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A voyage to the Pacific ocean : for making discoveries in the northern hemisphere, performed under the… Cook, James, 1728-1779 1796

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|f  V O Y A G E      ■
T O .TjH E
| IN   THE
Captains COolc, CLERKE, andGOEE,
In the Years 1776, 17775 177^ 1779> 1780.
Captain JAMES COOK,F.R. S.
Caftain JAMES KING, LL. D. and F. R. S.
m%   — T"~—
VOL. Ill,
Printed by Tiebout and O'Brien
For BENJAMIN GOMEZ, Bookseller and
No. 97, Maiden-Lane.   1
,.*.  s
^^:    l^6'
CHAP.    X.
The Ships proceed along the Coajl of Afia—Burners
IJlands—Gape Serdze Kamen—Pajs the Eaft Cape
vf Afia—Defcripthn efit—Bay of St. Lawrence
—Two other Bays—Beering's Cape Tfchukotfkoi—
Steer for the Coaji of America—Gape Derby—
Bald-head—Captain Cook lands in fearch of
Wood and Water—Cape Denbfgh—Some of the
Natives come off to us—Befborough IJland—
Cdpifiln Cook's Interview with a particular
Family—Mr.   King's  Interview  with  the fame
. Family—Supplies of Wood and Wafer—Mr. King
fènt te examine the Coqft—Vijits from the Natives—Their Huts—Produce of the Country-
Mr.    Kins:'s   Retort—"Norton's   Sound—Lunar
CHAP.    XÎ.
age 53
Stuart's IJland difcb'vered—Its Situation, Extent,
&c.—Cape Stephens^—Point Shallow Water—
Shoals on the Coafi of North America—Clef he's
IJland—Gore's IJland1—-Pinnacle IJland—The Re-
folution fprings a Leak—The Jhips arrive at
Qcîiala/hka—Plentiful fiippliës of Fifh—Inter*
courfc with the natives, and the Ruffian Traders
—Mr. Ifmyloff comes on board—Intelligence received from him—Two Charts produced by him—
Account of the I/lands vifited by the Ruffians—
Of their fettlement at Qonalafhka—Defcripiion
of the Natives—Their Drefs—Food—Manner of
Building—Manufactures--— Canoes-— Implements
for Hunting and Fi/hing—Ftfh, and other Sea Animals-—Water Fowls—Land-Birds—Quadrupeds—
s—Stones—Rtpofiîories  of the   Dead—
Bifeafes—Refemblance of the Inhabitants of this
Side of ^t^gkSLp the Ejfyuimaux and Greenland-
êrs-~Tidefs  Longitude^ &c.. - -80 mm MM
Departure from Samganoodha—~Amoghta~-An elevated Rock—Repafs the Strait between Gonalafh-
ka and Oonella—Proceed to the Souths—One Man
killed, and three or four wounded on board the
Difcovery—Mowee difcovered—Vifits from the
Natives— A Vifitfrom a Chief named Terreeoboo
—Owhyhee, an ijland, difcovered-—Ships ply to
Windward—An Eclipfe of the Moon—Ship's
Crew refufe to tajie Sugar-came Beer—Comparative V%ew of the Cordage in the Navy and Merchants Service—«Ëulogium on the Natives of
Owhyhee—The Refolution accompUfhes the Intention of getting to Windward of the IJland-^-The
Progrefs—Vifits from the IJlanders—^Joined by
the Difcovery——Mr. Bligh examines Karakakooa
Bay—-Multitudes of People-—Anchor in the Bay.
Page 123
BOOK.    V.
CHAP.    I
Karakakooa Bay defcribed-—Multitudes of the Natives furround the Ships Defpotic Authority of
the Chiefs over the inferior People—A Vifit received from Koah—Defcription of the Morai at
Kakoa—Offering made to Captain Cook at the
Morai—Mr. King ereels ObJervatories—The Spot
on which they are Jituated, tabooed-—Method of
curing Meat in Tropical Climates—Society of
Priejls accidentally difcovered—Their Munificence—Ceremony at the Reception of Captain
Cook—Mean Artifice of Koah—Arrival of Ter* I C ON TENT S.
' - reeobcQ—The Bay tabooed upon that Occalion—
Bring the Inhabitants to obedience, by firing a
MufqueU—Remarkable Ceremony—V[fit from Ter-
recuboo—-Captain Cook returns it..        Page   147
C H A P.    IE
9ke Civility and HofpitaRty of the Natives—Much
addicted to thieving—their Alacrity in conducting a Party of us up the Country—A Boxing-
Match deferibed—Death of William Watman, a
Seaman—Attention 'of the Priefis at his Funeral
I —^Ceremony- of the Natives* at his Funeral—A
GraveJlone eptfed—The Rail and Images on the
Morai pur chafed —The Natives very inquifitive
about our Departure—What they fuppofed to be
the Object of our Voyager'—Entertained by the
Buffoonery of -one of the Natives—--M*agnijkent
Prefents- from Terreeoboo—The Natives regret
our Departure—Wijh to prevail oh Mr. King to
remain amongft them—'The vejfels quit the IJland
 The Refolution damaged in a Gale of Wind,.
and- obliged, to return* 167
flè^     CHAP.    III.
The Behaviour of the IJlanders, on our Return to
Karakakooa Bay, fomewhat mvjierious—A Theft
committed on board the Difcovery—The Thieves
* purfued up the Country by Captain Cook and Mr.
King—Scuffle between the Natives and our People, in which Pareea receives a fevere Brow—-
The Pinnace attacked and plundered-—Crew
obliged to quit her—Captain Cook's Reflections on
the Occafon—Attempt at the Obfervatory—The
Difcovery's Gutter ftolen from the Buoy—Steps
taken for its Recovery'—Captain Cook goes on
Sl-ore to invttejhe King and his two Sons on
b:ard—His Wife and the Chiefs eppofe his going.
y» Contejl arifes on the occiJion-&InielBgence
arrives of one of the Chlefstf$ng killed ' by one of
our People—-The Confequences—-A Chief threatens Captain Cook and is foot by h'm-z-A general
Attack enjues- -Death of Captain Cvok—Account
of his Services, and a Sketch of his'Char abler.
Page 185
CHAP.    IV.
^ranfaclions at Owhyhee, fubfequent to the death of
Captain  Cook—Bravery of Mr.   Phillips—The
n of our Par-
naîhes annoy, them with
I/landers forced to rctire-*-*SiMati
ty at the Moral—The
jlones-—-Attempts to Jlorm the M or ai—A fhort
Truce—-Our People quit the Morai—Pacific
Meafures determined on—Mr. Kingfent to obtain
a Conference with fome of the Chiefs—His Interview with Koah—Contemptuous Behaviour of the
Natives—Precaution taken by us—Two of the
I/landers, in a Canoe, fired at, but not hurt—
A Piece of Captain Cook's Flefh brought us by one
of them—Further Provocations from the Natives
—Some great Guns Jired at them—Our Watering
Party harrajfed withjlones—The Village of Ka-
koa burned by our People—Bravery of one of the
Natives—-A Proceffion, headed by Kaireekeea,
who comes on board the Refolution—The Bones of
Captain Cook brought to us—They are committed
to the jDeep-—The Ships leave Karakakooa Bay.
CHAP.    V.
Leave Karakakooa Bay—In quejl of an Harbour
on the South-Eajl Side of Mowee— Driven to
Leeward by the Current, and Jlrong eajlcrly
Winds—Pafs Tohoorowa—'South-weJl Side of Mowee defer ibed—Proceed to Woahoo—The norih-
eajl coajl of Woahoo dcfcribed—D if appointed in
attempting t$$fcvatèr—Proceed to  Atooi—Anchor r
in Wymoa Bay—The Natives not Jo friendly as
hefore-r-The watering Party guarded by Marines
—Infolence of the Natives, who demanded a
Hat $ et for every Cafk of Water—The ijlanders
treat dur People with Contempt—They Jleat Mr.
King's Hanger out of his Hand-r-Their Infolence-
at the Water-fide—Are fired at by two Marines
—One of them wounded—Vifit from the contending Chiefs—Anchor off Oneeheow^-Departure*
Page 244
The Number, Names, and Situation, of the Sandwich IJlands—Extent of Owhyhee, which is the
large/I of the whole Group—Account of its Dif-
triâls—Its Coajls and the adjacent Country, described-—Snowy Mountains—Volcanic Appearances—Account of a "Journey into the interior Parts
of Owhyhee Plantations—Account of a Hermit
--*-T'he Country cultivated to the greateji Advantage—A remarkable Cave—--De/cription of
lAowee.—Ranai.—morotoi — Tahoorowa-—Woa-
Climate of the Sandwich IJles—Winds-—Currents
—Tides—Quadrupeds—Amazing Supply of Pork
procured by us-—Birds—-Yegetahles. 261
General Account of the Sandwich IJles continued-^-
Origin of the Natives—Their Perfons defcribed—
Injlahces of Deformity—Pernicious Confequences
arifing fromthe immoderate life of the Ava—rPopulation ofthefe IJIandsr-'-rDifpofiiion and Manners
of the Inhabitants—Reftraints   impofed. on their
Women-*—Their   Ingenuity   and   Docility Mr.
King's Reafons for fuppqfing that they are not
Cannibals at prefeni;--.--Mefhods of wearing their
Hair-r-rVarious Ornaments—Drefe of the Men— C O N î Ë M î Si
Feathered Cloaks and îieM$tit*-*-Drefs of the Wo- .
men----A beautiful Kind if Riff defer ibtd-—Other
Ornaments—Villages—Houfes*-- Food—Occupations
—Divetjwns-»-Their Fondnefs for Gaming—Ajlo-
'nijhing Dexterity in Swimming------Ganoês-~Aris and
Manufactures—Mode of painting Cl&'tfa'-"-Beauty of
their Mats*—Their Fifi^f^êiioïiis—Cordage*---Various Ufes of GàûrdShelh"-L$àlt~Pans—Weapons.
Page 288
Continuation of the Account of the Sandwich IJlands
—Diyifion of the Peopte into three tlaffes—Superior Power of the Eree-taboo-^&eHèœi&gical
Account of the Kings of Owhyhee end Mowee—
Authority of the Erees—Tyranny of Pareea, exer*
cifed an an inferior Chief—Punijhment of Offences — Account of their Religion — Society of
Pfiejîs—The Orono—Idols—-Eatooas of deceafed
Chiefs—Religious Ceremonies, Chantings, &c. \
previous tv the drinking of Ava—Human Sacrifices very frequent among them—-Religious Guffinn
of knocking out the Fore-Teeth—Their ideas of a
future State—Particular Explanation of the Word
Taboo—Marriages—Kemarkable Injftante of fea-
loufy—Funeral Ceremonies at the Death of an old
Chief, &c. 332
CHAP.    L
J$$t Oneeheow--AJnfuccefsfbd Attempt to difiover
Modcopapappa-f'Stèer fir Awatjha Bay—See vafi CONTE
T S*
'Quantities of oceanic Birds—Prepare for a cok
Climate—Seamen require directing like Childrek
—Sudden change of. Climate—The leaking of the
Refolution occasions great Dijlrefs—See the coajl
of Kamtfc hatha—Continued Showers of Sleet, and
great Severity of Weather—Lofe Sight of the Dif
covery—The Refolution enters- Awatfka Bay—
Wiihfome Difficulty difcover the Town of St. Peter and St. Paul—Party fent afhore—Avoided
by Inhabitants on a Sledge—Their Reception by
the Commander of the Port—Dif patches to the
Commander at Bolcheretfk—Arrival of the Dif
covery .in the Bay—Return of the Meffenger—
Curious Mode of Travelling—VJit from a 'Ruffian
Page 339
' Merchant, and a German Servant
C H A P.    II.
- and Provifions extremely ffcarce at St. Peter
I St. Paid—Exorbitant Demands of a Meruit—A party difpatched to Bolcheretfk in pur-
it of Stores and Provifions—Proceed up the
iver Awatfka—Pafs the night in a Marquée
the River'-fide—Civility and Hofpitality of the
îwn of Karat chin—Dreffes of the Kam^chaies—Profecute our Journey on Sledges—Curious
of that Mode of Travelling—
■ Ca
:k on the Bclchoireka River—Arrival at the
pital-—Formal Procejfion into that town—Ge-
ffity and Hofpitality of Major Behm, Com*
nder of the Garrifon—Bolcheretfk defcribed—
efsnts   received from   the  Major—Entertain-
Ws   of Dancing Very   affecting   Departure
m Bolcheretfk—Return to the Ships—-Remark-
? Injlance of Generofiiy in the Sailors—Major
mi carries Difpatches to Peterfburgh—-Mis
Nurture, and extraordinary Characler.        %6Q A
BOOK   IV; rif^
The Skips proceed to the Northward—The IJles of
Oonella and Acootan—Onemak—Plenty of Cod
caught — Brijlol River — Round JJland — Calm
Point—Mr, Wittiamfon lands at Cape Nëwen-
ham—His Report—Brijlol Bay—Extent of it—
Shoal Water—The Ships are obligea by the Shoals
to. return—Shoal Nefs—Americans come off to
our Ships—Their Behaviour, Drefs, fff-r.—Point
Upright—Death of Mr. Anàerfon—His Character—An IJland named after hiw~~Account of
Sledge If and — King's IJland— Cape Prince of
tVales—Anchor in a large Bay bn the Afiatic
ON the 2d of July, we fleered from Samga-
noodha, with a gentle breeze at fouth-foutlj-
eaft, to the northward, and met with nothing to ob-
Vol, III.—n° 12. B flruf e
2 A  V O Y À G £   TO   THE
ftrucVus in that courfe. For, on the one fide, the
Ifie of Oonalafhka trended fouth-weft ; and, ore
the other, no land was vifibJe in a direction more
northerly than north-eaft ; all whkh land was
a continuation of the fame groupe of ifiands
that we had fallen in with on the 25th of
the preceding month. That which is fituated
before Samganoodha, and conftitutes the north-
eaftern fide of the paffage through which we
came, is denominated Oonena, and its circumference is about feven leagues* Anothef
ifland, lying to the north-eaftward of it, bear*
the name of Acootan, it is confiderably fuperior
in fize to Oonella, and has m it fome very lofty
mountains, which were, at this time, .covered
with fnow. It appeared, that we might have
paffed with great fafety between thefe two iflands
and the\ continent, whofe fouth-weftern point
opened off the north-eaftern point of Acootan
and proved to be the fame point of land that we
bad difcerned when we left the coaft of the continent, the 25th of June, to go without the
iflands. It is termed Oonemak by the natives,
and is fituate in the longitude of 1920 30' eaft, and
in the latitude of 540 30' north. Over the cape*
which, of itfelf, is high land, there is a round
elevated mountain, at prefent covered with fnow.
This mountain bore eaft zQ north, at fix o'clock-
k the afternoon * and two hours afterwards,, no
ianct was to be feen.    Concluding, therefore, that
the coaft of the continent had  now  inclined  to
the  north-eaftward, we fleered  the  fame courfe,
till one o'clock the following rhorning, when the
watch  ftationed  Upon  deck  imagined  they   faw
land a-head.    Upon this we  wore,  and,  for  the
fpace   of about  two  hours,   flood   towards   the
fouth-wefl ;   after which we refumed  our  courfe
to the eaft north-eaft.    At fix we difcovered land
a-head, at the diftancè of about five leagues, bearing   fouth-eaft.     As   we   advanced  we  defcried
more and  more land, the  whole   of which was
connected.    At twelve o'clock; we obferved that
it   extended   from  fouth-fouth-weft  to  eaft,   the
part nearefl to us being five or fix leagues  diftant.'
Our longitude, at this time, was  1959  i2/ eafi^
and our latitude $$° 2if north.    At fix, in the
afternoon, -we founded^ and found  a bottom  of
black fend at the depth of forty-eight fathoms.
We were now four leagues from  the land ; and
the eaftern part in fight was in the direction of
eaft-fouth-eaft,   appearing as   an  elevated round
On Saturday thé 4th, at eight o'clock in the
morning, we faw the coaft from fouth-fouth-weft,
and eaft by fouth; and, at intervals, we could
difcern high land, covered With fnow, behind it.
Not long after we had a calm; and being in
thirty fathoms water, we caught, with hook and
line, a good number of excellent cod* At twelve
B 2 we 4 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
we had an eafterly breeze asnd clear iveathef^
at which time we found ourfelves about fix leagues
from the land, which extended from fouth by
weft to eaft by fouth* and the hummock, feen?
the preceding evening, bore fouth-weft by fotrth*;
at the diftance of nine or ten leagues. A great
hollow fwell from the weft-fouth-weftward, convinced us, that there was no main land, in that
direction, near us. We fleered a northerly courfe*
till fix o'clock in the afternoon, when the wirid,:
veering to the fouth-eaft, enabled us to fleer eaft-
north-eaft. The coaft lay in this direction, and,
at twelve o'clock on the following day, was at
the diftance of about four leagues.
We made but little progrefs on the 6th and
7th, as the wind was northerly. In the evening
of the latter day, about eight o'clock, the depth
of water was nineteen fathoms, and we were
three or four leagues from the coaft, which, on
Wednefday the 8th, extended from fouth-fouth-
weft to eaft by north, and was all low land, with
a ridge of mountains, covered with fnow, behind
it. It is not improbable, that this low coaft extends to a confiderable diftance towards the fouth-
weft; and that thofe places which we fometimeâ
fuppofed to be inlets or bays, are nothing more
than vallies between the mountains. This day
we put our hooks and lines over^ and caught
plenty of fine cod.
On the 9th, in the morning, having a breeze
at north-weft, we fleered eaft by north, in order
to make a nearer approach to the coaft. At
noon, we were at the diftance of about two leagues
from the land, which was obferved to extend
from fouth by eaft to eaft-north-eaft ; being all a
low coaft, with points projecting in feveral places,
which, from the deck, had the appearance of
iflands; but, from the maft-head, we faw that
low land connected them. We were now in the
longitude of 201* 33' eaft, and in the latitude
of 570 49* north. In this fituation, our foundings were fifteen fathoms, oveF a bottom of fine
black fand.
In advancing towards the north-eaft, we had
found that the depth of water gradually decreafed,
and the coaft trended more and more northerly.
But we obferved, that the ridge of mountains
behind it, continued to lie in the fame direction
as thofe that were more wefterly ; fo that the extent of the low land, between the coaft and the
foot of the mountains, infenfibly increafed. Both
the low and high grounds were totally deftitute
of wood; but were apparently covered with a
green turf, the mountains excepted, which were
involved in fnow.
As we proceeded along the coaft with a light
wefterly breeze, the water fhoaled gradually from
fifteen to ten fathoms, though we were eight or
;en miles diftant from the fhore.    About eight
B  3 o'clock 6
o'clock in the evening, a lofty mountain, which
had been fome time within fight, bore fottdï-eaft,
by eaft, at the diftance of twenty-one leagues.
Several other mountains, forming a part of the
fame chain, and much further diftant, bore eaft
39 north. The coaft was feen to extend as far
as north-eaft half north, where it feemed to terminate in a point, beyond which it was both out
hope and expectation, that if. would aflume a
more eafterly direction. But, not long afterwards, we perceived low land, that extended
from behind this point, as far as nôçth-weft by
weft, where it was loft in the horizon; and behind it we difcerned high land, appearing in hilk
detached from each other. Thus the fine pro*
fpect we had of getting to the northward vanished
in an inftant. We flood on till nine o'clock,
$nd then the point before-mentioned was abouç
one league diftant, bearing north-eaft half eaft.
Behind the point is a river, which, at its entrance, feemed to be a mile in breadth. The
water appeared fome what, as upon
:(hoal§; but a calm would have given it a flmilar
afpect. It feemed to take a winding direction,
through the extenfive flat which' lies between the
chain of mountains towards the fouth-eaft, and
the hills to the north-weftward. It douhfMs
abounds with falmon, as many of thofib fifh were
feen leaping in the fea before the entrance, and
fome were found in-, the maws of cod that we; had
caught* PACIFIC   OCEAN. y
caught. The mouth of this river, which we
diftinguifhed by the appellation of Briftol River,
is fituated in the longitude of 201° $$' eâfty and
in the latitude of 580 27' north.
At day-break, on the 10th, we made fail to
the weft-fouth-weft, with a light breeze at north-
eaft. About eleven o'clock, thinking that the
coaft*towards the north-weft terminated in a point,
bearing northrweft by weft, the Commodore
fleered for that point, having ordered the Difcovery to keep a-head. But, before that vefiel
had run a mile, fhe made a fignal for fhoal water.
'At that very time we had the depth of feven fathoms ; and before we could get the head of our
fhip the other way, we had lefs than five : but
the Difcovery's foundings were lefs than four fathoms. We now flood back to the north-eaft,
three or four miles ; but obferving that there was
a ftrong tide fetting to the weft-fouth-weft, that
is, towards the fhoal, we brought the fhips to
anchor in about ten fathoms, over a fandy bottom. Two hours after we had eaft anchor,
the water had fallen upwards of two feet ; which
proved, that it was the tide of ebb that came
from Briftol River. §|ppj|
In the afternoon, at four o'clock, the win3 having fhifted to the fouth-weft, we weighed and
made fail towards the fouth, feveral boats being
occupied a-head in founding. Having raffed
•^ver the fouth-end of the fhoalj in fix fathoms
8 4: wates. S A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
water, we afterwards got into thirteen and fifteen >,
in which laft depth we let go cur anchors again,
between eight and nine in the evening; fome
part of the chain of mountains, on the fouth-
eaftern fhore, being in fight, and bearing fouth-
eaft half fouth; and the rnoft wefterly land 09
the other fhore bearing north-weft. In the courfe
of this day, we had defcried high land, which
bore north 6q° weft, and whicl) we fuppofed to
be about twelve leagues diftant.
We weighed anchor the next morning, at two,
o'clock, with a gentle breeze at fouth-weft by
weft, and plied to windward till nine; when
judging the flood-tide to be now againft us, we
anchored in twenty-four fathoms water. At one
in the afternoon, the fpg, which had this morning prevailed, difperfing, and the tide becoming
favourable, we weighed again, and plied to the
fouth-weft ward. Towards the evening, the wind
was extremely variable, and we had fome thunder : we had heard none before, from trie time
of our arrival on the coaft ; and that which we
now heard was at a great diftance. The wincl
fettling again in the fouth-weft quarter, in the
morning of Sunday the 12th, we fleered a nortji-
weft courfe, and, at ten o'clock, faw the continent. At mid-day, it extended from north-ea#
by north to north-north-weft a quarter weft ; and
an elevated hill appeared in the direction of north-
north-weft, nine or ten leagues (liftant.    Thys
JJy^s found to be an ifland, to which, on account
of' its figure, Captain Cook gave the name of
Round Ifland. It ftands in the latitude of 58Q
37' north, and the longitude of 2.00Q 6' eaft, and
is feven miles diftant from the continent. At
nine in the evening, having fleered a northerly
courfe to within three leagues of the fhore, we
tacked in fourteen fathoms water, the extremities of the coaft bearing eaft-fouth-eaft half eaft,
ancl weft.
The wind now veered to the north-weft, and
enabled us to ftretch along the fhore, till two the
next morning, when we fuddenly got into fix fathoms water, being then fix miles from the land,
imiter we had edged off a little, our depth of water gradually increafed ; and, at twelve o'clock,
our foundings were twenty fathoms. Round
Ifland, at this time, bore north £° eaft ; and the
weftern extreme of the coaft was feyen leagues
diftant, bearing north i6Q weft. It is an elevated point, to which the appellation of Calm Point
was given, from our having calm weather while
we were off it. *JTq the north-weftward of Round
Ifland, we difcerned two or three hillocks, which
had an infular appearance ; and perhaps they may
be iflands, for we had but a diftant profpect of
jhis particular part of the coaft.
We advanced but flowly on the 14th and 15th,
having little wind, and, at times, a very thick
fog.     Our foundings were from  twenty-fix to
1 10
fourteen fathoms; and we had pretty good fuc-
cefs in fifhing, for we caught plenty of cod, and
fome flat fifli. On Thurfday the 16th, at five
o'clock in the morning, the fog clearing up, we
found ourfelves nearer the fhore than we expected. Calm Point bore north 720 eaft, and a point
about eight leagues from it, in a wefterly direction, bore north 3P eaft, only three miles diftant.
Betwixt thefe two points, the coaft forms a bay,
in feveral parts of which the land could fcarcely
be feen from the maft-head. There is another
bay on the north weftern fide of the laft-men-
tioned point, between it and a high promontory, which now bore north 360 weft, at the diftance of fixteen miles. About nine o'clock, Captain Cook difpatched Lieutenant Williamfon to
this promontory, with orders to go afhore, and
obferve what direction the coaft affumed beyond
it, and what was the produce of the country ;
which, when viewed from the fhips, had but a
fteril afpect. We here found the flood-tide fet-
ting ftrongly towards the north-weft, along thp
coaft, At twelve o'clock it was h,rgh water, an4
we eaft anchor at the diftance of twelve miles
from the: fhore, in twenty-four fathoms water. In
the afternoon, about five, the tide beginning %o
rnak*: in our favour, we weighed, and. drove with,
it, there being no wind.
Mr. Williamfon, at his return, reported, that
he had landed on the point, and, having afcended
thç 1ACI FIÇ   O CE AU.
the moft elevated hill, found, that the mod dif-
tant part of the  coaft in  fight was nearly in a
northerly direction.    He took pofleflion  of the
country  in the  name of his  Britannic Majefty,
and left on the hill a bottle containing a paper,
on which the names of our fhips, and of their
commanders, and the date of the difcovery,  were
infcribecL   The  prqmontory, which   he   named
Cape Newenham, is a rocky   point, of considerable height; and ftands in the longitude of 1970
36/ eaft, and in the latitude of 58 ° 42'  north»
Over it, or within it, two lofty hills rife one be**,
hind the other; of which the innermoft, or eaft-
ernmoft, is the higheft.    The country,  asfara?
Mr. Williamfon could   difcern,  produces  not a
fingle tree or fhrub.    The hills were naked; but,
on the lower grounds, there grew grafs and plants
of various kinds, very few of which were at this
time in flower.   He met with no other aniigal?
than a doe and her fawn, and a dead fea-horfe or
cow that lay upon the beach.    Of the latter animals we had lately feen a confiderable number.
The coaft, as we have already mentioned, aft
turning a northerly direction from Cape Newe%
ham, that cape is the northern boundary of the
extenfive bay and gulph, fituate before the riveç
Briftol, which, in honour of the Admiral Earl of
Briftol, received from the Commodore the denomination of Briftol Bay. Cape Ooneemaîç
^orms the  fouthern   limit   of this  bay;   and  is
eighty- ?£
A   V.OY A G E    TO   THE
Sighty-two leagues diftant, in the direction of fputhr
fouth-weft, from Cape Newenham.
A light breeze arifing about eight o'clock m
the evening, and fettling at, fouth-fouth-eaft, we
fteered to the north-weft, and north-north-weft,
round Cape Newenham ; which at twelve th$
following day, was four leagues diftant, bearing
fouth by eaft. Our foundings, at this time, were
ftventeen fathorns ; the moft advanced land towards the north bore north 30° eaft ; and the
çeareft part of the coaft was three leagues and a
half diftant. During the whole afternoon, there
was but little wind ; fo that, by ten o'clock i$
the evening, we had only proceeded thr,ee leagues
on a northerly courfe,
We fleered north by weft till eight o'clock the
sext morning, (Saturday the 18th) when, the
depth of water fuddenly decreafing to feven and;
foe fathoms, we brought to, till a boat from each
©f our fhips was fent a-head to found* and then;
fleered to the north-eaft. At noon, the water
was deepened to feventeen fathoms.. Cape Newen-,
ham was now eleven or twelve leagues, diftant,
gating fouth 90 eaft; the north-eaftern extre^
»aity of the land in fight bore north 66Q eaft;
and the diflance of the nearer! fhore was four 03;
five leagues. Our prefent latitude was 590 i6#
north. Between Cape Newenham and this latitude, the coaft confifts of low land and hills, anc^
feemed to form feveral bays,
Before P A C I F i C   0 C E A N.' 13
Before one o'clock, the boats a-head difplayed
rhe fignal of fhoal water. They had, indeed,,
only' two fathoms; and at the fame tittft; the
fhips were in fix fathoms water. By hauling
rhore to the north, we continued nearly in thé
fdme depth till between five and fix o'clock, whetST
our boats finding lefs and lefs water, CaptaM
Cook made the figrial to the Difcovery, which
was then a-head, to eaft anchor, and both fnipâ
foon came to. In bringing up the Refolutiorij
Her cable parted at the clinch, fo that we were
obliged to make ufe of the other anchor. We
tode in fix fathoms water, over a bottom of fand-,
at the diftance of four or five leagues from the
continent. Cape Newenham nbw bore fouth,
fixteen or fevéhtéeri leagues diftant; the fartheft
hills we could perceive towards the north, bore
north-eaft by éaft ; and there was low land ftretch»
ing out from the more elevated land, as far as
north by eaft. Without this there was a fhoal of
(tones and fand, dry at half ebb. The two rnafters having been fent, each in a boat, to found
between this fhoal and the coaft, reported, on
their return, that there was a channel, in which
' the  foundings   were fix and feven  fathoms, but
that it was rather narrow and intricate.
We attempted, at low water, to  get a hawfef -
round the loft anchor, but we did not then  meet
with fuccefs.     However, being refolved not  to"
leave it behind us, while there was any profpect ;
v#V of *i
of recovering it, we perfevered in our endeavours ;
and, at length, in the evening of the 20th, w#
fucceeded. While we were thus occupied, the
Commodore ordered Captain Clerke to difpatcft
his mafter in a boat to fêarch for a paflâge in a
fouth-weft direction. He accordingly did fo,
but no channel was obferved in that quarter;
nor did it appear that there was any other way t&
get clear of the fhoals, than by returning by the
fame track in which we had entered. For though,
by following the channel we were now in, we
might perhaps have got further down the coaft;
and though this channel might probably have
carried us at laft to the northward, clear of the
fhoals, yet the attempt would have ; been attended with extreme hazard ; and, in cafe of ill fuc*
cefs, there would have been a great lofs of time
that we could not conveniently fpare. Thefe
reafons induced the Commodore to return by the
way which had brought us in, and thus avoid the
The longitude of our prefent ftation, by lunar
obfervations, was 1970 45' 48" eaft, and the
latitude 590 37' 30" north. The moft northern
part of the coaft, that we could difcern from
ihis ftation, was fuppofed to be fituate in the
latitude of 6o°. It formed, to appearance, a low
point, which received the name of Shoal Nefs.
The tide of flood fets to the northward, and the
ebb to the fouthward: it rifes and falls five or fix
ias* PACIFIC     OCEANi î^
fttt upon a perpendicular ; and we reekon that it
-is hi^h water at eight o'clock, on  the fiait, and
change days.
At three in the morning of the 21ft, we weigh*
ed anchor with a gentle breeze at north-north-
weft, and fleered back to the fouth, having threç
boats a-head employed in founding. Notwi-^d;
flanding this precaution, we met with greater
difficulty in returning than we had found in advancing ; and were at length under the neceftity
of anchoring, to avoid the danger of running
upon a fhoal that had only a depth of ûvc fetu
While we lay at anchor, twenty-feven AmeriGatmr
«ach in a feparate canoe, came off to the fhi|>$*
which they approached with fome degree of caution. As they advanced, they hollowed and
opened their arms ; thereby intimating, as we
underftood, their peaceable internions. Some of
them, at laft, came near enough to receive a few
trifling articles which we t^jew to them. This
gave encouragement to the others to venture a-
ioog-fide ; and a traffic quickly commenced between them and our.people, who obtained woodei*
veffels, bows, darts, arrows, dreffes-of fkins, &c.
in exchange for which the natives accepted whatever we offered them. They appeared to be the
fame fort of people, with thofe we had met? with
all along this coaft ; and they wore in their lips
and nofes the fame, fpecies of ornaments, but
were not fo well clothed, and were far more dirty.
They -^
ti6 AV V O Y A G Ë   T o';  t-S E
Théyïeemed to- be perfectly unacquainted wim
any civilized nation; they were, ignorant of the
ufe of tobacco ; nor did we obferve in their pofc
foffion any foreign article, unlefs a knife may be
confidered as ftich. This, indeed, was nothing*
more than a piece of common iron fitted in a"
handle made of wood, fo as to fërve the pur-
pofé of a knife. They, however, fo well knew
the ufe and value of^nis inftrument, t8[àt it feem^
ed to be almoft the only article they were defir-
The hair of moft of them was fhaved, -or cut
fliort off, a few locks only being left on one fide,
or behind. They wore as a covering for their*
heads, a hood of fkins, and a bonnet,, which was
feemingly of wood; One part of their drefs,
which we procured from them, was a kind of
girclle, made of fkin in a very neat manner, with
trappings depending from it and pafling betwixtf
the thighs, fo as to#conceal the adjacent parts.'
From the ufe of this girdle, it is probable that
they fometimes go in other refpects naked, everr
in this high northern latitude ; for it can fcarcely
be fuppofed that they wear it under their other
clothing. Their canoes were covered with fkins,
like thofe we had lately feen ; but they were
broader, and the hole wherein the perfon fits was
wider than in any of thofe we had before met
with. Our boats returning from founding appeared to give them fome alarm, fo that they alt
departed PACIFIC    OCEAN, If
departed fooner than perhaps they otherwife would
have done, j %^3g| :»-^ <a$lml^7> • ■ * «• JËÎ
We did not get clear of the-fhoals before the
evening of Wednefday the 22d; and then we
durft not venture to fleer towards the weft during
the night, but fpent it off Cape Newenham. At
day-break, on the 23d; we flood to the north-
weftward, the Difcovery being ordered to go a-
head. Before we had proceeded two leagues, our
foundings decreafed to fix fathoms.. Being ap-
prehenfive, that, if we continued this courfe, we
fhouid meet with lefs arid lefs water, we hauled to
the fouth^ with à frefh eafterly breeze. This
courfe gradually brought us intoltjghteen fathonis
water, upon which we ventured to fleer a little
H^fterly* and afterwards .due weft, when, we at
length found twenty-fix fathoms., At noon, on
the 24th, our longitude, ,by obfervation, was
i$4° 22' eaft, and our latitude 58^ f north.
About three leagues to the weft of this fituation,
our foundings were twenty-eight fathoms; and
we then fleered weft-north-weft,. the depth of
water gradually inçrcafing to. thirty-four fathoms.
We fhouid have fleered more northerly had not
the wind prevented us.
In the evening of Saturday the 25th, having
but little wind, and an exceedingly thick fog, we •
let go our anchors in thirty fathoms ; our longitude being, at that time, 1910 37' eaft, and our
latitude 580 29' north. About fix o'clock the
Vol. III.—n^ n. C next -
I ô A    V 0 Y A G E   -T O'"   T H &
next ^Grmng^he>*we^ clear
ing up, we weighed, and, with a gentle breeze
àt ëaft* fleered to the northward, our depth of
Water being fréra twenty-fihae : tô twenty-eight
fethoms. After we had 'proceeded on this courfe
for tEenfpace sof nine leagues, the wind veered to
the north, fo that we were, obliged to fleer more
wefterly. The we&tte, for theCinoft part, continued to be foggy-, till .about twelve o'clock on the
28th, when wê^âd-cîeâïifim-flrine fbxa few horns;
during whfch" feveral lunar :iobferyarions wext
made.' The-meâro&trëfult oBkhefe, reduced to
noon, at which.' time our latitude was 590 55'
norths gave--1*90° 67 eaft longitude, and the timekeeper--gàvë: 1^9° ^*V**
Continuing ^our wefterly courfe, we difcovered
land at four-in the morning *$f the 2<^h, bearing
north-weft by wèftv-lat die'diltekë'^ëf fix îeagëël.
We flood fo^m¥4fcjtWëiÉ:w^en ten and eleven,
when we-tacked 'in- twenty-four fathoms, belilg
then a j league1 ppom the land, wfiich bore no#8&
north-weft. It was the fouth-eaflern extreme,
and formed a perpendicularity of great height-;
upon which account, Captain Cook gave it the
name of Point Upright. It flands in the longitude of 18 70 30' eaft, and in the latitude of 6o°
if north. More land was perceived to the weft-
ward of this point; and, at a clear~irifèrvâi, we
difcerned another portion of high land, beaMfeg f
- weft by fouth;   and this feemed to be perfectly
feparated V A CjITFIC   O C E A N4.
feparated from the other.* if We hBe obferved i an
amazing number of birds, filch a»!^guillemots,
awks, --Sec*. • •""■" ' :
During the whdje falle'rfiG«n'-W 4ttd'bafflfeg
light winds, which oeelflShiS^W^Bèrefs to be
but flow ; and the Sweatier Wa^^ot fufficiently
clear, to enable us to determine'^the extent of the
land that was befofè^usV;■■•We c4^&Wed that it
was one of the many iflands laid-^doWn in Mr.
StœhlifA" map? of the New Nop^8r^r*Ârchîpelago;
and we every momentae§tj)ecte-f fee-'defcry more
of them.
On the*-'3<S&f, atHflferVclock in 'the* afternoon,
Point UprfghtsWas fix lea§88s J6:rBHtq n teàring
north-w^'ft bylnô-fth. A îigFrf breeze now fpring-
kg lo^ ^£K*riirbr€^0tofiti^velb/-? We fteiffèQ to the
notth-eaft ward tifc four thê73S%ft fn8rtiihg, when
the wind \éérédTo^fe-e^(tf; -wè^hw tacked, and
flood, to the jnodfc^etev-'TTn^w«rd,'' not lbnô*
after, fhif c i n g tp nibritiHgafty vmi * fleered nbrï-h -ea ft
by north; and continued1this-'côurfè5*îv^fiPfeùnd-
ii^s fromtthict)5-*fi-ve tot^èti?pfefr!r^rnï,îiViî,l nooB"
the following .day- (ÂûguÉ ïv) ". 'Our:"'^3tïtude, at
tbts-tsrée, wa-V-^g0 -58' north, and our%ngitudë
was ■ 191° eaft. The wind nbw^becomTng north-
eagerly, we firft made'a fWfdÇ'of abo,ut'ten
leagues tdwafds the north-well: j and then, as we
obferved no land ia that direftion, wé"'ftood back
to the eaft for the fpace of fourteen.or fifteen
leagues, and met with a cdnfiderable quantity of.
C 2   - drift- so
-drift-wood.    Our depth of water was from twenty-
two to nineteen fathoms*,
On Sunday, the ad of Auguft, variable light
winds, with fhowers of rain, prevailed the whole
day. In the morning of the 3d* the wind fettling
in the fouth-eaft quarter, we refumed our northward courfe. 'At twelve o'clock our foundings
were fixteen fathoms* our latitude was 62° 34'
north, and longitude 1920 eaft.
Between three and four o^Upck this afternoon
Mr. Anderfon, Surgeon of the Refolution, expired, after he had lingered under a confumption
for upwards of a twelvemonth.    He was a fen-
fible, intelligent young man, and an agreeable
companion*    He had great fkjli in his profeflionj
and had acquired a confiderable portion of know-
ledge in   other departments   of fcience.     Our
readers will doubtlefs have obferved, how ufeful
an affeftant he had proved in the courfe of the
voyage ; and if his life had been prolonged to a
iater period, the public might hare received from
him  many valuable communications  reflecting
the natural hiftory of the different places vifited
by us.    Soon after he had refignee^ his breath,
we difcovered land to the weilWard* at the diftance of twelve leagues.    We fuppofed it to be
an ifland; and the Commodore, to  perpetuate
the memory of r,he deceafed, for whom he had a
particular efteem, diftinguifhed it by the name
of Anderfon's Ifland.     The following day Mr.
1      ttM PACIFIC    OCEAN. $ |
Law, Surgeon of the Difcovery, was removed
into the Refolution ; and Mr, Samuel, the Surgeon's firft mate of the Refolution, was appointed to fucceed Mr. Law as Surgeon of thc
At three in the afternoon, on the 4th, we fiivrç
land extending from north-north-eaft to north-:
weft. We fleered towards it till four, when, being four or five miles diftant from it, we tacked j
and, not long afterwards,, the wind failing, we
let gq ou.r anchors in thirteen fathoms, over a
Tandy bottom, at the diftance of about two
leagues from land. Our latitude was now 64?
27' north, and longitude 194° i8/ eaft. We
could, at intervals, difcern the coaft extending
from eaft to north-weft, and an ifland of confider-
able elevation, bearing weft by north, nine miles;
The land before us, which we imagined to be-
the continent of America, appeared rather low
next the fea 1 but, inland, it rofe in hills, which
feemed to be of a tolerable height. It had a
greenjfh hue, and was apparently deftitute of
wood, and free from fnow. While our fhips
remained at anchor, we obferved that the tide of>
flood carrie^rrom the eastward', and let to the
weftward, till between the hours of ten and
eleven ; from which time, till two o'clock the
next morning, the ftream fet to the eaft, and the
water fell three feet. The flood running both
Ç 1 longer 22
TA WJ<0 YA'GE    TO    T H E
longer and ftroBger than the ebb, we cohclcKfed,
thfet there ,#>âs a wefterly current befidesthe tide."'
■ On Wedrïefday'the 5th, at ten o'clock in the
morning, we ran down, and, foon after, anchored between the ifland and the continent in feven
fathoms.: .Not* lorig after we had eaft anchor,
Captain Cook, accompanied by Mr. King, and
fome other officers, landed upon the ifland. He
hoped to have had' from it a 'profpect of f$të^c§iifi:
and fea towards the weffv but, in that direct-lon>
the fog was fo thick, that the view was not'iïiore
extenfive than it was from our fhips. The coaft
of the continent feemed to incline to the'- north,
at a low point, named by us Point Pvodney,
Which bore from the iflancf nt5ftK~weft half ; weft,
at the diftance of threè\prî ^uf leagues ; ,%ut the
high land, which 'afîumecP'a "lnoré"nofth'eyiyrxdi-
rection, was perceived .at a much greajer diftance.
The latitude, of this ifland is 64° 39' '„horth,
and its longîXHOf. Is 193,°. Sj eaft. 1^ Js, about
twelve miles in ;cireurgference/ XX%^ fiirface of
the ground principally cpnfiu\ of large loole
ftones, .-covered ;n many, giaets ;w-iih_mof|. and
other.'vegetables,j of which, twenty or. thirty different fpecies were obferved., and moft „of theni
were in flower. But the Captain faw noit a tree
or fhrub,7 either ©n the ifland, or upon the neighbouring eontkent. Near the beach where he
landed, was a con fid era bje quantity-of wild pur-
flab» long-wort, peafe, j&cj fome of which he
took PACIFIC    OCEAN, 2$
took on board fog -«boiling, He faw feyeral plovers,
and o$^er fmay4>irds ; a fox was alio feen.. He
met with fome decayed huts, hgjt partly under
ground. ; People had lately been upon the ifland ;
a^ is more than probable, that they often repair, to it, there, .being, a beaten path from one
end %& she-.oth$j. At a fin all diftance from that
part of the-fhore where,, our. gentlemen landed?
Éfeey found a fie:$ge, which induced Captain Cook
. %:give the ifland the appellation of Sledge Ifland.
feDJtppça.redato be fuch a one as is ufed by the
Ruffians in Kàm-tfçhatka, for the purpofe of conveying goods frojn oue placé to another over the
fhfrW or, ice,. ;., It was about twenty inches in
breadth»rrand tenifeet in length^ had a fort of
rail-work on each fiple, and wa«;-.feôd with bone.
vJ^S-hconftnucltion was admirafafeodand its various
parts were put together with great neatnefs ï fome-
■*$fch wooden,pins, but for the- faloft part with
thongs or lafliings of whale-bone ; ^n c%iifoq^ë8ée
of which, the Captain imagined that it was entirely the workmanfhip of the natives* f    $f!S^
We weighed anchor at three' b-'clock in the
morning ofrthe 6th, arid made fail to the na^ft.
weft, -with a light breeze from the fouth ward*
Having afterwards but littfeiwihd^ and that variable, we made but a flow progrefs; and, at eigr?t
o'clock initie evening, finding the fhips getting
i-Sté fhoal-water, we anchored in-'fever* fathoms,
our diftance from the coaft being about two
Ç a leagues*^- *4
leagues.    Sledge Ifland then bore fouth 51° eaft,
nine or ten leagues diftant.    Soon after we had
let go our anchors, the weathèr,: which had been
mifty,  cleared up,   and we perceived high îâftfÇ
extending from north 400 eaft to north 30° weft,
feemingly disjoined from the coaft near which we
lay at anchor, which appeared to extend to the
north-eaftward.     We at the fame time faw an
ifland bearing north SiQ weft, at the diftance of
eight or nine leagues.    It feemed to be of fmall
extent, and was named King's Ifland.    We rode
at anchor till eight the next morning, when we
weighed, and fleered a north-weft courfe.    The
weather being clear towards the evening, we obtained a fight of the horth-wèftefn land,  diftant'
about  three leagues.     We pafted the night in
making fhôrt boards, the  weather being  rainy
and  mifty,   and the  wind ihconfiderable.     Between four and five in the rhorning of the 8th^
we again had a fight of the n&rth-weft land ; and,
not long afterwards, having a calm, and being
driven by a current towards the fhore, we thought
proper to anchor in twelve fathoms water, at the
diftance of about two miles from the coaft.    Over
the weftern extremity is a lofty peaked hill, fituate
in the longitude of 1920 i8/ eaft, and in the latH
tude '"of 6$Q 36' north.    A north-eafterly breeze
fpringing up at eight o'clock, we weighed, and
made fail to the fouth-eaftward, hoping to find a
paffage  between  this  north-weft land  and  the
coaft, PACIFIC   O C. E AN. 25
coaft, near which we had eaft anchor in thé evening of the 6th. But we quickly got into feverç
fathoms water, and perceived, low land connecting; the two coafls, and the, elevated land
behind it.
