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Documents from the Sutro Collection, translated, annotated and edited by Geo. Butler Griffin…Printed… Griffin, Geo Butler 1891

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     Wr m  i
Voi,. II.
PUBLICATIONS
Part i
of The
HISTORICAL   SOCIETY
OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Documents from the Sutro Collection,
TRANSLATED, ANNOTATED AND EDITED BY
GEO. BUTLER GRIFFIN, ;.
President of the Society.
Printed for the Society by authority of the Board of Directors.
LOS ANGELES :
PRESS OF THE  FRANKUN  PRINTING COMPANY.
189I.
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Ministerio de Ultramar.
f^ ON ESTA fecha digo al Jefe del Archivo de Yndias estable-
^-^ cido en Sevilla lo que sigue :
"S. M. el Rey (q. D. g.) ha tenido & bien disponer que se
conceda autorizacion & M- Adolph Sutro para que examine y tome
nota de los documentos que se custodian en ese Archivo ; enten-
diendose esta autorizacion sujeta & las ordenanzas y demds dis-
posiciones porque se rige esa dependencia. De Real 6rden comu-
nicada por el Sr. Ministro de Ultramar lo digo & V. S. & los
efectos indicados."
De la propia Real 6rden lo traslado & V. para su conocimiento.
Dios guarde a V. muchos anos.     Madrid 26 de Diciembre de
1883. I f 1 ' .§
El Subsecretario
(rubrica) Manuei, de Egu^i,ior
(rubrica)
Sor. Ds. Adolph Sutro.
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TRANSLATION.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Under this date I say to the Chief of the India Archives
established at Seville the following :
j * H. M. the King—whom God guard—has seen fit to order that
permission to examine and take notes from the documents kept in
those archives be given to Mr. Adolph Sutro, it being understood
that this authorization is given subject to the ordinances and
other rules governing that bureau. By royal order communicated
through* the Minister of Foreign Affairs I say this to Your Excellency for the end indicated.''
By virtue of the same royal order I transmit this to you for
your information. gj
God guard you many years.    Madrid, 26th December, 1883.
Manuei. de EguiSljor
Under Secretary
{rubrica of the Minister of Foreign Affairs.)        {rubrica)
Mr. Adolph Sutro.
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nipUM H WJUil IftW
Voi,. II.
Part i.
PUBLICATIONS
OF THE
HISTORICAL   SOCIETY
OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Documents from the Sutro Collection,
8
TRANSLATED, ANNOTATED AND EDITED BY
GEO   BUTLER GRIFFIN,
President of the Society.
Printed for the Society by authority of the Board of Directors.
1
I
LOS ANGELES :
PRESS OF THE FRANKUN PRINTING COMPANY.
1891.
I
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COPYRIGHT 1891,
BY THE
HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA,
INCORPORATED.
ALL BIGHTS RESERVED.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS.
iJ
Introduction.
I. Letter of Fray Andres de Aguirre to the Archbishop of Mexico, giving
an account of some rich islands inhabited by civilized people, discovered
by a Portuguese trader, and situate in latitude 350 to 400 north—written
in 1584-5.
II. Paragraph of a letter from the Marques de Villamanrique, Viceroy of
New Spain, to His Majesty the King of Spain, making suggestions concerning the exploration of the coast of the South Sea, and giving notice
of a vessel sailing for that purpose—dated 10th May, 1585.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
Paragraph of a letter from the Conde de Santiago, Viceroy of New
Spain, to the King of Spain, referring to the commissioning of Sebastian
Rodriguez Cermeno for a survey of the coast of the South Sea—dated 6th
April, 1594.
Paragraph of a letter from the royal officials of Acapulco to the Conde
de Llonterey, Viceroy of New Spain, giving tidings of the loss of the
ship San Agustin—dated 1st February, 1596.
Paragraph of a letter from the Conde de Monterey, Viceroy of New
Spain, to the King of Spain, giving notice of the loss of the ship San
Agustin and of discoveries made in her—dated 19th April, 1596.
Paragraph of a letter from the Conde de Santiago, Viceroy of New
Spain, to the King of Spain, informing him that money is lacking for the
survey of the coast of the mainland, but that there are persons who will
undertake to do this if certain concessions be made to them—dated
8th October, 1593.
Paragraph of a letter from the Conde de Monterey, Viceroy of New
Spain, to the King of Spain, concerning the expedition to New Mexico
and the concession to Sebastian Vizcaino—dated 20th December, 1595.
Letter of the Conde de Monterey, Viceroy of New Spain, to the
King of Spain, on the propriety of not sending expeditions undertaken
by individuals to discover and take possession of the provinces to the
northward of New Spain, and of precautions to be observed concerning
what Sebastian Vizcaino is doing with regard to an enterprise of this
kind—dated 29th February, 1596.
Letter of Sebastian Vizcaino to the King of Spain, announcing his
return from the expedition to the Californias—dated 27th February, 1597.
Report which Sebastian Vizcaino makes for the information of the King
of Spain concerning his expedition to the Gulf of California—written
early in 1597.
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XI. Paragraph of a letter from the Conde de Monterey, Viceroy of New
Spain, to the King of Spain, giving his reasons for not making use of
the decree taking from Sebastian Vizcaino his commission for the
expedition to the Californias—dated 23d July, 1597.
XII. Paragraphs of a letter from the Conde de Monterey, Viceroy of New
Spain, to the King of Spain, concerning the expedition to the Californias and some new matters which have come to light touching the same
—dated 26th November, 1597.
XIII. Letter of Sebastian Vizcaino to the King of Spain, announcing his
departure from Acapulco on the expedition for the exploration of the
coast from Cape San Lucas to Cape Mendocino—dated 5th May, 1602.
XIV. Letter of Sebastian Vizcaino, dated at Monterey Bay, 28th December,
1602, giving some account of what he has seen and done during his exploration of the coast of the Californias.
XV. Letter of Sebastian Vizcaino to the King of Spain, announcing his
return from the exploration of the coast of the Californias, as far as the
forty-second degree of north latitude—dated 23d May, 1603.
XVI. Letter of Fray Junipero Serra, President of the missions of California,
to Don Frey Antonio Maria Bucareli y Ursua, Viceroy of New Spain,
giving some account of the condition of the missions and complaining
of the conduct of Captain Perez and of the Governor—dated 9th September, 1774.
XVII. Letter of Fray Junipero Serra, President of the missions of California,
to Don Frey Antonio Maria Bucareli y Ursua, Viceroy of New Spain,
forwarding the journal of Fray Juan Crespi—dated 7th October, 1774.
XVIII. Diary of Fray Tomas de la Pefia kept during the voyage of the
Santiago—dated 28th August, 1774.
XIX. Journal of Fray Juan Crespi kept during the same voyage—dated 5th
October, 1774.
Pfggilil^^psi^si^^^ii^fili^Kr^^^S PHE documents which the Historical Society of Southern California here offers to the public will be considered, the Society
ventures to hope, welcome contributions to the treasure now laid
up in the storehouse of students of the history of the Pacific coast,
especially that of California, and of some interest to the general
reader. It is believed that these documents, excepting only the
last two, the diaries of Fathers Crespi and de la Peiia, have not
been published heretofore—certainly not in this country.
The privilege of publishing these documents the Society owes to
the kindness of Mr. Adolph Sutro, of San Francisco. Mr. Sutro
caused a search for documents relating to the history of California
to be made in that great magazine of Spanish-American history,
the India archives of Seville, and his agents succeeded in unearthing these buried treasures. They were submitted by Mr. Sutro to
this society for examination and were found to be of such value
that the generosity of the lender was taxed still further by a request
that their publication by the Society should be sanctioned by him,
a request which was granted at once. In addition to this, it is
well to add, Mr. Sutro has aided otherwise and very materially in
their publication.
The very voluminous series of books published, quite recently,
by Mr. H. H. Bancroft, of San Francisco, contains a general
summary of a very great part of the printed matter relating to the
history of California, but it is evident that, at least so far as the
early history of the Californian coast is concerned, only a very
limited number of original manuscripts, and these easily accessible
to the public, were examined. If any examination of the India
archives at Seville was attempted, it must have been made very
superficially, for a perusal of the books published by Mr. Bancroft
will show that of the nineteen documents now printed the existence
of all but two or three was unknown to the writers employed by
that gentleman; and, possibly because the outlying province of
California was of such little importance to the earlier historians of
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Historical Society of Southern California*
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cisatlantic Spain, these documents escaped the notice of Torque-
mada and other Spanish authors beyond whose researches the
writers referred to apparently have not cared to venture. A
perusal of these Spanish historians will enable the student to verify
this latter assertion ; that Mr. Bancroft's writers were equally careless will appear more fully in foot-notes appended to the documents
now published.
Three of the documents now put in type are printed from photolithographic copies of the originals, even the color to which the
ink of these originals has faded being reproduced carefully, made
for Mr. Sutro, in 1883 and 1884, by express permission of the King
of Spain, and certified by the signature and official seal of the
keeper of the Archivo General de Indias at Seville. These three
documents are the letter which Sebastian Vizcaino wrote at
Monterey Bay on the 28th December, 1602, and the twro letters of
President Junipero Serra to the Viceroy of Mexico. A fac-simile
of President Serra's letter, of 7th October, 1774, is given as a
frontispiece to this publication. The authenticity of the other sixteen documents is unquestionable also.
It has been thought proper to print the Spanish verbatim et
literatim, the capitalization and punctuation also being carefully
adhered to, for in this way the documents can not but be of more
value to the scholar. Translations are appended for the use of the
general reader; and, although at times the meaning of the original
is much obscured by the singularly involved and otherwise
ungrammatical style of the writer, it is believed that in the translation, in every instance, the statements of the writer have been
presented with accuracy.
It has been thought advisable to print all the documents relating
to the same subject together and in the order of their dates, the
repetition of matter contained in the foot-notes thus being avoided.
I GEO. BUTLER GRIFFIN,
President of the Historical Society of Southern California.
Los Angeles, 1st November, 1891.
Kiss it it vf \* v» i s 11
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
Document No. i.
r^ ARTA de Fray Andres Aguirre al YlEb Ss? Arzobispo de Megico
HI! participandole la conveniencia de reconocer y descubrir la
costa N. O. de la Nueva Espafia y dando noticias de unas islas
ricas y de gente civilizada a donde aporto una nave portuguesa y
se hallan de los 35 a 40 grados de latitud norte.
Ylustrisimo Seiior—El spiritu Santo more siempre en la anima de
vuestra senoria ilustrisima. el descubrimiento que vuestra senoria
manda hacer assi para entender la disposicion de la costa, puertos
y calidades de la tierra y gente della, que hasta agora esta descub-
ierta al poniente de esta Nueva Espafia en la mar del sur, como
para proseguir el descubrimiento de aquella costa y tierra desde
cuarenta y un grado de latitud adelante es de mucha ymportancia
y muy necesario assi para la buelta de las naos de las yslas filipi-
nas y de todas las partes del poniente como para entender y saver
la disposicion y calidad de la tierra y gente de ella y yslas que se
entiende ay de mucha ymportancia cercana a aquella costa. aunque
las naos que vienen de poniente cada ano al puerto de acapulco
rreconoscen aquella costa y a vista de ella navegan mas de quini-
entas leguas, no se save hasta agora que puertos 6 reparos tiene
ymporta mucho saverse para que las naos que vienen necesitadas de
rreparar por haver navegado hasta aquella costa de dos mill leguas
sin hazer escala en tierra alguna puedan rreparar y proveer sus
necesidades.
no es de menor ymportancia proseguirse el descubrimiento de
aquella costa de los cuarenta y un grados de latitud adelante para
entender los secretos della, porque tiene por cierto que es continente
con la costa de la china sino las divide un angosto estrecho que llaman
de anian que segun se tiene noticia, esta es lo ultimo descubierto de
la costa de la china en cinquenta y dos grados de latitud. en aquel
parage y en el que ay de las yslas de Japon hasta lo ultimo descubierto de nuestra costa segun el Padre Fray Andres de Urdaneta
tuvo relacion de un capitan portugues ay yslas muy ricas muy
pobladas de gente de mucha policia, la qual rrelacion yo bi y ley y
yendo el y yo a Espafia a dar quenta a su magestad del subceso de
la primera Jornada que por su mandado hizimos en la qual se
descubrieon y poblaron las yslas Philipinas y se descubri6 la
navegacion y buelta de ellas a esta nueva espana, el dicho padre Hit   §1111
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Historical Society of Southern California.
dio esta relacion a su magestad y yo tome" copia della y la guarde
hasta que partiendo de espana en esta flota se perdio la nao en que
yo venia y en ella se me perdio la rrelacion y todo lo que traia y su
magestad me haviahecho merced y limosna. Lo que en rresolucion
contenia es lo siguente.
\' una nao portuguesa salio de malaca para las yslas de Japon y
cargo en la ciudad de Canton las mercaderias de China y llegando
a vista de Japon le dio un temporal poniente tan recio que no pudo
tomar aquellas yslas y corrio con poca vela ocho dias el tiempo muy
cerrado sin haver rreconocido tierra alguna; alnoveno dia abonanz6
el tiempo y aclaro y tuvieron vista de dos yslas grandes, arribaron
a una dellas en un buen puerto poblado con una gran ciudad cer-
cada de buen muro de piedra, estavan en el puerto muchos navios
grandes y medianos, luego que entraron en el puerto acudio a la
nao mucha gente de la tierra bien vestidos y tratados y mostrando
a los de la nao mucho amor y sabiendo que eran mercaderes invi6
el senor de aquella ysla y ciudad a dezir al capitan de la nao que
saliese y los que quisiese de su gente en tierra y sin recelo alguno
de que se les hiciese agravio, antes se ofrecia todo buen acojimien-
to y llevase memoria de las mercaderias que traia en su nao porque
se las tomarian y rrescatarian a su contento, el capitan comunico con
su gente estoy se determin6 inviar & la ciudad alescribanodelanao
con la memoria de las mercaderias y dos mercaderes unoportugues
y otro armenio vecinos de Malaca. El Senor de la tierra los rresci-
vi6 en su casa que era grande y bien edificada y los trato con mucho amor y rregalo y entendiendose por senas y que la tierra era muy
abundante y rrica de plata y otras cosas, seda y ropa volvieron el
escribano y el mercader portugues a la nao par sacar las mercaderias en una cassa que le dieron para ello y el armenio quedo con el
Senor de la tierra y fue tratado con mucho rregalo, hasta que
sacadas las mercaderias en tierra y acudiendo gran numero de gente
a rrescatar con plata en gran cantidad en treynta y tantos dias ven-
dieron todas sus mercaderias haciendo grande y rrica ganancia
conque quedaron todos muy rricos y cargaron su nao de plata; el
tiempo que en esta ysla estuvieron y entendieron que el senor della
lo era de la otra que estava a vista quatro leguas y de otras que
cerca dellas avia todas ellas rricas de plata y muy pobladas. La
gente blanca y bien d-ispuesta bien tratada y vestida de seda y rropa
fina de algodon, gente amorosa y muy afable. La lenguadiferente
de los chinos y japones y facil de tomar porque en menos de quar-
enta dias que los Portugueses estuvieron en aquella ysla se enten-
dian con los naturales. Son aquellas yslas abundantes de buenos
mantenimientos, arroz que es el pan que usan, aves como las nues-
J-^ftPee-^   <     1 Documents from the Sutro Collection.
tras en gran abundancia, patos mansos ymuchos puercos, cabras,
bufanos y mucha caca de venados y jabalies en gran abundancia,
de diversas aves y volateria y muchos pescados y buenos y grande
abundancia de frutas de muchas diferencias : el temple de la tierra
muy bueno y sano. estan aquellas yslas de treynta y cinco grados d
quarenta no se puede entender la longitud del japon d ellas por
aver corrido con tormentas y el tiempo muy cerrado y oscuro.
Corrieron de japon a levante y echo su rrescate volvieron d Malaca
pusieron por nombre d estas yslas por respeto del mercader armenio
que entre la gente de lanaoeramuyrespetado, yslas de hannenio.''
Esto es lo que de la rrelacion tengo de memoria assi para descubrir
estas yslas como otras en aquel parage y golfo. Como para lo demas
de aquella costa es de mucha importancia hacerse este descubrimiento para lo hacer seran muy acomodadas las dos acabras del porte
y fabrica que don Juan de Guzman dixere, como quien tambien lo
entiende en lo qual y en todo lo demas tocanted esta Jornada pueda
vuestra senoria ilustrisma seguir su parecer suplique a nuestro senor
sea para gran servicio sullo y de su Magestad. Ylustrisimo Senor.
De vuestra senoria ilustrisima menor capelan. fray Andres de
Aguirre.
TRANSLATION.
Letter of Fray Andres de Aguirre to the Most Illustrious Lord
Archbishop of Mexico, bringing to his notice the usefulness of
exploring the northwest coast of New Spain and giving information
of some rich islands, inhabited by civilized people, where a Portuguese ship touched, and which are in from 35 to 40 degrees of north
latitude.
Most Illustrious Lord: May the Holy Spirit ever dwell in the
soul of your most illustrious lordship. The voyage of discovery
which your lordship orders to be made, as well for the purpose of
gaining a knowledge of the coast and harbors, and the quality of the
land and condition of its people, to the present time discovered to
the westward of this New Spain in the South Sea, as for the further
prosecution of the exploration of that coast and region beyond
the forty-first degree of latitude, is of great importance and very
necessary in connection with the return voyage of vessels from the
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Historical Society of Southern California.
Philippines and all parts of the west, and for the purpose of understanding and knowing the lay of the land and its qualities and
those of its people and of the islands of great importance which are
understood to lie near that coast. Although the ships which come
every year from the west to the port of Acapulco make a landfall on
that coast and sail within sight of it for more than five hundred
leagues, to the present time it is not known what harbors or places
where repairs can be made it has. It is very important to know
this, so that the ships which come needing repairs, after reaching
that coast from a distance of two thousand leagues, without
touching anywhere, may be repaired  and  their  needs  may  be
provided for.
Nor is it of less importance that the exploration of that coast be
continued beyond forty-one degrees of latitude in order that its
secrets may be revealed, for it is held as certain that it is a portion
of the same continent as that of China, unless it be that they are
separated by a narrow strait called Anian,1 which, according to
notices had, is in that part of the coast of China lately explored, in
fifty-two degrees of latitude. In that region, and lying between the
Japanese islands and that portion of our coast recently discovered,
according to the narrative of a Portuguese captain which Father
Fray Andres de Urdaneta2 had in his possession, there are very rich
islands very thickly populated by people of urbane customs. This
narrative I saw and read while he and myself were going to Spain
in order to give to His Majesty an account of the success of the
1. At this time all navigators believed in the existence of a strait by which
communication could be had between the Atlantic and the Pacific. It was the hope of finding this means of escape with his booty-lade a ship that brought Francis Drake to the Calif or-
nian coast in 1579. Lorenzo Ferrer de Maldonado claimed that, in 1588, he entered the
strait on the coast of Labrador and emerged at the Pacific end in latitude sixty. Juan de
Fuca asserted that, in 1592, he entered the strait from the Facific in latitude forty-seven,
and that he sailed through it to the Atlantic. But this elusive strait was pushed farther
and farther to the northward until at length it has become Bering's strait and the northwest passage.
2. In his yoHth and early manhood Andres de Urdaneta had been a soldier, and was
famous as a navigator and cosmographer, and he had sailed in this capacity in one of the
ships which, under the command of Garcia de Loaisa, had visited the Philippines and
other islands of the South Sea. In 1563 the King of Spain ordered Viceroy Velasco, of New
Spain, to send colonists for the settlement of the Philippines. Meanwhile Captain
Urdaneta had entered the order of Austin friars at the city of Mexico. He and five
of his brethren, among whom was Andres de Aguirre, the writer of this letter, were
selected to go on the expedition as missionaries. The command was given to Miguel
Gomez de Legazpi, a resident of the city of Mexico; and, on the 21st November, 1654,
a fleet of four vessels sailed from the port of NavidadJ in Colima for the islands.
This was the expedition which founded Manilla. Orders had been given to Gomez de
Legazpi for the determination, if possible, of a practicable return route from the islands
to New Spain. On the 1st June, 1565, the flagship, the San Pedro, under command of
Felipe Salcedo, a youth of sixteen years of age and grandson of the commander, was dispatched from Zebu for that purpose, and Fathers Urdaneta and Aguirre sailed in her. The
course of the San Pedro was eastward to the Ladrones, thence northward to latitude. 38°
north, and thence, with a favoring slant of wind, eastward to the American coast, the ship
making a landfall somewhere to the northward of what is now Monterey Bay. The voyage
was long and disastrous. The ship had sailed with a crew verv limited in number; during
the voyage Salcedo, the navigating officer and fourteen others died; and, when at length
she arrived at Acapulco, there were not sufficient able-bodied men on board to bring her to
an anchor. The two friars had tended the sick and shriven the dying, had navigated and
steered the ship and had prepared from day to day the chart which was used, for many
years afterwards, by the navigating officers of Manilla galleons.
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
11
first voyage we made by his order, during which the Philippine
islands were discovered and settled3 and the manner of navigating
thither and of making the return voyage thence to New Spain was
determined.
The said father gave this narrative to His Majesty and I made a
copy of it, which I kept until, leaving Spain in this fleet, the ship
in which I came was lost, and in it the narrative and all I was
bringing with me, on which account His Majesty gave me a
reward and alms. What in effect the narrative contained is as
follows :
"A Portuguese ship sailed from Malacca for the islands of Japan
and at the city of Canton took on board Chinese goods. Arriving
within sight of Japan she encountered a storm coming from the
west, so severe that it was impossible to fetch those islands and
she ran before it under very little sail for eight days, the weather
being very thick and no land having been seen. On the ninth day
the storm was spent and the weather cleared, and they made two
large islands. They reached one of these at a good port well peopled, there being a great city surrounded by a good stone wall.
There were many large and medium sized vessels in port. Immediately on their entering the harbor there flocked to the ship a
great number of persons well-dressed and cared for and manifesting much affection for the people of the ship. The lord of that
island and city, learning that they were merchants, sent to the
captain of the ship to say that he and those of his people he might
select should come ashore without any fear that they would do
them harm. On the contrary, he assured them, they should be
received well, and he requested that they should bring with them
the manifest of the goods the ship brought, for they would take
them and trade for them to their content. The captain communicated this to his people, and it was resolved that the notary of the
ship should be sent ashore with the manifest and two merchants,
one a Portuguese and the other an Armenian, residents of Malacca.
The lord of the land received them in his house, which was large
and well built, and treated them' with affection, making them
presents, they understanding one another by signs. The land was
very rich in silver and other things, silk and clothing. The notary
and the Portuguese merchant returned to the ship in order to land
merchandise and store it in a building which was assigned to them
3. Friar Andres is in error here, for the Philippines were discovered by Magelhaens
in 1521, in the course of his famous voyage, and it was on one of these islands that he lost
his life in a skirmish with the natives. Probably it was some error similar to this which
led a writer employed by Mr. H. H. Bancroft to assert that the Philippines were discovered by the expedition under Buy Lopez de Villalobos. which sailed from Natividad in
New Spain, in November, J5U1! See History of the Pacific States, x. p. 130 (table of contents of
cap. VI) and the text on p. 137,
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12
Historical Society of Southern California.
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for that purpose, while the Armenian remained with the lord of
the land and was treated very hospitably. The merchandise having been taken ashore, and a vast number of persons coming to
purchase it, bringing a great quantity of silver, it came to pass
that in some thirty days they sold all the goods, making great
gains, so that all became very rich, and they loaded the ship with
silver. During the time that they were on the island they learned
that the lord was suzerain of the other island also, which was
within sight, four leagues away, and of others which were near to
these, all being rich in silver and very populous. This people is
white and well-formed, well cared for and clothed in silk and fine
clothing of cotton; an affectionate and very affable people. The
language differs from that of the Chinese as well as that of the
Japanese, and is readily learned, for, in less than in forty days
that the Portuguese passed on the island, they were able to converse with the natives. * These islands abound in the means of
maintaining life well—rice, which is the bread they use; fowls like
ours in great number; tame ducks and many hogs; goats ; buffaloes and deer and wild boars in great abundance; various birds
and game and fishes many and good, and a great plenty of many
kinds of fruit. The climate of the land is very good and healthy.
These islands are in from thirty-five to forty degrees. The difference in longitude between them and Japan cannot be arrived at,
because they had run before the gale and the weather was very
thick and obscure. They ran from Japan to the eastward; and,
having disposed of their merchandise, they returned to Malacca.
They named these islands, out of regard for the Armenian merchant,
who was greatly respected by the people of the ship, 'Isles of the
Armenian.' " This is as much of the narrative, as I remember
it, as will serve for the discovery of these islands as well as others
in that region and corner of the sea. As regards the rest of that
coast, it is very important that this exploration should be made;
and for this purpose two vessels of the burthen and build which
Don Juan de Guzman may determine will serve. With regard to who
should take part in the decision of this matter, as well as in all
things concerning this exploration, your most illustrious lordship
will follow his own judgment. I pray Our Lord that this may be
for his great service and that of His Majesty. Most Illustrious
Lord : From the least chaplain of your most illustrious lordship.
Fray Andres de Aguirre.4
4. This letter is not dated. It is addressed to the Archbishop of Mexico, and Father
Aguirre mentions that his lordship ordered a voyage to be made to the northwest coast.
On the 25th September, 1584, Pedro de Moya y Contr6ras, who had succeeded Alonso de
Montufar in the archepiscopal see, became sixth viceroy of New Spain and go verned as
such until the 18th October, 1585.   I am inclined to think, therefore, that this letter must
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13
Document No. 2.
/~* APITULO de una carta del Virey de la Nueva Espana el Mar-
^-^ ques de Villamanrique d S. M. esponiendo lo que considera
oportuno referente al descubrimiento de las costas de la mar del sur
y dando noticia de una embarcacion que sale con este intento, su
fecha de 10 de Mayo de 1585.
14. Dice vuestra magestad en la misma carta, en el capitulo
segundo della que ansi mismo escribi6 el arzobispo que los navios
que vienen de las Filipinas reconocen la costa de esta tierra sete-
cientas leguas y mas y menos antes de llegar al puerto de gapulco
y vienen ansi a vista de tierra y que como no saven los puertos de
toda esta c6sta aunque tienen necesidad de tomar tierra para rreparar
los navios y proveerse de agua y otras cosas no lo pueden hacer ni
tienen donde ampararse de tiempos contraros que de ordinario corren
por aquellas partes y que lo mismo sucede d los navios que antes
de llegar a la costa padecen temporal u otras necesidades que por
no tener puerto en ella buelven arribar a las yslas de donde salieron
y que para que esto cesase y vuestra magestad tuviese noticia de toda aquella costa que algunos dicen corre hasta confinar con la tierra
firme de la china y otros que acava en el estrecho que llaman de
anian que va a salir al parage de irlanda, ha via mandado hazer
dos fragatas para que saliesen a reconocer buscar y descubrir todos
los puertos e yslas rrios, montes e avitaciones que ay e de que len-
guas 6 gentes era abitada e poblada e de su modo de vivir y que
frutos y aprovechamieritos tienen graduandolo y descubriendolo
todo y que para ello tenia piloto y cosmografo muy bueno y que
demas de lo sobredicho por esta via y a menos costa que por tierra
have been written during the twelvemonth indicated. After the latter date no prelate
became viceroy until Archbishop Garcia Guerra succeeded Don Luis de Velasco, and he
ruled fromthe month of June, 1611, until his death in February, 1612. He gave no orders
for a voyage to the northwest coast; and Father Aguirre, if he were still living in 1611,
must have been quite aged. Moreover it is not probable that Father Aguirre would have
allowed so many years to pass before making the narrative of the Portuguese captain
known to the viceroy of New Spain. In fact, an allusion in one of the documents contained
in this volume indicates that the story of the "Isles of the Armenian" was known to the
authorities of New Spain shortly after the time of Moya y Contreras. The narrative itself
appears to be just such a yarn as navigators have been given to spinning for several thousand years. Possibly the story was told to the Spaniards by one of a rival nation for the
purpose of putting them on a false scent, for in those days all sailors, and landsmen as
well, believed firmly that the seas were full of undiscovered islands inhabited by peoples
rich beyond compare. Asa matter of fact there are no such islands as those of which the
sailor gives a description. A ship sailing from Canton to within sight of Japan and thence
running before a gale from the west for eight days, on the ninth would not be in the neighborhood of any islands. There is an island called "Rica de Plata," in latitude thirty-three
north, but it is in longitude one hundred and seventy-one east of Greenwich, more than
forty degrees to the eastward of the Portuguese captain's landfall in Japan. It is not probable that a ship of that period could have run that distance in the time mentioned; nor
are any such people or beasts as those described by Father Aguirre to be found on "Bica
de Plata."
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14
Historical Society of Southern California.
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se podria comunicar el nuevo megico en estando poblado como se
colige de la relacion que de aquello avia dado Antonio despejo y si
quando yo llegase huviesen salido estas Iragatas que esperase el
suceso y avisase a vuestra magestad y que no siehdo ydas provea
lo necesario y que para lo de adelante en cosas semej antes quando
sucediere no me resuelva en ejecutarlas sin dar primero avisso a
vuestra magestad si ya no fuese tan forzoso que ubiere peligros en
la tardanza. Lo que en esto pasa segun lo que yo entiendo de que
puedo dar quenta a vuestra magestad es que la costa de la nueva
espana se suve por la parte del sur hasta quarenta y dos grados
porque viniendo de la yslas philipinas las naos de vuestra magestad
an tornado la tierra en aquella altura y hasta agora desde alii hasta
el puerto de gapulco por toda la costa no ha parecido conveniente
hacerse poblaciones ni por no las haver avido ni a tenido riesgo
ningun navio y como vuestra magestad tiene relacion por el viaje
que hizo el marques del valle d las Californias y Francisco Vazquez
Coronado a las ciudades de cibolas, la mas de aquella gente y costa
es de gente brava, prove y que se mantiene de pescar y como el
poblar por agora podria tener inconveniente y de no lo aver hecho
no parece ninguno, si vuestra magestad por agora fuere servido no
habra para que tratar de ello y quando las naos que salen de las
yslas philipinas arriban escerca del puerto de manila dedonde
salen y antes que tomen altura porque en tomando alguna los
vendavales que acerca del puerto los hacen arrivar, essos les son
vientos frescos y buenos para venir a estos reynos y en quanto
aquel descubrimiento del nuevo mexico se puede comunicar por
aquella mar y costa parece segun la demarcion que es parte med-
iterrana y asta agora no se save quele correspondalamardelnorte,
6 sur tan cerca que se pueda hacer lo que a vuestra magestad le an
ynformado.
El arzobispo no hizo las fragatas que escrivio que pensaba hacer
y para conseguir lo pretendia aviendo llegado de las yslas philipinas y de marcar que es la tierra firme de la gran china el capitan
Francisco gali que es piloto y cosmografo que refiere tenia le torn6
a despachar en un navio que llaman Sant Juan que es de vuestra
magestad y en el que avia navegado y le dio officiales de la nao y
marineros y diez mill pesos para que si por ser viejo el navio en
que yba no pudiese seguir la derrota que le avia mandado en las
yslas philipinas hiziese otro y comprase lo necesario y demarcase
la tierra firme del xapon, yslas de armenio y todas las demas que
tuviese rrazon y noticia en aquel mar del sur y de alii su viage
en la mayor altura que el tiempo le diese lugar hasta tomar la
costa de la nueva espana y que tomada viniese por ella viendo la
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
15
tierra y puertos y demarcandolo todo para que se tenga de ello
entera noticia venido que sea si traxera alguna relacion y enten-
dido lo que ubiere hecho, informare a vuestra magestad de lo que
me pareciere que conviene a su real servicio. Marques de Villamanrique.
TRANSLATION.
Paragraph of a letter from the viceroy of New Spain, the
Marques de Villamanrique, to His Majesty, setting forth what he
deems timely with regard to the exploration of the coasts of the
South Sea and giving notice of a vessel about to sail1 for that
purpose—dated 10th May, 1585.
14. Your Majesty says in the same letter, in the second paragraph thereof : Furthermore, also, the Archbishop2 wrote that the
ships which come from the Philippines run along the coast of this
■land for seven hundred leagues, more or less, before arriving at
the port of Acapulco, and come in this way with the land in sight,
and that, as the harbors of this coast are not known, although
there is need of landing, in order to repair the ships and to obtain
water and other things, this cannot be done; that there are no
places for shelter during the prevalence of the contrary winds
which ordinarily prevail in those parts ; that the same is true with
regard to ships which, before making the coast, encounter storms
or which suffer other disasters, and having no harbor there, they
return to the islands whence they came; that this condition of
things should cease and, in order that Your Majesty might gain
information concerning all that coast, which some say joins on to
the main land of China while others hold that it ends at the strait
called Anian which terminates at Ireland, he had ordered to be
built two ships which should be sent out for the exploration,
investigation and discovery of all the harbors and islands, rivers,
mountains and inhabited places there are there, and what
languages are spoken and what peoples live there, what their manner of life may be, what fruits they produce and what degree of
civilization they may enjoy—all to be explored and investigated—
1. De Gali sailed on a voyage from Acapulco for the Philippines in March, 1582 and
sailed from Macao on his return voyage in July, 1584. The Archbishop of Mexico, Pedro de
Moya y Contreras, became visitador of New Spain in 1583 and sixth viceroy in September
1584. On the 18th October, 1585,Don Alonso Manrique de Ziifiiga, Marques de Villamanrique'
succeeded him. These are the dates given by Mr. H. H. Bancroft's writers. Yet here we
have a letter from the Marques—as viceroy—dated in May, 1585, before his arrival in  New
Ma
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Historical Society of Southern California.
and that for this purpose he had engaged a good navigator and
cosmographer; that in addition to this, by this route, and at a less
cost than by land, communication might be had with New Mexico,
on its being settled, as may be understood from the statement on
this subject that had been made by Antonio Despejo; and that, if
on my arrival these ships had sailed, I should await the result of
the voyage and advise Your Majesty of the same, but, if they had
not sailed, I should proceed as might be necessary in the case,
while in future, under similar circumstances that might arise, I
should not resolve on the execution of anything before consulting
Your Majesty, provided the matter was not so urgent that there
might be danger in delay. What there is in this matter—as I
understand the facts—of which I can give an account to Your
Majesty is this : On the south the coast of New Spain reaches to
forty-two degrees, for Your Majesty's ships, coming from the
Philippine islands, make a landfall in that latitude; and, until
now, from that point to the port of Acapulco, along the whole coast
it has not seemed convenient to make settlements in order that,
there being none, no ship might encounter peril. From the reports
of the voyage to Californias made by the Marques del Valle3 and
the expedition of Francisco Vazquez Coronado4to the cities of Cibola
Your Majesty has learned that the greater part of the people on
that coast is a savage people eking out a scanty living by fishing ;
and, as it might be inconvenient to make settlements there just
now, while from not having done so no inconvenience has arisen,
there is no need, for the present service of Your Majesty, to treat
of that matter. When the ships which sail from the Philippine
islands reach the neighborhood of the port of Manilla, whence they
sail before getting their northing,5 the southeasterly winds which
aid them in arriving there are also favorable and good for coming
to these kingdoms. And as to the exploration of New Mexico,
and whether communication can be had by that sea and coast, it
appears from the demarcation of the same that it is an inland
region, and it is yet unknown whether it be nearer to the southern
sea or to the northern sea for the purposes of that concerning
which Your Majesty has been informed.
Spain, probably before his departure from Spain. Can it be possible that Mr. Bancroft's
writers are in error in this matter of dates ? It is evident, nowever, that de Gali had
returned from his voyage to the Philippines, andthat the Archbishop dispatched him, or
was about to dispatch him, (the Spanish is sale—"sails") on another voyage. Of this second
vovage no mention is made in the books published by Mr. H. H. Bancroft.
* 2.   Archbishop de  Moya y Contreras, the same to whom Fray Andres de Aguirre
addressed the letter containing the yarn about the "islands of the Armenian."
3. The voyage of Cortes in 1535.
4. Vazquez Coronado'g expedition of 1540 to the Zufii and Moqui countries.
5. Meaning that, after sailinsc northward to the latitude of Manilla on the return voyage to New Spain, they sailed still farther northward—in fact, to a point some three hundred miles to the northward and eastward of the southern end of Japan—before striking
he current flowing to the eastward and a favorable slant of wind.
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17
The Archbishop did not build the ships which he wrote he
thought of building; and, for the purpose of carrying his plan
into effect, Captain Francisco Gali, the navigator and cosmographer
to whom he referred, having arrived from the Philippines and the
demarcation of the main land of Great China, he determined upon
dispatching him in a ship called San fuan belonging to Your
Majesty, accompanied by that in which he had come, and he
furnished to him naval officers and sailors and ten thousand dollars,
so that, if the ship in which he went, because it was so old, could
not make the voyage ordered to be made, he might build another
at the Philippine islands and purchase what might be necessary, in
order that he might make the demarcation of the mainland of Japan,
the islands of the Armenian6 and all others in that part of the
South Sea of which he might have information, and then make his
way as far to the northward as the weather would permit and until
he made the coast of New Spain ; and, this landfall being made,
that he should come homeward along this coast, examining the land
and harbors, mapping and noting all—so that there be a complete
account of it. When he arrives, should he bring any report, and
on my learning what he may have accomplished, I shall inform
Your Majesty of what may seem to me proper for your royal
service.
Marques de Vilxamanrique.
Document No. 3.
CAPITULO de una carta del Virey de la Nueva Espana Don
Luis de Velazco d S. M. fecha en Mexico d 6 Abril de
1594 referente d cargar d Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno el recono-
cimiento de las costas de la mar del sur segun lo dispuesto por su
magestad.
Por un capitulo de carta que vuestra magestad mando escrivirme
en 17 de henero de 1593 manda que se descubran y demarquen los
puertos del viaje destas yslas para la seguridad de las naos que ban
y bienen y supuesto que para hacerlo hera menester navio ydinero,
6 a lo menos permitir a la gente alguna inteligencia 6 negociacion
de las que vuestra magestad tiene prohibidas en que pudiesen ser
& Fray Andres de Aguirre's yarn, which was told to Urdaneta by the Portuguese
captain, and by him to the King of Spain, seems to have been considered credible. i8
Historical Society of Southern California.
Eliii
aprovechados conforme a su trabajo, y se compro el navio San
Pedro con que hiciesen el descubrimiento de tornaviaje en caso que
los navios que el ano pasado fueron 6 alguno dellos haya fait ado, y
ordene al piloto que agora ba en la capitana que se llama Sebastian
Rodriguez Cermeno, if es hombre platico en la carrera, seguro y
que tiene posible, aunque portugues porque no los ay deste officio
castellanos, que haga el descubrimiento y demarcacion y le ofresi
que como lo hiciese assi lo haria la gratificacion de mercancias, que
escribi al gobernador le permitiese cargar en el navio algunas
toneladas de ropa para que se aproveche de los fletes y le hiciese
dar todo lo que oviese menester para el efecto, de lo que hiciere
dare aviso a vuestra magestad a su tiempo.
TRANSLATION.
Paragraph of a letter of the Viceroy of New Spain, Don Luis de
Velasco, to His Majesty, dated at Mexico, 6th April, 1594, with
regard to putting Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno in charge of the
survey of the coasts of the South Sea, according to the disposition
made by His Majesty.
In a paragraph of the letter which, on the 17th of January,
1593, Your Majesty ordered to be written to me, it is ordered that
a survey and demarcation of the harbors to be found on the voyage
to and from these islands1 be made, with a view to the safety of the
ships which come and go ; and, a ship and money being necessary
for this purpose, or, at least permission to engage in ventures now
prohibited by Your Majesty, in such manner that the gain would
compensate the labor, the ship San Pedro was bought, in which
the exploration might be made on the return voyage,provided that
the ships which sailed last year, or some one of them, had failed to
do this; and I ordered the navigator who at present sails in the
flag-ship, who is named Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno and who is
a man of experience in his calling, one who can be depended upon
and who has means of his own—although he is a Portuguese,
there being no Spaniards of his profession whose services are avail-
able-^-that he should make the exploration and demarcation, and I
offered, if he would do this, to give him his remuneration in the
1.   The Philippines.
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
19
y /a
way of taking on board merchandise ; and I wrote to the governor2
that he should allow him to put on board the ship some tons of
cloth in order that he might have the benefit of the freight-money,
and I caused him to be given all that might be needed for the purpose, and concerning what he may do I shall advise Your Majesty
in due season.
Document No. 4.
/""* APITULO de carta de los oficiales reales de Acapulcd, al
^* Virey de Ntteva Espana, fecha en Acapulco a i& de Febrerode
1596 dando noticia de la perdida de la nao San Agustin.
El miercoles 31 de henero de este ano entro en este puerto un
barco que llaman en Philipinas Viroco y en el Joan de Morgana
piloto, quatro espanoles marineros, cinco yndios y un negro, que
dieron nueva de que el navio San Agustin del descubrimiento se
ha perdido en una costa donde di6 y se hizo pedazos, y que se haogo
un fraile descalzo y otra persona de las que en el venian y de se-
tenta hombres 6 mas que se metieron en este barco solo vinieron
estos porque el capitan y piloto del dicho navio Sebastian Rodriguez
Cermeno con los demas desembarcaron en el puerto de la Navidad
y entienden estardn ya en esa ciudad el subceso y discurso de su
viaje y perdida del navio y en la parte que consta por declaracion
que con juramento hizo el dicho piloto Joan de Morgana que es con
esta y el varco visitamos y en el no venian ningun genero de mercaderias, los hombres casi desnudos d causa de ser tan chico que
por milagro parece haver llegado d esta tierra con tanta gente.
TRANSLATION.
Paragraph of a letter from the royal officers at Acapulco? to the
Viceroy of New Spain1, dated at Acapulco, 1st February, 159&,
giving tidings of the loss of the ship San Agustin.
2.   The governor of the Philippines is the official referred to.
1.   This was the ninth viceroy, Gasparde Zufllga y Acevedtf, Conde de Monterey.
)|i 20
Historical Society of Southern California.
On Wednesday, the 31st of January of this year, there entered
this harbor a vessel of the kind called in the Philippines a viroco2,
having on board Juan de Morgana, navigating officer, four Spanish
sailors, five Indians and a negro,who brought tidings that the ship
San Agustin, of the exploring expedition, had been lost on a coast
where she struck and went to pieces, and that a barefooted friar3
and another person of those on board had been drowned, and that,
of the seventy men, or more, who embarked in this small vessel,
only these came in her, because the captain of said ship, Sebastian
Rodriguez Cermeno, and the others, went ashore at the port of
Navidad and, as they understand, have already arrived in that city4.
An account of the voyage and of the loss of the ship, together with
the statement made under oath by said navigating officer, Juan de
Morgana, accompany this. We visited officially the vessel, finding
no kind of merchandise on board, and that the men were almost
naked. The vessel being so small it seems miraculous that she
should have reached this country with so many people on board5.
Hi:
Document No. 5.
/^* APITULO de una carta a Su Magestad del Virey de la Nueva
^-^ Espana Conde de Monterrey fechada en Megico d 19 de Abril
de 1596 con noticias de la perdida de la nao San Agustin y lo que
se consiguio descubrir con ella.
Sobre la perdida del navio S. Agustin que venia de las yslas de
poniente hacer el descubrimiento de las costas de la mar del sur,
como vuestra magestad fue servido de mandar al Virrey Don Luis
de Velaszo escribi d vuestra magestad en el segundo de aviso lo que
aca ba duplicado, despues de llegade, alguna gente que se salvo de
la que venia en el navio y entre ellos los oficiales del que se preten-
den culpar unos d otros como siempre acontece en semej antes sub-
cesos, enviome y remitiome la audiencia de Guadalajara ciertos
auctos que por su horden se hicieron entre ellos, habiendo tornado
2. A viroco was a small vessel without a deck, having one or two square sails and propelled by sweeps. Its hull was formed from a single tree, hoUowed out and having the
sides built up with planks.
8. Probably an Austin friar. The spiritual care of all things connected with the
Philippines had been assigned to the Augustines.
4. The city of Mexico.
5. The Son Agustin was cast away in what is now called Francis Drake's bay. It
was a hazardous undertaking to sail from that place to Acapulco in a vessel so small and so
overcrowded.
— a - crssa
Documents from the Sutro Collection.
21
tierra en aquel distrito, quedanse mirando y que en caso que resulte
culpado alguno y parece conveniente castigarle, se hard. Aunque
es arta compasion de lo que an padecido despues que di6 al traves
el navio, de la mucha perdida de hacienda que hicieron en el; de
lo que fuere necesario avisar d vuestra magestad se dard quenta y
por ahora solo se me ofrece decir que en el descubrimiento de los
puertos dice el piloto que procuro cumplir con su obligacion en la
lancha con que vinieron despues de la perdida del navio y trae
escripta una relacion cuya copia sera con esta. Pero yo lo e exami-
nado en presencia del c6mitre y contramaestre que ambos son
platicos y aunque conforman en algunas cosas difieren en otras y
me parece que se convence y colige claro que algunas bayas de las
principales y donde mas se podia esperar de hallar puerto las
atravesaron de punta d punta y de noche y en otras entraron poco,
d todo debio dar ocasion forzosa la hambre y enfermedad con que
dicen que venian que los haria apresurar el viaje. Y asi entiendo
qua no esta en cuanto a este descubrimiento cumplido el intento de
vuestra magestad y todos convienen en que esta diligencia no se
habia de intentar de tornaviaje de las yslas y con navio cargado
sino de esta costa yendo siempre por ella adelante.
TRANSLATION.
Paragraph of a letter to His Majesty from the Viceroy of New
Spain, the Conde de Monterey, dated at Mexico, 19th April, 1596,
giving tidings of the loss of the ship San Agustin, and of the discoveries made, by those who went in her.
