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Voyages made in the years 1788 and 1789 : from China to the N.W. coast of America ; with an introductory… Meares, John, 1756?-1809 1791

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Array       V   0   Y   AG   E   S
Made in the. Years 1788 and 1789,
Performed in 1786, from Bengal, in the Ship Nootka.
V O L    I.
PRINTED  AT   THE   ]£flgOj^$)tC  PtCfjSj .
J. Walter, No. 169, Piccadilly, opposite Old Bond Street.
'"■       . t--.I79t-  1 ■   . '•£    -
MM  to The
" ""■  »r.   -    u^mmmtma  P   RE   F   A  C  E.
HP HE wifhes of friends,—the poll-
A tical circumftances of the moment,—and, as I have been made to
believe, the public expe&ation, have
induced me to add the following
Voyages to thofe which have already
been publifhed, to improve the navigation and extend the commerce of
the Britifh Empire.—I do not pretend
to be the rival,—but rather confider
myfelf an humble follower of thofe
eminent navigators whofe reputation
is become a part of the national fame;
o ' % ■      I b 2 and vni
and though I may be permitted, as
it were, to envy their fuperior talents
and advantages, I moft; iincerely add
my feeble teftimony to that merit,
which has ranked them among the
illuftrious names of my country.
Indeed I feel it a duty I owe my-*
felf, as well as to moderate the fan-
guine expe&ation which may have
arifen refpefting the hiftory of thofe
Voyages in which I have been engaged, and may be faid to have conducted, to obferve, that they were
Voyages of Commerce, and not of
Discovery ; and that whatever novelty they may poffefs, or original
reformation they may beftow, arofe
out of| and form, as it were, an incidental part of a commercial undertaking. :<
The CTi
& The veffels committed to my command, were fitted out in the ports
of the Eaft, by the commercial zeal
of Britifh fubje&s in that part of the
globe.—It was \jij office, under their
fpirited and confidential encourage-*
ment, to explore new regions of Trade;
the intereft therefore of thofe patriotic merchants and gentlemen who
had entrqfted a very confiderable
property to my -care and controul,
and the honour of gaining j a fmall
portion of that reputation which is
due to thofe who promote the exten-
fion of the Britifh commerce, were
the fole incentives to mv zeal, and
alone fupported me under the difficulties, and amidft the dangers I enr
countered in difcharging my duty.
When I was ftruggling with the
ftorms of the Pacific Ocean,—when
I was locked up in ice, and fuffering
the *    ■ ;■-..       P   R   E   F   A   C   E, - M~ ■  ' '
the accumulated wretchgdnefs of that
fituatioii on the fhores of America,—*
or when I was engaged in advancing
the principal object of the Voyage,—
and availing myfelf of any accidental
opportunity which occurred, of ex-
ploring thofe dubious.: coafts, I little
thought it would be my future lot to
give the hiftory of this part of my
maritime life to the world.—If I had
looked forward to the poffibility of
fuch an event, I fhould have enlarged
rny obfervations, and been more minutely attentive to a variety of objects which were but curforily remark^
ed ; and qualified myfelf, during
every part of my Voyages, to have
given them all the intereft they were
capable of receiving;, and all the in-
formation they were capable of pro-
ucm^. But without endeavouring
to deprecate criticifm by an affe&ed
|t<    / W>     ■ "'    ^llt,'- " humility, PREFACE.
humility,! or defying it by an unbecoming confidence, I fhall venture to
exprefs my hopes,—that this Work
will be found to contain information
ufeful to commerce, and inftru&ions
which future navigators may not dif-
dain to confider ; that the following
pages will afford fome entertainment
to men who are curious in examining the various modes of human life ;
and tlat there are many paffages in
them which will heighten the feelings
of thofe who || fit and think on what
a failor fuffers."
The Memoir on the China Trade>
8cc. muft fpeak for itfelf:—The Ob-
fervations I have ventured to make
on the poffibility of a North Weft
Paffage, muft alfo be fubmitted to the
candid consideration of inveftigating
minds,-—It is, however, proper to add,
that XII
P   R   E   F   A   C   E.
that in fupporting my opinion on
that fubjeft, I have had occafional re-
courfe to the corroborating arguments
of Mr. Dalrymple, in his admirable
pamphlet on the Fur Trade, &c.
That every poffible attention has
been employed to render this Work,
in fome degree, worthy of the public
favour, will, I truft, appear to every
candid reader of it,,—For its inaccuracies, though, I truft, they will not
be found to be very numerous, I muft
reft for excufe on the very great hafte
in which it was neceffarily prepared
to meet the public impatience ;—
and I am difpofed to flatter myfelf
that the indulgence I afk will not be
denied me. ■■ ' -!f|p--.' - 3f|'- ;.ll
m-    '.'       ■ i.^M MEARES.
Nov* 16, 1790. *^3W ■"■
wffjj^mtti»". i. K«wjy«-i-i<w^-->w ■» i"—«^ft
Calcutta, to the North Weft Coaft of America
In the Years 1786, and 1787.
I- T might, perhaps, prove uninterefting
to the reader were I to enter upon the
hiftory of this commercial expedition,—or
to dwell on the patriotic fpirit of many dif-
tinguifhed perfons at Bengal which fupport*
ed it, as well as thofe honourable marks of
zealous friendfhip and liberal confidence,
which accompanied its confignment to my
care :—It might alfo be equally unimportant
to others to be informed of the oppofition it
received*—the arts employed to fruftrate it^U
and the various, as well as painful diffi-
iC» lit
l I
culties I had to furmount in the arrangement of it:—I fhall, therefore, proceed at
once to relate the principal occurrences of
the voyage which it occafioned.t
On the 20th of January 1786, two vef-
fels were purchafed for the purpofe of this
expedition, which were named the Nootka^
of 200 tons, and the Sea Otter, of 100
tons. The former was commanded by myfelf, the latter by William Tipping, a lieutenant in the Royal Navy.
By the 20th of February, they were ready
for fea*, when two offers were made to the
committee, who were appointed to arrange
the neceffary preparations for the voyage, on
the part of the general body of proprietors :
the one was to freight the Sea Otter to
Malacca with opium, which would be a
gain of about three thoufand rupees ;—The
committee, therefore, did not hefitate an
inftant in accepting it; and the Sea Otter
was immediately difpatched on her voyage :
From Malacca, Captain Tipping was to proceed to the North Weft Coaft of America,
and the neceffary arrangements were made
for our meeting there. \       .;..., ,. r
The other offer was to convey Mr. Burke*
l?ay-mafter General of the Ring's Forces in
India, with his fuite, to Madras, for which
he propofed to pay the mm of three thou*
fand rupees.—-This advantage was not to
be refufed, and accordingly I had the honour
of conveying him thither.      Jill      ' ."
On the 2d of March, we got under fail
and proceeded as far as'the governor's garden, where, in the evening, we received
Mr.   Burke and  his  fuite on board.
, On the 12th of March we loft fight of
land, and proceeded on our voyage to Madras, where we arrived on the 27th, with
out the intervention of any occurrence worthy of relation.-^-Our paflage was efteemed
extremely quick at that particular feafon of
the year.—After landing our paffengers and
procuring additional fupplies of ftores and
provifions, by the kind affiftance of Jo£
Dupree Porcher, Efq. we prepared to put to
fea, which we accordingly did on fiffe 7th
cff April, the very day that his Excellency
Sir Archibald Campbell arrived to take upon
him the government of Madras* At this
place we received every mark of kindnefs,
attention and encouragement.    Nor among
A 2, the
n. I
the many to whom we are ftill grateful for
favour and for friendship, can we hefitate
to mention the names of Mr. Burke, Mr*
Porcher, and Mr. Boyd, as well as to*acknowledge the peculiar obligations we re*
ceived from his Excellency Governor Da-
vidfon.      •,
It may not be improper to mention that,
at the time of our leaving Bengal, all kinds
of ftores were fo extremely fcarce, that
the fhip was but barely equipped for one
year; and as for provifions, we had not on
board fufficient for twelve months, and
nothing was more apparent than the irn-
poffibility of completing a voyage of this
nature in fuch a ftate. We had, indeed^
looked to Madras in fome meafure, for the
affiftance we received, which was to com*
pleat our equipment for eighteen months*
With refpe£t to the number of our crew we
were ftrongly manned, but they were chiefly
of a defcription that neceffity rendered acceptable. The whole amounted to forty Europeans, including the purfer, furgeon, five
officers, and boatfwam, and ten lafcars
whom we took in at Madras. But all our
exertions were fruitlefs in obtaining a car-
/*"■   if"'        - penter, INTRODUCTORY  VOYAGE.
penter, and the want of fuch an artizan
was moft feverely felt in every part of the
voyage. || ' j ~
It was the 23d of May before we arrived
at Malacca:—our paffage was unufually
tedious, and afforded time for the fcurvy to
make its appearance. In this early part of
our voyage we loft the boatfwain, who
was one of the beft men in the {hip, and,
in our fituation and circumftances, proved
an irreparable misfortune. | On our arrival at
Malacca we were informed that Captain
Tipping had failed for America, having
compleated his bufinefs there. Here we
wooded, watered and took in the neceffary
refrefhments, not only to fupply the pro*
vifions already exhaufted, but to enable us,
to give every poffible affiftance to Captain
Tipping, when we fhould meet him on the
Coaft of America. On the 39 th we put to
fea, after faluting the Dutch Fort with nine
guns, which compliment: was returned with
an equal mark of refpeft.     '   . . j|%
In a very few days we effected our en»
trance into the China Seas, and purfued our
courfe with a ftrong South Weft Monfoon,
till the 23d of June,   when  the Bafhee
4 m     ~ Iflands I Ml
Iflands were feen bearing Eaft South Eaft
half Eaft, diftant nine leagues. But it was
the 26th before we could come to an anchor at Grafton Ifle, which we then did
in a fmall and pleafant bay, in fix fathoms
of water, and about a quarter of a mile from
the ihore. "m   .      'Jlf
This bay is furrounded by high land,
which is cultivated to the fummits, and
the plantations, &c. being divided into in-
clofures neatly fenced in, afford a very
pleafing view. A large village was fituated
on a gentle eminence near the water ; fine
groves of trees were fancifully difperfed
on thefrdes of the mountains, while a rapid
rivulet glided through the valley ; the whole
forming a fcene of uncommon beauty.—
About four years before, the Spaniards had
taken poffeffion of thefe Ifles, in the expectation of finding the bowels of them enriched with the precious metals. The governor
and his garrifon, &c. treated us with great
civility, nor did they, in the leaft, interfere
with our little trading communications with
the natives,—who appear to be a moft in-
offenfive race of people. We remained here
four days, during which time we obtained
great; fc.
great plenty of hogs, goats, ducks, fowls,
yams, and fweet potatoes, in return for
unwrought iron.   %   ■■'.       - •   -|p
On the ift of July we took our leave of
the Baffiee Iflands, and fteered to the North
Eaft, a courfe along the Japan Ifles, but
without feeing any land.   The charts lay
down ifles which we muft have gone over,
according to the Situation  in which they
are placed. After paffing the latitude of 250
North, we had one continual  fog, which
was oftentimes fo thick, that it was impof-
fible to fee the length of the veffel. ; On the
1 ft of Auguft, having laid  to the preceding
night, we judged that we were near land,
and in the morning, at day-light, we got
fight of it, through the Fog Banks, when
we found it to confift of the Ifles of Amluc
and Atcha.   We" flood in  for the former,
and anchored there for two days, during
which time we  were  vifited both by the
Ruffians and the natives.■_ In our paffage to
Ounalafchka we were driven among; five
iflands where dangers furrounded us on all
fides, and without being able to fee our way,
but we providentially efcaped them.  It had,
indeed, been one continued fog ever fince
we Vlll
. 1
we croffed the latitude of 350, and 'from
that time we had not been able to make
more than two obfervations. We very
fortunately had a time piece on board,
which proved of the greateft utility. _■;''.-;■:■
The five ifles among which we had been
fo much embarraffed, are defcribedinCoxe's
Ruffian Difcoveries by the names -of Pat
Sopka :—that writer alfo mentions the de-*
ftru&ion which many of the Ruffian Navigators have found between thefe ifles and
Kamfchatka. They are uninhabited, and
feem to be nothing more than huge maffes
of entire rock. Two of them bear a ftronp
refemblance to each other, and poffefs rather
$ correal form of a fugar loaf.|p
On the 5th of Auguft, in the afternoon,
we found ourfelves furrounded by a great
number of canoes; which, from the drefs
and manners of the people in thern, we
were certain muft belong to fome of the
ifles, though we imagined ourfelves to be
too far to the Southward for them to come
off. This little fleet was engaged in the
bufinefs of whale fifhing, and after flop-*
ping a fhort time to examine the veffel,
■ which they did  with every appearance of
extreme admiration, they left us and paddled off to the Northward. We now fleered
a little more to the Southward, as we fup«-
pofed that the current had fet us to the
Northward of our reckoning. The fog continued to be fo very thick, that it was im-
poffible to fee any object at twenty yards
diftance from the (hip ;—but from the number of canoes we had paffed, there was
every reafbnffto fuppofe we were in the
neighbourhood of land, which muft, in
all  probability,  have   been  the  ifland of
Amouchta. • •' 1^^":-' '-»   :':
The following night we were alarmed by
hearing the furge of the fea upon the
fhore ;—we inftantly tacked, and when we
had flood on about twro hours, we were
re-alarmed with the fame noife. We tacked
.again and as foon as it was day-light, we
caught a glimpfe of the land, over the
mail-head, which appeared to be covered
,with fnow. But the fog again became im*
pervious to our fight, as it were, to encreafe
the horrid fufpenfe of onr fituation. Duri&g
four days of gloom in our minds, as well
JO i
as in the  air, we were continually endeavouring, but in vain, to obtain a paflage,
for i\
for every way appeared to be blocked up
againft us. The hoarfe dafhing of the furge
drove us from one fide, in order to be re-
impelled by the fame alarming warnings
on the other. We had, indeed, every reafon
to believe that we had pafled by fome narrow
inlet into a gulph furrounded with fatal
Jhores, and from which there was no return
but by the channel through which we enter-*
ed. Though we were frequently within an
hundred yards of the rocks, foundings were
impracticable, and the fteepiiefs.of the Ihore
rendered our anchors of no ufe.
On the 5th in the morning, the fog
cleared away, and gave us a moft awful
profpeft of dangers which our happy experience was fcarce fufficient to convince us that
it was poffible to have efcaped. We now
faw ourfelves furrounded with land of a
tremendous height, which was covered twor
thirds down its fides with fnow; while the
coaft was inacceffible from the lofty, perpendicular rocks which formed a regular
wall, except where the violent beating of
thq fea had made thofe excavations which,
with the rife and fall of a prodigious fwell,
pccafioned the  warning noife that proved
our fcj
0ur prefervation. We now faw two open
channels, one to the Southward, through
which we had been driven, and another to
the North Weft. Indeed if we fleered at j
all to that point, we fhould at once have
got clear of our alarming fituation : but
we had been all along apprehenfive of getting to the Northward of thefe ifles, being
aware of the difficulty of getting again to
the Southward, the currents being well
known to take a Northerly dire&ionin the
fummer; and then we might have been detained an uncertain length of time, till a
flrong Northerly wind arofe to drive us
back—the South Wefterly winds being the
moft generally prevalent in thefe feas at this
period of the year. Finding it, however,
impoffible to go to the Southward, by the
channel through which we came, on account of the ftrength of the current, we
bore up, and went to the Northward, and
having got as far to the Eaftward as Ouna-
iaftika, we were fo fortunate as to meet
with a ftrong North wind, which enabled
us to get through between Unamah and
Onalafhka. In thefe ftraits the current
could not run lefs   than  feven   knots  arttl
hour I
hour, which   caufed a moft   tremendous
fea. . .V   '
When we got round to the South fide
of the iA^nd, a Ruffian came off to us and
piloted our fhip into an harbour adjacent to
that in which Captain Cook refitted.
The Ruffians on thefe ifles, came from
Ochotfk and Kamfchatka in galleots of
about 50, tons burthen, having from fixty
to eighty men each. They heave their
veffels up in fome convenient place, during
their ftation here, which is for eight years ;
at the end of which time they are relieved
by another party. They hunt the fea-otters
and other animals whom nature has cloathed
in furs. The natives of the different diftri£t$
are alfo employed in the fame occupations,
and are obliged to give the fruits of their
toil, as a tribute to the Emprefs of Ruffia,
to whom this trade exclufively belongs.-**
In return, they receive fmall quantities of
fnuff, of which they are immoderately fond;
and, obtaining that favourite article, they
are content with their wretched condition,
from whence, as far as refpe&s any exertion
of their own, they will never emerge.—*
As to iron, or any other European commo-
3 «%* introductory Voyage.    I
tlity, it is as fcarce with them, as with their
continental neighbours.
The houfes of the Ruffians are conftru<3>
cd upon the fame principles as thofe of the
natives, but on a plan of larger extent.-—
They confift of cavities dug in the earth,
and a ftranger might be in danger of falling
into them, without having the leaft fufpi*
cion that he was within the verge of any
habitation ; as the only entrance into thefe
fubterraneous places of refidence, is through
a round hole at the top of them, and by a
poll with fteps cut in it, as the means of de-
fcent.   Indeed, fuch an accident happened,
on the firft evening of our landing, to the
firft officer andfurgeonof the Nootka.—On
their return from a Ruffian village, they
fuddenly difappeared through  one of thefe
holes,  and intruded themfelves, in a very
unexpected manner, to an houfehold of the
natives.    The fright on the  occafion  was
mutual;—the one hurrying out of the place
as  faft  as  their fears could carry them,
leaving the fallen gentlemen, in expectation
that the invaded people, with whole mild
and amiable manners they were not then
acquainted, would inftantly give the alarm,
M        introductory Voyage*
and call their friends to revenge the iriild*
cent invafion by murder and maffacre.—*
They found, however, on their return above
ground, that the natives had fled in extreme
confufion and affright to the Ruffian village*
The next morning, the accident was explained ; and a fmall prefent of tobacco
made the poor people ample recompence for
the alarm of the preceding evening.
The fides of thefe dwellings are divided
into copartments for the purpofe of fleeping,
the fkins of animals ferving them for their
beds; and in the centre is the place for
dreffing and eating their vi&uals. In the
very cold weather, they ufe lamps inftead
of wood:—as there are no trees on the
Iflands, wood muft be a very fcarce article,
having no other fupply* but the accidental
drifts of it from the continent. Their diet
confifts entirely of fifh with the oil of the
fame for fauce. This manner of living is
Common both to the Ruffians and the
natives, except that the former boil, their
food, and the latter eat it in a raw ftate*
We have frequently feen them eat, or rather devour, the head of a cod or a halibut,
immediately after it was caught, with  all
the *+
Introductory voyage.
the figns of voracious fatisfa&ibn. The
only vegetable thefe iflands produce is wild
celery, which the natives eat as it is pullecj
out of the ground* (
Though the Ruffians have been fo long
fettled on thefe iflands, they have produced
no kind of cultivation whatever. They
have not any of the domeftic fowls or animals, except dogs;—nor had we an opportunity to examine whether this want of
comforts and conveniencies, which are of
fuch eafy attainment, atofe from local bar-
rennefs, or their own indolence. Their
fole dependance for food, is on the produce
of the fea and the rivers, which, however,
afford them great abundance of excellent
fifh; and, if a proper judgment may be
formed from the ftrong and healthy ap-
•pearance of the natives, or the colonifts,
they do not want a more wholefome or
ftrengthening fuftenance. ijf
K. The natives of thefe ifles, which are
Tcnownby the appellation of the Fox Iflands,
are a fhort and flout race of people, with
full round countenances, that bear no traces
of a favage difpofition.—They do not cut,
fcarrify, or in any manner disfigure their
faces, XVI
Introductory voyage.
faces, like the natives of the continent J
and are, to all appearance, of an harmlefs
and inoffenfive character. Jealoufy, at leaft,
is not among their ordinary paffions, aP
they difcover no fymptoms of difpleafure
at any attentions which ftrangers may be
difpofed to pay to the female part of their
community.      ' '   ■      -.J|.;: ; .^-".' •'
The only animals on thefe iflands. are foxes j
fome of which are black, and whole fkins are
very valuable. While we lay here, we endeavoured to engage the Ruffians to trade
with us; but they fet too high a value on
their furs to difpofe of them to us, at leaft
for anything we had to give in return 5 more
particularly as they expected to be relieved,
the following year. _The harbour we entered is fituated about ten or twelve miles
from that where Captain Cook refitted, and
lies in the latitude of 54° %' North ; longitude, 1930 25' Eaft of Greenwich. H
On the 20th day of Auguft, we failed from
Ounalafhka, in order to run down the continent, till we fhould pafs the Shumagin
Iflands, as Captain Cook defcribes Kodiak
one of the Southern. Indeed, we wifhed
to be clear of the Ruffian fettlements, as
We knew nothing was to be got in the vicinity of them, before we went on the coaft.
On the 27th of Auguft, we arrived in
fight of the Schumagins ; and at about four
leagues from the - fhore, a great number of
canoes came off to us, which we obferved
to be of the fame conftrucTtion as thofe of
the Fox Ifles; and that the drefs and manners of the people in them were the fame
as the natives of thofe iflands. ||' 4i&
It  appears  that the Ruffians, wherever
they are fettled,  from fome political reafon, as we fuppofe, prohibit the natives from
I keeping canoes of a fize to carry more than
one perfon.   , Thefe canoes are  generally
about twelve feet in length, fharp at each
end, and about twenty inches broad, tapering to a point: their depth in the centre,
where the man fits, is about twenty inches.
The canoes of this  make extend from the
ftraits of the two continents along the coaft
as far as Cape Edgecumbe.    Some of them
are made to carry three  perfons;' but, in
general, not more than one or twTo.    The
frame is compofed of very thin ft rips of the
pine wood,  fattened together with whale
iinews, and is then covered with the fkin of
Wwd:   $3. ,       '  B   ?.        ' .'%        the-
1 Xvni
the feal or fea-cow, which is previouffy rob**
bed of its hair. The bottom of the fkin-
frock, which the natives wear, ties over the
hole of the canoe, where the man fits, and
prevents the fmalleft drop of water from
getting in. Thefe veffefs are paddled 21&
prodigious rate, and go out in any weather.
It was now the 28th of Auguft, and no
advantage hadyetariien from the voyage;
but as we fuppofed ourfelves to be at th^
termination of the Ruffian fettlements, and
had a large trackof coaft to run down, we
expefted to have made an advantageous trade
before the winter fet in,, which was now
baftily approaching. With this defign, we
purpofed to make one port to the Weftwardl
of Cook's River,—and, in coafting along, we
law a large opening, which appeared to be
formed by an ifland : we accordingly fleered
in for It,—and, when we were in with it,
it appeared of very great extent, taking a
Morth Eafterly conrfe. As we now thought
ourfelves clear of the Ruffians, we were in
continual expectation of being vifited by the
natives, and commencing the advantageous*
part of our voyage; though we are at a lofs,
how to reconcile it, t a t  fo large a ftrait
' Jhould not have been obferved by Captain
Cook. Having continued our courfe up it,
about twenty leagues, a canoe came off to
us from the inland fide, with three people in
it, one of whom came on board, who proved
to be a Ruffian feaman.—He was a very
intelligent man, and informed us that this
was the ifland of Kodiak, that the crews of
three galliots were on duty there, and that
there was another ifland of the fame name
along the coaft.     . if
." This intelligence was by no means pleaf-
ing, as it daflied at once all our hopes of obtaining any trade, at any intermediate place,
between Cook's River and the Schumagin
lies. We therefore continued our paflage
through the ftraits, which were named Pet-
rie's Strait, in honour of Wm. Petrie, Efq.
and found it brought us out near that point
forming Cook's River, and diftiraguMhed by
the name of Cape Douglas on Captain Cook's
chart. Thefe ftraks are upwards of tea
leagues in length and about fifteen in breadth,
md cut off a very large trad of continent
from the former charts. We anchored under
Cape Douglas, and foon after feveral canoes
came off to us of the River Indians. They INTRODUCTORY VOYAGE.
T Dill   '
fold us two or three otter fkiris, for which
they received fome pieces of un wrought
iron, about a pound,-perhaps, for each fkin.
They appeared to be greatly rejoiced to fee
us, and offered us every thing they had in
their boats as prefents. fThefe people by
refufing^ tobacco plainly proved that they
had no connection with the Ruffians, and
by frequently pronouncing the word Englifh, Englifh, it appeared alfo that the Nootka was not the firft veflel of our country
which had been feen by them.—Indeed it
afterwards appeared that the King George
and Queen Charlotte from London had been,
there before us. The canoes very fhortly left
lis to go up the river in fearch of more fkins,
and the following day we faw two large
boats coming down the river, with about
eighteen men in each. They proved to be
Ruffians who had been up Cook's River on a
trading voyage; and each boat had a brafs
field-piece with fmall arms for each man.
They had left their fummer refidence which
is the lower ifland in Cook's River, and were
proceeding to their winter quarters on the
ifland of Kodiak.   .- Jj :. "Jf^; / INTRODUCTORY   VOYAGE.
It was now the 20th of September, and the
weather extremely  boifterous, fo that we
determined to quit the river, where we bad-
been detained by feveral heavy gales of wind,
J JO .
and proceed to Prince William's Sound, and,
if practicable, to winter there. On our arrival at Snug Corner Cove, in Prince William's Sound, as named by Captain Cook, the
weather was very violent, and during the
three days we lay thefe not a native appeared;
which circumftance led us to conclude, that
the natives, had retired from the coaft, or
were gone to the Southward for the winter.
In our excurfions on fhore, we faw fome
wood which had been frefh cut, and by an
edge tool; we alfo found a piece of bamboo,
which fully fatisfied us that fome veffel muft
have very lately preceded us; and as our appointed rendezvous, with our confort the
Sea Otter, was at this place, we very naturally concluded that fhe had been here, and
was failed for China.
This was a fituation pregnant with difficulties :—the coaft was to all appearance
without inhabitants, fo that if we remained
here during the winter, there was no prof-
pe£t of our being able to procure trade or re
r v       B3 frefh. rxii
frefhments.   On the other hand, the bad
weather had fet in, with continual gales of
wind, accompanied  with fleet and fnow;
and if we quitted our prefent  fituation, it
was very doubtful  whether we fhould be
able to make another, and therefore be obliged to run for the Sandwich Ifles, which
would, in all probability, have put an end
to the voyage,  as  our feamen  were   becoming extremely diflatisfied. In this fituation it was determined to prefer an inhof-
pitable winter in Prince William's Sound,
to all the comforts of the Sandwich Iflands,
from whence,   it was with   good  regfon
imagined, that it would have been a matter
of great difficulty, if not wholly impracticable,  to perfuade the feamen to return
to  the  Coaft  of America.     Under thefe
difficulties we laboured ;   but as the object
of the voyage and the intereft of the proprietors were deeply concerned in fupporting
the hardfhips which  threatened us,   and
the mortifications we fhould experience, we
refolved to bear the one and to fubmit to
the other.    A very little reflection on the
limited power of a mercantile officer, and the
want of a due fubordination in,a mercantile INTRODUCTORY  VOYAGE.
fhip, will enable any one to believe that
in remaining here, we were not at leafl
deficient in zeal for the interefts of thofe
who promoted and fupported this commercial expedition.
. On the 4th day, feveralcanoes, came off
to us, and the natives behaved in a very
friendly and affable manner. They mentioned feveral Englifh names, which appeared to be thofe of the crew of the Sea
Otter.—They alfo made us underftand that
a veffel, with two mails, had failed from
tjience but a few days before, and that they
had plenty of fkins, which they explained
to us, by pointing to the number of the
hairs of their heads. They alfo informed
ns, after their manner, that if we wouj^i
$ay, they would kill plenty of otters for
us during the winter; .,
Being now fatisfied that the Sound was
inhabited, nothing but a good harbour was
wanting to determine us to ftjy here during
the if vere feafon ; and the next day the
boats found a very commodious one, about
fifteen miles Eaft North Eaft, from whe$f;
we lay. Accordingly, on the 7th of OCto-
befy the veffel was removed to the place ag*
•:' ' ■ -        ^BPi ^4   ■ -pointed! Ill
f  Hi)
I   llfHiii'
pointed; fhe was then unrigged, and dispeople began to work on fhore to ereCt a
log-houfe for the armourers to work in ;
which, from the prefent ftate of the veffel,
might alfo be ufeful in containing lumber.
The natives now favoured us with their
daily vifits, and never failed to exert-their
very extraordinary talents in the art of
thievery. They would employ fuch a flight
of hand in getting iron materials of any
kind, as Is hardly to be conceived. It has
often been obferved, when the head of a
nail either in the fhip or boats flood a little
without the wood, that they would apply
their teeth in order to pull it out. Indeed,
if the different loffes. we fuftained, and the
manner of them were to be related, many
a reader would have reafon to fufpeCt that
this page exalted the purloining talents of
thefe people, at the expence of truth.
;frlt was now the middle of OCtober, and we
had collected fa few fkins. The natives alfo
a-ffembled' in■ greater numbers, and became
fo cvery troublefome as to perplex us very
nSSch, in regard to the manner in which we
ftiould conduCt ourfelves towards them,—
Policy and humanity both inftruCted us to
avoid, if poffible, any violent .correctives,
but it very often happened, that our people
who wete employed on fhore in wooding
and ereCting the houfe, were obliged to
come off to the fhip, as the natives would
come down from the woods behind them,
and endeavour to take away whatever tools
they had in ufe.—As the veffel lay fo near
the place where the people were at work,
that we could talk to them, we did not allow
theki fire-arms, unlefs they were accompanied with a careful officer, left an impr*^
per ufe fhould be made of them; and we
had hitherto found, that the firing a mufquet
from the fhip would at all times drive the
natives away. ■-•■'.- :; /;-]i...; :. ^ //-
- On the 25th of OCtober, a large party of
Indians were perceived coming into the
creek, and as there appeared to be a greater?
nurrjber than.we had feen affembled before,
we called to our people to come on board, and
they not coming immediately, the Indians
got up a-breaft of the veffel, and immediately landed where they were at work:—j
at the fame moment another party joined
them from the woods.—As the natives in
the canoes went on fhore^in fpite of all our
i ]y%-\  •'• ■%' ■ •" fignals SZXY1
U I ii
fignals to prohibit them, two of our guns
were ordered to be pointed at them, whicli
had the defired effeCt; as they were at this
time endeavouring to take away the axes
from our people on fhore. But on perceiving the preparations we were making,
they cried out in their ufual manner, laule*
lauUj or friend, friend, and extended wide
tfomx arms as a token of amity. -^\
Having got all our people on board, it was
thought to be a proper opportunity to dif-
perfe the natives, who were now affembled
in fuch confiderable numbers, by fhewing
them the power of our cannon, and accordingly a twelve pound cannonade was fired
with grape fhot, which difplayed its effeCti
upon the water to their extreme afton||h-
ment, and indeed threw them into fuch a
|5&nic, that one half of them overfet their
canoes from frights—A three pound fieiH
jkece was then difcharged from the fhore,,
with a round ffiot, which grazing along
the feface of the water to a confiderable
diftance, convinced them that it was in 4$ag#
ji$Wer to throw the fhot to whatever point,
and in whatever direction we thought profit;   While they were deliberating, as Jtfe INTRODUCTORY VOYAGE.        ' xxvH
were, in a ftate of no common apprehen-
fion, we made them underftand that it was
not our intention to do them any injury
while they conducted  themfelves to us in
an honeft and friendly manner, and that it
was our wifh to engage in trade with them,
by purdiafing their fkins with fuch articles
as we had got for that propofe.   Thefe articles were then offered to  their attention,
when, after repeated fhouts of joy, fuch as
were dreffed in furs, inftantly ftripped themfelves, .and in return for a moderate quantity of large fpike nails,  we received fixty
'fine fea-otter  fkins.     To  conciliate their
friend fhip, the principal men among them
were prefented  with beads  of various  colours, and they promifed to bring us fkins as
faft as they could procure them.   ,' J|.
This attempt was certainly pre-meditated,
as thefe people never make war upon each
other in thofe large boats, which they employ folely to carry away their old men,
women and children, on the approach ©E
an enemy ; and they are called by them the
womens' boats. They now made ufe of
them for the purpofe of landing a great
number at once, that they might be certain m
I 'U     f
tain of cutting off the retreat of our work-
men. But though this fcheme proved abortive, we had no reafon tofuppofe that they
would, or perhaps could refiftan opportunity of ftealing any article, of which iron
compofed a part, fo powerful was the
temptation that affumed the form of that
favourite metal.
Such, however, was the prefent appearance of our affairs, that we defifted from
carrying on our  operations on fhore.    We
Jo i „
therefore began to cover the veflel with fpars,
and clofe It In all round the fides, which
we got done above one half from aft, for-
ward; but the falls of fnow became fo
frequent, and deep on the fhore, that we
were prevented from compleating it, which
was a very great inconvenience ; as the part
that was covered always afforded a place to
walk in, as well as prevented a great deal
of cold from ftriking through the deck. It
Balfb formed a very fufficient fortification had
that been neceffary ;—as we were  boarded
j *
and netted all'round, ten feet above the gun
whale fo that we fhould have been able to
have defended ourfelves againft any attack
that could have been made upon us; tho'
the ice, which was forming all round us,
save the natives no inconfiderable advantage:
but, whatever might be the inclinations of
our favage neighbours, the operations of our
O O ' ft    I
great guns had frightened, them into the
moft amicable demeanour towards us. vj|f
P' On the 31ft day of OCtober the thermometer fell to 32, and the mornings and
evenings were very fharp. Till this period,
we had caught a great plenty of falmon,
but wre now found they were leaving the
fmall rivers. At two hauls of the feine la
a pond, between the neighbouring hills,
we caught as many as we could fait for the
winter ufe ; and, for our daily confumption>
two men -were difpatched every mornings
and in two hours they would bring down
as many as they could carry. The method
of taking them may appear rather ridiculous, but it is managed by following the
drain of water from the pond, to where it
emptied itfelf into the fea, and knocking
the fifh on the head with clubs, as they
were going up or coming down ; and as the
channel was not above a foot in depth, this
bufinefs proved good fport to the failors, as
well as a fource of luxurious provifion for the
table* ml!i
mitt'*     •INTRODUCTORY  VOYAGE. ,||j
table. The days of plenty were however drawing nigh to a conclufion.   The ducks and
geefe which had alfo afforded us a conftant
fupply, were now forming into flocks and
paffing away to the Southward.—The natives had alfo brought us occafionally fome
of the mountain fheep which were the only
land animals we faw amongft them, and
we had depended for fome affiftance at leaft
from them on the article of provifion during
the winter;—inftead of which, by the 5th
of November, not one of the feathered tribe
was to be feen, nor was it poffible to go
into the woods,  the ground being,  at this
time, covered with at leaft five feet of loofe
dry fnow.—The fifh had alfo left the creeks
and  coves,  and ice  began to form every
/where around us.—-The ftupendous mountains which met our eye on  every fide,
were now white with fnow to the very edge
of the water, while the natives had no other
means of fupport but the whale fifh and
blubber which they had prepared for their
winter provifions.—But fince the 2d of November, the ice, from the veffel to the fhore,
had been capable of bearing, and our people
had commenced the amufement of fkaking
and other diverfions on it, which not only
afforded them confiderable  recreation, but
contributed- greatly to the prefervateon oi"
their health, till the  fnow became as deej*
on the ice as it was on the fhore.     -Jlll^
During the months of November and
December we all enjoyed an excellent ftat$
of health.—The natives alfo continued their
friendly behaviour to us, except in their incorrigible difpofition to ftealing, whith
they never failed to indulge when any op*
portunity offered, and which the moft at*
tentive vigilance on our part could not
always prevent. The thermometer, during
the month of November, was from z6° to
280, and in December it fell to 200, where
it continued the greateft part of the month.'
We had now at noon but a very faint
and glimmering light, the meridian fun
mot being higher than 6°, and that obfcured
j from us by hills 220 high to the South-
ward of us. While we were thus locked
in, as it were, from the chearful light of
cfciy, and the vivifying warmth of folar
rays,—no other comforts prefented them*
felve.s to compenfate, in any degree, for the
icene of defolation which encircled us.-*
While I
• nil ii
\f\a |i||
While tremendous mountains forbade'j ah
moft a fight of the fky, and eaft their noClur-
nal fhadows over us in the midft of day, the
land was impenetrable from the depth of
fnow, fo that we were excluded from all
hopes of any recreation, fupport, or comfort,
during the winter, but what could be found
in the fhip and in ourfelves.—This, however, was only the beginning of our troubles.
;5f: The new year fet in with added cold, and
was fucceeded by fome very heavy falls of
fnow, which lafted till the middle of the
month. Our decks were now incapable of
refilling the intenfe freezing of the night,
and the lower parts of them were covered
an inch thick with an hoary froft, that had
all the appearance of fnow, notwithftanding
three fires were kept conftantly burning
twenty hours out of the twenty-four; fo
that when they were firft lighted the decks
were all afloat. For fome time we kept||
in the fires night and day, but the fmoke
which proceeded from a temporary ftove, o
made out of one of the forges, was fo very
troublefome, that the people, who were now
falling ill, were fully convinced that this:'
continual  fmoke was  the caufe  of their*||
fickiiefs. After the heavy fall of fnow we
had twelve down with the fcurvy, and towards the end of.the month four died,
and the number encreafed to twenty-three
who were confined to their beds, amongft
whom was the furgeon, who was extremely
ill. The firft officer, on finding himfelf
flightly affeCted in the breaft, a fvmptom
which generally foreboded a fatal deter-
mination in a very few days, got rid of it
by continually chewing the young pine
branches, and fwallowing the juice; but,
from the unpleafant tafle of this medicine,
few of the fick could be prevailed upon to
perfift in taking it. ,      - '%
• At the latter end of February the diforder
had encreafed, and no lefs than thirty o
our people were fo ill, that none of them
had fufficient ftrength to get out of their
hammocks :—four of them died in the courfe
of the month.—-Indeed, at this time, our
neceffaries were fo far exhaufted, that if the
more violent fymptoms of the diforder had
abated, there was a want of proper food &c.
to complete the cure. Thefe melancholy
circumftances we're rendered more afflicting
by the. hopelefs minds of the crew ; for
Vol. I. C fuch
r f  * m
fuch was the general difcouragement among
them, that they confidered the flighteft
fymptom of the diforder to be a-certain prer
lude to death. ,     . "        '^Wm' \
During the months  of January and February, the thermometer continued for the
greater part at 150, though it fometimes fell
to 140.   Notwithftanding this extreme cold,
we were vifited as ufual by the natives, who
had no other cloathing  but their frocks,
made of the  fkins of fea-otters and feals,
though chiefly of the latter, with the fur on
the outfide.—But whatever protection thefe
dreiTes gave to their bodies,  their legs re-
mained uncovered, and without any apparent
inconvenience. They appeared to be as much
diftreffed for provifions as ourfelves, and as
we had feveral cafks of the whale blubber
which had been collected for oil, they ufed,
whenever they came'on board, under a ore-
tence that the weather was too boifterous for
them to engage in whale hunting, to entreat
a  regale of  this luxurious article; which
was always granted to their great comfort
and fatisfaCtion.— In their opinion it was
'owing to our not taking the fame delicious
and wholefome nourifhment, that fuch a
terrible and alarming fickiiefs prevailed
amongft us.     ' ^    -
We were at firft very much furprifed at
their being informed of the death of our
people, and the places where we had burled
them.—They particularly pointed to the
edge of the fhore between the cracks of the
ice, where with confiderable labour we had
contrived to dig a fhallow grave for our
boatfwain, who, from his piping, had attracted their particular notice and refpeCt.—
We indeed at firft imagined that they con-
trlved to watch thefe melancholy ceremonies in order to dig up the bodies for a banquet, as we had no doubt but that they
were a canibal tribe. We however foon after
difcovered that thev obtained their intelli-
gence from the conftant watch they kept,
to prevent any other bands of natives from
coming to trade with^us, without giving
them a fhare of their profits, whatever they
• might be.  |§     K; rm'    -     /   - ^    :-tm
As they paid us daily, vifits, we at firft
imagined that their place of habitation was
at no very great diftance, though we had
never been able to difcover it; but we now
learnt that they were a vagrant people, without
out any fixed place of abode, fleeping where
they could, and when they had the inclination ; and that they made no diftinCtion
between the night and the day, wandering
about as much during the one as the other.
They never made any fires in the night for
fear of being furprifed by thofe tribes with
whom they feemed to be in a continual ftate
of hoftility, and who muft have come acrofs
the ice to attack them ; for as they had no
knowledge of the ufe of fnow fhoes, the
woods were wholly impaffable.
The month of March brought no alleviation of our diftreffes :—It was as cold as
the months which preceded it. In the early
part of it there fell a great deal of fnow,
which encreafed the number of the fick, and
the violence of the diforder in thofe who
were already afflicted by it.—In the courfe
of this month we had the melancholy office
of performing the laft imperfeCt obfequies to
the remains of the furgeon and the pilot,
Thefe were heavy misfortunes, and the lofs
of the former, at a moment when medical
knowledge was fo neceffary, muft be con-
fidered by all who read this page, as a con-
fummate affliction.      v   ' ■'■til
The INTRODUCTORY VOYAGE.        xxxvii
The firft officer finding a return of his
complaint, applied to the fame means of relief which had before been fo fuccefsful,—\
exercife and the juice of the pine tree.—-He
made a decoCtion of the latter which was
extremely naufeous, and very difficult, tho*
very much diluted, to keep on the ftomach :
it operated repeatedly as an emetic, before it
became a progreffive remedy :—and perhaps
this very effeCt, by cleanfing the ftomach,
aided the future falutary operations of this
anti-fcorbutic medicine. The fecond officer
and one or two of the feamen perfifting In
the fame regimen, found fimilar benefit, and
were recovered from a very reduced flate ;
but it is one of the unfortunate fymptoms of
this melancholy diforder to be averfe to
motion, and to find pain, bordering on an-
guifh, in attempting to ufe that exercife
which is the predominant remedy.
Having loft our furgeon, we were now
deprived of all medical aid.—Every advantage the fick could receive from the moft
tender and vigilant attention, they received
from myfelf, the firft officer and a feaman,
who were yet in a flate to do them that fer-
vice.   But ftill we continued to fee and la-
C 3 ',.§: roent XXXV1U
ment a gradual -diminution of our crew
from this terrible diforder. Too often did
I find itiyfelf called to affift in performing
the dreadful office, of dragging the dead bo-
' GO        O
dies acrofs the ice,  to  a  fhallow fepulchre
which our own hands had hewn out for
them on the' fhore.    The fledge on which
we fetched the wood was their hearfe, and
the chafms in the ice their grave :—But
thefe imperfect:   ritfes  were   attended with
that fincerity of grief which does not always.
follow the gorgeous array of funeral pride to
fepulchral domes.   Indeed, the only happi-
nefs;  or, to exprefs myfelf with more ac«?
curacy, the only alleviation of our wretched-
nefs, was when we could  abfent ourfelves
from the veffel, and get away from hearing
the groans of our affiiCted people, in order
to find relief in  a fblitary review of  our
forlorn  fituation. All our cordial provifions
had long been exhaufted ;—we had nothing
O % o
to ftrengthen and fupport the fick but bif-
cuit, rice, and a fmall quantity of flour,
but no kind of fugar or wine to give with
them. Of fait beef and pork there was no.
deficiency ; but, even if it had been a proper
food, the ayerfipn. of the people to the very INTRODUCTORY'  VOYAGE.
fight of it, would have prevented its falutary
effeCts. Fifh .or fowl was not an offering
of the winter here. A crow or a fea-gull
were rare  delicacies, and an eagle, one or
two of which we killed, when they feemed
' j
to be hovering about, as if they would feed
upon us, inftead of furnifhing us with food,
was a feaft indeed.—Our two goats, a male
and female of the fame age, and who had
been our companions throughout the voyage, were at length reluCtantly killed, and
ferved the fick, with broth, &c. made of
their flefh, for fourteen days. 4ip
, Though we were at the latter end of
March, there was, as yet, no change in the
weather;—the cold flill continued its inhof-
pitable feverity:—we now, however, began
to derive fome hopes frbm feeing the fun,
which had been fo long obfcured from us,
juft peep at noon over the fummits of the
mountains. The thermometer had, during
this month, been for the moft part at 150
and 16°, though it had fometimes rifen to 170.
The early part of the month of April was
very frofty, with violent winds.    Towards'
j j *
the middle of it, we had fome very heavy
Southerly gales,  which produce the  fum-
C 4 mer I
merin thefe high latitudes, as the Northerly
ones prevail throughout the winter. The
change of wind produced, as may be fuppofed, a fenfible alteration in the air; but it
brought heavy fhowers of fnow, and did not
become ftationary; fo that with the return
of the North wind, it became as cold as ever.
In fhort, during the latter part of this month
there was a continual combat of thefe oppo?
fing winds, which were the more, difagree-
ahle, as it occafioned thick and hazy wea->
ther. While the South wind prevailed, the
fick people grew worfe, and in the courfe of
this month, four Europeans and three Laf-
cars died, The fecond officer and the feaman
who entered upon, the pine juice regimen,
were now io far recovered as to get upon
deck to receive the fhort but welcome vifit
of the fun* This circumftance induced many
of the fick men to apply to the decodion.
and fome of them were perfuaded to continue
it; but, in general, it wras negleCted, with a
determination to die at their eafe, (accord-
ingto. their manner of expreffion) rather than
he tormented by fuch a naufeous and tor*
tu ring remedy,   '-;'•' '- ;',   ,:je;
Towards t '
Towards the end of the month, in the
mid-day fun, the thermometer raifed to 320,
but at night it fell below the freezing point
to 270. During the laft three days in this
month, the natives brought us fome herring and fea-fowl. The fiffi, I myfelf dif-
tributed to the fick, and no words can ex-
prefs the eager joy which animated their
haggard countenances on receiving fuch a
comfortable and refrefhing meal:—and every
encouragement was, of courfe, given to the
natives to procure a conftant fupply of this
ftrengthening food.
Thefe people now began to confole us
with an affurance that the cold would foon
be gone. They had, indeed, always made
us underftand, that the fummer would commence about the middle of May, by counting the number of moons. The fun now
began to make a large circle over the hills,
and at mid-day it was exceedingly reviving.
The fupplies of fifh were alfo frequent, and
we began to feel hopes, that the remaining
part of us would get out of this defolate
abode, and return again to our country,
Thefe circumftances gave fuch a turn to the
fpirits of the people, that many of them
W con- xiii
HI i
confented to be brought upon deck to feel
the rays of the fun, who fainted when they
approached the air.   It is very lingular th
many of them who preferved aftonifhing:
fpirits, and would fay or do any thing, who
appeared in fhort, as if they were free from
all diforder, while they wrere in bed, would
from the moft trifling motion, or only
touching the fide of their hammocks, be
thrown into fuch agonizing pains, and fuc-
ceffive faintings, that every moment might
be fuppofed to be their laft. In this ftate
they would remain for near half an hour,
before they recovered,|fc,,.: :'^ ':- ■$§$■
, * By the 6th of May, there was an aftonifhing change in every thing around -us ;
the feamen who had not been very much reduced, recovered miraculoufly, from drinking the decoCtion. We had now as much
ijfh as we could eat, with a great variety
of fea-fowl, with which the natives daily
provided us.—We had alfo feen feveral
flights of geefe and ducks pafs over us,
but none had as yet come within our reach.
', On the 17th, a company of the natives,
with the King' of the Sound, named She-
' noway, came on board with great form, to
congratulate us on the return of fummer.
