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Journal of Captain Cook's last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, on Discovery, performed in the years 1776,… [Rickman, John] 1781

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Array       SWZ.
h   a|s   t
V   Op   A   G   £
DISCOVER Yi       |j
fo the Years 1776, 1777, 1778» 177$
Cuts* and a Chart, fhewing the Tracts of tK$
Ships employed in this Expedition
Carefully revifed, and compared with the original Manufcript,
the Latitudes and Longitudes throughout the Northern
Courfe added, and fome Errors in the former Edition cor»
f rusted for E, Nbwbh y, the Comer of St. Paul%
M DCC LXXXh DIRECTIONS for plating the  CUTg,
D$àth of Capt. Cook, to face the TiTLg,
Char? (B,) in the IntrP£&ctio]S.
Omai's Entry, Page %3ot
Representation of the Hèïvah, Page $5$.
Ships approaching Yorkje Island^ page 150, ADVERTISEMENT.
THE Editor of this Journal does not make himfelf anfwerable for all thefaâs that are related in
k. There is certainly fome allowance to be made to a
man who has circumnavigated the globe oftener perhaps
*han once> And indeed there are many Truths in
nature, which, till our ideas are enlarged by experience,
appear to us incredible.
Thus much however fhe Editor may venture to affirm, that what immediately relates to the object of the
Voyage, the places the #Vps vifited, the diftreflès they
met with, and the Difcoveries of new Countries, new
Inhabitants, new Cuftoms, Arts, and Manufactures,
fo far as they could be learnt or apprehended during a
fhort ftay among people with whom the Journalift:
could converfe only by figns ; all thefe particulars are
related with the ftricleft regard to truth, as is likewife
the conduct and character of Omai, his entertainment
.and confequence at Otaheite, and the envy andjealoufy
which his. riches and the favour fhewn him by his pa*
tron and friend Captain Cook excited among the Chiefs
of his own country ; thefe the Journalift feems to have
noticed with particular attention. And it is to the fim-
£licity and artlefs manner in which thefe things are related that we are to attribute the favourable reception,
jyhich his Narrative has met with from a difcerning
public, notwithstanding the endeavours of a few inte-
j^fted men to difcredit it.
Their pretence, that the latitudes and longitudes of
theseoafts of the weftern continent were wanting to ea«
able the intelligent Reader to judge of the authenticity
«f the voyage, has had no other effe£t than to furnifh
the Editor with a fubliantial-reafon for reviling the original journal,'1n order\o remove th&t.etëjedion, and to
fupply the defect, a defeét which was owing folely to
the ,fear of offending the generality of Readers, by
rilên^ing with .the Narrative nautical matters, which to
=ihem were of no curiofity.
The jealoufy, however, which this work might
excite, left the iale of that account which .is out day or
,<Sher to he publifhed by authority might be affected,
■was equally unwarrantable and impotent, to decry a
publication as utterly falfe, which contains from beginning: to  end a connected feries  of facets  and  events
which malice cannot, difprove, nor could the moft fruitful imagination invent.
All therefore that is nece/Tary to be faid incommen-
Nation of the prefent Edition is, that the mariner and
tfregeographer will be gratified^ by finding the weftern
t)oundaries.of the great continent of America precifely
molted ; and that the common Reader will fuffer little
snconvenience by^pafling over thofe notices which per*»
iiaps he may not junderftand.
The Chart that accompanies the Voyage illuftrates
the courfe with, as much accuracy as is neceffary even
$or Geographers; and it afforded no fmall pleafure to the
-Editor, when he found on comparifon, the latitudes
.and longitudes in the Journal correfponded with the obfervations of the late Spanifh Voyagers^ fent out-on-Xhs
lame errand. V.*àé'*-- ''*?y?*- *!  ï N T R 0 DUCTIÔN.
TWO iiluftrioùs foreigners, Columbus
and Magellan, rendered their names itri.
mortal, at an eariy period, by opening an im-
menfe field for difcovery and the improvement
of Navigation i but it has been referved for a
diftinguifhed native of this country and of this
age, to fix the boundaries, and to complete the
tie plus ultra of the nautical art. The two laft
of thefe memorable Navigators fell in the pro-
fecution of theif interefting projefts—the firft
furvived only to experience the viciflitudes of
fortune, and to feel the refentment of an uri-
grateful Court.
Columbus, by a perfeverance, of which there
was then no precedent, very providentially fur-
mounted every obftacle that oppofed his pro-
êrefsj arid aftonifhed Europe with the difcovery
of an unknown Continent; while much about the
fame time Magellan, infpired by a like fpirit of
éntérprifé, arid animated by a magnanimity that
defpifed danger while in the purfuit of glory*
opened a paffage to an Unknown Sea.
A brief recapitulation of the attempts made
to improve this latter difcovery; wilfwew the
importance of the prefent Voyage, and. fur-
njâh an idea of the Vaftnefs of tte, undertaking
—no lefs than to fix the boundaries of^ne tw.o
continents that form the grand divifions* which,
though feparated to all human' appearance, conned the globe.
B It
Ar'S/«P ii      introduction:
It was on   the ,6th of November,  injj||
]Tear 1520, that Magellan entered the Straits,
tnat have ever fince borri his name, and the
27 th 'of the fame month, when in à tf anfpor£
of joy lie beheld the wilhed-for object of his
purfuit,  the Great Southern Sea.   Elatej|
with fuccefs, he proceeded chearfully for feveral days» with a favouring gale; but the weather mon changing, and the fea growing bbifte-
rous, he altered his courfe from the nigh latfe
tudein which he entered, and directed his views
to a more moderate climate.    For 113 days he
continued fleering to the north-weft, without
feeing land, or meeting wifch other fupply except .jvh'at water the failors caught in the awn*
1 lings; when the dorms of t^Wder,. which  were
frequent and dreadful, burft the clouds and let
loofe the rain.    Having in Wat time cloned the
line, he fell in with a range of ;*{lands, m the mtk
degree of northern latitude, where with greac
difficulty he procured fome refreshment for thofe
of his followers who yet remained alive, moft of
them having pejrifhed by hunger and fatigue4!»
that long run of lonefome navigation.   Thofe
wno furvived had fed fome time upon tough
hides, the leather of their fhoes, and even that
which furrounded the ropes, after having fof-
tencd thefe dainties by foaking them in fea-wa"*
ter.    Jèâdto tftis, that many of them being attacked bf the fcurvyythe flefh of their gums had
fo enveloped their teeth,  that unable to eat, INTRODUCTION.        fit
fîiey died famifhed in all the agoniei of horror
and defpair. The thievifli difpofition of thé
tropical iflandersiri this ocean, to which Magefe
Ian now gave the name of Pacific,w fcfcing new
to the Spaniards, they were not at fiffe apprifed,
that while they were abroad enjoying the fweet-
nefs of the refrefhing air at land, the natives were
employed, in ftripping the fhips of their iron*
and whatever elfe was portable. It was in vain
to punifh the delinquents, for where all were
culpable thofe only could be made tofuffer, who
were taken in the fad 5 and fuch was their dex*
terity that few were detected.
From thefe iflands, to which he gave the
name of Ladrones, Magellan haftened his de-
parture, and proceeding in fearch of the Maluc-
cas, the chief objed of his voyage, he found
in his way many little iflands, where he was hof-
pitably received, and where a friendly corref-
pondence was eftablifhed, by which mutual
civilities and mutual benefactions were reciprocally interchanged.
Thefe iflands were fituated between the La-
drones, and what are now known by the name
of the Philippines, in one of which, named
Nathan, Magellan, with 66 men encountering a
whole army, was fifft wounded with a poifoned
arrow, and then pierced with a bearded lance.
His little fquadron, now reduced to two fhips*
and not more than 80 men, departed haftily,
and after many difafters, in which only onf,
the Vidory,  efcaped, fhe fmgly returned by
B 2 fche \v        INTRODUCTION
the Cape of Good Hope, and was the firft ftngf
that ever went round the globe. It may not
be improper here to remark, that the death of
our late gallant Commander Cook was not uri-
fimilar toTjrfaV 6x Magellan,/ both originating
from an over confidence in their own confequence, which could avail them nothing when
overpowered by numbers.
Other adventures were not now wanting to
trace the fleps that had been pointed out by
this intrepid Navigator; but we may verrtifre
to alTert, that they were "not all a&uated l^tne
lame pafiion for glory ; the hope of gain} was
their prevailing motive.
Alvarez de Mendano, indeed, who in 1567,
Was fent from Lima on purpofe for difcovery,
imray be xited as an exception; he failed 800
leagues weftward from the coaft of Peru,! and
fell in with certain iflands in 1 f degrees fouth,
inhabited by people of a yellowifti colour, whofe
weapons were bows and arrows, and darts, and
whofe bodies were naked, but ftrangely punctated. Here the Spaniards found hogs and
little dogs, and fome domeftrc fowls like thofe
in Europe; and here likewife they found cloves,
ginger, cinnamon, and fome gold, but it has ytt
been a queftion undecided, to what groupe of
iflands this difcovery is to be referred ; for it is,
faid that the Spaniards, netfeekinggold\ brought
home, notwithftanding 40,000 pezoes (dollars)
befides great (tore of cloves, ginger, and fome
cinnamon ; none of which have yet been found
iti the tropical iflands in the pacific fea. Capt.
Coolc inclines to the opinion, that they are the
clufter which comprîtes what has fince been
called New Britain, &c.
Afterwards Mendano difcovered the Archipelago of iflands, called the Iflands of Solomon»
of which great and fmall he counted thirty-three.
He alfo difcovered the ifland of St, Chriftoval,
m 1575, not far from the above Archipelago,
in 7 deg. fouth, 110 leagues in circuit.
Sir Francis Drake in 1577, was the firft Englishman that paffed the Streights already noticed,
and though his views were not the moft honourable, nor founded upon principles that could
be ftridly juftified, yet his difcoveries were no
lefs important than if patrontfed by his fovereign,
and encouraged by the higheft authority. He
difcovered the Coaft of California, which he
judged to be an ifland, and named it New Albion; and having failed to the 43d deg. of
northern latitude, with a defign to return by a
north weft courfe, was ftopt in his progrefs by
the piercing cold. Some fmall iflands he difcovered in his route-, but as his fole view was
to return with his booty, he paid no regard to
objeds of lefs concern. He arrived in England
by the Cape of Good Hope, in 1580.
To him fueceeded Sir Thomas Cavendifh,
who likewife paffed the Straits of Magellan
in 1586, and returned nearly by the fame route
pointed out by his predeceflbr, touching at the
kadrones, and making fome ftay at the Philip-
B 3 pine vj        INTRODUCTION,
pine Ifles, of which on his return he gave, an
entertaining defcription.
In the mean time, namely in 1595, the Spaniards, intent upon difcovery more than plunder
fitted out four fhips, and gave the command to
Alvaro Mendana de Neyra.   This voyage proved unfortunate.   The   defign  was to   have
compleated the difcovery of the Solomon Utands,
and to hare made a fettlement in one of fhp
moft plentiful.   But moft of thofe who embarked on this expedition either died mifera-
biy or were ftupwrecked.   His difcoveries were
the Marquefas, in lat. 10 fouth ; Solitary Ifland,
110 deg. 40 min, S. long. 178 deg. And laftly,
Santa Cruz, on which one of the fleet was afterwards found with all her fails fet, and the
people rotten.    Soon after this mifcarriage, it
was refolved by the Spanift Court not to fettle
thofe iflands, left the English and other foreign
adventurers who might pafs the Streights, mould
in their paffage home by the Eaft «Indies be relieved by them.    This refolution, however, we
find foon after revoked in fjavour of Quiros.
In 1598, Oliver Van Noort pafled the Straits 5
but his profefled defign being plunder, he made
no difcoveries, He touched to refrefh, at one
of the Ladrone iflands, in his way to the Eaft-
Indies, and afterwards refitted his fhips at the
Philippines. It may here be neceffary to note,
that in this year the Sebaldine iflands were difc
covered by Sebaîd de Weert, the fame now
known by the name of Falkland's Ifjes.        §
In 1605, Pedro Femanjo de Quiros, coa-»
ceived the defign of difcovering a fouthero continent. He es iuppofed by Mr. Dalrymple and
others, to have been tfee §rft into whofe mind
tlje exiftence of fuch a continent had ever entered. He failed from Calloa December 2 ift,
with two fhips and a tender, Luis Paz de
Torres was entrufted with the conaraand, and
'Quiros, from zeal for the fuccefs of the undertaking, was contented to aéfe in the inferior fta«*
tion of pilot.
Oo the 21. ft of December the fame year, he
fet feii from Calloa, and on the 26th of January following, they came in fight of a fmall
flat ifland, about four leagues in circumference,
with fome trees, but to all appearance uninhabited, lt was juft 1000 leagues from Calloa,
and in the 25th deg of S. latitude.
Finding it inaccefilble, they purfued their
voyage, and in two days fell in with another
ifland, which Capt. Cook fuppofes fhe fame
difcovered by Capt. Carteret, and by him called
Pitcairn's Ifland.
On the 4th of February they difcovered an
ifland, thirty leagues in circumference, that pro-
mifed fair to fupply their neceffities, vwhich
now began to be very prefling; but this, like
the former, could not be approached. This
ifland, fituated in lat. 28. S. feemed to determine their courfe to the South ; for on the
9th of February we find them, in the 18th deg^
South, and on the 12th in  the 17th deg. in
B 4 conference m
wfi        INTRODUCTION.
conference with the inhabitants of a friendly
ifland, from whom with difficulty, they pro*-
cured fome refrefhment, and on the 14th, continued their courfe. On the 21ft they difv
covered an ifland, where they found plenty of
fifli but no water. It was uninhabited, and the
birds fo tame that they caught them with their
hands. They named this ifland St. Bernardo,
and is probably the fame which Capt. Carteret
calls the Ifland of Danger, in lat, id deg»
30 min. S.
The next ifland difcovered, they called Ifla
de la Genre Hermofa, or the Ifle of handfome
people. From thence they fleered for Santa
Çruz, already difcovered, where they were
kindly received ; but could not leave it without
quarrelling with, and murdering fome of the
innocent inhabitants.
From this ifland they fleered their courfe
weftward, pafling feveral ftraggling iflands, till
they arrived on the 7th of April, at an ifland,
which by its high and black appearance, they
judged a Vulcano. Here they found a friendly
reception, and in return carried off four of
their people, three of whom afterwards made
their efcape by watching their opportunity and
jumping into the fea, the fourth accompanied
them to New Spain. This ifland the Indians
called Taumaco. Another ifland in 12 deg. S.
r^rmecj Tucopia, they pafled, after fome
friendly intercourfe with the inhabitants, and
on the -25th of April, came in fight of an ifland
which IX
«vtiich they named Noftra Signora de la Luz,
In 14 deg. S. and prefently after obferved four
«other iflands, one of which prefented a moft
pidurefque appearance, diverfified with every
beauty which Nature could difplay, rivers,
pools of water, cafcades, and every grace to
decorate and dignify the profped. Here the
inhabitants were frank, as their country was
abundant ; but here the Spaniards could not
help difcovering their natural jealoufy. The
firft who approached their boat, was a youth of
graceful ftature; him they thought to have fecured by flyly throwing a chain about his leg ;
but this the Indian fnapt, and inftantly made
his efcape^ by jumping over-board; the next
who came on board, they placed in the flocks,
left he too fhould make his efcape in the fame
manner. Could it be wondered therefore, that
the friends of thefe imprifoned youths fhould
endeavour by fair appearances, to enfnare their
enemies, and feek revenge. Making figns' of
peace, the Spaniards no fooner came within
their reach than they let fly a volley of poifoned
arrows, by which feveral of their company were
wounded. Interpreting this as an ad of treachery, without attending to the caufe that had
produced it, they quitted the ifland in the night,
and direding their courfe to the South-Weft,
came in fight of an immenfe country, which
had every appearance of the continent of which
they were in fearch. They perceived an open
fcay, $nd on the beach, men of a gigantic fize,
to which they made their approaches with in,-
expreffible joy, imagining that they had accom-
plifhed their wifhes, and that their labours would
foon be rewarded with honour to themfelves,
and advantage to their country.
On the 3d of May, they entered the harbour, having the day before given the name of
St. Philip and St. James to the bay, with the
fair appearance of which, they had been fo
highly delighted. To the port they gave the
name of La Vera Cruz, and to the country
Austral del Esperito Santo. The harbour,
fituated between two rivers, to which they gave
the names of Jurdan and Salvador, was equally
convenient and beautiful ; the margin of the
fhores was moft romantically interfperfed with
flowers and plants odoriferous and fplendid;
nor was the country lefs fruitful than it was
pleafant. It abounded in all thofe delicious
fruits which render the countries between the
Tropics the happieft in the world ; and there
were befides great plenty of hogs, dogs, fowls
and birds of various kinds and colours. The
inhabitants, indeed, were jealous of their approach; and difcovered great uneafinefs at their
attempting to land. The Spaniards, however,
rather chufing to intimidate than conciliate the
native?, made an excurfion into the country,
furprized the unfufpeding people of a little
village, and brought off a fupply of hogs ; but
not without imminent danger to the party employed INTRODUCTION. at;
ployed on that fervice, who were purfued to
the waters edge, and fome of them wounded.
As Nature had dealt her bounty with a liberal
hand to the inhabitants of this happy country,
{he had enriched her coafts with fifh as well as
her land with fruits. In purfuit of the former, the
Spaniards met with no interruption, but their
fuccefs, which was very great, had like to have
proved fatal to them. They caught large
quantities of a moft beautiful fifh, which, though
of a delicate flavour, was of fo poifonous a quality, that whoever eat of it was fuddenly feized
with flcknefs and pain, for which there appeared no remedy» Every foidier and every failor
was grievoufly affeded : the whole fhips companies were rendered incapable of their duty,
and officers and people were alike alarmed with
the apprehenfions of approaching death, till by
degrees, the violence of the diforder began to
abate, anp! ffijj fix days a^ were reftored. It is
tyorthy of note, that fome of the crew of the Refolution, in Capt. Cook's former voyage, who
hadeaten of a fi(h caught in thofe feas, were feized in the fame manner, and that fome hogs and
dogs, that had eaten the entrails and the bones,
adually died.
Quiros, for what reafon does not appear,
very foon quitted this promifed land, and the
two fhips feparated as foon as they had cleared
the bay ; Quiros, with the Capitana, his own
jhip, fhaped his courfe to the N E ; and after
buffering the greateft hardïhips,   returned   to
New xii        INTRODUCTION.
New Spain; while de Torres, in the Almiranta
and the Tender, fleered to the Weft, and was,
as Captain Cook obferves, the firft that failed
between New Holland and New Guinea.
Quiros, foon after his return, prefented a
Memorial to Philip II. of Spain, in which he
enumerates twenty-three iflands that he had difcovered, namely, La Encarnacion, St. Juan-
Bautifta, Santelmo, Los 4 Coronades. St. Miguel Archangel, La Converfion de St. Paulo,
La Dezena, La Sagitaria, La Fugitiva, La del
Peregrino, Noftra Signora del Soccoro, Monterey, Tucopia, St. Marcos, El Vergel," Laz
Lagrimas De St. Pedro, Los Portales de Belen,
El Pilar de Zaragoza, St. Raymunda, and La
Ifla de la Maria ; and adjoining to it the three
parts of the country called Auftralia del Efpi-
ritu Santo, in which land were found the Bay
of St. Philip and St. Jago, and part of Vera
Cruz, where he remained with the three fhips
thirty* fix days.
As this Memorial is very curious, and but in
few hands, an extrad from it, we are perfuad-
ed, will be highly acceptable to the intelligent
I It is conceived," fays Queros, " that the
three parts, laft mentioned, are only one large
country, and that the river Jurdan, by its great-
nefs, feems to confirm this conjedure, as is
evident by an information made at Mexico,
with ten witneffes ôf thofe who were with me,
to which I refer,
« I fur* Xlll
•• 1 further fay, Sir, that in an ifland named
Taumaco, 1250 leagues diftant from Mexico,
we continued at anchor ten days, and that the
Lord of that ifland, whofe name is Tumay, a
fenfible man, well made, of good prefence,
and in complexion fomewhat brown, wkh beautiful eyes, fharp nofe, beard and hair long and
curled, and in his manner grave ; affifted us
'with his people to get wood and water, of
which we were then in great want.
" This perfon came on board the fhip, and in
it I examined him in the following manner:
" Firft, I (hewed him his ifland in the fea, and
our fhips and people; and pointed to all parts
of the horizon, and made certain other figns,
and by them afked Rim, if he had feen fhips and
men like ours, and to this he replied, No.
" I afked him, if he knew of other lands far
or near, inhabited or uninhabited ? and as
foon as he underftood me, he named above 60
iflands, and a large country, which he called
Manicolo.||l, Sir, wrote down all; having before me the compafs to know in what diredion
each lay ; which were found to be from this
ifland to the SE; S SE; W;andN W. And
to explain which was fmall, he made fmall
circles ; and for the larger, he made large r
circles ; and for that vaft country he opened
both his arms, without joining them again,
fhewhig that it extended without end. And to
make known which were the diftant, and which
were near, he pointed to the fun from E. to W.
reclined IN f R O D D C TIO N;
reclined the head on one hand, (hut his eye§i
and counted by his fingets the nights which
they flept on the way ; and by figns fhewed
which people were white, negroes ancl mulat-
toes, and which were friends and which enemies ; and that in fome iflands they eat human
flefh; and by this he made figns by biting his
arm. And by this, and by means of other figns*
what he faid was underftood ; and it was repeated fo often that he feemed to be tired ; and
pointing with his hand to S. S. E. and othep
points, gave us fully to underftand what other
lands there were* He fhewed a defire of returning to his houfe. I gave him things that he
could carry, and he took leave, faluting me on
the cheek, with other marks of affedion.
" Next day I went to his town, and to be better confirmed of what Tumay declared, I carried with me many Indians to the fhore, and
having a paper in my hand, and the compafs
before me, afked all of them many times about
the lands, of which Tumay gave the names
and in every thing all of them agreed, arid gave
information of others inhabited, all by people of
. the colours before mentioned ; and alfo of that
Great Country, wherein, by proper figns, they
faid, there were cows or buffaloes; and to
make it underftood there were dogs, they barked ; and for cocks and hens they crowed, and
for hogs grunted ; and in this manner they told
what they wanted, and replied to whatever was
afked..  And becaufe they were fhewed pearls in
the INTRODUCTION.        x*
aie top of a rofary, they intimated that they
had fuch. All thefe queftions and enquiries
others of my companions made this day and
other times, of thefe and other Indians ; and
they always faid the fame ; from whence it appeared they were people who fpeak truth.
1 When I failed from this ifland of Taumaco
I made them feize four very likely Indians ;
three of them fwam away ; and the one who remained, and was afterwards named Pedro, declared at Acapulco, in the voyage, and in the
city of Mexico, where he died, in prefence of
the Marquis de Montefclaros, what follows :
S Firft, Pedro faid, that he was a native of the
Ifland Chieayana, larger than that of Taumaco»
where we found him ; and that from one to the
other is four days fail of their veffels ; and that
Chieayana is low land, very abundant in fruit ;
and that the natives of it are of his good Indian
colour, long lank hair;   and they punduate
themfelves, as he was, a little in the face, arms,
and breaft ; and that there are alfo white people, who have their hair red and very long ;
and that there are mulattoçs whofet hair is not
curled,  nor quite ftrait;   and. that he was a
weaver and a foldier-archer ; and that in his
tongue he was called Luca, his wife Leyna,
and his fon Ley.
" He further faid, that from the ifland of
Taumaco, at three days fail, and at two from Chieayana, there is another ifland, larger than the
two above-mentioned, which is called Guay-
topo, *vi i f N T R 0 D U C T I O N:   ■     ' ,t
topo, inhabited By people as white as ours arcv
in common ; and that even fome of the men-
have red hair more or lefs, and alfo black; and
that they alfo punduate their bellies, and at
the navel, all in a circle ; and that all the three
iflands are friends, and of One language ; thaé
from this laft ifland a fhip,   with more thari
fifty perfons, failed to another inhabited ifland,
named Mecayrayfa,   to feck tortoife-fnelf, of
which they ufe  to make ear-rings and other:
toys ; that being in fight of it, they met a con--
trary wind,   which obliged them to fleer for
their own ifland; but when near it, the wind
again   became contrary ;   and   that in going'
backwards and forwards they fpent all their
provifions, for want whereof forty perfons died
of hunger and thirft; and that he was in thef
Ifland Taumaco, where this fhip arrived there'
with only feven men, who were very white, ex*
cept one who was brown ; and with three women, white and beautiful as Spanifh, who had
their hair red and very long ; and that all three
came covered from head to foot with a kind of
"Veil, blue or  black, and very fine, to which
"they gave the name of Foa-foa ; and that of all
thefe ten perfons only remained alive the Indian)
Clan, who related to him what he had faid of
that ifland Gu ay topo. a And that he alfo faw
come to his Ifland Chieayana, another fhip of
theirs of two hulls full of people, white and beautiful, and with many other very handfome girls#
W and, INTRODUCTION.      xvit
and counting oh his ringers by ten and ten, he
intimated they were in all no perfons.
1 He farther faid, that from another ifland
called Tucopia, (which is where the two Indians
fwam away,) at the diftance of five days of their
failing, is that great country, Manicolo, inhabited by many people, dun-coloured and mu-
lattoes, in large towns; and to explain their
fize, he pointed out Acapulco, and others larger;
and on this I afked him if there were towns
as large as Mexico. He replied, No ; but many-
people x and that they were friendly, and did
not eat human flefh ; nor could their languages
be underftood ; and that it was a country of
very high mountains and large rivers : fome o*
them they could not ford, and could only pafs
in canoes ; and that to go from the ifland of
Tucopia, to that Country when the fun rifes,1
they keep it on the left hand, which muft be
from South towards South Eaft.
•* 1 muft add, that if this is as he fays, it agrees,
well with the chain of mountains feen running
to the weftward as we were driving about.
«' Pedro much extolled the magnitude, popu-
loufnefs, fertility, and other things of this country ; and that he and other Indians went to it
in one of their embarkations, in queft of the
trunk of a large tree of the .many which are in
it, to make a Piragua ; and that he faw there a
ports and intimated it was larger, but the entrance narrower, than that of the Bay of St. Phi-;
lip and St. Jago; and that he obferved the bot.
C torn
il *c •
wm      INTRODUCT10
torn was Tand, and the fhore fhingles as the
other, L ham defcribed ; and that it has within
itfour^rivps, and many people; and that along,
jiei eeaft of that country they went to the IVVeft-
ward a greater way than from Acapulco to
Me#kp, without feeing the end of it, and re*
turneito^his iftajad. §fc;
S ByjJl,r.hat is above mentioned, it appears
clearly,, that there are only two large portions of
the earth fevered from t^is of Europe, Africa,
and Afia. The firft is America, which Christopher Colon (Columbus) difcovered ; the
fécond and laft of.the world is that which I
Jiave feen, and folic&HMjeople,. and completely
to difcover to your Majefty. This great objed
ought to be embraced, as well for what it promîtes for the fervice of Godr as tha* it will give
a beginning to fo great a work, and to 4b
many and-fo eminent benefits» that no-other of
its kind can be more, nor fo trmcb as prefent?
nor heretofore as I can (hew, if I can be heard
and queftioned."
Upon the authority j of this Memorial",- an J
others to the like purport, prefented by Quiros-
to Philip III. of Spain, future geographers
have'grounded their opinion of the reality of a*
Southern Continent, to the difcovery of which
that vain Navigator boldly aflerted an -undoubted claim. M The magnitude of the countries
§ newly, difcovered," fays he to his Sovereign»
i by what I faw, is as much as that of all Eu-
eJppeV Afia Minor, the CafpiaricSea, and Per.
«* fia, INTRODUCTION.        *k
M fia, with all the Mediterranean included.5*
That an aflertion like this fhould gain credit,
at a time when nearly one .quarter of the glob^
lay undifcovered, is not to be wondered ; but
that a man could be found, upon fuch flender
aground as the difcovery of a few infignificant
iflands, lying, as it has lately appeared, within
the narrow limits of fix decrees of latitude, and
lefs of longitude ; to impofe upon an enlightened Prince, and engage the attention of men
of learning in every country throughout the
globe, is matter of aftonifhment that, like other
myfteries when they come to be difcioled, fur*
prife only by their insignificance.       |||
To this ideal object, however, every maritime power caft a jealous eye. No foonër was
France apprifed o%the intentions of the Britifh
Court, to engage in earneft in the bufinefs of
t^ilcovery, than fhe fent a Navigator of her own
to purfue the fame tract, who was foon after
.^followed by another on the part of Spain. As
the fuccefs which attended thefe firft enterprifes
j$y no means anfwered the expectations of thofe
by whom they were fet on foot, the two latter
courts, who had profit only for their object, re-
linquifhed the project when they found themfelves difappoin|ed in:fharing the prize. The
perfeverance of our amiable Sovereign, in the
^proiecution of his liberal defigns, as it has enlightened, fo it has infpired every lover of Sciv
ence at home and abroad, with a reverential
C % regard
w tx       INTRODUCTION;
regard for his princely virtues, in promoting
and patronifmg ufefui arts.    But to return.
In 1614, George Spitsbergen, with a ftrong
fquadron of Dutch fhips, paflèd the Streights
of Magellan, and after cruizing for fome time
'with various fuccefs againft the Spaniards, fet
fail from Port Nativity on the coaft of Peru,
on his return home. In his paffage, in 19 deg.
of North lat. and about 30 longit. from the Continent, he difcovered a mighty rock, and three
days after, a new ifland with five hills, neither
of which have fmce been feen. The firft land
he made was the Ladrones, already defcribed.
In 1615, Scbouten and Le Maire, in the Unity
of 360 tons, and the Hoorn of 110, failed from
the Texel on the 14th of June, profefièdly for
the difcovery of a new paffage to the South Seas.
The fubjects of the States of Holland being
prohibited, by an exclufive charter granted to
their Eaft-lndia Company, from trading either
to the Eaftward by the Cape of Good Hope, or
to the, Weftward by the Magellanic ftreights,
fome private merchants, confidering this prohibition as a hardfhip, determined, if poflible, to
defeat the purpoie of the charter, and to trade
to the Southern countries by a track never before attempted. With this view they fitted out
the fhips already mentioned, one of which, the
Hoorn, was burnt in careening, at King's Ifland
on the coaft of Brazil, and the other left fingly
to purfue her Voyage. Having faved what
flores they could refcue from the flames, they
proceeded, INTRODUCTION,        xxi
proceeded, directing their courfe to the South
Weft, till in lat. 54 deg. 46 min. they came in
fig&t of an opening, to which (having happily
pafled it) they gave the name of Strait le Maire
in compliment to the principal projector of
the voyage, though that honour was certainly
due to Schouten, who had the direction of the
voyage. Having foon after weathered the fouth-
ernmoft point of the American Continent, they
called that promontory Cape Home, or more
properly Hoorn, after the town in Holland
where the project was firft fecretly concerted 5
and two iflands which they had paffed, they
named Bernevelt Ifles. They had no fooner
cleared the land, than they changed their oourfe
to the Northward, with a view to make fome
ftay at Juan Fernandes to refit; but finding
both iflands inacceffible, by reafon of the great
fwell, they were obliged to continue their voyage till a more favourable opportunity fhould
offer to refrefh the crew. The firft land they
made, was a new difcovery in lat. 15 degrees,
15 min. long. 136 deg. 30 min. W. and happened to be a fmall low ifland, which afforded them
no other refrefhment, except a fcanty portion of
fcurvy-grafs, but no water. They named this
Dog Ifland, from a Angular circumftance of
finding in it dumb dogs that could neither barfe
nor fnarl. About feven degrees further weft, they
fell in with another ifland, which they called
SondreXjfound) becaufe they founded, but found
no bottom.   StiU continuing their; courfe to t,he
C 3 Weftwardj . ■
xxii       INTRODUCTION.
Weftward, they came to an ifland, to which
they gave the name of Waterland, as it afforded
them a frefh fupply of water, of which they
ftood in much need. They likewife procured
plenty of ftefh herbs ; but not being able tQ
ébme to an anchor, they kept their courfe, and
fbon came In fight of a fourth iflan#, in which;
they could perceive a *ftream of water, but,
like the other iflands^which they had paflkff
it feemed difficult of accefs. They hoifted out
ftfeir boat, and i$ed k with empty* cafks; but
inftead of water, the people in it returned covered with Infects, which, though not fo large as
Mufketoes, were by their numbers and their
venom a thoufand #mes more troublefome.
Such fwarms came from the fhore as covered
fjfie^fhip as with a cafe, arte it was more than
thr$£ days beïdwthe crew could free themfelvc§
and the ve0f&from thefe tormentors. This thejs
named Fly Ifland. fp
In their cétarfe from this ifland an incj^st
IfappeneaV that is a reproach^o humanity; an
Indian.bark fcflffttheir way, to which, inftead
of making^fignals of peace to conciliate them,
Vhey fired a gun to1f$i|fêg thereto.   The bark
was  full'of people J^alp arM  female,   who,
^igjhted at the report, inftead of gueffing the
gîtent, haftened to make thefr^NIspe. Prefëfctly
the pinnace was hoifted çÉf$ Wfttfed,   and a
purfuit   commenced;   the   unhappy   Indians,
afïn$ing it in vain to fly, feveral being wounded
in their flight, father chofe #jperii&4n the o-
cean, INTRODUCTION,       xxiii
eean, than truft to the mercy of theif purfuersV
thoft of the  men, juft as the Dutchmen were
ioout to board theW'Vëï^l, Jumped overboard,
and with them they took their provifions ; tn&fe
who remained, chiefly women and children, an&
fuçn as were wounded,   fubmitted,  an'3 we?e
kindly ufed, had then* wounds dreffed and n?*
ftored to'their bark ; buTPforely nothing^éruld
excufe the  brutal proceedings of^tfiè^^ûtch
at their nrft onfet, norcompenfate for the-lives
of the innocent fuffâ%rs.