Touching the loss of the ship San Agustin, which was on its way
from the islands of the west1 for the purpose of making the exploration of the coasts of the South Sea, in accordance with Your
Majesty's orders to Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco, I wrote to Your
Majesty by the second packet2 what I send as a duplicate with this
letter. After the arrival here of some of those who went in the
ship and were saved, among them the officers, who tried to inculpate one another—as always happens under similar circumstances
-^the audiencia of Guadalaxara remitted to me certain documents
relating to proceedings had in the matter by its order, for they
landed in that district.    These are under consideration;   and,  in
1. The Philippines.
2. The second mail-packet which had sailed for Spain that year. 22
Historical Society of Southern California.
case any one be found culpable, and it seem fitting to punish him,
this will be done. While the sufferings they underwent after the
ship was cast away elicit compassion, concerning the great loss of
the property on board of her caused by them I will give an account
of so much as it may be necessary to make known to Your Majesty.
At present, all that occurs to me as necessary to say is that, in the
matter of the survey of harbors, the navigating officer says he
endeavored to comply with his obligation in the lanchaz in which
they prosecuted the voyage after the ship was lost, and he has
brought with him a report in writing, of which a copy accompanies
this letter. But I have examined him in the presence of the boatswain and the quartermaster, who are both practical in such matters;
and, although they agree in some particulars, they differ in others.
To me there seems to be convincing proof, resting on clear inference, that some of the principal bays, where with greater reason it
might be expected harbors would be found, they crossed from
point to point and by night, while others they entered but a little
way. For all this a strong incentive must have existed, because
of the hunger and illness they say they experienced, which
would cause them to hasten on their voyage. Thus, I take it, as to
this exploration the intention of Your Majesty has not been carried
into effect. It is the general opinion that this enterprise should
not be attempted on the return voyage from the islands and with
a laden ship, but from this coast and by constantly following
along it.
3. The viroco of which mention is made in the communication of the officials of
Acapulco.
4. It is very evident that these two last documents were unknown to the writers of
Mr. H. H. Bancroft's books, as well as to the authors of the printed works consulted with
reference to Rodriguez Cermefio's disastrous voyage. What little the Bancroftian historians
have to say about the loss of the San Agustin, is this : "Of the result we know only that his
vessel, the -Son Agustin, ran ashore in what was named at the time San Francisco Port,
since known as Drake Bay. Whether the ship escaped after being lightened of her cargo or
was accompanied by a tender on which the crew escaped is not recorded ; but Cermefio's
pilot Bolafios lived to visit the port again with Vizcaino in 1603, and his statement is aU
there is extant on the voyage. It is not impossible that some additional results of the
expedition were intentionally kept secret by the government; at any rate no record has
ever come to light in the archives." History of the Pacific States, X, 147—and this : "Of
Cermefion's adventures we know only that his vessel ran aground on a lee-shore behind what
Wjas later called Point Reyes. * * * * It is possible that the San Agustin was
accompanied by another vessel on which the officers and men escaped ; but much more
probable I think that the expression 'was lost' in the record is an error, and that the ship
escaped with the loss of her cargo. One of the men, Francisco Bolafios, was piloto mayor, or
sailing-master, under Vizcaino in 1603, when he anchored, in the same port to see if any
trace of the cargo remained, but without landing. The statement of Bolafios as reported
incidentally by Ascension aud Torquemada is,so far as I can learn, the only record extant
of this voyage." Id., XIII, 96. In this case, certainly, comment on the accuracy of wie
work quoted does not seem to be. called for. Mr. Bancroft's writer misspells the name
Cermefio. but errors of that kind are frequent in Mr. Bancroft's publication. It appear*,
from these documents, that the name of the chief navigating officer of the San Agustin was
not Bolafios. ^smrnm
Documents from the Sutro Collection.
23
Document No. 6.
/^*APITULQ  de una carta  del Virey de Nueva Espana Don
^
Luis de Velazco, aS; M. diciendole que para hacer el descu
brimiento de los puertos de la tierra firme hay faltade dinero; pero
que existen personas que lo hagan por su cuenta mediante ciertas
concesiones, fechaen Megico a 8 de Octubre de 1593.
Para hazer el descubrimiento 6 demarcacion de los puertos de
esta tierra firme hasta las yslas philipinas como vuestra magestad
lo manda, ay falta de dinero y si no es de la caxa real no se puede
suplir porque penas de camara, gastos de justicia quitre y vacaciones
estan tan apuradas que deven de tiempo atras muchos dineros a la
real hacienda, avido otra persona que trate de hazerlo debaxo de
algunas condiciones y lo de mas momento es que se le de facultad
para Uevar dinero con que tratar y contratar en los puertos que
descubriere y como este es negocio oscuro y deque podrian resultar
inconveniente no he tornado resolucion en ello, parece que limit-
andole cantidad y prohibicion que no tratase en puerto descubierto
aunque arribase d algunos con tiempos contrarios y haciendo otras
prevensiones que al asentarlo ocurrieran se podrd tratar dello.
Vuestra magestad mandara lo que fuese servido.
(Al margen se encuentra el siguiente acuerdo del Consejo:
"hagase la cedula que en tiempo se ha dado.")
II
TRANSLATION.
Paragraph of a letter from the Viceroy of New Spain, Don Luis
de Velasco, to His Majesty, informing him that for the purpose of
making the survey of the ports of the mainland money is lacking ;
but that there are individuals who will do this at their own charges,
provided certain concessions be made. Dated at Mexico, 8th
October, 1593.
In order to make the exploration or demarcation of the harbors
of this main as far as the Philippine  islands, as Your  Majesty
:*33
1 24
Historical Society of Southern California.
'-q
orders, money is lacking; and, if it be not taken from the royal
strong-box, it cannot be supplied, as for some time past a great deal
of money has been owing to the royal treasury on account of fines
forfeited to it, legal costs, and the like. But there is another
person who desires to make it under certain conditions, the most
important being that he be given permission to take money with
which to trade and transact business at the harbors which he may
discover. As such a proceeding is little understood and something
untoward might result therefrom, I have come to no determination
in the matter. It would seem that, the amount of business being
limited, and trade at ports already known being prohibited—
although the ship might touch there under stress of weather—and
taking other precautions which might suggest themselves at the
time of making the contract, the matter could be arranged. Your
Majesty will order what you may please.
(In the margin is noted the following resolution of the Council:
"Let a decree be prepared in accordance with what has been
agreed on.")
Document No. 7.
r^ APITULO de una carta a su Magestad del Virey de la Nueva
^-^ Espana Conde de Monterey sobre entrada en el Nuevo Megico
y consesion a Sebastian Vizcaino.
Sobre la entrada del Nuevo Megico tomo el Virey Don Luis de
Velazco cierto asiento con Don Juan de Onate quando yo venia
caminando desde el puerto para aqui; y poco antes hizo cierta
cohcesion d un Sebastian Vizcaino sobre la entrada de las Californias adonde por asiento havia de yr a pescar perlas; yo he visto los
papeles de este ultimo negocio para lo que tocaba a dar orden en
la execucion, y los otros porque el Virrey a instado en que yo los
vea antes de la entrada y dificulte en lo que me pareciere y se
olgara de no embarazar el tiempo con nueva deliberacion, pero
haviendo de hacerlo es forzoso que sea con atencion y consexo para
tomar resolucion de la materia y asi no me he resuelto sobre las
dudas que se me ofrecen que son algunas y por no tener estado
estos negocios para escribir mas largo sobre ellos, lo dexo para el
segundo navio de havisso contentandome con darle d vuestra
magestad del que voy haciendo y de que muy presto me determi-
nare para que si algo se huviese de reformar se haga y lo demas se mm
as
Documents from the Sutro Collection.
25
ponga en execucion brevemente, sera vuestra magestad servido de
yr aguardando mis cartas aunque las partes pidan alguna confirma-
cion 6 cedula porque assi conviene a su servicio hasta que yo escriba.
TRANSLATION.
Paragraph of a letter to His Majesty from the Viceroy of New
Spain, the Conde de Monterey, concerning the entry into New
Mexico and the concession to Sebastian Vizcaino.
Touching the entry into New Mexico, Viceroy Don Luis de
Velasco entered into a certain contract with Don Juan de Onate
while I was on my way from the port to this place; and, a short
time before this, he made a certain concession to one Sebastian
Vizcaino concerning an expedition to the Californias, whither, by
the terms of the agreement, he was to go for the purpose of fishing
for pearls. I have seen the papers relating to the latter matter,
for purposes connected with giving orders for the execution thereof,
and those relating to the former, because the Viceroy insisted that
I should see them before the departure of the expedition, and I
made such strictures as seemed good to me. The matter should be
properly adjusted without wasting time in renewed deliberation
thereon ; but, since this is necessary, it is necessary also that it be
done with care and after counsel thereon, in order that a fitting
resolution be taken. Therefore, I have come to no conclusion
respecting the doubts which suggested themselves to me, for there
are such; and, because these matters are not in a sufficiently
advanced state for writing about them at greater length, I postpone
doing so until the departure of the next dispatch-ship, contenting myself with giving to Your Majesty an account of what I am doing and
what I may very soon determine upon, so that, if there be anything
requiring alteration, it may be changed, while the rest may be
done promptly. May Your Majesty be pleased to continue awaiting the arrival of my letters, although interested persons may ask
for some concession or royal decree—for, until I shall write, this
will be more fitting for your service.1
1, The Conde de Monterey landed at Vera Cruz on the 18th September, 1595, and, on the
5th October following, entered the city of Mexico and took charge of the government.
This letter was written, undoubtedly,, shortly after the latter date, probably being that
referred to in the document next following this as having been written on the 20th December, 1595. And this is another document which must have escaped the research of Mr., H.
H. Bancroft, as his writers refer to it nowhere in any of the volumes in which Vizcaino's
\\
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m 2.6
Historical Society of Southern California.
SI
Document No. 8.
r^ ARTA a su Magestad del Virey de la Nueva Espana sobre
^-> conveniencia de no enviar espediciones particulares a tomar
posesion y descubrir las provincias al norte de la Nueva Espana y
tomando precausiones para lo que hace en este sentido Sebastian
Vizcaino.
En carta de veinte de Diciembre cuyo duplicado yrd con esta
havise a vuestra magestad de la Jornada que halle cometida por
cierta capitulacion y patente del Virey Don Luis de Velasco mi
antecesor, a Sebastian Vizcaino para que por su cuenta y deciertos
mercaderes de aquf fuese a las Californias y que yendo e proce-
diendo a la execucion me habia resultado ciertas dubdas de que
daria cuenta d vuestra magestad quando pudiese decir juntamente
la resolucion y asi lo hare en esta carta. Haviendo hecho asiento
los anos pasados con ciertos particulares que se ofrecieron de yr d
las Californias a pescar perlas y tomar noticia de aquella tierra y
comenzada la Jornada no llego a efecto por cierta quistion y deshu-
cio que havia habido entre la gente que yba y su caudillo, el qual
murio en esta ciudad pendiente cierto pleito criminal, ante los alcaldes, y por incidente el que se trato sobre el cumplimiento del asiento |
este se determino y fue condenado Sebastian Vizcaino y otros que
eran companeros suyos a instancia del fiscal de vuestra magestad a
que en conformidad del asiento hiciese dentro de tres meses la
Jornada y movido el virey por algunas causas que a ello le devierori
inclinar por via de gracia, le concedio a peticion mia la entrada y
paci^cacion de las dichas Californias en conformidad de las orde-
nanzas qua ay de vuestra magestad. con todas las onrras, gracias
execuciones que se acostumbran hacer a los pacificadores y pobla-
dores de nuevas provincias : en oculma1 se trato conmigo de este
negocio en general por el virrey y por la parte como de resolucion
tomada por asiento antiguo y confirmada por executoria de la sala
del crimen d pedimento del fiscal y asi me parecio que no haver
necesidad ni aun lugar de parar en cosa alguna desta materia para I
mas de tratar de executar lo acordado y asi venido aqui se comenzo
voyages and Onate's conquest are related—for in those ingeniously contrived tomes what
js said on any subject is cut up and distributed through several volumes. These writers say
^Skstory of the Pacific States, V, 781—that Viceroy Velasco and Don Juan de Ofiate completed the arrangements for the conquest of New Mexico on the 24th August, 1595. In thhs
letter of Viceroy Monterey he says that the contract was entered into while he was on hijs
way from Vera Cruz'to the capital, xiz.: after the 18th 8e- tember of that year.
1.   So wiitten in the original.
-
.fir: S9HMP1
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m
Documents from the Sutro Collection.
27
d levantar la gente y queriendo ver los papeles halle que el auto y
executoria caian solamente sobre lo que tocaba d la pesqueria de
las perlas y no de ninguna manera sobre la entrada y pacificacion
y reparar en ello, por parecerme que el sugeto de la persona, su
calidad y caudal no es suficiente para una cosa que puede venir a
ser tan grande y que requiere diferentes fuerzas y modo de proceder
del que aora se presupone y juzga, pues aunque en materia de
utilidad; haciendose el viage a su costa y sin gasto alguno de
vuestra magestad parece que se va d ganar y no d perder la esper-
anza de buen suceso por medio tan flaco es poco y mucho lo que se
aventura no solo en la reputacion que se perderia con estas na-
ciones de yndios si d este hombre y su gente deshiciesen los natu-
rales de aquella tierra, pero en lo principal que es la conciencia y
autoridad de la real persona de vuestra magestad, me parece que
se arriesga mucho en que una Jornada que licitamente no puede
ser de derecha conquista, sino de predicacion del evangelio y pacificacion y reduccion se encomiende por caudillo y cabo a un hombre
de poca estofa y menos brio y capacidad para tan grande negocio,
este dificultado me pareci6 comunicar al virrey Don Luis de
Velasco y por lo que me escrivio, que fue con la prudencia que
entiende y trata todas las cosas, no cesaron las rrazones del temor
que yo tenia de los desordenes desta gente, y hallando perplexidad
en el caso por los peligros que se descubrian en esto para la reputacion y para la consciencia y por las dificultades que tambien se
presentaban conforme d justicia y conciencia en alterar lo tratado y
quitarle a este hombre su Jornada, en especial teniendo ya hechos
gastos, lo hice ver d un teologo y jurista, de los que mejor parecer
podian tener en esta dubda y habiendoles juntado fueron de acuerdo
en la consecion del virrey tiene fuerza de asiento y contrato y que
siendo al principio gracia, hera ya justicia y no padeciendo el capitan manifiesta incapacidad 6 haviendo hecho delito no podia
variarse ; la audiencia a quien di cuenta sintio lo mismo. Y visto
esto y que aun mandarle por instruccion que solo descubriese y que
suspendiese la entrada hasta dar cuenta lesparecio contra justicia,
segun el estado que el negocio tenia me resolvi a no desvaratarle
ni desaviar su Jornada d Sebastian Vizcaino teniendo por cierto que
lo que en esta parte fuera de justicia sera de conciencia y que no
puede ser de buen gobierno lo que va contra ella; y porque he
juzgado convenir al servicio de nuestro senor yde vuestra magestad
que puesto havia de pasar adelante por hallarse ya hecha y enca-
minada la execucion de ello y no padecer este hombre defectos
notorios  que  en  derecho pueden escusar a vuestra magestad de
v.
:
: Si?
28
Historical Society of Southern California.
im
mi
:s>a>
P"*l
Mm
cumplir con el se le ayudase y diese calor para que la gente que a
levantado y pretende embarcar que es muy razonable en numero y
calidad le estime y respecte a el, lo he procurado quanto me ha
sido posible y prevenido desde aora con honrrarle yo aqui y darle
autoridad al mayor peligro que anteveo y temo por donde yo no le
digiera que es algun menosprecio y atrevimiento de parte de los
soldados que Ueva y que por este camino le venga a desobedecer y
a seguirse dello mucha desorden, he apretado como puedo y debo
hacer a que me de memoria y satisfaccion acerca de los navios y
lanchas que lleva y de los aparejos dellos y de la gente y vasti-
mentos que para sustentarla a de embarcar y de las armas y muni-
ciones y otras cosas todo ello por sus generos y cantidades lo que a
dado he mandado ver a personas platicas y les parece suficiente ;
pero en el cumplimiento de lo que dice que embarcara consiste el
llevar recado suficiente para que los religiosos que lleva franciscos
puedan entrar seguros a la conversion y pacificacion y para poblar
en gente aquella tierra sin que por evidente necesidad de comida 6
otras cosas vayan a peligro notorio y claro de hacer violencias y
robos a los naturales, asi he mandado d los oficiales reales de
Acapulco que hagan registro muy puntual y riguroso de lo que a
ofrecido llevar y no le consiente embarcar sin que vaya todo ello y
para que se haga otro tanto en el puerto de Salagua de laprovincia
de Colima a donde endevera otra parte de su gente y de los generos
que lleva me a parecido poner buen recado por no haver alii
oficiales reales y ser tierra desviaday muy conviniente que nose fie
esto y aun lo que en los primeros havisos podria saberse desta gente
por aquella parte de qualesquiera personas y ministros de los naci-
dos aqui que por ventura seran obligados a los mercaderes que
tienen a cargo esta Jornada y a los que van en ella, y asi he enviado
persona particular de confianza y de platica que a sido soldado y
podra dar buena cuenta de lo que alii se ha de hacer y de la con-
ducion de los soldados y castigo de los desordenes que hicieren
por aquel camino en los pueblos de los yndios que como no
acostumbrados al transito de la gente de guerra que suele yr a
filipinas podran padecer y sentir mas travajo. Dios guarde a
vuestra magestad Mexico 29 de hebrero de 1596. El Conde de
Monte Rey.
(Decreto del Consejo). Vista en 27 de Mayo de 1596 escriba-
sele al Virrey que quite a este Sebastian Vizcaino esta conquista y
descubrimiento y que avise a que otra persona se puede encomen-
dar que la pueda hazer con mas satisfaccion y esperanza de buen
suceso. mwmnmmgmmsm
WW!» Ji J .jmrnmrnum
m
Documents from the Sutro Collection.
29
ifi
TRANSLATION.
A letter to His Majesty from the Viceroy of New Spain on the
propriety of not sending private expeditions to take possession and
make discoveries in the provinces to the northward of New Spain,
and taking precautions against what Sebastian Vizcaino is doing
in this respect.
In a letter of the 20th December, of which a duplicate will
accompany this, I advised Your Majesty of the expedition which I
found had been undertaken by virtue of the agreement made by
my predecessor, Don Luis de Velasco, with Sebastian Vizcaino,
and a permit to the effect that, on his account and that of certain traders of these parts, he might go to the Californias, and that
in proceeding to the execution of the contract there had occurred
to me certain doubts of which I would give account to Your
Majesty when I should be able to mention them in connection with
my resolution in the matter ; this I shall do in this letter. In years
past an agreement was made with certain individuals who offered
to go to the Californias for the purpose of fishing for pearls and
obtaining information concerning that country, and preparations
for the expedition were made ; but the undertaking resulted in
nothing, because of a certain question and falling out arising between those who were about to take part in the expedition and their
leader, who died in this city during the pendency before the judges
of a certain criminal cause, in which the question of carrying out
said agreement was involved incidentally. The matter was determined, and Sebastian Vizcaino, and others who were his partners,
were condemned, at the instance of Your Majesty's prosecuting
attorney, to begin the journey, in accordance with the agreement,
within three months; and the Viceroy, influenced by certain
motives inducing him to lean toward leniency, at my petition
granted a concession for the entry and pacification of the said Californias, in conformity with existing ordinances of Your Majesty,
with all the honors, favors and exemptions usually given to the
pacifiers and settlers of new provinces. The Viceroy took counsel
with me concerning this matter generally ; and, seeing that there
had been a former agreement which was confirmed by decree of
the criminal  court   at the instance of the prosecuting officer, it
•
U bkv mom
fi>
30
Historical Society of Southern California.
.
seemed to me for this reason that there was no necessity, or even
room, for any decision in the matter other than that looking to an
endeavor to carry out what had been agreed upon. So, this conclusion having been reached, recruiting for the expedition began ;
but I, on an examination of the papers in the case, found that the
proceedings and decree had reference to the pearl fishery only and
not at all to the entry and pacification of the land, and that a reconsideration was necessary ; for, it seemed to me, with regard to the
person, his quality and capital are not sufficient in connection with
an enterprise which may come to be of such vast importance, and
one requiring greater backing and a method of proceeding other
than what is now thought and deemed sufficient; for, even looking at the matter from the utilitarian point of view, although he
make the journey at his own cost and without any expense to
Your Majesty, it seems to be of little moment whether he goes for
gain and in order not to lose the chance ot good fortune, but of
great importance the hazarding of not only the repute which would
be lost among these nations of Indians if the natives of that country should repel this man and his people, but—this is the principal
thing involved—that of the conscience and authority of the royal
person of Your Majesty. It appeared to me to be risking much if
an expedition which cannot lawfully be one of direct conquest,
but one of preaching the gospel and pacification, and of bringing
the people into subjection to the crown, were entrusted to a man as
leader and chief whose position is obscure and who has not, even
in less degree, the resolution and capacity necessary for so great an
enterprise. It seemed to me proper to communicate my opinion of
these difficulties to Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco ; and, judging
from what he wrote to me on the subject,, and he did so with the
prudence marking his investigation and treatment of all things,
the motives that I had for fearing some mishap occurring to these
people did not fail to work upon his mind also. Being greatly
perplexed in the consideration of this matter, because of the perils
to repute and conscience which might result, as well as by the
difficulty presenting itself as to conformity with justice and conscience in the alteration of a compact and taking away from this
man his right to make the expedition, especially as he had been
already at expense in the matter, he submitted the question to a
theologian and a jurist, of the number of these whose opinions are
entitled to greater consideration in doubtful cases of this nature ;
and these gentlemen, having taken counsel together, concurred hi
considering that the concession of the Viceroy had the force of an
- . -    ■ ~  :~~    -"-""' .-.-:"- -,,,    :,.   :_:.   _ -.-•: . Documents from the Sutro Collection.
agreement and contract; that what was at first a favor had become
his just due ; and that, as the captain manifested no incapacity
and had been guilty of no offense, the compact could not be varied.
The audiencia, to which I gave an account of this matter, was oi
like opinion. • This being determined, and it appearing to that
body to be contrary to justice even to give him instructions to
make discoveries only and not to take possession before reporting
those discoveries, I, in view of the length to which the affair had
gone, resolved not to annul the contract nor to interfere with the
expedition of Sebastian Vizcaino, holding it for certain that in
this thing that which is justice is also a matter of good conscience,
and that what contravenes this is not an indication of good government. And, because I have deemed it meet for the service of Our
Lord and that of Your Majesty, inasmuch as it was necessary to go
on with the affair since it had been begun and as this man does
not possess notorious defects which can rightfully excuse Your
Majesty from aiding and fomenting his undertaking, in order that
the persons he has enlisted and intends to put on board ship, and
who in number and condition make a reasonably good showingr
may esteem and respect him, I have done all that lay in my
power to show him honor while here and to clothe him with
authority in view of the greater danger I foresee and fear on his
account, though I would not say it to him—which is some lack of
respect and an overbold bearing on the part of the soldiers whom
he takes with him, so that in this way they may come to disobey
his orders, all this giving rise to great disorder. I have insisted,
as far as I could and ought to insist, that he should furnish nte"
with a satisfactory memorandum concerning the ships and lanchas
he intends to take with him, and their sails, tackle and the like,
and the people and the necessary provisions for them he intends-
embarking, and the arms and ammunition, and other matters, all
being inventoried in kind and by quantities. He has furnished
this memorandum; I have caused it to be examined by persons
understanding such matters, and what has been provided appears
to them to be sufficient. But, in order to fully carry out what he
says he intends to do, it is essential that he take with him a
complete provision of all things necessary, so that the Franciscatt
friars who will accompany him may undertake the conversion and
pacification of those lands in safety, and that the lands be settled,,
without there being unavoidable lack of food and other things and
consequent very great danger of doing violence to and robbing
the natives, and I have ordered the royal officials at Acapulco to
11
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32
Historical Society of Southern California.
make a very exact and rigorously careful minute of all that he has
offered to take, and not to consent to his departure unless he take
all with him. And I have ordered that the same thing be done at
the port of Salagua, in the province of Colima, where he will take
on board some of his people and a part of the things he is to take
with him. It seemed to me well to take these precautions because
there are no royal officials there and it is an out of the way place,
and it is very proper that in this particular nothing be taken on
trust, while it might even happen that the first tidings had of these
people in that region would come from persons of no standing and
agents of persons born here who may chance to be under obligations to the traders who have undertaken this expedition and to
those actually taking part in it. Wherefore I have sent a private
individual who is of my confidence, a man of experience who has
been a soldier, and he will be able to give good account of what
may be done there, and of the conduct of the soldiers, and the
punishment inflicted upon them for any disorder of which they
should be guilty along the road in the towns of the Indians, who,
not being used to the transit through their country of troops such
as are generally sent to the Philippines, might be subjected to
suffering and injury.     God guard Your Majesty.     Mexico,   29th
February, 1596.
The Conde de Monterey.
(Decree of the Council). This communication having been
taken under consideration on the 27th of May, 1596, let it be
written to the Viceroy that he take from Sebastian Vizcaino the
right to make this conquest and discovery, and that he report to
what other person they can be entrusted, who may conduct the
same more satisfactorily,and with the hope of success.1
1. In volume X of the historical works published by Mr. H. H. Bancroft a good deal of
what is said in those volumes about the first and second voyages of Sebastian Vizcaino is
related. Chap. VI of this volume treats of "Voyages to the Northwest," and the writer
remarks : "These voyages treated in this chapter have already been put before the public
many times in many forms, often with accuracy and completeness. Both individually and
collectively they were in former years the subject of much more research than the inland
annals of the same period, and later researches in the Spanish and Mexican archives have
brought to light comparatively little new material." History of the Pacific States, X, 132. It
seems to be apparent that, in the matter of Vizcaino's first voyage, no attempt was made
to bring to light any new material to be found in the archives at Seville. Mr. Bancroft's
writer says merely : "In 15a4 Viceroy Velasco, probably by royal instructions, contracted
with Sebastian Vizcaino to explore anew and occupv for Spain the Islas Californias.
Velasco's successor, the Count of Monterey, ratified the contract and dispatched the expedition in 1597." Id., X, 147. That the letter here published was unknown to that writer is
sufficiently evident from the contents of the foot-note to be found on that same page:—
<t* * * Torquemada, followed apparently by all other writers, states that in 1596 the
King ordered Viceroy Monterey to send Vizcaino to California, and that the expedition
was made the same year. Ail the evidence I have to the contrary is a royal cedula of Aug.
2,1628, [sic\ in Doe. Hist. Mex., series ii, iii. 442-3,in which the King states the facts as I
have given them, adding that Monterey ordered Vizcaino to fulfill his contract, 'no embar-
gante que en la sustancia y capacidad de su peisona, hall6 algunos inconvenientes.' " Mr.
Bancroft's writers always are content with what Torquemada tells. In fact, in a foot-note
at the end of this same Chap. VI, it is said that "the standard authority for Vizcaino's voyage is Torquemada, Mon. Ind."
mmi Documents from the Sutro Collection*
33
Document No. 9.
r^ ARTA d S. M. de Sebastian Vizcaino fecha en Mexico d 27 de
^—' Febrero de 1597, participando haber vuelto de su espedicion d
las Californias.
Del puerto de Salagua escrivi d vuestra magestad dandole aviso
de la Jornada y descubrimiento que iba d hazer de la California y
de los navios y gente que d ella llevaba y del buen despacho quel
Conde de Monte Rey me mando dar para todo lo d ella nessesario ;
y aora aviso d vuestra magestad de lo sucedicho en el dicho viaje
que es lo contenido en la relacion que el dicho Conde de Monte
Rey envia d vuestra magestad. Yo me holgara fueran las nuevas
conformes d mi deseo, mas como todo estd sugeto d la voluntad de
Dios que es el que guia semejantes negocios, conformandonos con
ella le damos gracia por todo lo sucedido. Quedo con el sentimi-
ento que es razon por no haber tenido ventura de llegar al cabo un
negocio en que tanto servicio de Dios y de vuestra magestad se
interesaba y con grandisima lastima de considerar la infinidad de
almas que se pierden en aquella tierra. De manera que ni la
perdida de mi hacienda ni el peligro de mi persona y travajos que
en ello he padecido me duelen tanto como el no haberle podido dar
buen fin a este negocio y descubierto toda la ensenada de la California de que entiendo resultaran cosas degrandissimaimportancia,
pero como aquella mar no hera conoscida salimos en tiempo tan
contrario que eso solo hie" la causa principal de nuestra desgracia
que habiendo de salir d principio de Marzo emboque por el golfo de
la California d mediado de Agosto en tiempo de nortes y norueste
tan furioso que estuvo todo el dano donde pensamos que estuviera
nuestro buen suceso, segun nos ensefi6 la esperiencia. Lo que es
pesqueria de perlas creo que es infinita por el grandissimo numero
de conchas de ella que ay d la ribera: no pude hazer diligencia en
pescarlas porque el tiempo era tan rigoroso que apenas nos daba
lugar para repararnos y assi nos ubimos de volver con los navios
rrotos sin ser posible pasar adelante. Reciba vuestra magestad mi
buen deseo que aunque de vasallo pobre, con lo que me sobra de
animo se puede suplir lo que las fuerzas no alcanzaron y de nuevo
me ofrezco d servir d vuestra magestad como d mi rey y senor con
lo que me queda de hacienda y vida, que quisiera fuera en mucha
mas cantidad para emplearlo todo en su real servicio con las veras
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\wTr
que debo y deseo. Guarde nuestro senor a vuestra magestad
muchos alios como la cristiandad ha menester y sus criados y
vasallos deseamos de Mexico a veinte y siete de febrero de mil
quinientos noventa y siete.
Criado de vuestra magestad. Sebastian Vizcaino.
TRANSLATION.
Letter to His Majesty from Sebastian Vizcaino, dated at Mexico,
27th February, 1597, announcing his return from the expedition
to the Californias.
From the port of Salagua I wrote to Your Majesty, giving notice
of the voyage of discovery which I was about to make to
California, and of the ships and people I was taking with me, and
of the prompt dispatch of everything necessary, which the Conde
de Monterey ordered to be given to me; and I now advise Your
Majesty of what ocurred on said voyage—which is what is contained in the report which the said Conde de Monterey sends to
Your Majesty. I should congratulate myself were the tidings in
conformity with my desire; yet, as everything is subject to the
will of God, it being he who guides in similar undertakings, let us,
conforming ourselves to this, give him thanks for all that happened.
It grieves me, as stands to reason, not to have had the good fortune to carry out fully an undertaking in which the service of
God and Your Majesty was so deeply concerned, and it gives me
the greatest pain when I consider the infinite number of souls
going to destruction in that land. To such an extent is this the
case that neither loss of property, nor personal peril encountered,
nor the labors which have been mine in this connection, give me
so much sorrow as does my not having been able to accomplish
successfully this undertaking—in not having explored the whole
coast1 of California, an enterprise from which, I understand, things
of the greatest importance will result. But, as that sea was
unknown, we set forth at a season so inopportune that this alone
was the principal cause of onr misfortune. Being obliged to sail
early in March, I entered the gulf of California about the middle
1.   Vizcaino says here, as he generaUy says, ensenada, which signifies bight; here, and
elsewhere, I use the words coast and littoral as more fitting to express his meaning.
Wm^M&MM^/
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
11
35
of August, during the season of north and northwest winds so
furious that, as experience has shown to us, where we thought to
achieve success defeat resnlted. As to the fishing for pearls, I
believe that to be without limit, for the number of shells on the
shore is very great. I was not able to do anything in the way of
fishing for them because the weather was so bad that we had not
time even to repair damages and were obliged to return with the
ships injured and without having been able to pursue the* voyage
farther. May Your Majesty take into consideration the good
intentions which animated me, though but a poor vassal; let my
superabundant good-will be weighed against what my energy
failed to accomplish. I offer myself again for the service of Your
Majesty, as my king and suzerain, myself and what remains tome
of fortune and life ; and I would that these were greater, so that I
might dedicate all to your royal service with the earnestness that
is due, and as I wish. May Our Lord guard Your Majesty many
years, as is necessary for the sake of Christendom and as your
servants and vassals desire. Mexico, twenty-seventh of February,
one thousand five hundred and ninety-seven.
The servant of Your Majesty,
Sebastian Vizcaino.
Document No. 10.
O ELACION que Sebastian Vizcaino d cuyo cargo rue" la Jornada
*^ de las Californias, da para el Rey nuestro Senor, dando d
entender lo que vido en la dicha Jornada desde el puerto de Acapulco hasta paraje de veinte y nueve grados dentro de la ensemada
de Californias d la parte de norueste ques desde donde se bolvio
por no poder pasar adelante por el tiempo ser contrario y aversele
quebrado los hierros del timon con una tormenta y lo que vio en la
tierra y mar y entiende de la Jornada es lo sigiuente.
Primeramente advierto que desde el puerto de Acapulco ques
donde sali6 hasta el de Calagua ay cien leguas por mar costa a
costa.
Desde el puerto de Calagua al cabo de corrientes ay sesenta
leguas siempre por la costa.
I 36
Historical Society of Southern California.
Desde este cabo de corrientes d las yslas de San Juan de Macat-
lan ay setenta leguas, yendo ya por la ensenada de las Californias
governando al norte.
Desde estas yslas al puerto de Culiacan ay cuarenta leguas
governando al norte.
Desde este puerto d balde hermoso paraje de Sinaloa ay cincuenta
leguas.
Desde este paraje atrabes6 la ensenada y boca de las Californias
que podra tener de atravesia ochenta leguas.
Tom£ tierra de la otra banda en altura de veinte y quatro grados
en una baya muy grande que de la parte de la mar la cercan dos
yslas muy grandes en baya capaz para mucha cantidad de navios y
puerto limpio.
En este paraje me salieron mucha cantidad de yndios a resibir
de paz y en ella estubieron el tiempo que en el dicho paraje estube
y lo que en el me sucedi6 fu£ que queriendo decir los religiosos
misa, hecho un altar en tierra saqu6 del navio la ymagen de nues-
tra senora para ponella en el dicho altar llevandola en procesion
desde la playa al paraje donde estaba dicho altar, en este tiempo
lleg6 un yndio principal con mas de ochocientos yndios con arcos
y flechas y los sail a resibir y ellos se me binieron de paz y llegando
ante la ymagen de nuestra senora hincandome de rodillas besando
sus pies y el frayle que la tenia las manos, visto esto el dicho
yndio ech6 de si el arco y flecha que traya y se humill6 delante de
la dicha ymagen besandole sus pies y mirando al cielo y al sol,
decia por senas qui*si aquella ymagen avia venido del y dandoselo
a entender por senas di6 grandes voces a los demas yndios sus
companeros los quales acudieron d hacer lo que el dicho yndio
avia hecho de que todos los espanoles que alii ybamos sentimos el
contento que hera razon y llevando la dicha ymagen en prosesion
dponer en el altar siempre fue* el dicho yndio principal danzando
d su usanza delante della.
En este paraje tome posesion de la tierra ante los dichos yndios
quieta y pacificamente y los dichos yndios dandoselo d entender
por senas lo tuvieron por bien : puse por nombre d la provincia la
Nueva Andalucia ; al puerto San Felipe ; y d las dos yslas d la una
la ysla de San Francisco y a la otra San Sebastian.
En este paraje estube cinco dias y no pude detenerme mas respeto
de ser la tierra muy fragosa y no aber aguaduce que beber.
Deste paraje pase d otro que esta mas al norueste como quince
leguas de que hace una gran ensenada con muchos baxios y al
entrar en £1 me calm6 el viento y como las corrientes son muchas y
*->*• r 3 r * # ■"
wm -m im Documents from the Sutro Collection
la nao hera de mas de seiscientas toneladas, me llevo a un baxo
donde estuve quatro dias en seco de que fu6 preciso alijar y cortar
los arboles y sacar los bastimentos d tierra en planchadas de que se
me mojaron muchos y perdieron y al cabo de los dichos quatro dias
con la creeiente me saco la dicha corriente del baxo y entr£ en esta
dicha ensenada, la qual puse por nombre la de la paz porque en
ella me salieron d rescibir muchos yndios dandonos lo que tenian
como heran pescado muchas frutas de la tierra caca de conejos,
liebres, benados.
En este paraje hice alto fortificandome en un fuerte que hice de
estacada y faxina por no poder pasar mas adelante con la nao
capitana por estar desaparejada y comenzar en aquella tierra el
ynvierno por el mes de Octubre ques quando estuve en este paraje.
Y deseoso de descubrir toda la ensenada me determine" de con el
navio pequeno y lancha entrar la boca dentro a descubrilla dex-
ando en este paraje la nao capitana y la gente casada y mas emba-
razosa llevando conmigo ochenta ombres y asi lo hice dexando al
capitan Rodrigo de Figueroa por mi teniente en este paraje. Salf
deste puerto questd en veinte y cinco grados escasos a tres de
Octubre y yendo navegando por la dicha ensenada tuve una gran
tormenta de viento norte, durome quatro dias y al cabo dellos me
di6 un huracan de viento sur de que estube muy d pique de per-
derme que me dur6 dos dias y al cabo dellos ceso y me hall£ en
paraje de veinte y siete grados metido entre seis yslas y muchos
baxos que Dios por su misericordia me libr6 y siendo de dia me
salierron de tierra cinco piraguas de yndios haciendo senas que
fuese d su tierra prometiendo cosas de comer y agua que llevaba
falta ; y ansi arribe al paraje que los yndios me senalaban y salt£
en tierra con quarenta y cinco ombres y en ella me rescibieron
mucha suma de yndios dandome pescado fruta y mostrandome
gran contento en avernos visto y en este paraje uno de mis soldados
desconsideradamente di6 d uno de los dichos yndios sin yo bello
con el cabo del arcabuz en los pechos de que se nojaron los dichos
yndios y nos tiraron algunas flechas aunque no de mucha consid-
eracion y visto el atrevimiento de los yndios mande disparar quatro arcabuces por alto para asombrallos y no ofendellos, al ruydo
de la polvora cayeron todos en el suelo y pasado el humo della se
levantaron y visto que no se les avia hecho dano con mas ympetu
volvieron a flechar de que'mande abaxar a los mios la mano y a la
primera rociada cayeron no se quantos de que los demas comenza-
ron d huir por una serrania arriba, y visto que en este paraje no
avia que hacer me embarqu6 para pasar adelante y siendo la cha-
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38 Historical Society of Southern California.
lupa que llevaba pequena no nos pudimos embarcar todos dexando
al sargento mayor en tierra con la mitad d qfaien envi£ luego la
chalupa y entre los dichos soldados tuvieron luego diferencias
sobre quien lo avia hecho mejor de que no se embarcaron quando
se le mando de que se hizo gran diligencia y vista la determinacion
de castigar algunos desobedientes se envarcaron y viniendo para el
navio ya desviados de tierra llegaron por una playa gran golpe de
yndios tirando flechas por alto de que una dellas di6 en la nariz a
uno de los marineros que venian bogando y como se sintio herido
lo dexo de hacer y el otro haciendo su oficio tom6 la chalupa por
abante y a este alboroto los soldados que venian enella comenzaron
a menearse de que hicieron d la banda y con el peso se sosobr6 la
dicha chalupa y los cogi6 debajo y como estaban armados se fueron
a pique y de veinte y cinco se escaparon seis a nado, por ser las
armas que llevaban de cuero y con tablas que fueron socorridos.
Visto la desgracia que en este paraje nos sucedio y quedar sin
chalupa ni servicio con que poder saltar en tierra ni tomar agua y
que la lancha con la tormenta pasada no parecia con acuerdo de
todos tome arribar al puerto de la paz donde avia dejado los demas
companeros. Llegado d este dicho puerto y entendido por los
demas lo que avia sucedido de las grandes tormentas que aviamos
pasado y la perdida de los companeros desmayaron muchos dellos
y mas la gente de la mar que conocido el ynvierno y tiempo forzoso
no se atrevian d navegar de que me pidieron los volviese a la nueva
espana pues no podian pasar adelante y envernar alii no podia ser
porque la tierra hera falta de bastimentos y grandes serranias que
no se podia entrar por ellas y los bastimentos que aviamos llevado
avia ya pocos porque con la perdida del navio San Francisco avian
benido a menos y los que se avian gastado y para poder ynvernar
no avia hartos y para que no pereciesemos les di licencia para que
en el navio San Francisco y lancha se volviesen a esta nueva
espana quedandome con el navio San Joseph y con quarenta hombres de mar y guerra los mas bien yntencionados para entrar por
la dicha ensenada a descubrilla del todo.
Deste paraje sali a veinte y ocho de Octubre del dicho ano de
noventa y siete yo para descubrir la dicha ensenada y los demas
para la nueva espana.
Siguiendo mi viage tuve muchas tormentas, tiempos contrarios
de nortes y noruestes que son los mas contrarios que como la boca
esta de norte a sur y mi navegacion es al norte me fueron contrarios de tai manera que en sesenta y siete dias questuve dentro de la
dicha boca despues de venida la demas gente no pude subir mas de
m Documents from the Sutro Collection.
hasta veinte y nueve grados y esto foreejando con el navio de tai
manera que se me quebraron los hierros del timon y visto y conos-
cido el ynvierno y que no podiamos pasar adelante con el navio
por requerimiento de todos pas6 al puerto de las yslas de Macatlan
governando con las escotas trayendonos Dios de misericordia.
Lo que entiendo desta Jornada por descargo de mi conciencia y
lo que debo a cristiano y d leal vasallo advierto lo siguiente.
Primeramente me parece conviene baya adelante y se buelva d
ella por muchas razones ; la primera por el mucho servicio que d
Dios nuestro senor se hard en la conversion de tantas almas como
alii ay y de tan buena gana dieron muestras de rescibir el evange-
lio que enesto confio en Dios se hard con mucha facilidad.
Ansi mismo advierto que la tierra es mas dos veces questa nueva
espana y mejor altura y paraje porque desde veinte y un grados
que comienza el cabo de San Lucas yendo d la parte del norueste
ay mas de mill leguas de tierra firme y esto lo he visto.
Ansi mismo advierto que lo ques perlas ay gran suma y ricas
porque en los parajes donde yo estuve heran todos comederos
dellas y quando el navio San Francisco estuvo encallado echandose
un marinero al agua en unas hostias que saco en una dellas halla-
ron tresegos de alsofar bueno y los yndios por senas me dixeron
que dexase pasar el ynvierno que la mar estaria sosegada y que
ellos entrarian y sacarian mucha cantidad y para muestra de ques
verdad esto envio dos perlas de las que los yndios me dieron porque vuestra Magestad las vea.
Ansi mismo advierto que en la mar ay la mayor cantidad de
pescado de toda suerte que ay en mar descubierta.
Ansi mismo advierto en las marinas ay gran cantidad de salinas
y tantas criadas de naturaleza que se pueden cargar mill flotas y
en esto no ay que aver duda ninguna porque lo vide.
Ansi mismo advierto que por relacion que tuve de los dichos
yndios naturales por senas que en la tierra dentro a la parte del
norueste veinte dias de camino avia mnchas poblaciones gente
vestida y que trayan en las orejas y narices oro, y que avia plata,
muchas mantas de algodon, maiz y bastimentos y gallinas de la
tierra y de castilla y tomando a vena en sus manos la echaban por
alto dando a entender que como avena avia gente adelante y esto
me dixeron los dichos yndios no en un paraje solo sino en muchos
y aunque mi voluntad fu6 pasar adelante no pude por las razones
dichas.
Y siendo vuestra Magestad servido de que esta Jornada seconsiga
que ya se a entendido los tiempos de la navegacion y lo que - se a
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Historical Society of Southern California.
de llevar se asertard y serd servido Dios nuestro senor y vuestrai
Magestad y su real corona acrecentada y atento d que de la Jornada
pasada he quedado disposibilitado de posible para que yo la pueda
hacer d mi costa al presente aventurare" mi persona y poco posible
que me ha quedado en vuestro real servicio ques lo que deve un
buen vasallo y bien yntencionado por su senor ayudandome e
haciendome merced d mi y a los que volvieren d la Jornada ; pidoi
por esta relacion y en ella pedire" como criado haciendonos vuestra |
Magestad merced como nuestro Rey y Senor.
Lo que yo Sebastian Vizcaino pido d vuestra real Magestad ansi*
para ayuda de costa como mercedes para que la Jornada se consigai
con el bien que se pretende.
Primeramente se me ha de dar de la real caxa para ayuda dej
costa para bastimentos y navios socorro de gente y otras cosasi
necesarias para el dicho avio treinta y cinco mill pesos en monedaj
y estos no han de entrar en mi poder sino en la persona que su)
Magestad nombre 6 el Virrey en su nombre para que dellos comprei
las cosas necesarias para la dicha Jornada.
Yten he de ser despachado de parte de vuestra Magestad en ell
puerto de Acapulco los navios de carena carpenteria, xarcia, velasi
y las demas cosas necesarias hasta poner los dichos navios d la)
vela.
Yten se me ha de dar en el dicho puerto de los reales almacenes
cincuenta quintales de xarcia menuda para llevar de respeto.
Yten se me ha de dar ochenta arrobas de polvora.
Yten cincuenta quintales de brea.
Yten treinta quintales de estopa.
Yten treinta quintales de clavazon de toda suerte.
Veinte y cinco quintales de plomo.
Veinte quintales de cuerda para alcabuces.
I
Veinte piezas de lona.
Quarenta pipas vacias hechas en quarto para la aguada.
Quatro mill estoperoles y veinte mill tachuelas de bomba.
Yten se me han de dar seis calabrotes para marras de los dichos
navios.
Todo lo qual se me ha de dar con las condiciones sigiuentes.
Primeramente que en mi poder no ha de entrar ninguna cosa de
lo aqui contenido sino en poder del tenedor de bastimentos que
fuere nombrado por el Virrey para que del dinero compre lo necesario conforme d las memorias que se le dieran y de lo demas lo
tenga en su poder para lo que fuere necesario en el descurso de la
Jornada.
■ Documents from the Sutro Collection.
4i
Yten es declaracion que todo lo que montare ansi del dinero
como de la carena y despacho de los navios como de lo que valiere
las demas cosas que pido han de ser apreciadas en el puerto de
Acapulco de que hare" escritura de volvello d su Magestad de lo
primero que Dios me diere en el descurso de la dicha Jornada con
declaracion que si por algun caso fortuyto no se consiguiese lo que
se pretende d de correr el riesgo la parte de su Magestad de lo que
ansi me diere con que buelto que sea al puerto de Acapulco 6 otro
de la costa de la Nueva Espana lo que oviere quedado en especie se
entregard d la parte de su Magestad sin que el dicho Sebastian
Vizcaino quede obligado a pagar en caso fortuyto cosa alguna.
