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A voyage to the Pacific Ocean : undertaken by the command of His Majesty for making discoveries in the… Cook, James, 1728-1779 1785

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Array       A
V    O    Y    A   G   E
TO     THE
Difcoveries in the Northern Hemifphere.
Performed under the "("Jireaion of Captains COOK, CLERKE, and GORE,
In His Majefty's Ships the Refolution and Difcovery j in the Years 1776, 1777,1778,1779, and 1780.
VOL. I. and II. written by Captain JAMES   COOK,  F.R.S.
VOL. III. by Captain JAMES  KING, LL.D. and F.R.S.
Publifhed by Order of the Lords Commiflioners of the Admiralty.
VOL.    I.
M.DCC.LXXXV. ,  CO    If   T   E   N   T   S
Introduction. Page i
Infcription to the Memory of Captain James Cook,    lxxxvii
Lift of tbe Plates. xci
B   O   O   K     I. f\
T/'JRIOUS Preparations for the Voyage.—Omai's Behavi-
' our on embarking;— Obfervations for determining the
Longitude of Sbeernefs, and the North Foreland.—Pajfage
of the Refolution from Deptford to Plymouth.—Employments
there.—Complements of the Crews of both Jhips, and Names
of the Officers.—Obfervations to fix the Longitude of Plymouth.—Departure of the Refolution. Page i
Vol. I.
P of age of the Refolution to Teneriffe.—Reception there.—
Defcription of Santa Cruz Road. — Refrefhments to be
met with.—Obfervations for fixing the Longitude of Tene-
riffe.—Sonte Account of the I/land.—Botanical Obfervations.—Cities of Santa Cruz and Laguna—Agriculture.—
Air and Climate.—Commerce.—Inhabitants. 14
Departure from Tenerijfe.—Danger of the Ship near Bona"
vijla. — IJle of Mayo.—Port Pray a.—Precautions againfl
the Rain and fultry Weather in the Neighbourhood of the
Equator.—Pofition of the Coaft of Brazil.—Arrival at the
Cape of Good Hope.—TranfaBions there.—Jun&ion of tbe
Difcovery. — Mr. Anderfon's Journey up the Country.—
AJlronomical Obfervations.—Nautical Remarks on the Paf-
fage from England to the Cape, with regard to the Currents and the Variation. 29
CHAP.    IV.
The two Ships leave tbe Cape of Good Hope.—Two I/lands
named Prince Edward's, feen, and their Appearance de-
fcribed.—Kergueletfs Land vifited.—Arrival in Chriftmas
Harbour.—Occurrences there.—Defcription of it. 51
CHAP.   V.
Departure from Chriftmas Harbour .-Range along the Coaft9
to dfcover its Pofition and Extent.-Several Promontories
and CONTENT   S,
-and Baysy and a Peninfula, deferibed and named.—'Danger from Shoals.—Another Harbour and a Sound.—Mr.
Anderfon's Obfervations on the natural Productions, Animals,. Soil% &c. of Kerguelen's Land. 70
'■■       •    •**/ 'CHAP.   VI.  .   %- '   'f|    .
Paffage from Kerguelen's to Van Diemen's Land.—Arrival
in Adventure Bay.—Incidents there.—Interviews with the
Natives.—Their Perfons andDrefs defcribed.—Account of
their Behaviour.—Table of the Longitude, Latitude, and
Variation.—Mr. Anderfon's Obfervations on the natural
Productions of the Country, .on the Inhabitants, and their
CHAP,   vii;
The Paffage from Van Diem-en's Land- to New- Zealand.
—Employments in Qyeen Charlotte's Sound.—Tranfaclions
with the Natives there.—Intelligence about the Maffacre
of tbe Adventure's Boat's Crew. — Account of the Chief
who beaded tbe Party .on that 0 ctafion. — Of the two
young Men who embark to attend Omai. — Various Remarks on the Inhabitants.—AJironomical.and Nautical Obfervations. 1.18.
#" CHAP.   VIII.