They alfo informed us that they had feen
two veffels at fea, an article of intelligence
which we fcarce knew how to believe,
though it was confirmed bv the fimilar and
fubfequent information of others of the natives ; but, on the 19th, this doubtful ac^
count was verified by the arrival of two
canoes conducting a boat, in which was
Captain Dixon of the Queen Charlotte from
London, 'which, with her confort the King
George, Captain Portlock, he had left at
j Montagu Ifle, to come in queft of us, on the
information of the Indians. j|:   .        •
If all the circumftances are confidered,—\
this muft be mentioned as a moft extraordinary meeting; and when the horrid fituation
of the Nootka and her crew is called into reflection, their ficknefs and their forrow,—j
their defolate fituation fo long continued,—»
and .the chilling apprehenfions that, from
the ftate of the crew and the flate of the
fhip, even when the weather relaxed, and
the feafon became favourable, they migb&
not poffefs the means of quitting it;—when
^11 thefe items of misfortune are brought to
Que aggregate of evil, it is not a matter of
"im-  ' 3       "   II   ' " m:-'   furprife R1VI
furprife that Captain Dixon fhould be wel»
corned as a guardian angel with tears of joy.
Nor fhall I cjeny that we received confiderable affiftance and fervice from Capain Port-
lock, whofe embaffador he was,—And here I
fhould have concluded this part of my fub-
jeCt; but as the latter gentlemanin the account of his voyage, has thought proper to
reprefent himfelf as poffeffing the virtues of
a Samaritan, and that he exercifed them all
upon me, I have thought proper to flate
the hiftory of his conduCt with all . t?he
neceffary vouchers, that the public may be
in poffeffion of fhe truth, and be enabled to
judge of the extent of the obligations I owe
to the juftice, the liberality, and the humanity of Captain Portlock*.
* In May, 1787, Captain A. Portlock arrived in the King-
•George in an harbour in Prince William's Sound ; as did the
Queen Charlotte, Captain Dixon, who was difpatched with the
boats on a trading trip, and arrived in Snug Corner Cove, with
Ihe long-boat of the King George and two whale boats. They
were informed by the natives, that a veflel was at anchor near
them, which tbey underftood to be the Nootka, Captain Meares.
On this intelligence, Captain Dixon was conducted by the natives,
Sfftd arrived on board the Nootka late in the evening.
When our mutual furprife was in fome meafure abated, Captaia
Dixon was informed by me of my condition, and the misfortunes
which we had encountered. To which he replied, that it only lay
in Captain Portlock's power to lend us the affiftance he faw we fo
much wanted, and that he propofed tc^ depart very early in the.
jMorning to the ihips, which were diftant near 20 leagues; he alfo
^By the 12th of May, the meridian fun
became very powerful, and the Southerly
winds being fet in, the air was foft and plea-
fant. The thermometer during the day and
in the fhade flood at 40% though at night
it fell to the freezing point, and fpread a
thin ice over what had thawed in the day.
The main body of ice, however, by which
we were furrounded, began to loofen from'
the fhore, where it was broken by the tide,
which rifes and falls eighteen feet, while
the drain of the thaw in the country drove
the pieces of ice out to fea. The veffel now
fwung to her anchors, the ice having thawed
from around her :—Our fick were recovering
very faft, though two of them baffled the return of the fun, and, in fpite of our utmoft
added he was certain that Captain Portlock woyId put to fea immediately on his hearing this intelligence of us.
I made Captain Dixon fenfible of our fituation, and that I had
no boat capable of proceeding down to the mips; I therefore
requefted to know if lie would give me a paflage, in order that I
might lay before Captain Portlock the hiftory of our diftreffes; but
Captain Dixon very honeftly informed me, that though he would
moft aflliredly accommodate me with a paflage, yet he did not think
that Captain Portlock would fend up a boat in return. I then
conftdered, that, if I went down, and the fhips fhould neverthelefs
fail, leaving me to get back as 1 could, I mould be in a ftate of the
moft accumulated misfortune;---and, though my going down
would have been fome tie on Captain Portlock to fend me back to
my fhip in one of his boats, yet the1 diftance between us being fo
grsatj ft would take up fome days of his time, which might be to
the XlVl
attentions, added to the number of thofe
whorn fate had ordained to take their laft
fleep on this horrid fhore.—The face of the
country, however, was ftill covered with
fnow, and no vegetable production was yet
attainable but the pine tops; that the flernefs
of winter had deigned to fpare us, and which
proved an efficacious remedy to thofe who
perfifted in the ufe of thefn.* ::||: ~^m< '
^'; : ' r'-r-\":'f%;      ': J;-'   .  ' ;  On
the detriment of his voyage: I therefore, on this confideration,
waved.going, and inftantly wrote to Captain Portlock by Captain
Dixon. (No, I.)
A few hours after'the departure of Captain Dixon, it occurred
to me, that if we could poftbly launch the long-boat, and proceed
to the fhip, it might be the means of fecuring fome affiftance previous to their departure.
The hull of the boat, indeed, was deplorable,—for when we
launched.her it was with difficulty that we could keep her afloat;
neverthelefs, I embarked in her (accompanied by the firft officer
and five men) the fame evening. I took with me two cafks of rum,
and feveral bags of rice, to exchange for fome gin, and a little
fugar and cheefe; all which, Captain Dixon informed me, they
had in abundance.
Fortunately we had fine weather; and arrived at the fhip about
three o'clock the following evening, juft before the commencement of a gale, of wind. When we got along-fide the King
George, the boat was half full of water; and the carpenter could
not avoid expreffing his aftonifhment, that we had ventured fuch
a diftance in her.
Captain Portlock received us with great politenefs; and we
found that Captain Dixon had arrived but a few hours before us*
As foon as we had refrefhed ourfelves, I explained to CaptainPort-
.lock the nature of my errand,—which he heard, and faid he would
confult Captain Dixon on the fubjeft. I then proceeded, to give
him, without referve, fuch information relative to the various expeditions on the coaft, their views, the probable time of their arrivals,. &c. &c. which muft have been invaluable to him, from his
utter ignorance of a»y other fhips. I gave him this information from
On the 17th of May, a general diffolu-
tion took place throughout the Cove, and
when we once again found ourfelves in
clear water, the hopes of leaving this fcene
of fo much diftrefs and horror, cheered our
languid minds with inexpreffible comfort.
The number of natives which we faw,
did not exceed five or fix hundred.—They
are a ftrong, raw-boned race of people, and
pure commiferation for the hitherto unfortunate events of his voyage,
and to guide him in his future proceedings:—In fhort, I commuj.
nicated every thing in my power.
In a little time Captain Portlock, in the prefence of Captain
Dixon, informed me, that it was entirely out of his power to a/ffift me
with men :—this they did, I fancy, to enhance the value of the favour ; for on my preffing that part of my requeft with greatearneft-
nefs, and urging that common humanity obliged them, and what
they would expedt were they in my fituation, they confented to give
me two men/one from each veffel; but required a frefh reprefent-
ation by letter, which I wrote them, (No. II.}- Two feamen were
then called in, and, I fuppofe out of delicacy, the Captains left the
cabin. Thefe men informed me, that they would go with me on
the terms of Four Pounds per month, and one Otter-fkin each^ It
appeared to be needlefs to argue with them,—I was at their mercy,,
and therefore clofed the agreement, except the demand of the ot-«
ter-fkin, without much hefitation, though they had but Thirty Shillings per month on board the European fhips. I indeed thought,
that Captain Portlock might have interfered, in fome degree, to
regulate this matter more to my advantage. The agreement was
immediately made in writing, duly figned and fealed, between myfelf and thefe feamen; and Captain Portlock 'was a fubfcnbing Witnefs.
In return for the two cafks of rum, of 50 gallons each, and 13
bags of rice of about 5001b. I received 6 gallons of brandy, 1 r
of gin," two cafks of flour, of 20 gallons each, 10 gallons of melafr
fes, and fix loaves of Englifh fugar.
The fame evening, at my requeft, Captain Portlock ordered his
carpenter to caulk my long-boat's bottom, fo that fhe was rendered fit for my return. |j|
During IIP)
in fize rather exceeding the common ftature
of Europeans. They have no town, vil*
lage, or fixed place of abode, but are con*
tinually wandering up and down the Sound, (
as fancy leads or neceffity impels them,
confidering the whole of that territory as
fubjeCt to them, and fuffering no other tribe
to enter whom they have ftrength fufficient
to keep out, without paying them a tribute
' During thofe acls of mutual civility, I really thought myfelf
ttiuch indebted to Captain Portlock; and in return offered him fuch
articles as I could fpare; fuch as rum, rice, and a new cable of 13
inches (Europe;) buthe declined receiving any of thefe, not being
in want of them. In the evening of, this day I bid him adieu j
and arrived fafe on board the Nootka with the two feamen.
A few days afterwards, I was furprifed to fee Captain Portlock's
two boats enter the Cove : they brought me the following letter
from that gentleman.
Cape Hichinbroke, on board the King Geob.ce,
May i9tb,  1787.
I HOPE by the time you receive this you will
be clear of the ice, the remains of your crew on the recovering
hand, a^d your veflel in a ftate of quitting the Sound, which I
think cannot be done too foon, as on quitting the coaft, by a fhort
run you may be amongft the Sandwich Iflands, where every refreshment may be had for putting your fhip's company in a proper
ftate for proceeding towards China; where, at a proper feafon8
hope to fee you in good health.
I think it was on the fecond day after you left us that we failed
from Port Rofe, Montague Ifland; and, after rounding the Eaft
end of the faid ifland, ftretched over for this place, where I lay
much expofed; but, at all events,, mean to remain until the return of my long-boat from Cook's River, and the coaft tending
that way; to which place I, difpatched her the day after you left
ss, and expect her in aboyt one month.
■jm> h-"   ——
for that privilege.    When, however, they
are intruded upon by a more powerful nation,
which fometimes happens, they retreat to
certain rocks which are inacceffible but by
a ladder that is drawn up after them, and
even their canoes, which are of a very light
oonftruCtion, are hauled up with them.
If   They have a King whofe name was Shee-
nowa|;   he was .a very old man and almoft
" .1  ■   D 'I  blind.—
Captain Dixon took his leave of me off the Cape, bound to the
Southward towards King George's Sound, with directions to
touch at every port he could make along the coaft, and try what
may be done on his way there: and as the weather fince his departure hath been'favourable, I hope he will make a good hand
of it.
I remember before you left us to have heard you fay, that you
had an abundance of trade of every kind remaining: and now,
my good friend, I think, in your prefent fituation, that trade cannot, at leaft that it ought not, to be your object. I muft beg
that you would fpare me a part of it. The articles I wifh you to
fpare are beads of different kinds, particularly the fmall green and
yellow fort, and of them as much as poflible; iron unwrought,
and your fpare anvil ; you may remember that I mentioned my
want of pepper and- a compafs.
I hope to fee you as you pafs through the Sound : and remain,
with efteem,       j mi
Your's fincerely,
Capt. John Meares,Sno<w Nootka,
Sutherland Cbw, Prince William s Sound.
I wrote him by return of the boats, (No. III.) I hefitated not
a moment in complying wit}i the purport of his letter;  and as t
could not get at the articles of trade, they being flowed in the hold
I fent what I had at hand, viz. the compafs, fome pepper, a few
bags of rice, 400 or 5.oolb, each, and feveral other articles which
1 thought
,  V ill
i   i
Igindy*—When he firft vifited us, in the preceding autumn, he brought with him three
women, whom he called his wives, and
were accordingly treated with a fuitable attention, being prefented with fuch articles
as appeared to be moft agreeable to them;,
but they would not fuffer the moft diftant
familiarity from any of us. Thefe and three
or four others were the only women we faw
8L...JI; \; ";,   ■■'Jp. j|j|i' ■     amongft
I thought he wanted, though he did not pay by any means an adequate attention to my wants by his boats.
The Nootka in fourteen or fifteen days was-ready for fea : we
therefore failed out of the Cove, where we had been fo long im-
prifoned, and anchored the next evening in Port Etches, where
the King George was alfo at anchor. I again met Captain Port-
lock, with every civility.
A few days after my arrival, as- we wereconverfing in a friendly
manner on board his own fhip, I was much furprifed at his.putting
into my hand the following letter.
King George, Port Etches,
June f)tb, 1787.
AT the time I fpared you Thomas Dixon*
and George Willis, to aflift in navigating the Nootka to China, I
had thoughts of quitting this Sound, and proceeding to other parts
of the coafts; "therefdre your ftay in the Sound, and carrying on a
trade with the natives, could not, in any material degree, affect
me. . I therefore propofed to you no conditions reflecting trade,
in consideration of that affiftance, which, if I had done, I am pretty,
certain you would very readily have complied with.    Since that
period, I have had good reafon for adopting another plan,- a'parfc
of which is to remain in the Sound, and purchafe. every fkin, of"
every kmd, that came in my way; and as your remaining in the
Sound and trading'muiy of courfe, flop a confiderable part of the
trade that I might get, I find myfelf in duty bound, on account of
my employers, interefts, to propoie  the following conditions,—1
which, if you. would <wijb m keep the ajjifiance I have already lentt
amongft them.—We wifhed very much to
get one of their boys to live with us, in order to obtain fome knowledge of their language and manners; this propofition, however, they conftantly refufed ; but on condition that we fhould leave one of our people
with them. Indeed the King himfelf always
hefitated to come on board, unlefs one of our
feamen remained in the canoe during his vifit.
D 2 ' ' jt, '       Some
you will find it neceffary to comply with. The Conditions are thefe,
That you bind your/elfin a Bond of five hundred pounds, " that no"
trade be carried on for fkins of any kind by yourfelf, or any of
your crew., during your ftay in the Sound this feafon, and that
you let me have twenty bars of iron, and fome beads." On thefe,
and only thefe Conditions, you keep what affiftance I have already
lent, and rece'we what other affiftance I have in my power to afford
you : at the fame time I muft allure you, that Was I in your fituation, I fhould not hefitatc a moment in complying with the terms
propofed. You have made a good purchafe,—I have mine to
make. You have more trade than you can poflibly difpofe of,-—I
have mine to make.
A requisition fo illiberal called forth all my aftonifhment; and
it was with difficulty I could fupprefs the indignation I naturally
. felt, at the fhameful advantage he propofed to take of my helplefs
fituation. However, for what could I do ? Impelled by cruel neceffity, I agreed to thefe hard conditions, with a provifo, that
he gave me his honour to let me have another man from him, and
the probability of a boy; and as he informed me that he had a
quantity of porter on board for the Japan market, and other articles, fuch as fugar, chocolate, &c. that he would let me have as
much of thofe articles as I wanted, at the Canton price, as he did
not mean to go to Japan:—all this he afllired me that he would
comply with :—in return, I pledged my honour not to trade, or
permit my people;— the beads and iron were accordingly fent him.
Before I finifhed my vifit, he fixed the next day to fend the man,
pferhapf^the boy, and certainly the porter, wfcichto us would have
been m
! I
I    HI!. II
Some time in OCtober, 1786,, his Majefty
brought us a young woman and offered
her for fale ; and fhe was accordingly bought
for an axe and a fmall quantity of glafs
beads.I; We at firft thought that fhe was
one of his own women, but fhe foon made
us underftand that fhe was a captive, and had
been taken with a party of her tribe, who
had been killed and eaten, which was the
. Jt'■    f|' -'^P-  " general
been an invaluable acquifition, on account of our fcorbutic habits
of body, and having nothing but faked beef to exift on down to the
iflands, the very idea of which we naufeated.
The next day his carpenter came on board, who began to caulk
the deck, and examine the pumps. Captain Portlock employed
alfo fome of his people to brew beer and cut wood for us.
Captain Portlock had done all this with fo many profeffiorts that
it was all for the good of his owners, and appeared fo friendly to
me, that I really was deceived by him.
His carpenter when caulking part of our deck had ufed about
fifty pounds of oakum of his own, we having none of that article,
or men to pick it;—to replace this, I fent on board feveral lengths
of an old cable, about 11 fathoms, when one of Captain Portlock's
people came on board with a meffage that he wanted 20 fathoms of
cable more, to replace the oakum: furprifed at this declaration, I
fent my firft officer on board, to explain to Captain Portlock that I
really had no more junk or old cable in the fhip, and that if heper-
fifted in his demand, I muft ruin a cable to comply with it, and that
I thought what he had already received was a full equivalent. Soon
after I received from Captain Portlock the following letter.
I SHOULD be glad if you would fend me the other
eight bars of fquare iron to make up the number we had agreed'
x>n; if you have not fquare iron at hand, I muft make flat iron
do; but I believe you have fufficient of either fort, eafilytobe
got at. One of the twelve bars that I have received, my armourer
has ufed in lengtliening your pump-fpears, and fitting the boxes j
therefore I may -fay the number received, inftead of twenty, is
general lot of all prifoners taken in war.—
She alone had been preferved to wait upon
the Royal ladies, who were now tired, or
perhaps jealous of her fervices. She remained
with us near four months, and appeared to
be very contented with her condition. She
had informed us that fhe belonged to a tribe
who lived to the Southward, and it was
our intention to have coafted it along the
■ ^ 3 —StM-'   enfuing
only eleven. In confequence of what palTed yefterday between us
refpecYing the junk, I fent my boatfwain on board, and expecle.4
he would have received about fifteen fathoms; he was .offered five
or fix, which quantity he did not bring on board, as I had told hiiT*
what I thought he would receive. You muft confider the wa/ie
there is in picking oakum ; befides the employment of my people,
whofe labour fhould, had it not been on your account, turned to
the advantage of my own jhip, in a trading expedition up the Sound j
but, as it is, all hands muft turn too for fome days, arid pick oakum,
ready for my carpenter to begin caulking the fhip immediately on
finifhing with you; therefore the lofs of time I have fuftained is of
more confequence to my owners than I fhould fuppofe even fifty
fathoms of junk would be to your's. — Difpatch thi§ boat a.s quicjk
a.s you can, and the third m\qn is getting himfelf ready for you.	
I hope you are well this morning, &c.
I am, dear Sir,
Your?s fincerely,
.     /       # ;       1tN-   PORTLOCK.
I then fent the cable, which contained twenty times the quantity
I had received from him.
.Captain Portlock alfo defired me" to lend him fixftands of arms,
fome brafs mufketoons, and the anvil, until we met in China,
which I immediately fent on board.
However, day after day he deferred fending the man, boy, or
I>orter, or, indeed, fulfilling the remainder of his agreement ;-—
a-nd thus matters refted till we were ready for fea:—I then requefted
Mr. Hollings to go on board, and endeavour to make Captain Port-
lock EH
I Itin
I Ip
!L! m
enfuing fummer, in queft of furs, and re-
ftored her to her owTn people, had not the
diflreffes which have been already related,
prevented us from purfuing any defign of
that nature. With what truth we know
not, but fhe always reprefented the natives
of the Sound, as the moft lavage of any
inhabitants of the Coaft, and continually
repeated, that it was the fear of our gfeat
lock comply with his agreement, and fave his honour; when, to
my utter aftonifhment, Mr. Hollings returned with the following
anfwer:—"That he would fpare me 20 dozen of porter, and 10
*< gallons of gin, for a new European 13 inch cable; (which
" coft in Bengal near 200/.) that he could not fpare the man, but
*£ would give mean old9 inch hawfer, of 80 fathoms.'3 I natural-?
ly rejected this offer with indignation, the articles being by no
means of equal value, and as he refufed to fulfil his part of the
agreement between us. I told him, however, in the prefence of Mr,
Hollings, that if he was in diftrefs for a cable, I would fpare him
one, at the rate that the owners bought it, but on no other terms, as
I had no orders to eat or drink away the property of the fhip.
I then obferved to him, that if he had no regard to his honour,,
yet it would appear but common humanity to fpare us fuch articles as would tend to keep this deftruclive diforder under, until we
fhould arrive at the Sandwich Iflands. I reprefented, that it was.
againft his own and owners intereft to keep an article of this kind
for the China market, when he had had an offer of the higheft price
ever given at Canton for articles of the like nature.
On no other terms could I procure the porter, and other little
articles, but, as I have mentioned before, for the new cable, which
I rejected; and in confequence of my refufal to comply with his
exorbitant and difhonourable demands, Captain Portlock refufed
the two men and the boy, withdrew his carpenter, and in other
private points was guilty of the moft improper condudt. When
he recalled his carpenter,- this fellow declared to Captain Portlock,
that our fhip was not in a ftate of fafety; her feams being open
every where, and the pumps not finiflie'd. ' For what he had doae^
(<viz.j caulking two feams fore and aft. Captain Pprtlock permitted
guns alone,  which  prevented them from
killing: and devouring us. m
During the intenfe froft in January and
February, we were ^ifited by fome interrhe-
diate tribes, who lived in the neighbourhood of her people, by whom fhe fent invitations to them to come to us; to which
We added prefents of beads, as an encouragement to receive a vifit from them ; and
Br m$>       D 4        . within
him to charge fixty  dollars, which I   refufed, and agreed with
;him for forty dollars, or ten pounds, which was paid him by Mr.
Cox, at Canton.    Captain Portlock received the money.
On the 18th of June* I received another letter as follows :
King George, Port Etches, nea^ Cape
June 18, 1787.
I HAV E had very recent, good reafon to
think that, after you have quitted this Sound, you mean to put
into fome ports on the coaft of America, to carry on a trading
fcheme; now, Sir, you will recollect, that, in your reprefentation
to me of your diftreffed fituation, the navigating your veffel from
this to the Sandwich Iflands, and from thence to China, in fafety,
was what you gave me to underftand as your only wifh.
If this is really your intention, as a man of honour you cannot
refufe giving me a fecurity that you will leave the coaft immediately on your quitting this Sound, and purfuing that route.—In
confequence of your letter I have granted you two of the beft men
from the King George, but you may be well affured it was not
to enable you to trade along the coaft.
Mr. Creffelman has the paper with him, which you cannot refufe
to fign, provided you mean to proceed as you declared you intended
ftp do.
I am, Sir,
Your obedient, humble Servant,
)■$'.     /V-' \S' ■•■;■■■ ■:.#ATHU PORTLOCK.
Ki I You
within a few days of the time, when fhe
mentioned her expectation of their arrival,
fome of them came in three fingle canoes,
and brought a fmall quantity of fkins. She
earneftly requefted permiffion to depart with
them, but as we expeCted to derive fome
advantage from her information inthefum-
mer, her defire was not granted. While,
however, our people were gone down to
I breakfaft,
You will pleafe to be fpeedy in your' determination, that I
way, in cafe you do not chufe to comply, in giving me the fecurity
I have afked, return you the articles I have received, and take
my people on board again.
I need not comment on this tranfaction. I was obliged to fub-
mit; and I accordingly figned the Bond, of which I here give
an exact copy:—
■  .ft ^    COPT    OF    THE    BOND,     fi   . -
Ship King George, Port Etches,
June iZth, 1787.
Be it known unto all Men, That the. under-written
mutual Agreement and Obligation was this day entered into
and agreed upon between N. Portlock, commander of the
King George, from England, on the one part, and John
Meares, commander of the fnow Nootka, from Bengal, on
the other part, under the pains and forfeitures as undermentioned '-—
Whereas the above-mentioned John Meares, in wintering on
the New Coaft of America, unfortunately loft the greateft
part of his fhip's company, and was reduced to the greateft
diftrefs, .not being able to navigate his veflel to China. In
confequence of the diftreffed fituation, as reprefented by the,
laid John Meares to the faid N. Portlock, commanding the
King George, the faid N. Portlock promifed and agreed to
aflift the faid John Meares, by lending him two able feamen
to enable him to profecute his voyage to China, on Con*
pjTipN That the faid John Meares  fhall, on his leaving
breakfaft, fhe contrived to get to the canoes, and we fa v her no more. At the
time the girl left us, the fcurvy was not
arrived to the cruel height which it afterwards attained.—Neverthelefs fhe made us
fenfible that the fame diforder prevailed in
her nation, and that whenever thefymptoms
appeared, they removed to the Southward
where the climate was more genial,  and
Prince William's Sound, where he now is, immediately
proceed to Canton, andnoton any account whatfoever (except
drove by neceffity or accident) meet with, or continue to
trade or barter with the natives of any part of the faid coaft,
&c. for otter-fkins,, or any other furs,the produce of the faid
coafts, on pain of forfeiting the fum of i oool. of good and
lawful money of Great Britain, to the faid N. Portlock, his
heirs, executors, and afligns, for the ufe of the Proprietors
of the faid fhip King George. $$$
In witnefs whereof we have hereunto fubfcribed our hands the
day and year above-mentioned.
As I had good reafon to apprehend further demands from the
illiberal and fordid fpirit of Captain Portlock, I prepared immediately to put to fea; but, before I could effect my purpofe, the fame
officer who had brought me the bond came on board once more,
with a peremptory demand that the two men, whom I had received
on my firft interview with Captain Portlock, fhould be returned
to the King George. On being informed that Captain Portlock
determined to keep the bond, as well as the articles with which, I
may be faid to have very dearly purchafed thefe men, I refufed to
let them go;—when I was informed, that force would be em*
ployed to compel my fubmiflion to the demand he brought. My
anfwer to this menace was, That as I had fulfilled every engagement on my part, I fhould infift on my right to the men; and that
if Captain Portlock, whom I defcribed in the moft decided and
unequivocal terms, fhould make any attempt on the fhip, I was
determined to repel force by force.—On this the officer departed;
and in about half an hour returned, with ameflage from his Captain
that m
i iii>:;
where plenty of fifh was to be obtained,
which never failed to prove the means of
their recovery.  ,:|
. The natives of the Sound, of either fex,
keep their hair rather fhort;—but of the
fame length before as behind : indeed their
faces are generally fo covered with it, that
they are obliged to be continually feparating
it, in order to fee before them.—The men
' '! 31 TO*
I If.) Ii'<;«
that I might keep the men; but witjiout accompanying it with any
apology for his conduct.
When the veflel was under fail, Captain Portlock thought proper to fend me a Sandwich Ifland cap and cloak as a prefent;
which I returned.
Such was the conduct of Captain Portlock. To obferve •
upon it-would unneceffarily lengthen an article, already too long.
Every one is  capable of determining upon the tendernefs or the
cruelty of this man's demeanour to me. Whether it demands
deteftation or praife, is left to the judgment of thofe who read the
pages which contain this faithful and unexaggeratedaccount of it.
The Letters of Captain Portlock to me are copied from the* originals
in my poffeffion; and, ha<vbig inferted them, it may be exbecled
that I fhould fublifh thofe which I wrote to him -y—they are thete*
fore added.
■ ,''     '   (No.I.)     '• ■;_;':. '  "
To Capt. N. Portlock,
Commanding the King George.
I MAKE no doubt, but that you will be furp«£fed on
theperufal of a letter from a brother officer in this diftant part of
the globe; and as Captain Dixon has been fo good as to offer a
ic^nveyance of this to you, I could not omit the favourable moment
that providentially offers itfelf.
Some few days ago, the natives informed me of the arrival of j
two fhips in this Sound, which, this evening, we found to be fact,
i>y the arrival of Captain Dixon on board the Nootka.
?K' I had
iijf 1,1, — *—*	
have univerfally a flit in their under lip, between the projecting part of the lip and the
chin/which is cvit parallel with their mouths
and has the appearance of another mouth.
The boys have two, three, or four holes,
where the flit is in the men, which is perhaps the diftinCtive mark of manhood. The
women have the fame apertures as the boys,
with pieces of fhell fixed in them refem-
bling teeth.   ^   . ' .    ;. |   „.  ''      .|g|j
I had wrote a note afe^days ago, which I intrufted'to one of
the natives, to deliver on board one of the fhips, which he promifed
to do for a certain reward.
Before I proceed further, Sir, it will be neceffary to giye you
fome account of ourfelves j Captain Dixon will give yoii a proper
account of the fize of the fhip, and fo forth.
T failed from Bengal, in company with the Sea Otter, of 100
tons, my confort, commanded alfo by a lieutenant of the navy,
whofe name is Tipping, in the month of March 1786 ; the Government of Bengal being chiefly concerned in the expedition.—
The Sea Otter returned to China in September, with the cargo of
furs procured on the coaft : I determined to winter; and accord-
ingly chofe the harbour where Captain Dixon found us.
My complement of men and officers were, four mates, gunner,
purfer, furgeon, boatfwain, carpenter, forty men and boys, with
a crew ftrong, able, and healthy. I thought myfelf fafe and fecure;
but the calamities which we have fuffered during a long, fevere
winter, deftHute of all frefh provifions, will, .1 am fure, fill you
wift tender concern. To fuch a height did it.arrive, that it Was
often the cafe, that myfelf and officers had alone to bury the dead,
which we effe&edwith infinite difficulty, from the rigid and impenetrable frofts.
We arrived here the 25th of September, and were completely
froze in by the iff: of November. About ChttftmaS the fcurvy
made its appearance amongft us, and raged with fuch fury, that it
fwept off,the third and 4th officers, furgeon, boatfwain, carpenter,
cooper, and the greateft part of the crew. In fhort, no one on
toajed waaexempt from itr either rflpj?e or lefs j and it is but three
< wees; si
" Both fexes have the feptum of the nofe
perforated, in which they generally wear a
large quill, or a piece of the bark of a tree.
Their beards which, however, are common
but in perfons advanced in years, are on the
upper lip, and about the extremity of the
chin, which in the winter is generally frofted
with icicles.-—The younger part of them,
weeks ago, that what few were left have been able to creep about.
Such has been our diftreffed fituation :—at prefent we have, independent of the officers, but five men before the maft capable of
doing duty, and four fick, which compofethe whole of our remaining numbers.
I have given you, Sir, but a fhort recital of our misfortunes; and
fhall hope, if it is in your power, that you will afford us fome relief.
I fhould myfelf have accompanied Captain Dixon, had I a boat
afloat that could fwim; the only one I have is a long boat, which
we are now endeavouring to repair, and fhe is pn fjh°re<
As I have particularly mentioned to Captain Dixon wherein
you may be able to aflift me; in addition I can only-fay, that any
favour will indeed be gratefully received.
I fhall beg leave to mention, that could you poflibly fpare the
men, I fhould agree to any terms in their favour, and faithfully
return them on thefhip's arrival at Canton.
I beg your acceptance of a few bags of rice, being indeed the
$nly thing I have to prefent you with.
I am, Sir,
Your moft obedient humble Servant,
nth of May, 1-787. J. MEARES,
m (N°. 11. fM.*   '■
Prince William's Sound, May iSth, 1787,
To Captains Portlock andDixox.
IN my letter of the nth of this month, I re *
prefented to you the very diftreffed and deplorable ftate of my fhip,
which you are perfectly fenfible is really the cafe, I and have moftr' INTRODUCTORY VOYAGE.
as we imagine, pull it out as it appears.-—
They have high cheek bones, and round flat
faces, with fmall black eyes and jetty hair*
The,ir afpeCt is wild and favage, and their
ears are full of holes, from which hang
pendants of bone or fhell. They ufe a red
kind of paint, with which they befmear
their necks and faces; but after the death of
,* friends
kindly offered me fuch affiftance as is in your power, reflecting
men to aflift me in navigating the fhip to China.
I muft again beg leave to reprefent to you, that fuch is my
fituation, that, without the affiftance of men* it will be nearly an
impoflible thing for me even to quit this Sound, much lefs to navigate the fhip to China; fuch is the debility of my crew.
If therefore, Gentlemen, you will take this into confideration,
and permit me to have a feamen or two from each of your fhrps,
it may be the means of faving the lives of the wretched remains of
my crew, by enabling me to conduct:, with fuch affiftance, the
Nootka to Canton, where on your arrival, fhould Providence fo
order it as to fend us there alfo, I will faithfully deliver them back.
to their refpective fhips j and do engage, on the part of the Proprietors, to ftand to any damage that may enfue to you for giving *
ns fuch timely and neceffary affiftance.
I do alfo engage, fhould not your fhips arrive at Canton, to fend
thofe men to England, fhould they defire to go.
I am, Gentlemen,
Your moft obedient,
.' ■'% J. MEARES,
Commander of the Snow Nootka,
;'|ff   ■    '■' (N°. m.)   ' ■. .;' ■'
To Capt. Portlock,
Commanding the King George, Port Etches.
dear sir,
I WA S this morning favoured, and agreeably
furprized by the arrival of your boats, and the receipt of your
friendly letter.
The Hi f S,
I     J- M in
•    P'l'I
5 Hill;
!  !
i if! i'j
friends or relations, it is changed into black.
Their hair is almoft covered with the down
of birds. Their cloathing coniifts of a fingle
frock, made of the fea-otter fkin, which:
hangs down to their knees and leaves their
legs bare. The drefs they ufe in their canoes, is made of the guts of the whale,
which covers their heads, and the lower
part being  tied round the hole in which
The ice is completely difloived, and the weather has been extremely fine, which has enabled us to pift forward our preparations
for fea; to bring which to a final conclufion, you. may juftly fuppofe
our utmoft efforts have been made.
I arrived fafe" at my fhip the morning after I left you; and, as I
had'brought the ftrength of my crew with me, fo in my abience
nothing-could be done to put her in forwardnefs.
Our chief employment fince has been to entirely clear our main
and after holds, and completely flow them for fea, with the view
of leaving the coaft ; and in confequence of which all the beads
and unwrought iron have been ftowed in the ground tier.
But, my dear Sir, fo far are we from being ready, that our utmoft
' efforts have been able only to accomplifh this; and I do fuppofe
it wm be ten days at leaft before we fhall be ready to put to fea ;
for we have now the fore-hold to clear of many cafks, more ballaft
to take in, and we have already received between twenty and
thirty tons ; our cafks are to repair without having a cooper, and
we have to complete our water* cut a large quantity of wood, and
repair the fails, which are much eaten by rats; and finally to
complete the rigging for fea; to perform this, we have, I think,
your two men, and eight capable of doing duty; nor am I myfelf,
or any of my officers idle, being employed in endeavouring to
repair a miserable fluttered cutter, and in performing various
other neceffary avocations. This being a true ftate of our fituation,
you will from thence judge whether it will not require even a little
exertion to be ready in ten days.
. We have a little patch of ground which is clear of fnow ; to this
fpot we tend our invalids, who areemplbyedin boillngdecoction and
oil,, for prefent ufe and fea-ftore; they recover but flowly, though*
they fit, prevents the water from getting
into the canoe, and at the fame time keeps
them warm a:nd dry. This indeed may be
confidered as their principal drefs, as they
pafs the far greater part of their time irr
the canoes.    - * ; •'.,-_
Thereareto be found here all the different kinds of firs which grow on the other
§ ' :-? ■   t   ':   fide
I perceive that the returning fpring hath been the chief inftrument.
I obferve what you fay relative to the arrangements which you
have made for the purpofe of trade; in it I wifh you every fuccefs,
and I beg leave to exprefs my hopes that I fhall meet you at the
clofe of the feafon at Canton.
You may be aflured that it gave me Angular pleafure when I
perufed that part of your letter wherein you requeft that I will
fupply you with the articles of trade you mention, which T will
moft a fluredly comply with the moment I join you, which I mean
purpofely to do, to fupply every want you may have, and that is-
in my power to grant.
The beads and iron, as I have mentioned, being flowed hvthe
ground tier, cannot be got at until I arrive wjth you, wheri you
will lend me the neceffary affiftance to come at them; I have fcarcely
fufficient at hand to ferve the purpofes of keeping the fhip fuppfied
with the neceffary refrefhments which the natives bring at times
to us. .
The other articles I have put in the boats, they being at hand.
As I hope fhortly to fee you, I will only beg leave to add, that
I am, with efteem,
Your's, very fincerely,
Nootka, Sutherland- Cwve^ Prince
William's Sound, May 22,1787. J.  MEARES.
1; /   .. I   '-(N°.iv.)   ,     M
Captain  portlock,
I H AV E juft received your letter with
the bond or paper, from your mate.
I return you the paper, which is figned, but beg leave to remind
you that I think you have ufed me extremely ill throughout the
whole of this bufinefs, in retracting from your word, relative to
the three men which I wis to have had; one of my beft men is
i unable B
i it
.    •
.jf'* i
• •
fide of America.—There is alfo fnake root
and ginfeng, fome of which the natives
have always with them as a medicine,
though we never could procure any quantity of it. |fc>
The woods are thick, and fpread over
about two-thirds of the' j afcent of the
mountains, which terminate in huge mafles
wM    i' • • •' 1' ■      of
unable to do his duty; nor do I fuppofe he will be able during
the voyage: this, you muft befenfible, renders it more ntceffary
for you to act with that humanity becoming a Britifh fubject.
I am, Sir, Your obedient Servant,
June i%, 17S7. J.   MEARES.
To Henry Cox, Efq. Canton.
AT fight, pleafe to pay Mr. Robert Horne, carpenter of the King George, the fum of forty dollars, for work
done on board the Nootka-, which place to the account of, Sir,
Your moft obedient, humble Servant,
Snow Nootka, Port Etches, Prince William's
Sound, June 18 th,  1787.
( n°. v. )
M*. Creffelman has delivered to me fome articles of the
Sandwich Iflands, as a prefent from you: As I am going there in
perfon, I truft to be able to procure fuch matters as I may want
of that nature; neverthelefs I am much you, but beg
leave to decline accepting any mark of your attention.
.June 18, 1787. I am, Sir,
Your obedient Servant,
To Captain Portlock. J. MEARES.
Before I conclude this note I fhall remark on the declaration cf
Captain Dixon, in the account of his voyage, " that the diforder
which fo feverely afflicted my crew, arofe from their uncontrolled
application to fpirituous liquors." In the firft place, the affertion is
not founded in fact; and, fecondly, Captain Dixon's crew and
himfelf being vifited by a fimilar affliction, I have an equal right?
to retaliate the fame accufation upon him.
of naked rock. The black pine, which
grows in great plenty, is capable of making
excellent fpars. We faw alfo a few black
currant bufhes when we entered the Sound
in September, but no other kind of fruit or
any fpecies of vegetable. At that time, indeed, the high grounds Were covered with
fnow, arid the lowlands were an entire
fwamp from the ftreams of melted fnow
which flowed from above.
* The only animals we faw were bears,
foxes, martens, mountain-fheep, and the
ermine.—Of the latter we only killed two
pair, which were of a different fpecies.
Of geefe there were a great quantity
in the feafon, with various other fowls
of the aquatic fpecies ; but except the crow
and the eagle, we faw no birds that were
natives of the woods.     .?q.     ,''../'■&";
The article which the natives efteem
moft is, kon, and they would prefer fuch
pieces as approached, in any degree, to
the form of a fpear.—Green glafs beads are
alfo much fought after, and at times thofe
which were red and blue.—They were very
fond of our woollen jackets* or any of the
old cloaths belonging to the feamen.        ,M
They live entirely upon  fifh, but of all
others, they prefer the whale; and as the
.  -M \    ' .    1 E    ■ :11    ' oil' 'm
oil is with them the moft delicate part of
the fifh, they naturally efteem thofe moft
which polTefs an oily quality.—They fel-
dom drefs their fifh, but when they do,
the fire is kindled by fri&ion with fome of
the drieft pine wood ; and they have a kind
of baskets made of a fubftance which holds
water, into which a quantity of heated
ftones is put to make it boil; but it is not
often that their food undergoes this unne-
cefTary and troublefome operation. In the
coldeft period of the winter we never faw
them employ their kitchen, which rtfght,
pjerhaps, arife from local circumftances, that
encreafed the difficulty attending their culinary exertions.
x They are certainly a very favage race of
people, and polTefs an uncommon degree
of infenfibility to corporal pain.—Of this
we had a very lingular proof on the following occafion :—In the courfe of the winter,
among other rubbifh, feveral broken glaife
bottles had been thrown out of the fhip, aa*&
one of the natives, who was fearching among
them to fee what he could find, cut his foot
in a very feVere manner: on feeing it bleed^
we pointed out what had caufed the wound,
and applied a dreffing to it, which we made
him unditfftand- was the  rer&edy we our-
felves employed on fimilar occafions: but
he and his companions inftantly turned the
whole into ridicule ; and, at the fame time,
taking fome of the glafs, they fcarified their
legs and arms in a moft extraordinary manner, informing us that nothing of that kind
Could ever hurt them.
Such is the chara&er and manners of the
people in whofe territory we paffed fuch a
deplorable feafon ; it was therefore with in- \
Unite joy we took our leave of the Cove on
the 2iftof June, and the following evening
we got out to fea. Our crew now confifted
only of twenty-four people, Including myfelf
and officers^ with the two failors we got from
the  King George ;   having,   alas !   buried
twenty-three men in this inhofpitable Sound.
Thofe which remained, however, were all in
great fpirits, though fome of them had not
yet fufficiently recovered to go aloft.1* As
foon as we got clear of the land, the wind
hung much to the Southward, and brought
a thick fog along with it.    As this weather
was very unfavourable to people in our ftate,
it was thought advifable to keep near the
coifl. f|
If We had now been at fea ten days, and
had got no further to the Southward than
Our people alfo, from being wet on
||';   Ez (feck.
57 * lxviii
i tjj iCjC 1 ill
deck, began to complain of pains in their
legs, which fwelled fo much, that feveral of
them were obliged to keep their beds.—It
was determined, therefore, to ftand in for
land, which was not above forty leagues
diftant. .We accordingly made a very high
peak of a lingular form, as the inhabitants
in its neighbourhood were of fingular manners and appearance. - / 1§ 1
lH When we got pretty well in with the
fhore,,a confiderable number of canoes came
off to us, which were of a very different
conftru£lion from thofe in the Sound. They
•were made from a folic! tree, and many of
them appeared to be from fifty to feventy
feet in length, but very narrow, being no
broader than the tree itfelf.—But of all the
beings we ever law in human fhape, the
women were the moft ftrange and hideous.
They have all a cut in their under-lip, fimi-
lar to the men of Prince William's Sound,
•but much larger, it being a full inch fur-
ther inrthe cheek on either fide.—In "this
ap^ure they have a piece of wood of at leaft
jTeven; inches in circumference;, of an oval
fhape, of about half an inch thick, which
feas a groove round the edges, t|at keeps
it fleady in the orifice. This unaccountable
contrivance diftends the lips from the teeth,
and gives the countenance the moft difguft-
ing appearance'which we believe the human face to be capable of receiving.—Thefe
people  appeared not unacquainted with the
natives of the Sound,  when we defcribed
them as   having  double   mouths:   indeed
their languages feemed  to have affinity to
each other, but thefe people appeared to form
a much more numerous tribe.—They had
never been   feen before by  any navigator,
and had not a favourable wind fprung up
in the night, we intended to have paffed a
few days  among them.—The latitude of
this part of the coaft is in 56° 38' North,
and the longitude 2230 o' 25" Eaft of Greenwich.    ,'1|/-""v# - ''■-■'■'.-    ^ v,;. H^jpP
A Northerly wind no\v fprung up, and
brought clear weather along with it, which
continued till we made the ifland of Owhyv
hee.    Our paffage from the continent was
fortunately very fhort; but if we had not
been bleffed with a continuance of fine and
favourable weather, the ftate  of the fhip
was fuch, as to make it a matter of doubt
whether we fhould have reached the Sandr
wick Iflands.    Still, however, the  horrid
diforder beneath which the crew had fo long
laboured, continued toaccompaJJ^us, and one
inan died before we gained the falubrious
W::WU-  • . •'              ' -■'    ' %:  '■ f clime, Jxx
IJ tT.
m ■ »<
clime, whofe zephyrs may be faid to have
borne health on their wings; for in ten days
after we arrived at the iflands, every com*
plaint had difappeared from among us.
| We remained here a month, during which
time the iflaifcders appeared to have no other
pleafure but what arofe from fhewing khad-
uefs and exercifinghofpitality to us.—They
received us with joy—and they faw us depart with tears. Among the numbers who
preffed forward, with inexprefTible eagerasfs,
to accompany us to Britannee,—Tianna, a
tfhbf of Atooi, and the brother of the fo-
vereign of that ifland, was alone received to
•embark with us, amid the envy of all his
countrymen. Of this amiable man I fhall
add nothing in this place, as he will be rather a confpicuous, and I am difpofed to
■telieve, an interefting character in the fuc<-
ceedhag pages of this volume, ' ■• : r#
, On file 2d of September, we left the Sandwich Iflands, leaving behind us, as we have
every reafon to believe, the moft favourable
ibnpreflions of our conduct and charadter
with the ifihabttiiits of them,—and grateful-,
on our part, for the generous friertflfhip and
anxious fenriees we received from them.—
j&ftef a very favourable voyage carrying
thettade wkds through the whole of it, we
arrived in the Typa, an harbour near Macao,
on the 20th of OSober 1787. ■■•' : *|fpK
We had, however, fcarcely come to an anchor, when the weather began to wear the
appearance of an approaching florm, whicljt
our fhattered veflel was by no means in a
ftate to encounter. We were alfo very much
alarmed on feeing two French frigates, as
they appeared,ridingat anchor, about a rnile
from us. The minds of people fo long ha*
raffed with hardfhips, and fecluded from all
political intelligence, were not in a ftate to
form favourable conje&ures, particularly as
it was fuch an uncommon circumftanee to
fee French fhips of war in thefe feas. Wheri
therefore, we faw feveral boats filled with
troops putting off from them, we concluded
the worft. Having no confidence in the pro-
te&ion of a neutral port, we began to look
towards a ftate of captivity as the concluding
fcene of our misfortunes. Thefe boats,
however, paffed by  us, as we  afterwards
learned, to board a Spanifh merchantman, in
fearch of runaway failors. The French
fhips proved to be the Calypfo frigate of 36
guns, and a ftore fhip, commanded by the
Count de Kergarieu.—-But, as if we were
deftined to be persecuted by dilafters to the
laft, we had no* fooner loft our apprehenfion
of !
''iM'i'i Jmh
> 111
of human enemies, than we wereaffailed by
elementary foes; for fuch was the violent
gale which now came on, that the Calypfo
frigate could with difficulty preferve her
ftation with five anchors.JiThe fituation of
the Nootka, therefore, who had only one
left, may be better conceived than defcribed.
After adding a few more hair-breadth efcapes
to thofe from which fhe had already been
providentially delivered, we were obliged to
run her afhore, as the only means of pre-
fervation. This was, however, happily effected by thea&ive affiftance of the Count
de Kergarieu, his officers and feamen, of
whofe generous, and, I may add, indefatigable fervices, I am happy to make this page
a grateful, though imperfect record.
It is with the moft painful fenfations, that
while I exprefs the moft grateful aftonifh-
ment at the prefervation of myfelf, and the
remainder of my crew from the imminent
dangers and difafters which we encountered,
I am to lament the fate of our confort, the
Otter Sloop, Captain Tipping.—No tidings
have been received of her after fhe left Prince
William's Sound. We muft conclude therefore that fhe and her people have perifhed
beneath the wraves.
WSk      ■» H       .THE ^V^JJJBl.^ilLSiH^W— ■ .m'-JtAUaU-S-
mjSl*l-iii' *\am m*-i.**mr^,*>nKnSk
V    O ;lY    At: G    E    S
? O    THE
In the Years 1788, and 1789, &c.
CHAP.   I.
Preparations for the  Voyage.— Tianna, a
Prince of the Ifland Atooi,   and other
"Natives of the Sandwich Isles embark.—*      'M
Character of Tianna.— Complement of the
Crew of both Ships.—Quantity ofCattle,&c. J|
embarked for the Sandwich Isles.—De*
parture of the Felice and Iphigenia
from China. ' % ||. ' .
IN the month of January 1788, in con-   1:788.