Demas desto d de concederme vuestra Magestad y hacer merced
d los que ovieren de yr d la dicha Jornada las cosas siguientes.
Primeramente para animar d la dicha gente se las a de conceder
que puestos en la real corona puertos de mar cabeceras y ciudades
los demas pueblos se les ha de encomendar a la dicha gente por la
h6rden que los demas pueblos de las yndias estan encomendados
y esto  por cinco vidas de que se a de enviar cedula particular.
Yten se a de conceder d la dicha gente para que mas se animen
y vayan d servir a vuestra magestad y gasten su hacienda y aven-
turen su persona, para honrrallos d ellos y a sus descendientes
haciendolos caballeros hijosdalgo, y que esta merced gozen ansi en
las tierras que poblaren como en las demas provincias delas yndias,
reynos de Castilla y con un treslado de la cedula que para esto se a
de dar y certificacion de que fue d la dicha Jornada y estuvo en
ella dos anos y poblo y el santo evangelio en las provincias fue
rescibido y que el tai ayudo a ello se le de ejecutoria dello la qual
le sea guardada en todos los dichos reynos con las mercedes fran-
quezas y libertades que gozan los demas caballeros hijosdalgo con-
forme d los fueros de Castilla de Leon.
Yten se ha de dar cedula para que por treinta anos no paguen
alcabala y almoxarifasgo de lo que llevaren ni enviaren de la dicha
Jornada para el sustento y honrramiento de sus personas y siendo
por via de granjeria lo paguen como se acostumbra en la Nueva
Espana.
Ase de dar cedula para que ninguna justicia deste reyno se
pueda entremeter ni conocer de causa dependiente de la dicha Jornada ni con la gente della si no fuere el Virrey della como capitan
general d quien siempre se an destar sujetos.
Ase de dar cedula para que por los precios que los bastimentos se
venden entre los naturales desta nueva espana se tomen para esta
Jornada pagandoselo ansi para lo que de presente fuere menester
fit
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Historical Society of Southern California.
como para lo que se enviare a pedir de socorros y para llevallos d
los puertos se puedan tomar requas pagandolas sus fletes como se
acostumbra pagar en los que se llevan de Acapulco para el des-
pacho de los navios de china.
Y consediendose las mercedes y ayuda de costa que pido me
ofresco llevar a la dicha Jornada para avio della lo siguiente.
Primeramente llevare cinco navios con el artilleria suficiente que
fuere menester.
Yten llevare ciento y cinquenta hombres de mar y guerra y entre
ellos algunos buzos oficiales de carpinteria y otros oficios.
Yten llevare armas suficientes para estos ciento y cinquenta hombres y con las municiones que fueren menester.
Yten llevare bastimento suficiente para un aiio para estos ciento
y cinquenta hombres y antes mas de biscochos, mahiz, harina,
tocino, aceyte, vinagre, haba, garvanzo, cecina y otras legumbres
que se llevan a semejantes jornadas.
Yten llevare rastros para la pesqueria de perlas chinchoros para
el pescado, mineros para descubrir minas y aderezo para fundir
metales.
Yten llevare hornamentos para los religiosos para celebrar el
culto divino.
Yten llevare quatro pipas de vino para la misa y frayles enfermos.
Yten llevare para dar a los yndios naturales dos mill pesos em-
pleados para dalles de vestidos y otras menudencias que ellos
apetecen para traellos de paz que resciban el santo evangelio.
Yten llevare la gente d mi costa a los puertos donde ovieren de
embarcarse, sin que d los naturales desta nueva espana se les haga
vejacion sino que se les pague lo que dieren como corre entre ellos.
Demas desto pagare d vuestra Magestad el quinto de todo el oro,
plata, perlas, piedras preciosas y otros metales de valor que se
hallaren en el dicho descubrimiento y esto siempre.
Yten pagare el diezmo del pescado que se pescare aderezado y
enbarillado como se enviare lo demas y a mi costa se entregard en
el puerto de Acapulco a los oficiales de vuestra real hacienda.
Yten pagare la veintena parte de toda la sal que de la dicha
Jornada se sacare y enviare a los puertos de la nueva espana y esto
lo despachare a mi costa sin que de parte de vuestra Magestad se
gaste ninguna cosa.
Ansi mismo me obligare de descubrir toda la ensenada y boca de
las Californias y de toda ella tomare posesion por vuestra Magestad
poniendo puertos de mar, cabeceras y ciudades en la real corona
todo lo mas quietamente 6 sin hacer agravio d los naturales della
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sino con buenos modos y dadivas para atraellos al servicio de Dios
y de vuestra Magestad.
Yten que poblare en la parte mas conveniente que hallare en la
dicha tierra y hare f uertes y descubrire" cien leguas la tierra adentro
y en todo hare" lo que pudiere y lo que devo d leal vasallo de
vuestra Magestad.    Sebastian Vizcaino.
TRANSLATION.
Narration that Sebastian Vizcaino, under whose command the
expedition to the Californias was sent out, gives for the information
of the King our Lord—giving account of what he saw during the
said expedition from the port of Acapulco to a place in twenty-
nine degrees of latitude, within the gulf of Californias, to the
northwestward, from which place he returned, not being able to go
on farther because the weather was unfavorable and the rudder-
irons had been broken in a storm. What he saw by land and sea
and learned during the expedition is as follows :
First: he says that from the port of Acapulco, whence he sailed,
to that of Calagua it is a distance of one hundred leagues, not
losing sight of the land.
From the port of Calagua to Cape Corrientes it is a distance of
sixty leagues, still along the coast line.
From Cape Corrientes to the islands of San Juan de Mazatlan it
is a distance of seventy leagues, the. course being north and within
the gulf of Californias.
From these islands to the port of Culiacan it is a distance of
forty leagues, the course being north.
From this port to Balde Hermoso, a place in Sinaloa, it is fifty
leagues.
From this place I stood across the gulf of Californias ; the distance may be eighty leagues.1
I made a landfall on the other coast in latitude twenty-four, in a
very large bay, which to seaward is shut in by two very large
islands, a bay which is of capacity sufficient for a great number of
ships, the harbor being free from obstructions.
1. The distances given here by Vizcaino are very much out of the way. The same thing
may'toe said of all the distances given by him in this report. When we consider theitoper-
fection of the instruments used by navigators of those days it is a matter of wonder that
disasters at sea were not more frequent.
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At this place there came to ine a great number of Indians, who
received me peacefully, and who remained at that place while I
was there. What happened there is this: The clergy being
desirous of celebrating the mass, and an altar having been erected
on shore, I caused the image of Our Lady to be taken out of the
ship for the purpose of placing it on the altar, and it was carried in
procession from the beach to the place where the altar was. At
this time there appeared an Indian chief, accompanied by more
than eight hundred Indians armed with bows and arrows. I went
forth to meet them and they came to me in peace. Going to where
the image of Our Lady was, I fell upon my knees, kissing its feet,
as did the friar who held its hands. Seeing this, the said Indian
threw aside the bow and arrow he was grasping and humbled himself before that image, kissing its feet; looking toward
the sky and the sun, he asked by gestures whether that image had
come thence. Making himself understood by signs, he shouted to
the other Indians, his companions, who drew near in order to do
as this Indian had done—whereat all of us Spaniards who were
there were content, as it was fitting we should be. And, while carrying the image in procession to place it on the altar, the Indian
chief went always before it, dancing after the manner of his people.
At this place I took possession of the land, in the presence of
these Indians, quietly and peacefully, the Indians by signs giving
it to be understood that this seemed good to them. I named the
province Nueva Andalucia; the port, San Felipe ; the two islands,
one San Francisco and the other San Sebastian.2
At this place I remained five days, but could not stay longer
because the land was very uninviting and there was no drinkable
water.
From this place I went on to another, some fifteen leagues
farther on to the northwest, where there is a great bay with many
shoals. On my entering there the wind died away; and, as the
currents are many and the ship of more than six hundred tons
burthen, I was carried upon a shoal where the ship remained
aground for four days—in consequence of which it was necessary
to lighten her and to cut away the masts and to carry the provisions
ashore on planks and the like, so that a great part of them was
wetted and lost.    After the four days had passed, when the moon
2. It is impossible for me to give with certainty the modern names of this port and
the two islands, for lack of reliable maps of Lower California. Yet, if the given latitude be
anywhere near correct, San Felipe was to the southward and eastward of the bay which
Vizcaino called La Paz, the islands being Ceralbo and Espiritu Santo. The bay of Ta Paz
still retains its name. But the points at which Vizcaino touched cannot be. located very
accurately.
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was full, the same current carried me away from the shoal and I
entered the bay, which I named La Paz, for there a great many
Indians came forth to receive me, giving to us what provisions they
had, such as fish, many fruits of the earth, rabbits, hares and deer.
At this place I halted, fortifying myself in a fort which I constructed of a stockade and fascines, as I could go no farther
with the flagship, which was dismantled, for in that country the
winter begins in the month of October, the season when I was at
that place.
But, being desirous of exploring all the gulf, I determined to
enter it for the purpose of discovery with the small ship and the
lancha, leaving at this place the flagship and the people who were
married and most burdensome, taking with me eighty men. This
I did, leaving Captain Rodrigo de Figueroa as my lieutenant at
this place. I left this port, which is in a little less than twenty-
five degrees of latitude, on the 3d of October. While I was navigating said gulf I encountered a storm from the north, which
lasted four days, at the end of which time we were struck by a
hurricane from the south, during the continuance of which we
came near foundering. This storm lasted two days, and, on its
cessation, I found myself at a point in latitude twenty-seven, and
in the midst of six islands and many shoals, from which it pleased
God in his mercy to deliver me ; and, the day breaking, there
came from the land five canoes full of Indians making signs that
we should go ashore and promising things to eat and water, of
which there was lack. So I came to a place which the Indians
showed to me and went ashore with forty-five men. There a great
number of Indians met me, giving me fish and fruit and manifesting great content in seeing us. At this place one of my soldiers,
unseen by me, inconsiderately struck one of the Indians in the
breast with the butt of his arquebus, at which the Indians were
angered and discharged some arrows at us, though not very many.
Seeing the boldness of the Indians, I ordered four arquebuses to be
discharged in the air, in order to frighten without injuring them.
At the noise of the discharge they all fell to the ground ; but, the
smoke having cleared away, they rose up, and, seeing that no
harm had been done to them, with greater earnestness they fell to
shooting arrows again. On this I ordered my people to fire low,
and at the first discharge there fell I do not know how many of
them, upon which the rest of them began to run away, up the
slopes of the mountain. Seeing that nothing could be accomplished
here, I set about embarking, in order to pursue my journey; but, the
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long-boat which I had being small, all could not embark at once.
So I left the major with half of the people on shore, sending the
long-boat back for them at once. Among these soldiers presently
there arose differences, concerning who had carried himself the
better in the fray, so that they did not embark, when ordered to do
so, without some delay; but, seeing that the punishment of the
disobedient was determined upon, they embarked. While the
boat was making for the ship, and already at some distance from
the shore, there came upon the scene a great number of Indians
shooting arrows and aiming high. One of these hit one of the oarsmen on the nose, who ceased rowing when he felt himself wounded;
the man on the other side continuing his work, the long-boat took
a sheer and in consequence the soldiers on board were thrown into
disorder. They commenced to attempt to regain their positions ;
and, while this was being accomplished, the long-boat took a list
to one side, and owing to the weight, upset on top of them ; and,
as they were fully armed, their defensive arms being of leather and
boards, they went under, out of twenty-five six escaping by swimming and being rescued.
In view of the misfortune that befell us at this place, and as we
were without a long-boat or any means of going ashore or of obtaining water, and as the lancha had not appeared since the storm, all
being in accord, I turned backward for the port of La Paz, where I
had left the other comrades. Having reached the said port, and
what had occurred being learned by these others, because of the
severe storms we had experienced and the loss of our comrades,
many of them lost heart, especially the mariners, who, having a
knowledge of the winter and the inclement weather, were afraid to
continue the navigation. So they requested me to take them back
to New Spain, since it was impossible to go on ; while to winter in
that place was equally impossible because of the lack of food in the
land and of the great mountainous wilds which it was impossible to
penetrate, and as the stock of provisions we had brought was very
greatly reduced by the disaster to the ship San Francisco as well as
by the amount consumed, so that there remained not enough for
wintering there. So, that we might not perish, I gave permission
that they might return to New Spain with the ship San Francisco
and the lancha, while I would remain in the ship San foseph,9 with
forty men, between sailors and soldiers, of those best disposed to
push on into the said gulf with intent to discover the whole of it.
3. In the copy of the document I transcribe, the name of this« hip is not written with
clearness, but the copyist undoubtedly meant to write"£<tra Joseph"—a. not uncommon variation of "San 7o$e".
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We left this place on the twenty-eighth of October of the year
ninety-seven—I for the discovery of said gulf and the others for New
Spain.
Following my route, I encountered many storms and contrary
winds from the north and northwest, these being the most contrary
as the gulf stretches from north to south and my course was northward. So contrary were they that, during the sixty-six days I
remained in the gulf after the rest of the people had left, I could
not ascend it farther than latitude twenty-nine, and this only by
dint of driving the ship in such a manner that the rudder-irons
broke. This taking place, and the winter having set in, and as we
were unable to make farther progress in the ship, in accordance
with the request of all hands I sailed for the port of the isles of
Mazatlan, steering by means of the sheets of the sails, God in pity
conducting us.
From what I have come to know during the expedition, for the
discharge of my conscience and in pursuance of my duty as a
christian and a loyal vassal, I report as follows :
First: It seems advisable to me that the work be continued and
that this exploration be undertaken anew, for many reasons. Of
these the principal is the great service which will be rendered unto
God our Lord by the conversion of so many souls as there are in
that land, of those who so willingly gave proofs of a desire to
receive the holy gospel; and I trust in God that will be effected
very easily.
I note also that the land is of twice the extent of this New Spain,
and is preferable for its altitude and situation ; because, commencing at Cape San Lucas, which is in latitude twenty-one, and going
towards the northwest, there are more than a thousand leagues of
mainland ; and this I have seen.4
So also I note that as to pearls they are abundant and of excellent quality ; for at the places I visited all were eaters of the oyster.
And, when the ship San Francisco was aground, a sailor entering
the water brought up some oysters and in one of them were found
i(tresegos de alsofar" [_sic]s and the Indians by signs told me that,
letting the winter pass so that the sea should be smooth, they
would enter the water and bring out a great quantity.    As a token
4. This is a very wild statement on the part of Vizcaino. His distances are given very
inaccurately, and, hy his own showing, he explored but eight degrees of latitude along a
coast trending to the northward of northwest.
5. In this place there is no reason to suppose that the original document has not been
correctly copied, but "tresegos de alsofar" is untranslatable. Alsofar is a Spanish word,now
o*et of use, meaning the same thing as laton—which is brass. There is no such word as
tresegos, nor any guessable combination of miswritten words which might go to make such
a word.
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that this is the truth I send two of the pearls the Indians gave to
me, that Your Majesty may see them.
I note, further, that in the sea there is a greater quantity of fish
of all kinds than there is any other discovered sea.
I note, also, that in those waters there is a great number of salt
deposits, so abundantly supplied by nature that a thousand fleets
can be laden. Of this it is not possible to have any doubt, for I
have seen them.
I note, further, that, from the statement I had from the Indians,
made by signs, in the interior of the land, at a distance of twenty
days' journey towards the northwest, there are towns of people
wearing clothes and who have golden ornaments in the ears and
nose, and they have silver, many cloaks of cotton, maize and provisions, and fowls of the country and of Castile ;6 and, taking some
oats in their hands, they threw them into the air—thus giving it
to be understood that even as the oats were in quantity so were the
people of those parts. This the Indians told me, not only at one
place but in many. And, although it was my wish to go on farther,
for the reasons set forth I could not do so.7
And should it please Your Majesty that the expedition be undertaken, now that the season for navigation be understood and what
it is necessary to take known, it will be done in a proper manner,
and God our Lord will be served as well as Your Majesty, and
your royal dominion increased. And, in view of the fact that
after the late expedition I have remained deprived of means to
undertake it at my own cost just now, I will risk my person and
the little that remains to me in your royal service, as a good and
well-intentioned vassal should do for his lord, I being aided to do
so and receiving boons for myself and for those who may return
with me to take part in the expedition. I ask for this on the showing^ this report and will ask for it as a servant, Your Majesty
showing us favor as our king and lord. I
That which I, Sebastian Vizcaino, ask of Your Royal Majesty,
as well in the way of aid for the cost thereof as in the matter of
boons, so that the expedition result in the achievement of the end
sought, is this :
First: There shall be given to me from the royal treasury, in aid
6. Fowls of the country were turkies; fowls of Castile, chickens. The Californian
Indians had neither turkies nor chickens.
7. Subsequent discoveries show that Vizcaino did not fully understand the sign-language in use among the Indians of the peninsula, or—and this was probably the case—he,
like most of the explorers of his time,' allowed the information he obtained to be fashioned
in the reporting by his wishes as to the effect to be produced on the King's mind. It was
Vizcaino's laudable ambition to prevail on the monarch to consent to bis making another
exploration.
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of the cost of provisions and ships, pay of the people, and other
things necessary in fitting out, the sum of thirty-five thousand
dollars in money. This is not to be placed in my hands, but in
those of some person named by Your Majesty, or by the Viceroy in
your name, that he may purchase the things necessary for the
expedition.
Item: I am to be given, at the said port, from the royal stores,
fifty quintals of apparel and the like, of the lesser sort, for repairs.
Item: I am to be given eighty arrobas of powder.
Item: Fifty quintals of pitch. B|
Item: Thirty quintals of tow.
Item: Thirty quintals of spikes and nails of all sorts.
Twenty-five quintals of lead.
Twenty quintals of slow-match for arquebuses.
Twenty bolts of canvas.
Forty empty pipes, in one-quarter size, for water.
Four thousand round-headed spikes and twenty thousand of a
smaller size.
Item: I am to be given six spare cables for said ships.
All of this is to be given to me subject to the  following conditions.
First: None of the above mentioned articles are to be given into
my possession, but are to be given in charge to the store-keeper
who may be appointed by the Viceroy, in order that he may buy
with the money what is necessary, in conformity with requisitions-
made upon him, and that he keep all other things in his possession,
to be served out during the expedition, as they may be needed.
Item: It is declared that the total to which all shall amount, the
money and the outfitting and dispatch of the ships, as well as the
value of the other things I ask for, is to be appraised at the port of
Acapulco, and I will give an undertaking in writing to return the
value of the" same to His Majesty from the first gain which God
may give to me during the expedition, subject to a stipulation
that, if by any mischance the end sought be not gained, the loss
-shall be His Majesty's, and that on the return to Acapulco, or any
other port of New Spain, what may remain of that which may be
given to me shallbe returned to His Majesty—so that, in case of
mischance, the said Sebastian Vizcaino shall not be obliged to pay
for anything;
Besides this, Your Majesty is to grant to me and to  those who
shall go on the said expedition the following boons:
First: In  order to encourage said persons, it shall   be   con-
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ceded to them that, the sea-ports, capitals of departments and cities
being brought into subjection to the royal crown, the other districts
are to be given to said persons in encomienda, in the same way
that other districts in the Indies are given, and this for five lives ;
and concerning this a special cedula shall be sent.8
Item: It is to be granted to said persons, in order to encourage
them more to go to serve Your Majesty, spending of their means
and risking their persons, as an honor to themselves and their
descendants, that they be made gentlemen, and that this privilege
they shall enjoy both in the lands in which they may settle and in
other provinces of the Indies and in Spain—this boon to be accompanied by a copy of the decree given for this purpose and a certificate that the person so favored took part in the said expedition and
remained in such service for two years and settled in the land, and
that the holy gospel was received in such provinces and that this
said person aided to bring this about. Such person shall be given
the customary patent of nobility and the same shall have effect in
all of said countries, and he shall enjoy the favors, exemptions and
liberties that other gentlemen enjoy according to the laws of privilege of Castile and Leon.9
Item: A decree shall be given to the effect that for thirty years
there are to be paid no excise duties nor customs duties on what
shall be taken on the expedition or sent for afterwards by such
persons for their sustenance and the honoring of their persons; but,
if such things be for purposes of gain, then duties shall be paid as
is customary in New Spain.10
Also; a decree shall be given to the effect that no judicial officer
of this realm shall intervene in or take cognizance of a cause
arising out of matters connected with said expedition, or in which
8. A cedula was a decree signed by the king, with the formal " Yo el rey M (I the King)
used in such cases by Spanish monarchs. All of the decrees referred to in this doeunient
were e&dulas^—the word decree being used in translation. ' The system of ena>miendas, which
was introduced into Hispaniola as far back as the time when Columbus himself governed
that island, was a transplanting of the feudal system to America. The Indians simply became vassals of Spanish lords. As a rule, encomiendas were given for three lives only ; and
in this case the document has been annotated in the margin, undoubtedly in the India
Council, in accordance with the rules—"est& concedida esta mercedpor tres vidas"—this boon
is granted for three lives.
9. 3*his patent gave the person so favored the right to entitle himself "Don". In some
cases the right to heraldic arms accompanied the privilege. At a period later than Vizcai-
iio's day the title came to mean nothing; to-day the word signifies as little as our esquire
written after a man's name. In Spanish-America the custom died hard; and, here in California, for instance; many persons who bad no sort of claim to the tide, made a point of
insisting on being called Don. The word fuero has been rendered by law of privilege.
There were all sorts of privileges, possessed by cities and provinces, as well as oy ind:h#
duals, classes and callings—from the necessity for the king's obtaining permission to raise
recruits for the army (as was the case in the Biscayan provinces) to the right of a grande to
wear1 his hat in the royal presence, the privilege of a soldier to be tried by soldiers, a clergyman by an ecclesiastical court,and so forth. This demand was also annotated in the India
Council—"esta concedida esta merced en todas fas yndias"—this privilege is granted throughout all Indies.
10. Also annotated in the India Council—"esta concedida por el asiento"—it is conceeded
in the agreement
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a person taking part therein is interested, except it be the Viceroy,.
to whom, as captain-general, they are always subject.
Also; a decree shall be given to the effect that provisions for this
expedition shall be taken at the prices at which they are sold
among the natives of this New Spain, 3s well what is at present
requisite as what may be sent for afterwards ; and that, for transportation to the ports, the same rates shall be paid as are paid for
carrying goods to Acapulco for the dispatch of ships for the East
Indies.
And these privileges and aid in the matter of cost being given
and granted, I offer to take on said expedition the following:
First: I will take five ships, with such artillery of the proper
calibre as may be necessary.
Item: I will take one hundred and fifty men—soldiers and
sailors—and among them divers, carpenters and other mechanics.
Item: I will take sufficient arms for these one hundred and fifty
men, and the ammunition which may be necessary.
Item: I will take provisions sufficient for one year for these one
hundred and fifty men—and, in the way of biscuit, maize, flour,
bacon, oil, vinegar, beans, peas, dried meat, and other like thinge,
a greater quantity than it is customary to take on such expeditions.
Item: I will take rakes for the pearl fishery and fishing-nets,
miners to search for mines and an apparatus for reducing ores.
Item: I will take vestments and the like for the clergy, that they
may conduct divine worship.
Item: I wilt take four pipes of wine for the mass and sick friars.
Item: I will take, to be given to the Indians, two thousand
dollars, to be invested in clothing and the trifles of which they
are fond—for the purpose of attracting them peaceably to receive
the holy gospel.
Item: At my own cost and charges I will take the people to the
ports where they are to embark, without oppressing the natives of
this New Spain but, paying for what these may furnish that which
is customary among them.
Besides this, I will pay to Your Majesty the fifth part of all the
gold, silver, pearls, precious stones and other valuable mineral
substances which may be obtained on said expedition, and this in
perpetuity.11
Item: I will pay the tenth part of the fish that may be taken.,
cleaned and in barrels as the rest shall be sent, and I will deliver
11.   The payment of a fifth part to the crown was always obligatory, and Vizcaino need
not have promised ; that he knew this his concluding words indicate.
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them, at my cost, at the port of Acapuleo, to the officers of your
royal treasury.
Item: I will pay the twentieth part of all the salt obtained during said expedition, and I will send it to the ports of New Spain ;
this I will do at my own cost without putting Your Majesty to any
expense.
So, also, I will undertake to make the discovery of the whole
bight and gulf of Californias; and of all I will take possession for
Your Majesty, turning over to the royal crown sea-ports, heads of
departments and cities—all this in the most quiet way and without
working any wrong to the natives, but by kind means and gifts
attracting them to the service of God and Your Majesty.
Item: I will make settlements in the most proper places I may
find in said land; I will build forts, and I will explore to a distance
of one hundred leagues toward the interior; and in all I will do
the best I can, and what I should do as a loyal vassal of Your
Majesty.12
Sebastian Vizcaino.
...
Document No. n.
r^ APITULO de una carta d S. M. del Virey de Nueva Espana el
^-^ Conde de Monte-Rey, fecha~en Megico d 28 de Julio de 1597,
dando cuenta de la razon porque no se us6 de la cedula para quitar
los titulos y despachos que se dieron d Sebastian Vizcaino sobre el
descubrimiento de las Californias.
Entre estos despachos que tuve con los galeones rescibi cedula de
vuestra magestad en que fu£ servido mandarine que impida la Jornada de las Californias y quite los titulos y despachos que tenia
12. This letter must have been written early in 1597, shortly after Vizcaino's return from
his voyage. It is a very important and interesting document. As the report of the commander of the expedition it must be taken as the most accurate and best account of the
occurrences of the voyage. The document is of value because we are enabled to judge of
the character and aims of explorers of that day; we learn something of their treatment of
the Indians; and we can form an excellent idea of the outfit the explorers of the sixteenth
century took with them, in all essential details, as well as of the rewards they claimed and
received. The account of this voyage given in the Baneroftian series of historical works
will be found chiefly at pp. 148-50 of vol. X of the History of the Pacific States. It will be
interesting for the curious to compare this account with the official report of the commander of the expedition, now before use The Baricroftian author cites authorities only at
second and third-hand. He even gives our Californian Taylor—whom elsewhere, in a
bibliographical note, he berates roundly—as authority for Vizcaino's return to Acapulco in
October! He does not mention the names of the ships, and knows nothing about Vizcaino's proposition to the King.. Errors which occur in the Baneroftian account are corrected
in this report. -.. , •  ..-,■ .   . w^. Documents from the Sutro Collection.
53
para ella d Sebastian Vizcayno d quien esto estaba cometido por el
Virrey Don luis de Velazco, dias d que volvi6 de la Jornada el
dicho Sebastian Vizcayno como dello y del subceso que tuvo e dado
aviso d vuestra magestad y asi por haverse retardado tanto esta
horden paresce que no es a razon hazer con Vizcayno la demos-
tracion que se va quitarle los despachos mayormente haviendo el
gastado hazienda en la Jornada y ydo ya y buelto de ella y proce-
dido con mas cordura y ser que se podia esperar del aunque con
subceso siniestro y desacreditado, vuestra magestad serd servido
mandarme lo que en esto e de hazer.
TRANSLATION.
. Paragraph of a letter to His Majesty from the Viceroy of New
Spain, the Conde de Monterey, dated at Mexico, 28th July, 1597,
giving an account of the reason why no use was made of the decree
taking from Sebastian Vizcaino the commission and orders given
to him for the voyage of discovery to the Californias.
Among these dispatches which came to me in the galleons, I
received a decree of Your Majesty, in which you were pleased to
order me to suspend proceedings in connection with the expedition
to the Californias, and to take away the commission and orders
concerning the same from Sebastian Vizcaino, to whom they had
been given by the Viceroy, Don Luis de Velasco. It is some time
since the said Sebastian Vizcaino returned from the expedition, of
which fact, as well as of what he accomplished, I advised Your
Majesty. And, therefore, inasmuch as this order has been so
delayed, it does not seem reasonable to make an attempt to take
away his commission from Vizcaino; the more so since he has been
at expense in the expedition and has gone and returned already ;
and as he has acted with all the skill and judgment to be looked
for, although with poor success and loss of reputation. May Your
Majesty be pleased to give me orders regarding what I am to do in
the matter.
\   1
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mSttmHlilfg^ /~^ APITULOS de carta d S. M. del Virey de Nueva Espana de
^* 26 de Noviembre de 1597 en que hace relacion del discurso y
estado tocante al descubrimiento de las Californias y de algunas
particularidades que de nuevo se han entendido.
Porque vuestra magestad me manda en las cartas que rescebi
este ano, que de relacion del subceso que tuvo el viaje de las Californias y porque pueda venir en la flota horden de lo que cerca de
este negocio se deva hazer de nuevo serd necesario decir en particular el estado que tiene y las dubdas que se ofrecen en este negocio.
Kn el segundo aviso que parti6 por marzo y en el despacho general
di quenta a vuestra magestad del subceso que tuvo la Jornada y
sefialadamente de la esperiencia que ha via dado Sebastian Vizcaino
de que junto de ser platico en esta mar del sur y hombre sosegado
y de muy sano pecho y yntencion, tenia algun mediano y vastante
caudal en lo que yo no esperava del ningnno ques en la capacidad
para regir su gente y brio para hazerse respetar della, cossa que
rraras veces se halla faltando autoridad en el sugeto. Dixe por esto
d vuestra magestad en el capitulo de la carta que escrivi este ano
sobre materias de guerra, que por este concepto que forme por la
esperiencia de lo pasado contra el que antes havia hecho por dis-
cursso y por ser acabada la ocasion con su buelta no usava de la
cedula en que vuestra magestad vistas mis cartas me envi6 d man-
dar que quitase los despachos d este hombre ; despues con motive
que di6 para ello el haver otros que hablasen en hacer asiento
escluyendo yo del todo d Vizcayno, comunique el acuerdo de esta
real audiencia el estado del negocio y presente el fiscal que tambien
vi6 en su casa los papeles, y haviendolo conferido todo parescid
que aunque este descubrimiento no se temiera de ynutil como he
escripto d vuestra magestad otras veces, yo no podria ejecutarle por
medio de Vizcayno ni de otra persona sin horden de vuestra magestad y aprovacion que fuese servido hazer del asiento como tampoco
dicen propuso el Virrey Don Luis de Velazco dar patentes y rreca-
dos a Vizcaino para la ejecucion de lo pasado sin enviar primero d
vuestra magestad el asiento y tomar orden suya porque ansi estd
dispuesto en un capitulo de las hordenanzas de. nuevos descubri-
mientos ques en el principio.    Paresci6 ansi mismo que aun capit- Documents from the Sutro Collection.
55
ular ni hacer asiento para enviarle al consejo no se podria aora porque con Vizcaino no era razon aviendo cedula de vuestra magestad
para quitarle los despachos pasados sin haver ynformado d vuestra
i magestad de lo que de nuevo se a entendido quanto a la mediana
capacidad del subjeto y con otro no se podia contratar en derog-
acion del asiento primero de Vizcaino por la pretension quel tiene
de que no es acabado el tiempo y fuerga  del y porque luego lo
havia de poner en justicia en la audiencia donde avia de ser oydo
sin embargo de la cedula de vuestra magestad en qne se le mandan
quitar los despachos respecto de no estar ya el negocio en el prin-
cipio como alia se figuraba sino metidas muchas prendas del gasto
I grande que Vizcaino y sus  companeros hicieron en  la Jornada
pasada, de mas de que fundandose la cedula en mi relacion de la
yncapacidad y dignidad del subjeto para el govierno y para hazerse
respetar en el, pudiera alegar y ofrecerse d provar las esperiencias
que a hecho en contrario para que el cumplimiento de la cedula se
suspendiese hasta que vuestra magestad fuese nuevamente ynfor-
j mado, visto todo esto he tenido por lo mas  acertado consultar a
vuestra magestad este negocio en  el estado  que tiene.    La vez
pasada solo di relacion a vuestra magestad de como avia hallado
encaminada por el virrey la ejecucion de aquella Jornada y que
por desconfianca que yo tenia del subjeto avia comunicado con la
audiencia y con algun theologo de los de mas opinion de aqui la
dubda en que estava de impedirle al Vizcaino su viaje y que  a
todos parescio contra justicia y conciencia y que por esto lo dexe
proseguir y quedava con mucho cuidado del subceso,  y lo que
ahora se consulta d vuestra magestad es que el subceso ynfeliz del
viaje no rresulta por las rrelaciones aber nascido de yncapacidad
de Vizcaino que antes mostro mediano talento y brio mas que de
un mercader tan hordinario se podia esperar en seme j ante Jornada,
sino ignorancia de aquellos mares y haver dispuesto su Jornada
desalumbradamente en quanto al porte de los navios, multitud de
la gente y cortedad de provision en algunos vastimentos y que
Vizcaino pretende bolver conforme a su asiento de que envio copia
con esta carta y con el ahinco y deseo que tiene de proseguir
encarece mucho la largueza y ymportancia de aquella tierra contra
lo que al principio escribieron y comunmente se entiende y signi-
fica grande prosperidad en la pesqueria de perlas, y en esto parece
que concuerdan otras relaciones.
Esto presupuesto serd vuestra magestad servido de mandar si
este descubrimiento sea de proseguir, 6 no, que para mas luz cjii
ello y de su pretencion pedi d Sebastian Vizcaino el papel que aojtt
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va, y a Don Gabriel Maldonado, hijo de Melchior Maldonado vein-
tiquatro de Se villa otra que tambien envio de su pretension. M|
parecer es de que por aora no se intentase entrada en aquella tierra
para a ver de pacificarlo y poblarla y que solamente para tomar
buen tino y con fundamento de lo que ella es y entera seguridad de*
la sustancia de la pesqueria de perlas y para mayor luz de lo que
toca d la defensa y seguridad de estos reynos y naos que andan ett
la carrera de la china se rreconociese bien la pesqueria y los puertos
y costas de aquella ensenada y en algunas partes la tierra de lad
mismas Californias y que esto fuese con poca gente en embarca^
ciones pequenas y para hacerlo tengo por bastante medio el de
Vizcaino porque aviendolo reconocido ya en mucha parte y esperi-
mentado lo que ubo de yerro la vez pasada lo podria enmendar
mas facilmente; pero no tiene fuerzas para hacer el viaje sin costal
de vuestra magestad y haviendo de ser con ella parece que seria
mejor compralle d el los aparejos que tiene aunque el gasto creciese
y nombrar vuestra magestad para ello d el y d otra persona que sin
quedar prendada vuestra magestad por contrato lo hiciese si d esto
da lugar el derecho que este hombre pretende que le resulta del
asiento pasado por tiempo de algunos anos. Aunque dando lugar
a esto mas aprovechado medio seria cometerse a Don Gabriel
Maldonado dando seguridad pues sin gasto de vuestra magestad se
ofrece a hacerlo y podria llevar consigo algunos soldados 6 marin-
eros de los que llev6 Vizcaino; este pide que sucediendo vien lo
que ahora se hiciese fuese preferida su persona para el asiento de
la pasificacion y entrada de la tierra tiene calidad y buena opinion,
de cuerdo y honrado trato y quando vuestra magestad fuese servido
desto podria en caso de no tener fuerzas y caudal bastante de
hacienda Don Gabriel, ni poder cumplir lo que ofrece, venir desde
luego proveido otro medio que tomase y en qualquiera que no aya
de ser en continuacion del asiento primero de Vizcaino seria necesario para que tuviese execucion el intento enviar cedula para que
la Audiencia a su pedimento y contradicion no ympidiese la Jornada aunque fuese oydo en via hordinaria.
(Al margen de este capitulo se encuentra el siguiente acuerdo
del consejo.)
Que se le rresponda que por lo que aqui dize y lo que se inclina
al cumplimiento del asiento de Sebastian Vizcaino y por la aproba-
cion que hace de su capacidad y persona, parece que conviene que
el continue la Jornada que ha comenzado en ejecucion de su asiento
y que es lo convenido y que sea con la brevedad posible y que le
ayude para ello con lo que pide en el segundo memorial que dio, 6
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57
con lo menos de aquello que pudiere concertar y encamiriar y que
enbie con el religiosos de mucha aprovacion y los mas que pudiese
y algunas personas cuerdas y de satisfaccion que le ayuden y que
le advierta por ser ejemplo de la prudencia, consideracion y buen
termino con que deve proceder, y le reprehenda las imprudencias
que en el viaje pasado tuvo y particularmente el haber muerto dios
yndios que en su relacion haze y haber dexado de castigar al sol-
dado que dio con el cuento del arcabuz al yndio y que trate a los
yndios con mucho amor y caricia y regalo para atraerlos de su
voluntad al evangelio y no permita se les haga agravio y del que
hiziere y resultase de la Jornada aviese y del objeto se consulte a su
magestad y que el principal intento que ha de llevar sea la conversion de los yndios. j \
Ame parecido acordar a vuestra magestad con proposito de la
materia que contiene el capitulo antes deste, la perdida del navio
San Agustin que aviese en las primeras cartas despues que vine a
este reyno y que con ella ceso el descubrimiento que venia haciendo
por mandado de vuestra magestad y horden del Virrey don luis, de
toda esta costa sur que tocan las naos que vienen de las Philipinas.
El intento era ymportante por el fin que se llevava en reconocer
algun puerto acomodado que en caso de necesidad les pudiese ser d
las naos de rreparo y abrigo. El modo de hacerse el descubrimiento parecio d todos los hombres platicos que se hubiera acertado
mejor saliendo el navio de aca y siguiendo luego la misma costa:
yo tendria por muy conveniente que vuestra magestad mandase
que se hiciese con efecto en embarcaciones pequefias y sin hacer
caudal de lo que traxeron escripto entonces y yo envie a vuestra
magestad porque no quede con satisfacion de las relaciones que
tube y advierto que si esto huviese de mandarse hazer se podia
incluir en ello reconocer la costa y puertos de la ensenada de la
California, y tambien la pesqueria llevando algunos buzos para
ella y encargandolo todo a una misma persona si en este mar y en
el tiempo que se ha de hazer pareciese que lo puede cumplir y sino
dividiendo este cuidado entre dos navichuelos con cabezas y aparejo
conveniente y sendos barcos de conserva para lo que puede
ofrecerse.
(Al margen se encuentra el siguiente acuerdo.) "Que haga
executar lo del navichuelo que aqui dize se podria enbiar de
acapulco d reconocer la costa sin embarazarse en lo de las Californias sino fuere de passo, y que esta diligencia se haga luego con la
prevencion que conviene."
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TRANSLATION.
Paragraphs of a letter to His Majesty from the Viceroy of New
Spain,1 dated 26th November, 1597, in which he makes a report i
on the discussion concerning the discovery of the Californias, and
its condition, and of some particulars which have recently come toi
light in relation thereto.
Because Your Majesty orders me, in the letters which I have
received during the year, to make a report of the result attending
the voyage to the Californias, and as there may come by the fleet
orders touching that which should be done in this matter, it will
be necessary to particularize concerning the condition of the affair
and the doubts which arise in connection therewith. By the
second packet, which sailed in March, as well as in the general
dispatch, I gave to Your Majesty an account of the result of the
expedition and, especially, of the evidence which Sebastian
Vizcaino had given that, in addition to possessing a practical
knowledge of the South Sea and being a man of even disposition,
upright and of good intentions, he is of medium yet sufficient
ability, although I had feared it was otherwise, for governing his
people, and this coupled with energy enough to make himself
respected by them, a thing rarely accomplished when the faculty
of making authority regarded is lacking. It was on this account I
said to Your Majesty, in that paragraph of the letter I wrote this
year which treats of matters concerning war, that, because of this
opinion which I was led to form from a knowledge of what had
occurred, contrary to that which I had arrived at from previous
reasoning, and because in view of his return the occasion had
passed, I have made no use of the decree by which Your Majesty,
after a consideration of my letters, ordered me to take away his
commission from this man. Afterwards, being influenced by the
fact that others were talking of a desire to make a contract, and
this without my taking Vizcaino into consideration at all, I submitted the matter to this royal audiencia for a resolution, the fiscal?
who had also examined the documents at his office, being present;
and, everything in relation thereto having been discussed, it was
1. The Conde de Monterey.
2. The audiencia was the Viceroy's council and the supreme tribunal of the viceroyal
government.   The fiscal was the king's procurator. Documents from the Sutro Collection
concluded that, although it might not be feared this expedition
would be made uselessly, as I wrote to Your Majesty on other
occasions, I could not have it undertaken by Vizcaino,  or any
other person, without Your Majesty's order and the approval of
the contract you might be pleased to make;  for  it is said that
Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco did not issue the commission  and
give orders to Vizcaino for the performance of what has been done
without first having sent the contract to Your Majesty and receiving your orders—as such is the routine called for by the first part
of the ordinances relating to new discoveries.    It was concluded,
moreover, that even to enter into an agreement and submit the
same to the Council could not now be done, since it was not right
to do this so far as Vizcaino is concerned, there being a decree of
Your Majesty that the authorization given to  him  in the past
should be taken away, without first informing Your  Majesty  of
that which has been learned of late concerning the medium capacity of this person ; while a contract could not be entered into with
any one else in derogation of the previous agreement made with
Vizcaino, by reason of the claim he makes that, in the matter of
time and the binding effect of his contract, it is operative still, and
because immediately he would throw the matter into litigation in
the audiencia, where it would be necessary to give him a hearing
notwithstanding the decree of Your Majesty taking  away his
commission, the matter not being in its inception, as was thought,
but the question of the great expense incurred by Vizcaino and his
companions in the voyage which was made now forming part of
it.    It was considered, in addition, that, the decree being founded
on my report concerning the incapacity of that person and his
lack of   worthiness   for   command and ability to make himself
respected in its exercise, he could allege and offer to prove deeds
of his which show the contrary, so that a compliance with the
decree should be suspended until Your Majesty might be further
informed.    In view of all this, I have thought it better to consult
Your Majesty concerning this matter in its present condition.     In
my last communication I gave Your Majesty an account only of
the manner in which the execution of that enterprise had been
[ commenced by the Viceroy, and of how, because of the lack of con-
| fidence in the individual which I entertained, I had conferred with
! the audiencia, and consulted a theologian of the number of those
j held in greatest repute here, concerning the doubt which suggested
j itself to me in the matter of preventing Vizcaino's voyage, and that
to all it appeared to be contrary to justice and conscience to do
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Historical Society of Southern California.
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so;3 and for this reason I permitted the prosecution of the enterprise,
my mind being filled with misgiving touching the result.    What I
now desire to lay before Your Majesty is that, as appears from the
reports, the unfortunate ending of the voyage was  not  due  to
incapacity on the part of Vizcaino, who, on the contrary, gave
evidence of some ability and greater spirit than could have been
expected from a mere trader engaged in an enterprise of this kind,
but to his lack of acquaintance with those seas and his having
planned the expedition mistakenly as to the burthen of the ships,
the excessive number of his crews and a scantiness in the matter
of certain kinds of stores; that Vizcaino asserts his intention of
going on another voyage in conformity with the provisions of his
undertaking, a copy of which I send with this letter; and that,
owing to the earnestness and desire shown by him for the prosecution of the enterprise, he heightens the extent and  importance of
that region, although it is in opposition to what was written at first
and is commonly understood  and indicates that great prosperity
will grow out of the pearl fishery ; and this,  it  appears,  other
reports confirm.
This, of course, Your Majesty will be pleased to order: Whether
or not this enterprise be continued. In order to throw more light
on this and on the claim of Sebastian Vizcaino, I exacted from him
the accompanying document, and from Don Gabriel Maldonado,
son of Melchior Maldonado, member of the municipal council of
Seville, another concerning his claim, which also I send. My
opinion is that for the present no expedition to that region, with
intent to subject and settle it, should be attempted, but one for the
purpose merely of ascertaining definitely what there is there, in
order that complete assurance be had concerning the value of the
pearl fishery, and that greater light may be thrown on what relates
to the defense and security of these realms and the ships which
make the China voyage. The condition of the fishing-grounds
should be well examined and the harbors and coast of that littoraS
and, in some places, even the interior country of the Californias,
should be thoroughly explored, and this should be done with crews
few in number in vessels of little burthen. For this I think that
this Vizcaino will serve sufficiently well ; for, having explored
already a great part of that region, and possessing a knowledge of
the mistakes of the last voyage, he will the more readily avoid
similar errors. But he has not means to make the voyage without aid in the cost thereof from Your Majesty; and, this aid being
3.   Mere matters of the civil law were submitted to the audiencia; the professorof canon
law gave an opinion in those pertaining to the equity side of the tribunal.
E5?l
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
necessary, it seems to be the better plan to buy from him the outfit
he has, although in so doing the outlay be augmented, and that
Your Majesty appoint him and some other person for the arrangement of the matter in such a way that, while Your Majesty be not
bound by a contract, it might be made, were it feasible, under the
right which this man claims as resulting from the agreement made
with him and still binding for a term of jrears. Although this be
taken under consideration, the better plan would be to entrust the
enterprise to Don Gabriel Maldonado, he giving security; for he
offers to undertake it without expense to Your Majesty, and he
could take with him some of the soldiers and sailors who accompanied Vizcaino. He asks that, if success should attend what
were done now, he may be preferred in the contract for the exploration and pacification of the land. He has a good position in
society and is held in good repute; is of good judgment and honorable conduct. When Your Majesty shall be pleased to give your
orders respecting this matter, in case it were found that Don
Gabriel had not resources and means sufficient and could not
comply with what he offers to do, some other way of which advantage could be taken might then be provided for. Whatever plan
be adopted, except it be for the continuation of the prior agreement
made with Vizcaino, it would be necessary, in order that the
intention be carried out, to send a decree, so that the audiencia, in
case of his demand and opposition thereto, would not prevent the
expedition being made, although the ordinary legal method of
determining the matter were adopted.
