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Account of the Russian discoveries between Asia and America, to which are added, the conquest of Siberia,… Coxe, William, 1747-1828 1780

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         U    N    T
T 0   W"<H ICH  ARE   ADDED, \
By   WILLIAM   C O X E,   A. M.
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and Chaplain to his Grace the
Duke of Marlborough.
  T O
March 37, 1780.
  R      E
^HHE late Ruffian Difcoveries between Afia and
America have, for fome time, engaged the attention of the curious; more efpecrally fince Dr. Robertfon's
admirable Hiftory of America has been in the hands of
the public. In that valuable performance the elegant
and ingenious author has communicated to the world,
with an? accuracy and judgement which fo eminently dif-
tinguifh all his writings, the moft exact information
at that time to be obtained, concerning thofe important difcoveries* During my ftay at Petersburg, my inquiries were particularly directed to this interefting fub-
ject, in order to learn if any new light had been thrown
on an article of knowledge of fuch confequence to the
hiftory of mankind.. For this purpofe I endeavoured to
collect the respective journals of the feveral voyages
fubfequent to the expedition of Beering and Tfchirikofl
in 1741? with which the celebrated Muller concludes
his- account of the firrl Ruffian navigations*
During the courfe of my refearches I was informed,
that a treatife in the German language, publifhed at
Hamburg and Leipfic in 1776, contained a full and
exact narrative of the Ruffian voyages, from 1745 to
As the author has not prefixed his name, I mould
have paid little attention to an anonymous publication,
if I had not been affured, from very good authority, that
the work in queftion was compiled from the original
journals. Not refting however upon this intelligence, I
took the liberty of applying to Mr. Muller himfelf, who,
by order of the Emprefs, had arranged the fame journals, from which the anonymous author is faid to
have drawn his materials. Previous to my application,
Mr. Muller had compared the treatife with the original
papers.; and he favoured me with tjie following •
ftrong teftimony to its exactnefs and authenticity :
" Vous feres bien de traduire pour 1'ufage de vos com--
" patriotes le petit livrC fur les ifles fituees entre le Kamt-
" chatka et PAmerique. II n'y -a point de doute, que j
" Pauteur n'ait ete pourvu de bons memQires, et qu"il ne
" s'en foit fervi fidelement.   J'ai confronte le livre avecles
I The title of the book is, Neue Nachrichten von denenNeuendeck
ten Infuln in der See zwifchen Afia und Amerika aus mitgetheilten Ur-
■ kunden und Aufzuegen verfaffet von J. L. S.
I originaux." Supported therefore by this very refpec-
table authority, I confidered this treatife as a performance
of the higheft credit, and well worthy of being more
generally known and perufed. 1 have accordingly, in
the firft part of the prefent publication, fubmitted a tranf-
lation of it to the reader's candour; and added occafional
notes to fuch paffages as feemed to require an explanation.
The original is divided into fections without any references. But as it feemed to be more convenient to divide it into chapters; and to accompany each chapter
with a fummary of the contents, and marginal references;
I have moulded it into that form, without making however any alteration in the order of the journals.
The additional intelligence which I procured at
Peterfburg, is thrown into an appendix: It con-
fifts of fome new information, and of three journals jg never before given to the public. Amongft
thefe I muft particularly mention that of Krenitzin and
Levafheff, together with the chart of their voyage,
which was communicated to Dr. Robertfon, by order of
the Emprefs of Ruffia ; and which that juftly admired
hiftorian has, in the politeft and moft obliging manner,;
I The journals of Krenitzin and Levafheff, the fhort account of Svnd'a
voyage, and the narrative of Shalauroffs expedition, N° I. IX. XI.
a permitted
permitted me to make ufe of in this collection. This
vovaee, which redounds greatly to the honour of the
fovereign who planned it, confirms in general the authenticity of the treatife above-mentioned ; and afcertains
the reality of the difcoveries made by the private merchants.
As a farther illuftration of this fubject, I collected the
beft charts which could be procured at Peterfburg,
and of which a lift will be given in the following ad-
vertifement. From all thefe cireu&rftances, I may venture, perhaps, to hope .that the curious and inquifitive
reader will not only find in the Allowing pages the
moft authentic and circumftantial account of the pro-
grefs and extent of the Ruffian diffcoveries,- which lias
hitherto appeared in any language\ but be enabled hereafter to compare them wish thofe more lately toade by
that great and much to be regretted navigator, Captain
Cooke, when his jOTafttal- mall be com^^6iicated to the
As all the furs wfeich are bretight from the New
Dlfcovered Iflands are fold to the CHiflefe, 1 was naturally led to make enquiries concerning the commerce
between Ruffia and China; and finding this branch of
traffic much more important than is commonly imagined
J.;thought; that a general Iketch of its prefent ftate,
3 together
together with a fuccinct view of the tranfactions between
the two nations, would not be unacceptable.
The conqueft of Siberia, as it firft opened a communication with China, and paved the way to all the in-
terefting difcoveries related in the prefent attempt, will
not appear unconnected, 1 truit, with its principal
The materials of this fecond.part, as alio of the preliminary obfervations concerning Kamtchatka, and the
commerce to the new-difcovered iflands, are drawn from
books of eftablifhed and undoubted reputation. Mr. Muller and Mr. Pallas, from whofe interefting works thefe
hiftorical and commercial fubjects are chiefly compiled,
are too well known in the literary world to require any
other vouchers for their judgement, exactnefs, and fidelity, than the bare mentioning of their names. I have
only farther to apprize the reader, that, befides the intelligence extracted from thefe publications, he will find
fome additional circumftances relative to the Ruffian commerce with China, which I collected during my continuance in Ruffia.
 r * ]
I CANNOT clofe this addrefs to the reader without
embracing with peculiar fatisfa&ion the juft occafion,
which the enfuing treatifes upon the Ruffian difcoveries
and commerce afford me, of joining with every friend
of fcience in the warmeft admiration of that enlarged and liberal fpirit, which fo ftrikingly marks the
character of the prefent Emprefs of Ruffia. Since
her acceffion to the throne, the inveftigation and difco-
very of ufeful knowledge has been the conftant object of
her generous encouragement. The authentic records of
the Ruffian Hiftory have, by her exprefs orders, been properly arranged; and permiffion is readily granted of inflecting them. The moftdiftant parts of her vaft dominions
have, at her expence, been explored and defcribed by per-
fons of great abilities and extenfive learning; by which
means new and important lights have been thrown upon
the geography and natural hiftory of thofe remote regions. In a word, this truly great princefs has contributed more, in the compafs of only a few years, towards
Civilizing and informing the minds of her fubjects, than
had been effected by all the fovereigns her predeceflbrs
fince the glorious seraPof Peter the Great.
 [   *i   3
In order to prevent the frequent mention of the full
. title of the books referred to in the courfe of this performance, the following catalogue is fubjoined, with
the abbreviations.
Muller's Samlung Ruflifcher Gefchichte, IX volumes, 8vo. printed at
St. Peterfburg in 1732, and the following years; it is referred to in the
following manner : S. R. G. with the volume and page annexed.
From this excellent collection I have made ufe of the following
vol. II. p. 293, &c. Gefchichte der Gegenden an dem FlufTe Amur.
There is a French tranflation of this treatife, called Hiftoire du
Fleuve Amur, i2mo, Amfterdam, 1766.
vol. III. p. 1, &c. Nachrichten von See Reifen, &c.
There is an Englifh and a French tranflation of this work; the former
is called M Voyages from Afia to America for completing the Difcoveries
of the North Weft Coaft of America," &c. 4to, London, 1764. The
title of the latter is Voyages et Decouvertes fakes par les Ruffes,. &c.
12mo, Amfterdam, 1766. p. 413. Nachrichten Von der Hanlung inSibirien.
I Vol. VI. p. 109, Sibirifche Gefhichte.
Vol. VIII. p. 504, Nachricht Von der Ruflifchen Handlung   nach
Pallas Reife durch verfchiedene Provinzen des Ruflifchen Reichs, in
Three Parts, 4to, St. Peterfburg, 1771, 1773, and 1776, thus cited,
Pallas Reife.
Georgi Bemerkungen einer Reife im Ruflifchen Reich in Jahre, 1772,
III volumes,. 4to, St. Peterfburg, 1775, cited Georgi Reife.
Fifcher Sibirifche Gefchichte, 2 volumes, 8vo, St..Peterfburg, cited
Fif. Sib. Gcf.
Gmelin Reife durch Sibirien, Tome IV? 8vo. Gottingen, 1752, cited
Gmelin Reife. ^
b 2 There
There is a French tranflation of this work, called Voyage en Siberie,
&c. par M. Gmelin.   Paris, 1767. j
Neuefte Nachrichten von Kamtchatka aufgefetft im Junius des
I77VM» Yahren von dem dafigen Befehls-haber Herrn Kapitain Smalew.
.   Aus dem abhandlungen der freyen Ruflifchen Gefellfchaft Mofkau.
In the journal of St. Peterfburg, April, 1776.-cited Journal of St. Pet.
Explanation of fome Ruffian words made ufe of in the
following work.
Baidar, a fmall boat.
Guba, a bay.
Ramen, a rock.
Kotche, a veflel.
Krepojl, a regular fortrefs.
Nofs, a cape.
Ofirog, a fortrefs furrounded with palifadoes.
OJlroff, an ifland.
OJlrova, iflands.
£>uafs, a fort of fermented liquor.
Reka, a river. -
The Ruffians, in their proper names of perfons, make ufe of patronymics ; thefe patronymics are formed in fome cafes by adding
Vitch to the chriflian name of the father; in others Off or Eff: the
former termination is applied only to perfons of. condition; the latter
to thofe of an inferior rank.    As, for inftance,
Among perfons of condition Ivan Ivanovitch.   ") T        ,    ,.      M
c- c  ■ ir      r .    „. \ tvan the fon of Ivan,
or interior rank, Ivan lvanoff        J
Michael Alexievitch, "1 Michael the fon
Michael Akxeeff,     J   of Alexey.
Sometimes a furname is added, Ivan hanovitch Romanoff.
 C X*U 3
Table of Ruffian  Weights, Meafures   of Length, and
Value of Money.
A pood weighs 40 Ruffian pounds = 36 Englifh.
16 verfhocks = an arfhee-n.
An arfheen = 28 inches.
Three arfheens, or feven feet = a fathom *, or fazfhen.
500 fazfhens = a verft.
A degree of longitude comprifes 104^ verfts 9 69^ Englifh miles.    A
mile is therefore 1,515 parts of a verft; two miles may then be efti-
mated equal to three verfts, omitting a fmall fraction.
A rouble =100 copecs.
Its value varies according to the exchange from 3s. 8d. to 4s. 2d.
Upon an average, however, the value of a rouble is reckoned at four
* The fathom fbf meafuring the deptSa of water is-the fame as the Englifh fathom = 6 feet.
E R-
 I &r 1
T. 2$,°Referettce,for Appendix I. N° I. readH" II.
If for Appendix I. N° II. read N° III.
">fi,for Rogii read Kogii.
46, for Rikfa read Kifka.
96, for Korovin read Korelin.
186, Note—-for Tobob read Tobol.
154, Note—Line 2, after handpauken omitted yon yelfcftiectenen Klang.
iiij.,for Saktunk readSaktunak.
134, Line 6, for were read was.
188, 1. 16. for prete&ion read protection.
190,1. 5. for nor read not.
i<)$,for Sungur read Sirgut.
225,1.13. read other has an.
226, for harlbadeers read halberdiers.
234, Note—line 3, dele See hereafter, p. 242.
246, for Marym read Narym.
256, Note—for called by LinnxTls Lufra Mafina 'read Lutra Marina, called by
Linnseus Muftela Lutris, &c.
257, Line 5, for made of the bone, &c. rairfmade of bone, or the flal^&c.
278, Note 2—line 2, for Corbus read Corvus.
324, Note—line 4, dele was.
313, Note—line 3, dele that.
Ibid. Note—line 10, "I would not1' &c. is afeparate note, and relates to. the
txtratl in the text beginning *| In 1648," &c.
 t ™- ]
A S no aftronomical obfervations have been taken in
the voyages related in this colledtion, the longitude
and latitude afcribed to the new-difcovered iflands in the
journals and upon the charts cannot be abfolutely depended upon. Indeed the reader will perceive, that the
pofition .♦ of the Fox Iflands upon the general map of
Ruffia is materially different from that afligned to them
upon the chart of Krenitzin and Levafheff. Without
endeavouring to clear up any difficulties which may
arife from this uncertainty, I thought it would be moft
Fatisfactory to have the beft charts engraved : the reader
will then be able to compare them with each other, and
with the feveral journals. Which reprefentation of the
new-difcovered iflands deferves the preferance, will probably be afcertained upon the return of captain Clerke
from his prefent expedition.
* See p. 286.
 [   ml  ]
Lift of the Charts, and Directions for placing themv
CHART I. A reduced copy of the general map of Ruffia, pub-
lifhed by the Academy of Sciences at St. Peterfburg, 1776. to face the title-page.
II. Chart of the voyage made by Krenitzin and Leva
fheff to the Fox Iflands, communicated by Dr. Ro-
bertfon, to face p. 25r.
III. Chart of Synd's Voyage towards Tfchukotikoi-
Nofs, p. 300.
IV. Chart of Shalauroff's Voyage to- Shelarikqi-Nofs,
with a fmall chart of the Bear-Hlands,. p.. 3 2 3;
View of Maimatfchin, p. 211~
Communicated hy a gentleman who has been upon
the fpot.
 t   xvii   J
0     N      T      £      N      T      S,
p. in.
p. v.
p. xi.
p. xiii.
" Dedication,
Catalogue of boo%s quoted in this work,
Explanation of fome Ruffian words made tife of
'table of Ruffian Weights^ of Length, and Value
of Money, p. xiv.
AdvertifeMenty p. xv.
Lift of Charts, and Directions for placing them,       p. xvi.
PART     I.
Containing Preliminary Obfervations concerning Kamtchatka, and Account of the New Discoveries made
by the Russians, p. 3—16.
Chap. I. Difcovery and Cmquefl of Kamtchatka.—-<Prefent
gjlate of that Peninfula—Population—'Tribute-—Produc-
1 tions, &c p. 3.
Chap. II'. General idea of the commerce carried on to the
New Difcovered I/lands—Equipment of the veffels—Rifks
of the trade, profits, &c. p. 8.
Chap. III. Furs and Jkins procured from Kamtchatka and
the New Difcovered Iflands, p. 12.
Account of the Russian Discoveries, p. 19.
Chap. I. Commencement andprogrefs of the Ruffian Dif-
coveries in the fea of Kamtchatka—General divifion of
the New Difcovered Iflands, ibid,"
c Chap.
CON*  T   E   N   T   S.
Chap. II. Voyages in 1745 - Firfl difcovery of the Aleutian
Iiles, by Michael NevodfikofF, p. 29;
Chap. III. Succeffive voyages, from 1747 to I753> t0
Beering's and Copper Ifland, and to the Aleutian Ifles-—
Some account of the inhabitants, p. 37-
Chaps IV. Voyages from 1753 to 17.56-. Some-of the further Aleutian or Fox Iflands touched at by Serebrani-
koff's vefj'el—Some account of the natives,. p. 48.,
.Chap. V.  Voyages from 1756 to 1758, P«5 4
Chap..VI. Voyages in 1758, 1759? and 1760, to the.
Eox Iflands, in the St. Vladimir, fitted out by Trapef-
nikoff—and in, the. Gabriel,, by Bethflievin—The latter,
under the command of Pufhkareff, fails to Alakfu, or
Alachfhak, one of the remotefl Eafiern I/lands hitherto
vifited—Some account of its inhabitants, and productions, which latter are different from thofe of the more
Wefiern iflands, p. 61.
Chap. VII. Voyage o/Andrean Tolflyk, in the St.Andrean
and Natalia—Difcovery of fome New I/lands, called
Andreanoffsky  Oftrova—Defcription   of fix   of  thofe
' iflands, f p>?1#
Chap. VIII.  Voyage of the Zacharias and Elizabeth, fitted,
out by Kulkoff,; and commanded by Daufinin—They fail
to Umnak and Unalaflika,   and'winter upon the latter
ifland—The veffel  deflroyed,   and all the crew, except
four, murdered by the iflanders—The adventures of thoje
four. Ruffians,.. and. their wonderful efcape, p. 8o.
 C   O   N . T   E   N   T   S.
Chap. IX.  Voyage of the veffel called the Trinity, under
* the command of Korovin—Sails to the Fox Iflands	
Winters at Unalaflika—Puts to fea the fpring following—The veffel is firanded in a bay of the ifland Uni-
nak, and the crew attacked by the natives—Many of
them killed—others carried off by ficknefs—They are reduced to great fir eights—Relieved by Glottoff, 'twelve of
the whole company only remaining—Defer ipiion of Um-
nak and Unalaflika,
p. 89.
Chap. X. Voyage of Stephen Glottoff—He reaches the
Fox Iflands—Sails beyond Unalafhika to Kadyak—
Winters upon that ifiand—Repeated attempts of the natives to deflroy the crew—They are repulfed, reconciled,
and prevailed upon to trade with the Ruffians—Account
of Kadyak—Its inhabitants, animals, produclions—
GlottofFy^/7j" back to Umnak—winters there—returns to
Kamtchatka—Journal of his voyage, p. 1 o 6.
Chap. XI. Solovioff's voyage—He reaches Unalaflika, and
paffes two winters upon that ifiand—Relation of what
paffed there—fruitlefs attempts* of the natives to deflroy
the crew—Return of SoloviofTto Kamtchatka—Journal
of his voyage in returning—Defcription of the iflands of
Umnak and Unalaflika, produclions, inhabitants, their
manners, cuftoms, &c. &c. p. 131.
Chao. XII. Voyage of Otcheredin—He winters upon
Umnak—Arrival of Levafheff upon Unalaflika-—Return of Otcheredin to Ochotfk, p. 156.
c 2 Chap.
Chap. XIII. Conclufion—General pofition and filiation of
the Aleutian and Fox Iflands—their difiance from each
other—Further defcription of the drefs, manners, and:
cuftom of the inhabitants—their feafis and ceremonies, &c-
p. 164.
P    A    R    T       II.
Containing the Cbnqueft of Siberia, and the Hiftory of
the Tranfactions and Commerce between Russia and
China, p. 175.
Chap. I. Firfl irruption of the Ruffians into Siberia—fecond
inroad—Yermac driven by the Tzar of Mufcovy from
the Volga, retires to Orel, a Ruffian fettlement—-Enters
Siberia, with an army of Coflacs—his progrefs and exploits—Defeats Kutchum Chan—conquers his dominions
—cedes them to the Tzar—receives a reinforcement of
Ruffian troops—is furprized by Kutchum Chan—his
defeat and death—veneration paid to his memory Ruffian troops evacuate Sihenz-^-re-enter and conquer the
whole  country—their progrefs flopped by the Chinefe
p. 177-
Chap. II. Commencement of hofUMlies between the Ruffians
and Chinefe—difputes concerning the limits of the two
empires—treaty o/Nerfliinsk—embaffies from the court
o/Rnffia to Pekin—treaty o/Kiachta—eflablifhment of
the commerce between the two nations. d   t r- ~,
Chap. III. Account of the Ruffian and Chinefe fettlements
upon the confines of Siberia—defcription of the Ruffian
.   frontier town Kiachta—0/ the Chinefe frontier town
Maitmatfchin—its buildings, pagodas, &c. D   „ T T
 G   O   N   TEN   T   S.
Chap. IV. Commerce between the Chinefe and Ruffians	
lift of the principal exports and imports—duties—average
amount of theRuffian trade\t p. 231.
Ghap. V. D'efcription o/Zuruchaitu—and its trade—tranf-
port of the merchandize\ through Siberia. 'p;. 244.
•-'.-•^^l'.- PART    HI..^ •"
Appendix' I. and II; containing Supplementary
Accounts of the Russian Discoveries, 8cc. &c-
Appendix. I. Extraclfrom the journal of a voyage made by
Captain Krenitzin and Lieutenant Levafheff to -the Fox
Iflands* in 1768, 1769, by order o/Z^EmprefsofRuffia
-*—they fail from Kamtchatka-*—arrive* at Reering*s ■
and Copper Iflands—reach the Fox Iflands—Krenitzin •
winters at Alaxa^—Levaflieff upon Unalaflika^—productions of Unalaflika—defcription of the inhabitants of the
Fox Iflands—their manners and cufloms, Sec. p. 251.
N° II.  Concerning the longitude of Kamtchatka, and of the
Eafiern extremity of Afia, as laid down by the Ruffian -
geographers. p. 267,
N° III. Summary of the proofs tending tofieiv, that Beer-
ing and Tfchirikoff either reached America in 174.1,
or came very near it. p. 277*
N° IV. Lift of the principal charts reprefenting• the Ruffian
Difcoveries. p. 281*
N° V. Pofition of the Andreanofffky Ifles afcertained-—
number of tbe Aleutian Ifles.. p. 288.
N° VI. Conjeclures concerning the proxirhity of- the Fox
Iflands to the continent of America. p. 291.
N° VII. Of the Tfchutflci—-reports of the vicinity of America to their coafi, firft propagated by them, feem to be
confirmed by late accounts from thofe parts.      p. 293.
ljfl of the New Difcovered Iflands, procured from
an Aleutian chief—catalogue of iflands called by different
names in ■ the account of the Ruffian difcoveries. p. 297.
N° IX.  Voyage of Lieutenant  Synd to the North Eafl of
Siberia—he discovers a clufler of iflands, and a promontory, which hefuppofes to belong to the continent of Ame-
ricaflying near the coafi of the Tfchutski. p. 3 do.
N° X. Specimen of the Aleutian language. p. 303.
.N° XI. Attempts of the Ruffians to difcover a North Eafl
pqffage—voyages from Archangel towards the Lena—
from the Lena towards Kamtchatka—extracl from
Muller's account of DeftmefPs voyage round Tfchukot-
skoi Nofs—narrative of a voyage made by ShalaurofF
from the Lena to Shelatskoi Nofs. p. 304.
Appendix II. Tartarian rhubarb brought to Kiachta by the
Buchanan merchants—method of examining and pur-
chafing the roots—different fpecies of rheum which yield
the finefl rhubarb—price of rhubarb in Ruffia—exportation—fuperiorjty of the Tartarian over the Indian
rhubarb. ^   ,,,, „
Table of the longitude and latitude of the principal places
^mentioned in this work. n   n a a
 I I
 [    3    ]
K  A  M   T   C   H  A  T   K  A,    &c.
CHAP.    I.
Difcovery and Conquefl of Kamtchatka—Prefent flate of
that Peninfula—-Population—Tribute—Produclions, &c,'
TH E Peninfula of Kamtchatka was not difcovered rirftDifcovery.
of Kamtchat-
by the Ruffians before the latter end of 'the  laftka*
century. * The firft expedition towards thofe parts was
made in 1696, by fixteen CofTacs, under the command
of Lucas SemaenofT Morofko, who was fent againft the
Koriacks  of the river Opooka by  Volodimir  Atlaflbff
commander of Anadirfk.    Morofko continued his march
until he  came within  four  days journey  of the rivei*
Kamtchatka, and having rendered a Kamtchadal village -
tributary, he returned to Anadirfk *.
* S. R. G. V. III. p. 72.
B  2 . The-#: .11
The following year AtlafiorT himfelf at the head of
a larger body of troops penetrated into the Peninfula,
took pofleffion of the river Kamtchatka by erecliiflg a
crofs upon its banks; and built fome huts upon the
fpot, where Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog now ftands.
Thefe expeditions were continued during the following
:3fcTbynd-years : Upper and Lower Kamtchatkoi Oftrogs -and Bol-
.cheretfk   were  built ;   the   Southern diftrid conquered
and colonifed ;   and in 17 11  the whole  Peninfula was
finally reduced under the dominion of the Ruffians.
During fome years the pofleffion of Kamtchatka
hrought very little advantage to the crown, excepting
the fmall tribute of furs exacted from the inhabitants.
The Ruffians indeed occafionally hunted in that Peninfula foxes, wolves, ermines, fables, and other animals,
whofe valuable fkins form an extenfive article of commerce among the Eaftern nations. But the fur trade
carried on from thence was in considerable; until the
Ruffians difcovered the iflands fituated between Afia and
America, in a feries of voyages, the journals of which
will be exhibited in the fubfequent tranflation. Since
•thefe difcoveries, the variety of rich furs, which are
procured from thofe Iflands, has greatly encreafed the
trade of Kamtchatka, and rendered it a very important
branch of the Ruffian commerce.
 * kamtchatka, *#.
j£$. The Peninfula of Kamtchatka lies between 51 and
>1§2 degrees of North latitude* and 173 and 182 of
longittide from the Ifle of Fero. It is bounded on
the Eaft and South by the Sea of Kamtchatka, on the
Weft by the Seas of Ochotfk and Penfliinfk, and on the
North by the country of the Koriacs.
hft is divided into four diftricts, Bolcherefk, Tigilfkaia Prefe
1 '6 State
Krepoft, Verchnei-or Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog, andchacka'
Niftinei or Lower Kamtchatkoi Oftrog, The govern- Government.
ment is vefted in the chancery of Bolcherefk, which depends upon and is fubje£t to the iiifpectioii of the chancery of Ochotfk. The whole Ruffian force ftationed in
the Peninfula conflfts of no more than three hundred
The prefent population of Kamtchatka is very fmall, Population.
amounting to fcarce four thoufand fouls. Formerly the
inhabitants were more numerous, but in 1768, that
country was greatly depopulated by the ravages of the
fmall-pox, by which diforder five thoufand three hundred and fixty-eight perfons were carried off. There are
now only feven hundred and fix males in the whole Peninfula who are tributary, and an hundred and fourteen
in the Kuril Ifles, which are fubje6t to Ruffia.
* Journal of St, Peterfburg for April 1777.
The fixed annual tribute confifts in 279 fables, 464
red foxes, 50 fea-otters with a dam, and 38 cub fea-
otters. All furs exported from Kamtchatka pay a duty
of 10 per cent, to the crown ; the tenth of the cargoes-
brought from the new difcovered iflands is alfo delivered
into the cuftoms.
Many traces of Volcanos have been obferved in this
Peninfula ; and there are fome mountains, which are atr
prefent in a burning ftate.^ The moft confiderable  of.
thefe Volcanos is fituated near the Lower Oftrog.,   In
1762 a great noife was heard ifluing from the infide of;
that mountain, and flames of fire were feen to burft from
different parts.    Thefe flames were immediately fucceed-
ed by a large ftream of melted fnow water, which flowed
into the neighbouring valley,  and drowned two Kamt-
chadals, who were at that time upon an hunting party.
The aflies, and other combuftible matter, thrown from
the mountain, fpread to the circumference of three hundred verfts.    In 1767 there was another difcharge,   but
lefs confiderable.    Every night flames of fire were obferved ftreaming from the mountain ;  and the eruption
which attended them,  did no fmall damage to the inhabitants of the Lower Oftrog.    Since that year no flames
have been  feen;  but the mountain   emits   a   conftant
fmoke.   The fame phaenomenon is alfo obferved upou
another mountain, called Tabaetfhinfkian.
The face of the country throughout the Peninfula is If^|||
chiefly mountainous. It produces in fome parts birch,
poplars, alders, willows, underwood, and berries of different forts. Greens and other vegetables are raifed with
great facility ; fuch as white cabbage, turneps, radifhes,
•beetroot, carrots, and fome cucumbers. Agriculture is
in a very low.ftate, which is chiefly owing to the nature
of the foil and the fevere hoar frofts ; for though fome
trials have been made with refpecl: to the cultivation of
corn, and oats, barley and rye have been fown; yet
no crop has ever been procured fufficient in quality or
quality to anfwer the pains and expence of railing it.
Hemp however has of late years been cultivated with great
Every year a veffel, belonging to the crown, fails from
Ochotfk to Kamtchatka laden with fait, provifions, corn,
and Ruffian manufactures; and returns in June or July
of the following year with fkins and furs.
* Journal of St. Peterfburg.
C    H:   A    P.
Equipment or
the veffels.
General idea of the commer£e carried on to the New Difcovered Iflands.—Equipment of the veffels.—Rifks of thU'
trade,, profits, mc.
Q I N C E the conclufion of Beering's voyage, which.
^ was made at the expence of the crown, the profecu-
toon of the New Difcoveries began by him- has been al-
moft entirely carried on by individuals. Thefe perfons
were principally merchants of Irkutfk, Yakutfk, and other
natives of Siberia, who formed themfelves into fmall
trading companies, and fitted, out veffels at their joint
Moft of the veffels which are equipped for thefe expeditions are two mafted : they are commonly built without iron, and in general fo badly conftructed,  that it is
wonderful how they can weather fo ftormy a fea.     They
are called in Ruffian Skitiki or fewed. veffels, becaufe the
planks 'are fewed together with thongs of leather.     Some
few are built in the river of Kamtchatka; but they are.
for the moft part conftru<5ted at the haven  of Ochotfk..
The largeft of thefe veffels are manned with feventy men
and the fmalleft with forty.    The crew generally conflfts
of an equal number of Ruffians and Kamtchadals.    The
5 latter
latter occafion a confiderable faving, as their pay is
fmall; they alfo refift, more eafily than the former,
the attacks of the fcurvy. But Ruffian mariners are
more enterprifing and more to be depended upon in
time of danger than the others; fome therefore are
unavoidably neceflary.
The expences of building and fitting out the veffels ExP.e«ce!; .aW
x O o J, tending; this
are very confiderable : for there is nothing at Ochotfk
but.timber for their conftruclion. Accordingly cordage,
fails, and fome provifions, muft be brought from Ya-
kutfk upon horfes. The dearnefs of corn and flour,
which muft be transported from the diftricts lying about
the river Lena, renders it impoffible to lay-in any
large quantity for the fubfiftence of the crew during
a voyage, which commonly lafts three or four years.
For this reafon no more is provided, than is neceffary
to fupply the Ruffian mariners with quafs and other
fermented liquors.
From the exceffive fcarcity of cattle both at Ochotfk
and * Kamtchatka very little provifion is laid in at
either of thofe places.: but the crew provide themfelves
* In 1772 there were only 570 head of cattle upon the whole Peninfula. A cow fold from 50 to 60 Roubles, an ox from 60 to 100. A
pound of freih beef fold upon an average for I2| copecs. The excef-
hkks dearnefs of this price will be eafily conceived, when it is known,
that at Mofcow a pound of beef fells for about three copecs. Journ.
St. Peterfb*
with a large ftore of the flefli of fea animals, which:
are caught and cured upon Beering's Ifland, where the
veffels for the moft part winter.
After all expences are paid, the equipment of each
veffel ordinarily cofts from 15,000 to 20,00a Roubles..
And fometimes the expences amount to 30,000. Every
veffel is divided into a certain number of fliares, generally from thirty to fifty; and each fhare is worth.
from 300 to  500 Roubles.
The rifk of the trade is very great, as fhipwrecks are
common in the fea of Kamtchatka, which is full of rocks
and very tempeftuous.   Befides, the crews are frequently'
furprifed and killed by the  iflanders,   and  the veflels
deftroyed.     In return the  profits arifing   from   thefe^
voyages are very confiderable, and  compenfate the in-
convenieneies  and dangers  attending them.     For  if a
fhip comes back after having made a profitable voyage,
the  gain'at the  moft  moderate  computation amounts
to cent,  per cent,  and frequently to as much   more.
Should the veffel be capable of   performing  a fecond"
expedition,    the   expences   are  of   courfe  confiderably
leffened, and the fliares are at a lower price.
Some notion of the general profits arifing from
this trade (when the voyage is fuccefsful), may be
deduced from the fale of a rich cargo of furs, brought
to Kamtchatka, on the ad of June, 1772, from the
new-difcovered iflands, in a veffel belonging, to Ivan
The tenth part of the fkins being delivered to the
cuftoms, the remainder was diftributed in fifty-five
fliares. Each fhare confifted of twenty fea-otters,
iixteen black and brown foxes, ten red foxes, three
JTea-otter tails; and fuch a portion was fold upon the
fpot from 800 to 1000 Roubles : fb that according to
this price the whole lading was worth about 50,000
Roubles i$
* Georgi Reife Tom. I. p. 23, & feq. Journal of St. Peterfburg.
Furs and pins procured from Kamtchatka and the New-
Difcovered Iflands..
and rhe New
broughtTom5 rijr* H E principal furs and fkinS: procured from the.
A. Peninfula of-Kamtchatka and the New Difcovered
Iflands are fea-otters, foxes, fables, ermines, wolves,, bears,
&c.—Thefe furs are tranfported to Ochotfk by fea, and.
from thence carried to -,^-iachta upon the frontiers of
Siberia; where the greateft part of them are fold to.
the Chinefe at a very confiderable profit.
sea-otters'. of all thefe furs the fkins of the fea-otters are the
richeft and moft valuable. Thofe animals refort in great
numbers to the Aleutian and Fox. Iflands : they are
called by the Ruffians Bobry Morfki or fea-beavers, and
fometimes Kamtchao^al beavers, on account of the re-
femblance of their fur to that of the common beaver.
From thefe circumftances feveral authors have been led
into a miftake, and have fuppofed that this animal is
of the beaver fpecies; whereas it is the true fea-otter f.
* See Part II. Chap. III.
t S.R.C III. p. Wg.
The female are called Matka or dams; and the cubs
till five months old Medviedki or little bears, becaufe their
coat refembles that of a bear; they lofe that coat after
five months, and then are called Kofchloki..
The fur of the fineft fort is thick and long, of a dark
colour, and a fine gloffy hue. They are taken four
ways;, ftruck with darts as they are fleeping upon their
Backs in the fea, followed in boats and hunted down
till they are tired, furprifed in caverns, and taken in
Their fkins fetch different prices according to their
At Kamtchatka* the beft fell for
per fkin from     -     -     - 30 to 40 Roubles.
Middle fort 10 to 30
Worft fort 15 to 25
At Kiachtat the old and middle-
aged fea-otter fkins are fold
to the Chinefe per fkin from    80 to 100
The worft fort   30 to 40
* Journal St. Peterfburg.
•f Pallas Reife. Part III. p. 137.
As,thefe furs fetch fo great a price to the Chinefe,
they are feldom brought into Ruffia for fale : and feve-
ral, which have been carried to Mofcow as a tribute, were
purchafed for 30 Roubles per fkin; and fent from
thence to the Chinefe frontiers, where they were difpofed
.of at .a very high intereft.
Different fPe-      There are feveral fpecies of Foxes,  whofe  fkins are
cies of Foxes.
fent from Kamtchatka into Siberia and Ruffia. Of thefe
the principal are the black foxes, the. Petfi or Arctic
foxes, the red and ftone foxes.
The fineft black foxes different  parts
of Siberia, and more commonly m regions
between the Rivers Lena, Indigirka, | yma :  the
black foxes found upon the remote!! Laftern^ iflands
difcovered by the Ruffians, or the Lyffie Oftrova, are not
fo valuable. They are very black and large; but the
coat for the moft part is as coarfe as that of a wolf.
The great difference in the finenefs of the fur, between thefe foxes and thofe of Siberia, arifes probably
from the following circumftances. In thofe iflands
the cold is not fo- fevere as in Siberia; and as
there is no wood, the foxes live in holes and caverns of the rocks; whereas in the abovementioned
parts of Siberia, there are large tracts of forefts in
which   they   find  fhelter.     Some   black   foxes   how-
> f S. R. G. V. III. Pallas Reife.
ever are occafionally caught in the remoteft Eaftern
Iflands, not wholly deftitute, of wood, and thefe are
of great value. In general the Chinefe, who pay the
deareft for black furs, do not give more for the black
foxes of the new-difcovered iflands than from 20 to
30 Roubles per fkin.
The arctic or ice foxes are very common upon fome of
the New-Difcovered Iflands. They are called Petfi by the
Ruffians, and by the Germans blue foxes.    Their natural Klil
J Synopus.
colour is of a bluifh grey or afh colour; but they change
their coat at different ages, and in di|fererent feafons of
the year. In general they are born brown, are white in
winter, and brown in fummer; and in fpring and autumn,
as the hair gradually falls off, the coat is marked with,
different fpecks and croffes*
2 j Roubles.
r to 2 r
At Kiachta* all the feveral varieties fell upon an average to the Chinefe per fkin from 50
copecs to
Stone Foxes at Kamtchatka per fkin
from        -
Red Foxes from 80 copecs to
At Kiachta from 80 copecs to
Common wolves fkins at per fkin
Beft fort per fkin from
Sables per ditto      -        ~       .— ■
,1 Pallas Reife.
8 to 16
2 j to 1 o
80 copecs.
A pood
A pood of the-beft fea-horfe teeth-* fells
At Yakutfk for - - I o Roubles.
Of the middling - 8
Inferior ditto - - from 5 to 7.
Four, fife, or fix teeth generally weigh a pood, and
fometimes, but very rarely, three; They are fold to the
Chinefe, Monguls,  and Calmucs.
m S. R. G. V. Ill,
t: h A p.
 A      C      C      O      UN      T
R     U     S     S     I    A    N     S
  C   19   ]
A      C      C      O      U      N      T
O F    THE
C II A P.    i
Commencement and progrefs of the Ruffian Difcoveries
in the fea of Kamtchatka—General divifion of the
New Difcovered Iflands.-
\ Thirft after riches was the chief motive which
■*■ excited the Spaniards to the difcovery of America;
and which turned the attention of other maritime nations
to that quarter. The fame paffion for riches occafioned,
about the middle of the fixteenth century, the difcovery
&ndconqueft of Northern Afia, a country, before that time,
as unknown to the Europeans, as Thule to the ancients.
The fir ft foundation of this conqueft was laid by theg^eftof
celebrated Yermac *, at the head of a band of adventurers, lefs civilized, but at the fame time, not fo inhuman as the conquerors of America. By the acceflion of
this vaft territory, now known by the name of Siberia, the
Ruffians have acquired an extent of empire never before
attained by any other nation.
* The reader will find an account of this conqueft by Yermac in
Part II. Chap. I.  1
P  2 The
Commencement of the
New Difcoveries.
The firft projeft * for making difcoveries in that tem-
peftuous fea, which lies between Kamtchatka and America,, was conceived and planned by Peter I. the greateft
fovereign who ever fat upon the Ruffian throne, until
it was adorned by the prefent emprefs. The nature and
completion of this projedl: under his immediate fuccef-
fors are well known to the public from the relation of
the celebrated Muller.    No fooner had + Beering and
* ThereTeems a want of connexion in this place, which will be cleared
up by confidering, that, by the conqueft of Siberia, the Ruffians advanced
to the fhores of the Eaftern Ocean, the fcene of the difcoveries here alluded to.
4" Beering had already made feveral expeditions in the fea of Kamtchatka, by orders of the crown, before he undertook the voyage mentioned in the text.
In 1728, he departed from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river, in
company with Tfchirikoff. The purport of this voyage was to afcer-
tain, whether the two Continents of Afia and America were feparated;
and Peter I. a fhort time before his death, had drawn up. inilructions
with his own hand for that purpofe. Beering coafted the Eaftern fhore
of Siberia as high as latitude 670 18'; but made no difcovery of the
oppofite Continent.
In 1729, he fet fail again for the profecution of the fame defi<m ; but
this fecond attempt equally failed of fuccefs.
In 1741, Beering and Tfchirikoff went out upon the celebrated expedition (alluded to in the text, and which is fo of
courfe of this work) towards the coafts of America.
ten mentioned in the
the way to all the important difcoveries fince made by the Ruflu
s expedition led
enng s veffel was wrecked in December of th
Tfchirikoff landed at Kamtchatka
S. R. G. III. Nachrichten von See Re
tory of America, Vol. L p. 273, & feq.
9th of Oftober, 1742.
fen, &c, and Robertfon's Hi
Tfchirikoff, in the profecution of this plan, opened their
way to iflands abounding in valuable furs,, than private
merchants immediately engaged with ardour in fimilar
expeditions; and, within a period of ten vears, more im- T1,^rPro-
portant difcoveries were made by thefe individuals, at
their own private coft, than had been hitherto effected by
all the expenfive efforts of the crown.
Soon after the return of Beering's crew from the
ifland where he was fhip-wrecked and died, and which
is called after his name, the inhabitants of Kamtchatka
ventured over to that ifland, to which the fea-otters and
other fea-animals were accuftomed to refort in great
numbers. Mednoi Oftroff, , or Copper Ifland, which
takes that appellation from, large manes of native copper
found upon the beach, and which lies full in fight of
Beering's life, was an eafy and fpeedy difcovery. -mi
Thefe two fmall uninhabited fpots were for fome time
the only iflands that were known ; until a fcarcity of land
and fea-ranimals, whofe numbers were greatly diminifhed
by the Ruffian hunters, occafioned other expeditions.
Several of the veffels which were fent out upon thefe
voyages were driven by ftormy weather to the South-
eaft ; and difcovered by that means the Aleutian Ifles,
fituated about the 195th | degree of longitude, and but
moderately peopled.
1 The author reckons, throughout this treatife, the longitude from
From the year 1745, when it feems thefe iflands wot*
firft vifited, until 1750, when the firft tribute of furs
was brought from thence to -Ochotfk, the government
appears not to have been fully informed of their difcovery*
In the laft mentioned year, one Lebedeff was commander
of Kamtchatka. From 17 5 5 to 17 60, Captain Tfheredaff
and Lieutenant Kafhkareff were his fucceffors. In 1760,
Feodorlvanovitch Soimonoff, governor of Tobolik, turned
his attention to the abovementioned iflands.; and, the
fame year, Captain Rtiftfheff, at Ochotfk, inftructed Lieutenant Shmaleff, the fame who was afterwards commander
in Kamtchatka, to promote and favour all expeditions in
thofe feas. Until this time, all the difcoveries fubfe-
quent to Beering's voyage were made, without the inter-
pofition of the court, by private merchants in fmall veffels fitted out at their own expence-
Jrom?tesPLfs      ^fie prefeht Emprefs (to whom every circuniftance which
attempts to- .-. ,. - _, .        . ,  .    _       _
wardsNewDif-contributes to aggrandize theRuflian empire is an object ai
attention) has given new life to thefe difcoveries. The merchants engaged in them have been animated by recom-
pences.     The importance and true portion of the Ruffian
the ih-fl meridian of the ifle of Fero. The longitude and latitude, which
he gives to the Fox Iflands, correfponds exactly with thofe in which they
are laid down upon the General Map of Ruffia. The longitude of
Beering's, Copper Ifland, and of the Aleutian Ifles, are fomewhat different. See Advertifement relating tp the Charts, and alfo Appendix
I. N°1V,
iflands have been afcertained by an expenfive voyage %
made by order of the crown ; and much additional information will, be derived, from the journals and charts
of the officers employed in that expedition, whenever
they fhall be publiflied.
f ...■■*■-
Meanwhile, we may reft afTfed, tha| feveral modem
geographers have erred in advancing America too much
to the Weft, and in queflioning the extent of Siberia Eaft-
wards, as laid down by the Ruffians. It appears, indeed*
evident, that the accounts and even conjectures of the
celebrated Muller, concerning the pofition of thofe diftant
regions, are more and more confirmed by facts; in the
fame manner as the juftnefs of his-fuppofition concerning the form of the coaft cf the fea of Ochotfk t has
been lately eftablifhed. With reflect to the extent of
Siberia, it appears almoft beyond a doubt from the moft
recent obfervations, that its Eaftern extremity is fituated
beyond | 200 degrees of longitude. In regard to the
^eftern coafts of America, all the navigations to the
New Difcovered Iflands evidently fhew, that, between 50
* The author here alludes to the fecret expedition of Captain Kre-
rrHzin and Levaheffj whofe journal*aad chart were fent, by order of the
Emprefs of Ruffia, to Dr. Robertfon. See Robertfon's Hiftory. of America, Vol. I. p. 276 and 460.    See Appendix I. N° I.
•f Mr. Muller formerly conjectured, that the coaft of the fea of
Ochotfk ftretched South-weft towards the river Ud ; and from thence to
the mouth of the Amoor South-eaft : and the truth of" this conjecture
had been fince confirmed by a coafting. voyage made by Captain Synd,*
% Appendix I> N9 L-H
PoGtion of the
New Difcovered Iflands.
and 60 degrees of latitude, that Continent advances no
where nearer to Afia than the *coafts touched • at by
Beering and Tfchirikoff, or about 236 degrees of longi-c
As to the New Difcovered Iflands, no credit muft be
given to a chart gmblijfhed in the Geographical Calendar
of St. Peterfburg for 1774; in which they are inaccurately laid down. Nor is the aixtient chart of the New
Difcoveries, published by the Imperial Academy, and
which feems to have been drawn up from mere reports,
more deferving of attention t.
The late navigators give a far differed defcription of
the Northern Archipelago. From their accounts we?
learn, that Beering's Ifland is fituated dueEaft from Kamtchatkoi Nofs, in the 18 5th degree of longitude. Near itj j$
Copper Ifland ; and, at fome dsftance from them, Eaft-
fouth-eaft, there are three fmall iilands, named by their
inhabitants, Attak, Semitfhi, and Sheoaiya: thefe are
properly the Aleutian Ifles; they ftretch from Weft-
north-weft towards Eaft-fouth-eaft, in the fame direction
as Beeriag's and Copper Iflands, in the longitude of
195, and latitude 54.
* Appendix I. N° IL
-f Appendix I. N" IV.
1 £
To the North-eaft of thefe, at the diftance of 600 or
800 verfts, lies another group of fix or more iflands,
known by the name of the Andreanofffkie Oftrova.
South-eaft, or Eaft-fouth, of thefe, at the diftance of
about 15 degrees, and North by Eaft of the Aleutian, begins the chain of Lyffie Oftrova, or Fox Iflands: this chain
of rocks andifles ftretches Eaft-north-eaft between 56 and
61 degrees of North latitude, from 211 degrees of longitude moft probably to the Continent of America ; and in a
line of direction, which crones with that in which the
Aleutian ifles lie. The largeft and moft remarkable of
thefe iflands are Umnak, Aghunalafhka, or, as it is commonly fhortened, Unalaflika, Kadyak, and Alagfhak.
Of thefe and the Aleutian Ifles, the diftance and pofi-
tion are tolerably well afcertained by fliips reckonings,
and latitudes taken by pilots. But the fituation of the
Andreanofffky Ifles* is ftill fome what doubtful, though
probably their direction is Eaft and Weft ; and fome of
them may unite with that part of the Fox Iflands which
are moft contiguous to the oppofite Continent.
The main land of America has not been touched at by
any of the veffels in the late expeditions; though poffibly
* Thefe are the fame iflands which are called, by Mr. Stahlin, Ana-
dirfky Iflands, from their fuppofed vicinity to the river Anadyr. See
Appendix I. N° V.
E the
the time is not far diftant when fome of the Ruffian adventurers will fall in with that coaft*. More to the
North perhaps, at leaft as high as 70 degrees latitude,
the Continent of America may ftretch out nearer to elk*
coaft of the Tfchutfki; and form a large promontory,
accompanied with iflands, which have no connection
with any of the preceding ones. That fuch a promontory really exifts, and advances to within a very fmall
diftance from Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, can hardly be doubted;
at leaft it feems to be confirmed by all the lateft accounts
which have been procured from thofe parts -f. That
prolongation, therefore, of America, which by Delifle is
made to extend Weftward, and is laid down juft oppoftte'
to Kamtchatka, between 50 and 60 degrees latitude, mttft
be entirely removed; for many of the voyages relatetf
in this collection lay through that part of the ocean,
where this imaginary Continent was marked down.
ft is even more than probable, that the Alefittan, and
fome of the Fox Iflands, now well known, are the very
fame which Beering fell-in with-upon his return; though,
from the unfteadinefs of his courfe, their true pofition
could not be exactly laid down in the chart of that expedition £.
f Appendix I. N.° VI.
f Appendix I. N° VII.
I This error is however fo fmall, and particularly with refpedt to the
more Eaftern coafts and iflands, as laid down in Beering's chast, fuch as
Cape Hermogenes, Toomanoi, Shumaghin's Ifland, and mountain of St.
As the fea of Kamtchatka is now fo much frequented,
thefe conjectures cannot remain long undecided; and it
is only to be wifhed, that fome expeditions were to be
made North-eaft, in order to difcover the neareft coafts
of America.    For there is no reafon to expect a fuccefs-
ful voyage by taking any other direction ; as all the veffels, which have fleered a more foutherly courfe, have
failed through an open fea, without meeting with any
figns of land.
A very full and judicious account of all the difcoveries
hitherto made in the Eaftern ocean may be expected from
the celebrated Mr. Muller *. Meanwhile, I hope the
following account, extracted from the, original papers,
and procured from the beft intelligence, will be the more
acceptable to the public; as it may prove an inducement
to the Ruffians to publifh fuller and more circumftantial
relations. Befides, the reader will find here a narrative
more authentic and accurate, than what has been pub-
Dolmat, that if they were to be placed upon the general map of
Ruffia, which is prefixed to this work, they would coincide with the
very chain of the Fox Iflands.
* Mr. Muller has already arranged and put in order feveral of the
journals, and fent them to the board of admiralty at St. Peterfburg,
where they are at prefent kept, together with the charts of the re-
fpecxive voyages.
E  a
liihed In the abovementioned calendar*; and feveral mif-
takes in that memoir are here corrected.
* A German copy of the treatife alluded to in the text, was fent, by
its author, Mr. Staehlin Counfellor of State to the Emprefs of Ruffia, to
the late Dr. Maty; and it is mentioned, in the Philofophical Tranfadtions
for 1774, under the following title: " A New Map and Preliminary
ft Defcription of the New Archipelago in the North, difcovered a few
te Years ago by the Ruffians in the N. E. beyond Kamtchatka." A
tranflation of this treatife was publifhed the fame year by Heydinger.
Voyages in 1745.—Firfl difcovery of the Aleutian Ifles by
Michael Nevodtfikoff.
Voyage made in the year 1745 &Y Emilian BaiTofF
is fcarce worth mentioning; as he only reached
Beering's Ifland, and two fmaller ones, which lie South'
of the former,, and returned on the 3 ill: of July, 1746.
The firft voyage which is in any wife remarkable, was Voyage of,
J    ° J Nevodtfikoff
undertaken in the year 1745.    The veffel was a Shitik ln I745>
named Eudokia, fitted out at the expence of Aphanaffei
Tfebaefskoi, Jacob Tfiuproff and others ; fhe failed from
the Kamtchatka river Sept. 19, under the command of
Michael Nevodtfikoff a native of Tobolfk.    Having difcovered three unknown iflands, they wintered, upon one Difcoventhe
of them, in order to kill fea-otters, of which there wasJflands-
a large  quantity.    Thefe iflands were undoubtedly the.,
neareft * Aleutian Iflands : the language of the inhabit
* The fmall group of iflands lying S. E. of Beering's Ifland, are the;
real Aleutian ifles : they are fometimes called the Neareft Aleutian Iflands ;.
and the Fox Iflands the Furtheft Aleutian Ifles.
 v ao
tants was not underftood by an interpreter, whom they
had brought with them from Kamtchatka. For the
purpofe therefore of learning this language, they carried
back with them one of the Wanders; and prefented
him to the chancery of Bolcheretfk, with a falfe account
of their proceedings. This iflander was examined as
foon as he had acquired a flight knowledge of the Ruffian language; and as it is faid, gave the following report. He was called Temnac, andAtt was the name of
the ifland of which he was a native. At fome diftance
from thence lies a great ifland called Sabya, of which
the inhabitants are denominated Rogii: thefe inhabitants, as the Ruffians underftood or thought they underftood him, made croffes, had books and fire-arms, and
navigated in baidars or leathern canoes. At no great
diftance from the ifland where they wintered, there were
two well-inhabited iflands : the firffc lying E. S. E. and
S; E. by South, the fecond Eaft and Eaft by South. The
above-mentioned Iflander was baptifed under the name
of Paul, and fent to Ochotfk.
As the mifconduci of the {hip's crew towards the natives was fufpected, partly from the lofs of feveral men,
and partly from the report of thofe Ruffians, who were
not concerned in the diforderly conduct of their companions, a ftricT: examination took place ; by which the
following circumftances relating to the voyage were
brought to light.
According to the account of fome of the crew, andNarrat"
7 the Voy
particularly of the commander, after fix days failing they
Came in fight of the firft ifland on the 24th of September, at mid-day. They failed by, and towards evening
they difcovered the fecond ifland ; where they lay at anchor until the next morning.
The 25th feveral inhabitants appeared on the coaft,
and the pilot was making towards fhore in the fmall
boat, with an intention of landing ; but obferving their
numbers increafe to about an hundred, he was afraid of
venturing among them, although they beckoned to him.
He contented himfelf therefore with flinging fome
needles amongft them: the iilanders in return threw
into the boat fome fea-fowl of the cormorant kind. He
endeavoured to hold a converfation with them by means
of the interpreters, but no one could underftand their
language. And now the crew endeavoured to row the
veffel out to fea; but the wind being contrary, they
were driven to the other fide of the fame ifland, where
they eaft anchor.
The 26th, TfmprofT having landed with fome of the
crew in order to look for water, met feveral inhabitants :
he gave them fome tobacco and fmall Chinefe pipes ; and
received in return a prefent of a ftick, upon which the
head of a feal was carved. They endeavoured to wreft his
I hunting
hunting gun from him; but upon his refufing to part
with it and retiring to the fmall boat, the iflanders ran
after him ; and feized the rope by which the boat was
made faft to fliore. This violent attack obliged Tfiuproff
to fire ; and having wounded one perfon in the hand,
they all let go their hold ; and he rowed off to the fhip.
