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Voyages made in the years 1788 and 1789, from China to the N. W. coast of America : with an introductory… Meares, John, 1756?-1809 1791

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     V   O   Y, A   G   E   S
-    Made in the Years 1788 and 1789,
IL     A      V   O   Y   A   G   E
rerformed in 1786, from Bengal, in the Ship Nootka-
PRINTED   AT   THE   £0£Ograpfo'c  JMfe    "        /
J. Walter, No. id9> Piccadilly, opposite Olp Bond St*ii*.  V     O     Y     A     G
TO     THE
Ïn the Years 1788.» a>td 1789, &?Sr
'       CHAP.    XXL    f:'.
General Account of the Nationsfeen on the North
Wejiern Coajl of America. — "Their Situation, Villages, Population, &c—Knowledge
xf the People to the Southward of Queen-
hi the, in a great Degree conjectural.—Some
Account of the American Continent, from Cape
Saint fames to the Southward.—Climates
Seafons—Winds—Storms—Harbours, Navigation, &c.
E  had*now taken our leave of the   178^
Coaft of America ;  and,   while  the September-
Felice may be fuppofed to be purfuing her
voyage to the Sandwich Iflands, we (hall fill
up the interval of her arrival there, with
Vol. IL A fuch
1788.    fuch an account of the country we havejufi
September, quitted, as we are qualified to make from
our own experience, and  fuch obfervations
as fuggefted themfelves to us while we were
acquiring it.
The commercial adventurers to this part
|§     of America,   who had been led thither for
the furs it produced, were not without that
laudable  and  patriot   curiofity which   has
animated others, and indeed operated in fame
S   of them to add new countries to the chart
HI.   <        of the globe ; but, whatever zeal they might
poffefs, it was not in  their power to fpare
4      an adequate portion of their time from their
more important objects of commercial en-
R It is true, that in purfuit of them we fell
III in with parts of the coaft that Captain Cook
had not vifited, and communicated with
people whom he had never feen ; —but the
great objeét of our voyage continually checked any rifing impulfe to purfue the track of
V* difcovery; and our particular duty and in-
I'ti*- terefts forced us back to thole parts of the
coaft which were more immediately con-
neéted with the purpofes of mercantile adventure.—-Hence it is that our account of
this part of the American continent will be    1*788.
confined within   narrow   limits :—It   will, September.
however, we truft, poffefs the merit whicfif
accuracy can give it, and affift thofe who
may hereafter be employed to examine this
remote portion of the globe. $f
The parts of which we have any particular knowledge, extend from the latitude
of 45° North to 620 North..|The longitude
obtained from aftronomical obfervations, is
from 2050 Eaft, to 237° Eaft of Greenwich.
By this longitude we mean the Wefterri
boundary of the coaft to the Northern Pacific Ocean.—This country, as it extends
towards Hudfon's or Baffin's Bay, is as yet
unexplored, and, of courfe, unknown ; nor -f|p
can we form any probable conjecture whether
fuch a fpace is occupied by land or fea* as . ^
we have already obferved, in the introductory memoir which treats of the North Weft
Paffage, &c.   . J?" •    *" '.   K:.
With refpe£t to  the inhabitants of this        'M\'
extenfive fhore, we have â knowledge of four
different  nations, . whofe  occupations   and       *
manners bear a great firnilitude taeach other.
From every information we could obtain,
there is reafbn to believe that the nation te
A 2 which VOYAGES  to   the
which inhabits Nootka Sound, and which
£R. extends itfelf both North and South of that
port, is very numerous ; but does not poffefs
the fame fiercenefs of character as their more
Northern neighbours.
Maquilla, with whom the reader has already been made rather intimately acquaint-
| cd, is the iovereign of this territory ; which
extends to the Northward as far as Cape
Saint James, in the latitude of 520 20' North,
and longitude of 2280 30' Eaft of Greenwich ;
and which cape forms the Southern extremity
of the great groupe of iflands that bounds
the Northern Archipelago towards the Pacific
Ocean ; and to the Southward, the dominions
of this chief ftretch away to the Iflands of
There are alfo1 perfons of confiderable
power, though inferior dignity to the fove-
reign chiefs :—In this ftation of honour were
Callicum and Hanapa, who have already
been particularly mentioned ; and the former
of whom has been, we truft, a pleafing companion to the reader through many a page
of this volume.—Indeed, as we had no opportunity of vifiting the interior parts, at
any diftance from the Sound, we can only
communicate fuch information as we re- 1788.
ceived from this amiable chief, whofe frank Septbmbb*'
and open difpofition was ever obedient to
our enquiry ; and who, by poffeffing an un-
derftanding fuperior to the reft of his countrymen, was qualified to make thofe communications on which, as far as they went,
we might have an unfufpeCting reliance.
From him we learned that there were
feveral very populous villages to the Northward, entrufted to the government of the
principal female relations of Maquilla and
Callicum ; fuch as grandmothers, mothers,
aunts, lifters, &c.—but the brothers, fons,
and other male relations, were, from political motives, kept near the perfon of the
chief himfelf. — It may indeed be recollected, that the village fuddenly invaded by the
enemy, and which occafioned a war expedition from Nootka Sound, has been mentioned in a former chapter as being governed
with unlimited fway by the grandmother of
Maquilla. The mother of Callicum enjoyed
a fimilar delegated power over another dif-
triCt ; and feveral other villages were affigned
to the direction of other relations, all of
which weçe ready to join,  as occafion re-
.1 1 A3 VOYAGES   to   the
. j^gg/ quired, for the fupport* of their mutual
September, fafety. and to yield a ready obedience to the
fummons of the fovereign chief: — the
whole forming; a political band of union
not very unlike to the 'general fyftem of
government in Europe at an early period
of its civilization, and which is well known
under the appellation of the feudal fyftem.
The number of inhabitants in King
George's Sound amount to between three
and four thoufand. Captain Cook eftimates
the village, of Nootka to contain about two
thoufand inhabitants, and we do not think
that it had undergone any change in its
• population when we were upon the coàft.
Jr But there are two other fubordinate villages
in the Sound, which, between them, appeared to us to contain fifteen hundred people.
One of them is fituated at a considerable
diftance up the Sound, in a diftriCt committed to the jurifdlCtion of Hanapa.
To  the   Nprthward of the  Sosnd there
;> ■   are   four   villages,   and   to   the Southward
, of it  there are an equal number, of which
Maquilla is the chief. From the heft information, each of thefe inhabited fpots con-
Cain,   on an average,   about eight hundred
people i
people ;  fo that the whole of Maquillais fub-    1788.
jeCts do not amount to more than ten thoufand September,
people ;—a very fmall number indeed to occupy fo large a fpace of country ;—but the i
frequent wars vyhich harafs thefe little ftates,
and the fiercenefs of battle among cannibal
nations, are fufficient to fatisfy us concerning
the ftagnant population of thefe people.
The diftrift next to King George's Sound
to the Southward,  is that of Wicananifh :
though he is not considered as equal in rank
to Maquilla, yet he is entirely free and independent, and by far the moft potent chief of  v
this quarter,    In the fame diftriCt refide the
chiefs named Detootche and Hanna, on two
fmall iflands, but who are entirely free and
independent.    Thefe iflands are fituated a
little to the Northward of Port Cox, and
contain each of them about fifteen hundred
people, and we did not underftand that they
had any other dependency.
The general residence of Wicananifh is in
Port Cox, where he lives in a ftate of magnificence much fuperior to any of his neigh- ;jjj§>
bours, and both loved and dreaded by the
other chiefs. His fubjeCts, as he himfelf
informed us,   ^mounted  to about   thirteen
A 4. thou- VOYAGES   TO   THE
"' 1788,.   thoufand people, according to the following
September, eftimation : —
fH > In Port Cox, four thoufand ; to the South
ward of Port Cox to Port Effingham, and
B' in that port, two thoufand; and in the other
villages which are fituated as far 3s the
mouth of the Straits of John de Fuca, on
the Northern fide, there might be about {even^
.4 thoufand  people.—Here  the dominions  of
Wicananifh end, and thofe of the next and
laft chief of the Nootka territory begin,
whofe name is Tatootche.
The names of the feveral villages belong-
ing to Wicananifh were given us by himfelf,
and are as follow:—Kenoumahafat, Uth-u-
wil-ett, Chaiftjbt, Elefait, Qu-quaet, Lee-
-cha-ett, Equo-lett, How-fchuc-fe-lett, E-
lolth-it, and Nitta-natt. Thefe names are
taken down in the manner they were pronounced by Wicananifh ; and, indeed, as
we paffed along the coaft, \ye had communication with feveral of them, whofe inhabi-
g$ . J§ tants came off to us at fea, particularly from
Nitta-natt, Elefoit, andE-lolth-it. ;■ Indeed,
from the apparent populoufnefs of thefe villages, which we could very well diftinguifh,
we rather think that the chief, either from
if--.    •' i I .    ïïiodçfty NORtH   WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA. O
modefty or ignorance, under-rated the popu-    j ^88«
lation Of his country. September.
The fubjeCts of Wicananifh are a bold,
daring people, extremely athletic, and fu-
perior in   every refpeCt to   thofe  of King
George's Sound; and, at the fame time, not
fo favage as thofe of Tatootche, who refides
on the ifland that bears his  name, and is   "      ||j
fituated near the fouth head-land which forms
the entrance of the Straits of de Fuca. With   Jj
thefe people we had very little communica-    J|
tion ; but from the crowd of inhabitants col-
Jefted to view the (hip, and the number of   |
boats filled with  people which furrounded    #
her, we fhall not over-rate the number of
inhabitants   on this ifland,   by  eftimatbg
them at five thoufand people. |f
The diftriCt of this chief extends to Queen-        " !|§f
hithe ; and Wicananifh informed us that it |||
contained five villages, and about three thoufand inhabitants. We faw the large village
of Queenuitett, near Queenhithe, and alfo
feveral other fmaller ones, as we coafted
along the fhore. S
We could obtain no other knowledge of
any villages to the Southward of Queenhithe, but from the further information of   '
- * • ' /    |: '  -if" m ■ W"  '   wi^ I " 10
Wicananifh. -He indeed repeated the names
September, of feveral, which, according to his account,
were fituated a great way to the Southward,
the inhabitants  whereof not only fpoke a
different language from the Nootka natives,
but who varied alfo in manners andcuftoms.
That this part of his intelligence was cor-
reft, we had fufficient proof, when we were
off Shoal-water Bay, as the two natives who
then approached the fhip, fpoke a language
which feemed to have no affinity with that
of Nootka, and appeared,  in the circum-
ftances of dref s and the form of their canoe,
to be a feparate and diftinCt people from the
American nations which we had vifited.
1 ne following names of trie villages to the
Southward of Queenhithe, were taken down
at the moment, as Wicananifh- pronounced
them ;—- Chanutt, Clanamutt," Chee-mee-
fett, Lo-the-att-fheeth, Lu-nee-chett, Thee-
wich-e-rett, Chee-fet, Lino-quoit, Nook-
my-ge-mat, Amuo-fkett, Nuiflèt-tuc-fauk,
\$k Quoit-fee-noit, Na-nunc-chett, and Chu-a-
f    .   na-lkett. \',.'.*   v. w   . Ill
The knowledge which Wicananifh pof-
feffed of the names of thefe places, proves
very evidently that either he or fome of his
people have had fome communication with    1788.
the inhabitants of them.    But whether this September-
was   a  matter of defign or hazard,   of an
occasional trading intercourfe, or the acci- i|
dental effeCts of a ftorm, which has been
frequently known to have driven canoes to
a great diftance, and carried the affrighted
Indian to the hofpitality or the deftruCtion
of a remote coaft, we cannot pretend to fay ;
as it was not always in our power to make
ourfelves intelligible to the favages, or render
them intelligent to ourfelves.
Thefe places are beyond the limits of that
part of America comprifed in the four nations, extending from Prince William's
Sound to Queen Charlotte's Ifles, and the |;
Northern Archipelago ; and from thence to
Nootka and C^pe Shoalwater ; fo that any
hiftory of the people that inhabit them, muft
be a matter of mere conjecture, and therefore totally improper to interrupt the authentic narrative before us.
Of the inhabitants refiding up the Straits    #
of de Fuca, we could obtain no information
from the people of Nootka;  but from the
multitude which attacked the long-boat, we
had no doubt that they were very numerous.
The Î2
The American continent, in almoft every
Septem^ert part, prefents nothing to the eye but im-
menfe ranges.of mountains or impenetrable
. forefts.—From Cape Saint James to Queenhithe, which we have considered as the dif-
triCt of Nootka, and inhabited by the fame
nations, this fçene invariably prefents itfelf,
and admits of very little, if any variety. In
fpme places the country appears to be level
on the coaft, but ftill the eye fqbn finds itfelf
checked by fteep hills and mountains, covered, as well every part of the low-land,
with thick woods down to the rnargin of the
fea. The fummits^of the higher mountains,
indeed, were compofed of (harp'prominent
ridges of rocks, which are clad in fnow in
' ftead of verdure ; and now and then we faw
a fpot clear of wood, but it was very rare,
and of fmall extent.
The climate of this country, that is from
ml      '
fcCape Saint James to the Southward, is
much milder than the Eaftern coaft on the
oppofite fide of America, in the fame parallel
of latitude.      jfr':"        . :      #   ■■':%>
The winter generally f$ts in with  rai
and hard gales from the South Eaft, in the
month of November; hut it very ieldcun
happens that there is any froft till January, 1788.
when it is fo flight as very rarely to prevent September.
the inhabitants from navigating the Sound
in their canoes. The fmall coves and rivulets are generally frozen ; but I could
not difcover that any one remembered to
have feen the Sound covered with ice.
The winter extends only from November
to March, when the ground is covered with
fnow, which difappears from off the lower
lands in April, and vegetation is then found
to have made a considerable advance.   April
and May are the fpring months, and in June
the wild fruits are already ripened.   To the
Northward of King George's Sound the cold
encreafes, and the winters are longer ; as to   : |§
the Southward, it of courfe diminifhes; and     ,•
we fhould fuppofe that to the Southward of        .1?
450 there muft be one of the moft pleafant
climates in the world.
The mercury in the thermometer often
flood in the middle of fummer at 700, particularly in the coves and harbours that
were flickered from the Northern winds ;
but we very feldom had it lower than 40 in
the evenings. Fires, however, were very
acceptable both in May and September; but
we Il
1788.   we attributed this circumftance, in a great
September, meafure, to the South Eaft winds, which
were ever attended with rain and raw cold.
The North Wefterly winds, on the contrary, blow clear, but are rather cooL   The
If    If   winds which   prevail during  the   fummer
I -months, are the Wefterly ones, which ex
tend their influence over the Northern Pacific Ocean, to the Northward of 30° North,
J      as the Eafterly winds blow invariably to the
equator from this latitude.
Storms from the Southward are very frequent in the winter months, but there is
no reafon to fuppofe that they operate with
fuch a degree of violence as to prevent fhips
from navigating the American coaft, in any
feafon of the year.
There are feveral harbours in the diftricl
of Nootka, which are capable of receiving',
;     into perfeCt fecurity, flapping of the largeft
burthen.    King George's Sound is an abfo-
If       lute collection of harbours and coves, which
are fheltered from the violence of all winds.
Port Cox and Port Effingham are of the firft
kind for capacioufnefs and fafety;vand to
the Northward of Nootka to Cape   Saint
.    I   James, we may fafely conjecture that there
are founds and harbours equal to any which    1788.
have been already defcribed.    Besides, this September.
coaft is by no means difficult to navigate,
from its very deep waters and bold fhares.
We cannot but consider it as a remarkable
circumstance, that during the whole lngth
of our coafting voyage, we did not meet
with a single river of any magnitude.,   The
very fmall ftreams  which emptied them-
felves every where into the fea, were generally fupplied by rains and fnow from the        -%
mountains. We found alfo very few fprings ;
fo that from thefe and other circumftances,
with fuch accounts as we could get from the
natives, we had been frequently difpofed to
imagine, that the land which we had confide red as the American coaft, was a chain
of iflands, feparated by large and capaci
channels from the continent*.
* This conjecture will be confîdered in one of the
Introductory Memoirs, with fome account of the voyage of the American floop Wafhington, in the autumn
of 1789, which was not received till we were thus far
advanced in our Narrative.
A  P H
-    1788*
chap.   XXII.
•it "
Account of the Dijlriff of Nootka continued.—*
.Vegetable Productions.—Great Plenty of Wild
Fruits.—EJculent Roots,&c.—Quadrupeds :—|
Deer.—-Foxes.—Martens.—The Ermine.—<
>v£ Squirrel^ic.—Marine Animals :—The Whale^
Sword Fi/h, Seals, &c.—Particular Account
H of the Sea Otter.—Various Kinds of Birds.—
Aquatic Fowls.—Fi/h of various Kinds.—
Manner of taking fome of them.—Reptiles.—
Infers.— Minerals.—9Conje£lures concerning
Mines in this Country, &c. &c.   §
^| *HE vegetable productions of the diftriCl
of Nootka, which have come to our
knowledge, are not numerous, though we
tnuft acknowledge that our botanical enquiries were neceflarily very confined.—Wc
have no doubt but that considerable additions might be made from this country to
the collected ftores both of Zoology and
Botany; but we wanted fkill fufficient to
render ourfelves ferviceable in this pleasing
range of fcience. We fhared the natural
lil . north west coast of America. Xy
lot of all private expeditions equipped for    1788.
the purpofes of commercial adventure,  in September.
which a knowledge of thefe branches of phi-
lofophy is not an effential qualification, and
where  even every purfuit of fcience  muft
give way to thofe of mercantile advantage. |;
Among the trees which compofe thefe
forefts, we obferved the black and white
fpruce, with the pine and cyprefs ; and a
great variety with whofe form and foliage
we were wholly unacquainted ; many of
which, however, would anfwer every purpofe
of the dock-yard. Timbers cut from fome
of them proved fo extremely hard, that it was
with difficulty they could be worked into
fhape. We particularly remarked that in
King George's Sound, Port Cox, and Port
Effingham, the trees in general grow with
great vigour, and are of a fize fufficient for
mafts of any dimensions.
On the rocky iflands, and in the woods,
we found the wild ftrawberry in great abundance. There were alfo currant trees of
the black kind, and gooleberrybufhes, which J|
feemed to bear fruit only in certain parts.
There is a fpecies of rafberry of the mod
delicious flavour, and far fuperior to any
Vol. IL B fruit VOYAGES   TO
1788.   fruit of that kind we had ever before taftecL
September. It grows on a larger bufh than our European
rafberry, and is free from thorns ; but the
m   fruit itfelf is fb delicate,  that  a fhower of
rain wafhes it entirely away.   There is alfo
a frtiall red fruit, not unlike in fize, fhape
ft     and tafte, to our currant,  which grew on
trees of a coniiderable fize, in the greateit
If abundance.   It is a favourite food of the na
tives^ and during the months of July and
Auguft, the chief employment was to gather
it, and a fpecies of blackberry, both red and
white, but very much fuperior to our wild
fruit of that kind, both in fize and flavour.
The quantities of berry fruits that the
natives brought us, proved their extreme
plenty. To us they were a very falutary
as well as pleafant addition to our table, and
the failors fat down everv dav to a pudding
ml J X O
made of them.    We alfo preferve^d feveral
fmall calks of the   red   fruit with   fugar,
' which lafted feveral months, and were very
ferviceable to us at fea.
Wild leeks grow every where in the great-
eft profufion; and the efculent roots are in
great variety,  fome of which have a tafte
fimilar to the fea fpinuage. When, however,
* they
Hill norm West côasI: of amerïca.
they could not be procured, the tops of the    1788.
young nettle proved an excellent fucceda- September,
neum.    Of thefe the natives are immoderately fond ; after having ftripped the younger plants of a thin coat,  they eat them in
their raw ftate.
Towards the water-fide we obferved great
quantities of wild wheat, or goofe-grafs.
We every where found in the woods wild
rofes and fweet-briar, which perfumed the
air. We faw alfo the anthericum that bears
the orange-flower, and many other kinds
of plants, which our ignorance in the botanic fcience prevents us from enumerating
or attempting to defcribe. Indeed, the confiant employment which our commercial
concerns required of us, was wholly unfavourable to the refearches of natural philo-
fophy ; but we have every reafon to believe
that any one of botanical experience, who
fhould visit this coaft in the fummer feafon,
would add to the ftock of his knowledge
in this ufeful and delightful fcience.
The quadrupeds which we had an opportunity of feeing, were very few;—they were
deer, racoons, martens, fquirrels and foxes.
The deer which we  received  as  prefents   ff
% from \tf
ML voyages to the
1788. from the chiefs were very fmall; but we
.September, have feen others in their pofleilion of the
moofe kind, extremely large, with branching
horns. We believe, however, that the latter
were not in great plenty : indeed in all our
excursions we never were fo fuccefsful as to
bring one home, though we had feen and
wounded them.
The foxes are very common, and differ
much in fize and colour ; fome are yellow,
with a long, foft, and very beautiful fur :
others are of a dirty red; and a third fort of
a kind of afh-colour.
The marten bears a ftrong refemblance to
that of Canada, particularly as to fize and
fliap^ ; but it is not fo black, nor is its fkin
fo valuable as thofe brought from that country. There is alfo another fpecies of rhem
here, whofe hair is foverycoarfe as to be in
little or no eftimation with the natives.
, The ermine is very fcarce ; and thofe of
this animal which we faw were rather of a
yellowifh colour, and poflefling, in no degree, that beautiful whitenefs which makes
them fo eftimable in the countries of Europe.
Neither racoons or fquirrels appeared to   1^-88.
be in great plenty; the former are tame like September,
thofe of Eaftern America, and the latter are
fmaller than our European fquirrel, but not
of to bright à colour.
During the time we remained on the
coaft, we faw but two beaver fkins; but
they were the richeft fpecimens of that fur
which we ever remember to have feen.
The natives made frequent mention of
bears, of which they gave us to underftand
there were great numbers in the forefts, of
a very fierce nature, and with whom they
fometimes had terrible battles ; but we were
jiever fo fortunate as to fee one of them ;
and though fome of our people went out oc-*
cafionally a bear hunting, they always returned without the gratification even of
having feen their game.
Our knowledge did not extend further
than to the above animals, though it is more
than probable, that there are many other
kinds of them who inhabit the forefts of
this country :—Indeed, we faw fkins which
ferved for the drefs, ornament, or armour
of the natives, that muft have belonged to
animals which we had not feen.    Though |f|
B 3 thefç M ff
1788.   thefe might be got in bartering with thofe
September, tribes who may be fuppofed to inhabit the
ft x interior parts of the country.
S M The mountain fheep, though inhabitants
of the Northern part of the coaft, do not
extend themfelves fo far to the Southward
as the diftriCt of Nootka ; at leaft we never
S fàw their fleece or their horns, which are in
fuch univerfal ufe with the Indians of Prince
William's Sound and Cook's River. ,
The  fea coafts of this country abound
with numerous   marine animals;   fuch  as
whales,   both of the bone and fpermaceti
'        kind; thrafhers, grampuffes, porpoifes, both
If   black and white, feals, fea-lions, fea-cows,
the river-otter, and above all, the fea-otter.
During the fummer, when employed in
navigating the coaft, we faw great numbers
j§     of whales, and were fometimes witneffes to
dreadful battles between them,  the fword-
H fifh and the thraflier, who filled the air with
the noife of their combats, | The'natives,
in hunting the  whale, prefer thofe fmall
ft   ones with hunches on their backs, as being
the moil eafy to kill.   They purfue alfo the
. .      1   fea-lion and the fea-cow for the fame reafon.
The vaft number of feals which are every
where feen, render them an eafy prey to the   1788.
natives, who consider them as delicious food. S2PTsMBa*'
Their fkins are of a filvery colour, fpotted
with black, -and covered with a coàrfe hair.
The flefh of the fea-cow and fea-lion are
efteemed peculiar delicacies, and are even
preferred to the whale; but are very fcarce
to the Southward.—More to the North they
are found in great plenty.
The number of thefe animals which are
deftroyed by the natives for food, muft be
very confiderable ; the grampus and porpoife
feem, in fome degree, to efcape this general
deftruClion, being considered as inferior,both
in point of ufefulnefs or luxury. But abundant as the whales may be in the vicinity
of Nootka, they bear no comparifon to the
numbers feen on the Northern part of the
coaft : indeed the generality of thefe huge
marine animals delight in the frozen climates. 1
The fea-otter we believe to be an inhabitant of every part of the North Weftern |
Coaft   of America,    from   the   latitude   of H
300 North to 6o° North.    Their fur is the        J|
fineft in the world ; it poflefTes a jetty black-
nefs, and is of exceeding beauty.   The pe-       ' ' 'M
B 4 culia$ VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788. culiar warmth it affords, renders it a mofl
September, valuable clothing in the colder climates ; II
but confidered in an ornamental view, it has
a rich and magnificent appearance, and,
under a certain arrangement, mav vie even
with the royal ermine. W  ft
The ocean bordering on the American
coaft is not the exclusive habitation of the
fea-otter :—that animal frequents the coaft
of Japan and that of China, particularly in
the Yellow Sea, and the neighbourhood of
Corea ; but we have never heard that they
are found farther to the Southward. They,
indeed, delight in, as they feemed to be
formed for, cold climates, and are wonderfully clad to refift the feverity of the coldeft
region. There are, however, particular places
to which they never fail to refort in great
numbers, as is fuppofed, on account of the
fhoals of fifh which frequent them, and are
the food of the otter.     ,
This animal, like the river«otter, is of an
amphibious nature; but their peculiar element is the fea. They are fometimes feen
many leagues from land, fleeping on their
backs, on the furface of the water, with
their young ones reclining on their breaft.
jo a
As the cubs are incapable of fwimming till 1788,
they are feveral months old, the mother September,
muft have fome curious method of carrying
them out to fea, and returning them to their
hiding places on fhore, or in the cavities of
rocks that projeCt into the fea: indeed, they
are known to fleep with their young on
their breaft, and to fwim with them on
their back ; but if they fhould be unfortunately overtaken by the hunters, the dam
and her brood always die together :—She
will not leave her young ones in the moment of danger, and therefore fhares their
From the formation of their lungs they
are unable to remain under water longer than
two minutes, when they are forced to rife
to the fur face for refpiration ; and it is this
circumftance which gives their purfuers fuch
advantage over them;—though the wonderful fwiftnefs with which they fwim very
often baffles the utmoft attention and fkill
pf the hunter.
Nature has furnifhed this creature with
powerful weapons of offence and  deftruc-
tion.    Its fore-pa^vs are like  thofe of the
river-otter,   but of much  larger fize,   and
Wr" . '  %       ë greater    |: 26
t*78R     greater ftrength :-— its hind-feet are fkirted
September, with a membrane, on which, as well as on
the fore-feet, there grows a thick and coarfe
hair:—its mouth contains moft formidable
B- rows of teeth, fuperior to any other marine
carnivorous animal except the fhark.
£5j. lb  The fur varies in beauty according to the
different gradations of life.—The young cubs
of a few months old, are covered with a
long, coarfe, white hair, which protefts the
fine down that lies beneath it.—The natives
often pluck off* this coarfe hair, when the
lower fur appears of a beautiful brown colour
X   i
and velvet appearance. As they encreafe \\\
age this long hair falls off, and the fur be?
corner blackifh, but ftill remains fhort.—
When the animal is full grown, it becomes
of a jet black, and encreafes in beauty; the
fur then thickens, and is thinly fprinkled
with white hairs.—When they are paft their
ftate of perfection, and verge towards old
age, their fkin changes into a dark-brown,
dingy colour, and, of courfe, proportionably
diminifhes in value.
This is the beft account we could obtain
of this curious and valuable animal ; for it
would be impofllble for us to defcribe, with
■2      %■ ■        ...  ■   .   x any NORTH  WEST  COAST  OF   AMERICA.
#ny degree of fatisfaClion, the different kinds
of otter fkins brought to us fbr fale.—The
great variety of colour,   from  a  chefhut
brown to a jet black, which we obferved in
them, makes it difficult for us to afcertain
the precife period of their lives when they
have arrived at perfection. At firft we really
fuppofed them to be the fkins of different
animals, or of various fpecies of the fame
animal :—hut we afterwards difcovered what
we have already ftated  concerning the advancement of them to beauty ; and perhaps
other circumftances may combine to haften
or retard the period of their moft perfeCt
ftate.—We are difpofed to imagine that they
uiidergo an annual change in their fur, either
by fhedding the old, or acquiring new ; and
that their fkins are considerably affeCled by
the different feafons of the year.—We obferved that  the fkins   of the otters killed
during the winter, were of a more beautiful
black, and,  in every refpeft, more perfeCt
than thofe which were taken in the fummer
or autumn.
The Chinefe, who rrmft be considered as
the beft judges of thefe fkins, clafs them
under eight or ten denominations,  and affix:
Septembers 2 a
to each  a proportionate value,   concerning*
which they would never iuffer us,   in our
bargains with them, to intrude an opinion.
—As furriers,  they   held   us, and  perhaps
with fome reafon, in very low eftimation.    ,:
The male otter is, beyond all comparifon,
more beautiful than the female, and is dif-
tinguifhed by the fuperior jetty colour, as
well as velvet appearance of his fkin ; whereas the head, throat and belly of the female,;
is not only covered with a fur that is white,
but which is alfo of a very coarfe texture.
The fkins in the higheft eftimation, are
thofe which have the belly and throat plentifully interfperfed with a kind of brilliant
fllver hairs, while the body is covered with
a thick black fur, of extreme flnenefs, and a
filky glofs.—Indeed in this ftate, the fur of
the fea otter is, taken in all its circumftances,
fuperior for cloathing, to that of any other
animal in the world.
It is however faid in China, that the
fkins of this animal taken in the Corean and
Japan feas, are fuperior to thofe of Ruffia or
the North Weftern Coaft of America. ,       '
The abundance of thefe animals, which
frequent every part of the American coaft,
©ccaflon their being caught without much 1788.
difficulty by the natives ; who not only owe September.
the magnificence of their appearance, as well
as a moft comfortable protection againft the
feverity of their winters, to the fkin of the
fea-otter, but alfo find in its flefli what they
conflder as moft delicious food.
It differs from the river otter, or capucca,
as called by the people of Nootka, and
which is the fame as that of Canada : in its
forrrx, fize, and fur, it is far fuperior.
The fpecies of birds which frequent the
American fhore are very confined : —We ob-
ierved the crow, the magpie, the thrufh,
the woodpecker, the wren, the king fifher,
the common land-lark, the plover, the hawk,
and the white-headed eagle. The wood-
pigeon was alfo fometimes, but very rarely
The aquatic fowls were far more numerous ; and confifted of the common fea-gulls
and fhags ; many kinds of ducks and divers ;
the fea-parrot, and many others of which
we knew not the names.
Vaft quantities of fifh are to be found,
îbpth.on the coaft and in the founds or harbours.—Among thefe are the halibut, her-     Jf
: .. > ring,      f• VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788. ring, fardine, iilver-bream, falmon, trout^
September. coc]9 elephant-fifh, fhark, dog-fifh, cuttle-
fifh, great variety of rock-fifh, &c—all of
which we have feen in the pdfleffion of the
natives, or have been caught by ourfelves.
There are, probably, à great abundance of
other kinds, which are not to be taken by
the hook, the only method of taking fifh
with which the natives are acquainted, and
we had neither trawls or nets.
In the fpring, the herrings as well as the
fardines, frequent the coaft in vaft fhoals.
^he herring is from feven to eight inches
I long, and, in general,   fmaller than   thofe
taken in the Britifh feas. The fardine re-
Tembles that of Portugal, and is very de*
liçious: they are here taken by-the people
in prodigious quantities. They firft drive
the fhoals into the fmall coves, or fhallow
Waters, when a certain number of men in
lIlP canoes? keep plafhing the water, while others
fink branches of the pine with ftones ; the
fifh axe then easily taken out with wooden
troughs or wicker bafkets. We have fome-
times feen fuch numbers of them, that a
whole village has not been able to cleanfe
them before they began to grow putrid.—j-
ii g*-.
After being cleaned, they are placed on rods, 1788.
and hung in rows, at a certain diftance, September.
over their fires, that they may be fmoked;
and when they are fufficiently dried, they
are carefully packed up in mats, and laid
by as a part, and a very considerable part, of
their winter's provision. The feafon for
taking thefe fifh is in the months of July
and Auguft. Certain people, at this time,
are ftationed on particular eminencies, to
look for the arrival of the fhoails, which can
be very readily diftinguifhed by the particular motion of the fea. The natives then
embark in their canoes to proceed in their
fifhéry. The fardine is preferred by them
to every other kind of fifh, except the fal~
In the months of July, Auguft, and September, falmon are taken, though not in fo
great abundance as the other fifh, but are
of a very delicate flavour. They are fplit,
dried, and packed up, as has already been
defcribed, and are considered as a great delicacy. The falmon of the diftriCt of Nootka
are very different from thofe found to the
Nortlrward, which are of an inferior kind,
3 TIC»
fell**. Ill
pli y}ii I'
1788.    and of the fame fpecies with thofe takeîl
September at Kamtlchatka. |jt   -•      .•-.."  "   'jf ••■    '   |
During our flay in King George's Sound,
we faw very few fharks or halibut; but the
cod taken by the natives were of the beft
quality :—they are alfo prepared, like the
reft, for the purpofe of winter ftores.
We faw the red ftiaoper here, but it was
very uncommon ; and we now and then ob-
ferved the large cuttle»fifh, which the na-
tives eat with great relifh in its raw ftate.
The mufcles are of a very large fize, and
filled with a fmall, feedy pearl, about the
fize of a pin's head, very ilhfhaped, and by
no means tranfparent. We faw alfo fea-
ears, cockles, limpets, ftar-fifh, and many
other marine productions in great abundance*
The fmall fea-crabs have a very delicate
flavour, and are in great plentv.-
The reptiles of this country are confined,
at leaft as far as our knowledge extends, to
a fmall brown fnake, about eighteen inches
in length, which fled on hearing the leaft
noife. In our frequent vifits to the woods
we faw no other ; fo that they may be
traverfed without the leaft fear of meeting
with thofe dangers from poifonous animals
of the reptile kind, which infeft the Eaftern    1788.
fide of America.    There are however, great September.
quantities of mufquitoes, which prove a fe- .
vere inconvenience to the natives. We
faw butterflies of various kinds, and fbme
of uncommon fize and beauty. The bee,
common fly, and various fpecies of moths,
were in great numbers, and compofed all
that we recoiled to have feen of the infeCt
tribe on the North Weft Coaft of America.
Of the minerals of this country, wê can
only judge from the different kinds of ore
which we faw in the pofïèfïion of the natives ; and from thofe fpecimens, we are
difpofed to confider them of the moft valuable kind.
The pure malleable lumps of copper ore
feen in the poflefiion of the natives, convince us that there are mines of this metal
in the vicinity of this part of the Weftern %
coaft. We once faw a piece of it, which t
appeared to weigh about a pound, through
which an hole had been perforated fuffi-
ciently large for an handle to pafs, in order
to make a kind of hammer. On enquiring
of the man in whofe poflefiion it was, from-
whence he procured it, he made us under-
VoL.IL.     I   -fie       11/       I   ftand   ':$•' 34
Î. ftand that he had received it in barter from
September, fome of the native people who lived more
to the Northward. — We had alfo ôcca-
flonally feen necklaces and a fort of bracelets worn on the wrift, which were of the
, ■ f pureft ore, and to all appearance had never
been in the pofleffion of an European.
The natives make a kind of coarfe red
ochre, for the purpofe of painting themfelves,
but more particularly their faces, which
very probably contains metalline particles ;
we alfo obferved that they employed a black
pigment, which they ufe to paint their
bodies. Over the latter they ftrew a glittering fand, which was very much efteemed
by them ; and from its appearance, our
failors, at firft, took it for gold. It was collected from a bed of rock of a whitifh colour, at the bottom of a rivulet ; it ran in,
veins, poffefled a fhining quality, and was
of a gold colour. On breaking a piece of
•the rock, thefe fhining particles vanifhed, and
what remained, was black and flaky: which,
however, on being reduced to powder, re-
fumed the brilliant appearance we have
mentioned, and formed the proudeft ornament of the Nootkan inhabitants.  Sir Fran
cis Drake fpeaks of this fhining fand in his    1788.
account of New Albion.    But we are not September.
fufficiently fkilled in mineralogy, to juftify      jfj'
our offering any obfervations concerning it.
We alfo faw feveral oCtangular pieces of
rock chryftal, perfectly tranfparent, and worn
by the natives as ornaments about their neck.
— They generally had about them a fmall
piece of Mufcovy glafs, which they held in
high eftimation.
The imperfeCt knowledge we have yet
obtained of this country, muft render all
conjecture vain as to its mineral pofleffions.
—The Spaniards, however, who have the
keeneft fcent of any people for thofe riches
which are contained in the bowels of the
earth, in the month of Auguft, 1789, opened
a mine in an ifland, called Hog Ifland, which
is fituated in the harbour of Friendly Cove,
in King George's Sound. Their miners were
kept conftantly at work, and no one but
themfelves fuffered to approach the ifland,
except the foldiers ordered to guard it.
chap.   XXIII.
'the Perfons of the Inhabitants defcribed.—The
Manner in which they treat their Infant Children.—'Their Averfon to Beards.—Dreffes,
Male and Female.— Various Kinds of them.
—Their Mafks, and the Ufes of them.—Dif-
pofition and Temper of the Natives.—An
horrid Cujlom of killing a Slave every Month,
for the Purpofe of eating him.—The Ceremonies ufedon this Qccafion.—The Circumflance
which led to the Difcovery of this cruel
Practice, &c,    '■'      ' : \ '
HP H E people of the Nootkan nation are,
in general, robuft and well proportioned ;—their faces are large and full, their
cheeks high and prominent, with fmall black
eyes 5—their nofes are broad and flat ; their
lips thick ; and they have, generally, very
fine teeth, and of the moft brilliant white-
The manner in which the children of
Nootka are treated when young, is not more
extraordinary from its ftrange, and,  as it
fhould appear, total inutility, as from its    1788. -
agreement with the cuftoms of the Chinefe September.
and Tartars, to whom  this practice  gives      ,"|-
thefe people a considerable refemblance. The
head of the infant is bound by the mother
with a kind of fillet of feveral folds, as low      :
down as the eyes, in order to give it a certain -  "
form, which, at this tender age, it is capable      #'•
of receiving. It might be fuppofed that fuch
a   tight drawn ligature  muft caufe confi-   ;'-"'-'
derable pain to the child ; but we never oh-   M
ferved  that any of the infants  in  fuch  a
ftate of preparation for fu gar-loaf heads, fuf-   U
fered any viflble pain or inconvenience. ; -      ,.     ,
.    Though  the cuftom  of comprefîlng the
head in this manner,   gives them  an un-   =   §. '3
pleafant appearance, by drawing up the eyebrows, and  fometimes producing the difa-
greeable effeCt of fquinting, as  well as of
flattening the nofe and diftending the nof-
trils,  they are by no mea'ns an ill-looking .   Jl
race of people. They have alfo the cuftom,
which is known to prevail in fo many Indian
nations, of plucking out the beard by the
roo»ts, on its firft appearance ; and, as it
continues to fprout, to keep it down by the
fame praCtice. It is one of the domeftic em-   -' m
,«:'■    :'%Q 3- ' . ployments    ^ "  :J' ^ lip
88.    pîoyments afligned to their wives to watch
September, this appearance of manhood, and to eradicate
' the hairs as they come forth ; which they
do in a very dexterous manner with their
fingers, and without giving the leaft pain in
the operation.—Some of them, however,
though we faw but very few of this difpofi-
' " \' . ' ' tion, when they advance in years, and become
;■:■•,§■•■■'. infirm, fuffer their beards to grow without
interruption, — But, notwithftanding they
have fo great an aversion to the hair of their
chin, that of the head is an objeCt of their
attentive vanity.—It is ftrong, black and
m ,.. glofly^ grows to a confiderable length, and
is either tied in a kind of knot on the top
of their heads, or fuffered to hang down
their backs in flowing negligence.
•J|f jj: In their exterior form, they have not the
fymmetry or elegance which is found in.
many other Indian nations.—Their limbs,
though ftout and athletic, are crooked and
ill-fhaped ; their skin, when cleanfed of
filth and ochre, is white, and we. have feen
fome of the women, when in a ftate of
cleanlinefs,—which, however, was by no
means a common fight, and obtained with
difficulty,—wlio not only poffefTed the fair
complexion of Europe, but features that 1788.
would have attracted notice for their deli- September.
cacy and beauty, in thofe parts of the world
where the qualities of the human form are
beft underftood. But thefe examples of
beauty are by no means numerous among
the women of Nootka, who are calculated
rather to difguft than to charm an European "4r
beholder. Their hair, like that of the men,
is black ; their eyes are of the fame colour ;
and, in their exterior appearance, they are
not to be immediately diftinguifhed from the
men. In their characters they are referved and
chafte ; and examples of loofe and immodeft
conduCt were very rare among them. There |°
were women in Saint George's Sound, whom
no offers could tempt to meretricious fub-
The principal drefs of the men is either
corripofed of the skin of the fea-otter, or
confifts of a kind of flaxen garment, made
by the women from the bark of a tree and
the filament of a nettle, prepared in a particular manner. The skin of the bear* the*
racoon, or other animals, are fornetimes
worn, according to the caprices of fancy*
pr (he temperature of the weather. : '
Ç 4 Thi
0 4°
1788.       The otter veftment is  compofed of two
September, large fkins fewed on one fide, which form a
;#-        covering from  the neck to the ancles; it
vj|   pafles under the left arm, and is tied over
■-■ m the   right   fhoulder   by   a  leathern   thong
faftened to the fkins, leaving both arms entirely free from any kind of reftraint. This
garment, in its form and folds, is far from
being ungraceful ; and, when.aided by the
richnefs of the fur, wants nothing but clean-
linefs to make it a veftment of the moft
pleating defcription.
They have alfo another garment, made
from the inner bark of the pine*tree and the
filaments of the nettle.—Thefe are fteeped
for fome time in urine ; and having been
well beaten, they are feparated into threads,
which is a matter of no great fkill. A cer-
tain quantity of thefe threads joined together, form one of the ftronger thongs, a
J§ number of which are prepared twice the
length of the garment, and laid double
acrofs a long ftick ; when they are readily
platted into the kinds of mat of which this
II article of the Nootkan drefs is made.    The
women are very expert at this bufinefs,
which is one of their principal employments.
-—This garment, from its clofe contexture,   1788,
is warm, and, when new and clean, is rather Septembe*'
of an elegant appearance,   efpecially when .     ff-
its edges are trimmed with a narrow fringe
of the fea-otter's skin ; but the filth of the ;
houfes,   and  the perfonal  naftinefs  of the
people,   almoft  immediately   foils,   and of
courfe deftroys its beauty:  the natives call
it a cotfack, and wear it in the fame manner
as their dreflès of skin and fur.
The cap which they ufe as a covering for
their head, is of a conic form, made of matting, and of fo clofe a texture as to be capable
of holding water.    It is  ornamented with
painted reprefentations  of birds  and other      :|1ÉB
animals, and fattened by a leathern thong,
tied beneath the  chin.    There is,   withoutjfM'   ."
doubt, a very great convenience in this part
of their drefs, but it is by no means calcu-Jp
lated to add to the grace or fiercenefs of their
Their faces are generally painted with a
fort of red ochre: in visits of ceremony
every part of their body is bedaubed with
it, which makes them of a reddifh hue, and -
difagreeable appearance ; and being mixed
with train-oil,  wTith which they previoufly
P J     x J
anoint w.
I        (ï'I'v
1      ■ M.
i i
1 1
ial! !
1788.    an°jnt themfelves, is accompanied with  a
September, rancid fmell.    In this  fafhion  of painting
themfelves they adopt various modes, which,
as it appeared to us,   they appropriate   to
certain occaflons.    When they go o n a war
expedition, black is a prevalent colour, laid
on in ftreaks, on a white ground ;  we have
fometimes alfo feen them painted  entirely
white;  and, at other times, of a bright red,
over  which  they ftrewed  a fhining   fand,
which has been already defcribed.    But in
whatever fafhion they thought proper to co-
lour themfelves, they appeared to us equally
difgufting ; it was, if we may ufe the ex-
prefîion, when they were in defhabille, that
they appeared to the greateft advantage.
The ears of the men are univerfally perforated. Some of thefe have feveral holes,
in which they fix fmall leathern thongs,
ftrung either with porcupines quills, fmall
pieces of copper, or any other ornament they
■ 'p- could procure from us. But buttons, when
they could be obtained, fupplanted all other
articles, and we have fometimes feen their
ears drawn down almoft to their fhoulders
by the weight of them. The feptum, or
that part  of the  nofe which  divides the
noftrils. NORTH   WEST   COAST OF  AMERICA. a q
noftrils, is alfo fometimes perforated, from 1788.
whence pieces of copper, iron or tin, fhapedSeptember.
in various ways, are fufpended.—They wear
alfo round their wrifts a kind of bracelet
made of metal, or of leather ftrung with
fhells, and fometimes of a number of simple
thongs of leather. They apply the fame
kind of ornament to their ancles ; but with
a greater number of thongs, and' a proportionable encreafe in the fize of the beads or
other decorations.
JThe drefs of the women very materially
differs from that of the men; and is calculated, with great modefty, to prevent that
perfonal expofure which accompanies the
drefs of the other fex. They are never fuf-
fered to wear the fea-otter fkin, or furs of
any kind, as far as we could obferve.—Their
drefies are.made of mats, manufactured by
themfelves, in the form of a fhift, without
fleeves, which falls down to the ancle. A
kind of mantle, with a hole in the middle,
pafles over their head, and is contrived to
cover their arms without reftraining their
motion; though it very feldom happens
that in any of their employments more than
half the arm becomes visible.   A cap of the VOYAGES   TO   THE
"M i
' 11
R1788.   fame kind as that of the men, compleats
September, their drefs.    Their long black hair hangs
■|| down their back ; but they are not allowed
to employ any other paint but of a red colour,
which, however, they ufe in great profu-
fion.    We obferved very few of them who
were  adorned with the nofe or ear deco-
.   \§ly    rations. -  [W* " "   jly' Jf " '7
Jf- '      But thefe are the drefles of peace;—the
people of Nootka have another for war, and
is admirably contrived to anfwer thepurpofe
for which it is put on. It confifts of a thick
leathern frock or doublet, made from the
skin of the elk, cut into a fringe at the fides
and neck, and adorned on the other parts
yrith taffels of leather : it reaches from the
neck to the heels, and is painted with various devices. This garment is fufficiently
ftronp; to reflft the arrows or even the fpears
O A.
of their enemies, as by hanging loofe it
yields to the force, and checks the progrefs
both of one and the other. It may, therefore,,
be considered as a very complete defensive
armour. This drefs is accompanied with a
mask reprefenting the head of fome animal ;
it is made of wood, with the eyes, teeth, &c.
and is a work of confiderable  ingenuity. NORTH   WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA. a$
Of thefe masks they have a great variety,   1788.   •
which are applicable to certain circumftances September-
and occasions,    Thofe, for example, which
reprefent the head of the otter, or any other
marine animals, are ufed only when they
go to hunt them.—In their war expeditions, '
but at no other time,  they cover the whole
of their drefs with large bear-skins.   They
alfo adorn their heads with feathers and the      ||v
down of birds,—a cuftom which they rigidly m
obferve in their firft approach to ftrangers.     |f
When we firft faw them drefled in this
manner, their ferocious appearance was rather alarming; but this Angular mode of
difguifing themfelves, loft its deformity by
a familiar intercourfe, and being continually
in the habit of obferving the character of
this inoffensive people. When fitting in
their houfes and converting with their farm- J§
lies, they loft all that air of ferocity which
y ml* • ml
they derived from the drefs we have juft de- %
fcribed.—They were, in general, courteous
to us, and affable to each other ; and they
feemed to entertain fomething like a very
correCt notion of right and wrong ; being
confident when acting with rectitude, and
diffident when doing any thing  under an
fi mm
1788.   opposite* influence :   for I do not recolleCt
September, a fingle inftance,   where  the reproach we
made them on any detection,  was not at-
tended with the moft evident fenfe of fhame.
It would not, perhaps, be the beft ground
:;.|. ■'   to form a judgment of their real character
by their immediate conduCt to us,  as that
If; might take its fhape from the fear of our
power, or the hope of our favour. But in
||, their demeanour to each other, we frequently
faw thofe attentions, and difcovered thofe
friendly difpofitions which leave no doubt
as to the amiable qualities they poffefs. On
the other hand, their fanguinary appetites
and cannibal propensities were but too evident ; fo that we were divided between
- our regard and abhorrence of the Nootkan
Callicum and Hanapa both declared their
Ê. aversion to the practice of eating human flefh ;
at the fame time they acknowledged it exifted
among them,   and   that Maquilla was  fo
much attached to this  detestable banquet,
X '
as to kill a flave every moon, to gratifv his
•' * 4^5 ml
unnatural   appetite. — Thefe   chiefs,   with
every look and  expreflion  of abhorrence.
gave us the following account of this bloody    1788.
Ceremony. September,
The number of Maquilla's flaves were very
confiderable,  not only at Nootka,   but  in
other parts of his territories.  And when the
fatal day arrived which was to be celebrated
by the feaft of an human victim, a certain   *
number of thefe flaves were aflembled in
the houfe of the fovereign chief, who fe-
leCted  the objeCt to be eaten  by him and
his guefts, in the following curious manner :—The inferior chiefs who were invited
to partake of the approaching banquet, performed the ceremonies which were appointed
to precede it :—thefe confift of tinging the
war fong, dancing round the fire, and fomenting the   flames  by throwing oil into
them.   A bandage is then tied over the eyes
of Maquilla, who in this blindfold ftate is
to feize a flave.    His aCtivity in the pur-
fuit, with the alarms and exertions of thefe
unhappy  wretches   in   avoiding  it,   form
another part of this inhuman bufinefs.   But
it is feldom a work of delay,—fome one of
thefe flaves is fbon caught,—death inftantly
follows,—the devoted carcafe is immediately
cut in pieces, and its reeking portions diftri-
buted. I
1788.   buted to the guefts : when an univerfal fhout
{September, of thofe who have efcaped, declares the joy
of their deliverance.
We were not by any means difpofed to
give credit to this extraordinary aCtion, and
rather imagined that it was invented to injure Maquilla in our opinion ; for when pi
recolleCted that the pillow of Callicum was
jl \ filled with human feulls, we could not but
fufpeCl if the former was a cannibal, that the
latter was alfo of the fame defcription. Our
fubfequent enquiries, however, confirmed
■': . . all that Callicum had aflerted;—and many
of the natives aflurecl us that he was an
honourable exception to the general difpofi-
tion of the Nootkan people to human flefh.
The feulls on which he repofed might, in-
. deed, be the remains of his anceftors ; or,
which is more probable, the trophies of
his prowefs, and preferved by him to record
his valour; as ftandards taken from an enemy, in the wars of polifhed nations, are
hung up as ensigns of their glory, in th$
If:. public places of tneir metropolitan cities.
A circumftance however took place very
foon after we had received the information
we have juft related, which induced Maquilla
himfelf to confirm the truth of this cruel    1788.
hiftory, and tonameeven the very time when September.
the laft fcene of his tragic  gluttony was
aCted by him.
It fo happened that the chief, in afcending
the fide of the fhip, by fome untoward accident received an hurt in his leg. Orders
were -immediately given to thefurgeon to do
what was neceflary on the occasion ; and
when he was about to apply a plaifter to the
wound, Maquilla abfolutelyrefufed to fuffer
the application, but fucked himfelf the blood»
which flowed freely from it : and when we
exprefled our aftonifhment and difguft at his
conduCt, he replied, by licking his lips, patting his belly, and exclaiming clooflj, cloofjj ;
or good, good. Nor did he now hesitate to
confefs that he eat human flefh, and to ex-
prefs the delight he took in banqueting 011
his fellow creatures. Nay, he not only
avowed the practice of which he had been
accufed, but informed us, as we flood fhud-
dering at the ftory, that, a very fhort time
before, the ceremony of killing and eating
a flave had taken place even in Friendly
Cove. We terrified him however into a
Vol. II. •   "'^fD ~#Pr°-   %'-     J§ m
^ 1788.   promife, that no fuch barbarity fhould be
September, again praCtifed by himfelf, or any others in
,# his territories ; and gave him to underftand,
with the moft determined tone and look we
could aflume, that he himfelf fhould not
m l°ng furvive another repetition of it.
Employments of the Men of Nootka.—They con*
fifl, in general, of hunting different Marine
and Land Animals,—Killing the Whale, &c.
defcribed.—Method of hunting the Sea-Otter,
the Seal, &c.—Their more dome/lie Occupations.—Making Implements for Fi/Jjing and
War.— Their Canoes'.— A Defcripiion of
them.—A particular Manner of Fifhing.—-
M Employments of the Women.—Manner of collecting and preferving the Roes of Fifo .—The
, Difpoftion of the People to War.—The Cuftom
of exchanging their Women.—Their Religion,
&c. &c.