,   junftion with feveral Britifh merchants JANUARY
refident in India, I purchafed and fitted out
two veffels, named the Felice and the Iphi-  Jf
genia : the former was of 230 tons burthen,
the latter of 200;    They were calcu-      |v
lated* iwPi
1788.   lated, in every refpeCt, for their  deftined
January. VOyage^   being   good failers,   copper-bottomed,  and built with fufficient ftrength
to refift the tempeftuous Weather fo much
^    ,to be apprehended in  the Northern Pacific
1 Ocean, during the winter feafon.
It was originally intended that they fhould
have failed from China the beginning of
II the feafon, but the difficulty of procuring
a fufficient quantity of {lores neceffary for
the voyage, delayed the fhips till the 20th
of this month, when they were completely
equipped and ready for fea.
One  of the fhips was deftined to remain
out a much longer  time than the  other.
It was intended,  that at the clofe of the
autumn of this year, fhe fhould quit  the
coaft of America, and  fleer to the Sandwich Iflands, for the purpofe of wintering
there; fhe was then to return to America,
in order to meet her confort from China,
:     -   with a  fupply of neceffary  ftores and re-
frefhments,  fufficient for  the  eftablifhing
factories,  and  extending the plan of commerce in which we had engaged.       J|     ;
The crews  of thefe  fhips  confifled  of
Europeans  and China-men, with a larger,
proportion  of the former.     The Chinefe   i>~88.
were, on this occafion, fhipped as an ex- JANUARY
periment: they have been generally efteem-
ed an hardy, and induftrious, as well as ingenious race of people; they live on fifh and
rice, and, requiring but low wages,   it was
a matter alfo of oeconomical confideration   i
to employ them; and during the whole of
the voyage there was  every reafon  to  be'
fatisfied  with   their fervices.— If hereafter
trading pofts fhould  be  eftablifhed  on the
American coaft,   a  colony  of thefe   men
would" be a very important acquifition. I'
: The command of the Iphigenia was given
to- Mr. Douglas, an officer of confiderable
merit, who was well acquainted with the
coaft of America, and, on that account,
Was the moft proper perfon to be entrufted
with the charge of conducting this commercial expedition. The crew contained
artificers of various denominations, among
whom were Chinefe fmiths and carpenters, as well as European artizans; forming, in the whole, a complement of forty
men.    " v ' x ,  '
The crew of the Felice was compofed of
the fame ufeful and neceffarv claffes of peo.
A 2
p^e. 4
t788.pple, and amounted to fifty men:—this fhip
January. was commanded by myfelf. "*:
A much greater number of Chinefe foil-*
cited to enter into this- fervice than could
be received; and fo far did the fpirit of
enterprize influence them, that thofe we
were under the neceffity of refufing, gave
the moft unequivocal marks of mortification anddifappointment.—-From the many
who offered themfeives, fifty were feleCted,
as fully fufficient for the purpofes of the
- |voyage: they were, as has been already
obferved, chiefly handicraft-men, of various kinds, with a fmall proportion of failors
who had been ufed to the junks which navigate every part of the Chinefe feas.
In a voyage of fo long continuance, and
fuch various climates, very ferious and natu-
R , ral apprehenfions were entertained of the
inconveniencies and dangers arifing from
j the fcurvy, that cruel fcourge of maritime
life. Every precaution therefore that humanity or experience could fuggeft, was
taken to prevent Its approach, to leffen its
violence, and effeCt its cure: large quantities of molaffes, with fufficient proportions of tea, fugar, and every other article
that Iff^fo^'fc-^
that might   contribute   to   thefe   falutary   x^gg#
ends, were carefully provided.    Each veffel January.
carried near five months water,   allowing
one   gallon per  day for  each perfon   on
board, a plentiful fupply of which being      ||
one of the moft effectual preventives  of
this diforder.    Warm  cloathing of every
kind was provided for the crews, as well fj|
Chinefe as Europeans:—In fhort, every
thing was procured that China produced, ||
to render both veffels as complete as poffi-
ble, and to enfure, as far as human means
could be exerted, fuccefs to the voyage, and
comfort to every denomination of people
who were employed in it.
Among other objeCts of this voyage there
was one, at leaft, of the moft diiinterefted
nature, and the pureft fatisfaCtion ; and
that was to take back, to their refpeCtive
homes, thofe people who had been brought
from America and the Sandwich Iflands.
A certain number of cattle and other ufe- ". •
ful animals were purchafed and taken on
board, for the purpofe of being put on
fhore at thofe places where they might add %■
to the comfort of the inhabitants, or pro-
mife to fupply  the  future navigator,   of    %.
GMT if.I iJinirti
1788. ; our own, or any other country, with the
January, neceffary refrefhments.
In fulfilling this pleafing duty to thefe
children of nature, whom a curious fpirit
and  an unfufpeCting character had led  to
• fuch a diftance from their  native country,
a very marked attention was paid to Tianna,
-,a  prince of the ifland of Atooi,   a chief
jBti:     -..of illuftrious birth and  high rank, who,
in the  year 1787, was carried  by me to
. China, and who now afforded us the plea-
fure of reftpring him to his country  and
his kindred, with a mind enlarged by the
new fcenes and pictures of life which he
had beheld, and in the poffeffion of various
articles of ufeful application, or comparative magnificence, which would render him
the richeft inhabitant of his native iflands,
Mr. Cox, a commercial gentleman refi-
dent in China, was among thofe whom Tianna regarded with that warm efteem which
repeated kindnefs never fails to excite in a
grateful mind : and it would not be doing
juftice to this amiable Indian, if he were
not reprefented as poffefling many of thofe
fentiments which do honour to the moft
gultivated underftanding.    Mr. Cox notonjy ,*%-•
manifefted a general intereft in the honour 1788.
and happinefs of Tianna's future life, by JANUARY<
the generous confignment of a confiderable ff
quantity of live cattle and other animals to
the ifland of Atooi, but, with the moft
attentive humanity, defired even to indulge
his unreflecting fancy, by appropriating a
fum of money to be expended as his own
"untutored choice or wayward preference
fhould direCt. This kind arrangement was,
howrever, neceffarily fet afide; and the im-
perfeCt judgment of the chief fupplied by
the better fuggeftions of his European
friends; who direCted the expenditure of
the allotted fum, to procure him thofe comforts and advantages which might laft du-
ring his life, and tend to the improvement
of his nation, inftead of gratifying the
momentary whim for thofe objeCts wiiich
he himfelf might, at a future period, per-*
haps, learn to defpife. 1 fl      V:l
' The time that could be fpared from the
equipment of the fhips, was in a great
meafure, dedicated to this amiable chief,
who was with difficulty made to conceive
the information that he was fo foon to embark for his  own iflands;   from whence,       If   •
A 4 all 8
1788.   a^ ^e wonders of the new world to which
January, he had been introduced, were not fufficient
to feparate his affeCtions.    The love of his
country, a principle  which feems to be inherent in the human mind, in every ftate,
and  under every  clime, operated forcibly
upon him.  Thofe domeftic affeCtions which
■S   are the  fupport of all fbciety, as well as
H   the   univerfal   fburce  of happinefs;    and
\ that parental fenfibility which, in a greater
or lefs degree, influences all  animated nature, from the higher order of man to the
inferior claffes   of the animal world, did
*   not lofe   their energies in   the   breaft  of
Tianna.   His reflection had often fickened
at the thought of his family and his country ; and the gaze of his aftonifhment fre-
Ji/ quently yielded to  the intrufive gloom of
painful thought ;—while the fame hour has
often {ten him fmile with delight at the
novelties which he beheld around him, and
* weep, with bitter lamentations, the far
dearer objeCts he had left behind, when he
reflected that he might behold them no
more. ;-
When, therefore, he was affuredofhis
,      ~-   approaching return to Atooi,—the idea that
he fhould again embrace the wife whom 1788,
he loved, and the child on whom he doted, January,
with all the added confequence which
would accompany him, from the knowledge
he had acquired, the wealth he poffeffed,
and the benefits he fhould communicate to
the place of his nativity, produced thofe
tranfports wrhich fenfible minds may conceive, but which language is unable to de-
fcribe. II >    -.
To give a minute defcription of his conduct, behaviour, and fentiments, on his
arrival at Canton, might be confidered as
an unavailing digreffion, unworthy of that
curiofity which it is the office of thefe volumes to gratify.—It may not, however, be
improper to obferve, that he difcovered a
mind poffeffed of thofe capacities which
education might have nurtured into intellectual fuperiority, and endued with thofe
fenfibilities which forbid enlightened reafon
from applying the name of favage to any
human being, of any colour or country,
who poffeffes them.
When he firft beheld the fhips at Wam-
poa, his aftonifhment poffeffed an aCtivity
which baffles defcription, and he emphati-
.1- cally Hi
1788.    cally  called them the iflands of Britannee ;
January. tout when he had furveyed their internal ar-
rangement, with all the various apparatus
#       they contained, the  immediate impreffions
|§ s: they occafioned on his mind were thofe
of dejeCtion ; he hung his head in filence,
and fhed an involuntary tear, as it appeared,
over what he conceived to be his own inferior nature.—But the fame fpirit which
urged him to quit his native country, in
order to return with knowledge that might
Ssp' inftruCt, and arts that might improve it,
foon aroufed him into an aCtive and rational
curlofity. Indeed he very fhortly manifefted
no common degree of intellectual exertion,
by difcriminating, as occafion offered, between the people of the feveral European
nations, whom he daily faw, and thofe of
England, whom he always called the men
ofBritannee.—The natives of China he con-
fidered with a degree of difguft which bor-
dered   on  extreme   averfion; m their   bald
11 heads, diftended  noftrils,   and unmeaning
features, had raifed in his mind the ftrongeft
fenfations of contempt:—Indeed it might be
owing to  the addition  which the  natural
o \
dignity of his perfon may be fuppofed to
H re-
receive from fuch   a  prevailing fentiment,   178U
whenever he found himfelf amongft them, JANU<. *
that the Chinefe appeared to regard  him
with awe, and that,  wherever he   turned,
the timid crowd never   failed  to open to
him a ready paflage.
Tianna was about thirty-two years of
age; he was near fix feet five inches in
ftature, and the mufcular form of his limbs
was of an Herculean appearance. His carriage was replete with dignity, and having jr
lived in the habits of receiving the refpeCt
due to fuperior rank in his own country, he
poffeffed an air of diftinCtion, which we will
not fuppofe could fuffer any diminution
from his obfervation of European manners.
He wore the drefs of Europe with the ha- ||
bitual eafe of Its inhabitants, and had not
only learned the ufe and arrangement of,
its various articles, but applied his knowledge to the uniform and moft minute
praCtice of perfonal cleanlinefs and deco-*
rum. The natural habits of his mind,
however, occafionally recurred, and the
childifh fancy of his native flate would
fometimes intrude upon and interrupt the
progrefs  of   his  improvement.    He couhj       fj|
not II li
gg. not be taught to underftand the value of
January. ovjr current coin, and when he wanted any
thing that was to be purchafed by it, he
would innocently afk for iron ; which being
the moft valuable metal in his eyes, was
naturally confidered by him as the medium
of barter among other nations.
To return Tianna to his native ifland,
operated very powerfully in forming the
arrangements of the voyage before us:—^
his original defign and inclination was to
proceed to England; and Captain Churchill,
of the Walpole Eaft Indiaman, offered, in
the kindeft manner, to take him under his
protection, nor could he have found a better proteCtor; but to con fign him to another's care, and to fend him to a country
from whence there might be no future opportunity of returning to his own, was a
P bufinefs that his friends could not reconcile to their feelings. The permitting him
to leave Atooi, was confidered as an unreflecting aCt; and it was now determined
that Tianna fhould return thither, if not,
in reality, happier than before, at leaft poffeffed of treafures beyond any poffible expectation of his unexperienced mind.    But
of i—
of all the various articles which formed 1788.
his prefent wealth, his fancy was the moft January,
delighted with a portrait of himfelf, painted
by Spoilum, the celebrated artift of China,
and perhaps the only one in his line,
throughout that extenfive empire. • The
painter had, indeed, moft faithfully reprefented the lineaments of his countenance,
but found the graceful figure of the chief
beyond the powers of his genius. The :m
furprife that Tianna expreffed, as the work
proceeded, was various and extreme, and
feemed to follow with continual change
every added ftroke of the pencil. When
this painting was prefented to him, he received it with a degree of folemnity that
ftruck all who beheld it; and then, in a
ftate of agitation in which he had never .
been feen by us, he mentioned the cataf-
trophe which deprived the world of Captain Cook. He now, for the firft time,
informed us that a fierce war had been
waged throughout the iflands, on account
of a painting, which he called a portrait of
that great man, and which had been left
with one of their moft potent chiefs. This
picture, he added, was held facred amongft     jl
me H
I !■
1788.   them, and the refpeCt  they paid to it was
January, confidered by them  as the only retribution
they could make for their unfortunate de-
ftruCtlon of its original.
if It may not, perhaps, be thought impro
per,  if a  fhort  digreffion  is made in this
place, in order to ftate, that during our for-
;|mer flay* among thefe iflanders, we had
every opportunity ofeftimating their feelings with  refpeCt to  the lamented  fate of
§ Captain Cook, and we have every reafon
to believe that thefe diftant inhabitants
of the watery wafte, accompanied with
fincere forrow, the regret of Europe.—
The numbers of them which furrounded
the fhip, with a view to obtain permiffion
to go to Britannee, to the friends of their
beloved Cook, are incredible. They wept
and folicited with an ardour that conquered every previous averfion. Prefents
were poured in upon us from the chiefs,
m who were prevented by the multitude from
approaching the veffel, and the clamorous
cry of Britannee, Britannee, was for a long
time vociferated from every part, and with*
* Some account of this voyage is given in the In-
out North west coast of America. j^
out ceafing:  nor can their filent grief be    1788.
defcribed, when it was made known among JANUARY*
them, that Tianna, a prince of Atooi, was
the only one feleCted to the envied honour
of failing with us.
Previous  to our departure,   Taheo, the
king of that ifland, paid us a vifit, accom-     ||fc
panied by all his chiefs.    As they   believed *
that   the commanders of every  European
fhip  who had touched at their iflands fince     ^     ||1
the death of Captain Cook, were the fons "
of that illuftrious navigator,  they, in the
moft affeCting manner, deplored that event; ft.
and while each of them was folicitous to f,
jaffert  his. own  innocence, they united in
reprefenting the  paffions that  had   urged
them   to  commit   the  fatal  deed—which i.
would be a fubjeCt of their eternal contrition—as a punifhment inflicted on them by
their  gods.    After thefe, and many fimilar
declarations, they renewed their  offers of J|      .|j§
friendfhip to Britannee, and departed ; nor
have we  the  leaft doubt but  that  future
navigators,   who   may  chance to  flop   at
thefe iflands, will  find there a fecure and   \m
welcome afylum.      f|
The Hiiwffi ^
.   'ft'The other natives of the Sandwich Ifles
January. ancj America, who were received on board,
had been brought  to  China, by different
fhips, rather as  objeCts of curiofity, than
from the better  motive  of inftruftion to
them,  or advantage  to  commerced—they
confifted of a woman of the ifland of Owyhee, named Winee, who was in a bad and
declining ftate of health ; a flout man and
,   boy from the ifland of Mowee, and a native
of King George's Sound;   the barbarous
nature of whofe inhabitants rendered it an
ufelefs experiment to accompany him with
any of thofe advantages provided for the
If others.    "■.-■'•-      - v-  :^y       . f||
On board of each fhip were embarked
fix cows and three bulls, four bull and cow
calves, a number of goats, turkies, and
rabbits, with feveral pair of pigeons, and
other flock in great abundance. Unfortunately it was not in our power, at this time,
to procure fheep; but feveral lime and
orange-trees were purchafed and deftined
for Atooi, as Taheo, the fovereign of that
ifland, poffeffed all the powrer neceffary to
proteft fuch valuable property. Had we
been fo fortunate as to have landed all the
cargo prepared  for the Sandwich Iflands,    ^g
they would have become  the moft eligible January
places for refrefhment in the whole extent   n
of the Northern Pacific Ocean.    If, however,   the American commerce  fhould be
purfued, very confiderable advantages will \m
be found to  refult even from that part of
our defign which was compleated.
.  On the evening of the  22d of January, Friday
both fhips weighed from the Typa to proceed to  fea;   but it  falling calm fhortly
after, and the tide  of flood fetting againft
us, the   fignal  was made for   anchoring*
which was accordingly   performed in the    ~H
roads, in fix fathoms, over a muddy bottom.    The  Iphigenia being in a ftronger
part of the tide, was driven farther up the
roads, and anchored about two miles afterri
of us.    We here found riding, the Argyle-
fhire, a large   country  fhip,  of between   |;.
fix and feven hundred tonSj bound to Bengal :—fhe was afterwards unfortunately loft
in her paflage from Bengal to China, and
every foul on board fuppofed  to  have pe-
CHAP, It'll
11 ill
:■:■:■■ C H A P.     II.
|§f: The Iphigenia fprings her Foremajl.—Paf
fage to the Philippines.'--Sail along the Coafl
§        of Luconia.—Pafs Goat Ifland, the Ifles of
Luban,   Ifland of Mindoro and the Cala*
mines.—Scurvy breaks   out on Board  the
-; Iphigenia.—Pafs the Ifland of Panay.—
Mutinous ConduEi of the   Crew on board
■   '   :  /^Felice, &c. ■     ".,._'.        .-";*i? V
Friday 22.    a   BOUT nine o'clock in the evening,
^ an air of wind fprung up from   the
South Eaft, which, though-direCtly againft
us, determined us to put to fea; and the
fignal was made to the Iphigenia to weigh.
By ten o'clock both fhips were under fail,
the wind light and variable from the fouth-
ward.—We continued {landing to the Grand
Ladrone until midnight, when it becarpe
extremely foggy, which occafioned us to
fhorten fail for the Iphigenia, which wras
confiderably aflern. The foundings were
regular, from four to fix fathoms, over a
muddy bottom.—We now loft fight of the
5     ' Argyle- ; a_
Argylefhire, who alfo   weighed  and  pro-    1788.
Ceeded tO the South  Weft.     ' January.
The morning of the 23d was extremely Saturday 23.
foggy ; and in the night we had loft fight
of the Iphigenia.—The wind now veered ••      <
to the   Eaft  North   Eaft,   and began   to
frefhen up; on which a  fignal  was made
with two  guns  to the   Iphigenia,   to get
the larboard tacks  011 board, and fland to      M
the South Eaft.—>At noon the fog cleared M$
away,   when the Iphigenia was perceived
about a league to leeward of us.-—During       f
the night we kept firing guns, and beating
the gongs*, in order that fhe might judge f§
of our fituation.    By obfervation, our lati- §§|
tude was 200 54' North, and longitude
1140 24' Eaft ; the South Weftern part of
the Prata fhoal bore in the direction of South,
730 Eaft, diftant 40 leagues; Cape Bolinou,
South, 500 Eaft, diftant 419 miles. |§
As it was our  intention to  make  the
coaft  of Luconia  well  to  windward, we
* A China gong refembles, in fome degree, the form
ofalieve; and is made of a mixture of metals. The
China junks ufe them as bells; and, when they are
ftruck with a wooden mallet, produce a deep, fonorous
B 2 refolved VOYAGES   TO   THE
t it*
1788.   refolved to keep as much as pbffible to the
■Janjiary. Eaftward, being apprehenfive  of experiencing   foutherly currents at  this feafon of
;#;'■' the year.—We  preferred making the coaft
'■*..-  of Luconla to that of Mindoro, or  the Ca-
K lamines, the  coaft of the latter being fur
rounded with numerous fhoals, rocks, and
fragments" of iflets, which render the navi-
;t   gation  extremely  dangerous,   and  require
H    the greateft  precaution  in failing through
fuch an extenfive Archipelago.—The charts
of thefe feas,   by   Mr.  Dalrymple,   moft
certainly poffefs a great degree of accuracy,
but are, as we fuppofe, neceffarily formed
on fuch a confined fcale, and marked with
fuch   extreme delicacy,  as  to leflen their
|l intended utility for the common purpofes
of navigation.'—By adhering to this track we
hoped to experience lefs boifterous weather,
||.      from being fheltered, in fome meafure, by
Iff- the coaft of Luconia, and at the fame time
to fleer' clear  of many dangerous fhoals,
J o *
§/     which lie at fome diftance from its coaft,
and  are, indeed, fcattered throughout thefe
Monday 25     The courfe was continued to the South
Eaft,   till the 25th;   the weather gloomy
and unpleafant; the wind blowing fteadily 1788.
from the Eaft North Eaft, and North Eaft January,
by Eaft, with a very heavy fea. The latitude, at noon, was 180 North; the longitude 1170 1!j Eaft. The South Maroona
fhoal bearing North 6i° Eaft, diftance 49
leagues; Cape Bolinou 62°Eaft, diftant 6j
leagues.' ' , ■ / ■ ■*
The  Iphigenia   proved   but   an   heavy «
failer, when compared with the Felice, fo
that we were continually obliged to fhor-
ten fail on her account; an inconvenience
which we determined to get rid of, by fepa-
rating company from her, and making the
beft of our way, as foon. as we had got
clear of the Sooloo Sea.     -       y fl
In the evening we fpoke with the Iphigenia, when Captain Douglas Informed us
that the fhip had fprung a leak in the late
bad weather, above the-copper, which obliged him to keep One pump going, but that
he hoped to flop it the firft favourable moment.—This accident occafioned no incon-
fiderable degree of uneafmefs.—Circumftances of this kind have a very unpleafant
tendency to dlfhearten feamen, who, with .^p--.
all their hardy courage,  are   very fubjeCt
t< fl
1788. to be influenced by fuperflitious omens of
January, the moft trifling and ridiculous nature;
and which, if they fhould happen in the
beginning of a voyage, will frequently operate upon their minds and conduCt through
the moft lengthened courfe of it.
Our China crew were all extremely affeCted
by fea-ficknefs, which was a very difcoura-
ging circumftance ; and the exceffive rolling
and tumbling of the fhip, caufed the cattle
to droop; indeed, from the apparent im*
pofiibility of preferving them all, during
fuch a long voyage,—from the want of proper food, and as there were a greater quantity on board than were neceffary to flock
the iflands to which they were deftined,—
• it was thought proper to kill them all but
two cows and a bull, and one bull and one
cow calf, who migiit, we hoped, become
enured to the voyage, and be preferved to
their deftination. Accordingly two of them
were killed, and frefh meat ferved to the
crew, with barley, which made them com-*
for table meffes.
During the evening it blew very   ftrong
indeed, with an heavy fea.—We continued
Handing to'the South Eaft, in the hope of
being able to weather the North Maroona   1788.
fhoal; the pofition of which, according to January,
Mr.  Dalrymple, is extremely doubtful;—
we therefore kept the beft look-out in our
At five o'clock we were alarmed, by perceiving  that the Iphigenia  fpread  abroad
the fignal of diftrefs, which  denoted,   at    •
the fame time, that fhe was not in want of
immediate affiftance: we however inftantly
bore up and fpoke to her; when Captain   *
Douglas informed us that his fore-maft was
fo dangeroufly fprung,  that  fome method
muft   be immediately taken  to fecure it;
but   the fea ran'fo high, and it blew at   §
the fame time fo ftrong, that we were prevented from affording any affiftance what- ||
ever; we fhortened fail, however, immediately; and before  night the Iphigenia had
her fore-top-maft and  top-gallant^maft on
deck, and her foremaft entirely ftripped.|h
It was now abfolutely neceffary for us to ^
keep under what poffible fail we could ; and
as the Iphigenia was able to keep abroad her
main-topfail, main-fail, and mizen, to give
thefe fails their proper effeCt during the
night, we kept two points fiom the wind,  |
B 4 under m
i in
1788.- under an eafy fail, giving up all hopes of
January, weathering the North Maroona, and being
doubtful even of keeping our wind fufficient to weather the South Maroona, which
is defcribed as extremely dangerous, and
whofe fituation is as uncertain as that of the
Northern fhoal of the fame name.—It blew
very hard during the night, with a heavy
fea; the Iphigenia appearing to labour exceedingly.
This was, indeed, a very unfortunate
event; the weather we had to encounter
was very much to be dreaded, and the
crippled ftate of the Iphigenia's maft greatly
increafed our apprehenfions; as, in cafe it
fhould meet with any further injury, there
was no friendly port nearer to us than
Batavia, where we fhould be able to re-s
place it. Our fituation, driven as we were
■ about thofe feas, and furrounded by danger-
pus fhoals, was truly diftreffing and alarming,—It was impoflible for us to make the
land, as we might be thrown into a fituation
which would encreafe the danger of the
Iphigenia; and as to leaving her in fo diftreffed a condition, fuch a defign did not
occur to' us for a mpment: befides, we were
not without apprehenfions of being driven   ^88.
(00 far to the Southward, which would ren- January,
der it impoflible for us to get hold of the
coaft of Luconia, Mindoro or the Calamines, g
and under fuch circumftances,  inftead   of
making the paflage  of the Sooloo Sea, we
fhould have been obliged to take our courfe
through the Straits  of Sunda,  and reach
the Northern  Pacific Ocean by the Straits
of Macaffar, of which, after  all, we were
rather doubtful; or, by doubling the South
Eaftern extremity of New Holland, if we      *
fhould give up   the paflage of the Endeavour's  Straits—It is very eafy to conceive
the uneafinefs we fuffered from the bare pro-
fpeCt of fuch a circuitous navigation.
The weather did not moderate until the
twenty-fixth at noon: the latitude was
then 17? 5' North, and the longitude 118°
Eaft. The South Weftern end of the North
^aroona bore in the direction of South Eaft, %r
diftant thirty leagues. We kept ftanding
towards it during the night under fuch fail
&s the Iphigenia could fpread, and we very
much wifhed to have fent a boat on board
her: but, on a fudden, the weather became
fl§ tempeftuous as ever, {q  that we could
r- \mim if
W**M ill
1788.   neither fend carpenters or plank to her affift-
January. ance.—A ftage had been ereCted round her
mafthead, but a great hollow fea increafed
our alarms for her fituation.
This day, another of the cattle was kil-
led for the crew ; indeed, the exceffive tum-
" bling and rolling of the fhips made usdefpair
of faving any of them; two of the fineft
goats having already been crufhed by a fud-
00-' j
'$. den roll of .the fhip.—During the night it
blew extremely hard, with a great hollow
fea.—We kept fleering to the South Eaft,
frequently bringing too for the Iphigenia,
fhe being under fuch fmall fail.
This unfavourable weather continued
till the 27th, at noon. The latitude was
160 20' North, and longitude 119° 12'Eaft.
The obfervation, however, was but of little
dependence, from the variety of currents
which we experienced. The w7ind had
veered to the Northward, and we hauled
up Eaft South Eaft, proportioning our fail
to that of the Iphigenia. It was, indeed,
apprehended, that an Eafterly current had
fet us to the Weftward, as our latitude was
16° 20' North, without feeing any thing of
the fhotfl. As we could not fuppofe it pof-
■•iff • I' .fiblc NORTH  WEST  COAST OF AMERICA.
fible that we fhould be to the Eaftward of   1788.
the Maroona, we were under the iieceffity January
of hauling to the Eaft, as much as the run-
ning of a very high fea would permit. -
In the evening we fpoke with Captain
Douglas, who informed us that the head of
his foremaft was entirely rotten, and that . • 'LVJ
it was with great difficulty the carpenters
could proceed in their attempts to fecure it
from the high, roiling fea.—Before night,
however, we had the fatisfaCtion of feeing
the Iphigenia*s fore-top over head, and her
lower rigging fet up; fo' that our fears of $.-,
being driven to the fouthward of Mindoro, ,
in fome meafure fubfided.
It was, however, determined, that, from •
the great extent of feas we had to crofs, the
rifk would be too great for the Iphigenia, in
her prefent ftate, to attempt fuch a paflage
without having her rnaft well fecyred; or,
if condemned, to be replaced by another.—
It was therefore refolved to call a furvey of
the carpenters on it, the firft favourable
moment; and it was abfolutely neceffary to
fix immediately on fome place where the
repairs that fhould be found requifite could
be accomplifhed. The Spanifh fettlement of VOYAGES   TO   THE
i i
■ in
1 in
1788. Samboingan, on the Southern extremity of
January. Magindanao, was confidered as the beft place
for our purpofe; and though we had fcarcely
ever heard of it, and the hofpitality of the
Spaniards was always to be doubted, our
neceflity obliged us to fuch a determination,
rather than proceed to Batavia, or encounter
||r      '% the coaft of New Holland. j
III This evening, we paffed great quantities
iff -,        of rock-weed and drift-wood, which made
us apprehenfive of falling in with the fhoals.
Thurfday 28.    In the morning, the ifland of Luconia
'   :  was difcerned from the maft-head, bearing
f,       from Eaft North Eaft, to Eaft South Eaft,
diftant 12 or 14 leagues, and bore an high
j|    and mountainous appearance.    As we clofed
in with the land, the weather became moderate and fine,. $nd the fea entirely fub-
fided.    The Iphigenia had got up her fore
top-maft.    At noon  the obferved latitude
was 160  16' North;   fo that, during the
If;    laft twenty-four hours, we had experienced
a ftrong Northerly current.
>   Nothing can more ftrongly prove the dan-
iff ger of navigating   the  China   feas,   than
the variety of contrary currents which we
experienced in fo fhort a time:—During
M the North west coast of America. 2
the greater part of the North Eaft Mon- 1788.
foon, it has been generally obferved, that January,
a Northerly current fets along the coaft
of Luconia, as far as Cape Bolinou : there
the great body of water rufhing through
the ftraits which form the paflage between
Formofa, this Ifland, and the Babuyanes,
checks this current, and turns it into the
China Sea, where it receives a Southerly
direction, at the diftance of 15 or 20 leagues
from the coaft of Luconia.
The currents, at all periods of the North
Eaft Monfoon, run ftrongly to the South- H -
ward in thofe feas, excepting near Luconia ;
but the ftreams of them acquire greater
force at the diftance of 30 oV 40 leagues
from the fhores of this ifland, than they do
off the coaft of China: this circumftance f
may be occafioned by the junction .of the
waters paffing through the ftraits of Luconia, and thofe between China and Formofa.
Ships bound for China, which are late in
the feafon, might avail themfelves of thefe
currents to reach Cape Bolinou, when an
eafy and pretty fecure paflage is open to
Canton. Indeed, bordering on the coaft of
Luconia may be attended with great advan-
3 . tages; li
178S.   tages; for, independent of this Northerly
January, current, fine weather is generally experi-
^S  enced.    At times, variable winds;—in the
very height of the North Eaft Monfoon, it
has fometimes been known to blow a fmart
gale from the South Weft.  \ •!§ ■     -
As our apprehenfions had continued  to
increafe of being drifted to the fouthward,
o *
the fatisfaCtion w7e felt at  thus getting in
with the land  may be eafily conceived.—
M:   Towards the evening of  this day it   fell
cairn;   but,   about  nine  o'clock,   a  frefh
§| " breeze fprung up from the South .Weft,
which made us fland on our tacks,, for the
night, on and off fhore ; where we faw
feveral fires, which remained burning during the greater part of the night. Our
diftance was between fix and {even leagues.
Friday29. Jn the morning, the land bore from
/North North Eaft, to South South Eafiy
our diftance  being about fix leagues:—it
, - J| appeared very mountainous, and was covered with wood, except in fome detached
places, on the declivity of the mountains.
Vaft columns of fmoke afceilded from the
interior heights, which denoted population.
i$:<*        .The latitude at noon  was  15° 52' North.
During the evening and the night, we con-   1788.
tinued flanding to the land, but could find January.
no foundings  with  an  hundred and fifty
fathoms of line. ;§?
. The land extended from North by Eaft, Saturdays©
to North Eaft by Eaft, diftant about fix
leagues; at which diftance we kept fleering
along the fhore to the Southward and Eaft-
ward ; the latitude was 150 19' North, by
obfervation. The weather was extremely
moderate, and|pleafant under the land,
the fea remarkably fmooth, and a continuation of high, mountainous country, covered
with wrood, prefented itfelf to our view.
At night, it blew a frefh breeze from the
Weftward ; and we flood to the South by
Eaft, to make Goat Ifland, keeping a good
look out for fome fhoals that are faid to lie . S
to the Northward of the ifland.
In the morning, about eight o'clock, Sunday 31
Goat Ifland was feen, bearing North Eaft ff
by North, about the diftance of fix leagues;
the coaft of Luconia bearing, at this time,
from North by Weft to South Eaft, at the
diftance of 14 leagues. From an obfervation made at noon, the latitude was 130 45'
North.   - .    . ) '. 'fl
Goat Ifland appealed of a moderate height,
and to be well wooded, but without any
fign of inhabitants. The Luban Iflands
were perfect mountains covered with woods:
—The Spanifh charts, indeed, reprefent the
Lubans as connected by fhoals with Goat
Ifland ; but we could not perceive,any broken water, or procure foundings .with one
hundred and fifty fathoms of line/ Aft;   S
We took the opportunity of the favourable weather w7e now enjoyed to put the
fhips in a ftate of defence. The guns
were accordingly mounted, a fufficient quantity of powder and ammunition was filled,
and every other neceffary preparation made,
as thofe feas are infefted with numerous
bands of pirates. Two very fine fhips had
lately been taken by them. One of them
was the May, of 300 tons, and mounting
twenty guns, and had been on.a trading
voyage from Bengal to the coaft of Borneo.
General intelligence was received from the
Malays of her being deflroyed, but not a
fingle perfon efcaped to relate the particulars. Several other fhips have very narrowly efcaped deftruCtion i indeed, feared
a year pafles aw^y* but  fome cataftrophe NORTH  WEST COAST  OF  AMERICA.
of this kind happens.    The  proas* from   i>;88.
Magindanao and Sooloo iffue forth in fuch January.
fwarms, that it becomes dangerous for a
weak fhip to fail thofe feas.    Thefe proas
are manned with an hundred,   and fome- . v
times an hundred and fifty men, well armed,   -^
and generally mounting pieces of cannon      :l
of fix or twelve pounders.   As foon  as a
fhip  is  captured   by them, a carnage en-
fues,—and the unhappy few who furvive it
are carried into irredeemable flavery.   Thefe
people cruife in fleets  of thirty or forty of  .|§f|s
thefe proas; nay,   fometimes an hundreds   -   ;|||
of them have been perceived in company; jl
and though we did not very much apprehend that they would venture'to attack two
fhips, it would have  been an unpardonable;!
negligence if we had not prepared ourfelves •
for whatever might happen.    We availed
ourfelves alfo of the prefent favourable opportunity to furvey the mafts of the Iphi-|-
■genia, and deliver her fuch flores and other
articles as we knew that fhe wanted, to put .<
her in a refpeCtable ftate of defence. We
therefore fent on board her two additional
pieces of cannon, with a requifite proportion
of powder, ball, and other ammunition;
Vol. I. C and VOYAGES   TO  THE
1788.   and in return received a quantity of coals
January. for the forges, and feveral other neceffary
M   '   articles.        .: || '- ■   '
||| Additional reafons continually arofe why
|| - the fhips fhould feparate on the firft oppor-
'§;■ tunity after we had cleared thefe dangerous
feas. But, if even there had been no other,
the Felice, by keeping company with the
Iphigenia, who was at beft inferior in point
of failing, would have been very much impeded in her voyage; and it was become
fc neceffary to make every poffible exertion to
fave our feafon on the coaft of America.
In the evening, the carpenters returned
from the Iphigenia, and reported the maft
to be, in every refpeCt, unequal to the
voyage; they even doubted whether it
|| would carry her to Sambolngan. The
head wras quite rotten and fupportedby the
cheeks: good fifties, however, were put
on, and fecurely woolded. j   3,
At funfet the ifland of Mindoro was feen
bearing South Eaft by Eaft, diftant ten
leagues.    The wind blew very ftrong from
O ' J o
the Eaft, and it came down in violent puffs
from the high mountains of Luban :   du-
J§:    ring the night a prefs of fail was carried to
reach * : *
reach under the fhore of Mindoro.    The    1788.
wind blew invariably from   the  Eaft,   fo January.
that we became apprehenfive of being en- \
tangled with  the  iflands called  the Calamines, which are not only in great number, If
but extremely  dangerous.     The top-fails
were reefed, and as much fail as we could
well keep abroad was carried, which brought S
us happily under Mindoro about midnight.
It foon after became fqually, and as it would
have been very hazardous in a dark night,
J o        "
and on an unknown coaft, to run, the fig-
nal was made to the Iphigenia to heave to %\
with her head off fhore ; we immediately
did the fame ; but fhe had ft retched a- head
out of fight, though fhe anfwered our fig-
nal.—During the night it blew very hard,
and we were continually founding, but
could find no ground with an hundred
fathoms of line.    The inhabitants not only
kept numerous and conftant fires along the
fhores, but had even lighted them on the
* o
very fummits of the mountains.
At day break we occupied much the fame February
J L Friday 1.
fituation as when we hove to in the night.
The Iphigenia was near four leagues a-head,
but we made fail and  joined her by-noon.
C 2 Our If/
1788.   Our   latitude was 120  59'  North:   The
ebruary. ifland of Mindoro bore South Eaft by Eaft,
—diftant fix leagues.
■  The ifland of Mindoro at  funfet,   bore
f|,   from North   by Eaft  half Eaft,   to South
Jl Eaft by Eaft,  half Eaft ; our diftance from
the fhore about fix leagues. In the night it
was, as ufual, very tempeftuous, and wTe
experienced a very ftrong current againft
us, which caufed fuch a confufed fea, that
we were apprehenfive for our mafls and
yards. Early in the evening we had fhort-
f ened fail, and kept a good look out for the
fhoals that lie between Mindoro and the
.Calamines. In order to clear them, we
hauled clofe under the fhore of the former
ifland; the channel between Mindoro and
thofe fhoals being reprefented as three leagues
wride. The fires appeared to be more numerous on the declivity of the mountains,
and were kept burning all night.        M'
At nine o'clock in the morning we perceived the Calamine Iflands, bearing South
Weft to South Eaft, diftant fixteen or feven-
teen leagues. had alfo taken
a favourable turn ; it was become moderate
#nd pleafant, and we congratulated ourfelves
■   • ■ 1% If . very
Very much on entering this channel jj as the    1788.
ftrong Eafterly winds  might have blown February.
us to the Southward and Weftward of the '%';
Calamines,  which would have  obliged us  |
to have bore up along the coaft of Palawan,      5r
and made our entrance again into the Sooloo        >m
Sea very precarious at  this  feafon of the
vear.    We now   found the advantage   of
keeping the* fhores of the Philippines on
board, whenever the winds  permitted us ; jjHj
but in accomplifhing this we experienced
fome  difficulty from the  confront North       - "'11
Eaft  and Eaft winds, which obliged us to Ji
carry a conftant prefs of fail. |S     '  ' ;|'-. -
Captain Douglas embraced this opportunity to inform us that the fcurvy had made ;§
its   appearance   on   board  his  fhip-    The      jf
carpenter, two of the quarter-mafters, and   -     m
fome of the  feamen   were already   ill,—
others difcovered fymptoms   which   were
truly   alarming,—their legs fwelling, and
their gums becoming putrid.    They were, «
therefore, immediately put   on  a  diet,—
fpruce beer  was  ordered tg be conftantly
brewed, and ferved in the room of fpirits, '
feveral  bafkets   of  oranges were fent  on   |'
board,   whofe efficacious qualities  in this
dii- TC!
diftemper are well known, and every other
antifcorbutic was immediately brought into
application, in order to check this early ap*
pearance of a diforder, whofe continuance
would be attended with fuch fatal confe-?
We very fenfibly perceived the encreafing
heat of the weather. On leaving China,
we had it piercing cold; and now, on a
fudden, we felt the oppofite extreme.—j
Such a change, with the heavy dews which
fell morning and evening, was a very unhealthy circumftance ; neverthelefs we were
rather aftonifhed, that men who had fo
lately quitted the fhore, where they had a
plentiful allowance of frefh provifions and
vegetables, and who had not tafted fait meat
for many months, fhould be attacked with
fuch violent fcorbutic fymptoms, and at
fuch an early period of our voyage. Be^
fides, we wTere extremely careful in the
diftribution of their food; the fait provifions were always well fteeped; rice and
peas were boiled alternately every day;
tea and fugar were given the crews for
breakfaft ;.. they had a plentiful allowance
of water, and every poffible attention was
paid to preferve cleanlinefs among them :    1788.
they were never permitted to fleep on deck, February.
left they fhould be affeCted by the unwhole-
fome dews ; and no fpirits were fuffered to
be iffued in their raw ftate,—.a circumftance
of the laft importance to all feamen. Indeed
thefe precautions fhould be redoubled with
refpeCt  to   men who  have made frequent
voyages to India, as their blood becomes,
on that account, more liable to the attacks    :
of this moft formidable diforder. •       lj|
We  kept   fleering,   during   the  night,       /■§
under the fhores of Mindoro; the top fails
were clofe reefed, and, the weather being        M
very fqually,  we   frequently founded, but
could find no bottom with an  hundred fa-*
thorns of line, though within four leagues '
of the land. #;-
This morning we loft fight of Mindoro, Sunday |
and at noon the Ifland of Panay was {ten
bearing from North Eaft by Eaft, to South ; ' H
Eaft, diftant nine leagues; the wreather
moderated with the wind from the North
Eaft. The latitude at noon was 12° 53'
North.     . ■■'-..  -'   ■ ' .   :     • %
The Ifland of Mindoro is of confiderable
extent; in forrie   parts   it appeared  to be
1788.    only of a moderate height, in others very
February, mountainous, and almoft every where cover-
' ' m ed with wood. From the numerous columns
of fmoke which wre obfervedafcending both
Iff'   #     from the vallies and the mountains, during
/    ,    the day, and the fires that continued to illuminate the night, there is the greateft reafon to fuppofe that it poffeffes a confiderable
III degree of population.! Some parts  which
we were able to obferve diftinCtly, appeared
to be truly delightful;   they  confifted of
'      " ;S extenfive lawns, clothed in the fineft ver-
J| v   dure, watered with filver rivulets, and adorns
^^^      edwith groves of trees, fb difpofed, either
by art or nature, as to form fcenes of rural
beauty which would adorn the moft refined
ftate of European cultivation.
On the following day we ranged up with
the Ifland of Panay : the latitude at noon
was io° 36'North ; our diftance from the
land four miles; and, which is very extraordinary, without being able to find-found*
ings with eighty fathoms of line. Nume^
rous villages appeared on the declivity of
the hills, and the whole country formed a
moft luxuriant profpeCt.. The habitations
feemed  to be extremely  well  built,  and
arranged with great regularity.    The hills    j^83.
were verdant, and   their gentle Hopes were February.
varied with ftreams of water running down
to the plains, where   they   flowed round, • .)§
or meandered through well-cultivated plantations :—the whole forming pictures of
nature equal to thofe which we had feen on \}i
the preceding day ; and received every advantage from the very fine wreather we now
Our eyes  wandered over the piCturefque.
and fruitful fcene now before us, with  the        -
moft fenfible pleafure.    We were, at times,     "   M
within thre6 miles of the fhore, w7hich, near
the water-fide, formed a fine fandy beach,
lined with cocoa-nut trees, beneath whofe ||
(hade we beheld the natives, in preat num*
bers, enjoying a cool retreat from the in-
tenfe heat of the fun, and bufied in the
various occupations of the day. We very
much regretted that we had not time to eaft 1 .
anchor here, in order to have enjoyed fome
communication with them. It may not
be alfo unworthy of remark, that we did
not difcover a fingle canoe or fifhing-boat on
that part of the coaft along which we paffed.
At 42
1788. At this time a mutiny was difcovered
February, on board the Felice ; which, however, was
fortunately quelled by gentle means, even
before it had communicated itfelf to the
whole crew. But, in order to flamp fome
degree of difgrace upon the bufinefs, all
|f the circumftances of it were inferted in the
log-book of the fhip; '■'
And here it may not be improper to offer
§| - ' an opinion, that, if in long voyages, all
the particulars of the good and bad behaviour of the crew were defcribed in the logbook as they arofe, fuch a regulation would
be attended with the happieft confequences;
Shame will always be found to operate,
more or lefs, on every man, whatever his
rank or employment of life may be, who
is not abfolutely abandoned ; and to fuch,
the fevereft punifhment will have no effeCl
beyond the fmarting of the moment.—
Indeed I am firmly of opinion, that many
a failor, with all the hardy training of a fea
life, and all the infenfibility attributed to
a feaman's character, would be deterred
from an improper conduCt, by the appre-
henfion of having it regiftered in the records
of the fhip, when the temporary pain of
-       • ' if. •   corporal NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA. a*
corporal punifhment would  be confidered    1788.
With  contempt. February,
Indeed I cannot but lament the inefficacy
of the marine laws to reftrain the unlawful
behaviour of failors on board merchant fhips.
It is a real difgrace to the firft maritime
and commercial nation in the worlds to
have been fo long without an eftablifhed
fyftem of regulations to preferve the obedience of feamen in the trade fervice, as well
as that in the navy. How many fhips have
been loft, from the licentious, ungovernable conduCt of their crews ! and how
many voyages rendered unprofitable from
the fame caufe.    Neverthelefs, it does not . - ■
appear that any efforts have been made to
prevent fuch a manifeft inconvenience to
the commerce of our country. Other
nations have included merchant fhips in
the general laws enaCted for maritime fub-
ordination ; and it is of real confequence to,
this country to follow fuch a falutary example, and to form a code of regulations*
that may operate to keep in a.due ftate
of difcipline a clafs of men who are fo
neceffary   to the commerce, the  ftrength, If
ikJ the glory of the Britifh empire.
I ' 1' 1  'fl %        CHAP. I
a. 44
I nil!
Sicknefs of the Sandwich Iflanders.—Death of
Winee; her Char after, &c.—Definition of
Cattle.—Iflands of Bafilan and Magindanao.
*—~The Ships anchor off the latter.—The Carpenters and Party fent on Shore to cut a
Nlafl, &c<—Lofs of a China Man.*—-Spaniards fent on board to compliment the Ships.
—Both Ships moor off Fort Caldera*—
Behaviour of the Spanifh  Governor, &c.
mmw 1
7 4 ^HkUR friends of Owyhee had fuffered
extremely during the paflage acrofs
the China feas. Tianna, in his conftant attendance upon Winee, had caught a fever,
which, with the humane anxiety he "felt
on her account, confined him for fome time
to his bed. The man from Nootka Sound,
however, poffeffing av very robuft conftitu-
tion, bore the inconveniencies of the voy-
age with little complaint; but the poor,
unfortunate woman juftified our fears concerning her, that fhe would never again fee
her friends or native land.    She  every day
5 declined
I ; i
declined in ftrength, and nothing remained    1788.
for  us,  but to eafe the  pains of her ap- February
preaching   dilfolution,   which no   human        V
power could prevent.    Nor  did we fail,  I
believe,   in any  attention   that humanity |
could fuggeft, or that it was in our power to
beftow.    She had  been  for  fome  time a   ||
living fpeCtre, and on the  morning of the
fifth of February fhe expired..   At noon her
body was committed  to the deep ; nor was
it thought an unbecoming aCt to grace her
remains with the formalities of that religion
which opens wide its arms   to the whole
human   race, of every  colour, and  under
every clime, to the fayage as well as to the
faint and the fage.    Tianna wras fo much
affeCted by the circumftance of her death,
that  we  were for fome  time under very
painful apprehenfions left his health might   •J||;
fuffer from the   feelings  of his humanity
on this occafion; as he poffeifed, in a very    '     ;||
great degree, that delicacy of conftitution
which   difcriminates   the chiefs  from  the
vulgar people, and is peculiar to the great
men of his country.
