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A voyage to the Pacific Ocean : for making discoveries in the northern hemisphere, performed under the… Cook, James, 1728-1779 1796

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       V O Y A G E
T O   T H E
Captains COOK, CLERKE, and GORE,
In the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779? 1780.
Captain JAMES COOK, F. R. S,
Captain JAMES KING, LL. D. and F. R. S.
vol. 11. ^m
Printed by Tiebout and O'Brien,
For BENJAMIN GOMEZ, Bookseller and Stationer,
No. 97, Maiden-Lajne» »
*796» ^^^^^g^^^^^^^^^7^3^^^^^55^^^5^^5^
i   OF NORTH-AMER ICA.        .  :
mm a p. ïv\
Considerations about failing—A Peace or Truce with
Eimeo on dijadvantageous Terms—Otoo's Delay
in fending Reinforcements cenfured—A Solemnity
at the M or ai on the peace-—Obfervations thereon
—Otoo's Addrefs and Art—Omai receives u Prefait of a War Canoe—Embellifhes it with Variety
of Streamers—Otoo's Prefent to his Majejiy—
Account of the Modes of Traffic, and the friendly
Treatment we received ut Otaheite—The Expedition of fome Spaniards—Their Endeavours to
■inculcate ; a mean Opinion of the Englifh—Omai
jealous of another Traveller. Page  i
CHAP.    V.
Anchor at Taloo in Eimeo—The Harbours of Tarn
and \ Parowroah defcribed—Vifit from MaheineP
the Chief of Eimeo, wh& approaches with Can*
tion—Defcripiion of the P erf on of Maheine—Pre-
parafions made for failing—Detained by having à
Goat Jiolen—That recovered, and another Jiolen—*
Menaces ufed -to occafwn it to be returned—Expedition acrofs the i/land9 with a party, in fearch
Vol. II. ■-...-   b * CO N T E N T S.
of the GoaU-r-Houfes and Canoës burnt, and other
Hoftilities threatened—The Goat returned—Tltf
Ifland defcribed, &c. Page.   21
CHAP.    VI.
The Ships arrive at Huaheine—Affembly of the
Chiefs—0?na?s Harangue—His Efiablifhment in
this Ifhand unanimoufly agreed to—A HGufe built
for him—Steps taken to enfure his Safety—The
Ships infefted with Cock-roaches—Detetlion and
Punifh?nent of a Thief—He efcapes from his Confinement—Animals ' left with Omai—His European Weapons—His Entertainments—Infcription
on his Houfe—His Behaviour at parting—Remarks on his general Condutl—His Characler—
Account of the two New-Zealanders wh§ re-
mained with hinu 34
#. s^
Arrival at Ulietea—One of the Marines deferis,
but is brought back by Captain Cook—Intelligence from Omai—Inftrutlions to Captain Clerke—
Two others defert—The two Captains feek them
in vain—The Chiefs Son, Daughter, and her
Hufband,. confined on board the Difcovery—Un-
fuccefsful Confpiracy of the Natives againft the
Captains—The two Deferters are recovered—-The
Chief's Family fet at Liberty—The Ships fail—
Remarks on the Ulieteans—Prefent and former
State of tJ>eir IJland. 5 k
■  € H A P.    VIII.
Proceed to Bolabola, accompanied, by Oreo and others
-—Application to Opoony for Monfieur de Bcugain- CONTEN" rag
ville9s Anchor—Reafons for purchaftng it—Delicacy of Opoony, in not accepting the Prefent
—Quit the Society ÎJIands—Defcription of Bolabola, and its Harbour-—Curious Hiftory of the Re*
duclion of the two I/lands, Otaha and Ulietea
—Bravery of the Men of Bolabola—Account of the
- Animals, left at Bolabola and Ulietea—Procefs of
fitting Pork—-Curfory Obfervations refpeâiing Otaheite, and the Society I/lands^ Page 71
CHAP.    IX.
Striclure* on former Accounts of Otaheite—The prevailing Winds*—Beauty and Fertility of the Country—Land but little cultivated—Produce—Natural Curiofties—Defcription of the Natives—
Delicacy of the. women—Their general Character-—Difpofed to amorous Gratifications—r£*heir
Language—Jgnorance of Surgery and Phyfic—
Animal Food chiefly eaten by the fuperior Clafs—
Pernicious Effects of Ava—Account of their different Meals—Connections between the two Sexes
—Circumcifion—Religion—Notions concerning Immortality—Superfiitions—Strange Traditions about
the Creation—The King almoft deified—Clajfes
of the People—Punijhments—Peculiarities of the
adjacent Iflands—Limits of their Navigation*    8j
CHAP.    X.
Profecution of our Voyage, after our Departure from
the Society JJles—Chri/imas IJland Difcovered—
Supplies, of Fijh and Turtle—Solar Eclipfe—i
Dijlrefs of two Seamen who had lofé their Way—*
O:- /-_     a/I"/.       /*   ...r.1-/7'• ...    /•./*-//•   .        erf   1  1
'ar Mode of refrejhing himfelf praclifed by
b 3  c o n t e m y g.
./^i C^i/z Clerke-Their ' gfe
vanhwems Situation of the Sand-z
'CHAP.    XIH^
Obfervations on:ihe Longitudes TtM$L~&c^--Proc
. on the Voyage—Weather remarkably, mild as- j
as the Latitude. 44° North—Scarcity, of Gceâ
Birds in the Ntheni HemifpJm^Beaup
Sea-Animals defcribed, fupp'ofed by Mr. ,-D ,
fon to be a new [pedes of Onfcus—Sei- the Ct
Dïficuky   at   Cahe   'I it c ~ ~n   ~ v    *
am nor there,   and are vyti
Natives—Their Behaviour,
C H A P.    I.
Arrival at the Sound—Moor in- an excellent Har-.
houTr—ViJited by great Numbers  of the Natives.^ x CONTENTS.
who are an inoffenfive Race of People—Variety of
Articles brought to Barter, particularly human
Skulls—Mifchievous Thefts committed—The Obfer-
vatories ere tied on a Rock—Alfo a Forge ere tied—
Alarmed at feeing the Natives arm ihemj elves—Dif-
tant Tribes not permitted by 'the Natives to traffic
with us—Tempeftuous Weather—A Survey of the
Sound—Friendly Behaviour of the Natives of one off
the Villages—Treatment received from an inh of pi-
table Chief—Greeted with a §ong by young Women-
A fécond Vifit to one of the Villages—Grafs pur-
chafed—Departure of the Ships.
Page 209
CHAP.    II.
Directions for failing into the Sound—The adjacent
Country defcribed—Remarks on the Weather and
Climate—Trees and other vegetable Productions
—Racoons, Martins, Squirrels, and other Quadrupeds—-Variety of Skins brought for Sale—
Whales, a?id other Sea Animals—The Sea Otter
defcribed-—Birds—-Oceanic Birds—Fijh—Shell
Fijh—Snakes and Lizards—Infects—Stones—
Defcription of the Natives—Their Colour—Formation—Drefs and Ornaments—Particular Dreffes^
and horrible  wooden Mafks—Leathern Mantle
for   War Their   Difpofition-—Songs-—Mufual
Infiruments—Their Fondncjs for Metals, which
they take every Opportunity of flealing. 229
Number of inhabitants at Nootka Sound—Marnier
of building their Houfes-—Defcription of their
Infide, Furniture, and UtenfJs—Their Filthineff mmmmm
 Wooden Images',  called Klumma-—Employments
if the Men—Indolence of the young Men— Of the
Women, and their Employments-*-Different Sorts
jqf Food, and Manner of preparing it—Bows-
Arrows—Spears—Slings, and other Weapons—
Manufactures of Woollen,   &c—■Mechanic Arts
 Defign and Execution in Carving and Painting
—Canoes—Implements  ufed in-Hunting and Fifh-
ing Iron Tools common among th&m—Manner cf
procuring that,, and other Metals—Language
lip Page 252
A Storm—The Reflation fprings a Leak—Progrejs
of the Ships along the North-American Goaft—
An Inlet named Crofs Sound—Beeringfs Bay—
Cape Suckling—Account of Kay's I/land—Our
Ships anchor near Cape Hinchingbroke—the Natives vifit us—Their Fondnefs for Beads ami
Iron—Their daring Attempt to carry off one of
our Boats—They alfo attempt to plunder the Dif-
■c every—Progrefs up the Sound—Mr, Gore and
the Mafter fent to examine its Extent—Montague
I/land—The Ships leave the Sound. 275
CHAP.    V.
Extent of Prince William9s Sound-—The Perfons of
its Inhabitants defcribed-—Their Drefs—-Remarkable Cufiom of making an incifion in the Under-
Up—Their various Ornaments—Canoes—Weapons
—Armour—Domefiic Utenfils—Their fkill in all
manual Works—Their Food—A fpecimen of their
Language-—Quadrupeds—Birds—Fijh —Trees
Conjectures whence they procure Beads and Iron.
300  «M
;      VOYAGE   $
T O    T H E
CHAP.      IV.
Confederations ah out failing—A Peace or Truce with
Eimeo an difadvantageous Terms—Otoo9s Delay
in fending Reinforcements cenfured—A Solemnity
at the Moral on the peace—Obfervations thereon
—Otoo's Addrefs and Art—Omai receives a Prefent of a War Canoe—Embellijhes it with Variety
of Streamers*—Otoo's Prefent to his \ Majefty—
Account of the Modes of Traffic, and the Friendly
Treatment we received at Otaheite—The Expedition offome Spaniards—Their Endeavours to
inculcate a mean Opinion of the Englifh—Omai
jealous of another Traveller,
OTOO, and  his   father, came on board, in
the morning of the 2 2d,  to know when
Captain   Cook  propofed   failing.     For,   hearing
Vol. II.~N°
that there was a good harbour at Èimeo, he had
informed them, that he mould vifit that ill and on
his palfage to Huaheine ; and they propofed to
accompany him, and that their fleet fhould fail
at the fame time to reinforce Towha. Being
ready to take his departure, he fubmitted to them
the appointment of the day ; and the Wednefday
following was determined upon ; when he was to
receive on board Otoo, his father, mother, and
the whole family. Thefe points being agreed on,
the Captain propofed immediately fetting out for
Oparre, where all the fleet was to aflemble this
day^ and to be reviewed.
As Captain Cook was getting into his boat,,
news arrived that a treaty had been concluded between Towha and Maheine, and Towha's fleet
had returned to Attahooroo. From this unexpected event, the war canoes, inftead of rendez-
voufing at Oparre, were ordered to their refpective
diftricts. Captain Cook, however, followed Otoo
to Oparre, accompanied by Mr. King and Omai.
Soon after their arrival, a mefienger arrived from
Eimeo, and related the conditions of the peace,
or rather truce, it being only for a limitted time.
The terms being difadvantageous to Otaheite,
Otoo was feverely cenfured, whofe delay, in fending reinforcements, had obliged Towha to fubmit
to a difgraceful accommodation. It was even
currently reported, that Towha,' refenting the
treatment he  had  received,   had   declared, that . PACIFIC OCEAN. 3
immediately after Captai'n Cook's departure, he
would join his forces to thofe of Tiaraboo, and
attack Otoo, This called upon the Captain to
declare, that he was determined to efpbufe the in-
tereft of his friend : and that whoever prefumed
to attack him, fhould experience the weight of his
difpleafure, when he returned to their ifland.
This declaration, probably, had the defired
effect., and, if Towha did entertain any fuch hof-
tile intention at firft, we heard no more of the
report. Whappai, the father of Otoo, highly
difapprbved of the peace, and cenfured Towha
for concluding it. This old man wifely confidered
that Captain Cook's going with them to Eimeo,
might havç been of lingular fervice to their caufe,
though he fhould not interfere in the quarrel.
He therefore concluded, that Otoo had acted
prudently in waiting for the Captain; though it
prevented his giving that early afliftance to Towha
which he expected.
While we were debating on this fubjecr. at
Oparre, a meffenger arrived from Towha, defiring
the attendance of Otoo the next day, at the moria
in Attahooroo, to return thanks, to the Gods for
the peace he had concluded. Captain Cook was
afked to attend^ but being much out of order,
chofe rather to decline it. Defirous, however, of
knowing what ceremony might be exhibited on fo
memorable an occafion, he fent Mr. King and
Omai to ohferve the  particulars,  and returned to 4 A VOYAGE TO THE
his fliip, attended by Otoo's mother, his three
fitters, and feveral other woman. At firft, the
Captain imagined that this numerous train came
into his boat, in order to get a paffage to Matavai,
But they aflured him, they intended palling the
night on board, for the purpofe of curing the
diforder he complained of; which was a rheu-
matic pain, extending from the hip to the foot.
He accepted the friendly offer, had a bed pre-,
pared for them upon the cabin floor, and fub-
mitted himfelf to their directions* He was fir ft
defired to lie down amongft them , when all thofe
who could get near him, began to fqueeze him
with both hands all over the body, hut more particularly on the parts complained of, till, ijjfëfi.
made his bones crack, and his flefh became almoft
, a mummy. In fhort, after fuffering this fevere
difcipline about a quarter of an hour, he was
happy to get away from them. The operation,
however, gave him immediate relief, and encouraged him to a repetition of the fame difcipline,
before he retired to bed ; and it was fo effectual,
that he found himfelf pretty eafy the whole night
after. His female phyficians very obligingly repeated their prescription the next morning, before
they left .him, and again in the evening, when they
returned; after which, the cure being perfected,
they took their leave of the Captain the following,
morning. This is called romee, among the natives, an operation far exceeding that of the flefh- PACIFIC OCEAN.
brum, or any external friction. It is univerfally
practifed amongft thefe iflanders, and generally
by women. If, at any .time, a perfon appears
languid and tired, and fits down by any of them,
they practife the romee upon his legs ; and it ak
ways has an excellent effect:.
On Thurfday the 25th of September, Otoo,
Mr. King, and Omai, returned from Attahooroo ;
and Mr. King gave a narrative of what he had
feen to the following effect : " At fun-fet, we
embarked in a canoe, and left Oparre. About
nine o'clock we landed at that extremity of Tet-
taha, which joins to Attahooroo. The meeting
of Otoo and Towha, I expected, would be inter*
efting. Otoo and his attendants feated themfeives
on the beach, near the canoe in which Towha fat.
He was then afleep ; but being awakened, and
Otoo's name being metioned to him, a plantain-
tree and dog were immediately laid at Otoo's
feet ; and feveral of Towha's people came and
converfed» with him. After I had been, for fome
time, feated clofe to Otoo, Towha neither ftirring
from his canoe, nor faying any thing to us, I
repaired to him. He aiked me if Toote was dif-
pleafed with him ; I anfwered, No ; and that he
was his taio ; and that I was ordered to go to Attahooroo, to let him know it. ' Omai: then entered into a long converfation with this chief;
but I coujd not gather any information from him.
On my returning to Otoo, he^defired that I fhouhj A VOYAGE TO THE
go to eat, and then to fleep ; in confequence of
which Omai and I left him. On queftioning
Omai on that head, he faid, Towha was lame,
and therefore could not ftir ; but that Otoo and
he would foon conyerfe together in private, This
was probably true ; for thofe we left with Otoo
came to us in a little time ; and about ten minutes after, Otoo himfelf arrived, when we all
went to fleep in his canoe.
The kava was the next morning in great plenty.
One man drank to fuch excefs that he loft his
fenfes, and appeared to be convulfed. He was
held by two men, who bufied themfelves in plucking off his hair by the roots. I left this fpectacle
to fee a more affecting one. It was the meeting
of Towha and his wife, and a young girl, who
was faid to be his daughter. After the ceremony
pf cutting their heads, and discharging plenty of
blood and tears, they waftied, embraced the chief,
and feemed perfectly unconcerned. But the young
girl's fufferings were not yet concluded. Terri-
diri (Oberea's fon) arrived ; and fhe, with great
compofure, repeated thofe ceremonies to him
which fhe had juft performed on meeting her father. Towha having brought à war-canpe from
Eimeo, I enquired if he had killed the people
belonging to her ; and was informed, that there
was not a perfon in her when fhe was captured.
About ten or eleven o'clock  we left  Tettaha,
and landed clofe tp the moral of Attahooroo early PACIFIC OCEAN.
fri the afternoon. Three canoes lay hauled upon
the beach, oppofite the moral, having three hogs
in each. We expected the folemnity would have
been performed the fame afternoon ; but nothing
was done, as neither Towha nor Potatou had
joined us. A chief came from Eimeo with afmall
pig, and a plantain-tree, which he placed at Otoo's
feet. They converfed fome time together, and
the Eimeo chief often repeating the words
Warry, Warry, " falfe." Otoo was probably re-
fating to him what he had heard, and the other
contradicted it.
The next day, Towha and Potatou, with feven
of eight large canoes, arrived, and landed near*
the morai. Several plantain-trees were brought ta
Ôtoo, on behalf of different chiefs. Towha re-;
mained in his canoe. The ceremony was commenced by the principal prieft, who brought out
the mhro, wrapped up in a bundle of a conic1
fhape. Thefe were placed at the head of what I
fuppofed to be a grave. Then three prieft s fat
down, at the other end of the grave ; having with
them a plantain-tree, a branch of fome other
kind of tree, and the fheath of the flower of the
The priefts feparately repeated fentences ; and
at intervals, two, and'fometimes all three, chanted
a melancholy ditty, very little attended to by the
natives. This kind of recitative continued near
an hour.    Then, after a fliort  prayer, the chief g A  VOYAGE   TO   THE
prieft uncovered the maro, and Otoo rofe up, and
warpped  it  about   him,   holding in his  hand a
bonnet, compofed of the red feathrs of the tropic
bird,   mixed with  other  blackifh  feathers,   jle
flopped oppofite the three priefts, who continued
their prayers for about ten minutes ; when a man
fifing fuddenly from  the crowd, faid fomething
ending with heiva / and the crowd echoed back
to him three times Earee ! The company then repaired to the oppofite fide of a large pile of ftones,
where is  the  kings moral ;   which is not much
unlike a large grave.    Here  the fame ceremony
was   again  performed, and with   three   cheers.
The maro was now warpped up, and ornamented
by the addition of a fmall piece of red feathers.
The people now proceeded to a large hut, near
the moral, where they feated themfelves in folemn
order.    An oration was then made by a man of
Tiaraboo, which ended in about three  minutes.
He was followed by a man of Attahooroo :   Potatou fpoke next, and with "much more fluency
and grace than any of them.    Tooteo,   Otoo's
orator, exhibited after him, and then a man from
Eimeo.    Some other Speeches were   made,   but
not attended to.    Omai laid, that the fubftance^-
of their fpeeches  recommended friendfhip,   and
not fighting ; but  as many of the fpeakers ex-
preffed themfelves with great warmth, there were,
perhaps, fome recriminations and proteftations of
their  future good intentions.     In  the midft  of PACIFIC   OCEAN. £
thçir harangues a man of Attahooroo rofe up,
having a fling faftened to his waift, and a large
ftons upon his fhoulder. After parading for
about fifteen minutes in the open fpace, and
chanting a few fhort fentences, he threw the ftone
down. This ftone, together with a plantain-treè
that lay at Otoo's feet, were, at the conciufion of
the fpeecheSj carried to the moral; one of the
priefts, and Otoo with him, faying fomething
.V$#£ the occafion.
Returning to Oparre, the fea-bf eeze having fet
in, we were obliged to land, and had a pleafant
walk from Tettaha to Oparre. A tree, with two
large bundles of dried leaves fufpended upon it,
pointed out the boundary of the two diftricts.
We were accompanied by the man who had performed the ceremony of the ftone and fling. With
him Otoo's father held a long converfation, and
"appeared extremely angry. He was enraged, as
I underftood, at the part which Towha had taken
in the Eimeo bufinefs.
From what can be judged of this folemnity, as
related by Mr. King, it had not been only a
thankfgiving, as Omai told us, but rather a confirmation of the treaty. The grave, mentioned
by Mr. King, appears to be the very fpot where
the celebration of the rites began, when the
human facrifice was offered, at which Captain
Cook was prefent, and before which the victim
was laid. It is here alfo, that they firft invefl
their kings with the maro.    Omai, who had feen
the ceremony when   Otoo  was made king, de*
fcribed the whole folemnity, When we were here ;
which is nearly the fame as that now defcribed by
Mr. Iting ; though, perhaps, upon a very different occafion.     The   plantain-tree is   always  the
firft thing introduced in all their religious ceremonies, as well as in all their public and private
debates-; and, probably, on many other occafions. ;
While Towha was at Eimeo, he fent one or more
mefiengers to Otoo every day.    Every meffenger,
at all times, carried a young plantain-tree in his
hand, which he laid at the feet of Otoo, before he
mentioned his  errand,;   then   feated   himfelf before  him; and relaxed the particulars " of his mef-
fage.    When two men are in fuch  high difpute
that blows are expected  to enfue, if one fhould
lay a plantain-tree before the other, they both be-
. come cool, and proceed in the argument without
further animofity.    It is, indeed, the olive branch
of thefe people on all occafions.
As our friends knew that we were upon the'
point of failing, they all paid us a vifit on the
26th, and brought more hogs with them than we
wanted ; for, having no fait left to preferve any,
we had fully fufficient for our prefent ufe.
Captain Cook accompanied Otoo, the next day,
to Oparre ; and before he left it, took a furvey
of the cattle and poultry, which he had configned
to his friend's care.     Every thing was in a pro- PACIFIC   OCEAN. M
mifing \ way ; and feemed properly attended to.
Two of the geefe, as well as two of the ducks,
were fitting ; but the pea-hen and turkey-hen
had neither of them begun to lay. He took four
goats from Otoo, two of which he intended to
leave at Ulietea ; and referve the other two
for-the ufe of any other iilands he might touch at
in his paffage to the north.
The following circumftançe concerning Otoo
will fhew, that the people, of this iiland are capable of much addrefs and art, to accomplifh their
purpofes... Amongft other things, which Captain
Cook had, at different times, given to this chief,
was a fpying-glafs. Having been two or three
days poffeffed of it, he, perhaps grew tired of its
* novelty, or difcovered that it could not be of any
ufe to him, he therefore carried it, privately, to
Captain Gierke ; telling him, that, as he had
fhewn great friendfhip for him, he had got a prefent for him, .which, he fuppofed, would be agreeable. "But, fays Otoo, T*ote mult not be informed of this., becaufe he wanted it, and I re-
fdfed to let him have it ;" accordinglyj he put
the glafs into Captain Gierke's* hands, a {Turing
him, at the fame time that he came honeftly by
it. Captain Clerke, at nrft wifhed to be excufed
from accepting it ; but Otoo infilled upon it, that
he fhould -, and left it with him. A few days
after, he reminded Captain Clerke of the glafs ;
who, though^ he did not with to have it, was yet
C 2 12
defiroas of obliging Otoo ; and thinking, that a
few axes would  be  more  acceptable,   produced
four to give him in exchange.    Otoo immediately
exclaimed, f| Toote offered me ûve for it." " Well
(fays Captain Clerke) if that be  the  cafe, you
fliall not be the lofer by your friendfhip for me ;
and you  fhall have fix  axes."    He readily accepted them;    but   again defired,   that  Captain
Cook  might not be  made acquainted  with  the
tranfaction.    For the many valuable things which
Omai had given away, he received one good thing
in return.    This was a very fine double failing
canoe, completely equipped.    Some time before,
the Captain had made up a fuit of Englifh colours
for him ; but he confidered them as too valuable
to be ufed at this time; and, therefore patched
tip a parcel of flags and pendants, to the number
of ten or a dozen, which he fpread on different
parts of his canoe.    This, as might be expected,
drew together a great number of peoples to look
at  her.      Omai's  ftreamers  were a mixture of
Englifh, French, Spanifh, and  Dutch, being all
the European colours he had feen.    He had completely flocked himfelf with cloth and cocoa-nut
oil, which are better and  more plentiful at Otaheite,   than at any of the Society Iflands ; info-
much, that they are confidered as articles of trade,
Omai would  not have behaved fo inconfiftentry,
as he did in many inftances, had it not been for
his filter and brother-in-law, who, together with PACIFIC  OCEAN.
a few felect acquaintances, engroffed him to themfelves, in order to ftrip him of every article hé
poffeffed. And they would certainly have fuc-
ceeded, if Captain Cook had not taken the moft
ufeful articles of his property in his poffefliori.
tPKs, however, would not have faved Onui from
ruin, if he had permitted thefe relations of his to
have accompanied him to his intended place of
fettlement at Huaheine* This, indeed was their
intention ; but the Captain difappointed their farther views of plunder, by forbidding them to appear in that ifland, while he continued in that
part of the world ; -and they knew him two well
not to comply.
Otoo came onboard the 28th of September,
and informed Captain Cook that he had got a
canoe, which he defired he would take with him
as a prefent from him to the Eree rahie no Pre-
tane. The Captain was, highly pleafed with Otoo,
for this mark of his gratitude. At firft, the
Captain fuppofed it to have been a model of one
of their veffels of war ; but it proved to be a fmall
ivahab, about fixteen feet long. It was double,
and probably had been built for the purpofe ;
and was decorated with carved work, like their
canoes in general. It being too large for him to
take on board, he could only thank: him for his
good intention ; but he would have been much
better pleafed, if his prefent could have been accepted. ?4
By calms, and gentle breezes from the weft,
we were detained here fome days longer than we
expected. All this time, the fhips were.crowded
with our friends and furrounded by -^moes ; for
none of them would quit the place, till we departed. At length, on the 29th, at three o'clock
in the afternoon, the wind came at eaft, and we
weighed anchor. The fhips being under fail, to
oblige Otoo, and to gratify the curiofity of his
people, we fired feven guns ; after which, all our"
friends, except him, and two or three more, took
leave of us with fuch lively marks of forrow and
affection, as fufliciently teftified how much they
regretted our departure. Otoo expr effing a defire
of feeing the fhips fail, we made a ftretch out to
fea, and then in again immediately ; when he alfo
took his laft farewel, and went afnore in his canoe.
It wras ftrictly enjoined to Captain Cook by
Otoo, to requeft, in his name, the Earee rahie no
Pretaney to fend him, by the next fhip, fome red
feathers, and the birds which produce them; alfo
axes ; half a doxen mufkets ; powder and fliot -y
and, by no means, to forget horfes:
When thefe people make us a prefent, it is
cuftomary for them to let us know what they ex-
peel in return ; and we find it convenient to gratify them ; by which means «our prefents come
dearer to us than what we get by barter. But,
being fometimes preffed by occafional fcarcity,
we could have recourfe to our friends for a fuppiy PACIFIC   OCEAN.
as a prefent, when we could not get it by any
osher method. Upon the whole, therefore, this
Way of traffic was full as advantageous to usas to
the natives» Captain Cook, in general, paid for
eachfeparate article as tie received it, except là
his fntercourfe w?ith Otoo. His prefents where fo
numerous, that no account was kept between him
and the Captain. Whatever he afked for, if
it could be fpared, the Captain never denied
him, and he always found him moderate in his
f demands. IffR:
Captain Cook would. not have quited Otaheite
fo foon as he did, if he could have prevailed upon
Omai to fix hîmfelf there. There was not even a
probability of our being better fupplied with provisions eifewhere, than we continued to be here,
even at the time of our leaving it. Befides, fuch
a friendfhip and confidence fubfifted between us
and the inhabitants, as could hardly be expected
at any other place ; and it was rather extraordinary, had never been once interrupted or fuf-
pended by any accident, or mifunderftanding ;
nor had there been a theft committed, worthy of
notice. It is probable, however, that their regularity of conduct refulted from their fear of interrupting a traffic, which might procure them a
greater fhare of our commodities, than they could
obtain by plunder or pilfering. This point, indeed, was, in fome degree, fettled at the fir ft inr
terview with their  chiefs, after our arrival.    For A VOYAGE   TO  THE
Captain Cook declared then to the natives, in thé
moft decifive terms, that he would not fuffer them
to rob us, as they had formerly done. Omai was
fingularly ufeful in this bufinefs, being inftructed
by the Captain to point out to them the happy
confequences of their honeft conduct, and the
fatal milchiefs that muft attend a deviation from
it. But the chiefs have it not always in their
power to prevent thefts ; they are often robbe d
themfelves ; and complain of it as the worft of
evils. The moft valuable things that Otoo received from Captain Cook, were left in the Captain's poffeffion till the day hefore we failed ; Otoo
declaring, at the fame time, that they were no
where fo fafe. From the acquifition of new
riches, the inducements to pilfering muft cer*
tainlyhave increafed ; and the chiefs' are fenfible
of this, from their being fo extremely defirous of
having chefts. The few that the Spaniards left
amongft them are highly prized ; and they were
continually afking us for fome. Captain Cook
had one made for Otoo, the dimenfions of which
were eight feet in length, five in breadth, and
about three in depth. Locks and bolts are not
confidered as a fufficient fecurity ; but muft be
large enough for two people to fleep upon, and
confequently guard it in the night.
It may appear extraordinary, that we could
i$#er get any diftinct account of the time when
the Spaniards arrived,   the time they flayed, and PACIFIC OCEAN. if
when thev departed. The more we made enquiry
into this matter, the more we were convinced of
the incapability of moft of thefe people to remember, calculate, or note the time, when paft events
happened ; efpeciaily if for a longer period than
eighteen or twenty months. It however appeared,
by the infcription upon the crofs, and by the information of the moft intelligent of the natives,
that two fhips came to Oheitepeha in 1774, not
long after Captain Cook left Matavai, which was
in May the fame year. The live flock they left
here, confifted of one bull, fome goats, hogs,
and dogs, and the male of another animal ; which
we were afterwards informed was a ram, and was,
at this time at Bolabola.
The hogs are large ; have. already much im«
proved the breed originally found by us upon the
ifland ; and, on our late arrival, were very numerous. Goats are alfo in plenty, there being hardly
a chief without fome. The dogs that the Spaniards put afhore are of two or three forts: if
they had all been hanged, inftead of being left
upon the ifland, it would have been better for
the natives. Captain Cook's young ram fell a
victim to one of thefe animals. Four Spaniards
remained on fhore when thefe fhips left the ifland ;
two of whom were priefts, one a fervant, and the
other was much careffed among the natives, who
diftinguifh him by the name of Mateema. He
feems to have fo far ftudied their language, as to
Vol. IL—N? 7. D 11 m
have been able to fpeak it'tolerably ; and to have
been indefatigable in imprefling the minds of the
iilanders with exalted ideas of the greatnefs of. the
Spanifh nation, and inducing them to think meanly
of that of the Fnglilh.     He even affured them,
that we no longer exifted as an independent nation ; that Pretane was but a fmall ifland, which
they  had entirely  deftroyed ; and as to Captain
Cook, that they had met with him at  fea, and
with the greateft eafe that could be imagined, had
fent his fhip, and every creature in  her, to the
bottom; fo that his vifiting Otaheite was, at this
time, very unexpected, v. Many other improbable
falfehoods were propagated by this Spaniard, and
believed by the inhabitants; but Captain Cook's
returning to Otaheite was confidered as a complete
confutation of  all that Mateema had advanced.
With what  defign the priefts remained, cannot
eafily be conceived.    If it was their intention to
convert the natives to the Cathalic faith,   they
certainly have not fucceeded.    It does not appear,
indeed, that they ever  attempted it ; for the natives fay, they never converfed with them, either
on this, or any other fubject.    The priefts refided
the whole time in the houfe at Oheitepeha; but
Mateema roved about continually, vifiting many
parts of the ifland.    After he and his companions
had flaid ten months, two fhips arriving at Oheitepeha, took them aboard,  and failed again in five
days.    Wfra^èrênâefiçn the Spaniards mierht have PACIFIC OCEAN.
bad  upon, this  ifland, this hafty departure fhews-
they have now laid it afide.    They endeavoured
to make the natives believe, that they (till intended to return ; and that they would bring with
them houfes, ail kinds of animals, and men and
' women who were to fettle on the ifland.    Otoo,
when he mentioned this to Captain Cook, added,
that if the Spaniards fhould return, they fhould
not come to Mataiva Fort, which he faid, was
ours.    The idea  pleafed him ;   but  he did  not
confider that the completion of it would deprive
him of his kingdom, and his people of their liberties.   Though  this fhews   how   eafily   a   feulement might be made at Otaheite, it is, hoped that
fiich a circumftance will never   happen.      Our
occafional vifits may have been of fervice to its
inhabitants, but (confidering how moft European
eftablifhments  are conducted  among Indian nations) a permanent  eftablifhment amongft them
would, probably, give them juit caufe to lament
that oui* fhips had ever difcovered it.    Indeed, a
meafure of thk kind can hardly ever be ferioufly
thought of;- as it can neither anfwer the purpofes
of public ambition, nor of private avarice.
It has been already obferved, that Captain Cook
received a vifit from one of the two natives of
this iiland, who had been taken to Lima by the
Spaniards. It is fômewhat remarkable that he
never faw him afterwards, efpeciaily as the Cap*,
tain received him with uncommon civility. The
D2       t i
Captain,'however, fuppofcd that Omai had kept
him at a diftance from him, from motives of jea-
loufy, he being a traveller, that in fome degree,
might vie with himfelf. Our touching at Tene-
riffe was a lucky circumftance for Omai ; who
prided himfelf in having vifited a place belonging
to Spain, as well as this man. Captain Clerke,
who had feen the other man, fpoke of him as a
low fellow, a little out of his fenfes ; and his own
countrymen entertained the fame opinion of him.
In fhort, thefe two adventurers feemed to be
held in little or no efteem. They had not been
fo fortunate, indeed, as to return home with fuch
valuable property as had been bellowed upon
Omai; whofe advantages from England
were fo great, that if he fhould fink into the fame
ftate of infignificance, he has only himfelf to
blame for lu : PACIFIC OCEAN. 21
CHAP.    V.
Anchor at Taloo in Eimeo—The Harbours of Tabs
and Parowroah defcribed—Vifit from Maheine,
the Chief of Eimeo, who approaches with Cau*
tion—Defcription of the P erf on of Maheine—Preparations made for failing—Detained by having à
Goat Jiolen—That recovered, and another Jiolen—
Menaces ufed to occafion it to be returned—Expedition crofs the ifland, with a party, in fearch
of the Coat—Houfes and Canoes burnt, and other
Hoftilities threatened-—The Goat returned—-The
Ifland defcribed, &c.
ON the 30th of September, at day-break,
after leaving Otaheite, we flood for the
north end of the ifland of Eimeo. Omai, in his
canoe, arrived there before us, and endeavoured,
by taking fome neceffary meafures, to fhew us
the fituation. We were not, however, without
pilots, having feveral natives of Otaheite on
board, and, among them, not a few women.
Unwilling to rely entirely upon thefe guides,
Captain Cook difpatehed two boats to examine
the harbour ; when, on a fignal being made for
fafe anchorage, we flood in with both the fhips,
and anchored in ten fathoms water.
Taloo is the name of this harbour : it is on
the north fide of the ifland, and in the diftrid 2$
of Oboonohoo, or Poonohoo. It runs above twc*
miles between the hills, fouth, or fouth by eafL
It is not inferior to any harbour that wre have met
with in this ocean, both for fecurky and good-
nefs of bottom. It has alfo this fingular advantage, that a fhip can fail in and out with the
reigning trade wind. Several rivers fall into it;,
one of wThich is fo confiderable, as to admit boats,
a quarter of 3 mile up, were the water is perfectly frefh. The banks, on the fides of this,
ftream, are covered with what the natives call
the pooroo tree, on which they fet no value, as it
only ferves for firing. So that wood and water
may  be procured  here with great  facility.
The harbour of Parowroah, on the fame fide
of the ifland, is about two miles to the eaftward,
and is much larger within than that of Taloo ^
but the opening in the reef lies to leeward of the
h.arbour, and is confiderably narrower. Thefe
ftriking defects muft give the harbour of Taloo
a decided preference. There are one or two-,
more harbours on the fouth fide of the ifland^
but they are not fo confiderable as thofe we have
already mentioned.
As foon as we had anchored, great numbers of
the inhabitants came aboard our fhips, from mere
motives of curiofity, for they brought nothing
with them for the purpofes of barter : but feveral
canoes arrived, the next morning, from more
bringing, with, them an abundant PACIFIC OCEAN. *j
fupply of bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts, and a few hogs,
which were exchanged for beads, nails, and
hatchets ; red feathers not being fo much demanded here as at Otaheite.
On Thurfday the 2d of October, in the morning, Captain Cook received a vifit ftom Maheine,
the chief of the ifland. He approached the fhip
with as great caution and deliberation, as if he
apprehended mifchief from us, ae friends of the
Otaheiteans ; thefe people having no idea that
we can be in friendfhip with any one, without
adopting his caufe againft his enemies. This
chief was accompanied by his wife, who, we were
told, is filter to Oamo, of Otaheite, whofe death
we heard of while we remained at this ifland.
Captain Cook made them prefents of fuch articles as feemed moft to ftrike their fancy ; and,
after flaying about half an hour they went
on fhore. They returftfcd, foon after, with a
large hog, meaning it as a return for the Captain's favour ; but he made them an additional
prefent to the full value of it ; after which they
went on board the Difcovery, to vifit Captain
Maheine, fupported with a few adherents, has
made himfelf, in fome degree, independent of
Otaheite. He is between forty and fifty years of
age, and is bald-hended ; wMch, at that age, is
rather uncommon in thefe iflends. He feemed
aftiamed  of fhewing his head,   and wore a kind $4 A VOYAGE TO THE
of turban to conceal it. Whether they confidered this deficiency of hair as difgracefui, or whether they fuppojfed that we confidered it in that
light, it is not eafy to determine. The latter,
however, appears the moft probable, from the
circumftance of their having feen us fhave the
hçad of one of the natives, whom we detecteed
ftealing. They naturally concluded, therefore,
that this was the kind of punifhment inflicted by
us upon all thieves ; and fome of our gentlemen,
whofe heads were but thinly covered with hair,
were violently fufpected, by  them,  of being tetos.
Towards the evening, Captain Cook and Omai
mounted on horfeback, and rode aiong the fhore.
Omai having forbid the natives to follow us, our
train was not very numerous ; the fear of giving
offence, having got the better of their curiofity.
The fleet of Towha had been flationed in this
harbour, and though tkê*war was but of fliort
duration, the marks of its devaftation were every
where confpicuous. The trees had loft all their
fruit, and the houfes in the neighbourhood had
been burnt, or otherwife deftroyed.
Having made every preparation for failing, we
hauled the fhip off into the ftream, in the morning of the 6th, intending to put to fea the next
day,  but a difagreeable accident prevented it.
We had, in the day time, fent our goats afhore
to graze ; and, notwithstanding two men had been
appointed to look   after them,  one of them had PACIFIC   OCEAN.
been ftolen this evening. This was a confiderable
lofs, as it interfered with the Captain's views of
flocking other iilands with thefe animals : he therefore was determined, if poflible, to recover it.
We received intelligence^ the next morning, that
it had been conveyed to Maheine, who was, at
that time, at Parbwroah harbour. Two elderly
men offered their fervices to conduct any of our
people to him, in order to bring back the goat.
Accordingly the Captain difpatched fome of his
people in a boatj charged with a meffage to that
Chief, and infifted on both the goat and the thief
being immediately given up.
Maheine had, only the day before * requefted
the Commodore to give him two goats ; but, as
he could not fpare them, without depriving other
iflands, which had none of thefe animals, and
was informed that there were two already upon
this, he refufed to gratify him. Willing, however, to affift his views, in this refpect, he defired
an Otaheite chief, then prefent, to beg Otoo, in
his name, to convey two of thefe animals to
Maheine ; and, to induce him to comply with
this requeft, fent to Otoo, by the fame chief, a
quantity of red feathers, equal in value to the
two goats that were required. The Commodore
expected that Maheine, and all the other chiefs
of the ifland, would have been perfectly fatisfied
with this arrangement ; but he was miftaken, as
the event clearly proves.
E 26
Little., fufpecting that any one would prefume
Ipf ïleal a fécond, while the neceffary meafures
were taking to recover the firft, the goafs were
again put afhore this morning ; and a boat as
ufual, was fent for them in the evening. While
our people were getting them into the bMt, one
was conveyed away undifcovered. As it was immediately miffed, we expected to recover it without much trouble, as it could not have been carried to any confiderable diftance. Several of the
natives fet out, different ways, to feek after it ;
for they all endeavoured to perfuade us, that it
muft have ftrayed into the woods ; not one of
them admitting that it was ftolen. We were,
however, convinced to the contrary, when we
perceived that not any of the purfuers returned :
their intention wras only to amufe us, till their
prize was fafely depofited ; and night coming on,
prevented all future fearch. At this inftant, the
boat returned with the other goat, and one of the
perfons who had ftolen it.
Moft of .the inhabitants, tht next morning,
were moved off, taking with them a corpfe, which
lay oppofite the fhip, on a toopapaoo ; and Maheine, we were informed, had retired to the re-
moteft part of the ifland. It now plainly appeared, that a regular plan had been projected to
fleal what the Commodore had refufed to give ;
and that, having reftored one, they were determined not to part with the other, which was a PACIFIC   OCEAN. 27
female, and with kid : and the Commodore was
equally determined to have it back again ; he
therefore applied to the two elderly men, who
had been inftrumental in recovering the firft, who
informed him that this had been taken to a place
on the fonth fide of the ifland, called Watea, by
Hamoa, who was the chief of that place ; but that
it would be delivered up if he would fend for it.
They expreffed a willingnefs to conduct fome of
his people to the fpot ; but finding that a boat
might go and return in one day, he fent one with
two of his officers, Mr. Roberts, and Mr. Shut-
tleworth ; one to remain with the boat, if fhe
could not get to the place, while the other went
with the guides, accompanied by fome of our
people. The boat returned late in the evening,
when we were informed by the officers, that, after
proceeded in the boat as far as rocks and fhoals
would permit, Mr. Shuttleworth landed ; and
attended with two marines, and one of the guides,
proceeding to the houfe of Hamoa, at Watea ;
where they where, for fome time, amufed by the
people, who pretended they had fent for the goat,
and that it would foon be'produced. It, however,
never arrived ; and, night approching, Mr. Shuttleworth was obliged to return to his boat'without it.
The  Commodore lamented that  he  had proceeded fo far in this bufinefs as he could not retreat with  credit, and without giving encourage-
E 2 28        A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
ment to other iflanders to rob us with impunit)*r
Confulting with Omai^and the two old men,
what methods to take, they advifed him, without
hefitation, to go into the country with a party of
s men, and fhoot every perfon he fliould meet with.
The Commodore did not approve of this bloody
counfel ; but, early the next morning, fet out
with thirty-five of. his people, accompanied by
Omai, one of the old men, and three or four attendants. He alfo ordered Lieutenant William*
fon round the weftern part of the ifland, with
three armed boats, to meet  us.
This party had no fooner landed, than the few
remaining natives fled before us. The firft perr
fon we met with upon our march, was in a kind
of perilous fituation ; for Omai, the inftant he
beheld him, afked Captain Cook if he fhould
fhoot him ; fo fully was he perfuaded, that the
advice he had given, was immediately to be carried into execution. The Commodore then gave
orders, both to him and ouf guide, to let it be
made known, that it was not our intention to injure, much lefs to deftroy, a fingle native. Thefe
joyful tidings foon circulated, and prevented the
flight of the inhabitants.
Afcending the ridge of hills, on our road to
Watea, we were informed that the goat had been
carried the fame way, and could hardly have
pafled the hills : we therefore marched up in
great filence, expecting to furprize the party who PACIFIC  OCEAN.
were bearing off the prize ; but, when we arrived
at the uppermoft plantation, we were told, that
the animal we were in fearch of, had, indeed,
been kept there the firft night, but had been carried to Watea the next morning. w"e made no.
further enquiry, till we came wifnin fight of Wa->
tea, wrhere we were directed to Hamoa's houfe,
by fome people who alfo infoîmed us, that the
goat was there. We therefore fully expected to
obtain it on our arrival ; but, when we reached
the houfe, the people we faw there, denied that
they had ever feen it, or knew any thing concerning it. Hamoa, himfelf appeared, and expreflfed
himfelf to the fame effect.
On our firft coming to Watea, feveral men
were feen, running to and fro in the woods, with
clubs and darts in their hands ; and Omai, who
ran towards them, had flones thrown at him.
Hence it appeared, that they intended to oppofe
any attempt that we might be induced to make,
but on feeing the ftrength of our party, had given
up the defign. We were confirmed in this opinion, by obferving, that all their houfes were
After collecting, a few of the natives together,
Omai was directed to expoftulate with them on
the abfurdity of their conduct, and tell them
that we had received^ fufficient evidence that the
goat was in their poffeffion ; and that, if it was
riot immediately  delivered* up, we  fhould  barn 3o
all their  houfes and  canoes ; but, notwithftand*
ing this expostulation, they perfifted in their denial of having  any knowledge of it,    In   confer
quence of which, the Commodore fet  fire to fix
or eight of their houfes, and  two or   three war
canoes, which were  prefently çonfumed.    After
this we marched off to join the boats, which were,
at that time, about feven or eight miles from us 5
and, in our road, burnt fix other war   canoes,
without any oppofition.    On the contrary, many
of the natives affifted us ;  more,  perhaps, from
fear, than any other motive.    At length   Omai,
who was at fome diftance before us, came back
with information, that a multitude of men were
aflembling to attack *us.    We prepared ourfelves
to receive   them,  but, inftead  of enemies, they
were  petitioners,   with   plantain-trees   in    their
hands, which they laid down before us, entreating
the Commodore to fpare a canoe that   lay upon
the fpot, which he readily complied with.
About four o'clock in the afternoon, we arrived at Wharrarade, where our boats were waiting for us. The diftrict of Wharrarade belongs
to Tiaratoboonoue ; but this chief together with
the other principal people of the place, had fled
to the hills ; though we made no attack upon their
property, they being in amity with Otoo. Here
we remained about'an hour, in order to reft ourfelves, and afterwards fet out for the fhips, where
We arrived at eight o'clock in the evening; ;  but PACIFIC   OCEAN. 3*
ho tidings of the goat had, at that time, been
received ; and, of courfe, the operations of the
day had been ineffectual.
Early on Friday morning, the 10th of October, the Captain difpatched one of Omai's men
to Maheine, charged wrkh this peremptory mef-
fage, that if he perfifted in his refufal to deliver,
up the goat, a fingle canoe fhould not be left
upon the ifland ; and that hoftilities fhould never
ceafe, while the ftolen animal continued in his-
pofleflion. That the meffenger might perceive
that the Commodore was in earned, he ordered
the carpenter, in his prefence, to break up three
or four canoes, that lay at the head of the harbour. The planks where, by his direction, taken
on board, to ferve as materials for building a
houfe fcr Omai, at the place where he intended
to refide. The Commodore", properly attended,
went afterwards to harbour, where he
deftroyed feven or eight more canoes, and re-=
turned on board about feven in the evening. On
his arrival, he was informed, that the goat had
been returned about half an hour before; and it
appeared, from good intelligence, that it came
from the very place, where the inhabitants, the
day before, declared they knew nothing about it/
But from the meflage delivered to the chief in
the morning, he perceived that the Commodore
was not to be trifled with. 33 A VOYAGE  TO  THE
Thus ended this troublefome and unfortunate
biifinefs ; equally to be regretted by the natives, '
and by  Captain  Cook.    He  was grieved to re-
Otaheite, in the invafion of this ifland, he fhould
fo foon be obliged to engage in hoftilities againft
its inhabitants ; wrhich, perhaps, were more injurious to them, than Towha's expedition.
Our intercourfe with the natives was renewed
the next morning ; feveral canoes bringing breads
fruit and cocoa-nuts to the fhips to barter $
whence it was natural to conclude, that they were
eonfcions they had merited the treatment they had
received ; and that, the caufe of Captain Cook's
difpleafure being now removed, they apprehended no further mifchief. We weighed, with a
breeze, down the harbour, about nine ; but it
was fo faint and variable, that wre did not get
out to fea till noon, when we fteered for Hua-*
heine, Omai attending in his canoe.
At Eimeo, the fhips wTere abundantly fupplied
with fire^wood. We did not fupply ourfeives
with this article at Otaheite, as there is not a tree
at Matavai but what is ufeful to the inhabitants.
We alfo received here a large fupply of refrehV
ments in hogs, bread-fruit, and coco-nuts.
There is very little difference between the pro*
duce of this ifland, and that of Otaheite ; but
the difference    in   their Woman  is   remarkable. PACIFIC OCEAN,
Thofe of Eimeo have a dark hue, are low in fta-
ture, and have forbidding features.
The appearance of Eimeo bears not the leaft
refemblance to that of Otaheite. The latter being a hilly country, has little low land, except
fome 3eep vallies, and the flat border that almoft
furrounds it near the fea. Eimeo has fleep rugged hills, running in different directions, leaving
large vallies, and gently rifing grounds about
their fides. The hills, though rocky, are generally covered with trees, almoft to the tops. At
the bottom of the harbour of Taloo, the ground
gradually rifes to the foot of the hills ; but the
flat border, on the fides becomes quite fleep at
a frhall diftance from the fea. This renders it a
profpect fuperior to any thing we faw at Otaheite.
In the low grounds, the foil is a yellowifh fliff
mould ; on the lower hills it is blacker and loofer,
and the ftone which compofes the hills, is of a
bluifli colour, interfperfed with fome particles of
glimmer. Near the place where our fhips were
ftationed, are two large ftones, concerning which
fome fuperftitious notions are entertained by the
natives. They confider them as brother and
filler ; that they are Eatooas, or divinities, and
that they came from Ulietea, by fome fuperna*
tural means.
Vol. IL—N° ?. 34
CHAP.   vr.
The Ships arrive at Hua h ei ne—Affembfy of the'
Chiefs—Omai9s Harangue—His EJiabliffrment in
this, ifland unanhuoujly agreed to—A Houfe built
for Sim.—Steps taken to enfure his Safety-—The
Ships infefled with Cock-roaches—Detctlion and
Punifhment of a Thief—He efcapes from his Confinement—Animals left with Omai—His European Weapons—His Entertainments—Infcription
on his Houfe—His Behaviour at parting—Remarks on his general Conduct—His CJmracler—
Account of the two New-Zealanders who remained with hinu
\N the morning that fucceeded our departure from Eimeo, we faw Huaheine extending from fouth-weft by weft, to weft by
north. At twelve o^ciock we anchored at the
northern entrance of Owharre harbour, {iterated on
the weft ûde of thev ifland. Omai, in h*rs eahpe,
entered the harbour jult before us, but did not
land. Though many of his countrymen crowded to fee him, he did net take much notice of
them. Great numbers alfo came off to the fhipr9
infomuch that we were greatly incommoded by
them. Our paffengers immediately informed
them of our transactions at Eimeo, multiplying,
by ten at leaft, the number of houfes and canoes  t
I PACIFIC OCËAN.A;5        35
, I
that we had deftroyed. Captain Cook was not
much difpleafed at their giving this exaggerated
account, as he found that it made a confiderable
impreflion upon ail whcPlBeard i^-fo that he had
hopes it would induce the natives of this ifland to
treat him in a better manner than they had done
in his prior vifi'ts. .   ■■:.:
The next morning, which was the 13th of October, all the principal people of the ifland came
to our {hips.    This was juft what the Commodore
wifhed, as it was now high time to fettle Omai ;
and he fuppofed, that the prefence of thefe chiefs-
would enable him to effect it in a fatisjfi&ory manner.    Omai mÉWeemed inclined to eftablifh himfelf at Ulietea;    and if he and Captain   Cook
could have agreed with ref|*e£r. to the mode of
accompiifhing that defign, the latter would   have
confented to adopt it. -Élis father had been deprived by the inhabitants of Bolabola, when they*
fubdued Ulietea, of fome land in   that  ifland ;
and the Captain hoped he fhould be able to gtt
it reftored to  the  fon  withoirr^jsfii^^ky.     For
this purpofe, it was neceffary that Omai  fhould
be upon amicable terms  with thofe who had become matters  of the ifland;   but   he would not-tj
liften to any fuch propofal, and tfà^tam enough
to imagine, that the  Captain would make ufe of
force to re-inflate   him in   his  forfeited  lands.