T^HE occupations of the men on this coaft
were fuch as arofe from their particular
fituation. Fifhing, and hunting the land or
larger marine animals, either for food or
furs, form their principal employments.—
The common buflnefs of fifhing for ordinary
fuftenance is carried on by flaves, or the
lower clafs of people :•—While the more
noble occupation of killing the whale and
o 11
788.    hunting thé fea-otter,  is followed by none
tember. but the chiefs and warriors.
Their dexterity in killing the whale is
not easily defcribed, and the facility with
which they convey fo huge a creature to
their habitations is no lefs remarkable. When
it is determined to engage in whale-hunting,
which the moft ftormy weather does not
prevent, the chief prepares himfelf, with no
common ceremony, for this noble diverfion.
—He is cloathed on the occasion in the fea--
otter's fkin ; his body is befmeared with oil,
and daubed with red ochre; and he* is accompanied by the moft brave, a&ive, and
vigorous people in his fervice.
The canoes employed on this occasion are
of a size between their war canoes and thofe
they ufe on ordinary occasions ; they are admirably well adapted to the purpofe, and are
capable of holding, conveniently, eighteen
or twenty men.
The harpoons  which  they ufe to ftrike
■ . the whale or any other fea-animal, except
the otter, are contrived with no common
I|| fkill. The fhaft is from eighteen to twenty-
eight feet in length ; at the end whereof is
fixed a large piece of bone, cut in notches,
which being fpliced to the fhaft, ferves as a I7g3#
fecure hold for the harpoon, which is faftened September.
to it with thongs.—The harpoon is of an
oval form, and rendered extremely fharp at
the fides as well as the point;—it is made
out of a lafffe mufcle-fhell, and is fixed into
another piece of bone, about three inches
long, and to which a line is faftened, made
of the finews of certain beafts, of feveral
fathoms in length ; this is again attached to
the fhaft; fo that when the fifh is pierced,
the fhaft floats on the water by means of
feal-skins filled with wind, or the ventilated
bladders of fifh, which are fecurely attached
to it. .     ,JT , ■    V '.
■  The chief himfelf is the principal har-
pobner, and is the firft that ftrikes the whale.
—He is attended by feveral  canoes of the
fame  fize  as  his own,   filled with people
armed with harpoons, to be employed as oc-   ,
cation may require.    When the huge fifh   |4
feels the fmart of the firft weapon,   he in-
ftantly dives, and carries the fhaft with all its
bladders along with him.    The boats immediately follow his wake, and as he rifes,   -
continue to fix their weapons in him, till
he finds it ïmpofïible for him to fink, from
*   -       * E* 3 - - rï16     111- i
i J§l| „
ri i«î i hi
i a'!
^ V O. Y AGE S"  TO. TE E
1788. the number of floating buoys which are now
September, attached to his body. The whale then
drowns, and is towed on fhore with great
noife and rejoicings. It is then immediately
cut up, when part is dedicated to the feaft
which concludes the day, and the remainder
divided among thofe who have fhared in the
dangers and glory of it.        . .       ;
The taking of the fea-otter is  attended
with far greater hazard as well as trouble.
SI For this purpofe two very fmall canoes are
prepared, in each of which are two expert
hunters.    The inftruments they employ on
this occafion are bows  and arrows, and a
f|| fmall harpoon.    The latter differs, in fbme
degree, from that which they ufe in hunting the whale ; the fhaft is much the fame,
and is pointed with bone ; but the harpoon
itfelf is of a greater length, and fo notched
and barbed, that when it has once entered
;§the flefh, it is almoft impoiîlble to extricate
it. This is attached to the fhaft by feveral
fathoms of line of fufficient ftrength to drag
the otter to the boat. The arrows are fmall,
and pointed with bone, formed into a tingle
■ . _ barb. Thus equipped, the hunters proceed
among the rocks in fearch of their prey.-—
Sometimes they furprife him fleeping on his 1788.fl
back, on the furface of the water ; and, September.
if they can get near the animal without
awakening him, which requires infinite precaution, he is eafily harpooned and dragged v
to the boat, when a fierce battle very often
enfues between the otter and the hunters,
who are frequently wounded by the claws
and teeth of the animal. The more com- .
mon mode, however, of taking him is by
purfuit, which is fometimes continued for
feveral hours.—As he cannot remain under
water bsit for a very fhort time, the skill
in this chace consists in directing the canoes
in the fame line that the otter takes when
under the water, at which time he fwim s
with a degree of celerity that greatly exceeds that of his purfuers. They therefore
feparate, in order to have the better chance
of wounding him with their arrows at the
moment he rifes; though it often happens
that this wary and cunning animal efcapes
from the danger which iurrounds him.
It has been obferved, in the account
already given of the otter, that when thev
are overtaken with their young ones, the
parental affeCtion fuperfedes all fenfe of danger :
m 4. "îé'"ti Silffl
1788.   ger;   and both the male and female defend
September, their offspring with the moft furious courage,
tearing out the arrows and harpoons fixed
in them with their  teeth, and oftentimes
even attacking the canoes*    On thefe occa-
fions, however, they and their litter never
fail of yielding to the power of the hunters.
The difficulty of taking the otter might indeed occasion fome degree of furprife at the
number of the skins which the natives appear to have in ufe, and for the purpofes of
trade.    But the circumftance may be easily
accounted- for, by the confiant exercife  of
this advantageous occupation :   fcarce a day
pafles, but numbers are eagerly employed
in the  purfuit of it. ||-
• ~ The feal is alfo an animal very difficult to
take, on account of its being able to remain
under water. Artifices are therefore made
ufe of to decoy him within reach of the
boats ; and this is done in general by the
means of mafks of wood made in fo exaCt
a refemblance of nature, that the animal
takes it for one of his own fpecies, and
falls a prey to the deception. On fuch oc-
cafions, fome of the natives put on thefe
masks,and hiding their bodies with branches
of tree's as they lie among the rocks, the 1788.
feals are tempted to approach fo near the septembxr.
fpot, as to put it in the power of the natives
to pierce them with their arrows. Similar
artifices are employed againft the fea-cow,
&c. The otters, as well as fome of the land
animals, are, we believe, occafionally taken
in the fame manner.
The very preparation for the bufinefs of
hunting and fifhing, requires no fmall portion of domeftic employment. Their harpoons, lines, fifh-hooks, bows and arrows,
and other implements neceflary in the different purfuits of peace and war, muft make
a very great demand upon their time. Be-
fides, they contrived to forge the metals
they received from us into various ornaments, after their fafhion, for their favourite
wives or rpiftreffes. In thefe domeftic operations the boys were always made to give
their affiftance, and learn to form the materials with which they were hereafter to gain
their fuftenance and  their glory.
The ingenuity of thefe people in all the
different arts that is neceflary to their fup-
port and their pleafure, is matter of juft
admiration to the more cultivated parts of
the nKiMioii
hi' Miil-lH
1/88.   the globe.   Nature, that fond and bounteous
September, parent to her  children of every kind, has
left  none of them  without' thofe  means
which are capable of producing the relative
j| happinefs of all.      But the moft laborious,
as well as moft curious employment in which
we faw the natives of Nootka engaged, (for
we had no opportunity of feeing them con-
ftruCr. one of their enormous houfes,) was
the making their canoes ; which was a work
of no common fkill and ability. Thefe boats
are, many of them, capable of containing
from fifteen to thirty men, with eafe and
convenience ; and at the fame time are elegantly moulded and highly finifhed ; and
this curious work is accomplifhed with uten-
fils of ftone, made by themfelves.
They even manufactured tools from the
iron which they obtained from us ; and it
was very feldom that we could perfuade
them to make ufe of any of our utensils in
preference to their own, except the faw,
whofe obvious power in diminifhing their
' labour, led them to adopt it without hesita
tion.  In particular,  they contrived to forge
* ml O
from the iron they procured of us,  a kind
of tool, which anfwered the purpofe of hollo win sr
lowing out large trees  much better than    1788.
any utenfil we could give them. This bufi- September.
nefs they accomplifhed by main ftrength,       -   % ■
with a flat ftone  by way of anvil, and a
round one which ferved the purpofe of an
hammer; and with thefe inftruments they
fhaped  the iron from the fire into a tool <m
bearing fome refemblance to a cooper's adze,
which they faftened to an handle of wood
with cords made of sinews ; and being
fharpened at the end, was extremely well
adapted to the ufes for which it was intended.
Their large war canoes wrere generally
finifhed on the fpot where the trees grew of
which they are made, and then dragged to
the water-fide. We have feen fome of them
which were fiftv-three feet in length, and
eight feet in breadth.    The middle part of *4§
thefe boats ^is the broadeft, and  gradually       '
narrows to a point at each end ;   but their
head or prow is generally much higher than     '   j#
the ftern. '
As their bottoms are rounded, and their
fides flam out, they have confequently fuffi-
cient bearings, and fwim firmly in the
water. They have no feats, but feveral pieces
1788.   of wood, about three inches in diameter, arc
September, fixed acrofs them, to keep the fides firm, and
preferve  them  from   being warped.     The
rowers generally fit on their hams, but fometimes they make ufe of a kind of fmall ftool,
III    IP   which is a great relief to them.    In the aCfc
of embarking they are extremely cautious,
each  man  regularly  taking the ftation  ta'
which he has been  accuftomed.    Some of
thefe canoes  are  polifhed and painted,  or
curioufly ftudded with human teeth, particularly  on the ftern and the  prow.    The
: -f   fides were fometimes adorned with the figure
if; of a dragon with a long tail, of much the
fame form as we fee on the porcelain of
China, and in the fanciful paintings of our
own country. We were much ftruck w7ith
this circumftance, and took fome pains to
pL get at the hiftory of it ; but it was among
mahy other of our enquiries to which we
could not obtain any fatisfaCtory anfwer.
After we had been  fome time in King
l'-\ George's Sound, the natives began to make
ufe of fails made of mats,  in imitation of
ours.    We had, indeed, rigged one of Han-
* ■   .        na's large canoes for him, with a pendant,
m . ;|   &c. &c, of which  he was proud beyond
meafure; and he never approached the fhip    17
but he hoifted his pendant, to the very great September.
diverfion of our feamen. w   ' - g|
. The paddles are nicely fhaped, and well m
polifhed with fifh-skin : they are about five
feet fix inches in length ; and the blade,
which is about two feet long, is pointed like
a leaf, and the point itfelf is lengthened fe*
veral inches, and is about one broad. At the
end of the handle there is a tranfverfe piece
of wood like the top of a crutch. Thefe
paddles the natives ufe in a moft dextrous Ë
manner, and urge on the canoes with inconceivable fwiftnefs.
In no one circumftance of their different
occupations do the natives of Nootka dif- 'TÉ
cover more dexterity than in that of fifhing.
They however always preferred their own
hooks, which were made from fhells, or the
bone of fifh, to ours ; nor indeed would they
ever make ufe of the latter; but our lines
they considered as very fuperior to thofe of
their own manufacture. Thefe are made
from the finews of the whale, which fur-
nifhes them with the materials of all their
different cordage,—or from fea-weed, which
grows on the coaft in great abundance. This
H wv
1788.   is fplit, boiled, and dried, when it forms a
September, very tough and ftrong line.    -■'   ' Tjb   .
But, befides the common praClice of
angling, they have a very particular method
of taking herrings, fardines, &c. This is
managed with a ftick or pole about eighteen
feet long, with a blade of twelve or fourteen
inches broad, and fix feet long, on both
fides of which are fixed a number of fharp
pieces or points of bone, about three inches
in length. When the fhoal of fifh appears,
they firike this infiniment into the water,
and feldom fail of bringing up three or four
< fifh at every ftroke.—We have often feen
a fmall canoe nearly filled with herrings,
&c. in a very fliort time, by this eafy me*
thod of fifhing. - |;^'
But, although thefe people are fo dextrous
in their various employments, and fo aCtive
when in a ftate of exertion, they are natu-
rally of an indolent and lazy difppfition ;
-arid would, in general, prefer to idle away
their time in the filth, of their habitations,
than go forth to the honourable and dif-
tinguifhing, as well as neceflary duties of
killing the whale and hunting the otter.
We have oftentimes feen the bufy Callicum
obliged to exert his compulfory power  to    1788.
call them from their domeftic indulgence, September.
to throw the harpoon, or let fly the arrow.
The women have alfo their appointed
occupations. It is their department to clean
the fea-otter skins, and ftretch them on
frames, which they perform with habitual
ingenuity. Every branch of culinary fcience, as well as of the houfehold ceconomy,
is likewife committed to them ; and it is
among their duties to keep vvatch during
the night, in order to alarm the men in cafe
of any fudden incurfion of an enemy.—
They not only drefs the provifions for the
day, but prepare the flores for winter fuf-
tenance.—The garments which have been
already defcribed as made from the bark of
trees, are of female manufacture. They alfo
colled the wild fruits and efculent plants
that are found in the woods, or take the
fhell-fifh, which are in great plenty among .■
the rocks, or on the fea-fide. When the
canoes return from their little voyages, they.
are employed in unlading them of their cargoes, hauling them on the beach, and cover- jg_
ing them with branches of the pine, as a
protection from the weather.    On all thefe      |
oc- ii
fit        §f§ VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.   occafions, however, the female flaves take
September, a proportionable fhare of the labour.   They
have alfo their conjugal and maternal duties ;
nor fhall we be fo unjuft as not to mention
' that the women of Nootka are tender mo-
thers  and  affeClioiiate  wives:   indeed  we
have beheld inftancès of fondnefs for their
children,   and   regard  for   their  hufbands,
which mark the influence of thofe fenfibi-
lities  that  form the chief honour  of the
-   If:      female character among the moft polifhed
M■>.:'"'%,.     nations of the globe. . ^
•|j||    The fea is the great market to which thefe
people  refort,   and w7here,   as  has already
H;     been made to appear, a vaft plenty of fifh
of various kinds is purchafed  by their la-
1; hour. According to the beft information we
could obtain, the ice, on this part of the
f|; coaft, feldom or never precludes them from
having accefs to the fea: though the very
precautions they ufe in laying up ftores for
winter, and the hiftory which Mr. Maccay
gives of the diftrefs they fuffered while he
was amongft them, is an evident proof that
they fometimes undergo very great hardships from want of provisions -during the
cold months.   Whatever food is capable of
1 MoRTH West coàst of aMericà. g£
being preferved, they do not fail to prepare 1788.
for the colder feafons of the year. Even September,
the fpawn of fifh is considered as à wintet
ftore, and collected in the following manlier. Iri the beginning of the fummeir, they :f|
fpread at the head of the founds and bays
a great quantity of the branches of trees,
on which the fpâwn of the fifh naturally
incrufts itfelf; when, at a proper period,
it is ftripped off and put carefully into fifh
bladders. This kind ôf caveâr thé riatives
confider as a delicacy both in its dry and
raw ftate. Thiô roe of the falmon is alfo
flored up in the fame manner ; but they collect it from the fifli itfelf, Which is feen in
autumn àlmoft burfting with this favourite
article of winter luxury. They eat it as Well
as all their dried fifh with oil, and without
any othei4 preparation. As it has been found
neceflary to mention iii other parts of this
Volume, the different animals thefe people
take for food,—for indeed they eat every
thing, more or lefs, which they take,—wè
(hall not add what might be efteemed ari
unneceflary fepetitidn.
A ftate of faVâge life is univerfally found
to be a ftate of warfare ;  and the Nootkà
Vol. II, E nations 66
,  1788.   nations are not only in frequent hoftilities
September, with the more diftant tribes, but even among
II      themfelves;   particularly  Wicananifh  and
Tatootche. Stratagem and furprife form the
offensive points of their   military art ;   its
defensive operations, if we may ufe the ex-
||| preffion, are vigilance and precaution. Their
villages,  &c. therefore,  are generally built
H in situations not easily to be attacked without
danger.    But they do not truft to any fecu-
rity of situation ; for in peace, as well as in
H      war, a continual watch is kept during the
night by women, who, fitting round their
fires, keep each other awake, by relating the
battles  of their  nation, or recounting the
prowefs and gallant deeds of their hufbands
and their children.    One man  alone  performs the part of centinel on the outfide of
w   the houfe, where he is placed in fuch   a
i|| manner as to hear the leaft rioife  that may
be made in the woods, or on the wrater.—*
Indeed, this continual vigilance is a moft
eflential part of their government : as among
thefe favage people an opportunity of gaining advantage is oftentimes the fip-nal for
|g; J| war; and, therefore, they can never be find
$0 be in a ftate of peace: they muft live m
Confiant expectation ofàri enemy, and never   1788.
relax from that continual preparation againft September
thofe hoftilities and incurfldnS which doom
fcaptives to flavery or to death.
The chiefs of this country have a cuftorri
Which, aô it appears principally to be derived from the wars of the different ftates
with each other, may be mentioned with :ij
propriety in this place. This cuftom confifts
in yielding up their wives to, or interchanging them with, each other. A beautiful
woman will fometimes occasion a war in the
defarts of Nootka, as it formerly did in the
fields of Troy : a woman is fometimes found
neceflary to footh a conqueror, or to pur-
chafe a favourable article in a treaty. Indeed, the privileges which the chiefs poffefs
of having as many wives as they pleafe,
may, perhaps, have arifen from an experience of the political purpofes to which
female charms may be applied in peace or
in war.
We could not, however, but obferve, that
in the whole diftriCt of Nootka, the women
did not appear to bear an equal proportion,
to the men. To the Northward, on the
contrary, the number of females greatly pre-
• H * Ea non*     ;|| '•■'»;■
1788*   pondérâtes ; a circumftance which will etf-
Beptember. gage fome degree of curioiity, as it is hereafter defcribed in  one   of  thofe  chapters
which contain the Voyage of the Iphigenia
fi ' from Samboingan to Nootka Sound.
. The marriage ceremonies of thefe people
confift of nothing more than a feaft given
by the friends of the parties. With what
rites or forms they confign the dead to their
laft abode, we had no opportunity of ob-
^1 ferving. We remember to have feen imall
oblong boxes, which contained the dead bodies of children hanging on the branches
of trees ; and which, as we underftood,
were, after a certain time, taken down and
buried; but we rather think this cuftom
was peculiar to children, as we never faw
the remains of any perfon of full growth
in fuch a situation.
Of the religion of thefe people we have*
no very correCt idea ; but fhall relate what
we know of thofe principles which conneCfc
them with the Deity, and their prefent life
with one that is to come. In moft of their
houfes they have, as has already been ob-
1^ || ferved, certain huge idols or images, to whom
.    we never faw them pay any mark of common
refpeCt,  much lefs of worfhip or adoration.    1788.
* Thefe mifhapen figures occupied, as it ap- September.
peared, fomewhat of a diftinguifhed and appropriate place, wherever we faw them; but
they feemed to have no exclusive privilege
whatever, and fhared the common filth of
thofe who lived beneath the fame roof with
them. Indeed, we had for fome time, no
reafon for fuppofing that they had an idea
of a Deity, till we explained to them the
caufe of our fufpenflon from labour on "Sun**
day ; and we fhould have quitted America in
a total ignorance, as to any principle of their
faith, if the fon of Hanapa, a boy of very .
uncommon fagacity for a native of Nootka,
had not unfolded to us the following very
concife hiftory of their religion; which,
however, is fufficient to prove that they enjoy the common and confolatory belief of
the intellectual world in a future and better
itate of exiftenee.
This difcovery arofe from our enquiries
on a fubjeCt of a very different nature.—On
jexpreffing our wifh to be informed by what
means they became acquainted with copper,
and why it was fuch a peculiar objeCt of
'    their admiration,—this  intelligent young  |      S|
E 3        ;§   '      man
1 I"»r.
man told us all he knew, and as we believe
September. a|i   |j||| jg known ^y B| nation Oil the fllb-
ieCt.    Where words were wanting, or not
mJ '• O   '
intelligible, -which frequently happened in
g|' the courfe of his narration, he fupplied the
deficiency by thofe exprefilve actions which
nature or necefilty feems to have communicated to people whofe language is confined ;
and the young Nootkan difcovered fo much
mf " D '
fkill in conveying his ideas by signs and fym-
bols, as to render his difçourfe perfectly intelligible, whenever he found it neceflary tq
•. .     have recourfe to them.   He related his ftory
in the following manner :—
He firft placed a certain number of ftick§
on the ground, at fmall. diftances from each
pther,   to which  he  gave  feparate names.
:0'"_ Thus he called the firft his father and the
next his grandfather :   lie then topk what
remained, and threw7- them all into confusion
\S together; as much as to lay that they were
, the general heap of his anceftors, whom he
could not individually reckon.    He  then,
pointing to this bundle, faid that when they
lived, an old man entered the Sound  in  a
copper canoe, with copper paddles, and every
thing elfe in his pqflefslon of the feme metal 1
«—that he paddled along the fhore, on which    1788.
all the people were aflembled, to contemplate September,
fo ftrange a fight;  and that, having thrown
one of his copper paddles on fhore, he him-   . ,
hfelf landed. The extraordinary ftranger then
told the natives that he came from the fky,
-—to which the boy pointed with his hand,
«—that their country would one day be de-
ftroyed, when they would all be killed, and
rife again to live in the place from whence
he came.    Our young interpreter explained
this circumftance of his narrative by lying
down as if he were dead ; and then, rising up
fuddenly, he imitated the aCtion of fearing
through the air.
He continued to inform us that the people
killed the old man, and took his canoe ; and
that from this event they derived their fond-
nefs for copper. He alio gave us to under*
ftand that the images in their houfes were in*
tended to reprefent the form, and perpetuate
the miffion of the old man who came from -1
the fky. ', ■ j|-   *
Such was the imperfeCt tradition which
we received of what may be called the fa-
cred hiftory of this country, and on which
the inhabitants refted the common hope of
£ 4 thft ■mil'
mm. !
Mm i!
1788.   the human mind in every ftate and form of
September, our nature,—that there will be an exiftence
hereafter, beyond the reach of fublunary
Thus have we given fuch an account of
this people, country, and the cuftoms of it,
as occurred to our obfervation. We had not
time, even if we had poflefled the ability, to
have purfued the track of the philofopher
and the naturalift. We had other objeCts
before us ; and all the knowledge we have
obtained was, as it were, accidentally acquired in the purfuit of them. Ofthecouiv*
try we had no reafon to complain, and we
. left Nootka Sound with no fmall (hare q£
efteem for the inhabitants of it,
;    n
The Felice proceeds on her Voyage.—Obliged
to lighten the Ship.—Arrive off Owhyhee, one
of the Sandwich Iflands.—Heave to in Toe-
yah yah Bay.—Receive great Quantities of
Provifons.— The prefent State of that Ifland.
—Prefent in the Name of Ttanna to the Chief
of it.—The Felice leaves Owhyhee.—Improvement in falting Provifons.—Pafs the
Iflands of Mowee, Ranaiy Morotoi and Woa~
$00.—Arrive off Atooi\ the political State
of that Ifland. — Proceed to Oneeheow. —«*
Large Quantity of Tarns procured.—Proceed
en the Voyage.—Make the Ifland of Botol
Tobago Xima. ~ Round the Rocks-ofVille Re te.
—Make the Coaft of China.-—Anchor in the
Roads of Macao,
\ 7[ TE now return to the progrefs of our
voyage,—During the night after we
left King George's Sound, it blew with
great violence, accompanied by a very heavy,
mountainous fea,—the fhip labouring in an
unufual manner ; when at four in the morn-
. -, ' ' / - .    • I"     ins 74
3    THE
1788. mg or the 25th, we were alarmed with an
September, account that there was four feet water in
the hold ; and by eight o clock the water
had not only gained on us, but was got
above the ground-tier of casks, which made
me at firft apprehend that the fhio, from
her exceffive tumbling and rolling, had
fprung a dangerous leak. The pumps had
'% 'llPp* kept conftantly at work, but after
fome time, they became fo choaked with
the fmall ballaft, as to be no longer in a
condition to deliver their water. While the
carpenters were   repairing: them,   the crew
X i o "
were employed in baling the water from all
X        J O
the hatchrways. We continued, however,
to purfue our courfe under clofe-reefed top-
fails and fore-fail, to the Southward, with
the wind from the North Weft, which now
blew a violent gale, and the fhip moved
heavily and {lowly through the fea, froni
the great quantity of water in her hull.
Our alarms were very much encreafed,
when we found that at ten o'clock the
water continued to baffle all our endeavours.
In this situation* orders were given to bring
the fhip to, which was accordingly done
linder the clofe-reefed main top-fail on the
larboard tacks. I was confident as to the
ftate and ftrength of the veifel, and there- pj
fore gave orders for all the fpars and booms
pn the lee-fide of the deck to be launched
overboard without delay, which was no very
45afy bufinefs, from their fize and the rolling
and tumbling of the  fhip : however,  with
the affiftance of hatchets and .axes, this fide
of the deck was effectually cleared ; when
the fhip was wore immediately, and put oil
the other tack ; and the fame operation was
performed on the other fide, which lafted
till three o'clock, when the fpars were all
launched overboard, and we almoft inftan*
taneoufly felt a good effeCt, by the diminution of the water from baling, as the pumps
could not be immediately repaired.
We now difcovered the caufe of our paft
danger to have arifen from the great weight
of timber lodged on the deck, which, with
the heavy rolling fea, had opened her feams,
and given paflage to fo large a quantity of
water. After this operation, however, fhe
became light and buoyant, and we purfued
pur courfe with renewed fpirits and confidence.
tembsr* hi
ï**88.       Thus we continued, without the  inter-
October. vention of any occurrence worth  relating,
?Vednefdayi5till   the   ^    Q'f   Qflober,   which   brought
us into fine and ferene weather; when being in the latitude of the Eaft-end of the
Ifland of Owhyhee, we bore up Weft, to
ftrike the ifland on the parallel. Our longitude, by account, was at this time 2050 65'
Eaft of Greenwich ; whereas by obierva-
tion of the fun and moon, it was 2090 20'.
There being fuch a material difference, I
preferred the lunar obfervation.
QTtefdayi6 On the 16th, by frefh diftances of the
fun and moon, and moon and ftars, we were
in the longitude of 2070 44/ Eaft, and at
noon the obferved latitude was 200 11/
North ; our diftance being about thirty
leagues from the ifland of Owhyhee.
Frtàayi7 At five o'clock, on the morning of the
17th, to our infinite fatisfaCtion we difco-
vered land, bearing from Eaft South Eaft,
to Weft North Weft, at the diftance of fix
leagues : but it was fo very hazy, that the
ifland was imperfectly difcerned:   in clear
,    .       weather, the high land of Owhyhee can be
I. feen at the diftance of twenty leagues.
We had, indeed, good reafon to rejoice 1788.
at the fight of this ifland, as we were greatly October*
reduced in the article of provisions. We
had given fo large a portion of our ftores to
the Iphigenia, and our paflage to the iflands
not being fo quick as we had expeCted, the
idea of that plenty, and thofe comforts
which, as it were, waited our arrival there*
filled every heart with joy and gladnefs.
As we approached the ifland of Owhyhee*
a perfon who had never viflted this part of
the globe, would have feen nothing by
which he could be led to fuppofe that it
was the feat of luxurious abundance.—-The
high, mountainous appearance of the land,
and the blacknefs eaft over it from the fog
and vapour, threw fuch a gloom on the
whole fcene, as to afford no expectation of
hofpitality from the inhabitants, or refrefh-
ment from cultivation.
It was too late in the evening to clofe in
with the land ; we therefore hove to for the
night, at about the diftance of four leagues
from the fhore, and waited with extreme
impatience for the morning.
On the  18th, at day-break, we bore up, Saturday 1$
and proceeded under a gentle fail to clofe f
in with the land, which we accomplifhed
about nine o'clock ; when the late barren
and unfriendly prolpeCt was fucceeded by a
fcene that might fuit the fablings of poetry
and romantic fiction. The hazinefs of the
morning did not obfcure the varied land*
fcape before us. The great mountain, or
MounaKaah, which is fituatèd on the North
Eaft part of the ifland, was cloathed in
clouds, which feemed, as it were, to be
rolling down its declivity; while its fum-*
mit towered above the vapours, and pre-
fented afublime objeCt of nature :—from its
bafe to the fea was a beautiful amphitheatre
of villages and plantations, while the fliore
was crouded with people,, who, from ther
coolnefs of the morning, were cloathed in
their  party-coloured   garments.    Some   of
them.were feated on the banks to look at the
fhip5 while others were running along the
fhore towards the little fandy patches where
their canoes are drawn up, in order to come
off to us. We now hove to in the entrance
of Toe-yah-yah Bay, which is fituated on
the Weftern fide of the ifland, and confe-
quently defended from the violence of the
trade-winds ; nor was it long before a con*
iiderable number of canoes came off to the 1788
fhip, with hogs, young pigs, taro-root, Octobe
plantains, fugar-cane, and a few fowls.
It was my intention to draw the fupplies
of pork from this ifland, and then proceed
to Oneeheow, to procure a fufficient quan-
titv of vams for the remainder of our voy-
age, In confequence of this determination,
a very brifk trade was carried on with the
natives, and before night upwards of four
? or
hundred hogs were purchafed. The decks
were loaded, and the boats filled with them
dllLL    LiiC   VCttldUiCo,   v\ HlLii   clilU   llidUC    cl   DclTC
o X
of our prefent traffic. Indeed, Tuch was
the profufion of thefe articles which were
brought to us, that many of the canoes re-
turned without being able to difpofe of their
Among the multitude which visited us
on this occasion, Ï obferved but one perfoa
of rank : he came,in a double canoe paddled
along by twelve men, and accompanied by
his wife and two young female children.
He brought very large hogs, and a  large
O Jog7 O
quantity of cocoa-nuts, which he ordered
on board the fhip, and immediately fol-»,
lowed his prefent, accompanying it  with
the g0 Voyages to the
H 1788.    the moft friendly expressions' and offers of
October, further fervice*—We were not dilatorv in
making him â fuitable return ; and having
thus won his confidence, I enquired of him
éoncerning the prefent ftate of the ifland*
with a view to the advantage of Tianna*
He very readily informed me that old
jll Tereeobeo had been poifbned, and that his
lucceflbr was Tianna's uncle. He alfo added, that in eonfequence of this revolution,
a very fierce war had taken place between
the inhabitants of Owhyhee and thofe of
the ifland of Mowee, of which Titeeree wa£
the reigning fovereigri.
In anfwer to his information* I thought
proper to inform him that Tianna would
fhortlv return to Atdoi in fuch a fhip as
mine, and that I had a prefent from him to
the fovereign of Owhyhee, which I desired
the chief would take upon himfelf to de-*
liver, as a mark of Tianna's attachment to
his uncle. By fuch well-timed aCt of re^
gard, I hoped to perform a good office for
my friend; and I have flnce underftood that
it produced effects equal to my moft fan*
guine wifhes. Eut in order to give certainty
to my commifilon, I made my requeft and
delivered the prefent before a great number    1788.
of the natives,   which was  alfo  publickly October*
tabooed: this arrangement was made in order
to prevent the chief from keeping the prefent
himfelf, or fubftituting another of inferior
value.    '    #;■'" . .'$y
By fuhfet we had purchafed a fufficiency
of frefh proviflons to laft us to China ; we
therefore prepared to make fail, in order to
proceed to Atooi and Oneeheow : but the
number of the natives, and the women in
particular, were fo great, not only covering
the decks, where there was any room, but
even clinging to the tigging, that we were \
under the neceflity of bribing them with
prefents of fome kind or other to procure
their departure. Some of the women took
to their canoes, but the greater part plunged
into the fea, ànd fwàm to the fhore.—The
fhip was no fooner cleared of its visitors*
than it began to blow very frefh, when the.
top-fails were reefed, and we flood under
X 7
an eafy fail for the ifland of Mowee.
We now immediately fet to work iis killing
the hogs, and faking down the meat for fea-
ftore. We followed the mode prefcribed by
Captain Cook, who would deierve the gra-
Vok. II. F titude
e 82
1788. titude of his country, of every maritime
October, people, and of humanity at large, if his discoveries had been confined even to thofe improvements he made in the interior government of fhips and their crews. According
to his directions, we falted down feveral
casks of the fineft pork in the world, which
I am convinced would have kept to any
length of time that it was poflible for a fhip
to want it. We however made fome fmall
improvement, which confifted in preferving
the pork of a middle fize, with the bones in
it ; but with the larger hogs we did not find
an equal degree of fuccefs. For this purpofe
the bone muft be in a great meafure, but
not entirely, feparated from the meat, fo as
to permit the fait to penetrate well to thofe
parts of the flefh which remain attached to
the bone. We alfo found that fait alone,
placed in layers, anfwered better than pickle ;
and we remarked that not only the heat of
the fun was unfavourable to this operation,
but that the moon pofleffes alio a putrefying
•  Light winds prevented our reaching Atooi
Thurfday 23 unr/il the 23d at noon, when we anchored in
Wymoa-bay.    As we pafled by the other
iflands,  canoes continually came off to us    1788.
with  young  pigs  and fugar-canes, which October.
gave us an opportunity of completing our
ftock of the latter.    It was indeed fortunate
that we had laid in our flores of frefh provisions   at  Owhvhee;   as,    on   palling   by It
W ' ' 1 O mf
Mowee, Ranai, Morotoi, and Woahoo, not
one large hog was brought off to us :~~^In
all probability there was not fufiicient time
for that purpofe as the fhip was pafiing —
At Woahoo, indeed, we underftood that the
hogs, for fome reafon or other, of which
we were not  informed,   were at that time
under th
-a kind of religious mter-
, diCt ion.
We had no fboiier eaft anchor in Wymoa*
bay than it began to blow fo very ftrong as
to prevent any canoes from coming off to
the fhip.—Indeed I had no other motive for
flopping here but to inform Taheo, the
fovereign of it, that his brother Tianna
would fhortly return, and to make him fuch
prefents, and take fuch meafures as might b
of fervice to the chief, on his arrival at hi
native country, which had been for fom
time in a ftate of diftraCtion, from the ty
ranny of its prefent government.
F 2 Durin
£* fpl
During the whole of this day not a canoe
October, appeared ; but in the morning of the 24th,
Friday 24 though it continued to blow very frefh, a
canoe came off with two men and a girl :
they brought a fmall pig and fome cocoa-
111 nuts ;   nor was I a   little  furprized   when
the two men, on entering the fhip, began
to embrace my knees, and to cry out Noota,,
Noota; the name, as I have already ob-
ferved, by which I was known in thefe
. JJL iflands, as well as on the American coaft».
They then burft into tears, and enquired
after Tianna.
J| . From thefe people I learned that Taheo,
growing infirm, fuffered himfelf to be entirely governed by Abinui, who has been
already mentioned in the memoir of our
firft voyagé, and was the deadly foe of Tianna. Namaate-haw, another brother of Tianna's, and who was efteemed, after him, the
braveft warrior of the Sandwich Iflands,
had fled with his brother's wife and children
to a diftant part of the ifland, to efcape
from the cruel power of Taheo ; and that
fome part of their force was at this time in
arms. It was, therefore, a very natural mea-
fure for Taheo to forbid all communication
£M. NuRl rl   WiLo 1
between his fubjeCts and us, as he believed
that we had brought  back Tianna again; October.
and an inhuman profeription had been pub-
lifhed, threatening him with inftant death,
if he fhould land on that ifland.    But, not-
withftanding the taboo, thefe faithful people
had ventured to come off to us, in order
to inform Tianna, whom they fuppofed to
be on board our fhip, of his danger.—Be-
fides the artlefs manner in which thefe men
told their ftory,   other circumftances con-»
curred to convince  us of the truth of it.
No  canoes  vifited   us, and we  heard  the
conch s refoundiîig from the diftant hills,—
a certain prelude of war.
Situated as we were, and without any
other communication with the ifland but
that which the zeal of thefe two men had
led them to rifque from a principle of af-
feCtion, we could only, by their means, inform Tianna's wife and brother of the approaching arrival of that chief, who would
fhortly return in a iituation to fupport them
and himfelf againft the unnatural proceedings of their tyrannic brother, and his inhuman minifter. This confolatory and encouraging  intelligence   they undertook  to
F a
deliver. 3
I oo.
Saturday 25
deliver, with certain prefents, to Namaate*
haw, and the wife of Tianna ; and having
received fuch as were provided for themfelves, they took an hafty leave, and paddled
fwiftly to the fhore
Tiil the 25th, at noon, we remained in
expectation of receiving fome intelligence
from the ifland ; when not feeing a single
canoe in motion, we weighed, and proceeded
to Oneeheow, where we anchored about fix
o'clock in the evening, nearly in the fame
O  ' ml
pofition which we had occupied in the preceding year.
On arriving off this ifland we did not ex-
perience the operations of any prohibition
againft us; on the contrary, we were fur-
rounded by a crowd of natives, among whom
were many of our old friends, wdiom we perfectly recolleCted, fo that the fhip was very
fhortly filled with visitors of all ages and
both fexes. But among feveral who ex-
prefled their joy to fee us, and who retained
the remembrance of our kindnefs to them,
was that affectionate i(lander to whom fome
of our officers had formerly given the well-
known, and I may add, honourable appellation of Friday; and if any of the companions NORTH WEST  COAST   OF   AMERICA.
panions of my former voyage fhosild perufe
this page, they, I am fure, will recolleCt °CT0BER
with fomewhat of a grateful remembrance,
the friendly and faithful fervices of honeft
Friday. Thofe fervices he now repeated ;
indeed, on the firft fight of the fhip, he
fwam off to make an offer of them, and they
proved of the utmoft importance" to us.
We had at this time neither bread or flour
on board, and depended on procuring a
quantity of yams fufficient to fupply our
wants during the remainder of the voyage.
But as this was not the feafon for them, and
they were too young to be» dug up, we fhould
have found it a matter of great difficulty to
have obtained a fufficient quantity, if our.
friend Friday had not undertaken the im-
portant negotiation. We therefore provided
him with fuch articles as were the moft
likely to forward our purpofes; and, by hisf|
influence and perfeverance, afllfted with the
bribes in his poffeflion, he perfuaded many
of his friends to dig up the largeft yams
they could find, arid bring them to market ;
fo that we at length obtained feveral tons of
thefe moft neceflary provisions by the morn-.
F 4
mg lit   JîHkil  M !!
Il |
1788. fîng of the 27th ; and  at noon we preparecj
October.   tO put t'O fea.
Monday 27 m tri 1   r    «t      ^1
I am really at a lois how to deicnbe trie
very marked concern,  both  in  words and
jj||; looks, that the inhabitants of this ifland ex-
prelTed, when they were informed pf our approaching departure. Friday, however, remained to the laft, and with him I entrufted
a letter tp Captain Douglas, with the ftricteft
injunction to deliver it into h;s own hands,
whenever he fhould arrive; which com-
miffion he readily undertook, and faithfully
performed, as will appear in that part of the
Iphigenia's voyage which relates to the
Sandwich Iflands., The fubjeCt of this letter
was,to inform Captain Douglas of the po-
1 O    ' A
litical ftate of Atooi, and to recommend
fuch arrangements refpeeting Tianna, as
might tend to rein ftate him in his rights, or
place him where he might be fecure from
the menaced ioiuries of his unnatural brother. Nor was Friday forgotten, whole fide-
\ lity and attachment were alreadv known to
» ml-
Captain Douglas, who was an officer on
board mv fhip during our firft  voyage.     I
•i 1 O « J      o
now prefented that good fellow with fuch
articles as I well knew would afford him the
Julio —
fatisfaCtion he deferved ; when, after fecuring    1788»
them in  his maro, which   is a cloth that October*
thefe people wear round their middle,   he
plunged into the fea ;  and as he fwam towards the fliore, from time to time turned
his head towards us, and waved one hand,    .
while  he  buffetted   the   billows  with   the ■-
The wind blew frefh from the Eaft North
Eaft, when we weighed anchor, and very
foon loft fight of the ifland of Oneeheow.
We now purfued our voyage ; and nothing
occurred fufficiently interefting to merit a ^T
J ° . November.
relation, until the 16th of November, wThen  Sunday us
by feveral obfervations of the fun and moon,
and the moon and ftars,  our longitude was
1460 54/ Eaft of Greenwich, and  the ob- if
ferved latitude 210 4/ North.—At this time M
we feldom ran lefs than fifty leagues a day,
with very moderate and pleafant weather.
Our chief occupation, independent of the
neceflary attention to the courfe of the fhip,
was to dry and air the skins ; a certain
number being every day got up, fpread in
the fun, and then re-packed in the casks. In
performing this bufinefs, we had the fatis^
faCtion to find that very few of thefe furs |É
I were m
1788. were damaged; which fortunate circum-
November. ftance we attributed to our great care in
feeing them packed in dry casks, and keeping them fecure from all damp.
Wednefday*9 Qn the 19th of November, we, for the
firft time, experienced fome alteration in the
wind. It blew ftrong from the Weft ; though
it did not remain long in that quarter, but
veered all round the compafs ; when it at
length fettled in the Weftern quarter,  and
O A '
blew fo very hard, that we were obliged to
lay to. This gale fplit our main top-fail,
Thm-fday 20 and did not fubfldfe till the following day,
when it veered again to the Eaft, and we
purfued our courfe.
It now became a matter of very neceflary
attention to make preparation for thofe tem-
peftuous feas which we were about to enter.
Pf The old fails were accordingly unbent, and a
new fuit brought to the yards ;  for it is well
known  to thofe who are acquainted with
the  navigation  of the   China   feas, that  a
paflage to Canton often depends on the good-
nefs of a top-fail or a courfe. The change of
the Mon foon s,   indeed, was over; yet even
H      after   that   dangerous  period,   very violent
:      gales of wind prevail in thefe feas ; nor does
the North Eaft Monfoon, which had now    1788.
taken its turn, acquire that fteadinefs which November.
precludes all danger,  till the month of December.
The wind did not fix fteadily in the Eaftern
quarter till the 21 ft, which alteration I attributed to our near vicinity to the Ladrone
Iflands, which are known, at times, to alter
the current of the trade-winds.
We continued our courfe, without any December.
material occurrence, till the ift of Decern- Ildayi
her ; when in the evening of that day, we
made the iflands of Botol Tobago Xima.
The weather was very dark, hazy and un-
pleafant ; nor could we get more than a
glimpfe, as it were, of thefe iflands, which
however proved fufficient for us to afcertain
them. By our lunar obfervations, brought
forward, we were fix leagues to the Eaft
when we made them.
The neceffity of making thefe iflands has
been mentioned in that part of the voyage
which treats of the various routes into the
China Seas from the Pacific Ocean. The
fight of them which we had obtained was,
however, fufficient to juftify our running
during the night ; and as there is no other
■   but M ■ ■■ni    M
1788. but tlie i^eti named Little Botol, to the
December. Eaftward of them, we were fatisfied as to
its identitv ; and accordingiv bore up to
clear the dangerous rocks of Ville Rete,
which we eftimated to bear South Weft by
Weft, thirteen leagues from this ifland. The
clouds were uncommonly black, and the
night had every appearance of bringing ftorm
and tempeft along with it. /'
About eight o'clock, our expectations were
verified, as it began to blow very violently
from the North Eaft, with heavy rain. We
however purfued our courfe, fleering South
Weft, which is a point more Southerly than
the rocks bore off us. Indeed, I am clearly
of opinion that a fhip in this situation has
no alternative but running ; for if fhe is
hove to, the violent and rapid currents might
' AT O -
drift her fo far to the Southward,—in addition to her natural drift, occasioned by the
wind and fea,—that her entrance into the
China Seas would become very dangerous;
§- and, of courfe, her paflage to Canton be
rendered very uncertain. For though it may
be by no means a desirable circumstance to
run in a dark and tempeftuous night through
this narrow channel, yet I do not hefitate
. HJi
to advife it in the ftrongeft.manner, if the    1788.
iflands of Botol Tobago Ximahave been feenDECEMBER,
at any time during the preceding evening.
The ftorm continued, with unabating
violence, till twelve o'clock ; during which
time, we purfued our courfe to the South
Weft, under clofe reefed top-fails and fore-
fail, and hauled our wind to the Weft North
Weft, with as much wind as the fhip could
well bear her courfes, having as we fupoofed
O A  i
entered the China Seas. At one o'clock it
blew with fuch encreafing violence, that we
could very ill carry the fail we had aboard :
but let the coniequences have been what
they might, it was indifpenfably neceflary
ml O ' A J ml
to proceed in this manner, in order to fecure
our paflage to Canton, the wind hanging as
it did fo far to the Northward J        rfj    -       .
At midnight our latitude, by eftimation, "
was 2 i° 20' North, which was as near as we
could, with anv degree of prudence, round
? ml O l '
the dangerous rock of Ville Rete : and. at
one o'clock, when we hauled up, we experienced fuch an heavy fea, that it became
impoffible for us to fteer an higher courfe
to the Northward than Weft by North,
though the wind was at North North Eaft \f.     ||"•
r ;.;„iii
Tuelday 2
1*788. at leaft we could not take any other courfe
December, which would not have prevented the fhip
from going through the fea* Befides, as we
had reafon to fear an opposing current, we
were not without apprehensions as to our
paiTage to Canton.       ,   if- -Iff
On the  2d of December, at day break,
there was no appearance of land.—We had,
A    A '
therefore, every reafon to  believe that we
were considerably advanced in the China Sea :
but our apprehensions of being driven to the
leeward of Canton did not entirely fubfide
Wednefday3 till the 3d,  when the weather moderated,
and the wind veered to the North Eaft.    At
noon, our latitude was 22° f North, which
evidently proved that we had not experienced
any unfavourable current.   We now hauled
up North Weft by Weft, in make
the coaft of China.
/Oiurfday 4      On the 4th, the long expected land  of
-'    China appeared, and we beheld a fight of the
S-   moft   pleating   novelty to   us, which  was
compofed of innumerable fifhing-boats dif-
perfed over the fea.    We pafled by many of
M  ,   them ; but they are fb well acquainted with
-     European fliipping of the largeft fize, that
B( they did not fuffer their attention to be in
any degree, interrupted by fo fmall a velTel    1788.
as the Felice. December,
As the China coaft is already fo well
known, I fhall not delay the conclusion of
my voyage by any obfervation, but proceed
to relate that we purlued our courfe during
the 4th ; when, in the evening, the Lemà
Ifles were difcovered at about the diftance
of four leagues. As I was already acquainted
with this navigation, we continued our courf
during the night between thofe ifles, which
is, beyond all comparifon, the beft paiTage ;
and in the evening of the following day,
we happily anchored in the roads of Macao ;
the town bearing North North Weft, at
the diftance of three leagues ; when an ex-
prefs was immediately forwarded to Canton,
to inform our friends of the fafe arrival of
the Felice.
And here I muft take leave of the reader,
whofe kind attention has followed me through
this long and various voyage ; and of which,
indeed, as the two fhips were obliged to fe-
parate at Samboingan, I may be faid only
to have performed a part.—The fhare which
Captain Douglas had in it will be related in
the following chapters.
.      '$;' W ' -•■   VOYAGE
■■  V
OF     T H E
SamboingcM) to the North-Wejl Coajl of ArneYica*
*;| C H A P.   XXVL
The Fe lice departs from Samboingan.—The
fubfequent Conduit of the Governor to Cap-*
tain Douglas.—The Iphigenia fails from
Samboingan.—Arrives off a fmall Ifland,
now named Johnflone's Ifland.—Tawnee, a
Sandwich I/lander, falls fick and dies.—Pafs
through the Pelew Iflands, &c< &Cé §g
IN the narrative of the former voyage it February,
««has been related,  that on the  12th 0fTueiday**
February the Felice left  the  Iphigenia at
Samboingan, preparing to take on board her
fore-maft, and then to proceed on her voyage. ^
—The caufes which ocçafioned the fepara- §        |iv
- Vol. IL G tioa VOYAGES to the
1788. (;ion 0f the two fhips have already been men-
February. fioned ; and the orders delivered to Captain
Douglas on the occafion, are inferted in the
Appendix. The following pages, therefore, contain the voyage of the Iphigenia
after fhe was left by her confort; which,
we have reafon to think, will be found to
contain fome important information relative
to the geography and commerce of the North
Weft Coaft of America.
The Felice was no fooner failed from
Samboingan, than the governor of the place
aflumed a very improper and ungenerous
mode of conduCt towards the fhip that remained. The divifion of our force had encouraged him, as we fuppofe, to fome unwarrantable proceedings, which fhortly ended
in a rupture on hoth fides, to the great injury
of the proprietors.
The Iphigenia had received her maft on
Tuefday 19 board, and was ready for fea on the. 19 th.
She had alfo obtained feveral bags of rice* a
quantity of vegetables, and fome cattle from
the governor.
M As we had been informed that the moft
■ acceptable prefent we  could make to the
governor in return for his civilities and attention* north west coast of America. 09
tentions to sis, would be a few bars of iron, 1788.
I accordingly left fix bars with Captain February,
Douglas, deflring him to add as many more,
to compofe the intended compliment, and to
draw bills on Canton for the amount of any
expences which might have been requisite
for the fhip and her crew.
Captain Douglas accordingly waited on
the governor, and invited him to dine on
board the Iphigenia, previous to her departure» The invitation was accepted, and the
entertainment paiTed off, to>all appearance,
with the moft perfeCt fatisfaCtion to all parties. In the evening the company adjourned*,
by the governor's invitation, to a ball on
fhore. But under the guife of politenefs and
hofpitality, the fubtle Spaniard was watching to take any advantage in his power ; and
on difcovering that the principal part of the
cargo confifted of iron, he turned his thoughts
to the acquisition of that valuable metal ;-*»
valuable indeed it might be called, for it
purchafes gold at Magindanao.—The Kkig
of Spain has prohibited this article from
being fold throughout the Philippines by
any perfon whatever, except his own com- M;.:
miffioners, who take care to make it a matter   ||j\
G 2, of il  u
Hf4«   r
Ï788.   of very coftly purchafe: the governor was,
February, therefore, deterqiined to feize the prefent
m fayourable opportunity of procuring it on
the very advantageous terms he conceived to
be "in his power.    So that when an officer
Wcdnefdayiowasfent on fhore the following day to fettle
the account,—which did not,   we  believe,
amount to more than two hundred and fifty
dollars,—the  governor  at once  threw off"
the mafk,  and not only declared that the
whole of his demand fhould be paid in iron,
but that he would fix the price, and arrange
the weights according to his own pleafure.
*    Such was the anfwer which the officer
was going to take back,   when he and his
boat's crew were arretted by a file of foldiers,
and conveyed to a dungeon. The continuing
delayof this officer's return, induced Captain
•-Douglas to fend another boat on fhore to
1 learn the caufe of his detention ; when the
fécond party fhared the fate of the firft.    At
the fame time the governor fent  off a large
proa, with fifty men, to take pofleflion of
^the fhip ;   and  had not  Captain Douglas
been alarmed for the confequences to his
people on fhore, as well as to fome of them
who were placed in a conspicuous part of the
boat, he would certainly have funk her; 1788.
which might have been done without much February.
difficulty. He, however, thought it beft to
let this armed force approach without any
interruption, and to fuffer the Spahifh fol-
diers to come quietly on board and take
pofleflion of the fhip.
In confequence of thefe very extraordinary
proceedings, Captain Douglas went on fhore
himfelf,  to enquire into the caufe of them :
when the governor informed him that his
fole objeCt was to fecure the payment of his
bill in iron ; and that the fhip fhould not be
fuffered to depart till the iron was landed. It
was in vain to reprefent that he had himfelf
engaged, on'their firft arrival,  to take bills
for whatever they might wifh to purchafe.
It was fruitlefs to urge the cruelty and in-
juftice of invading the cargo of a veflel which
had come in an aflured confidence to his port,
and by which the principal  advantages of
her voyage might be loft :—He was too determined in his bafenefs to liftento thefe fug-
geftions ; and Captain Douglas was obliged
to return on board, and order feventy-eight
bars  of iron on fhore,   which  was nearly
half his cargo, together with one hundred
If - '" -= 1   G3 j Il :.
and twenty dollars, which he collected in
the fhip. But the buflnefs was not yet
finifhed ;—for the governor was very peremptory in his aflurances that he would
jj be abfblutely paid in nothing but iron.—
î|      To fuch an exaggerated impofition Captain
Douglas refufed to fubmit; and threatened,
1 in the moft ferious manner,  if the governor
perfifted in his unwarrantable designs, that
he would throw the fhip on his hands. This
refolution brought the Spaniard to reàfon,
who confented at length to receive the iron
and the dollars, and gave orders to withdraw
Ê  the fbldiers from the fhip : * he neverthelefs
contrived to retard their departure till Captain Douglas had fent him fome wine, which
he had previoufly promiied him; and it was
not before he had received this trifling prefent that he releafed  the people from their
confinement. M
Ij       Such was the conduCt of the governor of
jl      Samboingan : but,  indeed,  no other treatment was to be expeCted ; as it is well known
m. - .     by every commercial nation, that the fubj\ Cts
of his Catholic Majefty,  difperfed through
J    India,  are the refufe of mankind.   It was,
Friday 22  therefore, the 22d of February before the
ÉlÉÉp'     9 -fe *   Iphigenia
Saturday 2
Iphigenia departed. On that day fhe weighed   1788.
anchor and put to fea, without expending a
grain of powder to do honour to fuch dif-
honourable people. . gf
On the ift of March the Iphigenia hadÉ
made a very inconfiderable progrefs on her
voyage. She had been retarded by light and
variable winds ; while the numerous iflands
which fhe hourly faw and approached, made
the navigation not only difficult but tedious,
as flie was obliged to proceed with the ut-
moft care and precaution.
