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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

A history of British Columbia. Part one, being a survey of events from the earliest times down to the… Gosnell, R. E. (R. Edward), 1860-1931; Scholefield, E. O. S. (Ethelbert Olaf Stuart), 1875-1919 1913

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       jL resented to (*hc Cibrccru, or
me clrupersttu, or SrittsK Columbia | Pcancouoer, by,
t)ictoria,d3.C.
April QK^A^Yl
  
SIXTY YEARS of PROGRESS
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Portraits of some of those
who laid its foundations
and whose memory for
years to come will be revered for their pioneer
services in behalf of all
who come after them
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JAMES COOK
  raat Nootka in 1792, as Com-
6tain in the settlement of
jtfremained ori and surveyed
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GEORGE VANCOUVER
  
GEORGE VANCOUVER
  SIR ALEXAN1ER MACKENZIE
Of the fcrth West Company,? who reached  the
Pacific Ctst at Bella Coola on July 20, 1793, on
■    . his  celebited journey overland;   the; first Iwhite
man to ctss the Continent of America.
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AlJ CANDER MACKENZIE
  ALEXANDER MACKENZIE
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SIMON FRASER
Agent of the'North West  Com who es
lished the first trading posts in||h Columbia,
and  who   was/the  first  in   1808. descend  the
Fraser River, named after him, tc mouth'
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SIMON FRASER
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The Honourable JOHN TOD
Born in 1791, and <Jrea Augus^*-31st, 1882. He was
the eldest of a large family, of whom the youngest
was Mrs. A. C. Anderson. At 16 he joined the Lord
Selkirk scheme of emigration and went to York
Factory on the Haakon's Bay. He traversed the
entire west to&the Columbia River, becoming in
time a chief factor of the company, spending many
years in the Western Department. His exploits
while in charge of the post at Kamloops are graphically described by Bancroft, and prove him to have
been a man absolutely devoid of fear, as well as
possessed'of great resourcefulness. He was first
" 'in Astoria in 1814 and was early connected with
Fort Vancouver. Tod retired about '48 and settled
at Cadboro Bay, and subsequently was a member
of the Council;,.appointed by Governor Blanshard
before leaving for England. He. was a profuse
and interesting letter writer, and, although eccentric in some respects, was a man of kind heart and
generous sentiments.
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JOHN TOD
  
JOHN TOD
  WILLIAM FRASER TOLMIE, M. D. (Deceased)
Born, Inverness,:_Scotland, February 3rd, 1812. Educated Glasgow, graduated as L. F. and P. and S.,
1832, taking post graduate cOifise in Paris in 1841.
Came  to  Fort  Vancouver,  Ore., via  Cape  Horn,
1833, and joined the Hudson's Bay Company's
service as doctor and clerk and was subsequently
a chief factor of the Company. :8w as agent of the
Puget Sound Agricultural'1^©. Came to reside
permanently in Victoria, 1858. Was a member of
the first Board of Education, and of the Legislative Assembly for Victoria District for two terms,
ending 1876. In' 183,4 was attached to exploratory
expedition under Peter Skene Ogden along North-;
west Coast as far as Russian Boundary. Was
botanist, ethnologist and. farmer.. Compiled comparative dictionary of the Haida language along
with Dr. G. M. Dawson. Died Cloverdale, Victoria, December 8th; 1886.
WILLIAM   FRASER  TOLMIE
  WILLIAM   FRASER   TOLMIE
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  ALEXANDER CAULFIELD ANDERSON
One of the most scholarly and intellectual of the
pioneers of the Province. Was born in Calcutta,
March 10th, 1814, and died May, 1884, in his 71st
year. Educated in England and early in life entered
the service of the Hudson's Bay Company, and about
1834 crossed the continent via the Yellowhead Pass
from York Factory to Port Simpson on the Pacific
coast. In 1838 married a daughter of Jas. Birnie,
a noted member of the Hudson's Bay Company's
staff of Oregon. Until the time of his retirement
in 1858 he occupied many positions of trust with
the Hudson's Bay Company, in' various parts of the
Western Department. Subsequent to retirement he
was collector of customs, postmaster of Victoria, a
member of the Indian Commission for settlement
of Indian reserves and at the time of his death,
Fishery Commissioner for the Province. Mr. Anderson was author of several pamphlets and essays
and of unpublished history of British Columbia.
He was an ardent agriculturist. At the time of his
death his mother was still living, aged 92. Bancroft speaks in the highest terms of Mr. Anderson.
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ALEXANDER CAULFIELD ANDERSON
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The   Honourable   JOHN   SEBASTIAN   HELMCKEN,
M. R. C. S., Erig.; L. S. AJM
Physician (retired). Born, London, Eng., June
5th, 1825, soil of Claus and Catherine Helmcken, of
German descent. Educated St. George's School,
London; Guy's Hospital. Came to British Columbia, 1850, having accepted an appointment from
Hudson's Bay Company. Elected, 1856 to first
Legislative Assembly, Vancouver Island; appointed
Speaker of Asserrifily until the admission of the
Colony into the Dominion, 1871. Member of Council, 1864-1871; was one of the delegates sent to
- Ottawa, 1871, to convey and support the Terms of
Union with Canada proposed by the Legislature of
British Columbia, and brought back the result for
consideration of that Legislature; declined sena-
torship, 1871. Married Cecilia Douglas, daughter
of Sir James Douglas, K. C. B., first Governor of
British Columbia.
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JOHN   SEBASTIAN   HELMCKEN
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JOHN   SEBASTIAN  HELMCKEN
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The Honourable JOSEPH DESPARD  PEMBERTON,
C.  E.   (Deceased)
Born, Dublin, Ireland. Educated, Trinity College,
Dublin. Profession, railway engineer. Made design for Crystal Palace, London. Occupied various
positions as railway engineer^, Professor of Civil
Engineering at the Royal Agricultural College,
Eng., 1845-1.850. Came to Victoria, 1851, and was
Surveyor-General under the Hudson's Bay Co.'s
regime. Member of the Legislative Assembly of
Vancouver Island 1856-1860. Member Executive
Council Vancouver IslaSjd, 1863-1865. Died, November 11, 1893.
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JOSEPH  DESPARD   PEMBERTON
  