(In the margin of this paragraph the following resolution of the
council appears:)
"Let him be answered that, from what he says here, and as he
is inclined to comply with the agreement made with Sebastian
Vizcaino and as he approves his sufficiency and his person, it
appears to be fitting that he go on with the work of the expedition
which he has begun, in execution of his contract, which is confirmed; that he do this with all possible speed, and that he be aided
in accordance with what he asks in the second memorial presented
by him, or, at least, with so much of his demand as may be agreed
upon and made operative; that there be sent with him religious of
well approved character, and as many of them as possible, as well
as some judicious persons of satisfactory reputation to assist him,
and that he be admonished to regard them as examples of the prudence and consideration he should observe and the tact with which
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he should proceed ; that he be reproved for the lack of prudence
shown on his last voyage, particularly in having killed the Indians
as he relates in his report and in having allowed the soldier who
struck the Indian with the butt of his arquebus to go unpunished,
and that he treat the Indians with great love and tenderness,
making gifts to them in order to attract them in good will to the
holy gospel, not permitting injury to be done to them; that he
report what he may do and what the result of the expedition may
be; that His Majesty be consulted in the matter, the main end he
is to accomplish being the conversion of the Indians."
It seems proper that, in connection with the matters treated of in
the paragraph immediately preceding this, I should recall to the
attention   of   Your Majesty the loss of the   ship   San Agustin,
which I reported in the first letters written after my arrival in this
realm, and to the fact that with this event the exploration of all
the southern coast, which is of interest in connection with the ships
that come from the Philippines, and which was being carried on
by command of Your Majesty and order of the Viceroy Don Luis,
came to an end.    The object was of importance, for the end sought
was the survey and location of some commodious harbor which, in
case of necessity, should serve these ships as a place where shelter
might be had and repairs made.    To all practical men it seemed
that in making this exploration the better method would have
been for the ship to sail from here and along the coast.   • I should
deem it to be very fitting for Your Majesty to order that this
should be done in vessels of light burthen, without considering
what at that time had been written on the subject to be of importance.    I sent this information to Your Majesty because I was not
satisfied with the reports I had received; and I suggest that, if the
order for the  undertaking be given, in it may be included the
matter of the exploration of the gulf of California as well as an
examination of the fishing-grotmds, for*which purpose some divers
should be taken on the ships; and that the whole be entrusted to
one and the same person, if it be thought he can do what is to be
done in these waters and in the time in which it has to be done ;
or, if not, that the work be divided between two chiefs with two
small ships properly fitted out, with staunch vessels in reserve for
what may offer.
(In the margin appears the following resolution:)
Let that which is said here concerning the ship of light burthen,
which could be sent from Acapulco to explore the coast, be done ;
and this without complicating the matter with what relates to the Documents from the Sutro Collection.
expedition to the Californias, unless this be attended to on the way;
and let this enterprise be undertaken at once with the circumspection that is proper."4
Document No. 13.
r^ ART A a S. M. de Sebastian Vizcayno, fecha en Acapulco a 5
^-^ de Mayo de 1602 manifestando que sale con las naos al descubrimiento y demarcacion de la costa desde el cabo de San Lucas a el
de Mendocino.
Porque el Conde de Monterrey, Virrey de la nueva espana dara
mas cumplido aviso del despacho y avio del descubrimiento de los
puertos y bayas de la costa de la mar del sur hasta el cabo mendo-
cino que se hace por horden de vuestra magestad el dicho virrey
me lo a encargado en dos bageles una lancha y un barco luengo
pertrechandolos con gente de mar y guerra y bastimentos para
once meses todo con mucho cuidado como de tan buen gobernador
zeloso del servicio de Dios y aumento de la rreal corona se espera-
va. Oy domingo cinco de Mayo alas cinco me hago a la vela en
el nombre de dios y de su vendita madre y de vuestra magestad
muy deseoso de acertar en todo lo que se me a hordenado como leal
criado y espero en su divina magestad de que se le d de hazer muy
gran servicio, d vuestra magestad yre avisando siempre de lo que
sucediere en este viaje a quien nuestro senor guarde por largos y
felices anos como todos los reynos de vuestra magestad avemos
menester. de Acapulco a cinco de Mayo de mil seiscientos dos
anos.       Sebastian Vizcaino.
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TRANSLATION.
Letter to His Majesty from Sebastian Vizcaino, dated at
Acapulco, 5th May, 1602, reporting that he is about to sail with
his ships for the discovery and demarcation of the coast from Cape
San Lucas to Cape Mendocino.
4. This letter, and the comments thereon made in the India Council, had they been
known to Mr. H. H. Bancroft's writers, would have shed considerable light on certain
matters connected with Vizcaino's voyage, which those writers understood very imperfectly. 64
Historical Society of Southern California.
Because the Conde de Monterey, Viceroy of New Spain, will
give a more detailed report concerning the fitting out and dispatch
of the expedition undertaken by order of Your Majesty for the
discovery of the harbors and bays of the coast of the South Sea as
far as Cape Mendocino, I report merely that the said Viceroy has
entrusted to me the accomplishment of the same, in two ships, a
lancha and a barcoluengo? manned with sailors and soldiers and
provisioned for eleven months, all this being done with great care
—as was to be expected on the part of a governor so good and so
zealous for the service of God and the increase of the royal crown.
To-day, being Sunday, the 5th of May, I sail at five o'clock, in
the names of God and his blessed mother and of Your Majesty, I
being very desirous of succeeding in all that I have been ordered
to do, as beseems a loyal servant, and I trust in the divine
majesty that I shall do very great service to his cause. As I
proceed on the voyage, of what may happen I shall advise Your
Majesty, whom may our Lord guard many and happy years, as is
necessary for the well-being of Your Majesty's whole realm. From
Acapulco, the fifth of May, one thousand six hundred and two.
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Sebastian Vizcaino.
1. In the original the words are "dos bageles una lancha y un barco luengo." The word
bajel (which is the correct spelling) has the same signification as our English word vessel.
As the passage is not punctuated it might be rendered by "two vessels, a lancha and a
barcoluengo; " but the words "dos navios una lancha y un barcoluengo" are used in Vizcaino's letter written at Monterey Bay and in his report to the King made after his return
to Mexico. The word navio (which is equivalent to nao and nave) has about the meaning of our word ship, for the navio was decked and had three masts. It-seems better, therefore, to render the passage by "two ships, a lancha and a barcoluengo," as undoubtedly
there were four vessels. And it is thought better not to attempt a translation of the words
lancha and barcoluengo because there are no fairly equivalent English words to express
what they were. The lancha was a small vessel having no deck and but one mast, the
movement of the vessel being aided by sweeps. A barca had no deck; a barcoluengo, or
barcolongo,wdL& a long barca, having one or two masts and a bluff bow and, probably, behaving very badly in going about in a head sea or in working to windward. Such vessels as
these were useful as tenders and in the exploration of shoal waters and narrow passages.
It will be interesting to note here that Mr. H. H. Bancroft's writers do not seem to be
certain about the number and class of Vizcaino's vessels. The writer of chap. VII, Vol. X,
History of the Pacific States, says that the fleet consisted of two navios, afragata and a lancha.
In no instance, it will be noted, does Vizcaino in his own ieports.inenti.on afragata. This
writer, by the way, gives four o'clock as the hour of sailing. The writer of chap. Ill, Vol.
XIII of the work cited says that Vizcaino commanded a "fleet of three vessels." Comparisons are odious; at times, nevertheless, the results obtained from comparisons are curious.
Such mistakes are many in The History of the Pacific States; but that such is the case can not
cause astonishment when it is remembered that the work was written by many hands.
When a publisher adopts the plan of having the account of a series of connected events
written by more than one person, ordinary caution, it might be thought, should suggest to
a competent editor a comparison of the statements made in different parts of the work.
mk
c5c Documents from the Sutro Collection.
Document No. 14.
\/A VRA Alteza abratenido Noticia como El conde demonte Rey
Vireydela nueba espana enconformidad dela horden quedeSu-
magd tiene Meencargo El des cubrimiento delos Puertos ybayas de-
lacostadela Mardelsur desdeelpuerto de acapco alcauo Mendocino
dandomeparaello dosnavios Unalancha yUnbarcoluengo congente
demaryguerra armasymuniciones conbastimentos Para homce
messes, yenconformidad delahorden queparaello medio salide-
acapco aginco de mayo delano yhebenido haciendo Eldicho descubrimiento aUnquecon Muncha dificultatad y trauajo Porno ser
sauido Lanauegacion yauersido siempre Los Vientos contrarios
Mai ayudado dedios ydelbuendesseo que siempre hetenido deaSertar
aSeruir aSumagd hee descubierto Munchos Puertos Bayas y Islas
hasta estepuerto demonte Rey puesto enaltura detreyntaygiete
grados demarcandolotodo ysondandolo conSuderrotero como Lo
pide Elartedelamar Sindejarcossasustancial quedeello y delo que-
muestra Prometer Latierra y la Munchagente que enella ay enuio
copia aldhoconde Para quelaenuie aSumagd yaVra Alteza. Loquees
estepuerto demonte Rey demas destar entanbuena Altura Paralo
quesumagd Pretende Paraanparo ySiguridad delasnaos quebienen
dephilipinas enelpueden Redimir Lanessesidad quetrugeren Porque tiene granSuma depinales para'arboles yentenas aUnquesea
nauio demill toneladas ensinas yRobles muygrandes Parafabricar
nauios yesto .juntoala marina aguadela encantidad yElpuerto es
muy seguro detodos Los Bientos La tierra estatoda PoBlada deyn-
dios yes muyfertil yesdeltemple yterruno de castilla yse dara enella
qualquier semilla quesesembrare ay grandes deessas ymunchos
generos deanimales iaues como enladicha Relacion secontiene.
Yo ABisso aSumagd delgrandor deste Reyno ygranpoBlado esta
ylomuncho que promete yloque Losyndios Meandado aentender ay
enlatierra adentro depoPlaciones ycomo lagente, es Manssa
yafable queconfacilidad entiendo ReSibiran ElSanto ebangelio yse
Redusiran allacorona Real yPues sumagd es senor yduefio detodo
proueer enello Lo queinas conbenga queloquefueredemipte L- seru-
irre confidelidad hastamorir.
Respecto deauerme detenido Mastiempo delquesse entendio
Parahasserestedescubrimiento Porlasdificultades quetengo dichas
semeangastado LaMayr Parte delos Bastim**8 ymunigiones quesem-
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caieron yconelmunchotrauajo quelagente hatenido aenfermado
Alguna cantidad ymuertosse algunos demaneraque Parahasser
eldicho descubrimiento deUnauez ansidel cauo Mendocino como
enSenada decalifornias quees lahorden quetraygo semeofrecio difi-
cultad parapoderllo hassertodo sinmucho Socorro debastimentos
gente ymuniciones yansi despacho Paraello alalmirante deaiiisso
aldichoconde pidiendole Lo ness° yadViertiendole enqueparageya-
quetiempo Melo abradeenuiar conla Relacion demarcation yderrot-
eros ytodo Lo quehehecho eneldicho descubrimiento hastaoy Para-
quele enuie aVra Alteza semelo enuiare espero endios dehager Un-
gran Serui0 aSumagd ylleuar descubierto grandes Reynos yRiqueza
detodo lo quesefuere hagiendo enlas ocaciones quesse ofrecieren
auisare dello aVra Alteza con verdad yfidelidad guardenro Senor
aVra Alteza como Lacristian hamenester yyo criado deVraAlt".
Puerto demonte Rey a 28 dedissiembre de 1602.
Sebastian Bizcayn
(hay rubrica.)
TRANSLATION.
Your Highness1 will have had notice already of how the Conde
de Monterey, Viceroy of New Spain, in conformity wi£h the orders
which he has from His Majesty, charged me with the exploration
of the harbors and bays of the coast of the South Sea from the port
of Acapulco to Cape Mendocino, giving me for that purpose two
ships, a lancha, and a barcoluengo, together with seamen and soldiers,
arms and ammunition, and provisions for eleven months; that, in
accordance with the orders given to me for that end, I sailed from
Acapulco on the 5th day of May of this year; that I have prosecuted said exploration, although with great difficulty and labor,
because the navigation was unknown and head winds were constant, while the aid of providence and the good desire I have ever
felt for serving His Majesty availed me little. I have discovered
many harbors, bays and islands, as far as the port of Monterey, a
harbor which is in thirty-seven degrees of latitude, surveying all
and sounding, and noting the sailing-directions, according to the
1. This letter evidently was not written to the King, but to some person of very high
rank in Spain, as Vizcaino mentions the monarch in the third person and as the title of
"Highness" wes given only to princes of the blood. It is to be regretted that the name of
this personage has not been given in connection with the copy of the document
II
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67
|art of navigation, without neglecting any substantial thing concerning the same, and noting what the land and the numerous peoples
[dwelling therein seemingly promise. I send a copy to the said
IConde, in order that he may transmit the information to His
Majesty and to Your Highness. As to what this harbor of Monterey is, in addition to being so well situated in point of latitude for
that which His Majesty intends to do for the protection and security of ships coming from the Phillipines: In it may be repaired
the damages which they may have sustained, for there is a great
extent of pine forest from which to obtain masts and yards, even
though the vessel be of a thousand tons burthen, live oaks and
white oaks2 for ship-building, and this close to the seaside in great
number. And the harbor is very secure against all winds. The
land is thickly peopled by Indians and is very fertile, in its climate
and the quality of the soil resembling Castile, and any seed sown
there will give fruit, and there are extensive lands fit for pasturage,
and many kinds of animals and birds—as is set forth in the report
referred to.
I advise His Majesty concerning the great extent of this land
and its numerous population, and what promise it holds forth, and
what the Indians have given me to understand concerning the
people of the interior, and of how gentle and affable the people is,
so that they will receive readily, as I think, the holy gospel and
will come into subjection to the royal crown; and, since His
Majesty is lord and master of all, let him provide as may seem best
to him. As to what it behooves me to do on my part, I will serve
him till death.
With regard to my having delayed longer than the time which
was thought necessary for this exploration : Because of the many
difficulties of which I have spoken, the greater part of the provisions and ammunition which were furnished to me has been
expended; while, owing to the great labors which my crews have
gone through, a number of men have fallen ill and some have died
—so that for making the exploration at this time, as well of the
region of Cape Mendocino as of the entire littoral3 of the Californias, as is called for by my orders, I have met with  obstacles to
2. Encina I translate live oak. The Californian tree so called is quercus agrifolia and
not the quercus virens of the trans-sierran coast. Roble is quercus robur, which is not found
in California; I use the word white oak, a tree of which there are several varieties in California.   In Mexico the name roble is applied to all oaks other than live oaks.
3. In the original the word is ensenada, meaning bight, a word not expressing the idea
meant to be conveyed. It may be, possibly, that by ensenada de Californias what we know
as the Gulf of California is meant. See, in this connection, the concluding remarks made
by the Viceroy in his letter to the King dated 28th November, 1597, and the resolution of the
India Cou ncil concerning the suggestion made.
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the completion of all the work without considerable succor in the
way of provisions, people and ammunition, and speedy dispatch of
these. Let the Admiral be advised by the said Conde of this, he
asking him for what is necessary, and letting him know to what
place and at what time he must dispatch these things to me (sending to him also the map, report and sailing-directions concerning
all I have done in said exploration to the present time) so that
Your Highness may order that the same be sent to me. I trust in
God that I may do a great service to His Majesty and that I shalL
discover great realms and riches. Of all that may be done I shall
advise Your Highness, as opportunities for doing this may present
themselves, with truth and faithfully. May Our Lord guard Your
Highness, a ward so necessary to the christian. I am the servant
of Your Highness.
Harbor of Monterey, 28th December, 1602.
Sebastian Vizcaino.
(a rubrica.)
WLA
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£j§ ART A a S. M. de Sebastian Vizcaino fechada en Megico a 23
^-^ de Mayo de 1603, participando su regreso del descubrimiento
y demarcacion de las costas de las Californias hasta los 42 grados
de latitud norte.
El aiio pasado de seiscientos dos por orden de vuestro virrey
Conde de Monterrey, fui a descubrir la costa de la mar del sur con
dos navios una lancha y un barco luengo, con la gente de mar y
guerra pertrechada y bastecida de lo necesario para un aiio, sali
del puerto de Acapulco como entonces di avisso a vuestra magestad a cinco de Mayo del dicho ano y en conformidad con la orden
e instruccion que lleve descubri muy puntualmente toda la costa
sin dejar puerto, baya, ysla ni ensenada que no se sondase y demarcate conforme a buena cosmografia y arte de marcar, porque
como a vuestra magestad eserivio su virrey lleve un cosmografo de
confidencia y ciencia en tablas geograficas en mi compana para que
muy estensamente pusiese y apuntase en mapa y carta lo que
vuestra magestad mandara ber por la que el dicho virrey enbia Documents from the Sutro Collection.
agora con la demarcacion y relaciones de todo. entre los puertos
que halle de mas consideracion fue uno en altura de treinta y siete
grados que le nombre Monterrey. Como de alii escrivi a vuestra
magestad d los veinte y ocho de Setiembre del dicho aiio que es
todo lo que se puede desear para comodidad y escala de las naos de
la carrera de Filipinas donde vienen a reconoscer esta costa, es el
puerto abrigado de todos los vientos y en la marina tiene muchos
pinos para arbolar las naos del tamaiio que las quisieren y tambien
encinas, robles, romero, para, rosas de Alejandria, mucha caga de
cone j os, liebres, perdices y. otros generos y especies de espana mas
que en cierra morena y abes bolatiles de diferentes maneras. La
tierra es de apacible temple y de buen as aguas y muy fertil por
el vicio de la arboleda y planta porque vi algunos frutos de ella y
particularmente de castanas y bellotas, mayor que las de espana y
muy poblada de gente cuya condicion vi ser suave, mansa y docil
y muy abta para reducirlos d el santo evangelio y corona de vuestra
magestad, su comida es de muchas y barias semillas que tienen y
tambien carne de caca como son ciervos que los ay mayores que
vacas y ossos y ganado vacuno y cibolas y otros muchos. Son los
yndios de buen cuerpo, blancos de rrostro y las mugeres algo
menores y bien agestados, su bestido es de la gente de la play a de
pellejos de lobos marinos que los ay en abundancia que los curten
y aderezan mejor que en Castilla, tienen tambien gran cantidad de
hilo de lino de Castilla, caiiamo algodon de que hacen cordeles
para pescar y redes para conejos y liebres y tienen sus embarca-
ciones de madera de pino muy bien fabricadas en que salen d la
mar con catorce remeros por banda can gran ligereza aun con
■grande tormenta. Tome* relacion de ellos y otros muchos que
descubri en la costa en mas de ochocientas leguas que anduve toda
poblada sin numero de yndios que decian haver la tierra adentro
grandes poblaciones conbidandose fuese con ellos. Con muestras
de mucha amistad y querer la contratacion de nosotros aficionados
a la ymagen de nuestra senora que los ensene y muy atentos al
sacrificio de la misa. Usan de barios ydolos como me rremito a la
dicha relacion de vuestro virrey y conocen bien la plata y oro y
decian aberlo la tierra adentro.
Y aviendose de poblar algun puerto 6 parage de esta costa nin-
guno es mas aproposito que este de Monte-Rey por las causas dichas
a donde las naos de tornaviaje de Filipinas podran benir d 61 y si
les diese tormenta despues de enmaradas no arribar al Japon como
otras veces lo an hecho y perdidose tantas con tan gruesa hacienda
que si este estuviera descubierto no se ubiera deservido tanto
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Historical Society of Southern California.
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vuestra magestad. Conocidos los tiempos de verano se podrdi
entrar por este paraje la tierra adentro y descubrirla porque prom-
ete muchas riquezas y por la costa se pueda tambien descubrir el
resto de ella que aunque yo llegue a cuarenta y dos grados que fu6
el limite de mi instruccion pasa adelante la costa y esta cerca del
Japon y costa de la gran china ques una corta travesia y lo mismo
de la tartaria y famosa ciudad de quinsay con innumerables gentes
que conforme d la relacion que tube son del propio yndibiduo y
natural de los dichos que para la propagacion de la fe y rreduccion
de tantas almas a Dios se abrird la'puerta para que la semilla del
santo evangelio se produzca d tanta gentilidad.
Once meses se gastaron en el viaje en que se padecieron notables
trabajos y con el mucho que tuvo mi gente enferma toda y se
murieron cuarenta y dos hasta llegar al puerto de acapulco, yo e
acudido senor d continuar el servicio de vuestra magestad en este
descubrimiento como lo hice en la Jornada de la California, y otras
muchas de que tengo avisado a vuestra Real consejo por papeles
que presente en el con mucho cuidado y puntualidad como tambien
me rremito a los nuevos que agora ban en que e gastado la mayor
parte de mi hacienda y salud. mas la poca que me queda y mi
persona esta dedicada a vuestro Real servicio con la entereza, amor,
fidelidad de leal vasallo y criado de vuestra magestad d quien sup-
lico mande se bean los mios remunerandolos con las mercedes de
tan poderossas y reales manos mandando tambien hacerla d los
oficiales de mar y guerra que lleve conmigo rrecomendando sus
personas d vuestro virrey de esta nueva Espana. dios guarde
la Real y Catolica persona de vuestra magestad de Mexico d 23
de Mayo de 1603.    Sebastian Vizcaino.
TRANSLATION.
Letter to His Majesty from Sebastian Vizcaino, dated at Mexico,
on the 23d of May, 1603, announcing his return from the exploration and demarcation of the coasts of the Californias as far as
latitude 42° north.
In the past year of six hundred and two, by order of your
Viceroy, the Conde de Monterey, I set out on the discovery of the
coast of the South Sea with two ships, a lancha, and a barcoluengo* Jl
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
7*
with the requisite sailors and soldiers, armed and provisioned with
everything necessary for a year. I sailed from the port of Acapulco, as I advised. Your Majesty at the time, on the 5th of May of
said year; and, in conformity with the order and instructions I
|had, I explored very diligently the whole coast, not leaving harbor,
(bay, island or bight without sounding and delineating it in accord-
jance with the rules of good cosmography and the art of demarcation ; for, as your Viceroy wrote to Your Majesty, I was accompanied by a cosmographer in whom confidence can be reposed and
cunning in the matter of geographical computations, in order that
he might put down and note in the most complete manner on map
and chart the result of the examination Your Majesty should order,
which the Viceroy now forwards, together with the delineation
and reports concerning the whole. Among the ports of greater
consideration which I discovered was one in thirty-seven degrees
of latitude, which I called Monterey. As I wrote to Your Majesty
from that port on the 28th September1 of said year, it is all that can
be desired for commodiousness and as a station for ships making
the voyage to the Phillipines, sailing whence they make a landfall
on this coast. This port is sheltered from all winds, while on
the immediate coast there are pines from which masts of any
desired size can be obtained, as well as live oaks and white oaks,
rosemary, the vine, the rose of Alexandria, a great variety of
game, such as rabbits, hares, partridges, and other sorts and
species found in Spain and in greater abundance than in the Sierra
Morena, and flying birds of kinds differing from those to be found
there. This land has a genial climate, its waters are good, and it
is very fertile—judging from the varied and luxuriant growth of
trees and plants; for I saw some of the fruits, particularly chestnuts and acorns, which are larger than those of Spain. And it is
thickly settled with people whom I found to be of gentle disposition, peaceable and docile, and who can be brought readily within
the fold of the holy gospel and into subjection to the crown of
Your Majesty. Their food consists of seeds which they have in
abundance and variety and of the flesh of game, such as deer
which are larger than cows, and bear, and of neat cattle and bisons
and many other animals. The Indians are of good stature and
fair complexion, the women being somewhat less in size than the
men and of pleasing countenance.    The clothing of the people of
1. Making the month September must be a mistake of the copyist. Vizcaino is made
to say here that he wrote to the King from Monterey Bay on the 28th September. He did
not anchor in that bay until the 16th of December. On the 28th of this latter month he
wrote the letter, of which a copy precedes this, to a person whom he addresses as "Your
Highness."
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the coast-lands consists of the skins of the sea-wolves abounding
there, which they tan and dress better than is done in Castile; they
possess also, in great quantity, flax like that of Castile, hemp and
cotton, from which they make fishing-lines and nets for rabbits
and hares. They have vessels of pine-wood very well made, in
which they go to sea with fourteen paddle-men of a side, with
great dexterity—even in very stormy weather. I was informed by i
them, and by many others I met with in great numbers along
more than eight hundred leagues of a thickly settled coast, that
inland there are great communities, which they invited me to
visit with them. They manifested great friendship for us and a
desire for intercourse; were well affected towards the image of Our
Lady which I showed to them and very attentive to the sacrifice of
the mass. They worship different idols, for an account of which I
refer to said report of your Viceroy, and they are well acquainted
with silver and gold, and said that these were found in the
interior.
And, as some port or place on this coast is to be occupied, none
is so proper for the purpose as this harbor of Monterey. For the
reasons given, this port can be made by ships on the return voyage
from the Phillipines; and if, after putting to sea, a storm be
encountered, they need not, as formerly, run for Japan, where so
many have been cast away and so much property lost; and, had
this port been known previously, Your Majesty would not have
been so badly served. The time of the occurrence of the dry
seasons being known, from this place the interior can be reached
and explored, such exploration promising rich returns ; and proceeding along the coast, the remainder of it can be examined, for,
although I went as far as the forty-second degree of latitude, this
being the limit fixed in my instructions, the coast-line trends
onward to near Japan and the coast of Great China, which are but
a short run away, and the same, is the case with regard to Tartary
and the famous city of Quinsay; and, according to the reports I
received, there are to be found very numerous peoples akin to
those I have referred to—so the door will be opened for the
propagation of the faith and the bringing of so many souls to a
knowledge of God in order that the seed of the holy gospel may
* yield a harvest among all these heathen.
Eleven months were spent on the voyage, during which noteworthy hardships were suffered; and, notwithstanding the un-
nappy experience of my men, who were all sick and of whom
forty-two died before our return to the port of Acapulco, I again
isilS Documents from the Sutro Collection.
offer to serve Your Majesty in continuing this exploration, as I did
on the voyage to California and on many others, of which I have
given account to your royal council in carefully and exactly prepared documents which I have presented there; and I refer,
furthermore, to others now forwarded, in which it is shown I have
spent the greater part of my fortune and of my health. Yet the
little of these remaining to me, as well as my person, is devoted to
your royal service with the constancy, love and fidelity of a loyal
vassal and servant of Your Majesty, who, I pray, will order the
necessities of my men to be considered and that they be rewarded
with boons from those powerful royal hands, and that the same be
ordered to be done for the naval and military officers who accompanied me, their persons being recommended to your Viceroy of
this New Spain. God guard the royal and catholic person of
Your Majesty.    Mexico, 23d of May, 1603.
Sebastian Vizcaino.2
I
Document No. 16.
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Excellm.° Senor
JV/IUY vendo Senor mio Exc™° acabo dc escrivir d V. E. largam*
* ' *• pr un correo qe por California despach6, quatro dias ha, el
S? Cap1^ Dn Fernando Rivera, en contestacion dela de V. E. de 25 de
Mayo, qe en 6 de Agosto por el mismo conducto y mano de dho S*
Capitan, recibio el P. Lectr Fr. Francisco Palou, qe en esta me
acompana, y con los demas assumptos ocurrentes en estas Mis-
siones, incluyendo el Diario de uno de los dos Religiosos qe aeom-
panaron la expedicion de mar embiada pr V. E. baxo el comando
del official de mar Dn Juan Perez El motivo de haver despachado
dhas cartas y papeles por un conducto qe es regular qe sea de bast-
2. Vizcaino's letters, generally, are full of exaggerated statements and falsehoods; and
in this letter he gives his fancy a slack rein. We know that Monterey Bay is not landlocked. At the time of his visit many of the beasts and plants he mentions did not exist,
nor had they ever existed, in California ; nor did he meet with any natives such as he
describes. His object in thus exercising his talent for romancing was, of course, further
employment. wM.
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Historical Society of Southern California.
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ante demora, fue porq* haviendo llegado en 27 del vencido Agostb
a este puerto la dha expedicion de mar en la fragata Santiago y en
ella con salud los dos religOB capellanes (a Dios las g") nos dixo su
capitan ser su animo detenerse en este Puerto hasta mediddos de
Octubre y entonces (qe ya es regular qe esten aca las familias qe
DP. Fernando espera) pasar al reconocim0 del Puerto de Sn Francisco pft la fundacion d* la Mission, 6 Missiones q* parescan neces-
sarias pa qe aquel Puerto quede ocupado segu11 las ordenes de V. E.
e intenciones de N. Cath*? Monarca Y haviendo de ser assi, de lo
qe yo, y todos estavamos contentissimos, parecio el unico medio
p*daraV. E. las noticias conveniehtes el despacharlas p* California Ahora despues ha tornado nueva determinacion dho Dn Juan
Perez y es de salirse con la fragata de su cargo pa S. Bias y ahuqe le
hemos rogado mucho el P. Palou y yo, de qe si hare dable, se estu-
viese en su prim* determinacion, p* qe de esta vez quedase evacuado
lo de Sn Francisco se nego totalm6 diziendo tener varios motivos p*
no detenerse y pr ellos haver resuelto su prompta salida. Y con-
siderando qe primero llegara" estas cartas qe aquellas voy d referir
con la brevedad a qe me obliga lo repentino dc la noticia y brev-
edad del tiempo algo de lo antes escrito. Y sea lo primero qe el
ganado vacuno de las dos Missiones Sn Francisco, y Santa Clara, en
vista de la dha carta de V. E. me lo remitio por nuevo pedim° el
Sr Capn Dn Fernando en 16 de Agosto segu11 lo ordenado pr la Real
Renta y pr V. E. y aqui lo tenemos senalado desde dicho dia Di
el recibo y ya nada queda qe hazer en tai assumpto, pues fue muy d
gusto y satisfaccion de ambas partes.
Tambien dezia qe el otro dia de recibida dha carta de V. E. pase
con ella al R1 Presidio y comunique su contenido al ST Capitan pa si
resolvia qe se diesse algun passo azia el Puerto de San Francisco,
pero me respondio hallarse sin gente y ahun sin armas p* empresa
alguna, como qc ni el Capn Anza dexo sold0 alguno, ni han llegado
las familias La lastima es dqe quando las tendremos ya no habra
barco, y que reconozco mucha mayor inclinacion a ocuparlos en
hazer Presidio nuevo a quatro 6 cinco leguas de distancia del Puerto
y seys de esta Mission qe en fundar alguna nueva Mission. Assumpto es sobre que iva a representar por escrito d V. E- hallandome
en essa Ciudad, quando supe qe el nuevo official proponia tai dem-
anda, pero como me dixeron que no se le permitia desamparar el
Puerto, ni tai translacion, lo dexe; ahi qe yame arrepenti despues,
quando en Guadala, en Tepic, y en otras partes hallava esparcida
la noticia de qe iva el nuevo Capn d mudar el Presidio, como si ello
fuesse el principal objeto de su destine    Ya con una circunst* nada
pll t UlSMllllll lIHBHI^BI]
\ Documents from the Sutro Collection.
me pesaria, y es qe a una legua mas lexos (supuesto que es camino
p* S. Frane.°) pusiesimos una Mission y con esto el nuevo Presidio
estaria facil y exactam* provehido de pasto espiritual y los Gentiles,
d* ambos sexos de aquellos contornos, se haria11 feligreses de los PP
Misioneros y no de los Soldados. Estaria la tai Missn d siete leguas de distancia de esta qe no es poco respecto de occurrir co11 ella a
quitar los inconvenientes qe concibo de lo contrario. Si no fuesse
pr lo qe tiene de respectivo d Misiones no habiara en tai assumpto,
p* siendolo, y tanto, no me parece qe voy en la propuesta fuera
d* mi Ministerio y qe siempre en aquello me conformo gustoso dqe
V. E. tenga pr mas conveniente. Es dolor p* mi (Sr Exc™0) verme
abund* de Relig8 y de viveres, y qe no se de un paso, por un lado u
otro, d algu° nuevo espiritual laborio, y me rezeldra de fatigar d V.
E. con esta mi repetida cantinela si no estuviesse taB seguro de qe
son tan conformes a los de V E mis anhelos.
Dava a VE tambien las buenas noticias de qe estos nuevos chris-
tianos con el exemplo de algunos peones qe he logrado de los Barcos
se van bien aplicando al trabajo con el azadon en la mano con la
barra en los adobes, en la pisca 6 cosecha del trigo y su acarreo y
demas qehazeres a qe se les aplica y qe este aiio se ha levantado en
esta Miss11 de cosecha a mas de 20 fan8 de cevada 125 de trigo, algo
de avas y mas de frijol a mas del continuo socorro de la huerta,
de qe participa" todos, y se espera una razonable cosecha de maiz
qe ya esta muy adelantado y bueno, y de la abund* de sardina qe
estuvo varrando en la playa immta a esta Miss11 en 20 dias continuos,
y los adelantam8 espirituales qe cada dia vamos experimentando a
Dios g8 En todas las Misiones se van disponiendo pa el aiio siguiente
siembras may ores, y espero en Dios qe sea11 los trabajos con felizes
resultas.
Respecto del Diario qe inclui a V E. dezia qe no nos quedavamos
aca con copia pa remitarla d su tiempo d nro Colegio y lo mismo
escrivi al R. P. Guard11 de dho Colegio prqe quando conclui y firme
las cartas hize fixo concepto qe no habria lugar pa copiarlo pero
enfin lo huvo, se copio a toda prisa. Ahora qe no dudo ira11 d V E
los de los Pilotos lo remito a dho R P Guard11 y el delotro Relig? ira
despues. Ya digo al R Pe Guard11 qe si ve no obste los otros gus-
tare lo ponga prompt6 en sus manos, qe supuesto lo hecho no lo en-
vio ahora directam6
En lo demas me remito a las dhas qe ahf qe algo mas tarde espero
en Dios no dexaran de llegar y qe despues de su salida no hay mas
novedad qe el embarcarse los volunt8 qe se quedaron en la salida
de Dn Pedro Fages, menos los seys pa quienes pedi  las  licencias
1 »!*■
76
Historical Society of Southern California.
Hb
aw
ant8 los 3 son aca casados y los tres estan proximos a casarse 1
ahu11 de estos he ohido qe se va el uno Con las dhas tambien va
carta del P Palou a V E. qn al pre** reproduce sus afectos p con
V. E y sus preceptos.   -Y quedo rogando qe
Dios N S* gdc la salud, vida, y prosperidad de V E. m8. a8 en su
S* gracia. De esta favorecida de VE. de S. Carlos de Monte-Rey,
y Septe 9 de 1774.
.j- Excell^ Senor M '■
Blinsd* V E su mas aff° y rend0 Sio y Capella11
que le venera y ama
Fr. Junipero Serra
(hay rubrica.)
m
TRANSLATION.
m\
Hail Jesus, Mary and Joseph !
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My greatly venerated, most excellent Sir :
Not long ago I wrote at length to Your Excellency by a courier
whom Captain Don Fernando Rivera, four days since, dispatched for
California,2 and in answer to the letter of Your Excellency bearing
date 25th May, which, on the 6th August, was received by conduct
and hand of the said captain by Father Lector Fray Francisco
Palou,3 who is my companion here. In that letter I gave an
account of further events at these missions, and with it sent the
diary of one of the two religious who acompained the naval expedition dispatched by Your Excellency under the command of Don
Juan Perez, an officer of the navy.    The reason for sending said
1. This is the customary invocation plaeed at the beginning of all documents and
letters written by Spanish friars of the order of St. Francis. Literally it means: "Live
Jesus, Mary,Joseph!"
2. Meaning Lower California.
3. Fathers Serra and Palou had been inmates of the same religious house at La Palma,
in the island of Mallorca, where the former was born. They came to America together in
1749, and, twenty years later, to California. Father Palou survived his companion and,
three years after Serra's death, in 1787, published a biography of him, which may be regarded as the earliest Californian book, although it was printed at the City of Mexico. An
English translation of this life of Serra was made by a distinguished member of the Historical Society of Southern California, the Very Rev. J. Adam, Vicar-General of the diocese of
Los Angeles, and was published in 1884, at the time of the centennial commemoration of
Serra's death. letter and document by a conduct usually rather tardy was this :
The naval expedition having arrived at this port on the 27th of
August last, in the ship Santiago? and on board of her in
safety the two chaplains ( God be thanked!), her captain
! informed us that he had a mind to remain at this port until the
middle of October, by which time it is probable that the families
expected by Don Fernando 5 will be here, and then to make the
exploration of the port of San Francisco, with a view to the founding of the mission, or missions, which may seem necessary, in
order that the region about that port be occupied in accordance
with the orders of Your Excellency and the intention of our
catholic monarch. And it having so to be—with which circumstance I and all were very content—it seemed that the only way
of giving desired information to Your Excellency consisted in
sending it by way of California. Since then Don Juan Perez has
come to a new determination—that is, to sail for San Bias with the
ship under his command; and, although Father Palou and myself
have besought him earnestly that, were it possible, he adhere to
his prior determination, in order that the matter of the occupation
of San Francisco might be attended to at this time, he has utterly
refused so to do, saying that he has many reasons for not delaying and for resolving on a speedy departure. And, considering
that this letter will reach you before the arrival of those already
sent, I proceed to relate, with the brevity made necessary by this
sudden notice and the little time remaining in which to do so, some
portions of that which has been written already. And, first: As
to the neat cattle for the two missions of San Francisco and Santa
Clara. Mindful of the directions contained in the said letter of
Your Excellency, Captain Don Fernando turned the cattle over to
me on the 16th of August, on my renewed demand, in accordance
with the disposition of the royal exchequer and the orders of Your
Excellency; and, since that day, we have kept it set apart here.
I gave a receipt, and now nothing remains to be done in that
matter, which was arranged very much to the liking and satisfaction of both parties.
I wrote, also, that, on the day after receiving the said letter of
Your Excellency, taking it with me to the royal presidio, I communicated its contents to the Captain, for the purpose of learning
whether he would resolve to do anything in the matter of the port
4. The Santiago was built expressly for the service of the Californiau missions and
was used as a transport.
ft.   Captain Don Fernando Rivera y Moneada.
J
V. m wm
78
Historical Society of Southern California.
W
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of San Francisco.    But he replied to my request that he found
himself   without men, or even  arms,  for any undertaking,  as
Captain Anza 6 had not left him a single soldier and the families had
not arrived.    It is a pity that when we do have them here then
there will be no vessel available; and I recognize a far greater
inclination to employ them in establishing a new presidio, at a distance of four or five leagues from the port and six from this
mission, rather than in founding any new mission.   This is a matter
concerning which I was about to present to Your Excellency a written memorial, at the time I was in that city,7 when I learned that the
new official8 proposed making such a demand; but, as I was told that
any failure to protect the port would not be allowed, nor any such
change of plan, I abandoned that design.   Yet I afterwards repented
of this, when in Guadalaxara, Tepic, and other places, I found that
tidings had gone abroad to the effect that the new captain was
about to move the presidio—as though this were the principal object
of his appointment.    Still, for one reason this would not grieve
me, and that is because at the distance of a league farther—on the
road to San Francisco, be it understood—we might plant a new
mission; and in this way the new presidio would be easily and in
a perfectly fitting way provided   with spiritual food,   and the
heathen of both sexes of those parts would become parishioners of
the missionary fathers   and not of the soldiers.     Such mission
would be at a distance of seven leagues from this one—which is
not a matter of slight importance when it is considered that such
an establishment would be likely to be of service in the prevention
of disadvantages which I fancy might arise from a different condition of things.    Were it not a matter connected with the missions I
would not hasten its execution; but, being such, and to so great a
degree,  it does not seem to  me that in this proposition I am
advocating anything not within the scope of my clerical functioUs.
And in this matter I conform to what Your Excellency may consider most fitting.    It is a grievous thing for me, Most Excellent
Sir, to find myself well provided with religious and with provisions,
while no steps are taken, in one way or another, towards some
new spiritual labor; and I should fear to fatigue Your Excellency
with this my oft-repeated importunity  were I not sure that my
desires are so much in accord with those of Your Excellency.
6. Juan Bautista Anza was a very meritorious officer of engineers of the Spanish army,
as his father had been also He, the younger Anza, commanded the expedition sent to
explore the peninsula of San Francisco, and the first immigrant expedition which came to
California by land from eastward of the Colorado river. -
7. The City of Mexico.
8. Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada. pP| Documents from tlie Sutro Collection.
79
I gave to Your Excellency, also, the agreeable tidings that these
[new christians, following the example set by some of the crews of the
vessels whose services I managed to secure, are learning how to
apply themselves to labor, hoe in hand and with the bar in
[making adobes, in harvesting the maize and the wheat and in cart-
ling these crops, as well as in other work in which they take part.
I reported, also, that this year there have been harvested at this
(mission, in addition to twenty fanegas 9 of barley, one hundred and
[twenty-five of wheat, together with some horse-beans and a greater
[quantity of kidney-beans,10 and continuous crops from the vegetable
garden—in the consumption of which all share. There is reason
for expecting a fair return from the maize sown, and it is now
well-grown and in good condition, and there will be obtained a
goodly number of fish from the abundance of sardines which, for
twenty consecutive days, have been spawning along the beach
near this mission,11 and a reasonable harvest from the spiritual
advancement we are experiencing each day—thanks be to God !
At all the missions preparations are making for more extensive
sowings in the coming year, and I trust in God that a happy
outcome may attend the work.
Concerning the diary that I remitted to Your Excellency, I said
that no copy remained here for transmission to our college \2 at a
suitable time, and to that effect I wrote to the Reverend Father
Guardian of said college, because, when I had finished and signed
the letter, I came to the conclusion that time to copy it was wanting; but, as it fell out, there was time, and it was copied in great
haste. Now that I doubt not those of the navigating officers will
be sent to Your Excellency, I remit it to the Reverend Father
9. The fanega was not always the same measure, even in Spain, where the fanega of
one province was not that of some other province. At the respective missions of California
the missionary wbj»ei|uty it was to superintend the labors of the farm appears to have
kept his acconnts^gne sowings and yield of wheat, and the like, in fanegas of that part of
Spain where he#as born and bred. The fanega may be taken as equivalent to from two to.
two and one quarter hectolitres and may be calculated as equal to about one and one quarter of our bushels The equivalent given for a fanega in the books published by Mr. H. S.
Bancroft is not correctly calculated.
10. I translate haba (written ava by Father Serra) by horse-bean, and frijol by kidney^
bean. The haba is the faba of the Romans—in many Spanish words the letter "h" replacing
the Latin " f "—and was a broad bean. In Spanish-America the haba may bave been either
the bean known in Spain, or of the variety called botanically canvalia, indigenous to the
island of Jamaica, and, perhaps, other parts of America. What we call the "Lima bean" is
probably of this variety. The word frijolr-or frejol—is of American origin. Whether the.
bean so called was cis-Atlantic in its origin, or the judia of Spain (th« phaseolus of the
Romans, and kidney-bean among English-speaking people) can not be determined. Nor is
it known in what part of Spanish-America the word frijol originated ; now, at least', it is
common from California to Cape Horn, and is used to signify any kiduey-shaned bean. In
southern Mexico the frijol is a small black bean ; in California it is a larger beau of a light
chocolate color, and even the abundant small white bean is called by that name.
11. it is impossible to tell exactly what fish is meant by sardina. In Spanish-America,
as in Spain, this name is given to many different fish—to the sardine, the herring, the shad,
and others. Father Serra here uses the word varando for barrando, an older form of embar-
rando, meaning covering with mud.
12. This was the college of San Fernando de Mexico, headquarter* of the Franciscan,
friars of the vice-royalty of New Spain.   The head of the house was called the guardian.
1
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II
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Historical Society of Southern California.
Guardian; that of the other religious will go later.    I tell the I
Reverend Father Guardian that, if he conclude, notwithstanding,
that the others might be delayed on the way, he should place it
promptly in your hands—the reason why I do not send it directly
being understood.
For the rest I refer to my said letters, which, I trust in God, will
not fail to reach your hands somewhat later. Since dispatching
them nothing noteworthy has happened, other than that the volunteers M who remained here at the time Don Pedro Fages left have
taken passage in'the ship, excepting the six whose leaves of
absence I asked for, and of whom three have married here while
the others are about to marry 14 —although one of them, I hear,
is going away too. With this letter there goes, also, to Your
Excellency one of Father Palou, who sends again his affectionate
regards to Your Excellency and the assurance of his prayers for
you. And I continue praying that God our Lord guard the'
health, life and prosperity of Your Excellency for many years in
his holy grace. From this mission favored by Your Excellency
of San Carlos de Monterey, Sept. 9, 1774.16
Most Excellent Sir:—Your most affectionate and humble
servant and chaplain, who venerates and loves you, kisses
the hands of Your Excellency.
Fray Junipero Serra.
(a rubrica.}
13. The first soldiers sent to California were detailed for the service from the regiment
called "Voluntarios de Cataiuna," a corps raised in the Spanish province of that name.
When the regiment came from Spain the men, as well as the officers, were of white Spanish
birth ; after many years' service in New Spain the rank and file had come to be composed
of men of mixed race. This is true also of all the troops sent to California by the vice-royal
government.
14. In these early days no soldier, other than a commissioned officer, who came to Calif -
ornia a bachelor was allowed to remain for a very long time in a state 01 single blessedness;,
as a rule, the new comer was married out of hand to some neophyte of the missions.   Very
many of the men who at a later day figured in Californian affairs were sons and,grandsons
of native Indian women.
15. This letter, a swell as that which follows, was written to the forty^sixth laceroy of
New Spain, who was—not to curtail his name and titles—His Excellency the Bailio Fwy/
Don Antonio Maria Bucareli y Ursua Henestrosa Lasso de la Vega Villaeis y C6rdoba, •
Knight-Commander of la B6veda de Toro in the Military Order of St. John of \Ialta . Liejf>
tenant-General of the Royal Armies of Spain.   Later he became, in addition to all this, a
gentleman of the. royal bedchamber.   Of these two letters I fail to find any mention in the
works published by Mr. H. H. Bancroft.   I may be allowed to sugjrest, in this connection.-
that, considering the number of letters which must have been written by a president of
missions so active and zealous as President Serra, it is rather astonishing that Mr. Bancroft's writer« saw so few of them.   President Serra's manuscript is very legible, as may be
judged by the fac-simile of document No. 16. published as a frontispiece to this volume.
The abbreviations he makes use of are common to Spanish manuscripts of his time.   His
spelling is peculiar at times, and occasionally he makes use of an archaic word or a provincialism rather than the idiomatic lengua CasteUana of the eighteenth century. *
igll Documents from the Sutro Collection.