On the 2d of March, fhe fell in with a Sunday 2
very dangerous reef of rocks, which extend
Eaft and Weft nearly ten miles. Thefe
rocks bear no place on any of the charts
we had in our pofleflion, and are out of the ^fflli
water about the fize of a fhip's hull. The
centre of them lies in the latitude of 40 10'
North, and longitude, by feveral lunar ob-
fervations, of 1260 39/ Eaft of Greenwich.
In the position which the fhip occupied,
there was a ftrong current fetting to the
South Eaft. |4ii
They continued their courfe amidft this if
archipelago of rocky  iflets  till the  6th ; Thurfday t
when at noon of that day, the latitude- was
3° 45' I
1783.    3° 45'North, and the longitude izcf j'Eaft.
piARCH,  The  variation of the compafs was 20 15'
Weft.   §-.-.l^^;
As they were proceeding to the North-»
ward and  Eaftward, on the 9th of March   «
a   fmall ifland appeared,  bearing Eaft half
'%    North, at the diftance of about tenor twelve
leagues.    They continued fleering up with
it till nine at night, when obferving a great
number of lights   on   the   fhore,   Captain
Douglas imagined that they were kept burning in order to induce the fhip to ftop.    At
' ? &|r    eleven   o'clock, it   being confidered as ha-
.    zardous to run during the night, which was
"'. ,        very dark,  the fhip was  hove   to,  but no
1  foundings could be obtained with fifty fa-
Sioadayio thorns of line.   At break of day on the 10th,
Jj  . .    they   made fail to clofe in with the land,
when feveral canoes were feen approaching.
They therefore again hove to,  in  order to
§•      permit the natives of the ifland to come on
board.—For fome time they kept at a certain diftance, holding up cocoa-nuts in their
hands ; but they no fooner faw the hatchets
which were expofed to their view in return,
^^;   than  the Iphigenia was favoured with an
immediate vifit. , From the whole of their
conduCt, it very evidently appeared that
they had never before beheld fuch an objeCt
as that which now engrofled all their regard, as it called forth their utmoft aftonifh-
ment ; and from the very great indifference
with which they promifcuoufly received
every thing that was offered to them, it
feemed as if the fhip alone was the objeCt of
their attention.
It was intended that the Iphigenia fhould
remain off this ifland for a day, in order to
get a fupply of water, of which they were
informed   by  the   natives there was great
abundance.    In   the  afternoon the canoes
returned, with  more cocoa-nuts  and taro-
root, and the  inhabitants  feemed  to have
learned, since their laft vifit,  the value of
iron ; as they now would take nothing but
Owafhee,  Owafiee, which is their word for
that metal.    They were entire ftrangers to
fire- arms ;   for on one of them expressing a
wifh to have a piftol,  Captain Douglas discharged it ; —which alarmed him to fuch a
degree, that when it was held towards him,
he kifled the barrel, but could  not be pervaded to lay hold of it.
This ■ m
;.i'.' k-
1788.       This ifland, which was now named John-
March,   ftone's Ifland, lies in the latitude of 30 11
É|;.'        North, and in the longitude of 131° 17! Eaft.
It confifts of low land covered with verdure,
and cocoa-trees, and is  about a league m
circumference.    One tree in particular rifes
above the reft, and appears at a diftance like
a fhip under  fail.—What  the   ifland produces, befides cocoa-nuts and the taro-root,
was not difcpvered, as the inhabitants brought
nothing to barter but thofe articles.—The
natives did not appear to exceed the number
of two  hundred, and  are   a flout,  robuft
É& people.    Their canoes, which  held twelve
.or fourteen of them, were exaCtly the fame
, as thofe of the Sandwich Iflands ; and the
people not only difplayed the fame activity
in the water as the Sandwich Iflanders, but
made ufe of feveral expreffions which Tian*
11a readily underftood. A fine breeze fpringing up, Captain Douglas gave up his defign
of taking in water at this ifland, and con»
tinned his courfe to the Eaftward.
The Iphigenia proceeded in her voyage
with very little variation of weather, till
Sunday 1$  the    16th ;   when  Tawnee,   a  Sandwich
#   Iflander, from his watchful care and anxiety
N during NORTH  WEST   COAST   OF   AMERICA. io£
during Tianna's illnefs, was now fick him- 1788.
felf. Several of the crew were alfo in the March.
fame situation ; and the firft officer, who
had been ill upwards of a month, was nertf
yet recovered ; and there was every reafon
to fear a general ficknefs throughout the
fhip. Tianna was now entirely recovered,
and owed the re-eftablifhment of his health
to the Peruvian bark, which operated almoft
miraculoufly upon the chief of Atooi. The
latitude from obfervation was 20 of North,
and the longitude 1360 48'Eaft.
The poor amiable iflander at length baffled
all the care which was beftowed upon him.
—A continual bleeding at the nofe was the
firft fymptom ; and when that flopped, a
fever fucceeded, which feemed for fome fliort
time to yield to the bark ; but the diforder
at length rriumphed* and Tawnee was the
viCtim. About one o'clock, on the 23d, he Sunday 23
quitted this world, and was configned, with
the regret of everyone on board, to a watery
From a continuance of light and variable
winds, with occafional calms, the Iphigenia
advanced but very flowly on her voyage : it
was therefore determined on the zbth, par- Friday 2»
ticularly M nil
11 v|M 9 f   m
[Jfttllf ' |j
ticularly as the ficknefs on board feemed
rather to increafe, to take every advantage
1« of getting to the Northward. The fhip was
therefore put on the other tack, and though
fhe did not make better than a North Weft,
and fometimes a North Weft by Weft cosirfe,
ftill it was better than continuing under that
which had been attended with fuch dif-
couraging circumftances.       r É|
Saturday 29 On the 29th, they had light airs and
calms, with frequent fqualls of rain; oh
Sunday3othe 30th there was a moderate breeze from
the Northward and Eaftward, accompanied
alfo with fqualls and rain, which continued
to prevail through feveral fucceeding days.
Monday 31 On the 31ft, the wind varied from North
Eaft to Eaft North Eaft; and fometimes
North North Eaft ;~and, as they were approaching a groupe of iflands, called the
■.t Carolines, Captain Douglas gave orders to
bend the beft bower arid ftream cables, and
to keep a very ftriCt look-out, as there would
be great danger in fqually, thick weather,
and at the change of the moon, among a
heap of low iflands which had never been
accurately furveyed. It was thought neceflary therefore to run every rifk to get to
the Northward, in order to obtain variable
winds, and to get as foon as poffible from
a vertical fun, and into more temperate
On the 2d of April, a frefh breeze fprungWednefday 3
tip from the Northward and Eaftward, with
fqualls and heavy rain ; but about ten o'clock
in the morning the clouds difperfed, and
from the medium of feveral very good distances of the fun and moon, the longitude
was 134.0 36' Eaft of Greenwich, and the
obferved latitude 7* 25' North. %
On the 3d, they had a fine breeze, with Thurfda?
clear weather : at half paft four in the afternoon faw land ; and at fun-fet its extremities bore from Weft South Weft to Weft
by North, diftant about feven or eight
leagues. As the Iphigenia began to be in
want of wood, and in the hope of obtaining
roots, of fome kind or other, as well as
cocoa-nuts, Captain Douglas determined to
'A O
take this opportunity of fupplying the fhip.
Accordingly, at eight in the evening, orders
were given to fhorten fail, and heave the
main-topfail to the maft.
At day-break, on the 4th, two low iflands   Friday 4
were feen, covered with trees, bearing North
I 1 1    •       Weft no
Weft by Weft, at the diftance of feven of
eight leagues. The land obferved the preceding evening, now bore Weft South Weft,
at the diftance often or twelve leagues. As
the latter appeared to be high land, and of
confiderable extent, it was considered as the
moft likely to afford fome place of fheltef
«and fecurity ; but on a nearer approach, it
was difcovered to confift of a clufter of
iflands ; they therefore hauled their wind,
and ftood for the two low iflands* Jf
m At feven in the evening feveral canoes
were feen coming from them towards the
fhip. When they came alongfide, they were
prefented with a fmall hatchet and two or
three knives, which they took, and gave in
return their whole cargoes, which confifted
of nothing but two or three pieces of taro
and a few cocoa-nuts.—In addressing themfelves to the people in the fhip, they appeared
to repeat the words Engli/h and Moore,*
which were naturally fuppofed to allude to
myfelf, as it was then imagined that I had
pafled through thefe iflands, and in my paf-
* Or probably Mora mey; which lignifies in the Pdew
fage had obtained fome communication with
the natives.
As there was no poffibility of approaching
the South Eaft fide of either of thefe iflands,
they flood to the Northward, in order to get
round a reef of rocks, and to examine the
North Weft fide of the largeft of thefe iflands ;
but on advancing towards it, reef appeared
within reef, and from the maft-head a range
of rocks were feen, extending to the Northward and Weftward as far as the eye could
reach.—The rock they were endeavouring
to weather, was now about a league under
their lee ; they therefore hauled their wind
to the Nofth.    m ; ' -
Several canoes ftill followed the fhip clofe %
and, for a few nails, which were lowered
over the ftern in a bafket, a return was made
of an inconsiderable number of cocoa-nuts,
—The people in one of the canoes were indeed difpofed to play the rogsie, and when
they had got pofleflion of the nails, refufed
to make any fatisfaCtion. Captain Douglas
therefore fired a mufket over their heads,
when every one of them leaped inftantly
overboard, and remained under the lee of
their canoe ; while thofe in the other canoes,
I as
April. *I2
NI ii
as if they felt themfelves protected by their
innocence, did riot difcover any llgns whatever of terror or apprehenflon.
One of thefe boats continued to follow
the Iphigenia for a long time, and one of
the people cried out, from time to time,
Eeboo, Eeboo, and exerted himfelf to the ut«
moft in making figns for them to go back.
—-Indeed, when he perceived that all his
endeavours were vain to p^rfuade them to
return, his actions bore the appearance of a
man in the moft frantic diftrefs. — After
fome time they obferved another canoe,
containing at leaft twenty men, paddling towards them. At firft they imagined that
there were fome Europeans on board, and
accordingly hove to ; but when it was dif-
covered that there were none but Indians,
they immediately made fail, as the fhip was
drifting faft towards the rocks under her
lee :—the canoe however overtook them,
and the people in her difcovered the fame
eager anxiety with the other natives for the
return of the fhip ; but as fhe was at this
time in a dangerous fituation, very little attention was paid to the crying and continued
entreaties of the iflandersf ^^^^ilfc,   ~%    É
. -|'  : '   ":' H Captain
Captain   Dotiglas was now among:  the
I o o ,
Pelew Iflands ; a particular knowledge and
admirable defcription of which, we owe to
the felifibility and talents of Mr. Keate.-^
The account of them written by that gentleman, from the information of Captain Wil-
ion, and other perlons belonging to the Antelope packet, which was wrecked on the
rocks that furround them, has been fo generally read, that I  may fpeak of the cir-
cumftances which conlieCt it with this page,
as a matter of univerfal information.-—Captain Douglas was ignorant that the Antelope
had been loft here ; and that her crew on
one of thefe iflands built a velTel, in which
they returned to China.   He therefore could
not know that his countrymen had received
every aid, comfort, and kindnefs which thefe
hofpitable iflanders could afford ; and that
the fovereign of them had entrufted his fbn
to the care of Captain Wilfon, to return
with him to England, to be inftruCted in the
arts and manners of our country.    Had he
been acquainted with thefe\ interefting occurrences, there is no doubt but his humanity would have exerted itfelf to the ut-
moft, in order to contrive fome further com-
Vol. IL H muni-
April. voyage s to the
munication with them ;—for who can have
the leaft doubt but that the canoes which
followed the Iphigenia were fent to receive
Lee Boo ; 4>r at leaft, to hear fome intelligence concerning him ; and that the native
jvho has been defcribed as calling after the
£hip, and employing the moft frantic aCtions,
when he found that he called in vain, was
any other than Abba Thulle, the father of
the young prince, agitated by the moft
poignant fenfations of difappointment and
As no attention whatever had been then
paid by the Eaft India Company to Abba
Thulle, for the kind and humane treatment
afforded by him to the crew of their fhip
the Antelope, he may be fuppofed to have
been fuffering, for too Ions; a time, the al-
tern ate impreffions of hope and fear.—It
may therefore be conceived what his feelings were, when he firft faw the diftant
fails of the Iphigenia whiten in the fun.
.It may alfo be imagined with what hafte
his canoe was launched from the beach to
jbear him to the fhip, and how fwiftly fhe
/was driven receive, as he might hope,
a fon, who was returned with the various
♦knowledge and attainments of Europe, to
adorn and improve his own country.—But
it is difficult to conceive, as it would be impossible to defcribe, what fuch a mind as his
muft feel, when the Iphigenia proceeded on
her way, and the people on board, occupied
in avoiding the furrounding dangers, were as
inattentive to his diftrefs, as they were ig-*
norant of the caufe of it.—We muft, however, be contented to fympathize with the
7 ml L
affliction of»this amiable chief, as he returned
in melancholy difappointment to his ifland,
— and continue to accompany the Iphigenia
on her deftined courfe.
At noon they had a very good obferva-
tion, when the latitude was 8^ 20' North ;
the bearings of the different- iflands were as
follow : the large ft of the two iflands, which
Captain Douglas named Moore's Ifland, in
honour of his friend Mr. Hugh Moore, bore
South by Eaft, half Eaft, difhuit about five
or fix leagues ; —two others, that were low
and fandy, and which he named Good Lookout Iflands, bore Weft South Weft,|half
South, diftant three or four leagues.—From
the former to the latter is a reef of rocks,
which runs in a North Weft direâlon, to
April*   .
H %
Friday 4
the diftance of eleven or twelve leagues, and
extends  five leagues to  the North of the
other two.'I-.'- " ~'ï .' '•
At on# o'clock  in   the  afternoon  they
founded, and found that they wrere in eight
fathoms water ; as the current fet them to
the Weftward, they ftood on, being apprehensive, if they went on   the other tack,
that they fhould risk the being driven down
on the reef, which was at this time on their
lee-beam ; they therefore kept the lead going ; and as the water was clear to the bottom, people were ordered to the maft-head
to  give  notice of any immediate   danger,
which might be eafily avoided, as the fea was
fmôoth, and the day remarkably clear.
:    Athalfpaft two, Moore's Ifland bore South
by Eaft, diftant fifteen leagues ; and till fix
in the evening   the foundings  were  from
eight to twenty fathoms, over large rocks.
The lead was kept going every half hour
during the night, without finding any bottom ; and in the morning they had a fteady
breeze, having got clear of all the rocks and
fhoals which  they met with in thofe unknown feas.—As they had feveral good observations of the fun and moon the day before
fore they made land, they were able to determine the latitude and longitude of Moore's
Ifland, as well as of the reefs and fhoals that
extended to the Northward of it.—At noon,
on the 3d, the latitude by obfervation was
8° 20' North ; Moore's Ifland then bearing
South by Eaft half Eaft, diftant five leagues. m
Good Look-out Iflands bore at the fame time
Weft South Weft half South, diftant three IBSS
leagues ; fo that the former lies in the latitude of 8° & North, and longitude, reduced
by the log, 1340 6' Eaft ; and the latter are
in the latitude of 8° 13' North, and the longitude 1330 58^ The great fhoal extends to .;|'
the Northward as far as 8° 45';—to the Eaft-
ward 1340 13'; and to the Weft ward as far
as the eye could reach from the maft-head,
fhoal-water was vifibîe; which, in all probability,   runs as   far  as the longitude of
l33° 3°' Eaft.     \      ■"'• ,\      '#'''*•
During the night, no foundings were ob-  Saturdays
tained with fifty fathoms of line.    At eight
in  the morning, being in   the latitude  of
Los Martines,   they bore up a couple of
points, in order, if poffible, to get fight of it
it by noon ;—but as there was no appearance       ||,
pf land, Captain Douglas hauled his wind,
H 3 chufing VOYAGES   TO   THE
chufing rather to fubmit to the inconvenience
April, which might arife from the want of wood,
than risk his arrival on the coaft of America
too late* ill the feafon. He therefore no
longer thought of looking for an harbour
among a groupe of iflands where, perhaps,
P* no harbour of fufficient fhelter and protect
tion was to be found*
r i<7
See the Ifland of Amluk.—See Land, which ii
miflaken for Trhiity Ifland.—A mof violent
Gale. — Defcription of the Land.—See the.
Ifland of Kodiak.—See Trinity Ifland.—Ar-
rive off the latter.—Vif ted by two Canoes.—
Send the Jolly-boat on Shore with an Officer,
to try for Fifh.—See Cape Greville.—Pafs
the Barren Iflands.—Receive a Vift from a
Ruffian and fome Kodiak Hunters.—Run up
Cooli s River.—Communication with the Natives.—The Iphigenia weighs Anchor and
drops down the River.—Steer to the Southend of Montagu If and.—Stand in for Snug"
corner Bay, &c. &c.
TVTO event took place but the mere ordering and courfe of the fhip, till the
•30th of the lucceeding month, when fhe Fridays»
was arrived in latitude 500 20/ North, and
longitude 1880 26/ Eaft of Greenwich.— I *
The weather was moderate and hazy, and
the wind fettled at North Eaft. Early in
the morning they faw the Ifland of Amluk,
bearing North by Eaft, at the diftance of
H 4 about 4*
fill îil
■ I
about twenty-four leagues. At nine o'clock
they wore and flood in for the land. At
noon the weather became clear, and they
|jt       :'|| law the Jand  bearing North North Eaft,
diftant from twenty to twenty-three leagues.
Saturday31 .On the 31ft, they had light winds and
calms; at ten-o'clock in the morning the
clouds difperfed, and there was clear weather
for half an hour ; when an opportunity was
:jg. • taken to get a number, of diftances of the
fun and moon, from a medium of which
the longitude was 1900 19/ Eaft of Green^
wich, and the obferved latitude 500 58
North, .   '
..'■'.■The early part of the following day was
clear and moderate ; but the latter was
cloudy, with frefh breezes. The crew were
now bufily employed in airing and mending
the fails. The latitude was 51° 49/ North,
and the longitude 1930 33' Eaft of Green*
wich. .
A fteady breeze from the Weftward, con»
tinned with hazy weather through the whole
of the 2d ; and on the 3d they altered the
çourfe from North Eaft to North Eaft by
North. The arms were now cleaned, and
the arçn-cheft got off the deck into the ca->
Sunday r
Monday 2
bin, to get them out of the way both of the
feamen and the favages ; for as they were
approaching the land, there was good reafon
to expedl: a visit from the latter.
On the 5th, at day-light, Trinity Ifland Thurfday$
was feen bearing North North Weft, diftant
feven or eight leagues. At nine it bore South
half Eaft, fix or feven leagues ; and at noon
the breeze which had blown all the morning:
to the North Eaft, encreafed to an hard gale ;
when the latitude, from an indifferent ob-
fervation, was 560 29' North, and the Ion- ,
gitude 2040 54' Eaft.      |1|§;
At noon it blew hard,  and the gale en-   Friday *
creafed,  fo that they were obliged to hand
the fore-fail and clofe reef the main top-fail:     j|;<
at eight in the evening, the extremity of the
land from Cape Trinity, bore Eaft North
Eaft, to North Weft by Weft, being diftant
from the neareft land fix leagues. At eleven
o'clock wore the fhip,   and   ftood to the
Southward and Eaftward.    At fix in the
morning Cape Trinity bore North North
Éaft, at  the diftance of about twelve  or       »||J
thirteen leagues. The gale continued to en-
creafe ; and at fix in the evening,  the fhip
wore ! 'M
j&mday 8
wore and flood to the Northward.   No ob-
fervation was made on this day,
At four in the morning, it blew an hur-
ricane :—reefed and handed the .main-fail,
and laid the fMp to under a balanced try-fail,
and got three balance tackles on the gaff to
fupport it. At five, they faw the land, the
extremities from Port Trinity bearing North
North Weft, to Weft South Weft, and-Two
Headed Point Weft North Weft,—-diftant
from the body of the land twelve or fourteen
leagues. At fix they wore, and lay to on
the larboard tack. It now blew the moft
tremendous ftorm that had ever been feen
by any perfon on board ; and at four in
the afternoon the gale not being in the leaf!
abated, they got the top-gallant mafts down
on deck, laying to with the head of the fhip
to the Southward and Eaft ward. About five
the gale abated, but there was a moft dreadful fea ftiil running. At nine they made fail,
and got the top-gallant mafts and vards up.
O A O ml X
On the 8th, the wind ftill continued to the
Northward and. Eaftward, but rather variable. The land was {ten bearing North
Weft, diftant five or fix leagues. The ob^
ï ferved
ferved latitude was 560 20' North.    Longi-    1788*
tude 2050 36' Eaft. ;    !■**■- '
On the 9th, they had fair weather, with Monday 9
moderate and light breezes from the Eaft-
ward. The ifland which Captain Douglas
took for Trinity Ifland, as it is in the fame
latitude and longitude which had been laid
down, lies off the mouth of a large bay, fur- §
rounded with low land. The hills were covered with fnow, while the low lands pof-
lefled the fineft verdure, but not a tree was f
feen on the one or the other. In this bay
there is a fecure fhelter from the North Weft
winds, which, had it been known, would
have afforded a certain protection to the
Iphigenia in the late violent gale of wind.
This land forms part of the coaft between
Foggy Ifland and Trinity Ifland, mentioned Jj7
by Captain Cook, and has by no means the
barren appearance of that land which is to -  -
the Northward of Trinity Ifland, and the
Southward of Cape Greville. As the wind
continued to the Eaft ward, they plied to the
windward, and ftood into eight fathoms of
water, with a fandy bottom. ' %:'   ; -
*"  On the 10th the weather was moderate Tuefday %•
and hazy.   At fix in the afternoon they got ^
iiift'      ■' . %• ■. v   - Jt       a fight W m
I -88. * fight of the land, bearing Eaft North Eaft,
, Jvke. at the diftance of about ten leagues. This
land forms a cape projecting into the bay,
which was now named Cape Hollings. It
lies in the latifKide of 570 I2/ North, and
M" the longitude of 2070 3' Eaft. During the
night no foundings could be obtained with
feventy fathoms of line.—On the following
jVcdnefdayuday at noon, the extremities of the land
bore from Weft North Weft, to Eaft by
South ; the Ifland of Kodiak bearing Eaft.
The obferved latitude was then 560 56'
North, and the longitude, by a lunar ob-
J fervation, 2050 36'Eaft of Greenwich. It
É had been rather calm through the day ; but
about five o'clock in the afternoon, a breeze
fprung up from the Southward and Eaft-
ward, and drew round to the Eaft.—They
worked up the coaft, and ftood in fhore to
nine fathoms of water with a muddy bottom, the current being very much againft
Thurfdayia them.—At noon of the 12th, Trinity Ifland
bore Eaft half South ; the extremities of the
continent bearing from Eaft North Eaft half
Eaft, to North half Weft ; the diftance of
the fhip, from the neareft land, was at this
The obferved latitude
• was
time feven leagues.
was 560 48' North ; and from a mean of
eioht diftances of the fun and moon about
three quarters after twelve at noôn, the
longitude was 2050 5' Eaft of Greenwich. .
At feven in the evening, a fine breeze
fprung up from North North Weft, as they
were fleering through the paiTage between
Trinity Ifland and the main, when they had
regular foundings from feventeen to feven
fathoms, over a bottom of fine fand.
On the North fide of the ifland towards
the fea, there is a very fine bay, where fhips
may run in with fafety.    Copious ftreams
of water were running from the mountains,
and great   quantities of drift wood   lying
along the fhore.    About eight a native came
off to the fhip in a fmall canoe, and taking
off the head of a feal which he wore on his
' own, he made them an obeifançe, and afked
them how they  did,  in  the Ruffian   language :—when,   having taken a furvey of
the fhip, he paddled back to the fhore.—
Shortly after, another canoe with one man
in it paid them a vifit ; who, in return for
a few beads, with which he appeared to be
infinitely delighted,  offered the  fkin of a
grey fox ; but not  being able to make it
I   f faft Ci
faft to  the fhip,  as fhe was   at  this tîtti
" Jvne.    making a deal of way through the water,
?;_ he took it  back with  him.    This man did
not fpeak the language either of Cook's
River or No^otka Sound.
Friday 13 They had in the morning of the 13th,
light airs and calms, and at ten in the
morning had cleared the paiTage* At noon,
: the obferved latitude was 560 45'  North ;
and longitude,  from  the  refult of feveral
observations was,  paft noon, 2060 6' Eaft:
'jp     the extremities of Trinity  Ifland   bearing
i    from South Eaft by Eaft, to South Weft ;
and  thofe of the coaft  from  Weft South
Weft, to North North Eaft, at the diftance
of four or five leagues.    The variation of
the  compafs was 240  51'  Eaft.    At eight
o'clock in the evening the extremities of the
continent bore from South Weft half South,
•|: to North North Eaft.   At nine they  tried
the current? and found it running four fathoms an hour.
Saturday 14      It being calm and no figns of a breeze
^. and as they had no foundings at the fhip
which was four leagues from the land,
Captain Douglas fent the ioîly-boat with
an officer on  fhore, to get fome fifh.    At
noon i788.
noon the extremes of the coaft bore from
South Weft to Cape Greville North North
Eaft, and Trinity Ifland South Weft by
South, at the diftance often  leagues.    At 4
noon the obferved latitude was 560 59/ North, ,
and the longitude 206° 2' Eaft. About one
o'clock in the afternoon, a light breeze
Springing up, the fhip flood towards the
(hore, and a gun was fired, as a signal for
the boat* At four fhe returned with fome
halibut. Mr. Adamfon, the officer who com-
manded her, informed Captain Dosiglas that
they had met with fome fifhing canoes.
and that the people who were in them, parted very readily with what fifh they had»
but requefted fhuffin return, holding forth
their boxes to be replenifhed. At firft it was
luppofed that they were Ruffians; but on -'I; ■ *■
confidering their drefs, with the incifion of
the under-lip, it was very evident that they
were either Kodiak hunters, or fome of the
-natives of Cook's River: — Though two
years before, fnuff was a commodity to
which the latter difcovered an extreme aver-
On   the  15th,  the  wind was  from the Sundayi,j
«Northward and Eaft ward, with a fog.   At
. . four
!» I
ill il
I23 voyages tô the
four o'clock in the afternoon a frefh brectg
fprung up, but the thick hazy weather continued through the day.    About five on the
O ml
&îcmdayi6 morning of the  i6tji, the weather cleared,
when they faw Cape Grevilleon their beam*
bearing Weft, at the diftance of nine leagues*
Thev  then  altered their cotirfe  to   North
'-$>;       North Weft, with a fine breeze.    At noon
|§§■ * Cape Whitfunday bore Weft half South.—j
The extremities of the land from the ifland
||of Saint Hermogenes, bore North Weft by
North ten leagues, to South Weft by Weft.
Here they faw feveral fea-otters fpoïting in
the water, and  great numbers of whales*
The  latitude at noon was 580 oi' North,
land the longitude 2070 %rf Eaft of Greenwich.    At midnight they had a frefh gale
; from  the Southward, when "they pâflèd the
Barren Iflands.   At fix in the morning two
canoes came along-fide from Point Bede, and
I fhortly after a Ruffian from the fame place,
iHf with feme Kodiak hunters.   They brought
a prefent of a dozen frefh falmon, and in
turn received a fmall quantity of brandy,
and fome tobacco. At noon, the extremes
of the larboard fhore bore from South half
^   Weft, to North Weft by North ; and thofe
w\ fcokTî-i West côàst Of America.
on the ftar-board fide, from South South
Eaft, to North half Weft ; Cape Douglas
bore Weft half South ; Mount Saint Au-
guftine, North Weft half Weft; Point
Bede, South Eaft half Eaft; and Anchor
Point, North half Weft ; diftant from the
ftarboard and neareft fhore about fix or
feven miles.
The latitude at noon Was 590 41' North.
They had light winds as they run up Cook's
River ; and about; two in the afternoon feven
or eight canoes came tilong-fide, from a few
huts that were a little way a-head of the
fhip. All the natives of this place were
ticket-men, and immediately produced their
tickets, as paflports for good ufage ;# but
they were fo poor as not to produce an inch
of fur amongft them.    About three in  the
* Thefe tickets are purchafed by the Indians from
the Ruffian traders at very dear rate, under a pretence
that they will fecure them from the ill treatment of
any flrangers who may visit the coaft. ; and as they take
care to exercife great cruelty on fuch of the natives
as are not provided with thefe inliruments of fafety*
the poor people are very happy to purchafe them ori
any terms.—Such is the degrading fyftem of the Ruffian
trade in thefe parts ; and forms a flriking contrafl to
the liberal and humane fpirit of Britiih. commerce.
Vol. II, I after- ii
1788. afternoon the tide fet fo ftrong againft
June. them, as well as in fhore, that they were
under the neceffity of dropping anchor in
five fathoms andean half water, about two
miles from the fhore.—The extremities of
the land were as follow:—The ftarboard
fhore, from South by Eaft, to North half
Weft : the larboard fhore, from South South
Weft, to North Weft by Weft : Cape Doug-
' mr X O
las, Weft by South : Mount St. Auguftine,
Weft : Anchor Point South by Eaft half
Eaft ; diftant ten or twelve miles.
Captain Douglas now ordered the boat to
be hoifted  out, in order to  pt> on fhore to
look  for the  watering-place,   and   obferve
the behaviour of the natives.—On landing,
they found a fmall river running by the fide
of the huts, and the natives  very  fhy.—•
About fifty or threefcore of them fat basking
in the fun, on the oppofite fide of the river,
who took no notice whatever of the boat's
crew.    As the Iphigenia was in great want
of wood and water, it was  abfolutely neceflary to remain in their prefent fituation
till a fufficient fupply was obtained of thefe
eflential   articles.—Befides,   there were   no
more than two casks of beef, and one of
pork, North west coast of America.
pork, on board, to ferve them the reft of the 1788,
fummer, and, as it might happen, to carry |June. %
them down to the Sandwich Iflands. A fup-
ply of fi(h was therefore neceflary to enable
them to run the coaft down to the South- S
"ward, where they expe£ted to find abundance
of furs ; and this river was expected to yield
plenty of falmon, which might be faked
down for the remaining part of their voyage.
« It was designed, on the morning; of the
18th, to move the fhip'higher up, fo as toWednefdavi*
lie oppofite the mouth of this river ; but
before the tide became favourable fhe touched
the ground ; they therefore run out the
kedge, hove up immediately, flipped the
hawfer, and made fail, when they found a
bank on the outfide with only two fathoms
and a half: it being at this time low water,
the boat was fent a-head to found ; when
they ran up the river about eighteen miles,
and came to with the ftream, over a fandy p
bottom, and about a mile and an half from
the fhore, which had a fteep beach,    The   §f
boat was then fent to find out the moft con-   |
venient place for watering. -
Soon after they had dropped the anchor,
feveral canoes came  from  the huts which
I 2 they VOYAGES   TO   THE
they faw yefterday : and though the natives
had nothing to fell, they continued near the
fhip till the evening. Some of them, indeed, caught a few falmon, which were
purchafed with beads. It appeared as if
thefe people were on the watch to prevent
any of the natives up Cook's River from
Thurfday 19 visiting the fhip.—-The next day was employed in wooding and watering, clearing
the hold, and brewing fpruce beer.
O      A
Friday 20       On the 20th  they had light winds and
pleafant  weather.—In   the  morning  they
lighted the anchor and moored fhip,  when
all hands were employed in wooding and
watering.  The net was alfo hauled into the
mouth of the river for falmon, but without
Saturday ai      Qn the day following the fame weather
and occsipations continued. — About three
o'clock in the afternoon five canoes came
down the river, and the  people in   them
gl called out Noota, Noota, as loon as they got
U along-fide the fhip.    Five otter-skins were
purchafed of thefe favages,  but they would
take nothing except broad bar-iron ; two feet
of which were paid for each skin,   p
'     '      $: - ' I       ■'    lb:Ai
[Waff I iBf
T J1
It appeared as if they were at war with
the Ruffians and Kodiak hunters, each of
them being armed with a couple of daggers.
—They earneftly entreated Captain Douglas
to go higher up the river ; and gave him to
nnderftand that it was from the report of
his guns, which he ordered to be fired
morning and evening, that they knew of
his arrival. Thev alfo informed him that
they had got a considerable quantity of Na-
tunichucks, or fea-otter skins; but were
afraid to bring them down, on account of
the Ruffians.
On the morning of the 2 2d it blew a frefh Sunday %%
gale, which raifed fo great a furf in fhore,
that it was impoffible to get either wood or
water to the fhip.—All the casks being full
on the beach, it was thought proper to leave
four men, with the fécond officer, on fhore
all night, to guard them. About midnight
the wind fhifted from South Weft to Eaft,
and brought fair weather along with it.
On the 23d, the weather was cloudy, with Monday ?3
light winds from the Southward and Eaft-
ward.    They now got the water on board,
and coiled the cables below.   The long-boat
alio having received fome damage, fhe was       if
13 ha
II 13*
s m
hauled up on the beach, and the carpenters
and caulkers employed in repairing her;—
A J X O *
they were likewife fet to work to prepare a
couple of mafts and yards for her, as it was
intended to difpatcfo her up the river, as
high as Point Pofleflion, on the information
of the natives.
Tuefday24 The long-boat being finifhed, at four in
the morning of the 24th, fhe was launched,
and at half paft ten was difpatched, with the
turn of the tide, well manned and armed,
on her intended expedition, under the com-
H' mand of the chief officer. The inftrudions
given to him by Cantain Douglas were to
the following purport:—
€C He was ordered to proceed up as high
as Point Pofleflion ; to look into moft of the
fmall bays or low lands in fearch of inhabitants, and to barter his iron or beads for
fea-otter skins, black foxes skins and falmon. If he met with any Ruffians, he was
inftrucied to treat them with civility, bsit
at the fame time to be upon his guard, and
not to fuffer either them or the natives to
enter into his boat.-—In cafe of bad weather,
or if by any un fore feen accident he fhould
be detained four or five days, Captain Dou-
-it" É-   ' ': ■   - '¥'■/      :l *    :i . slas
glas mentioned his defign, at the end of
that time, to follow him, with the fhip,
up the river, to Point Pofleflion; and that
he fhould fire guns to  give him notice  of
his approach. The officer, however, was
ordered to do his ut moft to return to the
fhip at the end of five days."
The carpenter and caulker being ordered
on fhore to procure fome fpars for oars,
which were very much wanted,1 they were
under the neceflity of tracing the banks of
the river to a considerable diftance before
they could find any that would anfwer their
purpofe. When thefe people returned on
board they declared, that as the long-boat
turned the point, they heard the discharge
of eleven great guns. Though Captain
Douglas was, in iome degree, alarmed when-
he firft  received this   intelligence ;  yet   as
O ml
he had been informed by a Ruffian who
went on board the Iphigenia at Point Bede,
that none of his countrymen were fo high
up the river; and as the long boat, if fhe
had been attacked, would have returned,
the wind being fair to come back to the
fhip, it was concluded, as it afterwards
turned out,  that thefe great guns were no-
I4      I •   thing W-*
88# thing more than mufquets, which the people
had fired at fome ducks, and whofe report
was conveyed by the wind, which blew right
to the place where the carpenters were at
work,   . i-'j|:    ■ ■■ *
Wednefday25    About three o'clock in the afternoon of
the 25th, two canoes came down the river,
and  brought  a fea-otter cut  through   the
middle, and otherwife mangled.   It appeared
-   ■> <_• A  A
as if thefe natives thought that the flefh was
wanted, and not the fkin; but no fatisfaftory
explanation could be obtained, as they did
not underftand any words that were addreflèd
to them ; and indeed gave no caufe for fup-
pofing that they had ever traded with any
European people. They had nota flngle bead
of any kind in their pofleffion ; and the few
which were now given them, feemed to
attract that kind of admiration which is
awakened by objedls that have been never,
or at leaft feldom feen before. It was con-?
lectured that they were inland natives, who
live up the country in the winter, and had
defcended fome river which empties itfelf
into Smoky Bay, as that, was the quarter
from whence they appeared to come. As it
blew frefh, and there was a large fwell oc-,
il ml ê. _—
cafioned by the tide, they left the fhip, and    1788.
went in towards the fhore. JUNE-   ,
The weather on the 26th was moderate Thurfday 2$
and pleafant, and about nine in the morning
two canoes came from the Southward, in
one of which was the Ruffian who had paid
the Iphigenia a vifit from Point Bede.—He
brought a prefent of fome falmon, which
was returned by a fmall parcel or tobacco.
At feven in the afternoon twelve double
canoes came along-fide from the Southward;
the people in them were Kodiak hunters,
but they had neither fkins nor fifh ; though
they promifed to bring fome of the latter in
the morning.
At one in the morning of the 27th, they   Friday ij
faw the long-boat dropping down with the
tide : and at two came along-fide the Iphigenia, having obtained nothing but one very
indifferent   fea-otter fkin,   and about two
dozen   of fplit   falmon. 1 The   officer,
Mr. Adamfon, reported, that as high up the
river as 6o° 42' North, he met with Ruffians and Kodiak hunters, who followed him
from village to village, and had got entire
pofleflion of the river. The boat being returned, at fix o'clock the fhip was unmoored ;
m f'iili#y:
«I ■
ml !
moored; and on the turn of the tide* they
weighed anchor and dropped down the river.
At noon the obferved latitude was 5c/0 58'
H      North.
About three in the afternoon,  the flood-
tide fetting in, they dropped anchor juft be-
If   low Anchor Point, in feventeen fathoms of
Jf   water.—The  extremities   of the   Weftern
fhore bore from North Weft by North, to
Weft   by   South ;    Cape   Douglas   bearing
Weft; Mount Saint Auguftine Weft North
Weft, half North; and Point Bede South
South   Eaft ; diftant three or four leagues.
I   At nine in the evening, with the turn of the
tide, they hove up, and  made fail with a
light breeze from the Southward and Weft-»
ward, . ;    ■J|;, .'■.."-.
Saturday 28 On the 28th, at noon, Cape Elizabeth
bore Eaft South Eaft, and the Eafternmoft
of the Barren Iflands, Eaft South Eaft. At
about five miles off fhore, there were no
foundings with fixty fathoms of line. No
obfervation was made of the latitude, but
the longitude was 207° 46' Eaft.
At eleven in the morning of the 29th,
the Eafternmoft of the Barren Iflands bore
South South Eaft, and Cape Elizabeth North
North Eaft, diftant about five leagues. The
weather being hazy,  there was no oppor-   1788.
tunity 'of making an obfervation. June,
They flood to the Southward and Eaft-
ward till four in the morning of the 30th, Monday &
with a moderate breeze from the Northward
and Eaftward, accompanied by hazy weather
and rain. At ten, the ifland of Saint Her-
mogenes   bore   South  Weft,   diftant feven
leagues.—No obfervation.
Tuef&ay x
They had now light winds and calms,
with a ftrong current letting them to the ■' %
Southward and Weftward. At day-light,
the extremities of the main bore from North
Weft 10 North Eaft half North, at the
diftance of about twelve leagues. At eight
the body of the Barren Iflands bore North
Weft by Weft, diftant fourteen leagues.
As  they had been difappointed of thf fj
fupply of falmon which they expefted to
have found in Cook's River, and there being
no more than three calks of provisions remaining, Captain Douglas was under the;
neceffity of reducing himfelf and officers, as
well as the feamen, to a very fhort allowance.
The latitude was 590 2' North. ■      S;
The wind continuing at North Eaft, andwednefday 3
Eaft  North   Eaft,   the   very  courfe   they   ||
fough fill
: yi ii
fought to fteer, with an heavy fwell, the
fhip laboured exceedingly, and made a very
flow progrefs along the coaft. About fix in
the morning they flood in to, within a
league of, the  main land.—At  nine they
III . unbent the main top-fail to repair, and bent
the old one. The main top-maft ftay-fail
alfo fuffered considerably from the fqually
weather, as they were under the neceffity
of carrying a prefs of fail to keep the fhip
S: from   being  forced down   by  the   current
among the Barren Iflands. The weather
was thick and hazy, fo that no obfervation
could be made, nor had they any fight of
Thwrfday3 At five in the morning of the 3d, the
wind fhifted to the South Eaft, with moderate weather. At noon the extremities of
;|- the continent bore from North North Weft,
to Weft by South, diftant ten leagues ; and
the obferved latitude was 590 18' North.
Friday 4 At four in the morning of the 4th, they
were about ten or twelve leagues from the
continent, and at neon the extremities of
the land bore from North Eaft, to South
Weft half Weft, diftant off fhore four leagues.
The latitude was 590 47' North.    In th
1 IsfoRTH West coast of America;
•afternoon  they had   frefh North  Eafterly    1788.
breezes, with fqualls and rain ; and in the    JULY«
evening  the   extremities  of the continent
bore from North North Eaft half Eaft,  to
Weft half South,  at the diftance often or
eleven leagues.
On the 5 eh, at noon, the extremities of Saturdays
the land bore from North half Eaft, to Weft
half South, diftant ten or eleven leagues,
/' The obferved latitude was 590 1 f North.
In the evening they had frefh gales, with
heavy fqualls and rain.     , ,    .    m
On the 6th, at noon, the extremities of Sundays
Montagu Ifland bore from North by Eaft,
to North by Weft. It was the intention
of Captain Douglas to keep without Montagu Ifland, from the number of funken
rocks which lie in the inner paiTage ; but
finding it blow fo frefh, and the wind being
right in his teeth, he could not effecT: his
purpofe..—The latitude, from an obfervation, was 590 36' North. They had now ,|r
fair weather, with frefh Eafterly breezes ;
and at three in the afternoon had foundings
in twenty-five fathoms water. At fix, as the
tide was fetting againft them, they dropped
the ftream anchor in eight fathoms water,
1 lH about m. :M S
vf   i
1788. ahout three miles from the fhore of Mon*
July, tagu Ifland, the extremities of which bore
Eaft by South, half South, to North half
Eaft; and thofe of the continent bore from
South Weft by South, to^North North Eaft.
At half paft eight they weighed anchor, and
turned up that paiTage.
Monday 7 On the 7th, at one in the morning,
dropped anchor about eight j miles to the
Northward, in twenty-feven fathoms water,
and fix miles from the fhore. At nine they
weighed again, and ftretched over to within
a mile of the continent, when there was no
ground with thirty-fix fathoms of line.—At
noon they were furrounded with land, except towards the paiTage by which they entered, and which bore South. The obferved
latitude was 6o° o' Nortbu They had light
breezes and fair weather as they turned
between Montagu Ifland and the main,—At
fix in the evening they came to with the
kedge in thirteen fathoms water, about one
mile and an half from the Montagu Ifland
fhore. . At ten, they weighed anchor, with
a light breeze at Eaft South Eaft.
Tuesday s At eight in the morning of the following
day, they were in the mid channel, between
Montagu Ifland and the Green Iflands.    At § 1788.
noon, the extremes of the former bore from    JULY*
Weil hail South, to North North Eaft, the       §
body of the latter South by  Weft;  Cape; v.
Hinchinbroke,  Eaft   North   Eaft ;   and  an
ifland  lying off Snug Corner Cove,  North
by Eaft ; diftant from Montagu Ifland two
or three leagues.—Several guns were now
fired to acquaint the natives of our arrival.
—The obferved latitude was 6o° 23' North.    É
At four in the afternoon they ftood over to
the Weflern  fhore,   with light winds and
clear   pleafant weather.    At  eight  in the
even in P" they wore and ftood in for the cove,
O ml '
with light airs and calms.   At noon, on the
9 th, dropped the ft ream anchor in five fa-Wednefday j
thorns water,  in Snug Corner Cove.—The
remainder of this day was employed in un-
'bending the  fails, hoifting out  the boats, J§
and other neceflary matters.
On the  10th, fix canoes of the Chenou- Thurfday |
ways tribe came along-tide, but had no more        1 •
than one fea-otter skm'among them, which
was purchafed, with five or fix feal-skins for
the rigging.   Kennoonock informed Captain ?*£
Douglas that a fhip had been there, which
had lipl
had failed only ten days before with plenty
of skins, and it appeared for Cook's River.
This intelligence was confirmed by the party who had been on fhore for wood, as they
had feen, infcribed on a couple of trees, J*
Etches, of the Prince of Wales, May yth, 1788^
andJohn Hutchins.      ■■>.■■"■ w
"T•       ' ' ':*"$■'  I788*
--■'    "jf C H A P.   XXVIII.
The Iphigeni a fails from Snug Corner Bay.—
They pafs Kaye^s Ifland.—Clofe in with Cape
Suckling.—Slow Progrefs along the Coaft, on
Account of the Eafterly Winds.—Send the %'\
Long-boat into Peering s Bay, which returns
after having been driven out to Sea.~~They
fee Iflands of Ice,—Pur chafe a great Number
of Sea Otter Skins, &c. of the Natives of
Crofs Cape.—A fingular Example of the
Power of the Women among them.—Steer into
Sea Otter Bay.—Pafs "Douglas Ifland.—Enter a Èay called Port Me ares.—Pafs Rofè
Point.—Obfervations on the Coaft.—Join the
Felice at Nootka Sound.
rrMLL the 14th, the people on board the   Monday 14
X Iphigenia were employed in wooding,
watering, and repairing the fails. During
that interval they had been vifited by fome
canoes, which brought fifh, two river otter-
skills, and fome feal-skins. Of this party
there was a man of the Tauglekamute tribe,
who informed Captain Douglas that they ~|||||§§I
Vol. II. ■ ■ I.K had v ïl   ■
# Ww
il lu
M ."Mi
Tuefday 15
Friday 18
had plenty of skins in his diftricl:, and prO
mifed to return the following morning to
attend the fhip thither. At three o'clock
in the afternoon, a light breeze fpringing up¥
from the Weft, thev weighed, and turned
out of the cove. At. ten in the evening Cape
Hinchinbroke bore South Eaft by South, half
South, and the North end of Montagu
Ifland, South half Eaft ; diftant from the
neareft land four or five miles.
• At eight o'clock in the morning two
canoes of the Chenouways tribe came along-,
fide with fome skins, chiefly of the otter
cubs, which Captain Douglas told them
they ought not to deftroy. At noon the
weather was calm and cloudy, Cape Hinchinbroke bearing South South Eaft, and the
North Eaft end of Montagu Ifland bearing
South, diftant three or four leagues ; at
eight in the evening the former of thefe
places bore South Eaft half South, and the
latter South % diftant from the main land
four or five miles.
On the 18th at noon, the South end
of 'Kaye's Ifland bore,North Eaft by Eaft
half Eaft, diftant ten leagues. The extremities of the continent bore from North
VM north West coast of aMerica.
J ULt.
North Eaft half Eaft, to Weft by North ;
and Montagu Ifland from Weft half North,
to Weft South Weft. The obferved latitude
was 590 52' North, and the longitude 2140 2'
Eaft of Greenwich. At one o'clock in the
afternoon a breeze fprung up from the
Southward and Weftward, they therefore
fet all their fail, and ftood for the South
end of Kaye's Ifland, as they knew from
former experience that there was not any
paiTage for a fhip through Comptroller's
At fix in the morning they were clofe in Saturday x$
O J *       w
with the Cape, when they had ground from
ten to twenty fathoms, over a clayey bottom. At noon the wind was variable ; and
Cape Suckling bore Weft by North, diftant
three or four leagues. The obferved latitude
was 590 57' North, and the longitude 2150 5 ir
Eaft. They had a light breeze from the
Southward and Eaftward till half paft three
in the afternoon, when it took them back,
and^blew from Eaft North Eaft in heavy
fqualls with rain. Being clofe in with the
low land off Cape Suck ling, «and the current
fetting them on Kaye's Ifland, they carried
a prefs of fail to clear the South end of it.
" At f» Il
gg        At two in the morning the weather wàg
July,    moderate, with the wind at the Eaft:    A
Sunday 20  noQn ||| ^Q^  Qf ^yQ9$ Ifland bore  South
Weft ; the extremities of the continent from
II Cape  Suckling bearing Weft by South  to
"|f ■    North Eaft half Eaft, diftant eight leagues*
The obferved latitude was 590 57' North,
H and longitude 216° 14' Eaft.    Light winds
from the Eaftward till fix in the afternoon,
when the wind came round to the North,
and at eight fhifted to the North Eaft.
Monday21      At fun-rife Kaye's Ifland bore Weft half
North, diftant fourteen leagues. At eleven
it blew frefh, with the land in fight ; and
at noon the obferved latitude was 590 18'
North, and the longitude 216° 23' Eaft.—
At five in the afternoon they lay to under
the main-fail, with ftrong gales from the
v        North Eaft, and extreme cold.
On the morning of the 22d they faw the
land, bearing North North Eaft, diftant
fifteen or fixteen leagues. At eight the gale
abated, when they ftood in for the land,
as they did not wifh to pafs unfeen on any
part of the coaft where there was a probability of inhabitants. At noon the weather
became moderate, and the obferved latitude
Tuefday 22
was 590-5' North, longitude 2170 10' Eaft. 1788.
Frefh breezes fprung up from Eaft and Eaft JULY«
by North, with heavy rain, at fix in the
afternoon ; and at eleven at night it blew
very hard, which obliged them to wear,
and ftand to the Southward under courfes
and double reefed main-top-fail.
In this manner, and with the fame variableWednefday3o
weather,   the   Iphigenia proceeded   to   run
parallel with the  coaft, fometimes in fight  ;..■-.■
of land, and at  other times at too great a
diftance  to  fee it, or obftrucied from  the
view of it by an  hazy atmofphere, till the
30th ; when, at four o'clock in the morning, they faw land ; the extremities of which
bore from North Weft half North, to North
Eaft, diftant fix or ejght leagues.    From fix
to ten they had a light breeze from South    .       ':;|£
South Weft, with which they ftood into the
bay.    At noon it was calm and hazy, when   Ï
they made but  an   indifferent obfervation,
according to which their latitude was 590 27'
North, longitude 2190 42'Eaft.
At half paft twelve a light breeze fprung
up from the Weftward, with which they
fteered North till fix in the evening, when
it fell calm.    Being within a  few  leagues     '     •
: '   '   "m    I     K3.   J»    I ' of f * '
* *5°
1788.    0:r"tiie i0W land, and on the Eaft f%^e of the
July,     bay, they obferved the appearance of fmoke,
%/       and accordingly ftood towards it; but the
wii>d  and tide  failing,   the long-boat was
at eight in the evening hoifted out, in order
to be fent to the head of the bay; but  the
appearance of bad weather occafioned her
R. ;.-.,   .   being detained till morning.    At nine they
m     clued the   top-fails  up,   and   dropped   the
ftream-anchor in twenty-eight fathoms of
É      water over hard ground.    At midnight it
I vvas perceived that the fhip had driven off
the bank into deeper water ; they therefore
gave her more cable, as it was bad anchor-..
ing-ground; but as the wind and tide were
both adverfe, they kept the anchor down
till near flack tide.
Thurfday3i At three in the morning they hove up,
and made fail toward the low land, where
they faw the fmoke. At four the weather
being- moderate and clear, the long-boat was
difpatched, well manned and armed, under
the command of the chief officer, who was
inftru&ed to proceed towards the bottom of
the bay, $nd to make fuch examination of
if, and obtain fuch communication with any
inhabitants he might find there, as woul4 *   NORTH WEST  COAST OF AMERICA.
tend to the procuring furs, provifions, &c
At the entrance of this bay they had fifteen,
ten, and eleven fathoms water, over a rocky
bottom, but higher up  no foundings could
be obtained with fifty fathoms of line.—At
noon  the latitude, by account, was 590 41'
North, longitude 2190   47' Eaft.    At three
in  the afternoon, having loft fight of the
long-boat,  and finding that fhe was driven
out to fea, they wore and ran down towards
her.    At half paft four they got  fight  of
her, and within an hour after came along-
fide,   when fhe was found making very bad
weather, on account of the heavy fea : fhe
was immediately hoifted in, and they made
fail to the Southward and Eaftward.
;  At three in  the morning of the  ift of
Auguft it blew ftrong from the North Eaft,
with heavy rain.—At noon,  the latitude by
account was 590 io'North,longitude 2i9°33/
Eaft.    At three in the afternoon the weather
moderated, when they tacked, and ftood to
the Northward and Eaftward. -.p
§1 At fun-rife land was feen, the extremities of which bore North Eaft half Eaft, to
Weft, diftant fix or feven leagues. At noon
the extremities of the land bore from North
K 4 Weft,
Friday i
Saturday a w
1 Ml »
«"1 SI
1788.    Weft, to Eaft South Eaft, diftant ten leagues.
August. The obferved latitude was 590 16' North, and
the longitude 2200 n' Eaft.    In the  after-,
noon the clouds cleared up from over the
land, which gave them a fight  of Mount
Saint Elias, bearing North Weft by Weft,
at the diftance of about twenty leagues.—
On feeing fomething   floating which they
could not afcertain, as they had but little
wind, the jolly-boat was hoifted out to examine it, when it proved to be a dead bird, of
a large fize, which Captain Douglas has not
thought worthy of a defcription.