Thus died Winee, a native of Owyhee,
one of the Sandwich Iflands, who poffeffed
virtues VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.   virtues that are feldom to be found in the
February, clafs of her countrywomen to which fhe
belonged ; and a portion of underftanding
§11; that was not to be expeCted in  a rude and
■uncultivated mind. It may not, perhaps,
» be uninterefting to mention the caufe of
this poor girl's departure from her friends
and country, which it was her fate never
to behold again.      ; f||
Captain Barclay, who commanded the
Imperial Eagle, was one of thofe adventurers to the coaft of America who made
. W a very fuccefsful voyage. Mrs. Barclay
accompanied her hufband, and fhared with
him in the toils, the hardfhips, and vicifli-
tudes incident to fuch long, as w^ell as perilous voyages; but by no means calculated
for the frame, the temper, or the education
of the fofter fex. This lady was fo pleafed
with the amiable manners of poor Winee,
t|| ' that fhe felt a defire to take her to Europe ;
and for that purpofe took her, with the
content of her friends, under her own particular care and protection. On Mrs. Barclay's departure from China for Europe,
Winee was left, as we have already men-
tionedj in a deep decline, to  embark for
her country, with the reft  of the natives   1788.
of the Sandwich Iflands. ^  -
On the morning of her death, fhe prefented Tianna, as a token of her gratitude
for his kind attentions to her, with a plate
looking-glafs, and a bafon and bottle of
the  fineft China:   to  thefe gifts  fhe alfo
added a gown, an hoop, a petticoat, and
a cap for his wife.; the reft of her property, confifting of a great variety of articles, fhe bequeathed to her family; and
they were depofited with Tianna, to be
delivered to her father and mother.
Nor let faftidious pride eaft a fmileof
contempt on the trifles that compofed her
little treafure. They wrere wealth to her,
and would have given her a very flattering
importance, had fhe lived to have taken
them to her native ifland. But when we
confider the fufferings of her mind, on the
reflection that fhe fhould never behold her
country again ;—when we fee, as it were,
the difappointment of an inoffenfive pride
preying on her fpirits;—when to thefe
caufes of dejeCtion are added the pains- of
incurable difeafe, increafed by the tofiing
of the billows, and the violence of tem-
.■   ; '   11. ■      ;|t peftuous .8
1788.   peftuous feas, — humanity   muft   feel  for
- February, thofe miferies which haunt every corner of
the earth,—and yield a compaffionate tear
% to the unfortunate Winee !• •   *%/$.
%■ 'Ijjjjf The bad weather had, at this time, greatly
:':llf| reduced our flock of cattle,—there now remained of our original number, but one
bull, one cow, and one cow-calf;—all the
goats, except two, had perilhed.
Tuefdayj At fun fet, on the fifth, we had almoft
loft fight of Panay ; Point de Naffo, the
fouthern extremitv, then bore Eaft North
Eaft, diftant feven leagues.    The weather
jSf..v - .was extremely hazy, with the wind from
the North Eaft; and we kept fleering
during  the   night to the  fouthward  and
o o
'"'eaftward, under an eafy fall, for the fouthern
extremity of the ifland of Magrndanao,
which we defcried on the morning of the
Wcdnefdayfi 6th of February, • at day-break, bearing
Eaft, teven or eight leagues diftant : it
appeared high, and very mountainous.—.
At noon, the latitude was 70 22' North,
and our diftance from the land three leagues.
The mountains jutted abruptly into the
fea; and from their fummits to the water's
edge, were covered with wrood.    We were
o -
continually founding, but could find no bottom with an hundred fathoms of line. iff
It now became a matter for our choice,
either to fleer direCtly to Sooloo, or to the
Spanifh fettlement of Samboingan; the
latter, however, was preferred, it being
thought by no means prudent to run fo |
far to leeward as the former. Befides, as it
was, the continual North Eaft winds made
lis apprehenfive that we fhould find it
rather a difficult matter to wedther Jelolo, |||
03f even New Guinea;   it was, therefore,
determined to keep the fhore of Magindanab
clote on board, and truft to chance to fupply      |§
our  wants :   we continued running down
the ifland till funfet, the fhores being bold,
and no danger to be apprehended, as we   |;
could procure no ground. The Weftern extremity bore South South Eaft five leagues;
and as we thought it rather hazardous to      -J.
run during the night, the fignal was therefore made to heave to till morning; when Thurfday?
>we refumed our courfe, at about the dif-       ?fil|
tance  of a  mile from the fhore.    In the      J
night we had experienced a Northerly current.
-   Vol.L ; IS • ■ J D ..'  At
w v5®
1788.       At noon, the ifland of Bafilan was feen,
February, bearing South  South  Weft  nine leagues.
Our latitude was 70 8' North.   It had a very
lingular appearance, from a great number of
I hills of a conical form ; one of which ter-
'minatedits Eaftern extremity, and refembled,
in fhape, the cap of a Chinefe Mandarin.
|flt was a very confpicuous objeCt, being the
higheft of this curious groupe of hills. This
ifland lies near Eaft and Weft; and feveral
other iflands, but of much lefs extent, appear off its Weftern point.
About three in the afternoon, we opened
the channel that feparates Bafilan from Mall gindanao.    At half paft three, the Southern
extremitv of Magindanaowas doubled; and
we entered this channel, which appeared
. to be of confiderable breadth, with feveral
fmall iflands in the midft of it. Our foundings were from twenty-five to thirty fathoms, over a rocky bottom. The South
end of Magindanao we eftimate to lie in the
latitude of 6° 56' North ; the fhore was
every where covered with wood, down to
the fea.
J| , At half paft four we were moft agreeably
furprifed at feeing a fmall ftone fort feated
on the Magindanao fhore, contiguous to a
ftream of running water, and about two miles
from the South point. At the fame time a
large village was feen more to the Eaft-
ward. The enfign was immediately hoifted,
which very foon occafioned the Spanifh colours to be difplayed from the fort, and we
were now no longer in doubt that the place
was Samboingan. It was a fquare building,
with centry boxes at each angle, covered
with thatch, and the ramparts feemed to
be crouded with Malayans; but on the
whole it had the appearance of a very indifferent fortification.
The tide of ebb now came ftrongly againft
us, and the fignal was made for anchoring,
which was accordingly done in eleven fathoms, over a muddy bottom, at the diftance
of about two miles from the fort, and within
a quarter of a mile from the fhore, which
appeared to be covered with an impenetrable
wood.  ' >
The boats were immediately hoifted out,
and the carpenters fent to examine the nature of the woods, We now obferved with
our glaffes the Spanifh colours flying on
another fortification adjoining: to the village.
lid TW
1788. and before which two gallies were riding at
February. anchor. About five o'clock, a fmall boat
% I came along-fide us, with a white flag flying
in her bow;—fhe was rowed by four Malayans, and had on board three Spanifh Padres or Priefts. At firft they appeared to be
extremely apprehenfive that our arrival foreboded fome kind of hoftility ; but being
affured that our intentions were peaceable
and friendly, they accepted our invitation
to come on board, and having taken fome
refrefhment, they returned to the village;
If after having cautioned us not to permit any
of our people to ftraggle into the woods,
which were infefted with Malayans, who
§ would be upon the watch to make every
kind of depredation upon us. In confequence of this very kind and important information, orders were immediately dif-
patched to the Iphigenia, who had anchored
about a mile from us, to withdraw her people
from the fhore.
The carpenter returned about fix o'clock,
and made a report that every kind of timber
we wanted, might be procured.
Friday 8       In the morning an officer, with a ftrong
party, was difpatched with the carpenters
to cut down fome fpars for top-fail yards, 1788.
and fleering fail-booms for the Felice ; and February.
orders were iffued to the Iphigenia to fend
a fimilar party to cut a fore-maft; in the
mean time, the pinnace was employed in
founding and furveying the channel, which
was found to contain great over-falls, from
five to ten, and thirty fathoms at a eaft,
with a very rocky ground.
About noon, the carpenters returned on
board, having procured a top-fail yard and
the booms. They had alfo felled a fore-
maft for the Iphigenia. The officer informed
us of the lofs of a China-man, who was fuppofed to have ftrayed into the woods, and
to have been feized by the Malayans. A
numerous band of thefe favages, well armed
after their fafhion, hovered about the place
where the carpenters were at work, and as
we could not procure any intelligence of
X J o
this poor unfortunate man, there is but too
much reafon to believe that he fell into the    l|:  ,
hands of the natives.
At one o'clock a large boat arrived from
the governor, who refided at the village, to
Compliment us on our arrival, and to invite
f;..-        '     W 3 1 •     us I
1788.   tis to an entertainment which his hofpitality
February, had prepared. The officer who was employed
to bring this polite invitation, confirmed the
Jf account of the priefts refpeCting the perfidious character of the natives of the ifland ;
and recommended, in the ftrongeft terms,
that wre fhould ufe every poffible precaution
":...':.-*'     when we fent  any parties on fhore.    Her
||;      alfo informed us that we might procure any
■;•#■• neceffary timber with more eafe and fafety
in the neighbourhood of the village, which
poffeffed another advantage that might be
j!   rM ;q£ great ufe to us,—the being wafhed by a
rivulet of very fine water.    He alfo added,
|||p %: on the part pf the governor, that he fhould
be happy to give us every affiftance in his
power.- |||
It was, therefore, immediately refolved
that the fhips fhould moor nearer to the
village ; accordingly at two o'clock the tide
making in our favour, both fhips weighed
and anchored abreaft of a large ftone fort,
called Fort Caldera, whofe baftions were
within an hundred yards of the fea.
The  fort was faluted with nine guns,
II'  y^hich   compliment  was   immediately returned.
1 1 -.Safe,
turned. The body of the village bore North   1788.
by Eaft half Eaft,   diftant about a quarter February,
of a mile;  the extremities of Magindanao
Eaft North Eaft,  to North North Weft;
and the Ifland of Bafilan from South Eaft
by Eaft, to South Weft by Weft, diftant       '   ,
about twelve leagues.
D 4
V»<   JlX   £l   x •      JL  V «
Our Reception at Samboingan.—Friendly Beha-?
viour of the Governor1 &c.—He vijits the
Ships, &c.—The Felice prepares to put to
Sea.—Lofes an Anchor and departs for Ame^
rica.—Some Account of Magindanao, &c>—
|| AfironomicalQbfervations1 Anchor age,&c.—t
The Village of Samboingan.—Spanifh Force
and Power.—Defcription of a Ball given by
, the Governor, <md the Manners of the People.
—Nautical Obfervaiions on the Paffage be-
mtween the China Seas and the Northern Pacific Ocean.—Danger f navigating the Chinc^
Sea$*—Account of the feveral Paffages be*
iween, the two. Oceans, with Directions, &c~
—Paffage between Formofa and the Philip-
' pines*— Bafhee Ifles i—Defcription of them.
Saturdays HT^HE Governor of Samboingan, who was
A    a captain in a regiment of infantry at
^Manilla, received us \^ith the greateft po-
litenefs, affured ris of every affiftance \n his
power, and fupplied us, without hefitationt
with whatever refreshments the ifland afforded,— [ .T'.   . , -_       -tb
forded.—He was attended by three priefts,    1788.
two of whom were young men, but the third February,
was rather of an advanced age, and had re-    §'     • -
fided on that ifland during an uninterrupted
courfe of thirty years.
We were conducted into the fort, which
appeared to be in a very ruinous ftate, and    .
were regaled, after the Spanifh fafhion, with
fweetmeats and cordials :—a very handfome J|f
repaft then fucceeded, to which the major    ||
of the country militia, and other officers, f§
were invited.  Some of thefe gentlemen were       §|
natives of Manilla, and others ofMaginda-?
nao, whpfe complexions were fo dark as to
approach very nearly to the blacknefs of the
African.   The priefts enjoyed, as well as ft
enlivened,  the hofpitalities of the day, and
did not appear to be of opinion that they v
were thrown into that corner of the globe
to pafs their time in penitence and prayer.
The rivulet that flowed through the village, after wafhing the walls of the fort,
emptied itfelf into the fea, at no great dif- 1
tance from our mooring, which afforded us
a very convenient opportunity of watering:
Vfe accordingly embraced the occafion  to
replace VOYAGES   TO   THEg
1788. replace what we had expended of fuch an
February, important article.
Sunday 10" On the 10th, the governor was fo very
obliging as to permit the two gallies, com-
' pletely armed, to accompany the boats of
both the fhips, that were employed to convoy the carpenters on fhore, to cut another
fore-maft for the Iphigenia in the woods, the
firft having been found defective, about a
IVague from the fort. About noon they got
tinder foil, and proceeded writh th$ boats,
which were alfo well manned and armed.
We had been aflured that large parties of
Malays were always on the watch, either to
commit depredations on the people, or to
carry off any unguarded ftraggler into fla-
very, from whence they feldom or ever
efcaped. We were therefore determined to
be in fuch a ftate of preparation as to fecure
the objeCt of our little expedition from being
materially Interrupted by them. About nine
the parties returned with a very fine flick,
I without having feen the face of an enemy.—
In the mean time the other operations were
proceeding, and every preparation making
for the continuance of our voyage. At this
J|r       place, however,   it was  refblved  that we
ould teparate.    The Iphigenia could not   j^gS.
have been ready for fea at leaft for fome February.
days; and even that period had become an ., ■ '   .
objeCl of feme importance, from the prefent
advanced ftate of the year.    The Felice was
provided with every thing fhe could want,
and we therefore prepared to leave  Sam-
boingan without any farther delay, f     '■%...
Tianna,  and Comekala,   the man  from -
King George's Sound, were, fince the death
of Winee, the only perfons of their refpec-
tive countries on board the Felice ; the reft
of them were on board the Iphigenia, to
which we now configned the amiable chief
of Atooi, as her courfe comprehended his. "Ilv
native iflands.—Comekala remained with
us, as the deftination of our voyage was to
his own country.
Tianna had been fo fenfibly affeCted by
the death of Winee, as to produce a confiderable alteration in the ftate of his health :
-—his fever continued, and baffled all our attentions to relieve him. The fame fate that
had feparated for ever his unfortunate coun-, v
trywomaii from her friends and native land,
preffed home upon his reflection.—He may ft
fo.e fuppofed to have felt,   and fometimes,     gf
perhaps, 1
1788.   perhaps,  expeCted that he might hear no
February, more the tender names of father or of huf-
v      band ;—that he might fhare with Winee a
premature grave in the bofom of the ocean.
-—He was therefore cpnfigned to the care of
Captain Douglas, with the hopes that the
§|§ remaining on fhore till his departure, with
the novelty of the fcenes around him, might
f§    abate hisdifbrder, and recruit his fpirits with
a fufficient degree of ftrength to bear out the
' remainder of the voyage. 8
|f On the evening of this day, we received1
5w-#     on board four fine buffaloes, with grafs and
S plantain trees for them and our other cattle :
|| —to thefe were alfo added a quantity of rice,
vegetables, and fruit, with feveral very fine
hogs ; and it was our defign to put to fea
without delay: but the wind fpringing up
from the South Eaft, and the weather ap-
v     pearing very gloomy and unfettled, our de-»
parture was deferred to the following day.
As we had now an opportunity to make
the governor fome acknowledgment for his
very friendly attentions, an officer was dif»
M        patched with a meffage of thanks for his
ft kindnefs to us, accompanied with an invU
tation to partake of a repaft the next day on
board the fhips, which he very readily ac-   1788.
cepted.    In return for which-compliment, February,
he requefted our pretence at a ball that evening; fome account of which will be given
when I come to mention the ftate, &c. of
the ifland, and its inhabitants.
At the time appointed, the governor made Monday 1*
us the promifed vifit, attended by the three
padres, and the major of militia; and we
exerted ourfelves to the utmoft in our entertainment, to manifeft a proper fenfibility to
the friendfhip he had fhewn us. The priefts
enjoyed themfelves on board the fhips as they
had done on fhore; and joined in one common fentiment, that nothing tends fo much ■§t
as wine and good cheer to annihilate the
force of religious diftinCtions.—The governor and his fuite left us with the moft cordial expreffions of fatisfaCtion at our reception of them.
At four o'clock, the tide making in our
favour, with a frefh breeze from the northward, we hoVe fhort; but had the misfortune to find that our anchor had hooked a
rock ; nor could our utmoft endeavours disentangle it from its hold, and heaving rather
a ftrain, the cable gave way, and we irre- J|
|pt ■' parably VOYAGES  TO   THE
1788. parably loft it. The fhip was immediately
February, got under fail, and paffing clofe to the Iphigenia, fhe gave us three cheers, which we
immediately returned. She had her old
fore-maft out, and her carpenters were bufi-
\y employed in preparing the new one on
The very fhort time we remained at Samboingan did not give us a fufficient opportunity to acquire any other knowledge of this
fettlement than fuch as we received from
the general information of others. But as
this place is fo much out of the way of
Slipping and commerce, I fhall not hefitate
to repeat the account I received from the
communications of the old padre, whote authority may, after all, be confidered as of
fome reliance, from his very long and continual refidence on this ifland.
Magindanao is an ifland of confiderabl
extent, being about 120 miles in breadth, and
160 in length, and is bleffed with a fertile,
luxuriant foil.—The interior parts contain
feveral chains of lofty mountains, between
which are extenfive plains, where vaft herds
of cattle roam at large in the moft delicious
paftures.    Several deep vallies alfo interfeCt,
s it were,  certain parts of the country,    i^gg,
through which, during the rainy feafons, February,
vaft torrents pour from the mountains, and
force their impetuous way to the fea.    The W-
rains and vapours which lodge in the plains,
diffufe themfelves into meandering rivulets,
and collecting a variety offmaU ftreams in
their courfe, approach the fea in the form of
confiderable rivers. >        .   .   . - : :Jp
About the middle of the ifland there are   :      lljl
feveral lakes of no fmall extent, of which, §   ,
however, we received no other particulars
than that their borders are inhabited by tribes
of favage natives, who live in a great mea-
fure by plundering thofe who dwell nearer
to the fea.   The people confider themfelves
as free and independent of the fovereign of     *-'.■'
Magindanao, are of a fierce, implacable nature, and wage continual war with the Mahometans, who compote the principal inhabitants of the ifland.    They are called Hil-
loonas, and profefs no kind of religion, but
live in a ftate of profound ignorance and
barbarifm.    J|v ^ ,' .   \       - _ ' W&
The fovereign of Magindanao is a powerful prince, and has feveral inferior chiefs
who acknowledge him as their head.    Ne- -9
verthelefs >4
1788.   verthelefs there are others of them who re-
February, fufe fubmiffion to him, and are confequently
in a continual ftate of war; fo that peace,
at leaft, does not appear to be one of the
§§|        ,   bleffings of this ifland.   The Spaniards, indeed, affert their right to the entire dominion
||f, of Magindanao, but it is mere aflertion ; for
though they have thefe forts, &c. on the
ifland, it is by no means in a ftate of fub-
jeCtion to their nation.:M&
The city of Magindanao is fituated on the
South Eaft fide of the ifland, has a river
capable of admitting fmall veffels, and carries on a confiderable trade with Manilla,
Sooloo, Borneo, and the Moluccas* Their
expprts are rice, tobacco, bees-wax and
fpices; in return for which they receive
..lltSl coarte cloths of Coromandel^ China-ware
and opium.
P This city ufed formerly to be vifited by
European veffels of fmall burthen;  but it
was a confiderable time fince any of tnem
|t      had been there. The governor informed us,
that the Iphigenia and the Felice were the
'    only European fhips that had been feen in
thefe feas during a courfe of feveral years. M
The Mahometanp-religion is profeffed   1*788*
throughout the ifland, except by the Hil- February.
loonas, who, as we have already obferved,
are governed by no religious principles,-—
praCtife no form of worfhip,—and live in a
ftate of favage freedom. : ,
Thete people are called by the Spaniards, W
Negros del Monte, or Negroes of the Mountain, on account of their retemblance to the |f|
race of Africa, both in their perfons and
manners.   They are fuppofed to be the ori- Jjl
ginal lords of Magindanaq, and, indeed, of
all the Philippines; the Ifla de Negros, or          |||
Ifle of Negroes, is, in particular, entirely
peopled by them, where they are at conftant  " ;f?
enmity with the Spaniards.   The Mahome-       *|;
tan natives of the ifland are a robuft people,       E,
of a deep copper colour, and are efteemed .
intelligent merchants.   *
If the Hilloonas are believed to have been
the original inhabitants of Magindanao, it
is very reafonable to fuppofe that they fled
to the mountains to preferve their liberty,
when they were invaded by the Mahometan hofts, which fpread like locufts, during .jflj
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, over
the Eaftern Archipelago.   Their favage ig-
Vol. I. E norance VOYAGES  TO   THE
1788.   norance and barbarous difpofitions teem to
February, }-iave become fo habitual, as to leave them
without the leaft defire, or, perhaps, 'without
even the leaft idea of any fuperior degree of
Intellectual nature.   The miffionaries whom
y:    the zeal for infidel converfion, fo well known
iii the Roman Catholic Church, employed
to preach  Chriftianity  to  thefe, inhuman
Jff- . people, were inftantly teized and murdered
by them.       "y' ;: •
The ifland is well wooded;  many parts
of it towards the fea-coaft, are covered with
fPf--   lf;   impenetrable forefts : in others, the woods
are fcattered with a pleafing irregularity,
contributing not only to the beauty of the
. country, but to its comfort and convenience,
by fhading the hills and vallies from the
fcorching heat of the fun.    The fpecies of
trees that are moft abundant, are the teake,
the poone, and the larch ; but its moft valuable and precious growth, is the cinnamon
S,; tree, which is to be found in every part of
If   the ifland, and is of a quality by no means
J§       inferior to that of Ceylon.   We received
Jl,      temples frefh from the tree,, that poffeffed a
delicacy of tafte and fragrance equal to any
that is brought from thence.    Our good
friend the padre was fo kind as to procure    ijSZ.
us forty young plants of the true cinnamon February,
tree, which were intended for the Sandwich
©The air of Magindanao is efteemed falu-
brious, particularly in the vicinity of the fea.
The heat there is not, in any degree, fo in-       i;'
tente as might be expeCted, in a country j|
which is fituated on the very verge of the
torrid zone. I do not recoiled to have feen
the thermometer at more than eighty-eight
degrees, and it was very often fo low as t; ^'
feventy-two. The prevalence of the Eafter-
ly winds on that part of the coaft which
is wafhed by the Pacific Ocean, renders the
air cool and pleafant, the trade-wind blowing
inceffantly on its fhores. It aCts, indeed,
with fo much power as to fweep the whole
breadth of the ifland; and though in its
paffage it lofes much of its ftrength, it
retains a fufficient degree of force to afford |§|
refrefhing breezes to the inhabitants of the
Weftern fhore. The interior parts are much
colder, from a very cloudy atmofphere,
which frequently hangs over the fummits of
the mountains in thick and humid vapours.
I 1
The foil, which is very exuberant, is
fuited to the cultivation of the whole vegetable tribes. Rice is produced in the greateft abundance; a pecul, or 1331b. may be
purchafed for a Spanifh dollar.
The yam and fweet potatoe are cultivated
in the higheft .perfection. Here are alfo to
be found the cocoa nut, pumble-nofe, mangoes, the jack, the plantain, oranges, limes,
and, in fhort, every fruit that is produced
in climates of the fame parallel.—Indeed,
nature has been extremely bountiful to the
inhabitants, in producing for them the great
variety of tropical productions, without any
demand upon their toil and labour.
Here are alfo gold mines, which are fuppofed to be of confiderable value ;—and it
may be naturally imagined that a knowledge
or fufpicion of this circumftance firft induced
the Spaniards to fettle on this ifland:—but
as the natives are ignorant of the art of
forming mines, they remain unexplored by
them ; and, as we were informed, little, if
any gold has been obtained, but what has
been wrafhed dowrn by the autumnal torrents
from the mountains which the Hilloonas
inhabit, and wrho are in poffeffion of thofe
parts which are believed to contain the previous ore,—But thefe mountaineers are too
numerous and refolute to refign a fituation
they have maintained fo long, without a
fevere and bloody ftruggle, and the Spanifh
power is, at prefent, far too feeble to make
any attempt to diflodge them.
; Every part of the ifland abounds with
buffaloes, cows, hogs, goats, &c.—It affords
alfo great variety of fowls, and 1 fpecies
of duck, whofe head is of a fine fcarlet colour. Here are alfo a fmall breed of horfe?,
remarkable for their fpirit. The natives,
however, principally employ buffaloes in the
various branches of hufbandry and agriculture. ■ '% -«■    .
The people of Magindanao univerfally
chew the betel and areka, but make a more
moderate ufe of opium than any other inhabitants of the Eaftern feas.  _-      J§
The proas of the Malayans are numerous
and powerful; they carry from fifty to two
hundred men ; and the confequence of their
defultory expeditions is bloodfhed, carnage
and captivity to the people of the defence-
lefs towns and villages whom they furprize,
0 lulit
or the unfortunate crews of veffels which
they may chance to capture, |U
The village or town of Samboingan is
fituated on the banks of a fmall rivulet,
which empties itfelf immediately into the
fea; and is agreeably fhaded by groves of
cocoa-trees. The number of its inhabitants
are about one thoufand, among which are included the officers, foldiers, and their re-
fpeCtive families. In its environs there are
feveral fmall look-out houfes, ereCted on
polls of twelve feet high, in all of which a
conftant guard is kept; fo that it appears as
if the Spaniards were in a continual ftate of
enmity with the natives.   J*
The houfes are built of thofe fimple materials which are of very general ufe in the
Eaftern feas. They are ereCled on pofts,
and built of bamboo, covered with mats :—
the lower apartments ferve for their hogs,
cattle and poultry, and the upper ones are
occupied by the family. Nor did it a little
excite our aftonifhment, that the Spaniards,
inftead of creating an emulation and improvement among the natives, from their
own fuperior knowledge of the arts and con-
veniencies of life, fhould infenfibly fink into
the manners and cuftoms of the very people    1788.
whofe ignorance they affeCt to defpife.    But, February
though their houfes have but little to boaft,
their piety has produce^ a decent church,
which is built of ftone.    The fort is a very
poor place of defence ;   and is, as far as we
could judge, in an abfolute ftate of decay ;
for the governor's cautious fpirit took care
to keep us from any particular examination
of it.—Towards the land, its whole defence       J|
confifted of a fimple barrier, with two or
three  pieces of cannon.—To a very mo-*
derate force, indeed, this place would become an eafy capture.    Indeed,   the Felice       m:
and Iphigenia might, without any affiftance,
have rendered the Spanifh power very precarious in this fettlement, —The military
force confifted  of  from one hundred and
fifty to two hundred fbldiers, natives of Ma- f||
nilla, in which place alfo, the governor
himfelf was born. They appeared to be in
a ftate of difcipline by no means unworthy
of the fortrefs which they garrifoned,
• Samboingan is the Botany Bay of the ".
Philippines, ,and crimes of a certain nature
are punifhed there by banifhment to this
place.—We did not fee any of the  delin-
E 4 quents, 4 m2 VOYAGES  TO  THE
1788,   quents,   but we had reafon to fufpe& that
February, there were feveral in fome kind of clofe con-
\ finement. - ; '  -j&     •■$§]./ :•
Inconfiderable, however, as this fettlement
Jf.       may appear,   the governor is  fuppofed to
||r    clear thirty thoufand   dollars in the three
years of his refidence there. This advantage
M he derives from furnifhing the fbldiers with
cloathing and provifion,—from  gold duft,
cinnamon,   fpices,   and   other  contraband
».• ■%■'.■ goods.   -   ' ■'■ ,   fr • ■ ~
The conduCt of the inhabitants was go-
verned by the moft pleafing decorum, for
!p which tjhey are fblely indebted to the  civilizing fpirit of the old padre;   as his two
fellow-labourers in the fpiritual vineyard,
were rather calculated to deprave,  -han im-
%    prove the poor people committed to their
charge.—Indeed, the former was  of that
,    . amiable, conciliating difpofition, which is fo
well adapted to the cultivation of favage
manners.—We were equally furprized at
j§;    hearing a very tolerable band of mufic, which
was compofed of natives of the country.—
It confifted of four violins, two baffoons,
with feveral flutes and mandolins.    This
Hpir      ynexpeCted orcheftra were acquainted w^ith
fome of the feleCt pieces of Handel; they   1788.
knew many of our Englifh country dances, February.
and teveral of our  popular and favourite    *|l
tunes;   but in performing  the Fandango,
they had attained a degree of excellence that
the niceft ears of Spain would have heard
with  pleafure.    The Malayans poffefs, in
common with other favage nations, a fen-
fibility to the charms  of mufic,  and are        ||
even capable of attaining to no inconfiderable
degree of perfection in that delightful foi- f|
The good old prieft had alfo taught the
greater part of the town to dance ; fo that        .§•
the inhabitants of this diftant and unfre-     |
quented fpot,   poffeffed   two  amufements J
which are the beft calculated to enliven the
dull, or footh the melancholy hours of life.'
On the evening previous to our departure,
the governor, as we have already mentioned,
gave us another proof of his polite and hof-
pitable difpofition, by preparing a ball ex*
prefsly for our amufement.
About eight o'clock in the evening, the
company met at the governor's rK>ufe. The
ladies, who were efcorted by a number of
young men of Samboingan, were dreffed after
the WW
I* ;■]
1788.   ^e manner of the ifland, which borders on,
February, as we may fuppofe it to be borrowed, from
the fafhions of Manilla. ^ It confifted of a
veil which fell gracefully to the ancles, and
I was fo arranged as to heighten real charms,
mk,~- and to make one fancy beauty even where
.    nature had denied it.  The arms alone were
§        bare;   but the folds were fo contrived as
half to difeover the bofom, while the entire figure, in all the fimplicity of nature,
Mr could not be deforibed  as being  concealed
» from the exploring eye.—Their ancles and
wrifts were adorned with bracelets of gold,
which gave, as may be fuppofed, fomewhat
it    of a richnefs to an appearance that was al-
: ready elegant. Many of them were extremely
handfome; nor did certain arch looks, which
f| appeared to be habitual, though they were
heightened by the dance, render them lefs
H agreeable.    The Fandango was performed
1|| in its utmoft perfection;—the minuet was
-. JJ- not difgraced by their motions,—and Englifh country dances, feveral of which were
If performed in compliment to us, have been
often exhibited with far lefs grace and agility in many Of our beft affemblies, than
in this diftant and remote corner of the'
/§"     \      '"■ ' - :.'»   I 'I   »■"■■■■   Phili- NORTH WEST COAST  OF AMERICA.
Philippine Iflands.—This amufement lafted    1788.
till twelve o'clock, when all the company February.
retired, with every appearance of the moft
perfect fatisfaCtion. '        ^
For fuch means of innocent amufement,
the people  are indebted  to^the venerable    fr
padre, who himfelf joined in the dance. Indeed it would have been not only to the '
honour of Spain,  but of the religion*it pro-
feffes,   if fuch  men had been employed,        !|
who, like this amiable prieft, could make
their miffions a fource of comfort and happinefs, inftead of accompanying them with          "§H
that feverity of difcipline,  and cruelty of
corhpulfion, which renders converfion infin-           *fi
cere or mifunderftood, and is in fuch direCt
oppofition to the mild and benevolent fpirit   ■'
of Chriftianity.   :
The governor, however, with all his civility, would not permit us to land any in-
ftruments, in order to make aftfohomical
obfervations; we were therefore obliged,
under confiderable difadvantages, to take
them on board the fhips.
The latitude of the anchoring ground
was, by the medium of feveral good meridian obfervations,  6° 58' North,  and the
I 3 lono[" FnT
1788,   longitude, by twenty obferved diftances of
February, the fun and moon, taken by good textants,
fl        12z°, 28' Eaft of Greenwich.    At this time
the flag-ftaff on the fort bore North  half
Eaft, diftant half a mile. '"  |fl
w , ^ The anchorage before the fort is foul and
Jpfr p rocky : a-breaft of the town it is much bet-
< m"-' ter; a fandy bottom and well fheltered,
except from the South Weft quarter, and
even then the wind has not fufficient range
to produce a fea, or to be attended with
any circumftance of danger. .v fil
It will not, I truft, be confidered as foreign
to the defign of this work, if I interrupt tte
pfogrefs of my voyage, for a few pages, to
offer fuch obfervations and notices as I had
- :|'::- ' occafion to make on the paflage between the
Northern Pacific Ocean and the China feas;
feme knowledge of which courfe, whether
it be purfued to the Northward or South-
ward of the Philippines, muft be of confiderable ufe to Oriental commerce, and be
particularly effential to fhips that take the
Eaftern paffage to China, which is occa-
fionally preferred, particularly during a war,
by thofe who are bound to the port of Canton, in the North Eaft Monfoon.
Nautical obfervations are,  at all times,   ij$$.
of the greateft importance, and we offer fuch February-
as we have made, to the judicious reflection
of thofe who may be particularly interefted
in them. It muft, indeed, be confidered, that If -     f|§
although in the track of the Felice and the
Iphigenia acrofs the China feas, along the
Philippines into the Pacific, no dangers were     ' M-
vifible to us; yet others, purfuing this route,   . ^'mm
may be lefs fortunate, as this very track is
generally defcribed as abounding with many.
We indeed found a clear navigation,  nor lj|
have we any reafon to doubt, but that, with
a proper degree of precaution, fhips might
find a fafe and eafy entrance into the China
feas  by Magindanao  and the channel of    «-     .
Bafilan.   ■   ,"f|y - •■# !     -,  :ft •   '    '   -.    . -".     " ■ : ,
The Eaftern feas are certainly fet thick
with perils, which, of courfe, render their
navigation exceedingly precarious; nor are
the difficulties of it leffened by the circum-
ftance that thofe perils are, in a great degree, ~ ft ;
unknown. Ships, indeed, which purfue the
common track acrofs the China feas, with §:
the South Weft Monfoon, have not much
to fear, if they do but make the different
iflands to procure frefh departures.—Lunar   §
?u obferva- w
1788.   obfervations cannot at all times be taken, a
February, circvynftance which fhould animate vigilance
-. and quicken precaution ; of which, too much
cannot be exercifed in this arduous navi-
:J§s-.' gation.  ' .   -£.'      :   .      ■ - ;|r   .'     ''
It would, by no means, be prudent for
fhips to work up  the China feas againft
||   the North Eaft Mqnfoon ; and it would, of
courfe, be equally hazardous to work down
||1\ them during the blowing of the South Weft.
The currents are in fuch number, and withal
fo various, that a fhip is imperceptibly hur-
#; ried into the midft of danger, in which
the utmoft fkill andaCtivity will be feldom
able, even in copper-bottomed veffels, to
efcape deftruCtion. g| |;
it It is true, that there have been examples
of fhips who have accomplifhed their voyage againft the reigning winds ; but they
fhould rather be reprefented as extraordinary inftances of good fortune, from having
efcaped a variety of dangers, any one of
which might have proved fatal, than be
cited to encourage others to purfue a fimilar
navigation : for, befides the rifks of a voyage, even if it fhould be performed under,
-       thefe circumftances, the chances are very
much  againft the poffibility  of doing it,    1788.
when the monfoons blow ftrong either one February.
way or the other.
As fhips, even in the periodical winds,
are  expofed to aangers, it is effentially neceffary that  they  fhould, at all times, be
provided with a couple  of chronometers;       '§,..
by the aid of which inftruments the pofi-     "
tions of fhips   may be afcertained ; for as
they are liable to flop, fhould fuch an accident happen to one of them, the portion
of time elapfed, may be determined by the
other,  particularly  if   they   are   obferved
every  four hours,—a circumftance which
fhould be an objeCt of the moft careful at- t
tention.    Their regularity alfo fhould  be   'W&;.
examined and proved at every place where
the fhip flops a fufficient time to make the
neceffary trial-
There are many recent inftances of very
fatal   accidents which   have  happened  to
veffels, during the regular monfoons, from
the want of thefe very ufeful inftruments.
The fhip  Hornby, bound from Canton   ■'%■
to Bombay, in the  month of December,
1788, in a gale of wind, fell in with the
ifland Pula Sapata, in the China teas, and    I
was So
was within a moment of being dafhed to
pieces. She was fo clofe to the land, that
nothing could have faved her but the violent
rebound of the furgefrom the fide of a rock ;
when, by being extremely alert in fetting
fail, fhe moft fortunately got round it.
§y A Dutch fhip in the fame year, was loft
on the Prata fhoal;. her crew was faved
in the long-boat, and got fafe to Canton.
In the year 1789, and fome time in the
month of June, the fhip Lizard, bound
from Bombay to Canton, was wrecked on
the Lincoln fhoal. The captain and feven
men were all which were faved of her crew.
After undergoing the greateft hardfhips and
diftrefs in a fmall boat, they arrived at
Canton. J| ,
The Argylefhire, a large country fhip,
bound from Bengal to China, was fuppofed
to have been loft fomewhere in the China
The number of Spanifh and Portuguefe
fhips which have been loft in thefe teas alfo
are by no means inconfiderable; fo that too
much vigilance and precaution cannot ba
employed in fuch an hazardous navigation.
The fhip CornwaUis, of eight hundred    178
tons burthen, commanded by Captain Wil- Febru.
liam Counfill, failed down the China feas
on her voyage to Bengal, in the month of
May 1789, when  it was to   be  fuppofed
that the South Weft Monfoon was fet in,   |
and encountered  fuch   a variety of fhoals,
rocks and iflands, that her efcape was confidered as  miraculous.    And had fhe not
been uncommonly well appointed, and navigated with fuperior fkill and ability, in
all probability fhe would never have reached
Bengal. §
H As   the  following  ExtraCt of a Letter
from on board this fhip may be of confi-    &y£
derable ufe  to future navigators  of thefe
parts,  no apology cari be confidered as ne*
eeffary for the infertion of it:
" Malacca, July 4., 1789
l| " WE arrived here on the 27th of
j} June> after a paffage of forty-five days,
" from China, wrhich we confider as extremely tedious for fo prime a failer p
the CornwaUis. In our paffage down,
Vql. I, F 1 we
a if
82 VOYAGES   to  the
1788.   " we had an aftonlfhing fet to the Eaft*
February. « ward:   we could  not  make either the
' -f:'   " Macclesfield or Pula Sapata,    The firft
" land  that appeared to view was on the
" 28th of May, bearing South Weft half
Ji| " South, diftant four leagues, with a reef of
" dangerous rocks and breakers, which we
O '
■.H fuppofed to be the Andrades, being nearly
II " in the latitude of them.—At half paft
" two, P. M. a fhoal was feen from the
" deck,!bearing South Weft half Weft,
" diftant two miles; and at four, Handing
" to the South E.aft9 we were obliged to
" tack for another fhoal, bearing South
" Eaft by Eaft, diftant two miles. On
, " the South Eaft en,d of this fhoal, is a
u low fandy ifland, on which we faw the
" appearance of a wTreck: the weather was
|| very fqually ; during the night we deem ■
" ed it prudent to. ftand under an eafv fail
% to the Northward, fearing this chain of
" fhoals might extend more to the South :
; u the next morning at day-break, we wore
u and flood to the fhoals, and at ten, A.M.
66 made them. We were then obliged to
"•haul to the Eaftward and Eaft North
" Eaft, till three P. M. and thus, by der
" grees North west coast of America.
*c grees, to clear the different fhoals which    1-3
" prefented themfelves to our view; eleven Febru
" of them forming a deep circle or curve,
" and are backed to the Weft ward by very
" extenfive branches.    They appear to ex-
" tend from each extreme, Eaft North Eaft,
" to Weft South Weft, and about twentv-
§f five   miles in extent: and what adds to.   v
" the danger in making them is, that they
" are even with  the furface of the water,
" which if fmoothand unruffled, they can-
" not be feen, there not being a rock about
7 o
" them but the firft.  ||| :     . .
. " After clearing this reef, we fleered to
4i the Southward ; and the next day found
" ourfelves in a clear fea. *      ,
" On the 30th at noon, breakers were
I feen bearing North Weft by North, dif-
" tant eight or nine miles. This reef ap-
P peared to trend the fame as the laft, and
I has dangerous rocks along the edge: its
i extent is about three leagues: when the
" reef was feen, we ^were in the latitude of
" 8° 47' North, by a good obfervation ; and
" by feveral fights of the fun and moon,
" the longitude was 1140 14', 45^ Eaft,
*' which made us feventy-two miles to the
. 1 •'■§©' F 2 I    Im   " Eaft ■ •
1RY. 4
February.  |
a Eaft of our accounts. After clearing thefe
fhoals, we flood to the South Weft;
when, on the morning of the 4th of
June, at five A. M. a low fandy ifland
was difcovered with a rock on it: this we
faw very plain from the quarter-deck;
and before we colild alter the fhip's courfe,
we were within three quarters of a mile
of a moft dangerous reef of rocks, which
juft prefented themfelves above the water.
We had a fine breeze during the night,
and were going five or fix knots an hourt
but fortunately it died away about four
in the morning ; fo that half an hour
more of dark, or the continuance of this
breeze, would have been our Inevitable
deftruCtion. This reef trends North North
Weft, and South South Eaft, and is five
miles long. Its latitude is 70 52' North,
and its longitude nearly ii2°32/ Eaft.
From our providential efcape, we called
the ifland Providence Ifland, and the reef,
Sebaftian's Reef.
|i The many dangers we have been ex-
pofed to, has made it exceedingly fatiguing ;—At laft we made the Natumas
#l and
u and Anambas, which are both egregioufly    1*88,
m miftaken, both in latitude and longitude." februar-
It appears therefore to be advifable for
fhips bound to China from Europe, if they
do not reach the Straits of Sunda in the
month of September, to determine on the
Eaftern paffage, in order to avoid the difficulties we have juft deferibed ; for, though ff
the Eaft-India fhips Walpole, Belvedere and ,rfJ
Walfingham, arrived in China in the month
of November, 1787, it is a rifk that can
never be juftified but by the. moft urgent
neceffity,   •    . •       ' .. '' '      •.§.■■
The Walfingham came up along the coaft
of Borneo, and was even favoured with a gale
of wind at South Weft, on the coaft of the
Philippines, but neverthelefs efcaped fuch
dangers as no prudent man would wifh to
re-encounter.—The Walpole reached the
coaft of Luconia, and made a good paflage, , 5L
though Captain Churchill found it equally
dangerous;   while the Belvedere,   Captain |jf
Greer, pufhed at once through the China
teas, though the monfbon was fuppoted to|'    | '•
have fet ftrongly in.
Thefe are inftances of good fortune, which
are rather to be confidered as happy efeapes jl
from 86 VOYAGES   TO   THE
1788.   from danger, than examples to imitate
February, for it would furely be much more prudent
to determine on an Eaftern paffage, particu-
Wfc larly if Java-head is not reached by the tenth
■   of OCtober.    r -..''.■       ;'i;       ,.   ,       :
•;|p '   The ftraits of Balli or Alias may, in this
cafe,  be fafely paffed,   as Mr. Dalrymple's
.   charts are very accurate; from thence the
courfe is-continued to the Macaffar Straits,
employing every neceffary precaution on account  of the  iflands  and  fhoals   that  lie
between thofe ftraits.
.   fl   :  -|. The ftraits of Macaffar are not without
dangers, though they are but few, and well
afcertained;   the Experiment and Captain
Cook paffed through them, and made very
^^        good obfervations on their paffage#.    The
Experiment, indeed, got on fhofe, and re*
ceived fome little damage.    In the  North
Weft Monfoon there is generally a current
fetting through to the Southward; the waters from the Pacific Ocean and Sooloo Ar-
chipelago being confined here, form, in ge-
'31,    neral, this Southerly drift. In the paflage of
* Thefe fhips were bound on a trading voyage, from
Bombay to the North Weft coaft of America, in 1786.
the ftraits the winds are variable ; but when   1788.
it is cleared, they will be found to the Eaft February.
and Eaft South Eaft ; and there is then little :jjr
or no reafon to doubt the being able to reach
up under the fhore of Magindanao, which . J|j
is preferable to the ifland of Sooloo : here,
at times, the winds are Wefterly, particularly in November and December; the
making Sooloo, therefore, would be attended
with difadvantages, f:as the currents and
winds might render it difficult to get up to
Magindanao, independent of a number of
dangerous fhoals and coral reefs, that are
fcattered between Sooloo and Bafilan : whereas, between the head of the Macaffar Straits
and the South Eaftern extremity of Magindanao, there is rio very imminent danger.—
We failed through this channel, between Te-
lolo and the ifland of JMfofintay, and re-entered the Pacific Ocean 10 the Southward of ||
this ifland.                                                  '
. The currents here fet South Weft, and
with the wind to the Eaftward; it is neverthelefs very practicable to reach the ifland of
Bafilan, and, of courfe, Samboingan, where
every neceffary refrefhment is to be procured.
We then fleered our courfe to Sang-uir, and
e 88
88.   thofe fmall iflands which lie between it and
February, the Southern extremity ofMagindanao. Thefe
iflands are tolerably high, and well wooded,
and furrounded with no danger but what is
apparent,  and  therefore  may  be avoided.
Sanguir is well inhabited, and affords  re-
frefhments of various kinds.   It is alfo faid
§11 to abound in fpices, with which it carries
li on a trade with Magindanao.    We found
X     Eafterly winds to prevail here with very
W|;."   little deviation.   ,
Between the iflands of Bafilan and Sanguir, there are feveral fmall iflets, which are
not laid down in the charts; but we did
not perceive any circumftance of danger
about them.
%■ The paflage by Samboingan is certainly
III much more eligible than that to the Eaft-
: ward ofMagindanao. Indeed to get to the
Eaftward i$ a matter of great difficulty.—It
coi\ us a great deal of time, trouble and
vexation, to reach only the 147th degree of
longitude : befides the track is ftrewed, as it
were, with perils; fmall, low fandy iflands,
and numbers of reefs of coral rocks are every
where vifible, which, during a dark night,
^yould prove almoft a certain deftruClion ;
and,  to encreafe the hazard, no foundings    1788.
are to be procured, to give any warning of February
the approaching danger.    But, even if we   l   .'
fuppofe thefe rocks and fhoals to be cleared,
it would not be prudent to tack before New ■ Jmi
Guinea is weathered j and, laftly, the courfe
to the Northward is to be confidered as lying
through thofe dangerous iflands, the Caro*
lines, whofe pofition has been confidered as
very uncertain, till it was afcertained by the
Iphigenia, as well as the contiguous fhoals ;
and, in particular, the Shoal Abregoes, whofe
exiftence was univerfallv doubted, but is
now found to be placed in the track of fhips . S
entering the China feas from the Pacific
Ocean, between Formofa and Luconia.
If the paffage to the Weftward of Magindanao be preferred, there is no danger to be       |t
apprehended, at leaft that we faw, from entering the channel of Bafilan : in the latter,
confiderable overfalls will be found, but no- ,
thing elte,  up  to the place of anchorage    J|
off Fort Caldera.   This paffage is alfo by
much the fhorteft ;   jand,   in oiir opinion,. Jp     .
in every refpeCt  equal to that of the Pacific
Ocean, exclufive of the very impprtant con-
erati-on of refreshing the qrews of fhips.
On go
On leaving Samboingan, the  navigator
February, fhould hug the fhore of Magindanao clofe on
ft        board, as much as poffible, as the wind will
be generally found to blow off the fhore,
U   _       which is fleep clote to, and  no danger to
.   . be apprehended from it.    The directions of
anchorage are already expreffed in the  account which has been  given  of the fet-
tlement of Samboingan.
