon as he found out where he was, he
ran up and down, but at length the dogs frightened
him away. He jumped on some guns, and broke
them in pieces.
On the twentyninth, they came to a very high steep
rock. Beneath it were thousands of buffalo bones.
Mrs Chaboneau, who was a Snake Indian, said that her
countrymen had been killing buffaloes at this place,
and she told how they killed them.
One of the young Indians goes and puts on a buffalo
skin, horns and all, so that he looks quite like a buffalo.
Then he gets near a drove of buffaloes, and goes before them. They think it is a buffalo, and follow
him. When he has got them near the precipice, a
number of Indians show themselves behind the drove.
The buffaloes are frightened, and] run off as fast as they
can after the mock buffalo, who leads them straight
to the precipice. There he hides suddenly in a hole.
The creatures behind push on those before, and they
all go over the precipice together. Thus hundreds are
killed. Sometimes the disguised Indian is trampled
to death.
The Travellers come to a Fork in the River.—How a
Grisly Bear chased a Man up a Tree.—About the Falls
of the Missouri.—How Captain Lewis was near being
hilled by a Grisly Bear.—How he slept close to a Rattlesnake.—How the Bears troubled the People.—Captain Clark is near being drowned.—About the Gates of
the Missouri.
On the 3d of June, the party came to a place where
the river divided into two branches. They were
puzzled which to ascend. So they concluded to
divide into two parties, and travel a day and a half up
each of them. Capt. Clark took one, and Capt. Lewis
the other. Capt. Lewis and his men had a hard time
of it, with rain and storms. They went on foot along
the shore, and were near falling over some steep
rocks, and being dashed to pieces.
Capt. Clark did not have so much difficulty; but
one of his men was chased by a grisly bear, and when
he tried to shoot it, he found his gun was wet, and
would not go off. So he was obliged to run and climb
up a tree, but the bear was so near him, that he
touched him with his claws as he ascended. There
at the foot of the tree the beast remained, and watched
him some time. At last the people came, and scared
him away, and the man came down again.
The two parties returned at the time appointed,
and met again at the fork, but yet they could not tell
which of the branches was the Missouri. So Capt.
Lewis went up the south branch, to see if he could
find the falls which they knew were in the Missouri. Four men went with Captain Lewis. The
party soon saw two grisly bears, and killed them
without any trouble.
The thirteenth day of the month, they came to the
great falls of the Missouri. The first fall was eighty
feet high. It was very beautiful. There is a great deal
of foam here, and a bright rainbow when the sun shines.
Five miles farther up, there is another fall, nineteen
feet high. Just above is another, fifty feet high. Farther up there is another of fourteen feet. Two miles
beyond this there is another. Just at the foot of the latter is a small island. Capt. Lewis saw on this island
a very tall tree, with an eagle's nest on the top, and
an eagle in the nest.
All along between these falls the river is full of
rocks and whirlpools. The travellers were delighted
with the wild scene which these cataracts presented.
After looking a long time at the falls, Capt. Lewis,
finding that his men were in want of food, went out
to shoot a buffalo. At length he came near one of
these animals, and shot him. Before he could load
his gun again, he was attacked by a grisly bear.
This happened in the middle of a plain. There was
no tree near, and he was obliged to run for his life.
The bear ran the fastest, and Capt. Lewis thought he
had better get into the river, which was near. So
he ran in up to his middle, and turned round.
He had an espontoon or spear in his hand. This
he pointed at the bear. #As soon as the bear came to
the water-side, and saw how" the Captain was prepared
to receive him, he became frightened in his turn, and
ran away as fast as he could.
That night Capt. Lewis was tired, and slept very
soundly. In the morning, when he got up, he found
a rattlesnake close to the place where his head had
After Captain Lewis had satisfied himself that he
had ascended the right river, he sent a man down to
Capt. Clark with directions to have him and the men
come forward to the place where he was. Accordingly, Capt. Clark and the men arrived in a few
On the 25th, one of the party came near being devoured by a bear. The men killed several bears
about the falls. These creatures troubled them
all the while they were near this place. One night
Capt Clark and three others took up their lodging in
the dry bed of a stream. In the night it rained very
hard, and the water came suddenly pouring down
the channel with great violence.
They were very near being drowned. As it was,
they lost their guns and many other articles.
The travellers finding they could not get their
large canoes round the falls, made small ones. Opposite where they were at work, there was an island
full of bears. When their canoes were done, they
crossed over, to attack them. But it happened that
all the bears were gone but one. This they attacked
and killed. After this they saw no more bears near
the falls.   The travellers now proceeded on their way.
On the 20th of July, they came to a place, where
the perpendicular rocks rise to the height of 1200 feet
on each side of the river.   They continue so, for more
than five miles.   This place is called the Gates of
the Missouri.
They come to the Great Forks.—Captain Lewis sees a Sho-
shonee Indian.—He meets with more Shoshonees.
—How the Indians hunted the Wild Goats on Horseback.—How Captain Lewis made a Pudding.
The travellers were now very near the Rocky
Mountains, f They looked about for Indians, but found
none. But they saw their foot prints, and smokes at
a distance. They saw bears, deer, and beavers.
They came to a place where the river divides into
three branches. This place is now called the Upper
Forks of the Missouri.
 A   X.
These branches they named Jefferson, Madison,
and Gallatin Rivers. You will find them on the
map. They went on, up the southwest or Jefferson
branch, and found currants and gooseberries on its
Capt. Lewis took three men with him, and set out
to try to find some Indians. He wanted them to show
him the way across the mountains, to Columbia River.
On the 11th of August, he was delighted to see a
man on horseback at a great distance. This man was
mounted on a beautiful horse without any saddle, and
with a rope for a bridle. He was a Shoshonee or Snake
Indian, and had never seen a white man before. He
was afraid of Capt. Lewis, and when he got pretty
near him, he whipped his horse, and rode away as fast
as he could. The Captain was grieved and disappointed at this.
On the 12th, the travellers came to the source of the
Missouri. It is a little spring in the mountains. They
then crossed some of the mountains, which are very
high. At length they came to one of the branches
of the Columbia River.
On the 13th, Capt. Lewis and some of his men left
the party and went out a hunting. As they were
crossing a plain, they saw a man, two women, and
some dogs, a great way off, on the top of a hill. When
the Captain had got pretty near them, they all ran
away but the dogs.
He then, with his men, followed the tracks of the
Indians. When he had gone a mile, he saw two
women and a girl. One of them ran off, but the
other two remained, and bowed their heads.   They
expected to be killed; and stooped to receive the
blow,—for this is the way with Indians.
But Captain Lewis laid down his gun, and stripped
up his sleeves to show them he was a white man.
But he had been so long in the sun, that he was nearly as dark as an Indian. His men came up, and he
gave the squaws some beads, awls, and paint.
Captain Lewis now asked the two women to show
him where their people were. They showed him the
way, and before long he met sixty Indians, riding on
horseback. Three of them got off their horses, and
took the Captain in their arms, and hugged him. Then
the rest got off and hugged the Captain and his men..
The Indians pulled off their moccasins, which is their:
way of showing friendship.
Then they all smoked together, and the party went
with the Indians to their camp. The tents were made
of leather, and there they all smoked again. This
camp was on the Columbia River, and the Indians
gave the white men salmon to eat. They were very
kind and friendly. They told Capt. Lewis that the
way across the rest of the mountains was rough and
hard to travel.
Capt. Lewis saw these Indians chase the wild goats
on horseback. One of them would chase a goat till
his horse was tired. Then another would try, and
then another, till at last the goat was wearied out and
killed.   These Indians were of the Snake tribe.
Capt. Lewis had only two pounds of flour left, but of
this he made a pudding, and gave half to the Indians.
They had never seen any bread or flour before, but
they liked the pudding very much, and thought it was
made of roots.
The Shoshonees go with Capt. Lewis to the Place where
Captain Clark is waiting.—Mrs Chaboneau finds her
Relations.—The Captains buy Horses, and Captain
Clark goes to explore the Columbia River.—He meets
with a good many Indians, and sees them spear Salmon.—They pass over high Mountains.
Capt. Lewis now desired the Indian Chief and his
men to go with him to the place where he had left
Capt. Clark. This chief was named Cameahwait.
The chief was willing to go, but the men were not.
They were afraid the white men would do them mischief. At last, Capt. Lewis persuaded them to go.
On the way, one of the white men killed a deer, and
the Indians were so hungry that they ate it raw.
On the seventeenth of the month they came to
the place where Capt. Clark remained with the boats.
Mrs Chaboneau, as I have told you, was of the Snake
tribe of Indians.
Among the savages who came with Capt. Lewis,
she found her brother and sister. The chief was her
brother. They were very glad to see each other.
Then there was a council, and a smoking, and a great
many compliments on both sides.
The Captains told the Indians where they were
going, and asked them to sell them some horses, to
carry their furs and other things. They also asked the
Indians to show them the way across the mountains.
They promised to do both, and the Captains gave them
medals, cloth, tobacco, and other articles.
 The Shoshonees, or Snake Indians, were astonished
at every thing they saw in the canoes. They had
never seen or heard of such things before. They
wondered a great deal at black York. His appearance
they attributed to some strange medicine, or witchcraft.
Capt. Clark now set off with some of the men, to
go along the Columbia, to examine the river, and see
if they could proceed down in canoes. Before he departed he traded with the Indians, and bought some
horses. He obtained several for what would not be
worth twenty dollars in Boston. One of them he
bought for a check shirt, a pair of leggins, and a knife.
The Indians were delighted, and thought they had
made wonderful bargains.
On the 19th, as Capt. Clark was going along among
the hills, he met a good many Indians. He stopped
and smoked with them, and they gave him berries and
dried salmon to eat. One of them told him all about
the road, and the Captain gave him a knife, with which
he was much pleased.
On the 21st, he came to some more Shoshonees.
They gave him salmon and choke-cherries. They had
a kind of wooden dam across the river, to catch salmon in. There were gaps in the dam, and in these
gaps, were baskets, like the eel-pots our fishermen
use. When the salmon try to get up the river, they
run into the baskets, and cannot get out again.
The Shoshonees are very honest. One of them
found a tomahawk that Capt. Clark had lost, and returned it to him. Now a tomahawk was worth a hundred dollars to a Shoshonee.   This is therefore a
striking proof of the Indian's integrity. The next
day, the Captain saw the Indians spearing fish, and
they gave him five salmon.
On the twentysecond, Captain Clark and Ms men
came to very high and steep mountains. Their way
was among great rocks, strewed so thickly that it was
very difficult and dangerous for the horses.
At length they crossed the mountains, and there
they saw more Indians, who were frightened at them
and ran away. No white man had ever been there
before, and it wasliatural that the ignorant savages
should be afraid of people who looked so strangely to
Description of the Country Capt. Clark saw.—About Columbia River.—How the Men were almost starved.—
How the Indians live a great while without eating.—
What Capt. Lewis and his Men did.—How Drewyer was
nigh being robbed.
On the twentytbdrd, the party came to some steep
rocks close by the river, where the horses could not
pass. So they had to enter the river, and swim past
the rocks. The country here was not like that along the
Missouri. There were no beautiful plains, no buffaloes, and not many animals of any kind. But there
were steep rocks, and barren hills, and high mountains without any trees.   All was sad and gloomy.
When they had swam their horses by the rocks,
Capt. Clark went forward himself with three men,
leaving the rest behind. They climbed over steep
hills and terrible precipices, and at last came to an
Indian path along another branch of the Columbia
River. The river was full of rocks and dangerous
places, which are called rapids in the western country. Then he went on till he could see the other
side of the-mountains through a gap.jfc
At length, having found they could not get through
the mountains on that branch of the river, Capt.
Clark returned to the place where he had left his men.
He found them almost starved. They had only had
a few birds, and some berries to eat while they had
been there. One of the meti was sick, but the party
all started to go back to join Capt. Lewis and his
men. ^Afc
They could only catch a S&r fishes on their way,
and the Indians they saw had little or nothing to eat.
They suffered very much from hunger. The Indians
are used to hunger. They can go seven or eight
days without eating, and they fast one or two days
without caring for it. But it is very different with
white men.
I must now tell you what happened to Capt. Lewis
and his party, while separated from Capt. Clark and
his men. As it was concluded to cross the mountains,
they began to make preparations for this purpose.
One morning while the people were engaged in making these preparations, some of the men went out to
hunt. One of the hunters was named Drewyer.
While he was looking for deer, he saw two Indians,
three squaws, and a boy. One of the Indians was old,
but the other was young. Drewyer rode up, to talk
with them. At length he took the bridle off his horse,
and turned him out to graze. After a while, the
squaws went to catch their horses, and Drewyer laid
down his gun and went to catch his horse too.
While he was gone, the Indians got ready to ride
The young Indian picked up Drewyer's gun, and
he with the other Indians mounted their horses and
scampered offasTast as they could. By this time
Drewyer had caught his horse, and he rod-, after them;
but he rode ten miles before he overtook them. As
he came near them, the women set up a terrible cry.
At this the young Indian turned about and rode around
them in a circle. Drewyer came up and asked him
for his gun, but the I^Hn would not give it to him.
Suddenly, while the -.dian was thinking of something else, Drewyer rode up to him, and laid hold of
his gun. The Indian did not like to give it up, but
Drewyer was a very strong man, and forced him to
let it go. Then the young Indian rode away and left
the women with Drewyer. Dre wyer did not hurt them
however. But he picked up the tilings they had
dropped in their fright, and carried them off as a reward for the trouble they had given him. These
consisted of bags, skins, roots, berries, and many
other things.
 1   ill!
How the Shoshonees behaved.— What the Travellers did
with their Canoes-—How they went over Mountains.—
About the Shoshonee Village.—How the Soldiers fiddled
and danced.—Description of the Shoshonees.
I cannot tell you to what tribe the Indian belonged
who carried off Drewyer's gun. But I suspect he
was not a Shoshonee. Some of these people came to
the party almost every day; they were all poor and
miserable, and naked. But they stole nothing. They
sold Captain Lewis a good many horses, but never
offered to take anything, unless it were given to them.
They appeared to be a kind and honest tribe of Indians. At length the preparations for proceeding over
the mountains, were all made. The articles that Capt.
Lewis could not carry were buried in the earth, so
that he might find them on his return. The boats
were sunk in the river, to prevent their being burned
when the Indians set the grass on fire. All things
being ready, the party moved forward, in company with
the Shoshonee Indians and their guides.
The weather was very cold, but still they proceeded on their march.
Some of the baggage was on the horses, some the
men carried on their backs, and the Indians carried
some things also. The tops of the mountains were
covered with snow, and all around was bare and desolate. The party had not much to eat, but they dug
up roots* and did as well as they could.   They found
some flowers, and sun-flowers among the rest. They
ate the seeds of these. At last they came to t&£
Shoshonee village.
There was one leather wigwam in this village. All
the rest were made of bushes. These may seem
strange houses to live in, but I have seen a great many
such. This village was on the bank of a beautiful
clear river. At this place Captain Lewis found a
man whom Capt. Clark had sent to let him know that
they could not get. through the mountains by water
in the direction they had taken. The travellers tried
to buy more horses of the Indians at the Shoshonee
village, but they could not. The me&had a fiddle with
them, and the soldiers danced, though they had very
little to eat, and were pinched with hunger. The
Indians were delighted with the dancing and the
I have told you a good deal of the Shoshonees;
but they are an interesting people, and. I will now
tell you something more about their history, their
manners, and customs. There are about four hundred of them. They once lived on the plains of the
Missouri, but the Minnetarees killed some, and drove
the rest into the mountaii|p| Sometimes they live
on one side of the mountains^-sometimes on the other.