Document No. 17.
{The frontispiece is a facsimile of this document.)
V* Jhs. M» Jph
Excelir Senor
UY Vend.° ST mio Exmo. La nueva detencion de la frag* en
este Puerto con ocasion de su arribada a pocos dias de haver
salido ya p* el de SD Bias, ha dado tiempo p* qe.se sacasse en limpio
el Diario del P. P5 Fr. Juan Crespi, el qe remito en esta ocasion a
V. E. suponiendo le tengo ya remitido y pr duplicado el de su
Comp° el P. Pr Fr. Thomas de la Pena. V. E. se sirva pr Dios de
p^rdonar los defectos assegurandose de la buena voluntad qe yo y
todos tenemos d servir d V. E y d N. Soberano q Dios guarde
especialm* en Assumptos de esta naturaleza tan proprios de N. Sag-
rado Instituto y porque desde las ult8 cartas no se ofrece novedad
especial qe noticiar a V. E. y q* me rezelo no ser molesto, a q* tanto venero, y estimo, solo anado el
Dios N. S5 Gde d V. E. m' a' con salud, y su S* gracia. De esta
tan favorecida d V. E. Mission de S. Carlos de Monte Rey Octb 7
de 1774.
Excellm.° Senor
Blmosde V. E. su mas aff° y rend" 'w
Siervo y Capellan
Fr. Junipero Serra
(hay rubrica)
Lit*
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My Greatly Venerated, Most Excellent Sir:
The new detention of the ship at this port, consequent on her
return a few days after her departure for San Bias, has been the
means of there being time for making a clean copy of the diary of
Father Preacher Fray Juan Crespi,1 which I take occasion to setlBi
to Your Excellency, it being understood that I have already sent,
in duplicate, that of his companion, Father Preacher Fray Thomas
de la Pena. May Your Excellency be pleased, for God's sake,
to pardon its defects, resting assured of the good will I and all
have in serving Your Excellency and our sovereign—whom God
guard—especially in matters of this kind so fitting for our holy
institute. And inasmuch as, since the date of said letters, there is
no special new occurrence of which to advise Your Excellency,
and because I fear lest I might molest one I so venerate and
esteem, I will add only : May God our Lord guard Your Excellency many years in health and in his holy grace. From this mission, so favored by Your Excellency, of San Cdrlosde Monterey,.
October 7, 1774.
Most Excellent Sir :—Your most affectionate and humble
servant and chaplain kisses the hands of Your Excellency.
Fray Junipero Serra,
(a rubrica.}
1. In the History of the Pacific States published by Mr. H. H. Bancroft Spanish words,
especially patronymics, have been accented, or the necessary accent has been omitted
from them, without authority. One of the names accented improperly by Mr. Bancroft's
writers is that of Father Juan Crespi, the name being given as Crespi. That he did not so
write his name is shown by his signature to his diary, No. 19 of the documents published
in this collection. To the casual observer it might seem that President Serra put an accent
on the final syllable of the name of his companion—the friend by whose side he requested
that his own body might be laid—and it is quite possible that, in this case as in many
others, Mr. Bancroft's writers jumped at a conclusion. In the President's manuscript
Father Crespi's name seems to be accented, but a similar mark appears over the letter " 1"
in the words ** detencion," " dia," "limpio," " Dios," •* servir," •• gracia." In no one of
these words should the '' i " be accented.
2. This is the letter of which a fac-simile is published as the frontispiece to this book.
The fac-simile was made from that given to the Society by Mr. Sutro.   In order to present
IP
fid Documents from the Sutro Collection.
Document No. 18.
"\IARIO del viaje que por mandado del Padre Fray Junipero
|ffl Serra, Predicador Apostolico y Presidente de estas Misiones
de Monte-Rey, del cargo de, nuestro santo colegio de Propagan-
jdafide de San Fernando de la ciudad de Mexico hago desde este
Puerto de San Carlos de Monte-Rey sito en la costa de la California setentrional en 36 grados y 30 minutos de Latitud al Norte eif
la Fragata de Su Magestad nombrada Santiago, alias la Nueva
Galicia, mandada por Don Juan Perez Alferez graduado de Fragata, primer Piloto de los del numero en el Real Departamento de"
San Bias, y Capitan Comahdante de la expedicion que por 6rden
del Excelentisimo Senor Don Frey Antonio Maria Bucareli y Orsua;
ha de hacer en dicha Fragata a fin  de reconocer la costa desde"
Idicho Puerto de Monte-Rey hasta la altura de 60 grados de Latitud
al Norte, comenzando dia 6 de Junio de 1774, en que me embarque
en compania del Reverendo Padre Fray Juan Crespi, Predicador^
Apostolico de dicho Colegio y Ministro de la mision de San Carlos'
de Monte-Rey, vulgo del Carmelo.
Viva Jesus Maria y Joseph : Junio de 1774. Habiendome des-
tinado el Reverendo Padre Presidente de estas Misiones de Monte
Rey Fray Junipero Serra Comisionado del Santo oficio y Predicador Apostolico de Propanganda fide del Colegio de San Fernando
de la Ciudad de Mexico para acompanar al Reverendo Padre Fray
Juan Crespi Predicador Apostolico de dicho Colegio, que va con el
encargo de obseryar la altura del Norte, cuando se verifique salt^
eh tierra, durante el viage de la expedicion :
Dia 6 de Junio, como a las cuatro de la tarde, salimos de la
Mission de San Carlos de Monte-Rey, que dista como una legua
del Presidio y Puerto de Monte-Rey, al qUe llegamos como d las
:irico de la tarde y habiendonos despedido de los seiiores capitanes/
;rinimos d bordo acompanandonos dicho Padre Presidente hasta la?
he letter on a single page of this publication it has been reduced by about one-third, and
>y the skill of the printer the color to which the ink of the original has faded has been-
eproduced faithfully. In continuation are reproduced a fac-simile of the authentication
>f the Sutro fac-simile by the archivist of the collection at Seville, and the royal permit b&
Deans of which this was obtained, together with ah official letter to Mr. Sutro informing
dm of the royal permission. It is confidently believed that this is the first fac-simile of
'resident Serra's manuscript ever published, and it is thought that a reproduction of tflw
iand-writing of the founder of California must be of especial interest to Californians,while
t can not be otherwise than pleasing to students of the history of our commonwealth "and
o the public in general.   &$£ *tkii ^ti* efc
■-; *;>*V
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HliKiWiiil Historical Society of Southern California.
lS?<1
'   *
play a, en donde nos dimos el ultimo abrazo y despedida ; al pon-
erse el sol llegamos d bbrdo y habiendo cenado la gente de la
tripulacion embarcaron cuatro toretes y algunos cerdos, que el S?r
capitan comandante del presidio regalo para el rancho de la cam-
ara.    Esta noche se levaron las anclas.
Dia 7 por la manana con una espia por la proa sacaron el barco
del fondeadero y lo arfimaron a un yerbajal, que esta junto d la
Punta de Pinps, y distante de dicho fondeadero como un tiro de
fusil. Esta manana soplo el N. O., como a las 9 de la manana se
levo la ultima ancla, que habia servido de espia y se alargaron
velas, y habiendo hecho la ceremonia de hisar vandera espanola
con un canonazo, dimos dos 6 tres bordos para fuera y refrescando
el N. O. se volvi6 a dar fondo ; como a las doce y media de la tarde
poco mas a fuera de donde habia estado anclado para el desembar-
que de la carga. Todo este dia soplo el N. O. algo fresco. Por
la noche se enfermo el Contra-Maestre.
Dia 8 amanecio con el mismo viento del dia antecedente y se
mantuvo todo el. Como a la una de la tarde se diviso el Pacabotj
San Antonio, alias el Principe, el cual dio fondo como a las tres.
Dia 9 nos mantuvimos fondeados por falta de viento favorable.
Este dia como a las 9 de la manana, fuimos a dar un paseo al Real
el senor capitan Don Esteban y los dos Padres, y alii encontramos
al Padre Presidente, al Padre Fray Francisco Palou y al Padre
Fray Joseph de Murguia, volvimos a comer a bordo, y el Padre
Presidente.se qued6 a dormir en el Principe, para cantar al otrq
dia una Missa que los senores Pilotos habian ofrecido.
Dia 10 se cant6 una Missa solemne a Maria Santisima por el
buen viage en el mismo parage, en que se celebro la primera er
Monte-Rey : assistieron a ella los Padres Fray Joseph de Murguia
y Fray Francisco Dumez, los senores capitanes Don Fernando dc
Rivera, Don Pedro Fages y Don Joseph Canizares con toda 1
gente asi del Presido, como de los dos barcos. Comimos todos er
el mismo parage por convite del senor capitan Don Juan. Como i
las 3 de la tarde confese al Contra-Maestre Manuel Lopez, y lueg^
le administro la extremauncion el Padre Fray Juan y como a la^
cuatro y media espiro. El cadaver se embio a la Yglesia de
Presidio, para que le diesen sepultura los Padres Ministros de 1$
Mission de San Carlos.
Dia 11 amaneci6 en calma y con una espia y el remolque de la
lanchas de los dos barcos arrimaron la Fragata al yerbasal de 1:
Punta : Como d las doce con viente Norte nos hicimos d la vela 3
habiendo quedado la lancha del Principe levando un anclote quti
s^
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L -   -   - Documents from the Sutro Collection.
85
habia servido de espia no pudo darnos alcance ; toda esta tarde
cabeceo mucho el barco a causa de la mar por proa. Por la noche
hallandonos como 3 leguas de la Punta de aiio nuevo calm6 el
viento.
Dia 12 amanecio en calma; celebramos missa los dos padres.
Por la tarde sopl6 el N. O., pero lento y al ponerse el sol se calm6.
Como a las 9 de la noche vente6 el E. variable, y luego se calm6.
Toda la noche se paso en ventolin as y con nieblina muy densa y
humeda.
Dia 13 amanecio con la misma nieblina y ventolinas. Celebramos el Santo Sacrificio ambos padres. A causa de la mucha nieblina no pudimos ver la costa esta manana, ni los senores Pilotos
;j|ttdieron observar ; toda la tarde y noche siguiente se mantuvo la
nieblina densa y muy humeda.
Dia 14 amanecio encalma, con mucha nieblina. Esta manana
divisamos la Punta de ano nuevo como a distancia de 2 leguas y
las corrientes nos arrimaron tanto d la costa que a las nueve la
teniamos como un cuarto de legua : a dicha hora se sondeo varias
veces y se hallo fondo en 25, 24 y 22 brazas. A las doce y media
comenzo a ventolear lentamente el S. O. y con el nos apartamos de
la tierra. Por la noche calm6 a ratos y nos mantuvimos dando
bordos entre las dos puntas.
Dia 15 amanecimos en frente de la punta de Pinos a la parte del
Oeste y divisamos claramente la Punta de cipreses, la ensenada del
Carmelo y la sierra de Santa Lucia. Como a las 8 comenzo d
soplar el Noroeste algo fresco, pero se calmo antes de las 9. Este
dia no hubo tanta nieblina como los antecedentes, pero estuvo
nublado el cielo y se despejo algunos ratos. Al anochecer nos
hallabamos como 6 leguas apartados de la tierra, la cual demar-
caron los senores pilotos y la punta de aiio nuevo nos demoraba al
Nordeste, la de Pinos al Este, y lo demas al Sur de Santa Lucia
ai s. e. |gk; ' :J| :W§m
Dia 16 por la manana se miraba la sierra de Santa Lucia comod
distancia de 12 leguas; este dia amanecio nublado como el ante-
cedente. A las 8 de la manana refresc6 un poco el Nornoroeste
con aparato de agua y cayeron algunas gotas, pero ceso luego y el
viento se mitiguo. Por la tarde aclaro algo el cielo y el viento se
fu£ aflojando.
Dia 17 amanecio en calma y el cielo muy despejado y claro.
Como a la una de la tarde se levanto viento del S. O. muy lento ;
divisamos al Noroeste la sierra de Santa Lucia como a distancia de
16 leguas.    Por la noche se llamo el viento al N. O. y se vir6 de
il IP^
rfl •-a
Historical Society of Southern California.
bordo con la proa al oeste sudoeste.
pPia 18 amaneci6 con el mismo vientoy nieblina muy obscura y
humeda que parecia aguacero. Este dia amanecio enfermo el
.senor capitan con indisposicion del estomago y sin haber sosegado
en toda la noche, pero al medio dia ya estaba mejorado. A las 12
observaron los senores pilotos y digeron nos hallabamos en 34
grados y 57 minutos de latitud al Norte. Por la tarde refresc6
mas el viento. |3q
Dia 19 amanecio con el mismo viento, pero muy fresco y mucha
marejada. No se pudo decir misa por los muchos valances. A
las 8 nos quedamos con solo el trinquete, y asi se caminaba d 3 y 4
millas por hora; por la tarde aflojo el viento alguna cosa y se
amuro la mayor.
Dia 20 habiendose mitiguado el viento se marearon las gavias y
se caminaba d 5 millas y media por hora. Todo este dia soplo el
Noroeste. g*y
Dia 21 amaneci6 muy claro y despejado el cielo. El viento se
,llam6 al Norte y soplo fresco todo el dia, se naveg6 al Oeste cuarto
al Noroeste d tres millas por hora. Observaron este dia los sen-
ores pilotos 34 grados y 8 minutos de latitud.
Dia 22 amanecio nublado el cielo y d las 7 de la manana vino
del Norte una nieblina muy humeda y el viento fue calmando. Al
medio dia observaron los senores pilotos 34 grados y 7 minutos de
latitud ; el viento se man tuvo lento y variable.
Dia 23 por la manana se llam6 el viento al Nordeste pero luego
se ladeo al Norosete. Observaron los senores pilotos al sol en 33
grados y 46 minutos ; todo el dia sopl6 el Noroeste y se caminaba
al oeste sudoeste d 3 millas por hora.
,£! Dia 24 amaneci6 nublado el cielo y el viento se llamo al Norte
Nordeste algo fresco y se camin6 al O. N. O. Digimos misa los
dos padres y celebramos alegre el cumpleanos del senor capitan
Don Juan Perez. Este dia observaron los senores pilotos 33 grados y 43 minutos de latitud. Por la tarde se camin6 al N. O. \ al
O. a 3 y media milla.
Dia 25 amanecio claro el cielo y con el mismo viento que ayer se
caminaba d 4 millas por hora al mismo rumbo. Este dia observaron el sol los senores pilotos en 34 grados y 26 minutos de latitud. A las 9 de la noche se llamo el viento al Este.
■yi Dia 26 amaneci6 con el mismo viento fresco. Digimos misa los
dos padres. Observaron los senores pilotos el sol en 35 grados y
37 minutos de latitud.    A las 5 de la tarde se calm6 el viento.
Dia 27 d las 6 de la manana comenzo a ventolear del Nordeste
I
1
& Documents from the Sutro Collection.
*1
lento y variable.    En este dia observaron los senores pilotos 35
grados 59 minutos, y prosigui6 el mismo tiempo.
Dia 28 prosiguio el mismo viento y se caminaba a 2 millas por
.4pra.    Este dia nos hallamos en 36 grados y 26 minutos casi al
paralelo de Monte-Rey.    Por la tarde refresco algo el viento y
j>rosigui6 toda la noche.
Dia 29 amanecio con el mismo viento. . Digimos misa ambos
padres. Al medio dia observaron el sol los senores pilotos en 37 y
20 minutos. Por la tarde se llamo el viento al Este y se camin-
aban 4 millas.
Dia 30 prosigui6 el viento del Este aunque lento y como a las 7
se llam6 el Este Sudeste muy flojo. Observaron los senores pilotos
38 grados y 35 minutos de latitud. Por la tarde refresc6 algo el
viento. ^i
Julio de 1774.
Dia 1 amanecio casi calmado el viento y a las 10 se calm6 del
todo. Este dia observaron los senores pilotos 39 grados 45 minutos.
A las doce y media comenzo d ventear el Sur muy lento y cargd
mucha nieblina.    A las 5 se calm6 el viento.
Dia 2 como a las 3 de la manana cay6 un aguacero con ventoli-
jnas del Sudoeste y luego qued6 en calma, la que duro todo el dia
Sy calent6 bien el sol.    Por la noche soplo del E. S. E. muy lento.
Dia 3 amanecio con mucha nieblina y el viento algo fresco.
Digimos misa los dos padres. A las 8 se calm6 el viento; y la
nieblina comenzo a descargar agua. A las 10 volvio d ventolear
del E. Observaron los senores pilotos 40 grados 34 minutos de
!latitud, como d los dos se llamo el viento al S. E. algo fresco, y
duro toda la tarde y noche siguiente. Esta tarde al ponerse el sol
se.vieron algunos pajaros y dijeron que eran de mar y que muchas
I veces se ven sin que haya tierra en muchos cientos de leguas.
i Dia 4 amaneci6 el cielo nublado y con mucho rocio, el viento
fresco del S. E. y se mantuvo todo el dia. No pudieron observar
este dia los senores pilotos por lo mucho nublado que estuvo. Como
jd la una de la tarde comenzo d Hover y prosigui6 lo mas de la tarde.
'Por la noche sereno algo el cielo y cayo mucho rocio.
Dia 5 amaneci6 con el mismo viento aunque no tan fresco, y el
Icielo nublado, observaron este dia los senores pilotos 43 grados 35
jminutos de latitud, pero dijeron que no era segura dicha observa-
Icion, por no haberse aclarado los orizontes. Al ponerse el sol
(vimos un pajaro grande como gavilan y dijeron que era de tierra,
pero este no se pudo divisar desde el tope : hicimos juicio que por
I
u?\ Historical Society of Southern California.
v   *j£.
el O., a donde caminaba dicho pajaro, habrd alguna isla. Por la
noche sintieron los matineros un bufido que les pareci6 de ballena,
pero Don Esteban que estaba de guardia me dijo que le parecia ser
de lobo marino.
Dia 6 amanecio con grande rocio y nieblina muy densa, el viento
algo mas fresco que ayer ; pero d las 8 ya comenzo a escasearse,
No pudieron observar los senores pilotos por la mucha nieblina.
Como d la una se llam6 el viento al S. O. ; d las 4 vimos un pato
posado en la agua, como sesenta varas del barco y segun dijeron es
senal de que hay tierra no muy lejos. Como a las 5 se calm6 el
viento, y luego aclaro el cielo y orizontes. El gaviero registro
v£ desde el tope y dijo que no divisaba tierra por parte alguna. Al
anochecer vi otro jpato.
Dia 7 amanecio en calma con mucha nieblina, y tanto rocio que
parecia aguacero. Esta manana vimos varios lobos marinos al
rededor del barco. No pudieron observar los senores pilotos por
la mucha nieblina. Como a las 7 de la tarde comenz6 d ventolear
del N. y toda la noche se paso en ventolina.
Dia 8 amanecio con nieblina como los dias antecedentes, y las
ventolinas del N. muy lentas y variables que a cada rato calmaban,
y cuando mas se caminaba a milla por hora. A las 9 se calmo
totalmente. No pudieron observar los senores pilotos con certeza
por haber aclarado muy poco el sol y estar los orizontes ofuscados
con la nieblina, que ya 5 dias no nos ha faltado ni una hora. Porl
la tarde hubo algunas ventolinas del S. E.,pero muy calmosas.J
Esta tarde vimos tambien varios pajaros.
Dia 9 amaneci6 con tanta nieblina y rocio que parecia haber
llovido toda la noche, pues las velas estaban como si las hubierati
mojado y de la agua que destilaban habian llenado algunos valdes
los marineros que los habian puesto debajo para reeogerlo. La
calma sigui6 todo el dia salvo algunos ratos que venian algunas
ventolinas del S. E. Al medio dia aclaro algo el cielo, con que
pudieron hacer su observacion los senores pilotos y dijeron qtMJ
estabamos en 45 grados de que nos alegramos todos, pues estaban
ya con cuidado los pilotos y luego que observaron volvio la nieh
lina muy oscura a cerrar los orizontes. Por la tarde calmaron mai
las ventolinas y la nieblina descargo mucha agua.
Dia 10 prosigui6 con nieblina y calma. Digimos misa ambo;
padres. Como d las 10 comenz6 d soplar muy lento ei S. A
medio dia aclar6 algo el cielo y observaron los senores pilotos 4,
grados 35 minutos. Por la tarde cay6 mucha agua de la nieblini
y el viento calmaba d cada rato.    Este dia se vi6 un lobo marin Documents from the Sutro Collection.
89
el cual di6 algunas vueltas al barco. A las 8 y media de la noche
comenz6 d soplar el S. E. algo fresco y se camin6 toda la noche d
dos millas y media por hora.
Dia 11 amaneci6 con el mismo viento y mucha nieblina como los
dias antecedentes; como a las 8 se llam6 el viento al S. y se caminaba d 3 millas por hora. Esta manana se vieron dos gaviotas y
varios pajaros. Al medio dia se aclaro algo el sol y lo observaron
los senores pilotos en 46 grados y 32 minutos de latitud; por la
tarde se llamo el viento al S. O. y la nieblina comenz6 d descar-
gar mucha agua y parecia lluvia de temporal y esto dur6 todo el
dia y noche siguiente. Esta noche hizo bastante frio y por la tarde,
que dijeron caia elada el agua.
Dia 12 amaneci6 con nieblina y rocio como los dias pasados,
pero mas frio. El viento se llamo al O. S. O. como d las 5 de la
manana y la nieblina prosigui6 Hovisnandq hasta las 10 : en dicha
hora se llamo el viento al O. algo fresco. Esta manana se vieron
algunos patos. No pudieron observar los senores pilotos por estar
muy nublado el cielo y oscuros los orizontes. Por la tarde se
llam6 el viento al O. N. O. muy fresco y hubo mucha marejada y
grande frio; viendo que el viento era contra d nuestro rumbo, (que
ha sido al N. O. i al O. desde que comenzamos a subir siempre
que lo ha permitido el viento) y que las nieblinas eran tan conti-
nuas, pusieron la proa al Norte, para recalar a tierra ganando
alguna altura. Como d las 3 de la tarde aclar6 un poco el cielo, y
toda la noche se mantuvo algo despejado, pero muy oscuros los
orizontes.
Dia 13 amaneci6 con el mismo viento O. N. O. aunque no tan
fresco y el cielo claro como por la noche pero d las 7 se volvi6 d
cubrir de nubes. Al medio dia aclar6 muy bien el dia y observaron
pas senores pHotos 48 grados 55 minutos de latitud y dijeron que
tenian mas satisfaccion de esta observacion que de las antecedentes
por haber estado mas despejados los orizontes. Por la tarde volvi6
d nublarse el cielo. Como d las 7 se Ham6 el viento al S. O. bien
fresco y se puso la proa al N. O. en dicha hora vino la nieblina
tan oscura que apenas se veia la proa del barco y con tanta agua
que parecia aguacero y asi continu6 toda la noche.
Dia 14 amaneci6 con la nieblina y rocio dichos, y el viento fresco
del O.; como d las 9 de la manana mand6 el senor capitan poner
la proa al Norte, para recalar y ver si arrimandonos d la costa se
halla despejado el cielo. Al medio dia observaron los senores
pilotos (aunque no con seguridad por el mucho nublado) 50 grados
y 24 minutos de latitud.    Por la tarde se mantuvo fresco el viento
J"
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90
Historical Society of Southern California.
Mil
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y variable del O. al S.    En este dia se reconocio la aguada y hal
haber agua para dos meses y medio.    Por la noche prosigui6 dicho
viento variable con mucha nieblina y rocio.
Dia 15 amaneci6 muy nublado, con mucho rocio y el viento del
S. muy fresco. A las 9 de la manana convoc6 el senor capitan a
todos los oficiales del barco y habiendoles manifestado el estado de
la aguada, les pidi6 su parecer sobre si convenia seguir en deman-
da de la altura de 60 grados que pide Su Excelencia, 6 ir en busca
de la tierra para reconocer si se halla proporcion de refrescar la
aguada y con ella hacer la diligencia de subir d los 60 grados ;
todos fueron de sentir, que convenia recalar d tierra para surtirse
de agua y al mismo tiempo tener parage conocido d donde recalar
de arribada en caso de hacerse necesario por algun acaecimiento.
Visto el parecer de los oficiales mand6 el senor capitan governar
al N. E. ; en dicha hora se llamo el viento al S. O. bien fresco.
k
Estos dos dias se ha caminado a cuatro y media mUla por hora con
mucha marejada y frio. Al medio dia observaron los senores
pilotos 51 grados y 42 minutos. Por la tarde prosiguio el mismo
viento aunque no tan fresco y el tiempo aclaro un poco.
Dia 16 amanecio nublado el cielo, pero no hubo nieblina ni
rocio ; el viento se mantuvo del S. O. y a las 9 aclard muy bien el
dia y quedo templado el tiempo. Este dia se hizo una cruz grande
de madera con el fin de fijarla en tierra en senal de posesion cuando
se verefique el primer desembarque. Al medio dia observaron los -
senores pilotos 52 grados y 41 minutos de latitud. Por la tarde se
aflojo el viento y se mantuvo variable del S. al S. O. Esta tarde
se vieron algunas ballenas y yerbas del mar que los marineros
llaman porras, y se crian muchas en las costas de Monte-Rey 6
cerca de ellas.
Dia 17 amanecio nublado el cielo, sin nieblina ni rocio y el
viento casi en calma, pues no se caminaba d milla y media por
hora. Digimos misa los dos padres. Como d las 7 vino la nieblina
y cay6 un aguacero corto, pero paso luego, y el tiempo comenz6 a
levantar. Este dia no hubo frio. Al medio dia ya estaba despejado
el cielo y el sol calent.6 muy bien : observaron los senores pilotos
53 grados y 13 minutos de latitud. Por la tarde prosigui6 la misma
bonanza de tiempo con algunas ventolinas del S. O. y vimos
algunas ballenas.    La noche qued6 buena y clara sin rocio.
Dia 18 d las 5 de la manana vino un chuvasco del S. E. con
alguna agua y prosigui6 con ventolinas y nieblina muy humeda.
Esta manana se sangr6 el piloto Don Esteban por causa de una
inflamacion en la cara.    Como d las diez entr6 un poco de viento
1 ■. nlMMMMr"*"™
mm Documents from the Sut$o Collection.
9i
jdel N. O. pero muy variable y flojo. A las 11 divisamos tierra por
|Ea proa que es al N. O. Bendito sea Dios y alabado de todas las
rriaturas. No se pudo observar este dia por no haberse descubierto
lei sol. A las dos reparamos que la tierra vista al N. E. estaba
^evada no solo en la cumbre de la sierra sino tambien en las faldas.
Mas al N. se miraban otras tierras sin nieve. Cuando divisamos
la tierra que seria d distancia de veinte leguas poco mas 6 menos,
mando el senor capitan poner la proa al N. N. E.; el viento se
Imantuvo flojo y caminabamos a milla y media por hora. Esta
tarde se volvi6 a sangrar D. Esteban. A las 5 se llamo el viento
al O. N. O. y se caminaba a dos millas, pero luego se escaseo. Al
bonerse el sol demarcaron la tierra y la sierra nevada demoraba al
fe. N. E. y la punta de tierra mas al N. que parece cabo al N. N.
|E. Por la noche hubo algunas ventolinas del O. N. O., pero lo
bias de ella se pas6 en calma ; el cielo quedo nublado pero no cayo
rocio. §|||
Dia 19 amanecio en calma, el cielo nublado, pero los orizontes
Iclaros. Como a las 7 de esta manana se ofuscaron los orizontes
Icon nieblina. D. Esteban se saco una muela por ho halter tenido
alivio con las Sangrias : a las 11 entro un poco de viento del S. E.
piuy lento y se puso la proa al N. i al N. E. para montar el cabo
Ide tierra que demoraba al N. E- y *ver a donde corre la costa mas
[arriba de dicho cabo, pues al N. de el no se ve mas tierra. Al
[medio dia observo el sen or capitan 53 grados y 41 minutos de
ilatitud ; el viento fue refrescando muy bien y hallandonos a
mstancia de tres leguas de la punta de tierra mas al N. se reco-
nocio que desde dicha punta corre al N. N. O. la costa de tierra
baja. Como a las 5 de la tarde se puso la proa al N. E. para
arrimarnos a la tierra que demoraba a dicho rumbo y ver si habia
paraje donde fondear. Como a las 6 estando ya muy fresco el
|viento comenzo a Hover, por lo cual, y estar muy oscuro el tiempo
ipor la nieblina y la noche muy proxima determin6 el senor capitan
hacernos un poco afuera y ponernos a la capa como se hizo a las 7
|de la tarde y asi pasamos la noche; la nieblina prosigui6 con
[bastante agua.
Dia 20 habiendo amanecido se llamo el viento al E. S. E. y nos
pusimos a camino con la proa al N. i al N. E., la nieblina se
jmantuvo muy humeda y oscura ; como a las 9 se puso la proa al
IE. N. E. para reconocer la tierra baja que se miraba al estremo de
[la punta, y a las diez desde el tope conocieron que eran tres islas
jchicas y proximas a la tierra. A estas islas llam6 el senor capitan
las islas de Santa Margarita, por ser dia de la glofiosa senora.   No
kl
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Historical Society of Southern California.
se pudo observar este dia por la mucha nieblina que todo el dias
estuvo arrojando agua. Como a las tres de la tarde estabamos i
cerca de la tierra (que habia parecido islas y no se pudo asegurar
lo fuesen por lo poco que la nieblina dejaba estender la vista con
ser que estabamos como tres leguas de ella) y se bir6 de bordo
para fuera con animo de mantenernos bordeando sobre la tierra para
en aclarando el tiempo registrar fondeadero y hacer la aguada. En
dicha hora vimos humaderas en tierra y luego se vio venir una
canoa con 9 hombres dentro : esta se acerc6 d nuestro barco can-
tando los gentiles pero no quisieron arrimarse de modo que le
pudiesimos hablar por senas, y habiendonos seguido un buen rato
se volvieron para tierra. Como d las 5 vino en seguimiento nuestro, dicha canoa con otra en que venian 6 gentiles y habiendonos
alcanzado se arrimaron las dos d nuestra popa, y el senor capitan
les regal6 algunas sartas de abalorios y eUos dieron pescado seco,
pero no quisieron subir d bordo. Son gente bien dispuesta, blan-
cos, con pelo largo, cubiertos de pieles y gamuzas y algunos son
bordados. En sus canoas traian algunos hierros, pero no pudimos
averiguar de donde los han habido porque luego se retiraron a
su tierra convidandonos con ella y pfrecieron darnos agua al dia
siguiente. Como a las 6 llego otra canoa con 7 gentiles, y se
arrimaron con el mismo canto que los primeros;. estos nos
siguieron como una hora sin querer subir d bordo y cuando se
volvieron d su tierra estabamos ya apartados de ella como ocho
leguas y bastante marejada. Las canoas son como las que tienen
en la canal de Santa Barbara, pero de mayor cavida. Esta tarde
corri6 el viento S. E. y a las diez de la noche se calm6.
Dia 21 como a las 12 de la noche comenzo a venteaf el S. E..
muy fresco, y se prosiguio para fuera con la proa al S. O. i al S.
A las 8 de la manana se viro de bordo para tierra con la proa al E.
i al N. E. Esta manana hubo mucha nieblina. No pudieron
observar los senores pilotos por estar nublado el cielo. Como d las
12 del dia llegamos sobre la punta de tierra del N. de Santa
Margarita a distancia de un cuarto de legua y la fuimos costeando
hacia al E. como media legua con animo de registrar si tras de una
punta al E. en donde parece hace recodo habia fondeadero, pero
no se pudo montar esta punta porque las corrientes nos rechazaban
al S., por lo cual se vir6 de bordo y habiendonos apartado como
una legua al S. O. de la tierra se calm6 el viento que toda la
manana habia soplado muy fuerte y habia levantado grande mare-
jada. Como a las dos y media de la tarde comenzaron d venir
canoas de gentiles j unas may ores que otras ; las mayores tendran Documents from the Sutro Collection.
93
| de largo doce 6 trece varas, y al parecer son de una pieza, escepto
|un cerco de tablas por arriba, y la proa.     En dichas canoas
| vinieron como doscientas almas ; en una se contaron veinte y una
I personas, en otra diez y nueve, en las demas habia d cinco, d siete,
a doce y a quince almas.     Vino una canoa con doce 6 trece
mugeres sin hombre alguno ; en las otras habia tambien algunas
I mugeres, pero el mayor numero era de hombres.    Al tiempo de
llegarse d nuestro barco la canoa de mugeres sucedio que esta
topando con su proa en la de otra canoa de hombres se la quebro,
de lo que se enfadaron mucho los hombres, y uno de ellos cojiendo
en sus manos la proa de la canoa de las mugeres se la hizo
pedazos, para vengarse del descuido de ellas.    Toda la tarde se
estuvieron las canoas que eran veinte y una entre todas, al rededor
de nuestro barco, comerciando con los de d bordo para lo cual
traian gran prevencion de petates, pieles de diversas especies de
animales y peces, sombreros de junco, gorras de pieles, plumages
con varias figuras y sobre todo muchas colchas, 6 tejidos de land
| muy bordados como de vara y media en cuadro con sus flecos de la
; misma lana al rededor y varios labores de distintos colores.    De
I todo compraron los nuestros por ropa, cuchillos y abalorios, varias
|piezas.    Se conoci6 que tienen mucha aficion al comercio y que lo
j que mas apetecian eran cosas de hierro, pero querian piezas grandes
|y de corte, como espadas, machetes, &c, pues mostrandoles veldu-
ques daban d entender que eran chicos, y ofreciendoles aros de
jbarril, que no tenia corte.    Subieron a bordo dos gentiles, y les
j cuadro mucho nuestro barco y las cosas de eL    Las mugeres tienen
taladrado el labio inferior y en el ^pendiente una rodeta plana que
no pudimos saber que cosa era, ni de que materia.    Su vestido es
juna esclavina con fleco al rededor y una ropa talar de sus tejidos
| de lana, 6 de pieles que las cubre todo el cuerpo; tienen pelo
[largo y  hecho trenza a las espaldas, son blancas y rubias como
cualquiera espanola ; pero las afea la rodeta que tienen en el labio
y cuelga hasta la barba.    Los hombres andan tambien cubiertos ya
Ide pieles, ya de tejidos de lana, y muchos con esclavinas como las
mugeres;   pero  no reparan  en  quedarse desnudos  cuando ven
|ocacion de vender sus vestidos.    A las seis se fueron despidiendo
las canoas para sus tierras y demostraron que deseaban el que
Ifuesemos d ella.    Algunos marineros saltaron a las canoas y los
gentiles los embijaron con mucha algazara y contento.    Dieron d
| entender estos gentiles que no pasasemos al Norte porque era mala
gente que flechaban y mataban; (cuento comun entre gentiles decir
que todos son malos menos ellos).    Toda la tarde duro la calma y
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las corrientes nos apartaron mas de la tierra como dos leguas.
Dia 22 como a las dos de la madrugada comenzo a ventear el S.
E. muy lento y a las 5 distariamos de la tierra como cuatro leguas,-
y la teniamos al E. S. E., y una isla que ayer se demarc6 al N. O.
i O. a distancia de 8 6 diez leguas se miraba al N., y otra tierra^
alta demarcada ayer al N. i al N. O. que no se supo si era isla
demoraba al N. Caminamos sobre la tierra con la proa al E. i al
N. E. para ver si se podia montar la punta al E. de Santa Margarita y registrar si hay fondeadero en el recodo que hace tras de
dicha punta ; pero por lo mucho que las corrientes nos sotaventa-
ban no se pudo llegar d dicha punta y asi dimos bordo para fuera
con la proa al S. S. O. Al medio dia dijo el senor capitan que
habia observado al sol en 55 grados de latitud; como d la una se
vir6 de bordo para tierra y a las tres y media se llamo el viento al
E. S. E. y se vino para fuera con la proa al S., pero luego se llamo
otra vez el viento al S. E. y se puso la proa al S. S. O. Toda esta
tarde se mantuvo dicho viento fresco con muchisima nieblina, tan
espesa que parecia de noche y tan humeda que parecia aguacero
de temporal y grande marejada. Con motivo de ser el viento
contrario, la nieblina tan espesa y humeda, la marejada tan grande
y las corrientes que nos sotaventaban sobre la tierra alta que
esta al Norte de la punta de Santa Margarita, caminamos toda
la tarde y noche para fuera y perdimos de vista la punta de
Santa Margarita. Advierto que toda la tierra de Santa Margarita
y la demas al Este, esta tan poblada de arboleda que no se mira
parte alguna que no sea bosque muy tupido de maderage alto*
y nos parecio ser cipreses. En'las canoas de los gentiles vieron
los nuestros palos de pino, de cipres, de fresno y aya, aunque yo no vi mas que de cipres y de pino.
Dia 23 amaneci6 con el mismo viento, nieblina, agua y marejada
que ayer y se prosiguio para fuera con la misma proa caminando
solamente a milla por hora, (estando con demasiada fuerza el
viento) por la mucha marejada que nos venia por proa. Antes
de medio dia se llamo el viento al E. S. E. y se camino todo el dia
al S. a tres millas y a dos y media por hora* No se pudo observar
por no haberse visto el sol en todo el dia. Por la tarde prosiguio
llovisnando con bastante frio ; viendo el tiempo tan malo y los
vientos contrarios para vajar, determinamos hacer una novena al
Senor San Juan Nepomuceno, que se comenzo este dia y otra a la
Senora Santa Clara que se comenzara dia 4 del proximo Agosto
(dandonos Dios vida) para alcanzar de Su Magestad Santisima
por la intercesion de dichos santos la mejoria de tiempos que
II
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necesitamos. Advierto que el senor capitan nos dijo este dia que
la isla demarcada al N. 0. i al O. dia veinte y uno estando sobre
la punta de Santa Margarita se llama isla de Santa Cristina, y la
otra tierra alta demarcada al N. i al N. O. se llama el cabo de
Santa Maria Magdalena. Este cabo estd al N. O. de la punta de
Santa Margarita y entre 61 y dicha punta hace d la parte del E.
una como ensenada muy grande que no pudimos conocer, (porque
las corrientes nos rechazaban como tengo dicho) si es golfo,
estrecho 6 bahia con desemboque de algun caudaloso rio como
imagina el senor capitan. El dicho cabo de Santa Maria Magda-
ena dista 10 leguas de la punta de Santa Margarita y esto es lo
que tiene de ancho la boca 6 entrada de dicha ensenada 6 golfo.
El cabo de Santa Maria Magdalena sale para fuera del E. al O. y
junto d la punta que hace al O. estd la isla de Santa Cristina, la
cual nos pareci6 ser chica y apartada de tierra como dos leguas;
esta noche d las once comenzo d ventear el S. O.
Dia 24 amanecio algo claro y el viento fresco del S. O. Desde
as 11 de la noche antecedente hasta las 5 de esta manana caminamos al S. E. A las 5 se puso la proa al E. S. E- para recalar d
tierra. Este dije yo misa y el padre Fray Juan no la dijo porque
antes de comenzarla se vi6 venir un chuvasco y cayeron algunas
o*otas de agua y refresc6 mas el viento. Este dia observaron los
senores pilotos 53 grados y 48 minutos de latitud. Por la tarde
afloj6 el viento y por la noche se calm6. Al ponerse el sol se
$ivis6 tierra y nos pareci6 ser la primera que vimos en la recalada
dia 18 del presente. A las 11 de la noche se vieron en el cielo d
la parte del Norte y N. E. unos resplandores muy luminosos.
Dia 25 amaneci6 en calma y el cielo muy claro y despejado. A
las 6 comenz6 d ventolear muy lento del E. Digimos misa ambos
padres y le administr£ por viatico el Santisimo a un marinero
enfermo. Como el viento era de tierra la cual se miraba al E. no
budimos ir en demanda de ella, que distaria de nosotros como doce
leguas y se puso la proa al S. i al S. E. Al medio dia observaron
los senores pilotos 53 grados y 21 minutos de latitud. Como d la
ima de la tarde se llam6 el viento al N. E. muy lento y con la proa
^1 S. E. i al E. caminabamos d milla por hora : esta tarde se vi6
Lien clara la costa y la sierra nevada; al pie de esta se v€ una
ierra alta que hace cuchilla en la cumbre tendida del E. al O. y d
a parte del O. hace la tierra un mogote redondo como un horno y
barece ser islote; aunque no se pudo conocer, si lo es, como tam-
>oco si la dicha tierra alta es continente con la falda de la sierra
iievada, 6 isla apartada de ella.    Al N. O. de esta tierra alta, y
os
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Historical Society of Southern California.
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mogote con figura de horno parece que hace ensenada. Esta tarde
como d las 7 murio un grumete llamado Salvador Antonio,
natural y casado en el pueblo de Gaynamota. Como d las 6 com-
enz6 d cargar la nieblina, y d llovisnar. A las 9 se llamo el viento
al N. E. i al E. y comenzo d Hover con mucha fuerza especial-
mente hasta las 11, y toda la noche prosigui6 lloviendo con el
mismo viento.
Dia 26 amaneci6 llovisnando con mucha nieblina ; d las 4 de la
manana comenzo a ventear al S. S. E. y caminamos con la proa al
O. S. O. hasta las 6 y media que se vir6 para tierra con la proa al
E. Dige misa y enterr6 al grumete que muri6 ayer : el padre
Fray Juan no dijo misa por el mal tiempo que sobrevino de agua-
ceros con tanto viento y marejada que no podiamos mantenernos
en pi6 : d las diez se vir6 para fuera con la proa al O. S. O. por
estar el tiempo tan malo para arrimarnos d tierra asi por el mucho
viento cbmp por la marejada y oscuridad del dia que todo 61 estuvo
lloviendo con mucha fuerza ; no se pudo observar; por la tarde se
arreci6 mas el viento y se mantuvo variable del S. E. al S. S. O.,
pero siempre lloviendo ; por la noche se llamo el viento al S. O. I
se puso la proa al S. S. E.
Dia 27 amaneci6 oscuro el cielo y lloviendo como el dia antece-
dente con grande marejada; el viento del S. O., pero no tan fresco;
d las 8 de la manana ces6 la lluvia, y desde las 10 comenz6 d
aclarar el tiempo y mitigarse el viento. Al medio dia observaron
los senores pilotos 52 grados y 59 minutos de latitud ; por la tarde
hizo buen sol y el viento se mantuvo flojo hasta la noche que se
qued6 en calma.
Dia 28 amaneci6 en calma y el tiempo claro, se miraba bien la
tierra a distancia como de 8 leguas ; es la tierra alta con muchos
cerros tajados d la mar : como d las 7 comenzo d ventolear del S. y
nublarse el cielo, pero el viento se calmo luego y el cielo se despej6
algo al medio dia con lo cual pudieron observar los senores pilotos
y segun dijeron nos hallamos en 52 grados y 41 minutos : tambien
demarcaron la costa y lo mas al N. de ella demoraba al N. N. O. y
lo mas al S. demoraba al E. S. E. Esta costa desde los 54 grados
hasta aqui corre del N. O. al S. E. y toda es tierra muy alta. A
esta tierra llam6 el senor capitan la sierra de San Cristoval, y estd
nevada no solo en el cerro que estd en los 53 grados de latitud,
sino tambien en otros varios mas al S. Por la tarde como d las 3
comenz6 d soplar muy lento el S. S. O., luego se fu6 llamando al
S. O. y se puso la proa al S. S. E. pero fu6 tan lento el viento que
se navegaba d milla por hora y varios ratos se calmaba totalmente Documents from the Sutro Collection.
asi por la tarde como por la noche siguiente que se mantuvo dicho
i viento; el tiempo se mantuvo esta tarde y noche sin Hover con
mucho nublado y algun frio.
Dia 29 amaneci6 nublado el cielo pero sin nieblina y asi se veia
I bien la costa que tambien distaria como 8 leguas y es tierra muy
I alta y quebrada, en la cumbre tiene muchos picachos que hacen
diversas figuras, como lo demas de la sierra de San Cristobal. En
toda la costa desde Santa Margarita en los 55 hasta aqui no se ha
podido reconocer si puertos, ensenadas, bahias, rios, &c, asi por
lo apartado que hemos navegado como por los muchos nublados de
los mas dias que han ofuscado los orizontes y playage ; esta manana continu6 el S. O. con la misma lentitud € intervalos que ayer ;
como d las 11 se llamo el viento al S. S. E. y se vir6 de bordo para
fuera con la proa al S. O. i al O. No se pudo observar este dia
por lo mucho nublado que estuvo el cielo ; por la tarde se qued6
causi calmado el viento y d anochecer se calm6 totalmente y duro
la calma toda la noche.
Dia 30 por la manana hubo algunas ventolinas del E. S. E. y
con ellas nos apartamos mas de la tierra con la proa al S.; como d
las 8 se llam6 el viento al S. S. E. muy'lento y variable y se puso
la proa al S. O. i al S., luego se fue llamando al S. y cada vez
mas fresco ; d las 12 se vir6 de bordo con la proa al E. S. E., y d
la una habiendose vuelto el viento al S. E. se viro con la proa para
fuera al S. O. i al S. y se caminaba tres millas por hora. Este
dia no pudieron observar los senores pilotos por estar nublado el
cielo ; por la tarde se arrecio mucho el viento con grande marejada
y antes de anochecer fu6 preciso aferrar el velacho para que no se
viniese abajo el mastelero, se quebrase el trinquete con las grandes
cabezadas que daba el barco ; luego que anocheci6 comenz6 d
Hover y dur6 la agua toda la noche : d las 12 aferraron la gavia,
porque el viento iba tomando fuerza y nos quedamos con las dos
mayores : todos pasamos mala noche por lo mucho que se valan-
ceaba el barco : el viento a prima noche se llam6 al E- S. E. y de
la media noche abajo se volvio al S. E. y S. S. E.
Dia 31 amaneci6 lloviendo y el tiempo muy cerrado aunque el
viento no estaba ya tan fuerte. No pudimos decir misa por estar
malo el tiempo y haber mucha marejada y valances. Como d las
8 y media marearon las gavias habiendose mejorado algo el tiempo
y cesado la agua ; el viento se mantuvo del toda la noche y manana y se camin6 con la proa al S. O. i al O.: como d las 10 volvi6 d
tomar mayor fuerza el viento y d cerrarse mas el tiempo con amen-
azas de agua, pero no llovi6.    A las 12 se aclar6 un poco y obser-
8
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Historical Society of Southern California.