Com and Traitors  Iflands  were   the inéxt
they'fell in with in their run from Fly Ifl&ftd»
Thefe were adjoining iflands, and feemed i$oe
compofed of one people, and by joining cordially together to revenge the death of their
unfortunate friends, they appear to have been
or one mind.   The Vovagers new began* to feèl
-diftrefs, and to repent of their ra(h adventure;
they held a confultation in what manner: to proceed, being in want of almoft eve$y neceflar^.
Fortune^   however,lPdid more 8f their favour
than their own prowefs; for after having paffed
*8ie Ifland of Hope,l\fo called to-exprefs their
feelings)   where utheTpWre   very roughly received, they arrived at a moft deligfrtM ifland,
abounding with every bleffing that ri^ure'^eo%?d
oeftow ; and inhabited Bjfra people1 who feeméd
fenfible of their own happy ftate, and ready to
fhafe* it with thofe who were in want of the
good  things which they  themfelves poffefled,
Th€& they  generoufly-'bellowed even to pro-
■^4 fiïûëa* be i■ j| lei j
fufion. Here the Voyagers refitted their fhips,
recovered their fick, recruited their almoft ex-
haufted ftock of provifions, by a plentiful fupply of hogs, and with as large quantities of the
delicious fruits with which the ifland was ftor*
ed, as they could conveniently ftowç. This
proving a fécond home to them, they gave it
the name of Hoorn Ifland, for the reafon alrea.
dy afligned. It is fituate in lat. 14 deg. 56
min. South, long. 1J9 deg. 30 min. Eaft, and
in every refpect refembles the ifland of Ota*
heite, except in its naval ftrength, in which
there is no competition^ ^g
Being now plentifully relieved, and the crew
In high health, and having no hope of difcover-
ing the Continent of which they came in fearch,
they determined to return home by the neareft
track : accordingly they altered their courfe to
the North-Weft, till they approached the line,
and paffing many iflands, to which they gave
names,  as appearances or eircumftances pre-
fented, as Green Ifland, St. John's Ifland, &c.
they coafted the North fide of New Britain,
and arrived at Bantham,   in the  Eaft Indies,
where their fhip was feized,   and their cargo
confifcated at the inftançe of the Dutch Eaft-
India Company, under pretence of being engaged in contraband trade.   It is remarkable
that hitherto they had only loft four rnen, one
of whom died on their landing.
In 1623, Prince Maurice and the States of
JJplJand, fitted out a fleet to diftrefs the Spa-*
niards. INTRODUCTION.   #xxtf
oiards in the South Seas, and gave the com*
inand to Jaques Hermite : but as thefe returned by a direct courfe from Lima to the La-
drones, without making any difcoveries in what
is called the Pacific Sea, it would be foreign
to the defign of this Introduction to detain the
reader by an unneceffary digreflion.
In 1642, Abel Tafman failed from Batavia
in the Heemfkirk, accompanied by the Zee
Haan pink, with a profeffed defign of difco-
yering the Southern Continent.   He directed
his courfe to the Mauritius, and from thence,
fleering to the Southward,   the firft land he
made was the Eaftern point of New Holland,
fince known by the  name of Van Dieman's
Land, in lat. 42 deg. 25 min. long. 163 deg.
50 min.   In this high latitude he proceeded to
the Eaftward, till he fell in with the Weftern-
xnoft coaft of New Zealand, where the greateft
part of the boat's crew of the Zee Haan were
murdered by the Savages in a bay, to whicJi
he gave the name of Murderer9s Bay, now bet-
fer known by that of Charlotte's Sound,  fo
called by our late Navigators.   From Murderer's Bay, he fteered W. N. W. till he arrived
at Three Kings Ifland1, between which and the
Continent he paffed, and run to the Eaftward,
as far as the 229th degree of longitude; then
turning to the Northward, till he came into the
17th degree of Southern latitude,  he veered
a<*ain to the Weft ward, with a defign to reach
Jioprn Ifland, difcovered by Schouten, in order
to ' pvi    INTRODUCTION,
to refit his fhip, and refrefh ' his men.   But is
his paffage he fell in with the ifles of Pylftaerfi
Amfterdam, Middleburg,   and Rotterdam, at
the latter of which iflands he found every accommodation which he exoectecl So meet with
at Hoorn Ifland, and embraced the prefent opportunity of his wants.    This neceffary end accomplifhed, he relinquifhed his design of vifiting Traitor's and Hoorn Iflands,
and directing his courfe to the N W, difcovered eighteen or twenty Ifrriall iflands,   in lat.
17 deg. 19 ;nin. S. and long. 201 deg. 35 min.
to which he gave the name of Prince William's
Iflands, and Hemfkirk's banks, g From thence
purfufd  his courfe to New Guinea,   without
either difcovering the continent he fought, çr
vifiting the Solomon Ifles, which were judged
the k,e$ tothrgrand difcovery.    Thus leaving
thewhole'in the fame ftate of uncertainty as be-
Jote, Tafman returned to Batavia.on the  15th
of June 1643.
In   1,681,   Dampier  pafled the Magellanic
Straits; :but in his -return failed ^975 miles in
lat.iji3  Nj&ithoi^'-feeing fifh, fowl,   or any
ikying creature but/what they had on board.
Next to him fuçpeeded in 1683,? Captain
Co,wky, who failed rrom Virginia tp the South
Sea, but m^ie no djjeoveries afterjjie left the
Weftern rpoafts of,3||prica; retu^irng by the
old track to the Eaftrlndies. |fl||
In 1699, Damper made a fécond voyage on
difcovery, which was chiefly çon^rjm to Nev/
Hollandi INTRODUCTION:     xxvii
flolland, New Guinea, New Britain, and the
iflands adjacent. His difcoveries were of ii|*
finiteimportance, but do nojt properly come
within the limits of our enquiry.
In 1703, Dampier made a third voyage tp
the South Seas, but without making any nejr
difcoveries,. He was accompanied in thjs
voyage by Mr. Funnel, to whom the circum*
navigation of the globe is afcrib§d.gj|
In 170.8, the Duke and Duchefs failed from
Briftol to the South Seas; but retur^d, as all
the Freebooters did, by the commoiyrack.f^
>i&qP7i9, Capt. Clipperton paffed the Straits
with a view to enrich his owners by the fpoil of
ftie Spaniards. He returned likeijjfe through
$he Ladrone iflands, consequently jcould make
po-difcoveries.'in the Pacific Seas*
In^72i, the Dutch Eaft-lndia Company, at
the inftance of Captain Roggewein, fitted out
a refpectable fleerj for the difcovery of that continent, whicji lay hitherto undifcoyered, though
univerfally believed to exlft. Three flout fhips
were appointed, and well provided for this
fervice;; the Eagle of 36 guns and iii«men,
on board of which embarked Roggewein as
Commodore, having jander"him. Capt. Coftçr,
an experienced navigator ; the Tien|ioven of 28
guns, and 100 men, of which Capt. Bowman
was commander ? and the African Qalley, commanded by Capt. Rofenthall. From this voyage
every thing was hoped. The equipment of the
Slips,  the appointment of  the commanders,
and, • 1
and, above all, the hereditary zeal of the Commodore which he inherited from his father for
:the fervice, all contributed to raife the expectations of Europe to the higheft pitch. Before
they arrived at the Straits of Magellan, they
had encounteredsthe moft boifterous feas, and
endured the moft intolerable hardfhips that ever
Slips refilled. They had no fooler entered the
Straits, than they were again attacked by tem-
peftuous weather. This ftorm was fcarce abated,
when they were alarmed by the fight of a veffel,
which they took either for a pirate or a Spanifh fhip of war, and as fhe feemed to approach
very faft, were preparing for an engagement,
when, to their agreeable furprize, they difcover-
' ed it to be the Tienhoven's fhallop, on board
of which was Capt. Bowman, who had been
feparated three months before, and it was concluded had been engulphed in the hurricane
that happened when the Tienhoven loft her
main-top and mizen mafts, and the Eagle her
mainfail-yard. They mutually rejoiced at each
other's efcape. Capt. Bowman thought they
had perifhed in the ftorm, and they had given
him over for loft. But their joy was of fhort
continuance; they had other dangers to encounter, and other hardfhips to undergo ; they
found the Magellanic Straits impracticable, and
entered the Southern Ocean with difficulty, by
the Strait le Maire. After recruiting their water
at the Ifles of Fernandez, their firft attempt
was in feàrch of Davis's Land -, which, it was
g| imagined, INTRODUCTION.      x%U
imagined, from the defcription given by the
difcoverer, would prove an Index to the continent of which they were in fearch. They
milled it where they expected to find it, but accident threw it in their way. It proved a fmall
ifland which they thought a new difcovery, and
becaufe they fell in with it on Eafter-day, they
called it PalckmWe have juft to remark of
this ifland, that as it was then full of people, and
but few feen when laft explored, and among
them only fifteen women, it is more than pro*
bablethat in lefs than another century, the whole
ifland will be depopulated. From this ifland
Roggewein purfued nearly the fame track with
that which Schouten had pointed out, till veering more to the North, he fell in with the
iflands at which Commodore Byron firft landed,
and where fome of the wreck of the African Galley was actually found. Here five of the crew
deferted, and were left behind; and it would have
been an object of curious enquiry for the Natu-
ralifts who accompanied that voyage, to have
endeavoured to trace a fimilitude of European
features among the inhabitants of George's
Ifland, as there is reafon to believe that to be
the ifland on which the five Dutchmen chofe to
fix their refidence. This ifland, which they place
in the 15th degree of Southern latitude, they
named Mifchievous Ifland, owing to their late
Eight leagues to the Weft of this ifland, they
difcovered another,  to which they gave the
name ags*
name ôf Aurora^pfrom its fplendïd appearand
gilded by thé rays of the rifirig fun. Another
ifland difcovered in the'^énœg of the fame'
day, tfief-Galkd Fefper&/Fwfc\ng their courfê
to the Weftws|fd, they difcovered a duller of
Iflands, undoubtedly the fame,;-now called tbg
Friendly Ifles, to which they gave the name of
the Labyrinth,, becaufe it was with! dih^iHty
they could clear them.
In a very few da^s fail after paf&ig the La^
ftyrinth, they came in fight of a pleafant iflandy
to which, from its fair appearance, they gav$
the name of the Ifland of Recreation1, They were"
at firft hofpitably received; but in the end the'
natives endeavoured to furprize them by ftra£a~
gem, and to cut them off. They had fupplied
the ftrangers with provifions, water, and wood,
and they had affifted them in gathering greens,
and in conveying them to the fhips ; but one day
feeing a party of them unarmed, and walking
careiefly in the fields, charmed with the delights
of the country, in a moment fome thoufandsof
the natives rufhed fuddenly upon them, and
with fhowers of ftones, began an affault. The
Dutch, from the fhips obferving a tumult, and
fufpecting the worft, came haftiiy to the fuppore
of their comVades, when a^general engagement
enfued, in which many natives were fhot dead,
fome of the Dutchmen killed, and not a few
wounded. This proved baneful to the voyage.
Few of the crews of either fhip, after this,
would venture to go afhore for pleafure; moft
of INTRODUCTION.       *188
of them became dilcontented, and fome mutinous. It was therefore concluded at a general
council of officers, to continue their courfe towards New Britain and New Guinea-, and thence
by the way of the Moluccas to the Eaft Indies,
which was accordingly carried into execution :
and thus ended, like all the former, a voyage
which was expected at leaft to have folved the
queftion ; but in fact it determined nothing.
They who argued from the harmony that is
obfervable in the works of Nature, infifted, tha^
fomething was wanting to give one fide of the
globe a refemblance to the other ; while thofe
who reafoned from experience, pronounced the
whole fyftem the creature of a fertile brain.
In 1738, Lozier Bouvet was fent by the
French Eaft-India Company, upon difcovery in
the South Atlantic Ocean. He failed from,
Port Le Orient on the 19th of July, on board
the Eagle, accompanied by the Mary, and on
the lit of January following, he difcovered, or
thought he difcovered, land in lat. 54 degrees
■South, long, from Paris 11 min. Eaft. But this
land being diligently fought for by Capt. Cook,
in his voyage for the difcovery of the Southern
Continent in 1777, without effect, there is reafon
to doubt if any fuch land exifts ; or, if it does,
it is too remote from any known track to be of
ufe to trade or navigation. Bouvet purfued has
çourfe to the Eaftward, in a hjgh latitude, abou£
29 degrees of longitude farther, when in 1$. 51
deg. South, the two fhips parted, one going to
the m
thé ifland of Mauritius, the other returning ta
In 1742, Commodore Ànfon traverfed thé
Great Pacific Ocean; but his bufinefs being
war, he made no difcoveries within the limits
of our Review ; and his ftory is too well knowri
to need recapitulation.
Come we now to the TErz when his Majefty
formed the defign of making difcoveries, and
exploring the Southern Hemifphere, and when
in the year 1764, he directed it to be carried
into execution.
<c Accordingly Commodore Byron having un*
der his command the Dolphin and Tamar, failed
from the Downs on the 21ft of June the fame
year, and having vifited the Falkland Iflands,
paffed through the Streights of Magellan into
the Pacific Ocean, where he difcovered the
Iflands of Dlfappointment, George's, Prince of
Wales's, the Ifles of Danger, York and Byron's
Iflands. He returned to England the 9th of
May 1766.
I And in the month of Auguft following,
the Dolphin was again fent out under the command of Captain Wallis, with the Swallow,
commanded by Capt. Carteret.
" They proceeded together, till they came to
the Weft end of the Straits of Magelkn, and in
fight of the Great South Sea, where they were
I Captain Wallis directed his courfe more
wefterly than any Navigator had done before
him INTRODUCTION.     4*ifciii
nim in fo high a latitude, but met with no land
till he got within the Tropic, where he difcovered the iflands Whitfunday, Queen Charlotte,
Egmant, Duke of Gloucefter, Duke of Cum-»
berland, Maitea, Otaheite, Eimeo, Tapama-
nou, Howe, Scilly, Bofcawen, Keppel, and
Wallis; arid returned to England, May 1768.
" His companion, Captain Carteret, kept a
different route, in which he difcovered the
iflands Ofriaburgh, Gloucefter, Queen Charlotte's
Iftêi, Carteret's^ Gower'sj, and the Strait between New Britain and New Ireland ; and re*
turned to England in 176^1
<c In November 1767, Commodore Bougain*
ville failed from France, in the frigate La BoU-
deufe, With the ftore-fhip l'Étoile. After fpehd*
ing fome time on the coaft of Brazil, and at
Falkland's Iflands, he got into the Pacific Sea
by the Straits of Magellan, January 1768*
" In this Ocean he difcovered the four Fa-'
càrdihes, the Ifle of Landers, and Harpe Ifland^
{the fame afterwards named by Cook, Lagoon
Ifland) Thrum Cap, and Bow Ifland. Aboue
twenty leagues farther to the Weft, he difcovered four other iflands ; afterwards fell in with
Mattea, Otaheite, Ifles of Navigators, and Forlorn Hope, which to him were new difcoveries^
He then paffed through between the Hebrides,
which he calls the Great Cyelades, difcovered
the Shoal of Diana, and fome others ; the land
of Cape Deliverance, feveral Iflands more to the
North ; paffed to the North of NSgw Ireland,
JB *o\jçhe4 »!
il '•'
touched at Batavia, and arrived in France id
March 17694
I In 1769^ the Spaniards fent a fhip to trace
the difcoveries of the EnglHh and French.
This fltip arrived at Otaheite in 1771, ind in
her return difcovered fome iflands, in lat. 32
deg, S. and long. 130 deg. W. This Mp
touched at Eafter Ifland 5 but whether fhe returned to New or Old Spain remains undecided.
" In 17%* the French fitted out another
fhip from the Mauritius, under the command of
Capt. Kergulen, who, having difcovered fome
barren iflands between the Cape of Good Hope
and Van Dieman's Land, Contented himfelf
with leaving fome Memorials there, which were
found by Captain Cook in the voyage which
we are now about to narrate.
I This year was rendered remarkable by the
Tranfit of the planet Venus over the Sun's
Difk, a phenomenon of great importance to
Aftronomy, and which every where engaged
the attention of the learned' in that Science.
§j In the beginning of the year 1768, the
Royal Society prefented a Memorial to his»
Majefty, fetting forth the advantages to be de*
rived from accurate obfervations of this Tranfit
in different parts of the world, particularly from
a fet of fuch obfervations made in a Southern*
latitude, between the 140th and 180th degrees
©f longitude Weft from the Royal Obfervatory
at Greenwich* at the fame time reprefenting, î N T R 0 $> U C f t 6 N<     xxx*
thàt veffels, properly equipped, would be neceffary to convey the obfervers to their deftined
ftations ; but that the Society were in no condition to defray the expence."
In confequence of this Memorial, the Admfc
ralty were directed by his Majefty to provide
proper veffels for that purpofe; and the Endeavour bark was accordingly purchafed, fitted
out; and the command given to Capt. Cooke,
who had already fignalized himfelf as an experienced Navigator; and Mr. Charles Green the
Aftrohomer was jointly, with the Captain, appointed to make the obfervations.
Otaheite being the Ifland preferred for the
performance of that important-fervice* Captaià
Cooke received orders to proceed directly ; and
his inftructions were, as foon as the Aftronomi-
cal obfervations were completed, to profecute
the defign of making difcovefies in the South
Pacific Ocean as far as the 40th degree of South
latitude ; and then, if no land fhould be difcovered, to fhapc his coutfe between lat. 40.
and 25t till he fhould fall in with New Zealand, which he was to explore; and thençe to
In the profecution of thefe inftructions h& failed from Plymouth on the 26th of Auguft, 1768,
and on the i3trtof April following, arrived at
Otaheite, having in his Way difcovered Lagoon
Ifland, Two Groups, Bird Ifland, and Chain
Ifland. k. .     Hpp'
At Otaheite he remained three months, and,
(befides the Aftronomer Mr. Green), being accompanied by Mr. Banks, a gentleman of fortune, and Dr. Solander, one of the Librarians
of the Britifti Mufeum, eminent both for his
knowledge in-Natural Hiftory, and in Botany;
we have only to remark, that all Europe has al- I
ready been benefited by the employment of theirs
The obfervations on the Tranfit being com-
pleated with the wiîhtffor fuccefs, Capt. Cooke
proceeded on difcovery ;-he vifited the Societ^
Ifles, and difcovered Ohetèroa, fell in with the
Eaftern coaft of New Zealand,  and examined
it ; thence proceeding to New^Holland, he fur-
veyèd the Eaftern fide of that vaft continent,
which had never before been explored ; difcovered the Strait between its Northern extremity and
New Guinea; and returned home by Savu, Batavia, the Cape of Good Hope, and St. Helena3
arriving in England the 12th of July 177
In 1769, Captain Surville made a trading
voyage from fome port in the Eaft Indies by
a new courfe. He paffed near New Britain, and
fell in with fome land in lat. 10 deg. South,
longit, 158 deg. Eaft, to which he gave his
own name; then fhaping his courfe to the
South Eaftward, narrowly miffed New Caledonia, put into Doubtful Bay in New Zeland
and from thence fleered to the Eaft, between the
latitudes of 35 and 41 deg. South till he arrived
on the coaft of America, a courfe never before
navigated ^INTRODUCTION,    xxxvil
navigated ; and with that purfued by Captain
Furneauxj between 48 and 52 degrees, and
that afterwards by Captain Cooke, .in a ftill
higher latitude, confirms to demonftration the
non-exiftence of a Southern Continent.
No fooner was Captain Cooke's voyage com-
pleated, and his Journals examined, than ano*
ther voyage was projected, the chief object of
which was to compleat the difcovery of the
Southern Hemifphere. Very extraordinary preparations were made for the equipment of the
fhip, for this voyage, which required thofe of a
particular construction to perform it, fuch
therefore were purchafed. Some alterations
. likewife were neceflary in the fpecies of provifions ufual in the nayy, and thefe were made.
Add to this, that many extra articles were
provided, fuch as Malt, Sour Krout, falted
Cabbage, portable Soup, Saloup, Muftard,
Marmalade, and feveral others, as well for food
for convalefcents, as phyfick for the fick.
The fhips judged moft proper for the voyage
were built for colliers, two of which were fitted
up, and the command given to Captain Cook ;
the largeft of 562 tons, called the Refolution^
had 112 men, officers included; the other, the
Adventure, of 336 tons, given to Captain Fur-?
neaux, fécond in command, had only 81. Tq
thefe were added, perfons well fkilied in Natural Hiftory, Aftronomy, Mathematics, and the
liberal Arts of Painting, Drawing, &c, &c.
Q.n umvni    IN T R O D U C TIO U;
On the 13th of July the two fhips* failed
from Plymouth, after having fettled the latitude and longitude of that pan: by obfervation.
This they did in order to regulate the timepieces, of whjph they had four on board ; three
aiade by Mr. Arnold, and one by Mr. Kendal,
&n Mr. Harrifbn's principles.
The great object of the Voyage was to determine, to a certainty, the existence or nonexistence of a Southern Continent, which, till
then, had engaged the attention of moft of the
maritime powers, and about the reality of which
jGeographers pf Jajte feemed to have had but one
Let it fufflce, that this question is at length
decided : but before we enter upon the proofs,
neceffary to decide that other question, concerning the existence or non-existence of a îf «W.
or N. E. paffage, it will be expected, that we
fhould not only lay before the Reader the facts
that have appeared in the courfe of the voyages made in the Pacific Ocean, which we are
now about to relate, but thofe alfo that are to
be gathered frorn the Voyages made in the Ats
lantic Qcean for the like purpofe.
Not only Navigators the moft celebrated
in their time, but even philpfophers and cof-
mographers of the firft eminence, have contended from analogy, that a communication,
between the Atlantic and great Pacific Ocean
must exist fomewhere in the Northern Hemif-
f>here> in like manner as the fame exists bg fc     INTRODUCTION.     xxrië
the Straits of Magellan ia lie Southern Hemif-
phere; this appeared fo certain to the Cabbots,
the moft renowned Navigators of the 15th century, that the younger Sebafiian, at the rifque
of life, propofed the difcovery of that paffage to
Henry the Vllth ; and though he failed by the
mutiny of his crew, after he had failed as high
as the 68th degree of northern latitude, yet tha*
prince was fo well pleafed with his endeavours,
that he created a new office in his favour, and
appointed him grand pilot of England, with
aialary of 166I. a year during life, which at
that time was no inconsiderable fum.
He returned by the way of Newfoundland,
bringing home with him two Eiquimaux.
It was long, however, before a fécond attempt
was made with the profeffed defign of difco-
vering a North-weft paffage. The attention of
the nation was too much fixed on projects towards the South, to attend to any thing that
Jiad reference to enterprizes in the North.    1
Some there were however who held the object
in view : and in 1576 Sir Martin Forbifher with
2 fmall fhips attempted the Difcovery ; and having found a Strait on the Southernmost point of
Groenland, through which he failed about 50
leagues, wkh high land on both fides, he per-
fàaded himfèlf that he had fucceeded in his en-
terprize ; but after repeated trials, finding his
error, he gave over the fearch.
In a few years after Sir Martin, Sir Humphrey
Gilbert renewed the hopes of the Difcovery by a
Voyage to the North, which, though it failed
in the main point, it proved of infinite advantage
to the nation in another. He coasted along the
American Continent from the 60th degree of
Northern Latitude till he fell in with theGulph
pf St. Lawicnce, which he continued to navi-
D 4 g3t$ *lfr   INTRODUCTION?
gate vtill he perceived the water to frefhen ; hé
then took poffeflion of that vast continent, fince
called Canada by the French, in the name of
his Sovereign ; and was the firft who projected
the fifhery in Newfoundland, and who promot*
ed the eftablifhment of it.
In proportion as the commerce to the Eaft
increafed and became lucrative, the desire of
engrofiing the trade by fhortening the paffage
thither increafed alfo; thence arofe an emulation among the merchants for difcovering the
paffage of which we are fpeaking. Thofe in
London had concerted a project for that purpofe,
and thofe in the Weft Country had a similar
project in contemplation ; but neither the one
nor the other had managed their defigns with
fo much fecrefy, but that each got acquainted
with the other's intentions. This produced a
coalition ; both agreed to join in the expence ;
and both agreed in the appointment of Çapt.
John Davis, to conduct the Voyage.
In 1585 he embarked on board the Sun-
fhine, a bark of about 60 tons and 23 men,
attended by a veffel of 35 tons with 19 men,
to which he gave the name of the Moon fhine.
He failed from Dartmouth on the 7th of May.
The firft land he made was an ifland near the
Southernmost point of Groenland, which, from
its horrid appearance, he named the Ifland of
Defolation. In his progrefs he paflèd the Strait
that ftill bears his name, and advanced as high
as the latitude of 66 in an open fea, the coafts
of which he examined till the approach of winter obliged him to return, with every hope,
however, of fucceeding another year. On his
arrival, his employers were fo well pleafed
with the relation he gave, and the progrefs he
ti$d made, that they next year augmented his
force, and fent him out with four veffels, one
of which, the Mermaid, of 120 tons burthen,
he commanded himfelf, and the other three,
fthe Sun»fhine, Moon-fhine, and the North-ftar,
a pinance of 13 tons only) were furniflied with
matters of his own recommendation.
On the 7th of May he fet fail from Dartmouth, and fleered a strait courfe till he arrived
in the 60th degree of latitude, when he divided
his fleet, ordering the Sun -fhine and North star
to direct their fearch to trie north-eaftward as
far as the 80th degree, N. while he with the
Mermaid and Moon-fhine fhould continue their
former fearch to the N. W. where he had already contracted an acquaintance with the inhabitants in his former Voyage, from whom
She hoped to receive confiderable information;
At firft they expreffed great joy at his return,
but they foon fhewed the cloven foot.   They
were fond of iron, and he gave them knives ;
knives did not content them, they wanted hatchets ; when they got hatchets, they cut his cables, and stole  one of his coafting anchors,
which he never recovered.    He took one of the
ring leaders prifoner, who after fome time prov-,
ed a ufefui hand 5 but they furprized five of his
men, of whom they killed   two,   grievoufly
wounded two more, and. the fifth made his
efcape by fwimmirig to the fhip with an arrow
flicking in his arm.    In this voyage he coafted
the land, which he found to be an ifland from
the 67th to the 57th degree, N. and at length
anchored in a fair harbour, eight leagues to the
Northward of which he conceived the paffage
f:o lie, as a mighty fea feen was rufhing between
£wo headlands from the Weft: Into this fea he
ardently wifhed to have failed ; but the wind and
SËÉÉ current m      INTRODUCTION.1        ,|;
current both opposing his defign, he was obliged, by the remonstrances of his people, to re-
linquifh that favage coaft, and, as the feafon
was far advanced, to return home. Wnen he
arrived he met with the Sun-fhine, but $e
North-ftar was never more feen.
His misfortunes did not abate his zeal. He
was prepoffeffed with the certainty of a N. W.
paffage, and he prevailed upon other adventurers, in conjunction with fome of his former
friends, to enable him to make a third trial,
which proved no lefs unfortunate than thofe he
had attempted before ; notwithstanding which,
could he have raifed friends to have advanced
the money, he would have continued his researches till death had put an end to his labours.
Thefe repeated difappointments threw a damp
For a while on this favourite purfuit ; and it wag
not till the year 1610, that the former fpirit of
«difcovery began to revive.
In that year, Mr. IJenry Hudfon projected a
new courfe towards the N. W. which brought
him to the mouth pf the Strait that now bears
his name. This he traced till he came into an
open fèj ; but the feafon being past for making
any farther progrefs at that time, he prevailed
upon his crew, by flattering their avarice with
the certainty of gain, to winter on that inhof-
pitable coast, though destitute of provifions
for a fingle month. While, their provifions
lafted t|iey were contented; and the tale of
fiches and glory that had been told them,
cher&hed their; but when famine and
cold began tp pinch, the ideal profpect va?
milled, and nothing but murmuring and
mutiny fucceeded, which ended in the tragical death of the Captain and feven of his fic|c
foljowçfs. INTRODUCTION.
followers, who, unable to make refiftance, were
fet adrift in the boat, wjijle thofe who were
in better health (eized the fhip, and made the
belt of their way home, and on their return
gave fuch an account of the certainty of the pafr
fege, as left no room to doubt of the difcovery.
Accordingly, the very next year Sir Henry
Button undertook the tafk, and fleered directly
)to the new-difcovered fea, in which he failed
more than 200 leagues farther to the S. W.
than the Difcoyerer, wintered at Port Nelfon,
where he loft near half his men, and returned
jthe next year, roundly afferting the exiftence
pf the paffage, though he had not been fo
happy as to find if.
Sir Henry was fcarce returned before James
Hall and William Baffin fet fail, with a view to
jfhare the honour of the Difcovery.
In this attempt Hall fell by the hands of a
favage, and Baffin foon returned, but with a full
defign to renew his purfuit, whenever he could
find an opportunity fo to do. This did not
happen till the year 1615, when he examined
the fea that communicates with Davis's straits,
which he found to be no other than a great bay,
with an inlet from the north, to which he gave
the name of Smith's Sound, lat. 78.
About this time the Hudfon's Bay Company
was eftablifhed, who by charter were obliged to
profecute this difcovery, as were Jifçewife thofe
matters of veffels that were employed in the
whale fiiliery; but neither the one nor the
other paid much attention to the chief object:
of their eftabliffament.
In the year 1631 Luke Fox, com millioned
\by Hjng Charles the First, made a voyage in.
fearch ?&Ev
fearch of the fame paffage, but to as little pur*
pofe as the reft.
He was followed by Capt. James, who after
the moft elaborate fearch from one extremity
to the other of the bay changed, his opinion,
and declared that no fuch paffage existed ; and
it was not till a hundred years after, that Capt.
Middleton undertook, upon the moft plausible
grounds, and at the instance and by the recommendation of Arthur Dobbs, Efq; to make
another attempt, and perhaps a final one, as
the non exiftence of a north weft paffage thro'
Hudfon's Bay was then made almoft as certain
as the non-existence of a fouthern continent is
now. -" |p
But there was yec another expedition recommended to his prefent Majefty about the beginning of 1773, by the Koyal Society, the
chief object of which, was to try how far navigation was practicable under the Poles. It
was imagined, that the Sun being there 33 degrees high about the middle of fummer, and
having little or no depreffion towards the horizon, might invigorate that part of the Hemif-
phère with more heat than in our climate, where
in the winter he is only 15 deg. high, and 16
hours in every 24 below ^he horizon, in which
fpace the earth has time to cool, and to lofe in the
night the influence of heat it receives in the day.
This consideration, added to the credit due to
feveral well authenticated relations, particularly
about the year 1670, when it was afferted and
believed, that feveral Dutch fhips had actually
failed under the Pole. And the merchants in Holland being required to verify this fact, having
grounded a petition for an excluilve Charter to
frade to China and Japan by a northern paffage,
upon it; they produced the Journals of the
Greenland fquadron of 1655, in feveral of whicrt
there was notice taken of a fhip which that year
had failed as high as the latitude of 89 ; and
thfte Journals of that fhip being examined,
they' all agreed as to one obfervation, taken
by the Mafter, August 1, 1655, in 8% deg. 56
min. North, whex?the Sea was'open and the
wesfther warm.
There were, however, feveral other important
reafons which induced the Royal Society to recommend this Northern voyage to his Majefty,
who having been gracioufly pleafed to countenance and encourage it, Capt. Phipps, now
Lord Mulgrave, no foonerheard of the defign
than he tendered his fervice to carry it into
execution. The board of longitude at the fame
rirM agreed 4with Mr. lfrael Lyons, a Gentleman eminent in the fcience of Astronomy, and
ari honour to the inftitution where he first received the rudiments of his education [Christ's
Hofpital] to accompany Mr. Phipps, in order
to fix the true places of feveral northern promontories, and for other nautical purpofes ; and
Dr. Irving likewife embraced that opportunity
to give the Invention, for whicfr he had received
a parliamentary reward, a fuli%ia!,^
In this voyage too, the board of Longitude
fent two time-piecesfor trial ; one colftructed by
Mr. Kendall on Mr. Harrifon's principles ; the
other by Mr. Arnold on principles-of his own:
and Capt. Phipps had himfelf a pocket watch
made by Mr. Arnold, by which he kept longitude w^h much greater exactnefs than was done
by either of the other two, having varied only
2 min. 40 fee. in the whole voyage.
On the 19th of April Capt Phipps, in the
&ace Horfe, received his commiffion; and on
the xlvî       I# TRODÛcffoNV
the 30th of Mm was joined by Capt. Lut*M«?
in the Carcafe Bombietch a/the Nore^ S
Mr. Lyons landed and found Sheerneis fort to J !
in ht. m deg. 31 mi„. 30 fcc. l0Dg. so mia p
c^edontifvoyage?^ "*** S 1
u°n^,5th  deter*>ned  the pofition   of
.     ,w5^°e&h9m,n- L°nS-^in.3ofec.
