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A voyage to the Pacific ocean : for making discoveries in the northern hemisphere, performed under the… Cook, James, 1728-1779 1796

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T O   T H E
Captains COOK, CLERKE, and GORE»
In the Years' 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, J786.
Captain JAMES COOK, F. R. S.
Captain JAMES KING, LL. D. and F. R. S.
I  NE Vf-YO R Kt
Printed by Tiebout and O'Brien,
Tor BENJAMIN GOMEZ, Bookseller and Stationjjaj.
No. 97, Maiden-Lane.
1796. H K
t/>"L>   /^.*r LVJ- />', ^ /•
Transactions from the beginning of the
voyage, till our departure from new-
Captains Cook and Clerke appointed to the Refolu-
iion and Difcovery<*^Preparations for the Voyage—Sail from Deptford to Long-Reach—Are
vifited there by the Earl of Sandwich and others-
Proceed to Plymouth—Employments there—Number of Officers and Men in each Ship—Departure
of the Refolution. Page   i
CHAP.    II.
The Refolution proceeds to Teneriffe—Reception there
—Captain Cook vifits the Governor—Defcription
of Santa Cruz Road—Ample Supplies to be obtained—Some Account of the Ifiand, and of the
Cities of Santa Cruz and Laguna—Agriculture—
Natural Hifiory—Air—Climate—Produce—Defcription of the Inhabitants.
Departure from Teneriffe—Danger of the Snlip from
, the funken Roqks near Bonavifla—Ifile of Mayo
—Neceffary Precautions againft Rain and Heat
in the Neighbourhood of the Equator—Pofition of
the Coaft of Brazil—Arrival at the Cape of Good
Hope—Captain Cookys Recepiion there—Lofcs fome
of his Sheep'—Other Tranfacliohs at the Cape—
Junclion of the Difcovery—Account of Mr, An-
derfon's Journey up the Country.
CHAP.    IV.
The Refolution and Difcovery leave the Cape of
Good Mope—See two Iflands, named Prince
Edward's Iflands—Defcription of their Appearance—Vifiit Kerguekn's Land—Arrive at Chrifi-
mas Harbour—Take in water there—D if cover an
Infcription—Defcription of Chriftmas Harbour.
Page 26
C H A P.    V.
Depart from Chriftmas Harbour—Range along the
Co a.ft—Cape Cumberland, Cumberland Bay, Point
Pringle, Howeys Foreland, &c. defcribed—Remarkable beds of Rock-weed—Danger from Shoals—
Arrive at Port Pall ifer—Cape George defcribed
—Mr. Anderforfs Natural Hifiory of the Animals,
Plants, Soil, &c. of Kerguekn's Land.
CHAP.    VI.
Paffage of the Ships from Kerguelen's to Van Dieme?i9s
Land—The Refolution damaged by a Squall—A?*-
rival in Adventure Bay—Various Interviews with
the Inhabitants—Defcription of their Perfons,
Drefs, ^Manners, and Cufionls—Mr. Anderforfs
Remarks on the Character and language of the
Natives, and on the various Productions of the
Country. 47
C H A P.    VII.
Courfe to New-Zealand—Tranfactions in Queen Charlotte's Sound—'Inter courfe with the New-Zea-
landers—Their Dexterity in building Huts-
Information with regard to the Maffacre of Captain Furneau^s People—Two violent Storms—
Account of Haboora,. who headed the- Party that
killed our People—Of the two 'Youths who ac-
ompiny m on board— Captain Cook's Obfervations
on th: Inhabitant s of New-Zealand. 60 CONTENTS.
The Country near Queen Charlotte's Sound defcribed
-—The fertility of the Soil-—Temperature of the
Climate—Rain  and Winds—Plants~?Birds—Fifh
*^MAnimals—Defcription of the perfons of the
Inhabitants-—Drefs—Ornaments,—Buildings—Canoes or Boats—Food, and Method of Cookery—
Arts—Weapons—Horrid Cruelty to their Enemies, wbofe Bodies they mangle and eat—Var'tout
$ther Cufloms*
BOOK.    II.
CHAP.    I.
Courfe of the Voyage—Behaviour of the two New-
Zealand Youths on board—The Ifiand of Man-
geea difcovered—Account of the Perfons and drefs
of the inhabitants—Mourooa and his Companion
defcribed—Figure of a Mangeean Canoe—The
Coqfi of the Ifiand examined—-Impraclicability  of
, landing—Tranfactions with the Natives—Defcription of the Ifiand—Difpofition and Manners
of the Mangeeans. 93
An  Ifiand   named Wateeo   difcovered—Vifits from
the inhabitants on board the   Ships—Their Perfons and drefs defcribed—The Codfi of the If land
examined—Lieutenants   Gore   and  Burney, Mr.
Anderfon and Omai, fent on Shore—Mr. Ander-
b 2 viii CONTENT §.
forts Account of their Reception^-They are introduced to three Chiefs—Dance of twenty young
Women defcribed—Ofti&fy apprehenfwns of being
roafied—The I/landers fend Provifions on boards-
Further Defcription of the Natives—Of their double
Canoes—>Trees and Plants—Omai s Expedient to
prevent being detained on Shore—He meets with
three of his Countrymen—Ac count of their difi
trefsful Voyage—additional Ran arks relative to
Wateeo. Page 104
C H A P.   III.
Otakooiaia vifited—Defcription of the Ifiand, and its
Produce—Birds—Fifh-—Vifiit Harvey's Ifiand—
Dijcover it to be inhabited—The inhabitants re*
fufe to come on board—Their Propen fity to Theft—.
Their manners, Perfons, Drefs, Canoes, &c.—-
Make a fruitlefs Attempt to land-—Bear away
for the Friendly Iflands—Two Iflets of Palmer*
flon's Ifiand touched at—Defcription of the I/lets9
their Produce, &c.—Refrefh?nents procured there
-^Proceed ta the Friemiy I/lands* 125
CHAP.    IV.
Barter with the natives ofKomango and other Iflands
for Provifions, cirV.—Arrival at Annamooka—
Variety of Tranfaclions   there—A   vifit received
from Feenou, a Principal Chief from Tongataboa
^-*.His Reception in the Ifiand—Dines frequently
on board the Refolution-Several Inftances of the
pilfering Difpofition of the Natives—Punifhments
Infiicled on them—Account of Annamooka—Pro-*
ceed to Hapaee. 141.
C H A P.    V.
Arrival  at   Hapaee—Friendly   Reception  the*®*-™
Taipa harangues the  People—Exhorts them tiQt [CONTENTS. ix
to fieal, &c Prefents and Solemnitis-^Enter-
tainment—Single combats with Clubs—Wrefiling
—Boxing—Female Boxing—Marines exercifed-—
A dance by Men—Fire-worjeir—Night Entertainments, confifiing of Singing and Dancing by Men
and Women. Page 158
CHAP.    VI.
Captain Cook makes an Excurfion into Lefooga—Defcription of that Ifiand-—Occurrences there—A
falfe Report propagated—A Female Oculifl—Singular method of Shaving—The, Ships are removed
to another Station—A remarkable artificial Mount
and Stone—Defcription of Hoolaiva—Account of
Poulaho, King of the Friendly Ifles—The Commodore' accompanies him on Shore—Departure
from the Hapaee Iflands—Kot00 defcribed—-The
Ships return to Annamooka—Meeting of Pou~
laho, and Feenm—Both the Ships ftrike on the
Rocks—Arrival at Tongataboo. 171
Favourable Reception at Tongataboo—Difiribution of
Pork, Yafrts, and Kava among the King's Attendants—The Jhips fupplied with Water-*-The
Obfervatory erected—The Natives flock to our
People from all Quarters—Excurfion of our Cap*
tains to fee Mareewagee—Their Difappointment
—Defcription of the Village where the chiefs re*
fide—Interviews with Mareewagee and Toobou—
Prefents from the King's Son—A curious Work
ofArt—Procefs of manufacturing Cloth—A grand
Haiva given by Mareewagee—Exhibition of Fire*
works—Wreftiing—Boxing—Prefents   of  Animals
, ,-,-.-.#? the Chiefs—Poulaho, Feenou, &c. confined-**
The King's Prcfeni, and Haiva. x.89 CONTENTS.
Some Officers plundered of their Mufhets, and other
^^rtt^a by the Natives—Omai complains to the
King- oj^ki^Outrage—Coffequences that it was
\ probable migfit attend it—A vifit to Poulaho—
Defcription of a Fiatooka—Country Entertainment
at Poulaho's Houfe—His Mourning Ceremony-—
Beafily Method of preparing Kava—Account of
Onevy—Meffrs. King and Anderfon vifit Futta-
faihe Entertained by hi?n—Method of dreffing
Hogs, and carving them—Manner of pafjing tlfe
Night—Obfervations on the Country—Prepare for
Departure—Defcription of the I/land, its Animals,
CHAP.    IX.
Strange Solemnity at Mooa, called Natche, in Honour of the King's Son—Defcription of many extraordinary Proceffions and Ceremonies during the
fiirfl Day—Manner of fupping and fpending the
Evening at the King's Houfe—"Defcription of the
fecond Day's Ceremony—Captain Cook ventures
himfelf in the midfi of the Affembly—His Reception there—Arrival at Eooa—Some Account of
that Ifiand—Weigh Anchor--*And turn through
the Channel. 240
C II A P.    X.
^uit the Friendly Iflands with Regret—Time ?iot
mifemployed i?i vifiting the Friendly Iflands—Variety of Refrefhments to be procured there—Number of Iflands^miong which are Keppel's and
Bofcawen's IfWmas—Account of Vavaoo, Hamoa9
and Feejee—Method of Calculating Dfiances by
Time—Omai incapable of giving exacl information-*-? erf ons of the inhabitants defcribed—Their mmmmmmmmm
Difeafes—Characler—Manner of wearing the Hair
in both Sexes—Of puncluring and painting their.
Bodies—Their Habits—Ornaments, Sgj.
Page 267
C H A P.     XI.
Various Employments of the women of the Friendly
Iflands—Occupations of the Men—Agriculture—
Manner of building their Houfes—Their Furniture—Canoes—Working  Tools—Cordage Fifh-
ing Tackle—Inftrum*ents of Mufic—-Weapons—
Vegetable and Animal Food—Methods -of Cooking—Diverfions—Marriage—Mourning Ceremonies—Cufiom of cutting off their little Finger—
Their Deities—Sentiments concerning the Soul,
and a future State—Their Fiatcokas—Form  of
Government—Power of the  Chiefs Mode  of
paying Homage to the King—Taboo incurred by it
—Precaution againfl Famine—Of the Tammahas
—Language—Tides. 285
CHAP.   I.
Heavy Squall—The Ifiand of Toobouai difcovered—
Its  Situation, Extent, and Produce*—Defcription
. of the Perfons, Drefs, and Canoes, of its Inka*
bitants—Arrival in Oheitebeha Bay at Oi%~
heite—Omai's    Reception—His   imprudent   Con* CONTENTS,
duft--* Account of two Spanifh Ships which had
twice vifited Otaheite—^Great Demand for red
Feathers^—Captain Cook vifiits a Chief, who was
faid by Omai to be the God of Bolabola—Account
of the Houfe erecled by the Spaniards-^-Infcrip*
tions-*~Allowance of Grog leffened—The Gap*
tain's Interview with Waheiadooa—Defcription
of a Toopapaoo-^An Enthufiafl^-The Ships an*
chor in Matavia Bay* Page 30 8-
CHAP.    II.
Interview with Otoo, King of Otaheite^Imprudent
Behaviour of Omai^Various Animals landed-**-
Occupations on Shore**—Vifit from a Native who
had been at Lima****-Account of Oedidee-^-Falfe
Report—The Iflnnders make a precipitate Retreat^
but foon return^-a Rebellion in Eimeo—Council
&f Chiefs-~-War with Eimeo refolved on—A Hu«
man Sacrifice-*—Circumdantml{Defcription of that
Solemnity—The great Moral at Attahoor&o de*
fcribed^-^-Behaviour of the Natives during the
Ceremony-^Particular Cuftoms. 329
Re-embark for Matavai—Conference with Towha
refpecling the human Sacrifice*—Defcription of the
Heevas—Dinner given by Omai—Exhibition of
Fire-works-^Remarkable Method of making a
Prefent of Cloth-*—Manner of preferving, for
many Months, the dead Body of a Chief—Another
human Sacrifice offered—Riding on horfeback,
matter of great Aftonifhment to the Natives—
Otoo's great Attention to prevent Thefts, bfc.—
Animals given to him by Captain Cook—Audience
given to Etary, &c.—Manner of fighting two War
Canoes—Naval Power, &c. 354 INTRODUCTION.
jOlLTHOUGH Great Britain cannot vaunt
of being an early Stoop to the fpirit of Difcovery, but in that refpecf, muff giye place to
the Dutch, yet it may with truth be afferted
that fhe has fince far furpaffed them, even in
their own track. In the fifteenth and fixteenth
centuries, fome fpirited enterprifes were undertaken; but afterwards, the fpirit of Difcovery,
feemed to have totally fubfided, till about the
year 1741, when by the command of his late
Majefly, a voyage was undertaken under the direction of Captain Middleton, for difcovering a
North-weft paffage through Hudfon's Bay. In
1746, two fhips were fitted out by fubfcription
for the fame purpofe, under the command of
Captains Smith and Moor. But it was referv-
ed for his prefent Majefly, by that munificence
and patronage, which every liberal pursuit meets
with from him, to open friendly communications, with fome receffes of the Globe, hitherto
unexplored. Captain (now Admiral) Byron,
with the fhips Dolphin and Tamar, in 1764—6 \
Wallis and Carteret, with the Dolphin and Swallow, in 1766—9; and Cook, with the Endeavour, in 1768—71, and with the Refolution
and Adventure^ in   1772—5, carried on a plan I
of Difcovery, which it was the purpofe of the
prefent voyage to finifli.
The intimate connection between thefe voyages, render it very neceffary, to state as fhort-
ly as poflible, the objects accomplifhed by the
preceding voyages, and how far the intention of
the prefent one has been anfwered.
In general, it "may be premifed, that the uni-
verfal object, of all the voyages of the prefent
reign, was to explore the vast Ocean which extends thro' the, whole Southern Hemifphere;
as the refult of all the refearches which had hitherto been made might be justly considered as
obfcure traditions, bold fictions, an^ plaufible
conjectures; that thefe five different circumnavigations have anfwered a better purpofe, is
visible from the following  obfer^fffions.
Falkland's Iflands in the South Atlantic
Ocean were barely known to exist before Anfon,
and fo erroneous was even his idea of them, that
he confidered Pepys Ifiand and Falkland's Ifles
to be different places; there can be no doubt
that they are the fame, from Byron and M'Bride's
joint testimony: and of them we have as exact:
charts, as of the Coafls of Great Britain itfelf.
Befides this, the difcovery of Sandwich Lands, the
mofl foutherly point yet known, and the certain
accounts we have of the Ifle of Georgia, are all to
be attributed to Cook. Sir John Narborough gave
us very imperfect accounts of Magalhaen's Straits, "INTRODUCTION iii
but Captains Byron, Wallis and Carteret, have
furnifhed us with very accurate accounts of its coaft,
harbours, headlands, bays, iflands, tides, foundings,
and currents, which are a very valuable acquisition,
and mould deter any future adventurers from fleering that courfe, especially when a much fafer entrance may be had to the Pacific Ocean, by doubling Cape Horn f this navigation Captain Cook has
clearly fhewn, is by no means attended with fuch
'danger as might be fufpected from the hardfhips
and diftreiTes which Anfon and Pizarro fufFered
there; and that, wholly owing to the feafon in
which they were obliged to hazard it. But they
have not only rendered the accefs to the Pacific
Ocean more eafy, but have made us acquainted
with a far greater part of its contents. As the
Spanifh navigators had no further design than to
get a paffage to the Moluccas and other fpice
iflands, they never fleered further weft-ward, by
deviating, from their track, except aecidently, and
if then they fell in with any iflands, or made any
difcoveries, little benefit was derived from them,
their accounts being fo inaccurate as fometimes to
occasion a question if fuch places existed. Indeed-,
the vaft quantity of territory annexed to the Spanifh
Crown, and the many rich mines never wrought
rendered new acquisitions by no means to be coveted ; fo that, except the annual Manilla and Acapul-
co fhip, they feldom attempted to fleer acrofs the
vast' gulph which feparates Afia from America.
Other Navigators in thefefeas, generally followed
the Spanifh track: as indeed, their fole bufinefs there
was either for the purpofe of commerce or hostilities with them. It is probable then, that after paf-
fmg Terra del Fuego, they would hold a notherly
courfe to the uninhabited Ifiand of Juan Fernandas
and thence fail along the American coaft from
Chili to California, but they would either return to
the Atlantic by the fame courfe, or fleer the track
of the Phillipine galleons, as trade or rapine could
be benefited by no other. In latter years, the enterprising Dutch have made fome more certain and
effectual refearches in the fouthern latitudes of this
ocean. In 1642 Tafman's voyge will ever be remembered, for the difcoveries he made in a circuit, reaching from a high fouthern latitude, fo far North as
'New Guinea. Le Maine and Schouton in i6j6~,
and Roggiuein in 1772, crossing the fSuth tropic,
traverfed this ocean, from Cape Horn to the East
Indies. But even the difcoveries they made, can
only be confidered as a proof how much might be
done. If they difcovered a coafl, they often declined to land ; or if they ventured, their enquiries
and obfervations were fo futile, as not to fatisfy
common curiosity, much lefs philofophical enquiry.
While we thus must allow the Dutch to have
been our harbingers, it is alfo to be obferved, that
we afterwards went beyond them, even in their
own track. And now fucceffively his Majesty's
fhips have penetrated into the obfcureft recesTes of INTRODUCTION.
|he fouth Pacific Ocean, will appear "from a recital
of their various and extenfive operations, which
have adjusted the geography of fo considerable a
part of the globe.
The feveral lands, mentioned to have been difcovered by preceding navigators, whether Spanifh or
Dutch have been diligently fought after ; and moft
of thofe which appeared to be of any confequence,
found out and vifited; when every method was
put in practice to correct, former miftakes, and fup-
ply former deficiences.    Thus, the famous Tierra
Australia del Efpiritu Santo, which was always considered a part of a fouthern continent, Captain
Cook has defined its true position and bounds, in
the Archipelago of the New Hebrides.
But besides perfecting the difcoveries of their
predeceffors, our late navigators have added a long
catalogue of their own, to enrich geographical
knowledge. By repeatedly traversing..the Pacific
Ocean, within the fouth trophic, a feeming end-
lefs profufion of habitual fpots of land was found.
Iflands interfperfed through the amazing fpace of
eighty degrees of longitude, either feparately fcat-
| tered, or grouped in numerous clusters ; and fuch
ample accounts have we received, both of them
and their inhabitants, that, to make ufe of the
Captains own words, we have left little more to be
done in that part.
Byron, Wallis, and Carteret, all contributed towards increasing our knowledge of the ifles in the
Pacific Ocean, within the limits of the fouthern INTRODUCTION.
tropic; but how far that ocean extended to the
weft, by what lands it was bounded on that fide,
and the connections of thofe lands with the former
difcoveries, remained unknown, till Captain Cook,
after his first voyage, brought back a fatisfactory
decision to thefe questions. With wonderful skill ■
and perfeverance, amidst perplexities, difficulties
and dangers, he traced this coast almost 2000 miles,
from the 389 of fouth latitude, acrofs the tropic,
to its northern extremity, within 1 oQ and a half
of the equinoctial, where it joined the land, already explored by the Dutch, which they have deno*
minated New Holland. Tafman's difcoveries in the
last century is now completed by Captain Cook;
and we are fully acquainted with the circumference
of this vast body of land, which is justly computed
to be One Fifth of the Globe.
Although Tafman was the first Difcoverer of
New-Zealand, yet the fmali portion of it along
which he failed, rendered his account of it fo imperfect, that it was the general opinion of geographers, that New-Zealand was part of a Southern
Continent, running North and South from the 33°
to the 640 of fouth latitude. Captain Cook
having fpent fix months in this country in 1769
and 70 has fully explored it, and all its coasts; fothat
from his accounts, as well as that of other visitors,
it is eflablifhed to be no part of a continent, but
containing, the largest iflands, hitherto difcovered
in the fbnth-rn Kp-'r^n.- INTRODUCTION. vii
Again, Captain Cook has put beyond doubt,
that there is no junction between New-Holland, and
New-Guinea, as he failed through between them.
Tho.u$LMr. Dalrymple and others had difcovered
fome traces of fuch a paffage, yet the uncertainty
of its practicability, as well as the importance of
the difcovery, may be judged of, by reflecting that
Monf. Bougainville in 1768, rather than attempt
fuch a paffage, failed ninety leagues about, while
reduced to feed on feal fkins from of the yards and
riggings, for want of provisions.
- For a similar difcovery to the preceding, we are
indebted to Captain Carteret; viz. that the land
named by Captain Dampier New Britain, confifts of
two large andfeveral smaller iflands, through which
by Sir George's Channel, is a much better and
fhorter paffage, whether from the east-ward or weft-
ward, than round all the Iflands and lands to the
Byron, Wallis and Carteret were principally employed in exploring the fouth Atlantic, and knew no
more of the fouth Pacific, than accidentally occurred in the direct tract they held : and as Captain
Cook's main object in his first voyage was to ob-
ferve the tranfit of Venus at Otaheite, his anxiety
to be there in proper time, preventing his vifiting
that part of the South Pacific, where the riches and
mine of difcovery was fuppofed to exist. To put
an end to all conjectures on this matter, Captain
Cook was fent out with the Refolution and Adventure, in 1772, on the moft enlarged plan of difco- viii INTRODUCTION.
very hitherto attempted, viz. to circumnavigate the'
Globe in high fouthern latitudes, and carefully to
examine every corner of the fouth Pacific, at once to
determine, whether a fouthern continent existed in
any accefiible part of the fouthern hemifphere.
In attending Captain Cook in this fecond voyage
together with his preceding one,we have the greatest:
certainty to conclude, that many extensive continents and iflands mentioned by former navigators,
were either large fields of ice, or existed only in the
chimerical heads of the pretended discoverers.
It has been, by many, considered as an unanfwer-
able argument; that a fouthern continent is necef-
fary to preferve the due equilibrium ; but from the
thorough knowledge of the greater part of the
fouthern hemifphere, of which we are now poffefly
we may with certainty aver, that the equilibrium of
the earth is maintained although the vast track of
fea failed through, leaves no proportion for an
equal quantity of land.
Thus though fome preceding navigators have an-*
nexed more land to the known Globe,than Captain
Cook,to him belongs the honor of difclofing the extent of fea covering its furface. To conclude our ob-
fervations on this fubject we fhall make free with his
own words: " I had now made the circut of the
fouthern Ocean in a high latitude, and traverfed it
in fuch a manner as to leave not the least room for
there being a continent, unless near the pole, and
out of the reach of navigation. By twice visiting !
the tropical fea, I had not onlv fettled the fitua^ INTRODUCTION. Ix
tion of fome old difcoveries, but made there many
new ones, and left, I conceive, very little to be
done in that part. Thus I flatter myfelf, that the
intention of the voyage has, in every refpect, been
fully anfwered ; the fouthern hemifphere fuffici-
ently explored; and a final end put to the learning after a fouthern continent, which has, at times,
engroffed the attention of fome of the maritime
powers for near two centuries past, and been a
favourite theory amongst geographers of all nations.
From the general fketch we have already given
of the preceding voyages, it is evident that, though
the utmost accessible extremities of the fouthern
hemifphere had been vifited, yet our own had not;
and it remained a question, how far a northern
paffage between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean was
practicable, either by failing westward round North
America, or eastward, round Afia.
Could fuch a paffage be effected, it would greatly fhorten paffages to Japan, China, and the East-
Indies in general. But all the attempts for this
purpofe proved ineffectual*.
Notwithstanding the infuperable bars which thefe
* The principal of thefe attempts were made by, lit.,
Cabot, in 1496, who difcoverd Newfoundland and the La-
bradore coaft; 2d, Frobifher, in 1576 ; 3d James and Fox,
in 1631 ; 4th, Wood, in 1676; 5th Middleton, fitted out by-
government, in 1741 ; 6th, Captains Smith and Moore, by
a private fociety, in 17465 laftly, Lord Mulgrave, in 1773. 1  I:
different navigators had experienced, the obtaining*
a northerly paffage was an object: fo desirable, that
it was determined to bring the matter to a certainty, by fending out Captain Cook once more on
this important errand. Thus was this valuable
commander again called to expofe himfelf to new
toils and dangers, inthefervice ofmankind, although,
after what he had already done, he might have enjoyed himfelf at home, in eafe and plenty, without
any imputation of floth.
The various operations propofed were fo new
and extensive, that they can be beft judged of
from the following Instructions, under which he
*«*..<..<»<..< .<..<»<if^.*.»>».—
By the Commissioners for executing the office
of Lord High Admiral of great-Britain and
Cook, Commander of his Majesty's Sloop the
HE RE AS the Earl of Sandwich has us his Majesty's pleafure, that an attempt
mould be made to find out a Northern paffage by
fea, from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; and
whereas we have, in purfuance thereof, caufed his
Majesty's Hoops, Refolution and Difcovery, to be INTRODUCTION.
fitted, in all refpects, proper to proceed upon z
voyage for the purpofe above mentioned, and,
from the experience we have had of your abilities
and good conduct: in your late voyages, have
thought fit to intrust you with the conduct of the
prefent intended voyage, and with that view appointed you to command the first mentioned floop,
and directed Captain Gierke, who commands the
other, to follow your orders for his further proceedings. You are hereby required and directed
to proceed with the faid two floops directly to the
Cape of Good Hope, unless you (hall judge it ne-
ceffary to flop at Madeira, the Cape de Verd, or
Canary Iflands, to take in wine for the ufe of their
companies ; in which cafe, you are at liberty to dq.
fo, taking care to remain there no longer than
may be neceffary for that purpofe.
On your arrival at the Cape of Good Hope,
you are to refrefh the floops companies, and to
caufe the floops to be supplied with as much
provisions and water as they can conveniently
You are, if possible, to leave the Cape of Good
Hope by the end of October, or the beginning of
November next, and proceed to the fouth-ward in
fearch of fome iflands faid to have been lately feen
by the French, in the latitude of 48° o' fouth, and
about the meridian of Mauritius. In cafe you find
thofe iflands, you are to examine them thoroughly
for a good harbour j and upon difcoyering one? xu
make the neceffary obfervations to facilitate the
finding it again; as a good port, in that situation,
may hereafter prove very ufeful, although it fhould
afford little or nothing more than fhelter, wood,
and water. You are not? however, to fpend too
much time in looking out for thofe iflands, or in
tire examination of them, if found, but proceed to
Otaheite, or the Society Ifles, (touching at New-
Zealand in your way thither, if you fhould judge
it neceffary and convenient), and taking care to
arrive there time enough to admit of your giving
the floops companies the refrefhments they may
Hand in need of, before you profecute the further
object, of thefe instructions.
Upon your arrival at Otaheite, or the Society
Ifles, you are to land Omai at fuch of them as he
may choofe, and to leave him there.
You are to distribute among the Chiefs of thofe
iflands fuch part of the prefents with which you
have been fupplied as you fhall judge proper, re*
ferving the remainder to distribute among the natives of the countries you may difcover in the
Northern Hemifphere; And having refrefhed the
people belonging to the floops under your command, and taken on board fuch wood and water
as they may reflectively stand in need of,
you are to leave thofe iflands in the beginning of
February, or fooner if you fhall judge it neceffary,
and then proceed in as direct a courfe as you can
to the coaft of New Albion, endeavouring to fall in INTRODUCTION.
with it in the latitude of 45 ° o' north ; and taking care, in your way thither, not to lofe any
time in fearch of new lands, or to flop at any you
may fall in with, unless you find it neceffary to
recruit your wood and water.
You are alfo, in your way thither, strictly enjoined not to touch upon any part of the Spanifh
■dominions on the Western continent of America,
unless driven thither by fome unavoidable accident ; in which cafe you are to flay no longer
there than fhall be abfolutely neceffary, and to be
very careful not to give any umbrage or offence
£0 any of the inhabitants or subjects of his Catholic Majefly. And if, in your further progrefs to
the north-ward, as hereafter directed, you find any
fubjects of any European Prince or State upon
any part of the coaft you may think proper to vifit,
you are not to disturb them, or give them any just
caufe of offence, but, on the contrary, to treat
them with civility and friendfhip.
Upon your arrival in the coaft of New Albion,
you are to put into the first convenient port to
recruit your wood and water, and procure re-
frefhments, and then to proceed north-ward along
the coaft, as far as the latitude of 6$°, or further, if you are not obstructed by lands or ice ;
taking care not to lofe any time in exploring rivers
or inlets, or upon any other account, until you
get into the before-mentioned latitude of 6$°
■where we could wifh you to arrive in the month Xlf
of June next. When you get that length you are
yery carefully to fearch for, and to explore, fuch
rivers or inlets as may appear to be of a considerable extent, and pointing towards Hudfon's or
Baffin's Bay; and if, from your own obfervations^
or from any information you may receive from
the natives, (who there is reafon to believe are
the fame race of people, and fpeak the fame language, of which you are furnifhed with the vocabulary, as the Efquimaux), there mail appear to
be a certainty, or even a probability, of a water
paffage into the aforementioned bays, or either of
them, you are, in fuch cafe, to ufe your utmofl
endeavours to pafs through with one or both of
the floops, unlefs you fhall be of opinion that the
paffage may be effected with more certainty, or
with greater probability, by fmaller veffels; in
which cafe you are to fet up the frames of one or
both the small veffels with which you are provide
ed, and, when they are put together, and are
properly fitted, flared, and victualled, you are to
difpatch one or both of them, under the care of
.proper officers, with a fufficient number of petty
officers, men and boats, in order, to attempt the
faid paffage; with fuch instructions for their rejoining you, if they fhould fail, or for their fur«-
ther proceedings, if they fhould fuceeed in the attempt, as you fhall judge most proper. But, ne*
verthelefs, if you fhall find it more eligible to purT
ill any other meafures than thofe above pointed INTRODUCTION.
out, in order to make a difcovery of the before-
mentioned paffage, (if any fuch there be), you
are at liberty, and we leave it to your difcretion
to pursue fuch meafures accordingly.
In cafe you fhall be fatisfied that\ there is no
paffage through to the above-mentioned bays sufficient for the purpofes of navigation, you are,
at the proper feafon of the year, to repair to the
port of St. Peter and St. Paul in Kamtfchatka, or
wherever elfe: you fhall judge more proper, in
order to refrefh your people, and pafsithe winter ;
and, in the fpring mix the enfuing year 1778, to
proceed from thence to the north-ward, as far as,
in your prudence* you may think proper, in-fur--'
ther fearch of a North-Weft paffage from the
Pacific Ocean into e the Atlantic Ocean or the:
North Sea; and if, from your own, obfervation,
or any information you may receive, there fhall
appear to be a probability of fuch a paffage, you
are to proceed as above directed : and, having
difcovered fuch a paffage, or failed in the attempt,
make the beft of your way back to England, by
^ fuch route as you may think beft for the improvement of geography and navigation ; repairing to
Spithead with both floops, where they are to remain till further order. .       . ;
At whatever places you may touch in the;
courfe of your voyage, where accurate obferva-
tions of the nature hereafter mentioned have not
already been made, you are, as far as your time xvi
will allow, very carefully to obferve the true
fituation of fuch places, both in latitude and longitude ; the variation of the needle; bearings of
head-lands; height, direction, and courfe of the
tides and currents; depths and foundings of the
fea; fhoals, rocks, .EsV.; and alfo to furvey, make
charts, and take views of fuch bays, harbours,
and different parts of the coaft, *and to make fuch
notations thereon, as may be ufeful either to navigation or commerce. You are alfo carefully to
obferve the nature of the foil, and the produce
thereof; the animals and fowls that inhabit or
frequent it; the fifhes that are to be found in the
rivers or upon the coaft, and in what plenty;
and, in cafe there are any peculiar to fuch places,
to defcribe them as minutely, and to make as
accurate drawings of them, as you can; and, if
you find any metals, minerals, or valuable ftones,
or any extraneous foffils, you are to bring home
fpecimens of each ; as alfo of the feeds of fuch
trees, fhrubs, plants, fruits, and grains, peculiar
to thofe places, as you may be able to collecl,
and to tranfmit them to our Secretary, that proper examination and experiments may be made
of them. You are likewife to obferve the genius,
temper, difpofition, and number of the natives
and inhabitants, where you find any ; and to endeavour, by all proper means, to cultivate a
friendfhip with them ; making them prefents of
fuch trinkets as you have on  board,  and  they INTRODUCTION. atvii
I May like beft; inviting them to traffic ; and
mewing them every kind of civility and regard ;
but taking care, neverthelefs, not to fuffer your-
felf to be furprifed by them, but to be always on
your guard againfl any accidents.
You are alfo, with the confent of the natives*
to take poffeffion, in the name of the King of
Great-Britain, o<f convenient fituations in fuch
countries as you may difcover, that have not
already been difcovered or visited by any other
European power ; and to distribute among the
inhabitants fuch things as will remain as traces
and testimonies of your having been there; but
if you find the countries fo difcovered are uninhabited, you are to take poffeffion of them for
his Majesty, by fetting up proper marks and in-
fcriptions, as first difcoverers and poffeffors.
But forasmuch as, in undertakings of this na*
ture} feveral emergencies may arife not to be fore*
feen, and therefore not particularly to be provided for by instructions before-hand; you are,
in all fuch cafes, to proceed as you fhall judge
moft advantageous to the fervice on which you
are employed.
You are, by all opportunities, to fend to our
Secretary, for our information, accounts of your
proceedings, and copies of the furveys and drawings you fhall have made ; and upon your arrival in England, you are immediately to repair
to this office, in order to lay., tjifpre us a full ac-
M xviii INTR0D9CTI0 N.-
count of your proceedings in the whole courfe
of your voyage ; taking care, before you leave
the floop, to demand from the officers and petty
officers the log-books and journals they may have
kept, and to feal them up for our infpec^ation ;
and enjoining them, and the whole crew, not to
divulge where they have been, until they fhall
have permission fo to do: and you are to direct:
Captain Clerke to do the fame, with refpecl to the
officers and crew of the Difcovery.
If any accident fhould happen to the Refolution in the courfe of the voyage, fo as to difable
her from proceeding any further, you are, in
fuch cafe, to remove yourfelf and her crew into the Difcovery, and to profecute your voyage
in her; her Commander being hereby strictly required to receive you on board, and to obey your
orders, the fame, in every refpect, as when you
were actually on board the Refolution; And in
cafe of your inability, by ficknefs or other wife,
to carry thefe Instructions into execution, you are
to be careful to leave them with the next officer
in command, who is hereby required to execute
them in the belt manner he can.
Given under our hands the 6th
day of July; 1776. SANDWICH.
By command of their Lordfhips,
Government, now heartily in earnest, neglected
no step which might tend to promote the object
ki view.     In 1745, a law had paffed offering a
donation  of L.20,000  to  the  difcoverer    of  a
Northern paffage through Hudfon's Bay, in which
his Majesty's fhips were excluded.    This was now
extended to any fhip belonging to his Majesty, or
any of his fubjects, and the restriction to Hud-
fon's Bay cancelled, bearing that the difcoverer of
a paffage by fea, between the the Atlantic and
Pacific Ocean in any direcljon, or paralled of the
Northern  Hemifphere,   fhould   be entitled, &c.
As alfo a reward of five thoufand pounds, to any
fhip that  fhould   approach  to within   i° of the
North Pole.    In the beginning of fummer 1776,
Captain Pickerfgill was appointed Commander of
the armed brig the Lion, and ordered to proceed
to Davis's Straits, to protect: the Britifh fifhers;
and in order to facilitate Captain Cook's expedition, to proceed up Baffin's Bay, and make fuch
charts and take fuch views  of the feveral bays,
harbours, &c.   as might be ufeful to navigators
and others; and to be careful to return in the
fall of the year.    Pickerfgill failed in executing his
commiffions,  and in March following Lieutenant
Young was appointed to fucceed him.
As the object of this voyage is immediately connected with that of Captain Cook, we have an-"
nexed a fummary of his instructions, dated March
13th9 l777- c 2 XX
r That as the Refolution and Difcovery had
been fent out under the command of Capt. Cook,
to attempt the difcovery of a northern paffage,
by fea, from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean,
and to run as far up as the 6$° of north latitude,
and there, and as far north as he judged it pro*
per, carefully to fearch for fuch rivers or inlets as
might appear to him pointing towards Baffin's or
Hudfon's bay, or the north feas; and to attempt
a paffage by thefe if poffible ; fo, on the other
hand, you are to proceed to Baffin's Bay, and
carefully to explore the western fhores thereof,
and if an inlet or river is difcovered feemingiy
pointing towards the Pacific Ocean, you are to
attempt navigating the fame; and if not, endeavour to return to England once this year."
But this expedition -was of no fervice ; Young
was found more calculated to assist in the glory
of a victory, than explore icy mountains.
On examining thefe instructions, it may be
questioned, why Captain Cook was not directed
to commence his fearch, before he arrived at
6$° ? Why not examine Hudfon's Bay, on our
fide of America ? Why was the western fea of John
de Fuca in latitude 470 and 48°; the Archipelago
of St. Lazarus of Admiral de Fonte from 50° to
$$°; and the rivers and lakes to the north eastward, neglected ? It may easily be fhewn that thefe
pretended difcoveries are mere fictions, and that
the Orders,  no* to begin his fearch before the INTRODUCTION.
$f of north latitude was founded upon a tho-
rough knowledge of the coaft to the fouth-ward
of that point.
Captain Middleton, the commander of the expedition in Hudfon's Bay, in 174s, and 42, had
entertained a notion of the probability of difcover-
ing a paffage to the Pacific, and in fearch of it,
had proceeded further north than any of his pre-
deceffors ; but he found it utterly impracticable.
Mr. Dobbs, however, the patron of the enter-
prife, upon the information of fome of Middle-
ton's officers, ventured to accufe him of milre-
prefenting facts, and that from his own accounts
of an inlet running weft-ward in latitude 6$° or
66° it was evident he had not taken proper
pains. To be at a point upon this, he prevailed
upon a fociety of merchants and gentlemen to
fit out the Dobbs and California to investigate
this very inlet, having previoufly got the L.20,000
premium established.
But this voyage abundantly eflablifhed Captain
Middleton's opinion : for the fuppofed straits was
found to be a frefh water river. So high had
expectation been raifed in favour of this fuppofed
paffage, that notwithstanding the failure of this
expedition, it was still confidered as attainable.
Two places were mentioned as the most probable,
the one Chesterfield or Borden's inlet, in latitude 6$n or 640, the other Repulfe Bay in latitude 67°.    This last, the committee who directed *xii 1NTR 0 D UC TIO N.
the enterprife, declared to be impracticable, upon
the testimony of Mr. Ellis, the commander of
the Dobbs, and fome of his officers ; and the former has been fully explored, and traced 170 miles
tip the country, to a large lake from whence it
takes its rife, in two different voyages by Captain
Christopher, in the floop Churchill in the years
1761 and 62.
Besides thefe fea voyages, the matter is much
elucidated by the journey of Mr. Hearne, who
was fent out by the Hudfon's Bay company to
travel over land, as far as the Copper Mine River,
which had been much Ipoken of by Mr. Dobbs
and other favourers of the fcheme. He fet out
in December 1770, from Fort Prince of Wales,
on Churchill's River lat. 58° 50', and his tranf-
a&ions are preferved in his written journal. It is
■much to be wifhed that this journal were publiflr-
ed, as it contains a very difmal account of the
wretched situation of the miferable inhabitants of
that part of the globe. His general courfe was to.
the north-west. In June 1771, when at a place
called Conge Catha who Chaga, he determined by
two good obfervations, that this place is fituated
240 q! weft longifude of Churchill River, and in
68° 46' north latitude. On the 13th of July, he
reached Copper Mine River ; and contrary to the
idea he had been left to form of it, found it fcarce-
ly navigable for a canoe. Without entering particularly into the account Mr. Hearne gives of this INTR ODUC TIO N. xxiii
river, it is fufficient for our purpofe to mention,
that he found it by no means navigable for the
fmallefl veffels, and impoffible to be made fo.
On our general chart, the particular situation of
this river, as well as the country in general,
through which Mr. Hearne paffed, is accurately
laid down. In fine, Mr. Hearne's travelling 1300
miles before he arrived at the fea, makes it clear
that the continents of North America stretches
from Hudfon's Bay, at least that distance to the
north-west, while his most westerly distance from
Hudfon's Bay was about 600 miles; and the Indians who attended him as guides were convinced
that there exifled a vast track of continent, stretching on in the fame direction. What we have
now mentioned, being fufficiently known to the
first Lord of the Admiralty, was a good reafoa
for his ordering Captain Cook to commence his
fearch in latitude 6$°9 and not more to the fouth-
ward. But if there are any, we are ftiil inclined
to think it fhould have begun earlier. We beg
leave to Recommend to them a perufal of the
Spanifh voyages, particularly that on the coaft of
America in 1775, publifhed by Mr. Danes Bar-
rington. In the general fketch we have now given
of the prefent and preceding voyages, a pretty
diftincl idea may be formed, of what was intended to be done, and what was really accomplifhed.
The. benefits arising from them may be enumera-*
ted. as follows; INTRODUCTION.
i. All visionary fpeculators and fchemers, fuch1
as Buffon, Campbell, and de Broffes, will find few
votaries to fupport their airy fanciful dreams of
treafures and paradifes in thefe feas, as Captain
Cook has fufficientiy investigated what is and what
is not to be found there ; fo, many impracticable
undertakings which would probably have taken
place, will be entirely prevented.
2. But unprofitable fearches will not only be
difcouraged, but the diflreffes and inconveniencies
attending the navigation of thefe feas, in a great
meafure prevented. The exact situation of the
different iflands are properly laid down; rocky
ihores, perplexing currents, dangerous fhoals, and
narrow straits accurately defcribed; besides many
other advantages, to enumerate which, it would
be neceffary to tranfcribe great part of the journals of our feveral Commanders. By thus leffen-
ing the danger of thefe voyages, a fcene of com-*
merce comes in view, that in a courfe of years
will probably come to fuch a height as is impof-
fible for us at prefent to have any conception of;
nay, in our own day, it is highly probable that
fome fpeedy advances will be made to form fome
commercial eftablifhments in the fouth Pacific; at
least, if we do not, we have taught the Ruffians
and Spaniards fome important leffons in the fkin-
trade, and otherwife, which they will notjail to
improve. INTRODUCTION xxv
3. The valuable acceffions which human knowledge has made by the continued plan of difcovery
carried on in the prefent reign, cannot fail to
diflinguifh Britain as taking the lead in the mod
arduous enterprifes, for the benefit of mankind.
And were no real benefit to accrue to us, either
in this or a future age, as mentioned in the
preceding article, certainly no greater fcope was
ever given to the dignified exercife of the powers
of the human mind, particularly inwthe aftrono-
mical lines.
4. It is commonly obferved, that acquisitions iri
one fcience, are generally followed by acquisitions
in other branches; fo here, the difcovery of fo
^<nany new places in the globe prefents to our view
frefh objects of fcience. Upon the report of any
common failor, much information may be obtained ; but when we confider that in thefe voyages,
the labours of fome of the most eminent men of
the times are united, we must be fatisfied that
every thing new and valuable throughout the wide
extent of their refearches are collected and recorded. It is neceffary here to mention'that in his
fecond voyage, Captain Cook was accompanied by
Sir Jofeph Banks; the obligations which (if we -
may ufe the expression) fcience lies under to this
great man, cannot be better expreffed than in the
words of Mr. Wallis, which we beg leave to
4. xxvi        - INTRODUCTION.
" That branch of natural knowledge which may
be called nautical afironomy, was undoubtedly in
its infancy, when thefe voyages were first undertaken. Both instruments and obfervers, which
deferved the name, were very rare ; and fo late
as the year was thought neceffary, in the
appendix to Mayer's tables, publifhed by the Board
of Longitude, to flate fa&s, in contradiction to
the affertious of fo celebrated an Astronomer as
the Abbe de la Caille, that the altitude of the fun
at noon, the easiest and most simple of all obfer-
vations, could not be taken with certainty to a
lefs quantity than five, fix, [even, or even eight
minutes.*    But thofe who will give themfelves the
* The Abbe's words are. " Si ceux qui promettent une
fi -grande-precision dans ces fortes de methodes, avoient
navigue quel que temps, ils auroicnt vu fouvent, que dans
1'obferyation la plus Simple de toutes, qui eft celle de la
hauteur du foleil a midi, deux obfervatiqns,'' munis de bong
quartiers   de   reflexion,   biens   rectifies,   different entr'eux,
" lorfqu'ils obfervent chacum a part,  de 5' 6' 7'  & 8.'-	
Ephemer. 1755. 1']^5- Introduft. p.,32."