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varon los senoros pilotos 51 grados, y 58 minutos de latitud. Por
la tarde prosiguio el mismo viento muy fuerte y el cielo muy cer-
rado y oscuro ; como d las 7 cayeron algunas gotas de agua muy
gruesas y frias pero luego cesaron.
Agosto de 1774.
Dia 1 d la una de la madrugada habiendose llamado el viento al
S. O. viraron de bordo para tierra y con la proa al S. S. E., se
caminaba d cuatro millas por hora ; como a las 7 de la manana se
llamo el viento al S. S. O. siempre muy fresco y se puso la proa al
S. E. A las 8 aclar6 el cielo y se dej6 ver el sol; como d las 10 se
llamo el viento al O. S. O. no tan fuerte como por la manana ni
tan frio; al medio dia observaron los senores pilotos el sol en 51
grados y 35 minutos de latitud al N. Por la tarde prosigui6 dicho
viento algo mas fresco y lento, y se camino al mismo rumbo d tres
millas por hora ; como a las 7 se llamo el viento al O. el cual dur6
toda la noche y se prosiguio navegando al S. S. E. d tres millas
por hora ; la noche estuvo muy clara y despejado el cielo.
Dia 2 como a las cuatro y media de la manana se llam6 el viento
al O. N. O. y se puso la proa al S. E- para recalar d tierra ; esta
manana aunque no era muy fuerte el viento por ser cuasi en popa
y la marejada favorable, caminabamos d tres miUas por hora. Al
medio dia observaron los senores pHotos y dijeron que nos hallaba-
mos en 50 grados y 20 minutos de latitud : en dicha hora mando el
senor capitan governar al E. i al S. E. para caer d tierra sin
perder tanta altura; por la tarde prosigui6 el mismo viento hasta
las 6 que se llamo al O.; por la noche cargo mucha niebttna y
rocio, esta noche se govern6 al mismo rumbo hasta las 12.
Dia 3 deSde las 12 a las 4 se governo al S. E. i al E. por miedo
de la costa que por estar tan oscura la nieblina no se podia ver si
estaba cerca ; d las 4 se puso otra vez la proa al E. i al S. E., el
viento se mantuvo fresco del O. hasta las 8 que se Hamo al N. O.
(viento que ya mucho tiempo se deseaba y no se habia logrado ni
una hora). La nieblina dur6 toda la manana, por lo cual no pudi-
mos divisar la costa. Al medio dia observaron los senores pilotos
el sol en 49 grados y 24 minutos de latitud; desde las 12 de este
dia por mandado del senor capitan se govern6 al E. para recalar d
tierra y reconocer la costa, en caso de levantarse la nieblina ; pues
segun sus cuentas debemos estar muy cerca de ella; d las 3 de la
tarde viendo que la nieblina no aclaraba y que el viento iba refresh
cando mand6 dicho senor capitan tomar rizos a las gavias y poner
la proa al S. E. i al S. hasta que Dios quiera darnos tiempo elaro
como se necesita para ir por la costa ; d las 5 comenz6 d levantarse
. Documents from the Sutro Collection.
la nieblina, y habiendo aclarado y no viendose la costa alargaron
rizos a las gavias y marearon todo el velamen y pusieron la proa al
E. para ver si antes de anochecer se descubria la tierra ; el viento
fue tomando cada vez mas fuerza y se caminaba a 5 millas por
hora y lo demas del dia se habia caminado d 4 y a 4 y media. No
pudimos divisar la costa por lo cual d las 9 se aferraron las velas y
nos quedamos con solo el trinquete y asi se andaban d dos millas y
media por hora ; a las 12 volvio a cerrarse la nieblina espesa.
Dia 4 d las 12 de la noche se puso el barco a la capa con la
mayor y a las 4 habiendo amanecido con la nieblina muy densa se
marearon las gavias y trinquete y nos pusimos d camino con la
proa al E. ; el viento se llam6 al N. muy fresco y luego levant6
mucha marejada ; d las 8 viendo que la nieblina no aclaraba y que
el viento y mar iban en aumento se volvierron d aferrar las gavias
y quedandonos con el trinquete se puso la proa al E. S. E. por no
verse la costa, que se imagina muy cerca segun las cuentas de los
senores pilotos. A las 11 comenzo a aclarar un poco el tiempo y
no se diviso la tierra. A las 12 observaron los senores pilotos el
sol en 48 grados y 52 minutos de latitud; a la una de la tarde
habiendose aclarado bien el tiempo se marearon la mayor y gavias
y con la proa al E. N. E. fuimos en demanda de la costa cami-
nando a 4 millas por hora : esta tarde se llam6 el viento al N. N.
E. y sopl6 con tanta fuerza como al N. por la manana. Este dia
es el unico que durante toda la navegacion se ha visto claro
ponerse el sol. Por la noche prosiguio dicho viento con la misma
fuerza y por ser tanta la marejada hubo mucho valanceo y poco
sosiego. Esta tarde dimos principio a la novena de la Senora
Santa Clara, como lo habiamos prometido para implorar el auxilio
divino por intersecion de la gloriosa santa a fin de que el senor
nos conceda vientos favorables y tiempos claros para poder costear
la tierra y dar cumplimiento a los encargos y ordenes del superior
govierno, si conviene al servicio de Dios y del Rey nuestro
Senor.
Dia 5 amanecio claro y despejado el cielo sin nieblina y no se
pudo divisar la costa que segun cuentas debiamos estar ya dos
dias sobre ella, y sin duda ha estado el yerro en la variacion de la
hauja, que segun se ha podido demarcar estas noches el Norte, no
destea dicha hauja dos cuartas. Esta manana se volvio el viento
al N. pero ya no tan fuerte y se puso la proa al N. E. i al E., a
las 5 de la manana; como a las 7 se alargaron los rizos a las
gavias y se mareo todo el velamen ; el viento se fue escaseando
poco a poco.    Al medio dia observaron los senores pilotos 48 gra
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Historical Society of Southern California.
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dos de latitud ; por la tarde se escaseo tanto el viento que no se
caminaba mas que dos millas por hora, el sol calent6 muy bien y
fu6 el mejor dia que hemos tenido en toda la navegacion asi de
calor como de claridad. Este dia vimos varias yervas de mar que
los marineros llaman porras y son buena serial de no estar muy
lejos la tierra ; el viento se mantuvo muy flojo toda esta tarde y
noche .siguiente con tiempo muy claro.
Dia 6 a las 12 de la noche se llamo el viento al N. O. muy
lento y se puso la proa al N. E.; d las 4 de la manana habiendo
amanecido bien claro el dia y no divisandose la tierra se puso la
proa al N. E. i al N. ; el viento desde dicha hora comenz6 d
refrescar y se caminaba a 3 millas ; a las 11 se divis6 la tierra muy
lejos y pareci6 ser tierra alta, pues se miraba por proa un cerro
nevado y al parecer muy elevado.fl A las 12 observaron los senores
pilotos y Don Juan nos dijo que estabamos en los 48 grados como
ayer ; pero Don Esteban nos dijo que habia observado 48 grados y
52 minutos; no se por que motivo hayan discordado, siendo asi
que este diacomo los demas se han comunicado el punto de obser-
vacion. Por la tarde prosigui6 el mismo viento pero cada vez mas
lento; d las 8 de la noche se calm6 totalmente el viento y comenz6
a caer mucho rocio con alguna nieblina aunque no muy densa ; d
las 11 se espes6 mucho la nieblina.
Dia 7 amaneci6 en calma y con la nieblina tan espesa que no se
podia ver de popa d proa y con muchisimo rocio. Este dia cele-
bramos el santo sacrificio los dos padres. No pudieron observar
el sol los senores pilotos porque la nieblina se mantuvo todo el dia
y no se vi6 el sol en todo el dia. Por la tarde vimos algunos peces
grandes que parecian taurones, pero dijeron que no lo eran ; estos
son los primeros peces que se han visto en todo el viaje. Todo
este dia y noche siguiente se mantuvo en calma.
Dia 8 a las 4 de la manana comenz6 a ventear al E. lento y
variable y se puso la proa al N., este dia amanecio muy oscuro el
cielo, per© sin nieblina baja ni rocio; como d las 8 se llamo el
viento al S. E. lento y con la proa al N. E., caminamos para la
tierra que no se divisaba ya fuese porque las corrientes nos hayan
apartado de ella durante la calma, 6 ya por lo nublado del tiempo ;
como d las 11 se vio la tierra y no se divisaba el cerro nevado porque la costa estaba cubierta de niebla ; la tierra que se miraba al
N. E. como a distancia de 6 leguas es tierra medianamente alta
poblada de arboleda, y a la parte del S. E. hace una punta tajada
a la mar. Toda esta manana se camin6 d 3 millas por hora. Al
medio dia aclar6 muy poco el sol y observaron los senores pilotos ;
PS*
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
101
segun me dijo Don Esteban nos hallamos en 49 grados y 5
jminutos de latitud ; el senor capitan no dijo que latitud habia
|observado ; como a las dos de la tarde hallandonos 3 leguas de la
jtierra comenz6 a calmarse el viento, pero con algunas ventolinas
jnos acercamos como a distancia de 2 leguas ; aqui se sonde6 varias
jveces y se encontro fondo en 24 y 22 brazas. Como a las 4 vinieron
3 canoas de gentiles, en una venian 4 hombres, en otra 3 y en la
otra 2; estas se estuvieron algo apartadas de nuestro barco dando
jgritos con ademanes de que nos fueramos de alii, pero d largo rato
habiendoles hecho senas de que se arrimasen sin miedo, se acercaron, y les dimos d entender que ibamos en busca de agua; pero
ellos no debian estar satisfechos de nuestras senas y asi se volvieron
d sus tierras. Al retirarse estas encontraron otras dos canoas que
venian para nuestro barco, pero habiendo comunicado con los que
iban de retirada se volvieron d tierra juntamente con ellos. A las
6 habiendonos acercado d la tierra como una legua y encontrado
buen fondo en 25 brazas, se dejo caer una ancla, para poder al dia
[siguiente saltar en tierra y tomar posesion de ella en nombre del
[Rey nuestro senor; cuando se dio fondo ya se habia calmado total-
mente el viento. Como a las 8 de la noche vinieron otras 3 canoas
con 15 gentiles los que se estuvieron apartados del barco dando
gritos en tono de lloros; los llamamos y se acercaron y a breve
rato se despidieron, pero se estuvieron como un tiro de fusil de
nuestro barco hasta mas de las 11 de la noche, hablando entre si
mismos y dando algunos gritos. Las canoas de estos gentiles no
son tan grandes como las que vimos en la punta de Santa Margarita en las 55 grados, ni de la misma figura, las mas grandes ten-
dran como 8 varas en largo, tienen la proa larga en canal y son
pias chatas de popa ; los remos son muy hermosos y pintados, que
forman una paleta con una punta como de una cuarta al extreme
Dichas canoas parecen ser de una pieza aunque no todas, pues
vimos algunas cosidas, pero todas estan muy bien trabajadas.
Dia 9 amaneci6 en calma y claro d la parte del N. O., pero por
los demas vientos cubiertos de nieblas; habiendo amanecido com-
enz6 la gente d hechar la lancha d la agua para ir a tierra; cuando
be estaba en esta maniobra llegaron 15 canoas en que venian como
cien hombres y algunas mujeres ; dandoles a entender que se
arrimasen sin miedo, se acercaron luego y comenzaron a comerciar
pon los nuestros cuanto traian en sus canoas, que se reducia d
cueros de nutria y otros animales, sombreros de junco pintados
con una pera en lo alto de ellos, y tegidos de una especie de
canamos con sus flecos de lo mismo con que se cubren y los mas
seg
if
1 m\
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Historical Society of Southern California.
tienen una esclavina de este tegido; Ids nuestros les compraron
varias piezas por trajes viejos, conchas de lapa que habian traido de
Monterey y algunos cuchUlos ^ d estos y a las conchas manifestaron
mas aficion. No vimos entre estos gentiles tegidos de lana como
en Santa Margarita, ni andan tan cubiertos como aquellos ; las
mugeres no tienen rodeta en el labio. Tambien d estos se les
vieron algunos hierros y cobre. Como a las 6 de la manana
estando ya la lancha en la agua se levanto el viento del O., y se
reparo que nos echaba sobre la tferra arrastrando la anda, luego
se empez6 a levar dicha ancla, para poneraos a la vela y salir del
peligro pero el mucho viento y marejada nos lievaban por instantes
sobre la costa, por lo cual fu6 preciso cortar el cable y perder el
cable. Cortado el cable nos hicimos d la vela con la proa al S.
O. i al S. y con mucho trabajo pudimos cebasar una punta de
piedras que sale de la tierra como una legua. Al dicho fondeadero
llamo el senor capitan la Rada de San Lorenzo, a unos cerros
que estan al N. O. de la Rada llamo los cerros de Santa Clara, y a
la punta que estd al S. E. le puso el nombre de San Estevan.
Dicha Rada segun nos dijo el senor capitan estd en 49 grados y 30
minutos de latitud al N. Habiendo rebasado la punta de piedras
y apartadonos de la tierra como 3 leguas era tanta la marejada
y viento que fue menester aferrar todas las velas menos la trinque-
tilla para poder subir a bordo la lancha que costo mucho trabajo y
falto poco d perderla oon algunos marineros; subida la lancha
se alargaron las velas y se puso la proa al S. S. O., el viento era
cada vez mas recio y mayor la marejada. Al medio dia observaron
los senores pilotos y segun nos dijo el senor capitan nos hallamos
en 49 grados y 12 minutos ; pear la tarde se llamo el viento al N.
O. y se fue mitigando cada vez mas de modo que al anochecer era
ya muy poco y d la noche se calmo.
Dia 10 amanecio en calma y el cielo nublado pero sin nieblina
baja y se miraba la costa aunque confusa a distancia de 15 leguas.
Este dia digimos misa los dos padres. Al medio dia no aclar6 el
sol, por lo que no pudieron observar los senores pilotos su eleva-
cion. Todo este dia estuvo nublado el cielo y en calma aunque
por la tarde hubo tai qual ventolina del N. O. pero tan lenta que
apenas se percibia el movimiento del barco ; por la noche se des-
pejo algo el cielo, y prosiguio la calma.
Dia 11 amanecio en calma y nublado el cielo como el dia ante-
cedente ; la costa se miraba bien clara al N. E. como a distancia
de 10 leguas y a la parte del E. y del N. mas retirada. El fi^ar
venia del N. O. con algunas ventolinas interpoladas y se conocia Documents, from the Sutro Collection
que nos iba Hevando al E. N. E. d donde se governaba el barco
desde que calmd el viento fresco. Al E. se divisaba un cerro muy
alto cubierto de ndeve que parecia una barranca blanca d primera
vista; lo demas de la tierra tambien es alta y muy quebrada pero
sin nieve toda ella d. escepeion de dicho cerro. Como a las 10
aclard algo el sol, y al medio dia observaron los senores pilotos 48
grados y 9 minutos de latitud segun dijo el senor capitan. Por la
tarde prosiguieron las ventolinas del N. O. algo mas fuertes pero
no continuas. A las 3 se puso la proa al E. y desde las 4 comenz6
d refrescar el N. O. y se caminaba a dicho rumbo d 3 millas por
hora ; d las 5 estando d distancia de 7 leguas del cerro nevado (al
que llamo el senor capitan el cerro de Santa Rosalia) se conoci6
que no era barranca blanca como aseguraban algunos, y mas al N.
se divisaban otros picachos nevados; el dicho cerro nevado de
Santa Rosalia parece desde lejos que estd tajado a la mar pero en
acercandose se conoce que estd, tierra adentro algo apartado de la
costa como el cerro nevado que estd al N. de la rada de S. Lorenzo. A las 6 se cerr6 todo de una nieblina tan espesa y humeda
que no se veia de popa d proa pero se desvanecio en menos de una
hora quedando el tiempo elaro y oscuros los- orizontes. Desde las
7 se goberno al S. E. con animo de mantenernos sobre la costa
para ver si el dia siguiente se podia hallar surgidero; el viento
prosiguio lento del N. O- y d las ro de la noche volvi6 la
nieblina.
Dia 12 d las 12 de la madrugada se cambi6 el viento al S. S. E.
y se puso la proa al E., la nieblina arrojaba tanto rocio que parecia aguacero ; d las 4 se virfe de bordo para fuera con la proa al O.
i al S. O. por estar tan oscuro efe tiempo d causa de la nieblina
que ro se podia ver la tierra estando tan cerca; esta manana llovi6
bastante con algunos chuvascos ; el viento no fue muy fresco pero
se sentia el frio por la mucha humedad; d las 9 se llamo el viento
al S. O. y se vir6 de bordo para tierra con la proa al S. E. Este
dia no pudieron observar por estar tan nieblinosa que no se vi6 el
sol en todo 61: d las 4 de la tarde volvio d. llamarse el viento al S.
y se volvi6 d virar para fuera com la proa al O. £ al & O., por
la noche carg6 mucho la niebHna y estuvo llovisnando hasta el
amanecer; el viento se mantuvo variable del S. al S. O. y muy
lento toda la noche que pasamos dando bordos sobre la tierra.
Dia 13 al amanecer aclaro el cielo y tuvimos como dos horas de
buen sol; como d las 7 se volvi6 4 nublar el cielo.    Esta manana
amanecimos cerca de la costa como d distancia de 5 leguas y se
: divisaba bastante tramo de tierra no muy alta poblada de arboleda ji
if il
K*1
Historical Society of Southern California.
que hace varias abras como ensenadas, pero como el viento era
poco y de travesia no se podia arrimar a ella : como d las 9 refresc6
muy bien el S. O. con mucha marejada. Toda esta manana
caminamos al S. E. y al S. i al S. E- No pudieron observar por
estar nublado el cielo ; por la tarde aclar6 algunos ratos el sol y el
viento se llamo al O. no muy fresco pero con mucha marejada ; por
la noche soplo variable del O. al N. O. y balanceo mucho el
barco; toda esta tarde y noche se gobern6 al S. i al S. E. y se
caminaba a dos millas y media por hora, el cielo quedo nublado
con nubes muy gruesas y negras que arrojaron algunas gotas de
agua.
Dia 14 amanecio con el cielo nublado aunque no como el dia y
noche antecedente ; el viento se llamo al N. bastante flojo y como
la marejada era del O. daba tan fuertes valances el barco que ho
podiamos tenernos en pie, por lo cual no fu6 posible decir misa
este dia. Aunque la costa estaba muy oscura por la niebla que
en ella habia divisamos la tierra al E. d las 7 de la manana d
distancia como de 8 leguas 6 algo mas; tambien hubo algunos
chuvascos esta manana con alguna agua aunque poca ; d las 8 se
llamo el viento al N. E. muy lento y variable, el cielo se despej6
varias veces pero cada rato se volvia d nublar con chuvascos. Al
medio dia observaron los senores pilotos el sol en 46 grados y 8
minutos de latitud segun nos dijo el senor capitan, pero no queda-
ron satisfechos de esta observacion porque estando haciendola vino
un chuvasco y oscurecio el sol: por la tarde prosigui6 ventoleando
del N. E. y la marejada del O. cuasi tan fuerte como por la manana ; d la noche se volvio el viento al N. fresco y se camino toda la
noche a 3 millas y media por hora con la proa al S. S. E.; el cielo
qued6 claro y despejado.
Dia 15 amanecio muy claro y limpio el cielo, el viento fresco
como por la noche ; este dia aunque habia bastante valanceo por
venir la mar del O. dije misa con algun trabajo; el Padre Fray
Juan no la dijo por miedo de los valanceos. Al amanecer estabamos sobre la costa como a distancia de 4 leguas y se divisaba
mucho tramo de tierra medianamente alta poblada de arboleda
segun me dijeron, pero yo no la distinguia ; este tramo de tierra
corre de N. N. O. a S. S. E. segun dijo el senor capitan. Desde
las 3 de la manana que se diviso la tierra hasta las 8 se govern6 al
S. i al S. E. y desde las 8 se puso la proa al S. S. E. Al medio
dia observaron los senores pilotos y segun dijo el senor capitan nos
hallamos en 44 grados y 35 minutos. Toda esta manana caminamos costeando la tierTa apartados de ella como 3 leguas; por la Documents from the Su4ifo Collection.
tarde se prosiguio al mismo rumbo y se miraba muy clara la costa
porque no estaba tan humeda la tierra como por la l^afisM&a.
Tiene esta tierra mucha arholeda que a la vista aparece Pineria, no
solo en la cuinbre sino en las faldas de los cerros. En las playas
se miran algunas mesas sin arboleda con mucho zacate y varias
barrancas blancas tajadas a la mar: tambien se ven algunas cana-
das 6 abrag que coifen N. E. N. O. y en tqda la tierra qu#est§ dia
vimos no divisamos nieye, y cuanto mas aji S. es tierra mas baja.
A las 6 sg reparo que la tierra salia por la proa al S. por lo cuajl
.4es.de dicha hora se go ver no al S. O. kasta las 8. que se puso la
proa al S. y asi se camino toda la noche. Todo este dia hizo
buen $oJ, pero el viento muy frio y ta^ fuerte %u^ %l anochecer
caminabamos a cinco millas y media por hora solo con las dos
mayores y las gavias tornados $us rizos.
Dia 16 amanecio claro y limpio el ciefe, como ayer, pero lqs
orizontes muy ofuscados con nieblina a modo de hump* §} Yriento
fresco aunque no tanto como por la noche ; no se diviso la tierra
por estar tan humeda, pero se hizo juicio que no estaria muy lejos
porque el sol estaba ya muy alto cuando lo vimos. A las 5 de la
manana se puso la proa al S. S. E., a las 8 comenzo a calmarse el
viento y la niebla cada vez mas espesa de suerte que apenas se
podia ver el sol - 4 lata 12 ya estafea del todo calmado el viento ;
observaron los senores pilotos y segun dijo el senor capitan estabamos en 42 grados y 38 minutos. I?or la tarde cargo mucha nie-
blina humeda y fria con algunas ventolinag del S. E. y del E. M-
E- variable^; al $©nerse el soj aclar6 algo el cielo quedando. los
orizontes muy claroa salvo por el O. ; como a las 9 de la noche
estaban despejados los orizontes por todo* r^unbos pero luego se
volvieron a ofuscar y cay»6 mucho rocio. En todo este dia no se
pudo divisar la costa por causa de la nieblina y porque sin duda
estabamos bien apartados de ella, pues no la pudimos ver d, lias 9
de la noche estando muy clara la luna y los orizontes como he
dicho. En esta latitud conjeturo que estara el cabo bianco de San
Sebastian y aquel famoso rio hondable llamado de Martin de
Aguilar y descubierto por la fragata de su mando en la especjicion
del general Sebastian Vizcaino, pues aunque dice la historia que
dicho cabo y rio estd en los 43 grados segun la observacion que
hizo el piloto de dieka fragata Antonio Flores, se debe pensar sea
menor latitud como se ha hallado menor en los parages que se ha
observado con los nuevos octantes que la que en aquellos tiempos
observaron con sus instrumentos. A las once y media de la noche
comenz6 d ventear lentamente del N. O. y a poco rato se llamas al
9
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^ffllllllllH Historical Society of Southern California.
N. y dur6 toda la noche cada vez mas recio: la proa toda la noche
estuvo al S. i al S. O.
Dia 17 amaneci6 con bastante nieblina y el viento tan fuerte que
fu6 menester aferrar las belas y quedarnos con solo el trinquete :
desde las 5 en que se hizo dicha maniobra se governo al S.; no s6
lo que caminaba el barco porque ya no se hechaba la corredera ; a
las 6 comenzo a despejarse el cielo y aclarar algo los orizontes. A
las 12 observaron los sefiores pilotos 41 grados y 27 minutos de
latitud segun dijo el senor capitan ; a la una habiendose mitigado
el viento alguna cosa se mareo el velacho y la mayor: a dicha hora
se puso la proa al S. S. E. y a este rumbo se camin6 toda la tarde.
No se vi6 la tierra este dia con haber estado bien claro, aunque los
orizontes siempre estuvieron humados. Por la noche aflojo algo
el viento y se governo al S. E. y al S. E. i al S.: esta noche hizo
mas frio que en todo el tiempo del viaje, pero estuvo clara hasta
cerca de amanecer.
Dia 18 como a las 4 de la manana se cubrio de niebla muy
espesa y humeda, el viento se qued6 cuasi calmado pero no del
todo y se prosiguio con la proa al S. E. que con el poco viento y
la marejada del N. algo se caminaba ; esta manana se sinti6
mucho mas el frio; alas 10 comenz6 a aclararse el sol aunque
poco. No pudieron observar este dia por la nieblina, pero me
hago juicio que estariamos en 40 grados con diferencia de pocos
minutos : d la una se aclaro muy bien el cielo quedando siempre
oscuros los orizontes escepto por la parte del N. O.: toda esta tarde
hizo buen sol con algunas ventolinas del N.: al anochecer refres-
caron un poco las ventolinas y quedo la noche muy clara hasta las
once y media que se calmo totalmente el viento y se cubri6 todo
de nieblina muy espesa y cay6 tanto rocio que parecia haber
llovido.
Dia 19 amaneci6 en calma con la nieblina y el rocio, como por
la noche ; esta manana apuntaron algunas ventolinas del S. E. y
se tuvo la proa al S. O., pero era muy poco el movimiento del
barco : no se vi6 el sol en toda la manana por causa de la nieblina,
ni al medio dia se pudo observar. Por la tarde prosiguio en calma
y hubo algunas ventolinas del N. y N. E. variables y se mantuvo
la proa al S. E. y S. S. E., como a las 7 comenz6 d ventolear
lentamente del N. O. y se puso la proa al S. E. i al E. pero
calmo antes de las 8 y toda la noche se pas6 en calma. En todo
este dia no se quito la nieblina ni se pudo ver el sol; hizo bastante
frio y cay6 mucho rocio. Estas humedades pienso son la causa
del mal de Loanda, 6 escorbuto; pues aunque en todo el viage ha 5H2!
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Documents from the Sutro Collection.
107
habido algunos tocados de este accidente, no se han visto tan
agravados como ahora que pasan de 20 los que se hallan sin poder
servir d mas de otros muchos que estan aunque en pi6 llagados de
boca y piernas, y creo que si Dios no nos en via luego otros tiempos
ha de perecer de dicho mal la mayor parte de la tripulacion segun
van en enfermando estos dias de nieblina humeda y fria.
Dia 20 amaneci6 en calma y la nieblina tan espesa, fria y humeda como los dias antecedentes y dur6 todo el dia sin dejar ver el
sol, salvo un poco que aclar6 al medio dia, en cuanto se conocia en
donde estaba ; d este tiempo observ6 el senor capitan el sol en 39
grados y 48 minutos de latitud, pero dijo que no era segura dicha
observacion por razon de la poca claridad del sol y estar oscuros
los orizontes. Por la tarde se aferraron las velas porque se hacian
pedazos con los golpes que daban contra la jarcia a causa de la
calma y valanceo. Todo este dia y noche cay6 mucho rocio y la
nieblina fue en estremo espesa y fria lo cual tiene d todos en mucho
desconsuelo por ver que la gente se va enfermando y que no se sabe
de fijo eh donde nos hallamos, por hacer ya tres dias que los
senores pilotos no han podido observar con seguridad. Dios sea
servido darnos lo que convenga.
Dia 21 d la una de la madrugada comenzo d ventolear lenta y
variablemente del E., del E. S. E. y del S. E.: al amanecer era
tanta la humedad de la nieblina que parecia aguacero. Las ventolinas se calmaron luego y solo Servian para romper las velas. Este
dia dije misa, y el padre Fray Juan no la dijo por hallarse algo
indispuesto del estomago. A las 9 de la manana volvi6 otra vez a
ventear del S. E. muy lento y se caminaba aunque poco al S. S.
O.; a las once y media se viro de bordo y se puso la proa al E. N.
E.; al medio dia aclar6 un poco el sol y el senor capitan observ6
aunque sin certeza 39 grados y 30 minutos de latitud ; por la tarde
se espes6 mucho la nieblina y arrojaba mucho rocio frio como un
hielo con ventolinas del S. E.; d las 6 de esta tarde se levant6 la
nieblina y aclar6 algo el tiempo aunque el cielo qued6 nublado y
prosiguio ventoleando algo mas fresco del S. E. y del S. S. E.
variable: por la noche se aclar6 algo mas el cielo y se vi6 la luna :
toda la noche hubo algunas ventolinas y se camin6 con la proa al
E. N. E. y al E. i al N. E. '  /§.': .;'§.
Dia 22 amaneci6 nublado el cielo pero sin nieblina, ni rocio y
algo despejados los orizontes ; como a las 5 se vi6 la costa d distancia de 6 leguas ; d la parte del N. se miraba una punta de tierra
tajada a la mar que demoraba al N. N. O. como d distancia de 9
'leguas y la tierra que sigue desde dicha punta al S. E. es muy alta y
/'■ ui
Historical'Societyof Southern CaUfarnia.
quebrada por mas de 5 leguas y la que se sigue al S. E. que es la
que tenemos mas cerca al E. es tierra mediana poblada de arboleda
d lo menos en la cumbre que se vio bien clara al salir el sol; por
el S. E. se miraba mucho tramo de tierra mas baja eomo lomeria.
La dicha punta que nos demoraba al N. N. O. hicimos juicio que
sera el cabo Mendocino y siendo asi estard dicho cabo en 40 grados
eon diferencia de pocos minutos segun la observacion que ayer
hizo el senor capitan y el rumbo d que hemos caminado ; d las
cinco y media se vir6 para afuera con la proa al S. O. y al S. S. O.
con ventolinas variables del S. E. y S. S. B.: esta manana aclaro
algunos el sol y a cada instante se oubria de nublados, pero estuvo
mas templado el tiempo que los dias antecedentes ; al medio dia
aclar6 muy bien el sol y los orizontes por todos vientos, observaron
los senores pilotos muy d su satisfaccion y dijo el senor capitan
que nos haHabamos en 39 grados y 46 minutos de latitud : como d
las 3 de la tarde se cubrid otra vez el cielo de nubes ; d las cuatro
se viro de bordo para tierra con la proa al E. N. E. manteniendose
muy lento el S. E.» d las 5 se volvio d virar de bordo y luego se
calmo el poco viento que habia : toda la noche se pas6 en calma
con tai qual ventolinas del S. E. y $1 cielo qued6 nublado no muy
oscuro y con nieblina por los orizontes, pero no cayo mucho
rocio.
Dia 23 al amanecer se diviso la costa aunque retirada y confusa
por la nieblina que en ella habia ; esta manana comenzo d soplar
muy lento del S. S. E. y navegamos al S. O. y luego se perdi6 de
vista la costa porque se cerro de nieblina espesa por todas partes ;
desde las 9 aclaro algunos ratos el sol pero duraban muy poco :
este dia no se sinti6 frio sino tiempo muy templado, a las diez
comenz6 d refrescar algo el viento y el cielo se oscurecio mucho de
modo que no pudieron observar el sol; por la tarde aflojo el ydento
y a las 6 se calmo totalmente; desde las 8 comenz6 d llovisnar y
prosiguid hasta las 12 d intervalos ; como d las diez de la noche
comenzd d ventear del E. muy lento y luego se llamo al N. E.
algo mas recio y se camino toda la noche al S. E. \ al E.
Dia 24 antes de amanecer se llamd el viento al N. medianamente
fresco y sopld hasta las 8 de la manana que se quedd en calma
cuasi del todo. Esta manana celebramos misa los dos padres. El
cielo se mantuvo nublado de modo que solo d las 6 se vio un poco
el sol; como a las 10 volvid d ventear el N. bastante fresco pero
d cada rato se escaseaba ; d las 11 se oscurecio mucho el cielo con
amagos de agua, cayeron algunas gotas, aunque pocas, luego se
cerrd de nieblina humeda pero no muy espesa.     No pudieron Documents front the Sutro Collection.
observar los senores pilotos por causa de estar tan nublado y
oscuro el tiempo. A las 4 de la tarde mandd el senor capitan
governar al S. E. porque aunque este dia no se vid la tierra se
hizo juicio que no estariamos muy apartados de ella y que sin
duda se hubiera visto a no estar tan oscuro el dia; desde las 8 de la
noche valanced mucho el barco d causa de venir la marejada muy
gruesa del N.: desde dicha hora soplo el N. O. lento y se puso
la proa al S. E. i al E., el cielo estuvo muy oscuro y cerrados
de nieblina los orizontes.
Dia 25 d las tres y media de la manana se quedd en calma el
viento, pero siempre con grande marejada del N. que sin duda ha
soplado muy fuerte mas arriba ; el cielo se mantuvo muy oscuro
toda la manana con bastante nieblina por los orizontes y de cuando
en cuando algunas ventolinas del E. y del S. E. variables; a las
11 comenzo a soplar algo fresco el S. E. y se puso la proa al N. E.;
en dicha hora se aclard algo el cielo y se vid el sol, pero por los
orizontes se quedd oscuro como antes; d las 12 ya se habia calmado
otra vez el viento; este dia observaron los senores pilotos y nos
dijo el senor capitan que estabamos en 38 grados y 38 minutos de
latitud ; por la tarde se cubrid el cielo de nubes y hubo algunas
ventolinas ya del N. ya del S.; como d las 6 de la tarde se fijd el
viento del N. N. O. lento y por la noche refrescd algo mas, pero
variable del N. O. y del O. N. O.; desde las 6 hasta las 8 se
governd al E. S. E. y lo demas de la noche al S. E. i al E., toda
la noche estuvo muy oscuro y con bastante nieblina humeda.
Dia 26 amanecid con mucha nieblina y rocio, el viento muy
escaso : luego que amanecid se puso la proa al E. S. E.; no se
pudo divisar la costa por la mucha nieblina y oscuridad del tiempo,
pero vimos muchos pajaros de tierra grandes y chicos y varios
patos que decian ser de agua dulce ; d las 8 ya el viento se quedd
en calma y la nieblina despedia tanto rocio que parecia lluvia ; a
las 9 volvio a ventolear del N. O. y luego refrescd muy bien y se
aclard algo el tiempo : a las 10 se divisaron al S. E. a distancia
de legua y media los Farallones de San Francisco que estan al S.
O. de la punta de Reyes y puerto de San Francisco como a distancia de 5 leguas segun dijo el senor capitan ; en cuanto se vieron
dichos Farallones mandd el senor capitan poner la proa al S. O.
para dejarlos d sotavento, por no saber si hay paso bueno entre
ellos y la costa ; como el viento era fresco d las 11 ya estabamos
sobre ellos y divisamos mas al S. E. otro monton de Farallones
apartados de los primeros como dos leguas al S. E. Los primeros
son Siete picachos altos unos mayores que otros con algunas piedras
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anegadas cerca de ellos, y ocupan entre todos como el circuito de
una legua : pasamos muy cerca de ellos. Los de la parte del S. E.
parecen mayores; no pude conocer con certidumbre cuantos son
porque pasamos algo retirados de ellos, pero me parecid que eran
seis picachos y uno de los del medio es mayor que los otros ;
cuando estuvimos poco adelante de los primeros Farallones se puso
la proa al S. i al S. O. y d las 12 se puso al S. i al S. E.: no se
pudo divisar la costa ni observar por estar muy cargado de nieblina
por todas partes. Toda la tarde sopld el viento dicho muy bonan-
cible y navegamos al S. E., al ponerse el sol aclard muy bien el
cielo y los orizontes por el O. y N., pero por el E. y S. quedaron
oscuros, por lo cual no pudimos ver la tierra : por la noche refrescd
un poco el viento y se puso la proa al S. E. 4 al E. para recalar a
la costa y reconocerla el dia siguiente en amaneciendo.
Dia 27 amanecid el dia claro aunque algo nublado el cielo y
oscuros los orizontes con nieblina; luego que aclard el dia se vid
la costa por el E. a distancia de tres leguas y dijeron que era la
punta de Ano Nuevo; caminamos al S. E. hasta las 10 que se
divisd la punta de Pinos y luego se governd al E. S. E. hasta que
se did fondo. A las 9 de la manana se aclard muy bien el cielo y
tuvimos buen sol; al medio dia observaron los senores pilotos
como 4 leguas al N. O. de la punta de Pinos y dijo el senor capitan que habia observado 36 grados y 35 minutos de latitud al N.
Por la tarde prosiguio fresco el viento pero se fue llamando al O. y
d las tres estando sobre la dicha punta de Pinos se llamo al S. O.:
a las 4 de la tarde poco menos se did fondo en este puerto de San
Carlos del Monterrey. Bendito sea Dios y alabado para siempre y
su Santisima Madre Maria Senora Nuestra, Amen. Advierto que
en todo este viaje no ha habido desgracia alguna en el barco :
bendito sea Dios pues no ha faltado palo, ni mastelero, ni cabo de
su jarcia, en medio de haber tenido vientos y mares fuertes ; pero
es cosa notable en esta mar que en cuanto se apacigua el viento se
baja y sosiega la mar, y pienso que por esta causa le llamarian los
antiguos el mar pacifico. Tambien advierto que desde los 55 grados de latitud, termino d que llegamos hasta el puerto de Monterrey no hemos podido saber si hay puertos, ensenadas u otros
surgideros, por causa de lo retirado que hemos bajado de la tierra
y por la oscuridad de los tiempos que hemos tenido los mas de los
dias de toda la navegacion, de todo lo cual daran mejor razon los
senores pilotos como inteligentes y practicos.
Ultimamente advierto que este diario lo he escrito dia por dia en
el viaje por habermelo encargado el Reverendo Padre Presidente Documents from the Sutro Collection.
para lo cual el senor capitan me ha hecho el favor de comunicarme
los mas dias el punto de latitud que observaba, y para saber el
rumbo d que se navegaba he tenido el cuidado de mirar d menudo
la haguja en la vitacora. Y para que conste ser verdad lo que en
este diario tengo escrito lo firmo en esta mision de San Carlos de
Monte-Rey dia 28 de Agosto de 1774.
Fray Tomas de ivA PeSa.
(hay una rubrica)
TRANSLATION.
Diary of the voyage which, by order of Father Fray Junipero
Serra, Preacher-Apostolic, President of these Missions of Monterey entrusted to the care of Our Holy College de Propaganda Fide
of San Fernando of the City of Mexico, I make from this port of
San Carlos de Monterey, situate on the coast of Northern California, in 360 30' north latitude, in His Majesty's Ship called the
Santiago, otherwise the Nueva Galicia, commanded by Don Juan
Perez, Alferez Graduado de Fragata, Navigating Officer of the first
class among those serving in the royal department of San Bias and
Captain-Commanding of the expedition 1 which, by order of the
Most Excellent Lord Don Frey Antonio Maria Bucareli y Orsua,
is to be made in that ship, for the purpose of examining the coast
from said port of Monterey to 6o° north latitude, begun on the 6th
of June, 1774, on which day I embarked, in company with the
Reverend Father Fray Juan Crespi, Preacher-Apostolic of said college and Minister of the Mission of San Carlos de Monterey, commonly called Carmelo.
Jesus, Mary and Joseph: June, 1774.
The Reverend Father President of the missions of Monterey,
Fray Junipero Serra, Commissioner of the Holy Office and Preacher-
Apostolic de Propaganda Fide of the College of San Fernando of
the City of Mexico, having assigned me as companion to the Reverend Father Fray Juan Crespi,2 Preacher-Apostolic of said College.
1. Alferez graduado de fragata was a rank in the Spanish navy corresponding to that of
sublieutenant in the army. .    ,. .      .      .....
2. It will be noticed that, in the letter of President Serra of which a fac-simile is herewith published, the final letterof Father Crespi's name is apparently accented. A careful
inspection of the President's manuscript makes it evident that in many words where the
letter " i " should not be accented he appears to have accented that letter.  The President's IE   a-s
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charged with the duty Of making observations for the determination of the latitude wherever a landing shall be made during the
progress of the expedition:
6th June: About four in the afternoon we set forth from the Mission of San Cdrlos de Monterey, about one league distant from the
Presidio and Port of Monterey, which place we reached about five;
and, having taken leave of the captains there, we came on board,
the Father President accompanying us to the shore, where he gave
us his last embrace and good-bye. At sunset we arrived on board.
After supping, the crew put on board ship four young bulls and
some pigs which the Captain-Commanding of the Presidio presented to the cabin mess.    This night we weighed anchor.
On the morning of the 7th the ship was warped out from the anchoring ground and brought near to a shallow place where the seaweed grows to the surface of the water, close to Point Pinos and
about a musket-shot distant from said anchorage. This morning the
wind was northwest. About nine the anchor which had served
for warping the ship was weighed and the sails were loosed; and,
the ceremony of hoisting the Spanish flag and firing a gun having
been observed, we made two or three tacks seaward, but, the
northwest wind increasing, about a half an hour after noon we
went back to an anchorage a little farther out than where the ship
had anchored when her cargo was discharged. All day the wind
blew from the northwest rather fresh. During the night the boatswain sickened.
At dawn on the 8th the same wind was blowing, and held all
day. At one in the afternoon we saw the packet San Antonio,
otherwise Principe, in the offing, and about three o'clock she came
to an anchor.
On the 9th we remained at anchor, lacking a favorable wind.
About nine o'clock Captain Don Esteban 3 and we two fathers
made a visit to the fort, meeting there the Father President,
Father Fray Francisco Palou and Father Fray Joseph de Mur-
guia. We returned on board to dine, and the Father President
slept on board the Principe in order to chant a mass, offered by the
navigating officers, on the day following.
manuscript shows that he was a quick, nervous writer, who did not waste time in writing
out words or in placing accents properly. Father de la Pena does not accent the final letter of his companion's name. In the document which follows this, which is Father Cr&forB
own diary, it will be noticed that he himself wrote his name without an accent. It must be
admitted that these clergymen of the Roman Catholic chuirott'kn%w how to spell their own
names and those of their companions, and, therefore, that Mr. H. H. Bancroft's irrlterl
are Hi error when they give the name with an accent on the final letter.
SL This was Estehatiyfhpt Este van, as given by H. H. Bancroft's writers) Martihfea,
assistant navigating officer ol the expMiUon. *°;M
I Documents from $he S&fro Collection.
**s
Oft the i oth a solemn mass Was chanted to Most Holy Mary for
a g©od voyage, in the same place where the mass was first celebrated in Monterey.4 Fathers Fray Joseph de Murguia and Fra?
Francisco Dumez, Captains Don Fernando de Rivera, Don Pedro
Fages and Don Joseph Canizareis, together with all the people of
the Presidio and the ships, were present. We all dined at the
same place, by invitation of Captain Don Juan Perez. About
three in the afternoon I received the confession of the boatswain,
jManuel Lopez; soon afterward Father Fray Juan Crespi administered the rite of extreme unction, and he expired at about half
past four. The corpse was sent to the church at the Presidio, that
lit might be given sepulture by the fathers ministers of the Mission
of San Cdrlos.
The i ith dawned calm. By means of a warp, and the snip being
towed by the longboats of the two vessels, she was taken to the
shallow at the point where the sea-weed grows to the surface.
About noon we made sail, with the wind from the north. The
longboat of the Principe, which had remained behind to get up the
[anchor used in warping, could not overtake us. All the afternoon
the vessel pitched heavily, for her head was to the sea. At night,
Ithe ship being some three leagues off Point Aiio NuevO, the wind
died away.
At day-break on the 12th it was calm. We two fathers celebrated the mass. During the afternoon the wind was northwest*
but light, and at sundown it died away. About nine o'clock at
might the wind was east, but it shifted about and soon it was calm
|again. All night long there were light shifting winds, with a
[very dense and wet fog.
The 13th dawned foggy, with light shifting winds. We two
[fathers celebrated the mass. Because of the heavy fog we could not
|see the coast this morning; nor could the navigating officers take
an observation. All the afternoon, and the night following, there
was a dense and very wet fog.
At dawn on the 14th it was calm, with a thick fog. This morning we saw Point Aiio Nuevo about two leagues distant, and the
current bore us so near to the coast that at nine it was only a quarter
of a league away. At that hour several casts of the lead were
bade, with bottom at twenty-five, twenty-four and twenty-two
fathoms.    At half past twelve a light breeze sprang up from south-
4. Mr. H. H. Bancroft's writer {History of the Pacific States, XIII., 228) says that this
nass was said "under the old oak, &c." In this diary no mention is made, of an oak, and
father Crespi (see Document No. 19) Ways that tnis mass was Celebrated under an em^aittada
-a shelter made ef boughs. He adds that they all dined together, near the old oak which
viscaino saw.
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west, and by its aid we drew away from the land. During the
night the breeze died away at intervals, and the ship kept tacking
between the two points.
At dawn on the 15th we were west of Point Pinos, and we saw
clearly Point Cipreses, the bight of Carmelo and the Sierra of Santa
Lucia. About eight o'clock it began to blow rather fresh from the
northwest but before nine the wind died away. To-day there was
not so much fog as on other days, but the sky was overcast,
though clear at intervals. At nightfall we were about six leagues
from shore, its bearings being taken by the navigating officers,
Point Ano Nuevo bearing northeast, Point Pinos east, and the
land to the southward of Santa Lucia southeast.
On the morning of the 16th we saw the Sierra of Santa Lucia,
about twelve, leagues away. The day dawned cloudy, as yesterday was. At eight in the morning the north-northwest wind freshened. There was an appearance of rain, and some drops fell; but
it soon ceased to rain and there was less wind. During the afternoon the sky was clearer and the wind was dying away.
The 17th dawned calm amd the sky was very cloudless and clear.
About one in the afternoon a very light southwest breeze sprang
up. To the northeastward we saw the Sierra of Santa Lucia,
about sixteen leagues away. During the night the wind shifted
to the northwest and the ship went about and stood to the west-
southwest.
At dawn of the 18th the same wind held; the fog was very thick
and so damp it was like a shower. The Captain arose this morning suffering from an indisposition of the stomach, having had no
ease during the night; but at noon- he felt better. At twelve the
navigating officers took an observation and said that we were in
340 57' north latitude.    During the afternoon the wind freshened.
