Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The inside passage to Alaska 1792-1920 : With an account of the North Pacific Coast from Cape Mendocino… Woollen, William Watson, 1838-1921 1924

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0230528.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0230528-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0230528-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0230528-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0230528-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0230528-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0230528-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Array     I THE
Volume I
Ml William Watson Woollen
At Muir Glacier, 1913 THE INSIDE J
with an account ai
Cape Mendocino
counts left by
explorers, an
nals of
;: ~th   l%:,hc ۥ      " :,om
b I   from
William Wa§i®0 "■' -vollen
edited from ids origin*? ms&uscript* M
Paul L. Haworth
Volume I
924 gill
.-V i MJIN
with an account of the North Pacific Coastffrom
Cape Mendocino to Cook Inlet, from the^ac-
counts left by Vancouver and other early
explorers, and from the author's journals of exploration and travel in
that region
William Watson Woollen
edited from his original manuscripts by
Paul L. Haworth
Volume I
The Arthur H. Clark Company
Cleveland:     1924
!  jl COPYRIGHT, I924, BY
v. I Contents of Volume I
From England to California
Vancouver Misses Columbia River
Mount Rainier
Puget Sound ....
Tacoma ....
Seattle ....
Explorations Around the Gulf of Georgia
The City of Vancouver
Trees and Shrubs of the Northwest Coast
Vancouver   Island,   Eastern   Shore - Esquimalt   and
Victoria ....
Nootka Sound
The West Coast of Vancouver Island
Whales and Whale Fisheries of the Northwest Pacific
Burke Channel, Dean Channel, and Bentinck Arm
From Restoration Cove to Salmon Cove   .
Prince Rupert, Metlakatla, and Fort Simpson .
The Indians of the Northwest Coast
The Fight at Traitor's Cove
ft  m
Illustrations, Volume I
William Watson Woollen
Captain George Vancouver, r. n. .
Blockhouse erected by English near Roach Harbor
San Juan Island ....
Douglas Firs in Stanley Park, Vancouver, B. C.
The Hudson's Bay Company Blockhouse
Village of Friendly Indians
Metlakatla Village and Metlakatla Bay, Alaska
Indian Homes and Totem Poles at Old Kassan, Alaska
m  Introduction
The author of these volumes was a lawyer, and for
sixty years practiced his profession in his native city
of Indianapolis. He was a student at Northwestern
Christian University (now Butler College), graduated
from its law course, and was admitted to the bar in
1861. He compiled a number of legal works that were
widely used, including Woollen's Trial Procedure,
Woollen's Special Procedure, and Woollen's Indiana
Digest, At the time of his death, March 26, 1921, he
was the senior member of the bar of Indianapolis both
in age and in continuous practice. At a special meeting of the Indianapolis Bar Association impressive
tributes were paid to his abilities as a lawyer and to his
qualities as a man and citizen.
Mr. Woollen's legal career won him a position of
prominence in his city and state, but, as occasionally
happens, it was overshadowed by his enthusiastic pursuit of a hobby - a love of nature both animate and
inanimate. He was an organizing member of the
Indiana Audubon Society and of the Nature Study
Club of Indiana, a member of the Indiana Academy
of Science, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and other similar organizations. The
Nature Study Club, of which he was the prime mover,
developed into an unique organization. "No other of
which I have knowledge," says Dean Stanley Coulter,
"has such continuous and successful field trips running
throughout the year.   No other, I think, has been able
A 10
to show such fine results from field trips, for they have
been not merely 'outings' but a real nature study. Ill
them the open has been the laboratory, and the work
has been fruitful not merely from the standpoint of the
members, but also because of positive additions to our
scientific knowledge."
Mr. Woollen's interest in nature was not that of the
closet scientist with his scalpel and microscope. Rather
he was of the type of Thoreau, Muir, and Burroughs.
Like Wordsworth he felt in nature a presence that disturbed him with the joy
Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime
Of something far more deeply interfused,
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns,
And the round ocean and the living air,
And the blue sky, and in the mind of man;
A motion and a spirit, that impels
All thinking things, all objects of all thoughts,
And rolls through all things.
At Buzzard's Roost, a wild and beautiful tract of
land outside Indianapolis, he established a refuge for
birds and other wild creatures. There he spent many
hours communing with nature in her "visible forms,"
and thither he led his Nature Study Club and other
lovers of natural beauty. Ultimately, in 1909, he gave
this tract to Indianapolis that it might be permanently
preserved in its beauty. It is recorded at Washington
that this was the first private gift in the United States
of a tract of land for the protection of wild birds and
for nature study.
The results of many years observations of the feathered denizens of the refuge above referred to were
ultimately gathered into a book entitled Birds of Buz-
zard's Roost,    Mr. Woollen  also contributed many one\
nature articles to newspapers and other periodicals and
was an active promoter of the study of nature in the
In 1912, he made an extended trip to the Pacific
Northwest coast and was so impressed by the scenic
wonders of the region that one morning in his berth on
the homeward trip from Skagway, while approaching
the old Russian town of Sitka, he conceived the idea
of writing a book on the famous "Inside Passage to
Alaska." On reaching home he immediately began
work upon the book but soon found the task more
arduous than he had anticipated. By the summer of
1913 he had written twenty-four chapters but became
convinced that the whole must be rewritten and that
before doing so he must make another voyage to the
region he was attempting to describe. Ultimately, in
fact, he made five trips to the region, nor did he spare
time or trouble in consulting the works already written
by other hands. On his final trip in 1919 he partially
lost his eyesight, and this made very difficult and much
delayed his work on the book, in which he had become
increasingly interested. Aware that his life could not
be much prolonged, he worked with feverish anxiety to
complete the manuscript and Succeeded in doing so
only a few weeks before his death. He was, however,
unable to revise it as thoroughly as he had wished.