The Savages no fooner faw that their companion was hurt,
than they threw off their cloaths, carried the wounded
perfon naked into the fea, and wafhed him. In confe-
quence of this encounter the flup's crew would not venture to winter at this place, but rowed back again to the
other ifland, where they came to an anchor.
The next morning Tfiuproff, and a certain Shaffyrin
■ landed with a more confiderable party: they obferved
feveral traces of inhabitants; but meeting no one they
returned to the fhip, and coafted along the ifland. The
following day the Coffac Shekurdin went on fhore, accompanied by five failors : two of whom he fent back
with a fupply of water; and remained himfelf with the
others in order to hunt fea-otters. At night they came
to fome dwellings inhabited by five families: upon their
approach the natives abandoned their huts with precipitation, and hid themfelves among the rocks. Shekurdin no fooner returned to the fhip, than he was ao-afn
fent on fhore with a larger company, in order to look out
for a proper place to lay up the veffel during winter : In
their way they obferved fifteen iflanders upon an height •
ffei threw:$iem ifome fragments of dried Mi in order to
scrotice them to approach "nearer.     Rut as  this overture
did not fucceed, Tfiuproff, who was one of the party,
■ Ordered fome of the crew to mount the' height, and to
feize one of the inhabitants, for the purpofe of learning
:therf language-'.:   this   order  was j accordingly executed,
.xiotwithftandiug the refiftance which the iflanders made
with their bone fpears;   the Ruffians  immediately returned with their prifoner to the fhip.    They were foon
afterwards driven to fea by a violent  ftorm,   and beat
about from the 2d to the 9th of October, during which
slime they loft their anchor and boat;    at  length   they
t&Mme back to  the  fame itfend, where they paffed the
Soon after their lancfemg they found in an adjacent hut
the dead bodies of two of the inhabitants, who had probably been killed In the laft encounter.    In their way the
Ruffians were met by an old woman, who had been taken
prifoner, and fet at liberty.     She-was accompanied with
■thirty-four iflanders of both fexes, who all came dancing
to the found of a drum ;  and brought with them a present of coloured earth.     Pieces of cloth, thimbles, and
needles, were diftributed among them in  return ;   and
they parted, amicably.     Before the end  of October, the
fame perfons, together with the old woman and feveral
.children, returned dancing as before, and brought birds,
nfh,.and other provision.     Having paffed the night with
F the
the Ruffians, they took their leave. Soon after their departure, Tfiuproff, Shaffyrin, andNevodfikoff, accompanied
with feven of the crew, went after them, and found them
among the rocks. In this interview the natives behaved
in the moft friendly manner, and exchanged a baidar and
fome fkins for two fhirts. They were obferved to have
hatchets of fharpened ftone, and needles made of bone :
they lived upon the flefh of fea-otters, feals, and fea-
lions, which they killed with clubs and bone lances.
So early as the 24th of October, Tfiuproff had fent
ten perfons, under the command of Larion Belayeff, upon
a reconnoitring party. The latter.treated the inhabitants
in anhoftile manner; upon which they defended them-
felves as well as they could with their bone lances. This
refiftance gave him a pretext for firing; and accordingly
he fhot the whole number, amounting to fifteen men,
in order to get at their wives.
Shekurdin, fhocked at thefe cruel proceedings, re-
tired un perceived to the fhip, and brought an account of
all that had paffed. Tfiuproff, inftead of punifhing thefe
cruelties as they deferved, was fecretly pleafed with them *
for he himfelf was affronted at the iflanders for havin
refufed to give him an iron bolt, which he faw in their
poffeflion. He had, in confequence of their refufal
committed feveral a&s of hoftilities againft them; and
had even formed the horrid defign of poifoning
them with a mixture of corrofive fublimate.     In order
however to preferve appearances, he difpatched Shekur-
din and Nevodfikoff to reproach Belayeff for his diforderly
conduct; but fent him at the fame time, by the above-
mentioned perfons, more powder and ball.
The Ruffians continued upon this ifland, where they
caught a large quantity of fea otters, until the 14th
of September, 1746 ; when, no longer thinking them-
felves fecure, they put to fea with an intention of looking
out for fome uninhabited iflands. Being however overtaken by a violent ftorm, they were driven about until
the 30th of October, when their veffel ftruck upon a
rocky fhore, and was fliipwrecked, with the lofs of al-
moft all the tackle, and the greateft part of the furs.
Worn out at length with cold and fatigue, they ventured,
the firft of November, to penetrate into the interior
part of the country, which they found rocky and uneven. Upon their coming to fome huts, they were informed, that they were eaft away upon the ifland of
Karaga, the inhabitants of which were tributary to Ruflia,
and of the Koraki tribe. The iflanders behaved to them
with great kindnefs, until Belayeff had the imprudence
to make propofals to the wife of the chief. The woman
gave immediate intelligence to her hufband; and the
natives were incenfed to fuch a degree, that they threatened the whole crew with immediate death: but means
were found to pacify them, and they continued to live
with the Ruffians upon the fame good terms as before.
F  2 The
The 30th of May, 1747, a party of Olotorians made as
defcent upon the ifland in three baidars, and attacked
the natives; but, after fome lofs on both fides, they went
away.    They returned foon after with a larger force, and
were again forced to retire.    But as they threatened to
come again in a fhort time, and to deftroy all the inhabitants' who paid tribute, the latter advifed the Ruffians to
retire from the ifland, and affifted them in building two
baidars.    With thefe they put to fea. the 27 th of June,,
and landed the 21ft of July at Kamtchatka, with the
reft of their cargo, confining of 3 20 fea-otters, of which,
they paid the tenth into the cuftoms.    During this expgr
dition twelve men were loft...
Succefjive voyages, from 1747 to 1753, to BecringV and
Copper Ifland, and to the: Aleutian Ifles.:—Some account
of the-inhabit ants.
N" the year 1747 * two veffels failed from the Kamtchatka river, according to a permiffion granted by the
chancery of BOlckeretfk for hunting fea-otters. One
was fitted out by Andrew 'Wfevidoff, and carried forty-
fix men, befides eight Coffacs: the other belonged to
Feodor Cholodiloff,. Andrew Tolftyk, and company ; and
had on board a crew, confining of forty-one Ruffians and
Kamtchadals, with fix Coffacs.
The latter veffel failed the 20th of October, and was^
forced, by ftrefs of weather and other accidents, to winter
at Beering's Ifland. From thence they departed May the
31ft, 1748, and touched at another fmall ifland, in order
to provide themfelves with water and other neceffaries.-
They then fleered S. E. for a confiderable way without
* it may he neceflary to: inform the reader, tliat, in -this-* and the two
following chapters, fome cispumftances are occafionall-y omitted, which
are to be found in the original.   Thefe omiffions relate chiefly to the
names of fome of the partners engaged in the equipments, and to a detail of immaterial occurrences prior to the a&ual- departure of tfce-TwTels.
difcovering any new iflands; and, being in great want
of provifions, returned into Kamtchatka River, Auguft
14, with a cargo of 250 old fea-otter-fkins, above loo
young'ones, 148 petfi or arctic fox-fkins, which were all
flain upon Beering's Ifland.
Voyage of
Emilian Ya-
We have no fufficient account of WfevidofFs voyage.
All that is known amounts only to this, that he returned
the 25th of July, 1749, after having probably touched
upon one of the neareft Aleutian Ifles which was uninhabited : his cargo confifted of the fkins of 1040 fea-
otters, and 2000 arctic foxes.
Emilian Yugoff, a merchant of Yakutfk, obtained from
the fenate of St. Peterfburg the permiffion of fitting out
four veflels for himfelf and his aflbciates. He procured, at
the fame time, the excluiive privilege of hunting fea-
otters upon Beering's and Copper Ifland during thefe
expeditions; and for this monopoly he agreed to deliver
to the cuftoms the tenth of the furs.
October 6, 1750, he put to fea from Bolcherefk, in
the floop John, manned with twenty-five Ruffians and
Kamtchadals, and two Coffacs : he was foon overtaken
by a ftorm, and the veffel driven on fhore between the
mouths of the rivers Kronotfk and Tfchafminfk.
October 1751, he again fet fail.    He had been commanded to take on board fome officers of the Ruffian
2 . navy;
navy; and, as he difobeyed this injunction, the chancery
of Irkutfk iffued an order to confifcate his fhip and cargo
upon his return.   The fhip returned on the 2 2d of July,
1754, to New Kamtchatkoi Oftrog, laden with the fkins
of 755 old fea-otters, of 35 cub fea-otters, of 447 cubs
of  fea-bears,   and  of 7044   arctic fox-fkins:   of the
latter 2000 were white, and 1765 black.    Thefe furs
were procured upon Beering's and Copper Ifland.    Yu-
goff himfelf died upon the laft-mentioned ifland.    The
cargo of the fhip was, according to the above-mentioned
order, fealed and properly fecured..   'But as it appeared
that certain perfons  had   depofited money in Yugoff's-
hand, for the purpofe of equipping a fecond veffel, the
crown delivered up the confifcated cargo, after referving,
the third part according to the original ftipulation.
This kind of charter-company, if it may be fo called,
being foon diflblved for mifconduct and want of fufficient
frock, other merchants were allowed the privilege of fitting out veffels, even before the return of Yugoff's fhip;
and thefe perfons were more fortunate in making new
difcoveries than the above-mentioned monopolist;
Nikiphor Trapefnikoff, a merchant of Irkutfk, ob-vo^oftht
tained the permiffion of fending out a fhip, called theGlebb*
Boris and Glebb, upon the condition of paying, befides
the tribute which might be exacted, the tenth of all the
furs.     The Coffac Sila Sheffyrin went  on board this
 40 ACCOUNT    O F   -T H E
Vgffel for the purpofe of c'olledtin'gthe tribute. They failed
iff Aug-uft, 1749, from the Kamtchatka river ; 'and reentered it the 16th of the fame month, '1753, with a
large cargo of furs. In the fpting of the fame year,
they had touched upon an unknown ifland, probably one |
of the Aleutians, where feveral of the 'inhabitants were
•prevailed upon to pay a tribute of fea-otter fkins. The
names of the iflanders Who had been made tributary,
were Igya, Oeinu, Ogogoektack, Shabukiauck, Aiak,
Tutun, Ononufnan, Rotogetj Tfchinitu, Vatfch, Afhagat,
Avyjanifhaga, Unafliayupu, Lak, Yanfliugalik, UmgaM^j
kan, Shati, KyipagO, and Oloflikot *.; another Aleutian
had contributed three fea-otters: They brought with'
them 320 b'eft fea-otter .fkins, 4'8'b of the feeOnd, atid:
400 of the third fort, 500 female and middle aged, and
220 medwedki or young ones.
JrewfomviT -   Andrew Tolftyk,   a merchant  of Selengihfk, "having
tfeZ-i'm'1™ obtained.perniiffiotl from the chancery of Bolfheretfk^
refitted the fame fhip which had made a former voyage:
he failed from Kamtchatka Au'guft 'the icjtfi, 1749,  and
.•returned July the 3d, 1752.
According to the commander's account, the fhip lay
'^anchor ^rorii the 6th of September, 1749, to the 20 th
* The author here remarks in a note, that the proper names of the
■ifferidersr mentioned in this place, and in other pa&s, bear a furpriiing
.Eefelribknce^.bothain-their found and termination, to thofe oftheGreSn*
of May, 1750, before Beering's Ifland, where they caught
only 47 fea-otters. From thence they made to thofe
Aleutian Iflands, which were * firft difcovered by Ne-
vodfikoff, and flew there 1662 old and middle-aged fea-
otters, and 119 cubs ; befides which, their cargo confuted of the fkins of 720 blue foxes, and of 840 youn?
The inhabitants of thefe iflands appeared to have never before paid tribute; and feemed to be a-kin to the
Tfchuktfki tribe, their women being ornamented with
different figures fewed into the fkin in the manner of that
people, and of the Tungufians of Siberia. They differed
however from them, by having two fmall holes cut
through the bottom of their under-lips, through each of
which they pafs a bit of the fea-horfe tufh, worked into
the form of a tooth, with a fmall button at one end to
keep it within the mouth when it is placed in the
hole. They had killed, without being provoked, two of
the Kamtchadals who belonged to the fhip. Upon the
third Ifland fome inhabitants had payed tribute ; their
names were reported to be Anitin, Altakukor, and Alefli-
kut, with his fon Atfchelap. The weapons of the whole
ifland confifted of no more than twelve fpears pointed
with flint, and one dart of bone pointed with the fame;
and the Ruffians obferved in the poffeffion of the natives two figures, carved out of wood, refembling fea-lions.
* See Chap. II.
G Auguft
Vovage of
Airguft 3, 1750, the velfel Simeon an4, Jahn, fitted
out by the above-mentioned WfeviiJoff, agent for the
RuffitH* merchant A.- JSybenfkoi, and maimed with fourteen Ruffians (who We're, partly merchants and partly
hunters) „aftd- tffirfcy Karatshadakj failed ©ttt for the,
difcovery of new iflands, under the command of tj^»
Goffac Vorobieff. They were driven by a violent current
and temf>eftUous weatfe^r to a final! defeat ifland, whole
petition is not determined; but whielK was probably on©
of thofe that lie near Beering's Iflaa& The fhip' being
fo fhattered by the ftorm, that it was no longer in &
condition to keep the fea, Vorobieff built another fmall
veflel faith drift-wood, which he called Jeremiah; i&
which he arrived at Kamtchatka in Autumn, 1752.
Upon the above-mfefethtaed ifland were caught 700
old and 120 cub fea-otters, 1900 blue foxes, 5700 black
fea-bears, and 131 o Kotiki, or cub fea-beara.
A voyage made about this time from Aiiadyrfk deHf
fefves to be mentioned*
SoffLd       Auguft 24, 1749, Simeon Novikoff of Yakutfk, and
Bacchofffrom _. -      _,
Anadyrik. Ivan Bacchoff of Uftyug, agents for Ivan Shitkin, failed
from Anadyrfk into the mouth of the Kamtchatka river.
They affigned the infecurity of the roads as their reafon
for coming from Anadyrfk to Kamtchatka by fea; on
this account, having determined to rifk all the dangers
Of a fea voyage, they built a veffel one hundred and
thirty verfts above Anadyr, after having employed two
years and five months in its coriftruciaon.
The narrative of their expedition is as follows. In
t 748, they failed down the .river Anadyr, and -through
two bays, called Kopeikina and Onemenfkaya, where they
found many fand banks, but paffed round -them without
difficulty. From thence they fteered -into the exterior
gulph, and waited for a favourable wind. 'H-er&^Jhey Taw
feveral Tfchutfki, who appeared upon the heights fingly
and not in bodies, as if to reconnoitre; -which made
them cautious. They had defeended 'the river and 4fcs
bays in nine days. In pairing the large opening of ;the
exterior bay, they fteered between the beach, that lies rathe left, and a rock near it; where, at about an hundred
and twenty yards from the rock, the depth t>f water is
from three to four fathoms. From the opening they
fteered E. S. E. about fifty verfts, in about four fathom
water ; then doubled a fandy point, which runs out directly againft the Tfliuktfhi coaft, and thus reached the
open fea*
Narrative of
te Voyage
From the 10th of July to the 30th, they were driven
about by te.mpeftuous winds, at no great diftance from
the mouth of the Anadyr; and ran up the fmall river,
Katirka, upon whofe banks dwell rheJKor#cs, a people
G 2 tributary
on Beering's
tributary to Ruffia.    The mouth of the river is  from
fixty to eighty yards broad,  from three to four fathoms
deep, and abounds in fifli.    From thence they put again
to fea, and after having beat about for fome time, they
shipwreck «p-at length reached Beering's Ifland.     Here they lay  at
anchor from the 15th of September to the 30th of October, when a violent ftorm blowing right from the fea,
drove the veffel upon the rocks, and dafhed her to pieces-
The crew however were faved :   and now they looked,
out for the remains of Beering's wreck, in order to employ the materials for the conftrue"ting of a boat*     They
found indeed fome remaining materials, but almoft entirely rotten^   and the iron-work corroded with,  ruft.
Having feleeted however the beft cables, and what, ironwork    was    immediately    neceftary,     and    collected,
drift-wood during the winter, they built with great difficulty a fmall boat, whofe keel was only feventeen Ru£
flan ells and an half long, and which they named Capiton^.
In this they put to fea, and failed in fearch of an unknown  ifland,   which   they   thought   they faw lying
North-eaft |   but   finding   themfelves   miftaken,   they
tacked   about,   and  ftood   far   Copper   Ifland :    from,
thence they failed to Kamtchatka, where they arrived at
the time above-mentioned..
The new conftrufted veffel was granted m property t&
Ivan Shilkin as fome compenfation for his loffes and"
with the privilege of employing it in a future expedition
to the New Difcovered Iflands. Accordingly he failed
therein on the 7th of October, 1757, with a crew of
twenty Ruffians, and the fame number of Kamtchadals:
he was accompanied by Studentzoff a Coffac, who was
fent to collect the tribute for the crown. An account of
this expedition will be given hereafter *.
Auguft,. 17:54, Nikiphor Tfapefnikoff fitted out the ''^§-°fnt,ieL.
Shitik St. Nicholas,, which failed from Kamtchatka under f^^1101^
trie command of the Coffac Kodion Durneff. He firft*
touched at two of the Aleutian Ifles, and afterwards upon
a. third^ • which had not been yet difcovered; He returned
to Kamtchatka in 1747. His cargo confifted of the
fkins of 1220 fea-otters, of 410 female, and 665 cubs;
feefides which, the crew had obtained in barter from the
iflanders the fkins of 652 fea-otters, of 30 female ditto,
and. 50 cubs.
From an account delivered in the 3d of May, 1758,^0^°!.
by Durneff and Sheffyrin, who was fent as collector of
the tributes, it appears that they failed in ten days as far
as Ataku, one ofrthe Aleutian Iflands-; that they remained
there until the year 1757, and lived upon amicable terms:
with the natives*
The fecond ifland,, which- is neareft to Ataku, andJf»p£nof
Which contains the greateft number of inhabitants, isIfles"
I See Chap. V.
'Account of
ailed Agataku;  and the third Shemya: they lie from
forty to fifty verfts afunder.    Upon all the three iflands
there are(exclufive of children) but fixty males, whomthey
made tributary.    The inhabitants live upon roots which
grow wild, and fea animals: they do not employ thcmfelves
in catching' nib, although the rivers abound with all kinds
of-falmon,  and the fea with turb.ot.     Their cloaths are
made of the fkins of birds and of fea-otters.   The Toigon
or chief of the firft ifland informed them by means of a
boy, who underftood the Ruffian language,  that Eaft-
ward there  are three large  and well   peopled iflands,
Ibiya, Rickfa, and Olas,   whofe inhabitants fpeak a different language.    Sheffyrin and Durneff found upon the
ifland three round copper plates, with fome .letters en-,
graved upon them, and ornamented with foliage, which
the Waves had eaft upon the fhore : they brought them,
together with other trifling curiofities, which thev had
procured from the natives, to New Kamtchatkoi Oftrog.
Another fhip built of larchwood by the fame Trapef-
nikoff, which failed in 1752 under the conduct of Alexei
Drufiain a merchant of Kurfk, had been wrecked at Beer*
ing's Ifland, where the crew conftructed another-veffel
out of the wreck, which they named Abraham. In this
veffel they bore away for the more diftant iflands; but
being'forced back by contrary 'winds to the fame ifland,
and meeting with the St. Nicholas upon the point of failing
for the Aleutian Ifles, they embarked on that fhip, after
having left the new conftructed veffel under the care of
1 four
four of their own failors. The crew had flain upon Beering's Ifland five fea-otters, 1222 arctic foxes, and 2500
fea-bears: their fhare of the furs, dforing their expedition
in the St. Nicholas, amounted to the fkins of 500 fea-
otters, and of 300 cubs, exclufive of 200 fea-otter-fkins,.
Which they procured by barter.
Voyages from 1753/0 T 7 5 &•
Some of the further Aleutian or Fox Iflands touched at by
SerebranikofPs veffel.—Some account of the Natives.
THREE veffels were fitted out for the iflands in
1753, one by Gholodiloff, a fecond by Serebrani-
ikoff agent for the merchant Rybenfkoy, and the third by
Jvan Kraflilnikoff a merchant of Kamtchatka.
choiodiiofPs       CholodilofPs fhip failed from Kamtchatka, the 19th of
iS'mp fails'foom . i
Kamtchatka Auguft, manned with thirty-four men ; and anchored
the 28th before "Beering's Ifland, where theypropofed to
winter, in order to lay-in a ftock of provifions : as they
were attempting to land, the boat overfet, and nine of
*he crew were drowned.
June 30, T754, they flood out to fea in queft of new
•difcoveries: the weather however proving ftormy and
foggy> and the fhip fpringing a leak, they were all in
danger of periftiing: in this fituation they unexpeftedly
reached one of the Aleutian iflands, were they lay from
she 15th of September until the 9th of July,  1755.    In
the autumn of 1754 they were joined by a Kamtchadal,
and a Koriac : thefe perfons, together with four others,
had deferted from Trapefnikoff's crew; and had remained upon the ifland in order to catch fea-otters for thek
own profit. Four of thefe deferters were killed by the
iflanders for having debauched their wives: but as the
two perfons above-mentioned were not guilty of the fame
diforderly conduct, the inhabitants fupplied them with
women, and lived with them upon the beft terms. The
crew flew upon this ifland above 1600 fea-otters, and
came fcftck fafe to Kamtchatka in autumn 1755.
SerebranikoiPs veffel failed in July 1753, manned
alfo with *hirty-four Ruffians and Kamtchadals : they
difcovered feveral new iflands, which were probably
fome of the more diftant ones; but were not fo fortunate Departure of
in hunting fea-otters as Cholodiloff's crew. They fteered VeffeL
S. E. and -on the 17th of Auguft anchored.«nder an unknown ifland ; wfeofe inhabitants fpoke a language they
did not underftand. Here they propofed looking out for
a fafe harbour; but were prevented by the coming on of
a Sudden ftorm, which carried away their anchor. The
fhip being toft about for feveral days towards the Eaft,
they difcovered not far from the -nrft rfland four others :
ftill more to the Eaft three other iflands appeared in fight;
but 01a neither of thefe were they Me to land. The
veffel continued driving until the 2d of September, and
was confiderably fhattered, when they fortunately came
H near
near an ifland and eaft anchor before it; they were how-
swpwrecked  ever again forced from this ftation, the veffel wrecked
upon one of
the more di"
tant Iflands
upon the coaft, and the crew with difficulty reached the
This ifland feemed to be right oppofite to Katyrfkoi
Nofs in the peninfula of Kamtchatka, and near it they
faw three others. Towards the end of September De-
mitri Trophin, accompanied with nine men, went out
in the boat upon an hunjting and reconnoitring party :
they were attacked by a large body of inhabitants, who
hurled darts from a fmall wooden engine, and wounded
one of the company. The firft fire however drove them
back ; and although they returned feveral times to the
attack in numerous bodies, yet they were always re-
pulfed without difficulty.
Account of the
Thefe ravages mark and colour their faces like the
Iflanders above-mentioned; and alfo thruft pieces of
bone through holes made in their under-lips.
Soon afterwards the Ruffians were joined in a friendly
manner by ten iflanders, who brought the flefh of fea-
animals and of fea-otters; this prefent was the more
welcome, as they had lived for fome time upon nothing
but fmall fheU-fifh and roots; and had fuffered greatly
from hunger.     Several toys were in return diftribut-
ed  among the favages.    The Ruffians remained untilTheCrewcon-
ftru£t, another
June, 1754, upon this ifland:   at that time thev de- Veffe1'and
J return to
parted in a fmall veffel, conftructed from the remains of Kamtchatka-
the wreck, and called the St. Peter and Paul: in this they
landed at Katyrfkoi Nofs ;   where having collected 140
fea-horfe teeth, they got fafe to the mouth of the Kamtchatka river.
During this voyage twelve Kamtchadals deferred;
of whom fix were flain, together with a female inhabitant, upon one of the moft diftant iflands. The
remainder, upon their return to Kamtchatka, were
examined ; and from them the following circumftances
came to light. The ifland, where the fhip was wrecked,
is about 70 verfts long, and 20 broad. x Around it lie
twelve other iflands of different fizes, from five to ten
verfts diftant from each other. Eight of them appear
to be no more than five verfts long. All thefe iflands
contain about a thoufand fouls. The dwellings of the
inhabitants are provided with no other furniture than
benches, and mats of platted grafs*. Their drefs confifts
of a kind of fliirt made of bird-fkins, and of an upper
garment of inteftines ftitched together; they wear wooden caps, ornamented with a fmall piece of board projecting forwards, as it feemed, for a defence againft the
arrows.    They are all provided with ftone knives, and a
* Matten aus einem gevilTen Krautgefiochten.
H  2
few of them poffefs irbn ones: their only weapons are
atrows with points of bone or flint* which-they (hoot
from a wooden inftrument. There are tft> trees upon
the ifland : it produces however the edw-parihip** which
grows at Kamtchatka. The climate is by no meaflB
fevere, for the ihnw does not lie upon the ground above
a month in the year.
Departure of KraffilnikorPs veffel faSled in 1754, and anchored on
V6ffcL the iSftiof October before BeerSfcg's Hland ; ifcfaere HI
tne fhips wnich make to the Ne# Difcovered Iflands are
accuftoftxed to winter, in order to procure a ftock of Salted
provifions from the fea-cows and other amphibious afrif-
mals, that are found in great Abundance. Here tfhey^
refitted the veflel, which had been damaged by driving
upon her anchor; and having laid in a fuffideHft iftore
of all neceflaries, weighed the ift of Auguft, 1754.
The 1 oth they were in light of an "ffiand, whofe coaft
was lined with fuch a number of inhabitants, that they
durft not venture afhore. Accordingly they flood out
f o fea, an'd being overtaken by a'ftorm, 'ftiey were reduced
to great diftrefs for want of water ; at length they were
driven upon Copper Ifland, where they landed; ami
having taken in wood and water, they again &t fail.
«JnwcopPeedr Tkey were beat back however by contrary winds, and
dropped both their anchors near the fhore; but the
ftorm increafing at night, both the cables were broken,
and the fhip dafhed to pieces upon the coaft.    All the
* Heracleum.
crew were fortunately faved ; and means were found to
get afhore the fliip's tackle, ammunition, guns, and the
remains of the wreck; the proviftons, however, were
moftly fpoiled. Here they were expofed to a variety of
misfortunes; three of them were drowned on the 15 th,
of October, as they were going to hunt; others alrhoft
periflied with hunger, having no nourifliment but fmall
ihell-nih and roots. On the 29th of December great part
o£ the fliip's tackle, and all the wood^ which they had
collected from the wreck, was waflied away during an
high fea. Nc^withftaading their diftreffes, they continued their h-unting parties, and caught 103 fea-otters,
together with 1390 blue foxes.
In fprij^g they put to fea for Beering's Ifland in two HpBH
fcaidars, -carrying  with  them all the ammunition, fixe- Baidars?uvu
arms, and remaining tackle.    Having reached that ifland,
they found the fmall veffel Abraham, under the care of
the four failors who had been left afhore by the crew of
Trapefhikoff's  fhip.:   but  as that veffel was  not large
enough to contain the whole number, together with their
cargo of furs, they ftaid until Serebranikoff's and Tolftyk's
veffels arrived.    Thefe took in eleven of the crew, with
their part of the furs.    Twelve remained at Beering's
Ifland, where they killed great numbers of arctic foxes,
and returned to Kamtchatka in the Abraham, excepting
two, who joined Shilkin's crew.
* See the preceding chapter.
CHAP.    V.
Voyages from 1756 to 1758.
Voyage of
Andrean To
EPTEMBER 17, 1756, the veffel Andrean and
SekljeSt0 ^ Natalia, fitted out by Andrean Tolftyk, merchant
of Selenginfk, and manned with thirty-eight Ruffians
and Kamtchadals, failed from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river. The autumnal ftorms coming on, and a
fcarcity of pro virions enfuing, they made to Beering's
Ifland, where they continued until the 14th of June
1757. As no fea-otters came on fhore that winter, they
killed nothing but feals, fea-lions, and fea-cows; whofe
flefh ferved them for provifion, and their fkins for the
coverings of baidars.
June 13, 1757, they weighed anchor, and after
eleven days failing came to Ataku, one of the Aleutian
ifles difcovered by Nevodfikoff. Here they found the
inhabitants, as well of that, as of the other two iflands,
affembled; thefe iflanders had juft taken leave of the
crew of Trapefnikoff's veffel, which had failed for
Kamtchatka. The Ruffians feized this opportunity of
perfuading them to pay tribute; with this view they
2 beckoned
beckoned the Toigon, whofe name was Tunulgafen : the
latter recollected one of the crew, a Koriac, who had
formerly been left upon thefe iflands, and who knew
fomething of their language. A copper kettle, a fur
and cloth coat, a pair of breeches, ftockings and boots,
were beftowed upon this chief, who was prevailed upon
by thefe prefents to pay tribute. Upon his departure
for his own ifland, he left behind him three women and
a boy, in order to be taught the Ruffian language, which
the latter very foon learned.
The Ruffians wintered upon this ifland, and divided
themfelves, as ufual, into different hunting parties : they
were compelled, by ftormy weather, to remain there
until the 17th of June, 1758 : before they went away,,
the above-mentioned chief returned with his family, and
paid a year's tribute..
This veffel brought, to Kamtchatka the moft circum-
ftantial account of the Aleutian ifles which had been yet
The  two lareeft  contained at that time about   fifty Accowt of
males, with whom the Ruffians had lived in great harmony. J^Tney heard of a fourth ifland, lying at fome
diftance from the third,, called by the natives Iviya, but
which they did not reach on account of the tempeftuous
thofe Iflands.
The firft ifland is about an hundred verfts long and
from five to twenty broad. They efteemed the diftance
from the firft to the fecond, which lies Eaft by South, to
be about thirty verfts, and about forty from the latter to
the third, which Hands South Eaft. The original drefs
of the-iflanders was made of the Ikins of birds, fea-otters
and feals, which were tanned ; but the greateft part had
procured from the Ruffians dog-ikin coats, and under-
gannents of fheep-fkin, which they were very fond of.
They are reprefented as naturally talkative, quick of ap-
prehenfion, and much attached to the Ruffians. Their
• dwellings are hollowed in the ground, and covered with
wooden roofs refembling the huts in the peninfula of
itamtchatka. Their principal food is the flefh of fea
animals, which they harpoon with their bone lances;
they alfo feed upon feveral fpecies of roots and berries :
namely * cloud-berries, crake-berries, bilberries, and fer-
vices. The rivulets abound with falmon, and other
fifh of the trout kind fimilar to thofe of Kamtchatka;
and the fea with turbot, which are caught with bone
Thefe iflands produce quantities of fmall oners and
Underwood, but no large trees: the fea however dn\ es
afhore fir and larch, fuincient for the conftruction of
* Rubus Chamjemorus—Empetrum—Myrtillus—Sorb
their huts. There are a great number of arctic foxes
upon the firft ifland, as well as fea-otters; and the fliores,
during ftormy weather, are- covered with wild geefe and
The Ruffians, according to the order of the chancery
of Bolcheretfk, endeavoured to perfuade the Toigon of
thefe iflands to accompany them to Kamtchatka, but without fuccefs : upon their departure they diftributed among
the iflanders fome linen, and thirteen nets for the pur-
pofe of catching fea-otters, which were very thankfully
received. This veffel brought to Kamtchatka the fkins
of 5030 old and young fea-otters, of 1040 old and
young arctic foxes, and of 330 I&edwedki or cubs of
fea-otters. "^
In the year 1757, Ivan Nikiphoroff, a merchant of
Mofcow, fent out a veffel: but we have no further account of this voyage, than that flie failed to the Fox
Iflands, at leaft as far as "Umnak.
The fmall  veffel  Capiton,  the fame that  was built fAmof
■*- J van Shi kin in
upon Beering's Ifland,  and which was given to the mer- |jj§||
chant *Ivan Shilkin,  put to fea September  26,  1757?
carrying on board the Coffac Ignatius Studentfoff,  who
has given an account of the voyage.
* See chap. III.
They had not long failed, before they were driven back
to the fhore of Kamtchatka by ftrefs of weather, and the
veffel ftranded; by which accident they loft the rudder
and one of the crew. This misfortune prevented them
from putting to fea again until the following year, with
- thirty-nine of the original crew, feveral perfons being
left behind on account of ficknefs. They made directly
to Beering's Ifland, where they took up two of Krafilni-
koft's crew*-,' who had been fhipwrecked. They again
fet fail in Auguft of the fame year, and touched at the
neareft Aleutian Ifles, after fuffering greatly from ftorms.
They then continued their courfe to the remoter iflands
lying between Eaft and South Eaft ; and having paffed
by the firft, they anchored before the fecond. A boat
being immediately fent out towards the fhore, the crew
was attacked by a numerous body of iflanders in fo fud-
den a manner, that they had fcarcely time to fecure them-
felves by returning to the veffel. They had no fooner
got aboard, than a violent gale of wind blowing from the
fhore broke the cable, and drove them out to fea. The
weather became fuddenly thick and foggy; and under
shipwrecked thefe circumftances the veffel was forced  upon a fmall
upon one or r -*■    *
ifland at no great diftance from the other, and fhipwrecked. The crew got to fhore with difficulty, and
were able to fave nothing but the fire-arms and ammunition.
the Fox
* See chap. IV.
They had fcarcely got to land, before they were befet
by a number of favages, rowing in baidars from the
Weftern point, of the ifland. This attack was the more
to be dreaded, becaufe feveral of the Ruffians were dif-
abled by cold and wet; and there remained only fifteen
capable of defending themfelves. They advanced however without hefitation to the iflanders; and one Nicholas Tfiuproff (who had a flight knowledge of their
language) accofted and endeavoured to footh them, but
without fuccefs. For upon their approach the favages
gave a fudden fhout, and faluting them at the fame time
with a volley of darts, wounded one perfon in the hand.
Upon this the Ruffians fired, killed two of the affailants,
and forced the remainder to retire : and although a frefli
body appeared in fight, as if they were coming to the
affiftance of their companions, yet no new attack was
made. Soon afterwards the favages left the ifland, and"
rowed acrofs the ftrait.
From the 6th of September to the 23d of April, they
underwent all the extremities of famine : during that period their beft fare was fhell-filh and roots; and they
were even at times reduced to ftill the cravings of their
appetite with the leather, which the waves waflied afhore
from the wreck. Seventeen died of hunger, and the reft
would foon have followed their companions, if they had
not fortunately difcovered a dead whale, which the fea
had eaft afhore.    They remained upon this ifland another
I  2
Ti,e crew con-■winter,   where  they flew  230  fea-otters;  and having
ftru£l a fmall
.veffei, and are Dllj^ a fhiall veffel out of the remains of the wreck, they
again imp- ' '
put to fea in the beginning of fummer 1760. They
had fcarcely reached one of the Aleutian iflands, where
Serebranikoff's veffel lay at anchor, when they were again
fhipwrecked, and loft all the remaining tackle and furs.
Only thirteen of the crew now remained, who returned
on board the above-mentioned veffel to Kamtchatka July
Voyages in 1758,1759, and 1760—to the Fox Iflands—
in the St. V\zd\mir,fitted out by Trapefnikoff—and in the
Gabriel, by Betflievin—-The latter under the com?nand of
Fuihkzreff fails to Alakfu or Alachfkak, one of the re-
motefl Eaftern Iflands hitherto vifited—-Some account 'of
its inhabitants, and produclions, which latter are different from thofe of the more TVeflern Iflands.
SEPTEMBER   1758, the merchant Simeon Kraffi- »iifi
'  %    ' St. Vladimir,
nikoff and Nikiphor Trapefnikoff fitted out two veffels |||f^i
for the purpofe of catching fea-otters. One of thefe veffels, called the St. Vladimir, failed the 2 8th under the command of Demetri Paikoff, carrying on board the Coffac Sila
Shaffyrin as collector of the tribute, and a crew1 of forty-
five men. In twenty-four hours they reached Beering's
Ifland, where they wintered. July 16, 1759, they
fteered towards the South in order to difcover land, but
being difappointed, they bore away to the North for the
Aleutian Ifles: being prevented however by contrary
winds from reaching them, they failed ftreight towards
the diftant iflands, which are known at prefent under
the name of Lyffie Oftrova or the Fox Iflands..    Septem> Arrival $M%
J Fox Ifland.
ber 1, they reached the firft of thefe, called by the natives
Atchu, and by the Ruffians Goreloi or the Burnt Ifland :
T but
1 r =
but as the coafts were very fteep and craggy, they made
to Amlach, lying at a fmall diftance, where they determined to pafs the winter. They divided themfelves accordingly into three parties; the firft, at the head of
which was Alexey- Drufinin, went over to a fmall ifland
called in the journal Sitkin; the Coffac Shaffyrin led the
fecond, confining of ten perfons, to the ifland Atach; and
Simeon Polevoi remained aboard with the reft of the
crew. All thefe iflands were well peopled; the men had
bones thruft through their ears, under lips, and griftle
of their nofes; and the faces of the women were marked
with blackifh ftreaks made with a needle and thread in
the fkin, in the fame manner as a Coffac one of the crew
had obferved before upon fome of the Tfchutfki. The
inhabitants had no iron ; the points of their darts and
lances were tipped with bone and flint*
They at firft imagined, that Amlach was uninhabited;
but in one of their hunting parties they found a boy of
eight years old, whom they brought with them: they
gave him the name of Hermolai, and taught him the
Ruffian language, that he might ferve as an interpreter.
After penetrating further they difcovered an hut, wherein were two women, four men, and as many boys, whom
they treated kindly, and employed in hunting, fifhing,
and in digging of roots. This kind behaviour encouraged others to pay frequent vifits, and to exchange fifh
and flefh for goats hair, horfes manes, and glafs beads.
They procured alfo four other iflanders with their wives,
who dug roots for them: and thus the winter paffed
away without any difturbance.
In the fpring the hunting parties returned; during
thefe excurfions one man alone was killed upon the ifland
Atach, and his fire-arms taken away by the natives.
June 1760, the fame parties were fent again to the fame
iflands. Shaffyrin, who headed one of the parties, was
foon afterwards killed, with eleven men, by the inhabitants of Atach, but for what reafon is not known.—
Drufinin received the firft information of this rnaffacre
from fome inhabitants of Sitkin, where he then was;
and immediately fet out with the remaining hunters to
join their companions, who were left on board. Although he fucceeded in regaining the veffel;, their number was by this time fo confiderably reduced that their
fituation appeared very dangerous: he was foon however
relieved from his apprehenlions by the arrival of the
merchant Betflievin's veffel at the ifland of Atchu m
The two crews entered into partnerfliip: the St. Vladimir received twenty-two men, and transferred eleven
of her own to the other veffel. The former wintered
at Amlach, and the latter continued at anchor before
* Atach and Atchu are two names for the fame ifland, called alfo by
the Ruffians Goreloi or Burnt Ifland.
4   "    . '§'     ■ .1.1-    ..    ■
Voy*ge of
This veffel, fitted out at the expence of Betflievin, a
merchant of Irkutfk, was called Gabriel; and put to fea
from the mouth of the Bolfhaia Reka July 31ft, 1760.
She was manned with forty Ruffians and twenty Kamt-
chadals, and carried on board Gabriel Puflikareff, of the
garrifon of Ochotfk, Andrew Shdanoff, Jacob Sharypoff,
Prokopei Lobafhkoff, together with Nikiphor Golodoff,
and Aphanaftei Ofkoloff, Betfhevin's agents.
Having failed through, the fecond ftfait of the Kuril
Ifles, they reached the Aleutian Ifles on the 24th of Au-
cuft. They ftood out from thence in order to make
new difcoveries among thofe more remote iflands, which
lie in one continued chain to the extent of 15 degrees
of longitude.
dirlmeofthe September 25 they reached Atchu, or Burnt Ifland, and
ifoX iflands. foun([ ^g above-mentioned fhip the St. Vladimir, lying
twenty verfts from that ifland, before Amlach, in dancer
of being attacked by the iflanders. They immediately
joined crews in order to enable the enfeebled company
of the St. Vladimir to continue hunting; and as it is ufual
in fuch cafes, entered into a contract for the. divifion of
the profit. During that winter the two crews killed
partly upon Siguyam, about 800 fea otters of different
iizes, about 100 medwedki or cubs,  fome river otters
above 400 red-, grey iffy and black foxes,  and collected
twelve pood of fea-horfe teeth.
In June, of the following year, the two crews were
diftributed equally on board the two veffels: Kraffilni-
koff's remained at Amlach, with an intention of returning to Kamtchatka, and Belflievin's put to fea from Atchu
in queft of other iflands.    They touched firft at Umnak Departs from
, thence.
where they met Nikiphoroff's veffel. Here they took
in wood and water, and repaired their fails: they then
failed to the moft remote ifland Alakfu*, or Alachfhak, EfUr!up0ft
where, having laid up the fhip in a bay, they built huts,
and made preparations for wintering. This ifland was
very well inhabited, and the natives behaved at firft in a
very friendly manner, for they trafficked with the Ruffians, and even delivered up nine of their children as
hoftages; but fuch was the lawlefs and irregular behaviour of the crew, that the iflanders were foon irritated
and provoked to hoftilities.
In January 1762, Golodoff and Puflikareff went with
a party of twenty men along the fhore; and, as they were -
attempting to violate fome girls upon the ifland Uny-
umga, were furprifed by a' numerous body of the natives: Golodoff and another Ruffian were killed, and
three were wounded.    Not long afterwards the watch of
* This is probably the fame ifland which is kid down in Krenitzin's
•than under the name of Alaxa.
K the
the crew was fuddenly attacked by the iflanders; four
men were flain upon the fpot, as many wounded, and
the huts reduced to allies.
May 3, Lobafchkoff and another Ruffian were killed,
as they were going to bathe in the warm fprings,   which
lie about five verfts from the haven : upon which {even
of the hoftages were put to death.    The fame month the
natives attempted to furprife the Huffians in thett^utfV
but being fortunately difcovered in time were repulfed by
means of the fire arms.    At length the Ruffians,  finding
themfelves   in  continual danger  from  thefe   attempts,
weighed anchor,  and failed for Umnak, where they took
up two inhabitants with their  wives  and children, in
order to fhew them other iflands.    They were prevented
however by tempeftuous weather from reaching them ;
and were driven out to fea Weftward with fuch violence,
that all their fails were carried away : at length on the
23d of September they ftruck againft land,  which they
took for the peninfula of Kamtchatka; and they found
it to be the diftrict of Stobolfkoi Oftrog.     Six men were
immediately difpatched in the fmall boat and two baidars
fo land: they carried with them feveral girls (who had
been brought from the new difcovered iflands) in order
to gather berries.    Mean while the crew endeavoured to
ply the fhip to the windward.    When the boat returned,
thofe on board were fcarcely  able, on account of the
ftorm, to row to the fhip, and to catch hold of a rope,
3 which
which was flung out to them. Two men remained with
the baidars, and were afterwards carried by fome Kamt-
chadals to New Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. The fhip without
one fail remaining was driven along the coaft of Kamtchatka towards Avatcha, and about feventy verfts from
that harbour ran into the bay of Kalatzoff on the 25th
of September. Their cargo confifted of the fkins of
900 old and young fea-otters, and of 350 foxes.
Puflikareff and his crew had during this voyage behaved with fuch inhumanity towards the iflanders, that
they were brought to trial in the year 1764; and the
above-mentioned account is taken from the concurring
evidence of feveral witneffes. It appears alfo, that they
brought away from Atchu and Amleg two Aleutian men
and three boys, Ivan an Aleutian interpreter, and above
twenty women and girls whom they debauched. Ivan,
and one of the boys whom they called Mofes, were the
only perfons who arrived at Kamtchatka. Upon their
firft approach to that coaft, fourteen women were fent
afhore to dig rctots and to gather berries. Of thefe, two
ran away, and a third was killed, as they were returning
to the fhip by one Gorelin : upon this the others in a fit
of defpair leaped into the fea and were drowned. All
the remaing Aleutians, excepting the two perfons above-
mentioned, were immediately thrown overboard by Pufh-
kareff's order. The account which follows, although it
is found in the depofitions, deferves not to be entirely
credited in all particulars.
K 2 The
to on 1.g bolten:
t~ ■fayy/^*jf/*y
Xmmi 9C&D
Account of
the Inhabitants
of Alackfu.
The natives of the abotS-mentioned iflands aresfery
tall and ftrongly made. They make their cloaths of
the fkins of birds; and thruft bones>4h«ough their ua>
der-lips by way of ornament. They were faid to ftrikp
their nofes until they bled, in order to fuck the blood;
but we are informed from fubfequent accounts, that the
blood thus drawn from themfelves was intended for other
purpofes #. They were accufed even of murdering
their own children in order to drink their blood ; but
this is undoubtedly an invention of the criminals, who
reprefented the iflanders in the moft hideous colours, in
xsrder to excufe their own cruelties. Their dwellings
under-ground are fimflar to thofe of the Kamtchadals;
and have feveral openings on the fides, through whi^i
they make their efcape when the principal entrance is
tfcefet by an enemy. Their weapons confift of arrows
and lances pointed with bone, which they dart at a confiderable diftance.
The ifland Alakfu is faid to contain rein-deer, bears,
wild boars, wolves, otters, and a fpecies of dogs with
long ears, which are very fieroe and wild. And as the
greateft part of thefe animals are not %md uponrfhofe
Fox Iflands which lie nearer to the weft,  this circum-
| It appears in the laft chapter of this tranflation, that the iflanders
are accuftomed to glue on the point of their darts with blood ; and
that this was the real motive to the: pxa&ke mentioned in the text
ftance feems to prove that Alakfu is fituated at no great
diftance from the Continent of America. ,.$$ to red,
black, and gre§f foxes, there is fo l$rge a quantity, that
they are feen in herds of ten or twenty at a time. Wood
is driven upon the coaft in great abundan^eWj The
ifland produces no large trees, having only fome underwood, and a great variety of bulbs, roots, and berries.
The coafts are frequented by large flocks of fea-birds,
the fame which are obferved upon the fhore of the-
fea of Penfhinfk.
Auguft 4, 1759, the Peter and Paul, fitted out at the pe^?nfp?ui
to the Alert-
expence of the merchant Rybenfkoi by his agent An- dan iflands,-
drew Serebranikoff, and manned with thirty-three perfons, fet fail from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river.
They fteered fouthwards until the 20th of September
without feeing any land, when they flood for the Aleii-
jtian Ifles, one of which they reached the 27th of September. They remained there until the 24th of June,
17 61 ; during which time they killed upon this and
the two other iflands 1900 old and young fea-otters,
and obtained 450 more by bartering with the iflanders.
The Coffac Minyachin, who was on board as collector
of the tribute, calls in his account the firft ifland by the
Ruffian name of Krugloi, or Round Ifland, which he
fuppofes to be about fixty verfts in circumference : the
largeft ifland lies thirty verfts from thence, and is about1
an hundred and fifty round : the fmalleft is about thirty
verfts from the latter, and is forty in circumference.
Thefe three iflands contain feveral high rocky mountains. The number of inhabitants were computed to
-be about forty-two men, without reckoning women
and children.
Jinx III
 R U S S I A N' D I S C O V E.RIE 8.
Voyage of Andrean Tolftyk in the St. Andrean and Natalia—Difcovery of fome New Iflands called Andreanoff-
fkye Oftrova—-Defcription of fix of thofe Iflands.
*"" "^ H E moft remarkable voyage hitherto made is that
*• of the St. Andrean and Natalia, of which the following extract is drawn from the Journals of the two
Coffacs, Peter Wafyutinfkoi and Maxim Lafaroff. This
veffel, fitted out by the above-mentioned merchant Andrean Tolftyk, weighed from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river September 27, 1760; fhe ftood out to fea
right Eaft wards, and on the 2.9th reached Beering's
Ifland. There fhe lay at anchor in a bay, from whence
the crew brought all the tackle and lading afhore. Soon
.afterwards they were driven upon the fhore by a violent
autumnal ftorm, without any other damage than the lofs
of an anchor-.- Here they paffed the winter; and having
.refitted their veffel, put to fea June 24, 1761 : they
pafled by Copper Ifland, which lies about an hundred
and fifty verfts from the former, and fteered S. E. towards the Aleutian Ifles, which they did not reach before
the 6-th of Auguft. They eaft anchor in an open bay
near Attak, in order to procure an interpreter from the
Voyage of Andrean Tolftyk
in the St. Andrean and Natalia, 1760.
Ayagh, one
the Andrea-
Toigon Tunulgafen ; but the latter being dead, they fent
prefents to the Toigon Bakutun.    As there were already
three fhips lying at anchor before this Ifland, on the 19th
they again flood out to fea in queft of the more diftant
iflands, for the purpofe of  exading a tribute.    They
carried on board a relation of the Toigon Bakutun, who
had a flight knowledge of the Ruffian language.    They
fteered N. E. and N. E. by E. and were driven, on the
28th, by a high gale of wind towards an ifland, before
which they immediately  eaft anchor.     The following
morning the two Coffacs with a party of eight perfons
went afhore to reconnoitre the ifland ; they faw no inhabitants.    Auguft 30, the veffel was brought into a fafe
bay.    The next day fome of the crew were fent afhore
to procure wood, that the fhip might be refitted; but
there were no large trees to be met with upon the whole
ifland.    Lafaroff, who was one of the party, had been
of there before in Serebranikoff's veffel: he called the ifland
Ayagh or Kayachu; and another, which lay about the
diftance of twenty verfts,   Kanaga.    As they were returning to  the   fhip, they faw two iflanders rowing in
fmall canoes towards Kanaga, one of whom  had ferved
as an interpreter, and was known to Lafaroff.    The latter accordingly made them a prefent of fome frefli pro-
vifion, which the others gratefully' accepted,  and then
continued their courfe acrofs the ftrait to Kanaga.    Soon
afterwards Lafaroff and eight men rowed over to that
ifland, and having invited the Toigon, who was a rela-
2 tion
tion of the above-mentioned interpreter, to pay them a
vifit at Kayachu, they immediately returned to the fhip.
/ 3
Near the place where they lay at anchor, a rivulet
falls into the bay ; it flows from a lake that is about
two or three verfts in circumference, i and which is formed from a number of fmall fprings. Its courfe is about
eight verfts long; and in fummer feveral fpecies of fal-
mon and other fifh, fimilar to thofe which are found at
Kamtchatka,  afcend the ftream as far as the lake.
Lafaroff was employed in fifliing'in this rivulet, when
the Toigon of Kanaga, accompanied with a confiderable
number of the natives in fifteen baidars, arrived at the
fhip : he was hofpitably entertained, and received feveral
prefents. The Ruffians feized this opportunity of per-
fuading the iflanders to acknowledge themfelves fubject
to the Emprefs, and to pay a regular tribute; to which
they made no great objection. By means of the interpreter, the following information was obtained from'the
Toigon. The natives chiefly fubfift upon dried fifh and
other fea animals.' They catch | turbot of a very large
ffze, and take feals by means of harpoons, to which they
faften bladders. They fifh for cod with bone hooks,
and lines made of a long and tough fpecies of fe.a-weed,
* The author adds, that thefe turbot [paltus] weigh occafionally feven
or eight pood.
which they dip in frefli water and draw out to the fize of
a fine packthread.
As foon as the veffel was laid up in a fecure place,
Tolftyk, Vaffyutin and Lafaroff, with feveral others,
went in four baidars to Kanaga. The firft remained
upon that ifland, but the two others rowed in two baidars to Tfetchina, which is feparated from Kanaga by a
ffrait about feven verfts in breadth : the iflanders received them amicably, and promifed to pay tribute. The
feveral parties returned all fafe to Kayachu, without
having procured any furs. . Soon afterwards Tolftyk dif-
patched fome hunters in four baidars to Tagalak, Atchu,
and Amlach, which lay to the Eafl of Kayachu : none of
thefe party met with any oppofition from the natives :
they accordingly remained with great tranquillity upon
thefe feveral iflands until the year 1764. Their fuccefs
in hunting was not however very great; for they caught
no more than 1880 full grown fea-otters, 778 middle-^
aged, and 372 cubs.
Defcription of
the Andrea-
The following is Lafaroff's defcription of the above-
mentioned fix iflands* which lie in a chain fomewhat
to the North Weft of the Fox Iflands, and muft not be
blended with them. | The firft certain account was
brought by this  veffel, the St. Andrean  and Natalia,
* Thefe are the fix Iflands defcribed by Mr. Stsehlin in his defcription
of the New Archipelago.   See Appendix I. Na V.
from whence they are called the Andreanofffkie Oftrova
or the Iflands of St. Andrean.
Ayagh is about an hundred and fifty verfts in circum- Ayagh.
ference : it contains feveral high and rocky mountains,
the intervals of which are bare heath and moor ground s
not one foreft tree is to be found upon the whole ifland.
The vegetables feem for the moft part like thofe which
grow in Ka&artc&atka. Of berries there are found *crow
or crake-berries and the larger fort of bilberries, but in
fiiaall quantities. Of the uoots of burnet and all kinds of
make weed, there is fuch abundance as to afford, in cafe
of neceffity, a plentiful provifion "for the inhabitants.