• From Magindanao,  it will be proper to
j|||§|l^   fteer a direCt courfe for the South part of
the Ifland of Panay;—if the wind is not
j very favourable, it will be neceffary to border the coaft of the Ifland del Negros; nor
is there any danger to be apprehended from
fleering clofe to Panay, as it has a very bold
coaft, till the Weft point of the Ifland of
Mindoro is reached: from whence the courfe
lies to the coaft of Luconia, where confiderable advantage will be received from the
currents which run to the Northward, during
jsT     the period of the North Eaft Monfoon, off
Cape Bolinou,  from twenty to twenty-five
miles in twenty-four hours, and oftentimes
v -       as high as Cape Buxadore.
The greateft precaution fhould be obferved
Jp -        iibout the period when the monfoons change,
—a time to be dreaded above all others in 1788.
the China feas ;—if, therefore, fhips fhould February.
have reached Samboingan any time in the
month of OCtober, it would be extremely
proper for them to remain there till the
North Eaft Monfoon is fet ftrongly in. After
OCtober, the paflage to and from Manilla
to China is always certain. Even the worft
of the Spanifh fhips, and they,are the moft
miferably equipped of any veffels in the
world, work up the coaft of Luconia to the
height of the ifland, affifted by the Northerly current; they then ftretch over to the
coaft of China, and are certain of effecting
their paflage.
On the whole it is evident, that this route
is the fafeft, as well as the moft expeditious ;
and, at all events, fuperior^to that of the
Weft coaft of Borneo.
If the Pacific Ocean fhould be preferred
to effect the paflage by ftretching to the . ,-J|
Eaftjvard, and then tacking to weather Luconia, it would be right to fland to the
Eaft till the coaft of New Guinea is weathered, and the 1 coth degree of longitude
is reached; when it is probable, that the
dangerous groupe of iflands, called the Ca-
1788. rolines, will be weathered; amongft which
February. are included the Pelew, and other low
iflands, which are furrounded by reefs of
rocks to a great diftance, and are without any
foundings to give notice of danger in dark
and ftormy nights.
Between Magindanao and New Guinea,
there are fo  many clufters of thefe  low
■  |f    iflands, as to require, and almoft to baffle
the utmoft vigilance and precaution.     ||f   ,
When to the Northward of thefe dangers,
the BafheeIflands may be made, feen by Dam-
pier, or the Ifland of Botol Tobago Xima, feen
by Lord Anfon ; but it would be the beft way
':|.,   to make the latter, exercifing every poffible
•. ■';% degree of attention to avoid the Abregoes
fhoal, which is extremely dangerous. When
H Botol Tobago Xima is vifible, one may fleer
. without the leaft apprehenfion, even in the
'■- \fi        darkeft night, South Weft 14 leagues, when
the rocks of Vllle Rete will be rounded at
a moderate diftance, and the China feas may
be entered by hauling up to the Northward
and Weftward.    There  is  a fmall  rocky
iflet, bearing nearly Eaft of Botol Tobago
Xima, fome miles diftant;—and great atten-
B tion fhould be paid that the former may not
be miftaken for the latter. The rocks of 1788.
Ville Rete are extremely dangerous; they February.
form in a clufter, and are furrounded by
breakers; the largeft of them is about the
height of a fmall fhip's hull out of the water : they bear off the South end of Formofa,
South Wefterly, five leagues. We thought
that, from the maft-head, we could diftin-
guifh a channel between them and Formofa.  • .'|b '', ..
The laft time we made Botol Tobago
Xima it was almoft  dark,— the  weather
ftormy and hazy; and, very fhortly after,
it blew a tremendous gale of wind at Eaft.
We  fleered South Weft   15 leagues,  and
hauled up Weft and Weft North Weft, and    || :»
entered the China feas at midnight, without
feeing any thing of Formofa.    The longi*-
tude of thefe places is laid down by us from ;
good obfervations of the fun and moon.   In
this run, the general account muft be laid in
having a ftrong current fetting to the Weft-        j
ward, from the moment a fhip puts her
head to the Northward.        V        / M
The land generally made on the coaft    >     «
of China is about  the  Pedro Blanco,   or
White  Rock:   from  thence,   within the
Lerna 4f VOYAGES  TO   THE
17-88.   Lema Iflands, is a fafe paffage to Canton,
February. anc} no danger of any kind to be apprehended.    By this courfe  the Prata fhoal,
; whofe   dangers   are   fo   well   known,   is
|J If a fhip enters the China feas by making
U the Baihee Iflands, her paflage to Canton
may be endangered, from the ftrong South-
Ill: crly currents at that feafon. This paflage,
therefore, is not fo fecure as the former,
particularly as the Spaniards have feized
thefe iflands, and eftablifhed a force on them,
though at prefent of no great ftrength or
The Bafhee Iflands,  however, are bold
and fafe;—we were here in 1786, and procured refrefhments. It may not be generally
known that the Spaniards have taken poffeffion of them. But fo it is; and a governor
refides on Grafton Ifle, with about an hundred foldiers, feveral officers, a few priefts,
and five or fix pieces of cannon, which are
mounted before his houfe ; but without fortification or defences of any kind.
Our flay at thefe iflands was fo fhort, as
: - not to afford us an opportunity of attaining
any thing but a very general information
concerning them; but, as very few fhips    1788.
have ever been known to vifit the Bafhee February-
iflands, it may not only fatisfy curiofity,   |,
but be of ufe to the Oriental navigation, to
O '
offer fuch intelligence as we poffefs from
our own obfervation, or the information of
others. -• - .:   ;;,' ■ \       -.      . <      -I-   ./
Thefe iflands, which are fituated between
Formofa and Luconia, are five in number, j|
—befides four fmall rocky iflets,   which,      |fc
however, are covered with verdure.    Dam-      J
pier gave the following names to the five
larger of them: Grafton Ifland, which is H
the moft confiderable,—Monmouth Ifland,
which is the next in fize,—Goat Ifland,
Orange Ifland, and Bafhee Ifland, which are
much fmaller than the two former. They
are inhabited by a race of ftrong, athletic
men, who have been hitherto happy in a.
foil that produced every thing neceffary for
i J O J
their fupport and comfort:—But we cannot
fuppofe that the happinefs thefe people pof- '   -
feffed will find any addition from the yoke
of Spain, v ''
Orange Ifland lies North and South, and §'
is almoft inacceffible on every fide : it is
entirely flat at the top : at the diftance of      i#Jf
four \\
g5 voyages to the
1788. four leagues, on approaching it from the
February. China feas, the peak on Grafton Ifle is very
difcernable over this high flat. We fhould
fuppofe, that the ifland is fifty feet above the
level of the fea.
|; On the North of this ifland are four rocky
ifles, called Anfon's Rocks; two of them are
within three miles of the North end of the
ifland.—We entered this paffage and discovered no danger: a large fhip might even
brufh her fides againft Orange Ifland.    The
other two Hand four or five miles from the
former, and from that paffage which Lord
Anfon made in the Centurion.
Grafton Ifland is fituated to the Eaft of
Orange Ifland ; flands nearly North and
South, is of confiderable extent, being about
thirteen leagues in circumference, and has a
good anchorage on the Weftern fide. About
two miles to the Southward of the town
where the governor refides, is a fmall fandy
bay, where we anchored in nine fathoms,
about half a mile from the fhore ; the foundings gradually decreafing from forty fathom
to nine fathoms ; but the bank does not
run off more than two miles. The latitiide-
. •   of the fhips pofition was '20° 36' North, and
longitude, by obfervatloif of fun and moon,
122° Eaft of Greenwich.
The appearance of this ifland is extremely beautiful and luxuriant;  and the  fup-
plies we received very well aniwercd to the
charming fcene of their production.    The
natives brought us abundance of the fineft
yams in the world,  with fugar cane,  taro
root, plantain and other vegetables : we alfo
received hogs and goats in great plenty, but
very little poultry.    Iron was the favourite
commodity of thefe people, though beads,
at times, feemed to poffefs an equal, if not
fuperior value.r—-Indeed, fince the Spaniards
have poffeffed themfelves of thefe iflands,
money as well as iron are in ufe  among
them.   In the time of Dampier, beads were
the only medium of their commerce.   We
left the governor a breed of Bengal fheep,
which,  when put on fhore,  roamed  in a
clover pafture, and on a foil of exuberant
fertility.    There can be no doubt but that
thofe animals will thrive in their new abode,
and that future navigators flopping at thefe
iflands, will meet with a plentiful fupply.
The water on the ifland is very fine, in
great abundance, and clofe to the beach ; a
Vol. I. G fmall
i 91
VOYAGES   TO   THE      §f|
fmall refervoir being formed there, which
is fupplied by a rivulet that flows from the
. A Spanifh force arrived at thefe iflands
fome time in the year 1783, to take poffeffion of them ; with what view, it is by no
means difficult to conjecture, when it is
known that they were fuppofed to contain
mines of gold. We certainly faw a confiderable quantity of gold,duft in the poffeffion of the natives, and feveral fmall pieces,
which, in all probability, had been wafhed
down bv the torrents from the mountains,
and found in the beds of the rivulets with
which thefe iflands abound.-*-Thefe, fome
of which we purchafed, were manufactured
into thick wire, and worn as ornaments in
their ears, or about the necks of the children.
They are well inhabited by a race of in-
offenfive people, whofe chief delight confifts
in drinking a liquor called bafhee, which'
is diftilled from rice and the fugar cane. In
the evening, men, women and children
meet in crowds on the fhores, with torches
in their hands, and drink bafhee till they are
intoxicated, when they engage in dancing,
and difplay every mark of fatisfaCtion and    x 788.
contentment. It is, however, very much to February.
be feared that thefe iflanders muft have already found a mortifying interruption to
their feftive pleafures,   from the tyranny
and bigotry of Spanifh dominion..
The weather in the South Weft Monfoon
is extremely tempeftuous; and when gales
of wind blow here, they are of the moft '       :«
flormy and violent nature.
II The  currents and tides run rapid and
ftrong, particularly along the Southernmoft ,
of thefe iflands, all of which are low; it is ||§
neceffary, therefore, that fhips fhould give
them a good birth in their paffage between
thefe iflands and Formofa.
■   M   ,     'J   CHAP.     V.    %' .-j./
Departure of the Felice from Samboingan.—'
•|; P^/} p| Felice's Ifles.—Mention of the Orders
and. InJlruStions given by the Merchants Proprietors for performing the Voyage.*—Extra"
ordinary Change in the Temper of the Buffaloes received on board.—Pafs the Ifland of
Mamndanao.—Rapidity of the Currents.—
Ffcape the Ifland of Providence.—Pafs the
Talour Iflands.—Ifland of Sanguir.—See the
, North Cape.—Impojjibility of Weathering it.
—Invariablenefs of the Trade Winds in the
Pacific -Ocean.—Bear up to Leeward of fhe
I;        North Cape.—Pafs the Ifland Riou.—The
Channel between Morintay and the Ifland of
]|     Jelolo.—Fragrance of the Air.—Pafs the
Southern Extremity of Morintay.—Reach the
Sea.—The Latitude of Morintay of cert dined.
Tuefdayia IPi N the 12th of February, at day break,
V>^   wre had loft fight of Samboingan, and
:^ purfued our courfe along the coaft of Magindanao :   the  latitude at noon  was  6° 34'
1      . North, and the extreme part of the ifland
in fight,   bore Weft North Weft, diftant    j^gg.
twelve leagues.    The ifland of Bafilan bore February
from South Weft by South, to Weft North
Weft four leagues: in this pofition the hill   .   . »
we have already mentioned, as refembling
a Mandarin's cap, was very confpicuous.
We obferved two fmall iflands fituated
between Magindanao and Bafilan, bearing
North by Eaft,  diftant four miles:   they ■ fl
Were not of any great extent, but entirely
covered with wood. As they bore no place
on the charts, they were named Felice's
Ifles.        j| ■'•|    ,, §    -'''
A confiderable current had fet us during
the night to the North Eaft ; the wind blew
frefh from the Northward and Southward,
and at funfet we could but juft difcern the
ifland of Magindanao.
Previous to our departure from Samboin^
gan and feparation from the Iphigenia, the |
orders and inftruCtions marked Number II,
in the Appendix, were delivered to Captain
Douglas, for the guidance of his future con- ft
duCt, Thofe marked Number I. were delivered by the merchants proprietors before
our departure from China. Thefe inftruc-
tions contain at large the motives to, and
real 102
1788.   reai objeCts of, the voyage; and it will not
February, furely be erring from the truth,  if It is
afferted,  that they do not contain a fingle
expreffion inconfiftent with that humanity,
S or derogatory of thofe principles which it is
the honour of Britifh merchants to adopt, in
.   "   conducting their commerce in the different
quarters of the globe.   Thefe orders and in-
M    ftruCtions may be faid, without any fear of
contradiction, to breathe, in every part of
them, that fpirit of benevolence andjuftice,
•|j and to contain thofe honeft incitements to
induftry, which, in whatever part of the habitable earth they are exerted or employed,
muft ultimately tend to the honour of hu-
manity, and the advantage of our country.
Wednefdayi3    On the 13th,  we continued our courfe,
with light and variable winds; the weather
If    fultry and cloudy.    By fix in the evening,
we had loft fight of the South Weftern extremity ofMagindanao ; off which we had
perceived an ifland of a remarkable appearance, that woi*£ the form of a mountain,
whofe fides fhelved almoft perpendicularly
to the fea.   ' ■ :;i|i . = *    •
During the night we had heavy rain;—our
courfe was to the Southward and Eaftward;
to 4
to clofe in with the South Eaft end of Ma-    1788.
gindanao, which, on the following morning, February
we had confiderably neared; when we found
it to be high and mountainous, and entirely
covered with wood-from the fea to its fum-
mit. We frequently founded, but procured
no ground with one hundred fathoms of line.
The latitude at noon was 6° 2' North, at
four P. M. the extreme point of Magindanao in view, bearing Eaft half North,
diftant eight leagues; we hauled to the Eaft
South Eaft to double the Southern extre
r An extraordinary change now took place  Friday 15
in  the fpirit and temper of the buffaloes
which we had received on board at Samboingan. They were fo extremely wild and fierce, §1
that it was with great difficulty and fome
danger we were able to embark them; and ,
fp dexterous are they in the management of
their horns, that even the natives did not |f
venture to approach them in their new fitua-§;
tion.    But the natural ferocity of their na-
ture feemed at once to abandon them, and
they were already become fo tame as to eat W
out of the hand, and were actually much      '#•
lefs vicious than our other cattle.
G 4 On 104
1788.       On this morning, we found that a con-
february. fiderable current had fet us to the Southward of Magindanao. It bore from us    orth,
diftant about 11 leagues: the Southern ex-
I tremity formed an high promontory, which
wore the appearance of an ifland.       ft
We now congratulated ourfelves on en-
tering the Northern Pacific Ocean with fo
little trouble ; but this fatisfaCtion was very
much diminifhed from the unfavourable
ftate of the wind, which we found to blow
from Eaft North Eaft. The latitude at noon
was 40 58'North, and the longitude 1260 36'
Eaft of Greenwich. At this time we perceived   two   fmall iflands,   bearing   South
' o
South Eaft, diftant five leagues; and the promontory of Magindanao was yet in fight,
bearing North, diftant  13 leagues.
The current now fet us fo ftrongly to the
Southward, that we could not weather the
two little ifles feen in the South South Eaft;
and perceiving a clear channel between them
of a mile and an half, we determined to
pufh through it.    Thefe iflands ar£ lofty,
X o *
and covered with wood.    From the North
•   .      . and South points of the Northernmoft ifland,
there runs a fpit of land for half a mile; and
fome detached rocks from the Northernmoft    j ^gg^
point, at about a mile diftance: on thefe February.
rocks we  obferved a  few fcattered  trees,
which render them very remarkable. When
in mid-channel  between  the   iflands,   we
founded, and had fixty fathoms, with white
and red (hells. We had fcarce paffed through, ^
when the Southernmoft ifland opened into
two dlftinCt ones, with the appearance of a
channel between them.   At the fame time,
we faw another ifland, bearing Eaft South
Eaft, diftant four leagues, which was alfo
covered with wood;   and from the maft-
head wre difcerned a dangerous fhoal and
reef of rocks, which extend near three miles
from its South end, and are very remarkable
from their whitenefs.    Another ifland ap- ||
pearedon the lee-beam bearing South South
Eaft, diftant eight leagues ;   and,  in this
pofition, the promontory of Magindanao bore
Eaft North Eaft, diftant 18 or 20 leagues.
Our fituation differed, at this time, from
every chart in our poffeffion ; it became
neceffary, therefore, to proceed with the
utmoft precaution through this archipelago. 0
The North Cape on the Ifland of Morintay,
by our account, bore Eaft North Eaft 134   1
5 miles; io6
1788.   miles;  and the Cape of Good Hope, or
February. Northern extremity of New Guinea, South
Eaft, 470 miles.  The wind kept fleadily to
the Eaft North Eaft ; and as we paffed thofe
Iff iflands, we found ourfelves drifted almoft
bodily to leeward by a rapid Southerly current. Such a continuation of unfavourable
circumftances left us no very flattering prof-
j or
peCt of being able to weather the North Cape;
befides, we were not without apprehenfions
that we fhould be obliged to bear away, and
run through fuch a dangerous clufter of
iflands as the Moluccas; a navigation which
is confidered as the moft dangerous in the In-
gj • dian feas.   We were not, however, without
fome expectations, that the near vicinity of
the Sun to the Line would produce fome
abatement of the influence of the North Eaft
Monfoon. But, after all, taking both the
favourable and unfavourable circumftances
in a proper point of view, with the dark and
tedious nights, the courfe before us coqld
not be confidered but as replete with diffir
1| culties and perils, both of which muft be
greatly augmented, if tempeftuous weather
fhould unfortunately overtake us.
The current, like a vaft, but fteady, rapid 1788.
ftream, fwept us bodily to leeward |—it ran, February,
at leaft, three miles an hour ; and we had
every reafon to believe, that it ran much
ftronger as it approached the Straits of Macaffar. Indeed, it fwept us away fo much,
that we were not able to reach the ifland
feen in the South Eaft by Eaft quarter, by
five leagues. "     '■'■'..•.        '  '   ' /        f§
During the night of the 15th, we had |:
a great deal of wind, but the fea was uncommonly fmooth ; a certain fign that we were
in the vicinity of fome great body of land,   'mm^
We kept fleering to the South Eaft by,
Eaft, with a fteady gale to the Northward    C
and Eaftward. The courfes were hauled up
in the brails, in order to fee more diftinCtly,
and to be in a ftate of preparation to  haul
upon either tack, to avoid any immediate
or preffing danger. Thefe precautions proved      M
to be extremely neceffary;   for about midnight we difcovered, by the light of the
moon, that we were clofe to an ifland, co-   : v
vered with a white tend, and almoft on a
level with the water.  We very fortunately
perceived this dangerous objeCt, near half a
mile from us; and had fufficient time to put    §
1 the IT
i !
1738. the helm a-weather, and bear up to leeward.
FeSruary. We then founded, but found no ground
with an hundred fathoms of line. We continued, however, to give it a good birth until
two in the morning, when we loft fight of
it, and then refumed our courfe to the Eaft
South Eaft, with a frefh gale from the
North Eaft.
Thefe low, fandy iflands, which are fcat-
'■M tered every where near the Line, render the
navigation of thofe parts of a very perilous
nature. No foundings can be obtained to
warn the navigator of the approaching danger : fo that in a dark night no vigilance or
o 00
precaution is fufficient to fecure him from
the imminent hazard of deftruCtion.
fetnrfayic      ^  fori-rife,   land appeared,   extending
from North Weft to Weft, at the diftance
|f§ of 16 leagues.   The fmall, low, fandy iflet
feen in the night, we judge to lie in the
latitude of 40 i/ North, and in the longitude of 1270 io' Eaft, to which we gave the
name of Providence Ifland. At noon, the
latitude was 30 32/ North. During the
laft twenty-four hours, we experienced a
current that fet the fhip 33 miles to the
Southward.    The longitude was  1270 58'
Eaft.   Land was now feen in almoft every   1788.
direction, extending from Eaft North Eaft February.
7 o
to Weft North Weft; and, to the Northward and Eaftward, appeared broken and
detached, as if compofed of a groupe of
iflands. The Weft ward land was diftant
from us about 15. leagues.
At fun-fet, the body of the windward
ifles bore North North Eaft, at the diftance   ;
of 14 leagues.    Our pofition was now extremely doubtful; nor could we reconcile
it to any of the charts on board.    We were,
indeed, inclined to fuppofe, that the land
to the North North Eaft confifted of thofe
iflands named the Talour, and the land to
the Weftwardthe Ifland of Sanguir.   If our fe- '•§'
conjectures wrere right, the currents muft
have aCted on us with great force in fetting
us to the  Southward; and it now became 1;
a matter of painful uncertainty if we fhould
be able to weather the North Cape; which
was an objeCt of the utmoft importance. f|
We had, indeed, flattered ourfelves, that,
on our approach to the Line, we fhould have
experienced  variable winds ;   but hitherto I
the wind flood, as it were, immovably to
the Eaft; nor did it feem inclined to give Wk
us no
ii i
1788.   tis a point of advantage.   Our prefent fitu*
February, ation, therefore, as well as our future pro-
fpeCt, was clouded with uncertainty; and
the chance was but too probable that we
fhould be driven to leeward of Jelolo, and
confequently be forced to encoujiter a navi-
iv    gat ion of the moft difficult nature.
. { We were fully convinced, that, if the
It       North Cape could not be weathered, a paffage muft be attempted through the Moluccas, to the Southward of Jelolo, where
I there was good reafon to expeCt that we
fhould meet, if not the North Weft Mon-
foon, at leaft with fuch variable winds as
'       jt    would allow us to re-enter the Northern
§g|,   \     Pacific Ocean by  Pitt's Straits; but even
. then, it was by no means certain whether
.'/% we fhould be able to weather the coaft of
.    New Guinea; nor could we refleCt, with*
out extreme mortification, on,being obliged
to run down its Weftern coaft, and, by Endeavour's   Straits, to  reach the Southern
■m        Ocean ; as fuch a courfe, during which the
long and dark nights would continually ob-
||i     I      ftruCt and delay our progrefs, muft, in the
end, totally defeat the purpofe of our voyage.—On the other hand, if we flood to NORTH WEST COAST  OF AMERICA.
the North, in  order  to beat round New   j^g.
Guinea,  againft a ftrong monfoon, there February.
was every reafon to believe that we fhould |"
fail in our purpofe:   indeed, we found it
neceffary to give it up,  from the evident
impoffibility of effecting it, without a great   .
wafle  of that time of which we had fo
little to fpare.    Thefe difficulties  were of
a nature not eafily to be overcome; and the
event proves how narrowly we efcaped from
encountering the very obftacles which our
apprehenfions had placed before us.
During the night of the 16th, we continued fleering to the Eaft South Eaft under
a  prefs of fail.     The   moOn   fhone clear j ■
and bright, fo that any danger  round the
horizon would have been readily difcerned.
On the morning of the 17th, land was Sunday 17
feen a-head, bearing in the direction ,of
Eaft, at the diftance of 12 leagues; and to
leeward, land was alfo feen bearing South
South Weft. The latitude at noon was
2° 40/ North. The North Cape now bore •
from us Eaft, Northerly, at the diftance
of 14 leagues. The wind blew fleadily from
the North Eaft and Eaft North Eaft, with
a ftrong Southerly current.
We      1 112
1788.       We continued clofing in with the North
February. Cape, in expectation of receiving the ad-
Monday 18       r » r o
vantage of a land wind ; when, at fix in the
evening, being within two miles of the
ifland of Morintay, we were obliged to tack
and ftand to fea for the firft time.-—We
could not find any foundings with an bun-
J o
dred fathoms of line.—But although we
I were fo unfortunate as to fall to leeward
of the North Cape, we were determined
not to relax in our endeavours, till we were
convinced of the impracticability of weathering it; and it was with this view we
tacked and flood to fea.      m
By ten o'clock in the morning, we were
j o
again clofe in with the ifland of Morintay, having   tacked  at   midnight for  the
J ' o o
fhore ; but neither at fea, or clofe In with
the  land, were we fo fortunate as to  ex-
1 .   perience any alteration of the wind in  our
favour. We had alfo the mortification to
obferve, that the Southerly currents had
fet us during the night, bodily to leeward
o o -J
of the pofition we had occupied on the
preceding evening.    At  noon  the latitude
*■ o o
was 20 35' North, and we had entirely loft
®i fight of the North Cape, which now bore
k it
Eaft by North, diftant 17 leagues, immedi-   1788. :
ately in the wind's eye. ,   I   February.
The impracticability of effecting our objeCl
was now become fo apparent, as to embar- >S|
rate our fituation with a choice of difficulties.    We difcovered,  however, a narrow
channel   between  a fmall ifland,  bearing
South South Eaft, at  the diftance of four
leagues, and the ifland of Morintay.   Je-   I;
lolo was  alfo very difcernible ;  the Nor-
thernmoft point of which bore South Weft,
diftant only 13 leagues.  Between this point
and the  ifland we   have juft  mentioned,
there appeared an  extenfive channel; we      •
had, therefore, no other alternative, but to   |
make our paflage through it, and round the   \     I
Southern extremity of Morintay, without     xf|, ■
rifking any more of our time, which was
now fo precious, in fruitlefs endeavours to |gj||
weather the North Cape againft winds, currents, and fea. * |r
We were perfectly aware, that, having
once entered upon this courfe, there would
be no poffibility of returning; as well as
that it might entangle us in the fhoals of
Jelolo and the deep gulph of Chiauw, which
is alfo filled with fhoals and fhallows, and   %
Vol. I. H into i 14
1788*   into which the monfoon perpetually blows*
February, backed by conftaiit currents.    Such a combination of circumftances were more than
fufficient to convince us,  that in profecu-
tlng our prefent defign we muft be governed
by an unremitting perfeverance.    Accordingly, at noon, we bore up for the channel
■M,       between the iflands Riou and Jelolo; and
l-SSm       by four P. M. it was open, and appeared of
•|".       fufficient breadth to navigate; but in the
ffflfr        middle feveral fmall, low, and fandy iflands
were fituated, which might, in fome mea-
fure, interrupt, if not endanger the naviga-
^ tion of the channel;   we,  therefore, pur-
fued our courfe along the coaft of Riou, at
the diftance of two miles:—the land wras
every where covered with wood to the wall    ter's edge; but, as far as we could difeover,
without the veftige of an habitation.    We
.    could not obtain foundings with forty fathoms of line.
||f\      At half paft "four, the high mountains of
II   -    Jelolo appeared to rear their fummits above
the horizon, which immediately fettled the
|T       critical nature of our fituation.    We had
now advanced fo far, that any attempt to
return would have  been the extreme   of
TA I I tT    .
&*>:<-; a Oliy , -—* NORTH WES T COAST OF AMERICA.
folly ;—the channel was already paffed, but    1788.
the Ifland  of Morintay extended  a great February.
deal farther to the Southward than any of
the charts had laid it down :—Riou was
alfo paffed;   and now   a  deep, capacious   ,        >
channel was formed by Jelolo and Morintay,
of near 11 or 13 leagues in extent.    The
great gulph of Chiauw was now under our
lee j—arange of low, fandy iflands, connected ||f
with fhoals, were fituated about five leagues,   f
off Morintay, in the channel along which
we fleered.    The moon fhone very bright,       :   .
or we fhould not have ventured to proceed
during the night.    The wind blew ftrong
from the North Eaft; and men were con-
ftantlykept in both chains, to attend to the,ft
foundings, as well as on the yards, to look -   <
out for broken water, or any other circum-
ftance of danger. As we paffed thofe iflands,
the fhoals appeared very plain, at the dif-
tance of about four miles, and we could fee
a dreadful furf rolling over them. Our fg
foundings were now from fix, feVen, to
.eight fathoms, very regular, and over an
hard, fandy bottom. On getting more out
into the channel, we had fourteen, twenty, M
and fometimes even thirty fathoms, with
H 2 the If
* 16
1788.   the fame kind of ground. Thefe iflands ex-
February, tend near five leagues, North and South,—
are about five leagues from Morintay, and
eight from Jelolo.   We think it would be
increafing the incidental hazards of this
, diannel to pafs between  the iflands and
Morintay, as we found a ftrong and rapid
turrent tetting us almoft due South*
It was greatly to our mortification  that
* 'Iff We paffed this channel during the night, as
we were  thereby prevented   from fending
boats on fhore to examine the nature of the
m foil, and to look for turtle, as low, fandy
iflands are places where they are generally
found. In our paflage we perceived the air
to be ftrongly perfumed with fpicy odours;
fome of us even imagined they could dif-
tinguifh the peculiar fragrance of the nutmeg plant. ,
As we cleared this chain of iflands and
fhoals, we kept as clofe to the wind as poffi-
ble, to near, once more, the South end of
Morintay, which we happily effected by
Tucfdayi9 break of day on the 19th, being only three
leagues from it. We kept fleering thus till
noon, when the latitude was i° 47', theex-
S tremes of the ifland of Riou bearing from
South Weft by Weft, to South Weft, one   f^g.
half South, diftant nine   leagues; and the February^
extremes of Jelolo bearing from South South ^^^^^^
Weft, to South Eaft, diftant eleven leagues:     . :'iB||
in this pofition the channel we had failed   ^^^H
through was entirely clofed.    :>"   ■ ;1;'^S^^K'      31
Our courfe was  continued to the EaftWednefdap<\
South Eaft, with the wind from the North   ,.    |
Eaft, but light, till the 20th; when at noon,   m-  |||S
we had, to our great joy, a   confiderable     ■'•§;'.
Effing towards the fea;   the latitude was   WB$' .-_
i° 56' North, the ifland of Morintay bear-   |
ing from South by Weft, half Weft, to Weft      f|;
by North, half North, diftant fixteen leagues;       .'>.".■
and the ifland of Jelolo bearing from South
by Weft to South Weft, diftant  fourteen        .. Jl
leagues.    Thus  we moft happily  reached
the fea, without any material lofs of time,       |
and through a channel which, in any other
fituation, we fhould not have ventured to
pate ; though we tew nothing to prevent a S
fhip paffing it with eafe and fafety, by fol-   §J>
lowing the example of our precaution, and
attending to   the particular circumftances
which have been juft related ;—The bear- ' :m
ings are marked with  all poffible care and   §r .-      '
fidelity, for the benefit of any  navigator,   E   Jb
H 3 wrho u8
1788.   who,   from  preference or neceffity,   may
February, think proper to follow our courfe.
From Magindanao we had hitherto ex-
perienced a continuance of ftrong currents,
'i$0M.:-|f*fetting to the South and South Weft; the
wind invariably at North Eaft ; and, in the
whole track from that ifland to Morintay,
III we have noticed moft of the dangers which
||j|v.  lie between them. " -^*>-" ■ ■• .'M[- ^-' ^ ■'-..
^ :    We confider the Southern extremity of
J|'    '  the ifland of Morintay to be in the latitude
• of i° 4o/ North, and the longitude 128° Eaft;
■']|.       of Greenwich :—The land which was feen
-on the 16th, muft have been, as we then
conjeCtured, the Talour Ifles, and the Ifland
•ofSanguir. W
.        CHAP.   VI.    .
Ship's Courfe purfued to the Eafiward.—Currents fet her to the Ifland of Wagiew.—
Symptoms of the Scurvy among the Crew.
Wind veers, for the firft Time, to the North
Wefl.—Pafs Wagiew and the dangerous Ta-
tee Ifles.—Freewill Ifles feen.—'Natives come
on Board.—Their Joy at feeing Iron.—Some
Account of thofe Ifles.—Their Latitude and
-  Longitude, &c.—The firong Currents in their
Vicinity.     -   ,-^|'-: •
NO material occurrence happened till the
— 22d ; the courfe was kept to the Eaft
South Eaft; the wind blew fleadily from
the North Eaft, and we daily experienced a
Southerly current. At this time the Northern
extremity of New Guinea bore from us in
the direction of Eaft South Eaft, diftant
120 leagues, when we faw land, bearing
Eaft South Eaft, to Weft by North, at the
diftance of about nine leagues from the body
of it. The land to the Weftward we concluded to be the Ifland of Wagiew, which
H 4 forms *
1738.   forms the Northern moft part of Pitt's Straits;
February. [jUt   0f |||  }ancJ t0 j-J^ £a{]. we could form
no conjecture, as none appeared to be marked
on the charts in that direction,    The lati-
m  w/    tude at noon was only 22' North of the Line,
and  the  longitude  was   121°   io' Eaft of
Greenwich.    At this  time the  Ifland  of
Wagiew extended from South Eaft by Eaft,
O J '
to Weft, and our diftance from the body of
it might be about fix leagues.
In this fituation we were drifting bodily
to leeward on Wagiew, and found it to be
"0 alnioft impoffible to double the extremity
of this ifland, much lefs New Guinea,
without fome favourable alteration of the
winds, which had hitherto never varied from
the North Eaft ; befides, the ftrong Southerly currents had now fet the fhip thus far,
fo that we were altogether in a fituation furrounded with circumftances of uncertainty
P ' " and embarraflment. -\We fearce knew how
to expeCt a change that would be propitious;
and, neverthelefs, a patient expectation of
it feemed to be almoft the only refource,
%: . fuch as it was, that remained to us. The
weather was extremely fultry, but the winds
light, which was the only favourable
circumftance of which we could boaft.   A    i^g,
perfevering fpirit, however, fometimes fur- February.
mounts dangers that appear to be infur-
mountable, and we determined to continue
the exertion of it.
This day, at noon, we had made no pro- Saturday 33
grete whatever.    The  latitude was o° 20'  i
North of the Line; and the longitude was
1310 30' Eaft.   We were now diftant only     ||    f|
five leagues from Wagiew, which extended      ;
from Eaft South Eaft, to Weft South Weft.
The land bore a very different appearance
from that which we had hitherto teen :— .|jp§f
it was extremely high, compofed of broken
and detached hills, and prefented, as far as
we could difcover, a very barren afpeft.—-
It ran due Eaft and Weft, and all the hills |/
fhelved abruptly into the fea.    We could  1
procure no foundings with one hundred and
fifty fathoms of line.    A  fmall ifland was
alfo perceived in the North Eaft quarter.
Thus were we approaching every moment
nearer to the land, without any profpeCt of
fuch a change as would reward our perfe-
verance.—We had now been purfuing, for a
long month, an intricate and fatiguing navigation, without having made any confi-     J|
3 derable i m
■ Aral
i "8 8.   derable progrefs. The fultry heats alfo began
February, to affeCt feveral of our people ; and the ex-
; J|t     peCtation of the tedious paflage to America,
If    with which we were threatened, rendered
the crew not only diflatisfied, but defpondent.
mft'''''.■■'■'  Symptoms of the feurvy had begun to appear, in fpite of our ftriCt adherence to thofe
admirable rules of regimen fo happily conceived, and fuccefsfully praCtifed by Captain
B Cook.    We had now redoubled our atten
tions to keep off the internal enemy that
threatened us, with an anxious expectation
of fuccefs, but we know not how far that
would have been gratified,  if an alteration
/If    had not taken place with us, which enlivened
the drooping fpirits of the crew, and ani-
J§       mated them to new endeavours.    At four
in the evening of this day, when we were
'    within three leagues of the ifland, the wind
forung up on a fudden from the North Weft,
which was the firft favourable change we
I had experienced fince our departure  from
Samboingan.     Jf- ■'■ ilSf
.'  J:        We took an immediate advantage of this
,    fortunate circumftance in our favour; the
■courte was altered to the North Eaft, and
all fail fet; fo that, at fun-fet, we had got    1788.
a confiderable diftance from Wagiew. February.
More land was now feen a-head, which
was very low, and, from its detached, broken ffl
appearance,   we judged to be a groupe of    |
iflands.   During the night we kept Handing
to the North Eaft, immediately for the land,
and the wind continued to the Weft North
Weft, which enabled us to keep our courfe
till day-break on the" 24th, when we found  Sunday-»*
ourfelves within three leagues of the land
feen on the preceding evening.    It confifted ,
of feveral   iflands, as we had conjectured,
which were very low, entirely covered with
wood, and furrounded by fhoals and reefs of
rocks,   and appeared to be of confiderable
extent.    They bore from North Weft, to
North Eaft by Eaft, and were diftant from :
each other about five miles. ••'■
"As no fuch  iflands were placed on the   j|
charts, we thought proper to name them the
Tatee Ifles, from the word, which was continually vociferated by the few natives who
came within hearing of the fhip.    They are   -§
fituated in o° %o' of North latitude, and in
the longitude of 1320 t! Eaft of Greenwich.
They are very dangerous to approach, efpe-   f
fr   % cially    "
i %
1788.   cia% m the night, and the fhip that fhould
February, be tempted to pafs through them, would
inevitably be loft.
We faw feveral canoes paddling between
§1 the reefs; and two of them, containing each
five of the natives,  approached very near
-" M     to the fhip,   vociferating the word  Tajee,
■|   Tatee, with great violence; but no tempta-
j|     tion on our part could prevail on them to
come along-fide, though we held up many
of thofe articles which we thought the moft
J      likely to entice them to a nearer communi-
./.If:/        cation with us.—They regarded  the fhip
with  much apparent wonder;   and,   from
fill      their various antic geftures,  we h;A great
I   reafon to fuppofe that they had  never,, before feen fuch an objeCt,   They appeared to
be of the fame race as the Papua people,
woolly-headed,  perfectly black,   and with
the features of the African negroes; but in
their forms flout and athletic.    They held
- f: long fpears In their hands, pointed with bone,
which they, from time to time, brandifhed
at us
Their canoes were of a peculiar, and -very
curious conftruCtion;—they were very nar-
row and long,  and, to keep them on a balance,
lance, a large out-rigger run out on one fide,   1788.
with net-work between, made with ftrong February.
cord, manufactured from the rind of the   §    1*
cocoa-nut.    Oh this, which formed a kind
of a ftage, were placed their arms, imple- ||
ments for fifhing, &c. We \vifhed yery much
to fend boats on fhore, but as the fhip could
not approach near enough to the land for the
purpofe of protecting them, on account of fl
the fhoals, we thought it highly imprudent
to expofe our iften to any hazard.
Towards noon, to our great joy, the wind
frefhcned up from the North Weft, when
we bid adieu to.the Tatee Ifles, and purfued
our courfe to the Northward and the Eaft- If j.
ward, every league of which was become
of the utmoft confequence. At funfet, the :|;
extremes of the Tatee Ifles bore from us >%%$
Eaft by South, to South Eaft by Eaft, dif- ||
tant five leagues ;  the tops of the trees juft
appearing above the water.    At  this time
the extremities of Wagiew bore from South
Weft by South, to South Weft by Weft,   §;•'.
diftant 10 leagues. '. .   .  "       , jf.   ;^i|l|
We now purfued our courfe till the 27th,
with a favourable, but, in general, a light     |§
wind.    It thundered  and lightened with   ff
. great
w 126
1788.   great violence, and  the  weather was ex-
February. tremely clofe and fultry.    The thermometer
p    was, at this time, at 88°, and very often at
920.    At noon the latitude was 56 minutes
SJ     .      North, and the longitude 1360 %$' Eaft of
f     Greenwich.—Land, or rather trees,  were
defcried from the maft-head, bearing from
Eaft by South, to South Eaft by Eaft: —
IS-   if     when we were tolerably near them, the currents ran very ftrong to  the South South
Weft: as wre were not able to weather the
Northern moft, we bore up to the leeward of
it, and there now appeared to be four fmall
ft ifles, the largeft of which was  not more
than  five leagues in circumference.    We
ranged within  three  miles   of  the fhore,
iff     when we obferved a  large village fituated
./I on the fhore of the ifland, in the midft of a
gtf grove of cocoa-nut trees; every other part
appeared to  be  an entire  foreft, without
one interval of cultivation.
We wrere very foon. vifited by a great
number of canoes, containing, altogether,
at leaft five hundred natives, all men. Eacli
of thefe canoes held fix or feven people, and
were of the fame conftruCtion as thofe of
the Sandwich Iflands.     The  natives  alfo
bore the appearance, and to our great afto-    1788.
niftiment, fpoke the language of the inha- February.
bitants of thofe ifles; and the refult of our :
obfervation is  a conjecture, amounting  al-
moft to a firm belief, that they are of the   '
fame race.    They came along-fide the fhip J
without ceremony and without arms, and
fupplied us with a confiderable quantity of
frefh gathered   cocoa-nuts  and  coir   line,   '        |||
which was repaid by bits of iron hoop, of
about an inch in length. -      .']f   |§
When the piece of iron was held up to
their attention, they were all feized  with
a kind of filent, but exprefiive joy, that can-       :i
not be defcribed :  but the man who procu- -ff|
red it,   immediately  began   to  caper  and
dance round the deck, and laying down on
his back, tumbled and rolled about in fuch
an extraordinary  manner, that we  really    ||
imagined he was fuddenly affeCted by fome
very lingular diforder, till  he rofe up and
kiffed the bit of iron with thofe emotions of
extravagant joy, which m&nifefted the extreme delight he felt at being in the poffeffion of what he efteemed fo great a treafure.      ,
His comrades, from an anxious curiofity to
fee it, crowded round him ; but in a mo-   |t
merit 12
ment he had plunged himfelf into the  fea,
February, and then turning his head towards us, and
tt       §   again kiffingthe bit of iron, he fwam haftily
to the fhore.    Several iron hoops were now
H    Jfe      ordered to be cut up, and each of our vifi-
tors was gratified with a  bit of the preci-
J| ous metal, who all left us  with reiterated'
expreffions of the moft grateful acknowledge-
. - lS- -   ment. •    ' /l'....,   '*  : >$& '    ■ :
Thefe iflanders are of a frank, amiable
f|   i  and confidential difpofition ; and they found
in return, that kind of reception from us,
If which they will not quickly forget.    We
obferved,  however,   in their canoes large
mats, which, on enquiry, they informed us
were  ufed by them as coats of mail, and
were  capable of refifting the attack of a
f|   :§   Ipear; indeed, fo clofe and ftrong is their
1    J   texture, that at a very fmall diftance, they
\       |   could tearcely be penetrated by a ball from
a piftol.    It   appeared, therefore, and the
reflection is not of a pleafing nature, that
thefe amiable people knew the arts, and, of
I   courte, muft frequently feel the horrors of
war;  and that  the god of battle beholds
his victims in the remoteft corners of the
This groupe of iflands was originally dif-    j^gg.
covered by Captain Carteret, in his voyage February,
round the world.    He was pleafed to give
them the name of the Freewill Ifles, from
the frank  and unreferved conduCt  of the ;||
inhabitants.  It may not, ^perhaps, be gene-        :'•#',
rally remembered, that one of them accompanied him in the Swallow:—He was called
Tom  Freewill, and died in his paflage to li
the Celebes. "   .     -     . ...J/'      - Jr
;   The interval that had elapfed from the
period of Captain Carteret's vifit to thefe   J|
iflands, to the time of our appearance be-       j|    y
fore them, occupied fo confiderable a fpace,
that this young man's departure with him,
might very  naturally be fuppofed to have
been forgotten by his countrymen.    But, §/
on the contrary, feveral of the natives point- jj
ed to the fhip, and then to fea, and by other|/
fignificant geftures gave us to underftand,
that one  of them had been carried away.
As we were well acquainted with the cir-      W
cumftance from Captain Carteret's journal,
we, in return, informed  them that  their *m
fugitive countryman was no more:  when
they all entered into an immediate conference,   and  then renewed their  communi-Jf    -IjL'
Vol. I. I cations,
1 Ill
1788.   cations, with an air of perfe<St indifference.
February, At leaft there did not appear to be any one
among them who, as a friend or relation,
S expreffed  the leaft concern for poor Tom
Freewill's fate! |:
We now refumed our courfe to the North
Eaft, with a gentle gale from the Weft
North Weft. On paffing to the Northward of the iflands, we obferved that they
were connected by very dangerous reefs of
rocks, which extended three or four miles
in every direction. At funfet, the body of
the iflands bore North North Weft, at the
|p        ; diftance of four leagues. ' "MP-        \'
Thurfday 28 The weather on the 28th became fqually;
the wind veering continually from North
to North Eaft, fo that we feldom made good
our courfe better than Eaft, or Eaft by South.
At noon the latitude was od 55', the winds
light, with heavy fqualls of rain, and much
thunder and lightning. /|"
Friday 29 On the 29th in the moaning, as we wefe
ftanding to the North, with a light air frorti
the South Eaft, land was difedvered from
the maft-head; as we ranged up with it, we
found it to be the Freewill Ifles* This wsis
a circumfUncfc which we could not eafily
reconcile; and as the iflands in this ocean   1788.
bear a ftrong refemblance to each other, we, February.
at firft, thought that we muft be miftaken;
but the point was foon fettled by the arrival
of many of our late  friends,   who came
paddling through the reefs to bring us a pre-
tent of cocoa-nuts, for which, they were   ' Jf• .
with fome difficulty perfuaded to take any   #
thing in.return.   One man, in particular, §'
held up a bit of iron which he had received
from us but two days before, as a token that
he remembered his benefaCtors.   , .  '
|§ At noon the latitude was i° 7' North J
and, by a medium of the feveral diftances
of the fun and moon,  the longitude was f§
1370 io' Eaft. The body of Freewill Ifles
now bore South Eaft half Eaft, at the diftance of four leagues; which leaves them in if
the latitude of o° 56' North of the Line, and
in the longitude of 1370 Eaft of Greenwich*
The currents muft on the 28th have fwept
us bodily to leeward; but, as we imagined,
not with fo much force as to occafion our
falling in again with thefe Iflands;—-on the
contrary, we found that, on flanding to
the North, for the laft twenty-four hours,
though we were fleering Eaft, our courfe   %
I 2 was VOYAGES   TO   THE
was not much better than South, a little
Saturday 1 We did not lofe fight of thefe iflands till
the firft of March ; when, at noon, our latitude was i° 40' North ; the wind, as ufual,
veering from North Eaft, to Eaft North
-|| Eaft. The weather was gloomy, unfettled,
and very fultry. At times, we had heavy
fqualls of rain, which proved very unwhole-
p,/•■, fome for the crew, from conftant damps,
a clofe atmofphere, and wet cloaths. To
thefe unpleafant circumftances maybe added,
B I our flow progrete to the North, which fo
affected their fpirits, and of courfe relaxed
their activity, that all the attention and care
"ft ' of the officers were requifite, to check the
pfogrefs of fuch an alarming evil.
1 M
•|   C H A p.jvil;-   * •/ '
Extreme Heat of the Weather—Very tempefiuous.
. —Spring the Foremafi.—Lofs of fome of the
, Cattle.—Lofe all the Goats.— Defiruffiion of
many of the Plants intended for the Sandwich
Ifles.—Reafons for pointing the Ship's Courfe
to the North Wefi, &c.°~»Mode of victualling
the Crew.   Occupations on Board.—Intention
of Building a Veffel of fifty Tons in King
S George's Sound. — Carpenters  complete her
.    Moulds and Model—Chinefe Carpenters ignorant of Ship-building.—Great Burthen of
the Chinefe Junks.—Party felected to remain
in King George"'s Sound.—Experience  the
.    Tail of a, Tuffoon.— Change of the Monfoons,
—Terrible EffeSs of Tuffoons in the Chinefe
Seas and Northern Pacific Ocean.
N. the 2d of March,  the longitude or  ^0 *
the fhip, by a medium of feveral dif-
ftances of the fiin and moon,  was  1360 37'     J^M
Eaft of Greenwich, and the latitude 20 52'
North.   At this time, the variation of the
compafs was 20 30' Eaft, and the quickfiiver   .