Mr. Anderfon's Remarks on the Country near-- Queen Charlotte's Sound.—Tbe Soil.— Climate.—Weather.— Winds.—
Trees.—Plants—Birds.—Fifih.—Other Animals.—Of the
Inhabitants.—Defcription of their Perfons.—Their Drefs.—
Ornaments.—Habitations.—Boats.—Food and Cookery.—
Arts.—Weapons.—Cruelty to Prifoners.—Various Cuftoms.
^-Specimen of their Language. 145
A 2
Profecution of the Voyage.—Behaviour of the two New Zea-
landers on board.—Unfavourable winds.—An Ifiand called
Mangeea difcovered.—The Coaft of it examined.—Tranfactions with the Natives.—An Account of their Perfons,
Drefs, and Canoe.—Defcription of the Ifiand.—A Specimen
of the Language.—Difpofition of the Inhabitants.        167
Tbe Difcovery of an Ifiand called Wateeoo.—Its Coafts examined.—Vifiits from the Natives on board tbe Ships.—Meff.
Gore, Burney, and Anderfon, witff Ornat^ fent on Shore.—"
Mr. Anderfon's Narrative of their Reception.—Omat's Expedient to prevent their being detained.—His meeting with
fome of his Countrymen, and their diftrefsful Voyage.—Farther Account of Wateeoo, and of its Inhabitants. 180
Wenooa-ette, or Otakootaia, vifited.—Account of tbat Ifiand,
and of its Produce. —Hervey's Ifiand, or Terougge molt
Attooa, found to be inhabited.—TranfaBions with tbe Na-
tives.-Tbeir Perfons, Drefs, Language, Canoes.-Fruit-
5 lefs CONTENTS.
fefs Attempt to land there.—Reafons for bearing away for
the Friendly Ifiands.—Palmerfton's Ifiand touched at.—-Defcription of the two Places where the Boats landed.—Re-
frefhments obtained there.—Conjeclures on the Formation
offuch low I/lands.—Arrival at the Friendly Ifiands.     205
CHAP.   IV.      ||;
Intercourfe with the Natives of Komango, and other Ifiands.
—Arrival at Annamooka.—Tranfaclions there.—Feenou,
a principal Chief, from Tongdtaboo, comes on a Vifit.—The
Manner of his Reception in the Ifiand, and on board.—In-
ftances of the pilfering Difpofition of the Natives.—Some Account of Annamooka.—The Paffage from it to Hapaee. 225
V   ' '".'   '      ' ' x   C H A P.   V.
Arrival of the Ships at Hapaee, and friendly Reception there.
—Prefents and Solemnities on the Occafion.—Single Combats with Clubs.—Wreftling and Boxing Matches.—Female
Combatants.—Marines exercifed.—A Dance performed by
Men.—Fireworks exhibited.—The Night-entertainments of
Singing and Dancing particularly defcribed. 242
mt    ' '   .1. .   C H A P.   VI.      \ . .
Defcription of Lefooga.—Its cultivated State.—Its Extent.—
TranfaBions there.—A Female Oculift—Singular Expedients forfbaving off the Hair.—The Ships change their Station.—A remarkable Mount and Stone. —Defcription of
Hoolaiva—Account ofPoulaho, King of the Friendly Ifiands.
—RefpeBful Manner in which he is treated by His People.—
Departure c  o
N   T   E   N   T   S.
Departure from the Hapaee Jfiands.-Some Account of Ko-
too.—Return of tbe Ships to Annamooka.— Poulabo and
Feenou meet.—Arrival at Tongataboo. 256
fV C H A P.   VII.  j    •
Friendly Reception at Tongataboo.-^Manner of difiributing a
baked Hog and Kava to Poulaho's Attendants.—Tbe Obfer-
vatory, &c. erecled.—The Village where'the-Chiefs refider9
and the adjoining Country, defcribed.— Interviews with
Mareewagee, and Toobou, and the King's Son.—A grand
Haiva, or Entertainment of Songs and Dances, given by
Mareewagee.—Exhibition of Fireworks.—Manner of Wr eft-
ling and Boxing.—Diftribution of the Cattle.—Thefts committed by the Natives.—Poulabo, and the other Chiefs, confined on that Account.—Poulaho's Prefent, and Haiva.  278
'•'" •    |j§ CHAP.    VIII. ' |^
Some of the Officers plundered by tbe Natives. — A fifhing
Party.—A Vifit to Poulabo. —A Fiatooka defcribed.—Obfervations on the Country Entertainment at Poulaho's Houfe.