JOSEPH  DESPARD  PEMBERTON
  The Honourable BENJAMIN WILLIAM PEARSE
(Deceased)
Born in England in 1832 and educated there. Came
to Victoria in the fall of 1851 and was for some
years associated with the Hon. J. D. Pemberton,
Surveyor-General. Was Surveyor-General from
1864 to time of Confederation, at which time the
title of Honourable was conferred upon him. After
Confederation he held the office of Resident Engineer to the Provincial Government until he retired
about 1877. He was one of the men who at his own
expense started the first volunteer regiment, in
1864, known as the Victoria Rifles, of which he
was captain. Th' 1862 he married Mary Letitia,
daughter of Rev. C. G. Pemberton, of Kensal
Green, London, Eng., who died Christmas, 1872.
In 1875, he married Jane,'daughter of Henry
Palmer, Solicitor, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, Eng.
Died, Victoria, B. C, 1902.
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BENJAMIN WILLIAM PEARSE
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BENJAMIN WILLIAM  PEARSE
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  JAMES ALAN GRAHAME (Deceased)
Chief factor and sub-commissioner of the Hudson's
Bay Co.»om 1861 to 1873. Chief Commissioner,
1873 to 1885. Born, Edinburgh, Scotland, 22nd December, 1825, and educated at Edinburgh Academy.
Came to§iWinnipeg, Man. (then Fort Garry), via.
Hudson's Bay, in 1843, and to Fort Vancouver,
Wash., on Pacific Coast, via Tete Jaune Cache, in
1844, and to Victoria, 1858. Conservative in politics and prominent member of A. F. & A. M., R. A.
and K. T.   Died at Victoria, B. C., June 19th, 1905.
JAMES ALAN GRAHAME
  a
JAMES ALAN GRAHAME
  The Honourable ROBERT DUNSMUIR
(See Chapter, The^mnsmuifK)r5, y
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ROBERT DUNSMUIR
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ROBERT DUNSMUIR
  Right Reverend MODESTE DEMERS
First Bishop of Vancouver Island. Born October 12, 1809, at St. Nicholas, Lower Canada;
ordained February 7, 1836, serving 14 months as
assistant parish priest of Trois Pistoles; in April,
1837, went west to the Oregon Territory, and laboured as a missionary throughout Oregon, Wash-
, ington and British Columbia. Appointed Bishop
of Vancouver Island on November 30th,;a847, and
took up his residence in Victoria, where he continued to preside over his episcopate until his
death, July 21st, 1871.
MODESTE  DEMERS
  MODESTE DEMERS
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His Lordship Bishop EDWARD CRIDGE ("Marifield,"
Victoria, deceased.)
Born, Bratton,«^Fleming, North Devon, Eng.,1 December 17th, 1817. Educated private school North
Moulton and Cambridge University. B. A. of St.
Peter's College, Cambridge. Assistant Curate
Church of North Waltham./ Second Master of
Grammar School North Waltham and first incumbent of District Christ Church, West Ham, London. Came to^ictoria April, 1855. Chaplain of
Hudson's Bay Co. and District Minister of Victoria, and Rector and Dean of • Christ Church
Cathedral and incumbent of Church of Our Lord,
R. E. C, Victoria, and later Bishop of Reformed
Episcopal Church in Canada. Author of several
religious works.    Died May 6,  1913.
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EDWARD   CR
    The Right REV. GEORGE HILLS, D. D. (Deceased)
Born, 1816, at Egthorne, Kent; eldest son of Rear-
Admiral Hills. Educated at the University of Durham, taking degrees of B. A., M. A., B. D., and
D. D. Admitted to the diaconate by the Bishop
of Lichfield in 1839 and ordained as priest in 1840.
Served as curate at North Shields, Northumberland and at Leeds, under Dean Hook. Was incumbent of St. .Mary's, Leeds, and of Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, and, in 1850, received the appointment of honourary canon of Norwich tathedral.
Was consecrated "Bishop of Columbia" in Westminster Abbey, February 24th, 1859, by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Arrived, as first?Sishop of
Vancouver Island, in Victoria in 1860^ and for
years laboured arduously in establishing the
Church of England and in extending missionary
work among theTndians. In 1865 he married Maria
Philadelphia Louisa, eldest; daughter of Admiral
Sir Richard King, K. C. B.; In 1892 he resigned and
returned to England. It was during his episcopate
that the troubles in connection with i'the Rev.
Edward Cridge and at Metlakahtla with Mr. Duncan occurred, which are described in chapters in
the second part of this volume. Bishop Hills
died at Parkham, Suffolk, December I'Oth, 1895.
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GEORGE HILLS
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GEORGE HILLS
  EDWARD BENJAMIN MARVIN (Victoria, deceased)
Born in Halifax, nH$F., Dec. 16tnfll830, and educated there. Came to the province in 1858 and established about 1874 the business of sailmaking in
Victoria, which developed into the business of ship
chandlery under the firm name of E. B. Marvin &
Co. with Capt. J. G. Cox and F. W. Adams as partners. Was:heavily interested in sealing business
and the largest shareholder in the original establishment of the Victoria Sealing Co. Engaged until his death, in 1911, -*ii|fgeneral ship chandlery
business in all its branches.SlTwo years alderman
and a justice of the peace.    Died Dec. 28th, 1911.
EDWARD   BENJAMIN   MARVIN
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EDWARD   BENJAMIN  MARVIN
  JOSEPH  MANNION   (Vancouver)   Retired
Born, West of Ireland, 1839. Educated National
and Private Schools. Came to Victoria, B. C, on
April 6th, 1862. Was among the earliest pioneers
of Burrard Inlet and was for many years located on
Bowen Island, near Vancouver.
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MANNIC
  JOSEPH   MANNION
  GEORGE  ALEXANDER   (Vancouver   and   Steveston)
Born, Aberdeenshire, 1844. Educated at Foveran
School. Came to B. C, 1878. Engaged in business
as salmon fisher and lumbering. Commissioner
Lulu Island Waste Dyking. Manager Great West
Packing Company.
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  JOHN   CUNNINGHAM   B
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JOHN CUNNINGHAM  BROWN  (New Westminster)
Born in Ireland, 1844. Educated, Royal Academy,
Belfast, Ire. Came to B. C, 1862. In December,
1871, became proprietor and editor of the "Herald,"
New Westminster. Was alderman and mayor of
New Westminster and for some years; Post Master. Member of the Legislative Assembly, 1890-
1894. Minister of Finance, Martin's administration, April to -June, 1900. Appointed Provincial
Secretary, June, 1901. Resigned owing to defeat in
bye-election.    Warden B. C. penitentiary.
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  JOHN   CUNNINGHAM   BROWN
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CHARLES GEORGE MAJOR (New Westminster)
Official administrator and financial broker.- Born,
Sarnia, Ont., October 23rd, 1839. Educated, Public
School. Began career as dry goods clerk :in London, Ont., 1854. Came^b B. C, 1859. Has real
estate and lumber interests. Member of first rifle
company on Mainland.
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CHARLES   GEORGE   MAJOR
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  EDWARD   STOUT (Miner and Prospector, Yale)
Born in Bavaria,-;Germany, September 26th, 1827.
Educated, Public Schools in Bavaria. Came to
B. C. May£il858. Was one of first party of prospectors leaving Yale for the Interior. Took part
in fight against Indians at the time of the massacre
of the Fraser River, July, 1858. One of the discoverers of Williams Creek and of Stout's Gulch,
1861, Cariboo. Captain of the first batteau loaded
wi^h Cariboo miners which made the trip from the
mouth of the Quesnel,. 1862.
EDWARD   STOUT
  BOH
EDWARD   STOUT
  WILLIAM TEAGUE, J. P. (Yale)
Born, Cornwall, Eng., July 27th, 1835jf Educated,
private commercial school. Came to B. C, July,
1858, from California. Dominion Forest. Fire Warden. Was Government Agent at Yale for 14 years.
Engaged in cattle business. Retired and lives on
his fruit farm at Yale.
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WILLIAM   TEAGUE
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WILLIAM   TEAGUE
  WILLIAM  DODD   (Yale)
Born, Matfen, Northumberland, Eng., April 4th,
1837. Educated, public school. Commenced business career as bookkeeper, Iron Works*. Gates-
head-on-Tyne, 1858. Came to B. C, June, 1862,
and was agent B. C. Express Co., Yale. Was Government Agent, Yale, for a. number of years. Superannuated.
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  WILLIAM   DODD
  Sxcellency RICHARD BLANSHARD
First Governor of Vancouver Island, from 1849 to
November, 1851.
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RICHARD BLANSHARD
  His Excellency SIR JAMES DOUGLAS, K. C. B.
Many years Chief of the Western Department of
the Hudson's Bay Company, governor of Vancouver Island from November, 1851, to March,
1864, and Governor of British Columbia from September, 1858, to April, 1864.
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JAMES DOUi
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JAMES DOUGLAS
  His Excgnsjjey ARTHUR EDWARD KENNEDY
Governor of^ancouver Island, 1864-1866.
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ARTHUR   EDWARD   KENNEDY
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ARTHUR   EDWARD   KENNEDY
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His Excellency FREDERICK SEYMOUR
Governor QjkBritish Columbia from April, 1864, to
June, 1869; succeeded Sir James Douglas.
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FREDERICK   SEYMOUR
  His Excellency SIR ANTHONY MUSGRAVE,
K. C. M. G.
Governor of British Columbia from August, 1869,
to July, 1871, and instrumental in a large measure
in bringing about Confederation. Was made C. M.
G. in 1871 and made K; C. M. G. in 1875. Was
afterwards Governor of Queensland, Australia, and
died there October, 1888.
ANTHONY MUSGRAVE
  r
ANTHONY MUSGRAVE
  Lieut-Col. RICHARD C. MOODY, R. E.
Born in Barbadoes, 1913, the second son of Col.
Thomas Mo0dy, R. E.jjgHe was educated for the
army at the"^oyl8f?MijIjtary 'Acalremy, Woolwich,
1827-1829. Lieutenant,il835. Appointed professor
of fortifications at his old academy, Woolwich,
1838, and shortly afterwards selected as the first
Governor of the Falkland Islands. In 1849 commanded the Royal Engineers at Newcastle upon
Tyne. Lieutenant-coloneIp4855. Colonel, 1863.
Major-general, l8$6r-~|ph 1858 was appointed commander of the forces in British Columbia and had
a dormant commission as Lieutenant-Governor.
Left England October^ 30th, 1858, and arrived in
Victoria cHy.jCnristmas day the same year.- Remained in British Columbia in command of the
Royal Engineers, with headquarters at Sapperton,
B. C. After the disbandment of the forceS-left
British Columbia for England on: November 11th;-
1863. Port Moody was named in his honour. Died,
March 31st, 1887.
RICHARD C. MOODY
  I"'.*
RICHARD C. MOODY
  SIR HENRY PERING PELLEW CREASE (Deceased)
Son of Capt. Henry Crease, R. N. Born, August
20th, 1823, Sice Castle, near Plymouth, Cornwall.
Educated, Mount Radford School, Cornwall, and
at Clare^ College, Cambridgeshire; graduated as
B. A., iii 1847; called to the bar two years "later.
Shortly afterwards came to Toronto, and family
settled there. Subsequently returned to' England
and practised law at Lincoln's Inn. Married, 1853,
Sarah, eldest daughter of the late Dr. John Lindley,
F. R. S., celebrated botanist, and sister of the present Lord Lindley, judge, member of the Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council, now retired.
Came to British Columbia in 1858, and was the
first practising barrister of Vancouver Island and
British Columbia. Elected to House of. Assembly
Vancouver Island, 1860-61, and in July, 1861, was
made Attorney-General for the colony of British
Columbia. Was member of the Legislative" Council of British Columbia until 1866, and later was
Attorney-General of the united colonies for four
years. Had charge of the revision of the laws of
British Columbia, and took prominent part in
bringing about union with Canada. In 1896 retired
from the bench, receiving the'honour of knighthood.   Died, December 27th, 1905.
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HENRY  PERINI
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HENRY  PERING  PELLEW  CREASE
  The Honourable PETER O'REILLY (Deceased)
Born in Ince, Lancashire, England, and educated
at Trinity College, Dublin. Died at Victoria, B. C,
September 3rd, 1905, aged 77 years. Was member
of the Old Legislative Council, 1864-71, Stipendiary
Magistrate and Gold Commissioner in Cariboo, Big
Bend, Wild Horse Creek and Omineca. Was
County Court Judge for the Yale District from
September, 1867, until January 4th, 1881, after
which he was Indian Reserve Commissioner for
British Columbia until shortly before the time of
his death. In pioneer days officially he had a
varied experience of mining life in the most remote
parts of the Province. For many years in Victoria he occupied an honoured social position.
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PETER  O'REILLY
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PETER   O'REILLY
  ARTHUR  THOMAS  BUSHBY (Deceased)
Prominent in the colonial days of British Columbia. Was member of the Legislative Council during two sessions of '68-'70 and County Court Judge
for New Westminster District. Born, London,
England, 1838, and educated in England and on
the continent of Europe. Came to British. Columbia in 1858. Married daughter of Sir Jamer
Douglas; died.May, 1875. Held the degree of
Mus. Bac. and was an enthusiastic amateur musician and artist.
ARTHUR  THOM
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ARTHUR  THOMAS  BUSHBY
  WALTER MOBERLYJ3C. % (Vancouvec|||
,/Civil engineer and architect. B'o£&'j>at Steeple
^^stersJ^gxfordshWe.-FJng., Aug. l-|£l832, and educated at Barrie Grammar School and. undef?*Freder-
ick Gore of Trinity College, Dublin. Studied- engineering under Frederick ^illiam ^Gurhbejiand
and W. S. Storm, of Toronto*^ Came to Peiigtah-
guishene, Ont., in 1834 and t^i^^^^^h 1858 and
was associated with Col. Moody, chief o|s*l|fe
Royal Engineers, and was A'sst|%an1t-Survey^!i§.^n-
eral of B.-C.fduring: the years 1864 and 1865. In
1871 was,appointed by Sir John Macdonald to lo-
-:'^BaTteftix& C. P.-;l|.. line through ti^e^mounta/His. At
present engaged in promoting several schemes of
improvement and development, i
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WALTER  MOBERLY
  ARTHUR W. VOWELL (Victoria)
Born, ClonmellJIreland, December 8th, 1841. Educated Grammar School, Clonmel^;; 'Came to B. rC.
1861. Obtained commission with Irish Militia,
1858; retired Senior Lieutenant, 1860; Esquimalt,
1862; Civil Service, 1864. Gold Commissioner and
Stipendiary Magistrate, Kootenay gold district,
for some years; transferred to Omineca district,
where served in similar capacity. From there went
to Cassiar; resigned from Government Service,
1875. Elected to B. C. Legislature for Kootenay,
1875; resigned, 1876, Gold Commissioner-J^dl
Stipendiary Magistrate Cassiar :djstrict, 1876-1884.
Stipendiary Magistrate Kootenay district during
construction of C. P. R. in that district. Was
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for many years.
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ARTHUR W. VOWELL
  ISRAEL WOOD POWELL, M. D.  (^OakderiefpH
Victoria)
Retired physician. '^Born, Simcoe, Lake Erie, Ont,,
April 7th, 1837. EducajSjp|McGill University,
Montreal. Degrees, M. D.;.^'M. Came to B; C.
in Apjrii; 1862, and commenced practise;: as .johy-
Mcian in that city. Was a member of the old
fpje^jgislative Council of B. C.r^and after Confedera-
"; tidn was appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs
of B. O. which office he held for a'number of
:years.
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ISRAEL  WOOD   POWELL
  JOHN   WORK   TOLMIE (Victoria)-
Retired farmer. Born, H. B. Co., Fort Nisqually,
Wash&| March 14, 1854. R Educated, Collegiate
School, Victoria, and by private tutor., 1861-1872.
Came to Victoria, 1859, and was manager of the
Cloverdale Stock Farm, 1886-1909. Devoted to
Natural History studies.
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WILLIAM CURTIS WARD (Harbourne House, High
Holden, Kent, Eng.)
Born and educated in England. Entered service
of the National Provincial Bank of England, 1858.
Appointed to Bank of British Columbia, 1864.
Arrived V&toria in 1864. Manager at Victoria,
1866, and subsequently General Superintendent
and Director in London until amalgamation with
Canadian Bank of Commerce, 1900. Chairman London Committee,' Canadian Bank of Commerce.
Formerly part and subsequently sole owner Douglas Lake Cattle Co., NicoKE^
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WILLIAM   CURTIi
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WILLIAM   CURTIS  WARD
  EDWARD   MALLANDAINE (Deceased)
Architect; born, Singapore, Straits Settlements,
August 10th, 1827; educated Ecole Primaire Su-
perieure College, Dinan, France. Came to Victoria, via New York and Panama, in November,
1858. Compiled first Victoria Directory, 1860,
and designed some of the most prominent buildings
in the early days of British Columbia. Many years
with firm of Wm. Stowe, Architect, Camberwell,
London. Lectured'5before Architectural and Archaeological Societies; and designed a number of
buildings for his firm; was Captain and Paymaster
Victoria Rifles in the early seventies; also master
French and Drawing, Old Collegiate School; Superintendent of Dominion Public Works for a term
and Tax Collector for the districts Metchosin,
Esquimalt, Saanich and Victoria, 1865-71. Took
part in Australian gold rush, 1853, and was employed as draughtsman C. P. R. survey, 1872.
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EDWARD   MALLANDAINE
  