Convinced that the whole was a continued
coaft, we now tacked, and fleered for its north*,
weftern part, near which we. anchored in feven-
teen fathoms, The weather, at prefent, was very
thick and rainy ; but, at four the next morning,
jt cleared up, and enabled us to difcern the neighbouring land. A lofty fteep rock or ifland bore
weft by fouth; another ifland to the northward of
it, and considerably larger, bore weft by north;
the peaked hill before-mentioned, fouth-eaft by
eaft; and the point that was under it/ fouth 32^
eaft. Under this hill is fome low land!, extending
towards the north-weft, the extreme point of
which was now about one league diftant, bearing north-eaft by eaft. Over it, and alfo beyond
it, we obferved fome high land, which wet
imagined was a continuation of the continent.
This point of land, which the Commodore
diftinguilhed by the name of Cape Prince of
Wales, is the weftern extreme of all America
hitherto known. It ftands in the longitude of
1910 45'eaft, and in the latitude of 65° 46' north.
We fancied that we faw fome people on the
coaft; and, perhaps, we were not miftaken in
our fuppofition, as fome elevations like ftages,
* and
j Z6 A*   VOYAGE-   TO    THE   ■
and others refembling huts, were obferved at the
fame place.
At eight o'clock this morning, a faim norther-»
ly breeze arifing, we weighed anchor: b-ffë-'^èfH?
fails were fcarcely fet, when it began.n&-blow
and rain with great violence^: there being, at the
fame time, mifty- weather. ' The w-ind and current were in contrary direcïons, raifiag fudb*
fea, that it often broke into the fhip. iHàving
plied to windward, with little effect, till two
o'clock in the afternoon, we flood fop;the ifland
which we had perceived to the weft ward, intending to. eaft anchor under it till the gale fhouid
abate.: But, upon our nearer approach to this
land, we found that it w?s compofed of two fmalj
iflands, neither of which exceeded ^bréetor fsaaa
leagues in circumference. As thefez could afford
us little fhelter, we did not come to an aâchef^
but continued to, ftretch towardss the weft><>and/
about eight o'clock in the evening, we faw ian4
extending from north-north-weft to weft; by-'fouth*
the diftance of the neareft part being fix leagues**.
Wre flood on till ten o'clock, and then; made a
board towards the eaft, in. order to pafs the night.
On Monday the ioth, at break of day, we re-
fumed our weft ward courfe for the * land feeri by
us the preceding evening. At eleven minutes
alter feven o'clock, it extended from fouth yzQ
weft to north 410 eaft. Betwixt the fouth-
weftern extremity, and a point bearing weft, fix
miles V A.C I F Î-C   OC C E Al 07
miles diftant, the coaft forms a fpacious bay, in
which we dropped ;our anchors at ten in the forenoon, about two miles from the'northern fhore,
over a gravelly bottom, at the- depth of ten
fathoms. The northsrn point- -of this bay bore
north 43° eaft; its fouthern point fouth 58° weft;
the bottom of the Bay, north 6o° weft, between
two and three leagues diftant ; and the two iflands.
that we had pafTed;-the preceding day, were at the
diftance of"fourteen   leagues, bearing north 720
«aft. m*
C H A P.    IX.
Captain Cook lands at a Ififlage-^Interview with
fome of the Natives.^ the ïfçbutjki—Their Weapons,
defcribed— Their Perfons. — 0<mments—D; efs—
Winter Habitations — Summer Huts — Canoes —
The Ships quit the Bay—Crofs the Straight to the
American Coajt — Point Alulgrave — Appearance
of a prodigious, Mafs of Ice—Icy Cape—The Sea,
in a Manner, blocked up zdtb Ice—Sea Horfes.
killed, and made ufe of as Provifions—Account
cf thefe Animals — The 6hips almojl furreunded
with Ice-—Cape Lifburne—Unfuccefsfui Attempts,
to get to the. North through the Ice—Remarks on
the Formation, &c. of this Ice-—Arrival en the
Afiatic Coajl—Cape North.
WHILE we were fleering for this hay, we
obferved, on the north fhore, a village,
and fome people, who feemed to. have been thrown,
into confufion, or fear, at the fight of our veffels.
We could plainly perceive perfons running up
the country with burdens upon their fhoulders.
At this village Captain Cook propofed to land ;
and accordingly, went with three armed boats,
accompanied by fome of the officers. Thirty or
forty men, each of whom was armed with a fpon-
toon, a bow, and arrows, flood drawn up on an-,
eminence near the houfes ; three of them came.
downs Heine ocean.
down towards the fhore, on the approach of our
gentlemen, and were fo polite as to pull off their
caps, and make them low bows. Though this
civility was returned, it did not infpire them with
fufficient confidence to wait for the landing of
our party ; for, thejj? inftant theirput the boats
afhore, the natives retired. Captain Cook followed them alone, without any thing in his hand ;
and, by figns and geftures, prevailed on them to
flop, and accept fome trifling prefents: in return
for thefe, they gave him two fox-fkins^ and a
couple of fea-horfe teeth. The Captain was of
opinion, that they had brought thefe articles down
with them for the purpofe of prefenting them to
him ; and that they would have given them to
him, even if they had expected no return;
They feemed very timid and cautious ;   intimating their defire, by figns^ that no more of
our people fhouid be fuffered to come up.    On
the Captain's laying his hand on the IhotrTder of
one of them* he ftarted back feveral paces ; in
proportion as he advanced,  they retreated, always in the attitude of being ready to make ufë
of their fpears ; while thofe on the eminence* were
prepared to fupport them with their arrows.    Iri-
fenfibly, the Captain, and  two or three  of his
companions, introduced themfelves among them.
The diftribution of a few beads among fome of
them,   foon created a degree of confidence, fo
that they were not alarmed,  when the Captain A    VOYAGE   TO   THE
Was joined by a few rribre of his people ; and, in
a fhort time, à? kind of traffic was entered into.
In exchange forlobacco, knives, beads, and ©ïfifë?.
articles] they gave a few arrows, and foitriè' *ôf
their clothing ; "but nothing that our people had
to offer, could induce them to part with ^Hfpeaf
or a bow. i Thefe they held in contÉual.readi-
nefs, never quitting them, except at one time,
when four or five perfons laid theirs down, while
they favoured our party with a fong and a dance ;
and even then, they placed them in fuch a
manner, that they could lay hold of them in a
moment. r5îSÉ
Their arrows were pointed either with flone or
bone, but very few of them had barbs ; and fome
of them had a round blunt point. ! :What ufe
thefe afe applied to, we cannot' fay,: uhlefs it 'be
to- kill-feaii animals without damaging the fkin.
Their bows were fuch as we had obferved on the
American eoaft^otheii?fpontoons,- or fpears, were
•of iron or fteefeandrof European ;or Afiatiç work*
manfhip; and ^ ^pains had been ta8»
to embellifa1th^)i^th ;cartv>In|>,^â^ 3ftfeyin|s of
brafs^and-of a wkhd^ftafc^ Thofe who flood
with bows and arrows in their hand*?, - had the
fpear flung by. a leathern ftrap over their right
fhoulder. A leathern quiver, flung over their
left fhoulder, krved to contain arrows ; and fome
of thefe quivers were exceedingly beautiful, being
made of red leather, on which was very neat embroidery,
\     2lÉ PACIFIC     OCEAN. 31
broidery,   and  other   ornaments.     Several   other
things, and particularly their clothing, indicated
a degree of ingenuity, far furpaffing what any one
would expert to find among fo northern a people.
All the Americans we had feen fince our  arrival on that coaft, had round chubby faces, and
high cheek-bones, and were rather low of flature.
The people among whom we now were, far from
jefernbling   them,   had long   vifages,   and   were
flout and well made : upon the whole, they appeared to be a very different nation.    No women,
nor   children  of either fex,   were obferved,  nor
'any aged perfons,   except one man whofe head
was bald ; and he was the only one who bore no
arms:   the others feemed to be felect men, and
rather under than above the middle age.     The
•elderly  man  had a black mark acrofs his face,
which was  not  perceived in any others ;   all of
them had   their  ears perforated,   and fome had
glafs  beads hanging to them.     Thefe were the
only fixed ornaments feen about them, for they
wear none to their lips :   this is another particular»
in which they differ, from the Americans we had
lately feen.
Their apparel confifted of a pair of breeches,
a cap, a frock, a pair of boots, and a pair of
gloves, all made of the fkins of deer, dogs, feals,
and other animals, and extremely well dreffed ;
fome with the. hair or fur on, and others without
it.    The caps, were made in fuch a manner, as to
fit g| A   V O Y A G E    TO    THE
fit the head very clofe;. and hefldcs thefe caps£
which, were worn by moft of them,: we procured
from them fome hoods, made of dog-fkinSj that were
jfufficiietly large to. cover both head and fhoulders-
Their hair was apparently black, but their heads
were either fhaved, or the hair .cut clofe off, arid
none of them wore, beards. Of the few articles
which they obtained from our people, knives and
tobacco were what they fet the moft value upon.
The village was compofed both of their winter
and their fummer habitations ; the former are exactly like a vault, the floor of which is funk below the furface of the earth. One of them, which
Captain Cook examined, was of an oval figure»
about twenty feet in length, and twelve or more
in height ; the framing confiding of wood, and
the ribs of wales, judicioufly difpofed, and bound
together with fmaller materials of the fame kind.
Over this framing, a covering of ftrong coarfe
grafs was laid, and that again was covered with
earth ; fo that ori the outfide, the houfe had the
appearance of a little hillock, fupported by a wall
of ftbtle, of the height of three or four feet, which
was built round the two fides, and one end. At ;
the other end of the habitation, the earth was I
raifed Hoping, to walk up to the entrance, which
was by a hole in the top of the roof, over that
end. The floor was boarded, and under it was I
a fort of cellar, in which the Captain faw nothing I
but water ; at the end of each houfe was a vaulted I
room.  h. PACIFIC     OCEAN. 33
room, which he fuppofed was a ftore-room. Thefe
ftore-rooms communicated, by a dark paffage,
with thé houfe *, and with the open air, by a hole
in the roof, which was even with the ground one
walked upon ; but they cannot be faid to be entirely below ground ; for one end extended to the
edge of the hill, along which they were made,
and which was built up with ftone. Over it flood
a kind of fentry-box, or tower, formed of the
large bones of great fifh.
Their fummer huts were of a tolerable fize,
and circular, being brought to a point at the°topi
Slight poles arid bones, covered with the fkins
of fea-animals, compofed the framing. Captain
Cook examined the infide of one: there was a
fire-place juft within the door, where a few Wooden
veffels were depofitèd, all very dirty. Their
bed-places were clofe to the fide*, and occupied
about one-half ôf thé circuit : fome degree of pri-
vacy feemed to be obferved; for there were feve*
ral partitions, made with fkins*;;jfi The bed and
bedding confifted of deer-fkins, and moft of them
were clean and dry.
About the houfes were erected feverâl ftages^
ten or twelve feet in height, fuch as we had feeri
on  fome parts of the American coaft.      They
Were compofed entirely of bones, and Were apparently intended for  drying their fifh   and fkin%
-tvhich were thus  placed out of the reach cf their
dogs,  of which they had great numbers.1     Thefe'
Vofc. III. n° i2i D dogé 34 À    VOYAGE    TO    THE
dogs are of the fox kind, rather large, and of
different colours, with long foft hair, that refem-
bles wool. They are, in all probability, ufed
for the purpofe of drawing their fledges in winter %
for it appears that they have fledges, as the Captain faw many of them laid up in one of their
winter huts. It is^ likewife, not improbable^
that dogs conftitute a part of their food, for
feveral lay dead, which had been killed that
The canoes of thefe people are of the fame
kind with thofe of the northern Americans, fome
both of the large and fmall fort, being feen lying
in a creek near the village.
From the large bones of fifh, and other fea_
animals, it appeared, that the fea futnilhed them
with the greater part of their fubfiftance. The
country feemed extremely barren, as our gentled
men faw not a tree or fhrub. At fome diftance
towards the weft, they obferved a ridge of moun^
tains covered with fnow, that had fallen not long
At firft, fome of us fuppofed this land to be a
part of the ifland of Alafchka, laid down in Mr.
Stshlin's map before-mentioned; but from the
appearance of the coaft, the fituation of the op-
pofite fhore of America, and from thé longitude,
we foon conjectured that it was, more probably,
the country of the Tfchutfki, or the eaftern extremity of Afia, explored by Beering in the year
1728. PACIFIC     Ô'fcfiÀtf* %§
Î728. In 'admitting this* however, without farther examination, we muft have pronounced Mr..
Stsehlin's map, and his account of the new north*
ern Archipelago-, to be either remarkably erroneous, even in latitude, or tKe to be a mere fie-*
tion -, a judgment which we would not prefume to
pafs, upon a publication fo refpectably vouched*
without producing the moft decifive proofs.
After our party had remained with thefe people
between two and three hours, they returned on
board ; and, foon after, the wind becoming fouth-
erly, we weighed anchor, flood out of the bay,
and fleered to the north-eaft, between the coaft
and the two iflands. At twelve o'clock the next
day (Auguft n) the former extended from louth
8o° weft, to north 840 weft; the latter bore fouth
40° weft; and the peaked hill, over Cape Prince
of Wales, bore fouth 360 eaft. The latitude of
the ihip was 66° §\' north, the longitude 191® 10/
eaft; our foundings were twenty-eight fathoms ;
and our pofition nearly in the middle of the chan-'
nel, between the two coafts, each being at the
diftance of about feven leagues.
We fleered to the eaftward from this ftation.*
in order to make a nearer approach to the American coaft. In this courfe the water gradually
fhoaled ; and there being very little wind, and
all our endeavours to increafe our depth failing,
we were obliged at laft to eaft arichor in fix fathoms ;   which was the only remedy remaining,
Wim aim j6 A VOYAGE  TO   THE
to prevent the fhips driving into more fliallotf
water.     The   neareft part of the weftern   land
bore weft,   twelve leagues diftant ;   the peaked
mountain over Cape Prince of Wales, bore fouth
i6° weft; and the moft northern part of the American continent in  fight, eaft-fouth-eaft; the diftance of the neareft part being about four leagues*
After we had anchored, a boat was difpatched to
found, and the water was found to  fhoal gradually towards the land.    While our fhips lay at
anchor, which was from fix to nine in the evening, we  perceived little cr no current, nor did
we obferve that the water rofc or fell.
I   A northerly breeze fpringing up, we weighed,
and made fail to the weftward, which courfe foon
brought  us into deep water ;   and,   during the
12th, we plied to the northward in fight of both
coafts, but we kept neareft to that of America.
On the 13th, at four in the afternoon, a breeze
arifing at fouth, we fleered north-eaft by north,
till four o'clock the next morning, when, feeing
no land, we directed our  courfe eaft by north y
and between the hours of nine and ten, land appeared, which we fuppofed was a continuation of
the continent..   It extended  from eaft by fouth,
to éaft by north ; and, not long afterwards, we
defcried more land, bearing north by eaft.    Coming rather fuddenly into  thirteen  fathoms  water,
at two in the afternoon, we made a trip off till
four, when we again flood in for the land ; which.
foon after, we faw, extending from north to fouth-
©aft, the neareft part being at the diftance of
three or four leagues. The coaft here forms a
point, named by us Point Mulgrave, which is
fituated in the latituc/e of 67° 45' north, and in
the longitude of 19^4° 5.1' eaft. The land feemed
to be very low near the fea, but a little farther it
fifes into hills of a moderate height ; the whole
was free frqhn fnow, and apparently deftitute of
woocj. We now tacked, and bore away north^
weft by weft ; but, in a fhort time afterwards,
thick weather, with rain, coming on, and the
wind increafing, we hauled more to the weft-
ward, .At two o'clock the next morning, the
wind veered to fouth-weft by fouth, and blew a
flrong gale, which abated towards noon. We
now flood to the north-eaft, till fix the next morning, when we fteered rather more eafterly : in
this run, we met with feveral fea-horfes, and
great numbers of birds ; fome of which refembled
fand-larks, and others were not larger than hedge-
fparrows. 1 We alfa faw fome fhags, fo that we
judged we were not far from land ; but, having
a thick fog, we could not expect to fee any ; and
as the wind blew ftrong, it was not deemed prudent to continue a courfe which was moft likely
tp bring us to it. From the noon of this day,
(the 16th of Auguft) to fix o'clock in the morning of the following, we fteered eaft by north;
§ çoujfe which brought us into fifteen fathoms
D 3 water. 3«
À   '^Ô-yA^   TO    THE
water. We now fteered north-eaft by eaft, thinking, by filch a courfe, to increafe our depth
of water. But, in the fpace of fix leagues, it
fhoaled to eleven fathoms, which induced us to
haul clofe to the wind, that now blew at weft.
About twelve o'clock, both fun and moon were
clearly feen at intervals, and we made fome hafty
obfervations for the longitude ; which, reduced
to noon, when the latitude was 70%* 33' north»
gave 197° 4i/ eaft. The time-keeper, for the
fame time, gave 198°.
Some time in the forenoon, we perceived a
brightnefs in the northern horizon, like that reflected from ice, ufually called the blink. Little
notice was taken of it, from a fuppofition that it
Was improbable we fhouid fo foon meet with ice.
The fharpnefs of the air, however, and gloomi*
nefs of the weather, for the two or three preqfâ*
ing days, feemed to indicate fome fudden change.
About an hour afterwards, the fight of an enormous mafs of ice, left us no longer in any doubt
refpecting the caufe of the brightnefs of the horizon. Between two and three o'clock, we tacked
clofe to the edge of the ice, in twenty-two fathoms water, being then in the latitude of 700
41' north, and unable to fland on any farther:
for the ice was perfectly impenetrable, and extended from weft by fouth, to eaft by north, as
far as the eye could reach. Here we met with
great numbers of .fea-horfes, fome of which were
In the water, but far more upon the ice. The
Commodore had thoughts of hoifting - out the
boats to kill fome of thefe animals ; but, the wind
frefhening, he gave up the defign ; and we continued to ply towards the fouth, or rather towards the weft, for the wind came from that quarter. We made no progrefs ; for, at twelve on
the 18th, our latitude was 700 44' north, and we
were almoft five leagues farther to the eaft,
We were, at prefent, clofe to the edge of the
ice, which was as compact as a wall, and appeared to be at leaft ten or twelve feet in height :
but, farther northward, it feemed to be much
higher. Its furface was exceedingly fugged, and*
in feveral places, we faw pools of water upon it.
We riow flood to the fouth, and, after running
fix leagues, fhoaled the water to feven fathoms ;
but it foon increafed to the depth of nine fathoms. At this time, the weather, which had
been hazy, becoming clearer, we law land extending from fouth to fouth-eaft by eaft, at the
diftance of three or four miles, The eaftern extremity forms a point, which was greatly encumbered with ice, on which account it was diftin-
guifhed by the name of Icy Cape. Its latitude is
70° 29' north, and its longitude 198° 20'eaft.
The other extreme of the land was loft in the horizon ; and we had no doubt of its being a continuation of the continent of America. The
Pifcovery being about a mile a-ftern, ançl to lee-
P 4 warc!a
J fkf A    VOYAGE   TO   THE
ward, met with lefs depth of water than we did ;
and tacking on that account, the Commodore
was obliged to tack alfo, to prevent feparation.
Our prefent fituation was very critical. We
were upon a lee-fhqre in fhoal water; and the
' main body of the ice to windward, was driving
down upon us. It was evident, that if we continued much longer between it and the land, it
would force us afhore, unlefs it fhouid chance to
take the ground before us. It appeared almofl
to join the land to leeward, and the only direction that was free from it, was to the fouth weft-
ward. After making a fhort board to the north.
Captain Cook made a fignal for the Difcovery to
tack, and his fhip tacked at the farne time. The,
wind proved in fome meafure favourable, fo that
we lay up fouth-weft,  and fouth-weft by weft.
On Wednefday the 19th, at eight in the morning, the wind veering tp weft, we tacked to the
northward ; and, at twelve, the latitude was 700
6' north, and the longitude 1960 42' eaft. In
this fituation, we had a confiderable quantity of
drift ice about our fhips, and the main ice was
about twq leagues to the north.^%, Between one
and two, we got in with the edge of it. It was
jefs compact than that which we had obferved towards the north ; but it was too clofe, and in too
|arge pieces to attempt forcing the fhips through
it. We faw an amazing number of fea-horfes
pn the ice, and as we were in want of frefh pro-*
yifions*   PACIFIC    OCEAN. 4.Î
vifions, the boats from each fhip weredifpatel^
ed to procure fome of them. By feven in the
evening, we had received, on board the Refolution, nine of thefe animals ; which, till this,
time, we had fuppofed to be fea cows ; fo that
we were greatly difappointed, particularly fome
of the failors, who, on account of the novelty
of the thing, had been feafting their eyes for
fome days paft. £for would they now have been
difappointed, nor have known the difference, if
there had not been two or three, men on board,
who had been in Greenland, and declared what
animals thefe were, and that no perfon ever eat
of them. Notwithftanding Jjfis, we ^ade them
ferve us for provifions, and there were few of our
people who did |Mjmer them to our fait meat.
The fat of thefe animals, at firft, as fweet
as marrow ; but^ in a few days, it becomes rancid, unlefs it is faked, in which flare it will keep
much longer. The lean flefh is coarfe and
blackifh, and has a ftrong tafte ; and the heart is.
almoft as well tafted as that of a bullock. The
fat, wnen melted, affords a good quantity of oil,
which burns very well in lamps ; and their hides,
which are of great thicknefs, were extremely ufe-
ful about our rigging. The teeth, or tufks, of
moft of them were, at this time, of a very fmall
fize ; even fome of the largeft and oldeft of thefe
animals, had them not exceeding half a foot in
length. 4$ AVOYAGE   TO    THE
length.    Hence  we concluded,   that  they   haci
lately fhed their old teeth.
They lie upon the ice in herds of many hun*
dreds, huddling like fwine, one over the other ;
and they roar very loud ; fo that in the night,
or when the weather was foggy, they gave us
notice of the vicinity of the ice, before we could
difcern it. We never found the whole herd fleep-
}ng, fome of them being conftantly upon the
watch. Thefe, on the approach of the boat,
would awake thofe that were next to them ; and
the alarm being thus gradually communicated,
the whole herd would prefently be awake, However they were feldom in a hurry to get away,
before they had been once fired at. Then they
would fall into the fea, one over the other in the
litrhoft confufion ; and, if we did not happen, at
the firft difcharge, to kill thôfe we fired at, we generally loft them, though mortally wounded.
They did not appear to us to be fo dangerous
as fome authors have reprefented them, not even
when they were attacked. They are, indeed,
more fo, in appearance, than in reality. Vaft
multitudes of them would follow, and cômâ clofe
up to the boats ; but the flafh of a mufket in ipfl
pan, or even the mere pointing of one at them,
would fend them down in a moment. The female will defend her young one to the very laft,
and at the expence of her own life, whether
upon the ice or in the water.    Nor will the young
one quit the dam, though fhe fhouid have been
killed; fo that, if you deftroy one, you are fure
of the other. The dam, when in the water,
holds her young one between her fore fins, Mr.
Pennant, in his Synopfis of Quadrupeds, has
given a very good defcription of this animal under the name of the Artltc Walrus. Why it fhouid
be called a fea-horfe, is difficult to determine,
nnlefs the word be a corruption of the Ruffian
name Morfe ; for they do not in the leaft referable a horfe. It is, doubtlefs, the fame animal
that is found in the Gulph of St. Lawrence, and
there called a fea-cow. It is certainly more like
a cow than a horfe ; but this refemblance confifts
in nothing but the fnout. In fhort, it is an animal not unlike a feal, but incomparably larger.
The length of one of them, which was none Gf
the largeft, was nine feet four inches from the
fnout to the tail ; the circumference of its body
at the fhoulder, was feven feet ten inches; its
circumference near the hinder fins was five feet
fix inches, and the weight of the carcafe, without the head, fkin, or entrails, was eight hundred
and fifty four pounds. The head weighed forty-
one pounds and a half, and the fkin two hundred
and five pounds.
It may not be improper to remark, that, for
fome days before this time, we had often feen
flocks of ducks flying to the fouth. They were
.of two fpecies, the one much larger than the
other. ^ty, i.yp.yAGE   TO   TH p
pther* The larger fort was of a brown colour |
^nd of the frnall fort, either the duck or drake
was black and white, and the other brown. Spme
of our people faid that they alfo faw geefe. This
feems to indicate, that there muft be land to the
north ward, where thefe birds, in the proper feafon?
find fhelter for breeding, and whence they were
now on their return to a warmer climate.
Soon after we had got our fea-horfes on board#
we were, in a manner, furrouudecj with the ice ;
and had no means of clearing it, but by fleering
to the fouth ware], which we did till three o'clock
the next morning, with a light wefterly breeze,
and, in general, thick, foggy weather. Qur
foundings were from twelve''to fifteen fathom^.
We then tacked and flood to the northward till
ten o'clock, when the wind fhifting to the north,
we flood to the weft-fouth-weft and weft. At two-
in the afternoon, we fell in with the main ice,, and
kept along the edge of it, being partly directed by
the roaring of the fea-horfes, for we had an exceeding thick fog. Thus we continued failing
till near midnight, when we got in among the loofe
pieces of ice.
The wind being eafterly, and the fog very
thick, we now hauled to the fouthward ; and,
at ten the next morning, the weather clearing up,
we faw the American continent, extendirig from
fouth by eaft, to eaft by fouth ; and, at noon,
from fouth-weft half fouth to eaft,  the diftance
I» PACIFIC    o C É a il;
of the neareft part being five leagues. Wé were
at prefent in the latitude of 690 3-2' north, and in
the longitude of 1950 48' eaft; and, as the main
ice was not far from us, it is evident, that it no\*
covered a part of the fea; which, a few days before, had been free from it ; and that it extended
farther towards the fouth, than where we firft fell
in with it.
During the afternoon we had but little wind i
and the Mafter was fent in a boat to obferve whether there was any current, but he found none.
We continued to fleer for the American land
till eight o'clock, in order to obtain a nearer
view of it, and to fearch for a harbour; but feeing nothing that had the appearance of one, we
again flood to the north, with a gentle wefterly
breeze. At this time, the coaft extended from
fouth-weft to eaft, the neareft part being at the
diftance of four or five leagues. The fouthern,
extreme feemed to form a point, to which the
name of Cape Lifburne was given. It is fituate
in the latitude of 690 sf north, and in the longitude of i94°42/eaft, and appeared to be tolerably high land, even down to the lea ; but
there may be low land under it, which we might not
then fee, being not lefs than ten leagues diftant
from it* In almoft every other part, as we advanced to the north, we had found a low coaft,
from which the land rifes to a moderate height.
The coaft now before us was free from fnpw, ex-*
cept 46 A   VOYAGÉ    TO    THÈ
cept in one or two places, and had a grienifh hue*
But wc could not difcern any wood upon it.
On Saturday the 22d, the wind was foutherly-j
and the weather for the moft part foggy, with
fome intervals of funihine. At eight in the evening, we had a calm, which continued till midnight, when we heard the furge of the fea, dafh-
ing againft the ice, and had many loofe pieces
abuut us. A light breeze now arofe at north-
eaft, and the fog being very thick, we fteered to
the fouth to get clear of the ice. At eight the
next morning, the fog difperfed, and we hauled
towards the weft ; for the Commodore finding
that he could not get to the north near the coaft,
by reafon of the ice, refolved to try what could
be done at a diftance from it 5 and as the wind
feemed to be fixed at north, he confidered it as a
favourable opportunity.
In our progrefs to the weftward, the water gra*
dually deepened to twenty-eight fathoms. With
the northerly wind the air wasfharp and cold ; and
we had fogs, funihine, fhowers of/now and fleet
alternately. On the 26th, at ten in the morning,
we fell in with the ice> At twelve, it extended
from north-weft to eaft by north, and feemed to be
thick and compact We were now, by obferva-
tion, in the latitude of 69° $& north, and in the
longitude of 1840 eaft; and it now appeared that
we had no better profpect of getting to the north
here, than nearer the fhore*
We continued fleering to the weft, till five in
the afternoon, when we were, in fome degree,
embayed by the ice* which was very clofe in the
north-weft and north-eaft quarters* with a great
quantity of loofe ice about the edge of the main
body. At this time, we had baffling light airs,
but the wind foon fettled at fouth, and increafed
to a freih gale, accompanied with fhowers of rain.
We got the tack aboard, and ftretched to the eaft,
as this was the only direc^on in which the féa was
free from ice.
On Thurfday the 27th, at four in the morning,
we tacked and flood to the weftward, and at feven
o'clock in the evening, we were clofe in with the
edge of the ice, which lay eaft-north-eaft, and
weft-fouth weft, as far in each of thofe directions
as the eye could reach. There being but little
1$&§d, Captain Cook went with the boats, to examine the ftate of the ice. He found it confift-
ing of loofe pieces, of various extent, and (o
clofe together, that he could fcareely enter the
outer edge with a boat ; and it was as impracticable for the fhips to enter it, as if it had been
fo many rocks. He particularly remarked, that
it was all pure tranfparent ice, except the upper
furface, which was rather porous. Ic feemed to
be wholly conggofed of frozen fnow, and to have
been all formed at fea. For, not to infift on the
improbability of fuch prodigious mafles floating
out of rivers, none of the productions of the land
were 48 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
were found incorporated, or mixed in it ; which
would certainly have been the cafe, if it had been
formed in rivers, either great or fmallT
The pieces of ice that formed the outer edge
of the maiii body, were from forty or fifty yards
in extent, to four or five ; and the Captain judged,'
that the larger pieces reached thirty feet or more,
under the furface of the water. He alfo thought
it highly improbable, that this ice could have
been the production of the preceding' winter
alone. He was rather inclined to fuppofe it td
have been the production of many winters. It
was equally improbable, in his opinion, that thé
little that now remained of the fumrher, could
deftroy even the tenth part of what now fubfifted
of this great mafs ; for the furi had already exerted upon it the full force and influence of his
fays. The fun, indeed, according to his judgment, contributes very little towards reducing
thefe enormous maffes. For though that luminary is above the horizon a confiderable while,
It fëfdom fhine£ out for more than a feiv hours at
a time, and frequently is not feen for feveral
fucceffive days. It is the wind/ or rather the
waves ràifed by the wind,; that brings down the
bulk of thefe prodigious maffes, by grinding one-
piece againft another, and by underrhining and
wafhing away thofe parts which are expofed to
the furge of the fea. This was manifeft, from
thef Captain's-obferving, that the upper furface
Bf many pieces had been partly wafhed away,
while the bafe, or under parr, continued firm for
feveralfathoms round that which appeared above
water, like a fhoal round a high rock. He- mêa-
fured the depth of water upon one, ana1 found
that it was fifteen feet, fo„ that the fhips might
have failed over it. If he had not meafured this
depth, he would have beeri unwilling to believe-,
that there was a fufficierit weight of ice above thé
furface, to have funk the other fo much below m
It may thus happen, that more ice is deftroyed in
one tempeftuotis feafon, than is formed in feveral
winters, and an endlefs accumulation of it is prevented. But that there is conftantly a remaining
flore, will be acknowledged by everyone who has
been upon the fpot.
A thick fog, which came on while the Commodore was thus employed with the boats, haf-
tened him aboard fooner than he could have
wifhed, with one fea-horfe to each fhip. Our
party had killed many, but could not wait to
bring them off. The number of thefe animals,
on all the ice that we had feen, is really aftonifiV
ing. We fpent the night ftanding off and pn,
amongft the drift ice, and at nine o'clock the
next morning, the fog having in fome degree dif-
perfed, boats from each of the fhips were dif-
patched for fea-horfes ; for our people by this
time began to relilh them, and thofe we had before furnifhed ourfelves with, were all confumed,
Vot.III.—n° 13. E Aç gO A   V O Y A G E   T O   T H E
At noon, our latitude was 6$Q if north, ouf
longitude 183p eaft, and our depth of water was
twenty-five fathoms. At two in the afternoon;
having got on board as many fea-horfes as were
deemed fufficient, and the wind frefhening at
fouth-fouth eaft, we hoifted in the boats, and
fteered to the fouth-weft. But being unable to
weather the ice upon this tack, or to go through
it, we made a board to the eaftward, till about
eight o'clock, then refumed our courfe to the
fouth-weft, and were obliged before midnight to
tack again, on account of the ice. Not long
after, the wind veering to the north-weft, and
blowing a fliff gale, we flretched to the fouth-
weft, clofe hauled.
On the 29th, in the morning, we faw the main
ice towards the north, and foon after, perceived
land bearing fouth-weft by weft. In a fhort time
after this, more land was feen, bearing weft. It
fhewed itfelf in two hills, refembling iflands, but
foon the whole appeared connected. As we made
a nearer approach to the land, the depth of water
decreafed very faft, fo that^ at twelve o'clock^
when we tacked, we found only eight fathoms 5
being three miles from the coaft, which extended
from fouth 30° eaft, to north 60Q weft. The latter extremity terminating in a bluff point, being
one of the hills mentioned before.
The weather was now very h azy, with drizzling rain;  but,  foon afterwards, it cleared up*
cûla'rly to the fouthward, weftward, and  north-
Ward.    This enabled us to have a tolerable view
of the coafti which refembles, in every refpect,
the oppofite coaft of America; that is, lowland
next the fea, with higher land farther back. It was
totally defiitute of wood, and even of fnow; but
was, probably, covered with a moffy fubftance,
that gave it a brownifh hue.    In the low ground
that lay between the fea and the high land, was a
lake, extending to the fouth eaftward farther than
we could fee.    As we flood off, the moft wefterly
of the two hills above-mentioned, came open off
the bluff point, in a north-weft direction.    It had
the appearance of an ifland, but it might per- .
haps be connected with the other by low land,
though we did  not fee it.     And if that be thé
cafe,  there is  a two-fold point, with a bay between  them.     This point, which is rocky and
fteep;   received the name of Cape North.    It is
fituated nearly in the latitude of 68°  56' north,
and in the longitude of 1800 $\' eaft.    The coaft
beyond it doubtlefs affumes a very wefterly direction ; for we could difcern no land to the northward of it,  though the horizon was there pretty
clear.    Wifhing to fee more' of the coaft to the
weftward, we tacked  again, at two in the afternoon, thinking we fhouid be able to weather Cape
North ;   but   finding   we   could   not,  the wind
frefhening, a thick fog arifing, with much fnow,
and being apprehenfive of the ice coming down
E 2 upon 5*
tlpon us, the Commodore relinquifhed the defign
he had formed of plying to the weftward, and.
again flood off fhore.
The feafon was now fo far advanced, and the
time when the f roft generally 'lets, in was fo near,
that Captain Cook did not think it confiftent with
prudence, to make any farther attempts to difco-
ver a paffage into the Atlantic Ocean this year, in
any direction, fo fmail was the probability of fuc-
cefsr His attention was now directed to the fearch
of fome place, where we might recruit our wood
and water ; and the object that principally occupied his thoughts was, how he fhouid pafs the
winter, fo as to make fome improvements in navigation and geography, and, at the fame time,
be in a' condition to return to the northward the
enfuing fummer, to profecute his fearch of a paffage into the Atlantic.
CHAP.    X.
The Ships proceed along the Coaft of Afin—Burney9$
Jfland—Cape Serdze Kamen—Pafs the Eaft Cape
of Afia-—Description of it—Bay of St. Lawrence
—Two other Bays—Baring's Cape Tfchukotfkoi—
Steer for the  Coaft of America—Cape Darby—
Bald-Head—Captain   Cook   lands   in   fearch of
Wood and Water-—Cape  Denbigh—Some  of the
Natives, come   off  to   us-—Bejbarough   IfJand—»
Captain   Cook's   Interview   with   a   particular
Family-T-Mr.   King's   Interview  with the fame
Family—Supplies of Wood and Water—Mr King
fent to * examine the Coaft—Vifits from the Natives—Their   Huts—Produce   of the    Country—
Mr. Kings Report—Norton's Sound—Lunar Ob-
HAVING flood off till our foundings were
eighteen fathoms, we made fale to thcseaft-
ward, along the coaft, which, we were now pretty
well convinced, could only be the continent of
Afia. The wind blowing frefh, and there being,
at the fame time, a thick mift, and a very heavy
fail of fnow, it was requifite that we fhouid proceed with particular caution : we therefore brought
to, for a few hours, in the night. Early the next
morning, which was the 30th of Auguft, we
fteered fuch a courfe as we judged moft lively to
Ë 3 bring |4 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
bring us in with the land, being guided, in a
great meafure, by the land ; for the weather was
extremely thick and gloomy, with inceffant
fhowers of fnow. At ten o'clock we obtained a
fight of the coaft, which was at the diftance of
four miles, bearing fouth-weft. Soon afterwards,
our depth of water having decreafed to feveA
fathoms, we haukd off. A very low point now
bore fouth-fouth-weft, diftant two or three miles ;
to the eaftward of which there feemed to be a
narrdw channel, that led into forpe water which
we faw over the point It is not improbable,
that the lake above-mentioned communicates here
with the lea.    X^J
About twelve o'clock, the mil} difperfing, we
had a view of the coaft, which extended from
fouth-eail to north-weft by weft. Some parts of
it were apparently higher than others ; but the
greateft part of it was rather low, with high land
farther up the country, It was almoft entirely
covered with fnow, which had fallen very lately.
We ranged along the coaft, at the diftance of.
about two leagues, till ten o'clock in the evening^
when we hauled off; but refumed. our courfe
early on the following morning, when we- had
another view of the coaft, extending from weft to
fouth-eaft by fouth. At eight o'clock, the eaftern
part bore fouth, and was found to be an ifland,
which, at twelve; was four or five miles diftant,
.bearing fouth-weft half fouth.    It is of a mode-
<    - rate PACIFIC   OCEAN, 55
rate height, between four and five miles in circumference, with a fteep rocky coaft. It is
fituate in the latitude of 670 45' north, about
three leagues from the continent ; and is diftin-
guifhed in the chart by the appellation of Bur-
ney's Ifland. The inland country, about this
part, abounds with hills, fome of which are of
çonfiderable elevation. The land in general was
covered with fnow, except a few fpots on the
coaft, which flill continued to be low, but fome-
what lefs fo than farther towards the weft.
During the two preceding days, the mean
height of the mercury in the thermometer had
been frequently below the freezing point, and,
in general, very little above it ; infomuch that
the water, in the veffels upon deck, was often
covered with a iheet of ice. We continued to
fleer fouth-fouth-eaft, almoft in the direction of
the coaft, till five o'clock in the afternoon, when
we faw land bearing fouth 500 eaft, which proved
to be a continuation of the côaft. We hauled up
for it without delay ; and at ten in the evening»
being a-breaft of the eaftern land, and doubtful
of weathering it, we tacked, and made a board
towards the weft, till after one o'clock the next
morning, (Tuefday, the iftpf September), when
we again made fail to the eaft. The wind was
now very unfettled, continually varying from
north to north-eaft. Between eight and nine,
the eaftern extremity of the land was at the dif-
E 4 tance $6 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
tance of fix or feven miles, bearing fouth by eaftr
A head-land appeared, at the fame time,-bearing
eaft by fouth, half fouth ; and, nor long after,
we could difcern the whole coaft that lay between them, and a little ifland at fome diftance
from it.
The coaft now in fight feemed to form feveral
rocky points, that were connected by a low fhore,
without any appearance of an harbour. At a diftance from the fea many hills prefented them-
folves to our view, the higheft of which were involved in fnow : in other refpects, the whole
country had a naked afpect. At feven o'clock
in the evening, two points of land, beyond the
eaftern head, opened off it in the direction of
fouth 370 eaft.
Captain Cook was now convinced of wrhat he
had before imagined, that this was the country of
the Tfchutfki, or the north-eaftern coaft of
Afia ; and that Beering had proceeded thus far in
the year 1728; that is, to this head, which, according to Muller, is denominated Serdze Kamen9
on account of a rock upon it, that is of the figure
; of a heart. There are, indeed, many high rocks
on this cape, fome one or pther of which may
perhaps be fhaped like a heart. It is a promontory
of tolerable height, with a fteep rocky cliff fronting the fea. Its latitude is 67° 3' north, and its
lpngitude 188° n' eaft. To the eaft of it the
çoaft is efavated and cold ;   but, to the weft, it,
is PACIFIC     OCEAN. ftf
13 low, and extends' *e-orth-weft by weft, and
jaorth-north-weft ; and it is nearly ofirJv fame
direction ail the way to Cape North. The depth
of water is every where the fame at an equal diftance from the fhore ; and this is likewife the cafe
on the oppofite coaft of America. The greateft
depth we met with, as we ranged along it, was
twenty-three fathoms. During the night, or in
thick foggy weather, the foundings are no bad
guide to thofe who fail along either of thefe
On the 2d of September, at eight in the morning, the moft advanced land to the fouth-eaft r
ward, bore fouth 250 eaft; and, from this particular point of view, had an infular appearance*
Cut the thick fhowers of fnow, that fell in quick
fucceffion, and fettled on the land, concealed
from our fight, at this time, a great part of the
coaft. In a fhort time after, the fun, which we
had not feen for near five days, broke out daring the intervals between the fhowers, by which
rneans jthe coaft was, in fome degree, freed from
the fog ; fo that we obtained a fight of it, and
found that the whole was connected. The wind
was ftill northerly, the air was cold, and the mercury in the thermometer did not rife above 350,
and was fometimes not higher than 30*. At
twelve o'clock our latitude was 66° 37' north;
Cape Serdze Kamen was twelve or thirteen leagues
diftant, bearipg north 52° weft; the rnoft fouth-
erly ^8 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
erly point of land that we had in our fight, bbr£
fouth, 41 ° eaft ; our foundings were twenty-two,
fathoms ; arid the diftance of the neareft part of
{he fhore was about two leagues.
The weather was now fair and bright ; and, as
we were ranging along the coaft, we. faw feveral
of the natives, and fome of their dwelling-places^
which had the appearance of hillocks of earth*
In the courfe of the evening we paffed the Eaftern
Cape, or the point before-mentioned ; from which
the coaft trends to the fouth-weftward. This is
the fame point of land that we had paffed on the
11th of the preceding month. Thofe who ga/e
credit to Mr. Stshlin's map, then fuppofed it to
be the eaftern point of his ifland Alafchka; but
we were, by this time, convinced, that it is no>
other than the eaftern promontory of Afia ; and,
perhaps, it is the proper Tfchukotfkoi Nofs,
though the promontory, which received that name
from Beering, is fituated further towards the
Muller, in his map of the difcoveries of the
Ruffians, places Tfchukotfkoi Nofs nearly in.
the latitude of 750 north, and extends it fome-
what to the eaftward of this cape. But Captain
Cook was of opinion, that he had no good
authority for fo doing. Indeed his own, or rather
Defhneff's, account of the diftance between the
river Anadir and the Nofs, cannot well be reconciled with fo northerly a pofuion.    For he fays,
that, PACIFIC    OCEAN. $&
•that, with the moft favourable wind, a perfon
rnay go by fea from the Nofs to the river Anadir
in three whole days, and that the journey by land
is very little longer. But Captain Cook, having
hopes-of vifiting thefe parts again, deferred the
difcuffion of this point to another opportunity.
In the mean time, however, he concluded, as
Bëering had done before him, that this was the
eafternmoft point of all Afia. It is a peninfula of
confiderable elevation, joined to the continent by
a very low .and apparently narrow ifthmus. It
has, next the fea, a fteep rocky cliff; and off the
very point are feveral rocks refembiing fpires. It
ftands in the longitude of 1900 22 ' eaft, and in
the latitude of 66Q 6' north ; and is thirteen
leagues diftant, in the direction of north 53° weft,
1 from Cape Prince of Wales, on the coaft of
America. The land about this promontory con-
fifts of vailles and hills.. The former terminate at
the fea in low fhores, and the latter in fteep rocky
points. The hills appeared like naked rocks %
but the vallies, though deftitute of tree or fhrub,
were of a greeniih hue.