—His Mourning Ceremony.—Of the. Kava Plant% and tbe
Manner of preparing the Liquor. — Account of Onevy, a
little Ifiand.—One of the Natives wounded by a Sentinel.—
Meffirs. King and Anderfon vifit the King's Brother.—Their
Entertainment.—Another Mourning Ceremony.—Manner
of paffing the Night.—Remarks on the Country theypaffed
through.—Preparations made for failing.— An Eclipfe of
the Sun, imperfectly obferved.—Mr. Anderfon's Account of
tbe Ifiand, and its Productions. 30g
A grand Solemnity, called Natche, in Honour of the King's
Son, performed. — The Proceffions and other Ceremonies,
during the fir ft Day, defcribed.—The Manner offaffing the
Night at the King's Houfe.—Continuation of the Solemnity,
the next Day.—Conje&ures about the Nature of it.—Departure from Tongataboo, and Arrival at Eooa.—Account of
that Ifiand, and TranfaBions there. 336
It'5* C H A P.    X.    -  >■■•■■■   -      :■    \#i;
Advantages derived from vifiting the Friendly Ifiands.—Beft
Articles for Traffic.—Refrefbments that may be procured.—*
The Number of the Ifiands, and their Names.—Keppel's
and Bofcawen's Ifiands belong to them.—Account of Vavaoo
—of Hamoa—of Feejee.—Voyages of the Natives in their
Canoes.—Difficulty of procuring exaB Information.—Perfons of the Inhabitants of both Sexes.—Their Colour.—Dif-
eafes.—Their general Character.—Manner of wearing their
Hair—ofpunBuring their Bodies.—Their Clothing and Ornaments.—Perfonal Cleanlinefs. 364
Employments of the Women at the Friendly Ifiands.—Of the
Men.—Agriculture.—ConftruBion of their Houfes.—Their
working Tools.—Cordage, andfifhing Implements.—Mufical
Infiruments. — Weapons. — Food, and Cookery. — Amufe-
ments.—Marriage.—Mourning Ceremonies for the Dead.—
Their Divinities.—Notions about the Soul, and a future
State. State.—Their Places of Worfbip.—Government.—Manner
of paying Obeifance to the King.—Account of the Royal Family.—Remarks on their Language, and a Specimen of
it.—Nautical and other Obfervations. 390
THE fpirit of difcovery, which had long animated the
European nations, having, after its arduous and fuc-
cefsful exertions, during the fifteenth and fixteenth centuries, gradually fubfided, and for a conliderable time lain
dormant, began to revive in Great Britain in the late
reign |; and recovered all its former activity, under the
cherifhing influence, and munificent encouragement, of his
prefent Majefty.
Soon after his acceflion to the throne, having happily
clofed the deftrudtive operations of war, he turned his
thoughts to enterprizes more humane, but not lefs brilliant, adapted to the feafon of returning peace. While
every liberal art, and ufeful ftudy, flourifhed under his
patronage at home, his fuperintending care was extended
to fuch branches of knowledge, as required diftant exami-
* Two voyages for difcovering a North Weft paflage, through Hudfon's Bay, were
then ^rformed; one under the command of Captain Middleton, in his Majefty's mips the
Furnace, and the Difcovery Pink, in 1741, and 1742. The other under the direction of
Captains Smith and Moore, in the fhips Dobbs and California, fitted out by fubfcription,
in 1746, and 1747.
Vol. I. a nation n
nation and inquiry ; and his mips, after bringing back victory and conqueft from every quarter of the known world,
were now employed in opening friendly communications
with its hitherto unexplored receffes.
In the profecution of an object fo worthy of the Monarch
of a great commercial people, one voyage followed another
in clofe fucceffion; and, we may add, in regular gradation.