Sunday 3      In the morning the jolly-boat was dif-
patched, with orders  to proceed within a
mile of the fhore, to examine if there was
appearance of inhabitants ; and about noon
fhe returned, in company with a large canoe,
containing about thirty Indians.—They now
dropped  the beft bower anchor in twenty-
feven .fathoms water, and purchafed of the
natives feveral cotfacks or.drefles of fea-otter
skins, and a pair of gloves of the fame. The
extremities of land, when at anchor,  bore
from Weft North Weft, to Eaft by South
half South, diftant four or five miles.   The
obferved latitude was 590 io' North, and the   1788.
longitude 221° 27'Eaft. S| # August.
Early next morning the people returned, Tuddays
as the failors obferved, with all their old
cloaths, as the cotfacks which they now
offered for fale had been much worn : thefe
articles, however, were purchafed, with a
quantity of falmon ; and at nine o'clock they
weighed anchor and proceeded along the
fhore.«—At noon the extremities of the land
bore from-Weft by North to Eaft; the latitude by obfervation was 590 ï North, longitude 2210 33' Eaft. The place where the
fhip lay was called Tianna's Bay, in honour of that chief; he was indeed very
much diflatisfied with the prefent climate,
againft   the   cold   of which he  could   not M
protect  himfelf, though he had   as   much
cloathing on hirn as he could well carry,
and was become very impatient to return to
At fun-rife on the 6th it fell calm,-andWcdncfday 6
continued   fo till  eleven  o'clock, when  a •
light  breeze  fprung   up   from   the   South     ||
Weft.—At noon Cape Fair Weather bore   1
North   Eaft  by  North,    and  Crofs  Cape
South Eaft by Eaft, diftant from the neareft
land BrtV'
I - I* >f
1.1 ill 11
f   m M
ill III 11
^1 ill1.
1 ! f
I it
1788.   land four miles, running in for Crofs Sound.
August. The latitude by account was 580 10' North,
and longitude 2230 15' Eaft.—At three in
the afternoon, being pretty high up the
Sound, and furrounded with what appeared
to be iflands, as far as the eye could reach,
the jolly-boat was hoifted out, and fent to
difcover if they were rocks or iflands of ice.
On her return, the account of the officer
was, that the ifland he touched at was ice,
as well as  two or three other fmaller ones
|j H which he had pafled : concluding therefore
that the iflands on the outfide of them
might be ice alfo, they hauled clofe in
with the fhore, and fent the boat a head
to found.
At fix in the evening a canoe from Crofs
Cape arrived along-fide the fhip with one
man, who came on board quite naked.    On
II being   prefented  with a jacket,   a pair   of
trowfers, and an hat, he appeared to be
very much delighted, and requefted them to
go in clofe with the fhip, when he would
fhew them the village of which he was
an inhabitant. He accordingly went a-head
in his canoe, a,nd led them in among a
m      parcel  of rocks, with only three   or   four
fathoms water, fo that Captain Douglas 1788.
thought it neceflary to take the pilotage of August.
the veflel upon himfelf ; and as it was dark
and hazy, he found it a matter of fome difficulty to extricate himfelf from his very un-
pleafant fituation. However, at half paft
ten at night, they came to in feventeen fathoms water, over a rocky bottom.
Very early in the morning five canoes Thurfday?
came along^fide, when forty fea-otter skins
arid feveral cotfacks were purchafed ; but
the natives here feemed to underftand the
value of their merchandize, and Captain
Douglas was obliged to give them the price
they demanded. By eight o'clock they had
quitted the fhip 1—But it is impoffible to
take leave of them without mentioning a
circumftance, which appears to be peculiar
to this tribe of Indians ; among whom the
women poffefs a predominant influence, and
acknowledged fuperiority over the other fex :
^r-of this they gave a very ftriking example.
One of the chiefs having unintentionally
înterrsjpted a canoe, in which was a woman,
from coming clofe to the fhip, fhe feized
a paddle, and ftruck him fo violently with
it pn the head, that he wa$ almoft difabled      m:
from m
i lu
I 111
*. in. .i H lit;
1788.   frotn employing  a fimilar inftrument,   to
August, ward off the  blows which   followed.     In
'    this  manner they continued their conteft,
fhe in ftriking, and he  in defending  him-
.;ffelf, for near half an hour; when Captain
Douglas, in order to put an end to this Angular fray, fired a mufquet over their heads,
with concomitant figns of his difpleafure,
but without effedf..    For the woman now
ftepped into the canoe of the man, who appeared to be in a ftate of complete humiliation, and pulling out   a knife  from fome
part of her drefs, fhe fpoke for fome time,
-   W      and then cut him acrofs the thigh. Though
» the blood gufhed in ftreams from the wound^
fhe was about to repeat her violence, when
■ Captain Douglas interfered in fuch a man-r
ner as to oblige this vengeful dame to return to her own boat, and give the bleeding
objecT: of her vengeance an opportunity to
paddle away to the fhore. During the whole
of this engagement, if it may deferve that
name, not one of the men dared to inter-
■4 fere; nay it appeared that they were in fuch
an entire ftate of fubmiflion to female con-
Ug|. troul, that they could not difpofe of a skin
ifpH ï<
till the women had granted them the neceflary permiffion.
As thefe people had difpofed of all their
skins, at noon Captain Douglas made fail
to the South Eaft, with the wind from the
North Weft. The obferved latitude was
580 02' North, and longitude .223° 26' Eaft. |
The weather was now moderate and fair,
and they kept a good look out at the maft-
head for canoes or fmoke. At feven in the
evening a canoe was feen approaching the
fhip, which foon after arrived with two large
otters and one fmall one, juft killed, which
were purchafed. The man on board the
canoe gave them alfo to understand that
more skins would be brought in the morning. They, therefore, at eight o*clock, rah
into twenty-three fathoms of water, and
dropped the beft bower ; bottom, fand and
fhells. i
At fun-rife eight canoes came along-fide, Fridays
when fifty-fix fea-otter fkins were purchafed,
fome of which were already formed into
drefles. At eleven o'clock they weighed anchor and made fail, running along the fhore,
to the South Eaft. The extremities of the
land bore from Weft South Weft, to South
57 *5
ma iii
"i 'iiiiii
South by Eaft, off fhore about three or four
August, miles.    At noon the obferved latitude was
570 3%'  North,   longitude   2240   15' Eaft.
The weather continued moderate, with the
III wind from the North Weft.    At two in the
afternoon they faw a large bay,  bsit being
clofe in with the land, and there being no
appearance of inhabitants,  they tacked and
Saturday 9 flood out. At ten it fell calm, and continued
fo till noon the next day, when it was fo
hazy as to preclude making an accurate obfervation.    The bay they left the preceding
•|:   evening bore North North Eaft,  off fhore
about two leagues.    At three in the afternoon a frefh   breeze   fprung up   from the
Weftward, and perceiving a bay which bore
Eaft off the fhip, they hauled in,  to fee if
there were any inhabitants; but not difcover-
ing the leaft figns of any, they hauled out
1 again, and fhortened fail for the night, not
wifhingto run on, left they fhould pafs any
of the inhabited parts of the coaft,  and of
Jf -     courfe lofe the advantage of trading with the
.Sunday 10     In the morning they made fail, and  got
on deck all their bread to dry.    At noon
Mount Edgecombe  bore  North  Weft   by
Weft half Weft ; the extremities of the land    j 788.
alfo bearing from North Weft half Weft,  August.
to Eaft  South Eaft,   diftant off fhore four        ■ m
miles.    The obferved  latitude was 590 19'
North.   From a medium of feveral diftances
of the fun  and moon,   the  longitude was
2240 50' Eaft of Greenwich.—At eight in
the evening,   it blowing frefh, they reefed
the top-fails and fhortened fail for the night,
two fmall iflands bearing from the fhip South
by Eaft half Eaft.    The extremities of the
land bore from North  Weft by Weft half
Weft, to South Eaft by Eaft, diftant from    M   El
the fhore five leagues.
Early in the morning of the 11th they Tuesdays
made fail for the land, and at noon it was
diftant about eight or nine leagues. The
obferved latitude was 55° 21' North, and
the longitude 2250 57' Eaft. A brifk gale
fpringing up from the Northward and Weft-
ward, at three o'clock in the afternoon thev
ran acrofs the mouth of a large bay which
forms two capes. The fouthern one was
called Cape Adamfon, and is high, bluff |
land, lying in the latitude of 550 28/ North, J|
longitude 2260 21' Eaft.    The other to the
North was named Cape Barnett.    It is low
1 to- WM
1788.    towatds the fea,  but rifes gradually within
August, land to a coiifiderable height, and is in the
latitude of 550 39' North, longitude 2260 04'
-. -Eaft.       ' -   ■■' ■".. :~M' '   %  ■'
'*%'-    Having run a coiifiderable way up the
« bay, they entered the mouth of a ftrait paf-
fage, not more than half a mile acrofs from
fhore to fhore, fleering North : by the num-
II   ber of whales which were blowing a long
way within the paflage,  it was evident that
there was plenty of water for the fhip.    At
It   eight o'clock in the evening they dropped
the beft bower in feven teen fathoms, with
a fandy bottom, about half a mile from the
li|     r     fhore.    The fhip was now  entirely landlocked, except at the entrance ; and her prefent situation was named Sea-otter Harbour,
from   the  great  number of thofe animals
\ which were in the water.   They were as
thick as a flock of ducks ;  and the man at
fl\     the maft-head taking them for rocks,  and
calling out accordingly, occafioned a confi-
derable  impediment in the courfe of the
fhip. J|˧
Monday 11      Early in the morning of the  12th, the
: jolly-boat   was  difpatched   to  found,   and
jj|;-   If:' the long-boat to look out for a watering
2 place.
place. At nine the latter returned without 1788.
having made the expefted difcovery. A very August.
plentiful, as well as convenient run of water,
was, however, foon after found by Captain
Douglas on the opposite fhore. He alfo faw
many places where there had been fires, but
no other traces of inhabitants.—In pulling
up thé bay he difcovered a paiTage out to
fea, and that it was an ifland where the fhip
lay : he is alfo clearly of opinion that the
land which formed the ftraits to the Northward muft confift of iflands. — All hands
were now employed in cutting wood, getting
in water, or overhauling the rigging. Captain Douglas, therefore, took this opportunity of taking out the jolly-boat to explore
the head of the ftraits ; when, after pullir
three or four hours, he faw two arms, on
ftretching towards the North, and the other
about Eaft South Eaft. By the number of
whales which he faw blowing in thefe dif-
ferent branches, he concluded there muft be
paflages out to fea through both of them. He
landed at feveral places, andfawfpots where
fires had been made, as well as boards for
canoes ; but no other figns whatever of inhabitants.   At feven in the evening he re-
Vol. II.
turned \6z
1788.   turned on board,  and gave  orders  to get
August,   under way.   At eight they fleered through
/   the mouth of the ftraits ; Cape Barnett bearing South Weft  by Weft half Weft, and
Cape Adamfon South by Weft half Weft.
Wedncfdayi3    They had light winds from the Northward till nine in the morning, when it frefh -
ened up.    At noon the former Cape bore
North Weft by Weft, and the latter North
Weft.    The appearance of a large bay bore
North by Weft half Weft ; a fmall ifland,
about two miles in   circumference,   South
''-&.       South Eaft,   diftant feven  or eight miles.
It was  now named Douglas Ifland ;   and
there are two or three fmall, low and rocky
iflands lying off its North and  South ends.
It is very high,  and covered with verdure,
and may be feen at the diftance of fixteen
II      or feventeen leagues.    It lies  ten   leagues
from the main land, in the latitude of 540 58'
1^     North, and longitude 2260 43/ Eaft.    Between this ifland   and the  main   there  is
another of lefler extent,   which is rocky,
barren, and almoft  level with  the water.
"fi   Between thefe two iflands they fleered their
courfe by compafs,  Eaft South Eaft, but
could get no foundings with fifty fathoms
of North West CoAsf of America.
of line.   At three in the afternoon they had    1788.
a fteady breeze from  the Weftward, with   August.
clear weather, when they  pafled  Douglas
Ifland ; but as they were fleering in for â   || M
bay which bore North Eaft by North, there
came on a very thick fog. At half paft four,
they were visited by two canoes, who ap-      "        :
peared to have come out of the bay for which
the Iphigenia was fleering. Twenty-fix fea*
otter fkins made in dreffes, and fome birds,
were now purchafed of their visitors, who
were fond of iron and beads, and were fa-
tisfied with any quantity that was offered to
At one in the morning it blew a ftiif gale, Thurfday 14.
with  thick and foggy weather;  and  they A South South Weft till four, when
they hove to.    At nine the fog diminifhed,
and they made  fail in fhore. 7At ten they    - '   ft
got fight of Douglas Ifland, Weft by North     \
half North. At noon the main land extended
from Eaft  by North,   to North  Weft  by \
North, diftant four leagues off fhore.    The
obferved latitude was now  540 43' North,
and the longitude,, as reduced from the laft    ,      |l
lunar obfervations,   2270 37' Eaft.    They
continued fleering in for the bay which was«^;
L 2 feen iX
\ If Rest
voyages to the
feen the preceding evening, and at two in
the afternoon they got within a fmall ifland
that lies a quarter of a mile from the main
land. Here it fell calm ; and a chief, with
two large canoes, each containing between
thirty and forty people, came along-fide,
finging a general chorus of no unpleafing
effect. As the tide was adverfe, the fhip
was driving down very faff towards the
ifland which was- under her lee. The chief
was therefore defired to lay hold of a rope,
and tow the fhip higher up the bay, which
was immediately done ; the natives in the
canoes continuing their fong as they proceeded. At three they dropped anchor in
twenty-three fathoms of water, with a bot-
torn of fand and fheils.
The Weftern point of land which forms
the bay, bore Eaft South Eaft, and the
Eaflern point, Eaft North Eaft ; fo that a
fhip lying there is only expofed to four
points of the compafs ;—that is, I between
Eaft South Eaft and Eaft North Eaft : fhe
will be land-locked every other way about
a mile from the Weftern fhore. It was now
named Port Meares. The latitude of the
fhip at anchor was, by feveral obfervations,
540 51' North, and longitude, according to   1788.
the refult of feveral diftances of the fun and Aug^st.
moon, 2270 54' Eaft of Greenwich.
In Port Meares there are two large arms
or branches of the fea; the one turns North
North Eaft, and the other about North , '
North Weft, which Captain Douglas fup-
pofes to have a communication with Sea
Otter   Sound.    During this and   the   two  ^.,,
0 Friday 15
following days, they purchafed feveral fea- Saturday ic
otter skins or nickees,  as the natives called
them.    They  obtained  upwards   of   fixty        ,   J|
cotfacks   from   this  tribe,   which   Captain
* X
Douglas reprefents as the moft liberal, un-   $.'■ -
fufpicious and honeft Indians he had  ever
know.    /;' " H  •. \f||f;- ■ -     '*   .-
They had now light winds from the Weft- Sunday jl
ward, with very pleafant weather.    In the
evening  of the   17th   the   natives   of the
Northern or North North Eaftern  branch
of the fea, made a large fire to give notice
of their approach ; and at one in the morn- Monday 18
ing they came along-fide, finging in their
ufual manner as they approached the fhip.
—Of thefe people they purchafed between
fifty and fixty skins made into drefles, and      *
the beft they had yet feen.   -       |f ■irffi
nu a vm\
On the 20th having invited three of the
August,   chiefs to dinner, they made Captain Douglas
Wednesday 20 J r °
underftand that they had difpofed of all
||-; \ S their nickees ; but that if he would return
with plenty of beads and iron, they would
be prepared with a frefh quantity fufficient
for his demands. They then took him on
deck, and pointing out to fea, made figns
that the nickees came from thence. Though
there was no land to be feen, as the coaft
took an Eafterly direction from Port Meares,.
at three in the afternoon they weighed and
ipade fail, fleering out to fea South Eaft,
S with à frefh breeze from the Weftward.—
After running fix leagues, they faw land,
bearing from Eaft South Eaft, to South
Weft, diftant about twelve leagues.—At
nine it came on thick and hazv weather,
É|' c|i when they hove the fhip to, with her head
to the Northward and Weftward.—During
the night they had foundings from fixty
to eighty fathoms, with a fandy bottom,
t At eight in the morning of the 21ft, it
cleared up on the opposite fhore, fo that
they had a fight of the land which forms
Port Meares, bearing North North Weft,
diftant nine or ten leagyes. They then
%yqre and made fail to the South Eaft.    At
- noon
*Thurfday 21
noon they were clofe in with the land,
which extended Eaft by North half North,
to Weft by South. The obferved latitude
was 540 06' North, and the longitude
228° 4' Eaft. They now run along the
fhore, with a fleady breeze from the Weft-
ward, towards a bay to which the natives
had pointed. At two they faw a thick
fmoke at the bottom of it, when they run
into eleven and nine fathoms of water.—At
half paft two a thick fog coming on,
and land feen from the maft-head, trending
due North, it was determined to difcover if
there was any paflage, or if the land that
was feen joined the main. At a quarter
before three o'clock, as no canoes came
off, they fet a prefs of fail, and fleered for
the bluff high land that bore North. At
five it cleared up, fo that they had a fight
of both fides, as well as of a fandy fpit,
level with the water, which ran to the
Northward, as far as the eye could reach
from the maft-head. At feven they had
a fliff gale, and faw the end of the low fpit
offahd. At eight they hauled round the
point, when it was difcovered that the land
did not join the main, but formed a large
ifland, which took a Southerlv direction.—
L 4 Aiter
• BiV    f I r Ifl
88,   After rounding the fandy level, they came
August,   to regular foundings of ten, eight and feven
fathoms of water, about three or four miles
;.-.. x ii ■
from the ifland, the extremes of which bore
from  North  by Weft,   to South  Eaft  by
ft half Eaft.
At fix in the morning of the 23d, feeing
no appearance of inhabitants, they weighed
anchor and made fail, flanding to the South
Eaft, having land on both fides. The fandy
point that was paffed on the preceding evening, was named Point Rofe, It lies in the
latitude of 540 i8/ North, and in the longitude of 2280 39' Eaft.—It was now difco-
vered that this was a large ferait, and an
ifland of great extent, where the anchorage
is good, and which, to all appearance, affords feveral harbours on the Northern and
Eastern fides. On the former there is a
certainty of meeting with inhabitants ;
and, in all probability, with abundance of
furs. The centre of the ifland lies in the
latitude of 530 85' North, and in the longitude of 2280 54' Eaft.
At noon they had light winds and calms,
with clear weather, the extremes of the
ifland   bearing from North North  Weft,
to South half Eaft, and thofe of the con-    1788.
tinent from Eaft by South, to North North  august.
Eaft ; diftance   of the coaft nine  leagues, j|
and  from the ifland   about eight  or nine
leagues.    The latitude, by obfervation, was ||
53° 55' North, and the longitude  2290 30'
Eaft.—The variation, per medium  of fix /f|
azimuths,   170   43/   Eaft;. per  amplitude,
170 59':
At nine in the morning of the 24th, the  Sunday 24
longitude, from the medium of feveral dif-
tances of the fun and moon, was  2300 16'
Eaft of Greenwich.—From nine till noon ^
the weather was calm and clear, when the
bearings of the land were as follows :—The
extremities   of the   continent  bore North
Weft   by  North, half North, to Eaft by     ; -
South ; a fmall bluff ifland, lying off the
main, bearing North by Weft, diftant ten
leagues,  and the extremities of Charlotte
Ifland from Weft to South.      *f
I fhall here take the opportunity of ob-
ferving, that fhips which arrive early on the
coaft, when they muft expecl: to meet with
heavy gales of wind, will find it their advantage to make the South end of this
ifland, and to enter the ftraits in the lati-
•     3   . 1
1788.   tude of 52°, and the longitude of 229* 30',
August, when they will find fhelter either  in  the
ifland or on the continent.—It may be alfo
added, that as fhip s which  are   returning
Il from the North at a late period of the fea-
II Ion, are liable to be blown off the coaft, it
ISÈ would be advifable for them to make Douglas Ifland, and enter the ftraits in the latitude of 540 30', and longitude 2260 30', when
they will find good anchorage, as well as
inhabitants, on the North fide of the ifland.
On the continent thly will alfo have the
Hv advantage  of Port  Meares and Sea  Otter
Sound,   befides feveral   other bays  which
.If'      have not yet been explored, between 56 and
54 degrees of North latitude. |§
Monday 25 1 On the morning of the 25th they had loft
M;     fight of land, and, as the change  of the
'||Ë   moon was approaching, when a gale of wind
might be expected, which, perhaps, would
II      have obliged them to run immediately to the
Sandwich Iflands for a fupply of provisions,
§|      ,     it was refblved to fleer at once for Nootka
Sound, without encountering the land again,
in order to add to their ftockof furs.
Tuefday 26      On the 26th,   at half paft nine,  their
longitude, from a medium of feveral  dif-
tances of the fun and moon, was i32°38/   1788.
Eaft of Greenwich,   with  a  ftrong gale, August.
fleering Eaft  North   Eaft;   and   at  noon
their latitude was,  by obfervation, 49° 42'       '
North.  \
At eight in the evening they were clofe
in with   the  entrance  of Nootka Sound,        ||
when it fell calm, and the tide fetting out,
they   dropped  the heft  bower  anchor in     '  ,
twenty-three fathoms water.
At feven on the morning of the 28th, Thurfdayt*
a light breeze fpringing up from the Weft-
ward, they got under way, and flood in
for the Sound ; and before noon the Iphige^
nia, with her crew in good health and fpi^»
rits, joined the Felice in Friendly Cove*
I \Mf-ti
The Iphigenia and North West America
leave Nootka Sound. —Arrive off Mowee,
one of the Sandwich Iflands.—Tianna receives his Brother on board.—Arrive off
Owhyhee.—A Vif t from the King.—Anchor
in Karakakooa Bay.—Great Abundance of
Provifons fent on board.—Ceremony of re-
. ceiving Captain Douglas on Shore. — The
North West America parts from her
Cable.—The King's Divers ajfft In recover-
. ing the Cable.—The Iphigenia parts from
her Cable.—Sufpedl the Natives of this A5i
of Treachery.—The Divers again employed\
and recover the Cable, &c—Tianna leaves
the Ship, to fettle in Owhyhee.—An Account
of the late Change in the Government of that
Ifland, &c.
Monday 27
mm H E Iphigenia remained in Friendly
Cove after the departure of the Felice,
till the 27th of October, the interval of
which was employed in fitting the North
Weft America  for fea, and  making fuch
other NORTH  WEST  COAST  OF   AMERICA. tfrrt?
other preparations as their approaching voy-    1788.
age rendered neceflary.-—At noon on that December.
day they quitted Nootka Sound, and pro-   f
ceededon their way to the.Sandwich Iflands %
and as nothing particular happened in the
courfe of it, but a  fcarcity of provisions,
which  occafioned a very  fhort allowance,
we fliall at once fuppofe the Iphigenia and
her confort to be  in fight  of Owhyhee;
which welcome object prefented itfelf to the
crews  of both veflels at  day-light in   the
morning   of the   6th   of
bel* :—the   Saturday 6
Weft end of that ifland then bore South
South Weft, three quarters Weft, diftant
nine or ten leagues ; and the Ifland of Mowee
bore Weft, diftant feven leagues. The wind
having drawn round to South South Weft,
occafioned them to run over to the South
Eaft fide of Mowee. > '   •
• Tianna, whofe impatience fince the Iphigenia left Samboingan, had fometimeô broke
forth into the violence of anger, and might
have been expe&ed, on approaching his native country, to have aflumed the fhape of-
the moft violent joy, became grave and
thoughtful ; and any occafional eagernefs
which animated his looks and adlions, when
'    ■;'-■• "4;v ' . ■ ..      they
I til
1788.   they drew nigh to the Sandwich Iflands*
December, rather implied the anxiety of expectation,
H     than   fenlations  of pleafure. —He  knew
^||: • ■'M '■' -enough of the fit u at ion of his country  to
j|j; caufe a very powerful conteft between hope
and fear in his bofom ; and thofe apprehen-
fions  of  danger  which  weighed   nothing
"■■•'_     with him  when failing over diftant  feas,
feemed, in fome degree, to opprefs his fpi-
rits, when he was about to  encounter it.
M    It was certainly a period of the moft pain-
4§ ful fufpenfe, as he was uncertain whether
I the treafiires he poflefled would be employ -
¥   ed to elevate him into confequence, or to
-   'Jf       Jmrchafe his fafety ;—whether they would
||    be allowed to enrich himfelf, or feized, to
form the wealth of others.—He had left his
|j| ifland in a ftate of peace, but he had every
reafon to fear that he fhould find it in a ftate
JfL   of war; or at leaft under the government of
an ufurped power, which he could not for a
moment fuppofe would be friendly to him.—
Such appeared to be the ftate of Tianna's
mind on arriving among his native iflands.
We had no fboner appeared off Mowee
|T,   than a great number of canoes came off with
Ip   1|   hogs,  yams and plantains.—On this  fide
'   ' '*        - • -'I.--        IK :;    ;   '/.#:'.:fef
of the ifland there is a large town, the refî- 1788.
d^nce of Titeeree, the fovereign of Mowee, December.
who was at this time on a vifit to Taheo,
king of Atooi, in whofe abfence the government was left to the care of Harwallenee,
brother-in-law to Tianna, of whofe arrival
he was no fooner informed, than he ordered
a prefent of hogs for the fhip ; but before
it arrived Tianna had obferved his brother ff|
on fhore, and having drefled himfelf in his ,
heft apparel, desired that a meflàge might be
fent to invite him on board.—On his arrival
they met as brothers fhould do after a lon°-
feparation ; the whole of their conduct to
each other was affectionate;—they melted
into tears, and almoft drew the fame from * '%.,.
the eyes of thofe who beheld them.—After
their firft emotions had fubfided, the chief
requefted Captain Douglas to remain with
him for a few days, and engaged to fupply
him with any quantity of provifions that
might be demanded; but as he faw no
place where they could come to an anchor
in fafety, the furf at the fame time beating with great violence, and an heavy fwell
with the wind blowing  in fhore, Captain
1§< , Douglas VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.  Douglas was  under the neceffity of d'ecli-
Pecember. ning the invitation. ■   .
Tianna being extremely anxious to vifit
Owhyhee, they wore, and ftood at noon for
the North Weft point of that ifland.
Sunday 7       At noon on the 7th, a canoe from Owhyhee  came along-fide, with a friend of Ti-
. anna, who had heard in the courfe of the
night, from Mowee, of his arrival. — In
the afternoon feveral relations of Abinui
came on board, and in the evening Tianna
difpatched a friend to Tome-homy-haw, to
give him notice of their approach.
Monday s On the following morning a great number of canoes came off from Toe-yah-yah
Bay, with hogs, fowls, and taro-root.—The
winds were light and variable, and the la-
titude, by obfervation, 200 n/North. At
< fun-fet the extremes of Owhyhee bore from
North to South by North, diftance off fhore
three leagues.
At two in the morning there was heavy
rain, with thunder and lightning. At day-
H'- - ' • light they had loft fight of the North Weft
America ; but at nine faw her clofe in fhore.
At eleven they hove to till the fchooner
came up.    At noon they were only  four
miles off fhore, and the obferved latitude 1*788. f-'v
was 190 44' North. In the afternoon fe-December.
veral of Tianna's relations came on board ;
and fo liberal was he difpofed to be to them
all, that if he had not been checked in his
generosity, the whole of his treafure would
have been at once divided among them.
The King alfo fent a prefent to Captain Douglas, accompanied with a meflage that he
would pay him a vifit as fbon as he had
come to an anchor in the bay.
The current having fet them a confider-We<inefdt>r2«
able way to  the Northward, at day-light
they made fail for the bay ; and at noon the    3   %;
latitude, by obfervation, was J9°35'North.
Tianna now difpatched one of the chiefs
who had come to welcome his arrival, tofe"
invite the King to come on board ; and at       |§
two in the afternoon he made his appearance in a lar£e double canoe, attended by
twelve others of the fame fize, beautifully
adorned with feathers.    As foon as he came *
on board, Captain Douglas faluted him with
feven guns.   After crying over Tianna for a
coiifiderable time, the King prefented Captain Douglas with a moft  beautiful fan,
and two long-feathered cloaks»    The light
Vol. II. M winds i*f il
ml M
winds and number of canoes hanging on
the fhip, prevented her from making any
way through the water ; fo that it became
a matter of neceffity to requeft his Majefty
to taboo the fhip, with which he readily
||.' complied, defiriug permission, at the fame
time, for himfelf and lèverai of the chiefs
fleep on board.
Thurfday n       They continued working into the bay till
two o'clock   in the   morning ; when they
dropped anchor in twenty-one fathoms water, at the  diftance of three quarters of a
mile from fhore.    The King profeffed the
warmeft friendfhip for the Captain of the
Iphigenia,—declared that the ifland fliould
belong to him while he remained there,—
"J§1   fand, to   prove the sincerity of his regard,
exchanged names with him.    But however
flattering all thefe attentions might be, Cap-4
tain Douglas thought it not impoffible but
that fome attempt  might be made to feize
the fchooner, as fhe appeared to  be  fmall,
and her  crew  few in   number ; he therefore, in the evening, carried the King on
board the North Weft America, when by
fainting  him with all her guns, and other
explanations concerning the pofllbility of defending
fending her, when attacked, by retiring to 1*88.
clofe quarters, the difficulty of gettîhg pof- December.
feffion of her muft have appeared very evident to the royal vifitor. When, however,
Tianna explained to him the manner and
time in which ffife was built, he intreated
that a carperiter might be left at Owhyhee
to aflift Tiarîïia. in forming fuch another;
and, indeed, fo earneft were the requefts ©f
them both on this fubiec~l, that it was n'ecef-
fary to make fomething of a conditional pro-
mife, at leaft, for their prefent fatisfaclion.
On the morning of the 12th the Cap- Friday j a
tains of both fhips accompanied the King
and Tianna in the jolly-boat, on. fhore.
They were met on the beach by three
priefts, who chaunted a kind of fong, and
prefented a fmall hog and cocoa-nut ; the
former of which was given by the King to
Captain Douglas.—This ceremony continued about   ten   minutes, after which   they.
were introduced into a large houfe fpread
with mats, and a1 kind of party-coloured
cloth ; when, after the repetition of thefe §
ceremonies, and the prieft had chaunted a
third fong, two baked hogs were brought
in, of which  the Englifh gentlemen alone . i§
M 2 ear mm
^         L
1788.   Cat, and then proceeded to take a walk, in
December, which they were not interrupted by a finglc
perfon, as all the natives were tabooed on the
occafion, and, of courfe, confined to their
houfes.   . . jt;.      É: .,£:
Nothing was feen in this little excursion
|8jr %vorth a repetition, but a clump of cocoa-
nut  trees, whofe trunks were pierced by
ff   the balls of the Refblution and the Dilco-
' very.  It being extremely hot, they returned
and dined with the King, on frefh fifh and
potatoes.^-The other chiefs fat at fome dif-
'I tance during dinner, and then   made their
meal on roafted dogs, taro-rpots and pota*
toes ; as at this feafon of the year even the
chiefs are forbidden to eat hogs and fowls,
8J     from  the King down to the loweft Eree.
In the evening' the King and Queen returned
with Captain Douglas on board the I phi*
genia, as they çoniidered it to be a luxury
of no common defçriptioi* to fleep in his
Saturday rj'    This d^y was chiefly employed in killing
* ^nd falling down the hogs ; but as the coppers on board for heating the water were
very fmall, they made but flow progress in
this neceflary occupation,
■   * •!' •    t     H      '        I,        At MôRtH WesT COASf of ÀlvtERïCA.
At three in   the  morning of the  14th,    1788*
the fchooner came under the fiern of the December,
* .      ^ i      Sunday 14
Iphigenia, when Captain Funtêr gave tne
very difagreeable information that fhe had  U     .
parted her cable.—After having moored het
to the Iphigenia, Tiârina was requefted tô
go on fhore, and entreat the Kilig to fend off
his divers, in order to recover the anchor ; ' J|
and at eight o'clock he came off with them.      •     .;J§
The fchooner having lain in thirty fathoms   jf       :^
water, and not having loft more than three
or four fathoms of cable, a very great depth
muft have remained for the natives to have
explored, in order to fucceed in the bufinefà
about  which  they  were to  be employed»
The following ceremony, however, was to
be performed, before they entered upon their
fearch:—When their canoes were arrived j
at the place where the anchor lay, feveral    v
calabafhes with taro-root were prefented by
a chief to fix men,  who employed about
half an hour at the repafl ; when one of the
chiefs who accompanied them gave three
loud yells, and waved a piece of white cloth     ;       ' j-S
over his head ; at this fignal the fix  men
plunged into the fea, and diiappeared in a  §-
moment.—Four of the  fix  remained  be-
neath #*
peath the water about five minutes; the
&< fifth continued about a minute longer, and
when he came up was almoft exhaufted-;
two men immediately feized and dragged
him to the boat :—In the mean time there
IVas no appearance of the fixth, who w<&
confidered as loft, when he was feen near
the furface of the water, but finking down -
again ; three of the divers, however, plunged
inftantly after him, and brought him up,
but in a fenfelefs ftate, and with ftreams of
blood ifliiing from his mouth and noftrils.—
It was fome time before he was fufficiently
recovered to inform them that he had not
only got hold of the cable, but had cleared
it. This man, according to the account of
Captain Funter of the North Weft America,
was beneath the water the fpace of feven minutes and an half. It appeared, however,
that the anchor was in too great a depth of
water to afford any profpecT: of its being re:
covered.—Thefe people were amply rewarded for their exertions.
Captain Douglas having given orders^to
A O O     O
Tight the anchor, thought it prudent to move
further in towards the village of Kowrowa,
and dropped anchor in twenty fathoms water,
about a quarter of a mile from the fhore ;—•
but, finding it to be bad ground, a warp was December.
run out, and the fhip hauled into fourteen
fathoms warer.
xAt day-light  the jolly-boat was feat fo Monday*
found, when, on its being difcovered that
the ground was by no means clear of the
coral   rock,   on   the   Kowrowa  fide,   they
weighed anchor, and warped the fhip op-
pofite Sandy Bay, on  the Karakakooa  fide,  Jf     -M
where they dropped the bower anchor in
twenty fathoms water,  with a bottom of
greyfand; the two points which form the
hay, bearing Weft half North, to South one
quarter Weft,  diftant off fhore about one      v .
mile.    The evening was employed in killing
and faking provifions.
Tianna had now determined to remain at
Owhyhee, as Tome-homy-haw had given
him a large tra£t of land in that ifland, where
.he would live in a ftate of honour and fecu-
rity, which the reigning diftra£tions and
jealoufies of the government of Atooi would
have denied him ; besides, it was a matter of
no great difficulty to get his wife and the
reft of his family from thence to his new
I /   Mi The »
■H 1
1788.        The weather having been very fqually fo
î>ECEM3ER. the Weflward for fome days paft, Captain
Douglas was apprehenfive of a gale of wind
blowing from the fea; he was therefore de-
1, , termined to get underway, and go in fearch
of fome place,  among the  other iflands,
where the veflels might lie in fafety.—In
* the morning, therefore, they unmoored the
^» ftiip, but in heaving the fmall bower they
found the cable had parted.—On the very
If      inftant this difeovery was made, the King
and his chiefs fecretly quitted the fhip and
II    I   paddled haftily to the fhore.—As the clinch
J|      was cut,  to all appearance by defign, there
.;§' was little doubt on whom to fix the mif-
chief: Tianna, therefore, was fent to inform the King of the circumftance, as well
as the fufpiciôns connected with it, and that
if the anchor was not found, his town fhould
be blown about his ears.—This threat had
the defired effe£l, for in a fhort time Tianna
returned with a party of divers, who, after
"§ a repetition of the   ceremonies already de
scribed, leaped into the water and difap-
peared.—The longeft period which any of
them remained under water was four minutes,  but no anchor was to  be feen.—
1 They
They were fent down a fécond time with    1788.
the fame fuccefs.—At length the buoy-rope December.
was hooked with a fmall grapnel, fo that the
divers had now no excufe whatever as  to
the uncertainty where the anchor lay ; accordingly two of them went down with a
three  and half inch  rope, and  bent it in
twenty fathoms, as well as if they had been
on fhore, fb that this important obje£l was
fortunately  recovered ; the lofs of which
•would have been very diftreffing, as they had
only one bower left, and an heavy fheet-    •
anchor, but without any cable of fufficient
ftrength to bring the latter to the bows.
In the morning they had light breezes Saturdays*
from the land, and as they were heaving up
the anchor, in order to get an offing, an
heavy fquall appearing to be brewing from
the Weftward, the King, accompanied by
Tianna and feveral chiefs, came on board ;
but the former, when he fouqd that we fhot
out from the bay, thought it time to depart, §
and accordingly left the fhip, attended by
upwards of an hundred canoes. I       i   ' ,;f
As foon as they had got an offing, they
hove to, and the fquall clearing away, Tian-   % \
îu's treafures were ordered to be brought
■W      "     ' upon i86
1788. upon deck.—They confifted of faws of dif-
Becember. ferent kinds, gimblets, hatchets, adzes,knives
and choppers, cloth of various fabrics, carpets of feveral colours, a confiderable quantity of China-ware, and ten bars of iron.—
, Thefe riches, for fuch they may be truly
denominated to the owner of them, were
not to be trufted in one bottom; and as
there yet remained about the fhip feveral
double canoes that carried each from forty
to fifty men, his trunk was handed into one
of them, the bars of iron into another, and
fo on, till he had no lefs than five canoes
charged with his treafure, which was fe-
curely lafhed to thejm.—Tianna, after in-
treating Captain Douglas again and again
to bring his family from Atooi to Owhyhee,
took a moft affectionate leave of him and the
whole crew, who had fo long been his confiant companions and friends ; nor were the
latter without their emotions of regard,
when they faw the chief, whofe amiable
difpofition and fuperior qualities had won
their fincere efteem through the connection
of a long and dangerous voyage, about to
be feparated from them.—As Tianna left
the fhip, accompanied by a numerous tr$in
' ■  'M    ' I      ' ' ■ É of
of his relations in their refpe&ive canoes,    1788/
Captain Douglas ordered a falute of feven December-
guns, as a mark of efteem to that refpe&able
chief,   and   immediately  made  fail  to the
North Weft,   k ^Jl ■ |:     ,
Though feveral European veflels have t
been off the ifland, yet as the Iphigenia alone
had anchored in Karakakooa-bay, and Captain Douglas and his people were the only
Europeans who have ventured on fhore at ■§
Owhyhee fince the unfortunate death of
Captain Cook, the changes which have take$
place in the ifland fince that lamentable
event, as far as they came to the knowledge
of Captain Douglas, may be confidered, perhaps, as a matter of fufficient curiofity to
juftify a curfory mention of them.
Many of the chiefs whom Captain King
thought proper to particularife, are no more ;
and among them the friendly Kaireekeea
and the treacherous Koah :—but Eappo,
the faithful Eappo, who may be remembered
as having brought the bones of the illuf- H
trious navigator to Captain Gierke, and who
had married Tianna's lifter, was now on
board the Iphigenia, where he had lived ever
fince her arrival off the ifland.    As to the
revo- I Si
«ïi''l II if 1
Mir VI SlWis
1788.   revolution  in  the  government,   the  moft
December, accurate account, in the opinion of Captain
Douglas, was as follows :—
About three years after the death of Captain Cook, Maiha Maiha,—for that was the
name which Tome-homy haw then bore,—
I   had occafion to fend a meflage to the King
Terreeoboo,  who,  for fome reafon which
II did not appear, thought proper to put the
meflenger to death.—But Maiha Maiha be~
ing a very powerful chief, and pofleffing
a bold and aflive difpofition, contrived
to unite the greater part of thofe of his
rank to join with him in forwarding his revenge. He, therefore, went immediately to
' the King, who became fo irritated by his
provoking accufations, as to refent the in-*
fuit by a blow. On this act, which we muft
fuppofe to have been considered as in the
higheft degree criminal in the King himfelf,
the Chiefs of the ifland fat in judgment
during three days, when it was determined
II by their councils,  that Terreeoboo fhould
»    ft     fuffer death.    A cup of poifbn, therefore,,
was inftantly prepared, and being given ta
Maiha Maiha, was prefented by him to the
I  King, who refufed it twice ;   when being,
informed that another and more difhonour- 1788.
able mode of punifhment was at hand, and December*
obferving that an executioner ftood by his
fide, in a ftate of preparation to knock out
his brains, the wretched fovereign, in an
agony of defpair, drank off the deadly
draught, and in a few moments fell from
his feat and expired.
The fame power which doomed Terreeoboo to death, deprived his fon of the royal
fucceflioti, and Maiha Maiha was proclaimed King, by the name of Tome-homy-haw*
Such was the moft probable hiftory of this
revolution;—though the King himfelf took
no common pains to perfuade Captain Douglas that Terreeoboo was poifoned for having encouraged the natives to the murder of
Captain Cook.
Tome-homy-haw, however, appeared to
Be rather an objeft of fear than love among
his fubje&s.—« As far as could be obferved,
he was of a tyrannic difpofition, and poflefled |
few of thofe qualities which gain a fovereign
the firft of all titles,—the Father of hi* ,
people. Captain Douglas mentions a cir-
cumftance which proves at leaft, that if a
blow from the hand or a weapon was con-
fidered I
i- &
1788.   fidered at Owhyhee as a capital offence even
ïbcEMEER, in the King, the fame violence from the foot
was, by no means, considered as partaking
of the fame criminal nature.—Some of the
chiefs propofing, on   feeing Captain   Douglas  lhave  himfelf,   that the King fliould
undergo   the  fame operation,   his Ma jelly
thought proper to kick them, all, one after
the other, not only without fear, but without mercy.
Sunday 21      On   the   2ift   the   fhips   made   fail   for
Mowee, with  the wind   from   the  South.
At  noon the obferved latitude was 2::0 36'
North, diftant from Mowee four miles.    A
frefh gale fpringing up from the Southward,
they ran up to the head of the bay, and had
regular foundings from thirteen to five fathoms of water over coral-rock, with fome
fpots  of fand,  where they might have anchored with fafety to their cables,  if the
§"'     wind had not blown fb frefh on fhore. They,
*    therefore, hauled out of the bay, and fleered
1       for the Weft point of the ifland.    At  fix
f§ in  the  evening,   they   dropped   the   fmall
bower anchor in five fathoms and an half
of water, over fand and fhells, and moored
with the ft ream anchor, halt a cable each
Arrive off Woahoo.—Reception given by Titeeree,
to Captain Douglas.—Quit Woahoo, and proceed to Atooi.—Anchor in Wyrnoa Bay.—-'
Taheo, the Sovereign, retires up the Country.— He returns, and vif t s the Iphigenia.—
Captain Douglas cautioned of feen t Defigns
againfl him.—Proceed towards Oneeheow,—
Forced by contrary Gales to Woahoo.—
Arrive in Tiroway Bay in Owhyhee. ——
Friendly Conduct of Tianna and the King.—
Alliance entered into by the Princes of the
neighbouring Iflands.—The Affifance giveto
by Captain Douglas to the Sovereign of Owhyhee, and Tianna.—Defeription of Tiroway
Bay.—§>uit Owhyhee*—Difpute among the
Seamen at Wyrnoa Bay.—Proceed to Onee-
beow for Tarns. —§>uit the Sandwich Iflands,
to return to the North Wejl Coafl of America.
[O material occurrence took place from
the 21 ft, but an attempt of the natives
to cut the cable while the Iphigenia was at
anchor off the Ifland of Mowee, for which
one of them received a very fevere correc-
tion. 11(1
1788.   tioft.—They had continued, for feveral days,
December, to beat about in fearch of a good anchoring
Tuefday3o p]ace . arcj on the 30th, they worked round
the South Eaft end of the Ifland of Woahoo,
and at eight in the evening were clofe in with
W«dncfday3ia large bay.~The following day at noon,
on finding that the current fet them down
towards a flioal, which the fea broke over
with great force, they made fail and pufhed
eut from the land, when they had five, four,
and three and an half fathoms of water,
about  four miles from the fhore. |: At four
'■IK- in the afternoon they tacked and ftood in,
to try for anchorage; but the wind blowing
too frefh on land, arid a number of fhoals
and banks being under their lee, they were
A       obliged to put about.
January.      Having flood off till  four in  the morn-
TfemfJay 1 jng9 the wJnJ drew round to the Eaftward,
M-, and brought clear, moderate weather. They
were now informed by the natives that Ti-
teeree, the King, lived on the Eaft-fide of
the bay.—The jolly-boat was, therefore,
fent to found opposite a  fândy bay, while
|p|the Iphigenia flood off under an eafy fail.
At noon the jolly-boat made fignal for anchorage, when they'accordingly run in and
dropped the flream   anchor   in  eleven   fa-    1789.
thorns of water,  over fand   and fhells, at JANUARY-
the diftance of about three miles  from  a     t
village, and two from an high bluff land on
the   Eaftern   fide   of the  bay.     The  two
extreme points which form this large bay,
bearing from Weft half North, to Eaft South   '
Eaft.    It is called by the natives Witetee,
and the only good anchorage appears to be
on the Eaftern  fide : while the trade-wind
blows,  a veflel may ride in fafety ;  but if
the wind varies to the South Eaft or Weft,      .
it then becomes dangerous, on  account of.
the number of fhoals and  banks which it
After they had dropped anchor, Captain
Douglas difpatched a prefent to the King,
accompanied with an invitation to fee him
on board, and at four in the afternoon he
paid a visit to the Iphigenia. The fovereign
of Woahoo was faluted with the difeharge
of five guns on his arrival on board, and a
fécond prefent of adzes, choppers and
knives was offered to him ; when he readily
promifed that the taboo fhould be taken off
the hogs, as far as it related to them, and
that they   fhould   be   plentifully   fupplied
Vol. II.
I or
11 III
sir !
' 1789.   from   the iflands of Mowee,  Ranai, Mo*
January, rotoi, and Woahoo.
indaya       jn ^he morning the King repeated his vi-
flt, bridging a prefent of hogs taro-root and
potatoes, with a  turtle, and fome  fifh   of
the trout kind.-—Early in the afternoon he
went on fhore, and foon after Captain Douglas followed him in the jolly-boat. He was
received very cordially  by Titeeree,   who
took him round   the  village,   fhewed him
feveral plantations, and   conducted him to
■ ||.:    fome large ponds, which appeared to be full
H:;    ..    of fifh.—He  mentioned   alfo   fome   others
where he had a quantity of turtle, and pro-
mifed to  bring one on board the next day.
s Saturday 3      The   next morning Titeeree visited the
fhip, with a prefent of a  turtle and   fome
hogs.—About   ten o'clock a double canoe,
|p.- !     '     fchooner rigged, came round the Eaft point
of the bay.    The natives were deceived as
well as the people in the fhip ;   for they all
imagined it to be the North Weft America*
which had not been feen for fome days, till
\      the canoe came within a ftiort diftance.    She
'■'■• '      had got jib, main-fail and fore-fail as well
as thofe of the fchooner.
On the ioth they were joined by Captain
Funter, who had been beating off the Weft
point of the ifland for feveral days paft,
without being able to join the Iphigenia.
Nothing of material occurrence took place
during the time which the veflels remained
at  Woahoo, except the lofs of both their
anchors ; which Titeeree, who,   in   every
other  refrje£l,   behaved with   the   greateft
kindnefs, Contrived, though it blew a gale
of wind, to heave up and get a-fhore, with
their   cables.     As this  was a  lofs of the
utmoft confequence, and,   fituated as  they
were,   would have  prevented their  future
pfogrefs, it became abfolutely neceflary  to
be very ferious in their endeavours  to re-
cover them.    The King did not attempt to
hide the theft ; and the people whom Captain Douglas  fent   to him to   demand the
refloration of the anchors and cables, faw
them lying in his houfe.—Indeed, they feem
to  have been  taken   with  no other   view
than to compel Captain Douglas to leave
fome of his armourers at Woahoo,  as th<
condition  of their being   reftored.    How*
ever, the anchors,  &c. were  regained,  on
prefenting the King with a piftol, a muf-
N 2       jf ■  '  .   quet, fir
il I
1789.   quet, and a fmall quantity of ammunition ;
January, accompanied alfo with fome very neceflary
lip     menaces, that if he did not reftore the ar-.
fr tides he had taken, his town fhould be laid
in afhes.
Sunday25      After having laid in fuch a flock of provisions as it was in their power to purchafe*
and having  filled  fome calks with water-
at half paft  five in  the afternoon of the
•s A
25th,' the two veflels got under way, and
ftood out of the bay. At noon of the following day, the obferved latitude was 21° 23'
North ; and the extremities of Woahoo
bore from Eaft by South, to North Weft by
North, diftant from fhore about four miles.
Monday 25 -| At two in the afternoon of  the   26th,
they faw the ifland of Atooi, bearing Weft
by North half North ;  and in the courfe of
the night had a ftrong current fetting againft
18-       them, with the wind from the Weftward.
Thursday «9 ^t noon of the 2fth, they dropped anchor
in Wyrnoa Bay, in  twenty-three fathoms
I of water, over a muddy bottom:—The two
extreme points which form the bay, bearing
from Eaft South Eaft, to Weft North Weft.
The Moral on fhore, bore North Eaft half
North.    ■. .;Jjj     ;        j   Â       ■   \   ,
• ' 1 . .'■.'*.      .A   '%■     W-    '    On
Oil the arrival of the Iphigenia and the 1789.
North Weft America off the ifland, Taheo, January,
the King, and all the chiefs, had gone to
a considerable diftance up the country,
dreading the effects of Tianna's anger,
who, they had been informed, was on board
one of the veflels, and had tabooed every
thing on fhore:. but as it was underftood
that the chief, whofe vengeance was fo
much dreaded, had been left at Owhyhee,
meflèngers were immediately fent after Taheo, who in confequence of this information, returned in  about three days to Wy-
* J mf
moa ; and on his arrival, feveral canoes
were fent off with hogs, potatoes and yams,
for which a moft exorbitant price was demanded. A couple of hatchets, or eighteen
inches of bar iron, was expected even for
an hog but of a middle fize. This exorbitant difpofltion arofe principally from the
fuggeftions of a bov, whofe name was Sav
muel Hitchcock, who had run away from
Captain Colnett, and was become a great favourite with Taheô himfelf.—Indeed, fo
great was his influence with the King, that
one of the natives having ftolen from him a
fmall piece of cloth  which  he wore round
N 3 his   v n
1789. his middle, Taheo ordered the culprit to be
January, purfued to the mountains, whither he had
fled, and when the wretched creature was
taken, both his eyes were torn from their
fockets, ,a pahoo was* then driven through
his heart, and his flefh ftripped from the
bones, as a bait for fharks.
But though Taheo returned to Wyrnoa,
he was by no means without apprehenfions
as to his fafety; nor would he   accept of
'-■|fv Captain Douglas's invitation   to  come  on
board the Iphigenia ; feigning, as anexcufe,
R;      ... that he had been ill ufed by the crew  of a
fhip fome time before.    This alarm, indeed,
in a fhort time fublided, and he paid his oc-
cafional viflts to  the fhip, and   a friendly
communication,  at leaft to all  appearance,
took place  between thç   natives and their
European  visitors.
# At the fame time, it was hinted to Cap
tain Douglas to be continually on his guard
againft the defigns of the King, and of Abi-
iiui his minifter; and he was alfo informed
of a poifonous root well known to the inhabitants of the Sandwich Iflands, which
when ground to powder, might be easily
II   {battered about  the fhip, or  thrown upo,$t
their cloaths, without being obferved, and 1789.
whofe,power is of fuch a deadly nature, JANUARY-
that if the fmalleft quantity of it fhould
be inhaled bv the mouth or the noftrils,
the confequence is immediate death. Captain
Douglas, therefore, though he did not very
much fufpea any murderous intention in
Taheo, or his people, thought it a prudent
precaution, at all events, to make known
his intention, if any attempt was made to
polfon any of the provifions fold to them,
that he would not leave a native alive whom
he fhould find within his reach. v
But though the quantity of hogs and roots
which they could obtain at Atooi, were by
no means equal to their expectations, or
fometimes even to their immediate neceffi-
ties, opportunities were taken of doing
coiifiderable fervice, by making fuch repairs
in the fails, cordage, and other articles,
which were eflentially neceflary to the condition of both the veffels. It was therefore determined to proceed to Oneeheow ;
and as Namitahaw, with fix of his relations,
and four women, exprefled their wifhes to
accompany Tianna's wife and child to
Owhyhee, he took them all on board, in the
N 4 ex/- f '
1789.   expectation   that  they would  be  of  very
January. r      •       i     %• r    1
* great iervice to him in procuring iuch pro-
vifions as  he wanted, in the ifland he was
proceeding to vifit.
yrpdneitiay 1 s    At two in the afternoon of Wednefday,
J|y    the 18th of February, both veflels got under way;   and  at fun-fetting, Wyrnoa Bay
Thurfday^^g jjorth Eaft. At noon of the following day5 the South Weft end of Oneeheow
bore Weft, at the diftance of one mile.