It muff- be however mentioned, in juftice to M. de. la
Caille, that he attempted to introduce the lunar method of
difcovering the longitude, and propofed a plan of calculations of the moon's diftance from the fun and fixed (tars ;
but, through the imperfection of his instruments, his fuccefs
was much lefs than that method was capable of affording.
'The bringing it into general ufe was referved for Dr. Maf- '
; kelyne, our Aftronomer Royal. See the Preface to the
Tables for correcting the Effects of Refraction and Parallax,
publifhed by the Board of Longitude, under the direction of .
Dr. Shepherd, Plumian Profeffor of Afironomy and Exp.e*
rimental Philofophy at Cambridge, in 1772.
trouble to look into the aflrommical obfervations,
made in Captain Cook's last voyage, will find
that there were few, even of the petty officers,
who could not obferve the distance of the moon
from the fun, or a star, the most delicate of all
obfervations, with fufficient accuracy. It may be
added, that the method of making and computing obfervations for finding the variation of the
•compafs is better known, and more frequently
practifed by thofe who have been on thefe voyages,'
than by most others. Nor is there, perhaps, a
perfon who ranks as an officer, and has been concerned in them, who would not, whatever his
real fkill may be, feel afhamed to have it thought
that he did not know how to obferve for, and
compute the time at fea ; though, but a fhort
while before thefe voyages were fet on foot, fuch
a thing was fcarcely ever heard of amongst fea-
rnen,; and even first-rate astronomers doubted
*the poffibility ,of doing it with fufficient exact-
* In addition to Mr. Wallis s Remark, i.t may be c'bfer-
<vcd, that the proficiency, of our naval officers in taking ob-
■fervations at lea muff ultimately be attributed to the great
attention paid to this important cbjefl; by the Board of
Longitude at'home.; liberal rewards haying been given to
' mathematicians for perfecting the Lunar Tables, and facilitate
ing calculations; and to artiits for conftru6ting more accurate instruments for obferving, and watches better adopted
to keeping time at fea. It appears, therefore, that the
d   2 ssxviii
" The number of places at which the rife and
times of flowing of tides have been obferved, in
thefe voyages, is very great; and hence an important article of ufeful knowledge is afforded.
In thefe obfervations, fome very curious and even
unexpected circumstances have offered themfelves
to our consideration. It will be fufficient to in-
flance the exceedingly final! height to which the
voyages of difcovery, and the operations of the Board of
Longitude, went hand in hand ; and they muff be combined, in order to form a juir. eStimate of the extent of the
plan carried into execution Since his MajeSty's acceffion, for
improving afironomy and navigation. But, befides the
.establishment of the Board of Longitude on its prefent footing, which has had fuch important confequences, it muff;
alfo ever be acknowledged that his prefent Majefty has extended his patronage to every branch of the liberal arts and
ufeful fcienees. The munificent prefent to the royal Society for defraying the expence of obferving the Tranfit of
Venus;—the institution of the Academy of Painting and
Sculpture;-—the magnificent apartments allotted to th^
Royal and Antiquary Societies and to the Royal Academy,
at Somerfet. Place ;—the Support of the Garden of Exotics
at Kew, to improve which, Mr. Mafon was fent to the extremities of Africa ;—the fubftantial encouragement afforded
to learned men and learned works, in various departments;
and particularly that afforded to Mr. Herfchell, which has
enabled him to devote himfelf entirely to the improvement
of aftronomy ; thefe, and many other inftances which might
be enumerated, would have greatly distinguished his MajeSty's reign, even if he had not been the patron of thofe
Successful attempts to perfect, geography and navigation by
fo many voyages of difcovery.
^Bi ride rifes in the middle of the great Pacific
Ocean ; where it falls fhort, two-thirds at least, of
what might have been expected from theory and
" The direction and force of currents at fea,
make alfo an important object. Thefe voyages
will be found to contain much ufeful information
.on this head ; as well relating to feas nearer home,
and which, in confequence, are navigated every
,day, as to thofe which are more remote, but
where, notwithftanding, the knowledge of thefe
things may be of great fervice to thofe who are
destined to navigate them hereafter. To this head
alfo we may refer the great number of experiments
which have been made for inquiring into the
depth of the fea, its temperature, and faltnefs at
different depths, and in a variety of places and
" An extenfive foundation has alfo been laid
for improvements in magnetifm, for difcovering
the caufe and nature of the polarity of the needle,
and a theory of its variations, by the number and
variety of the obfervations and experiments which
have been made, both on the variation and dip,
in almost all parts of the world. Experiments
#lfo have'been made, in confequence of the latk
voyages, on the effects of gravity, in different
and very distant places, which may ferve to in-
$reafe our flock of natural knowledge. From the
fame fource of information we have learned, that INTRODUCTION.
the phenomenon, ufually called the aurora boreafls,
is not peculiar to high Northern latitudes, but
belongs equally to ail cold climates, whether they
be North or South."
" But perhaps no part of knowledge has been
fo great a gainer by the late voyages, as that of
botany. We are told* that, at least, twelve hundred new plants have been added to the known
fystem ; and that very considerable additions have
been made to every other branch of natural hif-
tory, by the great fkill and industry of Sir Jofeph
Banks, and the other gentlemenf who jhave £C*
companied Captain Cook for that purpofe/*
To Captain Cook himfelf, we are indebted for
another improvement, which was the general
health of his crew, during his long voyages, and
that may be obferved particularly in every paffage
of the fucceeding volumes. Another good effect
of thefe voyages, and that not the least of them,
is the opportunity they have afforded of studying
human nature in
situations both interest-
* See Dr. Shepherd*s Preface, as above,
f Dr. Solandcr, Dr. Forffer and his ion, and Dr. Spar-
man. Dr. Forffer has given us a fpecitmen of the botanical difcoveries of his voyage in the Genzrum Plantaruwi,
&c. and much curious philofophical matter is contained in
his Obfervations made in a Voyage round the World. Dr.
Sparman, alfo, on his return to Sweden, favoured us with a
publication, in winch he expatiates on the advantages ac-*
cruing to natural hiffory, to aftronomy, geography, general
\phyficSj and navigation, from our South Sea voyages. ^^
Ing.and uncommon. However fecluded from the
reft of mankind any tribe may appear to be at this
time, yet if any traces remain of a quondam acquaintance with any feet or race, by history or our
own obfervation, there cannot be feen uncultivated
nature. And in this state the Iflands contiguous
-tefrfhe continent of Afia feem to be. But our in-
terprifing difcoverer had occafion to obferve, in
the center of the Pacific Ocean, tribes of fellow
creatures hitherto unknown ; their manners, cuf-
toms, religion, laws, their every thing, the production of nature and neceffity. What a foil for
philofophical enquiry!
On the one hand, our admiration is raifed, in
obferving their fongs, their dances, their games,
their proceffions, and on the other, our detestation in obferving them feed on human flefh.
The Scholar, and Antiquarian confider it as a
valuable acquifition to difcover fome relique of
Roman or Grecian workmanfhip; but how much
more is not curiosity awakened, in obferving the
ingenious inventions of our newly difcovered
• friends in the Sandwich Ifles ? What rufty collec-
. tion of antiques can vie with the valuable addition
made by Cook to Sir Afhton Lever's repofitory ?
And the expence of all his three voyages does not
exceed the expence of digging out the buried
contents of Herculaneum. In a nation fo far advanced in refinement as this, the contrast muft be ixxxii INTRODUCTION*
very striking, and to trace the tranfition frofi
-barbarism to civility truly pleafing.
The Philofopher will find a new field of dif-
cuflion opened for him, in what may be termed
the natural history of the human fpecies. For
example, the question concerning the existence
of giant's is now determined; as upon the joint
testimony of Byron, Wallis, and Carteret, we
are affured that the inhabitants of a district bordering on the north fide of the ftrait of Magal-
haeris, confiderably exceed the bulk of mankind
in flature.
No fubject can be. more entertaining than to
trace the various migrations of thofe who firfl
peopled the Globe. It was formerly known, that
the -Asiatic nation, called the Malayans, traded
confiderably in the Indies, not only on the fide
of Asia, but alfo on trie African coaft, particularly to Madagafcar. But we are indebted to
Captain Cook for the information, that the fame
nation, who are alfo called Phoenicians, visited,
made fettlements, and founded colonies, at different iflands and places at vast distances from one
another, and that extending from the east fide of
-Africa to the weft fide of America, a fpace, including above half the circumference of the
Globe ; this he demonstrates, by the furefl of all
proofs, viz. the affinity of language.
Connected with this, we fhall mention a very
important benefit   refultiflg  from   thefe difcove- INTR 0 DUCT 10 2£ xxxiu
• Hes, viz. the effectual anfwer we have now
.to give thofe cavillers against the Mofaic account
of peopling the earth ; the vicinity of the two
continents of Afia and America is fully eftab-
When the receffes of the globe are inveftiga-
ted in order to promote general knowledge, and
not with a profpect of enlarging private dominion ; when we traverfe the globe to vifit new
tribes of our fellow creatures, as friends, wifh-
ing to learn their exiflence, for the exprefs purpofe of bringing therh within the pale of the offices of humanity, and to relieve their wants,
by communicating to them our fuperior attainments ; the voyages projected by his gracious
Majefly George the Third, and carried into execution by Captain Cook, have not, it is prefumed,
been entirely ufelefs. Some rays of light mufl
have been darted on the Friendly Society, and
Sandwich Iflands, by our repeated intercourfe
with them. Their flock of ideas mufl naturally
be enlarged, and new materials mufl have been
furnifhed them for the exercife of their rea-
fon, by the uncommon objects we exhibited to
Convinced, by comparing themfelves to their
Engiifh   vifitor^,   of   their   extreme  inferiority,
they will probably endeavour to emerge from it,
and to rife nearer to a level with thofe who left
behind them fo many proofs of their generosity *
and humanity.     The ufeful animals and vegetables introduced amongft   them   will   certainly
contribute  to  the comforts  and  enjoyments of
When Great-Britain was first vifited by the
Phoenicians, the inhabitants were painted favages,
much lefs civilized than thofe of Tongataboo, or
Otaheite; and it is not impoflible, but that our
late voyages may, in procefs of time, fpread the
bleflings of civilization amongft the numerous
iflanders of the South Pacific Ocean, and be the
means of abolifhing their abominable repasts, and
almoft equally abominable facrifices* VOYAGE
fO THE !
CHAP.    I.
Captains Cook and Clerke appointed to the Refolution
and Difcovery—Preparations for the Voyage—Sail
from Deptford to Long Reach—Are vifited there
by the Earl of Sandwich and others—Proceed to
Plymouth-*—Employments there—Number of Officers
and Men in each Ship—Departure of the Refolu*
"■■ tion.
N the ioth of February, 1776, Captain
Cook went on board his Majesty's floop the Refolution, and hoisted the pendant, having received a commiflion to command her the preceding
day. The Difcovery, of three hundred tons,
was, at the fame time, prepared for the fervice,
Vol. I—n°. 1. B I A VOYAGE TO THE
and Captain Gierke appointed to the command
of her. It may be neceffary t# obferve, that
Captain Gierke had been Captain Cook's Second
Lieutenant on board the Refolution, in his fecond
voyage round the world.
Thefe two fhips were then equipping In the
dock at Deptford, for a voyage to make farther
difcoveries in the Pacific Ocean, under the direction of Captain Cook.
The Refolution was hauled into the river on
the c/th of March to complete her rigging, and
take in stores and provisions for the voyage. Both
fhips, indeed, were abundantly fupplied with every
thing requifite for a voyage of fuch duration.
We failed on the 29th of May, and arrived
the next day at Lang Reach, where our powder
and fhot, and other ordnance stores, were received. t.m$
On the 8th of June, while we lay in Long
Reach, we.had the fatisfadtion of a vifit from the
Earl of Sandwich,. Sir Hugh Pallifer, and others
of the Board .of Admiralty, to examine whether
every thing had been completed purfuant to their
orders, and to the convenience of thofe who were
to embark. They honoured Captain Cook with
their company to dinner on that day; and were
faluted, on their coming on board, and on their
going afhore, with feventeen guns and three
cheers. PACIFIC OCEAN. 3
To convey fome permanent benefit to the in.
habitants of Qtaheite, and of the other iflands
which we might happen to vifit, his Majesty
commanded fome ufeful animals to be taken out.
On the 10th we took on board a bull, two cows
with their calves, and fome fheep; with hay and
corn for their fupport. We were alfo furni(hed
with a fufficient quantity of our valuable European garden feeds, which might add frefh fup-
plies of food to the vegetable productions of our
newly-difcovered iflands.
Both the fhips, by order of the Board of Admiralty, were amply fupplied with an extenfive
affortment of iron tools and trinkets, to facilitate
a friendly commerce and intercourfe with the inhabitants of fuch new countries as we might dif-
cover. With refpect to our own wants, nothing
was refufed us that" might be conducive to health,
comfort or convenience.
Thofe at the head of the naval department were
equally folicitous to render our voyage of public
utility ; accordingly we received on board, the
next day, variety of astronomical and nautical
instruments, which the Board of Longitude in-
trufled to Captain Cook and Mr. King, his Second Lieutenant; they having engaged to fupply
the place of a profeffed obfervator. The board,
like wife, put into their poffeffion the time-keeper,
which Captain Cook had carried out in his last
voyage, and which had  performed  fo well.     It 4 A VOYAGE TO THE
was constructed by Mr. Kendal, and was a copy
of Mr. Harrifon's. Another time-keeper, and
the fame affortment of astronomical and other
instruments were put on board the Difcovery,
for the ufe of Mr. William Bailey, a diligent and
fkilful obfervator, who was engaged to embark
with Captain Gierke.
Mr. Anderfon, Surgeon to Captain Cook,
added to his professional abilities a great proficiency in natural history. He had already vi-
fited the South-Sea Iflands in the fame fhip, and
enabled the Captain to enrich his relation of the
preceding voyage with ufeful and valuable re-.
Though feveral young men, among the fea-
officers, were capable of being employed in constructing charts, drawing plans, and taking
views of the coasts and head-lands, Mr. Webber
was engaged to embark with Captain Cook, for
the purpofe of fupplying the defects of written
accounts, by taking accurate and mafterly draw^
ings of tt*e moft memorable fcenes of our tranf-
The neceffary preparations being completed.
Captain Cook received orders to proceed to Plymouth, and to take the Difcovery under his*
command. In confequence of which, he ordered Captain Gierke to carry his fhip alfo round to
The Refolution, with the Difcovery in company, failed from Long Reach on the 15 th of
June, and anchored at the Nore the fame evening. The Difcovery proceeded the next day in
obedience to Captain Cook's order, and the Refolution remained at the Nore till Captain Cook,
who was then in London, fhould join her.
It being our intention to touch at Otaheite and
the Society Iflands, it had been determined to
carry Omai back to his native country ; accords
ingly Captain Cook and he fet out from London
early on the 24th, and reached Chatham between
ten and eleven o'clock, where they dined with
Commiffioner Proby, who afterwards ordered his
yacht to convey them to Sheernefs, where the
Captain's boat was waiting to take them on board
the Refolution.
Though Omai left London with fome degree
of regret, when he reflected upon the favours and
indigencies he had receded, yet, when mention
was made of his own iflands, his eyes fparkled
with joy. He entertained the highest ideas of
this country and its inhabitants; but the pleafing
profpect of returning home, loaded with what
would be deemed invaluable treafures there, and
of obtaining a diftinguifhed fuperiority among
his countrymen, operated fo far as to fupprefs
.every uneafy fenfation , and when he got on board
fhe fhip, he appeared to be quite happy. f
Omai was furnifhed by his Majefly, with
quantities of every article that were fuppofed to
be in estimation at Otaheite. He alfo received
feveral prefents from Lord Sandwich, Mr. Banks,
and many others. Every method i had, indeed,
been employed, during his abode in England,
and at his departure, to make him the instrument of conveying to his countrymen, an exalted
opinion of Britifh greatnefs and generosity.
About noon on the 25th we weighed anchor,
and made fail for the Downs, with a gentle breeze
at north-weft by weft. At nine the fame day we
anchored, with the North Foreland bearing fouth
by east, and Margate Point fouth-weft by fouth.
On the 26th, at two o'clock, we weighed,
and flood round the Foreland; and at eight
o'clock the fame morning anchored in the Downs.
Here Captain Cook received two boats on board,
which had been built for him at Deal ; and the
next day, at two o'clock in the afternoon, we
got under fail, but the breeze foon died away,
and we anchored again. At ten o'clock the fame
night we weighed again, and proceeded down the
We anchored at Plymouth Sound on the 30th,
at three o'clock in the afternoon. The Difcovery
had arrived there three days before. We faluted
Admiral Amherft, whofe flag was flying on board
the Ocean, and he returned the compliment PACIFIC OCEAN. 7
We were employed on the ifl and 2d of July
in replacing the water and provifions we had expended, and in receiving on board a fupply of
port wine. On thej'8th Captain Cook received
his instructions for the voyage, andean order to
proceed to the Cape of Good Hope with the
Refolution ; with directions alfo to leave an order
for Captain Clerke to follow him, as foon as he
fhould join his fhip, he being at that time in
;w£,he officers and: men on board the Refolution
(including marines) were one hundred andU|pelve,
and thofe on board the Difcovery were eigKty*
©irVthe.^ i.o.t.h of July the proper perfons came
on board, and paid the officers and crew up to the
30th of laft month. The petty officers and Teamen received alfo two months wages \<M advance.
Such indulgence to the latter is customary ; bmt
the payment of what was due to the fuperior officers, was in confideration of our peculiar situation, to enable us to defray the expence of fur~
nifhing ourfelves with neceffaries for a voyage of
fuch uncommon duration.
In the morning of the nth, Captain Cook delivered into the hands of Mr. Burney, First Lieutenant of the Difcovery, Captain Gierke's failing
orders ; a copy of which he alfo left witltthe commanding officer of his Majesty's fhips at Plymouth, to be delivered to the Captain on his arrival.    In the afternoon we weighed with the ebb, 8 A VOYAGE TO THE
and got out beyond all the fhipping in the Spmd,
where we were detained most of the following
day* At eight o'clock in the evening, we weighed again, and flood out of the Sound, with' a
gentle breeze at north-weft by wefb
The Refolution proceeds to Teneriffe—Reception
there—Captain Cook Vifits the Governor—De*
fcription of Santa Cruz Rdad—Ample Supplies
to  be  obtained—Some account of the Ifiand, and
oi bf^Sfhe Cities of Santa Cruz and Laguna—Agri*
culture^*Nafural Hi/lory—Air—Climate—-Pro"
•   duce—Defcription of the Inhabitants*
)OON after we came out of Plymouth Sound,
the wind came more westerly, and blew frefh,
which obliged us to ply down the channel; and
we were not off the Lizard till the 14th at eight
in the evening.
On the. 16th at noon, the light-houfe of St*
Agnes, on the Ifles of Scilly, bore north-weft by
weft, distant about feven or eight miles ; and on
the 17th and t 8th, we were off Ufhant.
On the 19th we flood westward till eight o'clock
in the morning, when the wind fhifted, and we 1
tacked and ftretched to the foUthward : here we
beheld nine fail of large fhips, which we fuppofed to be French men of war. On the 2id, at'
ten in the mornings we faw Cape Ortegal about
four leagues diftant.
We had calm weather on the 42d and 23d, and
on the afternoon of the 24th, we paffed Cape Fi-
nifterre, with a fine gale at iiofth-north-east.
Captain Cook determined to touch at Teneriffe, to get a fupply of hay and corn for the fub-
fiftence of his animals on board, as well as the
ufual refrefhmerits for ourfelves* We faw Teneriffe on the 31ft of July, at four in the afternoon 3
and at day-light on the first of August, we failed
round the eaft point of that ifiand, and anchored
on the fouth fide, in the road of S^nta Cruz, about
r eight o'clock, in twenty-three fathoms water.
There were, riding in this road, a French frigate, two French brigantines, an Ertglifh brigan^
tine, and fourteen fail of Spanifh fhips*
Immediately after we had anchored, we received a vifit from the matter of the port, who
afked the fhip's name. Upon his retiring, Captain Cook fent an officer ashore, to prefent his
refpects to the Governor, and afk his permiffiort
to take in water, and to purchafe fuch articles as
were thought neceffary. The Governor very po^
litely complied with Captain Cook's requeft, and
fent an officer onboard to compliment him- on
his arrival. In the afternoon Captain Cook wait-
ed upon him, accompanied by fome of his officers ; and, before he returned to| his fhip, be-
fpoke fome corn and straw, ordered" a quantity
of wine, and made an agreement for a fupply of
The Road of Santa Cruz is situated on the fouth-
eaft fide of the ifiand, before the town of the fame
name. It is faid to be the principal road of Teneriffe for fhelter, capacity, and thefgoodnefs of
its bottom.
The water to fupply the fliipping, and for the
ufe of the inhabit^jfcs^bf Santa Cruz, is derived
from a rivulet that runs from thej -hills, which is
conveyed into the town in wooden troughs. As
thefe troughs were at this time repairing, frefh
water was extremely fcarce.,;, .
From the appearance of the country . about
Santa Cruz, it might naturally be concluded that
Teneriffe is a barren fpot : we were convinced
however, from the ample fupplies we received,
that it not only produced fufficient to fupply its
own inhabitants, but alfo enough to fpare for
visitors. Though wine is the chief produce of
the7 ifiand, beef may be had at about three-pence
fterlirig: a pound; the oxen', however, are final!,
lean, andboney. Sheep, goats, hogs, and poultry, may/ be had on terms equally reafonable. A
great variety of fruits are to be had in plenty, as
pears, figs, grapes, muiberrieSj mufk-melons, &c.
befides others, that were not then in feafon.    The
pumpkins, potatoes,   and   onions,   which   grow
here, are excellent.
Indian corn is produced on this ifiand, and is
fold at about three fhillings and fix-pence per
bufhel : the fruits and vegetables are, in general, very cheap. Though the inhabitants are but
indifferently fupplied with fifh by the adjoining
feas, they are engaged in a considerable fifhery
on the coaft of Barbary, and the produce of it
felis #at a very moderate price,
Teneriffe is certainly a more eligible place than
Madeira, for fhips to touch at which are bound
on long voyages ; but the wine of the latter is
infinitely fuperior to that of the former : the difference of their prices is almost as considerable as
their qualities, for the beft Teneriffe wine i was
fold for twelve pounds a pipe, whereas a pipe of
the beft Maderia was worth confiderably more
than double that fum,
3 Behind the town of Santa Cruz, the country
rifes gradually to a moderate height ; afterwards
it continues to rife fouth westward towards the
_celebrated pic of Teneriffe. But we were much
difappointed in our expectations with refpect to
its  appearance *?
* In Sparta's Hiftory of the Royal Society, page 20Q, &c,
is an account of a journey to the top of the pic of Teneriffe0
A modern traveller,.viz. the Chevalier de Borda, who mea-
fured the height of this mountain in Augufl 17^6. makes if
123A0 Englifh feet, 12
The island, eastward of Santa Cruz, appears
perfectly barren. Ridges of high hills run tor
wards the fea, between which are deep vallies,
terminating at mountains that run aerofs and are
higher than the former.
On the i ft- of' August in the afternoon, Mr.
^.nderfon (Captain Cook's fiirgeon) went on fhore
to one of thefe vallies, intending to reach the top
of the remoter hills, but time would not permit
him to • get farther than their foot. The lower
hills produce great quantities of the euphorbia
eanarienfis. The people on the fpot imagine its
juice to be fo cauftic as to erode the fkin; but
Mr* Anderfon convinced them to the contrary,
by thrusting his finger into a plant full of it,
The inhabitants dry the bufhes of euphorbia, and
carry them home fqr fuel.
Santa Cruz, though not large, is a well-built
city. Their churches have not a magnificent appearance without, but they are decent and tolerably handfome within.
Almost facing the ftone pier, which runs into
the fea from the town, is a marble column, lately
erected, enriched with human figures which Reflect honour to the °;.atuary.
On the 2d of August, in the afternoon, Mrt
Anderfon and three others hired mules to ride to
the city of Laguna, about the distance of four
miles from Santa Cruz. They arrived there between five and fix in the evening, but the fight-, PACIFIC  OCEAN.
-of it did not reward us for our trouble, as the
roads were very.bad, and our cattle but indifferent. Though the place is extenfive, it hardly
deferves to be dignified with the name of a city.
There is fome good houfes, but the difpofition
of the streets is very irregular. Laguna is larger
than Santa Cruz, but much inferior to it in appearance.
' The road from Santa Cruz to Laguna, runs
up a fteep barren hill; but, lower down, we faw
fome fig-trees and corn-fields. The corn, how^
ever, is not produced here without great labour,
the ground being greatly encumbered with flones.
Nothing elfe prefented itfelf, deferving notice,
except a few aloe plants in flower on the fide of
the  road.
The laborious work in this ifiand is chiefly
performed by mules, horfes being fcarce, and re-
ferved for the ufe of the officers. Oxen are alfo
much employed here. Some hawks and parrots
/were feen, which were natives of the ifiand; as
alfo the fea-fwaliow, fea-gulls, partridges, fwai-
jlows, canary-birds, and black-birds. There are
alfo lizards, locufts, and three or four forts of
^ragon flies.
Mr. Anderfon was informed, by a gentleman
of acknowledged veracity, that a fhrub is common here, agreeing exactly with the defcription
given by Linnaeus of the tea fhrub, as growing
>|n China and Japan.    It is considered as a weed, it
and large quantities are rooted out of the vineyards every year. The Spaniards, however, who
inhabit the ifiand, fometimes make ufe of it, and
afcribe to it ail the qualities of the tea imported
from China.
The fame gentleman mentioned to Mr. Anderfon another botanical curiosity, which is called
the impregnated'lemon. It is a distinct and perfect lemon enclofed within another.
A certain fort of grape growing here, is deemed an excellent remedy in phthisical complaints.
The air and climate are remarkably healthful,
and particularly adapted to afford re|ief in fuch
complaints. By residing at different, heights in
the ifiand, it is in the power of any one to procure fuch a temperature of air as may be beft
fuited to his constitution. . He may continue"
where it is mild and falubrious, or he may afcencf
till the cold becomes intolerable. No perfon,
it is faid, can live comfortably within a mile of
the perpendicular height of the pic, after the
month of August. -
Smoke continually iffues from near the top of
the pic, but they have had no earthquake or eruption fince 1704, when the port of Garrachica was
destroyed,' being rilled pp by the rivers of burning lava that flowed into it ; and houfes are now
built, where fhips formerly lay at anchor.
The trade of Teneriffe is very considerable,
forty thoufand pipes of wine being annually made PACIFIC OCEAN;
there ; which is confumed in the ifiand, or made
into brandy, and feM to the Spanifh Weft-Indies.
Indeed the wine is the only considerable article
of the foreign commerce of Teneriffe, unlefs we
reckon the large quantities of filtering flones
brought from Grand Canary.
The race of inhabitants found here when the
Spaniards difcovered the Canaries, are no longer
a diftinct people, having intermarried with the
Spanifh fettlers; their descendants, however,
may be known, from their being remarkably tall,
strong, and Icfrge-boned. The men are tawny,
and the woman are pale. The inhabitants, in
general, of Teneriffe, are decent, grave, an<jTcJf
i&s$ retaining that folemn caff which dlftinguifhes
thofe of their country from others. Though we^
4fe're not of opinion that our manners are fimilarto^
thofe of the Spaniards, yet Omai declared, he did
riot think there was much difference. He faid,
indeed, that they did not appear to be fo friendly
as the Englifh; and that their perfons nearly re-
fembled thofe of his countrymen.
CHAP. i6
C H A P.   III.
Departure from Teneriffe—Danger of the fhip from
the funken rocks near Bonavifia—-Ifle of Mayo
—Neceffary precautions againfi Rain and Heal
in the Neighbourhood of the Equator—Pofition of
the Coaft of Brazil —Arrival at the Cape of
Good Hope-*- Captain Cook's Reception there''—'
Lofes fome of his Sheep—Other Tranfacl'ions "at"
the Cape—-function of the Difcovery—Account of.
Mr. Anderfon9s  Journey up the Country.
AVtNG got our water and other articles
on board, we weighed anchor on the 4th of
Auguft, quitted Teneriffe, and proceeded on our
On the 10th, at nine o'clock in the evening, we
faw the ifiand of Bonavifia bearing fouth, distantv
about a league ; though we then thought our-
felves much farther off, but it foon appeared that
we were mistaken ; for after hauling to the east-
Ward, to clear the funken rocks that lie near the
fouth-eaft point of the ifiand, we found ourfelves
eiofe upon them, and bearly weathered the breakers. Our situation was, for fome minutes, fo very
alarming, that Captain Cook did not eh life to
found, as that might have increafed the danger,
without any poffibility of ieffening it. PACIFIC OCEAN.
Having cleared the rocks, we fleered between
Bonavifia and the ifiand of. Mayo,; intending, to
look into Port Praya fotr the Difcgjfcftey, as Captairi
Cook had told Captain Gierke than he fliould touch
there. At one o'clock we faw the rock's fouth-
weft of Bonavifia, bearing fouth-eaft, distant three
or four leagues*
On Monday the 12th, at fix o'clock in the
morning, the ifle of Mayo bore fouth-fouth-eait,
distant four or five leagues. We founded, and
found ground at sixty fathoms. At the distance
of three or four miles from this island, we faw
not the least appearance of vegetation; nothing
prefented itfelf to our view, but that Ufelefs brown,
fo common in unwooded countries under the torrid  zone. \
During our continuance among thefe iflands.
We had gentle breezes, of wind, varying from the.
fouth-eaft to- eaft, and: fome calms. On the i 3th,
at nine o'clock In the morning,  we arrived be-
fore Port-Praya,  in the" ifta
n-d'of S
two Dutch  Eafi-India jfhip
s,  and
tine, were at aachor.    TMx
there, we did not go in,
We loft the north-eafrw
ter we left the Cape de Ver
30th, got that which blo«
The wind, during this in
in the  fcuth-weft quarter.
It eei
Vol. I.—no I.            D
T- i 1II
gentle breeze, but fometimes frefh, and in fqualls*
We had few calms, and thofe of fhort duration.
Between the latitude of 120, and of 70 north, the
weather was very gloomy, and frequently rainy ;
infomuch, that we were enabled to fave as much
water as filled the greatest part of our empty
Every bad confequence is to be apprehended
from thefe rains, and the clofe fultry weather accompanying them. Commanders of fhips ought
carefully to purify the. air between decks with
fires and fmoke, and to oblige the people to
change their cloaths at every opportunity. Thefe
precautions were strictly obferved on board the
Refolution and Difcovery ; and we enjoyed the
advantage of it, having fewer fick than on either
of Captain Cook's former voyages* Our fhip,*
however, was very leaky in all her upper works.
The fultry weather had opened her feams fo wide,
that the rain-water paffed through as it fell. The
officers in the gun-room were driven from their
cabins, by the water that came through the fides,
and hardly a man could lie dry in his bed. The
caulkers were employed to repair thefe defects,
as foon as we got into fair fettled weather; but
Captain Cook would not trust them over the fides
while we were at fea.
On the ill of September, we croffed the equator, in the longitude of 270 38' weft, and paffed
the afternoon in performing the old ceremony of PACIFIC OCEAN. 19
ducking thofe, who had not croffed the equator
before. On the 8th, we were a little to thefouth-
ward of Cape St. Auguftine. We proceeded on
our voyage, without any remarkable occurrence,
till the 6th of October. Being then in the latitude of 3$° 15' fouth, longitude 7%M' weft, we
alternately met with light airs and mli§$ for three
fucceffive days. For fome days Mfere we had
feen albatroffes, and pintadoes, arid #e then faw
three penguins. In confequence of this we founded, but found no ground with a line of one hundred and fifty fathoms. We fhot a few birds, one
of which was a black petrel, about the fize of a
In the evening of the 8th, a bird, which the
failors call a noddy, fettled on our rigging, and
was taken. It was larger than a common Englifh
black-bird, and nearly of the fame colour, except the upper part of the head, which was white.
It was web-footed, had black legs, and a long
black bill. Though it is faid thefe birds never
venture far from land, we knew of none nearer our
flation than Gough's or Richmond ifiand, which
could not be lefs than one hundred leagues.    But
as the Atlantic ocean, fouth ward of us, has been
but little frequented, there may poffibly be more
iflands than we know of.
A freffi gale from the north-weft fucceeded this
calm weather,   which continued two days.    Afterwards  we had      riable  light airs for  about
twenty-four hours, when the north-weft wind
returned, and blew frefh. On the 17th ^e faw
the Cape of Good Hope, and, on the 18th, anchored in Table-bay, in four fathoms water.
After receiving the ufual vifit from the Master-
attendant and the Surgeon, Captain Cook fent an
officer to Baron Plettenberg, the Governor, and
fainted the garrifon with thirteen guns, and was
complimented in return with the fame number.
Two French Eaft-lndia fhips were in the bay, the
one outward, and the other homeward-bound.
After having faluted, Captain Cook went on
fliore, accompanied by fome of his officers, and
waited on the Governor, the Lieutenant-governor,
the Fifcal, and the Commander of the troops.
Thefe Gentlemen received Captain Cook with the *
greatest civility ; and the Governor, in parties
lar voluntarily promifed him every affiflance that
the place afforded. Before Captain Cook return-*
ed on board, he ordered frefh meat, greens, &c
to be provided every day for the fliip's company.
On the 22d we fixed our tents and obfervatory 5
the next day we began to obferve equal altitudes
of the fun, in order to difcover whether the watch
had altered its rate. The caulkers were fet to
work to caulk the fhip ; and Captain Cook had
concerted meafures for fupplying both fhips with
fuch provisions as were wanted ; and, as the fe-»
veral articles for the Refolution were got ready ?
they were immediately conveyed on board. H
The homeward-bound French fhip failed for
Europe on the 26th, and by her we fent letters to
England. The next* day the Hampfhire Eaft-
India fhip, from Bencoolen, anchored in the bay.
On the 31ft of October it blew exceffively hard
at fotfth-eaft, and continued for three days. The
Refolution was the only fhip in the bay that rode
out the gale without dragging her anchors.
The florm ceafed on the 3d of November, and
on the 6th the Hampfhire failed for England, in
which Captain Cook fent home an invalid. On
the 10th, in the morning, the Difcovery arrived
in the bay. She failed from Plymouth on the ift
of August, and would have been in with us a week
fooner, had not the late gale of wind blown her
off the coaft. Captain Clerke, on his paffage from
England, loft one of his marines, by falling over
board. No other accident happened among his
people, and they arrived in perfect health.
The next day the Difcovery wanting caulking, Captain Cook fent all his workmen on board
her, and lent every other affiflance to the Captain,
to expedite his fupply of provifions and water.
Having, by the Governor's permiffion, taken
our cattle on fhore, on the night preceding the
14th, fome dogs got in amongft the fheep, forced
them out of the pen, killed four, and difperfed
the reft. We recovered fix of them the next day;
but among thofe which were miffing were two rams,
and two of the finest ewes  in tile whole flock.
Though the Dutch frequently boaft of the police at the Cape, yet the Captain's fheep evaded
all the vigilance of .the FifcaPs officers and people. At length, after much trouble and expence,
by employing fome of the lowest fellows of the
place, we recovered all but the two ewes. One of
the rams, however, was fo miferably torn by the
dogs, that we thought he would never recover.
Mr. Hemmy, the Lieutenant-governor, very
obligingly offered to make up this lofs, by giving Captain Cook a Spanifh ram, out of fome he,
had fent for from Lifbon ; but the Captain declined the offer, thinking it would equally an-
fwer his purpofe to take with him fome of the
Cape rams: in this, however, the Captain was
miftaken. [ Mr. Hemmy had endeavoured to introduce European fheep at the Cape; but all
his attempts were frustrated by the obstinacy of
the country people, who highly esteemed their own
breed, on account of their large tails; the fat of
which fometimes produces more money than the
whole carcafs beftdes. Indeed the most remark*
able thing in the Cape fheep is the length and
thicknefs of their tails, which weigh from ten to
fifteen pounds.
While the fhips were repairing for the profe*
cution of our voyage, Mr. Anderfon, and fome
of our officers, made an excursion, to take a fur*
yey of the neighbouring country.    Mr. Ander* PACIFIC OCEAN. 23
fon   relates their   proceedings to the   following
effed: |#*1
In the forenoon of Saturday the 16th of No^
vember, he, and five others, fet out in a waggon, to take a view of the country. They croffed
the large plain to the eastward of the town, which
is entirely a white fand, refembling that which is
commonly found on beaches. At five in the afternoon they paffed a large farm-houfe, fome
corn-fields and vineyards, fituated beyond the
plain, where the foil appeared worth cultivating.
At feven they arrived at Stellenbofh, a colony,
in point of importance, next to that of the Cape.
•The village stands at. the foot of the range of
lofty mountains, about twenty miles to the eastward of Cape-Town, and confifts of about thirty
houfes, which are-neat and clean : a rivulet, and
the fhelter of fome large oaks, planted at its* first
fettling, form a rural profpect in this defert country. There are fome thriving vineyards and orchards about the place, which feem to indicate
an excellent foil, though perhaps much may be
owing to the uncommon ferenity of the air.
At this feafon of the year, Mr. Anderfon could
find but few plants in flower, and infects were
very fcarce. . He and his companions left Stellenbofh the next morning, and foon anived at
the houfe they had pafled on Saturday; Mr.
Cloeder, the owner of which, having fent them
an invitation to vifit  him, they were entertain- 24 A VOYAGE TO THE
ed by this gentleman with great poiitenefs and
hofpitality. They were received with a band of
rnufic, which continued playing while they were
at dinner ; which, in that fituation, .might be
reckoned elegant.
In she afternoon they croffed the country, and
paffed fome large plantations. In the evening
they arrived at a farm-houfe, which is faid to be
the first in the cultivated tract called the Pearh
Here they had a view of Drakenftein, the third
colony of this country, which contains feveral
little farms or plantations.
Plants and infects were as fcarce here as a€
Stellenbofh, but there was a greater plenty of
fhrubs, or fmall trees, naturally produced, than
they had before feen in the country.
On Tuefday the 19th, in the afternoon, they
went to fee a remarkable large stone, called by
the inhabitants the Tower of Babylon, or the
Pearl Diamond. It stands upon the top of fome
low hills, and is of an oblong fhape, rounded on
the top, and lying nearly fouth and north. The
east and weft fides are nearly perpendicular. The'
fouth end is not equally fleep, but its greatest
height is there ; whence it declines gently to the
north-part, by which they afcended, and had a
verv extenfive profpect of the whole country.
The circumference of this stone is about half
a mile, as they were half an hour walking round
it, including allowances for flopping  and a bad
toad. Its height feems to equal the dome of St.
Paul's church. Except fome few fiffures, it is
one uninterrupted mafs of flone. The ftone is
of that fort which mineralogists call Saxum Con-
On the 20th, in the morning, they fet out
from the Pearl, and going a different road, paffed through an uncultivated country to the Tyger
Hills, where they beheld fome tolerable cornfields. About noon, they flopped in a valley for
refrefhment, where they were plagued with a vaft
number of mufquitoes; and, in the evening, arrived at the Cape-Town.
On Saturday the 23d, we got the obfervatory,
clock, &c. on board. From the refult of feveral
calculations and obfervations, we had reafon to
conclude, that the watch, or time-piece, had performed well all the way from England* A VOYAGE TO THE
C IT A P.    IV.
The Refolution and Difcovery leave the Cape of
Good Hope—See two Iflands9 named Prince Ed-
ward's Iflands—Defcription of their Appearance
*—Vifit Kerguelen9s Land—Arrive at Chriftmas Harbour—Take in Water there—Difcover
an Infcription—Defcription of Chriftmas Harbour.
i mm\
lAPTAIN Cook, fearing a fecond difafter,,
got his fheep and other cattle on board as foon
as poffible. Lie alfo increafed his flock by pur-
chafing two bulls, two heifers, two flone-horfes,
two mares, two rams, fome ewes and goats, fome
poultry, and fome rabbits.
Bciu fhips being fupplied with provisions and
water fufficient for two years and upwards, and
every other neceffary article, and Captain Cook
having given Captain Gierke Tt copy of his instructions, we repaired on board in the morning of I
the 30th. A breeze fprung up at fouth-eaft, at
five in the afternoon, with which we weighed and
flood out of the Bay; at nine it fell calm, and
we anchored. At three o'clock the next morning, we weighed and put to fea, with a light
breeze at fouth, but did not get clear of land till
the. 3d of December in the morning. PACIFIC OCEAN. 27
On Thurfday the 5th, a fquall of wind carried
•away the mizen top-maft of the Refolution, but
we had another to replace it. On the evening of
the 6th, being then in the latitude of 39° 14'
fouth, and in the longitude of 23° $6' east, we
obferved feveral fpots of water of a reddifh hue.
Upon examining fome of this water that was taken
up, we perceived a number of fmall animals,
which the microfcope difcovered to refemble cray-
fifli. W&
We continued to the fouth-eaft, followed by a
mountainous fea, which occasioned the fhip to
roll exceedingly, and rendered our cattle trouble-
fome. Several goats, efpecially the males, died,
and fome fheep. We now began to feel the cold
in a very fenfible degree.
On Thurfday the 12th, at noon, we difcovered
land extending from fouth-eaft by fouth, to fouth-
eaft by eaft. We, at length, difcovered it to be
two iflands. That which lies most to the fouth,
appeared to be about fifteen leagues in circuit;
and the most northerly one, about nine leagues in
We paffed at equal distance from both iflands,
and could not difcover either tree or fhrub on
either of them. They feemed to have a rocky
fhore, and, excepting the fouth-eaft parts, a ridge
of barren mountains, whofe fides and fummits
were covered with fnow.
Thefe two iflands, and four others more to the
east, were difcovered by Captains Marion du
Frefne and Crozet, French navigators, in January
1772, on their paffage from the Cape of Good
Hope to the Philippine Iflands. As they have
no names in the French chart of the fouthern
hemifphere, Captain Cook named the two we
now faw Prince Edward's Iflands, and the other
four by the name of Marion's and Crozet's
We had now, in general, strong gales, and
very indifferent weather. After leaving Prince
Edward's Iflands, we fhaped our courfe to pafs to
the fouthward of the four others, to get into the
latitude of the land difcovered by Monsieur de
Captain Cook had received inflructons to examine, this ifiand, and endeavour to difcover a
good harbour. On the 16th we faw numbers of
penguins and divers, and rock-weed floating in
the fea; and on the 21ft we faw a very large feal.
The weather was now very foggy, and as we hourly
expected to fall in with the land, our navigation
was both dangerous and tedious.
On the 24th, at fix in the morning, the fog
clearing, away a little, we faw land, bearing fouth
fouth-eaft, which we afterwards found to be an
ifiand of considerable height, and about three
ea^ues in circuit. We foon after difcovered ano-
ther of equal magnit ude, about one league to the ^
eastward; and, between thefe two, fome fmaller
ones. In the direction of fouth by east, another
high ifiand was feen. We did but juit weather
the ifiand last mentioned : it was a high round
rock, named Bligh's Cap. Captain Cook fuppofed this to be the fame that Monfieur de Ker-
ffuelen called the Ifle of Rendezvous; but he knew
nothing that could rendezvous at it but the fowls
of the air, for it was certainly inacceffible to every
other animal.
The weather beginning to clear up about eleven, we tacked, and fleered in for the land. At
noon we were enable to determine the latitude of
Bligh's Cap to be 48° 29' fouth, and its longitude
68° 40'. We paffed it at three o'clock, with a
frefh gale at weft.
Prefently after we clearly faw the land, and at
four o'clock it extended from fouth-eaft to fouth-
weft by fouth, distant about four miles. The
left extreme, which Captain Cook judged to be
the northern point of this land, called in the
French chart of the fouthern hemifphere Cape
Francois, terminated in a high perpendicular
rock; and the right one in a high indented
Towards the middle of the land there appeared
to be an inlet; but, on our approaching it, we
faw it was only a bending on the coaft: we, therefore, bore up to go round Cape Francois* 3°
Having got off the Cape, we obferved the coaft,
to the fouthward, much indented by points and
bays, and, therefore, fully expected to fmd a
good harbour. We foon difcovered one, into
which we began to ply ; but it prefently fell calm,
and we anchored in forty-five fathom water: the
Difcovery alfo anchored there foon after. Mr.
Blieh, the master, was ordered to found the har-
bour ; who reported it to be fafe and commodious.
Early in the morning of the 25th we weighed,
and having wrought into the harbour, we anchored in eight fathoms water. The Difcovery
got in at two o'clock in the afternoon; when
Captain Gierke informed us, that he had with
difficulty efcaped being driven on the fouth point
of the harbour, his anchor having started before
he could fhorten in the cable. They were, therefore, obliged to fet fail, and drag the anchor
after them, till they had room to heave it up,
when they perceived that one of its palms was
broken off.
Immediately after we had anchored, Captain
Cook ordered all the boats to be hoisted out, and
the empty water-cafks to be got ready. In the
mean time he landed, to fearch for a convenient
fpot where they might be filled, and to obferve
what the place afforded.