When they are almost starved, they go to the Missouri, to kill buffaloes, but the Minnetarees attack and
kill them whenever they can find them there.
They have a great many horses, and ride almost
constantly. They are a brave people too, but they
have no guns, and therefore they are not a match for
the Minnetarees.   Every man among the Shoshonees
IiJ'r '■
■ ,
•'-V  i
ill I
has as many wives as he pleases. The women do all the
labor of the families. The people never whip their
children for anything. They are cruel in war, and
scalp their enemies; but in peace, they are kind and
good-natured. Their bows are made of elk-horns,
and the strings are made of the sinews of elks and
buffaloes.   The men have shields also for defence.
For knives, they use sharp flints. They make pots
of earthen ware, to boil their victuals in, and they
kindle a fire by rubbing two pieces of wood together.
These people are short, have large feet, and crooked legs. The men wear a robe, a tippet, a shirt, leg-
gins, and moccasins, all made of skins.
They sleep with their clothes on, and have no covering but their robes. The tippets are very handsome. The women dress nearly in the same way as
the men, but their clothes are longer.
The children wear beads round their necks, but the
grown people wear them in their hair and ears. They
are fond of decorating their heads with the wings and
tails of birds.
They make ornaments of sea-shells, the back bones
of fishes, bears' claws, fox skins, and many other
things. When they are arrayed in this strange manner, they think themselves as finely dressed as white
people do when shining with gold and jewels.
How the Travellers went over the Mountains, and saw
wild Sheep.—About the Ootlashoots.—How the White
Men suffered in travelling.—About the Chopunnish.
On the 29th of August, Capt. Clark joined Capt. Lewis
again. He had bought thirty horses of the Indians.
Beside this, they now began to find deer, and consequently to live better. The next day, they took six
Indians for guides, and bade the Shoshonees good-bye.
They kept on over the hills and mountains, and at
night slept on the banks of rivers. The horses could
hardly get over the mountains, for they kept slipping
and falling down. Some of them were hurt. Two
soon gave out, and were left behindl
On the fourth of September, the travellers saw some
white sheep, with large horns. But they were so wild
that they could not get near them. The proper name
of these sheep is Argali. At night they came to a
camp of Ootlashoot Indians, who received them very
kindly. They threw white robes over the soldiers,
and smoked with the Captains. These people sold
the travellers seven more horses.
The Ootlashoots wear their hair in otter skin queues.
For clothes, they wear a robe, a leathern shirt, leg-
gins and moccasins. The women let their hair hang
loose and tangled down their shoulders. When these
people talk, they make a noise like the clucking of a
hen. Two days afterwards, the party left the Ootlashoots, and proceeded on their way.  They now began
to be short of food again, and the weather came
on dark and rainy. After three days they halted, to wash and mend their clothes; and the hunt- -
ers went out in search of something for food.
One of them met three Tushepaw Indians, who
were at first going to kill him, but at length he pacified them, and they went back with him to the camp.
They said they were in pursuit of Indians who had
stolen their horses, but Capt. Lewis persuaded one of
them to go with him for a guide.
The next morning, as the travellers were about to
proceed on their journey, some of their horses strayed
away, and they were obliged to stop to catch them.
The new Indian guide became tired of waiting, and
went off. So the travellers were obliged to proceed
without htm. They had now to go up and down
mountains steeper and more difficult than they had
crossed before. The horses were constantly slipping
and falling down, and were so tired that they could
hardly stand.
On the sixteenth, the snow fell and covered up
the Indian path which they had been following. But
they saw where the Indian horses had rubbed against
the trees, and were thus able to direct their course.
As the travellers toiled along in their difficult march^
the snow fell upon them from the trees, and wat them
to the skin.   Beside this, they were very cold and hungry.   They could nnd no deer, and they were obliged
to kill three horses for food.
The situation of the travellers at this period of their
journey was peculiarly trying. At an immense distance from civilized men, surrounded by desolate
mountains, pinched with cold, worn down with fatigue, and starving for want of food, it required great
energy to keep the party from despair. But the two
Captains were stout-hearted men, and they cheered
their companions with the prospect of soon meeting
with better fortune.
Captain Clark now went forward with some men,
and killed a wild horse, which they devoured. He
continued to proceed, but the men began to be sick
and weak. On the 20th he came to an Indian village.
There were but few men at home, for most of the
tribe had gone to war. But here they got something
to eat, and soon after they came to another village*
This, belonged to the Chopunnish Indians. At this
place, they were joined by Captain Lewis. The
travellers were kindly treated by these Indians.
Their chief was named Twisted Hair. But the poor
savages had little to eat themselves, and the party
was obliged to subsist upon anything they could get.
The men even ate crows. By and by they came to a
village where the squaws and children were afraid of
them, and ran away to hide in the woods, but the men
remained, and sold them provisions. They gave the
Indians some tobacco, medals, and many other things
in payment.
They got from these Indians some berries and dried
salmon; and as their clothes were worn out, they
bought skins and made dresses like those of the Indians. The men had been starving a long while, and
now having plenty of food, they ate so much that several made themselves sick. At this place they found
a river deep enough for canoes, and they began to
look about for some trees large enough to make them
of. The Indians had canoes, and were very expert
in managing them. But the Captains had to go five
miles down the river before they found any trees large
How the Travellers made Canoes.—How they went over the
Rapids, and saw a crazy Squaw.—How they ate Dogs.
—About the Chopunnish Indians, and Prickly Pears.
The travellers now set about making their canoes,
but they were sick, weak, and almost starving. They
were however, as I have told you, brave, hardy men,
and kept up good spirits. They worked as well as
they could; and having set out to go to the Pacific
Ocean, they were resolved to accomplish it, in spite
of cold and hunger, wild beasts and Indians. They
were ten days occupied in making their canoes, and
all the while had nothing but roots to eat.
On the 17th of October, the canoes were ready, and
they entered them, and went down the river. One
of the canoes struck a rock, and began to leak; but
they went on, notwithstanding. The first day they
went nineteen miles. The next day they passed fifteen
rapids, and one of the canoes struck against a rock,
and sunk. The men came near being drowned.
They did not lose any thing, however, but their
goods were all wet, and they had to stop and dry them,
and mend their canoes. When this was done, they
went on.
At this point of their journey their Shoshonee
guides left them to return home, without saying a
word about it, or asking for their pay. One day, a
crazy squaw came to the travellers, and offered to
give them some things. When they refused to take
them, she cut herself with a knife.
They went along, and passed a good many rapids,
and saw many Chopunnish Indians. They began to
buy dogs for food of these people, and they soon got
used to^nem. These Indians never eat dogs them-
selves, and laughed at the white men for doing it:
but they had nothing else. The mountains were now
almost past, ana the party found that the river grew
larger as they proceeded. Several more streams fell
into it. All these rivers contribute to form the great
Columbia River, which you will see on the map.
I will now tell you something more about the
Chopunnish Indians. They are stout good looking
men. They are dark skinned^ but the women are
handsomer than other Indian women in these regions.
The men wear moccassins, leggins, robes and shirts
of leather, like some other Indians. They wear their
hair in queues, with feathers stuck in them. They
paint themselves white, and green, and blue.
The women wear a long loose leathern gown from
their necks to their ankles. It is made of the skin
of the mountain sheep. They sew shells, beads, and
pieces of brass and copper to their gowns, but do not
wear any in their hair. These Indians are very poor.
In the summer they catch salmon, and nig roots,
which they lay up for whiter. But they are bften
starving. They are indeed verjr miserable. They
live in a wretched country, where there are few deer
and other animals for subsistence. When they go
across the mountains to the Missouri, to live better^
the Indians there drive them back again, and take
away their horses, and kill a great many of the people.
Our travellers now found prairie's with short grass,
and prickly pears on them. These prickly pears are
bad things to walk on. They are full of prickles, as
sharp as needles* The poor Chopunnish are obliged to walk among them, and their feet are very much
wounded by them. I believe there are no people in
the world worse off than these unfortunate Indians.
How the Parly went down the River, and came to the So-
kulks.—About the Sokulks.—How they flatten the" Hedds
of female Infants.—HoM the Pishquitpaws were frightened.
Our travellers continued to prosecute their journey
towards the ocean. They passed more rapids arid
rocks, and dangerous places; and they saw more
Indians and bought roots of them* By and by they
killed a few geese and ducks, and fared better than
before. They saw stages on the banks of the river
that the Indians had put up to dry fish upon; another
canoe was sunk, and they lost some of their articles.
Then they came to more rapids, and very dangerous ones. On the 16th day of the month they came
to a camp of Sokulk Indians. Two hundred of the
Sokulks came to meet them, singing and beating on
drums. They then danced round the white men,
and the Captains gave them some medals and trinkets.
They were very friendly, and gave the travellers
twenty pounds of horse beef, and sold them seven
The next day the Chiefs came and smoked with
the party, and the women came and sold them more
dogs for beads. The Sokulks resemble the Chopunnish ; the women, however, are short, fat, and very
ugly, and have scarcely any clothes. The houses of
these Indians are made of mats, with flat roofs,
and a hole in the top to let the smoke out. Both
men and women braid their hair, and wear beads
and shells, and pieces of brass and copper and horn
and feathers and fish bones, for ornaments.
But the strangest thing is not yet told. They put
the heads of their female children between two boards,
and tie the boards together, till their heads grow up
into a peak, and their foreheads are straight from the
tips of their noses to the crowns of their heads.
This they think renders their females very beautiful.
The men have each but one wife. These Indians pay
great respect to old people. They are all fishermen
as well as hunters, and they have nets and lines and
The travellers saw among them a blind woman,
more than a hundred years old. The Indians treated
her with great kindness.   A good many of the So-
kulk Indians were blind, and all of them had sore
eyes. But they are better off than the Chopunnish,
for they have plenty of food. Many of them had
worn out their teeth completely, and they had all
very bad teeth. They had few horses, but many canoes. They boil their victuals by putting hot stones
into the water. At length the travellers took leave
of the Sokulks, and went on, and passed more rapids.
They came to another Indian village, and the Indians
were very kind to them. After this, they came to the
Pishquitpaw Indians. Capt. Clark happened to shoot
a crane, and the Indians saw it fall into the water.
This scared them, and they ran away, and got into
their houses, and began to cry and wring their
hands. They thought they were going to be killed.
The Captain went in among them, and shook hands
with them, and pacified them. But when he took
out his burning glass, and lit his pipe with it, they
were frightened again. He then gave them some
little trinkets, and by and by the rest of his party
came up. The Indians said they knew the strangers
were not men; for they had seen one of them fall
down from the sky, and they had seen Captain Clark
bring down fire from heaven with his burning glass.
The truth was, they had seen the crane fall, and
thought it was a man. They had never seen a white
man, or a burning glass, or a gun before. They had
not even heard of such things. However, they were
made to understand such matters, and they. sold the
white men fish and berries. After a while the travellers left these Indians, and went down the river.
The next day they came to a great many more Pishquitpaws, who were on an island drying fish.
About the Pishquitpaws.—An Indian Tomb.—About the
Columbia River.—The Falls of the Columbia.—About
the, Ftcheloots, and their Houses under Ground.
The Pishquitpaws dress in very short, small robes;
many however wear no robes at all. The squaws
wear fur clothes, and have their heads flattened like
the Sokulks, They are very ill shaped and ugly.
Neither the men nor women have many ornaments,
but they have plenty of roots and fishes to eat. The
travellers smoked with these people, bought some
more dogs, and then went forward agajtn;..
The next day the party came to a house where
the Indians deposit their dead. The dead bodies were
wrapped up in robes, laid upon boards, and covered
with mats. In the middle there was a great heap of
bones. There was a mat there with more than twenty
skulls on it. Bowls and baskets and robes and
skins, and many other things, were hanging up all
around the building. On the outside were skeletons
of horses.
On the twentyfirst, they came to eight Indian
cabins. The Indians were very kind, and attentively
examined every thing which the travellers showed
them. They had among them some cloth and a sailor's jacket. They said they obtained these things
from Indians further down the river, who got them
from white men. So the Captains knew that the sea
could not be very far off.   Along the banks of the
river, there were now rugged cliffs and high hills.
For many miles there were large rocks and dangerous places in the stream. There were also pine
trees and rapids, and islands, and crooked channels
in the water, and the men had great difficulty to get
along; but they passed through them all in safety. At
length they came to more Indians, and landed and
passed the night with them.
All these Indians had holes through the lower part
of their noses, in which they wore beads. They were
very poor, and not so hospitable as the Indians the
travellers had lately seen.
There was a very lofty mountain visible from
this place. The hills around were steep and very
rocky, and there were oak trees upon them. There
were also a great many fine, clear springs among the
hills. Ill'
The party now came to the falls of the Columbia
River. These are dangerous rapids, but the highest
fall is only twenty feet. They were obliged to carry
their baggage round the falls, and had a great deal of
trouble in doing this. The Indians stole some articles from them. Below the falls they saw a sea
otter, and found a great abundance of fleas.
The Indians here would sell the travellers no fish;
but they sold them eight little fat dogs, which they ate.
They then went on, and came to a place where the
river is hemmed in by rocks, and becomes very narrow. Here the water boils up in great waves and
whirlpools; but these they passed through safely.
They then went over more very dangerous rapids, and
at length came to another village.
The houses here were built of wood; the Indians
who inhabited them were Echeloots. Their mode
of building is this:—A great square hole is dug in the
ground; then the sides of this hole are lined with
wood, and a roof is put over it. A place is left in the
roof, for the smoke to get out. There are holes also to
shoot arrows through. These houses you perceive
are almost under ground.
The Echeloots received the traveller kindly, and
invited them to their houses. They smoked together, and the Captains gave the chiefs medals. One
of the white men played on the fiddle, and the rest
danced. The Indians thought it was all very fine. In
a short time the travellers went on their way.
About the Chilhickittequaws, and other Indians the Travellers saw.—About the Shilloots and Wahkiacums.—How
the Party came to the Sea.
The travellers now began to see a good many seals
and sea-otters in the water, and along the shore. One
day they killed five deer and some squirrels. They
also saw some white cranes ; and the fleas became so
numerous, and so infested their clothes, that they had
to throw them off.
On the twentyeighth of the month, some Indians
came to visit the travellers. These were Chilluck-
ittequaws.    One,  of them had his hair tied up in
a queue, such as sailors wear, and had on a sailor's hat
and jacket. He said he got these articles from some
Indians below, and they got them from white people.
Our travellers soon proceeded, and eight miles farther
down, they came to a village of Chilluckittequaws,
under some high rocks.
Their houses were like those of the Echeloots.
The Captains went in, and found a gun, a sword, and
some tea-kettles. These people sold the white men
some dogs, and bread made of roots. They had fine
canoes, and went fearlessly along the water in them,
though the wind was strong, and the waves ran very
high. These canoes were made of cedar and pine,
and the bow and stern were ornamented with carved images.
The next day the travellers went ashore at another
village of Chilluckittequaws. The chief showed them
his bow and arrows, and took out of a bag fourteen
fore-fingers. He said they belonged to the men
he had killed in war. He had cut them off, and carr
ried them away, as the other tribes do scalps, to prove
that he had killed so many men. There was a bag
hanging up in his house, which was considered a holy thing. No one dared to touch it, but the owner.
These Indians are small and ugly, and wear hats
made of straw. They are extremely fond of small
blue beads, and will give almost anything they
have for them. They go nearly naked. They have
sore eyes, and bad teeth. They proceed down the
river to the sea, and sell the Indians their fish and
roots; and get in exchange beads, tea-kettles, and cloth.