After we had paffed the Cape, we fleered fouth-
weft half weft towards the northern point of St.
Lawrence's Bay, in which our fhips had anchored on the 10th of Auguft. We by
eight o'clock the following morning, and faw
fome of the natives at the place where we had before feen them, as well as others on the oppofite
fide fo
fide of the bay. Not one of them, however*
carne off to us; which was rather remarkable,, as
the weather was fufficiently favourable, and as
thofe whom we had lately vifited had no reafon,"
to be difpleafed with us. Thefe people are certainly the Tfchutfki, whom the Ruffians had
«tot hitherto fubdued -, though it is manifeft that. -
fefiey muft carry on a traffic with the latter, eithex
directly, or by the interpofition of fome neighbouring nation ; as their being in poffeffion of the
fpontoons we faw among them, cannot otherwife
fee accounted for.
The Bay of St. Lawrence * is, at the entrance,
at leaft five leagues in breadth, and about four
leagues deep, growing narrower towards the bottom,, where it feemed to be pretty well fheltered
from the fea winds, provided there is a competent depth of water for fhips, The Commodore
did not wait to examine it, though he was extremely defirous of finding a convenient harbour
in thofe parts, to which he might ref@rt in the
fucceeding fpring. But he wiihed to meet with
one where wood might be obtained ; and he
knew that none could be found here. From the
fouthern point of this bay, which is fituated in
* Captain Cook called it by this name,, from his having-
anchored in it on the loth of Auguft, which is St. Law-
fence's Day. It is worthy of remark, that Beering failed by
this very place on Auguft io, 1728; for which reafon, he
éçaominated the neighbouring ifland after the fame faint.
the ': F AC IFIC    OCEAU. 6l
the latitude of 65° 30' north, the coafts trends
weft by fouth for the fpace of about nine leagues,
and there feems to form a deep bay or river ; or
elfe the land in that part is fo low that we could
note difcern it.
in the -afternoon, about one o'clock, we faw
what was firft fuppofed to be a rock ; but it was
found to be a dead whale, which fome Afia-tics
had killed, and were then towing aihore. They
feemed to endeavour to conceal themfelves behind the fifh, in order to avoid being feen by us-
This,- however, was nnneceffary, for we proceeded on our courfe without taking notice of
them. On the 4th, at break of day, we hauled
to the north-weftward, for the purpofe of gaining
a nearer view of the inlet {cen the day before ;
but the wind, not long after, veering to that
I direction, the defign was abandoned ; and, fleering towards the fouth along the coaft, we pafied
two bays, each about ûx miles deep. The moft
northerly one is fitua£e before a hill, which is
rounder than any other we had obferved upon the
coaft. There is an ifland lying before the other
bay. It is a matter of doubt whether there is a
fufficient depth of water for fhips in either of thefe
bays, as, when we edged in for the fhore, we
conftantly met with fhoal water. This part of
the country is extremely naked and hilly. In
feveral places on the lower grounds, next the fea,
were the habitations  of the natives, near all of
1 Ci
which were erected ftages of bones, like thofe
before-mentioned. This day, at noon, our latitude was 64° 38^ north, and our longitude 1880
15' eaft; the neareft part of the fhore was at thé
diftance of three or four leagues ; and the moft
fouthern point of the continent in fight bore
fouth 48 9 weft.
The wind, by this time, had veered to the
north, and blew a light breeze : the weather was
clears and the air fharp. The Commodore did
not think proper to follow the direction of the
coaft, as he perceived that it inclined weftward
towards the gulph of Anadir, into which he Ijad
no motive for going. He therefore fteered à
foutherly courfe, that he might have a fight of
the ifle of St. Lawrence* which had been difcovered by Beering. This ifland was quickljr
feen by us ; and, at eight in the evening, it bore
fouth 200 eaft, fuppofed to be at the diftance of
eleven leagues. The moft foutherly point of the
main land was, at that time, twelve leagues diftant, bearing fouth 830 weft. Captain Cook con-
jectured, that this was the point which is called
by, Beering the eaftern' point of Suchotfki, or
Cape Tfchukotfkoi ; an appellation which he
gave it with fome propriety, becaufe the natives,
who (aid they were of the nation of the Tfchut-
iki, came off to him from this part of the
coaft. Its latitude is 64° 13' north, and its
longitude 186? 36' eaft.
The more the Captain was convinced of his
feeing at prefent upon the Afiatic coaft, the more
he was at a lofs to reconcile his obfervations with
Mr. Stsehlin's map of the New Northern Archipelago; and he could find no other method of
accounting for fo important a difference, than by
fuppofing that he had miftaken fome part of what
Mr. Stashlin denominates the ifland of Alafchkâ
for the continent of America, and had miffed the
channel by which they are feparated. But even
on that fuppofition there would ftiil have been â
confiderable variation. The Captain confidered
it as an affair of fome confequence to clear up this
point during the prefent feafon* that he might
have only one object in view in the following one*'
And as thefe northerly iflands were faid to abound
vwith wood, he had fome hopes, if he fhouid find
them, of procuring a competent fupply of that
article, of which we began to fland in great need.
With this view he fteered over for the coaft of
America ;• and the next day, about five o'clock
in the afternoon, land was feen bearing fouth
three quarters eaft, which we imagined was An-
derfon's Ifland, or fome other land near it. Ori
Sunday the 6th, at four in the morning, we had
a fight of the American coaft, near Sledge Ifland ;
and, at fix in the evening of the fame day, that
ifland was at the diftance of about ten leagues^
bearing north 6° eaft, and the moft eafterly land
in view bore north 49° eaft.    If any part of what
Captain u
Captain Cook had conjecturerf to be the coaft of
the American continent, could poffibly be the
ifland of Alafcka, it was that now in fight; in
which cafe he muft have mified the channel between it and the main land, by fleering towards
the weft, inftead of the eaft, after he had firft
fallen in with it. He was, therefore, at no lofs
where to go, for the purpole of clearing up thefe
On the 7th, at eight o'clock in the evenings
we had made a near appr-ach to the land. Sledge
Ifland bore north S§9 weft, about eight leagues
diftant ; and the eaftern part of the coaft bore north
700 eaft, with elevated land in the direction of
eaft by north. At this' time we perceived a light
on fhore ; and two canoes, with people in them,
came off towards us. We brought to, in order
to give them time to approach ; but they refilled
all our tokens of amity, and kept at the diftance
of a quarter 0/ a mile. We therefore left then},
and proceeded along the coaft. The next morning, at one o'clock, obferving that the water
fhoaled pretty fail, we anchored in ten fathoms,
and remained in that fituation till day-light came
on. We then weighed, and purfued our coùrfe
along the coaft, which-trended eaft, and eaft half
fouth. At feven o'clock in the evening we were
abreaft of a point, fituated in the longitude of
1970 eaft, anu in the latitude of 64° 21' norths
beyond which the coaft affumes a more northerly
direction. PACIFIC    OCEAN, 6$
direction. At eight this point, which received
the appellation of Cape Darby, bore fouth 62S
weft ; "the moft northern land we had in view,
bore north 320 eaft ; and the diftance of the neareft part of the fhore was one league. In this
fituation we let go our anchors in thirteen fathoms,
over a muddy bottom.
On the 9th, at break of day, we weighed, and
made fail along the coaft. We now faw land,
which we fuppofed to be two iflands ; the one
bearing eaft, the other fouth 700 eaft. Not long
afterwards, we found ourfelves near a coaft covered with wood; a pleafing fight, to which we had
not been lately accuftomed. As we advanced'
northward* land was ktn m the direction of
north eaft, half north, which proved a continuation of the coaft upon which we now were : we
like wife perceived high land over the iflands, ap-
v parently, at a confiderable diftance beyond them.
This, was imagined to be the continent, and the
other land the ifte of Alaichka ; but it was already
a matter of doubt, whether we fhouid difcover a
paffage between them, for the water gradually
fhoaied, as we proceeded further towards the
north. In confequence of this, two boats were
diipatched a-head to found ; and the Commodore
ordered the Difcovery, as fhe drew the leaft water, to lead, keeping nearly in the middle channel, between the coaft and the moft northerly
ifland. In this manner we continued our courfe»
Vol.JIL—n* 13. F till 66
till three o'clock in the afternoon, when, having
paffed the ifland, our foundings did not exceed
three fathoms and a half, and the Refolution once
brought up the mud from the bottom. In no
part of the channel could a greater depth of water be found, though we had founded it from one
fide to the other ; we therefore deemed it high
time to return.
At this time, a head-land on the weftern fhore,
to which the name of Bald-head was given, was
about one league diftant, bearing north by weft.
The coaft extended beyond it as far as north-eaft by
north, where it appeared to terminate in a point ;
behind which, the coaft of the high land, that
was feen over the. iflands, ftretched itfelf. The
fhore on the weftern fide of Bald-head, forms a
bay, in the bottorn of which is a beach, where
we perceived many hurs of the natives.
We continued to ply back during the whole
night; and, by day-break on the ioth, had deepened our water fix fathoms. At nine o'clock,
when we were about three miles from the weft
fhore, Captain Cook, accompanied by Mr. King,
went with two boats, in fearch of wood and water. They landed in that part, where the coaft
projects into a bluff head, compofed of perpendicular ftrata of a dark-blue rock, intermixed
with glimmer and quartz. Adjoining to the
beach is a narrow border of land, which was at
this tîrrje covered with long grafs, and where they
pbferved PACIFIC    OCEAN»
obferved fome angelica. The ground, beyond this,
'rifes with fome abrupthcfi ; towards the top of
this elevation, they found a heath» that abounded
with berries of various kinds : further onward the
country was rather level,, and thinly covered with
fmall fpruce-trees, birch, and willows. They
faw the tracks of foxes and deer upon the beach *
in many parts of which, there was a g?eat abundance of drift-wood ; there was alfo no want of
frefh- water.
Our gentlemen and their attendants fea-ving returned on board, the Commodore had thoughts:
of bringing the fhips to an anchor here ; but the
wind then lb if ring to north-eaft, and blowing rather on this fhore, he ftretched over to the oppo-
fite one, expecting to find wood there Mkewife
At eight in the evening, we anchored near the
fouthern end of the moft northerly ifland, for fech
we then imagined it to be. The next morning»
however, we found that it was a peninfula^ connected with the continent by a low ifthoius, or*
each ûàe of which, a bay is formed by the eoaft*
We plied into the fouthernmoft of thefe bays, and
eaft anchor again* about twelve ©''clock, in five
fathoms water, over a rnuddy bottom ; the point
of the peninfula, to which the appellation of Cape
Denbigh was given, being one league diftant^ m
the direction of north 68° weft*
We obferved on the peninfula, lèverai of the natives j and .one of them came off in a ïmzll canoe»
F % Captain
J 68
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
Captain Cook gave this man a knife and fome
beads, with w7hich he appeared to be well pleafed;
we made figns to him to bring us fome provifions,,
upon which he inftantly quitted us, and paddled
towards the fhore. Happening to meet another
man coming off, who had two dried falmons, he
got them from him ; and when he returned to
our fhip, he refufed to give them to any body
except Captain Cook. Some of our people fan-?
cied, that he afked for him under the name of
Capitaine ; but, in this, they were perhaps mif-
taken. Others of the inhabitants came off foon
afterwards, and gave us a few dried fifh, in exchange for fuch trifles as we had to barter with
them. They fhewed no diflike for tobacco, buf
they were moft defirous of knives.
In the afternoon, Mr. Gore was difpatched to
the peninfula, to procure wood and water ; of
the former of which articles, we obferved great
plenty upon 'the beach. At the fame time, a
boat from each of the fhips was fent to found
round the bay ; and at three o'clock, the wind
frefhening at north-eaft, we weighed anchor, and
endeavoured to work further in. But that was
quickly found to be impracticable, by reafon of
the fhoals, which extended entirely round the
bay, to the diftance of upwards of two miles from
the fhore ; as the officers, who had been fent out
for the purpofe of founding, reported. We
therefore flood off and on with the fhips, waiting
Ëfe for PÀCtFÎC   ocean. 6g
for Lieutenant Gore, who returned about eight
o'clock in the evening, with the launch loaded
with wood. He informed the Commodore, that
he had found but little frefh water, and that the
.wood could not be procured without difficulty x
on account of the boats grounding at fome diftance from the beach; As this was the cafe, we
flood back to the other fhore ; and the next morning, at eight, all the boats, and a detachment of
pen, with an officer^ were fent to get wood from
the place where Captain Cook had landed on the
After having continued, for fome time, to ftand
off and on with the fhips, we at length eaft anchor in lefs than five fathoms, at the diftance of
half a league from the coaft, whole fouthern point
bore fouth 26° weft. Cape Denbigh was about
twenty-fix miles diftant, bearing fouth 720 eaft.
Bald-head was nine leagues off, in the direction
of north 6o° eaft ; and the ifland near the eaftern
fhore, fouth of Cape Denbigh, named by Captain Cook, Befborough Ifland, was fifteen leagues
diftant, bearing fouth 520 e2ft.
This being a very open road, and therefore
not a fjêcure ftation for the fhips^ the Commodore
reiolved not to wait till our flock of water was
completed^ as that would take up fome time ;
but only to furnifh both fhips with wood, and
afterwards to feek a more commodious place for
the former article. Our people carried off the
F 3 drift- JO A VOYAGE  TO   T H"E
drift-wood that'lay on the beach, and performed
that bufinefs with great expedition ; for, as the
wind blew along the fhore, the boats were enabled to fail both ways. In the afternoon Captain
Cook went on fhore, and took a walk into the
country ; which, in thofe parts where there was
ho wood, abounded with heath, and other plants,
feveral of which had plenty of berries, all ripe.
Scarce a fingle plant was in flower. The underwood, fuch as birch, alders, and willows, occa-
lioned walking to be very troublefome among the
trees, which were all fpruce, and none of which
exceeded feven or eight inches in diameter ; but
fome were obferved lying on the beach, that
were above twice that fize. All the drift-wood
that we faw in thefe northern parts was fir.
The following day, which was Sunday the 13th,
a family of the natives came near the fpot where
our people  were occupied  in taking off wood.
The Captain faw only the hufband and wife, and
their child, befides a fourth perfon, who was the
moft deformed cripple he had ever feen..   The
hufband  was nearly blind,   and neither he,   nor
his wife, were fuch well-looking people as many
of thofe whom we had met with on this coaft.
Both of them  had their lower lips perforated ;
, and they were in poffeffion of fome glafs-beads,
refembling thofe we had feen before among their
neighbours.     Iron  was  the  article  that  pleafed
them  moft.    For four  knives which had been
formed P A G I  F  I  C    O C E A N. J\
formed out of an old iron-hoop, the Captain obtained from them near four hundred pounds
weight of fifh, that had been lately caught by
them. Some of thefe we^re trout, and others.
were, with refpect t© fize and tafte, fomewhat between a herring and a mullet. The Captain
gave a few beads to the child, who was a female 5
upon which the mother immediately burft into
tears, then tne father, next after him the cripple,
and at laft, to add the finifhing ftroke to the concert, the child herfelf. This mufic, however,
was not of long duration*
Mr. Kirig had, on the preceding day, been
in company with the fame family. His account
of this interview is to the following purport :
While he attended the wooding party, a canoe,
filled with natives, approached, out of which an
elderly man and woman (the hufband and wife
above-mentioned) came afhore. Mr. King pre-*
fented a fmall knife to the woman, and promifed
to give her a much larger one in exchange for
fome fifh. She made figns to him to follow
her. After he had proceeded with them about a.
mile, the man fell down as he was croffing a ftony
beach, and happened to cut his foot very much.
This occafioned Mr. King to flop; upon which
the woman pointed to her hufband's eyes, which
were covered with a thick, whitifh film; He afterwards kept clofe to his wife, who took care
to apprize him of the obftacles in his way. The
SS*^ F 4   C0Ê. woman
J 72 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
woman had a child on her back, wrapped up in
the hood of her jacket. After walking about
two miles, they arrived at an open fkin-boat
which was turned on one fide, the convex part
towards the wind, and was made to ferve for the
habitation of this family. Mr. King now performed a remarkable operation on the man's eyes.
He was firft deftred to hold his breath, then to
breathe on the diflempered eyes, and afterwards
to fpit on them. The woman then took both the
hands of Mr. King, and preffing them to the
man's ftomach, held them there for fome time,
while Ihe recounted fome melancholy hiflory re-
fpecting her family ; fometimes pointing to her
hufband, fometimes to*her child, and at other
times to the cripple, who was related to her.
Mr. King purchafed all the fifh they had, which
confined of excellent falmon, falmon-trout, and
mullet. Thefe fifh were faithfully delivered to
the perfon he fent for them.
The woman was fhort and fquat, and her vifage
was plump and round. She wore a jacket made
of deer fkin, with a large hood, and had on a
pair of wide boots. She was pundlured from the
lip to the chin. Her hufband was well made,
and about five feet two inches in height. His
hair was black and fhort, and he had but little
beard. His" complexion was of a light copper
eaft. He had two holes in his lower lip, in
which,   however,   he  had  no ornaments.     The
teeth PACIFIC   OCEAN*. 7J
teeth of both of them were black, and appeared
as if they had been filed down level with the
gums. Slip
Before nrght, on the 13th, we*had amply fur-
nifhed the fhips with wood, and had conveyed on
board about a dozen tons of water to each. On
the 14th a party was detached on fhore to cut
brooms, and like wife the branches of fpruce-trees
for brewing beer. About twelve o'clock all out-
people were taken on board, for the wind freihen-
ing had raifed fo heavy a furf on the beach, that
our boats could not continue to land without
extreme difficulty and danger.
As doubts were flill entertained whether the
coaft, upon which we now were, belonged to an
ifland, or to the continent of America, lieute*
nant King was difpatched by the Commodore*
with two boats, well manned and armed, to make
fuch a fearch as might tend to re/nove all difference of opinion on the fubject. He was in*
ftructed to proceed towards the north as far as
the extreme point feen on Wednefday the 9th, or
a little further, if he fhouid find it neceffary ; to
land there, and, from the heights, endeavour to
difcover whether the land he was then upon,
imagined to be the ifland of Alafchka, Was really
an ifland, or was connected with the land to the
eaft ward, fuppofed to be the American continent. If it proved to he an ifland, he was to
examine the depth of water in the channel between 74
A    VOYAGE    TO    TH,
tween it and the continent, and which way the*
flood-tide came ; but, if he fhouid find the two
lands united, he was to return immediately to the
fhip. He was directed not to be abfent longer
than four or five days ; and it was alfo mentioned
in his inftructions, that, if any unforefeen or unavoidable accident fhouid force our fhips off the
coaft, the rendezvous was to be at the harbour
of Samganoodha.
On Tuefday the 15th, the fhips removed over
to the bay on the fouth-eaftern fide of Cape Denbigh, where we eaft anchor in the afternoon*
Not long after* feveral of the inhabitants came
off in canoes, and gave us fome dried falmon in
exchange for trifling articles. Early the next
morning, nine men, each in a feparate cànoe,
paid us a vifit, with the fole view of gratifying
their curiofity. They approached the fhip with
caution, and drawing up abreaft of each other*
under our fiern, favoured us with afong; while
one of their number made many ludicrous motions with his hands and body, and another beaé
Upon a fort of drum. There was nothing favage,
either in the fong, or the geftures with which it
was accompanied. There feemed to be no difference, either with refpect to fize or features,
between thefe people, and thofe whom we had
feen on every other part of the coaft, except King
George's Sound. Their drefs, which chiefly
cocfifted of the fkins of deer,  was made  after
the   PACIFIC   OCEAN. 75
the fame mode ; and they had adopted the practice
of perforating their lower lips, and affixing ornaments to them.
The habitations of thefe Americans were fitu-
ated clofe to the beach. They confift merely
of a Hoping roof, without any fide-walls, formed of logs, and covered with earth and grafs. The
floor is likewife laid with logs. The entrance is
at one end, and the fire-place is juft within it. A
fmall hole is made near the door of the hut, for
the purpofe of letting out the fmoke.
A party of men was difpatched, this morning, to
the peninfula for brooms and fpruce. Half the remainder of the people of both fhips were, at the
fame time, permitted to go afhore and gather berries. Thefe returned on board about twelve o'clock,
and the other half then landed for the fame purpofe.
The berries found here were hurtle-berries, heath-
berries, partridge-berries, and wild currant-berries. Captain Cook alio went afhore himfelf, and
cook a walk over part of the peninfula. He met
with very good grafs in feveral places, and fcarce-
ly obferved a fingle fpot on which fome vegetable was not growing. The low land by which
this peninfula is united to the continent, abounds
with narrow creeks, and likewife with ponds of
water, feveral of which were at this time frozen
over. There were numbers of bcrftards and geefe,
but they were fo fhy, that it was impoffible to
get within mufquet-ihot of them.    Some ihipes
were ^8 a  Voyage tô tHE
were alfo feen ; and, on the higher grounds, were
partridges -of two fpecies ; where there was wood;
mufquitoes were numerous* Some of the of-
ficert, who went further into the country than
Captain Cook did, met with fome of the natives of both fexes, who treated them with civility and kindnefs.
The Commodore was of opinion, that this peninfula had been an ifland in fome diftant period ;
for there were marks of the fea having formerly
flowed over the ifthmus ; and even at prefent, it
appeared to be kept out by a bank of fand, ftones,
and wood, which the waves had thrown up. It
was manifeft from this bank, that the land here
encroached upon the fea, and it was not difficult I
to trace its gradual formation.
Lieutenant King returned from  his   expedition
about  feven o'clock  this evening*    He had ùt
out at eight o'clock at night, on the 14th.    The
crews   of the  boats rowed without intermiffion
towards the land, till one in the morning of the
15th.    They then {tt their fails, and flood acrofs
the bay, which the coaft forms to the weftward
of Bald-Head;     They  afterwards,   about  three
o'clock, again made ufe of their oars* and, by two in
the afternoon, had got within two miles of Bald-
Head, under the lee of the high  land.    At that
time all the men  in the boat belonging to the
Refolution, except two, were fo oppreffed  with
fatigue and fleep, that Mr. King's utmoft endeavours PACIFIC     OCEAN. '77
vours to make them put on were perfectly ineffectual. They, at length, were fo far exhaufted,
as to drop their oars, and fall afleep at the bottom of the boat. In confequence of this, Mr.
King, and two gentlemen who were with him,
were obliged to lay hold of the oars ; and they
landed, a little after three oclock, between Bald-
Head and a point that projects to the eaft ward.
Mr. King, upon his landing, afcended tfas
heights, from which he could fee the two coafts
join, and that the inlet terminated in a fin ail
creek or river, before which -there were banks of
fand or mud, and in every part fhoal water. The
land, for fome diftance towards the north, was
low and fwampy ; then it rofe in hills ; and the
perfect junction of thofe, on each fide of the in--
let, was traced without the leaft difficulty.
From the elevated fituation in which Mr. Ki^g:
took his furvey of the Sound, he could difceni
many fpacious vallies, with rivers flowing thrcugh
them, well wooded, and bounded by hills of a
moderate height. One of the rivers towards the
north-weft feemed to be confiderable ; and he
was inclined to fuppofe, from its direction, that
it difcharged itfelf into tne fea at the head of the
bay. Some of his people, penetrating beyond
this into the country, found the trees to be of a
larger fize the further they proceeded.
To this inlet Captain Cook gave the name ©f
Norton's Sound, in honour of Sir Fletcher Norton*
1 58 A    VOYAGE    TO    T'HE
ton, now Lord Grantley, a near relation of Mr*
King:. It extends northward as far as the latitude
of 64e* 55' north. The bay, wherein our fhips
were now at anchor, is fitusted on the fouth-
eaftern fide of it, and is denominated Chacktook
by the natives. It is not a very excellent ftation,
being expofed, to the fouth and fouth-weft winds»
Nor is a harbour to be met with in all this Sound.
. We were fo fortunate, however, as to have the
wind from the north-eaft and the north, during
the whole time of our continuance here, with
very fine weather. This afforded an opportunity
©f making a great number of lunar obfervations»
the mean refujt of which gave 197° i$* eaft, as
the longitude of the anchoring-place on the weftern fide of the Sound, while its latitude was 640
31/north. With refpect to the tides, the night-
flood rofe two or three feet, and the day-flood
was fcarcely perceivable.
Captain Cook being now perfectly convinced,
that Mr. Stsehlin's map was extremely erroneous,
and having reftored the continent of America to
the fpace which that gentleman had occupied
with his imaginary ifland of Alafchka, thought it
now high time to quit thefe northerly regions,
and retire to fome place for the winter, where
he might obtain provifions and refrefhments. He
did not confider Petropaulowfka, or the harbour
of St. Peter and St. Paul in Kamtfchatka,. as likely to furnifh a fufficient fupply. He had like-
■wife other reafons for not going thither at prefent ; the principal of which was, his great un-
willingnefs to remain inactive for fix or feven
months, which would have been the confequence
of paffing the winter in any of thefe northern
countries. He at length concluded, that no Û-
. tuation was fo convenient for our purpofe as the
Sandwich Iflands. To them, therefore, he formed a refolution of repairing. But a fupply of
water being neceflary before he could execute
that defign, he determined,, with a view of procuring this effential article, to fearch the coaft of
America for a harbour, by proceeding along it to
the fouthward. If he fhouid not meet with fuc-
çefs in that fearch, his intention was to reach
Samganoodha, which was appointed for our place
of rendezvous, in cafe the fhips fhouid happen to
« its:
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
CHAP.     XL
Smart's If and difcovered—Its Situation, Extent,
&c.—Cape Stephens—Point Shallow - Water—*
Shoals on the Coaft of North-America—Clerked
If and—Gore's If and—Pinnacle If and—Die Refolution fprings a Lea^—The Ships arrive a$
Oonalajhka—Plentiful Supplies cf Fifh—Inten-
courfe with the Natives, and the Ruffian Traders
—Mr   Ijmyloff comes on board—Intelligence re-
É ceived from him—Two Charts produced by him—
Account of the Iflands vifited by, the Ruffians—
Of their Settlement at Oonalajhka—Defeription
ef the Natives—Their Drefs—Food—Manner of
Building — Manufaâîures — Canoes — Implements
for Hunting and Fi/hing—FiJk, and other Sea Ani*
mais—Water Fowls —Land-Birds — Quadrupeds
Vegetables — Stones — Repqfitories of the Dead—
Dijeafes—Rejemblance of the Inhabitants of this
Side of America to the Efquimaux and Green*
landers—Tides, Longitude, *&c.
IN the morning of the 17th of September, we
weighed anchor with a light eafterly breeze,
and fleering to the fouthward, attempted to pafs
within Befborough Ifland ; but, though it is fix
or feven miles diftant from the continent, we
were prevented, by meeting with ftioal water.
Having but little wind all the day, we did not
lIpsSI pafs PACIFIC     OCEAN.
pafs that ifland before it was dark ; and the night
wasfpent under an eafy fail.
At day^break, on the 18th, wè refumed our
progrefs along the coaft. At hoori, our foundings were no more thari five fathoms1. Befbo-
rough Ifland, at this tirhe, bore riofth 4!° eaft;
the môft foutherly land in fight, which alfo proved td be an ifland, bore fouth 66? weft; the paf-
fage between it and the continent, was in the direction of foùth 400 weft, and the neareft land was
at the diftance of about two miles.
We continued to fleer for this partage, till the
boats which were a head rhade the fignal for having nd more thari three fathoms water. In con-
fequence of this, we hauled without the ifland^
and difplayed the fignal for the Refolution *s boat
tojieep between the fhore and the fhips.
This ifland, to which the name of Stuart's
Ifland was given, lies in the latitude of 63° 35'
north, and^is feventeen leagues diftant from Cape
Denbigh, in the direction of fouth 270 weft*
It is fix or feven leagues in circumference.
Though fome parts of it are of a moderate height,
yet, in general, it is Iow^ with fome rocks off
the weftern part. The greateft part of the coaft
of the continent is low land$ but we perceived
high land up the country. It forms a point, op-
pofite the ifland, which was diftinggifhed by the
name of Cape Stephens, and is fituatéd in the
latitude of 6$9 33' north, and in the longitude of
Vot.IIL—-390 14- G 107*
J 82
A    VOYAGE    TO    T HE
197° 41' eaft. Some drift wood was obferved on
the fhores, both of the ifland and of the continent ; but not a fingle tree was feen growing upon
either. Veffels might anchor, upon occafion,
between the continent and the north-eaft fide of
this ifland, in a depth of five fathoms, fheltered
from the eafterly, wefterly, and foutherly winds.
But this ftation would be entirely expofed to the
northerly winds, the land, in that direction, being too remote to afford any fecurity. Before
we reached Stuart's Ifland, we paffed two little
iflands, fituate between us and the main land ; and I
as we ranged along the coaft, feveral of the natives
made their appearance upon the fhore, and by
figns, feemed to invite us to approach.   'lÉS
We were no fooner without the ifland, than we.
fteered fouth by weft, for the moft fouthern pare
of the continent in fight, till eight in the evening, when, the depth of water having decreafed
from fix fathoms to lefs than four, we tacked'and
flood to the northward into five fathoms, and
then paffed the night in ftanding off and on. At
the time we tacked, the fouthernmoft point of
land above-mentioned, which we named Point
Shallow-Water, bore fouth half eaft, at the diftance of feven leagues. On the 19th, at daybreak, we refumed our foutherly courfe ; but
fhoal water foon obliged us to haul more to the
weftward. We were at length fo far advanced
upon the bank, that we could not hold a north-
north- - PACIFIC    OCEAN. &£
fiorth-weft courfe, as we fometimes met with only
four fathoms. The wind blowing frefh- at eaft*
north-eaft, it was how high time to endeavour to
find a greater depth of water, and to quit a coàffc
upon which we could no longer navigate with/
fafety. We therefore hauled the wind to the
northward, and the water gradually increafed in
depth to eight fathoms.
At the time of our hauling the wind, we were
about twelve leagues diftant from the continent,^
and nine to. the weft of Stuart's Ifland. We faw
ho land to the fouthward of Point Shallow-Wa-=
ter, which Captain Cook judged to lie in the latitude of 6$° north ; fo that between this latitude and Shoal Nefs, in latitude 6o°, the coaft has
not been explored. It is probably acceffible only
to boats, or very finall veffels ; or, if there are
channels for veffels of greater magnitude, it
Would require fome time to find them. From
the maft-head, the fea within us appeared to be'
checquered with fhoals ; the water was very
muddy arid difcoloured, and much freiher than
at any of the places where our fhips had lately
anchored. From this we inferred, that a confi-
derable river'runs into the fea.; in this unexplored
part.    ËÊmà
After we had got info eight fathoms water, we
fleeted  to   the  weftward,   and   afterwards  more
foutherly j  for the land difcovered by us on  the
5th  of September, which  at noon on  the 20th*
G 2 bore
• è4
bore fouth-weft by weft, at the diftance of ten or
eleven leagues. We had now a frefh gale at
north, and, at intervals, fhowers of hail and fnow,
with a pretty high fea. To the land before us,
the Commodore gave the appellation of Clerke's
Ifland. It ftands in the latitude of 630 15', and
in the longitude of 1900 30'. It feemed to be an
ifland of confiderable extent, in which are feveral hills, all connected by low ground, ïo that it
looks, at a diftance, like a group of iflands. Near
its eaftern part is a little ifland, which is remarkable for having on it three elevated rocks. Both
the greater ifland, and this fmaller one, were inhabited.
About fix o'clock in the afternoon, we reached the northern point of Clerke's Ifland ; and
having ranged along its coaft till dark, we brought
to during the night. Early the next morning,
we again flood in for the coaft, and proceeded
along it in queft of an harbour, till twelve o'clock,
when finding no probability of fuccefs, we left
it and fleered fouth-fouth-weft, for the land difcovered by us on the 29th of July ; having a frefh
gale at north, accompanied with fhowers of fnow
and fleet. Rift
On Wednefday the 23d, at day-break, the
land above-mentioned made its appearance, bear,
ing fouth-weft, at the diftance of fix or feven
leagues. From this point of view, it rcfembled
a clufter of iflands; but it was found to be only
/ pne» PACIFIC    OCEAN.
one, of about thirty miles in extent, in the direction of north-weft and fouth-eaft; the fouth ,
eaftern extremity being Cape Upright, which
we have mentioned before. The ifland is narrow, particularly at the low necks of land, by
which the hills are conneéled. Captain Cook
afterwards found, that it was entirely unknown
to the Ruffians, and therefore, confidering it as a
difcovery of our own, he named it Gore's Ifland.
It appeared to be barren and deftitute of inhabitants, at leaft we faw none. Nor did we ob-
ferve fuch a number of birds about it, as we had
feen when we firft difcovered it. But we perceived fome fea-otters, an animal which we had
not found to the north of this latitude. About
twelve miles from Cape Uprightj in the direction of fouth 720 weft, ftands a fmali ifland, whofe
lofty fummit terminates in feveral pinnacle rocks, ''
for which reafori it obtained the name of Pin*
nacle Ifland.
At two o'clock in the afternoon, after we had
paffed Cape Upright, we fteered fouth-eaft by
fouth, for Samganoodha, with a gentle breeze
at north-north-weft, being refolved to lofe no
more time in fearching for an harbour among
iflands, which we now began to fufpect had no
exiftence ; at leaft, not in the latitude, and lonr
gitude in which they have been placed by mor
dern delineators of charts. On the 24th, in the
Q 3 ! even* 8§
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
evening, the wind veered to fouth-weft and foutfu
and increafed to a frefh gale.
We continued our eafterly courfe till eight in
the morning of the 25th, when in the longitude
pf ioy° io', and the latitude of 580 32', we
tacked and flood to the weftward ; foon after
which, the gale increasing, we were reduced to>
two courfes, and clofe-reefed main top-fails. In
a fhort time after, the Refolution fprung a leak;*
under the ftarboard buttock, which was fo confide-
rable, as to keep one pump conftantly employed.
We would not venture to put the fhip upon the
other tack, from the apprehenfion of getting upon,
the fhoals that lie to the north-weft of Cape
Newenham ; but continued to fleer towards the
weft, till fix in the evening of Saturday the 26th,
when we wore and flood to the eaftward ; and
then the leak gave us no farther trouble. This
proved, that it was above the water-line, which
gave us great fatisfaction. The gale had now
çeafed, but the wind continued at fouth, and
fouth-weft, for fome days longer.
At length; on Friday the 2d of October, at
day-break, we faw the ifle of Oonalafhka, in a
fouth-eaft direction. But as the land was ob-
fcured by a thick haze, we were not certain with
refpetfl to our fituation till noon, wteen the obferved latitude determined it. We hauled into
a bay, ten miles to the weftward of Samganood-
ha,  known by the appellation of Egoochfhac ;
but PA C I  F  I  C    OCEAN, %J
bnt finding very deep water, we fpeedily left it.
The natives vifited us at different times, bringing with them dried falmon, and other fifh,
which our failors received in exchange for tobacco. Only a few days before, every ounce of
tobacco that remained in the fhip, had been dif-
tributed among them, and the quantity was not
half fufficient to anfwer their demands. Not-
withftanding this,v fo thoughtlefs and improvident a being is an Englifh failor, that they were
as profufe in making their bargains, as if we had
arrived at a port in Virginia ; by which means,
in lefs than two days, the value of this commodity was lowered  above a thoufand per cent.
The next day, at one o'clock in the afternoon,
we anchored in the harbour of Samganoodha,
and, on the morning of the 4th, the carpenters
were employed in ripping off the fheathing of
and under the wale of the Refolution on the ftar-
board fide. Many of the feams were found entirely open ! it was therefore not to be wondered
at, that fo much water had got- into the fhip.
We cleared the fifh and fpirit rooms, and thé
after-hold; and difpofed things in fuch a manner, that, in cafe of any future leaks of the fame
nature, the water might find its way to the pumps.
Befides this work, and completing our flock of
water, we cleared the fore-hold, and took in a
quantity of ballaft.
Ç 4 The
The vegetables we had met with when we were
here before, were now, for the moft part, in a
ftate of decay, There being great plenty of berries, one-third of the people, by turns, had per-
miffion to go a-fhore and gather them. Confix
derable quantities of them were alfo brought to us
by the inhabitants. If there were any feeds of
the fcurvy, among the people of either fhip, thefe
berries, and the ufe of fpruce beer, which they
were allowed to drink every other day, effectually
eradicated them.
We likewife procured abundance of fifh ;   at
firft, chiefly falmon,  both frefh and dried, which
the natiyes brought us.    Some of the frefh fal-
mop was in the higheft perfection ; but there was
one fort, which, from the figure of its head, we
called    hook-nofed,    that   was    but   indifferent.
Drawing the feine feveral times,   at the head of
the  bay, we  caught many falmon trout,  and a
halibut that weighed two hundred'and fifty-four
pounds.    We afterwards had recourfe to hooks'
and lines.    A boat was fent out every morning,
which feldom returned without eight or ten halibut, a quantity  more than fuffiçient to ferve all
our people.    Thefe fifh were excellent, and there
were  few who  did not prefer them  to falmon.
Thus we not only obtained a fupply of fiih for
prefent confumption, but had fome to carry with
V?s, £o fea.
Cap- •~T"A*U I F I C t)t! IA1f. &^
Captain Cook received, on the 8th, by the
hands of a native of Oonalafhka, named Derra-
moufhk, a very fingular prefent, confidering the
place we were in, It was a rye loaf, or rather a
pye in the form of a loaf, as it enclofed fome falmon, well feafoned with pepper, This man had
brought a fimilar prefent 'for Captain Clerke,
and a note for each of the Captains, written in a
character which none of us under flood. It was.
natural to imagine, that thefe two prefents were
from fome Ruffians now in our neighbourhood,
and therefore the Captains fent, by the fame mef-
fenger, to thefe unknown friends, a few bottles
pf rum, wine and porter, which they fuppofed
would be highly acceptable. Captain Cook alfo
fent, in company with Derramouihk, Corporal
Lediard, of the marines, an intelligent man, for
the purpofe of gaining farther information ; with
orders, that if he rpet with any Ruffiaqs, he fhouid
endeavour to majce them underftand, that we
were Englifhmen, the friends and allies of their
On Saturday the ioth, Corporal Lediard returned with three Rufjian feamen, or furriers,
who, with feveral others, refided at Egoochfhac,
where they had fome ftore-houfes, a dwelling-
houfe, and a floop of about thirty tons burthen.
One of thefe Ruffians was either Mafter or Mate
of this veffel. They were all three intelligent,
well-behaved men, ana1, extremely ready to give
us CO A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
ps all the information we could defire. But, for
want of an interpreter, we found it very difficult
to underftand each other. They appeared to
have a perfect knowledge of the attempts which
their countrymen had made to navigate the Frozen
Ocean, and of the difcoveries that had been made
from Karmfchatka, by Beering, Tfcherikoff, and
Spangenberg. But they had not the leaft idea to
what part of the world Mr. Stashlin's map referred, when it was laid before them. When
Captain Cook pointed out Kamtfchatka, and
fome other places, upon this map,- they afked
him whether he had feen the iflands there repre-
fented ; and, on his anfwering in the negative,
one of them put his finger upon a part of the
map, where a number of iflands are laid down,
and faid, that he had cruifed there in fearch of
land, but could never meet with any. The Captain then fliewed them his own chart, and found
that they were ftrangers to every part of the coaft
of America, except that which lies oppofite this
One of thefe men faid, that he had been with
Beering in his American voyage; but he muft
then have been very young; for even now, at
the diftance of thirty-feven years, he had not the
appearance of being aged. Never was greater
refpect paid to the memory of any eminent per-
fon, than by thefe men to that of Beering. The
trade in which they are engaged, is very advantageous PACIFIC    OCEAN.
Jtageous, and its being undertaken and extended
to the eaftward of Kamtfchatka, wasthe immer.
diate refult of the fécond voyage of that diftinT
guifhed navigator, whofe misfortunes proved the
fource of much private benefit to individuals,
and of public utility to the Ruffian empire. And
yet, if his diftreffes had not accidentally carried
him to the ifland which bears his name, where
he ended his life, and from whence the remainder
of his ihip's crew brought back fpecimens of its
valuable furs, the Ruffians would probably have
undertaken no future .voyages,- which could lead
them to make difcoveries in this fea, towards the
American coaft. Indeed, after his time, their
rniniftry fee m to have paid lefs attention to this
object ; and, for what difcoveries have been fince
made, w7e are principally indebted to the enter-
prizing fpirit of private merchants, encouraged,
howeyer, by the fuperintending care of the court
pf Peterfburg.
The three Ruffians haying remained all night
with the Commodore, vifited Captain Clerke the
following morning, and then departed, perfectly
fatisfied with the reception they had met with.
They promifcd to return in a few days, and bring
with them a chart of the iflands fituate between
Kamtfchatka and Oonalaihka.
In the evening of the 14th, while Captain
Çook and Mr. Webber were at a village, not fir
from Samganoodha, a Ruffian landed there, who
proved 02
proved to be the principal perfon among his countrymen in this and the adjacent ifles. His name
was Erafim Gregorioff Sin Ifmyloff. He arrived
in a canoe that carried three perfons, attended by
twenty or thirty final 1er canoes, each conducted
by one man. Immediately after landing, they
conllructed a fmall tent for Ifmyloff, of materials
which they had brought with them, and they
afterwards made others for themfelves, of their
canoes and paddles, which they covered with
grafs. Ifmyloff having invited the Captain and
Mr. Webber into his tent, fet before them fome
dried falmon and berries. He appeared to be a
man of fenfe ; and the Captain felt no fmall,mortification in not being able to converfe with him,
except by figns, with the affiftance of figures, and
other characters, The Captain requefted him to
favour him with his company on board the next
day, and accordingly he came with all his attendants. He had, indeed, moved into the neighbourhood of our ftation, for the exprefs purpofe
of waiting upon us.
Captain Cook was in hopes of receiving from
him the chart which his three coutrymen had
promifed, but he was difappointed. However,
Ifmyloff aftured him he fhouid have it, and he
kept his word. The Captain found him very
well acquainted with the geography of thofe parts,
and with all the,difcoveries which had been made
}n this quarter by the Ruffians,    Qn feeing the
rnodern. PACIFIC    OCEAN. 93
modern maps, he inftantly pointed out their errors : he faid, he had accompanied Lieutenant
Syndo, or fas he called him) Synd, in his northern expedition ; and, according to his account,
they did not proceed farther than the Tfchukotfkoi
Nofs, or rather than St. Lawrence's Bay; for
he pointed on our chart to the very place where
Captain Cook landed. From thence, he faid, they
went to an ifland, in the latitude of 6$° north,
upon which they did not land. He did not recollect the name of that ifland ; but the Captain
conjectured, that it was the fame with that to
which the appellation of Clerke's Ifland had been
given. To what place Synd repaired afterwards,
or in what particular manner he employed the two
years, during which, according to Ifmyloff, his
reiearches lafted, he was either unable or unwilling to inform us. Perhaps he did not comprehend
our inquires on this point ; and yet, in almoft
every other thing, we found means to make him
underftand us. This inclined us to fufpect, that
he had not really been in this expedition, not-
withftanding what he had aflerted.
Not only Ifmyloff, but alio the others affirmed,
that they were totally unacquainted with the
American continent to the northward ; and that
neither Lieutenant Synd, nor any other Ruffian,,
had feen it of late years. They called it by the
fame name which Mr. Stasblin has affixed to his
large iflanda that is Alafchka.
Accord- H
A   VO Y AG E   TO   THE
According to the information wé obtained front
Ifmyloff and his countrymen, the Ruffians have
made feveral attempts to gain a footing upori
that part of the North American continent, that
lies contiguous to Oorialafhka and the adjacent
iflands, but have conftantly been repulfed by the
inhabitants, whom they reprefent as a very
treacherous people. They made mention of two
or three captains, or chief men, who had been
murdered by them; and fome of the Ruffians
fhewed us wounds, which the^ declared they had
received there.
Ifmyloff alfo informed us, that in the year
1773, an expedition had been undertaken into
the Frozen Ocean in fledges, over the ice, to
three large iflands, that are fittiate oppofite the
mouth of the river Kovyma. But a voyage which
he faid he himfelf had performed, engaged our
attention more than any other. He told us,
that, on the 12th of May, 1771, he failed from
Bolcheretzk, in Kamtfchatka, in a Ruffian veffel,*
to Mareekan, one of the Kuril Iflands, where
there is an harbour^ and a Ruffian feulements
From this ifland he proceeded to japan, where
his continuance appears to have been but fhort ?
for, as foon as the Japanefe knew that he and his
companions profeffed the chriftian faith, they
made^figns for them to depart; but did not, fo
far as we could underftand him, offer any infult
or violence. From Japan he repaired to Canton*
în China; from thence, in a French fhip, to
France. He then travelled to Peterfburg, and
was afterwards fent out again to Kamtfchatka.