The above-mentioned rivulet is the only one upon the
ifland. The number of inhabitants cannot fufficiently
be afqertained, be^ufe the natives patfe continually from
aJ&and to ifland in their baidars.
Kanaga ftands Weft frojaa Ayagh, and is two hundred Kanaga
Verfts in circum-fbrenceu It contain^ an high volcano
where the natives find fulphur in fummer. At the foot
of this mountain are hot fprings, wjherein they occafion-
ally boil their.provifion. There is no rivulet upon this
ifland ; and the low grounds are fimilar to thofe of
Ayagh. The inhabitants are reckoned about two hundred fouls.
* Empetraun, Vaccin. Uliginofum, Sanguifoxba, ;& jBiftorta.
L  2 Tfetchina
Tfetchina lies Eaft ward about forty verfts from Kanaga,
and is about eighty in circumference. It is full of rocky
mountains, of which the Bielaia Sopka, or the White
Peak, is the higheft. In the valley there are alfo fome
warm fprings, but no rivulet, abounding in fifh: the
ifland contains only four families.
Tagaiak. Tagalak is forty verfts in circumference, ten Eaft from
Tfetchina : it contains a few rocks, but neither rivulets
with fifh, nor any vegetable production fit for nourifh-
ment. The coafts are rocky, and dangerous to approach
in baidars. This ifland is alfo inhabited by no more
than four families.
Atchu lies in the fame pofition forty verfts diftant
from Tagalak, and is about three hundred in circumference : near it is an harbour, where fhips may ride fe-
curely at anchor. It contains many rocky mountains ;
and feveral fmall rivulets that fall into the fea, and of
which one running Eaftwards abounds in fifh. The
roots which have juft before been mentioned, and bulbs
of white lilies, are found there in plenty. Its inhabitants
amount to about fixty fouls.
Amlach is a mountainous ifland ftanding to the Eaft
more  than  feven verfts from Atchu, and is  alfo three
hundred in circumference.    It contains the fame num-
2 ber
ber of inhabitants as Atchu, has a commodious
haven, and produces roots in abundance. Of feveral
fmall rivulets there is one only which flows towards the
North, that contains any fifh. Befides thefe a clufter of
other iflands were obferved ft retching farther to the
Eaft, which were not  touched upon.
The inhabitants of thefe fix iflands are tributary to
Ruffia. They live in holes dug in the earth, in which
they make, no fires even in winter. Their clothes are
made like fhirts, of the fkins of the *guiIlinot and puffin,
which they catch with fpringes. Over thefe in rainy
weather they wear an upper garment, made of the bladders and other dried inteftines of feals and fea-lions oiled
and ftitched together. They catch cod and turbot with
bone hooks, and eat them raw- As they never lay in a
ftore of provifion, they fuffer greatly from hunger in
ftormy weather, when they cannot go out to fifh ; at
which time they are reduced to. live upon fmall fliell-fifli
and fea-wrack, which they pick up upon the beach and
eat raw. In May and June they kill fea-otters in the following manner : When the weather is calm, they row
out to fea in feveral baidars : having found the animal,
they ftrike him with harpoons, and follow him fo clofely,,
that he cannot eafily efcape. They take fea dogs in the
fame manner. In the fevereft Weather they make no
addition to  their ufual cloathing.    In order to. warm
* Colymbus Troile, Alca Arctica-
Account of
the inhabi-.
themfelves in winter, whenever it freezes very hard,
they burn a heap of dry grafs, over-which they ftand
and catch the heat under their clothes. The clothes of
the women and children are made of lea-otter fkins, in
the fame form as thofe belonging to the men. Whenever they pafs the night at a diftance from home, they
di^ a hole in the earth, and lay themfelves down in it,
covered only with their clothes and mats of platted grafs.
Regardlefs of every thing but the prefent moment, deftt-
tute of religion, and without the leaft appearance of decency, they feem but few degrees removed from brutes.
As foon as the feveral baidars fent out upon hunting
parties were returned, and the veffel got ready for their
departure, the Toigons of thefe iflands (excepting Kanaga) came in baidars to Tolftyk, accompanied wkh a
confiderable number of the natives; their names were
Tfarkulini, Tlhunila, Kayugotfk and Mayatok. "They
brought with them a voluntary tribute, making prefents
of pieces of dried falmon, and unanimoufly exprefling
their fatisfaction upon the good conduct of the Ruffians.
Tolftyk gave them in return fome toys and other trifles
and defired them to recommend to the inhabitants of the
other iflands the like friendly behaviour towards the Ruffian merchants who fliould come amongft them, if they
had a mind to be treated in the fame manner.
June 14,   1764, they failed for Kamtchatka, and anchored on the 19th before Shemiya, one of the Aleutian
Iflands. The 21ft they were forced from their anchor
by tempeftuous winds, and driven upon a rocky fhore.
This accident obliged them to fend the lading afhore, and
to draw the fhip upon land in order to repair the damage,
which was done not without great difficulty. On the
18th of Auguft they flood out to fea and made towards
Atchu, which they reached on the aoth. Having
fprung a leak they again refitted the veffel; and, after
taking on board the crew of a fhip which had been lately
eaft away, they failed for Kamtchatka. On the 4th of
September they came in fight of that peninfula near
Tzafchminfkoi Oftrog; and on the 18th, as they were endeavouring to run into the mouth of the Kamtchatka
river, they were forced by a ftorm upon the coaft. The
veffel was deftroyed, and the greateft part of the cargo
The Veffel
wrecked upon
the Coaft of
Voyage of the Zacharias and Elizabeth, fitted out by Kul-
koff, and commanded by Drufinin—They fail to Umnak
and Unalaflika, and winter upon the latter ifiand—The
veffel deflroyed, and all the crew, except four, murdered
by the iflanders—The adventures of thefe four Ruffians,
and their wonderful efcape.
¥ SHALL here barely mention that a veffel was fitted
- out in Auguft, 1760, at the expence of Terrenti
Tfebaeffkoi: but I fliall have occafion to be very cir-
cumftantial in my accounts concerning feveral others,
which failed during the following years : more copious
information concerning the Fox Iflands having been
procured from thefe voyages, although for the moft
part unfortunate, than from all the preceding ones.
In 1762 four veffels failed for the Fox Iflands :   of
thefe only one returned fafe to Kamtchatka.
Dmfimnfnthe     The firft was the Zacharias   and Elizabeth,  fitted out
Elizabeth,    by Kulkoff, a merchant of Vologda and Company, under
the command of Drufinin,   and manned by thirty-four
Ruffians, and three Kamtchadals.
September the 6th, they weighed anchor from Ochotfk,
:and arrived October the nth in the haven of St. Peter
and Paul, where they wintered. June the 24th, 1763,
they again put to fea, and having reached, after eleven
•days failing, the neareft Aleutian Iflands, they anchored
before Atach. They ftaid here about fourteen days,
and took up feven Ruffians who had been fhip wrecked
on this coaft. Among thefe was Korelin, who returned
to Kamtchatka, and brought back the following account
of the voyage.
July the 17th, they failed from Atach towards the
more diftant iflands. In the fame month they landed
upon an ifland, where the crew of the Andrean and
Natalia was encased in -hunting ; and, having laid in a
provifion of water, continued their voyage.
In the beginning of September they arrived at Urn- Arrival at
& ^> r J I Umnak.
nak, one of the Fox Iflands, and eaft anchor about a
verft from the fhore. They found there Glottoff's veffel,
whofe voyage will be mentioned in a fucceeding chapter*.
Drufinin immediately difpatched his firft mate Maefnifk
and Korelin, with thirty-four of the crew, to land. They
paffed over to the Eaftern extremity of the ifland, which
was diftant about feventy verfts from the veffel; and returned fafe on the 12th of September.    During this ex-
» Chap, X
Winters at
pedition, they faw feveral remains of fox-traps which
had been fet by the Ruffians ; and met with feveral
natives who fliewed fome tribute-quittances. The
fame day letters were brought by the iflanders from
Medvedeff and Korovin*, who were jufl arrived at
Umnak and Unalaflika in two veffels fitted out by the
merchants Protaffoff and Trapefnikoff. Anfwers were
returned by the fame meffengers.
On the 2 2d, Drufinin failed to the Northern point of
Unalaflika, which lies about fifteen verfts from Umnak i
the crew, having laid up the veflel in a fafe harbour,
and brought the lading afhore, made preparation to con-
ftruct an hut. Soon after their arrival, two Toigons
of the neareft village brought hoftages of their own ac-
cord; their example was immediately followed by feveral
of the more diftant villages. Here they received infor-
mation of an hunting party fent from TrapefnikofPs
fhip. Upon which Maefhyk alfo diipatched three companies upon the fame errand, one confifting of eleven
men, among whom was Korelin, under the command of
Peter Tfekaleff; a fecond of the fame number, under
Michael Kudyakoff; and a third of nine men, under
TTephim Kafkitfyn. Of thefe three parties, TfekalefPs
was the only one of which we have received any cir-
cumftantial account: for not a fingle perfon of the
other two parties, or of the crew remaining on board,
ever returned to Kamtchatka.
* See the following Chapter.
Kafkitfyn remained near the haven, and the two
other companies were difpatched to the Northern point
of the ifland. Kudyakoff flopped at a place called
Kalaktak, which contained about forty inhabitants ; Tfe-
kaleff went on to Inalok, which lies about thirty verfts
from Kalaktak. He found there a dwelling with about
feventy inhabitants, whom he behaved to with kindnefs:
he built an hut for himfelf and his companions, and
kept a conftant watch.
December the 4th, fix of the party being difpatched
to look after the pit-falls, there remained only five Ruffians : namely, Peter Tfekaleff, Stephen Korelin, Dmitri
Bragin, Gregory Shaffyrin, and Ivan Kokovin: the
iflanders took this opportunity of giving the firft proofs
of their hoftile intentions, which they had hitherto
concealed. As Tfekaleff and Shaffyrin were upon a
vifit to the iflanders, the latter fuddenly, and without
any provocation, ftruck Tfekaleff upon the head with
a club, and afterwards ftabbed him with knives. They
next fell upon Shaffyrin, who defended himfelf with an
hatchet, and, though defperately wounded, forced his
way back to his companions."j' Bragin and Korelin, who
remained in the hut, had immediate recourfe to their
fire-arms ; but Kokovin, who was at a fmall diftance,
was furrounded by the favages, and thrown down.
They continued ftabbing him with knives and darts.,
until Korelin came to his affiftance;   the latter having
M 2 wounded
All the Crew,
except four
Ruffians, de-
ftroyed by the
g4 A C CO U N T   O F    T H E
wounded two iflanders, and   driven away   the   othersy.
broupht Kokovin half-dead to the hut.
The Adven-       Soon afterwards the natives furrounded the hut, which
tures of the .   _
four Radians ^Uq Ruffians had taken the precaution to provide witn
upon Unalafli-
ka- fliooting-holes.    The fiege lafted four days without in-
termiffion. The iflanders were prevented indeed by the
fire-arms from ftorming the hut; but whenever the
Ruffians made their appearance, darts were immediately
fliot at them from all fides.; fo that they could not
venture to go out for water. At length when Shaffyrin
and Kokovin were a little recovered, they all fallied out
upon the iflanders with their guns and lances; three
perfons were killed upon the fpot, and feveral wounded;
upon which the others fled away and difperfed. During the fiege the favages were feen at a little diftance
bearing fome arms and caps, and holding them up in
triumph : thefe things belonged to the fix Ruffians, who
had been fent to the pit-falls, and had fallen a facrifice
to the refentment of the natives.
The latter no fooner difappeared, than the Ruffians
dragged the baidar into the fea,  and rowed without mo-
leftarion out of the bay, which is about ten verfts broad.
They next landed near a fmall habitation : finding it
empty they drew the baidar afhore, and went with their
fire-arms and lances acrofs the mountains towards Kalaktak, where they had left Kudyakoff's party.    As they
approached that place towards evening, they fired from
the heights; ;but no fignal being returned, they concluded, as was really the cafe, that this company had
likewife -been maffacred by the inhabitants. They themfelves narrowly efcaped the fame fate ; for, immediately
upon the report of the fire-arms,-numerous bodies of the
1 iflanders made their appearance, and clofely purfued the.
Ruffians : darknefs however coming on, the latter found
means to efcape over "the fandy fhore of a bay to a rock,
-where they were flickered, and could defend themfelves.
They here made fo good a ufe of their arms, that the
iflanders thought proper to retire : the fugitives, as foon.
as their purfuers were > withdrawn, feized the opportunity of proceeding towards the haven, where their
veffel lay at anchor: they ran without interruption during
the whole night, and at break of day, when they were about
three verfts from the haven, they efpied a locker of the
veffel lying on the fliore. Struck with aftonifhment at
this alarming difcovery, they retreated, with precipitation
to the mountains, from whence they defcried feveral.
iflanders rowing in canoes, but no appearance of their
own veffel.. During that day they kept themfelves clofely
concealed, and durft not venture again towards the haven
before the evening. Upon their arrival they found the
veffel broken to pieces, and the dead bodies of their companions lying mangled along the beach. Having collected all the pro virion which had been untouched by
the favages, they returned to the mountains.
Ife The
The following day they fcooped out a cavity at Ike
foot of a mountain fituated about three verfts from the
haven, and covered it with a piece of a fail. In the
evenine thev returned to the haven, and found there an
image of a faint .and a prayer book ; all the tackle and
lading were taken away, excepting the facks for provifion.
Thefe facks were made of leather: the natives had
ript them up probably to fee if they contained any iron,
and had left them, together with the provifion, behind
as ufelefs. The Ruffians collected all that remained, and
dftieeed as much as they were able to carry into the
mountains to their retreat, where they lived in a very
wretched ftate from the 9th of December to the 2d of
February,   1764.
Mean while they employed themfelves in making a
little baidar, which they covered with the leather of the
facks. Having drawn it at night from the mountains to
the fea, they rowed without waiting for break of day
along the Northern coaft of Unalafchka, in order to reach
Trapefnikoff's veffel, which, as they had reafon to think,
lay at anchor fomewhere upon the coaft. They rowed
at fome diftance from the fhore, and by that means paffed three habitations unperceived. The following day
they obferved at fome diftance five iflanders in a baidar,
who  upon feeing them  made to Makufhinfk,   before
which place the fugitives were obliged to pafs. Darknefs
coming on, the Ruffians landed on a rock, and paffed the
night aihore. Early in the morning they difcovered the
iflanders advancing towards them from the bay of Ma-
kufliinfk. Upon this they placed themfelves in an advantageous poft, and prepared for defence.
The favages rowed clofe to the beach : part landing,
and part remaining in their baidars, they commenced
the affault by a volley of darts ; and notwithftanding the
Ruffians did great execution with their fire-arms, the
fkirmifh continued the whole day. Towards evening the
enemy retired, and the fugitives betook themfelves with
their canoe to an adjoining cavern. The attack was again
renewed during the night; but the Ruffians were fo ad-
vantageoufly pofted, that they repulfed the affailants
without much difficulty. In this encounter Bragen
was nightly wounded. They remained in this place
three days; bufc~fehe fea riling at a fpring-tide into the
rock, forced them to fally out towards a neighbouring
cavern, which they reached without lofs, notwithftanding the oppofition of the iflanders..
They were imprifbned in this cave five weeks, and kept
watch by turns. During that time they feldom ventured twenty yards from the entrance ; and were obliged
to quench their thirft with fnow-water, and with the
moifture dripping  from the rock.     They fuffered  alfo
Their Efcape
from Unalafh-
ka .to Trapefnikoff 's veffel,
•greatly from hunger, having no fuftenance but fmall
fliell-fifh,. which they occafionally found means to collect upon the beach. Compelled at length by extreme
want, they one night ventured to draw their baidar into"
the fea, and were fortunate enough to get off unper-
They continued rowing -at night, but in the day they
hid themfelves on the fhore ; by this means they efcaped
.unobferved from the bay of Makufhinfk, and reached
Trapefnikoff's veffel the 30th of March, 1764. What
happened to them afterwards in company with the
crew of this veffel will be mentioned in the fucceeding.
chapter. I Shaffyrin alone of all the four died of
ficknefs during the voyage; but Korelin, Kofiovin, and
Bragin* returned fafe to Kamtchatka. The names of
thefe brave men deferve our admiration, for the courage
and perfeverance with which they fupported and overcame fuch imminent dangers.
* Thefe Ruffians were well known to feveral perfons of credit, who
have confirmed the authenticity of this relation. Among the reft the
celebrated naturalift Mr. Pallas, whofe name is well known in the literary world, faw Bragin at Irkutlk : from him he had a narrative of their
adventures and efcape ; which, as he allured me, perfectly tallied with
--the above account, which is drawn from the journal of Korelin,
C  HAP.     IX.
Voyage of the veffel called the Trinity, under the command
of Korovin—Sails to the Fox Iflands—Winters at Unalaflika—Puts to fea the fpring following—The veffel is
ftranded in a bay of the ifiand Umnak, and the crew
attacked by the natives—Many of them killed—Others
carried off by flicknefs—They are reduced to great fir eights
—Relieved by Glottoff, twelve of the whole company only
remainitig—Defcription of Umnak and Unalaflika.
H E fecond veffel which failed from Kamtchatka in |j|||f||
the year 1762,  was the Trinity, fitted out by the
trading company of Nikiphor Trapefnikoff, merchant of
Irkutfk,   under  the   command  of   Ivan   Korovin,   and
manned writh thirty-eight Ruffians and fix Kamtchadals.
Sentember- 1 § they failed down the Kamtchatka river, Depart* feb
OcpLcuiuvr ij)   £*     / Kamtchatka..-
and flood out to fea the 29th, when they were driven
at laro-e for ten days by contrary winds. At lafc upon
the 8th of October they came in fight-of Beering's and
Copper Ifland, where they eaft anchor before the South
fide of the former. Here they were refolved to winter
on account of the late feafon of the year. Accordingly
they laid up the veffel in a'fecure harbour, and brought
N all
^6 " '    A€C O U NT   O F   T H E
winters upon   » th   \zAing- afhore.    They ftaid here until the firft of
Ifland' Augufr, 1763 : during that time they killed about 500
arcYic  foxes and  20 fea-otters;   the  latter animals re-
forted lefs frequently to this ifland,  in  confequence of
the difturbance given them by the Ruffian hunters.
Korovin, having collected a fufficient ftore of provifion, feveral fkins of fea-cows for the coverings of bai-
dars> and fome iron which remained from the wreck of
Beering's fhip, prepared for his departure. Upon his
arrival at Beering's Ifland the preceding autumn, he
found there a veffel fitted out by Jacob Protaffoff, merchant of Tiumen, under the command of Dennis Med-
vedeff *. Korovin had entered into a formal contract
with Medvedeff for the divifion of the furs. Here he
took on board ten of Medvedeff's crew, and gave him
feven in return.
Auguft 1, Korovin put to fea from Beering's Ifland with
thirty-feven men, and Medvedeff with forty-nine. They
failed without coming in fight of the Aleutian Ifles : on
Roches una- the 15th, Korovin made Unalaflika, where Glottoff lay
at anchor, and Medvedeff reached Umnak. Korovin
received the news of the latter's fafe arrival, firft by
fome iflanders,  and afterwards by letters;  both veffels
* This is the fourth veffel which failed in 1762. As the whole crew
was maffacred by the favages, we have no account of the voyage.
Short mention of this maffacre is occafionally made in this and the following chapters.
lay at no greater diftance from each other than about
an hundred and fifty verfts, taking a ftreight line from
point to point acrofs the firth,
Korovin eaft anchor in a convenient bay at the diftance
of fixty yards from the fliore.    On the 16th he landed
with fourteen men, and having found nothing but an
empty fhed, he returned to the veffel.    After having
taken a reinforcement, he again went afhore in order to
look  for fome inhabitants.     About feven verfts from
the haven, he came to two habitations, and faw three
hundred perfons affembled   together.     Among   them
were three Toigons, who  recollected  and accofted in a
friendly  manner one Barnaflieff, a native of Tobolfk,
who had been there before with Glottoff;   they fhewed
fome tribute-quittances,  which they  had lately received
from the Coffac Sabin Ponomareff.    Two of thefe Toigons gave each a  boy of   twelve years  of age  as an
hoftage, whom they paffed for their children ;  and the
third delivered his  fon of about fifteen  years of age,
the fame  who had been Glottoff s hoftage, and  whom
Korovin called Alexey.   With thefe hoftages he returned
to the fhip, which he laid up in the mouth of a river, ||| «p ||
after having brought all the provifion and ladng afhore.
Soon   afterwards the  three  Toigons   came   to  fee   the
hoftages ;  and informed Korovin, that Medvedeff's veffel
rode fecurely at anchor before Umnak.
N  2
September 15, when every thing was prepared for
wintering, Korovin and Barnafheff fet out in two baidars,
each with nine men and one of the hoftages, who had
a flight knowledge of the Ruffian language. They
went along the Northern coaft of the ifland, towards
its Weftern extremity, in order to hunt, and to enquire
after a certain interpreter called Kafhmak, who had been
employed by Glottoff on a former occafion. Having
rowed about twenty verfts, they paffed by a village,
and landed at another which lay about five verfts further. But as the number of inhabitants feemed to
amount to two hundred, they durft not venture to the
dwellings, but flayed by the baidar. Upon this the
Toigon of the place came to them, with his wife and
fon : he ihewed a tribute-quittance, and delivered his
fon, a boy of thirteen years of age and whom Korovin
called Stepanka, as an hoftage, for which he received a
prefent of corals.
They rowed now further to a third village, about
fifteen verfts from the former, where they found the
interpreter Kafhmak ; the latter accompanied them to
the two Toigons, who gave them a friendly reception
and ihewed their tribute-quittances. A few natives only
made their appearance ; the others, as the Toigons pretended, were gone out to fifh. The next morning each
Toigoii gave a boy as an hoftage; one of the boys Korovin called Gregory, and the other Alexey. The Ruffians
fians were detained there two days by a violent ftorm;
'during which time a letter from Medvedeff was brought
by an Aleutian, and an anfwer was returned by the fame
perfon. The ftorm at length fome what abating, they
rowed back to the next village, where they continued
two nights without any apprehenfions from the favages.
At length Korovin returned in fafety with the hoftages
to the crew.
In the beginning of October they built a winter-hut, Builds an Hut,
o o J 7 and makes
partly of wood and partly of feal-fkins, and made all f07winte°bg.
the neceffary preparations for hunting. On the 14th,
two companies, each confifling of eleven men, were fent
out upon an hunting party to the Eaftern point of the
ifland; they returned in four days with hoftages.
About fixty verfts from the haven, they had met a
party of twenty-five Ruffians, commanded by Drufinin.
About the fame time fome Toigons brought a prefent of
fturgeon and whale's blubber, and received in return
fome beads and provifion.
Korovin and his company now thought themfelves
fecure ; for which reafon twenty-three men, under the
command of the above-mentioned Barnaiheff, were difpatched in two baidars upon an hunting party towards
the Weftern point of the ifland. Eight rnufkets were
diftributed to each boat,  a piftol and  a lance to  each
 1; is!
afb vd ,b$A'
man, and alio a fufficient ftore of ammunition and provifion. The following day two accounts were fent from
BarnafliefF; and letters were alfo received from the crew
of Protaffoff's veffel. From the 2d of November to the
8th of December, the Ruffians, who remained with Korovin, killed forty-eight dark-coloured foxes, together
with an hundred and feventeen of the common fort:
during this expedition one man was loft. Some of the
natives came occafionally in baidars, and exchanged fea-
otters and fox fkins for corals. On the 8th of December letters were again brought from Barnafheff and alfo
from the crew of Protaffoff's fhip. Anfwers were returned by the fame meffengers.
After the departure of thefe meffengers, the mother
of Alexey came with a meffage from the Toigon her huf-
band importing, that a large number of iflanders were
making towards the fhip. Upon this Korovin ordered
the men to arms, and foon after feventy natives approached and held up fome fea-otter fkins. The Ruffians cried
out that no more than ten at a time fhould come over the
brook towards their hut: upon which the iflanders left
their fkins with Korovin, and returned without attempting any hoftilities. Their apprehenfions were now fome-
what quieted, but they were again raifed by the arrival
of three Kamtchadals belonging to Kulkoff's fhip, who
flew for protection to Korovin: they brought the account that the crew had been killed by the favages, and
4 the
the veffel deftroyed..§ It was now certain that the feventy
iflanders above-mentioned had come with hoftile intentions. This information fpread fuch a fudden panic
among the Ruffians, that it was even propofed to burn
the veffel, and to endeavour to find their companions,
who were gone upon hunting parties.
That day however paffed without any attack: but towards JheRuffian*
the evening of the ioth of December, the favages af-
fembled in large bodies, and invefted the hut on all
fides. Four days and nights they never ceafed annoying
the Ruffians with their darts; two of the latter were
killed, and the furvivors were nearly exhaufted by continual fatigue. Upon the fifth day the iflanders took poft
in a neighbouring cavern, where they continued watching the Ruffians fo clofely during a whole month, that
none of the latter durft venture fifty paces from
their dwelling. Korovin, finding himfelf thus annoyed
by the natives, ordered the hut to be deftroyed : he
then retired to his veffel, which was brought for greater
fecurity out of the mouth of the rivulet to the diftance of
an hundred yards from the beach. There they lay at
anchor from the 5th of March to the 26th of April,
during which time they fuffered greatly from want of
provifion, and ftill more from the fcurvy.
attacked by tin
During this period they were attacked by a large body
of the natives, who advanced in forty baidars with the
hopes of furprifing the veffel. Korovin had been warned
of their approach by two of the inhabitants, one of whom
was a relation of the interpreter Kafhmak : accordingly
he was prepared for their reception. As foon as
the favages came near the veffel, they brandiflied
their darts and got ready for the attack. Korovin however had no fooner fired and killed one perfon, than they
were ftruck with a panic and rowed away. They were fo
incenfed at this failure of fuccefs, that they immediately
put to death the two good-natured natives, who had betrayed their defign to the Ruffians. Soon afterwards the
father of Alexey came and demanded his fon, who was
relfored to him : and on the 30th of March Korovin and
his three companions arrived as it is mentioned in the
preceding chapter. By this reinforcement the .number
of the crew amounted to eighteen perfons.
Korovin pus       April 26 Korovin put to fea from Unalaflika with the
to o"3.    j. lie
^3? crew and eleven hoftages. The-veffel was driven until
the 28th by contrary winds, and then ftranded in a bay
of the ifland Umnak. The ammunition and fails, to-
gether with the fkins for the conftru&ion of baidars,
were brought afhore with great difficulty. During the
difembarkation one fick man was drowned, another died
as foon as he came to land, and eight hoftages ran away
1 amidft.
amidft the general confufion. § There ftill remained the
faithful interpreter Kaflimak and three hoftages. The
whole number of the Ruffians amounted to only fix-
teen perfons ; and of thefe three were fick of the fcurvy.
Under thefe circumftances they fecured themfelves be-
tween their baidar and fome empty barrels, which they
covered with feal-fkins, while the fails were fpread over
them in form of a tent. Two Ruffians kept watch i
and there being no appearance of any iflanders, the
others retired to fleep.
Before break of day, about an-hundred favages advancing fecretly from the fea-fide, threw their darts at
the diftance of twenty yards with fuch force, that many
of them pierced through the baidar and the fkins;
others fell from above through the fails. By this dif-
charge, the two perfons who kept watch, together with
the three hoftages, were killed upon the fpot; and all
the Ruffians were wounded. The latter indeed were fo
effectually furprifed, as to be" prevented from having
recourfe to their fire-arms. In this diftrefs Korovin
fallied out, in company with four Ruffians, and attacked the enemy with lances : two of the favages were
killed, and the others driven to flight. Korovin and
his party were fo feverely wounded, that they had
fcarcely ftrength fufficrent to return to their tent.
The Ruffians
in Danger of
being deftroyed by the Ni-
The latter
During the night the ftorm increafed to fuch a degree, that the veffel was entirely dallied to pieces. The
greateft part of the wreck, which was eaft on fhore
by the fea, was carried away by the iflanders. They
alfo broke to pieces the barrels of fat, emptied the faekjs
of provifion, and deftroyed moft of the furs : having
thus fatisfied their refentment, they went away; and
did not again make their appearance until the 30th of
April. Upon their retiring, the Ruffians collected the
wretched remains which had been left untouched by
the favages, or which the waves had eaft on fhore fince
their departure.
April 30, a body of an hundred and fifty natives
advanced from the Eaftern point of the ifland towards
the tent; and, at the diftance of an hundred yards,
fhot at the Ruffians with fire arms, but luckily without
execution. They alfo fet on fire the high grafs, and
the wind blew the flames towards the tent; but the
Ruffians firing forced the enemy to flight, and gained
time to extinguifh the flames.
This was thelaft attack which was made upon Korovin;
although ficknefs and mifery detained him and his companions upon this fpot until the 21 ft of July. They then
put to fea in a baidar eight yards long, which they
had conftructed in order to make to Protaffoff's veffel,
with whofe fate they were as yet unacquainted. Their
number was now reduced to twelve perfons, among
whom were fix Kamtcha'dals.
After having rowed ten  days  they landed upon the The Ruffian*
difcover the
beach of the fame ifland Umnak ;   there they obferved d"d, ^oc'ies
' J or their Coun-
the remains of a veffel which had been burnt,  and faw hsTC^mur
~ _ . „ dered hv the
lome clothes, iails, and ropes, torn to pieces. At a fmall Natives'.
diftance was an empty Ruffian dwelling, and near it a
bath-room, in which.they found, to their inexpreffible
terror, twenty dead bodies in their clothes. Each of
them had a thong of leather, or his own girdle, fattened
about the neck, with which he had been dragged along*
Korovin and his companions recollected them to have
been fome of thofe who had failed in Protaffoff's veffel;
and could diftinguifii among the reft the commander
Medvedeff. They difcovered no further traces of the
remaining crew ; and as none ever appeared, we have
no account of the circumftances with which this ca-
taftrophe was attended.
After having buried  his dead countrymen* Korovin Relieved.from
<-> J their Diftreffes
and his companions began to build an hut :   they were^^A^vai
prevented however from .finifhing it, by the unexpected
arrival of Stephen Glottoff*,   who came to them with
a fmall party by  land.     Korovin  and his  companions
accordingly joined Glottoff,   and  rowed the next day to
his veffel.
| See the following Chapter*
O 2 Soon
Soon afterwards Korovin was fent with a party of
twenty men to coaft the ifland of Umnak, in order to
difcover if any part of Medvedeff's crew had made their
efcape from the general maffacre : but his enquiries
were without fuccefs. In the courfe of this expedition,
as he lay at anchor, in September, before a fmall ifland
fituated between Umnak and Unalaflika, fome favages
rowed towards the Ruffians in two large baidars ; and
having fliot at them with fire-arms, though without
effect, inftantly retired. The fame evening Korovin
entered a bay of the ifland Umnak, with an intention
of paffing the night on fhore : but as he came near
the coaft, a large number of favages in an hundred baidars furrounded and faluted him with a volley of darts.
Korovin fired and foon difperfed them; and immediately made to a large baidar, which he faw at fome dif->
tance, in hopes of finding fome Ruffians. He was
however miftaken ;, the iflanders who were aboard landed at his approach, and, after fhooting at him from their
fire-arms, retired to the mountains.
Korovin found there an empty baidar, which he knew
to be thefame in which Barnaflieff had failed, when he
was fent upon an hunting party.. Within were nothing
but two hatchets and fome iron points for darts. Three
women were feized at the fame time ; and two natives,
who refufed to furrender themfelves, were put to death.
They then made to the dwelling, from which all the
inhabitants had run away, and found therein pieces of
Ruffian leather, blades of fmall knives, fhirts, and other
things, which had belonged to the Ruffians. All the
information which they could procure from the women
whom they had taken prifoners, was, that the crew had
been killed, and this booty taken away by the inhabitants, who had retired to the ifland Unalaflika. Korovin
gave thefe women their liberty, and, being apprehenfive
of frefli attacks, returned to the haven.
Towards winter Korovin, with a party of twenty-two
men, was fent upon an hunting expedition to the Weft-
em point of Unalaflika : he was accompanied by an
Aleutian interpreter, called Ivan Glottoff. Being informed by fome iflanders, that a Ruffian fhip, under
the command of Ivan Solovioff *, was then lying before
Unalaflika, he immediately rowed towards the haven
where fhe was at anchor. On the way he had a fliarp
encounter with the natives, who endeavoured to prevent him from landing: of thefe, ten were killed
upon the fpot; and the remainder fled away, leaving
behind them fome women and children.
Korovin ftaid three days aboard Solovioff's veffel,
and then returned to the place where he had been fo
lately attacked.     The   inhabitants   however,   for   this
* Chap. XI.
time, made no oppofition to his landing ; on the contrary, they received him with kindnefs, and permitted
him to hunt: they even delivered hoftages; and entered
into a friendly traffic, exchanging furs for beads. They
were alfo prevailed upon to reftore feveral mufkets
and other things, taken from the Ruffians who had
been maffacred.
A fliort time before his departure, the inhabitants
again fliewed their hoftile intentions ; for three of therri
came up to the Ruffian centinel, and fuddenly fell upon
him with their knives. I The centinel however difen-
gaging himfelf, and retreating into the hut, they ran
away. The Toigons of the village protefted ignorance
of this treachery ; and the offenders were foon afterwards difcovered and punilhed. Korovin, as he was
returning to Glottoff, was forced to engage with the
iflanders upon Unalaflika, and alfo upon Umnak, where
they endeavoured to prevent him from landing. Before the end of the year a ftorm drove the baidar upon
the beach of the latter ifland; and the tempeftuous
weather fetting in, they were detained there until the
6th of April, 1765. During this time they were reduced, from a fcarcity of provifion, to live chiefly upon
fea-wrack and fmall fhcll fifh. On the 2 2d they returned to Glottoff; and as they had been unfuccefsful
in hunting, their cargo of furs was very inconfiderable.
Three days after his arrival, Korovin quitted Glottoff,
and went over with five other Ruffians to Solovieff, with
whom he returned the following year to Kamtchatka..
The fix Kamtchadals of Korovin's party joined Glottoff.
According to Korovin's account, the iflands Umnak
and Unalaflika are fituated not much more Northwards
than the mouth of the Kamtchatka river; and, according to the fliip's reckoning, about the diftance of 1700
verfts Eaftwards from the fame place. The circumference of Umnak is about two hundred and fifty verfts ;
Unalafhka is much larger.    Both thefe iflands are wholly
deftitute of trees; drift-wood is brought afhore in large
quantities. There were five lakes upon the Northern
coaft of Unalaflika, and but one upon Umnak, of which
none were more than ten verfts in circumference. Thefe
lakes give rife to feveral fmall rivulets, which flow only
a few verfts before they empty themfelves into the fea:
the fifh enter the rivulets in the middle of April,
they afcend the lakes in July, and continue there until
Auguft. Sea-otters and other fea-animals refort but
feldom to thefe iflands ; but there is great abundance of
red and black foxes. North Eaftwards from Unalaflika
two iflands appeared in fight, at the diftance of five or
ten verfts;   but Korovin did not touch at them.
Korovin's Defcription of
t'mnak and
The inhabitants of thefe iflands row in  their fmall Amount of
the Jnhabi-
baidars  from  one-ifland to the other.       They  are fo tants-
numerous, "and their manner of life fo unfettled, that
their   number   cannot   exactly   be  determined.    Their
dwelling caves are made in the following manner. They
firft dig an hole in the earth proportioned to the fize of
their intended habitation, of twenty, thirty, or forty
yards in length, and from fix to ten broad. They
then fet up poles of larch, firs, and afli driven on the
coaft by the fea. Acrofs the top of thefe poles they
lay planks, which they cover with grafs and earth.
They enter through holes in the top by means of ladders. Fifty, an hundred, and even an hundred and fifty
perfons dwell together in fuch a cave. They light little
or no fires within, for which reafon thefe dwellings are
much cleaner than thofe of the Kamtchadals. ' When
they want to warm themfelves in the winter, they make
a fire of dry herbs, of which they have collected a large
ftore in fummer, and ftand over it until they are fuf-
ficiently warmed. A few of thefe iflanders wear fur-
ftockings in winter; but the greateft part go bare-footed,
and all are without breeches. The fkins of cormorants,
puffins, and fea-divers, ferve for the mens clothing ; and
the women wear the fkins of fea-bears, feals, and fea-otters.
They fleep upon thick mats, which they twift out of a
foft kind of grafs that grows upon the fhore, and have
no other covering but their ufual clothes. Many of the
men have five or fix wives; and he that is the beff/
hunter or 1 flier has the greateft number. The women
make their needles of the bones of birds wings,, and ufe
finews for thread.
Their weapons are bows and arrows, lances and darts,
which they throw like the Greenlanders to the diftance of
fixty yards by means of a little hand-board. Both the darts
and arrows are feathered: the former are about "an ell and
an half long ; the fhaft, which is well made confidering
their want of inftruments, is often compofed of two pieces
that join into each other : the point is of flint, fharpened
by beating it between two ftones. Thefe darts as well as
the lances were formerly tipped with bone, but at prefent
the points are commonly made of the iron which they
procure from the Ruffians, and out of which they
ingenioufly form little hatchets and two-edged knives.
They fhape the iron by rubbing it between two ftones,
and whetting it frequently with fearwater. With thefe
inftruments and ftone hatchets they build their baidars.
They have a ftrange cuftom of cutting holes in the
under-lip and through the griftle of the nofe. They
place in the former two little bones, wrought in the
form of teeth, which project fome inches from the
face. In the nofe a piece of bone is placed crofsways.
The deceafed are buried with their boat, weapons, and
clothes *. 4
* The author repeats here feveral circumftances which have been
mentioned before, and many of them will occur again : but my office
as a tranflator would not fuffer me to omit them.
G H A P«
Voyage of Stephen Glottoff—He reaches the Fox Iflands—
Sails beyond Unalaflika to Kadyak—Winters upon that
Ifland—Repeated attempts of the Natives to deflroy the
Crew—They are repulfed, reconciled, and prevailed upon
to trade with the Ruffians—Account of Kadyak—Its
inhabitants—animals—productions—Glottoff fails back to
Umnak—Winters there—Returns to Kamtchatka—
Journal of his voyage.
ERE follows one of the moft memorable voyages
"*■ yet made,, which extended farther, and terminated
more fortunately, than the laft mentioned expeditions^
voyage of Terenty   Tfebaefffkoi   and   company,   merchants  of
Glottoff in the § r.       j i
Andrean and Lalfk, fitted out the Andrean and Natalia under the com.-
mand of Stephen Glottoff an experienced and fkilful
feaman of Yarenfk. This veffel failed from the bay of
the river Kamtchatka the i ft of October, 1762, -manned
with thirty-eight Ruffians and eight Kamtchadals. In
eight days they reached Mednoi Oftroff, or Copper Ifland
where having fought out  a  convenient harbour,  thev
winters upon unloaded and laid up the veflel for the winter.     Their
firft care was to fupply themfelves with provifions;  and
1 they
they killed afterwards a quantity of ice-foxes, and a confiderable number of fea-otters.
. For the benefit of the crown and their own ufe in cafe
of need, they refolved to take on board all the remaining
tackle and iron work of Beering's fhip, which had been
left behind on Commander's Ifland, and was buried in
the beach. For this purpofe they difpatched, on the 27th
of May, Jacob Malevinfkoy (who died foon after) with
thirteen men in a baidar to that iiland, which was feventy
verfts diftant. They brought back With them twenty-
two pood of iron, ten of old cordage fit for caulker's ufe,
fome lead and copper, and feveral thoufand beads.
Copper Ifland has its name from the native copper
found on the coaft, particularly at the Weftern point on
its South fide. Of this native copper Malevinfkoy brought
! with him two large pieces weighing together twelve
pounds, which were picked up between a rock and the
fea on a ftrand of about twelve yards in breadth. Amongft
other floating bodies which the fea drives upon the fliores
of this Ifland, the true right camphor wood, and another
fort of wood very white, foft, and iweet-fcented, are
occafionally found.
Every preparation  for continuing the   voyage
made, they failed from Copper Ifland the 26th of July,
1763,   and fteered for the Iflands Umnak and Aguna-
p  2 laflika,
Arrive ac
lafhka, where Glottoff had: formerly obferved great numbers of black foxes.    On account of ftorms and contrary
winds, they were thirty days before they fetched Umnak.
Here they arrived the 24th of Auguft, and without dropping anchor or lofing any time, they refolvedto fail further for the difcovery of new iflands: they pafted eight
contiguous toeach other and feparated by ftraks, which
were to the beft of their eftimation from twenty>
hundred verfts broad.     Glottoff however, did not land?
till he reached- the laft and,moft Eaftward of thefe iflands,„
called by the inhabitants. Kadyak, from which, the natives faid it was- not far to the coaft of a^ wide extended
woody continent.    No land however was:- to be feen from^
a little ifland called by the natives Afctunak^whieh is fitu-=-
ated about thirty verfts more to the Eaft than-Kadyak.
September 8th,. the veflel ran up a creek, lying.Souths
Eaft of Aktunak, through which a rivulet empties itfeUT
into the fea; this- rivulet comes from a like fix verfts
long, one broad, and about fifty fathoms deep.. During
the ebb of the tide the veffel was left aground ; but the
return of the water fet her again afloat. Near the fliose
were four large huts, fo crouded with people, that their
number could fcarcely be counted § however, foon after
Glottoff's arrival, all thefe inhabitants quitted their dwellings, and retired with precipitation. The next day fome
, iflanders. in baidars approached the  veffel, and accofted
the people on board : and as Ivan Glottoff, the Aleutian
interpreter, did not well underftand the language of thefe
iflanders, they foon afterwards returned with ahoy whom
they had.formerly taken prifoner from Ifanak,. one of
the iflands which lie to the Weft of Kadyak. Him the
Aleutian interpreter perfectly underftood : and by his
means every neceffary explanation could, be obtained
from,the iflanders fc.
In this manner they converfed with the favages, and*
endeavoured to perfuade them to become tributary; they
ufed alfo every argument in their power to prevail upon, give up the boy for. an interpreter.; but all their
entreaties were for the prefent without effect. The fa*>
vages rowed back to the cliff called Aktalin, which lies
about three verfts to the South of Kadyak, where they have habitations..
On the 6th of September Kaplin was fent with thirteen men to the cliff, 7to treat peaceably with the iflanders,
He found there ten huts, from which about an hundred
of the natives came out. They behaved feemingly in a.
friendly manner, and anfwered the interpreter by the
boy, that they had nobody proper for an hoftage; but
that they would deliver up the hfy to the Ruffians agreeable to their defire. Kaplin received him very thankfully, and brought him on board, where he was properly taken care of: he afterwards accompanied Glottoff
to Kamtchatka, and was baptized by the name of Alexander Popoff, being then about thirteen years of age.
For fome days after this conference the iflanders came off
in companies of five, ten, twenty, and thirty: they
' were admitted on board in fmall numbers, and kindly
received, but with a proper degree of circumfpection.
On the 8 th of September the veffel was brought fur*-
ther up the creek without unloading her cargo : and on
the 9th Glottoff with ten men proceeded to a village on
the fliore about two hundred yards from the veffel,
where the natives had begun to refide: it confifted of
three fummer-huts covered only with long grafs : they
were from eight to ten yards broad, twelve long, and
about four high : they faw there about an hundred men,
but neither women nor children.
Finding it impoffible to perfuade the favages to give
•hoftages, Glottoff refolved to let his people remain together, and to keep a ftrong guard.
The Nath es
attack the
Ruffians, but
are defeated.
The iflanders viilted them ftill in fmall bodies; it was
however more and more vifible that their intentions were
:bad. At laft on the ift of October, by day break, a
great number having affembled together in the remote
parts of the-ifland, came unexpectedly acrofs the country. 'They approached very near without being difcovered by the watch, and feeing nobody on deck but thofe
on duty, fhot fuddenly into the veffel with arrows. The
watch found refuge behind the quarter boards, and gave
the alarm withont firing. Glottoff immediately ordered
a volley to be fired over their heads with fmall arms;
upon which they immediately returned with great expedition. As foon as it was day there was no enemy to be
feen: but they difcovered a number of ladders, feveral
bundles of hay in which the favages had put fulphur,
Iikewife a quantity of birch-tree bark, which had been
left behind in their precipitate flight.
They now found it very neceflary to be on their guard
againft the attempts of thefe perfidious incendiaries.
Their fufpicions were ftill further increafed by the fubfe-
quent conduct of the natives: for though the latter came
to the veffel in fmall bodies, yet it was obferved that they
examined every thing, and more particularly the watch,
with the ftricteft attention; and they always returned
without paying any regard to the friendly propofitions.
of the Ruffians.
On the 4th of October about two hundred iflanders
made their appearance,, carrying wooden fhields before
them, and preparing with bows and arrows for an attack,
Glottoff endeavoured at firft by perfuafion to prevail
upen them to defift ; but obferving that they ftill continued advancing, he refolved to venture a fally. ! This intrepidity
trepidity difconcerted the iflanders, and they immediately
retreated without making the deaft refinance.
"'The Natives
•■are finally re-
pulfed by the
The 'a 6th of October they ventured a third attack,
and advanced towards the veffel for this purpofe by daybreak : the watch however gave the alarm in due.tioi%;
and the whole crew were4m mediately under arms,; The
approach of day-light difcovered to their view different
.parties of the enemy advancing ..under the protection of
wooden fereens. Of thefe moving breafeworks they
• counted feven; and behind each from thirty to forty
men armed withafcone lances. Befides thefe a croud of
armed men advanced feparately to the attack, fome of
them bearing whale jaw-bones, and others wooden fhields.
Diffuafion proving ineffectual, and the arrows beginning
to fall even aboard the fhip, Glottoff gave orders to fire.
The fhot from the fmall arms however not being of force
enough to pierce the fereens, the iflanders advanced under
their protection with fteadinefs and intrepidity. Glottoff
neverthelefs determined to rifk a fally of his whole crew
armed with mufkets and lances. The iflanders inftantly
threw down their fereens, and fled with precipitation unt£
; they gained their boats, into which they threw themfelves
and rowed off. They had about feventeen large baidars
and a number of fmall canoes. The fereens which they
.left behind were made of-three rows of flakes placed perpendicularly, and bound together with fea-weed andofiers;
they were twelve feet broad, and above half a yard thick.
The iflanders now appearing to he fufBciently intimi- The *»«««■»
*^~ J *rr^r      winter ac
dated, the Ruffians began to build a winter hut of floated K,dyak' ,
wood, and waited in a body the appearance of fpring
without further annoyance. Although they faw nobody
before the 25th of December, yet Glottoff kept his peo-
pl^.tpgether; fending out occaibnally fmall hunting and
ftfljfeig parties to the lake, wlptich lay about five verfts
from t&e creek. During the whole winter they caught
in the lake feveral different fpecies of tr<aut and falmon,
foles, and herrings of a fpan and a: hjalf long, and even
ti&rbot and cod-fifh, which came up with the flood into
the lake.
At laft, on the 25th of December, two iflanders came
to the fhip, and converfed at a diftance by means of
interpreters. Although propofals of peace, and trade
were held out to them in the moft friendly manner, yet they went off without feeming to put much
confidence in thefe offers : nor did any of them
appear again before the 4th of April, 1764. Want
of fufficient exercife in the mean time brought on a
violent fcurvy among the crew, by which diforder nine
perfons were carried off.
On the 4th of April four iflanders made their appearance, and feemed to pay more attention to the propofals : one of them at laft advanced, and offered to barter
two fox-fkins for beads.    They did not fet the leaft va-
Q lue
The Natives  Tue nDon other g-oods of various kinds, fuch as fhirts,.
sre reconciled i Ql
LtRuf" linen, and nankeen, but demanded glafs beads- of different
colours, for which they exchanged their fkins with
pleafure; This friendly traffic, together with GlottofPs-
entreaties, operated fo powerfully, that, after holding a
confultation with their countrymen, they returned with
a' folemn declaration, that their brethren would in- future:
commit no hoftilities againft the Ruffians. From that/
time until their departure a daily intercourfe-was- carried^
on with the iflanders, who brought all forts of fox ane&
fea-otter. fkins, and received in exchange a ftipulated'
number of beads. Some of them were even perfuaded-
to pay a tribute of fkins, for which receipts .were givem.
Amongft other wares the Ruffians procured" two ImalT.
carpets, worked or platted in a curious manner, and on.
one fide fet clofe with beaver-wool like velvet:   they
could not  however learn whether thefe  carpets   were
wrought by the iflanders.    The latter brought alfo for
fale well-dreffed fea-otter fkins, the hair of which was
fhorn quite fhort with fharpftones, in fuch a-manner,,
that the remainder, which was of   a yellowifh  brown
colour, gliftened and appeared like velvet.    Their caps
had furprifing and fometimes very ornamental decorations : fome of them had on the forepart combs adorned
with manes like an helmet;  others, feemingly peculiar
to the females, were made of interlines ftitched together with rein-deer hair and finews in a moft elegant
5 tafte,
tafte, and ornamented on the crown with long ftreamers
of hair died of a beautiful red. Of all thefe curiofities
Glottoff carried famples to Kamtchatka #.
The natives differ confiderably in drefs and language
from the inhabitants of the other Fox Iflands: and feveral fpecies of animals were obferved upon Kadyak,
which are not to be found upon the other iflands, viz.
ermines, -martens, beavers, river otters, wolves, Wild boars, Animals of
' Kadyak.
and bears : the laft-mentioned animal was not indeed
actually feen by the Ruffians, but the prints of its feet
were traced. Some of the inhabitants had clothes made
of the fkins of rein-deer and jevras-; the latter of which
is a fort of fmall marrhofet. Both thefe fkins were probably procured from the continent of America *f-. Black,
brown, and red foxes were feen in great numbers ; and
the coaft abounds with fea-dogs, fea-bears, fea-lions, and
fea-otters. The birds are cranes, geefe, ducks, gulfs,
ptarmigans, crows, and magpies-; but no uncommon
fpecies was any where discovered.    The vegetable pro-
* Thefe and feveral other ornaments of a fimilar kind are preferved
in the cabinet of curiofities at the Academy of Sciences of St. Peterf-
bure : a cabinet which well merits the attention of the curious tra-
velier ; for it contains a large collection of the dreffes of the Eaftern
nations. Amongft the reft one compartment is entirely filled with the.
.dreffes, arms, and implements, brought from the new difcovered iflands.
rj* Although this conjecture is probable, yet, when the reader recollects that the ifland Al'akfu is faid to contain rein-deer, he will perceive
that the inhabitants of Kadyak might have'been fupplied with the fkins
*of that animal from thence.    See p. 68..
q 2 ductions
Account of tl
. Inhabitants.
ductions are bilberries, cranberries, wortleberries, and
wild lily-roots. Kadyak likewife yields willows and alders, which circumftance affords the ftrongeft proof that
it lies at no great diftance from the continent of America.
The extent of Kadyak cannot be exactly afcertained,
as the Ruffians, through apprehenfion of the natives, did
not venture to explore the country.
ie The inhabitants, like thofe of the Aleutian and nearer
iflands, make holes in the under-lips and through the
priftle of the nofe, in which they infert the bones of
birds and animals worked into the form of teeth. Their
clothes are made of the fkins of birds, foxes, fea-otters,
young rein-deer, and marmofets; they few them together
with finews. They wear alfo fur-ftockings of rein-deer
fkins, but no breeches. Their arms are bows, arrows,
and lances, whofe points, as well as their fmall hatchets,
are of fharp flint: fome few make knives and lance
points of rein-deer bones. Their wooden fhields are
called kuyaky, which amongft the Greenlanders fignifies
a fmall canoe. Their manners are altogether rude.
They have not the leaft difpofition to give a courteous
reception to ftrangers: nor does there appear amongft
themfelves any kind of deference or fubmiffion from
one to another.
Their canoes are fome of them fo fmall as to contain
only one or two perfons \ others are large baidars fimilar
to the women's boats of the Greenlanders. Their food
confifts chiefly of raw and dried fifh, partly caught at
fea wi€h bone hooks, and partly in rivulets, in bagnets
made of fmews platted together. They call themfelves Kanagift, a name that has no fmall refemblance to.
Karalit; by which appellation, the Greenlanders and Efqui-
maux on the coaft of Labradore diftinguiili themfelves:
the difference between thefe two denominations is occasioned perhaps by a change of pronunciation, or by a
gaiftake of the Ruffian failors, who may have given it
this variation. Their numbers feem very confiderable
on that part of the ifland, where they had their fixed
The ifland Kadyak* makes,with Aghunalafhka, Umnak,
and the fmall iflands lying between them, a continued
Archipelago, extending N. E. and E. N. E. towards America : it lies by the (hip's reckoning in 230 degrees of
longitude ; fo that it cannot be far diftant from that
part of the American coaft which Beering formerly
touched at.
The large ifland Alakfu,  lying Northward from  Kadyak where Pufhkaref t wintered, muft be ftill nearer the
* Kadyak is not laid down upon any chart of the new difcovered
iflands: for we have no chart of Glotrtff% voyage ; and no 6l&r Ruffian navigator touched at that iflafe^d.J ■
'*j~ See Chap. VI.
continent: and the account propagated by its inhabitant*
of a great promontory, called Atachtak, ftretching from
the continent N. E. of Alakfu, is not .at .all-improbable.