•This preventing   his being fixed at Ulietea, the
Captain began to confider Huaheine as the more
F 2 > 36 A ^*AGE jgjp THE
jr®per place ; and therefore determined to avail
ftrmfelf of the prefence of the chief mer^pf that
ifland, and, propofe the affair to them.
The Captain now prepared to make a^fptrmal
vifit to Taireetareea, the Earee rahit, or king of
the ifland, with a view of introducing this bufi-
nefs. Omaij who was to accompany him, dreffed
himfelf very properly on the occafion, and provided a handfome prefent for the chief r^bnfelf,
and another fer his Eatooa. Their landing drew
moft"iifjithe vifitors from our fhips, who, with
many others, aflembled in a large houfe. The
concourfe of people became very great, the major
part of whom feemed ftouter and fairer than thofe
of Otaheite, and the number of men »|io appeared to be of confequence was alfo much greater,
in proportion to the extent of the ifland. The
Captain waited fome time for Taireetareea : but
when the chief appeared, he found that his prefence might cafily have been difperifed with, as
he did not exceed ten yiH0%§ of age. Omai began
with making his offering tp the gods, which
confifted of cloth, red feathers &c. Another
offering fucceeded, which was to be given to the
gods by the young chief ; cfpd, after that, fe-
veral other tufts of red feathers were prefented.
The different articles were laid ^feefore a prieft,
being each of them delivered with a kind of prayer,
which was fpoken by one of Omai's friends,
though in a great meafure dictated  by   himfelf, I      PACIFIC OCEAglf jj
fa thefe prayers he did not forget his figgflds in
England, nor thofe who had conducted him fafe
back to his native country.    Thg^aree rahie no
Pretane (king of Gr^t-Britain), the|j|l of Sandwich, To&t&Tatee, (Cook and Clerk^yere mentioned in every one of them.    Thefe offerings and
prayers being ended, the prieft took each of the
articles  in order, and after rej^ing a grayer,
fent every one to the, mora??
C^lfcefe religio^É^tites having b$£Ji performed,
Omai feated Wjjjafelf bjgthe  Captain,   who be-
{lowed a prefent on the young chief, and reç^pr
ed another in^JgMJji^   Some ar$^gp$$ents were
|^|*>|^eed upon, relative JH^he mode ^Quarry-,
ing on the inter^i|uffe betweentts and the iflanders ;
and the Captain painted putjske mifchievous con-
fequences jthat would attend their plundering us,
as they hâ^-^one on former occafi#^s.    The efta-
blifhment of Omai was then ijEbpofed to the chiefs
who were affembled.    He informed  them, that
we had convey$|^im intp our country, where he
Was well received by the great King and his Earees,
(chiefs or nobles) and treated during his whole
flay with all t^^^éks of regard ané^affection ;
that he had been brought back again, after having been enriched, by our generality, with a variety of articles, which would be highly beneficial to his countrymen ; and that, befidô* the twro
horfes which were to continue with  him, many
other-iièw and ufeful animals had been left at **a*
IJfcaheite,  which >^ald fpeedily   multiply,   and
furnifh a fufficient  number for the ufe of all the
neighbouring ifland s.    He then gave them to un-
derft^yâ, thaÊpl was  Captain Cook's earneft re-
queft, that they w£j|ïd  give his friend a piece of
land, upon which  he   might build a houfe, and
raife provifions for himfelf and fervants ;  adding,
that, if he could   not  obtain this   at  Huaheine
either by donation or purchafe, the Captain was
refolved  to  carry |jj|bi  to  Ulietea, and eftablifli
him there.    Thefe  topics were dictated to Omai
by Captain   Cook, who obferved, that what he
concluded with, about going to Ulietea, feemed
to gain the approbation of all thg^phiefs ; an4^§yg
immediately  perceived  the   reafon.     Omai   had
vainly flattered hinîfelf, that the Captain would
ufe force in reftâring £im tajfais father's lands in
Ulietea, and he had   talked   at random, on  this
fubject,- to  fome  of the  alterably ; who now expected that the Captain Would affift  them in invading Ulietea, and driving the Boiabplans out
of that ifland.    It being propeg^herefore, that
he mould undeceive them,  he  fignined; 'i|^|he-.
moft decifive manner, that he would neither give
them any afliftance in fuch  an enterprize,  nor
would even fuffer it put in execution, while
he remained in their feas ; and that, if Omai efta-
blifhed himfelf in  Ulietea, he ought to be introduced as a friend, and not forced upon the people of Bolabola as their conqueror. PACIFIC OCEAN.
This preremptory declaraion immediately gave
a new  turn to the fentiments of the council ; one
of whom expreffedfflBmfelf to   this effect : that,
the whole ifland of Huaheine, and whatever it,
contained, were Captain Cook's ; and that, confe-
quently,   he mighè;ifîfpofc of what  portion  he,
.pleafed to his friend.    Omai   was pleafed at hearing this ; thinking that he would be  very liberal,
arid give him what was perfectly fufficient.    But
to maaB an offer of what it woui d have been improper to  accept, the CaptiSa confidered as offering nothing ; and therefore difired, that they
would mark out tfil^particular fpot, and likewife
the exact quantity of land, wThich they intended
to  allot for the fettlement.     Upon   this,  fome
chiefs, who had already retired from the aflembly,
Were fent for ;   aridjpafter a  fhâS^t  confultation,
the Commodore's requeft was unanimoufly granted, and the ground immediately fixed upon, adjoining  to the houfe where the prefent meeting
was held.    It extended atong   the fhore of the
harbour, about two hundred yards ; its depth to
the bottom of the hill  was* fomewhat more ; and
a proportional part of the hill was comprehended
in the grant.     This affair   being fettled, a tent
was pitched on  fhore, a pou;  eftablifhed, and the
obfervatories  erected.      The carpenters of each
fhip were alfo' now enployed in building^ a fmari
houfe for  Omai, in  wffiA he might fecure  the'
various European commodities that he had in his m
poffefliori ; at the fame time, fome of our people
were occupied in making a garden for his ufe,
ffeliting vines, fhaddocks, melons, pine ap$És§,
and the feediiof other vegetable articles ; <g§|
isrftich ivere in a flourlfeing ftaté before our departure from the ifland.
Omai begafi now to pay a ferais attentiori,»^
his otvn am&ts9 and heaÉSly repented of his ill-
^^'ed prodigality at Otaheite. He found at
IlSaheinej a brother, a filler, and a brother-in-
law, ïffe filler fpaving Éfcen married. Eut thefe
^^K^S^plunder him, as his other relations had
lately done* It appeared, however, that though
they had too - much honefty and good-nature to
do him any injury, they were of too little confe--
quence in the ifland to do him any real fervices,
'tÉMng neither authority nor influence to prouft
his property or his perfon. Thus circumftanced,
he ran a great rifque of being ftripped of «very
thing he had received from us, as foon as he
fhould ceafe to be within the reach of our powerful protection.
He was now upon the point of being placed in
the very fingular fituation, of being the only rich
man in the community of which he was to be a
member. And as he had, by his connection with.
us, made himfelf mafter of an accumulated quantity of a fpecies of trkafure which his countrymen
could not create by any  art  or  induftry of their
that while   all
own, it was natural to  imagine pacific ocean.        m
Were defirous of fharing in this envied wealth,.all
would be ready to join in attempts to ftrip its
fole proprietor. As the moft likely means of preventing this, Captain Cook advifed him to dif-
tribute fome of his moveables among two or three
of the principal chiefs ; who, on being thus gratified themfelves, might be induced to favour
him with their patronage, and fhield him from
the injuries of others. He promifed to fojlow
this advice ; and we heard, before we failed, that
this prudent ftep had been taken. The Captain,
however, not confiding entirely in the operations
of gratitude^ had recourfe to the more forcible
and effectual motive of intimidation, taking every
opportunity of notifying to the inhabitants, that
it was his intention to make another vifit to their
•ifland, after being abfent the ufual time ; and
$^rat, if he did not find his friend in ihe*fame fiante
of fecurity in which he fhould leave him at prefent, all thofe who fhould then appear to have
been his enemies, might expect to become the
objects of his refentment. This menacing declaration -will, probably, have fome effect ; for our
fucceflive vifits of late years have induced thefe
iflanders to believe, that our fhips are to return
at certain/ periods, and while they continue to
entertain fuch a notion, which the Captain thought
it a fair ftratagem to confirm, Omai has fome
prôfpè£fc of being fuffered to thrive upon his new
G 42
While we remained in this harbour, we carried
the bread on fhore to clear it of vermin. The
number of cock-roaches that infefted the fhip at
this time, is almoft incredible. The damage w^e
fuftained from them was very confiderable ; and
every attempt to deftroy them proved fruitlefs.
If any kind of food was expofed for a few minutes,
it was covered with thefe noxious infects,, who
foon pierced it full of holes, fo that it refembled
an honey-comb. They proved particularly de-
ftructive to birds, which had been fluffed for cu-
riofities, and were fo fond of ink, that they eat
out the writing on the labels, fattened to different
articles ; and the only thing that preferved books
from their ravages, was the clofenefs of the binding, which prevented thefe devourers from infi-
nuating themfelves between the leaves. According to Mr. Anderfon, they were of two forts, the
blatta orientalis, and germanica.
The intercourfe of trade and friendly offices,
between us and the inhabitants of Huaheine, was
undifturbed, by any accident, till the evening
of the 22d, when one of the natives found means
to get into Mr. Bayly's obfervatory, and carry off
a fextent, unobferved. Captain Cook was no
fooner informed of this theft than he went afhore,
and defired Omai to apply to the chiefs, to procure reftitution. He accordingly made application to them; but they took no fleps towards recovering the infiniment, being more attentive to PACIFIC   OCEAN.
a heeva, that was then* exhibiting, till the Captain ordered the performers to défit. Being now
convinced that he was in earneft, they began to
make fome enquiry after the delinquent, who was
fitting in the midft of them, with fuch marks of
unconcern, that the Captain was in great doubt
of his being guilty, particularly as he denied it.
Omai, however, afluring him that this was the
perfon, he 'was fent on board the (hip and there
confined. This raifed an uhiverfal ferment among
the affembled iflanders, and the whole body fled
with precipitation. The prifoner being examined
by Omai, was with fome difficulty brought to
confefs where he had concealed the fextent, and
it was brought back, unhurt, the next morning.
After this, the natives recovered from their con-
fternation, and began tp gather, about us as ufual.
As the thief appeared tto be a fhamelefs villain,
Captain Cook punifhed him with greater feverity
than he had ever done any former culprit. Be-
fides having his head and beard fhaved, he commanded that both his ears fhould be cut off, and
then  difmiffed.
This punifhment, however, did not deter him
from committing other offences ; for early in the
morning ôf the 25th, a general alarm was fpread
occafioned, as was reported, by one of our goats
being ftolen by this very man ; and though, upon
examination, we found every thing fafe in that
quarter^ yet it appeared, that he had deilroyed
G 2 3<P
x\\ 44
and carried   off from   Omai's   ground,   feverat
vines and cabbage-plants ; and he publicly threatened to put him to death, and fet fire to his houfè
as foon as  we fhould   quit  this place.    To  prevent his doing any further mifchief^ the Captain
ordered him to be feized, and confined again on
board the fhip, with a view of carrying him off
the ifland ; and this intention feemed to give general fatisfaction to all the chiefs.    He was a native^ of Bolabola : but   there were two  many of
the people here ready to co-operate with hîm m
all his  defigns.    We   had,   indeed,   always met
with more troublefome perfons in Huaheine than
in any other of the adjacent iilands ; and i^was only
fear and the wrant of proper opportunities, that
induced  them to behave better now7.    Anarchv -
and  confufion  feemed  to prevail  among them.
Their Earee rahier as we have already obferved,
was but a child ; and we did not find, that there
was any individual, or any fet of men, who held
the reins of^government for him ; fo that, whenever any mifunderftanding occured  between us,
we never knew, with fufficient precifion, to whom
it was neceffary to' apply, in order to effect an
accommodation, or procure redrefs.
Omai's houfe being> now almoft finifhed, many
of his moveables were carried afhore on the 26th ;
,amongft other articles wras a box of toys, which
greatly pleafed the gazing multitude. But, as
to   his   plates,   diflies,   drinking   mugs, * glaffes,
pots, kettles, and the whole train of domeftic apparatus, fcarce one of his countrymen would even
look at them. Omai, himfelf began to think that
they wduld be of no fervice to him -} that a baked
hog was more favory eating than a boiled one ;
that a plantain leaf made as good a plate or difh
as pewter ; and that a cocoa-nut fhell was as
convenient a goblet as one^f our mugs. He
therefore difpofed of moft of-thefe articles of
Englifh furniture among the crew of our fhips;
and received from them, in. return, hatchets, and
other iron implements, which had a more intrinfic
value in this part of the world. Among the numerous prefents bellowed upon him in England,
fireworks had not been omitted'; fome-of which
we exhibited in the evening of the 28th, before
a great multitude, of people, who beheld them
with a mixture of pleafure and apprehenfioii.
Thofe which remained were put in order, and
left with Omai, purfuant to their original defti-
On Thursday /the 30th, early in the morning,
the Bolabola-man whom we had in confinement,
found means to efcape out of the^fhip, carrying
with him the fhackle of the bilboo-bolt that had
been put about his leg, which was taken from
him as foon as he arrived on fhore, by one of
the chiefs, and given to Ômai ; who quickly came
on board, to inform the Captain that his mortal
enemy was again let loofe upon liim* 46
We found, upon enquiry, that the fentry placed
over the prifoner, and even the whole watch in
that part of the fliip where he was/confined,
having fallen afleep, he feized the favourable opportunity, took the key of the irons out of the
drawer into whichvhe had ïeen it put, and fet himfelf at liberty. This efcape convinced the Commodore, that hjs people had been very remits in
their neight-duty ; which rendered it neceffary to
chaftize thofe who were now in fault, and [to ef-
tablifh fome new regulations that might prevent
fimilar negligence in future. He was pleafed at
hearing, after wards, that the fellow who had ef-
caped, had gone over to Ulietea.
Omai was no fooner fettled in his new habitation, than Captain Cook began to think of departing from Huaheine, and got every thing off
from the fhore this evening, except a goat big
with kid, and a horfe and mare ; which w^ere left
in the polTeffion of our friend, who was now to
be finally feparated from us. We alfo gave him
a boar and two fows of the Englim breed ; and
he "had got two or three fows of his own. The
horfe had covered the mare during our continuance at .Otaheite ; fo that the introduction of a.
breed of horfes into thefe iflands. has probably
fucçeeded, by this valuable prefent.
With regard to Omai's domeftic eltablifhment,
he had procured at Otaheite, four or five toutous,
or people of the lower clafs ; the two young New- PACIFIC  OCEAN.
Zealanders remained with him ; and his Brother, and feveral others, joined him at. Hau-
heine ; fo that his family now confided of ten or
eleven perlons ; if that can juftly be denominated a family, to which not one female belonged.
The. houfe which our people1 erected for him was
twenty-four feet by eighteen ; and about ten feet
in height. It. was, compofed of boards which
were the fpoils of our military obfervations at Eimeo ; and, in the conftruction of it, as few nails.
as poffible were ufed, left there might be an inducement, from the defire of iron, to pull it
down. It was agreed upon, that, immediately
after our departure, he fhould. erect a fpacious
houfe after the mode of his own country ; one
end of which was to be brought over that which
we • had built, [o as entirely to ençlofe it for
greater fecurity. In this work, fome of the chiefs
of the ifland promifed to contribute their affift-
ance ; and if the ! intended building fhould cover
the ground which was marked, out for it, few of
the houfes in Huaheine will exceed it in magni-
Omai's European weapons confifted of a fowd-
Ing-piece, two pair of piftols, feveral fwords or
cutlaffes, a mufquet, bayonet, and a cartouch-
box. After he had got on fhore i whatever appertained to him, he had the two Captains, and
moft of the officers of both oilr fhips, two or
three times, to dinner ; on which occafions, his 48
table was plentifully fupplied with the beft provî-
fions that the ifland could afford. Before we fet
fail, the Commodore caufed the following infcrip-
tion to be cut upon the outiide of his houfe :
Georgigus Tertius,  Rex, 1 Novembris,   iJJJ*
Refolution,  fac.  Cock, Pr.
Difcovery, Car. Clerke, Pr,
of November,   at four
On Sunday, the 2d
o'clock, we took the
ly breeze, and failed out of Owharre harbour.
Moft of our friends continued on board till our
veffels were under fail ; when Captain Cook, to
gratify their curiofity, ordered five guns to be
fired. Then they all left us, except Omai, who
remained till we were out at fea. We had come
to fail by a hawfer faftened to the fhore, which, in
calling the fhip, parted, being cut by the rocks,
and its outer end was left behind : it therefore
became neceffary to difpatch a boat to bring it
on board. In this boat, our friend-Omai went
afhore, after having taken a very affectionate fare-
wel of all the officers. He fuftained this parting with a manly fortitude, till he came to Captain Cook, when, notwithftanding all ids efforts,
he was unable to fupprefs his tears ; and he wrept
all the time in going afhore, as Mr. King, who
accompanied him in the boat, afterwards inform-,
ed the Captain. PACIFIC OCEAN.
Though we had now, to our great fatisfaction,
brought  him   fafe back  to   the very  fpot from
which he was taken, it is probable, that we left
him in a fituation lefs defirable>^an that which
he was in before his connection with us : not that,
having tailed the conforts   of  civilized life, he
muft become more wretched from being obliged
to relinquiih all thoughts of continuing them, but
merely becaufe the advantages  he received from
us, have placed him in a more hazardous fituation,
with refpect to his perfonal fafety.    From beifgj
greatly carefled in England, he had loft fight of
his primary condition, and did not confider in
what manner his acquittions, either of knowledge
or of wealth, would be eftimated by his countrymen, at his return ; ;which were the only thi$g$
whereby he could recommend himfelf to them
now, more than before, and on which he could
lay the foundation either of Ms;.future hapj^efs or
greatnefs.    He appeared to have, in fome meafure,
forgotten their cuftoms in this refpect, and even
to have miftaken their genius ; otherwife he muft
have been convinced of the extreme difficulty there
iwbiild be in getting himfelf admitted as a man of
rank, where there is fcarcejangle inftance of a
perforij&being raifed from an inferior ftation even
by  the greateft merit.    Rank feems   to   be the
foundation of all power and diftinction here, and
is fo pertinacioufly adhered to, that,  unlefs a per-
Vol. IL—-n°. 7. H A VOYAGE TO THE
fon has fome degree of it, he will be contemned and hated, if he pretends to exercife any authority. This was really the cafe, in a great
meafure, with Omai ; though his countrymen
were rather cautious of expreffing >Aeir fenti-
ments while we continued among||hem.
If he had riiade a proper ufe of the prefents
he brought with him from Great-Britain, this,
with the knowledge he had gained by travelling,
miffht have enabled him to form the moft   ad-
vantageous connections. But he exhibited too
many proofs of a weak inattention to this obvious means of promoting his intereft. He had
formed fchemes of a higher nature ; it may indeed be faid, meaner ; for revenge, rather
than a defire of greatnefs, appeared to influence
him from the beginning. His father was, certainly, a man of confiderable property in Ulietea, when that ifland was fubdued by the inhabitants of Bolabola ; and, with many others, fled
ItlNrefuge to Huaheine, where he died, and left
Omai, with feveral other children, who thus
became entirely dependent. In this fituation,
Captain Furneaux took him up, and brought him
to England. Whether he expected, from the
treatment he there met with, that any afliftance
would be afforded him againft the enemies of his
father and his country, or whether he had the
-vanity to fuppofe, that his own fuperiority of
knowledge, and perfonal courage, would be fuf- r-
ficient to difpoffefs the conquerors of Ulietea, is
uncertain ; but, from the very cprrrmencemerit.
of the voyage, this was his confiant topic. He
would not pay any attention to our remonftrances
on fuch an inconfiderate determinaton, but was
difpleafed, whenever more reafonable counfels
were propofed for his benefit. Nay, he was fo ri-
diculoufly attached to his favourite fcheme, that
he affected to believe the Bolabolans would ce-
tainly quit the conquered ifland, as foon as they
fhould have intelligence of his arrival in Otaheite.
As we proceeded, however, on our voyage, he
began to perceive his error ; and, by the time of
our arrival at the Friendly Iflands, had fuch ap-
prehenfions of his reception in his own country,
that he w^as inclined to have remained at Ton-
gataboo, under the protection of his friend Fee-
nou. At thefe iflands, he fquandered away a
confiderable part of his European treafure ; and
he was equally imprudent at Otaheite, till Captain Cook put a flop to his profufion. He alfo
formed fuch improper connections there, that
Otoo, though at firft difpofed to countenance
him, afterwards openly exprefled his difappro-
bation of his conduct. He might, however, have
recovered the favour of that chief, and have fettled, to great advantage, in Otaheite, as he had
form el y lived fome years there, and was now
honoured with the notice of Towha, whofe valuable prefent of a large double canoe has b*eft JE*
already mentioned. But he continued undetermined to the kft, and probably would not have
adopted the plan of fettlement in Huaheine, if
Captain Cook had not fo pofitively refufed to
employ force in reftoring him to the poffeffioti
of his father's property.
Omai's greateft dangeffin his prefent fituation,
will arife from the very imprudent declarations
of his antipathy to the Bolabolans. For thefe
people, from the motives of jealoufy, will undoubtedly endeavour to render him obnoxious to the
inhabitants of Huaheine ; as they are now at
^ jl&ce with that ifland, and may eafily accomplifh
their defigns. This circumftance, he might,
With great eafe, have avoided. For they were not
only free from any averfion to him, but the chief,
whom we mentionned before, as a prieft or god,
even offered to reinftate him in his father's lands.
But he peremptorily refufed this ; and, to the
very laft, continued fixed in this refolution to embrace the firft opportunity of fatisfying his revenge in battle. To this he is perhaps not a little flimuJated by the coat of mail he brought
from England ; clothed in which, and furnifhed
with fire-arms, he idly imagines that he fhall be
The defects of Orris's character were confi-
derably over-balanced by his great good-nature,
and docile, tractable difpofiton. Captain Cook,
during the whole time he was with him, feldom
had reafon to be ferioufly difpîeafed with his general conduct.    His grateful heart ever retained
the higheft fènfe of the favours conferred on- him
in England ; nor will he ever be unmindful of
thofe who honoured him, while in that kingdom,
with their  friendfhip  and  protection.     Though
he  had  a tolerable  fhare  of underftanding,   he
fhewed little application and perfeverance in exerting  it, fo that he had but a  general and imperfect knowledge of things.    He was not a man
of any great degree of obfervation.    There were
many elegant amufements, as well as ufeful arts,
among the Friendly Iflanders, which   he might
have conveyed to his native country, where they,
in all probability, would have been readily adopted.    But  we never found that he endeavoured
to   make himfelf matter   of any  one  of them.
Such indifference is,   indeed,   the  characteriftic
foible « of his countrymen.     Though  they  have
been vifited by Europeans,   at times,  for thefe
ten years paft, we could not difcern the flighteft
veftige of any attempt to profit by this intercourfe;
nor have they hitherto imitated us in any refpect.
It muft not,   therefore,  be expected, that Omai
will   be   able to   introduce among  them  many
of   our   arts   and cuftoms,   or   much  improve
thofe to   which they have been   familiarized by
long habit.    We truft, however, that he will exert
his endeavours to   bring to   perfection   the  va*
rious fruits and vegetables that were planted by 54
us ; which will be no fmall acquifition. But the
principal advantage thefe iflands are likely to
receive from the travels of Omai, will probably
arife from the animals that have been left upon
them ; which, perhaps, they never would have
obtained, if he had not come over to England.
When thefe multiply, Otaheite, and the Society
Ifles, will equal any place in the known world,,
with refpect to provifions.
Omai's return, and the fubftantiai proofs he
carried back with him of Britifh liberality, encouraged manv to offer themfelves as volunteers
to accompany us to Pretane. Captain Cook took
every opportunity of expreffing his fixed determination to rcje£l all applications of that kind.
Omai, who was ambitious of remaining the only
great traveller among them, being afraid left the.
Captain might be prevailed upon to place others,
in a fituation of rivalling him, frequently reminded him of the declaration of the Earl of Sandwich,
that no others of his countrymen were to come to
Had there been the fmalleft probability of any
fhip being again fent to New-Zealand, the Commodore would have brought the two youths of
that country home with him, both of them being very deftrous of continuing with us. Tawei-
harooa, the eldeft, was endowed with ftrong natural ïenîe, was extremely well difpofed, and capable of receiving any inftruction.     He appear- PACIFIC OCEAN. S5
ed to be fenfible cf the inferiority of his own
country to thefe iflands, and refigned himfelf,
though perhaps not without reluctance, to end his
days at Huaheine in eafe and plenty. But the
other, named Kokoa, was fo ftrongly attached to
us, that it became neceffary to make ufe of force
in carrying him afhore. He was a fmart witty
boy ; and, on that account, great notice had been
taken of him on board.
Arrival at Ulietea—One of the Marines deferts
but is brought back by Captain Cook—Intelligence from Omai—Injtruclions to Captain Clerke—
Two others defert—The two Captains feek them
in vain—The Chiefs Son, Daughter, and her
Hufband, confined on board the Difcovery-*—Un-
fuccefsful Confpiracy of the Natives againji the
Captains—The two Defer ter s are recovered—The
Chiefs Family fet at Liberty—The Ships fail—
Remarks on the Ulieteans—Prefent and Jormer
State of their Ifland.
AS foon as the boat, in which Omai was conveyed aihore, had  returned, with file  remainder of the hawfer, to the  fhip, we  hoifted 56
her in, and flood over for Ulietea without delay/
The next morning, which was the 3d of November, we made fail round the fouthern end of
that ifland, for the harbour of Ohamaneno. We,
met with variable light airs and calms alternately, fo that, at twelve o'clock, wTe were flili
at the diftance of a league from the mouth of the
•harbour ; and while we were thus detained, Oreo,
the chief of the ifland, with his fon and fon-in-
law, came off to pay us a vifit. All the boats
were now hoifted out, and fent a-head to tow,
being affifted by a flight foutherly breeze. This
foon failing, and being fucceeded by an eafterly
one, which blew right out of the harbour, we
were obliged to anchor at its entrance, about two
o'clock, and to warp in, which employed us till
night. We were no fooner within the harbour
than our fhips were furrounded with canoes,
fillep with the natives, who brought a fupply of
fruit and hogs, which they exchanged for our
The following day, the Refolution was moored
clofe to the northern fhore, at the head of the
harbour ; and the Difcovery along-fide the
fouthern fhore. . Captain Cook, in the mean time,
returned Oreo's vifit, and prefented that chief
with a red-teathered cap from Tongataboo, a
flilrt, a linen gown, and a few other things of
lefs vaiue. Oreo, and fome of his friends, then
accompanied him on board to dinner.    On Thurf- PACIFIC   OCEAN.
day the 6th, the obfervatories Were fet up, and
the neceffary inftruments carried on fhore. The
two fucceeding days, Captain Cook, Mr. King,
•and Mr. Bayly, obferved the fun's azimuths, both
on fhore and on board, with all the compaffes,
in order to difcover the variation. Nothing re".
markable happened, till very early in the morning of the 13th, when a marine, named John
tlarrifon, who was fentinei at the obfervatory,
deferted, taking with him his mufquet and accoutrements. As foon as we gained intelligence
which way he had gone, a party w*as detached in
fearch of him ; but they Jfoarned towards the
evening, without fuccefs. The next day, Captain Cook applied to the chief concerning this
affair, who promifed to fend a party of ÉjS'iflan-
ders after the fugitive, arid give us hops that
he fhould be brought back in the courfe of that
day. This however, did riot happen ; and wre
had reafon to imagine, that the chief had taken
no fleps towards finding him.
We had, at this time, a confiderable , number
of the natives about our fhips, and feveral thefts
were committed ; the confequences cf which feeing apprehended by them, very few of therix
came to vifit us the next morning. Oreo himfelf caught the alarm, and fled with his whole,
family. Captain Cook.confidered this as a good
opportunity to infift upon their delivering up the
deferter ; and having heard that he was then at
I 1
a place called Hamoa, fituated on the other fide
of the ifland he repaired theither with two armed
boats, attended by a native. In their way, they
jfÈëfe with the chief, who alfo embarked with them.
The Captain, with a few of his men, landing
v*about a mile and a half from the fpot, marched
up to it, w^ith great expedition, left the fight of
the boats fhould give the alarm, and^allow the
offender fufficient time to make his efeape to the
mountains. This precaution proved unneceffary \
for the natives of that part of the ifland having
obtained information of the Captain's approach,
were prepared to deliver up the fugitive. He
was found, with his mufquet lying before him
feated betwixt two women, who, the inftant that
the Captain entered the houfe, rofe up to plead
in his vindication. As fuch proceedings deferved
to be difcouraged, the Captain, with a flern look,
bid them be gone ; upon which they burft into
tears, and retired. Paha, the chief of that dif-
trict, now came with a fucking-pig, and a plantain-tree, which he was on the point of prefenting
to Captain Cook, as a peace-offering ; who re*
jected it, and having ordered the chief to quit
his prefence, embarked with Harrifon in one of
the boats, and returned to the fhips. After this
harmony was fpeedily reftored. The delinquent
made no other excufe for his conduct, than
that the natives had enticed him away : which
perhaps was in a great meafure true, as Paha, and ^i
the two women above-mentioned, had been at,
the fhip the day before his defertion. As he had
remained at his ftation till within a few minutes
of the time m which he was to have been re.
Keveo> by another, the punifhment he received
was not very fevere..
About a fortnight after we had arrived in Ulietea, Omai difpatched two* of his* people in &â|$
noe, with- intelligence^ that he continued un-
difturbed by the inhabitants of Huaheine, and
that every thing fucceeded with him, excepfc-that
his goat had died in kidding^. This information was accompanied with a requeft that Capr
tain Cook would fend him another goat, and alfo
two axes-- Pleafed: with this additional opportunity of ferving his frielft the Captain fent back
the meflengers to Huaheine, on>*ÉW^Kt, with
the axes, and a male and female kid;.
On Wednefday the* 19th, the Commodore delivered to Captain Clerke his inftructions how to
proceed, in cafe of feparatibn, after quitting thefe
iflands. The purport of thefe inftructions was
as follows : that, whereas the paffage from the
Societpflfles to the nothern coaft of America
was of confiderable length, and as a part of it
muft be performed in the depth of winter, when
boifterous weather muft be expected, which might
perhaps occafion a feparation, Captain Clerke
fhould take all poffible carè to prevent this ; but
that if the two fhips fhould  chance to  be fepa-
m 6~o
rated, he, after fearching for Captain Cook, and
not finding him in five days, was to proceed towards the coaft-of Mew Albion, and /endeavour
to fail in with it in. the îàtiûtude of 45fg whers
he was to cruize for him ten days ; and not feeing him- in that time, was to put into the firft
convenient harbour, in or to the north : of that
latitude, to obtain refrefhments, and take in wood
and water : that, during his continuance in port
he was conftantly to look out for Captain Cook ;
and if the latter did not join him before the 1 ft
of April following, he was to proceed northward
to the Latitude of $6n, where, at fuch a diftance
from, the coaft as:â(jf;not exceed fifteen leagues,
r him till the 10th of May ;>
5 - was to proceed on a north-
he was to cruize fc
and not finding hi:n
erly ccurfej .and attempt to difcover-a- paffage-
into the Atlantice Ocean, either- through Hud-
fon's or Baffin's Bays, as directed by the inftructions of the Board of Admiralty : that, if he
mould- fail in thofe endeavours he was to repair to the harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul in
Kâmtfchatka, and pafs the winter there : but that
if ne could not procure refreshments -at that port,
he. was at liberty to go where he fhould think
proper, leaving with the Governor, before his
departure, an account of his deltination, to be
delivered to Captain Cook on his arrival ; and
that, 111 the fpring-of the year following (1779)
h,e-was to  return   to_ the port abpye-cientioned : PACIFIC  OCEAN.
that if he then received no further orders from
Captain Cook, fo as to juftify his purfuing any
other meafures than thofe which were pointed out
in the inftructions of the Lords of the Admiralty,
his future  proceedin
e to be directed by
nd that, in cafe of being* nrevence
illnefs or any other caufe, from carrying thefe,
and the inftructions of their Lordfmps, into execution, he was to leave them with the officer who
was next in command.
Mobile we la^moored to the fhore, we Stubbed
f the bottoms of our veffels, and alio
fixed fome plates of tin under the binds. Thefe
plates Captain Cook received from the ingenious
Mr. Pelham, Secretary to the Commiffioners for
victualling the .royal navy, for the purpofe of trying whether tin would fucceed as well as copper,
in fheathing the bottoms of fhips.
On Monday the 24th, in the morning, the
Commodore was informed that two of the .Discovery's people, one of whom was a midfhipmàn,
were miffing. Not long after, we learned from
the natives, that they had embarked in a canoe
the preceding night, and were now at the other
end of the ifland. As the Midffiipman had ex-
preffed I délire of continuing at one of thefe
iflands,   it   was extremely probable   that he and
with that intent.
his companion   had
Captain Gierke therefore, with two armed boats,
and a detachment of marines; fet out in queft.of 6a
the fugitives, but returned in the evening with*
out fuccefs. From the conduct of the Mander s».
he was of opinion, that they intended to con-,
çeal the deferters ; and, with this view, had de-,
ceived him with falfe information, directing him*
to feek for them where they could not be found..
He was not miftaken $ for the next morning,,
intelligence wras brought, that the two runaways
were in the Ifle of Otaha. Thefe not being the
only perfons in the fhips who. were defirous of
remaining at thefe. favourite iflands, it was ne-
ceffary, in order to give an effectual difcourage-.
ment to any further deferUon, to recover then*
at ail events* Captain Cook therefore determined to go in pur fuit of them himfelf, having
obfçrved that the natives fefdom attempted to
amufe him with falfe information. He accord--
ingly fet out with two. armed boats, accompanied by Oreo himfelf. They proceeded,, without
flopping at any place, till they came to the eallerrt
fide of Qtaha, where they put afhore ; and the
chief di.fpatched a man before them,, with orders
to feize the fugitives, and keep them till the
Captain and his attendants fhould arrive with the"
boats. But when they had got to the place where .
they expeftsd to find them, they were informed,
that they had quitted this ifland, and gone to
Bolabola the preceding day. The Captain, not
çhufing to follow7 them thither, returned to the
fhios, with a full detennmatiQn to have recourfe: Pacific océan.
to a meafure, which, he had reafon to  believe,
Would compel the natives to reftore them.
On the 26th, foon after break of day, Oreo,
with his fon, daughter, and fon-in-law, having
come on board the Refolution, Captain Cook re-
folved to detain the three laft, till our deferters
fhould be delivered up. With this wiew, Captain Clerke invited them on board his fhip ; and,
as foon as they arrived in his cabin, a fentinel
was placed at the door, and the window fecured.
This proceeding greatly furprized them ; and
Captain Clerke having explained the reafon of it
they burft into tears, and begged he would not
kill them. He affured them he wrould not, and
that the moment his people were brought back,
they fhould be releafed. This however, did not
remove their uneafinefs, and they bewailed their
fate in filent forrow. The chief being with Captain Cook when he received intelligence of this
affair, immediately mentioned it to him, imagining that this flep had been taking without his
knowledge and approbation. The Captain in-
ftantly undeceived him ; and then he began to
entertain apprehenfions with refpect to his own
fituation, and his countenance indicated the great-
eft perturbation of mind. But the Captain foon
quieted his fears, by telling him, that he was at
liberty to quit the fhip whenever he chofe, and
to take fuch fteps towards the recovery of our
two men, as he fhould judge bed calculated for ^4
that purpofe ; and that, if he fhould ymeet with
fuccefs, his friends on board thcDifcovery fhould
be releafed from their confinement: if not, that
they fhould certainly be carried away with us.
The Captain added, that the chief's conduct, as
well as- that of many of his countrymen, in not
only aflifting thefe two men to make their efcape,
but in endeavouring, at this very time, to prevail upon others to follow them, would juftify
any meafure that would ferve to put a flop to
fuch proceedings. This explanation of the motives upon which the Commodore acted, feemed
to remove, in a great degree, that general conifer-
nation into which Oreo, and his people who
were, prefent, were at firft thrown. But, though
relieved from all apprehenfions with regard to
their own fafety, they were ftill under the deepeft
concern for the prifoners in the Difcovery. Numbers of them went under the ftern of that fhip
in canoes, and lamented their captivity with
long and loud exclamations. The name of Poe-
dooa (for that was the appellation of Oreo's
daughter) refounded from every quarter ; and the
women not only made a moft difmal howling,
but ftruck their bofoms, and cut their heads with
fhark's teeth, which occafioned a confiderable
effufioii  of blood.
The   chief now difpatched a cano»  to  Bola-
a, with   a meffage ,to   Opoony,  king of that
id,   informing  him  of what  had   happened Pacific ocean. ê$
and rèqUefting him to fei.ze the two deferters, and
fend them back. The meflenger, who was the father
of Oreo's fon-in-law Pootoe, came to receive
Captain Cook's commands before his departure ;
who ftrictly enjoined him not to return without
the fugitives, and to tell Opoony, from him, that
if they had left the ifle of Bolabola, he muft fend
canoes in purfuit of them.
The impatient natives, not thinking proper to
trull to the return of our people for the releafe of
the prifoners, were induced to meditate an attempt, which if it had not been prevented
might have involved them in flell greater diftrefs.
Between five and fix o'clock, Captain Gook, who
was then on fhore, abreaft of the fhip, obferved
that all their conoes, in and about the harbour,
began to move off. He enquired, in vain, for
the caufe of this ; till our people, calling to us
from the Difcovery, informed us, that fome of
the iflahders had feized Captain Clerke and Mr.
Gore, as they were walking at a fmall diftance
from the fhips. The Commodore, ftruck with
the boldnefs of this fcheme of retaliation, which
feemed to counteract him in his own way, in-
flantly commanded his people to arm ; and, in a
few minutes, a ftrong party, under tbe conduct
of Mr. King, was fent to the refcue of our two
gentlemen. Two armed boats, and a party under
Mr. Williamfon, were difpatched at the fame
time to intercept the flying  canoes in their re-
Voi. II.—-n° 8 K 66
treat to the fhore. Thefe detachments had fcarce*
ly gone out of fight, when intelligence arrived
that we had been mifinformed ; upon which they
were immediately called in.
It manifeftly  appeared, however,   from feveral
corroborating   particulars, that  the  natives  had
actually  formed   the defign   of feizing  Captain
Clerke ; and  they even made no fecret in fpeak-
ing of it the following day.    But the principal
part of their plan of operations  was to have  laid
hold of the perfon of Captain Cook.    He was ac-
cuftomed  to bathe   every evening  in the  frefh
water ;   on which occafions he frequently   went
alone, and always  unarmed.    Expecting him to
go this evening, as ufual, they had refolved upon
feizing him, and Captain Clerke Kkewife, if he
had accompanied him»    But Captain Cook, after
confining the chief's  family, had taken care to
avoid putting himfelf in their power ;   and had
cautioned Captain Clerke and the officers, not to
go to any  confiderable diftance from the fhips.
Oreo, in the courfe of the afternoon, afed our
Commodore, three or four times, if he would not
go to  the batihing place ;   till at length finding
that he could not be prevailed upon, he retired^
with his people, notwithftanding all our entreaties
to the  contrary.     Having no fufpicion,  at this
time, of their  defign,   Captain Cook  imagined,
that a fudden panic had feized them, which would
probably be foon over.   Being difappointed with !
?efpect to him, they fixed upon thofe who were:
more in their power. It was a fortunate circum-
ftance that they did not fucceed in their defign,
and that no mifchief was done on the occafion ;
no mufquets being fired, except two or three, to
ftop the canoes ; to which firing, perhaps, Captain Clerke and Mr. Gore owed, their fafety*;
for, at that moment, a party of the iflanders,.
armed with clubs, were marching towards them,,
"but difpe.rfed on hearing the. report of the, muf-
quets.     fpÉ
This confpiracy was firft difcovered by a girf
who had been brought from Huaheine by one of
our officers. Happening to overhear fome of the
Ulieteans fay, that they would feize Meffrs. Gierke
and Gore, fhe immediately ran to acquaint thq
firft of our people that fhe met with* Thofe who
had been jntrufted with the execution of the defign, threatened to put her to death, as foon as
we fhould quit Uliejtea, for difappointing them.
Being aware of thi% we contrived that the girl's
friends fhould come, a day or two afterwards, and
take her out of the fhip, to ^pgwey her to a place
where fhe might remain concealed, till fhe fhould
find an opportunity of returning to Huaheine.
, I
* It is not improbable that they were alfo indebted for
their fafety to Captain Clfctke's walking with a piftol in his
îiand, which he once fired. We mention this circumilancfc-
on. the authority of Captain King, 68
On Thurfday the 27th, we took down our ob~
fervatories, and carried on board whatever we
had afhore; we then unmoored the fhips, and
moved a little way down the harbour, where we
anchored again. Towards the afternoon the natives, fhaking off their apprehenfions, gathered
round, and on board, our fhips, as ufual ; and
the unpleafing tranfactions of the preceding day
feemed to be almoft forgotten by both parties.
In the fucceeding night the wind blew in hard
fqualls, which were accompanied with heavy
ihowers of rain. In one of thefe fqualls, the
cable by which the Refolution was riding at anchor, parted ; but, as we had another anchor
ready to let go, the fhip was quickly brought up
No account of our two fugitives having been
received from Bolabola, Oreo now fet out for
that ifland, defiring Captain Cook to follow him,
the next day, with the fhips. This was the Cap*
taints intentions ; but the wind prevented our
getting out to fea. The fame wind, however,
which detained us in the harbour, brought back
Oreo, with the two dëferters, from Bolabola.
They had reached Otaha on the night of their
defertion ; but being, unable for the want of
wind, to get to any of the iflands lying to the
eaftward, as they at firft intended, they had proceeded to Bolalola, and thence to a little ifland
called Toobaee, where t;hey were apprehended by PACIFIC OCEAN.
Poofoe's father. As foon as they were brought
on board, the three prifoners in the Difcovery
were reftored to their liberty. Such was the termination of an affair, which had given the Commodore much trouble and vexation.
The wind continuing conftantly between the
north and weft, kept us in the harbour tiii Sunday
the 7th of December ; when, at eight o'clock in.
the morning, we weighed and made fail, with a
light breeze at the north-eaft point. During the
preceding week, we had been vifited by perfons
from all quarters of the ifland, who afforded us a
plentiful fupply of hogs and green plantains, fo
that the time we remained wind-bound in the
harbour was not totally loft ; for green plantains
are an excellent fuccedaneum for bread, and will
keep good for two or three weeks. Befides being
furnifhed with thefe provifions, we alfo took in
plenty of wood and water
The Ulieteans appeared to be, in general
fmalter and more black than the natives of the
adjacent iflands, and feemed alfo lefs orderly,
which may, perhaps, be owing to their having
become fobject to the inhabitants of Bolabola.
Oreo, their chief, is only a kind of deputy of
the Bolabolan monarch ; and the conqueil feems
to have diminifhed the number of fubordinate
chiefs refident among them : they are, therefore,
lefs immediately under the eve of thofe whofe in-
f ereft it is to enforce a proper obedience.    Though 7©
Ulietea is now reduced to this ftate of humiliating-
dependence,   it   was formerly,  as we were informed, the moft eminent of this groupof iflands,
and was probably the firft  feat  of goverment ;
for we were told, that the prefent royal family of
Otaheite derives its defcent from that which ruled
here before the fate revolution.    The dethroned
king of Ulietea, whofe name is Ooroo, refides at
Huaheine,, furnifhing, in* his own perfon, an in-
flance not only of the instability of power, but
alfo of the refpect paid by thefe iflanders to par-
ticulur  familes   of princely ra$k ; for they allow
Ooroo to retain all the enfigns which are appropriated by them to royalty,  notwithstanding his
having been deprived o£ his dominion^   We ob^
ferved a fimilar instance of this during our ftay
at Ulietea, where one of our occasional visitants
was Captain Cook's old friend Oree,  late chief
of Huaheine..   He   ftill   maintained   his  confe-
quence, and. was conftantly attended by a numer-.
au s retinue. PACIFIC OCEAN. 7t
Proceed to Bolabola, accompanied by Oreo and others
-—Application to Opoony for Monfieur de Bougain-
\ villeys Anchor—Reafons for purchafing it—Delicacy of Opoony, in net accepting the Prefent
—£>uit the Society Iflands—Defcription of Bolabola, and its Harbour—Curious Hiftory of the Re-
duBion of the two Iflands, Otaha and Ulietea
|—Bravery of the Men of Bolabola—Account of the
Animals left at Bolabola and Ulietea—Procefs of
faking Pork-~-Curfory Obfervations refpecling Otaheite, and the Society Iflands.
[AVING taking our  leave  of Ulietea,   we
fleered for Bolabola.    Our principal reafon
for vifiting this ifland was, to procure one of the
anchors which had been loft at Otaheite by Monfieur de Bougainville.    This, we were  informed,
had been afterwards found by the natives   there,
and fent by them to Opoony, the chief of Bolabola.    It  was not onaccount   of being in want
of anchors that we were anxious to get poffeffion
of it; but, having parted with all our hatchets,
and other iron tools and implements in purchafing
refrefhrnents, we were now  obliged to create a
frefli affortment of trading articles, by fabricating
them from the fpare iron we could find on board,
and even the greateft part of that had been already 72
expended. Captain Cook, therefore, fuppofed
Monf. de Bougainville's anchor would, in a great
meafure, fupply our want of this ufeful material,
and he did not entertain a doubt that Opoony
might be induced to part wiah it.
Oreo, accompanied by fix or eight others from
Ulietea, attended us to Bolabola ; and, indeed,
moft of the natives, except the chief, would
gladly have taken a paffage with us to England.
At fun-fet, being off the fouth point of Bolabola,
we fhortened fail, and paffed the night making
fhort boards. On the 8th, at day break, we made
fail for the harbour, on the weft ûâe of the ifland*
The wind being fcant, it was nine o'clock before
we were near enough to fend away a boat to found
the entrance.
The mailer, v/hen he returned with the boat,
reported, that the entrance of the harbour was
rocky at the bottom, but that there was good
ground within ; and the debth of water twenty-
five and twenty-feven fathoms ; and that there
was room to turn the fhips in. Upon this information, we attempted to work the fhips in ; but,
the wind and tide being againft us, we made two
or three trips, and found it could not be accomplished till the tide fhould turn in our favour.
Whereupon Captain Cook gave up the defign of
carrying the fhips into the harbour, and embarking in one of the boats, attended by Oreo and his
companions, was rowed in for the ifland.  *** PACIFIC   OCEAN. 73
As foon as they were got afhore, the Commodore was introduced to Opoony, furrounded by a
vaft concourfe of people. The neceffary formality
of compliments being over, he requefted the
chief to give him the anchor ; and, to induce him
to comply with the request, produced the prefen
he intended for him. It conftfted of a Unen nightgown, fome gauze handkerchiefs, a fhirt, a look-
ing-glafs, fome beads and toys, and fix axes.
Opoony, however, refufed to accept the prefent
till the Commodore had received the anchor ; and
ordered three perfons to go and deliver it to him j
with directions to receive from him what he
thought proper in return. With thefe mçffengers
we fet out in our boats for a neighbouring ifland,
where the anchor had been deposited ; but it was
neither fo large, nor fo perfect, as we expected.
By the mark that was upon it, we found that it
had originally weighed feven hundred pounds ^
but it now wanted the two palms, the ring, and j
part of the fhank. The reafon of Opoorry's refuting Captain Cook's prefent was now apparent ;
he, doubtlefs, fuppofed that the anchor, in its*
prefent flate, was fo much inferior to it in value,
that, when he faw it, he would be difpleafed.
The Commodore, notwithstanding, took the anchor a-s he found it, and fent the whole of the prefent, which he, at firft, intended. This nego-
, ciation being completed, the Commodore returned
on board, hoisted in the boats, and made fail t©
the north. But, while wre were hoisting in the
boats, we were vififed by fome of the natives,
who canie off, in three or four canoes, to fee the
fhips. They brought with them one pig, and a
few cocoa-nuts.
Had wë remained there till the next day, we
fhould probably have been fupplied with plenty
of provisions; and the natives would, doubtlefs
be difappointed when they found we were gone :
but, having already a good flock of hogs and fruit
on board, and not many articles left to purchafe
more, we had no inducement to defer the profe*
cution of our voyage.
Oteavanooa, the harbour of Bolabola, situated
on the weft fide of the ifland, is very capacious ;
and, though we did not enter it, Captain Cook
had the fatisfaction of being informed, by perfons
employed by him for that purpofe, that it was a
very proper place for the reception of fhips.
Towards the, middle of this ifland is a lofty
double-peaked mountain, which appeared to be
barren on the eaft fide, but, on the weft fide,
has fome trees or bufhes. The lower grounds,
Jtoyards the fea, like the other iflands of this
ocean, are covered with cocoa-palms, and breadfruit trees. There are many little iflots that fur-
round it, which add to the number of its inhabitants and to the amount of its vegetable pro-
Ôuctions. PACIFIC   OCEAN.
Considering the fmall extent of Bolabola, being
onlv eight leagues in circumference, it is remarkable that its people fhould have been able to conquer Ulietea and Otaha ; the former of which
iflands is, alone, more than double its fize.
each of Captain Cook's three voyages, the war
which produced this great revolution, was frequently mentioned ; and, as it may am ufe the
reader, we fhall give the history of it as related
by themfelves.
Ulietea and Otaha had long been friends ; or
as the natives emphatically exprefs it, they were
considered as two brothers, whofe views and interests where the fame. The ifland of Huaheine
was alfo admitted as their friend, but not in fo
eminent a degree. Like a traitor, Otaha. leagued
with Bolabola, jointly to attack Ulietea ; whofe:
people required the aflrftance of their friends of
Huaheine, against thefe united powers. The inhabitants of Bolabola were encouraged by a pro-
phetefs, who- predicted their fu^§efs ; and, that
they might rely upon her prediction, fhe deftred
a man might be fent to a particular part of the
fea, where, from a great depth, would arife a
ftone. He was accordingly fent in a canoe to the
place specified, and was going instantly to dive
after the ftone, when, behold, it fpontanequfly
started up to the furface, and came immediately
into his hand! All the people were aftoniilied at
the fight.; the ftone was deemed facred, and de-
L 2 76
poftted in the houfe of the Eafooa ;   and is ftiîî
preferved, as  a proof that this  prophetefs had
great influence with -the divinity.    Elevated with
the hopes of victory, the canoes of Bolabola attacked thofe of Ulietea and Huaheine ; the   encounter was of long duration, and, notwithstanding the miracle, the Bolabola fleet would have been*
vanquifhed, had not that of Otaha arrived at the
critical moment.    The  fortune of the day was
now turned, and their enemies were totally defeated.    Two days,  after,  the men of Bolabola
invaded Huaheine,  of which  they   made themfelves matters ; it being weakly defended, as moft
of its warriors  were then abfent.    Many of its
fugitives, however, having got to Otaheite, there:
related  their lamentable  tale.    This fo* affected
their  own   countrymen,   and   thofe   of  Ulietea
whom they  found in that ifland,  that they obtained thefefâfliftance.    They were furnifhed with
only ten fighting canoes, and with  that ineon-
fiderable force,Hrffected a landing at Huaheine,
when dark at night ;   and, taking the Bolabola
men by furprize, killed many of them,  and dif-;
perfed the reft.    Thus they again posTeiTed them*
felves of their own ifland, which now remains independent, and is governed by ks own chiefs.,.