What Byron * had begun, Wallis t and Carteret | foon improved. Their fuccefs gave birth to a far more extenfive
plan of difcovery, carried into execution, in two fubfequent
voyages, condu&ed by Cook §. And that nothing might
be left unattempted, though much had been already done,
the fame Commander, whofe profeflional fkill could only
be equalled by the perfevering diligence with which he
had exerted it, in the courfe of his former refearches, WfO
called upon, once more, to refume, or rather to complete,
the furvey of the globe. Accordingly, another voyage was
undertaken in 1776; which, though laft in the order of
time, was far from being the leaft confiderable, with refpect
to the extent and importance of its objects; yet, ftill, far
* Captaii^ now Admiral, Byron, had, under his command, the Dolphin and Tamer.
He failed in June 1764, and returned in May 1766.
I Captain Waffis had, under his command, the Dolphin and Swallow. He failed in
Auguft 1766, and returned, with the Dolphin, in May 1768.
t The Swallow, commanded by Captain Carteret, having been feparated from
Wallis, and, by keeping a different route, having made different difcoveries, this may
be confidered as a diftinft voyage. The Swallow returned to England in "March
§ Captain Cook, in the Endeavour, failed in Auguft 1768, and returned in July
1771. J   ■
In his fecond voyage, he had the Refolution and Adventure u^der his command.
They failed from England in July im, and returned on the 30th of July 1775.
lefs fortunate than any of the former, as thofe objects were
not accomplifhed, but at the expence of the valuable life of
its Conductor.
When plans, calculated to be of general utility, are carried into execution with partial views, and upon interefted
motives, it is natural to attempt to confine, within fome
narrow circle, the advantages which might have been derived to the world at large, by an unreferved difclofure of
all that had been effected. And, upon this principle, it has
too frequently been confidered as found policy, perhaps, in
this country, as well as amongfl fome of our neighbours,
to affect to draw a, veil of fecrecv over the refult of enter-
prizes to difcover and explore unknown quarters of the
globe. It is to the honour of the prefent reign, that more
liberal views have been now adopted. Our late voyages,
from the very extenfive objects propofed by them, could not
but convey ufeful information to every European nation;
and, indeed, to every nation, however remote, which cultivates commerce, and is acquainted with navigation : and
that information has moft laudably been afforded. ~The
fame enlarged and benevolent fpirit, which ordered thefe
feveral expeditions to be undertaken, has alfo taken care
that the refult of their various difcoveries fhould be authentically recorded. And the tranfactions of the five firft
voyages round the world having, in due time, been communicated % under the authority of his Majefty's naval
Minuter; thofe of the fixth, which, befides revifiting many
of the former difcoveries in the Southern, carried its opera-
* The account of the four firft of thefe voyages, compiled by Dr. Hawkefworth, from
the Journals of the feveral Commanders, was publifhed in 1772, in Three Volumes
quarto; and Captain Cook's own account of the fifth, in 1777, in Two Volumes
a 2
tions iY
tions into untrodden paths in the Northern hemu%here,
are, under the fame fanction* now fubmitted to the Public
in thefe Volumes.
One great plan of nautical inveftigation having been
purfued throughout, it is obvious, that the feveral voyages have a clofe connection, and that an exact recollection of what had been aimed at, and effected, in thofe
that preceded, will throw conliderable light on our period. With a view, therefore, to aflift the Reader in forming a juft eftimate of the additional information conveyed
by this Publication, it may not be improper to lay before
him a Ihort, though comprehenfive, abftract of the principal objects that had been previoufly accomplished, arranged in fuch a manner, as may ferve to unite, into one
point of view, the various articles which lie fcattered
through the voluminous Journals already in the hands
of the Public; thofe compiled by Dr. Hawkefworth ; and
that which was written by Captain Cook himfelf. By
thus Ihewing what had been formerly done, how much
frill remained for fubfequent examination, will be more apparent ; and it will be better underftood on what grounds,
though the fhips of his Majefty had already circumnavigated the world five different times, in the courfe of
about ten years, another voyage ihould ftill be fought
There will be a farther ufe in giving fuch an abftract a
place in this Introduaion. The plan of difcovery, carried
on in fo many fucceffive expeditions, being now, we may
take upon us to fay, in a great meafure completed- by
fumming up the final refult, we fhall be better able to do
juftice to the benevolent purpofes it was defigned to anfwer •
and a folid foundation will be laid, on which we may build
a fatisfactory anfwer to a queftion, fometimes afked by
peevifh refinement, and ignorant malevolence, What beneficial confequences, if any, have followed, or are likely to
follow, to the difcoverers, or to the difcovered, to the common interefts of humanity, or to the increafe of ufeful
knowledge, from all our boafted attempts to explore the
di£tant receffes of the globe ?