He found vast quantities of penguins, and* other
birds, and feals, on the fhore.    The latter were PACIFIC OCEAN,
not numerous, but fo infenfible of fear, that we
killed as many as we chofe, and made ufe of their
fat and blubber to make oil for our lamps, and
other purpofes. Frefh water was exceedingly
plentiful ; but not a fingle tree or fhrub * was to
be difcovered, and but little herbage of any kind;
though we had flattered ourfelves with the hope
of meeting with fomething considerable growing
here, having obferved the fides of fome of the
hills to be of a lively green.
Before Captain Cook returned to his fhip, he
afcended a ridge of rocks, rifing one above another, expecting, by that means, to obtain a view
of the country; but before he had reached the
top, fo thick a fog came on, that it was with
difficulty he could find his way down again.
Towards the evening we hauled the feine at the
head of the harbour, but caught no more than
half a dozen fmall fifh; nor had we any better
fuccefs the next day, when we tried with hook and
line. Our only refource, therefore, for frefh provisions, was birds, which were innumerable.
Though it was both foggy and rainy, on Thurfday the 26th, we began to fill water, and to cut
grafs for our cattle, which we f<3und near the head
of the harbour. The rivulets were fwelled to fuch
a degree, by the rain that fell, that the fides of
the hills, bounding the harbour, appeared to be.
covered with a fheet of water. 32 A VOYAGE TO THE
The people having laboured hard for two fuc-
ceffive days, and nearly completed our water,
Captain Cook allowed them the 27th ofl&ecem-
ber as a day of reft, to celebrate Chriftmas. In
confequence of which, many of them went on
fhore, and made excurfions into the country,
which they found defolate and barren in the extreme. In the evening one of them prefented a
quart bottle to Captain Cook, which he had
found on the north-fide of the harbour, fattened
with fome wire to a projecting rock. This bottle
contained a piece of parchment, with the following infcription:
Ludovico XV. Galliarum
rege, et d* de Boynes
regi a Secretis ad res
fmaritimas annas 1772 et.
*773-    j
It is evident from this infcription, that we -
were not the first Europeans who had visited this
harbour. Captain Cook fuppofes it to have been
left by Monfieur de Boifguehenneu, who went on
fhore the 13th of February 1772, the day that
Monfieur de Kerguelen difcovered this land; but
the Captain appears to be for once mistaken; for
how could Monfieur de Boifguehenneu, in the
beginning of 1772,   leave an infcription which.
P The d is probably a contraction of the word Domino, j
111  —
commemorates  a   tranfa&ion  of the  following
year ?
Captain Cook, as a memorial of our having
been in this harbour, wrote on the other fide of
the parchment as follows:
Naves Refolution
et Difcovery
[de Rege Magna Britannia,
' Dccembris  17760 fili
. . He then put it again into the bottle,-* accompanied with a filver two-penny piece of 1772,
covered the mouth of the bottle with a leaden
cap, and placed it the next morning in a pile of
ftones, erected for that purpofe on an eminence,
near the place where it was first found. Here
Captain Cook difplayed the Britifh flag, and
named the place Chriftmas Harbour, it being on
that festival we arrived in it.
It is the first inlet that we meet with on the
fouth-eaft fide of Cape Francois, which forms the
north fide of the harbour, and is the northern
point of this land. The situation fufficiently dif-
tinguifhes it from any of the other inlets ; and,
to make it flill more remarkable, its fouth point
terminates in a high rock, perforated quite through,
forming an appearance like the arch of a bridge.
The head of the harbour lies open to only two
points of the compafs, and thefe are covered by
F 4k, 34
iflands in the offing, fo that a. fea cannot fall in
to hurt a fhip. It is high water here about ten
o'clock at the full and change days, and the
rifes about four feet.
In the- afternoon,. Captain Cook, accompanied
by Mr. King, his Second Lieutenant, went upon
Cape Francois ; expecting from this elevation tq
have had a view of the fea-coaft, arid the iflands
lying off it. But they found every diftant object
below them, hid in a thick fog. The land even
with them, or of a greater, height, was visible
enough, and appeared exceedingly naked and de-
folate ; except fome hills to the fouth ward, which
were covered with fnow. When they returned tq
the fhip, they found her unmoored, and ready to
put to fea; but we did not weigh anchor till;fiv|
o'clock the next morniner.
CHAP.    V.
Depart from Chriftmas Harbour—Range along the
Coaft-—Cape Cumberland, Cumberland Bay, Point
Pri-ngle, Howe's Foreland, &c. defcribed—Remarkable Beds ofRock-zveed—Danger from Shoals
■—Arrival at Port Pallifer—Cape George defcribed—Mr. Anderfon's Natural Hiftory of the
Animals, Plants, Soil, pE of Kerguelen's
\_j^N the 29th of December we failed out of
Chriftmas Harbour, fleering fouth-eaft along the
coaft, with a fine breeze and clear weather. This
was~-unexpected, as, for fome time past, fogs had
prevailed more or lefs every day. Though we
kept the lead conftantly going, we feldom ftruck
ground with a line of fixty fathoms.
We were off a promontory, which Captain Cook
balled Cape Cumberland, about feven or eight
o'clock. It lies about a league and an half from
the fouth point of Chriftmas Harbour ; between
them is a good bay. Off Cape Cumberland is a
fmall ifiand on the fummit of which is a rock,
yefembling a fentry-box, which name was given
to the island.on that account. A group of fmall
iflands and rocks lies two miles, farther to the
fcaifcward :.  we  failed between thefe  and Sentry- m
box Ifiand, the breadth of the channel being full a
mile.   We found no bottom with forty fathoms of
After paffing through this channel, we faw a bay
on the fouth-fide of Cape Cumberland, running in
three leagues to the weftward. It is formed by
Cape Cumberland to the north,* and by a promontory to the fouth. Captain Cook named this promontory Point Pringle, as a compliment to Sir
John Pringle, President of the Royal Society. The
bottom of this bay was called Cumberland Bay.
The coaft is formed into a fifth bay, to the
fouthward of Point Pringle. In this bay, which,
obtained the name of White Bay, are feveral
leffer bays or coves, which appeared to be flickered
from all winds. Off the fouth-point, feveral rocks
raife their heads above water, arid probably there
are many others that do not.
Ther land which first opened off Cape Francois,
in the direction of fouth $2>° ea^5 we had kept on
our larboard-bow, thinking it was an ifiand, and
that we fhould difcover a paffage between that
and the main ; but we found it to be a peninfula,
joined to the reft of the coaft by a low ifthmus.
The bay, formed by this peninfula, Captain Cook
named Repulfe Bay. The northern point of the
peninfula was named Howe's Foreland, in honor
of Lord Howe.
Drawing near it, we obferved fome rocks and
breakers not far from the north-weft part, and two PACIFIC OCEAN. 57
iflands to the eaftward of it, which, at first, appeared as one. We fleered between them and
the foreland, and were in the middle of the channel by twelve o'clock. The land of this foreland or peninfula, is of a tolerable height, and of
a hilly and rocky fubflaiice. The coaft is low,
and almoft covered with fea-birds. We alfo faw
fome feals upon the beaches.
Having cleared the rocks and iflands before-
I mentioned, we perceived the whole fea before us
to be chequered with large beds of rock-weed,
which was fait to the bottom. There is often
found a great depth of water upon fuch fhoals^
and rocks have, as often, raifed their heads almoft to the furface of the water. It is always
dangerous to fail over them, efpecially when there
is no furge of the fea to difcover the danger.
We endeavoured to avoid the rocks, by fleering through the winding channels by which they
were feparated. Though the lead was continually going, we never struck ground with a line
of fixty fathoms; this increafed the danger, as
we could not anchor, however urgent the ne-
ceffity might be. At length we difcovered a
lurking rock, in the middle of one of thefe beds
of weeds, and even with the furface of the fea.
This was fufficiently alarming, to make us take
every precaution to avoid danger.
We were now about eight miles to the fouth-
ward- of Howe's Foreland, acrofs the mouth of a I
38        p
large bay.
In  t
iflands, and
ed to Be wi
were fo muc
:h em
We hauled 0
ff to
his Bay are feveral rocks, low
HI fea-weed; but there appear-*
y channels between them. We
ibarraffed with thefe fhoals, that
the e'aitward, in hopes of extricating ourfelves from our difficulties ; but this
plunged us into greater, and we found it abfo-
Iutely neceffary to fecure the fhips, if poffibie,
befc&e night, efpecially as the weather was hazy,*
and a fog was apprehended.*
Seeing fome inlets to the fouth-weft, Captain
Cook ordered Captain Gierke (the Difcovery
drawing lefs water than the Refolution) to lead .
in for the fhore, which was immediately attempted : after running over the edges of feveral fhoals*. 1
on which was found from ten to twenty fathoms
•water, Captain Gierke made the signal for hav-
* ing difcovered an. harbour, in which we anchor w*;ff
ed in fifteen fathoms water, about ficve o'clock in
■the evening*
No fooner were the fhips fecured, than it hg*ee:
gan to blow fo very strong, that we  deemed %?£
neceffary to strike top-gallant yards.W? The wlt^*^
ther, however,   continued fair, and it prefently
became clear, the wind having difperfed the fog;
that had fettled on the hills.    As foon, therefore^
as we had anchored, Captain Cook ordered, twd
boats to be hoiited out; in one of which he dif*
patched Mr. Bligh, the Master, to furvey the upper part of the harbour, and looking out for wood*
Jle alfo defired Captair^lerke to fend his Maf-
ter to found the channel, fouth of the fmall ifles,
and went himfelf, in his other boat, accompanied
by Mr. Gore and Mr. Bailey, and landed on the
north point, to fee what difcovery could be made
from thence. -j wiS
From an hill over the point, they had a view
of the fea-coft, as far as Howe's Foreland. Several fmall iflands, rocks, and breakers, were
fcattered along the coaft, and there appeared no
better channel to get out of the harbour, than
that by which they had entered W0
While Captain Cook and Mr. Bailey were making thefe obfervations, Mr. Gore encompaffed
the hill, and joined them at the place where the
boat was attending for them. There was Splhing
to obstruct their walk, except fome craggy precipices; the country being, if poffible, more barren and desolate than that about Chriftmas Har-
beur. There was neither food nor covering for
cattle of any fort, and* if any had been left, they
mufl inevitably have perished. In the little cove,
where their boat was waiting for them (which
Captain Cook called Penguin Cove, from the
immenfe numbers of thofe birds appearing there)
is a fine river of frefh water, which we could approach without difficulty. Some large feals, fhags,
and a few ducks were feen here; and Mr. Bailey
had a glance of a very fmall land-bird, but it flew
among the rocks, and they loft it.
G site*.
At nine o'clock they got on board, and Mn
Bligh returned ffoon after. He reported that he
had been four miles up the harbour; that its direction was weft fouth-weft; that its breadth near
the fhips did not exceed a mile; that the foundings were from thirty-feven to ten fathoms; and?
that, having landed on both fliores, he found the
land barren and rocky, without a tree or fhrub,
or hardly any appearance of verdure.
The next morning we weighed anchor and put
out to fea. This harbour was named Port Pal-
lifer, in honour of Admiral ShsflHugh Pallifer.
In getting out to fea, we, in general, fleered
through the winding channels among the fhoals,
though we foin^mes ventured to run over fome
of them, on which we never found lefs than eigh*
teen fathoms watejN^they would not, therefore,
have been difcovered, had it not been for the fea-
weed growing upon them.    &&& &£|^JS
Having got three or four leagues from the
coaft we found a clear fea, arid, about nine o'clock,
difcovered a round MJ^flike a fugar-loaf, bearing fouth-eaft, and a fmall ifiand to the northward of it, distant about four leagues. Captain
Cook named the fugar-loaf hill Mount Campbe3iff#
at noon it bore fouth 47° weft ; a low point bore
fouth-eaft^tt the. dMfcarice of about twenty miles;
and we were little more than two leagues from the
fhore. .-.-•-
. The land here, in general, is low and level.
The mountains end about five leaguc-s from the
low point, leaving a great extent of low land, on
%hich Mount Campbell is fituated. Thefe mountains feemed to be compofed of naked rocks, whofe
fummits were covered with fnow; and nothing
but flerility was to be feen in the vallies.
At noon we perceived low land, opening off
the low point juft mentioned, in the direction
of fouth foutKeaft. It proved to be the eastern
extremity of this land, and was named Cape
Digby. Between Howe's Foreland and Cape
Digby, the fhore forms one great bay, extending
feveral leagues to the fouth-weft. A vast quantity of fea-weed grows over it, which feemed to
be fuch a^Mr. Banks diftinguifhed by the name
of fucus giganteus. Though the Item of this
■ weed is not much thicker than a man's thumb,
fome of it grows to the amazing length of fixty
At one o'clock, feeing a fmall bending in the
coaft, on the north fide of Cape Digby, we fleered for it, with an intention to anchor there ; but,
being difappointed in our views, we pufhed forward, in order to fee as much as poffible of the
coaft before night. From Cape Digby, it trends
nearly fouth-weft by fouth to a low point, to which
Captain Cook gave the name of Point Charlotte,
in honour of our amiable Queen.
G 2 42
In the direction of fouth fouth-weft, about fix
leagues from Cape Digby, is a pretty high projecting point, called the Prince of Wales's Foreland ; and fix leagues beyond that, in the fame
direction, is the most foutherly point of the whole
coaft, which, in honour of his Majefly, was dif-
tinguifhed by the name of Cape George.
Between Point Charlotte, and the Prince of
Wales's Foreland, we difcovered a deep inlet,
which was called Royal Sound; and, advancing
to the fouth, we faw another inlet into the Royal
Sound, on the fouth-weft fide of the Prince of
Wales's Foreland. vgS;
On the fouth-weft fide of the Royal Sound, all
the land to Cape George consists of elevated hills,
gradually rifing from the fea to a considerable
height; they were naked and barren, and their
fummits capt with fnow. Not a veftige of a tree
or fhrub was to be feen. Some of the low land
about Cape Digby feemed to be covered with a
green turf, but a considerable part of it appeared
quite naked. Penguins, and other oceanic birds,
were numerous on the beaches, and fhags inntu
merable kept flying about our fhips. e--|||||
Defirous of getting the length of Cape George,
Captain Cook continued to stretch to the fouth,
till between feven and eight o'clock; when, feeing no probability of accomplifhing his design,
he took the advantage of the wind, which had
fliifted   to  weft   fouth-weft,   (the   direction   .in
which we wanted to go) and flood away from
the coaft.
Cape George now bore fouth 53° weft, dif-
tant about feven leagues. We faw no land to
the fouth of it, except a fmall ifiand that lies off
the pitch of the Cape ; and a fouth-weft fwell,
which we met when we brought the Cape to bear
in this direction, almost convinced us that there
was no more in that quarter.
The French difcoverers imagined Cape Francois to be the projecting point of a fouthern continent. The Engiifh have difcovered that no
fuch continent exists, and that the land in quef-
tion is an ifiand of fmall extent; which, from its
sterility, might properly be called the Ifiand of
Defolation ; but Captain Cook was unwilling to
rob Monfieur de Kerguelen of the honour of its
bearing his name.
Mr. Anderfon, who, during the fhort time we
lay in Chriftmas Harbour, loft no opportunity of
fearching the country in every direction, relates
the following particulars.
No place, (fays he) hitherto difcovered in either
hemifphere, affords fo fcanty a field for the naturalist as this fteril fpot. Some verdure, indeed,
appeared, when at a fmall distance from the fliore,
which might raife the expectation of meeting with
a little herbage ; but all this lively appearance
was occasioned by one. fmall plant, refembling
faxifrage, which gi;ew. up the hills in large fpead- 44 A VOYAGE TO THE
ing tufts, on a kind of rotten turf, which, if
dried might ferve for fuel, and was the only thing
feen here that could poffibly be applied to that
purpofe. I .
Another plant, which grew to near the height
of two feet, was pretty plentifully fcattered about
the boggy declivities ; it had the appearance of a
fmall cabbage when it was fhot into feeds. It had
the watery acrid tafte of the antifcorbutic plants,
though it materially differed from the whole tribe.
When eaten raw, it was not unlike the New-Zealand fcurvy-grafs ; but when boiled, it acquired a
rank flavour. At this time, none of its feeds
were ripe enough to be brought home, and introduced into our Englifh kitchen-gardens.
Near the brooks and boggy places were found
two other fmall plants, which were eaten asfallad ;
the one like garden creffes, and very hot; and
the other very mild: the latter is a curiosity, having not only male and female, but alfo androgy*
nus plants.
Some coarfe grafs grew pretty plentifully in a
few fmall fpots near the harbour, which was cut
down for our cattle. In fliort, the whole catalogue of plants did not exceed eighteen, including
a beautiful fpecies of lichen, and feveral forts of
mofs. Nor was there the. appearance of a tree or
fhrub in the whole country. "
Among the animals, the. most considerable were
feals, which were diftinguifhed by the name  of PAOIFIC OCEAN. 45
fea-bears; being the fort that are called the ursine
feaL They cqme on fhore to repofe and breed.
At that time they were fhedding their hair, and
fo remarkably tame, that there was no difficulty
in kelling them.
No other quadruped was feen ; but a great
number of oceanic birds, as ducks, fhags, petrels,
&c. The ducks were fome what like a widgeon,
both in fize and figure ; a considerable number of
them were kilted and eaten : they were excellent
food, and had not the least fifhy tafte.
The Cape petrel, the fmall blue one, and the
fmall black one, or Mother Carey's chicken,
were not in plenty here; but another fort, which
is the largest of the petrels, and called by the fea-
meh Mother Carey's goofe, is found in abundance. This petrel is as large as an albatrofs,
and is carnivorous, feeding on the dead carcaffes
of fe^ls, birds, &c.
The greatest number of birds here were penguins, which consist of three forts. The head of
the largest is black, the upper part of the body
of a leaden-grey, the under part white, and the
feet black ; two broad stripes of fine yellow de-
fcend from the head to the breast; the bill is of a
reddifh colour, and longer than in the other forts.
The fecond fort is about half the fize of the former. It is of a blackifh grey on the upper part
stf the body, and has a white fpot on the upper. a6
part of the head. The bill and feet are yellowifL
In the third fort, the upper part of the body and
throat are black, the reft white, except the top
of the head, which is ornamented with a fine
yellow arch, which it can erect as two crests.
The fhags here were of two forts, viz. the
leffer corvorant, or water-crow, and another with
a blackifh back and a white belly. The fea-
fwallow, the tern, the common fea-gull,. and the
Port Egmont hen, were alfo found here.
Large flocks of a Angular kind of white bird
flew about here, having the bafe of the bill covered with a horney cruft. It had a black bill and
white feet, was fomewhat larger than a pigeon,
and the flefh taited like that of a-duck.
The feine was once hauled, when we found a
few fifh about the fize of a fmall haddock. The
only fhell-fifh we faw here, were a few limpets
and mufcles.
Many of the hills, notwitllftanding they were
of a moderate height, were at that time covered
with fnow, though answering to our June. It is
reafonable to imagine that rain must be very frequent here, as well from the marks of large torrents having rufhed down, as from the appearance
of the country, which, even on the hills, was a
continued bog or fwamp.
The rocks consist principally of a dark blue
and very hard flone, intermixed with particles of PACIFIC OCEAN. 47
glimmer or quartz. Some considerable rocks
were alfo formed here from a brownifh brittle
CHAP.    VI.
Paffage of the Ships from Kerguelen's fo Van t)iemen's
Land—The Refolution damaged by a Squall-*—
Arrival in Adventure Bay—Various Interviews
with the Inhabitants—Defcription of their Perfons, Drefs, Manners, and Cuftoms—Mr. Anderfon9 s Remarks on the Characler and Language
of the Natives, and on the various Produclions
of the Country.
\_>iAPTAIN Cook intending, purfuant to the
inftru£lions he had received, to proceed next to
New-Zealand, to take in wood and water, and
provide hay forhhe cattle, fleered eaft by north
from Kerguelen's Land. The 31ft of December, our longitude, by obfervation of the fun
and moon, was 720 33' 36" eaft ; and on the firft
day of the year 1777, we were in the latitude of
48° 41' fouth, longitude 76° 50' eaft.' Till the
3d of January the weather was tolerably clear,
with frefh gales from the weft and fouth-weft ;
but now the wind veered to the north, and con-
tinued in that quarter eight days; during which,
though there was at the fame time a thick fog, we
ran upwards.of three hundred leagues, chiefly in
the dark ; the fun, indeed, fometimes made its
appearance, but very rarely. On the 7th, Captain Cook difpatched a boat with orders to Captain Clerke, fixing their rendezvous at Adventure
Bay, in Van Diemen's Land, if the fhips fhould
happen to feparate before they arrived there.
However, we had the good fortune not to lofe
company with each other. On Sunday the 12th,
the northerly winds were fucceeded by a calm,
which was foon followed by a foutherly wind.
Our latitude was now 48° 40' fouth, longitude
no° 26' eaft. The wind blew from the fouth a
whole day, and then veering to the weft and
north-weft, brought on fome fair weather.
On the 19th, a fudden fquall carried away the
Refolution's fore-top-maft, and main-top-gallant-
maft, which occasioned fome delay in fitting another top-maft. The former was repaired without
the lofs of any part of it. The wind still remaining at the weft point, we had clear weather ; and
on the 24th, in the morning, we difcovered the
coaft of Van Diemen's Land, bearing north i weft.
Several iflands and elevated rocks lie difperfed
along the coaft, the most foutherly of which is the
Mewftone. Our latitude, at noon, was 430 47'
fouth, longitude 147^ eaft, the fouth-eaft or fouth
cape being near three leagues distant.    Captain PACIFIC OCEAN.
Cook gave the name of the Eddyftone to a rock
that lies about a league to the eastward of Swilly
Ifle or Rock, on account of its striking refem- ,
blance to Eddyftone light-houfe. Thefe two
rocks may, even in the night, be feen at a con-
fiderable diftance, and are the fummits of a ledge
of rocks under water. On the north-eaft fide iP
Storm Bay, are fome creeks that feem tolerably
flieltered ; and if this coaft was carefully examined, feveral good harbours would most probably be found.
The 26th, at noon, a breeze fprung up at
fouth-eaft, which gave Captain Cook an opportunity of executing his defign of carrying the fhips
into Adventure Bay, where we anchored at four
o'clock in the afternoon in twelve fathoms water,
about three quarters of a mile from the fhore.
The Captains Cook and Gierke then went, in Separate boats, in fearch of convenient fpots for
wooding, watering, and making hay. They
found plenty of wood and water, but very little
grafs. The next morning Captain Cook detached two parties, under the conduct of Lieutenant
King, to the eaft fide of the bay, to cut wood
and grafs, fome marines atttending them as a
guard, though none of the natives had yet appeared. He alfo fent the launch to provide water
for the ships; and afterwards paid a vifit to the
parties thus employed.
In the evening we drew the feine, and caught
a great quantity of fifh, with which this hay
abounds ; and we fhould have procured more, if
the net had not broken. Every one now came on
board with the fupplies they had obtained; but
next morning, the wind not being fair | for failing,
^fthey were again fent on fhore on the fame duty ;
and Mr. Roberts, one of the Mates, was dif-
patched in a boat to examine the bay. . We had
obferved columns of fmoke in different ^arts,
from the time of our approaching the coaft ; but
we faw none of the natives till the afternoon of
the 28th, when eight men and a boy furprifed us
with a vifit at our wooding-piaoe. ] They approached us with the greatest confidence, none of
them having any weapons except one, who had a
fhort flick pointed at one end. They were of a
middling stature, and fomewhat flender; their
hair was black and wholly, and their fkin was
alfo black. They were entirely naked, with large
punctures or ridges, fome in curved, and others
in straight lines, on different parts of their bodies.
Their lips were not remarkably thick, nor their
nofes very flat: their features, on the contrary,
were not unpleafing,. their eyes pretty good, and
their teeth tolerably even and regular, though
exceedingly dirty. The faces of fome of them
were painted with a red ointment, and most of
them fmeared their hair and beards with the fame
compofition.    When we offered  them prefents, PACIFIC OCEAN.
they received them without any apparent fatif-
fa&ion. They either returnrd, or threw away
fome bread that was given them, without eveja
tasting it: they likewife refufed fome elephant
fifh ; but when we gave them fome birds, they
kept them. Two pigs having been brought on
fhore to be left in the woods, they feized them
by the ,ears, and feemed inclined to carry them
off, with an? intention^: as we fuppofed, of killing them.
Captain Cook wifhing to know the ufe of the
flick which one of the -Savages held in his hand,
made fig.n$ to them to fhew him ; upon which one
of them took aim at a piece of wood placed as a
mark, about the diflance of twenty-yard ; but,
after feveral effays, he was ftill wide of the mark*
Omai, to fhew the great fuperiority of our weapons, immediately fired his mufquet at it, which
unexpected noife fo alarmed them, that they ran
into the woods with uncommon fpeed ; and one of
theirs was fo terrified., that he let fall two knives
and an axe which he had received from us. They
then went to the place where the crew of the Dif-
CQViery were watering ; but the officer of that
pasty- firing a mufquet in the air, they fled with
great-, precipitation.
Immediately after they had retired, Captain
Cook ordered the two pigs, one a male and the
other a female, to be carried about a mile within
the woods,  and he himfelf faw them left there, m
takings care that none of the natives fhould obferve what was pasting. Lie alfo intended to have
^ff a young bull and a cow, befides fome goats
and fheep; but he fopn relinquifhed that defign,
being of opinion that the natives would destroy
them ; which he fuppofed would be the fate of the
pigs, if they fhould chance to find them out. Biit
as fwine foon become wild, and are fond of being
in the woods, it is probfte that tlfl^ were pre^
ferved. The other cattle could not have remained
long concealed from the favages, as they must
have been put into an open place.
We were prevented from failing on the 29th by
a dead calm, which continued the whole day.
Captain Cook, therefore, fent parties on fhore to
cut wood and grafs, as ufual; and he accompanied
the wooding party himfelf. Soon after our landing, about twenty of them joined us, one of whom
was diflinguifhed not only by his deformity, but
by the drollery of his gesticulations, and the feem*
ing humour of his fpeeches,. which, however, we
could not under stand. Thofe whom we now faw
differed in fome refpects, particularly in the texture of the hair, from the natives of the more
northerly parts of this country, whom Captain
Cook met with in his first voyage. Some of our
prefent company had a flip:of the kangooroo fkin
round their ancles ; and others wore round their
necks fome fmall cord, made of fur. They feemed
not to value  iron,-but were apparently pleafed ■JWm
with the medals and beads that were given them.
They did not even appear to know the ufe of
fifh-hooks, though it is more than probable, that
they were acquainted with fome method of caters
ing fifh.
Their habitations were fmall hovels or fheds
built of flicks, and covered with the bark of
trees. We had alfo good reafon to fuppofe, that
they fometinies took up their residence in the
trunks of large trees, hollowed out by fire.
Captain Cook, on leaving the wooding party,
went to the grafs-cutters, and having feen the
boats loaded with hay, returned on board. He
had juft quitted the fhore, when feveral women
and children appeared, and were introduced to
Lieutenant King by the men who accompanied
them. Thefe females wore a kangooroo fkin
faftened over their fhoulders, the only ufe of
which feemed to be, to fupport their children on
their backs, for it left thofe parts uncovered which
modefty directs us to conceal. Their bodies were
black, and marked with fears like thofe of the
men; from whom, however, they differed, in
having their heads fhaved ; fome of them being
completely fhorn, others only on one fide, while
the reft of them had the upper part of their heads
fhaved, leaving a very narrow circle of hair all
round.    They were far from  being  handfome ;
>aid their ad- m&*
dreffes   to   them,   and made   liberal offers,   but
without effect.
In the. afternoon Captain Cook went again on
fhore, and found the grafs-cutters on Penguin
Ifland, where they had met with excellent grafs.
in the greatest abundance. The different parties •
laboured hard till the evening, and then, having i
provided a fufficient quantity of what was moil
wanted, returned on board.
During our continuance in Van Diemen's Land,
we had either light airs from the eaft, or calms:
we therefore loft little or no time by touching on
this coaft. This land was difcovered in November 1642, by Tafman, who gave it the name of
Van Diemen's Lands Captain Furneaux. touched
at it in March 1773. It is the fouthern point of
New-Holland, which is by far the largest ifland in
the known wTorld, and almost defqrves the name
of a continent. The land is diversified with hills
and vallies, and well wooded. The only wind to
which Adventure Bay is expofed, is the north-eaft;
and, upon the whole, this may be considered as a
very fafe road. Its latitude is 43° 21' 20" fouth,
and its longitude 1470 29/ eaft.
Mr. Anderfon, furgeon of the Refolution, employed himfelf in examining the country during I
our continuance in Adventure Bay. His remarks
on the inhabitants and their language, and' his
account of the natural productions of the country,  are to the following purport.     There is a "PACIFIC OCEAN.
HbeaUtiful fandy beach, about two miles long, at
the bottom of Adventure Bay, formed to all appearance by the particles which the fea wafhes
from a fine white fand-ftone. This beach is very
Well adapted for hauling a feine. Behind it is a
plain, with a brackish lake, out of which we
caught, by angling, fome bream and trout. The
parts adjoining the bay are mostly hilly, and are
an entire foreft of tall trees, rendered almost im-
paffable by brakes of fern, fhrubsj &c. The
foil on the flat land, and on the lower part of the
hills, is fandy, or consists of a yellowifh earth,
and in fome parts of a reddifh clay; but further
up the hills, it is of a grey tough cast. This
country, upon the whole, bears many marks of
being very dry, and the heat appears to be great.
No mineral bodies, nor flones of any other kind
than the white fand flone, were obferved by us ;
nor could we find any vegetables that afforded
fubfiftence for man. The foreft-trees are all of
one kind, and generally quite straight: they bear
clusters of fmall white flowers. The principal
plants we obferved were wood-forrel, milk-wort,
cudweed, bell-flower, gladiolus, famphire, and
feveral kinds of fern. The only quadruped we
faw diflin&ly was a fpecies of opoffum, about
twice the fize of a large rat. The kangooroo,
found further northward in New Holland, may
alio be fuppofed to inhabit here, as fome of the
inhabitants had pieces of the fkin of that animal.
The principal forts of birds in the woods are
brown hawks or eagles, crows, large pigeons, yel-
lowifh paroquets, and a fpecies which we called
motacilla cyanea, from the beautiful azure colour
of its head and neck. On the fhore were feveral
gulls, black oyster-catchers, or fea-pies, and plovers of a flone-colour.
We obferved in the woods fome-blackifh fnakes
that were pretty large, and we killed a lizard
which was fifteen inches long and fix round, beau
tifully cl
vith yellow and black.
Among a variety ojf fifh we caught fome large
rays, nurfes, leather-jackets, bream, foles, flounders, gurnards, and elephant-fifh ; befides a fort
which we did not recollect to have feen before,
and, which partakes of the nature both of a round
and a flat fifh. Upon the rocks are mufcles and
other fhell-fifh ; and upon the beach we found
fome pretty Medufa's heads. The mo ft trouble-
feme infects we met with were the mufquitoes,
and a large black ant, whofe bite inflicts extreme
The inhabitants feemed mild and chearful,
with little of that wild appearance that favages
in general have. They are almost totally devoid
of perfonal activity or genius, and are nearly
upon a par with the wretched natives of Terra del
Fuego. They difplay, however, fome contrivance in their method of cutting their arms and
bodies in lines of different directions, raifed above   PACIFIC OCEAN.
'the furface of the fkin. Their indifference for
our prefents, their general inattention, and want
of curiofity, were very remarkable, and testified
no acutenefs of underftanding. Their completion is a dull black, which they fometimes
heighten by fmutting their bodies, as we fuppofed, from their leaving a mark behind on any
clean fubftance. Their hair is perfectly woolly
and is clotted with greafe and red ochre, like that
of the Hottentots. Their nofes are broad and^
^ilfeand the lower part of the face projects confiderably. Their eyes are of a moderate fize, and
though they are not very quick or piercing, they
give the countenance a frank, chearful, and
pleating cast. Their teeth are not ^ixMlJi^j"*!~IL
•well fet, and their mouths are too wide : they
wear their beards long, and clotted with paint.
They are, upon the whole, well proportioned,
though their belly is rather protuberant. Their
favojurite attitude' is to stand with one fide forward, and one hand grafping, acrofs the back,'
the opposite arm, wtfiich, on this occafion, hangs,
down by the fide that projects.
Near the lhore in the bay,  we obferved fome
. wretched constructions of sticks covered with
bark; but thefe feemed to have been only temporary, and they had converted many of their
largest trees into more comfortable and commodious habitations. The trunks of thefe were hollowed out to the height of fix or feven feet, by
il 2 5*
means of fire. That they fometimes dwell in
them, was manifest, from their hearths in the
middle made of clay, round which four or five
perfons might fit. Thefe places of fhelter are
rendered durable, by their leaving one fide of the
tree found, fo that it continues growing with great
That the natives of Van Diemen's Land originate from the fame flock with thofe who inhabit the northern parts of New Holland, feems
evident. Though they differ in many refpects,
their diffimilarity may be reafonably accounted
for, from the united considerations of distance of
place, length of time, total feparation, and &U
verfity of climate.
As the inhabitants of New Holland feem all to
have fprung from one common fource, there is
nothing very peculiar in them ; for they greatly
refemble the favages of the iflands of Tanna and
Manicola. There is even fome reafon for hip*
posing, that they may originally have come
from the fame place with all the natives of the
Pacific Ocean: for, of about ten words which
we found means to get from them, that which is
ufed to exprefs cold, is very similar to that of New*
Zealand and Otaheite; the first being mallareede,
the fecond makka'reede, and the third ma'reede.
The remal|^er of our fcanty vocabulary of Van
Diemen's Land is as follows, viz. PACIFIC  OCEAN.
Quadne,    a woman,
Eve'rai,     the eye,
Muidje,     the nofe,
Ka'my,      the teeth, mouth, or tongue.
Lae'renne, a fmall bird, living in the woods here*
Koy'gee,. the ear. Wm£&'
Teegera,    to eat.
No'onga,   elevated fears on the body.
Toga'rago, I will go, or Imuft be gone.
It will probably be found, upon a dilige:$|^enquiry, and an accurate comparifon drawn from
the affinity of languages, that all the people from
New Holland, eaftward%to Eafter Ifland, are of
the fame extraction. 6o
Courfe to Ne-iv-Zealand—Tranfaclions in Queen
CharlotteLe Sound-*-Intercourfe with the New-
Zealanders—Their Dexterity in building Huts-
Information with regard to the Alajfacre of Captain Furneaux's People-*—-Two violent Storins—
Account of Kahoora, who headed the Party that
killed our People—Of the two Youths who accompany us on board—Captain Cook's Qbferva-'
tions on the inhabitants of New-Zealand-,
/N the 30th of January, in the morning^
we weighed anchor with a light westerly breeze,
from Adventure Bay. Soon after we had put to
fea, the wind became foutherly, and produced
a perfect florin; but veering in the evening to
the eaft and north-eafl, its fury began to abate.
This wind was attended with an almoft-intoler-
able heat, which, however, was of fo fhort a continuance, that fome of our company did not per*
ceive it.
In the night, between the 6th and 7th of February, one of the Difcovery's marines fell overboard and was drowned. On the 10th, in the
afternoon, we defcried the coaft of New-Zealand,
at the distance  of eight or   nine  leagues.    We
o o
then fleered for  Cape Farewell, and  afterwards.
for Stephens's Ifland ; and, in the morning of the PACIFIC OCEAN.
12th, anchored in Ship Cove, Queen Charlotte's
Sound. We foon after landed many empty water-
caflcs, and cleared a place for two obfervatories.
In the mean time feveral canoes came along-fide
of our fhips ; but very few of thofe who were in
them would venture on board. This fhynefs appeared the more extraordinary, as Captain Cook
was well known to all of them; and as one man
in particular among the prefent group, had been
treated by him with diftinguifhed kindnefs during a former voyage. This man, however, could
not by any means be prevailed on to come
aboard. We could only account for this referve
by fuppofing, that they were apprehenfive of our
revenging the death of Captain Furneaux's people who had been killed here. But, upon Captain Cook's alluring them of the continuance of
his friendfhip, and that he fliould not molest
them on that account, they foon laid aside all appearance 4 of fufpicion and diftruft. The next
day we pitched two tents, and erected the obfer-.
vatories, in which Meffrs. King and Baily immediately commenced their astronomical operations. Two of our men were employed in brewing fpruce beer; while others filled the wrater-
cafks, collected grafs for the cattle, and cut wood,
Thofe who remained on board were occupied'in
repairing the rigging, and performing the neceffary duty of the fhips. A guard of marines was
appointed for the protection of the different par- 62
ties on fhore, and arms were given to ail the
workmen, to repel all attacks from the natives,
if they had been inclined to rnoleft us; but this
did not appear to be the cafe.
During the courfe of this day, many families
came from various parts of the coaft, and erected
their huts clofe to our encampment. The facility with which they build thefe temporary habi*
tations, is remarkable. They have been feen to I
erect above twenty of them on a fpot of ground,
which was covered with plants and fhrubs not an
hour before. Captain Cook was prefent when a
number of favages landed, and built a village of .
this kind. They had no fooner leaped from the
canoes, than they tore up the fhrubs and plants
from the ground they had fixed upon, or put up
fome part of the framing of a hut. . While the
men were thus employed, the women took care
of the canoes, fecured the provisions and utenfils,
and gathered dry flicks, to ferve as materials for
a fire. Thefe huts are fufficiently calculated for
affording fhelter from the rain and wind. The
fame tribe  or family, however  Ian
affociate and build together; fo that their towns'
and villages are ufually divided by palifades into
feparate districts.
We received considerable advantage from the
natives coming to live with us; for, every day*
fome of them were occupied in catching fifh, a
good fhare of which we  generally procured by PACIFIC OCEAN.
Exchanges. Betides fifh, we had other refrefh-
ments in abundance. Scurvy-grafs, celery, and
portable foup, were boiled every day with the
wheat and peafe ; and we had fpruce beer for our
drink. Such a regimen foon removed all feeds
of the fcurvy from our people, if any of them
had contracted it. But indeed, on our arrival
here, we had only two invalids in both fhips,
We were occafionally visited by other natives,
befides thofe who lived clofe to us. Their articles of traffic were fifh, curiosities, and women ;
the two first of which were fpeedily difpofed of,
but the latter did not come to a good market, as
our crew had conceived a diflike to them. Captain Cook bbferves upon this occafion, that he
connived at a connection with women, becaufe
he could not prevent it; but that he never encouraged it, becaufe he dreaded its confequences.
Among our occasional visitors was a chief called
Kahoora, who headed the party that cut off Captain Fiirneaux's people. He was far from being
beloved by his countrymen, fome of whom even
importuned Captain Cook to kill him, at the
fame time expreffing their difapprobation of him
in the fevereft terms. A striking proof of the
divisions that prevail among thefe people occurred to us ; for the inhabitants of each village, by
turns, folicited our Commodore to destroy the
K le
Captain Cook, on the 15th, went in a boat to
fearch for grafs, and visited the hippah, or fortified village, at the fouth-weft point of the ifland
of Motuara. He obferved no inhabitants at this
village, though there were evident marks of its
having been lately occupied, the houfes and pali-
fades being in a ftate of good repair. Not the
fmalleft veftage remained of the Englifh garden-
feeds which had been planted at this hippah in
1773,' during Captain Cook's fecond voyage.
They had probably been all rooted out to make
room for buildings ; for, at the other gardens
then planted, we found radifhes, onions, leeks,
cabbages,   purflain, potatoes, &c.     Though the
natives   of New-Zealand
fond of the laft-
mentioned root, they had not planted a, single
one, muchtefs any of the other articles we had
introduced among them.
Early in the morning of the 16th, the Captains
Cook and Gierke, and feveral of the officers and
failors, accompanied by Omai and two New-
Zealanders, fet out, in five boats, to collect fod*
der for the cattle. Having proceeded about three
leagues up the Sound, they landed on the eaft
fide, where they' cut a fufficient quantity of grafs
to load the two launches. On their return down
the Sound, they paid a vifit to Grafs Cove, the
place where Captain Furneaux's people had been
maffacred. They here met with Captain Cook's
old friend Pedro, who is mentioned by him  in PACIFIC OCEAN.
the history of his fecond voyage. He, and another New-Zealander, received them on the
beach, armed with the fpear and patoo, though
not without manifeft figns of fear. Their apprehensions, however, were quickly diffipated by a
few prefents, which brought down to the fhore
two or three others of the family.
During the continuance of our party at this
place, the Commodore, being defirous of enquiring into the particular circumstances relative
to the maffacre of our countrymen, fixed upon
Omai as an interpreter for that purpofe, as his
language was a dialect of that of New-Zealand.
Pedro, and the other natives who were prefent,
none of whom had been concerned in that unfortunate tranfa&ion, anfwered every question without referve. Their information imported, that
while our people were at dinner, fome of the natives stole, or fnatehed from them, fome fifh and
bread, for which offence they received fome
blows; a quarrel immediately enfued, and two
of the favages were fhot dead, by the only two
mufquets that were firred ; for, before a third was
difcharged, the natives ruflied furioufly upon our
people, and being fuperior in number, destroyed
them all. Pedro and his companions alfo pointed
out the very fpot where the fracas happened, and
the place where the boat lay, in which a black
fervant of Captain Furneaux had been left to
take care of it. 66
According to another account, this negro was
the occasion of the quarrel; for, one of the natives stealing fomething out of the boat, the black
gave him a violent blow with a flick. His countrymen hearing his cries at fome distance imagined he was killed, and immediately attacked
our people, who, before they could reach the
boat, or prepare f themfelves against the unexr
pected affault, fell a facrifice to the fury of the
exafperated favages.
The former of thefe accounts was corroborated
by the teftimony of many other natives, who
could have no interest in difgiiiftng, the truth.
The latter account rests upon the authority of the
young New-Zealander, who quitted his country
for the fake of going away with us, and who?
therefore, could not be fuppofed to be inclined to
deceive us. As they all agreed, that the fray
happened while the boat's crew were at dinner^
both the accounts may be true ; for it is by no
means improbable, that, while fome of the ifland-
ers were stealing from the man who had been left
to guard the boats, others might take equal liberties with thofe who were oil fhore.
It appears, that there was no premeditated
plan of bloodfhed, and that, if thefe thefts had
not been rather too hastily relented, all mifchief
would have been avoided ; for Kahoora's greatest
enemies acknowledged, that he had no previous
intention  of quarrelling.     With   regard to  the PACIFIC OCEAN.
hoat, fome faid, that it had been pulled to pieces
and burnt; while others afferted, that it had been
carried off by a party of ftrangers.
Our party continued at Grafs Cove till the
evening, and their embarked to return to the
fhips. They had fcarcely left the fhore, when
the wind began to blow violently at north-weft,
fo- that it was not without great difficulty that
they could reach the fhips, where fome of the
boats did not arrive till the next morning ; and
it was very fortunate that they got on board then,
for foon afterwards a perfect ftorm arofe. Towards the evening, however, the wind veering to
the eaft, brought on fair weather. On Tuefday
the 18th, Pedro and his whole family came to
refide near us. The proper name of this chief
was Matahouah ; but fome of Captain Cook's
people had given him the appellation of Pedro
in a former voyage. On the 20th we had another
ftorm, of lefs duration than the former, but more
violent; in confequence of which, both our fhips
ftruck their yards and top-mafts. Thefe tempefts
are frequent here; and the nearer the fhore, the
more fenfible are their effects.
On Friday the 21ft, a tribe or family of about
fons came from the upper part of the
vifit us. Their chief was named To-
Liooranuc I he was about the age of
and had a frank, chearfui countenance;
thirty pe
found to
and, indeed, the reft of his tribe were, upon the 6$
whole, the handfomeft of all the New-Zealanders
that Captain Cook had ever feen. By this time
upwards of two-thirds of the natives of Queen
Charlotte's Sound had fettled near us, numbers
of whom daily retorted to the fhips, and our encampment on shore ; but the latter was most frequented, during the time when our people there
were making feal blubber ; for the favages were
fo fond of train oil, that they reliflied the very
dregs of the cafks, and fkimmings of the kettle,
and considered the pure stinking oil as a most
delightful feast.
When we had procured a competent fupply of
hay, wood,-and water, we struck our tents, and
the next morning, which was the 24th, weighed
out of the Cove. But the wind not being fo fair
as we could have wifhed, we were obliged to eaft
anchor again near the Hie of Motuara. While
we were getting under fail, Tomatongeauooranuc,
Matahouah, and many others of the natives,
came to take leave of us. Thefe two chiefs having requested Captain Cook to prefent them with
fome hogs and goats, he gave to Tomatongeasu
ooranuc two pigs, a boar and a fow ; and to
Matahouah two goats, a male and female, after
they had promifed not to destroy them. As for
the animals, which Captain Furneaux had left
here, Captain Cook was now told, that they were
all dead ; but he was afterwards informed, by the
two New-Zealand youths who went  away with PACIFIC OCEAN.
us, that Tiratou a popular chief, had  in his poffeffion many cocks and hens, befides a fow.