When the united fleets of Ulietea and Huaheine
were defeased, the men of Bolabola were applied
to by their allies of Otaha to be allowed an equal
fhare of the conouefts.    This being refufed, the PACIFIC OCEAN. 77
alliance broke ; and, during the war, Otaha was
Conquered, as well as Ulietea, both of which remain fubject to Bolabola ; the chiefs by whom
they are governed, being only deputies to Opoony,
the king, of that ifland.
Such was their hiftory of the war.    It has already been  obferved, that thefe people are  extremely deficient in recollecting the exact dates
of paft events.    And, reflecting this war, though
it happened but a few years ago, we could only
guefs at the time of its commencement and duration, the natives not being able to fatisfy our enquiries with any precision.    The final conquest
of Ulietea, which terminated the war, had beer*
atchieved before Captain Cook was therein 1769 m
but it was very apparent that peace had not been
long restored, as marks of recent hoftilities having
been committed were then to be feen.    By attending to the age of Teereetareea,  the prefent
chief of  Huaheine,   fome   additional   collateral
proof may be gathered.   He didjflpot -appear to
be above ten or twelve years of age, and his father, we were informed, had been killed in one
of the engagement!.
The Bolabola men, fmce the conquest of Ulietea and Otaha, are confidered as invincible ; and
their fame is fo far extendedpthat, even at Otaheite, if not dreaded, they are reflected for their
valour. It is afferted, that they never fly from
an enemy, and that they always are victorious 7*
against an equal number of the other iflanders*
Their neighbours, too, afcribe much to the fupe-
riority of their god, who, they believed, detained
us by contrary winds at Ulietea.
The estimation in which, the Bolabola men are
held at Otaheite, may be gathered from Monsieur
de Bougainville's anchor having been fent to their-
fovereign. The intention of tranfporting the
Span-](h bull to their ifland, muft be afcribed to*
the fame caufe. And they already poffesTed a
third European curiosity, a male animal brought
to Otaheite by the Spainards, This animal had
been fo imperfectly defcribed by the natives, that
we had been much puzzled to conjecture what it
could be. Some good, however, generally arifes.
out-of evil. When Captain Clerke's deferters
were brought back from Bolabola, they told us
the animal had been fhewn to them, and that it
was a ram. If our men had not deferted, it is
probable we fhould never have known this.
In confequ^pe of this intelligence, Captain
Cook, when he landed to meet Opoony, carried
an ewe on fhore, of the Cape of Good Hope breed ;
by which he has probably laid the foundation for
a breed of fheep at Bolabola. He alfo left with
Oreo, at Ulietea, two goats, and an Englifh boar
ana fow : fo that the race of hogs will be considerably improved, in a few years, at Otaheite,
and all the neighbouring iflands ;   and they will, PACIFIC   OCEAN.
perhaps, be flocked with rnany valuable European animals.
When this is really the cafe, thefe iflands will
be unrivalled in abundance, and variety of refrefh-
ments for the fupply of navigators. Even in
their prefent state, they are hardly to be excelled.
When the inhabitants are not disturbed by intef-
tine broils, which has been the cafe for feveral
years paft, their productions are numerous and
plentiful. ajSgy
If we had poffeffed a greater affortment of
(goods, and a proper quantity of fait, we might have
falted as much pork, as would have been fufficient
to last both fhips almoft a year. But we quite exhausted our trading commodities at the Friendly
Iflands, Otaheite, and its neighbourhood. Our
axes, in particular, were nearly gone, with which,
alone, hogs were, in general, to be purchafed.
The fait that remained on board, was not more
than was requisite for curing fifteen puncheons
of meat.
The following procefs of curing pork has been
adopted by Captain Cook in his feveral voyages.
The hogs were killed in the evening ; when
cleaned, they were cut up, and the bone taken
out. The meat was falted wiiile it was hot, and
laid fo as to permit the juices to drain from it, till
the next morning : it was then falted again, put
into a cafk, and covered with pickle. It remained, in this fituation, four or five days ; when 8o
it was taken out, and carefully examined ; and*
if any of it appeared to be in the least tainted,
which was fometimes the cafe, it was feparated
from the rest, which was repacked, headed up,
and filled with good pickle. It was again examined in about eigth or ten days time, but there
appeared to be no neceflity for it, as it was generally found to be all perfectly cured. Bay and
white fait, mixed together, anfwers the best,
though either of them will do alone. Great care
was taken that none of the large blood-veffels remained in the meat; and not too much fhould
be packed together at the firft faking, least thofe
pieces which are in the middle fhould heat, and
hinder the fait from penetrating them. In tropical i climates, meat ought not to be falted in
rainy fultry weather.
Europeans "having, of late, fo frequently visited thefe iflanders, they may, on that account,
have been induced to breed a larger stock of
hogs ; knowing that, whenever we come, they
may be certain of receiving what they esteem a.
valuable consideration for them. They daily expect the Spainards at Otaheite, and, in two or
three years time, they will doubtlefs expect the
Englifh there, as well as the other iflands. It
isufelefs to affure them that you will not return,
for they fuppofe you cannot avoid it ; though
none of them either know, or enquire, the reafon v
of your  coming.    It would, perhaps, have been PACIFIC OCEAN. 81
better of thefe people, to have been ignorant of
our fuperiority, than, after once knowing it, to be
abandoned to their original incapacity. They
cannot, "indeed, be restored to their former happy
mediocrity, if the intercourfe between us fhould
be difcontinued
It is, in a manner, incumbent on the Europeans to pay them occasional vifits (once in three
or four years) to fupply them with thofe articles,
which we, by introducing, have given them a
-predifëaion- for.    The want of fuch fupplies may
be feverely felt, when it is too late to return to
their old imperfect contrivances, which they now
defpife and difcard.    When the iron tools, with
which we have furnifhed them,   are worn   out,
their own  will be   almoft   forgotten.     A  ftone
hatchet is now as  great a curiosity among them,
as an iron one was [even or eight years ago ; and
a-chiffei made of bone, or ftone, is no where to
beTeen.    Spike nails have been fubftituted in the
room of the latter articles ; and they are  weak
enough to imagine, that their flore   of them is inexhaustible, for they were no longer fought after.
Knives happened at  this   time, to be in high
eflimationat Ulietea ; and axes and hatchets bore
unrivalled fway at all the iflands.    Refpeding articles merely   ornamented, thefe  iflanders are as
changeable, as   the  moft  poliihed   European nations ; for,   an article  which may  be prized by
them to-day,   may, perhaps, be rejeCted to mor-
Vojl. II.—N° S. M 82
row, as a fafhion or wim may alter. But our
iron implements are fo evidently ufeful, that they
muft continue to be high in their estimation.
They would indeed, be miferable, if they fhould
ceafe to receive fupplies of what appears necef-
fary to their comfortable existence ; as they are
destitute of the materials, and ignorant of the art
of fabricating them.
In our former relations, too much has already
been publifhed, refpecting fome of the modes of
life, which rendered Otaheite fo pleating an abode
to many of our people; and, if we could add any
finifhing strokes to that picture, we fhould be unwilling to exhibit a view of fuch licentious manners as cannot fail to be difgufting.
Having now concluded our account refpecting
thefe iflands, wiiich stand fo confpicuous in the
lift of our difcoveries, we refer the reader to the
following chapter, for which we are indebted to
Mr. Anderfon. PACIFIC OCEAN. %3
Striatum on former Accounts of Otaheite—The prevailing Winds—Beauty and Fertility of the Counr
try—Land but little cultivated—Produce—Natural Curiofities—Defcription of the Natives—
Delicacy of the women—Their general Charac-
ter<—Difpofed to amorous Gratifications—Their
Language—Ignorance of Surgery and Phyfic—*-
Animal Food chiefly eaten by the fuperior Clafs—
Pernicious Effecls of Ava—Account of their different Meals—Connexions between the two Sexes
—Circumcifion—Religion—Notions concerning Im-
?nortality—Superfluous—Strange Traditions about
the Creation—The King ahnofi deified—Claffes
of the People—Punijhments—Peculiarities of the
adjacent Iflands—Limits of their Navigation.
AFTER fome prefatory remarks, on the
accounts of the fucceflive voyages of Captain Wallis, Monsieur de Bougainville, and Captain Cook, Mr. Anderfon begins to relate fuch
particulars concerning Otaheite, and its neighbouring iflands, as he was able to procure from
Omai, or by conversing with the other natives,
For the greatest part of the year, the wind
blows from between eaft-fouth-eaft, and eaft-
north-eaft. It fometimes blows with confiderable
M2 84
force, and is called by the F.ativeS' Maaraee.
When the wind blows strong, the weather is ufu-
ally cloudy, with fome rain ; but, when it is more
moderate, it is clear, fettled and ferene : if the
wind fhould veer to fouth?eaft, or fouth-fouth-
eaft, it blows more gently and is called MaoaL
In December and January, when the fun is nearly
vertical, both the winds and weather are very variable ; but it often blows from weft-north-weft,
or north-west. This wind is called Toerou; and
is usually attended by cloudy weather, and fome-
times rain. It feldom continues more than five
or fix days without interruption ; and is the only
wind that will permit the inhabitants of the iflands
to leeward to vifit this in their canoes. If the
wind is ftill more northerly, it has the different
appellation of Era-potaia. The wind from fouth-.
weft, and weft-fouth-weft, is more frequent than
the former, and is ufually gentle, with occasional calms and breezes, yet it fometimes blows
in very brifk fqualls. The weather is then generally cloudy and rainy, with the clofe hot air ;
often accompanied with much thunder and lightning.    Is   called by the natives Etoa.
Though the natives have no very accurate
knowledge of thofe changes they pretend to
have drawn fome conclusions from their effects.
When the fea has a Hollow found, and dafhe%
mildly on the fhore, they fay it portends good
weather : but, if it founds harfhly, and the waves PACIFIC OCEAN.
rapidly fucceed each  other, the reverfe is to be
The fouth-eaft part of Otaheite, affords one of
the moft luxuriant profpects in the univerfe. The
hills are high, fleep, and craggy ; but they are co-
* vered to the very summits with trees and fhrubs ;
the rocks Teeming to poffefs the property of producing their verdant clothing. The lower land
and vallies teem with various productions, that
prow with exuberant vigour, and convey to the
mind of the beholders, an idea, that no country
upon earth can vie with this in the strength and
beauty of vegetation ; nature has been equally liberal in distributing rivulets, which glide through
every valley, dividing, as they approach the
fea, into feveral branches, fertilizing the land,
through which they run.
The habitations of the natives are irregularly
fcattered upon the flat land ; and many of them,
along the fhore, afforded, us a delightful fcene
from our fhips ; efpecially as the fea, within the
reef, is perfectly ftill, and affords, at all times, a
fafe navigation for the inhabitants, who are often
feen palling and repassing in their canoes. On
beholding thefe delightful fcenes, I have often
regretted my inability to tranfmit fuch a defcription of them, as would convey an impreflion
fonfewhat similar to what I felt, who have been
fortunate enough to have been on the fpot. The
natural fertility of the country,   combined with -1
the mildnefs and ferenity of the climate, has rendered the natives fo carelefs in their cultivation,
that the fmalleft traces of it cannot, in many
places, be difcovered, though overflowing with
the richest productions. The cloth plant, and
.the ava, or intoxicating pepper, are almoft the*
only things to which they fiiew any attention.
The bread-fruit tree is never planted, but
fprings from the roots of the old ones, which
fpread themfelves near the furface of the ground.
Hence we may obferve, that the inhabitants of
Otaheite, instead of being under a neceflity of
planting their bread, will rather be obliged to
prevent its progrefs ; wrhich is, perhaps, fome-
times done, to afford room for a different fort of
trees, which may enable them to make fome variety in *heir food.
The principal of thefe trees are the cocoa-nut
and plantain; the firft of which requires no attention, after it appears a foot or two above the
ground ; but the plaintain requires fome care in
the cultivation ; for about three months after it
flioots up, it begins to bear fruit ; during which
time it puts forth young fhoots, which fupply a
fucceflion of fruit ; the old flocks being cut down
as the fruit is taken off.
The products of* the ifland are more remarkable for their great abundance than for their
variety ; and curiosities here are not very numerous.  Among  thefe  may   be   reckoned  a lanie PACIFIC OCÉAN.
lake of frefh water, on the top of one of the
highest mountains, at the distance of almost two
days journey. It is remarkable for its depth, and
abounds with eels of an enormous fize. This
being esteemed the greatest natural curiosity of
the country, travellers, who come from other
iflands, are usually afked, among the firft things,
at their return, whether they have feen it. There
is alfo a fmall pond of water on this ifland, which
has a yellow fediment at the bottom. It has the
appeârence of being very good, but has an offensive tafte, and often proves fatal to thofe who
d/ink a quantity of it ; and thofe who bathe in it,
break out in blotches.
On our arrival here, we were struck with the
remarkable contrast between the inhabitants of
Tongataboo, and thofe of Otaheite ; the former
being of a robuft make, and dark colour, and
the latter having a diftinguifhed delicacy and
whitenefs. That difference, however, did not
immediately preponderate in favour, of the Ota-
heiteans ; and, wiien it did it was, perhaps, oc-
cafioned more by our becoming accustomed to
them ; the marks, which had recommended the
others, beginning now to be forgotten.
The women however, of Otaheite, pofiefs all
thofe delicate charecteristics, which in many countries diftinguifh them from the other fex. The
men wear their beards long here, and their hair
considerably longer than at   Tongataboo, which 88
gave them a very different appearance. Thé
Otaheiteans are timid and fickle. They are noS
fo mufcular and robuft as the Friendly Iflanders,
arising, perhaps, from their being accustomed
to lefs action ; the fuperior fertillity of their country enabling them to lead a more indolent life.
They have a plumpnefs and fmoothnefs of the fkin ;
which, though more confenant with our ideas of
beauty, is far from being an advantage ; and is
attended with a kind of langour in all their motions. This is visible in their boxing and wrestling, which difplay only the feeble efforts of children, if compared to the vigour and activity
with w7hich fuch exercifes are performed at the
Friendly Iflands.
As perfonal endowments are in high estimation
among them, they have various methods of improving them, according to their ideas of beauty.
Among the Erreoes, or unmarried men, efpeci-
aliy thofe of fome confequence, it is customary
to undergo a kind of physical operation, to render them fair ; which is done by continuing a.
month or two in the houfe, wearing a great quantity of cloaths the whole time, and eating nothing but bread-fruit, which they fay is remarkably efficacious in whitening the fkin. They
alfo intimate, that their corpulence and colour,
at other times, depend upon their food ; being
obliged,,as the feafons vary, to ufe different food
at different times. • PACIFIC   OCEAN.
Nine-tenths, at lead, of their common diet,
confift of vegetable food ; and the mahee, or
fermented bread-fruit, which is an article in almoft every meal, prevents coftivenefs, and has
a singular effect in producing coolnefs about
them, which was not perceivable in us who fed
on animal food. To this temperate courfe of
life, may, perhaps, be attributed their having
fo few difeafes among them. Indeed, they mention only five or fix chronic or national difor-
ders ; among which are the dropfy, and the fefai,
mentioned as frequent at Tongataboo. This
Was, however, before the arrival of the Europeans ; for we have added a difeafe to their catalogue, which abundantly fupplies the place of all
the others, and is become almoft univerfal ; and
for which they feem to have no effectual remedy.
The priefts, indeed, administer a medly of Amples, but they acknowledge it never cures them.
They admit, however, that in fome few cafes,
nature alone has exterminated the poifon of this
loathfome difeafe, and produced a perfect recovery. They fay alfo, that thofe infected with it,
communicate it to others, by handling them, or
feeding on the fame utenfils.
They (hew an opennefs, and generosity of dif-
pofition, upon all occafions. Omai, indeed, has
frequently faid, that they exercife cruelty in punishing their enemies, and torment them with
great deliberation; fometimes tearing out fmall
N :
pieces of flefli from different parts of the body ;
at other times, plucking out the eyes, then cutting off the nofe ; and lastly, completing the bu-
finefs, by opening the belly. But this is only on
very extraordinary occafions. If cheerfulnefs remits from confcious innocence, one would imagine their whole lives had been unsullied with a
crime. This, however, may be rather imputed
to their feelings, which, though lively, are never permanent. Under any misfortune, after the
critical moment is pail, they never labour under the appearance of anxiety. Care never produces a wrinkle on their brow ; even the approach
of death does not deprive them of their vivacity. I have feen them, when on the brink of
the grave by difeafe, and when preparing to attack the enemy ; but, in neither of thefe cafes,
have I ever obferved their countenances overclouded with melancholy or dread.
Difpofed, as they naturally are, to direct their
aims to what will afford them eafe or pleafure,
all their amufements tend to excite their amorous parlions ; and their fongs, with which they
are greatly delighted, are directed to the fame
pUrpoie. A confiant fucceflion of fenfual enjoyments muft, however, cloy; and they occasionally
varied them to more refined fubjects ; they chanted their triumphs in war, and their amufements
in peace ; their travels and adventures ; and the
peculiar advantages of their own ifland. PACIFIC  OCEAN.
i I
This fhews that they are immoderately fond   of
mufic, and though  they did not relifh our complicated compositions, they were much delighted
with the more melodious founds, when produced
fingly, as they, in fome degree,    refembled  the
fimplicity   of their own.     They   equally experience the foothing effects produced, by particular
kinds of motion ;   which,  in   many  cafes,  will
allay any perturbation of mind,   as fuccefsfully
as mufic.    Of this, the following may fefve as a
remarkable instance.    Walking, one  day, about
Matavi Point,  I faw a  man in a small canoe,
paddling with  fuch  expedition, and   looking fb
eagerly about him, as to command  my whole attention.    At firft, I fuppofed he had been pilfering from one of the fhips, and was purfued ; but
he prefently repeated his amufement.    He  proceeded from  the fhore to   the place where the
fwell begins ;   and, attentively watching   its firft
motion, paddled fwiftly before it, till he perceived it overtook him, and had acquired sufficient
strength to  force   his canoe  before it,   without
palling underneath.     He   then ceafed paddling,
and was carried along as rapidly as the wave, till
he was landed  upon the beach ; when he started
from his canoe, » emptied it, and went  in purfuit
of another  fwell.    He feemed to experience the
moft fupreme delight,  while he was thus fwiftly
and smoothly driven by the fea.    His mind was
fo wholly occupied in this bufmefs, that, though
m n 2- VOYAGE  T O   THE
crouds of his countrymen were collected to ob~
ferve our tents and fhips, as being objects that
were both rare and curious to them, he did not
notice them in the lead. Two or three of the
natives drew near, while I was obferving him,
and feemed to partake of his felicity ; calling out
to inform him when there was an appearance of
a favourable fwell. This exercife, which I un-
derftand is very frequent among them, is called
Though the language of Otaheite feems radically the fame as that of New-Zealand and the;
Friendly Iflands, it has not that guttural pronunciation, and is pruned of fome of the confonants,
with which thofe dialects abound ; which has
rendered it, like the manners of the inhabitants,
foft and foothing. It abounds with beautiful and
figurative expreflions, i and is fo copious, that
they have above twenty( different names for the
bread-fruit ; as many for the taro root, and half
that number for the cocoa-nut.
They have one expreflion correfponding exactly with the phrafeology of the Scriptures, viz.
| Yearning of the bowels." They ufe it upon
every occasion, when affected by the parlions ;
constantly referring pain from grief, defire, and
other affections, to the bowels, as the feat of it ;
where-they imagine, all opperations of the mind
are alfo performed. PACIFIC   OCEAN.
In the arts, they are extremely deficient ; yet
they pretend to perform cures in furgery, which
pur knowledge in that branch has not enabled us
to imitate. Simple fractures are bound up with
fplints, but if a part of the bone be loft, they
infert, between the fractured ends, a piece of
wTood made hollow, to fupply its place. The
rapaoo, or furgeon, infpe&s the wound in about
five or fix days, when he finds the wood is partly
covered by the growing flefh ; and, in as many
more days, visits the patient a fécond time, when
it is generally completely covered ; and, when he
has acquired fome strength, he bathes in the
water and is restored.
Wounds, it is well known, will heal over
leaden bullets, and there are fome instances of
their healing over other extraneous bodies. But
what makes me entertain fome doubt of the truth
of this relation, is, that in thofe cafes which fell
under my obfervation, they were far from being
fo dexterous. I was fhewn the flump of an arm,
which had been taken off, that had not the appearance of a fkilful operation, after making a
due allowance for their defective instruments.
And I faw a man going about with a difloCated
fhoulder, fome months after he had received the
accident, from their being unacquainted with a
method of reducing it : though it is one of the.
simplest operations of our furgery.
« I 94
Fractures of the fpine, they know, are mortal ;
and they alfo know, from experience, in what
particular parts of the body wounds prove fatal.
Their physical knowledge feems yet more limited, becaufe, perhaps, their difeafes are fewer than
their accidents. In fome cafes, howrever, the
priefts administer the juices of herbs ; and women, afflicted with after-pains, or other complaints after child-bearing, ufe a remedy which
feems unnecessary in a hot country. Having heated fome ftones, they lay a thick cloth over rhem,
covered with a quantity of a fmall plant of the
mustard kind ; and over them is spread another
cloth. On this they feat themfelves, and fweat
profufely to obtain a cure. This method has
been practifed by the men, though ineffectually,
for the cure of the venereal lues. It is remarkable,
that they have no emetic medicines here.
A famine frequently happens in this ifland,
notwithstanding its extreme fertility, in which
many people are faid to perifh. Whether this calamity be owing to the fcanty produce of forne
feafons, to over-population, or to wars, I have not
been fufficiently informed ; but it has taught
them to exercife the ftricteft ceconomy, even in
the times of plenty.
In a fcarcity of provision, when their yams and
bread-fruit are confirmed, they have recourfe to
various roots which grow uncultivated upon the
mountains.    Thepaiarra, which is found in great PACIFIC   OCEAN.
plenty, is firft ufed : it fomewhat refembles a large
potatoe, or yam ; and, when in its growing state,
is good, but becomes hard and stringy wThen
old. They next eat two other roots, one of which
appears like taro ; and then the ehoce. Of this
there are two forts ; one of which poffefles deleterious qualities, which requires it to be fliced ;
and macerated in water, a night before it is baked
for eating. It refembles, in this refpect, the
cajfava root of the Weft-Indies ; but in the manner they drefs it, has a very infipid tafte. This
and the patarra are creeping plants, the latter
having ternate leaves.
A very small portion of animal food is enjoyed by the lower clafs of people ; and if, at any
time, they obtain any, it is either fifh, fea-eggs,
or other marine productions ; for pork hardly
ever falls to their fhare. Only the Free de hoi,
is able to afford pork every day; and the inferior chiefs, according to their riches, perhaps \
once a week, a fortnight, or a month. Sometimes, indeed, they are not allowed that; for,
when the ifland is impoverifhed by war, or any
other means, a prohibition is granted against the
killing of hogs, which fometimes continues in
force for feveral months, and even for a year or
two. In fuch an interval, the hogs have multiplied fo fast, that there have been instances of
their changing there domeflic state, and becoming wild.
i 96
When this prohibition is, taken off, the chiefs
affemble at the king's habitation, each bringing
with him a prefent of hogs. After this, the king
orders fome of them to be killed, of which they
all partake, and each returns to his own home,
with full permiffion to kill as many as he pleafes
for his own ufe. On our arrival here, fuch a
prohibition was actually in force, at least in thofe
districts under the immediate direction of Otoo.
And, when we quitted Oheitepeha, fearing we
fhould not have gone to Matavai, he fent a mef-
fenger to affure us, that, as foon as the fhips arrived there, it fhould be taken off. We fourifc
it fo, but our confumption of them was fo great*
that there is very little doubt but it would be
laid on again, immediately after we had failed.
A prohibition is fometimes extended to fowls.
The ava is chiefly ufed among the better fortf
of people, but this beverage is differently prepared, from that which we faw in the Friendly
Iflands. Here they pour a fmall quantity of
water upon the root, and often bake, roait, or
bruife the stalks, without chewing it before it
is infufed. They alfo bruife the leaves of the
plant here, and pour water upon them, as upon
the root. It is not drank in large companies,
in that fociable way which is practifed among the
people at Tongataboo ; but it;has more pernicious effects here, owing, perhaps, to  the man- PACIFIC OCEAN. 97
ner of its preparation ;  as  we faw frequent Ain-
flances of its intoxicating powers.
Many of us, who had vifited thefe iflands before, Were fuprized to find feveral of the native^
who were remarkable for their fize and corpuH:
lency when we faw them last, now almoft reduced to fkeletons ; and the caufe of this alteration was univerfally attributed to the ufe of the
ava. Their fkins were dry, rough, and covered
with fcales ; which, they fay, occasionally fall off,
and their fkin becomes, in fome degree, renewed.
As an excufe for fo destructive a practice, they
alledge, it is to prevent their growing too corpulent ; but it enervates them exceedingly, and
probably fhortens the d uration of their lives.   ■
Their meals at Otaheite are every frequent. The
firft is about two o'clock in the morning, after
which they go to fleep ; the next is at eight ; they
dine at eleven, and again, as Omai expreflfed it,
at two, and at five ; and they go to fupper at
eight. They have adopted fome very whimsical
customs in this article in domestic life: the
women are not only obliged to eat by themfelves,
but are even excluded from partaking of moft of
the better forts of food. Turtle, or fifh of the
tunny kind, they dare not touch, though it is
high in esteem ; fome particular forts of the beft
plantains are alfo forbidden them; and even
thofe of the firft rank are feldom permitted to
eat' pork.    The  children of both fexes alfo eat
Vol. II—n°8. Ô 9&
apart ;   and the   women ufually ferve up  their
own provisions.
In this, and many other customs, relative to
their eating, there is fomething exceedingly myf-
terious. On our inquiring into the reafons of
it, we were told, it was neceffary that it fhould
be fo ; and that was the only anfwer wTe could
receive when we interrogated them upon that-
They are not fo obfcure and mysterious in their
other customs refpecting the females, efpecially
with regard to their connections with the men. -
-When a young man and w'omen, from mutual
choice, agree to cohabit, the man makes a prefent to the father of the girl of the common ne-
ceflaries of life, as hogs, cloth, or canoes ; and
if he fuppofes he has not received a valuable
consideration for his daughter, he compels her
to leave her former friend, and to cohabit with
a perfon who may be more liberal. The man,
indeed, is always at full liberty to make a new
choice ; or, fhould his confort become a mother,
he may destroy the child ; and afterwards either
leave the women, or continue his connection
with her. But if he adopts the child, and permits it to live, the man and women are then confidered as in the married state ; and after that
they feldom feparate. A man may however,
• without  being cenfured,, join  a more  youthful PACIFIC OCEAN.
partner to his firft wife, and live with both of
The custom of changing their conjugal connections is very general, and is fo common an
occurrence, that they mention it with indifference. The erreoes, or thofe of the better fort
who poffefs the means of purchafing a fucceflion
of frefh connections, are generally roaming about ^
and, having no particular attachment, feldom
adopt the plan of a fettled cohabitation. And
this licentious plan of life is fo agreeable to their
difpofition, that the moft beautiful of both fexes
exhaust their youthful* days in practices which
would difgrace the moft favage tribes. Thefe
enormities are peculiarly fhocking in a country
whofe general character has, in other refpects,
evident traces of the prevalence of humane
feelings. When an erreoe women brings forth
a child, it is fuffocated by applying a cloth to
its mouth and nofe, which has been previoufly
dipped in water.
As the women, in fuch a life, muft contribute
greatly to its happinefs, it is furprifing that they
fhould not only fuffer the moft humiliating restraints with regard to food, but fhould be often treated with a degree of brutality, which one
would fuppofe a man muft be incapable of towards an object for whom 'he had theieaft affection or esteem. It "is, however, extremely common to fee the men beat them moft unmerci-
fully ; and unlefs this behaviour proceeds from
jealousy, which both fexes fometimes pretend to
be infected with, it will be difficult to assign a
reafon for it. This may the more readily be admitted as a motive, as I have known many instances where interest has been rejected for per-
fbnal beauty ; though even in thefe cafes, they
are not fufceptible of thofe delicate fentiments
that refult from mutual affection. Platonic love
i|jhardly known in Otaheite.
From a notion of cleanlinefs, the cutting of
the forefkin is a practice adopted among them ;
and they beftow a reproachful epithet upon thofe
who neglect that operation. When five or fix-
lads in a neighbourhood are pretty well grown
up, it is made known to a taboua by the father of one of them. The tahoua, attended
by a fervant, conducts the lads to the .top of
the hills; and after feating one of them in a
proper manner, places a piece of wood beneathr
the forefkin, at the fame time amufing him by
defiring him to look aside at fomething which
he pretends to fee; the young man's attention
being thus engaged, he immediately cuts through
the fkin with a fhark's tooth, and feparates the
divided parts ; then, after putting on a bandage,
he performs the fame operation on the other lads
who attend him.
Five days after they have been thus difciplin-
ed, they, bathe, the bandages are removed, and' PACIFIC OCEAN. ïoï
the matter is cleanfed away. When five days
more are expired, they bathe again, and are
recovered ; but, as a thicknefs of the prepuce
remains, occasioned by the cutting, they again
afcend the mountains with the tahoua and fer-
vant, where a fire is prepared, and fome ftones
heated ; between two of which the prepuce is
placed by the tahoua, and is gently fqueezed, in
order to remove the thicknefs. This done, they
return home, adorned with odoriferous flowers ;
and the tahoua is rewarded by the fathers of the
lads, according to their feveral abilities, with a
prefent of hogs and cloth ; and if their poverty
will not permit them to make a proper acknowr-
ledgment, there relations on this occasion are
expected to be liberal.
Their religious fyftem abounds in singularities,
and few of the common people have a competent knowledge of it, that being principally confined to their priefts, which indeed are numerous. They pay no particular refpect to one
god, as poffeflmg pre-eminence; but believe in
a plurality of divinities, who have each a plenitude of power.
As different parts of the ifland, and the other
neighbouring iflands, have different gods, the
refpective inhabitants imagine they have chofen
the moft eminent, or one who is at least suffix
ciently powerful to protect them, and to fupply
their neceflities.     If he   fhould   not give   them A VOYAGE TO THE
fatisfaétion, they think it nO ir
An instance of this kind has lately happened in
Tiaraboo, where two divinities have been dif-
carded, and Oraa, god of Bolabola, has been
adopted in their room. They have probably been
induced to make this new choice, becaufe his
people have been victorious in war ; and having, fin ce their new election, 4>een fuccefsful
against the inhabitants of Otaheite-nooe, it is fole-
ly imputed to Oraa, who literally fights their
In ferving their gods, their, -afliduity is remarkably confpicuous. The whattas or offering-
places of the morals are, in general, loaded with
fruits and animals ; and almoft every houfe has a
portion of it fet apart for a similar purpofe. Many
of them are fo rigidly fcrupuious in their religious matters, that they will not even begin a
meal, till they have laid afide a morfel for the
eatooa ; and we have feen their fuperftitious zeal
carried to a moft pernicious height in their hu.
man facrifices, which are, I fear, too frequent.
They probably have recourfe tp them to avert
misfortunes. Their prayers, which they always
chant like the fongs intheir-feftiveentertainments,
are alfo very frequent.
As in other cafes, fp in religion, the women
are obliged to flrew their inferiority. When they
pafs the morals they muft partly uncover themfelves, or take an extenfive circuit to avoid them. PACIFIC OCEAN.
Though they do not entertain an opinion, that
their god muft be continually conferring benefits, without, fometimes forfaking them , they are
lefs concerned at this, than at the attempts of
fome inaufpicious being to injure them. Etee,
they fay, is an evil fpirit, who delights in mif-
chief, to whom they make offerings, as well as
to their divinity. But all the mifchiefs they
apprehend from invisible beings, are merely
As to the foul, they believe it to be both immortal and immaterial ; that during the pangs
of death, it keeps fluttering about the lips ; and
that it afcends, and is eaten by the deity ; that it
continues in this state for fome time ; after which
it takes its paffage to a certain place, destined to
receive the fouls of men, and has existence in
eternal night ; or rather in a kind of dawn, or
They expect no permanent punifhment hereafter for crimes committed upon earth ; the fouls of
good and bad men being indifcriminately eaten
by the deity. But they consider this coalition
as a kind of neceffary purification before they
enter the regions of blifs ; for their doctrine inculcates, that thofe who refrain from all fenfual
connection with women fome months before they
depart this life, pafs into their eternal mansion
without fuch a previous union, as if by fuch an i©4       A  VOYAGE  TO  ÎHÈ
abstinence they were fufficiently pure to be exempted from the general lot.
They have not indeed thofe fublime conceptions of happinefs which our religion, and indeed our reafon, teach us to expect hereafter.
Immortality is the only great privilege they thinfc
they fhall acquire by death ; for they fuppofe that
fpirits are not entirely divefted of thofe paffiohs
by which they were actuated when combined
with material vehicles. Thus, at a meeting of
fouls which were formerly enemies, many conflicts may enfue, which muft certainly be ineffectual as thofe who ate in this invisible state
muft be invulnerable.
Their reafohing is similar with regard to the
meeting of a man and his confort. If the huf-
band departs this life first, the foul of his wife is
no ftranget to him on its arrival in the land of
fpirits. They renew their former intimacy in a
capacious building, called Tourooa^ where departed fouls affemble to recreate themfelves with
the gods. The hufband then conducts her to
his feparate habitation, where they eternally re-
fide,* and have an offspring, which, however, is
purely fpiritual, as their embraces are fuppofed to
be far different from thofe of corporeal beings.
Many of their notions refpecting the Deity
are extravagantly absurd. They fuppofe him to
be under the influence of thofe fpirits who derive their existence from him ; and that they fre- PACIFIC   OCEAN.
tjuently eat hirri, though he has power to recreate himfelf. They cannot coriverfe about immaterial things, without referring to material objects to convey their meaning, and therefore perhaps they ufe this mode of exprefiion.
They further add, that, in the tourood, the
deity inquires whether they mean to destroy him,
or not ; and their determination is unalterable.
This is not only known to the fpirits, bu*- alfo
to the inhabitants of the earth ; for, when the
moon is on its wane, they are fuppofed to be devouring their eatooa ; and, in the proportion that
it increafes, he is renewing himfelf. And the
fuperior, as well as the inferior gods are liable
to this accident.
Other places, they alfo believe, are prepared
for the reception of departed fouls. Thus they
are of opinion, that thofe who are drowned in
the fea continue there, and enjoy a delight-
full country, fumptuous habitations, and every
thing that can contribute to their happinefs. They
even maintain that all other animals have fouls ;
and even trees, fruit, and flones ; which, at their
deceafe, or upon their being confumed or broken,
afcend to the deity, from wiiom they pais into
their destined manfion.
They imagine, that every temporal blefling is
derived from their punctual performance of religious offices. They believe that the powerful
influence of the divine fpirit is univerfally dif-
^ ïo6
fufed, and therefore it cannot be matter of fur-
prize that they adopt many fuperflitious opinions concerning its opperations. Sudden deaths
and all other accidents, they fuppofe to be
effected under the immediate impulfe of fome
divinity. If a man receives a wound in his toe,
by stumbling against a ftone, it is imputed to an
In the night, on approaching a toopapaoo,
where dead bodies are expofed, they are startled
and terrified ; as many of our ignorent and fuperflitious, people are at the fight of a church-yard,
or with the apprehenfions of ghofls. They have
implicit confidence in dreams, fuppofing them to
be communications from their deity, or from the
fpirit of their friends who have departed this life ;
and that thofe who are favoured with them can
foretell future events : but this kind of knowledge
is limited to particular perfons. Omai pretended to have thefe communications. He asTured
uSj that on the 26th of July 1776, his father's
foul had intimated to him in a dream, that he
fhould land fomewirere in three days; but he
was unfortunate in his firft prophetic attempt,
for we did not cet into Teneriffe till the firft of
Their dreamers, however, are thought little
inferior to their infpired priefts and pristefles,
whofe predictions are univerfally credited ; and
all undertakmgs of confequence are determined PACIFIC   OCEAN.
by them. Opoony has a particular esteem for
the prieftefs who perfuaded him to invade Ulietea,
and always confults her previous to his going to
war. Our old doctrine of planetary influence,
they, in fome degree, adopt ; and are fometimes
regulated in their public councils by the appearances of the moon. If, on its firft appearance after the change, it lies horizontally, they
are encouraged to engage in war, and feem confident of fuccefs.
They have strange obfcure traditions concerning the creation. Some goddefs, they fay, had
a lump of earth fufpended in a cord, and, by
giving it a fwing round, fcattered about feveral
pieces of land, which constituted Otaheite and
the adjacent iflands ; and that they were all peopled by one of each fex, who originally ^fixed at
Otaheite ; but this only'refpects their own immediate creation ; for they admit of an univerfai
one before this. Their remotest account extends
to Tatooma and Tapuppa, who are male and female rocks, and fupport our globe. Thefe begat
Totorro, who was killed and divided into parts
or parcels of land ; then Otaia and Oroo were
produced, who were afterwards married, and
firft begat land, and then a race of gods. Otaia
being king, Oroo marries tier fon, a god, named
Teorroha, whom fhe orders to create animals,
more land, and every kind of food found upon
the earth.     She alfo ordered  him to   create a
1   2 ïo8
fiky, whichsis fupported by men, called Teefereî,
The fpôts obfervable in the moon, they fay, are
groves of a certain tree, which once grew in
Otaheite and being accidentally destroyed, fome
doves carried its feeds thither, where they flourifh
at this day.
They have many religious and historical legends ; one of which, relative to eating human
flefh, is in fubftance as follows : A very long
time ago there lived, at Otaheite, two men who
were called Taheeai ; a name wThich is now .given
to cannibals. They, inhabited the mountains,
whence they iffued forth and murdered the natives, whom they afterwards devoured, and thus
prevented the progrefs of population. Two brothers, anxiojisjÇè^rid the country of fuch enemies,
fuccefsfully put in practice a stratagem for their
destruction. They lived farther upward than the
Taheeai, and were fo situated, that they could
converfe with them without hazarding their own
fafety. They invited them to partake of an entertainment, to which they readily confented.
The brothers then heated fome stones in a fire,
and thrusting them into pieces of mahec, requested one of tnc Taheeai to open his mouth ; when
one of thofe pieces was immediately dropped in,
and fome water poured after it, which, in quenching the ftone, made a hilling nofe and killed
^•m. The other was intreated to do the fame ;
'but at   firft   declined it, mentioning the confe- PACIFIC   OCEAN.
quences of his companion's eating : but upon
being affured that the food was excellent, that
thefe effects were only temporal, and that his
companion would foon recover, he was fo credulous as to fwallow the bait, and wras alfo killed.
Their bodies were then cut to pieces, and buried by the natives, who rewarded the brothers
with the government of the ifland, for delivering
them from fuch mon Iters. They refided at Wha-
paeenoo, a district in the ifland, where there now
remains a bread-fruit tree, which w*as once the
property of the Taheeais. They had a woman
who lived with them, that had two enormous
teeth. After they were killed, fhe lived at Otaha ; and, when fhe died, fhe was ranked among
their deities. She did not, like the men, feed
upon human flefh ; bat, from the prodigious fize
of her teeth, the natives flill call any animal that
has large tufks Taheeai.
This ftory, it muft be acknowledged, is as natural as that of Hercules destroying the hydra,
or of Jack the Giant-killer. But it does not, appear
that there is any moral couched under it, any
more than under moft of the old fables, which
have been received as truths in ignorant ages.
It, howrever, was not injudicioufly introduced,
as ferving to exprefs the detestation entertained
here against cannibals. And yet it appears probable from fome circumstances, that the natives,
of thefe   hies  formerly   fed upon  human   flefh. n
Upon afiring Omai a few queilions upon this subject, he refolutely denied it ; though, at the fame
time, he related a fact within his own knowledge,
which almoft eftablifhes fuçh a conjecture.
When the Bolabola men defeated thofe of
Huaheine, many of his kinfmen were flain ; but
a relation of his had an opportunity of being revenged, when the people of Bolabola were worsted in their turn ; and, cutting a piece of flefh
from the thigh of one of his enemies, he broiled
and devoured it. The offering made to the
chief, of the eye of the perfon facrificed, appears
to be a veftige of a custom that once existed to a
greater extent.
The principal characleriftics of the fovereign
are, the being inverted with the maro, the presiding at human facrifices," and the blowing of
the conch-fheli. On hearing the latter, every
fubject is obliged to bring food, in proportion to
his circumstances, to his royal residence. Their
veneration for his name, on fome occafions, they
carry to a moft extravagant height. When he
accedes to the maro, if any w7ords in the language
are found to have a refemblance to it in found,
they are immediately changed for others; and,
if any, man fhould Jje prefumptuous enough to
continue the ufe of thofe words, not only he, but
his wiiole family are put to death.
A fimilar fate attends all thofe who mail dare
%o apply the facred name of the fovereign to any PACIFIC   OCEAN.
animal. Whence Omai, when in England, ex-
preffed his indignation, that the names of prince
or princefs fhould be given to our dogs or horfes.
But though death is the punifhment for taking
this liberty with the name of the fovereign, abufe
against his government is only punifhed* with the
forfeiture of land and houfes.
The fovereign never deigns to enter the habitation of any of his fubjects; in every district,
where he vifits he has houfes belonging to himfelf. And if, by accident, he fhould ever be
obliged to deviate from this rule, the habitation
thus honoured with his prefence, together with
its furniture, is entirely burnt. When prefent
his fubjects uncover to him as low as the waift ;
and when he is at any particular place, a pole
with a piece of cloth affixed to it, is fet up in
fome confpicuous part near, on which the fame
honours are bellowed. To the firft part of this
ceremony his brothers are entitled ; but the women only uncover to the royal females.
They are even superstitious in refpect to their
fovereign, and esteem his perfon as almoft facred.
To thefe circumstances, perhaps, he is indebted
for the quiet pofleflion of his dominions. ILven
the people of Tiaraboo admît his claim to the
fame honours, though they esteem their own chief
as more powerful, and aflert that, fhould the
reigning family become extinct, he would fucceed
to the government of the whole ifland. 112
This indeed is probable, as Waheiadooa, ex»
clufive of Tiaraboo, poffeffes many districts of
Opooreanoo. The extent of his territories is,
therefore, almoft equal to thofe of Otoo ; and his
part of the ifland is more populous and fertile.
His fubjects, too, have fhewn their superiority,
by frequently defeating thofe of Otaheite-nooe,
whom they hold in a contemptible light as warriors ; and over whom they might be easily victorious, if their chief fhould be inclined to put it
to the test.
The people, exclusive of the Ereéi de hoi, and
his family, are clafled in the following order.
The Frees, or powerful chiefs ; the Manahoone,
or vaffals ; and the Teou, or Toutou, fervants or •
Haves. The men, agreeably to the regular institution, connect themfelves with women of their
refpective ranks ; but if with one of an inferior
clafs and fhe brings-forth a child, it is not only
preferved, but is entitled to the rank of the father ;
unlefs he fhould happen tq|te,an Free, in which
cafe the child is killed.
If a woman of condition permits a man of in*
ferior rank to officiate as a hufband, the children
they produce are alfo killed. And if a Teou be
detected in an intrigue with a female of the royal
family he is punifhed with death. The fon of
the Free de hoi, at his birth, fucceeds his father
ïn titles and honours ; but, if he has no children
the government devolves to his "brother at his PACIFIC OCEAN. 113
death; P^efîions, in other families^ defcend to
^eldeft Ion, wh^s, neverthelefs, obliged to
fupport his brothers and filters, and allow them
houfes on his estates. ,$jija %
Otaheite^ divided into feveral districts, the
boundaries of whch are generally rivulets or low
hills; but the fubdiv>fions, by which particular
property is afcertained; are pointed out by large
ftones which have continued from generation to
generation. Quarrels are fometimes produced,
by the removal of thefe ftones, which are decided
by battle; each party claiming the aflistance of
his friends. But, upon a complaint being properly made to the Free de hoi, he determines the difference in an amicable manner.
Thefe offeacjgL howrever, are not common ;
and property feerns. to be as fecure here, from long
custom, as from the fevereft laws in other countries. It is an eftablilhed practice among them,
that crimes which are not of a general nature,
are left to be punifhed by the party who is injured, fuppofing that he will decide as equitably
as a perfon totally unconcerned : and, long cuf-
tom having ailoted certain punifhments for certain crimes, he may inflict them, without being
amenable to any one. If, for instance, any perfon be detected ftealing, which is ufually done in
the night, the owner of the goods ftolen may kill
the thief immediately. But they feldom infiiâ fo
fevere a punifhment, unlets the property taken is
Vol. II—n° 8. Ç>_ 114       A VOYAGE  TO THE
very valuable ; fuch as plaited hair and breast*
plates. When only cloth, or bogs, are ftolen,
and the robber efcapes, if, upon his being afterwards difcovered, he engages to return the fame
number of hogs, and pieces of cloth, he is acquitted of the offence ; or, at moft, receives a
flight beating
If, in a quarrel, one perfon fhould kill another,
the friend ! of the deceafed attack the furvivor
and his adherents. If they are victorious, they
take posTeflion of the houfe and property of the
other party ; but, if they are vanquished, the reverie takes place. Should wManaboone kill the
flave of a chief, the latter feizes the property of
the former, who flies the country. A few months
after, he returns, and, finding his flock of hogs
increafed, makes a large prefent of thefe, and
other valuable articles, to fhe Toutou's master,
who generally considers it as a eompenfation, and
Tuffers him to repoffefs his premifes. But, it is
not furprifing that the killing of a man fhould
be confidered as fo trifling an offence, among 2
people who do not think it a crime to murder
their own children. On converting * with them
concerning fuch instances of unnatural cruelty,
and afking them if their chiefs were not offended, and did not punifh them > they faid the chief
had no right to interfere in fuch cafes, every one
being at liberty to do what he pleafed with his
own child» PACIFIC OCEAN.
Though the people, their customs and manners, and the productions of the iflands in the
neighbourhood, may, in general, be confidered
the fame as at Otaheite, yet there are a few differences. In the little ifland Mataia, or Ofnaburgh
Ifland, which lies twenty leagues eaft of Otaheite,
is fpoken a different dialect from that of Otaheite.
The men of Mataia alfo wear long hair, and, previous to their fighting, cover their arm with fome-
thing befet with fharks teeth, and their bodies
with a fkin of fifties, not unlike fhagreen. They
are likewife ornamented with polished pearl shells,
which make a refulgent glittering in the fun ; and
they have a very large one before, which covers
them like a fhieid.
In the language of Otaheite, there are many
words and phrafes very different from thofe of
the iflands to the westward of it. It is remarkable for producing, in great abundance, that delicious fruit which we call apples, which are not
to be found in any of the others, except Eimeo.
It alfo produces an odoriferous wood, czllçâkeahoi,
which is much esteemed at the other ifles. Huaheine and Eimeo produce more yams than the
other iflands ; and, upon the hills at Mourooa, a
particular bird is found, which is highly valued
for its white feathers.
Besides the number or cluster of iflands, ex»
tending from Mataia to Mourooa, we were informed by the people at Otaheite, that there was n6
a low uninhabited ifland, called Mopeeha ; and
alfo lèverai low iflands, to the north eastward, at
the distance of about two days fail with a fair
At Mataeeya, it is faid to be customary, for
men to prefent their daughters to strangers who
vifit that ifland. The pairs, however, muft lie
near each other for the fpace of five nights, without prefuming to take any liberties. On the fixth
evening, the father entertains his gueft with food,
and orders the daughter to receive him, that
night, as her hufband. Though the bed-fellow
be ever fo difagreeable to the stranger, he muft
not dare to exprefs the least diilike ; for that is
an unpardonable \ affront, and punifhable with
death. Forty men of Bolalola, whom curiosity
had incited to go to Mataeeva, were treated in
this manner ; one of them having declared his
aversion to the female who tIII to his lot, in the
hearing of a boy, who mentioned it to the father.
Fired with this information, the Mataeevans fell
upon them; but the Bolabolans killed thrice
their own number, though with the lofs of the
whole party except five. Thefe, at firft, concealed themfelves in the woods, and afterwards ef:
fected their efcape in  a canoe.
The low ifles are, perhaps, the farthest navigation performed by the inhabitants of Otaheite,
and the Society Iflands. ' Monsieur de Bougainville is certainly in an error, when he fays," Thefe PACIFIC OCEAN.
people fometimes navigate at the distance of more
than three hundred leagues*." For it is deemed
a fort of prodigy, that a canoe, which was once
driven from Otaheite in a florm, fhould^
rived at Mopeeha, though directly to leeward,' at
no great distance. Their knowledge of distant
iflands, is merely traditional ; communicated to
them by the natives of thofe iflands, who have
been accidentally driven upon their coafts.
CHAP.    X.
Profecution of our Voyage, after our Departure from
the Society Ifles-.—Chri/imas Ifland Difcovered—r
Supplies of Fijh and Turtle—-Solar Eclipfe—?
Diftrefs of two Seamen who. had lojt their Waf~-r
Singular Mock, of refrefhing himfelf praclifed by
one of thefe Stragglers—Infcription left in a Bottle—Soil of the Ifland defcribed-—Trees and Plants
—Birds, and other Animals—Further Particur
lars refpetling Chrifimas Ifland.
UPON our quitting Bolabola, and taking
leave of the Society Iflands, On Monday
the 8th of December, we fleered to the northward, with the wind between north-eaft and east ;
* Bougainville's Voyage Autour du Monde, p. 228. ÉÉ
fcarçe ever having it in the fouth*eàft point, till
after he had croffed the equator. Though a year
and five months had now elapfed fince our departure from England, during which period we had
not been, upon the whole, unprofitably employed,
Captain Cook was fenfible, that, with refpect to
the principal object of his inftructions, our voyage
might be confidered, at this time, as only at its
commencement ; and therefore, his attention to
whatever might contribute towards our fafety and
final fuccefs, was now to be exerted as it were
anew. He had witji this view examined into the
state of our provisions at the iflands we had last
visited ; and having now, on leaving them, proceeded beyond the extent of the former difco*
veries, he ordered an accurate furvey to be taken
of all the flores that were in each fhip, that, by
being fully informed of the quantity and condition of every article, he might know how tQ ufe
them to the greatest advantage?
Before we quitted the Society Ifles, we had
taken every opportunity of enquiring of the nar
tives, wmether there were any iflands situated in &
northerly or north-wefterly direction from them ;
hut it did not appear that they knew of any ; nor
did we meet with anything by which thé vicinity
of land was indicated, till we began, about the
latitude of 8° fouth, to fee boobies, men-of-war
bidrs, terns, tropic-birds, and a few other forts.