But ftrong gales coming on from the North
Weft, and finding that they drove a coiifiderable way to the Southward and Eaftward of Oneeheow and Atooi, and there
being every appearance that the wind would
continue to the- Weftward, Captain Douglas
determined to run over to Woahoo, in order
to get a frefh fupply of provisions, as they
had  killed their laft hog.     Accordingly 0%
Saturday 21 Saturday the 21ft, at four in the afternoon,
a frefh gale fpringing up from North North
Weft,  they bore  away   for Woahoo.    At
Sunday 22 noon on the following day, they paft the
Weftern point of Witetee Bay, the foundings being from fourteen to three fathoms
of water, and diftant five or fix miles from
the fhore.    Captain Douglas obferves  that
this fhoal runs out further than any he had    1789.
encountered among thefe iflands, and that it Februart-
lies in the latitude of 210 Z2/ North, and the   /
longitude of 2020 15' Eaft of Greenwich.
In the morning of the 23d, they came Monday 23
to their former anchoring ground; and at
nine, Titeeree came on board, and fome of
the paflengers having informed him of the
price paid for provisions at Atooi, he was
difpofed to imitate the exorbitant demands
of the neighbouring ifland; and no incon-
fiderable quantity of powder and fhot, for
thofe were now become the favourite articles, was demanded for a fingie hog ; fo
that very peremptory methods were obliged
to be employed in order to procure the neceflary fupplies. if
A   frefh breeze fpringing   up   from  the Tuefday*4
Weftward   about noon* on the 24th, Cap- -É
tain Douglas   embraced the favourable oc-  _.   -
cafion  to get over to Owhyhee, where he
hoped-to find   greater • plenty,   and  more
reafonable demands.
At noon on the 2d of March, Owhyhee
bore from North half Weft, to South Eaft
by South, diftant from the fhore about two
leagues ; and very fhortly after'Tianna came
Monday : ZOZ
on board from a part of the ifland called
Toee-Hye, — and when he had j indulged
himfelf for fome time in the opprefllve joy
of yearning nature at the fight of his wife
and child, he conducted the fhip into a bay
called by the natives Tiroway ; and at four
in the afternoon, they anchored in fixteen
fathoms of water, over a fine fand, the two
extreme points bearing from South South
Eaft half Eaft, diftant from the fhore about
a mile and an half. In the evening, by the
provident care of Tianna, they received a
coiifiderable quantity of refrefhments. Early
next morning the jolly-boat was fent to
found the bay, when good ground was found
all acrofs it, from fourteen to twenty-two
fathoms of water, over a fine brown fand.
The King having been on a fifhing party,
he did not arrive till four in the afternoon ;
when he came, accompanied by his Queen
and daughter, in two difpatch boats, having
quitted his heavy canoes and attendants. He
appeared to be overjoyed at their return,—
expreffed his hopes that Tianna had paid
them all proper attention in his abfence, and
aflured them that his power in the ifland,
^i;d all he himfelf poflefled in it, .was at
their  command.    Indeed,   the quantity of   1789.
provifions with which he caufed them to be   Marc«»
furnifhed,  and  his  anxious  endeavours to
forward the wifhes of Captain Douglas in
every thing, proved,  beyond a doubt,  the
fincerity of his profeffions.
The next day at an early hour, Tome-Wednefday 4.
homy-haw, Tianna, and feveral pther chiefs,
came on board the Iphigenia, and foon after
the whole company were difmiffed by the
King, except, Tianna ; and having thrown
a feathered cloak over Captain Douglas, the
chief, in the flame of the fovereign and himfelf, began to unfold the fecrets of their
political fituation.
He ftated that Taheo, king ofi^tooi, and
Titeeree, the fovereign of Mowee, Ranai,
Morotoi, and Woahoo, had entered into a
compact withTerreemoweeree, thefurviving
fon of Terreeoboo, who lived on the weather-
fide of the ifland, to difpoflefs Tome-homy-
haw of his rank and power for no other
reafon but becaufe he had permitted Tianna to fix his fettlement at Owhyhee:—
That Taheo had been furnifhed by the Captains Portlock, Dixon, &c. with a quantity of arms and  ammunition, on an  ex-
prefs soi.
1789.   prefs   condition that  he would not afford
March,   any  fupplies whatever to Captain Meares
and his aflbciates ;—for the truth of whiell
information,  he appealed to the reception
which that gentleman had lately found on
putting into the ifland of Atooi,  where he
could   not obtain any refrefhment of any
kind :—And Tianna, with tears in his eyes,
and the moft affecting expreffions, declared
his apprehenfions of the diftrefs which Captain Meares and his crew muft have fuffered
from thelwant of provifions before he reached
1 Macao, if he fhould have been able, by any
means, to have  compleated   his voyage to
|j||§       China.    The fpeech, which was of confider-
able length, concluded with entreating Captain Douglas to leave two of his men belli hind him,  till his return   from  America,
together with a fwivel gun, his own fowl-
ing-piece,   and   whatever  other arms   and
ammunition  could be fpared by him.
.      The preparations which Captain Douglas
had feen at the other iflands, and the great
demand he   had   experienced   for  powder,
fhot  and   mufquets, induced him to give
fome  credit   to  the fcheme which Tianna
||   had juft mentioned : he, therefore, complied
with that part of the requeft which related ( 1789,
to the fire-arms,  and immediately ordered   March.
the carpenter on fhore, to form a ftage on
one of the largeft double canoes, to  receive
the fwivel.
In the afternoon of the following day, the Thurfday .
carpenter having finifhed the canoe, fhe was
brought along-fide the Iphigenia, when the
gun was mounted ; but it was with great
difficulty that the King could prevail on his
people to keep their paddles in their hands
while he difcharged the piece.
At fix in the morning, the wind being   Friday $
from the Southward and Eaftward, a lignai
was made for the King to come on board,
when they got under way,  fleering for the  §f.-
bay of Toee-Hye.   The King was accompanied by his Queen,  Tianna and other principal chiefs, while thofe of an inferior rank
attended the fhip in a fleet of thirty canoes.
Tiroway-Bay, which they now quitted, is
fuperior in many refpe£ts to that of Karaka-  '  Mt
kooa, the ground being extremely good, with
not a fpot of coral rock in any part of it :
befides,  veffels may lie at fuch a diftance
from the fhore, that if the wind blows, they    (    |||
can clear the land with fafety.  The latitude
of ic6
Voyages to the
*m i
of the fhip at anchor was 190 4/ North. At
half paft five in the afternoon, the beft bower
anchor was dropped in ten fathoms of water*
oppofite the village of Toee-Hye, the two
extreme points of this large bay bearing
, Ç from South Weft by South, to North Weft
by North, diftant from the fhore three miles.
Saturday 7 In the evening, the King and his company
went on fhore; and on the following rriorn-
ing fent off a prefent of thirty hogs, a quantity of fait, cocoa-nuts, potatoes, and taro*
As the trade-wind was now blowing frefh,
m- Captain Douglas requefted that he might, if
poffible, be favoured with immediate fup*
• plies, as he was in hafle to fail for America.
—Tome-homy-haw, therefore, difpatched
meflengers up the country, with orders for
every one who had an hog to bring it immediately to the village,  on  pain of death :
Sunday8 an<^ at ten ^e next morning, he himfelf
came off with a prefent of fifty hogs, fome
of which weighed fifteen flone. — In the
courfe of the day other neceflary articles
were fent on board ; and amongft other
things were twelve geefe. It may be a mat*
;^^^P ter of curiosity to mention that, at the fame
time, a boat came into the bay with a cock
\ and
and hen turkey. Thefe animals were going 1789.
round to breed at the village of Wipeeo. The March.
hen, we were told, had already fat tw^ice,
in different parts of the ifland, and reared
her broods to the number of twenty; fo
that in a few years there will be great abundance of that fpecies of fowl in thefe iflands.
In the  evening  Captain Douglas,   after      #
prefenting fome fire-arms and ammunition -mm
to the King and Tianna, took his leave of        «
them;   and  at   midnight   they  got  under
way.    Their latitude at noon, on the next
day, was 300 21' North.    They now pro- Monday.*
ceeded to Woahoo, where having got a con- i^H
fiderable quantity of wood, and made fome
addition to the flock of taro and fugar-cane, M;
they continued their courfe to Atooi ; and
in the evening of the 12th came to an an- Thursday j s
chor about two miles to the Eaftward of
the anchoring-ground.   At day-light on the
13th, they got the boats out, and towed the Friday 13
fhip into her former birth.    Taheo and the
other principal chiefs were gone to Punna,
and Abinui was the only perfbn of confe-
quence remaining at Wyrnoa, who fent a       -<
prefent of an hog on board,   but did not
think proper to accompany it.
X. x. ,   K J U
In 2o8
voyages to the
afe fl *% :
1789.    .  j§ the morning,  the long-boat was fent
March,   on fhore for water, when the men on duty
Saturday 14 ... •  1     r 1       •   1
got to quarrelling with to much violence,
as to draw their knives againft each other ;
. p   and when Mr. Viana attempted to part them,
S       a feaman, of the name of Jones, threatened
fj   to knock him down.. As fuch a difturbance,
if not checked in time,  might have been
v attended with confequences that would prove
Ipljll       fatal  to the voyage,   Captain Douglas ordered Jones to immediate punifhment ; to
which,  with the moft horrid  execrations,
||§;....        he refufed to fubmit, and run for the fore-
top, in expectation of meeting with theblun-
j   .derbufles which were generally kept there
n primed and loaded, in cafe of an attack from
the natives, but was prevented from gaining
|||l his object by Captain Douglas, who fired a
piftol over his head,   and threatened him
with a fécond difcharge if he proceeded ano-
-   ff;      ther ftep.    But as it Was very evident that
feveral of the fhip's crew were difpofed to
fupport him, he was ordered either to deliver himfelf up to pimifhment, or inftantly
II       to leave the fhip ; when he chofe the latter
t        without the leaft  hefitation,  and tranquil-
.   1 lity was immediately reftored. : ..'.-• •
.       ,      -'  -  ; M'     / ■- 3 Having
Having  compleated   their watering,   at
five in the afternoon they got under way for   March.
Oneeheow,  in order to obtain a fupply  of
yams. But being prevented by adverfe winds,
and  a   current   running   ftrong   from   the
Northward, to make Yam Bay, they were
forced, to avoid being driven to the leeward,
to bear up for the other bay; and in the    '     y
afternoon of the following day, they dropped Sundavr-
anchor in thirteen fathoms of water ;   the
bearings of the two points being from South
by Eaft, to North by Eaft ; the fmall ifland
of Tahoora bore at  the fame  time,  South
South Weft  half Weft,   diftant  from  the
fhore one mile and an half.    In the evening,
Captain Douglas being informed of a defign
agitated by feveral of the feamen to go off
with the jolly-boat, gave orders to the officers to keep a  ftridt watch ;   neverthelefs,
during the  night, the   quarter-mafter and
two of the failors had got on fhore in fome
of the canoes that were along-fide.   They
had formed a plan to get off with the boat, /'
and at the fame time to fet fire to the fhip ;
but being prevented in their diabolical en-
terprife, they had taken an opportunity to %
efcape to the iflànd.    TwToofthem,  how-
Vy w .
H&iH fi IP II
I If ill
lt*ll •'£
ever, by the active zeal of honeft Friday, û
March,   native of Oneeheow, who has already been
"mentioned in thefe pages with the efteem
ft       he fb well deferves, were fhortly brought
jjfc     > back to the fhip ; but the quarter-mafter,
who was   the   ringleader in  the mifchief,
could not be brought off on account of the
furf,   and was therefore  left behind :
fuch was the fituation of both veflels, being
in  want of many  neceflary articles,—the
North Weft America having alfo loft her
anchor,—that though, according to his in-
'Ê'flructions,   Captain  Douglas was to  have
proceeded to the Northward, he was under
Eg;'    *■     the necefllty of difobeying them,  and proceeding immediately to the Coaft of Ame-
rica,  where he had everv reafon to hope he
' § fhould meet with a fhip from China.
ft '  The Iphigenia and the Schooner had now-
been near four months among thefe iflands ;
and it is to the honour of Captain Douglas,
. that he conducted himfelf with that prudent
attention tocircumflances, as to have avoided
any ferious difpute with the natives of any
of them»
bey leave Oneeheow, and proceed on their Return to the North Wefl Coajl of America.—
Pafs Bird Ifland.—The Arrival of the Iphi-
genia and the North West America at
Nootka Sound.—tfhe . Arrival of a Spanifh
Ship.—Seizure of the Ipsiigenia, &c.—
\ —She is obliged to leave Nootka Sound, and
proceeds to the Northward.—Anchor off &
Village named Fort Pitt. — Defcription of
Buccleugtfs Sound. — Anchor in Haines*$
Cove.—An Account of Mac Intire's Bay.—
Examine Cox's Channel.— A Defgn formed
by the Natives to get Pojfeffion of the Ship.—
Trade with the Natives of Tatanee.—-Shii4
the Co aft ofAmerica,—-Return to the Sandwich Jflands.—Fortunate Efcafie from a De-
fign of the King and Chiefs of Owhyhee.—
Proceed on their Voyage to China. — Arrive
off Macao, §ÈjÊr \-      , -
AVING got about a month's flore of
yams,   the  two veflels  fet  fail ;   and
having loft light of the ifland of Oneeheow
On the 18th, they proceeded in company tQ
M O z the 212
ThiirSday 19
the North Weft, with the wind from North
North Eaft. At three the next morning;,
land was feen a-head ; and at four, being
almost clofe up  with it, they hove to 'till
day-light." if  ' v''5111'' 1iɧ?   ': ' '  ;
This ifland or rock, bears the form of a
faddle, high at each end, and low in the
middle. To the South it is covered with
verdure ; but on the North, Weft and Eaft
fides, it is a barren rock, perpendicularly
fleep, and did not appear to be accefllble
but to the feathered race, with which it
abounds. It was therefore named Bird
Ifland. It lies in the latitude of 230 07'
North, and in the longitude of 1980 10'
Eaft, by a medium of feveral obferved distances of the fun and moon.
". Nothing very material took place during
the voyage of the Iphigenia and North Weft
America back to Nootka Sound. They
both fuffered thofe inconveniencies which
may be fuppofed to arife from the fcanty
flore of many articles neceflary for the comfort and navigation of a fhip.—It may be
proper, however, to mention, that in the
beginning of April, for two or three days
together, it became impoffible to fleer the
-■''ft. ■■ .   .' '•    ^fc/.' .'    'If ■ . fhip,
v 1789*
fhip, the compaffes flying about each way
four or five points in a moment.—Captain
Douglas remarks, that he experienced the
fame phenomenon laft year about the fame
latitude. The latitude at this time was from
360 19' to 36° io' North, and the longitude
from 2080 15' to 2100 13'.
The whole tranfa£tions concerning the
Iphigenia, after her arrival at Nootka Sound,
with the conduct of the Spanifh commander,
which have formed a fubjeft of difpute ber
tween the  Crowns of Great Britain  and
Spain, are flated at large in the Memorial
prefented by me to the Houfe of Commons;
^-1 muft therefore refer-the reader to the
Appendix of this  volume  where   he wiJ[l
find   the  Memorial,   with  fome other papers,   explanatory pf the mercantile plans
and operations of the Aflbciated Company
for carrying on a Trade between Chiua and
the North Weft Coaft of America.
.The   Iphigenia   being  permitted by thewcdnefdây
Spanifh commodore to depart, they quitted
Friendly Cove, as is feen in the Memorial,
and continued their courfe to the Norths-
ward,  with  the wind at South  Eaft.-w-At  rlk <#>
fun-fet on the 4th, the Southern extremity Thursday 4
•-. .; O 3 pf
June. 1,11
ri i Ml
3 win
« June.
Tricay 5
Saturday 6
Sunday 7
Voyages to the
of Charlotte's Iflands bore from Weft North
Weft, to Weft by South, diftant two leagues.
—At noon the next day the weather was
thîSk and foggy.—The latitude by account
was 520 33; North; longitude 2280 27' Eaft.
" Inïhe morning of the 6th the fog cleared
away, and there were a great number of fea-
otters playing round the fhip!—At eleven
they faw a fmall barren ifland.-r-At noon
the latitude  by account was 540 f North,
and the longitude 229e1 9' Eaft At three
in the afternoon, the current having fet
them to leeward, and out of fight of the
ifland, and being furrounded with a number
of fmall iflets and rocks, they bore up to look
out for fome place of fhelter before night.—
At five they paffed between a low ifland and
the main land.—At ten  it  fell  calm,   and
fe"%*fe!S> ''i^a^ \*!%X*' v
the current fet them down to a fmall ifland,
and no foundings to be obtained with eighty
fathoms of line ; the boats were therefore
hoifted out, and the fhip towed clear of the
ifland, into 26 fathoms water, when they
dropped the ftream anchor over a muddy
ground.   W-   ' . ;* ". ' :l||
At break of day it was low water, when
a ledge of rocks was feen above water, within
m "     11 "H§§   ' îefs
îeftf than a cable's length of the fhip : a breeze
fo ringing: up, they weighed anchor and work-
A O        O       A J C>
jed out of the found.    At eleven, the wind
dying away, the ftream anchor was dropped
in fifty-five fathoms water, at the entrance
of the Sound.    At noQii a breeze fprung up
from the South - Eaft,   when  they weighed
and ftood to the South Weft.    The latitude
by obfervation was 540 45' North, afid the
longitude 2290 15" Eaft.   : ; %>
'% The weather was  now become fair and
moderate ; and the early part of the afternoon, on obfervinga canoe paddling towards
the fhip, they fhortened fail, and purchafed
three cotfacks of the fea-otter's fkin.—The
natives made Captain  Douglas   underftand
that there were more nickees at a village to
which they  pointed.—He therefore were,
and ftood to the North Eaft, in company
with the canoe ; and at fix dropped the ftream
anchor in thirty-five fathomswater, oppofite
a village which ftands upon an high rock,
and has the appearance of a fort. This place,
which is in the latitude of 540 58', longitude
2290 43' Eaft, Captain Douglas named Fort
Pitt.    They  bought feveral otter-lkins of
the natives ; but in the morning, there be^ig
gÊmÈ-. ■ ï- O4 %;        no
• 21$
no figns ôf any further traffic, they weighed
anchor and ftood to the Weftward.—At noon
the obferved latitude was 540 46', and the
longitude 2290 12' Eaft.
In this large found, whfch was now named
Bticcleugh's Sound, there are feveral arms
and branches, fome of which take an Eafterly
direction, and run as far as the eye  could
reach ; one or two others took a Northerly
direction, and, in   the   opinion of Captain
Douglas, communicate with Port Meares and
Sea Otter Sound.—The two capes, which
form Buccleugh's Sound, were named Cape
Farmer and   Cape   Murray.—The former,
which is the Southernmoft,  lies in the latitude of 540 35' North,  longitude 229^16'
Eaft; and the latitude of the latter is 54°43
North, and its longitude 2280 io' Eaft.—A
low ifland, covered with trees, about three
leagues in circumference, which they palled
the day before, and lies  off Cape Farmer,
was named Pétries Ifland.—It is  in the latitude of 540 42', and in che longitude of
2290 2o\—-An high mountain on the Weft
fide of the found, where they perceived the
appearance of a village with  their glafles,
was called Mount Saint Lazaro.—It lies in
the latitude of 540   52' North ; longitude
228° 56' Eaft. At eleven at night they made    Ju*s.
fail to clear a fmall rocky ifland that lies off
Cape Murray.
* At noon the next day the entrance of Port Tnefdays
Meares bore Weft by North, but having
only the nine inch cable which wag got
from the Spaniards, Captain Douglas did
not think it prudent to bring up there, on
account of its expofure to the South Eaft
winds ; but having, at this time a leading
breeze, they fleered right up the found, ||;
paffing feven or eight iflands which lie in the
middle of it.—In the afternoon the long-boat
was ordered out, and an officer fent to found
and difcover fome place of fhelter.— In about m
three hours he returned, having; found out
a*fine cove, about four miles higher up the
foUnd ; and at feven in the evening they
dropped the bower anchor in fifteen fathoms
water, over fand and fhells, about half a
mile from the larboard fhore, and at twice
that diftance from the flarboard fhore.
Captain Douglas reprefenjts this harbour
as by much the belt he had feen on the coaft
of America.—The entrance of it is not more
than half a mile from fhore  to fhore, off  |7
which 21
which an ifland is fituated of about a mile irt
circumference ; fo that a velfel may lay there
\      -r     in. a ftate of fecurity from  all winds.—At
the bottom of this cove, which is about two
miles from the entrance, there is a very fine
. i    beach, and in the middle, of it there is alfo
a fmall ifland, round which the tide flows:
- "Friday 13—Jt was named Haines's Cove, and is in
the latitude of-540 57' North, and longitude
gt\ '%   228°3/Eaft.l. j|||    I   J
Several fucceeding days were employed in
O J A mi
purchafing furs, fifh, and oil, and making
fome neceflary repairs to the fhip and rigging ;
v _ —Nor did any thing material  happen   till
Wedircfdayi7 feç afternoon of the 17th, when the chiefs
of the two villages, on different fides of
the cove, having: had fome difagreement,
they prepared for war, and a very bloody
conflict, to all appearance, wasprevented,'hy
the interposition of the women, which, after
it 1 a very loud and angry debate, that lafted
upwards of an hour, produced a reconcilia-*
tion between the hoftile parties.—One of
the chiefs, his canoes, paddLd
f| round the Iphigenia, and chaunted a fong as
an acknowledgment to   Captain   Douglas,
that he had not. taken part in the difputej
'-$vhile the other party were received at the    1780.
village of their  tribe, by the women  and    Wsffi
children, wTith the tuneful acclamations of
welcome or of triumph.
At eight o'clock, on the morning: of the
19th, I breeze fpringing up from the South   Friday 19
Weft, they weighed anchor, and made fail ;
<out of the cove.—At noon, the extremes ctf
the land, from Cape* Mtirray, which forms
Port Meares, bore North Eaft by Eaft, to
an high bluff, which was now named Cape
Irving :—rThe latter lies in the latitude, of
540 497 North, and the longitude 2270 43' ; "|v
Eaft.—The two capes, bearing about Eaft
and  Weft from   each other*—The  North ,   p
Weft point of Charlotte's Iflands alio bore jff^
South by Weft half Weft, diftant twelve i|
•or fourteen leagues.     riff•     ;   -. :'>W
The weather was  moderate  and cloudy,
with the wind from the South Weft.—At
fun-fet, there being  the appearance of an
inlet, which bore South South Weft, they      -     ||
flood acrofs a deep bay, when they had ir-
P oay,
regular foundings, from twenty-fix to eleven
fathoms water, at the diftance of two leagues
from the fhore :—the wind dying: away they
;he ftream-anchor, the two points
which 220
which form the  hay, bearing from Weft,
one quarter North, to North Eaft half Eaft,
illÉ        diftant from the fhore four miles.    It was
now named M< Intires Bay, and lies  in the
|j latitude of 530  58'  North, and longitude
r>.r . : j 228°6'Eaft. -, ■ . M
Saturday 2» I In the morning of the 20th, the long-
jf boat was difpatched to the head of the bay,
to difcover if there was any paiTage up the
inlet ;—and the account received 00 her return was, that toward the head of the bay a
bar run acrofs, on which the long-boat got
a-ground' ; but that within it there was the
appearance of a large found* Several canoes
bow came along-fide. the fhip, and having
pBrchafed their flock of furs, Captain Douglas got under way to look into an inlet
which he had obferved the preceding year.
Ill At  noon  it was exceeding hazy,   and no
obfervation was made*
1 Early in the afternoon the long-boat was
fent, well manned and armed, to examine
the inlet and found for anchorage ; and
foon after, twelve canoes being feen making
their way towards her, while feveral others
If were coming off to the fhip, Captain Douglas
made fail after the long-boat, which had
already made a lignai for anchorage.—At
five o'clock they dropped the bower anchor in tvpenty-five fathoms water, about
four miles, from the fhore, and two from a
fmall barren, rocky ifland, which happened
to prove the refidence of a chief, named
Blakow-Coneehaw, whom Captain Douglas
had feen on the coaft in his laft voyage.*—
He came immediately on board, and welcomed the arrival of the fhip with a fong*
to which two hundred of his people formed
a chorus of the moft pleafing melody.—
When the voices ceafed, he paid Captain
Douglas the compliment of exchanging
names with him, after the manner of the
chiefs of the Sandwich Iflands,
At feven in the morning they ftood up Sunday **
the inlet, and at nine came to in eighteen
fathoms water, when they moored the fhip
with the ftream-anchor. Through this
channel, which is formed by Charlotte's
Iflands, and an ifland that lies off the Weft,
end of it, the tide was found to run very
rapid. The paiTage takes its courfe Eaft ft;
and Weft, about ten or twelve miles, and
forms a communication with the open fea.
It was now named Cox's Channel.—Very   f
foon .522
foon after the fhip was moored, fhe long"-*
boat was fent to found in the mid-channel*
but no foundings could be obtained with
eighty fathoms of line ; but near the rocks,
on the flarboard fhore, they had twenty and
thirty fathoms water.
Having been vifited the preceding night
by two canoes, which lay on their paddles^
and dropped down with the tide, as wasfup*
pofed, in expectation of finding us all afleep*
they were desired to keep off, and finding
themfelves difcovered they made haftily for
the fhore. As no orders had been given to
fire at any boat, however fufpicious its ap*
pearance might be, thefe people were fuf-
fered to retreat without being interrupted.—-
This night, however, there happened to be
feveral women on board, and they gave Captain Douglas to underftand, that if he or hi
crew fhould fall afleep, all their heads would
be cut off, as a plan had been formed by a
coiifiderable number of the natives, as foon
as the lights were out, to make an attempt
upon the fhip.—The gunner therefore received his inftructions, in confequence of
this information,  and foon after the lights
were extinguished, on feeing a canoe coming
s 223
out from among the rocks, he gave the alarm,
and fired a gun over her, which was accompanied'by the difcharge of feveral mufkets,
which drove her back again with the utmoft
preci nation.
• In the morning the old chief, Blakow Monday*
Coneehaw, made a long fpeech from the
beach ; and the long-boat going on fhore for
wood, there were upwards of forty meii
ilTued from behind a rock, and held up a
thimble and fome other trifling things,
which they had ftolen from the fhip ;—but
when they found that the party did not intend to rnoleft them, they gave a very ready
and active aflifiance' in cutting wood, and
bringing the water-cafks down to the boat.
—Some time after the chief came on board,
arrayed, as may be fuppofed, in a fafhion of
extraordinary ceremony, having four fkins
J mi     ' CJ
of the ermine hanging from each ear, and
one from his nofe; when, after Captain
Douglas had explained to him the reafon of
their firing the preceding night, he firft made
a long fpeech to his own people, and then
aflured him that the attempt which had
been made, was by fome of the tribe who
inhabited the oppoiite fhore ; and entreated,
a +m*Â4 {&.
1789. if they iliould repeat their nocturnal vifit
|une. that they might be killed as they deferved*
.—He added, that he had left his houfë, in
order to live along-fide the fhip, for the purpofe of its protection, and that he himfelf
had commanded the women to give that information which they had communicated.—-*
This old man exercifed the moft friendly
fervices in his power to Captain Douglas,
and poiTefled a degree of authority over his
tribe, very fuperior to that of any other chief
whom they had feen on the Coaft of Arrie-
\\    :|f rica.   \:., .r •''•'.%    •':  :tw     : ■ ^       1
|||. In  the afternoon  Captain Douglas took
the long-boat and ran acrofs the channel,
to an ifland which lay between the fhip and
||t       the village of Tatanee, and invited the chief
to be of the party; who, having feen him
pull up the wild parfley and eat it, he was
fo attentive as to order a large quantity of
Jit, with fome falmon, to be fent on board
every morning.
•    At fix o'clock in the morning of the 23d,
H    finding the ground to be bad, they ran acrofs
K;      the channel to a  fmall harbour,  which is
.named Beal's Harbour, on the Tatanee fide ;
nd at ten dropped anchor in nineteen fa-
4 X
thorns water,   about half a cable's length    1789.
from the fhore; the land locked all round,    June*
and the great wooden images  of Tartanee
bore Eaft,   one quarter North; the village       ,§
on the  opposite fhore  bearing   South   half
Weft.—This harbour is in the latitude of   •     . .j||
540 18' North,  and longitude 2270 é' Eaft.
-—It was high water there at the change,
twenty minutes paft midnight ; and the tide Inflows from the Weftward,  fixteen feet perpendicular.—The night tides were higher,
by two feet, than thofe of the day.    |ftv,
The three following days were employed
in purchafing fkins, and preparing to depart ; Jfk
but as all the flock of iron was expended,
they were under the neceffity of cutting up
the hatch-bars and chain-plates. .';W:i    /.
On the morning of the 27th, as foon  as Saturday27
the chief returned, who had gone on fhore -
the preceding evening, to get a frefh fupply ":WÊ
of provifions, Captain Douglas gave orders
to unmoor, and a breeze fpringing up, at
half paft nine they got under wajr, and
fleered through Cox's Channel, with fevçral
canoes in tow.—-At eleven, having; g'ot out
of the ftrength of the tide, which run very
rapid, they hove to, and a brif
- Vol. II.     "   •  '   P  ■■■mSl
trade commence* .20
i ni
r I'll
1789.   fenced with the natives, who bartered their
June,    fkins for coats, jackets, trowfers,- pots, kettles,   frying-pans,   wafh-hand-bafons,   and
whatever articles of a fimilar nature could be
procured,   either from  the  officers or  the
H|   ,§  men ; but they refufed to take any more of
S'     the chain-plates, as the iron of which they
1|§   1' were made proved fb brittle, that it broke in
their manufacturing of it.-—The lofs of the
||     iron and other articles of trade, which had
been taken out of the fhip by the Spaniards,
was now very feverely felt,   as the natives
^      carried back no fmall quantity of furs, which
:M Captain Douglas had not the means of pur-
Ill   ■ ■• chafing.   •    ,. M     .M.   , •,. ...  ,. -^^fci-
This tribe is very numerous ; and the vil-'
• :'Mf.   lage of Tartanee itands on a very fine fpot
of ground, round which was fome appear-
N        ance of cultivation |  and in one place in
ÉHËS    particular it was evident that feed had been
■-'■ v        lately fown. — In  all  probability  Captain
Gray, in the floop Washington, had fallen
in with this tribe, and employed his considerate friendfhip in forming this garden;
H      but this is mere matter of conje&ure, as the
; real fa£t could not be learned from the na
tives. From the fame benevolent fpirit Captain
tain Douglas himfelf planted fome beans,
and gave the natives a quantity for the fame
ufeful purpofe ; and there is little doubt
but that excellent and wholefome vegetable,
at this time, forms an article of luxury in
the village of Tartanee. This people, indeed,
were fo fond of the cookery pra&ifed on
board the Iphigenia, that they very frequently refufed to traffic with their fkins, till they
had been taken down to the cabin, and regaled with a previous entertainment.
The weather had been fo thick and hazy,
fince they had quitted Nootka Sound, that
was impoffible to get a fight of the moon or
ftars for the purpofe of making an obfervation y Captain Douglas, therefore, was under
the neceflity of reducing the longitude of the
different places which he vifited, from the
obfervation s he had made during his voyage
of the preceding year.
The Iphigenia now proceeded on her way
to the Sandwich Iflands, without the intervention of any occurrence that merits a
particular relation ; when it appeared on the
iSth of July, by a medium of feveral obfer- Saturday 1%
varions, that fhe was in the longitude of
And at fun-rife of the 20th,  the
P 2 ex-
Jk>6° 20';
K) fl
extremes of Owhyhee bore from North Eaft
by North, to South half Eaft, two leagues
off fhore.   .. ,.- .,    .  r ;;ililf
5 The fécond visit of Captain Douglas to
thefe iflands had well nigh completed the
misfortunes of his voyage ;-*—as a plan had
been formed by the chiefs of Owhyhee to
cut him off with his crew, and then to rob
and deflroy the fhip.—-Indeed it was in a
great meafure owing to the manly and pru-*
dent conduct of Captain Douglas that this
fcheme, which was regularly formed and
adjufted, proved abortive.—r-This defign was
to have been executed on board the Iphig^#
nia ; and the treacherous chiefs who were
to have taken the lead in the bufinefs, had
already introduced themfelves into the fhip.
—One of them had got a piftol, others held
daggers in their hands ; and, as it may he
fuppofed, all were, in fome way or other,
fecretly armed, becaufe, as it afterwards appeared, each had his allotted part to perform
in the intended maflacre. The king's elder
"brother and Aropee had engaged to kill Captain Douglas ;—Pareeonow was appointed to
ftab Mr. Adamfon, the principal officer;—
Terreametee, the younger  brother of tjiigj NORTH  WEST COAST  OS  AMERICA.
king, was to perform the fame inhuman of- .
4çe for the boatfwain, and the other chiefs
had each his murderous work affigned him*;
which being compleated,-> a fignal was to
have been given for the natives, wh& lay in
£heir canoes, to get on board, and to throw
all that remained alive into the fea.—The
veflel was then to have been pulled in pieces,
and carried up into the mountains, in order
to prevent any fufpicions of what had happened from alarming fiich ftrangers as might
v$it the ifland at any future peiibd.   » -ÛT'i.
Such was the account which Tianna gave
to Captain Douglas, with tears and lamentations, of the intended tragedy; in which,
though he cosld not prevent the defign, he
refufed to co-operate, and had employed his
fervant to give notice of it ; but the man
had been fo clofely watched by fome or
other of the chiefs, that he had not found
an opportunity to make the purpofed com-
v When, however, Captain Douglas law
the chiefs armed, and? found that the queen
had been fecretly conveyed away from the
fhip, he began to fufpect mifchief, and acted
accordingly^    He  took care,  'm the  firft
ife •     -,■"      •" place^
Jut*. 230
11! I
^ïace, not to betray any figns of apprehen-
fion or alarm; and very properly conceiving
that if he fhould call his people up to prevent the apparent danger, it might drive
the insidious people to fome act of defpair
that mightproduce very fatal confequences
to the fhip,-!—he determined to try a more
tranquil method; and, under various pretences, got a piftol from one of the chiefs,
and a dagger from another, and being armed
himfelf, he waited with impatience for the
arrival of Tianna, who was on fhore, to determine in what manner he fhould finally
proceed. In a very fhort time that chief
came onboard ; ancLCaptain Douglas taking
him alone into his cabin, and bolting tfefe
door, he infifted upon being informed concerning the intentions of the king and his
"people ; when Tianna threw himfelf upon
the floor, in an agony of diftrefs,—and unfolded what has been already related,—laid
the whole blame on the king, and recommended that he fhould be inftantly put to
death. Captain Douglas immediately jumped
on deck, with a loaded piftol in each hand,
which had fuch an effect on the chiefs, who
were aflembled there, that they quitted the
fhip in an inftant, and drove their canoe
fwiftly to the fhore. S>      <Éi --iS-
Such an hoftile and treacherous conduct
in the king and his attendants, -as we have
juft related, might be fuppofedto have broken
off all intercourfe between the fhip and the
natives ; but as it was abfolutely neceflkry
to procure provifions for the  future part of
the voyage, an humiliating apology was received from Tome-homy-haw, for what had |§
paffed, who laid all the blame on his chiefs;
and a communication was renewed with the
natives, which produced great plenty of hogs       -M
and fruit, as well as brafs-rope, the latter arti-     §|.   M
cle being provided on account ofthemiferable
ftate of the cordage, &c. on board the fhip.         '
On  the   27th,   Captain   Douglas,   after Monday zf
having left letters for myfelf and Captain
Funter, in cafe either of us fhould touch
at Owhyhee,   quitted the ifland.—Tome*
homy-haw, to the  laft,   intreated forgive-
nefs, and e^prefled the deepeft concern for
the alarm which he and'his chiefs had occafioned ; andTianna, with all the fenfibility    /!■'   \
of an honeft and ingenuous mind, continued      -. - ;|§
to lament it.—Indeed, fuch was their con-    ',.    4é
du£t and behaviour when the moment ap- m
!..    ■■ '  >'     ""  #yi'        -■■• : proached-||^v ' 23
VOYAGES,   &e.
Tuefday 2 S
proached for the Iphigenia to depart, that
there can be no doubt but that Britifh fhips
will hereafter find in this ifland, all the comfort, protection, and friendfhip, which Tome-homy-haw and Tianna may have it in
their power to procure them. • r    ,   1||
On the following day they came to an
anchor in WiteteeBay, in the Ifland of Woahoo ; but every article of trade being now
expended, the armourers were ordered to cut
up the rudder chains, in order to purchafe
the provifions with which feveral canoes
had come laden from,the fhore.     ^ J   ^1
After touching at the other iflands for
Monday 10 water, yams, &c. on the loth of Auguft
they quitted the Sandwich Iflands, and made
fail to the Weftward.    *|fe : "      _ '-:IPE!S ' ■'# ;■
On the 4th of October, without having
met with any intervening occurrence of particular curiofity, apprehenfion, or good fortune, that would juftify a defcription, they
faw the Coaft of China ; and, on the following day, the Iphigenia, after her long
and various voyages, and all the dangers as
well as interruptions encountered in them,
arrived fafe, and came to an anchor in the
roads of Macao, •■ ■ ' ■$■■''* .^ ~ '':::'^""^P^
'   "" .OBSER*
m Hw«»ffi«Hfc»gain,aPB*Myjai^^
OF     A
*"■ 1 H E attention of Great Britain, as well
as of other commercial countries of
Europe, has long been directed to the Coaft
of America, with the hope of difcovering a
paiTage between the Northern Pacific and
Atlantic Oceans.—From the beginning of
this century to * the laft voyage of Captain
Cook, a general belief prevailed in the exife
tence of fuch a paiTage, and various expeditions have been equipped and fent forth, to
realize opinions founded on it, or to put an
end to it, by determining, if poffible, that it
was erroneous and without foundation.
It is as unneceflàry, as it would be impertinent in me to enter at large into the well-
ft Vol. IL Q known If
known hiftory of the original idea of a North
Weft Paflage, and the fubfequent attempts
to difcovèr it, with the various difputes it
occafioned.—I fhall only obferve that Mr.
Dobbs, by whofe influence, and from whofe
fuggeflions the parliamentary reward was
granted to the difcoverers of this important
object, clofed his life, which was diftinguifh-
ed by an indefatigable attention to it, in a
.firm belief of its exiftence, and that fhe prefent century-would not be compleated before
the difcovery of this paiTage would give new
advantages to the commerce of his country.
Indeed it does not appear that the Britifh
nation was, by any means,  fatisfied or con*
vinced that the voyages which had been performed for the difcovery of a North Weft
PaiTage had been decifive.—Though the Eaftern fide of America had been explored at
large, yet the numerous Sounds, Bays, and
Inlets remaining to be examined, were fuf-
fiçient to juftify a continuance of conje&ure,
and to re-excite the enterprifing fpirit of fubfequent adventurers.
The beneficial confequences that would
arife from the difcovery of a North Weft
Paflàge are felf-evident ; for although India OF   A NORTH  WEST  PASSAGE tt25
is, in a manner, brought fo much nearer td
.Europe by the modern improvements in
fhipping and navigation, yet to fhorten the
prefent circuitous courfe, is an object of the
firft commercial importance.—It was indeed
for this purpofe that the voyage of Captain Cook was undertaken by the command
of his Majefty, to difcover, if poffible, a
paiTage between the two oceans ; and to begin
his refearch on the coaft of New Albion.
The voyages which had been made in
preceding periods to Hudfon's and Baffin's
Bays, with the fame view, though unfuc-
cefsful, as to the 'main object, ferved rather
to confirm the exiftence of it ; and Mr. Dobbs,
who had made it a principal object of his ambition and his life, was continually making
converts to his favourite fyftem. It was in
confequence of his felicitations that Middle-
ton was fent out ; yet the queftion did not
feem to have received any .elucidation from
his voyage.—His proceedings were faid to
be kept iecret, or his account garbled ; and
the Hudfon's Bay Company incurred a considerable degree of odium, which encreafed
in proportion as the exiftence of a  North
* -     (Br  Qj* '   ' m- ' Weft u
Weft PaiTage continued to grow on the pd«*
pular belief and expectation.
Subfequent voyages were made without
producing any certainty as to the great object
of them ; and the opinions of the public
were either in a ftate of hefitation or division
concerning it, when the naval minifter of
the period difpatched Young and Pickersgill
fucceffively to Baffin's Bay, and Cook to
the Weftern fide of America, to determine
the question, if pofiible, for ever.—How far
this important matter is determined by Captain Cook's voyage, the account of it, uni-
.verfally read and known, will difcover.—
Thofe of Young and Pickersgill have never
been publifhed ; but we are informed, on the
refpectable authority of the Preface to the
Voyages of Captain Cook, that they failed
entirely of the end propofed.—Baffin's Bay,
therefore, which is yet unexplored, may be
thought to afford fome hopes of this moft
desirable communication.
/., In the voyage of Captain Cook it is feen,
that after performing the lelTer objects of it,
he arrives on the coaft of New Albion, and
inftead of beginning his refearçhes in the latitude of 65° North, according to the Ian-
US suage
guage of his inftructions, he commences his
furvey in a much lower latitude, until he arrives in King George's Sound, fucceflively in
Prince William's . Sound, and the river
which is fince honoured with his name. He
then fails to the latitude pointed out by his
orders ; and, in the end, finds an infurmount*
able obstruction in a barrier of ice which is
fuppofed to reach to the North Pole ; from
which circumflance alone the concluflon is
drawn, that there is no paiTage between the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
It cannot, indeed, be too much regretted,
that the particular portion of the Coaft of
America between the latitude of 560 and 5 6°
North, and 47^ and 48Q North, did not
admit of more attention than appears to have
been beftowed on them. The weather in
this important part of the voyage was fo unfavourable, that the fhip s were prevented
from approaching the coaft ; for though*the
Felice and Iphigenia did explore thefe latitudes, yet there is every reafon to lament
that Captain Cook was himfelf prevented
from fuch an examination as would have
proceeded from him. *
1 fil il
m i.
When the great Navigator was engaged
in exploring thefe low latitudes, he was, at
that moment, in pofleflion of Mr. Hearne's
track acrofs the continent of America to the
North of 700, which appears to annihilate
all hopes of a paiTage between Fort Churchill
and Copper-mine River. Yet Captain Cook,
even contrary to his inftru&ions, thought it
expedient to explore thofe very parts on the
Weftern fide; a circumftance which may
certainly juftify us in fuppoiing, that he did
not think the route of Mr. Hearne fo very
conclufive as it has fince been imagined.
A general conclu lion has been alfo drawn,
that a paiTage to the Northward of 700 would
be of no general utility ; and the probability,
nay even the exiftence of a paiTage South of
700 is decided. Neverthelefs, the naval
minifter, in full pofleflion of the Hudfon Bay
Company's difcoveries, thought it right to
fend both Young and Pickersgill fucceffively
into Baffin's Bay, to explore a paiTage that
way ; from which arrangement it may be
concluded that government, at leaft, had
every reafon to believe that a North Weft:
PaiTage did exiit ; and I am by no means
convinced by any fubfequent voyages or rea-
fonings upon, them, that the grounds of former opinions on this fubject are materially
changed.—On the contiary, the practicability, as well as poflibility of a North Weft
Paffage ftill remains, as far as my judgment
goes, in all its former ftate of expectation ;
but whether to the North or South of Mr-
Hearne's track and fea, will be hereafter
It is well-known, that in the difputes
which this fubject occafioned, at a former
period, much acrimony mingled in the diT-
cuflioh ; and the Hudfon's Bay Company
were accufed of difcosiraging the purfuit, and
keeping thofe difcoveries which had been
made, and might have aided the future adventurer, in myfterioufs darknefs; or, which
is much worfe, of altering and falfifying fuch
accounts of their people as they were obliged
,to unfold, relative to the enquiries after a
North Weft PaiTage.—Thefe prejudices are
found ftill to prevail, but, as we believe,
without aiAyreafon. We, at leaft, are amongft
thofe who have an entire reliance on the
communications of the Hudfon's Bay Company ; and if we fhould be,found to differ
from Mr. Hearne, we truft it vyiP. appear
•ft/ Q 4    ...'." that 240      ON THE PROBABLE EXISTENCE
that in the arguments which will be brought
forward, we are fupported by fuch facts as
will juftify our offering them to the public,
in behalf of an opinion, which, from the
authority of able men, and great names, has
of late been considered not only as a fanciful
theory, but become an unpopular doctrine.
For this purpofe we beg leave to produce
the voyage of the Iphigenia, as related in
the body of this work ; and it will there be
feen that fhe explored the very tracks of
the Coaft of America which were not viflted
by Captain Cook, or other navigators ; in
which fpace is found the antient Northern
Archipelago, agreeing in position and defcrip-
tion with the accounts of the older voyagers.
; This fhip enters fo far to the Eaft, that
fhe pafles, by three degrees, the Weftern
boundary of Mr. Hearne's fea in 720, (but
placed by Mr. Arrowfmith, in his chart
lately publifhed from Mr. Turner's charts
and journals, in the latitude of 68° 15' North,
and longitude of 228?"Eaft of Greenwich)
when a clear and extensive paiTage is feen
without impediments. •= This Archipelago is
found to occupy a fpace from the latitude
of ci0North, and longitude of 2 qi° 4v Eaft,
•f j
to the latitude of 54° 30' North, and longitude of 2 2 70 Eaft, the whole of which ex-
tenfive fpace was not explored by Captain
Cook. But though it may be faid that fome
part of it was examined by the great Navigator, when nothing of this nature was discovered, it muft be considered that iflands
of great extent are iltuated to the Weftward
of this Archipelago, and divided from it in»
fome' places by a fea as wide as the channel
of England, as has been proved by the track
of the Iphigenia ; and that it was the coaft
of thefe great Iflands which he fuppofed to
be the continent of America, which we
are rather difpofed to think he never law;
but, under that idea, continued to explore
a latitudinal chain of iflands, ftretching firopi
450 to 650 North ; nay, perhaps, much farther North and South, forming a Wefteçn
barrier to the real continent of America :
For there is a ground for more than common conjecturé, that King George's Sound,
Cook's River, and the whole coaft hitherto
feen, are part of a lengthened chain of detached iflands.
- The channels of this  Archipelago were
found to be wide and capacious, with near
two ft;
I two hundred fathoms depth of water, hug
promontories ftretching out into the fea,
where whales and fea-otters are feen in an
incredible abundance.— In fome of thefe
channels there are iflands of ice, which we
may venture to fay could never have been
formed on the Weftern fide of America,
which is a mild and moderate climate ; fo
that their exiftence cannot be reconciled to
any other idea, than that they received their
formation in the Eaftern Seas, and have been
drifted by tides or currents through the
paiTage for whofe exiftence we are contending.    ■ •ft-'    .    . -:  w W -    ; ~
We know not how to account for thefe
large floating mafles of ice in any other
manner.—The Northern Pacific Ocean is
never encumbered with interruptions of this
nature, and is navigable in every feafon of
the year ; for, though the Nootka was frozen up fo many months in Prince William's Sound, it was in a partial manner,
and in an harbour whofe water, to a certain
depth, was frefhened by the rivulets and
ponds that were emptied into it. Here were
evident reafons therefore why the froft
uld operate with more power there ;—
but, after all, the ice was not of an extraordinary thicknefs ; and during the whole
of the winter, the great Sound was without
ice, and even the mouth of the river remained unfrozen. Indeed, had not the crew been
wholly debilitated by their difaftrous fuffer-
ings, the fhip would have been cut out of
the ice, and put to fea.
In navigating the coaft of this part of
America from 45 to 63° North, nothing like
a congregated body of ice had been feen ;
and, inftead of fuppofing themfelves to be
navigating the Northern regions, the navigators might fuppofe themfelves to be ranging beneath a tropical climate.—It would,
however, be a fatisfa£lory circumftance, \f
it were poffible to know whether that barrier
of ice, feen by Captain Cook in Behring's
Strait, continues immovably fixed ; for it
might be fuppofed that the Northerly winds,
which are there fo very prevalent, might,
perchance float the feparated ice, as in other
feas I and it is by no means unreafonable to
fuppofe, that in fuch cafe,the icy fragments
might fometimes float towardsCook's River
or Prince William's Sound ; bsit no fiich
thing as a particle of ice has ever been feen
HI from Il
T\\M W M P PB?
from the month of March to October, tha
times and feafons when the North Weft
Coaft of America has been navigated.
A writer of considerable authority in what-»
ever relates to geography and navigation*,
has declared, that he has long fufpefted the
North Weft part of Hudfon's Bay to confift
of broken iflands, and his fufpicions on
this matter appear to arife from an examination of various maps, both printed and
manufcript, communicated to him by the
company, of the Weft fide of Hudfon's Bay.
He reprefents them, however, to be dif-
cordant and indistinct, and treats with merited contempt the folly of pretending, in fo
fhort a time as has generally been employed,
to determine with precifion on the bays and
inlets in fuch extenfive founds as thofe of
Wager and Cheflerfield.—He is of opinion
that Hearne's tract is decifive, as far as it
goes, in cafe the lakes and rivers he faffed
were frefh water, which, however, is not
abfolutely afcertained. But he is ftill inde-
cifive as to the general queftion of a North
Weft PaiTage ; and, with all his knowledge
of the fubjedt, and ingenuity of invefti*
;/.. ^cj||t;^    .'•■..:.•-'*   .      *. • gation^
* ^r. Dalrymple»
gation, he chufes to leave the matter open
for future difcuffion and enquiry^
. In fpeaking of the Chefterfield inlet, of
which he faw four different charts in the
pofleflion of the Hudfon's Bay Company,
all of which differed from each other, he
obferves, that it was navigahle for upwards
of two hundred geographic miles for veffels
of the largeft burthen ; and, he adds, it
might have been expected that many commercial advantages would have enfued from
fuch a difcovery :' but, continues he, I am
given to underftand that the Company's fer-
vants are extremely averie to any Northern
expeditions ; and every man converfant in
public bufinefs muft know the difficulty,
almoft amounting to an impoffibility, of
conftraining men at a diftance to execute
any thing contrary to their inclinations. É
It appears, as has been juft hinted, to be
the opinion of this gentleman, that according
to Mr. Hearne's information, there can be
no fea communication from Hudfon's Bay-
to the Pacific Ocean under 720 of North latitude, which is that of the fea feen by Mr.
j Héa-rne, the exact latitude of which, however, is not determined, though Mr. Hearne
I m
thinks he cannot have erred  above 20'.—•
On the contrary, the map of the Canadian
traders makes this identical Polar fea to be
in the latitude of 68° 1/ North ; which is
lefs than Mr. Hearne's obfervation at Congees
ca-tha-wha-chaga, viz.  68° '46' North, if
that is an obfervation of reliance.   v||     >■
If the communications which have been
made from the refpectable authority of the
Canadian Merchants, fome of whom were
fully adequate to this bufinefs, are thought
deferving of credit, there muft either be two
fituations where the Polar fea has been feen,
in the varying latitudes of 68° 15' North,
and 720 North, or the matter muft reft in
doubt between Mr. Hearne's obfervations
and thofe of the Canadian merchants: we
will, however, fuppofe, for a moment, that
the latitude of the Polar fea, as marked by the
latter, is correct ; it then becomes by no means
improbable that Cook's River may have
fome communication with this fea, in 68° 15',
as the diftance from the higheft latitude at
which navigators have arrived in that river
is 6i°30/, and longitude 210°; and the latitude and longitude of the fea feen by the
Canadians, 68°  15' North, and 228° Eaft ;
the diftance being no more than 620 geographic miles. MfV therefore, we credit the
Canadian accounts, which bear the character
of accuracy, and thereby fix the fea feen by
Mr. Hearne in the latitude of 68° 15', and
longitude 2280 Eaft, it would at once fug-
geft a more than pôffible communication
between Cook's River and the Southern-
moft part of Baffin's Bay, or the Northern-
moft part of Hudfon's Bay into the Atlantic
Ocean. For it fhould be remembered,' that
in the higheft known latitude of Cook's River, no impediment was obferved to the further progrefs of fhips, either from rocks,
fhoals, or a want of a due depth of water ;
the channel, on the contrary, appearing
capacious and extenfive, and abounding with
whales.       '0 ',       '•     '      ./'.••■
There are, according to the moft correct
information, feveral curious charts or maps
in the pofleflion of the Hudfon's Bay Company, drawn by different perfons, and fome
even fketched by Indians, of the interior
parts of the country, towards the North
Weft, and the lands that bind the Northern
Pacific Ocean.—On the face of thefe charts,
particularly on one defcribed by two Indians, FI
ans, appear feveral rivers and inlets, unknown to Europeans, which communicate
with the Arathapefcow lake; and from this
lake the river Kifcachewan runs North
Weft into the Pacific Ocean, communicating, perhaps, with Cook's River, the
Northern Archipelago, or what we fhall
call the Straits of John de Fuca.—Thefe
charts bear a great refemblance to thofe
made by the Canadian traders, which renders
them extremely interéfling. j
. The Indian maps imply that Hudfon's Bay
•communicates with the Polar Sea, which
countenances the opinion of a paiTage by
Repulfe Bay, which itfelf has not been perfectly examined ; and this Teems, as it is
obferved by the fame authoritv, to he con-
firmed by an anonymous manufcript belonging to the Company ; but it expreffes the
water to be fhallow where Captain Middle-
ton went. The failure of this voyage, however-, is well known to have excited great
clamours and difcontents, which, in many
inftances, ftruck at the fidelity of the relation.