We could not learn what became of the veffel in
which he firft embarked, nor what was the principal intention of the voyage. His being unable to
fpeak one word of the French language, rendered
this flory rather fufpicious ; he feemed clear, however, as to the times of his arrival at the different places, and of his departure from them, which
he put down in writing.
The next morning (Friday the i6thj, he offered Captaint Cook a fea otter fkin, which, he faid,
was worth eighty roubles at Kamtfchatka. The
Captain, however, thought proper to decline the
offer; but accepted of fome dried fifh, and feveral bafkets of the lilly, or faranne root. In the
afternoon, Ifmyloff, after having dined with Captain Gierke, left us with all his retinue, but pro-
mifed to,return in a few days. Accordingly, on
the 19th, he paid us another vifit, bringing with
him the charts above-mentioned, which he permitted Captain Cook to copy ; and the contents
of which are the foundation of the following
Thefe charts were two in number, they were
both manufcripts, and bore every mark of authenticity. One of them comprehended the Pen-
fhinfkian fea ; the coaft of Tartary, as low as the
latitude of 41° north; the Kurile Iflands, and the
peninniia o6 A    VOYAGÉ    TO    ÎÉÈ
peninfula of Kamtfchatka. Since this chart had
been made, Wawféelee Irkeechoff, a naval captain, explored, in the year 1758, the coaft of
Tartary, from Okotfk, and the river Amur, to
Japan, or 410 of northern latitude. We were informed by Mr. Ifmyloff, that a great part of the
fea-coaft of Kamtfchatka had been corrected by
himfelf % and he defcribed the inftrument ufed by
him for that purpofe, which muft have been a
theodolite. He alfo told us, that there were
only two harbours proper for fhipping,. on all the
eaftern coaft of Kamtfchatka, viz. the bay of
Awatfka, and the river Olutofa, in the bottom
of the gulph of the fame name ; that there was
not one harbour on its Weftern coaft ; and that
Yamfk was the only one, except Okotfk, On all
the weftern fide of the Penfhinfkian fea, till wé
come to the river Amur. The Kurile Iflands
contain but one harbour, and that is on thé" ;
north-eaft fide of Mareekan : where, as we have
already mentioned, the Ruffians have a fettle-
men t.
The other chart comprehended all the difcoveries that the Ruffians had made to the eaftward
of Kamtfchatka, towards America. That part
of the American coaft, with which Tfcherikoff
fell in, is laid down in this chart between the
latitude of 580 and 581° north, and 75° of eaftern longitude, from Okotfk, or 2i8fQ from
Greenwich; and the place where Beering anchored PACIFIC    OCEAN. gj
çhored in 59!° of latitude, and 6^1° of longitude
from Okotfk, or 207° from (Greenwich. To fay
nothing of the longitude, which may, from feveral caufes, be erroneous, the latitude of the coaft,
difcovered by Beering and Tfcherikoff, particularly that part of it which was difcovered by the
latter, differs confiderably from Mr. Muiler's
chart. Whether the chart now produced by Ifmyloff, or that of Muller, be moft erroneous in
this refpect, it may be difficult to determine.
According to IfmylofFs account, neither the
number nor the fituation of the iflands which are
difperfed between 520 and £5° of latitude, in the
fpace between Kamtfchatka and America, is properly afcertained. He firuck out about a third
of them, aflurihg us that they did not exift ; and
he confiderably altered the fituation of others -,
which; he faid, was neceflary, from the obfervarions which he himfelf had made ; and there was no
reaibn to entertain a doubt about this. As thefe
iflands are nearly under the fame parallel, different navigators, milled by their different reckonings, might eafily miftake one ifland, or clufter
of iflands, for another ; and imagine they had
made a new difcovery, when they had only found
old ones^ in a pofition fomewhat different from
that which their former vifitors had affignéd to'
The Mes of St. Theodore, St. Stephen, St.
Abraham,   St.  Macariiis, Seduction Ifland, and
Yol. HI.—n° 14. H feveral
feveral others, which are reprefented in Mr. Mul-
ler's chart, were not to be found in this now produced to us; nay, Ifmyloff, and the other Ruffians, affured Captain Cook, that they had been
frequently fought for without effect* Neverthe-
lefs, it is difficult to believe, that Mr. Muller
could place them in his chart without feme authority. Captain Cook, however, confiding in
the teftimony of thefe people, whom he thought
competent witneffes, omitted them in his chart;
and made fuch corrections refpecting the other
iflands, as he had reafon to think were neceffary.
We fhall now proceed to give fome account of
the iflands, beginning with thofe which are neareft
to Kamtfchatka, and computing the longitude
from the harbour of Petropaulowfka, in the bay
of Awatfka. The firft is Beering's Ifland, in 550
of northern latitude, and 6Q of eaftern longitude.
At the diftance of ten leagues from the fouthern
extremity of this, in the dire&ion of eaft by fouth,
or eaft-fouth-ea.ft, ftands Maidenoi Ofiroff, or the
Copper Ifland. The next ifland is Atakou, in
the latitude of 520 45' and in the longitude of
i5Q or i6?. The extent of this ifland is about
eighteen leagues in the direction of eaft and weft;
and it is perhaps the fame land which Beering
fell in with, and to which he gave the name of
Mount St. John.
We next come to a clufter of fix  or  more
iflands ; two of which, Amluk and Atghka, are
of* confiderable extent, and each of them has a
good harbour. The middle of this group lies in
the latitude of 520 30', and 280 of longitude, from
the bay of Awatfka ; and its extent is about four
degrees, in the direction of eaft and weft. Thefe'
are the ifles that Ifmyloff faid were to be removed
four degrees to the eaftward. In the fituation
they have in Captain Cook's chart, was a group,
comprehending ten little iflands, which, we were
informed* were entirely to be ftruck out; and
alfo two iflands, fituate between thern and the
group to which Oonalafhka appertains. In the
place of thefe two, an ifland, named Amoghta*
was introduced.
The fituation of many of thefe iflands :may, perhaps, be erroneoufly laid down. But the pofition
of the largeft group, of which Oonalafhka is one
of the moft confiderable iflands, is free from fuch
errors. Moft of the iflands that compofe this
clufter, were feen by us; their longitude and"
latitude were therefore determined with tolerable
accuracy, particularly the harbour of Samga-
noodha, of Oonalafhka, which muft be confidered
as a fixed point. This group may be faid to extend as far as Halibut Ifles, which are forty leagues
diftant from Oonalafhka, towards the eaft-north-
eaft* Within thefe ifles, a paffage, communicating with Briftol Bay, was marked in Ifmyloff's
chart ; which converts about fifteen leagues of the
coaft, that Captain Cook had fuppofed to be part
H 2 of ICO
of the continent, into an ifland, named Oonee*
mak. This paffage might eafily efcapé us, being»,
as we were informed, extremely narrow, fhaliow,
and only to be navigated through with boats, or
veffels of very fmall burthen.
From the chart, as well as from the teftimony
of Ifmyloff and his county men, it appears, that
this is as far as the Ruffians have made any dif*
coveries, or have extended themfelves, fin ce the
time of Beering, They all affirmed, that no perfons of that nation had fettled themfelves fo far
to the eaftward, as the place where the natives
gave the note to Captain Gierke ; which being
delivered to Ifmyloff for his perufal, he faid, that
it had been written at Oomanak. From him we "
procured the name of Kodiak*, the: largeft of
Schumagin's Iflands ; for it had no name affigned
to it upon the chart which he produced. It may
' not be improper to mention, that no names were
put to the iflands which Ifmyloff faid were to be
ftruck out of the chart ; and Captain Cook con-
fidered this as fome confirmation, that they have
no exiftence. gpp
The American continent is here called, by the
Ruffians, as well as by the iflanders, Alafchka ;
which appellation, though it properly belongs
only to that part which is contiguous to Oonee-
* A Ruffian fhip had touched at   Kodiak in the year 1776.
mak, is made ufe of by them when fpeaking of
the American continent in general.
This is all the intelligence we obtained from
thefe people, refpecting the geography of this part
of the o-lobe; and perhaps this was all the information they were able to give. For they repeatedly allured Captain Cook, that they knew
of no other iflands, befides thofe which were re-
prefented upon this chart, and that no Ruffian
had ever vifited any part of the American continent to the northward, except that which is op-
pofite  the country of the Tfchutfkis.
If Mr. Stsehlin was not greatly impofed upon,
what could induce him to publiih a map fofingu- !
larly erroneous, as his map of the New Northern
Archipelago, in which many of thefe iflands are
jumbled together without the leaft regard to
truth? Neverthelefs, he himfelf ftyles) it Ci a very
F| accurate little map/' ri/  ■•
Ifmyloff continued with us till the evening of
the 21ft, when he took his final leave. Captain,
Çook entrufted to  his  care a letter to the Lords
miralty,   ericlofius;  a   chart of all the
northern coafts we had vifited. Ifmyloff faid
there would be an opportunity of tranfmittincr
it to Kamtfchatka. or Okotfk, in the courfe of
.the fucceeding fpring; and that it would be at
Pëterfburg the following winter. He gave, the
Captain a letter to Major Behm, ■ Governor of
kamtfchatka, who refides at Bolcheretfk in that
peninfula £ 102
peninfula; and   another to the commanding of*
ficer at Petropaulowfka.
Mr. Ifmyloff feemed to poffefs abilities that
might entitle him to a "higher ftation than that irr
which we found him. He had confiderable
knowledge in aftronomy, and in the moft ufeful
branches of the mathematics. Captain Cook
made him a prefent of an Hadley's octant ; and
'though,, perhaps, it was the firft he had ever feen,
he very quickly made himfelf acquainted with
moft of the ufes to which that inftrument can. be
On Thurfday the- 22d, in the morning, we.
made an attempt to get out to fea, with the wind
at fouth-eaft, but did not fucceed. In the after?
noon of the 23d we were vifited by one Jacob
Ivanovitch Sopofhiçoff, a Ruffian, who commanded a fmall yeffel at Oomanak. This man
feemed very inodeft, and would drink no ftrong
liquor, of which the other Ruffians, whom we
had met with here, were extremely fond. He
appeared to know what fupplies could be obtained at the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul, and
the price of the various articles, more accurately
than Mr. IfmylorT. But, by all accounts, every
thing, we fhouid have occafion to purchafe at
that place, was very fcarce, and bore a high
price. This man informed us, that he was to be
at Petropaulowfka in the enfuing May ; and, as
we underftqod, was to have the charge of Captain
Cook's letter. He feemed very defirous of having
fome token from the Captain to carry to Major
Behm ; and, to gratify him, the Captain fent a
fmall fpying-glafs.
After we had contracted an acquaintance with
thefe Ruffians, feveral of our gentlemen, at different times, vifited their fettlement on the ifland,
where they always met with friendly treatment.
It confifted of a dweîling^hôufe and two ftore-
houfes. Befides the Ruffians, there was a number of the Kamtfchadales, and of the Oonalafh-
kans, as fervants to the former. Some other
natives of this ifland, who appeared to be independent of the Ruffians, lived at the fame place.
Such of them as belonged to the Ruffians, were
all of the male fex ; and they are either taken, or
purchafed from their parents when young. There
were, at prefent, about twenty of thefe who could
be confidered in no other light than as children.
They all refide in the fame houfe, the Ruffians at
the upper end, the Kamtfchadales in the middle,
and the Oonalafhkans at the lower end, where is
fixed a capacious boiler for preparing their food,
which principally confifts of fifh, with the addition of wild roots and berries.- There is no great
difference between the firft and laft table, except
what is produced by cookery, by which the Ruffians can make indifferent things palatable. They
drefs whales flefh in fuch a manner as to make it
very good eating ; and they have a kind of pan-t
H 4 pudding
J 104
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
pudding of falmon-roe, beaten up fine and fried, I
which is a tolerable fubftitute for bread. They
may perhaps, occafionally, tafte real bread, or
have a difh in which flour is one of the ingredients.
If we except the juice of berries, which they
generally fip at their meals, they drink no other
liquor than' pure water ; and it feems to be very
fortunate for them that they have nothing
As the ifland furniihes them with..fubfiftence,
fo it does, in fomè meafure, with clothing. This
is chiefly compofed of fkins. The upper garment, which is made like a waggoner's frock,
reaches down to the knees. Befides this, they
wear a waiftcoat or two, a pair of breeches, a fur
cap, and a pair of boots, the legs of which are
formed of fome kind of ftrong gur, but the loles
and upper leathers are of Ruffian leather. Their
two Chiefs, Ifmyloff and Ivanovitch, wore a
calico' frock ; and they, as well as feveral others,
had fhirts of filk.
Many Ruffians are fettled upon all the moft
considerable iflands between Kamtfchatka and
Oonalafhka, for the purpofe of collecting furs.
Their principal object is the fea-beaver or otter ;
but fkins of inferior value alfo make a part of
their cargoes. We neglected to inquire how
long they have had a féttlement upon Oonalafhka,
and the neighbouring iflands; but if we form our
judgment on this point from the great fubjecf ion
the PACIFIC    OC E A N. iqc
the natives are under, this cannot be of a very
late date*. Thefe furriers are, from time to
time, fucceeded by others. Thofe we faw arrived here from Okotfk in 1776, and were to return in 1781.
As for the native inhabitants of this ifland, they
are,'to all appearance, a very peaceable, inof-
fenfive race of people ; and, in point of honeftv,
they might ferve as a pattern to the moft civilized
nations. But, from what we faw of their neioh.
hours, with whom the Ruffians are unconnected,
we have fome doubt whether this was their original difpofition ; and are rather inclined to be of
opinion, that it is the confequence of their prefent
ftate of fubje&ion. Indeed, if we did not mi£- ,
underftand the Ruffians, they had been under the
neceffity of making fome fève re examples before
they could bring the lflanders into tolerable order. If feverities were really inflicted at fir-it, the
beft excufe for them is, that they have'produced
the moft beneficial effects ; and, at preient, the
greateft harmonyfubfifts between the Ruffians and
the natives. The latter have their own chiefs in
each ifland, and ftem to enjoy liberty, and property without moleftation. Whether cney are
tributaries to the Ruffians, or nor, we could never
* According to Mr. Cose, in his account of the difcoveries of the Ruffians, they began to frequent Ooaakulika
in the year 1762.
learn- io6
learn ; but we had fome reafon  to fuppofe that
they are.
The people of Oonalafhka, are in general,rather
low of ftature, but plump,- and well fhaped.
Their necks are commonly fhort, and they have
fwarthy chubby faces. They have black eyes,
and fmall beards. Their hair is long, black,
and ftraight: the men wear it loofe behind, and
cut before ; but the women generally tie it up in
a bunch.
The drefs of both fexes is the fame with refpect
to fafhion, the only difference is in the materials.
The frock worn by the women is made of the
fkins of feals ; and that^f the men, of the fkins
of birds ; both reach below the knees. This
conftitutes the whole drefs of the females. But,
over the frock, the men wear another compofed
of gut, which water cannot penetrate ; is has a
hood to it, which is drawn over the head. Some
of them wear boots ; and all of them wear a fort
of oval fnouted cap, made of wood, with a rim
that admits the head. They dye thefe caps with
green and other colours ; and round the upper
part of the rim they fix the long bridles of fome
fea animal, on which glafs beads are ftrung ; and
on the front is a fmall image or two formed of
bone. They do not make ufe of paint; but the
women puncture their faces flightiy, and both
fexes perforate the Jower lip, in which they B.K
pieces of bone.    Buç it is as uncommon here to
foe  io8
A     VOYAGE     TO    THE
chief, who fwallowed them with great fatisfactlon,
When  he had  finifhed his  meal, the remains of
the head  being cut in pieces, were given to the
fervants, who tore off the meat with their teeth,
and gnawed the bones like fo many dogs.
As the Oonalafhkans ufe no paint, they are leSl
dirty in their perfons than thofe lavages who thus
befmear themfelves; but they are full as filthy in
their houfes. The following: is their method of
building: they dig, in the ground, an oblong
pit, which rarely exceeds fifty feet in length, and
twenty in breadth ; but the dimenfions are in
general fmaller. Over this excavation they form
the roof of wood, which they cover firft with
grafs, and then with earth, fo that tfie external
appearance refembles a dunghill. Near each
end of the roof is left a fquare opening, which
admits the light; one of thefe openings being,
intended only for this purpofe, and the other being alio ufed to go in and out by, with the affift-
ance of a ladder; or rather a poft, in which fleps
are cut. In fome of the houfes there is another
entrance below, but this is rather uncommon*
Round the fides and ends of the habitations, the
families, feveral of which dwell together, have
their feparate apartments, where they fleep, and
fit at work ; not on benches, but in a fort of concave trench, dug entirely round the infide of the
houfe, and covered with mats, fo that this part is
kept pretty clean and decent.    The fame cannot'
be faid of the middle of the houfe, which is common to all the families. For, though it is covered wirh dry grafs, it is a receptacle for every
kind of dirt, and the7place where the urine trough
ftands ; the flench of which is by no means improved by raw hides, or leather, being airnoft
continually fteeped in it. Behind, and over the
I trench, they place the few effects that they have
in their poffeifion, fuch as their mats, fkins, and
Their furniture confifts of buckets, cans,wooden
bowls, fpoons, matted bafkets, and fometimes
a Ruffian kettle or pot. All thefe u ten fil s are
made in a very neat manner ; and yet we obferved
no other tools among them than the knife and the
hatchet ; that is, a fmall flat piece of iron, made
like an adze, by fixing it into a crooked wooden
Though the Ruffians live among thefe people,
we found much lefs iron in poffeflion of the latter, thanNwe had met with among other tribes on
the neighbouring continent of America, who had
never feen the Ruffians, nor perhaps had any in-
tercourfe with them. Probably a few beads"., and
a fmall quantity of tobacco and fnuff, purchafe
all they have to fpare. There are few of them
that do not both fmoke and chew tobacco, and
take fnuff.
They did not appear to be very defirous of
more iron, or to want any other inftruments, ex- no
cept fewing needles, their own being formed of
bone. W7ith thefe they few their canoes, and
make their clothes, and alfo work very curiouïf
embroidery. They ufe, inftead of thread, the
fibres, of finews^ which they fplit to the thick nefs
which is required. All fewing is performed by
the females. They are the fhoe-makers, taylors,
and boat-buiklers, or boat-coverers ; forthe-men^
in all probability, conftruct .the wooden frame*
over which the fkins are fewed* They manufacture mats, and bafkets of grafs, which are both'
ftrong and beautiful. There is, indeed, a neat-
nefs and perfection in moft of their work, that
fhews they are neither deficient in ingenuity nor
We did not obferve a fire-place in any one of
their habitations. They are lighted, as well as
heated, by lamps $ which, though fimple, effectually anfwer the purpofe for which they are
intended. They confift of a flat flone, hollowed!
on one fide like a plate ; in the hollow part they
put the oil, mixed with fome dry grafs, which
ferves for a wick. Both fexes often warm themfelves over one of thefe lamps, by placing it between their legs, under their garments* and fitting thus over it for feveral minutes. Thefe
people produce fire both by collifion and attrition ; the firft by ftriking two flones againft each
other, on one of which a quantity of brimftone
has been  previoufly rubbed.    The latter method^
is performed by means of two pieces of wood,
one of which is flat, and the other is a flick of
the length of about a foot and a half. They
prefs the pointed end of the flick upon the other
piece, whirling it nimbly round as a drill, and
thus fire is procured in a few minutes. This
method is common in many countries. It is not
only practifed by thefe people, but alfo by the
Kamtfchadales, the Greenlanders, the Otàheite-
ans, the New Hollanders, and the Brazilians,
and probably by other nations. , Some men of
learning and genius have founded an argument on
this cuftom, to prove that this and that nation
are of the fame extraction. But cafual agreements, in a few particular inftances, will not
wholly authorize fuch a conclufion ; nor, on the
other hand, will a difagreement, either in manners
or cuftoms, between two different nations, prove
of courfe that they are of different extraction.
We faw no offenfive, nor even defenfive weapon
among the natives of Oonalafhfka. It can fcarce-
ly be fuppofed that the Ruffians found them in
fuch a defencelefs flate ; it is rather to be imagin.
ed, that, for their own feeurity, they have disarmed them. Political motives, likewife, may
have induced the Ruffians not to permit thefe
iflanders to have any large canoes; for we can
hardly believe they had none fuch originally, as
we found  them   among   all   their   neighbours.
However, ÎI2
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
However, we obferved none here except two of
three that belonged to the Ruffians.-
The canoes in ufe .among the natives, are
fmallejf than any of thofe we had ft en upon the
coaft of America, from which, however, they
differ but little in their confiruction. The form
of thefe terminates fomewhat abruptly ; the head
is forked, and the upper point of the fork projects without the under one, which is level with
the furface of the water. It is remarkable that
they fhouid thus conftruct them, for the fork
generally catches hold of every thing that comes
in the way ; to prevent which, they fix a piece of
fmall flick from one point to the other. In other
refpects they build their canoes after the manner
of thofe of the Efquimaux and Greenlanders ; the
frame being of flcnder laths, and the covering of
the fkins of feals. They are about twelve feet in
length, eighteen inches in breadth in the middle,
and twelve or fourteen inches in depth. They
fometimes carry two perfons, one of whom fits
in the feat, or round hole, which is nearly in the
middle ; and the other is ftretched at full length
in the canoe. Round this hole is a rim or hoop
of wood; about which gut fkin is fewed, which
can be,drawn together, or opened like a purfe,
with leathern firings fitted to the outer edge;
The man fits in this place, draws the fkin tight
about his body over his gut-frock, and brings
the ends of the thongs, or purfe-ftrings, over his
fhoulder J  PACIFIC    OCEAN. H3
fhoulder. The fleeves of his frock are fattened
tight round his wrifts ; and it being clofe round
his neck, and the hood being drawn over his
head where his cap confines it^ water cannot
eafily penetrate, either into the canoe, or to his
body. If, however* any wrater fhouid find means
to infinuate itfelf, the boatman dries it up with a
piece of fpunge. He makes ufe of a double-
bladed paddle., which is held with both hands in
the middle, ftriking the water firft on one fide,
and then on the other, with a quick regular mo-
. tion. Thus the canoe is impelled at a great rate*
and in a direction perfectly ftraight. In failing
from Egoochfhak to Samganoodha, though our
fhip went at the rate of feven miles an hour, two
or three canoes kept pace with her.
Their implements for hunting, and fifhing lie
ready upon their canoes, under ftraps fixed for
the purpofe. They $re all extremely well made
of wood and bone, and are not very different
. from thofe ufed by the Greenlanders. The only
difference is in the point of the iniffile dart ;
which, in fome that we faw at this ifland, does
not exceed an inch in length ; whereas thofe of
the Greenlanders, according to Crantz, are about
eighteen inches long. Indeed thefe darts as
well as fome other of their inftruments, are extremely curious. Their darts are generally made
of fir, and are about four feet-in length. One
end is formed of bone, into which, by means of
Vol. III.—n° 14. I a focket, VQ Y AG E    TO    THE
a focket, another fmall piece of bone, which "is
barbed, is fixed, but contrived in fuch a manner,
as to be put in and taken out without trouble :
this is fecured to the middle of the flick by I
ftrong, though thin piece of twine, compofed
offinews. The bird, fifh, of other animal is no
fooner ftruck, than the pointed bone flips out of
the focket, but remains fixed in its body by
means of the barb. The dart then ferves as a
float to trace the animal, and alfo contributes to
fatigue it confiderably, fo that it is eafily taken*
They throw thefe darts by the affiftance of a thirt
piece of wood, twelve or fourteen inches long 5
the middle of this is flightly hollowed, for the better reception of the weapon; and at the termination of the hollow, which does not extend to the
end, is fixed a fhort pointed piece of bone, to
prevent the dart from flipping. - The other ex-"
tremity is furnifhed with a hole for the reception
of the fore-finger, and the fides are made to
coincide with the other fingers and thumb, in
order to grafp with greater firmnefs. The natives throw thefe darts to the diftance of eighty
or ninety yards, with great force and dexterity/;
They are exceedingly expert in ftriking fifh, both f
in the fea, and in rivers. They alfo ufe hooks
and lines, nets and wears. The lines are formed of twilled fi news, and the hooks of bone.
Whales, porpofes, grampufes, halibut, fword-
fifh, falmon, trout, cod, foals, flat-fifh, and feveral PACIFIC     OCEAN. IIjj
rai other forts, are found here ; and there may be
many more that we had riot an opportunity of
feeing. Salmon and halibut appear to be in the
greateft plenty ; and on them the people of thefe
ifles principally fubfift ; at leaft, they were the
only fort of fifh, except cod, that we obferved to
be laid up for their winter ftore.
Seals, arid all that tribe of fea animajs^ are not
fo numerous as they ate in many other feas*
Nor can this be thought fuprizirig, fince there
is hardly any part of the coaft, on either continent, nor any of thefe iflands, fituate between
them, but what is inhabited, and whofe inhabitants hunt theiè animals for their food and clothing. Sea-horfes are, indeed, to be found in
prodigious numbers about the ice; and the fea-
otter is fcarce any where to be met with but in
this fea. An animal was fometimes feen by us,
that blew after the manner of whales. It had a
head refembling that of a feal. It was larger
than that animal, and its colour was white, with
dark fpots interfperfed. This was, perhaps, the
m an at i, or fea-cow.
Water fowls are neither found here in fuch
numbers, nor in fuch variety, as in the northern
parts of the Atlantic Ocean. However, there are
fome in thefe parts, that we do not recollect to
have feen in other countries ; particularly the
alca monochroa of Steller, and a black and white
duck, which we judge to be different from the
I 2 ftone- ïi6
ftone-duck that Krafheninikôff has defcribed iM
his Hiftory of Kamtfchatka. All the other birdfc
we faw are mentioned by this author, except fome
which we obferved near the ice ; and the greateft
part of thefe, if not all, have been defcribed by
Martin, in his voyage to Greehland. It is iornc^
what extraordinary, that penguins, which are fo
frequently met with in many parts of the world,
fhouid not be found in this fea. Albatroffes too
are extremely fcarce here.
The few land-birds feen by us are the fame
with thofe of Europe ; but there were probably
many others which we had no opportuity of
obferving. A very beautiful bird was fhot in
the woods at Norton Sound ; which, we underftand, is fometimes found in England, and known
by the appellation of chatterer. Our people faw
other fmall birds there, but in no great abundance
or variety; fuch as the bullfinch* the woodpecker, the yellow-finch, and tit-moufe.
Our excurfions and obfervations being confined to the fea-coaft, we cannot be expected to
have much knowledge of the animals or vegetables^
of the country. There are few other infects be-
fides mufquitoes, and we faw few reptiles except
lizards. There are no deer at Oonalafhka, or
any of the neighbouring iflands; nor are there
any domeftiG animals* not even dogs. Weafels
and foxes were the only quad rupee!s we obferved ; but the natives told us* that  they  had
BIS! likewife PACIFIC    OCEAN,
likewife hares, and the marmottas mentioned by
Kraiheninikoff. Hence it appears, that the in-?
habitants procure the greateft fhare of their food
from the fea and rivers. They are alfo indebted
to the fea for all the wood which they ufe for
building, and other neceffary purpofes; as there
is not a tree to be feen growing upon any of the
iflands, nor upon the neighbouring coaft of the
The feeds of plants are faid to be conveyed,
by various means,* from one part of the world to
another ; evea to iflands lying in the inidft of
cxteniive oceans, and far diftant from any other
lands. It is therefore remarkable, that there are
no trees growing on this part of the American
continent, nor upon any of the adjacent ifles.
They are doubtlefs as well fituated for receiving
feeds, by the various ways we have heard of, as,
thofe coaft s which have plenty of wood. Nature
has, perhaps, denied to fome foils the power of
railing trees, without the affiftance of art. ; With
refpect to the drift-wood, upon the ihores of thefe
iflands, we have, no doubt of its coming* from
America. For though there may be none on the
neighbouring coaft, a fufficient quantity may
grow farther up the country, which may be
broken loofe by torrents in the fpring, and brought
down to the fea; and not a little may be conveyed from the woody coafts, though fituated at a
more confiderable diftance.
I | Plants lit
A   VOYAGE       TO   THE
Plants are to be found in great variety at
Oonalafhka. Several of them are fuch as we meefr
with in Europe, and alfo in Newfoundland, and -
other parts of America ; and others of them,
which are likewife found in Kamtfchatka, are
eaten by the natives both there and here. Of
thefe, Krafheninikoff has favoured us with de-
fcriptions. The principal one is the faranne, or
lily root ; which is about as large as a root of gar-
lick, round, and compofed of a number of fmall
cloves and grains. When boiled, it fomewhat
refembles faloop ; the tafle of it is not difagree-
able. It does not appear to be in great
Among the food of the natives we may reckon
fome other wild roots ; the flalk of a plant not unlike  angelica;   and  berries  of different  fpecieJÉl
fuch as cranberries,   hurtle-berries,   bramble-berries, and heath-berries ; befides a fmall red berijM
which,   in Newfoundland,   is  denominated   partridge berry ; and another brown berry, with which
we were  unacquainted.    This  has fomewhat of
the tafte of a floe, but is different from it in every
other refpect.     When  eaten   in  a   confiderable
quantity  it   is very aftringent.    Brandy may   be '
diftilled from it.    Captain Clerk endeavoured 10
preferve fome ; but they   fermented, and  became
as ftrong as if they had been fteeped in fpirits.
There were feveral plants which  were fervice-
abie to us, but are not ufed either by the Ruffians
or the natives. Thefe were pea-tops, wild pur?
flain, a fort of fcurvy-grafs, creffes, and a few
others. We found all thefe very palatable, whether dreffed in foups or in fallads. The vallies
and low grounds abound with grafs, which grows
very thick, and to a great length. W7e are of
opinion, that cattle might fubfift at Oonalafhka
in every feafon of the year^ without being houfed,
The foil, in many places, appeared to be capable
pf producing grain and vegetables. But, at prefent, the Ruffian traders, and the natives, feem
contented with the fpontaneous productions of
We obferved native fulphur among the people
pf this ifland : but we could not learn where they
procured it. We alfo found ochre, and a flone
that affords, a purple colour ; befides another that
gives a good green. This laft, in its natural ftate,
is of a greyifh green hue, coarfe, and heavy. It
readily diffolyes in oil ; but when it is put into,
water, it altogether lofes its properties. As for
the ftones about the fhore and hills, we perceived
^n them nothing that was extraordinary.
The Oonalafhkans inter their dead on the tops;
of hills, and raife over the grave a little hillock.
One of the natives, who attended Captain Cook
in a walk into the country, pointed out feveral of
thefe repofitories of the dead. There was one of
them, by the fide of a road, that had a heap of
ftqnes over it ; and all who paffed |g added a flone
j A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
to the heap. In the country were feen feveral
flone hillocks, that feemed to have been artificially raifed. Some of them were, to appearance, of
great antiquity.
We are unacquainted with the notions of thefe
people refpecting the deity, and a future ftate.
We are equally uninformed with regard to their
diverfions ; haying feen nothing that could give us
an infight into either.
They are extremely chearful and friendly a-
mong each other ; and they always treated us with
great civility. The Ruffians faid they never had
any connection with their women, on account of
their not being chriftians. Our people, however,
^were lefs fcrupulous ; and fome of them had rea-
fon to repent, that the women of Oonalafhka encouraged their addreffes ; for their health was injured by a diftemper that is, not wholly unknown
here. The natives are alfo fubject to the cancer,
or a complaint of a fimilar nature, which thofe
who are attacked by it are fludious to conceal.
They do not appear to be long-lived. We did
not fee a perfon, man or woman, whom we could
fuppofe to be fixty years of age ; and we obferved
very few who feem"d to exceed fifty.
We have occafionally mentioned, from the
time of our arrival in Prince William's Sound,
how remarkably the inhabitants on this north-
weftern tide of America refemble the Efquimaux
and Greenlanders in various particulars of perfon, PACIFIC     OCEAN.
fon, drefs, weapons, canoes, and the like. We
were, however, much lefs ftruck with this, thaa
with the affinity fubfifting between the dialects
of the Greenlanders and Efquimaux, and thofe of
Oonalafhka and Norton's Sound- Biit we muft
obferve, with refpect to the words which were
collected by us on this fide of America, that too
much ftrefs is not to be laid upon their being
accurately reprefented ; for, after the death of
Mr. Anderfm, we had few who took any great
degree of pains about fuch matters ; and we have
often found that the fame word, written down by
two or more perfons, from the mouth of the fame
native, differed confiderably, on being compared
together. Neverthelefs, enough, is certain to au-
thqrize this judgment, that there is great reafonv
to fuppofe, that all thefe nations are of the fame
extraction ; and if that^ be the cafe, there is little -
doubt of there being a northern communication by
fea, between the weftern fide of America, and the
eaftern fide, through Baffin's Bay; which communication, however, is perhaps effectually' fhut
up againft fhips, by ice, and other obftructions ;
fuch, at leaft, was Captain Cook's opinion at this
The tides in thefe parts are not very confiderable, except in Cook's River. The flood comes
from the fouth or fouth-eaft, following thé direction of the coaft to the north-weft. Between
Cape Prince of  Wales and Norton  Sound   we
found A   VOYAGE  TO   THE
found a current fetting towards the north-weft^
particularly off that.Cape, and within Sledge
Ifland. This current, however, extended but a
little way from the coaft, and was neither confident nor uniform. To the north of Cape Prince
of Wales, we obferved neither tide nor current,
either on the coaft of America, or that of Afia.
This circumftance gave rife to an opinion which
fome of our people entertained, that the two
coafts were connected either by land or ice ; and
that opinion received fome degree of ftrength,
from our never having any hollow waves from the
northward, and from, our feeing ice almoft the
whole way acrofs.
From the obfervations madç during our continuance in the harbour of Samganoodha, its lati^
tude is 53° cf north, and its longitude 193° 29^
departure from Samganoodha—Amoghta—An elevated Rock—Repafs the Strait between Oonalafhka and 0onelia—Proceed to the South—One Man
killed, and three or four wounded on board the
Difcovery—Mowee difcovered—Vifits from the Natives—A Vijit from a Chief named Terrecoboot
—Owyhee, an Ifland, dij covered—Ships ply to
Windward—An JSclipfe of the Moon—Ship's Crew
refufe to tajle Sugar Cane Beer—Comparative View
of the Cordage in the Navy and Merchants Service—Eulogium on the Natives of Owyhee—The
Refolution accomplifhes the Intention of getting to
Windward of the Ifland—The Progrefs—Vifits
from the Ifianders—Joined by the Difcovery—Mt\
Bligh examines Karakahooa Bay—Multitudes of
Peqple—Anchor in the Bay.
ON Monday the 26th of October, we failed
from Samganoodha harbour, when, the
wind" being foutheVly, we flood to the weftward.
We intended to proceed to the Sandwich Iflands,
in order to pafs a few of the winter months there,
if we fhouid meet with the neceffary refrefhments,
and then advance in our progrefs to Kamtfchatka,
fo as to arrive there about the middle of May in
the enfuing year. This being determined on,
|he Commodore gave Captain Clerke inflections
J *24
A    VOY AG E    TO    TH E
for proceeding in cafe of feparation ; Sandwich
Iflands being appointed for the firft place of rendezvous; and, for the fécond, Petropaulowfka^
in Kamtfchatka.
Having got out of the harbour, the wind veer-,
ing to the fouth-eaft, with which we were carried
to the weftern part of Oonalafhka, by the evening. Here the wind was at fouth, and we ftretch-
ed to the weftward till the next morning at feven,
at which time we wore, and flood to the eaft. The
wind had now fo greatly increafed, as,to reduce
us to our three courfes. It blew in, heavy fquaUs
accompanied with rain, hail, and fnow.
In the morning of the 28th, at about nine
o'clock, Oonalafhka bore fouth-eaft, about four
leagues diftant. The ftrength of the gale was
much abated, and, towards the evening, infen-
fibly veered round to the eaft, and foon after got
to north-eaft, increafing to a very hard gale, attended with rain.
At half* after fix, in the morning of the 29th,
we difcovered land, which we fuppcfed to be the
ifland Amoghta. At eight, the wind having
veered to the weftward, we could not weather the
ifland, and gave over plying; bearing away for
Oonalafhka* in order to go to the north of it,
not daring, in fo hard a gale of wind, to attempt
a paffage to the fouth-eaft of it. When we bore
away, the landi was about four leagues diftant.
The longitude was 191° 17 % and the latitude 530
S'8'.    The Ruffian map is very inaccurate in the
fituation of this ifland.
Steering to the north-eaft, we difcovered* at
eleven o'clock, a rock, elevated like a tower,
bearing north nortli-eaft, at the diftance of about
four leagues. The latitude was $3° 57', and thé
longitude 191° Jgt We got fight of Oonalafhka
about three in the afternoon, when we fhortened
fail, and hauled the wind, being Unable to get
through the paffage before night. On the 20th,
at day-break, having a very hard gale at weft-
north-weft, with heavy fqualls and fnow, we
bore away under courfes," and clofe-reefed top-
fails. About noon we were in the middle of the
ftraight, and got through it at three in the afternoon, Cape Providence bearing weft-fouth-weft ;
the wind at weft-north-weft, blew a ftrong gale,
with fair weather*
On the 2d of November, the wind was at fouth ;
and, in the evening, blew a violent florm, which
.occafioned us to bring to. Several guns were
fired by the Difcovery, which we immediately
anfwered. We loft fight of her at eight, and faw
her no more till eight the next morningé She
joined us at ten; when, the height of the gale
being over, and the wind having veered to weft-
north-weft, we made fail, and purfued our courfe
to the fouthward.
In the morning of Saturday the 7th, a fhag,
or comorant, flew often round the fhip.    As it
is 126
O    THE"
is not common for thefe birds to go far out of the
fight of land, we fuppofed there was fome at no
great diftance; though we could not difcover
any. Having but little wind in thé afternoon,
Captain Cierke came on board with fome melan*
choly intelligence. He informed us that, the fécond night after wé departed from Samganoodhaj
the main tack of the Difcovery gave way, by
which accident one itian was killed, and the boat-
fwain, with two or three others, wounded. He
added, that his fails and rigging received confiderable damage on the 3d, and that he fired the
guns as a fignal to bring to.
On the 8th, we had a gentle breeze at north,
with clear weather. On the 9th, we had eight
hours calm, To this fucceeded a wind from the
fouth, accompanied with fair weather. Such of
our people as could handle a needle, were now
employed to repair the fails; arid the carpenters were
directed to put the boats in order.
At noon, on the 12th, the wind returned to
the northward, and veered to the eaft on the
15th. We now faw a tropic bird, and a<dolphin ;
the firft we had obferved in our paffage. On the
17th, the wind was fouthward, where it remained
tilk the 19th in the afternoon, when it was in
ftantly brought round by the weft to the north,'
by a fquali of wind and rain. The wind increafed
to a very ftrorig gale, and brought us under
double  reefed top-fails.     In lowering the main
top-fail, in order to reef it, the force of the wind
tore it out of the foot-rope, and it was fplit in
feveral parts. We got, however, another top-
fail to the yard the next morning. We fteered to
the fouth ward till the 25th, at day-light* when
we were in the latitude of 200 55'.
The next morning, at day-break, land Was dif-
covered^ extending from fouth-fouth-eaft to weft.
We flood for it, and at eight o'clock, it extended
from fouth-eaft to weft, the neareft part about
two leagues diftant. We now perceived that our
difcovery of the group of the Sandwich Iflands had
been very imperfect, thofe which we had vifited in
our progrefs northward^ all lying to the leeward of
our prefent ftation;
An elevated hill appeared in the country* whofe
fummit rofe above the clouds. The land, from
this hill, fell in a gradual flope, terminating in a
fteep rocky coaft ; the fea breaking againft it in a
moft dreadful furf. Unable to weather the ifland^
wè bore up, and ranged to the weftward. We
now perceived people on many parts of the fhore,5
and feveral houfes Nand plantations. The country
appeared to be well fupplied with wood and water,
and ftreams were feen, in various places, falling
into the fea. .
It being of the utmoft importance to procure &
proper fupply of provifions at thefe iflands, which
could not poffibly be accomplifhed, if a free trade
with the natives were to be permitted ;   Captain
Cook Î28
Cook publifhed an order, prohibiting all pérfoné
on board the fhips from trading, except thofe ap-'
pointed by himfelf and Captain Clerke ; and thefe
were under limitations of trading only for provifions and refrefhments. Injunctions were alfo
laid againft the admittance of women into the
fhips, but under certain reftrictions. But the evil^
which was intended to have been prevented by this
regulation, had already got amongft them.
About noon, the coaft extended from fouth-
eaft to north-weft, the neareft fhore three milts
diftant, in the latitude of 20Q 59', and the longitude of 2030 50'. Some canoes came off, and,
when they got along-fide, many of the conductors of them came into the fhip without hefita-
tion. We perceived that they were of the fame
nation as thofe iflanders more to the leeward
Which had already been vifited by us ; and, as
we underftood, they were no ftrangers to our
having been there. It was* indeed, too evident;
thefe people having got the venereal difeafe among
them ; which they probably contracted by an
intercourfe with their neighbours, after we had left
Our vifiters fupplied us with a quantity of*
cuttle nfh, in exchange for nails and iron. They
brought but little fruit or roots, but faid they had
plenty of them on their ifland, as well as of hogs
and fowls. The horizon being clear, in the
evening,   we fuppofed the wefternmoft land that
We could fee, to be an ifland, diftinct from that
off which we now were. Expecting the natives
would return the next day, with the produce of
their ifland, we plyed off the whole night, and
ftood clofe in fhore the next morning. At firft
we were vifited but by few, but, tdwards noon,
many of them appeared, bringing with them potatoes, tarro, bread-fruit* plantains, and fmall
pio-s, all of which were bartered for iron tools
and nails, we having few other articles to give
them. We traded with them till about fourviri
the afternoon, at* which time they had difpoiea
of all their cargoes ; and, not expreffing any inclination to fetch inore, we immediately made
fail. j:jj|
On the 30th, in the afternoon* being off the
north-eaft end of the ifland, fome more canoes
came off. Thefe principally belonged to Ter*
reeoboo, a chief who came in one of them; He
made the Commodore a prefent of two or three
pigs ; and we procured a little fruit by bartering
with the other people. In about two hours they
all left us, except feven or eight who chofe to
remain on board. Soon after, à doublé failing
canoe arrived to attend upon them, which we
towed aftern the whole night. Ih the evening,
another ifland was ken to the windward, called,
by the natives, Owyhee. That, which we had been
©ff for fome days, was called Mowee.
Vol. III.—b°. 14. K At ï to
At eight in the morning, on the ift of December, Owhyhee extended from fouth-eaft to
fouth-weft. Perceiving that we could fetch Owhyhee, we flood for it, when our vifiters from Mowee thought proper to embark in their canoes, and
went afhore. We fpent the^ night, ftanding off
and on, the northfide of Owhyhee.
On the 2d of December, in the morning, to
our great furprize, we faw the fummits of the
mountains covered with fnow. Though they
were not of an extraordinary height, the fnow,
rn fome places, appeared to be of a confiderable
depth, and to have remained there forfte time.
Drawing near the fhore, fome of the natives approached us, who appeared a little fhy at firft,
but we prevailed on fome of them to come on
board; and, at length, induced them to return?
to the ifland, to bring a fupply of what we wanted. We had plenty of company after thefe had
reached the fhore, who brought us a tolerable
fupoly of pigs, fruit, and roots. We traded
with them till about fix in the evening, when we
flood off,- in order to ply to windward round the
An eclipfe of the moon was obferved in the
evening of the 4th. Mr. King ufed, for the
purpofe of obfervation, a night-telefeope, with a
circular aperture at the object end. The 'Commodore obferved with the telefcope of one of
Ramfden's fextants.
In the evening of the 6th, being near the fhore^
&nd five leagues farther up the coaft, we again
traded with the natives; but, receiving only a
trifling fupply, we flood in the next morning,
when the number of our vifiters was confiderable,
with whom wejtrafficked till two in the afternoon.
We had now procured pork, fruit, and roots, fuf-
ficient to fupply us for four or five days. We
therefore made fail,' and flill plyed to windward.