Our longitude, at this time, was 20c0 eaft.    In PACIFIC OCÉAN.
the night between the 22d and 23d, w%gfoffed
the equinoctial line ; and on the 24th, foon after
day-break, we difcovered land bearing north-eaft
by east. It was found, upon our making a nearer
approach to it, to be one of thofe low iflands
which are fo frequently met with in this ocean
between the tropics ; that is, a narrow bank of
land that enclofes the fe£ within. We obferved
fome cocoa-nut trees in two or three places ; but
the land in general had a very flerial afpect. At
twelve o'clock it- was about four miles distant.
On the western fide we found the depth of water
to be from forty to fourteen fathoms, over a fandy
Captain Cook being of opinion that this ifland
would prove a convenient place for procuring
turtle, refolved to anchor here. We accordingly
dropped our anchors in thirty fathoms water ;
and a boat was immediately difpatched to fearch
for a commodious landing-place. When fhe returned, the officer who had been employed in this
fearch, reported, that he found no place where a
boat could land ; but that fifh greatly abounded
in the fhoal-water, without the breakers* Early
the next morning, which was Chriftmas-day, two
boats were fent, one from each fhip, to examine
more accurately whether it was practicable to
land ; and at the fame time, two others were ordered outj to fifh at a grappling near the fhore.
Thefe last returned about eight, with as many fifh A VOYAGE TO THE
as weighed upwards of two hundred pounds. Eh--'
couraged by this fuccefs, the Commodore dispatched them again after breakfast ; and he then
went himfelf in another boat, to view the coaft^
and attempt landing, which, however, he found
to be impracticable. The two boats which had
been fent out on the fame fearch, returned about
twelve o'clock ; and the matter, who was in that
belonging to the Refolution, reported to Capt^jfe
Cook, that, about four or five miles to the northward, there being a break in the land^^id a channel into the lagoon, there was confequently a
proper place for landing ; and that he had found
off this entrance the fame foundings as we had
where we now were stationed. In confequence
of this report we weighed, and, after two or three
trips, anchored again over a bottom of fine dark
fand, before a little ifland lying at the entrance of
the lagoon.
On Friday the 26th in the morning, the Commodore ordered Captain Clerke to fend out a
boat, with an officer in it, to the fouth-eaft part
of the lagoon, in quest of turtle ; and went himfelf with Mr. King, each in a boat, to the northeast part. It was his intention to have gone to
the eastern extremity ; but the wind not permitting it, he and Mr. King landed more to leeward^
on a fandy flat, where they caught one turtle,
which was the only one they faw in the lagoon. -
They warded through the water to an ifland, whetç PACIFIC   OCEAN.
they found nothing but a few birds. Captain
Cook, leaving Mr. King here to obferve the fun's
meridian altitude, proceeded to the land that
bounds the fea towards the north-weft, which he
found even more barren than the laft-mentioned
ifle ; but walking over to the fea-coaft, he obferved
five turtles clofe to the fhore, one of which he
caught : he then returned on board, as did Mr.
King foon afterwards. Though fo few turtles
were obferved by thefe two gentlemen, we did
not defpair of a fupply ; for fome of the officers of
the Difcovery, who had been afhore to the fouth-
ward of the channel leading into the lagoon, had
more fuccefs, and caught feveral.
The next morning, the cutter and pinnace were
difpatched, under the command of Mr. King
to the fouth-eaft part of the ifland, within the lagoon, to catch turtle ; and the fmall cutter was
fent towards the north to the fame purpofe. Some
©f Captain Clerke's people having been on fhore
all night, had been fo fortunate as to turn upwards of forty turtles on the fand, which .were
this day brought on board ; and, in the courfe of
the afternoon, the party detached to the northward returned with half a dozen ; and being fent
back again, continued there till we departed from
the ifland, having, upon the whole, pretty.good
fuccefs. The day following (the 28th) Captain
Cook, accompanied by Mr. Bayly, landed on
the ifland situated between the two channels into
R 122
the lagoon, to prepare the telefcopes for obferving
the folar eclipfe that was to happen on the 30th.
Towards noon, Mr. King returned with one boat,
arid eight turtles ; feven being left behind to be
brought by the other boat, whofe people were
occupied in catching more ; and, in the evening,
the fame boat conveyed them provifions and
water. Mr. Williamfon ncwr w7ent to superintend
this bufinefs in the room of Mr. King, who remained on board, in order to attend the obfer-
vation of the eclipfe. The next day, the two
boates, laden with turtle, were fent back to the
fiiip by Mr. Wiiliamfon, who, at the fame time,
in a meffâge to Captain Cook, requested, the the
boats might be ordered round by fea, as he had
difcovered a landing-place on I he fouth-eaft fide
of the ifland, where the greatest numbers of turtle
were caught ; fo that, by difpatching the boats
thither, the trouble of carrying them over the
land (as had hitherto been done) to the infide of
the lagoon, would be faved. This advice was
On Tuefday the 30th, Captain Cook, and
Meffrs. King and Bayly repaired in the morning to the fmall ifland above mentioned, to ob-
ferve the eclipfe of the fun. The fky was overcast at times ; but it was clear wen the eclipfe
ended. In the afternoon, the party who had been
employed in catching turtle at the fouth-eaftern
part of the ifland,  returned on board, except a PACIFIC   OCEAN. 123
failor belonging to Captain Clerke's fhip, who'
had been miffing for two days. At firft, there
were two men who had loft their way ; but happening to difagree with refpect to the track that
was moft likely to bring them to their companions, they had feparated ; and one of them
found means to rejoin the party, after an abfence
of twenty-four hours, during which he had experienced great distress. There being no frefh
water in the whole ifland, and not one cocoa-nut
tree in that part of it, he, in order to allay his
thirst, had recourfe to the extraordinary expedient
of drinking the blood of turtle, which he killed
for that purpofe. His method of refrefhing himfelf, when fatigued, was equally lingular, though
he faid he felt the good effects of it : he undreffed
himfelf, and lay down in the fhallow water on the
beach for fome time.
How thefe two men had contrived to lofe their
way, was a matter of aftoniihment. * The land
over which their journey lay, from the fea-coaft
to the lagoon, where the boats were stationed, did
not exceed three miles acrofs ^nor was there any
thing that could impede their view ; for the country was level, with a few fhrubs difperfed about
it; and, from many parts, the masts of our veffels
could be easily difcerned. This, however, was a
rule of direction which they did not think of; nor
did they recollect in what part of the ifland the
fhips  lay at anchor ; and   they were totally at a
p •<• ■ «I
K   2      . 124
Ms how to get back to them, or to the party they
had fo careleffly ftraggled from. Considering
what strange people the generality of failors are,
while on fhore, we might, instead of being much
furprized that thefe two fhould thus lofe themfelves, rather wonder that no more of the party
were miffing.
Captain Clerke was no fooner informed that one
of the stragglers was ftill in this difagreeable fituation, than he detached a party in fearch of him ;
but neither the man nor the party having returned, the next morning the Commodore ordered
two boats into the lagoon, to profecute the fearch
by different tracks. In a fhort time after, Captain Clerke's detachment returned, with there
loft companion; in confequence of which the
boats difpatched into the lagoon were called back
by signal. This man's diftrefs muft have been
far greater than that of the other straggler, not
only as he had bee» loft a longer time, but as he
was too delicate to drink turtle's Wood.
Having fome yams and cocoa-nuts on board,
in a state of ■ vegetation, we planted them, by
Captain Cook's order, on the fmall ifland where
he had obferved the late eclipfe ; and fome feeds
of melons were fown in another place. The
Captain alfo left on that little ifle a bottle, con,-
taining the followng infcription :
Georgius Tertius, Rex, 31 Decembris,  1777.
*r        C Refolution, Jac. Cook, Pr.
\Difcovery, Car. Cltrke, Pr. PACIFIC   OCEAN. 125
On Thurfday the lit of January, 1778, the
Commodore fent out feveral boats to bring on
board our different parties employed afhore with
the turtle which they had caught. It being late
before this bufmefs was completed, he thought
proper to defer failing till the next morning. We
procured at this ifland, for both fhips, about three
hundred turtles, which weighed, one with another,
about ninety pounds ; they were all of the green
fort, and, perhaps, not inferior in goodnefs to any
in the world. We alfo caught, with hook and
line, a great quantity of fifh, principally consist-»
ing of cavallies, snappers, and a few rock-fifh of
two fpecies, one with whitifh streaks fcattered
about, and the other with numerous blue fpots.
The foil of this ifland (to which Captain Cook
gave the name of Christmas Ifland, as we kept
that festival here) is, in fome places, light and
blackifh, conpofed of fand, the dung of birds,
and rotten vegetables. In other parts*, it is
formed of broken coral-ftones, decayed fliells,
and other marine productions. Thefe are depo-r
fited in long, narrow ridges, lying parallel with
the fea-coaft ; and muft have been thrown up by
.the waves, though they do not reach, at prefent,
within a mile of fome of thefe places. This
feems to prove inconteftably, that the ifland has fti§l
been produced*by different acceflions from the
fea, and is in a state of augmentation ; the broken
pieces of coral, and likewife many of the fhells 126
being too large and heavy to have been brought
from the beach by any birds to the places where
they are now lying. We could not find any where
a drop of frefh water, though we frequently dug
for it. We met with feveral ponds of fait water,
which, as they had no visible communication with
the fea, were probably filled by water filtrating
through the fand during the time of high tides.
One of the men who loft their way found fome
fait on the fouth-eaftern part of the ifland. We
could not difcover the smallest traces of any human
creature having ever been here before us ; and,
indeed, fhould any one be accidentally driven on
the ifland, or left there, he would hardly be able
to prolong his existence. For, though there are
birds and fifh in abundance, there are no visible
means of allaying thirft, nor any vegetable that
would ferve as a substitute for bread, or correct
the bad effects of an animal diet. On the few
cocoa-nut trees upon the ifland, we found very
little fruit, and that little not eood.
A few low trees were obferved in fome partSj
besides feveral small fhrubs and plants, which
grew in a very languid manner. We found a fort
of puritain, a fpecies of fida or Indian mallow,
and another plant that feemed, from its leaves, to
be a mefembryanthemum ; with two forts of grafs.
Under the low trees fat vaft numbers of a new
fpecies   of tern, or egg-bird,   black above,  and
white below, having
wnite arcn on PACIFIC  OCEAN. 127
head. Thefe birds are fomewhat larger than the
common noddy : their eggs are bluifh, and
fpeckled with black. There were likewife many
common boobies ; a fort greatly refembling a
gannet ; and a chocolate-coloured fpecies, with a
white belly. Men-of-war-birds, curlews, plovers,
tropic-birds, petrels, &c. are alfo to be feen here.
We faw feveral rats, fmaller than our's. There
were numbers of land-crabs, and fmall lizards.
Christmas Ifland is fuppofed by Captain Coôk
to be between fifteen and twenty leagues in circuit. Its form is femi-circular ; or like the moon
in lier last quarter, the two horns being the north
and fouth points. The weft fide, or the fmall
ifland situate at the entrance into the lagoon, lies
in the longitude of 2020 30' east, and in the latitude of i° 59' north.
Like moft of the other ifles in this ocean,
Christmas Ifland is furrounded by a reef of coral
rock extending but a little way from the western
fide, is a bank of fand, which extends a mile into
the fea. There is good anchorage on this bank,
in any depth between eighteen and thirty fathoms.
During our continuance here, the wind generally
blew a frefh gale at eaft by fouth, or east ; and
we had constantly a great fwell from the northward, which broke on the reef in a very violent
furf. 128      A   VOYAGE  TO  THÉ
Three Iflands difcovered—The Inhabit dint s of Atooi
approach us in their Canoes—Their Perfons defcribed—Some of them venture on board—Their
4 Amazement on that Occafion—Pfecautions againfi
importing the Venereal Difeafe into the Ifland—
One of the natives killed—The Ships cajl Anchor—The Commodore's Reception on landing—
His Excurfion into the Country, with Mejfrs.
Webber and Anderfon—Defcription of a Moral
and its Obelijk—The Cuflom of offering human Viclims prevalent among thefe People—*
Curious feathered Cloaks and Caps—The Refih
lution driven-from Atooi Road—The Ijle of Onee-
heow vifited—Some of our People are detained on
Shore—"animals and Seeds left at Oneheow—
€uftoms of the Natives—The Ships proceed to the
WEIGHING anchor at day-break, on
Friday the 2d of January, 1778, we re-
fumed our northerly courfe, with a gentle breeze
at east, and eaft-fouth-eaft, which continued till
we arrived in the latitude of 70 45' north, and
the longitude of 205° east, where we had a day of
perfect calm. A north-eaft-by-eafl wind then
fucceeded, which blew faintly at firft, but frefhen*
ed as we proceeded northward. We daily obferved Tropic birds,  men-of-war-birds, boobies, ■H
Sec. and between the latitude i o° and 11 * north,
We faw feveral turtles. Though all thefe * are
confidered as fignS of the proximity pf land, we
difcovered none till early in the morning of Sunday the 18th, when an ifland appeared, bearing
north-eaft-by-eaft. Not long after, more land
was feen, which bore north, and was totally detached from the former. At noon, the firft was
fuppofed to be eight or nine leagues distant.
Our longitude, at this time, was 2000 41' east,
and our latitude, 21 ° 12' north. The next day,
at fun-rife, the ifland firft feen bore east, at the
distance of feveral leagues. Not being able to
reach this, we fhaped our courfe for the other ;
and foon after, obferved a third ifland, bearing
We had now a fine breze at eaft-by-north ;
andj at noon, the fécond ifland, named Atooi,
for the east end of which we were fleering, was
about twq leagues distant. As we made a nearer
approach, many of the inhabitants put off from
the fhore in their canoes, and very readily came
along-fide the fhips. We were agreeably fur-
prized to find, that they fpoke a dialect of the
Otaheitean language. They could not be prevailed upon by any entreaties to come on board.
Captain Cook tied fome brafs medals to a rope,
which he gave to thofe who were on board the
canoes ; and they, in return, fastened fome
mackarel to the rope, by way of equivalent. This
Vol. IL-—n°9. 's
1  ; ijo        A  VOYAGE TO TtïE
was repeated ; and fome fmall ffMts, or pie<*es Mk
iron, were given them ; for which they gave hi
exchange fome more fifh, and a fweet potatoe ; a
fure indication of their having fome notk>ri*^B
bartering, or, at least, of returning one preftWB
for another. One of them even offered for fale
the piece of fluff which he wore about his waift.
Thefe people did not exceed the ordinary fize,
and were stoutly made. Their complexion wafr
brown ; and though there appeared to be little
difference in the calls of their colour, there was
a confiderable variation in their feattfes. Moft
of them had their hair cropped rather fhort £
a few had it tied in a bunch at the top of the
head; and others fuffered it to flow Ioofe. It
feemed to be naturally black ; but the generality
of them had stained it with fome fluff which
communicated to it a brownifh colour. Moft of
them had pretty long beards. They had no'^SM
naments about their perfons, nor did we obferve
that they had their ears perforated. Some of them
were tatooed on the hands, or near the groin ;
and the pieces of cloth, which were worn by them
round their middle, were curioufly coloured with
white, black, and red. They feemed to be mtfer
and good-natured ; and were furnifhed with no
arms of any kind, except fome fmall ftones, which
they had manifestly brought for their own defence ; and thefe they threw Into the fea when
they found that there was no occasion for them. PACIFIC OCEAN. 131
As we perceived no %$s of an anchori rig-place
at this eaftern extremity of the ifland, we bore
away to leeward, and ranged along the southeast fide, at the distance of about a mile and a
half from the fhore. The canoes left us when
we made fail ; but others came off, as we proceeded along the coaft, and brought with them
pigs and fome excellent potatoes, which they exchanged for whatever we offered to them ; and
feveral fmall pigs were purchafed by us for a fix-
penny nail. We paffed divers villages ; fome of
which were situated near the fea, and others further up the country. The inhabitants of all of
theraeçame in crowds to the fhore, and affembied
on the elev&led places to take a view of the fhips.
On this fide of the ifland the land rifes in a gentle acclivity from the fea to the bottom of the
mountains, whkh occupy the central part of the
country, except at one place near the eaftern
end, there they rife immediately from the fea :
they feemed to be eompofed of ftone, or rocks
iyiag in horizontal Jlrata, We obferved a few
trees about the villages; near which we could
alfo difcern feveral plantations of fugar-canes
and plantains. We continued to found, but
did not ftrike ground with a line of fifty fathoms, till we came -abreast of a low point, near
the north-west extremity of the ifland, where we
found from twelve to fourteen fathoms, over a
rocky bottom. Having paffed this point, we
S 2 132
met with twenty fathoms, then sixteen, twelve^
and at laft five, over a Lbottom of fand. We
fpent the night in standing off and on ; and, the
next morning, flood in for the land. We were
met by feveral canoes filled with nativ^g|iiorne
of whom ventured to come on board.
None of the inhabitants we ever met with ber
fore in any other ifland pr country, were fo afto-
nifhed as thefe people were, upon entering a fhip.
Their eyes were inceffantly roving from one object to another; and the wildnefs of their looks
and gestures, fully indicated their perfect ignorance with refpect to every thing they \ faw ; and
ftrongly marked to us, that they had never, till
the prefent time, been visited by Europeans, nor
been acquainted with any of our commodities,
except iron. This metal, however, they had in
all probability only heard of, or had perhaps
known it in fome inconsiderable quantity, brought
to them at a remote period. They afked for it by
the appellation of hamaite, referring probably to
fome instrument, in making which iron could
be ferviceably employed ; for they applied that
name to the blade of a knife, though they had
no idea of that particular instrument, which they
could not even handle properly. They alfo frequently called iron by the name of toe, which
lignifies a hatchet, or adze. On our fhewing them
fome beads, they firft afked what they were ; and
then, whether they were to be eaten.    But, on PACIFIC OCEAN.
their being informed, that they were to be hung
in their ears, they rejected them as ufelefs. They
were equally indifferent with regard to a looking-
glafs that we offered them, and returned it for a
similar reafon. China cups, plates of earthen
ware, and other things of that kind, were fo new
to them, that they afked whether they were made
of wood. They were, in manyT refpects, nat&i?
rally polite ; or, at least, cautious of giving
offence. Some of them, juft before their venturing onboard, repeated a long prayer ; and others,
afterwards, fung and made various motions with
their hands. On their firft entering the fhips,
they attempted to steal every thing that they could
lay hands on, or rather to take it openly, as if
they fuppofe d that we either fhould not refent
fuch behaviour, or not hinder it. But we foon
convinced them of their error ; and when they
obferved that we kept a watchful eye over them,
they became lefs active in appropriating to themfelves what did not belong to them.
About nine o'clock Captain Cook difpatched
Lieutenant Williamfon, with three armed boats,
to look out for a proper landing-place, and for
frefh water ; with orders, that, if he fhould find
it neceflary to land in fearch of the latter, he
fhould not allow more than one man to accompany him out of the boats. The very moment
they were putting off from the fhip one of the
iflanders   having  ftolen a   cleaver,  leaped  over A VOYAGE TO THE
board, got into his canoe, and hastened towards
the fhore, while the boats purfued him in vain.
The reafon of the Commodore's order that thç
crews of the boats fhould not go on fhore, was
that he might prevent, if poflible, the importa*-
tion of dangerous difeafe into this ifi$nd, which
he knew fome of our people now laboured under,
and which we, unfortunately, had already com*
municated to other iflands in this ocean. From
the fame motive, he commanded that all female
visitants fhould be excluded from both the fhips.
Many perfons of this fex had come off in the canoes. Their features, complexion, and ftature,
were not very different from thofe of thjg men ;
and though their countenances were ex-ffemely
open and agreeable, few traces of delicacy were
visible either in their faces, or other proportions.
The only difference in their drefs, was their having a piece of cloth about their bodies, reaching from near the middle almoft down to the
knees, instead of the maro worn by the male-fex.
They were as much inclined to favour us with
their company on board, as fome of the men
were ; but the Commodore was extremely desirous of preventing all connection, which might
in all probability, convey an irreparable injury
to themfelves, and afterwards, through their
means, to the whole nation. Another prudent precaution was taken, by strictly enjoining,   that    no  perfon  capable   of communicate PACÏFÎÛ ocean.
liig the infection fhould be fent upon duty out of
the fhips.
Captain Cook had paid equal attention to the
fame object, when he firft visited the Friendly
Ifles; but he afterwards found* to his great regret, that his endeavours had not succeeded.
And there is reafon to apprehend, that this will
constantly be the cafe, in fuch voyages as outs,
whenever it is neceflary that many people fhould
be employed on fhore. The opportunities and
incitements to an amorous intercourfe are then too
numerous to be effectually guarded against ; and
however confident a commander may be of the
health of his men, he is often undeceived too late,
Among a number of men, there are in general
to be found fome, who, out of bafhfulnefs, endeavour to conceal their having any venereal
fyrnptoras ; and there are others fo profligate and
abandoned, as not to care to whom they communicate this difeafe. We had an inftaïïce of
the laft remark at Tongataboo, in the gunner of
the Difcovery, who had been stationed on fhore.
After knowing that he had contracted this dif-<
order, he continued to have connections with different women, who were fuppofed to have been,
till that time, free from any infection. His companions remonstrated to him on this fcandalous
behaviour without effect, till Captain Clerke,
being informed of fuch a dangerous irregularity
of conduct, ordered him to repair on board. ■*!
Waiting for the return of ou£ boats, which had
been fent out to reconnoitre the coaft, we flood
off and  on with the fhips.     Towards mid-day,
Mr Williamfon came   back, and reported, that
he had obferved behind a beach, near one of t|jg
tillages, a largef pond, which was faid by the natives to contain frefli water ;   and that there was
tolerable anchoring-ground  before it.     He  alfo
tfïeaâoried, that he had made an attempt- to land
in another place, but was prevented by the Glanders', who,  coining down in. great  numbers to
the boats, endeavoured to take  away the oars*
mufquets, and   every  other   article   which they
could lay hold of;   and crowded fo thick upon
him and his people, that he was under the necef-
fity   of firing,   by  which   one man was killed*
This   unfortunate  circumstance,   however,   was
Hot known to Captain Cook till after we had quit-»
ted the ifland; fo that all his meafures  were directed as if no affair of that kind had happened,
Mr. Williamfon informed him, that,, as foon  as
the man fell, he was taken up and carried off by
his countrymen, who then retired from the boats,
but ftill they made signals for our people to land,
which  they declined.     It did not  appear,  that
the natives had the least intention of killing, or
even   hurting,   any of Mr. Willimfon's  party ;
but they  feemed to have been  excited by curio-
fity alone, to get from them what they had, be- PACIFIC OCEAN.
îng prepared to give, in return,  any thing that
appertained to themfelves. WËd
Captain Cook then difpatched one of the boats
to lie in the belt anchoring-ground ; and when
fhe had gained this station, he bore down with
the fhips, and caft anchor in twenty-five fathoms
water, over a fandy'bottom. The eaftern point
of the road, which was: the low point already mentioned, bore fouth 510 eaft ; the weft point, north
65e weft ; and the village near which thefrefh water was faid to be, was one mile distant. The
fhips being thus stationed, between three and
four in the afternoon, the Captain went afhore
with three armed boats,\and twelve of the marines, with a view of examining the water, and
trying the difpofition of the inhabitants who had
affembled in confiderable numbers on a fandy
beach before the village ; benind it was a valley,
in which was the piece of water. The moment
he leaped on fhore, all the iflanders fell prostrate
upon%eir faces, and continued in that posture
of humiliation, till, by signs, he prevailed on them
to rife. They then prefented to him many fmall
pigs, with plantain-trees, making ufe of nearly
the fame ceremonies which we had feen practifed,
on similar occafions, at the Society and other ifles :
and a long oration or prayer being pronounced
by an individual, in which others of the affem-
bly occasionally joined. Captain Cook signified
his acceptance of their proffered friendihip, by
T *S*
bestowing on them, in return fuch prefents as
he had brought afhore. This introductory bufi-
nefs being ended, he stationed a guard upon the
beach, and wm then conducted by fome of the
natives to the water, which he found extremely
good, and fo confiderable, that it might be denominated a lake. After this, he returned on
board, and iffued orders that preparations fhould
be made for filling our water-calks in the morning ; at which time he went afhore with fome of
his people, having a party of marines for the guard.
They had no fooner landed, than a trade was
entered into for potatoes and hogs, which the
iflanders gave in exchange for nails and pieces of
iron. Far from giving any obstruction to our
men who were occupied in watering, they even
aflifted them in rolling the calks to and from the
pool, and performed with alacrity whatever was
required of them. Captain Cook leaving the
command at this station to Mr. Williamfon, who
had landed with him, made an excuflron into
the country, up in the valley, being accompanied
by Meffrs. Anderfon and Webber, and followed
by a numerous train of natives, one of whom^
who had been very active in keeping the others
in order, the Captain made choice of as a guide.
This, man, from time to time, proclaiming the
approach of our gentlemen, every perfon who
met them, fell prostrate on the ground, and remained  in  that  humble  position   till   they had PACIFIC   OCEAN.
1 t
paffed. This, as we were afterwards informed,
is their method of fhewing refpect to their own
great chiefs.
We had obferved at every village, as we ranged
along the coaft in the fhips, one or more ele-'
vated white objects, refembling pyramids, or rather obelifks ; one of which, fuppofed by Captain Cook' to be at least fifty feet in height, was
very confpicuous from our anchoring-ftation, and
feemed to be at a fmall distance up this valley.
To have a nearer view of it, was the principal
motive of our gentlemen's walk. Their guide was
accquainted witji their defire of being conducted
to it : but it happened to be in fuch a fituation,
that they could not get at it, the pool of water
feparating it from them. However, as there was
another of the fame kind about half a mile dif-
tant, upon their fide of the valley, they fet out
to vifit that. As foon as they reached it, they
perceived that it was situate in a burying-ground,
or moral, which bore a striking refemblance, in
feveral refpects, to thofe they had feen at Otaheite and other iflands in this ocean. It was an
oblong fpace, of confiderable extent, environed
by a ftone-wall, four or five feet high. The
inclofed fpace was loofaly paved ; and, at one
end of it, was placed the obelifk or pyramid,
called by the natives henananoo, which was an
exact model of the larger one that we had dif-
cerned from our fliips. It was about twenty feet
in height, and four feet fquare at the bafe. Its
four fides were formed of fmall poles interwoven
with twigs and branches, thus composing an indifferent wicker-work, hollow within from the
top to the bottom. It appeared to be in a ruinous state, and had been originally covered with a
thin greyifh cloth. On each fide of it were long
pieces of wicker-work, termed herecane-, in a condition equally ruinous, with two poles inclining
towards each other at one corner, where fome
plantains were placed on a board, fixed at the
height of about half a dozen feet. This was called
by the iflanders herairemy ; and they faid, that
the fruit was an offering to their deity. Before
the henananoo wrere feveral pieces of wood, carved into fome refemblance of human figures.
There wras alfo a ftone near two feet in height
covered with cloth. Adjoining to this, on the
outfide of the moral, was a fmall fhed, which they
denominated hareepahoo ; and before it there was
a grave, where the remains of a woman had been
There was a houfe or fhecL called hemanaa, on
the further fide of the area of the moral : it was
about forty feet in length, ten or eleven feet in
height, and ten in breadth in the middle, but
narrower at each end ; though considerably
longer, it was lower than their common habitations. Oppofite the entrance into this houfe,
flood two images near three feet high, cut out of  —1 PACIFIC   OCEAN.
one piece of wood, with pedestals : they were faid
to be Eatooa no Veheina, or reprefentations of
goddefles, and were not very indifferent either
in point of execution or defign. On the head of
one of them was a cylindrical cap, not unlike the
head-drefs at Otaheite, called tomou ; and on that
of the other, a carved helmet, fomewhat refem-
bling thofe of the ancient warriors ; and both of
them had pieces of cloth fattened about the loins,
and hanging down a confiderable way. There
was alfo, at the fide of each, a piece of carved
wood, with cloth hung on it. Before the pedestals lay a quantity of fern, which had been
placed there at different times. In the middle
of the houfe, and before the images juft defcribed,
was an oblong fpace, inclofed by an edging of
ftone, and covered with fhreds of cloth ; this was
the grave of feven chiefs, and was called heneene.
Our gentlemen had already met with fo many
inftances of refemblance, between the moral they
were now vifiting, and thofe of the iflands they
had lately quitted, that they entertained little
doubt in their minds, that the similarity existed
alfo, in the rites here folemnized, and particularly
in the horrid oblation of human victims. Their
fufpicions were foon confirmed ; for, on one fide
of the entrance into the hemannaa, they obferved
a fmall fquare place, and another flill fmaller
and on afking what thefe were, they were informed by their conductor, that in one of them was 142
interred a man w7ho had been facrificed ; and in
the other, a hog, whi ch had alfo been offered up
to the deity. At no great difiance from thefe,
were three other fquare inclofed places, with two
pieces of carved wood at each of them, and a
heap of fern upon them. Thefe were the graves
of three chiefs ; and before them was an inclofed
fpace of an oblong figure, called Tangata-taboo
by our gentlemen's guide, who declared to them,
that three human facrifices, one at the funeral of
each chief, had been there buried.
Every appearance induced the Commodore to
believe, that this inhuman practice was very general here. The ifland feemed to abound with
fuch places of facrifice as this, at which he was
now prefent, and which was probably one of the
moft inconsiderable of them ; being much lefs
confpicuous than fome others which we had obferved as we failed along the coaft, and particularly than that on the oppofite fide of the piece of
water running through this valley ; the white pyramid of which, in all probability, derived its
colour folely from the confecrated cloth put over
it. In many fpots within this burying-ground,
were planted trees of the morinda citrifolia, and
cordia febejlina, besides feveral plants of the etee,
with the leaves of which the hemanaa was thatched.
The journey of our gentlemen to and from
this moral, lay through the plantations. Moft
of the ground was perfectly flat, with ditches in- PACIFIC  OCEAN.
terfecting different parts, and roads that feemed
fo have been raifed to fome height by art. The
intervening fpaces, in general, were planted with
taro, which grew with great vigour. There were
feveral fpots where the cloth-mulberry was planted in regular rows ; this alfo grew vigoroufly.
The cocoa-trees were in a lefs thriving condition,
and were all low ; but the plantain-trees, though
not large, made a pretty good appearance. Upon
the whole, the trees that are moft numerous
around this village, are the cordia febaftina* The
greatest part of it is situate near the beach, and
confifts of upwards of sixty houfes there ; but
there may perhaps be near forty more fcattered
about, towards the morai.
After the Commodore, and Meffrs* Anderfon
arid Webber, had carefully examined whatever
was worthy of notice about the moral, and the
latter had taken drawings of it, and of the fur-
rounding country, they returned by a different
route. They found a multitude of people collected at the beach, and a brifk trade for fowls,
pigs, and vegetables, going on there, with the
greatest order and decorum. At noon, Captain
Cook went on board to dinner, and then fent
Mr. King to take the command of the party on
fhore. During the afternoon he landed, again,
accompanied by Captain Clerke, intending to
make another excursion up the country : but, be-
fcve he could execute this defign, the day was 144      A   V O Y A WB T O^fff Ë
too far advanced ; he  therefore relinquiflied hfe
intention for the prefent, and no other opportff^
iiity  afterwards  occurred.    Towards fun*f@t, he
and his people returned on board, after having
procured, in the courfe of this day, ninetais of
water, and (principally by exchanging nails and
pieces of iron) feventy or eighty pigs, fome fowls,
plantains, potatoes, and taro roots.    In this commercial intercourfe,   the  iflandeis  deferved  our
belt commendations, making no attempts to cheat
us,   either   along-fide  our  fhips,   or  on   fhore.
Some of them, indeed, as we have already related,
betrayed at firft a pilfering difpofition ; or, pljiH
haps, they imagined that they had a right to all
they could lay their hands upon : but they quickly defifted from a conduct, which, we convinced
them, could not be perfevered in with impunity.
Among the various articles which they brought
to barter this day,  we were particularly ftruck
with a fort of cloak and cap, which, even in more
polifhed  countries,  might be  esteemed  elegant.
Thefe cloaks are nearly of the fhape and fize of
the fhort ones worn by the men  in Spain, and
by  the women in England, tied loofely before,
and reaching to the  middle of the back.    The
ground  of them is a net-work,  with the moft
beautiful red and yellow feathers fo clofely fixed
upon it, that the furface, both in point of fmooth-
nefs  and gloflinefs, refembles the richest velvet.
The method of varying the mixture is very dif- PACIFIC OCÉAN.
1 ».
ferent ; fome of them having triangular fpaces
of yellow and red alternately ; others, a fort of
crefcent ; while fome were entirely red, except
that they had a broad yellow border. The brilliant colours of the feathers, in thofe cloaks that
were new, had a very fine effect. The natives,
at firft, refufed to part with one of thefe cloaks
for any thing that we offered in exchange, de^-
minding no lefs a price than one of our miifquets.
They afterwards, however, suffered us to pur-
chafe fome of them for very large nails. Thofe
of the belt fort were fcarce ; and it is probable,
that they are  ufed only on particular occafions.
The caps are made in the form of a helmet,
with the middle part, or creft, frequently of a
hand's breadth. They fit very clofe upon the
head, and have notches to admit the ears. They
confift of twigs and ofiers, covered with a network, into which feathers are wrought, as upon
the cloaks, but fomewhat clofer, and lefs diver-
filled ; the major part being red/with fpme yellow, green, or black stripes, on the fides. Thefe
caps, in all probability, complete the drefs, with
the cloaks ; for the iflanders appeared, fome*
times, in both together.
We could not conjecture from v|hence they
obtained fuch a quantity of thefe beautiful fea-
thers ; but we foon procured intelligence refpecting one fort ; for they afterwards brought for fale
great numbers of fkins of a fmall read fpecies of
Vol. II.-n°o. U 146
birds, frequently tied up in bunches of twenty or
upwards, or having a wooden fkewer run through
them. At firft, thofe that were purchafed, con-
fifted only of the fkin from behind the wings forward ; but we afterwards obtained many with the
hind part, including the feet and tail. The former instantly fuggefted to us the origin of the
fable of the birds of paradife being destitute of
legs ; and sufficiently explained that particular.
The reafon afligned by the inhabitants of Atooi
for the custom of cutting off the feet of thefe
birds, is, that by this practice they can preferve
them the more easily, without losing any part
which they consider as valuable.
The red-bird of this ifland was, according to
Mr. Anderfon, a fpecies of merops, about as large
as a fparrow, its colour was a beautiful fcarlet,
with the tale and wings black; and it had anf
arched bill, twice as long as the head, which
with the feet, was of a reddifli hue. The contents of the heads were taken out, as in the birds-
of paradife ; but we did not find, that they prac-
tifed any other mode of preferving them, tharf
simple drying ; for the fkins, though they were
moift, had neither a fmell nor tafle that could
give any reafon for fufpecting the ufe of anti-pu-
trefcent fubftances.
On Thurfday the 22d, we had almoft continual rain for the whole morning. The wind was
at fouth-eaft,  fouth-fouth-eaft,  and fouth ;   and PACIFIC OCEAN.
the furf broke fo  high upon the fhore, that our
boats were prevented from  landing.    The Refo-
lution was not  in a very fecure fituation, there
being breakers within the length  of little more
than two cables from her ftern.     The natives,
notwithstanding the furf, ventured  out in their
canoes,  bringing off to our  fhips, hogs and ve-
getabh|lj   which  they exchanged, as before, for
our commodities.      One of their number, who
offered fome fifh-hooks for fale, was obferved to
have a very fmall parcel, fattened to the  firing
of one of them, which he carefully feparated, and
referved    for  himfelf,  when he difpofed of the
hook.    When afked what it was,  he pointed to
his belly, and intimated fomething of its being
dead ; faying, at the fame time, that it was bad.
He was   requested to open the parcel, which he
did with great reluctance ; and we found, that it
contained a fmall thin piece of flefh,  which had,
to all appearance, been dried, but was at prefent
wet with fait water.    Imagining that it might be
human flefh, we put the question to the producer
of it, who anfwered, that the flefh was part of a
man.    Another of the iflanders, who flood near
him, was  then  afked, whether it was a custom
among them to eat their enemies who had been
flain in battle ; and he immediately replied in the
In the afternoon, we had fome intervals of fair
weather.    The  wind then changed  to the east
U   2 148
and north-eaft;. but, towards the evening, it
veered back again to fouth-fouth-eaft. The rain
alfo returning continued the whole night, but
was not accompanied with much wind. At feven
the next morning, a north-eafterly breeze fpring-
ing up, Captain Cook ordered the anchors of his
fhip to be taken up, with a view of removing
her further out. As foon as the last anchor was
up, the wind, veering to the east, rendered it
neceffary to make all the fail he could, for the
purpofe of clearing the fhore ; fo that, before he
had fgood fea-room, he was driven considerably
to leeward. 1 He endeavoured to regain the road ;
but having a strong current againit him, and very
little wind, he could not accomplilh that defign.
He therefore difpatched Meffrs. King and Williamfon afhore, with three boats, to procure water
and refrefhments, fending, at the fame time, an
ord^r to Captain Clerke, to put to fea after him*
if he fhould find that the Refolution was unabl$
to recover the road.
The Commodore having hopes of finding a
road, or, perhaps a harbour, at the weft end of
the ifland, was the lefs anxious about regainings
his former station. But as he had fent the boats
thither, he kept as much as poflible to windward ; notwithstanding which, at noon, our fhip
was three leagues to leeward. As we approached.
the weft end, we found that the coaft rounded
gradually to  the north-eaft, without  forming a PACIFIC OCEAN.
1 t
cove, or creek, wherein a veffel might be fhel-
tered from the violence of the fwell, which, rolling in from the northward,   broke against  the
fhore in an amazing furf: all hopes, therefore,
of meeting with  a harbour here foon vanifhed.
Many of the natives, in   their canoes, followed
us as we flood out to fea, bartering various articles.    As we were extremely unwilling, notwith-
flanding the fufpicious circumstance of the preceding   day, to   believe that thefe people were
cannibals, we now made fome further enquiries
on this fubject.    A  fmall  instrument of wood,
befet  with fharks  teeth,   had   been   purchafed ;
which as it refembled the faw or knife made ufe
of by the favages of New-Zealand to diffect th*,
bodies   of their enemies, wras fufpected by us to
be employed here for the fame purpofe.    One of
the iflariders  being questioned on this point, informed us that the instrument above-mentioned
ferved the purpofe of cutting out the flefliy part
of the belly, when any perfon was flain.    This
explained and confirmed the circumstance before
related, of the man's pointing to his belly.    The
native, however, from whom we  now  received
this intelligence, being afked whether his countrymen eat the part thus cut out, strongly denied
it;   but,   when  the   question  was   repeated,   he
fhewed fome degree of apprehension, and fwam
off to his canoe.    An elderly man, who fat fore-
mpit in the canoe, was then afked whether they ■«*
eat tin* flefh ; and he answered in the affirmative.
The question being put to him a fécond time,
he again affirmed the fact ; adding, that it was
favoury food.
The boats returned about feven o'clock in the
evening, with a few hogs, fome plantains and
roots, and two tuns of water. Mr. King reported to the Commodore, that the iflanders were
.very numerous at the watering-place, and had
brought great numbers of hogs to barter ; but
our people had not commodities with them ade*
quate to the purchafe of them all. He alfo men»
tioned, that the furf had run fo very high, that
it was with extreme difficulty our men landed,
#nd afterwards got back into the boats.
On Saturday the 24th, at day-break, we found
that our fhip tiad been carried by the^èurrents to
the north-Weft and north ; fo that the weftern ex*  1
tremity of Atooi bore east, at the diftance of one
league.    A northerly breeze fprung up foon after,
and Captain Cook expecting that this would bring
the  Difcovery  to fea, fleered  for Oneeheow,  a
neighbouring ifland, which then bore fouth-weft,
with a view of anchoring there,    He continued
to  fleer for it   till past eleven, at which time he
was at the diftance of about fix miles from it.
But not feeing the  Difcovery, he was apprehen*
five left fome ill confequence   might arife from
our feparating fo far ; he therefore relinquifhed
the defign of vifiting Oneeheow for the prefent, I—
and flood back to Atooi, intending to caft anchor
again in the road, in order to complete our fupply of watef. At two o'clock, the northerly
wind was fucceeded by calms and variable light
airs, which continued till eleven at night. ,We
stretched to the fouth-eaft, till early in the morn^
ing of the 25th, when we tacked and flood in for
Atooi road ; and, not long after, we were joined
by the Difcovery. We were utterly unable to
regain the road ; and, by the morning of the
29th, the currents had carried us to the westward, within nine or ten miles of Oneeheow*
Weary with plying fo unfuccefsfully, Captain
Cook laid aside all thoughts of returning to Atooi
and refumed his intention of paying a vifit to
Oneeheow. With this view7, he difpatched the
master in a boat, to found along the coaft, and
fearch for a landing-place, and afterwards for
frefh water. In the mean time, the fhips followed'under an eafy fail. The matter, at his return reported, that there was tolerable anchorage
all along' the coaft ; and that he had landed iff
one place, but could not find any frefh water.
Captain Cook being informed by fome of the
natives, who had come off to the fhips, that frefh;
water might be obtained at a village which we
faw at a little diftance, run down, and caft anchor before it, about fix furlongs from the fhore,
the depth of water being twenty-fix fathoms.
fhe  Difcovery   anchored  at a greater  diftance
« ÎÇ2
A votILge to the
from the fhore, in twenty-three fathoms. The
fouth-eaftern point of Oneeheow bore fouth, 6$°
east, about one league distant ; and another ifland
which we had difcovered the preceding night,
named Tahoora, bore fouth, 61° weft, at the diftance of feven leagues. Before we anchored, feveral canoes had come off to us, bringing potatoes* yams, and , fmall pigs, besides mats. The
people who were in them refembled in their per*
fons the inhabitants of Atooi ; and like them,
were acquainted with the ufe of iron, which they
afked for by the name of toe and hamaite, readily
parting with all their commodities for pieces of
this metal. Some more canoes foon reached our
fhips, after they had come to anchor; but the
iflanders who were in thefe had apparently no
other object, than to make us a formal vifit.
Many of them came on board, and crouched
down upon the deck; nor did they quit that
humble posture, till they were requested to rife.
Several women, whom they had brought with
them, remained along-fide in the canoes, behaving with much lefs modefty than the females of
Atooi; and, at intervals, they all joined in a
fong, which, though not very melodious, was
performed in the exactes! concert, by beating time
upon their breasts with their hands. The men
who had come on board did not continue Jong.
with   us ; and before  their departure, fome  of PACIFIC   OCËÀ&
ihèm defired permifîion to lay down locks of their
hair on the deck.
The curious enquiry, whether thefe iflanders
were cannibals, was this day renewed ; and the
fubject did hot arife from any questions put by us,
but from a circumstance that feenied to remove
all doubt. One of the natives, who wifhed to get
in at the gun-room port, was refufed ; and he
then afked, whether We fhould kill and eat him,
if he fhould come in ? accompanying this question
with signs fo expreflive, that we did not entertain
à doubt with refpect to his meaning. We had
now an opportunity of retorting the question as
to this pfa&ice ; and a man behind the other, in
the canoe, instantly replied, that, if we were
killed on fhore, they would not fcruple to eat us
not that he meant they would destroy us for that
purpofe, but that their devouring us would be
the eonfequence of our being at enmity with
Mr. Gore Was fent in the afternoon, with three
armed boats, in fearch of the moft commodious
landing-place ; being alfo directed to look for
frefh water when he fhould get on fhore. He
returned in the evening, and reported to Captain
Cook, that he had landed at the village above-
mentioned, and had been conducted to a well
about half a mile up the country ; but that the
water which it contained was in too fmall a quantity for our purpofe, and the road that led to it A , V O Y AGE   TO   T H E
was extremely bad.    The next day Mr. Gore was
fent afhore again, with a guard,   and a party to
trade with the inhabitants for refrefhments.    The
Commodore's intention was to have followed foon
afterwards ;   and he went from the fhip with that
defign.    But the furf had fo greatly increafed by
this time,  that he  was  apprehensive, if he  got
afhore, he fhould not be able to make his way
back again.    This circumstance really happened
to our people who had landed with Mr. Gore ;
for the   communication between them  and - the
fhips, by our own   boats,   was quickly flopped.
They made a signal, in the evening, for the boats,
which were accordingly fent ; and, in a fhort time
afterwards, returned with fome good fait and a
few yams.    A confiderable quantity of both thefe
articles had been obtained in the courfe of the
day ; but the furf was fo exceedingly high, that
the greatest part of both had been loft in bringing
them off to the  boats.    The officer and twenty
men, not venturing to run the rifque of coming
off, remained all night on fhore ; by which unfortunate   circumstance,   the   very  thing happened
which Captain Cook, as we have already related,
fo eagarly  wifhed  to prevent,   and  imagined he
had effectually guarded against.
The violence of the furf did not deter the natives from coming off in canoes to our fhips.
They brought with them fome refrefhments, for
which wre gave them, in exchange, fome nail», PA©ÏFIC OCEiOïE
arid pieces of Won hoops ; and we distributed
among the woman in the canoes, many pieces of
ribbon, and fome buttons, as bracelets. Some of
the men had reprefentations of human figures
punctured upon their breasts, and one of them
had a lizard reprefented. Thefe visitants acquainted us, that there was no chief of this ifland,
but that it was subject to one of the chiefs of
Atodk whofe name was' Teneooneoo. Among
other articles which they now brought off to us^
was a fmall drum, that had a great refemblance to
thofe of Otaheite.
Betweenten and eleven o'clock at night, the
wind became foutherly, and the fky feemed to indicate an approaching ftorm. In confequence of
thefe threatening appearances, Captain Cook,
thinking that we were rather too near the fhore,
caufed the anchors to be taken up ; and the fhips
being carried into forty-two fathoms water, came
to agatft'iri that more fecure station. This, however, proved an unneceffary precaution ; for the
wind, not long after, veering to north-north-east,
blew a frefh gale, with fqualls, and violent fhowers
of rain. This weather continued for the wl
fucceeding day, during which the fea ran fo high,
that all communication with our party on fhore
was totally intercepted, and the iflanders themfelves Would not venture out to the fhips in their
canoes. Towards the evening, the Commodore
fent the matter in a boat to the fouth-eaft pèÛÉ
X   2 i$6      A   VOYAGE   TO  THE
of the ifland, to try whether he could land in
that quarter. He returned with a favourable report ; but it was now too late to fend for our party
till the following morning ; fo that they wrere
obliged to ftay another night on fhore. Qn the
appearance pf day-light, a boat was difpatched
to the fouth^eaft point, with orders to Lieutenant
Gore, that, if fie could not embark his people
from the fpot where they at prefent were, he
fhould march tbçnj up to the point. The boat being prevented from getting'11^ the beach, one of
the crew fwam to fhore, and communicated the
instructions. After the boat had returned, Captain
Cook went himfelf with the launch and pinnace
up to the point, jn prder to bring off our party
from the land. He took with him three gpats,
one of them a malç, and the others female ; a
young boar and fow of the Englifh breed ; and
alfo the feeds pf onions, pumpkins and melons.
He landed, with great eafe, under the weft fide,
pf t{ie point, where he found his party, in company with fome of the natives. To one of thefe,
who affumei fome degree of authority over the
reft, he gave the goats, pigs, and feeds. He intended to have left thefe ufefu} prefents at Atooi.
if we had not been fp unexpectedly driven froni
that ifland.    ;J5
Whjle our people were employed in filling
fome, from a little stream which the
late rajns had vOeçafioned, Captain Cook made a PACIFIC  OCEAN.
ftort excurfion into the country, accompanied by
the iflander above-mentioned, and followed by
twp others who carried the two pigs. When they
had arrived upon a rising ground, the Captain
flopped to look around him, and immediately
obferved a woman, on the oppofite fide of the
valley in which he had landed, calling out to her
countryrnen who attended him. Upon this the
man who acted as chief began to mutter fomething
as if he was praying ; and the two bearers of the
pigs continued walking round the Captain all the
time, making about a d°zen circuits before the
other had made an encj pf his prifpn. a^TM?
jtrange ceremony being performed, they proceeded on thejr walk, and met pepple coming
from all quarters, who, upon being called to by
the jCaptain's attendants, fell prostrate on their
faces, till he was put of fight. The ground over
which he paffed, though it was uncultivated and
very ftpny, was covered with plants and fhrubs,
fome of which perfumed the air with the moft
delicious fragjg|gice.
Our party who had been detained fo long on
fhore, found, in thofe parts of the ifland which
they had traverfed, feveral fait ponds, fome of
which had a. fmall quantity of water remaining,
but others had none. They faw no appearance
of a running stream ; and though, in fome fmall
wells which they met with, the frefh water was
pretty good, it feemed to be fcarce.    The houfes §|g* A VOYAGE TO T H|f£
of the natives were thinly fcattered about ; and it
was fuppofed, that there were not more than five
hundred perfons in the whole ifland. The method of living among thefe people was decent and
cleanly. No instance was obferved of the men
and women eating together ; and the latter feemed
in general to be affociated in companies by themfelves. The oily nuts of the dooe dooe are burned
by thefe iflanders for lights during the night ;
and they drefs their hogs by baking them in ovens,
splitting the careafes through the whole length.
Our people met with a sufficient proof of the existence of the taboo^ambng them ; for one woman
was employed in feeding another who was under
that interdiction. Several other mysterious ceremonies were alfo obferved ; one of which was performed by a woman, who threw a pig into the
furf, and drowned it, and then tied up a bundle
of wood, which fhe difpofed of in the like manner. The fame female, at another time, beat a
man's fhoulders with a flick, after he had feated
himfelf for that purpofe. An extraordinary veneration feemed to be paid here to owls, which
they keep very tame. It appeared to be a pretty
general practice among them, to pull out one of
their teeth ; and when they were afked the reafon
of this remarkable custom, the only anfwer they
gave was, that it was teeha-; which was alfo the
reafon afligned by them for givinga lock of their
After our wrater-cafks had been filled, and fome
roots,   fait, and falted fifh, had been  purchafed
from the natives, Captain Cook returned on board
with all his  people, intending  to make another
vifit to the Ifland the next day.    But, about feven
in the   evening,   the  anchor  of the   Refolution
started, fo that fhe drove off the bank, j   By this
accident, we found   ourfelves, at day break the
next morning, which was  the 2d  of February,
nine miles to the leeward of our laft station ; and
the Captain forefeeing that it would require mote
time to regain it than he chofe to employ, made
the fignal for the Difcovery, to weigh anchor and
join us.    This junction was effected about noon ;
and both fhips immediately  directed their courfe
to the northward, in  profecution of their voyage.
Thus, after we had fpent more time in the neighbourhood of thefe  iflands than  was neceffary to
have anfwered all our purpofes, we were obliged
to quit them before we had completed our flock
of water, or procured from them fuch a plentiful
fupply of refrefhments  as the natives were  both
able and willing to have furnifhed us with.    Our
fhip,   however,  obtained   from   them  provisions
that   lasted  at  lead   three  weeks ;   and  Captain
Clerke, more fortunate than we were, acquired
fuch a quantity of vegetables, as fufliçed fhe Discovery's, people upwards of two months.   '
The obfervations which Captain Cook was enabled  to make on thefe  iflands, combined  with 166
thofe of Mr. Anderfoii, whofe abilities and èM^
duity rendered him a very ufeful afliftant on fuch
occafions, will fupply materials for the fôHotoing'
CHAP.    Xlf.