Whatever rhay have been the juftice of
former complaints concerning the myfteri-
ous concealments of the Hudfon's Bay Com-
pany, no charge of this nature can be imputed to the gentlemen who now compofe
that refpectable corporation. Among other
proofs of their liberal conduct and difpofi-
tion, their prefent plan of making furveys,
and profecuting difcoveries in Hudfon's
Bay, &c. deferves to be diftinguifhed.    ^.
Mr. Duncan, a matter in the Royal Navy,
failed in the laft Hudfon's Bay fhip to their
fettlement, for the exprefs purpofe of exploring and furveying not only Hudfon's Bay,
but Baffin's Bay ; he will therefore be employed this year, on his arrival at the Company's factories, to perform in fmall veflels
this ufeful and neceflary fervice.—*We uo-
derftand that the Company have engaged
him, upon the moft liberal terms, for two
years ; and it is therefore to be expected
that, during the fumrner of this year, he
will have made a very coiifiderable progrefs.
Mr. Duncan, as the reader will recollect, has
already been mentioned with due praife, for
his active and perfevering fpirit during the
time he commanded the fmall veflel called
the Princefs Royal ; and we fhould feel an
added fatisfaction on this fubje£t, if it were
to be his peculiar good fortune to fucceed
Vol IL R where '&
where a Middleton and fo many others have
failed, and to make a difcovery of fo much
importance to the commerce of Great Britain.
The obfervation naturally occurs, that the
m ss
Hudfon's Bay Company, in the employment
of Mr. Duncan in this track of difcovery,
appear to be, by no means, without their
expectation of fucceeding at laft in difco-
vering a communication between Hudfon's
or Baffin's Bay, and the Northern Pacific
Ocean. ;
The voyage of the Felice is only an additional fupport.—She  enters  the  Straits of
John de Fuca between the latitudes of 48° 30'
North, and the longitude of 2350 Eaft ; and'
latitude 470 30', and longitude 2350 30' Eaft ;
and finds them fifteen leagues in breadth ;
very capacious, with a depth of 150 fathoms
water, where whales and fea-otters were feen
in great abundance.—If the ancient accounts
of thefe places are referred to, there is found
to be fuch an agreement between them and
our own as to border on conviftion.—When
this fea or ftrait is entered,  a clear, uninterrupted horizon to the Eaft, prefents itfelf to
view in the longitude of 236° 30' Eaft from
Greenwich,   which   is  no more than   460
leagues OF A NORTH WEST  PASSAGE.        251
* PU?
leagues from Hudfon Bay, and occupies a
fituation to the Eaftward of Mr. Hearne's
fea, agreeable to the obfervations before mentioned. If it fhould be afked why thefe
ftraits were not penetrated, or at leaft fome
attempt made to penetrate them, the anfwer
is at hand,—-the deftruction of our commercial enterprize by the fhips of his Catholic
Majefty. .   ,|;    - - :lÉ-:
The feveral voyages which have been made
to the North Weft Coaft of America, previous to thofe of the Felice and Iphigenia, have
each thrown new lights, and made additional
difcoveries in that part of the globe.
Ï No fooner was the valuable commerce that
was to be procured in King George's Sound
made known to the world, than the active
fpirit of adventure arofe ; and, ftrange as it
may appear, four different expedi fions flar ted
in the year 1786, from different parts of the
globe, to engage in this commerce, without
any knowledge of each other's defigns, or of
courfe fufpecting any kind of competition,
until they arrived on the Coaft of America,
when, as it may be fuppofed, any difcoura-
ging circumftance would come too late to
R 2 make M
make the adventurers fhrink from the enter-
prize. - '■"•'\ ";."'"'#./
Previous, however, to every other expedition, a veflèl was equipped in China in the
year 1785, by gentlemen of the firft mercantile abilities and reputation : the command of her was entrusted to Captain James
Hanna, who fet fail in her to feek the diftant
continent of America, to explore its coafts,
and to open fuch an intercourfe with the
inhabitants as might tend to a future-corn-
mercial eftablifhment with them. The fize
of theveflel, which was under 70 tons, her
equipment, which fcarcely amounted to
thirty perfons, and every circumftance belonging to her, ferved to imprefs the minds
of all concerned* in the bufinefs with an
high idea of the fpirit of the man who had
undertaken to conduft his little band of Argonauts in an almoft untried courfe, and
where dangers were not to be avoided, or
prepared for by the communicated experi~
ence of preceding adventurers. v: < ; '
Captain Kanna, on leaving China, purfued
his courfe in the vicinity of Japan, paffing
through the Laqueo Iflands, and encountering fogs, vapours, andftorms, till he arrived
in King George's Sound,—the fécond European after Captain Cook had left it. The
natives, pre fuming upon the inferior fize of
the veflel, and the confined number of the
crew, made a defperate attack upon her,
which was repulfed by the fuperior bravery
and good conduct of their new vifitors.
gi§Thefe hoftilities, however, foon ended in
commercial friend fhip ; and a quantity of
fea-otter fkins was obtained from them.
Captain Hanna departed from thefe people
on the moft friendly terms, and proceeded
to the Northward, where he difcovered
feveral founds, iflands, and harbours, which
he named Fitzhugh's Sound,Lance's Iflands,^
and fome particular parts which he named
after Henry Lane, Efq ; but particularly an
harbour which he called Sea Otter's Harbour.
The journal of Captain Hanna was, as
might be expected, very curious. He was
fo kind as, to fubmit the examination of
them to us ; and they appeared, in our judgment, to confirm the difcoveries faid to be
made by De Fonte, and which may now
be faid to be adlually realifed by the knowledge we have of the Great Northern Ar-
chipelago. Captain Hanna, we find, enters,
this Sound, as he efteemed it ; whereas it is
now known to be a part of the Northern
Archipelago ; but bad weather and an heavy
fea obliged him to ufe his utmoft expedition
in getting out of it. • fr ; . ' ■WE '
In this voyage we fee the extent of his
difcoveries ; for his fécond voyage to the
North Weft Coaft of America, in 1786, did
not lead to any thin^ further than   what
mf O
related to mere commercial adventure ; and,
before he could engage in a third, this active
and able feaman was called to take that voy-
age from whence there is no return.
•: It was in 1786, that different bands of
trading adventurers flarted up, as it were,
both in India and England, to profeclite
this commerce. From India, the equipments
took place at Bengal and Bombay, under
the patronage of the refpective governments
of thofe places. From the former failed the
Nootka and the Sea Otter,—from the latter,
the Captain Cook and the Experiment. At
the fame period, another equipment took
place, for the fame purpofe, in China ; and
the Sea Otter failed from thence, and was
joined by the  Lark, which was fitted out
with that  intention, for the coaft of America.
About the fame time certain merchants
in England, and, in particular, the MefTrs.
Etches of London, engaged in a fimilar adventure. Having obtained licenfe from the
South Sea Company to carry on this trade
exclufively, with regard to England, for
the term of five years ; and having been favoured with a permifiion from the Eaft India
Company to lade teas home from China,
thefe gentlemen equipped the fliips King
George and Queen Charlotte in a very fuperior manner, and gave the command of them
to Lieutenant Poftlock of the royal navy,
and who had already been frequently employed by them as mafter of a trading veflel
in their fervice. Thefe fhips left England
in the month of September, 1785, near feven
months before any of the equipments fet
fail from the different parts of India.
The Captain Cook and the Experiment,
commanded byJpJie Captains Lowrie and
Guife, and under the fuperintendanceof Mr.
Strange, one of the Company's fervants,
failed at the clofe of the year 1785, or early
iri.the year 1786 : they were equipped in the
it   belt
K 4 1
belt poffible manner by the public fpirit of
David Scott, Efq. of Bombay, who was the
principal owner of them. Their commanders were men of abilities, and the inferior
officers in every point of fuitafeie character :
fo that coiifiderable expectations were formed
from fuch an equipment.
After remaining fome time at Nootka
Sound, they explored other parts of the coaft,
and arrived in Snug-corner Cove, in Prince
William's Sound. In this progrefs they in-
difputably difcovered that land to which
Mr. Dixon gave the name of Charlotte's
Ifles, which he did merely from conjectural
opinion, as they were never proved to be
fuch till Captain Douglas, in the Iphigenia,
failed through the channel which feparates
them from what was then fuppofed to be
the American Continent. Mr. Strange alfo
firft found the bay called Friendly Cove,
which received its prefent name from that
The King George and Queen Charlotte,-—
though they poffefled the advantage of being
fitted out at the port of London, were appointed with numerous crews and officers
of every denomination, as well as with an
" \   — §p -■' arrange- OF A NORTH   WEST PASSAGE. 257
arrangement of flores, &c. fufficient to
command every advantage of trade, and alfo
to make feulements, form faâories, which
they were authorized to do, and build veflels*
their voyage was tedious and dilatory ; and
their fuccefs, both with refpedt to commerce or difcovery, by no means adequate to
their fuperior equipment.
After thefe fhips had feparated, the Queen
Charlotte proceeded to the Southward of
Prince William's Sound ; and continuing
her courfe to that part of the coaft named
by Captain Cook Behring*s Bay, fhe entered
a port which then received the name of Port
Mulgrave. Captain Dixon then proceeds to
the Cape Edgecumbe of Cook, and from
thence traces the coaft till he arrived in a port
which was honoured with the appellation of
Port Banks ; and finally difcovered the
Northern jjart of thofe iflands whofe Southern extremity was firft difcovere4, as has
been already mentioned, by the Captains
LoWrie and Guife. The fhip then takes her
courfe down the Weftern fide of thefe iflands;
and, rounding the Southern extremity of
them, proceeds partly between them, arid
what was, at that time^ fuppofed to be the
continent hT^^^^
ten     lulSiii!
j|y      : [ : î-i!1'
1 11
Il li
1H1 HI 1 11 111
H 11 111
JR* !      Itllinii
1   ■
continent of America; but apprehënfive of
being entangled among thefe iflands, fhe
quitted them at once, and proceeded on her
voyage to China.
The King George remained a confiderable
timeinPrinceWilliam'sSound; from whence
fhe difpatched her long-boat, at two different
times, to Cook's River, which made a fur-
vey of fome part of the coaft between Prince
William's Sound, that bore a confiderable
fhare in the general outline. She then left
that Sound ; and, after cafually exploring
the coaft, and difcovering an harbour or two,
one of which was named Portlock Harbour,
Ihe took her courfe alfo to China ; and both
ihips returned to Europe. ■%.
The Imperial Eagle, Captain Barclay, we
helieve, failed from Europe the beginning
of the year 1787; and not only arrived at
Nootka Sound in Auguft, but explored that
part of the coaft from Nootka to Wicananifh,
,and fo on to a Sound to which he gave his
own name. The boat's crew, however, was
difpatched, and difcovered the extraordinary
ftraits of John de Fuca, and alfo the coaft as
far as Queenhythe ;—when, after the fatal
cataflrophe which happened to fome of them,
':':•■       '">#' ^ 3 ...';'. this
.tfrl OF   A  NORTH  WEST PAS§AG£. 2$9
this fhip quitted the coaft, and proceeded
to China; having performed the whole of
the voyage in twelve months, which employed the King George and Queen Charlotte
upwards of two years. The Nootka made
no other difeqvery bpt that of diftrefs and
The year 1788 was productive of connecting, in fome meafure, the detached and
feparate difcoveries of the fhips already mentioned. There were then on the coaft the
fhips Prince of Wales and Princefs Royal,
the Felice, the Iphigenia, Columbia, and
Washington ; who each contributed her fhare
towards compleating the charts pf the North
Weftern part of the world which are attached to this volume. -, ê|
The Princefs Royal, Captain Duncan, in
particular, enters the channel that feparates
the Charlotte Ifles from the fiippofed continent, ^nd proceeds exploring both fides ; discovering numerous harbours, founds, and
inlets, which completely afcertains the
Northern Archipelago. He occupies ah*
moft a whole fummer in this flation; and
yet, flrange as it may appear, quits the
coaft of  America without  knowing   that
pf Captain Ci
Captain Douglas had already taken the fame
courfe :—yet has Captain Duncan, as might
be expected from him, added many valuable
remarks to the geography of this part of the
The Prince of Wales has added alfo con-
fiderably to the geographical defcription of
America. We have only to lament the lofs
of her commander to the country,—as he is
now a prifoner with the Spaniards, and ftill
fuppofed to be in that ftate of deranged intellects which i immediately fucceeded the
treatment he received from the commander
of the Spanifh fhips. The part the Iphigenia
and Felice bore in connecting thefe detached
furveys, are recited at large in the pages of
this volume. m    vn
The Wafhington entered the Straits of
John de Fuca, the knowledge of which fhe
had received from us; and, penetrating up
them, entered into an extensive fea, where
fhe fleered to the Northward and Eaftward,
and had communication with the various
tribes who inhabit the fhores of the numerous iflands that are fituated at the back of
Nootka Sound, and fpeak, with fome little
variation, the language of the Nootkan peo-
pie. The. track of this veffel is marked on
the map, and is of great moment, as it now
completely afcertains that Nootka Sound,
and the parts adjacent, are iflands, and comprehended within the Great Northern Archipelago, The fea alfo, which is feen to the
Eaft, is of great extent; and it is-from this
ftationary point, and the moft Wefterly
parts of Hudfon's Bay, that we form an efti-
mate of the diftance between them.
The moft Eafterly direction of the
Wafhington's courfe is to the longitude of
237° Eaft of Greenwich. It is probable,
however, that the mafter of that veffel did
not make any aftronomical obfervations to
give a juft data of that ftation ; but as we
have thofe made by Captain Cook at Nootka
Sound, we may be able to form a conjecture
fome what approaching the truth, concerning the diftance between Nootka and the
Eafternmoft ftation of the Waftrington in
the Northern Archipelago;—and, confe-
quently, this ftation may be prefumed to
be in the longitude, or thereabouts, of 237°
! Eaft of Greenwich. The afcertained longitude of Fort Churchill is 940 12' 30" Weft
of Greenwich; and, of courfe, the diftance
betweea 262       ON  THE PROBABLE  EXISTENCE
between the   Wafhington's moft Eafterly
O '     •      mf
ftation is 1020 geographic miles ; and, by
the fame calculation, from Hudfon's Hosife
660 geographic miles ; and in the direction
of Eaft by North : but whether the intermediate part between thefe fixed points be
fea, river, or land, is a queftion that muft
be left to the refult of future difcovery.
Thus has been unveiled the whole of the
American coaft, particularly thofe parts between the latitudes of 500 and 550 North,
and 470 and 48° North ; and furely thisfur-
vey gives room for fomething; more than
conjecture on the fubject. It will teach us
alfo to pay fome attention to the account of
former navigators ; fince thofe relations of
them which have not only been fufpected,
but abfolutely determined to be errors or fictions, now turn out to be real difcoveries.
Thefe particulars are faithfully extracted
from nautical journals, and may be considered as interefting alfo, as they relate to
the American commerce. It will, indeed, be
for the honour of this country to bring thefe
refearches to a conclufion ; for though it has
been a received opinion that it would be in
vain to look for a paiTage in Hudfon's Bay to
the Southward of 6y° latitude; and wheii
we find held out to our view how much more
Northerly fhips muft hold their courfe, at leaft
fome part of their voyage, before they can
pafs from one fide of America to the other,
yet may not the fea feen by Mr. Hearne be
that very higheft point ? — May not the
Northern Archipelago, the Straits of John
de Fuca, and Cook's River, all ftretching to
the North Eaft,—fome of them being more
Eaftward than this fea—may not thefe be the
very paiTages ?—Is it not poffible that this
very fea, feen by Mr. Hearne to pufh boldly
into Hudfon's Bay, or the Southcrnmoft part
of Baffin's Bay, be fome inlet or palTage to
the Northward of 6j° ? V|   "
If the corroborating proofs of former
writers are brought forward,—if the having
a knowledge that from the Copper-Mine River the Indians of Prince William's Sound
and the Northern Archipelago procure their
copper;—if from the Indians themfelves we
are informed that great waters, free from ice,
ftretch themfelves to the Northward ;—if
thefe particulars can be fuppofed to have
any weight, how much will it be encreafed,
when it is known that fhips have reached
between i III
between 6î and 6% degrees of latitude in
Cook's River, where a navigable ftrait, of
confiderable extent, appeared to their view,
free from icè or impediments of any kind ;
and where the rife and fall of the tide was fo
great, that there muft be other extenfive
channels for the reception of the waters,
which can only be to the Eaft.     ...
in no part of the year is ice found in Cook's
River ;—Mr. Hearne faw none in his fea,
except on the margin of the fhores, which
may have accumulated there from the influx
of frefh fprings, &c—The Weftern fea of
America is alfo at all times navigable and
free from ice, as far as we can afcertain, to
the latitude of 640 North. :-:1»P:-
There is but one circumftance more before we clofe what we have to offer in favour
of a North Weft PaiTage, open to the purpofe of navigation.—If, therefore, we eaft
our eyes on the general map of the world,
particularly on the Northern portion of it to the
Eafl, we find laid ' down on the chart that
great extent of land bounded by Baffin's
Bay, yet unexplored.— In the Weft we
perceive that portion of terra firma, within
the arctic circle, bounded by ice, which
§|f:/        1       ' ".'    >' 1   feparates OF  A  NORTH WEST PASSAGE.
feparates Alia from America, and which flopped the progrefs of Captain Cook ;—let us
then eaft our eyes on that part of the fea,
feen by Mr. Hearne, and  reconcile,  if we
can, the poffibility of its being any part of
the Frozen Ocean which we imagine to flow
round thofe lands that are thought to reach
to the Pole.—If it is the Frozen Ocean, to
what  height of latitude muft the land   of
Baffin's Bay ftretch ?—In what latitude the
Weftern portion fo bounded by fea ?—We
muft either prefume that thefe lands do not
reach to the Pole, if this is the Frozen Sea ;
or if we conclude that they do, then the fea
feen by Mr. Hearne can be no other than
the ftrait,  or identical paiTage between the
two oceans. ,
Can  it  be'fuppofed that the Efquimaux
round with their canoes either Baffin's land
or the Weftern portion, to arrive at this fea.
Should it not rather be believed that thofe
people come from the-Weftern fide for the
copper and the whale ; and that  this creature himfelf had made his paiTage through
thofe very  channels  which had conveyed
the roving tribe here from   Cook's River,
Prince William's Sound, or the Northern
Vol. II. S Archi-/ 266
Archipelago.    And if this idea is reje£led,<
let it be afked finally, by what fea and by
which navigation did the whale come into
Mr. Hearne's fea ; whether did he take his
courfe round Baffin's land, or boldly pufh
through the barrier of ice feen by Captain
Cook, and which is fuppofed  to extend to
the Northern pole  of the world.    Here he
is oppofed and repulfed, nor do we believ
that he ever got round the land of Baffin.
We are bold enough, however,   to hazard
an opinion,   that  this fea feen  in   720, or
placed by others in 68° 30' ; or,  according
to Peter
Pond, in 650, is no other than that
part of the communication between the
Northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans which
empties itfelf either in Baffin's, or Hudfon's
Bay;    and   that  through  thefe  channels,
m' * O *
which  are  fufficiently deep and capacious
for navigation, the whale and other huge
.marine animals find a fafe and eafy pail age,
The Indians feen  bv  Mr. Hearne,  and
who were deftroyed by the party that conducted him through his dreary route, were,
in all probability, a part of a.tribe of the
Weftern fide, on an expedition to the mines
to procure copper.—Perhaps they were inhabitants OF A NORTH WEST PASSAGE.        267
habitants of Cook's River.—Copper abounds
amongft thefe numerous tribes ;—it is the
medium of barter with their more Southern
neighbours. We have feen in their pofleflion mafles of confiderable weight from the
mines, and of extreme finenefs. They told
us that they went far Northward for it, and
'found the ofe in the earth, fcattered about,
and, as we nnderftood them, thrown up by
a volcano from the fea.—The Indians feen
by Mr. Hearne were Efquimaux, agreeing in manners and cuftoms, and inheriting
all that mifery of this extensive tribe,
'which is perceived on the Weftern Coaft
of America, as far South as to the latitude
of 500 North. v y
' It has been faid that the Spanifh navigator, Don Francifco Antonio Maurelle, in
1775, viiited that part of the continent
of America not feen by Captain Cook in
his progrefs to the Northward ; and that
this voyage, therefore, is peculiarly intereft-
ing to navigation, as he pronounces that no
fuch ftraits are to be found as thofe of De
Fuca, or fuch an Archipelago as that of
Admiral Dé Fonte.
S 2 The 11!!
The particulars of this voyage, kept fo
fecret by the Court of Spain, have been com*
miinicated to the world by that truly re-
fpectable, philofophic and leajrnedgentleman^
the Honourable Mr. Daines Barrington.—
Its fuppofed merits  for fome time ftood the
A   A (si**?
teft of criticifm.—It received an additional
authority after the return of our laft circumnavigators, as it favoured their opinions
that no credit was to be given to the fuppofed dilcoveries of De Fonte or De Fuca,
which were now determined to be nothing
more than the romance of a former century,|j|
or the fiction of an enthufiaftic mind. K;;É
In our turn, we do not hefitate to pronounce, that no attention whatever is to be   .
paid to the charts of Mr. Maurelle, as  to-    '
tally contrary to truth and fact.   They give
no idea of the real position of the Coaft of
America ; and, of courfe, involve the journals of the  fame navigator,   from whence
they have been drawn, in  their own mifre-
prefehtations.    There is no method   more
ready or more decisive, than to compare the
chart of Maurelle's   voyage with the chart
of Captain Cook, or that which has been
prepared from the voyage of the Felice and
the Iphigenia, and which comprehend all
the difcoveries made by other Britifh navigators who have vifited the American
Coaft. Mr. Maurelle's chart will then have
abided a fair trial, and of courfe receive the
judgment it deferves.
We have now ftated fully, explicitlv, and,
we hope, without prefumption, the different
points which have given rife to our belief
in the  exiftence of a North Weft PaiTage.
An argument on which fo much depends, requires every aid to fupport it that
can be derived from any corroborating tefti-
mony ; yet we fhall not attempt to mention
fuch as may be doubtful, however favourable they may be to osir general purpofe,
without exprefling our hesitation as to their
Thus, if Mr. Peter Pond's difcoveries were
fatisfactorily authenticated, they would oper
rate powerfully in our favour, as they would
materially correct the route of Mr. Hearne,
by altering the fea feen by that gentleman
in 72° to 6$°, and consequently leave a ready
and open communication between Cook's
River and that fea ; and, perhaps the fame
in  Baffin's   or   Hudfon's Bay ;  but we are
1 It lit
ready to acknowledge that we are not with-»
out oiir doubts refpecting Mr. Pond ; as his
account, however, is in every body's hands,
we fhall leave its claim to credibility exactly in the fame ftate in which we found it.
But there is an author of great refpecta-
bility, whofe obfervations we have already
quoted, to whom we fhall be indebted for
further affiftance ; and as he ftates clearly
the ancient accounts of the exiftence of the
Archipelago of Saint Lazarus, and the
Straits of John de Fuca, we rely with certainty on them, and are thus enabled, by his
J ' W mf
previous labours, to lefleii our own. We
fhall only, therefore, with his affiftance,
ftate a few leading points, to fhew the
grounds on which we reft our belief of the
exiftence of thefe places, which have been
attributed by ^ery learned men to the imposition of fome, and the ignorance of others.
This author obferves, that recent navigators have fqund an archipelago of iflands,
and theftrongeft indications of a large river3
where fuch are defcribed by Admiral de
Fonte : and this, he adds, gives countenance
to that too haftily exploded narration.—We
have, it is true, old traditions or narratives OF A NORTH  WEST  PASSAGE. 271
tives or the Archipelago of De Fonte, and
the Straits of De Fuca, in Hacluit,.Purchas
and Harris, but on what grounds, or from
what difcoveries, is at prefent wrapped   in
obfcurity. But   Mr.  Dalrymple   comes
armed with better authority,—and informs
us, that the Burgomafter Witfoii, in his fécond edition of the Nord and Ort Tartarye,
in 1705, fays he had in his pofleflion the
original manufcript of the account of the
celebrated navigator De Fonta, and not De
Fonte, having fsirveyed Terra del Fuego in
1649.—This circumftance goes very far to
prove that fuch a perfon did exift ; and we
may confequently form an opinion, that
if he performed one voyage in 1649, that he
might have accomplifhed the other as recited by Purchas, &c. in 1640 ; and the recent difcovery of this very Archipelago
ferves to countenance this opinion. ,But be
this as it may, and whatever authority may
be due to Burgomafter Witfcn, we are ready
to vouch for the Northern Archipelago
being in the fame fpot as that of De Fonta.
r ' The account of the Straits of De Fuca
is no lefs extraordinary.—A very curious
piece of intelligence   is  communicated   by
S 4 ) him.
11 272
r,',\"',v 1
(: ■ .'ji!
him, on the authority of the Right Honourable Mr. Greville, who received it from
Sir John Macpherfon, to whom it was related by fome Spaniards at the Cape of
Good Hope; who informed Sir John that,
very lately, an entrance in the latitude of
470 45' North was found, which conveyed
them in twenty-feven days into the vicinity
of Hudfon's Bay:—What can be faid to fuch
extraordinary intelligence ?    :âS;.    ^ • •   •
John de Fuca, according to Mr. Hacluit,
was a Greek pilot, who in 1592, failed into
an inlet of great breadth, between the latitudes of 470 and 480, which led him into
a far broader fea, wherein he failed twenty
days, and arrived in the Atlantic Ocean.—
He defcribes a great headland or ifland,
with an exceedingly high pinnacle rock
placed near it, which is, in all probability,
the very ifland or headland whereon our
friend Tatootche has his town and for-
trefs ; and as to the pinnacle rock, we have
had ocular demonftration of its being placed
in the entrance of this Tea, as well as the
great ifland or headland which we have particularized | in the yoyage of the Felice in
that latitude. ;J| M : w M ■
. M    1     ''  ' ' '     '*  • .     De OF A NORTH  WEST PASSAGE, 273
De Fuca, it feems, communicated this
information to Mr. Lock, when that gentleman was at Venice, and offered to perform the voyage, on condition of receiving
60,000 ducats.-—The venerable ai>d parfi-
monious minifters of Queen Elizabeth,
amongft whom was Cecil, refufed : M&
Lock being enable, out of his own private
fortune, to reward the pilot,» the matter
dropped, though he continued to keep up
a confiant correfpondence with him. Affairs
taking another turn, it was determined to
employ the pilot, and Lock went to Italy
in order to bring him to England ; when,
on his arrival, he found that the pilot had
died a fhort time before. Such is the account given by Hacluit, Purchas, &c. and
adopted by all nautical hiftorians fince their
time. -,        v, fn- /#: " .   .'.   .; v . .   . :#s;:
It is no lefs curious that another mant
who was at Portugal about the fame time,
fhould have publifhed a book, treating of
a North Weft PaiTage, and ftating.that he
had paffed through it. This book was fup-
prefled by the Court of Lifbon.—But to
corroborate and ftrengthen mywn afler-
tions?   I  bring the  authority   of   Captain
;   Barclay's
Jftr»' 111!
Ni! I
Barclay's officers, &c. who faw every par
ticular which T declare tojf have feen,
having furveyed thefe parts in a boat,—
though he himfelf did not go within fome
leagues of the ferait :—It is alfo to be re-
markedf that the Princefs Royal, Captain
Duncan, faw them alfo ; and finally, we
offer the proofs brought by the Wafhing-
ton, which failed through a fea that extends
upwards of 8 degrees of latitude.
In reading the accounts of the ancient
voyagers, we were forcibly ftruck with the
refemblançe between the inhabitants as de-
fcribed by John de Fuca, and thofe with
which we had a communication.—Amongft
many particulars we will Yelect one, which
is directly in point; independent of their
being cloathed in furs and bears fkins, as
he mentions them, he goes on to tell us
that they bind their childrens' heads between two boards when ve'ry young, which
practice gives the head the form of a fugar-
loaf; and in our account of the people of
Nootka, this cuftom has been particularly
remarked, and we reckon Tatootche among
the number of Nootkan Princes.—The latitude in which we found this ftrait placed,
certainly differs from that in which the old
authors have laid it down ; but that may be '
eafily accounted for, from the great difference between the crofs-ftaff, which was the
aftronomical infiniment of Columbus, and
our quadrant ;—-and we believe, even a few
years back, our navigators did not attend
fufficiently   tô   even   the corrections  neceflary for   the   fun's declination, which
will alfo produce a great difference of calculation. I
|wt Another account of a former date, relative to this paflage, muft not be omitted,
which is the voyage  of Thomas Peche, as
given by Mr. Dalrymple.—He relates that
he failed up the Strait of Anian, 120 leagues,
in 1676, intending to return to England that
way; but the month of October being well
advanced,and thewindsNortherly,—which,,
by the bye, we obferved to be always the cafe,
i—he returned back, and coafting California,
New Spain and Peru, came into the North
Sea by the ftraits of Magellan,  1677.—He
found from Cape Mendocino on the coaft of
California,   the current fet   to  the North
Eaft  for more than 20 leagues   vyithin the
channel :—But where thefe ftraits are fitu-
• \ ated, P
11C    iii^'A t»
ated, it is difficult to judge   from
account given of this man's voyage. 1§
It would only encreafe uncertainty, and
involve enquiry in greater perplexity, if tv#
tvere to enter upon an examination of the
interior geography of this-part of America.
There are, it is true, chart* formed of if,
but it is impoflible we can refign our judgment to them ;—it is fo eafy to fill up fpaces
with imaginary lakes and rivers, that only
tend to miflead us ; and though the Ara-»
thapefeow Lake bears all the marks of au*
thenticity, yet we know not from any re«*
fpeftable authority, that its fituation is
aftronomically fixed. .,  ^p
We muft beg leave to add one more con-»
jecture, which is that of Mr. Dalfymple,
and in which I perfectly coincide, that the
Lake de Fonte may be the identical Lake
Arathapéfcow ; which, if that fhould be the
cafe, communicates with the Northern Pacific Ocean : and the Arathapéfcow Lake,
according to two Indian manufcript charts
in the pofleflion of the Company, pofleflès
a communication with Hudfon's Bay; — a
circumftance which induces Mr. Dalrymplp
to remark, with his ufual fagacity,  that OF A  NORTH  WIST  PASSAGE*
St would be highly expedient to examine
what obftrudtions there are to navigate
thither ; for this lake is reported by Mr.
Hearne,—from the information of the Indians,—to be about 400 miles in length.—-
He is alfo of opinion, that the moft effectual
method of making this examination, would
be from the Arathapéfcow Lake, which by
the obfervation of the longitude of Hudfon*£
houfe, appears to be much nearer Hudfon's
houfe than Mr. Hearne's map reprefents
it.— Indeed, though that gentleman ha$
much merit for his enterprifing fpirit and
painful refearches, he has left much yet to
be done ; for it cannot be fuppofed that
j^Ir. Hearne could poffibly be qualified to
form a chart of fuch extenfive regions which
fhould be definitive.. .       n
' It may alfo be obferved that the Hud-
Tpn's Bay Company have an houfe lin
53° °' 32" North, and longitude 1060 27' 20"
Weft,|which is above 530 geographic
miles from their neareft fettlement in the
Bay ; the diftance, therefore, to compleat
the communication between that place and
ve 700   geograpnic miles
On the authority of Mr. Turner, the JHud-
§1 fon Km ni
s?8    ôtt thé Probable existence
fon Bay Company's furveyor, the Indians
report that the river continues to be navigable as far above Hudfon's houfe as below it, and that it is as eafy a navigation
as that of the Thames, there not being one
fall or rapid, after palling that near Winipig
Lake, in a courfe of more than 200 miles :
but it is probable that the communication
between Hudfon's Bay and the Weft Coaft
of America would,  with more facility,  be
X mf     "
made in an higher latitude, by means of
the Chefterfield inlet, or fome of the inlets
and rivers from Hudfon's Bay, connecting
with the Arathapéfcow, Dobaunt, and other
lakes. . -: .     I ■   ',   -       _ - .    "'    '.  ;|j|
*, Qf the navigation of the Weftern fide of
America we are clear and decided, as well
as of thofe inlets, great founds, and openings of the fea at the back of Nootka.—
And as to the Eaftern fide of the continent,
though, as yet, Ave have nothing but con-
lecture in favour of the belief that either
through Hudfon's Bay, or. the Southern
parts of Baffin's Bay, navigable inlets may
be found to communicate with the Eaftern
Pacific Ocean,—one circumftance is clear
in our  favour,  which   is,   that  we   have
Hi      ~ the
the moft incontestable proof that the geography of Hudfon's Bay is yet but imperfectly known, and that with Baffin's Bay
we are wholly unacquainted ; fo- that the
idea of the difcovery of a North Weft Paf-
lage ftill continues^ to have a realonable
foundation.—And we truft that the fervants
of the Hudfon's Bay Compariy will conquer
every ayerfion we are informed they have
hitherto poflefled to thofe Northern expeditions ; which may, at length, end in the
difcovçry of a North Weft PaiTage.
North Wefi Coafi of America and China| §É||
TT muft afford a very animating fatis-
*** fa£tion to every patriot mind, that the
trade and commerce ft of this country are
gradually extending themfelves over every
part of the globe ; and that from the encouragement given by wife minifters, and
the enterprising fpirit of opulent merchants,
every corner of the earth where the winds
blow and the fea rolls its waves, will, fooner
or later, be explored, to encreafe the wealth,
the power, and the profperity of the Britifh
Empire. _.'|fb    '     '%''-''"     ||' ;'" •
|| To Captain Cook, among other great and
public benefits, we are indebted for the
commerce of the North Weft Coaft of Ame- ACCOUNT OF THE TRADE, &c. 28i
ica, and its profitable application to the
China market ; a xommerce, which when
more known, and of courfe more cultivated,
will, we doubt not, prove of the firft advantage to this country.     : '""-^1;
The riches which the immenfe Southern
Pacific Ocean offers to the adventurous fpirit
of trade, is far beyond the prefent conceptions of it; and the empires of China and
Japan may not only become new fources
of commercial advantage to this kingdom,
in the exports, of her manufactures, but
prove the means of encreafing her maritime
ftrength ; 'and thereby aggrandizing, in
the moft «ample manner, the power of the
Britifh Empire, -ff . .. v : l - > ':lj§
In the preceding pages, which contain
our obfervations on the probable exiftence of
a North Weft PaiTage, fome account is
given of the feveral adventurers to the North
Weft Coaft of America fince the difcovery
of its valuable commerce by Captain Cook.
The fate of them, as it generally happens in
all new fchemes of adventure, has been
varioufly unfuccefsful.—Two of the fmall
number of fhips which have failed thither,
have been wrecked, and others have proved
Vol. II. T unfor- •sasi
unfortunate either from the bad management or ignorance of their conductors ; from
whence a very falfe idea has arifen, that
the trade of the North Weft Coaft of America is an unproductive bufinefs. N
Other opinions have been propagated
which are extremely unfavourable to the
adventurers who have engaged in this commerce. It has, indeed, been boldly afferted,
and by many as confidently believed, that
they have been engaged in a contraband
trade on the American Coaft.— It muft,
indeed, be extremely mortifying to thofe
gentlemen whofe patriotic and commercial fpirit has led them into fuch adventurous
undertakings, to find, that in addition to
the great loffes they have fuftained, their
characters, as fair and honeft merchants,
are attacked and calumniated : but the accusation,-—which jpiings either from envy
or ignorance, is founded m falfhood,—and
will, we truft, find a refutation in the com*
mercial arrangements of thofe voyages which
occupy the preceding pages of this volume.
The moft immediate articles hitherto imported from America, have been the fea-
otter fkin, and furs of an inferior value, of
Éi which
mi N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 283
which   we   have   every reafon to   fuppofe
there will prove  a very great  abundance^
whenever the induftry of the natives fhall
be duly excited to extend their collection of
them.—Befides^ it fhould be obferved, that
this trade is in an infant ftate, and has been
hitherto carried on only, as it were, in  the
vicinity of the American fhores |—as thofe
parts which have been already visited, are
not, as has been imagined, the coafts of the
continent, but an  archipelago   of iflands,
forming a kind  of barrier  to it.   When,
therefore, a commercial communication is
opened with the continent itfelf, which there
is every reafon   to   fuppofe is numeroufly
inhabited, a great and. very valuable fource
of commerce will be unfolded to our country ;   forming   a   chain of trade between
Hudfon's Bay, Canada, and the North Weft
Coaft of America.
The articles hitherto employed in the
purchafe of American furs, &c. are in themfelves but of fmall value, when compared
with the prices which thefe furs obtain at
China and other markets ; but when the
expence of conveying them to their defti-
T z nation
nation is taken into the account, their acquired value is of no trifling confederation.
-[ The  firft   adventurers   employed   iron,
beads, glafs and  Indian gewgaws,   as the
nledium of barter ; but they who fucceeded
them, added Britifh Woollens to the trade,
and  whole  villages of   American  natives
were feen clad in   blankets, and decorated
with every article of Englifh drefs. Indeed,
after fome time, the Indians became fo fond
of woollen articles, that no commercial engagement could be formed with thefe people
in which they did not form the commanding inducement.    The fea-otter fkin may
be a more beautiful and warmer garment,
but it is infinitely  more cumberfome than
the blanket ; which,   when once  adopted,
,was preferred in the moft decided manner,
from a fenfe of fuperior convenience;   and
refpecting the   articles of European  drefs
for which their  fimple fancy or a love of
novelty might be fuppofed to impel  their
choice, they might be fo varied as to keep
awake thofe  prepoiTeflions till they become
habits, whofe calls muft be fupplied by Britifh manufactures.
i ne
The number of people to the Southward
of Nootka Sound, as far as the latitude of
450 or 46% amounts at leaft to near fixty
thoufand. The calculation is made from
the number of villages, each of which
contains from fix to nine hundred inhabit
tants. To the Northward of Nootka, as
far as the latitude of 6i°, they are much
more numerous ; it may therefore be rea-
fonably concluded, that the line of fea coaft
on the Weftern fide of this Archipelago,
without adverting to the Eaftern fide, pof-
fefles upwards of an hundred thoufand
people; which, after all, forms no very
great degree of population for fuch an
extenfive length of country.; .,
v Something like a correct eftimate may,
therefore, be made of the advantages that
would arife from fupplying fuch a number
of people   with Britifh manufa<flures, by
j calculating the probable exports, which, in
this early ftage of the North Weft Ameri*
can commerce, might be made from this,
^country of coarfe woollens, iron, cutlery,
manufactured copper and tin ; which, in
particular, when worked up into the various
articles in which it is commonly employed,
f|!-\--' T^, '" ;    '   ;'|.   would &Sb
would form an immediate, as well as a
very confiderable export, as on feveral parts
of the coaft it was found the favourite
object of the Indian market» It is, by no
means, neceflary to obferve, that in proportion as the manners of thefe people,
improved, and their civilization advanced,
all thefe commercial articles would find an
encreafing demand.
The exports of America will confift of
furs of the following fpecies :-*-The fea-*
otter, the different kinds and qualities of
which have been particularlv defcribed in
the voyage of the Felice ;—the beaver,
marten, fable, river-otter,—called by the
natives capuca,—-the ermine, foxes of different kinds, and particularly that whofe
fkin is of a jet black ; — grey, white and
red wolves, wolvereens, marmots, racoons,
bears, mountain-iheep, whofe fleece is of
extreme length and finenefs, with the com-*
mon and moofe-deer or elk. % n ;
r The fea-otter, though an amphibious
animal, might, perhaps, have been more
correctly clafled among the fea-furs ; for
it is thé peculiar happinefs of this country,
that the fea which wafhes its cpafts, fhares
SlMÉÉt     "■'•'.'iât;- •■  «•    .ifl wËâà N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 287
with the land the plenty of commercial
produce. The furred feal, fea-cow, fea-
lion, the fpeckled feal and common feal,
abound there. ' /
Ginfeng might alfo become a very valuable article of American export ; for although it has not hitherto been found in
great abundance in the vicinity of Nootka,
the Northern parts, more particularly the
fhores of Cook's River, produce it in inex-
hauftible plenty. The ginfeng of this part
of America is far preferable to that of the
Eaftern fide, 'and approaches nearer to that
of China, which is univerfally considered
of a very fuperior quality to the belt ginfeng of European exportation.     '  ;      -ft  '*§S
But the moft   valuable  branch of commerce, which is offered  fpontaneoufly by
the North Weft  American   Coaft,  is the
Whale Fifhery* which may be carried on to
any extent ;   as thofe   fifh,   both  of   the
black and fpermaceti kind, are univerfally
abundant in thofe feas, with other marine
animals, which yield an oil of a  very fuperior quality.     And here I fhall beg leave
to offer fome obfervations on the probabfe
advantages which may be derived to Great
''' •' itt.' '    T 4    :      ■   y   Britain t
Britain from this fifhery, not only in the
Northern  but the Southern Oceans ;   the
former   abounding  with  the black whale,
and the latter with the fpermaceti fpecies.
V. Thefe Fifheries   are   of   fuch   extent,
reaching from Cape Horn to the Line, as,
with  that of the North Weft   Coaft of
America, to be capable of employing feveral
thoufand tons   of fhipping.    Even in   its
infant ftate, one hundred fail, at leaft, each ï
veffel having thirty men on board, might
be employed   in   this valuable branch   of
commerce. Of a fhip's company, according
to   this regulation, I fhould fuppofe  that
twenty would be  feamen,   or  people   acquainted with  the bufinefs of the fifhery,
olid that the remainder would be boys apprenticed, or landmen, who are frequently
^received on board,  and employed in thefe
voyages :   the   number of feamen amounting in the whole to three thoufand.    Nor
can it be   fupp.ofed   that  this   commerce^
^conducted  under   the influence of Britifh
•liberty and the fpirit of Britifh merchants,
would not encreafe.    Indeed,   the  acquifi-
tions  of it  are   fo favourable to our own
manufa&ures,  and in   fuch continual demand N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c, 28fr
mand from foreign countries, that to fupply
the home and foreign confumption of its
feveral articles, would prove a moft advan-*
tageous extension of the trade and navigation of Great Britain. But another importai! t benefit will refult alfo from thefe
fifheries ; they will very greatly enlarge
that nurfery of feàmen which may be con-
fidered as the mine of Britifh ftrength and
glory.—Nor do I hefitate to foretel, that
if this branch of commerce is left free, and
is not fuffered to be fhâckled by chartered
privileges and legal monopolies, that it will,
in a very fhort time, make fuch returns,
as to difcharge Government from the ex-
penfive encouragements of drawbacks and
It would be prefumption in me to recommend any fyftem of regulations for the
due conduct, controul and encouragement
of thefe fifheries, when fuch abilities and
commercial knowledge as is poflefled by
Lord Hawkefbury, enlightens the proceedings of that branch of the adminiftrafcion
which appropriates its labour and attention
to the trade of our country; but I fhall,
neyerthelefs,   take the  liberty to fuggeft,
that «.
that each fhip employed in this commercial
fervice, fhould be obliged to have onboard
fix or eight apprentices, who fhould be
limited with refpect to age. If eight in
number, four of them fhould not be more
than ten or twelve years of age ;— two
others fhould not exceed fourteen years, and
the remainder might be confined within
the age of fixteen. The term of their
apprenticefhip fhould not be extended beyond five years.^—It would be needlefs to
explain the utility and advantage of fuch
an arrangement.
-The navigation of thefe feas is moft
admirably adapted to form a fchobl of
maritime experience, while its \ peculiar
fafety is equally calculated to encourage
mercantile fpeculation.—Nor fhould it be
pafled by without obfervation, that fhips
employed in the fifhery or fur trade, may
always depend upon fuch abundant fup-
plies of almoft every kind, as not only
to furnifh a plenteous variety of that whole-
fome food, but alfo to become an object of
commercial confideration, while the Sandwich Iflands offer a ftation for intermediate
where health animates the gales,
and every fpecies of refrefhment is to be
found on the fhores.
The various articles of trade, both of an
import and export nature, in this new region of commerce, which might be confi-
dered as attending upon our entrance into
it, have already been mentioned; at the
fame time we ought to keep in view, as an
object of a great future advantage, thofe
mines which are known to lie between the
latitudes of 400 and 6o° North, and which
may hereafter prove a moft valuable fource
of commerce between America and China.
But to give them effect, as well as to forward other beneficial purpofes, eftablifh-
ments muft be formed, for which the North
Weft Coaft of America offers a mild climate
and a fruitful foil, where grain of every
fpecies may be cultivated with a fmall portion of induftrious exertion, particularly
in the vicinity of Nootka, and in the country of New Albion.
Such is the general account we have it
in our power [to communicate of the commerce of that part of America which has
fo lately been unfolded to us. We fhall
now proceed to difcover thb connection it
has Il
has hitherto formed with China, together
with the profpe£t of opening a trading
intercourfe with Japan ; which, if revived,
and there is no doubt of the poffibility of
fuch an event, might, in due time, become
an object of the fiHl importance to the mercantile intereft of this country.   :
The furs obtained by the feveral advent
turers to the North Weft Coaft of America, have been carried to the Canton market, where they were fold at very high
prices.—The circumftance of fupplying this
market with American furs, has proved the
means of opening a channel of trade be-?
tween England and China for the Canadian and Hudfon's Bay furs, which had not
hitherto been attempted.—Thefe furs alfo
fold extremely well.      Y     • .
The commerce between Great Britain
and the Empire of China, is altogether of
fuch importance, that an investigation of
thofe caufes which operate to continue the
balance of trade againft us, and which may
lead to a difcovery of the means not only
to diminifh that balance, but to turn it in
our favour, will, I truft, be favourably
received by the public ;  and, in a particular
||i manner, m W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. £53
manner,   by  that great commercial body,
the Honourable Eaft  India Company.—It
is, indeed, but juftice to declare, that much
has already been done by them ; at the fame \
time  truth compels   me to obferve, that
much yet remains  to be   done, not only
in   giving  every poffible augmentation to
the' exports of this country, but in opening new channels of commerce, whenever
and wherever an  opportunity offers to ac-
complifh   fuch a desirable object.     ,     Iff
In purfuing the general   outline of this
fubjeft,   and  we do  not profefs to  be fo
minutely informed as to engage in a particular difcuffion of it, we fhall clafs   the
commerce of China under the   following
heads:—      ' W-~''■*'■'':y ' ',::"
Firft. The trade between China and
Ruffia by land ; in which may be included
the North Weftern commerce by fea, as
the principal ftaple commodities are chiefly
furs, in which England participates, from
the large quantity of the Canadian and
Hudfon's Bay furs fent from this country
to Ruffia, and from thence, by the Ruffian
merchants, by a long and circuitous   land
carriage, to Pekin.
| Secondly^ ■I 1
Secondly;    The   commercial connection
between Great Britain and China.    .      ;  ;
: Thirdly.    The commerce   between   foreign nations with the country powers in
India and China. |: -   '■.        , . . i
It is not neceflary for me, were it in my
power, to defcribe the vaft extent of the
Chinefe Empire, and the ftate of its prodigious population. It is fufficient to obferve,
that fuch a country, and fuch a people,
would form a commercial; alliance of the
firft magnitude with Great Britain. The
Englifh certainly enjoy the far greater part
of the import trade at Canton; but the
whole | European commerce, which, of
courfe, involves our own, labours beneath
very oppreffive and encreafing difadvantages.
Nor can I underftand upon what principle of found policy we continue to fubmit
to the will and pleafure of the Chinefe government,   in   our   commercial   concerns
with  it.   '. n.n ■'.;   ■<     ...J|:. -, •' -v \ -. nnjffi,
If we were to form our opinions of the
general chara&er of the inhabitants of China
from thofe who inhabit the banks of the
Canton River, it would be doing them a
great injuftice.    A trading fea-port, which
offers little or no other communication than
with cuftorn-houfe officers, brokers, and
the inferior rank of tradefmen, does not
qualify the voyager to judge of the nation
to which it belongs ; but, forming our
opinion from thofe who have had opportunities of visiting the interior parts of China,
we are difpofed to believe that the Chinefe are a liberal, enlightened and polifhed
people, and that they profefs themfelves of
fuch a character. It cannot therefore be
fuppofed, if an AmbaiTador was fent to
China from this country, with all the appropriate accompanyments of fuch a character, that he would not be received with
fuitable refpect and dignity.
Various are the oppreflions which afflict
our commerce with this part of the Eaft,
and it would require, perhaps, confummate
fkill in the arts of négociation, as well as a
complete knowledge of the commercial hif-
tory of China, and of the temper of the
people, to bring any liberal arrangement
of commerce between the two nations to
a conclufion. The Chinefe are well acquainted with the power of Great Britain,
and they regard it wuh  very confidera
appre- Il 1
appfehenfion. I relate it as an incontrovertible fa&, that the Hoppo or Vice-Roy of
Canton, in the year 1789, in his ufual information to the Court at Pekin, tranf-
mitted a falfe account of the European fhip-
ping at his . port. The encreafing number
of them, particularly thofe of the Englifh
nation, was rather an alarming circumftanGe
to the minifterial officers .at Canton ; and
had the Emperor been informed of it, they
would have been fubject to his dsfpleafure,
from the fuppofed danger of fuffering fuch
an aflemblage of foreign veflels. But they
hufhed their own fears, and fatisfied their
patriotic fcruples, by remitting the ufual
revenues arising from foreign trade to the
Royal treafury, and configning the en-
creafed collection  of duties   to  their own
coffers.   ' "I^PPI'V'-     . * " ■     '.  ' ; : ■ \it§
At this port, as if it were contrived to
fhackle and opprefslthe European commerce, every tranfaction, of a commercial
nature, comes under the jurifdiction of a
body of merchants, conflfting of eleven
perfons, or more, who are named the Hung,
or the Houang. ff .
I^^R    ' W-'■     -   3     %        '  ^ ■ "    On
:M i II! N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 297
On the arrival of a fhip at Canton, one
of thefe merchants is appointed to conduct
all her commercial  concerns.    He is then
termed the  fecurity  merchant, and every
trading tranfaftion, relative   to  the  veffel
over which he is   placed, entirely depends
upon his controuling pleafure.—With this
extraordinary authority,   he   pofleflès   the
power, of arranging the trade of the cargo
which he fuperintends, in any fhape that
may belt anfwer his private  advantage.—
If, therefore, it fhould   appear to be   his(
intereft to  prevent  the  imported   articles
from  coming  to  an  equitable market, he
will, by no means,  conflder the importer,
but himfelf.    For the   native who wants
to buy, and  the ftranger who wants to fell,
can have no communication with each other.
It is  this ftrange, oppreflive, intermediate
official merchant, who acts for both, and to
whofe arbitrary dictates both muft fubmit,
without any meatis of revision or of appeal.
While   this  fet   of   men  remain   in their
prefent ftate  of  power,   the imports   can
never come to a fair   market, or  the exports be reduced bv competition to an equal
Yôi,. II. U The Xr*'
The greater as well as inferior Mandarins
or Cuftom-houfe officers, fubjeft the Hou-
ang merchants, in their turns, to heavy im-
poiitions, for which the latter reimburfe
themfelves, by levying contributions on the
European commerce. J|b ':|J':'. ! -'m '■' llj
;âÈ All goods entered at Canton pay a very
exorbitant duty in the firft inftance ;—and if
their owner fhould exercife the power which
he has of objecting to the Houang merchant's price, he neverthelefs cannot re-
embark a fingle article of them ; as merchandize once landed at the port of Canton, can never be removed from thence,
but by the native trader who may purchafe
it. À greater check on the fpirit of commerce cannot be well conceived than fuch
>a  tyrannical regulation. ■"%•/'•
, The duties, at this port, have long been
in a ftate of progreffive encreafe, and have,
within thefe few years, advanced to 50
pçr cent.—The actual amount of them being no longer paid into the Royal treafury,
for the reafons already mentioned, the
Mandarins are become more and more avaricious, in proportion as the-revenue from
the  duties   encreafes ;   and,   as   they   are
impofed N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 299
impofed at the pleafure of the Hoppo or
Vice-Roy, he contrives to accumulate an
immenfe fortune during his adminiftra-
tion ; which, however, he is obliged to
fhare, in fome degree, with the minifters at
Pekin, in order to prevent a difcovery of
his extortions on the Europeans at Canton.