The general object of the feveral voyages round the world,
undertaken by the command of his Majefty, prior to that
related in this work, was to fearch for unknown tracts of
land that might exift within the bofom of the immenfe
expanfe of ocean that occupies the whole Southern hemi-
Within that fpace, fo few refearches had been made,
before our time, and thofe few refearches had been made
fo imperfectly, that the refult of them, as communicated
to the world in any narration, had rather ferved to create
uncertainty, than to convey information; to deceive the
credulous, rather than to fatisfy the judicious inquirer; by
blending the true geography of above half the fuperficies
of the earth with an endlefs variety of plaufible conjectures,
fuggefted by ingenious fpeculation; of idle tales, handed
down by obfcure tradition; Or of bold fictions, invented by
deliberate falfehood.
It would have been very unfortunate, indeed, if five different circumnavigators of the globe, fome of them, at
leaft, if not all, in tracks little known, andlefs frequented,
had produced no difcoveries, to reward the difficulties and
perils unavoidably encountered. But the following review
will furnifh the moft fatisfactory proofs, that his "^ajefty's
inftructions have been executed with ability ; and that the
repeated vifits of his fhips to the Southern hemifphere,
W% have VI
have very considerably added to our flock of geographical
The South Atlantic Ocean was the firft fcene of our operations. Falkland's Ifiands had been hitherto barely known
toexift; but their true pofition and extent, and every cir-
cumftance which could render their exiftence of any con-
fequence, remained abfolutely undecided, till Byron vifited
them in 1764. And Captain Macbride, who followed him
thither two years after, having circumnavigated their coafts,
and taken a complete furvey, a chart of Falkland's Ifiands
has been conftructed, with fo much accuracy, that the coafts
of Great Britain, itfelf, are not more authentically laid down
upon our maps.
How little was really known of the ifiands in the South
Atlantic, even fo late as the time of Lord Anfon, we have
the raoft remarkable proofs, in the Hiftory of his voyage.
Unavoidably led into miftake, by the imperfect materials
then in the poffelfion of the world, he had confidered Pe-
pys's Ifiand, and Falkland Ifles, as diftinct places, diftant
from each other about five degrees of latitude *^ Byron's
refearches have rectified this capital error; and it is now
decided, beyond all contradiction, that future navigators
willmifpend their time, if they look for Pepys's Ifiand in latitude 470; it being now certain, that Pepys's Ifiand is no other
than thefe ifiands of Falkland t.
Befides the determination of this confiderable point, other
* See Lord Anfon's Voyage, quarto edition, p. 91.
t Thefjare Captain Cook's words, Preface to bis Voyage, p. x4.; and the evidence,
W which he forms this judgment, may be met with in Hawkefworth's Journal of Byron's
Voyage, Vol. i. p. 23, zA—ih 52, 53, 54.
lands, INTRODUCTION. b*f
lands, fituated in the South Atlantic, have been brought
forward into view. If the ifle of Georgia had been formerly feen by La Roche, in 1675, and by Mr. Guyot, in the
fhip Lion, in 1756, which feems to be probable, Captain
Cook, in 1775, has made us fully acquainted with its extent
and true pofition; and, in the fame year, he added to the
map of the world Sandwich Land, hitherto not known to
exift, and the moft Southern difcovery that has been ever
accomplifhed #.
11. Ii
Though the Strait of Magalhaens had been frequently
vifited, and failed through by fhips of different nations,
before our time; a careful examination of its bays, and
harbours, and head-lands, of the numerous ifiands it contains, and of the coafts, on both fides, that inclofe it; and
an e