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EDWARD   MALLANDAINE
  CHARLES McKEIVERS SMITH (Victoria, Deceased)
Retired.     Born,  Windsor,  N.  S.,  April  26,   1823.
plfeducated, Windsor, N. S. Cameto B. C. by sea,
1858, .and commenced career in Victoria as archi-
i^yett and contractor;  erected,, first post office and
"customs house; subsequently engaged- in ;riifiining,
Cariboo, 1861; Leech River, 1864 Kootenay, 1866;
was first person in British Columbia to put up
canned fish for export tradcr^Sor fourteen years
was engaged in publication "Standard" in Victoria,
owned by his brother, the Honourable Amor de
Cosmos. Served^in Volunteer Co. under Col. Gore,
1840,'^during the- boundary dispute between New
§5 Brunswick and the State of  Maine.    Died,  1911.
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CHARLES   McKEIVERS   SMITH
  FRANCIS JONES BARNARD  (Victoria,  Deceased)
Of U. E.'Loyalist stock; son of the late Isaac
Barnard of Quebec; born, City of Quebec and educated there; was a member of the Legislative
Council of British Columbia for the district of
Yale from 1866 to the date of Union, 1871. First
returned for Yale in the Commons on the appointment of Hon. Edward Dewdney as IndianXommis-
sioner; retired in 1886. Founded the Barnard. Express Company, succeeded by the B. C. Express
Co., and took a prominent part in development of
the interior of B. C. and in bringing; about Confederation.    Died, July 10th, 1889, at Victoria, B. C.
FRANCIS JONES BARNARD
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FRANCIS JONES BARNARD
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STEPHEN  TINGLEY  (Ashcroft)
Born, Westmoreland, N. B., Sept. 13th, 1839. Educated public schools, New Brunswick. Engaged
harness making, Santa Clara, 1859-1861; came to
Cariboo and engaged in mining, 1861. Made a trip
each year from Yale, head of navigation, to Williams Creek, on foot, a distance of three hundred
and seventy miles. Drove mail coach for F. J.
Barnard, Yale to Cariboo, 1864-1894; purchased
that business afterwards which became known as
the British Columbia Stage & Express Co.; business sold, 1897. Discoverer of Nicola Coal and
Coke Co.'s Mine.    Capitalist.
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STEPHEN   TINGLEY
  BENJAMIN   FRANKLIN   YOUNG (Armstrong)
Born, Harrisburg County, Penn., October 29th,
1847. Educated public schools. Came to B. C,
1870. Naturalized, 1873. Served in American Civil
War, 203rd Pensylvania Volunteers, 1864-1865.
Located in  Okanagan,   1873.    Was pioneer stage
t driver Cariboo wagon road three years. Located
* in. Spallumcheen, 1873. Passenger first train over
Union Pacific train to Fort Scott. Then went to
California. Subsequently returned to British Columbia and settled on farm near Armstrong, where
he now-resides.
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BENJAMIN   FRANKLIN   YOUNG
  
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BENJAMIN   FRANKLIN   YOUNG
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ALEXANDER  MacDONELL   (B.  X.  Ranch,  Vernon)
Stock rancher. Born, Glengarry County, Ont.,
July 23rd, 1861. Educated, Alexandria. Commenced career as cow-boy and stage driver in
Nicola Valley, 1878. Left Nicola September, 1881,
and went to Kamloops, driving stage from Cache
Creek. Settled in Okanagan in 1886. Was in
Nicola during the Hare and MacLean brothers
outbreak, December, 1878, and when they killed J.
Ussher, rode 24 miles in the dark to warn people
of the Lower Nicola.
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ALEXANDER
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ALEXANDER MacDONELL
  BENJAMIN BAILEY (Deceased)
Born at Boston, Mass. Arrived in California,
around Cape Horn, in 1849, starting business in
San Francisco. Was burned out twice in first and
second San Francisco fires. Came to B. C. in 1858.
Mined for a short time in Cariboo. Was express
agent for Deitz & Nelson at Yale. Afterward
opened general business at Yale, which he continued until his decease.
BENJAMIN   BAILEY
 (ba^BaaaO) Y3JIA3 MIMAIM33
.BimolilBO ni bavinA .aasM ,noi3oS is moS
ni Bsaniaud gniiiBia ,6£8I ni ,nioH aqsO bnuois
bns laid ni aaiwi iuo bamud bbW .oaaiansi3 ns2
.8581 ni .0 .3 oi amsO .aaid oaaiansia ns8 bnoaaB
aaaiqxa bbW .oodiiBO ni ami! iioria s iol baniM
bifiwiailA .alsY is noalaM A siiaG iol inaga
-noa  ari rioiriw  ,aIsY is asanisud Isianag banaqo
.aafiaoab Bid liinu baunii
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BENJAMIN   BAILEY
  JOHN WOOD   (Spatsum,  Spence's  Bridge)
Born, township of King, County York, Ontario,
Canada. Educated, common schools. Came to
B. C, 1870.    Farmer and fruit-grower.
JOHN   WOOD
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JOHN   WOOD
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AFT CLEMES  (Spence's Bridge)
Born, Cornwall, England, Novemberf 13th, 1851.
Educated at Lindsay, Ont. Came to B. C, April,
1880. Farmer and capitalist. Post Master Spence's
Bridge. Built Pantages theatre, Vancouver, and
other large business blocks.
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ART   CLEMES
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ARTHUR STEVENSON, J.   P. (Lytton)
Born, Wakefield, Ottawa, Jany. 5th, 1840. Educated public school. Came to B. C, April, 1862,
and engaged in mining in Cariboo. Appointed
Road Superintendent, June, 1865. Became Supt.
Public Works, June, 1896. Resigned May, 1908.
(Superannuated.)
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ARTHUR
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ARTHUR   STEVENSON
  WILLIAM SAUL (ClintonJ.'.
Born, Dublin, Irelandg-Apr.il 22nd, 1836. Educated
public school, London, Ont. Came to B. C, June
10th, 1869, and engaged, in various occupations.
Member of tlie Legislative Assembly, 1872-1875
and 1878-1882. Stipendiary Magistrate arid School
Trustee.
WILLIAM   SAUL
  
WILLIAM   SAUL
  FREDERICK SOUES  (Clinton)
Government Agent. Born, Fifeshire, Scotland,
June 27th, 1831. Educated at parochial school of
Fifeshire, Scotland. Commenced career as farmer
in Fifeshire.. Went to Australia, 1851. Came^jK
B. C, 1862. Government Agent for the past thirty
years.   Superannuated.
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FREDERICK   SOUES
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PHILIP PARKE ("Buonapart Lodge," CaeflT Creek)
Born, County Sligo, Ireland, September 5th, 1841.
Educated Lungy School, Sligo. Came to B. O,
1862. Commenced career as farmer in Chemainus
in 1862. Was Judge of Court of Revision. Interested in fruit growing and farming/??
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PHILIP  PARKE
  
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PHILIP   PARKE
  JOSEPH E. N. SMITH (Clinton)
Rancher. Born, San Francisco, Cal.> December
2nd, 1857. Educated New Westminster and Santa
Clara College, Cal. Carne,. to^B. C, April, 1862,
and began business in Clinton in 1875.
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JOSEPH E. N. SMITH
    
SAMUEL A. ROGERS (Deceased)
Born, Ireland, 1840. Educated Prince Edward
County, Ont. Came to B. C^«1862. Beban business as general merchant in Barkerville, Cariboo,
1868. Was Sheriff of Cariboo District. Member
of the Legislative Assembly, Cariboo, 1896-1898,
and 1900-1903. Crossed continent to B. C. via
Yellowhead Pass.    Died, 1911.
SAMU
SOGERS
  SAMUEL A. ROGERS
  WILLIAM VOGHT (Deceased)
Born in Holstein, 1838. Emigrated while, a lad
to the United States and employed for' a short
time in Philadelphia. Later went West, sbjourhr"
ing for a time in Illinois and Iowa. Was drawn
by the mining excitement to the gold diggings of
California and later to the banksof the Fraser in
British Columbia and the creeks of Cariboo. His
next venture.was as a farmer at North Bend. In
1865 he joined a hunting expedition to the Nicola
Valley, where becoming impressed with the district for grazing and agriculture he settled in
1873 and became one of the earliest pioneers. His
farm later on was found to cover a coal bed and
a portion of it now forms part of the Merritt town-
site. Member of.-the Presbyterian Church^'--Died
at M«jc|itt, B.C.; .6th February, 1911, aged 73
years. IfiS*
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REVEREND GEORGE MURRAY, M. A. (Nicola)
Clergyman. Born, Pictou County, N. S., Juneif$h,
1843. Educated, Glasgow University. Degree, M.
A. Commenced career as. ordained missionary of
the Church of Scotland in Nicola, July, 1875,? in
which capacity he served 18 years. Eight years
pastor St. Andrew's, New Glasgow, N. S.
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  GEORGE MURRAY
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  J. B. GREAVES (Douglas Lake, Merritt)
Formerly manager and co-owner with W. C. Ward,
Esq., of the Douglas Lake Cattle Co.   Retired.
J. B. GREAVES
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J. B. GREAVES
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JOSEPH GUICHON  (Quilchena)
Born, St. Alban, Savoie, France, 1843. Came to
British Columbia, March, 1865, and spent some
time at Kanaka Bar. Packed and mined in Omi-
neca, Cariboo; later took up a farm at Savona.
Resumed mining again in 1871, going as far north
as Omineca. This venture proved a failure and he
pre-empted land at Mamette Lake, remaining there
five years he later bought a farm at Chaperon
Lake, which '/was -sold in 1882. He then leased a
piece of land which now forms part of his present
ranch near Quilchena.
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JOSEPH   GUICHON
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JOSEPH   GUICHON
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WILLIAM FORTUNE (Kamloops)
Born in Yorkshire, Eng., 1838. In 1862, took active part in Pioneers' overland expedition from
Niagara, Ont., and came over the plains to B. C.
in 1862. Built first flour and saw mills in Thompson
River Valley. Built steamers and holds captain's
certificate. Is large land-owner and farmer.
Founded the first sanatorium in B. C.,- at Tran-
quille.    Retired.
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WILLIAM  FORTUNE
  WILLIAM JAMES ROPER (Cherry Creek and
Victoria).   Stock rancher.
Born, Dorsetshire, England, 1840, and educated at
Sherbourne School, Dorset, England. Came to
Victoria direct from England in 1862 and subsequently engaged in stockranching in the vicinity of
Kamloops, where he acquired large interests. In
religion is Church of England and in politics Conservative. Recently retired, and is resident of
Oak Bay, Vtetori3-
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WILLIAM   JAMES   ROPER
  ALEXANDER LESLIE FORTUNE (Enderby, Spal-
lumcheen)
Left Beaudette, Quebec, May 2nd, 1862, to take part
in the second overland expedition to British Columbia in that year. At Fort Garry a deputation
interviewedy Governor Dallas (H. B. C.) and the
late Bishop Tache and obtained useful information
as to country to be traversed. It was Dallas's description or Okanagan valleys that induced Mr.
Fortune finally to settle there. Arriving at Ques-
nel he visited Williams Creek, and then resolved
to return to Quesnel, and reaching Fort Alexander
crossed the Chilcotin plains to Bella Coola. Making Fort Rupert by boat he soon reached Victoria,
and there along with W. W. Morrow carried on
for a time the Overland Restaurant. In spring
of 1864 Fortune packed fifty pounds on his back
to Cariboo from Yale and mined on'^Williams
Creek, walking out again in 1865. Wintering in
Lillooet, he took a brief part in the Big Bend excitement in 1866. Gradually prospecting his way
back, he eventually found his way into the Spal-
lumcheen valley the same year, where he became
the pioneer settler, and, after the usual ups and
downs, achieved success. In 1874 he returned east
for his wife. He rejoices in their happy lot in the
northern Okanagan ever since. Mr. Fortune was
born January 20th, 1830. (See chapter on Okanagan Valley by J. A. McKelvie.)     SSS§
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ALEXANDER LI
)RTUNE
  ALEXANDER LESLIE FORTUNE
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  THOMAS GREENHOW (Okanagan, Deceased)
Born, in Penrith, Cumberland, Eng., September
5th, 1838. Educated public school. Was farmer
and stockraiser and general merchant. Pioneer in
the Okanagan district and member of the old firm
of O'Keefe & Greenhd'w, afterwards Thomas Green-
how.    Died, September 9th, 1889.
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THOMAS   GREENHOW
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THOMAS   GREENHOW
  CORNELIUS O'KEEFE (Vernon)
Farmer and stockraiser. Born, Ottawa, Ont., July
26th, 1842. Educated public schools. Came to
Cariboo in 1862. Commenced career as rancher is
Okanagan in 1867. Laid out fifty miles of Cariboo
wagon road.   Extensive land owner and stockraiser.
  