All the women have their heads flattened.
The travellers continued their voyage, and passed
a great many more rapids. At last they came to tide
water; that is, the water that sets up from the ocean.
Here the river was a mile wide, and trees were growing all around.
They met Indians everywhere. One of them had
a gun, and knew well how to use it. They then came
to another village. There were twentyfive houses
in it, all built of bark, but one, and that was made of
boards.    These people were called Skilloots.
These people had guns, powder, and lead. They
were very disagreeable, and proved to be great thieves.
It appears that they got their guns from ships on the
coast. The travellers left them as soon as they could;
but they found more of them along the river, and
were much troubled with them. They visited the
party at all hours of the night, and annoyed them exceedingly. They resembled the other Indians in this
quarter; but both men and women had their heads
At length the travellers arrived among the Wah-
kiacum Indians, who are small, and very ugly. Their
houses were above ground. The women were dressed in petticoats made of bark.
They passed another village, and finally came in
sight of what they had been longing to see—the
Great Pacific Ocean. They saw the surf beating
on the rocks, and heard its welcome roar.
This happened on November 7, 1805. The joy
of the travellers can hardly be described. Though
it rained hard, and they were obliged to pass the night
without shelter, still they were in excellent spirits, on
account of their success thus far in their perilous
About the Catlahmas, and Chinnooks, and Chiltz, and
Clatsops.—How the White Men built Houses.—About
the Indian Canoes.—About a Whale.—About the Chinnooks.
Though our travellers had reached the Pacific
Ocean, they.had not yet triumphed over all the difficulties of their situation.
They were much troubled to find a place where they
might encamp, for the rocks along the shore were
very high, and the waves broke over the beach below.
But at last they found a place where they remained
some time. Here they saw another tribe of Indians,
called Catlahmas.
These people proved to be great thieves, and our
friends were glad, at last, to. get rid of them. As
soon as the weather would permit, the travellers went
along the coast, and saw several tribes of Indians.
They were called Chinnooks, Chiltz, and Clatsops.
All these Indians are fond of blue beads, which pass
for money.
4Capt. Lewis now went forward along the coast, with
some of the men, to find a place where they could
pass the winter. He had stormy weather, rain, and a
bad road; but at last he found a good situation, and returned to tell the people of it.   The whole party went
to this place; and on the tenth of December they cut
down trees, and began to build houses. The spot they
had selected was near a very lofty mountain.
The Indians about here are very expert in managing
canoes, and go to sea when the waves are high. They
have bows and arrows,- and kill some deer and elks;
but they live mostly on the fishes that the waves throw
on the shore.
The weather continued to be very rainy, but the
men persevered in their labor for all that. The hunters killed plenty of elks, and they had abundance of
At last they finished their houses, and became comfortably settled in them. It kept on raining continually. But the Indians came frequently to see them,
and brought roots and other things to sell.
The travellers now passed their time in security and
plenty. They killed swans, and cranes, and ducks,
and geese, and cormorants, and elks: so they were in
no danger of starving. They also boiled some sea-
water, and made salt for their use.
One day, a whale was cast on shore by the waves,
not many miles from their house. Several of the men
set out to go and get some of the flesh. Mrs Chaboneau went with them. She was very anxious to
see so large a fish. The party were obliged, in order
to reach the place, to cross a very high mountain.
This was steep and dangerous. The top was above
the clouds, and some of the party came near being
killed several times, by falling over the precipices.
However, they passed safely over the mountain.
Now it happened that near the place where the
whale was thrown ashore, there were two villages of
Indians, called Killamucks. When the party arrived,
they had already carried off all the flesh of the whale,
and left only its bones. So the white men were
very poorly rewarded for their journey.
Description of the Indians near the Mouth of Columbia
River.—How the Travellers returned up that River,
and other Matters.
I must now tell you more particularly about the
various tribes of Indians that our travellers found to
inhabit the country around the mouth of the Columbia River. The Chinnooks I have already mentioned.
They are small, ugly people. They have large feet,
and small, crooked legs. Both men and women have
their heads made very flat. They dress in robes and
blankets. The women wear strings tied tight round
their ankles, and have bark petticoats, like the Wah-
kiacums. The men have guns, but are very cowardly.
They are all thieves, both men and women.
Beside the Indians I have told you about, there are
nineteen more tribes round the mouth of Columbia
River. They are nearly alike, and live for the most
part by fishing. They are all poor, and have very little clothing.
They have a few guns, but still use bows
and arrows. They catch bears, deer and elks, in
snares and pits.   Their bows  are made   of wood,
and strung with sinews;  their arrows are  pointed
with stone or copper.
They catch foxes and small animals in wooden
They generally live in large wooden buildings;
thirty or forty people are crowded together in one of
them. They have only a small hole through which
they go in and out. The fire is made in the middle.
Here they live, eat, smoke, sleep, and make wooden
bowls and spoons, and baskets. They boil their victuals in kettles by placing hot stones in the water.
Their canoes are of different shapes ; some of them
are very large, and will carry thirty men. These are
cut out of one large tree, and chiselled quite thin.
At the ends, they have carved images of men and
They use paddles instead of oars, and they venture
out to sea in very rough weather. In making these
canoes, they have no other tools than chisels made of
small files; with these they cut down trees, and hollow
them out. They hold the chisel in one hand, and
strike the end of it with a stone. They value their
canoes very highly.
In the month of March, our travellers began to
think of returning to their country. They wrote
some letters, and gave them to the Indians, and told
them to give them to the first white men that might
come there in a vessel. They thought they might be
killed by the Indians in returning across the mountains ; and they wished their countrymen to know, that
they had reached the mouth of Columbia River.
One of these letters actually came into the hands of
the master   of the brig Lydia, arid afterwards was
sent to Philadelphia.
On the twenty third of March, they started to return up the Columbia. They passed the Catlahmahs,
and the Wahkiacums, and the Chinnooks, and the
Skilloots. I have told you about these Indians before ;
so there is no need of saying more of them now.
Going up, they fared very much as they had done in
coming down; sometimes hunting, and sometimes
living on roots which they bought of the Indians.
The Travellers proceed.—How they left their Canoes, and
went over the Mountains.—How the Willetpos ran
Races.—How the Party separated.
Proceeding up the river, they saw many tribes of
Indians, which they had not seen before. With some
of these they had a good deal of difficulty. At length
they left their canoes, and travelled along the banks
of the river upon their horses. On the 4th of May, having met with no remarkable adventures, they arrived
at the Chopunnish village, where they had been before, on their journey down the river. Here they
were short of food, and being pinched by hunger, they
killed one of their horses, and ate the flesh.
In a few days they travelled on again.   The tops
of the mountains were now covered with snow.   I
HI lit
need not tell you all that happened to our travellers
in the Indian villages, nor how they hunted, nor how
they suffered. You have heard about such matters
before, and there is no need to repeat them here.
While the travellers were at this place, they were
visited by the Willetpos, a tribe they had not seen
before. These Indians are very swift of foot, and
they ran races with the white men. After this the
soldiers danced, and played ball to amuse them. Then
the men went to a place called Collin's Creek, to hunt;
but it was rainy, and they did not kill many animals:
besides this, the musquitoes were very thick, and troubled them a great deal.
They now hired two Indians to show them the way
back over the mountains, and promised to give them
two guns for their trouble. On the 26th of the month
they all started. The snow had melted away a great
deal, but still it was more than seven feet deep. It
was hard, however, and the horses did not sink into
it. They were now on the mountains, and everything
was covered with snow; but the two Indian guides
found their way easily.
On the second day, their meat was all gone, but
they scraped away the snow and dug up roots, which
they cooked in bear's oil. So far the horses had had
nothing to eat; but the next day they came to a place
where the snow had melted away on the south side
of a hill, where there was some grass. Then they
came to some springs of water, almost boiling hot.
All this time they were near starving for want of food,
and they slept at night on the snow. This was a hard
life, and our poor travellers suffered exceedingly.
At length they reached the east side of the Rocky
Mountains, and Capt. Lewis paid the Indian guides.
They had been very useful, and without them the
white men could not have found the way over the deep
snow. - The party then separated; Capt. Lewis with
nine of the men went one way, intending to visit Maria River, and Capt. Clark went another with the
rest. They agreed to meet again at the mouth of the
Yellowstone River.
About Capt. Lewis and his Men.—How a Bear drove a
Man up a Tree.—How they saw some Blackfoot Indians on Maria River.—How the Indians behaved.—
How the  White Men fought with the Blackfeet.
The party with Capt. Lewis travelled on toward the
Missouri, and in nine days they saw buffaloes again.
On the 13th of the month, they came to the place
where they had buried their goods, and sunk their
canoes the year before. They found all as they had
left it, but the water had spoiled some of the things.
Now they killed buffaloes, and had plenty to eat.
They also saw some grisly bears. One of the men,
named Macneil, was near being killed by one of these
He was passing a%ttle thicket of trees where there
was a bear. He was on horseback, and did not see
the bear till it had sprung out of the bushes, and was
close to him. The horse was frightened, and threw
Macneil upon the ground close to the bear. The animal reared up to lay hold of him, and opened his
mouth; but Macneil struck the creature so hard with
his gun, that he broke it, and stunned the bear with
the blow. Before the bear recovered, Macneil climbed
up a tree, but the creature remained below, and
watched him some time: at length he went away,
and Macneil came down, found his horse, mounted
him, and rode back to his companions.
On the 17th, the travellers came to the track of a
wounded buffalo. This gave them great anxiety;
for they now knew that Indians were near, who might
attack them; but they did not see anything of them
for several days. They now, for a time, saw no more
buffaloes, and were obliged to eat roots again.
On the 26th, they left their horses grazing, and
Capt. Lewis and his men went two miles to look at
the country on Maria River. Drewyer went along the
river on one side, and the Captain and the rest of the
men on the other. Suddenly Capt. Lewis saw several
horses at a distance. He took out his spy-glass, and
perceived that they were saddled, and on a hill close
by them were some Indians looking at Drewyer, who
did not observe the Indians, but kept on toward them.
The Captain would not leave him to be killed, but
went forward to meet the Indians. He held up a
flag, to show them that he was friendly.
These Indians were part of the Blackfoot tribe, a
people who make war on all the world, and kill and
plunder whenever they can. When Capt. Lewis
came within a quarter of a mile of them, one rode at
full speed to meet him. When the Indian was pretty
close, Capt. Lewis got off his horse and held out his
hand to him. But the Indian only stared at him, and
then turned and rode back as fast as he came.
As soon as the first Blackfoot got back to his companions, they all came forward to meet Capt. Lewis
and his men. The Captain expected that they would
try to rob him, and therefore told his soldiers to be
ready to fight it out. When they came within one
hundred yards of him, they all stopped but one: that
one came forward alone, and the Captain first shook
hands with him, and afterwaM with all the rest. They
were painted frightfully, according to their custom
when they go to war.
After this, the Indians wished to smoke. Capt.
Lewis told them that Drewyer had the pipe with him,
and requested one of them to go with a soldier to call
him back. One of the Indians went quite willingly.
The captain thought it was best to please these Indians ; so he gave one a flag, another a medal, and
another a handkerchief, with which they were very
much delighted. The travellers got over their first
fear when they saw that there were only eight of the
. Indians, and that they had only two guns among them.
It was now growing late, and Capt. Lewis asked
them to go to the river and encamp with him, and
they consented. The whites made fires, and spent the
evening talking with the Blackfeet. These Indians
said there were many more of their people not a great
way off. They had been at war with the Tushepaws,
,and some of their tribe had been killed.   At last the
white men went to sleep,—all but one, named Fields,
who sat up to watch the Indians.
Fields very carelessly left his gun lying on the
ground. While he was looking another way, one of
the Blackfeet stole it. At the same time two more of
them took up Capt. Lewis' and Drewyer's guns, and
all three ran away. Fields, as soon as he saw what
was going on, ran after them, and caught one of the
Indians. The savage would not let the gun go; so
Fields stabbed him to the heart with his knife, and
he fell down dead.
Capt. Lewis and Drewyer jumped up, and Drewyer
got his gun back directly. The Captain came near the
Indian that had his gun, and pulled out his pistol to
shoot him, but the Blackfoot laid it down, and
thus saved his life. As the savages could not get the
guns, they attempted to drive away our travellers'
horses; but the white men followed them so closely,
that they fled, and left behind thirteen of their own
They also left in the camp four leathern shields,
two bows, and two quivers full of arrows, besides a
good deal of meat. But the white people did not
take away the meat; and they left a medal on the
neck of the dead Indian, that his people might know
who had killed him. This happened on a branch of
the Missouri called Maria's River. The party thought
that the Indians would come back and bring more
with them; so they mounted their horses, and rode
away as fast as they could. They found the horses
they had taken from the Blackfeet, excellent ones.
They travelled more than sixty miles before they
The Travellers proceed on their Journey.—Capt. Lewis
is shot by one of his own Men.—He joins Capt. Clark.
—Capt. Clark's Adventures.
The next morning the party were so tired and sore,
that they could hardly stand; but they had to fly for their
lives, and therefore kept on. About the middle of the
day they heard guns ahead, and when they arrived at
the Missouri they found some of Captain Clark's party
coming down the stream in canoes. The next day
they turned their horses loose, and Capt. Lewis and
his men entered the canoes.
As they went along, they found a great abundance
of game, buffaloes, elks, and mountain sheep, sometimes called Big Horns. They also killed another
grisly bear. They now went rapidly down the stream
for several days. The current carried them seven
miles an hour.
On the seventh of August they reached the mouth
of the Yellow Stone River. There they found a letter from Capt. Clark, stuck up on a pole. You will
remember that the two parties were to have united at
the mouth of this river. But Capt. Clark wrote that
they would find him further down the Missouri: so
they kept on.
Two days after, they saw a herd of elks among some
willows, and Capt. Lewis and a man named Cruzatte
went ashore. They shot an elk each, but Cruzatte
seeing the Captain moving in the bushes, took him
*m ' re..'' v
for an elk, and shot him in the hip. At first the Captain thought it was done by Indians; but he got to
the boat, wounded as he was.
He sent the rest of the men to help Cruzatte, thinking he had fallen into the hands of the Indians. The
poor soldier was greatly distressed when he found he
had shot his Captain: but as he was a good man, and
had not done it on purpose, the Captain forgave him.
They dressed Capt. Lewis' wound as well as they
could. It bled a great deal; but as the bullet had not
broken the bone, nor cut an artery, it was not dangerous. But it was very painful, and he had soon a high
fever. They could not move him without giving him
great pain; so he was obliged to sleep all night on
board the canoe.
The next day they went on, and came to a little
camp of white men. They landed, and found there
two fur traders, named Dickson and Hancock. They
were going to pass the winter with the Indians. They
said they had seen Capt. Clark and his men> the day
before. The Captain made the traders some presents,
and then went on.
On the same day, they came to the place where
Capt. Clark and his soldiers were encamped, and now
the two captains and all the men were again united in
one company. You must not think that these camps
that I talk so much about, are like those you see on
Boston Common on Election-day and the Fourth of
July. They are really nothing but stopping places.
In most cases there are no tents, and no shelter. The
men sleep in the open air upon the ground, covered
with blankets, or skins. This is the way travellers
live in the Indian country.
You will remember that we left Capt. Clark at the
foot of the Rocky Mountains with fifteen men and a
great many horses; I believe there were fifty. I will
now tell you about his adventures before Capt. Lewis
joined him below the mouth of the Yellow Stone
River, as I have just related.