All fhips on their firft arrival, pay a certain meafurement, which is calculated by
their tonnage, amounting to an heavy fum,
and, within a few years, has been greatly
augmented.' A fhip belonging to the Eaft
India Company, pays, I believe, from jT.Soo
to f. 1200. All goods muft be conveved on
fhore by the boats of the country, fo that'
continual robberies are committed on the
cargoes fent for the fhips to Canton, which
is diftant about fourteen miles ; and ftrange
as it may feem, no remedy is to be found,
or punifhment inflicted upon fuch open in-
juftice. The Houang man is the only
perfon to whom an European has accefs ;
fo that the foreign merchant is left entirely
to the mercy of an agent whofe intereft it
is to opprefs him the moft.
All Europeans are prohibited from entering the city of Canton ; and if any fhould
np.rii ft*
X m
perfift in paying it a clandeftine vifit, as
fome have done, they are feverely bambooed
and turned back again. The^Chinefe call
an European a Fan qui.
> It muft; however, be obferved, that the
idea of the Houang merchants being fecu-
rity for each other, is  entirely fallacious ;
— for thefe commercial guardians are fometimes known to become bankrupts, and
many Europeans have fuffered feverely by
the failure of them. I have fome reafon to
imagine that the debts due to Britifh mer-
chants, and on which account Captain Pan-
tôn in the Racehorfe, was fent to Canton,
are not yet liquidated; and which, being
incurred by the failure of a very confiderable
Houang merchant, evidently proves that
this body of men are not fecurity for each
other. This debt amounted to fome hundred thosifand pounds, part of which has
tf|been paid by inftallments, which have been
- in a courfe of payment for the fpace of
ten years, without intereft.-—This money
has, however, in fact been paid by the Europeans themfelves ; as, in order to difcharge
the debt, an additional duty has been laid
on all European articles, which ftill continues : N. W. AMERICA AN» CHINA, &c. 301
nues : and as Great Britain poflefles by far
the greateft fhare of the China trade, fhe
fuffers proportionably in thefe heavy and
accumulating impofitions.
This embafly did not greatly enhance the
confequence of the Englifh nation in the
opinion of the Chinefe.—-Lord Anfon and..
Captain Panton ftood in a very different
view of refpefl and importance,—-not that I
mean to be underftood as if the latter gentleman was deficient in any of thofe requi-
fites which could give confequence or effect
to   his ' commiflion ;   on the  contrary,   he
mf      *
pofleiTed them all,—hut he was not, by any
means, properly fupported, or cloathed with
that official confequence neceflary to im-
prefs the China people with a due refpe£t
for, and awe of the country from which he
came.'    n^ . '... ■ ;■•,     . -
It is indeed a very evident, as well as
mortifying proof, that the Englifh name
does not poiTefs that confequence with the
Ch,inefe, which it merits in every country
$nd corner of the globe, from their conduct towards the Eaft India Company's
fervants, who   conftantly remove   to  the
•   " *    ;f   . w u 3 '-f ■ '• * " ■ - Por~
i A
il feUi-'w
Portuguefe city of Macao for feveral months
of the year.   '     :\%.     •   ,   y n
In the feafon of 1789, on the arrival
of the Company's fhip in China, it became
neceflary for the fupercargoes to remove, as
ufual, to Canton ; on which the accuftomed
application was made to the Chinefe for the
common formality of permiflion.—This
was, however, peremptorily refufed, on the
pretence that this application fhoûld be made
through the Portuguefe, who refufed to exert themfelves; and thereby the Portuguefe
governor of Macao had the power of throwing very confiderable impediments in the
way of the Britifh commerce. This dif-
agreeable buiinefs was, however, at length
fettled, but not without confiderable delay,
and, in all probability, fome extortion.—But
during this oppreffive interval, the valuable
ihips of the Eaft India Company lay at anchor in the Bocca Tigris, or at Wampoa, as
they arrived, and without being able to procure the ufiial refrefhments. | Indeed the
enormous liums conftantly paid for the
removal of the Company's fervants to and
from Canton, from whence they are forced
by the Chinefe, is not only a great commercial
ft N.W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. '303
mercial enormity,  but  a  degrading  com-
pliance on the part of Great Britain.      J|   ;
The Portuguefe alfo, in this diftant fet-
tlement, aflume a language and conduct
to Britifh fubje&s, which cannot be at all
reconciled with the comparative ftate of the
ftrength, power and importance of their
refpe&ive nations.—It is no uncommon
thing at Macao, for the Company's fer-
vants to be imprifoned and otherwife ill-
treated on the Highteft pretences, and obliged
to pra&ife fubmiffions which the fervile
avarice of commerce can alone induce therm
to fuffer, while it iilences the refentment of
thofe who employ them.
From all thefe circumftances the conclu-
fion is at once forcible and evident,—that
the trade between Great Britain and China
fhould be arranged on an equal and refpe£la-
ble eftablifhment.—Nor, if the proper means
were employed, would fuch a desirable object be fo difficult to accomplifh as is generally imagined. ) Jfe
It is not to be fuppofed that the infant
trade of the North Weft Coaft of America to China efcaped thofe depreffing arrangements which  narrow' the advantages
■   U4    "    .   , -jfe'     and S3»
; i
and difgrace the fpirit of the long eftablifhecl
and fuperior channels of commerce with
this part of the Eaftern world.—We felt
and execrated the inconveniencies of them ;
but ftill a profpect of confiderable advantage unfolds itfelf to the views of a liberafed
commerce, which would juftify any encouragement from this country.
H§ No communication had as yet taken
place between the RuffianKamfchadaleand
Siberian Provinces with China, but by land s
and that intercourfe having been interrupt»
ed for many years,—in confequence of disputes which arofe, and have never been
fettled between the courts of Petersburg and
Pekin,—it became a matter of contemplation to have connected, in a great degree,
the commerce of the North Well Coaft of
America and thefe provinces with that of
China and Japan.-—If fuch a project had
been carried into effect, it would have produced very beneficial confequences to this
country ; as her manufactures, inftead of
being fent through the empire of Ruffia,
by way • of Peterfburg, and from thence
into Siberia and Kiafcha, would have been
imported immediately by fea, and the  furs
ii! N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c:    ••     ,   3o$
of thofe countries received in barter; which,
with the North Weft American furs, would
have been fold at Canton, and the proceeds,
from the natural channels of commerce,
paid without compunâion intq the Englifh
treafury there, which would tend to leiTen
the exports of bullion from this country. ;
By this trade, Great Britain might have
encreafed her exports of broad cloth, coarfe
woollens, cottons, linens, hardware, and
her tin and copper in all the variety of articles into which thofe metals are manufactured ; for which would be received, as before obferved, furs ôf all the various and
valuable kinds with which that part of the
World abounds. The quantity of exports
muft have been very confiderable to fupply
the Ruffian provinces ; and fupplying them
by this mode would prove the means of
beating out of the market thofe French
woollens and ironmongery with 'which it is
now fupplied ;—as it cannot be fuppofed
that the inhabitants would not prefer the
folid and lafting manufactures of England
to the flight cloths and brittle hardwares .of
^ Prance.      •   #•       ■■■■>*■$..:.'■. "■ . ;".,-
\ , I     n    .The 3o6.
The confideration of this part of the
Northern commerce naturally forces upon
our attention the neGeffity' of opening the
Northern provinces of China, as well as
the kingdom of Japan, in order to extend
this chain of commercial intercdurie.—
Such an arrangement would open an inftant
and extenfive channel for Britifh manufactures, particularly thofe of tin and copper, more efpecially the former ; the exports
of which being of the firft importance to
this country, we confider as a fubject that
demands a diftinct difcuffion, which it will
receive in the fucceeding part of thefe ob-
fervations. ■  :^p-'. <. :   •  '•• '■■•'.,.
-, The prefent exclu lion of the European
nations from all the ports of the Chinefe
empire, except Canton, is a ferious difad-
vantage to Great Britain.—While from the
arbitrary regulations of the Chinefe government reflecting European commerce, our
exports, befides the heavy duties to which
they are fubject, are taken, by the purcha-
fers at a price fixed by themfelves. The
fame tyrannical and difhoneft principle operates to enhance the price of every article
we receive in return, and is the caufe that
in 4 K:!l Hi N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Sec. J07
fo much  bad  tea   is   imported  into this
country.     -■•■<.-''      -  .. ■ n /      • -M
It would be equaMy idle and impertinent
to obferve on the prevailing habits of all
ranks of Britifh fubjects for the beverage
produced by this oriental plant. It has
long ceafed to be a luxury among the great ;
and is become a kind of neceflary of life
even among the poor.—Though produced
in the moft diftant quarter of the globe, its
ufe is fo naturalized to this country, as to
be an article of general confumption, and
productive of a very confiderable public
.revenue*. -     .    /   .■   . - ■ . '$*". - '• ■•^:-    :
* This herb, which is fuppofed to polTefs qualities
of a pernicious tendency by many medical writers,
is, on the contrary, considered in China as replete with
medicinal virtues. Its ufe in the country where it
grows is univerfal and continual ; and a doubt of its
falutary nature, would be treated there, as ariiing
from the moft inveterate folly, or the groneft ignorance.—An inhabitant of China will tell you, that it
braces the nerves,—invigorates their tone,—iirength-
eris the flpmach, and relieves deprelîioiî.-^-It fhould,
however, be obferved, that the black teas only are in
general ufe among the Chinefe ; and that the green
and bloom teas are in a great degree, if not altogether,
manufactured for foreign markets.
-  #'"ï" "•       '        n'     ."•'  ' : If
p o
Hill I
I Hill 11
Ill If, theréfbrsr, it is a national object t<*
procure the teas and manufactures of China
$d? better qualities and at a cheaper rate,—-
fome method fhould be devifed by the Bri>
fcifh government to procure the Northern
ports of that country to be opened to us,
as well as to emancipate our trade from the
vexatious bondage beneath which it groans
ill the only Chinefe port which our fhips
are allowed to enter. To effe£t this,-—and I
have not the leaft doubt but it might be
effected-rr-it is humbly fubmitted, whethêt.
it might not be proper to fend an embafly
directly toPekin, with fuch a degree of coni.
fequence and fplendosir attached to it, as
becomes the reprefentative of a Britifh monarch bearing his credentials to the fplen-
did court of a great Oriental fovereign.
The opening the door of thefe ports, by
encreafing and improving the means of Communication between the two countries,
would produce the greateft advantages to
each ; and, without enumerating the particular benefits which would be derived tc*
our own, I fhall juft obferve, that by the
exports of our tin alone, commerce would
add an artificial  mine of national wealth
'-'      -        " ^ to
", N.W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Sec. • &09
to. thofe which nature has already bellowed
on Great Britain. In confequence of fuch
an arrangement, the hitherto little known,
butpolifhed and wealthy kingdom ofCorea,
would be open to the Britifh adventurer : —
and, independent of the empire of Japan,
we know not how to exprefs our idea of the
vaft and inexhauftible fources of commercial advantage that would be gained by pur-
fuing the fyftem which is the object of this
memoir to fuggeft and to recommend.
The fineft teas are produced by the
Northern provinces ;—we fhould therefore
receive them from thence free from 'that
adulteration which the avarice of the Houang merchant not only allows but encourages. The   raw  filk of  thofe   countries
would alfo come to osir market of the fineft
The kingdom of Corea would receive,
and eagerly receive, the fame manufactures
as China, with this important addition,-—**
tl)at in fo cold a climate, they would have
our woollens directly from ourfelves, in-
ftead of the light French cloths which make
their way to them by the circuitous route
of Pekin from Ruffia, or more immediately
3 from m
fsom Canton. But on account of the very
high price of woollen goods, occafioned by
the expenfive mode of importing them,
thefe people have recourfe to thick printed
cottons, which, after all, are by no means
fufficient to protect them from the feverity
of their winters. This country produces
the fineft tea, but no filk. The Coreans
receive it however from China, and return
it thither to great advantage, worked up
into filks and damaiks, of a very fine and
rich fabric. It is here alfo that the curious
failing waggon is to be feen, which is a
very ferviceable machine in the low and
marfhy grounds towards the Corean fea.
The empire of Japan may be coniidered
as a fource of commerce diftinct from that
of China ; but it is, neverthelefs, open to
the fame fpirit of commercial adventure,
—contains similar refources, and promifes
to be a moft profitable mart for Britifh manufactures. The communication which one
of the fhips captured by the Spaniards at
Nootka Sound, had with this country, in
her voyage to the North Weft Coaft_ of
America, proves, in the fulleft manner, that
the inhabitants would gladly enter into a
trading iiitercourfe with us. It was, indeed,
intended to have fent a fhip from Canton
in the prefent year 1790, had not the North
Weftern commerce been interrupted, and
for a time, at leaft, deftroyed by the fhips
of his Catholic Majefty. From very re-
fpeilable authority we are afllired, that furs
fell there at an immenfe price, while the
country, climate, and inhabitants will warrant a more than probable conje£lure, that
fuch a commercial intercourfe would prove
highly advantageous to this kingdom.
China exports thither a few broad cloths,
filks, cottons, fugar, hardware, furs, and
tin in blocks, which fetches there al moft
the price of silver, as they ufe it not only
for all culinary purpofes, but to form thofe
veiTels and ornaments which they employ in
their religious ceremonies.—In return for
thefe articles, the Chinefe receive gold, fine
teas, and pure copper. But, upon the
whole, the trade is not very confiderable
between thefe countries. \. 0_: ■ ^:-.
||It is well known that the only European
nation which enjoys a commercial connection with the Japanefe, are the Dutch.—
Four Dutch fhips are annually difpatched
É wï
,i -'.
thither from'Batavia, and each of them,payî
an hundred thoufand dollars for the privilege of tais profitable traffic ; of which a
very adequate idea may be formed, when it
will bear the previous impoft of fuch an
enormous funs.—The Dutch are too fenfi-
ble of the advaiitages of this monopoly, not
to clothe the whole in all poffiblé fecrecy*
or to colour it with every kind of fallacious
defcription. B ut however ignorant we may
be of their particular imports, exports, and
mode of trade, we cannot but know that it
is extremely advantageous  to   them,   and
■J O '
would, confequently, prove of equal, if not
fuperior benefit   fo  us. It  may not  be
improper to add, that there is every reafon
to fuppofe the navigation to and from Japan
to be a very fafe one, when undertaken at~
particular feafons.
A * illP
Ik. The Chinefe alfo engage in a traffic between the Philippines and Japan in the
South. They import from the former
wrought filks, gold, copper,- and iron;
and carry to the latter, fpices, pepper, Hiver,
and fugar.—This trade is very profitable to
themfelves, and extremely detrimental to
the fubjefts of Spain. -
% ..- ",  -■ ■ ■."■ nîn  -• if N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Sec. 3*3
If a Britifh fettlement could be eïtablifhed
on one of the Southernmoft of the Corean
ifles, it would facilitate the intercourfe between Great Britain and thefe parts of the
globe.—Nor would the difficulty of completing fuch a plan occaiion any uncommon riik, or demand more than common
exertions ; as we are given to understand
that the natives are a mild, humane, and
polifhed race of people, who would not he-
fitate to give the Britifh voyager a moft welcome reception. The practicability of fuch
a colony, need not require any other argument, when it is known that on the
Northernmoft of thefe iflands the Ruffians
have formed a fettlement.
Betides the general Britifh   exports,—to
. which advantageous circumftance we are fo
continually obliged to recur,—the opening
thefe channels would give new flahility to
the fur-trade, and enable us to annihilate,
in a great meafure, this profitable branch of
the  Ruffian commerce.    The Ruffian fet-
tlements on Cook's River, down the Coaft
of America to the Southward, and on that
chain of iflands  called the Fox Iflands, for
the fole purpofe of collecting furs, together
Vol. II. X with Il
with the encouragement given by the J£m~
prefs Catherine to all adventurers, in, as
well as the protection fhe holds forth to
merchants who regularly profecute the
"trade between China and her dominions,
by way of Kiafcha, as fet forth with equal
accuracy and ability by Mr* Cox, in his
account of the Ruffian difcoveries, are cir-
cumftances which difcover, in the fulleft
manner, the opinion which the court of
Peterfburg entertains of this commerce.—
One branch.of this trade,—the fupplying
China with the Canadian or Hudfon's Bay
furs,—we hope is already removed to this
country, and that they will no longer find
their way thither by the intermediate aid
of the Ruffian merchants.
It may be faid, without any fear of contradiction, that this advantage has been obtained by the importation of the North Weft
American furs into Canton : and there can
be as little doubt that the continuance of
fuch imports will ferve to augment it.—The
reputation of the fea-otter skins brought
no inconfiderable body of the Northern
Chinefe and Pekin merchants to Canton,
a port which they had never before vifited,
i and
"111»» 3i5
and at the diftance of near one thoufand
miles from the places of their residence.
Yet notwithftanding the length of this commercial journey, they found it anfwer to
their entire fatisfaction, from being able to
obtain the fame fpecies of fuis which they
had oeen accuftomed to purchafe at Kiafcha,
at a price fo much below the ufual rate
of that market. They arrived at Canton
laden with teas, filk and ivory ; and took
back in return furs and broad-cloths.—The
cloths imported by the Eaft India Company,
were diftinguifhed by their particular preference and admiration ; nor did they hefi-
tate to acknowledge their great fuperiority
over any woollens they had ever received
by the way of Kiafcha.
Furs form the principal and favourite
drefs of the inhabitants of the Northern
provinces of China ; and thofe of the rarest
kind and the higheft prices are eagerly pur-
chafed by them.—From five hundred to a
thoufand dollars, and even a larger fum,
are frequently given for a single fuit of
this  precious  cloathing.
The skin of the fea otter, from the thick-
nefs of its pile and the length of its  fur»
X % forms :
forms too  cumberfome  an habiliment for
the people of the Southern provinces; they
prefer, m general, the Canadian and Hudfon's Bay furs ; but ftill, fuch as can afford
it, feldom fail of having a cape of the fea-
otter's  skin  to their coats, though perhaps
at  the extravagant price of fix  dollars.—
On fonfidering,  therefore, the   prodigious
population of China, and fuppofing the fur
trade to be carried on under proper regulations, the inaccuracy of an opinion, which
has   been  advanced  with fome degree  of
plausibility, that the Chinefe market may
be overftocked both with Canadian, Hudfon's
Bay, and  the North Weft American  furs,
muft appear evident to the. moft tranfient
reflection.—On the contrary, it is our decided opinion, that the fea-otter skins which
have been imported to China, fince the commencement of the North Weft   American
trade, have not proved fufficient to anfwer
the demands of the fingle province of Canton.-—Even there, the cold will often render
a fur drefsneceflary ; more particularly as
the  Chinefe are minutely attentive in pro-*
portioning their cloathing to the temperature
of the moment, whatever it may be;  and
fre- N. W. AMERICA AN© CHINA, Sec. 3*7
frequently, in the courfe of the fame day,
add to or diminifh the number or warmth
of their garments, as from the varying
circumftances. of the atmofphere, &c. the air
may demand a cooler or a warmer covering.
Having thus flated fuch information concerning the commerce of the North Weft
Coaft of America and the Northern parts
of China, as well as the relative trade of
Ruffia, as has been obtained by our experience and enquiries, we fhall proceed to
ftate a few particular circumftances relative
to the foreign commerce of Canton and the
country trade*
^ The following is a Lift of the fhips of dif-'
ferent nations in the River of Canton, in
the year 1789 ; which will give a precife
idea of rhe prefent fuperiority of the Britifh
trade, over that of all other European nations»
List of Ships belonging to the Englifh Eqft
India Company, at Wampoa.
Earl Mansfield
King George
General Elliot
Lord Macartney
Karl Wycombe
Fort William
Duke of Buccleugh
g i     *
Englifh Country Ships trading to China, 1789
Prince of Wales
Fier Refoal Mucky
Fiez Allum
Britannia Snow
Warren Haftings
Argonaut  \
Princefs Royal
Foreign Ships trading to China in 1789,
ChriftefFel Columbus
>§çhagen :imL
* Maria Cornelia
F tench.
King of Denmark    j
Antony Brig
A urea
American continued.
William and Henry, Brig
Three Sifters, ditto
Light Horfe
Bom Jefus Alem
Marquis de Anjuga
JL Xavj N.W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. ^        3l9
The advantages which muft refult to the
manufactures of Great Britain, from the
enereafe of the China trade, is one of thofe
truths whofe, evidence wants no fupport.
Its tendency to enereafe the nurfery of our
marine ftrength, muft be acknowledged with
equal juftice. The Engliih ihipping at Canton gave employment, on an average, in the
year 1789, to  near  two thoufand officers
and feamen.
H It has indeed been objefted, that the very
great export of bullion from this country,
abfolutely neceflary to purchafe thfe homeward bound inveftmenfs, is, in fail, a national difadvantage, which the accompanying exports of our manufa&ures by no
means indemnify. This unfavourable re-
prefentation of the China commerce, has, I
muft own, too much foundation. "But it is
well known to have undergone a very confiderable change in the very point on which
thofe who are difpofed to condemn it, reft
their objections. The exports of bullion
have been for fome years, and are now in a
gradual ftate of decreafe, while the exports
of Britifh manufactures are in a proportionable ftate of augmentation : and if we ^dd,
X a whicli
II'1 il
wfiich furely mày be done upon the moft fa-
tisfa<tory grounds, the new arrangements
in trade of the Canadian and Hudfon's Bay
furs, and the added commerce of thofe of-fj|
the North Weft Coaft of America, we are
juflified in expecting, from the wife admi-
niftration of the prefent Eaft India Com*
pany, that the period is at no great diftance when the balance of trade between
Great Britain and China may be |urned in
favour of our own country.   • i     :
Of our exports to that part of the Eaft,
A A *
broad cloths have encreafed in  a verv ex-
traordinary proportion, and the Company
now fend thither a very large fum iii that
ftaple article. In 1789,, feveral thoufand "■
bales were exported by them. The fur
merchants who come down from the Northern provinces of China, take off great quantities of this cloth, and it is in an encreafing:
demand in every part of that vaft. empire. *-
Camlets, fhalloons, long ells, &c. with the
coarfer woollens, have alfo very considéra-
hly encreafed as articles of China trade.
Copper may be alfo added to the augmenting exports from this country to the fame
quarter of the globe. The manner in which ..
. I the
the Company have it manufactured, in fmall
bars, gives it an advantageous refemblance
to the Japan copper.
Of this very valuable metal Cornwall
produces the fineft in Europe; and as the
Dutch have not lately imported any from
Japan, on account of its advanced price,
the Eaft India Company have the fame
profpeCl of encreafing gain from copper a§
from tin, as they are able to underfell the
Japanefe in their own market.
'.' But a new and very fafhionable article
of the China market is tin, which will be
found to be annually adding a very important proportion to the exports of the Eaft
India. Company. The country at large*
and the county of Cornwall in particular,
are very much indebted to Mr. George Un-
win of the Royal Navy, for the difcovery
and introduction of this valuable branch of
the prefent China trade, when he was employed in the Company's fervice, and which
may now be confidered as a flaple article,
from whence the Britifh commerce will
derive a very folid, and, as I truff, a laft-
iag advantage. To that gentleman I am
particularly indebted for mujph valuable in-
formation on this fubjecT: ; and whatever
individual or general advantage ^proceeds
from what I may call this new current of
trade, it is to the indefatigable and commer-
cial zeal of Mr. Unwiii that Great Britain
owes her acknowledgments. It was, indeed, at a critical, moment for the county
of Cornwall, when this unexpected channel
was opened for the confumption of tin.—
The trade for this article was, at this time,
on' a very rapid decline ; the mining paiifhes
began to experience the greateft diftrefs,
and the demand for it in the European markets was greatly decreafed, on account of
the late war, and the riling troubles of Europe ; fo that in the fhort fpace of nine
months, tin became reduced one-fifth in
value, which was a clear iofs, befides the
attendant inconvenience and diftrefs, of
jf .40,000' per annum to the county of Cornwall : nor did the future profpert: offer any
thing like encouragement or confolation to
that refpeâable body of men, whocompofe
the propriety of the mining eftates in that
valuable province. But the China commerce has revived their hopes, and I truft
will not only re-eftablifh the original confer
! ' *: :■ -v-îff :%: ■    i|?. ■.       ■    ■   If'     quence N. W, AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 323
quence of this part of Great Britain, but
give it new vigour and encreafing opulence.
We feel, indeed,  the   greateft  fatisfac-
tion,   in   ftating   our expectations on   this
fubject,   that we   do  not   proceed  merely
upon conjectures,   however probable,   but
on facts, as we truft, decifive of the returning and encreafing profperity of this ancient
fource of Britifh wealth.   During the long
period the Eaft India Company have traded
to China,  the whole  of their  exports, in*
eluding every   commercial article,   have not
amounted   to more   than £.i|po,ooo,   'till
within the laft five years ; and in that time,
the average exports in their fhips,  in thirteen months, or two feafbns, from Cornwall
alone, have   amounted to   2000 tons of
tin, value ^. 130,000,  befides her fhare of
copper..'.-. ||;   ■;       ;   : .   n ^ ■      - ;-^|^--/
%■ The accounts   received from China this
feafon, are alfo of the moft  favourable nature, and encourage the India Company to
look to very confiderable advantages from
this branch of their exportation.    The annual confumption of tin,  at this time, in
the  China market, is from three to four
thoufand tons, fupplied by the Dutch, in
the min
ii ;
Jthe country trading veffels, and China iuriks
from the Malay Iflands.-^-But we truft fuch
meafures may be purfued by the proprietors
.of the tin mines, united, as it were, by a
commercial union with the Eaft India Company, that they may in time, and we hope
•at no very diftant period, poiiefs themfelves
J X Ï    I
of the China market for the exclusive fale
of that valuable metal, which ha& for fo
many ages formed the principal wealth of
their country. m
||; The ufes to which tin is applied in China, are of great variety ;—among   others,
it is become an article of fuperftition â'M
religious ceremony, a circumftance which
cannot fail to create a very confiderable
Confumption.—The merchant who buys
this-rmetal, re-fellsi it to the gold-beaters,
who manufacture it into leaf, which they
difpofeof totheprièfts, who, after the cere-
moniest,ofconfecration, pafle it in pieces on
<$ kind of cartoon paper, ne^r the fize of
a card, and confign them to fhops, where
they are to be bought in every part of the
empire.—At the rising of the fun, certain
periods of the day, and the clofe of the evening, the Chinefe are feen making: what they
cal 825
call chin, chin, to their Gods or JoiTes, by
burning thefe papers, and making obeifance
to the Weft; as the devotees are more or
lefs ardent, they burn a frnaller or greater
quantity of thefe papers.—The confumption
of tin, therefore, in this article alone, muft
be very great.
The river of Canton is fuppofed to be inhabited, if I may fo exprefs myfelf, by
between fixty and feventy thoufand people,
who live on the water, all of whom expend
their daily quota of thefe paper offerings.
The population of China is not within our
knowledge, but if we may judge from the
calculation juft related, and which we believe is .pretty accurate, the number of inhabitants in the empire at large is fo great,
that there can be but little doubt, if we
could get an entire pofleflion of the China
market,   that there would be a ready fale
* mf
for all the tin which Cornwall could furnifh
for  exportation. |i
The Chinefe alfo poflefs the art of extracting filver from that metal ; and not only
employ it in the compofition of which they
make their utenfils for culinary and other
domeftic, as well as manufacturing   pur-
>       • pofes, w.
pofes, but alfo in making very large quantities of a white metal called Tutenage,
which they export in the country trading
veflels to all parts of India.—It cannot,
therefore, be fuppofed, that the Eaft India
Company will not give a fpirited encourage-
A ml O I O
ment to the exports of a commodity, which
by promoting the interests of the county
of Cornwall, and encreafing their own commercial revenues, will add to the general
opulence of the nation.
-It is not, however, in China alone that
tin, under proper regulations, will find an
advantageous market,—Bengal will, in fu-
ture, be able to take off a very confiderable
portion at a very good price ; the demand
of that place being, at this time, equal to
one-fourth of the annual produce of Cornwall, which wilTbe difperfed through the
interior parts of India ; and if the Ottoman
commerce fhould be thrown open to us,
an added and verv confiderable confumption
of this metal will be the certain confe-
ouence.—Even  from Bengal and   Bombay,
A, ° ^
tin has found its way into the Weftern
parts of Perfia ; and the exportation of it
might be   ftill further promoted,  from the
wm N.  W. AMERICA AND CHINA, Set. g2? j
communication we have with that country
by way of Surat.—And within thefe three
years, Cornifh tin, which had been carried
from England to Turkey, notwithftanding
the heavy duties with which it was charged
in pafling through the Grand Seignior's
dominions, was feen felling as a favourite
article of fale at an auction of the public cara-,
vans.—Indeed it is well known that the
greater part of the Afiatic nations are as-
well acquainted with the value of this precious commodity of our country, as the
natives of China.
The Chinefe h'ave  ufuallv received their
tin by the Englifh and Dutch country fhips,
and fome   fmall quantities by   their   own
A mf
junks-; and though the opium of Bengal
leflened the quantity of bullion which muft
otherwife have been exported from thence
to the Malayan nation, for the purchafe
of this eflential commodity, yet ftill there
remained a confiderable balance againft the
European fettlements in this branch of
their commerce,—It fhould alfo be obferved
that the Malayans do not work their mines,
but leave that important bufinefs, as  well
as Fll
if il
y H    mm I
as the refining of the ore, to Chinefe fet-
tlers among them.
'" The Dutch Eaft India Company contrive,
with the mercantile fagacity of their nation, to derive a very confiderable revenue
from this article. The fultan of Banee,
who refides at Balam-bangan, on the ifland
of Sumatra, and is witiiin fight of the former place, is obliged to furnifh them with
fo many hundred tons of tin, at a low rate,
r which is freighted to Batavia in fmall yef-
fels, and from thence tranfported to China
in their fhips, where it meets with a profitable fale, and favês the lofing export of
bullion. --'.•       .  ..    m;   .       '-   'Jj.
|| Many objections have been railed to the
exportation of tin to China from certain
prejudices fuppofed to be entertained by the
Chinefe again ft the Cornifh tin, on account
of its not being found fo malleable as that
obtained from the Malayans.—Actuated by
a moft laudable zeal for the particular in-
terefts of the county of Cornwall, as well
mf '
as for the general extenfion of the Britifh
commerce, Mr. Unwin undertook to examine
into the foundation of thefe objections, and
accordingly made repeated experiments on
1  the
■ I);1
Mil N. W. AMERICA AND CHINA, &c. 32?
the comparative  excellence  of the Britifh
and Malayan tin ; when it appears   by the
certificates of the workmen  employed, as-
well   as   the tin-leaf in   that gentleman's
poiTeffion, that the produce of Cornwall is
equal, if not. fuperior, in every refpecSt, to
that of the Malayans.—Of this he  gave a
convincing proof, by having beaten a pound
of the former to a quantity of leaf fufficient
to cover thirty-five fquare yards.    In confequence of his experiments, the Eaft India
Company not only fent out the laft feafbn
feveral   books  of the   Britifh   tin-leaf,    as
fpecimens, to China and   their fettlements
in India, but a proper quantity of the metal
itfelf, in order to give the sitmoft encouragement in   their  power  to the   exportation
of tin from this country.      '•    n -'•     %   3
The export of bullion  has been   a moft
grievous   burthenfon   our   Oriental   commerce, and it is the firft duty of thofe who
are engaged in the adminiftration of it, to
diminifh, and if poflible, to annihilate fuch
an anti-commercial oppreïïïôn.—The   former might be accomplifhed,indeed, by narrowing the prefent extent of the China commerce ;—but here  the  remedy  would be
Vol. II, '        . .§ Y Ï     f
im 33*
worfe than the difeafe ; as by leflening the
importation of tea, now become almoft a
neceflary of life among all claffes of people
in this country, it would re-open the door
fo wifely fhut againft the fmuggling of
that article, and introduce, inftead of the
wholefome produce of China, thofe adulterated teas which are equally injurious to
the revenues of the country, as they are
prejudicial to the health of its inhabitants.
The latter is only to be obtained by thofe
meafures which will force our manufactures
and produce into China and other parts of
the Eaft ; nor have we the lead doubt, but
that if they were once received, the export
of bullion thither,—that mifchief of our
Oriental trade,—would, in a fhort time, be
greatly counteracted, and perhaps entirely
Thefe are objects which it will not furely
be considered as prefumption in us to recommend to the ferious consideration of
the iegiflature, and as we "fhould hope, to
be followed up by the active exertions of
the grand commercial fpirit of this country.
They would heighten the fiourifhing ftate
our manufactures,—give added ftrength
to our maritime power,—and, which is no
trifling concern, though it may not he a
fubject of general consideration, reftore prosperity to the county of Cornwall, which it
is not only the intereft, but eflential to the
honour of England to maintain, as that
corner of her territory was, as it were,
the cradle of her infant commerce ; and
from whence fhe firft derived, at the diftance of many ages, a commercial character among the nations of the world.*
I fhall only add, as it feems to be a link
in that chain of commerce which it is the
office of thefe pages, however imperfectly,
to enforce,—that Providence, by permitting
Great Britain to make a difcovery of the
* I fhall not enlarge further on the fubject of tin at
this time ; but I flatter myfelf, with, the aiîîftance of
Mr. Donnithorne, the public agent for the county of
Cornwall, whofe zeal and abilities in the fervice of it
are fo juftly acknowledged,and his friend Mr. Unwin,
to whofe commercial information and indefatigable
attention, that county is under fuch very peculiar
obligations, I fhall fhortly be enabled to make fome
propofals to the gentlemen of Cornwall refpe&ing this
valuable branch of commerce, which may not be
deemed altogether unworthy their attention.
Sandwich lil|ï!'i!
Sandwich Ifles, feems to have intended that
they fhould become a part of herfelf.—The
fituation, climate, and produce of thefe
iflands, may be made to anfwer very important Commercial purpofes ; befides, the
inhabitants are a brave and generous race
of people, fufceptible of the higheft mental
Cultivation, and worthy of fharing, as they
are  already ambitious   to   fhare,   the  fate
mf '
fcnjoyed by Britifh fubjects.—The well di-
reeled induftry, and affured fidelity of half
a million of people, would furely add to
the grandeur and profperity of the Britii!
N° I.
To John Meares, Efq. commanding the
Felice and Iphigenia.
SIR, . .. . M .
AS the profecution of Voyages to diftant
countries muft redound to the honour of
thofe who undertake them, by elucidating the
obfcurities of Geography, and opening new
channels for Commerce ; and whereas it appears
that a very beneficial trade may be carried on be*
tween China and the North Weft Coaft of Amc«
rica, part of which was difcovered by Sir Francis Drake, in the year of our Lord 1579; and
conlidering that the iituation of China, both for
the outfit of veflels for the fur trade, as well as
for the difpofal of cargoes, is fuch, as muft fliort*
ly deitroy all competition, and give us the ex-
A slufive PPW
A   P   P   E   N   D   I
clufive poiTefïïon of this valuable branch of
trade, much to the advantage of our country :
from thefe considerations we have-fitted out and
equipped two good and fufficient veiTels, for the
purpofe of eftablifhing this branch of trade, viz.
the Felice and Iphigenia.
And you are hereby required and directed to
proceed with both veiTels, with the utmoit dif-
patch, to the North Weft Coaft of America.
The moil expeditious route, we conceive, will
be to proceed through the China Seas to the
Southward, between JVÎindoro and Pelawan, and
to the Southward of Magindanao ; touching, if
neceflary, at Sooloo; and palling round the
Northern extremity of New Guinea, get as far
to the Eaftward as the winds will admit, or you
may judge neceflary ; Handing then to the Northward of the Tropick, to obtain variable winds
to carrv you to America. As this is a naviga-
tion of great extent and duration, it is neceflary
you fhould provide yourfelf with a fufficient flock
of water, as nothing fo effectually checks the advance and progrefs of the Scurvy as a plentiful
allowance of that article.
As the fuccefs of the voyage, in a great mea-
fure, depends on your early arrival at Nootka;
we defire, that, if you find yourfelf detained by
the bad failing of the Iphigenia, that you feparate
from her, and proceed fingly to'America.
^012 a mm e n d i x.
You will give inftrudtions to Captain William
Douglafs to proceed with the utmoft expedition
Ox x
to Cook's River, and remain there as long as he
may judge expedient; and from thence to proceed to Prince William's Sound ; and after re~
maining there until the trade flackens, to proceed
to the Southward, to Crofs Sound (which is fup-
pofed to communicate with the bay to the Northward of Cape Edgcombe),ahd along the coaft to
the Southward, as far as Nootka; examining the
feveral bays and iflands, and making fuch flay in
each as may be deemed expedient ; endeavouring
to arrive in Nootka Sound by the ill: of September, 1788; where he will await your arrival till the 15th of October:—And in cafe of
your not appearing in that time, you will direct
him to proceed to China with fuch a cargo as he
may be able to procure; and to leave a letter
with one of the chiefs, communicating only his
arrival and departure.
The inhabitants of Nootka Sound being in
expectation of arrivals, will, doubtlefs, provide
a cargo of fkins, which will become the prize of
the firft fhip that arrives there. We, therefore,
recommend to you, in the ftrongeft manner, to
ufe the utmoft diligence in arriving there. During your ftay at that place,—which you will extend as long as you judge proper,—we recommend to you to difpatch your long-boat, well
A z armed. APPENDIX.
armed, under the command of a prudent officer,
to Wicananifh, twelve or thirteen leagues to the
Southward of Nootka, where, we underiland,
many fine fkins may be procured. We recommend to you, afterwards, to proceed to Barclay's
Sound, and accurately examine the coaft to the
Southward, as far as the Spanifh Settlements.
Should the profpeét of trade be encouraging, you
will then return to the Northward, examining the
different bays and harbours to the Northward of
Nootka, particularly the coafts of Queen Charlotte's Iflands, as far as 550 North ; or execute as
much of this part of your Inftrucftions as is con-
iiftent with your arrival at Nootka by the ill of
September,  1788
Should you, on your return to Nootka, find
there the Iphigenia, you will, in fuch cafe, dit
patch her to China with all the furs collected:
and, as we propofe returning her to you as early
as poffible after her arrival here, you will appoint with Captain Dou^lafs a time and place of
rendezvous, that you may receive the inftruc-
tions and refreshments we may fend you next
feafon. We leave it to your difcretion to winter
upon the coaft of America, or at the Sandwich
Iflands ; though, confidering the feverity of the
climate, as well as the health of your people, and
that little advantage in the way of trade is to be
derived from the former, during the winter fea- A   P   P   EN   D   I   33
fon, we conceive it will be more eligible for
vou to winter at the Sandwich Iflands, and re-
turn to the coaft early in March ; of which you
will take care to inform the Indians at Nootka,
that they may expedt your return.  ,".:,.      /|j, '
Although yojj are abundantly provided with
copper, iron, and other articles of trade, we
muft recommend to you the flricteft œconomy in
the application of them ; as it appears that the
natives are fuch intelligent traders, that, fhould
you be in the leaft degree lavifh, or inattentive
in forming bargains, they will fo enhance the value of their furs, as not onlv to exhauft your
prefent ftock, but alio to injure, if not ruin,
any  future adventure.
As every perfon on board vou is bound by the
articles of agreement not to trade,—even for the
moft trifling articles,—we ex peer the fuller ft compliance with this condition ; and we fhall moft
affuredly avail ourfelves of the penalty a breach
of it will incur. But as, notwithstanding; the
feamen may have laid in iron and other articles for
trade—thinking to efcape your notice and vigi-
*_/ X J o
lance,—we direct, that, at a proper time before
you make the land of America, you fearch the
veiTel carefully, and take into your p'oiTeffion
every article that can ferve for trade ;—allowing
the owner its full value.
A   2
W ■■"■
•   ■        Il   a   P   P   E   N   D   I   X, §|f.   ,
As other furs bear no proportion, in value, to
thofe of the fearotter, thefe are to be, of courfe,
the principal objecft of your trade.-—Beavers and
foxes, particularly the black fkins, are of confiderable value in China. Marten fkins will not
bring more than one dollar each.
We recommend to you alfo, as an object very
deferving of your attention, the procuring as
much whale-oil and whale-bone as poflible ; for
which you are provided with a fufficient quantity
of cafks.
Ginfeng and Snake-root are faid to be produced
on the North Weft Coaft of America : you will
colleâ as much of both thefe articles as poffible ;
and you will bring with you famples of the
different ochres and minerals which the natives
ufe as paints.
Mufcle-pearls are faid to be in great abundance on the North Weft Coaft of America :—Coral is alfo an article on the coaft. You will bring
as much of both as poffible.
Spars, of every denomination, are conftantly
in demand here :-—Bring as many of thofe as you
can conveniently flow. §f|
Hurft or Nourfe-fkins are to be procured in
abundance :—Their value here is twenty Spanifh
dollars per hundred.
As it appears that the natives are ever on the
wateh to take advantage pf weaknefs or negli-
I gence*
gence, it is neceflary to be always on your guard,
and to exert, at all times, the utmoft vigilance
and caution. At the fame time, however, we recommend, in the ftrongeft terms, the utmoft forbearance with them in every circumftance where
it may lower you in their opinion, or endanger
your fafety. Humanity and your own intereft
demand it.
You will endeavour to propagate at Nootka,
x x      o ■»
and at the Sandwich Iflands, the breed of your
poultry of every kind : alfo of hogs, goats, and
fheep. On your arrival, you will land Come*
kela, who is a native of the Sound, giving him
fuch prefents as you may think proper.
On your return to the Sandwich Iflands, you
will land Tianna at Atooi, or any of the iflands
he may defire. You will alfo give him fuch prefents as you think ufeful or acceptable; and,
if poffible, you will referve fome of your fheep
and goats as a prefent to this chief: as, by leaving them in his pofTeffjon, there is a better chance
of their being taken care of, and increafing; and
thus rendering thefe iflands the belt place of re-
frefhment in the world.
We particularly direct, that you do not bring
X J * J ©
away any of the inhabitants of America, or the
Sandwich Iflands; as there is no certainty that
there will be any opportunity of returning them
to their own country.
A 4 Should
ii! ^j|;       APPENDIX.
Should you, in the courfe of your voyage,
ineet with any Ruffian, Englifh, or Spanifh vef-
fels, you will treat them with civility and friend-
fhip; and allow them, if authorized, to examine
your papers, which will fhew the objedtof your
voyage :—But you muft, at the fame time, guard
againft furprize. Should they attempt to feize,
you, or even carry you out of your way, you
will prevent it by every means in your power, and
repel force by force. You will, on your arrival
in the firft port, proteft before a proper officer
againft fuch illegal procedure ; and afcertain, as
nearly as you can, the value of your veiTel and
cargo; fending fuch proteft, with a full account
of the tranfaction, to us at China.
Should you, in fuch coniTidt, have the fuperi-
ority,—you will then take poiTeflion of the veffel
that attacked you, as alfo her cargo ; and bring
both, with the officers and crew, to China, that
they maybe condemned as legal prizes, and their
crews punifhed as pirates.
Recommending to you unanimity with your
officers, and the ftricteft difcipline towards your
flap's company, and wifhing you a fuccefsful
We remain, Sir,
Your obedient and humble fervants,
(Signed)     The Merchant Proprietors.
China, Dec. 24, 1687» APPENDIX. M
•'I   :    '    N° II. ■..'.■ *'•'
ExtraU of a Letter from Mr. Meares to Capt. W«
Douglafs, commanding the Iphigenia.
s I
AS foon as I have made the lignai
for feparation, you will proceed^to put the following Inftructions into execution; and, at the
fame time, I beg leave to point out the neceffity
of your ftriâly adhering to the time and place
that I have appointed you to meet me; as on
thefe, in a great meafure, depend the fqccefs
of the voyage you are engaged in.
I have to acquaint you, that you will be allowed one per cent, on the cargoes of the Iphigenia and Felice, which will be paid after the
fale of the furs. I need not remark hqw advantageous this may turn out to you ; nor are you to
imagine that it is done as an incitement to the
performance of your duty to your employers;
for if they had an idea that any inducement was
wanting, they would not have conferred on you
the prefent command, nor have committed to
your care the truft they have done;  but they
I A   P   P   E   NID   I   X»
were fenfible, that when the Iphigenia was en-
trufted to you, and fuch unlimited confidence
repofed in your honour, that nothing further was
requifite to impel you to promote their intereft.
This is only to remind you of the confidence repofed in you, and to caution you to be on your
guard, and to keep a good look out that your
officers and crew punctually obey the articles they
have figned ; and that they are not permitted to
trade or traffic with the natives for furs, or any
other valuable article i and it is my particular délire, that not even a curiofity be purchafed on
the coaft of America, and as few as poffible at
the Sandwich Ifles:—fuch an intercourfe only
tending to gratify an idle and vain whim, at the
expence of the infant commerce now about to be
Should any illicit commerce be difcovered to
you, or by you, you will note the fame in the
log-book, mentioning the time and place of fuch
detection, the articles purchafed, and the names
of the perfons concerned; fo that the offenders
may be brought to juftice. You will take the
articles fo purchafed into your own poffeffion, to
be depofited amoiigft the cargo: and if any per-
fon on board your fhip fhould have imprudently
fhipped any articles of commerce, you will feize
the fame for the benefit of your employers,—
noting all the particular  circumftances in the
You will keep a regifter of all the furs you
purchafe, their quality, number, and prices
given, in a book kept for that purpofe; fo that
your employers may be a judge of your economy
in the trade committed to your care. I need not
point out the neceffity there is of hufbanding it,
and taking every precaution that your iron and
blue-beads do not become a drug amongft the
nations you may chance to trade with.
Your furs, when clalTed, are to be packed in
çhefts. Let them be fmoaked and carefully put
in, with heavy weights over them ; fo that when,
they are produced at market, they may bear fuch
an appearance as will enhance their value.
In your commerce with the Indians, I defire
you totally to rejedt the fkins of the cub otters,
as they are of no value; and their purchafe only
induces the natives to deal deftrucftion amongft
them ; when, at a future period,, they would be
more eftimable. ÉÉ
Otters tails are valuable; you will, therefore,
purchafe all you can : but by no means encourage them to bring fmall pieces of otter-fkin, or
old fkins. thev being of little value; and it like-
wife encourages the natives to be remifs in hunt-
ing the more valuable otter.
The cutting of fkins fhould be difcouraged;
and by this means the trade would be much
IV A   P   P   E   N   D   I
Black fox-fkins are very valuable; you will
therefore purchafe all you can get. The river-
otters, and inferior furs, I leave ^entirely to your
own judgment to purchafe or not: but I beg
leave to remark, that by directing the purfuits
of the natives entirely to the fea-otter, it may
be the means of encreafing their ftock of that va-
luable fur.
The beaver, if black, will bring from ten to
twelve dollars; the river-otter from four to five:
Marten fkins, if black, are valuable; but thofe
that are brown,  are in little eftimation.
The fmall hurft-fkins are valuable, and are an
ohject of commerce, being worth from ten to
fifteen dollars per hundred.
As there are confiderable quantities of ginfeng
to the northward, I recommend your procuring
as much as poffible; giving the natives to under-
ftand that their women and children fhould be
employed: ,and if you were to buy it only from
them, it may be the means of turning their in-
duftry to account.
! During the time you remain in port, your car-
penters may be employed in cutting down fpars,
and fawing plank; particularly boat's knees and
timbers,—all which bear a good price in China*
fry 1 ' * • 1      • 1   '      r\ 1
The procuring oil is an object worthv vour
attention :—It * is worth, in China, forty-five
pounds fterling per ton;   and whale-bone, like-
wife, is very valuabl
You will preferve famples of all minerals. And
I beg you to be particular in your enquiries from
what parts the natives of the North procure their
When you return to China, as you will touch
at the Sandwich Iflands, I recommend to you to
fill all your calks with fait pork; which will fell
well at China, or ferve for fea ftore for the next
equipment of veiTels in your employers' fervice
for the coaft of America.
In fhbrt, I recommend to your particular attention and ftudy to lade on board your vefTel all
fuch articles as you may judge will turn to account in China.
Should you have any favourable opportunity j
I recommend your falting fifh, viz. cod and herring, of which there are fuch abundance to the
Northward. In all thefe particulars, you will be
regulated by time: I have pointed out the re-
fpective value of thofe articles;—your own prudence will do the reft. As you have a crew
fufficient for every purpofe, and their wages are
high, fo, in my opinion, their exertions for the
benefit of their employers fhould be proportion-
ably ftrenuous.
From experience we know, that moft excellent rope may be made at the Sandwich Ifles.
You will prohibit all fifhing-lines being purchafed by individuals ;   and let them be bought on
, : •I:        APPEND   l|l
account of the fhip, made into cordage, and the
overplus carefully put by, that it may be returned into ftore.
Induftry and activity are the forerunners of
ood order  and  discipline.    By  keeping your
people thus employed, I truft you will be enabled
to render a good and profitable account to your
You will take care to have a fair log-book kept
for the concern. It is to contain every minuté
tranfadtion of your Voyage, from day to day.
You will therefore mention therein all purchafes
you make of articles of commerce. You wrill
alfo note down the good or bad behaviour of
your officers and crew; and thus afford to their
employers a medium to diftinguifh merit from
worthleiTnefs. This log-book is to be figned by
On your return to China vou will feal up vour
J mf A ■J
log-book, charts,- plans, &c. &c. and forward
them to Daniel Beale, Efq. Canton, who is the
oftenfible Agent for the concern: and you have
the molt particular injunctions, not to communicate, or give copies of any charts or plans that
vou may make; as your employers àlTerta right
to all of them,—and, as fuch, will claim them.
Should  you, in the courfe of your vovage,
J J J if £_J -r
meet with the veiTels of any other nation, you
will have as little communication with them as
|f|  poffible* APPENDIX;
poffible. If they are of fuperior force, and defire
,to fee your papers, you will fhew them. You
will, however, be on your guard againft fur-
prize. Should they be either Ruffian, Englifh,
Spanifh, or any other civilized nation, and are
authorifed to examine your papers, you will permit them, and treat them with civility and
friendfhip; but, at the fame time, you muft be
on your guard* Should they attempt to feize
you, or even carry you out of your way, you
will prevent it by every means in your power,
and repel force by force.
When I make the fignal to feparate, or in cafe
we fhould lofe company, you will purfue, without lofs of time, your way to the North Weft
coaft of America, either to Cook's River, or
Prince William's Sound, whichever place, in
your judgment, fhould be firft touched at. The
moft expeditious routes I fhould imagine, will
be, to proceed to the Southward of the ifland
of Magindanao, between Mindoro and Pelawan;
touching, if necelTary, at Sooloo, and pàffing
round the Northern extremity of New Guinea,
get as far to the Eaftward as the winds will permit, or you may judge necelTary; ftanding then
to the Northward of the Tropick, to obtain variable winds to carry you to America. And as
this is a navigation of great extent and duration,
I recommend the moft particular care of your
j water, irai  ;
Mi>, ,
|f' '.   •' '    APPENDIX...;.    Jf
water, and that your crew have a plentiful allowance of it.
You will remain as long in Cook's River and
Prince William's Sound as you think eligible. I
think it will be more advifable to feek new places,
than to wait Jie daily, but precarious fupplies,
that may be brought you.
As I mean to proceed direct for Nootka Sound,
and from thence purfue my courfe to the Southward; you will, therefore, knowing this deter,,
ruination, make your difpofitions accordingly;
exploring every place between Cook's River
and Nootka, particularly Crofs Sound, (which
is fuppofed to communicate with the bay to the
Northward of Cape Edgcombe) and all along
the coaft to the Southward; examining the feveral bays and iflands, and making fuch ftay in
each as may be deemed expedient; endeavouring to arrive at Nootka by the firft day of September, 1788, where you will await my arrival
in Friendly Cove,—a plan of which I enclofe you.
You will wait for me till the firft day of Novem-
ber; when, on feeing nothing of me, on that day
you will make the beft of your way to the Sandwich Iflands, and anchor in Wymeo Bay, in the.
ifland of Atooi; remaining there twelve days ;
when, if I do not arrive during that interval, you
will proceed to China, and follow the directions I
have given you;—leaving a letter with Taheo, or
; ;i APPEND   l|X^|f
Abinui, communicating only your arrival and
departure. But as nothing but fome ^accident
fhall prevent my arrival in Nootka by the time
appointed, you may faithfully expect to fee me
there, to fettle our future operations.
As one of the veiTels is to remain, and the
other return to China, you will fee the neceffity
of thus meeting, in order that one veiTel may
put her cargo on board of that which returns.
In your examining the Northern coaft, you
will recolleâ: Queen Charlotte's Iflands, in 5 j"
North latitude. In executing this, you will do
it as far as is confiftent with your arrival at Nootka
by the firft of September.
I have mentioned before, that every one is
bouiîd by the articles of agreement, not to trade
for the moft trifling article. The fulleft compliance with this condition is expected by your
employers, who will undoubtedly avail them-|
felves of the penalty a breach of it will incur.
But as, notwithftanding, the feamen may have
laid in iron and other articles for trade,—thinking to efcape your notice and vigilance,—I di-
rear, that, at a proper time before you make
the coaft of America, you fearch the veffel care,
fully, and take into your poffeffion every article
that can ferve for trade,—allowing the owner the
full value for it.