Captain Cook having procured à great quantity of fugar cane, and having, upon â trial* difcovered that a decoction of it made very palatable beer, he ordered fome of it to be brewed
for our general ufe; but, on the broaching of
the cafks, not one of the crew would even tafte
it; The Commodore* having no other motivé
in preparing this beverage, than that of preferving
our fpirits for a colder climate, neither exerted
his authority, nor had recourfe to perfuafion, tô
induce them to drink it ; well knowing that, io
long as we could be plentifully fupplied with
other vegetables* there was no dangers of the
fcurvy. But, that he might not be difappointed
in his views, he ordered that no grog fhouid be
ferved in either of the fhips. The Commodore,
and his officers, continued to drink this fugar-
cane beer, whenever materials could be procured
for brewing it. Some hops, which we had on
board* improved it much ; and, it was,, doubt-
lefs,- extremely wholefome ; though the Captain's
' K 2 incon- *3*
inconfiderafe crew* could not be perfuaded but
that it was injurious to their health.
Innovations,   of whatever kind,   on   board   a
fhip, are fure to meet with the difapprobation of
the feamen, though ever fo much to their advantage.    Portable foup, and four krout, were con-'
demned,  at fifft,   as improper food  for human
beings.    Few commanders have introduced more
ufeful varieties of food and drink into their fhipsjj
than Captain Cook has done.    Few others, indeed, have had the opportunities* or have been
driven  to  the   neceflity  of  trying  fuch experiments.    It  was,   neverthelefs,  owing to certain
deviations from eftablifhed practice,  that he was
enabled, in a great degree, to preferve his people from the fcurvy, a diftemper that has often
made more havock in peaceful voyages* than the
enemy in military expeditions.
Having kept at fome diftance from the coaft*
♦till the 13 th, we flood in again, fix leagues more
to, windward ; and, after trading with the natives who came off to us, returned to fea. We
alfo intended to have approached the fhore again
on the 15th, to get à frefh fupply of fruit and .
roots; but the wind happening to be * then at
fouth-eaft, we embraced the opportunity of ftretch-
ing to the eaftward, in order to get round the
fouth-eaft end of the ifland. The wind continued at fout-eaft the greateft part of the 16th ;
on.the 17th, it was variable; and on the 18th,
1111 it P4C1FIC    OCEAN.
if was continually veering. Sometimes it blew
in hard fqualls ; and, at other times, it was calm,
with thunder, lightning, and rain. The wind
was wefterly for a few hours in the afternoon ;
but it fhifted, in the evening, to eaft by fouth;
The fouth-eaft point of the ifland now bore fouth-
weft by fouth, diftant about five leagues, and we
expected that we fhouid be able to weather it ;
but it became calm at one the next morning, and
we were left wholly at the mercy of a north eafterly
fwell, which greatly impelled us towards the land ;
infomuch, that, before morning, lights were feen
upon the fhore, which was then at the diftance of
about a league. It was a dark night, with thunder, lightning, and rain.
A breeze from the fouth-eaft fucceeded the
calm at about three, blowing in fqualls, with
rain. At day-break, the coaft extended from
north by weft, to fouth-weft by weft, about half
a league diftant ;   a moft dreadful furf breaking-
fc> 1 &
upon the fhore. We had certainly been in the
moft imminent danger; from which we were not
yet fecure, the wind veering more eafterlv ; fo
that, for a confiderable time, we were but juft
able to keep our diftance from the coaft. Our
fituation was rendered the more alarming, by the
Jeach-rope of the main-top-fail giving way, in
confequence of which the fail was rent in two ;
the top-gallant-fails giving way in the fame manlier. W$ foon, however, got others to the yards,
& 3 an4 134
and left the land aftern. The Difcovery was at
fome diftance to the north, intirely clear from
the land ; nor did fhe appear in fight till eight
It is an obvious remark, that the bolt-ropes to
our fails are extremely deficient in ftrength or
fubftance. This has frequently been the fource
of infinite labour and vexation; and occafioned
the lofs of much canvas by their giving way.
It was, upon this occafion, obferved by Captain
Cook, that the cordage, canvas, and other flores,
made ufe of in the navy, are inferior,- in general,
to thofe ufed in the merchant fervice.
The Commodore alfo obferved, that an opinion prevailed among all naval officers, that the
king's flores were fuperior to any others ; no
fhips being fo well fitted out as thofe of the navy,
They may be right, he admits, as to the quantity ; but, he apprehends, not with refpect to the
quality of the flores. This, indeed, it not. often
tried ; for thefe things are ufually condemned,
or converted toother ufes, before they are half
worn out. Only fuch voyages as ours afford an
opportunity of making the trial ; our fituation
being fuch, as to render it necefiary to wear
every thing to the extreme m
* Captain Cook, in this particular, appears to be m if-,
taken ; the heft of cordage being made in the king's, yard.
In time of war, indeed, when the cordage is, from neceffity,
fupplied by contract, ibme of an inferior quality may fometimes be made.
When day-light appeared, the natives afhore
•exhibited a white flag, as a fignal, we imagined,
of peace and friendftup. Many of them ventured
out after us; but, as the wind frefhened, and we
were unwilling to wait, they were prefently left
aftern. In the afternoon, we made another attempt
to weather the eaftern extreme, in which we failed;
when the Commodore gave it up, and ran down
to the Difcovery.
Our getting round the ifland was. indeed, a
matter of no importance ; for we had feen the extent of it to the fouth-eaft, which was all the
Commodore aimed at ; the natives having informed us, that there was no other ifland to the
windward of this* But, as we were fo near ac-
compliihing our defign, we did not entirely abandon the idea of weathering it, and continued to
At noon, on the 20th, the fouth-eaft point bore
fouth, at the diftance of ^ three leagues. Xhe
fnowy fiills bore weft-north-weft; and we were
within four miles of the neareft fhore. We were
vifited, in the afternoon, by fome of the natives,
-who came off in their canoes, bringing with them
pigs and plantains. The. latter were highly acceptable, we having been without vegetables for
fome days ; but this was fo inconfiderable a fupply (hardly fufficient for one day) that we flood
in the next morning, till within about four miles
of the land, when a number of canoes came off
K 4 laden. VOYAGE
T# ?
Jaden with provifions. The people in them continued trading with us till four o'clock in the afternoon ; at which time we ,had got a good fupply ; we therefore made fail, ftretching off to the
We met with lefs refer ve and fufpicion, in our
intercourse with the people of this ifland, than
we had ever experienced among any tribe of fa-
vages. They frequently fent up into the fhip,
the articles they meant to barter, and afterwards
$$&£ in themfelves, to traffick on the quarter deck*»
citants of Otaheite, whom we have fo
5 have not that confidence in our in-
flfe^ce it may be inferred, that thofe
are more faithful in their dealings
but juftice to obferve, that they never at-
I   to over-reach us in exchanges,   nor to
ffil^a  fingle   theft.    They  perfe&ly under-
trading, and clearly comprehended the rea-
f our plying upon  the  coaft.    For, though
brought off plenty of pigs, and other provi-
they  were particular in keeping up their
; and, rather than difpofe of them at an un^
lue, would carry them to fhore again,
eight in the morning of the 2id, we tack-
fouthward.    At noon, the  fnowy peak
bore fouth-weft.    We flood  to the fouth-eaft till
midnight, when we tacked to the north till four.
We had  hopes  of   weathering the ifland, - and
llllllll fhouid PACIFIC   OCEAN. I3J
fhouid have fucceeded, if a calm had not enfued^
and left us to the mercy of a fwell, which impelled us towards'the land, from which we were,
not above the diftance of two leagues, Some
light puffs of wind, however, took us out of
clanger. Whilft we lay in this fituation^ fome
iflanders came off with hogs, fowls, aed fruit.
From one of the canoes we got a goofe, which
was not larger than a Mufcovy duck. The colour of its plumage was dark grey, and the bill
and legs were black.
After purchafing what the natives had brought
off, we made fail, and ftretched to the north.
At midnight, we tacked and flood to the fouth-
eaft. Imagining the Difcovery would fee us
tack, we omitted the fignal ; Jbut it afterwards
appeared that fhe did not fee us, and continued
ftanding to the north ; for, the next morning, at
day-light, fhe was not to be feen. But, as the
weather was now hazy, we could not fee far ; it
was therefore poffible that the Difcovery might
be following us. At noon, we were in the latitude of 19° $cf, and in the longitude of 2050 3';
and we were two leagues from the neareft part of
the ifland. In the evening, at fix, the fouthern-
nioft part of the ifland bore fouth-weft, the neareft fhore about feven miles diftant. We had,
therefore, now fucceeded in our endeavours, in
getting to the windward of the ifland.
The, *3^
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
The Difcovery was not yet within fight, but
as the wind was favourable for her to follow us,
we expected ihe would ihortly join us. We kept
cruifing off this point of the iiland, till Captain
Clerke was no longer expected here. It was, at
length, conjectured, that he was gone to leeward,
in order to meet us that way, not having been
able to weather the north-eaft part of the ifland.
Keeping generally from five to ten leagues
from the land, only one canoe came off to us till
the 2&th % at which time we were attended by
about a dozen, bringing, as ufual, the produce
of the ifland. We were concerned that the people had been at the trouble of coming, as we
could not poffibly trade with them, not having
yet con fumed our former flock ; and experience
had convinced us, that the hogs could not be
kept alive, nor the roots be many days preferved
from putrefaction. We meant, however, not tQ
leave this part of the ifland till we f>ad got a fupply, as, we could not eafily return to it, if it
Ihould hereafter be found neceffary. On thegoth,
we began to be in want, but a calm prevented us
from approaching the fhore. A breeze, however,
fprung up at midnight, which enabled us to ftand
in for the land at day-break. At ten o'clock the
iflanders vifited us, bringing with them a quantity of fruit and roots, but only three fmall pigs^
This fcanty fupply was, perhaps, occafioned by
fflp&> our PACIFIC    OCEAN,
our not having purchafed thofe which had lately
been brought off.
For the purpofes of traffic we brought to, but
we were fhortly interrupted with an exceffive
rain ; and, indeed, we were too far from the fhore $
nor could we venture to go nearer, as we could
not, for a moment, depend upon the wind's continuing where it was. The fwell, too, was extremely high, and fet obliquely upon the fhore,
where it broke in a moft frightful furf. We had
fine weather in the evening, and paffed the night
in making boards. Before day-break, on the
1 ft of January, 1779, the atmofphere was laden
with heavy clouds-, and the new year was ufher-
ed in with a heavy rain. We had a light brveze
foutherly, with fome calms. At ten, the rain
ceafed, the fky became clear, and the wind frefh-
Being now about four or five miles from the
fhore, fome canoes arrived with hogs, fruit, and
roots. We traded with the people in the canoes,
till three in the afternoon f when, being pretty
well fupplied, we made il il, jn order to proceed to the lee fide of the ifland, in fearch of the
Difcovery. We ftretched to the. eaftward, till
midnight, when the wind favoured us, and we
went upon the other tack.
The 2d, 3d, and 4th, were paffed in running
down the fouth-eaft fide of the ifland, Handing^
gff and on during the nights, and employing part
mJ 14©
of each day in laying to, to give the natives an
opportunity of trading with us. They frequently
came off to us, at the diftance of five leagues
from the fhore, but never brought much with
them, at thofe times, either from a fear^ of lofing
their articles in the fea, or from the uncertainty
of a market. We procured a quantity of fait,
of a moft excellent quality.
In the morning of the 5th, we paffed the fouth
point of the ifland, in the latitude of 189 54',
beyond which the coaft trends north 6o° weft. A
large village is fituated on this point, many of
whofe inhabitants thronged off tp the fhip with
hogs and women. The latter could not poffibly
be prevented from coming on board ; and they
were lefs refèrved than any women we had ever
feen. They feemed, indeed, to have vifited us
with no other yievy than to tender us their perfons.
Having now got a quantity of fait, we pur-
chafed only fuch hogs as were large enough for
. J o 00..
faking; refufing all thofe that were under fize^
But we could feldqrn procure any that exceeded
the weight of fixty pounds. Happily for us, we
had flili fome vegetables remaining, as we were
now fupplied with but few of thofe productions*
Indeed, from the appearance of this part of the
country, it feemed incapable of affording them.
Evident marks prefented themfelves of its having
been laid wafte by the explofion of a volcano;
Unci, though we had not then feen any thing of
the kind, the devaluation it had made in the
neighbourhood was but twojrifiblé. —•*——
Though the coaft is flieltered from the reigning winds, it had no anchorage ; a line of an
hundred arid fixty fathoms not reaching the bottom within half a mile of the fhore. The natives having now left us, we ran a few miles
down the coaft in the evening, and paffed thé
night in Handing off and on.
We were again vifited by the natives the next
morning. They came laden with the fame articles of commerce as before. Being not far frorri
the fhore, Captain Cook ferit Mr. Bîigh, in à
boat in order to found the coaft, and alfo to gô
afhore in fearch of frefh water. He reported,
on his return, that, within two cables lengths'
of the fhore, he found no foundings with a line
of one hundred and fixty fathoms; that* on thd
land, he could difcover no ftream or fpring ; that
there was fome rain water in holes, upon the
rocks, which the fpfay of the fea had rendered
brackifh ; that the whole furface of the country
was compofed of flags and, interfperfed
with a few plants. $$0Z
To our great fatisfaction, the Difcovery triade
its appearance between ten and eleven, coming
round the fouth point of the ifland, and fhe joinf
ed Us about one. Captain Clerke then came on
board the Refolution*   and acquainted us,   that
having 142
 VOYAGE   TO   f ' ti Ë
having cruifed four or five days where wë were
feparated, he plied round the eaft fide of the
ifland ; where, meeting with unfavourable winds*
he had been driven to fome diftance from thé
coaft. One of the iflanders continued on board
the* whole time, at his own requeft, having re-
fufed to leave the fhip, though opportunities had
prefented themfelves. The night was fpent in
Handing off and on. In the morning, we flood
in again, and Were vifited by many of the natives. At noon, the latitude was 19° i', and thé
longitude 2030 26' ; the neareft part of the ifland
two leagues diftant. On the 8th, at day-break^
we perceived, that whilft we were plying in the
night* the currents had carried us back confiderably to windward; and that we were now off the
fouth-weft point of the ifland, where we brought
to* in order to enable the inhabitants to trade
with us. fefj
The night was fpent in ftanding off and on*
Four men and ten women, who came on board
fhe preceding day* were with us ftill. The
Commodore not liking the company of the latter, we flood in fhore, on the 9th, about noon,
folely with a view of getting rid of our guefts ;
when, fome canoes coming off, we embraced
that opportunity of fending them away. 1
On the 10th, in the morning, we had light
airs from north-weft, and calms 5 at eleven, the
wind frefhened  at   north -north-weft,   which   fo
greatly PACIFIC   OCEAN. 142
greatly retarded us, that, in the evening, at eight*
the fouth fnowy hill bore northj  i ^ eaft.
At four o'clock in the morning of the nth,
the wind being at weft, we approached the land, irt
expectation of getting fome refrefhments. The
natives, feeing us fo near them, began to come
off, and we continued trading with them the whole
day ; though we procured but a very fcanty fupply,
♦ many of thofe who came off in their canoes, riot
having a fingle thing to barter. From this circum-
fiance, it appeared, that this part of the ifland was
extremely poor, and had already furnifhed us with
every thing they could fpare.
The 12th was employed in plying off and on,
with a frefh gale at weft. A mile from the fhore
we found ground, at the depth of fifty-five fathoms* At five, we flood to the fouthward* and
at midnight we had a calm. The next morning,
at eight, we had a fmall breeze at fouth-fouth-
eaft, and fteered for the land.
A few canoes came off to us with fome hogsj
but they brought no vegetables, which were now,
much wanted. In the evening, we had got the
length of the fouth-weft point of the ifland, but*
by the veering of the wind, we loft in the night
all that we had gained in the day. Being in the
fame fituation the next morning, fome more canoes attended us ; but they brought nothing
which we ftood in need of. We were now defti-
tute of roots and fruit, arid therefore obliged to
have *44
À    VbYAGE   TO   THE
have recourfe to our fea provifions. Some ca--
noes, 'however, arrived from the northward, whicfi
fupplied us with fome hogs and roots.
On the 15th, we had variable light airs till five
in the afternoon, when a breeze at eaft-north-eaft
fprung up, and enabled us to fleer along fhore td
the northward. The weather was this day remarkably fine, and we had plenty of company;
fnany of whom continued with us on board all
night, and their canoes were towed aftern. On
the 16th; at day-break, feeing the appearance of.
à bay, the Commodore fent Mr. Bligh, faith a
boat from each fhip, to furvey it, being now
about three leagues off.
Canoes arrived from all quarters; infomuch
that, by ten o'clock in the morning, there were at
leaft a thoufand about the two fhips, crouded
with people, and laden with hogs and other provifions. We were perfectly convinced of their I
having no hoftile intentions ; nota fi ngle perfon
having a weapon with him of any fort. Trade
and curioiity were their only inducements to vifir
us. Such numbers as wé had frequently on board,
it might be expected that fome of them fhouid
betray a thievifh difpofition. One of them took
a boat's rudder from the fhip, and was not defected till it was too late to recover it. Captain
Cook imagined this to be a proper opportunity
to fhew thefe iflanders the ufe of fire arms ; two
or three mufquets, and as many four pounders,
were, by his orders, fired over the canoe which
went away with the rudder. But, as the fhot was
not intended to take effect, the furrounding multitude were more furprized than frightened.
Mr. Bligh, when he returned in the evening,
reported, that he had found a bay with good anchorage, and frefh water, in a defirabie fituation.
Into this bay, the Commodore determined to take
his fhips, in order to refit, and fupply ourfelves
with refrefhments. At the approach of night,
the moft confiderable part of our vifitors retired
to the fhore; but many, at their own earnefl re-v
queft, were permitted to fleep on board. Curio-
fity, at leaft with fome of them, was not the only
motive, for feveral articles were miffing the next
morning ; in confequence of which, the Commodore came to a refolution not to admit fo many
on any future night.
On the 17th, at eleven in the forenoon, we
anchored in the bay, called by the natives Karaka-
kooa, within a quarter of a mile of the north-eaft
fhore. The fouth point of the bay bearing fouth
by weft, and the north point weft half north.
After we were moored, the fhips continued much
crouded with the natives, and furrounded by a
vaft multitude of canoes. In the courfe of our
voyages, we had no where feen fuch vaft numbers
of people affembled at* one place. Befides thofe
who vifited us in canoes, all the fhore was covered with fpectators, and hundreds were fwimming
Vol. IH.-*-E 15,
about VO Y A G E,   tkc^
about the fhips, like fhoals of fifh. We were
ftruck with the Angularity of this fcene ; and few
of us lamented that we had not fucceeded in our§
late endeavours, to find a northern paffage homeward. To this difappointment we were indebted for revifiting the Sandwich Iflands, and for'
enriching our voyage with a difcovery, in many
refpects, the moft important that has been made
by Europeans in the Pacific Ocean.
A  VOY- V    O    Y    A    G    E
BOOK     V,
CHAP.     I,
Karakakcoa Bay defcribed—Multitudes of the Natives furround the Ships—Defpoiic Authority of
the Chiefs over the inferior People—A Vifit^ received from Koah—Defcription of the Morai at
Kakoa—Offering made to Captain Cook at the
Morai—Mr. King erecTs Obfervatories—The Spot,
on which they are fituated, tabooed—Method of
curing Meat in Tropical Climates—Society of
Priefts accidentally difcovered — Their Munificence—Ceremony, at the Reception of Captain
Cook—Mean Artifice of Koah—Arrival of Ter-
reeohoo—The Bay tabooed upon that Occafion—
Bring the inhabitants to Obedience, by firing a
Mufquet — Remarkable Ceremony — Vifil from
Terreeoboo—-Captain Cook returns it.
THE Bay of Karakakooais  fituated in the
diftrict of Akona, on the weft fide of the
ifland of Owhyhee.    It extends about a mile in
I   L z depth. 148
A   VOYAGE    TO   TH?
depth, and is bounded by two points of land,
bearingfouth-eaft and north-weft from each other,
at the diftance of half a league. The north point
is flat and barren, on which is fituated the village
pf Kowrowa. A more confiderable village, called
Kakooa, flands in the bottom of the bay, near a
grove of ftately cocoa-trees. A high rocky cliff,
jnacceflible from the fea-fhore, runs between
them. Near the coaft, on the fouth-fide, the
land has a rugged appearance; beyond which the
country gradually rifes, and abounds with cultivated inclofures, and groves of cocoa-trees. TfeM
habitations of the people are fcattered about in
great plenty. Round the bay the fhore is covered with a black coral rock, except at Kakooa,
where there is an excellent fandy beach, with a
Morai at one extremity, and a fpring of frefh
Water at the other. We moored at the north fide
of this bay, and within a quarter of a mile from
the fhore.
The inhabitants, perceiving our intention to
anchor in the bay, came off in aftonifhing numbers, expreffin g their joy by finging, fhouting*
and the moft extravagant geftures. The decks,
fides, and riggings of our fhips were,covered with
them. Women and boys, who were unable to
procure canoes, came fwimming round us in
great multitudes ; fome of whom, not finding
room to get on board, amufed themfelves the
whole day by playing in the water.
One of the chiefs, who vifited the Refolution,
was natned Pareea. Though a young man, we
foon difcovered him to be a perfon of great
authority. He told Captain Cook that he was
jfakane $ to the fovereign of the ifland, who was
then on a military expedition at Mowee * whence
he was expected to return in a few da^si Some
prefents from the Commodore attached him to
our interefts, and wè found him exceedingly ufe-
ful to us. Before we had been long at anchor,
ffÈè Difcovery had fo many people hanging ori
One fide, that fhe was obferved to heel confiderably ; and our people found it impoffible to present the crowds from preffing into hen Captain
Cook* apprehenfive that- fhe might receive fome
injury, communicated his fears to Pareea, who
inftantly cleared the fhip' of its incumberances^
and difperfed the canoes that furrounded her.
From this circumftance, it appears that the
chiefs have a moft dèfpotic authority over the inferior people. An inftance, ftmilar to this, happened on board the Refolution ; where the crowd
fo far impeded the ordinary bu'finefs of the fhip^
that we found it neceffary to apply to Kaneena,
another chief, who had alfo attached himfclf particularly to Captain Cook. The inconvenience
we fuffered was no fooner mentioned, than he
ordered the natives immediately to quit the vef-
* We could not learn with certainty whether this was a
liame of office, or expreflive of fome degree of affinity,
L 3 Mi *5°
fel ; when, without a moment's hefitation, we faw
them all jump over-board ; except one perfon*
who loitered behind, and, by his manner, ex-
prefled fome degree of unwillingnefs to obey,
Kaneena obferving this contempt of his authority,
took hold of him immediately, and threw him
into the fea.
Thefe two chiefs were exceedingly well proportioned, and had countenances remarkably pleaf-
ing. Kaneena, whofe portrait was, drawn by Mr.
Webber, was as fine a figure as can be feen. His
height was about fix feet, his features were regular and expreflive, his deportment was eafy, firm,
and graceful, and he had dark lively eyes.
Mention has already been made, that while
we were cruizing off this ifland, the inhabitants
had acted fairly and honeftly, without manifefting.
the leaft propenfity to theft; which was the more
remarkable, becaufe thofe with whom we had
hitherto had any dealings, were people of the low-
eft rank, fuch as fiihermen or fervants. The cafe
was now exceedingly altered. The multitude of
iflanders, who blocked up every part of the fhips,
afforded opportunity of pilfering without danger
of difcovery, and even if detected, muft have
efcaped with impunity from our inferiority in
number. To the encouragement of their chiefs,
this alteration might alfo be attributed ; for, as
we frequently traced  the booty into the poffeffion • PACIFIC    OCEAN. tjm
of fome great men, there is little doubt but thefe
depredations were made at their inftigation.
The Refolution having got into her ftation, the
two chiefs, Pareea and Kaneena, brought a third
on board, whofe name was Koah. He was ré-
prefented to us as a prieft, and one who, in his
early days, had diftinguifhed hirnfelf as a warrior.
He was a little old emaciated figure, having fore
red eyes, and his body covered with a leprous
fcurf, occafioned by the immoderate ufe of the
ava. Being conducted to the cabin, he approached the commodore with the greateft deference* threw a piece of red cloth over his
fhoulders, and retreating a few paces, made an
offering of a fmall pig, at the farne time pronouncing a difcourfe of a confiderable length.
During our continuance at Owhyhee, this
ceremony was repeated often, and from a variety
of circumfiances, appeared to us to be $ kind of
religious adoration. Red cloth is an article with
which their idols are arrayed, and a pig is their
common offering to the Eatooas. Their fpeeches
were delivered with a volubility that indicated
them to be conformable to fome ritual.
At the conclufion of this ceremony, Koah dined
with the Commodore, and eat plentifully of the
viands before him ; but, like moft of the iflanders
in thefe feas, he could hardly be induced to tafte
our wine or fpirits a fécond time. In the evening, the Commodore, Mr. King, and Mr. Baily,
L 4 accompanied A    VOYAGE    TO   THE
accompanied him on fhore. As foon as we landed on the beach, we were preceded by four men,
bearing each a wand tipt with dog's hair, and
pronouncing, with a loud voice, a fhort fen-
tence, in which the word Orono *'was very dif-
tinguiîhable. The crowd, which had affembled
on the fhore, retired at our approach ; and not an
individual was to be feen, except a few who had
proftrated themfelves on the ground, near the
habitations of the adjacent village.
Before we relate an account<of the peculiar
ceremonies refpecting the adoration paid to Captain Cook, it may not be unnecéffary to defcribe
the Moral, already mentioned, fituated on the
beach at Kakooa. It confifled of a fquare folid
pile, of flones, of the length of forty yards, the-
breadth of twenty, and the height of fourteen.
The top of it was flat, and a wooden rail fur-
rounded it, on which were difplayed the fkulls
of thofe natives, who had been facrificed ^on the
death of their chiefs. A ruinous wooden building was fituated in the ceçtre of the area, connected with the rail by a flone wall, dividing the
whole fpace into two parts. Five poles, of about
twenty feet in height, fupported an irregular kind
of fcaffold, on the fide next the country ;  and,
** This was Captain Cook's general appellation among
the natives of Owhyhee. Sometimes it was applied by them
to an inviiible being inhabiting heaven. It was.alfo a title of
great rank in the illand.
on  the  fide  towards  the   fea,   were two  fmall
houfes, with a covered communication.
Koah conducted us to the top of this pile. At
our entrance we beheld two large wooden images,
with moft diftorted features, having a long piece
of wood, proceeding from the top of their heads,
of a conical form inverted ; the other parts were
covered with red cloth. Here Captain Cook was
received by a tali young man, having a long
beard, who prefented him to the images, and
chanted a kind of hymn, in which he was affifted
by Koah. We, were then led to that fide of the
Morai where the poles were erected ; at the foot
of which twelve images were ranged in the form
of a femicircle ; the middle figure having a high
table before it like the What ta of Otaheite, on
which we faw a putrid hog, and under it fome
cocoa-nuts, plantains, potatoes, bread-fruit, and
pieces of fugar-cane. The Commodore was conducted under this fland by Koah ; w7ho, taking
down the hog, held it towards him ; when, having again addreffed him in a long and vehement
fpeech, he fuffered it to fall upon the ground,
and afcended the fcaffolding with him, though at
the peril of their failing.
We now beheld, advancing in folemn procef-
fion, and entering the top of the Morai, ten men
bearing a live hog, and a piece of large red cloth of
confiderable dimenfions.. Advancing a few paces,
they  flopped,   and   proftrated   themfelves ;   and
Kaireekeea Î54 A-VOYAGE    TO    THE
Kaireekeea, the tall young man already mentioned, approaching them, received the cloth, and
carried it to Koah, who wrapped it round the
Commodore, and made him an offering of the
Captain Cook was now aloft, in a fituation
truly whimfical, fwathed in red cloth, and hardly able to keep his hold in the rotten fcaffolding.
In this fituation he was entertained with the
chanting of Koah and Kaireekeea, fometimes in
concert, and fometimes alternately. After this
office was performed, which was of confiderable
duration, Koah let the hog drop, and he and the
Commodore immediately defcended. He then
conducted him to the images juft mentioned, to
each of which he expreffed himfelf in a fneering
tone,, fnapping his fingers at them as he paffed.
He then prefented him to that in the centre;
which, from its being habited in red cloth appeared to be in the higheft eftirnation. He fell
proftrate before this figure, and killed it, requeuing Captain Cook would do the fame; which
he readily fubmitted to, being determined to follow Koah's dire&ions throughout the whole of this
ceremony. >
We were now conveyed into the other divifion
of the Morai, where a fpace, of about twelve feet
fquare, was funk three feet below the level of the
area. We defcended into this, and the Commodore was immediately jfeated between two idols ;
one of his arms being fupported by Koah, and
Mr. King was requefted to fupport the other. A
fécond proceffion of natives, at this time, arrived
with a baked hog, a pudding, fome cocoa-nuts,
bread-fruit, and other vegetables. As they drew
near, Kaireekeea placed himfelf before them, and
prefented the hog to the Commodore, jn the ufual
manner ; chanting as before, and his companions
making regular refponfes. Their fpeeches and
refponfes, we obferved, grew gradually fhorter and
fhorter, and, towards the conclufion, Kaireekeea's
did not exceed three or four words, which was
anfwered by the word orono.
At the conclufion of this offering, the natives
featèd themfelves fronting us, and began to cut
up the baked hog, to break the cocoa-nuts, and
to peel the vegetables. Others were employed
in brewing the ava, by chewing it in the fame
manner as at the Friendly Iflands. Kaireekeea
then chewed part of the kernel of a cocoa-nut,
and wrapped it in a piece of cloth, with which
he rubbed the Captain's head, face, hands^ arms,
and fhoulders. The ava was afterwards handed
round, and when we had all tailed it, Koah and
Pareea pulled the flefh of the hog in pieces, and
proceeded to put fome of k into our mouths.
Mr. King had no particular objection to ; being
fed by Pareea, who was remarkably cleanly in his
perfon ; but Captain Cook, to whom a piece was
refented by Koah, could not
fwallow a morfel, m
the putrid hog being ftrong in his recollectionrj
and as the old man, from motives of civility, had
chewed it for him, his reluctance was much
This Ceremony being Concluded,- we quitted
the Morai, after diftributing among the populace I
fome pieces of iron, and other articles, with which
they were much delighted. Wè were then conducted, in proceffion to the boats ; the men,
with wands, attending, and pronouncing fen-
tences as before. Moft of the natives again retired, and the remaining few proftrated themfelves
as we paffed along the fhore.
Wre went immediately on board, full of the
idea of what we had feen, and perfectly fatisfied
withx the honeft difpofitions of our new friends.
Of the Angularity and novelty of the various
ceremonies performed upon this occafion, we can
only form conjectures ; but they were certainly
highly expreflive of refpect on the ^part of thé
inhabitants ; and, as far as related to the Commodore, they approached to adoration.
Mr. King went on fhore, the next morning*
with a guard of eight marines ; having received
orders to erect the obfervatory in à proper fituation ; by which means the waterers, and other
working parties, on fhore, might be fuperintend-
ed and protected. Obferving a convenient fpot
for this purpofe, almoft in the center of the village, Pareea immediately offered   to exereifè  his
power PACIFIC    OCEAN. I57
power in our behalf, and propofed that fome
houfes fhouid be taken down, that our obferva-
tions might not be obftructed. This generous
offer, however, we declined, and we made choice
of a potatoe field, adjoining to the Morai, which
was granted us moft readily; and, to prevent the
intrufion of the natives, the place was confecrated
by the priefts, by placing their wands round the
wall which incîofed it.
This interdiction the natives call taboo, a term
frequently repeated by thefe iflanders, and feemed
to be a word of extenfive operation. In this in-
fiance, it procured us more privacy than we could
have wifhed. No canoes attempted to land near
us'; the natives only fat on the wall, not daring
to come within the tabooed fpace without obtaining our permiffion. The men, indeed, at our ré-
queft, would bring provifions into the field ; but
our utmoft endeavours were ineffectual to induce
the women to approach us. Prefents were tried,
but without fuccefs. Attempts were made to
prevail on Pareea and Koah to bring them, but
to no purpofe: the Eat00a and Tjerreeoboo, they
faid, would kill them if they did.
This circumftanee afforded great amufement
to our friends on board, whither multitudes of
people (particularly women) continually flocked ;
infomuch that they were frequently obliged to
clear the veffei, in order to have room to perform their neceffary duties. Two or three hundred r*8
dred women were fometimes obliged to jump, at
once, into the water ; where they, continued to
fwim and play till they could be re-admitted.
Pareea and Koah left us on the 19th of January, in order to attend Terreeoboo, who had
landed on a diftant part of the ifland ; and nothing material happened on board till the 24th.
The caulkers were employed on the fides of the
fhips, and the rigging was repaired. The faking
pf hogs v/as alfo a principal object of the Commodore's attention ; and as we had improved in
this operation fjnce the former voyages, a detail of
the procefs of it may not be thought improper.
To cure the flefli of animals, in tropical
climates, by faking, has long jseen thought impracticable ; putrefaction making fo rapid a progrefs as not to allow the fait to take effect before
the meat gets tainted. Captain Cook appears to
be the firft navigator who has attempted to make
experiments relative to this bufinefs. His firft
attempts in 1774, in his fécond voyage to the
Pacific Ocean, fo far fucceeded, as to convince
him of the error of the general opinion. As his
prefent voyage was likely to be protracted a year
beyond the time that provifions had been fup-
plied for the fhips, he was obliged to contrive
fome method of procuring fubfiftençe for the
crews, or relinquifh the profecution of his difcoveries.    He, therefore, renewed his attempts,
and  his moft fanguine  expe&ations were completely anfwered.
The  hogs we cured were of various fizes from
four to ten or twelve flone, fourteen pound to the
flone.    They were always flaughtered in the afternoon ;   and,   after fcalding off the hair, and removing the entrails, the hog was cut into pieces,
fro ni four to'eight pounds each,   and the bones
taken out  of the legs and chine ; in  the larger
fort, the ribs were alfo  taken  out.    The pieces
were then carefully examined and wiped, and the
coagulated blood taken from the veins.    After
this they were given to the falters whilft they continued warm, and, when they were well rubbed
with fait, placed in a heap on a ftage in the open
air, covered with planks, and prelied with very
heavy weights.    The next evening  they were a-
gain well wiped and examined, when the fufpici-
ous parts were taken  away.    This  done,   they
were put into a tub of ftrong pickle, after which
they were examined once or twice a day; and, if
it happened that any piece had not taken the fait,
which might be difcovered by the fmell of the
pickle, they were   inftantly   taken  out   and examined again,   the  found   pieces  being put into
frefh pickle.    This, however, did not often happen.    At the end of fix days, they were examined
for the la ft time ; and, after being (lightly pref-
fed,   they were put into   barrels, having a thin
layer of fait between  them.    Mr. King brought
home i6o
home  fome  barrels of this pork, that had  been
pickled at Owhyhee, in January 1779, which was"
tailed here, by feveral perfons, about Chriftmas,
1780, who declared it  to be  perfectly found and
But to return from this digreffion. We had
not been long fettled at the obfervatory, before
we difcovered the habitations of a fociety of
priefts, who had excited our curiofity by their regular attendance at the morai. Their huts were
erected round a pond, inclofed within a grove of
cocoa-trees, by which they were feparated from
the beach and the village, and gave the fituation
an air of religious retirement. Captain Cook
being made acquainted with thefe circumftances,
he was determined to vifit them ; and expecting
the manner of his reception would be lingular,
he took Mr. Webber with him, to enable him to
reprefent the ceremony in a drawing.
When he arrived at the beach, he was conducted to Harre-no-Orono, or the houfe of Orono.
On his approaching this facred place, he was
feated at the foot of a wooden idol, refembling
thofe which he had feen at the morai. Here Mr.
King again fupported one of his arms. He was
then arrayed in red cloth, and Kaireekeea, affift-
ed by twelve priefts, prefented a pig with the
ufual folemnities. After this ceremony, the pig
was ftrangled, and thrown into the embers of a
fire, prepared for that purpofe. W7hen the hair
i!?K was •f
V  P À 6 I F i è   OCEAN. -t 6r
was finged off, a fécond offering was made, and
èhe chanting repeated as before; after which, the
dead pig was held, for fome time* Under Captain Cook's nofe jj and then laid, with a cocoâ-
nut, at his feet. This part of the ceremony be-
ing concluded, the performers fat down ; arid the
ava was brewed and handed about ; a baked hog
was brought in, and we were fed, as in the former
While we continued oil the ba']ir Whenever the
Commodore came on fhore, he was preceded by-
one of thefe priefts, who proclaimed the landing
C>f the Orono, and ordered the' inhabitants to prof-
trate themfelves. He was' conftantly attended by
the fame perfon, oh the water, where he was fla-
tioned in the bow of the boat,! having a wand in
his hand* to give notice of his approach to the
natives* who were ifi canoes; on which they in-
ftantly ceafed paddling, and fell on their faces
till he had paffed. Whenever he vifited the1 db-
fervatory, Kaireekeea and his afliffants prefented
themfelves before him, making an offering of
hogs, bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, &c. with the ac-
euftomed folemnities. Upon thefe occafions,
fome of the inferior chiefs entreated pefmiffiori
to make an offering to the Orono. If their re-
quèft was complied with, they prefented the hog
themfelves; in the performance of which, their
Countenances difplayed that they were greatly
impreffed with awe and terror.    Kaireekeea, and
Vol. IIL—nô 15. M trie 16z
the priefts affifted, and accompanied the ceremony
with their accuftomed hymns.
But their civilities extended beyond parade and
ceremony ; our party, on fhore, were daily fup-
plied by them with hogs and vegetables, fufficient
for our fubfiftence, and to fpare ; and canoes,
laden with provifions, were as regularly fent off to
the fhips. Nothing was demanded in return, nor
was the moft diftant hint ever given that any com-
penfation was expected. Their manner of conferring favours, appeared more like the difcharge
of a religious duty, than to refult from mere liberality. On afking to whom we were indebted for
alL this munificence, we were informed, that it was
at the expence of Kaoo, the chief prieft, and
grandfather to Kaireekeea, who was then in the
fuit of the fovereign of the ifland.
We had, indeed, lefs reafon to be fatisfied with
the behaviour of the warrior chiefs, than with
that of the priefts. In our intercourfe with the
former, they were always fufficiently attentive to
their own interefts ; and, befides their propenfity
to ftealing, which may admit of palliation from
its univerfality in thefe feas, they had other artifices equally difhonourable. The following is
one inftance, in which we difcovered, with regret,
that our good friend Koah was a party principally
The chiefs, who made us prefents of hogs,
were always generôufly rewarded ; in confequence
of which, we were fupplied with more than we
could confume. On thefe occafions, Koah, who
conftantly attended us, ufualiy petitioned for thofe
that we did not abfolutely want, and they were
given to him of courfe. A pig was, one day,
prefented to us by a man whom Koah introduced
as a chief; which we knew to be the pig that had,
a fhort time before, been given to Koah. Suf-
pedting we had been impofed upon, we found, on
further enquiry, that the pretended chief was one
of the common people ; and, from other concurrent circumfiances, we were perfectly convinced
that* in many inftances, we had been the.dupes of
fimilar impofition.
On Sunday the 24th, we were not a little fur-
prized to find, that no canoes were permitted to
put off, and that the natives confined themfelves
to their houfes. At length, however, we were informed, that the bay was tabooed, and that all in-
tercourfe with us was interdicted, on account of
the arrival of Terreeoboo their king. Not apprehending an accident of this kind, the fhips were
deprived of their ufual fupply of vegetables.
On Monday the 25th* in the morning, we endeavoured, by threats and promifes* to induce
the inhabitants to at
proach us. At length, fome
of them were venturing to put off, and a chief
was obferved to be very active in driving them
.away. In order to make him defift, a mufquet
was inftantly fired over his head, which operated
M 2 as jf;        A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
as it was intended, and refrefhments were foon
after to be had as ufual. In the afternoon, the
fhips were privately vifited by Terreeoboo, attended only by one canoe, which had his wife
and family on board. After flaying till almoft
ten o'clock, he returned to the village of Kow-
About noon the next day, the king, in a large
canoe, with fome attendants in two others, pad-
pled from the village, in great flate, towards
the fhips. Their appearance was noble and magnificent. Terreeoboo, and his chiefs, were in
the firft canoe, arrayed in feathered cloaks and
helmets, and armed with fpears and daggers. In
the fécond, came Kaoo, the chief prieft, together
with his brethren, having their idols difplayed-
on red cloth. Thefe idols were figures of an
enormous fize, made of wicker-work, and curi-
oufly ornamented with fmall feathers of a variety
ef colours. Their eyes were large pearl oyfters,
with a black nut placed in the centre ; a double
row of the fangs of dogs was fixed in each of
their mouths, which? as well as the reft of their
features, appeared ftrangely diftorted. The third
canoe was laden with hogs and vegetables. As
they advanced, the priefts, in the fécond canoe,
chanted their hymns with great folemnity. After paddling round the veffels, they did not come
on board, as we expected, but made immediately   PACIFIC    OCEAN.
ately towards the fhore, at the beach where we
were ftationed.
When Mr. King beheld them approaching, he
ordered our little guard to receive the king ; and
Captain Cook, feeing that he intended to go on
fhore, went thither alfo, and landed almoft at
the fame inftant. We ufhered them into the
tent, and the king had hardly been feated, when
he rofe up, and gracefully threw over the Captain's fhoulders, the rich feathered cloak that he
himfelf wore, placed a hemlet on his head, and
prefented him with a curious fan. Five or ûx
other cloaks, of great beauty and value, were
fpread at the Commodore's feet.
Four hogs were then brought forward, by the
ting's attendants, together with bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, and fugar-canes, -Then followed the
ceremony of Terreeoboo's changing names with
Captain Cook ; the ftrongeft pledge of fijiend-
vihip among all the iflanders of the Pacific Ocean.
A folemn proceffion now advanced, confifling of
priefts, preceded by a venerable old perfonage,
followed by a train of people leading large hogs ;
others being laden with potatoes, plantains* &c.
We could inftantly perceive^ by the countenance
and geftures of Kaireekeea, that the old man who
headed the proceffion, was the chief prieft, on
wbofe bounty we were told we had fo long fub-.
filled. He wrapped a piece of red cloth round
jhe fhoulders of Captain Cook, and, in the ufual
M 7 form, VOYAGE    TO    THE
form, prefented him with a pig. He was then
feated next the king, and Kaireekeea, and his attendants began their vocal ceremonies, Kaoo and
the chiefs affifting in the refponfes.
In the perfon of this king, we were furprized to
recognize the fame emaciated old man, who came
on board the Refolution, from the north-eaft fide
pf the ifland of Môwee ; and we perceived, that
feveral of his attendants were the fame perfons
who, at that time, continued with us the whole
night. Among thefe were the king's two youngeft
Ions, the eldeft about the age of fixteen ; and
Màiha-Maiha, his nephew, whom we could not
immediately recollect, having had his hair plaftered
over with a dirty pafte and powder, which was no
bad improvement to the moft favage countenance
we had ever feen.
The formalities of the meeting being ended,
Captain Cook conducted Terreeoboo, and feveral
of his chiefs, orrboard the Refolution. They were
received with every poffible attention and rèfpect ;
and the Commodore, as a compenfation for the
feathered cloak, put a linen fhirt upon the fove-
reign, and girt his own hanger round him. Kaoo,
and about half a dozen other ancient chiefs, remained on fhore.
All this time, not a canoe was permitted to
appear in the bay, and thofe natives who did not
confine themfelves to their huts, lay proflrate on
the ground. Before the king quitted the Refolution, PACIFIC    OCEAN.
lution, he granted leave for the natives to trade
with the fhips, as ufual ; but the women (we
know not on what account) were flill interdicted
by the taboo-, that is, to remain at home, and
not have any kind of intercourfe with us.
CHAP.    II.
The Civility and Hofpitality of the Natives—Much
addicled to thieving—Their Alacrity in conducting a Party of us up the Country—A Boxing-
Match defcribed—Death of William Watman, a
Seaman—Attention of the Priefts at his Funeral
—Ceremony  of the Natives at his Funeral—A
{ Grave-Stone erected—The Rail and Images on the
Morai pur chafed—The Natives very inquifitive
about our - Departure—What they fuppofed to be
the ObjecT of our Voyage—Entertained by the
Buffoonery of one of the Natives—Magnificent
PreJents from Terreeoboo—The Natives regi'et our
Departure—Wifk to prevail on Mr. King to remain
amongft them —The Veffels quit the Ifland—The
Refolution damaged in a Gale of Wind, and obliged
to return.