The first day after they separated from Capt. Lewis,
Capt. Clark and his party crossed five streams, all of
them deep and rapid. Some of their things got wet
and were spoiled. It being the Fourth of July, they
stopped early to celebrate the day. Their feast was
not so good as they might have wished for on such an
occasion. It consisted only of a mush, made of roots,
and a saddle of venison. Toward night they killed
four deer. Two days after they lost the road, and
came to a wide plain. Mrs Chaboneau, who still continued with them, remembered the place, though
she had not seen it since she was a little girl. She
told them which way to go, and described the objects
they would see as they proceeded. They were not
a little surprised to find it all turn out as she had said.
In the afternoon there was a storm. The wind blew
so violently, that the travellers had to take hold of each
other, to stand.
On the eighth of the month, they arrived at Jefferson's River, where they had sunk some canoes the
fall before. They soon got them out of the water.
The next day the party divided. Some of them went
down the river, as I have told you, and after several
days took Capt. Lewis and his men into the canoes.
Capt. Clark set out with the other division of the party
to go to the Yellow Stone River by land.
The two parties kept pretty close to each other four
days ; but on the 13th, they separated entirely. At
night Capt. Clark reached Gallatin River, where they
found the game very abundant. The next morning
they went on across the prairies quite slowly, for their
horses had sore feet. On the next day they came to
a branch of the Yellow Stone.
How one of Capt. Clark's Men hurt himself.—How the Indians stole twentyfour Horses.—How the Wolves carried
off some Meat.—About the Horses.—How the Buffaloes
stopped the Party.—How a Grisly Bear attacked the
Men.—About the Musquitoes.—How a Wolf bit Sergeant
Capt. Clark and his men kept on down the river,
but very slowly, for the hoofs of the horses were now
almost worn out. The men, however, made a kind of
moccasins for them of raw buffalo skins. The day after,
they passed a fort that some Indians had thrown up
for defence, on some occasion when they had been
hard pressed by their enemies. It was a round pen,
built of logs: the wall was five feet high.
On the eighteenth, one of the men named Gibson
fell from his horse upon a sharp piece of wood, which
ran into his thigh. The wound was very painful, but
the party could not stop. They put him upon the
gentlest and strongest horse they had, and kept on.
But the next day Gibson's wound was so painful that
he could not ride. S
Capt. Clark left him with two men under the shade
of a tree, and went on to look for timber to make
canoes of. At a distance of about eighteen miles he
found some trees large enough for small canoes, and
Gibson was carried to the place. The next day they
cut down two trees, and began to work at making
canoes. That night twentyfour of their horses were
stolen by the Indians.
They looked a good while for these horses, but
they never saw them again. Nor were the Indians
the only thieves; the wolves came and stole their
meat from where it was hung to the branch of a
tree. On the 23d they had finished two canoes.
They were small ones, but they lashed them together,
and made them answer pretty well.
On the twentyfourth, Sergeant Pryor went along
the river with the horses, and Capt. Clark with the
rest of the men went down the stream in their little
canoes. Pryor had a good deal of trouble with the
horses. They had all been used to hunting buffaloes,
and as soon as they saw a herd, they would start and
run after them. At last he had to send a man ahead
to scare all the buffaloes out of the way, for the horses
would not be hindered from chasing them.
In this way they kept on down the stream; but six
nights afterwards, so many buffaloes came to cross
the river, that the party were in danger of being
crushed to death, or at least, of having their canoes
broken to pieces. The next day they saw a very
large grisly bear devouring a buffalo, on an island in
the river. They shot two balls through him, but he
swam to the main land and walked on the bank, look-
I m I
" lift
ing back and growling at the party. Capt. Clark landed, and shot two more bullets through his body, but
the bear escaped, notwithstanding, for it was getting
too dark to follow him.
The next day so large a herd of buffaloes was crossing the river, that they choked it quite up; they were,
in truth, as thick as they could swim. There was no
room for the canoes to get between them, and the
party had to stop more than an hour to let them pass.
They consoled themselves for stopping, by killing four
of the herd. The cattle and wild sheep and elks and
other fourfooted beasts were now so plentiful, that you
can hardly have any idea of the number.
On the next day, which was the 2d of August, as
they were passing along, they saw a grisly bear sitting
on a sand bar. He growled, and jumped into the
water and swam after the canoe. The men shot him
in three places, and then seeming to change his mind,
he turned round and swam ashore. The same evening they shot another bear, and they had some difficulty on account of the great numbers of buffaloes in
the water.
The next day, Capt. Clark went ashore to shoot
some wild sheep, but the musquitoes were so troublesome that he was obliged to return. One of the men,
however, shot a large ram, with a very beautiful skin,
which they took off whole, and carried along with
them. This day they came to the mouth of the Yellow Stone. The busy musquitoes would not allow
them to hunt, nor work, nor do anything in peace.
So they concluded to go farther down, and Capt.
Clark wrote a letter, and stuck it up on a pole, where
Capt Lewis found it, as I have already told you.
Though the buffaloes had been so abundant before,
the party could not now see one, but they killed a
grisly bear, and ate the flesh. For three days the musquitoes kept them in constant torment. On the seventh, there was a strong cold wind that drove the musquitoes all away. The next day Sergeant Pryor arrived. He had lost the horses ; the Indians had stolen
them all away. He had also been bitten by a wolf
while he lay asleep. But the Sergeant killed the wolf,
as a reward for his impudence. After he had lost
the horses, he made two canoes of buffalo skins,
and floated down the river in them.
After the Sergeant joined the party under Capt.
Clark, they all proceeded down the stream. They went
ashore to breakfast, where they found the two Indian traders, Dickson and Hancock, of whom I told
you before. § Capt. Clark soon left them, and went forward.
At night, their old enemies, the musquitoes, came
to them again, and treated them as badly as ever.
On the 12th of August, one of their canoes was a little
injured, and they put ashore to mend it. While they
were thus employed, they were delighted to see Capt.
Lewis and his men coming down the river. They
were very sorry, however, to find him so badly wounded. But after so many adventures, and such long and
dangerous journeys, they were now again united.
The next morning they all set out at sunrise, and
went down the river together. They saw some Indians at a distance, some on the water and some on
shore. These were Minnetarees or Big Bellies, and
the travellers expected soon to come to the Mandan
village. The next day they arrived at the encampment of the Minnetarees, and fired a salute. Here
was a crowd of Indians who welcomed them back.
They went on a little farther to the village of the Ma-
hahas. The Captains sent Chaboneau to invite the
Minnetarees to come and visit them; and they sent
Drewyer to another village to get a white interpreter
who was living there.   They all soon came.
Capt. Clark spoke to the chiefs; and invited some
of them to go with him to the United States. The
Black Cat, an old man, said that he should like to go,
but he was afraid of the Dahcotahs. They had lately
killed a good many Mandans, and they might kill him
on his way. Capt. Clark told him he would not let
the Dahcotahs hurt him.
The council then broke up, and the white men
crossed the river and encamped. The chief of the
Mandans told them if they would send to his village,
he would give them some corn. Three men went
accordingly, and he gave them as much as they could
carry. Soon after, the grand chief of the Minnetarees
came, and smoked with them; and Capt. Clark invited
him to go to Washington, but he would not go.
Here one of the men named Colter asked permission to leave the party, and remain in the Indian country. He wanted to hunt beaver. They let him do
as he pleased, and gave him powder and lead. He
left them, and was not long after taken by the Blackfeet, and came near being killed. There is a story
about him that I will perhaps tell you another time.
The next day the Mandan gave the travellers more
corn than all their canoes would hold.   They thank-
ed the Mandans, and took only as much as they
really wanted. Then Captain Clark made the Mimic-
taree chiefs presents, hoping to persuade them to go
to Washington, but they would not be persuaded. At
last one of the Mandan chiefs, named The Big
White, agreed to go, and his wife and son were to go
with him.
The next day, the Indian chiefs came to the water
side, to bid our travellers good-bye. But Chaboneau
told the Captain that he would remain where he was.
He said he had no acquaintance among the whites, and
did not know how to get his living there, and he would
rather stay with the Indians. This man and his wife
had been very serviceable .to the party, especially
among the Shoshonees. They paid him his wages,
bade him farewell, and then floated down the river to
Big White's wigwam.
The friends of this chief were sitting round him
smoking, and the women were crying. He sent his wife
and son on board the canoes and stopped for the other
chiefs to speak to Captf Clark. They told the Capt.
that they would follow his advice, and make peace with
all the world, excepting the Dahcotahs, who they declared were bad people. They begged him to take
good care of Big White, so that he might return in
safety, and tell them about what he saw and heard.
Then the travellers started, but an Indian came running along the shore after them, and called to them
to stop. It was Big WhiteV brother. Big White
gave him a pair of leggins, and they parted very affectionately. The chief seemed quite cheerful and
satisfied; and showed them the place where the Man-
dans had formerly lived, on the river. They went forty miles this day, and encamped opposite to where
there had once been a Mandan village.
About the Rickarees and Shiannes.—About Porcupines.—
Hoio the Tetons acted.—Hoxo the Yanktons behaved.—
How the White Men arrived at St Louis.
They now went on very comfortably, and killed as
many elks and deer as they wanted to eat. Three days
afterwards, they met three white traders on their way
to the Mandan village. They had shot away all their
powder and lead, and the Captains gave them some.
They said the .Dahcotahs were make
war on the Minnetarees and Mandans. They now left
the traders and reached the Rickaree village. The
Rickarees came out to meet the travellers ; and so did
a great many Shiannes, who were encamped close by.
Captain Clark stepped on shore, and the Indians sat
down on the ground round him. Here they smoked and
talked. Captain Clark blamed them for going to war
with the Minnetarees and Mandans; but they had excuses to make. It was done, they said, by young men,
and the Dahcotahs had set them on. The chief of the
Shiannes now invited the white men into his lodge,
and they accepted the invitation.
These Shiannes are very fine looking people, but
their women are ugly; they wear blue beads, bears',
claws, shells, and a great deal of such trumpery, for
ornaments. They have so many horses, that when
they move, even the dogs do not go on foot, but ride
with their masters. Captain Clark gave the chief a
medal; and in return, the latter gave the captain a
great deal of buffalo meat. He said he wanted
travellers to come among the Indians, and was very
Captain Clark observed a Rickaree Chief who was
painted black, because the Mandans had killed his son.
This chief began to rail at Big White about it, and
wOuld probably have killed him, but Captain Clark told
him that he would not allow the Mandan chief to be hurt.
He was then pacified, and invited Big White to smoke
with him in his lodge. The Rickarees and the Mandan were then very polite to each other. After this
the travellers had a talk with the Rickarees, and at
length set off to go down the river,
.though it rained
very hard.
On the 26th of the month, the travellers found a
raft and a skin canoe on'the river. This made them
suspect that the Tetons were not far off. They put
their guns in good order, and got ready for a fight, for
they expected to be attacked by the Tetons. They
did not see them, however, but still kept all ready.
Three days after, they killed a Porcupine. This is
a creature as big as a large cat. It is covered with
long sharp quills. It is very good to eat; and the
Indians ornament their dresses very plentifully with
the quills. It cannot run fast, so that a man can
easily catch it.   It was once thought that it could
throw its quills, and stick them into a person some
way off, but this is an idle notion.
On the 30th, as they went along, they saw about
twenty people, on a hill, afar off. Capt. Clark looked at
them through his spy-glass, and perceived that they
were Indians. The party now landed; and at the same
time ninety Indians came out of a wood on the opposite side of the river, and fired a salute. Some of
them had guns, and some bows and arrows.
They were the Tetons, who had tried to stop the
travellers as they went up the river. Captain Clark
spoke to them, and put them in mind of it. He told
them to go away, for they were bad people, and if they
offered to cross the river and come to him, his men
should shoot them. Then some of the Tetons sat
down on the opposite side, and abused him with harsh
After a while, the white men got into their canoes
again, and steered over to the side where the Tetons
were. One of the Indians asked them to land. They
refused, and he was very angty. However, the travellers went on, and the Indians did them no harm.
They stopped six miles below; and it rained and thundered terribly all night. The storm wet the men,
but kept off the musquitoes.
As they went along the next day, they saw several
Indians on the hills, but they did not come near. On
the 1st of September, several Indians ran down to the
shore, and asked the travellers to land, but they would
not. On the third of the month, they met a trader named Airs, who was going to traffic with the Dahcotahs.
Two days after, they met another trader.   He was
a Frenchman, and his name was Augustus Choteau.
He gave them some whiskey; it was the first they
had seen for a great while.
As they went on, they met more traders. They
also killed deer and elks and other creatures, and had
plenty to eat. On the 23d of the month, they arrived
at St Louis. They had been gone more than two
years, and everybody thought they were dead. They
were so altered, and so dressed, that at first the people took them for Indians.
How Captain Clark was rewarded.—How Captain Lewis
became deranged, and shot himself.—About the Missouri Indians.—A Story of Colter   and  the   Black-
foot Indians.
At first, the travellers could not bear to sleep in beds;
but after a while they became again accustomed to
them. They had been given up as dead for a long
time, for their friends had heard nothing of them
since they left the Mandan village, as they went up the
Missouri. It was thought that they had been killed
by the Indians, or drowned, or perhaps starved to
death. So their safe return was an agreeable surprise to every one.
This expedition was very useful. The Captains
had taken care to note down all they had seen, in
writing.   They were the first Americans who went
by land beyond the Rocky Mountains. All we
know of the Columbia River and of the country
through which it flows, and of the savages who inhabit
it, we owe to them. Our fur traders have gone farther,
and our knowledge of geography has been increased
in consequence of their travels.
As a reward for his services, Captain Clark was
placed at the head of the Indian department. He is
now Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the West.
He has red hair, and the Indians all call him Red Head.
Captain Lewis soon after his return became insane. As he was going to Washington, he shot
himself with a pistol. He died very much regretted
by those who knew him.
The Indians on the Missouri are now very much
such people as they were at the time Captains Lewis
and Clark performed their expedition, which you will
recollect was more than twenty years ago. They
fight with each other as much as ever. They are better provided with guns, for they have white traders
among them, almost to the Rocky Mountains. They
have also learned to drink whiskey, which does them
great injury. But they are just as hospitable, as lazy,
and as fond of feathers now as they were then. But
there is one thing among them, ignorant as they are,
that is much to their credit: they never take the
Lord's name in vain. When the oaths of the white
people are explained to them, they are very much
hurt and offended. It would be well if all white people would learn a lesson from them in this.
Colter, as I told you, was left by Captains Lewis
and Clark at the Mandan village.   He went on a
hunting expedition with another man, whose name, I
believe, was Potts. As they were going up a little
stream in a canoe, the Blackfoot Indians appeared on
the bank. Potts knew that they would endeavour to
kill him, so he fired at them, and killed one of the
Indians on the spot. The other Indians instantly
discharged their arrows at Potts, which entered his
body and slew him. They then caught Colter and
stripped him. They asked him if he could run very
fast; he replied that he could not. So they let him
go, and told him to run for his life. He sat out, and
they pursued. He got ahead of them all, but one;
this one threw a spear at him, but just as he flung it
he fell down. Colter snatched up the spear and
stabbed the man to the heart. Then he ran on till
he came to the bank of the Missouri. There was a
great raft of drift wood in the middle of the river.
He dived into the water, and got under it just as the
Indians came to the bank.