Before we had been long at anchor near Mo-
tuara, feveral canoes, filled with natives, came
towards us, and we carried on a brifk trade with
them for the curiosities of this place. In one of
thefe canoes was Kahoora, whom Omai immediately pointed out to Captain Gook, and foli-
cited him to fhoot that chief; he alfo threatened
to be himfelf his executioner, if he fhould ever
prefume to pay us another vifit. Thefe menaces
of Omai had fo little influence upon Kahoora,
that he returned to us the next morning, accompanied with his whole family. Omai, having
obtained Captain Cook's permiffion to afk him
to come on board, introduced him into the cabin,
faying, " There is Kahoora; difpatch him." But,
fearing perhaps that he fhould be called upon to
put his former threats in execution, he instantly
retired. He foon, however, returned ; and perceiving that the chief was unhurt, he earnestly
rem'onftrated to Captain Cook on the fubject,
faying, that if a man killed another in England,
he was hanged for it; but that Kahoora had killed
ten, and therefore justly deferved death. Thefe
arguments, however plausible, had no weight
with our Commodore, who desired Omai to afk
the New-Zealand chief, why he had destroyed
Captain Furneaux's people ? Kahoora, confounded at this question, hung  down his head, folded 1
his arms, and feemed in expectation of imme*
diate death : but, as foon as he was affured of
fafety, he became chearful. He appeared, however, unwilling to anfwer the question which had
been put to him, till after repeated promifes that
no violence fhould be offered him. He then
ventured to inform us, that one of the natives
having brought a ftone hatchet for the purpofe
of traffic, the perfon to whom it was offered took
it, and refuted either to return it, or give any
thing in exchange; upon which the owner of it
feized fome bread by way of equivalent; and
this gave rife to the quarrel that enfued. He
alfo mentioned, that he himfelf, during the dif-
turbance, had a narrow efcape ; for a mufquet
was levelled at him, which he found means to
avoid by fkulking behind the boat ; and another
man, who happened to stand clofe to him, was
fhot dead: upon which Kahoora attacked Mr.
Rowe, the officer who commanded the party,
who defended himfelf with his hanger, with
which he gave the chief a wound in the arm, till
he was overpowered by fuperiority of numbers.
Mr. Burney, whom Captain Furneaux difpatched
the next day*with an armed party in fearch of his
people who were miffing, had, upon difcovering
the melancholy proofs of this catastrophe, fired
feveral vollies among the natives who were still-
on the fpot, and were p
^robably partaking of the
horrid banquet of human fiefh.     It
was reafon PACIFIC OCEAN.
able to fuppofe that this firing was not ineffectual ; but upon inquiry it appeared, that not a
fmgle perfon had been killed, or even hurt, by the
fhot which Mr. Burney's people had difcharged.
Most of the natives we had met with, expected
that Captain Cook would take vengeance on Kahoora for his concern in the maffacre ; and many
of them not only wifhed it, but testified their
furprife at the Captain's forbearance and moderation. As the chief mufl have known this, it
was a matter of aftonifhment that he fo often
put himfelf in the power of our Commodore.
His two last vifits, in particular, were made under fuch circumstances, that he could not have
flattered himfelf with a profpect of efcaping, had
the Captain been inclined to detain him : and
yet, when his first fears, on being questioned, had
fubfided, fo far was he from entertaining uneafy
fenfations, that, on feeing in the cabin a portrait
of a Ne^v-Zealander, he desired that his own likeness might be taken, and fat till Mr. Webber' had
finifhed his portrait, without the fmalleft token
of impatience. Captain Cook admired his courage, and was pleafed with the confidence which
he repofed in* him; for he placed hisewhole fafety
in the uniform declarations of the Captain, that
he had always been a friend to the natives, and
would continue in the fame fentiments till they
gave him reafon to behave otherwife; that he
fhould think no more of their barbarous treat-
i 72
ment of our countrymen, as that tranfaction had
happened long ago ; but that, if they fhould
ever venture to make a fecond attempt of that
kind, they might reft affured of meeting with an
adequate punifhment.
Before our arrival in New-Zealand, Omai had
expreffed a desire of taking one of the natives
with him to his own country. He foon had an
opportunity of gratifying his inclination, for a
youth named Taweiharooa, the only fon of a
deceafed chief, offered to accompany him, and
took up his residence on board. Captain Cook
caufed it to be made known to him and all his
friends, that if the youth departed with us/he
would never return. This declaration^ however,
had no effect. The day before we quitted the
Cove, Tiratoutou, his mother, came to receive
her last prefent from Omai; and the fame evening flie and her fon parted, with all the marks of
the tendereft affection. But file faid flie would.
Weep no more, and faithfully kept her word; for
the next morning, when flie returned to take her
last farewell of Taweiharooa, she was quite chear-
ful all the time fhe remained on board, and departed with great unconcern. A boy of about
ten years of age accompanied Taweiharooa as a
fervant; his name was Kokoa. He was prefent-
ed to Captain Cook by his own father, who parted with him with fuch indifference, as to strip
him, and leave him entirely naked.    The Cap- PACIFIC OCEAN. 73
tain having in vain endeavoured to convince thefe
people of the great improbability of thefe youths
ever returning home, at length confented to their
The inhabitants of New-Zealand feem to live
under continual apprehensions of being destroyed
by each other; most of their tribes having, as
they think, sustained injuries from fome other
tribe, which they are ever .eager to revenge : and
it is not improbable, that the defire of a good
meal is frequently a great incitement. They generally steal upon the adverfe party in the night,
and if they chance to find them unguarded,
which is feldom the cafe, they kill every one
without diftinction, without fparing even the women and children : when they have completed
the inhuman maffacre, they either gorge them-
felves on the fpot, or carry oft* as many dead bodies as they can, and feaft on them at home, with
the molt horrid acts of brutality. If they are
difcovered before they have time to execute their
fangulnary purpofe, they ufually Ileal off again,
and fometimes they are purfued and attacked by
the adverfe party, in their turn. They never
give quarter, or take prifoners, fo that the van-
quiflied mult truft to flight alone for fafety.
From this slate of perpetual hostility, and this
destructive mode of carrying it on, a New-Zea-
lander derives fuch habitual vigilance and cir-
cumfpection, that he is fcarce ever off Ms" guard :
K 2 74
and, indeed, thefe people have the most powerful motives to be vigilant, as the prefervation of
both foul and body depends on it; for it is a
part of their creed, that the foul of the man whofe
flefli is devoured by his enemies, is condemned to
an inceffant fire ; while the foul of him whofe
body has been refcued from thofe that flew him,
as well as the fouls of thofe who die a natural
death, afcend to the mansions of the gods. Captain Cook having afked them, whether they eat
the flefh of fuch friends as had loft their lives in
war, but whofe bodies had been prevented from
falling into the enemy's hands, they anfwered in
the negative, and expreffed their abhorrence of
the idea.
Their ordinary method of difpofing of their
dead is to commit their bodies to the earth ; but
when they have more of their flain enemies than
they can conveniently eat, they throw them into
the fea. There are no morais, or other places of
public worfhip, among them; but they have
priests, who pray to the gods for the fuccefs of
their temporal affairs. The principles of their
religion, of which we know but little, are strong*
ly instilled into them from their infancy. We
obferved a remarkable instance of this in a youth,
who abstained from eating during the greatest
part of the day, merely on account of his hair being cut, though every method was practifed that
could induce him to change his  refolution.    He PACIFIC  OCEAN.
faid that the eafooa, or deity, would .kill him if he
eat any thing on that day. Towards the evening, however, his religious fcruples gave way to
the importunate cravings of appetite, and he eat,
though fparingly.
Notwithstanding the divided state in which
thefe people live, travelling strangers, whofe designs are honourable, are well received and entertained; but it is expected that they will remain
no longer than their bufmefs requires. It is thus
that a trade for green talc, which they call poe-
nammoo, is carried on. They informed us, that
none of this ftone is to be found, except at a place
which bears its name, near the head of Queen
Charlotte's Sound. We were told many fabulous
and improbable stories concerning this ftone, one
of which is, that it is originally a fifh, which
they strike with a gig in the water, and having
tied a rope to it, drag it to the fhore, to which
they fatten it, and it afterwards hardens into a
ftone. As it is fifhed out of a large lake, it is
probable that it may be brought from the mountains, and depofited in the water, by means of
the torrents. This lake is called by the inhabitants Tavai Poenammoo, or the water of green
The New-Zealanders have adopted polygamy
among them; and it is common for one man to
have two or three wives. The women are ripe
for marriage at an early age; and thofe who are A VOYAGE TO THE
unmarried, find difficulty in procuring fubfift-
Thefe people feem perfectly contented with
the fmall degree of knowledge they poffefs, for
they make no attempts to improve it. They are
not remarkably curious, nor do new objects strike
them with much furprife, for they fcarce fix their
attention for a moment. Omai, indeed, being a
sreat favourite with them, would fometimes at-
tract a circle about him; but they listened to his
fpeeches with very little eagernefs.
On our inquiring of Taweiharooa, how many
fhips, refembling ours, had ever arrived in Queen
Charlotte's Sound, or in its neighbourhood, he
gave us an account of one1 entirely unknown to
us. This veffei, he.faid., had put into a harbour
on the north-weft coaft of Teer ay/I tie, a few years
before Captain Cook arrived in the Sound in the
Endeavour. Lie further informed us, that the
Captain of her, during his continuance here, had
cohabited with a female of the country, who had
borne hiin a fon that was (til! living, He alfo
mentioned, that this fhip first introduced the venereal difeafe among the natives of New-Zealand,
This dreadful diforder is now but too common
among them. The only method they put in
practice as a remedy, is to give the patient the
ufe of a kind of hot bath, produced by the
fleam of certain green plants placed over hot
ftones. •PACIFIC OCEAN. I f)
Taweiharooa's intelligence induced us to believe, that a fhip had really been at Teerawitte
previous to Captain Cook's arrival in the Endeavour, as it correfponded with what the Captain had formerly heard ; for, towards the latter
end of 1773, f°me °* ^e natives informed him
of a fliip's having put into a port on the coaft of
We had another piece of information from
Taweiharooa, importing that their are here fnakes
and lizard of an enormous fize. The latter were
defcribed by him as being eight feet long, and
equal to a man's body in circumference. He
faid that they burrow in the ground ; that they
fometimes feize and devour men, and are killed
by making fires at the mouths of their holes.
We could not mifunderftand him with refpect to
the animal ; for, in order to fhew us what he
meant, he drew, with his own hand, very good
reprcfentations of a lizard and fnake on a piece
of paper.
Though much  has been faid concerning  this
o o
country and its inhabitants, in the accounts of
Captain Cook's two former voyages, yet the remarks of Mr. Anderfon, being the refult of accurate obfervation, muft not be considered as altogether fuperfiudus. The reader will find them
in the fucceeding chapter.
The longitude of Ship-cove, by lunar obfervations, is 1740 if 15" eaft ; its latitude 41 ° p fouth. A VOYAGE TO THft
The Country near Sueen Charlotte'V Sound defcribed—The Fertility of the Soil—Temperature
of the Climate-—Rain and Wind—Plants—Birds
—Fifh—Animals—Defcription of the Perfons of
the Inhabitants-—Drefs—-Ornaments—Buildings—
Canoes or Boats—Food, and Method of Cookery—
Arts—Weapons—Horred Cruelty to their Enemies,
whofe Bodies they mangle and eat—Various other.
JBOUT Queen Charlotte's Sound the land
is uncommonly mountainous, rising immediately
from the fea into large hills. At remote distances,
are vallies, terminating each towards the fea in a
fmall cove, with a pebbly or fandy beach ; behind which are flat places, where the natives ufu-
ally built their huts. This situation is the more
convenient, as a brook of fine'water runs through -
every cove, and empties itfelf into the fea.
The bafes of thefe mountains, towards the fhore,,
are constituted of a brittle yellowifh fand-ftone,
which acquires a blueifh eaft where it is laved by
the fea. At fome places it runs in horizontal,
and, at others, in oblique strata. The mould or
foil by which it is covered refembles marie, and
is3 in general, a foot or two in thicknefs. PACIFIC OCEAN.
The luxuriant growth of the productions here,
fufficiently indicates the ' quality of the foil. The
hills, except a few towards the fea, are one continued forest of lofty trees, flourifhing with fuch
uncommon vigour, as to afford an auguft profpect
to the admirers of the fublime and beautiful works
of nature.
This extraordinary ftrength in vegetation is,
doubtless, greatly affifted by the agreeable- tem-~
perature of the climate ; for, at this time, though
anfwering to our month of Auguft, the weather
was not fo warm as to be difagfeeable ; nor did it
raife the thermometer, higher thanx 66°. The winter alfo feems equally mild with refpect to cold ;"
for in the month which correfponds to our December, the mercury was never lower than 48?°,
the trees at the fame time retaining their verdure,-
as if in the height of fummer. It is fuppofed
their foliage remains, till p'ufhed off in spring by
the fucceeding leaves.
Though the Weather is generally good, it is
fbmetimes windy, with heavy rain; which, however, is never exceffive, and does not last above a
day. In fliorf, this would be one of the finest
countries upon earth, we're it not fo extremely
hilly ; which, fuppofing the woods to be cleared
away, would leave it lefs proper for pasturage
than flat land, and infinitely lefs fo for cultivation, which could never be effected here by the
The large trees on the hills are principally of
two forts. One of them, of the fize of our largest
firs, grows nearly after their manner. This fup-
plied the place . of fpruce in making beer ; which
we did, with a decoction of its leaves fermented
with fugar or treacle ; and this liquor was acknowledged to be little inferior to American
fpruce-beer. The other fort of tree is like a
maple, and often grows very large, but is fit only
for fuel; the wood of that, and of the preceding,
being too heavy for mafts, yards, &c.'
A greater variety of trees grow on the flats be-.
hind the beaches: two of thefe bear a kind of
plumb, of the fize of prunes ; the one, which is
yellow, is called karraca, and the other, which
is black, called maitao ; but neither of them had
a pleafant taste, though eaten both by our people
and the natives.
On the eminences which jut out into the fea,
grows a fpecies of philadelphus, and a tree bearing
flowers almost like myrtle. .We ufed the leaves
of the philadelphus as tea, and found tliem an excellent fubftitute for the oriental fort. tfcfaS
A kind of wild celery, which grows plentifully
in almost every cove, may be reckoned among
the plants that were ufeful to us ; and another
that we ufed to call fcurvy-grafs. Both forts were
boiled daily with wheat ground in a mill, for the
people's breakfast, and with their peafe-foup for
dinner.    Sometimes alfo they were ufed as failed, PACIFIC OCEAN.
or dreffed as greens. In all which ways they are
excellent; and, together with the fifh, with which
we were amply fupplied, *they formed a most de^
Arable refrefhment.
The known kinds of plants to be found here are
bindweed, night-fhade, nettles, a fhrubby fpeed-
well, fow-thistles, virgin's bower, vanelloe, French
willow, euphorbia, crane's-bill, cudweed, ruflies,
bulrufhes, flax, all-heal, American night-fhade,
knot-grafs, brambles, eye-bright, and groundfel;
but the fpecies of each are different from any we
have in Europe.
There are a great number of other plants, but
one in particular deferves to be noticed here, as
the garments of the natives are made from it. A
fine filky flax is produced from it, fuperior in
appearance to any thing we have in this country,
and, perhaps, as strong. It grows in all places
near the fea, and fometimes a considerable way
up the hills, in bunches or tufts, bearing yeliowifh
flowers on a long flalk.
It is remarkable that the greatest part of the
trees and plants were of the berry-bearing kind ;
of which, and other feeds, Mr. Anderfon brought
away about thirty different forts.
The birds, of which there is a tolerable good
flock, are almost entirely peculiar to the place.
It would be difficult and fatiguing to follow them,
on account of the quantity of underwood, and
the climbing plants | yet any perfoii, by conti-
M a 82
nuing in one place, may fhoot as many in a day
as would ferve feven or eight perfons. The prin?
cipal kinds are large brown parrots, with grey
heads, green parroquets, large wood-pigeons, and
two forts of cuckoos. A grqfs-beak, about the
fize of "a thrufh, is frequent; as is alfo a fmall
green bird, which is almost the only mufical one
to be found here; but his melody is fo fweet,
and his notes fo varied, that any one would imagine himfelf furrounded by a hundred different
forts of birds, when the little warbler is exerting
himfelf. From this circumstance it was named
the mocking-bird. There are alfo three or four
forts of fmaller birds, and, among the rocks, are
found black fea-pies with red bills, and crested fhags
of a leaden colour. About the fhore, there are a
few fea-gulls, fome blue herons, wild ducks, plovers, and fome fandjajks. A fnipe w7as fhot here,
which differs but little from that of Europe.
. Moft of the fish we caught by the feine were
elephant-filh, mullets, foles, and flounders ; but
the natives fupplied us with a fort of fea-bream,
large conger eels, and a fifh of five or fix pounds
weight, called a mo'gge by the natives. With
a hook and line we caught a blackifh fifh, called
colc-fifh by the feamen, but' differing greatly-:
from that of the fame name in Europe. We
alfo got a fort of fmall falmon, fkate, gurnards,
and nurfes. .. The natives fometimes furnifhed us
with hake, paracutas, parrot-fifli, a fort of mac- PACIFIC OCEAN.
fear el, and leather jackets; befides another, which
is extremely fcarce, of the figure of a dolphin, a
black colour, and strong bony jaws. Thefe, in
general, are excellent to eat; but the fmall fal-
mon, cole-fifli, and mogge, are fuperior to the
Great quantities of excellent mufcles inhabit
among the rocks; one fort of which exceeds a
foot in length. Many cockles are found buried
in the fand of the fmall beaches; and, in fome
places, oyfters, which, though very fmall, have
a good flavour. There are alfo perriwincles, limpets, wilks, fea-eggs, ftar-fifli, and fome beautiful fea-ears, many of which are peculiar to the
place. The natives alfo furnifhed us with fome
excellent cray-fifh.
Infects here are not very numerous; we faw
fome butterflies, two forts of dragon-flies, fome
fmall grafshoppers, feveral forts of fpiders, fome
black ants, and fcorpion flies innumerable, with
whofe chirping the woods refounded. The fand-
fly, which is the only noxious one, is very numerous here, and is almost as difagreeable as the
mufquitoe. The only reptiles we fav/ here, were
two or three forts of inoffensive lizards.
In this extensive land, it is remarkable that
there fhould not even'be the traces of any quadruped, except a few
which is kept by the natives as
rats, and a kind of fox dog,
a  Qomelnc 34
They have not any mineral deferving notice,
but a green jafper or ferpent stone, of which the
tools and ornaments of the inhabitants are made.
This is held in high estimation among them; and,
they entertain fome fuperftitious notions about
the mode of its generation, which we could not,
comprehend ; they fay it is taken from a large river
far to the fouth ward; it is difpofed in the earth in
detached pieces like flints, and, like them, the
edges are covered with a whitifli cruft.
The natives, in general, are not fo well formed,
efpecially about the limbs, as the Europeans, nor
do they exceed them in stature. Their fitting fo
much on their hams, and being deprived, by the
mountainous difpofition of. the country, of ufing
that kind of exercife which would render the body
straight and well-proportioned, is probably the
occasion of the want of due proportion. Many
of them, indeed, are perfectly formed, and fome
are very large boned and mufcular ; but very few
among them were corpulent.
Their features are various, fome refembling
Europeans, and their colour is of different calls,
from a deepifh black to an olive or yellowifh
tinge. In general, however, their faces are round,
their lips rather full, and their nofes (though
not flat) large towards the point. An aquiline
nofe was not to be feen among them : their eyes
are large, and their teeth are commonly broad,,
white,   and  regular.     The hair,   in  generalr is. PACIFIC OCEAN. 85
black, strong, and straight; it is commonly cut
ihort on the hinder part, and the reft tied on the x
crown of the head. Some, indeed, have brown
hair, and others a fort that is naturally difpofed
to curl. The countenance of the young is generally free and open ; but, in many of the men,
it has a ferious or fullen eaft. The men are larger
than the women ; and the latter are not diftin-
guifhed by peculiar graces, either of form or
Both fexes are cloathed alike ; they have a garment, made of the filky flax already mentioned,
about five feet in length, and four in breadth.
This appears to be their principal manufacture,
which is performed by knotting. Two corners of
this garment pafs over the fhoulders, and they
fatten it on the^ breaft with that which covers the
body: it is again fattened about the belly with a
girdle made of mat.. Sometimes they cover it with
dog-fkin or large feathers. Many of them wear
mats over this garment, extending from the
[flidtilders to the heels. The molt common covering, however, is a quantity of the fedgy plant
[above-mentioned, badly manufactured, fattened
ito a firing, and thrown over the fhoulders, whence
it falls down on all fides to the middle of the
[thighs. When they fat down in this habit, they"
puld hardly be diftinguifhed from large grey
stones, if their black heads did not project beyond
their coverings. ■■■ HK&k,
They adorn their heads with feathers, comb's
of bone or wood, with pearl fheil, and the inner
fkin of leaves. Both men and women have their
ears flit, in which are hung beads, pieces of jaf-
per, or bits of cloth. Some have the fepium of
the nofe bored in its lower part, but we never
faw any ornament .worn in that part; though a
twig was paffed through it by one of them, to'
fhew that it was occasionally ufed for that purpofe.
Many are stained in the face with curious
figures, of a black or dark blue colour ; but it
is not certain whether this is intended to be ornamental, or as a mark of particular distinction ?
the women are marked only on their lips and
chins; and both fexes befmear their heads and
faces with a greafy reddifh paint. The women
alfo wear necklaces of fhark's teeth, or bunches
of long beads; and a few of them have fmall
triangular aprons, adorned with feathers or pieces
of pearl shells, feitened about the wraift with a
double or treble fet of cords.
They live in the fmall coves already mentioned, fometimes in tingle families, and fometimesr'
in companies of perhaps forty or fifty. Their
huts, which are in general molt miferable lodging places, are built contiguous to each other.
The beft we faw was builrin the manner of one
of our country barns, and was about fix feet in
. heighta   fifteen  in  breadth,   and thirty-three in PACIFIC OCEAN.
length. The infide was strong and regular, well
fattened by means of withes, &c. and painted
red and black. At one end it had a hole ferving
as a does to creep out at, and another confiderably fmaller, feemingly for the purpofe of letting
out the fmbke. This, however, ought to be considered as one of their palaces, (for many of their
huts are not of half the fize, and feldom are more
than four feet in height.
They have no other furniture than a few fmall
bags or bafkets, in which they deposit their fifh-
ing hooks and other trifles. They fit down in
the middle round a fmall fire, and probably fleep
in the fame situation, without any other covering
that what they have worn in the day.
Fifhing is their principal fupport, in which they
ufe different kinds of nets, or wooden fifh-hooks
pointed with bone; but made in fo extraordinary
a manner, that it appears aflonifhing how they can
anfwer fuch a purpofe.
Their boats confift of planks raifed upon each
other, and fattened with long withes. Many
of them are fifty feet long. Sometimes they
fatten two together with rafters, which we call a
double canoe: they frequently carry upwards of
thirty men, and have a large head, ingenioufly
carved and painted, which feems intended to re-
prefent a man enraged. . Their paddles are narrow, pointed, and about five feet  long.    Their SB
fail, which is very little ufed, is a mat formed into
a triangular shape.
They drefs their fifh by roasting, or rather
baking them, being entirely ignorant of the art
of boiling. It is thus they alfo drefs the root of
the large fern-tree, in a hole prepared for that
purpofe : when dreffed, they fplit it, and find a
gelatinous fubftance within, fomewhat like fago
powder. The fmaller fern-root feems to be their
fubltitute for bread, being dried and carried about
with • them, together with great quantities of
dried fifh, when they go far from their habitations, ' 3&&$ftj
When the, weather will not fuffer them to go
to fea, mufcles and fea-ears fupply the place of
other fifh. Sometimes, buttnot often, they kill
a few penguins, rails, and shags, ' which enable
them to vary their diet. Considerable numbers
of their dogs are alfo bred for food ; but they depend principally on the fea for their fubfiftence, by
which they are molt bountifully fupplied.
They are as filthy in their feeding as in their
perfons, which often emit a very offensive effluvia, from the quantity of greafe about them,
and from their never wafhing their cloaths : their
heads are plentifully flocked with vermin, which
they fometimes eat. Large quantities of stinking train oil, and blubber of feals, they would
eagerly devour. When on board the fhips, they
not  only emptied the lamps, but actually fwal- PACIFIC OCEAN.
lowed the cotton with equal voracity. Though
the inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land would not
even tafte our bread, thefe people devoured it
with the greatest eagerness, even when it was rotten and mouldy.
In point of ingenuity, they are not behind any
uncivilized nations under fimilar circumstances:.
for, without the affiflance of metal tools, they
make every thing by which they procure their
fubfiftence, eloathing, and warlike weapons, with
neatness, strength, and convenience. Their principal mechanical tool is formed in the manner of
an adze, and is made of the ferpent-ftone or jaf-
per: their chiffel and gouge are furnifhed from
the fame material, though they are fometimes
compofed of black folid ftone. Carving, however, is their matter-piece, which appears upon
the most trifling things ; the ornaments on the
heads of their canoes not only difplay much
design, but execution. Their cordage for fifliing
lines is not inferior to that in this country, and
their nets equally good. A fhell, a bit of flint, or
jafper, is their fubftitute for a knife ; and a fhark's
tooth fixed in the end of a piece of wood, is their
auger. They have a faw made of fome jagged
fifhes teeth, fixed on a piece of wood nicely
carved ; but this is ufed for .no other purpofe
than to cut up the bodies of thofe whom they
kill in battle.
N 2 9o A V O Y AGE T O T II E
Though no people are more ready to refent art'
injury, yet they take every opportunity of being
infoient, when they apprehend there is. no danger
of punifliment ; whence it may be concluded,
that their eagernefs to refent injuries, is rather an..
effect of a furious difpofition than genuine bravery. They are naturally miftruftful, and fufpi-
cious, for fuch as are strangers never venture imr: |
mediately to vifit our fhips, but keep at a fmall
g our motions,
diftance  in  their boats*, obfervin
and hesitating whether they fnould risk their fafety
with us. They are to the last degree dishonest,
and fteal every thing within their reach, if they
fuppofe they can efcape detection ; and, in trading, they feem inclined to take every poflible advantage ; for they never trust an article out of
their hands for examination, and feem highly
pleafed if they have over-reached you hi a bargain.
Such conduct indeed is not furprifing, whers
it is considered that there appears to be but little.
Subordination, and few, if any, laws for the punishment of tranfgreffors. No manes authority
extends beyond his own family ; and when they
join, at any time, for mutual defence or fafety,
thofe among them who are molt eminent for valbur
and prudent conduct, are directors.
Their public contentions are almost perpetual,
for war is their principal profeflion, as appears,
from their number  of weapons, and their dex> PACIFIC OCEAN.
terity in using them. Their arms are fpears, pa»
toos and halberts, and fometimes ftones. The
first are Trom five to thirty feet long, made of
hard wood and pointed. The patoo is about
eighteen inches long, of an elliptical fhape, with
a handle made of wood, ftone, &c. and appears,
to be their principal dependance in battle. The
halbert is about five or {ix. feet in length, tapering
at one end with a carved head, and broad or flat,
with fharp edges, at the other.
Before the onfet, they join in a war fong, keep-?,
ing the exacteft time ; and, by degrees, work
themfelves into a kind of frantic fury, accompanied with the moft horrid distortions of their
.tongues, eyes and mouths, in order to deter
their enemies. To this fucceeds a circumstance
that is moft horrid, cruel, and difgraceful to human nature, which is mangling and cutting to
pieces (even when not perfectly dead) the bodies
of their enemies; and, after roasting them, devouring the flefh with peculiar pleafure and fa*,
tisfa&ion.   i :
It might naturally be fuppofed, that thofe who
could be capable of fuch excefs of cruelty, mufl
be totally deftitute of every humane feeling ; and
yet they lament the lofs of their friends in a manner the moft tender and affectionate. Both men
and women, upon the death of their relations
or friends, bewail them with the moft miferable
cries; at the fame time cutting large gaihqjs  in A VOYAGE TO THE
their cheeks and foreheads, with fliells, or pieces'
of flint, till the blood flows copioufiy, and mixes
with their tears. They* alfo carve a refemblance
of an human figure, and hang it about their necks,
as a memorial of thofe who were dear to them.
They alfo perform the ceremony of lamenting
and cutting for joy, at the return of a friend who
has been fome time abfent.
The practices of the fathers, whether good or
bad, their children are, at an early age, instructed in; fo that you find a child of either fex, of
the age of nine or ten years, able to imitate the
frightful motions and gestures of the men. They
alfo fing, and with fome degree of melody, the
traditions and actions of their forefathers, with
which they are immoderately delighted, and pats
•much of their time in thefe amufements, accompanied fometimes with a kind of flute.
Their language is neither harm-nor difagree-:
able. Whatever qualities, are requisite to make a
language mufical, obtain to a considerable degree
in this, if we may judge from the melody of their
longs. It is not, indeed, fo comprehensive as
our European languages, which owe their perfection to long and gradual improvement. VOYAGE
CHAP.   I.
Courfe of the Voyage—Behaviour of the two New--
Zealand Touths on board—The Ifland of Man*
geea difcovered—Account of the Perfons and Drefs
of the Inhabitants—Mourooa and his Companion
defcribed—Figure of a Mangeean Canoe—The
Coaft of the Ifland examined—Impraclicability of
landing—Tranfaclions with the Natives—Defcription of the Ifland—Difpofttion  and Manners
I of the Mangeeans.
N the morning of the 25th of February, we
left the Sound, and made fail through Cook's
Straits. On the 27^ Cape Pallifer bearing
weft about feven leagues diftant, we had a fine
gale, and fleered   towards   the norji-ea-ft.     As
1 *94
foon as we had loft fight of land, our two young
New-Zealanders heartily repented of the adventurous ftep they had taken. Though we endeavoured, as far as lay in our power, to footh them,
they wept, both in public and private; and gave
vent to their forrows in a kind of fong, which
feemed to exprefs their praifes of their country
and people, from which they were now, in all pro*
bability, to be for ever feparated. They conti*
nued in this ftate for feveral days, till, at length*
the agitation of their minds began to fubfide, and
their fea-ficknefs, which had aggravated their grief*
wore off. Their lamentations then became lefs
and lefs frequent; their natife country, their kindred and friends, were gradually forgotten, and
they appeared to be firmly attached to us.
On the 28 th at noon, being in the latitude of
41 ° if fouth, and in the longitude of 1770 17"
eaft, we tacked about and flood to the fouth-eaft*
with a gentle breeze at eaft north-eaft, which afterwards veered to north-eaft, in which point the
wind remained two days, fometimes blowing a
frefh gale with fqualls and rain. On the 2d of
March it fliifted to north-weft, and afterwards to
fouth-weft, between which point and the north it
continued to blow, fometimes very moderately,
and at other times a ftrong gale. With this wind
we fleered north-eaft by eaft and eaft, with all the
fail we could carry, till Tuefday the 11 th, when PACIFIC OCEAN.
it veered to north-eaft and fouth-eaft; we then
flood to the north and the north-eaft, as the
wind would permit, till the f6th, when having
a gale from the north, we flood to the eaft. The
next day we proceeded to the north-eaft; but, as
the wind frequently veered to eaft and eaft-
north-eaft, we often made no better than a
northerly courfe. The hopes, however, of the
wind coming more foutherly, or from the weft-
Ward, a little without the Tropic of Capricorn,
encouraged the Commodore to continue this
courfe. It was indeed neceffary that we fhould
fun all hazards, as our proceeding to the. north
this fummer, in profecution of the principal object of the expedition, entirely depended on our
having a quick paffage to Otaheite, or the Society Ifles.
We croffed the Tropic on the 27th, the wind,
for a considerable time before, having remained
almost invariably fixed at eaft fouth-eaft. In all
this run, we obferved nothing that could induce
lis to fuppofe we had failed near anjr land, except
occasionally a tropic bird. In the latitude of 340
20', longitude 199°, we paffed the trunk of a
tree, which appeared much weather-beaten, and
was covered| with barnacles. On the 29th, as
We were ftanding to the north-eaft, the Difcovery made a signal of feeing land. We foon
found it to be a fmall ifland, and flood for it till
the evening, wtien it was at the pittance of two
O go
leagues. The next morning, at day>
break, we bore up for the weft fide of the ifland,
and faw feveral people wading to the reef, where,
as they obferved the fhip leaving them quickly,
they remained. But others, who foon appeared,
followed her courfe ; and fome of them affembled
in fmall bodies, making great fhouts. $$£
Upon our nearer approach to the fhore, v/e
faw many of the natives running along the beach,
and, by the affiflance of our giaffes, could perceive that they were armed with long fpears and
clubs, which they braftdifhed in the air with figns
of threatening, or, as fome of us fuppofed, wittt
invitations to land. Moft of them were naked,
except having a kind of girdle, which was brought
up between their thighs; but fome of them wore
about their fhoulders pieces of cloth of various,
colours, white, striped, or chequered; and almoit
all of them had about their heads a white wrapper, in fome degree refernblmg a turban. They
were ©f a tawny complexion, robust, and about
the middle fiz&
A fmall canoe  was now  launched from  the
molt  distant
:h, and a man get
ting into it, put "oii, as witis a view or reacmng
the fhip ; but his courage failing, he quickly returned towards the beach. Another man foon
after joined him in the canoe ; and then both of
them paddled towards us. They feemed, however, afraid to approach, till their apprehensions- PACIFIC OCEAN.
•were  partly removed  by   Omai,  who addreffed
them in the language of Otaheite.    Thus encouraged, they came  near enough to receive fome
ttails and beads, which, being tied to fome wood,
were thrown into the canoe.    They however put
the wood afide without untying the  things from,
it, which may perhaps have proceeded from fu-
perftition; for we were informed by Omai, that
when they obferved us offering prefents to them,
they requefted fomething for their Eatooa.     On
Omai's afking them whether they ever eat human
flefh,   they   replied in  the negative, with  equal
abhorrence and indignation.*   One of them, named
Mourooa, being questioned with regard to a fear
on his forehead, faid it was the confequence of a
wound he had received in fighting with the natives of an ifland lying  towrards the  north-eaft,
who fometimes invaded them.    They afterwards
laid hands on a rope, but would not venture on
board, telling   Omai,   that their countrymen on
fhore had fuggefted to them this caution ; and had
.   Jikewife  directed them   to   enquire  whence  our
fhip  came, and  to procure information of the
name  of the Captain.     Their chief,  they faid,
was called Orooaeeka.    Upon our enquiring the
name of the ifland, they told us it was Mangy a,
or Mtmgeea, to which they fometimes added nooe,
nai, naiwa.
The features of Mourooa were agreeable,'and
Jjis difpofition, to all appearance, w-as no lefs fo \
0 % 9$
for he exhibited fome droll gefticulationSj| which
indicated humour and good-nature. He alfo
made others of a ferfous kind, and repeated
fome words with an aM of devotion, before he
would verjgire to take hold of the rope aiM!
ffernl3|the fhip. ';'fle was lufty and well made,
though not tall. His complexion wras nearly ®f
the fame eaft ^fc that of the natives of the moft
fouthern parts of Europe.. J|9is companion MP
not io i^ndfome. They both had strong, flraight,
black hair, tied together m. the top of their
heads with a piece of white cloth. They had
long beards; and the infide of .their arms, from
the elbow to the fhoulder, and fome oth^gpg^
were tatooed. or puncturedv^.The lobe of their
ears was flit to fuch a length, that one £§. them
ituck their a knife and fome beads, which we had
given them. The fame perfon had hung about
his neck, by way of ornament, two polifhed
pearl-fhells, and a bunch of human hair,fllpofely
twitted together. They wore a kind of girdles,
which we found were a fubltance manufactured
from the moras papyrifera, and glazed like thofe
ufed in the Friendly -IflandsJFThey had on their
feet a fort of fandals, made of a grafly fubftance
interwoven,' which we obferved were alfo worn
by thofe whom we had feen on the beach. The
canoe in which they came was the only one we
faw. It was very narrow, and not above ten feet
long, but itrong and   neatly made.    The  lower r 1       I                               p                     li
j , :'-'^00^mi.
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mkz Wp. ^Sr***- *'. ;*»?
ejljlfk ^_     1
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^^"Sii --- ? L?gv >j
■'-^^^^i^^fee' h
9HB I'
^li^tfcw!^*   ff'""
WMSlBt   ^lH!
part was of white wood; but the upper part was
black, and their paddles were made of wood of
the fame colour: thefe were broad a$*one end?
and blunted, and about three feet kmg. The
fore part had a flat board fattened over it, which
projected out, to prevent the water from getting
Jn. It had an upright ftern, five feet high, which
terminated at the top in a kind of fork. They
paddled indifferently either end of the canoe for?
As foon as the fhips were iti a proper ftation,
Captain Cook fent out two boats to endeavour to
find a convenient place for landing. In one of
them he wghfc hfcifelf, and had no fooner put off
from the ship* than the two men in the canoe
paddled towards his boat; and when they were
come aloiig-fide, Mourooa, without hefitation,
ftept into her. Omai, who was with the Captain, was desired to enquire of the iflander where
we could land ; upon which he directed us to twq
places. But we foon obferved, with regret, that
the attempt at either place was impracticable, on
account of the furf, unlets at the rifque of having
our boats destroyed. Nor were we more -fuc-
cefsful in our fearch for anchorage, as we could
find no bottom till within a cable's length of the
breakers, where we met with from forty to twenty
fathoms depth, over sharp rocks of coral.
While wre thus reconnoitred the ihore of Man-
geea, the natives thronged clown upon the reef. • *o© A VOYAGE TO THE
#11 armed. Mourooa, who ftill remained in the
fcoat with Captain Cook, thinking, perhaps, that
this warlike appearance deterred us from land*-
Ing, commanded them to retire. As many of
them complied, we imagined, that he was a per*
fon of fome confequence-: indeed, if we did not
mifunderftand him, he was brother to the king
of the. ifland. Several of them, instigated by
curiosity, fwam from the fhore to the boats,
and came on board them without referve. We
&ven found fome difficulty in keeping them out,
and could fcarce prevent their pilfering whatever
they could lay hands upon. At length, when
they obferved us returning to the (hips, they all
left us except Mourooa, mho, though not with,-
out manifest indications of fear, accompaiikM
the Commodore on board the Refolution. The
cattle and other new objects that he faw there,
IJrd not strike him with much furprize ; his mind?
perhaps, benig too much occupied about his oy/n
fafety, to allow him to attend to other things.
He feemed verv uneafv, and  gave us  but   little
■J J   % o
new intelligence $ and therefore, after he hacfej
continued a fhort time on board, Captain Cook
ordered a boat to carry him towards the landw|Hj
his way out of the cabin, happening to ftumble
over one of the goats, he stopped, looked at the
animal, and afked Omai what bird it wTas ; but
not receiving an immediate anfvver from him, he
put the fame question to fome of the people who PACFFIC OCEAN.
-were upon deck. The boat having conveyed
him near the furf, he leaped into the water, and
fwam afhore. His countrymen, eager to learn
from him what he had feen, flocked round him as
foon as he had landed ; in which situation they
remained when we loft fight of them. We*hoifted
in the boat as foon as fhe returned, and made fail
to the northward. Thus were we obliged to leave
this fine ifland unvifited, which feemed capable
of fupplying all our neceflities. It is situate Hi the
longitude of 2io° $?>' ea^j an(* i*1 the latitude of
2i° S7r fouth.
Thofe parts of the coaft of Mangeea which
fell under our obfervation, are guarded by a reef
of coral rock, against which a heavy furf is con-
tfe&ally breaking. ; The ifland is about five
leagues in circumference, and though of a moderate and pretty equal height, may be feen in
clear weather at the diftance of ten leagues. In
the interior parts, it rifes into fmall hills, whence
there is an eafy defcent to the fhore, which, in the
fouth-weft part, is fleep, though not  very high,
and has feveral excavations made
the daftiing
of the waves against a brownifh fand-ftone, of
which it confifts. The defcent here abounds
with trees of a deep green, which feem to be alt
of one fort,
areft 1
e, b
re wre
obferved   nu
found in the
j  ■
©n  the nort
...   ;*. # ■ ioi A VOYAGE TO THE
JiM&h,  beyond whiftl the land^Jl broken  into
fmall chafms, and has a broad border of trees
which refemble tall willows.    Further up, on the
afcent, the trees were of the deep green above-
mentioned, which fome of us imagined to be the
itf/fai intermixed  with cocoa-palms,   and   a few
p$$bfr forts.    Some  trees of a higher fort  were
jiftgjify foattered  on the hills, the oth@r-e^ir#>e#fj
which  were either covered with fomething like
fern, ^ were bare, and of a reddifh colof|&  The
ifland, upon the whole, has a pleafing appearance,
and might, by proper cultivation, be made a beautiful fpot.
The natives appearing to be both numerous
and well fed, ifpfs* highly probable that fi$§ji articles of provision as the ifland produces are found I
^kygreat abundance. Our friend Mourooa informed us, that they had no hogs nor dogs, though
fifc^y had heard of both thofe animals; but that
they had plaintains, taro, and bread-fruit. The
only birds we obferved, were fome terns, noddies, 1
white egg-birds, and one white heron.
The language of the Mangeeans is a dialect of?
that of Otaheite; but their pronimcisiten is morel
guttuii||> They refemble the infe&j)itants t>f Ota- ;
heite and the Marquefas. in the beauty of their J
perfons; and their general difpofition a!fo feems
to correfpond with that of the firfl-mentioned^
people ; for they are not only lively and chearful/*
but are acquainted with all the  lafcivious gcfti- *
—. ■<*!»«■
filiations practifed by the Otaheiteans in their
dances. We hadlikewifereafon to fuppofe, thatthey
have fimilar methods of living : for, though we
had not an opportunity of feeing many of their
habitations, we obferved one houfe near the beach,
which, in its mode of eonftruction, differed little
From thofe of Otaheite. It appeared to be feven
or eight feet high, and about thirty in length,
with an Open end, which reprefented an ellipfe,
'or oval, tranfeverfely divided. It was pleafantly
fituated in a grove.
Thefe people falute ftrarigers by joining nofes,
and taking the hand of the perfon whom they
atcoft, which they rub with fome force upon their
mouth arid nofe. It is wofthy of remark, that
the inhabitants of the Palaos, New Philippine, or
rather Caroline Iflands, though at the diftance of
iiear 1500 leagues from Mangeea, have a fimilar
inethod of falutation*
Vol. t—N°. 3.
CfiAft 104
C H A P.    II.
An Ifland named Wateeoo difcoveredh—-Vifitls from tht
Inhabitants on board the Ships—Their Perfons
and Drefs defcribed—The coaft of the Ifland examined—Lieutenants Gore and Burncy, Mr. Anderfon and Omai, fent on Shore—Mr. Anderfon9s
Account of their Reception—They are introduced
to three Chiefs-—Dance of twenty young Women,
defcribed—Omafs Apprehenfions of being roafied—
The Iftanders fend Proviftons on board—Further
Defcription of the Natives—Of their a:uble Canoes
—Trees and Plants-—Oma'Cs Expedient to prevent
being detained on Shore—He meets with three of
his Countrymen—-Account of their diftrefsful Voyage
—Additional Remarks relative to Wateeoo.
W E quitted Mangeea in the afternoon of
the 30th of March, and proceeding on a northerly courfe, we again difcovered land, on the
31ft, at the diftance of nine or ten leagues.—
The next morning we were abreft of its north
end, within four leagues of it. It now appeared
to us to be an ifland nearly of the fame extent
with that which we had juft left. Another ifland,
much fmaller, was alfo defcried right a-head.
Though we could foon have reached this, we
preferred the larger one, as being moft likely to PACIFIC OCEAN. 105
fbrnifh food for the cattle. We therefore made
fail to it ; but there being little wind, and that
unfavourable, we were ftill about two leagues
to leeward at eight o'clock the fucceeding morning. The Commodore, foon after, difpatched
three armed boats, under the command of Mr.
Gore, his First Lieutenant, in fearch of a landing-place and anchoring-ground. Mean while
we plied up under the ifland with the fhips. As
our boats were putting off, we faw feveral canoes
coming from the fhore, which repaired firft to
the Difcovery, as that fhip was the nearest. Not
long after, three of thefe canoes, each conducted
by one man, came along-ftde of the Refolution.
They are long and narrow, and are fupported by
put-riggers : the head is flat above, but prow-like
below ; and the ftern is about four feet high.
We bestowed on our vifitors, fome knives, beads,
and other trifles; and they gave us fome ^cocoa-
nuts, in confequence of our having afked for
them; but they did not part with them by way
of exchange, as they feemed to have no idea of
barter or traffic. One of them* after a little
perfuafion, came on board ; and the other two
foon followed his example. They appeared to
be perfectly at their eafe, and free from all ap«
prehension. After their departure, a man arrived in another canoe, bringing a buncfu*g£
plantains as a prefent to Captain Cook, who gave
him, in return, a piece of red cloth and an ax&-
1 foS
We were afterwards informed by Omai, that th%
prefent had been fent from the king of the island.