.. °n.,th,c r2?th I the fame month, he found
hunfelf clofe ,n with the land of Spitftergen kf
n degrees NortOg P'"oergen in
On the 2d of^uly meafured the altitude of
jgpl. mountams.    One^was   Ht>, "££
_^)n the loth, being entangled in the ice, anA
g^d to haul up to weather a p|Jtlfet the fore-
fcds.which, wj«h the breeze iJelhening, gave
theflnp fo much way, that fte p^edlhro' \t
With a violent ftroke.
On the 11£ the fymptoms of an approach-
»g ftorm obhged him to take ihelter in Vo-
gel Sang a f^all ifland, the North Eaftermoft
pçmt of wh,ch is k«own by the name of Cloven
Chfly Lat. m deg. 53 min.   Long, o deg. 1     ■
m.n. 30 fee E.   Hackluyt's Headland, ;f d4
47 mm.   Long. 9 deg. 11 min. 30 fee. E.    S'
On the 30th being in Lat. 80 deg. 01 min
rol^g,n;8deg-f roin-E'theicc^   «*
round the flwps, and preffed fo clofe that the
ft'ps could no longer make fail ; yet the w«
'her was ftne, and the crews ful of pty We*
JBttt IN TRODUCTIOK.      slvit
But on the 5th of Auguft the appréhendons
of wintering in that fituation began to en-
ereafe* and the fea being open to the weftward,
the carpenters were fet to work to enlarge the
boats and to make them commodious to transport the crews. As the fhips drove, and the
water fhoaled hourly, the danger increafed*
In the fituation they were then in, had either
the ice or the (hips grounded, inevitable de-
flruction muft have enfued.
On the 7th, the people were employed in
hauling the boats over the ice, when the ice
about the fhip was obferved to open.
On the 10th thofe who were on board prelfed
the fhips, as it were by main force, through much
heavy ice, and about noon got out to fea.
And on the nth anchored in Smeerenburg
harbour, on the ifland of Spitsbergen* where
they found four Dutchmen at anchor, on whom
they had depended for a paftage home, had the
fhips been locked up.—Thus ended this imporv
tant voyage, fo far as related to difcovery.
Capt. Phipps concludes the account of his
voyage with obferving, that by fetting out juft
at the proper feafon, they not only reached the
Both degree of Latitude without meeting any
obstruction from the ke* but they had likewife
lime fuflkient to examine a tract of icey coaft
between the Latitudes of 80 and 81, extending more than 20 degrees from W. to E. in
which there did not exift the leaft opening to
the North, the whole being one continued wall
of ice, impaifable by human art. So that all
farther enquiries for a North Weft paffage from
the Atlantic feem now to be precluded.
But it was not yet certain, that fuch a paffage might not be found on. the weftern fide of
America jxlvni
IM T R ô D tr C116 R
America, as  there is  a remarkable  note iff
Campbell's Voyages, in which that writer, who
was a great advocate for the paffage in queftion*
lays great ftrefs. He fays, that Capt. Lancaster,-
of the Dragon (afterwards Sir James) who commanded the firft fleet to the Eaft Indies, having'
heard a report while there, of another paffage
to that country, and being on his return home
overtaken by a ftorm, in which the Dragon loft
her rudder, and was otherwife in danger of pej
fifhing, yet being unwilling to defert her, he
wrote a letter and fent it on board the Hector^
to which was added the following Pl<S.   I The
paffage to the Eaft Indies lies in 62 deg. 30 min.
by the N. W. on the American fide."—It was
therefore   to determine this queftion  with as
much certainty on one fide of America as it
had been on the other, that our great navigator was fent out on the late voyage* and it may
now be fairly concluded after his examination,-
added to thofe of the late and former Spanifti
Voyagers, and the Ruffian difcoveries, that no
practicable paffage exifts between the Atlantic
and Pacific Seas towards the North, though it is
remarkable,that in the lat. of 61 deg. 15 min. an
open found was difcovered, which they traced till
they came to a fhailow bay, impracticable for
fhipping, into which a deep frefh water river
emptied itfelf, with high land on both fides.
This river Capt. Cook caufed to be examined
with boats, but being more than 50 degrees of
long, from the neareft coaft of Hudfon's Bay,
. there cannot be the leaft fhadow  of reafon to
fuppofe, that it can have any communication,
with that lea. V o y|a g e,
'.ON      ";'  "/       ■' ; ■ ■;
D Jl   S   C   O   V   E   R   Y,
Captain COOK, Commander.
P  A  R  T    I.
Containing an Account of what happened in the
Profecution of the Voyage, from the departure of
the Ships with Omai, from England^ in Augtffî
1776, //// their leaving the Society Iflands, i»
4he South Seas, Dec* oth if/J^ to?, begin thekt^
Difcoveries to the North*
AVING taken in our guns at the Galleons,^
and what ftores were wanting,
On the 14th of June 1776, both (hips came
to an anchor at the Nore* but our frefh provifions being nearly exhaufted, we weighed
next day, and left the, Refolution waiting for
her commander, «El |||
On? the 16th, came too offDeal, and received
on board a great quantity of beef and mutton
for the fhip's company, and a boat for the
Captain's ufe. It blew hard in.the night and
all the next day.
On the 18th we weighed anchor and failed ;
but we had no fooner entered the j§feannel than
a ftorm arofe, by which we were driven into
Portland Roads, where we received confiderable
damage.   We had blowing weather till
E The m'
2 Capt.   COOK's   Voyage-
The 26th, when we arrived «t Plymouth/
pThere we found a large fleet of men of war and
tranfports with troops on board for America,
and faluted the Admiral with 11 guns. They had
been driven id by ftrefs of weather, feveral of
them much damaged. About 12 at noon we
came to moorings in the Sound.
On the-goth the Refolution arrived, faluted
the Admiral, and came too and moored clofe
by us.
It was now found neceffary before we prd*-
fceeded, to go into harbour to repair the^damages our fhip had received in the ftorm of
the 18th, and the Refolution propofed to waic
till we were in readinefs; but it was with difficulty
that an order was obtained for the carpenters èb
begin, and when it was obtained, it was fome
time before it could be carried into execution.
The repairs of the fleet for America being
judged of greater confequence than the repairs
of a fingle fhip.
The Refolution, tired with delay, when the
day came that fhe fet fail on her former voyage,
which was
On the 12 th of July, the impatience of the
fhip's company, and the notion they had enter,
tained of its being a lucky day, induced Captain Cook to comply wirh their importunities
and he accordingly fet fail, leaving orders with
Capt. Clarke to follow him to St. Jago, one of
If the Cape de Verd Iflands, and if he fhould there
H m ifs Capt. ÊOÔK's Voya&e.
sfriifs of him, to purfue his courfe directly fojt
the Cape of Good tîôpë.
This was unwelcome news to the fhip's company of the Difcovery, who were equally impatient to be gone, and who were not without
their fancies of |pod and bad omens any more
than their neighbours.
During this tedious interval or unàvoio#
able delay, a fuccinct account of Omai, the
native of Ulietea, who embarked with Captain Cook on board the Refolution on his return home, will give thofe who never had art
opportunity of feeing him whiie in England,
fome idea of his perfon, his genius, his character and acquirements*
[Since the Journalift's returhi ifc has beëjB
able to collect from the writings of the gentlemen, who had the beft opportunities of knowing and converting with Omai while" in Eng*a
land, their fentiments   refpecting him, which*
though not entirelyjcorrefpondihg With his own*
(as will be feen in the fequel) yet to do Omai
ample juftice, he thinks it incumbent updri him
to conceal nothing that has appeared in h'is favour. For which reafon, if in the courfe of the
Voyage, a different repréfentation (hall be found
of him, let it be remembered,   that what is
here faid is taken from hear* fay only-, but for
what fhall be faid hereafter, the Writer makeé
Jiimfelf accountable.!
Ei This %      Capt.  CO O K'saVoyagb;
-This  man it appears, by.the teftimohyy-of
Captain Cook, had once fome property in his
own country, of which he was difpoffeffed by
the people of Bolabola.    Captain Cook at firft
wondered that Capt. Furneaux would encum*
ber himfelf with fo ordinary a perfon, who'wra
not, in his opinion, a proper fample of the in*
habitants of thofe happy'iflands; and Mr. Corner faySj^ff is doing him no injuftice to afîèrt,
that amâîrïg ail theirihabirartts of Otaheite and
the Society Ifles, he had feen few individuals fo
îir-fàvoùred as Omai ; neither did he feem of
eminence in rank or parts, any more than iri
ihape, figure, or complexion, to attract the no-
tice of an enlightened nation, but feemed> adds
Mr* Forfter, to be one "of qfe common people;
and  the rather^ as  he djd not afpire to the
Captain's company, but preferred that of the
armourer and common feamen; yet, notwithstanding thé contemptible opinion, which both
thefe gentlemen feems to have entertained of
him at firft, as foon as he reached the Cape of
Good Hope, and the Captain dreffed him in his
own clothes, and introduced him to thebeft company, he decîarèjnjie was not a towtow, or one
of the corçtmonVclafs, but a hoa, or attendant
on the King 5 and Captain Cooke acknowledges,
that fince ^é arrived in England, he had his
doubts whether any other of the natives would
have given more general fatisfaction.    It will
not, we prefume, be thought tedious if we add
{us character, as drawn by Capt. Cook and Mr.
Forfter, Capt.  COOKE's  Vovaôe.'      J
Forfter, in their refpective hiftories of the-^iy*
age undertaken, to determine the exiftence or
non-exiftence of anAmerican Continent,in 157a»
" Omai," fays Capt. Cooke» " has molt certainly a good underftanding, quic£ parts* and
honeft principles; he has a natural good behaviour, which rendered him acceptable to the
beft company, and a proper degree of pride,
which taught him to avoid théfociety of per-,
fons of inferior rank. He has paffions. of the
fame kind as other^oung men, but has judgment enough not to indulge them 1*1 any irh.
proper -excefs. I do not imagine (adds the
Captain) that he has any difïike to liquor, and
if he had fallen into company, where the perfon who drank the moft met with the moft ap*-
probation, I have no doubt but that he would
have endeavoured to gain the applatffe of thole
with whom he affbciated|ï but fortunately for
him, he perceived that drinking was very little
in ufe but among inferior people-, and as he
was very watchful into the manners and conduct of the perfons of rank who honoured him
with their protection, he was fober and mo-
deft ; and I never heard, that during the whole
time of his flaying in England, which was two
years, he ever once was difguifed with wine, or
ever fhewed an inclination to go beyond tttfe"
ftricteft rules of moderation.
" Soen after his arrival in London, the Earl
of Sandwich introduced him to his Majefty
at Kew, where he met with a moft gracious re-
ftE 3 ceptioa
J Capt." COOK9s  Voyage.
ception, and imbibed the ftrongeft impreffionS
of duty and gratitude to that great and amiable Prince, which I am perfuaded he will pre*-
ierve to the lateii moment of his life. During
his ftay he was careffed by many of the chief
Nobility; but his principal patrons were the
Earl of Sandwich, 3\Jr. Banks, and Dr. So»-,
Captain Cook adds, ,f? that though Omai
lived in the midft of amufements during his
refidenee in England, his return to his own
country was always in his thoughts, and though
he was not impatient to go, he expreflfëd a fa-
tisfaction as the time of his return approached."
Thus far Capt. Cook ; and though there are
fome traits of this character to be found in that
drawn by Mr. Forfter, yet his good qualities are
there fo blendid with childifhnefs and folly, that
one can hardly think it applicable tp the fame
identical perfon*
5 Omai," fays Mr. Forfter, w has been confidered either as remarkably ftupid or very intelligent, according to the different allowances
which were made by thofe who judged oPhis
abilities. His language, which is deftitute of
every harfh confonant, and where every word
ends with a vowel, had fo little exercifed his
organs of fpeech, that they were wholly unfit
to pronounce the more complicated Englijh
founds; and this phyfical or rather habitual
defect, has too often been mifconftrued. Upcp
his arrival in England, he was immediately in-
îH trpduced Capt. CO OK's Voyage:        7
introduced   into general company, led to the
moft fplendid entertainments, and prefented at
court amidft a brilliant circle of the firft nobility.   He naturally imitated that eafy and elegant politenefs which is fo prevalent in all thofe
places; he adopted the manners, the occupations, and amufements of his companions, and
gave many proofs of a quick perception and
lively fancy.    Among the inftances of his intelligence, I need only mention his knowledge
of the game of Chefs, in which he had made
an amazing proficiency,   The multiplicity of
objects which crowded upon   him, prevented
his paying due attention to thofe particulars,
which would have been beneficial to himfelf and
his countrymen   at   his return.   He was not
able to form a general comprehenfive view of
our whole civilized fyftem* and to abftract from
thence what appeared moft ftrikingly ufefui and
applicable to the improvement of his country.
His fenfes were charmed by beauty, fymetry»
harmony .and magnificence ; they called aloud
for gratification,  and  he was accuftomed to
obey their voice.   The continued round of enjoyments left him no time to think of his future life* and being deftitpte of the genius of a
Tupaia,  whole fuperior abilities would have
enabled him to form a plan for his own con*
duct, his underftanding remained unimproved.
After having fpent near two years in England»
Mr. Forfter adds, that his judgment was in its
infant ftate^ and therefore (when he was pre-
E 4 paring j
■ M  1
I        Capt;|CÔOK:5s  toy agi.
paring to rettSft) he coveted almoft every thing
he faw, and particularly thaï which arrrufed
him by fome unexpected effect : to gratify hiè
childifti inclinations, as it fhould feem, rather
than from any other motives, he was iriSilged
with a portable organ, an electrical machine, a
coat of mail, atfl a fuit of armour."
Such is the account, and fuch the character
of this child of curiofity, who left his country
and his connections to roam he did not know
where nor for what, having no idea of improving the arts, manufactures, or commerce,
of his country, or introducing one ufefui fci-
ence among thfem.||He carried with him, befides the articles above enumerated, a profufion
of almoft every thing that can be named, axes,
faws, chiffels, and carpenters tools of every kind,
all forts of Birmingham and Sheffield wares j-
l^uns, piftols, cutlaffes, powder and ammunition; needles, pins, fifh-hooks, and various
implements for fport ; nets of all forts ; with
hand engines, and a lathe for turning; He had
likewife cloaths of different colours and different fabrics, laced and plain; fome made in
the ftyle of his country, and feveral after our
manner; fome of thefe laft he bartered with
the petty officers (after he had pafled the Friendly
Ifland) for ijd feathers. He was likewife plentifully fupplied with glafs and china wares»
with beads and baubles, fome of great value;
medals of variouj metals; a watch was prefented
to him by a perfon of diftinction': in fhort, no. 'Capt* COOK' sf Voyage; £§■
thing was wiriidfâ from him that he required,
either for trade in hi¥own country, or to gratify
his childifti humour.
When he caniet oh board the Refolution, hé
difcovered uncommon ecftafy; but when he
parted with the gentlemen who accompanied
him, the tears, as Mr. Forfter pbferves, flowed
plentifully; but they were childifti tears ; anol
the moment his old friends had left the fhip,
he was as lively and brifk as ever. He fhewed
no concern about leaving this country, but rather rejoiced at his going.
We fhall fee in the fequel how he behaved
on board, and in whaf manner he was received
on his return to his own ifland. And now
having once more got our fhip in readinefs, and
every thing neceffary re-imbarked.
On the i ft of Auguft we weighed, and proceeded, with all fails fer, to join the Refolu?
tion. While our fhip was repairing, it was ob~
fervablé, that thofé who had never been èm.
ployed on difcovery befbte, were more impatient to depart, than thofe who had already experienced the feverities of a Southern Navigation near and within thé polar circle ; and it
was diverting enough to liften to the ludicrous
remarks of thefe laft, ori their frefti-water brethren as they called them, whom they venturea
to foretel, would, like the Jews in the WitldêN
nefs, be the firft to murmur and cry out for the
leeks and the onions, of Egypt ; intimating there-
fey, "that when théïe raw failors came among
the 1
gi       Capt.   CO OS's   Voyage;
the iflands of ice in the frozen regions to feel
the effects of fcanty fare and hard duty, they
would then be the firft to repent their impe-
tuofity, and to figh for the beef and the beer
of the land they were now fb defirous to leave»
We proceeded with a brifk gale till the 7th,
when in fight of Cape Finifterre, the clouds
began to darken, and the ocean to fwell, and
to threaten by every appearance an approaching tempeft. Several fhips were then in fight»
and we could clearly difcern that they were preparing, as well as ourfelves, to meet the ftorm»
For twenty four hours it blowed and rained
înceffantly j but on the gth, a calm fucceeded,
which however was not of long continuance ;
for in the evening of the fame day it thunder-?
ed, lightened, and the rain poured down in tor-
icnts. The drops were fuch as no man on
board had feen the like. To prevent the effects of the lightening, it was thought neceffary to let fall the chain from the maft-head :
si precaution which Capt. Clarke never omitted,
when there was danger from lightening to be
On the 10th feeing a fhip to windward bear*
ing down very fail; and fufpecting her to be
an American privateer, all hands were ordered
to quarters, to be in readinefs to engage. She
proved to be a Lifbon trader, who by the violence of the gale the day before, had been
driven many leagues to the Weftward of her
courfe, and was in fome diftrefs.   We fpared
fccr Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.      ï|f
her thofe things of which ftie ftood moft in
need, and purfued our Voyage.
Nothing remarkable till the 18th, when the
fhip's 'company were put to fhort allowance of
water, and the machine erected to diftill fea-
water. This was occafionally made ufe of dur»
ing the Voyage, and anfwered very well for fome
particular .purpofes, but was ill Jrclifhed by the
failors for boiling their meat. Thefe precautions were taken left the Refolution fhould have
left St. Jago, and the Difcovery obliged to pro«*
çeed to the Cape, without being able to procure a frefh fupply. Lat. Obi. this day 23.39*
Jong. 21. 24.
On the 19th we croffed the Tropic of Can*;
jeer for the firft time, and,
On the 28th came in fight of St. Jago, bearing N. W. diftant about fix or feven leagues*
We bore away inftantly for the Bay, and at
eight in the morning made land. An officer
was fent afhore with all fpeed to make enquiry,
who brought word back that the Refolution
had not touched at that Port ; probably becaufe the rainy feafon was approaching, when
it is unfafe to remain in port during its continuance. The fame reafons that had induced
the Refolution to proceed were doubly pref-
fing upon us. It was now about the time when
the rainy feafon begins, though we-had as ye$
obferved none of its approaches. It is generally
preceded by a ftrong foutherly wind, and a
great fwell. The fea comes rolling on, and
clafhing furioufly againft the rocky fhore, çaufes
« ïtt       C2*r.   COOK'S   Voyage;
afrightful furff.SSoitfetimes topadoes or Violent whirlwinds ari^near the coaft, and greatly
«lereafe #ie danger. Fortifié reafon, from the
diddle ëf Auguft till the trWrih of November^
Port Fraya, the principal Harbour in th$
tâàM] is biit^firBé frequented.
i5!fhe officer was no fooner returned, and the
Boat hoifted on board, than we made fail with a
gèrôfïe breeze, which continued till \
September ift, when   a  drèftiful   tempefi
àktfè, in which we every moment expected to
be fwallowed up.    The thunder and lightening were nor more alarming, than'the fheets of
rain, which fell fo heavy as to endanger the
finking of the fhip,  and at the fame  time,
though in the open day,   involved us in à
cloud of darknefs, than which nothing could
be more horrible ; providentially the continuance of this tempeft was  but fhort; it began
about nine in the morning, and before noon
the whole atmofphere was perfectly ferene, and
not a fpot nor a fhade to be feen to mark the
place of this elemental conflict.   However, in
this fhort period, our  fufferings nearly kept
pace with our apprehenfions, having our main-
top-gallant yard carried away in the flings, and
the fail frittered in a thoufand pieces ; thejib
and middle ftay-fails torn clear off,  and the
fliip fo ftrained as to make all hands to the
pumps neceffary.   The afternoon was employed
in repairing the damages, and difcharging the
i? a Capt^C 0$:K's   Voyage^     ;'îaj
water which had.been fhipped  as  well from
the heavens, as^from the fea.
September l^j ^4, the wea^çr, continued
Jhuallg, with rain ^-but as7ie^.approached tlje
fine, a caln^fucceeded, and the Iky^became fe-
xem-, but ]^i||^'hazine^s a^d1^^p.u.r^ja^j.jf
the^c^renk&Û&ç ajr? like^ateriigon.a^eam-
nojjte, movedxWyMjits.pwn i&Pyifjfa^QtyifyS
could be more tedious and j^as$G£ibie thap
yrj>is,£alm j^ut Jjr^jtnately its du/$t^fwas-, but
ihort. ggk karfâ*
September 5th, at eight in the : morning.faw
a fail, the fécond we had feen fin ce we paffed
Cape Finifteçre^on the coaft of.iy^in* -y-ffle
were at this time intent on fifhing-; and having
hooked a fhark af an enormous fize, feoth officers and men were engaged-mgeugng him op.
board.    When he was  cut .#p, thege were fix
■^voung ones found in his belky, about two feet
Jong each.    Thefe w^ere divided: among the
officers, and one was dreffed for .the great cabin.    The old one was eaten by jj^e flip's crew.»
to whom frefh food of^ny Jdn^nwas now become a dainty^
.TThe wea^Jr continuing fine^Jpie Captain^?
dered the great guns and fmal[.axms to frs/.X-
ercifed ; the fhip. to, be fmoaked* and the ^e^*
-ding to be aired. /Thefe laft articles, it may te
Mçe' fo/ alij&ejarv to ojfcp, ; were ne v,er
omitted during the whole courfe of the Voyage,
when the weather Y?jOuld permit; but were meçe
. JKǧcular,y ^^l^ I croffing %^^$ it
__^&_ ,. „has Ï4      <SSt.   CÔOKàs   VoYAdri
has been obferved that the whole wood -work
.between decks, in this low latitude, is more apt
nfo become mouldy, and the iron to ruft, than
*ih higher latitudes*   probably owing to that
aftuggifhneffin the air that has been already noticed, and for which Nature feems to have
provided a remedy by the frequent tempefts
§knd tornadoes, to which this part of the ocean
is remarkably fubject.
Noting-worth notice till the 17th, when we
croffed the line.   The weather being fqually
^the ufu$f cererrmny of keel-hawling the failors
%ho had never croffed it before, was omitted.'
This ceremony is fo well known, that it were
^Kêdiéfs to defcribe it.
On the 19th, the weather became moderate
when upon examination, the ftarboard main
truffel-tree was found to be fprung.
On the 24th, George Harrifon, Corporal of
Marines, fitting carelefsly on the bowfprit
diverting himfelf with thefporting of the fifties,
fell overboard. |f He was feen to fall, and the
fhip was inftantly hove to, and the boats got
out with all poflible expedition ; but he was
never again feen to rife. His Dutch cap was
taken up at the fhip's ftèrn ; and as it was
known that he could fwim as well as any man
on board, the boats made a large circuit round
the fhip, in hopes to recover him, but in vain.
It is remarkable, that in Captain Cook's former
Voyage, one Henry Smock, one of the Carpenter's mates, fitting on the fkuttle, fell overboard much in the fame manner, and fhared
the Capt. COÔK's Voyaôe: /f|
thé fame fate. Both thefe were young men*
fober, and of good characters. Their lofs waï
regretted by the officers, but more particularly
fo by their comrades among the crew. It
is more than probable that both were^iP
ftantly fwallowea'up by fharks that conftantly
attend the fhips.
Jff'Oct. the i ft, we caught a large fhark, ten
"feet long, with feveral young dolphins in he*
belly : part of the entrails, when cleanfed and
dreffed, were eaten in the Igreat cabin, and
the body given to thofe by Whom it was caught;
When fryed,Wiïtoferablé meat; but Ae fat
;is very loathfdfte.
On the 22cf,"a ftorm arofe, accompanied
with thunder, lightening, and ram. As it wai
not fo violent as thofe we had before expend
enced, it prOved^rnore acceptable than alarmln'g,
as it fupplied the fhip's company with a good
quantity of frefh water, which they caught in
blankets or by other contrivances, every one as
he could. What was caught in the awnings,
was faved for the officers ufe.
On the 24th it blew a hurricane—handed the
fails, and lay to all night under bare poles.
On the 25th, the ftorm abated, and the fky
became ^ear ; we obferved a fhip to the Southward, which by her courfe, we took for the
Refolution : We crouded fail, ftood after her,
and foon came up with her. She proved to be
a Dutch advice-boat bound to the Cape.
On the '20th, our people began to look for
land, and the appearance of fome birds which
are l6      Capt1*jC OOK!^ ^Voyage;
are îçnown never p> go far fromffhore|sConfirmed
« them-, tbajr^xb^ extremity >ofcthe African coaft
W&$ at:$o great diftance. Our Aftrommreru
|iowever, was of a jjfîerént^p^nion, and the
event proved that he waswight,' jjS
Nov. the ij^, having now been at fea juftjfchree
months, without once fetting foot on land, thofè
who were unaccuftomed to (pehJong voyages,
began tpe puton a very different a&ect to tha|
they wore at firftgfettting.ouLj Theyawere, in**
deed, fomewhat comforted by the,xhearfuïqeâ»
and vivacity which they-.obferved to prevail M
almoft every countenance except^heir own/j
from whence they concluded, th^rrhany days
could not ejapfe before the painful fenfations of
jafolitary fea life would be recompenfed by the
pleafurable enjoyments they would find, when
the^came on fhore. Such, pej&aps, were the
feelings, at that time, of the writer of this
Journal, S
On the 3d, we ftill obferved a great variety
of fifh and fowl to accompany the fhip,
fome of which we had never noticed before;
and we could not but renjajrk the difference fn
this refpect, between the Weftern coafts of the
Old Continent, and the Weftern coafts of the
New, in the fame latitudes. _$o fooner had we
croffed the Tropic of Cancer, than we were
amufed by the fporting of the fifties, or more
properly, perhaps, by their unremitting labour
in purfuit of their daily food.   Flying fifh*are
generally the firft to
attract the
of thofe
*Sfee    Sill      ESS*
• Capt. GOOK's Voyage* i?
Who never have been in thefe feas before, and
it is curious to attend to their numberlefs wind-*
ings and fhiftings to elude the attacks of thé
Dolphins and Bonitos, their declared enemies.
Whatever may be the defign of Providence in
the formation of thefe fifties, one cannot-
help confidering their exiftence as a ftate of
perpetual punifhment. While they remain in
the water their enemies are there, and tho' nature has given them the power to quit that element, and to fly for refuge to the open air, yet
other profecutors are there alfo in wait for therri
no lefs cruel than thofe they have efeaped*
Boobies, Man of War birds, and other fea fowls
are continually watching to make the Flying-
fifli their prey, while the ravenous Sharks are
no lefs vigilant in making reprifals on the Dol-,
phins and Bonitos. Thus, a paffage through
the tropical latitudes, in this fea, exhibits ona
continued fcene of warfare ; while in the other
fea all is peace and uniform tranquility. Thefe
reflections naturally occur when fhe mind, unoccupied with variety, is difpôfed for contemplation.
We too, who had contributed to play a pare
in this tragic drama, by catching feveral enormous Sharks, left fome few tyrants the lefs to
vex the ocean^^i
On the 7th, at fix in the morning, a man
at the maft-head, called out land 5 and at eight
we could all fee it involved in a mifty cloud
}% proved to be Table Land, bearing S W, aç
F the
If m
iè       Capt.   COOK's Voyage.
the diftance of about ten  leagues, whicrl induced us to change our courfe from E S E ; to
ssw.        - L|§| |p
On the 10th we entered Table Bay, and
On the nth, came to and anchored in fix
fathom water, where, to our great joy, we found
the Refolution.
We faluted the garrifon with 13 guns, and
were anfwered by the fame number: Captain
Cook, with the principal officers and gentlemen
belonging to the fhip, came on board to bid us
welcome. By them we learnt that they had been
at the Cape near three weeks ; that they had continued their courfe to the Cape, without flopping
at Port-Praya ; and that they touched only a few
days at Madeira to take on board fome wine, of
which they very kindly offered us a part.
On our landing, our Captain was met by the
officers of the garrifon, and the gentlemen belonging to the Dutch Eaft-India Company, who received him very politely, and gave him a general invitation to fhare with them the entertainments of the place.
The fubordinate officers on board, were met
by another clafs of inferior gentry, belonging
to the fame Company, with a like invitation,
but on different terms. Almoft every officer
in the pay of the Dutch Company entertain ftran-
gers, who lodge and board with them on moderate terms, from two fhillings a day to five.
Nothing in nature can make a more horrid
appearance than the rugged mountains that form
the Bay. Oce would almoft be tempted to
Si IE think Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.       19
think that the Dutch had made choice of the
barreneft fpot upon earth, to fhew what may
be effected by flow induftry and continued per-
feverance; for befides the craggy cliffs that render the open country almoft inacceffible, the
foil is fo fandy and poor, that, except fome
vineyards, there is fcarce a fhrub or a tree to be
feen within any walking diftance from the place 5
infomuch that the vaft profufion of all forts of
provifions, of beef, mutton, poultry, flour,
butter, cheefe, and every other neceffary, is
brought from four to five and twenty days journey from Cape-town, where the Governor and
Company have their refidence.
This town has already been fo fully defcribed
by Captain Cook in his former voyage, and by
other writers before him, that little remains to
be added, The town is neatly built, and according to the natural character of the Dutch,
as neatly kept in order. It has the advantage
of a fmall rivulet, by means of which there are
canals in all the principal ftreets of the town ;
on both fides of which are planted rows of ftate-
ly oaks. The town is fituated below the mountains, and when feen from their fummits, appears, with the gardens and plantations that
run along the fhore, exceedingly picturefque :
nothing can be more Romantic, nor any pro-
fpect more pleafing to the eye.
The fhip was no fooner moored, than ail
hands were employed to ftrip off the rigging,
and to unload the ftores,  places proper for
F 2 repairing 20       Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.
repairing the one, and for airing and examining the other, being prepared before-hand by
Captain Gook ; and the utmoft difpatch was
made to fhorteri our ftay, as the time for navigating the high latitudes through which we
were to pafs, was advancing a pace, and the
Refolution was already in a ftate fit to Undertake the voyage.
What remained for Captain Cook to do when
We arrived, was chiefly to purchafe live cattle
for prefents to Areesin the South Sea; likewife
live ftock for the fnips ufe ; thefe are always the
laft things provided, becaufe it is found neceffary to fhorten, as much as poflible, their continuance on board. He had already laid in fuffi.
cient ftoreof beef, mutton, f poultry, and greens
for prefent ufe, and had contracted for a good
quantity of falted beef, to fave what we had
brought from England, as that is found to
keep better than the beef falted at tfie Cape,
though this laft is preferred for prefent ufe.
Among the cattle purchafed, were four horfes
and mares of a delicate breed, for Omai5
feveral bulls and cows of the buffaloe kind
as more fuitable to the tropical climates than
any brought from Europe ; likewife fome African rams and ewes ; fome dogs too were purchafed ; cats we had in plenty on board, and
of goats Captain Cook purchafed numbers of
both fexes.
Stored with thefe, the Refolution refembled
the Ark, in which all the animals that were to
ftock Capt. COOK*s Voyage. 21
ftock the little world to which he was bound
were collected ; and with their provender, they
occupied no fmall part of the fhip's ftowage.
While the riggers, fail-makers, carpenters,
caulkers, fmiths, Coopers, and ftore keepers,
were bufily employed in their feveral ftations,
the aftronomers were not idle, nor the furgeons ;
the former were engaged in making obfervations ; the latter in attending the fick, of whom
there were not many, and thofe, on being carried on fhore, very foon recovered. The dry
foft air of the African mountains proved a re-
ftorative fuperior to all the phyfic in the world.
Of the efficacy of this faiubrious air, the Dutch
Eaft-Indiamen have experience every voyage,
both in going to and returning from their let-
tlements in India.
While we remained at the Cape, two of their
fhips arrived full of fick foldiers, who had been
eniifted in Holland, and who were in a mife-
rable condition both as to health and want of
common neceffaries. They had been near five
months on their voyage from Amfterdam, and
had loft on the paffage, more men than the
compliments of both our* fhips amounted tô,
owing to naftinefs and clofe confinement. It is
remarkable, that no fhips have the appearance
of being neater kept than thofe of the Dutch ;
nor any more flovenly where they are not ex?»
pofed to open view.
A very uncommon incident happened while we
were at the Cape, which might have embroiled us
F 3 with 2i       Capt.   C O O K' s   Voyage.
with the government there, had nqt the delinquent been found out and punifhed.   It was difcovered that a number of counterfeit fchellings
and double-keys had been circulated, and feveral
of our'people had taken them in exchange for
gold.'ffComplaint was made  by   our officers
againft the inhabitants, for taking the advantage of the ignorance of ftrangers to impofe
counterfeit money upon them, as it was not to
be fuppofed that they could be judges of the
goodnefs of their country coin.    On the other
hand, the inhabitants charged the bad money
as proceeding from us.# Each were warm in
their reprefentations, and each were pofitive in
their opinions.   It was not thought poftible that
any of our people could  be prepared to counterfeit Dutch money, and yet there had been no
inftance  of counterfeit   money   having  ever
been feen at the Cape before the arrival of our
fhips at that port.    Thus the matter refted for
a while, till one of the fhips armourers having
obtained    leave   to go  afhore,    made   himfelf drunk, and offered baie money in payment
for his liquor. Being detained, and notice given
to his commanding officer, he caufed him to be
fearched, when feveral other pieces of a bafe
coin were found upon him ; and on examining
his chert, the implements  were found artfully
concealed, by which he had been enabled to
carry on the fraud.   He was inftantly carried
before the Commander in Chief, who ordered
him Capt.   C O O K's   Voyage. 2£
him to receive.the difcipline of the fhip, and tQ
be fent home in the Hampfhire Indiaman.