They searched for him a great while, but at last
went away, thinking he was dead. As soon as they
were gone, he came out and swani ashore. He was
naked and hungry, but after much suffering he got
to the settlements of white men. He recovered from
his fatigues, and perhaps he is living ncfwv
How Major Long went up the Missouri, and who went with
him.—Mr Say and others go on an Exploring Party.—
About the Konzas.
\, tl
Now that I have got through with the travels of
Captains Lewis and Clark, I will give you a little information about Major Long's Expedition to the
Rocky Mountains and the Arkansas River.
I hope you will look at the map, as you proceed in
the story, and trace ^the route of the travellers. You
will find it on the map, and it will assist you in forming clear ideas of their journey.
In the year eighteen hundred and nineteen, Major
Long received orders from the Secretary of War, at
Washington, to go up the Missouri, with an exploring
party. He was directed to learn all he could about
the country between the Mississippi and the Rocky
Mountains, and gain as much information as possible
about the Indians.
Several learned men accompanied Major Long in
this expedition. There was Dr Baldwin, a botanist and
physician; Mr Say, who attended to natural history;
and Mr Seymour, painter and draughtsman.
The whole party started from St Louis in a steamboat, and got along faster and easier than Captains
Lewis and Clark had done before them. As they
went along, they saw the banks of the river Missouri
falling in, as they always have done, and I suppose
■' j'Sj*
HI :
always will do. At St Charles they were joined by
Mr O'Fallon, an Indian Agent. Here Mr Say and
some others hired a horse and a pack-saddle. They
put their blankets and some victuals on this horse, and
started to go up the river by land.
These gentlemen suffered very much from thirst.
The evening after they left the steamboat, their pack-
horse ran away, but they caught him again. The
next morning they bought provisions of some Indians
and went on. Their horse ran away again, and they saw
no more of him. So after all these adventures, they
went to Loutre Island in the Missouri, and waited
for the steamboat, which soon arrived.
When they got to Franklin, Dr Baldwin grew so
sick, that he could go no farther. They left him, and
he shortly after died. On the twentyfirst of July, Mr
Say and some of the rest left the steamboat to go to
Fort Osage by land. After this, they neither saw
nor did anything worth mentioning till they arrived
at the Fort.
They wished to examine the country between Fort
Osage and the Konzas River; and between Konzas
River and Platte River. So Mr Say and eleven others started for that purpose. They took three pack-
horses, and provisions for ten days.
Just above the mouth of the Konzas, they saw a
party of white hunters, who appeared to them more
rude than the savages. These men go in large parties into the Indian country, and kill beaver. When
they have taken as many as they can, they return to
the settlements, and sell the skins. There are a
great many of these hunters now, and quarrels often
take place between them and the Indians.
!  ifia
Description of the Konzas.—How Mr Say and his Party
were robbed by the Pawnees.'—How they built Houses
near Council Bluffs, and were visited by various Tribes
of Indians.—About, the Pawnees.—How the Party set
out for the River Platte.—Their Adventures.
After a day or two the party came in sight of the
Konzas village.—Here they looked at their guns, to
see if they were in good order, for they expected
some mischief would happen. But the Indians came
riding to them as fast as their horses could run, to welcome them. They were all painted and decorated in
Indian fashion, from head to foot. Two of the Chiefs
went beside them to keep the crowd off.
They showed Mr Say and his party into a great
wigwam, and treated them very well. This wigwam
was made of poles and bark like those in which the
Dahcotahs live during the summer. They gave the
travellers sweet corn and buffalo meat, and beans to
eat. These were served in wooden bowls. The
great Chief of these Indians was called The Fool.
Before the Konza girls marry, they work in the
corn fields, cut wood, and do all kinds of drudgery;
but when they are married, they do not have so hard
a time. These marriages are proclaimed by a crier,
and celebrated with feasting and frolicking. Most of
the men have four or five wives, and these are often
all sisters.   They think all the Indians in the world
i 1 ;     '■
are the descendants of the Konzas, and have a great]
conceit of themselves.
They dress like the other Indians I hate described
to you.   As they have been a great while at peace j
with the Osages, they often marry Osage women.!
They are many of them tatooed.    The women are
industrious, and are proud of being so.   The Kon-j
zas are a very warlike people.
On the 24th of the month, the party left the village.
At length they stopped in the prairie to take some food,
when all on a sudden they saw a great cloud of dust at a
distance. They soon perceived that it was raised by
a large party of Indians coming towards them. They
prepared themselves to fight, and did not wait long
before the Indians came up.
They were armed and painted as Indians always
are when they go to battle. They ran up to the
white men, and began to shake hands with them, and
to make signs of peace. At the same time, some of
the Indians caught several of the horses and rode about
on them. The white men stood by their baggage,
but they could not hinder the Indians from stealing
some articles. In fact, they took everything they
could lay their hands upon. They stood ready with
their bows and arrows to shoot the travellers, if they
resisted. One of the soldiers cocked his gun at an
Indian who had stolen his knapsack. The Indian
laughed, and drew his arrow to the head. But at
last they all went off as fast as they came, carrying
away with them all the travellers' horses. There
were more than a hundred of them, all well armed.
They belonged to a tribe called Pawnees.
The party, having thus lost their horses and being
unable to get any more, were obliged to give up
their expedition. They returned to the Konzas village they had left the day before, and then set out to
join Major Long on the Missouri, which they at length
Having proceeded up the river Missouri to a place
a little below Council Bluffs, the party under Major*
Long selected a spot, and began to build houses for
the approaching winter. While they were occupied
in these preparations, they were visited by one hundred old Indians, and some Ioways. These danced
before Mr O'Fallon's door, and some of them recited
their exploits in war. Next came seventy of the
Pawnees. They were at first afraid, for they recollected the robbery they had committed upon Mr Say and
his party. Mr O'Fallon had a council with them;
the Pawnees expressed their sorrow for what had
happened, and restored some of the things they had
In the course of the winter, four hundred Omahaws
came to see the white men.—Then came some Dahcotahs, who were very much afraid of the steamboat.
With all of these Indians the white men held councils,
and many civilities passed on both sides.
In the Spring, some of the explorers paid a visit
to the Pawnees. When they came nigh the village,
a messenger came to tell them, that the chief would
not come out to meet them. Mr O'Fallon said that
if he would not come out to receive him, he would go
through his village without stopping. When they
had got nearer, they saw the Pawnee squaws carry-
ing wood to the wigwams, on their backs, in very heavy loads.
Shortly after, two Pawnee chiefs came to meet
them, very finely dressed. One of them, called Tar-
rarecawaho, stopped as he came up, without even
looking at the white men. They passed by without
noticing him, and he soon became more polite. Mr
O'Fallon asked if he was glad to see him, and he
said he was. He then invited them into his wigwam,
and they went in with drums and fifes playing.
Mr O'Fallon made a speech, and the Pawnee Chief!
answered him: he said he knew that the Americans
were able to crush tlie Pawnees in their hands like
flies; and he had advised his people to treat them well.
He said he would speak again the next day. He
came as he said, and a good many Pawnees with him.
They sat down on the ground. And then they spoke
in a friendly way, and the council broke up.
After this the officers went to another Pawnee village.
The inhabitants came out to meet them on horseback,
and rode about in a beautiful manner. There were
three or four hundred of them, painted and dressed
with feathers. All the while they kept up the most
terrible yelling. Presently the Chiefs came forward
slowly, and shook hands with the white men.
Then Mr O'Fallon held a council with these Indians, and gave them some presents. There was
feasting and a great many compliments. They had
lately lost a great number of their people in battles
with the Tetons, Kiaways and Arrapahoes. At last
the white men left them, and returned to Council
It was now June, and the steamboat having returned to St Louis, our explorers prepared to go by
land to the mouth of the river Platte. There were
nineteen men, besides the Officers; there were also
six horses and mules. The stores consisted of pork,
biscuit, flour, whiskey, and many other things. At
length they set out and reached the Pawnee village,
where some of the white men had been before, as I
have told you. Tarrarecawaho gave them some food
to eat, and treated them handsomely. This chief
had eleven wives, and ten children I
The Pawnees tried to persuade the white men not
to go on their journey, but they would not be so persuaded. The Indians begged for many things, but did
not get them. They said they were very poor. The
great chief and his son, came to see them. There
were about two thousand men in the Pawnee tribe.
As the travellers went along, they saw a multitude of
squaws at work in the cornfields, but the men were
sauntering about, doing nothing.
The party now continued their journey. They
travelled for many days over a vast prairie. Occasionally they killed buffaloes and other wild animals.
At length they came to hills, and here they saw immense herds of buffaloes, some of them bellowing and
pawing the ground. In one place they saw sixteen
buffalo skulls, which the Pawnees had placed there, to
show that they had been at war, and killed some of
their enemies.
IDHfl   11
Buffaloes again, and wild Horses.—About the Mirage.
How the Party arrived at the Rocky Mountains.—How
they went to the River Arkansas, and how they separated.
—How the Wolves fell upon a Buffalo.—Description
of the Kaskaias.—Adventure with an Elk.—About
Creasing wild Horses.—The Party meet with some Che-
rokees and arrive at Belle Pointe.
I III' ill
One night, at a late hour, the travellers were awakened
by a loud noise. They got up in alarm, and found
that the horses had broken loose. These were frightened by buffaloes, which came near the camp, and
they occasioned the disturbance.—Scarcely were the
men asleep, before they were awakened again by the
report of a gun. This was the signal for Indians ;
but Major Long had fired the gun, to see how his
party would behave.
The next day they saw a great herd of buffaloes,
swimming across the river. There was a gap in the
bank where the buffaloes would have to come up.
One of the party rode in front of this place to look
at the buffaloes. Just as he got there, the leader of
the herd came up, and stared him in the face. The
horse was frightened, and so was the buffalo. But
the buffaloes behind, pushed on those before: these
were frightened by the men, and they ran about in
confusion. Some of the buffaloes were killed in the
The day after this, the travellers saw thirty wild
horses.   They were very handsome and very swift.
On the thirtieth of the month, they came in sight
of the Rocky Mountains. There was snow on the
tops of them. Here they saw what looked, at a distance, like water; but it was not water. It was a
kind of vapor that rises from the prairie. I have
often been cheated by it myself. It is called Mirage.
A crow in the mirage appears as large as a buffalo.
On the evening of the fifth of July, they encamped
at the foot of the Rocky Mountains.
Some of the party ascended these mountains, but
they saw nothing very remarkable. Then they set
out to go to the Arkansas River. On the 19th of the
month, they came to Charles River, which runs into
the Arkansas. Two days after, they saw a Kaskia
Indian and his squaw. They were on horseback, and
tho squaw was leading another horse. They said
that there were a great many more Indians a little
way off, who had been at war with the Spaniards, and
beaten them. The Kaskaias sold them the spare horse,
and the squaw made a pack-saddle for it.
The party now divided. Captain Bell, with Mr Say,
and twelve more, were to proceed straight down the Arkansas to Fort Smith. Major Long and the rest were
to cross the Arkansas, and try to find the sources of
the Red River. The latter party crossed the Arkansas river, and began their journey. Soon after their
departure, the Major and his men had eaten up all
their victuals. But they wounded a buffaloe bull,
which was attacked directly by a herd of wolves, who
pulled him down. They scared the wolves away, and
took possession of the buffalo for themselves.
On the tenth of August, they saw a large band of
Indians coming toward them, on the opposite side of
the river. They crossed over and shook hands with
Major Long and his men. They were all on horseback, and had a great many squaws and children with
them. The children who were too small to ride alone,
were tied upon the horses' backs by the legs. Each
squaw drove several horses before her. These Indians were Kaskaias, or Bad Hearts.
The Chief asked the white men to encamp with his
people, and they consented. They wanted to buy
horses and provisions, and they thought this the best
way to succeed in getting them. The squaws presently put up their leather wigwams in the middle of
the prairie. One wigwam wa*s set apart for the white
men. The Kaskaias live in these leather tents all
the year round. The Chief was named Red Mouse.
He was a savage looking man, and had lately been
wounded with an arrow.
The white men now began to trade with him for
horses. He was not satisfied with what they offered.
He wanted to search them, but they would not let
him. They had a quarrel about it, and the women
and children were frightened, and ran away. The
travellers then asked for something to eat. The Indians gave them a little meat, but unwillingly, and
not enough.   In this they were not like other Indians.
These Indians were all dressed in leather, very
dirty, and covered with vermin. But they are a
handsome people notwithstanding. Some of them
wore beads and pewter rings. They wore their hair
long and tangled; and were very rude, uncivil, and
inhospitable.   They are very good horsemen.   They
hunt the buffalo with bows and arrows. After
considerable difficulty with these people, the travellers left them, and went on their journey.
In the afternoon, Mr Peale left the party, to hunt.
He wandered to a considerable distance, and at
length became so entirely lost that he could not find
his friends. He slept alone that night, and was
much tormented by musquitoes. The next morning,
he found his companions again. They all travelled
on, over sandy plains, and on the fifteenth, they killed
a buffalo, and thus had once more something to
eat. They now began to find buffaloes in plenty,
and saw more wild horses.*
They found wild grapes and plums in great abundance. The wild turkeys and black bears, which are
common in these regions, feed upon these fruits. On
the 21st they killed a black bear. They also endeavoured to crease a wild horse. There is a little place in
a horse's neck, where if he is shot, he is stunned, and
falls down. But he soon gets up and recovers. This
way of catching horses is called creasing. It requires
great accuracy of aim to hit this place in the animal.
In the attempt made by the travellers, the ball varied
from the mark, and killed the horse on the spot. As
they were going along, one of the men wounded a
Black Bear. The creature turned upon him, and
chased him up a tree. You will recollect that the black
bear is a different creature from the grisly bear, he
is smaller, and less powerful; he does not often attack
men, but generally tries to escape. But at length the
bear went off, and the man came down.
About this time one of the men, named Adams.
wandered from the party, and was lost for several days.
He was near starving to death; and when they found
him, he was tired out, and had laid himself down to
On the eighth of September the travellers found a canoe on the bank of the river. They took it, and put two
men and some of their baggage into it, to go down the
Arkansas by water; for their horses were now almost
tired out. One of the party this day shot an elk,
which turned and attacked him. He ran into the
bushes, and the elk trying to follow him, got so entangled by his horns, that he could not move, and
the men stabbed him with a knife.
On the twelfth, they met six Cherokee Indians,
who told them that they were near the American
Fort at Belle Pointe, and that they might get there
the next day. These Cherokees were on horseback,
going out to hunt. They were a part of the Cherokee nation from Georgia, who had come west of the
Mississippi to live. They could not speak English
very well, but made themselves understood by signs.
So the party went on, though they were very much
That night, they found some wild bees, and ate the
honey for supper. A white man, who lived near, now
visited their camp, and gave them some coffee, 'and
bread, and a bottle of whiskey. The next morning
it rained, but they started and got to Fort Smith at
Belle Pointe. They fired a pistol, to let the people
in the fort know they were there. A boat came, and
soon carried them across. At this place they found
Mr Say and his companions, who had arrived before
The Travellers meet with various Tribes of Indians.—About
a Shianne War Party.—Herds of Buffaloes and Wolves
of various Colors.—They meet with some TetonS) and
three Soldiers run away.—The Osages.—Lizards.—A
great Spider.—The Party arrive at Belle Poin  te.
Now we have finished the story of Major Long and
his companions, I wjll tell you about the party that
they left at the head of Arkansas River, under Capt.
Bell. . |j     ||||J .      -| 5.
After Major Long departed, they deemed it necessary to watch very carefully, lest they should be surprised by Indians. The next night there was a violent
thunder-storm, and one of the men was struck by
lightning, but not much hurt. The day after this
they spied an Indian camp, a good way off. As they
drew near, the Indian horses became frightened, and
ran toward the camp. Very soon the Indians came
running towards them as fast as they could.