Although the conduft of the iflanders appeared more
friendly, yet on account of their numbers Glottoff refolved
not to pafs another winter upon Kadyak, and accordingly
prepared for his departure. He wanted hoops for repairing his water-calks; and being told by the natives
that there were trees on the ifland at no great diftance
from the bay, he drrpatched on the 25th of April Lukas
'Ftorufkin with eleven men for the purpofe of felling
wood. Ftorufkin returned the fame day with the following intelligence: that after rowing along the South
coaft of the ifland forty or fifty verfts from the haven,
he obferved, about half a verft from the fliore, a confiderable number of alders, fimilar to thofe found in Kamtchatka, growing in vallies between the roeks. The lafgeft
trunks were from two to four verflhockfs in diameter.
Of this wood he felled as much as he had occafion for;
and returned* without having met with either iflander
or habitation.
from Kadyak,     They brought fhe veffel down the creek: in May ;  and.
May, 1764. J
after taking in all the peltry and ftores, left Kadyak on
the 24th. Contrary winds retarded their vovaee. and
.drove them near the ifland Alakfu, which they paffed ;
their water being  nearly   exhaufted,   they  afterwards
landed upon, another ifland, called Saktunk, in order
to procure a frefli ftock. At laft on the 3d of July, ^;JS
they arrived again at Umnak, and anchored in a bay
which Glottoff had - formerly viflted. He immediately
went afliore in a baidar, and foon found out his former
hut, which was in ruins : near it he obferved another
Ruffian dwelling, that had been built in his abfence,
in which lay a murdered Ruffian, but whofe face none
of them knew. Glottoff, refolving to procure further information j went acrofs the ifland the 5th of July, accompanied by frxteen of his crew. He. difcovered the remains
of a burnt veffel,.fome. prayer books,,images, &c. ;_all the
iron work, and Gordage were, carried off, Near the.fpot he
found(likewife a bathing: room filled with murdered Ruffians in, their clothes. From fome marks, he concluded
that this was the: veffel fitted.out by ProtafTofT;, nor was-
he. miftaken in his conjectures^
Alarmed' at the fate of hisr countrymen,- Glottoff returned to the fhip, and held a confultation upon the
meafures-necefTary to-be taken-; and it was unanimoufly
pefolved-that they fhould endeavour to .procure more
intelligence concerning the veffel. In the mean-time
feven iflanders came rowing off in baidars, and pretended that they wanted to trade. They fliewed fea-otten
fkins at a< diftance, but would not- venture on board;.
ACCOUNT   OF   THE        ■
and defired by the interpreter Glottoff and two of his
people to come on fhore and barter. Glottoff however, having fufficient caufe to diftruft the favages, refufed
to comply with their demands : upon this they immediately landed, and fliot from the fhore with fire-arms, but
without doing any execution. They were even bold enough
to get into their canoes a fecond time, and to row near the
veffel. In order if poflible to procure intelligence from
them, every method of perfuading them to peace was tried
by means of the interpreters; and at laft one of them
approached the fhip and demanded victuals, which being
tii3Pown to him* he came on board. He then related the
fate of the above-mentioned veffel, of which the iflanders
had made* themfelves mailers; and gave likewife fome intelligence conceiving the remaining fmall body of fugitives
under the command of Korovin. He alfo confeffed,
that their defign was to entice Glottoff on fhore, and
then to kill him; for which purpofe more than thirty
iflanders were polled in ambufti behind the neareft
vmks. After cutting off the leader, they imagined it
would be an eafy matter to feize upon the fhip. Upon t&is information Glottoff detained the iflander on
board, and landing with a ftrong party attacked the
feyages; the latter fhot with arrows, as well as from,
the mufkets which they had feized, but without effect,
and were, foon forced to retire to their canoes.
July the 14th a violent ftorm arofe, in which Glot-
toff's vefTel parted her cable, and was forced on fhore
without any other lofs than that of an anchor. The
crew likewife, through want of frefli provifions, began
to grow fo fickly, that they were almoft in a defencelefs
ftate. Glottoff however, with ten men, fet out the 28th
of July for that part of the ifland, where according to
information they expected to find Korovin. They difcovered only parts of the wreck,- but none of the crew,
fo that they now gave them up for loft. But on the
2d of Auguft, as Glottoff was on his way back, five
iflanders approached him in canoes, and afked why the
baidar had  been  out;   to which a   falfe anfwer being:
7 o
given, they told him, that on the other fide of the -ifland
he would find Korovin with his people, who were
-building an hut on the fide of the rivulet. Upon receiving this intelligence, Glottoff and his companions
went over land to the place pointed out by the iflanders,
and found every thing agreeable to their information:
in this Korovin had not the leaft fhare, not having
been made privy to the tranfaction. The circumftances
of his joining, and afterwards feparating from Glottoff,
have already been mentioned*.
I See the preceding Chapter.
Glottoff winters upon
Glottoff now refolved to winter upon Umnak, and accordingly laid up his veffel for that purpofe. On the 2d
of September Korovin, as is before related, was at ms
own defire fent out with a hunting party in two baidars.
On his return, in May 1765, they had the firft intelligence
©f the arrival of Solovioff's veffel, which lay before
Unalafhkar and of which an account fhall be given**.
None of the iflanders appeared near the harbour during
the winterT and there were none probably at that time
upon Umnak ; for Glottoff made excurfions on all fides*,
and went once round the iflancK He likewife looked
kito the habitations of the iflanders, and found them
empty: he examined the country and caufed a ftrict iearch
to be made after the remains-of the plundered veffels
According to his account Umnak is about 300 verfts in
circumference. It contains feveral fmall rivulets, which
take their rife from lakes, and fall into the fea after a
very fhort courfe. No trees were obferved upon the
ifland, and. the vegetables were the fame as thofe of
The following iummer fmall parties of the inhabitants
were feen ; but they immediately fled upon the approach
of the Ruffians. Some of them however were at laft
perfuaded to a friendly intercourfe and to pay a tribute:
by thefe means they got back part of the arms, anchors,
and iron work, of the plundered veffel. They continued
to barter with the natives during the fummer of 1765',
exchanging beads for the fkins of foxes and fea-otters.
The following whiter hunting parties were fent out Departure from
in Umnak as well as to Unalaflika; and in July 1766
Glottoff, without meeting with any more difficulties
began his voyage homewards. We fhall here ■ conclude
with giving a copy of the journal kept en board Glottoff's
veffel, the Andrean and "Natalia; from which inferences with regard to the fttuation of the 'iflands may
be drawn.
E 2
Journal of Glottoff, on board the Andrean and Natalia
Tournal of the      I 7 6 2 .
•v„„„„» ' '
Oct, i. Sailed from, Kamtchatka Bay.
2. Wind Southerly, fteered between E. and S. E.
three hours.
3. Wind S. E. worked at N. E. courfe,  16hours.
4. From midnight failed Eaft with a fair wifid,  1 &
5_ At Six o'clock A.M. difcovered Beering's Ifland
diftant about 18 verfts.
6. At 1 o?ck>ck came to anchor on the South Eaft
point of Copper Ifland.
7. At 8 A.M. failed to the South fide of the Ifland^
anchored there at 10 o'clock.
1763- .$•-
July 26. Sailed from Copper Ifland at 5 P. M.
.27. Sailed with a fair S.S. W. wind,  17 hours.
28. Made little way.
29. Drove—wind E. N. E.
30. Ditto.
31. Ditto.
Aug. 1. Ditto.
2. At 11 A.M. wind N.E. fteered E.
3. Wind W. S. W. failed 8 knots an hour,  250
4. Wind South—failed 150 verfts.
5. Wind ditto—failed 126 verfts.
6.  Wind
6. Wind ditto,  3 knots,  45 verfts.
7. Calm.
8. During the night gentle S, E. wind fteered, N.E.
at 2 | knots.
9. Forenoon calm. At 2 o'clock P. M. gentle
N. E. wind, fteered between E. N. E. and S.E.
at the rate of three knots.
1 o.  Morning, wind E. N.E. afterwards S. S. W. with
which fteered N.E.
ir.  At 5 o'clock the wind S. S. E. fteered E, N. E.
at the rate of three knots.
12. Wind S.. fteered E.. at 2 ^ knots, failed 50 verfts.
13. Wind S.S.E. fteered E. at 44 knots, failed 90
14. Wind W. N. W. at 2 knots,  failed 30 verfts.
15. The wind frefhened, at 4 knots, failed Co
16,. Wind N. N. 9 fteered E. S. E. at 3 knots, failed 30 verfts.
17. Wind E.S. E. and' S. E. light breezes and
18. Wind S.E. fleered N..E. at 3- knots, failed
in 12. hours 22 verfts.
19. Wind S. and light breezes,* fteered E. at 3 knots,
failed in 8 hours 1 t verfts.
s'o. Before day-break calm; three hours after fun-
rife a breeze fprung up at S. E. fteered E. N. E.
at 3 knots,  and failed 20 verfts.
22.  Calm
Sept, 1
22. Calm.
23. Wind S. S. E. during the night, the fhip failed
at the rate of 2 knots; the wind afterwards
came round to the S. S. W. and the fhip failed
at  5  to  6 knots thefe  24 hours  150 verfts.
24. Saw land at day-break, at 3 knots failed 45"
25. Wind W. S. W. failed along the coaft thefe 24
hours 50 verfts.
26. Wind N. W. fteered N.E. at 5 7 knots, 100
27. Wind E- N. E. the fhip drove towards land,
on which difcovered a high mountain;
28. Wind N. E. and ftormy, the fhip drove.
29. WindN.W. fteered E. N. E. at the rate of 3
Wind S. S. E. at 6 knots,   fleering again  towards land.
A violent ftorm, Wind weft.
Wind  Weft, fteered N. E.  at the   rate of 2
knots towards land.
2. Wind S. W. fteered N. E. towards land at 5 knots.
3. Wind S. W. drove N. N.JE. along the coaft.
4. Wind W. N. W, fteered N. E. at 4 knots, failed
100 verfts.
5. Wind N. W. fteered E.N.E. at 3 knots, and to
wards evening came to anchor off the Ifland
May 24.  Sailed from Kadyak.
25. Wind N. W. and made but little way W. S.W;
26. Wind W. fhip drove towards S. E.
27. Wind W. S. W. fhip drove E. S. E. The fame
day the wind came round to the S. when fteered again towards Kadyak.
28. Wind E.S. E. fell in with the ifland Alafka or
29. Wind S.W. fteered N.W".
30. Wind W. N. W. the fhip drove   under the
. fbrefail.
31. Wind W. drove to the Southward.
June 1. WindW. S. W. landed on the Ifland Saktunak,
for a fupply of water.
2. Wind S* E. fteered S. W. along the ifland at
3 knots.
3. Wind N. E. fteered W. S. W. at the rate of 3.
to 4 knots,failinginthefe 24 hours 100 verfts*.
4. Calm.
5. At 8 o'clock A. M. a fmall breeze S. E.
6. Wind E. afterwards calm. Towards evening
the wind S. E. fteered S. W. at 3 knots, and.
•unexpectedly difcovered land ahead, which
kept clear of with difficulty.
From the 7 th to the ioth at anchor off a fmall
.    Cliff. .      -   ;;     ..    -        .      V
10.  A hard gale at S. the fhip drove foul of the:
anchor, flood out to fea fleering E..
n 11. An-
Anchored again at a fmall diftance from land.
Wind S. S. W. flood  out to fea and  fteered
E, S. E.
Wind W. S. W. fteered S. S. E. at the rate of
1 knot.
Wind S. fteered W. at 1 knot, the fhip drove
a little to the Northward.
Wind S. S. E. fteered W. S. W. at 3 knots.
Wind N. E. fteered S. W. and failed this day
about 87 verfts.
The Wind blowing right ahead, came to
anchor off an unknown ifland, where conti-
-niaed till the
When flood out to fea early in the morning.
Wind W. N. W. afterwards W. fteered S. E.
Calm, in the night a fmall but favourable
Wind N. W. continued the courfe, at the
rate of 2 to 3 knots *.
Wind N. E. fteered W. at 3 to 4 knots, and
faw land.
Wind N. E. fteered S. W. at the rate of 7
* Lief man bey nordweft wind auf den curs zu 2, bis 3 knoten.
July i. With the fame wind and conrfe, at the rate of
5 knots, failed 200 verfts.
2. Fell in with the ifland Umnak, and came to
an anchor under a fmall ifland until next
day; when brought the fhip into the harbour, and laid her up.
June 13. Brought the fhip into the harbour, and continued at anchor there until the 3d of July.
July 3. Got under way.
.4. Wind E.
5. A South Weft wind drove the fhip about 50
verfts N. E.
6. WindS.. failed about 60 verfts W.
7. Wind Wr. S. W. the fhip drove to the Northward.
8. Wind N. W. fteered S. at the rate of one knot.
9. Wind N. W-. fteered the whole day W. S. W.
10. Wind S. S. W. failed about 40 verfts W. N. W.
11. Wind S. W. continued the fame courfe, failing
only 5 verfts.
1 2. Continued the fame courfe, and failed 5$ verfts.
13. For the moft part calm. |
14. Wind W. N. W. and ftormy, the ftiip drove
under the forefail.
15. Wind S. failed on the proper courfe 100 verfts.
16. Wind E. S. E. failed W. S. W. at the rate of 6
knots, 100 verfts.
17. Wind N. N. W. failed S. W. at the rate of 2
knots, 30 verfts.
g 18. Wind
Wind i fteered W. at the rate of 5 knots, and!
failed 130 verftsh
Wind S. W. the fhip drove under the forefail.
Wind E. N. E. fteered W.N. W.   at the  rate-
of 3 knots.-
Wind E. N. E. at the rate of 4 to 5 knots* failed*
200 verfts.
Wind N.E. at 4^knots,- 150 verfts.
Wind E. N. E. fleered W. at 3 knots, 100 verfts..
Wind E. fteered W. at the rate of 3 knots, 50*
Wind N. E. fteered W. at 5 knots 100 verfts.
The wind continued N.E. and frefhened,. fleered*
W. at the rate of 7 knots,, 200 verfts,.
A fmall breeze N. N. W. with: which however
failed 15a verfts-.
Wind being W. S*. W. drove 24 hours -under
Wind South, fteered W. at the rate of 2 knots,
48 verfts—this day faw land.
Wind S. S. E. failed, at the rate of 4 knots,  g&
verfts,. and approached the land, which found
to be the ifland Karaga—From the ill to the-
13th of Auguft, continued our voyage towards
the mouth of   Kamtchatka   river,   fometimes
joying to windward, fometimes driving, and at
laft arrived happily with a rich cargo.
 & U S S I A N   D I S C O Y& M E S.
C    &    A    P
Solovioff's voyage—he reaches Unalaflika, and paffes two
winters upon that ifland-*-relation of what paffed there
*—fruitlefs attempts of the natives to deflroy the crew—\
Return of Solovioff to Kamtchatka—-journal of his
voyage in returning-—defcription of the iflands Umnak
■and Unalzihka—^produclions--—inhabitants—--their manners—-cufloms, &&* f$$-c.
IN the year 1764, Jacob Ulednikoff, merchant of Ir-v°ya?*?F
4 '       ''  *5 j* Solovioffm
kutfk and company, fitted out a fhip called the Holy pH^t
Apoflles Peter  and Paul, under the command of Ivan
Solovioff:    fhe  failed from the mouth of Kamtchatka
river the 25th of Auguft.    The crew confined of fifty*
five men, amongft whom   were fome of  the owners,
and thirteen Kamtchadals.
They fteered at firft S. E. with the wind at N. W. but.
on its coming foutherly they afterwards fhaped their
courfe E. N. E. The 27th one of the Ruffian failors
died off Kamtchatka point; the 31ft they made Beering's
Ifland, which they paffed leaving it on their left. The
I ft and 2d of September they were becalmed, and after-
Wards the wind fpringing up at W, S. W. they continued
S  2 their
their former courfe; until the 5th they failed on with*
the wind at fouth; but on the 5th and 6th, from
changeable breezes and dead calms, made no progrefs 'T
from the 7th to the 13th, they failed E. S. E. witjbu
Southerly and Wefterly winds ; and from that time to*
the fifteenth Eaft, with the wind at Weft..
Arrival at
September  16,  they made the  ifland Umnak,. where
Solovioff had formerly been in Nikiphoroff 's veffel..    As-
they failed along, the Northern coaft, three iflanders came
to them in baidars; but, the crew having no. interpreter,
they would not come on board.    As they found no good,
bay on that fhore,, they proceeded  through a ftrait of
about a verft broad, which feparates Umnak from Unalaflika.    They lay-to during the night;   and  early   on
the   17th dropped.anchor at the diftance of about two
hundred yards from the fliore,  in a bay on the North
fide of the laft mentioned ifland.
From thence the captain difpatched Gregory Korenoff
at the head of twenty men in a baidar, with orders to
land, reconnoitre the country, find out the neareft habitations, and report the difpofition of the people. Korenoff returned the fame day, with an account that he had
difcovered one of the dwelling-caves of the favages, but
abandoned and demolished, in which he had found traces
of Ruffians, viz. a written legend, and a broken mufket-
ftock.    In confequence of this intelligence, they brought
the fhip near the coaft, and endeavoured to get into the
mouth of a river called by the natives Tfikanok, and by
the-Ruffians Ofernia, but were prevented by fhallow water.
They landed however their tackle and lading. No natives made their appearance until the 2 2d, when two of
them came of their own accord, and welcomed the Ruffians on theirarrival. They told their names, and were
recognized by Sobvioff; he had known them on a
former expedition, when Agiak, one of the two^ had
ferved as an interpreter ; the other, whofe name was
kafhmak, had voluntarily continued fome time with.the1
crew on. the fame occafion..
Thefe two perfons recounted the particular circum-^
fiances which attended the lofs of KulkofPs,. Protaffoff's,
and Trapefnikoff's veffels ;. from the laft of which Kafli-
mak had,.with great hazard of his life, efcaped by flight..
Agiak had ferved as interpreter to Protaffoff's company^
and related that the iflanders, after murdering the hunting detachments of the. Ruffians, came to: the harbour,-
and. entered, the fhip under the moft friendly.appearances..
Finding the crew in perfect fecurity, they fuddenly attacked and flew them, together with their, commander.
He added, that he had.hid himfelf under a.bench until
the murderers were gone : that fince that time, -he, as
well as Kafhmak, had lived as fugitives; and. in the
courfe of their wanderings had learned the following
intelligence from the girls who were gathering berries in
the fields. The Toigons of Umnak, Akutan, and
Tofliko, with their relations of Unalaflika, had formed a
confederacy. They agreed not to difturb anyRuflians
.on their firft landing, but to let them go crUt on different
hunting excurfions; being thus Separated and weakened,
the intention of the Toigons were to attack and cut
them off at the fame time, fo that no one party fhould
have afliftance from any of the others. They acquainte4
him alfo with GlottofPs arrival at Umnak.
- Thefe unfavourable reports filledSoiovioff with anxiety ; he accordingly doubled his watch, and ufed every
precaution in his power againft attacks from the favages.
But wanting wood to repair his veffel, and wifh'ing for
more particular information concerning the fituation of
the ifland, he difpatched the 29th a party of thirty men,
with the above-mentioned interpreter, to its weftern extremity. In three or four hours they rowed to Anko-
nom, a point of land, where they faw a village, confifling
of two large caves, and over againft it a little ifland at no
great diftance. The taoment the inhabitants faw them,
approaching, they got into their baidars, and put out to
fea, leaving their dwellings empty. The Ruffians found
therein feveral fkeletons, which, in the interpreter's
opinion, were the remains of ten murdered failors of
Trapefnikoff's company. With much perfbafion 'the
interpreter prevailed on the iflanders to return to the place
which they had juft quitted:   they kept however at a
wary  diftance,   and. were  armed for whatever   might
Solovioff attempting to cut off their retreat, in order
to fecure if poffible fome hoftages, they took the alarm,,
and began themfelves the attack. Upon this the Ruffians
fired upon, and purfued them r four were killed, and
feven taken prifoners, among whom was the Toigon of
the little ifland Sedak.. Thefe prifoners,* being bound,
and examined, eonfeffed that a number of Korovin's crew
had beertf murdered in this place ; and the Toigon fent
people to bring in a. number of mufkets, fome kettles
and. tackle, which the natives had taken upon that occa-
fiori&t They alfo brought intelligence that Korovin, with
a party in two baidars,, had taken fhelter at a place called
,Xnalga. Upon this information, letters were immediately
fent to Korovin ;. upon the receipt of which he joined
them, the ad of October..
At the time of Korovin's arrival,, the favages made
another, attack on. SoloviofPs watch with knives;, which*
obliged the latter to fire, and fix of the affailants were
left dead on the fpot.. The captive Toigon excufed
this attempt of his people by afcribing it to their fears,
left Korovin out of revenge fhould put all the prifoners to
death ; on which account this effort was made to refcue
them, Solovioff, for the greater fecurity, fent the pri-
ibfiers by land, to the haven,   while Korovin and  his
Hoftilities between SoloTt-
off and the
party went to the fame place by fea. The Toigon however was treated kindly, and even permitted to return
« home on condition of leaving his fon as an hoftage. In
confequence of this kind behaviour the inhabitants -of
three other villages, Agulak, Kutchlok,,and Makufki pre-
fented hoftages of their.own accord
Solovioff lays
•up the Veffel,
and winters
.upon Una-
From the remaining timber of the old dwelling the
Ruffians built a new hut; and on the fourteenth they
laid up the vefTel. Koronoff was then fent upon a reconnoitring party to the Southern fide of the ifland, which
in that part was not more than five or fix verfts broad .1
he proceeded on with his companions, fometimes rowing
in canoes, fometimes travelling by land and dragging
them after.- He returned the twentieth, and -reported:
that he had found upon the coaft on the further fide of
the ifland an empty habitation. That he zowed from
thence Eaftward along the fhore, and behind the firft point
of land came to an ifland in the next bay ; there he found
about forty iflanders of both fexes lodged under their
baidars, who by his friendly behaviour had been induced
to give him three hoftages. Thefe people afterwards
fettled in the above-mentioned.empty hut, and came frequently to the harbour.
On the 28th .of oaober, Solovioff himfelf went alf©
upon a reconnoitring party along the North coaft, towards
the North-Eaft end of the ifland.    He rowed from the
ifiafUb ffefemonfory acrofs a bay ; and found on the oppofit^
point of land a dwelling place called Agulok, which lies
about four hours row from the harbour. - He found there
'thirteen men and about forty women and children, who
Slivered up feveral' gTan-barrels and fhip-ftores, and like-
^ife informed him of two of Korovin's crew, who had
Jbeen murdered*
November .5, tMey proceeded farther-; and after five or
tfix hours rowing, they faw on a point of land another
sdwelli&g called Ikutchlok, beyond which the interpreter
Viewed them the haven, where Korovin's fhip had been
-at anchor. This was called Makufhinfhy Bay; and on
an ifland Within it they found two Toigons, calied Itch-
.adak and Kagumaga, with about an hundred and eighty
people of both fexes employed in hunting fea-bears.
Thefe natives were not in the leaft hoftile, and Solovioff
Endeavoured to eftablifti and confirm a friendly intercourfe
%etrween them and his people. He remained with them
ubtsffi/the 10th, when the Toigons invited him to their
-winter quarters, wB£ch lay about five hours fail farther
3Eaft: there he found two dwelling caves, each of forty
yards fquare, near a rivulet abounding with fifh which
-fell from a lake into a little bay. In the neighbourhood
<of this village is a hot fpring below the fea mark, which
is:only to be feen at ebb tide.    From hence he departed
T the
Renewal of
the 25th, but was forced back by florins,  and detained
there untilthe 6th of December.
Kagumaga then accompanied him to another village.
called Totchikala; both the Toigon and the interpreter
advifed him to be on his guard againft the natives, whom-
they reprefented as very favage, fworn enemies to the.
Ruffians, and the murderers of nine of Kulkoff's crew.
Solovioff for thefe reafons paffed the night on the open
coaft, and next morning fent the Toigon before to infpire-
the natives  with  more friendly fentiments.     Some o£
them liftened to his reprefentations ; but the greateft part
fled upon Solovioff's approach, fo that he found the place.
confifting of four large dwelling caves almoft empty, irk
which he fecured himfelf with fuitable precaution.    Here:
he found three hundred darts and ten bows with arrows,,
all which he deftroyed, only referving one bow and fe-
venteen arrows as fpecimens of their arms.    By the moft
friendly arguments he urged the few natives who remained to lay afide their enmity, and to perfuade then?
leaders and relations to return to their habitations and?
live on terms of amity and friendfliip^
On the 10th about an hundred men and a ftill greater
number of women returned. But the faireft fpeeches
had no effetf: on thefe favages, who kept aloof and prepared for hoflilities, which they began on the 17th by
an open attack.    Nineteen of them were killed, amono-ft
whom was Inlogufak one of their leaders, and the moft
inveterate fomenter of hoftilities againft the Ruffians.
The other leader Aguladock being alive confeffed,
that on receiving the firft news of SoloviofPs arrival
they had refolved to attack the crew and burn the
fhip. Notwithftanding this confeffion, no injury was
offered to Jiim : in confequence of this kind ufage he was
prevailed upon to deliver up his fon as an hoftage, and
to crder his people to live on friendly terms with the
Ruffians. During the month of January the natives delivered in three anchors, and a quantity of tackle which
had been faved from a veffel formerly wrecked on that
coaft; and at the fame time they brought three boys
and two young girls as hoftages and pledges of their
future fidelity.
January 25, Solovioff fet out for the haven where,
his fhip lay : -before his departure the Toigons of Maku-
fhinfk paid of their own accord a double tribute.
February 1, Kagumaga of Makufhink, Agidalok of
Totzikala, and Imaginak of Ugamitzi, Toigons of Unalaflika, with a great number of their relations, came to
Solovioff; they acquainted him with the arrival of a Ruffian fhip at Unimak, the fixth ifland to the Eaft of
Agunalalnka, adding that they knew none of the crew
excepting a Kamtchadal named Kirilko, who had been
there on a former occafion. They likewife informed
him that the natives, after having cut off part of the
T 2 crew
A*C'C'O U N T   Of  T BE7
grew   who   had   been fent   out   in   two baidars,   Had*
found means to overpower the remainder aand to deflroy
the veffel.    From the name of the Kamtchadal they con-
eluded that this muft have been another veffel fitted out
fy Nikiphor- Trapefnikoff and company, of which no*
farther intelligence was ever received.. procure farther intelligence, they endeavoured to  perfuade
the Toigons to fend a party of their people to the above-
mentioned ifl%jd^ but the latter excufed themfe&es, or#
account of the great  diftance  and  their- dread of the"
February 16, Solovioff fet out a fecond time for trie?-
Weft end of the ifland, where they had formerly taken
prifoner, and afterwards- fet at liberty,- the Toigon of
Sedak. From thence he proceeded to Ikolga^ which
lies on the bay, and confilts of only one hut. On the
26th he came to Takamitka, wrhere there is likewife
Only one hut on a point of land by the fide of a- rivulet,
which falls from the mountains into the fea. Here he
met with Korovin, in whofe company he cut the blubber
of a whale, which the waves had eaft on fliore; after
this Korovin went acrofs the gulph to Umnak, and he
proceeded to Ikaltfhinlk, where on the 9th one of his
party was carried off by ficknefs.
March 15 he returned to the haven, having met with
no oppofition from the iflanders during this excurfion.
On his return  he found one of the crew dead, and a
dreadful fgurvy raging amongft the reft; of that diftem-
per five Ruffians died in March, eight and a Kamtchadal
in April, and fix more in May. About this time the iflanders were obferved to pay frequent vifits to.the hoftages;,
and upon enquiring privately into-the reafon,. fome of.
the latter difcovered,. that the inhabitants of Makufhinfk.
had formed the-defign of "cutting off the crew, and of,
making themfelves mafters of the veffel.    Solovioff had-
now great reafons tp be apprehenlive,  for the crew were
afflicted with the fcurvy to fuch a violent degree, that out
of the whole number only twelve perfons were  capable
of defending themfelves;-   Thefe circumftances did not
^ape the oMervation of the natives; and they were accordingly  inspired, with- frefh. courage  to  renew- their.
On the 27th of May the Ruffians perceived the Toigon:
of Itchadak, who had formerly paid a voluntary tribute,
near the fhore : fie was accompanied by feveral iflanders
in three baidars. Solovioff calling to him by-the interpreter he came on fhore, but kept at a diftance defiling
a conference with fome of his relations. Solovioff gave
orders to feize him ; and they were lucky enough to take
him prifoner, together with two of his companions. He
immediately confeffed, that he had come with a view of
enquiring of the hoftages how many Ruffians were ftill
remaining: having procured the neceffary  intelligence,
his intention was to furpri-fe the watch at a convenient
feafon, and afterwards to fet fire to the fhip. As they
law feveral iflanders row paft the harbour at the fame
time, and the Toigon likewife informed them, that they
were affembling to execute the abovementioned deftgn;
Solovioff refolved to be much upon his guard. They
feparated, however, without attempting any hoflilities.
Ik.   j
June 5, Glottoff arrived at the harbour on a vifit, and
returned on the 8th to his fhip. The captive Toigon
was now fet at liberty, after being ferioufly exhorted to
defift from hoflilities. In the courfe of this month two
more of the crew died ; fo that the arrival of Korovin,
who joined them about this time, with two of his own
and two of Kulkoff's crew, was of courfe a very agreeable circumftance. The fick likewife began to recover
by degrees.
July 22, Solovioff, with a party of his people, in two
baidars, made another---excurfion Northwards ; he paffed
by the places formerly mentioned as far as Igonok,
which lies ten verfts beyond Totzikala. Igonok confifts
of one dwelling cave on the fide of a rivulet, which falls
from the mountains, and empties itfelf into the fea. The
inhabitants amounted to about thirty men, who dwelt
there with their wives and children. From thence
Solovioff proceeded along the fliore into a bay; five verfts
further he found another rivulet, which has its fource
among the hills and flows through a plain.
Upon the fhore of the fame bay, oppofite to the
mouth of this rivulet, lay two villages, one of which
only was inhabited ; it was called Ukunadok, and con-
fifted of fix dwelling caves. About thirty-five of the
inhabitants were at that time employed in catching fal-
mon in the rivulet. Kulkoff's fhip had lain at anchor-
about two miles from thence ; but there were no remains of her to be found. After coming out of the bay
he went forwards to the-rummer village Umgaina diftant
about feven or eight leagues, and fituated on the fide
of a rivulet, which takes its rife in a lake abounding with
felmon. Here he found the Toigon Amaganak, with
about ten of the natives^ employed; in filhing. Fifteen
verfts farther along the fhore they found another fum—
mer village called Kalaktak, where there was likewife
another rivulet, which came from the hills. The inhabitants were fixty men and an hundred and feventy
women and children : they gave Solovioff a very friendly-
reception ; and delivered up two hoftages, who were'
brought from the neighbouring ifland Akutan; with
thefe he fet out on his return, and on the 6th of Auguft-
joined his crew^
ACCOUNT   OF   T H!fi'
On the nth he went over to the "ifland Umnak, ap-
companied by Korovin, to bring-off fome fliips ftores
left there by the latter; and.-, returned to the haven on.
the 27th. On the 31 ft Shaffyrin died, the fame,perfon
whofe adventures.have been 2&m<\frelated.
Sept. 19. Korenoff was. fent northward upon an
hunting party ; he returned the 30th of January, 1766.
Although the Ruffians who remained at the haven met
with no:moleftation from,the natives during his abfence.;
yet he .and his companions were repeatedly attacked^
■Having diftributed to the inhabitants of th,g feveral vilr
slages throagh which he paffed nets for the purpofe of
catching fea-otters, he wTent*to the ISafJ pa^t of the ifland
as far as Kalaktafe with,an intention of hvp|t"|ftg. Upon
his arrival at that pte.ce, on the 35$$ of October, the i&?
habitants fled w£j& precipitation; and as a^lfeis efforts: te*
conciliate their affections were ineffectual, fJ^e found it re-
quifite to be upon lp.s guard. Nor was t-^S preemption ufj-
neceffary ; for on the following day they retained in a
; confiderable body, armed with lanegs, made with the
iron of cthe plundered veffefe.:. Korenoff, however, and
his companions, who were prepared to receive them*
killed twenty-fix, and took feveral prifoners; upon
s^ch the others became more tractable.
Nov. 19. Korenoff, upon his return to the haven, came
Lfco Makulhinfk, where he was kindly received by a Toigon
named Kulumaga; but with regard toltchadak, it Was plain
that his defigns were ftill hoftile.   Inftead of giving an
account of the nets which had been left with him,  he
withdrew privately;  and on the 19th of January, accompanied by a numerous body of inlanders, made an attempt to fbrprife the Ruffians.    Victory, however, again,
declared   for  Korenoff;   and fifteen   of the affailants*
amongft whom was Itchadafe ^jmfelf,  remained  dead
upon the fpot.   K-iilumaga afluied ther#, in the ftrongeft
i manner,, that the defign had been carried on without his
j knowledge ; and protefted,  that hejaad often prevented
his friend from commiltifig ho|f^ies againft the Ruf-
- flans.
Korenoff? returned to the haven on the 30th of January ; and on the 4th of February he went upon another
hunting, expedition towardfcke Weftern point of the ifland.
During this excurfion he met with a party fent out by
.'Olottoff, at a place calledv.Takamitka | he then rowed
over to Umnak, where heiC9H$5tgd a fis^. tribute, and
returned on the 3d of Mafieh. During his abfence
Kyginik, Kulumaga's fon, paid a vifit to the Ruffians, and
Tiquefted that he naight be baptized, and be permitted to
go aboard the vjeflel; his demand $^S immediately com
plied with*
May 13th. Korovin went, with fourteen men; to
Umnak, to bring off an anchor, which was buried in the
fand. On his return preparations were made for their
departure. Before the arrival of Korovin the hunters
had killed 150 black and brown foxes; and the farne
number of old and young fea-otters; fince his arrival
they had caught 350 black foxes, the fame number of
common foxes,  and 150 fea-otters of different fizes.
This cargo being put on board, the interpreter Kafhmak fet at liberty, with a certificate of, and prefents for
his fidelity, and the hoftages delivered up to the Toigons
and their relations, who had affembled at the haven,..
Solovioff put to fea on the ift of June, with an Eafterly
wind. Before his departure he received a letter from
Glottoff, informing him that he was likewife preparing
for his return..
homt June 2. The wind being contrary, they got but a fmall
way from land.
5-. Steered again towards- the fhore, came to an
anchor, and fent a boat for a fupply of water,
which returned without having feen. any
6. Weighed, and fteered W. with a S. E. wind*,
%. Favourable wind at N. E. and in.the afternoon
at N>.
8*. Wind*
8. Wind at N. W.  and ftormy, the fhip drove
under the forefail.
9 8c 10. Sailed Northwards, with a Wefterly wind.
11. Calm till noon ;  afterwards breeze fprung up
:at~S. With which they fteered W. till next day
at noon ; when the wind coming round to the
Weft, they changed their courfe, and fteered
N. W.
12. Calm during the night.
13. A fmall breeze of Northerly wind, with which
they fteered W. in the afternoon it fell calm,
and continued fo till the
16. at noon, when a breeze fpringing up at Eaft,
they fteered W. on which courfe they continued during the
18.  with a S. S. E. wind.
From the 19  to the 22.   The  wind   was   changeable
from the S. W. to N. W.  with  which they
ftill made alhift to get to the Weftward.
23. The wind E. they fteered betwixt N. &: W.
which courfe they continued the
24th,  25th,  26th, with a Northerly wind.
27. A. M. the wind changed to S. W.
28, 29,  30. Wind at Weft. ^
July 1. The wind changed to E. with which they fteered
between W. and S. W. with little variations, till
the 3d. gjg;
U 2 4- They
Solovioff's He-
fcripdonof the
Fox Iflands.
ACCOUNT  O ¥   T H £"
4, They reached Kamtchatkoi Nofs, and on the
5th. Brought the fhip, in good cond&bn, into Kamt-
chS&a river.
Solo^lerf's defcription of thefe iflaiids and  the inhabitants %eing   more circU'mftan¥ial,  thatt-' the  accounts.
given by former navigator, deferves to be inferted  at
full length.    According to  his eftimation,   the  ifland
Unalaflika lies between 1300 and 2*6rbQ verfts-due Eaft
from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river:  tfce other
iflands  to the Eaftward ftretch towards N. E.    He reckons the length of Akutan at eighty verfts ;   Umnak at.
an hundred and fifty, and Unalaflika at two hundred. No
large trees were feen upon any of the iflands which he
touched at. They, produce underwood, fmall fhrubs, and,
plants, for the moft part fimilar to the common fpecies-
'ibnnd in Kamtchatka.    The winter is much milder than
in the Eaftern parts of Siberia, and continues only from*
November to the end of March.    The fnow feldom lies
upon the ground for any time*,
Refh-iAeez, bears, wolves, ice-foxes, are not to be
found on thefe iflands ; but'they abound in black, grey,
brown, and red foxes; for which reafon they have got;
the name of Lyffie Oftrova, or Fox Iflands. Thefe foxes;
are ftronger than thofe of Yalcutfk, and their hair is
much coarfer.. During the day they lie in caves and:
2 cliffs.
eli^^Jrocks; towards evening they come to the fhore
in&aMi of food; they have long ago extirpated the
brood of mice, and other fmall animals. They are not
in the fmalleft degree afraid of the inhabitants, but dif-
tinguifh the Ruffians by the fcent; having experienced
the effects of their fire-arms. The number of fea-ani-
mals, fuch as fea-lions, fea-bears, and fea-otters, which
refort to thefe fhores, are very confiderable, Upon fome
of the iflands warm fprings and native fulphur are to be
The Fox-iffands are in general very populous; Una-^aAnners-a?d,
° j   r   r •> Cuftoms of th*
tafhka, which is the largeft ifland, is fuppofed to containInhabitant-
feveral thoufand inhabitants.    Thefe favages live together
in feparate communities, compofed of fifty, and fometimes of two or even three hundred perfons; they dwell
in large caves from forty to eighty yards long, from fix
to eight broad,: and from four to five high.    The roof of
thefe caves is a kind of wooden grate, which is firft fpread
'Over with.a layer of grafs,   and then covered with earth...
Several openings are made in the iop,, through which
the inhabitants go up and down by ladders : the fmalleft..
dwellings have two or three entrances of-this fort, and;
Hie largeft five or fix.    Each cave is divided into a.certaiii
©■umber of partitions, which are appropriated to the feveral families; and thefe partitions are marked by means
of flakes driven into the earth.    The men and women fit-
on the ground; and the children lie down, having their
legs bound together under them, in order to make them
learn to fit upon their hams.
Although no fire is ever made An thefe caves, they
are generally fo warm, that both fexes fit naked.
Thefe people obey the calls of nature openly, and without efteeming it indecent. They wafh themfelves firft
with their own urine, and afterwards with water.- In
winter they go always bare-footed ; and when they
want to warm themfelves, efpecially before they go to
fleep, they fet fire to dry grafs and walk over it. Their
habitations being almoft dark, they ufe particularly in
winter a fort of large lamps, made by hollowing out a
flone, into which they put a rufh-wick and burn train
oil. A flone fo hollowed is called Tfaaduck. The natives * are whites with black hair ; they have flat faces,
and are of a good flature. The men fhave with a fharp
flone or knife, the circumference and top of the head,
and let the hair which remains hang from the crown t.
The women cut their hair in a ftreight line over the forehead ; behind they let it grow to a confiderable length,
* Von geficht find fie platt undweifs durchgaengig mit fchvvarzen
i The original in this paffage is fomewhat obfcure.    Die maenner-
fcheeren mit einem Scharfen Stein oder mefTer den Umkreifs des haar-
Jcopfs tind die platte, und laffen die haare urn die krone des kopfs run-
jdum ueberhangen.
and tie it in a bunch.    Some of the men wear their
beards ; others fhave or pull them out by the roots.
They mark various figures on their faces, the backs
of their hands, and lower parts of their arms, by pricking them firft with a needle, and then rubbing the parts
with a fort of black clay. They make three incifions in
the under-lip ; they place in the middle one a flat bone,.
or a fmall coloured flone; and in each of the fide-
ones they fix a long pointed piece of bone,, which
bends and reaches almoft to the ears. They likewife
make a hole through the griftle of the nofe, into which
they put a fmall piece of bone in fuch a manner as
to keep the noftrils extended. They alfo pierce holes
in their ears, and wear in them what little ornaments
they can procure..
Their drefs confifts of a cap and a fur-coat, which
reaches down to the knee. Some of them wear common caps of a party coloured bird-fkin, upon which
they leave part of the wings and tail. On the fore-part
;©f their hunting and fifhing. caps they place a fmall
board like a fcreen, adorned with the jaw-bones of fea-
bears, and ornamented with glafs beads, which they receive in barter from, the Ruffians.. At their feflivals and
dancing parties they ufe a much more fliowy fort:of. caps.
Their fur-coats are made like fhirts, being, dofe. behind:
aod before,, and  are   put on over   the head.      The-
'" "k mens>
mens drefs is made of birds fkins, but the womens of
fea-otters and fea-bears. Thefe fkins are died with a
fort of red earth, and neatly fewed with finews, and
ornamented with various ftripes of fea-otter fkins and
leathern fringes. They have alfo upper garments made
of the interlines of the largeft fea-calves and fea-lions.
Their veffels confift of two forts : the larger are leathern boats or baidars, which have oars on both fides,
and are capable of holding thirty or forty people. The
-Imaller veffels are rowed <K?ith a double paddle, and referable the canoes of the Greenlanders, containing oniy
one or two perfons: they never weigh above thirty
pounds, being nodiing but a than fkeleton of a boat
covered w$th lea^eW. In thefe however, they pafs from
one ifland to another, and even venture out to fea to a
confiderable diftance. In calm weather they gp out in
them to catch tuSbot and cod with bone-hooks and lines
made of finews or fea-weed. They ftrike\£-fh i» the
rivulets with darts. Whales- apad other feawammals
thrown afhor-e by the waves are carefully looked after,
and no part of them is loft. The quantity of $rc*ri-
fions which they procure by hunting: and fifhino:
being far too fmall f&r their- wants, the greateft part of
their food confifts of feaMwraek and ilielL-iifti, which
they find on the fho3?e«
No ftranger-fe allowed to hunt or fifh near a sfcflage,
or to carry off any thtng fit for food. When they are
oh a journey, and their provisions are ei&aMled, they
beg from viHage to village, or call upon theft' Mefids
and relations for afSftance.
They feed upon the flefh of -all forts of fea-aiiimak
and generally eat it raw. But if at any time they
choofe to drefs their victuals, fehey make ufe of an hollow flone; having placed the fifh or flefh therein, they
cover it with another, and clofe the interfaces with
lime or clay. Th§y then lay it horizontally upon two
fton§S, and ftght a fire >§nder Ui& The pro\#fioa whSeS.
is ifflte'Sded for keeping is ^ried without Jflflt M. fhe
open air. ^Phey gather berries of various forts, and
lily roots of the fame-4|H!Sies with thofe whieht grow
*#fld at K3mtchatka. TBey are fyiM^fc&mted With the
maimer of drefllhg the cow-pafmif), -as praclifed in that
Peninfula; and do not underftand the art of diftilling
'brandy or any other ftrong liquor from it. They are
at prefent very fond of fnuff, which the Ruffians have
introduced aniong them.
No traces were found of any worfhip, neither did
they feem to have any •forcetferS* among them.    If a
* In the laft chapter it is faid that there are forcerers among them.
X whale
whale happens to be eaft on fhore, the inhabitants af-
femble with great marks of joy, and perform a number
of extraordinary ceremonies. They dance and beat
drums * of different fizes: they then cut up the fifh,
of which the greateft and beft part is confumed on
the fpot. On fuch occafions they wear fhbwy.caps;
and fome of them dance naked in wooden mafks, which
reach down to their fhoulders, and reprefent various forts
of fea-animals. Their dances confift of fhort fleps forwards, accompanied with many ftrange geftures.
Marriage ceremonies are unknown among them,
and each man takes as many wives as he can maintain-;
but the number feldom exceeds four* Thefe women
are occafionally allowed to cohabit with other men;
they and their children are alfo not unfrequently bartered in exchange for commodities. When an iflander
dies, the body is bound with thongs, and afterwards exr
pofed to the air in a fort of wooden cradle hung upon
* The expreffion in the original is " Schlagen auf groflen platten
" handpauken," which, being literally translated, fignifies " They beat
" upon large flat hand-kettle drums of different founds."
By the accounts which I procured at Peterfburg, concerning the
form of thefe drums, they feem to rcfemble in fliape thofe made ufe of
by the forcerers of Kamtchatka, and are of different fizes. I had an
opportunity of feeing one of the latter at the Cabinet of Curiofities. It
is of an oval form, about two feet long and one broad: it is covered
only at one end like the tambour de bafque, and is worn upon the arm
like a fhield.
a crofs-
a crofs-bar, fupported by forks.    Upon thefe occafions
they cry and make bitter lamentations.
Their Toigons or Princes are thofe who have numerous families, and are fkilful and fuccefsful in hunting
and fifliing.
Their weapons confift of bows, arrows, and darts:
they throw the latter very dexteroufly, and to a great
diftance from a hand-board. For defence they ufe
wooden fhields, called kuyakin. Thefe iflanders are,
ootwjthftanding their favagenefs, very docile; and the
boys, whom the Ruffians keep as hoftages, foon acquire a knowledge of their language.
G    H    MM
Voyage of Otcheredin—He winters upon Umna|—Arrival
of Levafheff ^otf Unalafhka—Return of Otcheredin to
offiuL TN the year 1765 three merchants, namely, OrechoST
the^raui,   j, of   yula> Lapin of - Solikamfk, and Shiloff of  Uf-
tyug, fitted out a new veffel called the &» Paul, under
the command of Aphanaffei Otcheredin. She was bufi^:
in the harbour of Q&hotfk-: his crew confined of fiStyr
two Ruffians and Kamtchadals, and fhe carried on boardV
two inhabitants of the Fox Iflands named John and Timothy Surgeff, who had been brought to Kamtchatka?
and baptifed.
September 1 o, they failed from Ochotfk, and arrived
the 2 2d in the bay of Bolcherefk where they wintered.
Auguft 1, 1776, they continued their voyage, and
having paffed the fecond of the Kuril Ifles, fteered on the
6th into the open fea; on the 24th they reached the
neareft of the Fox Iflands, which the interpreters called
*Atchak. A ftorm arifing they eaft anchor in a bay,
but faw no inhabitants upon the fhore.    On the 26th
* Called in a former journal Atchu, p. 6$.
theyrfailed again, difcovered on the 27th Sagaugamak,
along: which they fteered North Eaft, and on the 31ft
came within feven miles of the ifland Umnak; where,
on account of the latenefs of the feafon and the want of
provifion and water, they determined to winter. Accordingly on the 1 ft of September, by the advice of the
interpreters, they brought the veffel into a convenient
bay near a point of land lying N. W. where they fattened it to the fhore wi|fx cables.
Uppg;, their landing they; difcovered feveral pieces of a
wreck; and two-;iflanders, whodwejlled on the banks of
a., r^sfulet which empties itfelf into the bay,r informed
them,, that thefe were-,the.reruns of a Ruffian veffel,
whofe commander's name was;5>enys. Frjspa thjss intelligence they concluded that this-was Protaffoff's veffel,
fitted out at Ochotfk. The inhabitants of Umnak, Una-
laihka, and of the Five Mountains, had affembled and.
murdered the crewyi when feparated into different hunting paries. The fame iflanders alfo mentioned the fate.
of Kulkoff/s and Tra-pefnikojf's fhips upon the ii!an&
Unalafhka. Although t^is information oocafione& get-
neral apprehenfions, yet they had no other refource than
to draw the veffel^afliore, and to take every* gofliblerjpre-
oautjon agairjft a frap^e. Accordingly th^y ke#t acon-
flant watch, maderprefen&Htg tketToigoas. an^the- pmf
cipal ini^itants, and. demands feaaftoefe^en as hoiteges*
E©r fome time*f^i$an^ifcehaved ve$y peaceably, unf
tfkffce-Ruftians endeavoured to perfuade them to become
tributary 1
tributary : upon which they gave fueh repeated figns of
their hoftile intentions, that the crew li^ed under coriti^
nual alarms. In the beginning of September information vvas brought them of the arrival! of a veffel, fitted
out bv Ivan Popoff merchant of T-alfk, at Unalaflika.
About the end; of the faid month the Toigon of the
Five Mountains came to Otcheredin, and was fo well fa-
tisfied with his reception, that he brought hoftages, and
not only affured them of his own friendfhip, but pro-
mifed to ufe his influence with the other Toigons, and
to perfuade them to the fame peaceable behaviour. But
the other Toigons not only paid no regard to his perfua-
fions, but even barbaroufly killed one of his-children.
From thefe and other circumftancfes the crew pafled the
winter under continual apprehenfions, and durft not venture far from the harbour upon hunting parties. Hence
enfued a fcarcity of provifions; and hunger, j&ined to
the violent attacks of the fcurvy, made great havock
amongft them, infomuch that fix of them died, and feveral of the furvafvors were reduced to fo weak a condition,
that they were ftfarce able to move.
The health of the crew being re-eftablifhed in the
fpring, twertty-three men were fent on the 25th of
June in two boats to the Five Mountains, in order to
perfuade the inhabitants to pay tribute. On the 26th
they landed on the ifland Ulaga, where they were attacked
tacked with great fpirit by a large body of the inhabitants ; and though three of the Ruffians were wounded,
yet the favages were repulfed with confiderable lofs: they
were fo terrified by their defeat, that they fled before the
Ruffians during their continuance on that ifland. The
latter were detained there by tempeftuous weather until
the 9th of July ; during which time they found two
rufty firelocks belonging to Protaffoff's crew. On the
loth they returned to the harbour; and it was immediately refolved to difpatch fome companies upon hunting expeditions.
Accordingly on the ift of Auguft Matthew Polofkoff,
a native of llinfk, was fent with twenty-eight men in.
two boats to Unalaflika with the followingt orders;
that if the weather and other circumftances were far
yourable, they were to make to Akutan and Akun, the
two neareft iflands to the Eaft, but to proceed no further.
In confequence of this,, Polofkoff reached Akutan about
the end of the month \ and being kindly received by
the inhabitants, he left fix of his party to hunt; with
the remainder he went to Akun, which lies about two
verfts from Akutan. From thence he difpatched five
men to the neighbouring iflands, where he was informed
by the interpreters there were great quantities of foxes..
Polofkoff and his companions continued- the whole,
autumn upon Akun without being annoyed; but on the
 H£o ACCOUNT   OF   T ft E
1 2th of December the inhabitants o'ffthe different iflands
affembled in great numbers, and attacked them by land
and fea. They informed Polofkoff, by means of the
interpreters, that 'the Ruffians whom he had fent to
the neighbouring nlands were killed; that the two
' Veffels at Umnak and Unalaflika Were plundered, and
the crew put to death ; and fet they were now come
to make him and his party fhare the fame fate. 'The
Ruffian fire-arms however kept them in due refpect;
and towards evening they difperfed. The fame night
the interpreter deferred, probably at the mitigation of
his countrymen, who neverthelefs killed him, as it was
faid, that winter.
January 16, the faVages ventured to make a feconcl
attack. Having farprtfed the guard by night, they tore
off the roof of the Ruffian oVfellmg, ana* Jfhot down
into the hut, making at the fame %me great outcries :
ijy this unexpected affault four Ruffians were killed,
and three wounded; but the furvivors no fooner had
Tecourfe to their fire-arms, than the enemy was driven
to flight. Meanwhile another botfy7 of the natives attempted to feize the two veffels, but without fuccefs;
they however cut off the party of fix men left by Polofkoff at Akutan, together With the five hunters difpatched to the contiguous iflands, and two of Popoff's
crew who were at the Weftermoft part of TJnalaflika.
Polofkoff continued upon Akun in great danger until
the 2.oth of February ;. when, the wounded being recovered, he failed over with a fair wind to Popoff's veffel at Unalaflika ; and on the i oth of May returned to
In April Popoff's veffel being got ready for the voyage, all the hoftages, whofe number amounted to fortyr
were delivered to Otcheredin. July the 30th a veffel
belonging to: the fame Popoff arrived from Beering's-
Ifland, and daft anchor in the fame bay where Otchere-
din's lay ; and. both crews entered into an agreement
to fhare in common the profits of hunting. Strengthened by this alliance, Otcheredin prevailed upon a number of the inhabitants to pay tribute.-. Auguft the 22d
Otcheredin's mate was fent with fix boats and fifty-
eight men to hunt upon Unalaflika and Akutan; and:
there remained thirty men with the veffels in thenar-:
hour, who kept conftant watch-
Soon afterwards Otcheredin and the other commander otcheredin re
ceives an Ac-
received a letter from Levafheff Captain Lieutenant ofcx^Ar-
the Imperial fleet,, who accompanied Captain Krenitzin Em" W
in  the   fecret expedition to   thofe  iflands..    The letter
was dated September ■ 11, 1768 :   it informed, them he-
was   arrived  at  Unalaflika inuhe  St. Paul,, and lay at
anchor in the fame bay in which Kulkoff's veffel had:
y been.
been loft. He likewife required a circumftantial account of their voyages. By another order of the 24th
he fent for four of the principal hoftages, and demanded
the tribute of fkins which had been exacted from the
iflanders. But as the weather was generally tempeftuous
at this feafon of the year, they deferred fending them
till the fpring. May the 31ft Levalheff fet fail for
Kamtchatka ; and in 17 71 returned fafely from his expedition at St. Peterfburg.