On the 27th of November orders were given
to prepare for failing.   And,
On the 28th of the fame month, the Governor and principal Officers belonging to the Company, were entertained on board the Refolution,
where thev came to take leave of our Captains
before their departure, as we were expected to
fail in a few days, the repairs of the fhips being
fully compleated. The flores had all been ordered
on board fome days before, and a large quantity of beer purchafed for the fhip's company
at the only brewery tthat is publicly tolerated
wkhin the jurifdiction of the town. In fhort,
there is not one neceffary article relating to the
repairing, providing, and victualling of fhip.
ping, that is not to be purchafed at the Cap e
of Good Hope, and that too at very reafonable
prices. The wine at the Cape has been thought
dear; becauie that of the choiceft vintage is
fcarce, and, like the ftyre in England, confined to a very fmall fpot. Of the real Con-
ftantia, which is the wine fo much prized in
Europe, the whole plantation does not perhaps
produce more than forty pipes annually, though
there may be two or three hundred difpofed of
under that name. The wine commonly taken
on board the fhipping for the officer's ufe, is of
a kind not unlike Maderia, but of an inferior
fort, the vines here being rather impoverifhed
by reafon of the drynefs of the foil.
F 4 On 24       Capt.   COÔK's   Voyage.    §|
On the 29th our live ftock were all got ori
boarçî, and properly provided for and fecured ; and having difpatched our letters to our
friends^ and left nothing to do but to weigh
and fail.
On the 30th, having quitted our moorings,
we next day came to an anchor in 18 fathom
water, Penguin Ifland bearing N. by W. five or
fix miles.
On the ift pf December, at three in the
morning, we took our departure, after faluting
the Fort with 11 guns, which they returned
with the fame number. At this time we observed that luminous appearance about our
fhips, which different Voyagers have attributed
to different caufes ; but which Dr. Franklin has
endeavoured to account for on the principles of
Electricity. About five in the afternoon, we
met with one of thofe terrible gufts fo frequently experienced by Voyagers in doubling the
Cape of Good Hope, in which our main-fail
was fplit, but fortunately we received no other
Carnage •; the fouthernmoft land then bearing S.
by E. diftance nine or ten leagues^ both fhips
in company.
On the 4th in the morning it blew a hurricane, and fplit the jib. About tv/o in the afternoon, unbent and bent another.
On the 7th, the weather that had been cloudy
and boifterous ever fince leaving the Cape, became clear and moderate. In latitude 39 deg.
|7 min. S. tliç Refolution's bçat, With Mr. King,
If Capt. COOK's Voyage; 25
thé fécond Mate, and Omai on board, came to
compare the^ime-pieces, and found no material
On the 10th, in lat. 43 deg. 56 S à dreadful
ftorm came on, which obliged both fhips to
lay to that and the following night under bare
On the 12th, in lat» 46 deg. 18 min. be^
gan to fnow and hail, and the weather became
intolerably cold ; infomuch, that from a fcorch-
ing heat which we felt at the Cape, the change
was fo great in the fpace of thirteen days, that
we were obliged to line the hatchways with
canvas, to defend the men below as much as
poffible from the effects of the froft. Here the
Albatroffes and other fea fowl, began to make
their appearance ; and here feals and porpoifes
were feen tofport about the fhip, which gave us
hopes of foon approaching land.
On the 13th, at fix in the morning, we came
in fight of land, having the appearance of two
iflands, the Eafternmoft bearing SSE§ E;
the Wefternmoft S by W § W. At ten in the
forenoon, paffed between the iflands through a
very narrow channel. Piercing cold with fleet
and fnow, with which the iflands were lightly
covered, but neither tree nor fhrub to be feen,
nor any living thing, except penguins and fhags,
the former fo numerous, that the rocks leemed
covered with them as with a cruft. Thefe were
ihe Marion Ifles already difcovered.
M. de .
26        Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.
M. de Marion, when he difcovered thefft.
iflands, had two fhips under his command, one
the Mafcarin, Captain Crozet, the other the
Caftrie, Captain du Clefmure.   They proceeded
to the Southern extremity of New Holland, and
from thence to the Bay of Iflands in New Zealand, where   M. de Marion   was killed with
twenty-eight of his men by the natives.   He
was obliged, having loft his mails, to look out
for new ones in the woods of that country ; but
when he had found trees fit for his purpofe,
neceflity obliged him to cut a road three miles
long through the thickets, to bring them   to
the water-fide.   While one party of his people
were employed in this fervice,   another party
was placed on an ifland in the bay, to cleanfe
the cafks, and fill them with water ; and a third
was occafionally jent on fhore to cut wood for
the fhip's ufe.   Thus employed, they had been
there thirty-three days upon the belt terms with
the natives, who freely offered their women to
the failors, when M. de Marion, not fufpecting
any treachery, went one morning as his cuftom
was to vifit the different parties that were at work,
without leaving word that he intended to come
back to the fhips the fame day.    Having called
to fee the waterers, he went next to the Hip-
pah, a fortification of the natives, where he commonly ufed to flop in his way to the carpenters,
(encamped in the woods, with M. Crozet at
their head,) to direct their operations. Here he
was fuddenly fet upon, and with his few attendants, Capt.   CO OK's   Voyage.        27
tendants,  barbaroufly butchered *, as were the
boat's crew that carried  him on fnore.    Next
morning, the Lieutenant who commanded on
board, not knowing what had happened, fent
a party to cut grafs and when every one was
at work, the natives watched the opportunity
to fall upon them likewife, and murdered every
one except a fingie failor, who ran for his life,
and threw himfelf, wounded, into the lea.    Being   feen  from   the   fhips,   he   was  fpeedily
taken on board, and gave the general alarm.
M. ; Crozet's fituation in the woods, wkh his
fmall party, was now become moft critical.    A
corporal and four marines were immediately dif-
patched to acquaint him of his danger, while
feveral boats attended to receive his people, at
a place where the fick had been lodged in tents»
for the recovery of their health.    He difpofed
every thing as well as the time  would admit,
and effected his retreat to the fea-fide.    Here he
found multitudes of the natives affembled, dreft
in their habits of war, with feveral chiefs at their
head.    M. Crozet ordered the marines who attended him, to direct their fire, in cafe he found
it neceffary to give the word, againft fuch perfons as he fhould point out.    He then commanded  the carpenters   and  convalefcents to
ftrike the tents, and the fick to be embarked firft
with their whole apparatus, while he with the
foldiers, fhould talk with the leader.    This man
immediately told them,  that M.  Marion was
killed by a warrior, upon which M Crozet feized
1 a ftaek, 2&| Capt. COOK's Voyage:
a flake, and forcing it into the ground, made
figns that he fhould advance no farther. The
countenance with which this action was attended,
flartled the favage, whofe courage failing him,
M. Crozet infilled on his ordering the crowd to
fit down, which was accordingly complied with.
He now paraded in front of the enemy till all
his people were embarked ; his foldiers were then
ordered to follow, and himfelf was the laft who
entered the boat. He had fcarce put off when
the whole/body of natives began their fong of
defiance^ and difcharged their vollies of ftones ;
howevjw*, a (hot from the fhip foon difperfed
then*, and the company got all fafe on board.
From this time, the natives became trouble-
fome, and made feveral attempts to attack his
people by furprize. They formed an attack
againft the watering party in the night, which»
but for the vigilance of the guard, would have
been fatal to them ; they afterwards openly attacked the fhips in more than a hundred large
canoes, full of men, who had caufe forely to
repent their audacity, and feverely felt the effect of European arms. At length M. Crozet
finding it impoffible to fupply the fhips with
mafts, unlefs he could drive the natives from his
neighbourhood, made an attack upon their Hip-
pah, which they vainly boafted was beyond his
power to approach. He placed the carpenters
in the front, who in an inftant levelled their pal-
lifadoes with the ground $ then cut a breach
through the mound, and levelled the ditch, behind Capt.  COOK's  Voyage;        29
hind which their warriors flood in great numbers on their fighting ftages.
Into this breach a chief inftantly threw himfelf, with his fpear in his hand. He was fhot
dead by M. Crozets's markfmen, and prefendy
another occupied his place, ftepping on the dead
body. He likewife fell a victim to his intrepid
courage, and in the fame manner eioht chiefs
fucceflively defended it, and bravely fell in
this poll of honour. The reft feeing their leaders dead, took flight, and the French purfued and killed numbers of them—M. Crozet offered fifty dollars to any perfon who
fhould take a "New Zealander alive, but this
was found impracticable. A foidier feized an
old man, and began to drag him towards his
Captain, but the favage, being difarmed, bit
into the flelhy part of his enemy's hand, the
exquifite pain of which, fo enraged the foidier,
that he ran the fellow through the body with
his bayonet, Mr. Crozet found great quantities
of arms, tools and clothing, in this Hippah, to-,
gether with flore of dried fifti and roots, which
feemed to be intended for winter provifion.
He now compleated the repairs of his fhips
without interruption, and profecuted his voyage, after a ftay of fixty-four days in this Bay of
Iflands. From whence, after paffing through the
Weftern part of the South Sea, he returned by
the Philippines, tothelfle of France.
There   appears   fome   inconfiftency  in the
above relation, which we cannot help remarking.
h ml
Sô Capt.   COOK5s   Voyage
It feems improbable, if M. Marion was .murdered in the Hippah, fituated on the prominence of an inacceffible rock, that the boatmen
below, who landed him, fhould not make their
efcape, and much more improbable, that neither
the leader nor his followers fhould be miffed, till
the grafs cutters were maffacreed by the favages
the next day. Upon the whole, we are rather
inclined to think, confidering the ftrength o*
the place, that the lofs might be fuftained in fair
combat. M- Marion might find it neceffary for
the fafety of his people, to endeavour to drive
the favages from their Hippah or Fort, which
is one of the ftrongeft in New Zealand. Captain Cook, after defcribing it, adds, that it
muft be confidered as a place of great ftrength,
in which a fmall number of refolute men may
defend themfelves againft all the force, which a
people with no other arms than thofe that are
there in ufe, could bring againft it. M. Crozet, therefore, might think it lefs difhonourable
to attribute the lofs of his General and fo many
men, to the treachery, rather than the valour
of the favages. lt is acknowledged that they
defended the place bravely.    But to proceed.
On the 14th, the weather began to clear up,
and thefe iflands promifing no refreftiment, both
fhips purfued their courfe to the S E ; wind
W S W; a brifk gale, but piercing cold. The
Captain ordered the jackets and troufers to be
delivered out, which with the blankets and other
warm cloathing, provided by the Lords of the
Ad mi- Capt. CO OK's Voyage.* ji
Admiralty, againft the feverity of the frozen climates, were found of infinite ufe in preferving
the men in health, who were moft expofed to the
action ofthefroft.
On the 17th, in lat. 480 27' S. the fogs came
on fo thick that we could but juft difcern the
largeft objects at the diftance of the fhip's
length. This being forefeen, fog-fignals were.
appointed, and repeated every half-hour.
Nothing remarkable till
The 20th, when we loft fight of the Refolution. Signal guns were fired, falfe fires lighted,
and lights hung at the maft-head ; but no an-
lwer received.
On the 21 ft, in the morning, the fog ftill
continuing, a very heavy ftorm came on,
attended with fleet, and frequent gufts with
hail. All this day we continued firing fignai
guns, and at night burning falfe fires, and carrying lights at the maft-head ; but all to no
On the 22d, the gale ftill increafing, we carried away our jib-iheet, and fplit the jib; but
in the evening it cleared up, and fortunately
for both fhips, the Refolution came in fight,
which revived the drooping fpirits of the crew,
who were now vifitily affected in finding themfelves alone in a wide tempeftuous ocean, where
they could expect no fuccour in an adverfe moment, if any fuch fhould happen ; and where,
from the continual failure of one part or other
of the rigging, fuch a mpment was much to be(
We 32-        Capt.   COOK's   Voyage;!!'
We were now accompanied with a great variety of fea fowl, among which were, pintadoes
fheerwaters, fulmers,. and grey peterels, which
laft feldom appear at any confiderable diftance
from land.
On the 23d, (anfwering to the middle of June
in the Northern' Hemifphere) the weather cleared up, and we were proceeding at a great rate,
all reefs out, when on a fudden the weather
coming on hazey, increafed to a fog, and we
again loft fight of  the Refolution ;   but on
ringing the fog bell, and fifing a gun, we were
anfwered by our confort, to our inexprefliblejoy.
About 12 at noon, the fog began to difperfe»
a clear fun-fhine brightened the horizon,  and
Ihewed that we were at no great diftance from
land.  This, as it was unexpected, was the more
welcome. The man at the maft head announced
it; butas it feemed at a great diftance, very
lofty, with the fummits of its hills involved
in mift, fome of our officers who had accompanied Captain  Cook in his former voyages,
and had   experienced   many   difappointments
from the fallacious refemblance of ice iflands
to thofe of land, expreffed their doubts.   However, the nearer we approached it, the more
convinced we were of  its reality.   But what
feemed to us very lingular, the fea began to
change its complexion, and from a dark green
colour, to look white like milk ; we had indeed obferved the like  phcenomenon before*
on croffing the Tropic in the Northern Hemifphere y Capt. CÔÔK's Voyage. $$
mifphere-, but do not recollect any fuch appearance noticed by former voyagers in thefe high;
Southern latitudes'.
0n the 29th, we obferved great quantities of
fea weed floating on the furface, and the fea-
birds to eficfeafé ; and before noon were fb near
the land as to difcover rocks towering one upon
another, as wé imagined, to' ah immenfe height ;
but could difcefn no plantations or other indications of ità being inhabited.    As the coaft appeared bold and rocky, it was judged proper to
proceed with Caution.   When wé firft difcovered land, it bore South, but on advancing flow*
Iy, we came in fight of a feparate ifland, bearing SE by S ; which in the direction we firfi
beheld it, feemed to be part of one and the
fame ifland.
On the 25th, at fix in the morning, wore
fhips, and flood in for the land ; we paffed the
tremendous rock, which firft came in view, and
Which rofe to an aftonifhing height in form of
a fugar loaf, atnd bore away to thé Lee Ifland*
where we found a bay with good anchorage in
24 fathom Water, oozy bottom ; but the furf
^rather rough and inconvenient for landing and
On the 25th, at four in the morning, the
boats were fent out to reconnoitre the coaft*
and, if pôffible, to difcovef a more convenient
harbour for taking in water. About fèven they
returned, having found a bottle with a letter
kclofed, importing that in January 1772, thfe
G 34 M^APT- C O O K5 s, ■ Voyage.
ifland was difcovered by M. de Kergueien ; that
it contained plenty of water, but no wood;
that it was barren and without inhabitants ; but
that the fhores abounded with fifh, and the land
with féàls, fea lions and penguins. The harbour where this bottle was depofited, being
more commodious than that where the fhips
Were anchored ; and Capt. Cook intending to
keep Chriftmas here, and refrelh his men, gave
orders to weigh, and the fhips to change their
ftation ; which orders were inftantly obeyed.
The contents of the letter inclofed in the
bottle were in every refpect found to be true ;
a fhort account therefore of the voyager who
left it, will be neceffary to render our account
of the'difcoveries in the Scuth Seas compleat.
I M. de Kergueien, a Lieutenant in the
French fervice, had the command of two fhips
«riven him, the La Fortune, and Le Gros Ventre.
He failed from the Mauritius about the latter
end of 17715 and on the 13th of January following, difcovered the two ifles of which we are
now fpeaking, and to which he gave the names
of the Ifles of Fortune. Soon after M. de Kergueien faw land, as it is faid, of a confiderable
extent and height, which he fuppofed to be Continent, upon which he fent one of the officers of
his own fhip a-head in the cutter to found. J But
the wind blowing frefh, the Captain of the
other fhip, (M. de St. Allouarn) in the Gros
Ventre, fhot a-head, and finding a bay to which
he gave his fhip's name, ordered his yawl to
take Càpt.   C O O K * s   Voyage.       35
take poffeflion.    ïh the mean time, M. de Ker-*
guelen being driven to leeward* and unable a-
gain to recover his dation, both boats returned
on board the Gfos Ventre, and the cutter was
cut a-drift on account of the bad wçfâthër.    M.
Kergueien returned to the Mauritius, and M.
de St. Allouarn continued for three days to take
the   bearings of  this land,   and doubled its
Northern extremity, beyond which it trended
to the South-eaftward.    He coafted it for the
fpace of twenty leagues, but finding it high and
inacceflible, and deftitute of trees, he fhaped
his courfe to New Holland, and from thence
returned by way of Timor and Batavia, to the
Ifle Of France, where he died^" M. de Kergueien was afterwards promoted to the command of
a 64 gun fhip, called the Rolland, with the frigate l'Oifeau, in order to perfect the difcovery
of this pretended Continent ; but returned with
difgrace, pretending again to have juft feen it.'*
That the iÉands we now fell in with are the
fame difcovered by Kergueien, there cannot remain a doubt ; but that M. de Kergueien ever
faw a great country, fuch as he pretends, in or
near thofe iflands is very problematical.   There
are indeed numberlefs iflands thinly fcattered in
this almoft boundlefs ocean, as every day's experience evinces; but that there are none fo fuu
perior to thofe already difcovered in riches and
cultivation, as to be worth the fearch,   will
fcarcely admit of a queftion.
G 2 We .
36       Capt.   COO KÀ s   Voyage.
J(| We were now bufied on board in repairing
our rigging, which had fiiffered much in the frequent fqualls with which we had been harraffed
ever fince our departure from the Cape ; at the
fame time, thofe who were on fhore were no lefs
ufefully employed in fupplying the fhips with
water, and the crews with frefh provifions ;
which laft, ^though not of the moft delicate
kind, yet to flomachs cloyed almoft to loathing
with fait provifions, even feals, penguins, and
fea-fowl were not unfavory meat.
On the 27th, our repairs being nearly corn-
pleated, and a great part of our water on board,
Chriftmas was proclaimed ; a double quantity
of grog ferved out to each common man ; and
a certain proportion of wine and fpirits to every
petty officer : leave was likewife given to fuch
as were ailing, to go aftiore for the benefit of
the land air; and the officers of both fhips reciprocally met in compliment to each others
paft dangers were forgotten, and the day was
fpent by the common failors with as much mirth
and unconcern as if fafely j moored in Portf-
mouth harbour.
On the 28th, parties were fent out to procure
what vegetables the iftând produced by way of
refrefhment ; but none were found for culinary
purpofes, except a kind of wild cabbage, and
that in fmall quantities, and gathered with much
labour among the cl'.ffs of the rocks. Mr. Nel-
fon, a gentleman whom Mr. Banks fent out to
collect fuch varieties as he fhould find indise*
nous Capt.   C O O K's   Voyage. 37
nous to the iflands and climates through which
he fliould pafs, found growing among thofe
cliffs, a kind of yellow mofs of a filky foftnefs,
which he had not yet difcovered in any of his
former refearches.
On the 29th, the Refolution weighed, with
orders to furround the ifland, in order to explore the oppofite fide, which, however, upon
examination, was found equally barren, craggy,
fleep, and defolate, with that we had juft left.
Penguins and fea-lions, were its chief inhabitants, among which our people made great
havock ; of the former for the fake of provi-
fion, penguins having b.en found tolerable eating
when frefh,* or juft falted ; and of the latter, for
blubber, which was afterwards boiled and converted into oil on our arrival at New Zealand,
On the 30th, at nine in the morning, we
weighed, and took leave of this Ifland, which
we found by obfervation to lie in lat. 49 : 30. S.
78: 10. long. At 12 the fouthernmoft point of
the land bore S S W| S. diftant about five
leagues. We now purfued our courfe for Van
Dieman's land, and having no difcoveries in
view, took every advantage of the weather to
carry fail.
On the 1 ft of January, 1777, we obferved
great quantities of fea weed palling to leeward
in a direction contrary to that we had feen in
approaching the ifland, which gave reafon to
fuppofe there  were other lands at no  great
G 3 diftance,
- |8      Capt.  CO OK's  Voyage.
diftance, and affords fome ground for believing
that M. de Kergueien might have feen other
lands in this latitude. Nothing more remarkable prefented till
The 14th, when a hurricane arofê, accom^
panied with fo thick a fog, that our fhips were
every moment in danger of falling foul one of
the other.' We kept the fog bell conftantly
ringing and guns firing, which were anfwered by
the Refolution. The wind blew with fuch violence that we were obliged to take in all our
fails, to (trike our top-galiant-mafts, and to feud
under our bare poles. This ftorm continued with
more or lefs violence till the 19th, during which
time the Bejolution had carried away, her main-
top-maft, and fore-top-gallant maft and yard;
and the Difcovery had loft her top gallant-fails,
fplit her middle flay-faijs, $nd had fcarce half a
yard remaining of her jjb.
On the 20th in the morning, we lay by to
repair our rigging ; and the weather brightening up with a brifk but moderate gale in the
afternoon, we fet all the fa/ils we could, unreefed
our top fails, and run at the rate of feven and
eight miles an hour by the log, both fhips in
company. H
On the 22d,the wealher continuing clear and
moderate, Mr. King, the fécond Mate of the
Refolution came on board to compare the timepieces. He brought word that the fhip's crew '
were in perfect health, thofe only excepted who
Jiad been hurt by their girls at the Cape, and
v* Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.       39
even thefe were fit to do duty ; and that the da»
mage the Refolution had received during the
blowing weather, was not fo confiderable as
might have been expected.
On the 24th in the morning, the man at
the maft head called out, Land, diftant about
5 leagues, the Mewftone,. fo called by Capt.
Furneaux, in 1773, bearing N EI E. Made
the fignal for feeing it, which was anfwered by
the Refolution.
On the 25th, founded and found ground at
55 fathom, fandy and ihelly bottom.
On the 26th, flood off and on to find the
bay, called by Tafrnan, Frederic Henry's Bay.
On the 27th came too, and moored \r\ 14
fathom water, and was prefently joined by the
Refolution. No fooner were the fhips properly
fecured than the pinnace was ordered to be
launched, the boats to be manned, and all
hands fet to work in wooding, watering, overhauling the rigging, and getting every thing in
readinefs to continue our voyage.
The officers, aftronomers and gentlemen on
board both fhips eagerly embraced the opportunity of going afhore to take a view of this
delightful country, with the appearance of
which all on board were charmed. The firft
Ihing that attracted our notice were the trees»
that by their magnitude and loftinefs exceecfécf
every thing we had ever feen of the kind : but
what was remarkable, we found many of them
burnt near the ground, and not a few lying in a
G 4 horizontal 49       Capt.   CQ OK*s   Voyage,
horizontal ppfition, which being much fcorched
had been thrown down by the violence of the
On the 28th, Capt. Cook, accompanied by
officers and gentlemen from both fjiips, and
guarded by a party of marines, made a fécond
excurfion into the country in order to make
difcoveries, and to procure, if poflible, an interview with fome of the inhabitants; they penetrated feveral miles through paths that
feemed to have been frequented, before they
could get fight of any human being, till at
length pafling by the edge of an almoft impenetrable thicket they heard a ruftling, which at
firft they miftook for the roufing of fome wild
beaftj but fearching çlofely they found it to be
a girl quire nakecj and alone. At firft fhe feemed much frightened ; but being kinclly treated,
and her apprehenfions qf death removed, fhe
became docile, and ready to anfwer every thing
we could rencjer intelligible tp her underftand-
ing. We questioned Jier poncerning her refi-
dence, which we did by pointing to every beaten path, walking a little way in it, and then
returning and taking another, making motions
to her at the fame time to lead us along and we
would follow her. Tp make her quite eafy,
one of our company pulled off his handkerchief
and put it about her peck by way of ornament,
and another covered her head with his cap, and
then difmiffed her. She ran among the bufhes,
and in lefs than an hour nine men of the middle
ftaturl , Capt. COOK's Voyage. 4t
flature made their appearance, naked but armed
according to the fafhion of their country ; thefe
were kindly treated by the company, one gentle^
man giving to one a part of his cloathing, another
putting fomething upon a fécond, and fo on till
each had received fome trifling ornament for
his perfon, when all took their flight at once as
if by fignal, and vanifhed in an inftant.
It was not long, however, before the girl we
had firft feen returned, and with her feveral women, fome with children on their backs, tied by
a kind of hempen firings, and fome without
children. Thefe were likewife kindly received,
and ledjto the place where the wooders were at
work, with whom it was not long before they
became acquainted. They were however moft
miferable looking objects, and Omai, though
led by natural impulfe to an inordinate defire
for women, was fo difgufted with them that he
fired his piece in the air to frighten them from
bis fight, which for that time had the defired
effect. Night coming on, we all returned to
our refpective fhips.
On the 28th, we extended our excurfions
ftill farther into the country, and found it beautifully diverfified with hills and vallies, flately
groves of trees, rivers, meadows and lawns of
vaft extent, with thickets full of birds of the
moft beautiful plumage, parrots and paraquet>,
and birds of various notes, whofe melody was
truly enchanting ; befides thefe we found fome
Jagoons full of ducks, teal, and other wild fowl ;
of '4% Capt. COOK's Voyage.
of which we fhot great numbers, while our Na-
turalifts were loading themfelves with the fpon-
taneous productions of the foil ; a foil, we may
venture to fay, the richeft and moft fertile of
any in the habitable Globe, the trees growing to
an aftonifhing height and fize, and not more
beautiful to the eye, than they are grateful to the
fmell. We found fome that rofe ninety feet high
without a knot, and of a girt that, were we to
report it, would render the credit of the reporter doubtful. It was now the time when
Nature pours fourth her luxuriant exuberance to
cloath this country with every variety ; but
what appeared ftrange to us, the few natives
we faw were wholly infenfible of thofe bleffings,
and feemed to live like the hearts of the foreft
in roving parties, witliout arts of any kind,
Ueeping in fummer, like dogs, under the hollow fides of the trees, or in wattled huts made
with the low branches of ever-green fhrubs
ftuck in the ground at fmall diftances from each
Other, and meeting in a point.
Our fifbermen were no lefs fuccefsfui in fifh-
ing during our ftay than our fowlers in fhooting
wild fowl ; fo that nothing was wanting to make
our living here defireabie.
On the 30th, the poor wretches of natives
being now diverted of their fears, iflued from
the thickets like herds of deer from a foreft,
and drew themfelves up in ranks on the beech,
making figns for our people to come on fhore,
probably with a view to partake of our bounty,
b*. Capt. COOKE's  Voyace.       43
certainly not with any defign to do us any harm^
They were indeed armed with lances about twelve
feet long, terminated by a fhark's tooth or piece
of bone fharpened to a point, which they threw
to a great diftance, and to a great nicety; but
thefe lances were the whole of their armour.
There were among them, as among all the
inhabitants of the countries of the Southern
Ocean, fome to whom the multitude feemed to
pay obedience, though even thefe were here
without any marks of diftinction, other than what
Nature had beftowed upon their perfons. This
indelible dignity, through all the dalles of animal nature, has marked fome to rule, while
others, deftitute of that advantage, willingly fub-
mit, and are contented to obey. To thefe chiefs,
as no quadrupeds of any kind were feen in the
country, Capt, Cook gave a boar and a fow,
and made figns to turn them loofe in the woods»
where it is poflible they may have a better chance
to breed than among the more ferocious inhabitants of New Zealand, where /everal of them
had formerly been turned loofe, but afterwards
deftroyed. He alfo offered them nails, knives,
beads, and other trifles, to which they paid
little or no attention, but were greedy after
fhreds of red cloth»
It does not appear that the natives here are
çanibals, or indeed that they all upon
fiefh, as no appearance of any fuch food cculd
be traced among them. Fifh, fruit, and the
natural productions of the earth, were the only
articles 44 Capt. COOK's Voyage.
articles of food that were obfervable about their
fire-places; but what was ftill more ftrange.
there was neither canoe nor boat to be feen,
though the country abounded fo much in timber. It may therefore be reafonably concluded,
that thefe natives are a fort of fugitives who have
been driven out from fome more powerful
community, and fubfift here in a flate of ba~
nifhment, as it is hardly poflible otherwife to
conceive fo fine a country poffefled by a people
wholly deftitute of all the arts of civil life.
Capt. Cook prefented their chiefs with Medals (great quantities of which he carried out
with him to be diftributed among the chiefs
wherever he went) infcribed with the names of
the fhips and the Commanders ; with the date
of the year and that of his Majefty's reign ; in
order to perpetuate the memory of this Voyage, provided any future European adventurer,
prompted by unprofitable curiofity, fhould
think fit to revifit the remote parts of the
Southern Hemifphere.
On the 31ft, having been here and on the
coaft near feven days, and having got plenty
of wood and water on board, and whatever elfe
the country afforded, the fignal was made for
unmooring. By ten in the morning the fhips
were under fail, and at twelve Cape Frederic
Henry bore N by W. We fet out with an eafy
gale ; but, before night, fqualls came on, which
made it neceffary to double reef our top-fails,
and fo to continue till break of day.
On Capt.  C O 0 K ' s  Voyage.        45
On the ift of February we fet our top-gallant fails, both fhips in company, fleering a
direct courfe for New Zealand, and in nine days
came in fight of Adventurer's Ifland, diftant
about nine or ten leagues from Charlotte Sound.
On the tothwe were off Charlotte's Bay, our
deftined place of rendezvous.
On the 12th, in Handing for the Sound, the
Difcovery had the misfortune to ftrike upon a
rock ; but by the afliftance of the Refolution
was warped off without receiving any confiderable damage «, and about two in the afternoon
both fhips moored in 9 fathom water.
Not a man on board who did not now think
himfelf at home, fo much like Great-Britain is
the Ifland of New Zealand, i It is between fix
and feven hundred miles in length, but varying
in breadth, being broadeft towards the middle,
and narrowing at the extremities. In this it
feems to differ from the regular courfe of nature
in the formation of Iflands and even of Continents, where, like infects, they feem to be divided in the middle, and only connected together by an inconfiderable fpace. Almoft every
ifland of any extent in the Southern Ocean is
divided in this manner. The Continent of Europe, Afia and Africa is held together by a
thread in comparifon at the Ifthmus of Suez,
and North and South America in like manner
at that of Darien.   ,
We were no fboner fecurely moored in Charlotte Sound, together with the Refolution, than 46        Capt.   C O 0 K's   Voyage
the natives came in droves to welcome our arriva!*
to bring us fiOi ; and to offer to trade ; but every
hand being then employed, little or no notice
was taken of their overtures ; fome of our peopfê •
were bofy in carrying out the tents, others in
erecting them on fhore ; fome in forming Entrenchments for the fecurity of the flores, and
fome in unfhipping flores ; in fhort, not an idle
perfon being to be found to attend to them, the
favages, thinking themfelves neglected, departed, feemingly very mucfedifappointed.
On the 13th, we had hard ftjualls with heavy'
rain» During the intervals of fun-fhnie, we
obferved feveral   water-fpouts,  but none near
us; Mr. Forfter, who accompanied Captain
Qook in his former voyage, in his paffage
from Dufky Bay to this Sound, had frequent
opportunities of obferving triefe phenomena,
and has given the following defcription of
them. Their bafe, he fays, where the water
pf the fea was violently agitated, and rofe in a
ipiral form in vapours, was a broad fpot,
which looked bright and yellowifh, when iî*-
luminated by the fun. Directly over this fpot,
a cloud gradually tapered into a long flender
tube, which feemed to defcend to meet the
riling fpiral, and foon united wkh it into a
ftrait column of a cylindrical form. We could
diftinctly obferve the water hurled upwards
with the greateft violence, and it appeared,
that it left a hollow fpace in the centre.   He
Skdààf Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.       4$
adds, that thefe wa^jMjf&ucs. made the oldeft
mariners unfafjj* all, without exception, had
heard dreadfokaecou'sts of their pernicious effects, wheal they: happen to breakover a fhiptf
but none haj^ever been fo befet with them
On the i4th-j at feven en the morning, the
pinnies of both ffvij3s were ordered to be
manned, and boch Captains wem on fhorex
wkh other gentlemen to reconnoitre the country, without veneusrrng too far at firft, for fear
of a furprize. Before they landed tfty were
obferved by an old man, who approached the
(hore, holding a green bough in his hand, and
waving it in fign of peace, which- was inftantly
anfwered by hoifthig a white flag. IfFriehdihip
being thus eftajblifhed we all landed, and the
old man began an oration, accompanied by
very fignificant geftures, and a theatrical dif-
pîay of the paffions by various modulations
of his voice, till at length he concluded ia; a
plaintive tone, which we interpreted to mean
fubmiffion. This done, he faluted the Company, according to the cuftom of the fouthern
iflanders, by joining nofes, a mode, though
not the moft agreeable, yet neceffary to be complied with for the fake of peace. Capt. Cooke,
more earneft to examine the ftate of the plantations which he had caufed to be laid out, and
fowed with garden feeds in hrs former voyage,
than to purfue the fports of fifhing and fowling,
which chiefly engaged fhe attention of other
gentlemen w
4&        Capt."  C 0 O KJ s   Voyagé.
gentlemen while on fhore, went with Captain
Clarke to vifit the inclofures on Long Ifland*
and found many of the plants&and roots in a
flouâfhing condition, though it did not appear^
that any care had been taken to drefs* or even
to weed them, by the natives. Indeed it fhould
fèem that this part of the country, like that of
Dufky Bay, is but thinly inhabited, and probably occafionally only, as none of their towns
were found within any reafonable diftance of
the fhore. Some ftraggling huts indeed, in which
fingle families were found to refide, were now
and then difcovered in the receffes of the wdods,
but no regular plantations, the effects of induf-
try, were obfervable in any part of this found.