At dawn on the 19th the same wind was blowing, but it was
very strong and there was a heavy sea. It was impossible to
celebrate mass, owing to the rocking of the ship. At eight o'clock
the ship was under the foresail only, and so made three and four
miles an hour. During the afternoon the wind was less strong
and the main-tack was hauled aboard.
On the 20th the wind had become lighter and, the topsails being
set, the ship made five miles and a half an hour. All day the
wind blew from the northwest.
At dawn on the 21 st the sky was very bright and clear. The
wind shifted to the north and blew fresh all day.    The course was Documents from the Sutro Collection.
west by north, the ship going three miles  an hour.    To-day the
navigating officers took an observation in 340 08'.
The 22d dawned with the sky overcast and at seven o'clock
there came from the north a very wet fog, the wind dying away.
At noon the navigating officers got an observation in 340 07'. The
wind was light and variable.
On the morning of the 23d the wind shifted to the northeast,
and presently to the northwest. The navigating officers took an
observation in 330 46'. All day the northwest wind blew and the
ship sailed three miles an hour, the course being west-southwest.
At dawn on the 24th the sky was cloudy, and the wind rather
fresh from north-northeast. The course was north-northwest.
We two fathers said mass, and all celebrated joyously the
birthday of Captain Don Juan Perez. To-day the navigating
officers took an observation in 330 43'. During the afternoon the
ship sailed three and a half miles an hour, the course being northwest a quarter west.
On the 25th the sky was clear, and the ship sailed on the same
course at the rate of four miles an hour with the wind as it was.
! To-day the navigating officers took an observation in 340 26'. At
nine o'clock at night the wind hauled to the eastward.
At dawn on the 26th the same wind was blowing fresh. We two
I fathers said mass. The navigating officers observed the sun in
I latitude 350 37'.    At five in the afternoon the wind died away.
At six o'clock on the morning of the 27th the wind began to
I come from the northwest, light and variable.    To-day the navigating officers took an observation in latitude 350 59', and the weather
was the same.
On the 28th the same wind was blowing, and we made two miles
an hour. To-day we were in 360 26' latitude, almost that of
Monterey. The wind freshened during the afternoon and continued to blow during the night.
At dawn on the 29th the same wind was blowing. Both fathers
said mass. At noon the navigating officers observed the sun in
370 20'. During the afternoon the wind shifted to the eastward,
and the ship sailed at the rate of four miles an hour.
On the 30th the wind continued to blow from the east, although
it was light, and at seven o'clock it shifted to the east-southeast,
still being very light. The navigating officers took an observation
in latitude 380 35'.    In the afternoon the wind was fresher.
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At dawn on the 1st it was almost calm, and at ten o'clock the
wind had ceased. The navigating officers took an observation in
39° 45'- At half past twelve a very light wind set in from the
south, and a dense fog arose. At five o'clock the wind died
away.
About three o'clock on the morning of the 2d there was a shower,
with light variable winds from the southwest, which soon died
away. The calm lasted all day, and the sun shone with great
warmth. During the night there was a light wind rrom the east-
southeast.
There was a thick fog at dawn on the 3d and the wind was
fresh. We two fathers Said mass. At eight o'clock the wind died
away, and the fog became rain. At ten o'clock the wind came
from the east again. The navigating officers took an observation
in latitude 400 34'. About two the wind shifted to the southeast,
and was quite fresh during the afternoon and the following night.
At sunset this afternoon some birds were seen ; it was said that
they were sea-fowl, and that they were seen often although there
were no land within a distance of many hundreds of leagues.
At daylight on the 4th the sky was overcast and there was a
heavy dew. The wind was fresh from the southeast and blew all
day. As it was so cloudy the navigating officers could not get an
observation. About one o'clock in the afternoon it began to rain*
and rain fell during almost all the afternoon. During the night
the sky became clearer and there was a heavy dew.
At dawn on the 5th the same wind was blowing, although it
was not so strong, and the sky was clouded over. The navigating
officers observed the sun in latitude 430 35', but said that this position was uncertain as the horizon was not clear. As the sun went
down we saw a bird as large as a hawk ; it was said that it was a
land-bird, though from the masthead land could not be seen. We
concluded that towards the west, in which direction the bird was
going, there must be an island. At night the saUors heard what
they thought was the blowing of a whale, but Don Esteban,
who was on duty, told me he thought it was made by a sea-wolf.
At daybreak on the 6th there was a heavy dew and a very thick
fog, the wind being rather more fresh than it was yesterday. At
eight o'clock it began to die away. On account of the thick fog
the navigating officers could not get an observation. About one
o'clock the wind hauled to the southwest. At four o'clock we
saw a duck sitting on the water,  distant about sixty yards from
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the vessel, and this was said to he a sign that land was not vejqj
||ar aw#y. About five o'clock the wind died away and presently
the sky and horizon w#re clear, The look-out at the masthead
gajul that he saw no. land anywhere. At suu-dqwn I s&w another
|4uck.
At dawn on the 7th it was calm and there was a denj& log, and
dew so heavy that it was like a shower. This morning we, s&w*
several sea-wolves about the vessel. On account of the fog the
navigating officers could not get an observation. About seven
q'clock at night it began to blow from the north and all night the
wind was variable.
As on previous mornings, at dawn on the 8th there was a fog,
a$d there were light and variable breezes from the north, which at
intervals died away. At most the ship made a mile an hour. At
nine o'clock there was a dead calm. The navigating officers could
not get a sure observation because the sun wa,$ not very clearly
visible and the horizon was obscured by the fog, which for fiw
days has not been absent a single hour. During the afternoon
there were light breezes from the southeast. -This afternoon, also^
we saw several birds.
At dawn on the 9th there was so much fog and dew tha£ it
seemed as if it had rained all night long. The sails appeared as
if they had been wetted, and the water from them had filled some
buckets which the sailors had placed under them for the purpose
of catching it. The calm lasted during the day, except that at
times there were light breezes from the southeast. At noon the
sky cleared a little, so that the navigating officers were able to take
an observation- They said we were in 45°. Of this resuh all were
glad, for the navigating officers had been uneasy. § After the observation had been obtained the fog became very thick again and the
horizon was obscured. During the afternoon the force of the
breezes was less and a great deal of rain fell.5
On the 1 oth the calm and fog continued. Both fathers celebrated
mass.     About ten o'clock it began to blow very gently from the
mm The writer employed by Mr. H. H, Bancroft who alludes to the voyage of Perez
{History of the Pacific States, XIII., 228) says that the ship was "driven back and forward
along the coast," until "the 9th July, when they were again able to make observations."
This diary and that of Father Crespi show that on the lSth June, the day after that on
which a Anal departure from the coast was made, the latitude was determined by an observation of the sun ; and that, from that date until the 9th July, observations were made on
no less than fourteen days. Captain Perez knew that he had plenty of sea-room and that
the general trend of the coast to the northward of Monterey, so far as it was then known,
was to the northwestward. He stood out to sea, though he was driven farther south than
was desirable, in order to get an offing, and then sailed to the northwestward until the 14th
July, when he put the ship's head to the northward—in order to make the land in about
the latitude sought. It is very evident that Captain Perez was an officer who understood his
instructions, which were that he should go to 60° north latitude, and thence return southward, making an examination of the coast as he came. The Baneroftian writer seems te-
Intimate that Perez did not know what he was about.
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south. At noon it cleared a little, and the navigating officers took
an observation in 45° 35'. During the afternoon a great deal of
water fell from the fog and every little while the wind ceased to
blow. To-day a sea-wolf was seen which swam around the vessel
several times. At half past eight at night it began to blow
rather fresh from the southeast and during the night the ship made
two miles and a half an hour.
The wind and dense fog were present, as previously, at dawn on
the nth. About eight o'clock the wind shifted to the south and
the ship made three miles an hour. This morning we saw two
sea-gulls and several other birds. At noon the sun was seen more
clearly and the navigating officers took an observation in 460 32'.
In the afternoon the wind hauled to the sonthwest, and a great
deal of water came from the fog so that it seemed a storm of rain.
This continued all day and the night following. The night was
cold and it was said that the water which fell during the afternoon
was frozen.
The 12th dawned foggy and with dew, like the preceding days,
but the cold was greater.     The wind went to west-southwest
about five in the morning, and the drizzling fog lasted until ten
o'clock.     At this hour the wind hauled to west and blew somewhat stronger.    This morning we saw some ducks.     The navigating officers could not get an observation because the sky was very
much overcast and the horizon obscure.     In the  afternoon the
wind hauled to west-northwest and was very strong ; there was a
heavy sea and it was very cold.    As this was a head wind, for
since we began to sail northward, as we have done whenever the
wind allowed, the course has been northwest by west, and as fogsj
were continual, the ship's head was put to the north, in order toj
make land at a point farther to the northward.     About three in I
the afternoon the weather cleared a little, and the sky remained
rather clear all night, though the horizon was very much obscured, i
At dawn  on the 13th the wind continued at west-northwest,
although it was not so strong, and the sky was as clear as during 1
the night, but at seven o'clock it was overcast again.    At noon it
cleared, and the navigating officers got an observation in 480 55',
and said that this was more satisfactory than preceding observa-1
tions because the horizori was more distinct.   During the afternoon
the sky became overcast again.    About seven o'clock the windi
hauled to the southwest, very fresh, and the course was changed
to northwest.    At that hour so thick a fog came on that barely the j
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length of the ship could be seen and it was so wet that it seemed
to be raining.    Thus it continued all night long.
At dawn on the 14th the same fog and dew were present, and the
wind blew fresh from the west. About nine in the morning the
Captain ordered the ship's head to be put to the northward, in
order to get in with the land and determine whether in nearing the
coast the sky would become clearer. At noon the navigating
officers got an observation in 500 24', although not sure of it on
account of a very cloudy sky. During the afternoon the wind was
fresh and shifted about between west and south. To-day an inspection of the water-supply was made, and it was found that there
was sufficient for two months and a half. At night the same
shifting wind continued, and there was a good deal of fog and
dew.
The 15th dawned very cloudy : there was a heavy dew and the
wind was very fresh from the south. At nine o'clock in the
morning the Captain called a council of all the officers of the ship;
and, having made known to them the condition of the water-
supply, he asked their opinion as to whether it were better to go
on to latitude sixty, as was exacted by His Excellency, or to make
land for the purpose of endeavoring to renew the water-supply,
afterwards going to 6o°. All were of opinion that it were better
to make the land, for the purpose of getting a supply of water and
at the same time to gain the knowledge of some place where a
refuge might be had in case some accident should make it necessary to seek one. In conformity with this opinion of the officers,
the Captain ordered the ship's head to be put northeast. At that
hour the wind hauled to southwest, and was very fresh. During
the past two days the ship has sailed at the rate of four and a half
miles an hour, with a heavy sea and great cold. At noon the
navigating officers got an observation in 510 42'. During the latter part of the day the wind held, though it was not so fresh, and
the weather cleared a little.
At day-light on the 16th the sky was overcast, but there was
neither fog nor dew. The wind was still in the southwest. At
nine o'clock the day was clear and the weather moderate. To-day
a great wooden cross was made, with the intention of planting it
in the earth in token of taking possession when the first landing
shall take place. At noon the navigating officers got an observation in 520 41'. During the afternoon the force of the wind lessened and it shifted about between south and southwest. This
afternoon some whales were seen, and some sea-weed, calledporras
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H
by the sailors, which abounds along the coast at and near
Monterey.
The 17th began with a cloudy sk}', but there was neither fog
nor dew; there was scarcely any wind, the ship not making a mile
and a half an houf. We two fathers celebrated the mass. About
seven o'clook the fog came on and there was a Ught showef; it
did not last long aud the weather began to lighten. It was not
cold to-day. At noon, the sky was clear and the sun made it quite
warm. The naviga&ng officers took an observation in 530 13'.
The same fair weather continued during the afternoon* with light
winds from the southwest; we saw some whales. If he night was
fine and clear and there was nq dew.
At five on the momjing of the i8£h there was a squall from the
^southeast accompanied by rain and followed by light winds and a
wy wet fog. This morning navigating fifficer Don Estdban was
bled lor the purpose of alleviating an inflammation in the lace.
About ten o'clock a lit$e wind, came irom the northwest, bu-t it
was very light and variable. At eleven land was descried on the
1x>w, in the northwest. Blessed be God and let him be; praised by
all creatures. $0 obsetss^tion was taken to-day as the sun did not
$bine out. At two o'clock it wa$ noticed that the land seen in
tie northeast was snowy, not only on the summits o£ the sierra
but on the slopes. Farther towards £he north tnore land was seen
but it was not snowy. When we made out the land, which might
he a little more or less than twenty leagues distant, the Captain
ordered the ship's head to he put to the north-northeast. The
wind remained light and we made a mile and a half an hour. This
afternoon Don Esteban was bled again. At five o'clock the wind
went around to west-northwest and we made two miles an hour,
hut this speed soon diminished. At sunset the hearings of the
land were taken. The snowy range bore east-northeast; the
point of land was farther toward the north, and there seemed to be
a cape in the north-northeast. During the night there were light
winds from the west-northwest, but most of the time there was a
calm.    The sky was overcast, but no dew fell.
The 19th dawned calm; the sky was overcast but the horizon
was clear. About seven o'clock in the morning the horizon was
obscured by fog. As bleeding had brought no relief to Don
Esteban, he had a tooth pulled. At eleven a very light breeze
from the southeast sprang up, and the ship was headed north by
east for the purpose of doubling the cape which bore northeast
and determining the trend of the coast beyond it, for to the north- Documents from the Sutro Collection
ward of that cape no land was seen. At mid-day the Captain took
an observation in 530 41'. The wind freshened considerably ; and,
when we were three leagues from the point of land farthest to the
northward, it was noted that beyond that point a low coast stretches
to the north-northwest. About five in the afternoon the course
was altered to northeast, so that we might draw near to the land
lying in that direction and see whether there were any place
where the ship could anchor. About six, the wind being very
fresh, it began to rain, on which account and because the weather
was obscure by reason of the fog and night was coming on, the
Captain determined to go a little farther off the land and lie to.
This was done at seven o'clock; and thus the night passed, the
fog continuing with a good deal of water.
After dawn, on the 20th, the wind came from east-southeast, and
the ship's head was put on a north by east course, the fog continuing very dense and wet. About nine o'clock the course was
altered to east-northeast, that we might examine the low land that
showed at the end of the point. At ten o'clock it was noted from
the masthead that it consisted of three small islands which were
near to the main-land. These the Captain named the Islands of
Santa Margarita, this being the day of that glorious lady. It
was impossible to get an observation to-day on account of the
heavy fog and drizzle. About three in the afternoon we were near
the land which had appeared to consist of islands, although this
could not be verified because the fog so limited the view when we
were about three leagues away, and we went about and stood off
shore with the intention of continuing tacking along the land, so
that when the weather cleared we might find anchorage ground
and take in a supply of water. At that hour we saw bonfires on
the land, and presently there came to us a canoe witn nine men in
it. This canoe drew near to the vessel, the pagans in it singing ;
but they would not come near enough for us to communicate by
means of signs. Having followed us for some time, they returned
to the land. About five o'clock this canoe, and another in which
there were six pagans, caught up with us, both drawing up to our
stern. The Captain made them a present of some strings of beads
and they gave us some dried fish. But they would not come on
board the ship. These persons are well-made, white, with long
hair; and they were clothed in skins, some of them embroidered.
They had some iron implements in their canoes, but we were unable to inquire where they obtained them, for presently they went
back to land, inviting us thither, and offering to give us water on
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the following day. About six o'clock there arrived another canoe
with seven pagans, who drew near, singing the same air the others
Had sUng. These followed us for about an hour without being
willing to come aboard the ship. When at length they went back
to land we were about eight leagues from it, and there was a high
sea om These canoes resemble those used in Santa Barbara channel, but are of greater burthen. This afternoon the wind was in
the southeast, and at ten o'clock it died away entirely.
Shortly after midnight, it being the 21st, it came on to blow very
fresh from the southeast, and the ship stood off shore with her
head to the southwest by south. At eight in the morning we went
about toward the land on a course east by north. This morning
there was a dense fog. The navigating officers could not take an
obsetvattdn, for the sky was overcast. About noon we made the
point of land to the northward of Santa Margarita, a quarter of a
league^ away, and we coasted along it to the eastward for about
half a league with intent to discover whether there were an anchorage behind a point to the eastward where there seemed to be an indentation in the coast line. But we could not double this point, for
the current carried us to the southward. For this reason we went
about, and, after we had sailed about a league to the southwest-
ward, the wind, which all the morning had blown with much
force and had raised a heavy Sea* died away. About half-past two
canoes, sbme larger than others, aU full of pagans, began to arrive,
^he larger canoes were twelve or thirteen yards in length, and
appeared to be of a single piece, excepting that there was planking along the sides and at the bow. In these canoes were some
two hundred persons; in one there were counted twenty-one, in
another nineteen, while in the others were five, seven, twelve and
fifteen. One canoe contained twelve or thirteen women and no
men. In others, also* there were Women but the majority consisted of men. At the time the women's canoe arrived at the ship
it happened that its prow struck that of another canoe whose
ocewpants were men and broke it; at this the men became very
angry, and one of tnem, seizing the prow of the women's canoe,
broke it to pieces in order to repay their carelessness. All the
afternoon these canoes, twenty-one in all, were about the ship,
their occupants trading with the ship's people, for which purpose
they had brought a great quantity of mats, skins of various kinds
of animals and fish, hats made of rushes and caps made of skins,
bunches of feathers arranged in various shapes, and, above all,
many coverlets, or pieces of woven woolen stuffs very elaborately
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embroidered and about a yard and a half square, with a fringe
of the same wool about the edges and various figures embroidered
in distinct colors. Our people bought several of all these articles,
in return for clothing, knives and beads. It was apparent that
what they liked most were things made of iron ; but they wanted
large pieces with a cutting edge, such as swords, wood?knives and
the like—for, on being shown ribands they intimated that these
were of trifling value, and, when offered rice from the barrel, they
signified that this had no edge. Two of the pagans came aboard
the ship, and were much pleased with the vessel and things on
board of it. The women have the lower lip pierced, and pendent
therefrom a flat round disk ; we were unable to learn the significance of this, nor of what material the disk was made. Their
dress consists of a cape with a fringe about the edge and a cloth
reaching to the feet, made of their woven woolen stuff, or of skins,
and covering the whole body. Their hair is long and falls in
braids to the shoulder. They are as fair and rosy as any Spanish
woman, but are rendered ugly by the disk they have in the lip,
which hangs to the chin. The men also are covered, with skins
or with the woven cloths of wool, and many have capes Hke those
of the women; but they do not hesitate about remaining naked
when occasion for selling their clothing offers. At six o'clock,
taking leave of us, they made for the land, and they made evident
their desire that we should go thifiher. Some sailors went down
into the canoes and the pagans painted their faces, with delight
and shouts of joy. These pagans gave us to understand that we
should not pass on to the northward because the people there was
bad and shot arrows and killed.6 How common it is for pagans to
say that all are bad except themselves ! The calm lasted all the
afternoon and the current took us about two leagues farther from
the land.
About two o'clock on the morning of the 22d a very light wind
set in from the southeast, and at five we were at a distance of about
four leagues from the land, which bore east-southeast, and an
island which yesterday bore northwest a quarter west, d^is^ant
about eight or ten leagues, now bore north, and high land which
yesterday bore north by west, and which we thought might be an
island, bore north. We stood for the land on an east fey north
course, for the purpose of trying to double the point lying to the
eastward of Santa Margarita, in order to discover whether there
6. Of course these Indians had no woolen stuffs. It is not probable that any of the
natives seen during the voyage possessed any implements or weapons of iron or copper.
The men were certainly not white ; nor the women as fair and rosy as Spanish women.
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were anchorage ground in the indentation of the coast behind that
point, but the current took us so far to leeward that we were
unable to fetch the point; so we stood off shore on a south-southwest course. At noon the Captain said that he had taken an observation of the sun in 550. About one we went about and stood
toward the land. At half-past three the wind hauled to east-southeast and we went seaward on a course due south, but presently
the wind shifted back to the southeast and the course was altered
to south-southwest. All this afternoon this wind blew fresh and •
there was a heavy fog, so thick that it seemed night and so wet
that it was like a rain-storm, and there was a great deal of sea on.
As there was a head wind, together with a dense and wet fog and
a heavy sea, and as the current was carrying us to leeward upon
the high land to the northward of Point Santa Margarita, all
the afternoon and during the night we stood out to sea and
lost sight of Point Santa Margarita. I note that aU the land of
Santa Margarita, as well as that to the eastward of it, is so thickly
covered with forest that no part of it can be seen which is not
clothed with a very thick growth of tall timber, the trees appearing
to be cypresses. In the canoes of the pagans our people saw poles
of pine, cypress, ash and beech, although I noticed only some of
cypress and some of pine.
The same wind held at daybreak on the 23d ; also yesterday's
fog and the heavy sea. We continued to stand out to sea on the
same course, making only a mile an hour, the wind being too
fresh on account of the heavy head sea. Before noon the wind
hauled to east-southeast and all day we stood due south, at the
rate of two and a half or three miles an hour. No observation for
latitude could be taken as the sun was not seen during the whole
day. During the afternoon the drizzling rain continued to fall and
it was quite cold. Seeing that the weather was so bad and the
wind so contrary for running down the coast, we determined on a
novena to San Juan Nepomuceno, to commence to-day, and
another to Santa Clara, to commence on the 4th of August (God
giving us life), in order to obtain from the Most Holy Majesty,
through the intercession of these saints, that bettering of the
weather which we need. I note that to-day the Captain told us
the island which bore northwest by west on the twenty-first instant,
lying off Point Santa Margarita, is called the Island of Santa
Cristina,7 and the other high land bearing north  by west is
7. Mr. Bancroft's writer says, (History of the Pacific States, XXVII., 154), that Fathe
Crespi says Perez named this island Santa Catalina. A reference to the diary of Fathe
Crespi, which is Document No. 19, will show that, among his notes of the 21st Jul * h
also says that the island was named Santa Oristina,
i Documents from the Sutro Collection.
called Cape Santa Maria Magdalena. This cape is to the northwestward of Point Santa Margarita ; and, between it and said
point, to the eastward is what appeared to be a large bight.
The current drifting us away, as I have noted, we were unable to
know whether this were gulf, strait, or bay into which some great
river discharges, as the Captain fancies. This Cape Santa Maria
Magdalena is distant ten leagues from Point Santa Margarita,
and this also is the width of the mouth of, or entrance to, said
bight or gulf. Cape Santa Maria Magdalena stretches out from
east to west, and close to its western extremity is the Island of
Santa Cristina, which seemed to us to be small and to lie about two
leagues from the mainland. To-night, at eleven o'clock, the wind
began to blow from the southwest.
The dawn of the 24th was rather clear and the wind was fresh
from the southwest. From eleven o'clock last night until five this
morning our course had been to the southeast. At five it was
altered to east-southeast, that we might draw in with the land.
To-day I celebrated the mass; Father Fray Juan did not assist
because just before it began a squall came upon us, some drops of
rain fell and the wind freshened. To-day the navigating officers
obtained an observation in 53° 48'. During the afternoon the
wind died away; to a dead calm during the night. At sundown
land was seen, and it seemed to us to be that we saw first as we
approached the coast on the eighteenth instant. At eleven at
night there was an appearance in the sky, in the north and the
northeast, of some very brilliant northern lights.
The 25th dawned calm, the sk\ being very clear and cloudless.
At six o'clock a light breeze sprang up. from the east. Both
fathers celebrated mass, and I administered the most holy sacrament to a sick sailor. As the wind blew off shore, the land being
in sight to the eastward, about twelve leagues away, we could not
sail toward it, and our course was south by east.H At noon the
navigating officers obtained an observation in 530 21'. About one
in the afternoon the wind shifted to northeast and was very light;
we sailed at the rate of a mile an hour on a course southeast a
quarter east. This afternoon the coast and the snowy range were
very clearly visible. At the foot of this range appears a high
land with a knife-like summit and stretching from east to west.
At its western extremity there is an insulated round rock with a
flat top, resembling an oven, which seems to be an island, although
we could not discover whether it is or not. Nor could we make
out whether the high land referred to joins the slope of the snowy
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range or whether it is an island separated from it. To the northr
westward of this high land and the insulated, oyen-like rock there
appears to be a bight. About seven o'clock this evening a ship's
boy named Salvador Antonio, a native of Gaynamota and married
there, died. About six o'clock the fog began to thicken and it
began to drizzle. At nine the wind hauled to northeast a quarter
east, and it began to rain very heavily, especially so until eleven,
and all night it continued raining with the same wind.
At dawn on the 26th it was drizzling, and there was a heavy
fog. At four in the morning it began to blow from the south-
southeast and the course was west-southwest until half past six,
when we went about for the land with the ship's head due east. I
celebrated the mass and the funeral service over the ship's boy
who died yesterday. Father Fray Juan did not celebrate the mass
on account of the bad weather, for there were showers of rain
accompanied by a high wind and a sea so heavy that we could not
keep our feet. At ten we went about and stood off shore with the
ship's head to west-southwest, the weather being too bad for us to
draw near to the land, for the wind was very high, a heavy sea
was running and the day very dark, as it rained heavily all the
time. It was impossible to get an observation. During the afternoon the wind went on increasing and shifted about from southeast
to south-southwest; and it rained continuously. During the night
the wind hauled to the southwest, and the course was south-southeast.
At dawn on the 27th the sky was overcast, it was raining as it
had rained the day before and a high sea was running. The wind
was from the southwest, but not so fresh. At eight in the morning
it stopped raining, and after ten o'clock the weather began to clear
and the wind to go down. At noon the navigating officers got an
observation in 520 59'. In the afternoon the sun shone clear, and
the wind was light until night-fall, when it was calm.
The 28th dawned calm, with fair weather. The land was plainly
visible at a distance of about eight leagues ; it is high land, with
many hills all running downward towards the sea. About seven
o'clock the wind began to blow from the south and the sky to
become overcast; but the wind soon died away and the sky cleared
—so that at mid-day the navigating officers could get an observation. According to what they said, we were in 5 20 41'. They
took the bearings of the land also. The more northerly part bore
north-northwest; the more southerly, east-southeast. The coast,
from the fifty-fourth degree to this point, trends northwest and
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southeast, and the land is all very high. The Captain named this
land Sierra of San Crist6bal; and it is snowy, not only the hill in
but several others more to the southward. About three in the
afternoon the wind began to blow very gently from the south-southwest, presently hauling to the southwest, and the course was made
south-southeast. But the wind was so light that we made only a
mile an hour, and it died away entirely at times during the afternoon and the following night. During this time there was no rain,
but it was cloudy and rather cold.
At daybreak on the 29th the sky was overcast; but there was
no fog, and the coast was seen plainly; It was about eight leagues
distant, and the land is very high and broken. Along the summit
are many peaks of different figures, as is the case in the rest of the
Sierra of San Cristobal. On the whole coast, from Santa Margarita in 55° to this place, we have not been able to discover any
harbors, bights^ bays, rivers, and the like, as well on account of
the distance from it which we have kept, as because most of the
time it has been cloudy and the horizon and the shore-line have
been obscured. This morning the wind came from the southwest,
with the same gentleness and intervals of calm as on yesterday.
About eleven o'clock the wind hauled to south-southeast, and we
went about and stood out to sea on a southwest a quarter west
course. No observation of the sun was possible because of the
very cloudy sky. During the afternoon it was almost calm, and
by nightfall the wind died away entirely. The calm lasted all
nighti
During the morning of the 30th there were light winds from the
east-southeast, and these took us farther away from the land, our
course being south. About eight o'clock the wind went to south-
southeast ; it was light and variable and the ship's head was put
to southwest a quarter south. Presently the wind hauled to the
southward and was fresher. At noon we went about and stood
east-southeast. At one, the wind having gone back to southeast,
we went about and stood out to sea on a southwest by south
course, making three miles an hour. The navigating officers
could not get an observation as the sky was overcast. During the
afternoon the force of the wind increased and there was a very
high sea. Before night it was necessary to furl the fore-topsail, so
that the topmast might not be carried away, or the foremast itself,
by the heavy pitching of the ship. As the night came on it began
to rain and it rained all night. At midnight the main-topsail was
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courses remaining set. The ship rolled so much that all passed a
bad night. During the first quarter of the night the wind was
east-southeast; after midnight it went back to southeast and
south-southeast.
At dawn on the 31st it was raining and the Weather was very
thick, although the wind was not so strong. We could not celebrate the mass because the weather was so bad, and there was a
heavy sea causing great pitching of the ship. About half past
eight the topsails were set, as the weather was better and the rain
had ceased. The wind held all night and continued this morning,
and the course was southwest a quarter west.}||About ten o'clock
the wind freshened again and the weather became worse; there
was a threatening of rain, but none fell. At noon it cleared a
little, so that the navigating officers could get an observation in
510 58'. During the afternoon the same wind blew very fresh,
and the sky was very much overcast and dark. About seven some
drops of rain fell; they were heavy and cold but soon ceased.
August, 1774.
At one o'clock on the morning of the 1st, the wind having gone
to southwest, we went about and stood in for the land, on a south-!
southeast course, the ship going four miles an hour. About seven
in the morning the wind, which was still very strong, hauled to
south-southwest, and the course was altered to southeast. At
eight the sky cleared and the sun was seen. About ten the wind
went to west-southwest, but it was not so strong, nor was it so cold
as it had been. At noon the navigating officers observed the sun
in 510 35'. During the afternoon the wind was in the same quarn
ter and rather fresher, the ship being on the same course and
going at the rate of three miles an hour. About seven o'clock
the wind hauled to west and so remained all night, during which
we stood south-southeast at the rate of three miles an hour. The
night was very clear and the sky cloudless.
About half past four on the morning of the 2d the wind went tc
west-northwest and the ship's head was put to the southeastward,
in order to draw in to the land. This morning the wind was not
very strong, but it was almost a stern wind, and the send of the
sea was favorable, so we made three miles an hour. At noon the
navigating officers took an observation and said that we were in
500 20'. At that hour the Captain ordered the ship's head to be pul
east by south, so as to make a landfall without losing too mud
latitude.    The same wind continued until six o'clock in the even
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ing, when it hauled to west.    During the night the fog and dew
were heavy.    We sailed on the same course until midnight.
On the 3d, until four o'clock in the morning, the course was
southeast a quarter east, for we were afraid of the coast, as the fog
was so thick we could not see if it were near. At four o'clock we
again stood east by south. The wind blew fresh from the west until
(eight o'clock, when it hauled to the northwest. This was the
I long desired wind which we had not had for one single hour. The
Ifog lasted all the morning, for which reason we could not make
out the land. At noon the navigating officers took an observation
of the sun in 490 24'. After mid-day, by order of the Captain, the
course was east, so that we might draw in to land and examine the
coast in case the fog should lift, for, according to his reckoning,
we should be very near it. At three in the afternoon, seeing that
the fog did not lighten and that the wind freshened, the Captain
ordered the topsails to be reefed and the ship's head to be put
southeast a quarter south, until such time as it may please God to
give us the fair weather necessary for us to go to the coast. At five
the fog began to lift; and, it being clear and the coast not being
visible, the reefs in the topsails were shaken out, all sail was set
and the ship's head was put to the eastward, so as to see whether
before the night fell we might make the land. The wind freshened continually and we made five miles an hour ; the rest of
the day we had made four and four and a half. But we could not
see the coast, for which reason, at nine o'clock, sail was reduced
to the foresail only, and thus we made two miles and a half an
hour.    At twelve the fog shut in again, very thick.
It was now the 4th, and the ship was hove to under her mainsail. It was daybreak at four o'clock, and, the fog being very
thick, the foresail and the topsails were set, and we went to the
eastward. The wind hauled to the northward, very fresh, and
soon there was a heavy sea on. At eight o'clock, as the fog did
not lift, while both wind and sea were increasing, the topsails
were furled again, and, under the foresail, the ship stood east-
southeast, for we could not see the coast, which, according to the
reckoning of the navigating officers, is thought to be very near.
At eleven the weather began to clear a little, but no land was
seen. At noon the sun was observed in 480 52'. At one o'clock,
the weather being clear, the mainsail and the topsails were set,
and we went towards the coast, our course being east-northeast, the
I ship making four miles an hour. This afternoon the wind went
to north-northeast and blew as strong as it had blown from the
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north in the morning, To-day is the only one during the voyage
on which we have seen the sun set clear. During the night thei
wind held with the same strength ; and, as the sea was very high,
there was much pitching and tossing and little rest. This afternoon .we commenced the novena to Santa Clara, as we had promised, for the purpose of imploring divine aid through the intercession of this glorious saint, to the end that the I,ord may concede
to us favorable winds and fair weather, so that we may sail along
the coast and comply with the charge and orders of the superior
government, if it be acceptable to the service of God and the King
Our I^ord.
The 5th dawned clear, the sky was cloudless and there was no
fog. Yet we could not see the coast; though, according to the
reckoning, we should have made land two days ago. Undoubtedly
the error consists in miscalculating the variation of the needle;
but, from observations of the north star we have made, the needle
does not vary more than two points. This morning the wind went
back to the northward, though now not so strong; and, at five
o'clock, the course was made northeast a quarter east. About
seven the reefs were shaken out of the topsails and all sail was
made. The wind died away, little by little. At noon our latitude was 480. During the afternoon so light was the wind that we
made but two miles an hour. The sun gave out a great deal of
heat, and it was the pleasantest day of the voyage as to warmth
and clearness. To-day we saw much sea-weed of the kind called
porras by the sailors, and this is a good sign that we are not fai
from land. The wind was light during the afternoon and night,*
and the weather was very fine.
At midnight the wind was very light, from the northwest; and
the course was changed to northeast. At four o'clock on the;
morning of the 6th, the day breaking very clear and no land being
seen, the ship's head was put northeast a quarter north. From
this time the wind began to freshen, and we made three miles ar
hour. At eleven o'clock land was seen, but very far away. It
appeared to be high land, for over the bow we saw a snowy hill
which seemed to be very lofty. At noon the navigating officers
took an observation*, and Don Juan said we were in 480, the same
as yesterday, but Don Esteoan said that he obtained an obseran
tion in 480 52'. I do not know why the results of these obseri
vations were not alike; to-day, as on all other days, we were
informed of the ship's position. During the afternoon the wind
held from the same quarter, but it died away gradually until, a1 -
Documents from the Sutro Collection.
131
eight o'clock at night, it was a dead calm, and the dew began to
fall and a fog to arise, though this was not very thick. At eleven
[o'clock the fog was thicker.
At dawn on the 7th it was calm, and the fog was so thick we
could not see the length of the ship ; there was a heavy dew. Today both fathers celebrated the mass. The navigating officers
could not obtain an observation of the sun, for the fog lasted all
|day and we did not see the sun. During the afternoon we saw
[some great fishes which seemed to be sharks, but it was said that
they were not. These are the first fish we have seen during the
[voyage. The calm continued all day and during the following
|night.
On the 8th, at four o'clock in the morning, the wind came from
Ithe east, light and variable, and the course was north. The day
dawned with the sky very much overcast, but there was no low-
lying fog nor dew. || At eight o'clock the wind hauled to the southeast, although it was light, and we stood in towards the land on a
j northeast course. Whether it was that the current had carried us
iaway from it during the calm, or because of the foggy weather, we
isaw no land. At about eleven o'clock we caught sight of land,
but did not see the snowy hill, for the coast was covered with a fog.
The land which we saw bore northeast, about six leagues away;
it was rather high and covered with forest. In the southeast there
was a point stretching out to the sea. All the morning the ship
made three miles an hour. At mid-day the sun was a little clearer
and the navigating officers took an observation. Don Esteban
told me that our position was 49° 05'; the Captain did not say
what he made it. About two o'clock in the afternoon, when we
were about three leagues from the land, the wind began to die
away ; but, aided by puffs, we reached to within about two leagues
of it. Here several casts of the lead were had, with bottom in
twenty-two and twenty-four fathoms. About four o'clock three
canoes came out to us; in one were four men, three in another
and two in the third. They remained at some distance from the
ship, crying out and making gestures that we should go away.
After some time, we having made signs to them that they should
draw near without fear, they did so, and we gave them to understand that we were in search of water ; but they could not have
been satisfied with our signs, and went back to the land. In
going back they met with two other canoes which were coming
out to the ship ; but, after communication had between them, they
turned back  towards the land.    At six, having arrived within
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about a league of the land, and good holding-ground being found
in twenty-five fathoms, the ship came to an anchor,8 so that on the
following day we might go ashore and take possession of the land
in the name of the King Our I^ord. At the time of anchoring the
wind had died away completely. About eight o'clock at night
three canoes, with fifteen pagans in them, came to us; but they
remained at a distance from the ship, their occupants crying out
in a mournful tone of voice. We called to them, and they drew
near. Shortly afterward they went away again, bnt, until after
eleven o'clock, they remained at a distance of about a musket-shot
from the ship, talking among themselves and sometimes crying
out. The canoes of these pagans are not so large as those we
saw at Point Santa Margarita in latitude 550, nor of the Same
shape. The largest are about eight yards in length, with a long
prow, hollowed out, and their sterns are blunter. The paddles
are very handsome and are painted and are shaped like a shovel
with a point about a quarter of a yard long at the end. These
canoes appear to be of a single piece ; though not all of them, for
we saw some of pieces bound together.    All are very well made.
The 9th dawned calm and clear towards the northwest, but in
other quarters there was fog. Having been aroused, the crew
began to get the long-boat over the side, in order to go ashore.
While this was doing there arrived fifteen canoes with about a
hundred men and women. We gave them to understand that they
might draw near without fear, and presently they came to- us and
began to trade with our people what they brought in their canoes,
which consisted only of the skins of otters and other animals, hats
of rushes, painted and with the crown pointed, and cloths woven
of a kind of hemp, having fringes of the same, with which they
clothe themselves, most of them wearing a cape of this material.
Our people bought several of these articles, in exchange for old
clothes, shells which they had brought from Monterey and some
knives; for these and the shells they manifesting greater liking.
We did not see cloths woven of wool among them, as at Santa Margarita, nor are they so fully clothed as were those natives. & These
women do not have a metal disk pendent from the lip. In the
possession of this people were seen some implements of iron and
copper. About six o'clock in the morning, the long-boat being
now in the water, the wind was set in from the west, and it was
8. Mr. Bancroft's writer gives this date as the 7th, and the date of cutting the cable as
the 8th. (History of the Pacific States, XXVII., 155.) Reference to the account of Father
Crespi shows that he, also, gives these dates as they are given by Father de la Pena. Documents from the Sutro Collection
noticed that it was forcing us towards the land, the anchor not
holding. Immediately preparations for weighing anchor were
made, so that sail might be made and peril avoided. But the
high wind and the sea carried us steadily towards the shore, so
that it was necessary to cut the cable and lose the anchor. The
cable being cut, sail was made with the ship's head to the southwest a quarter south, and with great difficulty we managed to
weather a rocky point that stretched out about a league into the
sea. The Captain named the anchorage the Roadstead of San
I^orenzo, some hills which were to the northwestward of this roadstead he called Hills of Santa Clara, and the point to the southeastward he named San Est6ban. According to what the Captain
told us, this roadstead is in latitude 490 30'. Having weathered the
point of rocks, and being about three leagues off the land, so great
was the force of the wind and the sea that it was necessary to
take in all sail except the fore-staysail, so that the long-boat
might be got on board. This was effected with great difficulty,
and the boat was well-nigh lost, together with some men who
were in it. The long-boat being got on board, sail was made
and the ship's head was put to the south-southwest. The wind
kept freshening and the sea rising. At noon the navigating
officers took an observation and, as the Captain told us, the position of the ship was 490 12'. During the afternoon the wind
hauled to northwest; the wind died away gradually ; at nightfall
its force was very slight and during the night it was calm.
At daybreak on the 10th the calm continued. The sky was
overcast but the fog was not low, and the coast was made out
confusedly, at a distance of fifteen leagues. To-day we two
fathers celebrated the mass. At noon the sun did not shine, for
which reason no observation was taken. All day the sky was
overcast and the calm continued, although during the afternoon
there were occasional breezes from the northwest, so light that one
could scarcely note the movement of the ship. During the night
the sky cleared a little and the calm continued.
The nth dawned calm and the sky was cloudy—as it was yesterday. The coast was seen very distinctly to the northeast and
about ten leagues away ; to the eastward and northward it was
farther off. The send of the sea was from the northwest; there
were light puffs of wind, and the ship was drifting to east-northeast, as had been the case since the wind had become less. To
the eastward we saw a very high hill covered with snow, which, at
first sight, appeared to be a white cliff.     The rest of the land is
Iff
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Historical Society of Southern California.
Hi]
-
high also, and all is very broken, but without snow except on the
hill mentioned. About ten o'clock the sun shone out a little, and
at noon the navigating officers took an observation in 480 09', according to what the Captain told us. During the afternoon light
breezes still came from the northwest; they were somewhat
stronger than in the morning, but not so constant. At three
o'clock the ship's head was put to the eastward, and, after four
o'clock, the wind came stronger from the northwest. We made
three miles an hour on the course mentioned. At five o'clock,
being at a distance of some seven leagues from the snowy hill,
which the Captain named the Hill of Santa Rosalia, it was
apparent that it was not a white cliff, as it had been thought to be
by some ; and, farther to the northward, other snowy peaks were
seen. From a distance the snowy hill of Santa Rosalia seemed to
be close to the sea ; but, on drawing nearer to it, it appeared that
it was inland, at some distance from the shore, like the snowy hill
to the northward of the roadstead of San Lorenzo. At six o'clock
everything was hidden by a fog so thick and wet that the bow of
the ship could not be seen from the stern ; but, in less than an
hour it had disappeared, the weather being fair although the horizon was obscured. After seven o'clock the course was southeast,
the intention being to remain near the coast, in order to find out
whether on the day following an anchorage might not be found.
The wind continued light from the northwest, and at ten o'clock
at night the fog came on again.
As the 12th began the wind went to south-southeast, and the
ship's head was put to the eastward. So much moisture came
from the fog that it seemed a shower. At four o'clock we went
about and stood seaward on a west by south course, for the
weather was so thick by reason of the fog that the land could
not be seen, although so near. This morning there was a good
deal of rain and some squalls. The wind was not very strong but,
because of the dampness, it was cold. At nine o'clock the wind
went to the southwest, and we tacked and stood for the land, on a
southeast course. To-day no observation could be had on account
of the fog, the sun not being seen at any time during the day.
At four in the afternoon the wind went back to the southward,
and the ship went about and stood off shore on a west by south
course. During the night, the fog became much denser and
there was a drizzling rain until dawn. The wind remained variable, from south to southwest and was very light all night, which
we passed in standing off and on. Documents from the Sutro Collection.
135
At daybreak on the 13th the sky cleared and the sun shone out
well for about two hours ; about seven o'clock the sky became
overcast again. At dawn we were near the coast, about five
leagues away, and a considerable stretch of land was discerned,
not very high and covered with forest. There were several breaks
in the line, like bights ; but, as the wind was light and on the
beam, we could not get near it. About nine o'clock the southwest wind freshened considerably and there was a heavy sea on.
All the morning our course was southeast and south by east.
No observation could be taken as the sky was overcast. During the afternoon the sun shone out at intervals and the wind
went to the westward; it was not very strong, but there was a very
heavy sea. During the night the wind was shifting from west to
northwest, and the ship rolled a great deal. All the afternoon and
night the course was south by east, and we made two miles
and a half an hour. The sky remained overcast with very dense
and black clouds from which some drops of rain fell.
The 14th dawned with a cloudy sky, although it was not so
overcast as it had been yesterday and during the night. The
wind came from the north, very light, and, as the send of the sea
was from the west, the ship rolled so that we could not keep our
footing, for which reason it was not possible to celebrate the mass.
Although the coast was very much obscured by the fog, about
seven o'clock in the morning we saw land to the eastward, about
eight leagues or more away. During the morning there were
some squalls; also rain, though not much. At eight o'clock the
wind went to the northeast, very light and shifting. The sky
cleared several times, but every little while it was overcast again
and squalls came up. At noon the navigating officers took an
observation of the sun in 46° 08', as the Captain informed us, hut
they were not satisfied with this observation, for, while they were
taking it, a squall came up and hid the sun. During the afternoon there were light winds from the northeast, and the sea was
from the west, almost as heavy as in the morning. At nightfall
the wind went back to the north and blew fresh ; all night long
we made three miles and a half an hour on a south-southeast
course.    The sky was clear and cloudless.
The 15th dawned very fair and the sky was clear; the wind
fresh, as during the night. To-day, although there was a good
deal of tossing about as the sea came from the west, with some
difficulty I celebrated the mass. Father Fray Juan did not celebrate as he feared the movement of the ship.    At dawn we were
tw
til-
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Historical Society of Southern California.
ill
about four leagues off the coast and saw a considerable stretch of
land of medium altitude and covered with a growth of trees—as
they told me, for I was unable to distinguish this. According to
what the Captain said, this stretch of land trends north-northwest
and south-southeast. From three o'clock in the morning, when
land was seen, until eight, the course was south by east; and,
after eight, south-southeast. At noon the navigating officers took
an observation, and, as the Captain told us, we were in 440 35'.
All the morning we ran along the land, about three leagues from
it; during the afternoon our course was the same, and the coast
was very clearly visible because the land was not so obscured by
vapor as it had been in the morning. This land is thickly covered
with timber, apparently pine, not only on the summit but along
the flanks of the hills. Immediately on the coast we saw some
level land where there was no timber but a heavy growth of grass,
and there were several white cliffs close to the sea, and some
ravines, or openings, running northeastwardly and northwestwardly. In all the land seen to-day we could not discern any
snow. More to the southward the land is low-lying. At six
o'clock land stretching out ahead of us and to the southward was
seen, and from that time until eight o'clock the course was southwest ; at this hour the ship's head was put to the southward, and
this course was held all night. All day the sun was out, but the
wind was very cold and so strong that at nightfall the ship
was going at the rate of five miles and a half an hour, under
courses and reefed topsails.
The 16th dawned fair and the sky was clear, as it was yesterday,
but the horizon was very much obscured by a smoke-like fog.
The wind was fresh, although not so much so as during the night.