CORNELIUS   O'KEEFE
  VI
THOMAS ELLIS, J. P. ("Winona," Victoria)
Born, Dublin, Ire., April 26th, 1844. Educated,
Royal School, Armagh.. Came to Vernon, B. C,
March 10th, 1865, and subsequently engaged in
cattle-ranching, near Penticton. Has large land
and various other interests.
THOMAS   ELLI
  
THOMAS   ELLIS,   J.   P.
  THOMAS WOOD  (Vernon, now Victoria)
A pioneer of the Okanagan.    Retired.
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JOSEPH CHRISTIAN (Near Kelowna)
Born, St. Anicet, QueV June, 1829. Educated^
lie school. Farmer and stock-raiser. Sailed
the Great Lakes from 1850. Came to B. C. I.
For eighteen years - secretary and trustee pc
schools.   Large land owner.    wSci
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JOSEPH   CHRISTIAN
  JOSEPH   CHRISTIAN
  
JOHN CASORSO  ("Pioneer Farm," Kelowna)
Born, Province D'allessandia, Tonco, Italy, August
8th, 1848. Educated, Dun Bosco Torino College.
Came to Kelowna, July 1883. Commenced mixed
farming on a large scale. Interested in oil and
'mining stock and flour mills.
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JOHN   CASORSO
  
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JOHN   CASORSO
  
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GEORGE WHELAN (West Home Farm, Kelowna)
Born, High Barnet, England, May 14th, 1844. Educated, private school. Came to B. C. 1870 and
engaged in stock-raising and farming. Trustee and
secretary public school.
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GEORGE   WHE
  