Their canoes, and their cloathing were works
of great labour, but where the former was
performed could only be gueffed at, though
it appeared that the, latter was the fole employment of their women.
During our refidence here, though nothing-
was to be found but vegetables and fifh, fuch
was the plenty of both, that loads of the former were to be procured for the labour of cutting and carrying away, and of the latter as
much as was fufficient for the fuftenanee of one
perfon a whole day for a fingle nail.
It had been obferved by former voyagers,
that the women in this ifland were charter,-
when firft vifited by our people, than thofe in
the warmer climates, probably owing to the
phyfical effects of their colder conftitutions ;
not CaPt.   CÔOK^s   VoyagjQ 49
ûot to the reflection of any law, or the force
of cuftom; nor to that- delicacy of . fentimenc
that naturally excites thofe fympathetic fenfa-
tions that in a more advanced ftate of refine*
menr, ferve to bind the fexes in the indelible
^onds of mutual fidelity. But, to whatever
caufe it might be ow^ng before the loofer paf-
fions, by their commerce withathe European
failors, took root arnppg them, thofe paffiori£
have been found to thrive fo well, that they now
exceed all others in indulging them. Jiven the
men are now become fo abandoned, as to pro>
flitute their very wives for a nail, and lay^oo re-
ftraint on their daughters, of whom the men
make litde account, g
It was no fooner known that our fjiips Were
moored in Charlotte^bund, than th& native?
flocked from the r£mo$eft corners of the ifland
to traffic foij0 nails, broken glassy bea^s, of
other European trumpery, for which ri$y w,§ujd
fell their arms, clothes, and.whatever-elfe they
were poffeffed of, not even referving theiç ivork?
ing implements, which they could not replace
without infinite labour.
The women, who accompanied thefe commercial emigrants, were no lefs fajeable, that*
the wares they brought, and the favours o£
many were purchafed by the feamen, who, tho*
the firft price was trifling, coft them dear ifo
the end. This traffic was carried ^o a fham&i
lefs ht^ght, and Omai, who, from natural inclination and the fic^ntio^s habits of his country f
ËiH gag. 50       Capt.  COOK's  Voyage;
felt no reftraintf indulged his^almoft infatiable
appetite with more than favage indecorum.
Before our prefent arrival, it had been quef-
tioned, even by Captain Cook, whether thefe
iflanders would fell their children to ftrangers^
but experience has now taught us, that there
is nothing they will not fell for iron, fo great
is their defire for that metal. The love of gold
is not more prevalent ifl Europe, than the love
of iron in New Zealand. The ftory which
Capt. Cook relates, in proof of the irrefiftable
force of Nature in the retentive care of their
chilcften; only fhews, that he himfelf had erred
in the conclufions he had drawn from it.
" One of them, fays Capt. Cook, agreed to
go with us; but afterwards changed his mind.
It was even faid that fome of them offered their
iehildre'ti' to fale. I however found this to be a
tttiftake. The report firft took its rife on
board the Adventure, where they were utter
ftrangers*rtb their language and cuftoms. It
was very common for thefe people to bring their
children with them, and prefent them to us,
in expectation that we would make them pre»
.ffeftts; this happened to me. Aman brought
his fon, a boy about nine or ten years of age,
and prefented him to me. As the repbrrof
felling their children was then prevalent, I
thought, at firft, that he wanted me to buy the
boy. But at laft I found, that he wanted me
to give him a white fhirt, which accordingly
1 did. The boy was fo fond of his new drefs
that he went all over the^fhip, prefenting him
felf Capt. CO OK*s Voyage- 5*
feif.before every one wro came in his way.
This freedom, ufed by him, offended old Witt,
the ram goat, who gave him a buttwith his
horns, and knocked him backward on the deck.
Will would have repeated his blow had not fome
of the people come to the boy's auiftance. The
misfortune, however, feemed to him irreparable»
The fhirt was dirtied, and he was afraid to appear in the cabin before his father, until brought
in by Mr. Forfter ; when he was told a lamentable ftory againft Gàury, the great dog (for fo
they called ail the quadrupèdes on board) nor
could he be reconciled, till his fhirt was wafhed
and diied." This ftory, adds the Captain, tho*
trifling, will fhew how liable we are to miftake
thofe people's meaning, and toafcribe to them
cuftoms they never knew, even in thought,' —
This reflection however, recoiled upon himfelf*
for Capt. Cook lived to fee the truth of the report confirmed, and thai the favourable opinion
he had conceived, of the natural affection of
thefe favages for their children, was not. well
On the 16th in the morning feveral natives
came along fide the Refolution to trade as ufual.
Then it was that Omai, who was plentifully, furniflied with'every kind of iron ware,, difplayed
his merchandize to the greateft advantage. The
favages, inflamed with the richnefs of the exhibition, perfectly trembled as they flood, and
were ready to board the fhip, at the peril of
their lives, to make themfelves mafters of what
appeared to them fo vaft a treafure.    This, to
H 2 am $2       Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.
an European, to whom nails, broken glafs, and
fhreds of red cloth, are of little or no value,
may feem exaggerated; but to thofe who have
traverfed the globe, and marked the impetuofity
of the paffions of favages when excited to a certain pitch, will rather wonder how they could
be reftrained, than that they fhould be ready to
commit any defperate action to poffefs themfelves of thofe things which appeared of fo much
value in their eyes. Omai, though but one
degree above the favage whom he defpifed, yet
had cunning enough to take advantage of the
defires which he had excited, and after purchafing from them every article that fuited him,
he artfully afked one party of them, if they
would fell their boat ? to which they readily
confented. Obferving two promifing youths on
board with another party, he afked the father
if he would not part with his boys. The youths
looked with eagernefs at their father, as if they
wifhed to follow the man that was lo rich, and
the father, feemingly as willing to part with the
lads as they vyere to go, replied in the affirmative, and the bargain was inftantly ftruck,
Thus for two hatchets and a few nails he purchafed two fine boys, the eldeft named Tibura,
about 15 years old, and the youngeft called
Gowah, about ten.
On the 17th the Captains of both fhips, with
other officers and gentlemen, embarked on board
the Pinnace, attended by a party of marines,
well armed, and directed their courfe to the
north-weft» Capt. CO OK's Voyage. 53
north-weft, round Canibal-bay for Long Ifland,
and Grafs Cove; there they vifited the fpot
where the boat's crew belonging to the Adventure was murdered about four years before ; but
did not find any trace of that horrid maffacre remaining, nor any native from whom they might
learn the caufe.
Omai, who could fcarce make himfelf underftood, nor indeed could he underftand the natives fo well as many of the common men who
had been frequently here before ; yet being a
favourite with Captain Cook, was always preferred when in company, to confer jj with the
natives, and was defired by him, when he met
any of them alone, to queftion them concerning
the fray that had happened fome years before,
and from what caufe it had taken its rife ; and
he was the more defirous to come at the truth,
as the natives in general were friendly and ready
to furnifh the fhips with what ever their country afforded. But from what Omai was able to
learn, Capt. Cook received no fatisfaction. lt
fhould feem, that in Otaheite there are two dialects fpoken, as in almoft every other part of the
world ; one by the priefts and chiefs, and ano.
ther by the common people. This was apparent here ; for Tupia, who accompanied Mr.
Banks to this place, in Capt. Cook's fécond
voyage round the world, could converfe with
the natives fluently, and was in fuch efteem with
them, that his memory is held in veneration
from one end of the ifland to the other at this
H 3 day ; \w
54 Capt.   CO OK's   Voyage,
day ; Obedee likewife, who was of the clafs of
Areoes, or gentlemen, and who accompanied
Capt. Cook in his laft voyage from Otaheite to
the Thrum ifles, the Hebrides, New Zealand,
Eafter Ifland, and the Marquiffes, could con-
verfe with the New Zealanders though Omai
could not, a proof that he was of rhe inferior
clafs in his own country.
While we continued here, he found frequent
opportunities to difcover his real character,-—
when from under the watchful eye of his protector and friend *—He had grog always at his
command, and was fometimes entrufted to give
it out, efpecially when any extra quantity was
to be delivered by the Captain's orders for hard
fervice, or on days of feftivity.    At thofe times
he was clofely watched, and was never known
to exceed; but now  when  the Captain   was
abroad for whole days and nights, and he left
in charge of liquors, he kt no bounds to his
cxcefs, and would drink till he wallowed like
a fwine in his own filth.    At thofe times ht,
out-aéled the favage in every kind of fenfua-
lity ; and when  he could no   longer  act the
brute, he would often act  the drunken man ;
ftorming, roaring,   brandifhing  his arms, and
by the contortions of his mouth and face, fetting at defiance, after the manner of his country, the whole hoft of his enemies, who were
reprefented by the common failors, with whom,
upon thefe occafions, he was generally furrounded y and who knew hpw to praflice upon him
a Capt. COOK's Voyage. $§
as he endeavoured to do upon the poor Zea-
landers. He was indeed far from being ill-
natured, vindictive, or morofe; but he was
fometimes fulky. He was naturaHy; humble»
but had grown proud by habit ; and it fo ill
became him, that he was always glad when
he could put it off, and could appear among
the petty officers with his natural eafe. This
was the true character of Omai, who might be
faid, perhaps, by accident, to have been raifed
to the higheft pitch of human happinefs, only
to fuffer the oppofite extreme by being again
reduced to the loweftjgder of rational beings.
In the excurfion of the two Captains among
the Ifles, plentiful provifion was made for the
Jive ftock on board, and the long boats of both
fhips came heavily laden home with grafs for
the cattle and vegetables for the fhip's companies from the gardens of Motuara and Long
Ifland, which were found to remain in a flou-
rifhing though flovenly condition. To the quadrupeds, which the Captains Cook andFurneaux
had left to breed in the ifland in their former
voyages, our Captains added two ewes and a
ram, thofe that had been left before of this
fpecies having died almoft as foon asjfent on fhore.
Wooding, watering, airing the flores, drying and new packing the powder, examibing and
new baking the damaged bread, forging bolts
and new pintles for ttje rudders, with other
neceffary bufinefs for repairs of the fhip» were
continued without intermiflion on fhore. By the
H 4 -   abfence §6 Capt.   C O O K's   Voyags.
abfence of fo many ufefui hands ; fmiths, armourers, gunners, carpenters, rope and fail makers, with their attendants ; very few people
were left pn board to take charge of the fhips^
nothing being'apprehended from the attempts
of the natives, who had hitherto behaved with
unexampled honefty, hardly any complaints
having been preferred againft any of them for
mifbehaviour of any kind.
In th% fituation, with fcarce men enough on
board to hand the fails, a ftorm arofe in the
morning of the 19th, which before ten o'clock
drove the Difcovery from her moorings, and it
was owing to Providence, that having run foul
of the Refolution, fhe did not perifh, the furge
parrying her off inftantaneoufly with little
damage to either fhip. All hands on board
were thrown into the utmoft confternadèn. No
fooner was fhe clear than we dropped the
belt bower anchor, got down the top ^allant
yards, ftruck the top-gallant mails, and lowered
the yards, got in the cables, and moored with
belt bower and fheet anchors ; and thus fortunately rode out the ftorm. Mr. Blythe, m after
of the Rffolution, and Mr. Bentham our Captain's clerk, feeing the danger the fhips were in,
and at the hazard of their lives attempting to get
on board in a canoe, were overfet, but providentially recovered by the boats from the fhips.
fhe gale continuing the whole day, no Indians
came to trade.
•     Rip* _    :•---- -•-§■- :, % Jn Capt.  COOK's  Voyage.       57
It fhould have been remembered that, front
the time of landing, our brewers began brewing ; and the woods affording plenty of fpruce,
the crews of both fhips were fupplied with this
wholefome beverage during our continuance at
New Zealand, and for feveral weeks after we
were at fea. This liquor was found fo falutary,
that it feemed to ftrike at the very root of the
fcurvy, and left not the leaft fymptom of it remaining about any man in the fhips.
Indeed great care was taken to fupply the
crews daily with plenty of fcufvy-grafs and
wild celery to boil with their portable foup ;
and fait meat was witheld, and fifh fubftituted
in its room. This laft the Indians abundantly
provided at a trifling expence, and what is not
a little furprizing, when our fifhers could catch
the leaft, they generally caught the moft, tho'
their implements fhewed infinitely lefs ingenuity
in the conftruction, than thofe with which our
people were furnifhed. It is not eafy to fay
by what arts they allured the fifh ; but certainly
fome means were ufed by them, to which we
were ftrangers, nor could they ever be prevailed
upon to difcover their fecret.
During our flay in Charlotte Sound, an adventure happened which, though the parties
were not of the higheft clafs, may, notwith»
(landing, be worth relating.
Belonging   to   the Difcovery  there  was  a
youth,   with whom a  young   Zeaiander girl,
j about fourteen years of age, fell defperateiy
in 5g Capt, COOK's Voyage.
in love, nor was fhe wholly indifferent to our
adventurer. What time he could fpare, he
generally retired with her, and they fpent the
day, but oftener the night, in a kind of filent
converfation, in which, though words were
wanting, their meaning was perfectly underftood.
Moments fly rapidly on that are fpent in mutual endeavours to pleafe. She, on her part,
had no will but his ; and he, in return, was no
lefe attentive to her's. Minds fo difpofed naturally incline to render themfelves agreeable. A
conformity in manners and drefs become fig-
nificant figns between lovers. Though he ap.
peared amiable in her eyes in the drefs of a
granger, yet he wifhed to render himfelf ftill
more fo, by ornamenting his perfon after the
faftiion of her country ; accordingly he fub-
mitted to be tattowed from head to foot; nor
was fhe lefs foliicitous to fet herfelf off to the
btft advantage. She had fine hair, and her
chief pride was in the drefs of her head. The
pains fhe took, and the decorations fhe ufed,
would have done honour to an European beauty,
had not one thing been wanting to render it
ftill more pleafing, Ghowannahe (that was
her name,) though young, was not fo delicate»
but that the traits of her country might be
traced in her locks. To remedy this misfortune, and to render it lefs offenfive, fhe was
furnifhed with combs, and taught by her lover
how to ufe them. After being properly prepared, he would by the hour arnufe himfelf
with Capt.   COO K's   Voyage.       $q
with forming her hair into ringlets, which flowing carelefsly round her neck, with a kind of
coronet rifing from her temples, gave her an
air of dignity that added frefh charms to the
brilliancy of her eyes. The diftafte arifing from
colour gradually wore off, and the ardent de-
fire of rendering   their fentiments  more and
more intelligible to each other, gave rife to a
new language, con lifting of words, looks, gef-
tures,   and inarticulate  tones, by which plea-
lure   and  pain   were more forcibly expreffed
than by the moft refined fpeech.    Having at
firft acquired the art of imparting their paffions,
they very foon improved it to the ftory of their
lives.    Love and jealoufy directed her enquiries
concerning the women in the world from whence
he came,  wifhing, at the fame time, that he
would ftay with her, and be a Kakikoo or chief.
He made her to underftand, that the women
in his world were all tatoo (man-killers) and if
he flayed with her fhe would kill him.    She
anfwered'no; fhe would eh-na row, love him.
He faid, her people would kill him.    She replied no, if HE did not fhoot them.    He made
her to underftand, that nine or ten of the men
of his world,  had  been killed and  eaten  by
her people,   though they did not fhoot them.
Her anfwer was, that  was a great while ago,
and the people came from the hills ro'd roà\
.meaning   a  great way off.    This excited his
curiofity to know, if any of her relations were
among the murderers : fhe fighed, and appeared
much 6o Capt. CO'OK'i Voyage.
much affected when he afked her that queftion.
He afked her if fhe was at the feaft, when they
broiled and eat the men ? fhe wept, and looking
wifhfully at him, hung down her head. He
became ftill more preffing as fhe grew more
refêrved. He tried every winning way that
love and curiofity fuggefted, to learn from her
what he found fhe knew, and what fhe feemed
fb determined to conceal. But fhe artfully e-
vaded all his queftions. He afked her, why
fhe was foreferved ? She pretended not to underftand hindi.' He repeated the fame queftion,
and why the kept him in the dark, at the fame
time clofing his eyes and keeping them fhut. She
continued to weep, but made him no anfwer.
Finding all his perfuafions ineffectual, he turned from her, feemingly in anger, and threatened to leave her. She caught him round the
neck in violent agitation. He afked her what
fhe meant, and whyjhe wept? She laid, they
would kill her if fhe told. He faid, they
fhould not know it. Then He would hate her,
ihe faid. He anfwered no, but love her more
and more, preffing her to his bofom at the
fame time. She grew more compofed, and
efaid fhe would tell him all fhe knew. She
then made him underftand, that one Gooboa,
a bad man, who had been often at the fhip,
and had ftolen many things ; when he came
to know that it was preparing to depart, went
up into the hill country, to the hippah, and
invited the warriors to come- down and kill
the Capt. COOK's Voyage. 6t
the ftrangers. They at firft refufed faying the
ftrangers were ftronger than ^feey, and would
kill them with their pow pow, or fire-arms?
he told therny tHdy need not fear, for he knew
where they muft come before they departed,
in order to get grafs for their goury or cattle,
and that on fuch occafions they left their pow
pow behind them in the fhip, or carelefsly a-
bout the ground, while they were at work*
They faid they were no enemies but friends*
and they muft not kill men with whom they
were in friendfhip. Gooboa faid they were
▼ile enem es and wicked men, and complained
of their chaining him and beating him, and
fhewed them the marks and bruifes he had received at the fhip ; and told them befides how
they might filence their pow pow, by only thrown
ing water over them, and then they could not
hurt them. Gooboa undertook to conduct
them in fafety to the place where the ftrangers
were to come, and fhewed them where they
might conceal themfelves, till he fhould come
and give them notice, which he did. And
when the men were bufy about getting grafs,
and not thinking any harm, the warriors rufhed
out upon them, and killed them with their
patapatows, and then divided their bodies a-
mong them She added, that there were wo*
men as well as men concerned, and that the
women made tl?e fires, while the warriors cut the
dead men in piet es ; that they did not eat theni
all at once, but only their hearts and livers*»
that the warrjors-had the heads,  which were
efteemed 6z       Capt.   COOK's   Voyage/
efteemed the beft, and the reft of thé flefh was
diftributed among the crouds Havingby various
queftions in the courfe of feveral days, extorted
this relation, of which, he faid, he had no rea->
fon to doubt the truth, he forebore to afk her,
what part her relations and herfelf bore in this
tragedy, as there was reafon to believe, they
were all equally concerned. He was, however,
very follicitous to learn, if any fuch plot was
now in agitation againft the people that might
be fent, upon the fame fervice, to Grafs Cove,
or any other convenient place. Her anfwer
was, no; the warriors were afraid, at firft, that
the fhips welcome to revenge the death of
their friends, and that was the reafon why fhe
was forbidden to fpeak of killing the ftrangers,
or to own any knowledge of it, if fhe were
afked about any fuch thing. She faid fhe was
but a child, not nine years old ; but fhe remembered the talk of it, as a gallant action or
great atchievment ; and that they made fongs
in praife of it.
In the courfe of his converfation with this
girl, who feemed rather of the better fort, he
learned many things concerning the natural
temper of the natives, that had efcaped the
penetration of former voyagers, and likewife
with refpect to their domeftic policy. She faid,
the people of T'Avi-Poenammoo, or the
fouthern divifion of the ifland, were a fierce
Jjloody people, and had a natural hatred to
the people of Ea-hei no-mauwe, and killed
them when they found them at any time in their
country \ ,   Capt.   COOK's   Voyagé,       6$
Country ;   but   that the people of Ea-hei-no-
mauwe were a good people, and were friendly
to one another, but never fuffered any of t!£e
people of T*Avi Poenammoo to fettle among
them, becaufe they were enemies; that they fometimes employed them to woik for them, but that
the two nations, the people on the north part of
the Sound,  and thofe on thê^fouth were eve?
at war, and eat one another.    She added, that
the people of either country, when they fought,
never eat one another ; (fo that it fhould feen\
that habitual antipathy has a great fliare in the
tendency of thefe favages to become man eaters.) ^With refpect to their dom&ftic poMcy,
fhe faid, the fathers had the fole care of the boys
as foon as they could walk, and that the girls
were left wholly at rhe mother's diipofal.   She
faid, it was a crime ïor a mother to correct
her fon, after he was once taken under the protection of the father; and that it was always re»
fented  by the mother if the father interfered
with the management of the daughters.   She
faid, the boys, from their infancy, were trained
to war, and both boys and girls were taught the
art of fifhing, to weave their nets, and make
their hooks and lines ;  that their canoes came
from a far country, and they got them in exchange for  cloth,   which  Was chiefly  manufactured by the women ; that their arms and
working tools defcended from father to forrç
and that thofe that were taken in battle fup-
^plied the rifing generation ; that they had no
firings am$ng them, but that they had men who
converfed i
64       Capt.   COOK*s   Voyagé.
converfed with the dead, who were held in great
veneration, and confulted before the people
went to the wars ; that they were the men,
who addreffed ftrangers that came upon the
coaft, firft in the language of peace, at the
fame time denouncing vengeance againft them
if they came with any hoftile defign; that
the perfons of thefe men were held facred, and
never killed in the wars, which ever fide prevailed; that when the warriors of either nation made prifoners, they were never of the
meaner fort, but of fome chief, whom they afterwards killed and eat, but that to the common fort they never gave quarter; that they
fometimes tortured -an enemy, if they found
him fingly lurking in the woods, looking iipoa
him as 6ne w;hp came upon no good defign ; but
never other wife ; that they lived chiefly upon
fifh, which were caught in the Sound in abun*
dance, during the fummer; but that in the
.winter they retired to the north, where they
fubfifted on the fruits of the earth, with which
they were fuppljed for their labour, working
in the plantations, or affifting the builders in
fabricating their boats.
The intelligence thus obtained from this
young Zealander appears to be authentic from
many circumftances ; but chiefly from obferving, that the large veffels that came from the
north to trade, feveral of them having 90 or
100 perfons on board, had never any fifh to
fell, but were laden with the various manu*
facture* Capt.   GOOK's   Voyage;       65
Factures of cloth, wood, and green ftones formed into implements of ufe, or confiding of raw
materials ready prepared for fabrication. Their
crews appeared*|o be of a fuperior clafs to thofe
who conftantly plied in the Sound.and were under proper difcipline ; whereas the fifhing boats
feemed to be the fole property of the occupiers,
no other perfon claiming any fuperiority over
JOn the 23d, in the morning, the old Indian
who had harangued the Captains, when they
approached the fhore, came on board the Dif-
coverv«|and prefented the Captain with a compleat ftand of tjieir arms, and Jgme very fine
fifh, which were kindly received ; and, in return, the Captain gave him a brafs pata-patow,
made exactly in their manner, on which were
engraven his Majefty's name an|l arms, the
names of the fhips, the date of their departure
from England, and the bufinefs they were fent
upon; he gave him likewife a hatchet, a few
nails, a knife, and fome glafs ornaments, which
he h ighlv prized, though of fmall value. This
day the wood-cutters loft a wood-ax, which
one of the natives dexteroufly carried off, without being difcovered* In the evening they
brought a man bound, whom they offered to
(ell 3, but thfir offer being rejected, they carried
him back, and in the night, a moft horrid
yelling was hear^ in the woods, which excited
the curiofiry^of the gentlemen on board, to
examine Into the caufe.   The cutter was or*
I dered ê6      Capt.   C O O K j s |Voya«;
dered to be manned, a party of marines weft
armed to be put on board, and the Captains,
with proper attendants, directed their courfé
to the weft fide of the bay, where they faw fe*
veral fires juft lighted, and where they hoped
to have furprized the natives, before they had
put their poor captive to death, whom they
had juft before conftgned to flavery ; but, in
th's hope they were difappointed. The favages in an inftant difappeared, and kft no trace
behind them of any flaughter having been committed.
About four in the morning, the'tents were
ftruck, and orders delivered out for failing.
Next day, Feb. 24th, the Indians flocked in
great numbers about the fhip, bringing with
them a plentiful fupply of fifh, and whatever
el(e they thought marketable among the failors*
Though the natives appeared friendly during
our ftay, it was judged proper to keep the time
of eur departure fécret till all things were on
board, and we were in readinefs to fail. This
precaution Capt. Cook thought the more neceffary, from what he had juft heard of the treachery of the favages. By not allowing them to
concert any new plot, he effectually fecured our
foraging p*riiés from thé danger of a furprize,
and by thus fuddenîy giving orders to fail, he
prevented our own men from rambling after the
women when their bufinefs was done, which
they never failed to do whenever it was in their
power.   The foraging parties here meant are
thoff «#»
Capt:   COOK's   VoyagS      fy
ffiofe who were fent to the coves, at the diftance^
perhaps, of fix or feven leagues from the fhips,
to cut grafs for the livfc ftock, and to gather
herbs to boil with the portable foupforthemenj
and thofe alfo who were ftationed in thé woods
to get fpruce to brew into beer for their prefer-
vation from the fcurvy, againft which that liquor, as has already been obferved, was found
a moft powerful antidote. Of grafs and herbs
ah immenfe quantity was brought on board, and
of fpruce as much as ferved the crews for drink
near thirty days, during which time no grog was
delivered out. The parties ordered upon thefe
fervices went always well àrmecLand guarded by
marines, though Capt. Cook himfelf entertained
very high notions of the honour as well as bra»
very of the New Zealanders.
On the 25th, previous to the fhips failing,
the crews of both fhips were ordered upon deck,
as ufual, to anfwer to their names, when one
was miffing,  who, upon enquiry, was found
ill a-bedi   This was our adventurer, who .pretended ficknefs in order to facilitate his efcape »
for this purpofe, as foon as he had paflêd the
furgeon's examination, and the coaft was clear,*
he dreffed himfelf in the habit of a New Zea-
lander ; and being tattowed all over, to fay the
truth, the copy was not eafily to be diftin-
guifhed from the original.   Ghowannahe, who
was in the fecret, had affembled her friends to^
gether, and fent them on board in order to in-
cpeafe the croud, which upon fuch occafions,
I 2 \ when
A. 1
6S       Capt,  COOK's   Voyage;
whgn the fîyps are ready to fail, are generally
pretty numerous. Among this party he feized
a favourable opportunity to mix, and haftening
to their canoe, when the decks were ordered
to be cleared, they were not long in paddling
to fhore. The pieafure which Ghowannahe
expreffed, on feeing the fhip fet fail without him*,
may more eafily be conceived than expreffed j
but her joy was of fhort continuance.
It was about feven in the morning, when the
fhips cleared the bay, and about eleven, when
they entered the mouth of Cook's Streights,
where they caft anchor; and Capt. Clarke, and
Mr. Burney, his firft Lieutenant, went on board
the Refolution, to dine with Capt. Cook. Here
the friends of the two Zealander youths, whom
Omai had purchafed, came to take their laft
leave of them, and expreffed, very affectingly,
their grief at parting, though the boys were as
yet in pretty good fpirits.   Some prefents were
made by Omai to the parents, and they departed, feemjngly with great reluctance.
In the afternoon, our adventurer's mefs-mate
went down to enquire after his health, and was
not a little furprized when no anfwer was made.
He at firft thought he rtrfght have retired ; but
on fearching every where below to no effect, he
gave the alarm throughout the fhip, when it
was difcovered, that he had eloped, bag and
baggage ; and that the cheft he had left in his
birth was empty. A meffenger.was inftaiitly
' difpatched on board the RcfçjjatioB^I© jteow
how .Owe*'C.OOK's   VoorAdft-        69
how to proceed ; and, when the mefftge wa*
deKjvered, the Captains and officers were jopfus
over tfeir bottle. At firft it only i^mfhed a
fubject for h4flôlsfs pleafentry ; but} it came
to be ferioufly debated» at laie, whether the
man fhould be fent for back, or totally deferted.
Some were in doubly whether an accident might
mot have happened to him, fuch as fed happen^
cd to the corporal of âiarines, formerly mentioned;, butr that do.ufat was foon cleared up*, when
M was known, that his effects were rifling as
well as the maa Moft of tie officers prefent
wefeîbr leaving hitr* to follow hiaeciwn humour j
but Cape Cook thinking it would be a bad precedent and an encouragement to other enamora-
«oes, when they c&me to the happier climates,
to follow his example, was for fending an armj-
edifbrce, and bringing the man back ac all hai-
zards. Of this opinion was his own Captain^
with whom he was a favourite, who gave orders
for the cutter to be properly manned, a ferjeanx's
guard of marines to be put onf board, and his
mefs-mate as a guide to direct them to the place
Where he was to be found. Thefe orders were
inftantly carried into execution. It was midnight before the cutter could reach: the landing-
place, and near two in the morning before the
marines could find the fpoc where the lovers
ufed to meet. They furprized him fo a pro*
found fleep, when he was dreaming of nothing
but kingdoms and diadems; of liyin&tvjjch his
Ghowannahe in royaWtate ; of .being farther of
I 3 a nume» jô       Capt.  COOK's  Voyage;
a numerous progeny of princes to govern the
kingdoms Ea kei-no mauwe and T?Avi-Poe*
tiammoo ; and of being the firft founder of *
great empire 1   But what â fudden tranfitiort I
to be waked from this vifionary fcene of royal
grandeur, and to find himfelf a poor prifoner,
to be dragged to punifhment for, as he though^
a WelMaid plan to arrive at monarchy $ and
what was worfe, his final feparation from his
faithful Ghowannahe, was a tafk he had ftill to
undergo^!Their parting was tender, and for a
Britifn failor and Savage Zealander was not un-
affecting.  The fcene, however, was fhort.  The
marines paid no regard to the copious tears, the
criés, and lamentations of the poor deferted girl,
nor did they think it fafe to tarry in a place fo
defelate, where lamentations in the night were
not unufual to bring numbers together, for the
purpofes of murder.     He was hurried to the
fliore, followed by  Ghowannahe,  who could^
hardly be torn from him, when ready tosem*
bark.   Love, like this, is only to be found in
the regions of romance  in thofe enlightened
countries,   where the boafled   refinements  of
fentiment have circumfcribed the purity pf aft.
fection and narrowed it away to mere conjugal
fidelity.   He was fcarce on board the cotter^
when he recollected that he had left his bag-»
gage behind ; all that he had provided for lay-»
jng the foundation of his future grandeur.   \%
was therefore neceffary, that he fhould return
with thé marines to the magazine where all
hi§ & Capt.   COOK's   Vovage;       fi
îxis flores were depofited, which were not a few.
Befides his working implements, he had a pocket compafs, of which he had thoughts, on fome
future occafion, to make the proper ufe. Me
had alfo a fowling piece, which had been fecret-
ly conveyed away by Ghowannahe, as foon as
the plan of empire was formed between thefe
two unfortunate lovers. It would be tedious
to recount the numerous articles that he had
provided. Let it fuffice, that the marines and
himfelf were pretty heavily laden in bringing
them on board the cutter.
It was noon, the next day, before he arrived
at the fhips, and the Captains began to be in
fome fear for the party of marines, who were
fent to bring him back. Before he came in
fight, it had been concerted to try him for a
deferter ; and inftead of being received in his
own fhip, he was ordered on board the Refolution, where he underwent a long examination,
and where he made a full confeffion of all his
views, and of the pains he had taken to bring
them to perfection.
He faid, the firft idea of defertion ftruck
him when, in the excurfion round the bay, in
which he attended in the fuite of Capt. Clarke,
he was charmed with the beauty of the country,;
and the fertility of the foil ; that feeing the
gardens that had been planted on Long Ifland,
at Motuara, and at fundry other places, in fo
flourifhing. a condition ; and that there were
liujopea.n fheep and hogs, and goats, and fowls,
I 4 fuffiçienç n      Capt;   COOK's   Voyage;
fufficient to ftock a large plantation, if collected
together from the different places where they
had been turned loofeg'Ft came into his head,
that if he could meet v^fth a girl that was to
his liking, he could be happy in îfJtroduçing the
arts of European culturePtnto'fB* nne a country,
atid in laying the foundation of civil government among its inhabitants. This idea frn-
firoved u*pon him hourly, and whlS he happén'èd
to meet with the girl before mentioned, who
had feed him m his tour, and who had followed him1,to the tents ; and had learnt from hêrféîf
that love had brought her there, it inflamed his
defireoeycSS'all bound?. And moreri^ finding ïërîntreaTïes to meeé tfrewifhes of his heart,
he^no^longér^efi&ted, but became firmly re-
folveàVat all events, to yield to the force of
inclination. He had revolved in h% mind, he
f&id, the Hazard ànd thereward ; and had cori^
cérted witti* klè^Ghowannahe the plan for his"
When Capt. Cook heard his ftory, his re-
fentment was3 converted into laughter at thé
wild extravagance of his romantic plan, and
inftead oT trying him for defertiori; ordered him
on board his own fhip, to be punifhed as Capti
Clèrke fhould think proper, who fent him to
the gun, to receive twelve lafhes; and thus teN
mfnated all ftfephopes of being a mighty emperor.