TH E   behaviour of the inhabitants was fo
civil and inoffenfive, that all apprehenfions
of danger were totally vanifhed.    We trufted our-
M 4 felves TDô A  VOYAGE   TO   THE
felves amongft them at all times, and upon all
occafions, without the leaft hefitation. The officers ventured frequently up the country, either
fingly, or in fmall parties, and fometimes continued out the whote night. To relate all the
inftances of generofity and civility, which we experienced upon thefe occafions, would require
volumes. In all places the people flocked about
us, anxious to afford every affifiance in their
power, and appeared highly gratified if we condescended to accept of their fervices. Vatiety of
innocent arts were practifed to attract our notice,
or to delay our departure. The boys and girls
ran through their villages before us, flopping us
at every opening, where there was a commodious
place to form a group for dancing. We were, at
one time, folicited to take a draught of the mijk
of cocoa-nuts* or accept of fuch other refrefhment
as their huts afforded ; at another we were, encircled by a company of young women, who exerted their fkill and agility in amunug us with
fongs and dances.
But though their gentlenefs and hofpitality
were pleafing to us, they were addicted to fteal-
igg, like all the other iflanders of thefe feas. This
was a diftreffing circumftance, and fometimes
obliged us to exercife feverity, which we fhouid
have been happy to have avoided. If it had not
been effentjally neceffary. Some expert fwim-
mers were one day dete&ed under the fhips, drawing I—
|ng out the filling nails from the fheathing, whicfy
they ingenioufly performed with a flint ftone?
fattened to the end of a fhort flick. This practice
was fo injurious to our veffels, that we fired fmall
fhot at the offenders ; but that they eafily evaded, by diving under the fhips bottom. It therefore became highly neceffary to make an example
of one of them* by flogging him on board the
A large party of gentlemen, from both fhips,
fet out, about this time, on an excurfion into the
country, in order to examine its natural productions ; an account of which will be hereafter
given. At prefent, howeyer, we fhall obferve,
that it afforded Kaoo a frefh opportunity of ex*
ercifing his civility and generofity. No fooner
was he informed of their departure, than he fent
after them a large quantity of proyifions, with orders, that every attention and afliftance fhouid be
granted them by the inhabitants of thofe diftricts
through which they were to pafs. His conduct,
on this occafion, was fo delicate and diiinterefted,
that even the people he employed were not permitted to except of the fmalleft prefent. At the
end of fix days, the gentlemen returned, without
haying penetrated more than twenty miles into
the ifland ; owing partly to improper guides, and
partly to the impracticability of the country.
On the 27th, the Refoluion*s rudder was un-
.hung, and fent on fhore, in order to undergo a
OK _
*\ A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
The carpenters at  the  fame
time,   were   fent   into  the  country,   under    the
guidance of fome of Kaoo's people, to get planks
tor the bead rail  work, which was become rotten |
and decayed.
Captain Clerke, who was generally confined on
board by ill health, paid Terreeoboo his firft vifit:
on the 28th, at his habitation on fhore. The
ceremonies obferved with Captain Cook, were
performed in honour of Captain Clerke ; and, on
his return, he received a prefent of thirty large '
hogs, and fuch a quantity of vegetables as could
not be confumed, by his crew, in lefs than a
week. This was the more extraordinary, as it
was quite an unexpected vifit.
Not having feen any of their fports or exercifes,
the natives, at our particular requeft, entertained
us in the evening with a boxing match. Though
thefe -games were inferior, in every refpect, to
thofe we had feen exhibited at the Friendly.Iflands ;
yet, as they were fomewhat different, a fhort ac- j
count of them may not be thought improper.
A vaft concourfe of people affembled on an
even foot of ground, not far diftant from our tents.
A long .vacant fpace was left in the centre of
thern, at the upper end of which the judges prefixed, under three ftandards. Slips of cloth, of
various colours* were pendant from thefe ftandards; as were the fkins of two wild geefe, fome
final] birds, and a few bunefhes of feathers.
The fports being ready to begin,   the judges
gave the fignal, and two combatants appeared in
view.    They advanced flowly, drawing up their
feet  very high behind and rubbing their hands
upon the foles.    As  they   came  forward,   they
frequently furveyed each other from head to foot,
with an air of contempt, looking archly  at the
fpectators, diftorting their features, and practifing
a variety of unnatural geflures.    When they were
advanced  within the  reach of each   other, they.
held both arms  ftraight out before their faces, at
which part they always aimed their, blows.    They
ftruck with a full fwing of the arm, which to us
had a very awkward appearance.    They did not
attempt to parry ; but endeavoured to elude their
adverfary's   attack,   by Hooping,   or   retreating.
The battle was expeditioufly decided ; for if either
of them  fell,   whether  by  accident, or  from a
blow, he was deemed vanquifhed ; and the victor
expreffed   his   triumph  by a variety of ftrange
geflures, $hich  ufually excited a loud laugh a-
mong the fpectators, for which purpofe it feemed
to   be   calculated.    The    fuccefsfui    combatant
waited  for  a  fécond antagonift ;   and, if again
victorious, for a third ; and fo on,   till he was at
laft defeated.
It was very lingular, in  thefe combats,- that,
when any two were preparing to attack each other,
a third may advance, and make choice of either
of them for his antagonift, when the other is under
fcJ 172 AVOYAGE   TO   THE
der the neceflity of withdrawing. If the combat
proved long and tedious, or appeared unequal,,
a chief generally interfered, and concluded it by
putting a flick between the combatatns. As this
exhibition was at our délire, it was univerfafiy
expected that fome of us would have engaged
with the natives ; but, though our people received preffing invitations to bear a part;, they
did not hearken to the challenges; not having
forgot the blows they received at the Friendly
William Whatman, a feaman of the gunner's
crew, died this day : this event is more particularly mentioned, as death had hitherto been
uncommon amongft us. He was a man in years,
and much refpected for his attachment to Captain Cook. He'had ferved twenty-one years as
a marine, and then entered as a feaman in 1772,
^on board the Refolution, and ferved with the
Commodore in his voyage towards the fouth pole.
On their return, he got admittance into Greenwich Hofpital, through the intereft of Captain
Cook, at the fame time with himfelf ; and, anxious to follow the fortunes of his bçnefaflor, he
alfo quitted it with him, on his appointment to
the command of the prefent expedition. He had
been often fubject to flight revers, in the courfe
pfthe vpyage, and was infirm when we arrived
in the bay ; where, having been fent for a few
^ays on fhore, he thought .fiimfelf perfectly reT
ftorech PACIFIC     OCEAN* 17
ftored, and requefted to return on board. His
requeft was complied with ; but the day following he had a ftroke of the palfy, which, in two
days afterwards, put a period to his life.
At the requeft of Terreeoboo, the remains of
this honeft feaman were buried on the morai-, the
ceremony being performed with great folemnity.
Kaoo and his brethren were prefent at the funeral, who behaved with great decorum* and paid
due attention while the fervice was performing*
On our beginning to fill up the grave, they approached it with great awe, and threw in a dead
pig, together with fome cocoa-nuts and plantains. For three fucceffive nights they unrounded it, facrificing hogs, and reciting hymns and
prayers till morning.
We erected a poft at the head of the grave,
and nailed thereon a piece of board ; on which
was infcribed the name and age of the deceafed,
and the day of his departure from this life. Thefe
they affured us they would not remove, and they
will probably be permitted to remain, fo long as
fuch frail materials can endure,
Our fhips were much in want of fuel, therefore Captain Cook defired Mr. King to treat with
the priefts, for the purchafe of the rail on the
morai. Mr. King had his doubts about the decency of this overture, and apprehended that the
bare mention of it might be deemed impious ;
but in this he was exceedingly miftaken.    They
expreffcd 174 A   VOYAGE    TO'THÈ
expreffed no kind of furprize at the application
and the wood was delivered without the leaft fli-
pulation. Whilft our people were taking it away*
he faw one pf them with a carved image ; and,
upon enquiry, was informed, that the whole fe-
micircle (as mentioned in the defcription of the
morai) had been carried to the boats.
Though the natives were fpectators of this bu-
finefs, they did not feem to refent it ; but, on
the contrary, had even affifted in the removal*
Mr. King thought proper to mention the parti-»
culars to Kaoo; who feemed exceedingly indifferent about the matter, begging him only to re-
ftore the center image ; which w'as immediately
done, and it was conveyed to one of the prieft'g
The king, and his chiefs, had, for fome time,
been very importunate to know the time of our
departure. Mr. King's curiofity was excited,
from this circumftance, to know the opinion thefe
people had entertained of us, and what they fup-
pofcd to be the objects of our voyage. He took
confiderable pains to fatisfy himfelf on thefe
points;- but the only information he could get
was* that they fuppofed we had left our native
country on account of the fcantinefs of provifions, and that we had vifited them for the fole
purpofe of filling our bellies. This conclufion
was natural enough, confidering the meagre appearance of fome of our crew, the voracity with
which   we  devoured
frefh  provifions,   and
our anxiety to purchafe as much of it as we were
able. One circumftance may be added to thefe,
which puzzled them exceedingly ; that of our
having no-women with us.
It was matter of entertainment to fee the natives patting the bellies of the failè-rs (who were
much improved in fleeknefs fince their arrival at
the bay) and telling them, in the beft manner
they could, that it. was time for them to depart ;
•but, if they would return the next bread-fruit
feafon, they fhouid be better able to fupply them.
We had now continued fixteen days in the bay,
during which time our confumption of hogs and
veoerables had been fo enormous, that we need
not be fuiprized at their Wifhing to fee us take
our leave.. But Terreeoboo had, perhaps, no
other view, in his enquiries, than a defire of having fufficreh't notice, to prepare fuitab'e prefents
for us at our departure ; for, when we informed
him of our intention to quit the ifland in two
days, a kind of proclamation was immediately;
made, requiring the .natives to bring in their
hogs and vegetables, for Terreeoboo to prefent
to the Orono.
At the beach, we were this day much entertained, with the buffooneries of one of the natives.
In his hand he held an inftrument of mufic, fuch
as we have already defcribed ; bits of fea-weed
were faftened round his neck ; and, round each iyG A VOYAGE   TO   THE
leg, fome ftrong netting; on whiqh were fixed forrfe
rows of dogs teeth, hanging loofe. His dancing
was accompanied with ftrange grimaces, and unnatural diftortions of the features; which, though
fometimes highly ridiculous, was, upon the whole,
without meaning or èxpreffion. Mr. Webber
made a drawing of this perfon ; the manner in
which the maro is tied ; the figure of the inftru-
ment, and of the ornaments round the legs.
Wreftling and boxing matches1 afforded us
diverfion for the evening ; and we, in return, exhibited the few fireworks we had remaining. Nothing could more effectually excite the admiration"
of thefe iflanders, or ftrike them with more exalted ideas of our fuperiority, than fuch a repres
fentation. Though this was, in every refpecti
much inferior to that at Hapaee, yètjÉjr aftonifh^
ment of the people was equally great.
The carpenters which had been fent trp the
country, to cut planks for the head rail-work of
the Refolution* had now been gone three days ;
and, not having heard from them, we began ta
be alarmed for their fafety. We expreffed our
apprehenfions to old Kaoo, who appeared equally
concerned with ourfelves ; but while we were
planning meafures with him, for fending proper
perfons after them, they all fafely arrived. They
went farther into the country than they expected,1
before they found any trees fuitable for their purpofe.    This circumftance, together with the bad-
nefs I
V 170 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
fented to Captain Cook and Mr. King. The
value and magnitude of this ptefent, far exceeded any thing that we had met with. The whole
was immediately conveyed on board. The large
hogs were felected, in order to be falted for fea
flore; but the finaller pigs, and the vegetables,
were divided between the crews.
We left the morai, and got our obfervatories
on board. The taboo was removed, and, with
it, its magical effects. As foon as we had quitted the place, the people rufhed in, and vigilantly
fearchcd ; hoping to find fome valuable articles
left behind. Mr. King being the laft on fhore,
and waiting for the return of the boat, the inhabitants crowded about him, and having prevailed
on him to fit down among them, expreffed their
regret at our feparation. It was even with difficulty that they would fuffer him to depart. He
was, indeed, highly efteemed among them, as
will appear from the following relation.
Having had, while we were in the bay, the
command of the party on fhore, he became more
acquainted with the natives, and they with him,
than thofe who were required to be on board.
He experienced great kindnefs and civility from
the inhabitants in general, but the friendfhip
fhewn by the priefts was confiant and unbounded.
He was anxious to conciliate their efteem ; in
which he fo happily fucceeded, that, when they
were acquainted with the time of our departure,
he was urged to remain behind» and received
overtures of the moft flattering kind. When he
endeavoured to excufe bimfelf, by alledging, that
Captain Cook Would not permit it, they propofed
to conduct him to the mountains, and there conceal him till the departure of the fhips. On Mr.
King's affuring them, that the Captain would
not fail without him, the king and Kaoo repaired to Captain Cook, (whom they fuppofed to-
be his father) formally requefting that he might
be fuffered to remain behind. The Commodore;
unwilling to give a pofitive fefufal,- to a propofal
fo generoufly intended, àffured them, that he
could not then part with him ; but he fhouid re-
turn thither the next year, when he would endeavour to oblige them;
On Thurfday the 4th of February, early in the
mornings we unmoored,* and the Refolution and
Difcovery failed out of the bay ; attended by a
vaft number of canoes.- It was Captain Cook's
intention' to finifh the furvey of Owhyhee, before
he went to the other iflands, hoping to meet with
a road more fheltered than Karakakooà Bay ;
and, if he fhouid not fttcceed here, he meant to
examine the fouth-eaft part of Mowee, where
he had been informed, there was a rnoft excellent
On the 5th,> and the following  day, we had
calm weather, and confequently our progrefs was
but flow.    A great number of the natives fol*
N 2- lowed A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
lowed us in their canoes ; and Terreeoboo gave
an additional proof of his efteem for the Commodore, by fending after him a large prefent of
hogs and vegetables.
Having a light breeze, in the night of the 5th
of February, we made fome progrefs to the north,
ward ; and, on the 6th, in the morning, we were
abreaft of a deep bay, which the natives call
Toe-yah-yah. We flattered ourfelves with hopes
of finding a commodious harbour in this bay,
as we faw fome fine ftreams of water to the north-
eaft ; and the whole appeared to be well fhelter-
ed. Thefe obfervations feeming to tally with the
accounts given us by»Koah, who now accompanied Captain Cook, the Mafter was fent in the
pinnace, with Koah as his guide, to obferve and
examine the bay ; Koah having firft altered his
name, out of compliment to us, to that of Bri-
The weather became gloomy in the afternoon,
and fuch violent gufts of wind blew off the land,
that we were obliged to take in all the fails* and
bring to, under the mizen-ftay-fail. The canoes
all left us as foon as the gale began ; and Mr.
Bligh, on his return, preferred an old woman
and two men from drowning, whofe canoe had
been overfet in the ftorm. We had feveral women remaining on board, whom the natives, in
their hurry to depart, had left to fhift for themfelves.
Mr. Bligh reported, that he had landed at a
village on the north fide of the bay, where he
was fhewn fome wells of water, that would not,
by any means, anfwer our purpofe ; that he proceeded further into the bay ; where, inftead of
meeting with good anchorage, he found the fliores
were low, and a flat bed of coral rocks extended
along the coaft, and upwards of a mile from the
land; the depth of water, on the outfide, being
twenty fathoms. During this furvey, Britannee
had contrived to flip away, being, perhaps, afraid
of returning, as his information had proved
- The weather became more moderate in the
evening, and we again made fail ; but it blew fo
violently about midnight, as to fplit the fore and
main-top-fails. We bent frefh fails in the morning of the 7th, and had a light breeze, and fair
weather, Being now about four or five leagues
from the fhore, and the weather very unfettled,
the canoes would not venture off, fo that our
guefts were under the neceffity of remaining with
us, though much againft their inclination; for-
they were all exceedingly fea-fick, and many of
them had left their infants on fhore.
Though the weather continued fqually, we
flood in for the land in the afternoon ; and, beine
within three leagues of it, we faw two men in a
canoe, paddling towards us. Wô naturally conjectured that they had been driven off the fhore,
N3 by VOYAGE    T Q    TH E «
by the late violent gale ; and .flopped the fhip^
way, in order to take them in. They were fo ex-
haufted with fatigue, that had not one of the natives,
on board jumped into the canoe to their affifl-
ance, they would Jiardly have been able to fix
it to the rope thrown out for that purple. With
difficulty, however, we got them up the fh™K
fide, together with a child about four yearsV«B
age, which had been lafhec under the thwarts of
the canoe, with only its head above the water.
They informed us, that they had quitted the land
the! morning before, fin ce which time they had
not had food or water. Provifion was given
them with the ufual precautions, and the child
entrufted to the care of one of the women ; and,
the next morning, they were all perfectly recovered.
A gale of wând coming on at midnight, we
were obliged to double reef the top-fails. At
day-break, on the 8th, we found that the foreman1 had again given way ; the fifhes being fprung,
and the parts fo very defe&ive, as to make it abfo-
lutely neceffary to unftep the m aft. Captain
Cook, for fome time, hefitated, whether he
fhouid return to Karakakooa, or take the chance .
of finding a harbour in the iflands to leeward.
The bay was not fo commodious, but that a better might probably be met with, either for repairing the mails, or procuring refreshments \
(he latter of which, it was imagined, the neighbourhood PACIFIC   OCEAN.
bourhood of Karakakooa had lately been pretty
well drained of. It was, on the other hand,
confidered as an imprudent ftep, to leave a tolerable good harbour, which, once loft, could
not be regained, for the mere poflibility of meeting with a better ; efpecially as the failure of
fuch a contingency, might have deprived us of
any refource.
We flood on towards the land, to give the
natives on fhore an opportunity of releafing their
friends on board; and, about noon, when we
were within a mile of the fhore, feveral canoes
came off to us, but fo loaded with people, that
no room could be found for any of our guefts ;
the pinnace was therefore hoifted out to land
them; and the Mafter who commanded it, was
inftructed to examine the fouth coafts of the bay
for water, but returned without fuccefs.
Variable winds, and a ftrong current to the
northward, retarded our progrefs in our return;
and, in the evening of the 9th, about eight
o'clock, it blew very hard from the fouth-eaft,
which occafioned us to clofe reef the top-fails.
Early in the morning of the loth, in a heavy
fquail, wev found ourfelves clofe in with the
breakers, to the northward of the weft point of
Owhyhee. We had juft room to avoid them, and
fired feveral guns to alarm the Difcovery, and
apprize her of the danger.
The weather, in the forenoon, was more ma-?
derate, and a few canoes ventured to come off to
us ; when thofe on board them informed us, that
much mifchief had been occafioned by the late
florms, and that a great many canoes had been
loft. We kept beating to windward the remainder
Of the day ; and, in the evening, were within a
mile of the bay ; but we flood off and on till daylight the next morning* when we anchored in ouç
qld ftation.
CHAP.     III.
%'he Behaviour of the Iflanders, on cur Return io
Karakakooa Bay, fomewhat myfterious—A Theft
committed on board the Difcovery—Ihe Thieves
purfued up the Country by Captain Ctok and Mr.
King—Scuffle between the Natives and our People, in which Pareea receives a fevere Blow—
The Pinnace attacked and Plundered—Crew obliged
to quit her—Captain Cook's Reflections on the Oc-
cafion—Attempt at the Obfervatory—The Difcovery* s Cutter fiolen from the Buoy—Steps taken
for its Recovery-r-Captain Cook goes on Shore to
invite the King and his two Sons on hoard—His
Wife and the Chiefs oppofe his going.—A Conteft
arifes on the Occafion—Intelligence arrives of one
of the Chiefs being killed by one of cur People—
The Conferences—A Chief threatens Captain Cook.,
and is foot by him.—A general Attack enfues—
Peath of Captain Cook—Account of his Services^
and a Sketch of his Charafier.
'"T"^ HE whole of the nth* and part of the
' J^ 12th of February, we were engaged in
getting out the foremaft, and conveying. it on
fhore. .Not only the head -of the maft had fuftain-
ed damage, but the heel was become exceedingly
rotten, having a very large hole in the middle of
it.    Several days being probably required to make
the A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
the neceffary repairs, Meilleurs King and Baihf
got the obfervatory on ihore, and pitched their
tents on the morai, guarded by a corporal, and
fix marines. A friendly intercourfe was renewed
with the prieils, who, for our "greater fecurit}',
tabooed the place with their wands as before
The fail-makers alfo repaired to the fhore to repair the damages, in their department, fuftained
by the late heavy gales. They occupied an habitation, lent us by the priefts, adjoining to the
Our reception, on coming to anchor, was fo
irMerent from what it had been upon our firft
arrival, that we were all aftonifhed : no fhouts,
buftle, or confufion, but a folitary deferted bay,
with hardly ! a canoe flirring, Their curiofity,
indeed, might be fuppofed to be diminifhed by
this time ; but the hofpitable treatment we had
continually been favoured with, and the friendly
footing on which we parted, induced us to expect
-that, on our return, they would have received us
with the greateft demonftrations of joy.
Various were our conjectures on the caufe of this
extraordinary appearance, when the whole myftery
was unravelled by the return of a boat, which we
had font on fhore, bringing intelligence that Ter-?
reeoboo was abfent, and that the bay was tabooea1.
This account appeared very fatisfactory to many
cf us ; but others were of opinion, that there was,
at this time,   fomething very  fufpicious in   the
t>eh&* up
behaviour of the natives ; and that the taboo, or
interdiction, on pretence of Terreoboo's abfence,
was artfully contrived, to give him time to confult
his chiefs in what manner we fhouid be treated.
We never could afcertain whether thefe fufpicions
were well founded, or whether the natives had
given a true account. It is probable, indeed,
that our fudden return, for which they could
affign no apparent caufe, might create alarms in
them ; yet the conduct of Terreeoboo, who,
on his fuppofed arrival the next morning, immediately waited on Captain Cook ; and the natives, from that moment, renewing their friendly
intercourfe with us, feem to evince that they
neither rneant^ nor apprehended, a different kind
pf conduct.
An account of another .accident, fimilar to this,
may be mentioned in fupport of this opinion,
which happened to us on our firft vifit, the day
before the king's arrival, A native having fold a
hog on board the Refolution, and received the
price agreed on, Pareea, who faw the tranfaction,
advifed the'feller not to part with his hog, without
an advanced price. For his interference in this
bufinefs, he was harfhly fpoken to, and^puihed
away ; and as the taboo was foon laid on the bay,
we, at firft, fuppofed it to be in confcquence of
the affront offered to the chief.
Thefe two circumftances confidered, it is extremely difficult  to draw any certain conclufion
from îSS
from the actions of a people, with whofe language
and cuftoms we are fo imperfectly acquainted.
Some idea, however, may be formed of the difficulties thofe have to encounter, who, in their
intercourfe with thefe ftrangers, are obliged to
fleer their courfe in the midft of uncertainty,
where the moft ferious confequences may be oc
cafioned by only imaginary offences. Whether
thefe conjectures are erroneous or true, it is certain that things were conducted in their ufual
quiet courfe, till the 13th of February, in the
At the approach of evening on that day, the
commander of the Difcovery's watering party,
came to inform Mr. King, that feveral chiefs were
affembled near the beach, and were driving away
the natives, who aflifted the failors in rolling the '
cafks to the fhore : at the fame time declaring,
ihat their behaviour feemed exceedingly fufpici-
ous, and that he imagined they would give him
fome farther difturbance. He fent a marine witly
hiru, agreeably to his requeft, but permitted him,
to take only his fide-arms. The officer, in a
fhort time, returned, and informed Mr. King
that the inhabitants had armed themfelves with
fiones, and were become tumultuous. He therefore went himfelf to the fpot, attended by a raa-i
rine, with his mufquet. At their approach the
iftanders threw away their flones, and, on Mr.
King's application to  fome of the  chiefs,   the.
mob was difperfed. Every thing being now
quiet, Mr. King went to meet Captain Cook,
who was then coming on fhore in the pinnace.
He related to him what had recently happened,
and received orders to fire a ball at the offenders,
if they again behaved infolently, and began to
throw flones. In confëquence of thefe directions,
Mr. King gave orders to the corporal, that, the
fentinels pieces fhouid be loaded with bail, in-
ftead of fhot.
On our return to the tents, we heard a con-
. tinued fire of mufquets from the Difcovery;
which we perceived to be directed at a canoe,
which was haftening towards the fhore, with one
of our fmall boats in purfuit of it. This firing,
we concluded, was the confequence of fome
theft, and Captain Cook ordered Mr. King to
follow him with a marine armed, and to endeavour
to feize the people as they landed. They accordingly ran to the place, where the canoe was expected to come afhore, but did not arrive in time ;
the people having quitted it, and fled into the
country before their arrival.  .
At this time they did not know that the goods
had been already reftored ; and thinking it probable, from what they had obferved, that they
might be of importance, they did not choofe to
relinquifh their endeavours to recover them ; and,
having inquired of the natives what courfe the
people had taken, they purfued them till it was
aim oft: VOYAGE
al moft dark, when they fuppofed themfelves to*
be about three miles from the tents ; and, thinking the iflanders arnufed them with falfe information in their purfuit, they gave up the fearch and
returned. mÉ|^
A difference of a more ferious nature had happened during their abfence. The officer, who
had been difpatched in the fmall boat after the
thieves, and who was returning on board, with
the booty that had been reftored, feeing Capta»
Cook and Mr. King engaged in the purfuit of
the offenders, feized a canoe; which was drawn
up on the fhore. This canoe unfortunately belonged to Pareea, who, at that inftant arriving
from on board the Difcovery, claimed his property, and protefted his innocence. The officer
perfifted in detaining it, in which he was encouraged by the crew of the pinnace, then waiting for Captain Cook • in confequence of which
a fcuffie enfued, and Pareea was knocked down
by a violent blow on the head, with an oar*
Several of the natives, who had hitherto been
peaceable fpectators, began now to attack our
people with fuch a fhower of flones, that they
were forced to a precipitate retreat, and fwam off
to a rock, at a confiderable diftance from the
fhore. The pinnace was plundered immediately
by the natives, and would have been entirely -
demolifhed, if Pareea had not interpofed ; who
had not only recovered from his blow, but had
alfo forgot it at the fame inftant. He ordered
the crowd to difperfe, and beckoned to our people to come and take pofleffion of the pinnace;
and afterwards affured them* that he would ufe his
influence to get the things reftored which had
been taken out of it. After their departure, he
followed them in his canoe, carrying them a mid-
ihipman's cap,'' and fome other articles of the
plunder; and, exprefiing much concern at what
had happened, begged to know if the orono would
kill him, and whether he might be permitted to
come on board the next day ? He was affured
that he would be well received, and therefore
joined nofes with the officers (their ufual token of
friendfhip) and paddled over to Kowrowa.
Captain Cook, when thefe particulars were re-
prefented to him, was exceedingly concerned ;
and, when he and Mr. King were returning on
board, he expreffed his fears that thefe iflanders
would oblige him to purfue : violent meafures ;
adding, they muft not be permitted to fuppofe,
that they have gained an advantage over us. It
was then, however, too late to take any fteps
that evening; he therefore only gave orders that
every iflander fhouid be immediately turned out
of the fhip. This order being executed, Mr.
King returned on fhore ; and the «vents of the
day having much abated our former confidence
in the natives, a double guard was pofled on the
morai, with orders' to let Mr. King know, if any
men ÏQ2 A  VOYAGE   TO   THE
men were feen lurking about the bea~h. At
eleven o'clock, ûve of the natives were feen creeping round the bottom of the morai-, they approached with great caution, and, at laft, perceiving they were difcovered, immediately retired out of fight. About midnight oneoftheni
ventured himfelf near the obfervatory, when a
fentinel fired over him ; on which they all fled,
and we had no farther difturbance during the remainder of the night.
At day-light the next morning Mr. King went
on board the Refolution, in order to get the tin»
keeper ; and in his way thither was hailed by the
Difcovery, and received information that their
cutter, had fome time in the night been ftolen,
from the buoy, where it had been moored.
On Mr. King's arrival on board he found the
marjnes were arming themfelves, and Captain
Cook bulled in loading his double-barrelled gun.
Whilft he was acquainting him with what had
happened in the night at the morai, he eagerly
interrupted him, and informed him of the lofs of
the Difcovery's cutter, and of the preparations he
was making to recover it. It was his ufual practice
in all the iflands of this ocean* when any thing of
confequence had been ftolen from him, by fome
ftratagem, to get the king, or fome of the principal Erees, on board ; where he detained them
as hoftages, till the property was reftored. This
method   having hitherto proved   fuccefsful,    he
thèaht to adopt on the prefent occafion ; and gave
Orders to flop every canoe that fhouid attempt to
leave the bay ; refolving to feize and deftroy thefri
if the cutter could not be recovered by peaceable
means. Iri purfuance of which, the boats of both
fhips, properly manned and armed, were ftation-
ed acrofs the bay; arid before Mr. King quitted
the fhip', fome great guns were fired at two
canoes, that were attempting to efcape.
Between feven and eight o'clock Captain Cook
and Mr. King quitted the fhip together ; the
former in the pinnace; with Mr. Phillips, and
nirie marines ; and the latter in the fmall boar.'
The laft orders Mr. King received from Captain
Cook were, to quiet the minds o'tth'e people, ofi
our fide of the bay, by the ftrongeft affuranc^s
that they fhouid not be injured ; to' fkeep his
people together^ and to be continually on his
guard. Captain Cook and Mr. King then fepa-
rated ; the Captain going towards Kowrowa, where
Terreeoboo refided ; and Mr. King proceeded to
the beach: his firft bufinefs, when he arrived on
fhore, was to iffue ftrict orders to the marines to
continue within the tent, to charge their muf-
quets with ball, and not on any conffdèration, to
quit their arms. He then attended old Kaoo and
the priefts at their refpeetive huts, and explained
to them, as well as he was able, the reafon of the
hoftile preparations, which had fo exceedingly a-
larmed them.    He found \they were no ftrangers
Vol. IIL.-n0
to 194 "A    VOYAGETOTHE
to the circumftance of the cutter's being ftolen*
and affured them, that though   the Commodoie
was not only refolved to recover it, but  alfo to
punifh, in the moft exemplary manner, the authors of the theft ; yet that they, and all the inhabitants of the village, on our fide, had not the  \
leaft occafion to be alarmed, or to apprehend the
leaft danger from us.    He importuned the priefts  \
to communicate this to  the people, and intreat
them not to entertain an idea of fear, but to continue  peaceable and quiet.     Kaoo interrogated  l
Mr. King, with great emotion, if any harm was
to happen to Terreeoboo ?   He affured him there
was not ; and both he and his brethren appeared
much fatisfied with this affurance.
Captain Cook having, in the mean time, called
off the launch, from the noj&h point of the bay,
and taken it with him, landed at Kowrowa, with
the lieutenant and nine marines. He proceeded
immediately into the village, where he was re-
fpeftfully received ; the people, as ufual, pro-
fixating themfelves before him, and making their
accuftomed offerings of fmall hogs. Perceiving
that his defign was not fufpected, his next ftep
was, to inquire for the king, and the two boys,
his fons, who had been almoft continually his
guefts on board the Refolution. The boys pre-
fently returned with the natives, who bad been
fearching for them, and immediately conducted
Captain Cook to the habitation where Terreeoboo
had p Acinic   dcÉÀli. i$$
had* flept. The old man had juft awoke ; and
' after fome converfation reflecting the lofs of the
Cutter, from which the Commodore was con-
| vinced that he was not in any wife privy to it, hé
invited him to accompany him, and fpend the
day on board the Refolution. The king accepted the invitation* and arofe immediately to accompany him.
Every thing had now a profperôus appearance %
the two boys were already in the pinnace^ and the
reft of the party approaching the water fide, when
a woman* named Kanee-kabaieea, the mother of
the boys, and one of Terreeoboo's favourite wives^
followed him* befeeching him, with tears and
entreaties, not to venture to go on board. Two
chiefs, who came with her^ took hold of him,
and infilling he fhouid proceed no farther, obliged
him to fit dowiii The iflanders, now collecting
in vaft numbers along the fhore, who had probably
been alarrned by the difcharging of the great
guns, and the hoftile appearances in the bay^
gathered together round Captain Cook and Terreeoboo. Thus fituated* the lieutenant of marines, perceiving that his men were huddled together in the crowd, and confequeritly unable to
ufe their arms, if there fhouid appear to be a
necefnty for it* propofed to Captain Cook, to
draw them up along the rocks* clofe to the edge
of the water. The populace making way for
them to pafs, the lieutenant drew them up in â
O z line | i
. line ; within about thirty yards of the place where
Terreeoboo was fitting.
The old king continued, all this time, on the
ground, bearing the moft vifible marks of terror
and dejection in his countenance.    Captain Cook,
unwilling to abandon the object which occafioned
him to come on fhore, urged him moft earneftly
to proceed ; whilft, on the other hand, if the king
expreffed any inclination to follow him, the chiefs,
who  furrounded   him, interpofed ;   at   firft they
had recourfe to prayers and entreaties, but afterwards to force and violence, and even infilled on
his remaining on fhore.    Captain Cook, at length,
perceiving that the alarm had fpread too generally,   and that there  was not a  probability  of
getting him  off without  much bloodfhed, gave
up the point ; at the fame time obferving, to Mr;
Phillips,   that to  compel him to go on board,
would probably occafion the lofs of many of the
lives of the inhabitants.
Notwithftanding this ehterprize had now failed, and was abandoned by Captain Cook, yet it
did not appear that his perfon was in the leaft
degree of danger, till an accident happened,
which occafioned a fatal turn to the affair. The
boats, ftationed acrofs the bay, having fired at
fome canoes* for attempting to get out, unfortunately had killed one of their principal chiefs.
Intelligence of his death arrived at the village
where Captain  Cook then was,  juft as he  had
parted PACIFIC    OCEAN. I97
parted from the king,  and was  proceeding with
great deliberation towards the fhore.     The ferment it immediately occafioned, was but too con-
fpicuous ; the women and children were inftantly
fent  away, and the men were foon clad  in their
war-mats, and armed with fpears and ftones.    One
of the natives   having provided   himfelf with a
flone, and a long iron  fpike (called  by the natives a pahooa)   advanced  towards the  Captain,
flouriihing  his weapon in defiance,   and threatening to throw the flone.     The Captain requefted
him to defift ; but the iflander repeating his menaces, he was highly provoked, and  fired a load
of fmall  fhot at him.    The man was fhielded in
his war-mat, which the fhot could not penetrate ;
his   firing therefore,   ferved only to  irritate and
encourage them.    Vollies of ftones  were thrown
at the   marines ;   and one of the erees attempted
the life of Mr. Phillips   with his pahooa-,   but,
not fucceeding in the  attempt, he received from
him a blow with the butt end of his piece.    Captain Cook immediately difcharged his fécond barrel, loaded with ball, and  killed one of the moft
violent of the affailants.    A  general attack with
ftones fucceeded,   which   was  followed   on   our
part, by a difcharge of mufquetry,   not only from
the  marines,  but alfo  from  the  people   in  the
boats.    The  natives, to our great aftoniffirnent,
received our   fire with great firm nefs ; and' without giving time for the  marines to charge again,
O 3 they A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
they rufhed in upon them  with dreadful fthoilijf;
and yells.    What  followed was a fcene of hor-?
ror and confufion, which can more eafiiy be con*
ceived than properly related %
Four of the marines retreated among the
rocks, and fell a façrifice to the fury of the enemy ; three others were dangeroufly wounded i
and the lieutenant ftabbed between the fhouldem
with a pahooa ; but having fortunately referved
his fire, fhot the man from whom he had receivecj
the wound, at the inflant he was preparing to
repeat his blow. The laft time our unfortunatf
Commodore was diftinctly feen, he was flanding
at the water's edge, and ordering the boats to
çeafe firing, and pull iq.
It was imagined by fome of thofe who were
prefent, that the marines, and thofe who were in
the boats, fired without Captain Cook's orders,
and that he was anxious to prevent the farther
effufion of blood ; it is therefore probable, that,
on this ocçafion, his humanity proved fatal tQ
him: for it was obferved, that while he faced
the natives* no violence had been offered him \
but, when he turned about, to give directions to
* Though a view of IÇarakakooa Bay, by Mr. Webber,
has appeared in Captain Cook's Voyages in Quarto, no engraving has there been given of the death of the much-lamented . Commander. As fo interefHng a fubject wiU tend
to gratify the eurionty of the reader, uncommon diligence
has been exerted to procure a mailerly reprefentaçion of f o
affecYmg a cataftrophe.
the boats, he was ftabbed in the back, and fell
with his face into the water. A general fhout was
fot up by the iflanders on feeing him fall, and his
body was dragged inhumanly on fhore, where he
was furrounded by the enemy, who fnatching the
dagger' from each other's hands, difplayed a fa-
vage eagernefs to join in his deftruction.
Such was the fate of our moft excellent Commander 1. After a life, diftinguifhed by fuch fuc-
cefsful enterprize, his death can hardly be reckoned premature ; fince he lived to accomplifh
the great work for which he feemed particularly
defigned ; being rather removed from the enjoyment, than the acquifition of glory. How fin-
cerely his lofs was lamented, by thofe who owed
their fecurity to his fkill and conduct, and every
confolation, to his tendernefs and humanity, it
is impoffible to defcribe ; and the talk would be
equally difficult to reprefent the horror, dejection,
and difmay, which followed fo dreadful and unexpected a cataftrophe. Let us, therefore, turn
from fo calamitous a fcene, to the pleafing contemplation of his character and virtues, and pay
our laftjuft tribute to the memory of this worthy man, in a fhort hiftory of his life, and public
fervices.   !
. Captain James Cook was born in the year 1727,
near W'hitby, in ^brkfhire ; and at an early
age, commenced an apprenticefhip to a fhop-
fceeper in a neighbouring village. This not be-
O 4 ing 2CQ
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
ing fuitable to his natural prcpenfity, he foon/
quitted the counter, and contracted for nine
years, with the :o?fter of a veffel in the coal
trade. In 1755, at the commencement of the
war, he entered into the king's feryice on board
the Eagle, then commanded by Captain Hamer,
and afterwards by Sir Hugh Pallifer, who perceiving his merit, advanced him to the quarter
In 1758* we find him mafter of the NorthuhjM
berland, Lord Colville's flag fhip, who then
commanded the fquadron, ftationed on the coaft
of America. Here, as he-has frequently declared,
he firft read Euclid, and clofely applied himfelf
to the ftudy of the mathematics, with the affift-
ance of only a few books, and his Gwn induflry.
While he thus found means to cultivate his un-
derftanding, and fupply, in fome degree, the deficiencies of an early education, he was engaged
in moft of the active fcenes of war in America.
At the fiege of Quebec, he was intrufted by Sir
Charles Saunders with the execution of important
fervices, in the naval department. He was the
pilot who conducted the boats to the attack of
Montmorency; managed the embarkation to the
heights of Abraham ; and pointed out, by buoys,^
j how the large fhips might proceed with fecurity
up the river. The manner in which he acquitted
himfelf in thefe important fervices, procured him
the efteem and friendfhip of Sir Charles Saunders
and PACIFIC    OCEAN. 2,9*
and Lord Colville, who continued his zealous
patrons during the remainder of their lives. At
the conclufion of the war, he was appointed,
through the intereft of xLord Colville and Sir
Hugh Pallifer, to make a furvey of the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, and the coafts of Newfoundland.
He was thus employed till the year 1767, when
Sir Edward Hawke appointed him to the command of an expedition to the South Seas ; in order
to make an obfervation of the tranfit of Venus^
and to profecute difcoveries in that part of the
His fervices, fince this period, are too generally known to require enumeration. His reputation has proportionably advanced beyond the
effect of panegyric. He feems, indeed, to have
been peculiarly qualified for this fpecies of enters
prize. His natural inclination, the nature of his
fervices, and indefatigable application, all con-
fpired to compleat him for it : fo that he acquired
fuch a degree of profeflional knowledge, as can
fall to the  lot of very few.
His frame and confjitution were robuft, and fuch
as enabled him to undergo the fevereft hardihips.
When neceffity required it, he could feed, with
fatisfaction, upon the coarfeft and moft ungrateful food ; and be fubmitted to every kind of felf-
denial with the greateft compofure and indifference. Nor were the qualities of his mind lefs vigorous than thofe of his body. His understanding 2G2*
ing was ftrong and perfpicacious : his judgment,-;
efpecially in thofe matters in which he was more
particularly engaged, quick and fure. His de-
jfigns and operations, were the natural refult of
a great original genius. His valour was cool,
deliberate, and determined ; accompanied with a
moft aftonifhing prefence of mind on the approach
of danger. His manners were plain, eafy, and
unaffected!. His temper, it muft be admitted,
was too much fubject to haftinefs and paffion ;
but this fhouid be forgotten, when it is confider-
ed, tfcat this difpofition was the moft benevolent
and humane.
Thefe are a few traits or outlines of the character of Captain Cook ; but its diftinguifhing feature was, the moft unremitting perfeverance to
accomplifh his defign, in oppofition to dangers*,
difficulties and hardihips. During all his long
and tedious voyages, his eagernefs and activity
were never in the leaft abated.    No alluring in-
citement could detain him for a moment; even
thofe intervals of recreation, which unavoidably
occurred in the courfe of our fervices, and were
joyfully embraced by many of his officers, were',
fubmitted to by him with impatience, if they
could not be made fubfervient to the more effec*
tual profecution of his defigns.
It would be unneceflary to recapitulate the in-
ftances in which thefe qualities were difplayed,
The yefult of his fervices, however, we fhall juft
touch PACIFIC   OCEAN. £©3
touch upon, under two principal heads, viz. geo*
graphy and navigation, placing each in a fepa-
rate and diftinct point of view.
No fcience, it is prefumed, has ever received
greater additions from the labours of one man,
than geography has done from thofe of Captain
Cook. In his firft voyage, he difcovered the
Society Jflands; afcertained the infularity of
New Zealand ; and difcovered the ftraits which fi>
parate the two iflands, and are called after his
name. He explored the eaftern coaft of New
Holland, till then unknown ; an extent of twenty-
feven degrees of latitude, and upwards of two
thoufand miles,
He gave, in his fécond expedition, a refolution to the great problem of a fouthern continent ; haying fo completely traverfed that hemi-
fphere, as not to leave a poffibility of its exift-
ence, unlefs it is fo near the pole* as to be beyond the reach of navigation. New Caledonia,
the largeft ifland in the Southern Pacific, except
New Zealand, was difcovered in this voyage.
Alfo the ifland of Georgia ; and an unknowa
coaft, which the Captain named Sandwich land ;
and having twice vifited the tropical feas, he fettled the fituations of the old, and made feveral
new difcoveries.
His third and laft voyage, however, is diftin-
guifhed above the reft, by the extent and importance of its difcoveries.    Not to mention  the
feveral VOYAGE    TO    THE
feveral fmaller iflands in the Southern Pacific, he
difcovered the group, called the Sandwich Iflands;
which, on account of their fituation and productions* may perhaps become an object of more
confequence, than any other difcovery in the
South Sea. He explored what had before remained unknown of the weftern coaft of America, an extent of three thoufand feven hundred"
miles ; afcertained the proximity of the two continents of Afia and America; failed through the
ftraits between them, and furveyed the coafts on
each fide, fo far as to be fatisfied of the impracticability of a paffage in that hemifphere, from
the Atlantic into the Pacific Ocean, by an eaftern or weftern courfe. He has, in fhort, corn-
pleated the hydrography of the habitable globe,
if we except the Japanefe Archipelago, and the
fea of Amur, which are ftiil imperfectly known
by Europeans.
His fervices, as a navigator, are not lefs im*
portant and meritorious. The method which he
invented, and fo fuccefsfully put in practice, of
preferving the health (and confequently the lives)
pf feamen, will tranfmit his name to future ages,
as a friend   and  benefactor of mankind.
It is well known among thofe who are con-
verfant in naval hiflory, that the advantages
which have been 'fought, through the medium
of long fea-voyages* have always been purchafcd
at a dear rate.    That dreadful diforder which  is
peculiar PACIFIC    OCEAN.
peculiar to this fervice, muft, without exerciilng
an unwarrantable degree of tyranny over our
feamen, have been an infuperable obftacle to our
enterprizes. It was referved for Captain Cook to
convince the world, that voyages might be protracted to three or even four years, in unknown regions, and under every change of climate, without affecting the health in the fmalleft
degree, and even without diminifhing the probability of life/JajHis method has been fully explained, in a paper "which was read before the
Royal   Society, in 1776*.
Refpecting his profeflional abilities, they muft
be fubmitted to the judgment of thofe who are
acquainted with the fervices in which he was engaged. They cannot but acknowledge, that to
have conducted three fuch dangerous and difficult expeditions, of fo unuiual a length, with
invariable fuccefs, muft not only have required
an accurate knowledge of his bufinefs, but alfo a
moft powerful and comprehenfive genius.
Having thus, given a faithful, though a con-
cife account of the death of our much lamented
Commander, and alfo of his character and fervices, his memory muft now be left to the gratitude and admiration of pofterity.