13 in x34
in the thermometer was at 86, and often at
90, fo that we fuffered very much from the
extremity of the heat.    .   -        ■:. &ff:■■'■.   ^
The currents very feldom allowed us to
make our courfe better than by South Eaft ;
and hitherto there appeared no probability
of being able to weather New Guinea.   We
had, indeed, conquered the North Cape;
but there remained New Ireland, New Hanover, and many different groupes and cluf-
ters of iflands, to the Northward of the Line,
and many degrees to the Eaftward of our
fituation.    If we had  purfued our courfe,
we muft have determined either to proceed
through Dampier's Straits, or thofe difco-
vered  by Captain   Carteret,   which  divide
New Britain from New Hanover; but if
both thefe paffages were rejected, there was
no alternative left but to Hand to the Northward and Wcftward ; and to endeavour to
obtain as much of the former as would permit us to tack and weather all.    On a due
confideration of our circumftances and fituation, the laft was preferred ; the fhip therefore was tacked, and flood to the North Weft,
with the wind at North Eaft,—a point the
rnoft diftreffing to us of the whole compafs.
The flock of frefh provifions we received   1788.
at Samboingan was fufficient to laft us till March.
this time;  a circumftance which was attended with the two-fold advantage of teving       1
the fait provifions,  and  conducing to the
health of the crew.    A plentiful allowance
of water was continued,   as the beft pre-
fervative againft the fcurvy; and, if a diminution of this article fhould be requifite      M
in any part of the paffage, we naturally determined it fhould take place in the colder
latitudes, as, at pretent, an extreme and clote if
heat required every liquid aid to preferve
health, by fuftaining perfpiration.
II On the 3d, the weather became extremely Mondays
tempeftuous. We had continual fqualls from
the North Eaft, accompanied by deluges of
rain, which  very frequently obliged us to
fhorten fail.    Our courte was teldom better      . |'
than North Weft,  though we fometimes ft|
were enabled to make a tack or two to the
Eaft South Eaft and Eaft, when the fqijall A
was favourable. In this fituation, at noon, if
we found the foremaft dangeroufly fprung
below the hounds ; every exertion therefore
was required to fecure it, a? a very heavy tea
occafioned the fhip to pitch exceedingly.
Tuefday 4
The top-maft and top-gallant-maft were
*afccordingly got down on deck, and the fails
unbent; flages were alfo prepared round the
head of the maft, and the carpenters were
immediately employed in preparing fifties.
This misfortune was accompanied with
feveral others of a very mortifying nature.
The late bad weather and rolling of the fhip,
had deftroyed feme of the cattle and many
of the plants, in particular a fine orange-
tree, in full bloom; and half of the cinnamon-trees which we had received at'Samboingan. There, however, yet remained
alive one bull and a cow, and one cow calf;
but the goats were all killed in one day by
a fudden roll of the fhip. Of the plants we
ftill poffeffed a lime and an orange-tree, in
full vigour, with fix cinnamon, and feveral
fmaller plants of various kinds.
On the 4th, at noon, the latitude, by
double altitudes, was 30 o' North ; and the
longitude, deduced from the laft obferva-
tion of the fun and moon, 1370 50/ Eaft
of Greenwich. The wind blew from the
North Eaft, and we purfued our courfe to the
Eaft South Eaft,   The weather was dark,
and tempeftuous,with heavy fqualls of wind    iygg.
and rain, which raited a confufed fea. : March.
It was not till the 5th that the maft was wrednefdays
fecuredi the fiihing of which was a bufinefs
of no common difficulty ; and, after all, we   ,
were not without the moft anxious appre-
henfions that it would not fland againft the||
blowing and ftorrny weather we expeCted to '
meet to the Northward of the tropical la-      ' jf
Till the 12th we continued to embrace any Wednefdayi*
favourable moments of the wind. Whenever
it veered to the Eaft North Eaft, we tacked , .
and flood to the Northward and Weftward;
and if it veered to the North, our courfe
was bent to the Eaftward./ It feldom, however, permitted our Handing long on either
tack; for it generally blew very ftrong, with
heavy fqualls of rain. Our latitude, at
noon, was therefore but 30 15' North, and
the longitude 1440 25' Eaft; and on the
17th, we had advanced no further than 30 25' MondaY I?
North, and 1460 30' Eaft. Such was our
tedious progrefs, which, together with a
continuance of the moft unpleafant and un-
wholefome weather, tended, more or lefs,
to difpirit every one on board.  But this was
3 , not Iff
not all; the continual damps, proceeding
from the frequent rains, and the people being,
from the fame circumftance, fo often, as
well as fo long in wet cloathing, together
with moift decks, awakened our apprehen-
fions to en creating fymptoms of the fcurvy.
In this fituation, we doubted very much
whether we fhould be able to weather the
iflands of New Ireland or New Hanover,
which bore off us not only Eaft South Eaft,
but many degrees to the Eaftward. We had
worked into our prefent pofition immediately
in. the wind's eye.   .'/-.' ;.J|:'■       ' -S|^ ->M--:-
Some of the difficulties which would probably attend the purfuing of our firft track,
have already been mentioned; nor were we
to hope for a change from the fun's near
approach to the equinoCtial. Tedious calms,
attended with heavy rains, were naturally
to be expeCted with a vertical fun. A fmall
portion of our voyage was yet performed, and
an immenfe track yet lay before us, to reach
to the 160th degree of longitude, when we
muft neceffarily crote the Line.    M*       .&£
According to the manner in which we had
proceeded, we fhould not, in all probability,
gain that objeCt before the 10th of April ;—
on the other hand, if we fleered to the North    1788.
Weft, we had grounds for expeCting a change March,
of wind in our favour, if not the monfoon,
by the \ ft of April: —it was, therefore, again
refolved to weather the  Philippines,   and
point our courfe fteadily to the North Weft.
With plenty of water, each man was allowed half a pint of fpirits in the courfe of
the day, two-thirds of which were mixed Jpft'-
with water, and the remainder, at this time,
ferved in its raw ftate, which often proved a
falutary and cheering cordial in the rainy
weather. The provifions were ordered in the f§|
beft manner we could conceive to preferve
health, or, at leaft, to check $he progrefs
of difeafe.—In the morning and evening tea §
and fugar were ferved out to the crew ;-—
they had abundance of rice, peas, and barley, which, with flour and fruit, were ferved
with every poffible variety they would admit*
The pork and beef were always well fleeped,
and the conftant ufe of vinegar was called
in aid to contribute its fhare towards correcting the bad effects of felted provifions. f *
We kept flanding on to the North Weft, Sunday 39
and nothing material happened between the
Jaft and the prefent date. The weather was
now. m
1788.  now,  indeed,   become extremely pleafant,
March,   and the heavy fqualls of wind and rain which
Egd fo continually diftreffed us, were, for
"'■'Jjt     the prefent, entirely dlffipated.   At noon, the
latitude was  210 2' North, and the longitude   1390 48' Eaft;   the variation of the
I   compafs 40 24/ Eaft.    During this run we
every day faw large flocks of birds, fome of
|j|l.   which we perceived to be of that fpecies
Which never fly far from land.
We embraced the opportunity which was
afforded us by the prefent favourable wea-
' Nf| ther, to overhaul our fails, and prepare for
the tempeftuous weather we had every reafon to expeCt in our progrefs to the North,
efpecially near Japan. Two compleat jaew
fuits of fails were prepared, new roped, lined
and middle ftitched ; all the old fails were,
. ■ •,  at the fame time, put in a tolerable ftate.
The coopers, armourers, and other artifans
were always properly employed, either in
the immediate iervice of the fhip, or ac-
II cording to their fkill, in preparing articles of
trade for the American market.—The Chinefe armourers were very ingenious, and
worked with fuch a degree of facility that
||: we preferred them to thofe of Europe. The NORTH WEST COAST  OF  AMERICA.
inftruments they employ in their work are   1788.
extremely fimple and they very fhortly ac-  March.
compllfh any defign that is placed before
them. j** '   -'       'W   '.,.' : '"''"'•; '    ""■$:.
The carpenters were alfo at work in pre-   %
paring the moulds and model for a floop of
fifty tons that was defigned to be built immediately on our arrival in King George's
Sound, as fuch a veflel would be of the      |fl|l|
utmoft utility, not only in collecting furs,
but in exploring the coaft. |        > \    J
Our head carpenter was a young man
of much ingenuity and profeffional fkill, who
had ferved his time in London; but the
Chinefe artificers in this branch had not the i;
leaft idea of our mode of naval architecture.
The veffels of their nation which navigate
the China and adjacent feas, are of a con-
ftruCtion peculiar to them. In veffels of a
thoufand tons burthen not a particle of iron
is ufed ; their very anchors are formed of
wood, and their enormous fails made of j |j
matting. Yet thefe floating bodies of timber
are able to encounter any tempeftuous we,a- 4j|
ther, hold a remarkable  good  wind,   fail
well, and are worked with fuch facility and"!
care as to call forth the aftonifhment of   j|   -||;
Eu« I
European failors. It was, therefore, a matter of iome difficulty to turn the profeffional
fkill of our Chinefe carpenters to a mode of
application fo entirely different from their
own habitual experience and practice.
A party was feleCled from the crew who
were to be left on fhore with the artificers,
to be employed in building the veffel. This,
arrangement was made at fuch an early period, in order that the people might be fully
prepared, immediately on our arrival in the
Sound, to begin their intended operations.
It is true that we had no one article in
readinefs for the purpofe; our timber was
Handing in the forefts of America, the iron
work was, as yet, in rough bars on board,
and the cordage which was to be formed into
ropes, was yet a cable. Neverthelefs, encouraged by that fpirit of ardent hope which
animates man to oppofe the difficulties of
life, and invigorates life itfelf, we looked
forward with a kind of certain expectation
that our purpofe would be effeCled, and that
tt^e veffel in contemplation would be actually
launched fome time in the month of Oc-
■1 ■ '      -:i     '    '"#'      On NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
On the ift of April at noon, the lati-    1788.
tude was 220 26' North, and the longitude   April.
1390 38' Eaft.  The weather feemed to have   **   y *
acquired a fettled gloom, the clouds were   h[   \
uncommonly black and heavy, and, throughout the day,  there was much thunder and
lightning.    Numerous flotks of birds paffed
us from the windward, making loud noifes
in their paffage, as if apprehenfive of bad Iff
weather.    We alfo paffed fome rock-weed, §
which was a fign of being at no very great
diftance from land.    ;/%-" fl : '■/   ,-.   -:M ' -
On the 2d, the thunder and lightning Wednefday
encreafed, without being accompanied with
any confiderable degree of wind. The fea,
neverthelefs, was in an unufual commotion,
and the fhip pitched fo heavy, that the
head-rails were carried away, and fome other
injuries fuftained.—Towards noon it became
fqually, and we experienced feveral puffs of
wind from every point of the compafs, which,
with the encreafing darknefs, left us no
doubt of the approach of a very violent ftorm.
-—The top-gallant yards and mafts were
got down on deck,—the main-fail furled,—
the top-fails clofe reefed, and the mizen balanced.  .All the fails were handed, except
1| ■ 5      ■     ,f the   j. 144
the m&in top-fail, which it was judged prudent to keep abroad : in this  fituation we
waited the coming of the tempeft ; nor did
it difappoint our expectations. At two P. M.
the wind fhifted to the South, and began to
blow ftrong in fqualls: the fhip's head was
kept to the North Eaft; it thundered and
ligbtned with great violence, and at half paft
three an heavy fquall came from the South
Eaft, inftantly followed by another from the
South Weft, both of which blew, for a fhort
time,  with alternate and incredible fury;
the latter, however, prevailed, and continued
blowing from the South Weft for near an
hour.    Indeed,   the meeting  of thefe two
fqualls to leeward of us, was tremendous,
and the fea was carried to fuch an height as
to  keep the horizon in a continual foam.
Happily for us, we experienced only the
tail of this tuffoon or whirlwind; but, as it
was, we expeCted every moment to have the
mafts fluttered to pieces ; the main top-fail
having been fwept away,  and frittered to
The fea foon rote to fuch an alarming
height, that it became neceffary to fet the
lore-fail %A& feud before the ftorm, in order
' I
II North west coast of America.
to ipreferve the fhip, which plowed her way
with furprifinig fwiftnefs. It now blew fror^
the South Eaft with a prodigious fea, before
which we kept fleering. Thus we wejr£
founding along, when, to the leeward of us,
we perceived the water to rife many feet
above the level of the fea in circles, which
formed a beautiful but awful fight; fo that
we were obliged to perform the very unpleafant, and, indeed, rather dangerous operation, of heaving to in fuch a high fea, to
avoid running into the dreadful vortex before
us, which continued, as it were, to fweep
the horizon till five o'clock; when this
alarming whirlwind fubfided, and fettled in
an heavy gale from the South Weft, before which we fcudded to the North Eaft.
To thofe who h&ve read Kempfer's Hif-
tory of Japan, the violence of this tuffoon
will not be confidered as a circumftance
that borders on phaenomenon,—fuch horrid
gufts of wind being at certain periods, according to that writer, the common difturbers of
ttofe feas: though we had feveral old and
experienced feamen in the fhip, who had
never before feen any thing of this terrible
nature.    We, however,  confoled ourfelves
Vol. I# K f        with
April. 146
with the belief that it was the critical moment when the Monfoons changed; more
particularly as the ftorm from the South
Weft blew in fuch a fteady current.
Had this ftorm happened when it was dark,
It might have proved fatal; as it was, we
were not a little furprifed that fome of the
mate or yards were not carried away:
however, we were not fufficiently recovered
from our alarms, to venture upon fetting
much fail during the fucceeding night.      r
: The period when the Monfoons change
In the China teas, and the Northern Pacific
Ocean, is a time that fhould be dreaded by
every fhip that navigates them. — Thefe
changes are generally in the months of April
and October, though they fometimes happen
not only much earlier, but alfo much later
in the feafon. That which is confidered
as moft dangerous, is the variation from the
North Eaft to the South Weft, when ftorms
very generally trouble thofe feas. They
are remarkably violent on the coaft of Japan ; but when they arife into a tuffoon,
no power or ftrength can withftand them.
The ruin they fometimes occafion is almoft
incredible;—nor is it lefs difficult to conceive
ceive with what fury they blow from every
point of the compafs.
The Chinefe dread, beyond all meafure,
thefe violent hurricanes, which fometimes
fweep large villages and their inhabitants
to deftruCtion: at other times whole harvefts
are diffipated by their deftruCtive breath, and
famine follows.—From a fimilar caufe, in
the year 1787, accompanied with exceffive
drought, a moft dreadful dearth prevailed
throughout the Southern provinces of China, by which an incredible number of people
perifhed. It was no uncommon thing at
Canton to fee the famifhed wretch breathing
his laft; wdiile mothers thought it ;a duty
to deftroy their infant children, and the
young to give the ftroke of fate to the aged,
to fave them from the agonies of fuch a
dilatory death.
Thurfday 3
Land feen, but prevented from approaching it.
—Difcovery of Iflands,   which we named
WGrampus Ifles.—Feel the Weather extremely
cold, with the probable Reafon ofit.—Num-
%berof [Birds feen.—Pafs by great Quantities
of Rock-weed.—Difcover afiupendous Rock,
which we named Lofs Wife.—The Rafter of*
an Houfe, and a Piece of Canoe feen floating
on the Water. — Tempefiuous Weather. —
Weather becomes fiordy as the American Coafi
is approached.—Crofs the Tracks of the Re-
folution and Difcovery .—Error of the Ship's
Reckoning, &C.—A Sea Parrot feen for the
firfi Time.—Extraordinary Brightnefs in the
'    Atmofphere, and to what Caufe attributed.—
The Coafi of America feen—Princefs Royal
fails out of King Georges Sound.—Diftrefs of
the Felice, Sic—Anchor in Friendly Cove,
in King George's Sound.
ON the 3d of April, the weather became
:W, moderate, and the ftorm fubfided; but
about noon, the wind fhifted to North Weft,
and blew* with extreme violence,, accompa-
1 nied
nied by a ftrong and mountainous fea. Our
courfe was to the Eaft by North, under clofe
reefed top-fails aind fore-fail. The latitude
was 240 56'North, and the longitude 143°39/
Eaft of Greenwich. "    '%
Towards night it again moderated, when
00 *
we made fail;—the wind now fhifted to the
Eaft South Eaft, and we flood to the North        |||
Eaft till the 4th; when the wind fixed itfelf Friday 4
in the North Eaft quarter, and we accordingly flood to the North Weft, with fine and |
moderate weather.
In this fituation, land was feen bearing
Eaft North Eaft, diftant eight leagues, im- %
mediately in the wind's eye, wrhich prevented us from approaching it. Our latitude
at noon was 240 44' North, and longitude,
deduced from our laft lunar obfervations,
1450 41' Eaft of Greenwich. We regretted
very much that we were not able to approach
this land, as we knew of none in this part . j*
of the Northern Pacific Ocean. As we were
fleering to the North Weft, we foon entirely
loft fight of it.
On the 5th, the wind fhifted to the South Saturday 5
Eaft, which enabled us to fleer to the North
Eaft, when at two o'clock in the afternoon
%      '.     K 3     •"        "if/-. '    we       ,   ; 15®
m ill!
we thought land was vifible to the Eaft
April. South Eaft; but the weather was fo extremely hazy, that it could not be afcertained
whether it was land or a fog-bank. At
'Jj three, however, land was feen in the North
Eaft right a-head, but the weather continued
to be fo thick and foggy, that the direction
in which it extended could not be difcerned.
At half paft four, we were abreaft of it, at
the diftance of five or fix miles, when it
appeared to be an ifland, but of no great
extent. Itfnow rained very hard, and the
|i'atmofphere remained fo hazy, that our ob-
j fervations of the land were rather imperfect.
It however appeared to be one of thofe barren ifles fo frequently found in thefe feas.—
Its length might be fifteen or fixteen miles
from North to South ; the fhore feemed to
be inacceflible to boats, from a great furf
beating againft the rocks, which terminated
abruptly in the fea. The interior parts of
the country appeared to be high, and a few
folitary trees wrere very fparingly fcattered
on their declivities. We failed along the
fhores of this ifland till fix o'clock, when
another ifland opened to our view, which
was feparated from the former by a channel
of three or four leagues. It now blew very
ftrong, with rain, and fo thick a fog, that
we could fee no diftance a-head.      |k
Though the gale was favourable, yet,
from the appearance of the weather, it was
thought prudent to fhorten fail, and remain
under fuch as would enable us to haul to
the wind on either tack. The utmoft vigilance and attention was employed to guard
as much as poffible againft any danger, and
we failed, as ufual, all night with the-courfes
hauled up in the brails. Thefe ifles,. of
which we could not difcern the number,
were named Grampus Ifles, from feeing a
large grampus fpouting up water clofe to the
fhore, which is a very uncommon fight in
thofe feas.
The night of the 5th was very tempeftu-
ous, with conftant rain; but to confole us
for thefe inconveniencies, we had a fair gale,
with which we made great way to the
North Eaft. 4.
!§: On the 6th, the wind fhifted to the North
Weft, which brought us clear weather, and
blew a fteady gale. At noon the latitude was
27°30/ North, and the longitude 1480 37'
:   K 4 Eaft,
i I
l| II   1
Eaft. At this time the variation of the com*
pate was 30 20' Eaft.. /.   ||
Our progrefs to the North now became
very rapid, and we experienced a very fud-
den tranfition from heat to cold. Having
juft left a climate where the heats had been
intenfe and oppreffive, it was very natural
the aCtive operations of cold fhould be very
fenfibly felt by the whole crew. This cir-
cumftance, however, enabled us to reduce
the allowance of water from a gallon to five
pints per man, without any inconvenience
whatever arlfing from fuch an alteration.
uefdays The favourable gale at North Weft con-
,    tinued till the eighth at noon.  The latitude
». then was 28° 58/ North, and the longitude
I54P 19' Eaft.—Our principal objeCt was to
get to the North as faft as poffible, in order
to benefit by the ftrong Wefterly winds, as
well as to run down our longitude in an
high latitude. This North Weft gale con-
tinued to us the fharp piercing cold which
has been already mentioned.
\VjEdnefday9     The next day we paffed by a confiderable
quantity of rock-weed, which we imagined
-    '    to be but lately broken off, and for feveral
days we had teen great numbers of birds,
- .   fit!    " H T    B'W  I I'   We
We were now confiderably to the Northward of the feveral fmall iflands feattered
either within or about the tropic, in the
Northern Pacific Ocean. We could not,
therefore, form any probable conjecture from
whence this weed came, and whither tfi3
birds retired at night, as they regularly left
us about funfet, and took their flight to the
Eaft.     |    I .;•
About nine o?clock in the morning, a fail
was defcried from the maft-head, and, in
about half an hour a large fhip wras teen from
the deck. She appeared to be under an extraordinary croud of fail, and exhibited a
very Angular figure, for not one of us, even
with the affiftance of glaffes, could make out
which way fhe was flanding. The fight of
a fhip in thofe feas was fuch an unufual cir-
cumftance, that for fome time conjecture
was at a lofs concerning it. At length, however, it was determined to be a galleon, bound
to China from New Spain, and by fome
cafualty driven thus far to the Northward ;
though the track of thofe fhips to Manilla,
is generally between the parallels of 130 and
140 North latitude. In confequence of this
opinion,  feveral letters were written to in- I
II f
. I
w >
form our friends in China of our fafety, and
the progrefs we had made in the voyage.
This extraordinary delufion, for it was no
more, continued till we were within two
leagues of the objeCt; when, on viewing it
with aglafs, it was difcoveredto be an huge
tpck ftanding alone amid the waters.—The
firft among us who became fenfible of the
deception remained filent, and diverted themfelves with the ftrange conjectures and humorous obfervations of the failors, one of
whom was fo certain of its being a fhip,
that he was convinced he faw her colours.
Its appearance did, indeed, very ftrongly re-
femble a firft-rate man of war, under a croud
of fail; and fuch was its fhape, that, at a
certain diftance, it held forth to the eye the
form of every particular fail belonging to a
fhip. As we ranged up with this rock,
our furprife was proportionably augmented,
and the failors were more than difpofed to
believe that fome fupernatural power had
fuddenly transformed it into its prefent fhape.
It obtained the name of Lofs Wife, and is
one of the moft wonderful objeCts, taken in
fill its circumftances, wThich I ever beheld.
m ■•!       ''■ I -  By NORTH  WEST COAST  OF  AMERICA.
By noon we were a-breaft of it; when it
bore Eaft North Eaft four miles.  The, latitude was 290 5o/ North, and the longitude 1||
1420 23' Eaft of Greenwich.    The waves §
broke againft its rugged front with a fury
proportioned to the immenfe diftance they
had to roll before they were interrupted by
it. It rofe almoft perpendicular to the height,
according to the tables, of near three hundred |j|
and fifty feet.  A fmall black rock appeared
juft above the water, at about forty or fifty
yards from its Weftern edge.    There was
a cavern  on  its South Eaftern fide,  into
which the waters rolled with an awful and   .tf
tremendous noife.   In regarding this ftupen-
dous rock, which flood alone in an immenfe
ocean, we rjould not but confider it as an
objeCt which had been able to refift one of
thofe great convulfions of nature that change
the very form of thofe parts of the globe
which they are permitted to defolate.
This day, at noon, our latitude was 330 18' Saturday 1*
North, and the longitude 1610 Eaft, with a
fteady gale from the Southward. We paffed
by a great quantity of rock-weed, and faw
feveral large flocks of birds. In the evening,
a piece of timber, which appeared to be the
rafter VOYAGES   TO   THE
rafter of an houfe, and a piece of a canoe,
were {een floating upon the water, and foon
after a fpar, that appeared to have been
newly cut. Thefe were certain indications
of land, and occafioned, if poffible, an added
exertion of vigilance, as this part of the
Pacific Ocean is entirely unknown.
In the evening of this day the weather
became gloomy and overcaft, with every
ufual appearance of an approaching ftorm.
It blew ftrong throughout the night, and
on the following day, at noon, the gale was
confiderably encreafed. The topgallant yards
and mafts were accordingly .got down on
deck, and every other precaution taken to
provide againft the bad weather that threatened us. Our apprehenfions were fhortly
realized; for about four o'clock, it blew
with fuch violence from the South, that we
were obliged to clofe reef the topfails, and
hand the mainfail. The wind was accompanied with fmall rain and thick weather.
We paffed by large quantities of weed; and
the furface of the fea was covered with a
reddifh fpawn, that extended feveral miles.
It foon after blew a perfect ftorm ; the top-
fails were therefore  immediately handed,
and we fcudded before it under a forefail,
followed by a very heavy fea.—In this fitu*-
ation, we were overtaken by a moft violent guft of wind, which made us appre-|
henfive of fome material damage.—But very
fortunately the topfails had been handed in
time, and, the forefail being now reefed, we
continued to purfue our courfe. In this |^
heavy guft the wTind fhifted to the Weft, and
raifed a very confufed fea, which broke on
our decks, and endangered the boats; but, "<}•
in fhifting its point, the wind did not abate
its violence, nor did at all fubfide till the!
14th, when the latitude was 360 20' North, Monday 14
and the longitude 1670 Eaft.
It was determined to run down our Ion-      -ft-
gitude, as much as poffible, in the parallel
of 400 North ; and, as it was an unknown '       ||
track,   we were not without the hope of     .1
meeting yvith land,   previous to our gaining
fight of the Continent of America, evident       |    '
figns of which had been obferved by Captain
Cook,  as well as by us, in this  latitude.
^—Indeed, from the various circumftances
which have already been related, it is highly
probable that there is land in this part of the
Northern Pacific Ocean. U$ ■
■ l§§; fe"     I        - The   '   '.-fl »5
I ill i i
Thurfday 17
The tempeftuous weather continued till
the 17th, when the wind veered to E&ft
South Eaft, and blew with augmented violence. It moderated, however, at noon,
when the latitude was 380 51' North, and
H the longitude 1750 io/ Eaft.—Though advanced fb far North, we this day paffed a
large turtle fleeping on^the water, which,
being awakened by the noife of the fhip,
immediately funk. Large flocks of birds
ftill continued to frequent us, and the rock-
weed became a common objeCt.—We now
'IjjM experienced a great degree of cold, and the
morning and evening air, in particular, was
/§ uncommonly fharp. The variation of the
compafe was 90 20' Eaft. ill/
Wedncfday23    Storm fucceeded ftorm till the 23d, when
the weather broke, aind the wind moderated.
Thefe violent gales from the Northward and
Weftward, not only brought with them a
jt       biting cold, but alfo fleet and fnow, which
made confiderable depredations on our flock.
— We  felt,  however,  the  fatisfaCtion  of
%/■      having fairwinds, principally from the South
Weft,   from which quarter it blew very
hard; but when it fhifted to the North Weft,
it encreafed beyond the power of defcription, NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
tion, with a great and mountainous fea.
We had fortunately embraced a favourable
opportunity of bending a new fuit of fails,
as the old ones muft have been fhattered to
pieces by the violence of thefe ftorms. The
air was fharp, like that of bleak froft in
England, which more fenfibly affeCted us,
from our long continuance in tropical climates. . Indeed we were not without occa-
fional fhowers of fnow and hail. Flocks of
birds, and large quantities of rock-weed,
continued to encourage an anxious expectation of feeing land. j| , ,
On the 23d, at noon, we paffed the trunk
of a large tree. Our latitude was 410 %f
North, and the longitude was 1890 25' Eaft
of Greenwich. We now began to draw nigh
to the American fhore, which was a very de-
firable circumftance,as, among other preffing
reafons, the fhip was become extremely
light, from the great expenditure of provifions and water. We had, indeed, been of
late extremely fortunate in our winds, but
much more fo in the health of the crew,
who felt no other inconvenience but what
arofe from fo quick a tranfition from heat
to cold.
I During
April. I
1788.    ' During the night It blew ftrong from tna
April,   Weft North Weft, with cold rain.   On the
' morning of the 24th the wind backed round
to the Southward and Eaftward, a certain
K-       prelude of blowing weather; and at noon it
blew* fo hard as to oblige us to hand every
fail; and, till three in the afternoon, we
fuffered as fierce a ftorm as we ever remembered to have feen, with a greater fea than
W   we had hitherto experienced.    There was
alfo continual rain, and the cold did not
1     abate its  feverity.     The  rigging  fuffered
confiderably, and the fhip ftrained very much
|M in  her, rolling ; nor were we without our
apprehenfions for the crippled foremaft. But,
amid this fevere and tempeftuous weather,
we enjoyed the confolatory reflection that
A§t        we were every moment approaching nearer
.   .   to the deftined port. ;
Friday 25 On the 25th the weather moderated, and
the wind veered to the Weft North Weft.
The latitude, at noon, was 430 North, and
the longitude by account, 1960 28/Eaft. It
blew a ftrong gale from the Weft South
If Weft, with clear weather; and we macta
good our courfe to the Eaft North Eaft,
running feldom lefs than fifty leagues a
■■'■$ ;   ' • day, KORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
day. From the 23d we had experienced a
continual fucceffion of gales. § We were oc-
cafionally favoured with an hour or two of <|
clear weather, which was always fucceeded
by a return of ftorm ; fo that we were never
able to fet more than a clofe-reefed topfail.
—Our run was no lefs than 230 leagues in
this fhort period. Indeed the weather not
only continued to be cold and comfortlefs,
but was, at times, fo very cloudy, that we
found no opportunity of taking any lunar
obfervations, in order to afcertain, with any
degree of accuracy, the run of the fhip.
The fame weather continued, and we pur- |
fued our courfe without any novelty of fituation or circumftance, till the 20th, whenwrednefday3o
a fecond fpar paffed by, which from its appearance, and a notch that had been recently
cut in one end of it, could not have been
long in the water,—The birds had forfaken
us in the beginning of the late tempeftuous
weather, and we no longer tew the floating |§
rock-weed, which had, for fome time paft,
been a daily obieCt.
J       J      . May.
We had now twice croffed the tracks of Thurfdayi
the Refolution and the Difcovery in thefe
feas : that on their return from the Coaft
Vol. I. L of Ghat
Hi!! I
i in i'liiii
of Japan to China, and their later track
from Oonalafhka to the Sandwich Iflands.
Captain Cook had formed fome flight conjecture of there being land between thefe
tracks and the coaft of America, and our
prefent courfe running direCtly through that
part of the fea, it is moft probable that we
fhould have difcovered it, if there had been
any fo contiguous to the American fhore.
On our entrance into the month of May,
the weather became not only moderate but
pleafant:—the wind blew from the South,
and we purfued our courfe to the Eaftward.
The latitude, at noon, was 460 5' North,
and the longitude, by a medium of feveral
diftances of the fun and moon, only 2120 5'
Eaft of Greenwich; whereas, by account,
we were in 2210 41' Eaft,—This material
difference muft have arifen from the variety
of contrary currents we experienced in the
low latitudes, as well as thofe which may
be fuppofed to have fet us to the Weftward,
on our tacking to the North. We had every
reafon, therefore, to conjecture that we muft
have approached the vicinity of Japan ; and
that we  accomplished  our  paffage to the
orth between  the iflands of Ladrone and
the New Carolines.    The variation of the    j^S.
compafs we now found to be 210 18' Eaft.       may.
The wind continued to be favourable,  Sun<%4
though it occafionally blew in ftrong fqualls.
The latitude, at noon, was 480 jo' North;
and the longitude, deduced from the laft
obfervations, 2230 22' Eaft.    In the beginning it became foggy, and blew from the        ;^f"■'
South South Weft in heavy fqualls, which %||k;
obliged  us to  heave to, for the firft time,
under the reefed forefail.    However, as it        Jl
moderated in the morning, we bore up, and
purfued our courfe to the Eaftward.        Y
We experienced a ftrong gafe till the 7th, Wednefday 7
when,   at noon,   the latitude was 490 28/
North, and the longitude, by a medium of
feveral diftances of the fun and moon, 228° 26' J§
Eaft. I   ;   ,   .' §.' | I   ;'' '  r
On this day,  at noon, the latitude was Thurfdayg
490 28' North.   In the evening we faw afea-
parrot, and paffed a piece of drift-wood. We
had frequent fqualls of hail and fnow, but
the weather was more moderate than we had    - ■
known it for fome time.
'  On the 10th, the latitude was 490 32'; Saturday to
and the longitude, by the medium of feveral
fights, 2300 52'Eaft, and only 30 from King .§
orges 17
George's Sound. We kept running, during
the night, under a prefs of fail, direCtly in
for the American coaft. The whole at-
mofphere was   in  a  ftate of illumination,
||fi        which we attributed to the reflection of vaft
lip mountains of fnow on the continent: nor
were we miftaken ; for, on the morning of
Sunday 11 the 11 th of May,  the long-wifhed for land
1 of America appeared, bearing Eaft by South,
at the diftance of 13 leagues.    It confifted
of a ridge of mountains,  whofe fummits
were hid in the clouds. This land might be
feen thirty leagues in clear weather. As we
.., JT. clofed in with it in the evening, the vapours
cleared away from the tops of the mountains. At noon the latitude was, by double
altitudes, 490 35' North, and King George's
Sound bore nearly Eaft of us. We kept
Handing in for the land, and when within
four leagues of it, the wind veered to the.
South Eaft by Eaft, which obliged us to tack
and ftand to fea, the wind blowing almoft
immediately out of the Sound, which we
now plainlv difcerned.
A veffel. was now {eew under the weather
land of the Sound, bearing down to us; but
is we were under a prefs of fail, and night
coming on, we could not fpeak to her,
without much inconvenience; but we neverthelefs knew her to be the Princefs Royal,
of London, on a trading voyage for the furs
of America.
The night of the nth was a dreadful one;
fuch heavy gufts and fqualls of wind fuc-
J      O 1
ceeded each other, that we were prevented
from carrying any fail. Thefe fqualls brought
hail and fnow along with them; and, towards midnight, it blew a perfect ftorm.
When the morning broke, we had loft fight
of land, and the fhip had ftrained fo much,
that we had fix feet water in the hold, with
two pumps difabled; nor did this gale moderate till the 12th at noon, when the fhip
was wore, and we flood in for the land, bailing the water from the hold, which was
rather encreafing on us. The latitude was
490 2&'North. We therefore kept flanding
in for the land till feven o'clock in the
evening, when that comfortable objeCt was
again very clearly difcerned : but we had
another mortification to fuffer, for we found
that the late ftorm had blown us to leeward
of the Sound. We were therefore under the
provoking neceffity of tacking once more,
L 3 and
Tuefday 13
and ftanding out to fea, with the wind at
North North Weft; the Sound bearing North
Eaft, at the diftance of feven leagues.      if.
The night of the 12th was fo tempeftuous,
that we were obliged to lay to under the
reefed forefail, all the crew being, employed
in bailing the water out of the hold; as it
was not in our power to refit the pumps for
immediate fervice. •' • J|; - ;~ -. .. ||:: ^ -
1 On the morning of the 13th the wind
veered to the South by Eaft, blowing as hard
as ever, with heavy rain, when the fhip was
wore, and her head pointed in for the land.
About eight it moderated, when fail was
immediately made, and, by ten o'clock, we
happily anchored in Friendly Cove, in King
George's Sound, a-breafl of the village of
Nootka, in four fathoms water, and within
an hundred yards of the fhore, after a paffage
of three months and twenty-three days from
China.--— The reader who has accompanied,
us through our long, difficult, and haraffed
voyage, will eafily conceive the grateful joy
we experienced on our arrival in fafety at
the harbour which we had fought with fuch
continued toil, and through fuch various
dangers, . -"     ■ . '$■ ■.•;' . of|   , NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
It cannot be thought improper, as I truft
it will not prove altogether ufelefs, to offer
fuch obfervations as occurred tome on the
paffage from China to the North Weft Coaft
of America.
It would not be prudent for fhips bound
to America, to purfue our route, if they are
not ready for fea by the middle of November, or the 10th of December at fartheft.
The long and heavy delay we met with, after
leaving Samboingan, is the beft proof of the
difficulties we found in getting to the Eaftward at this period of our voyage ; when the
currents alfo run more rapid, and the feafon
is more tempeftuous, as we have reafon to
believe, than in the months of November
and December.
It had been our intention, at one time, to
perform this voyage by failing round New
Holland, and ftretching fufficiently to the
Eaft, to fetch the Sandwich Iflands previous
to our making the coaft of America; or we
had the choice of pufhing through Endea-
vour Straits, and performing the fame point;
but this latter courfe was rejected on account
of the dangerous archipelago of iflands fcat-
tered to the Eaftward of thofe ftraits; and
L 4 the
the former was abandoned from the circuity
of Its navigation, which would demand a
much longer time than we could fpare: it
was accordingly conjeCtured, that if a paffage was attempted through the Sooloo Archipelago, then ftretching to the Eaftward,
to weather New Guinea, New Ireland* and
ew Hanover,—and again tacking to the
Northward, to obtain the Wcfterly winds,
that we fhould have a quick and eafy paffage
opened to America.
The event proved that we had judged rightly in adopting the laft;—but, in my opinion,
a flill eafier and much better paffage is now
opened to America; and it is fubmitted whether, in future, it would not be preferable
for fhips bound there, to effect their way
by the paffage between Luconia and Formofa. This opinion is not the fanciful re-
fult of vague conjecture, but has, as I conceive, fomewhat of an experimental foundation on the following circumftances:—
On our arrival with the Felice in China,
in the autumn of 1788^ the agent of the
merchants in England, and the agent of
the merchants in India, formed an union
of interefts, and affociated themfelves under
/§■      '•     a joint NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
a joint flock, to carry on the fur trade of
America. They accordingly equipped a fhip
called the Argonaut, under the direction of
Mr. Colnet, a lieutenant in his Majefty's
navy, and who had commanded in the years
1787 and 1788, the fhip Prince of Wales of
London, belonging to the merchants trading
to America. This fhip had performed her
voyage to the coaft, and returned to China
with a valuable cargo of furs in 1788, and
from thence to England, laden with teas on
account of the Eaft India Company. Mr.
Colnet quitted the Prince of Wales in
China, to command the Argonaut, and take
charge of the affociated merchants property on the coaft of America. Of his nautical abilities I fhall only obferve, that they
are fuch as to receive no addition to their
reputation from any teftimony of mine :
he accordingly prepared the Argonaut for
fea, and the Princefs Royal of London, a
veffel belonging to the fame commercial fo-
ciety. '      '■■•''        • lr  ,' ,. ;
Thefe fhips were not ready for fea till
the 17th of April, 1789; when, on comparing the tracks of the Felice and the Iphigenia, and the time they met theMonfoon
or Wefterly winds in the Northern Pacific
Ocean, it was thought that the paffage to
America might be effected between Luconia and Formofa, with greater eate and
expedition than by purfuing the track by
Magindanao. || /
The Princefs Royal therefore failed in
February, and did not reach the coaft of
America in lefs than fixteen weeks : but
the tardinefs of her voyage arote from her
being a very heavy failer, and not copper-
bottomed.—Whereas the Argonaut, who
was both fheathed with copper and a prime
failer, left China the 26th of April, 1789,
and arrived in King George's Sound the 3d
of July following ; which wTas a paffage that
exceeded our moft fanguine expectations.
The future navigator from China to America, is here prefented with four different
tracks of that voyage. But if it fhould be
my lot to be again engaged in it, I fhould
leave China early in the month of March,
and endeavour to make a paffage between
Lucqnia and Formofa, in order to gain the
Pacific Ocean, where, at that feafon, variable
winds might be expeCted to the Northward
of 2Q°; and when the violence of the North
Eaft Monfoon would alfo be much abated in
the China feas. Indeed, in the month of
April, there would be almoft a certainty of
meeting the South Weft Monfoon or Wef-
terly winds in the latitude of 250 or 300
North, which prevail there, and blew us
home to the American fhore.   #/ ■»
On leaving Canton, great care fhould be
taken to work fome diftance up the coaft of
China, between the Lema Ifles, and as high
as Pedro Blanco, or the White Rock, before
the China fea is croffed for Formofa: but no
paffage, I think, fhould be attempted between the rocks of Ville Rete and the South
end of Formofa, except during the day, in
clear weather, and with the appearance of
a free channel.
chap. I72
CHAP.   IX.        ■•/    :||
The commodious Situation of Friendly Cove, in
King George*s Sound. —Great Numbers of
the Natives affemble to view the Ship.—The
Joy of Comekela on his Arrival, &c.—Han-
napa, a Chief comes on board.—Comekela
prepares to go on Shore.—His Drefs, &c.—
Employments of the Crew.—The Arrival of
Maquilla, Chief of King George's Sound,
with Callicum, a Perfon the next in Rank to
him.—A Defcription of their Dreffes, and
the Ceremonies they praSiifed on feeing the
Ship.—Leave obtained to build an Houfe
and Veffel.—Callicum attaches bin felf to the
Ship and is appointed Protestor of the Party
on Shore, by Maquilla.—-An Houfe built.—
Keel of a Veffel laid.—Some Account of the
Murder of Callicum by the Spaniards, in the
following Tear.
rT^K H E fhip had been moored but a very
J-     fhort time, when it began to blow a
tempeftuous gale of wind, with very heavy
rain ; the commodious fituation,,  therefore,
'      .     II of NORTH  WEST COAST  OF  AMERICA.
of Friendly Cove, made us truly fenfible
of our good fortune, in being thus tecurely
placed in a protecting haven, where neither
ftorm or tempeft could alarm our fears or
trouble our repofe.
Our earlieft attention was invited to a
multitude of the natives, affembled on the
banks in front of the village, in order to
take a view of the fhip. Comekela, who
feveral days had been in a ftate of the moft
anxious impatience, now enjoyed the inex-
preffible delight of once more beholding his
native land, to which he returned with the
confcious pride of knowledge acquired by
his voyage, and in the poffeffion of thofe articles of utility or decoration, which would
create the wonder, and encreafe the refpeCt
of his nation. His joy, however, received
no inconfiderable interruption from the ab-
fence of his brother Maquilla, the chief
of King George's Sound, and his relation
Callicum, who flood next in rank to the
fovereign. Thefe chiefs were, at this time,
on a vifit of ceremony to Wicananifh, a
powerful prince of a tribe to the Southward.
Of this circumftance we were informed by
Hannapa, who in the abfence of the two
fuperior 2 74
VOYAjGES  to  the
fuperior chiefs was left in power at Nootka,
and who was come on board to pay us a
vifit.    ' •"   : '       If;    ' .     ;i   "   :     :S
; At this time Comekela was dreffed in a
fcarlet regimental coat, decorated with brafs
buftons,—a military hat fet off with a flaunting cockade, decent linens, and other appendages of European drefs, which was far
more than fufficient to excite the extreme
admiration of his countrymen. Nor was
Hannapa infenfible to the appearance of
Comekela; for he regarded him not only
with the moft prying attention, but alfo
■with ftriklng expreffions of that envy which
is a very prevalent pafiion among the natives of this part of America.      Jf1
In a fhort time the fhip was furrounded
with a great number of canoes, which were
filled writh men, women and children ; they
brought affo confiderable fupplies of fifh^
and we did not hefitate a moment to purchafe an article fo very acceptable to people
juft arrived from a long and toilfome voyage,
In the evening the weather cleared up, and
Comekela prepared to go on fhore. The
news of his intention wTas foon communicated to  th
1*1 * 1 *     .      !
poured forth all its inhabitants to welcome
him to his native home.
Comekela had now arrayed himfelf in all
his glory.    His fcarlet coat was decorated
with fuch quantities of brafs buttons and
copper additions of one kind or other, as
could not fail of procuring him the moft
profound refpeCt from his countrymen, and
render him an obieCt of the firft defire among*
the Nootka damfels.   At leaft half a fheet
of copper formed his breaft-plate; from his
ears copper ornaments were fufpended, and
he contrived to hang from his hair, which
was dreffed en queue, fo many handles of copper faucepans, that his head was kept back
by the weight of them, in fuch a ftiff and
upright pofition, as very much to heighten
the Angularity of his appearance.    For various articles of his prefent pride Comekela
had been in a ftate of continual hoftility
with the cook, from whom he had contrived to purloin them ; but their laft and
principal ftruggle was for an enormous fpit,
which the American had feized as a fpear, to
fwell the circumftance of that magnificence
with which  he  was  on   the  moment of
dazzling the eyes of his countrymen ;—and
May. II
fituated as we were, this important article of
culinary fervice could not be denied him. In
fuch a ftate of accoutrement, and feeling as
much delight as ever fed the pride of the
moft fplendid thrones of Europe or the Eaft,
we fet out with him for the fhore, when a
general fhout and cry from the village af-
fured him of the univerfal joy which was
felt on-his return. it'-^J '.$v A-- / -M '
The whole body of inhabitants moved
towards the beach, and with a moft unpleafant howl, welcomed him on fhore. At the
head of them appeared his aunt, an old
woman of about eighty years of age, and,
from her appearance, might have been fuppofed to have lived in a continual ftate of
filth and dirtinefs from her birth to the moment in which we beheld fuch a difgufting
objeCt. She embraced her nephew with
great affeCtion, and fhed the fcalding rheum
of her eyes on the cheek of Comekela.
After the firft ceremonies of welcome were
over, and the firft gaze of admiration fatis-
fied, the whole company proceeded to the
king's houfe, into which perfons of rank
were alone permitted to enterv and where a
magnificent feaft.of whale blubber and oil
Vvas prepared : the whole company fat down
with an appetite well fuited to the luxuries
of the banquet: even the little children
drank the oil with all the appearance of
extreme gratification ; but Comekela's tafte
feemed to have been in fome degree vitiated
by the Indian and European cookery, and
1 he did not enjoy his native delicacies with
the fame voracious gluttony as if his ftomach
had never known the variety of other food
than that of Nootka. The evening was paffed in great rejoicing; their longs and
dancing continued during the greateft part
of the night. We returned on board early
in the evening; but we heard for a long
time after the found of their feftivity.
Nootka is fituated on a riling bank, which
fronts the fea, and is backed and ikirted
with woods*. In Friendly Cove the houfes
are large, and in the common fafhion of the
country. Each of thefe manfions accom-
modates feveral families, and is divided into
partitions,  in  the  manner of  an Englifh
* A particular account of the village or town of
Nootka, is referved for that part of this volume which
will treat at large of the commerce, geography, &c. of
the North Weft Coafi of Air erica.
Vol. I. M * ftable, m
VOYAGES to the
ftable, in which   all kinds of dirt, mixed
May.    with blubber, oil and fifh, are difcovered by
more fentes than  one, to form  a mate of
undefirable filthinefs.
Wedriefdayi4    On the 14th, the weather was   fuffici-
ently fair  to admit of our difpatching  a
party on fhore to ereCt a tent for the wTooders
- * -      and waterers, as well as on£ for the fail-
f  makers. For this purpofe a fpot was chofen
'   •   %        at a fmall diftance from the village, and
contiguous to a rivulet.    The reft of the
crew were employed In unreefing the run-
§   ning rigging, unbending the fails, and the
other neceffary duties of the fhip.
Friday 16      Qn the 16th, a number of war canoes entered the cove, with Maquilla and Callicum;
they moved with great parade round the
fhip, ringing at the fame time a fong of a
pleafing though fonorous melody :—there
were twelve of thefe canoes,  each of which
contained about eighteen men, the greater
part of whom were cloathed in  dreffes of
the moft  beautiful fkins of the fea otter,
which covered them from their necks to their
ancles.    Their hair was powdered with the
white down of birds,   and their faces bedaubed with red and black ochre, in the
form of a fhark's ja\#, and a kind of fpiral
line, which rendered their appearance extremely favage. In moft of thefe boats there
were eight rowers on a fide, and a fingle
man fat In the bow. The chief occupied a
place in the middle, and was alfo diftin- '
guifhed by an high cap, pointed at the crown,
and ornamented at top with a fmall tuft of
We liftened to their fong with an equal
degree of furprife and pleafure. It was, indeed, impoffible for any ear fufceptible of
delight from mufical founds, or any mind
that was not infenfible to the power of
melody, to remain unmoved by this folemn,
unexpected concert. The chorus was in uni-
fon, and ftriCtly correct as to time and. tone;
nor did a diffonant note efcape them.—■
Sometimes they would make a fudden trail-
fition from the high to the low tones, with
fuch melancholy turns in their variations,
that we could not reconcile to ourfelves the
manner in which they acquired or'contrived
this more than untaught melody of nature.