Situation of the iflands now difcovered by us—$Wm
Name of Sartdwich Iflands given to the whole
Group—Atooi particularly defcribed—Its^Soil—
Climate—-Vegetable Produce—-Birds—-Fifh-—Dome/lie Animals—The Perfons and Difpofition of
the Natives—EJtlmate of their Number—Their
Drefs   and  Ornaments—Houfes—Food-—Mode of
Cookery Diver fions--—MuJical    Infiruments^^m
Manufactures—Tools—Their ^Acquaintance with
Iron accounted for*-Their Canoes defcribed-—
Agriculture—Account of one of their Chiefs, who
vifited Captain Gierke—Their Whedpons^-Affinity
between their Manners and •thofe of the Society
and Friendly I/landers—Their Language—-Advantageous Situation of the Sandwich I/Ies.
THE iflands in the Pacific Ocean, which
have been discovered in the courfe of our
late voyages, have been generally found situate
m groups ; the fingle intermediate ifles, hitherto PACIFIC OCEAN.
•«set with, being few in proportion to the reft y
-though, in all probability, there are many more
of them yet unknown, which ferve as gradations
or steps between the feveral clutters.    Of what
number this new-difcovered Archipelago is com-
pofed, muft be left to the decision of future navigators.    We obferved five of them, whofe names
are Woahoo, Atooi,   Oneeheow, Oreehoua, and
Tahoora.    The last of thefe is a fmall elevated
ifland, at the diftance of four or five leages from
the fouth-eaft point of Oneeheow.    We were informed, that it  abounds with birds, which are its
fple inhabitants.    We  alfo gained fome intelligence with regard to th§ jgxiftence of a low uninhabited ifland in the neighbourhood, named Tam-
mata-pappa.    Besides thefe  fix,   we  were   told
that there were  fome other iflands both to the
eastward   and westward.    Captain  Cook   diftin-
guiflied the whole group by the name of the Sandwich Iflands, in honour of the Earl of Sandwich.
Thofe which we faw  are fituated between the latitude of 21&30', and 22° 15' north, and between
the longitude of 199° 20', and 20I0 30', east.
With refpect to Woahoo, the moft easterly of
thefe iflands feen by us, we could get no other
information, but that it is high land, and is inhabited.
Oneeheow, concerning which fome particulars
have been  already mentioned, lies, feven leagues
to the westward of our anchoring-place at Atooi,
Vol. IL—n° 9. Y 162
and does not exceed fifteen leagues in circumference. Yams are its principal vegetable pro*.
duction. We procured fome fait here, called by
the natives pat ai, which is produced in fait ponds.
With it they cure both fifh and pork -f and fome
fait fifh, which we purchafed from t&eni, were
extremely good, and kept very well. This ifland
is chiefly low land, except the part oppofite Atooi,
which rifes immediately from the fea to a confiderable height ; as does alfo its fouth-ealt point,
which terminates in a round hill.
Of Oreehoua we know no other particulars thaiL.
that it is an elevated ifland, of fmall extent, lying
clofe to the north fide of Oneeheow.
Atooi, which is the largest of thofe we faw,
being the principal fcene of our operations, we
fhall now proceed to lay before our readers fuch
information as we were able to collect concerning
it. From what we obferved of it, it is, at leaft,
ten leagues in length from east to weft ; from
whence its circumference may nearly be gueffed,
though it appears to be much broader at the eaft
than at the weft points The road, or anchoring-
place, which our veffels occupied, is on the fouth-
weft fide of the ifland, about two leagues from
the weft end, before a village named Wymoa.
As far as we founded, we found the bank free
from rocks ; except to the eastward of the village,
where there projects a fhoal, on which are fome
rocks and breakers.    This road is fomewhat ex-   PACIFIC OCEAN.
pofed to the trade wind ; notwithstanding which
defect, it is far from being a bad station, and
greatly fuperior to thofe which neceflity continually obliges fhips to ufe, in countries where
the winds are not li&sy more variable, but more
boisterous ; as at Madeira, Teneriffe, the Azores,
&e. The landing too is not fo difficult as at moft
of thofe places f*$hd, unlets in very bad weather
is always practicable. The water in the neighbourhood is excellent, and may be conveyed with
eafe to the boats. But no wood can be cut at
any convenient diftance, unlets the iflanders
could be prevailed upon to part with the few etooa
trees (for that is the name they give to the cordia
febajiind) that grow about their villages, or a fpecies called dooe dooe, which grows farther up the
i The land does not in the least refemble, in its
general appearance, any of the iflands we have
visited within the tropic^Spf Capricorn ; if we except its hills near the centre, which are high,
but flope gradually towards the fea, or lower lands.
Though it prefents not to tKïrMew, the delightful
borders of Otaheite, or the luxuriant plains of
Tongataboo, covered with trees, which at once
afford a flicker from the fcorching rays of the fun,
a beautiful profpect of the eye, and food for the
natives ; yet its poffefling a greater portion of
gently rising land, renders it, in fome degree,
foperior to the above-mentioned favourite iflands,
Y 2 l^4
as being more capable of improvement. Tffffe
height of the land within, and the number of
clouds which we faw, 'tltiring the whole time of
our contiïitfiîice, hanging over it, and not unfre-
quently on the other parts, feem to indicate tha$
there is a sufficient fupply of water, and that there
are fome running streams which we had not an
opportuniry of feeing, particularly in the dçâgp
valles, at the entrance of which the villages are,
in general, situated. The ground, from the wooded
part to the fea, is covered with an excellent kind
of grafs, about two, feet in height, which fome*
times grows in tufts, and appearedS^icapable of
being converted mto abundant crops of fine hay.
But on this extensive fpace not even a fhrub grows
In the narrow valley leading to the moral, the
foil is ©f a dark-brown colour, rifter loofe ; but,
on the high ground,  it is of a  reddifh  brow»
more fliff and clayiÇÏ   It is probably the fame^Hj
over the cultivated parts ;   for what adhered to
moft of the potatoes tSlwe purchafed, whidf/S
doubtlefs, came iraEE'very different fpots, was of
this  fort.    Its quality, however, may  be better
estimated from its productions, than from its appearance.    For  the vale, or moift ground, prapl
duces taro, much  larger than any we had ever
feen ; and   the   more elevated ground furnifhes
fweet potatoes, that feldom weigh lefs than two or pacific me EAU.
tktce pounds, and frequently weigh ten, and fome-
times a dozen or fourteen pounds.
Were we to judge of the climate from our expérience, it might be feid to be very variable ;
for, according to the general opinion; it was, at
this time, the feafon of the year when the weattip
is fuppofed to be moft fettled, the fun being at
his greatest annual diftance. The heat was now
very" moderate ; and few of thofifcinconveniences
to which many countries lying within the tropics
are subject, cither from heat, moisture, feem to
be experienced here. Nor did we find any dews
of confequence ; a cire u mit ance which may partly
be accounted for, by the lower part of the country being deftitute of trees. &*
The rock that conftitutes db&vfides of the valley,
is a dark-grey ponderous ftone; but honeycombed, with fome fpots of a tufty colour, and
fome very minute mining particles interfperfed.
It is of an immenfe depth, and feems to be divided into Jirata\ though rjfithing is interpofed;
for the large pieces always broke off to a determinate thicknefs, and did not appear to have adhered to thofe that were below them. Other ftones
are, in all probability, much more various than
in the fotjÉaern iflands. For, during the fhort
time we remained here, befides the lapis lydius,
we found a fpecies of cream-coloured whetstone,
fometimes variegated with whiter or blacker veins,
&kç marble \ and common writing flate, as well
i i66"
as fome of a coarfer Çoip^U^à^&maJàvm brought
us fome pieces of a coarfer whifMl pumice ftone.
We all procured a brown fort oîh&watites, whiyj^
from its being ferongly iifitracied by the magèc^a
difcovered the quantity of metal it contained.
What we faw of this was cut artificially, as were
aHb tbe fiâtes and whetftones.
Besides the vegetable-purchafed by us as refreshments, among whiefevrtaft, at leaft, five or
fix varieties of plantains, the ifland produces
breadfruit : this* jfQ&ever, feems to be Scarce, as
we only faw one tree of that fpecieKJl^ffhere are
alfo a few cocoa-palms ; fome yams ; the. kappe
of the Friendly Iflands, or Virgini^i^i**!^;* the
atooa tree, and odoriferous gardenia, or 'tape jaf
mine. We met with feveral trees * at the dooe
dooe, that bear the oily niȣ, which ateihick upon
a kind of fkewer, and made ufe of as candles.
Our people faw them ufed in the fame manner at
Oneeheow. We were not on fhore at Atooi ijHg
cept in the day time, andAcn we^b&fctfed the
iflanders wearing thefe nuts, hung onuijfcrings,
round their necks. There is a fpfebies of fida, or
Indian mallow ; alfo the morinda citrifolia, which
is here called none ; -a. fpecies of convolvulus ; the
ava, or intoxicating pepper, besides great quantities of gourds. Thefe last grow to a very large
fize, and are of a remarkable variety of fhapes,
which are, perhaps, the effect of art. Upon the
dry fand,. about the village, grew a plant, that had PACIFIC OCEAN.
never been feen by us in this ocean, of the fize of
a common thistle, and prickly ; but bearing a fine
flower, greatly refembling a white poppy.
The fcarlet birds, which were brought for faie,
were never met with alive ; but we faw one fmall
one, about the fize of a canary bird, of a deep
crimfon colour. We alfo faw a large owl, two
brown hawks,a;É&akites, and a wild duck. We
heard from the natives the names of fome other
birds ; among which were the otoo, or blueifh
heron, and the torata, a fort of whimbreL It is
probable that the fpecies of birds-are numero&s,
if we may judge by the quaatiqfâaf fin^^pllow,
green, and fmall, velvet-like, blacksfh feathers
ufed upon the cloaks, and other ornaments, worn
by thefe people.
ÔjËih, and other productions of the fea, were, to
appearance, not various ; as besides the fmali
mackarel, we only faw common mullets ; a fpecies of a chalky colour ; a fmall brownifh rock-
fiih, adorned with blue fpots ; a turtle, which
was penned up in a pond ; and three or four forts
of fifh falted. The few fhell-fifh feen by us were
clSsfly converted into ornaments, though they
were deftâpte of the recommendation either of
beauty or novelty.
The only tame or domestic animals that we
found here were hogs, dogs, and fowls, which
were all of the fame kind that we met with at the
iflands   of the South Pacific.     There were alfo i68
fmall lizards ; and fome rats, refembling thofe of
every ifland which we had hitherto vifited.
The inhabitants  of Atooi are  of the middle
fize, and  in  general,   stoutly made.    They are
neither remarkable for a beautiful fhape, nor for
ftriking features.    Their vifage, particularly that
of the women, is   fometimes round, but others
have it long ; nor can it justly be faid, that th^
are di#înguifhed, as a nation, by any general call
of countenance.    Their complexion is nearly of a
nut  brown; but fome individuals are of a darker
hue.    We  have already mentioned the women as
being little more dekcate than the men in their
formation ;. and we maj^ add, that, with few exceptions they  have little claim to thofe peculiarities that diftinguifh the fex in moft other parts of
the world.    There is, indeed, a very remarkable
equality in the fize, colour and figure, of the natives of both fexes ; upon the whole, however,
they are far from being ugly, and have to all appearance, few natural deformities   of any kind.
Their fkinsis not very foft, nor shining; but their
eyes  and teeth are, for the moft part, pretty good.
Their hair, in general, is straight ; and though it»
natural colour is ufually black, they ftain it, as at
the Friendly and other iflands.    We   perceived
but few  instances of corpulence, and thefe   more
frequently among the women than  the men; but
it was  principally among the latter, that perfonal
defetb were obftrved ; though, if any of them can PACIFIC OCEAN.
lay elaim to a rfhare of beauty, it^ appealed to be
rrmftijK^fpicuous amongft the young men*
They are active, vigi^us, and moft .expert
ffimniers ; leaving their canpes. upon the moft
frivolous occasion, giving under them, and fmim-
ming to others, though at a confiderable diftance. We have frequently feen women,;with
infants at the breaft, wh§n the furf was ^o high
as to prevent their landing in .jfche canoes, leap
overboard, and fwim to the fhone, witfeaafc endangering their little ones.
They appear to be of a frank^ shejarful difpo-
fitian ; and ar-ej{equally free from the fickle levity
which characterizes the inhafeitaftts of Otaheite,
and the Sedate caft wh|eji. is ofafervable amoflag
jnj^iy, of .thofe of fqngataboo. They feem :to
G$}p$$$e % Sociable inte$cpurie with each other ;
and .ex^pipt the prppgnfity tor^bieting, whfch is,
as it were, .innate in moft of the people méikàue
vifiiied in tj^efe Seas, they were exiremfôly iriendry
$>j$s. And it does no ft&all credit to their ïen-
,g^yky, .without flattering ourfelvès, that when
they faw the different articles of our European ma-
nufe&Uire, the^^uJ4anot refrain from exprefling
their aftonifhment, by a/mixture of joy and concern, that feemed tp apply £he jcafe ,as a leffon of
humility to themfelves ; #nd, on every, occasion,
:tj*e$: appeared to have a proper confeioufneft of
their own inferiority.; a behaviour that equally
exempts their national character from the ridicu-
Voi.. II. Z I
lous pride of the more polifhed Japanefe, and of
the ruder native of Greenland. It was pleating to
obferve with what affection the women managed
their infants, and with what alacrity the men contributed their aflittance in fuch a tender office ;
thus dittinguifhing themfelves from thofe favages,
who consider a wife and child as things rather ne-
. ceffary, than desirable, or wort|§r of their regard and efteem.
From the numbers that we faw affembled at
every village, as we coasted along, it may be conjectured, that the inhabitants of this ifland are
pretty numerous. Including the straggling houfes,
there might perhaps be, in the whole ifland sixty
;ibch villages as that near which our mips anchored ; and if we allow fixe perfons to each
houfe, there would be, in every village, five hundred g or thirty thoufand upon the ifland. This
number is by no means exaggerated, for there
Were fometimes three thoufand people, at leaft,
collected upon the beach ; when it coéld not be
fuppofed, that above a tenth part of the natives
were prefent.
The ordinary drefs of both fexes has been already defcribed. The women have often much
larger pieces of cloth wrapped about them, extending from jtfft below the breafts to the hams,
and fometimes lower ; and feveral were obferved
with pieces thrown loofely over their fhoulders,
w hich covered the greateft part of the body ; but   PACIFIC   OCEAN.
the children, when very young, are entirely naked.
They wear nothing upon the head ; but the hair
both of men and women, is cut in various forms;
and the general fafhion, particularly among the
latter, is to have it fhort behind, and long before.
The men frequently had it cut on each fide in
fuch a manner^ that the remaining part fomewhat
refembled thecreft of their caps or helmets, before
$&entioned. Both fexes, however, f^jfeed to be
very carelefs about the hair, and had no combs,
nor any thing of the kind to drefs it with. The
men fometimes itwift it into a numbelMbf feparate
parcels, like the tails of a wig, each about as thick
as a finger ; though moft of thefe which are fo
long as to reach far down the back, are artifici-
pîy fixed upon the head, over their own hair.
Contrary to the general practife of moft of the
iflands of the Pacific Ocean, the people of the
Sandwich Ifles have not their ears perforated, nor
do they were any ornaments in .them.    Both men
and  women   however,   adorn   themfelves    with
necklaces compofed  of bunches of fmall  black
cord, like   our hat-ftring, often above a hundredfold ;   entirely refembling thofe we faw
Woteeoo, except  that, inftead of the two
balls on the middle before, they fix a fmall
of wood, ftone, or fhell, about two inches in
with a broad hook, well poliflied.     They
alfo necklaces of many firings of very fmall
ox of the dried flowers of the Indian mallow
Z  2 fif
they fometimes hang  round their necks a fmarfi
human figure of bone, about the length of three
inches.    The women likewife wear bracefiÉÉôf a
Single flieil, pieces of black wood, with bits ôf
ivory, interfperfed, and neatly poKfhed,  fattened
tjcgether b^^e firing drawn clofely through them ;
or others of hogs-teeth, placed parallel to each
§tfeer, with the  concave part outward, and the
points-cut off^ fome of which, formed only of
large boar's" tufks,  are very eiùgafintèh* The men
fometimes fix on their heads plumes of feathers o#
the tropic bird ; or thofe of cocks, fattened routté
neat polifhed ftiéks, two feet in length ; and, for
the fame purpofe, theyx few the fkin of a white
dog's tail over a ftidk, with its tuft at  the end,
They alfo, not unfrequeatîy, wear on the head a
kind of ornament, of the thicknefs of a finger,
or more, covered with yellow and red feathers,
curioufly varied, and  tied behind ; and, on that
part  of the arm which is  above elbow,  a fort
of broad   fhell-work, grounded upon  net-work.
The men fometimes puncture themfelves upon
their hands or arms, and near the groin ; but fre?
quently we faw no marks at   all ; though a few
individuals had more of this fpecies of ornament
than we had ufually feen. at other places, and cu*
rioufly executed in a great variety of lines and
figures, on the arms  and fore-part of the body.
Contrary to the^uftona of the Friendly and Society
iflands, they do SGfcife, orcu* off, aay part of the PACIFIC OCEAN..
prepuce; hut have it unwerfàBy dra\&* over the
glans, and t|eà with ai firing, tt
There is no appearance of defence, or fb*tifica-
tip», near any of their villages, and the ftou£%
are Scattered about, without the least order.êpome
c£ fchefe habitations are large and commodious,
from ,.fg&y to fifty feet in length, and twenty of
thirty in breads > whik others of them? are coa-
lemp^l^ hovels,    Their figure refembles: thata®!
hay-flacks i or, perhaps, a better idea may be- conceived of them, by fkppofmg the roof of a barn
placed on the ground, m fuch a maaaaer, as €©»
form a high, acute ridge, with tw© k>w fidesr.
The gable at each ^nd corresponding to* the fides,
makes thefe dwôUing-places clofe all ro»»d; m&
they are well thatched with Jbong grafs, which is
laid oa  flender poles►     Tl^r entraîne© k made
either in the end or fM^iand is an oblong hole,
extremely low ; it isr cftert fhut up by a board ©r
planks, fattened together, which ferves as a door ;
but, as it bgs. no hinges, msft be removed occasionally.    No ltgttâ-cBfter*the houfe except bv this
opening ; and though fuch clofe habitations may
be comfortable places of reteeat in bad weather,
they feem but ill-adapted to the warm climate of
this country.   They are kept remarkably cleafc,
and the floors are ftrewedl with dried grafs, over
which mats are .fpread to fit and fleep on.    At
one end stands a bench, about three feet high, on
which the domeftic uteaafils are placecl|p^Hefe
iSii V • 174      A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
confift of gourd-fheils, >»hich the narJH^' convert
into veffels that ferve as bottles to hold water, and
as bafkets to coatain th^fâfood, and other<^fegs ;
and alfo of a few wooden bo wis and trencher#ïrf
various fiées.
From what we faw groasng, and from what
was brought .-to market, we have no doubt, that
fweet potatoes, taro, and plantains, constitute
the principal part of their vegetable diet; and
that yams and bèéad-fruit are rather t&^ confide**
ed as raritia& Of animal food, they appear to be
in no want; as. they have great numbers of hogs*
eifclftch run without restrain", abouta^feMbufes ;
and, É|fe?they eat dogs, which is not altogether
improbable, their flock of thefe 'iSàned very
confiderable. The quantiâi* of fifhing-hooks
found among them, indicated that they procure
a tolerable fupply. of animal food from the fea.
They have a custom of falting-fifh, and likewife
pork, which they prefers in g$&*d-fhells. The
fait, which they ufe for this purpofe, is of a reà-
difh §p]l0ur, but not very coarfe, and feems to be.
nearly the fame with what our stragglers found at
Christmas Ifland. Its colour, is doubtlefs, derived from a mixture of mud, at the^&éttom
of the part where it is  formed ; for fome of it,
a*wich had adhered in lumps, was of a tolerable
w hi tenets.  :
They bake^sfir vegetable articles of food véik
hg$ted ftones ;. and,. from the great quantity which
^e faw (Irefled at one time, wig imagined, tfeat PACIFIC  OCEAN.
^11 the inhabitants of a village, or at leaft, a confiderable number of people,- joined in the ufe of a
^aammon oven. We didimot perceive them drefs
any animal food at this ifland; but Mr. Gore's
party, as has  been already&Egntioned, obferved
-«bat k was dreffed at Oneeheow in the fame kind of
ovens, which makes it highly probable tha&tHtfeas-
alfo the practice in Atooi ; particularly as^feèmet
.;wkh no utçUfii there, that could ferve the purpofe
of boittftg or slewing.    The only artificial difhrile
-faw was a taro pudding ; which, though vestylipfcr,
was devoured with avidity by the natives. Tb«y
eat off a fort of wooden trencher!; and as far as
we were enabled to judge from one iratance, the
women, if reftrained from feeding at the fame difh
?:with the men, as is the âiftom af j@feAçite, are, at
leaft, allo^pl to eat ia the fame place near them.
The amufements of thefe people:F^« ^mraife.
We did not fe^jthc daopes at which theyvnfe the
feathered cloaks and caps; but, from the motions which they made wj&h their harjtd& on other
occasions, when they fung, we judged that they
were fomewhat similar to thofe we had teiet^lv
at the fouthern iflands, though not fo lkilfully
performed. They had not among thera, eititer
flutes or reeds ; an<|$fce only two mufic?tl instruments, feen by us, were of. an extremes y rude
kind. One of them does not produce a melody
fuperior to that of a child's rattle. It confias
of what may be deneriifeffted a conic caifci&rett-
y ij6
«d, fcut very iittte fc^lowed at the bafe, made of
a fedge-like plant ; the upper part of which, and
Ihfcewife the sedges, are embéllilhed with beautiful red feathers 4 and to the point, or lower part,
is a fixed |«aa*<Mhell. Into ûità they put fome-
thing $q «attle, whkfr^fe done by holding the
Instrument by the fmall part, and fhaking it
hrifkly ^efoTe ithe face, at the fame time ftrrfctïig^
tfee ibreatft wish ithe other hand. The other in-
ftrnmear, was a hollow veffel of wood, nèf%nlike
*&$ftatter, combined with the ufe of tw^i^fticks,
©n which one 3*f our gentlemen obferved a man
perfoianiiïg. He held one of the erafcks, about
two ;feet in length, with one hâ^ftî, in the fame
.irnamaer asitwe hdKÉ^rttàolin, and ftpyck it wffh
the otfPsr, which *was fmaller, andljfêfembled a
ûriàti^Mtk, in a quicker or fft&rer meafure;
heating with his foot at the filme time upon the
hollow vesTel, that '4ay upon the ground inverted, -and thus producing a tune, that was not
«IHagrfcfable. This mufic was accompanied by
the trocal perfbresenee of -fome women, whofe
fong h ad a pleasing effect.—
Thè^c&aite-great numbers of fmall polifhed
'reds, of ^fte length of between four and five
feet, rither fhifcker than the ranimer of a muf-
jquet, ^srith a tuft of long white dog?s hw fixed
'pa thxt fmall >«fid. Thefe they probably make
ufe of their diverfions. We faw a native take
«me of ithem inhis-hifcd, and, holpbg it up,  give     PACrFlC OCEAN.
a frriart ftroke, till it was brought into an ho*
ifeontal position, striking the ground with his
foot, .blithe fame sideband beating his breaft with
his other hand. They play at bowls with pieces
of the whet-ftone above-mentioned, fhaped fome-
w*hat like a fmall cheefe, but rounded at the edges
Hid fides, which are very neatly polifhed. They
have other bowls made of a reddifh-brown. clay,
glazed over with a compofiton of the fame colour, or oPm courfe dark-grey flate. They alfo
vie-, as quoits, fmall flat roundifh pieces of the
Writing flate, Scarcely a quarter of an inch thick.
In the different manufactures of thefe people,
there appears to be an extraordinary degree of
ingenuity and neatnefs. Their cloth is made
from the morns papyrifera, and, doubtless, in the
fame manner, as at Tongataboo and Otaheite ;
for wé bought fome of the grooved flicks with
which they beat it. Its texture, however, though
thicker, is inferior to that of the cloth of either
'' of the places juft mentioned ; but in colouring or
Pining it, the inhabitants of Atooi difplay a
superiority of tafte, by the infinite variety of figures which they execute. Their colours, indeed, are not very bright, except the/red ; but the
regularity of the figures and stripes is amazing ;
for, as far as we know, they have nothing like
stamps or prints, to make the impreflions. We
had no opportunity of learning in what manner
they   produce   their   colours ;   but,  besides the
Vol. IL~n<
A a 	
variegated forts, they have Some pieces of plain
white cloth, and others of a Single colour, particularly light blue, and dark-brown. In general, the pieces brought to us were about the
breadth of two feet, and four or five yards in
length, being*the form and quantity made ufe of
by them for their common drefs, or maro ; and
even fome of thefe were compofed of pieces Sewed together. They have alfo aj particular fort
that is thin and greatly refembles oil-cloth ; and
which is either oiled or Soaked in Some kind of
• varnifh. They fabricate numbers of white mats,
which were strong, with many red stripes, rhom-
bufes, and other figures interwoven on one fide.
Thefe in all probability, occasionally make a part
of their drefs ; for, when they offered $iem to
fale, they put them on their backs. They manufacture others of a coarfer fort, plain and strong,
which they Spread over their floors," to fleep
They itain their gourd-fhells neatly with undu- j
rated lines, triangles, and other figures of a black
colour. They alfo fee m . to be acquainted with
the art of varnifhing ; for fome of thefe stained
gourd-fhells are covered with a fort of lacker;
and, on other occafions, they make ufe of a Strong
fize, or glutinous Substance, to fallen things together. Their wooden difhes and bowls, out
of which they drink their ava, are of the etooa
tree, or cardia, extremely neat and well poliflied. PACIFIC   OCEAN.
They likewife make fmall fquare fans of mat or
wicker-work, with handles of the fame, or of
Wood tapering from them, which are curioufly
wrought with fmall cords of hair, and cocoa-nut
fibres, intermixed. Their fifhing-hooks are ingeniously made ; fome of bone, many of pearl-
fliell, and others of wood, pointed with bone.
The bones are for the moft part fmall, and con-
Û&. of two pieces ; and the various Sorts have a
barb, either on jhe inside, like ours, or on the
outfide ;, but others have both, the exterior one
being farthest from the point. Of the latter Sort
one was procured, nine inches in length, made of
a Single piece of bone ; the elegant form and
poliih of which, could not be exceeded by any
European artift. They polifh their Stones, by
confiant friction, with pumlee-ftone in water ;
and Such of their tools as we» faw, refembled
thofe of the fouthern Iflanders, Their hatchets.
or rather adzes, were exactly of the fame pattern,
and were either formed of a blackifh ftone, or
oS a clay-coloured one. They have alfo Small
inftruments compoSed of a Single fhark's tooth,
fome of which are fixed to the fore-part of the
jaw-bone of a dog, and others to a thin wooden
handle of a Similar fliape ; and at the other end
there is a bit of firing fattened through a little
hole. They ferve occasionally as knives, and
are, probably, uSed in carving.
The only  iron-tools %eri   among  them,' and
which they poffefled before our arrival, were a
piece of iron-hoop, about the length of two inches,
fitted into a wooden handle ; and another edge?
tool, which we SuppoSed to   have been made of4
the  point of a broad fword.    Their having the
actual poffeflion pf thefe,   and their being well
acquainted with  the ufe   of this metal, jilaHiK^E*
fome of our people to imagine that we were not*
the firft European visitors of thefe iflands.    Bu$
the very  great furprize which  they testified  ors
feeing pur fhips, and their perfect ignofièçe of
the ufe of fire-arms, cannot be reconciled with
fuch an opinion.      There are  feverà^fimeans hy
which fuch people may obtain pieces pf iron, or
acquire the knowledge  of the existence of that
metal,  without having  had an immediate  connection with thofe nations that ufe it.      It cafe
Scarcely be doubted, that it was unknown tp alf
the inhabitants of the Pacific Ocean, till Magellan led the way into it ; for no navigator, immedif
ately after his voyage, found any of this metal^B
their poffeflion ; though, in the courte of pur late
voyages, it has been remarked, that the ufe*ia|
it was  known at feveral iflands,   whichejÉi former European veftel had ever, to our knowledge,
yifited.    At all the places where Mesndana touefjr
ed, during his two voyages, fome of it muft.have
been left ; and this would, doubtlefs, exteœl the
knowledge of it   to all-the various iflands wit!} PACIFIC OCEAN.
<wt$ch the people, whom he visited, had any ka^
mediate intercourfe. It might even have been
carried Sarther ; and where Specimens oS this valuable article could not be met with, descriptions might, in Some degree, "Serve to make it
known, when afterwards Seen. The next voyage
to the Southward of the equator, in which any
intercourfe was had with the people who inhabit
the iflands of this ocean, was that of Quiros, who
landed at §agittaria, the ifland of Handfome People, and at Tierra del Efpiritu Santo ; at all which
plants, as well as at thofe with which they had
any communication, it muft undoubtedly have
beeq. made known. To him fucceeded, in this
navigation, Le Maire, and Schouten, whofe egg»
hectjons with the natives began much farther to
the eastward, and terminated at Cocos and Horn
iflanjls. It is certain, that the inhabitants of Ota-
heita, and the Society Ifles, had a knowledge of
ii*on? and purchafed it with the greatest avidity,
whem Captain Wallis difcovered Otaheite ; and
they could only have ajpmired this knowledge
through the mediation of thofe neighbouring
Jiailjls at which it had been originally left. They
acknowledge, indeed, that this was really the
cafe ; and they have since informed us, that they
held it in fuch estimation, before the arrival of
Captai^Wallis, that an Otaheitean chief, who
had gained poffeflion of two nails, received rip
DiBaJl emolument, by letting out  the ufe of them IB2-
to his neighbours, for the purpofe of borijte
holes. The natives of the Society Iflands, whom
we found at Wateeoo, had been driven to that
place long after the knowledge and ufe of isafct
had been thus introduced among their countrymen ; and though^-perhaps, they had no Specimen ôf it with them, they would naturally coj|3|
munioate at that ifland, by diScription, their
knowledge oS this uSeful metal. From the people
of Wateeoo, again, thofe of Hervey's Ifland.
might derive that inclination for it, of .which we
had Sufficient proofs during oar fhort intercourse
with them.
The consideration of the facts will fhew,
how the knowledge of iron has been conveyed
throughout the Pacific Ocean, to iflands which
have never had an immediate connection with
Europeans ; and it may easily be imagined, that,
wherever the history of it only has been reported, or a very inconsiderable quantity of il has
been left, the greater eagernefs will be fhevyn by
the inhabitants to procure plentiSul Supplies" oS
it. The application of thefe particulars, to the
object of our prefent consideration, is maéifeft.
The natives of Atooi and Oneeheow, without
having ever been visited by Europeans befofe us,
might have received this metal from intermediate iflands, Situated between them and the-jSj?
drones which the Spaniards have frequented almost ever Since the period of Magellan's voyage. PACIFIC OCEAN.
Or,   if the distant   western   position of the La-
drones,   fhould   detract  from the probability  of
JÊpi'folution, is there not the American continent
to windward, where the Spaniards have been fettled for upwards of two centuries and a half: during which long fpace of time, fhipwrecks muft frequently have happened on its coasts ? It cannot be
deemed furprizing that part of fuch wrecks, containing iron, fhould, by the easterly trade-winds,
be occasionally caft upon fome of thofe iflands
which are difperfed about this immenfe ocean.—
The diftance of Atooi from America, is no argument against this Supposition ; and even iSit were,
it would not 'destroy it.    This ocean is annually
traverfed by Spanifli veffels ; and it is highly probable,  that,  besides   the   accident of losing a maft
and  its appendages, cafks  with iron-hoops,  and
many other things that  contain iron, may Sail,
or be thrown overboard during So long a paffage,
and thus find their wray to land.    TheSe are not
mere conjectures ; for one of Captain Cook's people actually faw fome wood in a houfe at Wymoa,
which he fuppofed to be fir : it was worm-eaten,
and the natives informed him, that it had been
driven afhore by the waves ; and we had their
own exprefs testimony, that they had obtained,
from fome place to the -eaftward,  the fpecimens
of iron found among them. i84        A VOYAGE ÎOTHË
From this digreffion (if it can justly be called
fo) let us return to the obfervations made during
our continuance at Atooi.    The canoes of thefe
people are commonly about four and twenty feet
in length, and have the bottom, in general, formed of a Single  picee  of wood,  hollwed   outljffl
the thicknefs   of an inch, or more,  and brought
to a point at each end.   The fides are compofed
of three boards,  each about an inch thick; neatly
fitted and lafhed to the bottom.    The extremis
ties, both at head and Stern, are a little elevat*
ed, and both are made fharp, Somewhat refembling a wedge, but they flatter   more  abruptly,
fo that the two fide-boards join each other, fide
byf fide, for upwards of a Soot.    As they Seldom
exceed a foot and a half in breadth, thofe that
go Single (for they fometimes join them) have out*
riggers, which are fhaped and fitted with more
judgment than any we had before   feen.    They
are rowed by paddles, fuch as we had generally
obferved at   other  iflands ;   and  fome   of them
have a light triangular fail, extended to a maft
and boom.    The ropes which they uSe for their
boats, and the  Smaller  cords for   their  fifhing-
tackles, are Strong, and neatly made. '
They are  by  no   means novices in the art of
agriculture.    The   vale-ground  is   one continued   plantation of iaro,  and  fome other articles^
which have all the appearance of being carefully
attended   to.    The   potatoe-fields, and  fpots   of   1
fiigar-cane, or plantains, on the higher grounds,
.are planted with great regularity ; but neither
theSe, nor the others, areençlofed with any fence,
unlets we consider the Pitches in the low grounds
as fuch ; which, it is more probable, are designed to convey water to the taro. The great quantity and excellence of thefe articles, may perhaps
be as much owing to .Skilful culture, as natural
fertility of foil, which Seems better adapted to
them tha|i|tô bread-fruit and cocoa-nut trees ;
the few we faw of thefe latter not being in a thriving flate. Notwithstanding this fkill in agriculture, the ifland, from its general appearance, feemed to be capable of more extensive improvement,
and of mantaining thrice as many inhabitants
as are now Upon it ; for the greater part of it,
that g#w lies watte, was apparently as good a foil
as thofe parts that are cultivated. It muft therefore be inferred, that thefe people do not increafe
in that proportion, which, would render it ne-
ceffary for them to take advantage of the extent
iof their iflands, towards raiting a greater quantity
ÊÊ its vegetable productions for their maintenance.
Though Captain Cook did not fee a chief of
any note, there were, however, feveral, as the
iflanders informed^, who reside at Atooi, and
to whom they proftrati^hemSelves as a mark of
homage and refpect. This prostration feems
equivalent to the moe moea, paid to the chiefs of
the  Friendly Iflands,   and   is here   denominated
b 1 m
hamoea, or moe. Whether they were, at firff,
afraid to fhew themfelves, or happened to be ab-
fent, we cannot determine ; but after the Refo-
lution had left the ifland, one of thefe great men
made his appearance, and visited Captain Clerke
on board the difcovery ; he came off in a double
canoe ; and, like the fovereign of the Friendly
Ifles, paid no regard to the fmall canoes that
chanced to be in his way, but ran against, or
over them, without making the least attempt to
avoid them. And it was impoffible for thefe
poor people to avoid him, for they could not then
manage their canoes ; it being a neceffary mark
of their fubmiffion, that they fhould lie down till
he had paffed. His attendants aflifted him in
getting on board the fhip, and placed him in the
gang-way, where they Stood round him, holding
each other by the hands; nor would they Suffer
any one to approach him but Captain Clerke
himSelf. IJe was a young man, apparelled Srom
head to foot, and was accompanied by a young
woman, who was perhaps his wife. His name
was Sard to be Tamahano. Captain Clerke halting made him Some prefents, received from him,
in return, a large bowl, Supported by two figures
of men, the carving of which difplayed fome degree of fkill, both with refpect to the defign and
the execution. This bowl ufed to be filled \$l|p
the kava, or ova, (as it is termed at Otaheite),
which liquor is prepared and  drank here as at PACIFIC OCEAN.
die other iflands oS the Pacific Ocean. Captain
Clerke could not prevail upon this chieS to go
below, nor to move from the fpot where his attendants had firft placed him. After remaining
■fome time in t|e fhip, he was carried back into
his canoe, and returned to the ifland. The following day, feveral meffages were fent to Captain Clerke, inviting him to return the vifit on
ihore, and giving him to understand, that the
chief had prepared a confiderable prefent for the
occasion 5 but the Captain being anxious to get
out to fea, and join the ReSolution, did not think
proper to accept of the invitation.
The fhort and imperfe<5fc intercourSe we had
with the natives, did not enable us*wform any
accurate judgement* of the form of government
eftablifhed amongst them ; but, from the general
ip$Marity of cuftoms, and particularly from what
we obServed of the honours paid to their chiefs,
it Seems reaSonable to imagine, that it is of the
fame nature with that which prevails in all the
iâands we had hitherto visited ; and, in all probability, their wars among themSelves are equally
frequent. This, indeed, might be inferred, from
the number of weapons which we found in their
poffeflion, and from the excellent order in which
they kept them. But we had proofs of the fact
from their own confetti on ; and, as we were informed, t h eSe wars are carried on between the
different dîftricts of their owm ifland, as well as
Bb? .i
between it and thiftiieighbouring inhabitants of
the ifles of Oneeheow and Oreèhoua. We Scarcely
need aflign any other cauSe befides* this, to account Sor the appearance, before-mentioned, of
their population got being prpportioned to the
extent of their ground that is capable of cultivation.
Betides their fpeafs1, formed of a fine brwnifh
wood, beautifully polifhed fome of which are
barbed at one end, and flattened to a point at the
other, they had a kind of weapon which we had
never met with before. It Somewhat refembles
a dagger, ancp*is, in general, about eighteen
inches in length ; sharpened at one or both ends,
and fecured to the hai$tnby a firing. Its ufe is
to flab in çlofe combat, and it feems well adapted to that purpofe. Some of thefe may be denominated double daggers, having a handle in
the middle, with which they lie the better enabled
to Strike different ways. They have likewhe
bows and arrows; but both from'tffir flender
construction, and their apparent fcarcity, it is
probable that they never mak'ê^Wfe of them in
battle. The knife or faw, already mentioned,
with which they diffect the dead boffleis of their
enemies, may alfo be ranked among their weapons as they both strike and cut with it when
engaged in clofe fight. It is a fmall flat wooden
instrument, about a foot in lerïgfffij of an oblong
fhape, rounded at the corners : its edges are fur»; PACIFIC OCEAN.
rounded with fhark's tedth Strongly fixed to°^
and pointing .outwards ; ari^dt has generally a
hole in the handle, through which gaffés a ÈOïig
string, which they wrap Several times roulid the
i?&£ft. We alfo conjectured, that they ufê flings
on fome occafions ; for rwé procured fome piece's
of th®oi)amatites or blood-Stone, artificially made
oS an  oval form, longitudinally divided with a
>narrbw groove in the middle of the convex part.
iUti;thk the perfon who had one of them applied a thin cord, but would not difpofe of it, though
he   was  not unwilling to part with  the  ftôné,
'HÉich, as it weighed 3Eâ|fficuad, mutt prove fatal
when thrown a$âth fome degree of force. We
likewife faw fome pieces of whàgfïpnè neatly pocked, of an oval figure, but Somewhat pointed
towards each  end ;   nearly refembling in fhapè
Ihœe ftones feen by Captain Cook at NeW Gale*
donia in 1774^ and made ufe of there in flings.
As  fomedîof their  religious  institutions,   and
their method of difpofing of their dead, ftrong-
ll^tefcdicate an affinity between the manners of
thefe people and of the natives of the Friendly
and Society Iflands, we will mention a few par-
ticulars that will ferve to place this in a ftrik&ig
point of view. The inhahbàfits of Torig^taboo
bury their dead with great decency, and they alfo
inter their human Sacrifices; but they do not, to
our knowledge, offer any other animal, or even
-iPfgetahle, to thdir deities.    The Otaheiteans do *9°      A   VOYAGE  T©   THE
not inter their dead, but exîpoSe them to watte
by time and putrefaction, though they afterwards
bury the bones ; and, this being the cafe, it is
remarkable, that they fhould inter the intiîe bodies of their human Sacrifices.    They alfo offer
up, to their gods, other animals and vegetables ;
but are far from being attentive to the condition,
of the places, where they celebrate thofe Solemn
rites ; moft of their  morals, being  in a ruinous
State,   and  fhewing  manifest  tokens  of negle®*
The people oS Atooi, again, bury, both their common dead, and their human Sacrifices, as at Tongataboo ;   but they reSemble  thoSe  oS Otaheite,
in offering vegetables and animais to their gods,
and in the neglected flate oS their religioufe^places.
The taboo alSo prevails in Atôoi, itt its Sull extent, and apparently with greater ftrictnefs than
even at Tongataboo.    For the natives  here always afked, with great eagernefs, and" with indications of a fear of offending, whether any particular thing, which they defired  to fee, or we
were unwilling to  fhew, was taboo, or (as they
pronounced  the word) tafoo?    The mai raa, or
prohibited articles at the Society Iflands, though
uj^ffoubtedly the Same thing, did not appear to
be So rigoroufly jobferved by them,  except with
regard to the dead -: reSpeiâing whom we thought
them more Superftijfeps than any oS the others
were.    Theffe, however,   are cbciianftances con-
É^gg^wjnpb we cannot pretend to Speak  deci- PACIFIC   OCEAN.
fively; and we Shall only obServe, to fhew the
fiœilitude in other points connected with religion, that the tabounas, or priefts, Seem to be as
numerous here as at the other iflands.
But whatever reSemblance we might diScovef
between the general manners oS the inhabitants
of Atooi, and thofe of Otaheite, thefe were lefs
Striking than the*fimilarity of language. Indeed,
the languages of both places may be faid to be
almoft entirely the Same. The people of Atooi,
in general, have neither the Strong guttural pronunciation of the New-Zealanders, nor that
Smaller degree of it, which alfo diftinguifhes the
Friendly Iflanders ; and they have not only adopted the foft mode of the Otaheitans, in avoiding
harfh founds, but the whole idiom of their language ; making!|spfe of the fame affixes and suffixes to their words, and the fame meafure and
cadence in their Songs ; at firft*hearing, indeed, a
ftranger may perceive fome disagreement ; but
it fhould be confidered, that the natives of Otaheite, from their frequent connections with the
Englifh, had learned, in fome meafure, to adapt
themfelves to our imperfect knowledge of their
language, by ufing the moft common and even
corrupted expreflions in conversation with us ;
whereas, when they talked with each other, and
uSed the Several parts neceffary to propriety of
Speech, they were hardly at all understood by thofe
among us, who  had made the greatest progrefs *P ^VOYAGE  TO).fËË
in the knowledge oS their vocabulary. A lift of
words was collected at Atooi, by the indefatigable
Mr. Anddrfgn, who embraced every opportunity
of rendering our voyage ufeful to thofisfca who
fcrnufe themfelves in tracing the emigrations of
the various tribes that have peopled the globd,
by the moft convincing of all arguments, that
drawn from the .coincidence of language.
How Widely has this nation diffufed itfelf, in
So many detached iflands, So far distant from each
other, in every quarter of the Paei$sa$plcean'!
We find h% from New-Zealand, in. the fouth, as
far as the Sandwich Iflands to the northward ; and,
in another direction* from Eaftern Ifland, to the
New Hebrides: that is, over an extent of fixty
degrees of latitude, or three thoufand fix hundred
miles, north and fouth ; and eighty three degrees
of longitude, or four thoufand nine hundred and
eighty miles, east and weft! How much farther,
in either of thofe directions, its colonies reach, is
not known ; but, from what we are already acquainted with, we are authorized in pronouncing
it to be the moft extensive nation upon earth*
though, perhaps, not the moft numerous.
If the Sandwich Iflands had been difcovered
at an early period, by the Spaniards, they would
doubtlefs have availed themfelves of fo excellent
a fituation, and have made ufe of Atooi, or fome
other of the iflands, as a place of refrefhment for
the mips, that fail annually between Manilla and
Acapulco. They lie almost midway between the
îaft mentioned place and Guam, one of the La-
drones, which is at prefent their only port in
traverfing this vaft ocean ; and it would not have
been a week's Sail out of their ordinary route, to
have touched at them. An acquaintance with
the Sandwich Ifles would alSo have been equally
favourable to our Buccaneers ; whq^ave Sometimes paffed from the coaft of America to the
Ladrones, with a flock of provisions and water
fcarcely adequate to the Support of life. Here
they might always have met with a plentiful fup-
ply, and have been within a month's Sail oS the
very part of California, which the Manilla fhip is
Obliged to make. How happy would Lord An-
fon have been, and what difficulties would he
have avoided, had he known that there was a
clufter of iflands, half way between America and
Tinian, where all his wants might have been effectually relieved !
Vol. IL—n° io.
C c A V O Y A G E T O T HE
CHAP.    XIlpp
flfë/èrvœt lotis on the Longitude, Tides, & c.—Proceed
on the Voyage—Weather remarkably mild as far
as the Latitude 440 North—Scarcity of Oceanic
Birds in the Nôfh em Hemifphere*—Beautiful
Sea-Animals defcribed, fuppofed by Mr. Ander-
foiv to be anew fpeâes- of Onifcus—See  the Coajl
Ifll^ Nortk-'America-^Defcription of the Country—•
Difficulty at Cape Foulweather—Stornry and
ten^^j^^hWeat/jer—Siriclures on Martin dy
Agmlâr's River--*Fallacy ofjfuan de Fucœ's pretended Strmt—An Inlet difcovered—The Ships
ancfagt^theré,  and are vifited by Numbers of the
^Ndtme^-Their Behaviour.
t » VHE Difcovery having joined' us,. We flood
JL away to the northward, with a gentle gale
from the east. The tides are So inconsiderable at
the Sandwich Iflands, that with the great Surf j
breaking against the fhore, it was difficult, at al£
times éfc know whether we had high or low waiter, or wether it ebbed or flowed. Oh the fouth
fide of Atooi, a current generally Set to the wefl>
ward, or north-weftward. But, when we were at"
anchor off Oneeheow, we found a current Setting
nearly north-weft and South-east, fix hours each
way. This was doubtleSs a regular tide, and the
flood appeared to come trom the north-weft.
But, to avoid digreflion, on  Saturday' the fm
of February, we were in the latitude of 290 north
and in the longitude of 200° east, fhe wind veering tcnRÏuth-eaft.    We fleered north-eaft and eBfc
till the 12th, when the wlBÏPfïad veered round to
north-eaft and eaft-north-earW- ;iWe  then  tacked
and flood to the noiprward, being in the latitude
of 300  north, and in the longitude of 2060   15
eaft.    In tltts advanced latitude, and  even in the
winter feafon, we had only begun to feel a fefWF
tion of cold  in   the mornings and  evenings ;   a
proof of the equal aid durable influence of the
heat of the fun, at ail times, to 300 on each fide
the line.    After that, the disproportion is known
to become very  great    This muft be principally
attributed to the direction of the fun's rays, independent of the bare   diftance,   wiiich is   not
equal to   the   effect,    On Thurfday the 19th   of
February,   the wind veered to fouth-eaft, and we
were again enabled to fleer to the eaft, inclining
a little to the north.    On the 25th,   we reached
the latitude of 420 30', and the longitude of 219°;
when we' began  to   meet with the  rock-weed,
mentlê&èd in Lord Anton's voyage, by the name
of fea-leek,   which is generally feen byx the Manilla fhips.   Sometimes a piece of wood appeared ; but, if we had not known that we were near
the continent of North America, we might have
fuppofed, from the few Signs of vicinity of land
that we had feen, that we were not within Some
1 196
thoufand leagues of any. Since we left Sandwich
Iflands we had hardly beheld a bird, or any other
oceanic anima1.
On the ill of March, we had a calm day,
which was Succeeded by a windj^rom the north,
with which we Stood to the east, intending to
make land. We ought to have been near it, ac*
cording to the charts. Such moderate and mild
weather appeared to us very extraordinary, wheiij
we were So Sar north, and fo near an extensive
cp|Éinent, at this time of the year. Thefeafon.'
muft have bee^remarkably mild, for Sir Francis;
I>rake met with very fevere||^old, about this la-^
titude, even in the month of June*. Vifcaino^
indeed, who was in the Same part of the world,
in the depth of winter, hardly ta^fe notice of thea
cold, and mentions a ridge of fnowy mountains,
on this,coaft, as Something extraordinary j-.
It is a fingurlar circumstance,   that we fhouldf
meet with So   few birds,   compared  to thofe w$
faw in the lame latitudes, to the fouth of |^$u(ke£l
This muft either proceed from a Scarcity of them,
or from a  deficiency of œftîng-places.     HeçK^a
it may be concluded, that,   in the fouthern he-
mifphere, beyond 400, the fpecies are much more,
numerous, and the iflands  more plentifully Scat-
*  See Sir Francis Drake's Voyage, in Campbell's Edition
of Harris,  vol. i. p.  18.
f Vanega's Hi ft. of California, vol. it. p.  229»
tered, than any where near that latiti||&, between
the coaft of California and Japapg^
On the morning of the 2d, during a calm
part of the fea appeared to be covered with a kind
of flime, and fome fmall fea animals were feen
Swimming about. ThoSe which were moft contiguous, were of the gelatinous kind, almoft
globular ; a smaller fort had a white or Shining
appearance, and were in great abundance. Some
of the latter were put into a glats cup, with Some
Salt water ; and, when in a prone fituation, they
appeared like Small Scales or pieces of Silver.
When they Swam about, which they did with
equal eaSe in various directions, they emitted, tteî
brightest colours of the moft valuable gems, according to their position refpecting the light.
At one time they appeared pellucid, at another
4}fplaying the various tints of blue, from a tap-»
phirine to a voilet, mixed with a kind of ruby,
and glowing with Sufficient ftrengh to illuminate
the glafs and water. When the veflel was held
to the Strongest light, the tints appeared moft
vivid ; but almoft vanifhed when the animals Subsided to the bottom, and they had then a brownifh
appearance. By càôdle-light, the colour, was
principally, a beautiful pale green, with a kind
of burnifhed glofs ; and, in the dark, it faintly
exhibited a glowing fire.
They are a new fpecies of onifcus and were
called, by Mr. Anderfon, onifcus fulgcns ; being iqS
■ ;   »
Suppofed to be an animal that contributes to that
lucid appearance, often obferved at Sea, in the
night. Two large birds Settled, this day on the
water, near the fhip. One was the procellaria
maxima ; and "fl|e other, oS little more than halS
the magnitude of the former, appeared to be of
the albatrofs kind. It was larger than a fea-gull,
but reSembled it in other refpects. About noon,
on the 6th, we beheld two feals, and feveral
whales ; and early the next morning, the long*
expected coaft oS New Albion * was Seen, at the
diftance often or twelve leagues, extending from
north-eaft to fouth eaft. At noon, we were in
the latitude of44° 33'north, and in the longitude
of 235P 20' eaft and the land about eight leagues
We had now feventy-three fathoms water,
over "a muddy bottom, and found ninety fathoms
about a league farther off. The land, which was
of a moderate height, appeared to be diversified
with hills and vallies, and principally covered
with wood. No very Striking object, however,
preSented itfelf, except an high hill, with a flat
fummit, which bore eaft Srom us at noon. The
land formed a point at the northern extreme,
which Captain Cook named Cape Fouliveather,
from the exceeding bad weather we afterwards
met with.