Soon after, a double canoe, containing twelve of
the iflanders, came towards us. On, approaching
the fhip, they recited fome words in concert, by,
way of chorus, one of them first giving tlse word
before each repetition. Having finiflied this
folemn chant, they came along-fide, and alked
for the chief. As foon as Captain Cook had
made his appearance, a pig and: fome cocoa-nuts-
were conveyed into the fhip; and the Captain
was alfo prefented with a piece of matting, by the
principal 'perfon in the canoe, when he and. his
companions had got on board. '
Thefe new- vifitors were introduced into, the
cabin, and; conducted to other parts of the fhip.
Though fome objects feemed to furprife them, nothing could fix their attention. They were afraid
to venture near'the cows and; horfes, of whofe
nature they could form no conception. As> for
the fheep and goats, they gave us to understand-,
that they knew them to be birds. It is a matter of aftonifhment, that human ignorance could;
ever make fo ridiculous a miftake, as there is
not the fmalleft refemblance. between anv winged
animal and a fiieep or goat. But thefe people,
feemed unacquainted with the exiftence of any
other terrestrial animals, than hogs, dogs, and
birds ; and as they faw that our goats and fheep,
^ere very different from the two former, they ab~ PACIFIC OCEAN,
ferctly inferred, that they muft belong to the latter clafs, in which they Jbiew there was a great
variety of fpecies. Though the Commodore be-
flowed oa his new friend what he fuppofed would
be the moft acceptable prefent, yet he feeme<|
fomewhat difappointed. The Captain was. afterwards informed, that he eagerly wished to procure a dog:, of which kind of animals this ifland,
was deftitute, though the natives knew that the
race exifted in other islands of the Pacific Oceam
Captain Gierke had received a similar prefent,
with the. fame view, from another man, who was
equally difappointed in his expectations.
The ifl-anders whom w.e had feen in thofe canoes
were in general of the middle statute, and not
ynlike the Mangeeans. Their hair either flowed
loofely over their fhoulders, or was tied on the
crown of the head ; and though in fome it was.
frizzled, yet that, as well as the ftraight fort, was
long. .Some of the. young men? were hajidfome.
Like the inhabitants of Mangeea, they wore girdles of glazed cloth, or fine matting, the ends
•of which were brought between their thighs.—
o o
Their ears were bored, and they wore about their-
necks, by way of ornament, a fort of broad grafs,
stained with red, and fining with berries of the
night-shade. Many of them were curioufly marked or tatooecl:from the middle downwards, particularly upon their legs; which made them appear
a$ if they wore boots.,  j Their beards, were long.5 168
and they had a kind of fandals on their feet*
They were frank1 anc} chearful in their deportment^
%nd very friendly and good-natured.
Lieutenant Gore returned from his excursion
in  the  afternoon,   and informed Captain Cook,,
that he had examined the weft fide of the ifland,
without being able to find a place where the ships
could ride in fafety, or a boat could land, the-
fiiore being bounded by a fteep coral rock, against
which a coritinual furf broke with extraordinary
violence*    But as the inhabitants feemed extremely friendly, and as desirous of our landing as we
ourfelves  were,   Mr.  Gore was of opinion, that
they might be prevailed upon to bring off to the
boats beyond the furf, fuch articles as we were
most in need of.    As we had little or no wind,
the delay of a day or two was of fmall confidera-
tion ; and therefore the Commodore refolved to
try the experiment the next morning..    We obferved, foon after day-break,  fome canoes coming towards the fhips; one of which directed its
courfe to the Refolution.    There were in it fome
cocoa-nuts and plantains,   and a hog, for which
the  natives demanded  a dog from us,   refusing;
every other thing that we offered by way of exchange.    Though one of our gentlemen on board
had a dog and  a bitch, which  were great nui-
fauces in the fhip, and which might have ferved
to propagate  a race of fo ufeful an animal in this
ifland, yet he   could not be prevailed upon to PACIFIC  OCEAN. 109
part with them. However, to gratify thefe people, Omai gave them a favourite dog he had
brought from Great-Britain; with which acquisition they were highly pleated.
The fame morning, which was the 3d of April,
Captain Cook detached Mr. Gore with three
boats, to make trial of the experiment which that
officer had propofed. Two of the natives, who
had been on board? accompanied him ; and Omai
ferved as an interpreter. The fhips being a full
league from the ifland when the boats put off, and
the wind being inconsiderable, it was twelve
o'clock before we could work up to it. We then
perceived our three boats juft without the furf,
and an amazing number of the islanders on the
fhore, abreast of them. Concluding from this,
that Lieutenant Gore, and others of our people
had landed, we were impatient to know the event.
With a view of obferving their motions, and being ready to afford them fuch afliftance as they
might occafionally require, the Commodore kept
as near the fhore as was confiftent with prudence.
He was convinced, however, that the reef was %
very effectual barrier between us and our friends
who had landed, and put them completely out
of the reach of our protection. But the natives,
in all probability, were not fo fenfiblc of this
circumstance as we were. Some of them, now
and then, brought a few cocoa-nuts to the
fhips, and exchanged them for whatever was of- **&■     A   VOYAGE    TO    MI
fered theni. Thefe occasional visits, diminiihec!
the Captain's folkitude about our people wh6
had landed; for, though we could procure no
intelligence from our visitors, yet their venturing on board feemed to imply, that th'eir countrymen on fhore had made no improper life of the
confidence repofed in them. At length, towards
the evening, we had the fatisfa£tiori of feeing the
boats return; When our people'*got on board,
we found thai Mr.-" Gore, Mr. Anderfon* Mr.
Burney, and Omai* ivere the only perfons who
liad landed. The occurrence of the day were
tiow fully reported to the Commodore by Mr.
Gore. Mr. Anderfon's account of their trarifac-
tions, which was very circumstantial, and included fome obfervations, on the ifland and it's inha*
Mtants, was to the following purport*
They rowed towards a fandy beach, where a
great number of the natives had affembled, and
came to an anchor at the diftance of an hundred-
yards from the reef. Several of the inlanders
fwam off*, bringing cocoa-nuts with them; and
Omai gave them to underftand, that our people
were desirous of landing. Soon after, two canoes
came off; andtoinfpire the natives with a greater
confidence, Mr. Gore and his companions re-
folvad to go unarmed. Mr. Anderfon and Lieutenant Burney went in the canoe, a little before
the other; and their conductors watching with
great attention the motioKs of the furf,   landed Pacific! ocean.
them fafely on the reef. A native took hold of
"each of them, with a view of fupporting them in
walking over the rugged rocks to the beach, where
feveral others, holding in their hands the green
boughs ofafpecies oimimofa, met them, and faluted them by the junction of notes. They were
toftdu&ed from the beach arriidft a vast multitude
of people, who flocked around them with the molt
eager curiosity ; and being led up an avenue of
bf cocoa palms, foon came to a number of men,
arranged in two rows, and armed with clubs;
Proeeedihg onward among thefe, they found a
perfon* who appeared to be a chief, fitting crofs*
legged on the ground, and cooling himfelf with a
kind of triangular fan, hiade from the leaf of the
cocoa-palm* with apolifhed hindle of black wood;,
He wore in his ears large bunches bf beautiful
feathers of a red colour; but had no other mark
to diftiriguifh him from the reft of the people.
Our twd countrymen having faluted him as he fat*
marched on among the men armed with clubs,
and came to a fecond chief, adorned like the
former, and occupied, like him, in fanning
himfelf. He was remarkable for his fize and
Corpulence, though he did not appear to be
above thirty years of age. They were conducted in the fame manner to a third chief, who
feemed older than the two former : he alfo was
fitting, and was ornamented with red feathers,
After they had faluted him as they had done the ii2       A  VOYAGE  TO  THE
others, he defired them both to fit down : which
they willingly contented to, being greatly fatigued
with walking, and with the extreme heat they felt
amidft the unrounding multitude.
The people being ordered to feparate, Meffrs.
Anderfon and Burney faw, at a fmall diftance,
about twentv young women, adorned like the
chiefs with red feathers, engaged in a dance,
which they performed to a flow and folemn air,
fung by them all. Our two gentlemen rofe up, and
walking forward to fee thefe dancers, who, without paying them the fmalleft attention, flill continued* their dance. They feemed to be directed
by a man, who, in the capacity of a prompter,
mentioned the feveral motions they were to make.
They never changed the fpot, as Europeans do
in dancing, and though their feet were not entirely
at reft, this exercife confifted more in moving their fingers very nimbly, holding their hands
at the fame time in a prone pofition near the face,
and occafionally clapping them together*. Their
dancing and finging were performed in the ex-
acteft concert. They had probably been instructed
with extraordinary care, and felected for this ceremony, being fuperior in beauty to moft of thofe
who were in the crowd. They were, in general,
rather flout, and of an olive complexion, with
black hair flowing in ringlets down their necks.
* The dances here defcribed, bear a great refemblance  to
thofe of the natives of the Caroline Iflands, PACIFIC    OCEAN. it3
Their fhape and limbs were elegantly formed ;
for, their drefs confifting only of a piece of glazed
cloth tied round the waist, which fcarcely reached
fo low as the knees, our gentlemen had an opportunity of obferving almost every part. Their features were rather too full to constitute a perfect
beauty. Their eyes were of a deep black, and
their countenances expreffed a great degree of mo-
defty and complacency;
Before thefe beauteous females had finifhed their
dance, our two countrymen heard a noife, as if
fome horfes had been galloping towards them ;
and on turning their eyes afide, they faw the
people armed with clubs, who had been de-
fired to entertain them, as they fuppofed, with an
exibition of their mode of fighting ; which they
now did, one party purfuing another who ran a*
Lieutenant Burney and Mr. Anderfon began
now to look about for Mr. Gore and Omai, whom
they at length found coming up, as much incommoded by the crowds of people as themfelves had
been, and introduced in the fame manner to
the three chiefs; the names of whom were Otteroo,
Taroa, and Fatouweera. Each of thefe expecting a prefent, Mr. Gore gave them fuch things,
as he had brought with him for that purpofe ; after which he informed the chiefs of his views in
coming on fhore, but was defired to wait till the
next day before he fhould have what was wanteds.
Q 2.
They now feemed to endeavour to feparate out-
gentlemen from each other, every one of whom,
had his refpective circle to furround, and gaze at
him. Mr. Anderfon was, at one time, upwards
of an hour apart from his friends ; and when he
told the chief, who was near him, that he wished
to fpeak to Omar, his request was peremptorily
refuted. At the fame time he found that the
people pilfered feveral trifling things which were,
in his pocket ; and on his complaining of this,
treatment to the chief, he justified their behaviour. From thefe circumftances, Mr. Anderfon began to apprehend, that they designed to
detain our party among them. In this situation
he afked for fomething to eat , upon which they
brought him fome cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, and
a fort of four pudding; and when he complained of the heat, occasioned by the multitude
of people, the chief himfelf condefcended to fan
Mr. Burney going to the place where Mr. An-,
derfonwas, the latter informed him of his fufpi-
ciorrs ; and to try whether they were wTell founded
or not,they both attempted to get to the beach :
but they were foon flopped by fome of the natives, who faid they mufl return to the place
which they had left. On their coming up they
found Omai under the fame apprehensions ; but
he had, as he imagined, an additional motive of
terror ; for, having obferved that they had dug a, PACIFIC OCEAN.
hole in the ground for an oven, which they
Were then heating, he could assign no-other rea-
fon for it, than that they intended to roaft and
devour our party : he even went fo far as to afk
them whether that was their intention, at which
they were much furprifed, afking, in return, whether that cuftom prevailed among us.
Thus were Mr. Anderfon and the others detained the greatest part of the day, being fometimes feparated, and fometimes together; but
continually in. a croud, who frequently defired
them to uncover parts of their fkin, the fight of
which struck the iflanders with admiration. They
at the fame time rifled the pockets of our countrymen ; and one of them fnatched from Mr.
Gore a bayonet, which hung by his fide. This
being represented to one of the chiefs, he pretended to fend a perfon in fearch of it, but probably countenanced the theft; for Omai, foon
after, had a dagger ftolen from his fide in the
fame manner. They now brought fome green
boughs as emblems of friendfhip, and flicking
the ends of them in the ground, defired that our
party would hold them as they fat, giving them
to underftand, that they muft flay and eat with
them. The fight of a pig lying near the oven
which they had prepared and heated, removed
Omai's apprehensions of being put into it himfelf, and made him think it might be intended
for the repaft   of him   and   his  three  friends. n6
The chief alfo fent fome of his people to provide
food for the cattle, and they returned with a few
plantain trees, which they conveyed to the boats*.
In the mean time, Meffrs. Burney and Anderfon
made a fecond attempt to get to the beach ; but,
on their arrival, they found diemfelves watched
by people who feemed to have been flationed
there for that purpofe ; for, when Mr. Anderfon
endeavoured to wade in upon the reef, one of
them dragged him back by his clothes. They
&ifo infilled upon his throwing down fome pieces,
of coral that he had picked up, and on his refufal
to comply, they took them from him by force.
Nor would they fuffer him to retain fome fmall
plants which he had gathered. They likewife
took a fan from Mr. Burney, which on his coming afhore he had received as a prefent. Finding;
that obedience to their will was the only method of procuring better treatment, the gentlemen returned to the place they had quitted ; and;
the natives now promifed,' that after they had
partaken of a repast which had been prepared for
them, they fhould be furnished with a canoe to
carry them off to their boats. Accordingly, the
fecond chief to whom they had been prefented,
having feated himfelf on a low ftool, and directed
the multitude to form a large ring, made them fit
down by him. A number of cocoa-nuts were
now brought, with a quantity of baked plantains* .
and a piece of the pig that had been dreffed was.. PACIFIC OCEAN.
■placed before each of them. Their fatigue, however, had taken away their appetites; but they
eat a little to pleafe their entertainers. It being
now near fun-feL the iflanders fent dow a to the
beach the remainder of the provisions that had
been dreffed, to be carried tc* the fhips* Our
gentlemen found a canoe prepared to put them off
to their boats,* which the natives did with great
caution; but as they were pufhing the can-,oe into
the furf, one of them fnatched a bag out of her,
which contained a pocket-piflol belonging to Mr.
Anderfon, who calling out to the thief witli marks
of the higheft difpleafure, he fwam back to the
canoe with the bag. The iflanders then pi it them
on board the boats, with the cocoa-nuts^ plantains, and other pro vifions; and they immtediately
rowed back to the fhips.
The restrained situation of thefe gentlemen
gave them very little opportunity of obferving
the country: for they were feldom a hundred
yards from the place where they had be ;en introduced to the chiefs, and confequentiy *i & ere confined to the furrounding objects. The 6rft thing
that attracted their notice was the n umber of
people, which mutt have been at leaft two thou-
fand. Except a few, thofe who had come on
board the fhips were all of an inferior cia fs ; for a
great number of thofe that our gentle men met
with on fhore, had afuperior dignity of c lemeanor,
and their complexion was much whiter. •   In gen- 115
neral, they had their hair, which was long and
black, tied on the crown of the head. Many of
the young men were perfect models in fhape, and
of a delicate complexion. The old men were,
many of them, corpulent; and they as well-as
the young, had a remarkable fmoothnefs of fldm
Their general drefs confifted of a piece of cloth
wrapped about the waift, but fome' had pieces of
mats, very curioufly variegated with black and
white, formed into a kind of a jacket without
fleeves ; while others wore conical caps made of
the core of a cocoa-nuts interwoven with beads;
In their ears, which were pierced, they hung pieces
of the membraneous part of fome plant, or ftuck
there fome odoriferous flower. The chiefs, and
other perfons of rank, had twTo little balls, with
a common bafe, made of bone; which they hung
round their necks with fmall cord. Red feathers
are here considered as a particular mark of distinction ; for none but chiefs, and the young
women who danced, affumed them.* Some of
the men were punctured all over the fides and
back, and fome of the women had the fame ornament (1 fit deferves that name) on their legs.?
The elderly women had their hair cropped fhort*
and many of them were cut all over the fore part
of the. body in oblique lines. The wife of a
chief appeared with her child, laid in a piece of
red cloth, which had been prefented to her huf-
band ;   flie fuckled the infant much after the man- PACIFIC OCEAN. ii'9
lies of our women. Another chief introduced
his daughter, who was young, beautiful, and
rnodeft. No perfonal deformities were obferved
in either fex, except in a few individuals who had
fears of broad ulcers remaining on the face and
other parts;
Marly of thetnatives were armed with spears and
clubs, the latter of which were generally about
fix feet long, made of a hard black wood, neatly
polished. The fpears were formed of the fame
wood, Amply pointed, and were in general twelve
feet long ; but fome wrere fo fliort as to feem in-
tended for darts;
They preferved their carioesfrom the fun iihdef;
the shade of various trees. Our gentlemen faw
eight or ten of them, ail double ones ; that is,
two fingie ones fattened together by rafters lathed
acrofs. They were about four feet deep, and in
length about twenty feet, and the fides were rounded with a plank raifed upon them* Two of thefe
canoes were curioufly ftained all over with black,
in innumerable fmall figures, as triangles, fquares,
■&c. and were far fuperior to any thing of the
kind Mr. Anderfon had ever feen at any other
ifland in the South Sea. The paddles were almost
elliptical, and about four feet long.
Moft of the trees obferved by Mr. Anderfon,
were cocoa-palms, fome fpecies of hibifcus, a fort
of euphorbia, and many of the fame kind he had
feen at  Mangeea.    The  latter are tall and flea-
der, refembling a cyprefs; and are called by the
natives ffoa. He alfo faw a fpecies of convolvulus^,
and fome treacle-muftard ; besides which there
are doubtlefs other plants and fruit-trees which he
had not an opportunity of feeing. The foil, towards the fea, is nothing more than a bank of
coral, generally fteep and rugged, which, though
it has probably been for many centuries expofed
to the weather, has fuffered no further change
than becoming black on its furface.     The reef
or rock, with which the fhore is lined, runs to
different breadths into the fea, where it refembles
a high fteep wall: it is of a brownifh colour, and
nearly even with the furface of the water ; and
though its texture is rather porous, it is capable
of withftanding the wafhing of the furf which con-
ftantly breaks upon it.
Though the landing of our gentlemen was the
means of enriching the narrative of the voyage
with the preceding particulars, the principal object in view was partly unattained; for we fcarce
procured any thing worth mentioning from the
It has been already obferved, that Omai was
fent upon this expedition as Mr. Gore's interpreter; which, perhaps, was not the only fervice he
performed this day. He was questioned by
the natives concerning us, our country, our fhips
and arms; in anfwer to which, he told them,
among many other particulars, that our  country
had fhips- as large as their ifland, on board of
which were implements of war (defcribing our
guns) of fuch dimenfions,' as to contain feveral
people within them ; one of which would demo-
lifh the ifland at one fhot. As for the guns in
our two fhips, he acknowledged they were but
fmall in comparifon with the former ; yet even
with thefe, he faid we could with great eafe, at
a considerable diftance deftroy the ifland and
every foul in it. On their enquiring by what
means this could be done, Omai produced fome
cartridges from his pocket, and having fubmitted
to infpedtion the balls, and the gunpowder by
which they were to befet in motion, he difpofed
the latter upon the ground, and, by means of a
piece of lighted wood, fet it on fire. The hidden
blaft, the mingled flame and fmoke, that in*
ftantaneoufly fucceeded, filled the natives with
fuch aftonifhment, that they no longer doubted
the formidable power of our weapons. Had it not
been for the terrible ideas they entertained of
the guns of our fhips, from this fpecimen of their
mode of operation, it was imagined that they
would have detained the gentlemen the whole
night ; for Omai affured them ,that, if he and his
friends did not return on board the fame day, they
might expect that the Commodore would fire upon the ifland. J|n
Though this ifland  had never before been vi-
fited by Europeans,   there were other   ftraBgexfc "
now residing in it; and it was entirely owing ta
Omai's accompanying Mr. Gore, that this, re--
markable circumstance came to. pur knowledge.
He had fcarcely landed on the beach, when he
found among the crowd, three of his own countrymen, natives of the Society Ifles.. At the 'dif*
tance of about two hundred leagues from thofe
iflands, an immenfe ocean intervening, with fuch
miferable. fea-boats as their inhabitants make ufe
of, fuch a meeting, at fuch a place, fo accidentally visited by us, may be considered as one of
thofe extraordinary and unexpected situations,
which strike a curious, obferver with wonder and
amazement. The mutual furprize and. pleafure
with which Omai and his countrymen engaged in,
converfation, may eafily be imagined. Their
ftory, as related by themfelves, is. a very affecting
one. About twenty perfons, male and female,
had embarked in a canoe at Otaheite, with an
intention of crofting over to Ulietea; "but they
were prevented by contrary winds from reaching
the latter, or returning to the former ifland,
Their flock of provisions being foon exhaufted,
they fuffered inconceivable hardships. They
paffed many days without fuftenance, in confe-*
quence of which their number gradually dimiv
nifned, worn out by famine and fatigue. Only
four men furvived, when their canoe was overfed
The deft ruction of this fmall remnant now feemed inevitable ;   however, they continued hanging PACI1
of theveffel, during fome^Lthe laft
days, till they providentially came in fignt of the
Inhabitants of this ifland, who fent out canoes
and brought them on fhore. One of thefe four
had fince died. The other three were fo well fa-
tisfied with the generous treatment they met with
here, that they refuted the offer made them by
our gentlemen, at the request of Omai, of 'taking
them on board our fhips, and restoring them to
their native iflands. They had arrived upon this
coaft at least twelve years ago. Their names
were Tavee, Otirreroa, and Orououte : the former was born at Huahenie, the .fecond at Ulietea,
and the latter at Otaheite. The application. of the
preceding narrative is obvious. It will ferve to
explain, in a more fatisfa&ory manner than the
fiimfy conjectures of fome fpeculative reafoners,
how the detached parts of the world, and, in
particular, the iflands of the Pacific Ocean, may
have been first peopled ; thofe efpecially which lie
at a confiderablediftance from each other, or from
any inhabited continent*
The natives of this ifland call it by the  name
of Wateeoo*     It is fituated in the longitude of
2oi° 45' eaft, and in the latitude of 200 iN fouth;
and is about fix leagues in circuit.    It  is a beautiful  fpot, with a furface covered with verdure, •
and compofed of hills and  plains.    The foil, in
• fome parts, is light and fandy: but, furthe
the country, we faw from the fhip, by the
er up
aflift- I2'4
ance ofg^ns glaffes, a reddifh eaft on the rising
grounds. There the iflanders build their houfes,
for we could perceive feveral of them, which were
long and fpacious. Its produce is nearly the fame
with that of Mangeea NooeNainaiwa,the ifland we
had last quitted. *
If we may depend on Omai's report of what he
learned from his three countrymen in the courfe
of conversation, the manners of the people, of Wa?
teeoo, their general habits of life, and their method of treating strangers, greatly refemble thofe
that prevail at Otaheite, and its neighbouring
iflands. There is alfo a great similarity between
their religious opinions and ceremonies. From
every circumftance, indeed, it may be confidered
as indubitable, that the inhabitants of Wateeop
derive their defcent from the fame flock which
has fo remarkably diffufed itfelf over the immenfe
extent of the Southern Ocean. Omai allured us
that they dignified their ifland with the pompous
appellation of Wenooa no te Fatoa, implying a land
of Gods ; efteeming themfelves a kind of divinities,
poffeffed with the fpirit of the Eatoa. Their Ian-.
guage was equally well underftood by Omai, and
by cur two New Zealanders who were on board :
its peculiarites, when compared with the other dialects we cannot point out; for the memorandum-
book, in which Mr. Anderfon had put down a
fpecimen of it, was ftolen by the natives.
C II A P.    III.
Vtakootaia vifited—Defcription of the Ifiand, and its
Produce—Birds—Fifh—Vifit Hervefs Ifland—
DiJcover it to be inhabited—The Inhabitants refufe
to come on board—Their propenfityio Theft—Their
Manners, Perfons, Drefs, Canoes, &c.—Make a
fruitlefs attempt to land—'Bear away for the
Friendly Iflands—Two I/lets ofPahnerfton's Ifland
touched at—Defcription of the Iflets, their Produce,
&c.—Refrefhmentsprocured there—Proceed to the'
Friendly Iflands.
CALMS and light airs having alternately
prevailed all the night of the 3d. of April,
before day-break the easterly fwell nad carried the
fhips fome diftance from Wateeoo ; but having
tailed of procuring, at that place, fome effectual
fupply, there appeared no reafon for our continuing there any longer; we therefore willingly
quitted it, and fleered for the ifland which we had
difcovered three days before.
We got up with it about ten o'clock in the
morning, when Captain Cook immediately dif-
patched Mr. Gore with two boats, to fee if he
could land, and get fubfiftence for our cattle.
Though a reef furrounded the land here, as at
Wateeoo, and a considerable furf broke against the
rocks, our boats no fooner reached  the weft fide lib
TO    TEfE
of the ifland, but they ventured in, and Mr. Gore
and his*attendants arrived fafe on fhore. Captairi
Cook, feeing they had fo far fucceeded, fent a
fmall boat to know if farther afliftance was required. She waited to take in "a lading of the
produce of the ifland, and did not return till
three o'clock in the afternoon: being cleared, fhe*
was fent again for another cargo | the jolly boat
was alfo difpatched upon the fame bufinefs, with
orders for Mr. Gore to return with the boats before night, which orders were punctually obferved.
The fupply obtained here was about two hundred cocoa-nuts for ourfelves, and for our cattle
fome grafs, and a quantity of the leaves and
branches of young cocoa trees, and the pandanus.
This ifland lies about three or four leagues
from Wateeoo, the inhabitants of which call it
Otakootaia. It is in the latitude of 190 15' fouth,
and the longitude of 201 ° ^f eaft, and is fuppofed
not to exceed three miles in circuit.
This ifland is entirely destitute of water.
Cocoa-palms were the only common trees found
there, of which there were feveral clutters, and
preat quantities of the wharra, or pandanus*
There were alfo the cailophyllum, furiana; with a
few other fhrubs ; alfo a fort of bind-wced, treacle*
muftard, a fpecles offpuKfc, and the morinda citri-
foiia ; the fruit of which is fometimes eaten by
1 he natives of Otaheite.    Omai, who landed with
the party, dreffed fome of it for their dinner, but
they thought it very indifferent.
A beautiful cuckoo* of a chefnut brown, vane-
gated with black, was the only bird feen amongst
the trees; but, upon the fnore* were a fmall fort
of curlew, blue and white herons, fome egg-birds^
and great numbers of noddies.
One of the company caught a lizard running
up a tree; though fmall it had a moft forbidding
afpect. Many of another fort were alfo feen.
Infinite'numbers of a kind of moth, elegantly
fpeckied with black, white, and red, frequented
the bufhes towards the fea. Some other forts of
moths and pretty butterflies were feen.
At this time there were no fixed inhabitants
upon the ifland; but we difcovered a few empty
huts, which convinced us of its being, at leaft
occafionally visited. Monuments, confifting of
feveral large Hones, were alfo erected under the
Ihade of fome trees: there were alfo fome fmaller
ones, with which feveral places were inclofed,
where we fuppofed their dead had been buried.
"We found in one place a great many cockle-
fliells of a particular fort, finely grooved, and
larger than the fift; from which it was conjectured, that the ifland had been visited by perfons
who fometimes feed on fhell-fifh. Mr. Gore left
fome nails and a hatchet in one of the huts, for
the ufe of thofe who might vifit the ifland in future. 128
The boats being hoifted in, we made fail again
to the northward, refolving to try our fortune at
Hervey's ifland, which was difcovered by Captain
Cook in 1773, during his last voyage, We got
fight of it about day break in the morning of the
6th, at the diftance of about three leagues. We
approached it about eight o'clock, and obferved
feveral canoes coming from the fhore towards the
fhips. We were rather furprized at this circume
fiance, as no traces or signs of inhabitants were
feen when the ifland was firfl difcovered : this
indeed, might be owing to a brifk wind that then
}lew, and prevented their canoes venturing out.
Advancing ftili towards the ifland, fix or feven
double canoes immediately came, with
from three to fix men in each of them. At the
diftance of about a ftone's throw from the fhip
they flopped, and it was with difficulty that Omai
prevailed on them to come along fide; but they
could not be induced to truftthemfeives on board.
They attempted to ileal fome oars out of the Dif-
covery's boat, and struck a man for endeavouring"
to prevent them. They alfo cut away a net containing meat, which hung over the ftern of that fhip,
and at first would not reftore it, though they after*
wards permitted us to purcbafe it from them. Thofe
who were about the Refolution behaved equally
disorderly and daring ;   for, with a fort of hooks PACIFIC OCEAN.
made of a long flick, they openly endeavoured to
rob us of feveral things, and actually got a frock
belonging to one of our people. It appeared that
they had & knowledge of bartering, for they
exchanged fome fifh for fome of our fmall
nails, of which they were extravagantly fond,
and called them goore. Pieces of paper, or any
other trifling articles that was thrown to them, they
caught with the greatest avidity; and if what was
thrown fell into the fea* they immediately plunged
in to fwim after it.
Though the diftance between Hervey's Ifland
and. Wateeoo is not very great, the inhabitants
differ greatly from each other, both in perfon and
difpofition. The colour of the natives of Hervey'i
Ifland is of a deeper eaft, and feveral of them had
a fierce lavage afpect, like the natives of New-
Zealandv though fome were fairer. Their hair
was long and black, either hanging loofe about
their fhoulders* or tied in a bunch on the top of
the head. Some few, indeed, had it cropped
ftiort, and,  in two or three of them, it was of a
red or brownifh col
Their clothing was
narrow piece of mat, bound feveral times round
the lower part, of the body, and paflihg. between
fche thighs* We faw a fine cap of red feathers
lying in one of. the canoes, and fome amongft
them were ornamented with the shell of a pearl*
oyfter, polifhed, and hung about the neck,
&.* A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
The mode of ornament, fo prevalent among the
natives of this ocean, of puncturing or tatooing
their bodies, not one of them had adopted ; but
though they were singular in this refpect, their
being of the fame common race is not to be
doubted. Their language more refembled the
dialect of Otaheite, than that of Mangeea or Wateeoo. Like the natives of thofe iflands, they
enquired from whence we came, whither bound,
the fhip's name, the name of our chief, and the
number of men on board. Such questions as we
propofed to them, they very readily anfwered.
They informed us, among other things that they
had before feen two large fhips like ours, but
had not fpoken to them as they paffed. Thefe
were, doubtless, the Refolution and Adventure.
They acquainted us, that the name of their ifland
was Terouggemou Atooa ; and that they were
fubject to Teerevatooeah, King of Wateeoo.
Their food, they faid, confifted of cocoa-nuts,
fifh, and turtle; being destitute of dogs and hogs,
and the ifland not producing bread fruit or plantains. Their canoes (near thirty of which appeared one time in fight) are tolerably large, and
well built, and bear fome refemblance to thofe of
We drew near the north-weft part of the ifland
about one o'clock. This feemed to be the only
part where we could expect to find anchorage, or
a landing-place   for our boats.     Captain Cook
IL 1
immediately difpatched Lieutenant King, with
two armed boats, to found and reconnoitre the
coaft. The boats were no fooner hoifted out, than
our new visitors fufpended their traffic with us,
pufhing for fhore as faft as poflible, and came no
more near us.
The boats returned at three o'clock, and Mr.
King informed Captain Cook that he could find
no anchorage for the fhips; and that the boats
could advance no farther than the outer edge of
the reef, which was almost a quarter of a mile
from the dry land. That a number of the natives
came upon the reef, armed with clubs and long-
pikes, meaning, as he fuppofed, to oppofe his
landing ; though, at the fame time, they threw
cocoa-nuts to our people, and requefted them to
come on fhore ; and notwithftanding this teeming friendly treatment, the women were very active
in bringing down a frefh fupply of darts and
Captain Cook considered that as we could not
bring the fhips to an anchor, the attempt to procure grafs here would be attended with delay and
danger. Being thus difappointed in all the iflands
after our leaving New-Zealand, and having, from
variety of circumftances, been unavoidably regarded in our progrefs, it was in vain to think of
doing any thing this year in the high latitudes of
the nothern hemifphere, from which we were
then fo far diftant, though it was then the feafon '3*
for our operations there. Thus iituated, it was
neceffary to purfue fuch meafures as appeared beft
calculated to preferve our cattle, and fave the
ftores and provifions of the fhips; the better to
enable us to profecute our nothern difcoveries,
which could not now commence till a year later:
than was intended.
If we could fortunately have procured a fupply
of water and grafs, at any of the iflands we had
lately vifited, Captain Cook intended to have
flood back to the fouth till he had got a westerly
wind. But, without fuch a fupply, the certain
confequence of doing this, would have been the
lofs of the cattle before it was poflible for us to
reach Otaheite, without gaining a fingle point of
advantage refpecting the grand object of our voyage.
The Captain, therefore, determined to bear
away for the Friendly Iflands, where he knew he
could be wTell fupplied with everything he wanted:
and, it being neceffary to run night and day, he
ordered Captain Gierke to keep a league a-head
of the Refolution ; becaufe his fhip could beft claw
of the land, which we might poffibly fall in with in
our paffage.
We fleered weft by fouth, with a fine breeze.
Captain Cook propofed to proceed first to Mid-
dleburgh, or Eooa, thinking we might, perhaps,
have provision enough for the cattle, to laft till we
fhould arrive  at that ifland.     But the next  day
about noon, thofe faint breezes that had fo long
Tetarded us, again returned ; and we found it neceffary to get into the latitude of Palmerfton's
and Savage Iflands, which Captain Cook difcovered in 1774; that, in cafe of neceflity, recourfe
might be had to them.
In order to fave our water, Captain Cook ordered the ftill to be kept at work a whole day ;
during which time we procured about fifteen gallons of frefh water.
Thefe light breezes continued till Thurfday
the 10th, wrhe.n the wind blew fome hours frefh ■
from the north, and north north-weft. In the
afternoon we had fome very heavy rain, attended
with thunder fqualls. We collected as much
rain-water as filled five of our puncheons. When
thefe fqualls had blown over, the wind was very
unfettled, both in ftrength and in position, till ,
the next day at noon, When it fixed at north-weft,
and north north-weft, and blew a frefh breeze;
We were thus perfecuted with a wind in our
teeth, and had the additional mortification to find
thofe very winds here, which we had reafon to
expect farther fouth. At day break, however,
on the 13th, we perceived Palmerfton's Ifland,
bearing weft by fouth, at the diftance of about
five leagues ; but did not get up with it till the
next morning at eight. Captain Cook then dif-
patched three boats from the Refolution, and one
from the Difcoverv, with a proper officer in each, 134 A VOYAGE TO THE
to fearch for a convenient landing place ; we being now under an abfolute neceffity of procuring
here fome provender forour cattle, or we mufl certainly have loft them.
What is called Palmerfton's Ifland, confifts of
a group of fmall iflets, about nine or ten in number, connected together by a reef of coral rocks,
and lying in a circular direction. The boats firft
examined the moft fouth easterly iflet; and not
fucceeding there, ran down to the fecond, where
they immediately landed. Captain Cook then
bore down with the fhips, till we were a-breaft
of the place, where we kept flanding off and on,
there being no bottom to be found to anchor-
upon. This, however, was of no material confequence, as there were no human beings upon
the ifland, except the party who had landed from
our boats.
At   one  o'clock  one of the  boats returned,
laden  with  fcurvy-grafs and  young cocoa-trees,;
which was, at this time, a moft excellent  repast
for our animals on board.    A  meffage was  alfo
brought from  Mr. Gore, who  commanded  the
party upon  this expedition, acquainting us that
the ifland abounded with fuch produce, and alfo ]
with the wharra-tree and cocoa-nuts.    In   confequence  of   this information,   Captain C<?ofc^. re-
folved  to get a fufficient  fupply of thefe  articles j
before he quitted this  ftation,   and accordingly
went a-fhore in a fmall boat, accompanied bv the PACIFIC   OCEAN.
Captain of the Difcovery. . The ifland does not
exceed a mile in circumference, and is not elevated above three feet beyond the level of the fea.
It consisted almoft entirely of a coral fand, with a
fmall mixture of blackifh mould, which appeared
to be produced from rotten vegetables.
This poor foil is, however, covered with the
fame kind of fhrubs and bufhes as we had feen
at Otakootia or Wenooa-ette, though not in fo
great variety. We perceived a great number of man
of war birds, tropic birds, and two forts of boobies,
which were then laying their eggs, and fo exceedingly tame as to permit us to take them off
their nefts, which confifts only of a few flicks
loofely put together. Thefe tropic birds differ
effentially from the common fort, being of a beautiful white, flightly tinged with red, and having
two long tail feathers of a deepifh crimfon.
Our people killed a considerable number of each
fort, which, though not the moft delicate kind
of food, were highly acceptable to us, who had,
been for a long time confined to a fait diet. We
faw plenty of red crabs creeping about among
the trees ; and caught feveral fifh, which, when
the fea retreated, had been left in holes upon the
At one part of the reef, which bounds the lake
within, almoft even with the furface, there was a
large bed of coral, which afforded a moft en«
chanting profpect.     Its bafe, which was fixed to 0       A  VOYAGE  TO  THE
the fhore, extended fo far that it could not be
feen, fo that it appeared to be fufpended in the
water. The fea wras then unruffled, and the re*
fulgence of the fun expofed the various forts of
coral, in the moft beautiful order; fome parts
luxuriantly branching into the water; others appearing in vast variety of figures; and the whole
greatly heightened by fpangles of the richest colours, glowing from a number of large clams,
interfperfed in every part. Even this delightful
fcene was greatly improved by the multitude of
fifhes, that gently glidfed along, feemingly with
the moft perfect fecurity. Their colours were
the moft beautiful that oan be imagined ; blue
yellow, black, red, &c. far excelling any thing
that can be produced by art* The richness of
this fubmarine grotto was greatly increafed by
their various forms; and the whole could not
poflibly be furveyed without a pleating tranfport,
accompanied, at the fame time, with regret, that
a work fo aftonifhingly elegant fhould be concealed in a place fo feldom explored by the human
Except a piece of a canoe that was found upon
the beach, no traces were discoverable of inhabitants having ever been here; and probably that
may have been drifted from fome other ifland.
We were furprifed, however, at perceiving fome
fmall browft rats on this little ifland; a circum-
itance, perhaps, not easily accounted for, unlefs PACIFIC OCEAN.
we admit the poffibility of their being imported in
the canoe, of which we faw the remnant.
The boats being laden, Captain Cook returned
on board, leaving Mr. Gore and his party to pafs
the night on fhore, to be ready for bufinefs early
the next morning.
The 15th. like the preceding day, was fpent
in collecting fubfiftence for the cattle, confifting
principally of tender branches of the wharra tree,
palm-cabbage, and young cocoa-nut trees. A
fufficient fupply of thefe having been procured
by fun-fet, Captain Cook ordered all the people
on board: but having very little wind, he determined to employ the next day, by endeavouring, from the next ifland to leeward, to get fome
cocoa-nuts for our people : for this purpofe, we
kept ftanding off and on all the night ; and, about
nine o'clock in the morning, we went to the weft-
fide of the iflands, and landed, from our boats,
with little difficulty. The people immediately
employed themfelves in gathering cocoa-nuts,
which we found in the greatest plenty; but it was
a tedious operation to convey them to our boats,
being obliged to carry them half a mile over the
reef, up to the middlein water. Omai, who accompanied us, prefently caught, with a fcoop-net, as
many fifh as fupplied the party on fhore for dinner, befides fending a quantity to each fhip. Men
of war, and tropic-birds, were found here in
abundance -, fo that we fared moft fumptuoufly.
T2 <3*
In thefe excurfions to the uninhabited iflands,
Omai was of the greatest fervice to us. He
caught the fifh, and dreffed them, as well as the
birds we killed, after the fafhion of his country,
with a dexterity and cheerfulnefs that did him honour. Before night the boats had made two trips,
and were each time heavy laden : with the last,
Captain Cook returned on board, leaving his
Third Lieutenant, Mr. Williamfon, with a party,
to prepare another lading for the boats against the
next morning.
Accordingly, Capt. Cook difpatched them about
feven o'clock, and, by noon, they returned laden.
No delay was made in fending them back for another cargo, with orders for all to be on board by fun-
fet. Thefe orders being punctually obeyed, we
hoifted in the boats, and failed to the weftward,
with a light air from the north.
The iflet we last came from is fomewhat larger
than the other, and almost covered with cocoa-
palms. The other productions were the fame as
at the first iflet. On the beach were found twro
pieces of board, one of which was rudely carved,
and an elliptical paddle. Thefe were, perhaps,
a part of the fame canoe, the remains of which
we had feen on the other beach, the two iflets
being within half a mile of each other. There
were not fo many crabs here as at the last place,
but we found fome fcorpions and other infects,
and a much greater number of fifh upon the reefs. PACIFIC   OCEAN.        139
Among the reft were fome beautiful large fpotted
eels, which would raife themfelves out of the
water, and endsavour to bite their purfuers.
There were alfo fnappers, parrot-fifh, and a brown
fpotted rock-fifh, not larger than a haddock, fo
tame, that it would remain fixed, and gaze at us.
If we had been really in want, a fufficient fupply might eafily have been had, for thoufands of
the clams ftuck upon the reef, many of which
weighed two or three pounds. There were alfo fome
other forts of fhell-fifh; and, when the tide flowed, feveral fliarks came with it, fome of which were
killed by our people ; but their prefence rendered
it, at that time, unfafe to walk into the water.
Mr. Williamfon and his party, who were left on
fhore, were much pestered in the night with muf-
quitoes. Some of them fhot two curlews, and faw
fome plovers upon the fhore ; one or two cuckoos,
like thofe at Wenooa-ette, were alfo feen.
The iflets comprehended under the name of
Palmerfton's Ifland, may be faid to bethe fummits
of a reef of coral-rock, covered only with a thin
coat of fand; though clothed with trees and plants,
like the low grounds of the high iflands of this
Having left Palmerfton's Ifland, we fleered
weft, in order to proceed to Annamooka. We
had variable winds, with fqualls, fome thunder,
and much rain. The fliowers being very copious,
we faved a considerable  quantity of water ;    and, -*4&
as we could procure a greater fupply in one hour,
by the rain, than by diftiiation in a month, we laid
theftill afide, as being attended with more trouble
than advantage.
The heat, which had continued in the extreme
for about a month, became much more difagree-
able in this clofe rainy weather, and we apprehended it would foon be noxious. It is however,
remarkable, that there was not then afingle perfon
fick on board either of the fhips.
We paffed Savage Ifland, which Captain Cook.
difcovered in 1774, in the night between the 24th
and 25th ; and on the 28th, about ten o'clock in
the morning, we faw the iflands to the eaft ward of
Annamooka,bearing north by weft aboutfive leagues
diftant. We fleered to the fouth, and then hauled
up for Annamooka. At the approach of night,
the wreather being fqually, with rain, we anchored
in fifteen fathoms water.   PACIFIC OCEAN
CHAP.    IV.
Barter with the Natives of Komango and cither
I/lands, for Provifions, &c.—Arrival at Anna-
mooka-*-Variety of Trarfatlions there—A Vifii
received from Feenou, a principal Chief fromi
Tongataboo—His reception in the ifland— Ditiei
frequently on board the Refolution—^Several Inflames of the pilfering Difpofition of the Natives
*-*-Punifhments infiicled on theni—Account of
Annammka—-^Proceed on to Hapaee,
WE had not long anchored, when two canoes paddled towards us, and came along
fide without delay or hesitation: there Were four
men in one of the canoes, and three in the other.
They brought with them fome fugar-cane, breadfruit, plantains, and cocoa-nuts, which they bartered with us for nails. After thefe canoes had
left us, we were visited by another; but as nighi
was approaching, he did not long continue with
us. The ifland nearest to us was Komango,which
was five miles distant; this fliews how thefe people difregard trouble or danger, to get poffeffion
of a few of our moft trifling articles.
At four o'clock the next morning, Captaiii
Cook difpatched Lieutenant King with two boats
to Komango, in order to procure  refreshments 5 142
and at five made the signal to weigh, to proceed
to Annamooka.
As foon as day-light apppeared, we were visited
by fix or feven canoes, bringing with them two
pigs, fome fowls, feveral large wrood-pidgeons,
fmall rails, and fome violet coloured coots, betides fruits and roots of various kinds; which
they exchanged with us for nails, hatchets, beads,
&c. They had other articles of commerce, but
Captain Cook gave particular orders that no curiosities fhould be purchafed, till the (hips-were
fupplied with provisions, and till they had obtained permiflion from him.
About noon Mr. King's boat returned with
feven hogs, fome fowls, a quantity of fruit and
roots; and alfo fome grafs for our animals. His
party* was treated with great civility at Komango.
The inhabitants did not appear to be numerous :
and their huts, which almost joined to each other,
were but indifferent. Tooboulangee, the chief
of the ifiand, and another, named Ta^pa, came
on board with Mr. King. They brought a hog,
as a prefent to Captain Cook, and promifed to
bring fome more the next day.