The two veffels remained at Umnak until the year
1770, during which time the crews met with no oppo-
fition from the iflanders. They continued their hunt*,
ing parties, in which they had. fuch good fortune, that
the fhare of Otcheredin's veffel (whofe voyage is here
chiefly related) confifted in 530 large fea-otter fkins,
40 young ones and 30 cubs, the fkins of 656 fine black
foxes, 100 of an inferior fort, and about 1250 red fox
With this large cargo of furs Otcheredin fet fail on the
22d of May, 1770, from Umnak, leaving Popoff's crew
behind. A fliort time before their departure, the other
interpreter Ivan Surgeff, at the inftigation of his relations,
defer ted.
Return of
■Otcheredin to
After having touched at the neareft of the Aleutian
Iflands, Otcheredin and his crew arrived on the 24th of
^ -. #       "'-ri; . '    m
July at Ochotfk. They brought two iflanders with
them, whom they baptized. The one was named
Alexey Solovieff; the other Boris Otcheredin. Thefe
iflanders unfortunately died on their way to Peterfburg ;
the firft between Yakutfk and Irkutfk; and the latter
at Irkutfk, where he arrived on the ift of February*,
y 3
 J 64
C  HAP.     XIII.
Concluflon—General pofltion andfltuation of the Aleutian
and Fox Iflands—their diftance from each other—Further defcription of the drefs, manners, and cufloms of
the inhabitants—their feafls and ceremonies, &c.
poGtion of %    a   CC OR DING to the lateft informations brought
Beering's and       /—» °
<copperiflands. jHL by Qtcheredin's and Popoff's veffels, the North
Weft point of Commandorfkoi Oftroff, or Beering's
Ifland, lies due Eaft from the mouth of the Kamtchatka
liver, at the diftance of 250 verfts. It is from 70 to
80 verfts long, and ftretches from North Weft to South
Eaft, in the fame direction as Copper Ifland. The latter
is fituated about 60 or 70 verfts from the South Eaft
point of Beering's Ifland, and is about 50 verfts in length.
Of the Aleutian Ifles.
About 300 verfts Eaft by South of Copper Ifland lie
the Aleutian Ifles, of which Attak is the neareft : it is
rather larger than Beering's Ifland, of the fame
fhape, and ftretches from Weft to South Eaft. From
thence about 20 verfts Eaftwards is fituated Semitflii
extending from Weft to Eaft, and near its Eaftern point
another fmall ifland. To the South of the ftrait, which
feparates the two latter iflands, and at the diftance  of
40 verfts from both of them, lies Shemiya in a fimilar |
pofition,   and not above 25 verfts in length.    All thefe
iflands ftretch between  54 and   55  degrees of   North
The Fox Iflands are fituated E. N. E. from the Aleii- ?/ $Fox
tians : the neareft of thefe, Atchak, is about 800 verfts
diftant; it lies in about 56 degrees North latitude, and ex-"
tends from W. S. W. towards E. N. E. It greatly re-
fembles Copper Ifland, and is provided with a commodious' harbour on the Notrh. From thence all the
other iflands of this chain ftretch in a direction towards
N. E. by Eaft.
The next to Atchak is Amlak, about 15 verfts diftant;
it is nearly of the fame fize; and has an harbour
on its South fide. Next follows Sagaugamak, at about
the fame diftance, but fomewhat fmaller; from that it
is 50 verfts to Amuchta, a fmall rocky ifland ; and the
fame diftance from the latter to Yunakfan, another fmall
ifland. About 20 verfts from Yunakfan there is a clufter
of five fmall iflands, or rather mountains, Kigalgift,
Kagamila, Tfigulak, Ulaga, and Tana-Unok, and which
are therefore called by the Ruffians Pat Sopki, or the
Five Mountains. Of thefe Tana-Unok lies moft to the
N. E. towards which the Weftern point of Umnak advances within the diftance of 20 verfts.
Umnak ftretches from S.W.toN. E.; it is 150 verfts
in length, and has a very confiderable bay on the Weft
end of the Northern coaft, in which there is a fmall
ifland or rock, called Adugak ; and on the South fide is
Shemalga, another rock. The Weftern point of Aghun-
Alafhka, or Unalaflika, is feparated. from the Eaft end of
Umnak by a ftrait near 20 verfts in breadth. The pofi-
tion of thefe two iflands is fimilar; but Aghunalafhka
is much the largeft, and is above 200 verfts long. It is
divided towards the N. E. into three promontories,, one
of which runs out in a Wefterly direction, forming one
fide of a large bay on the North- coaft of the ifland :
the fecond ftretches out N. E. ends in three points, and;
is connected with the ifland by a fmall neck of land..
The third or molt Southerly one is feparated from the
laft mentioned promontory by a deep bay. Near Unalaflika towards the Eaft lies another fmall ifland. called
About 20 verfts from, the North Eaft promontory of
Aghunalafhka lie four iflands: the firft, Akutan, is
about half as big as Umnak ; a verft further is the fmall
ifland Akun ; a little beyond is Akunok ; and laftly Ki-
galga, which is the fmalleft of thefe four, and ftretches
with Akun and Akunok almoft from N. to S. Kigalga
is fituated about the 61 ft degree of latitude.     About
too verfts from thence lies an ifland called Unimak %
upon which Captain Krenitzin wintered; and beyond it
the inhabitants faid there was a large tract of country
called Alaihka, of which they did not know the boundaries*
The Fox Iflands are in general very rocky, without
containing any remarkable high mountains : they are
deftitute of wood, but abound in rivulets and lakes,
which are moftly without fifh. The winter is much
milder than in Siberia; the fno.w feldom falls before
the beginning of January, and continues on the ground
till the end of March,,
There is a volcano in Amuchta; in Kagamila fulphur
flows from a mountain ; in Taga-Unok there are warm
fprings~-hot enough to boil provifions; and flames of
fulphur are occafionally feen at night upon the" mountains of Unalaflika and Akutan.
A ft
The Fox Iflands are tolerably populous in proportion fXbklVc
. . •     i       c i theFox Iflands
to their fize. The inhabitants are entirely free, and pay
tribute to no one : they are of a middle ftature ; and
live, both in fummer and winter, in holes dug in the
earth.    No figns of religion were found amongft them.
* Krenitzin wintered at Alaxa, and not at UHimak.   See Appendix I.
Their Food.
Several .perfons indeed pafs for forcerers, pretending to
know things paft and to come, and are accordingly
held in high efteem, but without receiving any emolument. Filial duty and refpect towards the aged are
not held in eftimation by thefe iflanders. They are
not however deficient in fidelity to each other ; they
are of lively and chearful tempers, though rather impetuous, and.naturally prone to anger. In general they
do not obferve any rules of decency, but follow all the
calls of nature publicly, and without the leaft referve.
They wafti themfelves with their own urine.
Their principal food confifts in fifh and other,
fea-animals, fmall fliell-fifh and fea-plants: their
greateft delicacies are wild lilies and other roots, together with different kinds of berries. When they have
laid in a flore of provifions, they eat at any time, of the
day without difiinction; but in cafe of neceffity they
are capable of falling feveral days together. They fel-
dom heat their dwellings; but when they are defirous
of warming themfelves, they light a bundle of hay, and
ftand over it; or elfe they fet fire to train oil, which:
they pour into a hollow flone.
They feed their children when very young with the
coarfeft flefh, and for the moft part raw.     If an infant
cries, the mother immediately carries it to the fea-fide
and be it fummer or winter holds it naked in the water
ter until it is quiet. This cuftom is fo far from doing
the children any harm, that it hardens them againft
the cold ; and they accordingly go bare-footed through
the winter Without the leaft inconvenience. They are
alfo trained to bathe frequently in the fea; and it is
an opinion generality received among the iflanders, that
by that means they are rendered bold, and become fortunate in fifhing.
The men wear fliirts made of the fkins of cormo-Drefs.
rants, fea-divers, and gulls; and, in order to keep out
the rain, they have upper garments of the bladders and
other interlines of fea-lions, fea-calves, and whales,
blown up and dried. They cut their hair in a circular
form clofe to their ears ; and fhave alfo a round place
upon the top. The women, on the contrary, let the
hair defcend over the forehead as low as the eye-brows,
and tie the remaining part in a knot upon the top of
the head. They pierce the ears, and hang therein
bits of coral which they get from the Ruffians. Both
fexes' make holes in the griftle of the nofe, and in
the under-lips, in which they thruft pieces of bone,
and are very fond of. fuch kind of ornaments. They
mark alfo and colour their faces with different figures.
They barter among one another fea-otters, fea-bears,
clothes made of bird-fkins and of dried interlines, fkins
of fea-lions and fea-calves for the coverings of baidars,
Z wooden
wooden mafks, darts, thread made of finews and reihdeer
hair, which they get from the country of AlMka.
Their houfliold utenfils are fquare ^rtchefs and Iafgfc*
troughs, which they make out of the wood driven afliore
by the fea. Their weapons are bows and arrows pointed
with flints, and javelins of two yards in length, #hich
they throw from a fmall board. Inftead of hatchets they
ufe crooked knives of flint or bone. Some iron knives,
hatchets, and lances, were obferved amongft them, which,
they had probably got by plundering the-'Ruffian^..
According to the reports of the oldefr. inhabitants of
Umnak and Unalaflika, they have never been engaged
in any war either amongft themfelves or with the^f
neighbours, except once with the people of Alafhka, the
occafion of which was as follows : The toigon of Um-
nak's fon had a maimed hand ; and fome inhabitants of
Alafhka, who came upon a vifit to that ifland, fattened
to his arm a drum, out of mockery, and invited him to
dance. The parents and relations of tnSe boy were offended at this infult: hence a quarrel enfued ; and from
that time the two people have lived in continual enmity,
attacking and plundering each other by turns. According to the reports of the iflanders, there are mountains
upon Alaffika, and woods of great extent at fome diftance from the coaft.    The natives wear clothes made of
the f}dns of rejn^eer, wolves, and foxes, and are not
tribjgary to any of their neighbours. The inhabitants
of tfre Fox-iflands feem to have no knowledge of any
country beyond Alafhka.
Feafts are very common among thefe iflanders; and FMft8
more particularly when the inhabitants of one ifland are
vifited by thofe of the others. The men of the village
meet their guefts beating drums, and preceded by the
women, who fing and ^gnee. At the conclufion of the
dance the hofts invite theni to partake of tj^e feafts ; after
which ceremony tihe former return firft to their dwellings, gjace maj^ in order, and ^erye up their beft provifion. The gi9^s next enter, take their places, and
after they arg^fafis fied tj^e.^jjye^ons begjrj..
Fir#, the cl^^j^ri i$ance and caper, ,^t the fame tiine
making a noife with their fmall drums, while the owners of the hut of both fexes fing. Next, the men dance
almqft ##]%§& it^pnjng after. 4pne another, and beating
drums of a \ajcger fi.ze : wijen thefe are weary, they are
relie&ed by...the wqnj<ep, who da^nce in their clothes, the
men cont^uigg in.£he mean time to fing and beat their
4rums. At l,aft the fire is put out, which had been kindled for the QSSfjnony. The mjnner of obtaining fire is
by ru&feng XWP pieces of dry wood, or moft commonly by
l&king two flints together, an$ letting the fparks fall
Z a uPon
upon fome fea-otter's hair mixed with fulphur. If any
forcerer is prefent, it is then his turn to play his pricks in
-the dark; if not, the guefts immediately retire to their
huts, which are made on that occafion of their canoes
and mats. The natives, who have feveral wives, do not
withhold them from their guefts; but where the owner
of the hut has himfelf but one wife, he then makes the
offer of a female fervant.
Their hunting feafon is principally from the end of
October to the beginning of December, during which
time they kill large quantities of young fea-bears for their
clothing. They pafs all December in feaftings and di-
verfions fimilar to that above mentioned: with this difference, however, that the men dance in wooden mafks,
reprefenting various fea-animals, and painted red, green,
or black, with coarfe coloured earths found upon thefe
During thefe feftivals they vifit each other from village to village, and from ifland to ifland. The feafts
concluded, mafks and drums are broken to pieces, or de-
pofited in caverns among the rocks, and never afterwards made ufe of. In fpring they go out to kill old fea-
bears, fea-lions, and whales. During fummer, and even
in winter when it is calm, they row out to fea, and catch
cod and other fifh. Their hooks are of bone; and for
m lines
lines they make ufe of a.firing made of a long tenacious
fea-weed, $ hich is fometimes found in thofe feas near one
hundred and J    / yards in length.
Whenever they are wounded in any encounter, or
bruifed by any accident, they apply a fort of yellow root
to the wound, and faft for fome time. When their
head achs, they open a vein in that part with a flone
lancet. When they want to glue the points of their arrows to the fhaft, they ftrike their nofe till it bleeds, and-
ufe the blood as glue. |§§§
Murder is not punifhed amongft them, for they have
no judge. With refpect to their ceremonies of burying
the dead, they are as follow : The bodies of poor people
are wrapped up in their own clothes, or in mats; then
laid in a grave, and covered over with earth. The bodies
of the rich are put, together with their clothes and arms,
in a fmall boat made of the wood driven afhore by the
fea: this boat is hung upon poles placed crofs-ways; and
the body is thus left to rot in the open air.
The cuftoms and manners of the inhabitants of the
Aleutian Ifles are nearly fimilar to thofe of the inhabitants of the Fox Iflands.    The former indeed are rendered
ACCOUNT,    &c
dered tributary, and entirely fubject to Ruffia ; and moft
of them have a flight acquaintance with the Ruffian
language, which they have learned from the crews of the
different veffels who have landed there.
 C    *77   3
CHAP.     I.
Firft irruption of the Ruffians into Siberia—Second inroad
—Yermac driven by the Tzar of Mufcovy from the
Volga, retires to Orel a Ruffian Settlement—Enters
Siberia with an army of Coffacks—His progrefs and
exploits—Defeats Kutchum Chan—conquers his dominions—cedes them to the Tzar—receives a reinforcement of Ruffian troops—is furprized by Kutchum
Chan—his defeat and death—Veneration paid to his
memory—Ruffian troops evacuate Siberia—re-enter
and conquer the whole country—their progrefs flopped by
the Chinefe.
CT* IBERIA wras fcarcely known to the Ruffians before ^ i™p«°n
•*^ J or the Rufli^ns
^ the middle of the fix'teenth century *. For although fj||§||
Rei^n or Ivsn
an expedition was made, under the reign of Ivan Vaffi- vaffiiievitch i.
lievitch I. into the North Weftern Parts of that country,
as far as the river Oby, by which feveral Tartar tribes
were rendered tributary, and fome of their chiefs brought
prifoners to Mofcow ; yet this incurfion bore a greater
refemblauce to the defultory inroads of barbarians, than
to any permanent eftablifliment of empire by a civilized
nation.     Indeed the effects of that expedition foon va-
I S. R. G. Vf.' p. I99—211.    Fif Sib. Gef. Tom. I.
A a nifhed ;
nifhed; nor does any trace of the leaft communication
with Siberia again appear in the Ruffian hiftory before
the reign of Ivan Vaffiiievitch II. At that period Siberia
again became an object of attention, by means of one
Anika Strogonoff, a Ruffian merchant, who had eftab-
lifhed fome falt-works at Solvytfhegodfkaia, a town in the
government of Archangel.
Ariika Strogonoff trades
with the People of Siberia.
This perfon carried on a trade of barter with the inhabitants of the North-Weftern parts of Siberia, who
brought every year to the abovementioned town large
quantities of. the choiceft furs. Upon their return to
their country Strogonoff was accuftomed to fend with them
fome Ruffian merchants, who croffed the mountains,
and traded with the natives. By thefe means a confiderable number of very valuable furs were procured at
an eafy rate, in exchange for toys and other commodities of trifling value.
This traffic was continued for feveral years, without
any interruption; during which Strogonoff rapidly
amaffed a very confiderable fortune*. At length the
Tzar Ivan Vaffiiievitch II. forefeeing the advantages
which would accrue to his fubjects, from eftablifhing a
more general and regular commerce with thefe people,
| S. R. G. Vh p. 22,0—223.   Fif. Sib. Gef. p. 182.
determined to enlarge the communication already opened
with Siberia.     Accordingly he fent a corps of troops into£cnon0dftherup*
that country.    They followed the fame route which had p^ppl
Rtign of Ivan
been difcovered by the Ruffians in the former expedition, wM®0§M
and which was lately frequented by the merchants of
Solvytlhegodfkaia. It lay along the banks of the Petf^
chora, and from thence croffed the Yugorian mountains,
which form the North Eaftern boundary of Europe.
Thefe troops, however, do not feem to have paffed the
Irtifh, or to have penetrated further than the Weftern
branch of the river Oby. Some Tartar tribes were indeed laid under contribution; and a chief, whofe name
was Yediger, confented to pay an annual tribute of a
thoufand fables. But this expedition Was not productive
of any lafting effects; for foon afterwards Yediger was
defeated, and taken prifoner by Kutchum Chan ; the latter
was a lineal defcendant of the celebrated Zinghis Chan ;
- and had newly eftablifhed his empire in thofe parts.
This fecond inroad was probably made about the middle of the fixteenth century ; for the Tzar. Ivan Vaffiiievitch affumed the title of Lord of all the Siberian lands
fo early as 1558, before the conquefts made by Yermac in that kingdom *. But probably the name of
Siberia was  at that time only confined to the diftrict
* S. R.G.VI. p. 217.
A a 2
 , I
then rendered tributary; and as the Ruffians extended
their conquefts, this appellation was afterwards applied
to the whole tract of country which now bears that
For fome time after the above-mentioned expedition^
the Tzar does not appear to have made any attempts towards recovering his loft authority in- thofe diftant regions. But his attention was again turned to that quarter by a concurrence of incidents ; which, though begun
without his immediate interpofition, terminated in a vaft
acceffion of territory.
Strogonoff, in recompence for having, firft opened a
the Kama and trade with the inhabitants of Siberia, obtained from the
Tckuflbvaia. _ .
Tzar large grants or land; accordingly he founded coloT
nies upon the banks of the rivers Kama and Tchuffovaia;
and thefe fettlements gave rife to the entire fubjection of
Siberia by the refuge which they not long afterwards afforded to Yermac Timofeeff.
This perfon was nothing more than a fugitive Coffac
of the Don, and chief of a troop of banditti who infefted
the -mores of the Cafpian fea. But as he was the inftru-
ment by which fuch a vaft extent of dominion was added
to the Ruffian Empire, it will not be uninterefting to
develop the principal circumftances, which brought this
forms Settlements upon
Coffac from the fliores of the Cafpian to the banks of the
Kama;- and to trace the progrefs which he afterwards
made in'the diftant regions of Siberia.
By the victories which the Tzar Ivan Vaffiiievitch had
gained over the Tatars of Cafan and Aftracan, that monarch extended his dominions as far as the Cafpian Sea ;
and thereby eftabliihed a commerce with the Perfians and
Bucharians. But as the merchants who traded to thofe Jj™"^
parts  were continually  pillaged by the  CoffaCs of the the cafpiL0
■  fea.
Don;, and as the roads which lay by the fide of thatA- D- |jp
river, and of the Volga, were infefted with thofe banditti; the Tzar fent a confiderable force againft them..
Accordingly, they were attacked and routed; part were
flain, part made prifoners, and the reft efcaped by flight.
Among the latter was a corps of fix thoufand Coffacs,
under the command of the above-mentioned" Yermac
That celebrated" adventurer,  being driven  from his ord?"^$■.
....        the Ruffian
ufual haunts, retired, with his followers,' into the interior settlements*
part of the province of Cafan.    From thence he directed
his courfe along the banks of the Kama,, until he came
to Orel +.    That place was one of the Ruffian fettlements
recently planted, and'was governed by Maxim grandfbn
1 S. R. G. VI. p. 232. Fif. Sib. Gef. I. p. 185.
■f S. R. G. VI. p. 233.
Determines to
invade Siberia.
of Anika Strogonoff. Yermac, inftead of florming the
place, and pillaging the inhabitants, a&ed with a degree
of moderation unufual in a chief of banditti. Being
hofpitably received by Strogonoff, and fupplied with
every thing that was neceffary for the fubfiftence of his
troops, he fixed his winter quarters at that fettlement.
His reftlefs genius however did not fuffer him to continue
for any length of time in a flate of inactivity ; and from
the intelligence he procured concerning the fituation of
the neighbouring Tartars of Siberia, he turned his arms
toward that quarter.
State of
Siberia was at that time partly divided among a number of feparate princes ; and partly inhabited by the
various tribes of independent Tartars. ||-Of the former
Kutchum Chan was the moft powerful Sovereign. His
dominions confifted of that tract of country which now
forms the South Weftern part of the province of Tobolfk;
and ftretched from the banks of the Irtifh and Oby to
thofe of the.Tobol and Tura. His principal refidence
was at Sibir %   a fmall fortrefs upon the river Irifh, not
* Several authors have fuppofed the name of Siberia to derive its
origin from this fortrefs, foon after it was firft taken by the Ruffians
under Yermac. But this opinion is advanced without fufficient foundation ; for the name of Sibir was unknown to the Tartars, that fort being
by them called Ifker. Befides, the Southern part of the province of
Tobolfk, to which the name of Siberia was originally applied, was thus
far from the prefent town of Tobolfk; and of which
fome ruins are ftill to be feen. Although his power
was very confiderable, yet there were fome circum-
ftances which feemed to enfure fuccefs to an enterpriz-
ing invader. He had newly acquired a large part of
his territories by conqueft; and had, in a great meafure,
alienated the affections of his idolatrous fubjects by the
intolerant zeal, with which he introduced and diffeminated
the Mahometan religion B
Strogonoff did not fail of difplaying to Yermac this
inviting pofture of affairs, as well with a view of removing him from his prefent flation, as becaufe he himfelf
was perfonally exafperated againft Kutchum Chan : for
the latter had fecretly mitigated a large body of Tartars
to invade the Ruffian fettlements upon the river Tchuffo-
vaia; and had afterwards commenced open hoflilities
againft them with a.body of forces under the command
of his coufin Mehemet Kul. And although both thefe
attempts had failed of fuccefs, yet the troops engaged in
them had left behind traces of havock and devastation too
lafting to be eafily effaced f.
denominated by the Ruffians before the invafion of Yermac. This
denomination probably firft came from the Permians and Sirjanians,
who brought the firft accounts of Siberia to the Ruffians.
S.R.G. VI. p. 180.
* S. R. G. VI. p. 180...
-f Fif. Sib. Gef. I. p. 187.
Marches' towards Siberia
Ail thefe various confiderations were  not loft upon
Yermac :  having therefore employed the winter in preparations  for his   intended   expedition,   he  began   his
march in the fummer of the following year, 1578, along:
the  banks of the Tchuffovaia.      The  want of proper
guides,   and a  neglect of other  neceffary precautions,
greatly retarded his march, and he was overtaken by the.
winter before he had made any confiderable progrefs.
And at the appearance of fpring he found his flock of
provifions fo nearly exhaufted, that he was reduced to the
neceffity of returning to ,OreL
. "But this failure of fuccefs -by 110 means extinguifhed •
his ardour for the profecution of the enterprize ; it only •
ferved to make him ftill more folicitous in guarding •
againft the pofiibility of a future mifcarriage. By threats •
he extorted from Strogonoff every affiftance which the
nature of the expedition feemed to require. Befides a
fufficient quantity of provifions, all his followers, who.
were before unprovided with fire-arms, were fupplied •
with mufkets and ammunition.; and, in order to give
the appearance of a regular army to his troops, colour
were diftributed to each company, which were ornamented with the images of faints, after the manner of
the Ruffians.
Having thus made all previous arrangements, he
thought himfelf in a condition to force his way into
Siberia. Accordingly, in the month of June, 1579, he
fet out upon this fecond expedition. His followers His fecond
amounted to five thoufand men; adventurers inured to
liardihips, and regardlefs of danger: they placed implicit confidence in their leader, and feemed to be all
animated with one and the fame fpirit. He continued
his route partly by land, and partly by water : the
navigation however of the rivers was fo tedious, and
the roads fo rugged and difficult, that eighteen months
elapfed before he reached Tchingi, a fmall town upon ^r^k7°£
the banks of the Turn*. "theTuta-
Here he muttered his troops, and found his army considerably reduced : part had been exhaufted by fatigue,
part carried off by ficknefs, and part cut off in fkir-
mifhes with the Tartars. The whole remaining number amounted to about fifteen hundred effective men ;
and yet with this handful of troops Yermac did. not
hefitate a moment in advancing againft Kutchum Ghan.
That prince was already in a pofture of defence; and
refolved to guard his crown to the laft extremity. Having collected his forces, he difpatched feveral flying
parties againft Yermac,  himfelf remaining behind with
* S. R. G. VI. p. 243—248—262.
B b
the flower of his troops : but all thefe detachments were-
driven back with confideFable Ibfs; and worried in many
fucceffive fkirmifhes. Y"ermac continued his march
without intermiffion, bearing down all refiftance until
he reached the center of his adversary's dominions;
Thefe fucceffes however were dearly bought; for hi3
armv was now reduced to five hundred men. Kutchum
Chan was encamped* at no great diftance upon the
banks of the Irtifh, with a very fuperior force, and de*
termined to give him battle. Yermac, who was not to
be daunted by the inequality of numbers-, prepared for
the engagement with a confidence which never forfook.
him ; his troops were equally impatient for action, and
knew no medium between conqueft and death. The
event of the combat correfponded with this "magnanimity.
After an obftinate and well fought battle, victory declared
in favour of Yermac: the Tartars were entirely routed,
and the carnage was fa general,, that Kutchum Chan
himfelf efcaped with difficulty.
This defeat proved decifive': Kutchum Chan was de-
ferted by his fubjects; and Yermac, who knew how to
improve  as  well   as gain a  victory,   marched  without
* The place where the Tartar army lay encamped was called Tfchu-
vatch : it is a neck of land wafhed by the Irtifh, near the fpot where
the Tobob falls into that river.   Fif. Sib. Gef. I. p. 203.
delay to Sibir, the refidence of the Tartar princes. He
was well aware, that the only method to fecure his conqueft was to get poffeffioii of that important fortrefs.
He expected therefore to have found in that place a
confiderable garrifon, determined to facrifice their lives
in its defence. But the news of the late defeat had
diffufed univerfal confternation, and Sibir was entirely
deferted. A body of troops whom he fent before him,
to reduce the fortrefs, found it quite deferted : he himfelf foon after made his triumphant entry,  and  featedseats hin»feif
upon the
himfelf upon the throne without the leaft oppofition.Throne-
Here he fixed his refidence, and received the allegiance of the neighbouring people, who poured in from
all quarters upon the news of this unexpected revolution. The Tartars were fo ftruck with his gallant intrepidity and brilliant exploits, that they fubmitted to
his authority without hefitation, and acquiefced in the
payment of the ufual tribute.
Thus this enterprifing Coffac was fuddenly exalted
from the ftation of a chief of banditti to the rank of
a fovereign prince. It does not appear from hiftory
whether it were at firft his defign to conquer Siberia,
or folely to amafs a confiderable booty. The latter
indeed feems the more probable conjecture. The rapid tide of fuccefs with which he was carried on,
and the entire defeat of Kutchum Chan, afterwards
expanded his views, and opened a larger fcene to his
B b 2 ambition.
Situation of
ambition. But whatever were his original projects*
he feems worthy, fo far as intrepidity and prudence-
form a balls of merit, of the final fuccefs* which
flowed in upon him.- For he was neither elated with
unexpected profperity, nor dazzled with the fudden
glare of royalty : on the contrary, the dignity of his
deportment was as confiftent and unaffected, as. if he
had been born a fovereign.,
And now Yermac and his followers feemed to enjoy
thofe rewards which they had dearly purchafed by a-
courfe of unremitted fatigue,, and by victories which*
almoft exceeded belief. Not only the tribes in the
neigbourhood of Sibir wore the appearance of the moft
unreferved fubmiffion; but even princes continued
flocking in from diftant parts, to acknowledge themfelves tributary, and to claim his pretection. However,
this calm was of fhort duration. Insurrections were
concerted by Kutchum Chan ; who, though driven from
his dominions, yet ftill retained no fmall degree of
influence over his former fubjects.
Yermac faw and felt the precarioufnefs of his prefent grandeur; the inconfiderable number of his followers
who had furvived the conqueft of Sibir, had been ftill
further diminiihed by an ambufcade of the enemy *
and as he could not depend on the affection of his
new fubjects, he found himfelf under the neceffity either
@f calling in foreign affiftance, or of relinquishing his
dominion. Under thefe circumftances he had recourfe
to the Tzar of Mufcovy ; and made a tender of his new
acquifitions to that monarch, upon condition of receiving
immediate and effectual, fupport. The judicious manner
in which he conducted this* meafure, fliews him no lefs
able in the arts of negotiation than of war.
One of his moft confidential followers was difpatched"
to Mofcow at the head of fifty GoffacSi He had
orders to reprefent to the court the progrefs- which
the Ruffian troops, under the command of Yermac, had
made in Siberia-: he was artfully to add, that an extenfive Ce<Jes his
Conqueflo to
empire was conquered in the name of the Tzar; that^euJo"o£
the natives were reduced to fwear allegiance to that
monarch, and confented. to pay an annual tribute.
This reprefentation was accompanied with a prefent of
the choiceft and moft valuable furs m The embaffador,
was received at Mofcow with the ftrongeft marks of fatis-
faction : a public thankfgiving was celebrated in the cathedral ; the Tzar acknowledged and extolled the good
fervices of Yermac; he granted him.a pardon for all
former offences ; and, as a teftimony of his favour, distributed prefents for him and his followers. Amongft
thofe which were fent to Yermac was a fur robe, which
the Tzar himfelf had worn, and which, was the greateft
1 S.R.G. VI. p. 304.
mark of diftinaion that could be conferred upon a fubjea.~
To thefe was added a fum of money, and a- promife .of
fpeedy and effeauaLaffiftance.
Meanwhile Yermac, notwithstanding the inferior number of his troops, did nor remain inaaive within the
fortrefs of Sibir. He defeated all attempts of Kutchum
Chan to recover his crown; and took his principal general prifoner. He made occasional inroads into the adjacent provinces, and extended his conquefts up to the
fource of the river Taffda on one fide, and on the other
as far as the diftria which lies upon the river Oby above
its junaion with thelrtiih.
Morclmel^of -    At-length the promifed fuccours arrived at Sibir.   They
Ruffian r ._,
.troops. confifted of five hundred "Ruffians., under the command
of prince Bolkofky, who was appointed way-vode or governor of Siberia. Strengthened by this reinforcement,
Yermac continued his excurfions on all fides with his
ufual aaivity ; and gained feveral bloody viaories over
different princes, who were imprudent enough to after*
their independence.
In one of thefe expeditions he laid fiege to Kullara,
a fmall fortrefs upon the banks of the Irtifh, which ftill
belonged to Kutchum .Chan: but he found it fo bravely
defended by that monarch, that all his efforts to carry it
by ftorm proved ineffeaual.    Upon  his return to Sibir
 e O N 0_U EST   OF   SIBERIA.
he was followed at fome diftance by that prince, who
hung unperceived upon his rear ;. and was prepared to
feize any fortunate moment of attack which might occur
nor was it long before a favourable opportunity prefented
itfelf. The Ruffians to the number of about three hun*-
dred lay negligently polled in a fmall ifland,. formed by
two branches of the Irtifh.    The night was obfcure and §£§1
O - _ '■* Kutc
rainy ; and the troops, who were fatigued with a longchan"
march, repofed' themfelves-without fufpicion of danger.
Kutchum Chan, apprifed of their.fituation, filently advanced
at midnight with afelea body of troops;, and having forded
the river, came with fuch rapidity upon the Ruffians, as to
preclude: the ufe of their arms.- In the darknefs and
confufion of the night,, the latter were cut to pieces
almoft without oppofition; and fell a refiftlefs prey to
thofe adverfaries,. whom they had been accuftomed to conquer and defpife. The maffacre was fo univerfal, that
only one man is recorded to have efcaped, and to have
brought the news of this cataftrophe to his countrymen
at Sibir..
-    v
Yermac himfelf perifhed in the rout, though he did g* °f
not fall by the fword of the enemy.    In all the hurry
of furprife, he was not fo much infeaed with the general panic, as to forget his ufual intrepidity, which feemed
to be encreafed rather than abated by the danger of his,
prefent fituation.    After many defperate aas of heroifm,,
he cut his way through the troops who furrounded
him, and made to the banks of the Irtifh *. Being
-clofely purfued by a detachment of the enemy, he endeavoured to throw himfelf into a boat which lay near
the fliore; but flepping fhort, he fell into the water, -
and being incumbered with the weight of his armour,
funk inftantly to the bottom i.
His bodv was not long afterwards taken out of the
Irtifh, and expofed, by order of Kutchum Chan, to all
the infults which revenge ever fuggefted to barbarians
an the frenzy of fuccefs. But thefe firft tranfports of
xefentment had no fooner fubfided, than the Tartars
teftified the moft pointed indignation at the ungenerous
* Many difficulties have arifen concerning the branch of the Irtifh in
-which Yermac was drowned,; but it is now fufficiently afcertained that
.it was a canal, which fome time before this cataftrophe had been cut by
■order of that Coffac : Not far from the fpot. where-the Vagai falls inte i
.the Irtifh, the latter river forms a bend of fix verfts ; by cutting a canal
in a ftreight line from the two extreme points of this fweep, he fhortened
tthe length of the navigation.    S.R. G. p. 365—366.
*j~ Cyprian was appointed the firft archbifhop of Siberia,in 162-1. Upon
his arrival at Tobolfk, he enquired for feveral of the antient followers
-of Yermac who were ftill alive; and from them he made himfelf acquainted with the principal circumftances attending the expedition of
that Coffac, and the conqueft of Siberia. Thofe circumftances he tranf-
asiifted to writings and thefe paper* are the archives of the Siberian
hiftory; from which the feveral hiftorians of that country have drawn
-their.relations. Sava Yefimoff, who was himfelf one of Yertnac's followers, is one of the moft accurate hiftorians of thofe times. He carries
-down his hiftory to the year 1636.    Fif. Sib. Get. I. p. 43o.
ferocity of their leader. The prowefs of Yermac, his
confummate- valour and magnanimity, virtues which
barbarians know how to prize, rofe upon their recollection. They made a fudden tranfition from one extreme to the other : they reproached their leader for
ordering, themfelves for being the inftruments of indignity to fuch venerable remains. At length their heated
imaginations proceeded even to confecrate his memory:
they interred his body with all the rites of Pagan fu-
perftition,; and offered up facrifices to his manes.
Many miraculous ftories were foon fpread abroad, "and v^erat,'°n
J *■ ' paid to his
met with implicit belief. The touch of his body wasMemory-
fuppofed to have been an inftantaneous cure for all disorders ; and even his clothes and arms were faid to be
endowed with the fame efficacy. A flame of fire wras
-reprefented as fometimes hovering about his tomb, and
fometimes as ftretching in one luminous body from the
fame fpot towards the heavens. A prefiding influence
over the affairs of the chace and of war was attributed
to his departed fpirit; and numbers reforted to his tomb
to invoke his tutelary aid in concerns fo interefting to
uncivilized nations. Thefe idle fables, though they
evince the fuperftitious credulity of the Tartars, convey
,at the fame time the ftrongeft teftimony of their veneration for the memory of Yermac ;   and this  veneration
C -c greatly
greatly contributed to the fubfequent progrefs of fhe
Ruffians in thofe regions $g
With Yermac expired for a time the Ruffian empire
in Siberia. The news of his defeat and death no fooner
reached the garrifon of Sibir, than an haftdred and fifty
troops, the fad remains of that formidable army which
had gained fuch a feries of almoft incredible victories,
The Ruffians retired from  the fortrefs, and evacuated Siberia.    Not-
(Hj»c Siberia.
withftanding this d'hafter, the court of Mofcow did not
abandon its defign upon that country ; which a variety
of favourable circumftances ftill concurred to render a
flattering object of Ruffian ambition. Yermac's fagacity
had difcovered new and com*n@dious routes for the
march of troops acrofs thofe inhofpitable regions. The
rapidity with which he had overrun the territories of
Kutchum Chan, taught the Ruffians to confider the
Tartars as an eafy prey. Many of the tribes who had
been rendered tributary by Yermac, had teftified a cheer-
* Even folate as the middle of the Bfixt century, this- venerarifcs fof
the memory of Yermac had not fubfided. Allai, a powerful prince of
the Calmucs, is faid to have been cured-of a dangerous diforder, by
.mixing fome earth taken from Yermae's tomb in water, and drihfeing
the infufion. That pr&ce is alfo reported to have carried with him a
fmall portion of the fame, earth, whenever he engaged in any important
enterprize. This earth he fuperftitioufly confidered as a kind of charm ;
and-was perfuaded that he always feeured a profperous ifl%e to his affairs;
II this- precaution.    S. R. G. V. VI. #. 391.
ful acqtiiefceiiee under the fovereignty of the Tzar i and
were inclined to reriew their allegiance upon the firft
opportunity.    Others looked upon all refiftance as unavailing, and had learned, from dear-bought experience,
to tremble at the very name of a Ruffian.    The natural
ftrength of the country, proved not  to  be   irrefiftible"
when united, was confidefcably weakened by its inteftlt#
commotions*    Upon the retreat of the gartfifon of Sibir,
that   fortrefs, together with the  adjacent diflrict,   was
feized by Seyidyak, fon of the former fovereign, whom
Kutchum Chan had dethroned and put to death.    QthW
princes availed themfelves  of the general confufion t&
affert independency ;  and Kutchum  Chan was  able to
regain only a fmall portion of thofe dominions, of which
he had been ftripped by Yermac.
Influenced by  ttoefe motives,   the court  of MofcowThe Ruffians
* * i | re-enter
fent a body of three hundred troops into Siberia,Slbena*
who penetrated to the banks of the Tura as far as
Tfehingi almoft without oppofition. There they biii$
the fort of Tumen, and re-eftablifhed their authority
over the neighbouring diflrict. Being foon afterwards
reinforced by an additional number of troops, they were
enabled to extend their operations, and to erect the for-
treffes of Tobolfk, Sungur, and Tara. The erection of |||||
thefe and  other   fortreffes   was foon   attended with aTemtl
C c  2 If fpeedy
 x96 CONQUEST   OF   SI B"E R I A.
fjpeedy recovery of the: whole territory, which Yermac-
Jnad reduced under the Ruffian yoke.
All SiBeria*
Progrefs of
the Ruffians
checked by
"he Chinefe.
This fuccefs was oniy the fore-runner of ftill greater-
acquifitions. The Ruffians pufhed their conqueft far
and wide : wherever they appeared, the'-Tartars were
either reduced or exterminated. New towns were built
and colonies were planted on all fides.. Before a century
had well elapfed, all that- vaft tract of country now called-
Siberia, which ftretches from the confines of Europe to-
the Eaftern Ocean, and from the Frozen Sea to the prefent frontiers of China,.was annexed to the. Ruffian dominions.
A ftill larger extent of territory had probably been!
won ; and all the various tribes of independent Tartary-
which lie between the South-Eaftern extremity of the
Ruffian empire, and the Chinefe Wall, would have followed the fate of the Siberian, hordes, if the power of
China had not fuddenly interpofed.
C H A P.
 C m ]
CHAP.     II.
Commencement of hoflilities between the Ruffians and"
Chinefe—Difputes concerning the limits of the two:
empires—Treaty of Nerflhinsk*—Embafjies from the courts
of Ruffia to Pekin—Treaty of Kiachta—Eflabliflhment:
of the commerce between the two nations,.
"^OWjARDS the middle of the feventeenth century,
the Ruffians- were  rapidly extending themfelves*
Eaftward   through- that important territory, which lies
on each fide of the river * Amoor.    Thev foon reduced;?1/6 of aniDK>-
■' litres between.
feveral independent Tungufian hordes; and built a chain La ci£rL
of fmaffi fortrefles along,, the banks of the above-mentioned river, of which the principal were Albafin, and
Kamarfkoi Oftrog.    Not   long afterwards,  the Chinefe
under- f Camhi conceived- a fimilar. defign of fubduing.
*" Amoor is the name given by the Ruffians to this river; it is called
Sakalin-TJla bv the Manfliurs, and was formerly denominated Karamu-
ran, or the Black River, by the-Mongols. S. R. G. II. p. 293.
\ Camhi "was the fecond emperor of the Manfhur race, who made.
themfelves matters of China in 1624.
The Manfhurs were originally an obfcure tribe of the Tungufian Tartars whofe.territories lay South of the Amoor, and bordered upon the
kingdom of Corea, and-the province of Leaotong. They began to emerge
ATbafin deftroyed by t
x the fame hordes. Accordingly the two great powers of
Ruffia and China, thus pointing their views to the fame
objecl, unavoidably claflied ; and, after feveral jealoufies
and intrieues, broke out into open hoflilities about the
year 1680. The Chinefe laid Bege to Kamarfkoi Oftrog,;
and though repslfed in this attempt, found means to cut
off feveral ftr'aggiing parties of Ruffians. Thefe anjurno-
fities induced the Tzar Alexey Michaeloyitch to fend an
embafTy to Pekin ; but this meafure did not pspoduce the
defired effect. The Chinefe attacked Albafin with a con-
fi'derable force : having compelled the Ruffian garrifon
to capitulate, they demolifbed that and all the Ruffian
forts upon the Amoor ; and returned^ with a large n umber of prSbners, to their own country.
Albafin rebuilt     jsfot lone after their departure, a body of fix teen him-
by the Ruf- «-> 1 ' J
edlyihe'eg" dred Ruffians advanced along the Amoor; and conftru&ed
a new fort, under the old name of Albafin,j The Chinefe were no fooner appirifed of Iheir return, than they
from obfcurity at the beginning of the feventeenth century. About that
time their chief Aifcbin-Giord reduced feveral. neighbouring hordes;
and, having incorporated them with, his own tribe, under the general
name of Manfhur, he became formidable even to the Chinefe. Shuntfchi
grandfon of this chief, by an extraordinary conctrrrence of circumftances/
Avas raifed while an infant, to the throne of China, of which his fuccefibrs
ftill continue in pofleffion. Shuntfchi died in 1662., and was fucceeded
by Gamjjj^ who is well known from the accounts of the jefuit mifiiori-
For an account of die revolution of China, fee Duhalde, Defer, de la
Chine, Bell's Journey to Pekin, and Fif. Sic. Gef. torn. I. p. 463.
 R W S S'#A   #3Sf D   C ti I N A.
marched inftantly towards  that river, and fat down before Albafin with an army of feven thoufand men,  and
a large train  of artillery.    They battered the new fortrefs for  feveral weeks,  without being able to make a
breach, and without attempting to take it by florm. The
belieged, though not  much annoyed by the unfkilful.
'operations- of the enemy, were exhaufted with the complicated miferies of ficknefs and famine; and notwith-
flanding  they  continued to make a gallant refiftance*.
they muft foon have funk under their diftreffes, if the
Chinefe had not voluntarily retired, in confequence of a
treaty being fet afoot between the two courts of Mofcow
and Pekin-     For this purpofe  the Ruffian embaffador
Golowin had left Mofcow fo early as the year 1685,. accompanied* by a large body of troops, in order to fecure
his perfon, and enforce   refpect to his embaffy.    The
difficulty of procuring  fubfiftence for any  confiderable
number of men in thole defolate regions, joined to the
ru<5-gednefs of the roads,  and the length of the march,
prevented- his arrival' at Selfengifk until the year 1687,
From  thence  meffengers were immediately  difpatched
with overtures  of peace to the Chinefe government at
Pekin. <$j§j
After feveral delays, occasioned partly by policy, and
partly by the pofe&re of affairs in the Tartar country
through  which the  Chinefe were to  pafs,  embaffadors
left Pekin in the beginning of June 1689. Golovia
had propofed receiving them at Albafin; but while he
waas proceeding to that fortrefs, the Chinefe embaffadors
prefented.themfelves at the gates of Nerilainfk, efcorted
by fuch a numerous army, and fuch a formidable train
of artillery, that Golovin was conftrained, from motives
of fear, to conclude the negotiation almoft upon their
.own terms.
The conferences were held under tents, in an open
plain, near the town of Nerfhinfk ; where the treaty
-was figned and fealed by the plenipotentaries of the tw©
-courts. When it was propofed to ratify it by oath, the
.Ghinefe embaffadors offered to fwear upon a crucifix.;
but Golovin preferred their taking an.oath .in the name
of their own gods.
•^Treaty of
This treaty firft -checked the progrefs of fhe -"Ruffian
arms in thofe parts ; and laid the foundations of an important and regular commerce between the .two na<-
By the firft and fecond articles, the South-Eaftem
boundaries of the Ruffian empire were formed by a
•ridge.of mountains, ftretching North of the Amoor
from the fea of Ochotfk to the fource of the fmall river
Gorbitza*'then by that river to its influx into the
Amoor, and laftly by the Argoon, from its junction with
•the Shilka up to its fource.
By the fifth article reciprocal liberty of trade wa?
granted to all the fubjects of the two empires, who were
provided with pafs-ports from their refpective courts f.
This treaty was figned on the ayth of Auguft, in the
year 1689, under the reign' of Ivan and Peter Alexie-
witch, by which the Ruffians loft, exclufively of a large
territory., the navigation of the river Amoor. The importance of this lofs was not at that time underftood ;
and has only been felt fince the difcovery of Kamtchatka,
and of the iflands between Afia and America. The products of thefe new-difcovered countries might, by means
of the Amoor, have been conveyed by water into the
diftricT  of Nerfhinfk,   from   whence there is  an eafy
I There are two Gorbitzas -; the firft. falls into the Amoor, near tire
conflux of the Argoon and Shilka; the fecond falls into the Shilka. The
former was meant by the Ruffians; but the Chinefe fixed upon the latter
for the boundary, and have carried their point. Accordingly the prefent
limits are fomewhat different from thofe mentioned in the text,
•are carried from-the point, where the Shilka and Argoon unite to form
the Amoor, Weflward along the Shilka, until they reach the mouth of
tha Weftern Gorbitza ; from thence they are continued to the fource of
the laft-mentioned river, and along the chain of mountains as before. By
this alteration the Ruffian limits are fomewhat abridged.
I S. R.G. II. p-435-
D d tranfpor
Rife of the
with China.
tranfport - by land to Kiachta: whereas the fame mer-
chandife,- after being landed at Ochotfk, is now carried,
over a large tract of country, partly upon rivers of difficult
navigation, and partly along rugged and almoft impaffa-
ble roads.
In return, the Ruffians obtained what they long and
repeatedly^ aimed at, a regular and permanent trade with
the Chinefe.    The firft intcrcourfe  between Ruffia and
China commenced in the beginning of the feventeenth
century *.     At that period a fmall quan ity of Chinefe
merchandife was procured, by the merchants of Tomfk
and other adjacent towns, from the Calmucs.    The rapid and profitable fale of thefe commodities encouraged
certain Way vodes of Siberia to attempt a direct and open
communication with  China.     For  this  purpofe feveral
deputations were fent at different times to Pekin from
Tobolfk, Tomfk, and other Ruffian fettlements: thefe
deputations, although they failed of obtaining the grant
of a regular commerce, were neverthelefs attended- with
fome important  confequences,    The  general  good reception,  which the agents met with, tempted the  Ruffian merchants to fend occafional traders to Pekin.    By
thefe means a faint conne&ion with that metropolis was
kept alive: the Chinefe learned the  advantages of the
* S. R. G. VIII. p. 504,  & feq.
Ruffian trade,  and were gradually prepared for its fub-
•fequent  eftablifhment.     This commerce, carried on  by
intervals,  was entirely fufpended by the hoflilities upon
the river Amoor.     But no fooner was the treaty of Ner-
•fhinfk figned, than the,.Ruffians engaged with extraordinary alacrity in this favourite branch of traffic.     The
advantages of this trade were foon found to be fo considerable, that Peter I. conceived an idea of ftill farther
-enlarging it.     Accordingly,  in 1692,   he   fent  Isbrand
"Ives,  a-Dutchman in his fervice, to Pekin, who requefted
and obtained, that the liberty of trading to China, which i0WZtrade
. . to Pekin.
by the late treaty was granted to individuals, mould be
Extended to caravans.
In confequence of this arrangement, fucceffive caravans wTent from Ruffia to Pekin, where a caravanfary
was allotted for their reception; and all their expences
during their continuance in that metropolis defrayed by
the Emperor of China. The right of fending thefe caravans, and the profits refulting from them, belonged to
the crown of Ruffia. In the mean time, private merchants continued as before to carry on a feparate trade
with the Chinefe, not only at Pekin, but alfo at the head
quarters of the Mongols. The camp of thefe roving-
Tartars was generally to be found near the conflux of the
Orchon and Tola, between the Southern frontiers of
Siberia and the Mongol defert.     A kind of annual fair
Dd 1 was
 Embaffy of
was held at this fpot by the Ruffian and Chinefe merchants ; where they brought their refpe&ive goods for
fale; and continued until they were difpofed of. This,
rendezvous foon became a fcene of riot and confufion ;
and repeated complaints were tranfmitted to the Chinefe
Emperor of the drunkennefs and mifconduct of the Ruffians. Thefe complaints made a ftill greater impreffion
from a coincidence of fimilar exceffes, for which the Ruffians at Pekin had become notorious..
Exafperated by  the  frequent reprefentatibns  of  his
fubjects, Camhi threatened to expell the Ruffians froma
his dominions, and to prohibit them from carrying on
any commerce,  as well in China as in. the country of the
Thefe  untoward"   circumftances   occafibned   another-
embaffy to Pekin, in the year 1719.    Leff Vaffiiievitch;
IfmailofF, a captain of the Ruffian guards, who was fent
embalfador. upon this occafion, fucceedfed in the  neg-o-
tiation, and adjufted every difficulty to the fa'tisfactiom
of both parties. At his departure he was permitted to
leave behind Laurence Lange, who had accompanied him
to Pekin, in the character of agent for the caravans; for
the purpofe of fuperintending the conduct of the Ruffians. His refidence however in that metropolis was but
fhort;   for he was  foon afterwards compelled, by the
 R U S S I A   A K D   C H I N A. «,,
Chinefe, to return. His difmiffion was owing, partly,
to a fudden caprice of that fufpicious people, and partly
to a mifunderftanding, which had recently broke out
between the two courts, in relation to fome Mongol tribes
who bordered upon Siberia. A fmall number of thefe
Mongols had put themfelves under the protection of
Ruffia, and were immediately demanded by the Chinefe;
but the Ruffians refufed compliance,, under pretence that
no article in the treaty of Nerfhinfk could, with any appearance of probability, be conftrued as extending to the
Mongols. The Chinefe were incenfed at this refufal;-
and their refentment was ftill further inflamed by the
diforderly conduct' of the Ruffian traders, who, freed
from- all controul by the departure of .their agent, had
indulged, without reftraint, their ufual propeniity to
excefs. This concurrence of unlucky incidents extorted,
in 17 22", an order from Camhi for the total expulfion of^SSfJ^"
the Ruffians from the Chinefe and Mongol territories:
Thefe orders were regoroufly executed ; and all inter-
courfe between-the two nations immediately ceafed.
Affairs continued'in this ftate until the year  i?27? Ir^rSkf
when the count Sava Vladiflavitch Ragufinfki, a Dalmatian in the fervice of Ruffia, was difpatched to Pekin; ;
His orders were at all events to compofe the differences,
between the two courts relating to the Mongol tribes; to
fettle the Southern frontiers of the Ruffian empire in
that quarter ; and to obtain the permiffion of renewing
the trade with China. Accordingly that embaffador
prefented a new plan for a treaty of limits and commerce to Yundfchin, fon and fucceffor of Camhi; by
which the frontiers of the two empires were -finally
traced as they exift at prefent, and the commerce efta-
blifhed upon a permanent balls, calculated to prevent
as far as poffible all future foucces of mifunderftand-
ing. This plan being approved by the emperor, Chinefe commiffioners were immediately -appointed to negotiate with the Ruffian embaffador itpoii the banks
of the Bur-a, a fmall river which flows, South of the
confines of Siberia, into the Orchon near its junction
vwith the Selenga,.
Treaty of
At this conference, the old linafe which are mentioned
in the treaty of Nerfhinfk, were continued from t^e
fource of the Argoon Weftwards as far as the mountain
•Sabyntaban, which is fituated at a fmall diftance from
-the fpot where the conflux of the two rivers Uleken and
Kemtzak form the Yenisei: this boundary feparates the
Ruffian dominions from the terjatory of the Mongols,
who are under the protection of China.
It was likewife ftipulated, that for the future all negotiations mould be  tranfacted between the tribunal of
5 foreign
foreign affairs at Pekin, and the board of foreign affairs
at St. Peterfburg ; or in matters of inferior moment
between the commanders of the frontiers #..
The moft  important articles relating to commercej
were as follow:
A caravan was allowed to gcr to  Pekin every three Account of-
the Treaty
luc 1 re
years, on condition  of its not confining of more than j;eladve
0 Comme
two hundred perfons ; during their refidence in that
metropolis, their expences were no longer to be defrayed
by the emperor of China. Notice was to be fent to the
Chinefe court immediately upon their arrival at the
frontiers ; where an officer was to meet and accompany
them to Pekin..