GEORGE   WHELAN
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L. W, PATTEN (Armstrong)
Born, Oxford County, Ont., August 19th, 1845.
Educated, Woodstock, Ont. Came to B?|jL 1884.
Reeve Municipality of Spallumcheen. Retired
farmer. Veteran Fenian Raid. Built and operated
first flour mill in Spallumcheen.
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L.   W.   PATTEN
  L.   W.   PATTEN
  FRANCIS XAVIER RlgHTER (Deceased)
Born, at Freidland* Bohemia, Austria, on -November 5th, 1837, and educated at Nildenan, Freidland.
Commenced his business carer as a clerk in a
wholesale house in;1853, igpan Antonio, Texas.
Came to Keremeos in Octobr, -18.64; was subsequently engaged in mining, sock-raising, farming,
fruit-growing*J&nd general merchandise. Was
president, of the Southern Okanagan and Kettle
River Pioneer Society.    Ded, 1910.
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FRANCIS   XAVIER   RICHTER
  JOHN FALL ALLISON (Deceased)
Born at Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 1825, his father
being then House Surgeon to the Leeds Infirmary.
Educated at Leeds. Migrated to the United States
in 1837- and settled in Illinois, where he completed
his education. In 1849 went to California, via
Panama, and mined there until 1858, when he went
to Victoria and was sent in 1859 by Governor
Douglas to prospect the Tulameen and Similika-
meen rivers for gold, discovering iridium, gold and
platinum. Settled in Similkameen after the rush
of miners to Cariboo; later employed by Governor
Douglas to seek the shortest^Spute across Hope
Mountains-locating and constructing what is known
as the Allison trail; later entered into partnership
with an American named Hayes, buying a band of
Durham cows and settling down as a stock raiser.
In 1867 maried Susan Louise Moir, youngest
daughter of Shattpn Moir, Ceylon. Appointed
Justice of the Peace in 1876.''e|n April, 1885, was
appointed assistant gold commissioner for the district, which he held until the office was removed to
Granite Creek, when he retired and devoted himself to his private'business. Several severe accidents seriously affected his health, and he died
October 28th, 1897. Did much towards improving
stock raising in and developing his district.
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JOHN FALL ALLISON
  WILLIAM FERNIE (Victoria)
Capitalist. Born, Kilbolton, ^Huntingdonshire,
Eng., April 2, 1837. Educated, Kilbolton grammar
school. In 1851 went to sea in ship "Salesman;"
landed in Australia and began career as miner at
Bendigo; went to Perdue, 1856, and worked in
mines; later became quartermaster on U. S. mail
steamer, plying to South American ports; removed
to British Columbia, 1860, and for many years
engaged in mining in Cariboo country. Appointed
gold commissioner for Canada, 1873, and held office
until 1882. Joined Col. Baker in securing charter
of B. C. Southern Railway, now Crow's Nest Pass
division OP. R. Located Crow's Nest coal deposits, 1887. Fernie, centre of coal mining district
of Crow's Nest, is named after him.
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WILLIAM   FERNIE
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WILLIAM   FERNIE
  .
JHIBALD LEITCH   (Cranbrook, Deceased)
Born La Prairie, Que., August 17th, 1847. Commenced business as lumbermen at Ottawa, 1865,
and came to Cranbrook, July, 1897.
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ARCHIBALD
  ARCHIBALD LEITCH
    A HISTORY
OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PART ONE
Being a survey of events from the
earliest times down to the Union of the
Crown Colony of British Columbia
with the Dominion of Canada
E. O. S. SCHOLEFIELD
Provincial Librarian
[V\
PART TWO
Being a history, mainly political
and economic, of the Province since
Confederation up to the present time
R. E. GOSNELL
VICTORIA, B. C.
* *
IB);*
V
■ttiii
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3
VANCOUVER and VICTORIA, B. C.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
1913
 COPYRIGHT CANADA
1913
BRITISH COLUMBIA HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
L
 PART ONE
 ~1
' III
 LIST OF CHAPTERS.
I. Early Pacific Explorations.
II. Russian Explorations and Establishments.
III. Later Spanish and English Voyages.
IV. Later Spanish and English Voyages (Continued).
V. The Nootka Affair.
VI. Capt. George Vancouver.
VII. Overland Expeditions.
VIII. The Era of the Fur Trader.
IX. The Oregon Boundary.
X. Changing Headquarters.
XL Governor Blanshard's Plight.
XII. Representative Government Established.
XIII. The Awakening of Victoria.
XIV. The Founding of British Columbia.
XV. Fraser River in 1858.
XVI. Gold in Cariboo.
XVII. The Two Colonies—1859 to 1864.
XVIII. Union and Confederation.
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  .»■
 EDITOR'S  FOREWORD.
In the interests of the patrons, and not less in those of the publishers,
of this volume, the long delay in its production is to be deeply regretted; but
as it too frequently occurs in undertakings of a similar nature original
intentions were thwarted by circumstances unforeseen and for the greater
part beyond control.
The first object to be attained in a work of the nature proposed was a
comprehensive and an authoritative review of the events which have made up
the whole history of the province, to place in a fair and impartial light the
main personal factors in its composition, and to portray as accurately as
possible the actual course of development from the beginning of things western to the present highly developed status of British Columbia. The second
was to present such a history in a mechanical garb that would represent the
best in the art of book-making. The time and labour involved in reasonably
achieving these objects have been great, far greater than were anticipated at
the outset.
Many hundreds, indeed thousands, of authorities and original sources of
information—represented in individual recollections, old manuscripts, diaries,
official documents and state papers, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets and
books—were consulted and the vast amount of material thereby rendered
available in concise and concrete form may not be fully appreciated by those
who for the first time view the finished product. From the publishers' point
of view, many unlooked for obstacles were met, including delays in securing
portions of the manuscript and much of the material for the illustrations. In
addition, owing to fires in Victoria and Vancouver, in which two photographic establishments were involved, a large number of photographs assembled for the purpose were destroyed, which had to be replaced at the expense of much inconvenience and time. In this connection, the editor may be
permitted to explain that while the illustrations represent the highest style of
reproductive art, in a few instances they do not come up to the general average of excellence, for the reason that the only available portraits were old and
faded and though the modern processes of engraving are capable of wonderful things they cannot produce results better than the originals. For the general artistic effects, however, the publishers are indebted to the principal photographers, Mr. J. Savannah, Victoria, and Mr. George T. Wadds, Vancouver.
Few publications, if any, of similar size and general excellence have
been produced in Canada and the publishers have reason to cherish the hope
that this work is of sufficient merit to be treasured in the families of patrons
long after other pretensious works have been consigned to the "scrap heap,"
a hope which in a measure compensates them for what has not been, from
a pecuniary point of view, a justification for the great labour and the money
expended. The promises made at the outset have been conscientiously lived
up to. Back of the story of the province are the men, as pioneers and as
present factors in provincial development, through Sixty Years of Progress,
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have made that progress possible, and the aim throughout has been to
preserve to posterity a just record of their accomplishments. It is believed
that the present volume not only fulfills in every particular the claims put
forward at the outset, but that it has attained to certain desirable ends not
heretofore arrived at in any history of British Columbia.
This work is distinctive from the fact that the usual fulsome write-ups
of individuals in publications not intended for general circulation have been
wholly eliminated, and only the bare particulars of the careers of those who
constitute the necessarily limited and selected clientelle appear accompanying
their portraits. It is a history representing the authors' views of events and
personalities as the latter incidentally and legitimately come within the scope
of the narrative, expressed independently of all considerations except those
which should influence a writer of history for history's sake. It has been
divided into two parts. The first, dealing with the early period of provincial history, was assigned to Mr. E. O. S. Scholefield. As librarian
and archivist of the province, he had unusual facilities at hand for performing his share of the work, and, as a matter of fact, he furnished
manuscript several times in excess of the requirements of space allotted to
him. As a consequence, it was necessary to very considerably condense his
pages in order to bring them within the desired limits. This necessity the
publishers and the editor greatly regretted on account of the delay occasioned and for the reason, also, that much of incidental historical interest had
to be eliminated in the process of reduction. In this connection it is only fair
to Mr. Scholefield to state that while in substance the matter is his it has been
frequently necessary for the purposes of condensation to use phraseology
which is not his and in some instances to make statements for which he may
not care to be held responsible. The author has gone to the very roots of
Pacific Coast history and carried on the narrative to the end, presenting a
connected story from the discovery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa in 1513
to the time when the fortunes of British Columbia were merged into those
of all Canada in 1871. It has been shown how very remote events have become associated as leaven with the elements of our present day fibre and how
the mere "shadow of a turning" has had momentous results. There were hundreds of contingencies, we learn, which might have entirely altered the destinies of the Pacific Northwest.
In regard to the second part of the work, it deals mainly with the political development, a phase of our history which has been much neglected and,
consequently, generally speaking, little understood. The events connected
with the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway—for many years the crucial issue of politics in British Columbia and in Canada—are necessarily the
most prominent of the features. Incidentally, as part of the treatment, the
Edgar affair, the Carnarvon Terms, the memorable visit of Lord Dufferin in
1876 and the Act of Settlement of 1884 come in for more or less detailed
 \
discussion. Outside of these, the period is too modem to be dwelt upon
from the historian's standpoint. In other words, it is without that clear perspective which the historical writer regards as necessary for judicial review.
Notwithstanding this limitation Mr. Gosnell has dealt in outline with the political situation to the end of the chapter, more, perhaps, in a journalistic way
than otherwise, but as dispassionately and as impartially as it is possible for
one who has been a living witness of, and contemporaneous with, most of what
has transpired during the past twenty-five years in British Columbia. In the
first chapter and several of the final chapters the economic phases of the province have been discussed. Speaking in a general way, it has not been a question of what to include in a volume of this nature, but of what to eliminate.
There is now material for many volumes and, in such circumstances, it has
been deemed wiser to deal with the more interesting and important episodes
than to attempt to include many incidents, which though interesting as gossip, were merely fortuitous and temporary in their nature and effects. Interesting chapters on the historic city and district of Kamloops and on the picturesque
and fruitful valleys of the Okanagan have been contributed by Dr. M. S. Wade,
editor of the Inland Sentinel, and Mr. J. A. MacKelvie, editor of the Vernon
News—two gentlemen probably best qualified in their respective cities to deal
with the history and potentialities of the districts of which Kamloops and
Vernon are the acuTiinistrative centres.
ft
■ *
€\
3
  EARLY PACIFIC EXPLORATIONS.
CHAPTER I.
It was not until the late Queen Victoria, in a note to Sir Edward Bulwer
Lytton (1), the Secretary of State for the Colonies, bestowed the name of
British Columbia upon the youngest colony of the Empire, that the vast region between the prairies and the Pacific Ocean assumed for the historian a
definite form. July 24th, 1858, was, in fact, the real birthday of the Province. Upto that time the territory, now the westernmost, as it is geographically the largest province of the Dominion of Canada, had been known
under the vague titles of "The Indian Territory," "British Oregon," and
"New Caledonia." Captain George Vancouver had, indeed, affixed the names
of New Hanover, New Cornwall and New Georgia, to certain sections of
the coast (2), but these various designations do not appear to have clung to
the spots so named nor to have had a vogue even amongst explorers. British Columbia, however, was not the first name taken by a British colony in
northwestern America. Nine years before, in 1849, the creation of the Colony
of Vancouver Island had marked an epoch in the history of that region.
But long before the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia became geographical expressions the northwest coast and the territories
behind it had been the objective of the explorer and the fur trader, and the
subject of treatises from the pens of geographers and historians of repute.
At a still earlier date the cartographer had embodied in his sea-cards and
maps of western America the loose impressions of navigators and travellers,
together with the fanciful conjecture of the closet geographer, so that during
the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a wonderful assortment
of charts saw the light which, while teeming with inaccuracies in many details, not infrequently contained the germ of truth. Indeed some of the old
sea-cards so faithfully depict the features of the northwest coast in general
outline that it is hard to believe that they were founded upon mere conjecture. It is not, indeed, altogether improbable that sources of information,
consisting of the records of voyages long since lost, were available to the
cartographers of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's "backside of America" (3). For
example, as early as 1562, or thereabouts, a map of the world was prepared
which gave a surprisingly correct outline of the general trend of the coast
of northwestern America (4). The Straits named later in honour of the
great Vitus Bering were more or less accurately shown, as were also the
shores of Bering Sea. It seems scarcely possible that the compiler of that
map should have relied entirely upon the imagination of others, or that conjecture alone could have guided him. What followed, however, was not
characterized by a similar degree of accuracy, and the subsequent charts became more and more preposterous in the imaginings of the cartographer.
(1) July 24th, 1858.
(2) Vide Vancouver's chart, 1798.
(3) Sir Humphrey Gilbert, "Discovery for a new passage to Cataia."   London, 1576.