The boats being a-board, we flood for Annamooka ; and, having little wind, we intended to
go between Aiinamooka-ette*, and the breakers
at the fouth-eaft ; but, on drawing near, we met
* Little Annamooka PACIFIC OCEAN.
with very irregular foundings, which obliged us
to relinquifh the defign, and go to the fouth-
ward. This Carried us to leeward, and we found
it neceffary to fpend the night under fail. It was
dark and rainy, and we had the wind from £very
direction. The next morning at day-light, we
were farther off than we had been the preceding
evening ; and the wind was now right in our
teeth.   .
We continued to Fply, to Very little purpofe,
the whole day, and, in the evening, anchored in
thirty-nine fathoms wrater; the Weft point of
Annamooka bearing eaft north-eaft, four miles
diftant. Tooboulangee and Taipa, agreeable to
their'promife, brought off fome hogs for Captain Cook: we obtained others, by bartering,
from the different canoes that followed us, and
a large quantity of fruit. It is remarkable, that
thofe who vifited us from the ifland on that day,
would hardly part with any of their commodities to
any one but Captain Cook*!|§|§
At four the next morning* Captain Cook or*
dered a boat to be hoifted out, and the matter to
found the fouth-weft fide of Annamooka. When
he returned, he reported, that he had founded
between Great and Little Annamooka, where he
found ten and twelve fathoms depth of water \
that the place was very well fheltered from winds \
but that no frefh water was to be had but at a
confiderable diftance inland, and that, even there?
U 144
it was neither plentiful nor good. For this very
fuflicient reafon, Captain Cook refolved to anchor
on the north fide of the ifland, where, in his last
voyage, he had found a convenient place for water*
I7ig and landing.
Though not above a league diftant, we did
not reach it till about five o'clock in the afternoon, being retarded by the quantity of canoes
that crowded round the fhips, laden with abundant fupplies of the produce of their ifland.
Several of the canoes, which were double, had
a large fail, and carried between forty and fifty
men each. Several women too appeared in the
canoes, incited, perhaps, by curiofity to vifit us;
though they were as earnest in bartering as the
men, and ufed the paddle with equal fkill and
dexterity. We came to an anchor in eighteen
fathoms water, the ifland extending from eaft to
fouth-weft, about three quarters of a mile dif-
tant. Thus Captain Cook returned the itation,
which he had occupied when he vifited Annamooka three years before ; and probably where
Tafman, who first difcovered this ifland, anchored
in 1643.
The next day, during the preparations for watering, Captain Cook went afhore, in the forenoon, accompanied by Captain Clerke, and
others, to fix on a place for fetting up the obfer-
vatories, the natives having readily granted us
permiflion.    They {hewed us  every mark of gl* PACIFIC OCEAN.
^ility,. and accommodated us with a boat-houfe,
which anfwered the purpofe of a tent. Toobou,
the chief of the ifland, conducted Captain Cook
and Omai to his houfe, situated, on a pleafant
fpot, in the centre of his plantation. It was fur-
rounded widsa grafs-plot, which he faid was for
the purpofe of, cleaning their feet, before they
entered his habitation. Such an attention to
cleantinefs we had never obferved before, where--
ever we had vifited in this ocean ; though we afterwards found it to be very common at the
Friendly Iflands. No carpet in an Englifh draw-,
ijig-room could be kept neater,, than the mats
which covered the floor of Toobou's houfe.
While we were on fhore, we bartered for fome
hogs and fruit ^ and, when,we arrived on boards
the fhips were crowded with the natives. As very few. of them came empty-handed, we were fpee-
dily fupplied with every refrefhment.
In the afternoon, Captain Cook landed again,
with a party of marines, and fuch of the cattle5
as were in a weakly state, were fent on fhore
with him. Having fettled every thing to his fa-
tisfa&ion, he returned to the fhip in the evening,
leaving Mr, King in command upon the iflan<sh
Taipa was now become our trufty friend, and, in
order to be near our party, had a houfe carried a
quarter of a mile, upon men's fhoulders, and
placed by the fide of the fhed which our party oo*
cupied*. is
I4<f        A VOYAGE TO THE
Our various operations on fhore began the next
day. Some were bulled in making hay, others
in filling our water-cafks, and a third party in
cutting wood. On the fame day, Meffrs. King
and Baity began to obferve equal altitudes of the
fun, in order to get the rate of our time-keepers.
In the evening, Taipa harangued the natives, for
fome time; but We could only guefs at the fub*
ject, and fuppofed he was instructing them how
to treat us, and .advifing them to bring of the produce of the ifland to market. His eloquence
had the defired effect, and occasioned us to receive a plentiful fupply of provisions the next
On the 4th of May, the Difcovery loft her fmall
bower anchor, the cable being cut in two by the
We were visited, on :he 6th, by a chief from
Tongataboo, whofe name was Feenou : he was
introduced by Taipa, as King of all the Friendly
Ifles. Captain Cook was now informed, that,
on our arrival, a canoe had been immediately
difpatched to Tongataboo with the news ; which
occafioned his coming to Annamooka. We were
informed, by the officer on fhore, that, on his
arrival, all the natives were ordered out to meet
him, who faluted him by bowing their heads as
low as his feet, the foles of which they touched
with the palms of each hard, and afterwards with
the back part.    A perfonage received with fuch PACIFIC OCEAN.
extraordinary marks of refpect,  could not be fuppofed to be any thing lefs than a King.
Captain Cook in the afternoon, went to pay
a vifit to this great man, having first received
from him a prefent of two fifh, brought on board
by one of his attendants. As foon as the Captain landed, Feenou came up to him. He was
tali and thin, and appeared to be about thirty-
years of age: his features were more of the European eaft than any we had feen here. After the
first falutation, Captain Cook requested to know
if he was king ; as he entertained fome doubts
on that fcore, perceiving that he was not the
man whom he remembered to have feen in that
character during his former voyage. Taipa eagerly anfwered for him, and mentioned no lefs thm-
one hundred and fifty three iflands, of which
he was the fovereign. Soon after, our grand vi-
fitor, attended by five or fix fervants, accompanied us on board. Captain Cook made them
fuitable prefents, and entertained them in a manner which he thought would be moft agreeably to
; Towards the evening, the Captain attended
them on fhore in his boat, into which, by order
of the chief, three hogs were conveyed, as a return for prefents he had received. We were
then informed of an accident, the relation of
which will convey fome idea of the extent of :he
authority exercifed here over the inferior people. i.4».       A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
While Feenou was on board the Refolution, am
inferior chief ordered alt the natives to retire
from the poft we occupied. Some of them, how^
ever, having ventured to return, he beat them%
moft unmercifully, with a large flick. One, in
particular, received fo violent a. blow on, the fide
of the face, that the blood gufhed from his.
mouth and noftrils ; and, after lying motionlefs,
for fome time, he was removed from the place
in convulsions. The perfon who gave the blow,w
on being told that he certainly had killed the man,,
only laughed at the circumftance; and, in>.
deed, it was very evident, that he did not grieve
for what had happened. We had afterwards the
fatisfa£tion of hearing that the poor fufferer was*,
©ut of danger.
On the 7th, the Difcovery having found her
fmall bower anchor, fliifted her birth; but not
till after her beft bower cable had met with the
fate of the other. This day, Feenou dined with
Captain Cook; and alfo on the next, when he
was attended by Taipa, Toobou, and fome other
chiefs. None but Taipa, however was permit*
ted to fit at table with Feeuou, or even to eat in
his prefence. The Captain was highly pleated on,
account of this etiquette; for before the arrival of Feenou, he had generally a larger company than he chofc, his table being overflowed
with visitors ofbothfexes. For though, at Ota-^
heite, the females are denied the privilege of eat-- PACIFIC OCEAN.
ing in company with the men, this is not the practice at the Friendly Iflands.
A large junk axe having been ftolen out  of
the  fhip by one of the  natives on the first day of
our arrival at Annamooka, application was made
to Feenou to exert his authority to get it reftored;
who gave orders for this  purpofe, which exacted
fuch implicit obedience, that it was  brought on
board before  we had finifhed our dinner.    We
had,   indeed, many  opportunities of remarking,
how expert thefe people  were in thievery.    Evefc
fome  of their chiefs  were not afhamed  of a£ting
in that profefsion.    On the 9th of May, one of
them was detected carrying out  of the  fhip, the
bolt belonging to the fpun-yarn winch, which he
had carefully concealed under his clothes.    For
this offence  Captain Cook fentenced him to receive  a dozen lafhes, and  to be confined till he
paid  a hog  for his liberty.    Though, after  this
circumftance,   we were troubled with no more
thieves  of rank,   their  fervants or flaves  were
conftantly employed in this dirty  bufinefs ; and
they  received a flogging with  as much feeming
indifference, as if it  had been upon the mainmast.     When any of them were caught in the
act of thieving, inftead of interceding  in  their
behalf, their matters would often advife us to kill
them.     This being a   punifhment we were not
fond of inflicting, they ufually   efcaped without
any kind of punifhment;   they were alike infen- IfO
fible of the fhame and torture of corporal chaf-
tifement. At length, however, Captain Gierke
contrived a mode of treatment, which we fuppofed had fome effect. Immediately upon detection, he ordered their heads to be completely fhaved, and thus pointed them out as objects of ridicule to their countrymen, and put our people upon
their guard, to deprive them of future opportunites
for a repetition of their thefts.
Feenou was fo fond of our company, that he*
dined on board every day, though he did not always partake of our fare. On the ioth, his Servants brought him a mefs, which had been drefiacf
on fhore, confifting of fifh, foup, and yams ;
cocoa-nut liquor had been ufed inftead of water,
in which the-fifh had been boiled or ftewred, (perhaps in a wooden veffel -with hot ftones) and it
was carried on board on a plantain leaf. Captain
Cook tailed of the mefs, and was fowell pleated
with it, that he afterwards ordered fome fifh to
be dreffed in the fame way ; though his cook fuc-
ceeded tolerably well, it was much inferior to the
difh he attempted to imitate.
Having, in a great meafure, exhaufted the
ifland of almoft every article of food, on Sunday the nth of May, we removed, from the
more, the obfervatories, horfes, and other things
that we had landed ; intending to fail as foon as
the Difcovery fhould have found her beft bower
anchor. Feenou, hearing that the Captain meant to PACIFIC OCEAN.
proceed to Tongataboo, earnestly entreated him to
alter his plan; expressing as much aversion to it,
as if, by diverting him from it, he wifhed to promote fome particular interest of his own. He
warmly recommended a group of iflands, called
Hapaee, lying to the north-eaft ; where, he afi-
fured us, we could be easily and plentifully fup-
plied with every refrefhment; and even offered
to attend us thither in perfon. In confequence
of his advice, Hapaee was made choice of; and,
as it had not been vifited by any European fhips,
the furveying it became an object to Captain
On Tuefday the 1.3th, Captain Gierke's anchor
was happily recovered; and, on the morning
of the 14th, we got under fail, and left Annamooka.
Though this ifland is fomewhat higher than
the other, fmall ifles that furround it, yet it is
lower than Mangeea and Wateeoo ; and even
thofe are but of a moderate height. The fhore,
where our fhips lay, confifts of a fteep, rugged,
coral rock, about nine or ten feet high, except
two fandy beaches, which were defended from the
fea, by a reef of the fame fort of rock. In the
centre of the ifland there is a fait water lake,
about a mile and an half in breadth, round
which the ground rifes with a gradual afcent,
and we could not trace its having any commuica-
lion with the fea.     On  the rising parts of the
X |P       A   VOYAGE  TO  THE
ifland, and efpecially towards the fea, the foil is
either of a blackifh loofe mould, or a reddish clay;
but there is not a stream of frefh water to be found
in any part of the ifland.
The land here is well cultivated, except in a
few places ; and, though fome parts appear to lie
watte, they are only left to recover the strength
exhaufted by constant culture ; for we often faw
the natives at work upon thefe fpots, in order
to plant them again. Yams and plantains form
their principal plantations; many of which are
very extenfive, and enclofed with fences of reed
about fix feet high. Fences of lefs compafs were
often feen within thefe, furrounding the houfes of
the principal people. The bread-fruit and cocoa-
nut-trees are interfperfed without any regular order, but principally near the habitations of the
natives. The other parts of the ifland, efpecially
towards the fea, and round the lake, are covered
with luxuriant trees and bufhes ; among which
there are a great many mangroves and faitanoo-
trees. All the rocks and flones about the ifland
are of coral, except in one place, to the right of
the fandy beach, where there is a rock of about
twenty five feet in height, of a calcareous ftone,
and of a yellowifh colour ; but, even here, fome
large pieces are to be feen of the fame coral rock
as that which compofe the fhore.
We fometimes  amufed ourfelves in walking up
the country and fhooting wild ducks, refembling PACIFIC  OCEAN. 153
our widgeon, which are very numerous on the
fait lake, as well as on the pool where we procured our water. We found, in thefe excurfions,
that the inhabitants frequently deferted their
houfes to repair to the trading place, without entertaining the least iufpicion that strangers would
take away or destroy any property that belonged
to them. From this circumstance it might be
fuppofed, that moft of the natives were fometimes collected on the beach, and that there
would be no great,difficulty in forming an accurate computation of their number ; but the continual refort of visitors, from the other iflands, rendered it impoffible. However, as wre never faw
more than athoufand perfons collected at one time,
it may be reafonably fuppofed, that there are about
twice that number upon the ifland.
In the direct track to Hapaee, -whither we
were now bound, to the north and north-eaft of
Annamooka, a great number of fmall ifles are
feen. Amidft the rocks and fhoals adjoining to
this group, we were doubtful whether there was
a free paffage for fhips of fuch magnitude as ours ;
though the natives failed through the intervals
in their canoes ; therefore, when we weighed anchor from Annamooka, we fleered to go to the
^weitward of the above iflands, and north north-
weft towards Kao, and Toofoa, two iflands remarkable for their great height, and the moft
westerly of thofe in fight.    Feenou, with his at-
X 2. 354       A    VOYAGE    TO   THE
tendants, remained in the Refolution till about
noon, and then entered the large failing canoe,
which had brought him from Tongataboo, and
flood in amongft the clutter of iflands, of which we
were now abreast.
They are fcattered at unequal diftances, and
moft of them are as high as Annamooka. Some
of them are two or three miles in length, and
others only half a mile. Many of them have
fteep rocky fhores, likev Annamooka ; fome
have reddifh cliffs, and others1 have fandy beaches,
extending almost their whole length. In general,
they are entirely clothed with trees, among
which are many cocoa-palms, each having the
appearance of a beautiful garden placed in the
fea. The ferene weather we now had, contributed greatly to heighten the fcene ; and the
whole might convey an idea of the realization of
fome fairy land. It appears, that fome of thefe
iflands have been formed, as Pahnerfton's ifland
wras fuppofed to have been; for one of them is now
entirely fand, and another has but a tingle bufh or
tree upon it.
In the afternoon, about four o'clock, we fleered
to the north, leaving Toofoa and Kao on our larboard. We intended to have anchored for the
night, but it arrived before we could find a placr,
in lefs than Mij fathoms water; and-we rather
chofe to fpend the night under fail, than come to in
fuch a depth. i iri- Vj i r i
ivtp nri
v^ n< ii. in •
In   the
ernoon,  we
had  been  within  two
leagues of Toofoa, and obferved the fmoke of it
feveral times in the day. There is a volcano
upon it, of which the Friendly iflanders entertain
fome fuperftitious notions, and call it Kollofeea,
faying, it is an Otooa, or divinity. We were
informed, that it fometimes throws up, very
large ftone's, and the crater is comoared to the
fize of a fmall iflot, which has not ceafed fmok-
ing in the memory of the inhabitants ; nor have
they any traditions that it ever did. We fometimes faw the fmoke from the centre of the ifland,
even at Annamooka, the diftance of at leaft ten
leagues. We were told that Toofoa was but thin-
ly inhabited, but that the water upon it was exceh
At day-break, on the 15th, we were not far
from Kao, which is a large rock of a conic figure ;
we fleered to the paffage between Footooha and
Hafaiva, with a'gentle breeze at fouth-eaft. About
ten o'clock* Feenou came on board, and continued with us all day.    He brought with  him a
J o
quantity of fruit and two hogs ; and, in the
courfe of the day, feveral canoes came to barter
quantities of the former article, which was very
acceptable to us, as our ftock began to be low.
At noon, our latitude was 190 49/ 45" fouth, and
we had made feven miles of longitude from Annamooka. 156 A VOYAGE TO THE
After having paffed Footooha, we met with a
reef of rocks, and, there being but little wind,
it was attended with fome difficulty to keep clear
of them. Having paffed this reef, we hauled up
for Neeneeva, a fmall low ifle in the direction of
eaft-north-eaft from Footooha, in hopes of finding
an anchorage, but were again difappointed ; for
notwithstanding we had land in every direction,
the fea w^s unfathomable. We plainly faw, in
the courfe of this night, flames iffuing from the
volcano upon Toofoa.
At day-break on the 16th, we fleered with a
gentle breeze at fouth-eaft, for Hapaee, which was
now in fight ; and perceived it to be low land,
from the trees only appearing above the water. At
nine o9ciock we faw it plainly forming three iflands
nearly-equal in fize ; and, foon after, a fourth appeared to the fouthward of thefe, as large as
any of the others. Each of thefe iflands appeared to be of a similar height and appearance,
and about fix or feven miles in length. The moft
nothern of them is called Haanno, the next Foa,
the third Lefooga, and the fourth Hoolaiva ; but
they are all four included under the general name
of Hapaee.
By fun-fet, wre got up with the nothernmoft of
thefe ifles, where we experienced the fame dif-
trefs for want of anchorage, that we did the
two preceding evenings ; having another night
to fpend under fail, with land and breakers  in PACIFIC OCEAN.
every direction. Feenou, who had been on board
all day, went forward to Hapaee in the evening,
and took Omai with him in the canoe. He was
not unmindful of our difagreeable situation, and
kept up a good fire the whole night, by way of a
At the return of day-light, on the 17th, being then clofe in with Foa, we perceived it was
joined to Haanno, by a reef running from
one Ifland to the other, even with the furface
of the fea. Captain Cook difpatched a boat to
look for anchorage; and a proper place was found
abreast of a reef which joins Lefooga or Foa,
having twenty-four fathoms depth of water. In
this ftation the nothern point of Hapaee bore
north, 16° eaft. We were not above three quarters of a mile from the fhore; and, as we lay
before a creek in the reef, it was convenient
landing at all times. gjl A VOYAGE TO THE
C II A P.    V.
-Arrival at Hapaee—Friendly Reception there—*
Taipa. harangues the People—Exhorts them not
to fteal, &c.—-Prefents and Solemnities—^Entertainment—Single Combats with Clubs—Wreftling
-*—Boxing—Female Boxing—Marines exercifed
—A Dance by Men—Fire Works—Night Entertainments, confiftlng of Singing and Dancing by
Men and Wom-etn
S foon as we had anchored, we were fur*
C~JL rounded by a multitude of canoes, and
our fhips were prefently filled with the natives.
They brought with them hogs, fowls, fruit, and
roots, which they exchanged for cloath, knives,
beads, nails, and hatchets. Feenou and Omai
having come on board, early the next morning, in
order to introduce Captain Cook to the people of
the ifland, he foon accompanied them on fhore for
that purpofe.
The Chief conducted the Captain to a hut,
fituated clofe to the fea-beach, which was brought
thither but a few minutes before for his reception. In this Feenou, Omai, and Captain Cook,
were feated. The other chiefs, and the multitude, appeared fronting them on the outside ; and
they alfo feated themfelves. Captain Cook being afked how long he intended to flay, anfwered PACIFIC OCEAN
five days. Taipa was, therefore, ordered to fit
by him, and declare this to the people. He
then harangued them in words nearly to the following purport, as we afterwards were informed
by Omai. He exhorted both old and young, to
look upon Captain Cook as a friend, who meant
to continue with them a few days ; and that,
during his flay among them, they would not
Ileal any thing from him or offend him in any
NSfh'&r manner. He informed them, that it was
*fe£pe£led they fhould bring hogs, fowls, fruit,
&c. to the fhips ; for which they would receive
in exchange, fuch articles as he enumerated.
Soon after Taipa had delivered his address to the
affembly, Feenou left them; on which Captain.
Cook was informed by Taipa, that it was neceffary he fhould make a prefent to Earoupa, the
chief of the ifland. The Captain being not unprepared for this gave him fuch articles as far exceeded his expectation. This liberality created
fimilar demands from two chiefs of other ifles
who were prefent, and even from Taipa himfelf.
Soon after he had made the laft of thefe prefents,
Feenou returned, and expreffed his difpleafurfe
with Taipa for fuffering me to be fo lavifh of
my favours. But this was, doubtlefs, a fineffe, as
he certainly acted in concert with the others.
Feenou now returned his feat, ordering Earoupa
to fit by him, and harangue  the people  as Taipa 16©
had done, which he did nearly to the  fame pur«
Thefe.ceremonies over, the  Chief, at  the Cap*
tain's requeft, conducted him  to three ftagnant
pools of what he called frefh  wrater ;   in one of
which the water was indeed tolerable,  and the
situation convenient for filling, our  calks.      On
his return to his former station, he found a baked
hog and fome yams, fmoaking hot, ready to be
conveyed on board for his  dinner.    Lie invited
Feenou raid his friends to  partake of the repai]:,
, and they embarked for the  fhip, though  none
but himfelf fat down with  us  at table.    Dinner
being   over,   the  Captain  conducted  them   on
fhore ;   and, before  he returned, received,   as a
prefent from- the chief, a fine large turtle, and a
.quantity of yams.    We  had a plentiful fupply
of provisions, for in the   courfe of the day we
got, by bartering with the natives, about twenty
Tmall hogs, together with a large quantity  of fruit
and roots.
On Sunday the 18th, early in the morning,
Feenou an^fPniai, who now flept on fhore with
the GIpef, cangs • on board, to requeft Captain
Cook's pretence upon the ifland. He accompa-
g|ief|L them, ajf$>; upon landing, was conducted
to the plaqe> wi&W he had been feated the pre-
j$fj|n;g day&>&nd where he beheld ,a zfavge con-
courfe of p§§ple already affembled. Though he
imagined that   fomething extraordinary was  in   I-II. -
agitation, yet he could not conjecture what, nor
could Omai give him any information.
Soon after he was feated, about an hundred
of the natives appeared and advanced, laden
with yams, plantains, bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts,
and fugar-canes ; their burdens were deposited
on our left. A number of others arrived foon
after, bearing the fame kind of articles, which
were collected into twro piles ©n the right fide..
To thefe were fattened two pigs, and half a- dozen
fowls ;. and to thofe upon the left, fix pigs and'
two turtles. Earoupa feated himfelf before the
articles on the left fide, and another chief before
thofe upon the right *e they being, it was fuppofed, the two chiefs who had procured them by
order, of Feenou,. who was as implicitly obeyed
here, as he had been at Annamooka,. and who had;
probably laid this tax upon the chiefs of Hapaee
for the prefent occafion..
When this munificent collection of provifions
was placed in order and advantageoufly difpofed,.
the'bearers of it joined the multitude, who formed a circle round the whole. Immediately after,
a number of men, armed with clubs, entered;
this circle, or area.; where they paraded about
for a few minutes and then one half of them retired to one fide, and the other half to the other
fide, fearing themfelves before the fpectators.
Prefently after, they fucceflively entertained us-
with fingle combats y one  champion from one.
Y 2. 1
fide challenging thofe of the other fide, partly by
words but more by expreffive gestures, to fend
one of their party to oppofe him. The challenge
was, in general, accepted; the two combatants
placed themfelves in proper attitudes, and the
engagement began, which continued till one of
them yielded, or till their weapons were broken.
At the conclusion of each combat, the victor
fquatted himfelf down before the chief, then immediately rofe up and retired. Some old men j
who feemed to prefide as judges, gave their plaudit in a very few words ; and the multitude, efpecially thofe on the fide of the conqueror, celebrated the glory he had acquired in two or three
loud huzzas*
This entertainment was fometimes fufpended
for a fhort fpace, and the intervals of time were
filled up with wrestling and boxing-matches.
The first were performed in the method practifed
at Otaheite, and the fecond differed very little
from the Englifh manner. A couple of flout
wenehes next fteped forth, and without ceremony, began boxing with as much dexterity as
the men. This contest, however, was but of
fhort duration, for in the fpace of half a minute,
one of them gave it up. The victorious heroine
was applauded by the fpectators, in the fame manner as the fuccefsful combatants of the other fex.
Though we expreffed fome difapprobation at this
part of the entertainment, it did not hinder two JSrigravecfcfdr the Am^i&j^^dtiiofi <?f Cook's Veyagre.
3Few-15>-A_PuUiskd 6y   Titiou-t. O&r-ian.&C Com et. i! PACIFIC    OCEAN.
other females from entering the lifts; who feemed
to be fpirited girls, and, if two old women had
not part them, would probably have
given each other a good drubbing. At leaft three
thoufand fpectators were prefent when thefe combats were exhibited, and every thing was conducted with the moft perfect good humour on all fides ;
though fome of the champions, of both fexes, received blows which they mufl have felt the effe£fc
of for fome time after.
The diverfions being finifhed, the chief informed Captain Cook that the provisions on our
right hand were a prefent to Omai; and that
thofe on our left (making about two-thirds of the
whole quantity J were intended for him, and that
he might fuit his own convenience in taking them
on board.
Four boats were loaded with the munificence of
Feenou, whofe favours far exceeded any that
Captain Cook had ever received from the fbve-
reigns of any of the iflands which he had vifited
in  the Pacific Ocean.    He, therefore, embraced
$€t& first opportunity of convincing Feenou that he
was not infenfible of his liberality, by bellowing
upon him fuch commodities as he fuppofed wrcre
moft valuable in his eftimation. Feenou was fo
highly pleafed with the return that was made him,
•that he left the Captain ft ill indebted to him by-
fending him two large hogs, fome yams, and a
considerable quantity of cloth.
L i 6a
Feenou having expreffed a desire to fee the marines  perform   their exercife,   Captain  Cook ordered them alt afhore on the morning of the 20th
©f May.    After they had gone through various,
evolutions, and fired feveral vollies; which feemed!,
to give pleafure to our numerous fpectators, the
chief, in his turn, entertained us with an exhibition,  which   was performed  with  an  exactnefs,
and dexterity, far furpaffing what they had  feen
of our military manoeuvres.    It  was a kind of
dance, performed by men, in which one hundred:
and five perfons were engaged; each having am
instrument in his   hand,   refembling  a paddle,,
two feet and an half long, with a thin blade, andi
a fmall handle.    With   thefe instruments various-
flourifhes were made, each of which was accompanied with a different movement, or a. different
attitude of the body.    At first, the dancers ranged
themfelves  in three lines  and fo changed their
ftations by different   evolutions, that thofe who*
had been in the rear came into the front.    At one*
part of the performance, they extended themfelves
in one line;   afterwards they formed themfelves.
into a femi circle ;   and then into two fquare columns.    During  the last movement, one of them
came forward, and performed an antic dance before Captain Cook, with which the entertainment
The music that accompanied the   dances was
produced by two drums, or rather hollow logs of PACIFIC   OCEAN.
j 65
^vood, from which they forced fome varied notes
by beating on them with two flicks. The dancers,
however, did not appear to be much aftifted or
directed by thefe founds ; but by a chorus of
.vocal mufic, in which all the performers joined.
Their fong was rather melodious, and their cor-
refponding motions were fo fkilfuliy executed,
that the whole body of dancers appeared as one
regular machine. Such a performance would have
been applauded even on an European theatre.
It far exceeded any attempt that wre had made to
entertain them ; infomuch that they feemed to
plume themfelves on their fuperiority over us.
They efteemed none of our mufical instruments,
except the drum, and even thought that inferior
to their own. They held our French horns in the
highest contempt, and would not pay the fmalleft
attention to them, either here or at any other of
the iflands.
To give them a more favourable opinion of the
amufements and fuperiorattainments of theEnglifh,
Captain Cook ordered fome fire-works to be prepared ; and, after it was dark exhibited them in
the pretence of Feenou, and a vast multitude of
people. They wTere highly entertained with the
performance in general: but our wTater and fky-
rockets, in particular, aftonifhed them beyond ail
conception. They now admitted that the fcale was
toned in our favour. 166
This, however, ferved only as an additional
ftimulus to urge them to proceed to frefh exertions of their Angular dexterity. As foon as our
fire-works were ended.afucceflion of dances, which
Feenou had prepared for our entertainment, began.-
A band of mufic, or chorus consisting of eighteen
men, feated themfelves before us, in the centre
of a circle formed by the numerous fpectators.
About four or five of the performers had each
pieces of large bamboo, from three to fix feet in
length, each played on by one man, who held it
almoft- vertically ; the upper end of which was
open, but the other clofed by one of the joints.
They kept constantly striking the ground, though,
flowly,' with -the clofe end, and thus produced
variety of notes, according to the different lengths
of the instruments, but all were of the bate or
hollow kind ; which was counteracted by aperfon
who struck nimbly a piece of the fame-fubftance,
fpiit and lying upon the ground ; furnifhing' a
tone as acute, as the others were grave and fo-
lemn. The whole of the band (including thofe
who performed upon the bamboos) fung a flow
foft air, which fo finely tempered the harsher
notes of the instruments, thatthe moft per feet judge
of the modulation offweet founds could not avoid
contesting the vast power, and pleafing effect of
thisfiinple harmony.
About a quarter   of an hour after the concert
began, twenty women entered the circle, whofe   Pacific ocean. §§
neads were adorned with garlands of crimfon-
[powers; and many of their perfons were decorated wiih leaves of trees, curioufly fcolioped,
and ornamented at the edges. They encircled
thofe of the chorus, with their faces towards
them, and began by fin.ging a foft air, to which
refponfes were made by the chorus ; and thofe
were alternately repeated. The women accompanied their fong with many graceful motions of
their hands, and continually advancing and retreating with one foot, while the other remained
fixed. After this, they turned their faces to the
affembly, and having fung fome time, retreated
flowly in a body; and placed themfelves opposite
the'hut, where the principal fpectators fat. . One
of them next, advanced from each fide, "pasting
each other in the front, and progreflively moving
till they came to the reft. On which two advanced from each fide, two of whom returned, but
the other two remained ; and to thefe, from each
fide, came on by intervals, till they ail had, once
more, formed a circle about the chorus.
Dancing to a quicker meafure now fucceeded,
in which the performers made a kind of half-turn
by leaping; then clapping their hands, and fnap-
ping their fingers, repeated fome words in unifon
pith the chorus. As they proceeded in the dan£e,
the rapidity of their mufic increafed; their ^ef-
tures and attitudes were varied with wonderful
dexterity;   and fome of their motions would, by
Vcl,Lwi z %m
an European, be thought rather indecent; though,
perhaps, they meant only to difplay the aftonifiling variety of their movements.
This female ballet was fucceeded by one performed by fifteen men ; and,*though fome of them
were old, time feemed to have robbed them
of but little of their agility. They were difpofed
ina fort of circle, divided at the front. Sometimes they fung flowly in concert with the chorus,
making feveral graceful motions with their hands
but differing from thofe of the women; at the
fame time inclining the body alternately to either
fide, by raifmg one leg outward, and resting on
the other ; the arm of the fame fide being alfo
stretched upward. Then they recited fentences,
which were anfwered by the chorus; and occasionally increafed the measure of the 'dance, by
clapping the hands, and quickening the motions'of
the feet. Towards the conclusion, the rapidity
of the music and dancing fo much increafed, that
the different movements were hard to be diftin-
This dance being ended, after a confiderable
interval, twelve other men advanced, placing
themfelves in double rows, fronting each other.
On one fide was stationed a kind of prompter,
who repeated feveral fentences, to which refponfes
were made by the performers and the chorus.
They fung and.danced flowly ; and gradually grew
quicker, like thofe whom they had fucceeded.
The next who exhibited themfelves were nine
women, who fat down oppofite the hut where the
chief had placed himfelf. < A man immediately
rofe, and gave the first of thefe women a blow on
the back with both his- fifts joined. He treated,
the fecond and third in the fame manner; but
when he came to the fourth, he flruck her upon
the breaft. Upon feeing this, a perfon inftantly
riling up from among the crowd, knocked him
down with a blow on the head, and he was quiet-.
ly carried away. But this did not excufe the other
five women from fo extraordinary a difcipline;
for they were treated in the fame manner by a
perfon who fucceeded him. When thefe nine
women danced, their performance was twice dif-
approved of, and they were obliged to repeat it
again. There was no great difference between'
this dance and that of the first women, except that
thefe fometimes raifed the body upon one leg, and. J
"then upon the other, alternately,by a fort of double
motion.     &|&
-Soon after a perfon Unexpectedly entered,
making fome ludicrous remarks on the fire-works
that had been exhibited, which extorted a burst
of laughter from the crowd. We had then a
dance by the attendants of Feenou : they formed
a double circle of twenty-four each round the
chorus, and joined#in a gentle toothing' fong,
accompanied with motions of the head and hands.
They  alfo began with flow   movements, which i7o       A   VOYAGE   TO
gradually became more and more rapid, and
finally clofed with feveral very ingenious tranfpo'fiV
tions of the two circles.
The festivity of this memorable night concluded with a dance, in which the principal people aflifted. In many refpects it refembled the
preceding ones, but they increafed their motions to
a prodigidus quicknefs, fhaking their heads from
ihosilder to fhouider, infomueh that they appeared
in danger ofdiflocating their necks. This was at-,
tended with a clapping of the hands, and a kind of
favage holla !; or fhriek. A perfon on one fide,
repeated fomething in a truly mufical recitative,
and with an air fo graceful, as might put fome of
our applauded performers to the blufh. He was
anfwered by another, and this was repeated feveral •
times by the whole body on each fide; and
they fiaifhed, by tinging and dancing, as they had'
The two raft dances were univerfally approved;
by all the fpectators. They were perfectly in time,
and fome of their gestures were fo expreflive, that-
it might justly be faid, they fpoke the language'
that accompanied them. :^«v
The theatre for thefe performances was an open
fpace among the trees, bordering on the fea, with
lights, placed at fmall intervals, round the infide of
the circle. Though the concourfe of people
Was pretty large, their number was much inferior
fo that affembled in the forenoon, when the marines   performed  their  exercife.     At that timey FACIE IC OCEilSL
many or
prefent   fi
an f(spoofed there might be
perfons, or upwards : but
that to be father an exagw
| Captain Cook makes an excurfiun into Lefocga—~
Defcription of that Ifiand— Occurrences there—I!
A falfe Report propagated—A Female Oculul—i
Singular Method of fhfrving-—The Ships are re-
ficial   Mount   and   Stone—^Defcription   of Hoo--
laiva—'Account of Poulaho,1 King of the Friendly *
ire from    oe     apae - j an s       oioo   it-^
fieri bed—The- Ships return to Annamooka—Meeting of Poulaho and Feenou--Both the fhips ft r ike -
on the Rocks—Arrival at Tongataboo.
HE next  day,   which was the  21 ft of May,
Captain  Cook  made an excursion into the
Ifland of Lefooga, on foot, which he found tobe,-
in fome refpects, fuperior   to   Annamooka,   the,
plantations being net only more numerous, but alfo
more extensive.    Many parts of the country, near p.
t*"> A      T7" f*l "V  i   t& S?     "? * O -   'T' >Li-^*
*rft <* A  ,\ O I iibli     l- O     1 rl iir
the fea, are ft ill wafle ; owing perhaps to the
fandinefs of the foil. But, in the internal parts
of the-ifland, the foil is better ; and the marks of
considerable population, and of an improved ftate
of cultivation, are very confpieuous. Many of
the plantations areinclofed in fuch a manner, that
the fences, running parallel to each other, form
fpacious public roads. Large fpots covered' with
the paper mulberry-trees, were obferved; and the
plantations in general, were abundantly flocked
with fuch plants "and fruit-trees as the ifland
produces. To thefe the Commodore made fome
addition,-by fo wing the feeds of melons, pumpkins, Indian corn, &c. At one place was a houfe,
about four as large as the ordinary ones,
\$k£t an extenfive area of grafs before it, to which
the people probably retort on fome public occa-
fioBS. Near the .landing place we obferved a
mount two or three feet high, on which flood
^Rur or five little huts, wherein the bodies of
fome perfons of diftinction had been interred.
The" ifland is but feven miles in length ; and its
breadth ] in to me places, is not above three miles.
The eaft-fiile has a reef, projecting confiderably,
against which the fea breaks with great violence.
It is a continuation of this ree^ that joins Lefooga to Foa, which is but lalf a mile diftant;
and, at low water, the natives can walk upon this
reef from one ifland to the other. The fhore is
either a fandy beach, or a coral rock. PACIFIC OCEAN,
When the Captain returned from his excur-
fion, and went on board, he found a large failing
• canoe faftened to the Item of the Refolution.
In this canoe was Latooliboula, whom the Commodore had feen, during his last voyage, at Tongataboo, and who was then fuppofed by him to
be the king of that ifland*. He could not be
prevailed upon to come on board, but continued
fitting in his canoe with an air of uncommon
gravity. The iflanders call him Areekee, which.
fignifies King; a title which we had not heard
any of them give to Feenou, however extenfive his
authority over them had appeared to be. Latooliboula remained under the ftern till the evening, and then departed. Feenou was on board
the Refolution at that time; but neither of thefe
chiefs took the fmalleft notice of the other.
The next day, fome of the natives stealing a
tarpaulin and other things, Captain Cook applied
to Feenou, defiling him to exert his authority,
for the purpofe of getting them restored ; but this
application was of no effect. On the -2.3d, as we
were preparing to leave the Ifland, Feenou and his
prime-minifter Taipa came along-fide in a ca~
noe, and  informed us  that they were going to
* In Captain Cook's narrative of that voyage the name of
this chief is faid to be Kohagee-too Fallangou, which is totally different from Latoollbouiav This may perhaps be accounted
for by fuppofing one to be the name of the perfon, and the
other the defcription of his rank or title.
— '       • up
to Toi
A  V O Y A (
>: an ifland situate,
il to the norfhwar
T O   1IIE
r additional fopply.
gathered caps I for O
aneice ; and ciciireu
.which would be in
ich Feenou would a
id was
ed,   th;
r or nve
npany us
:d to wait
as induf-'
d at An3
at anchor
sbou, the
cniejr or that
d, was haft erring thither   to receive'thefe   new  visitors.    After   enquiry, how-
eever, it appeared, that this report was totally void
of foundation. It is difficult to conje&jire, what
purpofe the invention of this tale could anfwer ;
BELicfs wre fuppofe it was contrived with a view
of getting us removed from one ifland to the
On Sunday the 25th, Captain Cook went into
.johefssfe where a woman was dretting the eyes of a
child* who feemed blind- The ..instruments ufed
by this female oculift were two, flender wooden
probes, with .which she brufhed the eyes fo as to
tfeiake them bleed.    In the fame houfe  he found
aYing a child
KUH'q mM
nth a PACIFIC OCEAN. 175
fharkY tooth, fluck into the end of a flick : flie
firft wetted the hair with a rag dipped in water,
and then making ufe of Jier instrument, took off
the hair as clofe as if a razor had been employed.
Captain Cook foon after tried upon himfelf one
of thefe remarkable inftruments, which he found
to be an excellent fubflitute. The natives of
thefe iflands however, have a different method
of (having their beards, which operation they
perform with two (hells ; one of which they place
under a part of the beard, and with the other, ap-
| plied above, they forape off. that part : in this
manner they can fhave very clofe, though the
procefs is rather tedious. There are among tfopi
fome men who feem to profefs this trade :| for it
was as common for our tailors to go afhore ^.to
have their beards fcraped off after the m%de of
Hapaee, as it was for their two chiefs to come on
board to be fhaved by our barbers.
Captain Cook finding  that little or  nothing of
^&$&t the ifland produced was now brought to the
(hips, determined to change his ftation, and
to wait Feenou's return in fome other anchoringr
place, where we might ftill meet with refreshments. We accordingly, on the 26th, made fail
to the fouthward along the reef of the ifland, and
having paffed feveral fhoals, hauled into a bay,
that lies between the north end q£ Hoolaiva, and
the fouth of Lefooga, and there anchored. We
had no fooner eaft anchor, than Mr. Bligh, Maf-
A A 176
ter of the Refolution, was fent to found the bay
where we were now Hationed ; and Captain Cook,
accompanied by Lieutenant Gore, landed on the
fouthern part of Lefooga, to look for frefh water,
and examine the country. On the weft fide of
the ifland, they obferved an artificial mount of
considerable antiquity, about forty feet high, and
meafuring fifty feet in the diameter of its fum-
mit. At the bottom of this mount was a ftone
fourteen feet high, two and a half thick, and four
broad, hewn out of a coral rock ; and they were
informed.- by the iflanders, that not more than
half its|fi|igth was to be feen above ground. They
called itT-angata Areekee*; and faid it had been
fet upland the mount railed,nisi memory of one
of their kings. On the approach of night, the
Captaffand Mr. Gore returned on board, and
Mr. Bligh came back from founding the bay, in
which he found from fourteen to twenty fathoms
water with a bottom principally of fand.
Lefooga and Hoolaiva are feparated from each
other by a reef of coral rocks, dry at low water.
Some of our gentlemen, who landed in the last
mentioned ifland, found not the fmalleft mark of
cultivation or habitation upon it, except a tingle .
hut, in which a man employed to catch fifh
and' turtle resided.    It is remiaaskable that it fhould
igata,in the language of thefe .people, is man ; Are  m PACIFIC OCEAN.
remain in this defolate condition,' fince it communicates fo immediately with Lefooga, which is
fo -well cultivated. The weft fide of it has a beading, where there feems to be good anchorage ;,
and the eaft fide has a reef, as well as Lefooga.
Uninhabited as Hoplaiva is, an artificial mount
has been railed upon it, equal in height to fome of
the furrounding trees. -
On Tuesday the 27th, at break of day, the
Commodore made the signal to weigh; and as
he j intended to attempt, in his.- way to Tongataboo, a paffage to Annamooka, by the fouth-
weft, among the intermediate ifles, he||fnt Mr*
Bligh in a boat to found before the fhips.- But
before we got under fail, the wind betSfae fo|sra-
riable and unfettled, as to render it unfafe to attempt a paffage with which we were fo little acquainted.: we therefore Jay fait, and made fignal
f&r the Matter to return. He and the Matter of
the Difcovery were afterwards fent, each in a boat
to examine the channels. Towards noon, a large
failing canoe came under our fteni, in which was
a> perfon named Poulaho, or Futtafaihe, or both;
who was faid, by the natives then on board, to be
king of Tongataboo, Annamooka, Hapaee, and
all the neighbouring iflands. We were furprifed-
to find I ft ranger dignified with this title, which
we had been taught to believe appertained to*
another : but they persisted fn their affertions, that
the fupreme dignity belonged to Poulaho; an
A a z 178 A VOYAGE TO Til E
now for the first time acknowledged, that ife*p&
nou was not the king, but a fubordinate chief,
though of great power. Poulaho was now invited by the Captain on board, where he was not
an unwelcome gueft, as he brought with him two
fat hogs, by way of prefent. This great per-
fonage, though not very tall, was extremely unwieldy, and almoft fhapelefs with corpulence.
He appeared to be about forty ; his hair was
straight, and his features confiderably different
from thofe of the. majority of his people. We
foundAkn to be a man of gravity and good fenfe.
He viewed.the fhip, and the various new objects,
with particular attention; and afked many per-
tineBJij|ueftions. When he had gratified his cu-
vri6fity in looking at the cattle, and other novelties, he was requested to walk down into the
cabin ; to which fome of his retinue objected,
faying, that, if he fhould go down thither, it w7ould
doubtless happen that people would walk over his
head; a circumstance that could not be permitted. Though the Captain offered to obviate this
objection, by ordering that no one fhould pre-
fume to walk over the cabin, Poulaho waved all
ceremony, and went down without any previous
stipulation. He now appeared to be no lets fo-
licitous than his people were, to convince^us that
he was fovereign, and not Feenou. He fat down
to dinner with us, but eat and drank very little ;
and  afterwards  defired our Commodore to  ac- PACIFIC    OCEAN.
company him on fhore. Omai was afked to be
one of the party; but he was too faithfully attached to Feenou, to fhew much refpect to his
competitor, and therefore declined the invitation. Captain Cook attended the chief in his own
boat, having first made him fuch prefents as exceeded his expectations; in return for which, Poulaho ordered two more hogs to be fent on board.
The chief was then carried out of the boat, by
his own fubjects, on a board refembling a hand-
barrow ; and immediately feated himfelf in a fmall
houfe near the fhore. Lie placed the Captian at
his fide, and his attendants formed a femi-circle
before them, on the outfide of the houfe. An old
woman fat clofe to the chief, with a kind of fan
in  her hand, to prevent his being incommoded
by the flies.
various  articles which his peo
ple had procured by trading on board the fhips,
being now difplayed before him, he attentively
looked over them all, inquired what they had
given in exchange, and, at length, ordered every
thing to be returned to the refpective owners,
except a glafs-bowl, which he referved for himfelf. Thofe who brought thefe things to him,
first fquatted themfelves down before him, then
deposited their purchafes, and inftantly rofe and
retired. They obferved the fame ceremony in
taking them away ; and not one of them prefuni-
ed to fpeak to him Handing. His attendants,
juft before they left him, paid him obeifance, by iSo A VOYAGE TO THE
bowing their heads down to the fole of his foot
and touching it with the upper and under fide of
the fingers of each hand. . Captain Cook was
charmed with the decorum that w7as maintained
on this occasion, having fcarce feen the like any
where, even among more civilized nations.