The diftrefs of Ghowannahe is fcarce to be
conceived.    She wasjêft a woeful fpectacle, to
lament her fate.  She expreffed her grief, by the
ip| punfîurei CfPTr COOK'S   VoYAjpB. $£
punctures fhe madeln her face, arms, and where-
tver defpair prompted her to direct the bloody
injlrument. It is wifhed, former fake, that thp£
lavage people, whofe bodies are expofed to ti^p
feverities of the feafons, are not fo fufceptible of
gain as thofe of a finer texture-, otherwife her
jperfonal feelings muft have been exquifite, independent of thofe of her mind.,lj3ut to take
leave of her for eyer.
On the 27th, both fhips came to fail, and
on the 28th, cleared the land ; lat. 41 : 36*
long. 175 : E.
On the $1 of March, a ftorm came on, but
as. the wind was fair, we got down the top gallant-yards, clofe-reefed the top-fails, and purfued ôjïr courfe E. by N. About four in the
afternoon it cleared up, we fpoke w|rjj the Re*
lolution, and all, well, except the'two New
Zealanders, who, notwithftanding their confiant
refidence on the margin of the main ocean, an$
their employment of fifhing near the fhores from
their infancy, yet, when they came to leave the
land, and feeing nothing but foaming billows
all round them, their hearts failed them ; they
now began to pine, and refufed to eat.
On the 3d, the wind continuing fair, and
the breeze moderate, Capt. Clarke, with Mr.
Burney, went on board the Refolution, to dine
with Capt. Cook. When the New Zealanders
were told there was a boat come on board,
whatever their apprehenfions then were, it was
not eafy tp difcover;   but  they ran and hid
themfelves 74       Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.
themfelves, and feemed to be in a great panic:
It did not appear that their fear took its rife
from the thoughts of being carried back, becaufe when the gentlemen were coming away,
they wanted to come with them. It fhould rather feem, therefore, that they were apprehen-
fiveof fome defign upon their lives, as in their
country a confultation among the chiefs always
precedes a determined murder. This was in
part confirmed,by their behaviour afterwards.
This day we were in lat. 42 : 31. S. long,
j8z : 30. E.    Nothing remarkable till
The ^ th, when a great fwell from the fouthward gave notice of an approaching ftorm. Al-
batroffes, men of war birds, flying fi(h, dolphins and fharks had played about the fhips for
feveral days, and fome of our gentlemen had
fhot albatroffes that meafured eleven feet from
tip to tip, and this day a large mark was caught,
moft of which was eaten by the fhip's company ;
tho' they had not yet loft the relifh of the New
Zealand fifh, nor were their flores quite ex-
haufled, moft of the failors havjng purchafed
quantities to falt,which wereefteemed excellent,
Lat. obf. 39 ; 16. S. Jong. 190 ; 26". £. courfe
E. by N. I :J|£ :      'M
On the 8th, the ftorm that w$s forefeen came
on, accompanied with thunder, lightening and
rain. The fea rofe mountains high, and the
wind increafed to fuch a degree, as made it neceffary to take in almofl all our fails with the
ui^gft expedition j and to feud it under'doubîç
reefed Capt. COOK's Voyage; 17$
reefed top-fails. We ftill kept our courfe, fleer*
in* N. E. by E. The gale continued ail night
and part of next day, when about four in the
afternoon the wind abated, and fine weather
fucceeded; lat. 39: 21. long. 192: 17.
On the 10th, a New Zealand dog was dreffed
for the great cabin, when the Zealand boys were,
with difficulty, witheld from eating it raw ; lat.
39. 22; long. 194. 47» courfe IN. E. by E. ,a.|
On the nth, it began to blow very hard
in the morning, and before we could hand the
top-gallant fails, it carried away the main top^
crallant yard ; about two in the afternoon if became fine, but attended with a great fwell from
the fouthward. Lat. Obf. 39. 26. long. 195. 35,
On the 14th, a fine breeze, courfe N. E. by N,
We were now advancing brifkly at the rate of 7
and 8 knots an hour, when all on a fudden the
wind fhifted to the fouth-eaft.
On the 15th it blew a hurricane, attended
with rain ! and a high fea, which breaking over
our bows, cleared the decks of every thing that
was not firmly fecured. It carried away our
main top gallant yard in the flings, and fplit our
fore- pop- m aft ftay fail in a thoufand fhreds. At
night we ihifted pur courfe, and flood N by E
i E. There were fome on board who difap-
proved of the courfe we had fleered from the beginning, forefeeing, that by going fo faft to the
northward, we fhould fall too ftiddenly into the
trade winds, efpecially if we fhould be met by an
$a$erly win$ before we approached the Tropic,
êmm ,||1'-  Capt. COOK's   Voyag^
Among the feamen on boarckaking's Aug, tfy$g
are always fome expert navigator, wliojegkidg*
meht, ripened by experience, is rn,ueh; to be$ç.t
pended upon ; but the misfortune is, that theft
men are never confulted, nor do they even dare
fb much as to whifper their opinion to thekvfu-
perior officer. Like gamefters ftanding by,
they can fee the errors of the game, but mujfc
not point them out till the game is over. 'This
was the real cafe on board the Difcovery, fome
of whofe people did not fcruple to foretel what
would happen the moment we left the 39th de^
gr^e of fouthern latitude, while we were yet
only in the 190th degree of eaftern longitude.
They did not fcruple to fay, among,themfelves*
that inftead of 22 degrees fhort of the longitude of Otaheite, (which lies in 2 IJ&-É. nearly^
before we altered our latitude to the north^we
ought to haveftretched at leaft 12 degrees far*
ther eaftward, being then certain, that how
|a£ipever we might be to the eaftward of oqr
intended port, when we came to crofs the T~jjX>$
Rjyçawe ffcould be fur,? of a fair wind to carr^aus
to it. Lat. this day obf. 34 < 6. long. 198: 2$>,
On the $8th, having continued our courfe
N N E for the laft 24 hours, we found ourfelves in lat. 33 deg, 8 min. by obfervation, and
in long. 200 : $6. È, that is more than 12 degrees
to the weft ward of Otaheite. Here we faw fea-
weed in abundance, and by a large tree floating
by us, we judged we could not be far from land ;
j?ut found none» The tree appeared to be abou^r.
$9 ?*£I Capt* C O O K's Voy*ct.
30 feet long, and of a confiderable gfct, and bf
jts'frefhnefs feemed not to have been long in the
The 2ift, when, in the latitude of 28 deg.
fouth, we faw a large whale, at a little diftance 5
a fight feldora feen in fd low a latitude m thft
northern hemifphere.   This day our beer, which
had been periodically brewed from the fpruce
brought from New Zealand, was all exhaufted,
and grog ferved out in its flead. Hitherto not a
man was ill on board the Difcovery, nor any
other alteration made in their allowance.    It
was the number of live ftock on board the Refolution, that occafioned  the diftrefs for water,
from which the Difcovery waslaTa manner exempt, having few or none on board, more than
were neceffary for the fhip's ufe.
On the 22d, the heavieft rain began to pour
down that any man on board had ever known»
It fell in fheets, and as the wind increafed, the men
in handing the fails, were in the utmoft danger
of being waflied off the yards.   It continued for
fix hours inceffantly.   It came, however, moft
feafonable for the Relolution, where the number
of live flock, horfés, cows, goats and fheep had
exhaufted a large proportion of their frefh water, and we were yet at a great diftance from our
deftined port.  Here the wind began to veer to
the E, as we approached the Tropic.    This was
apprehended by many, who finding our longitude
not to increafe in proportion as our latitude
Été        decreafed 7&       Capt;   COQK's  VotfAO^
decreafed^ begâri tofufpect that we fhould not W
able to make Otaheite this run.   Courfe N. by
È. wind S, E. by S. Lat. 26. 51. long. 201. 59/.
On the 23d, the weather continuing, we began to be accompanied by our tropical compa^
nions, many of which furrounded the fhip, and
one man of war bird had the audacity to fettle
on the mafiahead.
On the 24th,  courfe N. by  E.  the wind
E. by S.
On  the  25th  our  latitude was  decreafed
to 24 deg. 24 min. without our longitude being
increafed one fingle degree. The wind
E. S. E. and our courfe N. E. by N. we made
but little way to the eaftward. But the
weather continuing fair, Capt. Clarke, and Mr.
Burney went on board the Refolution, to dine
with Capt. Cook, and when they returned
brought the forrowful news of the alarming
fituation of the Refolution, for want of provifions and water for the live ftock ; that they
were obliged to kill a great part of their fheep,
hogs and goats for the ufe of the crew, not hav-
ing a fufficient quantity of food and water to keep
them alive; that the horfes and cows were mere
fkeletons, being reduced to the fcanty portion
e*f four pounds of hay, and fix quarts of water
for 24 hours ; and the men put to the allowance
of 2 quarts of water, for the fame fpace of time^
that the wind ftill continuing foul, all thoughts
of reaching Otaheite were laid afide, and that
the ifles of Amfterdam and Rotterdam were now
our only refource,   Nothing remarkable till
The Capt. COOK's Voyage. <jq
The 27th, when the weather, which for two
or three days had been fqually, attended with
thunder and lightening, increafed to a ftorm,
fo that it became neceffary to hand our fails,
one after another, till our double reefed top-fails
were all that were abroad. We now faw fea weed
in abundance, and fome land fowl began to make
their appearance, which were indications of land
at no great diftance. Courfe N. E. by N. to N.
N. E.   Lat. obf, 23. 15. long. 201. 53.
On the 28th, the tempeftuous weather ftill
continuing, we altered our courfe to the north.
The wind for the laft 24 hours, blowing moftly
from the S E. We, this day, croffed the
fouthern tropic; when the weather cleared up,
and we were faluted with a fine breeze, and attended by numerous fhoals of flying flfh, bonitos, dolphins, fharks; and whole flocks of
tropical fea-fowl, which abound near the iflands
in the low latitudes, but are feidom feen in the
deep Pacific Sea.
On the 29th, about ten in the morning, the
fky being clear, and the weather moderate, the
man at the maft head, called out Land, bearing N E. diftant about 7 or 8 leagues. We
made ^ie fignal, which was foon aniwered by
the Refolution. About 12, the weather began
to alter, and to blow in gufts from the land.
At four in the afternoon tacked fhip, and flood
jn for the land. Saw no fign of inhabitants
while day-light remained, but in the night obferved feveral fires. Lat. 22, ij. long. 201, 25.
On SST     CAPT.fCOOTk^s   Voyage;
On the 30th, faw feveral canoes approaching
the fhips, and many inhabitants on the beach,
feemingiy in arms to oppofe our landing.   A-
boiif ten, the boats were hoifted out and manned,  in order to  reconnoitre the   fhore,   and
found for anchorage, who to our great difap-
pointment, returned without having fucceeded^
Two of the canoes came within call, having
three perfons in each canoe; but none of them
could be prevailed   upon to come on board.
Our Captain fhewed many articles of European
manufacture to excite their curiofity, but they
feemed to kt little value on any thing except
the New Zealand cloth; of which he threw a
piece over-board, and they came and dived for
it; but they had  no fooner recovered it, than
they paddled off as faft as they could, without
offering any thing in return.    In the mean time
the boats were furrounded by multitudes from
the fhore, who came, fome in canoes, and fome
fwimming ;  they even attempted to board the
boats by force, and feveral fattened round them
with their teeth.    Thus circumftanced, and in
danger of being funk,  they chofe rather to return to the fhips, than hazard their own fafety j
or, to fecure themfelves, deprive any  of the
innocent people of life; an injunction that was
frequently repeated by Capt. Cook, during the
voyage, and which was the more neceffary, as
the common failors were very apt to forget, that
the life of an Indian was of any account.   A-
bott noon, the Refolution, being in much dif-
tiefs Capt.   COOK'S Voyage.        8i
trefs for water, though fomewhat relieved by the
tains which had fallen, Capt. Cook ordered
the cUttet to be manned, and went in it himfelf, to talk with the natives, and to examine
the coaft ; but after a fruitlefs fearch, Was forced
to return, the furf being fuch as rendered the
watering of the fhips from the fhore an ab-
folute impoffibility. While he lay too, he
had fome friendly converfation with the natives*
and fome prefents paffed between them ; but
nothing that anfwered the purpofes of fupply-
ing the fhips, or refrefhing the crews. One of
the natives to whom a knife was given, inftantly
run it through his ear and fwam to fhore
though the furf rofe to an aftoniffiting height-
Great nutribers came round to the beech over
againft which the Captain lay, waving greeri
branches in token of peace.
This ifland, which we fuppofed to be in length,
from S S W. toNNE. about eight leagues,
and in breath about 4 leagues, and to lie in lat.
2*1 : 54. long, 202 : 42* riiade a moft delightful
appearance, and, as Capt. Cook was made to
underftand, abounded in every thing of which
the fhips were in want; it may therefore
eafily be conceived, with what reluctance we
left it. Some peculiarities were obferved by
thofe who attended Capt. Cook, particularly
in the drefs both of the men and women, who
Wore a kind of fandals, made of bark, upon
their feet ; and on their heads caps, probably
©f their owfi manufacture, richly ornamented,
K and $2        Capt.   COOK's  Voyage;
and encircled with party-coloured plumage.
They were above the middle ftature, moft of
them feemingly from five feet ten inches, to
fix feet fix inches; well-made, tattowed, and
like thofe of the friendly ifles, were without
cloathes, except a kind of apron which encircled their waftes, reaching little more than half
way down their thighs. Both men and women
were armed with fpears thirteen or fourteen feet
long^ and the men had maffy clubs befides,
about three feet long, of a hard wood and very
heavy. Armed with thefe weapons, 5 or 600
people were drawn up upon the beach, who
eagerly gazed at the fhips, having probably
never feen an European veffel before, though
this, with the iflands adjoining, were difcovered
in Captain Cook's former voyage, at the diftance of feven or eight leagues. Their canoes
were of curious workmanfhip, feemingly cut
out of the folid wood, polifhed and decorated
with carvings that indicated both tafte and defign. Their very paddles were polifhed and inlaid with fhells, as were moft of their weapons,
of war.
On the 31ft, before ten in the morning, the
man at the maft-head called out land a-head,
diftance feven or eight leagues, lying N. by E.
At eleven we hauled in for the land, and obferving feveral canoes flattening towards us, waving
green branches, which we underftood were en-
figns of peace ; thefe we anfwered, and one,
who appeared to be a chief, came on board the
S31B1 Difcovery Cam-. COOK's Vovaôs:
Difcovery, with a large bough in his hand, and
another was feen to afcend the fide of the Refolution.   After the ufual ceremonies, and fome
prefents of little value had paffed, while Capt.
Clarke was endeavouring to make his  wants
known to the Indian, Omai came on board by
Capt. Cook's direction, who here could make
himfelf perfectly underftood*    The chief ad-
dreffed him in an elaborate fpeech, which, tho3
Omai pretended to interpret, very little of it
could be underftood by any one elfe.    He then
was introduced by Omai to the Captain,to whom
he prefented his green bough, at the fame time
inviting him afhore, and promifing to furnifh
him with whatever refrefhments the ifland produced.    This   invitation was   accepted,   the
boats were ordered out, and the Captain, with
Omai and fui table attendants,   were inftantly
landed.    It was no fooner known that peace
was eftablifhed, than fwarms of canoes were
feen paddling to the fhips,laden with cocoa-nuts,
yams, bread-fruit, and plantains,   which they
exchanged with the failors for bits of broken
glafs, beads, or any baubles that were offered
them.   Here the natives appeared in aftonifh-
ment with every thing they faw, and more particularly at the carpenters who were at work
upon repairs, with whofe tools they were no
lefs captivated than thofe of the nimble fingered
inhabitants of the other ifles ; nor were they lefs
ittccefsful in carrying feme of them off, not-
9A I ;
84      Capt.  COOK's  Voyage;
withstanding the ftricteft eye was kept over them
by thofe whofe bufinefs it was to watch them.
About two in the afternoon, the Captain returned with the Chief to dinner, bringing with
him a fmall hog, with a whole load of the
fruits of the ifland, which were chiefly diftri-
buted among the fhip's company.
On this ifland all kinds of tropical fruits were
found in plenty, and even fifh were furniflied in
abundance, and thofe of the moft delicious
kinds; but the article moft wanted, namely water, was the fcarceft. Scurvy grafs and celery
were every where to be gathered, and great
quantities were brought on board ; and no people upon earth could fhew greater civility to
ftrangers than the natives of this happy ifland,
who feemed molt delighted, when they could
belt gratify the wifhes of their guefts. They
even took pleafure in diverting them, and made
mock fights among themfelves to fhew their
dexterity in the ufe of arms. While they were
thus employed, one of our gentlemen fired a
great gun, which in an inftant cleared the fhip
of the poor affrighted warriors ; for which, as
he well deferved, he afterwards received a fevere
Parties from both fhips having been fent out
to fearch the ifland for water, and being returned
without being able to meet with any within watering diftance, as foon as dinner was over,
orders were given to make fail.  About four we
left Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.       85
left the ifland, fleering N. by E. with a fine
On the 1 ft of April, being in lat. 19 : 48.
we continued the fame courfe as before.
On the 3d in the morning, the man at the maft
head called out Land, which was foon anfwer-
ed by the Refolution. About three in the afternoon we fell in with a fmall ifland, probably
Hervey's ifle, laid down by Capt, Cook in his
firft voyage, in lat. 19 : 18. and long. 158:
54. W. The boats were inftantly got out to
fearch for foundings, but found none; flood off
and on all night.
Next morning, the 4th, feveral canoes came
"off, brandifhing their fpears, and threatening
us apparently in great wrath. The boats, however, were again fent in fearch of anchorage,
and in palling the canoes, an officer fitting care-
ledy in one of the boats, was near being pulled
over-board by an Indian, who made a fpring to
fnatch fomething he had in his hand ; but mit
fing his aim, plunged inftantly into the kài
They then became very troublefome, till a
great gun was fired from the fhips, which in a
moment difperfed them. In the evening the
boats returned, with no better fuccefs than be*
fore. In the mean time Captain Cook having
difplayed a white flag in token of peace ; they
did the fame, and then came on board friendly.
But tho' water was here equally unattainable as
in the other iflands of this group, the night was
K 3 fpent t
Capt.  CO OK's  Voyage,
fpent in Handing on and off, on the following-
occafion ;
One of the chiefs who difcourfed with Omai,
and was underftood by him, gave him to underftand, that three of his countrymen were in that
ifland, and that if he chofe to fee them, he
would be his guide. Omai's curiofity was raif-
ed to know how they came there. On their
meeting, they were all equally furprized, ant}
equally impatient ; they to hear Omai's adventures, and Omai to know theirs. Omai took
them on board, and entertained t^em with a plea*
ling relation of all thar had happened to him-.
felf ; and they in return acquainted Omai with
what had befallen them. Their ftory was truly
pityable ; they faid, that of near 50 Uliteans,
they were the only furvivors ; that about twelve
years ago, they with their families and friends
going from Ulitea to fettle at Otaheite, werç
overtaken in a dreadful tempeft, by which they
were driven into the main ocean; that the
ftorm continuing to increafe, and the fea to run
mountains high, the women and children were
Wafhed over board, and perifhed before they
experienced any further diftrefs ; that after three
days, when the ftorm abated, thofe who remained, found themfelves in an unknown ocean
with little more provifions than was fufficienç
to ferve them another day ; that having no
pilot to direct their courfe, nor any fign by
which to fteer, they continued to go before
the wind day after day, till famine had reduced their number tp lefs than twenty ; that
thole Capt. COOK's Voyage. Zj
thofe who furvived, had nothing but the fea-
weed which they found floating in the fea, and
the water which they faved when it rained, to
keep them alive ; that* ten days having elapf»
ed, and no landin profpect, defpair took place
of hope, and feveral unable to fupport the
pangs of hunger, jumped over board inîhejr
phrenzy, and perifhed by an eafier death ; the
groans and lamentations of the dying, and the
terrible agonies with which fome were affected
before death came to their relief, exceeded all
defcription. In this melancholy fituation they
had exifted for thirteen days, and how much
longer they could have no recollection, for they
were taken up infenfible of pain, and hardly
to-be diftinguifhed from the emaciated bodies
«of the dead among whom they were founds
ieemingly without life or motion, till by the
friendly care of their deliverers, they were reftored. When they recovered, they faid, it was
like waking from a dream: they knew not
where they were, nor how they came upon
land ; but being told that they were taken up
at fea, and in what condition \ as their fenfes
gradually returned, they by degrees recollected
all thecircumftances already related ; they added, that ever fince they were brought to life,
they had remained with their deliverers, and
were now quite reconciled to their condition
and happy in the fituation in which the Etoa or
good fpirit had placed them. Omai, after hearing tnçir relation, with whkh he was apparently
K 4 much 38 Capt.   CO OK-s   Voyagé,
much affected, told them, they might now t&Klh
the opportunity of returning home with him $
that he would intercede for them ; and that he
was fure if they chofe it, the chiefs of the Ex-?
pedition would grant his requeft. They thanked Omai for his kindnefs ; nor had they any
reafon to fuppofe, that fuch an offer would ever
be made them again : but they were now determined to end their days with the people who
had reftored them to fécond life ; and as their
deareft relations and friends were of the number
of thofe who perifhed, the return to their own
country would only renew their grief, and inftead of affording them pleafure, would but in*-
creafe their melancholy.
Capt. Cook being told the manner in which
Omai was engaged, and that he was much delighted with the company of his countrymen, ordered the fhips to lie too that he might not be interrupted ; and Mr. Burney, Mr. Law, the furgeon, and feveral more of our people went only
with our fide arms about us to divert ourfelves on
fhore, and to take a view of the country. We
had not proceeded many miles before we were
furrounded by a multitude of armed inhabitants,
who without ceremony began to examine us,
as we thought, a little too roughly. We at firft
fuppofed it matter of curiofity that had occa-
fioned this familiarity ; but we foon found that,
like the gentlemen of the road in our own country, though they did not offer any violence to
pur perfons, they were determined to make free
with Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.        8q
with the contents of our pockets j they accordingly ftript us of every thing but our cloaths,
and then they all difperfed, leaving us to purfue
our journey ; but Mr. Burney having loft his
note-book, which was of greater confequence
to him than all we had loft befides, determined
to find the friendly chief, and to apply to him
for redrefs. This, tous who were ftrangers,
was matter of no fmall difficulty ; thofe of whom
we enquired, pretended not to underftand our
meaning, and probably did not, as none but
women and children were now to be feen ; we
therefore thought it the fhorteft way to return
to the fhip, and get Omai and his three friends
to aflift us in this enquiry. In this we fucceed-
ed, and it is hardly to be conceived, how fpeed-
ily our loffes were reftored, not an article being
omitted, no, not fo much as an iron cork -fere w,
which to them was a valuable acqutfition.
On the 5th in the morning we fet fail; and
on thè'oth came in fight of another ifland, lat.
19: 12. long. 201 :46.
On the 7th tacked and flood in for land. For
the laft 24 hours the ftorms of thunder, lightning, and rain, were almoft inceffant, infomuch,
that it was found neceffary to cover the fcuttles
of the magazine to fecure the powder. The
people in both fhips were now employed in
catching water, which though none of the belt,
becaufe of its tarry tafte, was yet richly prized,
and he who could fave but a gallon a day when
the rains, began, thought his labour amply rewarded • mi
go Capt.   CO OK.'s   Voyage
warded; but this proving the rainy feafon, we
in a few days filled all our empty cafks, and
every man had liberty to ufe what he pleafed.
Before thefe heavy rains fell and furniflied them
with a fupply, the people on board the Refolution had been greatly diftreffed for water, as we
have already remarked ; but now it was determined to direct our courfe to Anomocoa, or
Rotterdam Ifland, and accordingly that ifland
was appointed a place of rendezvous, in cafe
of feparation. The weather continued variable,
and though plenty of rain fell almoft every day,
ye*t it was found advifeable to make ufe of the
machine on board the Refolution, and to ufe
water obtained by diftiliation for every purpofe
for which it was fit. It was apt to difcolour
the meat that was boiled with it, and to tincture every thing with a difagreeable blacknefs :
but it was rather preferred to rain water, becaufe
of the tarry tafte communicated by the latter,
Courfe in the evening, S. W. lat. 19 : 30.
long. 200 : 51.
On the 8th, the lightening and thunder were
truly alarming, Courfe this day, W, S. W.
lat. 19 : 9. long. 200 ; 19= Nothing remarks-
able till tn     ■
The 12th, when we came in fight of land,
bearing W. S. W. diftance about eight or
nine leagues. It appeared like four iflands ; we
made fail, and flood for the land, but a heavy
tempeft coming on, involved us in darknefs.
>'     '     y ' ~' "   In Capt.    CO OK's   Voyage. gi
In the evening we hove too, and fo continued
during the night. Lat. 18 : 9. long. 197 : 19.
In the morning of the 14th the boats were ordered out, and about noon returned, having
found good anchorage in 12 and 15 fathom water, fine fandy bottom near the fhore. The boats
came back laden with the fruits of the ifland,
which they made free with tho' they faw no inhabitants. We had no fooner caft anchor than
parties from both fhips were fent out to reconnoitre the country The weather now began to aL
ter. The rainy feafon, whkh generally continues
from fix to eight weeks in this climate, was as we
hoped, nearly expired when we fell in w#$i this
delightful ifland, which though it was found de-
ftituteof inhabitants, was notwithstanding full of
fruit-trees of all the various forts that are indigenous to the tropical Iflands. Wn our rambles throughout  we found plenty of fcurvy-
grafs and other wholefbme efculents, of which
the failors laid in a good flore; but it was unfortunate, that after the ftricteft fèarch no water
could  be difcovered.   It muft doubtlefs fur-
prifè the greateft part of our readers, and per*
haps ftagger their belief when they are told of
fo many iflands abounding with inhabitants, who
fubfift with little or no frefh water.   Yet true it
is, that few or none of the  little low  iflands
between the  tropics have any water on the
furface of the ground, except perhaps in a lagoon, the water of which is generally brackifh $
nor is it eafy to find water by digging   The
fact 92 Capt. COOK's Voyage.
fact is, the fruits of the earth are the chief food of
the inhabitants,and themilk of the cocoa nut ferves
them for drink. They want no water to boil
any part of their food, for they knew not the
art of boiling till the Europeans taught them,
nor had they a veffel fitted for the purpofe : neither
have they any occafion for wafhing their cloaths,
becaufe the materials of which they are made
being of the paper kind, will not bear wafhing.
Salt water therefore anfwers their purpofe with
very little frefh, and adds a relifh to their meat,
-WÎÙgJi, when it is dreffed, they dip into fea-water
every mouthful they eat. This in a great meafure
accounts for their fubfifting without frefli water,
tho' in the climate of England it would not- be
eafy to fubfift without it a fingle week. And
now having fupplied the fhips with the produce
of this ifland, and not being able to find anchorage near any of thofe adjoining, we prepared to depart.
On the 17th, orders were given to fail ; but
in the evening when the gentlemen returned,
three mufkets, three cartouch boxes, and three
hangers were miffing. Thefe were the arms of
three marines who had accompanied the gentlemen in an excurfion up the country, and
who had committed their arms to tne care of
their comrades, and on their return had forgotten them. They were, however, recovered
by fending the marines on fhoie, who foon
found them, and brought them off. On the return of the boat we inftantly put to fea, fteer^
ing Capt. C O O K' s VoyaGsI o%
ing N. W. The iflands we had juft left were
the Palmerfton Ifles, in lat. i8 :n. and long.
98: 14. E. A;
On the 20th, we varied our courfe, fleering
W, N. W. all night.
On the 22d, clear weather, but a great fwell
from the fouth, a fure prefage of an approaching ftorm. This day we altered our courfe to
S. S. W. with the wind variable.
On the 25th, the expected ftorm came on,
which increafed to fuch an alarming height
before night, attended with thunder, lightning,
and rain, with a tremendous fea, that with all
our fails handed,and our top-gallant yards ftruck,
we were obliged to lie too under bare poles till
morning appeared.
On   the 26th,   the ftorm being fomewhat
abated, the Refolution, of which we had loft
fisht, bore down to us, and at five in the af-
ternoon we made fail  under clofe reefed top,
fails. J§About eleven at night we narrowly escaped running   on   fhore   on   Savage Ifland,
the man at the maft-head calling out Land,
when, dark as it  was, we   foon   got fight of
it clofe on our   lee-bow,  fleering directly for
it.   We inftantly put about and fired a gun
as a fignal for the Refolution, (then to wind^
ward about half a mile) to do the fame.    So
narrow an efcape made a ftrong impreflion on
the fhip's company, who, thoughtlefs as they
are, could not help looking up to heaven with
thankful hearts for fo fignal a deliverance.   As
Wm foon 94      Capt. COOK's Voyage-
foon as it was light  next   morning, we faw
this execrated ifland, at the diftance of about
four leagues.  Lat. obf. 19^44. long. 188 ; p
On the 27th, heavy thunder and rain. Coutle
S. I W. lat. 20.» ^y. long. 186:57.
On the 29th, our carpenter's mate had the
misfortune to fall down upon deck and break
his leg. Happy that no other misfortune had
befallen us during a feries of tempeftuous weather, which few fhips would have been able
to refill. About nine in the morning, the
ftorm ftill continuing, but the fky in part clear
the man at the maft head called out Land,
which was prefently known to be Anomocoa,
or Rotterdam ifland, fo called by the Dutch
who firft difcovered it, bearing S W. diftance
about four or five leagues. At ten faw two
mountains, bearing S. S* W, diftance about nine
or ten leagues, and foon after a great finoak
was ken to afcend from the lowermoft. The
weather ftill continuing fqually, we approached
Anomocoa with great caution. Above five in
the afternoon, the . fignal was made from the
Refolution, to come too, which we obeyed, and
about fix caft anchor.
On the 30th, we weighed again, and in
the evening, worked into Anomocoa road.
About fix we moored, and was foon after joined
by the Refolution. We had now been juft
fixty days in a paffage, which in a direct courfe
could not have exceeded ten, and had been ex-
pofed to the fevereft trials, owing to fome fatality i Capt. COO K 's Voyage 95
tality in purfuing a courfe which there was not
a feamen on board that did not difapprove.
It feemed to have no object of difcovery in
view, as we fell nearly into the fame track»
which our Commodore had formerly navigated,
nor did we meet with a fingle ifland, which one
or other of our late voyagers had not feen or
vifited in their different routs. How it happened is not eafy to be accounted for, as it was
next to a miracle, that any creature on board
the Refolution remained alive to reach our prefent harbour. Had not the copious rains that
fell almoft inceffantly from the time we paffed
the tropic till our arrival here, fupplied the
daily confumption of water on board our fhips,
not only the animals but the men muft havepe-
lifhed. Happy, however, that we now found
ourfelves in fafety on a friendly coaft. We
forgot the dangers we had efcapèd, and thought
only of enjoying with double pleafure the fweets
of thefe happy iflands, whofe fpontaneous productions perfume the air to a confiderable dif*
tance with a fragrance inconceivably reviving;
and whofe plantations exhibit a richnefs of prof-
pect as we approached them, owing to the beautiful intermixture of the various bloffoms, with
the vivid green leaves of the trees, of which
the moft animated defcription can communicate
but a faint idea. Add to thefe, the tufted
clomps that naturally adorn the little rifing hills
that appear every where delightfully interfperfed
among verdant lawns, and rich meadows, bordered
P m
gé       Capt.   CO UK's Yoyaôe; -
deredby rivulets of water, which among the ifïancfë
in the tropical climates, are as rare as they are re-
frefhing; and nothing in nature can be more plea*
fing to the eye, or more grateful to the fenfes.
We were no fooner moored in the harbour,
than we were furrounded with innumerable little
boats, or canoes, moft curioufly constructed and
ornamented -, the fides with a polifh that fur-<
pafs'd the blackeft elbony, artd the decks inlaid
with mother of pearl and tortoife-fhell, equal to
the beft cabinets of European manufacture. In
this kind of workmanfhip, thofe iflanders feent
to excel. Their weapons of war, their clubs,
the handles of their working tools, the paddles
of their boats, and even their fifhhooks are
polifhed and inlaid with variegated fhells ; with
an infinite accumulation of which, their fhores
are margined, and among them our natura-
lifts found fome of fuperlative beauty. Thefe
boats held generally three perfons, anc| under
their decks, which take up two thirds of their"
length, they brought the fruits of their plantations and the manufactures of their country,thefe
laft confifting, befides cloth of different fabrics, of a great variety of things ufefui, and
others ornamental. Of the firft fort were combs*
,fifh-hooks, lines, nets made after the European
faihion, needles made of bone, with thread
of different finenefs, purfes, calibafhes made of
reeds fo clofely wrought as to be water-tight -,
with a variety of other utenfils. Among the
latter, were bracelets, breaft-plates ornamented
with feathers of a vivid glow ; mafks, man-
11 talets Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.        gy
talets compofed of feathers, fo artfully an
beautifully arranged, as even our Englifh ladies
Would not dtfdain to wear. Thefe were of im-
menfe value in the Society Ifles, where Omai
faid a fine red feather would purchafe a hog»
and of thefe, and red feathers, Omai laid in a
The people of thefe iflands have already
been fo well defcribed by Capt. Cook, and Mr,
Forfter, that what we have now to add, is rather tô confirm their accounts than to advance
any thing new. We found them of a friendly
difpofition, generous, hofpftaole, and ready to
obfiee. Some there were among them moft
villainoufly given to thieving -, but that propen*
fity did not appear to them fo much a vice in
the light we are apt to confider it, as a craft
fynonymous to cunning, according to our acceptation of the word» He who was detected
and punifhed;* was neither pitied nor défpifed
ïry his neighbours; even the Arees, or great
men among them thought it ro crime to practice tnât craft upon our commanders whenever
they found an opportunity ; and would only
laugh when they were detected-, juft as a cunning fellow in England would laugh when he
had found an opportunity of out-witting an
honefter  man than himfelf.