.   * Sir Godfrey Copley's gold medal was awarded him, on
that occalion,
CHAP.     IV.
ÏÏranfaclions at Owhyhee, fubfequent to the death
of Captain Cook—Bravery of Mr*. Phillips—*
The Iflanders forced to retire-*-Situation of out
Party at the Morai—The Natives annoy them
with . Stones—Attempts to fiorm the Morai—A
fhort Truce—Our People quit the Morai—T^acifie
Meafures determined on—Mr. King fent to obtain
a Conference with fome of the Chiefs—His Interview with Koah—Contemptuous Behaviour of the
Natives—Precautions taken by us—Two of thé
Iflanders, in a Canoe, fired at, but not hurt—
A Piece of Captain Cook*s Flrfih brought us by one
of them—Further Provocations from the Natives
—Some great Guns fired at them—Our Watering
Party harrajfed with Stones — The Village of
Kakooa burned by our People—Bravery of one of
the Natives—A proceffion, headed by Kaireekeea,
who comes on board the Refolution—The Bones of
Captain Cook brought to us—They are committed
to the Deep—The Ships leave Karakakooa Bay*
WE have before obferved that four of the
marines, who accompanied Captain Cook*
were killed by the natives on the fpot. The
others, with their lieutenant, Mr. Phillips, threw
themfelves into the fea, and made their efcape,
being protected by a fmart fire from the boats.*,
On this occafion, a ftriking inftance of gallant
behaviour, and of affection for his men, was dif-
played by Mr. Phillips ; for he had fcarcely got
into the boat* when  feeing one of the marines,
who was not a very expert fwimmer,  ftruggling
in the water* and in danger of being taken by the
iilanders, he inftantly leaped into the fea to his
affiftance, though confiderably wounded himfelf;
and  after receiving a blow on his head  from a
ftone, which had almoft fent him to the bottom,
he caught the marine by the hair, and brought
him off in fefety.    Our people for fome time kept
up a confiant fire from the boats (which, 'during
the whole tranfaction, were at no greater diftance
from the land than twenty yards), in order to afford their unfortunate companions, if any of them
fhouid flill remain alive, an opportunity of effecting their efcape.     Thefe  continued  efforts,
feconded by a few guns, that   were at the fame
time, fired from the Refolution, having at length
compelled   the   enemy  to  retire, a fmall  boat,
manned by five midfhipmen, pulled towards the
fhore* where they perceived the bodies lying on
the ground, without any figns of life.    However,
they judged it dangerous to   attempt to bring
them off with fo inconflderable a force ; and their
ammunition   being   nearly   corrfumed,  they returned to the fhips, leaving the bodies in pof-
fefiion of the natives, together with ten ftands of
When èo8
When   the general confirmation,   which   the
news of this misfortune had diffufed throughout
the whole company of both fhips,   had in fome
degree fubfided* their attention was called to the
party at the morai, where the maft and fails were
on fhore, guarded by only fix marines;    It is difficult  to defcribe the emotions that  agitated the
minds of Mr. King and his attendants,   at this
ftation,  during the time  in  which thefe occurrences had happened, at the other fide of the bay.
Being at the diftance only of a mile from the village of Kowrowa, they Could diftinctly perceive a
vaft  multitude  of people collected on the fpot
where Captain Cook had juft before landed.  They
heard the firing of the mufquets,   and obferved
an   uncommon  buftle  and  agitation   among the
crowd.    They afterwards, faw  the   iflanders  retreating,   the boats retiring from the fhoré, and I
paffing  and  repaffihg,   with great ftillnefs,   between the fhips.    Mr. King's heart foon roifgave
him on this occafion.    Where fo valuable a life
was concerned* he could not avoid being alarmed   by  fuch  new   and  threatening  appearances.
Befides this, he knew that Captain Cook, from a
long feries of fuccefs, in his tranfactions with the
natives of this ocean, had acquired a degree of
confidence, which  might,   in fome ill-fated moment, put him too much off his guard ; and Mr.
King now faw all the dangers to which that confidence might lead, without deriving much con-
folation PACIFIC     O CNE A N*. 209
foiatiori from the confideration of the expérience
which had given rife to it. His firft care, on
hearing the report of the mufquets, was to affure
the iflanders, confiderable numbers of whorfi were
affeinbled round the wall of our confecrated field,
and feemed at a lofs how to account for what they
had heard and feen* that they fhouid meet with no
moleftation; and that, at all events, he was inclined
to continue on peaceable terrris with them.
Mr. King and his attendants remained in this
fituation, rill the boats had returned on board,
when Captain Clerke perceiving, by means of his
telefcope* that our party was furrounded by the
natives* who, he thought* defigned to attack
them* ordered two four-pounders to be fired at
the iflanders. Thefe guns* though well aimed,
did no mifchief ; but they gave the natives a convincing proof of their powerful effects. A cocoa-
nut-tree* under which fome of them were fitting,
Was broken in the middle by one of the balls';
and the other fhivered a rock, which flood in an
exact line with them. As Mr. King had, juft
before* given them the ftrongeft affurances of
their fafety, he was extremely mortified at this
a& of hoftility* and, to prevent its being repeated, inflantly difpatched a boat to inform Captain
Clerke, that he was* at prefent, on the moft
amicable terms.with the iflanders, and that,.if
any future occafion fhouid .arife for changing his
conduct towards*them, he woukb'hoift a jack, as
■■ Vol.-HL—n0 16. P J     a fignal 210
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
a fignal for Captain Clerke to afford him his
Mr. King waited the return of the boat with
the greateft impatience; and after .remaining for
the fpace of a quarter of an hour, under the nt-
moft anxiety and fufpence, his fears were at length
confirmed, by the arrival of Mr. Bligh, with orders to ftrike the tents immediately, and to fend
on board the fails, that were repairing. At the
fame inftant, Kaireekeea having alio received information of the death of Captain Cook, from a
native who had arrived from the other fide of the
bay, approached Mr. King, with great dejection
and forrow in his countenance, inquiring whether
it was true.
The fituation of the party, at this time, was
highly critical and important. Not only theif
^ own lives, but the iffue of the expedition, and
the return of at leaft one of the fhips, were involved in the fame common danger. They had
the maft of the Refolution, and the greater part
of the fails, on fhore* protected by only half a
dozen marines. The lofs of thefe would have
been irreparable ; and though the iflanders had
not as yet teftified the fmalleft difpofition to
moleft the party* it was difficult to anfwer fer the
alteration* which the intelligence of the refaction at Kowrowa might produce. Mr. King
therefore thought proper to diffemble his belief
of the death of Captain Cook, and to defire
4 Kaireekeea PACIFIC      OCEAN.
kaireekeea to difcouragé the report^ apprehending that either the fear of our refehtment, or thé
fuccefsful example of their countrymen, might
perhaps lead them to feize the favourable opportunity, which at this time prefented itfelf, of giving us a fécond blow. He, at the fame time* ad~
vifed him to bring old Kaoo, and the other priefts,
into a large houfe adjoining to the 'morai, partly
from a regard to their fafety, in cafe it fhouid
have been found neceffary to have recourfe to
violent meafures ; and partly from a defire of
having hirh near our people, in order to make ufe
of his authority with the natives, if it could be
inftrumental in maintaining peace.
Mr. King having ftationed the marines on the
top of the morai, which formed a ftrong and
advantageous poft, intrufted the command to Mr.
Bligh, v/ho received the moft pofitivè directions
to act foleiy on the defenfivè, went on board
the Difcovery, in order to confer with Captain
Clerke on the dangerous fituation of our affairs.
He had no fooner left the fpot, than the iflanders
began to annoy our people with .ftones ; and juft
after he had reached the fhip* he heard the firing
of the marines. He therefore haftily returned on
fhore, where he found affairs growing every moment more alarming* The natives were providing arms, and putting on their mats ; and their
numbers augmented very faft. He alfo obferved
feveral large bodies advancing towards our party
P 2 along
■   '   i 212 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
along the cliff, by which the village of Kakooa
is feparated from the north fide of the bay, where
Kowrowa is fituate.
They at firft attacked our people with ftones
from behind the walls of their inclofures, and
meeting with no refiftance, they foon became
more daring. A few courageous fellow's, having
crept along the beach, under cover of the rocks,
fuddenly prefented themfelves at the foot of the '
morai, with an intention of ftorming it on the
fide next the fea, which was its only acceffible
part ; and they were not diflodged before they had
flood a confiderable quantity of fhot, and had
feen one of their number fall.
The courage of one of thefe affailants deferves
to be recorded.    Having returned-^with a view
of carrying off his companion, amidft the fire of
our whole party, he received a wound, which
obliged him to quit the body, and retire; but,
' a few minutes afterwards, he again made his appearance, and receiving another wound, was under the neceflity of retreating a fécond time.   At
* that moment Mr. King arrived at the morai, and
•faw this man return a third time, faint from the
lofs of blood and fatigue.    Being informed of
what had happened, he forbad the foldiers to fire;
and the iflander was fuffered to carry off his friend,
which he was juft able to accomplifri ; and "then
fell down himfelf, and breathed his laft.
8 A ftfong i
A ftrong reinforcement from both fhips having
landed about this time, the natives retreated behind their walls ; which affording Mr. King ac-
cefs to the priefts, he fent one of them to exert
his endeavours to bring his countrymen to fome
terms, and to propofe to them, that if they would
defih, from throwing ftones, he would not allow
our men to fire. This truce was agreed to, and
our people were fuffered to launch the mail, and
carry off the fails, aftronomical inftruments, &c.
without moleftation. As foon as our party had
quitted the morai, the iflanders took poffeffion of
it, and fome of them threw a few ftones, which,
however, did no mifchief.
Between eleven and twelve o'clock, Mr. King
arrived on board the Difcovery, where he^found
that no decifive plan had been adopted for the
regulation of our future proceedings. The recovery of Captain Cool-fs body, and the reftitu-
tion of the boat, were the objects, which, on all
hands, we agreed to infift on ; and Mr. King declared it as his opinion, that fome vigorous methods fhouid be put in execution, if the demand
of them ihouid not be inftantiy complied with.
Though it may juftly be fuppofed that Mr.
King's feelings, on the death of a beloved and
refpected friend, had fome fhare in this opinion,
yet they were doubtlefs other reafons, and thofe
of the moft ferious nature, that had fome weight
with him. The confidence which the fuccefs of
P 3 the
j 214
the natives in killing our Commander, and obliging us tô leave the fhore, muft naturally have in-
fpired; and the advantage, however inconfider-
able, which they had gained over us the preceding day, would, he had no doubt, excite them
to make farther dangerous attempts ; and the;
more particularly, as they had no great reafon,
from what they had hitherto obferved, to dread
the effects of our fire-arms. This kind of weapon,
indeed, contrary to the expectations of us all, had
produced in them no figns of terror. On our
fide, fuch was the condition of our veffels, and
the ftate of difcipline among us, that, had a
vigorous attack been made on us, during the
night, the confequences might perhaps have been
highly difagreeable. Mr. King was fupported*
in thefe apprehenfions, by the opinion of the
greater part of the officers on board; and nothing feemed to him more likely to encourage
the iflanders to make the attempt, than the appearance of our being inclined to an accommodation* which they could only impute to weak-
ncfs or fear.
On the other hand it was urged, in favour of
more conciliatory meafures, that the mifchief was
already done, and was irreparable ; that the natives, by reafon of their former friendihip and
kindnefs, had a ftrong claim to our regard ; and
the more particularly, as the late calamitous accident did not appear to have taken its rife from
any premeditated defign ; that, on the part of
Terreeoboo, his ignorance of the theft, his will-
ingnefs to accompany Captain Cook on board the
Refolution, and his having actually fent his two
fons into the.pinnace, muft refcue his character,
in this refpect, from the fmalleft degree of fuf-
picioh ; that the behaviour of his women, and
the chiefs, might eafily be accounted for, from
the apprehenfions occafioned in their minds by the
armed force, with which Captain Cook landed^
and the hoftile preparations in the bay ; appearances fo unfuitable to the confidence and friend-
ïhip, in which both parties had hitherto lived,
that the arming of the iflanders was manifeftly
with a defign to refift the attempt, which they
had fome reafon to expect would be made, to
carry off their fovereign by force* and was naturally to be expected from a people who had a remarkable affection for their chiefs.
To thefe dictates of humanity, other motives
of a prudential kind were added ; that we were
in want of a fupply of water, and other refrefh-
ments; that the Refolution's foremaft would require feven or eight days work, before it could be
ftepped ; that the fpring was advancing very faft $
and that the fpeedy profecution of our next expedition to the northward, ought now to be our
fole object ; and that, therefore, to engage in a
vindictive conteft with the natives, might not
only fubject us. to the imputation of needlefs
P 4 cruelty* 2l6
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
cruelty,   but would require great delay in the
equipment of our fhips.
' Captain Clerke concurred in this latter opinion;
and though Mr. King was convinced, that an
early and vigorous difplay of our refentment would
have more effectually anfwered every object both
of prudence and humanity, he was, upon the
wr^ole, not forry, that the meafures he had re^
commended were rejected. For though the con?
temptuous behaviour of the iflanders, and their
fubfequent oppoiition to our neçeffary occupations
on fhore, arifing, moft probably* from a mif-
conftruction of our lenity, obliged us at laft to
have recourfe to violence in our own defence;
yet he was not certain, that the circumftance$.^||
the cafe would, in the opinion of the generality
of people, have jollified the ufe of force, on our
part, in the fîrft inftancef Cautionary feverity is
ever invidious, and the rigour of a preventive
meafure, when it is the moft fuccefsful, leaves its
expediency the leaft apparent.
While we were thus engaged, in concerting
fome plan for our future operations, a very numerous concourfe of the natives ftill kept poffeffion
of the fhore; and fome of them, coming off in
canoes, approached within piftol-fhot of the fhips,
and infulted us by various marks of defiance and
contempt. It was extremely difficult to reftrain
the feamen from the ufe of their arms on thefe
occafions ; but* as pacific meafures had been re-
folve4 PACIFIC     OCEAN.
folved on, the canoes were allowed to retuf^i
Mr. King was now ordered to proceed t$ward$
the fhore, with the boats of both fhips, well
manned and armed, with a view of bringing thg
iflanders to a parley, and of obtaining, ifpoffibie,
a conference with fome of the Erees. If he fhouid
fucceed in this attempt, he was to demand the
dead bodies, and particularly that of Captain
Cook ; to threaten them, in cafe of a refufal, with
our refentment ; but, by no means to fire, unlefs
attacked ; and not to go afhore on any account
whatever. Thefe inftructions were delivered to
Mr, King before the whole party, in the moft
pofitive manner.
Mr. King and his cjfjaehment left the fhips
about four o'clock in the afternoon ; a#d> as tfeey
approached the fhore, they perceived every indication of a hoftile reception. The natives were
all in motion; the women and children flUtij&8g$
the men arming themfelves «with long fpears and
daggers, and putting on their war-mats. It alio
appeared, that, fince the morning, they had
thrown up breaft-works of fl#$e along the beach,
where Captain Coofe;had landed ; in expectation
perhaps, of an attack at that place.
As foon as our party were within reach, %$
iflanders began to throw ftones at -them with
flings, but without doing any ^ifchief. Mr*
K|ng cgnçl^dedj fxçm thlfe^ppea-rances, that all
attempt* US
attempts to bring them to a parley would be in*
effectual, unlefs he gave them fome ground for
mutual confidence : he therefore ordered the
armed boats to flop, and advanced alone, in the
fmall boat, holding in his hand a white flag ; the
meaning of which, from an univerfal fhout of joy
from the natives, he had the fatisfaction to find
was immediately underftood. The women in-
flantly returned from the fide of the hill, whither
they had retired ; the men threw off their mats,
and all feated themfelves together by the fea-fide,
extending their arms, and inviting Mr. King to
land. -T-'-'
Though fuch behaviour feemed expreflive of a
friendly difpofition, he could not avoid entertainr
ing fufpicions of its fincerity. But when he faw
Koah, with extraordinary boldnefs and affurance,
fwimming off towards the boat, with a. w*BRfe flag
in his hand, he thought proper to return this
mark of confidence, and accordingly received him
into the boat, though he was armed; a circumftance which did not contribute to leffen Mr.
King's fufpicions. He had, indeed, long harboured an unfavourable opinion of Koah. The
priefts had always reprefented him as a perfon of
a malicious temper, and no friend to us ; and the
repeated detections of his fraud and treachery,
had convinced us of the truth of their aliénions.
Befides, the melancholy tranfactions of the «morning, in which he was feen performing a principal
part, infpired Mr. King with the utmoft horror
at finding himfelf fo near him; and as he approached him, with feigned tears, and embraced
him, Mr. King was fb diftruflful of his intentions,
that he took hold of the point of the pahooa,
which the chief held in his hand, and turned it
from him. He informed the iflander, that he
had come to demand the body of Captain Cook,
and to declare war againft the natives, unlefs it
was reftored without delay. Koah affured him
that this fhouid be done as foon as poffible, and
that he would go himfelf for that purpofe ; and
after requefting a piece of iron of Mr. King,
with maries of great affurance, he leaped into the
water, and fwam afhore, calling out to his
countrymen, that we were all friends again.
Our people waited with great anxiety, near an
hour, for his return. During this interval, the
other boats had approached fo near the fhore, that
the men who were in them entered into converfa-
tion with a party of the iflanders, at a little diftance; by whom they were informed, that the
Captain's body had been cut to pieces, and carried up the country; but of this circumftance, Mr.
King was not apprized till his return to the fhips.
Mr. King now began to exprefs fome degree
of impatience at Koah's delay; upon which the
chiefs preffed him exceedingly to land; affuring
him, that, if he would go in perfon to Terreeoboo, the body would be undoubtedly.reftored to
iiifcl him.. r^
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
him. " When they found they could not prevail
on Mr. King to go afhore, they endeavoured,
on pretence of converting with him with greater
cafe, to decoy his boat among fome rocks, where
they might have had it in their power to feparate
|p£i from the other boats. It was eafy to fee
through tgeie artifices, and he was, therefore,
very defirous of breaking off all communication
jyigh them, when a chief approached, who had
particularly attached M-gifelf to Captain Clerke,
and the officers of the Diftpvery, on board which
flîip he had failed* when we laft quitted the bay,
intending to take his paffage to the ifland of
J#pwee. He faid he came from Terreeoboo, to
acqua^it our people, that the body was carried
up the cquntry, but that it fhouid be brought
back the foil&wing morning. There appeared
gguch fincerity in his manner; and being afked,
if he ujttered a falfehood, he^opked together his
two fore fingers, which is here under$o/)çJ as the
f|gn of veracity, in the ufe of which thefe iflanders
g$e very fçr.tnpulous.
Mr. Kingôfeeipg now £t$jl%§ how to proceed,
fent Mr.^Mftftcpuver to inform Captain Cteçke of
all that had paffed; that it was his opinion, trjç7
natives did not intend to keep^eir word with
us; and, far from being grieved£twhat had happened, were, on the contrary, infpired with great,
^gy^Sderice^n^ççoiint of their -}gte fuccejp, *an*^
foughk&nly tQ4$\&AiW£> till they could plan %!#
•-Sifr fcheme PACIFIC     OCEAN.
fcheme for getting our people into then* power.
Mr. Vancouver came back with orders for Mr.
King to return on board, after giving the iflanders
to underftand, that, if the body 'was not reftored
the next morning, the town fhouid be deftrdyed.
When they perceived our parfy retiring, they
endeavoured to provoke them by the moft contemptuous and infuiting geftufes. Several of our
people faid, they could diftinguiih fome of the
natives parading about in the clothes which hadv
belonged to our unhappy countrymen, and among
them, an& brandiihing Captain Cook's hanger,
and a woman holding the fcabbafd.
In confequence of Mr. King's réport to Captain Clerke, of what he fuppdfed fo tie the prefent temper and difpofition of the inhabitants,
the moft effeélual methods were taken to guard
againft any attack they might make during the
night. The boats were moored with top-chains ;
additional fentinels were ftdtioned in each of our
fhips ; and guard-boats were directed to row round
them, in order to prevent the iflanders from cutting the cables.
In the night we faw a vaft number of lights
on the hills, which induced fome of us to imagine, that they *were removing-their effects farther up into the country, in confeqùéfice of bur
menaces. But it feems more probable, thàt'ttiéV
were kindled at the facrifices^â't were perfofrh-
frigon account of the war, in which they fuppofeoi
them- ââ*
A    VOYAÔE    TO    THE
themfelves lively to,be engaged; and, perhaps
the bodies of our flain countrymen were, at that
time, burning. We afterwards obferved fires of
the fame kind, as we paffed the ifland of Mo-
rotoi ; and which, according to the information
we received from fome of the natives, then on
board* were made on account of a war they had
declared againft a neighbouring ifland. This
agrees with what we learned among the Friendly
and Society Ifles, that, previous to any hoftilè
expedition, the chiefs always endeavoured to
animate the courage of the people, by feafts and
rejoicings in the night*
We paffed the night without any diflurbancé^
except from the howlings and lamentations which
were heard on fhore. Early the next morning**
(Monday the 15th) Koah came alongside the
Refolution* with a fmall pig, and fome cloth*
which he defired permiifiori to prefent tô Mr.
King. We have already mentioned, that this
officer was fuppofed, by the iflanders, to be the
fon of Captain Cook ; and as the latter had always fuffered them to believe it, Mr. King was
probably confidered as the chief after his dèath.-
As foon as he came on deck, he interrogated
Koah with regard to the body; and, on his returning evafive anfwers, refufed to accept his pre-
fents; and was on the point of difmiifing him
with exprefiions of anger and refentment, had
not Captain Gierke, with a view of keeping up
J±ji* the PACIFIG      OCEAN.
the appearance of friendfhip> judged it more
proper, that he fhouid be treated with the cufto-
mary refpect.
This chief came frequently to us, in the courfe
of the morning, with fome trifling prefent or
other; and as we always obferved him eyeing
every part of the fhip with a great degree of attention, we took care he fhouid fee we were well
prepared for our defence.
He was extremely urgent both with Captain
Clerke and Mr. King, to go on fhore, imputing
the detention of the bodies to the other chiefs ;
and affuring thofe gentlemen, that every thing
might be adjufted to their fatisfaction, by a per-
fonal interview with the king. However, they
did not think it prudent to comply with Koah's
requeft; and, indeed, a fact came afterwards to
their knowledge, which proved his want of veracity. For, they were informed, that, immediately after the action in which Captain Cook had
loft his life, Terreeoboo had retired to a cave in
the fteep part of the mountain, that hangs over
the bay, which was acceffible only by means of
ropes, and where he continued for feveral days,
having his provifions let down to him by cords.
After the departure of Koah from the fhips,
we obferved that his countrymen, who had af-
fembled by day-break, in vaft crowds on the
Ihore, flocked around him with great eagernefs
on his landing, as if they wifhed to learnjjche in-
telligence A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
telligerrce he had gained, and what fteps were t(3
be taken in confequence of it. It is highly probable, that they expected we fhouid attempt to
put our threats in-execution; and they appeared
fully determined to ftànd their ground. During
the whole morning, we heard conchs blowing in
various parts of the coaft; large parties were per-
ceivë-î^ftiarching over the hills ; and, upon the
whole, appearances were fo alarming, that we
%£?fied out a ftream anchor, for the purpofe of
hauling the fhip abreaft of the town, in cafe of
•an attack ; and boats were flationed off the northern point of the bay, in order to prevent a fur-
prize from the natives in that quarter.
The warlike pofture in which they appeared at
prefent, and the breach of their engagement to
^effepethe bodies of the flain, occafioned frefh
debates among us, concerning the meafures which
fhouid now be purfued. It was at length determined* that nothing fhouid be permitted to interfere with the repair of the Refolution's maff,
and the preparations for our departure; but that
we fhouid, neverthelefs, continue our négociations ïfbr the reftoration of the bodies of our
The greater part of the day was employed in
getting the fore-maft into a proper fituation on
deck, thaf*fhe carperfters 1might work upon it$
* and alfo in making the requifite alterations in the
•éérlÉAiffions of the officers,   fhe chief command
-■■-,.     • of PACIFIC      OCEAN.
of the expedition having devolved on Captain
Clerke, he removed on board the Refolution,
promoted Lieutenant Gore to the rank of Captain
of the Difcovery, appointed Meffrs. King and
Williamfon firft and fécond Lieutenants of the
Refolution, and nominated Mr. Harvey, a Mid-
fhipman, who had accompanied Captain Cook
during his two laft voyages, to fill the vacant
lieutenancy. During the whole day, we fuftained
no interruption from the iflanders ; and, in the
evening, the launch was moored with a top-chain,
and guard-boats ftationed round each of the fhips
as before.
About eight o'clock* it being exceedingly
dark, we heard a canoe paddling towards the
fhip ; and it was no fooner perceived, than both
the fentinels on deck fired into it. There were
two of the natives in this canoe, who immediately
roared out fC Tinnee," (which was their method
of pronouncing Mr. King's name), and faid they
were friends, and had fomething with them which
belonged to Captain Cook. When they came on
board, they threw themfelves at the feet of our
officers, and feemed to be extremely terrified. It
fortunately happened, that neither of them was
hurt, notwithftanding the balls of both pieces had
gone through the canoe.
One of them was the perfon, who has been already mentioned, under the appellation of the
taboo man, who conftantly attended Captain Cook
Vol. III.—n<> 16. Q^ with CL%$ A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
with the particular ceremonies we have before de-
fcribed ; and who, though a man of diftinction
in the ifland, could fcarcely be prevented from
performing for him the moft humiliating offices
of a menial fervant. After bewailing, with many
tears, the lofs of the Orono, he informed us, that
he had brought a part of his body. He then
gave us a fmall bundle which he brought under
his arm ; and it is impoffible to defcribe the horror with whictTwe were feized* upon finding in
it, a piece of human flefh, of the weight of about
nine or ten pounds. This, he faid, was all that
now remained of the body ; that the reft had been
cut in pieces, and burnt ; but that the head, and
all the bones, except thofe which belonged to
the trunk, were in the poffeffion of Terreeoboo
and the other chiefs ; that what we faw had been
allotted to Kaoo, the chief of the priefts, for the
purpofe of being ufed in fome religious ceremony; and that he had fent it as a teftimony of his
innocence, and of his attachment to us.
We had now an opportunity of learning whether they were cannibals ; and we did not neglect
to avail ourfelves of it. We firft endeavoured*
by feveral indirect queftions, put to each of then*
apart, to gain information refpecting the manner rin which the other bodies had been treated
and difpofed of; and, finding them very confiant
in one account, that, after the flefh had been cut
off, the whole of it was burnt; we at laft put the
8 direct PACIFIC      OCEAN*
direct queftion, whether they had not fed on
fome of it •? they immediately teftified as much
horror at fuch an idea, as any European would
have done ; and afked, whether that was the practice among us. They afterwards afked us, with
great earneftnefs, and with an appearance of ap*
prehenfion, when the Orono would come again ?
and how he would treat them on his return ? the
fame inquiry was often made in the fequel by
others; and this idea is confiftent with the general tenour of their conduct towards him, which
indicated, that they confidered him as a being
of a fuperior fpecies.
Though we preffed our two friendly vifitants
to continue on board till the next morning, we
could not prevail upon them. They informed
us, that, if this tranfaction fhouid come to the
knowledge of the king, or any of the other Erees,
it might be attended with the moft fatal confe-
quences to their whole fociety ; to prevent which,
they had been under the neceffity of coming to
us in the dark ; and the fame precaution, they
faid, would be requifite in returning on fhore.
They further told us* that the chiefs were eager
to take revenge on us for the death of their countrymen; and particularly cautioned us againft
trufting 'Koah, who, they affured us, was bur
implacable enemy ; and ardently longed for an
opportunity of fighting us, to which the blowing
CL* of
. 228 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
of the conchs, that we had heard in the morning*
was intended as a challenge.
It alfo appeared from the information of thefe
men, that feventeen of their countrymen were
flain, in the firft action, at the village of Kowro-
wa, five of whom were chiefs ; and that Kaneena
and his brother, our particular friends, were of
that number. Eight, they faid, had loft their
lives at the obfervatory ; three of whom likewife
were perfons of the firft diftincrion.
The two natives left us about eleven o'clock,
and took the precaution to defire, that one of
our guard-boats might attend them, till they had
paffed the Difcovery, left they fhouid again be
fired upon, which, by alarming their countrymen
on fhore, might expofe them to the danger of
detection. This requeft was readily complied
with, and we had the fatisfaction to find, that
they reached the land fafe and undifcovered.
We heard, during the remainder of this night,
the fame loud lamentations, as in the preceding
one. Early the following morning, we received
a vifit from Koah. Mr. King was piqued at finding, that, notwithftanding the moft glaring marks
of treachery in his conduct, and the pofitive declaration of our friends the priefts, he fhouid ftill
be fuffered to carry on the fame farce, and to
make us at leaft appear the dupes of his hypo-
crify. Our fituation was, indeed* become extremely aukward and unpromifing $ none of the
purpofes for which this pacifie plan of proceedings had been adopted, having hitherto been, in
any refpect, promoted by it. No farisfa6lory an-
fwer had been given to our demands ; we did not
i feem to have made any progrefs towards a reconciliation with the natives ; they flill remained on
the fhore in hoftile poftures, as if determined
to oppofe any endeavours we might make to go
afhore; and yet it was become abfoluttly necef-
fary to attempt landing, as the completing our
flock of water would not admit of any longer
We muft remark, however, in juftice to the
conduct of Captain Clerke, that it was highly
\ probable, from the great numbers of the iflanders,
> and from the refolution with which they feemed
to expect our approach, that an attack could not
have been made without danger; and that the
lofs of even a very few men, might have been
fèverely felt by us, during the remainder of our
voyage ; whereas the delaying to put our menaces
into execution, though, on the one hand, it di-
minifhed their opinion of our valour, had the effect of occafioning them to difperfe on the other.
For this day, about twelve o'clock, upon finding
that we perfifted in our inactivity, great bodies
of them, after blowing their conchs, and ufing
every method of defiance, marched off, over the
hills, and never madetheir appearance afterwards.
Thofe* however, who remained,  were not the
Q.3 kfi 23°
A     VOYAGE     TO     THE
lefs daring and prefumptuous. One of them had
the infolence to come withift. mufquet-ihot, a*
head of the Refolution, and, after throwing feveral ftones at us, waved over his head the hat
which had belonged to Captain Cook, while his
countrymen a-fhore were exulting and encouraging his audacity.
Our people were highly enraged at this infuk,
and corning in a body on the quarter deck, begged
they might no longer be obliged to put up with
fuch reiterated provocations, and requefted Mr,
King to endeavour to obtain permifllon for them,
from Captain Clerke; to take advantage of the
firft fair occafion of avenging the death of their
much-lamented Commander. On Mr. King's
acquainting the Captain with what was paffing,
be ordered fome great enns to be fired at the
iflanders on fhore ; and promifed the crew* that,
if they fhouid be molefted at the watering-place,
the next day, they fhouid then be permitted to.
chaftife them.
Before we could bring our guns to bear, the
natives had fufpected our intentions, from the
buftle and agitation they obferved in the fhip$
and had retired behind their houfes and walls.
We were confequently obliged to fire, in fome
degree, at random ; notwithftanding which, our
fhot produced all the effects we could defire,
For, in a fhort time afterwards, we perceived
&pah paddling towards us, with the greateft haftei
and Pacific    ocean.
and when he arrived, we learned, that fome people had loft their lives, and among the reft Ma-
iha-maiha, a principal Eree *, nearly related to
Not long after Koah's arrival, two boys fwam
off from the morai towards our veffels* each armed
with a long fpear; and after they had approached pretty near, they began, in a very folemn
manner, to chant a fong; the fubject of which,
from their frequently mentioning the word Orono,
and pointing to the village where Captain Cook
had been flain, we concluded to be the late calamitous occurrence. Having fung for near a
quarter of an hour in a plaintive ftrain, during
all which time they continued in the water, they
repaired on board the Difcovery, and delivered
up their fpears; and, after remaining there a
fhort time, returned on fhore. We could never
learn who fent them* or what was the object of
this ceremony.
During the night, we took the ufual precautions
for the fecurity of the fhips ; and, as foon as it
was dark, the two natives, who had vifited us
the preceding evening, came off to us again.
They affured us, that though the effects of our
* In the language of thefe iflands, the word matee is generally ufed either to exprefs killing or wounding ; and we
were afterwards informed, that this chief had only received
a trifling blow on the face, from a flone which had been
firuck by one of our balls.
great VOYAGE
:o    THE
great guns, this afternoon, had greatly alarmed
the chiefs, they had by no means relinquifhed
their hoftile intentions, and they advifed us to be
on our gua-rd.
The following morning, which was the 17th,
the boats of both fhips were difpatched afhore to
procure water; and the Difcovery was warped
çlofe to the bçach, in order to protect the perfons
employed in that fer vice. We foon found that
the intelligence which had been fent us by the
priefts, was not deftitute of foundation, and that
the iflanders were determined to neglect no opportunity of annoying us, when it could be done
without much hazard.
The villages, throughout this whole clufter of
iflands, are, for the moft part, fituated near the
fea; and the adjacent ground is enclofed with
flone walls, of the height of about three feet,
Thçfe, we at firft fuppofed, were defignedfor the
divifion of property ; but we now difcovered that
they ferved for a defence againft invafion, for
which purpofe they were, perhaps, chiefly intended. They confift of loofe ftones, and the
natives are very dexterous in ihifting them, with
great quiçknefs, to fuch particular fituatipns, as
the direction of the attack may occafionally require. In the fides of the mountain, that ftands
near the bay, they have^Jikewife holes, or caves,
of confiderable depth, whofe entrance is fecured
by a fence of a firnilar kind»   From behind both
thefe ftations, the iflanders perpetually harraffed
our watering party with ftones ; nor could the in-
con fiderable force we had on fhore, with the advantage of mufquets, compel them to retreat.
Thus oppofed, our people were fo occupied in
attending to their own fafety, that, during the
whole forenoon^ they filled only one ton of water. It being therefore impoffible for them to
perform this fer vice, till their affailants were
driven to a greater diftance* the Difcovery was ordered to diflodge the enemy with her great guns;
which being accomplifhed by means of a few dif-
çharges, the men landed without moleftation.
The natives, however, made their appearance
again, foon afterwards, in their ufual methpd of
attack ; and it was now deemed abfolutely necefi-.
fary to burn down fome ftraggling huts, near the
wall behind which they had iheltered themfelves..
In executing the orders that were given for that
purpofe, our people were hurried into acts of un-.
neceffary devaluation and cruelty. Some allowr
ance ought certainly to be made for their refent-
ment of the repeated infults, and contemptuous
behaviour of the iflanders, and for their natural
defire of revenging the death of their beloved and
refpected Commander. But, at the fame time,
their conduct ftrongly evinced, that the greatcft
precaution is requifite in trufting, even for a moment, the difcretionary ufe of arms, in the hands
of private foldiers^ or feamen, on fuch occafions.
itl The Ô34
A    VOYAGE     TO     THE
The ftrictnefs of difcipline, and the habits of
obedience, by which their force is kept directed
to fuitable objects, lead them to conceive, that
whenever they have the power* they have like-
wife a right to perform. Actual difobedience being almoft the only crime for which they expect
to receive punifhment, they are apt to confider
it as the fole meafure of right and wrong ; and
hence they are too ready to conclude, that what
they can do with impunity, they may alfo do con-
fiftently with honour and juftice ; fo that the
feelings of humanity, and that generofity towards
an unrefifting enemy* which, at other times, is
à (hiking diftin£tion of brave men, become but
feeble reftraints to the exercife of violence, when
fet in opposition to the defire they naturally have
of fhewing their own power and independence.
It has been before obferved, that directions had
been given to burn only a few ftraggling houfes,
which afforded fhelter to the iflanders. We were
therefore greatly furprifed on perceiving the whole
village in flames ; and before a boat, that was
fent to ftop the progrefs of the mifchief, could
reach the land, the habitations of our old and
confiant friends, the priefts, were all on fire. Mr.
King had, therefore, great reafon to lament the
illnefs that confined him on board this day. The
priefts had always been under his protection ; and,
unfortunately, the officers then on duty having
feldom been on fhore at the morai, were but lit—
rW tie PACIFIC     OCEAN. 23e
lie acquainted with the circumftances of the place.
Had he been prefent himfelf, he might, in all
probability* have been the means of preferving
their little fociety from deftruction.
In efcaping from the flames, feveral of the
inhabitants were fhot ; and our people cut off the
heads of two of them, and brought them on board.
The fate of one unhappy native was much lamented by all of us. As he was repairing to the
well for water, he was fhot at by one of the
marines. The ball happened to ftrike his cali-
bafh, which he inftantly threw from him, and
ran off. He was purfued into one of the caves
above-mentioned, and no lion could have defended his den with greater bravery and fiercenefs $
till at length, after he had found means to keep
two of our people at bay for a confiderable time,
he expired* covered with wounds. This accident
firft brought us acquainted with the ufe to which
thefe caverns are applied. *
About this time a man, advanced in years, was
taken prifoner, bound, and conveyed on board
the Refolution, in the fame boat, with the heads
of his two countrymen. We never obferved
horror fo ftrongly portrayed, as in the face of
this perfon, nor fo violent a tranfition to immoderate joy, as when he was untied, and given to
underftand, that he might depart in fafety. He
ihewed us that he was not deficient in gratitude,
a$ 236
A     VOYAGE     TO     THE
as he not only often returned afterwards with pre-
ients of provifions, but alfo did us other fervices.
In a fhort time after the deftruction of the village, we faw, coming down the hill, a man, accompanied by fifteen or twenty boys, who held
in their hands pieces of white cloth, plantains,
green boughs, &c. It happened that this pacific
embaffy, as foon as they were within reach, received the fire of a party of our men. This,
however, did not deter them from continuing,
their proceffion, and the officer on duty came up,
in time, to prevent a fécond difcharge. As they
made a nearer approach, the principal • perfon
proved to be our friend Kaireekeea, who had fled
when our people firft fet fire to the village, and
had now returned, and expreffed his defire of being font on board the Refolution.
On his arrival we found him extremely thoughtful and grave. We endeavoured to convince him
of the neceflity there was of fetting fire to the
village, by which his houfe, and thofe of his
brethren were unintentionally deftroyed. He ex-
poftulated with us on our ingratitude and want of
friendfhip ; and, indeed, it was not till the prefent moment, that we knew the whole extent nf
the injury that had been done them. He informed us, that, confiding in the promifes Mr.
King had made them, and as well as in the af-
furances they had received ^frpm the men, who
had brought us fome of Captain Cook's remains,
they PACIFIC     OCEAN* *>$$
they had not removed their effects back into the
country, as the other inhabitants had done, but
had put every valuable article of their own, as
well as what they had collected from us, into a
houfe adjoining to the morai, where they had the
mortification to fee it ail fet on fire by our people.
He had, on coming on board, perceived the
heads of his two countrymen lying on deck, at
which he was greatly fhocked, and earneftly
defired that they might be thrown over-board.
This requeft, by the directions of Captain Clerke,
was immediately complied with.
Our watering party returned on board in the
evening, having fuftained no farther interruption.
We paffed a difagreeable night ; the cries and
lamentations we heard from the fhore being far
more dreadful than ever. Our only xonfolation,
on this occafion, arofe from the hopes that a repetition of fuch feverities might not be requifite
in future.
It is remarkable, that, amidft all thefe difturb-
ances, the female natives who were on board, did
not offer to leave us, or difcover any apprehen-
fions either for themfelves or their friends on
fhore. They appeared, indeed, fo perfectly unconcerned, that fome of them, who were on deck
when the village was in flames, feemed to admire
the fpectacle, and frequently exclaimed, that it
was maitai, or very fine.
Th« $8>
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
The next morning the treacherous Koah camé»
off to the fhips, asufual. There being no longer
any neceffity for keeping terms with him, Mr.
King was allowed to treat him as he thought pro-»
per. When he approached the fide of the Refolution, finging a fong, and offering a hog, and
fome plantains, to Mr. King, the latter ordered
him to keep off, and cautioned him never to make
his appearance again without the bones of Captain
Cook, left his life fhouid pay the forfeit of his
repeated breach of faith. He did. not appear
much mortified with this unwelcome reception*
but immediately returned on fhore, and joined a
party of his countrymen, who were throwing
ftones at our waterers. The body of the* young
man, who had been killed the preceding day, was
found.this,morning lying at the entrance*^of the
cave; .and a mit was thrown over him by fome
of our people ; foon after which they faw feveral
of the natives carrying him off on their fhoulders,
and could hear them chanting, as they marched,
a mournful fong.
The iflanders being at length convinced that if
was not the want of ability to chaftize them,
which had induced us at firft to tolerate their
provoeatiotts, defifted frt>m molefting our people;
and, towards the evening, a chief, named Eap-
po, who had feldomvjfited us, but whop we
knew to be a man of the iUft diftinction, came
"fftth prefents from Terreeoboo to fue for peace.
Thefe prefents were accepted, and the chief was
difmiffed with the following anfwer: That no
peace would be - granted, till the remains of
Captain Cook fhouid be reftored.
We were informed by Eappo, that the flefh of
all the bones of our people who had been flain, as
well as the bones of the trunks, had been burnt j
that the limb-bones of the marines had been dif-*
tribu ted among the inferior chiefs ; and that the.
remains of Captain Cook had, been difpofed of as
follows : the head to a great Eree, called Kahoo-
opeou ; the hair to Maiha-maiha; and the arms*
legs, and thighs,, to Terreeoboo. After it was
dark* many of the natives came off with various
forts of vegetables ; and we alfo received from
Kaireekeea two large prefents of the fame articles.
The next day was principally employed in
fending and receiving the meffages that paffed
between Captain Clerke and the old king. Eappo
was very urgent, that one of our officers fhouid
go on ihore ; and offered to remain on board, in
the mean time, as an hoftage. This requeft,
however, was not complied with; and he left us
with a promife of bringing the bones the following day. Our watering party, at the beach, did
not meet with the leaft oppofition from the
iflanders; who, notwithftanding our cautious behaviour, again ventured themfelves amongft us
without any marks of diffidence or apprehension.
Oxi 240 A    VOYAGE    tO    Tft£
On Saturday the 20th, early in the mornings
we had the fatisfaction of getting the fore-maft
ftepped. This operation was attended with confiderable difficulty, and fome danger, our ropes
being fo extremely rotten, that the purchafe feveral
times gave way.
This morning, between the hours of ten and
.eleven, we faw a numerous body of the natives
defcending the hill, which is over the beach, in a
fort of proceffion, each man carrying on his
fhoulders two or three fugar-canes, and fome
bread-fruit, plantains, and taro, in his hand.
They were preceded by two drummers, who*
•when they reached the water-fide, feated themfelves by a white flag, and began beating their
drums, while thofe who had followed them, advanced, one by one, and depofited the prefents
they had brought with them; after which they
retired in the fame order. Soon afterwards Eappo
appeared in his long feathered cloak, bearing
fomething with great folemnity in his hands ; and
having ftationed himfelf on a rock, he made
figns that a boat fhouid be fent him.
Captain Clerke, fuppofing that the chief had
brought the bones of Captain Côok (which, indeed, proved to be the cafe), went himfelf in the
pinnace to receive them, and ordered Mr. King
to attend him in the cutter. When they arrived
at the beach, Eappo, entering the pinnace, delivered the bones to Captain Clerke, wrapped up
in â great quantity of fine new cloth, and covered
with a fpotted cloak of black and white feathers.
He afterwards attended our gentlemen to the
Refolution* but could not be prevailed on to accompany them on board ; being, perhaps, from
a fenfe of decency, unwilling to be prefent at the
opening of the parcel;
We found, in this bundle, both the hands of
Captain Cook entire, which were well known to
us from a fear on one of them, that divided the
fore finger from the thumb, the whole length of
the metacarpal bone; the fkull, but with the
fealp fêpaj-ated from it, and the bones of the face
wanting; the fcalp* with the ears adhering to it,
and the hair upon it cut fhort ; the bones of both
the arms, with the fkin of the fore-arms hanging
to them; the bones of the thighs and legs joined
together, but without the feet. The ligaments
of the joints were obferved to be entire; and the
whole fhewed fufficient marks of having been in
the fire, except the hands* which had the flefh
remaining upon them, and were cut in feveral
places, and crammed with fait, moft probably
with a view of preferving them. The fkull was
free from any fracture* but the fcalp had a cut in
the back part of it. The lower jâw arid feet,
which were wanting, had been feized, as Eappo
informed us, by different Erees\ and he alfo told
us, that Terreeoboo was ufing every means to
recover them.