(4) Stevenson-Portolan  charts.    Publications Hispanic Society No. 82.
[l]
\A
el
WKJI
mi
 ^n
In fact, a study of the charts of the Pacific Coast will reward the historian,
by revealing the slow and painful progress which always marks maritime
discovery. So then, tardily and gradually, the time comes when knowledge
ousts conjecture and rumour from their places of honour, and the coast line
assumes its true shape, until, after a lapse of more than two hundred and
fifty years, Captain George Vancouver's great chart of 1798 gives the first
accurate representation of what is now the western sea-board of the Dominion of Canada. The great moral poet of the nineteenth century sings of his
trust
* * * "that somehow good
will be the final goal of ill."
The lodestone of navigation in those early days of Pacific coast history
was the mysterious Strait of Anian, the legendary waterway from the Atlantic to the Pacific through which access could be had direct to the riches of
the Orient. The importance of its discovery, as well as the general desire
to avoid publicity in regard to their sphere in New World operations, led
the Spaniards to adopt a policy of great secrecy, much to the disadvantage
of the historian and of little benefit to themselves as a nation. This point is
of peculiar interest to the historian of British Columbia, because, for a time,
at least, if not forever, the whole history of this land might have been changed,
if a different policy had been adopted. It is scarcely to be doubted that had
Spain advertised her discoveries on the northwest coast, if only in the day
of her waning power, it would have had no unimportant bearing on the controversies of later years anent the Nootka Affair and the Louisiana Purchase,
even though the Spanish discoveries, before the day that Captain James
Cook landed on these shores, were, relatively speaking, of small value and
extent.
This policy of concealement, too, had the effect of encouraging the
exploitation of credulity by men whose claims to discovery are now included
among what are known as the "Apooryphal Voyages," of which there are
many. Of these the mythical Strait of Anian was a fecund inspiration, and
despite the knowledge gained from time to time by the honest and intrepid
mariner the faith in it lasted for three centuries and inspired deeds of heroism
and led to sacrifices and sufferings, heroically borne, that are not surpassed
in the annals of the sea. The toll of the lives of mariners spent in this cause
was heavy and persistent. Governments no less than individuals were influenced by the possibility of its existence all these long years.
The historic achievement of Columbus gave almost a world-wide impetus
to exploration. England, France, Portugal and Holland did not lag far behind Spain in their efforts to share in the profits of a new world discovery
and of reaching the Indies and "far Cathay" by a direct and expeditious
route. Then the nations set about apportioning themselves spheres of
influence. The discoveries in the western hemisphere had scarcely been proclaimed when Pope Alexander VI. issued the Bull which gave rise in after
years to heated disputes, not only between Spain and Portugal, the immediate beneficiaries, but also between those countries and England and Holland. By that memorable ordinance, which was promulgated in 1493, the
undiscovered world, from a point in Africa easterly to the Indies, was divided
[2]
 between the kings of Spain and Portugal. The imaginary line, which de-
marked the spheres of activity of the two monarchs, ran from the North to
the South pole, a hundred leagues west of the Azores. The Pope's professed
object was to prevent disputes "between Christian princes" as to the domination over such territories and islands as might be discovered by their respective subjects.
Great Britain did not recognize the right of the Pope to divide the undiscovered world between two Catholic countries, and when later Spain complained of the inroads of British subjects upon what might be termed the
Papal preserve on the Pacific and elsewhere, Queen Elizabeth remarked with
asperity that "the Spaniards had drawn these inconveniences upon themselves, by their severe and unjust dealings in their American commerce; for
she did not understand why either her subjects, or those of any other European prince, should be debarred from traffic in the Indies; that, as she did not
acknowledge the Spaniards to have any title, by donation of the Bishop of
Rome, so she knew of no right they had to any places other than those they
were in actual possession of; for that their having touched only here and
there upon a coast, and having given names to a few rivers or capes, were
such insignificant things as could in no way entitle them to a proprietary,
further than in the parts where they actually had settled, and continued to
inhabit."
There was great activity in both oceans, particularly in the Atlantic,
stimulated, as has been seen, by new discoveries and awakened hopes in which
the navigators of the several countries in question took part. Naturally
enough, these early voyages gave rise to strange and contradictory accounts
of the geography of the New World, which were reflected in the maps of
the more celebrated old cosmographers. The "Typus Orbis Terrarum," pub-
Eshed by Hakluyt in 1589 (5), was a skilful drawing of the world, as viewed
in the light of the geographical knowledge of that day. The Strait of Anian
is shown as a broad channel in the northern part of North America, and the
land at its outlet in the South Sea is called Anian. Below, a broad river
flows into a large bay. In latitudes 40 to 50 lies the famous land of Quivira,
which was supposed to rival Mexico in extent and richness. On the Pacific
seaboard of Mexico are spread Zaiisco, Zacatula, and Acapulco. The Gulf of
California runs northerly far into the land and terminates in the estuary of
two large rivers. In the ocean fabulous monsters disport themselves. In such
wise was the northwest coast of North America depicted by the geographers
of the sixteenth century.
At first there was little disposition on the part of the European governments to colonize America. So intent were the navigators of all nations
upon finding a short route to India, China and Japan, and so imbued were
they with the theories advanced by the leading geographers of the day, who
had made such wildly erroneous computations as to the circumference of the
earth, that, at first, the continents of North and South America were looked
upon by them as nothing more than a barrier in the path of any explorer
whose ambition was to reach the Orient. At last, Balboa, in 1513, sighted the
Pacific Ocean from the Isthmus of Darien, and gave a new impulse to the
search, which from that time was carried on with unabated zeal.   Then Ma-
!«.;„„
V'
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IfcaEa,
m
ftftftl
I
(5) Hakluyt, "Principall Navigations, Voiages, etc."    1589.
[3]
 gellan, a Portugese in the service of Spain, discovered, after labourious effort,
the strait which bears his name. Surviving the perils which beset him in that
intricate channel, he reached the great ocean which separates America from
Asia. He was the first European to sail into the Pacific from the east. At
this juncture a new direction was given to the exploration of America. Hernando Cortes, in the years 1519-1520, conquered Mexico and proved that that
portion of the North American continent at least was dowered with richest
treasure. Cortes, having heard from the natives accounts of a great sea in
the west, pushed his explorations in that direction, and soon established himself upon the shores of the ocean first sighted by Balboa a decade before.
With indomitable energy and perseverance he overcame all obstacles, and built
arsenals and ship-yards at Tehuantepec in Oajaca for the prosecution of his
adventures in the Pacific, a feat which is memorable because all the arms, ammunition and material needed for the construction and equipment of vessels
had to be carried overland from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific port. Spain
thus became the first European power to establish a naval base on the west
side of America, and in the years that followed she became supreme in the
South Seas, although the Portuguese, who in 1518 had obtained by treaty
certain rights in Macao, relentlessly opposed the sending of Spanish warships
to the Spice Islands.
From remotest antiquity the western seaboard of North America had
been cut off from all intercourse with the world. No ships had reached its
shores, except occasional storm-driven Chinese and Japanese junks; no civilization had been engrafted upon the rude culture of its primitive tribes; nor
does tradition record a single enlightened ruler or a mighty conqueror who
had ever arisen in that unknown land. Its early history indeed is shrouded
in mystery. All that can be stated with certainty is that it was inhabited by
savages, whose physical characteristics, languages and territorial jurisdictions
were more or less clearly defined, and whose chief occupations were fishing,
the chase and war. Some of the more northern tribes, however, possessed
distinguishing qualities of heart and mind, coupled with a certain ingenuity in
the making of implements, as well as some artistic sense, exhibited in their
carving and kindred arts. The social structure, if crude, was not ill-adapted
to the requirements of a savage people. On the other hand, the inhabitants of
the coasts of Lower and Upper California were sunk, as we are told by
Venegas, in the lowest depths of depravity. It was only by slow and painful effort that the veil of obscurity was lifted. It is remarkable that a coast
which offered no insuperable difficulties to the navigator should have remained
unexplored and unknown, except by vague rumour and conjecture, for a
space of two hundred and fifty years. Although the Spaniard had reached
the Pacific seaboard of Mexico by the year 1523, no determined effort to
explore far northern coasts was made until 1774.
The knowledge secured by Cortes and the discovery of the Philippines by
Magellan in 1520 gave an impetus to Spain to be supreme in the South Seas
and His Catholic Majesty issued instructions in 1523 to the administrator of
Nova Espana to search for the Strait of Anian on both sides of the continent. To this task Cortes resolutely set himself. His path was strewn with
many difficulties and he was doomed to many disappointments. His incentive was a high one, from the Spanish point of view at that time. Apart from
[4]
 the lust of riches and adventure, inbred in the official class of the New World,
which Cortes shared in an eminent degree, the passion for world-power, the
conversion of the heathen and the steadfast desire to establish the Roman
Catholic Church in all quarters of the globe were the guiding principles of
the Court of Spain. Under the instructions of Cortes, Francisco Maldonado
sailed from the mouth of the River Zacatula in July, 1528, and examined the
coast line for 300 miles as far as Santiago, returning with extravagant accounts of the extent, richness and fertility of the lands he had seen. Two
years passed before another expedition was fitted out. Late in June, 1532,
Diego Hurtado de Mendoza sailed in the San Miguel and the San Marcos to continue Maldonado's work. He, it is supposed, reached the 27th
parallel of latitude off the peninsula of Lower California. The voyage ended
disastrously. The crew mutined and while the San Miguel ran ashore and
was plundered, the San Miguel and Mendoza pushed on for the north and
were never heard of again. Next year Hernando Grijalva, accompanied by
Diego Becerra, in search of Mendoza, discovered the Revillagigedo Islands.
Diego Becerra, more enterprising, but not less unfortunate, stood to the
north, but met an unhappy fate at the hands of his treacherous pilot, For-
tuno Ximenes, who in turn in landing on the California peninsula, was killed
by Indians.
Cortes had an implacable enemy and rival, Nuno de Guzman, President
of the Andiencia of Mexico, who was responsible for many of his troubles
and not in a small degree for bis deposition as viceroy. Determined to emulate
the exploits of Cortes and with that object in view, as well as to enlarge the
bounds of his province, Panuco, despatched expeditions overland to the shores
of the Gulf of California. One of his parties, having returned from the mouth
of the Colorado, spread abroad marvellous accounts of populous countries and
magnificent cities in the interior. The splendour of the great city of Cibola
was heralded far and wide. These reports were attested by the friar Marcos
de Niza and one Cabeza de Vaca, a companion-in-arms of the redoubtable
Hernando de Soto. De Vava, in his extraordinary wanderings from Florida to the Pacific, had received from the natives wonderful accounts of the
region northwest of New Spain. Upon receipt of this intelligence, Mendoza,
who had recently succeeded Cortes in the vice-royalty, immediately ordered
Marcos de Niza to determine the place of the reputed cities and territories.
In the selection of Niza for this mission the viceroy had been guided by his
friend, the good Bartolome de Las Casas, known in history as "The Protector of the Indians." Niza returned in due course to report that he had found
an affluent and delectable country, to the north of the thirty-fifth parallel,
which produced in abundance gold, silver and precious stones. Here were
populous towns and seven magnificent cities, of which Cibola and Totonteac
were rich beyond the dreams of avarice, even the walls of their houses being
ablaze with jewels (6). So, in all gravity, reported the emissary of the viceroy. These reports naturally excited the cupidity of soldiers of fortune and
fanned the flame of adventure. Indeed, the discovery of new territories was
directly due to the prevalence of such lying rumours. But they also checked
the exploration of far northern coasts, which quest was wholly neglected, if
not altogether forgotten in the excitement of the hour.
eg
■ftftj
I    |
(6) Greenhow, Oregon and California,
[5]
 As the result of the feud between Cortes and Guzman, now fully ripened,
the former undertook an armed expedition against the latter. At Santa Cruz,
as the port was named, Cortes landed with one hundred and thirty men and
forty horses, and commenced his celebrated march along the shores of the
gulf named in his honour on old charts. Hardships and dangers, famine and
pestilence, marked the progress of the expedition, which was remarkable for
the endurance and heroism of the men who formed it. Except for the pearls
which its coasts yielded, the country was utterly barren. Following the custom of his age, Cortes took possession of the country with due ceremony, in
the name of the King of Spain, and shortly thereafter it received the name
California, respecting the origin of which much has been written, but nothing
settled (7). Cortes' troubles increased and his declining years were made
bitter by disappointments and the success of rivals. The history of the troubled
period that followed is little more than the history of the intrigues, rivalries
and feuds of leaders who lusted to lay hold of territories from which untold
riches might be drawn. Such men as the Viceroy, Mendoza, Pedro de Alva-
rado, Hernando de Soto and Nuno de Guzman, and the most famous of them
all, Hernando Cortes, were not men to balk at obstacles. Each claimed that
the land of Cibola lay within his jurisdiction. A long and bitter dispute ensued
which ended at last in a compromise between the Viceroy and Alvarado.
Cortes, angered at the treatment dealt out to him, spent the remaining years
of his life in vain efforts to recover his authority in Mexico and to secure
some indemnification for his losses.
One other voyage of this period deserves brief notice. The intrepid Ulloa,