As foon as the ufual ceremonies had pafled,
and peace was tftablifhed, the commanders of
both (hips gave orders that no perfon, of whatever, rank off board, fhould purchafe any thing
L of Capt.   COOK5s   Voyage;
of the natives-till the fhips were fupplied with
provifions.    This  order    was  iffued   for two
purpofes.; one to regulate the prices, the other
to oblige the natives to bring their provifions
to maçket, when they found that nothing elfe
was faleable; and it .produced the defired effect*
The   number of hogs   and   fruit  that were
brought, were greater than the daily confump-
tion ; though the ordinary fhip-allowance was
entirely ftopt, and the produce of the iflands
ferved out ;in its ftead.    We even falted for %*
veral days, from four to fix hogs a day.
SjTJ4$Lcivility of the chiefs was not confined'
tOo$ei^rreadinefs to fupply the fhips with gro-
yjfionsfo -X^ey; cumplimented the commanding
officers ^with the ufe of a magnificent houfe,
conveniently fituated upon the beach, during
jheir flay ;• and at the fame time prefenteçutjtam
with breaft-plates. moft" |beautifully decorated
with feathers, being the  richeft offering they
had to make.    In return, the commanders'weçe
not wanting in generofity^, loading them with
Jhatchets, knives, linen cloth, glafs, and beads $
with which they thought themfelves $rnply,arer
paid.    Tents were now carrieçLon there; the
aftronomexsobfervatory erected ; wooders, ançl
waterers : appointed;  and all the artificers on
board employed in the repayions of the fhips,;
not%,few bein» wanting after a, voyage of two
. months,' through  a   lempeftuous fea, during
which   the/elements of fire, air, and water,
might be faid to De in perpetual conflict.
While Capt.   C O O K*s   Voyage       "$£
While thefe things ' were  abom, the com*
manders and chiefs were every day contriving to
vary the pleafures of their refpective1 guefts, and
to entertain them, with new diverfions.   They
were mutually engaged on board and on fhore
to furprife each other with novelty. ;j| On board,
the chiefs were entertained with mufic, dari*
cing, and feafting, after the European manner;
and wiWf what feemed much more pleafing to
them, as they paid more attention to itfwith
the various operations of fhe artificers wntp were
at work on their refpective'employmen.ts. '  The ;
facility with which the boat-builders jperformeet
tne1fJ*worfc particularly"attracted their, notice j
when they beheld 'the?labourjof a yeaFjwitfi
them, performed in & w.eejs. by the fame number
or hands on board, their ^aitonifhment was beyond cpncepfiprL$ norwere they lefs in amazement' to ' fee |large timber cut through' the
middle  and Tawed into   planks  While' they
wéfèVfpedators,£wlîich   they   had no means
of  efftctjhgJ in   $efr ffland in_ many, days.
On fl?ore, ihe chiefs, in return, endeavoured
to entertain the commande/s ; they feafted them
like tropical kings^with barbicued hogs, fowls,
and with the moft delicious fruits ;  and,   for
wine, they offeree] jtliem a liquor made before
their faces, in a manner, not to be mentioned
without.difguft; bulas;,the chiefs had refufeel
to drink wine on board, our commanders,, and
thofe who attended diem, f needed no other a-
pology fofrefufifig to partake of this %uor wi^
L 2 them. ioo      Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.
them.    They likewife, after dinner, introduced
their mufic,  and   dancers,   who  were chiefly
women of the theatrical caft, and excelled in
agility and varied  attitudes, many of the beft
performers in Europe ; a kind of pantomime
fucceeded, in which fome prize fighters difplay-
éd their feats of arms ; and this part of the
drama concluded with a humorous reprefenta-
tion of fome laughable ftory, which produced
among the chiefs,  and  their attendants, the
moft immoderate mirth.   The fongfters came
laft, the melody of whofe voices was heightened by a kind of accompany ment, not unufual
in the earlieft ages, among the politeft nations,
as may be learnt from ancient paintings, where
the fingers  and dancers are reprefented with
flat clams or fhells in their hands, fnapping them
together, to harmonize their tunes, and regulate
their movements. Though this farfical exhibition
was otherwife infipid to us, it was not wholly
without its ufe, in marking a fimilarity of manners among mankind, at the diftance of half
the globe, and at a period, when the arts of
civil Lfe were in their infancy.   Who knows,
but that the feeds of the liberal arts, that have
now been fown by European navigators in thefe
happy climes, may, a thoufand years hence, be
ripened into maturity;   and  that the people,
who are now but emerging from ignorance into
fcience, may, when the memory of thefe voyages are forgotten, be found in the zenith of
their improvements by other adventurers, who
may pride them&lyes as the firft difcoverers of
new Capt.    COOK's    Voyage.      ioi
new countries, and an unknown people, infinitely fuperior to thofe who, at that time, may
inhabit thefe regions, and who may have loft
their boafted arts, as we, at this day fee, among
the wretched  inhabitants of Greece, and the
ftill more miferable flaves of Egyptian bondage.
Such are the viciflitudes to which the inhabitants of this little orb are fubject ; and fuch,
perhaps, are the viciflitudes which the globe
itfelf muft undergo before its final diffolution.
To a contemplative mind, thefe iflands prefent
a mortifying fpectacle of the ruins of a broken
and defolated portion of the earth ; for it is
impoffible to furvey fo many fragments of rockst
fome with inhabitants and fome without, and
not conclude with the learned and ingenious Dr.
Burnet, that they are the effects of fome early
convulfion of the earth, of which no memory
remains.   But to return ;
During our ftay here, we were nightly entertained with the fiery eruptions of the neighbouring volcanos, of which notice has been
taken by former voyagers. There are two
mountains that occafionally emit fire and fmoke»
but the loweft is the moft confiant.
On the 19th day of our refidence at Anomocoa, our wooders returned, almoft blinded by
the rains that fell from the manchionello trees,
and with blotches all over their bodies, where
the rains happened to have accefs. The poi-
fonous quality of thefe trees has been noticed
by other voyagers, but was more feverely felt
upon this occafion, than by any of our people
L 3 in
1 102       Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.
in the like fituation.    Many capital thefts were
committed during our ftay, and fome articleé
of confiderable value carried off.
On the 4th of June, Capt. Cla¥k's fteeî-yardâ
were; ftolen out of his cabin, while he, with
other gentlemen, were entertained by the^thfiefs
with a Heiva, or dramatic farce on fhore : but
was afterwards recovered. If On the fame day,
as he was mingled with the croud, his fciffars
was taken out of his pocket three different
times, and as often replaced, when miffed.
On the 7th, we unmoored, and fhifted our
ftation ; but in fo doing we parted our fmall
bower anchor, with about 27 fathom of cable,
the anchor remaining'among the rocks. In the
evening we moored again.   From this da/ till
The 12th, we were employed in recovering
the anchor we had loft, which, after lofina the
buoy rope and grappling, was brought on board
and fecured. One of the natives fto^e an axe
from the fhip, but was difcovered, and frèd at.
He efcaped'by diving. A party of them had
Vinlafhed the ftream anchor, and was lowering
it down into their canoe; but, being difcover*-'
ed in the act, paddled to fhore, and got clear off.
On the 13th, the, live ftock, which had been
landed the day after our arrival, on a fmall
ifland, about half a mile from the fhore to
graze, were brought on board amazingly recovered ; from perfect fkeletons, the horfes and
cows were grown plump, and as playful as
young colts. This day orders were iflued
fgr failing; the tents were ftruck, and Mr.
|§§ fhillipfbfl, Capt.   CO OK's   Voyage.      ioge
PnHKpfbn, lieutenant of marines, loft all his
bedding, by the careleffnefs of the centinel,
who received 12 lafhes for neglect of duty. In
the morning, the lorfg boat was found fwamped,
and all the ftern fheets, and feveral other articles belonging to her, miffing, and never recovered, for which the marine, who had the
care of thewatch^ wasfeverely punifhed.
On the 14th, we made fail, W. by S. by
the advice and direction of a chief, named
Tioorte^, to an ifland about 40 leagues diftant,
which abounded, he faid, in every thing we
wanted! wood, water, hogs, fowls, fruits, and
grafs for our cattle. We failed with a fine
breeze, wind N E. courfe W S W. and about-
eleven at night, paffed the burning mountains,
bearing N N W. diftant about half a mile. The
flames rifing from the lowermoft with a bellowing noife, louder than thunder, but hoarfer and
more terrifying, illuminated the air in the night,
and enabled us to work through the rnoft dangerous paffage, that could poflibly be navigated.
We had more than 00 iflands within fight, all
©f them furrounded wkh'reefs of rocks, with fo
many windings and turnings, as truly mighfcbe
faid to ccnftitute a labyrinth ; but by the aflift*
ance of our Indian pilot, we paffed them all in
fafety, and
Ori the 24th, moored in a fine bay, on the
weft fidè of Calafoy, in 22 fathom water, fhélly
fififfcbrrV We had fcarcely moored, before we
wèHp furrounded -with natives from all quarters,
who'Hail been apprized of our coming, and who
L 4 had
l 104        Capt, COOK's Voyage.
had loaded their canoes with hogs, iowls, breadfruit, yams, plantains, and every kind of fruit
the ifland produced, which they exchanged for
(broken glafs, red and blue beeds, fhreds of fear,
let cloth, or indeed any thing we offered them.
On the 18th, the live-ftock were landed, and
a proper guard appointed to look after them.
Here our friend Tiooney affumed the fame
confequence,! as at Anamocoa.J|He came on
board with his canoe, laden with four large
hogs, bread fruit, and fhaddocks, a fine odoriferous fruit, in fmeli and tafte not unlike a
lemon, but larger and more round. He brought
likewife yams of an enormous fize, weighing
from fifty to fixty pounds each.
He was followed by the Araké and chiefs of
the Ifland who came laden in the fame manner, with hogs, fowls, and every fpecies of
provifions the ifland afforded*, thefe he intro^
duced in form to the commanders and officers
according to their rank. This ceremony over,
the tents were landed, and all hands fet to work,
to rmifh the repairs of the fhips. The chiefs
were feafted on board, and the commanders
and officers hofpitably entertained on fhore.
On our pat, fire-works were exhibited, the
marines were drawn up, and went through
their military manoeuvres, furrounded by'thoui
fands of natives, who were frightened at firft,
and fled like herds of deer from the nr jfe of
the guns ; but finding they did no harm, took
cou,ragej and rallied ara diftance, but no per-
(uafions Capt.   COOK's   Voyage;       $of
fuafions could prevail upon them to come near.
On the part of the natives, they were equally
inclined to pleafe; they gave heivas every day ;
and drew their warriors together, who went
likewife through their mifery exercifes, and
beat one another feverely in their mock fights,
which, in that refpect, differed but little from
our cudgel-players in England, In this manner,
and in ranging the ifland, botanizing, examining
the curiofities,natural and artificial, we employed our time, while the live ftock were gathering
ftrength, and recruiting their flefh, and the
feveral artificers were compleating the repairs
of the fhips. It is not eafy for people, who
are totally unacquainted with the language of
a country, to make themfelves mafters of
the civil policy of the inhabitants. Indeed
it is next to impoffible in a fhort refidence a-
mong them. As we obferved no fuch medium
as money, by which the value of property is
afcertained, it was not eafy to difcover, what
elfe they had fubftituted in its room, to facilitate the modes of traffic among themfelves. That each had a property in the plantation he poffeffed, we could plainly difcern I
and the Araké and chiefs among them were ready
enough to point out their poffeffions, the extent of which gave them confequence, as a-
mong other civilized nations -, but no fuch thing
as circulating property being difcovenable, by
the hoarding up of which, and laying it out oc-
cafionally to advantage, one might purchafe
another's landed or   fubftantiai  property, we
1 to6 à Cap*. >C O O K ' s   Voyage,
c'ould not inform oûrfelvfcs fufflcienrjfy, by what
Ineans the fiflierman purchafed his canoe, or
the boat-builder his materials, yet there can-
îiot remain a doubt, but that the boat-builder
had an intereft in his boat, after it was built, as
well as the chief in his plantation, after it was
inclofed and cultivated. With us^âll was carried on by barter, and an imaginary vajue fixed
on every article.- A hog was rated at a hati
chet, and fo many-bread-frofc, cocoa-nuts and
plaintains at a fwihg of beeds : and'To, in like
manner, throughout ; but among themfelves,
we faw no fuch value by way of barter- We
did not obferve fo much fruit given for fo many
fifh; nor fo many combs, needles, or ufefui
materials, for a certain proportion of cloth*
but doubtlefs, fome mode of exchange there
muft be among them ; for it is certain there
was no fuch thing as money, at leaft none that
we could difcern: neither could we difcover
any diftinct property, which one man claimed
more than another in the forefts or woods ;
but that every man, like us, cut what he wanted for ufe, and was under no limitation for
fuel. Salt, which is fo neceffary an article îà
European houfe keeping, was wholly unknown
to the tropical iflanders.
On the 19th, an Araké came on board, and
prefented Capt. Clarke with a large and elegant head drefs, ornamented with pearls, fhells
and red feathers, wreathed with flowers of the
moft refplendent colours. The Captain, in
return, loaded him with many ufefui articles
of Capt. CO OK's Voyage. 107
of European manufacture, knives, fdffars,
laws, and fome fhowy firings of'beads, which:*
were highly prized by the royal Calafoyan, who
thought it no difgrace, to paddle himfelf out
fhore, with his rich acquifitiorfir
On the 20th, an affair happened on board
the Difcovery,   that had nearly cancelled all
former obligations,  and  put an end to   that
friendfhip, which mutual acts of civility andge-
nerofity had apparently contributed to cement.
One of the chiefs, who had been frequently on
board, and who had been of the parties cor-
dialîv entertained, invited, perhaps, by   the fa*
mifiarity of à young cat, and delighted by its
playtonefs, wattSed his opportunity to carry it
off; but unluckily for him was detected before
he could effect his purpofe.   He was immediately feized and clapt in irons, an! an exprefs fent
on fhore, to acquaint the Araké, or king, with
the greatnefs of his crime, and the nature of
his   punifhment.    On   this  news,   the Araké
himfelf, and feveral of his chiefs haftened on
board, when  to their grief and aftonifhment,
they   tound  the  prifoner to   be   the   king's
brother.    This  news foon circulated; and the
whole ifland was in commotion.    Tioony fea-
fonably interpofed.    He applied  to Omai, to
know  what was to be done, and upon what
terms  his releaie  might  be procured.    Omai
told him, his offence was of fuch a nature, û
not to be remitted without punifhment; he muft
fubmit to be tied up, and receive 100 lafhes; that
the higher he was in rank, the more neceffary ft:
r io8     Capt.   COOK* s   Voyage.
was to punifh him, by way of example, to deter others from practices of the like nature ;
and that therefore it was in vain to plead for
his deliverance, upon any other terms than fub-
miffion. Tioony acquainted the Araké with
all that had paffed, and prefently a number of
chiefs entered into confultation upon the mea-
fures that were to be purfued; fome by their
geftures were for refenting the infult, and others
were for fubmitting. Some, in great wrath,
were for inftantly returning to fhore, and affem-
bling the warriors in order to make reprizals,
and no lefs than feven attempted to leave the
fhip, but found the way ftopt, to prevent their
efcape; two or three jumped over-board, but
were inftantly followed, taken up, and brought
back. Thus, finding themfelves befet on all
fides, and the king himfelf, as well as the
chiefs in the power of our Commanders, they
again entered into confultation, and after half
an hour's deliberation, the refult was, to make
a formal furrender of the prifoner, to the Araké
of the fhip ; to befeech him to mitigate the
rigour of his punifhment; and at the fame
time to put him in mind of the regard that
had been fliewn to him and his people, not
only by the chiefs of the ifland in general, but
more particularly by the friends and relations
cf the offender, who had it ftill in their power
to render them farther fervice. This was what
was chiefly intended by the whole procefs. The
prifoner was no fooner furrendered in form,
than he was tied to the fhrouds, and received
one Capt.   CO OK* s   Voyage.       io$
one lafh, and difmiffed.    The joy of the multitude, who were affembled on the fhore, waiting with anxious fufpence to learn what was to
become of their unfortunate chief, is hardly to
be conceived when  they  faw him at large;
they received him on his landing with open
arms,   and inftead   of refenting the ind'gnity
that had been offered to the fécond perfon of
the flate, was ready to load his profecutors with
gifts, and to proftrate themfelves in gratitude.
Nothing can be more characteriflic of the pacific difpofition of thefe friendly iflanders, than
their behaviour on this occafion.   They feem to
be the only people upon earth whfc, in principle and practice, are true chriftians. They may
be truly faid to love their enemies, though they
never heard the precept that enjoiqs it.
Early on the 31ft, the king came on board,
with four large hogs, and as much bread-fruit,
yams, and fhaddocks as his boat would hold,
as a prefent to the Captain, for which he would
take no return ; but a hatchet and fome beads
were put into his boat, with which he returnee^
much gratified.
On the 22d, their warriors were all drawn up
in battle array, and performed, a mock-fight,
but left any ftratagem fhould be intended, the
marines were ordered to attend the engagement :
nothing, however, that indicated treachery appeared. The battle was followed by a heiva,
in which the two young princeffes, neices to the
chief who ftole the cat, were the principal performers
Mk no     Capt.   COOK's   Voyage:
formers, and the evening concluded with every
mark of perfect reconciliation.
On the 23d, orders were given to prepare'
for failing. The live ftock, that4 had been
grazing, pofliMy, on the lands of him who
received the lafhi were got on*board, wood and'
Water were brought in plenty, the former of
the bed quality, and the latter^excellent. In
fhort, nothing could exceed the accommodations of every kind, with which we were fur-*
nifhed in th&yfelightful ifland.
On the 25th,Vwe unmoored, and f
On the 27th," rfflêe *fhi\ in Company with the?
Refolution, but in the night, 'heavy "fqualls?
with th&ndèr, l%htniôgfa'ind rain^tSwhich thefé
àfïânds are much expofed Many of the natives *
accomparHedPus as paffengefs^to^ÂnamocBa;*
•' On the ijÊ&h, we were employed beating to
windward, and about ffè at night the Reftf-
lStion fired a gôn, as a fignal of diftrefs. ?EÎShe
had run a-ground on a reef, but before we
could come to her afliftance, fhe rolled off.
^ On the iftof June, we came in fi^nt of the
burning mountains, diftance about 4 "leagues.
•And,- about 11 in the forenoon, moored in a
fine bay. Here the Indians came to us with
hogs in abundance, fome of which We killed
and cured, but the pork foon contracted adifa-
greeable taint, which was muen^complained
of by the fhips companies. White eaten frefnV
the meat was of an exquifite flavour.'/
Nothing remarkable till ^the 5th,  when we
glade fail, and about 5 in the afternoon, the
Refolution CAPT.fljCO-OK's -Voyage.       m
Refolution reached Anamdcoa, and moored in?
her old birtji. -Lat.2J : £8. long, i§£ : 08. but
the Difcovery not being able to beat up againft
tfi^.jjprm, didnot arrjjve,£ill feven in the even-*
ing; when, .calling anchor fhe drove, and in
lefs thaa, ^jxb^^as^hree leagues to leeward
of the Refolution,^and in  the utmoft danger
of being wrecked,ijfAU hanrjs. were now em*
ploved in weighing up the anchor, and a nutn-
ber0of hands came!feafonably from the Refolu-
tjpn to our aisance.    The night was tempef-
tuous, with;a.heavy rain and a highTea.   Ouf
labour, till four hvthe morning was inceffant.
We made but ltttlejîttay to the windward, not^
wi$utanding the ur^oft exg^o^p^^|jr w hole
çrcnMlw   Pi^pdejntially the'gale fubfided y we
^ayed-fche^anehofo and before da^;-light was
fàfeîv mporedr by the fide of the Refolution.
tfqre, though th$ fea was rougrj^ and we were
ata great diftance  from  fhore,  the   natives
Continued to trade apd to fupply us with plenty
of frefh provifions, with which they kept market daily. |gj |g|
• ,On the 8th,t;Tioony  came on board, and
gave an account $£ the lofs of feveral of his
jpeople, in attempting to accompany us in their
canoes from Calafoy and Appy, the ifland on,
which the burning mountains ateJituated ; that
■■'■ ^33 jSi  v     to>* ~-.... . 1 a y j Lfo?T3"ja*3
he himfelf was in. t&e   utmoft danger;  that
being overfet in his cance, he was obligeçlip*
fwim more than two leagues; and,that atJafiy
'he was rriiraculoufly difcovered *md taken up,
byra fifhing canoe ph. the coaft of Appy, when
all* he m4
ïn       Capt.  COOK's Voyage.
he was almoft fpcnr. We expreffed great joy
é& his deliverance; and he no lefs, to find the
fhips fafe in theft' former ftation, as he thought
it almoft impoffible, he faid, that they could
weather the ftorm. Being amply provided with
every neceffary this ifland could afford,
On the 9th, we fet fail for Tongataboo, of1
Amfterdam Ifland ; but in our paffage, both
the Refolution and Difcovery fell foul of the
fame rock : the Refolution only touched upon
it flightly; but the Difcovery fluck fall, and
hung upon it, gunnel too ; happy it was, that
we had day-light, and fine weathei, and that
the Refolution was within call. By clapping the
fails to the maft, and lightening the fhip abatlj
we fwayed her off with little damage. We were
then within two leagues of Amfterdam; off
which, in the evening, we caft anchor in fix fathom water. We were inftantly furrounded with
natives, who came to welcome us, and feemed
overjoyed at our arrival. It is not uncommon
with voyagers, to ftigmatize thefe iflanders with
the name of Savagzs, than which no appellation can be worfe applied, for a more civilized people does not exift under the fun.
During our long ftay with them, we did not
fee one inftance of diforder among themfelves, nor one perfon punifhed for any mif-
demeanor, by their own chiefs; we faw but
few quarrels among individuals. On the contrary, much mirth and feeming harmony was
obfervable. Highly delighted with their fhows
and heivas, they fpend their time in a kind of
lux- Càpt. COÔfC^s VoYAdË. ItJ
lixUrious indolence, where all labour â little,
but none to èxcefs. The Araké or king paddles
- himfelf in his canoe, though he mUft havea tow-
tow or fervant to help him to eat. This feemè
ftrange to art European* as it reduces,^? man
to the condition of a child, and yet it i§fJtôt one'
remove from what we fee daily practiced before
out cyeà. The gentleman has his table fpfead*
his, food of various forts fet before him ; has
all his' apparatus made ready, his bread cur,
His meat carved, arid his plate furniflied ; he
has his drink handed to him, and in fhorty
every thing which the tropical king has, except
only conveying all thofe matters to his mouth*
which the Araké thinks may as well be done b^
his towHow. Yet the pmiflion of this fingle act
of handing his meat and drink to his mouthy
brings Jaterm of reproach upon the Araké, tho*»
by the handinefs of his fervants in the fervices
of the tablé, thé European gains the character
Of the polite gentleman. Such and fo flender
are the diftinctidns in the refinements of nations ;
&e barriers that divide floth frorn fumptuouf-
nefsj'and the fimplicity of the Araké from the
magnificence of the prince.
On the nth we weighed and failed in eonb-
Jiany with the Refolution, and moored again
klMaria's Bay, one of the fineft harbours in
the South Seas. Here we were furroumfefl by
more than 150 canoes at ontey all laden %ith
provifions* or the manufactures of the „$<#MbL.
try. Tioonçy* who feemed to be the Emperor
of tfie iflands, ftill accompanied 'us.   And a-
M bout' xi4     Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.
bout fix leagues from this harbour had his chief
refidence. "^Plenty of hogs, and fowls without
number, were brought us, and were purchafed
at fo cheap a rate as a hog for a hatchet ; and
a* fowl for a nail, or two red beads.   Our live
ftock were put afhore upon a moft delightful
lawn, where they ranged at pleafure, and where
their paftures were bounded by refrefhingfhades.
On the little ifland on which they were placed to
graze, a plafh of water was found, which by
digging was enlarged to a pond, that not only
fupplied drink for the cattle, but water in plenty for the ufe of the fhips.    In this harbour too
were found every neceffary for repairing the damages the fhips had received in ftriking againft
the rocks; and here too every attention was
paid us that our Commander in Chief had experienced in his former vifits, of which the inhabitants had not yet loft the remembrance.
But an accident happened that put the whole
ifland. in motion.   While our people were engaged in preparing fire-works to entertain the
chiefs, two turkies, a fhe-goat, and a peacock
were ftolen from the Difcovery, and craftily
carried off»   They were no fooner miffed than
complaint was made to Tiooney of this breach
of hofpitality, and a peremptory demand made
to have the creatures purloined, reftored. Whether he was privy to the theft, and was willing
to connive at it; or, what was more probable,
knew not by whom it was committed, nor how
readlfy to recover cteatures of fo much curiofity, which he knew would be artfully concealed, Capt.   COOR's   Voyage.     its
e&, he feemed to make light of it, and tô offer*
hogs and fowls in return-, but this offer was rejected, and Capt. Cook being applied to, ordered all the canoes to be feized, two chiefs
that were in the fhip to be detained, and an order iflued for carrying fire and fword through
the ifland, if they were not, in four and twenty
hours, refloredé   This order being known a*
broad, the inhabitants affembled from allâquarài
ters, and in  lefs.than half a day, more thanf*
1500 appeared in arms, upon the beach; in
the mean time, our two Captains had ordered
their pinnaces out, their boats to be manned
and armed, parties of marines to be put on
'board j and every preparation to be made, as
if to carry their threats into execution.    Upon.
their   fiift   landing, a native iffued from  the-
woods* out of breath, as if juft come from a
long journey* and acquainted the captains that'
he had feen. the ftrange creatures, that had been
taken away, at the houfe of a chief* on the oppofite fide of the ifland, whither he was ready
to conduct them, if they chofe to follow hirrw
The Captains thinking this a proper opportunity to furvey the ifland, excepted the offer ;
and accordingly fet out, in company with Mr*
Blythe, mafter of the Refolution, Mr. Williamfon, 3d Lieutenant, with feveral other gentle^
men, attended with a party of marines, directing their courfe as the Indian led the way.
They had hardly been gone an houarr before
ftrong parties of Indians poured down from
|he hills, to ftrcngthen thofe that were already
^^ affembled u6     Capt;   COOK's   Voyage.
affembled upon the beach. The Captain of
marines, who had charge of the boats, having
drawn up his men on feeing the numbers of
the enemy begin to appear formidable, ordered
them to fire over their heads. This they difre-
garded, and were beginning their war-fong,
which always precedes their coming to action,
when the Captain gave Tioony to underflanoy
that he would inftantly deftroy them, if they
did not that moment difperfe. Tioony terrified by the countenance with which $js threat
was accompanied, rufhed among the foremoft
ranks of the warriors, feized the fpears of the
chiefs, broke feveral of them, and returning»
laid them at the Captain's feet. This had in
part the defired effect ; the Indians retreated in
a body, but feemingly unwilling to difperfe.
The Captain difliking the appearance of the
enemy, made figns from the fhore for the fhips
to bring their broadfides to bear, and at the
fame time drew up his men under their guns;
The commanding officers on board improved
the hint, and inftantly fired fome round fhot directly over the heads of the thickeft of the enemy; This compleated what Tioony had be»
gun ; a panic feized the chiefs, and the reft fled
like fo many fheep without a purfuer. Capt.
Cook, ignorant of what had happened, but
not out of hearing of the great guns, was at
a lofs to determine whether to go on or to return; but the great guns ceafing after the firft
difcharge, he rightly concluded that, whatever
might be the original caufe of their -firing, it
did Capt.   C O O K ' s   Voyage.     i tj
did not require a fécond difcharge to remove
it ; he therefore refolved to proceed. In his
progrefs, the heat became almoft intolerable,
which was rendered ftill more infupportable
by the want of water, there being none to be
met with, except in lagoons, that were brackifh.
After a journey of more than 12 miles, through
a country interfected with numerous plantations,
and where there was hardly any beaten path, he
at length arrived at the refidence of the chief,
whom he found feafting on a barbicued pig, a
ftewed yam, and fome bread-fruit, of which he
had plenty. Surprized at the fight of the Captain and his attendants, and confcious of their
errand, he went out immediately, and produced
the turkey, goat, and peacock, which he readily returned, but made no apology for the theft,
nor for the trouble he had given the Araké of
the fhips, in coming fo far to recover the lofs.
On their return to the tents, they found
Tioony ftill there, who welcomed them with
much feeming fincerity, and began wiih apolo»
gizing for the conduct of his people, owing,
he laid, to the mifapprehenfioo of the orders
from the fhips, which were, as they thought,
to burn anddeftroy all without exception, men,
women,' and' children, and to lay wafle the
ifland. He then invited Çapt. Cook to accompany him a little way into an adjoining wood,
with which invitation he very readily complied,
and found two cocoa nut trees, with the branches ftript of their leaves and fruits, hung with
yams, breadfruit,  and fhaddocks ranged in
M-3 fpirals ï i S     Capt.   COOK's  Voyage;
fpirals curioufly interfered, and terminated
each with two hogs, one ready barbicued, and
One alive, which he had ordered to be prepared
as prefents to the two Commanders, for which
he would receive no return. The barbicued hog
was an acceptable prefent to the people who had
travelled four and twenty miles, with no other
refrelhment than what they carried with them,
except fome fruit, which they gathered on the
road. A party of Indians were planted in rea*
dinefs to difmantle the trees, and the boats
were employed to carry their contents on board
the fhips ; and thus ended this memorable day,
which, probablv, will be commemorated in this
ifland as a day of deliverance, by the lateft po-
During our ftay here, more capital thefts were
committed, and more Indians punifhed than in
all the friendly iflands befides ; one was punifhed with 72 lafhes, for only ftealinga knife, another with 36, for endeavouring to carry off two
pr three drinking glafîès ; three were punifhed
with %6 lafhes each, for heavirg ftones at the
Wooccs; but what was ftill more cruel, a
man for attempting to carry off an axe, was ordered to have his arm cut to the bone, which
he bore withput complaining.
It is not to be wondered, that after fuch wanton acts of cruelty, the inhabitants fhould grow
outrageous; and, though they did not break
put into open acts of hoftility, yet they watched
every opportunity to be vexatious.
On Capt. COOK's Voyage. 119
On the 16th one of the Indians who accompanied us on board, watched his opportunity to fteal a drinking veffcl, but being catch-
ed in the act was punifhed with 18 lafhes, to
the no fmall diverfion of his countrymen. We
were now vifited by the flux, which, however,
only weakened our men, but carried none off.
On the 19th, Mr. Williamfon and Mr.
Blythe, who were fond of fhooting, and con-
fequently of ranging the woods and thickets,
were kt upon by ten or twelve of the natives,
who took from them their fowling-pieces and
fhot-bags, the former of which they carried off,
but dropped the fhot bags on being purfued.
Recourfe was had to the former expedient,
of feizing the canoes, and threatening the ifland,
as before, and one of the fowling-pieces was,
by that means, recovered j but the other was
never returned.
On the 2*£th, orders were given to prepare
for failing, the live ftock were taken on board,
fo altered, that they could not have been known
for the fame poor fkeletons which, two months
before, had been landed on thefe fertile fhores.
Capt. Cook made Tiooney a prefent of a horfe
and a mare, a bull and a cow, a ram and a
ewe, for the many fervices he had rendered him
and his people, during their refidence in the
friendly ifles, by which he gratified him beyond
his utmoft wifhes. Thefe valuable prefents
were immediately driven to his palace, at Ton-
ga-ta-boo, diftant about four leagues. The fhips
being aow compleatly flowed ;  having wood
M 4 4      »nd if
12g     Çapt.  COOK's   Voyage.
.and water as mugh as they could make room,
for, with hogs and bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts?
yams and other roots, greens in abundance^
and, in fhprr? every thing that the fhips could
contain, or the crews defire? the boats were
fent out to feek a paffage to the foqth-e^ft-ward,
in order to vifit the celebrated little ifland of
f^iddkburgh, of which, former voyagers have
giyen a moft; flattering defcription.
On the 29th, the boats returned, havjng dif7
covered a narrow gut, not half a cable's length
in;!breadth, and from 3J to 5 fathom water,
Joomy bottom^ ffi
This dajr? Mr. îtfelfqn, of whom mention
has already been made, being alone on the hills,
and rocks, collefti^g plants and herbs, indiger
nous to the ifland, and at a cqnfiderabje diftance from the fhips, was attacked by five or
fix Indians, who firft began by throwing ftones?
at which they are very dextrous; and then,
finding he had no fire-arms, clofed in with him,
ftript him of his cloaths and his bag, which were
all that he had about him.