So .named   by Sir Francis Drake
After variable light airs and calms, at eight
o'clock in the evening of 7th, a breeze fprung
up at fouth-weft. We Stood to the north-weft,
under an eafy Sail, entending to range along the
coaft at day light. But, the next morning, at
four, the wind having fhifted to north-weft, it
blew in fqualls, with rain. Till near ten o'clock
our courte was north-eaft : but* not being able
to make any progrefs on this tack, and feeing nothing that had the appearance of an harbour, we
tacked, and flood off fouth-weft. Cape Foul-
Weather, at this time, bore north-eaii by north,
distant about eight leagues.
In the evening of the 8th, the wind veered to
the north-weft, with fqualls, hail, and fleet -f
and, the weather being hazy and thick, we flood
out to Sea till about noon the next day, when we
flood in again Sor the land, which we Saw at two
in the afternoon, bearing eaft-north-eaft. In the
evening, the wind veered more to the weft, and
the weather grew worfe, which obliged us to tack
and ft and off till about four the next morning,
when we flood in again, In the afternoon, at
four, we difcovered the land, which, at fix, was
about eight leagues distant. Here we tacked,
and founded, but could not reach the ground
with a line of one hundred and Sixty fathoms.
We flood off till near midnight, and then flood
in again. At half past fix, the next morning, wre
were about three leagues from the land.    Seeing 2O0
nothing like a harbour, and the weather continuing untettled, we tacked and stretched off South-
weft, having then fifty-five fathoms water.
The land which we approached, when we tacked, is moderately high, but, in many places, it
rifes Still higher within. It is diversified with
hills and rising grounds, many of which are covered with tall Straight trees ; and others, which
were not So high, grew in Spots, like clumps or
coppices ; but the Spaces between, and the fides
oS the riling grounds, were clear.
Though, perhaps, as a Summer profpect, this
might be very agreeable, yet at this SeaSon, it had
an uncomfortable appearance, the bare grounds
along the coaft being covered with fnow, which
feemed to lie in abundance between hills and
rising grounds ; and in many places, towards the
fea, had, at a diftance, the appearance of white
cliffs. On the rising grounds, the Snow was thinner Spread ; and Sarther inland, there Seemed to
be none at all. Hence it might, perhaps, be
concluded, that the Snow which we had Seen towards the Sea, had fallen the proceeding night ;
which was, indeed the coldest we had expert
enced Since our arrival on that coaft ; and a kind
of fleet Sometimes Sell.
The coaft appeared almoft straight in every
part, not having any opening or inlet, and terminating in a kind of white fanday beach ; though
it was imagined by fome on board, that fuch ap- PACIFIC  OCÉAN.
péâfâncé was owing to the Snow. Each extreme
of the land fhot out into a point ; the northern
one was that which we had Seen on the 7th, and
therefore Captain Cook called it Cape Perpétua.
Its latitude is 44° 6' north, and its longitude
235° 52' eaft. The fouthern extreme the Commodore named Cape Gregory. It lies in the latitude of 43° 30', and in the longitude 2350 $f
eaft. This point is rendered remarkable, by the
land of it rising immediately from the fea, to a
tolerable height, and that on each fide of it is
very low. We flood off till almoft one in the
afternoon, and then tacked and flood in, hoping
in the night, to have the wind off from the land.
We were, however, mistaken, for, at five o'clock
it veered to the weft and South-weft, which induced us once more to Stand out to Sea.
Cape Perpétua now bore north-eaft by north ;
and the Sartheft land to the South of Cape Gregory, bore South by eaft, distant about ten or
twelve leagues. Its latitude will therefore be
43° 10', and its longitude 2350 55' eaft. This is
nearly the Situation of Cape Blanco, difcovered
the 19th of January,  1603, by Martin d'Aguilar.
WfÊk remarkable that, in this very latitude, Geographers have placed a large entrance or ftrait,
'afcribing the difcovery of it to the fame navigator ; whereas nothing more is mentioned in his
* Voyage, than his having difcovered a large river
Bd 202
in this fituation, which he would have entered,»
but was hindered by the currents.
The wind was now very unfettled, and blew
in fqualls, with fnow fhowers. At midnight,
it fhifted to weft-north-weft, and prefently in-
created to a very hard gale with heavy fqualls,
and fleet, or fnow. We had not a choice now,
but were obliged to Stretch to the Southward, to
get clear oS the coaft. This was done under
more fail than the fhips could bear with fafety,
but it was abfolutely neceflary to avoid the more
imminent danger of being forced on fhore. This/
gale abated at eight o'clock in the morning of
the 13th, and then we flood in again for the land.
The wind remained at weft and north-weft.
Storms, breezes, and calms, alternately fucceed-
ed each other, till the morning of the 21ft, when
a breeze fprung up at fouth-weft. This being
accompanied with fair weather, w^e fleered northeasterly, hoping to fall in with the land, beyond
where we had been totted about for the preceding,
fortnight. In the evening the wind fhifted to
the weitward, and the next morning, about eight
o'clock, we beheld the land at the diftance of
about nine leagues. Our latitude was now 470
5' north, and our longitude 2350 101 eaft. We
flood to the north, with a fine breeze, till near
feven in the evening, when we tacked, in order
to wait for day-light. ~We were now in forty-
eight fathcms \*at£r, and four leagues from the PACIFIC OCEAN.
land, extending from north to fouth-eaft ; and a
fmall round hill, which we fuppofed to be an
ifland, bore north three quarters eaft, at the diftance of about fix or Seven leagues. It Seemed to
be of a tolerable height, and could but juft be
Seen from the deck.
There appeared to be a fmall opening between
this fuppofed ifland, and the northern extreme of
the land; we therefore entertained fome hopes
of finding an harbour ; but thefe hopes gradually vanished as we drew nearer; and, at length,
we were almoft convinced that the opening was
clofed by low land. The Commodore for this
reafon, named the point of land to the north of
it, Cape Flattery. Its latitude is 480 15' north,
and its longitude 235° 3' eaft.
All the land upon this part of the coaft, is of
a pretty equal height, is principally covered with
wood, and has a very fertile appearance. In this
very latitude, Geographers have placed the pretended Strait of Juan de Fuca. But nothing of
that kind prefented itfelf to our view, nor is it
probable that any fuch thing ever existed. We
flood to the Southward till midnight, and then
taked, and, with a gentle breeze at fouth-'weft,
fleered to the north-weft, intending, at day-light,
to Stand in for the land. But, before that time,
we had a very hard gale, with rain, right on
fhore ; initead therefore of running in for the
land, we endeavoured to get an offing, or, at
Dd  2 ■■•■
least, to preferve that which we had already got.
The fouth-weft wind, however, did not continue
long, for it veered again to the weft before night.
Thus were we perpetually en|§|untering with
Strong weft and north-weft winds. In an evening, the wind would Sometimes become mode*
,jftj$t and yeer Southward ; but this was a certain
prelude to a ftorm, which blew the hardest at
South-South-east, and was generally, accompanied
with rain and fleet. In the eourSe of fix hours,
it was uSually Succeeded by a gale from the northwest, which introduced fair weather. About nine
o'clock in the morning, of Sunday the 29th, we
again faw the land, the nearest part about fix
leagues distant, j We were now in the latitude of
490 29' north, and in the longitude of 2320 29'
The face of the country was very different
from that of the parts which we had before feen ;
numbers of lofty mountains prefented themfelves
to our view, whofe fummits weçg oovered with
fnow. The vallies between them, and the land
towards the coaft, were covered with high Straight
trees, that appeared like a vaft forest. A low
point was formed at the fouth-eaft extreme of
the land, off which are feveral breakers, occasioned by fome Sunken rocks. It was therefore
cdUe^^sint Breakers. Its latitude is 49 ° 15'
north, and its longitude 233° 20' eaft. The la*
titude of the ot^er extreme is about 50°, and thô PACIFIC t)CilN.
longitude 25 2°. This last was named Woody
Point. It is high land, and projects to the South-
Between theSe two points, a large bay is formed» which the Commodore called Hope Bay ; hoping, as he Said, to find in it a good harbour ;
and the event proved that he was not mistaken.
&s> we approached the coaft we Saw the appearance of twiàjànlets ; one of which was in the north-
weft, and the other in the north-eaft corner of
thet)ay. We bore up for the latter, and paffed
fome breakers about a league from the fhore.
Haifa league without them, we had nineteen and
twenty fathoms water ; but, after we had paffed
them, the depth increafed to fifty fathoms ; and
farther in, the ground was unfathomable with the
greatest length of line.
Though appearances were in our favour, we
were not yet certain that there were any inlets ;
but being in a deep bay, Captain Cook refolv-
ed to anchor, in order to endeavour to get fome
water, which we began to be much in need of.
As we advanced, however, the existence of the
inlet no longer remained doubtful. About five
o'clock, when we reached the weft point of it,
we were becalmed for fome time. In this situation, the Commodore ordered all the boats to be
hoisted out, in order to tow the fhips in. Pre^
fently a frefh breeze fprung up at north-weft, with
urhich we stretched up into an arm of the inlet, 2o§      AVOYAGE   TO   THE
wrhich ran in to the north-eaft. Here we were
again becalmed, and found it neceffary to anchor
in eighty-five fathoms water, and fo near the land
as to be able to reach it with a hawfer. The Difcovery was becalmed before fhe got within the
arm, where fhe anchored in Seventy Sathonrs
As Soon as we approached the inlet, we perceived the coaft to be inhabited ; and three canoes came off to the fhip, at the place where we
were firft becalmed ; in one of which were two
men, in another fix, and in the other ten. Advancing pretty near us, a perton flood in one
of the two laft, and fpoke for a confiderable time,
inviting us, as we fuppofed by his gestures, to go
afhore ; and, at the fame time, continued strewing hamjfuls of feathers towards us, Some of
his companions aifo threw a red powder in the
fame manner.
The perfon who was the orator upon this occasion, was clothed with the fkin of fome animal, and held Something in each hann^which rattled as he fhook it. At length, grown weary
with his repeated exortations, of which we could
not comprehend a word, he became quiet ; and
the others in their turn, had Something to fay
to us ; but their fpeeches were neither fo long,
nor fo vehement as that of the other. The hair
of two or three of thefe people was strewed over PACIFIC   OCEAN.
t&ltji fmall white feathers ; and that of others, with
large ones, stuck into different parts,
«pie tumultuous noife having ceafed, they lay
at a fmall diftance from the fhip, converting together with much eafe and composure, without fliew-
ing the least diftruft or furprize. Some of them
rofe, occafionally, and faid Something aloud, after
the manner of their firft harangues ; and one, in
particular, fung a moft agreeable air, accompanied with a great degree of melody and Softness ; the
word haela being frequently repeated as the burden
oS the fong.   j
A breeze Springing up foon after, brought us
clofer to the fhore, When the canoes began to vifit
us in great numbers ; having had, at one time,
no lefs than thirty-two of them about the fhip,
containing from three to feven or eight perfons
each, and of both fexes. Several of thefe alfo
flood up and fpake aloud, using the fame gestures
as our firft visitors. One canoe particularly attracted our obfervation, by a peculiar head, which
had a birds eye, and an enormous large
painted on it. The perfon who was in it
who appeared to be a chief, was equally remarkable for his lingular appearance ; having a large
quantity of feathers hanging from his head and
being painted or fmeared in a very extraordinary
manner. In this hand he had a carved bird of
wood, of the fize of a pigeon, with which he often
rattled, like the perfon before-mentioned, and 208
equally vociferous in his harangue, which was ÉÉ»
companied with many expfeflive gestures. Though
our visitors were fo peaceable, that they could not
be fufpected of any hostile intention, not any of
them could be prevailed upon to come on board.
They were very ready, however, to part with any
thing they had, and received whatever we offered
them in exchange ; but were more Solicitous after
iron, than any of our other articles of commerce ;
appearing to be no Strangers to the ufe of that
valuable metal.
We were followed, by many of the canoes, to
our anchoring-place ; and a group, consisting of
about ten or a dozen of them, continued along-fide
the ReSolution the greatest part of the night.-—
Hence we flattered ourtelves, that we were So comfortably Situated, as to be able to get all our wants
Supplied, and forget the delays and hardfhips we
had experienced, in almoft a confiant Succefiion of
adverfe winds and tempestuous wreather, ever Since
we arrived upon this coaft. Y A G E
CHAP.    I.
Arrival at the Sound—Moor in an excellent. Harbour—Vifited by great Numbers of the Natives,
who are an inoffenfive Race of People—Variety of
Articles brought to Barter, particularly human
Skulls—Mifchievous Thefts committed—The Obfer-
vatories erecled on a Rock—Alfo a Forge erecled-—
Alarmed at feeing the Natives arm themfelves—Dif
tant Tribes not permitted by the Natives to traffic
with us—Tempejluous Weather—A Survey of the
Sound—Friendly Behaviour of the Natives of one of
the Villages—Treatment received from an inhofpi*
.table Chief—Greeted with a Song, by young Women
A fécond Vifit to one of the Villages—Grafs pur-
chafed—Departure of the Ships.
"AV1NG happily Sound Such excellent fhelter
for our fhips, in an inlet whoSe coasts appeared to be inhabited by an inoffenfive race of
Vol. IL—No. io, ie 2IO
people, we loft no time, after coming to anchor,
in fearching for a commodious harbour, where we
might be stationed during our continuance in the
Sound. Upon this fervice, Captain Cook fent
three armed boats, under the command of Mr.
King ; and went himfelf, in a fmall boat, on the
fame bufinefs. He had no difficulty in finding
What he wanted ; for, on the north-weft of the
arm, and at a Small diftance from the fhips, he
found a convenient Snug cove, perfectly adapted to
our purpoSe. Mr. King was alSo SucceSsSul and
found a Still better harbour, lying on the north-
weft fide oS the land. It would, however, have
required more time to take the fhips thither, than
to the cove where the Captain had been ; there-
Sore his choice was determined in Savour of the
latter fituation. But, apprehending that we could
not tranfport our fhips to it, and moor them properly, before night had overtaken us, he thought
it prudent to continue where we were till the next
Plenty of canoes, filled with the inhabitant*,
were about the fhips the whole day ; and a reciprocal trade was commenced between us, wh&K
was conducted with the strictest harmony and integrity on both fides. Their articles of commerce where the fkins of various animals ; fuch
as bears, fea-otters, wolves, foxes, deer, racoons,
martins, and pole-cats. They alfo produced
garments made of fkins ;   and   another kind of PACIFIC OCEAN.
cîoathing, fabricated from the bark of a tree, or-
a plant refembling hemp. Betides theSe articles,
they had bows, arrows, and Spears ; fifh-hooks,
and various kinds of instruments ; wooden vizors
representing horrid figures ; a fort of woollen-
ftuff ; carved work ; beads ; and red ochre ; alfo
feveral little ornaments of thin brafs and iron,
refembling an horfe-fhoe, which they were pendant at their notes. They had likewife feveral
pieces of iron fixed to handles, Somewhat refembling chiffels. From their being in poffefEon
of thefe metals, it wsis natural for us to infer,
that they muft either have been visited before
by perfons of fome civilized nation, or had connections with thofe on their own continent, who
had fome communication with them.
Among all the articles, howrever, which they
expofed to fale, the moft extraordinary were human fkulls, and hands, with fome of the flefh remaining on them, which they ackno'wleged they
had been Seeding on ; and Some of them, indeed,
bore evident marks of their having been upon
the fire. From this circumstance, it was but too
apparent, that the horrid practice, of devouring
their enemies, is practifed here, as much as at
New-Zealand, and other South-Sea iflands. For
the various articles they brought, they received
in exchange, knives, chiffels, nails, looking-
glaffes, buttons, pieces of iron and tin, or any
kind of metal. They had not much inclination
for   glafs-beads,   and   rejected    every   kind   of
The next day was employed in hauling our
fhips into thé cové, where they were moored.
We found, on heaving up the anchor, notwithstanding the great depth of water, that rocks were
at the bottom. Thefe had greatly injured the
cable, as well as the haufers that were carried
out to warp the fhip into the cove, confequently
the whole bottom was Strewed with rocks. The
fhip was now become very leaky in her upper
works : the carpenters were therefore ordered to
caulk her, and to repair any other detects they
might diScover.
In the courSe oS this day (the 31ft of March}
the news of our arrival brought vaft numbers of
the natives about our fhips. At one time we
counted above a hundred canoes, each of which
on an average, had five people on board ; few
containing lefs than three ; many having feven,
eight, or nine ; and one was manned with Seventeen. Many of thefe were new vifitors, which
we discovered by their orations and ceremonies
when they approached the flips.
If they, at firft, had apprehended that we meant
to be hostile, their fears were now removed ; for
they ventured on board the fhips, and mixed with'
our people with the utmost freedom and familiarity. We difcovered, however, by this inter-
courfe,   that they were as fond of pilfering as anv PACIFIC OCEAN. 213
we had met with during our voyage : and they
were much more mifchievous than any of the
other thieves we had found ; for, having fharp
inftruments in their poffeflion, they could, the
inflant that our backs were turned, cut a hook"
from a tackle, or a piece of iron from a rope.
Betides other articles, we loft federal hooks in
this manner,- one of which weighed between
twenty and thirty pounds. They stripped our
boats of every mortel of iron that was worth taking away, though fome of our men were always
left in them as a guard. They were, indeed, fo
dextrous in effecting their purpofes, that one
fellow would contrive to amufe cur people at one
end of the boat, while another w-as forcing off
the iron-work at the other. If an article that
had been ftolen, was immediately miffed, the
thief was easily detected, as they were fond of
impeaching each other. But the prize was always reluctantly given, up by the guilty perfon;
and fometimes compulfive means were obliged
to be exerciSed for that purpoSe.
Our fhips being Safely moored, we proceeded,
the next day, to other neceffary bufinefs. The
obfervatories were taken afhore, and placed upon
a rock on one fide of the cove, not far from the
Refolution. A party of men was ordered to cut
Wood, and clear a place for watering. Having
plenty of piise-trees here, others were employed
in   brewing   fpruce-beer.     The  forge   was  alfo 214
erected to make the neceffary iron-work for repairing the fore-matt, which had one of the bibs
defective, and was otherwife incomplete.
We were daily visited by a confiderable number oS the natives; and, among them, we fre-
quently Saw new Saces. They had a lingular
mode of introducing- themfelves on their firft appearance. They paddled, with their utmoft
strength and activity, round both the fhips ; a
chief, ail this time, Standing up with a Spear in
his hand, and Speaking, or rather bawling, moft
Sometimes the face of this orator was covered
with a malk, reprefenting either a human countenance, or that of fome other animal ; and, instead of a Spear, he had a kind of rattle in his hand.
Having made this ceremonious circuit round the
fhip, they would come along-Side, and then be-
gin to traffic with us. Frequently, indeed, they
would firft entertain us with a Song, in which their
whole company joined, and produced a very
agreeable harmony. During theSe visits, our
principal care was to guard against 'their thievery.
We had, however, in the morning of the 4th
of April, a very ferious alarm. Our party, who
were employed on fhore in cutting wood and
filling water, obferved, that the natives, in all
quarters, were arming themfelves in the beft
manner they were able ; and that thofe who had
not proper weapons,   were collecting flicks and PACIFIC OCEAN.
ftones. Hearing this, we thought it neceffary to
arm alSo: but, being reSolved to act upon the
defensive, the Commodore ordered all our workmen to repair to the rock, on which our obfer-
vatories had been placed, leaving the fuppofed
enemy in poffeflion of the ground where they had
affembled, which was within about a hundred
yards of the Refolution's ftern.
Our danger, however, was only imaginary ; for
thefe hostile preparations were directed againft
a body of their own countrymen, who were advancing to attack them. Our friends of the
Sound, perceiving our apprehelffions, exerted
their best endeavours to convince us that this was
really the cafe. We faw they had people looking out, on both fides of the cove, and canoes
were frequently difpatched between them and
the main body. The adverfe party, on board
of about a dozen large canoes, at length drew
up in line of battle, off the fouth point of the
cove, a négociation for the restoration of peace
having been commenced. In conducting the
treaty, feveral people in canoes paffed between
the two parties, and fome debates enfued. At
length the matter in difpute appeared to be adjusted : but the strangers were not permitted to approach the fhips, nor to have any intercourte or
dealings with us.
We were probably the occasion of the quarrel ; the Strangers, perhaps, infifting on having a 2l6
-right of fliaring in the advantages of a trade with
us ; and our firft friends refolving to engfofs
us entirely to themfelves. We were convinced of
this on many other occafions ; aay, even among
thofe who lived in the Sound, the weaker were
often obliged to fubmit to the Stronger party, and
•were plundered of every thing, without even attempting to make any résistance.
In the afternoon we returned our work, and,
the next day, rigged the fore-matt ; the head of
which not being large enough for the cap, the
carpenter was ordered to fill up the vacant fpace.
In examining the State of the maft-head for tfci$ j
purpofe, both cheeks were difcovered to be rotten;
infomuch-that tftjsre was not a poflibility of repairing them. We were therefore obliged to geJ
the maft out, and to fupply it with new ones* a
Thus, when almost ready for fea, ail our work
was to be done over again, and an additional ce* j
pair was neceffary to be undertaken, which would
require much time to be completed.. It wa%
however, fortunate, that thefe defects fhould he
difcovered, when we were fo rcommodioufly fitu*
«ted, as to be able to procure the materials that
were requifite. For, in the cove where our fhip*
lay, there were fome fmall feafoned trees, perfectly adapted for our purpofe; and two new cheeks
were immediately made from one of thefe. In
the morning of the 7th of April, having got the
fore-matt out, we hauled  it afhore, and the car. Pacific ocean.
penteps-warefSet to, work upon it. Some of our
lower ftanding rigging being much decayed, the
Commodore embraced the opportunity, while
the fore-matt was repairing, of ordering a new
&t of main-rigging, to be fitted, and the fore-
rigging to be improved.
From our putting into the Sound, till the 7th
©f April, the weather had been remarkably fine *,
hut, in the morning of the 8th, the wind blew
frefh at fouth-eaft, accompanied with hazy weather and rain ; it increafed in the afternoon, and *
in the evening it blew extremely hard. It came in
heavy fqualls, right into the cove, from over the
high land on the oppofite fhore ; and, though the
fliips were well moored, they were in a dangerous
Though thefe tempestuous blasts fucceeded
each other quickly fhey were of fhort duration,
and, in the intervals, we had a perfect calm.
Another misfortune now befel us. On board the
Refolution, the mizen was the only matt that now
remained rigged, with its top-maft up. The
former was too defective to fupport the latter during thefe fqualls, and gave way at the head,
under the rigging. The gale abated about eight
o'clock; but the rain continued, almoft without
intermffion, for fevral days ; during which time,
a tent was erected over the fore-matt, that the
carpenters might be enabled to proceed in their
labours with Some degree of convenience.
Vol. IL—mp io. F f 2iS      A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
The natives were not ditcoir.raged, by this bail
weather, from making us daily visits ; and, in
our fituation, Such vifits were very acceptable to
us. They Srequently brought us a Supply oS filh,
when we were unable to catch any with a hook
anyd line, and we had not a convenient place to
draw a net. The fifh they brought us were Small
cod, and a Small.kind of bream, or fardine.
On the nth the main-rigging was fixed and got
over head, notwithstanding the rainy weather ;
and, the next day, we took down the mizen-maft
the head of which was fo rotten, that it dropped
off in the flings.
We received a vifit, in the evening from a
tribe of natives whom we had not feen before ;
and who, in general, made a better appearance
than our old friends. The Commodore conducted them into the cabin, but there was not
||ypbject that demanded their attentat ; all our
.-novelties were looked on with indifference, except by a very few, who fhewed a certain degree
of curiosity. The next day, a party of our men
went into the woods, an4:||git down a- tree, of
which a mizen-maft was to be made. The day
after it was conveyed to the place where the carpenters were at work upon the fore-matt. The
wind, in the evening, veered to the South-eaft,
and blew a very hard gale, attended with rain,
till eight o'clock the next morning ; at which
time it abated, and veered again to the weft. PACIFIC OCEAN.
The fore-matt being now finifhed we hauled it
along fide; but, on account of the bad weather,
could not get it in till the afternoon. We were
expeditious in rigging it, while the carpenters
Were employed on the mizen-maft on fhore. On
the 16th, when they had made confiderable pro-
greSsinit, they difcovered that the tree on which
they were at work, was wounded, owing, it
was imagined, to Some accident in cutting it
down. It therefore became necef&ry to procure
anothor tree out of the woods, on which occafion,
all hands were employed above half a day.
During thefe operations, many of the natives
were about the fhips, gazing on with an expreS-
ûve furprize, which, from their general inattention, we did not expect. A party of fti angers,
in feven or eight canoes, came into the cove on
the 18th, and after looking at us for fome time,
retired. We apprehended that our old friends,
who, at this time, were more numerous about us
than our new visitors, would not SuÉ&r them to
have any dealings with us. It was evident, indeed, that the neighbouring inhabitants engroS-
Sed us entirely to themfelves, and that they carried on a traffic with more distant tribes, in thofe
articles they had received Srom us ; for they
frequently disappeared for four or five days together and returned with Srefh cargoes oS curiosities and fkins.
Ff 2 2f*Ot
Such of the   natives   as visited us  daily, were
the moft benificial to  us; for, after difpofingof
their trifles, they employed  themfeivs in fifhing^
and we always partook of what they caught.    We
alfo procured from  them a confiderable quantity
of good animal oil, which they brought to us h*
bladders.    Some, indeed, attempted  to cheat us,
by mixing water with the oil ; and once or twice,
they fo far impofed upon us, as to fill their bladders with water only.    But,  it was better for uà
to wink at thefe   impositions,  than  fuller   them
to produce  a quarel ; for our articles   of traffic
chiefly consisted of trifles, and we found it difficult to produce a confiant fupply even of thefe..-
Beads, and  fuch   like toys,   of  which   we   ha<t
fome remaining, were not highly estimated.    Metal was principally demanded by our visitors : ancfc
brafs   had  now   fupplanted   iron,   being  fought
after, with  fuch   eager nefs, that, before we left
the Sound, hardly a bit of it was to be found in
the fhips, except what constituted a part of our
neceffary   infiniment?.     Suits   of  cloaths   werei
Stripped oS their buttons ; bureaus of their fur*,
niture ;   kettles, canifters, and   candlesticks, all
went to rack ; fo that our American friends procured from us a greater variety of things, than
any other nation we had visited.
Having had a fortnight's bad weather," Sunday
the 19th being a fair day, we embraced the opportunity of getting up the top-mafts   and yards. PACIFIC  OCEAN.
and of fixing up the rigging. Moft of our heavy
work being now finifhéd, the Commodore fet out
the next morning to Survey the Sound ; and, going
first to the weft point, he difcovered a large vih
lage, and, before it, a very Snug harbour, with
from nine to four fathoms water.
The inhabitants of this village, who were numerous, many of whom the Commodore was no
stranger to, received him with great courtefy*
every one prefling him to enter his apartment ;
for Several families have habitations under the
fame roof. He politely accepted the invitations,
and the hofpk^fele friends whom he visited testified every mark of civility and refpect.
Women were employed, in many of thefe habitations, in making dreffesof the bark or plant
already mentioned, and executed their bufinefs
touch like the inhabitants of New-Zealand.
Others were bufy in opening fardines ; large fhoals
of which we have feen brought on fhore, and measured out to Several people, who carried them
home, where they perSormed the operation of
curing them, which is done by fmoke-drying.
They are hung upon fmall rods ; at firft, about a
foot over the fire ; they are then removed higher
and higher to make room for others. When
dried they are ctafely packed in bales, and the
bales covered with mats. Thus they are pre*
Served till they are wanted , and they are not un-
pleafant food. > They  alfo cure cod   and other ■fiUL.
large fifti in the fame manner ; but thefe are fometimes dried in the open air.
Leaving this village, the Commodore proceeded up the weft fide of the Sound. For near
three miles he faw feveral fmall iflands, fo Situated
as to form fome convenient harbours, the depths
being from thirty to feven fathoms. About two
leagues within the Sound, on the fame fide, an
arm runs in the direction of north-north-west,
and another in the fame direction about two
miles further.
About a mile above the fécond arm, he found
the ruins of a village. The framings of the houfes
• remained standing, but the boards or roofs were
taken away. Behind this deferted village is a
fmall plain, covered with the largest pine trees
that the Commodore had ever feen. This was
indeed Angular, as moft of the elevated ground
on this fide of the Sound appeared rather naked.
Patting from this place to the eaft fide of the
Sound, Captain Cook found, what he had before
imagined, that it was an ifland under which the
fhips lay ; and that many final 1er ones lay Scattered on the weft fide of it. Upon the main land,
oppofite the nortti^ end of our ifland, the Commodore obferved a village, and landed there;
but he was not fo politely received by the inhabitants, as by thofe of the other village he had
visited. This cold reception was occafioned by
one fini y chief, who would not fuffer the Com- PACIFIC   OCEiN.
inodore to enter their houfes, but followed him
wherever he went ; making expreflive figns that
he was impatient for him to be gone. Captain
Cook attempted, but in vain, to footh him with
presents ; for, though he did not refute them, he
continued the fame kind of behaviour. But, not-
withftanding this treatment from the inhofpitable
chief, fome of the young women expeditiously
apparelled themfelves in their best, affembled in
a body, and gave us a hearty welcome to the village, by joining in an agreeable Song. Evening
now drawing on, Captain Cook proceeded for the
fhips round the north-end of the ifland.
When hé returned on board, he was informed
tha% in his abfence, fome strangers, in two or
three large canoes, had made a vifit to the fhips ;
from whom our people understood, by figns, that
they had come Srom the Sourh-eaft. They brought
with them Several garments, fidns, and other articles, which they bartered for Some oS ours. But
the moft remarkable circumstance was, that two
silver table-fpoons were purchafed of them by our
people, which appered to be of Spanifh manu»
facture. They were worn round the neck of one
of thefe vifitors, by way of ornament.
On the 21ft, the mizen-maft was got in and
rigged, and the carpenters ordered to make a
new fore-top matt, to replace that which had been
carried away. A number of strangers visited us
about eight o'clock the next morning, Eg twelve 22^4
or thirteen canoes. They came from the Southward ; and when they had turned the point of the
cove, they drew up in a body, where they remained about half an hour, at the diftance of two
hundred yards from the fhips. We imagined, at
firft, they were afraid to approach ; but in this we
were mistaken, for they were only making preparations for an introductory ceremony.
At length they advanced towards the fhips, all
Handing up in their canoes, and began to sing.
Some of their fôngs were flow and Solemn, in
which they were joined by the whole body jjpthers
were in quicker time, and their notes were regularly accompanied by the motions oS their hands,
their paddles beating in concert on the fides of
the canoes; and they, at the fame time, exhibited the moft expreflive gestures. They remained filent, for a few féconds, after the conclusion of each fong, and then began again, frequently pronouncing the word haoee as a kind of
Having thus favoured us with a fpecimen of
their mufic, with which we were highly enter*
tained for half an hour, they came nearer the fhips
and bartered with us. We now perceived that
fome of our old friends from the Sound were
among them, who managed for the Strangers in
the traffic between us and them.
Thefe visitors being gone, the Captains Cook
and Clerke went with two boats to the village at Pacific oc:ean.
ihe weft point, where Captain Cook had been two
days before, and had obferved that plenty of grafs
Was to be had near it ; and it was neceffary to get
a fupply of this, for the few remaining goats and
fheep which were Still on board. They experienced the Same welcome reception that Captain
Cook had met with before ; and, Soon aSter they
were afhore, the Commodore ordered Some of his
people to begin cutting ; not imagining that the
hatives would object to our Surnifhing ourfelves
with what could not be of any ute to them, though
éfferitially neceffary for us. In this, however, he
Was mistaken, for as Soon as our men began cutting the graSs, fome of the inhabitants would not
permit them to proceed, Saying, " makook"
ifrhich Signified that we muft buy it firft.
The Commodore, at this time, was in one of
the houSes ; but, hearing of this, he repaired immediately to the field, where he found about a
dozen claimants of different parts of the grafs
that grew on the premifes. The Commodore
treated with them for it, and having complied
with the terms of his purchafe, thought we had
now full liberty to cut wherever we pleafed.
Here he was again mistaken ; for he had fo liberally paid the firft pretended proprietors, that
frefh demands were made from others ; fo that it
almoft appeared that every Single blade of grafs
had a feparate owner ; and fo many of them were
to be Satisfied, that his pockets, preSentiy became
Vol. II. No. 10. G g 226
empty, When they were, however, convinced
that he had nothing more to give, they ceaSed to
be importunate, and we were permitted to cut
where we pleaSed, and as much as we pleafed.
It is worthy ,of observation, that we never met
with any uncivillized nation, or tribe, who pof-
Seffed Such Strict notions oS their having an exclu*
five property in the produce oS their country, as
the inhabitants of this Sound. They even wanted-
our people Eg pay for the wood and water that:
were carried on board. Had Captain Cook been
prefent when thefe demands were made, he would
doubtlefs have complied with them ; but our
workmen thought differently, and paid little or
no attention to fuch claims. The natives thinking we were determined to pay nothing, at length
ceafed to apply. But they frequently took occasion to remind us, that their esteem for us had
induced them to make us a prefent of wood and
While they remained at this village, Mr. Web-;
ber, who attended the two Captains, thither, made
a drawing of every thing that was thought cu^
rious, both within doors and without. This he
was well enabled to do, as he had an excellent
opportunity of infpecling narrowly, the con-
ftruction of their buildings, their furniture, and,
implements or utensils as well a the moft striking
peculiarities of the modes of living of the inhabitants.    Having, at length,  completed all their PACIFIC OCEAN.
operation at this village, the natives and the two
Captains took a Sriendly leave oS each other, and
we returned to the fhips in the afternoon. The
,23d, 24thpand 25th, of April were employed in
preparing to put to fea ; the fails were bent ; the
obfervatories and other articles removed from the
ihore ; and hoth fhips put into a proper condition
for failing. '        ^P-Sm
Thus prepared, we intended to have put to fea
on the morning of the 26th, but having both
wind and tide againft us, we were under a necessity
of waiting till noon ; when a calm Succeeded the
fouth-weft wind, and the tide, at the fame time,
turning in our Savour, we towed the fhips out of
the cove. We had variable airs and calms till
aboutibur in the afternoon, when a breeze Sprung
•up, attended with thick hazy weather.
^The mercury in the barometer funk uncommonly low, and we had every appearance of an
-approaching Storm from the Southward. In this
Situation Captain Cook hefitated, for a fliort time,
(as night was then, approaching) whether he
fhould fail immediately, or Stay till the next
morning. But his anxiety to proceed upon the
voyage, and the fear of looting So good an opportunity of getting out of the Sound, opperated more
strongly upon his mind\ than the apprehensions of
danger, and he retoived to put to Sea.
We were attended by the natives till we Were
almoft out of the Sound ; Some in their canoes,
Gg2 222
and others on board the fhips. One of the thiefs»
who had particularly attached himSelf to the Commodore, was among the last who parted from us.
The Commodore, a little time before he wrent,
made him a Small preSent for which he received,
in return, a beaver fkin of a much fuperier value.
This occasioned him to make fpme addition to,
his preSent, which pieaSed the chief fo highly,
that he preSented to the Commodore the : beaver-
fkin cjoak which he then wore, and of tflÔch he
was particularly fond.
Struck with this instance of gen^fity, and
wifhing him not to be a Sufferer by his gratitude,
Captain Cook infilled upon his acceptance oS a
new broad-Sword, with a braSs hilt, with which he
appeared greatly delighted. We were earnestly
importuned by the chief, and many ^ his countrymen, to pay them another vifit ; who, by way
of inducement, promifed to procure a, large flock
of fkins. Further particulars relative to the cofcÉ
try and its inhabitants, will furnifh materials: A
the two fubfequent chanters. PACIFIC OCEAN,
Direclions fçr failing into the Sound—The adjacent
Country defcribed—Remarks on the Weather and
Climate—Trees and other vegetable Productions
—Racoons, Martins, Squirrels, and other .Quadrupeds-—Variety of Skins brought for Sale-
Whales, and other Sea Animals—The Sea Qtter
defcribed-:—Birds—--Oceanic Birds^t^fh—-Shell
Fijh—r-Snakes and Lizards—-Infeclj^^Stones—-
Defcription of the NatiiJg&*-Their Colour—Formation—Drefs and Ornaments—Bapfkular Drejfe^
and horrible wooden Mafks—Leathern Mantle
for War——Their Difpofition-—Songs—^^uficaf
Inftruments—Their Fondnefs for Metals, whjjgjf
they take every Opporty^ty of filing.
ING George's Sound was the appellation
given by the Commodore to this inlet, on
pur firft arrival ; but he was afterwards informed
that the natives called it Nootka. The entrance
is in the eaft corner of Hope Bay ; its latitude i^
490 33' north, and its longitude 23^ 12' eaft.
The eaft coaft ofethat bay is covered by a chain of
firaken rocks; and, near the Spuria are fome
iflands and rocks above water. We enter the
Sound between two rocky points, lying eaft Southeast, and weft north-weft from each other^|iftant
about four miles.    The Sound widens within thefe %$*>        A VOYAGE  TO  THE
points, and extends in  to  the northward at leaft
four  leagues.
A number of iflands, of various fize, appear in
the middle of the Sound. The depth of water,
not only W the middle of the Sound, but alfo
clofe to fome parts oS its fhore, is Srom forty-Seven
to ninety Sathoms, or more. Within its circuit,
the harbours and anchoring-places are numerous.
The cove, where our fhips anchored, is on the
eaft fide of the Sound, and alfo on the eaft of the
largest ifland. It is, indeed, covered from the
fea, which is its principal recommendation, for it
is expofed to the fbuth-eaft winds, which fometimes blow with great violence, and make great
devastation, as was b^|Vtoo . apparent in many
Upon the fea-coaft the land is tolerably high
and level ; but, within the Sound, it rifes into
fleep hills, which have an uniform appearance,
ending in roundifli tops with fharp ridges on
their fides* Many of -thefe hills are high, and
others are of a more moderate height ; but all of
them are covered to their tops with the thickefl
woods. Some bare fpots are to be feen on the
fides of fome of*ttie hills, but they are not nume- ;
Sfetts, though they fufficiently fhewatire general
rocky difpofition of thefe hills. They have, indeed, no foil upon them, except'what has been
produced from rotten moffes and trees, of the
4epth of afeèiit two feet.   aC&eir foundation are;  • PACIFIC OCEAN.
indeed, nothing more than Stupendous rocks ;
which are of a grey or whitifh caft when, expofed
to the werther ; but, when broken, are of a bluifh
grey colour. The rocky fhore confifts entirely
of this ; and the beaches of the little coves in the
Sound are compofed of fragments of it.
During our flay the weather nearly corresponded
with that which we had experienced when we wer^
off the coaft. We had fine clear weather, if the
wind was between north and weft ; but if more to
the Southward, hazy, accompanied with rain. The
climate appears to be infinitely milder than that
on the eaft coaft of America, under the fame parallel of latitude. We perceived no froft in any
of the low ground ; but, on the contrary, vegetation proceeded very brifkly, for we faw grafs,
at this time, upwards of a foot long.
The trees, of which the woods are principally
compofed, are the Canadian pine, white cyprefs,
and two or three other Sorts of pine. The two
firft are in the greatest abundance, and, at a diftance, refemble each other ; though they are ea-
fily difringuifhed [ on a nearer view, the cyprefs
being of a paler* green than the other. In general, the trees grow here with great vigour, and
are of a large Size. At this early SeaSon of the
year, we faw but little variety of other vegetable
About the rocks,   and borders of the woods,
we faw fome Strawberry plants, "and raiberry, cur* s32        A V O Y A G E T O T H Ë
rant, and goofeberry bufhes, all in a floufifhîhg
State. There were alto a Sew black alder-trees ;
a Species of fow-thiftle ; fome crow's-foot with a
fine crimfori flower, and two Sorts of anthericum.
We alSo met with Some wild roSe-bufhes, ] juft
budding ; Some young leeksj a Small Sort oS grafs*
and Some water-creffes, befides a great abundance of andromeda. Within the woods are two
forts of underwood flirubs, unknown to us, and
fome moffes and ferns.
The feafon of the year did not permit us to
acquire much knowledge of the vegetable of this
country ; and it was impoflible, from Pur fituation, to learn much about its animals. The want
of water induced ns to enter the Sound at firft ;
and the accidents that happened there, though
they obliged us to flay longer than we intended,
were unfavourable to our acquiring any knowledge
of this kind. It was abfolutely neceffary that
every perfon fhould be employed in forwarding
the neceffary bufinefs of the fhips ; which was
the principal object, as the feafon was advancing,
and the Success of the voyage depended upon
their diligence in performing their feveral talks.
Excursions of any kind were, therefore, never
Lying in a cove, on an ifland, all the animals
that we faw alive were two or three racoons, martins, and Squirrels ; fome of our people, indeed,
who   landed oji the continent,  on the South-east PACIFIC   OCEAN.
fide of the Sound, faw the prints of a bear's feet,
not far from the fhore. The only account, therefore, that we can furnifh of the quadrupeds, is
taken from the fkins which were purchafed of the
inhabitants ; and thefe were fometimes fo mutilated in the heads, tails, and paws, that we could
not even guefs to what animals they belonged ;
though others were either fo perfect, or fo well
known, they did not admit of a doubt about
them. The moft common among them were
bears, deer, foxes, and wolves. Bear-fkins were
very plentiful, generally of a fhining black co-
Hour, but not very large. The deer fkins were
not fo plentiful, and appeared to belong to what
the historians of Carolina call the fallow-deer ;
though Mr. Pennant diftinguiflies it by the name
of Virginian deer, arid thinks it quite a different
fpecies from ours. Their foxes are numerous,
and of feveral variétés ; the fkins of Some being
yellow, with a black tip at the tail ; others, of a
-reddifli yellow, intermixed with black; and others
of an afh colour, alfo intermixed with black.
When the fkins were fo mutilated as to admit
of a doubt, our people applied the name of fox
of wolf indiscriminately. At length, we met
with an entire wolf's fkin, and it was grey. Here
is the common martin, the pine martin, and another of a lighter brown colour. The ermine is
alfo Sound in this country, but is Small, and not
very common : its hair is not remarkably fine
-     Vol. IL~n° io. H h 2J4
though the animal is entirely white, except about
an inch on the tip ot the tail. The racoons and
Squirrels are Such as are common, btflf the latter'
is not So large as ours, and has a rutty colour
extending the length oS the back.
We were Sufficiently clear refpecting the animals already mentioned, but there were two others
that we could not, with any certainty, diftin-
guifh. One of them, we concluded to be the
elk or moufe deer ; and the other was conjectured
to be the wild cat or lynx. Hogs, dogs, and
goats, have not yet made their appearance in this j
place. Nor have the natives any knowledge of
our brown rats, to which they applied the name
they gave to fquirrels, when they faw them on
board the fhips.
The fea animals   near the  coaft, are  whales,
porpoifes, and feals ; the  latter, from  the   fkins
we faw, teeming to be of the common fort.    The
porpoifes is  the Phocena.    Though the Sea otter
is amphibious, we Shall consider him  as belonging to this claSs, as living principally in the water.    We doubted, Sor Some time, whether the
fkins, which the  natives Sold us Sor otter fkins,
really   belonged  to   that   animal ;   but,   a   fhort I
time before our departure, a whole one, juft kill- I
ed, was purchaSed from fome strangers, of which I
Mr.  Webber  made  a drawing..   It  was  young, I
weighing   only  twenty-five   pounds ;   was   of a I
gloffy black colour, but many of the hairs being I  *1 PACIFIC   OCEAN.
tipt with white, gave it, at firft fight, a greyifli
caft. The face, throat, and breaft, were of a
fight brown, or yellowifli white ; and, in many
of the fkins, that colour extended the whole length
of the belly. In each jaw it had fix cutting teeth ;
two in the lower jaw being exceeding Small, and
placed without, at the bafe of the two in the
middle. In theSe refpects, it differs Srom thofe
found by the Ruffians, and alfo in the outer toes
of the hind feet not being fkirted with a membrane. There alfo appeared a greater variety in
colour, than is mentioned by thofe who defcribe
the Ruffian Sea otters. It is moft probable, that
thete changes oS colour naturally take place at
the different gradations of life. The very young
ones had brown coarfe hair, with a little fur underneath ; but thofe of the fize of the animal juft
defcribed, had a greater quantity of that fub-
ttance. After they have attained their full growth,
they lofe the black colour, which is fucceeded
by a deep brown. At that period, they have a
greater quantity of fine fur, and very few long
hairs. Some, which we fuppofed to be older,
were a chefnut brown ; and we faw Some Sew
fkins that were of a perfect yellowr. The fur of
thefe creatures is certainly finer than that of any
other animal we know of; confequently the difcovery oS this part of North America', where fo
valuable an article of commerce is to be procured,
Hh 2
,i 236*
ought certainly to be confidered as  a  matter of
fome confequence.
Birds are far from being numerous here, and
thofe that are to be feen are remarkably fhy, owing, perhaps, to their being continually harraffed
by  the natives, either  to eat   them, or become
poffeffed of their feathers to be worn as  ornaments.    There are crows and ravens, not differing, in the least, from thofe in England; alfo a
jay or magpie ; the common^wren, which is the
only singing bird we heard ; the Canadian thrufh ;
the brown eagle, with a white head and taiftMg
fmall fpecies of hawk ; a heron ; and the large-
erefted   American  king-.fifher.     There   are   alfo
Some that have not yet been mentioned by thofé
who have treated on   natural history.    The two
firft axe fpecies of wood peckers.    One  is Somewhat smaller than a thrufh, of a black colour on
the back, having white Spats on the wings ; the
head, neck, and breaft; of a crimfon colour, and
the belly of a yellowifh olive colour; whence if
might  with propriety, be called the yellow-bel*
lied wood-pecker.    The other is larger and more
elegant ; the  back is of a dulky brown colour,
richly waved  with black ; the bellv  has a red-
difh caft, with black fpots ;   it has alfo a black
fpot on the breast,   and   the  lower part of the
wings and tail are of a Scarlet colour ; the upper
part  blackifti.     A  crimfon Streak runs on each
fide, from the angle of the mouth, a little down PAClFlé^OCEAN.
the neck. The third and fourth are> one of th finch
kind, not larger than a linnet, of a duiky colour,
black head and neck, and white bill ; and a Sandpiper, of a dufky brown colour, with a broad
white band acrots the wings, otthe fize of a fmall
pigeon. There are alfo humming birds, which
differ, in fome degree, from the numerous forts
already known of this delicate little animal.
The quebrantahuesTos, fhags, and gulls, were
feen off the coaft; and the two laft were alfo
frequent iri the Sound. There are two forts of
wild ducks ; one of wThich was black, with a
White head ; the other was white, and had a red
bill, but of a larger fize. Here are alfo the greater
lumme, or diver, which are found in our' northern
Countries. Some Swans too, where once or twice
feen flying to the northward, but we are unacquainted with their haunts. On the shores we
found another Sand-piper, about the fize of a
lark, and not unlike the burre : alfo a plover very
much refembling our common fea-lark.
Though the variety oS fifh is not very great
here, they are more plentiful in quantity than birds.
The principal forts are the common herring, which
are very numerous, though not exceeding fewen
inches in length; a Smaller Sort, which, though
larger than the anchovy, or Sardine, is of the
lame kind ; a Silver-coloured bream, and another
of a gold brown colour, with narrow blue Stripes.
It is moft probable that the herrings, and Sardines, 238
come in large fhoals, at Stated feafons, as is ufual
with thofe kind of fifh. The two forts of breams
may be reckoned next to thefe in quantify ; and
thofe which were full grown weighed about a
pound. The other fifh were Scarce, and confifted
oS a brown kind offculpin, Such as are taken on
the coaft oS Norway ; another oS a reddifh caft ;
froft fifh ; a large one, without Scales, reSembling
the bull-head ; and a Small brownifh cod with
whitifh Spots ; alSo a red fifh, of nearly the fame
Size, which Some of our people had feen in the
ftraights of Magellan ; and another Somewhat like
the hake. Confiderable numbers oS thoSe ftfh
called the chimœrœ, or little Sea-wolves, are met
with here. Sharks alSo frequent the Sound, the
teeth of which many native* had in their poffesti-
on. The other marine animals are a fmall crucia-
ted medufa, or blubber ; ftar-fifh, fmall crabs, and
a large cuttle-fifti.
About the rocks there is an abundance of large
mufcies ; alSo Sea-ears ; and we often found fhells
of pritty large plan chama» Alfo fome trochi of
two fpecies ; a curious murex ; rugged wilks ;
and a Snail. Betides theSe, there are Some plain
cockles and limpets. Many oS the muScles are
a Span long ; in Some oS which there are large
pearls, but they are diSagreeable both in colour
and fhape. It is probable that there is red coral
either in the Sound or on the cpalt ; large branches PACIFIC OCEAN.
of it having been feene^ft the canoes of the natives.
The only reptiles obServed here, were brown
Snakes, about two Seet in length, having whitifh
Stripes on the back and fides; and brownifh water lizards. The Sonner are So perfectly harmleSs,
that we have Seen the natives carry them alive in
their hands. The infect tribe Seem to be more
numerous. For though the SeaSon for their appearance was only beginning, we Saw Several different Sorts ©S butterflies, all of which were common: we alfo found fome humble-bees; goofe-
•berry moths ; a few beetles ; two or three forts of
flies, and fome mufquetoes.
Though we found both iron and copper here,
-we did not imagine that either of them belonged
to this place. We did not even fee the ores of
any metal, except a corfe red ochry fubftance,
ufed by the natives in painting or staining themfelves. This may,* perhaps, contain a fmall
^quantity of iron ; as may alfo a black and white
pigment made ufe ofibr the fame purpofe.
Exclusive of the rock, which constitutes the
Shores and mountains, we faw, among the natives,
fome articles made of a hard black granate, Which
was neither very compact, nor fine grained ; alfo
a greyifh whetstone ; the common oil ftone ; and
a black fort, little inferior to the hone-Stone.
The natives were feen to ufe tranfparent leafy.
glimer, and a brown leafy or martial fort.    They a49      A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
had alfo jjuftçes of rock cryftal. The two firft
articles were probable to be obtained near the
fpot, as they had confiderable quantities of them ;
but the latter, it may be fuppofed, came from a
greater diftariçe, or is extremely Scarce ; fbr;ip|tt
vifitors would not part with it without a very valuable çonfideration. &à&
The stature of the natives is, in general, below
the common Standard ; but their perfons are not
propoxtjpgsably flender, being usually pretty
plump, thou not mufcular. Their Soft flefhinefs,
however, Seems never to Swell into corpulence;
'and. many oS the. older people are rather lean.
Moft of the natives have round .full' vifages, which
are foaietis^s broad, with high prominent cheeks.
Above thefe, the face frequently appears fallen
in quite açrofs between the temples ; t!fe noSe
fattens at its baSe, has wide noftrils, and a rounded
point. The forehead is low, the eyes Small, black,
and ianguifhing ; the mouth round, the lips thick,
and the teeth regular and well Set, but not remarkr
able Sor their whiteness.