The privilege before enjoyed by individuals of carrying on a promifcuous traffic in the Chinefe and Mongol
territories was taken away, and no merchandize belonging to private perfons was permitted to be brought for
fale beyond the frontiers. For the purpofe of pre-
ferving, confiftently with this regulation, the privilege
of commerce to individuals, two places of refort were
* This article was inferted,  becaufe the Chinefe emperor, from a,
ridiculous idea of fuperiority, had contemptuouily refufed to hold any
correfpondence with the court of Ruffia.
ppointed on the confines of Siberia : one called Ki-
atchta, from a rivulet of that name near which it
ftands; and the other Zuruchaitu: at thefe places a
free trade was reciprocally indulged to the fubjects of
the two nations.
A permiffion was at the fame time obtained for
building a Ruffian church within the precincts of their
caravanfary ; and for the celebration of divine fervice,
four priefts were allowed to re fide at Pekin*. The
fame favour was alfo extended to fome Ruffian Scholars f,
* The firft Ruffian church at Pekin was built for the accommodation
of the Ruffians taken prifoners at Albafin. Thefe perfons were carried
to Pekin, and the place appointed for their habitation in that city was
called the Ruffian Street, a name it ftill retains. They were fo well received by the Chinefe, that, upon the conclufion of the treaty of Ner-
fhinfk, they refufed to return to their native country. And as they
intermarried with the Chinefe women, their defcendants are quite naturalized: and have for the-moft part adopted not only the laneuap-e.
but even the .religion of the Chinefe. Hence, the above-mentioned
church, though it ftill exifts, is no longer applied to the purpofe of
divine worfhip : its prieft was transferred to the church, which was built
.within the walls of the caravanfary.
-f- The good effects of this inftitution have already been perceived;
A Ruffian, whofe name is Leontieff, after having refided ten years at
Pekin, is returned to Peterfburg. He has given feveral tranflations and
extracts of fome interefting Chinefe publications, viz. Part of the Hiftory
of China ; the Code of the Chinefe Laws; Account of the Towns and
Revenues, &c. of the Chinefe Empire, extracted from a Treatife of
Geography, lately printed at Pekin. A fhort account of this Extract is
given in the Journal of St. Peterfburg for April, 1779.
for the purpofe of learning the. Chinefe tongue; in order to qualify themfelves for interpreters between the
two nations..
This treaty, called the treaty of Kiachta, was, on the
fourteenth of June, 1728, concluded and ratified by the
count Ragufinfki and three Chinefe plenipotentaries upon
the fpot, where Kiachta was afterwards built: it is the
bails of all transactions fince carried on between Ruffia
and China*.
One innovation in the mode of carrying on the- trade
to China, which has been introduced fmce the acceffion
of the prefent emprefs Catherine II. deferves to be mentioned in this place. Since the year 1755 no caravans
have been fent to Pekin. Their firft difcontinuance was
owing to a mifunderftanding between the two courts of
Peterfburg and Pekin in 1759. Their difufe after
the reconciliation had taken place, arofe from the following circumftances. The exportation and importation
of many principal commodities, particularly the moft
valuable furs, were formerly prohibited to individuals,
and folely appropriated to caravans belonging to the
crown. By thefe reftrictions the Ruffian trade to China
was o-reatly  fhackled and   circumfcribed.    The prefent
S.R.G. VIILp. 513.
E e
 T R A N S A GTI CD W S   R E T W 1 E N,   &c*
Monopoly of
she i'ur -Trade
emprefs (who, amidft many excellent regulations whicfi
characterife her reign, has fhewn' herfelf invariably attentive to the improvement of the. Ruffian commerce)
abolifhed, in 1762, the monopoly of the fur trade, and
renounced in favour of her fubjects the exclufive privilege which the crown, enjoyed of fending caravans to,
Pekin $% By thefe eoncef&ons the psoftts of the trade-
have been confiderably encreafed i the great expence*
hazard) and delay* of traafportkig the mexchandife occa»-
fionally from the frontiers of Siberia to Pekin, has been*
retrenched ; and. Kiachta is now rendered the center
of the Ruffian and Chinefe commerce
» S..BLG.vm"p. 5,20.
'Account of the Ruffian and Chinefe fettlements upon the*
confines of Siberia—defcription of the Ruffian frontier
town Kiachta—of the Chinefe frontier town Maimatf-
chin—its buildings^ pagodasy ^§fV.
T) Y the laft mentioned treaty it was ftipulated, that
*~* the commerce between Ruffia and China mould be
tranfacted at the frontiers. Accordingly two fpots were
marked out for that purpofe spon the confines of Siberia,
where they border uporFthe Mongol defert;   one near RBffi»n a8«r
Chinefe SertJc-
the brook Kiachta, and the other at Zurtichaitti.     ThementuP°ad*
defcription of the former of thefe places forms the fub- Kuchca-
ject of this chapter.
This fettlement confifts of a Ruffian and Chinefe
town, both fituated in a romantic valley, furrounded
by high, rocky, and for the moft part well-wooded, mountains. This valley is interfered by the brook Kiachta,
which rifes in Siberia, and, after warning both the Ruffian
and Chinefe town, falls into the Bura, at a fmall diftance
from the frontiers.
The Ruffian   fettlement is called Kiachta from theg£»££
,.,/• j O '    t'er Town
abovementioned brook:   it lies in  124 degrees is rm-Kiachta.
ffi. E e 2 nutes.
nutes longitude from the ifle of Fero, and 35 degrees
N. latitudte, at the diftance of 5514 verfts from Mofcow,
and 1532 from Pekin.
TheFortref.. it conffits of a fortrefs and a fmall' fuburb. The
fortrefs, which is built upon a gentle rife, is a fquare
enclofed with palifadoes,. and ftrengthened witfi wooden
baftions at the feveral angles- There are three gatesy
at which guards are constantly ftationed : one of the
gates faces the North, a fecond the South towards the
Chinefe frontiers, and a third the Eaft clofe to the brook
Kiachta. The principal public buildings in the fortrefs
are a wooden church, the governor's houfe^ the cuftom
houfe, the magazine for prqyifionSj^ and the, guaaj-houfe*
It contains alfo a range of fhops and warehouses, barracks for the garrifon, and feveral houfes belonging to
the crown ; the latter are generally inhabited by the
principal merchants.. Thefe buildings are moftly of
suburb. The fuburb, which is furrounded with a wooden wall
covered at the top with chevaux de ffize, contains na
more than an hundred and twenty houfes very irregularly built; it has the fame number of gates as the
fortrefs, which are alfo guarded. Without this fuburb
upon the high road leading to Selenginfk, ftand a few
houfes, and the magazine for rhubarb.
This fettlement is but indifferently provided with
water both in quality and quantity ; for although the
brook Kiachta is dammed up as it flows by the fortrefs,
yet it is fo fhallow in fummer, that, unlefs after heavy
rains, it is fcarcely fufficient to fxrpply the inhabitants.
Its troubled and unwholefome, and the fprings
which rife in the neighbourhood are either foul or
bracl^ifh: from thefe circumftances, the principal inhabitants are obliged to fend for water from a fpring in
the Chinefe. diflrict. The foil of the adjacent country
is moftly fand or rock, and extremely barren. If the
frontiers of Ruffia were extended about nine verfts more
South to the rivulet of Bura;. the inhabitants of Kiachta
would then enjoy good water, a fruitful foil, and plenty-
of fifh, all which advantages are at. prefent confined u>
the Chinefe.
The garrifon of Kiachta confifts of a company of
regular foldiers, and a certain number of Coffacs; the
former are occasionally changed,, but the latter are fixed
inhabitants of the place. It is the. province of the
commander to infpect the frontiers, and, in conjunction*
with the prefident of the Chinefe merchants, to fettle
all affairs of an inferior nature ; but in matters of importance recourfe muft be had to the chancery of Selen-
einuV,. and to the governor of Irkutfk.    The Ruffian.'
. merchants*,
merchants, and the agents of the Ruffian trading company, are the principal inhabitants of Kiachta.
The limits Weft wards from this fettlement to the
river Selenga, and Eaftwards as far as Tchikoi, are
bounded with chevaux de frize, placed there to pre-
vent a contraband trade in Cattle, for the exportation of
which a confiderable duty is paid to the crown. AH
the outpofts along the frontiers Weftwards as far as the
government of Tobolfk, and Eaftwards to the mountains
of fnow, are under the command of the governor of
The moft elevated of the moisatains  that fumrand
the valley of Kiachta, and which is called by the Mom*
gols Burgultei, commands  the Ruffian as well   as the
Chinefe town;  for this reafon, the Chinefe, at the con-
clufion of the laft frontier treaty, demanded the ceffion
of this mountain under the pretext, that fome of t&eir
deified   anceftors were buried  upon its fummit.    The
Ruffians gave way to their requeft, and fuffered the
boundary to be brought back to the North fide of the
, Maimatfeliin,
■the Chinefe
The Chinefe town is called, by the Chinefe and Mongols, Ma.matfchin, which CgniBes fortrefs of commerce
The Ruffians term it the Chinefe ViUage  (MMfe*.
 ||ii§l§iP   ANB   CHINA.
Sloboda) and alio Naimatfchin, which is a corruption of
Maimatfchin.. It is fituated about an hundred and fort/'
yards South of the fortrefs of Kiachta, and nearly parallel to it. Midway between this place and the Ruffian
fortrefs, two pofts about ten feet high are planted in
order to mark the frontiers of the two empires: one is
infcribed with Ruffian, the other with Manfhur cha*
racters *.
Mainatfchin has no other fortification than a wooderc
wall, and a fmall ditch of about three feet broad ; the
latter was dug in the year 1756, during the war between the Chinefe and the Calmucs. The town is of
an oblong form : its length is feven hundred yards,,
and its breadth four hundred. On each of the four
fides a large gate faces the principal ftreets; over each
of thefe gates there is a wooden guard-houfe for the
Chinefe garrifbn, which confifts of Mongols in tattered
clothes,, and armed with clubs. Without the gatey which
looks to the Ruffian frontiers, and about the diftance of
eight yards from the entrance, the Chinefe have raifed
a wooden fcreen, fo conftructed as to intercept all view
of the ftreets from without.
* Upon the mountain to the Weft of Kiachta,. the limit is- agah*
marked on the Ruffian fide by an heap of ftones and earth, ornamented
an the top with a crofs; and on. the Chinefe by a pile of ftones in the
flkape of a pyramid.   Pal&S:Reife,. P. HI. p. no.
This town contains two hundred houfes and about
twelve hundred inhabitants. It has two principal ftreets
of about eight yards broad, croffing each other in the
middle at right angles, with two by-ftreets running from
North to South. They are not paved, but are laid with
gravel, and kept remarkably clean. jgg
The houfes are fpacious, uniformly built of wood, of
only one ftory, not more than fourteen feet high, plaif-
tered and white-wafhed ; they are conftructed round a
court yard of about feventy feet fquare, which is ftrewed
with gravel, and has an appearance of neatnefs. Each
houfe confifts of a fitting room, fome warehoufes
and a kitchen. In the houfes of the wealthier fort
the roof is made of plank; but in meaner habitations of lath covered over with turf. Towards the
ftreets moft of the houfes have arcades of wood projecting forwards from the roof like a penthoufe, and
fupported by ftrong pillars. The windows are large
after the European manner, but on account of the dearnefs of glafs and Ruffian talk are generally of paper,
. excepting a few panes of glafs in the fitting room.
The fitting room looks feldom towards the ftreets :
it is a kind of fhop, where the feveral 'patterns of
merchandize are placed in receffes, fitted up with fhelves,
and fecured with paper doors for the purpofe of keepin
out the dull.    The windows are generally ornamented
with little   paintings,   and   the   walls   are hung with
Chinefe   paper.     Half   the   floor  is   of  hard   beaten
clay;  the other half  is covered with boards,   and rifes
about    two    feet   in   height.       Here   the   family   fit
in the day-time and fleep at night.    By the fide of this
raifed part,   and nearly upon the fame level, there is a
fquare  brick ftove, with a ftreighf perpendicular cylindrical  excavation, which is  heated with fmall pieces of
"wood.    From the bottom of this ftove a tube defcends,
and  is   carried  zigzag  under the boarded floor above-
mentioned, and from thence to a chimney which opens
into the ftreet.    By this contrivance, although the ftove
is   always open and the flame vifible, yet the room is
never troubled in the leaft degree with fmoke.   There is
fcarcely any furniture in the room, excepting one large
dining table   in  the lower   part,   and  two   fmall lackered   ones   upon the raifed floor:   one of thefe tables
is always provided with  a chaffing difh, which ferves
to light their pipes when the ftove is not heated,
In this room there are feveral fmall niches covered
with lilken curtains, before which are placed lamps
that are lighted upon feftivals; thefe niches contain painted paper idols, a ftone or metal veffel, wherein
the afhes of incenfe are collected, feveral fmall orna-
p f ments
ments and artificial flowers :   the Chinefe readily allow
Grangers to draw afide the curtains,   and look at the
The Bucharian * merchants inhabit the South Weft
quarter of Maimatfchin. Their houfes are not fo large
nor commodious as thofe of the Chinefe, although the
greateft part of them carry on a very confiderable
The Governor     The Surgutfchei, or governor of Maimatfchin, has the
of Maimatf- .
chin- care of the police, as well as the direction of all affairs
relating to commerce : he is generally a perfon of
rank, oftentimes a Mandarin, who has mifbehaved
himfelf in another ftation, and is fent here as a kind
of punifhment. He is diftinguifhed from the reft by
the cryftal button of his cap, and by a peacock's t fea-
* j| The chief merchandizes which the Buchanans bring to Ruffia,
" are cotton, fluffs, and half-filks, fpun and raw cotton, lamb-fkins,
" precious {tones, gold-duff, unprepared nitre, fal-ammoniac, &c."
See Ruffia, or a complete Hiftorical Account of all the nations that
eompofe that empire. V. II. p. 141, a very curious and interefting work
lately publifhed.
•f- In China the princes of the blood wear three peacock's feathers,
nobles of the higheft diftinction two, and the lower clafs of the nobility
©tie. It is alfo a mark of high rank to drive a carriage with four
wheels. The governor of Maimatfchin rode in one with only tw#
wheels. All the Chinefe wear buttons of different colours in their caps,
which alfo denote the rank.   Pallas Reife, P. III. p. i26.
ther hanging behind. The Chinefe give him the
title of Amban, which fignifies commander in chief;
and no one appears before him without bending the
knee, in which pofture the perfon who brings a petition
muft remain until he receives the governor's anfwer*
His falary is not large ; but the prefents which he receives from the merchants amount annually to a cofifi*
der able fum.
The moft remarkable public buildings in Maimatfchin, are the governor's houfe, the theatre, and two
The governor's  houfe is larger than the others, and Houfe of the
° p Governor.
better furnifhed ; it is diftinguilhed by a chamber where
the court of juftiee is held, and by two high poles before
the entrance ornamented with flags.
The theatre is fituated clofe to the wall of the town Theatre.
near the great pagoda : it is a kind ,of fmall fhed, neatly
' ^aintedj open in front, and merely fpacious enough to
contain the ftage; the audience ftand in the ftreet.
Near it are two high poles, upon which large flags with
Chinefe infcriptions are hoifted on feftivals. On fuch
occafions the fervants belonging to the merchants play
fhort burlefque farces in honour of their idols.
F f a
The fmall
The Idol
The fmalleft of the two Pagodas is a* wooden building,,
ftanding upon pillars, in the centre of the towm at the
place where the two principal ftreets crofs*     It is a Chinefe tower of two ftories, adorned on  the outfide with
fmall   columnsj   paintings,,  and little  iron   bells,   &-e.
The firft ftory is fquare, the fecond octangular..^.In the
Ibwer ftory is-a pi&ure reprefenting the God Tien, which
fignifies, according to the explanation of the moft. inteb-
ligent Chinefe, the moft high God, who rules over the ■
thirty-two heavens.     The Manfllurs*, it-is faid, call'this-
idol Abcho-; and-the Mongols, Tingheru. heaven,- or the
God of heaven.     He is reprefented fitting with his head
uncovered, and encircled with a ray* of glory fimilar to.
that which furrounds the head of our Saviour in the Roman, catholic paintings-;   his hair is long'and flowing;
he holds in his right hand a drawn fword,  and his left
is extended as in the act of giving a benediction.-    On one
fide of this  figure  two youths, on the other  a maidem
and a grey-headed old man, are delineatedi
* When Mr. Pallas-obtained permifEon of the governor to fee this
temple, the latter allured him that the Jefuits of Pekin and theiccon-
verts adored this idol. From whence he ingenioufly conjectures, either
that the refemblance between this idol, and the reprefentations of our
Saviour by the Roman Catholicks, was the occasion of this aflertion ; or
that the Jefuits, in order to excite the devotion of the converts, have,
out of policy, given to the picture of our Saviour a refemblance' to the
Tien of the Chinefe.    Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 119.
The upper ftory contains the picture of another idol in
a black and white checquered cap, with-the fame figures
of three young perfons and a little old man. There are
no altars in this temple, and no other ornaments excepting thefe pictures and their frames. It is opened only on
feftivals,. and ftrangers cannot fee it without permiffion.
The  great  Pagoda *y fituated before  the governor's
houfe, and near the principal gate looking to the fouthj
and*   more   magnificent   than   the   former.
The great Pa*
godaand its.?
Strangers are allowed to. fee it at all times, without the
leaft difficulty,, provided they are one of
the priefts, who are always to be found in the area of
the temple* This area is furrounded with chevaux de
frize : the entrance is from the fouth through two gates
with a fmall building, between therm In the infide of
this building are two receffes with rails before them, behind which the images of two.horfes as big as life are
coarfly mouldecLout of clay ; they arefaddled and bridled,
and attended by two human figures dreffed like grooms:
the horfe to- the right is of. a chefnut colour, the other
is dun with a black" mane and tail, the former, is in the.
* The great Pagoda is omitted in the engraving of Maimatfchin prefixed to this chapter; this omifflon was owing to.the artifrs being obliged .
to. leave Kiachta before  he had  time. to finifh  the  drawings   In
every  other  refpect,   the   view,   as  I was   informed by  a.  gentle-
man who has been on the fpot, is complete, and reprefented.with the-.
greateft exadtnefs.
& 1 attitude.
attitude of fpringing, the latter of walking. Near each
horfe a banner of yellow filk, painted with filver dragons,
is difplayed.
In the middle of this area are two wooden turrets fur-
' rounded with galleries ; a large bell of eaft iron which is
ftruck occafionally with a large wooden mallet, hangs in
fhe Eaftern turret; the other contains two kettle drums
of an enormous fize, fimilar to thofe made ufe of in the
religious ceremonies of the Calmucs. On each fide of
this area are ranges of buildings inhabited by the prieft
of the temple.
This area communicates by means of an handfome
gateway with the inner court, which is bordered on each
fide by fmall compartments open in front, with rails before them; in the infide of thefe compartments the
legendary ftories of the idols are exhibited in a feries
of hiftorical paintings. At the farther extremity
of this court ftands a large building, conftructed in the
fame ftyle of architecture as the temple. The infide is
fixty feet long and thirty broad : it is ftored with antient
weapons, and inftruments of war of a prodigious fize;
fuch as fpears, fcythes, and long pikes, with broad
blades, fhields, coats of arms, and military enfigns re-
prefenting hands #,   dragons heads,   and other carved
* Thefe hands referable the manipulary ftandards of the Romans.
figures. All thefe warlike inftruments are richly gilded,
and ranged in order upon fcaffolds along the wall. Op-
pofite the entrance a large yellow ftandard, embroidered
with foliage and filver dragons, is erected ; under it, upon
a kind of altar, there is a feries of little oblong tables,
bearing Chinefe infcriptions. |p|
An open gallery, adorned on both fides With flowerpots, leads from the back door of the armoury to the colo-
nade of the temple. In this colonade two flate tablets
are placed, in wooden frames, about fix feet high and.
two broad, with long infcriptions relating to the building,
of the temple. Before one of thefe plates a fmall idol of
an hideous form ftands upon the ground, enclofed in a
wooden cafe.
The temple itfelf is an elegant Chinefe building,
richly decorated on the outfide with columns lackered,
and gilded carved-work, fmall bells, and other ornaments peculiar to the Chinefe architecture. Within there
is a rich profufion of gilding, which correfponds with
the gaudinefs of the exterior. The walls are covered
thick With paintings, exhibiting the moft celebrated exploits of the principal idol.
This  temple contains five idols of a cololTal ftature^
fitting crofs-legged upon pedeftalsin three receffes, which
fill the whole Northern fide.
2 The
tfur Chan,
The principal idol is feated alone, in the middle rc-
cefs, between-two columns, entwined with gilded dragons. Large ftreamers of filk, hanging from the roof
of the temple, veil in fome meafure the upper part of
the image. His name is Ghedfur, or Gheffur Chan * ;
the Chinefe call him Loo-ye, or the firft and moft an-
tient; and the'Manflmrs, Guanloe, or thefuperior god.
He is of a gigantic fize, furpaffing more than fourfold
the human ftature, with a face gliftemng like burnifhed
gold, black hair and beard. He wears a crown upon
his head, and is richly dreffed in the Chinefe fafhion :
his garments are not moulded out of clay, as thofe of
the other idols ; -but are made of the fineft filk. He
holds in his hands a kind of tablet, which he feems to
read with deep attention. Two fmall female figures, re-
fembKng girts of about fourteen years of age, ftand on
* The Mongols and Calmucs call .him by this name of Gheffur Chan,;
and although they do not reckon him among their divinities; yet they
confider him as a great hero, the Bacchus and Hercules of Eaftern Tar-
- tiary, .who was born at die fource of the Choango, and who vanquifhed
, many monflers. They bave in their language a very long hiftory of
his heroical deeds. His title, in the Mongol tongue, is as follows :
Arban Zeeghi Eflin'Ghefiur Bogdo Chan : the king of the ten points of
the compafs, or the monarch Gheffur Chan.
I poffefs a copy of this manufcript, containing the Hiftory of Gheffur
Chan.; it is in the original Mongol language, and was a prefent from
Mr. Pallas: I fhould be very happy to communicate it to any •perfon-
yerfed in the.Eaftern languages.
 R U'SSU   A KB   C.'H ?I g A
*each fide of the idol, upon the fame pedeftal; one of
which grafps a roll of paper. At the right-hand of the
idol lie feven golden arrows, and at his left a bow.
Before the idol is a fpaeious enclofure, furrounded
with rails,  within which ftands an altar with four colof-
;fal figures, intended probably to -reprefent the principal
mandarins of the deified Gheffur,    Two-of thefe figures
.are dreffed like judges, and hold before them fmall
tablets, fimilar to that in the hands of the principal idok
The two other figures are accoutred incomplete armour":
one wears a turban ; and carries,^ upon the left fhoulder,
a large fword fheathed, with the hilt upwards. The
other has an hideous copper-coloured face,  a large belly,
,and  grafps  in  his right  hand  a lance  with  a broad
. -blade. Ifei
Although all the remaining idols in the temple are of
;an enormous fize, yet they are greatly furpaffed in magnitude by Gheffur Chan.
The firft idol in the recefs to the right is called Maoo- Maooang.
ang, or the Otfchibanni of the Mongols. He has three
ghaftly copper-coloured faces, and fix arms; two of his
^pmfr brandifli two fabres crofs ways over the head; a
third bears a looking glafs, and a fourth a kind of fquare,
:^hieh refembles a piece of ivory.    The two remaining
G g arms
arms are employed in drawing a bow, with an arrow laM
upon it, ready to be difcharged. This idol has a mirror upon his breaft, and an eye in his navel : near it are
. placed two fmall, figures ; one holds an arrow, and the.
other a little. animaL.
The next idol in the fame recefs is called by the Chinefe Tfaudfing, or the gold and filver god; and by the
Mongols Tfagan-Dfambala. He wears a black cap, and
is dreffed, after the Chinefe fafhion,. in fumptuous robes
of ftate ; he bears in his hand a fmall jewel cafket. Near
him alfo ftand two little figures, one of which holds a-4
truncated, branch*.
In the recefs to-the left is the god" Chufho$ called by
the Manfhurs Chua-fchan, and by the Mongols Galdi, or
the Fire God. He is reprefented with a frightful fiery,
reddifh face ; clad in complete armour he wields a fword;
half drawn out of the fcabbard, and feems on the point
of ftarting up from his feat. He is attended by two
little harlbadeers, one of whom is crying ; and the other
bears a, fowl upon his hand, which refembles a fea-
The other idol in the fame recefs is the god of oxen,
Niu-o.    He appears to be fitting in a compofed pofture;
he is habited like, a Mandarin, and is diftinguifhed by a,
1|| crowrt
crown upon his head. He has, in common with the
other idols, a mirror upon his breaft. The Chinefe
imagine him to be the fame with the Yamandaga of the
Mongols ; and it is faid his Manfhurifh name is Chain
Killova; his Mongol name, which relates to the hiftory
of Gheffur, is Bars-Batir, the Hero of Tygers.
Before thefe feveral idols there are tables, or altars, on-
which cakes, paftry, dried fruit, and flefh, are placed,
on  feftivals   and  prayer   days: on particular occafions
even whole carcafes of fheep are  offered  up.    Tapers
and lamps are kept burning day and  night before the
idols.    Among the utenfils of the temple, the moft remarkable is a veffel fhaped like a quiver, and filled with
flat pieces of cleft reed, on which fhort Chinefe devices
are infcribed.    Thefe devices are taken out by the Chinefe on new-years  day, and are confidered as oracles,
which foretel the good or ill luck of the perfon, by whom
they are drawn, during the following year.    There lies ;
alfo upon a table an hollow wooden black lackered helmet, which all perfons of devotion ftrike with a wooden
hammer, whenever they enter the  temple.    This helmet is regarded with fuch peculiar awe, that no ftrangers
are permitted to handle it,  although they are allowed to
touch even the idols themfelves.
The firft day of the new and full moon is appointed
for the celebration of worfhip.    Upon each of thofe days
G g i no
Superflion of
the Chinefe.
no Chinefe ever fails to make his appearance once in the
temple ; he enters without taking off his cap*, joins his
hands before his face, bows five times to each idol,,
touches with his forehead the pedeftal on which the idol:
fits, and then-retires.. Their principal feftivals are held-
in the firft month of their year, which anfwers' to February. It is called by them, as- well: as- by the Mongols,,
the white month ;. and:is considered as a lucky time for
the tranfa&ion of bufinefs| at that time they hoift flags*
before the temples; and. place meat upon the. tables of
the idols, which the priefts- take away in the evening, and eat in the fmall apartments of the interior
court. On thefe folemnities-plays are performed in the
theatre, in honour of the idols : the pieces are generally
fatyrical,.. and moftly written- againft unjuft magiftrates-
and judges.
But although the Chinefe have fuch few ceremonies in
their fyftem of religious worfhip, yet they are remarkably infected with fuperftition. Mr. Pallas gives the
following defcription of their behaviour at Maimatfchin during an eclipfe of the moon. At the clofe of
the evening in which the eclipfe appeared, all the inhabitants were indefatigable in raifing an inceffant uproar,
* They do ndt take off their caps out of refpecf; for among the
Chinefe, as well as other Eaftern nations, it is reckoned a mark of difre-
fpec~f. to uncover the head before a fuperior.
fome by hideous fhrieks, others by knocking wood, and
beating cauldrons; the din was heightened by ftriking
the bell and beating the kettle drums of the great Pagoda. The Chinefe fuppofe, that during an eclipfe the
wicked fpirit of the air,, called by the Mongols Arachul-
la, is attacking the moon f and that he is frightened
away by thefe hideous fhrieks and noifes. Another in-
ftance of fuperftition fell under the obfervation of Mr.
Pallas,, while he was at Maimatfchin. A fire broke out
in that town with fuch violence that feveral houfes were
in flames. None of the inhabitants, however, attempted
to extinguifh it; they ftood indeed in idle confternation
round the fire ; and fome of them fprinkled occafionally
water, among the flames,, in order to footh the fire god,,
who, as they imagined, had chofen their houfes for a.
facrifice. Indeed if the Ruffians had not exerted themfelves in quenching the fire, the whole place would probably have been reduced to afhes .*..
*. This account of Kiachta and taken from Mr* Pal—
las's defcription of Kiachta, in the journal of his travels through Siberia,.,
p.iii. p. loo—126..  Every circumftance relating, to. the religious worship of the Eaftern nations is in itfelf fo interefting that I thought it would
not be unacceptable to my readers to give a tranflation of the above paf-
fages refpedting the Chinefe Pagodas and Idols:. although in a work
treating of the new difcoveries, and the commerce which is connected.
Vlth them.    In the abovementioned journal the ingenious author continues to defcribe from his own obfervations the manners, cuftoms, drefs,,
diet, and feveral other particulars relative to the Chinefe; which, although exceedingly curious and interefting, are foreign to my prefent
purpofe, and would have bjsea incompatible with the fize. of the prefemrr
 tj» COMMERCE,   k,
No writer has placed the religion and hiftory of the Tartar-nations
in a more explicit point of view than Mr. Pallas ; every page in his interefting journal affords ftriking proofs of this affertion. He has lately
thrown new lights upon this obfcure fubjecf, in a recent publication
concerning the Tartars, who inhabit parts of Siberia, and the territory
which lies between that country and the Chinefe-wall. Of this excellent
work the firft volume appeared in 1776, and contains the genealogy,
hiftory, laws, manners, and cuftoms, of this extraordinary people, as
they are divided into Calmucs, Mongols, and Burats. The fecond
volume is expecfed with impatience, and will afcertain, with minutenefs
and accuracy, the tenets and religious ceremonies which diftinguifh the
votaries of Shamanifm from the followers of Dalai-Lama, the two
great fecfs into which thefe tribes are diftinguifhed. Pallas Samlung
hiftorifcher Nachrichten ueber die Mongolifchen Volkerfchafter.
 [    &31 -1
Commerce between the Chinefe and Ruffians—lift of the
principal exports and imports—duties—average amount,
of the Ruffian trade..
f     ^ H E merchants   of   Maimatfchin come from  ||{MpflHH
A    Northern provinces of China, chiefly from Pekin,
Nankin,   Sandchue,  and  other principal towns.    They
are not fettled at this place with their wives and families :   for it is a remarkable circumftance, that there is
not one woman-in Maimatfchin.    This reftriclion arifes
from   the   policy of   the1 Chinefe  government; which
totally prohibits the women from having the flighteft
intercourfe  with   foreigners.       No   Chinefe   merchant
engages in the trade to Siberia who. has not   a partner.     Thefe    perfons   mutually   relieve   each   other-
One remains for   a   ftated   time,   ufually   a   year,   at:
Kiachta;     and when his partner arrives with a frefh-
eargo of Chinefe merchandize, he then ■ returns, hornet
with the Ruffian commodities *.■
Moft of the Chinefe merchants underftand the M6n-
gol tongue, in which language commercial affairs are
* Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 125,
generally tranfa&ed. Some few indeed fpeak brdken
Ruffian, but their pronunciation is fo foft -and delicate,
that it is difficult to comprehend them. They are not
able to pronounce the R, but inftead of it make ufe of
an L; and when two conforiants come together, which
frequently occurs in the Ruffian tongue, they divide
them by the interpofition of a vowel *. This failure
in articulating the Ruffian language feems peculiar to
the Chinefe, and is not obfervable in the Calmucs,
Mongols, and other neighbouring nations t.
The commerce between the Ruffians and Chinefe is
entirely a trade of barter, that is, an exchange of one
merchandize for another. The Ruffians are prohibited
to export their own coin, nor indeed.could the Chinefe
* Bayer, in his Mufeum Sinicum, gives feveral curious inftances of
the Chinefe mode of articulating thofe founds, which they have not in
their ©senlanguage. For iaftance they change BDRX2 hsto PT LS'S.
Thus for Maria they fay Ma-li-ya;
for crux,
for baptizq,
for cardinaiis,
for fpiritus,
for Adam,
for Eva,
for Chriftus,
Hoc, eft, corpus, meum-
ki-li-fu-tu-fu ;
■ho-ke, nge-fu-tu,  co-ul-pu-fu, rae-vum.
Bayer, Muf. Sin. Tom. I. p. 15.
I -Pallas Reife, P. III. p. ^34.
receive it, even mould that prohibition be taken off
for no fpecie is current amongft them except bullion*.
And the Ruffians find it more advantageous to take
merchandize in exchange, than to receive bullion at
the Chinefe ftandard. The common method of tranf-
acting bufinefs is as follows. The Chinefe merchant
comes firft: to Kiachta, and examines the merchandize he
has occafion for in the warehoufe of the Ruffian trader ;
* The Chinefe have no gold or filver coin. Thefe metals are always
paid in bullion; and for the purpofe of afcertaining the weight, every
Chinefe merchant is conftantly provided with a pair of fcales. As
gold is very fcarce in China, filver is the great vehicle of commerce.
When feveral authors affirm that the Ruffians draw large quantities of
filver from China, they miftake an accidental occurrence for a general
and Handing fach During the war between the Chinefe and Calmucs,
the former had occafion to purchafe at Kiachta provifion, horfes,
and camels, for which they paid filver. This traffic brought
fuch a profufion of that metal into Siberia, that its price was
greatly reduced below its real value. A pound of filver was at
that, period occafionally fold at the frontiers for 8 or 9 roubles, which
• at prefent fetches 15 or 16. But fince the conclufion of thefe wars by
the total redu&ion of the Calmucs under the Chinefe yoke, Ruffia receives a very fmall quantity of filver from the Chinefe. S. R. G. III.
p. 593 & feq.
The filver imported to Kiachta is chiefly brought by the Buchanan merchants, who fell cattle to the Chinefe in exchange for that
metal, which they afterwards difpofe of to the Ruffians for European
manufactures. Gold-duft is alfo occafionally obtained from the fame
merchants; the quantity however of thofe metals procured at
Kiachta is fo inconfiderable, as fcarcely to deferve mention. The
whole fum imported to Kiachta, in 1777, amounted to only 18,215
he then goes to the houfe of the latter, and adjufts
the price over a difh of tea. Both parties next return to the magazine, and the goods in quefh'on are
there carefully fealed in the prefence of the Chinefe
merchant. When this ceremony is" over, they both
repair to Maimatfchin; the Ruffian choofes the commodities he wants, not forgetting to guard againft fraud by
a ftricf infpecMon. He then takes the precaution to
leave beliind a perfon of confidence, who remains in the
warehoufe until the Ruffian goods are delivered, when
he returns to Kiachta with the Chinefe merchandize*.
The principal commodities which Ruffia exports ta
.China are as follow ;
FURS   and  PE LTR Y.
It would be uninterefting to enumerate all the furs
and fkins i brought for fale to Kiachta, which form
the moft important article of exportation on the fide of
the Ruffians. The moft valuable of thefe furs are the
fkins of fea-otters, beavers, foxes,' wolves, bears, Buchanan lambs, Aftracan fheep,. martens,, fables, ermines,
I Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 135.
f The lift of all the furs and fkins brought to Kiachta, with their
feveral prices, is to be found in Pallas Reife, Part III. p. 136 to p. 142.
See hereafter, p. 24a.
The greateft part of thefe furs and fkins are drawn
from Siberia and the New Difcovered Iflands : this fup-
ply however is not alone fully adequate to the demand
of the market at Kiachta. Foreign furs are therefore
imported to St. Peterfburg, and from thence fent to the
frontiers. England alone furnifhes a large quantity of
beaver and other fkins, which fhe draws from Hudibn's
Bay and Canada *
Cloth forms the fecond article of exportation which
Ruffia exports to China.
* Lift of furs fent from England to Peterfbur
Beavcr-fkins. Otter-fkins.
The fineft Hudfon's beavers have been fold upon an average at Peterfburg from ——• 70 to 90 roubles per 10 fkins.
Inferior ditto and beft Canada beavers from 50 — 75
Young or cub-beavers from 2.0 —
Beft otter-fkins from -      ■ 90 — 100
Inferior ones from -■  -■ 60 — 80
The qualities of thefe fkins being very different occafion great variations in the prices.
At Kiachta, the beft Itofon's Bay beaver
fetches from •  7 t0 2° roubles per fkin.
Otters'ditto •    6—35
Black foxes fkins from Canada are alfo fometimes fent from England
to Peterfburg.
At Kiachta they fetch from 1 to 100 roubles per fkin.
H h 2
The coarfe fort is manufactured in Ruffia ;  the finer
fort is foreign, chiefly Englifh, Pruffian, and French.
An arfhire of foreign cloth fetches, ac
cording to its ftnenefs, from
2 to 4 roubles *.
White flannels, both Ruffian and foreign..
The remaining articles are,
Rich fluffs.
Coarfe linen, chiefly manufactured ki Ruffian
Ruffia leather.
Tanned hides.
Glafs ware and looking glafles.
Hardware, namely, knives,, fciffars, locks, &x.
Ruffian talk.
Cattle, chiefly camels, horfes, and. horned cattle.
The Chinefe alfo pay very dear for hounds, greyhounds, barbets, and^dogs for hunting wild boars.
Provifions fii
* In the year 1772, the Chinefe purchafed meat at Kiachta,  at the
following prices:
A pound of beef 3 .J copecs.
lamb 24
Horfe flefh for the Tartars 4.   Pallas Reife, P. III. p.
Meal.—The Chinefe no longer import fuch large
quantities of meal as formerly, fince they have employed the Mongols to cultivate the lands lying near
the river Orchon *, 8cc. Sec.
Lift  of the  moft valuable  commodities procured
from China.
The exportation of raw filk is prohibited in China
under pain of death: large quantities however are
fmuggled every year into Kiachta, but not fufficient to
anfwer the demands of the Ruffian merchants.
A pood of the beft fort is eftimated at 15 o roubles;
of the worft fort at 7 5
The manufactured'filks are of various forts, fafhions,
and prices, viz. fattins, taffaties, damafks, and gauzes,
fcanes of filk died of all colours, ribbands, 8cc. &c.
Raw cotton is   imported in   very   large   quantities;
a great part of this commodity is employed in packing
up the china ware, and by thefe means is conveyed into
* S. R. G. III. p. 495—571.    Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 136—144..
'      . ....
the inland part of Ruffia without any additional expence
of carriage.
A pood fells for — from 4 roubles, 80 cop. to 12.
Of the manufactured cotton, that which the Ruffians
call Kitaika, and the Englifh Nankeen, has the moft
rapid fale. It is the moft durable, and, in proportion
to its goodnefs, the cheaper! of all the Chinefe ftuffs;
it is ftained red, brown, green, and black.
The teas 'which are brought into Ruffia are much
fuperior in flavour and quality to thofe which are fent
to Europe from Canton. The original goodnefs of the
teas is probably the fame in both cafes; but it is conjectured, that the tranfport by fea confiderably impairs
the aromatic flavour of the plant. This commodity,
now become fo favourite an object of European luxury,
is efteemed by the Ruffian merchants the moft profitable
article of importation.
At Kiachta a pound of the beft tea * is
eftimated at |    —   '     —        — a roubles.    ~
Common ditto at — — 1
Inferior at —        — — 40 copecs.'
* At Peterfburg a pound of the beft green tea fetches 3 roubles.
For fome years paft the Chinefe have brought to
Kiachta parcels of porcelain, painted with European
figures, with copies of feveral favourite prints and images
of the Grecian and Roman deities.
Furniture, particularly Japan cabinets and cafes, lackered and varnifhed tables and chairs, boxes inlaid with
mother-of-pearl, 8cc. &c.
Fans, toys, and other fmall wares.
Artificial flowers.
Tiger and Panther fkins.
Rubies *, but neither in large quantities nor of great
White lead, vermilion, and other colours.
Sugar Candy.
Preferved ginger, and other fweetmeats*
Rhubarb +.
* Rubies are generally procured by fmugglingj and by the fame
means pearls are occafionally difpofed of to the Chinefe, at a very dear>
tate. Pearls are much fought for by the Gkiaefe; and might be made
a very profitable article.
•jr See Appendix IL
«fthis Trade to
It is very difficult to procure the genuine Thibet
muft, becaufe the Chinefe purchafe a bad fort, which
comes from Siberia, with which they adulterate that
which is brought from Thibet J.
Ruffia draws great advantages from the Chinefe trade.
By this traffic, its natural productions, and particularly
its furs and fkins, are difpofed of in a very profitable
manner. Many of thefe furs procured from the
moft Eafterly parts of Siberia, are of fuch little value
that they would not anfwer the expence of carriage into
Ruffia; while the richer furs, which are fold to the
Chinefe at a very high price, would, on account of
their dearnefs, feldom meet with purchafers in the Ruffian dominions. In exchange for thefe commodities the
Ruffians receive from China feveral valuable articles of
commerce, which they would otherwife be obliged to buy
at a much dearer rate from the European powers, to the
great difadvantage of the balance of their trade.
I have before obferved, that formerly the exportation
and importation of the moft valuable goods were prohibited to individuals; at prefent only the following articles are prohibited. Among the exports, fire-arms and
artillery; gunpowder and ball; gold and filver, coined
% S. R. G. III. p. 572—592.   Pallas Reife, p. III. p. 144.—153.
 .RUSSIA   AND   CHlN&v>
and uncoined, ftallions and mares; fkins of deer, reirr-
deer, elks, aad horfes; beaver's hair, potafh, rofin,
thread, and * tinfel-lace : among the imports,.fa^ibra&dy,
poifons, copper-money, and rhubarb.
The duties paid by the Ruffian-merchants are very
confiderable; great part of the merchandife is taxed
at 2.5 per cent.
Itos, cattle, and provifions, pay a duty of 23.
Ruffian manufactures 18.
One per cent, is alfo deducted from^he price of all
goods for the expence of deepening the river Selenga;
and 7 per ,ce$t for the fupport of the qi^ftom-ffxoufe.
Some articles, both e>f -export^aW^mport, pay no duty.
The exported are, writing, royal, and poft pamper, Ruffia
cloth of all forts and colours, excepting peaj^nts cloth.
The imported are, fatins, raw and ftained cottqns, porcelain, earthen-ware, glafs corals, beads, fans, all mu-
fical inftruments, furniture, lackered and enamelled ornaments, needles, white-lead, rice, preferved gjn^er,
aad .other fweet-meats t.
* Tinfel lace is fmuggled to the Chinefe, with confiderable profit;
for* they pay nearly as much for it as if it was folid filver.
S. R. GjJIII. p. 588.
-j* Pallas Reife, P. Ill, p. 154.
I i The
The importance of this trade will appear from the fob
Table of exportation and importation at Kiachta,
in the year 1777.
Cuftom-houfe djafties,
Importation of Chinefe goods, to
the value of
Of gold and filver
Total of Importation
Rbles. Cop..
481,460. 59{.
1,466,497.    31.
1,484,712.     3|.
Exportation of Ruffian commodi$es   1,313,621.  35.
From this table it appears, that the
total fum of export and import a-
mounts to 2,868/333..
In this calculation however the contraband" trade is
not included, which is very large ; and" as the year
1777 was not fo favourable to this traffic as the pre*
ceding ones*, we may  venture to eftimate the grofs
* In the year 1770, 1771, 1772, the cuftom-houfe duties at Kiachta
(according to Mr. Pallas, P. III. p. 154,) produced 5-50,000 roubfes.
 amount of the average trade to China at near 4,000,000
By taking therefore the medium between that fum and 481,460, the
amount of the duties in 1777, the average fum of the duties will be
£l5>73° » ancU as t^ie duties in 1777 make nearly a fixth of the whole
fum of exportation and importation, by multiplying 515,730 by 6, we
have the grofs amount of the average exports and imports at 3,094,380.
But as feveral goods pay no duty, and as the contraband trade according
to the loweft valuation is eflimated at the fifth part of the exports and
imports; the grofs amount of the average trade to China may be fairly
computed at near 4,000,000. the fum Hated above.
 c *** I
CHAP.     V.
Defcription of Zurudhhitu—and its trade—franfport of
the ?nercbandife through Siberia*
'Tp H E general account of the Ruffian cortimerce tt>
-*• China has been given in the preceding chapter,,
becaufe almoft the whole traffic is confined to Kiachta..
The defcription of Zuruchaitu, which, was alfo fixed by
the treaty of Kiachta for the purpofe of carrying on the-
fame trade, will be comprifed of courfe in a narrow^
°f     Zuruchaitu is fituated1 in 13 70 longitude, and 490. 101
N. latitude, upon the Weftern branch of the riser Argoon, at a fmall diftance from its fource.    It is provided
with a fmall garrifon,, and a few wretched barracks fur-
rounded.with chevauxr de frife.   No merchants are fettled■:
at this place ; they come every fummer from Nerfhinfk^
and other Ruffian towns- in order to meet two parties of.
Mongol troops*:, thefe troops are fent from the Chinefe
towns Naun and Mergfcten, and arrive at the frontiers
about July.    They encamp near Zuruchaitu upon the
other fide of  the river Argoon,   and barter, with  the:
Siberian merchants a few Chinefe commodities, which
they bring with them.
Formerly the commerce carried on at Zuruchaitu was
more confiderable ; but at prefent it is fo trifling, that
it hardly deferves to be mentioned. Thefe Mongols
furnifh the diftricl: of Nerfhinfk with bad tea and to-Commercft
bacco, bad filks, and fome tolerable cottons. They receive in return ordinary furs, cloth, cattle, and Ruffian
leather. This trade lafts about a month or fix weeks,,
and the annual duties of the cuftoms amount upon an
average to no more than 500 roubles. About the middle of Auguft the Mongols retire; part proceed immediately to Ghina, and the others defcend the ftream of
the Amoor as far as its mouth, m order to obferve if
there has been no ufurpation upon the limits. At the
fame time the Ruffian merchants return to Nerfhinfk,
and, were it not for the fmall garrifon, Zuruchaitu would
remain uninhabited W.
The Ruffian commodities  are  tranfported   by   land£aSl.f
from Peterfburg and Mofcow to Tobolfk.    From thence commodities
through" Si--
the merchants may embark upon the Irtifh down to itsUlia-
junction with the Oby ;   then they either tow up their
boats,   or fail up the laft   mentioned   river  as far as
* S. R. G. III. p. 465.    Pallas Reife, P. III. p, 428.
7 Maryrcv
Marym, where they enter the Ket, which they afcend
to Makofffkoi Oftrog. At that place the merchandize is
carried about ninety verfts by land to the Yenifei. The
merchants then afcend that river, the Tungufka, and
Angara, to Irkutfk, crofs the lake Baikal, and go up
the river Selenga almoft to Kiachta.
It is a work of fuch difficulty to afcend the ftreams
of fo many rapid rivers, that this navigation Eaftwards
an hardly be finifhed in one fummer *; for which
reafon the merchants commonly prefer the way by land.
Their general rendezvous is the fair of Irbit near To-
bolfk; from thence they go in fledges during winter to
Kiachta where they arrive about February, the feafon
in which the chief commerce is carried on with the
Chinefe. They buy in their route all the furs they find
in the fmall towns, where they are brought from the
adjacent countries. When the merchants return in
fpring with the Chinefe goods, which are of greater bulk
and weight than the Ruffian commodities, they proceed
by water; they then defcend the ftreams of moft of
the rivers, namely, the Selenga, Angara, Tungufka, Ket,
and Oby to its junction with the Irtifh; they afcend
that river to Tobolfk, and continue by land to Mofcow
and Petersburg.
I Some of thefe rivers are only navigable in fpring when the fnow
water is melting; in winter the rivei
s are in general frozen.
Before the paffage from Ochotfk to Bolcherefk was TranrP°it of
difcovered in 1716, the only communication between f-^
Kamtchatka 'and Siberia was by land; the road lay
by Anadirfk to Yakutfk. The furs * of Kamtchatka
and of the Eaftern ifles are now conveyed from
that peninfula by water to Ochotfk; from thence
to Yakutfk by land on horfe-back, or by rein-deer :
the roads are fo very bad, lying either through a
rugged mountainous country, or through marfhy fo-
refts, that the journey lafts at leaft fix weeks. Yakutfk
is fituated upon the Lena, and: is the principal town,
where the choiceft furs are brought in their way to
Kiachta, as well from Kamtchatka as from the Northern
parts of Siberia, which lay upon the rivers Lena, Yana,
and Endigirka. At Yakutfk the goods are embarked
upon the> Lena, towed-up the ftream of that river as far
as Vercholenfk, or ftill farther to Katfheg ; from thence
they are tranfported over a fhort tract of land to the
rivulet Buguldeika, down that ftream to the lake Baikal,
acrofs that lake to the mouth of the Selenga, and up>
that river to the neighbourhood of Kiachta.
the Furs from
amtchatka to
* The furs, which are generally landed upon the' Eaftern coafi of
Kamtchatka, are either fent by fea to Bolchorefk, or are tranfported
acrofs the Peninfula in fledges drawn by dogs. The latter conveyance
is only ufed'in winter : it is the ufual mode of travelling in that country.
In fummer there is no conveyance, as the Peninfula contains ■• neitherj
oxen, horfes, or rein-deer.   S. R. G. III. p. 478.
In order to give tne reader fome notion Of that vaft
•tract of country, oter which the merchandize is frequently tranfported by land carriage, a lift of the di£«
tances is here fubjoined.
From Peterfburg to Mofcow 734 verfts.
Mofcow to Tobolfk **— £385
Tobolfk to Irkutfk —*■ 2918
Irkutfk to Kiachta — 471
From Irbit to Tobolfk
From Irkutfk to Nerflfinfk
NeffMnfk to ZuruchaitA
From Ochotfk to Yakutfk
Yakutfk to Irkutfk
From Selenginfk to Zwuchaitu
Zuruchaitu to Pekin
Kiachta to Pekin
The Chinefe tranfport their goods to Kiachta l chiefly
upon camels. It is four or five days journey from Pekin
to the wall of China, and forty-fix from thence acrofs
the Mongol defert to Kiachta*.
* Pallas Reife, P. IIL p. 134,
 APPENDIX    I.   &
OF       THE
   A P  I
Extract from the journal of a voyare madt
Krenitzin and Lieutenant Levafheff to the
in 1768, 1769, by order of the Emprefs t ■ Ruflb-
they fail front Kamtchatka—arrive at Beering's and
Copper Iflands—reach  the Fox   Iflands—Krenitzin
winters at  Alaxa—Levafheff upon Unalaflika— r.?-
ducliom of Un alafhka—a\
Pox Iilands—their manners and cufloms, &c.
/^\N Che 23d of July Captain Krenitzin failed in thci
Galliot St. Catherine from the mouth of the Karnt-;
chatka river towards America: he was accompanied by
Lieutenant Levafheff, in the Hooker St. Paul. Their
inftrinftions were regulated by information derived from
Beering's expedition in
cordingly, they found themfelves more to the North
than they expected; and were told by the Ruffian
traders and hunters, that a fimilar • millake was com-
* This paflagc is obfeurcly exprcfled.   Its meaning may be aJctf-
raining by comparing Kreruizin's chare with that of Beeringfs voyage
prefixed to Mullet's account of the Ruffian Dili
Krcni»ia's vcilcJ was ponfidcrabhr to cbc North of the
! Bearing and Tfchirikoff, and confequemly he (ailed througr
of what they had fuppofcdtobe a continent, and which he fa
be an open fca»    Sec Robertson's Hiftory of  America, p. 461, and
p. 26, of this work.
IC k 1 milled
They reach
mitred in the chart of that expedition. • Thefe traders,
who for fome years paft were accuftorned to ramble to
the diftant iflands in queft of furs, faid that they were
fituated much more to the South, and farther Eaft than.
was imagined. On the 27th they faw Commodore's or
Beering's Ifland, which is low and rocky, efpecially to
the S. -W. On this fide they obferved a fmall harbour,
diftinguifhed by two hillocks like boats, and not far
from it they found a frefh water lake.
and Copper
To the S. E. lies another ifland, called by the Ruffians
Mednoi OftrofF, or Copper Ifland, from a great quantity
of copper found upon its N. E. coaft, the only fide which.
is known to the Ruflians.    It is wafhed up by the fea,
and covers the fhore in fuch abundance, that many fhips-
may load with it.    Perhaps an India trader might make«
a profitable voyage from thence to China, where this-
metal is in high demand.    This copper is moftly in a
metallic or malleable ftate, and many pieces feem as if
they had formerly been in fufion.    The ifland is  not
high, but has many hillocks, each of   which has the
appearance of having formerly been the funnel of   a
volcano.    We may here, once for all, obferve, that all the
iflands reprefented   in  this chart*'   abound with   fuch
funnels, called in Ruffian Sopka, in fo much that no
ifland,  however fmall,  was found without one;    and
* Namely, the chart which is prefixed to this journal.
many of them con lifted of nothing elfe. In fhort,
the chain of iflands -here laid dowti may, without any
violent ftretch of imagination, be confidered as thrown
up by fome late volcano's. The apparent novelty of
every thing feems to juftify this conjecture : nor can
any objection be derived from the vegetable productions
with which thefe iflands abound; for the fummer after the lower diftrict of Zutphen in Holland was gained
from the fea, it was covered over with wild muftard.