who commanded the last expedition fitted out by Cortes, rounded Cape San
Lucas in 1539, and thus became the first European of whom we have authentic
record to reach the oceanic coast of California. Struggling against the boisterous northwest wind, the navigator pushed on possibly as far as the 28th degree of latitude. After several vain attempts, he was driven back. His ship
reached Acapulco in safety; but of the explorer no more was heard. Two
vessels were despatched by Mendoza, Cortes' successor, under command of
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo. He sailed the coast previously explored by Ulloa,
and, more successful than his predecessor, reached a higher latitude. It seems
that he was the first to discover the port of San Diego and the Santa Barbara
channel; his "Cabo de Galera" may be the "Point Conception" of today, but
in settling the position of the places named by the early Spanish explorers,
all is conjecture. Continuing, he entered Bahia de los Pinos, supposed to be
the Bay of Monterey. Near this point a storm separated the two vessels of
his expedition and for several days Cabrillo was carried northward, in which
direction he sighted another, probably the Point Arena, the highest latitude
attained by him. On the 3rd of January, 1543, Cabrillo died from the effects
of his arduous exertions and exposure. The voyage was continued by the
pilot, Bartolome Ferrelo. It is said that he reached the 44th parallel of north
latitude, but the accounts of his expedition are so vague as to leave this point
undetermined. Harassed by tempests and sickness, he was forced to return
southward.
With regard to these early voyages, it is a speaking testimony to the
hardships endured by the  Spaniards, that, with the sole exception of the
(7) Davidson, "Origin and meaning of the name California."   San Francisco, 1910.
[6]
 voyage of Alarcon, all the captains of naval expeditions despatched northward to California by Cortes and Mendoza died from scurvy or exposure or
were lost at sea. Only the emaciated remnants of their parties returned,
with appalling accounts of the hardships endured and of the storms and dangers encountered in their undertakings in inclement seas and on desert lands.
No wonder that the zeal for northern explorations cooled. "The north is cold,
rough and poor," was an adage amongst the Spaniards. Their horror of that
region was deepened by the return of Ferrelo in 1543. The exertions of
Cabrillo had added vastly to the knowledge of the Pacific coast of America,
but no effort was made to add to his discoveries. More profitable employment and greater riches were to be gained in the silver mines of Mexico,
which proved more lucrative than the exploration of barren shores; though
no doubt it was the same avaricious spirit of the age which tempted the enterprise of Ulloa, Cabrillo and Vizcaino, for the viceroys were always flattered
with the hope that lands equal in richness to Mexico would be discovered in
unknown northwestern regions.
Little further progress was made in the navigation of the north Pacific
in the latter half of the sixteenth century, and no attempt was made to explore the northwest coast. From 1542 until 1596 not a single expedition left
Mexican ports with that object in view. In the latter year Vizcaino sailed
from Acapulco, but did not achieve anything. Philip III., in 1599, sent explicit instructions to the Viceroy of Mexico to pursue with vigor an active
policy in those quarters. Monterey, the Viceroy of the time, decided to employ
Vizcaino again, as that navigator was considered to have more knowledge of
the coast of New Spain than any other commander. On the 5th of May, 1602,
Vizcaino sailed from Acapulco. With greater knowledge and facilities than
any of his predecessors, Vizcaino was enabled to survey accurately the coast
line of California from Cape San Lucas onward to Mendocino. The immediate object of his expedition was to find a suitable landfall for the homing
Manila galleons. He was therefore instructed not to proceed beyond the
point mentioned. Beating his way against the northwest wind, that scourge
of navigators, Vizcaino made slow progress. By the 12th of January he had
reached the 41st parallel and then turned back. Not the least important result of this expedition was the information gained by Martin d'Aguilar, who
commanded the Tres Reyes, one of Vizcaino's vessels. The gale of the 6th
of January had separated the two vessels, and Aguilar, according to the
observations of the pilot Antonio Flores, was driven before it to latitude 40
degrees north. Some authors, indeed, maintain that he discovered the mouth
of the great fluvial artery since named the Columbia. From the vague surviving accounts of the discovery, however, it is not possible to settle the point
one way or the other. Both Aguilar and Flores died from exposure before
their vessels reached San Diego on its homeward voyage. So much for the
attempts of the Spaniards to explore the northwest coast. They proved, as
has been seen, singularly abortive and disastrous.
The Spanish Government was, after all, more concerned with the development of commerce with the Philippines. Very soon after Cortes reached
the Pacific, vessels had crossed the ocean to those islands, but until 1564 no
vessel had sailed from the Philippines to Mexico, owing to the prevailing
trade winds of the mid-Pacific.   In 1564, however, the Friar Urdaneta, a navi-
[7]
!'M^
O
 41
gator of repute, found that by steering a northeasterly course a region of
variable atmospheric currents was reached. This discovery enabled him to
make America from the East, a feat never before accomplished. Urdaneta
was possibly the first man to be accredited with having sailed from the Pacific to the Atlantic through the famous strait. Reposing in their fancied
security, the Spaniards did not even take the trouble to protect their East
Indian commerce. Free for many years from all interference from the outside and with all their fears in that regard set at rest, they reaped a rich
harvest in the South Sea, estabhshing between India, the Philippines and the
Isthmus of Darien, an extensive commerce. At this time there were some
few fortified ports on the Mexican seaboard and on the Pacific coast of Central and South America, while across the narrow Isthmus stretched a road
over which the treasure freighted by East Indian argosies was carried to the
Pacific on the backs of mules. The fruits of commerce, thus transferred to
Nombre de Dios, were more than once destroyed by English and other freebooters.
Then, like a bolt from the blue, came Sir Francis Drake's descent upon
the west coast of America. English, French and Dutch privateers for more
than half a century had plundered the Spanish colonies on the eastern side of
the continent, but this was the first attempt to carry their depredations into
the Pacific. Francis Drake was one of the most noted and picturesque of
that group of buccaneers who lent an unusual halo of romance to the maritime history of the Elizabethan period. He added to a love of plunder an intense hatred of the Spaniards, so that he robbed and wrecked their galleons
with right good will. So far from having twinges of conscience, he flattered
Providence by coming to His aid in a righteous cause. He left England in
1577 with five ships. He found himself on the Pacific Ocean with one, the
name of which he changed from Pelican to Golden Hinde. The rest had deserted him. With his single little ship he traversed the coast northward,
ravishing the Spanish main; burning and destroying all before him. Richard
Hakluyt has preserved for us accounts of that memorable voyage, and to
them one must turn for full information. The staunch little band under
Drake slit the throat of the Spaniard and burnt his ships, and so great was
the terror aroused by the English captain, that it is said the Spanish mothers
frightened their children with the threat that if they were not good Drake
would come and carry them away. At last, laden with spoil, he decided to
sail for England. He determined, however, not to pass southward through
the Strait of Magellan, for fear the Spaniards would seize him and his loot.
So he boldly sailed northwestward with the intention of reaching the Atlantic
by the Strait of Anian. The latitude reached by Drake on this occasion has
been the subject of much discussion. In "The World Encompassed," prepared from an unpublished manuscript by Francis Fletcher, chaplain to the
expedition, it is declared that he reached the 48th parallel. On the other hand,
Thomas Maynard's "Sir Francis Drake, His Voyage," states that the northern voyage did not extend so far by five degrees. Lapse of time and indefinite records of the event prevent any settlement of the question. But it
is not altogether unlikely that Sir Francis attained the higher latitude (8).
(8) With reference to the northern limit of Drake's foray, J. G. Kohl, the eminent geographer,
states: "The best English and other foreign authorities admit 48 degrees north latitude as Drake's northern limit.
[8]
 So great was the cold and the suffering of the crew that Drake gave up his
attempt to reach the Atlantic Ocean by the northwest passage, and sailed
southward, making a landfall at Drake's Bay to the north of San Francisco.
Here he spent many days refreshing his crew and establishing friendly relations with the natives, by whom he was crowned king of the country, an
honour which he modestly states he consented to accept on behalf of Her
Majesty, Queen Elizabeth. It was not to be expected, of course, that Drake
should forego the custom of the mariners of that age and neglect to lay claim
to the country he had discovered for the English nation. He named the land
New Albion and formally took possession of it in the name of his sovereign.
This incident of 1578 in after years was quoted by the British Government
in support of its claim to the Oregon Territory. It was, indeed, a fact that
Drake was the first Anglo-Saxon to reach the shore of northwestern America
and to lay claim to the territory behind it. Drake then was the pioneer on
the road which was to lead many an English and Dutch freebooter to fortune,
if not to fame, in the Pacific. Captain Thomas Cavendish (or "Candish," as
his name is spelled in the older records) followed Drake in 1587, but he
reached only the southern part of California. From the days of the buccaneers until the enterprise of Captain James Cook, no Englishman visited
the northwestern coast of America. Drake's name of "New Albion," however,
lives in history, and all the early navigators allude to the coast of what is
now northern California, Oregon and Washington, under that title.
As has already been stated, one of the direct results of the policy of
Spain in guarding jealously the secret of her discoveries in the Pacific, neither
affirming nor denying, encouraged those of her bolder spirits to make claims
to voyages, explorations and discoveries, which in the light of later developments we know to have been pure inventions, calculated like certain classes of
fiction to pander to a taste created in an age of seeming wonders. Hence,
we have had a number of what are described as "apocryphal voyages." Each
of these had its believers and defenders and it required almost centuries in
which to dissipate faith in them. In dealing with works of fiction it is unnecessary for purposes of history to discuss seriously what was non-existent.
Briefly, three of the most important of these were alleged to have been undertaken and accomplished by Lorenzo Ferrer de Maldonado, Bartholomew de
Fonte, and Juan de Fuca. The former two laid claim to having sailed through
the Straits of Anian, that is, by the northwest passage from the Atlantic to
the Pacific or vice versa, and in the case of Maldonado the narrative was so
circumstantial in its details as to have deceived learned geographers. He
not only navigated the mysterious strait, but reached Cathay and disported
among the wonders of the South Sea. What has more interest for us is the
reputed discovery of the Strait of Juan de Fuca in 1592 by Juan de Fuca,
a Greek pilot in the employ of Spain, whose real name was Apostolos Valeri-
anos. Juan de Fuca, when an old man, was discovered, so to speak, in Venice,
by one Michael Lok, trading in the Levant and the story told to the latter by
him was published by Samuel Purchas in "His Pilgrimes" in 1625. It is
needless to go into details of the story. His description of the latitude, the
entrance and general trend of the "broad inlet of the sea," which he claims
to have entered and sailed up, corresponds clearly enough to the strait as it
exists to render the story probable under ordinary circumstances, and it is ac-
[9]
«fe»
k
 II;
Ml i
cepted as true by many even today. It must, however, forever remain in
doubt. Apart from the narrative given to the world by Lok, there are no
historical proofs of the existence of a Juan de Fuca in the capacity in which
he represented himself and authorities are agreed that the voyage of de Fuca
as described is at least "apocryphal," while some do not hesitate to repudiate it in its entirety. When, however, Captain Barkley at a much later date
did enter the Strait of Fuca, remembering the old story of Michael Lok, which
had passed into a tradition among navigators, he regarded it as a rediscovery
and named the waters after, and in honour of, the old Greek pilot. The details of these apocryphal voyages are nevertheless very entertaining and if
they served any necessary purpose in this volume a chapter or two might be
devoted to them. They have as much merit as the ordinary novel and in the
credulous days in which they found circulation appealed vividly to the imagination arid did much towards keeping alive and stimulating afresh the spirit
of adventure.
[10]
 RUSSIAN EXPLORATIONS AND ESTABLISHMENTS.
CHAPTER II.
In the eighteenth century the lines of exploration converged upon that
strip of territory which, hedged in between the Rocky Mountains and the
Pacific Ocean, stretches from California northward to the Arctic Sea. It
was a land up to that date absolutely unknown. From the four points of
the compass gathered the men who were to tear aside the veil that hid this
virgin land from the eyes of the world. From the South, after an interval
of inaction, came the Spaniard; from the North the sturdy Russian in the
face of fearful obstacles worked his way southward; from the West came
coldly scientific Britons and the vivacious sons of France; finally, from the
East the daring fur trader, undismayed by vast distances, foaming torrents
and mighty mountain ranges, pushed across the continent and established
posts beyond the Rockies, at the same time that his brother-trader, the maritime fur-hunter, was searching each nook and cranny of the west coast for
the pelt of the sea-otter. Since 1603 Spain had made little progress northward. California was looked upon as an island, and not as part of a continent. Compared with her once mighty sway, Spain indeed had sunk into decrepitude. In California, abandoned by its government, the Jesuits still were
active and powerful. By their missionary settlements in, and explorations of,
the peninsula of California, they laid the foundations for further advance
towards the northwest.
The Russians from the opposite direction advanced to the same region;
indeed, it was Muscovite enterprise that moved the Spanish government to
make a final effort to establish its sovereignty at least as far northward as
the 54th parallel of latitude. In the great work of Arctic exploration
which preoccupied almost exclusively the ambitions of the last two centuries,
Russia and England took the lead. Until comparatively recent times it was
to these two nations that the world was principally indebted for its knowledge