Some have no beards at all, and others only a
Small thin one upon the point of the chin. T3$j$
does not ariSe Srom an original deficiency oShair
on that part, but from their plucking it out by
the roots ; for thoSe vaho do not destroy it, have
.not only confiderable beards on every part oS the
chin, buta^alto wifkers, or muftachias running
from the upper lip  to the   lower jaw obliquely   M
downward*. Their eye^brows are alSo Scanty
and narrow ; but they have abundance of ha%: on
the head, which is Strong, black, Straight, and
lank. Their necks are fhort, and their arms are
rather clumSy, having nothing of beauty or elegance in their formation. The limbs, in all of
them, are Small in proportion to the other parts ;
befides, they are crooked and ill-formed, having projecting ancles, and large feet aukwardly
fliaped. The latter defect Seems tb be occasion^
ed, in a great meaSure, by their fitting So continually on their hams or knees»
Their colour cannot be properly ascertained,
their bodies being incrufted with paint and naS-
tineSs ; though, when theSe have been carefully
rubbed off, the fkin was little inferior in white-
nefs to that of the Europeans ; though of that
palifh caft which diftinguifhes the inhabitants of
our Southern nations. Some of them, when
yoking, appear rather agreeable, when compared
to the generality of the people ; that period of
fife -being attended with a peculiar degree of animation ; but, after a certain age, the distinction
is hardly ohfervable ; a remarkable famenefs characterizes every countenance, dulnefs and want
of expteifion  being visibly pourtpyed in every
* It is a miftaken jiotion though efpoufed by eminent
writers, that American Indians have^ap beards. See Car-
mr\s Travels, p. 224, 225 ; and Mar/den*s Hijlvry of Suma-
*<>, P- 39> 4°-
Vol. 11. No. mm        Ii Tfff
viSage. The women, in general, are of the Same
fize, colour, and form, with the men ; nor is it
eafy to diftinguifh them, as they poflefs no natural feminine delicacies. Nor was there a* Single
one to be found, even among thofe who were in
their prime, who had the least pretenfions to beaSfp
ty or comelinefs.
Their drefs, in common, is a flaxen kind of
mantle, ornamented with a narrow stripe of fur
on the upper edge, and fringes at the lower edge.
Pasting under the left arm, it is tied over the
right fhoulder, leaving both arms perfectly free.
Sometimes the mantle is fattened round the wàift
by a gbdle of coarfe matting. Over this is worn
a fmall cloak of the fame fubftance, reaching
to the waist, alfo fringed at the bottom. They
wear a cap like a truncated cone, or a flower-pot,
made of very fine matting, ornamented with a
round knob, or a bunch of leathern taifels, having
a String pasting under the chin, to prevent its
blowing off. a'a
The above drefs is common to both fexes, and
the men often wear, over their other garments,
the fkin of fome animal, as a bear, wolf, or fea-
otter, with the hair outwards ; fometimes tying
it before, and, fometimes behind, like a cloak.
They throw a coarSe mat about their fhoulders
ï;i rainy weather, and they have woollen garments which areout little uted. They generally
wear their hair hanging looSely down ; but, thoSe PACIFIC OCEAN.
who have not a cap, tie it into a kind of bunch
on the crown of the head.
Their drefs is certainly convenient, and, were
ii kept clean, would not be inelegant; but, as
they are continually rubbing their bodies over
with a red paint, mixed with oil, their garments
become greafy, and contract a rancid ofTenfive
fmelL The appearance, indeed, oS theSe people,
is both wretched and filthy, and their heads and
garments Swarm with lice. So loft are they to
every idea of cleanlinefs, that we frequently faw
them pick off thefe vermin, and eat them with the
greatest compoSure-
^Pheir bodies, it has been obferved, are always
covered with red paint, but their faces are ornamented with a variety of colours-, a black, a blighter
red, or a white colour ; the la ft of thefe gives
them a ghastly horrible appearance. They like-
wife ftrew the brown martial mica over the paint,
which caufes it to glitter. Many oS their ears
are perforated • in the lobe, where they make a
large hole, and two Smaller ones higher up on the
outer edge. In theSe holes are hung bits oS bone,
quills fattened upon a leather thong, fhells,
bunches of taflels, or thin pieces of copper. In
fome, the feptum of the note is alfo perforated,
and a piece of cord drawn through it. Others
wear, at the fame place, pieces oS copper, braSs, or
iron, fhaped Somewhat like a h#Se-fhoe, the narrow opening receiving the feptum, So that it mav
Ii %  \ *w
be pinched gently by the two points and thus
the ornament hangs over the upper lip. The
rings oS our buttons were eagerly purchafed, and
appropriated to this uSe. Their bracelets, which
they wear about their wrifts, are bunches of white
bugle beads, or thongs with taflfeis, or a broad
black horny fhining Substance. Round their an»
cles they frequently wear leathern thongs or the
Sinews of animals curioufly twifted.
Such are the common dreffes and ornamental
but they have fome that are ufed only on extra*
ordinary occafions, Such as going to war, and ex»
hibiting themfelves to ftrangers in ceremonial
visits. Amongst thefe are the fkins oS wolves,
or bears, tied on like their other garments, but
edged with broad borders of fur, ingenionfly or»
Ifâmented with various figures. Thefe are oc»
cafionally worn Separately, or over their common
clothing. The moft ufual head-drefs, on thefe
occafions, is a quantity of withe, wrapped about
die head, with large feathers, particularly thofe
of eagles, stuck in it ; or it is entirely covered
sit$h fmall white feathers. At the fame tnélf
the face is varioufly painted, the upper and lower
parts being of oppofite colours, and the strokes
having the appearance of frefh gafces ; or it is be-
fmeared with a kind of fat or tallow, mixed with
paint, formed into a great variety of figures, fome»
what like carved work, PACIFIC CfÛEAN.
The hair,fometimes is Separated into fmall
parcels, and tied, at intervals, with thread ; and
others tie it together behind, after the Englifh
manner, and flick in it fome branches of the cu-
freffus thymdes. Thus equipped, they have a
truly favage and ridiculous appearance, which is
much heightened when they aflume their mon-
flerous decorations. Thefe consist of a great variety of wooden mafks, applied to the face, fore
head, or upper part of the head. Some of thefe
vifors refemble human faces, having hair, beards*
and eye-brows ; others reprefent the heads of
birds, and many the heads of animate; fuch as
deer, wolves, porpoifes, and others.
Thefe representations generally exceed the na*
tural fize, and they are frequently Strewed with
pieces, of the fbHaceous mica, which makes them
glitter, and augments their deformity. Some-
times they even exceed this, and fix large pieces
of carved work upon the head, projicUng to a
confiderable diftance, and refembling the prow
of a canoe. So much do they delight in thefe dhr
guifes, that, for want of another mafk, we faw one
of them thruft his head into a tin-kettle which he
had bought from us.
Whether thefe extravagant mafquerade ornaments are ufed on any religious occasion, or in
any kind of diversion, or whether they are cal»
culated to intimidate by their infpftrous appear*
ance, or as decoys when hunting animals, is un- 246
certain. But, if travellers, in an ignorant and credulous age, when more than marvellous things were
fuppofed to exist, had feen feveral people decorated
in this manner, and had not approached So near
them as to be undeceived, they would have believed, and have endeavoured to make others believe,
that a race of beings existed, partaking of the nature of man and beaft.
Among the people of Nootka, one of the drefles
feems peculiarly adapted to war.    It is a thick tanned leathern mantle doubled, and appears to be the
fkin of an elk, or buffalo.    This is fattened on in
the ordinary manner, and is fo contrived as to cover the breaft quite up to the throat ; part oS it,
at the Same time, Sailing down to their heels. This
garment is,   Sometimes,   very curioufly painted,
and is not only Strong enough to refift arrows,*but,
as we understood Srom them, even Spears cannot
pierce it ;   So that it may be confidered as their
compleateft  deSenfive armour.    Sometimes   they
wear a fort oS leathern cloak, over which are rows of
the hoofs olidear, placed horizontally, ancheover-
ed with quills ; which, on their moving, make a
loud rattling noife.    Whether this part of their
gfirjjis intended to strike terror in war, or to be
ufed on ceremonious occafions, is uncertain ; but
we faw onew their mufical entertainments, which
was conducted by a man habited in this manner,
having a   mafk on, and fligfemg his rattle. PACIFIC   OCEAN.
Though we cannot view theSe people without a
kind of horror, when they are thus Strangely apparelled, yet, when divefted of thefe extravagant
drefles, and beheld in their common habit, they
have no appearances of ferocity in their countenances ; but, as has been already obferved, they feem
to be of a quiet phlegmatic difpofition ; deficient
in animation and vivacity, to render themfelves
agreeable in Society. ThejAre rather referved
than loquacious ; but their gravity feems constitutional, and not to arife from a conviction of its
propriety, or to be the refult of any particular
mode of education ; for, in their highest paroxyfms
of rage, they have not heat of language, or figni-
ficancy or gestures, to exprets it Sufficiently.
The orations which they make on all public
occafions, are little more than fhort Sentences,
and Sometimes only Single words, forcibly 1§K
peated in one tone oS voice, accompanied with
a Single gesture at every Sentence ; at the Same
time jerking their whole body a little forward,
with their knees bending, and their arms hanging
down by their fides.
From their exhibiting human skulls and bones
to Sale, there is little reafon to doubt of their
treating their enemies with a degree of brutal
Cpelty ; hut, as this circumstance rather marks a
general agreement of character among almoft
every uncivilized tribe, in every age  and coun- 248
try, they are not to be reproached with any charge
of peculiar in humanity. Their difpofition, in this
refpect, we had not any reafon to judge unfavourably of. They appear to be docile, courteous,
and good-ÉÎftired ; but they are quick in refent-
ing injuries, notwithstanding the predominancy of
their phlegm ; and, like all other paflionate people, as quickly forgetting them.
TheSe fits of paflion never extended farther
than the parties immediately concerned ; the
Spectators never entering into the merits of the
quarrel, whether it was with any of us, or among
their own people ; fhewing as much indifference,
as if they were wholly unlëquainted with the whole
transaction. It was common to See one of them
rave and Scold while all his agitation did not in
the least excite the attention oS his countrymen,
and when we could not diScover the object of his
diSpleaSure. They never betray the least Symptom oS timidity upon theSe occafions, but Seem
reSolutely determined to punifh the inSulter. With
refpect to ourtelves, they were under no apprehensions about our Superiority ; but if any dif»
ference arofe, were as anxious to avenge the
wrong, as if the caufe of qurrel had been among
themfel ves,
Their other paflions appear to lie dormant, efpe-
cially their curiosity. Few exprefled any defire or
inclination to fee or examine things with which
they were unacquainted ; and which, to a curious PACIFIC  OCEAN.
obferver, would have appeared aftonifhing. If
they could procure the articles they knew and
wanted, they were perfectly fatisfied ; regarding
every thing elfe with great indifference. Nor did
our perfons, drefs, and behaviour (though fo very
different from their own) or even the fize and
construction of our fhips, feem to command their
admiration or attention,       &gÈ&
Their indolence may, indeed, be a principal
caufe of this. But it muft be admitted, that they
are not wholly unfufceptible of the tender paf-
fions, which is evident from their being fond of
mufic, and that too of the truly pathetic kind.
Their Songs are generally flow and Solemn ; but
their mufic is lets confined than that which is
usually Sound in other rude nations ; the variations being very numerous and expreffive, and the
melody powerSully Soothing. Befides their concerts, Sonnets were frequently fun|f by Single performers keeping time by Striking the hand against
the thigh. Though Solemnity was predominant
in their mufic, they Sometimes entertained us in a
gay and lively Strain, and even with a degree of
pleaSantry and humour.
A rattle and a Small whittle, are the only instruments oS mufic which we have feen among
them. The rattle is ufed when they Sing ; but
upon what occafions the whistle is ufed, we never
knew, unlets it be when they affirme the figures;
of particular animals, and endeavour to imitate
Vol. XL—n° ip. Kk 250
their howfepr cry. We once ,-'1|gg. one of theSe
peop}e drjsffed in the flan oS a wolS with the
head silvering his own, Striving to imitate that
animal, by making a Squeaking noiSe with a
whittle he had in his mouth. The rattles are generally in the fhape of a bird, with fmall pebbles
in the belly, and the tail is the handle. They
have another fort, which reSembles a child's
Some oS them diSplayed a difpofition to knavery, and, in trafficking with us, took away our
goods without making any return. But oS this
we had Sew instances, and we had abundant reafon to approve the fairnefs of their conduct.
Their eagernefs, however, to pofleSs iron, braSs,
or any kind of metal, was fo great, that, when
an opportunity prefented itfelf, few of them could
refill the temptation to Steal it. The natives of
the South-Sea iflands, as appears in many instances
would Steal any thing they could find, without
considering whether it was uteSul to them or not.
The novelty oS the object, was a Sufficient inducement Sor them to get poffeflion oS it by any
means. They were rather actuated by.a childifh
curiosity, than by a thievifh ditpofition. The
inhabitants of Nootka, who made free with our
property, are entitled to no Such apology. The
appellation oS thieS is certainly due to them ; Sor
they knew that what they pilfered from us, might
be converted to the purpofes oS private utility ; PACIFIC OCEAN.
and according to their estimation of things, wàs
really valuable. Luckily for us, they fet no value upon any of our articles, except the metals.
Linens, and many other things were Secure Srom
their depredations, and we could SaSely leave them
hanging out ail night afhore, without being watched. The principle which prompted theSe people
to pilfer from us, would probably operate in their
intercourse with each other. We had, indeed,
jÉptodaat reaSon to believe, that Stealing is very
common among them, and Srequently produces
quarrels, of which we Saw more instances than
Kk 2 254
CHAP.    II.
Number of inhabitants at Nootka Sound—Manner
of building their Houfes-—Defcription of their
Infide, Furniture, and Ute'nfils—Their Filthinefs
—Wooden Images, called Klumma—Employments
of the Men—Indolence of the young Men— Of the.
Women, and their employments—Different Sorts
of Food, and Manner of preparing it—Bows-^mL
Arrows—Spears—Slings9 and other Weapons—
Manufactures of Woollen, &c.—Mechanic Arts
—Defign and Ext cut ion in Carving and Painting
—Canoes—Implements ufed in Hunting and Fifh-
ing—Iron Tools common among them—Manner of
procuring  that,   and   other   Metals—Language I
THE only inhabited parts of the Sound, feem
. to be the two villages already mentioned.
A pretty exact computation of the number of inhabitants in both, might be made from the canoes
that visited our fhips, the fécond day after our
arrival. They confifted oS about a hundred,
which upon an average, contained at least five
perSons each. But, as there were very few women,
old men, children, or youths, then among them,
we may reafonably fuppofe, that the number of
the inhabitants of the two villages could not be  -A PACIFIC OCEAN.
îefs than four times the number of our visitors ;
being two thoufand in the whole; a
The village which is Situated at the entrance of
the Sound, ftands on the fide of a pretty Steep
afcent, extending from the beach to the wood. >
The houfes confift of three ranges or rows, placed
at almost equal diftances behind each other, the
front row being the largeft ; and there are a few
Straggling houfes at each end. Thefe rows are
interfered by narrow paths, or lanes, at irregular
diftances, paffing upward ; but thoSe between the
houSes are considerably broader. Though this
general difpofition has fome appearance oS regularity, there is none in the respective houfes ; Sor
every divifion made by the paths, may either be
confidered as one or more houfes ; there bciàg no
regular Separation to diftinguifh them by, either
within or without. Thefe erections confift of very
long broad planks, retting upon the edges of each
other, tied, in different parts, with withes of pine-
6ark. They have only flender potts on the out-
fide, at confiderable diftances from each other, to
which they are alfo fattened ; but-there are fome
larger poles within, placed allant. The fides and
ends of thefe habitations are about feven or eight
feet in height, but the back part is Somewhat
higher. The planks, thereSore, which compoSe
the rooS, fiant forward, and, being loofe, may be
moved at pleaSurc.    They may either be put clofe
i 254      A   VOYAGE  TO  THE
to exclude the rain, or Separated to admit the
light in fine weather.
Upon the whole, however, they are moft miserable dwellings, and diSplay very little attention
or ingenuity in their construction : for, though
the fide-planks are pretty cloSe to each other in
Some places, they are quite open in others. Betides, theSe habitations have no regular doors, and
can only be entered by à hole, which the unequal
length oS the planks has accidentally made. In
the fides of the houSe they have alSo holes to look
out at, Serving Sor windows ; but theSe are very
irregularly diSpoSed, without attending, in the
least, to the fhape and fize of them.
Within the habitations, we have frequently a
view from one end to the other of thefe ranges of
building ; for, though there are fome appearances
of feparations on each fide, for the accommodation of different perSons or families, they do not
intercept the fight ; and generally confift of pieces
of plank, extending from the fide to the middle
of the houfe. On the fides of each of thefe parts
is^a little bench, about five or fix inches higher
than the reft of the floor, covered with mats,
whereon the family fit and fleep. The length of
thefe benches is generally feven or eight feet, and
the breadth four or ûve. The fire-place, which
has neither hearth nor chimney, is in the middle
of the floor. One houSe in particular, was nearly
Separated from the reft by a elote partition j and   PACIFIC   OCEAN. 255
this was the moft regular building of any we had
Seen. In it there were four of thefe benches, each
holding a Single family at the corner ; but it had
not any Separation by boards, and the middle of
the houfe feemed to be common tpr all the inhabitants.
The furniture of their houfes consists principally oS chefts and boxes of various Sizes, piled
upon each other, at the fides or ends of the houfe ;
in which are deposited their garments, fkins,
mafks, and other articles that are deemed valuable. Many of them are double, or the upper
one ferves as a lid to the other : fome have a lid
fattened with thongs ; others that are very large,
have a Square hole cut in the upper part, for the
convenience of putting things in, or taking them
out. They are frequently painted black, Studded
with the teeth of animals, or rudely carved with
figures of birds, &c. as decorations. They have
alfo Square and oblong pails ; round wooden cups
and bowls ; wooden troughs, of about two feet
in length, out of which they eat their food ; bags
of matting, bafkets of twigs, &c.
Their implements for fifhing, and other things,
are hung up, or Scattered in different parts of the
houfe, without any kind of order, making, in the
whole, a perfect Scene of confusion ; except on the
fleeping benches, which have nothing on them
but the mats, which are of a fuperior quality to
•     1 35$
thofe that they uSually have ta fit on in the!»
The irregularity and confufion of their houfes
is* however* far exceeded by their naftinefs and
flench. They not only dry their fifh within
doors, but they alfo gut them there ; which, to«r
gether with their bones und fragments thrown
upon the groqnd at meals, occafions feveral heaps
of filth, which are never removed, till it becomes
troublefome, from their bulk, to pats over them.
Every thing about the houfe flinks of train-oil,
fifh, and fmok^vand every part of it is as filthy
as can be imagined,
Notwithftanding all this filth and confufion,
many of thefe houfes are decorated with images ;
which are northing more than the trunks of large
trees, of the height of four or five feet, placed at
the upper end of the apartment, with a human
face carved on the front, and the hands, and arms
upon the fides. Thefe figures too are varioufly
painted, and make, upon the whole, a moft ridk
culous appearance. TheSe images are generally
called Klumma ; but the names oS two particular
ones, Standing abreast of each other, at the diftance of about three or four feet, were Natchkoa,
and Maifeeta. A fort of curtain, made of mat,
ufually hung before them, which the natives were
fometimes unwilling to remove : and when they
did content to unveil them, they Seemed to ex-
preSs themfelves in a very mysterious manner.    It Pacific ocean.
feems probable that they fometimes make offerings to them ; Sor, if we rightly interpreted their
figns, they requested Us to give Something to
theSe images, when they drew the mats from before
From thefe circumstances, it was natural for
us to fuppofe that they were representatives of
their gods, or fome Superstitious Symbols ; and
yet they were held in no very extraordinary degree
of éftimation, for, with a Small quantity of brafs,
or iron, any perfon might have purchafed all the
gods in the place.
Mr. Webber, in drawing a view of the inside of
a NoQtka houfe, wherein theSe figures are represented, wras interrupted, and hindered from proceeding, by one of the inhabitants. Thinking a
bribe would have a proper effect upon this occasion, Mr. Webber made him an offer oS a button
from his coat, which, being metal, immediately
operated as it was intended, and he was at liberty-
to proceed as beSore. But Soon ajter he had made
a beginning, he was again interrupted by the Same
man, who held a mat before the figures. He
therefore gave him another button, and was suffered again to proceed. He then renewed his former
practice, till Mr.. Webber had parted with every
Single button ; and then permitted him to proceed
without any farther obstruction.
The men feem to be chiefly employed in fifh-
ing,   and killing   animals  for the fuftenance of
Vol.11. Np. n. LI 258
their families ; few of them being feen engaged
OTltriy bufineSs iii tn|ir houfes; but the %bmert
were occupied in manufacturing their garmëarç,
and in coring their Sardines, wrhich they alfo carry
front the canoefro theirWoufes. The women alfo
go in the fmall canoes, to gather mufcles and
other fhell-fifh. They are as dexterous as the men
in the management of thefe canoes ; and when
in ere are men in tfté*èanoes with them, they are
paid very little attention to on account of their
Sex, none of the men offering to relievffthem from
the labour of the paddle. Nor do they Shew
them any particular refpect or tendernefs on other
a^The young men are remarkably indolent ; being
gener-qB^jjpSng about^Tn fcattered companies;,
balking themfëlvësjpthe fun, or wallowing in the
land upon the beach, like fo many hogs, wfthdufS
a8y kind of covering. This disregard of decency was, however,'' confined folely^ro the men.
jjte*#omen weffe' always dèïently cLoathed, and
oenaved with greatapiopriety ; juftly meriting all
commendation for a mo deft bafhfulnefs, fo becoming their fex. In them it is the more me-
rakofious, as* the men have not evea'% fenfe of
Befides Seeing Something of their domestic life
and employments, we were enabled to form fome
judgment of their difpofition, and method of
hfing, from  the   frequent visits  received from PACIFIC OCEAN.
them at our fliip$,gin the çséoes ; in whLç^i®|
understood they pafs much of their tkpe, efpec©fi|
m, the fummer : &r{they nM only eat and fleep
frequently in them, but lie àlifi bafk themfeivçsàfc
the fiiàj as we had feen them at their villiagè.
Their large canoes are, indeed, fufficiently fca-:
cious for that purpofe ; and are, e^ggpt in rainy
weather, more comfortable habitations than their
filthy houfes. éÊ&iiiàÈ$KB
Their  greatest reliance for .food^en?s to be
upon the  fea, as affording-fjfijL, an^fea-animals.
The principalj|£ the firft are herrings and far-
dines, two fpecies of bream? and Some fmall cod.
The  herrings and farcies not only.|ferve to be
|§a|en frefr^m^aeir feafon, but i to  be drie$ gasfe
Smoked as Stores.    The herrings alto afford them
another grand refource Sor food; which is a $afy,
quantity of roe, prepared in a very extraordinary
manner.    It is Strewed upon Small branche|kpf the
Canadian pine.    It- is alSo prepared upon a long
feargrafs, which is Sound, in great plenty,  up#f^
the rocks underwater.    This caviare is preServed
in  bafkets of mat, and ufed occasionally,   after
being dipped in water. . It has no difagreeable
tafte, and ferves theSe peopîg^a^njj|oS wintg||^
bread.    They alfo eat the roe of forn%other large
fifh, that has a very; rancid fmell and tafte.
The large mufcle is an effential article of^heir
fooaVraich is founcb^n great ajg^dance|in tfye
Sound.    After roasting them in their fhells, they
LI 2 26©
are Stuck upon long wooden ikewers, and taken
off as they are wanted to be eaten, as they require
no further preparation, though they are Sometimes
dipped in oil, as a Sauce. The Smaller fhell-fifh
contribute to increate the general flock, but cannot be confidered as a material article pf their
The porpoiSë is more common among them as,
food than any of the Sea-animals ; the flefh and
rind of which they cut in large pieces, dry them
as they do herrings, and eat them without farther preparation. They have alfo a very Singular
manner of preparing a fort of broth from this
animal, when Ijf ' its frefh State. They put fo*ra|
pieces pf it iri|§; wooden vefTel or pail, itt^hich
there is alfo fome water, and throw heated ftones
into it. This ope|$$on is repeatedly performed
till the contents are fuppofed to be Sufficiently
Stewed. The Srefh ftones are put in, and the
others taken olff, with a cleft flick, Serving as a
pair pf tongs ; the veflfel being, for that purpofe,
always placed near the fire. This is a common
difli among them, and feems to be a very strong
nourifhing food. From thefe, and other Sea-
animals they procure oil in great abundance,
which they uSed upon many occafions, mixed with
other food, as Sauce, and frequently ftp it alone
with a kind of fcoop made of horn.
They  probably Seed  upon  other Sea-animals,
fuc}i as whales, feals, and fea-otters ; the fkins of PACIFIC OCEAN.
the two latter being common amongst them : and
they are Surnifhed with implements oS all Sorts
for the destruction oS theSe different animals,
though perhaps they may not be able, at all fefe-
Sons, to catch them in great plenty. No great
number of frefh fkj&pawere to be Seen while we lay
£n thej|$und.
The land-animajs, at this time, appeared alSo to
be Scarce, as we Saw no flefh belonging to any oS
them ; and, thangh their jkJÉp. were to be had in
plenty, they might, perhaps, have been procured
by traffic from other tribes, It plainly appears,
therefore, |fe>m a variety pf circumstances, jjy§t
theSe people are Surnifhed ^|fh the principal part
of th^-animal food by the^fe|4^f we except a
few gulls, and fome other bircjs, which they fhoot
with their arrows.
Their only winter vegetables feem to be the
IfSpadian pine-branches, and fea-graSs ; but, as
the Spring advances, they uSe others as they come
in SeaSon. The moft common of theSe were two
Sorts of liliaceous roots, of a rnild Sweetifh tafte,
which are mucilaginpus and eaten raw, The next
is a root ealfed aheiiu, and has a tafte refembKng
liquorice. Another fmall, fweetifh root, about
the thicknefs offarfaparilia, is alfo eaten raw. As
the. feafon advances, they have doubtlefs many
others which we did not See. . For though there
is not the least appearance oS <^t|f§$§$on among
them, there are plenty of alder, goofeberry, and 262
currant bufhesw One of the coh^R^'hoWeVé^
which they fêéW^œ' require in aIl;*f8B^.%^ that
it fhould be ofWeteSs "i&id kinSpfor they would"
not touctfl^ieek or rgS(Sc^though tfieyflold us'
vaft quantities1 of&iE; when they underftotid we
liked it. They feemed, indeed;%ai^^nRBlîîh any;
of our food and rejected our fpirituous liquors as
fonièthîrig digpfth^^^nnnattrr^P'*
Smâi^^W'nè anM^ts, in théiPïrefh StSieVare
felnetimes eaten raw ;^*&^^n^^çPtheir ortRR
nafypratllee foroaft or brôî?lBêîrlçTOdv; for they
are âbSolùtçftrangét^^ïo^bur mexfioa^SP TOiling,
: * a^âppears'^ïrowtheir ' mânner of preparing pSfWj
poife brotnf betides', as they 'have only wooaelrl
evpfets, " it^is impofnpjfe for them'to jkeîîbrm flrcira
an operation.     Their manner 'of effing' cdrr$f|l
ponds with the naftinefs of their houses and' persons ; Sor the platters and trougrss,7our*of which
they eat  théir foô^",' feerii i|ÉVèr to have'been
wafhed Since ti^^apiginal TofnïàiK^P^^^mrr^^
remains of a forîpài meaj,* being only fwej^^w^y
by   a  Succeeding  one.     Every  thing Solïcf amP^
tough, they tear to pieces wifnyiReir haiwls and
teeth ; Sor though their knives are 'flpBfttfi?
cutting off the larger portion, they have hot yet
endeavoured to reduce theSe to môuthSuîâ py jSH  ■
Same means, though So much more1«$œly and
convenient.     But they^^fe)  not  pofleSs  eveh'^al
idea of clearitineSs, and conftarrtW eat the roots
which are dug  SroïPPffie" ground, ' wl^K^^| P A C IF I C M C E A N.
JJfll^fe^^ake ^^jj|e foil that adheres &>
| .Whether tjie^^save aj^^fet time fqr meals, we
never certainly knew ; having Seen  them .eat at
3II hours In tj}ç|^ canoes.    But  having ;feen fe-
%$pl  me|[es fit porpoife broth preparing about
<8$RP> ^^Sfcï1^. went to the village, they probably make a p$|ncipal n|fgii .a^out thajt time.
They ihavje ^^^nd   arrows, {Çpears, flings,
al^grt truncheons ma^e of bone, and a fmall pickr
axe, tome what reSembling ^ttj^common Ameri^jf
tomahavk.    Some of the arrows are pointed with
ftffg}, and others with indented bon§ga;the Spear
ha? ujgally a long pojnj: made of bone. The
tomahawk is a ftoflg of tjie length of feven or
eight inches ; one end terminating in a point,
and the other fixed into a wooden handle. This
handle is intended to retembje the head and
neck of a hunian figure ; the -ftone being fixed
in the mouth fo as to repreSent a tongue oS great
magnitude. To heighten the reSemblance, hur
man hair is alSo fixed to it. This weapon is
called taaweejh ; and they have another weapon made of ftone, which they call feeaik,
about ten or twelve inches long, having a Square
It may be reafonably concluded that they %&
quently engage in clofe combat, from the number of their ftone and other weapons ; andÉ!fcl$di:
very difagreeable proofs of their wars being both 264        A VOYAGE TO THE
frequent and bloody, ftprti She quantity of human
fkulls that were offered us to Sale.
The defign and execution of their manufac-*
tures and mechanic arf|| are more extensive and
ingenious than could poflibly have been expected, from the natural ditpofition of the people,
Wtà whatjittle progreSs they had made in civilization. The flaxen and woollen garments li|p
gage their^ftrfl care, as being the moft material of
thofe that may be claflfed under the heaa of manufactures. The former are fabricated from the
bark of the pine-tree, beat into a mafs refembling
hemp. ASter being prepared in a proper manner, it is Spread upon a Stick, which is fastened
to two others in an erect position. The manufacturer, who fits on her hams at this simple
machine, knots it acrots, at the diftance oS about
half an inch from each other, with fmall plaited
threads. Though it cannot, by this method, be
rendered fo cloSe and firm as cloth that is Woven,
it is Sufficiently impervious to the air, and is UKïii
wiSe Softer and more pliable.
Though their woollen garments are probably
manufactured in the fame manner, theyt have
much the appearance of a woven cloth ; but, the
Supposition of their being wrought in a loom is
destroyed, by the various figures that are inge-
nioufly inferted in them ; it being very improbable that thefe people fhould be able to produce
fuch a complex   work,   except   immediately by PACIFIC  O CEAN.
.their hands. They are of different qualities ;
fome refembling our courdcft fort of blankets ; and
others not muA inferior to our finest fort, and
certainly both warmer and Softer.
, The wool, of which they are manufactured,
feem^fïj be produced by different animals, particularly the fox ancfcbrown lynx ; that from the
lynx is the finest, and nearly refembles our coarfer
wools in colour ; but the hair, which alfo grows
upon the animal, being intermixed with it, the
appearance of it is Somewhat different when
Wrought! Th||tanamental figures in thefe garments are difpofed with great tafte, and are generally of a different colour, being ufually dyed^t-
ther of a deep brown or a yellow ; the latter of
which, when new, equals in brightnefs the best
in our carpets.
Their fondnefs for carving on all their wooden
articles, correfponds with their tafte in working figures upon their garments. Nothing is to be feen
without a kind of freeze-work, or a reprefentation
of fome animal upon it ; but the moft general figure
is that of the human face, which is frequently cut
out upon birds, and the other monstrous things already mentioned ^ and even upon their weapons
of bone and ftone*
The general defign of thefe figures\<;0&geys a
fuflicient knowledge of tfie objects  they are intended to reprefent ; though, in the carving, ?É|
little dexterity is difplayed.    But,  in the exe$g| .
tion of many of the maiks and   heads,   they have
Vol. II.—No. 11.        Mm 266 AVOYAGETO  THE
fhewn themfelves ingenious Sculptors. They
preferve, with the greatest exactnefs, the general
.enPracter of their own faces, and finifh the more
minute parts with great accuracy and neatnefs*.
That thefe people have a strong propensity to
works of this fort, is obfervabiein a variety of particulars. Representations of human figures ; brr^B§|
beafts ; fifh ; models of their canoes, and houfe-
hold utenfiis, we found among them in very
great, abundance.
Having mentioned their fkill in fome of the
imitative arts, fuch as working: figures in their
garments, and engraving, or carving them in
wood ; we may afift^add their drawing them in
colours. The whole procefs of their whale fifhery
has been reprefented, in this manner, on the caps
they wear. This indeed, was rudely executed,
but ferved, at least, to convince us, that, though
they have not the knowledge of letters amongst
them, they have a notion of reprefenting actions,
in a lasting way, exclusive of recording them in
their Songs and traditions. They have alSo other
painted figures, which, perhaps, have no eftablifh-
ed Significations, and are only the creation oS fancy or caprice.
Though the structure of their canoes is Simple,
they appear well calculated for every ufeful purpofe.
The largeft, which contains upwards of twenty
people, are formed of a tingle tree. ^fhe length
of many of them is forty feet, the breadth feven,   and the depth three.    They become  gra- PACIFIC   OCEAN.
dually narrower from the middle towards each
end, the Stern ending perpendicularly, with a
knob at the top. The fore-part ftretches forwards and upwards, and ends in a point or prow,
much higher than the fides of the canoe, which
are nearly straight. ThE^reatefiy part of them
are without any ornament ; fome have a little
carving, and are ftudded with teals' teeth on the
furface. Some have alfo a kind of additional
prow, usually painted with the figure of fome
animal. They have neither feats nor any other
supporters, on the infide, except fome final! round
Sticks, about the fize of a walking cane, placed
across, abqgl half the depth of the canoe. They
are very light and, on account of their breadth
and flatnefs, fwim firmly, without an out-rigger,
of wh^Ji they are all destitute. Their paddles,
which are fmall and light, refembles a large leaf in
fhape, being pointed at the bottom, broad in the
middle, and gradually becoming narrower in the
Shaft ; the wh$j[gt length being about five feet.
By confiant ufe, they have acquired great dexterity in the management of thefe paddles; but they
never make ufe of any fails.
For filhing and hunting, their instruments are
ingenioufly contrived, and completely made. They
confift of nets, hooks, and lines, harpoons, gigs,
and an instrument refembling an oar. The latter is about twenty feet in length, four or five
inches in breadth, and of the thicknefs of half an
M m 2 l&
inch. The edges, for about fwo-thirds of its
length, are fet with fharp bone-teeth, about two
inches in length ; the other third Serving for a
handle. With this instrument they attack her*
rings and fard|$fe, and SuépÊother fifh as come
in fhoals. t^is Struck into the Shoal, and the fifh
are taken e|^er upon, or between the teeth. Their
hooks, which a^ made of bone and wood, ditr
play no great ingenuity ; but the harpipn, which
is ufcd in Striking whales, and other Sea-animals,
manifests a great extent of ftmtrivanee. It con?
fifts ot a piece pf bone, formed into two barbs,
in which the oval blade of a large mufcle-fhell,
and the point of the instrument, is fixed. Two or
three fathoms of rope is fastened to this harpoon,
and in throwing$t3 they ufe a fhaft of about fifteen
feet long, to which the rope is faflened ; to one
end of which the harpoon is fixed fo as to leave
the fhaft floating, as a buoy upon the water, when
the animal is struck with the harpoon.
We are strangers to the manner of their catching pr killing land anmials^p%ut, it is probable,
that they fhoot the fmaller forts with their arrows ; and encounter bears, wolves, and Soxes,
with their Spears. They have Several Sorts of
nets, which are perhaps applied to that purpoSe;
it being customary Sor them to throw them over
their heads, to SlgniSy their uSe, when they oS-
Sered them Sor Sail. Sometimes they decoy animals by difguifing, themfelves   with  a fkin, ancj PACIFIC WCE AN.
running upon all fours, in which they are remarkably nimble ; maiÉfeg, at the Same time, a
kind of noiSe, or neighing. The mafks, or
carved heads , as well as the dried heads oS different animals, are uSed upon theSe occafions.
Every thing of the rope kind which they ute
in making thefr various articles, is fqfened either
from thongs oS fkins, and Sinews of animals,
or from the flaxen Substance, of which they ma-
pÉfecture their mantles. The finews were fometimes fo remarkably long, that it wa& hardly pof-
fible they could have belonged to"" any other animal than the whale. The fame conjecture may
be hazarded with regard to the bones, of which
they make their instruments and weapons,
The assistance they receive from iron^tools,
contributes to their dexterity in wooden performances. Their implements are almoft wholly
made of iron ; at least, we faw but one cheffel
that was not made of that metal, and that was
only of bone. The knife and the cheffel are the
principal forms that iron affumes amongst them.
The chiffel conflits of a flat long piece, fattened
into a wooden handle. A ftone is their mallet,
and a bit of fifh-fkin their pofifher. Some of
thefe chiffels were nine or ten inches in length,
and three or four in breadth ; but they were, in
general, considerably Smaller.
Some of their knives are very large, and their
blades are crooked 5 the ea^e being on the baç!^ 270      A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
or convex part. What we have feen among
them, were about the breadth and tfiicknel^^r
an iroit-hop ; and their Singular form fufficiently
proves that Mtey are not of European make,
Thefe iron-tools arérfearpened upon a coarfe flate
whetstone, and the whole inftru^ept is k^j| continually bright. $ék$
Iron is called by the natives feêigmaile, a name
which they alfo give to tin, and other white
metals. It being fo common among thefe people, we were anxious to difcover how it could
be conveyed to them. As foon as we arrived in
the Sound we perceived that they had a knowledge of traffic and an inclination to purfue it ;
and we were afterwards convinced that they had
not acquired this knowledge from a curfory interview with any strangers, but it feemed habitual to them and was a practice in which they'
were well Skilled.
With whom they carry on this traffic, we cannot afcertain ; fbr, though we faw feveral articles
of European manufacture, or fuch, at leaft, as had
been derived from fome civilized nation, fuch
as brafs and iron, it does not certainly follow
that they were received immediately from thefe
nations. For we never could obtain the leaft information of their having feen fhips, like ours,
before, nor of their having been engaged in commerce with fuch people. Many circum(tances
corroborate to prove this beyond a doubt.    On PACIFIC   OCEAN.
ôur'arrival, they were earnest in their enquiries,
whether we meant to fettle amongst them, and
whether we were friendly visitors ; informing us,
at the fame time, that they freely gave us wood
and water from motives of frienlâmip.
Tins fufiiciently proves, that they confidered
themfelves as proprietors of the place, and dreaded no fuperiority : for it would have been an unnatural enquiry, if any fhips had been here before, and had fupplied themfelves with wood and
water, and then departed ; for they might then
reafonably expect that we fhould do the fame.
It muft be admitted, indeed, that they exhibited
no marks of furprize at beholding our fhips ; but
this may, with great propriety, be attributed to
their natural indolence of temper, and their wanting a third of curiosity. They were never startled
at the report of a mufquet, till they, one day,
Shewed us that their hide-dreffes were impenetrable to their fpears and arrows ; when one of
our people fhot a mufquet ball through one of
them that had been fix times folded. Their alio*
nifhment at this, plainly indicated their ignorance of the effect of fire-arms. This 'was afterwards very frequently confirmed, when we ufed
them to fhoot birds, at which they appeared
greatly confounded. And our explanation of the
piece, together witj|^|he nature of its operation,
with  the aid of fhot and ball.   Struck them fo 272
forcibly, as to convince us of their having  i&f
previous ideas on this matter*
Though Some account of a voyage to this coaft,
by the Spaniards, in 1774,. or 1775, had arrived
m England before we failed, the circumstances
jutt mentioned fufficiently prove, that thefe fhips
had never been at Nootka*. It was alfo evident,
that iron would not have been in fo many hands,
nor would the ufe of it have been* well known,
if they had fb lately obtained thei$rft knowledge
of it.
From their general ufe of this metal, it pro*
bably comes from forage constant Source, in the
way of traffic, and they have perhaps been long
fupplied with it ; for they ufe their tools with as
much dexterity as the longest practice can acquire. The moft natural conjecture, therefore,
is, that they trade for their iron with other In*
dian tribes, who may have fome communication
with European jfettlements upon that cqnjinent,
or receive it through feveral intermediate nations.
By the fame means they probably obtain tfyp}ç$
brafs and copper.
Not only the rude materials, but fome manu-»
factured articles feem to find their way hither.
The brafs ornaments Sor noSes are made in So
masterly a manner, that the Indians cannot  be
*  If has fir
Dpearêd, that they were riot within two
-degrees   of   Nootka, and   probablv the inhabitants of that
place ja^rer heard of (J^ife Spanifh fhips. PACIFIC OCEAN.
fuppofed capable of fabricating them. We are
certain, that the materials are European, as all
the American; tribes are ignorant of the method
of making brats ; though copper has been frequently met with, and, from its ductility, might
easily be Saihioned into a'ny fhape, and polifhed.
Jffuch articles are not ufed by our traders to
Hudfon's Bay and Canada, in their traffic with
the natives, they muft have been introduced at
Nootka from Mexico ; whence, it is probable,
the two Silver table Spoons were originally deprived.
Little knowledge can we be SuppoSed to have
acquired of the political and religious institutions eftabliflied among theSe people. We discovered, however, that there were Such men as
chieSs, diftinguifhed by the title of Acweek, to
whom the others are, in fome degree, fubordi-
nate. But the authority ot each oS theSe great
men, Seems to extend no farther than to his
own family, who acknowledge him as their head.
As they were not all elderly men, it is poffible
this title may be hereditary.
Nothing that we Saw could give us any infight
into their notions of religion, except the figures
already mentioned, called Klumma. Thefe, perhaps, were idols ; but, as the word acweek was
frequently mentioned when they^|poke of them,
we may fuppofe them to be the images of Some
of their ancestors, whofe memories they venerate.
Vol. IL- No. ir. N n m
This, however is all conjecture, for we could
receive no information concerning them ; knowing little more of their language than to enable
us to aik the names of things, and being,incapable of holding any converfation with the natives, relative to their traditions, or their infti-
Their language is neitheir harfh nor difagree-
able,. farther than proceeds from their pronouncing the k and h with lets foftnefs than we do.
As to the composition of their language, we are '
enabled to fay but little. It may, however, he
inferred, from their flow and distinct method of
Speaking, that it has few prepoficions or conjunctions, and is destitute of even a Single interjection to exprefs furprize or admiration. The affinity it may bear to other languages, we have
not been able Sufficiently to trace, not having
proper fpecimens to compare it with; but, from
the few Mexican words we have procured, there
is an obvious agreement, throughout the language, in the frequent terminations of the words;
in /, //, or £.
The wood wakajh was frequently in the mouths
of the people cf Nootka. It feemed to exprefs
approbation, applaufe, and friendfhip. Whenever they appeared to be pleafed or Tatisfied at
any fight or occurrence, they would call out
<MwiftD ! wakajh /—-It is worthy of remark, that
as thefe
fo  effentiaily difier from the na- PACIFI&OCEAN.
*:Wës of the iflands in the Pacific Ocean, in their
perfons, customs, and language, we cannot fuppofe   their   respective   progenitors   to   have   be-
'Ittaged to the fame tribe, when they emigrated
into thofe places where we now find their descendants.
CHAP.    IV,
À Storm—The Refolution fprlngs a Leak—Progr&fs
of the Ships along the North-American Coaft—
An Inlet named Crofs Sound—Bee ring's Bay—
Cape Suckling—Account of Kay9s Ifland—Our
Ships anchor near Cape Hinchingbroke—the Natives    vifit   us—Their  Fondnefs for  Beads and
^f^pn—Their daring Atte?npt to carry off one of
cur Boats—They alfo attempt to plunder the Difcovery—Progrefs up the Sound— MrJj^G ore anfl
the M after fent to examine its Extent—Montague
Ifland—The Ships leave the Sound.
WE   have  already mentioned, that we put
to   fea,  in   the evening   of the 26th of
April,^ith manifeft indications of an approaching ftorm ; and thefe Signs   did  not deceive   us.
We had Scarce Sailed out oS the Sound, when the
N n 2 276       A  VO#GE  TO  THE
wind fhifted from north-eaft to foutK-^ft by eaft,
--<Wjf|. blew a strong gale, with fqualls and rain,
thefky being at the fame timfî uncommonly dark.
Being apprehensive of the winds veering more
to the foult^ which would expofe us to the danger of aJÉg-fhore, we got the tacks on board,
and made all the Sale we cojjjd to the fouth-weft.
It fortunately happened, that the wind veered no
further towards the fouth, than Souih-eaft ; So
that, early the next morning, we were entirely
clear oS the coaft. Y Captain Clerke's fhip being
at Some diftance eftern, the Commodore brotîghtv
to, till fhe came up, and then both veflels Steered a north-westerly courte. The wind blew with
great violence, and the weather was thick and
hazy. Between o^ and two o'clock in the aSr
ternoon, there was a perSe6l hurricane ; So that
the Commodore deemed it exceedingly dangerous to run any longer before it : he therefore
brought the fhips to, with their heads to "tfcgl
fouth. In this fituation, the ReSplu^S^ f|)f ung
a leak, in her Starboard quarter, which^at firft
alarmed us extremely ; biÈ, after the wâtMj
was baled out, which kept^ employed till midnight, it was kept under by means ofone ptiîÉfc'a
The wind having, in the evening-veered to the
fbuth^rd, its fury income meafure abated;
'pjïén which we Stretched to the weft; but about
eleven, the gale again increaSed, and continued PACIFIC OCEAN.
till five the next morning, when the ftorm began to moderate.
The weather now clearing up, we were #ble to
See Several leagues around us, and fleered more
Sftbghe nor.$%. At noon, our longitude was 3290
26' eaft: and ouraptitude, 509 1' north. We
now fleered n|p|th-wei]t by north, with a Srefh
gale, and Sair weather. But, towards the evening, the wind again blew hard, with Squalls and
rain. With this weather, we continued the Same
courSe till the 50th, when we fleered north by
ff|g||t, intending to make the land. Captain Cook
regretted that he could not do it Sooner, as we
were now pafling |pê Spot where the pretended
Strait  of Admiral de Fonte has been placed by
^jgèOgraphe^ Though the Captain gave no credit
to Such vague and improbable Stories, he was desirous of keeping the coaft of America aboard,
that this point might be cleared up beyond diS-
pute. But he considered, that it would have
been very imprudent to have engaged with the
land while the weather was So tempestuous, or to
have loft the advantage of a fair wind, by wait-
inga for leff flormy weather. This day, at twelve
o'clock, our latitude was 53° 22' north, and our
longitude  2250  14' eaft.
On Friday, the ift of May, not Seeing^land,
we fleered to the north-eaft, having aajrefh breeze
at Sou t h-Saut h -eaft and South, withe |qualls and
fhowers pf hail and rain.    About ' (even o'clock w.
in the evening, we deScried the land, at the diftance of twelve or fourteen leagues.    At four the
next morning, the coaft was Seen from fouth-eaft
to north by weft, the nearest part of it being hve
or fix leagues distant.    At this time,, the northern
point of an inlet, or, at leaft, what appeared to
be one, bore eaft  by fouth ; and from it to  the
northward, there feemed to  be   many bays and
harbours along the coaft.    At fix o'clock, making a nearer approach to the land,^ we Steered
north-weft   by north, this being the direction of
the coaft ;   and between  eleven  and   twelve, wre
paffed a cluster of little iflands Situate near the
continent, to the northward of the fouthern point
of an extenfive bay.    An arm of this  bay feemed
to extend in towards the north, behind a round
lofty mountain that Hands between it and the fea.
To this mountain Captain Cook gave the name
of Mount  Edgecumbe ;   and  the  point   of  land
projecting from it,   he called Cape Edgecumbe.
The latitude of this cape, is $y° 3' north, and its
longitude   2240   f   eaft.    The   land,   except  in
fome  parts clofe to the fea, is of a confiderable
height,   abounding   with    hills.     Mount   Edeg-
cumbe, which far out-tops all the reft, was entirely covered with fnow, as were alfo the other
elevated hills ; but the lower ones, and the flatter
fpots near the fea, were destitute of it, and covered with wood. WéJC IF 1 C   OCEAN.
In our progrefs  to the northward, we  found
that the coaft from Cape Edgecumbe  trended to
the  north and north-eaft for fix or Seven leagues,
and  there formed  a  Spacious bay.    There being
Some  iflands   in   the entrance   of this bay, the
Commodore   named   it   the Bay of Iflands.    It
feemed to branch out into feveral  arms, one of
which turned  towards the fouth,  and may   perhaps  communicate with the bay on the  eaftern
ûâe of Cape Edgecumbe, and thus render the land
of that cape an iflaild.    On the 3d, at   half an
hour  after  four in   the   morning, Mount Edgecumbe bore  fouth   540 eaft, a'large inlet, north
500 eaft ; and  the moft advanced point of land
towards the north-weft, lying under a very lofty
peaked mountain, which obtained the appellation
of Mount Fair-Weather,  -bore  north 320 W^^A
The inlent we named Cross Sound, having firft
ofefèrved  it on  the day fo marked in our calendar.    The fouth eaftern point of this Soun^|is an
elevated promontory, which we diftinguifhed by
the name of Crois  Cape.    To the  point under
the above-mentioned peaked mountain, we gave
the name of Cape Fair-Weather.    At noon, this
cape was distant twelve or thirteeen leagues.
We had now light breezes frlto the north-
weft, which continued feveral days. We fleered
to the South weifc, and weft-fouthvweft, till the
morning of the 4th, when we tacked and Stood
towards the fhore.     At twelve  o'clock, Mount
Fair-Weather bore north 630 eaft, and t||^fhore
under it was about a dozen leagues diftant. This
mount is the highest of a chain or ridge of mountains, that rife at the north-weftern entrance of
Crofs Sound, and extend towards the north-weft,
parrel lei with the coaft. Thefe mountains were
coveted with fnow, from the higheft fummit
down to the fea-coaft ; except a few places, where
we could difcern trees that feemed to rife, as it
were, from the fea. About five o'clock in the
afternoon, the top of a high mountain appeared
above the horizon, bearing north 260 weft; and,
as we afterwards found, near forty leagues dif-
tant. We fuppofed that it was the mount St.
Elias, of Commodore Beering. We faw, in the
courte of this day, feveral porpoiSes,' feals, and
whales ; alSo great numbers of gulls, and many
flocks of birds which had a black circle about
the head, and a black band on the tip of the tail
and upper part of the wings, the reft being white
below and blueifh above. We likewife obferved
a brownifh duck, with a blackifh or dark blue
head and neck.
As we had light winds, with occasional calms,
we proceeded but flowly. On the 6th, at midday, the nearest land was at the diftance of about
eight leagues. In a north-eafterlpifae&ion, there
appered to be a bay, and an ifland near its
fouthern point, covered with wood. Thisispro-
l&bly the place where Btering anchored.    South- M
tward,|è|ii^*bay {which Cantain  Cook named
aBeering's Bay, in Honour of its  difcoverer) the
ridge of mountain^ already mentioned, is interrupted by a plain of Several leagues in extent, beyond 'which the  fight was unbounded.    In the
«fternoon, we *SoUnded^§|ifd Sound a  muddy bot-
^om atcthe dep^fa>f aboftfifeventy fathoms.    Soon
afterwards,  having a light northerly breeze, wé
*8e€red 4o *he aiwef$^ar$^^gï# ;at noon, the next
nd^y, we were at the glance of four or five leagues
from the fhore.   -From this station we could per-
Ppjtee.â-bày under «a high land, with low woodland on each »fide of it.    *7fe&ow Sound that the
^Q#ft trended troHtfiderably to the weft ; and as we
had but little winder aand that i^àâefly  from the
-weftward, we made a flow progrets.    On the 9th,
aboufr&èon, Mount St Elias bore north 300 eaft
. at the distance of nineteen leagues.    This mounting rft&iHÏs twelve leaguds inland, in the longitude
of 2190 eaft, and in the latitude of 69° 27' north.