They were friendly, and shook hands with the
white men, and asked them to enter their leather
wigwams, and take some food. These Indians were
Kiaways, Kaskaias, Arrapahoes, and Shiannes. But
our travellers did not go to their wigwams with them;
they rather chose to pitch their tents by themselves.
As soon as the party had fastened their horses, the
squaws came and brought them buffalo meat, the
fattest and best they had—enough for three days.
They smoked with the Indians, and told them who
they were, and where they came from. At sunset
the savages all went off peaceably, and left the white
men to sleep in quiet. In the morning four chiefs came
to the white men's tents. They sat down and
smoked, as Indians always do on such occasions.
They had a Pawnee interpreter with them, and one
of the Indians spoke the Pawnee language—so they
were able to understand one another.
One of the chiefs said he was glad to see the white
men, and hoped American traders would come among
them. Then the travellers gave them some paint,
knives and combs; and in return the Indians gave
them four horses. By this time, all the Indians in
the camp came round them, bringing meat and ropes
of hair to sell.
These Indians wear false hair, reaching very low.
Some were painted with clay, and were dressed in leather, but two or three had blankets, which they had
bought of the Mexicansm They all behaved pretty
well; but the children hooted at the travellers, and a
boy would have flung a stone at Mr Say with a sling,
if he had not scolded him. Some of these men had
never seen a white man before.
The Indians treated the travellers kindly, and said
they liked the Americans, and thought they were
i brave people. Finally, they took their leave of the
White men, and the party went on.
\ They travelled till noon, and then stopped to dine.
They had scarcely taken the loads off the horses, before nine Arrapahoe Indians came to the opposite
silde of the river. They came over and encamped
with the travellers the rest of the day.   They had a
squaw with them, and she built a little wigwam out of
bushes. She had some cakes, which were flat and
black, and made of fat and wild cherries. The white
men tasted them, and thought they were good. The
Indians behaved very well. They did no harm, and
did not steal the horses, nor anything else. In the
morning the white men parted friends with them.
All this country the travellers found to be a bare
prairie, like that which Major Long passed over.
There was no wood there, excepting along the rivers,
and even there, there was but little.
On the 1st of August, the travellers saw a man with
a spear in his hand, on a hill at a distance. One of the
men went forward to see who he was. Presently he
came in sight again, and then a great many more men,
no horseback. They rode towards the travellers so
swiftly, that one of the horses fell and rolled over his rider, but the man got up and mounted again. They were
Indians, and behaved strangely. They would not tell
who they were. The white men sat down under a
tree, and smoked with them, but kept hold of their
guns. The people were Shiannes, and had been to
war against the Pawnees. The white men gave the
Chief some tobacco, and he thanked them. The Indians did not offer to do any harm, and at last the
travellers parted with them.
The next day they saw some rattlesnakes; but
none of the people were bitten by them. They met
with buffaloes, wild goats, prairie dogs, and other
creatures. In the holes which the prairie dogs had
dug, they found little owls. On the 6th of the month,
their two interpreters left them, to go to the Pawnee
villages on the River Platte, where they lived. Now
the party began to see great multitudes of buffaloes,
so that the ground was covered with them. There
were wolves among these herds, great and small,
black, white and grey. They were prowling about,
looking for some opportunity to seize upon the sick or
wounded buffaloes.
On the 12th, the party met some Teton Indians.
These had just been attacked by the Otoes: three
men had been killed, and the rest had been obliged
to run for their lives. They had lost their horses,
and clothes, and were almost naked. Some of them
were wounded. They begged for some articles, for
they were in great need: they did no harm, and the
travellers bade them farewell.
The party went on over prairies and rivers, and
saw nothing but such things as I have already told
you of. On the 31st of the month, three of their soldiers ran away, and they never saw them again.
They took three horses away with them, and stole
all they could carry off. Thus the travellers lost
their clothes, their papers, and a great many other
On the 1st of September, they met some Osages, and
were well treated by them. They encamped together, and before they went to sleep, the Indians sang a
hymn to the Lord. The next day the Osages promised to go after the runaway soldiers, but they did not.
They however gave the white men as much buffalo
meat as they wanted. The Osages are a handsome
people. A great many- of them have guns, but they
do not go so much to war as their neighbours. Otherwise they are like the rest of the Indians.
They frequently hunt wild horses, and take them
alive. They live in bark wigwams, and are friendly to
the Americans. However, they stole a few trifles from
the travellers. There are three tribes of them: the
Chaneers, the great Osages, and the little Osages.
AJtogether there are twelve hundred and fifty men of
them. They live on the Arkansas and the Osage
The explorers now left them, and the next day they
arrived at a white man's trading house on the Verdigris River. Here a person told them how to find the
way to Fort Smith at Belle Pointe. They left the
house, and as they were travelling over the prairie,
they saw several lizards. These creatures were covered with scales, and ran very swiftly.
The next day the party came to a place called
Bayou Menard, where some white men lived. They
were very glad to see white men again, after being
so long in the prairies, andseeingno people but Indians.
While they were eating their supper, one of the children brought in a great hairy spider. It was larger
than anything of the kind they had ever seen before.
It had laid hold of a stick, and would not let it go;
so the boy brought it, holding on to the stick.
The next day they reached Belle Pointe. They
crossed the river in a ferry-boat, and were well received by the officers in the garrison.
Here they waited till Major Long arrived, as I
have told you already. Shortly after, the whole party returned to the United States; and thus ended
their travels.
Jewitt's Birth and Education.—He goes to Sea.—About
Maquina and the Nootkas.
I am now going to tell you the adventures of John
R. Jewitt, which you will find very interesting. He
was taken by the Indians on the Northwest Coast of
America, and kept in captivity for a long time. After
his deliverance, he wrote a book, from which I have
extracted the following narrative.
There was once a blacksmith who lived at Boston in
England, named Edward Jewitt. He had a son named
John. Edward Jewitt desired that his son should
go to school and get a good education; but nothing
would satisfy the boy but to be a blacksmith like his
father. At last his father took him into his shop, and
taught him his own trade. Afterwards the family
moved to a famous seaport town, in England, called
Hull. Here the father and son were engaged in doing
the iron work of ships, and saw a good many sailors.
Among these was a master of a vessel, named Salter.
He was an American, and used to go to the Northwest Coast of America to trade with the Indians
there. This man talked much to John Jewitt, and
one day asked him if he should not like to go to sea
with him. He said he should, and asked his father
to let him go, but he would not consent.
But Mr Salter reasoned with the blacksmith, and
told him it would be a good plan for his son, and
promised to take good care of him, if he would go.
At last the old man consented, and John went on board
the vessel called the Boston, to work at his trade, to
mend guns and make knives and daggers for the Indians. Mr Salter agreed to give him thirty dollars a
month. His father gave him a bible and some good
advice, and the ship sailed, in September, eighteen
hundred and two.
At first, young Jewitt was very seasick, but he soon
got over it, and began to work at his forge. The
vessel pursued her voyage, and having sailed across
the Atlantic Ocean, the Captain stopped on the coast
of Brazil, to get wood and water. In a short time
they set sail, and proceeded along the coast of South
America. They had several storms and contrary winds,
but at length they passed round Cape Horn.
After sailing a long time in a northwesterly direction along the western shore of the American continent,
the vessel arrived at Woody Point at Nootka Sound.
This place you will find on the map.—It lies several
hundred miles to the northwest of the spot where
Captains Lewis and Clark spent the winter near the
mouth of Columbia River. The vessel arrived at
Woody Point on the 12th of March, 1803.   j
The voyagers sailed up the sound, and anchored
five miles from an Indian village, and sent on shore
for wood and water. They dropped their anchor
about a mile from the shore, and the next day the
Nootka Indians came to them in canoes. The Chief
was named Maquina; he seemed much pleased to see
the white people. He was a handsome man, six feet
high, and copper-coloured, like all other Indians. His
legs, arms and face were painted red, and his eyebrows
were painted black.   His hair was oiled, and powdered
with white down. He wore a cloak of deer-skin that
reached to his knees. It was fastened round his
waist with a belt. The other Indians wore a kind of
coats of cloth made of the bark of trees.
Maquina could speak a little English, for he had
seen a good many white men before, that had been to
Nootka Sound to purchase furs. Mr Salter gave him a
glass of rum, and some bread and molasses. The
casks were sent on shore, for water, and Jewitt fell
to work at his trade. The Indians kept coming on
board with a great many fresh salmon. Mr Salter
allowed them to come on board, but always searched
them first, to see if they had arms about them.
On the 15th of the month, Maquina came on board,
splendidly dressed, with several other chiefs. Mr Salter invited them to dine with him in the cabin. They
sat down to dinner on the floor, with their legs crossed under them like tailors. They were not pleased
with the taste of salt, but they liked tea and coffee,
and were very fond of bread and molasses. They
seemed very desirous to possess iron tools, and used
to crowd round Jewitt while he was at work, manifesting much curiosity at his operations. Thus they
became acquainted with him; and this afterwards
saved his life, as I shall tell you by and by.
The Indians had at length become quite familiar
on board the ship. One day Maquina told Mr Salter
that there was an abundance of wild geese and ducks
at a cove which was not far off. Mr Salter lent him
a two-barrelled gun, and he went away quite pleased
with it. The savage soon returned with his gun and
eighteen wild ducks.   He gave the ducks to Mr Salter
m w
as a present. At the same time, he showed him his
gun, and said it was peshak, which in his language
means, bad. He did not well know how to use a gun,
and had broken the lock. Mr Salter was angry at this,
and spoke to Maquina in very harsh terms. He took
the gun out of the Chief's hand, and threw it to Jewitt
to be repaired.
' John,' said he,f this fellow has broken this beautiful
fowling piece; see if you can mend it.' Jewitt said he
thought he could. Now Maquina understood what
Mr Salter had said, and was very much enraged at it:
but he said nothing. He stood still, and held his
throat with his hand. This, he afterwards told Jewitt,
was to keep his heart from coming up and choking him.   Then he went away with all his men.
Maquina takes the Ship and kills the Crew.—Jewitt is
wounded with an Axe. Maquina saves Jewitt's Life.—
How Thompson is found alive, and knocks an Indian
down with his Fist.
On the morning of the 22d, Maquina came alongside
the ship, with a numerous party of Indians in canoes.
After they were searched, Mr Salter allowed them to
come on board. Maquina had a wooden mask on his
face, so carved as to look like some ugly wild beast.
He had a whistle in his hand, and appeared to be very
good-natured and gay. He blew his whistle, while
his people capered and danced about the deck.
 MIS '3i
While Mr Salter was looking at the dance, Maquina went up to him, and told him there were a great many salmon at Friendly Cove, and asked him why he
did not send his men to catch some of them. Mr Salter thought it would be a good plan, and after dinner
he sent the mate of the vessel with nine men ashore for
the purpose. Maquina and the chiefs staid and dined
on board.
After the boat was gone ashore, Jewitt went down
below the deck, and was busily employed in cleaning
the guns. After he had been there about an hour, he
heard them hoisting the boat on board, and directly
after, he heard a great noise on deck. He looked out
to see what was the matter. One of the Indians
caught him by the hair, and tried to pull him up on
deck; but he fell, and as he was falling, the Indian
struck at him with an axe, and cut a gash in his forehead.
He was stunned by the blow, but when he came to
himself he heard three loud yells on the deck. He
knew by this that the Indians had taken possession of
the ship. They were now going to kill Jewitt, but Maquina prevented them. He told his people to keep him
alive to make knives, and mend guns for them. At
length, the hatch was opened, and Maquina called
Jewitt up on deck. When he came up, he was almost blinded by the blood that had flowed into his
eyes. So the Chief got some water, and made one of
the Indians wash out the blood.
Six Indians now came round the poor blacksmith,
with knives in their hands. Then Maquina asked
him if he would be his slave all his life ? and he said
he would. Then he asked him if he would fight for
him in war—and mend guns and make knives for him ?
and Jewitt said he would do all these things. This he
did to save his life ; for if he had not promised obedience, the Indians who were around him, would have
killed him on the spot. He was very cold, and the
chief gave him a great coat; he also handed him a
bottle of rum, and made him drink some of it. Then
he took Jewitt to the after part of the ship, and there
showed him the heads of Mr Salter and the crew, j
The Indians had severed them from their bodies, and
rangedthemin a line. There were twentyfive of them
all. The deck of the vessel was stained with blood.
After showing him this dreadful spectacle, Maquina
tied a tobacco leaf over Jewitt's wound, and then told
him to run the ship on shore. The latter cut the cables, and sent the Indians to loose the sails. Then
with some trouble he ran her on shore on a sandy
beach close to the Indian village. The men, women
and children all got on the roofs of their wigwams to
welcome Maquina. They bawled and yelled in a very boisterous manner. The, Chief took Jewitt to his
own wigwam, and the women patted him on the
head, and made much of him. But the men wished to
take his life. Maquina however told them he had
promised to save him, and he would not violate his
Maquina's little boy now came up to Jewitt, and he
took him up on his knee, and cut the buttons off
his coat and gave them to the child. The Chief was
much pleased with this, and told Jewitt to sleep next
to him, for fear the Indians would kill him.   In the
:'• '
1   »
night one of the Indians came to tell Maquina that
one of the white men was alive on board the ship.
He said that he had been on board, and the white
man met him and knocked him down with his fist.
Maquina answered, that in the morning he would go
and kill him. It now came into Jewitt's mind, that he
had not observed the head of Thompson the sail maker among those he had seen on deck. In the morning Maquina rose to go to the ship. Jewitt went
down to the beach, where he found all the Indians assembled ; they were going on board to kill Thompson. Then Jewitt pointed to Maquina's boy, and asked the Chief if he loved him. He said he did. He
then asked the boy if he loved his father, and he said
yes. 'Then,' said Jewitt, 'I love mine.' And lie
threw himself at Maquina's feet, and said the man on
board might be his father.
He told Maquina if he killed his father, he should
die of grief; and then he could not labor for him. At
last the Chief said that if the man should prove to be
Jewitt's father, he should not be killed. So Jewitt
went on board alone, and found that it was indeed
Thompson. When the Indians fell upon the crew,
this man had hid himself. Jewitt told him what to
say, and then took him on shore, and pretended to
Maquina that he was his father. So the life of
Thompson was spared.
Two   Ships come to   Nootka.—Strange  Visiters.—How
Maquina treated them.—How the Ship was burned.—
How the Indians all got drunk.—How Jewitt worked
for the Indians.—Why Maquina   was going to kill
Thompson.—How Thompson behaved.
Jewitt now told Maquina that his father would make
sails for his canoe; so the chief took them both home,
and gave them something to eat. The Indians took
everything out of the ship and carried them to Maquina's house ; Jewitt, however, got possession of a
bible, and some books and paper. He intended to
keep a journal of what happened to him, and the paper was therefore very important. Shortly after this,
two ships were seen coming toward the shore ; at this
the Indians were very much alarmed. They however got their guns and fired at the ships. The people
in them fired back again, without doing any harm, and
then sailed away.
A few days after, a great many canoes full of Indians came to Maquina's village. There were the
Wickanninnish, Klaooquates, and several other tribes,
with hard names. Their canoes had sails as well
as paddles. Maquina was very proud of the things
he had taken from the ship, and showed them to his
visiters with much ostentation. He also had the
cannon loaded, and gave all his men guns. The Indians of the village were dressed in the clothes of
the men they had killed.