of Arctic regions. The story of Russian exploits in that bleak field is adorned
with a series of great names, but one of the first and perhaps the greatest of
all was a Dane. It redounds to the honour of Denmark that as Lauridsen observes, "the most brilliant chapter in the history of Russian explorations is
due to the initiative and indefatigable energy of Vitus Bering." In the service of the half civilized, if not wholly barbaric, Peter the Great, he doubled
the north eastern peninsula of Asia, and on his return to Russia prepared a
plan for exploration which was to reach from the White Sea of Japan.
Curiously enough, the equipment of Bering's first expedition to the northeast
was one of the last administrative acts of Peter the Great. From his deathbed his energies set in motion forces which in years that followed were to
conquer a new world for human knowledge. It was not until his rugged but
mighty spirit was on the verge of leaving this world that the work was
begun. The death of the great Czar witnessed indeed the birth of a force which
was destined to be memorably effective for half a century; and the results
[11]
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then achieved still excite our admiration. Just before his death no less than
three great enterprises were planned—the establishment of a market at the
mouth of the River Kur for the Oriental trade, the creation of maritime trade
with India, and a scientific expedition to settle once and for all the mooted
point as to the boundary between Asia and America. It was to the last named
that Bering devoted his energies and on account of which he gave up his life.
The history of Russian explorations and settlements on the northwest coast is
interesting and important to us, first, because out of them was evolved the
territory known as Alaska, and, second, because our interests were closely associated with, and involved in, two great international questions of recent date,
familiar to us—the Bering Sea and Alaska boundary disputes. Pursuant to
instructions issued by Peter the Great, five weeks before his death, Bering led
an expedition across one hundred and thirty degrees of inhospitable Siberia.
Mountains, steppes, impenetrable forests, morasses and fields of ice and snow
lay between St. Petersburg and Kamchatka, and to the latter place he carried
not only a force of men, but an enormous provision train and materials for
ship-building. It was an heroic and unique undertaking and is memorable
among similar feats. Bering was commissioned to build boats, sail northward
along the coast and ascertain the relative position of the American coast. On
March 11th, 1728, after great sufferings and hardships he reached his destination, where he found a handful of Cossacks maintaining the sovereignty
of the "Czar of All the Russias." They were little more civilized than the
natives whom they ruled and knouted. With a vessel, the Gabriel, which he
built under obvious difficulties, he went to sea with the result that, although
he did not on account of fog catch a glimpse of the American continent, he
ascertained definitely that it was separated by water from Asia. Keeping
land in sight, he coasted to a point near 67° 18', north latitude and longitude
198° 7' east of Greenwich. Bering was convinced that he had sailed round
the northeastern corner of Asia, and that his voyage had proved beyond doubt
that the two great continents were not connected. From St. Petersburg it
was announced that "Bering had ascertained that there really does exist a
northeast passage and that from the Lena River it is possible, provided one
is not prevented by Polar ice, to sail to Kamchatka and thence to Japan,
China and the East Indies." From personal observations and from information gleaned from the natives he was satisfied that the land of another continent lay no great distance away.
In the summer of 1729 Bering started out once more upon a voyage
of exploration, his particular object being to find the country of which the
natives had spoken. If the wind had been in the right quarter, Bering
Island, where twelve years later he was to die and be buried, might have
been reached by the explorer. Again fog obscured his vision, and he did not
even sight the island where he was destined to end his days. Important as
was his first expedition, it was less memorable than his next and last, which
resulted in the discovery of the American continent from the east, and the
exploitation of Russian-America, now Alaska. He returned to the seat of
government in Russia to carry out his plans, but it was several years before
they fructified and his commission in the end was of much greater magnitude than he had ever dreamed of at the outset—in fact, it was preposterous and absurd in that respect.   He wanted to explore the coast of America
[12]
 and establish commercial relations; to visit Japan for a similar purpose;
and to map the Arctic coast of Siberia. He was charged in the end with what
a commission of experts, made up of all the talents, might have been expected in a lifetime to perform—the development and scientific exploration
of Siberia; the charting of northwest America, Japan and the Arctic regions;
the visiting of the Spanish settlements; the founding of schools and establishment of dock-yards and iron-works; the introduction of cattle on the Pacific;
the supplying of Okotsk with inhabitants,—even to the refinements of scientific observation and ethnographic investigation. An imposing expedition of
570 men and 30 or 40 academists, headed by La Croyere, as astronomer, was
dispatched and started in detachments across the Siberian desert in 1733.
Great bodies move slowly and what was accounted dilatoriness brought upon
the head of Bering severe criticism and almost recall. He was able to defend himself. In 1737 the headquarters were moved to Okotsk, which became a military centre and the Russian metropolis in eastern Asia. The following year, 1738, Martin Spangberg sailed for Japan and in two short summer expeditions succeeded in charting the Kurile Islands, Yezo and part of
the eastern coast of Nippon. As a result of his operations that part of the
globe assumed for the geographer an entirely new appearance.
In the course of time Bering reached the Kamchatkan peninsula, where
he founded the town of Petropaulovski, so named after the Church of St.
Peter and Paul, built at that point by the pious leader of the expedition.
This port rapidly assumed importance, and it soon became, as is now, by far
the most pleasing town of the peninsula. In the crude ship-yards of this backwoods port the vessels St. Peter and St. Paul were built, and in May, 1731,
frugally outfitted with provisions for a summer's cruise of exploration. Neither
the ships' stores nor rigging were complete or even adequate, but into the
unknown sailed Vitus Bering. The nervous strain and great hardships, the
necessary accompaniment of such a .vast undertaking, had already undermined
his health. Indeed the incessant toil and anxieties of the past eight years
had been generally debilitating his system, and on his departure from Kamchatka he was physically a wreck. Vitus Bering commanded the St. Peter and
Alex. Chirikof of the St. Paul, and with Bering sailed the naturalist Steller,
who alone, by his fascinating records of his observations, would have made
the voyage famous. The ships weighed anchor in June, 1741, and on the
20th, in storm and fog, separated and never again came together. Both
made important discoveries, but on the 16th of July, 1741, Bering saw land.
The country was high and rugged and covered with snow, the coast jagged
and girt with inhospitable rocks; behind, in splendour, towered a snowcapped mountain peak so far into the clouds that it could be seen at a distance of seventy miles. This mountain was the great volcanic cone of St.
Elias, some eighteen thousand feet high.
"Bering had discovered America from the East."
A stay of only a few days was made in the neighbourhood of the island
where the ship cast anchor, when, despite the remonstrances of Steller, the
St. Peter proceeded in a northwesterly direction for the purpose of examining
the continental shore. Commander and crew were in a sorry plight. Bering was confined to bed, and the crew, with starvation in sight, were for the
greater part sick with scurvy.    For several weeks the vessel worked along
[13]
 the coast and on July 26th was off the Kadiak Archipelago. During the
succeeding weeks the St. Peter was tossed by wind and wave on turbulent
waters. Misfortune after misfortune crowded on the expedition. Scurvy and
dissension were rife. It was finally decided to give up charting the American coast and return home. On August 30th the vessel anchored off the
Shumagin group of islands, the plight of those aboard still growing worse—
sea, scurvy, dissension, death, all in concert to one end. Leaving Shumagin
Islands from September 6th until November 4th, the men suffered untold
hardships. On November 4th, under latitude 53° 30' an elevated coast was
sighted; and though it was thought to have been Kamchatka, it proved to
be an island, now known as Bering, one of the Commander group. Here they
found a landing after an almost miraculous escape from the reefs; here they
were doomed to be denizened for the winter in roofed pits; here sufferings
were intense and death had a heavy toll; here wild animals—Arctic foxes,
sea otters, seals, sea-cows and wild fowl—Steller found in abundance to his
wonder and amazement; and here Vitus Bering, worn out with fever, scurvy,
sufferings and anxiety, breathed his last, literally buried alive where he lay
from the sand from the sides of the pit rolling down on his body, which he
welcomed for the warmth it afforded him. There have been various estimates of the man, as a man and as a mariner. He had many traducers. He
has even been accused of pusillanimity and cowardly fear; but bis exploits,
his long, weary struggle in fighting obstacles, his success in overcoming powerful opposition, his achievements as a mariner, his almost prophetic vision—j
all stamp him as quite a different man, and he must forever rank among
the outstanding pioneer navigators and explorers of the northwest coast. He
accomplished much. He established the fact that America and Asia are
separated; he exploded many false theories respecting the northeastern coast
of Asia; he discovered the Aleutian Islands; he was the first European to
chart any part of the continental shore of far northwestern America j he discovered and named Mount St. Elias; his last expedition led to the establishment of Russian sovereignty in and over Alaska.
After many strange vicissitudes the remnant of the party embarked in a
vessel, built of the wreckage of the St. Peter, and reached Petropaulovski in
the summer of 1742, and so ended the long drawn out tragedy of the great
northern expedition of the Russians. Chirikof's adventures in the St. Paul
were scarce less unfortunate than those of Bering's in the St. Peter. After
the separation the former drifted southward to latitude 48 and then sailed
E. N. E., coming in the course of days close to the wooded shore of Cape
Addington, though he found no landing. In Sitka Sound a terrible disaster
befell him and his people. Being in need of water, on the 7th of July he sent
a long boat and ten men to the shore. After several days, the boat not returning, a second boat's crew was despatched and they, too, disappeared and
never returned. From the subsequent appearance of Indians, their fate became obvious and the St. Paul set sail for Kamchatka, where she arrived on
the 10th of October, all on board having suffered from scurvy, lack of water
and untold hardships. The Russian Government, tired of the worry and expense involved in the prosecution of trans-Siberian and American adventures,
did not follow up the explorations of Bering; but enterprising individuals
were always found to fit out expeditions for the hunting of the sea-otter.
[14]
 None of them seem to have reached the farthest coasts visited by Bering and
Chirikbf. In the course of their traffickings, however, they explored the
Aleutian Islands, returning with rude sketches and maps.
Many Russian companies—at one time as many as twenty-five or thirty
—were engaged in the sea-otter trade, with the result that these animals were
greatly diminished in numbers and attention was directed to the seal herds.
In time, in 1768, the Prybilof Islands, their celebrated breeding grounds, were
discovered. Following the example of similar companies in many parts of the
world, individual private enterprises were succeeded by consolidation and
practical monopoly. In 1781, Gregory Shelikof formed an association of
Siberian merchants and traded in and explored the northern Pacific. Then
at Irkutsk, in 1791, he organized the Shelikof company, which secured a
partial monopoly of the American trade. Independent traders continued
their operations, to the loss of the Irkutsk company, and the most powerful
of these were persuaded to unite their interests with the older association under
the name of "The Shelikof United Trading Co." New competitors entered
the field and still demoralized the trade. Then the directors of the United
company sued for a monopoly of the fur trade in Russian America and
finally obtained it in 1799. "The Russian American Company" was organized by Imperial ukase. This document gave to the members of the old
company under its new name the control of all the coasts of America on the
Pacific north of the 55th degree of latitude. They were required to
organize settlements, promote agriculture, commerce, and discovery and to
propagate the Greek Catholic faith; to extend Russian territory and influence
on the Pacific as far as possible without trespassing on the territory of any
foreign power (1). The capital of the company was fixed at ninety-eight
thousand silver rubles.
Like the Hudson's Bay Co., the Russian American Co. represented
sovereign power in its territory and was practically an imperium in imperio.
It had also power over the natives, who were in effect its slaves. The whole
history of the Russian fur trade from the time of its rude beginnings was
one marred by cruelty, by oppression, sufferings and exposure, loss of fife,
coarseness, vice and dissipation. "None," says Krusenstem, "but vagabonds
and adventurers ever entered the company's service as promishleniks." Once
in that employ they seldom saw Russian soil again. There were at times,
however, gentlemen of refinement and intelligence—the educated Russian
—at Sitka, the seat of government, with a high sense of honour and justice.
It was not all bad. The company had much competition from American
sources and the natives proved hostile and several massacres took place before
they were subdued in authority. Later on in the chapter, conditions were
much mitigated and priests of the Greek Church established missions among
the Indians, whose last state, on account of contact with the whites, had been
worse than the first. They made a genuine effort to convert the native tribes
of Alaska, established schools, churches and hospitals and worked faithfully
for a people whose minds were perhaps not able to grasp the full meaning
of the truths of Christianity. Among the most picturesque figures of this
semi-barbarous regime was Governor Baranof, who for 27 years as representative of Russian authority and local head of tile fur company, was, for
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(1) Dall, Alaska, p. 818.
[15]
 20 years at least, the uncrowned king of Alaska. Of tremendous energy and
physical endurance and iron nerve, coarse, unfeeling, shrewd and enterprising, he maintained despotic sway, and while the regulations governing the
operations of the company were generally just and humane, in practice they
were ignored or made subject to interest and expediency. Baranof ruled first
at Kad