It belongs   to   a ridge of very 4|Vty mountain^,
aw^hîch may /be reckoned a kintjabf continuation of
the former, being Separated Srom them only by
*the .plain befbre^meaiioned. --wgj
On Sunday the 10th, at twelve o'clock, we
.were about three leagues xfiftantefi&m the coaft of
.the continent, which «xsended from eaft half
$lfc^,-JtovnGrth-weft half weft. To the westward
^eftlfee latter direction was an ifland, at the dit-
-l&nec oS fix leagues. A point which tb^sfi^jn-
Vol. IL No. ffi        O o A  VOYAGE   TO   THE
modore named Cape Suckling, projects towards
the north-eaftern end of this ifland. The extremity of the cape is low ; but, within it, Stands
a hill of a confiderable height, which is divided
from the mountains by low lairal ; fo that the
cape, at a diftance, has an infular appearance.
On the north fide of Cape Sickling is a bay,
which feemed to be ex tenir/e, and to be flickered from moft winds. Captain Cook had fome
thoughts of reparing to this bay, in order to flop
the leak of his fhip, all our endeavours to effect
"^^^ purpofe at fea having proved fruitless. Wee
therefore fleered for the cape; but, having only
variable light breezes, we advanced towards it
ftowly. Before night, however we had approached near enough to fee Some low land projecting
Srom the cape to the north-weft ; wre alfo obferved fome little iflands in the bay, and feveral elevated rocks between the cape andaAe north-
eaftern extremity of the ifland. As there appeared to be a .partage on each fide of thefe rocks,
we continued fleering thither the whole night.
Early the next morning, the wind Shifted from
north-eaft to north. This being against us, the
Commodore relinquished his defign of going into
the bay, and bore up for the weft end of the ifland.
There being a calm about ten o'clock, he em>
barked in a boat, and landing on the ifland, with
a view of feeing what lay on the other fide ; but
finding that the hills were at a  greater diftance PACIFIC   OCÉAN.
than he expected, and - that the way was woody
and fleep, he laid afide that intention.. On a
Small eminence near the fhore, he left, at the foot
of a tree, a bpttle containing a paper, on which
the names of our fhips, and the date of our difcovery, were infcribed ; he alfo inclofed two silver
two-penny pieces of Englifh coin, which, with
many others, had been furniflied him by Dr. Kay,
now Dean of Lincoln ; and, in testimony of his
esteem for that gentleman, he diftinguifhed the
ifland by the name of Kay's ifland. Mp
- This ifle does not exceed twelve leagues in
length, and its breadth is not above a league and
, a half in any. part of it. The fouth-weft point
whofe latitude is 59° 49' north, and longitude
216° 58' eaft, is a naked rock, considerably elevated above the land within it, There is alfo a
high rock lying off it, which, when feen in Some
particular directions, has the appearance oS a ruinous cattle. The ifland terminates towards the
Sea, in bare Hoping cliffs, with a beach confifting-
oS large pebbles, intermixed in Some places with
a clayey Sand., The cliffs are compofed of a
blueifh ftone or rock, and are, except in a few
parts in a Soft or mouldering ftate. Some parts
of the fhore are interrupted by fmall vallies and
gullies, in each of which a rivulet or torrent
rulhes down with a confiderable 'degree of impetuosity ; though, perhaps, only furniflied from
the fnow7, and lasting no longer than till the whole
Oo 2 2§4
A V 0 Y'A G E T® THE
is difiolvad.    Thefe* vallies are filfedl whit pii$«u
trees ; and they alfo abound in other parts of the
ifland, which, indeed, is: coviered, a^s k were, with
a broad girdle  of wood.     The trees, however,
are far from being- of an extraordmaafy growth ;
few of them teeming ta be» larger than* what a perfon might grafp round with his  arms, and then*
general height t>eiag fb&ty or fifty, feet -r  fe that
they would be ©f no great Service for Mpping^
except as material tor making top gallant mafts,
and other fmall thmgs.    The pine-trees appeared
to be all of one fpec&s ;   and neither the Canadian pine, nor eypreSs, was to be Seen,
Iflppon the edges of the cliffs, the Surface was
covered with a  kind oS tutt,   about  fix inches
tlifck, apparently compoSed of the common morfe
and the upper part of the ifland had pearly the
fame appearance in pofïi of colour '%   b&t that
which cohered it, whatever it was-, Seemed'to be
thicker.    Among the   trees were  Some   currant
and 'djjf leaves of other plants, n&| yet in flower,
particular one which  was SuppoSed by Mr, An*
êktâfefc^p be the heraeUum of Linnaeus.
A crow was feen flying about the wood ; two
or three white headed eagles, like thofe-of Nooti
ka, were alfo obferved ; be#des another fpecies
equally large, which had a white breaft, Thç
Commodore likeVife faw, in his paflage from th$
miprW the fhore, a number of fowls fitting on PACIFIC O-OEA^,      2^5
the water; or #y£*|g about ; the gggwgaj- ©£
w&içh were gulte, burres^ fhags^ <Jucks, oij large
petrelg^ivers, and quebranta&ueflesj. The div$^
werer^||two Sorts; one very l^i-ge^ whp.ije colpu*
was black, with a white belly and bfq^l ', t^e
o|her^^ a fmaljeif fize, witb^ a longer an$ more
pointed bill. The ducks were ah$. ^ two, fpe-
fJfËtfci onQ brownifh, witfe a 4%rk:blue ox bl^ckifji
head and neck; : the oth§|| Smaller, and of § d^rî^.
black colour. The fhags w:ere large andj bl^^^
having a, white fpjjÉ behind the wings. The
gulls were of the common fort, flying in flocks.
There was alSo a Single bird flying about, apparently of the gull k»ind, whofe colour w$$yt
fn$wy white, with fome blaeJ^ aytWS P^AÇÎ t^le
upper fide of its wings;. A1 tnt place where eg?
party landed, a fox came from the verge of the
wood, and eyeing them with little emotion, walked
leisurely op without^panifefting any figns of fear.
He was not of a large fiz^aajid his colour was
a çedçiifti yellow. Twoyjr three fmall feals were
Ukewife feen $0$ the fhore ; but no traces were
discovered oS inhabitants having ever been in the
^yÈaptain Cook, with thofe who acçomjMnl^â
him, returneda^on board in the afterr^GB|t, $n$
with %|ight breeze from the eaft, we fteerecl for the
fouth weflyide of the ifland, which we got rotund
by eight o'clock in the evening: we thi{tood
for the wefte^nniost land that was now in fight. 286
At the north-eaft end of Kay's Ifland Hands' ano^
ther ifland, extending north-weft and fouth-eaft
about nine miles, to within the fame distance of
the north-weftern boundary of the bay mentioned
before, to whii^.the appellation of Comptroller's
bay was given. Early the next morning Kay's
Ifland was Still in fight, bearing eaft by fouth ;
and, at this time, we were at the distance of four
or five leagues from the n$ain. At noon, the
eaftern point of a fpacious inlet bore weft-north-
weft, about three leagues distant. From Comptroller's Bay to this point, which the Commodore
named Cape Hinchingbroke, the direction of the
coaft is nearly eaft and wreft. Beyond this, it
appeared to incline towards the fouth ; a direction
very different from that which is marked out in
the modern charts^fpanded on the late difcoveries
oftthe Ruffians ; infomuch that we had fome reafon to expect, that we fhould find, through the
inlet before us, a paffage to the north, and that
the land to the weft and fouth-weft was a group
of iflands. The wind was now South-easterly,
and we were menaced with a tog and a Storm ;
and Captain Cook was desirous of getting into
fome place to Stop the leak, before we had another gale to encounter. We therefore fleered for
the inlet, which we had no Sooner reached, than
the weather became exceedingly, foggy, and it
Was deemed neceffary that the fhips fhould be Secured in Some place or other, till the fky fhould PACIFIC O CE Aîg
clear up.    With this view we hauled clote under
Cape  Hinçjnngbroke, and caft  anchor befor,^:a.'
fmall   cove, over a clayey bottqp^ in  eight *|jj^
thorns water, at the diftance of about two fur-'
longs from the fhore. &$&#;
Soon after we had anchored, the boats wepre
hoifted out, fome to fifh, and others to found.
The Seine, at the Same time, was drawn in the
cove; but without Success, as it was torn. At
intervals the Sog cleared away, and gave us a
view oS the neighbouring land. The cape was
one league^iftant ; the western point oS the inlet,
five leagues, and the land on that fide extended
to weft by north. Between this poinjgfind north-
weft by weft, we could di||grn no land. 3|fej&a
moft westerly point we had in view on the north
fhore, was at the diftance of two leagu^jlf. Betwixt thisijoint, and the fhore under which our
Ships now fjaj at anchor, is a bay about three
leagues deep, on the fouth-eaftern fide oS which
are Several coves > and, in the middle, Stand Some
rocky iflands.
Mr. Gore was diSpatched in a hmf to thefe
iflands, in order to fhoot Some birds that might
Serve Sor Sood. He had Scarcely reached them,
when abo^twenty natives appeared, in two large
canoes ; upon which Ae retured to the fhips,
and they followed him. They were unwilling,
however, to venture along-fide, but k^^aat a
little diftance, fhouting  aloud, and clafping and
I A  VOtfAGÏ  TO  TttE
&éèhdlfcg their arms alternately. They then be-
^kàià^ind of fiong, lunch after Jrj|Éhnanner 6%'lnc
'ihhabôfa'ntS a0mMtg George's o^HÉMffiS^a Sound.
Th'ehr Pleads ^efe rîrewed 'wîth feathers, arid one
of them held out a white garment, wfiîèh1 we fuppofed wns ifiëénded^s-àtokenoffriendihip'; whifê'
^tiféither, forbear ^^udrter of an hour, flood \ip
in the catnoe, entirely naked, with his arms éx-
%&ideÔ*fîke%;crdfs, and motionlëfs. Their canoes
were coriftrMIèd upon a different *plan from thofe
?dfrN0otka. Thefr&me coriffltel df fîèhder laths,
and the outfide %as fdrnieS of the fkins of feais,
or other animals xof a fi&iilàr kind. Though we
^âttîpnéd $B#til6j*ns of amity, and endeavoured
by the moft éiepi€ffl^é%eftures, to encourage them
to come ôlofi^tde^ wé were unable to prerafta
upon them. Though fome of our people repeated* feveral ôf tlie moft common words of the lan-
sgaage of NooTfea, fuch as mahook and Jeekemaile,
ftkjrdid not appear-to unâflf Stand theriu^ After
ihey had received fbj^£r%fents that were thrown
to them, they retired towards the fhore, intimating by ifigns, that^^^r would pay us another vifit
the next morning. Two of them, however, came
off fo us.-$si the night, each in a fmall canoe ;
hoping, perhaps, ^ftat they might find us all
afleep, and might have *an opportunity of pilfering ; for they we&t&&ay«'as foon as they perceived
themfelves difcovered. JPAClflC   OCEAN. â89
, The wind, during the nigfcyt, blew haïra and
in fqualls, with rain, and thick hazy weather.
The next morning, about ten, the wind becoming more moderate, and the weather in fome
meafure clearing up, we got up our anchors and
made fail, in order to fearch for fome convenient
place where we might flop the leak, as our prefent ftation was two much éxpofed for that purpofe. Captain Cook at firft propofed to have
gone up the bay before which our fhips had anchored ; but he was afterwards induced by the
clearness of the weath^ to Steer towards the
north, further up the great inlet; After we had
paffed the north-weft point of the above mentioned bay, we found that the coaft, on that fide,
inclined to the eastward. We did not follow it,
but proceeded on our courSe to the northward,
for a point of land which we obferved in that
The Americans who had visited us the preceding day, came off again in the morning, in
five or fix canoes ; but as they did not come till
after we were under fail, they were unable to
reach the fhips, though they followed us for à
confiderable time. In the afternoon, before two
o'clock, the unfavourable weather returned, with
So thick a*ffcaze, that we could difcern no other
land but the point ju.fl mentioned, off which we
arrived between Sour and five o'clock, and foigàl
it to be a little ifland, situated at the diftance of
Vox. IL——No. ii. Pp
h 290 A V O Y A G E T O T H E
about two miles from the neighbouring coafi%
being a point of land on the eaftern fide of
which we difcovered an excellent bay, or rather
harbour. To this we plied up, while the wind
blew in very hard fquails^accompanied with
rain. Though, at Some intervals, we could See
land in every direction, yet, in general, there wa§
So great a Sog, that we could only perceive the
Shores of the bay for which we were now ilcering.
In patting the ifland, we found a muddy bottom,
at the depth of twenty-fix fathoms. Not long
after, we found Sixty and Seventy fathoms, over
a rocky bottom; and, in the entrance of the bay,
the depth of water was from thirty to fix fathoms.
At length, about eight o'clock, we were obliged,
by the violence of the fqualls, to caft anchor in
thirteen fathoms wrater, before we had proceeded
So Sar into the bay as the Commodore intended ;
but we thought ourSelves fortunate in having the
fhips already Secured; Sor the night was extremely
Though the weather Avas So turbulent, the natives were not deterred from paying us a vifit.
Three of them came off in two canoes ; two
men in one, and one in the other, being the number that each canoe could carry. For they were
constructed nearly in the fame manner with thofe
of the Efquimaux, except that in one of them
were two holes for two perfons to fit in, and in
the other but one.    TheSe men had each a Stick, PACIFIC   OCEAN. 291
of the length of about three feet, with the large
feathers, or wings of birds, fastened to it. Thefe
they frequently held up to us, probably as tokens
of peace. The treatment thefe three received,
induced many others to vifit us, between one and
two o'clock the following morning, in both great
and fmall canoes. Some of them ventured on
board the Refoîùtion, though not before fome of
our people had stepped into their boats. Among
thofe who came on board, was a middle aged
man, who, as we afterwards found, w7as the chief.
His dreft was made of the fkin of the féa-otter,
and he had on his head fuch a cap as is worn by
the inhabitants of Nootka, embellifhed with
fky-blue glafs beads. He appeared to value thefe
much more than our white glafs beads. Any
kind of beads, however, feemed to be in high
estimation among thefe people, who readily gave
in exchange for them whatever they had, even
their fine fea-otter fkin.
They were very desirous of iron, but absolutely
rejected Small bits, and wanted pieces nine or
ten inches long at leaft, and oS the breadth of
three or four fingers. They obtained but little
of this commodity from us, as, by this time, it
was become rather Scarce. The points of Some
oS their Spears were of this metal ; others were
of copper ; and a few were of bone; of which
last the points of their arrows, darts, &c. were
formed. 292
a voyagé: to the
The chief co^B not be prevailed upon to venture below the uper deck, nor did he and his
companions continue long on board. Whil§i|
they were with us, it was neceffary to watch them
narrowly, as they Soon manifested an inclination
for thieving. At length, when they had been
three or four hours alongside the Refo!utiëî|||j
they all quitted her, and repariitt- to the Difcovery, which fhip none of them had before been
on board of, except one man, who came from
her at this very time, and immediately returned
to her, in ÉÉmpany with the others. As foon as
they had departed from our Ship, Captain Cook
difpatched a boat to found the head of the bay*
fbras, the wind was moderate at prefent, he had
an intention of laying the fhip afhore, if a proper
place could be found for the procefs of flopping
the leak. Soon afterwards all the Americans
quitted the Difcovery, and made their way to*
wards our boat that was employed in founding.
The officer who was in her, obferving their approach, returned to the fhip, and all the canoes*
followed him. The crew of the boat had no
Sooner repaired on board, leaving in her, by way
of guard, two of their number, then feveral of
the natives stepped into her; fome ofr whom pre-;
fented their fpears before the two men, while
■lÉfiers looted the rope by which fhe was fattened
to the fhip, and the reft were fo daring as to attempt to tow her away.     But the moment they PACIFIC OCEAN.
faw that we were preparing to oppofe them, they
let her go, stepped out other into their own boats,
and made figns to us to perfuade us^ lay down
our arms, being, to all appearance, perfectly unconcerned.
This attempt, though a very bold Qrtf* was
Scarce equal to what they had meditated on board
Captain Clerke's fhip. The man whom we mentioned before as having conducted his countrymen from the Refolution to the Difcovery, had
firft been on board of the latter ; where looking
down all the hatchways, and obferving no one
except the officer of the watch, and one or two
others, he doubtless imagined that fhe might be
plundered with eafe, particularly as fhe was ftar
tioned at fbme^^jiftance Srom the Rgfolution. It
was unquestionably with this intent, that the nar
tives w^ent off to her. Several of them went on
board without the leaft ceremony, and drawing
their knives, made figns to the officer, and the
other people upon deck, to keep off, and began
to fearch for plunder. The firft thing they lai<|
hold of was the rudder of one of Gur boats, which
they immediately threw overboard to thofe of
their party who had continued in the canoes. But
before they had time to find another object that
Struck their fancy, the fhips crew were alarmed*
and many of them, armed with cutlaffes came
Upon deck. On obferving this, the plunderers
all fneaked off into  their  canoes, with evident 294
marks of indifference. It was at this time, that
our boat was occupied in founding, as we have
already mentioned ; and the natives, without delay, proceeded towards her, after the difappoint-
ment they had met with at the Difcovery. Their
vifiting us fo early in the morning was undoubtedly with a view of plundering, on a fuppofition
that they fhould find all our people afleep.
From the circumstances above related, it may
reafonably be inferred, that thefe people are not
acquainted with fire-arms. For, had they known
any thing of their effect, they would by no means
have ventured to attempt carrying off a boat from
under a fhjp's guns, in the face of upwards of a
hundred men ; for moft of the Resolution's people were looking at them, at the very instant of
their making the attempt. However, we left
them as ignorant, in this particular, as we found
them ; for they neither faw nor heard a mufquet
fired, except at birds.
As we were on the point of weighing anchor,
in order to proceed further up the bay, the wind
began to blow as violently as before, and was attended with rain ; infomuch that we were oblig*
ed to bear away the cable again, and lie fast. In
the evening, perceiving that the gale did not
abate, and thinking that it might be fome
time before an opportunity of getting higher up
prefented itfeif, the Commodore was determined
to heel the fhip in our prefent station : and, with PACIFIC OCEAN.
that view, eau fed her to be moored with a kedge-
anchor and haw fer. One of the tailors, in heav*
ing the anchor out of the boat, was carried over*
beard by the buoy-rope, and accompanied the
anchor to the bottom. In this very hazardous
situation, he had Sufficient preSence oS mind to
diSengage himSelf, and come up to the furface of
the water, where he wras immediately taken up,
with a dangerous fracture in one of his legs»
Early the following morning, We heeled the fhip,
in order to flop the leak, which, on ripping off
the fheathing, was found to be in the feams.
While the carpenters were employed in Ms bu-
finefs, others of our people filled the water-cafks
at a Stream not far from our Station. The wind
had, by this time, considerably abated ; but the
weather was hazy, with rain. The Americans
paid us another vifit this morning : thofe who
came off firft, were in fmall canoes ; others arrived afterwards in large ones. In one of thefe
great canoes were twenty women and one man,
betides feveral children.
On Saturday the 16th, towards the evening, the
weather cleared up, and we then found ourfelves
encompaffed with land. Our Station was on the
eaftern fide of the Sound, in a place diftinguifh-
ed by the appellation of Snug Corner Bay. Captain Cook, accompanied by fome of his officers,
went to take a furvey of the head of it ; and
thev found that it was Sheltered from all winds,
mm 2q6
and had a muddy bottom at the depth of from
Severiifi-'three fathoms. The land near the Shore
is loèsljf partly wooded, and partly clear. The
clear ground was covered with fnow, but very
little remained in the woods. The fummits of
the hills in the neighbourhood Were covered with
wood ; but thofe that were at a greater diftance
inland, had the appeariifce of naked, rocks, involved in fnow,
The leak of the Refolution being at length
flopped, we weighed anchor on the 17th, at four
in the morning, and fleered a north-weft courte, ,
with a gentle breeze at eatt-north-eaft. Soon
after we had made fail, the Americans visited us
again, feemingly with no other view than to gratify their curiosity, for they did not enter into any
traffic with us. When we had reached the northwestern point of the arm wherein we had achor-
ed, we obferved that the flood-tide came into the
inlet, by the fame channel through which we had
entered. This circumstance did not much contribute to the probability of a passage to the north
through the inlet, though it did not make entirely against it. After we had paffed the point
jutt mentioned, we met with much foul ground,
and many funken rocks. The wind now failed
us, and was'fucceeded by calms and variable light
airs, fo that we had fome difficulty in extricating ourfelves from the danger that threatened us.
At laft, "however,   about one o'clock, we caft an. PACIFIC  OCEAN.
dhor in ahoot thirtheen fathoms walér, under ftf
«aftera afhore,   about four leagues to the northward <of our »kft Station.    Though the weathefc,
m the morning, had been very hazy, it cleared
up afterwards, fo as to afford us a diftin& view
of all tfak furrounding land, particularly towards
the north, where k appeared té ck>fe. This gave
us but little hope of meeting with a paffage that
way.    That he might be enabled to fcrm a bet*
ter judgment, Captain Cook fent Mr. Gore, with
two armed boats, to examine the northern arm j
and #t the fame time difpaiched the Matter, with
two   other  boats,  *&>   Survey  another arm that
feemed to incline towards the eaSt.    Both of them
returned  at night.     The Mafter informed the
Commodore, tha£ the arm, to which he had been
lent, communicated with that we had laft fritted, and   that one fide of it  was formed by a
clutter of iflands.    Mr. Gore  reported, that he
had   feen   the  entrance   of an arm, which,   he
thought, extended a very considerable way to the
nefrth-eaftward, and by   which   a  paffage might
probably  be found.     On the   other hand, Mr.
Roberts, one of the Mates, who had ^ccomj«atf
nied Mr. Gore on this occasion, gave it as his
opinion,   that   they faw the  head of  this arm.
The variation  of thefe two opinions, and the circumstance before-mentioned of the flood-tide entering the inlet from the Southward, rendered the
existence of a paffage tfek way exwedtetfly uncer-
Vol. II.——No. ii,        Q^q 298
tain. Captain Cook therefore determined to employ no more time in Seeking a paffage in a place
that afforded fo Small a prospect oS SucceSs, particularly as the wind was now become Savourable
Sor getting out to Sea.
The next morning, about three o'clock, we
weighed, and made Sail to the Southward down
the inlet, with a light northerly breeze. We
met with the Same broken ground as on the
preceding day, but Soon extricated ourSelves
from it. We were enabled to fhorten our
wray out to fea, by difc|lrering another paffage
into this inlet, to the South-weft oS that by which
we entered. It is Separated from the other, by
an ifland that extends eighteen leagues in the direction of South-weft and north-eaft, to which
Captain Cook gave the appellation oS Montagu
fiflhere are Several iflands in the fouth-western
channel. Thofe which are Situate in the entrance,
next the open Sea, are elevated and rockey. Thofé
that are within, are low ; and as they were totally free from Snow, and covered with wood and
verdure, they were, Sor this reaSon, denominated
. The wind, at two o'clock in the afternoon,
veered to the fouth-$§eft and South-weft by South,
which Sniveled us to the neceflity of plying.
We firft flretched over to within the diftance of
two miles of the eaftern fhore, and tacked in about "
m     m   —   i.
fifty-three fathoms. As we flood back to Montagu Ifland, we discovered a ledge of rocks,
fome under water, and others above the furface.
We afterwards met with fome others towards the
middle oS the channel. TheSe rocks rendering
it unSaSe to ply during the night, we Spent it in
Handing off and on, under Jl^ntagu Ifland ; Sor
the depth oS "water was So great, that wre could
not caft anchor. The next mojg|ing, at break
of day, we fleered for the channel between çhe
Green Iflands and Montagu Ifland, which is about
two leagues and an half in breadth. The wind was
inconsiderable the whole day ; and, about eight
in the evening, we had a perfect calm ; when we
let go our anchors at the depth of twenty-one
fathoms, over a muddy bottom, about the diftance of two miles from Montagu Ifland. After
the calm had continued till ten o'clock the fuc-
ceeding morning, a flight breeze fprung up from
the north with which we again weighed and made
fail. Having got out into the open fea by fix
in the evening, we difcovered that the coaft
trended weft by South, as Sar as the eye could
poflibly reach.
Qai r
G H A P.   V.
Extent of Prince WUHam's Sound—The Ferfons of
its Inhabitants defcribed*—Their Drefs—Remarkable Cuftom of making ate ineifon in the Under*
llp^JThelr various Ornaments—rCane&s—Weapons
—--Armour—Domeftie Utenfm—Their Jkill in a$
manuai Wèris^—Thér Food—A ffewnen sf their
Language*- - £>uaar>ufeés'*—Birds —Fifty—- Trees
Conjeétures whence they procure Beads and' Iron*
TWÊ inlet which we had now quitted, was
diftinguiftied by Captain Cook with the
name of Prince Wfmam's Sound. From whaf
we faw of it, it feems to occupy, at leaft, one
degree and an half of latitude, and two degrees
of longitude, exclusive of the branches or arms,
with whofe exent we are unacquainted. The
natives whom we faw, were in general of a middling Stature, though many of them were under
it. T^hey were Square, or ftrong-chefted, with
fhort thick necks, and large broad viSages, which
were, Sor the mofhfcart, rather flat, The moft
diSproportioned part of their body appeared to
be their heads, which were of great magnitude.
Their teeth were of a tolerable whitenefs, broad,
well Set, and equal in fize. Their noSes had
Sull   round   points,   turned   up at   the tip, and LI
&eir eyes, though not fmall, were Scarcely proportioned to the largenefs of their faces. Tfety
had black hair, wtfch was Strong, ftra%ftt* and
thick. Their beards were, in general, rhin, or
deficient ; but the hairs growing abeat the lips of
thofe who have them, were briftty or Stiff, and
often of a brownifh colour ; and fome of the elderly men had large, thick, Straight beards*
Though, for^tae moft part, they agree in the
formation of iBifir perfons, and the largeneSs of
their heads, the variety^^itneîr features is cotS*
derable. Very few, however, can be faid to be
handsale, though their countenance usuétty indicates-feaiiknèfs, vivacity, and good-nature ; and
yet Some of them fhewed a referve and ftillen^Hra
In their afpè&. The faces of Some of the women
are agreeable ; and many of them, but principally
the younger ones, may eafiiy be dtftra^Bifhed
from the other Sex, by the Superior delfeUey of
their features. The completion of Some of the
females, and of the children, is white, without
any mixture of red. Many of the men, whom we
faw naked, had rather a Swarthy caft, whkh was
fcarcely the effect of any Stain, as it is not their
cuftom to paint their bodies.
The men, women, and children of this Sound,
are all clothed in the fame manner. Tneir ordinary drefs is a fort of clofe frock, or rather robe,
which Sometimes reaches only to the knees, but
generally down to the ancles.    It has, at the up- \02
per part, a hole juft Sufficient to admit the head,
with fleeves teaching to the wrift. TheSe Srocks
are compoSed oS the fkins of various animals,
fuch as the grey fox, racoon, pme^fptin, fea-
otter, feal, &c. And they are commonly worn
with the hairy fide outwards. Some of$fcéj natives have their frocks made of the fkins of Sogl^
with only the down left on them, which they
g^|e;upon other fubftances : we alfo faw one or
mçaewoollen garments, refembling thofe of the
inhabitants of King George's Sound. 4pe the
Seams^rphere the different fkins are Sewed to-
gffhffl^jhey are uSually adorned with Sringes or
taffels oS narrow thongs, cut out of the fame
fk§$s. There is a fort ot cape or collar to a Sew
of them, ^}fome have a hood; but the other
is the moft customary form, andj^ppears to con-
ftitute their whole drefs in fair weather. They
put over this, when it is rainy, another frock,
«T^de with fome degree oS ingenuity Srom the
iniefti^tes oS whales, or of fome other large ani-
m&V prepared with Such fkill, as to reSemble, in
a. great meaSure, our gold-beater's leaS. It is
formed fo as to be drawn tight round the neck ;
and its fleeves extend down to the wrift, round
'which they are fattened with a firing. When they
are in their canoes, they draw the fkirts of this
frock over the rim of the hole in which they fit,
So that the water is prevented Srom entering. At
the Same time it keeps   the men dry  upwards, PACIFIC OCEAN.
fpifeno water can penetrate through it. It is apt
to crack or breakups it is not çonftantly kept
moift^^^l^Ô frock, as well as the common one
made of fkins, is nearly Similar to the drefs
of the natives of Greenland, as defcri|gd by
Crantz*.    er
Though the inhabitants of this inlet in general, do not cover their legs or feet, yet fome of
them wear a kind of fkin stockings, reaching
half-way up their thighs. Few of them are without mttiens for their hands, formed from the
fkins of a bear's paws. Thofe who wear any
thing on their heads, refembled, in this particular, the people of Nootka, having high truncated conical caps, compofed of straw, and fometimes of wood.
The hair of the men is commonly cropped
round the forehead and neck, but the females
fuffer it to grow long ; and the greatest part of
them tie a lock of it on the crown, while a few
club it behind, after our method. Both the men
and women perforate their ears with feveral holes
about the outer and lower part of the edge,
wherein they futpend fmall bunches oS beads.
They alSo perforate the feptum oS the noSe,
through which they often thrust the quill-Seathers
of birds, or little bending ornaments, made of a
tubulous Shelly fubftance, strung on a stiff cord.
iCmntz's Hiflory of Greenland, Vol.
136- 3<H
9f the length of-three or four inches, which give
them a ridiculous and grotefque appearence. Bot
the moft extraordinary ornamental fafcion, adoptf*
ed by fome of the natives of both fexeâ, is their
barrifcg the under-lip cut quite through length*
wife, rather below the fwelling part. This in-
cifion frequently exceeds two inches in length,
aqd either by its natural retra&ion while tbff
wotod is Still Srefli, or by the repetition of fome
artificial management, affumes the appearance
and Shape of Kps, and becomes fufficiently large
to admit the tongue through. This happened to
be the cate, when a perSon with his under-lip thutf
flit was firft feen by one of our tailors, who immediately exclaimed, that the man had two
mouths ; which, indeed it greatly refembles.
They fix in this artificial mouth a flat, narrow
kind of ornament, made principally out of
a Solid Shell or hone, cut into Small narrow
pieces, like teeth, almoft down to the baSe, or
thick part, which has, at each end, a projecting
bit, that Serves to Support it when put into thé
divided lip ; the cut part then appearing outwards. Some of them only perforate the lower
lip into Separate holes ; on which occafion the'
ornament confilts oS the Same number of difthift
thelly Studs, the points of which are thruft through
thefe holes, and their heads appear within th«
lip, not unlike another row of teeth under their
natural ones. ^ifCIFIC   OCEAN.
Such are the uative ornaments of thefe, people.
But we obferved among them many beads of Eu-
ropean manufacture, chiefly of a pale blue colour, which are hung in their ears, or about their
caps, or are joined to their lip-ornaments, which
have a little hole drilled in each of the points
to which they are fattened, and others to them,
till they fometimes even hang as low as the point
of.the chin. In this last cafe, however, they
cannot remove them with fuch facility ; for, with
refpect to their own lip-ornaments, they can take
them out with their tongue at pleafure. They
tikewife wear bracelets of beads, made of a fhelly
fubflance, or others of a cylindrical form, compofed of a fubftance refembling amber. And
they are, in general, fo fond of ornaments of
Some kind or other, that they fix any thing in
their perforated lip ; for one of them appeared
with two of our iron nails projecting like prongs
from eg|«; and another man attempted to put a
large brafs button into it.
The men often paint their- faces of a black colour, and of a bright red, and fometimes of a
blueifh or leaden hue ; but not in any regular
figure. The woman puncture or Stain, the chin
with black, that comes to a point in each of their
cheeks ; a cuftom Similar to which is in vogue
among the Greenland females, as we are informed by Craiitz. The bodies of thefe people are not
painted,   which may probably  be owijig  to  the
Vol. II. No. n. Rr 506-
fcarcity oS materials Sor that purpoSe ; all the colours which they brought Sor Sale, being in very
Small quantities. Upon the whole, wTe have in
no country Seen Savages who take more pains than
thefe do, to ornament, or rather (as we fhould
think) to disfigure their perfons.
Their canoes are of two forts ; the one large
and open, the other fmall and covered. We have
mentioned before, that there were twenty women,
and one man, betides children, in one of their
large boats. Captain Cook having attentively
examined this, and compared its construction
with Crantz's defcription of the great, or woman's
boat in Greenland, found that they were built in
the fame mode, with no other difference than in
the form of the head and item, particularly of the
former, which Somewhat reSembles a whale's head.
The framing consists of flender pieces of wood :
and the outfide is compofed of the fkins of teals,
or other fea animals, stretched over the wood.
The fmall canoes of thefe people, are conftructed
nearly of the fame form and mateirals with thofe
oSthe ESquimaux and Greenlanders. Some oS
thefe, as we have already mentioned, carry two
perfons. Their fore-part is curved like the head
of a violin ; and they are broader in proportion
to their length than thofe of ESquimaux.
Their weapons, and implements Sor hunting
and fifhing, are the Same with thoSe uSed by the
Greenlanders   and   ESquimaux.    Many   of their PACIFIC OCEAN.
fpears are headed with iron, and their arrows are
generally pointed with bone. Their larger darts
are thrown by means ot a piece oS wood about a
foot long, with a Small groove in the middle,
hedbich receives the dart : at the bottom is a hole
for the reception oS one finger, which enables
them to grafp the piece oS wood much .firmer,
and to throw with greater force. For deSenfive
armour they have a Sort of jacked, or coat oS mail,
formed of laths, fattened together with finews,
^fcitteh.render it very flexible, though it is So cloSe
as not to admit a dart or arrow. It Serves only
to cover the trunk of the body, and may, not
improperly, be compared to the Stays worn by
We had not an oportunity of Seeing any oS
the habitations of the natives, as none of them
dwelt in the bay where our fhips anchored, or
where any of us landed. With refpect to their
domestic utenfils, they brought, in their canoes
Some round and oval wooden difhes, rather Shallow ; and others oS .a fylindrical form, considerably deeper. The fides confuted of one piece,
bent round, after the manner of our chip boxes,
but thick, and neatly fattened with thongs ; the
bottoms being fixed in with fmall pegs of wood.
Others were Somewhat Smaller, and oS a more
elegant figure, not unlike a large oval butterboat, without any handle, but fhallower : theSe
were compoSed of a piece ©f wood, or Some horny
R r 2
Substance, and were Sometimes neatly carved.
They had a number of little fquare bags, made
of the fame gut with their exterior frocks, curi-
oufly adorned with very fmall red feathers, interwoven with it, in which were contained Several
very fine Sinews, and bundles of Small cord,
made out of them, plaited with extraordinary
ingenuity. They likewife brought iomé**iéôoden
models of their canoes chequered bafkets, wrought
fo clofely as to hold water, and a confiderafcfe
number of fmall images, of the length of four or
five inches, either of wood, or fluffed, which
wrére covered with a piece of fur, and emhellifhed
with quill-feathers, with hair fixed on their heads.
We could not determine whether thefe were intended merely as children's toys, or were held in
veneration, a& reprefenting their   deceafed friends
and relations,  and applied  to Some
purpofe. They have many instruments formed
of two or three hoops, or concentrica! pieces of
wrood, having a crofs-ba*r fixed in he .middle, by
which they are held. To thefe they ûx a number
of dried barnacle-Shells, with threads, which
when fhaken, produce a loud noife, and thus
ferve the purpofe of a rattle. This contrivance
is probably a fubftitute for the rattling-bird at
King George's Sound.
It is uncertain with what tools their wooden
utenfils, frames, of canoes, &c, are made; the only
one that we obferved among them- being a fort of PACIFIC   OCEAN.
"ftone adze, fome what refetnhîing thofe of Otaheite, and other iflands of the Pacific Ocean.
They have a great quantity of iron knives, fome
of which are rather curved, others strait, and
Some very fmall ones, fixed in longiih handles,
with the blades bent upwards. They have alfo
knives of another fort, fomedrnW-almost two feet
in length, fhapféd, in a great meafure, like a
dagger, with a ridge towards -the middle. They
wear thefe in fheaths of fiiïl§V hung by a thong
round their necks, under their robe or frock. It
is probable, that they ^Sfi^teein only as weapons,
and that tSlir other knives are applied to different
purpofes. Whatever they have, is as well made
as if they were provided with a complete cheft of
tools ; and their plating of Smews, fewing, and
Small work on their little bags above mentioned,
may be faid to vie with the neateft manufactures
found in any part of the globe. Upon the
Whole, considering the uncivilized flate of the
natives of this Sound, their northerly situation,
amidft a country almost continually covered with
fnow, and the comparatively wretched materials
they have to work with, it appears, that, with
refpect to their fkill and invention, in all manual
operations, they are, at leaft equal to any other
The food that we faw them eat, was the flefh
of Some animal, either roasted or broiled, and
dried  fifh.    Some   of the former that was pur*
chafed, had the appearance oS bear's flefh. They
likewife eat a larsrer fort of fern-root, either baked
or dreffed in fome other method. Some of us
obferved them eat freely of a fubftance, which we
imagined was the interior part of the pine bark.
Their drink, in all probability, is water ; for, in
their canoes, they brought fnow in wooden vef-
Sels, which they Swallowed by mouthSulis. Their
manner oS eating is decent and cleanly, for they
constantly took care to remove any dirt that might
adhere to their food ; and though they would
fometimes eat the raw fat of fome fea animal,
they did not fail to cut it carefully into mouth-
iuk. Their perfons were, to agpjaj.ance, always
clean ; and their utenfils, in general, were kept
in excellent order, as were alfo their boats.
The language of thefe people feems difficult to
be understood ; w?hich is, perhaps, not owing
to any contusion or indiftinctnefs in their founds,
but to the various lignifications which their
words bear. For they appeared frequently to
make ufe of the fame word on very different occafions ; though, probably, if we had had a longer
intercourfe with them, this might have proved
to be a mistake on our part. Among the very
few words of their language that Mr. Anderfon
was enabled to procure, are the following, viz.
aa, yes ; keeta, give me Something ; tawuk, keep
it ; akajhou, what's the name oS that? namuk, an
ear-ornament ;   natoonefhuk,   a   Sea-otter's   {kin ; PACIFIC OCEAN.
ableu, a Spear ; yaut, I'll go, or, fhaM||§< go ?
kêelafhnk, guts oS which they make jackets ; naema,
give me Something by way oS exchange, or barter ; whaehai, Shall I keep it ? ooonaka, of or belonging to me.
Our knowledge of the animals of this part of
the American continentes? entirely derived from
the fkins that were brought by the natives for fale.
Thefe were principally of bears, common and
pine martins, fea-otters, Seals, racoons, it®i||
ermines, foxes, and the whitifh cat or lynx.
Among thefe various fkins, the moft common
were thofe of racoons, martins, and fea-otters,
which constituted the ordinary drefs of thefe people ; but the fkins of the martins, which were
in general of a far lighter brown than thofe of
Nootka, were greatly fuperior to them in point of
finenefs ; whereas thofe of the fea-otters, which,
as well as the martins, were much more plentiful
here than at Nootka, feemed to be considerably
inferior in the thicknefs and fineness of their fur,
though they far exceeded them with refpect to
fize ; and were, Sor the moft part, of the gloffy
black fort. The fkin$ of feals and bears were alfo
pretty common ; and the former were in general
white, beautifully fpotted with black, or Sometimes Simply white ; and many of the bears here
were of a dark brown hue
Besides   thefe animals, there is here the white
bear, of whofe fkins the natives brought feveral 3i2        A VOYAGE TO THE
jHéCes, and fome complent fkins of cubs. There!
is alfo the wolverine, or quickhatch, whofe fkin
has very bright colours ; and a larger Species of
ermine than the common 0>ne, varied with brown,
and having Scarcely any black on its tail. The
Skin of the head of fome very large animal was
likewife brought to us, but we could not pofi-
tivcly decide what it was : though, from the colour and fhagginefs of the hair, and its not refembling any land animal,, we conjectured that
it might be that of the male ursine Seal, or fea-
bear. But one of the molt beautiful fkins that
fell under our obfervation, js that of a fmall animal mm a foot in length, of a brown colour on the
back with a number of obf cure whitifh fpecks,
the fides being of a blueifh afh colour, with a
few of thefe fpecks. The tu il is about a third
part of the length of the body, and is covert
with whitifh hair. This animal is doubtlefs the
fame with that which is called by Mr. Staehlin, in
his account of, the New Northern Archipelago,
the fpotted field moufe. But whether it is really
of the moufe kind, or a Squirrel, we could not
determine, for want of intirie fkins ; though Mr.
Anderfbn was inclined to imagine, that it is the
fame animal which Mr. Bennant has defcribed
under the appellation of the Cafan marmot. The
great number of fkins that.we obferved here,
demonstrates the abundance of the various ani.
mais we have mentioned ; but it is Somewhat re- Pacific ocean.
niarkabie, that we neither met with the fkins of
the moute, nor oS the common Species of deer.
With refpect to birds, we found here the halcyon, or great king-fifher, which had fine bright
colours ; the fhâg ; thé white-headed eagle ; and
the humming-bird* which often flew about out
fhips, while we lay at anchor; though it can
Scarcely be SuppoSed to live here during the winter, which muft be extremely Severe. The wa-
1 ter-fowl feen by us were Black fea-pyes, with red
bills, fuch as we met with in New-Zealand and
Van Diemen's Land ; geefe ; a fmall fort of duck,
nearly refembling that fpecies we faw at Ker-
guelen's Land ; and another fort with which none
of us were acquainted. Some of our people who
went afhore, killed a Snipe, a groufe, and fome
plovers. But though the water-fowl were nu-*
merous, particularly the geefe and ducks, they
were fo fhy that it was Scarce poffible to get
within fhot ; in conSequence oS which, we procured a very inconfiderable Supply oS them as refreshment. The duck before-mentioned is about
the fize of the commo^pwild duck, of a deep
black, with red feet, and a Short pointed tail.
Its bill is white, tinged towards the point with
red, and has a large black Spot, almoft Square,
near its baSe, on each fide, where it is alSo Somewhat distended. On the Sorehead is a large triangular white Spot ; and on the hind ii part of the
neck is one Still larger. The colours oS the fe-
Vol. II. No. ii.        S f n    i
male are confideraîriy duller than thoSe^jteÊ the
male ; and it has none of the ornaments of the,
bill, excepting the two Hack Spots, which are
rather obScure.
A Species of diver, which feems peculiar tcf
this place, was obferved here. It is equal to aa
partridge in fize, and has a fhort, black, com*
preffed bill. Its head, and the upper par£ of its
neck, are of a brownifii black j and the remainder
of its body is of a deep brown, obfcu?rely waved
with black, except the under part, which is totally of a blackifh caft, minutely varied with
white. We alfo found a Small land bird, of the
finch kind, about the fize oS a yett^jPrhammer -f
hut we imagined it to be one of thoSe which change
their colour with the feaSon, and with their different migrations. It was, at thi&pme, of a
dufky brown, with a reddifh tail ^ and the fuppofed male had, on the crown of the head, a
large yellow Spot, with Some varied black on the
upper part of its neck, but the latter was on the
breaft of the female.
The fifh that were principally brought to us
by the natives for fale, were torlk and halibut ;
and we caught Some Sculpins about the fhip, with
flar-fifli oS a purplifh hue, that-had Sixteen or
eighteen rays. The rocks were aim oft destitute
of fhell-fifh ; and the only other animal of this
tribe that wa? obterved by us, wras a reddifh crab,
covered with very large Spines. PACIFIC ocï«m
The metfafe feen' by us were iron and copper ;
both which, but more particularly the formic,
were in fuch abundance, as to form the points of
numbers of their lances and arrows. The ores
Iptelfch they made ufe of to paint themfelves with,
were a brittle, unctuous, red ochre, or iron ©re ;
a pigment of a bright blue ; and black lead.
Each of thefe feemed to be very Scarce among
We obfétf ed few vegetables of any kind ; and
the trees that chiefly grew about this fourfd, were
the GlËadian and Spruce pine, Some of w?hich
■were of a confiderable fize.
Thefe people muft, doubtlefs, have received
from Some more civilized nation, the beads and
iron Sound among them. We were almoft cer-
JÉÉ^that we were the firft Europeans with whom
they had ever had a direct communication; and
it remains only to be determined, from what
quarter they had procured our manufactures, by
intermediate conveyance. And it is more than
probable, that they had obtained thefe articles,
through the intervention of the more inland tribes
either from the Settlements about HudSon's Bay,
or thoSe on the lakes of Canada ; unlets we can
admit the fuppofition, that the Ruffians, from
Camtfckatka, have already extended their traffic
to this diftance ; or that the natives of their most
easterly Fox Iflands carry on an intercourfe along
the coaft, with the inhabitants of Prince William's
§oundt S f % Hi      A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
With reSpect to copper, thefe people, perhaps,
procure it themSelves, or, at moft, it paffes to
them through Sew hands ; Sor, when they offered
any of it by way of barter, they ufed to exprefs
its being in fufficient plenty among thKïb, by
pointing to their weapons ; as if they meant to
intimate, that#fc -they had fo much copper of
their own, there was np çigfôSft'. fox iij|8|s£fing
tteir flock.
*4f|> however, f^e natives of this inlet are furniflied with European commodities by means of
the intermedia^ traffic to the eastern coaft, it
is rather remarkable, that they fhould never, in.
return, have fupplied the more inland Indians
with ~fÉne of their Sea-otter fkins, which would
undoubtedly have appeared, at fome time or
other, in the invirons of Hudfon's Bay. But
that does not appear to be the cafe ; and the only
method by which we can account for this, muft
be by considering the very great diftance ; which,
though it might not prevent Eurppeari articles of
commerce from coming, fo far, as being fo uncommon, might hinder the fkins, which are common, from patting through more than two or
three tribes, who might make ufe of them for
their ownfppthing, and fend others, which they
reckoned of inferior value, as being of their own
animals, towards the eaft, till they reach th§
traders at the European Settlements. PACIFIC   OCEAN,
CHAP.    VI.
Proceed akng the CoaftW--Cape Elizabeth—Cape
j^^f. Hermogenesr-—Beeringys Voyage and Chart
wery defeffive—Point Banks—Barren IJles^—Cape
Douglas—Cape Bede—Mount St. Auguftin—Endeavourto find a paffage up an Inlet—- Both Ships
make a Pregrefs up it^$onvincing Proofs of its
being a River—-A Branch of it called River
..Tumagain—The great River named Cook's River
—The Ships returns-Several Vif its from the Natives—Leiutenant King lands, difplays a Flag,
and takes pojfeffion of the Country r-^-His Reception
by the Natives—The Refolution ftr^s upon a
Bank—The high ^ides accounted for?
LEAVING Prince William's Sound, on
WedneSdyJthjï 20th of May, we fleered to
the Sputh-weft, with a gentle breeze ; which was
Succeeded by a calm at Sour o'clock the next
morning, and that calm was Soon aSter followed
\>y a pjféeze from fouth-weft. We continued to
ftretch to the South-well, and paffed a lpfry promontory, in the latitude of 590 io', and the longitude of 207° 45'. It having been difcovered
pn Princess Elizabeth's birth-day, Captain Çoo|ç
gave it the name of Cape Flizbeth. As we could
fee no land beyond it, we flattered ourfelves that
it waf the   western extremity of the continent ; %®
but we were Soon [convinced that we were mif.
taken, frefh land appearing in fight, bearing wetl>
South-weft, The wind had now increased to"
a ftrong gale, and forced us to a confiderable diftance from the coaft. Wk the ££d, in the afternoon, the gale abated, and we flood far'Cape
Elizabeth ; which, about noon the next day, borç
-Ifrèft, distant ten leagues. New land was then
Seen, bearing fouth-weft, whfch, it was imagined
connected• €af£$SElizàbeth with the %$à we had
^ftÉi^à^ards the weft.
We flood to the Southward till the next day at
■noon, at which time we were about three leagues,
from the coaft, which we had feen on the 22d,
In this fituation, it formed a point, that borç
^fift-north-wreft. More land was difcovered, ex*
tending tçWSie Southward ; on which was feen a
ridge of mountains, with fummits covered with
fnow, behind the firft land, which we fuppofed
to be an ifland, there appearing on it but an in-
confiderable quantity of fnow. The latitude of
this point of land is 580 15', and its longitude
2070 42'. And, by what the Commodore could
gather from Beering's Voyage and Chart, fuppofed it to te what he called Cape St. Hermo-
genes. But the account of that Voyage, as well
as the^art, is fo extremely inaccurate, that |t is
almoft impôsïible to difcover any one place, which
that navigator either Saw or touched at. The
Commodore, iiri|eed, was by no means certain, £&4&F10~ #£•&!?.
thzt the bay which he had namei ^fter Beering,
Was the place wheïg^ he had anchored.
In the chift above mestliôned, a fpace is here
pointed out, where Beering is fuppofed to have
feen no land. This favouredfMr. Stsehelin's as-
count, who makes Cape St. Hermogenes, and
the land difcovered by Beering to the fouth weft
of it, to be à clutter of iflands ; and that 'gJaHer-»
tnogenes is one of thofe which are destitute of
|rood. Thjs appealed to be confirmed by wha€
we now faw ; and we entejfèained the pleating
hopes of finding here a paffage jÉçÉtJfward, with ».
put being under the ne^effity of proceeding any
farther to the fouth-weft.
By variable light airs and calms, we were de*
tained off the Cape tift. two o'clock i&the morning of the 25th, when a breeze fpringing up, we
fleered alojïg the coaft, and perceived that the
land of Cape St. Hermogenes was an ifland, about
fix leagues in circumference Separated from the
coaft by a channel of about one league in breadth.
Some rocks lie above water, a league and a half
to the north of this ifland ; and on the north-eaft
fide of the rocks, we bad from thirty to twenty
fathoms water.
About noon, St. Hermogenes bore fouth-eafiV
distant eight leagues ; the land to the north-west
extending from fouth half weft to near weft. In
the laft direction it ended in a low point, named
Pmnt Banks.    The   fhip  was, at  this   time, in ,
the latitude of 58° 41'$ and in the longitude of
2071 44'* In this fituation, the land was in fight
bearing north-weft, which, it was imagined, connected Cape Elizabeth with thit^|^|^west land.
When we approadpd it, we faw it was a groupe
of high iflands and rocks, and consequently unconnected with any other land. From the naked-
neSs of their appearance, they were denominated
the Barren IJles : they are situated in the latitude
of 590, three leagues distant from Cape Elizabeth*
and five from Point Banks.
We intended to have paffed through one of the
channels by which thefe iflands are divided 5 but,
a strong current fating against us, we went to
the leeward of them all. The weather, which
had been thick and hazy, cleared up towards the
evening, and we perceived a very lofty promontory, whofe elevated Summit appeared above the
clouds, forming -two exceedingly high mountains.
The Commodore named this promontory Cape
Douglas, in honour of his friend Dr. Douglas
canon of Windfor. Its latitude is 58° 56', and
its longitude 2060 ic' ; twelve leagues from Point
Banks, and ten to the westward of the Barren
The coaft feemed to form a large deep bay,
betv/een this point and Cape Douglas; which,
from our obferving fome fmoke upon Point Ban