When the Captain arrived on board, he found
the Matter returned from his expedition, who informed him, that, as far as he had proceeded,
there was a paffage for the fhips, and tolerable
anchorage ; but that towards the fouth and fouth-
eaft, he obferved numerous fhoals, breakers, and
fmall ifles. In confequence of this report, we
relinquished all thoughts of a paffage that way ;
and being refolved to return .to Annamooka by
the fame route which we had fo lately experienced
to be a fafe one, we fhould have failed the next -
morning, which was the 28th, if the wind had
not been very unfettled. Poulaho came early
on board, bringing a red-feather'd cap as a prefent
to Captain Cook. Thefe caps were greatly fought
after by us, as we knew they would be highly
valued at Otaheite : but not one was ever brought
for fale, though very large prices were offered
nor could a perfon in either fhip make himfelf the
proprietor of one, except the two Captains and
Omai. They are compofed of the tail feathers
of the tropic bird, intermixed with the red feathers of the paroquet; and are made in fuch
manner, as to tie on the forehead without any pacific ocean;
crown, and have the form of a femi-circle, whofe
radius is eighteen or twenty inches. But the beft
idea of them wilt be conveyed by Mr. Webber's
reprefentation of Poulaho, ornamented with one:
of thefe capbpr bonnets. The chief left the fhip
in the evenings; but his brother, whofe name alio
was hFiU tafaihe|rand fome of his attendants, remained all night on board.
On the 29th, at day-break, we weighed with a
fine breeze at eaft north-eaft, and made fail to the
weftward, followed by feveral failing canoes, in
one of which was Poulaho the king, who, getting
on board the Refolution, enquired for his brother, and the others who had continued with us
all night. We now found that they had ftaid
without his per million, for he gave them fuch a
reprimand as brought tears from their eyes : however, he was foon reconciled to their making a
longer flay ; for, on his departure from the fhip,
he left Ms 'brother, and five attendants, on board.
We were alfo honoured with the company of a
chief named Tooboueitoa, juft then arrived from
Tongataboo; who, as foon as he came, fent
away his canoe, declaring, that he, and five
others who came with him, would fleep on board;
fo. that Captain Cook now had his cabin filled
With visitors. This inconvenience he the more
willingly endured, as they brought with them
plenty of provifions as prefents to him, for which
they met with fuitable returns. i8s
In the afternoon the eafte'rly wind was fucceeded
by a frefh breeze at fouth fouth-eaft. Our courfe
being now fouth fouth-weft, we were obliged to
ply to windward, and barely fetched the northern
fide of Footooha, by eight o'clock in-tfce evening.
The next day we plied up to Lofaigja* and got
foundings, under the lee or-nq$jr-weft fide of
forty fathoms water ; but the bis^m being rocky
and a chain of breakers lying to leeward, we
stretched away for Kotoo, expecting to find better anchorage there. It was dark before we reached that ifland, where finding no convenient place
to anchor in, we paffed the night in making fhort
boards. On the 31ft, at break of day, we flood
for the channel which is between Kotoo, and the
reef of rocks lying to the weft ward of it; but,
on our approach we found the wind infurticient
to lead us through. We therefore bore up on
the outside of the reef^and stretched to the fouth-
weft'till near twelve o'clock, when, perceiving
that we made no progrefs to windward^ and being
apprehensive of losing the islands while we had fo
many of the natives on board, we tacked and
flood back, and fpent the night between Footooha
and Kotoo. The wind now blew frefli, with
fqualls and rain ; and, during the night, the Refolution, by a fmall change of the wind, fetching
too J far to the windward was very near running
full upon a low fandy ifle, named Pooto Poo-
tooa,   encompatfed with   breakers.    Our  people —
listing fortunately been juft ontefred upon deck,
to put the fhip about, and moft of them being at
their refpo^Jve flations, the neceffary movements
were performed with judgment and alertnefs ;
and this alone preferred us from destruction. The
Difcovery, being aftern, incurred no danger.
This narrow efcape fo alarmed the natives who
were on board, that they were eagerly  defirous
o| getting afhore:  accordingly, on the return of
day-light, a boat was hoifted out, and the officer
who commanded her was ordered, after landing
them at Kotoo, to found for anchorage along the
reef that projects from that ifland. During the
sbfence of the boat, we endeavoured to turn the
Slips through  the channel between the reef of
Kotoo and the fandy ifle;   but meeting  with a
ftrong current against us, we were obliged to de-
fiftj and eaft anchor in fifty fathoms water, the
fandy ifle  bearing eaft by  north, about the diftance of one mile.    Here we remained till the
4th of June, being frequently vifited by the king,
by Tooboueitoa, and by people who came from
the neighbouring iflands to traffic with us.    Mr.
Bligh was, in the mean time difpatched to found
the channels between the  iflands fituate *£o the
eaftward ; and Captain Cook himfelf landed on
Kotoo, to take a furvey of it.     This ifland, on
account  of the  coral reefs  that environ  it, is
fcarcely acceflible  by boats.    Its north-weft end
is low;   but itrifes fuddenly in the middle, and
B B I 84       A  V G i A G E   TO   T II E
terminates at the foiith eaft end in reddifh clayey
•cliffs. It produces the fame fruits and roots with
the ■adjacent"' iflands, and is tolerably cultivated,
though thinly inhabited. It is about two miles
in length. While the Comm'ocmre was walking
all over it, our people were occupied in cutting
grafs for the. cattle; and We planted fome melon
feeds. On our return to the boat, we paffed by
fome ponds of dirty brackifh Water, and faw *a
burying-place,' which was confiderably neater thai?
thofe of Hapaee.
We weighed in the morning of the 4th, 2nd
with a frefh gale at eaft fouth-eaft, made fail towards Annamooka, where we anchored the next
morning, nearly in the fame flation which we
had fo lately occupied. Captain Cook foon after
went on fhore, and found the iflanders very bufy
in their plantations, digging up yams for traffic.
In the courfe of the day, about two hundred of
them affembled on the beach, and traded with
great eagernefs. It appeared, that they had been
very diligent, during our abfence, in cultivating ; for we now obferved feveral large plantain
fields, in places which, in our late vifit, we had
feen lying watte. The yams wrere now in the
highest perfection : and we obtained a good quantity of them, in exchange for iron. Before the
Captain returned on board, he vifited the feveral places where he had town melon and cucumber feeds ;   but found to his great  regret, that PA
moft of them had been destroyed by vermin ;
though fome pine-apple plants, which he had alfo-
left, were in a thriving condition.
On Friday the 6th," .about noon, Feenou arrived from Vavoo, and informed us, that feveral
canoes, laden with hogs and other provisions,
had failed with him from that ifland, but had been
loft in the  late tempeth
weather, and every
petfon on board of them had perifhed. This,
melancholy tale did not gain much credit with
us, as we were by this time fufficiently acquainted
pith the   character    of the
perhaps was, that he had been unable to-procure at
Vavoo the expected fupplies ; or, if he obtained any there, that he had left them at Hapaee, which lay in his way back, and where he
mutt have heard that Poulaho had come to vifit
us ; who therefore, he knew, would, as his fupe-
sior, reap all the merit and reward of procuring
thefe fupplies, without having had any participation of the trouble. . The invention, however,
of this lots at fea, was not ill managed; for we
had lately had very stormy weather. On the fuc-
ceeding morning Poulaho, and fome other chiefs,.
arrived ; at which time Captain Cook happened
to be afhore with Feenou, who now appeared to
be fenfibie of the impropriety of his conduct, in
arrqgating a character to wrhkh he had no juft
cjaim; for he not only acknowledged Poulaho :$&
Tongataboo and. the adjacent ifies*,
fevereigii- o: m       A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
but affected to infill much on it. The Captain
left him, and went to pay a vifit to the King,
whom he found fitting with a few of the natives
before him; but great numbers battening to pay
their refpects to him, the circle increafed very
faft. When Feenou approached, he placed himfelf among the reft that fat before Poulaho, as
attendants on his majefly. He at first feemed to
be fomewhat confuted and abashed; but foon recovered from his agitation. Some converfation
palled between thefe two chiefs, who went on
board with the Captain to dinner; but only Poulaho fat at table. Feenou, after having made his
obeifance in the ufual mode, by faluting the foot
of his fovereign with his head and hands, retired from the cabin, and it now appeared, that
the could neither eat nor drink in the king's pre-
On the 18th, we weighed anchor, and fleered
for Tongataboo, with a gentle breeze at 'north*
eaft. We were accompanied by fourteen or fifteen failing veffels belonging to the Iflanders,
every one of which outran the fhips. The royal
canoe was diftinguiflied from the reft by a fmall
bundle of grafs, of a red colour, fattened to the
end of a pole, and fixed in the flern of the canoe
in the fame manner as our enfign ftaffs. At five
in the afternoon we defcried two fmall iflands* at
the diftance of four leagues to theweftward; one
was called Hoonga Hapaee, and the other Hoon* PACIFIC OCEAN.
ga Tonga. They are fituated in the latitude of
200 36' fouth, about ten leagues from the weftern
point of •Annamooka. According to the information of two iflanders who had been fent on
board by Feenou as pilots, only five men refided
on Hoonga Hapaee, and Hoonga Tonga had no
inhabitants. We ftill proceeded op. a fouth-weft
courfe, and on the 9th faw feveral little iflands,
beyond which Eooa and Tongataboo appeared.
We had at this time twenty-five fathoms water,
the bottom confifting of broken coral and fand;
and the debth gradually decreafed, as we approached the above-mentioned fmall ifles. Steering, by
the direction of our pilots, for the widest fpace
between thofe ifles, we were infenfibly drawa
upon a large flat, on which lay innumerable rocks
of coral below ."he furface of the fea. Notwith-
flanding our utmost care and attention to avoftl
thefe rocks, we were unable to prevent the fhip
from striking on one of them : nor did the Difcovery, though behind us, keep clear of them.
It fortunately happened, that neither of the fhips
fiuck faft, nor fuftained any damage. We flili
continued our courfe; and the moment we found
a place where we could anchor with any degree
of fafety, we came to ; and the Matters were
difpatched, with the boats, to found. Soon after
we had eaft anchor, feveral of the natives of Tongataboo came to us in their canoes ; and they,
as well as our pilots, affured us, that we fhould 1B8     A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
meet with deep water further in, free from rocks*
Their   intelligence   was   true;     for,   about  four
o*ciock, the boats made a signal of having found
good anchoring ground.    We therefore weighed,
and flood in till dark, when we anchored in nine
fathoms water, with a clear fandy bottom.   During
the night, we had fome rain;   but  early in the^
morning, the wind becoming foutherly, and bringing on fair weather, we weighed again, and worked towards the fhore of Tongataboo*    While *we
were plying up to the  harbour, the King continued failing round us in his canoe;   and at the
fame time there was a great number of fmall canoes about the fhips.    Two of thefe not getting
out of the way of his royal veffel, he ran quite
over them, with the greatest unconcern.    Among
thefe who came on  board the Refolution,   was
Otago, who had been fo ufeful to Captain Cook
when he visited Tongataboo in his last voyage ;-
and one Toobou, who had, at that time, attached himfelf to Captain Furneaux.    Each  of them
brought fome yams   and a hog, in  testimony of
friendship;    for  which they received a fuitable
We arrived at our intended" station about two
o'clock in the afternoon of the 10th of June* It
was a very convenient place, formed by the fhore
of Tongataboo on the fouth-eaft, and two little
ifles on the eaft and north-eaft.    Here both our PACIFIC OCEAN.
depth of water was  ten  fathoms.    Our diftance
from the   fhore   exceeded a quarter of a mile.
Reception at
wivataboo —Diftributis n
o J
of Pork, Tarns, and Kava among the King's Attendants—The Ships fupply ed with Water—The
Obfervatory erecled—The Natives flock to our
People from all Quarters—Excurfion of our Captains to fee Mareewagee—Their D if appointment
—Defcription of the Village where the chiefs re-
fide—Interviews with Mareewagee and Toobou—
Prefents from the King's Son—A curious Work
of Art—Procefs of manufacturing Cloth—A grand
■ Haiva giving by Mareewagee—Exhibition of Fireworks—Wreftling—Boxing-—Prefents of Animals
to the Chiefs—Poulaho, Feenou, &c. confined—
The King's prefent,  and Haiva.
E had not been long at anchor off Tongataboo, when Captain Cook landed on
the ifland, accompanied by fome of the officers
and Omai. They found the King waiting for
them on the beach, who conducted them to a
fmall neat houfe near the woods, with an exten- *§o
five area before it, and told  the Captain, that it
was at his  fervice during his continuance in the
ifland*    Before they had been  long in the houfe,
a large circle of the   natives   affembled   before
them, and feated themfelves upon the area.    A
root of the kava plant being brought to the king
he commanded it to be fplit into pieces, and distributed  to feveral people,  of both fexes, who
began  to chew  it and foon prepared   a bowl  of
their favourite liquor.    Mean while a baked hog,
and a quantity of baked yams, were   produced,
and divided into ten portions.    Thefe fhares were
. given to fame of thofe who were prefent, except
one, which Remained  undifpofed of, and  which
was probably referved for the King himfelf.    The
liquor was next ferved out; and the first cup be-
- ing brought up to his majefly, he ordered it to be
given to a perfon who fat near him: the fecond
was alfo brought  to  him, which he kept: the
third   wras given   to  Captain Cook;    but, their
mode of preparing the liquor having given him a
diftafte for it, it was brought to Omai.    The remainder of it was distributed to different people;
and one  of the  cups being carried to Poulaho's
brother, he retired with this, and with his fhare
of the provisions.      Some  others alfo withdrew
From the circle with  their portions, becaufe they
could neither eat nor drink in his majesty's pre-
feate :  but there were others of an inferior rank,
of both fexes, who both eat and drank before
wL  •
ifland with hogs, yltms, cocoa-nuts*'Cand other
Articles, infoniuch, that our land ] ftation refem-
bled a fair, and our fhips Were remarkably crowded with visitants. Feenou residing in our neighbourhood, we had daily propfs^fej|6 opulence
and generofity, by the' ibntinuaj^fiM'lfe valuable donations. Poufch&!§^
to us in tl&refpect, as fcarcp^%k^^^affed without his favouring us '^fth Coftdplpfe prefents.
We were now informed, that a perfon of the
name of Mareewagee was of very high rank in
the ifland, and was treated with great reverence ;
nay, if our interpreter OmaWfdid not mifunder-
fland his informers, that, he was fuperior to Poulaho himfelf; but that, being advanced in years,
he lived in retirement, and therefore was not inclined to pay us a viflfi This intelligence exciting the curiofity" 4^t3ftptain Cook, he fignified
to Poulaho his intention oir$rairirig upon Mareewagee ; and the king having agreed to accompany him, they fet out the next morning in the
pinnace, Captain Gierke joining them in one ot
his own boats. They proceeded to the eastward
of the little ifles which form the harbour, and
then, turning towards the fouth, entered a fpa-
cious bay, upon which they rowed about three
miles, and landed amidft a great concourfe of
people, who received them with fliouts and acclamations. The crowd instantly feparated, that
Poulaho might pafs, who took our gentlemen PACIFIC    OCEAN.
into a fmall enclofure, and changed the piece of
cloth he wore, for a new piece, very neatly
folded : an old woman affifted in drefling him,
and put a large mat over his cloth. Being now
afked where Mareewagee was, he faid, to the
great furprize of the gentlemen, that he was
gone down to the fhips. However, he requested
them to accompany him to a maiaee, or houfe of
public retort; and when they came to a large
area before it, he feated himfelf in the path, while
they, at his defire, walked up to the houfe, and
fat down in the front. After waking a little while,,
they repeated their enquiries, by the medium of
Omai, whether they were to be introduced to
Mareewagee ? But receiving no fatisfa&ory sirs*
fwer, and being inclined to fufpect that the aged
chief was purpofely concealed from them, they
returned to their boats much piqued at their dif-
appointment. It afterwards appeared, that Mareewagee had ; not been there; and that, in this
affair, fome grofs miftakes had been made, Omai
either having been mifinformed, or having mif-
understood what was told him concerning the old
The placel our gentlemen went to was a very
pleafant village, delightfully (ituated on the
banks of the bay or inlet, where moft of the
principal perfons of the ifland reside. Each of
ihefe has his houfe in the midft of a fmall plan-*
tation, with a kind of out-houfes, and offices for
Cc 5 194
fervants, Thefe plantations are neatly fenced *
round, and, in general, have only one entrance,
which is by a door fattened on the infide with
a prop of wood. Between each 'plantation there
are public roads arid narrow lanes. A considerable part of fome of thefe enclofures is laid out
In grafs-plots, and planted with fuch things as
feem lets adapted for ufe than for ornament. In
fuch other plantations as were not the residence
of perfons of high rank, every article of the vegetable produce of the ifiand was in great plenty*
Near the public roads are fome large houfes,
with fpacious grafs-plots before them, which, are'
faid to belong to the king, and are probably the
places where their public meetings are held.
On Friday the. 13th, about twelve o'clock, Mareewagee came within a fmall diftance of our post
on fhore, attended by a great number of people of
all .ranks. In the courfe of the afternoon, the two
Captains, and others of our gentlemen, accompanied ' by Feenou, went a those to vifit him-
They found a perfon fitting under a tree, with a
piece cf cloth, about forty yards long, fpreacf
before him, round which numbers of people
were feated. They imagined that this was the
great perfonage, but were undeceived by Feenou,.
who informed them, that another, who was fitting on a piece of mat, was Mareewagee.. To
him they were introduced by Feenou ; and he received them very graciously, and desired them to PACIFIC OCEAN.
3 95:
down by him.
ss C
order in his eyes
The chief, • who fat under the
tree, was named Toobou, whom we fir all for the
future call Old Toobou, to-diftinguifli him from
his name fake, who-- has been already mentioned
m Furneaux Yfriend. Both he and Ma-
I Were venerable in their appearance.
ir was flender in his perfon, and feemed
:r feventv years of age. Old Toobou was
It' corpulent, and alnioft blind from a dif-
$ was younger than Mareewagee. Captain Cook not expecting on this occasion to meet with two chiefs, had brought on
fhore a prefent for one onlv: this therefore he
was obliged to divide between them ; but, as it
happened to be considerable, both of them appeared to be. fatislied, our party now entertained
them about an hour with the performance of two
French horns and a drum ; but the firing of a
piftol that Captain Clarke had in his pocket,
feemed to pleafe th<
men took their :
moft.   ' Before  our gentle
piece of clot!
Captain Coo
The next mo
return the (
Captain Char
not fufficieni
now fupphec
went to fee
fhore; and W
: of the two chiefs, the large
was rolled up, and prefented- to
, together with a few cocoa-nuts,
ling, Old Toobou came on board-to
>m mod ore's vifit ; he alfo vifited
i ; and if our former prefent was-
/ confiderable, the deficiency was'
In the mean time, Mareewagee
ur people who were ftationed on
.   King   fhewed   him whatever we Hi       A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
had there. He was ftruck with admiration at
the fight of the cattle ; and 'he crofs-cut faw rivet-
ted his attention. Towards nooii, Poulaho
came on board, bringing with him his . fon, who
was about twelve years of age. He dined with
Captain Cook ; but the fon, though prefent, was.
not permitted to fit down with him. The Captain found it very convenient to have him for his:
,gs&ft ^ for whenever he was prefent, (which was
frequently the cafe) every other native was excluded from the table, and few of them would
continue in the cabin-, whereas, if neither be
nor Feenou were on board, the chiefs of inferior
rank were very importunate to be of the dining
party, or to be admitted at that time into the
cabin, which became confequently very much
crowded. The king was foon reconciled to our
cookery, and was fond of our wine. He now
resided at the malaee near our tent, where he this
evening entertained our people with a dance, in
which fiehimfelf, though fo corpulent and unwieldy,
On the 15th, Captain Cook received a meffage
from Old Toobou, importing, that he was de-*
firous of feeing him on fisore. He and Omai
accordingly waited on that chief, whom they
found fitting, like one of the ancient patriarchs,
under the fhade of a tree, with a large piece of
cloth, the manufacture of the ifland, fpread out
before him.    He defired them to place themfelves PACIFIC OCEAN. 197
by him ; after which he told Omai, that the cloth,
with fome cocoa-nuts, and red feathers, confti-
tuted his prefent to Captain Cook. The latter
thanked him for the donation, and requefted him
to go onboard with him. Omai, being fent for
by Poulaho, now ieft the Capt&In, who was informed by Feenou, that young Fattafaihe, the^
king's fon, defired to fee him. He immediately
obeyed the fummons, and fiiiad the young prince
and Omai feated under a canopy of fine cloth,
with a piece of a coarfer kind, feventy-fix yards
long, and feven and a half broad, fpread before
them and under them. On one fide was a quantity of cocoa-nuts; and, on the other, a large
boar. A multitude of people fat round the
cloth; and among them was Mareewagee, with
other perfons of rank. The Captain was requefted to feat himfelf by the prince; and then
Omai informed him, that he had been instructed
jBPp Poulaho to tell him$Wiat as his majefly and
the Gap tarn were friends, he hoped that his fon
Fattafaihe might be comprehended in this friendship ; and that the Captain, as a teftimony of his
content, would accept of the lattice's prefent.
Captain Cook readily agreed to this propofal,
and invited them all to dine wittohimon board.
Accordingly, the young prince, Old Toobou,
Mareewagee, three or four fubordinate chiefs,
and two old ladies of high rank, accompanied
the Commodore to the fhip.      Mareewagee was f@»
on tlie
was prooaoiymiac!
ss~ fooh'-as-he airi \
'prefented it to Cap
Sifted up, %m&M
or 3eat   a mtfjferf
dinner;- was:
sh  word,: thoii'gt
restraine-d-   at preient, a was   not    iio&Bg&l&x& WFfc
fhip, the Captain-'Clmduiiextishean.;alho¥e.     W$0te;
the boat had inched the • krid,s Feenour and leve-
lil r-others  itnrhediateiy   itepped-   qtt|lff-- and VSSSNt'
young  prince   following them^^llas   eajSed baoke
by Mareewagee, who ; now paid.l^^lfcsappaf^^f
• tlisfame   obeifaiieiJWhichtfplf'l rking- H «was: ^accu-i-'s
tomedwtcr receivef an-clo wh^ns :Ojtl dlioobbu| and'^
oiie' of :the.old ladies,,, had honoured, him w.iththe~a
fame marks of" refpect, I he I was ?f$ffiesed - to landsf
^pfewTO-SSIBferemony, the old-' people stepped -oiltv-i
of the boat into a c-anoe-,:'wtiich-'was\v.aitirig to co-n-
vtf^tfbffiti'- to their jsfi$e of reffience.    Capt. Cook
wus-'spleaied at being prefent on'tMB^Decafion, as he
wa;skthu&dfumiftied-wrth the moft-#Alvincin^|?roots.
ofMie fupr-e-m e-.dignity bfPdulah'6 and his-ton.    By
this time, indeed, he had;gainedforlie 'certain in- PACIFIC OCEAN.
feveral of the chiefs. He now knew, that old
Toobou and Mareewage were broth^%gf4|j|Q]$|
of them were men of very confiderabifefp£^perty,
arid to-^jg^-d^lfttion ^j$tt the people : Mareewagee, in parfs^lar, had obtained ,$f£p honourable appellation of Motooa Tonga, which implies
&the£!^f Tonga, or of hi^counti^r We alfo now
underftood, that he wa$fthe king's-father-in-iaw,
Poulaho hastin^^fpoufed, one of hi%**daughters,
by wh§m he had young Fattafaihe: fo that Ma«<
reewagee was grandfather to the prince. As for
Feenou, he was one of; the fens of Mareewagee,
and ToQboj|fiitoa was another.
CaptaM^^|ii)k, on his landing found Poulaho*
in the houfe adjoining to our tent, wha$jmme~
diately made him a prefent v-^$!sjpantity of yams
and a hog. Towards evening a number of
dt|$fiilanders came, and having feated th#gtfelve$
in a circle, fung in concert with the mufic of
bamboo-drums, which were placed in the centre*
Three of them were long ones, and two were
fhort. n■ |SVith thefe they ftruckej^e ground end-
wife. There w^e-re two others that lay fide by
fide on the ground, one of which was partly fplit £
on thefe a perfon continued beating with two
fticks. They fung three fongs while the Ga$0&
tain itaid ; and the entertaj&ment Iffted, after
he left them, till ten o^jfcpek. *3|feiy burned the
leaves of the zvharra palm for a light* ,
Vol. I.—N°. 40     *       Dd ! ,
- In "the mean time ,:'rMYn - Andleffenf ■ with'feveral
others, made7ini excursion-into thecouiit-ry, which
forniflied 'him withe - o^iervations:to • the following
effect. Weitwatd-offhe tefst, the'c^mstryifor about
two miles i s> entire!ydu-ncu 11iy-a'ted'ptlio-ugh covered'"
with5trees arid bathes growing natusrally with the
greatest vigour, -'s Beyond-'this: a pretty large'.plain
extends itfelf,' otiOvvMich'-ares -toc^aetrees^' mmd fo--me.-
final.1 'plantation sn > Near, :tfe5ct:eek;n which';muS
weft of etlie '-tess-ty tfhe tasid'is perfeHIy flat,l^mdv:
par.tly*over fk>Wed ievery tide;e ■ afeae -eWhenx
the water retires, thed fur-face is-feen to confist of
coral-rock, interfperfed with holes of yellowifh
m-Uds;:'s.--aiid near theedge8|i*Bii*^c&W
firm, are vast numbers of lit&lepiiBpemiigsv
whence Iflfu-e innumerable fmaftjxrabs, which
fwarm upon the fpot, but are fo very - nimble,::
that, when approached, they instantaneously disappear, and battle ail the dexterity of the,natives
whowendeavour to catch them. At this place is
a work of art, which testifies fome degree of ingenuity and perfeverance : on one fide is a liar-
1 row caufeway, which, gradually increasing in
breadth, rifes with a gentle afcent to the height
often feet,: where its breadth is five paces, the
wholee length being -about feventy*four paces.
Adjacent to this is a kind of circus, thirty paces
in diameter, about one or tva feet Metier than
the caufeway that joins it; and in the middle of
this circus fome trees are planted.    On the op- P A CI FIG   O C E A N. 20 s
pofrtiet tilde p another caufeway defcends, W^jfh. is
p'artl$,in "ruins; aiid not above forty paces
The whole is built of large coral-stones, with
earth on the: surface,;/which. is overgrown; with
feubs and 1 owdabcs| sFr-om. ill decaying, in • ftvp$
ral places, it is; probably of ibme antiquity.-v:h<
feems to be oil; no fervice at preferst^• -whatever
jftayi-feave been itsi^r.: in former timss1;. i Alls■1the-
Intelligence concerein^ it, .th84$$fcli\ Anderfon
could; procure -fro roe the natives*, was, that it was*
called Etehee,, and belonged to the king,
In the--morning of the 16 th, .Captain C©ok and,
Mr Gore took awalktisto the•- .-country ; in the
courfe of which they, met with an opportunity of.
feeing^ the. whole procefs of making cloth, the
: principal maiiufa&ure of thefe iflands, as well a.?
of many others in the South.Sea. An account of
this operationgsas performed here, may. hot i improperly heTubjoined., .The? nian-iifa£turers-, who are
of: the female fex, take the flender ftalks or trunk?
of .the. paper mulberry, which rarely grows more
than .lev en feet in height, and about the thick&efsd
of fou^r fingers. From thefe- ftalks they strip the
batlq and ferape off. the exterior rind : aftfewhich
the bark is . - rolled:l up, ■ and macerated for fome
time in water; it is thenheatenwith a fquare in-
ftrument of wood,: .full of eoari&n grooves, - but
fometimes with a plain one; :The operation is
often repeated by another perfon or the bark is
folded fevend times, and beat longer", which; is
D d 2 26*       A   VOffftPE   TO   THE
ptckakj^ intended to cl@fe rather than divide its
texture. -\J$is then fpread out to dry : the pieces
fe&i&g from foia^ to fiW0x» feven feet in length,
ami about half$3$ broad. Thefe piaq# are joined by frntfo^g-f^art of them with tfe glutinous
jjiitpeof a berry^t^I/000; a^pd, after being tliiir
lengthened, they as^)Iaced over a large ptete of
fs^6^,-feith afo^t-of flangecompofed^ a fibrosa
fttKlance, laid beneath them. The m^ufac-
turers theris^ke a ibfeof clc^i and having dip-*
ped itjji^^ice extracted from tt^bark oi|a tree
called kokka, rub it^^^4#Nfs^. pieceftfiat is
making. This leaves upon the furface a dry glofs,
and a dull brown colour^and th^ilisiap mafes^
atthe^fipt^lfene, a flight imp#$Plife Thus they
fMftfeKb joining and ftaining by degrees, till a
piece of cloth, of the requifite length and breadth,
is pfc»4^i§. They general^rleave a border,
about a foot broad, at the fides, and rather longer at the ends, unftained. If any parts of the
original pieces havefafeoles, or ar&$too thin, tht^£
glue fpare bits upda them, trltetheir tMfcknefs
equals that of the reft. Whenever .thtef are de-
firous of producing^ vfeft^|^|lour, they '-£&£& the
juice >$||the kokka with tipsfoot procured from an
oily -00, called dooedooe. They affert, tfial^tS#;
black clot%S$high is ufually moft glazed, mafe^d
a coloyirefs, but the^pther a ^^^©ne.
. The Commodore and Mr^ -SgfQfa- meeting w$%i'
Feenou on thekaftgrn from their excurfitftejl'took PACIFIC OCEAN.
bim, and another chief, on board to diime$jta#id|
being ferved upfcsneither of them woufteat a nap*
fel, alledging tfi$t they were tako$%fayJ$fektwhen
they found, that, in dreffing a pig and fome yams
no avy (water) had been made^aife of, they^NSfh h$
down, and eat very heartil|£\ and drank fome
wine, on being affured that there wase&o watepli
it. From this circurnftance we iof$lt£||is-that
they were at this time, for fome particular reafon,
.|bffiidden,.to ufe water; or that, perhaps, they
did not like rt&i| water wefthen ufed, it being
taken oui^ one of the places where the iflan4^
ers bathed. py^^SHjIP^
The following day, which was the 17th, VffNf
fixed updfii^by Mareewagee for giving n'^g^ft
haiva, or entertainment, at which we were all invited to attend^! Before the temporary hut of
this chief, near our land lotion, a large fp&sfcP
had byggn cleared for that purpofe. In the tn^fe
ing, vaft numbers of the native? came in frorri
the country, every one of wrh#fia bori^lut his
ftioulder a long pole, at each end of which a yarn
was fufpended. Thef^ffite^nd yai^^^ixig de-
pofited on each fide of the open fpace, or areay
formed two large heaps, decorated with frrikffi
fifli of diffeB^Msinds. They were MareewageeV
prefent to the Captains Cools* and Clerke. The
neceffary preparatiipti being made, the iflan<$£#
began, about elev^jklo'clock, to exhibitl^ifious
dances, which ^ey call mat. The ba$M dfmufic 204       A   VOYAGE   TO"   THE
at firth confided * jfWw^nty- men as a cliotsrsr*
amidst whom were placed three instruments;tfel
we-^called' df mils v" though■"' they did n-o-to-.m-uch xe-
vHSftble- them. They are cylindrical -pieces 0/
-IfeM, from three fl^four feet in length, fo ore of
thetri twice- as^lfoick as a man of ordinary fize,
^ricf-foriie lib't fo targes : They-are- eritirety^hotlo-ws
but clofe at each erA,»aiidr open only by a chink,
about the breadth of three iwches, running nearly
the wllole^l-eisgth of the drti^ite By this opening,
the' refBbf the-'wood-• i#halld wed ; which mutt be
an operation--of fo'iiie 'difficulty. This inftuSnent
is'called by the natives naffa\ and, having'**!^,
chink turned towardt> theirs, they fit and beat-vi-
^feufly upon it, with two cylindrfc&ljifeces of
wood, as thick as the wrift, and about a foot in
length; by which means a rude, but loud-and
-pdw'erfut found, is produced. They occ'afenally
Tary^liiftlrength and rate of their beating : arid
dffiemlPehange the tones, by beating towards<$&
end, or in the middle of the instrument.
There were four -ranks, of twenty-fear men
each, in the firft dalfels. Thefe held in their hands
a fmall thin wooden instrument, above two feet
in length, refembling in.its fliapej^n oblong paddle. With thefo-inftitllfcents, which are called
fagge, they madems&ny 'different -'motions; fuch
as pointing them towards thifiground on one "fid eg ■
snd inclining their bodies 'ttfc-waylfctthe fame
iiiftant I   then fhifting them to< the oppoll|P^fide
in theseiame. ni-a^ner;;s:-paiimg  them wittirxgreat
! quicknefs-from one-hand .to the other, and twirl*:
j iiigflthoh about with * remarkable dexterity;-:;sestitSi:
various other manoeuvres* Their bn^||gg£p^|@te
we-se atSfcrawsa^ fir-it, quickened asAthe drumssbeat-
fkfter- e ssrandcithey repeated?^sentences the -whole
time sill a mufical tone, bwhich .s w:er e oniwerediby
the chorus,; initial a .Jfaorl-time, they "all joined,
and ended with- a fhousw -After a ceflatiou of a
few smhsiiteSy.!they' began b&snbefore, and.;eoati-e
nued, with fhort intervals, upwards of a quarter
of anghourr; $ and then thebre^rvrank i diyi dingy
• .iksovedseflocwlpiirouisd/each; send, met in thf«profet£
and formed the first rank.-: duri^swhkh timen&e
whole number continued to recite.fenteiiQesie.eTh^i
QtheriixanksiTucceilively did the ^jfame, stilt that
whiefbiwas foremost became the rear-;e? andytMs:.
evolution did not ieeafo/tilb; the Jaft draxik are&ained;
* to.-' ..-- - ' 'iSBte
its -former -situation. A tmusterquicker dance,
though, flow; at tbrfty • -wasnthen beguny rand they
fung: for ten minutes, vvhen the whoie body, in i
two-fould divifion,. retreated, and then advanced,
1 forming a kind of circular ugure, which concluded;. the chorus retir^g, and the
drums being removed, at the fame time.
In the,:.there were forty men as a
chorus,swithonly two drums; and the dancers
(or rather actors) confifteti of two ranks, the foremost of which had feventeen. perfons, and the
other fifteen,    Feenou was in the middle of .the ao6     A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
first rank, which is considered3 on thefe occasions^
as the principal place. They danced, and repeat*
f^ fentences, with very fhort intervals, for'-hj^fe
an hour,:3£metimes flowly, and at other $&#&■
quickly, with the highest degree of e&a£hiefs and
regula^jfc-.^Towards the clofe, thi||jrear~rank;
divided, came round, andj^eupied the place of
the front, which afterwards returned its pristine
utuation. This dance being finifhed, the drums
were taken away, and the chorus retired, $i: in the
preceding dance. fJ§P
. Three very large drums vrifesl now brought in,
and feventy men ferved as a chorus to the third"•
danej^ij This consisted of two ranks, of sixteen
men each, having young Toobou at th^ihead,
who was fplendidly ornamented with a kind of
gSM^M-:C(^€^^m^ red feathers.     Thefe perfons danced, fijog, and twirled the'paggffiffiefa
to meet with thedebntinual appiaufeppf the fpec-
tators, who were particularly pleafed with a mo-
tionojtafwhich they held the face aside as if afham-
ed, with   the pagge  before  it.     The  hisdmoft
rank clofed before the front one, which fooiinlp%
ter refume^ts pl|^s, as in the firft and fecgsw'
dances:   then   beginning again,  they foiled  a
triple row, divided, repeated to each end of the
ar#a, and left the ground in a great meafure clear.
Two men rufhing in at tfiat instant, began to
exercife the chjijs whfo|rrtfi«jy make ufe of in battle.    They first twirled them in their hands, and PACIFIC OCEAN.
made  circular  strokes before  them  with  great
qiricknefs, managing with fuch fkill, that, though
they flood clofe. to each other, they never inter*
fered,   -They fhifted the clubs, with uncommon
dexterity, from one hand to the other;   and, aft
ter;fome time, kneeled down, rand   made various
motions, toiling   up. their   clubs in the air,   and
• catching them -as -they fell, f J They then  retired
as hastily as they had entered.     They had piece!"
of white cloth about their heads, fattened at   the
crown with a wreath of foliage round their foreheads , and, that they might be free from all incumbrance, they had only a. very fmall piece of
cloth tied round the waift.     A man, armed with
a fpear, then rufhed in, and put hrcnfelf in a "n^?
nacing  attitude as if he intended" to  fir ike  with
his weapon at one of the people  in the crowd';
at the fame time  bending the knee a little, and
trembling as  it were with  fury.    He   continued
in this pofition near a minute, and then jpioved
to the other fide, where having flood in the fame
pof^arejhe haftily retreated from the area.    During all this time the dancers, who  had divided
themfelves into  two parties, continued to repeat
fome thing flowly ;   and they now came forward,
and joined again, concluding the dance with  ge*
neraj apglaufe.    This  dance was  probably con^
fidered  as a  capital performance, as fome of tne' J
principal people wetf&engaged in it; one of the
drums being beat by Futtafaihe3 the ipiig's brc*
Vol. I—NA 4. E % ao8
ther, another by Feenou, and the third by .Mare**
wagee himfelf.
In the fourth and last dance, there were forty
men as a chorus, with two-drums. The performers were fixty men, arranged in three rows
having twenty-four in front. Before they commenced, we were entertained with a preliminary
haranwue, in which the whole number made re-
o      z
fponces to an individual fpeaker. They recited
fentences alternately with the chorus, and made
with the pagge many quick -motions. They divided into two parties, with their backs to each
other; formed again, fhifted their ranks (as in
the preceding dances) divided, and retreated,
beingTiicceeded by two men who exercifed their
clubs, a-sbefore, after whom came two otheai&ii
the dancers in the mean time repeating in their
turns with the chorus : they then advanced, and
terminated the dance.
Thefe amufements continued from eleven o'clock
till near three. The number of iflanders who
attended as fpectators, together" ~^with thofe who
were round the trading-place at the tent, or flra£-
ling about, amounted to at leaft ten thoufand,
all within the compafs of a quarter of a mile. If
we had underftood what was fpoken in this entertainment, we might probably have gained
mucji information with regard to the genius and
customs of thefe people. Though the fpectators constantly applauded  the different motions, PACIFIC OCEAN.
when well made, a considerable fharc of the plea-
fure they received, feemed to arife from the fen-
timentarpart, or what the performers' recited.
However, the mere acting part well deferved our
notice, on account of the extenfivenefs of the plan,
the variety of the motions, and the exact unity,
cafe, and gracefulnefs* with which they were performed..
In the evening we were entertained with the
fiomai, or night dances, on a large area before the
temporary dwelling-place of Feenou. They continued three hours; during which time about
twelve of them were performed, nearly in the fame
manner as thofe at Hapaee. In two of them,
which were performed by warn en, a party of men
came and formed a*circle wi$ftn their's. In another, which confifted of twenty-four men, many
motions that we had not before feen, were made
with the hands, and met with great applaufe.
The mufic was once changed in the courfe of the
evening; and in one of the dances, Feenou himfelf appeared at the head of fifty, men : he was
well drefled in linen, and fomefmall pictures were.
hung round his neck.- pPS
Though the whole entertainment was conducted
with better order than could reafonably have been*
expected, yet our utmost care and attention could
not prevent our being plundered by the natives,
in the moft daring and infolent manner. There
■was fcarcely any thing which they   did nat erA
E   E  2 ■%to
deavour to steal. They oncea in the middle of
the day, attempted to take an anchor frgm off
the Difcovery's bows; but without effect. The
only violence of which they were guilty, was, the
breaking the. (boulder-bone of one of our goats;
in confequence of which the died foon after. On
Wednefday the 18th, an ifiander got out of a
canoe into the Refolution, and stole a pewter-
bafon ; but being detected, he was purfued, and
brought along-fide the fhip. Upon this occa-
fion, three old women in the canoe made loud
lamentations over the prifoner. beating their
faces and breads with the palms of their hands
in a very violent manner, but without fhedding
a tear. This mode of exprefling forrow occa-
fions the mark which moft of thefe people bear
on the face over their cheek-bones ; for the repeated blows inflicted by them on this part,
abrade the fkin, and caufe fome blood to flow
out; and when the wound is recent, it looks as
if a hollow circle had been made by burning.
On fome occasions, they cut this part of the face
i'jHJfi&'an instrument.
The   fame day Captain Coq£_.p^
sd   fo
prefents on Mareewagee, in return for thofe which
had been received from that chief the preceding
day;. and as the entertainments then exhibited
called upon us to make fome exhibition in return, he ordered all the marines to go through
their exercife, on the fpot where the late dances iFIC  OCEAN.
had been performed ; and, in the evening, fome
fire-works were alfo played off at the fame place.
ThSSCing, the principal chiefs, and a vaft multitude of people, were prefent. The platoon hiring
feemed to pleafe them; but, when they beheld
our water-rockets, they were filled with aftonifc
.stent and admiration. They did not much regard the fife and drum, or French horns, that
were playing during the intervals. Poulaho fat:
'behind every ' one, no perfon being permitted to
fit behind him ; and, that his view might receive
no obstruction, none fat immediately before him 5
but a lane, as it were, was made by the fpecta-
t'qrs from him, quite down to the fpace allotted
for playing oft the fire-works.
While the natives were in  expectation of this
^ e veiling A exhibition, they engaged, for the greatest
part of the afternoon, in wrestling and boxing-
When a perfon is deiirous of wrestling, he gives
a challenge by crofting the ground in a kind of
meafured pace, and clapping fmartly on the elbow
joint of one arm, which is bent, and fends forth
a hollow found. If no opponent fteps forth, he
returns and fits down ; but if an antagonist appears, they meet with marks of the greatest goodnature^  generally   fimiling,   and   deliberately ad~
jutting the piece of cloth that is fafteried round
the waist. They then lay hold of each other by
this cloth, and lie v/ho fucceeds in drawing his
opponent to him, instantly endeavours to lift him 2i2       A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
upon his breaft, and throw him on his back ; and
if he can turn round with him in that pofition
two or three times, before he throws him, he
meets with great applaufe for his dexterity.- If
they are more equally matched, they quickly
clofe, and attempt to throw each other by entwining their legs, or raising each other from the
ground; in which struggles they difpiay an extraordinary exertion, of strength. When one of
4^@$& is thrown, he immediately retires; while
the conqueror fits down for near a minute then
rises., and goes to the fide from which he came,
where the victory is proclaimed aloud. After
fitting for a fhort time, he rifes again, and challenges | and if feveral antagonists, appear, he has
the privilege of choosing which of them he pleafe.s
to .engage with : he. may alfo, if he fhould throw
litis ...competitor^ challenge again, tilt he himfelf
Is vanquished ; and then the people-on the op-
P&ftfe fide chant the fong of victory in favour of'
?dieir champion. It frequently happens, that five
or fix rife from each ftde, and. give challenges
together ; fo that it is not uncommon to fee fe-
ve%! fiets engaged on the field at the fame time.
They preferve great temper in this exercife, and
leave the fpot without the least difpleafure in their When they find that they are too
equally matched, they defift by mutual content;
end if it does not clearly appear which of them
has had  the  advantage, both fides proclaim the 	
O C E A N.
victory, and then they engage again. But no
one, who has been van qui (bed, is permitted to
engage a fecond time with his conqueror.
Thofe who intend to box advance fide-ways,
changing the fide at every pace, having one arm
stretched out before, the other behind ; and holding in one hand a piece of cord, which they wrap
clofely about it, when they meet with an opponent. This is probably intended to prevent a
diflocation of the hand or fingers. Their blows
are dealt out with great quicknefs and activity,
and are aimed principally at the head. They
box equally well with either hand. One of their
moft dexterous blows is, to turn round on the
heel, juft after they have ftruck their adverfary,
and to give him another pretty violent blow with*
the other hand backward* In boxing-matches,
unlets a perfon strikes his antagonist to the ground
they never fing the fong of victory ; which fliews,
that this diverfon is lefs approved among them
than wrestling;* Not only bovs engage in both
thefe exercifes ; but it not uiifrequently happens,
that little girls box with great obstinacy. On all
thefe Occafions, they do not confider it as any
difgrace to be overcome ; and the vanquifhei!
perfon fits down with as much indifference as if
he had never engaged. Some of our people contended with them in both exercifes, but were
generally worsted. AOYAGE TO THE
Captain Cook intending to  leave behind hint-
fame  of the   animals  he   had   brought, thought
proper-to make a distribution of them before his.
jfearture.    He  therefore, on the 19th, aslembled
the chiefs before our houfe, and marked out his
intended prefents to them.    To the  king, he gave
a bull arid a cow ; to Mareewagee, a Cape ram,
and two,ewes ; and to Feenou, a horfe and a rnare.