—There was alfo fomething for the eye as
well as the ear; and the a&ion which accompanied their voices, added very much to
,.    M 2 the
May, i8o
the impreffion which the chaunting made
upon us all. Every one beat time with un-
• deviating regularity 5 againft the gunwale of
the boat, with their paddles; and at the end
of every verfe or flanza, they pointed with
extended arms to the North and the South,
gradually finking their voice's in fuch a fo-
lemn manner, as to produce an effeCt not
often attained by the orcheftras in our quarts r of the globe.
They paddled round our fhip twice in
this manner, uniformly rifing up when they
came to the ftern, and calling out the word
wacufh, wacufh, or friends. They then'
brought their canoes along-lide, when Ma-
quilla .and Callicum came on board. The
former appeared to be about thirty years, of
a middle fize, but extremely well made, and
poffeffing a countenance that was formed to
intereft all wrho faw him. The latter feemed
to be ten years older, of an athletic make,
and a fine open arrangement of features, that
united regard and confidence. The inferior
people were proper and very perfonable men.
A feal-fkin filled with oil was immediately
handed on board, of which the chiefs took
a fmall quantity, and then ordered it to be
5 returned ■   %
returned to the people in the canoes, who
foon emptied the veffel of this luxurious
liquor.       v   v
A prefent, confifting of copper, iron, and
other gratifying articles, was made to Ma-
qnilla and Callicum, who, on receiving it,
took off their tea-otter garments, threw
them, in the moft graceful manner, at
our feet, and remained in the unattired garb
of nature on the deck.—They were each
of them in return prefented with a blanket,
when, with every mark of the higheft fatis-
faCtion, they defcended into their canoes,
which were paddled haftily to the fhore. ||
, The manner in which thefe people give
and receive prefents is, we believe, peculiar to themfelves. However coftly the gift
may be in their own eyes, they wifh to take
away all idea of conferring any obligation
on the receiver of it. We have feen two
chiefs meet on a vifit of ceremony provided
with prefents of the richeftfurs, which they
flung before each other with an air that
marked the moft generous friendfhip, and
rivalled that amiable interchange of kindnefs
which diftinguifhes the more polifhed nations of the world.
■ H M 3 From iir r.
Saturday 25
From the time of our arrival at Nootka
to the 25th, we had much bad weather; but
that circumftance, however unpleafant, [did
not prevent us from engaging in the different
operations we had in view. Maquilla had
not only moft readily confented to grant us
a fpot of ground in his territory, whereon
an houfe might be built for the accommodation of the people we intended to leave
there, but had promifed us alfo his affiftance
in forwarding our works, and his protection
of the party who were deftined to remain
at Nootka during our abfence. In return
for this kindnefs, and to enfure a continuance of it, the chief was prefented with a
pair of piftols, which he had regarded with
an eye of folicitation ever fince-our arrival.
Callicum, who feemed to Jiave formed a
moft affectionate attachment to us, was alfo
gratified, as well as the ladies of his family,
with fuitable prefents: it indeed became our
more immediate attention to confirm his regard, as he bad been appointed by Maquilla
to be our particular guardian and proteCtor,
and had the moft peremptory injunctions to
prevent the natives from making any depredations on us* vf■
.'"'■      But
But however difpofed we might be to
rely on the friendihip of thefe chiefs, we
thought it prudent, during the negotiation
between us, to inform them of our power,
by explaining the force we poffeffed, and
the mode of applying it, in cafe they fhould
at any time change their prefent difpoiitions
towards us. We wifhed to operate on their
fears as well as their gratitude, in order to
fecure, with greater certainty, the objeCt of
our voyage.
J      o
Great   advances were made in  buildingWednefdayas
the houfe, which on the 28th was completely
finifhed. In the very expeditious accomplishment of this important work, the natives
afforded us all the affiftance in their power,
nxot only by bringing the timber from the
j    j 00
woods, but by readily engaging in any and
every fervice that was required of them.
When the bell rung for our people to leave
off work in the evening, the native labourers
were always affembled to receive their daily
pay, which was diftributed in certain proportions of beads or iron. Such a proceeding
on our part, won fo much upon their regard
and confidence, that we could not find em-
M 4 ployment f&t
ployment for the numbers that continually
folicited to engage in our fervice.
The houfe was fufficiently fpacious to
contain all the party intended to be left in
the Sound.—On the ground-floor there was
^mple room for the coopers, fail-makers, and
other artizans to worjs in bad weather : a
large room was alfc fet apart for the flores
and provifions, and the armourer's fhop \yas
attached to one end of the building and communicated with it. The upper-ftory wTas
divided into an eating-room and chambers
for the party. On the whole, our houie,
though it was not built to fatisfv a lover of
architectural beauty, was admirably well calr
culated for the purpofe to which it was
deftined, and appeared to be a ftruCture qf*
"uncommon magnificence to the natives of
King George's Sound*
o o
. A ftrong breaft-work was thrown up
round the houfe, enclofing a confiderable
area of ground, which, writh one piece of
cannon, placed in fuch a manner as to command the cove and village of Nootka, formed a fortification fufficient to fecure the
party from any intrufioh. .Without this
breaft-wcrk, was laid the keel of a veffel of .   NORTH WEST COAST  OF   AMERICA.1
40 or 50 tons, which was now to be built    1788.
agreeable to ovr former determinations. JUNE-
By the 5th of June, our operations were Thurfdayj
confiderably advanced ; the fhips had been
caulked, the rigging repaired, and the fails '
were overhauled ;— flone ballaft had been
received on board, as we found the danger of
tend ballaft, on account of its choaking the
pumps, and the fhip was wooded, watered,
and got ready for fea. All this various and
neceffary bufinefs was done, though the weather had been very indifferent from the time
of our arrival, having had almoft continual
heavy rains, with foutherly winds. Thefe
rains had entirely wafhed the fnow from
off the ground, and except on the fummits
of the mountains and the higher hills, fmall
patches of it only were now to be feen ; but
vegetation was ftill very backward, and
changed but by a very gentle gradation the
dreary appearance of the country on our
The party deftined to remain on fhore
were bufily employed in their various occu*
pations : fome were engaged in bringing
the timber from the woods at a great diftance, and through a thick foreft of very
difficult VOYAGES   TO   THE
difficult paflage ; others in tewing and fha-
June.     ping it for the feveral purpotes to which it
§  was to be applied, while the armourers were
bufy in making bolts, nails, &c. ready for
ufe, or forging iron into the neceffary articles of trade; fo that, by proceeding on a
iyftem of order and regularity, we had, in
a very little time, formed our new dock-
It   yard, in  which  the carpenters had already
laid the keel, and raifed, bolted and fixed
the flern and flern-poft ; fo that expectation
had but a little while to look forward,  till
it would be gratified in feeing this veffel fit
for the fervice to which it was deftined.
If hiftories of navigation were written
merely to amufe the leifure hours of the
rich, or to tetisfy the eager enquiries of
the philofopher, much of the minute parts
of fuch a work as this would be neceffarily
omitted, as unentertaining to the one, or
beneath the notice of the other; but narratives of voyages are applicable to other
purpotes; and, if they fhould not prove in-
ftruCtiveto future navigators—if they fhould
not tend to aid and facilitate the progrefs of
commercial enterprize, the difficulties and
dangers  of fuch voyages muft have been
encountered in vain, and the time employed
in writing an account of them be added to
the w'afte of life.
The good harmony and friendly inter-
courte which fubfifted between us and the
natives, will, we truft, be confidered as a
proof that our conduCt was regulated by
the principles of humane policy ; while the
generous and hofpitable demeanour of our
faithful allies will convey a favourable idea
of their character, when treated with that
kindnefs which unenlightened nature de-_
mands, and is the true objeCt of commercial policy to employ.
The various offices of perfonal attachment which we received from many individuals of thefe people, were fufficient to
convince us that gratitude is a virtue well
known on this diftant fhore,-—and that a
noble fenfibility to offices of kindnefs wa$
to be found among the woods of Nootka.
Callicum poffeffed a delicacy of mind and
conduCt which would have done honour to
the moft improved ftate of our civilization ;
a thoufand inftances of regard and affeCtion
towards us might be related of this amiable
man, who is now no more; and the only
'If-'   ''    '   3 return
return that we* can make for hisyfriendfhip
is to record it, witn every expreffion of horror and deteftation of that inhuman and
wanton fpirit of murder, which deprived his
country of its brighteft ornament, the future navigator of a protecting friend,—and
drove an unoffending and uteful people from
their native home, to find a new habitation
in the diftant detert*.
* This amiable chief was- fhot through the body
in the month of June, 1789, by an officer on board one
of the (hips of Don Jofeph Stephen Martinez. The
following particulars we received from the mafter of the
North Weft America, a young gentleman of the mofr.
correct veracity, who was himfelf a mournful witnefs
of the inhuman acl:—
Callicum, his wife and child, came in a fmall canoe,
with a prefent of fifh, along-fide the PrincefTa, the commodore's fhip; and, the fifh being taken from him
in a rough and unwelcome manner, before he could
prefent it to the commander, the chief was fo incenfed
at thjs behaviour, that he immediately left the fhip, exclaiming as he departed, fejhae, fejhde ! the meaning of
which is, bad, had I—This conduct was confidered as
fo offenfive, that he was immediately fhot from the
quarter-deck, by a ball, through the heart. The body
on receiving the ball, fprung over the fide of the canoe
and immediately funk. The wife was taken with her
child, in a flate of ftupefaction to the fhore by fome of
her friends, who were witnefTes of this inhuman ca-
taflrophe. Shortly after, however, the father of Callicum ventured on board the Spanifh fhip, to beg permiffion to creep for the body beneath the water, when
this fad requeft of parental forrow was refufed, till the
poor afflicted favage had collected a fufficient number
of ikins among his neighbours to purchafe, of chrif-
tians, the privilege of giving fepulture to a fon whom
they had murdered. The body was foon found, and
followed to its place of interment by the lamenting
widow, attended by ail the inhabitants of the Sound,
who exprefled the keenefl forrows for a chief whom
they loved, and to whofe virtues it becomes our duty to
give the grateful teftimony of merited affection.
CHAP.   X.
Methods employed, by the Natives to advance
the Price of Sea Otters Skins.—Their Superiority in arranging their Bargains between
us.—ConduEl of Comekela,—Made a Chief
through our Influence.—His Marriage.—The
Magnificence of the Entertainment on the Oc-
cafion,—Maquilla and his Chiefs affeffi our
Drefs and Manners.—Valuable Prefent of
Maquilla.—A Grind/lone fiolen.—An human
Hand offered for Sale.—Narrow Efcape of
the Natives on the Occafion.—Melancholy Lofs
efPart of the Crew of the Imperial Eagle, in
i j$j.—-SuJpicion that Maquilla is a Cannibal.—Extraordinary Pillow of Callicum.—
The Inhabitants of Friendly Cove remove to
a fmall Difiancc.—The Reafons and Facility
of their Removal.—A young Otter brought
for Sale.
TN the interval between our arrival and th
fifth of June, a very brifk trade had been
carried on for furs, and we had procured
npwards of one hundred and forty fea otter
ikins.  On our firft arrival we had flipulated
a certain price for every different kind of
fur, according to its value; but in the whole
bufinefs of this traffic they availed themfelves
of every advantage ; and it was our intereft, from the views of future benefit, to
fubmit to any deviation they attempted to
make from their original agreement.
After fome little time they changed the
whole order of their traffic with us; and
inftead of common barter, according; to the
diftinCt value of the articles exchanged, the
whole of our mercantile dealings was carried on by making reciprocal prefents; the
ceremony of which was accompanied with
the utmoft difplay of their pride and hofpi-
tality.—The particulars of thefe cuftoms are
related at large in that part of the work
which is more particularly affigned to commercial information.
Whenever Maquilla or Callicum thought
proper to make us a prefent, one of their
perfonal attendants was fent to requeft the
company of the Tighee, or Captain, on fhore,
who always accepted the invitation, charged
with fuch articles as were intended to be
prefented in return. On our arrival at the
habitation of the chiefs., where a great number
June.* m
ber of fpeCtators attended to fee the cere«^
mony, the fea otter fkins were produced
with great fhoutings and geftures of exultation, and then laid at our feet. The filence
of expectation then fucceeded among them,
and their moft eager attention was employed
on the returns we fhould make; nor can it
be fuppofed, that, confidering our credit as
Britifh merchants, we were deficient in affording the expeCted fatisfaCtion:—befides,
it had been artfully enough hinted by our
Nootka friends, that as foon as their prefent
ftock of fkins was exhaufted, they fhould
go upon an expedition to procure more ; and
this was one circumftance, among others,
which naturally tended to quicken thefpirit
of commerce between us.
Since the firft difcovery of this Sound by
Captain Cook, feveral fhips had arrived there
for the purpofe of trading with the natives,
who had acquired a greater degree of civilization from fuch a communication than we
expeCted to have found amongft them;—-but
it was a matter of fome furprize to us, that
they appeared, at leaft to our obfervation,
totally deftitute of European articles : for,
of all the iron, copper, beads, &c.  which
they muft have received in return for their
furs, not a particle of them was now to be
feen ;—nor is it eafy to conjecture in what
manner they had contrived, in fo fhort a
time, to diffipate their treafures.
The ficklenefs that they at times difcovered
in their traffic, was occafionally very trouble-
fome. At one time copper was their favourite dbjeCt; at another, iron was the only
commodity in eftimation among them; beads
would alfo have, their turn of preference.
But this hefitation in their choice was generally determined by a medley of them all.
Comekela was, at firft, very aCtive in forwarding our commercial arrangement; but
he had become very deficient in his native
tongue, and he now fpoke fuch a jargon of
the Chinefe, Englifh, and Nootkan languages, as to be by no means a ready interpreter between us and the natives ;—be-
fides, in returning to the manners of his
country, he began to prefer the interefts of
his countrymen, and, amidft the renewed
luxuries of whale-flefh, blubber and oil, to
forget the very great kindneffes we had be-
ftowed upon him.—But as he had, through
our influence, been raifed into a fituation of
Vol. I. "    ■   N truft June.
•:■  ^-.:    Voyages to the     :
truft and honour, it was not our intereft td
unfold our fufpicions of his duplicity and
ingratitude towards us. Maquilla had committed to him the care of his moft valuable
treafures, among which wTas a brafs mortar,
left by Captain Cook, which was held in
the higheft degree of eftimatlon by the Nootka Chief. This piece of culinary furniture
was elevated from a ftate of fervile ufe, to
become a fymbol of royal magnificence. It
was kept extremely bright, and, in vifits,
or meetings of ceremony, it was borne before Maquilla, to aid the fplendor of the regal character.—It was therefore an objeCt
rather to recall his former difpofitions towards us, by the continuance of our friend-
fhlp, than tojuftify his deviation from that
regard which it wras his duty to manifeft in
our favour. We therefore exerted our influence with his brother Maquilla, to elevate
him at once to the character of chief, by
marrying him to a woman of rank in his
own diftrict. This favour was immediately
granted to our folic!tation, and we were invited to the nuptials, which were folemnized
with all poflible magnificence. — Half a
whale, a large quantity of other fifh, with
an adequate proportion of oil, formed the
fumptuous part of this entertainment, which June*'
was ferved with a furprizing degree of regularity to near three hundred people, who
conducted themfelves with great order, and
expreffed extreme fatisfaCtion at the fplendor
and hofpitality of their chief. .   1|
On the 6th, a meffenger came on board   Friday $
from Maquilla, with the information that he        ;if|
was preparing to make us a Very fuperb prefent,  and to defire our attendance on fhore, |j
in order to receive it.—We immediately
waited on the chief, and found him dreffed M
in an European fuit of cloaths, with a ruffled     jf
fhirt, and his hair queued and powdered :—p
thefe decorations of his perfon were part of      ff
thofe prefents which Comekela had received
from us, and were, with all their weight of
copper ornaments, confidered as a proud di-
ftinCtlon of Nootka royalty.    The king was
furrounded with  feveral   chiefs, who were
all adorned with  fome particular article of
Englifh drefs, which appeared to afford an
uncommon gratification to their vanity; and,
on this occafion, they had cl^anfed their faces
from all the oil and ochre with which they
were ufuallv bedaubed.—Indeed, the meta-
morn n nil c VOYAGES   TO   THE
morphofis was of fuch a nature, as, on our
firft entering the houfe, to puzzle us a little
in the recognition of our friends. This cir-
cumftance afforded them confiderable entertainment, which was followed by their rifing
up and imitating our mode of lalutation. The
manner of taking off their hats, the curious
geftures they fell into, in fcraping and bow-»
ing to each other, with a few Englifh words
which they had acquired, and now repeated
aloud, without connection or understanding,
compofed a fcene with which they were
delighted,  and we could not be difpleafed.
o 7 r
When thefe good-humoured ceremonies were
over, the chief ordered feveral very fine fea
otter (kins to be produced before us, and afterwards fent on board the fhip ; .to which
;i:lhe added a very fine deer, that had been juft
killed in the woods by one of his people*
We were not backward in making a fuitable
prefent to Maquilla; and, on our return to
the fhip, we found that the otter-fkins had
preceded us.
The arrival^ of Comekela had infpired
thefe people with a decided preference for
the articles of European drefs;—an hat,
a fhoe, or a flocking, would generally turn
the balance of commercial negotiation in our
favour:—nor did we negleCt any motives
in our power to encourage a fancy which
might promote the ufe of woollens amongft
On the 7th, a complaint was made by the Saturday 7
cooper that his grindftone had been flolen by
the natives.'—This was the firft aCt of de-    < j fl
predation that we had fuffered ;—indeed the ■
different fhips that had vifited the Sound
before us are teid to have endured a fimilar   |    .||j
lofs. ' We had obferved that the attention of
the people had been principally directed to flf
this flone, being convinced that it contained
fome peculiar charm, by which it communicated, with fuch little trouble, fo fharpan
edge to our iron ; an operation which they
found a matter of no common difficulty.   '    1|
The lofs of this article was of fome importance ; and every means was exerted to
recover it, but in vain ;—even our application to Maquilla was not attended with the
ufiial fuccefs.—It was, howrever, thought
more prudent to connive at the theft, than
engage in a difpute with the people;—we
therefore contented ourfelves with iffuing
ftriCt orders that none of the natives, except      1
3 the
ffie chiefs, fhould, in future, be admitted
within the breaft-work that furrounded the
r On the 8th, a ftrange canoe with feveral
people in it entered the cove, and coming
alongfide the fhip, fold us a fmall number of
fea otter fkins:—they alfo offered for tele an
human hand, dried and fhrivelled up, the
fingers of which were compleat, and the
nails long; but our horror may be better
conceived than expreffed, when we faw a
feal hanging from the ear of one of the men
in the canoe, which was known to have be^
longed to the unfortunate Mr. Millar, of the
Imperial E^gle, whofe melancholy hiftory
was perfectly well known to every one on
board*.    The failors fearcely hefitated  a
* The Imperial Eagje was a fhip employed to collect
furs on the Coaft of America, in the year 1787. In
the courfe of this bufmefs, the Captain difpatched his
long-boat from King George's Sound, on a trading
expedition as far as 470 North; fhe then anchored
a-breafxof a river, the (hallows at whofe entrance prevented the long-boat from getting into it. A fmall
boat, however, which was attached to the other, was
fent up the river with Mr. Millar, an officer of the Imperial Eagle, another yourig gentleman, and four feamen.*-*? KORTH  WEST COAST Of AMERICA.
moment in expreffing their opinion that it
mvjft have been the hand of Mr. Millar, and
that the people before them were the murderers of that officer. This fufpicion would
have caufed the certain death of our vlfitors,
if it had not been fuggefted that the feal in
queftion might have been transferred, by a
fucceffion of barters, to the prefent poffef-
for.—The being in poffeffion of the hand
was, however, confidered as fo prepdndera-
•Ihg a circumftance, that it was no eafy
matter to keep the failors in due bounds;
and who, after all, could not be reftrained
from driving thefe people awray from the
fhip, with every mark of infult and detef-'
tation. They proved, however, to be innocent of the crime of which they had been
fufpeCted; as we were affured, the next
day, by Maquilla himfelf, on his own knowledge, that they had received the articles
which had occafioned fo much difguft to us,
in the way of trade, from the natives of
Queenhythe,   which  was  the   very  place
men.—They continued rowing till they came to a village, where they were fuppofed to have been feized and
murdered by the natives, as their cloaths were afterwards
found flamed with blood.
where Mi*^Millar and his affociates had been
murdered.—But the chief did not attempt to
deny that the hand had belonged to one of
our unhappy countrymen; and, from his
manifeft confufion in converging: on this
fubjeCt, and various other concurring circumftances, which will be related hereafter, we were very much difpofed to believe
that Maquilla himfelf was a cannibal.—
There is, indeed, too much reafon to apprehend that the horrible traffic for human flefh
extends, more or lefs, along this part of
the continent of America. Even our friend
Callicum repofed his head, at night, upon
a large bag, filled with huma?n fkulls, which
he fhewed as the trophies of his fuperior
courage ; and it is more than probable, that
the bodies of the victims to which they
belonged, had furnifhed a banquet of victory
for him and the warriors who fhared his
favage glory.
On the fame day Wicananifh, a powerful
chief to the Southward, at whofe court
Maquilla was vifiting when we arrived in
the Sound, came to return the vifit, with
two war canoes, and the greater part of his
numerous fuite fuperbly dreffed in furs of
the higheft eftimation. ||Thefe people were   1788,
of a more   thriving  appearance   than  our    Juke.
friends at Nootka, which arofe, probably, 'ffl|||
from their being fituated on a part of the
coaft where whales were in greater plenty ;,      jl
—for this article, on which much of the   ||
fuftenance, and all their luxury depended,.
was beginning to be foarce in Nootka Sound*, |§§
Wicananifh paid us a formal vifit on board
the Felice, and invited us to his place of re- |f    ||
fidence, w^ith a promife of great abundance
of furs;—but  we  could  not, at prefent,
tempt him, or any of his attendants, by any |
articles in our poffeffion, to part with the
beautiful dreffes which they wore.     #1^
On the 10th, we obferved a general com- Tuefday **
motion throughout the  village, and, in a
O o    7 '
fhort time, as if by enchantment, the greater!        S
part of the houfes difappeared.—When we
went on fhore, Maquilla informed us that
his people were preparing to remove to a bay
which was at the diftance of about two miles
from the Sound, on account of the great §
quantities of fi(h which refbrted thither, not       "   fjjf
only to procure a  prefent flock of whale
and other fifh, but to take the earlieft op-,     |f
' •        portunity    ak.
WW tot
portunity to prepare for their winter's fub*
fiftence. .-W.    \,   ' ■&■  _ •% ■':!§.
( The manner in which the houfes of
Nootka are conltruCted, renders the embarkations as well as debarkations a work of little time and ready execution, fo that a large
and populous village is entirely .removed to
a different flation with as much eate as any
other water carriage. But a more particular
account of thefe and fimilar circumftances
relating to the manners and cuftoms of
thefe North Weftern Americans, will, as we
have before had occafion to obferve, be given
in another part of this volume.
Several young tea otters were brought on
board for tele, which found no purchafers.
One of them was brought alive ; the dams
and all their whelps had been killed by Maquilla, except this, which, however, had
met with fome very rough treatment, as
one of its eyes had been evidently forced out
of its focket. It was very fmall, made a
noife exaCtly like a young child, and was the
moft animated creature we had ever feen
among the brute race.—After keeping it a
day or two, we threw it into the fea, in
order to let it efcape ; but, to our great fur-
prize, we found that it could neither dive
or fwim, but continued flouncing about in
the water till we retook it on board, when
it foon after died from the bruifes it had received.—This circumftance is, however,
eafily accounted for, as the dam of the fea
otter is well known to carry its young ones
an its back till a certain period, when they
have acquired both ftrength and habit to
take care of themfelves.
.| CHAP.   XI. * v     v|i..
Ship prepares to put to Sea.—The Pinnace flolen
by the Natives,—Impoffbility of recovering
her.—Some Uneafineffes on board the Ship,—
Officers and Party intended to be left on fhore,
landed.—Provifions made for equipping the
new Veffel.—The Safety of the Party confuted.—Progrefs of the new Veffel.—Health
of the Crew.-^-Supplies of Fifh.—A formal
Vifit to Maquilla, and Renewal of the Treaty,
&c.—He is made acquainted with the probable
Time oftbelvuiGENiA's Arrival Reqhefis
. a I^etter for the Captain.—Our Afionifioment
at his Knowledge, and by what Means it was
obtained.—Story of Mr. Mace ay.—Callicum
arrives from hunting the Sea Otter.—Articles which had belonged to Sir Jofeph Banks
in his Poffeffion.—The Ship puts to Sea.—
Plan of future Proceedings, &c. &c.
JNT the 1 ith of June, the weather being
fine and moderate, the fhip was unmoored and towed by the boats out of
Friendly Cove, in order to put to fea: it
had been our intention to have departed on
the oth, but we fuffered an accident which
very much diftreffed us: this was no lefs
than the lofs of the Pinnace, a very large
fine boat, and the only one of the kind we
had. |rWe were difpofed to believe, at firft,
that fhe broke adrift from the fhip in the
night, in a guft of wind, without being perceived by the watch ;—but in the morning
fhe was not to be feen, and both boats and
canoes were difpatched in fearch of her,
but to no purpofe of fuccefs. Large rewards were then offered to the natives if
they would reftore her, as, from a variety of
circumftances, we had no doubt but that fhe
was in their poffeffion. Maquilla and Callicum both afferted their innocence in the
ftrongeft terms; but it afterwards appeared,
as we fufpeCted, that the boat had been flolen and broken up for the fake of the iron
and nails, which were afterwards difperfed
throughout the Sound. 1    i;.
This theft threatened, at firft, a rupture
between us and the chief; and while there
were any hopes of producing the reftoration
of the Pinnace, we aifumed rather an appearance of refentment; but when we were
convinced that the recovery of the boat was
im- 2o6
impracticable, we let the matter pafs over
without any further buftle or difturbance.
Had we, indeed, proceeded to take any fleps
towards a retaliation, it would probably have
occafioned a breach between us and the chief
of Nootka, which might have been difad-
vantageous to our commercial objeCts in
general, and been attended with evident danger to the party we fhould leave behind us.
We therefore contented ourfelves with warning Maquilla againft any depredations of a
fimilar nature, and fufpending the quarter-
mafters from their flations, as it was from
their negleCt that this very diftreffing inconvenience proceeded.
11 There ftill continued to lurk amongft
the crew thofe fymptoms of mutiny which
had, at times, difcovered itfelf in the early
part of the voyage ; though we had flattered
ourfelves that it was entirely eradicated previous to our arrival at Samboingan. The
boatfwain had lately failed in that refpeCt to
the officers which the duties of his flation
indifpenfably obliged him to obferve.fBut
a proper degree of fpirit and exertion checked
fuch menacing conduCt, and he wras degraded from his fituation to the inferior duty
before the maft. Another boatfwain was appointed in his flead, and the whole of this
proceeding was entered in the log-book.
On the day previous to our departure we
landed the officers and party who were to
remain on fhore with the carpenters, in order
to compleat the veffel.    Proper inftruCtionsr
were   left   with the  commanding officer,
fhould the Felice fail in her propofed return, or any fatality happen either to her
or the Iphigenia, who  was expeCted in the
Sound by the latter end of the autumn.—
In cafe   fuch an  accumulated  misfortune
fhould befal  the expedition, we left every
neceffary ftore to equip the new- veffel for
fea, with fufficient provifions to carry her
to the Sandwich Iflands, where fhe would
be able  to obtain fufficient refrefhment to
enable her to proceed to China.    It was but
a neceffary duty to guard, as well as we
were able, againft every poffible calamity;
the fhip's company did not appear  to feel
any impreffions of an unfavourable omen,
and we left our friends on fhore with   the
moft chearing hopes of finding them at our
return, in a fituation of great advantage and
comfort. - ,J§.        ■    :^m
But, 1788.
But, independent of the veffel, we hoped
to reap very confiderable benefits from the
party on fhore ; at leaft we had every reafon
to expeCt that they would colleCt all the
furs taken by the inhabitants of King
George's Sound during the fummer months,
which we knew muft be confiderable. We
were, at all events, very certain that they
would remain free from difturbance and mo-
leftation ; for befides a piece of cannon
mounted on the works, the little fort was
well fupplied with arms and ammunition ;
and the garrifon, including the artificers,
was fully fufficient to defend it againft any
power that could be brought againft it.    -
The veffel was in great forwardnefs, feveral of her floor-timbers were laid, and the
armourers had prepared a large quantity of
nails and bolts. There was eftablifhed, befides, a very convenient rope-walk, and we
had already begun to manufacture that e{-
fential article. So that, if ail the circumftances of ereCting a comfortable and commodious houfe, ballafting and equipping the
Felice for fea, and the laborious bufinefs of
procuring timber and preparing materials for
the conftruCtion of the new veffels, with
fome few  neceffary attentions to our com-    1788.
mercial  arrangements, gbe   confidered, the    JUNE-
accufation of idlenete or negligence, would
be the laft that the moft unrefleCting injuftice
could lay to our charge. !
On our firft arrival   in   the   Sound the '
country appeared moift, dreary, and uncomfortable ; but we obfer\*ed very little fnow
then on  the ground, and  that little was
quickly wafhed away by the heavy  rains        . Jtf
which   fucceeded our  arrival:—we  found     •
the   air  remarkably  mild,   and the   frefh
greens and onions, which were in the great-   I
eft  abundance, foon   reftored   the invalids
we had on board to a ftate of perfect health.
<"■ Our  fupplies  of fifh were conftant and      |f
regular, and the natives never failed to bring
to daily tele as much of this article as they
could fpare from the demands of home con-
fumption. Jjb
On the eve of our departure, a formal vifit
was paid Maquilla, in order to acquaint him -V-
that on the next day we propofed to leave
the Sound.    We made him understand that   ■.' - s
it would be three or four months before    |f;
our fhip would return, and about what time
we fuppofed the veflel on the flocks would   tv
Vol. 1 O be JUNE\
Voyages to the
be launched. They called the latterAfe*
matlee, or fhip, and the former Tighee Ma-
matlee, or great fhip. The chief was alfo
requefted to fhew every mark of attention
and friendfhip to the party we fhould leave
on fhore ; and as a bribe to fecure his attachment, he was promifed that when we
finally left the coaft, he fhould enter into
full poffeffion of the houfe and all the goods
and chattels thereunto belonging. As a
proof of our immediate regard, he was prefented with a fuit of cloaths covered with
metal buttons, in his eyes of extraordinary
eftimation; feveral prefents were made to
the ladies of his family; and as we were
taking our leave, an old lady, the aunt of
Comekela, whom we have already defcribed
as a mate of age and filthinefs, requefted,
in a very earneft manner, to be indulged
with a pair of buckles, which, immediately
on her receiving: them, were hung: in her
O 7 o
ears, with the fame pride that European
beauty feels in decorating its charms with
the g;ems of India..
Maquilla, who was glowing with delight
at the attentions we had paid him, readily
granted every requeft we thought proper to
make, north West coast of America*
ffiake, and confirmed, with the ftrongeft
affurances of good faith, the treaty of friendihip which had been already entered into
between u$. He was now alfo informed that
another fhip was expeCted in the Sound,
which might probably arrive in our abfence,
and that the Captain of this fhip was our
particular friend. On receiving this intel*
ligence, he very much aftonifhed us by demanding, without the leaft hefitation, that
we would leave a letter with him for our
friend, the chief. We had not the leaft idea
that thefe people had the moft imperfect
notion of our poffeffing the faculty of com*
municating our thoughts to each other on
paper; and curiofity was inftantly awake,
to know by what means they could poffibly
have acquired fuch an article of information.
It was, however, foon fuggefted to us, that
thefe people obtained their knowledge from
a Mr. Maccay, who had remained, we believe, upwards of fourteen months among
them, during which time he had kept a journal, which we have feen, and the circum*
fiance of which cannot be paffed over without
fome account of the- bufinefs which occa-
O 2 fioned
June. *7'
fioned his being left to nothing better than
favage life.     ■' .4-'>||b   ■   - '•■ ,:S^t^tti
The fhips Captain Cook and Experiment
had been equipped under the direction of
Mr. Scot,—whofe mercantile experience and
fpirit are acknowledged in Europe as well
as in India,—from Bombay to America, for
the purpofe of collecting furs:—they arrived on the coaft in the year 1786, and
left Mr. Maccay, the furgeon's mate o®
hoard one of them, with his own entire con-
fent and approbation, under the protection
of Maquilla. Mr. Strange, who Jgpd the
fuperintendence of thefe fhips, entertained
an opinion that very great commercial effeCts
might proceed from leaving Mr. Maccay
with the natives of King George's Sound,
to learn their language, cuftoms and manner's. He was, therefore, accordingly left
in the year 1786, and continued with them
till 1787, when he embarked for China on
board the  Imperial Eagle. ||;.
Though this gentleman had been furnifh-
ed with cloaths and provifions for his flay at
Nootka, he was reduced to the level of a
favage; and we hardlv could conceive how
O     ' J
it was poflible for an European conftitution NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
to fupportitfelfwlth foodaverfe to its habits
and its nature,—to live in every fpecies of
filth, and fatisfy even hunger with train oil
and blubber. But thiis was not all,—during;
Mr. Maccay's flay, from the length and
feverity of the winter, a famine reigned at
Nootka Sound : the flock of dried fifh was
expended, and no frefh fupply of any kind
was to be caught; fo that the natives were
obliged to fubmit to a ftated allowance, and
the chiefs brought every day to our coun-
trymen, the ftated meal of feven dried herrings heads. The perufal of this gentleman's journal would fhock any mind tinctured with humanity. The favages, however, gave him a w7ife, and once or twice
took him with them to feafts and diftant
parts; and we can vouch, whatever their
conduCt may have been, that both the chiefs
at Nootka and Wicananifh enquired concerning his welfare as if they felt the affection for him which they expreffed.
Maquilla was therefore indulged with a
letter agreeable to his requeft ; and we were
not long in making the difcovery, that a
dread of the Iphigenia's arrival would prove
a ftronger protection to our party, than all
O q the
■ ii
the kindnefs we had beftowed on, and all
the promifes which we had received from
Callicum, who had been gone for fome
time to hunt otters, was now returned, and
itgave-us no little fatisfaCtion that the chief
on whom we had the moft reliance, and
who was the profeffed proteCtor and patron
of our party, was come back to Nootka,
previous, to our departure from it. The
nfual tokens of friendfhip paffed between
lis; but, in return for-the prefent we now
made him, he furprifed us with three pieces
of a brafly metal formed like cricket bats,
on which the remains of the name and arms
of Sir Jofeph Banks, and the date of the year
^775, were very evident. On one of them
the engraving was not fo much injured as to
prevent the whole of it from being very
intelligible; on the others, part of thefe
diftinCt marks was worn out.' But thefe
tokens of regard were returned to the amiable chief, to continue the remembrance of
the original donor of them, to whofe enter-
prifing and philofophic fpirit we may be
faid to be in a great meafure indebted for
the difcovery of a coaft, which, in fpite of
every impediment,, will, I truft, prove a
fource of beneficial commerce to our country.    .
On putting to fea, it was determined to
trace the Southern part of the coaft from
King George's Sound, as the Iphigenia was
to trace the Northern part of it, from Cook's
River to the fame place; by which arrangement the whole of the American continent from 6o° to 450 North would be explored, with various intermediate places
which were not examined by Captain Cook.
We accordingly fet fail, after having given
repeated inftruCtions to the party we left
behind, to hold themfelves continually on
their guard againft the natives,—and to be
extremely attentive to preferve the moft
perfect harm6ny with the inhabitants of
Nootka Sound.
CHAP.     XII.
The Chiefs Hanna and Detootche vifit the Ship en
her Way to the Refidence of Wicananifh, &c»
—Wicananifh arrives on board, and pilots the
Ship into his Roadfied.—Numbers of the In-?
habitants come off to the Ship.—The Face of
the Country 'and the Village of Wicananifh
defcribed.—Vifit paid to the Chief.—Defcription of his Houfe.—Their Ingenuity a Subject
of Afionifhment.—Immenfe Family,of Wican-
mifih.—His Wives; their Beauty, &c.-^~
Brifk Trade carried en with the Natives.—
Murder of a Stranger by the People of the
Village.—The Ship obliged by bad Weather to
enter the inner Port, named Port Cox.
N the nth of June in the evening, we
were purfuing our courfe to the South
Eaft, at the diftance of three miles from
the fhore, when, at funfet, Breaker's Point,
which forms the Eaftern fhore of the entrance
of King George's Sound, bore in the direction
pf North Weft half Weft, and a point ap-
peared ftretching to the Southward of Breaker's Point, which obtained the name of
Half-way Point, on account of its being
about rriidway between King George's Sound
and the refidence of Wicananifh. This
point bore Eaft, and our diftance from the
fhore might be about three leagues. By a
medium of feveral amplitudes and azimuths,
the variation of the compafs was 210 g
Eafterly.        '   . .  || .
We continued our courfe till eleven
o'clock, with the long-boat in toVv, when it
was thought prudent to heave to for the
night. At day-break on the 12th, we made
fail, with the wind variable. At noon the
obferved latitude was 490 22' North, though
we yet obferved Breaker's Point bearing
North Weft by North; and at the fame
time faw an high mountain over the entrance
of Wicananifh, bearing Eaft North Eaft, at
the diftance of feven leagues.
As we purfued our courfe, under an eafy
fail, in order to examine the coaft between
our prefent pofition and King George's
Sound, the wind veered to the South Eaft
by Eaft, and the weather became overcaft;
as this wind was direCtly againft us, the
I Ihip
fhip was tacked, and we flood out to fea,
being apprehenfive of bad weather, which
we generally found to attend the South Eaft
winds. Our fears were foon and very fully
confirmed, for the weather became fqually
and violent. The top-fails were clofe reefed;
and we continued flanding to fea to procure
an offing, the moft important objeCt of. attention on this coaft. In the night it blew
very hard from the South Eaft, with an
heavy fea, thick weather, and conftant as
well as violent rain. At midnight the fhip
was wore, and we ftood in for the land.    :
At day-break on the 13th, the weather,
though it cleared away at times, had a very
tempeftuous appearance; our diftance from
the land might be i\x leagues, and the remarkable hill above Wicananifh appeared
very plain in the form of a fugar-loaf: it
bore North Eaft by Eaft feven,leagues. As
we ftood in for the fhore, feveral canoes came
off to us from a clufter of iflands nearly
abreaft of us, in moft of which there were
upwards of twenty men, of a pleafing appearance and brawny form, chiefly cloathed
in otter fkins of great beauty. They paddled along with great  velocity, and after
fome time, two of the boats came along-fide,
and the people in them did not hefitate to
come on board. Amongft them there were
two chiefs, named Hanna and Detootche,
who refided at a village abreaft of the fhip.
They were the handfomeft men we had feen:
—Hanna was about forty, and carried in his
looks all the exterior marks of pleafantry and
good humour; Detootche was a young man,
who to the beauty of form, added the graces
of manner; and, as far as our penetration
could difcover, the better qualities of the
mind. They appeared to be perfectly at eafe
in our fociety, fhook every perfon on board
by the hand, and gave us very friendly in*
vitations to receive the hofpitality of their
territory. They were extremely prefling
that the fhip fhould go in among the iflands.
But as we had predetermined to feek out
the refidence df Wicananifh, which we were
inftruCted was not far from King George's
Sound, we kept flanding with that view
towards the iflands, which, as we approached, appeared to be low and woody, but
we could perceive ^no practicable channel
between them.    Hanna and Detootche, to
whom iflllPw
1788.   whom we had made fome trifling prefents,
June,    now took their leave and paddled on fhore.
About noon   the weather broke up, and
the wind veered to the Northward of Eaft,
with which we ftood along the fhore to enter
between this range of iflands and the main ;
when we  perceived  another fmall fleet of
canoes approaching us, in the fore moft of
which we faw Wicananifh, who, in a fhort
time came on board, and undertook to pilot
us himfelf into his harbour, the entrance of
which, as he pointed it out to us, was at the
diftance of about five miles.
Boats were now fent a-head to found, and
we followed,  under an  eafy   fail;   when,
after rounding the extremity of the ' South-
ernmoft  ifland,   we  entered the  roadfted,
§f   '      pairing between feveral reefs of rocks.   Our
K-   II foundings were very regular;   and, about
one o'clock, we anchored between the main
and the iflands, being pretty well fheltered
from the fea.    Wicananifh proved an excellent pilot, and was not only indefatigable
in his own exertions,  but equally attentive
j   to the conduCt of his canoes, in their attendance upon us. . '■  ^Jllt.,'
This roadfted bore the wildeft appearance 1^88.
that can be conceived, and was defended Juki*
from the fea by feveral fmall illets and reefs,
wfeich nearly connected them. The port we
obferved was fituated about two miles from
the anchoring ground we occupied, the entrance of which did not appear to be more
than twro cables length in breadth.
Abreaft of the fhip, on one of the Iflands, § , ftp!!
we perceived a village almoft thrice as large
as that of Nootka; from every part of which
we now faw the people launching their canoes, and coming off in fhoals to the fhip,
laden with fifh, wild onions, and berries,
which they difpofed of to the failors for
fmall bits of iron, and other articles of fimi-
lar  attraction. Wicananifh was  enter-       J|.
tained during the greater part of the day on        \
board, with  feveral of his friends, and at    || '.,.
night returned to the fhore, followed by a       %
long train of natives, who had waited to at-
O '
tend him. ,       ft
The very fine weather on the 14th, gave Saturday 14
us an opportunity to obferve the face of the
country, which appeared on all fides to be .
an impenetrable foreft, without any intervals       ||
of a clear country. Thevillage of Wicananifh |
1 ftand^ 1788.
ftands on a riling bank near the fea, and
is backed by the woods. In confequence of
a meffage from the chief to invite us to a
feaft at his houfe, we landed about noon,
when we were met by a large crowd of
women and children, and conducted by the
brother of Wicananifh to the place of entertainment, 'tr   *    ■ *ip   - fl
On entering the houfe, we were abfplute-
lv aflonifhed at the vaft area it enclofed.—
It contained a large fquare, boarded iip clofe
on all fides to the height of twenty feet,
with planks of an uncommon breadth and
length.   Three enormous trees, rudely "car
ved and painted, formed the rafters, which
were fupported at the ends and in the middle by gigantic images, carved Gut of huge
•J      O   O O       ' O
blocks of timber. The fame kind of broad
planks covered the whole to keep out the
rain; but they were fo placed as to be removed at pleafure, either to receive the air
and light, or let out the fmoke. In the middle of this fpacious room were feveral fires,
and befide them large wooden veffels filled
with fifh foup. Large flices of whale's
flefh lay in a ftate of preparation to be put in
fimilar machines filled with   water,  into
which the women, with a kind of tongs,
conveyed hot ftones from very fierce fires, >
in order to make it boil:—heaps of fifh
were ftrewed about, and in this central part
of the place, which might very properly be
called the kitchen, ftood large feal-fkins
filled with oil, from whence the guefts were
ferved with that delicious beverage.
The trees that fupported the roof were
of a fize which would render the maft of a
firft-rate man of war diminutive, on a com-
parifon with them; indeed our curiofity as
well as our aftonifhment was on its utmoft
ftretch, when we confidered the ftrength
that muft be neceffary to raife thefe enormous beams to their prefent elevation ; and
how fuch ftrength could be found by a people wholly unacquainted with mechanic
powers. The door by which we entered this
extraordinary fabric, was the mouth of one
of thefe huge images, which, large as it may
be fuppofed, was not difproportioned to the
other features of this monftrous vifage.—
We afcended by a few fteps on the outfide,
and after palling this extraordinary kind
of portal, defcended down the chin into
the houfe, where we found new matter for
aftonifhment In the number of men* women,
and children, who compofed the family of
the chief; which confifted of at leaft eight
hundred perfons. Thefe were divided into
groupes, according to their refpeCtive offices,
which had their diftinCt places affigned them.
The whole of the building was furrounded
by a bench, about two feet from the ground,
on which the various inhabitants fit, eat
and flept. The chief appeared at the upper
end of the room, furrounded by natives of
rank, on a fmall raifed platform, round
which were placed feveral large chefts, over
which hung bladders of oil, large flices
of whale's flefh, and proportionable gobbets
of blubber, j Feftoons of human feulls, arranged with fome attention to uniformity,
were difpofed in almoft every part where
they could be placed, and were confidered
as a very fplendid decoration of the royal
apartment. -I ||.  Jjk
When we appeared, the guefts had made
a confiderable advance in their banquet.—
Before each perfon was placed a large flice
of boiled whale, which, with fmall wooden
difhes, filled with oil and fifh foup, and a
large mufcle-fhell, by way of fpoon, com-
'-■"*' '     I.'.  Si        '     ■ pofed NORTH, WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
pofed the economy of the table. The fer-
vants were bufily employed in preparing
to replenlfh the feveral difhes as they were
emptied, and the women in picking and opening the bark of a tree which ferved thf pur-
,pofc of towels. If the luxury of this entertainment is to be determined by the vo-
racioufnefs with which it was eaten, and
the quantity that was fwallowed, we muft
confider it as the moft luxurious feaft we
bad ever beheld. Even the children, ancl
fome of them were not more than three
years old, poffeffed the fame rapacious appetite for oil and blubber as their fatherf.
The women, however, are forbidden from
eating at thefe ceremonials.   '^ . •
• Wicananifh, with an air of hofpitality
which would have graced a more cultivated
fociety, met us half way from the entrance,
and conducted us to a feat near his own, on
which we placed ourfelves, and indulged
our curiofity during the remainder of the
feanqyet, in viewing the perfpeCtive of this
jfingular habitation.
. The feaft being ended, we were defired
to fhew the prefents which were intended
for the chief;—a great variety of articles,
Vol. I. ;vw        p | brought
brought for that purpofe, were accordingly
difplayed, among which were feveral blankets and two copper tea-kettles. The eyes of
the whole affembly were rivetted on thefe
tinufual objeCts, and a guardian was immediately affigned to the two tea-kettles, who,
on account of their extraordinary value and
beauty, was ordered to place them with great
care in the royal coffers, which confifted of
large chefts rudely carved, and fancifully
adorned with human teeth.
About fifty m^n now advanced in the
middle of tfa^rea, each of them holding up
before us a fea otter fkin of near fix feet in
length, and the moft jetty blacknete. As
they remained in this pofture, the chief
made a fpeech, and giving his hand in token
of ffiendfhip, informed us that thefe fkins
were the return he propofed to make for our
prefent, and accordingly ordered them to be
immediately fent to the fhip. ■. :i\-.:
Our royal holt appeared to be entirely
fatisfied with our homage; and we, who
were equally pleafed with his magnificence,
were about to take our leave, when the ladies
of his family advanced towards us, from a
diftant part of the building, whither they
had retired during the entertainment. Two
of them had paffed the middle age, but the
other two were young, and the beauty of
their countenances was fo powerful as to
predominate over the oil and red ochre which,
in a great meafure, covered them. One of
the latter, in particular, difplayed fo fweet
an air of diffidence and modefty, that no
difguft of colour, or deformity of drefs, could
preclude her from awakening an intereft even
in minds cultured to refinement. We had
not, very fortunately, difpofed of all the
treafure we had brought on fhore, and a few
beads and ear-rings that yet remained, ferved
to give our vifit a concluding grace, by pre-
fenting them to thefe ladies of the court.