Vol. II B In P   E   N   D   I   X.
In addition to the other articles of commerce
mentioned, you will bring a fample of the different ochres the natives ufe as paint.
Mufcle-pearl is in great abundance to the
Northward, and coral ; you will procure as much
of thefe articles as you can.
As it appears that the natives are ever on the,
watch to take advantage of weaknefs or negligence, it is necelTary always to be on your guard,
and exert, at all times, the utmoft vigilance and
caution. At the fame time I recommend the utmoft forbearance, where it may not lower you
im their opinion, and endanger your own fafety»
Humanity and your own intereft demand it.
You will be particularly careful to preferve a
breed of the various animals put on board you for
the Sandwich Iflands.
On no account are you to bring away any of
the natives of America or the Sandwich Iflands,
or any other iflands you may difcover; except
your reafons are fo cogent and ftrong, as will en-
fure you the countenance of your employers.
The introduction of woollens is of the utmoft
confequence, could it be done amongft the people of America:—at all times ufe your endeavours
to barter with them for fuch as you have on board.
The great advantages that would accrue to your
country, as well as credit to yourfelf, will make
you attentive to this point.
/•Si      .1''     As i
As there is a quantity of fpruce on board your
•fhip, you will, when you fee occafion, make it
into beer, and ferve it out to your crew; which
will be a confiderable faving of your fpirits;—
as thofe two articles will not be allowed your
fhip's company together.
Permit me to add,—that as you will be intitled
to whatever praife may be due to your conduct,
fo you will alfo bear any blame which may arife
from want of attention to your employers' intereft.
And you will promife, in my name, that thofe
who diftinguifh themfelves by good order, fobri-
ety, and exertion, as well as by obedience to
your commands, fhall meet with an adequate
reward, either by promotion in their prefent employ, or by protection and recommendation,
fhould they leave it.
Recommending unanimity with your officers,
and the ftricteft difcipline towards your fhip's
I remain, Sir*
Your moft obedient fervant,
•  I  •   %     JOHN MEARES.
Felice, at Sea,
Feb, %. 1788»
N9 III, g!
P   P   E   N   D   I   X.
No m,
To Mr. Robert Duffin,  Ftrft Officer of the Felice.
SIR, • ' ' ■' ^'"ff  •
YOU will proceed with the long-boat
to the Southward of this port, in order to trade
with the natives for furs ; for which purpofe I
have put under your charge fufficient articles of
commerce. You are now fo well acquainted with
the nature of a trip of this kind, that it would
be needlefs to give you any inftructions for the
conduâ: you are to purfue.
Trufting intirely to your difcretion, I have-
confiderable hopes that you will prove fuc-
cefsful, as you vifit the numerous villages feated
along the fnore leading to the Straits of John De
Fuca. You will enter this ftrait as far as you
find any inhabitants, or profpect of furs ; and
as we had an hint of a diftant nation refiding up
this fea, the exploring of it, fo as not to retard
materially your courfe to the Southward, may
be of confequence; particularly if you fhould
be fortunate enough to find a haibour.
Hi «       APPENDIX.
When you leave this ftrait, you will touch at
Tatootche's Ifland, and at the villages feated
along the fhores to the Southward.—I think
it will be advifable to avoid Queenhithe.
If the winds and weather fhould be tolerable,
fo as to permit you to purfue your courfe to the
bay which we named Shoal-water Bay, it will be
a particular fatisfaction, if only to afcertain the
exiftence of another nation, diftinct from that of
Nootka; much more fo if that bay, or places adjoining, are capable of receiving flapping.
As it is impoffible to provide againft contingent
circumftances, I therefore leave every other matter to your own prudence.
I recommend to you, particularly, to be con-
ftantly on your guard ; to keep your arms dry and
in good order, and at nights to avoid anchoring
in the vicinity of any large village or populous
place :—and I intreat you, above all things, to
avoid any warfare with the natives ; but to let
that humanity, good faith, and fteady line of
conduct which has hitherto guided our actions,
be the leading principles of your mind in all your
proceedings. Your own goodnefs of heart will
not, I truft, permit you to fandtion any depredations on the defencelefs favage nations with
whom you may have intercourfe, by any.perfon
under your orders.
B 3 You I
l§; A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X.
You will take pofleflion of this ftrair, and the
lands adjoining, in the name of the King and
Crown of Britain ; and inftill into the minds of
the inhabitants that you will return fhortly to
fulfill any treaties of commerce or amity that you
may make with them, and for which you have
my authority.
I beg that you will keep a memorandum of
your proceedings, take fketches of the land,
and make other proper remarks.
I propofe waiting in this port until your return. Should any unforefeen accident, however,
oblige me to leave it, you will proceed to Nootka,
and join me there.
Wifhing you fuccefs,
I remain, Sir,
Your moft obedient Servant,
Felice, Fort Effingham,
July i$th, 1788.
No IV.
m P   P   E   N   D   I   X,
N°- IV.
ON the 13th of July, 1788, left
the fhip, with the long-boat, manned and armed,
bound to the Southward, to trade for furs and
explore the coaft. At eight A. M. came to, in a
fandy bay, at a fmall diftance from the fhip, to
put the boat to rights. At 11 A. M. left this bayr
after having got fome viâuals cooked. Thi$
day, or log, contains 12 hours, and ends at noon*
14th.—Wind from the South Eaft with confiant
raihs. At five o'clock came to in a fandy bay oppo-
fite to the village of Attah. Came along-fide, a
number of canoes ; but no appearance of any
furs :—Bought from them fome hurft-fkins and'
a few fifli, for beads. Thefe people behaved
very civilly, not offering to commit any depredations : fired a mufketoon at fun-fet, as a fignal
for the natives not to approach the boat in the
night.-^-A. M« the wind Wefterly, and cloudy
weather : at five o'clock weighed, and run to the
village, and lay on our oars till 8 o'clock. Not
feeing a fingle fkin, thought it advifable to proceed to the Sound, having a favourable wind.
Steered Eaft and Eaft North Eaft along the coaft,
B 4 g* i     A   P   P   E   N   D   I
at the diftance of a quarter of a mile. This coaiî,
in general, to a village called Nittee Natt, affords
a very pleafant profpect :—is moftly a fandy
beach, but no foundings with 20 fathoms, within
a quarter of a mile of the fhore. There are alfo
a number of water-falls, and the furf breaks very
high all along the coaft, which lies Eaft and
Weft, per compafs. At noon a pleafant breeze
and cloudy weather. The point which forms the
entrance of John De Fuca's fea, which I eall Point
Entrance, Eaft by South; Tatootche's Ifland
South Eaft by Eaft, off the former four leagues,
and from the latter ten leagues—latitude obferved
480 38' North. -' ,
i$tb—Pleafant breezes from the Weftward,
and clear weather. At half paft one P. M. run
into a fmall fandy bay, feeing two or three houfes
there, and came to; upon which ail the natives
quitted the place, they being only fifliermen,
taking their fifh with them. Seeing no probability of getting any furs here, I weighed and ran
out again, and came to off the village of Nittee
Natt, a quarter of a mile from the fhore; attempted to enter a rivulet there, but found too
great a furf on the bar to approach, fo ran out
and came to anchor in 10 fathoms, fand; Point
Entrance bearing South by Eaft—the village now
off half a mile: came along-fide the chief, named
Kiffan : latitude at noon 480 34' North.
'I ' Ë *     •     f-   16/4 APPENDIX.
16th—Pleafant weather, wind Northerly: at fix
P M. weighed, having purchafed feveral fkiris$
ran into a fandy bay, or rather cove, where there
was a village, two canoes in company decoying us
in ; when, immediately on our approaching the
fhore, the natives aflembled on the beach with
fpears, bludgeons, bows and arrows, Sec. making
at the fame time a difmal howling, ufing threatening poftures, which I thought was to prevent us
from landing, but I was miftaken ; for I had a
lhower of arrows thrown round the boat, from
a rock at a fmall diftance from us, but luckily
none hurt us ; feveral fell on the boat's awning,
but did not penetrate through ; upon which I
found myfelf under the neceflity of firing at
them, but was at too great a diftance to do execution. They then began to launch feveral large
canoes, with a number of fpears, &c. on which,
I difcharged a mufketoon at one of them, but, I
believe, did not wound any one. However, they
immediately left her, and ran howling into the
woods ; I then faw a man come running down to
the beach with a half-pike, which they had found
means to take out of the boat, unknown to us. I
then perceived that was the reafon of their committing hoftilities, being defirous of retaining what
they had ftolen. Upon my receiving the half-pike
hoftilities ceafed. I hope there are none of them
killed, though, at the fame time, they very richly
deferved P   P   E   N   D   I   T,        ■ ..■ J
deferved it. Weighed and run out, feeing no
likelihood of getting any furs. Steered Eaft
along the coaft, and pafled Point Entrance at the
diftance of half a mile. At half paft {even
o'clock, feveral rocks lying off, and the furf beating very high, at ten P. M. came to in eleven
fathoms; coral rocks. Calm all the night ; the
water very fmooth. At day-light we found ourfelves a-breaft a fmall village : feveral canoes osme
off, but no appearance of any furs. The people
faid they were ail fubject to Wicananifh ;—behaved very civilly :-—bought from them fome fifh.
At feven o'clock weighed, and rowed to the Eaft
up the ftraits, it being calm. At nine o'clock,
fprung up a light breeze from the Southward.
This coaft lies due Eaft and Weft, per compafs.-—
Coafted along fhore at the diftance of half a mile:
foundings eleven fathoms; feveral places no ground
at twenty fathoms.—This coaft is entirely a bed
of rocks. At half paft eleven A. M, faw the entrance of a deep bay ; entered ditto at noon, it
promifing very fair for a harbour.—Latitude obferved, 480 27' North.
17/i?.—At two P. M. came to in a fmall cove
in three and three quarters fathoms, clofe to the
rocks. Regular fpundings along the bay, from
fifteen to four fathoms, half a mile from the
fhore. This is an excellent harbour for a veffel
of about 100 or 150 tons; but not water enough
over APPENDIX.      '! "
over the bar for a larger one, there being only j
two fathoms at high water, and the tide flows,
eighteen feet. The bay is a very fafe place for a
fhip to ride in the fummer months :—no wind can
hurt her except at South Eaft, and then the bay
being very deep, there cannot be much fea. It
is alfo good holding ground, being a muddy
and fandy bottom. The people here'all claim
Tatootche for their chief. They appeared, to
us, to be a bold, daring fet of fellows; but not
being near any of their villages, I was under no
apprehenfions. At feven A. M. came along-fide
the boat feveral canoes, with a great number of
men in each. Several of the people attempted
to come into the boat ; I, at the fame time, de-
firing them to keep out, not permitting any of
them to come in ; neither did any of the people
in the boat fay, or offer to do any thing to them.
One of the canoes put off a little from the boat j
when one of the favages in her took up a fpear
pointed with mufcle-fhell, and fixed it to a ftaff
with a cord made fait to it, at the fame time putting himfelf "in a pofture of throwing it, and fig-
nifying, by his geftures, that he would kill me:
I, at that time, took no notice of him, not thinking him ferious. Upon infpeâing, however, their
canoes, I found them all armed with fpears, bludgeons, and bows and arrows; I alfo perceived a
number of armed people amongft the trees on
fhore, oppofite the boat : I then found they meant
to pf: . APPENDIX.
fo take the boat; upon which, I ordered the people to get their arms ready, and be on their guard,
and narrowly to watch the motions of the man
with the fpear, and if he attempted to heave it, to
fhoot him. The words were fcarce, uttered, when
Ï faw the fpear juft coming out of his hand at Robert Davidfon, quarter-mafter and cockfwain ; on
which I ordered them to fire,—which one perfon
did, and killed the man with the fpear on the fpot,
the ball going through his head. The reft of
the people jumped overboard, and all the other
canoes paddled away. We inftantly had a fhower
of arrows poured on us from the fhore ; upon
which a conftaiit fire was kept on them, but with
no effect, they fheltering themfelves behind large
trees. I was wounded in the head with an arrow
immediately as'the man fell. We weighed anchor, and pulled out with two oars, keeping the
reft of the people at the arms. We found the
fhore on both fides lined with people, armed with
fpears, ftones, &c. fo that it appeared plainly their
intent was to take the boat. A great quantity of
arrows and ftones came into the boat, but fortunately none were wounded mortally. Peter
Salatrafs, an Italian, had an arrow flicking in his
leg all the time till we got clear of them, "not
being able to pull it out without laying open the
leg, the arrow being bearded, and with two
prongs ; I was obliged to cut his leg open to get
it out, as it had penetrated three inches.    The
Chinaman was alfo wounded in the fide, and another feaman received an arrow near his heart. As
foon as we got clear of them, we made fail,
and turned out of the bay.—Soundings as regular
>as coming in :—the wind Wefterly. Stood over
to the other fhore, meaning immediately to return to the fhip, as I found the natives intirely
bent on mifchief, and that we could not proceed
along the coaft with fafety and without endangering our lives:—I alfo found my head very
fore, the arrow having penetrated into my fkull,
and would certainly have killed me, had it not
been for my hat, which broke its force. At noon,
pleafant breezes and clear weather; Tatootche's
Ifland South Weft. This place obtained the
name of Port Hawkefbury, and the other bay I
called Hoftility Bay.
i8/£.—Pleafant weather; wind South South
Weft. At four P. M. tacked off the South
fhore, four miles, and ftood over to the North
fhore of the Straits. At feven o'clock tacked
again off fhore, half a mile : at fun-fet the entrance
of Port Hawkefbury North by Eaft, Tatootche's
I il and South ; Point Entrance Weft South Weft;
off the latter eight leagues, and from the former
three leagues. Steered during the night North
Weft by Weft, and Weft North Weft, with a
pleafant breeze and foggy weather, and returned
to the fhip.
'•¥ ' ?M  No. V.
I A   P   P   E   N
N° V.
DOUGLAS, on.leaving the American Coast.
To Captain William Douglas, commanding the
S I R,   J| ■ "- \ .       '%'
AS I mean to proceed, immediately on the launch of the North Weft America, to
the Sandwich Iflands, and from thence to China,—
the whole charge of the Iphigenia and North-
Weft America, will consequently devolve on you.
Though I entertain the higheft opinion of your
capacity to conduct fo weighty a charge, yet,
neverthelefs, I think it neceflary to point out the
route you are to purfue after I feparate from you.
I have no doubt of your ability to put into execution any meafure or plan for the benefit of your
employers : and as you have already given a convincing proof of this in your late voyage, fo in
the active fcene that I am about to lay before
you, I have no doubt but that your diligence and
caution will be redoubled, to bring your future
voyage to a happy conclufion. I take the liberty
of mentioning this, as it will require your utmoft
attention, your utmoft application and perfeve-
\ VSSPÎ! irCf«n
X ti Ii V^ v «k
ranee, to put into execution fuch plans as I fhaft
lay down for the benefit of your employers. As
I place before you an extenfive field to employ
your abilities in, I am well affured that you will
take advantage of this circumftance, and fhew the
world, that in my opinion of you, I have not been
In order to put every means in your power
that I can to enfure fuccefs, I have fupplied you
with every fpecies of ftores on board the Felice :—
Yet, neverthelefs, from the fcantinefs of the fup-
ply,—though all I am enabled to give you,—you
will have difficulties to conquer, which I forefee
wall require all your vigilance to provide againft.
The material fupplies which I have given you of
flower and bread, will, I flatter myfelf, be of
elTential confequence, when added to thofe that
you will receive at the Sandwich Iflands. You
will there fait down your pork ; in performing
which, I recommend to you to be particularly
careful, following the method which Captain
Cook directs; as by not obferving this, Captain
Colnett, of the Prince of Wales, loft the greateft
part of his provifions before he reached the latitude of 300 North, on his proceeding to the
coaft of America. For this purpofe I have given
you every cafk in my fhip, except the ground tier..
The next object of your attention will be vegetables, particularly the yam; of thofe you will
obtain ni: lin
A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X.
6btain fuch a quantity, as I truft will prove a
great refreshment, even on the American CoafL
During the time you are at the Sandwich Iflands,
I recommend your ferving no bread; as the
abundance and variety of vegetables will render
it needlefs; and fuch a faving, in your prefent
flate, will tend materially to the fuccefs of your
voyage. I recommend the fame precaution in
refpect to your flower.
As your ftock of liquors is entirely exhaufted,
and having none to fupply you with, in lieu thereof I have fent you all the effence of fpruce in my
pofleflion, as alfo melafles, in order to make beer.
You will ufe this fupply at your pleafure; and
as there will not be melafles fufficient, I recommend to you trying at the iflands the experiment
of boiling down fugar-cane; of which, Captain
Cook made a pleafant and agreeable beer for his
crew : but if you can effect making a fyrup, it
muft be particularly grateful to your people with
tea, as I have no fugar to fupply you with, and
your own is entirely gone. You will try the
poffibility of diftilling rum; for which purpofe I
fend you a ftill and copper. If thefe points are
happily effected, you will find yourfelf pofTeffed
of the refources to put into execution the plan
that I place before you. At all events, I have
the ftrongeft reliance on your being able to con»
quer every difficulty.
From the information which I have received
From the Princefs Royal, I think it necelTary to
warn you of the dangers attending your flay at
thofe iflands; where a crew, immerfedin pleafure,
may become but too eafy a prey to fo daring and
refolute a fet of people.—Your judgment will
point out to you to draw your principal refources
of provifions from Owyhee, the windward iflé»
The danger of anchoring here, from the multitude of people, is but too evident. With the bay
of Mowee you are acquainted :—Here I would
recommend you to anchor, if a fpot free from
coral rocks can be found. For though Titerree
is fovereign of Mowee, Morotoi, and the adjacent
ifles, yet the factions fubfifting between the leffer
chiefs will, in all probability, prevent their com*
bining to commit hoftilities on you. The diftance
alfo you lie from the fhore of this ifland will, in
fome meafure, tend to your fecurity ; and amongft
the whole group of thofe iflands, I know no place
fo eligible, provided good anchoring-ground can
be found. When the trade-wind blows, it comes
down in refrefhing breezes from the fummits of
the mountains, and meliorates the fcorching heat
of the fun,1—every where fo pernicious. If the
trade-wind ceafes, and the North-Weft winds
blow, you have feveral large and capacious channels to put to fea through, and the danger of a
lee-fhore is removed :—and permit me to obferve,
Vol. II. ' C ' %        that À   j   P   È   N   D   I   i
that this is the only ftation you can occupy
amongft thefe iflands, where this danger is to be
avoided; and it is a danger of fuch magnitude,
that I muft entreat you, the moment you fee it
blacken in the North-Weft, to put inftantly to
fea, as the only means of fafety.
The favage fiercenefs of the people df Wahoo;
will, I fhould fuppofe, render your ïtay at that
ifland very fhort. The pdpuloufnefs of A tool
may deter you frorn making any long flay in
Wymèo Bay :—You will therefore finally clofe
your route at Onehôw, where I truft you will
guard carefully againft the art and cunning of
Taheo and Abinui^ for I think them dreadful,
mercenary, artful villains. As they attempted
to poifon the crews of the Prince of Wales and
Princefs Royal, you will guard againft fuch a
diabolical defign, by infpecting the cocoa-nuts,
yams, water, &c. making the feller tafte each.
From Tianna we have a full knowledge of the
extreme fubtilty of a poifon in their pofleflion,
which operates inftantaneoufiy on the vital powers.
Should you difcover fuch an attempt, I recommend to you to feize thofe concerned; and as à
tranfaction of this nature cannot take place without the knowledge of Taheo and Abinui, fuch
wickednefs ought to be made an example of.
The commerce that the natives of Atooi have
had with Europeans, has operated fo much oil
theif A   P   P   E   M   D   î   X.
their natures, that tôo much caution or vigilance
cannot be exerted.
On no account fuffer ifiore than one or twb
bn your decks at a tiriie. Keep people conftantty
in your tops, with arms ready, your guns loaded
and primed; and never permit the natives to
fwim about the fhip; or, moft afluredlyi you
will have your cables cut;
I truft that you will procure a good fupply of
cordage; and I fhould imagine that their mats>
cloth, &c. might be held in as much requeft on
the Northern ftation of America, as they are on
the Southern ;^—you wi-11 therefore purchafe as
many as you think proper for the American
I have great hopes that Tianna will be of confiderable fervice to you.-^To this chief Irecom*
mend you to be particularly attentive. The pla-
ing him agreeable to his wifhes either on Owyhee,
with his relation Tome Tomy Hawj the fovereigri
of that ifland and Atooi, or with his brother Naw*
mity Haw and family* on the latter ifland^ is a
point that I feel myfelf extremely interefted in.
Whatever Tianna's ambition may be on feeing
himfelf fo powerfully fupported, yet we muft
not lofe fight of prudence in fettling our friend;
and we fhall prove his trueft and moft faithful
one's, in placing him exactly in the ftation we
took him from.    We muft therefore not let his
C 2 ambition
\% _ E   N   D   I   f.
ambition ftimulate us on the one hand, nor oui*
own délires on the other* to raife our friend to a
ftation ever envied amongft mankind. Through
the generofity of Mr. Cox^ he returns unboundedly rich tô the circle of his friends. Though
greatly deferving in himfelf, yet the line of prudence muft not be pafled; arid the example of
Ornai fhews us the danger attending the fmiles
of fortune, even amongft favage tribes. Independent of any other confideration^ a fruitlefs conteft
might be entered into* which might, eventually^
be extremely detrimental. You will therefore dif-
mifs him with fuch prefents, in addition to what
he hasj as you may think proper to confer on him ;
and as you know his language fo well, Tentreat
you to meet his ideas of happinefs as far as prudence permits, or circumftances put it in your
The ifland of Onehow furnifhes the pearl-oyfter.
You will endeavour to make Tianna fenfible of thé
treafures they contain, and the importance of them
to us ; and I have hopes, that during your ftay you
Will fully âfcertain this point.
If you think prbper to feek the new difcovered
ifland, faid to lie to the North Weft of Atooi,
you will in this, as in every other point, be guided
by your judgment.   ■.■ 4f:   -
As foon as the America is launched, I fhall pro*
«eed on my voyage to China,, when you will take
on A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X.
$n you the direction of future operations. As you
have now fo fcanty a fupply of fait provifions on
board, and the obtaining fifh being very precarious, I recommend to you to make the beft of yout
way to the Sandwich Iflands, as foon as the America is ready for fea;—but in this you will be directed by your judgment, and the fupplies of fifh.
Should you procure enough of this article to permit you to remain pn the coaft till the end of
October,r^to employ this time to advantage, I
recommend to you to fteer to the latitude 46°
North, and trace as much of the coaft between 460
and 40° as you can; as this month is efteemed
tolerably good. You may fortunately, by exploring this part of the coaft, light on fome new tribes,
which I have the ftrongeft reafon to imagine inhabit thefe parts. I have a knowledge that the
Spaniards obtained a prodigious number of otter-
fkins, which were brought to Manilla in the Galleons, and-from thence to China, where! faw them.
I am morally certain that they were not procured-
to the Northward of 460, as no where did I meet
with an atom of the manufactures of Spain, either
iron or copper. This portion of America is now
all that remains to be known to us; and fo fortunate a moment may be feized to acquire a competent knowledge of this part of the coaft, as will
either determine us in future to give up this Southern portion of the continent, as unproductive of
" .    C 3 mercantile;
w *-< Ill
A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X.
IS IiA. &4
mercantile advantages, or feek the fea-otter in
thefe parts. It becomes a queftion, where did the
Spaniards procure thefe fkins? And this point I
hope you will be able to clear up, fo as, next year,
to enable us to take advantage of any difcovery
you may make. I ever meant, at fome future
period, to trace this part of the coaft. The ne-
ceflity, however, of my immediately proceeding
to China, will prevent any expedition of this kind
on my part; and your having the North Weft
America to affift you, will, I truft, enable you to
perform it effectually, fhould you determine to
fpend the month of October on the coaft:—But I
leave this point to be determined by your own
judgment and concurrent circumftances.
The knowledge we have now obtained of the
coaft of America, and of the periodical winds and
feafons, gives us an advantage over all competU
tors.    The years 1790 and 1791 bid fair to be the
moft productive that we may ever"meet with,
Having thefe flattening profpects before us, our
exertions muft be redoubled, effectually to fweep
the coaft before any veffel can arrive from England.   In order to accomplish this, you will leave
the Sandwich Iflands as early as poffible in the
year 1789; and, at the fame time, for fear of accidents, or feparation, give your orders to Mr.
Funter, that he may proceed, and put his part of
the plan of operations into execution.       '    Ï"
IE       ?" :i; ' I 1 '     ! "      The
• The Northern diftrict of the continent, I leave
to you and the America; the Southern ftation I
fhall occupy myfelf, from China; and I am not
without hopes, that by the firft of May, 1789, I
fhall reach the coaft. I then fhall proceed as cir-?
çumftances arife :—but let me range which way I.
will to the Southward, I fhall not attempt to go
to the Northward of Nootka. On your part, I
have no doubt of your arrival on the coaft of
America fome time about the firft of April, 1789.
By this time the monfoon will be fet in, which,
experience has taught us, blows clofe home to
the American fhore. Therefore, to embrace the
advantages which the monfoon offers, inftead of
going immediately to Prince William's Sound, as
others haye done, I recommend you to make the
cpaft to the Southward: and as you have the
credit of difcovering the Great Ifland, theNorth-
weft fide of which, comprehending nearly four
degrees pf latitude, is entirely undifcovered; I
therefore recommend your making Cape Saint
James, the Southern extremity of the Great
Ifland, as the firft point on the continent of
Should you find yourfelf retarded by the North
Weft America's being a bad failer, you will proceed fingly to the coaft, leaving her to follow at
leifure, to put into execution your inftructions:
t>Ut this being a very unlikely circumftance, as
C 4 you
you will probably find her a prime failer,—in
that cafe, you will proceed in company to the
Coaft,until you make Cape Saint James; when
fhe will immediately feparate from you.
As you fteer along the North-weft fide of the
Great Ifland, you will explore it minutely, to the
height of 54° North; where refides a chief,
whofe diftrict is large, and where Captain Dixon
procured, in a few hours, two hundred cloaks, or
fix hundred fkins. Between this chief's refidence
and Cape Saint James, is a tract of coaft unex->
plored; and we may not, perhaps, vainly flatter
ourfelves, if we fuppofe, that in fuch an extent
of country there refide many chiefs and numerous
inhabitants. The monfoon will gradually bjow
you along this coaft; and as you will have time
and the feafon before you, you will explore it
J y     J X
thoroughly. Having performed this point, from
which great advantages may be expected, you
will, of courfe, proceed to Otter Sound, and the
bay to which you have been pleafed to give my
name. From hence you will proceed gradually
to Prince William's Sound, vifiting the various
places on the coaft where you have already been,
and with which you are now fo well acquainted,
particularly Crofs Sound, which appears to be of
fuperior importance. In purfuing this track, I
recommend your arriving there by the twentieth
of May; where I think you ought to remain till
P|ï     the APPENDIX.
the firft of June, in order to draw, if poffible,
fomething from Cook's River; to which rdace I
would by no means have you go, as it is now totally in the pofleflion of the Ruffians : proceeding
there would onlv be a wafte of valuable time.  On
J i\*T
the firft of June, therefore, you will leave the
Sound, and again proceed to the Southward, retracing your old ftations, (collecting the furs as
they are procured) until you arrive at the place
you have appointed to meet the America. That
period, I beg may not be later than the firft of
Auguft, 1789.
As there is fufficient fcope to employ the N. W,
America between the latitudes of 500 and 450 30'
North, fo in this ftation muft fhe be occupied.—.
Therefore let your orders to Mr. Funter be clear
and explicit. When you feparate at Cape Saint
James, he will proceed into the Great Channel,
and fleer up theNorth-eaft fide of the Great Ifland,
as 540 30' North; and be employed alternately between the ifland and the main-land of
America; a plan of which is now in your poflef-
fion, as well as information of the various chiefs,
and their places of refidence :—the paper of intelligence refpecting this, which I fortunately procured, accompanies thefe inftructions; a copy of
which you will give Mr. Punter, with a ftrict
charge not to proceed to the North Weft fide of
the Great Ifland, except in your progrefs you fee
occafion APPENDIX,
qccafipn to direct him. The N. W. America i$
fo admirably adapted for this ftation, that we çan^
not but congratulate ourfelves on building fuch a
veffel. Wnen the winds blow hard from the Great
Ifland, fhe has but 'to feek fhelter on the American fhore, amongft the mapy bays and harbours
that are there, where refide numerous inhabitants.
When fl>e is driven from this ftation by ftrong
winds, the Eaftern fhores of the Great Ifland afford
a certain afylum ; particularly the harbour of
Port Royal. Thus will fhe be employed until thq
period that you appoint for the rendezvous arrives; wh^ich, I truft, will h,e abopt the beginning'
of Auguft. By this time fhe will have traverfed
repeatedly the head of the Great Ifland,—the
North-eaftern fhore of the fame,—and all the main
continent from 500 30' North, to 540 30' North.
Thus every inch of ground between Prince
William's Soured and Noqtka will he occupied
apd repeatedly traveled, except the North Weft
fide of the Great Ifland; and as here again you
may expert a, farther fupply fince you left it, I
leave it entirely to your option and discretion to
permit the N. W. America to run (\o\vx\ tjiis ftation, on her way to join me at Nootka,    < -r
When you meet at the time appointed, you
will write me fully of your proceedings; and you
will proceed with the Iphigenia. with all difpatch^
to Mednoi, or Copper Ifland; where I truft you
e> APPEND!   X.
will arrive by the tenth of September, or at leaft
before the North-wefters fet in.
In performing this part of your inftruftions, I
leave you to act at difcretion, and as circumftances;
arife.    You may meet with, or hear of other fliips
being on your ftation, with whom you will have
to contend; or other material circumftances, which
may make a deviation from thefe orders neceflary.
I therefore here leave you entirely free; as I muft
repeat, I do alfo in every other refpecft.    I have
pointed out the object of Copper Ifland; and no
feafon appears fo favourable to put a vifit to it in
execution, as the month of Auguft; by which
period, I truft, both you and the N. W. America
will have fwept the Northern ftation effectually;
at leaft, what remains to be done, you will order
Mr. Funter to perform previous to his joining me
at Nootka $ at which place I fhall await his arrival
until the 20th day of November, 1789;  when
feeing nothing of him, on that day J fhall procee4
to the Sandwich Iflands, and wait your and his
arrival in Wymeo Bay, on the ifland of Atooi ; or
at the anchoring-ground, the ifland of Onehow,
until the firft day of January, 1790; when, neither
you nor the N. W. America arriving, I fhall conclude that fome fatal accident has happened, and
make the beft of my way to China.    This period
leaves fufficient time fpr the completion of all
operatipns; yet I hope that the Iphigenia and
It ;   '
I ten M
North Weft Arnerica will reach the iflands by the,
firft of December, 1789.
I here'leavedifcretional powers with you; fearful of circumftances arifing which no human fore-
fiVht can guard againft. You will perceive how
îîiuch I rely on your judgment and abilities.
Favourable winds may permit you to reach Copper Ifland by the ift of September; when you will
explore the ifland, and endeavour to find a place
of fhelter againft the approaching equinoctial,—•
ever to be dreaded in high Northern latitudes»—*
If the copper-ore is in huge rnafles, you.muft blow
them up with powder, and lade on board as much
as you can, with fafety to your fhip; and alfo of
fandel-wood, or of any other fweet.Tcented wood
that you may find. Having performed this, you
will embrace the, Northerly winds, which by this
time will be fet in, and proceed direct to join,
rne at the Sandwich Ifles, as before inftrudted;—-
when the future operations will be adjufted fo$~
the returning fhip to proceed to China.
? c xx
ifhing you health and fuccefs,
I remain, dear Sir,
>ur very obedient Servant,
Felice, Friendly Cove, in King George'*
Sound, September 20, 1788.
COPY À   P   P   E   N   D   I   X.
;  :   N° L -'  '       m
iPrefented to The House of Commons, May 13,
1790:—Containing every Particular refpefting the
Capture of the Vejfeh in Nootka Sound.
nr^HE Memorial of John Meares, Lieutenant
■*" in his Majefty's Navy, moft humbly
ïheweth,—That early in the year 17 £6, certain
merchants refiding in the Eaft-Indies, and under
the immediate protection of the Company, deli-
rous of opening a trade with the North Weft
Coaft of America, for fupplying the Chinefe
market with furs and ginfeng, communicated
fuch defign to Sir John Macpherfon, the Governor-general of India, who not only approved
of the plan, but joined in the fubfcription for its
execution ; and two velTels were accordingly purchafed, and placed under the orders and command of your Memorialift.
That in the month of March your Memorialift
difpatched one of the faid veflels, which he named
The Sea Otter, under the command of Mr. Tipping, to Prince William's Sound, and followed
her in the other fhip, which be named The
: ■■   :'::r':.l
*ïhat on your Memorialift's arrival in Prince1
William's Sound in the month of September, hê
found the Sea Otter had left that place a few
days before ; and, from intelligence he has fined
received, the fhip was foon after unfortunately
loft off the coaft of Kamtfchatka.
That your Memorialift remained in Prince
William's Sound the whole of the winter ; in
the courfe of which time he opened an extenlive
trade with the natives; and having collected a
cargo of furs, he proceeded to China in the autumn of 1787.
That in the month of January 1780, your Memorialift having difpofed of the Nootka, he, in
conjunction with feveral Britifh merchants redding in India, purchafed and fitted out two other
VeiTels, named the Felice and Iphigenia ; the
former your Mernorialift commanded, and the
latter he put under the direction of Mr. William
Douglas. That your Memorialift proceeded
from China to the port of Nootka, or King
George's Sound, which he reached in the month
of May, and the Iphigenia arrived in Cook's River in the month of June.
That your Memorialift, immediately on his arrival in NootkaSound, purchafed from Maquilla, the
chief of the diftrict contiguous to, andfurrounding
that place, a fpot of ground, whereon he built a houfê
for his occafional refidence, as weli as for the more
fconvenient purfuit of his trade with the natives^
and hoifted the Britifh colours thereon ; that he
alfo erected a breaft-work, which furrounded the
houfe, and mounted one three-pounder in front.
That having fo done, your Memorialift proceeded
to trade on the coaft, the Felice taking her route
to the Southward, and the Iphigenia to the
Northward, confining themfelves within thelimits
of 6o6 and 45^ 30' North, and returned to Nootka
Sound in the month of September. That on your
Memorialift's arrival there, his people whom he
had left behind, had nearly compleated a veffel.,
which, previous to his departure, he had laid
down ; and that the faid veffel was foon after
îaiiiiched by your Memorialift, and called the
North-Weft America, rrieafuring about forty
tons, and was equipped with all expedition, to
âffift him in his enterprizes.
That, during the abfence of your Memorialift
from Nootka Sound, He obtained from Wicananifh, the chief of the diftricft furrounding Port
Cox and Port Effingham, fituated in the latitudes
48^ and 490, in confequence of confiderable prefents, the promife of a free and éxclujive trade with
the natives of the dijlritl, and alfo his permiflion to
Build any ftore-houfes, or other edifices, which
he might judge neceflary : that he alfo acquired
the fame privilege of exclufive trade from Ta-
tootche, the chief of the country bordering on
the A   P   P   E   N   D   i   m
the Straits of John De Fuca, and purchafed from
him a tract of land within the faid ftrait, which
one of your Memorialift's officers took pofleflion
of in the King's name, calling the fame Tatootche^.
in honour of that chief.
That the Iphigenia, in her progrefs to the
Southward, alfo vifited feveral ports, and in confequence of prefents to the chiefs of the country, her commander had aflurances given to him
of not only à free accefs, but of an exclufive trade
upon that coaft, no other European veffel having
been there before her.
That your Memorialift, on the 23d of September, having collected a cargo of furs, proceeded in the Felice to China, leaving the Iphi-
is O AT
genia and the North-Weft America in Nootkâ
Sound, with orders to winter at the Sandwich
Iflands, and to return to the coaft in the Spring.
That your Memorialift arrived in China early in
the month of December, where he fold his cargo^
and alfo the fhip Felice.
That a few days after your Memorialift's arrival in China, the fhips Prince of Wales and Princefs Royal, fitted out from the Port of London
by Meflrs. John and Cadrnan Etches and Co*
came to Canton, from a trading voyage oh the
North Weft Coaft of America ; and your Memorialift finding that they had embarked in this
commerce under licences granted to them by
the Eaft India and Snuth Sea Companies, which
would not expire until the year 179O, and apprehending at the fame time that the trade would
fuffer by a competition, he and his partners aflb-
ciated themfelves with the faid Meffrs. Etches
a.nd Co. and a formal agreement was executed iri
confequence between your Memorialift and Mr.
John Etches, then fupracargo of the two fhips^
making a joint flock of all the veffels and property employed in that trade ; and under that
firm they purchafed a fhip, which had been built
at Calcutta, and called her the Argonaut*
That the Prince of Wales having been chartered to load teas for the Eaft India Company,
foon after returned to England; and the Princefs
Royal and Argonaut were ordered by your Memorialift to fail for the coaft of America, under the
command of Mr. James Colnett, to whom the
charge of all the concerns of the company on the
coaft had been committed.
Mr. Colnett was directed to fix his refidence at
Nootka Sound, and, with that view, to erect a
fubftantial houfe on the fpot which your Memorialift had purchafed in the preceding year,; as
will appear by a copy of his inftructions hereunto
That the Princefs Royal and Argonaut, loaded
with ftores and proviiions of all defcriptions,
ivith articles eftimated to be fufficient for the
Vol, II. E trade
Villi Ii
APPENDIX.       '
trade for three years, and a veffel on board in
frame, of about thirty tons burthen, left China
accordingly in the months of April and May,
1789. They had alfo on board, in addition to
their crews, feveral artificers of different profef-
fions, and near feventy Chinefe, who intended to
become fettlers on the American coaft, in the
fervice, and under the protection of the aflbciated
That on the 24th cf April, 1789, the Iphigenia returned to Nootka Sound; and that the
North-Weft America reached that place a few
days after: That they found, on their arrival in
that port, two American velTels which had wintered there ; one of them was called the Columbia, the other the Wafhington: that on the 29th
of the fame month, the North-Weft America was
difpatched to the Northward to trade, and alfo
to explore the Archipelago of St. Lazarus.
That on the 6th of May, the Iphigenia being
then at anchor in Nootka Sound, a Spanifh fhip
of war, called the Princefla, commanded by Don
Stephen Jofeph Martinez, mounting twenty-fix
guns, which had failed from the Port of San Bias,
in the Province of Mexico, anchored in Nootka
Sound, and was joined on the 13th by a Spanifh
fnow of fixteen guns, called the San Carlos, which
veffel had alfo failed from San Bias, loaded with
cannon, and other warlike ftores#  |
311 M
•| '       APPENDIX. I;
That from the time of the arrival of the Priii-»
tefla until the 14th of May, mutual civilities paf*
fed between Captain Douglas and the Spanifh
officers, and even fupplies were obtained from
Don Martinez for the ufe of the fhip ; but on
that day he, Captain Douglas, was ordered on
board the Princeffa, and, to his great furprize,
was informed by Don Martinez, that he had the
King's orders to feize all fhips and veflels he
might find upon that coaft, and that he, the Com*
mander of the Iphigenia, was then his prifoner :
that Don Martinez thereupon inftru&ed his officers to take pofleflion of the Iphigenia, which
they accordingly did, in the name of his Catholic Majefty, and the officers and crew of that fhip
were immediately conveyed as prifoners on board
the Spanifh fhips, where they were put in irons,
and were other wife ill treated.
That as foon as the Iphigenia had been feized,
Don Martinez took pofleflion of the lands belonging to your Memorialift, on which his temporary
habitation before mentioned had been erected,
hoifting thereon the ftandard of Spain, and performing fuch ceremonies as your Memorialift un*
derftands are ufual on fuch occafions ; declaring
at the fame time, that all the lands comprized
between Cape Horn and the fixtieth degree of
North latitude, did belong to his Catholic Majefty ; he then proceeded to build batteries, ftore-
E a houfes, \<m
hôufes, &c. in the execution of which he forcibly
employed fome of the crew of the Iphigenia, and
many of them who attempted to refift, were very
feverely punifhed.
That during the time the commander of the
Iphigenia remained in captivity, he had frequently been urged by Don Martinez to fign an
inftrurnent, purporting, as he was informed, (not
underftanding himfelf the Spanifh language) that
Don Martinez had found him at anchor in Nootka
Sound ; that he was at that time in great diftrefs ;
that he had furnifhed him with every thing neceflary for his paiTage to the Sandwich Iflands; and
that his navigation had in no refpect been moleft-
êd or interrupted : but which paper, on infpection
of a copy thereof, delivered to Mr. Douglas, ap»
pears to be an obligation from him and Mr. Viana,
the fécond captain, on the pait of their owners,
to pay on demand the valuation of that veffel,
her cargo, &c. in cafe the Viceroy of New Spain
fhould adjudge her to be à lawful prize, for entering the Port of Nootka without the oermiffion of
his Catholic Maj.fty: that Captain Douglas*
conceiving that the Port of Nootka did not be-
long to his Catholic Majefty, did frequently re-
fufe to accede to this propofal ; but rhat Don Martinez, partly by threats, and partly by promifes
of reftoring him to his command, and of furnifh- APPENDIX.
ing him with fuch fupplies of (lores and provifions as he might ftand in need of, ultimately carried his point ; and having fo done, he, on the
26th of the fame month, was reftored to the command of the Iphigenia, but reftrained from proceeding to fea, until the return of the North-Weft
America; infilling.that he fhould then difpofe of
her for 400 dollars, the price which one of the
American captains had fet upon her.
That during the time the Spaniards held pof-
feflion of the Iphigenia, fhe was ftripped of all
the merchandize which had been provided for
trading, as alfo of her flores, provifions, nautical
inftruments, charts, Src. and, in fhort, every other
article (excepting twelve bars of iron) which
they could conveniently carry away, even to the
extent of the matter's watch, and articles of
That the commander of the Iphigenia, finding
himfelf thus diftreffed, applied for relief, and after
niuch • folicitation obtained a trifling fupply of
ftpres and provifions, for which he was called upon to give bills on his owners. The articles fo
fupplied were charged at a moft exorbitant price,
and very unequal in quality or quantity to thofe
which had been taken from him,
That notwithstanding what had been infifted
on by Don Martinez, refpecting the fale of the
Îîorth-Weft America, he had cônftantly refufed
if-*" , E 3       I        '   %%
n t
to difpofe of that veffel on any ground^ alleging
that, as fhe did not belong to him, he had no
right to difpofe of her; that the North-Weft
America not returning fo foon as was expected,
he, Capt. Douglas, was told by Don Martinez,
that on his ordering that veffel to be delivered to
him for the ufe of his Catholic Majefty, he fhould
| have liberty to depart with the Iphigenia; that he ac-
cordingly,on the firft of June, wrote aletter to the
mafterof the N.W.America,but cautioufly avoided any directions to the effect defired, and availing
himfelf of Don Martinez' ignorance of the Eng=*
lifh language, he inftantly failed from Nootka
Sound, though in a very unfit condition to proceed on fuch a voyage, leaving behind him the
two American veffels, which had been fuffered to
continue there unmolefted by the Spaniards, from
the time of their firft arrival$ that the Iphigenia
proceeded from thence to the Sandwich Iflands,
and after obtaining there fuch fupplies as they
were enabled to procure with the iron before mentioned, returned to China, and anchored there in
the month of October, 1789.
Your Memorialift thinks it necelTary upon this
occafion to explain, that in order to evade the
exceflive high port charges demanded by the
Chinefe from all other European nations excepting the Portuguefe, that he and his aflbciates had
obtained the name of Juan Cawalhoto their firm,
though he had no actual concern in their flock;
that Cawalho, though by birth a Portuguefe, had
been naturalized at Bombay, and had refided
therefor many years, under the proteâion of the
Eaft India Company, and had carried on an ex-
tenfive trade from thence to their feveral Settlements in that part of the world.
That the intimacy fubiifttng between Cawalho
and the governor of Macao, had been the principal caufe of their forming this nominal connexion; and that Cawalho had in confequence
obtained his permiffion that the two fhips above
mentioned, in cafe it fhould be found convenient
fo to do, fhould be allowed to navigate under,
or claim any advantages granted to the Portuguefe
flag. |;     ,
That this permiffion had anfwered the purpofe
of your Memorialift, fo far as refpected the port
charges of the Chinefe, until the return of the
Iphigenia; but the Portuguefe Governor dying
foon after her departure, and Cawalho becoming
a bankrupt, his creditors demanded his intereft
in that fhip; that your Memorialift having refilled their claim, an application was made by them
to the fucceeding governor for golTeflion of the
fhip; that the governor had, in confequence, in-
veftigated the tranfaction, and finding that Cawalho had no actual concern or intereft in the pro-
E 4 perty,
m i   A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X.
perty, obliged her to quit the port; that this;
proceeding had fubjected the Iphigenia at once
to the increafed port charges, which were in-
ftantly demanded by, and paid to, the Chinefe.
Your Memorialift has ftated this tranfactioa
thus fully, in order to fhew that the Iphigenia
and her cargo were actually and bond fide Britifh
property, as well as to explain the occafion of
the orders which were given to her commander,
extracts of which accompany this, arid are referred to in the journal of that fhip, having been
under the infpection of Don Martinez.
Your Memorialift further begs leave to ftate,
that after the departure of the  Iphigenia,  Don
artinez became apprized of the purport of the
letter with which he had been furnifhed; and
that, on the return of the North-Weft America
off the port of Nootka, on the 9th of June, fhe,
was boarded and feized by boats manned and
equipped for war, commanded by Don Martinez;
that he did tow and convey the faid veffel into the
Sound, and anchoring her clofe to the Spanifh
fhips of war, did then take pofleflion of her in
the name of his Catholic Majefty, as good and
lawful prize; that the above mentioned veffel
was foon after hauled alongfde of the Spanifh
frigate; and that the officers and men, together
with the fkins which V.d been collected, amounting to mm of the belt quality, and alfo her flores^
tac&ie* APPENDIX,
tackle, and furniture, articles of trade, &c, were-1
removed on board the Spanifh frigate; that the
commander of the North-Weft America, his officers and men, were accordingly made prifoners,
and Mr. Thomas Barnett, one of the officers of
that veflei, and fome of her men were, as appears
by the affidavit of William Graham, one of the
feamen belonging to that veffel, afterwards put
in irops.
That the Princefs Royal arriving a few days
after the feizure of the North-Weft America,
and being allowed by Don Martinez to depart,
the fkins collected by the laft mentioned veflei
(excepting twelve of the beft quality, which Don
Martinez thought fit to detain) were returned to
the mafter, and, with the permiffion of Don Martinez, were fliipped on board the Princefs Royal,
for the benefit of the owners; and that fhip, as
appears by her journal, put .to fea on the 2d of
Julv, to purfue the trade upon the coaft.
That Don Martinez, after feizing the North-
Weft America in the manner and under the circumftances above ftated, employed her on a trading voyage, from which fhe returned after an
abfence of about twenty days, with feventy-five
fkins, obtained by Britifh merchandize, which
had either been found in that velTel at the time
of her capture, or had' been taken from the Iphigenia; and that the value of the furs fo collected, f '■    APPENDIX.    ■     " JJ
ed, cannot, upon a moderate calculation, be efti-
mated at lefs than 7,500 dollars, and which Don
Martinez had applied to Ins own advantage.
That the Argonaut arrived off the port of
Nootka on or about the 3d of July, 1789. That
Don Martinez, on obferving her in the offing,
boarded her in his launch, and with expreffions
of civility, promifed Mr. Colnett, her commander, every affiftance in his power; that before
the Argonaut entered the Sound, Mr. Thomas
Barnett, (who had belonged to the North-Weft
America, and who was then a prifoner) came off
in a canoe, and informed Mr. Colnett of the proceedings which had taken place, and of the danger to which he was, expofed; but that, under
the aflurances eiven by Don Martinez that the
Argonaut fhould remain unmolefted, and being
in want of refrefhments for the crew, Mr. Colnett
proceeded into Nootka Sound.
That, notwithftanding the aiTurances given by
Don Martinez, he, on the next day, fent the firft
lieutenant of the Princeffa, with a military force,
to take pofleflion of the Argonaut; and that fhip
was accordingly feized in the name of his Catholic Majefty; the Britifh flag was hauled down,
and the Spanifh flag hoifted in its ftead.
That on the feizure of the Argonaut, her officers and men were made prifoners ; and Mr. Colnett was threatened to be hanged at the yard-arm,
% Si irt
in cafe of his refuting compliance with any directions which might be given to him.
That on the 13th of July, the Princefs Royal,
as is ftated in her journal, again appeared off the
Port of Nootka ; that her commander approach*
ing the Sound in his boat, in expectation of find*
ing there the commander of the expedition, ( froqi
whom he was defirous of receiving inftructions
for his future proceedings) was feized and made
prifoner by Don Martinez, and under threats of
hanging him at the yard-arm, forced him to fend
orders to his officers to deliver up the Princefs
Royal without conteft.
That a Spanifh officer was difpatched into the
offing with thefe orders ; and that the veffel was
accordingly feized in the name of his Catholic
Majefty, and brought into port ; that her crew
were in confequence made prifoners ; and that
her cargo, confifting of 473 fkins, including 203
which had been put on board her from the North-
Weft America, was feized.
That Mr. Colnett, from the circumftances of
his capture, became fo deranged, that he attempted frequently to deftroy himfelf; and that, according to the laft accounts received, the ftate of
his mind was fuch, as to render him unfit for the
management of any bufinefs which might have
been entrufted to his care; that in this melancholy ■Il
m vM
choly fituation, however, Don Martinez, notwith*
Handing the veffel and cargo had before been formally feized, attempted to procure from him the
fale of the copper, of which a principal part of
the cargo of the Princefs Royal had been com*
pofed ; and that fuch fale would actually have
taken place, had not the other officers of that
veffel, feeing Colnett's infanity, prevented it.
Your Memorialift farther begs leave to repre-
fent, that the American fhip Columbia intending
to proceed to China, the crew of the North-Weft
America were ordered by Don Martinez on board
her; principally, as your Memorialift underftands,
for the purpofe of affifting her in her navigation
to China; the greateft part of her own crew, as
well as of her provifions, having been previoufly
put on board the Wafhington, in order that fhe.
might be enabled to continue on the coaft.
That the Columbia having reduced her provifions confiderably from the fupplies fhe had fpa-
red to her confort, was furnifhed from the Argonaut, by order of Don Martinez, with what was
neceflary for her voyage, faid to be intended, however, for the fupply of the North-Weft America;
that previous to the departure of the Columbia,
ninety-fix fkins were alfo put on board her,
to defray the wages of the officers and crew of the
#i North-
North Weft America, under a fuppoiltion that
their late employers would be unable to liquidate
their demands ; firft deducting, however, thirty
per cent, from the fales, which Don Martinez
had agreed fhould be paid for the freight on the
laid fkins to the American commanders.
That the Columbia, thus fupplied, left Nootka
Sound accordingly, and proceeded to the Southward ; that a few days after fhe entered Port Cox,
where fhe was joined by her confort the Wafh-
ington, from whom fhe received a confiderable
number of skins, conceived to be the whole, excepting the ninety-fix before mentioned, which
had been collected by the Americans and Spaniards, as well as by the Britifh traders; and with
which, after fparing a further quantity of provifions to the Wafhington, the Columbia proceeded
to China, where fhe arrived on the 2d of November, and landed the crew of the North-Weft America,     ill
That the crew of the North-Weft America,
previous to their leaving Nootka Sound in the
Columbia, faw the Argonaut proceed, as a prize,
to San Bias ; and that her officers and men, who
were Europeans, were put on board her as prifo-
ners ; and that the Princefs Royal was fhortly to
follow, with her crew in confinement in the fame
manner. The Wafhington, on joining the Co-
% - !" >':      "       iurnbia
«j bJ ». *•    ^f"
A   P   P   E   N   D   I
ltimbia in Port Cox, gave information that the
Princefs Royal had alfo failed for San Bias.
That Don Martinez had thought fit, however,
to detain the Chinefe, and had compelled them to
enter into the fervice of Spain; and that, on the
departure of the Columbia, they were employed
in the mines, which had then been opened on the
lands which your Memorialift had purchafed.
Your Memorialift begs leave to annex a
ftatement of the actual as well, as the probable
lofles which he and his affociates have fuftained
from the unwarrantable and unjuftifiable proceed-*
ings of Don Martinez, in open violation of the
treaty of peace fubfifting between this country
&nd the Court of Spain, and at times and in fitu*
ations where, according to the common laws of
hofpitality, they might have expected a very
different conduct.
Your Memorialift therefore moft humbly begs
leave to fubmit the cafe of himfelf and his affociates to the confideration of Government, in full
confidence that the proper and neceflary meafures
will be taken to obtain that redrefs, which he
and his affociates have, as Britifh fubjeâs, a right
to expeâ:.
H      .J (Signed)  I  JOHN MEARES.
London, %Qth of April, 1790»  ..."
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