When all was ready, Maquina gave the word, and
they discharged their guns. Thompson fired the cannon. The report of the cannon seemed to astonish
the Indians ; for when they heard it, they all tumbled
over and rolled in the dirt. But they soon got up
again, and ran about, and boasted of what they had
done. When this was over, Maquina invited the
strangers to a feast. He gave them whale blubber,
herring-spawn, smoked and dried fish, and train oil.
After this Maquina's boy danced for the amusement
of the company. They were all very much pleased
with his dancing. Then Maquina gave presents to
the strangers. He gave them cloth and guns and many
other articles. The next day the ship was set on
fire by accident and entirely consumed. One of the
Indians had gone into her with a fire-brand, and some
sparks set her in flames. But Jewitt had previously
taken out all the blacksmith's tools, some wine, and
some chocolate.
Two days afterwards, as they were examining their
plunder, the Indians found a cask of rum, and they all
got drunk. They became so wild that Jewitt and
Thompson thought they should both be killed. To
avoid the danger, they hid themselves in the woods
till midnight When they came back, they found all
the men asleep on the ground. The women had also
been frightened, and had prudently concealed themselves.
After a while the wound in Jewitt's head began
to heal; and he worked for Maquina, making bracelets and ear-rings for his wife.
In the mean while great numbers of strangers kept
flocking to Nootka to see Maquina and his plunder.
  In a short time they had eaten up all the provisions
of the ship, and after that, Jewitt and Thompson were
obliged to eat train oil, and such things as the Indians themselves ate. They did not like this, but
they must eat or starve. The Indians had a strange
aversion to Thompson, and he would have starved if
Jewitt had not fed him.
Maquina gave Jewitt leave to make articles, and
sell them for food. He made fish-hooks, and rings,
and daggers, and sold them to the visiters for fish.
When he made anything for Maquina's people, they
would give him something, and he always shared it
with Thompson. Thompson made clothes for them
both. They were not allowed to cook their victuals
themselves in their own way. One day Maquina
found the white men making salt by the sea side;
he took it away from them, and threw it into the
After his^wound got well, Jewitt began to keep a
journal. He had no ink, but Thompson cut his finger and Jewitt wrote with the blood. After a while
he made a kind of ink with blackberry juice and charcoal. There was no lack of quills, for there were
large birds in that country, so tame and plentiful that
he easily killed numbers of them with stones.
Thompson had been at sea all his life. He was a
strong and brave man, but he had a rough temper.
One night he was lighting the lamps in Maquina's
house, and the children pulled him about, and made
him spill the oil. This made him angry, and he struck
the Chief's son. Maquina seized a gun, and was on
the point of shooting him.   Thompson bared his breast
and dared him to fire. He would certainly have been
killed, if Jewitt had not interfered and begged his
life of Maquina.
But it was a long time before Maquina forgave
Thompson. He often told Jewitt that if he, Jewitt,
should die, he would kill Thompson directly after.
All the Indians wanted to destroy him for striking the
young Chief. But Jewitt told Maquina that if his father was put to death, he would not live himself.
Maquina did not like to lose Jewitt, for he was very
useful to him, and so he let Thompson live.
All this did not frighten Thompson, for soon after he
struck the son of another chief. The Indians were
eager to kill him, but Maquina would not consent.
Thompson said he hated the Indians, and he showed
them that he did by all his looks and actions. He
declared that he would rather die than live among
them, so he did not care if they did kill him.
Jewitt endeavours to please the Indians.—Description of the
Nootkas and other Indians.—How they left their Village.—About Maquina's new Coat.
Jewitt was not so tired of life as Thompson. He
did all he could to please the Indians, and a good
many of them liked him. He made little toys for the
squaws and children, and fish-hooks and daggers for
the men.   He learned their language, and talked with
them. He advised Thompson to learn it too; but he
replied, that he hated the Indians and their language,
and would not learn it.
The houses of the Nootkas were built with posts,
poles and planks, and several families lived in each of
them. The fire was made in the middle, and the
smoke went out through the roof. They had not
much furniture; some boxes to put their clothes in,
tubs to contain spawn and blubber, wooden dishes,
baskets and bags were the principal articles.
These people manufacture a kind of cloth from
bark, and wear but one garment, which is a loose cloak
tied over their shoulders so as to leave their arms at
liberty. Sometimes their cloaks are made of otter
skin,; the men wear belts with knives and daggers
stuck in them. When they go out to fish, they wear
a kind of hat made of bark, and ornamented with
beads and little shells.
They eat fish, spawn, blubber, seals, muscles,
clams, and many sorts of berries. All their cookery
is done by boiling. This is performed by putting hot
stones into the water. When they eat, they sit cross-
legged on the ground with their wooden bowls before
them. They do not use knives nor forks, but eat with
their fingers, five or six of them, out of one bowl.
The Nootka Indians are a well made people, excepting their legs and feet. Their legs are rendered
crooked by their manner of sitting. Jewitt saw one
man among them who was thirty years of age, and.
only three feet and three inches high. They have
all good teeth, but the men have neither beard nor
The women are neater and cleaner than the men.
They wear clothes extending from their necks down
to their feet. They paint their eyebrows blacfc, and
draw a red line from the corner of the mouth to the
ear. They wear ear-rings, and decorate their ancles
with bracelets. Many of them have ornaments suspended from their noses. Some of these women
Jewitt thought quite handsome.
The most remarkable fashion among these people
appears to be that of wearing sticks two feet long
thrust through the gristle of the nose and extending
across the face. Thompson, who lost no opportunity
of venting his spleen, used often to hit these sticks a
sly knock, which of course gave the wearers no small
degree of pain.
The Nootkas are not great hunters. They appear
only to shoot seals and sea otters. But no people in
the world are better fishermen. Their lines are
made of whale's sinews and are very strong. Before
Jewitt came, their hooks were made of wood and
bone, but he manufactured iron ones that they liked
They have harpoons, pointed with bone and shells,
with which they kill whales. They blow up a
seal's skin like a bladder, and tie it to the harpoon
with a long rope: so when the whale is struck he
drags the seal skin after him, which floats on the
water, and shows the Indians where he is. They cut
down trees, and make canoes with chisels. They
sing as they paddle along, and some of their songs
Jewitt thought very pretty.
The chiefs make slaves of all the prisoners they
take in war; but they are not badly treated. They are
made to work, and that is all. Maquina had fifty of
them. There were about five hundred men of the
Nootkas. The other Indians in the neighbourhood
resemble the Nootkas, and live in a similar manner.
Some of them, however, have their heads flattened like
those Lewis and Clark saw.
When any of these people pay a visit at a distance,
they stop before they get to the place where they are
going, and paint themselves, fix their hair, and put on
their best clothes. When they get to a village, the
Chief first buys what he wants of the people, and then
the rest are allowed to trade. But they have to watch
their property closely, for all the Indians of the Northwest coast are great thieves.
The people of these various tribes always wear
daggers; the Chiefs have in addition a war-club
called a cheeltooth; this is very heavy, and is made
of the bone of a whale. Some of the men have bows
and arrows, but they like guns better. The Chiefs
are occasionally armed with spears.
Jewitt and Thompson used to go on Sunday to a
pond in the woods to wash themselves, and pray and
read their bible. Maquina suffered them to do so.
In July a ship was seen off at sea, but it did not come
to the shore. Some of the stranger Indians that came
to see Maquina offered to help Jewitt to run away,
but their real design was to make a slave of him for
In September all the Nootkas departed in their
canoes, to go to another place. They were going to
be absent the whole winter; so they took all their
baggage with them. As soon as they reached the
spot where they designed to stay, they fell to work,
and built houses for the winter. This was done in a
short time, for Indian houses are not like ours. Here
they caught a vast quantity of salmon in the same
manner in which the Indians on Columbia River take
them. They feasted and made merry, and Jewitt
was kindly treated and allowed to go fishing and
hunting. He shot a great many wild ducks. But on
Sunday he always went into the woods with Thompson to pray.
One day Maquina saw Jewitt writing in his journal.
The chief asked him what he was doing, and Jewitt
said he was keeping an account. He would not believe Jewitt. He thought he was writing about the
destruction of the ship and the massacre of the crew.
He said if he caught him writing again, he would
burn the book.
A little while after, Jewitt made an iron cheeltooth
and some daggers for Maquina. He was much
pleased with these things, and gave Jewitt some
clothes. Thompson too made the Chief a suit of
clothes, and some sails for his canoe. The clothes
were patch-work of different colors, and were covered
with bright buttons. Maquina was greatly delighted.
He strutted up and down, saying, j Fine clothes, fine
clothes: Nootka cannot make such things.'
How the Nootkas catch Bears.—A religious Ceremony.—
The Nootkas remove.—A great Feast.—About a crazy
Chief.—How he was whipped.—Jewitt makes a Harpoon for Maquina, and becomes a Man of Consequence.
Maquina often told Jewitt that if he ran away, he
would catch him again and kill him. He said that
some white prisoners had run away from him before,
but he caught them again. He had them suffocated
by forcing stones down their throats. He said he
had been robbed, and some of his people had been
killed by white men some years before, and this was
the reason why he killed Mr Salter and his men.
In December the people caught a bear in a trap.
Now if they eat bear's flesh, they think they must not
eat any fresh fish for two months. So not more than
ten of them tasted of this bear. After the bear was
caught they brought it into Maquina's house, and set
it upright and put a cap on its head. Then they put
victuals before it, and invited it to eat, though it was
dead.   Then they cut it up, and cooked it.
A few days after they caught another bear, and
Jewitt went to see the trap. It was like a little wigwam, the roof being covered with stones, The roof
was supported by a post. A fresh salmon was tied to
the post. When the bear tried to get the salmon, he
pulled the post away, and the stones fell on his head,
and killed him.
On the 13th of December, Maquina fired a pistol
close to his son's ear. The boy fell down, and the
squaws began to cry aloud and tear their hair. Then
some of the men came running into the house. Two
of them were dressed in wolf skins, and had masks
on their faces. They took the boy up and carried
him out Then Maquina gave Jewitt and Thompson
some victuals, and commanded them to go and stay
in the woods seven days. If they came back sooner,
he told them they should be killed.
The firing of the pistol was the commencement of
some religious ceremonies which the Indians were
about to perform, and which they were unwilling
that the white men should witness; for this reason
they were sent away. At the end of seven days
Jewitt and Thompson returned. The ceremonies ended the day after. They saw two men walk backwards and forwards with bayonets run through their
flesh, singing, and exulting in their own bravery.
On the last of December, the Nootkas moved to
another place to pass the rest of the winter. Here
they built houses again, and caught plenty of herring
and sprats. The first snow fell on New Year's day.
On the 7th of January Maquina went to visit the Ait-
tizzarts, and took Jewitt with him. He was received
with great respect, and the Aittizzarts fired a salute.
These Indians were not accustomed to see white
men, and they thought Jewitt a great curiosity.
They examined his legs and arms, and opened his
mouth to see if he had a tongue. Jewitt was silent
till Maquina told him to speak. He then spoke to
them, and they seemed pleased. They did not like
his clothes, and wished him to throw them away
Then Maquina told the Chief how he had taken
the ship and killed the crew. After this the people
brought in bowls of herring spawn, and they had a
feast. To please Maquina, some of the Aittizzarts
danced with arrows stuck through their arms, and
then Maquina returned to his own people.
In the beginning of February, Maquina invited all
the neighbouring Indians to a feast: the quantity of
fish they devoured was prodigious. More than a
hundred salmon were cooked in one tub.
On the 25th, the Nootkas returned to Nootka,
where they first came from. Not long after this, Maquina's nephew died.
As soon as he was dead, the Indians began to cry
aloud. The next morning a great fire was made, and
Maquina burned some valuable things to show his sorrow. The boy was the son of a chief, and was therefore considered a chief himself. None but chiefs
have anything burned for them. The father of this
boy had been one of the foremost in the murder of
Mr Salter and his men. He was now crazy, and
thought he saw the men he had killed always standing before him.
He had killed two men, named Hall and Wood, on
board the ship. When the Indians wanted him to
eat, he said that Hall and Wood would not let him.
Maquina asked Jewitt what was proper to cure him,
and what white men did in such cases. Jewitt told
him that the whites whipped crazy people to cure them.
So the crazy Indian was tied up and whipped severely, but it did him no good. All the while they were
flogging him, he kicked and tried to bite.
The insanity of this man made the Indians afraid
to hurt Jewitt and Thompson. They thought that
God had punished this chief for killing Wood and
Hall, and that if they should kill Jewitt and Thompson they would all be crazy too.
Maquina now went out to catch whales, but he had
bad luck, and caught none. This made him very sad
and angry. So Jewitt made him an iron harpoon, and
the very next day he killed a whale with it. The Indians praised Jewitt highly for making the harpoon,
and they gave him some of the blubber. He boiled
it with greens, and found it tolerably good.
The other chiefs now desired Jewitt to make harpoons for them. But Maquina would not suffer it.
He wanted the best harpoon for himself, and would
not let the others have any like it. He commanded
Jewitt to make him several more, and some spears also. Jewitt was now a man of great consequence, for
he could be very useful to the Indians; particularly by
enabling them to catch whales, which is a matter
of great importance among them. They therefore
treated him with much more respect than before.
The crazy Chief dies.—Maquina makes War upon the Ay-
charts.—The neighbouring Chiefs try to buy Jewitt.—
How the Indians were frightened by an Eclipse of the
In June, the crazy Chief died, and all the Indians'
cried and howled for three hours. They laid the body
on a plank, and tied a red bandage round the head.
Then they wrapped it up in an otter skin cloak, and
put it into a box. They put some food and other
things in the box, for they thought the Chief could
use them in the next world. Eight men carried the
coffin to a cave in the side of a hill, and there they
left it.    Then they went back to Maquina's house.
After this, some valuable things were burned, and
the people poured oil on the fire, to make it burn
brighter. Then there was a feast, and Maquina's boy
danced. There was also an Indian who amused the
people with strange tricks. They all laughed except
Thompson; he hated the Indian juggler, and would
not laugh.
He abused the fellow with harsh terms, and called
him a fool. Jewitt, on the contrary, laughed with the
rest This led Maquina to remark that Jewitt's mother must have been a very good-natured woman, since
his father was so bad tempered.
In July, Maquina told Jewitt that he was going to
war with the Aycharts. He commanded him therefore
to make some daggers for the men, and cheeltooths for
fc «
■-. f j
the chiefs. This Jewitt did. Before they set out
on their expedition, the Indians washed themselves
five or six times a day; and they scrubbed their flesh
with sand and briars, until they were quite bloody.
Maquina now told Jewitt and Thompson that he
would take them with him. He wanted them to scrub
and scratch themselves as the Indians had done. He
said it would make their skins so hard that the enemy
could not stab them.   But they would not do it
When all was ready, the Indians set out in forty
canoes;—there were in some of them ten or even
twenty men. Jewitt and Thompson had swords and
pistols, but the Indians only took daggers, cheel-
tooths, and bows and arrows, though they had plenty
of guns at home. Their arrows were a yard, long,
pointed with pieces of copper, bones, or muscle shells.
The bows were four feet and a half long, and the
strings were made of whales' sinews.
The warriors sailed up a river thirty miles, and
came near the Aychart village in the night It was
situated on a steep hill. Maquina commanded them
all to keep quiet till day-break, for that is the time
when people sleep soundest When all was ready,
the Indians crept up the hill, and entered the houses of
the enemy without making any noise. Jewitt and
Thompson remained outside to catch those who might
attempt to run away. Maquina at length gave the
warwhoop, and his people fell upon the Aycharts.