On the j ft of July, the boats, were manned,
and the Captains of both fhips went on fhore,
to prefer their complaints to the Araké; but
the.offenders, upon enquiry, being found to be
boys, and the cloaths and bag of plants of
fmall value, Mr. Nelfon, unwilling to embroil
t}|£ inhabitants in any more difputes, interceded
with Capt» Çook, as we were juft upon our
departure, not tp make his lofs an ob|ect qf.
contention, but to take leave of the .'Chiefs, ia
the Capt, C O O K * s Voyage. i 21
the moft friendly manner, who upon the whole
had behaved with uncommon kindnefs and se-
On the 2d, while we were getting things in
readrnefs to depart, we had an opportunity of
clifcovering thé reafon of a very fingular mark,
which was obferved by former navigators a
little above the temples of many of the chiefs.
We perceived that this day was kept facred
throughout the whole ifland ; that nothing was
fuffered to be fold, neither did the people touch
any food, and befides that feveral of our new acquaintance were miffing. Enquiring into the
caufe, we were told that Tiooney's mother wa$
dead, and that the chiefs, who were her descendants, flayed at home to have their temples
burnt. This cuftom is not confined to this
ifland only, but is likewife common to feveral
others, particularly to thofe of Ea-oo-we, or
l^iddkburgh, and Appee. This mark is made
pn the left fide, on the death of a mother,
and pn the right when the father dies; and on
the death of the high prieft, the firft joint on
fhe little finger is amputated. Thefe people
havte therefore their religious rites, though wç
were not able to djfÉoyer how, or when they
Were performed.
Qn the 4th we unmoored, worked out of the
J?ay, and Jay in readjnefs to take the advantage
pf a wind to carry us through the gut, in our
way to Ea-oo-whe, or IVfiddieburgh, which
On the 7th, we accomplifhed. Being now
plear of the reefs, we again caft anchor, at a-
bout ivz Capt. COO K's Voyage.
bout three leagues diftance. We had fcarce let
fall our anchors, when there came along-fide a
large canoe, in which there were three men
and a woman, of fuperiqr dignity to any we had
yet feen ; one of them, fuppofed by his venerable appearance, to be the high prieft, held a
long pole or fpear in his hand, to which he tied
a white flag, and began an oration which lafted a
confiderable time; and after it was ended, he
afcended the fide of the fhip, and fat down,
with great compofure, upon the quarter-deck*
till he was accofted by Capt. Clarke, who after
the ufual falutations, invited him, and thofe
who accompanied him into the great cabin ; but
his attendants declined the invitation ; and to
make known the dignity of the great perfonage,
in whofe prefence they were, they proftrated
themfelves before him, the women as well as
the men, and kifs'd the fole of his right foot.
This aged Indian brought with him, as a prefent to the Captain, four large hogs, fix fowls,
and a proportionable quantity of yams and
plantains. In return, the Captain gave him a
printed gown, a Chinefe looking-glafs, fome
earthen cups, and feveral other curiofities, which
he accepted with great courtefy, and with an
air of dignity, which remarkably diftinguifhed
him. The Captain and officers paid him great
attention, and fhewed him the different accommodations on board the fhip, at which he expreffed great aftonifhment. He was then in->
vited to eat, which he declined. He was offered wine,  of which the Captain drank firft;
he Capt.   COO K's   Voyage.       123
he put it to his lips, tafted it, but returned the
glafs.    After being on (aoard little more than
an hour, he was defirous of taking leave, and
pointed to a little ifland, to which he gave  the
Captain a very preffing invitation to accompany
him; but thai could not be complied with, as
the fhips were every moment expected to fail»
This venerable perfon was about fix feet three
inches high, finely proportioned, and had a commanding air, that was both affable and graceful.
On the-8th, Tiooney came on board the Refolution, to take his final leave : he brought with
him five hogs, with a large proportion of yamf
and fruit. He teftified his grief at parting, with
all that appearance of fincerity that characterizes
the people of thefe happy iflands.
On the 9th we weighed, and on the 12^1
caft anchor, on the S W. fide of the ifland of
-pa-oo-whe, or Middleburgh, where the peoplç
came on board with as little ceremony as if they
had been acquainted with us for many years.
They brought us the produce of the ifland ;
but being already fupplied with every neceffary
of that kfnd, our chief traffic was for birds and
feathers. Here the parrots and paroquets were
of the moft beautiful plumage, far furpafling
thofe ufually imported into Europe from the
Indies;   there  were a great variety of other
birds, on which many gentlemen in both fhips
fet a great value, though they were purchafed
for trifles. The feathers we purchafed were of divers colours for the northern market, but chiefly
ted from the Marquefas and Society Ifles.    We
Hi alio 124      Capt.  COOK's  Voyage*
alfo purchafed cloth, and many other articles of
curious workmanfhip, the artifts of this ifland,
for invention and ingenuity in the execution,
exceeding thofe of all the other iflands in the
South Seas. But what chiefly tended to prolong our ftay here was the richnefs of the grafs,
which made into hay proved excellent food for
our live ftock. From the accounts circulated
through the fhip when we arrived, it was ger
nerally believed, that we might travel through
this ifland with our pockets open, provided they
were not lined with iron ; but to this, the ber
haviour of a party of the inhabitants to Wilr
liam Collet, Captain's fteward of the Difcovery,
was an exception. Being alone, diverting himfelf in furveying the country, he was fet upon
and ftript of every thing he had about him, his
lhoes only excepted, and on preferring his complaint, his keys were all that he was able to recover.
On the 18 th, orders were given to prepare
for failing: and Otaheite was appointed our
place of rendezvous, in cafe of feparation. We
had now been near three months improving our
live ftock, wooding, watering, repairing our
fhips, and laying in frefh provifions in thefe
friendly iflands, when the above orders were
iflued out. The crews of both fhips received
thefe orders with alacrity; for, though they
wanted for nothing, yet they longed to be at
Otaheite, where many of them had formed
connections that were dear to them, and where
thofe, who had not yet been there, had conceived Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.7      225
ceived fo high an idea of its fuperiority, as to
make them look upon every other place they
touched at as an ulcultivated garden, in compa-
rifon with that little Eden.
At fix in the morning we weighed, and were
foon under fail, fleering our courle to the fouthward, to fetch a wind to carry us to our intended port.
On the 19th we were out of fight of land,
when in lat. 22 : 24. S. the wind fhifting fair
W N W. with hard gales, which continuing for
feveral days,
On the 23d we found our fhip leaky, and no
poffibility of flopping her leaks till we could
make land. All hands were employed in pumping out the water, and when we found it did
not increafe upon us, the leak gave us little or
no concern.
Nothing remarkable till the 30th, when in
JSt. 2 $., 7: the weather became tempeftuous,
and a fudden fquall carried away our main-top
and top-gallant mafts, fplit our main-fail, and
carried away the jib. It is aftonifhing to fee
with what fpirit and alacrity Englifh failors exert themfelves on fuch occafions. Amidft a
ftorm, when it is almoft impoffible for a landf-
man to truft himfelf upon deck, our failors
mounted aloft, and with incredible rapidity
cleared away the wreck, by which they pre-
ferved the fhip. Nothing equal to this difafter
had befallen us in the courfe of the voyagf. During the night we hoifted lights and fired guns
ii of Ï26"       Capt.  C O O K 's   Voyage;
of diftrefs, but neither were feen or heard by
the Refolution. The ftorm continuing with
unabated fury during the night and all next
day, we handed cur fails, and fcudded under
our fore-fail and mizzen ftay-fad at the rate of
feven and eight knots an hour, and at length*
were obliged to lie-to with our fhip's head to the
weft, courfe E. N. E.
On the 31ft we got fight of the Refolution,
about four leagues to leeward. She had damaged her main-top-maft head, but had fecured
it, and was otherwife in perfect repair- Lat.
28 : 4» long. 99 : 41,
Auguft the ift we celebrated the anniverfary
of our departure from England, having juft been
one year abfent. The men were allowed a
double allowance of grog, and they forgot, in
the jollity of their cups, the hardfhips to which
they were expofed in the ftorm.
On the 2d our carpenters were employed in
re-placing the old top-maft with a new one *
but juft as they had got it in readinefs to point
the bafe of the top-maft through the main top,
they difcovered, to our unfpeakable grief, that
the main-maft head was fhattered four or five
feet below the top.   This put an end to our labour at this time.   The top-maft was lowered
till the main-maft could be fecured, which was
a work of infinite difficulty in our fituation, and
could not be accomplifhed without the affift-
ance of the carpenters from the Refolution.
The fignal of diftrefs was thrown -out, but the
fea ran fo high that no boat could live.   In this
fituation Capt.   COOK's   Voyage.       127
fituation wç continued till the ftorm abated,
when the maft being lafhed, a fparejeb-boom
was got up for a main-top-maft, and a mizen
top-fail yard for a top-fail yard ; and thus e-
quipped, we made what fail we could, the Refolution fhortening fail to keep us company.
Lat. 27 : 49. long. 203 : oï.
In this crazy condition, with our leaks rather
increafed, we met with a ftorm
On the 3d, which required the utmoft exertion of our ftrength to encounter ; every hand
in the fhip was employed, fome at the pumps,
and others in handing the fails, which was a
work of the greateft danger, yet happily accorn-
plifhed without any accident.
On the 4th, at fix in the evening the man at
the maft-head called out Land, which was joyful news to all on board, and about feven we
flood in for it.   About eleven we faw feveral
canoes paddling towards the fhips, in each of
which were three naked Indians.    We made
figns for them to come on board, which they declined ; but made figns for us to land.    Our
boats were inftantly  hoifted out and jent to
found, but no anchorage being found, it was
refolved to purfue our voyage without lofing
any more time.    This ifland was a new difcovery.    Its latitude by obfervation 27 : 31, long,
208 : 26. E.   The men appeared of the largeft
ftature, tattowed from head to foot ; the language
different from any we were yet acquainted with $
and their drefs nothing but a piece of matting
round the wafte, like that of the Amfterdam-
mers j 128       Capt.   COOK*s   Voyage
mers ; their complexion darker, their heads ornamented with fhellsj feathers and flowers ; and
their canoes elegantly carved, and neatly conflicted. Of their manners we could form
little or no judgment* #They appeared timid j
but by their waving green boughs, and exhibiting other figns of peace, they gave us fe&»
fon to believe that they were friendly. They
exchanged fome fmall fifh and cocoa*nuts* for
nails and Middleburgh cloth. The appearance*
of the ifland, as we approached it,* was lofty*
but fmall; Its greateft length about 4 leagues*
and its breadth about 2 leagues.
We now proceeded with an eafy breeze* till
The 13th, when the man at the maft-head
called out Land, diftance about feven or eight
leagues, we foon perceived it to be the Ifland of
Otaheite, of which we were in purfuit.   Lat.
17 : 44-
On the 14th, about fix in the morning, we
flood in for the land, and before night were
fafely moored in the harbour called by the
natives, Orake Peeha. Here we were fur*
rounded by an incredible number of canoes
filled with natives, befides men, women and
children, who fwam to the fhips, expreffing
their joy at our arrival. We were fcarce moored*
before the king, attended by moft of the royal
family, came on board the Refolution to Welcome Capt. Cook ; the fhores every where re-
founded with the name of Toote; not a child.,
that could lifp Toote, was filent ; their acclamations filled the air»   The king brought with!
him Capt; COOK*s Voyage; 12$
Jhiq fix large hogs, fome bread-fruit and plantains as a prefent; and Capt. Cook, after the
firft falutations had.paffe% prefented the king
with two large hatchets, fome fhowy beedsj a
looking-glafs, a knife, and fome nails; iff He
alfo made prefents to hie followers.
They were eager to enter iiito converfâtiori
With Omai, and informed Capt. Cook, through
hii means, of the arrival there of two Spanifh
fhipà from Lima, about1 eight months before ?
that at their departure they had taken three of
the natives with them, and had left one of their
people in tkéir rddrri* who had been dead fome
time; that they had built a houfe on fhore^
and erected a crofs, with àri infcription, which
were ftill ftanding; that they had left fome
cattle, with goats, fheep* and geefe ; but that
moft of them were dead ; that they promifed to
return foon ; and that they had been there more
than once, fince Capt. Cook's laft vifit. Dinner was iio fooner over, than both Captains,
accompanied by Omai, and conducted by the
royal family, went on fhore and vifited the
Spanifh erections ; which feemed to indicate a
deepei* defign than the natives were a Ware of i
they had taken poffeflion of the ifland, in the
name of his Catholic Majefty, and had infcribed
the crofs with the king's name, and date of
the year 1777, which Capt. Cook took the
liberty to pull down and carry away, telling
them at the fame time to beware of their Spanifh vîfitors, and not to be over fond of them.
Moft of the frefh provifions, with which we
N were #3° Cajpt. COOK*s VoyjmH;
werj^ fijppl&d at the friendjy ifles, being é£2
pended irç the voyage, orders were given té
grohibit alk tradq w|$Jt the natives, except for
provifions; and/.that only with fuch perfons* as
were appointed by the commanders as purveyors for the fhips. By thfsé neceffary regulation,
frefh ^qffi^ons wgre foon procured in plenty,
and every man was allowed a pound and a half
$f pork every day.
On-th^ *§|fc Oir*aijwas put in poffeffion of
•t^e.hQqfQ the Spaniards had batik ; his bed put
up in Halter fhe Engliflii^flaion ; and he was indulged, to ftsep on fhore during our fhort ftay
at this part of theifland. Capt. Cook likewife
çaujfed the Spanifh infcription to be erafed, the
crofs, to/be, taken,j%way, and a new infcription
to be cut, with the n^me of the Englifh fhips
that had difcovered the ifland, the date 1772
wl^n fir$'difcovered, and the name of his Ma*
jefty, Kiçg George* to take place of tltat of the
Spanifh Kiflg Ca$l©& flHere alio the live ftock
were landed, aQjà graze in the meadows
that bordered on the fho^e»
On the 1.7th, Capt. Cook, with Omai, took
ans aiçkig on horfejback, to> the great aftonifhmens
of the inhabitants, many huajdreds of whom
followed them w#h Itypd acclamations. Omar,
to excite tfeeir admiration the more, was drefled
cap.-a-pee in a fuit of arnrcosr, which he carried»'
with.him, and was, mounted and caparifoned
with his fwordand pike,like St. George accoutred
to kill the dragon, whom he exactly reprefentêd *
çnly that Omai had piftob in his holfters* ofe
ËK which £)«&<&&
0?natà rdMc&tâfy ûnÂiémJà camàna aâû^ùikôcà/.  Càpt;   $0©KV Voyaoèv
wïich the poor feint kne\v not the ufp* Otriay
however^ made gbdd ufe of his arms^ and whèa
the crowd became clamorous, and troublefome,
hé every now and therf-puHed out a piftol ana
fired it among them, which never failed to femj
•fcftem fcampering away.
For thefé laft t#> or three days; the catékers
from both fhips were employed, in flopping the
leaks of the Difcovery; and the carrk'nters in
fecuring the marts* till we fHould artive at tlfe.
port of Mat$&?aV where the fhips were to undergo a thorough repair.
On the 18 th and io)th it Blew a ftard gafe^
and we were obliged to veer out 20façhom more
of our beft bower cible for fafety, as we rode
hard at our moorings.
On thé iiftj the fignâl was made for un-
mooring* jÉ|
Early on the 22d, in thé morning, thé live
flock were taken on board, and about nine w$
weighed and failed* accompanied with feveral
canoes* though the wind blew a ftorm, and we
Jailed under double-reefed top-fàils. In tHife
evening, the Refolution took her old ftâtion iri
Mattavai Bay : but thé wind fuddenly fhifting,
and the breeze coming full from the land, we
were driven 3 leagues to leeward of the bay ;
by which we were reduced to thé neceflity of
Working all night to windward* amidft thunder,
lightning and rain, and among reefs of coral
rocks, on which we every moment expected'
tb perifh. We burnt falfe fires, and fired fevc*
fal guns of diftrefs $ but no anfwer from the
N i 'Jtefolu- 132     Capt.   COOK*s   Voyage; V
Çefolution, nor could we fee any object to di*
rect us during this perilous night.
In the morning of the 23d, the weather*
cleared up, and we could fee the Refolution
about three leagues to windward, when a fhift
of wind happening in our favour, we took advantage of it,  and by twelve at noon were
fafely   moored   within   a   cable's   length   of
the RefolutionJE It is impoffible to give an
adequate idea of the joy, which the natives expreffed upon our arrival in this bay, becaufe
their manner of expreffing joy is fo different
from our fenfatidns, that were we to fee perfons
ftabbing themfelves with fharp inftruments till
their bodies were befmeared with  blood, we
fhould think they were pierced with the moft
frantic defpair, and that it would be almoft
impoffible to affuage their grief ; whereas beating their breafts, tearing their hair, and pricking their heads, their hands, and their bodies, are
the moft fignifieant figns of their gladnefs to fee
the friends they, love belt.   At the fame time
they are ready to overwhelm you with kind-
nefs, and would give you, for the moment, all
they have in the world, but the very next hour
crave all back again, and like children teize
j ou for every thing you have got befides.
The fhips were no fooner fecured, than the
failors began ftripping them of every yard of
rigging they had left ; for certainly no fhips
were ever in a more fhattered condition. Our
voyage from New  Zealand, if not from the-
Hl cape H Capt. COOK's Voyag*; 133
cape, might be faid to be one continued feries
of tempeftuous weather; fufpended only by à
few intervals of fun-fhine ; and theemployment
of our artificers at fea and on fhore, a laborious
exertion of their faculties to keep us above water, f-Here it was not only neceffary to ftrip the
main maft of the Difcovery ; but to take it out
and carry it on fhore, to be properly fecured.
This was a work of no fmall difficulty. Here
too it was found neceffary, to unfhip our flores
of every kind $ to air and repack the powder ;
new bake that part of the bread that had contracted any darnpnefs ; to erect the forge on
fhore; and in fhort, to fet all our artificers to
work on board and on fhore, to refit the fhips
for the further profecution of the voyage.
A mefFenger was difpatched from Captain
Cook to King Otoo, to acquaint him with our
arrival, and to defire his permiffion to fend the
cattle he had brought from' Britain, to feed in
the paftures of Oparree, The king expreffed
his joy on the return of Capt. Çook, and readily gave his confent. He at the fame time
ordered one of his principal officers to accompany the meffenger in his rerurn, and to take
with him prefents of frefh provifions for the
commanders of both fhips, and to invite them
on fhore, to dine with him the next day. This
invitation was accepted, ancHt was agreed between the Captains, that their vifit fhould be
made with as much flate as their prefent circumstances would admit. The marines and mufic were
therefore |34     %PT»   COOK's   Voyage
therefore ordered to be in readinefs at an appoints
ed hour, and all the rowers to be clean jafSfftd.
On the 25th, about noon, the commanders^
with the principal officers and gentlemen, em*
barked on board the pinnaces, which, on this
$ccafion, were decked ig.ajl $he nxaenificen^e
that filken ftreamers, embroidered enfigns, and
Other gorgeous deçoration^çpuid 4&>l§y* P^
|.o furprige tJve more, was cloathedf,in a Captain's uniform, and could hardly be diftinguifh-
ed from a Britifh officer.
FronJ, Mfatt^vai tp Oparree, was abçuj: thr|p
miles. They arrived jig* the landing place,
about one ojcloçk in the after?npon» and were
received by the jparjnes already under arms.
As foon as. the company were djfembar^d? the
whpjeband of tpufick {truck up a grafd miliary
march, and the proceflion began. iThe road
from the beach to the entrance pf |he paia^j*
fabout half a mile) was lined on both,jides
with natives from all parts, expecting to fee
Omai on hprfeback, as the account of his ap-,
pearance on his firft landing on the other fye
of the ifland, as before related, had already
reached the inhabitants on this. As he appeared
to them in difguife, he was not knpwn; they
were npt however wholly difappointed, as the
grandeur of the proceflion exceeded every thing
of the kind they had ever feen. The whole
court were likewife affembled, and the king,
with his filters, on the approach of Capt. Cook,
came forth to meet him. As he was perfectly
known to them, their firft falutations were frank
and Capt.§C O O K's   Voyage.     135
and friendly, according to the known cuftonis
of the Otaheiteans, and when thefe were over,
proper attention was paid to every gentleman
in company 5 and that too with a politenefs that,
to thbfe who had never been on th^â ifland before, was quite unexpected.
As foon as tne company had, entered the
palace and were feated, arid fome difcourfe had
paffed between the king and Capt. Cook, Omai
was prefented to his Majefty. He had hitherto
efcaped unnoticed, with the other officers who
were not particularly known. Omai paid his
Majefty the ufual homage of a fubject to a fovereign in that country, which conflits of little
more than being uncovered before him, and
then entered into familiar conversation, on the
fubject of his travels. The Earees, or kings
of this country, are not above difcourfing with
the meaneft of their fubjects, but Omai was now
confidered here as a perfon of rank, and a
favourite of the Earees of the fhips. The king,
impatient to hear his ftory, afked him a hun^
dred queftions before he gave him time fo an «
fwer one. I He afked him concerning the Earee-
da-hai, or Great King of Pretanne, his place
of refidence, his court, his attendants, his warriors, his fhips of war, his morai, the extent
of his poffeffions, &c. &c. Omai did not
fail to magnify the grandeur of the Great King,
He reprefented the fplendour of his court by
the brilliancy of the flars in the firmament ; the
extent of hie dominions, by the vaft expanfe
of heaven ; the greatnefs^of his power, by the
N 4 thunder
£*■ ï|6      Capt. COOK's VovaoS
thunder that fhakes the earth.   He faid, the
Great King of Pretannç  haçl three hundred
thoufand warriors every day at his command,
cloathed like thofe who novfr attended the Earees of the fhips, and more than double that
number of failors,  who traverfed the globe,
frpm the rifins of the fun to his fetting $ that
his fhips of war exceeded thofe at Mattavai in
magnitude, in the fame proportion,  as thofe
exceeded the fmall canoes at Oparree.—His Ma-/
jefty appeared all aflonifhment, and could not
help interrupting him.   J-Ie afked* if what he
faid was true, where the Great King could find
people to navigate fo many fhips a§ coyered the
ocean from one extremity to the other? and if
he could find men, where he could find provifions for fo great a multitude ? Omai affurecj
him, that he had fpoken nothing but truth t
that in one city only on the banks of a river far
removed from the Sea, there were more people
than were contained in the whole group of
iflands with which his Majefty was acquainted ;
that the country was full of large populous cities ; notwithstanding which provifions were fo.
plentiful, that for a piece of a certain yellow
metal, like that of which he had feen many
[meaning the medals given by the Captain to
the Earees] the great king could purchafe as
much provifions as would maintain a failor on
board a fhip a whole year ; that in the country
of the great king, there are more than joo
different kinds of four footed animals, from the
fne of the fmalleft rat when it is firft brought
forth, §1       Capt. C ÛOK*s Voyage.  '    îjy
forth, to the magnitude of a ftage erected on an
ordinary canoe, on which fix men may ftand
erect ; that all thefe animals are fo numerous in
their feveral kinds, and propagate fo faft, that
were it not that fome were killed for food, and
that, others prey one upon the other, they would
over-run the J and ji Omai, having by this relation obviated king Ottoo's doubts, adverted
to his firft queftions.    He faid, the fhips of
War of Pretanne were furniflied with poo poos
[guns] each of which would receive the largeft
poo poo his Majefty had yet feen, within it;
tjjat fome carried 100 and more of thofe poo*
poos, with fuitable accommodations for a thou*
fand fighting men, and flowage for all forts
of cordage and warlike flores, befides provifions
and water for the men and other animals, for
tpo or 200 days; and that they were fometimes
abroad as long warring with the enemies of the
great king in tfre different parts of his dominions in the remotest regions of the earth ; that
they frequently carried with them in thefe expeditions poo-poo^ that would hold a fmall
hog within tjiem,   find which throw hollow
globes of irpn, pf a vaft bignefs, filled with fire
and all manner pf combuftibles, and implements
of .deftruction, to a great diftance; a few of
which, were they tp be thrown among the fleet
©f Otaheite, would fet them on fire, and destroy the whole navy, in one day,  were they
ever fo numerous.     The king feemed more
aftonifhed than delighted with this narration,
find fuddenly left Omai,  to join the company
at ijS      Capt.  C04)K*t  VoyâS!.-
thM. mere in eonverfatron with Capt. Cook ana
theother officers. By this time dinner was nearly
ready, and as foon as^the company were proper*
ly feated, was brought in by as many «ow-tows
as there were perfons to dine; befides tJiefe, the
king, the two commanders, and Omai, had each
of them two perfons of fupenor rank to attend
jthem.   The dinner confifted of fifli and fowl of
various kinds, dreffed after their manner ; bar-1
bicued pigs, ftewed yams, and fruits of the
moft delicious flavour, all ferved wkh an eafe
and regularity that is feldom to be found at
European tables, when thetadies are excluded
from making part of the company.
As foon as dinger was over, which admits of
no cereinony, we were conducted to the theatre,
where a èompany of players were in readinefs
to perforrn a dramatjek entertainment. The
drama was regularly divided into three acts:
the firft cori^fted of dancing and dumb fhew ;
the fécond of comedy ; which to thofe who underftood the language yzs very laughable, as
Omai and the natives appeared highly diverted
the whole time ; the laft was a âlufipal piece,
in which the young princeffes were thé fola
performers? There were between the acts fome
feats pf arms exhibited» The combatants were
armed with lances and clubs. 0$e made the
attack, the other flood upon the defenfive.
He who made the attack brandifhed his lance^
and either threw, pufhed or ufed it in aid of his
club. He who was upon the defenfive, fluck
t^e point of his Ian,ce in. the ground, in an ob* |€apt. GOOK's Voyagî. t-19-'
lique direction, fo that thg upper $*art rofe above
jiis head, and fey obferving the eye of his ene-
jny, parried his blows or his ftrokes by the
motion of his lasce, By bis dexterity at this
manoeuvre, he turned afide the lance, and it was
rare that he was hurt ew the club. If bis antar
goiiift ftruck at his legs, he fhewed his agility
fey jumping over the club ; and if at his heal,
Jie was no lefs nimble in crouching under it,
Their^ dexterUy confifted chiefly in the defence,
ptherwife the combat might have been fatal»
Jyhich always ended in good humour.
rlp&efe entertainments,  which generally laft
about, four hours, are really dfv^rttlgs   their
dancing has ]>een much improved by copying
the European manner.    In the hornpipe they
really excel their mafters: they add contortions
pf the face and mufcles to tfhe nimblenefs of
|he foot, that are inimitable, and muft, in fpite
pf our gravity, provoke laughter 5 their coun»
try dances too are well regulated;  and they
J*ave dances of their own, that are equal to
thofe at our beft theatres ; their comedy feems
to confift of fome fimple ftory, made laughable
by the manner of delivery, fomething in the
gyle of the merry andrews formeily at Bartholomew fair ;  and their finging is very fimple,
and might be much improved.    Had Omai
been of a theatrical caft, he doubtlefs might
have very much improved their flage; for their
performers appear inferior to none in the powers
$ f imitation»
The ïw
140       Capt.  COOK's   Voyagb.
m The play beingover, and night approaching
our commanders took their leave, after inviting
the king and his attendants to dine on boardthe
fhips.   We were condufted to the water-fide in
the fame manner as we approached the palace
and were attended by the king and royal family'
On the 25th in the morning, Omai's mother!
.and feveral of his  relations arrived.    Their
meeting was too unnatural to be pleafing.   We
could not fee a woman frantically ftriking her
face and arms with fharks teeth, till fhe was all
over befmeared with blood, without bein* hurt-
as it conveyed no idea of joy to feeling minds,'
we could never be reconciled to this abfurd
cuftom.    She brought with her feveral large
hogs, with bread-fruit, bananos, and other pro-
duxtions of the Ifland of Ulitea, as prefents to
the Captains, and fhe and her friends received
in return, a great variety of cutlery, fuch as
knives,   fciffars,   files, &c.   befides  fome  red
feathers, which laft were even more acceptable
than iron,   They continued to vifit the fhip oc-
cahonally tijl we quitted the ifland,
In the afternoon King Ottoo, with his chiefs
and attendants, and two young princeffes his
fifters, performers in the interlude of the preceding night, came on board, bringing with
them fix large hogs, with a proportionable quantity of fruits of various kinds. They were en-
tertained as ufual, with a fight of all the curio,
fities on hoard the fhips, and the yoiingprin,
ceffes, longing for almoft every thing they kw%
were gratified to their utmoft wiflies, with brace*
;IL CAPT.V-.C O O K*S     Voir***
r VOYAGÉ. tlï
%s of beads, lookirigglaffes, bits of china, artifi.
cal nofegays and a variety of other trinkets, of they had one of a fort each, while at the
fiffe time the king and his chiefs amufed them.
%es the<:arpenters, armourers and other
arfificers, employed in the repairs of the ihips,
oaftrng longtng eyes on the tools and implements
With which they performed their work.   fa h
nunner they paft the time till dinner was ready
King Ottoo, with his chiefs,  dined with S
Captams,   the  principal officers,. and Omai
» the great cabin, while the ladies were feàfted
m an apartment feparated on purpofe, and waited upon by their own fervants.   During dinner
the mufic   par£ic ]arly the b Jg
which the Indians feemed moft delighted, con-
tinned to play, and the young ladies who were
within hearing,  though out of fight,   could
hardly refrain from dancing the whole time
After dinner the king and his nobles were pre .'
fed todnnk wine; but moft of them having
felt us power before, declined tailing it; oneoï
two drank a glafs, but refufed to drink anv
more. When the tabies were cleared, theTa!
dies joined the company, and then hor0-pipes
and country dances after the Engliffi manner
commenced, m which the young ladies jo'ed
celdefar' Ml iPS ^
ceeded, and our Indian vifitors rook leave in
tb\ZenmS m grea£ g°°d hu™ur.
What contributed not a little to increafe the
by Capt. Cook, of a large quantity of thechoi-
ceft -n
Uz . .Capt^C 0 0 Kés fozMSï 'W
ceft red feathers that could be purchafed lit
the iflands of Amfterdam» Red feathery a$
has already been obferved,- • are held iri tné
Bîgheft eftirfîâtton in? Otahei$?,> afld in alltfht?
fbciety iflands^ but more particular!^ by tffef
chiefs of the fermer* ifland^ by whom they are
ùfed as amuk&fr, or rather as propitiations
to make their, praters acceptable to the good
fpiritwhonViheyemvoke with tittl of ffidfe fea^-
^rS'irt thfif hands, madeup in a peculiar rfian*
Ber* an4:fcel4&ia à fcertairP portion* wkh5 muérr
^efl^ng folemafoy* The ordinary forts of reâ1
feathers wererqoHe&ed by ofBce¥s arid rifen all
ove^tJlp-Jfriendly. Inlands;*,'but thofe that were
bd#, prefen&d tt> king Ottoo were of a fupe»
rior kind, and were in vattté as much above thé
ordinary red feather^ as real pearls are with us
in value above Fretteh pafte. They wefé taker!'
from the heads of the paroquets of Tdnga-ta-
boo and- Ea oo-whe, which are of ftrperlative
beauty, and precious in proportion to their
finenefs and the vivid glow of their dating'
colours. Here we learnt that Capt. Coolfc, iri*
his former voyage, being in great diftrefs for
want of frefh provifions, and being plentifully
iopplied by king Ottoo* prorMed, that if he
çver fhould return to Otaheite^ he would maft^P
him richer in ^ouravim (precious feather^f
than all the- princes in the neighbouring ifles;'
This gave rife to an option, that it was to fute
fil this promife that we were led fo far out of
our way 3s has been already remarked"» Bui1
there is much more reafon to conclude^ thai *ijé Capt? COOK *s VoyaôÎ. f||
tfie ftÉfag ëafterly winds that prevailed when
we approached the fouthern tropic, made our
4ire& courfe to Otaheite impracticable. Had
°€apt. Cook7regarded his promife to Ottoo as
%iviorâ6lei: he would moft certainly have fhaped
*ftisf éburfe^tfm New Zealand to the Friendly
Iflands* the neareft way, which would have
Ihortened our voyage feveral months ; unlefs
we can fuppofe that he had forgotten his pro-
fnife, and that when he came within a few days
&il of his defined port, he recollected himfelf»
and then changed his direction, to enable him to
keep his word. To which of thefe caufès It
was owing, fome future publications may probably give light; but tous who were not in
the fecret, it appeared a myftery. We were
advanced fome degrees to the eaftward of Her»
prey's fifes, which lie in 19: iS. S. lat. and
201 E.long. before we altered our courfe to the
weftward to make for Amfterdam, which lies
in 21 : 15. S. and 185 : E, long, whereas the
ifland of Ulfrea, of which Omai was a native»
lay in lat. 16 : 45. and long. 208 : 35. E.
Why out courfe to the former was preferred
before the latter, involves the myftery.
Though all public trade was prohibited, as was
ufual, till the fhips fhould be furniflied with frefh
provifions 3 it was not eafy to reftrain the men
on fhore from trading with the women, who
were for ever enticing them to defert. The
ladies of pleafure in London have not half the
Winning ways that are practifed by the Otahei*
lean rifles to allure their gallants,    With the
I *44     Capt.   COOK's Voyage    §.
jfeeming innocence^of doves they mingle thé
wily nefs of ferpents. They have however one'
quality which is peculiar to themfelves, and that
is conftancy. When once they have made their
choice, it muft be owing to the failor himfelf if
lis mifirefs ever proves falfe to him. No women upon earth are more faithful. | They will
endeavour to make th