The land could not be seen, on account of this smoky appearance,
but it was thought that it could not be very far away because the
sun was already high in the heavens when we saw it. At five
o'clock in the morning the ship's head was put to south-southeast. At eight the wind began to die away and the fog to thicken
so that we could hardly see the sun. At noon it was dead calm.
The navigating officers took an observation, and the Captain said
that our position was in 420 38'. During the afternoon a very
wet, cold fog arose, accompanied by shifting puffs of wind from
the southeast and east-northeast. At sunset the sky was somewhat clearer, but the horizon remained obscured, except in the
west. About nine at night the horizon was clear in all quarters,
but it soon became obscured again and a heavy dew fell.    All day Documents from the Sutro Collection.
long the coast was invisible, on account of the fog, and because,
undoubtedly, we were so far away from it; as at nine we could not
see it, although the moon was very bright, for the horizon was
as I have said. I conjecture that in this latitude are situate the
white cape of San Sebastian and that famous deep, navigable
river called the River of Martin de Aguilar, which was discovered
by the ship under his command during the voyage of General
Sebastian Vizcaino ; for, although it is recorded in history, in
accordance with an observation made by Antonio Flores, navigating officer of said ship, that the cape and river are in 430, the
latitude should be taken to be less than this, because observations with the modern octant have made the latitude less at other
places where it had been determined by means of the instruments
of that time. At half past eleven at night a gentle breeze came
from the northwest; in a little while the wind went to the north
and remained in that quarter during the night, constantly increasing in force.    All night the course was south by west.
Dawn on the 17th was quite foggy, and the wind so strong that
it was necessary to reduce sail to the foresail only. After five
o'clock, at which hour this was effected, the course was south. I
do not know what the rate of sailing was for the log is no longer
hove. At six o'clock the sky and the horizon began to clear
partially. At mid-day the navigating officers got an observation
in 410 27', as the Captain told us. At one o'clock the wind had
lessened a little and the mainsail and the fore-topsail were set. At
that hour the ship's head was put south-southeast and this was
the course during the afternoon. Although the weather was clear
all day the land was not seen, the horizon being hazy. By night
the wind had fallen still more, and our course was southeast
and southeast by south. This was the coldest night of the whole
voyage, but it was clear until nearly daybreak.
About four o'clock in the morning, on the 18th, the fog was
very dense and wet, the wind had almost died away, and, the course
being southeast, with the little wind that was stirring and the sea
being from the northward, the rate of sailing was good. This
morning the cold was felt much more. At ten o'clock the sun
began to shine forth, though feebly. On account of the fog no
observation was taken to-day, but I think that we were in 400,
although there might be a difference of a few minutes. At one
o'clock the sky was very clear, but the horizon was much obscured,
except in the northwest. All the afternoon the sun shone and
there were light puffs of wind from the north.   At nightfall these
12
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jiiixsi: Historical Society of Southern California*
were stronger and the night was clear until half past eleven
O)'clock, when it was a dead calm and the sky was covered with a
very thick fog, while there feHr a dew so* heavy that it seemed as
if it had raised. j
Om the 19th it was still calm, with the fog and the dew as during the night. This morning light winds came from the southeast
and the course was southwest, but the movement of the ship was
very little. By reason of the fog the sun was not seen during the
morning, nor could an observation be taken at noon. In the afternoon it was still calm, and there were shifting, light winds from
therndrth and northeast,, the ship's head being kept southeast and
south-southeast* About seven it began to> blow gently from the
northwest, and the ship's head was put southeast a quarter east;
but before eight o? clock the wind died away, and aH night long
there was a calm. Duting the whole day the fog did not laft, nor
could the sun be seen. It was quite eold and a heavy dew fell. I
think that this dampness is the; cause of the mat de Loanda, or
sctmgr; for, although during, the whole voyage there have been
some persons:affected with this sickness, these cases have not been
as aggravated as they are now, when there are* more than twenty
men unfit for duty, in addition to which many others,, though able
tan go about, have sores in the mouth and on the legs; and I
believe that if God do nob send better weather soon the greater
part of the crew must perish/ with this disease,, from the rate they
are faHing sick of it during these days of wet and cold fog.
The dawn of the 20th was calm, and the fog mas as dense, eold
and wet as it had been during previous days. It lasted all day,
without letting the sun be seen, except that it was clear for a short
time at noon, sufficient for us to learn whereabouts we were. At
this hour the Captain got an observation of the sun in 390 48', but
said that this observation was not reliable because of the little
brilliancy of the sun and as the horizon was obscured. During
the afternoon the: sails were taken in because they were being
threshed to- pieces against the rigging owing to the calm and
the rolling of the ship. All day long and during the night a
great deal of moisture fell from the fog, which was; extremely
dense and cold. This makes all of us very disconsolate, for it is
seen that the men continue sickening, and we do not know definitely where we are^ there having passed three days without, the
navigating officers being able to observe the sun with accuracy.
May it please God to give us that which may seem good to him.
L.- a. HSf'-
Documents from $he Sutro Collection.
139
At oneo'olockoathe morning of the ssst it began to Mow gently,
and by fits and starts, feom the east, east-southeast and southeast.
At dawn such was the^humidityof the tfog <that & seemed a 'shower.
The puffs of wind soon died away, so that they barely served to
tear the sails. To-day I celebrated the mass ; father Fray Juan
did not, because he was sick of an indisposition .4al the stomaek.
At nine in the morning ft began to Mow from the southeast stgain,
although very gently, and £he ship moved, though slowly, to the
south-southwest. At !hali past eleven we went about with her
head to east-northeast. At mid-day the sun brightened a little
and the Captain got an observation, though not a very reliable
one, ia 390 30'. ©uring the afternoon the tfog became much
thicker, and a great deal-of water, as cold as ice, came from «t,iand
the*e were light winds from the southeast. At six in the evening
the log lifted, and the weather was somewhat clearer, though tne
sky remained cloudy, and the wind, wfeich was variable, folew
rather fresher from the southeast and south-southeast. At nig&t-
fall the sky was clearer and the moon was seen. All might there
were puffs of wind, and €he course was east^northeast and east by
The 2 2d dawned with a cloudy sky, but *ttare was neither fog
nor dew, while the horiaon was £aii9y clear. Aft five ©'clock the
coast was made, about six leagues away. D® *the northward was
a point of land close to the sea. It bore north-northwest, about
nine leagues ^distant, and the land beyond that tpoint «ko tfoe southeastward's ^ery high and ibroken 4©r a distanced more £han five
leagues. "That adjoining this on Abe southeast is the land which
is nearest to >us *to the eastward, and is of medium altitude :and
clothed with timber, at least <©n the summits, which were iplaMy
seen when tine sun shone out. On the southeast :tbere was a long
stretch »of lower land, like a range of Mils. The spoint referred to,
which remained in sight wi the north-northwest, we took to be
Cape Mendocino ; M this be the case, this cape must be in 40^, a
few minutes more or less, according to an observation the Captain
obtained yesterday and the course we have held, ikt half past
five we went about and stood off shore, to the southwest -and
the south-southwest, with variable light winds iram the southeast and south-southeast, f This morning the sun sbone out at
intervals but was soon hidden by clouds, and the weatiher was
milder than it has been. At noon *he sun shone *©ut, and M.
around the horizon was very clear. The navigating <©iffiaers obtained a very satisfactory observation, and the -Capttaiu said .tibat ml
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Historical Society of Southern California.
the ship was in latitude 390 46'. About three in the afternoon
the sky was overcast again. At four we tacked and stood for the
land, the course being east-northeast and the wind very light from
the southeast. At Gve we went about again, and the wind was a
Httle less. All night long it was calm, except for an occasional
puff of wind from the southeast; the sky was overcast, though not
very dark, and there was fog on the horizon, although no dew fell.
At daybreak on the 23d we discovered the coast, although it was
a long way off and rendered indistinct by the fog. This morning
it began to blow very light from the south-southeast. Our course
was southwest, and we soon lost sight of the land, for a thick fog
shut down all around us. After nine o'clock the sun was seen at
intervals, but these were very brief. To-day no cold was felt, the
weather being very mild. At ten the wind began to freshen and
the sky became so overcast that no observation of the sun could be
obtained. During the afternoon the force of the wind decreased,
and by six o'clock it had died away entirely. After eight o'clock
there was a drizzling rain, which continued at intervals until
twelve. At ten o'clock at night it began to blow very gently from
the east, but soon the wind hauled to the northeast and was rather
stronger.    AH night the course was southeast by east.
Before dawn on the 24th the wind went to the northward and
blew rather strong until eight o'clock in the morning, when it was
almost a dead calm. This morning we two Fathers celebrated the
mass. The sky remained so clouded over that only at six o'clock
was the sun visible for a short time. About ten it began to blow
rather fresh from the north, but the wind died away gradually.
At eleven the sky became very dark, and rain threatened; som&
drops of water fell, though they were few, and presently the fog
returned, wet but not very thick. The navigating officers were not
able to get an observation because the day was so cloudy and dark.
At four jn the afternoon the Captain ordered the course to be made
southeast, because, although during the day land was not seen,
it was considered that we could not be very far away from it and
that undoubtedly we should have seen it had not the day been so
dark. After eight in the evening the vessel rolled-a great deal,
for there was a very heavy sea from the north. After that hour
the wind was from the northwest, very light, and the ship's head
was put to southeast a quarter east;, The sky was much obscured
and the horizon concealed by fog.
At half past three on the morning of the 25th there was a dead
calm, but all the time there was a very heavy sea from the north;
MB^pC^ ■        -
Documents from the Sutro Collection.
141
farther up the coast, undoubtedly, it has been blowing strong from
that direction. During the morning the sky remained very much
obscured, and there was a great deal of fog on the horizon, and,
from time to time, light, variable winds from the east and southeast. At eleven o'clock it began to blow rather fresh from the
southeast, and the course was made northeast. At that hour the
sky cleared a little, and the sun was visible, although the horizon
remained obscured as before. By twelve o'clock the wind had
died away again. To-day the navigating officers obtained an
observation, and the Captain told us we were in latitude 380 38'.
During the afternoon the sky was covered with clouds, and there
were light puffs of wind, at times from the north and then from
the south. About six o'clock in the evening the wind went to
north-northwest and was steady but light. By nightfall it was
stronger, but shifted about between northwest and west-northwest.
From six o'clock to eight the course was east-southeast; during
the rest of the night it was southeast by east. The night was very
dark, and there was a good deal of wet fog.
At daybreak on the 26th there was a great deal of fog and dew,
and a very light wind. Just after dawn the ship's head was put
east-southeast. The coast could not be seen on account of the
heavy fog and the thickness of the weather, but we saw many
land birds, great and small, and some ducks of a kind said to frequent fresh water. At eight o'clock the wind had died away
entirely, and so much moisture came from the fog that it seemed
to be raining. At nine light puffs of wind from the northwest
began to blow again; the wind soon freshened and the weather
cleared a little. At ten o'clock, at the distance of a league and a
half to the southeast, the Farallones of San Francisco were seen ;
these lie southwest of Point Reyes and the Port of San Francisco,9 about five leagues away the Captain said. As soon as
these farallones were seen the Captain ordered the course to be
9. Mr. Bancroft's writer, (History of the Pacific States, XIII., 228), says "beyond a mere
glimpse of Mendocino and the Farallones." The "glimpse"of the farallones seems to have
been a very decided glimpse. The writer adds : " It is to he noticed that in speaking of the
latter islands as a landmark for San Francisco the diarists clearly locate that port nnder
Point Reyes, and speak of the other bay discovered five years before as the grande estero,
not yet named." In this diary Father de la Pefia says nothing about any "grande estero."
That Father Crespi says nothing about "the grande estero " will be learned from his own
statement in the document printed hereinafter. Mr. Bancroft's writer, in a foot-note to
the page last referred to, accuses Father Crespi of making "a long and confusing argument"
about whether or not these farallones were those seen by the expedition of 1769, an expedition of which Father Crespi was a member. As the writer makes Father Crespi say that
the farallones seen on this 26th August, 1774, were "50 leagues from Pt. Reyes," it is not to
be wondered at that, in that writer's opinion, the friar's "argument" is rather "confusing."
In writing of the port of San Francisco both Fathers wrote of the "puerto de San Francisco,"
now known as "Francis Drake's Bay," or "Drake's Bay," The farallones were called
"Farallones de San Francisco" long before the present San Francisco Bay was known or
dreamed of. 142
Historical Society of Southern California.
ill
made southwest, so as to leave them to leeward, as it is not known
whether the passage between them and the mainland is good or
not. As the wind was fresh, at eleven o'clock we were already up
with them; and we saw, farther to the southeast, another group
of farafloneSy about two leagues to the southeastward of the first.
The first group consists of seven high, sharp crags, some larger
than others, and near them some rocks underwater. They occupy,
all together, an area of about a league in circumference. We
passed very close to them* liThose to the southeastward appear to
be larger. I could not make <out with certainty how many in number they are, for we passed them at a distance; but It seemed to
me that there were six craggy peaks, one of those in the middle
being greater than the others. When we had gone to a short distance beyond the first farallones the head of the ship was put south
by west, and, at twelve o'clock, south by east. We could not see
the coast, nor get an observation, because, in aft ^Krections, the
fog was very thick. AH the afternoon the same very favorable
wind held and our course was to the southeastward. At sunset
the sky cleared, and the horizon to the northward and westward;
to the southward and eastward It remained obscured, for which
reason we could not see the land. During the night the wind
freshened a little, and the ship's head was put southeast a quarter
east, in order that we might get in toward the land in order to
make an examination of it at daybreak on the day following.
The 27th dawned clear, although the sky was rather cloudy and
the horizon obscured by fog. As the day broke land was made to
the eastward, about three leagues away, and it was said to be
Point Afio Nuevo. We held on to the southeastward until ten
o'clock, when Point Pinos was seen, and then our course was east-
southeast until we cast anchor. At nine in the morning the sky:
became very clear and the sun shone out well. At noon the navigating officers got an observation, and our position was found
to be about four leagues to the northwestward of Point Pinos.
The Captain said that the latitude was 360 35'. During the afternoon the wind remained fresh, but it was hauling to the westward
and, about three, when we were abreast of Point Pinos, ft went to
the southwest. It lacked a little of four o'clock in the afternoon
when we came to an anchor in this port of San Carlos de Monterey.
Blessed be God and forever praised, and his most holy mother, Our
I,ady Mary!   Amen. Documents from the Sutro Collection
I note that, during the whole voyage, there has been no misfortune on board of the vessel—blessed be God ! There is lacking
neither mast nor yard, nor a strand from the rigging—although
strong winds and heavy seas have been met with.10 But in this
ocean it is a ckcuanstance to be noted that, as soon as the wind is
calmed, the sea faHs and is at rest; I think that for this reason
it was* named by those of old the pacific sea.
I note, also, that* from fifty-five degrees of latitude, the altitude reached by us, to the port of Monterey, we have not been
able to learn whether or not there are harbors, bights or other
anchoring groumcfe,, because of the distance we have kept from
the coast during the homeward passage* and on account of the
thick weather we have had almost every day during the voyage.
Of aH this the navigating officers, who are intelligent and skilled
hx such matters, will give a better account.
Finally: I note that I have written this diary day by day during
the voyage, being charged to do s& by the Reverend Father President ; andr that I might accomplish this, the Captain has done me
the* favor to communicate to me, almost every day, the latitude in
which-we were, while, in order to know the courses sailed, I took
care to;©bserve closely the needle in the binnacle. And, for the
purpose of attesting that what I have written in this diary is> the
truth, I sign it at this Mission of San Carlos de Moniierey, this
28th day of August, 1774.11
Fray Tomas de i,a P^Sa.
£a rubrica.)
Is:;
Document No. 19.
"VIA-RIO que yo Fray Juan Crespi Misionero del Apostolico
*-^ Colegio de Propaganda fide de San Fernando de Megico formo
del viaje de la fragata de su Magestad nombrada Santiago, alias
la Nueva Galicia mandada por su capitan y alferez de fragata Don
Juan Perez, que por orden del Kxso Sot Bay Ho Frey D. Antonio
Maria Bucareli y Ursua Virrey de la Nueva Espana va & hacer de
10. Father de la Pefia appears to forget the death of the ship's-boy and the loss of the
anchor and cable.
11. It should be remembered that Mr. Bancroft's writer acknowledges (in a foot-note
to page 166, Vol. XXVII., History of the Pacific States)tihi\t his fragment of this diary of
Father de la Pefia begins with August 9th! He does not explain why the document
could not hBve been obtained entire—as it is given here.
I
ill 144
Historical Society of Southern California.
las costas del Norte de Monte-Rey, que se halla en la altura de 36
grados y medio del Norte, hasta los 60 grados & lo menos.
Hallandome ocupado de Ministro de esta Mision de San Carlos
de Monte-Rey y habiendo llegado & ella en 11 de Mayo del corri-
ente ano de vuelta de su viaje de nuestro colegio y ciudad de
Megico el Padre Presidente de estas nuevas misiones Fray Junipero
Serra, nos hizo saber que dicho Sefior Exelentisimo de acuerdo
con el Reverendo Padre Guardian de dicho nuestro colegio el
Padre Sector Fray Rafael Verger habia determinado que un religi-
oso sacerdote de los nuestros fuese de capellan de la dicha expedicion de mar con el encargo de observar en las nuevas tierras que
se pasasen las alturas del polo, de demarcar las costas, notar los
genios de los gentiles que se descubriesen y demas circunstancias
conducentes & un pleno conocimiento de aquellos ignorados paises
y formar de todo un exacto diario. Tambien nos declar6 como el
religioso que venia destinado al tai encargo quedaba enfermo en la
mision y puerto de San Diego y que consiguientemente se le hacia
preciso asignar otro y este fuf yo ; y no obstante de haUarme bien
fatigado con tantos viajes por tierra, me sacrifique' & ir a esta em-
presa conformandome con la obediencia esperando en Dios toda
felicidad en el viaje, llevando el consuelo, que obtuvo & fuerza
de suplica para con su Kxelencia el dicho Padre Presidente,
de ir en mi compania el Padre Prior Fray Tomas de Pena y
Saravia.
Y aunque el encargo de mi Prelado es solo de observar saltando
& tierra, las alturas, reconocer la tierra y formar una relacion de loj
que en ella viese; me he determinado & formar diario del viaje de
mar, si me lo permite el tiempo y mareo, que me es indispensable
en la navegacion, notando por dias lo que ocurriere.
Dia lunes 6 de Junio de 1774, como & las 4 de la tarde salimos
de la mision de San Carlos de Monte Rey acompanados del Reverendo Padre Presidente y habiendo Uegado al Real Presidio y
despedidos de los senores capitanes y de los Padres Murguia y
Palou que alii se hallaban confesando la tripulacion para el viaje,
pasamos & la playa en donde nos despedimos del Reverendo Padre
Presidente y tomando su bendicion nos embarcamos & bordo de la
dicha fragata en donde fuimos recibidos con alegria de todos porque esperaban de nosotros su espiritual consuelo. Esta noche
estuvieron en la maniobra de levar las anclas.
iMWWlgMI Documents from the Sutro Collection.
Martes 7 prosigui6 la maniobra de levar las anclas y con una
espia por delante se sac6 la fragata del fondeadero y la arrimaron
al yervasal que estd cerca de la punta de Pinos de este puerto como
un tiro de fusil del fondeadero. Entr6 el viento N. O. y d las 11
ya estavamos d la vela. Bendito sea Dios d quien pido nos d€
toda felicidad. Dieron dos 6 tres bordos y volvieron d fondear en
el mismo puerto por haber refrescado mucho el Norueste; estando
anclados como d las tres de la tarde. Esta noche cay6 gravemente
enfermo el contramaestre con recia calentura.
Miercoles 8 amaneci6 con el mismo viento que se mantuvo todo
el dia por cuyo motivo no pudimos salir ; poco mas de la una de
la tarde se divis6 vela y fu6 el Paquebot San Antonio, alias el
Principe, y entr6 y di6 fondo en este Puerto como d las tres de la
tarde, por cuyo motivo ya nos detuvimos d mas que el viento con-
trario no nos daba lugar d salir.
Jueves 9, viendo no saliamos al viaje por las dichas causas desem-
barcamos los dos Padres y fuimos al Real en donde hallamos al
Reverendo Padre Presidente con los Padres Murguia y Palou y
despues de haber estado un rato nos volvimos d comer d bordo:
esta tarde pidi6 el Senor capitan Don Juan Perez que el dia
siguiente se cantase una misa en tierra d nuestra sefiora para la
felicidad del viaje.
Viernes 10 formado el altar bajo de una enramada en el mismo
sitio en donde se celebr6 dia 27 de Diciembre de 1602 cuando la
espedicion del general Don Sebastian Vizcaino ; y el dia 3 de
Junio de 1770 cuando se vino d poblar este puerto que cant6 la
primera misa el dicho Reverendo Padre Presidente la cant6 tambien
este dia, haciendo coro los Padres Fray Joseph Murguia y Fray
iprancisco Dumetz y nosotros dos que ibamos d este nuevo descubrimiento. Comimos todos juntos cerca la antigua encina que
vi6 Sebastian Vizcaino y despues de haber comido fuimos d bordo
y hallamos que habia empeorado el contramaestre d quien confes6
mi companero y yo le administr6 los santos oleos y como d las
cinco poco antes muri6; cuyo, cadaver embi6 el senor capitan al
Real presidio para que se le diese sepultura eclesiastica.
Sabado 11 amaneci6 en calma y d remolque con las dos lanchas
de la fragata y el Principe nos arrimamos al yerbasal de la punta y
como d las doce nos hicimos a la vela con viento O. N. no muy
ifuerte el que nos calm6 por la tarde y asi en calma pasamos toda
la noche.
Domingo doce amanecimos con calma y ambos Padres celebra-
mos el santo sacrificio de la misa y empezamos una novena al
13
a 146
Historical Society of Southern California,
*v*x:
Sefior San Antonio de Padua pidiendo su patrocinio para la felicidad del viaje. |[ A las nueve de la manana nos entr6 el O. el que
dur6 hasta las doce que vari6 al Nornorueste y despues al Norueste
bonancible que duro lo mas de la tarde aunque despues calm6. Al
meterse el sol, el Senor Capitan demarco la punta de Ano Nuevo
que nos demoraba al O. N. O. como unas cuatro 6 cinco leguas
de donde estabamos. A esta hora empezaron algunas ventolinas
suaves y se levant6 neblina.
Lunes trece amaneci6 con mucha neblina; digimos ambos misa:
calmaron los vientos y asi nos estuvimos este dia y su noche no
muy retirados de tierra, aunque por la neblina no se divisaba muy
clara.
Martes catorce amaneci6 muy cerrado de neblina aunque en
breve abri6 y nos hallamos d una vista de la Punta de Ano Nuevo,
tuvimos algunas ventolinas suaves y calmosas y estuvieron bor-
deando entre las dos puntas de Pinos y Ano Nuevo.
Miercoles quince amanecio cerrado de neblina aunque abri6
antes de las siete y nos hallamos en frente de la punta de pinos,
divisando la de cipreses, la sierra de Santa Lucia y la ensenada del
rio Carmelo. Como d las seis de la tarde nos hallamos como cinco
6 seis leguas apartados de la sierra de Santa Lucia y lo mismo de
la punta de ano nuevo.
Jueves diez y seis amaneci6 con bastante neblina aunque en
breve abri6 y vimos la sierra de Santa Lucia ya como diez 6 doce
leguas apartados. Como d las diez nos entr6 el N. N. O. algo
fresco, que llegamos d andar dos y media millas por hora, despues
vari6 el N. O. y este continu6 todo el dia, y por la tarde apenas se
divisaba la tierra.
Viernes diez y siete amaneci6 muy claro y despejado y la mar en
calma hasta la una de la tarde que se movi6 el S. O aunque muy
suave: por la tarde divisaron la sierra de Santa Lucia que dijeron
distariamos de ella como diez y seis leguas al N. E.: por la noche
viraron de bordo con el Norueste.
Sabado diez y ocho amanecio muy cerrado de neblina muy
oscura y humeda que parecia estar lloviendo, soplando el N. O.
fresco, que andavamos como cuatro millas. Esta noche se vi6 el
Senor Capitan bien malo del estomago y paso mala noche sin poder
sosegar, pero no rue" cosa de cuidado, pues d las doce ya estaba
bueno y pudo observar y dijo nos hallabamos en 34 grados y cincuenta y siete minutos : al medio dia nos hallabamos como siete
leguas de la costa de la sierra de Santa Lucia; por la tarde refresco Documents from the Sutro Collection.
147
1
mucho el N. O., embravecio mucho la mar que dur6 este dia y el
siguiente.
Domingo diez y nueve amanecimos con el mismo viento y muy
embravecida la mar, de manera que no pudhnos celebrar; apret6
tanto el viento que d las ocho quedamos con solo el trinquete, por
la tarde afloj6 algo y mas d la entrada de la noche.
Lunes veinte amanecimos con el mismo viento y aunque no tan
fuerte, pero caminabamos cinco millas y media por hora.
Martes veinte y uno amaneci6 este dia muy claro y despejado el
cielo; como a las seis de la manana vari6 el viento al N. N. E.
suave y d las siete de la manana dijeron andavamos tres millas por
hora. Al medio dia observ6 el senor capitan y nos dijo nos halla-
vamos en la altura de 34 grados y 8 minutos : vario despues el
viento al N. y rue" refrescando por la tarde, y dijeron andamos
cuatro millas y a veces mas, y este mismo viento continu6 la noche
siguiente.
Miercoles veinte y dos amaneci6 este dia con viento N. aunque
muy suave y el dia claro ; comb a las siete se levant6 una neblina
muy humeda y calm6 algo el viento, aunque no fue tanto que no
anduviesimos tres millas por hora. Este medio dia me dijo el
senor capitan habia observado la latitud del N. de 34 grados y 7
minutos.
Jueves veinte y tres amaneci6 muy cerrado de neblina se mudo
el viento al N. E. aunque despues vari6 al N. suave y dijeron
andavamos tres millas por hora, al medio dia observaron los
senores, y me dijo el senor capitan que nos hallavamos en 33 grados y 46 minutos.
Viernes veinte y cuatro, celebramos ambos mjga*y en la primera
comulgaron el Senor Capitan, el contra-maestre y otros dos Juanes
de los marineros : amaneci6 el dia nublado, y con el viento N.
N. E. fresco caminabamos tres millas con la proa al N. O. \ al N.
Al medio dia observaron y dijo el senor capitan que nos hallabamos en 33 grados y 46 minutos.
Sabado veinte y cinco amanecid claro el dia y con el viento N.
E. que tuvimos la noche pasada y continua bastante fresco, cami-
nando con la proa al N. O. lo que en todo viaje no se habia
logrado. Al medio dia me dijo el senor capitan que segun la
observacion que habia hecho nos hallabamos en 34 grados y 26
minutos ; gracias d Dios que ya vamos cobrando la altura perdida:
por la tarde refresc6 mas el viento y andavamos como cinco millas.
Domingo veinte y seis amaneci6 el dia claro con el viento E.
fresco que nos habia entrado la noche pasada cuando sali6 la luna, MS
148
Historical Society of Southern California*
■
[fff 3
=§1
con la proa al N. O. como ayer : pudimos ambos celebrar, y
hacerles una platica el Padre compafiero en su misa. Al medio
dia observaron los senores y me dijo el sehor capitan nos hallava-
mos en 34 grados y 37 minutos. Como d las cinco de la tarde
empezfr d calmar el viento de modo que al anochecer estavamos en
calma y asi pasamos la noche.
Lunes veinte y siete amanecid el dia algo nublado y con la
misma calma de la noche antecedente : como d las seis entraron
ventolinas aunque suaves que andavamos poco mas de nulla. Al
medio dia nos dijo el sefior capitan que habia observado 35 grados
y 59 minutos ; siguio la calma hasta la noche que al salir la luna
nos entro el N. E.
Martes veinte y ocho amanecid el dia claro siguiendo el mismo
viento N. E. que fu6 poco d poco refrescando y a las nueve de la
manana andavamos como cuatro millas. Al medio dia observo el
sefior capitan 36 grados y 26 minutos y asi nos haUamos enfrente
de la sierra de Santa Lucia y muy al paralelo de Monte-Rey con
la diferencia de cuatro minutos menos, aunque enmarados segun
dicen los sefiores como doscientas leguas.
Miercoles veinte y nueve amaneci6 el dia claro con el mismo
viento fresco N. E. celebramos ambos Padres y en una de las
misas comulgo el cirujano celebrando el dia de su santo. Al medio
dia observ6 el senor capitan y nos dijo nos hallavamos en 37 grados
y 20 minutos.
Jueves treinta amanecid el dia claro aunque en breve se nublo
con viento fresco E. S. que andavamos como tres millas. Al
medio dia observo el senor capitan y nos dijo nos hallavamos en
38 grados y 35 minutos.
Juwo : Viernes primero de Julio amanecid el dia algo nublado
y siguiendo el mismo viento que toda la noche E. S. y d ratos iba
refrescando mas. Al medio dia nos dijo el senor capitan que segun
su observacion nos haUavamos en 39 grados y 43 minutos ; como d
las cinco de la tarde calmd el viento y durd la calma toda la
noche.
Sabado dos amanecid el dia cerrado y en calma que durd todo el
dia. Al medio dia observaron los senores pilotos y nos dijeron no
llegavamos d los 40 grados.
Domingo tres de Julio amanecid el dia muy cerrado de neblina
con el viento E. S. tan flojo que apenas se andaba. Digimos
ambos misa' y en una comulgaron el 20 piloto D. Esteban Martinez
y dos marineros : como d las diez refrescd algo el dicho viento y
como d las once se andaban dos millas y media.   Al medio dia
1 Documents from the Sutro Collection.
149
observd el senor capitan la altura del N. en 40 grados y 34 minutos.    Esta tarde varid el viento al S. E. bien y en popa.
Lunes cuatro amanecid el dia muy cerrado con el mismo viento
S. E. bastante fresco con el que andavamos tres millas y algunas
veces cuatro por hora : se cerrd bastante el dia y tuvimos algunos
chuvascos con algunas rociaditas de agua aunque continud el
viento, y por estar el dia cerrado no se pudo observar.
Martes cinco amanecid el dia muy claro y con el mismo viento
de ayer que se ha conservado toda la noche. Al medio dia observd
el sefior capitan la altura del Norte segun nos dijo de 43 grados y
35 minutos. Al medio dia varid el viento al S. O. pero en breve
volvid d soplar al S. E. el que durd toda la tarde y noche.
Miercoles seis amanecid con bastante neblina y con el mismo
viento S. E. con el que andavamos tres millas. Al medio dia no
pudieron observar por la mucha neblina que no dejd descubrirse el
sol: como d la una de la tarde varid el viento al S. O. algo fresco
que andavamos tres millas, pero calmd como d las cinco de la tarde
y quedamos casi en calma y de la misma manera pasamos la
noche. lip
Jueves siete amanecimos en calma con el viento O. S. O. y con
bastante neblina que tuvo tapados los orizontes, hasta pasado medio
dia, por cuyo motivo no se pudo hoy observar : por la tarde nos
entrd ventolina calmosa, tambien del N. que nos durd la restante
del dia y noche.
Viernes echo amanecid con la misma ventolina calmosa del
Norte y neblina que durd todo el dia y noche siguiente. Al medio
dia abrid lo suficiente para observar y nos dijo el senor capitan que
nos hallabamos en 44 grados y 5 minutos.
Sabado nueve nos hallamos con igual neblina y calma, con ventolina llovisnosa del S. E.: antes de medio dia se descubrid el sol
y orizontes y logrd el senor capitan una observacion a su satisfaction, lo que no en los cinco dias antecedentes no habia podido, y
nos dijo nos hallavamos en 45 grados cabales.
Domingo diez amanecid con mucha neblina con ventolina calmosa del S. E. celebramos los dos Padres el santo sacrificio de la
misa, como tambien les pudo hacer una platica el Padre compan-
ero en su misa : como d las nueve abrid el tiempo y se descubrid
el sol y empezd d refrescar el viento S. E. que era en popa, d las
once andavamos como dos millas. Al medio dia observd el senor
capitan y nos dijo nos hallavamos en 45 grados y 35 minutos; durd
el S. E. todo el dia y por la noche varid al Sur tambien fresco.
Se administrd esta noche los santos sacramentos de la penitencia
m
1
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Hint
fife
Historical Society of Southern California.
y extremauncion d un marinero que se halla muy malo de calen-
tura maligna.
Lunes once amanecid con el mismo viento sur y cerrado de
espesa neblina ; abrid algo antes de medio dia y pudo el senor
capitan observar y nos dijo nos hallavamos en la altura de 46 grados y 23 minutos, refrescd mas el viento y d las tres de la tarde
andavamos tres millas y d otras horas mas ; esta tarde se ha sen-
tido bien el frio y por la noche apurd mas por la Hovtsna que
despedia la neblina que parecia nieve.
Martes doce amanecimos con la misma neblina y mucho frio,
cerca de las cinco de la manana se mudd el viento al O. S. O.
fresco, que andavamos tres millas y d las diez se mudd al O. bastante fuerte y frio ; todo el dia estuvo muy cerrado por lo que no
se pudo observar; como d las tres de la tarde aclard algo y por la
noche no estuvo el tiempo tan cerrado.
Miercoles trece amanecimos con el dia bien claro y con el viento
N. O. \ al O. bastante fuerte con el que andavamos tres millas*
A las siete de la manana se cerrd de mucho nublado y a las diez
volvid abrir y se despejaron los orizontes y pudo el senor capitan
observar d toda su satisfaccion y nos dijo que nos hallavamos en
la altura de 48 grados y 55 minutos: por la tarde aflojd algo el
viento aunque andavamos dos millas y media.
Jueves catorce amanecid con mucha neblina y Uovisnando que
de la misma manera se habia pasado la noche ; d las cinco soplaba
bien [fuerte el O. que andavamos cuatro millas y media. A las
siete y media de la manana vimos el arco iris al O. y nos entrd
un chubasco bastante fuerte que causd mucha marejada y obligd d
tomar rizos del belacho de gabia y pasado el chubasco se deshizo
el arco iris y continud el mismo viento fresco: poco antes de las
doce se despejd el cielo y quedaron claros los orizontes con que se
pudo observar y nos dijo el senor capitan nos hallavamos en la
altura de 50 grados y 24 minutos: d las nueve de la manana mandd
el senor capitan poner la proa al N. y nos dijo que habia virado
para ir a caer d la costa y nos dijo el senor capitan que lo hizo
porque habiendo registrado la aguada reconoeid no habia mas
agua que para dos meses y medio lo mas, y que por lo que podia
\ suceder queria hacer la diligencia de registrar la costa y ver si
[ podria hacer aguada por no saber cuanto podria tarda para la
buelta a Monte-Rey : d las tres de la tarde se alargo mas el viento
hasta el S. E. bien fresco que andavamos cuatro millas y media
I con la proa al Norte.
* *■ f * rtf ft * - %■ p-i—, Documents from the Sutro Collection.
151
Viernes quince amanecid con la misma neblina espesa y humeda,
con una llovisna fria como los dias antecedentes, con viento sur
bien fresco y con mucha marejada que nos balanceaba bastante :
toda esta manana andavamos cuatro millas y d veces mas por hora
con la proa al N.; se esplica demasiadamente el frio : d las ocho
cambid el viento al S. O. bastante fresco, y con 61 viraron poniendo
la proa al N. para ir d caer d la costa. Fue" aclarando el dia y
despejandose los orizontes con que se logrd la observacion y nos
dijo el senor capitan que nos hallavamos en la altura de 51 grados
y 42 minutos.
Este dia el senor capitan juntd los oficiales de la fragata y les
prOpuso el estado de la aguada y el peligro d que se esponian de
pasar mas arriba sin hacer aguada, que si les parecia arrimarse d
la costa para registrar fondeadero y hacer aguada, d si les parecia
que siguiesen hasta la altura de los 60 grados como encargaba su
excelencia y que en dicha altura se haria la diligencia de agua.
Oida la propuesta del sefior capitan fueron todos de parecer que
convenia recalar d tierra para prevenirse de agua y reconocer fondeadero d parage para arribar en caso necesario. Visto el parecer
j de los oficiales siguid en busca de la costa.
Sabado diez y seis de Julio amanecid el dia nublado aunque sin
neblina y con el viento en popa S. O. que hemos tenido toda la
noche pasada y ha durado hasta las nueve del dia que se cambid al
S., con que andavamos tres millas d la bolina ; d dicha hora
empezd d aclarar y tuvimos un buen sol con que pudieron los
senores observar y nos dijo el senor capitan que nos hallavamos en
52 grados y 41 minutos: d las cuatro de la tarde volvio d cambiarse
el viento fresco al S. O. y caminavamos con viento en popa lo
mismo que por la manana. Los carpinteros hicieron hoy una cruz
de como cinco varas de alto con el rotulo de arriba I. N. R. I. y
! en el cuerpo de la cruz desde los pies para los brazos, Carolus
\tertius : Rex Hispaniarum : y en los brazos de ella, ano 1774, con
el fin de en cuanto saltar en tierra que todavia no hemos descub-
ierto fijarla.
Domingo 17 de Julio amanecid nublado con alguna neblina
y casi en calma con el viento S. O. que por la noche aflojd :
digimos ambos misa, y en la suya hizo la platica el Padre com-
panero, como todos los domingos que ha dado lugar el tiempo se
! ha hecho: aunque tuvimos esta manana alguna neblina y un
aguacerito corto pero despues aclard y se logrd el poder observar
y nos dijo el senor capitan que nos hallavamos en 53 grados y 13
minutos.    En estas alturas se nos pone el sol en estos dias d las
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echo de la noche y sale como d las cuatro de la manana, de tai
manera que d las nueve de la noche todavia hay claridad, y pot la
manana como a las tres ya empieza d aclarar ; y si hubieramos
llegado un mes antes segun dicen habriamos visto ponerse el sol d
las nueve.
Lunes diez y ocho de Julio amanecid el dia muy cerrado de
neblina y llovisna y d las cinco de la manana vino un chubasco
con ventolinas del S. y S. E. que poco se andaba : como d las
once y media dijeron se descubria tierra y asi fud que empezamos
d ver la costa y la mas cerca la teniamos d la proa hacia el N. E.
como d diez y seis leguas de distancia y al N. O. i al N. parecia
que remataba, pero por lo muy ahumado y muy retirado, que d lo
menos estaria veinte y cinco leguas no se percibia bien. Por el N.
parecia ser tierra baja y al contrario por el N. E. se dejaba ver
muy alta y un mogote en eUa todo nevado: aunque algo abrid el
dia con que pudimos ver la tierra, pero no se dejd ver el sol para
poder observar: como d las cuatro de la tarde cambid el viento al
O. S. O. y con el se andaban dos millas y media; y poco despues
de las cinco se cambid otra vez al N. O. muy suave, al principio
algo se andaba con 61, pero por la noche calmd totalmente.
Martes diez y nueve amanecid el dia nublado pero con los orizontes claroS, con que se divisaba bien la tierra distante de siete d
ocho leguas, pero nos hallamos con la misma calma que hemos
tenido toda la noche. Vimos bien la costa y d todos nos parecid
que la que teniamos d la vista corre del N. N. O. al S. S. E. y
que remataba su curso al N. N. E. en donde hace un cabo y desde
alii parece que tuerce al mismo N. N. E. d hasta el N. E. Antesi
de las siete se cerrd el dia de tai neblina que apenas se veia la
costa y prosiguiendo la calma : d las once se nos cambid el vientoj
al S. E. del segundo cuadrante algo fresco y empezamos d andar
hacia el cabo de la costa que habiamos visto por la manana d fin)
de ver el curso de la costa del otro lado de la costa hacia el N.;
cerca de las once se descubrid el sol y se dejd ver bien d las doce,
con esto pudieron los sefiores observar y segun nos dijo el sefior
capitan nos hallamos en 53 grados y 58 minutos: por la tarde;
refrescd mas el viento y como d las cinco estabamos ya como tres
leguas de la costa y vimos que despues del cabo que habiamos
visto seguia la costa baja hacia el N.: como era tarde viraron de
bordo para apartarnos algo de la costa poniendo la proa al N. y &
las seis nos pusimos d la capa, en la que hemos estado toda esta
noche con una gran marejada y con una continua llovisna.
assi Documents from the Sutro Collection.
J53
Miercoles veinte de Julio amanecid el dia muy cerrado de
neblina que d muy corta distancia nada se veia y llovisnando con
viento E. bastante fuerte y con mucha marejada con un continuo
balance : soltaron las velas y la proa al N. \ al N. E. : antes de
las nueve abrid algo el dia y se vid bien la tierra, viraron de bordo
y se puso la proa al N. E- para hacer la diligencia de arrimarnos
d una punta de tierra : d las diez estavamos como cuatro leguas de^
dicha punta que d todos nos parecieron tres islas : al medio dia no
se pudo observar por estar nublado y tapado el sol: como d las
tres de la tarde estavamos como dos leguas de tierra y la que antes
nos habia parecido ser tres islas ya parecia una y no muy apartada
de la costa : vimos muchas humaredas de los habitantes en ella y
que era tierra muy poblada de arboleda que parecian pinos y que
con la dicha punta formaba la tierra una buena ensenada d baia.
Y reparamos que de una bocana que formaba la tierra salia una
canoa que d fuerza de remo venia para la fragata ; de bien apartados del barco los oiamos cantar y en el tono conocimos ser gentiles,
pues es el mismo que usan en sus mitoles los gentiles desde San
Diego d Monte-Rey : llegaron ya cerca de la fragata y vimos eran
ocho hombres y un muchacho los siete remando, el otro que venia
algo envijado parado y con ademanes de bailar, y tirando d la mar
varias plumas dieron una vuelta d la fragata : desde el balcon de
la camara los llamamos que se arrimasen y aunque al principio no
se atrevian por algun recelo que tendrian ensenandoles panuelos,
avalorios y galleta se arrimaron d la popa y recibieron todo lo que
se les tird ; les hecharon un mecate para que subiesen y aunque se
agarraron de 61 no se atrevieron d subir pero asidos de 61 nos sigui-
eron bastante trecho.
Cuando dicha canoa llegd al barco ya eran como las cuatro de
la tarde y se habia cerrado de espesa neblina y viento contrario,
por estos motivos habia mandado el senor capitan virar de bordo
reservando el arrimarnos mas d la tierra y desembarcar para el dia
siguiente, y viendo los gentiles que nos apartavamos de su tierra
nos convidaban con ella y conocimos d entendimos por senas que
nos decian que alii tenian que comer y mucha agua y lugar para
estar el barco, y respondiendoles pd? senas que el dia siguiente
iriamos se fueron.
Estos gentiles son corpulentos y gordos de buen semblante y de
color bianco y vermejo, con pelo largo y cubiertos con cueros de
nutria y de lobos marinos segun nos parecia y todos d lo mas con
sus sombreros de junco bien tejido, con la copa punteaguda : no
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son nada boruquientos y d todos nos parecieron ser mansos y de
buena indole.
Como dia media hora de haberse apartado de nosotros dicha
canoa, oimos otra vez cantar y vimos venir otra canoa mas chica y
juntandose con la primera se arrimaron las dos d la fragata: en
esta segunda venian seis gentiles, arrimandose ambas d la popa se
les regalaron varias cositas y diciendoles que el dia siguiente
iriamos d su tierra se fueron todos contentos despues de habernos
seguido bastante trecho.
Nos parecieron dichas canoas todas de una pieza salvo la borda
de arriba, bien labradas con sus quillas formadas casi de la misma
manera que las que usan en la canal de Santa Barbara, salvo que
estas tienen su popa y la proa no la tienen abierta como las de la
canal y usan sus remos bien labrados : vimos en estas canoas dos
fisgas bien largas para pescar y dos achas ; la una de ellos por lo j
reluciente de la punta nos parecid seria de fierro aunque no me
pude cerciorar de ello. La punta de una de las fisgas, si vimos era
de fierro, y nos parecia como un chuso.
Despues de idas dichas dos canoas siendo ya entrada la noche,
estando todos resando la corona d nuestra senora la purisima con-
cepcion oimos otia vez cantar y fu6 otra canoa que se arrimd con
las mismas cerem©nias que las antecedentes, y reparando ellos que
no se les hacia caso, d causa de estar en el rezo, empezaron d gritar
y continuaron voceando hasta tanto que se concluyd el rezo cuoti-
ano de corona y rezos particulares d algunos santos, y cant ado el
alabado que les causd bastante admiracion concluido el rezo por/
estar ya oscuro mandd el senor capitan sacar luces d la borda de la
fragata y vimos arrimada otra canoa con siete gentilesv se les con-
vidd d que subiesen d bordo pero ellos d no lo quisieron d no enten-
dieron las senas con que se les hablaba se les regald algunas
cositas y ellos correspondieron con algo de pescado seco que
parecia bacalao aunque mas bianco* Un marinero consiguid por
un beldoque que los did, un sombrero de junco bien tejido y de
varios colores, la hechura de la copa piramidal de como una
tercia de alto y las alas del sombrero no pasaban de sesma de
ancho : otro marinero por otro belduque les comprd un pedacito de
como una vara en cuadro bien vistoso tejido de palmafina, al parecer, de colores bianco y negro, que tejido en cuadritos hace muy buena y vistosa labor. Esta canoa estuvo arrimada como una hora, y
diciendoles por senas que se fuesen por ser ya muy noche, y que
el dia siguiente iriamos d su tierra se fueron contentos y tenian
que desandar como seis leguas pues tanto distariamos ya de la
tierra. Documents from the Sutro Collection.
Jueves veinte y uno de Julio amanecid no tan cerrado de neblina
como los antecedentes aunque llovisnando y soplando el sueste
fuerte con una buena marejada : d las ocho de la manana viraron
de bordo poniendo la proa para la punta que ayer vimos y que se
nombrd por el senor capitan la punta de  Santa Margarita por
haberse divisado ayer dia de la gloriosa santa : caminamos d la
bolina con la proa al E. i al N. E.    Como d las doce (que no se
pudo observar por estar el sol tapado con nublados) estavamos como
un cuarto de legua cerca la punta de Santa  Margarita la que
! fuimos costeando hacia el E. S. E. en donde nos parecia hacer
vrecodo, con el fin de registrar y sondear para dar fondo y saltar a
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