Most of them were killed. Some were taken prisj
oners, and a few escaped. After a while the war
party returned to Nootka, and h&d a feast with great,
About this time, many of the neighbouring chiefs
wanted to buy Jewitt of Maquina. The Chief of the
Wickinninnish came with four canoes and a great
many men to purchase the blacksmith. He offered
four slaves, two beautiful canoes, a great many skins,
some cloth, and other things, for him. But Maquina
would not part with him.
The Chief of the Klaizzarts also wamted to buy
him, but Maquina still refused to sell him. This
Chief was kind to Jewitt. He understood a few English words, and Jewitt and he had some conversation together. The Chief told Jewitt that if he could
persuade Maquina to part with him, he would put
him aboard the first ship that came to the coast, anc
send him home. Jewitt wrote a letter, telling where
he was, and how he was treated, and gave it to this
man, desiring him to give it to the first master of a ship
that came to the coast This the Chief promised
faithfully to do.
In the fall, the whole tribe removed to the place
where they had been the year before to pass the winter.
A few days after, one of the Indians, who had lately
oeen married, got angry with his wife. The savage
bit off her nose, that she might never get another husband, and sent her back to her father. I am sorry to
.say, that the Nootkas appear not to be kind to their
On the 15th of January there was an eclipse of the
moon. The Indians were frightened, and they lighted torches, and sang, and drummed, and made all the
noise they could. Jewitt asked them what they did
this for..   They pointed at the moon, and told him
that a great cod-fish was trying to swallow it, and
they were shouting to scare the fish away. In February the tribe again returned to Nootka.
A further Description of the Nootkas, their Manners and
Customs.—About the Climate.—A Ship arrives at Nootka.—Maquina goes to it with a Letter from Jewitt.
I will now tell you a little more about the singular
people with whom it was poor Jewitt's fortune to be a
slave for many months.
The Nootkas have one great chief and several inferior ones. When the great chief dies, his son succeeds him. If he has no son his oldest brother becomes Chief. The chiefs are always seated at feasts
in the best places, and wear finer clothes than the
common people. The great Chief is always the Gene
ral when they go to war; and the men do pretty
much as he says. However, he cannot take their
property, and they do not support him. He fishes for
his living, like any other man.
He and the other chiefs possess slaves, but the
common people are not allowed to have any. He has
everything that is taken in war for himself, and does
what he pleases with it He makes a good many
feasts, and when he has plenty of victuals he invites
the people to come and eat them. If he did not do
this, they would say he was stingy, and despise him.
The Nootkas believe in a God, whom they call
Quahootze. They think he sends them fish, and takes
care of them. When they pray to him, they sometimes go into the water, and sometimes into the
woods. The women always go into the woods to
pray. When they come back from prayers, they are
sad and melancholy. They do not believe they shall
live in another world; they think that when they
die, there is an end of them. They do not believe in
ghosts, and have no priests among them.
They are generally kind to each other, and are
very good-natured. They seldom quarrel; but when
they are offended they seem to be in. a violent rage.
They foam at the mouth like dogs, and kick and spit.
But this is only grimace. They act in the same way
when they make speeches ; and he who bawls the loudest, and stamps and spits the most, is thought to be
the best speaker.
At Nootka the weather is very pleasant in spring,
summer, and autumn, and the winter is not very
cold. The ice is never more than two or three inches
thick, nor the snow more than two or three inches
deep; but there is a great deal of rain. Sometimes
in the winter it rains five or six days in succession.
When the summer was over, Jewitt began to despair of getting away from the Indians; for no vessels
came to Nootka, though there had been several on
the coast After Mr Salter and his people were killed, the other masters of vessels were afraid to go
there. As 1 told you before, Jewitt had given a letter
to a Klaizzart chief, to be given to the master of any
vessel he might see ; but Jewitt heard nothing of it
for a great while.
By this time he had nearly lost all hope. On the
19th of July he was at work with Thompson, making
daggers for Maquina. Suddenly they heard three
cannon, and the Indians began to call' weena, weena,
mamethlee? which means, in their language—stranger,
—white men. Directly some of the Indians came
running into the house, to tell them that there was a
ship sailing into the harbour. They were rejoiced at
this, but were afraid to show their joy. If they had
seemed to want to get away, the Indians might have
killed them. So they kept on working, as if nothing
was the matter.
At this moment Maquina came in, and was surprised
to see Jewitt and Thompson at work. He asked them
if they did not know that a ship had come. Jewitt
said he did not care anything about it. Maquina was
surprised, and desired to know if he did not wish to go
on board. He said no : he had got used to the Noot-
kas, and meant to stay with them all his life. Then
Maquina told them that the Indians were holding a
council about them, and they might go and hear what
they said. So Maquina went to the council, and asked
the Indians what should be done with the two white
Some proposed to kill Jewitt and Thompson, and
some wanted to send them into the woods till the vessel was gone. But the Chief said they should not
be killed nor hurt. Some of the Indians then proposed to set them at liberty, and send them on board
the vessel. But Maquina did not like to lose his
blacksmith, and he would not consent to part with
Maquina had a great mind to go on board the vessel
himself. But all the Indians were against his doing
so. They told him that the master of the ship would
put him to death, or at any rate keep him a prisoner,
for having killed Mr Salter and his people. Maquina
said he was not afraid to go on board, but would take
Jewitt's advice about it. He said he had never heard
Jewitt tell a lie; and if he said there was no danger,
he would go on board: if he said there was, he would
not go. So he turned round, and asked Jewitt if the
sailors would hurt him if he went on board.
Jewitt replied that the Indians did not know anything about white people, and so he did not wonder
at their advice. But if they knew as much about
them as he, or even Maquina himself did, they would
think differently. The white people had never killed
nor hurt any person who had not injured them; and so
if he wanted to go on board, he might do so in safety.
Then Maquina said that if Jewitt would write a letter to the master of the vessel, and tell him that Maquina was a good man, and that he had used him and
Thompson well, he would go on board. Jewitt said
if Maquina wanted him to write a letter, he would do
it. So Maquina told him to write, and he wrote the
letter, but not such a one as the Chief meant It
was in these words :
* To Captain
of the Brig
\ Nootka, July 19, 1805.
I Sir—The bearer of this letter is the Indian king, by
the name of Maquina. He was the instigator of the
capture of the ship Boston, of Boston in North Amer-
ica, John Salter, master, and of the murder of twenty-
five men of her crew; the two only survivors being
now on shore. Wherefore, I hope you will confine
him, according to his merits, putting in your dead
lights, and keeping so good a watch over him that he
cannot escape from you. By so doing, we shall be
able to obtain our release in a few hours.
f John R.  Jewitt,
'Armorer of the Ship Boston, for himself and John
Thompson, sail-maker of said ship.'
Maquina asked Jewitt to explain the letter to him.
So he read it over, taking care to give a wrong interpretation to all. The Chief looked in Jewitt's face
steadily, and asked him if he spoke the truth. Jewitt
pretended that he did, and Maquina at last believed
Mm. So the Chief concluded to go on board, though
the women cried, and the men sought to persuade him
not to go.
As soon as the canoe had put off, Maquina stopped
it, and asked Jewitt if he did not want to go with him.
He was afraid to say yes; so he said he did not want
to leave the Nootkas, or to go on board.
Perhaps my little readers will think that Jewitt
did wrong to practise deception in this and some
other cases. The Bible teaches us never to violate
the truth, and I hope the example of our adventurer
will not lead any one to do it. We must consider
that Jewitt was in slavery among savages, and he
was tempted by the love of liberty and life to do as
he c£d. We can easily excuse his conduct; but we
must at the same time insist upon the duty of always
speakin   truth rather than falsehood.
Maquina goes on board the Ship, and is put in Irons.—
Thompson and Jewitt are released.—The Articles be'
-Maquina is set free.
longing to the Boston are restored.-
As soon as he got on board the vessel, Maquina
gave some skins and Jewitt's letter to the captain.
The captain took hint into the cabin and gave him
some bread and rum, and at the same time sent for
the mate and six men. When they came, the captain
told Maquina that he should keep him on board till
the two white men on shore were set at liberty. So
he put Maquina in irons, and placed a guard over
The Indians in Maquina's canoe now went back to
the village with the intelligence of what had happened* The inhabitants were thrown into the greatest
consternation. Maquina's wives and the rest of the
women fell upon their knees, and begged Jewitt not
to have Maquina killed* He told them that Maquina
was in no danger. Some of the men told Jewitt they
would kill him; others threatened to cut him into
pieces not bigger than their thumb-nails. Jewitt
calmly replied, that the master of the vessel had confined Maquina to make them set him and Thompson
free. ' If you desire to see your Chief hanging to
that mast, and the sailors shooting at him, you had
better kill me,' said he. But the Indians said, * No, that
would not do;' so they concluded to send Thompson
on board.   Thompson did not like to leave Jewitt
among the Indians ; but he told him not to fear anything on his account as he had no doubt all would
turn out well.
When Thompson was gone, Jewitt asked the Indians what they intended to do with him. They said,
he must send to the captain to let Maquina come
ashore in a boat, and he, Jewitt, must be ready to jump
in, as soon as the boat touched the beach. To this
Jewitt replied that the master knew that they had
killed Mr Salter and his crew, and would not trust
any of his men within their reach. But if they would
take him near the ship in a canoe, the boat should
come to it, and Maquina should get into the canoe,
and he into the boat, at the same time. To this they
Accordingly they put him into the canoe with three
strong Indians, and he sat facing them. He determined to get on board the vessel before Maquina was
released, if he could. By this means, he hoped to
get back some of the things they had taken from the
Boston. When they got near enough to the vessel
to speak to those on board, the Indians stopped paddling. Jewitt pulled out his pistols, and threatened
to shoot them, if they did not go on.
This frightened them, and they paddled alongside the
vessel, and Jewitt got on board. He found the vessel to
be the brig Lydia, of Boston, and the Captain's name
was Samuel Hill. He was glad to see Jewitt, and said
he had got his letter from the Klaizzart chief. The
Indian had come to the vessel in his canoe to deliver
it   When he had read it, he sailed directly to Nootka,
r ■
to set him free. Jewitt thanked him heartily, and
indeed he had good reason to thank him.
When Jewitt came alongside the Lydia, he was
painted red and black, from head to foot, and had a
bear-skin wrapped round him. He had not been allowed to cut his hair, and a branch of spruce was
stuck in it. So he looked like an Indian or a crazy
man. Captain Hill said he had never seen a man
look so wild and savage in his life.
Jewitt went with the captain into the cabin, and
there he found Maquina in irons, with a guard over
him* The Chief was very sad; but he seemed pleased
to see Jewitt Jewitt shook hands with him, and
asked the captain to take off the irons, saying he
would not be in the least troublesome. The captain
consented, and Jewitt took the irons off.
It gave him pleasure to take the irons off, for Maquina had often saved his life. Jewitt had only contrived to get him confined, in order to obtain his own
liberty. Maquina smiled, and seemed very much
pleased. Jewitt now told Captain Hill how the Boston had been taken by the Indians, and how the crew
had been killed. It was known in Boston that the
Indians had destroyed the ship. The owners also had
been informed that two of the men were in captivity
among the Indians, and had offered a reward to
whoever should set them free.
After hearing Jewitt's story, Captain Hill was very
angry with Maquina, and said he ought to be put to
death. But Jewitt persuaded him not to do so. Captain Hill, however, determined to keep him till all the
things which had been taken from the Boston, yet
among the Indians, should be restored.
While they were talking together, Maquina showed
great anxiety, for he understood what they were saying. Jewitt at length told him that he must return
all the property he had taken from the Boston. To
this Maquina consented, and he was indeed glad to
obtain his release on these conditions.
As it was now late in the afternoon, Jewitt told
Maquina he must stay on board all night, and in the
morning he should be set ashore, as soon as the things
were delivered. So Jewitt went on deck, and told
the Indians who came with him what was agreed
upon.   They said it was very well, and went away.
All night Maquina would not let Jewitt sleep. He
kept putting him in mind how the Indians had often
sought to kill him, and how he had saved his life.
He urged upon Jewitt that he was under obligation to
do the same by him.
At day-break the Indians set about bringing the
cannon, the anchors, and all that was left of the Boston's cargo, to the vessel. In the course of a few
hours they had brought everything on board, together
with the articles belonging to Jewitt and Thompson.
Then they set Maquina at liberty. He gave Captain Hill sixty otter skins, for having spared his
life. He also gave him his otter skin cloak; and the
captain gave him a great coat and hat, in return. He
also told him that he should return in November, and
would buy all the skins he might have to spare.
At parting, Maquina shook Jewitt witji both hands,
and bade him farewell with tears in his eyes. Then
he stepped into his Canoe, and the Indians paddled him
Jewitt also was much affected ; for although he was
thankful for his deliverance, yet he had lived long
with Maquina, and received many acts of kindness
from him.
'. .
The Vessel sails, and they traffic with various Tribes oj In
dians.—They go to the Columbia River, and find Capt.
Lewis's Letter.—Return to Nootka.—Meeting with Ma-
quina.—Farewell.—The Brig goes to China, and Jewitt arrives at Boston.—He writes his Book, and settles
in Berlin, Connecticut.—His Death.
The vessel's sails were hoisted, and they steered their
course to the North. They stopped at several places,
to trade with the Indians. They saw one tribe named
the Wooden Lips. These people had a great many
furs to sell: the women did all the bargaining, and
managed the canoes.
Four months after they left Nootka, Captain Hill
went to the mouth of Columbia River, to get spars
and masts; for the vessel had been damaged by a gale
of wind. They sailed a little way up the river, and
the Indians told them that Captains Lewis and Clark
had gone away only a fortnight before. They showed the medals, and a letter that the Captains had given
them, and which I have mentioned before.
After getting what they wanted, they returned to
Nootka, where they arrived in November. The tfibe
was not there; but the ship fired a cannon, and a canoe
soon landed at the village, with Maquina in it. The
Indians put him on shore, and then paddled off to the
brig. They asked if Jewitt was on board, and said
that if he was, Maquina had some skins to sell him.
They asked him to go on shore and see Maquina.
He said he would do so, if they would stay on board
in the mean while : to this they agreed. Mr Hill and
Thompson did not like to have him go, but he said he
was not afraid, while the Indians stayed on board.
The master took them into the cabin, and gave them
bread and molasses to eat; and Jewitt went ashore,
and met Maquina.
The Chief was very glad to see him; but when
Jewitt told him that the Indians were to stay on board
till he got back, he said he would not have hurt him if
he had come without any such precaution. Then he
put his chest of skins into the boat, and Jewitt went
with Maquina to the brig. The captain received him
well, and bought his furs of him. He went away
frinuch pleased; but first asked Jewitt when he would
come again.
He said that his son loved Jewitt, and wished very
much to come and see him; he also said he would
save all his furs till he came again. Then he went
away, and Jewitt never saw him more.
After this, the vessel sailed to China, and Jewitt
found a man at Canton whom he had known in England. This man gave him a suit of clothes and some
money. Then they sailed to Boston. In the post-
office Jewitt found a letter from his mother; she
had received a letter that he wrote at Canton, and
was very happy to hear that he was alive and well.
The people in Boston treated Jewitt kindly, and he
wrote a very entertaining book, giving an account 01
his adventures.
After this, he settled in the town of Berlin, in Connecticut, where he pursued for several years the trade
of a blacksmith. He was a very honest, pious man,
and obtained the good will and good opinion of all
who knew him.   He died about ten years ago.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items