All thefe lands are fubject to violent and frequent earthquakes, and abound in fulphur. The writer of the
journal was not able to inform us whether any lava was
found upon them; but he fpeaks of a party-coloured
ftone as heavy as iron. From this account it is by no
means improbable, that the copper abovementioned has*
been melted in fome eruption ►
After leaving Copper Ifland, no land was feen fromvArrive,,atitB*
<-J Fox iflands..
either of the fhips (which had parted company in a fog)
till on the S. E. quarter of their tract, was difcovered
the chain of iflands or headlands laid down in the
charts Thefe in general appeared low, the fhore badr
without creeks, and the water between them very fhal-
low. During their courfe outwards, as well as during,
their return, they had frequent fogs. It appears from
the journal, as well as from the relation of the hunters,
D   I   X      I.
A   P■   P   E   N
that it is very uncommon to have clear weather for five:
days together, even during fummer.
The St. Catherine wintered in the ftraits of Alaxa,
where they hauled her into fhoal water. The inftructions
given to the captain fet forth, that a private fhip had
in 1762 found there a commodious haven; but he
looked for it in vain. The entrance of this flrait from
the N. E. was extremely difficult on account of flats, and
ftrong currents both flood and ebb : the entrance however
from the S. E. was afterwards found to be much eafier
with not lefs than g£ fathoms water. Upon furvey-
ing this ftrait, and the coaft of Alaxa, many funnels were obferved in the low grounds clofe to the'
fhore, and the foil produced few pldrits. May not
this allow one to fuppofe that the coaft had fufFered
confiderable changes fince the year 1762? Few of
the iflands produce wood," and that only in'the" "tallies by the rivulets. Unalga and Alaxa contain the.
moft; they abound with frefh water ftreams, and even
rivers; from Which we may infer that they are exten-
five. The foil is in general boggy, and covered .with
mofs; but Alaxa has more foil and produces much grftfo/
winters upon
This winterine
The St. Paul wintered in Unalaflika.
place was obferved to lie in 530 29' North latitude, and?
its   longitude   from  the mouth of  Kamtchatka  river
 computed by the fliip's journal, was 270 05'Eaft*. Una-
llafhka is about fifty miles long from N. E. to S. W.
and has on the N. E. fide three bays. One of them
called Udagiia ftretches thirty miles E. N. E. and
W. S. W. nearly through the middle of the
ifland. Another called Igunck, lying N.N.E. and
S. S. W, is a pretty good harbour, with three and a half
fathom water at high tide, and fandy ground. It is well
fheltered from the North fwell at its entrance by rocks,
fome of which are under water. The tide flows here
five feet at full and change, and the fliore is in general
bold and rocky, except in the bay, at the mouth of a
fmall river. There are two burning mountains on this
ifland, one called Ayaghifh, and the other (by the Ruffians) the Roaring Mountain. Near the former is a
very copious hot fpr^ag. The land is in general rocky,
with \oamy and clayey grounds; but the grafs is extremely coarfe, and unfit for pafture. Hardly any wood
is to, be found on it. Its plants are dwarf cherry (tXy- Jrn°j^
lofteum of Tournefort)) wortle berry, (Vaccinium Uli-
ginofum of Linnaeus), rafberry, farana and fhikfhu of
Kamtchatka and kutage, larch, white poplar, pine and
* According to the general map of Ruffia, the mouth, of the Kamt-
dtat&a river is in 1780 25 from Fero. Unalaflika therefore, according
to this- eftimation, is 205° 30 from Fero, or 187° si l5" from Green~
f The Lonicer-a Pyrenaka of Ltanaos. It is not a dwarf cherry,
but a fpecies of lioneyfuckle.
birch *. The land animals are foxes of different colours,
mice, and weafels; there are alfo beavers I, fea cats, and
fea lions as at Kamtchatka. Among their fifh we may
reckon cod, perch, pilchards, fmelts, roach, needle fifh,
terpugh, and tchavitcha. The birds are eagles, partridges, ducks, teals, urili, ari, and gadi. The animals for whofe Ruffian names I can find no tranflations,
are (excepting the Ari) defcribed in KrafhiiiinikofPs Hiftory of Kamtchatka, or in Steller's relation contained in
the fecond volume of the Memoirs of the Academy of
Accountofthe     The inhabitants of Alaxa, Umnak, Unalakfha, and
Inhabitants of
WailS the neighbouring iflands, are of a middle ftature, tawny
brown colour, and black hair. In fummer they wear
coats (parkit) made of bird fkins, over which, in bad
weather, and in their boats, they throw cloaks, called
kamli, made of thin whale guts. On their heads they
wear wooden   caps, ornamented with duck's   feathers,
* All the other journalifts uniformly defcribe Unalafhka as containing
nothing but underwood ; we mull therefore fnppofe that the trees here
mentioned were very low and fmall, and this agrees with what goes before, " hardly any wood is to be found on it."
$ By beavers the journalifts certainly mean fea-otters, called by the
Ruffians fea-beavers. See p. 12. For a defcription of the fea-otter, called
by LinnjEus Lutra Marina, fee Nov. Com. Petr. vol. II. p. 367, et feq..
I Parki in Ruffian fignifies a fliirt, the coats of thefe iflanders being
made like fhirts.
and the ears of the fea-animal, called Scivutcha or fea-
lion ; they alfo adorn thefe caps with beads of different
colours, and with little figures of bone or ftone. In
the partition of the noftrils they place a pin, about
four inches long, made of the bone, or of the ftalk
of a certain black plant; from the ends of this pin or
bodkin they hang, in fine weather and on feftivals, rows
of beads, one below the other. They thruft beads, and
bits of pebble cut like teeth, into holes made in the un-
der-lips. They alfo wear firings of beads in their ears,
with bits of amber, which the inhabitants of the other
iflands procure from Alaxa, in exchange for arrows and'
They cut their hair before juft above the eyes, and
fome fhave the top of their heads like monks. Behind
the hair is loofe. The drefs of the women hardly differs from that of the men, excepting that it is made
of fifh-fkins. They few with bone needles, and thread
made of fifh guts, fattening their work to the ground
before them with bodkins. They go with the head
uncovered, and the hair cut like that of the men before, but tied up behind in a high knot. They paint
their cheeks with ftrokes of blue and red, and wear
nofe-pins, beads, and ear-rings like the men ; they hang'
beads round their neck, and checkered firings round
their arms and legs.
T    1
 Manners and
In their perfons we fhould reckon them extremely
nafty. They eat the vermin with which their bodies
are covered, and fw-allow the mucus from the nofe.
Having, wafhed themfelves, according to o*ftom, firft
with urine, and then with water, they fuck their hands
dry. When they are fick, they lie three or four days
without food ;. and if bleeding is neceffary, they open a
vein with  lancets made  of flint,  and fuck  the blood.
Their pmncipal nourifhrnent is fifh and whale fat,
which they commonly eat raw. They alfo feed upon
fea-wrack and roots, particularly the faran, a fpecies of
lily; they eat a herb, called kutage, on accowot of its
bitterneS, onry with fifh or fat. They fometimes kindle
fire by catching a fpark among dry leaves and powder of
fulphur r hut the moft coniaaaon. method is by rubbing;
two pieces of wood together, ia the manner pra^^ed at
Kamtchatka % and. which Vakffc^ Beering's lieutenant,,
found to be in ufe in that part of North America which
he faw in 1741. They are- very fond of Ruffian oil
and butter, but not of bread..    They could not be pre-
* The inftrument made ufe of by the Kamtehadals, to procure fire,
ia a board with feveral holes in, it, and a ftick i  the latter is put into
the holes, and turned about fwiftly, until the wood within the holes-
begins to burn, where thei'.e ia tindex ready to catch the fparks.
i^ilaM^ S. &• G. III. p. 20c.
vailed upon to tafte any fugar until the commander
fliewed the example; finding it fweet, they put it up
to carry it home to their wives.
The houfes of thefe iflanders are huts built precifely
l& the manner of thofe in Kamtchatka, with the entrv
through a hole in the middle of the roof. In one of
thefe huts live feveral families, to the amount of thirty
or forty perfoas. They keep themfelves warm by
means of -whale fat burnt in fhells, which they place
between their legs. The women fet apart from the
Sitf or feven of thefe huts or yofflarts make a village,
of which there are fixteen in Urialamka, The iflands
feem m. general to be well inhabited^ as may be conjectured from the great number of boats wihich are feeii
continually prjang along <the fhote^fa There are upwards
of a thoufand inhabitants on Unalaflika, and they fay
that it was formerly much more populous. They have
fuffered-greatly by their dilutes with the Ruffians, and
by a famine in the year 176*21'•;• but moft of all from
a change in their way of life. No longer contented
with their original fimplieity, they long* for Ruffian
luxuries : in order therefore to obtain a few-delicacies*
which are prefently cojafumed, they dedicate the greateft:
part of their time to hunting, for the purpofe of pro-
L 1 a curing
 26} A. P   P   E   N   D   I   X    I.
curing furs for the Ruffians : by thefe means, they
neglect to lay ujp a provifion of fifh and roots; and
fnffer their children frequently to die of hunger.
Their principal food is fifh, which they catch with
bone hooks. Their boats, in which they row to a
great diftance from land, are made, like thofe of the
Innuet or Efquimaux, of thin flips of wood and fkins:
thefe fkins cover the top as well as the fides of the
boat, and are drawn tight . round the waift of the
rower. The. oar is a paddle, broad at both ends. Some
of their boats hold two perfons; one of whom rows,
and the other fifties : but thefe kind of boats feem
appropriated to their chiefs. They have alfo large
boats capable of holding forty men. They kill birds
and beafts with darts made of bone, or of wood tipped
with fharpened ftone t they ufe thefe kind of dapts in-
war, which break with the blow given by them, and
leave the point in the wound*
The manners and character of thefe people are what
we fhould expect from iheir neceffitous fituation, extremely rude and favage. The inhabitants however of
Unalaflika are fomewhat lefs barbarous in their manners
and behaviour to each other, and alfo more civil to
ftrangers than the natives of the other iflands; but
■8- • ■     H$H even
even they are engaged in frequent and bloody quarrels,
and commit murder without the leaft compunction.
Their difpofition engages them in continual wars, in
which they always endeavour to gain their point by
ftratagem. The inhabitants of Unimak are formidable
to all the reft; they frequently invade the other iflands,
and carry off women, the chief object, of their wars.:
Alaxa is molt fubject to thefe incurfions, probably be-
caufe it is more populous and extenlive. They all
join in hating the Ruffians, whom they confider as general invaders, and therefore kill them wherever they
can. The people of Unalafhka however are more
friendly ; for Lieutenant Levafheff, being informed that
there was a Ruffian veffel in the ftraits of Alaxa,
prevailed on fome Unalafhkans to carry a letter, which
they undertook, notwithftanding the danger they were
expofed to from the inhabitants of the intervening
The journalift. fays, that thefe people have no kind;
of religion,, nor any notion of a God. We obferve
however among them- fufficient marks of fuch a religion,
as might be expe&ed from people in their fituation.
For the journalift informs us, that they have fortunetellers employed by them at their feftivals. Thefe perfons pretend, to. foretel events by-the information, of the.
Kugans or Damons.    In their divinations they put on.
wooden masks, made in the form in which they fay
the Kugan appeared to them; they then dance with
violent motions, beating at the fame time drums covered
with fifh fkins. The inhabitants alfo wear little figures,
on their caps, and place others round their huts, -to keep,
off.the devils. Thefe are fufficient marks of a favage
It isccommon for them to have two, three, or four
wives^iamd fome have alfo an object of unnatural affection, who is dreffed like the women. The wives do not
all live together, • but,. Mke the Kamtchadals, in different
yonrtSi-^: It is not uhufual for the men to exchange their
yEwes, and even fell them, in time of dearth, for a blad-?
der of fat; the hufband afterwards endeavours to get
back his. wife,' if fhe- is a,favourite, and if unfuccefs-
fnicfoe fometimes kills himfelf. When ftrang-ers &&
rive at a village, it is always cuftomary for the women to
go out to meet them, while.-the men remain ajtvhome 3
ttes. is confidered as a pledge,of friendfMp and fecurity^
When a man dies in the hut belonging to his wife, fhe
retires into a dark hole, where flie remains forty days*
TM^hafband pays the.fame compliment to his fawwirite
wife.upon her death. .When both.parents die, the chHF
dren are left to; ifhift for themfelres. The Ruffians found
many ia this Utuatinia,   and  fome  were  brought  foi*
 fr: P   P    E   N   D   I   X    I.
In each village there is a fort of chief, called Tookoo,
who is not diftinguiihed by any particular rank or author
tfty. He decides differences by arbitration,, and the
neighbours enforce the fentence. When he goes out to
ie,a he is exempted from working, and. has a fervant,
cailed Kale, for the purpofe of rowing the canoe ; this is
the only mark of his dignity : at all other times he labours
like the reft. The office is not hereditary ; but is generally conferred on him who is moft remarkable for his
perfonal qualities ; or who pofTeffes a great influence by
the number of his friends. Hence it frequently hap-
;pens, that the perfon who has the largeft family is
Dtaing their fcftivafs, which are held after the fifhing
feaforr ends in Aprils the men and women, fing fongs;
•rile women dance, fometimes fingly, and fometimes in
pairs,, waving in their hands blown- bladders; they begin
*£th gentle movements* which become at laft extremely
The inhabitants of Unalaflika are called Kogholaghi.
Thofe of Akutan, and farther Eaft to Unimak, are called
feghigufi ; and thofe of Unimak and Alaxa are called
Kata^hayekiki. aVrhey cannot tell whence they have
thefe names, and now begin to call themfelves by the
general name of Aleyut, given them, by the Ruffians^
and borrowed from fome of the * Kuril iflands.    Upon
being asked concerning their origin,  they faid that they
had always inhabited thefe iflands, and knew nothing of
any other country beyond them.    All that could be gathered from them was,  that the greateft numbers came
from Alaxa, and that they did not know whether that
land had any bounds.   The Ruffians furveyed this ifland
very far to the N. E. in boats, being out  about a fortnight,  and fet up a crofs at the end of their furvey.   The
boats of the iflanders are like thofe of the Americans.     It
aj>pears however from their cuftoms and way of life, fo
far as thefe  are not  neceffarily prefcribed to them by
their fituation,  that they   are of Kamtchatdal  original.
Their huts, their manner of kindling fire,   and their objects of unnatural affections, lead to this conjecture.    Add
to this, the almoft-continual Wefterly winds, which muft
render the paffage Well ward extremely difficult.  Beerin
and TchirikofF could never obtain Eaftcrly winds but by
going to the Southward..
The Ruffians have for fome year* paft been accuftomed
to go to thefe iflands in queft of furs, of which they
have impofed a tax on the inhabitants. The manner of
carrying on this trade is as follows. The Ruffian traders,
go in Autumn to Beering's and Copper ifland, and there
winter: they then  employ  themfelves in catching the
| I cannot find, that any of the Kuril Ifles are called SI in the
catalogue of thofe iflands given by Mr. Muller, S. R. G III   g  86-n
Luther are any of them laid down under that name in the Ruffian charts."
fea-cat, and afterwards the Scivutcha, or fea-lion. The
flefh of the latter is prepared for food, and it is very delicate. They carry the skins of thefe fea-animals to the
Eaftern iflands. Next fummer they go Eaft ward, to the
Fox^iflands; and again lay their fhips up for the winter.
They then endeavour to procure, either by perfuafion
or force, the Children of the inhabitants, particularly of
the Tookoos, as hoftages. This being accomplished,
they deliver to the inhabitants fox-traps, and alfo skins
for.their boats, for .which they oblige them to bring furs
and provifions during the winter. After obtaining from
.them a certain quantity of furs, by way of tax, for which
they give.them quittances ; the Ruffians pay for the reft
in beads, falfe pearls,.goat's wool, copper kettles, hatchets,
&c. In the fpring they get back their traps, and deliver
up their hoftages. They, dare not hunt alone, nor in
fmall numbers, on account of the hatred of the natives.
Thefe people could not, for fome time, comprehend for
what purpofe the Ruffians impofed a tribute of fkins,
which were not to be their own property, but belonged
to an abfent perfon ; for their Tookoos have no revenue.
Nor could they be made to believe, 'that there wer.e any
more Ruffians than thofe who came among them; for
in their own country all the men of an ifland go out
top-ether. At prefent they comprehend fdmething of
Kamtchatka, by means of the Kamtc-hadals -and'iKoriacs
who come --along with the -Ruffians.; rand.on their arrival
M m love
to aflbciate with people whole manner of life refem-
bles their own.
Krenitzin and Levaifieff returned from this expedition into the mouth of the Kamtchatka river in autumn
The chart which accompanies this journal was com-
pofed by the pilot Jacob Yakoff, under the infpe£tion of
the commanders 1 Krenitzin and Levafheff. The track
of the St. Paul is marked both in going out and returning. The harbour of the St. Paul in the ifland Unalaflika, and the ftraits of Alaxa, are laid down from obferva-
tions made during the winter 1768 ; and the iflands
connected by bearings and diftances taken during a cruife
of the St. Paul twice repeated.
In this chart the variation is faid to be
In Lat. Long. Points
204.. 2  Eaft.
201 T-
192   30 1
188 I
182   30
180   30
I Krenitzin was drowned foon. after his return to Kamtchatka; in a.
canoe belonging to the natives.
11 N°
N°  IL
Concerning the longitude of Kamtchatka, and of the Eaflern
extremity of Afia, as laid down by the Ruffian Geographers.
TH E important queftion concerning the longitude L?ng't«de
■*• ■*■ ° O or the extreme
of the  extreme parts of Afia has been fo differ-ParK of Ma;
ently ftated by the moft celebrated geographers, that it
paay not be  amifs to refer the curious reader to the
principal  treatifes upon that fubjedt.    The proofs  by
which Mr. Muller and the Ruffian geographers place the by Mr. mu.i-
ler and the
longitude of the Eaftern extremity of Afia beyond 200 Ru(r'anGe°-
o g J grapners;
degrees from the firft meridian of Fero, or 180° 6h 15"
from Paris, are drawn from the obfervations of the fa-
tellites of Jupiter, made by Kraffilnikoff at Kamtchatka,
and in different parts of Siberia, and from the expeditions of the Ruffians by land and fea towards Tfchukot-
fkoi Nofs.
Mr. Engel calls  in queftion  the  exa&nefs  of thefe by Mr. Engei.
obfervations, and takes off twenty-nine degrees from the
M 2 longitude
by Mr. Vai
At   P   P   E   N   D   I   X      L
longitude of Kamtchatka, as laid down by the Ruffians.
To this purpofe he has given to the public,
i. Memoires et obfervations geographiques et critiques fur la fituation des Pays Septentrionaux de l'Afie
et de l'Amerique.    A Laufanne, 1765.
2. Geographifche und Critifche Nachricht ueber die
Lage der noerdlichen Gegenden von Alien und America.    Mittau,   1772.
It appears  to Mon fie ur de Vaugondyv that there-are.
not- fufficient grounds for fo extraordinary a diminution;
accordingly  he fhortens   the   continent   of   Afia   oiply-j
eleven degrees of longitude;   and upon this fubjec"t he
has given the two following treatifcs : .
1. Lettre au fujet d'une carte fyftematique des Pays
Septentrionaux de l'Afie et de l'Amerique.   Paris, 1768.
2. Nouveau fyfteme geographique, par lequel on
concilie les anciennes connoiffances fur les Pays au?
Nord Oueft de l'Amerique.    Paris, 1774..
pt^Sl     In oppofition to thefe authors, Monfieur Buache has
San°f£he publifhed an  excellent   treatife,   entitled-Memoires  fur
againll Engel
vaugofdy.les Pays de l'Afie et de l'Amerique.    Paris, 1775.
In this memoir he diffents from the opinions of
Meffrs Engel and Vaugondy ; and defends the fyftem
of the Ruffian geographers in the following manner.
Monfieur Maraldi, after comparing the obfervations
of the fatellites of Jupiter, taken at Kamtchatka by
Kraffilnikoff, with the tables, has determined the longitude of Ochotfk, Bolcheresk, and the port of St. Peter
and Paul from the firft meridian of Paris as follows:
h       !
* Longitude of Ochotfk 9   23  50
of Bolcherefk    to   17   17
of the Port        10   25     5
Latitude of Ochotfk 59° 22',  of Bolcherefk 52° 5 §|
the Port c;30 1
* -Kraffilnikoff compared his obfervations with correfponding ones
taken at Peterfburg, which gave refults as follow 1
From comparing an obfervation of an eclipfe of the firft fatellite,
taken at Ochotfk the 17th of January, 1743, with an obfervation of an
eclipfe of the fame fatellite taken at Peterfburg on the 15th of January
in the fame year, the difference of longitude between Peterfburg and
Ochotfk appeared to be 711.. 31' 29"; from a comparifon of two other
fimilar obfervations'the difference of longitude was yh, 31' 3", a mean
of which is 7b. 31' 34", being the true'difference between the, meridians
of Peterfburg and Ochotfk according to thefe obfervations. By adding
tfl& difference of the longitude between Peterfburg and Paris, which is
ih. 52' 25", we have the longitude of Ochotfk from Paris. 9C. 23' 59",.
which differs 29'' only from the refult of Monf. Maraldi. Nov. Comm-
Pet. 111. p. 47c
The comparifon of the following refults, deduced
from correfponding obfervations* of the eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites taken at Bolcherefk at the port of Peter
and Paul by Krafiilnikoff, and at Pekin by the Jefuit mif-
fionaries, will fhew from their near agreement the care
and attention which muft have been given to the obfervations ; and from hence there is reafon to fuppofe, that
the fnfpicions of inaccuracy imputed to Krafiilnikoff
are ill founded.
1741, Old Stile.
Jan. 27, Em. 1  Sat.'  ..._ 12       9     25  11?^"""
9     20     35  at Pekin.
Pifferenre of the meridian at Pekin
and the Port
Jan. 30, Imm. 111 Sat.
2     48     50
5     30  at the Port.
9     16     30 at Pekin.
In the fame manner the longitude of Bolcherefk appears from the correfponding obfervations taken at that place and at Peterfburo- to be
loh. 20' 22" differing from Mr. Maraldi about 2' 5". Nov. Com. p. 469.
But the longitude of the port of St. Peter and Paul, eftimated in the
fame'manner from correfponding obfervations, differs from the longitude
as computed by Monf. Maraldi no more than 20 feconds, p. 469.
I Obf. HI Ecc. Sat. Jovis, &c. Nov. Com. Petr. vol. III. p. 452,
&c. Obf. Aft. Pekini facta;. Ant. Hallerftein—Curante Max. Hell
Vindibona;,  1768.
Feb. 5,   1 Sat.
Feb. 12, Em. 1 Sat.
And the longitude from Paris
to Pekin being
The difference of the meridians of
Paris and the Port will be
8     33     26  at the Port.
5     43    45 at Pekin."
2 49 41
10 28 49
7 39 29
2 49 20
7     36     23
io     25.     36
Which .differs only 31 feconds from the determination of Mr. Maraldi.
March 23, Em. 11 Sat.
Dec. 31, Im. 1 Sat.
Difference of the meridians of Pekin
and Bolcherefk
Old Style.
10     55
8     14
ih ■
2 at Bolcherefk
0 at Pekin.
2    41
10     51     5 8 at Bolcherefk.
8       9     45  at Pekin*
42     13
By taking the medium the difference of the longitude  _
between Bolcherefk and Pekin will be found to be      ■"        4 | 37
Between Bolcherefk and Paris 10        Io O
Which differs only one minute and one fecond from the determination of Mr. MaraldL
N   D   I
In order to call in queftion the concluflons drawn from
the obfervations of KraffiloikofF, Monfieur de Vaugondy
pretends that the inftruments and pendulums, which he
made ufe of at KamtGhat-ka, -were much damaged by the'
length of the journey ; and that the perfon who was
fent to repair them was an unskilful workman. But
this opinion feems .to .have .been advanced without fuf-
ficicnt foundation, dndeed Krafiilnikoff* himfelf allows that his pendulum occafionally flopt, even when
neceffary to afee'rtain the true time of the obfervation.
lie admits therefore that the obfervations which he took
under thefe diladvantages (when he could not correct
them by preceding or fubfequent obfervations of the fun
or ftars) are not to be depended upon, and has accordingly diftinguifhed them by an afterisk ; there are however a number of others, which were not liable to any
exception of this kind ; and the obfervations already
mentioned in this.number are comprifed under this clafs.
If the arguments which have been already produced
mould hot appear fufficiently fatisfaclory, we have the
further teftimony of Mr. Muller, who was in thofe parts
at the fame time with -K-raflHnikofF, and who is the only
competent judge of this matter now alive.    For .that re-
* Nov. Com. Pet. III. p. 444.
 A   P   P   EN   D   IX
^pectable author has given me the moft pofitive aflur-
ances, that the inftruments were not damaged in fuch a
manner as to effect the accuracy of the obfervations when
in the hands of a skilful obferver.
That the longitude of Kamtchatka is laid down with ^"j**
° the Rufli; m
fumcient accuracy by the Ruffian geographers, will ap- Ge°sraPhers-
pear by -comparing it with the longitude of Yakutsk; for
as the latter has been clearly eftablifhed by a variety of
obfervations, taken at different times and by different
perfons, if there is any error in placing Kamtchatka fo
far to the Eaft, it will be found in the longitude between •
Yakutsk and Bolcheresk. A fhort comparifon therefore
of fome of the different obfervations made at Yakutsk
will help to fettle the longitude of Kamtchatka, and
will ftill farther confirm the character of a skilful obferver,   which has been given to Kraffilnikoff.
Krafiilnikoff in returning from Kamtchatka obferved
at Yakutsk feveral eclipfes  of the fatellites of Jupiter,
of which the  following are mentioned by him as the
moft exact.
1744,    Old Style.
h.       t       if
*Feb. 7. Imm.     1. Sat. n   iS  35   fomewhat doubtful.
22. Imm. 11. Sat. 10   31   11 )
29. Imm. 11. Sat. 13     6  54 L, exad,       *       .
Mar.   1. Imm.    1. Sat. 11   23     o I
Apr.   9. Em.      1. Sat. 12  23  5° J
* Nov. Comm. Petr. T. III. p. 460.
N n The
The fame eclipfes, as calculated by the tables of Mr,
Wargentin, for the meridian of Paris, are as follow.:
h     i     /t h    /     //
Feb.    7.1mm.    i. 2 49    o
27. Imm. 1. 12     3  10
29. Imm. 11. 4 38   17
Mar.   1. Imm.  1.  3    3 37
Apr.   9. Em.    1. 3  54  12
Difference of 8  29  35
the meridians 821     1
of Paris —    8  28  37
and Yakutsk    8  29  23
8  29  46
The mean of which is
8  29     5
The obfervations of Mr. Ifleniefff, made at Yakutsk in
the year 1769, to which place he'was fent to obferVe
the tranfit of Venus, have received the fanchon of the:
Imperial Academy. The longitude which he fixes for
Yakutsk is 8b 29/ 34". this correfponds, to a fufhcient
degree of exactnefs, with the longitude inferred from,
the obfervations of Krafliln&off*
Thus the longitude of Yakutsk from Paris being
8h 29/ 4*. or in degrees 127 16 o. and of Bolcherefk 10 17 17, or in degrees 1500 19' 15. the difference of the longitude of thefe two places, from aftro-
jnomical obfervations, amounts to 1 48 8. or in degrees 2 70 p o. The latitude of Bolcherefk is 52° 55' o".
and that of Yakutfk 620  1' 50*.   and the difference of
I For Iflenieff's obfervations at Y^kugfc^ fee Nov. Com. Tom. XIV.
Part III. p. 268 to.321.
their longitudes being from the preceding determination 27 3 o. the direct diftance between the places
meafured on a great circle of the earth will appear by
trigonometry to be 160 57'. or about 1773 verfts reckoning 104I verfts to a degree. This diftance confifts
partly of fea, and partly of land ; and a conftant inter-
courfe is kept up between the two places, by means of
Ochotsk, which lies between them. The diftance by fea
from Bolcheresk to Ochotsk is eftimated by fhips reckonings to be 1254 verfts, and the diftance by land from
Ochotsk to Yakutsk is 927 verfts, making altogether
2181. The direct diftance deduced by trigonometry,
(on a fuppofition that the difference of longitude between
Bolcheresk and Yakutsk is 270 3'.) is 1773, falling
fhort of 2181 by 408. a difference naturally to be expected from confidering, that neither roads by land, or
the courfe of fhips at fea, are ever performed precifely
on a great circle of the earth, which is the fhorteft line
that can be drawn on the earth's furface between two
By this agreement between the diftance thus eftimated,
and that deduced by computation, on fuppofing the difference of longitude between Yakutfk and Bolcherefk to'
be 270 3?. it feems very improbable, that there fliould
be an error of many degrees in the aftronomical determination.
N n 2
Longitude of
the extreme
parts of Afia j
determined by
the Ruffians.
Since then the longitude between Fero and Peterf-
burgh is acknowledged to be 480—that between Peterf-
burgh and Yakutfk 990 jfe—and as the diftance in longitude between Yakutfk and Bolcherefk cannot be materially lefs than 27* 3'. it follows that the longitude of
Bolcherefk from Fero cannot be much lefs than 1740 24C
Where then fhall we find place for fo great an error as
27 degrees, which, according to Mr. Engel, or even of
ii°. which, according to Monf. Vaugondy, is imputed,
to the Ruffian geographers, in fixing^ the longitude of
Kamtchatka J-
From the ifle of Fero.
Longitude of Yakutfk 147    o    o
of Ochotfk 160    7    o
of Bolcherefk 174  13     q
of the Port of St. Peter and Paul 176  1 a    q
As no aftronomicarobfervations have been made further to the Eaft than the Port of St.. Peter and Paul, it is*
impomble to fix, with any degree of certainty, the Ion-,
gitude of the North-Eaftern promontory of Afia. It appears however from Beering's and Synd's coafting voyages
towards Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, and from other expeditions-
to the parts by land and fea, that the coaft of Afia in
lat. 64. ftretches at leaft 23° 2 30. from the Port, or
to about 2000 longitude from the Ifle of Fero.
Summary of the proofs tending to flhew, that Beering and
Tfchirikoff either reached America in 1741, or came
very near it*
"£ 3 H E coaft which Beering reached, and called Cape
St. Elias, lay, according to his eftimation, in
58°. 28'. N..latitude, and in longitude 236°. from Fero:
the coaft touched at by Tfchirikoff was fituated in lat..
56°. long, 241°^
Steller, who accompanied. Beering in his expedition Arguments ad-
J vanced by
towards America,- endeavours to prove, that they difco- ^"^t
vered that continent by the following arguments f : The.TSIoff
coafts were bold,   prefenting continued chains of highAmer,w-
mountains, fome of which were fo elevated, that their
tops were, covered with mow,, their fides were cloathed
* The reader will find the narrative of this voyage made by Beering-
and Tfchirikoff  in   Midler's   account   of   the   Ruffian   Difcoveries,
S..R..G. III. 193, &c.
■f See Krafhininikoff's account of Kamtchatka, Chap. X.  French:
Tranflation;. Chap. IV. Englifh tranflation..
from the bottom to the top with large tra&s of thick and
fine wood J.
Steller went afhore, where he remained only a few
hours; during which time he obferved feveral fpecies of
birds which are not known in Siberia : amongft thefe was
the bird defcribed by I Catefby, under the name of Blue
Jay; and which has never yet been found in any country
but North America. The foil was very different from
that of the neighbouring iflands, and at Kamtchatka:
and he collected feveral plants, which are deemed by
botanifts peculiar to America.
The following lift of thefe plants was communicated
to me by Mr. Pallas : I infert them however without pre-
j The recent navigations in thofe feas flrongly confirm this argument.
For in general all the new difcovered iflands are quite deftitute of trees;
even the largeft produce nothing hut underwood, one of the moft Easterly Kadyak alone excepted, upon which fmall willows and alders were
obferved growing in vallies at fome diftance from the coaft. See
p. ii8.
* See Catefby's Natural Hiftory of Florida, Carolina, &c. This bird
is called by Linnaeus Corbus Criftatus. I have feen, in Mr. Pennant's
MS account of the hiftory of the animals, birds, &c. of N. America
and the Northern hemjfphere, as high as lat. 60, an exact defcription of
this bird. Whenever that ingenious author, to whom we are indebted
for many elegant and interefting publications, gives this part of his labours to the world, the zoology of thefe countries will be fully and accurately confidered.
 APPENDIX      r.
fuming to decide, whether they are the exclufive growth
of North America: the determination of this point is the
province of botany.
Trillium Erectum.
Fumaria Cucullaria.
A fpecies of Dracontium,with leaves like theCannalndica.
Uvularia Perfoliata.
Heuchera Americana.
MimulusXnteus, a Peruvian plant..
A fpecies of Rubus, probably  a variety  of the Rubus
Idaeus, but with larger berries,,  and a large laciniated
red calyx, fi
None of thefe plants are found in Kamtchatka, or in
any of the neighbouring, iflands #»
* According to Mr.. Pallas, the plants of the new-difcovered iflands
are moftly alpine, like thofe of Siberia j this he attributes to the fhort-
nefs and coldnefs of the fummer, occafioned by the frequency of the-
North winds.    His words are :. " Quoique les hivres de ces ifles foient
aflez temperes par l'air de la mer, de facon que les neiges> ne  couvrent
jamais la terxe que par intervalles, la plupart des plantes y font alpines,
comme en Siberie, par la raifon que l'ete y eft tout auffrcourte et froide,
a caufe des vents de nordqui y regnent."   This paffage is taken from a
MS treatife in the French language, relative tothe new-difcovered iflands
communicated to me by my very learned and ingenious friend Mr. Pallas,,
profeffor of natural hiftory at St. Peterfburg; from which I:have been,
enabled to colleft a confiderable degree of information.   This treatife was
fent to Monf. Buffon; and that celebrated naturalift has made great ufe
of it in the fifth volume of his Supplement, a l'Hiftoire Naturelle..
A   P   P   E   N ' D   I   X     U Though thefe circumftances mould not be confidered
as affording decifive proofs, that Beering reached America ; yet they will furely be admitted as ftrong prefump-
tions, that he very nearly approached that continent t.
-f- The reader will recoiled!, in this place, that the natives of the
contiguous iflands touched at by Beering and Tfchirikoff " prefented to
e( the Ruffians the calumet, or pipe of peace, which is a fymbof of
" friendfhip univerfal among the people of North America, and an
I ufage of arbitrary inftitution peculiar to them." See Robertfon's Hift.
Am. vol. I. p. 276.   S. R. G. III. p. 214.
Lift of the principal charts reprefenting the Ruff an
"*HE following is an authentic lift of the  principal
charts of the Ruffian difcoveries hitherto publifhed.
It is accompanied with a few explanatory remarks.
I. Carte des nouvelles decouvertes au nord de la mer
du fud, tant a TEft de la Siberie et du Kamtchatka, qu'a
rOueft de la Nouvelle France dreffe fur les memoires de
Mr. de rifle, par Philippe Buache, 1750. A memoir relative to this chart was foon afterwards publifhed, with
the following title, Explication de la carte des nouvelles
decouvertes au Nord de la mer du fud par Mr. de rifle
Lift of the.
Charts of the
j This map is alluded to, p. a6 of this work.
1. Carte des nouvelles decouvertes entre la partie
orientale de l'Afie et l'Occidentale de l'Amerique, avec des
vues fur la grande terre reconnue, par les Ruffes, en 1741,
par Phil. Buache, 1752.
•. Nouvelle carte des decouvertes faites par des vaif-
feaux Rufliens aux cotes inconnus de l'Amerique fepten-
trionale avec les pais adjacens, drefses fur les memoires
O o authentiques
authentiques de ceux qui ont affifte a ces decouvertes, et
fur d'autres connoiffances; dont on rend raifon dans un
memoire fepare : a St. Peterfburg,, a l'Academie Imperiale
des fciences, 1754.  x75^-
This map was publifhed under the infpec"tion of Mr..
Muller, and is ftill prefixed to his account of the Ruffian,
difcoveries*. The part which exhibits the new discovered
ifles and the coaft of America, was chiefly taken from,
the chart of Beering's expedition. Accordingly that continent is reprefented as advancing, between 50 and 60
degrees of latitude, to within a fmall diftance of Kamtchatka. Nor could there be any reafon to fufpect, that
fuch experienced failors as Beering and Tfchirikoff had
miftaken a chain of iflands for promontories belonging to
America, until fubfequent navigators had actually failed
through that very part, which was fuppofed to be a
4. A fecond chart publifhed by the Academy, but not
under the inflection of Mr. Muller, bears the fame title
as the former. '
Nouvelle carte des decouvertes faites par des vaifleaux
Ruffiens aut c6tes inconnus de l'Amerique,  &c.   1773.
i Th'rs map was publifhed by Jefferys under the following title : " A
" Map of the L ifcoveries made by the Ruffians on the North Weft
I coaft of America, publifhed by the Royal Academy of Sciences at
" Peterfburg. Republiihed by Thomas Jefferys, Geographer to his
" Majefty, 1761."
1 It
 APPENDIX      §
It is for the moft part a copy of a manufcript chart
known in Ruffia by the name of the chart of the Promy-
flilenAcs, or merchant adventurers, and which was
Sketched from the mere reports of perfons who had failed
to the New Difcovered Iflands. As to the fize and po-
fition of the New Difcovered Iflands, this chart of the
Academy is extremely erroneous: it is however free
from the above-mentioned miftake, which runs through
all the former charts, namely, the reprefenting of the
coaft of America, between 50 and 60 degrees of latitude, as contiguous to Kamtchatka. It likewife removes that part of the fame continent lying in latitude
66, from 2100 longitude to 2,2,4°, and in its ftead lays'
<lown a large ifiand, which ftretches between latitude
•64° and 71° 30', from 207° longitude to 218°, to
within a fmall diftance of both continents. But whether this latter alteration be equally juftifiable or not,
is a queftion, the decifion of which muft be left to future navigators*,
I.  Carte
* Mr. Muller has long ago acknowledged, in the moft candid and
public manner, the incorre&nefs of the former chart, as far as it relates
to the part which reprefent-s America, as contiguous to Kamtchatka:
but he ftill maintains his opinion concerning the actual vicinity of the
two continents in an higher latitude. The following quotation is taken
from a letter written by Mr. Muller, in 1774, of which I have a copy
my pofleflion.    " Pofterity muft judge if the new chart of the Aca
" demy is to be preferred to the former one
O o 2
for removing the conti-
" nent
5. Carte du nouvel Archipel du Nord decouveii
paries Ruffes dans la mer de Kamtchatka et d'Anadir.
This chart is prefixed to Mr. Stoehiin's account of the
New Northern Archipelago. In the Englifh tranflatiom
it is called, A Map of the New Northern Archipelago,
difcovered by the Ruffians in the feas of Kamtchatka
and Anadyr. It differs from the laft mentioned chart
only in the fize and pofition of a few of the iflands,.
and in the addition of five or Ak new ones, and is
equally incorrect. The New Difcovered Hlands are
elaffed in this chart into three "groups,, which are called
the Ifles of Anadyr*, the Olutoriant Ifles, and the Aleutian Ifles. The two laft mentioned charts are alluded
to, p. 2 6 of this work.
6. An
" nent of America (which Is reprefented as lying near the coaft of
" Tfchutfki) to a greater diftance. Synd, who is more to be trufted
" than the Promyfchlenics, perfifts in the old fyftem. He places Ame-
" rica as near as before to Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, but knows nothing of a?
" large ifland called Alafhka, which takes up the place of the conti-
" nent, and which aught to be laid down much more to the South or
" South Eaft:y
* Monfieur Buffon has adopted the apellation and erroneous repre-
fentation of the ifles of Anadyr, in his Carte de deux regions Polaires
lately publifhed.    See Supplement a. FHift. Nat. vol. V. p. 61c.
•f The Olotorian Ifles are fo named from the fmall river of Olotora
which flows into the fea at Kamtchatka, about latitude' 61 °.    The follow iner
6. An excellent map of the Empire of Ruffia, publifhed by the geographical department of the Academv
of Sciences at St. Peterfburg in 1776, comprehends the
greateft part of the New Difcovered Iflands. A reduced
copy of this chart being prefixed to this work, I lhall
only mention the authorities from whence the compilers have laid down the New Difcovered Iflands.
The Aleutian ifles are partly taken from Beering's
chart, partly from * Otcheredin's, whofe voyage is related
in   the  eleventh  chapter, and  partly from other  MS.
lowing remarks upon this group of iflands are taken from a letter of
Mr. Muller mentioned in the laft note. " This appellation of Olu-
<c torian Ifles is not in ufe at Kamtchatka. Thefe iflands, called upon
tc this chart Olutorians, lie according to the chart of the Promyfchle-
f* nics, and the chart of the Academy, very remote from the river Olu-
" tora : and it feems as if they were advanced upon this chart nearer
" to Kamtchatka only in favour of the name. They cannot be fitu-
l< ated fo near that coaft, becaufe they were neither feen by Beering
" in 1728, nor by the Promyfchlenics, Novikoff and Bacchoff, when
" they failed in 1748 from the Anadyr to Beering's Ifland." Seep. 42.
* I have a MS. copy of Otcheredin's chart in my poflefhon; but as
the Fox Iflands, in the general Map of Ruflia, are copied from thence,
the reader will find them laid down upon the reduced map prefixed to
this work. The anonymous author of the account of the Ruffian Difcoveries, of whofe work I have given a tranflation in Part 1. feems to
have followed, in moft particulars, Otcheredin's chart and journal for
the longitude, latitude, fize, and pofition of the New Difcovered Iflands.
For this reafon, I fhould have had his chart engraved if the Fox Iflands
upon the general map had not been taken from thence : there feemed
no occafion therefore for increafing the expence of this work, already
too great from the number of eharts, by the addition of another not
abfolutely neceffary.
 2 86
charts of different navigators. The iflands near the
coaft of the Tfchutfki are copied from Synd's chart.
The Fox Iflands are laid down from the chart of Otcheredin. The reader will perceive, that the pofition of
the Fox Iflands, upon this general map of Ruffia, is
materially different from that affigned to them in the
chart of Krenitzin's and Levafheff's voyage. . In the
former they are reprefented as ftretching between
5 6° 6r' North latitude, and 2100 and 2300 longitude
from the ifle of Fero: in the latter they are fituated
between 510 40' and 550 20' latitude, and 199° 30' and
207° 30' longitude. According to the moft recent accounts received from Peterfburg, the pofition given to
them upon this general map is confiderahly too much
to the North and Eaft; confequently that affigned to
them upon Krenitzin's chart is probably the moft to be
depended upon.
7.  Caite des decouvertes Ruffes dans la mer orien-
tale et en Amerique, pour fervir a l'Eflai * fur le commerce
f The twelfth chapter of this Eflay relates to the difcoveries and
commerce of the Ruffians in the Eaftern Ocean. The account of the
Ruffian difcoveries is a tranflation of Mr. Stashlin's Defcription of the
New Northern Archipelago. In addition, he has fubjoined an account
of Kamtchatka, and a fhort fketch of the Ruffian commerce to the New
Difcovered Iflands, and to America. If we may believe the author of
this Eflay, the Ruffians have not only difcovered America, but they alfo
every year form occafional fettlements upon that continent, fimilar to
thofe of the Europeans in Newfoundland.    His words are : " II eft done
merce de Ruffle, 1778, Amfterdam. It is natural to
expect, that a chart fo recently publifhed fhould be fu-
perior to all the preceding ones ; whereas, on the contrary, it is by far the moft incorrect reprefentation of
the New Difcovered Iflands which has yet appeared.
certain, que les Ruffes ont decouverfe le continent de l'Amerique ; mais
on peut aflurer qu'ils n'y ont encore aucun port, aucun comptoir.
II en eft des etabliffements de cette nation dans la grande terre, comme
de ceux des nations Europeennes dans l'ifle de Terre Neve. Ses vaif-
feaux ou fregates arrivent en Amerique; leurs equipages et les Cofaques
chaffeurs s'etabliflent fur la cote j les uns fe retranchent, et les autres
y font la chafle et la peche du chien marin et du narval. lis revien-
nent enfuite au Kamtchatka, apres avoir ere releves par d'autres fregates fur les memes parages, ou a des diftances plus ou moins eloignes,
&c. &c." See Eflai fur le commerce de la Ruffie, p. 292—293. Thus the
publick is impofed upon by fi&itious and exaggerated accounts.
N° V.
N° V.
Pofition of the Andreanoffsky Ifles afcertained—^Number
of the Aleutian Ifles.
HEN the anonymous author publifhed his account of the Ruffian Difcoveries in 1766, the
pofition of the Andreanoffsky Ifles was not afcertained.
It was generally fuppofed, that they formed part of that
clufter of iflands, which Synd* fell in with in his voyage towards Tfchukotfkoi Nofs ; and Buffbn f reprefents
them to be the fame with thofe laid down in Staehlin's
chart, under the name of Anadirsky Ifles. The anonymous author in the paffage here referred to, fuppofes
them to be N. E. of the Aleutian Ifles ; ** at the diftance
" of 600 or 800 verfts; that their direction is probably
" Eaft and Weft, and that fome of them may unite
" with that part of the Fox Iflands which are moft
" contiguous to the oppofite continent." This conjecture was advanced upon a fuppofition that the
Andreanoffsky Ifles lay near the coaft of the Tfchutski;
* See N° IX. of this Appendix.
f Ifles Anadyr ou Andrien. Supp. vol. V. p. 591.
APPENDIX      1.
and that ibra^Lof the Fox Iflantfe were fituajed in latitude 61, as they ate laid down itpoii the general map
But according   to fqfefequent information
©f Ruffia;
the Andreanoffsky Ifles lie between the Aleutian and the Pofit:°n ofS«
Fox Iflands, and complete the connection betweenlfles-
Kamtchatka and America*. Their chain is fuppofed to
begin m about latitude $3, near the moft Eafterly of the
Aleutian Ifles, and to extend in a fcattered feries towards
the Fox Iflands. The moft North Eafterly of thefe
iflands are faid to be fo near the moft Southerly of the
Fox Iflands, that they feem occafionally to have been
taken for them. An inftance of this occurs in p. 6r
and 62 of this work ; where Atchu and Amlach are
' reckoned among the Fox Iflands. It is however more
probable, that they are part of the group called by the
Aleutian chief Negho t, and known to the Ruffians
under the name of Andreanoffsky Iflands, becaufe they
were fuppofed to have been firft difcovered by Andrean
Tolftyk, whofe voyage is related in the feventh chapter of the Firft Part,
I take this opportunity of adding, that the anonymous Number of the
r r j " Aleutian. lues-.
author,   in defcribing the Aleutian Ifles, ' both  in the
firft  and laft chapter of  the  account of  the  Ruffian
* P. 58. Some of the remoter iflands are faid to be E.-S. E. of the.
Aleutian Ifles; thefe muft be either part of the Andreanoffsky Ifles, or
the moft Southerly of the Fox Iflands.
f See N° VIII. of this Appendix.
p p difco-
difcoveries, mentions only thsee; namely, Attak, Se*-
mitflii, Shemiya. But the Aleutian Ifles confift of a
much larger number; and their chain includes all the
iflands comprehended by the iflander in the two- groups
of Khao and Safignan *. Many of them are laid down
upon the general map of Ruffia; and fome of them
are occafionally alluded to in. the journals, of the Rtt£~
fian voyages f.
* See N« VIII.
•j- See p. 30, and particularly p. 46, where fome of thefe iflands awt-
mentioned under the names of Ibiya,. Kifka, and Olas.
N° VI.
Conjectures concerning the proximity of the Fox Iflands to
the continent of America.
1 H E anonymous author, in the courfe of his account of the Ruffian difcoveries, has advanced
many proofs drawn from natural hiftory, from which
he fuppofes the Fox Iflands to be at a fmall diftance
from the continent of America : hence he grounds his
conjecture, that « the time is not far diftant when fome
of the Ruffian navigators will fall in with that coaft."
The fmall willows and alders which, according to
Glottoff, were found growing upon Kadyak, do not appear to have been fufhoient either in fize or quantity Proofs of the
Vicinity of the
to afcertain, with any degree of certainty, the clofe vi- ^^caattds t0
cinity of that ifland to America. River-otters, wolves,
bears, and wild boars, which were obferved upon the
fame ifland, will perhaps be thought to afford a ftronger
prefumption in favour of a neighbouring continent;
martens were alfo caught there, an animal which is not
known in the Eaftern ports of Siberia, nor found upon
any of the other iflands. All the above mentioned animals, martens alone excepted, were feen upon Alakfu,
which is fituated more to the North Eaft than Kadyak,
P p 2 and
and alfo rein-deers and wild dogs. To thefe proofs
drawn from natural hiftory, we muft add the reports of
a mountainous country, covert with forefts, and of as
great promontory called Atachtak, lying ftill more to the
N. E. whltn were prevalent .among the inhabitants of
Alakfu and Kadyak.
Although thefe circumftances have been already mentioned *, yet I have thought proper to recapitulate them:
here, in order to lay before the reader in one point of
view the feveral proofs advanced by the anonymous author, which feem to fliew, that the Fox Iflands are fituated
near America. Many of them afford, beyond a doubt,,
evident figns of a lefs open fea ;. and give certain marks
of a nearer approach towards the oppofite cpiftinent.
But how far that diftance may be fuppofed^ muft be
left to the judgment of the reader; and remains to be
afcertained by fubfequent navigators. All that we know for
certain, is, that as far as any Ruffian veffels have hitherto
failed, a chain of iflands has been difcovered lying E. or
N. E. by E. from Kamtchatka, and ftretching towards
America. Part of this chain has only been touched at;
the reft is unknown; and all beyond is uncertaintv
and conjecture.
* See p. 68 and 6a—116—uS—170.
 A   P   F   E   N   D 
Of the Tfchutski-^Reports of the vicinity of America t&
their coafi, firfl propagated by them>-,-feem to be confirmed
by late, accounts from thofe parts.
r "^HE Tfchutfki, it is well kn#wn, inhabit the NorthTheTfchmfti.
"*• Eaftern part of Siberia; their country is a fmall
tract of land, bounded on the North by the Frozen Sea,
on the Eaft by the Eaftern Ocean; on the South it borders
tTpon river Anadyr, and on that of Kovyma to the Weft.
The N. £. cape of this country is; sailed THehukotfkoi-
Jfeft, or the promontory of the Tfchutfki. Ifsf inhabitants
a*re the only people of Siberia who have not yet been
' iitbd'tied %y the Ruffians.
ThV anonymous author agrees with Mr. Muller in
ftippofing,. that America advances to within a Snail diftance of the coaft of the Tfchutski; which he fays " is
confirrrfeti by the lateft accounts procured from, thefe
The firft intelligence concerning the fuppofed vicinity
between Afia and America was derived from the reports
of the Tfchutski in their intercourfe with the Ruffians.
Vague and uncertain accounts, drawn from a barbarous
people, cannot deferve implicit credit; but as they have
been uniformly and invariably propagated by the inhabitants of thofe regions from the middle of the laft century
to the prefent time, they muft merit at leaft the attention
of every curious enquirer. |jpi
ItcerawglL     Thefe reports were firft related in Muller's account of
AmerkaU   the Ruffian difcoveries,   and have been lately  thought
their Coaft.
worthy of notice by Dr. Robertfon % in his hiftory of
America. Their probability feems ftill further increafed
by the following circumftances. One Plenifner, a native of Courland, was appointed commander of Ochotsk,
in the year 1760, with an exprefs order from the court
to proceed as far as t Anadirsk, and to procure all pof-
fible intelligence concerning the North Eaftern part of
Siberia, and the oppofite continent. In confequence of
this order Plenifner repaired to Anadirsk, and proceeded
likewife to Kovimskoi Oftrog: the former of thefe Ruffian
fettlements is fituated near the Southern; the latter near
the Weftern limits of the Tfchutski. Not content however with collecting all the information in his power from
the neighbouring Koriacs,  who have frequent intercourfe
* Hift. of America, vol. I.'p. 274—277.
f Anadirfk has beea4ately deftroyed by the Ruffians themfelves.
with the Tfchutski; he.alfo fent one Daurkin into their
country. This perfon was a native Tfchutski, who
had been taken prifoner, and bred up by the Ruffians:
he continued two years with his countrymen, and made
feveral expeditions with them to the neighbouring iflands,
which lie off the Eaftern coaft of Siberia.
The fum of the intelligence brought back by this
Daurkin was as follows : that Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs is a
very narrow peninfula; that the Tfchutfki carry on a
trade of barter with the inhabitants of America; that
they employ fix days in paffing the ftrait which feparates
the two continents : they direct their courfe from ifland
to ifland, and the diftance from the one to the other is
fo fmall, that they are able to pafs every night afhore.
More to the North he defcribes the two continents as approaching ftill nearer to each other, with only two iflands,
lying between them..
This intelligence remarkably coincided with the accounts collected by Plenifner himfelf among the Koriacs.