We continued till the 17th, carrying on
a very brifk trade with the natives. The
chief generally paid us a vifit every day, and
we lived on the moft friendly terms with
him and the whole village. The natives
brought us abundance of fifh of various
kinds. The falmon and falmon-trout was of
the beft flavour, and we generally received
cod, halibut, rock-fifh, and herrings frefh
from the fea; while the women and children
fold us cray-fifh, berries, wild onions,  fal-
P 2 lads.
l"t*  T*
J788.  ^a^s» atl<^ other efculent plants:—an occa*
June,    fional piece of venifon alfo heightened the
luxury of our table.
Tu€fdayi7     On the ijth, Wicananifh requefted our
attendance on fhore to engage in a barter for
|:   furs.   On our landing, we were conducted,
I   as before, to his houfe, where we found the
number of his family to be rather encreafed
f   than diminifhed.    No form or ceremony,
I   however,   was now employed ;   the whole
•family  feemed to enjoy  a  fociable  inter-
courfe with each other; the women were
permitted to eat with the men, and greatly
to "our fatisfaCtion, the whole company appeared with the familiarity of unbefmeared
faces,   fo  that we had an  opportunity of
examining the comelinefs of one fex, and
the beauty of the other.   This circumftance
led us to infer, that thefe people employ
paint only on days of feftivity and ceremony
The fea otter fkins and other furs were
now produced to the number of thirty, and
of the moft beautiful kind; which, after a
"1    confiderable deal of negotiation, we at length
%      purchafed ;   for we found, to our coft, that
, I*     thefe people, like thofe of Nootka, poffeffed
all the cunning neceffary to the gains of
mercantile life.    The  fame rage for prefents prevailed here, as in the Sound ; and
even the ladies would interfere in "making a.
bargain, and retard the conclufion of it, till
they had been gratified with an added offering, m
Juft as wre were going to embark, there was
a fudden and univerfal confufion throughout
the village; a confiderable number of canoes
were inftantly filled with armed men, and
being launched in a moment, were paddled
to the fhip.   At firft we wrere apprehenfive
that fome broil had taken place between the
natives and the crew;   but we were foon
fatisfied that a matter of political jealoufy,
refpeCting fome  of their neighbours, was
the caufe of this fudden commotion.    Some
ftrangers having ventured to vifit the fhip
without the knowledge of Wicananifh, the
chief had ordered his people to fall upon the
intruders, one of whom they had now feized
and brought on fhore. We are forry to add,
that this unfortunate man was immediately
hurried into the woods, where we have every
reafon to apprehend that he wras quickly
jnurdered.  We made the moftearneft inter-
P3 ceffion
June. -?     571
fll   '
cefiion in his behalf, and even proceeded to
threats on the occafion; but while we were
employed in the office of mercy, they, we
fear, were enjoying the barbarity of revenge. This event ftrengthened our opinion,
that however mild and friendly the behaviour
of thefe people might be to us, perhaps
under, the influence of fear, they were fierce
and cruel to each other. Indeed it had been
very generally obferved by us all, that at
times, their countenances told a very plain
tale of a favage mind.
. The weather was very bad till the 20th,
it blowing an hard gale of wind from the
South Eaft, with continual rain. At tiaies,
alfo, an heavy fwell rolledin upon us, which
rendered our fituation very unpleafant. > It
was therefore determined that we fhould
embrace the firft favourable moment to get
into the inner port, which had been already
furveyed, and was found to be not only convenient,   but  entirely defended  from  th$
winds. H
H In the evening it moderated, when the fhip
was got under fail, which was no fooner obferved by Wicananifh than he came on board,
and fafely piloted us into the harbour, which
we named Port Cox, in honour of our friend
John Henry Cox, Efq.—But not chufing to
truft entirely to the fkill of the chief on the
occafion, the boats were fent a-head to found,
particularly on the bar; on which we had
three and an half and four fathoms, and foon
after deepened our water to thirteen, fourteen and fifteen fathoms. It then decreafed
to eight, in which depth we dropped our
anchor in a fafe and fecure harbour.
H A P.   XIII.
The People ofWicananifio lefs civilized than thofe
at Nootka.—Certain neceffary Precautions give
offence to, and occafion a Coolncfs between us
.and the Chief.—Good Under/landing re/lotredf
and the Treaty of Friendflnp renewed.—Re-
ciprocal Prefents pafs on the Occafion.— The
£ of Fire-arms known to thefe People.—*
The Village removes to a fmall Difiance.—*
Treaty between Wicananifh, Hanna and Detootche. —Prefents on the Occafion. —Good Con-
fequences refulting to us from the Treaty.—
Prefents made to and received from Wicana-
tiifh.— Prefent arrives from King George's
Sound, &c—Preparefor Sea.—The Felice
proceeds on her Voyage.—Defcription of Port
N the firft view, the fubjeCts of this
chief appeared to be far lefs civilized
than our friends at Nootka; we therefore
proportionably enervated our precautions.—
Their numbers were very confiderable, and
the boldnefs they difcovered in all their
5        1 .     rf tranfac- NORTH WEST COAST OF  AMERICA.
tranfaCtions with us, gave us reafon to be*
lieve, that any relaxation of our vigilance
7 J O
might tempt them to a conduCt which
would produce ditegreeable contequences to.
us all. Befides, both in fagacity, as well as
activity, they were very fuperior to the inhabitants of King George's Sound.—Wicananifh himfelf, though rather inclined
to be corpulent, was athletic and aCtive;—■
his brothers poffeffed the fame advantages;
and all the young men were robuft, in a
continual ftate of exercife, and enured to
conftant labour. We obferved, that the moft
tempeftuous weather never prevented them
from going to fea, to ftrike the whale or kill
the otter:—fifhing was an occupation which
was followed only by the inferior claffes of
the people.—The dominions of this chief
were very extenfive, and the numerous tribes
who acknowledged his dominion, rendered
O 7
him a very powerful fovereign. We, therefore, had fufficient reafon to remain in a ftate
of preparation againft the poffibility of that
mifchief which it was in his power to do us,
and which opportunity might tempt him to
This *3*
This vigilance on our part, which was
confidered by the chief as diftruft in his
friendihip, gave him great offence, and occafion ed a fhort coolnefs between us.—On
•aturday n the 21 ft Wicananifh obferved that whenever
.   he paid us a vifit, the great cabin was decorated with arms, and that feveral blun-
derbuffes, &c.  were placed on   the deck;
I and not ofily left the fhip in great anger,
but refufed to trade with us himfelf, and
forbade his people from bringing us any fup-
M plies of fifh or vegetables.— It was not, how
ever, by any means, our intereft that things
fhould remain in this unpleafant, as well
as inconvenient fituation;  it was therefore
thought prudent to pay him a vifit of peace
Sunday 21 on the following day; when, by the conci-
§   liating pretent of a fword, with  a brate
handle, and a large copper difh, the treaty
of friendfhip was renewed ; and this reftora-
tion of good-humour was confirmed by a
prefent of five beautiful otter fkins, a fat
doe, and a fupply of fifh for the crew. The
generofity, as well as friendly conduCt of
the chief, on this occafion, feemed to demand
an extraordinary exertion of acknowledgment
on ours; and we made him happy beyond
cxpreffion, by adding to his regalia a piftol
and two charges of powder; a prefent which
he had long foliated. Indeed, the ufe of
fire-arms was known to this tribe previous
to our arrival among them.—When the Re-
folution and the Difcovery firft entered King
George's Sound, Wicananifh happened to be
there, on a vifit to Maquilla, and then acquired this unfufpeCted branch of knowledge.
On the 28th, we obferved that the whole
village removed from their clofe vicinity to
the fea, into the inner port, with the fame
eafy transfer which we had obferved on a
fimilar occafion at Nootka, and took up
their new pofition about a mile from the
fhip, on a point of land, juft within the
entrance of the harbour.
We were now formally made acquainted
by Wicananifh, that a treaty was negotiating
between the chiefs Hanna and Detor^tche
and himfelf, in which we were to be included ; the fubftance of which was,—that
all the furs then in their poffeffion fhould be
fold to Wicananifh ;—that they fhould live
in peace and friendihip with us;—that all
the otter fkins procured after the completion
June. ppub
of the treaty, by either of the contracting
chiefs, or their people, fhould be difpofed
of by themfelves, and that they were all to
have common accefs to the fhip, where a fair
and equitable market was to be opened for
them without diftinCtion.
• From the jealoufy which we already knew
to fubfift between thefe chiefs, we were perfectly fatisfied, as we fince had convincing
proofs, that, on our entering the territories
of Wicananifh, neither Hanna or Detootche
would be permitted to trade with, or even
pay us a vifit without having obtained a previous permiffion for that purpofe.    We had
not therefore urged or encouraged an inter-
courfe, which, though it would have been
very advantageous to us, might, and moft
probably would have brought on a war between the refpeCtive fovereigns. This treaty,
i o J *
therefore, gave us that extenfion .of com-
-merce which we fo much wifhed, in the regular courfe of friendly negotiation, and we,
were not backward in forwarding the com-
-pletion of It. p'   ....
This treaty, which was managed with all
the addrefs of refined policy, could not be
arranged according to the propofed condi-
tions, without an intrufion on the treafures
of Wicananifh, to which he knew not how
to fubmit; and this was no lefs than a demand of the copper tea-kettles hefo highly
valued: but as the ceffion of them was made
the governing article of the negotiation, they
were at length, though reluCtantly, configned
o        ' O -/ 7 O
to Hanna and Detootche, who immediately
gave up all the otter fkins in tneir poffeffion.
But the chief did not long remain without
being fully fatisfied by us for the lofs of his
favourite veffels, by our prefenting him with
fuch articles as would make him ample reparation, and which he, probably, had in
view when he made fuch a facrifi.ce. We
therefore, among other things, feleCted fix
brate h'ilted fwords, a pair of piftols, and a
mufket, wdth feveral charges of powder;
an,d we would even have replaced the treafures with which his coffers had been fo
lately enriched, but not a fingle*kettle was
to be found in the fhip. This prefent was
fent on fhore, and, including the returns to
it, we had now procured an hundred and
fifty fine otter fkins.   ".  ■ :%     Jt^;''
At this time a canoe very unexpectedly
arrived from King George's Sound, with a
prefent June.
prefent of fifh  from  Maquilla,   who had
been made acquainted with all our motions,
from the time we left his territories.   By
the fame opportunity we had the pleafure
of hearing that our party were well, and
4 continued to make fpeedy advances towards
'   J|       the completion of the veffel: as one of the
people, who was rather more intelligent
than the reft, by meafuring a certain number of fpans, contrived to inform us of the
|:       aftual ftate of the little mamailee, as he called
Kf her;—by which we underftood  that her
floor-timbers were laid.
I     The objeCt of our touching at this port
being now fulfilled, by having procured all
the furs in the poffeffion of Wicananifh, with
fome confiderable fupplies of the fame kind
j,    | from Hanna and Detootche, we now prepared to put to fea, to explore the coaft to the
Saturday a* Southward of this port.    On the 28th, the
fhip was warped out of the inner harbour
over the bar, and, in the evening, the road-
fted was cleared ;   when we purfued  our
courfe along fhore, with a light wefterly
breeze and fine weather.
The harbour of Wicananifh affords very
fecure fhelter, with good anchorage, both
in the roads and the inner port. An archipelago of iflands feems to extend from
King George's Sound to this place, and ftill
further to the Southward. The. channels
between thefe iflands are innumerable; but
the neceffary occupations of the fhip would
not allow us time to fend out boats for the
purpofe of examining them :—-as far, however, as our obfervation extended, we are
difpofed to believe that there is no channel
for fhips but that which we entered, and
which is an exceeding good one. ft >
Thefe iflands are covered thick with wood,
with but very few clear fpots, at leaft that
we could difcern. The foil is rich, producing wild berries, and other fruit in great
abundance. The timber is of uncommon fize,
as well as beauty, and applicable to any purpofe :—we faw frequent groves, almoft every
tree of which was fit for mafts of any di-
menfions. Among a great variety of other
trees we obferved the red oak, the larch, the
cedar, and black and white fpruce fir.
In all our commercial tranfaCtions with
thefe people, we were, more or lefs, the
dupes of their cunning: and with fuch peculiar artifice did they fometimes conduCt
them- »
o o
Voyages to the
themfelves, that all the precaution we could
employ, was not fufficient to prevent our
being over-reached by them.    The women,
in particular,   would  play us  a thoufand
tricks, and treat the difcovery of their fineffe
with ap arch kind of pleafantry that baffled
reproach.—They were very-fuperior in per-
fonal charms to the ladies of Nootka, and
poffeffed a degree | of modefty which is not
often to be found among the favage nations.
p 00
—No entreaty or temptation in our power
could prevail on them to venture on board
the fhip. But their beauty was- deftroyed
by the filthy application of oil and ochre
and a general inattention to that cleanlinefs
which Europeans confider as effential to female charms. We had an opportunity o
feeing an inftance of their delicacy, which,
from its Angularity, may not be thought unworthy of a relation.—
—Among other vi-
J o
fitors of the fhip, we were one day very
much furprifed by the appearance of a canoe
paddled along by women, and containing
about twenty of that tex, without a fingle
perfon of the other. As we had never teen
a canoe fo freighted before, it very much
engaged our attention ; and, while wre were
contemplating this company of ladies, a
young man leaped fuddenly among them
from another canoe; at which they were fo
alarmed, that, though they were- clad in
their beft array, they all threw themfelves,
in an inftant, into the fea, and fwam in a
body to the fhore.     ..•#"'    :f?f .■'■
The people of Wicananifh are alfo very
fuperior in point of induftry and activity to
thofe of King George's Sound. At break of
day, without regard to the weather, the
village was always empty; the men were
employed in killing the whale, hunting the
fea otter, or catching fifh, and the women
were in the woods, gathering berries, or
traverfing the tends and rocks in fearch of
cray and fhell-fifh. |    ; ^S        ft
During our flay here, many ftrangers arrived from the Southern part o^ the coaft,
on purpofe to vifit us' but they were not
only forbidden to trade, but to have any
communication with us: to which regulation we thought it prudent to fubmit. Thefe
vifits were very beneficial to Wicananifh,
and raited his importance with us, as we
found that all thefe people, coming from
various and diftant diftriCts, were fubjeCt
/ Vol. I.      *   ":M  Q^ V        I to
m 242
to his power. Befides the two villages already mentioned, he had feveral other places
of refidence,. to which he occafionally re-
forted, according to the feafon of the year,
the calls of neceffity, or the invitations of
pleafure. In one of thefe places we reckoned
twenty-fix houfes, each of which was capable
of containing an hundred inhabitants. In
fhort, fuch was the power and extenfive territory of Wicananifh, that it was very mucli
our intereft to conciliate his regard and cultivate his friendihip.
CHAP. ml
Purfue our Courfe to the Southward along, the
Coafi. — Numerous Villages feaied on the
Shore.—The Inhabitants come off to the Ship9
and their Difappointment at our not coming
to an Anchor.-r-Difcover the Straits of John
de Fuca.—Their Extent and Situation*~~>Ta-
tootche comes on board.—Long-boat difpatched
to find an Anchorage, dnd its Return.—Bad
Behaviour of the Natives.—Purfue our Courfe
along the Coaft.—Short Account of the Straits
of John de Fuca,—Ifland ofTatootche paffed.
Pafs numerous Villages.—Dangerous Coafi.
—Violence of the South Eaft Storms.—Cape
Flattery.—Village ofClaffet.—Ship enters the
Bay of ^ueehhithe.—Savage Appearance of
the Place.— See the Village of ^ueenuitett.—
I  DefiruSiion Ifie.—Danger of the Ship, &c. |
E now left Wicananifh,  and during
the  night of the   28th we  fleered
Eaft South Eaft, within three leagues of the |
land ; and on the morning of the 29th, we   SundaY39
found ourfelves a-breaft of a large Sound,
from ! 244
from whence wre faw a number of canoes
coming out to meet us.
The canoes very foon paddled up to us,
and fome of the people came on board. They
informed us that there wrere feveral villages in the Sound, but all under the jurisdiction of Wicananifh.—-As we had reafon
to believe that the chief had drawn all the
furs from this olacev we determined to avail
ourfelves of the prefent favourable feafon,
to proceed to the Southward, and to call at
this place on our return. The natives employed their utmoft perfuafions to keep us
fometime on their coaft, but on obferving
that the fhip was fleering its courfe beyond
their villages, they took their leave of us
with very evident marks of chagrin and dif-
We purfued our courfe to the Eaft South
Eaft along the fhore, at the diftance of three
miles, having croffed the mouth of the
Sound, which we obferved to be of no great
depth. At noon the latitude was 480 39'
North, at which time we had a complete
view of an inlet, whofe entrance appeared
very extenfive, bearing Eaft South Eaft,
diftant about fix leagues. 'j|We endeavoured
to i
to keep in with the fhore as much as poffible,
in order to have a perfect view of the land.
This was an objeCt of particular anxiety, as
the part of the coaft along which we were
now failing, had not been feen by Captain
Cook ; and we knew of no other navigator
faid to have been this way, except Maurelle;
aud his chart, which we now had on board,
convinced us that he had either never feen
this part of the coaft, or that he had pur-
potely mifreprefented it.
As we continued our courfe along the
land, wre perceived frequent villages on the
fhore, from whence we were vifited by canoes filled with people, who in their perfons and manners very much refembled thofe
of Port Cox, The different villages were individually anxious to keep the commerce of
the fhip to themfelves, and that we fhould
come to an anchor off their refpeCtive habitations ; but as the entire coaft was open to
the fea, even if we had been inclined to indulge their requeft, it would not have been
in our power. We, however, purchafed feveral fea otter fkins of them, and proceeded
on our courfe. j|
■  ' ; '■  '      BY
1- < :i I
B r
By three o'clock in the afternoon, we
arrived at the entrance of the great inlet
already mentioned, which appeared to be
twelve or fourteen leagues broad. From the
maft-head it was obferved to ftretch to the
Eaft by North, and a clear and unbounded
horizon was feen in this direction as far as
the eye could reach. We frequently founded, but could procure no ground with one
hundred fathoms of line. About five o'clock
we hove to off a fmall ifland, fituated about
two miles from the Southern land, that
formed the entrance of this ftrait, near which
we faw a very remarkable rock,  that wore
the form of an obeiiik, and ftood at fome
diftance from the ifland.
In a very fhort time we were furrounded
by canoes filled with people of a much
more favage appearance than any we had hi-
O 11 J
therto feen. They were principally cloathed
in. fea otter fkins, and had their faces grimly
bedaubed with oil and black and red ochre.
Their canoes were large, and held from
twenty to thirty men, who were armed with
bows, and arrows barbed with bone, that
was ragged at the points, and with large
fpears pointed with mufele-fhell.
We now made fail to clofe in with this
ifland, when we again hove to about two
miles from the fhore. The ifland itfelf appeared to be a barren rock, almoft inac-
ceffible, and of no great extent; but the
furface of it, as far as we could fee, was
covered with inhabitants, who were gazing
4at the fhip. We could by no means reconcile the wild and uncultivated appearance of
the place, with fuch a flourifhing ftate of
The chief of this fpot, whofe name is
Tatootche, did us the favour of a vifit, and
fo furly and forbidding a character we had
not yet feen. His face had no variety of
colour on it, like the reft of the people, but
was entirely black, and covered with a glittering tend, which added to the favage fierce-
nefs of his appearance. He informed us that
the power of Wicananifh ended here, and
that we were now within the limits of his
government, which extended a confiderable
way to the Southward.—On receiving this
information, we made him a fmall prefent,
but he did not make us the leaft return, nor
could he be perfuaded to let his people trade
with us. We had, indeed, already received
' \f ■ 0*4 fome
fome account of this chief from Wicananifh,
June,    who advifed us to be on our guard againft
him and his people, as a fubtle and barbarous nation.
It was our defign, if poffible, to eaft anchor here, and, with this view, the longboat was manned and armed, and fent under
the direction of a proper officer, to found
between the ifland and the main, in order to
;* find an anchoring-ground. The ftrongeft injunctions were given to avoid, if poffible,
any difpute with the natives, and a fmall
portion of trading articles was put in the
boat, in cafe the natives fhould be inclined
to barter.
After the departure of the long-boat for
the fhore, which was followed by all the
canoes, we kept tacking occafionally near
the ifland, which we had now an opportunity of examining with fome degree of mi-
nutenefs; and, in whatever direction we
beheld it, it appeared to be a barren rock,
furrounded with reefs, on which the fea broke
with great fury. We, however, had fome
hope that, between it and the main, a place
offhelter and fecurity might be found, as
the fituation would have been very conve* NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
nient, not only for the purpofe of exploring
the ftrait, but alfo for the extenfion of our
particular commerce.
About feven in the evening, the longboat returned without havingfound any pi tee
fit for anchorage, and having procured but
very few furs, f The ifland,  as the officer
informed us, was not of a deceitful appearance ; it was a folid rock, covered with a little
verdure, and furrounded by breakers in every
direction.    A great crowd of canoes came
off to the boat,  filled with armed people,
who behaved in a very diforderly manner;
feveral of whom jumped into the boat, and
took fome trifling articles away by force,
and then triumphed in  their theft.    Our
people were highly enraged at this conduCt,
and fully difpofed to  retaliate;—but  the
prudence of the officer kept them quiet, who,
being fearful of fome unpleafant eyent, had
no fooner made the neceffary examination,
than he returned on board.
We were perfectly convinced that Wicananifh had drawn from this chief a confiderable quantity of his furs, as we obferved
many of our articles about them, which
they could not have obtained but from Port
Cox or King George's Sound. One of the
June, natives in particular was in poffeffion of a
complete fet of coat buttons, wThich wras very
familiar to the memory of us all.
Being thus difappointed in obtaining an
harbour here, we continued our courfe to
the Southward, and examined the coaft with
great attention, in expectation of finding a
place of fecurity, from whence our boats
would be enabled not.onlv to examine this
ftrait, but other confiderable portions of the
coaft. With this view we made fail about
eight in the evening, and ftood along the
fhore, with pleafant and moderate weather.
The ftrongeft curiofity impelled us to enter this ftrait, which we fhall call by the
name of its original difcoverer, John D
Fuca. " '. 4h      - ' N.
Some accounts of the ftraits of Tohn de
Fuca are handed down to us from the very
refpeCtable authority of Hakluyt and Pur-
chas: the former of whom records the opinion which the minifters of Queen Miza-
. beth entertained of its importance. We
had now ocular demonftration of its exift-
ence.,—and we are perfuaded, that if Captain Cook had ieen this ftrait, he would
have thought it worthy of farther exami-   1788.
nation.—The circumftances which put it    JUN£#
out of our power to gratify the ardent defire
we poffeffed of executing fuch a defign, will        '$mm
be faithfully related, as we purfue the narrative of the voyage.-——A more particular
detail of this remarkable inlet may already
have been favoured by the reader's attention,
in the introductory memoir which treats of
the yet probable exiftence of a North Weft      If'
paflage. ,     ;       ,' * :J|
In the morning of the 30th of June, we Monday 3*
had made no great progrefs from the land, ,
as it was calm during the greater part of
the night.—The ifland of Tatootche bore
nearly South Eaft, diftant only three leagues.
About ten o'clock a great number of canoes
came from the ifland, in which there could
not be lefs than four hundred men, among ||1
whom we obferved the chief himfelf    They       I^M
aniufed themfelves in paddling round   the |jj
fhip, every part of which, but particularly
the head, they feemed to behold with ex-
treme admiration : indeed, it is more than
probable that the greateft part of them had §
never feen fuch a veffel before. We had
been already fo much difpleafed by the conduct
m 252
duCt of the chief, that we did not think
proper to invite him on board. The party,
however, gave us a fong, which did not
differ much from that we heard in King
George's Sound.    But offended as we might
o o
be with the people, we could not but be
charmed by their mufic.| Situated as we
were, on a wild and unfrequented coaft, in
a diftant corner of the globe, far removed
from all thofe friends, connections, and
circumftances which form the charm and
comfort of life, and taking our courfe, as
it were, through a folitary ocean; in fuch a
fituation the fimple melody of nature, proceeding in perfect unifon and exaCt meafure
from four hundred voices, found its way to
our hearts, and at the fame moment awakened and becalmed the painful thought.
About noon, a gentle breeze fprung up,
when we continued our courfe to the Southward along the fhore, at about the diftance
of three miles, and the natives of Tatootche
returned to their ifland. As we fleered
onwards, canoes continually came off from
the villages, which we obferved from time
o       7
to time, on the high banks clofe to the
fea.    The people in the different boats invi- NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
ted us in the moft earneft manner, to fleer
in for their refpeCtive villages ; but no means
we employed, and we took fome pains to
effeCt it, could prevail on any of" them to
venture on board the fhip.
The appearance of the land was wild in
the extreme,—immenfe forefts covered the
whole of it within our fight, down to the
very beach, which was lofty and cragged,
and againft which the fea dafhed with fearful rage. The fhore was lined with rocks
and rocky iflets, nor could we perceive any
bay or inlet that feemed to promife the leaft
fecurity to the fmalleft veffel: and unlefs
there were fome narrow coves, which were
imperceptible to us, we knew not how the
natives could find a fhelter, even for their
canoes; yet the villages we tew were neither
inconfiderable in extent or in number. As
we fleered along, the force of Southerly
florins was evident to every eye ; large and
extenfive woods being laid flat by their power, the branches forming one long line to
the North Weft, intermingled with roots
7 o
of innumerable trees, which had been torn
from their beds, and helped to mark the
furious courfe of thefe  tempefts ;   whofe
I IT "NT 17
violence 1 illlti
violence may be conceived, when we refled
on the great extent of ocean over which
they blow, without a fingle objeCt to impede
their progrefs or break their violence.
About feven in the evening, we had a diftant fight of Cape Flattery, fo named, as it
\m§ firft teen, by Captain Cook. It bore
South Eaft. half Eaft, at the diftance of fix
leagues. This head-land is laid down in
the latitude of 480 5' North, and longitude
2350 3'Eaft of Greenwich.—In our accounts
there was a very little difference, but we
are moft willing to place the error on our
fide. We had alfo a near view of the vil-
lage of  Claffet, which   is  fituated on an
O 7
high and fleep rock clofe to the fea.—
Though this place appeared to be of confiderable extent, one canoe only came off to
us, containing thirty men clad in fkins of
the fea otter.
The coaft from Cape Flattery feemed now
to trend entirely to the Southward ; nor
could we perceive any opening or inlet whatever, that promifed to afford us a place of
fhelter. As it was our defign to make a
particular examination   of this   coaft,  the
fhip was hove to at funfet, for the night.
-»• 1*0
"■   5 . % This
This part of the coaft was lined with rocks,
and feveral breakers ran off Claffet, at about
the diftance of half a mile.
At day-break, we refumed our. courfe,
Cape Flattery bearing North North Weft,
having been drifted in the night to the/Southward. The weather bore a very unfettled
appearance, and it blew ftrong from the Weft
South Weft, which was nearly on the fhore.
At feVen, the bay of Queenhithe opened to
our view, which we entered with all thofe-
unpleafing fenfations which may be fuppofed
to arife from the reflection, that we were
approaching the place where, and the people
by whom, the crew of the boat belonging
to the Imperial Eagle were maffacred.
As we fleered along the fhore, we obferved the fmall river and ifland of Queenhithe ; but it became, on a fudden, fo thick
and gloomy, that the land, which was at
about four miles diftance from us, was
fcarcely difcernible. We faw neither canoes
or inhabitants, and an awful filence reigned
around us. But though the village of Queenhithe was obfcured from our view, we could
very plainly difcern the town of Queenui-
tett, which is diftant from it about feven
Tudilay 1 256
or eight miles. It is fituatcdon an high
perpendicular rock, and is joined by a narrow and impregnable caufeway, twenty feet
in height, to the main land, which is an
entire foreft. With our glaffes we obferved
a multitude of houfes fcattered over the face
of the rock. As we advanced, DeftruCtion
Ifland was feen at the diftance of about a
mile, fituated in the middle of the bay, and
diftant from the main land about two miles:
it is low and flat, and without a fingle tree ;
it however prefented us the rare and plea-
fant fight of a confiderable fpace covered
with verdure; and appeared to be furrounded
by breakers, on which an heavy fea rolled,
occafioned by the. South Weft wind. In
this pofition we had ten fathoms over a
muddy bottom.
About eleven o'clock the wind veered to
the South Weft, which brought thick weather and rain, and we found ourfelves completely embayed,—a fituation we fhould very
gladly have avoided. An heavy fwell already rolled into the bay, which promifed to
prevent us very effectually from coming to
anchor, particularly if it blew from the
South Weft quarter, being direftly on the
land; which to the Southward was in fuch
a direction, that a South Eaft courfe would
not weather any part of it; nor, on the other
tack, could we hope to weather theWefter-
ly land, on account of the great Wefterly
fwell.    ; V • _:# '
In this fituation we ftood, as the better
tack, to the South South Eaft, until noon ;
when, being within half a mile of the fhore^
we were obliged to tack, and fland to the
Weft North Weft : our foundings were fif-
teen and eight fathoms clofe to the land,
which was covered with wood to the water's
edge. We remarked, however, that the
beach was not very fleep, and here and there
we obferved fome bare and fandy patches.
We now kept under a prefs of fail, as it
blew very ftrong ; nor dared we even to take
in a reef of the top-fail; befides, the weather
was fo thick, that we could not fee ai mile
a-head of the fhip. We, however, imagined
that we fhould be able to weather Deftruc-
tion Ifland, and continued under this croud
of fail to aYoid the danger before us ; when,
at one o'clock, it cleared up for a moment,
and we faw the ifland a point under our lee-
Vol. I. R        I
I 2<8
bow, at the diftance of a mile and an half,
an heavy tea drifting us faft in with the
There was now nothing to be done* but
to eaft anchor, which we prepared to do
in the wiideft place we ever beheld,—and
where we were morally certain our anchors
could not hold, though the bottom was mud,
from the ftrong tumbling in of an heavy tea.
In this fituation,—the diftrete of which
was not a little enhanced by the reflection
that we were on a fhore whofe barbarity
our countrymen had already experienced,-—
ten minutes muft have decided our fate \
when providentially the wind, on a fudden,
veered to the South South Eaft, which
enabled us to tack and fleer off the fhore
with a flowing fheet, and happy in the pro-
fpeCt of procuring an offing before night;—
for 1/ believe there was not a perfon on
board the fhip who had not reflected 011
the melancholy poffibility of his becoming
J     x J O
a victim to the cannibals of Queenhithe.
C H  A *>
Our Progrefs along the Coafi.—Difcover ShoaU
water Bay, which is inaccefftble to Ships.
—Natives come off.—Their honefi Dealing.
—Some Account of them.—We purfue our
< Courfe. — Deception Bay. — Difference between the Spanifh Charts of Maurelle and the
real Situation of the Coafi.—Beautiful Ap*
pearance of the Country.—Pafs ^uickfand
Bay and Cape Look-out.—See three remark*
able Rocks.—Clofe our Progrefs to the Southward.—Future Plan of proceeding.—Knowledge gained of the Coafi.—Parts left unexplored by Captain Cook now vifited.—Reafo?is
for returning to the Northward.—Purfue
our Courfe to the North.—Strait of fohn d$
Fuca feen again.'—-Anchor in Port Effing*
ham.—A Defcription of it, &c— Marine
Animals feen, &c.
rr* H E wretched fate of the people belonging to the Imperial Eagle, evidently predominated in the minds of our crew ;
and being on the very coaft where fuch an
aCt of barbarity was committed, the infeCti-
R 2 ous ■1
1788. ous apprehenfion of a fimilar deftruCtion,
July, fpread generally amongft them. It was the
common fubjeCt of their difcourfe, and had
fuch an influence on their fpirits, as to endanger the lofs of the fhip, in a manner
which will be related hereafter.
We continued ftanding to fea all the
evening of the firft of July, when,' at midnight, being of opinion that we had fufficient offing, we wore and ftood in again for
the land. At one o'clock in the morning,
U the wind veered to the Weft South Weft,
which encouraged us to hope for a fufficient
degree of favourable. weather to continue
our examination of the coaft.
Wednefd<,y2 On the morning of the 2d, at feven
o'clock, we again faw the land bearing Eaft,
at the diftance of feven leagues, wThich we
judged to be a little to the Southward and
Eaftward of Queenhithe. This land was
very remarkable from its having the appear-
<J Oil
ance of a faddle, and that part of it obtained
the name of Saddle Hill. We computed it
to be in the latitude of 460 qo/ North, and
longitude of 22$° 20' Eaft  of Greenwich.
O <J J
We ftood to clofe in with it, when it appear-
7 X  t
ed to be the Southernmoft point we had {een
the 1788.
the preceding day from DeftruCtion Ifland.
The wind veered again to the South South
Eaft, and at once damped our hopes of favourable weather. Heavy rain with a thick
fog fucceeded, which obliged us to tack, and
fland again to fea.
The bad weather continued all this day,
with an heavy fea from the Weftward, that
j 7
endangered the long-boat, which we had
towed aftern ever fince our departure from
King George's Sound. It was, therefore,
impoffible for us to encounter the land without running into extreme danger. Befides,
the moori was now near its change, a period
which, according to our obfervations, never ||
failed in thefe feas to bring bad weather
along with it.    We therefore carried a prefs
O X.
of fail, to obtain a good diftance from the
land ; which was, at this time, an objeCt
of no common confequence. M
On the 3d at noon, we had a glimpfe of Thurfday
the fun, and the latitude was 470 46' North.
The wind fhifted to the South Weft, on
Which we tacked and ftood to the South
South Eaft, immediately in for the land.
We now were at about the diftance of twenty
leagues from Cape Flattery. -,     - §
h       R 3 During
m wmm
788. During the night the weather was moderate and clear, and on the 4th the wind
fhifted to the South Eaft ; when we again
tacked and ftood to the Eaft North Eaft,
in order to near the land. We ftood thus
till fix o'clock in the evening, when the
land was {ecu bearing from North to North
Eaft. - In the Northern quarter it was of a
great height, and covered with fnow. This
mountain, from its very confpicuous fituation, and Immenfe height, obtained the
name of Mount Olympus. We computed
it to be In the latitude of 470 10' North, and
longitude 2350 Eaft of Greenwich. In the
North Eaft it ftretched itfelf out to a point,
which we judged to be in the latitude of
470 20' North. We kept ft and in g 111 for
the land, during the night, with a light
U breeze from the South Eaft ; and at fun-rife
Saturday5 on the 5th, it bore from North by Weft, to
Eaft by North, our diftance off fhore being
13 leagues; fo that in the night we had been
j§; affected by a confiderable current, which
had fet us from the land.
At noon the latitude was 470 i' North,
and the lofty mountains feen on  the pre-
1 ceding day, bore  Eaft North Eaft.,  diftant
feven leagues.—Our diftance might be four
leagues from the fhore, which appeared to
run in the direction of Eaft South Eaft,
and Weft North Weft, and there appeared
to be a large found or opening in this direction.
By two o'clock, wTe were within two miles
of the fhore, along which we failed, which
appeared to be a perfect foreft, without the
veftigeof an habitation. The land was low
and flat, and our foundings were from fifteen to twenty fathoms over an hard tend.
As we were fleering for the low point which
formed one part of the entrance into the
bay or found, we fhoaled our water gradually
to fix fathoms, when breakers were feen to
extend in a direction quite acrofs it, fo that
it appeared to be inacceffible to fhips. We
immediately hauled off the fhore until we
deepened our water to fixteen fathoms. This
point obtained the name of Low Point, and
the bay that of Shoal-water Bay ; and an
head-land that was high and bluff, which
formed the other entrance, was alio named
Cape Shoal water. The head-land we judg-*
ed to be in the latitude of 460 47' North,
Lv  4>
and the longitude 2350 n' Eaft of Greenwich.    Ji:. . -^ Jp|' ;-j|   ■ _;
The diftance from Low Point to Cape
Shoal-water was too great to admit of an
obfervation in our prefent fituation. The
fhoals flill appeared to run from fhore to
fhore; but when we were about midway,
we again bore up near them, in order to
difcover if there might not be a channel
near the cape : we accordingly fleered in for
the mouth of the bay, when we fhoaled our
water to eight fathoms. At this time the
breakers were not more than three miles
from us, and appeared to extend to Cape
Shoal-water, wrhen it was thought prudent
again to haul off. From the maft-head it
was obferved that this bay extended a con-
fiderable way inland, fpreading into feveral
arms or branches to the Northward and
Eaftward. The back of it wras bounded by
high and mountainous land, which was at
a great diftance from us. A narrow entrance
appeared to the North Weft, but it was too
remote for us to difcover, even with glaffes9
whether it was a river or low land.
We had concluded that this wild and de^
folate  fhore was without inhabitants, but
this opinion proved to be erroneous; for a
canoe now came off to us from the point,
with a man and boy. On their approach to
the fhip, they held up two fea^otter fkins;
we therefore hove to, when they came along-
fide and took hold of a rope, but could not
be perfuaded to come on board. We then
fattened feveral trifling articles to a cord,
and threw them over the fide of the fhip,
when they were inftantly and eagerly feized
by the boy, and delivered by him to the
man ; who did not hefitate a moment to tie
the two otter fkins to the cord, and waved
his hand as a fign for us to take them on
board,—which was accordingly done, and
an additional prefent immediately conveyed
to him in the fame manner as the former.
Thefe ftrangers appeared to be highly delighted with their unexpected treafure, and
feemed, at firft, to be wholly abforbed in
their attention to the articles which com-
pofed it; but their curiofity was in a fhort
time entirely transferred to the fhip, and
their eyes ran over every part of it with
a moft rapid tranfition, while their aCtions
expreffed fuch extreme admiration and afto-
nifhment, as gave us every reafon to conclude
1 mm
ill 11
elude that this was the firft time they had
ever been gratified with the fight of fuch an
We endeavoured to make ourfelves intelligible, by addreffing them in the language
of King George's Sound, which we had
found to prevail from thence to the diflriCt
of Tatootche ; but they did not comprehend
a word we uttered, and replied to us in a
language which bore not the leaft refem-
blance or affinity, as far as we could form a
judgment, to any tongue that we had heard
on the coaft of America. ,
§§:On a particular infpeCtion, we obferved
that the fafhion of their canoes differed from
thofe of their more Northern neighbours.
In their perfons and cloaths, indeed, they
refembled the people of Nootka; but we
obferved no ornaments about them which
could lead us to fuppofe that they had ever
before communicated with Europeans: neverthelefs, their firft holding up the otter
fkins, and the manner in which they conducted themfelves afterwards, plainly proves
that they had an idea of trade: indeed, it is
more than probable that fome of the natives
Qf Tatootche*s diftriCt may have occafionally
roamed thus far, and communicated the
intelligence of ftrangers arriving in fhips to
trade for furs. But there is every reafon to
believe that thefe people are of a different
and diftinCt nation from thofe of KinF
George's Sound, Port Cox, and Tatootche ;
nor is it improbable but that this very fpot
might be the extreme boundary of their dite
triCt on the North. In this perfuafion we
became doubly anxious to find fome place
of fhelter,—fome harbour or port where the
fhip could remain in fafety, while the boats
might be employed in exploring this part of
the coaft. .    • JL    -  . iif
During the time wre had been lying to for
thefe natives, the fhip had drifted bodily
down to the fhoals, which obliged us to
make fail,—when the canoe paddled into
the bay. It was our wifh to have fent the
long-boat to found near the fhoals, in order
to difcover if there was any channel; but
the weather was fo cloudy, and, altogether,
had founfettled an appearance, that we were
difcouraged from executing fuch a defign.—
o o o
Nothing, therefore, w^s left for us but to
co^ft it along the fhpre, and endeavour to
July. tn&f-'.m* jw
find fome place  where the fhip   might be
brought to a fecure anchorage.
We therefore continued our courfe ; and,
by feven o'clock, we were at no great diftanc
from Cape Shoal-water, when we again had
a clear and diftinCt view of the bay and
fhoals.—Our depth of water was fixteen
fathoms, over a fandy bottom, and the land
||1|§ extended to the Eaft South Eaft, from the
Mr Cape, from which we were   diftant  three
leagues. J The land to the Southward made
like iflands, but that circumftance was attributed to the fog, which now came thick
upon us. As night came on the fhip was
hauled off fhore and hove to, to *await the
return of day-light.
Sunday c The morning of the 6th was very unfavourable to the bufinefs of making dif-
coveries; — the wind veered to the North,
and blew very ftrong, with a great fea;—-
Cape Shoal-water bore Eaft by North fix
leagues; and the land was every where covered with a thick mift ; wre therefore did
not bear up till nine o'clock, when the
mift cleared from off the land.—As we approached it our foundings were very regular, from forty to fixteen fathoms, over a
fandy bottom.-—At half paft ten, being within three leagues of Cape Shoal-water, we
had a perfect view of it; and, with the
glaffes, we traced the line of coaft to the
Southward, which prefented no opening
that promifed any thing like ah harbour.—
JT jo
An high, bluff promontory bore off us South
Eaft, at the diftance of only four leagues,
for which we fleered to double, with the
hope that between it and Cape Shoal-water,
we fhould find fome fort of harbour.—
We now difcovered diftant land beyond this
promontory, and we pleated ourfelves with
the expectation of its being Cape Saint Roc
of the Spaniards, near which they are faid to
have found a good port.
By half paft eleven we doubled this cape,
at the diftance of three miles, having a
clear and perfect view of the fhore in every
part, on which we did not difcern a living
creature, or the leaft trace of habitable life.
A prodigious Eafterly fwell rolled on the
fhore, and the foundings gradually decreafed
from forty to fixteen fathoms, over a hard,
fandy bottom. After we had grounded the
promontory, a large bay, as we had imagined, opened to our view, that bore a very
»• -:f.       •■- !'     " Pr°-
July'. si
I ijiii
I fr'
a 7°
promlfing appearance, and into which we
fleered with every encouraging expectation.
J O       O X
The high land that formed the boundaries
of the bay, was at a great diftance, and a
flat level country occupied the intervening
fpace: the bay itfelf took rather a wefterly
direction. As wTe fleered in, the water
fhoaled to nine, eight, and {even fathoms,
? o •      7 '
when breakers were feen from the deck,
right a-head ; and, from the maft-head, they
were obferved to extend acrofs the bay.—
We therefore hauled out, and directed our
courfe to the oppofite fhore, to fee if there
Was any channel, or if we could difcover any
The name of Cape Difappointment was
given to the promontory, and the bay obtained the title of Deception Bay. By an
indifferent meridian obfervation, it lies in
the -latitude Of 460 io' North, and in the
computed longitude of 2350 34' Eaft. We
can now with fafety affert, that no fuch
river as that of Saint Roc exifts, as laid
down in the Spanifh charts : to thofe of
Maurelle we made continual reference, but
Without'deriving any information or affift*
O m
a nee from them.
S    3 I We North west coast of America.
We now reached the oppofite fide of the
bay, where difappointment continued to accompany us; and being almoft certain that
there we fhould obtain no place of fhelter for
the fhip, we bore up for a diftant head-land,
keeping our courfe within two miles of the
fhore. ■   -   *      " '-jl
The face of the country, however, affu-
med a very different appearance from that
of the Northern coaft. Many beautiful
fpots, covered with the fineft verdure, fo-
licited our attention ; and the land rote in
a very gradual a feen t to the diftant mountains, fkirted by a white, fandy beach down
to the fea. As we failed along, fpacious
lawns and hanging-woods everywhere met
the delighted eye,-—but not an human being
appeared to inhabit the fertile country of
New Albion.
As we thus purfued our courfe along the
fhore, obferving every part of it with the
moft minute attention, a large opening appeared a-head, which once more animated
our hopes, and formed a new fotirce of difappointment. In the offing it blew very
ftrong, and a great wefterly fwell tumbled
in on the land.    By {even o'clock we were
a- ureal* I
a-breaftof this opening, the mouth of which f
to our great mortification, was entirely
clofed by a low, fandy beach, nearly level
with the fea, which appeared to flow over
it, and form an extenfive back-water:—
beyond it an open champaign country extended to a confiderable diftance, where it
was confined by a boundary of lofty mountains. $: - 'Jffi,;  ; '     -
The bay was named by us Quickfand
Bay, and an adjoining headland Cape Gren-
ville ; — the diftant Southerly head-land,
we called Cape Look-out. This cape is
very high and bluff, and terminates abruptly in" the fea. At about the diftance
of two miles from it there rote three large
rocks, which were very remarkahle, from
the great refemblance they bore to each
other^—The middle one has an archway,*
perforated, as it were, in its centre, through
which we very plainly difcovered the dite
tant fea.—They more particularly attracted
our notice, as we had not obferved between
King George's Sound and this place, any
rocks fo confpicuoufly fituated from the
land : — their diftance from each other might
be about a quarter of a mile, and we gave
them the name of the Three Brothers.
By eight in the evening we were within
three leagues of Cape Look-out, which we
judge to lie in the latitude of 450 30' North,
and in the longitude of 2350 50' Eaft of
Greenwich. We were now convinced that
there was no opening between the Cape
and Quickfend Bay. ' . '
■'■ As we had met with nothing but dif-
.couragement, we here gave up all further
purfuit, and clofed our progrefs to the Souths
ward:—wre therefore hauled our wind, in
order to proceed again to the Northward.   '
It was our intention to take our courfe to
the great bay or found which we.had paffed
the day after our departure from Port Cox,
and from whence a large company of the
natives came off to us. This bay had, indeed, been already vifited by the fhip Imperial Eagle, where we had found a fecure
anchorage: from thence we propofed to
fend the long-boat, in order to explore the
ilraits, and to afeertain whether the inhabitants were a people diftinCt from thofe of
Nootka Sound.
Vol. I. S We
*We had now obtained no Inconfiderable
knowledge of the coaft of America, from
King George's Sound to Cape Look-out:
that is, from the latitude of 450 37' North,
to the latitude of 490 37' North.—We had
not only traced every part of a coaft which
unfavourable weather had prevented Captain
Cook from approaching, but had alfo afcer-
tained the real exiftence of the Strait of
John de Fuca, which now renewed its claim
to our attention. We moft anxioufly wifhed
to have continued our inquifitive courfe to
the Southward, as far, at leaft, as latitude
420, where it is faid Captain Caxon found a
good harbour; but the feafon was already fo
much advanced, that had we gone fo far to
the Southward, we fhould not have been
able to return to King George's■ Sound before the equinoCtial gales fet in ;—a feafon
to be dreaded on this coaft, more efpecially
when we knew of no harbour where we
could take refuge againft the violence of It:
o       o
Befides, we were influenced by a very natural
anxiety concerning the party wre had left at
Nootka :—they might have been in want of
our affiftance, and various circumftances
might have arifen, which would render our
feturn of importance to them, at leaft before the month of September:—Befides, if
we had purfued our Courfe to the Southward, we fhould have been altogether pre-
7 or
vented from examining the ftrait; as the
bad weather which we had every reafon to
believe we fhould experience on our return,
might, and in all probability would, prolong
the courfe of it to the middle of Auguft.—
As it was, we feldom enjoyed a fucceffion
of three days without either fog or rain.
• The equinoCtial gales blow with great
fury on the coaft of America, and generally
fet in from the ioth to the 15th of September,    We were  therefore apprehenfive
' XX
that they might driv