He instructed Omai  to   tell them, that no fuch
■ animals  exifted within feveral months fail of their
- ifland;   that he had  brought them, with a great
degree of trouble  and   expence,   for   their  ufe ;
that, therefore, they   ought  to be careful not  to
kill any  of them till  they had  multiplied confA
derably ; and, finally, that they and  their pofte-
rit-y ought to remember, that they  had received
them from the natives   of Britain.      Omai alfo
explained to them then refpective ufes, as far as
his limited  knowledge in fuch points would permit him*     The Captain   had   intended  to give
old Toobou two or three goats;. but finding thar^
chief indifferent about them, he  added them to
the  fhare of Poulaho.     It foon   appeared, that
fome of the  natives were diiTati-sfie-d   with the allotment of our  animals ; for, the next morning,
two of our  turkey-cocks, and one kid, were mif-
;-fing.    Our Commodore being determined to get
them restored, feized on three canoes  that were
along-fide the flups;   then  went  on fhore, and
having found his  majefly, his brother, Feenou3 PACIFIC   OCEAN.
tod fome other chiefs, in our houfe, he immediately appointed a guard over them, arid intimated
to them, that they mufl continue under restraint,
till not only the turkeys and the kid, but the
other things of which he had been plundered^!
various times, were restored to us. They attuned
him, that the things in queftion fhould all be'|fifeh
turned; and then fat down to drink kava, with
an appearance of Unconcern. Soon afterwrards^
an axe, and ah iron wedge\ were brought to us.
Spine armed natives, in the mean time, began to
affemble behind the houfe; but they difperfed
when a part of our guard marched against them ;
akd the chiefs, at the instigation of the Commodore, gave orders that no more mould appear.
When he invited them to dine with him on boards
they readily contented. Some of litem having
afterwards objected to Poulaho's going,- he rofe
up immediately, and declared that he would be
the firft man. Accordingly, the chiefs went on
board with Captain Cook, and remained in the
fhip till near four o'clock* He then conducted
them afhore; and, not long after, the M$4-f and
one of the turkeys were restored to him. On their
promising that the other turkey fhould be brought
back the next morning, he releafcd both them and
the canoes.
Captain Cook now walked but with Omai/with
a-view of obferving how the natives in our neighborhood fared; for this was the ufual time of
Vol. I N°. 4. F p A  VOYAGE   TO  THE
their meals. He found that they were, in general, ill fupplied ; a circumitance not to be wondered at, fince moft of the yams, and other provisions that they brought with them, were dif-
pofed of to us; and they were unwilling to return to their own habitations, while they could
procure any fuftenance near our pott. .That particular part of the ifland, where our ftation was,
being uncultivated, there were none of the natives who had a fixed residence within half a mile
of sis. Thofe therefore who were at our pott,
were obliged to live under trees and bushes, or
in temporary fhades; and the cocoa-trees were
ftripped of their branches, for the purpofe of
erecting huts for the chiefs.
Omai and the Captain, in the courfe of their
wralk, found fix or fevcn women at fupper together, two of whom were fed by the others. On
their afking the the reafon of this circumstance, the
women" replied, taboo mattee. Upon further enquiry it appeared, that one of them, about two
months before, had washed the corpfe of a chief,
on which account fhe was not allowed to handle
any food for five months; and that the other had
performed the fame office to the dead body of a
perfon of inferior rank, and was therefore under
a fimilar restriction though not for fo long a
On Saturday the 21 ft,early in the morning, Poulaho came on board, to invite Captain Cook to an PACIFIC OCEAN.
haiva or entertainuient, which he designed to
give the fame day. He had already had his. head
befrneared with red pigment, in-order to communicate a .red colour to his hair, which was naturally of a dark brown. The Captain, after
breakfast, attended him, to the fhore, and found
the iflanders very bufy in two places, fixing, in a
fquare and upright position, four very long potts,
at the diftance of near two feet from each other.
They afterwards filled up with yams the fpace
between the potts ; and fattened flicks acrofs,
from one pott to another, at the diftance of every
four feet, to prevent the pofts from feparating,
by the weight of the inclofed yams, and alfo to
afcend by. As foon as the yams, had reached the
fummit of the firft potts, they continued to fatten
others to them, till each pile was thirty feet or
more in height. They placed, on the top of one
of the piles, two bakedhogs; and, on the top
of the other, a living one : and'they tied another
■by the legs half-way up. The facility and dif-
patch with which thefe two piles were raifed, were
remarkable. After they had completed them,
they accumulated fome other heaps of yams, and
alfo of bread-fruit, on each fide of the area ; to
which a turtle, and a great quantity of excellent
fifh, were added. The whole of this, with fome
red feathers, a mat, and a piece of cloth, competed the king's prefent to Captain. Cook. About
.one o'clock the mai, or dances, were beguru
F f % 3i3     A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
The firft of thefe very nearly refembled the firft;
that was performed at Mareewagce's entertains
ment. The fecond was conducted by young •
Toobou ; and in this, four or five women were
introduced, who equalled the men in the exact-
nefs and regularity of their motions* Near the
end, the performers divided, in order to leave
room for two champions, who exercifed their
clubs. In the third dance, which was the last,
two. other men, with clubs, exibited their fkill
and activity* The dances were fucceeded by
boxing and wrestling ; and one man entered the
lifts with a. kind of heavy club,, made from the
item, of a cocoa-leaf,; but could meet with no
opponent- to engage hifii in fo rough a diversion.
Towards, the evening, the- bomai^bx^ night-dances,
began, in which the. king himfelf, apparelled in
Englifh manufacture, wa£ a performer : but neither thefe, nn>r the dances in the day-time, were
fo capital as thofe of Feenou, or Mareewagee.
The Commodore, in order to- be prefent the
whole time, dined on fhore.. Poulaho fat down
with, hiiri, but neither eat nor drank, which was
owing to the pretence of a female, who had been
admitted, at his request* to the dining party, and
who, as we were informed in the fequel, was of'
fuperior rank to himfelf. This lady had no sooner- \
dined, then he walked up to Poulaho, who applied his hands to her feet; after which flie re-
Tpetired.    He immediately dipped his fingers into .PACIFIC OCEAN.
st'glass of wine,, and then all her attendants paid
him obeifance. At his define., fome of our fireworks were played off in the evening : but being
damaged, they did not anfwer   the expectations
of the'Spectator s...
Some Officers plundered cf their Mitfkeis, and other-
Articles by the Natives——Omai complains to the
King of this Outrage—--Corfequences that it was
probable might attend it—A vifit to Poulaho—1
Defcription of a Fiat00ka—Country Entertainment
at Poulaho's   Houfe—His Mrftemjnz Ceremon
^'Weaftly method
faike—Entertained by   him—Method of drejfmg
Hogs, and carving them—Manner  of pajfing the
of preparing-  Kava-*?-Account   of
King and Anderfon vifit Futia-
-Obfiervations on the Country
Departure—Defcription of the Ifiand, its Am?nalsy
Vegetables,  Ro$j
T^TO more entertainments being expected on,
JL ^ either fide, and the curiosity of the populace being in a great degree fatisfied, moft of
them, defer ted  us the day after  Foulaho's haivaP 22o       A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
Still, however, we had thieves  among us, aixel
had continual instances of their depredations.,
Some of the officers of both fhips, who had
mzde an excursion into the interior parts of the
ifland, returned the 22d of June in the evening
after an abfence of two days. They had taken
their mufkets and neceffary ammunition with
them, befides feveral fmall ..articles of the favourite
commodities; the whole of which the natives had
the dexterity to steal from them, in the courfe of
their fhort journey. Inconvenient confequences
were likely to have attended this affair ; for, when
our plundered travellers returned, they employed.
Omai., without eonfulting Captain Cook, tq complain to the king of the treatment they had received. He, not knowing low; the Captain
would proceed in this affair, and apprehending^
that he might again lay him under reftraint, fet
off early the next morning, and Feenou followed
his example; fo that not a chief of authority was
now remaining in our neighbourhood. The Cap-.
tain was offended at this bufinefs.% and reprimanded Omai for having pre fumed to interfere,
in it. This reprimand induced him. to endeavour
to bring back his friend Feenou, and he focceeded
in his negociatsQR5 by alluring him that no violent meatuses woAtd be purfued to oblige the
natives t© return what they had stolen. Trusting
to this   declaration, Feenou came   back in   th& PACIFIC   OCEAN.
evening,  and was favourably received.    Pouhho
alfo favoured us with his company the next day.
Upon this occasion, the two chiefs very justly
obferved to Captain Cook, that, whenever^any
of his people warited to take an excursion into the
country, they ought to be made acquainted with
it, that they might order proper people to attend
them, to prevent fuch outrages. And, had this,
precaution been taken, it is not to be doubted \
"but that a man and his property would have been
asfafe here, as in other parts of the more civilized world. Though the Captain did not afterwards endeavour to recover the articles taken;
upon this occafion, the whole of them were returned through the . interposition of Feenou, except one mufket, and a few other mfigniftcarii
articles. By this time alfo, we recovered the
tools and other matters, that had been fteiea
from our workmen.
On Wednefday the 25^1 of June, two boats,
which Captain Cook had fent in fearch of a commodious channel to fea, returned. The commanders of them reported, that the channel to the
north, through which we came in> was imminently dangerous, being full of coral rocks; that
there was a good channel to the eastward, though
contracted, in one place, by the fmall iflands ;
confequently a westerly wind would be neceffary
to get through it. We had now recruited our
ihips, and repaired our fails, and had little more tei       A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
to expect of the produce of the ifland ; but as ah
eciipfe of the fun was to happen on the 5th of
July, the Captain determined to ft ay till ih at
time, to have a chance of obferving it.
Having now some ieifure I before us, Captain
Cook, and a ^ffi&j&8&£ us accompanied by Poulaho, fet   out  the next morning, in a boat,  for
village,   wnere:
other men of cohfequenceg ufually refide. Rowing
up the inlet, we faw fourteen canoes fishing in
company ; in one of which was Poulaho's . ion;
They had then taken fome htie mulletspsahout a
dozen of which they put into a boat.jxftfcThey
flsewed us their whole method of fithing, which
appeared to be an effectual one.
Taking leave of the prince arid his fifliing party*
we were rowed to the bottom of the bay, and
landed where we had done before, when we went
to fee Mareewagee. As foon as. we got on there
we were conduced to one of Pdpfaho's houfes ;
which, though tolerably large, feemed to be his
private place of residence, andv'was situated within
a plantation. The king -&$ted himfelf at one
end of the houfe, and thofe who came to vifit
him, fat down in a femi-circle at the other end.
A bowl of kava was immediately prepared for us,
and directions 'were given to bake fome yams*
While thefe were getting ready, fome of us, together with a few of the king's attendants, and
Omai as our interpreter, went to take a view of a .   PACIFIC OCEAN.
natooka, or biirying-place, at a fmall diftance
from the habitation, it belonged to the king,
-'and consisted of three largifli houfes situated on
a rifing ground, with a fmall one not far off, all
ranged longitudinally. The largest of the three
firft was the middle houfe, which was placed in as
fquire, twenty-four paces by twenty-eight, and
raifed about three feet. The other houfes where
-o placed on little mounts. On the floors of thefe
houfes, as alfo on the tops of the mounts $ where
fine loofe pebbles; and the whole was ihelofed
by large fiat stories of coral rock'; One of the
houfes was Open on one fide, and two wooden
bulls of men, rudely carved, were within it;
We enquired of the natives who followed us^,
(but durst not enter here) what thefe images
were; who informed us, that they were memorials of fome chiefs who had been buried there,
and not meant as the reprefentatives of any deity i
Such monuments, it is prefumed, are feldom
raifed; for thefe appeared to have been erected
many ages.
: We were informed that dead bodies had beeri
buried in each of thefe houfes, but no marks of
them w7ere to be diftinguifhed. The carved head
of an Otaheite canoe, which had been driven
afhore on their coaft, was depofited in one of
them. On the rifing ground was a grafs-plot,.
on which different large trees were planted;
among which were feveral of thofe called etoa*
Vol. I—NA 4- G g 224
They greatly refemble the cypress, and had t
very folemn effect. A row of low palms was alfo
planted  near   one  of the  houfes.
After refrefhing ourfelves with fome provifi-
ons which we had brought from our fhips, we
took a pretty large circuit into the country, attended by one of the king's ministers, who would
not fuffer any of the rabble to follow us, and
obliged thofe whom we met upon our progrefs,
to fit down while we were pafling ; a mark of re-
fpect due only to their fovereigns. The great eft
part of the country was cultivated, and moft of
their plantations fenced round. Some parts, indeed, lay fallow, and others in a ftate of nature;
the latter afforded large quantities of timber.
We found many public and well-beaten paths,
leading to different parts of the ifiand. Travelling here was, indeed, very commodious, the
roads being excellent, and the country level. We
were conducted to feveral pools and fprings of
water, but they were, in general, either brackifh
or stinking.
In the dufk of the evening, we returned from
or walk, and found our fupper in readinefs. It
consisted of fome fifh and yams, and a baked hog
in which all the culinary arts of the ifland had
been difplayed. There being nothing to amufe
us after fupper, we lay down to fleep, according
to the custom of the country, on mats fpread
upon the floor,   and  had a covering of cloth. PACIFIC    OCEAN.
The king, who became happy with fome wine and
brandy which  we had brought,  alfo flept in the
Stloufe, as did feveral others of the natives. Before day-break, they all rofe, and entered into
converfation by moon-light. As foon as it was
day they difperfed different ways, but it was not
long before they all returned, accompanied by
feveral of their countrymen.
While they were preparing a bowl of kava,
Captain Cook went to pay a vifit to Toobou,
Captain Furneaux's friend, who had a houfe not
far distant,, which for fize and neatnefs was hardly
exceeded inx the place. Here alfo we found a
company preparing a morning draught. The
cheif made a prefent to the Captain of a living
hog, and one that was baked ; alfo a quantity of
yams, and a large piece of cloth.    Returning to
*the king, we found him and his attendants drinking the fecond bowl of kava. That bufinefs
being performed, he informed Omai that he was
immediately going to perform a morning ceremony, called tooge, in memory of a fon who had
been fome time dead, and defired us to accompany him. Naturally expecting to fee fomewhat
new or curious, we readily complied with the
The king stepped out of the houfe, attended
by two old woman, and put on a new cloathing,.
over which was placed an old ragged mat, which
might probably have ferved his grandfather upon
G g 2 226
a similar folemn occafion. His attendants were
habited in the fame manner, excepting that, in,
point of antiquity, none of their mats could vie
with that of their mafter. Thus equipped, we
marched off, preceded by eight or ten perfons in
the fame uniform, each of them having likewife
a green bough about his neck. Poulaho, who
held his bough in his hand till he approached
the place of remdezvouz, then alfo put it about
his neck. We now entered a fmall inelofure,
wherein was a neat houfe, and a man fitting before it. As the company entered, they took the
branches from their necks, and threw them away.
The king feated himfelf, and the others fat before hirn in the ufual manner. By the arrival of
other perfons, the circle increafed to upwards of
an hundred, principally old men, all dreffed in
the manner above defcribed. The company being affembled, a large root of kava was produced
by one of the Ring's fervants, and a capacious
bowl that would contain five or fix gallons. Many
perfons now began to chew the root, and the
bowl that was. filled with liquor up to the brim.
Others were employed in making drinking-cups
of plantain leaves. The firft cup that was filled,
being prefented to the king, he ordered it to be
given to another perfon; the fecond was alfo
prefented to him, and he drank it.; the third
was offered to Captain Cook. Afterwards a cup
was given to feveral others,   till the liquor was PACIFIC  OCEAN.
exhausted; and though not half the company
partook of it, no one appeared in the least diffa-
tisfied. Each cup, as it was emptied, was thrown
upon the ground, whence it was taken up, and
carried to be filled again. All this time the chiei,
and his whole circle, fat with a great deal of gravity hardly fpeaking a fyllable to each other.
All this while we were in expectation of feeing
the mourning ceremony begin, when, to our great
furprife, as foon as the kava was drank out, they
all rote, up and difperfed ; and Poulaho informed
us, he was now ready to attend us to the fhips.
We had fometimes feen the drinking of kava
at other iflancls, but no where fo frequently as
here. The kava is a fpecies of pepper, which
they esteem, a valuable article, and cultivate for
this purpofe, carefully defending the young plants
from any injury ; and it is usually planted about
their houfes. It does not often exceed the height
i they are fometimes feen much
heart-ffiaped  leav
of a man, though t
higher h has \?
jointed ftaiks.
Only the root of the kava is. ufed at the Friendly Iflands: after being dug up, it is given to the
fervants ; who, breaking- it in pieces, fcrape the
dirt off, and each chews his portion, which he
afterwards fpits into a piece of plantain leaf.
Thofe, who are to prepare the liquor, collect
thefe mouthfuls together, and deposit them in a
large wooden bow. 22 8 A VOYAGE TO THE
of water to make it of a proper strength. It is
then well mixed up . with the hands, and wrung
hard, in order to make it productive of as much
liquid as possible.
About a quarter of a pint of this beverage Is
ufually put into each cup. It has no perceptible
effect upon thefe people, who ufe it fo frequently:
but, on fome of ours, it operated like our fpi-
rits, occasioning intoxication, or: rather stupefaction, w' Sfi
The mourning ceremony being over, we left
Mooa, and fet out on our return to the fhips.
Rowing down the inlet, we met with two carioes
returning from fifiling. Poulaho ordered them
to approach him, and took from them every fifh
and fhell. He afterwards flopped two other canoes, fearched them, and found nothing. He
gave us fome of the fifh, and the reft were fold
by his fervants on board the fhip. Proceeding
down the inlet,' we overtook a large failing canoe,
when every perfon on board her fat down till we
had paffed ; even the man who fleered, though
he could not poffibly manage the helm, but in a
Handing posture.
Having been informed, by Poulaho and others,
that there was fome good wafer at Onevy, a fmall
ifland, about ■ a league off the mouth of the inlet; we landed there, in order to tafte it, but
found it to be extremely brackish. Thjs ifland is
quite in a natural state, and only frequented as a
I fiflsing-place ; having nearly the fame producti-.
oris as Palmerfton's ifland.
When we returned to the fhip, Captain Cook
was informed that every thing had been quiet
during his abfence; not a fingle theft haying
been committed; of which Feenou, and Futta-
faifie, the "king's brother, who had undertaken
the management of his countrymen in the Captain's abfence, boafted not a little. This evinces
what power the chiefs have, when they are inclined to execute it; which is not often to be expected ; for whatever was stolen from us, was generally conveyed to them.
The next day, fix or eight of the natives af
faulted fome  of our  people  who  were  fa wing
planks;   in   confequence
ti   they   were
fired on by the fentry ; one of them was fuppofed
to be wnaunded, and three were taken. The latter were confined till night, when they were pu-
nifhed, and fet at liberty. After this their behaviour was very decent and circumfpect; occa-
fioned, as we Imagined, by the man being wounded : for, till this time, they had only heard of the
effect, of fire-arms, but now they hzd felt it. We
were not mistaken in our conjecture, for Mr.
King, and Mr. Anderfon, in an excursion they
took into the country, met with the very man,
and found indubitable marks of his having been
wcHinded with a mufket-ball. i|%
ling worthy of not
for tw
:>  days; we fhall
tervai \
vith an account of
fill up that in
ins  nouie.
iy- the 30th
mied Futta-
1 is not far
looa. Scon
ailed, which
an the head*-
}, the bot-
mentioned. On Mend
of June, Mr. King, and he accomi
faihe as vifiton
from that of his brotner ro
after they arrived", a largifh ho;
was effected by repeated ftro
The hair was then curiously f
{harp edg;e of pieces or fplit b;
trails taken out by the fame
Previous to this an oven h;
which is a large hole dug in j
torn of which isv covered with stones*! about the
fize of a mail's fist, which are made red hot
by kindling a fire over them ; then" they wrapt
up fome of thefe ft ones in leaves of the bread
fruit tree, with which they filled the hog's belly?
fluffing in a quantity of leaves to prevent their
falling -out, and thrusting a plug of the fame
kind in the alius* This being done, the carcafe
was placed upon fome fticks laid acrofs the itones,
and covered with plantain-leaves. The earth
was afterwards dug up all round; and the oven
being thus, effectually clofed, the operation of
baking required no farther aid.
They afterwards amufed themfelves by walking
about the country, but faw nothing remarkable,
exceot a fiatooka of about thirty feet high.,-    At a PACIFI C OCEAN.
fmall diftance, there, was a number of etooa^.
trees, on which were vast quantities of Ternate
bats, making a moft horrible noife. Not having
their mufkets, at this time, they could not kill
any of them, but fome, taken at Annamooka,
meafured almoft a yard, when the wings were
On their return to Futtafaihe's houfe, the bak*
ed hog was produced, accompanied with fome
cocoa-nuts, and feveral bafkets of baked yams.
The perfon who prepared the hog in the morning, now cut it up in a very masterly manner,
with a knife made of fplit bamboo. Though the
weight of it was at leaft fifty pounds, the whole
was placed before them ; when they took a fmall
part, and defired the reft might be partaken of by
the people fitting round. Fattafaihe could hardly
be prevailed upon ,to eat a morfel.
Dinner being ended, they went, with him, and
his attendants, towards the fpot where Poulaho's
mourning-ceremony was performed. They faw
nothing but a kind of continuation of the fame
Jfolenm rites, by way of condolence. Upon enquiring upon whofe account it was now tranf-
acted, they were informed, that it was in memory of a chief who had long fince died at Va-
vaoo, that they had practifed it ever fince, and
fhould continue to do fo for a confiderable length
of time to come.
Vol. L— N° 5. H h 2^2
They were entertained in the evening, with a
pig for fupper, dreffed like the hog, and, like
that accompanied with yams and cocoa-nuts.
When the fupper was over, a large quantity of
cloth was brought for them to fleep in ; but they
were disturbed in their repofe, by a Angular in-
ftance of luxury, in which their men of confequence indulge themfelves ; that of being thumped or beat while they are afleep. Two women,
who fat by Futtafaihe, performed this operation,
which they call tooge tooge, by striking his body.
and legs, with both fists, till he fell afleep, and,
with fome intervals, continued it the whole night. v
The perfon being fast afleep, they abate a little
of the strength and brifknefs of the beating ;
but, if they obferve any appearance of his awaking, they refume it. In the morning they were
informed, that Futtafaihe's women relieved each
other, and went alternately to fleep. Such a
pradtife as this in any other country, would be
fuppofed to be deftructive of all reft ; but here it
operates like an opiate, and strongly fhews what
habit may effect.
They fet out with Futtafaihe the next morning, and walked to the point, down the eaft-fide
of the bay. The country all along this fide appeared to be well cultivated, but not fo much
inclofed as at Mooa.     They found, that, in tra-
Futtafaihe   exercifed
power,   w
fhewed the great authority the principal men are PACIFIC OCEAN.
invefted with. To one place, he fent for fifh ; and
to another, for yams; and his orders were as readily obeyed, as if he had been abfolute matter of
all the people's property.
They croffed the bay, in the evening, to their
ftation, in a canoe procured by Futtafaihe, by
exercifing his authority in calling to the firft that
appeared ; he haci alfo a large hog at this place,
and wanted them to accept of a bundle of cloth;
but, the boat being fmall, they objected;- and
he ordered it to be taken to them the next day..
Thus ends Mr. Anderfon's account of his ex-
cur fi on.
Captain Cook had prolonged his flay at this
ifland, on account of the approaching eclipfc;
but, on looking at the micrometer, (on the 2d
of July) he found fome accident had happened
to it, and that it was rendered ufelefs, till repaired ; which could not be done before the time
it was intended to be ufed. We therefore got
on board, this day, all the cattle and other animals, except thofe that were destined to remain.
The Captain designed to have left a turkey-cock
and hen, but two hens being destroyed by accident, and wifhing to carry the breed to Otaheitey
he referved the only remaining pair for that
We  took up our anchor the  next  day, and
moved the fhips behind Pangimodoo, to be ready
for the firft favourable wind to take us through
Hk 2 234       A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
the narrows. The king, who this day dined
with us, took particular notice of the plates;
"which the Commodore obferving, made him an
offer of one, either of pewter, or of earthen ware.
He made choice of the firft, and mentioned the
feveral ufes to which he intended to apply it;
two of which were fo very extraordinary that
they deferve to be related, j
Whenever he fhould vifit any of the other
iflands, he faid he would leave this plate behind
him at Tongataboo, as his reprefentative, that
the people might in his abfence, pay it the homage due to himfelf in perfon. On being afked,
how he had ufually been reprefented in his ab-
.fence, before he was in poffeflion of this plate,
he informed us, that this singular honour had
always been conferred on a wooden bowl, in
which he wafhed his hands. The other ufe to
which he meant to apply the plate Instead of the
bowl, was to difcover a thief. When any thing
had been flolen, and the thief not'detected, the
people were affembled before him, when he wafli*
ed his hands in this veffel. After this it was
cleaned, and every man advanced, and touched
it with his hand, in the fame manner that they
touch his foot when they offer him .obeifa-n-cecwl-f
touched by the guilty perfon, he dropped down
dead immediately ; and, if any one refuted to
touch it, fuch refufal was considered as a fufficieEl
proof of his guilt. PACI]
In the morning of Saturday the 5th of July,
the day of the eclipfe, the weal her was cloudy,
with fome fhowers of rain. About nine o'clock,
the fun broke out at fmall intervals for about
half an hour, but was totally obfcured juft before the beginning of the eclipfe. The fun
again appeared at intervals till about the middle
of the eclipfe ; but was feen no more during the
remainder of the day, fo that we could not obferve the end. This difappointment was the lefs
to be lamented, as the longitude was fufficiently
determined  by lunar obfervations.
The eclipfe being over, we packed up the instruments, and every thing was conveyed on
board. None of the natives having taken any
care of the three fheep allotted to Mareewagee,
the C ommodore ordered them to be carried back
to the fhips. He was 'apprehensive that, if they
had been left there, they would probably be destroyed by dogs. Thefe' animals did not exist
upon the ifland in 1773, when the Commodore
firft visited it; but there is now a plenty of-ihem ;
partly from the breed left by him, and partly
from fome imported from an ifland, called Feejee.
At prefent, however, the dogs have not got into
any of the Friendly Iflands,  except Tongataboo.
Mr. Anderfon has given us the following defcription of this ifland. Amsterdam, Tongataboo, or Tonga £as it is fometimes called by
the natives) is about twenty leagues in circums-
■f JO 236       A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
ference, rather oblong, though broadeft at the
eaft-end, and its greatest length is from eaft to
weft. The fouth-fhore is straight, confuting of
coral-rocks of about eight or ten feet high, terminating perpendicularly, except in fome few
places, where there are fandy beaches. The weft-
end is about five or fix miles broad, and has $
shore like that of the fouth-fide;. but the north-
fide is environed with fhoals and iflands; and
the eaft fide is, moft probably, like the fouth.
This ifland may, with propriety, be called a
low one ; the only eminent part, to be obferved
from a fhip, is the fouth-eaft point, though many
gently rifing and declining grounds are perceivable by thofe who are on fhore. Though the
general appearance of the country does not exhibit that beautiful kind of landfcape, produced
by a variety of hills and valleys, rivulets, and '
lawns, yet it conveys an idea of the moft exuberant fertility. The furface, at a diftance, feems
.entirely clothed with trees of various sizes : but
the tali cocoa-palms raife their tufted heads
high above the reft, and are a noble ornament
to any country that produc es them. The boogo,
which is a fpecies of the fig, is the largest fized
tree upon the ifland : and the moft common
bullies and fmall trees, on the uncultivated fpots,
are the pandanus, the faitanoo, feveral forts of hr-
bifcus, and a few others. PACIFIC OCEAN.
The climate of Tongataboo, from the situation towards the tropic, is more variable than in
countries far within that line ; though that might,
perhaps, be occafioned by the feafon of the year
which was now the. winter folftice. The winds
are generally from fome point between fouth and
eaft. The wind, indeed, fometimes veers to the
north-eaft, or even north-weft, but never continues long, nor blows ftrong from thence, though
often accompanied by heavy rain, and clofe fultry weather.
The vegetable productions are never fo much
affected, refpecting the foliage, as to flied it all at
once ; but every leaf, as it falls, is fucceded by
another, which caufes the appearanee of univer-
fal fpring.
A coral rock appears to be the balls of the
ifland, that being the only fort that prefents itfelf
on the fhore. There was not the appearance of
any other ftone, except fome fmall blue pebbles
about the fiatookas and the fmooth black ftone,
of which the natives make their hatchets; and
thefe have, perhaps, been brought from other
iflands in the neighbourhood. Though, in many
places, the coral projects above the furface, the
foil is, in moft parts, of a confiderable depth.
In cultivated places, it is generally of a loofe
black colour, feemingly produced by the rotten
vegetables. VOYAGE   TO  THE
The principal of the cultivated fruits in this^
ifland, are plantains, of which they have fifteen
varieties; the jambu, and the eeevee: the latter
being a kind of plum ; and vaft quantities of
{haddocks, as/often found in a natural ftate as
Of yams there are two . forts; one black and fo
large as to weigh from twenty to thirty pounds ;
the other white aud long, feldom exceeding a
pound in weight. There is a large root, called
kappe; another like our white potatoes, called
mawhaha ; the talo, and the jeejee.
They have vaft numbers of cocoa-nut-trees, and
three other forts of palms. One is called beeoo,
growing almoft as high as the cocoa-tree, and
having very large leaves plaited like a fan. The
other is a kind of cabbage-tree, much refem-
bling the cocoa, but rather thicker. A third
fort is called ongo ongo ; it feldom grows higher
than five or fix feet. Plenty of excellent fugar-
cane is cultivated here ; alfo gourds, bamboo,
turmeric, and a fpecies of fig, called matte ; but
the catalogue of uncultivated plants is too large to
be enumerated.
There are no quadrupeds in this ifland, but hogs,
dogs, and a few rats. Fowls of a large breed, are
domesticated here.
Among the birds, are parrots, and parroquets,
cuckoos, king-fifhers, and a bird of the thriifh
kind, of a dull green colour, which is  the only PACIFIC   OCEAN.
ftngirtg-bird we could find here ; but it compensates,, in a great degree* for the want of others,
by the force and melody of its voice.
Among the other land birds are rails about the
fize of a pigeon, of a variegated grey colour ; a
black fort- with reddish eyes : large violet coots,
with red bald crowns ; two forts of fly-catchers 5
a fmall fwallow ; and three forts of pidgeons.
Of water-fowl, are the ducks feen at Annamooka ; tropic birds ; blue and white herons ;
noddies ; white terns ; a new fpecies of a leader!
colour ; a fmall bluifh curlew ; arid a large fpoU
ted plover.
Among the animals of the reptile, or infect
tribe, are fea fnakes, (though often feen on fhore)
about three feet long, with alternate black and
white circles ; fome feorpions, and centipedes ;
alfo green guanoes, about eighteen inches long,
and two fnialler forts* Here are fome beautiful
moths and butterflies, and forne^ very large fpi-
ders ; together with others, making in,the whole^
about fifty different forts of infectsi
Though the fea abounds with fifh, the variety
is lefs than might be imagined: thofe in the
greatest plenty are mullets, filver fifh, old wives,
parrot fifh, foles, leather jackets, albicores, bon-
hetos, eels like thofe about Palmerfton's Ifland,
rays, a fort of pike, and fome devil fifh.
There are an end lefs variet
the reefs and fhoals
Vol* I.—N°. 5.
among w
f fheli fifh about
:h are the ham* s4o       A  VOYAGE  TO THE
mer oyfter ; a large indentated oyfter, and many
others; but none of the common fort; gigantic cockle ; panamas; cones; pearl-fhell oysters,
&C. Alfo feveral forts of fea-eggs ; many curious
ftar fifh ; crabs; cray-fifh, &c. and feveral forts of
CHAP.    IX.
Strange Solemnity at Mooa, tailed Natche, in Ho*
nour of the Ring's Son.    Defcription of many ex*I
traordinary Proceffions and Ceremonies during the j
firft Day.    Manner of fupping and fipending the.
Evening at the King's houfe.    Defcription of the
fecond Day's Ceremony.    Captain   Cook ventures
himfelf in the 7nidfi of the Affembly.    His Recep-.
tion there.    Arrival at Eooa.    Some Account of
that Ifland.    Weigh Anchor and turn through the
TPIOUGH we were now ready to fail, we
had not fufficient day-light to turn through
the narrows ; the morning flood falling out too
early and the evening flood too late. We were
therefore under a neceflity of waiting two or three
days, unlefs we fhould be fortunate enough to
have a leading wind.   PACIFIC  OCEAN.
This delay gave us an opportunity to be prefent at a public folemnity, to which file king had
invited us, and which was to be performed on the
8 th. He and all the people of confequence repaired to Mo.oa on the 7th, where the folemnity
was to be exhibited. Several of us followed
them the next morning. Poulaho had informed
us, that his fon was now to be initiated into certain privileges ; one of which was, that of eating
with his father; an honour he had not hitherto
About eight o'clock in- the morning- we arrived at Mooa, where we found the king,, with a
number of attendants fitting before him, within ae
fmall dirty enclofure. They were, as ufual, buffed in preparing a bowl of kava.. As this was
not liquor for us, we went to pay a vifit to fome
of our friends, and to obferve what preparations
were making, for the ceremony, which was foon
expected to begin.
About ten o'clock, the people aflembled in a
large'area before the malaee, or great houfe. At
the end of a road, opening into this area, flood
feveral men with fpears and clubs, inceflfantly
reciting fhort fentences, in mournful accents,
which conveyed an idea of diftrefs. This wasg
confined about an hour; during which time,
tttiany people came down the road, each having
a yam tied to the middle of a pole, which they
laid down before thofe who continued repeating
li 2 84$
the fentences. At length, the king and prince ar*
rived, and feated themfelves upon the area ; a*nd
we were requefted to fit down by them, to take
off our hats and to untie our hair. The bear?
ers of the yams having all entered, each pole
was taken up between two men, who carried it
over their fhoulders. They afterwards formed
themfelves into companies, often or twelve each,
and marched acrofs the place, with a rapid pace,
each company headed by a man who had a club
or fpear, and defended, on the right, by feveral
Others, armed with different weapons. About
two hundred and fifty perfons walked in the „pro^
cession, which was clofed by a man carrying on a
perch a living pigeon.
Oniai was defired by Captain Cook to afk the
chief where the yams were to be carried, with fo
much folemnity ; but he feemed unwilling to
give us the information we required ; fome of us,
therefore, followed the proceflion, feemingly con-,
trary to his inclination.
They, flopped before a moral or fiatooka of one
houfe standing upon a mount, about a quarter of
3 mile from where they firft affembled. Here,
they depofited the yams, and gathered them into
bundles; but for what purpofe, we could not pofn
fibly learn. Our pretence teeming to give them
offence or uneafinefs, we quitted them, and re4
turned to Poulaho, who advifed us to amufe:
OurfeJves by walking about, as nothing would be PACIFIC OCEAN
a confiderable time.  The
le. The fear of lofing
le ceremony prevented
AThen we returned to
n Cook to order the
to ftir from the boat,
y foon, be  taboo ; and
if any of our
feen walkii
knocked dc
pie, or of there own, fhould be
ibout, they would certainly be
with clubs ; nay mateed, that is,
lulled. He alfo informed us that we could not
be prefent at the ceremony; but that we fhould
be placed in fuch a situation, as to be able to fee
every thing that, paffed. Our drefs was particu-*
larly objected to, and we were told, that, to
qualify us to be prefent, we mutt be naked as
low as the breaft, and our hats mufl be taken off
and our hair untied. Omai readily agreed to
conform to thefe requisites, and immediately
began to strip; but other objections were then
ftarted, and he was excluded equally with our-
Not ralifliing this restriction, the Captain stole
out, to fee what might now be going forward.
Very few people, however, were to be feen, except thofe who were dreffed to attend the cere*
money; fome having in their hands fmall poles,
about four feet in length, to the under part of
which were fattened two or three other fmall flicks,
about fix inches long. Thefe men were going
towards the moral*    Captain Cook took the fame 244
road, and was frequently flopped by them, aft
crying out taboo. However, he ventured to go
forward till he came in fight of the m&rai, and of
the people fitting before it. He was now strongly urged to- go back,   and,   not  knowing what
toe consequence or a re
fufal, he
plied. He had obferved, that thofe who carried
the poles, paffed the morai; and guefling, from
this circumstance, that fomething was tranfatling;
beyond it, he had fome thoughts of advancing,
by-making a round for this purpofe; but he was
111 narrowly obferved by three men, that he had
no opportunity of putting his design in execu-*
lion. In. order to fliake off thefe fellows, he returned to the malaee, where  he had parted from
the king, and
rwards made an elopement a
fecond time; but he inftantly met with the fame
three men, who had doubtlefs received instructions to watch him..    He paid no attention to them,
till; lie came within  fight of the king's principal
Jtatooka or morai;   before which a great number
of people were fitting,, being thofe whom  he had
feen pats   by   the  other moral, front,
was but a little diftant.    Seeing that
fbie-rve the proceedings  of - this com-.'
L-he king's plantation, he-repaired thi--
l.panied by feveral of his people.
fiber  of  perfons at   the fatooka  con-.
leafing for fome time, and at length
d their fitting posture, and marehed-
which this
lie could i
pany from,
ther, accor
The nui
twaued  inc
XL vS in proceflion. They walked in pairs, every
pair carrying between them, one of the feaail.
poles on their flioulders. We Were informed,
that the fmall pieces of flicks fattened to the
poles, were yams ; it is therefore probable, that
they were meant to reprefent this root emblematically. The hindmoft man of each couple placed
one of his hands to the middle of the pole, as
if it were not ftrong enough to carry the weight
that hung to it, and under which they all feemed
to bend, as they proceeded* This procession
^consisted of one hundred ansj eight pairs, and
principally men of rank*
Having feen them all pats, we repaired to
Poulaho's houfe, and faw him going: out. We
Were not permitted to follow him; but were immediately conducted to the place allotted to us,
behind a fence adjoining to the area of the fiatoska
where the yams had been deposited in the morning.
Arriving at our station, we faw two or three
hundred people fitting on the grafs, near the
end of the road opening into the area of the
morai; and others were continually joining them.
At length, arrived a few men, each carrying fome
fmall poles and branches, or leaves of the cocoa-
nut tree. As foon as they appeared, an old man
feated himfelf in the road, and pronounced a
long oration in a ferious majestic tone. He then
retired, and the others advancing to the middle 240
of the area, began to erect a fmall fired or hut |
employing, for that purpoie,' the materials already mentioned. Their work being finifhed,
they all fquatted down, for a moment, before it*
then rofe up and joined the reft of the company*
Poulaho's fon arrived foon after, preceded by
four or five men. After them appeared about
twelve or fourteen women of the firft rank, advancing flowly in pairs* each pair carrying between them a narrow piece of white cloth, about
two or three yards in length. They approached
the prince, fquatted down before him, and wrapped fome. of the pieces of the cloth round his
body ; they then rofe up and retired in the lame
order, to fome diftance on his left, where they
feated themfelves. Poulaho now made his ap-e
pearance, preceded by four men, walking two and
two abreast, and fat down on his ton's left hand,
at a fmall diftance from him. The young
prince then quitted his firft petition, and feated
himfelf under the..fhed, with his attendants;
many others placed themfelves on the grafs before this royal canopy. The prince fat facing
the people, with his back to the ?norai. Three
companies, of about ten or a dozen men in each,
started up from among the crowd, foon after
each other, and, running hastily to the opposite
fide, fat down for a few feconds ; and then returned, in the fame manner, to their former fta*
tions.    To them fucceeded two   men, each hav* PACIFIC   OCEANS
ing a fmall green branch in his hand, who rofe
and advanced towards the prince, fitting down,
for a few feconds, three different times, as they
approached; and retired in the fame manner, in«
dining there branches to each other as they fat.
Afterwards two others repeated the fame ceremony.
The grand proce'ffion* which marched from the
other moral, now began to come in. As they
entered the area, they proceeded to the right of
the flied, and having prostrated themfelves on
the grafs, deposited their pretended heavy burthens (the poles), and faced round to the prince*.
They then rofe up, and retired in the fame order, closing their hands with the moft ferious af~
pect, and feated themfelves along the front of
the area. While this numerous band where entering, and depositing their poles, three men
who fat with the prince continued pronouncing
feparate fentences, in a mournful melancholy
A profound silence then enfued for a fhort time,
after which a man who fat in the front of the
area, began a kind of oration, during which, at
feveral different times, he broke one of the poles
which had been brought in. Having concluded
his oration, the people, fitting before the fhed
feparated to make a lane through which the
prince and his attendants paffed, and the affem*
b-ly clofed. HS
Vol.L—N° £ Kk 248
Satisfied with what they had already feen, fome
of our party now returned to the fhips; but Captain Cook, and fome more of the officers, remained at Mooa, to fee the conclusion of the folemnity, which was not to be till the day follow*
ing. The fmall poles, which had been brought
by thofe who walked in procession, being left on
the ground, after the crowd had difperfed, the
Commodore examined them, and found that, to
the middle of each, two or three'fmall flicks
were tied,, as has been related. They were probably intended as only artificial reprefentations of
fmall yams.
Our fupper, consisting of fifh and yams, was
got ready about feven o'clock. The king tupped with us, and drank fo freely of brandy and
water, that he retired to bed with a fufficient dofe.
We continued the whole night in the fame houfe
with him and his attendants.
All, except Poulaho himfelf, rofe at day-break ;
foon after which, a woman, one of thofe who
gennerally attended upon the chief, came in, and,
fitting down by him* immediately began the fame
operation which had been practifed upon Futtafaihe, tapping or beating gently, with her clinched lifts* on his thighs. This, inftead of adding
to his repofe, had the contrary effect, and he
Captain Cook and Omai now paid a vifit to
the prince, who had  parted from us early  the 1
preceding evening; for he did n
the king, but in apartments of his own, at fome
pittance from his father's houfe. We found him
with a circle of boys, about his own age, fitting
before him ; and an old man and woman. There
were others, of both fexes, employed, about their
neceffary affairs, who, probably, belonged to his
We then returned to the king, who had a
crowded levee before him, confifting principally
of old men. While a bowl of kava was preparing, a baked hog and yams, fmoking hot,
were introduced; the greatest part of which fell
to our share, for thefe people, efpecially .the kava
drinkers, eat very little in a morning.
We afterwards walked out, and vifited feveral
other chiefs ; ail of whom were taking their
morning draught, or they had already taken :j|*
Returning to the king, we found him afleep in
a retired hut, with two women tapping or striking on his breech. About eleven o'clock he
arofe again, and ate fome fifh and yarns, and
again lay down to fleep. We now left him, and,
waited on the prince, with a prefent of cloth
beads, and other articles. There was a fuflicient
quantity of cloth to make him a complete fuit,
and he was immediately clad in his new habiliments. Proud of his drefs, he firft went to exhibit himfelf to his father, and then conducted
Captain Cook to his mother, with whom were $$o
about a dozen other women of a very refpectabfe
appearance. Here the prince changed his ap>
parel, and made Captain Cook a prefent of two
pieces of the cloth which had been manufactured
in the ifland. :*
It was now about noon, when, by appointment, the Captain repaired to the palace to dime
ner ; which was foon after ferved up, and con-
fitted of two pigs and fome yams. The drowfy
monarch was rouzed to partake of what he had
appointed for our entertainment. Two mullets,
and fome fliell-fifh, were introduced, as if intended for his feparate portion. But he added it
to our fare, fat down with us, and made a very
hearty meal.
Dinner being over, we were informed that the
ceremony would foon begin, and were strictly
enjoined not to venture out. The Commodore
had refolved, however, to peep no longer from
behind the curtain, but, if poflible to mix with
the actors themfelves. With this view he walk-,
ed towards the moral, the fcene of the folemnity.
He was frequently defired to return, but he paid
no regard to the admonitions he received, and
was permitted to pafs on. When arrived at the
-morai, he faw a number of men feated on the
fide of the area. A few were alfo fitting on the
opposite fide, and two men in the middle, with
their faces turned to the morai. When Captain
^ook had got into the midft of the firft com-
m. A "NT
/patsy, he was defired to fit down, which he accordingly did. Where he fat, there were lying
a number of fmall bundles, competed of cocoa-
nut leaves, and fastened to flicks made into the
form of hand-borrows. All the information he
could get concerning them was, that they wTere
taboo. From time to (ime, one or another of
the company turned to thofe who were coming
to join us, and made a fhort speech, in which
we remarked, that the word arekee (king)- was
generally mentioned. Something was faid by
one man that produced loud bursts of laughter
from all around ; others, of the fpeakers, were
alfo much applauded, The Captain was frequently defired to leave the place; but at length,
^finding him determined to flay, they requested
him to uncover his fhoulders as theirs were. This
he readily complied with, and then they no longer
feemed uneafy at his pretence.
The prince, the woman, and the king, at
length appeared, as t