Plenifner returned to Peterfburg in 1776, and brought
with him feveral * maps and charts of the North Eaftera
* The moft important of thefe maps comprehends the country of the-
Tfchutfki, together with the nations which border immediately upon,
them.    This map was chiefly taken during a fecond expedition made by
P   E   N*  D   I   X    I.
parts of Siberia, which were afterwards made ufe of in
the coraplafibn of the general map of Ruflia, pvhtifhed
by the acadenfy in 17761. By thefe mea^s the country
of the Tfchutfki has been laid down with a greater degree of accuracy than heretofore. Thefe are probably
■the late accounts from thofe parts which the ancta^mous
author alludes to.
major Fauloffsky- againft the Tfchutfki; and his marcfr into that cetmipy
is tracectjytppn it. Tife'frfJ-e.'xped3SS3n pf that Ruflian on^eer^ in w^ieii
he penetrated as far as Tfcjjukotfkpi-Nofs, is related by Mr. Midler,
S. K. G. III. p. 134—138. We have no account of this fecond expedition, during which he had feveral fkirmifhes with the Tfchutfki, and
'csppe off victorious; but upon his return was furprifed and kjljled by
them.   This expedition was^ made about the year 1750.
if This detail I procured during my continuance at Peterfburg froni
feveral perfons of credit, who had frequently converfed with Plenifner
fince his return to the capital, where he died in the latter end of the
year 1778.
 P  E   N   n   I   X.     X,
; N°  VIII.
Lift of the new-difcovered Iflands, procured from an
Aleutian chief—Catalogue of iflands called by different
names in the Account of the Ruffian Difcoveries.
*~; "^ H E fubfequent lift of the new-difcovered iflands
was procured from an Aleutian chief brought to
Petersburg in 1771, and examined at the defireof theEm-
prefs by Mr. Muller, who divides them into four principal ^Jf°£r
groups.    He regulates this divifion partly by a fimilarity El Int"0
four Groups.
of the language fpoken by the inhabitants, and partly by
vicinity of fituation.
The  firft eraup % called   by the  iflander Safignan, Krft Group,
0 called Safig-
comprehends,, i. Beering's Ifland.      2. Copper Ifland.nan-
3. Otma.    4. Samya, orShemiya.'   5. Anakta.
The fecond group is called Khao, and comprifes eight Khao, the
fecond Group.
iflands: 1. Immak. 2. Kifka. 3. Tchetchina. 4. Ava.
5. Kavia. 6. Tfchagulak. 7. Ulagama. 8. Amtf-
* Thefe two firft groups probably belong to the Aleutian Ifles.
Q q The
Negho, the
third Group.
The third general name is Negho, and comprehends
the iflands known by the Ruffians under the name of
Andreanoffskye Oftrova : Sixteen were mentioned by the
iflander, under the following names :
i. Amatkinak. 2. Ulak. 3. Unalga. 4. Navotfha.
5. Uliga. 6. .Anagin. 7. Kagulak. 8. Illafk, or
Illak. 9. Takavanga, upon which is a volcano. 10. Kanaga, which has alfo a volcano, n. Leg. 12. Shet-
fliuna. 13. Tagaloon: near the coafts of the three
laft mentioned iflands feveral fmall rocky ifles are fituated. 14. An ifland without a name, called by the
Ruffians Goreloi W.     15. Atchu.     16. Amla.
fourthGroup! Tne fourth group is denominated Kavalang; and
comprehends fixteen iflands : thefe are called by the Ruffians Lyffie Oftrova, or the Fox Iflands.
i.Amuchta. 2. Tfchigama. 3. Tfchegula. 4. Unif-
tra. 5. Ulaga. 6. Tana-gulana. 7. Kagamin. 8. Ki-
galga. 9. Schelmaga. 10. Umnak. n. Aghun-Alafh-
ka. 12. Unimga. At a fmall diftance from Unimga,
towards the North, ftretches a promontory called by the
iflanders the Land of Black Foxes, with a fmall river
called Alafhka, which empties itfelf oppofite to the laft-
| Goreloi is fuppofed by the Ruffian navigators to be the fame ifland
as Atchu, and is reckoned by them among the Fox Iflands. See part I.
p. 61. andN0 V. of this appendix.
a mentioned
mentioned ifland into a gulf proper for a haven. The
extent of this land is not known. To the South Eaft of
this promontory lie four little iflands. n, Uliean.
14. Antun-duffume.     15. Semidit.     16. Senagak.
Many of thefe names are neither found in the journals
or charts ; while others are wanting in this lift which are
mentioned in both journals and charts. Nor is this to be
wondered at; for the names of the iflands have been
certainly altered and corrupted by the Ruffian navigators.
Sometimes the fame name has been applied to different
iflands by the different journalifts; at other times the
fame ifland has been called by different names. Several
inftances of thefe changes feem to occur in the account
of the Ruffian difcoveries: namely,
Att,  Attak, and Ataku.
Shemiya and Sabiya.
Atchu, Atchak, Atach, Goreloi or Burned Ifland.
Amlach, Amlak, Amleg.
Ayagh, Kayachu.
Alakfu, Alagfhak, Alachlhak.
Aghunalafhka, Unalaflika.
Qq 2
Iflands called
by different
Names in the
N" IX.      C
Voyage of Lieutenant Synd to the North Eafl of Siberia—
He dfcovers a clufler of iflands, and a promontory,,
which he fuppofes to belong to the continent of America,.
lying near the coafl of the Tfchutfki..
TN 1764 lieutenant Synd failed from Ochotsk, upon a;
voyage of difcovery towards the continent of America-
He was ordered to take a different courfe from that held
by the late Ruffian veffels, which lay due Eaft from the
coaft of Kamtchatka. As he fteered therefore his courfe
more to the North Eaft than any of the preceding navigators, and as it appears from all the voyages related in
the firft part of this work *, that the vicinity of America
is to be fought for in that quarter alone, any accurate
account of this expedition, would not fail of being highly
interefting. It is therefore a great mortification to me,
that, while I raife the reader's curiofity, I am not able
fully to fatisfy it. The following intelligence concerning this voyage is all which I was able to procure. It is
accompanied with an authentic chart.
* See p. 27.
t  APPENDIX     I.
In 17 64 Synd frat to fea from the port of Ochotfk, bxfc
did not pafs (we kaow not by what accident) the
fouthern Cape of Kamchatka- and Shufliu, the firft Kurfr
Ifle, before 1766. He then fteered his courfe North at
no great diftance from the coaft of the Peninfula, but
made very little progrefs that year, for he wintered South
of the river Uka.
The following year he failed from Ukinfki Point due
Eaft and North Eaft, until he fell in with a clufter of
iflands* ftretching between 61 and 62 degrees of latitude,
and 19.5° and 2020 longitude. Thefe iflands lie South
Eaft and Eaft of the coaft of the Tfchutfki;. and feveral
of them are fituated very near the fhore.. Befides thefe
fmall iflands, he difcovered alfo a mountainous coaft
lying, within one degree of the coaft of the Tfchutski,.
between 64 and 66 North latitude; its moft Weftern
extremity was fituated in longitude 380 15' from
Ochotsk, or 199° 1' from Fero. This ifland is laid
down in his chart as part of the continent of America; but we cannot determine upon what proofs he
grounds this representation, until a more circumftantial
account of his voyage is communicated to the public.
I Thefe are certainly fome of the iflands which the Tfchutfki refort
to in their way to what they call the continent of America.
 A   P   P   E
P   I    X      I.
Synd feems to have made but a fhort ftay afhore. In-
ftead of endeavouring to furvey its coafts, or of fleering
more to the Eaft, he almoft inftantly fhaped his courfe
due Weft towards the courfe of the Tfchutski, then
turned directly South and South Weft, until he came
oppofite to Chatyrskoi Nofs. From that point he continued to coaft the peninfula of Kamtchatka, doubled the
cape, and reached Ochotsk in 17 6 8.
N° X.
N°    X.
Specimen of the Aleutian language.
Earth hut
Oollae        js
Sea otter
Name of the
nation.    |
It is very remarkable, that none of thefe words bear
the leaft refemblance to thofe of the fame fignification,
which are found in the different dialects fpoken by the
Koriaks, Kamtchadals, and the inhabitants of the Kuril
A   P   P   E
D   I   XL
Attempts of the Ruffians || difcover a North Eaflpaffage—
Voyages from Archangel towards the Lena—From the
Lena towards Kamtchatka—Extracl from Muller's account ^DefcJinefPs voyage round Tschukotskoi Nofs—
Narrative of a voyage made by Shala.uroff from the Lena
to Shelatskoi Nofs.
^ j ^ H E only communication hitherto known between
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, or between Europe
and the Eaft Indies, is made either by failing round the
Cape of Good Hope, or by doubling Cape Horn. But; as
both.thefe navigations are very long and cjangerous, the
great object of feveral late jpuropean voyages has been
turned towards the difcovery of a North Eaft or a North
Weft paffage. As this worlq is entirety- confined to the
Ruffian navigations,, any difquifition concerning the
North Weft paffage is totally foreign to the purpofe ; and
for the fame reafon in what relates to the lyorth Eaft, thefe
refearcljies extend only to the attempts of the Ruffians for
tjbe clifcoyery of that paffage.
The advocates for the North Eaft paffage have divided
that navigation into three.principal parts; and by endeavouring to fhew that thefe three parts   have been
paffed at  different times, they conclude from thence,
that the whole when taken collectively is practicable.
Thefe three parts are, I. from Archangel to the Lena;
2. from the Lena to Kamtchatka ; 3. from Kamtchatka'
to Japan. With refpecT; to the latter, the connection between the feas of Kamtchatka and Japan firft appeared from fome Japanefe veffels, which were wrecked
upon the coaft of Kamtchatka in the beginning of this
century ; and this communication has been unqueftion-
ably proved from feveral voyages made by the Ruffians
from Kamtchatka to Japan*.
No one ever aflerted that the firft part from Archangel
to the Lena was ever performed in one voyage; but feveral perfons having advanced that this navigation has
been made by the Ruffians at different times, it becomes
necefiary to examine the accounts of the Ruffian voyages
in thofe feas.
In 17 34. lieutenant Morovieff failed from Archangel voy»g« fh»
' o~r Archangel to
toward the river Oby; and got no farther the firft year** *«"**•
than the mouth of the Petchora. The next fummer he
paffed through the ftraits ef Weygatz into the fea of
Kara; and coafted along the Eaftern fide of that fea, as
high as latitude 720 30', but did not double the promontory which feparates the fea of Kara from the Bay of
* S. R. G. III. p. 78, and p. 166, &c.
R r
A   P   P   E   N   D-   I   X      I.
Oby.    In 1738, the lieutenants Malgyin and SkurakofF
doubled that promontory with great difficulty,  and entered the bay of Oby.    During thefe expeditions the navigators met with great dangers and impediments from
the ice.    Several unfuccefsful attempts were made to pafs
from the bay of Oby to the Yenifei, which was at laft
'effected, in 1738,  by two veffels commanded by lieute-
Semp/to"1 nants Offzin and Kofkeleff.     The fame year the pilot
Yenif^w^he Feodor Menin failed from the Yenifei rowards the Lena:
he fteered North as high as lat. 730.  15'.  and-when he
came to the mouth of the Piafida he was flopped by the
ice ; and finding it impoffible to force a paffage, he returned to the Yenifei *v
Voyage of'
cff from the
Lena towards-
tl.e Yenifei.
July, 1735;
lieutenant   Prontfliifffheff failed   from
Yakutsk up the Lena to its mouth, in order to pafs
from thence by fea to the Yenifei. The Weftern mouths
of the Lena were fo choaked up with ice, that he was
obliged to pafs through the moft Eafterly one ; and was
prevented by contrary winds from getting out until the
13th of Auguft. Having fteered North Weft along the
iflands which lie fcattered before the mouths of the Lena,
he found himfelf in lat. 7 o° 4/. He faw much ice to
the North and North Eaft; and obferved ice-mountains
from twenty-four to fixty feet in height. He fteered betwixt the ice, which in no place left - a free channel, of
* P. 145 to 149,
greater breadth than an hundred or two hundred yards.^
'The veffel being'much damaged, on the ift" of September he ran up the mouth of the Olenek, which, according to his eftimation, lies in 71° 30', near which place
he paffed the winter ||
He got out of the Olenek the beginning of Auguft in
-the following year; and arrived on the third at the mouth
of the Anabara, which  he found  to lie in lat. 730  iL
There he continued until the 10th, while fome of the
crew went up the country in fearch of fome mines.    On
the 1 oth he proceeded on his voyage : before he reached
the mouth of the Ghatanga he was fo entirely furrounded
and hemmed in with ice,  that it was not without great
-difficulty and danger he was able to get loofe.    He then
obferved a large field of ice ftretching into the fea, on
which account he was obliged to continue near the fliore,
and to run up the Chatanga.    The mouth of this river
was in lat 740 gr.   From thence he bent his courfe -moftly
Northward along the fhore, until he reached the mouth
of the Taimura on the 18th.     He then proceeded further, and followed the coaft towards the Piafida.     Near
the fliore were feveral fmall iflands, between which and
the land the ice was immovably fixed.    He then direded
his courfe toward the fea, in order to pafs round the
-* Ginelin Reife,  II. 425 to 427.
R r 2 chain
 3bf- APPENDIX     I.
chain of iflands. At firft he found the fea more free
to the North of the iflands, while he obferved much ice
lying between them. He came at length to the laft iflandy
fituated in lat. 770 25'. Between this ifland and the
fhore, as well as on the other fide of the ifland which lay
moft to the North, the ice was firm and immovable. He
attempted however to fteer ftill more to the North ; andi
s having advanced about fix miles, he was prevented by
a thick fog from proceeding : this fog being difperf^
he faw on each fide, and before him, nothing but ice j
Prevented by a t^t towar(js the fea was not fixed ;. but the accumulated
Chain or '
ice frorTget.16 maffes were all fo clofe, that the fmalleft veffel could not
ting to the
have worked its way through. Still attempting however
to pafs to the North ; he was forced by the ice N. E..
Apprehenfive of being hemmed inr he returned to the
Taknura; and from thence got, with nraeh difficulty
and danger, to the Olenek, on the sajtiof AugufL
This narrative of ProntfhffliefFs expedition is
extracted from the account of profeflbr * Gme3ki: according to Mr. Muller+, who has given a cfefory relation,
of the fame voyage,. Prontfhiftfheff did not quite reach the
mouth of theTaimura; for he there found the chain of
iflands ftretching from the continent far kito the fea.
The channels between the iflands were fo choaked up
* Gmelin Reife, vol. IL p. 427^ to p.. 434..
•f S. R. G. III. p. 149, 150.
With ice, that it was impoffible to force a paffage : after
peering as high as lat. 770 25', he found fuch a plain
of fixed ice before him, that he had no profpect of
getting any farther. Accordingly he returned to the
Another attempt was made to pafs from the Lena to
the Yenifei in 1739, by Chariton Laptieff, with equal
bad fuccefs; and he relates, that between the-rivers.
Piafida and Taimura, a promontory ftretches into the
fea which he could not double, the fea being entirely
frozen up before he could pafs round *„
From all thefe circumftances we muft collect, that the SPrS"*
_ .1 t-i-iT 1 Chatanga and'
whole fpace between Archangel and the Lena has  never Piafida never
yet doubled..
yet been navigated; for in going Eaft from the Yenifei
the Ruffians could get no farther than the mouth of the
Piafida ; and, in coming Weft from the Lena, they were
ftopped, according to Gmelin,. North of the Piafida;
and, according to Muller, Eaft of the Taimura.
The Ruffians, who fail almoft annually from. Archangel, and. other towns,, to Nova Zemla, for the pur-
-pofe of catching fea-horfes, feals,. and white bears, make
* Gmelin Reife, p. 44°-    Mr. Muller fays only,, that Laptieff met
with the fame obftacles which, forced Prontfhifttheff to- return. S. R. G.
HI. p. i5°-
to the Weftern Coaft ; and no Ruffian veffel  has ever
paffed round its North Eaftern extremity j|
* Although this work is confined to the Ruffian Difcoveries, yet as
the N. E. paffage is afubjedt of fuch interefting curiofity, it might feem.
an omiffion in not mentioning, that feveral Englifh and Dutch veffels
have paffed through the Straits of Weygatz into the fea of Kara; they
all met with great obftruclrions from the ice, and had much difficulty in
getting through.    See Hiftoire Gen. Des Voyages, tome XV. paffim.
In 1696 Heemfkirk and Barentz, after having failed along the Weftern
coaft of Nova Zemla, doubled the North kaftern cape lying in latitude
770 20', and got no lower along the Eaftern coaft than 76°, where they
See an account of this, remarkable voyage in Girard Le Ver's Vraye
Defcription De Trois Voyages De Mer, p. 13 to 45; and Hift. Gen.
des Voy. torn. XV. p. 111 to 139.
No veffel of any nation has ever paffed round that Cape, which extends
to the North of the Piafida, and is laid down in the Ruffian charts in
about 78° latitude. We have already feen that no Ruffian veffel has
ever got from the Piafida to the Chatanga, or from the Chatanga to the
Piafida ; and yet fome authors have pofitively afferted, that this promontory has been failed round. In order therefora to elude the Ruffian accounts, which clearly affert the contrary, it is pretended, that Gmelin
and Muller have purpofely concealed fome parts of the Ruffian journals,
and have impofed upon the world by a mifreprefentation of fadts. But
without entering into any difpute on this head, I can venture to affirm,
. that no fufficient proof has been as yet advanced in fupport of this af-
fertion ; and therefore until fome pofitive information fhall be produced,
we cannot deny plain fadts, or give the preference to hearfay evidence
over circumftantial and well attefted accounts.
Mr. Engel has a remarkable paffage in his Effai fur une route par la
Nord Eft, which it may. be proper to confider in this place, becaufe
he afferts in the moft pofitive manner, that two Dutch veffels formerly
paffed three Hundred leagues to the North Eaft of Nova Zemla; from
The navigation from the Lena to Kamtchatka now re-'^W*
° the Xumans to
mains to be confidered.    If we may believe fome authors, Kfnafi»ntl,e
, Lena
thence he infers that they muft have doubled the above-mentioned Cape
which extends to the ISTorth of the Piafida, and have got at leaft as far
Eaft as the mouth of the Olenek. His words are L'llluftre Societe Roy-
ale, fousl'an 1675, rapporte ce voyage et dit, que peu d'annees aupara-
vant une Societe de merchands d'Amfterdam avoit fait une tentative pour
chercher le paffage du Nord Eft, et equippa deuxvaiffeaux les quels etant
paffe au feptante neuf ou huitantieme degre de latitude, avoient pouffe felon Wood, jufqu' a trois cent lieues a l'Eft de laNouvelle Zemble, &c. &c.
Upon this fact he founds his proof that the navigation from Archangel
to the Lena has been performed. Par confequent cette partie de la route
a ete faite. He refts the truth of this account on the authority of the
Philofophical Tranfadtions, and of Captain Wood, who failed upon a
voyage for the difcovery of the North Eaft paffage in 1676. The latter,
in the relation of his voyage, enumerates feveral arguments which induced him to believe the practicability of the North Eaft paffage.—
Pf The feventh argument," he fays, ""was another narration, printed in
" the Tranfadtions, of-two fhips of late that had attempted the paffage,
" failed 3O0rleagues totheEaftwardof Nova-Zemla, and had after profe-
" cuted the voyage, had there not a difference arofe betwixt the undertakers
"'and the Eaft-India company." We here find that Captain Wood re^.
fers to the Philofophioal- Tranfadtions for his authority. The narration
printed in the Tranfadtions, and which is alluded to' by both Captain
Wood and Mr. Engel, is to be found in Vol. IX. of the Philofophical
Tranfaaionvp. 209, for December, 1674. It confifts of a very curious
"'Narrative of fome obfervations made upon feveral voyages, under-
"' taken to find a way for failing about the North to the Eaft-Indies ;
" together with inftrudtions given by the Dutch Eaft-India Company
" for the difcovery of the famous land of Jeffo near Japan." Thefe inftrudtions were, in 1643, given to Martin Geritfes Vries, captain of the
fhipXaftricum, "who fet out to 4ifcover the unknown Eaftern coaft
r " of
l&js navigation has been open for above a century and
an half;    and  feveral   veffels have at different times
" of Tartary, the kingdom of Catay, and the Weft coaft of America,
" together with the ifles fituate to the Eaft o.VJapan, cried up for their
" riches of gold and filver." Thefe inftrudtions -contain no relation of
two Dutch veffels, who paffed 300 leagues Eaft of Nova Zemla.
Mention is made of two Dutch veffels, " who were fent out in the
" year 1639, under the command of Captain Kwaft, to difcover the
" Eaft coaft of the Great Tartary, efpecially the famous gold and filver
" iflands; though, by reafon of feveral unfortunate accidents, they
" both returned re infedti." Short mention is afterwards made of Captain Kwaft's journal, together with the writings of the njjeischants who
were with him, as fellows : " That in the South Sea, at the 374- de-
" grees Northern latitude, and about 400 Spanifh, or 343 Du^gh miles,
" that is, 28 degrees longitude Eaft of Japan, there lay a very great
" and high ifland, inhabited by a white, handfome, kind and civilized
" people, exceedingly opulent in gold and filver, &c. &c."
From thefe extracts it appears, that, in the fhort account of the journals of the two Dutch veffels, no longitude is mentioned to the Eaft of
Nova Zemla; but the difcoveries of Kwaft were made in the Souti*
fea, to which place he, as well as Captain Vries afterwards, muft have
failed round the Cape of Good Hope. The author of the narrative
concludes, indeed, that the N. E. paffage is practicable, in the follow*
ing words: " to promote this paffage out of the Eaft-Indies to the
" North into Europe, it were neceffary to fail from the Eaft-Indies to
" the Weftward of Japan, all along Corea, to fee how the fea-coafts
" trend to the North of the faid Corea, and with what conveniency
" fhips might fail as far as Nova Zemla, and to the North of the fame*'
I Where our author faith, that undoubtedly it would be found, that
I having paffed the North corner of Nova Zemla, or, through Wey»'
" gatz, the North end of Yelmer land, one might go on South-Eaft-
" ward, and make a fuccefsful voyage." But mere conjedtures cannot
be admitted as evidence.    As we can find no other information relative
paffed round the North Eaftern extremity of Afia. But
if we confult the Ruffian accounts, we fhall find, that frequent expeditions have been unqueftionably made from
the Lena to the Kovyma; but that the voyage from the
Kovyma round Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, into the Eaftern ocean,
has been performed but once. According to Mr. Muller,
this formidable cape was doubled in the year 1648.
The material incidents of this remarkable voyage are as
I In 1648 feven kotches or veffels failed from the S^
mouth of the river Kovyma t, in order to penetrate into Tfchfkodkot
the Eaftern Ocean. Of thefe, four were never more
heard of: the remaining three were commanded by
Simon DefhnefF, Gerafim AnkudinofF, two chiefs of the
Coffacs, and Fedot AlexeefF, the head of the Promyfh-
lenics.    DefhnefF and AnkudinofF quarrelled before their
to the fadt mentioned by Captain Wood and Mr. Engel, (namely, that
two Dutch veffels have paffed 300 leagues to the Eaft of Nova Zemla)
that we have no reafon to credit mere affertions without proof: we
may therefore advance as a fadt, that hitherto we have no authentic account, that any veffel has ever paffed the cape to the Eaft of Nova
Zemla, which lies North of the river Piafida. See Relation of Wood's
Voyao-e, &c. in the Account of feveral late Voyages and Difcoveries to
the South and North, &c. London, 1604, p. 148. See alfo Engel,
Mem. et Obf. Geog. p. 231 to 234.
I fhould not have fwelled my book with this extract, if the Englifh tranflation of Mr. Muller's work was not extremely erroneous in fome
material paffages.    S. R. G. III. p. 8—20. ri^Ml*?
f Mr. Muller calls it Kolyma.
S s departure s
departure : this difpute was owing to the jealoufy of
DefhnefF, who was unwilling that AnkudinofF fhould
fhare with hi*n the honour, as welt as the profits, which
might refult from the expected difcoveries. Each veflet
was probably manned with about thirty perfons \ An-
kudinofF's, we certainly know, carried that number.
Pefhneff promised before-hand a tribute of feven fables,
to be exacted from the mhabita^SfW the banks of Anadyr ; fo fanguine were his hopes of reaching, that river „
This indeed he finally effected; but not fa foah^ nor with
fo little difficulty, as he hadprefumed.
On the 20th of June, 1648, the three/ vefiels failed
upon this remarkable expedition fifom the river Kovyma,
Confidering the litt^ knowledge we have of the extreme
regions of Afia, it is much to be regretted,, that all the
incidents of this voyage are not circuasiftantially related.
DefhnefF*,   in  an account of hk  expedition  fent   to
I In order thoroughly to underftand this narrative, it is neceffary to?
inform the reader, that the voyage made by Deflineff was entirely forgotten, until the year 1736, when Mr. Muller found,, in the archives of
Yakutfk, the original accounts of the Ruffian navigations in the Frozea
Thefe papers were extracted, under his infpedtion, at Yakutfk, and
fent to Peterfburg; where they are now preferved in the library belong-
ing to the Imperial Academy of Sciences : they eonfift of feveral folio
volumes. The circumftances relating to Deflineff are contained in the
fecond volume.   Soliverftoff and Stadukin, having laid claim to the dif-
 APPENDIX      |
Yakutsk, feems only as it Were accidentally to mention
his adventures by fea;   he takes no notice of any occurrence
covery of the country on the mouth of the Anadyr, had afferted) in
confequence of this claim, that they had arrived there by fea, after
having doubled Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, Deflineff, in anfwer, fent feveral
memorials, petitions, and complaints, againft Stadukin and SoliverftofF,
to the cofniftander of f akuffk, in Which he fets forth, that he had
the folc right to that difcovery, and refutes the arguments advanced by
the others. From thefe memorials Mr. Muller has extracted his account
•of DefnnefTs voyage* Whefc 1 was at ?etetfburg I had an opportunity
of feeing thefe papers: and as they are written in the Ruffian language,
I prevailed upon my ingenious friend Mr. Pallas to infpedt the part
which relates to DefrlfiefT. Accordingly Mr. Pallas, with his Ufual reacti-
nefs to oblige, not only compared the memorials with Mr. Mullet's ac-
count, but even took tn£ trouble to make fome extradts in the moft
material paffages' i t&ere extracts are here fubjoined ; becaufe they will not
only ferve to confirm the exadtnefk'<Sf Mr. Muwer; but alfo becaufe they
tend to throw fome light on feveral obfeure paffages. In one of Defh-
«ieflf*Sf n&Hfiorials he fay#, ** To go from the river Kovyma to the Anadyr,
fj a grestt promontory muft be doubled, which ftretches very fair into
" the fea: it is not that promontory which lies next to the river
" TfcihukotSkia. Stadukin never arrived at this great piomontory;
** near it are two iflandV, whofe inhabitants make holes in their fcfider-
•'*•'•&», and ittfert thereiiri pieces of the fea-horfe tufh, worked into the
« foffii of teeth. This pfdrrlontory ftretches between North and North
"***$££ : It is'faitJWri on the Ruffian fide by the little river Stanovie,
" W&ch flows into Che fea, near the fpot where the Tfchutfki have eredt-
" ed a heap of Whale-bones like a tower. The coaft from the promoh-
« totfy turns round towards the Anadyr, and it is poffible to fail with a
'< good wind from the point to that river in three days and nights, and
" no more: and it will take up no more time to go by land to the fame
« river, becaufe it difcharges itfelf into a bay." In another memorial
Defhnefffays* "that he was ordered to go by fea from the Indigirka
Ss 2 "to
rence  until he  reached  the great  promontory of the
Tfchutfki jj no obftr.udt.ions from the ice are mentioned,.
. and probably there were  none 1 for he obferves upon
another occafion,  that the fea is not every year fo free
"to the Kovyma;- and from thence with his crew to the Anadyr, which-
" was then newly difcovered.    That the firft time he failed, from the
" Kovyma, he was forced by to. return to that river ;. but that.
" next year he again failed from thence by fea,, and.after great danger,.
§ misfortunes, and with the lofs of part of his fhipping, arrived at laft.
. " at the mouth of the Anadyr.    Stadukin vain attempted to
" go by fea, afterwards venturedto pafs over the chain of mountains
"then unknowns and reached  by that means   the Anadyr.   Soliverf-
" toff and his party,,, who- quarrelled with Deflineff, went to the fame:
" place from the Kovyma by land; and the tribute was afterwards fent
" to the laft mentioned river acrofs the.mountains, which were very dan-
" gerous to pafs amidft the tribes of Koriacs and Yukagirs, who. had '
" been lately reduced by the Ruffians."
In another j memorial Deflineff   complains  bitterly  of SoliverftofF;',
and afferts,." that one Severka Martemyanoff, who had been, gained:
" over ,by SoliverftofF,  was fent. to Yakutfk, with an account that he
I -(SoliverftofF).had.difcovered. the coafts to the North, of the Anadyr,
"- where large numbers of. fea-horfes are found." Deflineff hereupon fays
" that SoliverftofF and JStadukin never reached the rocky promontory
" which is inhabited by numerous bodies of the Tfchutfki; over againft
" which are iflands whofe inhabitants wear artificial teeth thruft through
"- their under-.lips.    This is not the firft promontory from., the river Ko-
" vyma,. called.Svatoi Nofs; .hut another far more confiderable, and
" very-well known to him (Deflineff),. becaufe the veffel of Ankunidoff
»'': was wrecked there ;..and becaufe he.,had.there taken prifoners fome of
I the people, who were rowing in their .boats j .and feen the iflanders .
" with teeth in their lips.    He alfo well knew, that it was ftill far from
" that promontory to the. river. Anadyr."
#w!     from,.
v&om ice as it was at this time. He commences his^nar*
r>ative with a defcription of the great promontory : <Ut
is," fays he, " very different from that which is fituated
Weft of the Kovyma, near the river Tfchukotfkia. It
lies between North and North Eaft, and bends, in a
circular direction, towards the Anadyr. It is diftin-
guifhed on the Ruffian (namely, the Weftern) fide, by
a rivulet: which falls into the fea, clofe to which the
Tfchutfki have raifed a. pile, like, a tower,, with the
bones of whales.. Oppofite the promontory, (it is not
faid on which fide),, are two. iflands, on which he obferved people of the nation of the Tfchutfki, who had ■
pieces of the fea-horfe tooth thruft into holes made in
their lips., With a good wind it is poflible to fail from
this promontory to the. Anadyr in three days; and the
journey by land may be performed in the fame fpace
of time, becaufe the Anadyr falls into a bay." An>-
kudinoff's kotche was wrecked on this promontory, and
the crew was diftributed on board the two remaining
veffels. On the 20th of September DefhnefF and Fedot
Alexeef went on fhore, and had a fkirmifh with the
Tfchutski, in which Alexeef was wounded. The two
veffels foon afterwards loft fight of each other, and never
Lpin rejoined. DefhnefF was driven about by tempefi.
tuous winds until October, when he was fhipwrecked
t>s it appears from circumftances), confiderably to the
Sauth of the Anadyr, not far from the river Olutora. -
tS&at became of Fedot Alexeff and his crew-will be mentioned hereafter. Deflineff and his companions, who
amounted to twenty-five perfons, now fought for the
Anadyr; but being entirely unacquainted with the
country, ten weeks elapfed before they reached its banks
at a fmall diftance from its mouth : here he found neither
wood nor inhabitants,  8cc.
The following year he went further up the river, and
built Anadirfkoi Oftrog : here he was joined by fome
Ruffians on the 25th of April, 1650, who came by land
from the river Kovyma. In 1652, Deflineff having
conftru6ted a veffel, failed down the Anadyr as far as
its mouth, and obferved on the North fide a fand bank,
which ftretched a confiderable way into the fea. A
fand bank of this kind is called, in Siberia, Korga. Great
numbers of fea-horfes were found to refort to the
mouth of the Anadyr. DefhnefF collected feveral of
their teeth, and thought himfelf amply comperrfated by
this acquifition for the trouble of his expedition. In
the following year, DefhnefF ordered wood to be felled
for the purpofe of conftructing a veffel, in which he
propofed fending tie tribute which he had collefited-by
fea to Yakutfk *.    But this defign was laid afidfe from the
* That is, by fea, from the mouth of tfhe Anadyr, round Tfchukot-
fkoi Nofs to the river Lena, and then up that niver to Yakutfk.
want of other materials. It was alfo reported, that the
fea about Tfchukotfkoi Nofs was not every year free
from ice.
Another expedition was made in 1654. to the Korga,
for the purpofe of colle&ing fea-horfe teeth. A Coffac,
named Yufko SoliverftofF, was one of the party, the
fame who had not long before accompanied the Coffac
Michael Stadukin, upon a voyage of difcovery in the
Frozen Sea. This perfon was fent from Yakutfk to
collect fea-horfe teeth, for the benefit of the crown. Inr
lids inftructions mention is made of the river Yehtfhen-
don, which falls into the bay of Penfhinik, and of the
Anadyr; and he was ordered to exact a tribute from
the inhabitants dwelling near thefe rivers; for the adventures of Deflineff were not as yet known at Yaktttfk.
This was the occafion of new difcontents, SoliverftofF
claimed to himfelf the difcovery of the Korga, as if he
had failed to that place in his voyage with Stadukin in
1649. Deflineff, however, proved that Soliverftoff had
not even reached Tfchukotfkoi Nofe* which he defcribes*
as nothing hut bare rock, and k was but too well known
to him, becaufe the veffel of AnkudinofF was fhip-
wrecked there. " Tfchukotfkoi. Nofs," adds DefhnefF,..
" is not the firft promontory which prefents kfelf un-
" der the name of Svatoi Nofs $|    It is known by the
«=• two
*. We ma
deavouring to prove
y collect, from DefhnefFs reafoning, that SoliverftofF,, in-en-
that he had failed round the Eaftern extremity of
i two iflands fituated oppofite to it, whofe inhabitants-
| (as is before-mentioned) place pieces of the fea-horfe
I tush into holes made in their lips. DefhnefF alone
« had feen thefe people, which neither Stadukin nor
| SoliverftofF had pretended to have done : and the
" Korga, or fand-bank, at the mouth of the river Anadyr,
" was at fome diftance from thefe iflands."
While Defchneff was furveying the fea-coaft, he faw
in an habitation belonging to fome Koriacs a woman of
Yakutsk, who, as he recollected, belonged to Fedot
Alexieff. Upon his enquiry concerning the fate of her
mailer, fhe replied, " that Fedot and Gerafim (Ankudi-
" noff) had died of the fcurvy ; that part of the crew had
" been flam ; that a few had efcaped in fmall veflels,
" and have never fince been heard off." Traces of the
latter were afterwards found in the peninfula of Kamt-
Afia, had miftaken a promontory called Svatoi Nofs for Tfchukotfkoi
Nofs: for otherwife, why fhould DefhnefF, in his refutation of SoliverftofF, begin by aflerting, that Svatoi Nofs was not Tfchukotfkoi Nofs ?
The only cape laid down in the Ruffian maps, under the name of Svatoi Nofs, is fituated 25 degrees to the Weft of the Kovyma : but we
cannot poffibly fuppofe this to be the promontory here alluded to ; becaufe, in failing from the Kovyma towards the Anadyr, "the firft promon-
", tory which prefents itfelf " muft neceflarily be Eaft of the Kovyma.;-
Svatoi Nofs, in the Ruffian language; fignifies Sacred Promontory ; and
the Ruffians occafionally'apply it to any cape which it is difficult to
double. It therefore moft probably here relates to the firft cape,
which SoliverftofF reached after he had failed from Kovyma.
7 chatka;
chatka; to which place they probably arrived with a
favourite wind, by following the coaft, and running up
the Kamtchatka river.
When Volodimir Atlaffoff, in 1697, firft entered upon
the redudion of Kamtchatka, he found that the inhabitants had already fome knowledge of the Ruffians. A
'common tradition ftill prevails amongft them, that Ion?
before the expedition of Atlaffoff, one I Fedotoff (who
Was probably the fon of Fedot Alexeeff) and his companions had refided amongft them, and had intermarried
with the natives. They ftill fhew the fpot where the
Ruffian habitations flood; namely, at the mouth of the fmall
river Nikul which falls into the Kamtchatka river, and is
cabled by the Ruffians Fedotika. Upon Atlaffoff's arrival
hone of the firft Ruffians remained. They are faid to
have been held in great veneration, and almoft deified
by the inhabitants, who at firft imagined that no human
power could" hurt them, until they quarrelled amongft
themfelves, and the blood was feen to flow from the
wounds which they gave each other : and upon a fepara-
tion taking place between the Ruffians, part of them had
been killed by the Koriacs, as they were going to the
fea of Penfhinsk, and the remainder by the Kamtcha-
dais.    The river Fedotika falls into the Southern fide of
* Fedotoff, in the Ruffian language, fignifies the fon of Fedot.
T t the
the Kamtchatka river about an hundred and eighty verfts
below Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. At the time of the
firft expedition to Kamtchatka, in 1697, the remains of
two villages ftill fubfifted, which had probably been inhabited by Fedotoff and his companions: and no one
knew which way they came into the peninfula, until, it
was difcovered from the archives of Yakutfk in 1636."
* No other navigator, fubfequent to DefhnefF, has ever
pretended to. have paffed the North Eaftern extremity of
* Mr* Engel indeed pretends that lieutenant LaptiefF, in 1739,. doubled Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs, becaufe Gmelin fays, that " he pafTed from the
" Kovyma to Anadirsk partly by water and partly by land." For Mr.
Engel afFerts the impoffibility of.getting from the Kovyma to Anadirsk*
partly by land and partly by water,., without going from the Kovyma to
the mouth of the Anadyr by fea; and from thence to Anadirsk by land.
But Mr. Muller (who has given a more particular account of the concrufion
of this expedition) informs us, that LaptiefF and his crew, after.having
wintered near the Indigirka, pafled from its mouth in fmall boats to the
Kovyma; and as it was dangerous, on account of the Tfchutski, to follow the coaft any farther, either by land or water, he went through the
interior part of the country to Anadirsk, and from thence to the mouth
of the Anadyr.   Gmelin Reife, vol. II. p. 440.    S. R.. G. III. p.157.
Mention is alfo made by Gmelin of a man who pafled in a fmall
boat from" the Kovyma round Tfchukotskoi-Nofs into the fea of Kamtchatka : and Mr. Engel has not omitted to bring, this paffage in fupport
of his fyftem, with this difference, that he refers to the authority of
Muller, inftead of Gmelin, for the truth of the fa£t. But as we have
no account of this expedition, and as the manner in which it is mentioned
by Gmelin implies that he had it merely from tradition, we cannot lay any
   APPENDIX      I.
Afia, notwithftanding all the attempts which have been
made to accompliih this paffage, as well from * Kamtchatka as from the Frozen Ocean.
The following narrative of a late voyage performed
by one Shalauroff, from the Lena towards Tfchukotfkoi-
Nofs, will fliew the great impediments which obftrudt a
coafting navigation in the Frozen Sea, even at the moft
favourable feafon of the year.
"Shalauroff, having conftructed  a   fhitik at   his own voyage of
° Shalaurotf.
expence, went down the Lena in 1761. He was accompanied by an exiled midfhipman, whom he had
found at Yakutfk,  and to whom we  are indebted  for
ftrefs upon fuch vague and uncertain reports. The paffage is as follows:
" Es find fo gar Spuren vorhanden, dafs ein Kerl mit einem Schifflein,
<( das nicht viel groeffer als ein SchifFerkahn gevefen, von Kolyma bis
% Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs vorbey, und bis nach Kamtfchatka gekommen fey."
Gmelin Reife, II. p. 437. Mem. et Obf. Geog. &c. p. 10.
* Beering, in his voyage from Kamtchatka, in 1628, towards Tfchu-
kotskoi-Nofs, failed along the coaft of the Tfchutski as high as lat.
670 18'. and obferving the coaft take a Wefterly direction, he too haftily
concluded, that he had pafled the North Eaftern extremity. Apprehen-
five, if he had attempted to proceed, of being locked in by the ice, he returned to Kamtchatka. If he had followed the fliore, he would have
found, that what he took for the Northern ocean was nothing more
than a deep bay : and that the coaft of the Tfchutski, which he confidered
as turning uniformly to- the Weft, took again a Northerly direction.
S. R. G. III. p. 117-
the chart of thus expedition. Shalauaroff got out of the
Southern mouth of the Lena in July, but was fo much
embarraffed by the ice, that he ran the veffel into the
mouth of the Yana, where he was detained by the ice
until the 29th of Auguft, when he again fet fail. Being
piweolsed by the ice from keeping the open lea* he
coafted the fliore; and, having doubled Svatoi-Nofs on
the 6th of September, difcovered at acfinall diftance, out
at fea, to the North, a moumtainous land, which is probably fome unknown ifland in the Frozen Sea. He was
employed from the 7th to the 15th in getting through
the ftrait between Diomed's ribband and the coaft of
Siberia; which he effected, not without great difficulty.
From the 16th he had a free fea and a fair S; W. woaaS^
which carried them in 24 hours beyond the mouth of the
Indigfoska. The favourable breeze cont^auing, he pafled
on the i$th the Alafca. Soon afterwards, the veffel
approaching too near the fhore was entangled amongft
vaft floating maffes of ice, between fome iflands * and
f Thefe Mands are Medviedkie Oftrova, or the Bear Iflands; they
are alfo called KrefFftofHkie Oftrova; becaufe they lie oppofite the mouth
of the fmall river Kreftova. For a long time vague reports were propagated that the continent of America was ftretched along the Frozen
Ocean, very near the coafts of Siberia; and fome perfons pretended to.
have difcovered its fhore not far from the rivers Kovyma and Kreftova.
But the falfity of thefe reports was proved by an expedition made in
1764, by fome Ruffian officers fent by Denys Ivanovitch Tfchitcherin,
 0 0 t
the main land.t-And now the late feafon of the year
obliged Shalauroff to look out for a wintering place;
he accordingly ran the veffel into one of the mouths Qf ^int?rsatthc
Mouth of die
the river Kovyma, where fhe was laid up. The crewKovyma"
immediately conftructed an hut, which they fecured
with a rampart of frozen fnow,, and a battery of the
fmall guns. The wild rein-deers reforted to this place
in large herds, and were mot in great plenty from the
enclofure. Before the fetting in of winter, various fpecies of falmon and trout came up the river in fhoals :
thefe fifh* afforded the crew a plentiful fubfiftenee, and
preferved'"them from the fcurvy*.
The mouth of the Kovyma was not freed from ice ?ePart.uref
* Irom thence
before the. 21ft of July,   1762, when Shalauroff again
governor of Tobolfk. Thefe officers went m winter, when the fea was
frozen, in fledges drawn by dogs, from the mouth of the Kreftova.
They found nothing but five fmall rocky iflands, fince called the Bear
Iflands, which were quite uninhabited; ,but fome traces were
found of former inhabitants, namely, the ruins of huts. They obferved
alfo on one of the iflands a kind of wooden ftage built of drift-wood,
which feemed as if it had been intended for defence. As far as they
.durft venture out over the Frozen Sea, no land could be feen, but
.high mountains of ice obftru&ed their paffage^ and forced them to re-
I turn. See the map of this expedition upon the chart of Shalauroff's
voyage  prefixed to this number.
* Raw-fifh are  confidered in thofe Northern countries as a preservative againft the fcurvy.
in July.
put to fea, and fteered until the 28th N. E. by N. E.
IE.     Here he   obferved the variation of   the compafs
afhore, and found it to be ii° 15" Eaft. The 28th a
contrary, wind, which was followed by a calm, obliged
him to come to an anchor, and kept him ftationary
-until the 10th of Auguft, when a favourable breeze
-fpringing up he fet fail; he then endeavoured to fleer
at fome diftance from fliore, holding a more Eafterly
-courfe, and N, E. by E. But the veffel was impeded by
large bodies of floating ice, and a ftrong current, which
feemed to bear Weftward at the rate of a verft an hour.
Thefe circumftances very much retarded his courfe. On
the 18th, the weather being thick and foggy, he found
himfelf unexpectedly near the coaft with a number of
ice iflands before him, which on the 19th entirely fur-
rounded and hemmed in the veffel. He continued in
that fituation, and in a continual fog, until the 23d,
when he got clear, and endeavoured "by fleering N. E.
to regain the open fea, which was much :lefs clogged
with ice than near the fhore. He was forced however, by contrary winds, S. E. and E. among large
maffes of floating ice. This drift of ice being paffe^,
he again flood to the N. E. in order to double She-
latfkoi Nofs*;   but before he could reach the iflands
I He does ■not feem to have been deterred from proceeding bv anv
fuppofed difficulty in paffing Shelatfkoi Nofs, but to have veered about
merely on account of the late feafon of the year. Shelatfkoi Nofs is
fo called from the Sfhelagen, a tribe of the Tfchutfki, and has been
fuppofed to be the fame as Tfchukotfkoi Nofs.    S. R. G. III. p. 52.
to double
towards the
lying near it, he was fo retarded by contrary winds,
that he was obliged, on account of the advanced fea-
fon, to fearch for a wintering place. He accordinglySl^bTaWe>
failed South towards an open bay, which lies on the W?Tw
Weft fide of Shelatfkoi Nofs, and which no navigatorKo
had explored before him. He fleered into it on the
25th, and got upon a fhoal between-a fmall ifland,
and a point of land which juts from the Eaftern
coaft of this bay. Having got clear with much difficulty, he continued for a lliort time a S. E. courfe,
then turned S. W. He then landed in-order to difcover
a fpot proper for their winter refidence ; and found two
fmall rivulets, but neither: trees nor drift wood. The
veffel was towed. along the Southerly fide of the bay as
far as the ifland Sabadei. On the 5th of September, he
faw fome huts of the Tfchutfki clofe to the narrow
channel between Sabadei and the main land ; but the
inhabitants fled on his approach.
Not having met with a proper fituation, he flood
out to fea, and got round the ifland Sabadei on the
8th, when he fattened the veffel to a large body of ice,
and was carried along by a current towards W. S. W.
at the rate of five verfts an hour. On the iotfi, he
faw far to the N. E. by N. a mountain, and fteered the
nth and 12th towards his former wintering place l^||IJj|
the river. Kovyma.    Shalauroff propofed  to have rnade^|£
W: thetheLena--
the following year another attempt to double Shelatfkoi
Nofs; but want of provifion, and the mutiny of the
crew, forced him to return to the Lena in 1763. It
is worth remarking, that duriaag his whole voyage he
found the currents fetting in almoft uniformly froM
the Eaft. Two remarkable rocks were obferved by
Shalaurofr near the point where the coaft turds to
the N. E. towards the channel which feparates the
-M&n&r Sabadei from the contfflent; thefe rocks may
ferve to direcl future navigators : one is called Saetfhie
•Kafcnen, or Hare's Rock, and rifes like a crooked horn;
the other Baranei Kamen, or Sheets Rook; it is in
the fhape of a pear, narrower at tfee bottom than at top,
and rifes twenty-nine yards above high-water mar&i
second Expe-      Shalauroff, who concluded from his own experience,
dition of Sha« *■ '
huroff. tkat- ^ie attempt to double Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, though
difficult, was by no means impracticable, was not dif-
couraged by his former want of fuccefs from engagino-
a fecond time in the fame enterprize : he accordingly
fitted out the fame fliitik, and in 1764 departed as before from the river Lena. We have no pofitive accounts of this fecond voyage ; for neither Shalauroff or
any of his crew have ever retained. The following
circumftances lead us to conclude, that both he and
his crew were killed near the Anadyr by the Tfchutfki
about the third year after their departure from the Lena.
About that tame the Koriacs of the Anadyr refufed to
&ke from f-»e Caimans the provifion of flour, which
they are accu^o'med to purchafe every year. Enquiry-
being made by the governor of Anadirsk, he found that
they had been amply fupplied with that "commodity
by the Tfchutfki. The latter had procured it from the
plunder of ShalaurofPs veffel, the crew of which appeared No Account
of this Expedi-
to have  periflied near the Anadyr.     From thefe facts, MM H
* J 'his Crew being
which have been fince confirmed by repeated intelli- 1§|§||1
gende from the Koriacs and Tfchutfki, it has been af-
ferted, that Shalauroff had doubled the N. E. cape of
Afia. But this aflertion amounts only to conjecture ; for
the arrival of the crew at the mouth of the Anadyr
affords no 'decifive proof that they had pafled round the
Eaftern extremity of Afia; for they might have penetrated
to that tiver by'land, from the Weftern fide of Tfchukotf-
In reviewing thefe feveral accounts of the Ruffian
voyages in the Frozen Sea, as far as they relate to
a North Eaft paffage, we may obferve, that the cape
which ftrelehes to the North of the Piafida has never"
been doubled; and that the exiftence of a paffage round
Tfchukotfkoi Nofs refts upon the fingle authority of
Delhneff. Admitting however a practicable navigation
roimd thefe two promontories, yet when we confider
the difficulties   and   dangers   which the Ruffians  en-
U u countered
countered in thofe parts of the Frozen Sea which they
have unqueftionably failed through ; how much time
they employed in making an inconfiderable progrefs, and
how often their attempts were unfuccefsful: when we
reflect at the fame time, that thefe voyages can only be
performed in the midft of a fhort fummer, and even
then, only when particular winds drive the ice into the
fea, and leave the fhores lefs obftructed ; we lhall reafon-
ably conclude, that a navigation, purfued along the
coafts in the Frozen Ocean, would probably be ufelefs for
commercial purpofes.
A navigation therefore in the Frozen Ocean, calculated
to anfwer any end of general utility, muft (if poffible) be
made in an higher latitude, at fome diftance from the
fhores of Nova Zemla and Siberia. And fhould we
even grant the poffibility of failing N. E. and Eaft of
Nova Zemla, without meeting with any infurmountable
obftacles from land or ice; yet the final completion
of a N. E. voyage muft depend upon the ex-
iftence of a free paffage * between the coaft of the
Tfchutfki and the continent of America.    But fuch dif-
* Ihave faid & free paffage, becaufe if we conclude from the narrative
of DefhnefFs voyage, that there really does exift fuch a paffage;' yet if
that paffage is only occafionally navigable (and the Ruffians do not pretend to have paffed it more than once) it can never be of any general
and commercial utility.
quiiitions as thefe do not fall under the intention of
this work, which is meant to ftate and examine facts,
not to lay down an hypothefis, or to make theoretical
enquiries *.
* I beg leave to allure the reader, that throughout this whole work
I have entirely confined rriyfelf to the Ruffian accounts; and have carefully avoided making ufe of any vague reports concerning the difcoveries
lately made by captains Cooke and Clerke in the fame feas. Many of
the geographical queftions which have been occafionally treated in the
courfe of this performance, will probably be cleared up, and the true
pofition of the Weftern coafts of America afcertained, from the journals of thofe experienced navigators.
U u 2
 [   33'
P   P   E
I   X      II.
Tartarian rhubarb brought to Kiachta by the Buchanan Merchants—Method of examining and pur chafing
the  roots—Different fpecies  of rheum  which yield the
fin eft rhubarb—-Price of rhubarb in Ruffia—Exportation—Superiority of   the Tartarian   over   the Indian
X- rr»mn,',or
UROPE is fupplied with rhubarb from Ruffia and
the Eaft Indies. The former is generally known by
the name of Turkey rhubarb, becaufe we ufed to import it from the Levant in our commerce with the Turks,
who procured it through Perfia from the Bucharians.
And it ftill retains its original name, although inftead of
being carried, as before, to Conftantinople, it is now
brought to Kiachta by the Bucharian merchants, and
there difpofed of to the Ruffians. This appellation is
indeed the moft general; but it is mentioned occafionally
by feveral authors, under the. different denominations of
Ruffian, Tartarian, Bucharian, and Thibet, Rhubarb.
This fort is exported from Ruffia in large roundifh
pieces, freed from the bark, with an hole through the
middle : they are externally of a yellow colour, and
when cut appear variagated with lively reddifli ftreaks.
The other fort is called by the Druggifts Indian Rhu-r"dlf I
00 Rhubarb.
barb; and is procured from Canton in longer, harder,
heavier, more compact pieces, than the former; it is
more aftringent, and has fomewhat lefs of an aromatic
flavour ; but, on account of its cheapnefs, is more generally ufed than the Tartarian or Turkey Rhubarb.
The government of Ruffia has referved to itfelf the
■eipiGiuj^Hf privilege of purchafing rhubarb; it is
brought to Krachta by fome Bucharian merchants,  who I?"?"?
o J       \%*b** Khubarb pro-
have entered into a contract to fupply  the crown 'with Khchu. ■
that drug in exchange for furs.     Thefe merchants come
from the town of Selin, which lies South Weftward of
the Koko-Nor, or Blue Lake toward Thibet.    Selin, and
all the towns of Little Bucharia; viz. Kafhkar, Yerken,
Atrar,  &c. are fubject to China.
The beft rhubarb purchafed  at Kiachta  is   produced
upon a chain of rocks, which are very high, and for the
moft part deftitute of wood :  they lie North of Selin, and
ftretch  as far as  the Koko-Nor.    The good roots are
diftinguifhed  by  large and thick ftems.    The Tanguts, JJk Rhub.
who are employed in digging up the roots, enter upon X«n£L'
that bufinefs in April or May.    As faft as they take them \J&L
out  of the:earth,  they cleanfe them from the foil,  and
vfeangthem upon the neighbouring, trees to dry,-where
they remain until a fufficient quantity is procured : after
which they are delivered to the Bucharian merchants.
The roots are wrapped up in woollen facks, carefully
preferved from the leaft humidity; and are in this man*
ner tranfported to Kiachta upon camels.
Care taken in
examining the
roots at
The exportation of the beft rhubarb is prohibited by
the Chinefe, under the fevereft penalties. It is procured
however in fufficient quantities, fometimes by clandef-
tinely mixing it with inferior roots, and fometimes by
means of a contraband trade. The College of Commerce at Petersburg is folely emp