Vol. III.—n° 16, R Eappo, E3&
Eappo, and the king's fon, came on board the1
next morning,- and brought with them not only
the remaining bones of Captain Cook, but like*-
wife the barrels of his gun, his Aides, and fome
other trifles which had belonged to him. Eappo
affured us, that Terreeoboo, Maiha-maiha, and
himfelf were extremely defirous of peace ; that
they had given us the moft convincing proofs of
it; and that they had been prevented from giving
it fooner by the other chiefs, many of whom
were ftill difaflected to us. He lamented, witfc
the moft lively forrow, the death of fix chiefs*
who had been killed by our people; fome of
whom, he faid, were among our beft friends. He
informed us> that the cutter had been taken a-
^ray by Pareea's people, probably in revenge for
the blow that he had received ; and that it had
teen broken up the following day. The arms of
the marines, which we had alfo demanded* had
been carried off, he faid, by the populace, and
Were irrecoverable.
Nothing now remained, but to perform the laft
fblernn offices to our excellent Commander.
Eappo was difmiffed with orders to taboo all the
bay; and* in the afternoon, the bones having
been depofited in a coffin, the funeral fervice was
read over them, and they were committed to the
deep with the ufûaï military honours. Our feelings, on this mournful occafion, are more eafy
to be conceived thari expreffed,
During Pacific   ocean, 243
During the morning of the 22d, not a canoe
toras feen in the bay. The taboo, which Eappo,
at our defire, had laid on it the preceding day,
not being yet taken off. At length that chief
came off to us. We affured him, that we were
now perfectly fatisfied; and that, as the Orono
Was buried, all remembrance of the late unhappy
tranfactions was buried with him. We after-
Wards requefted him to take off the taboo, and to
make it known, that the iflanders might bring
provifions to us as ufual. The fhips were foon
furrounded with canoes* and many of the Erees
came on board, expreffing their grief at what had
happened, and their fatisfaction at our reconciliation. Several of our friends, who did not favour us with a vifit, fent prefents of large hogs,
and other provifions. Among the reft* the old
treacherous Koah came off to us, but we refufed
him admittance.
As we were now prepared for putting to fea,
Captain Clerke imagining* that, if the intelligence
of our proceedings fhouid reach the iflands to
leeward before us, it might have a bad effect,
gave orders, that the fhips fhouid be unmoored.
About eight in the evening* we difmiffed all the
natives ; and Eappo* and the friendly Kaireekeea,
took their leave of us in a very affectionate manner. We immediately weighed anchor, and flood
out of Karakakooa bay. The iflanders were af-
fembled in great numbers on the fhore; and, as
R 2 we 244
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
we paffed along, received our laft fareweis, With
every mark of good-will and affection.
CHAP.   V.
Leave Karakakooa Bay—In aueft of an Harbour
on the South-Eaft Side of Mowee—Driven to
Leeward by the Current, and ftrong eafterly
Winds—Pafs Tohoorowa—South-Weft Side of
Mowee defcribed—Proceed to Woahoo—The north»
eaft Coaft of Woahoo defcribed—Difappointed in
attempting to water—Proceed to Atooi—Anchor
in Wymoa Bay—The Natives not fo friendly as
before—The watering Party guarded by Marines
—Infolence of the Natives, who demanded &
Hatchet for every Cafi of Water—The Iflanders
treat our People with Contempt—They fteal Mr*
King's Hanger out of his Hand—Their Infolence
ât the Water-fide—Are fired at by two Marines
—One of them wounded—Vifit from the contend-
ing Chiefs—Anchor offOneeheow—Departure.
HAVING cleared the land about ten, we
flood to the northward, with a view of
fearching for an harbour* which the natives had
often mentioned, on the fouth-eaft fide of Mowee. PACIFIC    OCEAN.
wee. We found ourfelves* the next morning,-
driven to leeward, by a fwell from the north-
eaft; and a frefh gale, from the fame quarter,
drove us ftill farther to the weftward. At mid-
I night we tacked, and flood four hours to the
fouth, to keep clear of the land; and, at daybreak,* on the 24th, we were flanding towards a
fmall barren ifland, named Tahoorowa, about
feven miles fouth-weft of Mowee.
Giving up all profpect of making a clofer examination of the fouth-eaft parts of Mowee, we
bore away, and kept along the fouth-eaft fide of
Tahoorowa. Steering clofe round its weftern
extremity, in order to fetch the weft fide of Mowee, we fuddenly fhoaled our water, and faw the
fea breaking on fome rocks, almoft right a-head.
We then kept away about a league and a half,
and again fteered to the northward; when we
flood for a paffage between Mowee, and an ifland
named Ranai. In the afternoon, the weather
was calm, with light airs from the weft. We
flood to the north-north-weft ; but, obferving a
fhoal about funfet, and the weather being unfet-
tled, we flood towards the fouth.
We had now paffed the fouth-weft fide of this
ifland, without being able to approach the fhore.
This fide of the ifland forms the fame diftant
view as the north-eaft, as feen when we returned
from the. north, in November, 1778; the hilly
parts, connected by a low flat ifthmus, having,
R 3 a? 246
A    VOYAGE     TO    THÎ
at the firft view, the appearance of two feparatc
iflands. This deceptive appearance continued,
till we were within about ten leagues of the coaft,
which, bending a great way inward, formed a
capacious bay. The wefternmofl point, off which
the fhoal runs that we have juft now mentioned,
is rendered remarkable by a fmall hillock ; fouth
of which is a fine fandy bay ; and, on the fhore,
are feveral huts, with plenty 0/ cocoa-trees about
In the courfe of the day* feveral of the natives vifited us, and brought provifions with them.
We prefently difcovered, that they had heard of
our unfortunate difafters at Owhyhee. They
were extremely anxious to be informed of the
particulars, from a woman who had hid herfelf
in the Refolution, in order to obtain a paffage to
Atooi ; making particular enquiries about Pareea, and fome other chiefs ; and feeming much
agitated at the death of Kaneena, and his brother. .But, in whatevet light this bufinefs might
have been reprefented by the woman, it produced no bad effect in their behaviour, which
was civil and obliging to an extreme.
During the night, the weather v-a^ed continually* but on the §£th, in the morning^ the wind
being at eaft, we fteered along the fouth fide of
Ranai, till alrnoft noon, when we had baffling
winds and calms till the evening; after which,
we had a light eafterly breeze, and fteered for the
weft f A € ï F I C     OCEAN. 247
weft of Morotoi. The current, which had fet
from the north-eaft, ever fince we left Karaka-
kooa bay, changed its direction* in the courfe of
this day, to the fouth-eaft.
The wind was again variable during the night;
but, early in the morning of the 26th, it fettled
at eaft ; blowing fo frefh, as to oblige us to double-reef the top-fail^. At feven, we opened a
fmall bay, diftant about two leagues, having a
fine fandy beach ; but not perceiving any appear>-
unce of frefh water, we endeavoured to get to
the windward of Woahoo* an ifland which we
had feen in January, 1778. We faw the land
about two in the afternoon, bearing weft by
north, at the diftance of about eight leagues. We
tacked, as foon as it was dark, and again bore
away at day-light on the 27th. Between ten and
eleven* we were about a league off the fhore,
and near the middle of the north-eaft fide of the
To the northward, the coaft con lifts of detached hills, afcending perpendicularly from the fea;
the fides being covered with wood, and the values, between them, appearing to be fertile, and
well culj^gted. An extenfive bay, was obferv-
able to thWouthward, bounded, to the fouth-eaft,
by a low point of land, covered with cocoa-nut
trees ; off which, an infulated rock appeared^ at
|he diftance of a mile from the fhore,
m 4 Thç 24$, A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
The wind continuing to blow frefh* we were
unwilling to entangle ourfelves with a lee-fhore.
Inftead of attempting, therefore, to examine the
bay, we hauled up and fteered in the direction of
the coaft. At, noon, we were about two leagues
frpm the ifland, and a-breaft of the north point
of it. It is low and flat, having a reef ftretching
pff alrnoft a mile and an half. Between the north
point, and a head-land to the fouth-weft, the
land bends inward, and feemed to promife a
good road. We therefore fteered along the fhore,
at about a mile diftance. At two, we were induced, by the fight-, pf a fine river, to anchor in
thirteen fathoms water. In the afternoon, Mr.
King attended the two Captains on fhore, where
few of the natives were to be feen, and thofe
principally women. The men, we were informed, were gone to Morotoi, to fight Tahyterree;
put their chief, Perreeoranee, remained behind,
and would certainly attend us, as foon as he was
informed of our arriva}.
The water, to our great difappointment, had
a brackifti tafle, for about two hundred yards up
fhe river; beyond which, however, it was perfectly frefh, and was a delightful ft^ri. Farther up, we came to the conflux of tw© fmall rivulets, branching w* to the right and left of a
Jleep romantic mountain. The banks of the
river, andajl that we faw of Woahoo, are in une
cultivation, and full pf yillages; the face of the
coun- PACIFIC      OCEAN.
country being alfo remarkably beautifaland pic-
As it would have been a laborious bufinefs to
have watered at this place, Mr. King was dispatched to fearch about the coaft to leeward ; but,
being unable to land, on account of a reef of
coral, which extended along the fhore, Captain
Clerke refolved to proceed immediately to Atooi.
In the morning, about eight, we weighed, and
flood to the northward; and, on the 28th, at
day-light, we bore away for that ifland, and were
in fight of it by noon. We were off its eaftern
extremity, which is a green flat point, about
It being dark, we did not venture to run for
the road on the fouth-weft fide, but fpent the
night in plying on and off, and anchored, at
nine the next morning, in twenty-five fathoms
water. In running down, from the fouth-eaft
point pf the ifland, we faw, in many places, the
appearance of fhoal water, at fome diftance from
the land.
Being anchored in our old ftation, feveral canoes cameto vifit us ; but it was very obfervable,
that there^vas not that appearance of cordiality
in their mariner* and complac^icy in their countenances, as when we faw tnem befere. They
had no fopner got on board, butonè dfîfifrh informed us, that we had communicated a diforder
to the women, which had killed many perfons of
both «JO A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
both fenes. He, at that time, was afflicted with
the venereal difeafe, and minutely defcribed the
various fymptoms which had attended it. As
no appearance of that diforder had been obferved
amongft them, on our firft arrival, we were, it
is to be feared, the authors of this irreparable
The principal object in view, at this place,
was t& water the fhips with as much expedition
as poflible 5 and Mr. King was fent on fhore in
the afternoon, with the launch and pinnace, laden
with cafks. He was accompanied by the gunner
of the Refolution, who was inftructed to trade
for fome provifions; and they were attended by
a guard of five'marines. Multitudes of people
were collected upon the beach, by whom, at
firft, we were kindly received ; but, after we
had landed the cafks, they began to be exceed-*
ingly troublefome.
Knowing, from experience, how difficult a
talk it was to reprefs this difpofition, without the
interpofition of their chiefs, we were forry to b,e
informed, that they were all at a diftant part of
the ifland. Indeed, we both felt afld lamented
the want of their afliftance ; for we could hardly
form a circle, as our practice ufuany was, for
the fafety and conwnience of the trading party.
No fooner had we taken this ftep, and polled
marines to keep off the populace, than a man
took hold of the bayonet belonging to one of the
foldier's PACIFIC     OCEAN.
fpldier's mufquets, and endeavoured to wrench
it forcibly from his hand. Mr. King immediately advanced towards them, when the native
quitted his hold* and retired ; but immediately
returned, having a fpear in one hand, and a dagger in the other ; and, it was wfth difficulty that
his countrymen could reftrain him from engaging with the foldier. This affray was occafioned
by the native's having received, from the foldier,
a flight prick with his bayonet, to induce him
to keep without the line.
Our fituation, at this time, required great
management and circumfpection ; Mr. King accordingly enjoined, that no one fhouid prefume
to fire, or proceed to any other act of violence,
without pofitive commands. Having given thefe
inftructions, he was fummoned to the affiftance
of the watering party, where he found the natives
in the fame mifchievous difpofition. They had
peremptorily demanded, for every cafk of water,
a large hatchet; which not being complied with,
they would not permit the failors to roll them to
the boats.
As foon as Mn King had joined them, one
of the natives approached him, with great infolence, and made the fame demand. Mr. King
told him, that, as a friend, he was welcome to a
hatchet, but he certainly would carry off the water, without paying for it; and inftantly ordered the pinnace men to proceed; at the fame
time 2-e i
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
time calling for three marines, from the trading
party, to protect them.
This becoming fpirit fo far fucceeded, as to
prevent any daring attempt to interrupt us, but
they ftill perfevered in the moft teafing and in-
fulting behaviour. Some of them, under pretence of-affifting the faalors, in rolling the cafks
towards the fhore, gave them a-different direction ; others ftole the hats from off our people's
heads,"pulled them backward by the fkirts of their
clothes, and tripped up their heels ; the populace, during all this time, fhouting and laughing, with a mixture of mockery and maliiSM
They afterwards took an opportunity of ftealing
the cooper's bucket, and forcibly took away his
bag. Their principal aim, however, was to pof-
fofs themfelves of the mufqu&ts of the marines,
who were continually complaining of their attempts to force them froinftkeir hands. Though
they, in general,. preferved a kind of deference
and refpec%fbr Mr. King, yet they obliged him
to contribute his ihare towards their ftock||lH
plunder. One of them approached him, in a-
familiar manner, and diverted his attention,
whilft another feized his hanger, which he held
carelefsly in his hand, and ran away with it.
Such infolence was not tolfa&.repclled by force.
Prudence dictated that we muft patiently fubmit
to it; at the fame time, guarding againft its ef*H
fects as well as we were able.    Mr. King was,
how* Pacific    ocean.
however, fomewhat alarmed, on being foon after
informed by the ferjeant of marines, that, turning fuddenly round, he faw a man behind him,
armed with a dagger, in the pofttion of ftriking.
Though he mighty perhaps,, be nsiftaken, in this
particular, our fituation was truly critical and
alarming; and the fmalleft error, orjniftake* on
our part, might have been of fatal cotifequences.
Our people being feparated into three fmaH
parties; one fillinga£afks at the lake; another
rolling them to the fhore ; and a-third purchafing
provifions ; Mr. King- had fome intentions of
collecting them together, inj^rder t«Oiprotect the
performance, of one duty at a time. But, on due
reflection, he thought to more advifeable to let
them proqeed as they had begun. If a real attack, hail b^eam^^it^W^ °ur whole force could
have madfc-but ap^pr refiftance. He though t9
on the.o-jherihand, thatifôêh à ftep might operate
to oumdifadvantage, as being an evident token
of our fears. Befides^ in the prefent cafe, the
crowd was kept divided, and many of them wholly
occupied in bartering*!
The principal caufe of their not attacking us
was, perhaps, their dread of the effects of our
arms ; and, as we appeared to place fo much
confidence in this advantage, as to oppofe only
five marines to fuch a multitude of people, their
ideas of our fuperiority muft have been greatly
exaked.    It was our buflnefs to cheriih this opi-
'nion; 254
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
nion ; and, it muft ever be acknowledged, to the
honour of the whole party* that it was impoffible
for any men to behave better, in order to
ftrengthen thefe impreffions. Whatever could
be confidered as a jeft, they received with pari*
ence and good-nature ; but, if they were inter*
rupted by any ferious attempt, they oppofed it
with refolute looks and menaces. At length, we
fo far fucceeded, as to get all our cafks to the
fea-fide, without any accident of confequence.
While our people were getting the cafks into
the launch, the inhabitants, thinking they fhouid
have no farther opportunity of plundering, grew
more daring and infolent. The ferjeant of ma*
lines luckily fuggefted to Mr. King, the advan*
tage of fending off his party firft into the boats*
by which means the mufqucts would be takelï
out of their reach ; which, as above related, were
the grand objects the iflanders had in view : and*
if they fhouid happen to attack us, the marines
could more effectually defend us, than if they
were on fhore.
Every thing was now in the boaté, and only
Mr. King, Mr. Anderfon, the gunner, and a
feaman of the boat's crew, remained on fhore*
The pinnace laying beyond the furf, which we
were under a nec.effity ©f fwimming through, Mr*
King ordered the other two to make the beft of
their way to it, and told them he would follow
them. r\*iài®S
3 They pacific   ocean. 255
They both refufed to comply with «his order,
and it became a matter of conteft, who ihoukt
be the laft on fhore. Some hafty expreflion, it
feems, Mr. King had juft before made ufe of tb
the failor, which he confidered as a reflection ott
his courage, and excited his refentment ; and the
old gunner, as a point of honour was now ftart~
ed, conceived it to be his duty to take a part in
k. In this whimfical fituation, they, perhaps,
might have long remained, had not the difpufce
been fettled by the ftones, which began to By
plentifully about us, and by the exclamations of
the people from the boats* begging us to be ex-*
peditious, as the natives were armed with clubs
and fpears, and purfuing us into the water. Mr.
Rinig arrived firft at the pinnace, and, perceiving Mr. Anderfon was fo far behind* as not to be
entirely out of danger, hé ordered one mufquet
to be fired ; but, in the hurry of executing his
orders, the marines fired two. The natives immediately ran away, leaving only one man and
woman on the beach. The man attempted to
rife feveral times, but was not able, having been
wounded in the groin. The iflanders, in a fhort
time, returned; and, furrounding the wounded
man, brandifhed their fpears at us, with an air of
defiance ; but, by the time we reached the fhips,
fome perfons arrived which we fuppofed to be
the chiefs, by whom they were all driven from :
the fhore*
Captain. 2$6
Captain Clerke, during our abfence, had beeii
under terrible apprehen fions for our fafety ; which
had been confiderably increafed by his rriifundefr
Handing fome of the natives, with whom he had
had fome converfation on board* The name of
Captain Cook being frequently mentioned, accompanied with circumftantial defcriptions of
-death-"and deftrudtion, he concluded that they
had received intelligence of the unfortunate events
at Ovçhyhee, to which they alluded. But they
were only endeavouring to make him underftand,
'that wars had arifen on account"of the goats,
. which Captain Cook haj^ left at Oneeheow, and
that the poor goats had been flaughtered* during
the conteft for the property of them^ Captain
,Clerke3 applying thefe fhocking reprefentations
to our misfortunes at Owhyhee, and to an indication of revenge, fixed his telefcope upon us the
whole rime; and, as &§£ as he faw the fmoke of
the mufquets, ordered the boats to be put off to
our affiftance.
On the 2d of March, being the next day, Mr*
King was again ordered on fhore, with the watering party. As we had To narrowly efcaped the
preceding day, Captain Clerke augmented our
force from both fhips, and we had a guard of
forty men under arms. This precaution, however, was found to be unneceffary ; for the beach
was left entirely to ourfelves, and ttie ground,
extending from the landing-place to the lake, tabooed. PACIFIC     OCEAN.
booed. Hence we concluded, that fome of the
cfeiefs had vifited this quarter ; who, being unable to ftay, had confiderately taken this flep,
I %\fât we înight be accommodated with fafety. Several men appeared with fpears and daggers, on
the other fide of the river, but never attempted
to moleft us. Their women came over, and feared th^felves clofe by us, on the banks; and,
about the middle of the day, fome of the men
were prevailed on to bring us hogs and roots,
and alfo to drefs them for us. When we had left
the beach, they came down to the fea-fide, and
one of them had the audacity to throw a flone at
us -} but, as his conduct was highly cenfured by
the reft, we did not exprefs- any kind of refentr
On the 3d, we completed our watering, without rgpcfi di^içulty; and, on returning to the
fhips, we were informed, that feveral chiefs had
been on board, and had apologized for the conduct of their countrymen, attributing their riotous behaviour to the quarrels then fubfifting
among the principal people of the ifland, and
which had deftroyed all order and fubordination.
The government of Atooi was difputed be?
tween Toneoneo, who had the fupreme power
when we were there the preceding year, and a
youth named Teavee. By different fathers, they
are both the grandfons of Perreeorannee, king of
Woahoo; who gave A#oi to the former, and
Vol. III.—n° 16. S Onee- 253 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
Oneeheow to the latter. The quarrel originated
about the goats which we had left at Oneeheow
the year before ; they being claimed by Toneo-
neo, as that ifland was a dependency of his. The
adherents of Teavee infilling on the right of pof-
feflion, both parties prepared to fupport their
pretentions, and a battle enfued juft before our
arrival, wherein Toneoneo had been defeated.
Toneoneo was likely to become more affected by
the confequence of this victory, than by the lofs
of the objects indifpute; for the mother of Teavee having married a fécond hufband, who was not
only a chief at Atooi, but alfo at the head of a
powerful fa6tion there, he thought of embracing I
the prefent opportunity of driving Toneoneo out
of the ifland* that his fon-in-law might fucceed
to the government. The goats, which had in-
creafed to fix, and would probably have flocked
thefe iflands in a few years, were deftroyed in
this conteft.
- On the 4th we were vifited, on board the Refolution, by the father-in-law^ the mother, and
the fifter of the young prince, who made feveral
curious prefents to Captain Clerke. Among the I
reft, were fome fifh-hooks, which were made
from the bones of Terreeoboo's father, who had |
-been killed in an unfuccefsful defcent upon Woahoo. Alfo a fly-flap, from the hands of the
prince's fifter, which had a human bone for its
handle, and had been given to her by her father-
*•" -~: ÎJJJÎty in-law,
in-law, as a trophy. They were not accompanied by young Teavee, he being then engaged in
the performance of fome religious rites, on ac-*
count of the victory he had obtained*   --
Tins day, and the 5th and 6th, were employed
in completing the Difcovery's water. The carpenters were engaged in caulking the fhips, and
preparing for our next cruize. We no longer received any moleftation from the natives, who
fupplied us plentifully with pork and vegetables.
We were now vifited by an Indian, Who brought
a piece of iron on board* to be formed into the
fhape of a pahooa. It was the bolt of fome largo
fhip timbers, but neither the officers nor men could
difcover to what nation it belonged ; though^
from the ihape of the bolt, and the palenefs of
the iron, they were convinced it was not Eng-
lifh. They enquired ftrictly of the native how
he came poffeffed of it* when he informed them,
that it was taken out of a large pièce of timber,
which had been driven upon their ifland, fince we
were there in January,  177S.
We received a vifit, on the 7th, from Toneoneo, at which we were furprized. Hearing the
dowager princefs was on board, he could hardly
be prevailed on to enter the- fhip. When they
met, they eaft an angry lowering look at each
other. He did not flay long, and appeared much
dejected. ->*We remarked, however, with fome
degree of furprize,1 that the women proftrated
•S 2 them- 26o A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
themfelves before him, both at his coming and
going away ; and all the natives on board* treated him with that refpect which is ufually paid to
perfons of his rank. It was fomewhat remarkable* that a man, who was then in a flate of actual hostility with Teavee's party, fhouid venture
alone within the power of his enemies. Indeed,
the civil diffenfions, which are frequent in all
the fouth fea iflands, fêÇtû to be conduéled withr
out ntueh acrimony; the défôfed Governor ftifl
enjoying the rank of an Eree, and may put in
practice fuch means as may arife, to regain the
confequence which he has ldft.
At nine, in the turning of the 8thj we weigii ■
ed; and proceeded towards Oneeheow, and came
to anchor in twenty fathoms Water, at about three
in the afternoon, nearly on the fpot where we anchored in 1778. With the other anchor, we
moored in twenty-fix fathoms water. We had
a ftrong gale from the eaftward in the night* and*
the next morning, the fhip had driven à whole
cable's length, both anchors being almoft brought
a-head; in which fituation we were obliged to
continue, this and the two following days.
The weather being more moderate on the ifctfy
the Mailer was difpatched to the ncfclh-weft fide
of the ifland, in fearch of a rnore eornrriodfeus
place for anchoring. In the evening, he returh»
ed, having found a fine bay, with good anchêf^
age, in eighteen fathoms water. The}jpotnts of
illl the PACIFIC      OCEAN.
the bay were in the direction of north by eaft,
and fouth by weft. A fmall village was fituated
on the north fide of the bay, to the eaftward of
?wradi were four wells of good water. Mr. Bligh
went far enough to the north to convince himfelf that Oreehoua, and Oneeheow, were two fe-
parate iflands.
The Number, Names, and Situation of the S and-
wich Iflands—Extent of Owhyhee^ voMçh is Che
large ft of thec whole iÇsoup—Account of its Dif-
triiïj—Its QoMâ, ayçlthe adjacent Country, de-
Jcribed.— S noms Mountains—Volcanic Appear-.
am es—Account of a Jourygy Jn/o : the  interior
Parts of Owhyhee^PlanJfifjfins-^^fiunt of a
Mermit—The Cauntty cultivated to the greateft
Adv&kqgç—A re^ar^gble Co<ve—Defcription of
Mw.—Planai—Morotoi ~— Tqhogrowf,—Wqa-.
hoo — Atooi — Oneeheow—Ore'ehfitfcp-—Tahoora—*
Climate .of dfy£^q$^id> Jfles—Wilfds—Currents
—Tides—Quadrupeds—Amazing Supply of Pork
. $mçured\ fafâtfàifM irds—Vegetables.
BEING now on the point of taking our final
leave of the Sandwich  Iflands,   we fhall
here giye a general account of tl^eir fituation and
S 3 natural m
262 A     VOYAGE    TO     THE
natural hiftory, as well as of.the c-uftoms and
manners of the natives.    Tjf|is will ferve as,a   '
kind of fupplement to the former defcription,
which was the refult of our firft vifit to thefe
This group is cofHfpofed of eleven iflands, ex- j
tending in longitude from 1990 36', to 2050 6',
eaft, and in latitude from 180 54', to 220 15'
north. Their names, according to the natives,
are, 1. Owhyhee. 2. Atooi, Atowi, or Towi;
which is alfo fometimes called Kowi. 3. Woahoo, or Oahoo. 4. Mowee. 5. Morotoi, or
Morokoi. 6. Oreehoua, or Reehoua. 7. Mo-
rotinnee, or Morokinnee. 8. Tahoora. 9. Ra-
nai* or Oranai. 10. Oneeheow, or Neeheehow.
11. Kahowrowee, orTanoorowa. Thefe are all
inhabited, except Tahoora and ^orbtinnee. Be-
fides thofe we have enumerate^: we heard of
another ifland named Modoo-papapa, or Komo-
doo-papapa, fituated to the weft-fouth-weft of
Tahoora; it is low and fandy, and is vifited
iblely for the purpofe of catching turtle and water-fowl. As we could never learn that the natives had knowledge of any other iflands, it is
moft probable that no others exift in their neighbourhood.
Captain Cook had diftinguifhed *$ns duller of
iflands by the name of the Sandwich Iflands, in
honour of the Earl of Sandwich, then firft Lord
of the Admiralty, under whofe adminiftration he
had enriched Geography with fo many valuable
difcoveries ; a tribute juftly due to that noble**
man, for the encouragement and fupport which
thefe voyages derived from his power, and for
the zealous eagernefs with which he feconded the
views of our iliuftrious navigator.
Owhyhee, the moft eafterly of thefe iflands,
and by far the largeft of them all, is of a triangular, figure, and nearly equilateral. The angular points conftitute the northern, foutfiern,
and eaftern extremities. The latitude of the
northern extreme is 200 17/ north, and its longitude 2040 2f eaft : the fouthern end ftands in the
longitude of 2040 15' eaft, and in thejatitude of
p8° 54; north ; and the eaftern extremity is in
the latitude of 19° 34' north, and in the longitude of 205° 6' eaft. The circumference of
tfef whole iflgnd is about 255 geographical miles,
or 293 Engliih ones. Its breadth is twenty-four
leagues; and its greateft length, which lies near-
X|an a north and fouth direction, is twenty-eight
leagues and a half. It is divided into fix ex-
tenfive diftricts, namely, Akona and Koaarra,
which are on the weft fide; Kaoo and Opoona,
on the fouth-eaft; and Aheedoo and Amakooa,
on the north-eaft.
A mountain named Mouna Kaah, (or the mountain Kaah) which rifes in three peaks, continually covered with fnow, and may be difcerned at
the diftance of forty leagues, feparates the dif-
S 4 trict £04 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
trict of AfflâkôPa from that of Aheedoo. The
coaft, to ine northward of this mountain, is
compofed of high and abrupt cliffs, down which
fell many beautiful caic&des of water. We onde
flattered ourielves with the hopes of finding a
harbour round a bluff head, on a part of this
coaft, in the latitude of 200 io' north, and the
longitude of 2040 26' eaft; but after we had
doubled the point, and were ftanding clofe in,
we found that it was connected, by a tow valley,
with ariother elevated head to the north weftward.
The country rifes inland with a, gradual afcent*
and is interfected by narrow deep glens, or rather
chafins : it fèemed to be well cultivated, and to
have many villages fcattered about it. The
fhowy mountain above-mentioned is very:ifteep,
and its loweft part abounds with wood.
The coaft of Aheedoo is of a moderate eleva-
iSSta; and the interior parts have' the appearance
ôPbeing more even than the co^jfry'towards the
north-weft.    We cruifed bffthife two diftfî^H
for near a month; and, whenever our diftance.
from me more would permit, were furrouriflSil
by cargoes laden with refreihnrients of every 'kind.
On this'fide of the ifland we'djfen met withal
very heavy fea, and a great fwell ; and, as there
vvas much foul ground off the fhore, we fieldom
made a nearer apprBÈfchtp the îpÉîd than twrfw/
fhree "leagues.
€lll The PACIFIC      OeïAN.
The coacft towards the north-eaft: of Apoona,
which conftitutes the eaffte^n extreme of the ifland,
is rather low and flat. In the inland parts the
keMivky is ver y gradual; and the country abounds
with bread-fruit and cocoa-nut trees. This appeared to us to ]be -t!he fineft part of the whole
ifland; and we were afterwards inroftned, that
the king occafionaîïy refided here. The hills, at
the r66m--weftern extremity, rife with fome a-
bruptnefiVÎÏora the fea-*fide, leaving only a narrow
border of low land towardstthefbeach. The fides
of thefe hjflfe'iwere covered with verdure; but the
adjacent country feemed thinly inhabited.
When our fhipstioubled the êâH point of the
ifland, we fed fight *ôf another fnowy. mountain,
CéHeâ-by the-natives Mouna Roa (or the extenfive
mouti&fri) which, $ufftfeg the whole rime we
were failing along the ifouth-eaftern fide, continued -W be a veuy Gonfpicuous object. Itwas flat
at the fuafôjnit, which was perpetually involved
4h?lhrô; and we x>nce obferved its -fides alfo
Slightly -eovered wMi it for a confiderable way
•tkflrvn* -According 4o the tropical line èf^ftrow,
•as-de'fèïrfâftecd by MonfiëUf13o»Bdamine, from oh-
Cepyations made on the Cordilleras in America,
the 'height of this mountain muft be, at leaft,
i6,o2ofeet. It therefore exceeds the-height of
the Pko de Teyde, or-Peak of Teneriffe, by 3&80
feet, according to the -rêGHt^utation of the Che-
yaiferfede Borda, or 724, according to that of
Dr. 266
igji^ Heberden. The peaks of Mouna Kaah
feemed to be of the height of about half a mile;
and, as they are wholly cpyjfred with fnow, the
altitude ofjtlieir fummits.^muft at leaft be 18,400
feet. [r .
The coaft of Kaoo exhibits a moft horrid and
difmal profpect; the whole country having, to
appearance, undergone an entire change from
the confequences of fome dreadful convulfion.
The grounds, in all parts, covered w^h cinders ;
and, in many places,,j^erfected with blackifh
ftreaks, which feem to mark the progrefs of a
lava that^i^as flowed, not many centur$f§:;ago,
from Mouna Roa to the fhore. The fouth promontory appears lifegjthe mejrefjdregs^-^o^cano.
The l^ad.-land cofdOifts of ^rpken and-jcgaggy
rocks^iterminating in acute points,- ajid irregu-r
larly piled on each other. Notwitkftanâifcg the
dreary afpect of tbisjpgffè^f the ifland, it contains
many villages, and is far more popiaiekisjithan
the verdant mountains aof Apoona*/; J^or is it
difficult to account for this circumftance. Thefe
ijlanders not being poffeffed of any^grçtle, have
no occafion for pafiurage ; and are therefore inclined to prefer fuch ground, as is either mor;e
conveniently fituated for fifhing, or beft adapted
to the cultivation of plantais,and yams.ocNow
^gaidft thefe ruins, there are many fpotsç$f rich
foil, which are* with gneat care, laidtft^io planT
?3& i:%t#ii Vta&oosi PACIFIC      OCEAN.
tarions; and the neighbouring fèa abounds with
îjfXGeJten* fifh of various kinds.
Off,this part of the coaft, at lefs than a cable's
length from the fhore, we did not ftrike ground
with one hundred and fixty fathoms of line, except in a fmall bight to the eaft of the fouthern
point, where we found from fif|y, to fifty-eight
fathoms of water, over a fandy bottom. It may
be proper to obferve, before we proceed to give
an account of the weftern diftricts, that the whole
coaft we have defcribed, from th%northern to the
fouthern extreme, affords not a fingle harbour,
nor the leaft fhelter for fhipping.
The fouth-weftern parts of Akona are in a condition fimilar to that of the adjoining diftriétof
Kaoo ; e but the country, further towards the
north, has  been carefully cultivated, and is ex-
^eMIggly populous^ }In this divifion of the ifland,
lies Karakakooa Bay, of which we have already
given a defcription. .Scarce any thing is feen
along the coaft, but the fragments of black fcorcl^-
ed rocks; behind which, the ground, for the
fpace of about two miles and a half, rifes gradually, and feems to have been once covered with
loofe: burnt ftones. Thefe have been cleared
away by the inhabitants, frequently to the depth
of three feet and upwards ; and the fertility pf
the foil has amply repaid their labour. Here
they cultivate in a rich afhy mould, the cloth-
plant and fweet potatoes. Groves of cocoa-nut-
trees S.6Z A     VOYAG-E    TO    THE
-trees are fcattered among the fields, which are
inclofed with flone fences. On the^ifing grourid
beyond thefe, they plant bread-fruit trees, which
flourifh with furpriilng luxuriance.
The diftr&ft of Koaarra extends from the moft
-wefterly point to the northern extreme of the
ifland. The whole coaft between them forms a
fpacious bay, which is called by the natives Toe-
yah-yah, and is bounded to the northward by two
confpicuous^ills. Towards the bottom of this
-bay there is foul, corally ground, that extends to
cthe diftance of upwards of a mile from éhe fhore,
without which *there is good anchorage. The
country, as far as the eye-could difcern, appeared
•ito"Jbe fruitful and populous ; but no frefh water
was to be found. The foil feemed ^tb^be of the
fame kind with that of mecfiftrict of Kaoo.
eHaving thus given anaâccount of'tifré-#8Éfe of
the ifland of Owhyhee, and-the adjacent country,
we fhall now relate 'fome particulars réfpecting
the interior parts, from thej information we obtained'from a party, who fet out ori the 26th of
"January, on an expedition up the country, principally ^itli an intention of reaching the fnowy
mountains^ Having previoufly procured two of
the iflanders to ferve them as guides, -they -quit-*
ted the village about *rolir o'clock in the afternoon. Their courfe wàScàfterly, inclining a"lit-
tle to the fouth. Withltfthree or four miles from
the bay, they found thé country as already defcribed;   PACIFIC      OCEANv
fcribed ; but the hills- afterwards rofe with a lefs
gradifal afcentj^welr brought tbefn to fome ex-
I teriftverpla^tations, con filling of the taro or eddy
réèt, -tthàrffpet potatoes, with plants of the cloth-
tree. Both the taro and the fweet potatoes are
here planted at the diftance of four feet from each
Other. The potatoes are earthed up almoft to the
top of the ftalk, with a proper quantity of lighc*
mould.. The taro is left bare to the root, and
the mould round it is put in the form of a bafon,
for the pijijpofe of holding the rain-water ; this
root requiring a certain: degree of moi flu re. At
thé Friendly and Society Ifles, the taro was con^
ftantly planted in low and meift fituations, and
generally in thofe places where there was the con-
veniency of a rivulet to flood it. This mode of
culture was confidered as abfolutefy netéeffaty .5
but we now found that this root, with the precaution before-mentioned, fuceeeds equally well
in a more dry fituation. It was, indeed, remarked by all of us, that the taro of the Sandwich Iflands was the beft we had ever tailed.
The walls, by which thefe plantations are
feparated from each other, are compofed of the
loofe burnt ftones, which are met with in clearing the ground ; and, being totally concealed by
fugar-canes, that are planted clofe on each fidej
form the moft beautiful fences that can be
Our 27O A     VOYAGE     TO    THE
Our party flopped for the niglft-at the fécond
hut they obferved among the plantations, where
they fuppofed themfelves to be fix or feverrerniles
diftant from our fhips. The profpect from this
fpot was defcribed by them as very delightful ?
they had a view of our veffels in the bay before
them; to the left they faw a continued range of
villages, interfperfed with groves of cocoa-nut-
trees, Jpreading along the fhore; a" thick wood
extending itfelf behind them ; and, to the righty
a very confiderable extent -of ground, laid out
with great regularity in well-cultivated plantations, difplayed itfelf to their view. Near this
fpot the natives pointed out to them, at a diftanêjB
from every other dwelling, the refidence of a
hermit, who, they faid, had, in the former part
of his life, been a great chief and warrior, but
had long ago retired from the fea-coaft of the
ifland, and now never quitted the environs of his
cottage. As they approached him, they pro-
ftrated themfelves, and afterwards prefented him
with fome provifions. His behaviour was eafy,
frank, and cheerful. He teftified little aftoniih-
ment at the fight of our people, and though
preffed to accept of fome European curiofities,
he thought, proper to decline the offer, and foon
withdrew to his cottage. Our party reprefented
him as by far the moft aged perfon they had ever
feen, judging him to be, at a moderate computation,, upv/ards of a hundred years of age.
As P A C I F I <2      OCEAN.
As our people had fuppofed that the mountain
was not more than ten or a dozen rriflès diftant
from the bay, and confequently expected to reach
it with eafe early the following morning, they
were now greatly furprifed to find the diftance
fcarce perceivably diminifhed. This circumftance, with the uninhabited ftate of the country,
which they wrere on the point of entering, rendering it neceffary to provide a fupply of provifions,
they difpatched one of their conductors back to
the village for that purpofe. Whilft they waited
his return, they were joined by feveral of Kaoo's
fervants, whom that generous old man had fent
after them, loaded with refreflimehts, and fully
authorized, as their route lay through his grounds,
to demand, and take away with them whatever
they might want.
Great was the furprife of our travellers, on
finding the cold here fo intenfe. But, as they
had no thermometer with them, they could only
form their judgment of it from their feelings ;
which, from the warm atmofphere they had quitted, muft have been a very fallacious method of
judging. They found it, however, fo cold, that
they could fcarce get any fleep, and the iflanders
could not fleep at all; both parties being disturbed, during the whole night, by continual
coughing. As they, at this time, could not be
at any very great height, their diftance from the
fea being no more than fix or feven miles, and
j$.?J| part $7$ A    VOYAGE    Ï0    THE
part of tfie road on a Y(ffitfif$Qfi#efrafq&t> this
unc<p^r#on decree of cole} Ri^ft•%-%aj&|ib.u^ed to
the ea-fterly wind bte^Wg frefh over- the fnow-fc
They proceeded on their journey early the next
morning, and filled their calibafhes at a well of
excellent water, fituate about half a mile from
their hut. After they had paffed the plantations,
they arrived at a thick wood, which they entered
by a path that had been made for the convenience
of the iflanders, who frequently repair thither for
the purpofe of catching birds* as well as procuring the wild or horfe-plantain. Their progrefs
now became extremely flow, and was attended
with great labour; for the ground was eithçf
fwampy, or covered with large ftones ; the path
narrow, and often interrupted by trees lying acrofs
it, which they were obliged to climb over, as
the thicknefs of the underwood, on each fide,
rendered it impracticable to pafs round them.
They faw, in thefe woods, pieces of white cloth
fixed on poles, at fmall diftances, which thejH
imagined were land-marks for the divifion of property, as they only obferved them where the wild
plantains grew. The trees were of the fame kind
with the fpice-tree of New Holland ; they were
ftraight and lofty, and their circumference was
from two to four feet.
Our party having advanced nine or ten miles
in the v/ood,  had the mortification of finding
4 them-/ PACIFIC     OCEAN.
themfelves, fuddenly, within fight of the fea,
and not very far from it ; the path having turned
off imperceptibly to the fouth, and carried theni
to the right of the mountain, which it was their
intention to reach. Their difappointment was
confiderably heightened by the uncertainty under
which they now were with refpect to its true bearings, as they could not, at prefent, gain a view
of it from the top Of the highefi trees. They, .
therefore, thought proper to walk back fix or
feven miles to an unoccupied hut, where they
had left two of their own people, and three of the
natives, with the fmall remnant of their provifions. Here they paffed the fécond night, during
which the air was fo extremely fharp, that, by
the morning, their guides were all gone off except one.
Being now in want of provifions, which laid
them under the neceflity of returning to fome of
the cultivated parts of the ifland, they left the
wood by the fame path by which they had entered it. WTien they arrived at the plantations,
they Were furrounded by the iflanders, from whom
they purchafed a frefh fupply of neceffaries; and
prevailed upon two of them to accompany them
as guides, in the room of thofe who had gone
away. Having procured the beft information they
could poffibly obtain, with regard to the direction
of their road, the party, who were now nine in
number, marched for  about half a dozen miles
Vol. III.    n° 17.       T along 2?4
along the fkirts of rne wood, 2nd then entered it
again by a path leading towards the eaft. They
paffed, for the firft three miles, through a for eft
of lofty fpice-trees* which grew on a rich loam.
At the back of thefe trees they met with an equal
extent of low fhrubby trees, together with a confiderable quantity of thick under-wood, upon a
bottom of loofe burnt ftones. This led them to
another foreft of fpice-trees* and the fame rich
brownifh foil, which was again fucceeded by a
barren ridge of a fimilar kind with the former*
Thefe ridges, as far as they could be feen, appeared to run parallel with tKe fea-fhore, and to
have Mouna Roa for their centre.
As they paffed through the woods they found
many unfinifhed canoes, and huts in feveral
places; but they faw none of the inhabitants.
After they had penetrated almoft three miles into
the fécond wood, they arrived at two huts, where
they flopped, being greatly fatigued with the
day's journey, in the courfe of which they had
walked, according to* their own computation, at
leaft twenty miles. Having found no fprings
from the time they quitted the plantations* they
had greatly fuffered from the violence of their
thirft ; in confequence of which they were obliged,
before the evening came on, to feparate into
fmall parties, and go in queft of water. They^
at laft, met with fome that had been left by rain-
in the  bottom  of a  half-finifhed canoe; which,
though? PACIFIC    OCEAN.
though of a reddifh colour, was by no means unwelcome to them.
During the night, the cold was more intenfe
than before ; and though they had taken care td
wrap themfelves up in mats and clothes of the
country, and to keep a large fire between the two
huts, they could get but very little fleep, and
were under the neceflity of walking about for the
greatefl part of the night. Their elevation was
how, in all probability, pretty confiderable, as
the ground, over which their journey lay, had
been generally on the afcent-i
The next morning, which was the 29th, they
■pout early, with an intention of making their
laft and greatefl: effort to reach the fnowy mountain ; but their fpirits were confiderably depref-
fed, oh finding that the miferable pittance of water, which they had difcovered the preceding
night, was expended.5 The path, which reached
no farther than where canoes had been built, being now terminated, they were obliged to make
their way as well as they could ; frequently climbing up into the moft' lofty trees, to explore the
furrounding country. They arrived, about eleven o'dock, at a ridgeof burnt ftones, from the
top of which they had a profpect of the Mouna
Roa* which then appeared to be at a diftance
of between twelve and fourteen miles from them.
They now enteted into a confutation, whether they fhouid proceed any further, or reft
ÏM T 2 con- 276
contented with the view they 'now had of the.'
fnowy mountain. Since the path had ceafed,
their road had become highly fatiguing, and was
growing ftiil more fo, every flep they advanced.
The ground was almoft every where broken into
deep fiffures, which, being flightly covered with
mois, made them Humble almoft continually ;
and the intervening fpace confifted of a furface
of loofe burnt ftones, which broke under their
feet. Into fome of thefe fiffures they threw ftones,
which feemed from the noife they made, to fall
to a confiderable depth ; and the ground founded
hollow as they walked upon it. Befides thefe cir-
cumftances, which difcouraged them from proceeding, they found their conductors fo averfe to going on, that they had reafon to think they would
not be prevailed on to remain out another night.
They, therefore, at length came to a determination
of returning to the fhips, after taking a furvey of
the country from the higheft trees they could find.<
From this elevation, they perceived themfelves
furrounded with wood towards the fea ; they were
unable to diftinguiih, in the horizon, the fky
from the water ; and betwixt them and the fnowy
mountain, was a valley of about eight miles in
breadth! .Sajp