In its final form the book traces the discoveries made
by Vancouver and other early navigators along the
northwest coast, incorporates many interesting facts of
natural history, and describes the region as Mr. Woollen found it in the course of his own travels. The
manuscript has been greatly condensed by the editor,
but the responsibility for the facts remains with the
original author.
1 12
At the time of his death Mr. Woollen was perhaps
the most widely known naturalist in his state, and his
passing called forth many expressions of regret both
formal and otherwise. At a joint spring meeting of
the Indiana Academy of Science, the Indiana Audubon
Society, and the Nature Study Club of Indiana a tablet given by the Nature Study Club was unveiled at
Buzzard's Roost, which the Nature Study Club had
formally decided should thenceforth be called "Woollen's Garden of Birds and Botany." The chief address was delivered by Dean Stanley Coulter of Purdue
"To most of us," said Dr. Coulter, "he stands as the
representative of his avocation - the nature student, the
nature lover. And surely of the nature lovers we
know, none was so true a knight to his lady, none quite
so unswervingly loyal, none quite so spotless, none
quite so self-forgetful, and certainly none received such
rich rewards in the enrichment of life, in serenity of
soul, in certitude in the face of life's problems and in
the sheer joy of beauty and life."
Paul L. Haworth w
From England to California
In 1513, Balboa, footsore and famished, beheld from
"a peak in Darien" the broad expanse of the South Sea.
Seven years later Magellan sailed through the strait
that bears his name and emerged upon the same broad
ocean, which, because of its seemingly peaceful waters,
he named the "Pacific." The exploration of the western coasts of South America, Central America, and
Mexico rapidly followed, and in course of time other
adventurous navigators, among them Drake, Bering,
and Cook, sailed along the Northwest coast and discovered many of its secrets.
The names of some of these navigators need not figure in this book, but that of one of them, namely Juan
de Fuca, claims our immediate attention. According
to a story, considered by some historians to be a fabrication, De Fuca sailed from Mexico in 1592 and entered
the strait named after him at the head of Puget Sound.
De Fuca, if we are to believe the account given by him
to Michael Lok, a reputable cosmographer, and printed
in a note in Purchas, was a Greek, born in the island of
Cephalonia, and his real name was Apostolos Val-
erianos. He served for forty years as a pilot in the
Spanish service and was aboard a galleon that was captured by Cavendish off the point of California, in
November, 1587, and personally lost sixty thousand
ducats to his English captors. Subsequently he was
pilot to three vessels sent by the Mexican viceroy to
find the Straits of Anian and fortify them, but because 14
of a mutiny among the crew the ships turned back from
the California coast.
In 1592, De Fuca was himself sent out in charge of
a small garauela and a pinnace to find the same Straits
of Anian, which were supposed to connect with the
Atlantic. He sailed northward along the Northwest
coast "untill he came to the latitude of fortie seven
degrees, and . . . there finding that the land
trended North and North-east, with a broad inlet of
sea, between 47 and 48 degrees of latitude, hee entered
thereinto, sayling therein twentie days, and found
. . . a very much broader sea than was at the said
entrance." He "passed by diuers islands in the sayling" and saw at the entrance to the strait, "in the northwest coast thereof, a great headland or island, with an
exceedingly high pinacle or spiral rocks, like a pillar
thereupon." He found people clad in skins and a fruitful land, "rich of gold, siluer, pearls and other things,"
and came "to the North sea" and found the "sea wide
enough euery where, and to be about thirtie or fortie
leagues in the mouth, where he entered." He returned
to Acapulco before the end of the year, hoping for a
reward, and by advice of the viceroy went to Spain but
obtained no other recompense than fair words, so at
length he "stole away out of Spaine . . . to go
home againe and live among his owne kindred and
countrimen; he being very old."
In 1708 there appeared in "The Monthly Miscellany
or Memoirs of the Various," published in London, a
letter accredited to Admiral Batholeme de Fuentes or
Fonte, a Spanish or Portuguese navigator, in which he
said he sailed from Lima, in 1640; that he took a northwesterly course, and after reaching latitude 530, discovered an archipelago which he named St. Lazarus^ one
that he sailed about two hundred and sixty leagues in
crooked channels among the islands of this archipelago;
and that he entered a river flowing from the east and
sailed eastward through other rivers and lakes of vast
extent until he fell in with Captain Shapely who had
come from Boston, and consequently from the east, all
of which as he concluded, showed there was a communication between the two oceans. He made presents to the officers and men of Shapely's ship, and
bought his fine charts and journals. This letter was
republished in London in 1744 by Sir Arthur Dobbs,
in his account of the countries that border on Hudson
Bay, and in commenting upon it, he said that from information which he had gathered in America, there
was a Captain Shapely living in Boston in the time of
Fonte's voyage.
Historians now doubt whether any such man as Captain Shapely ever existed, and, as we shall see, Vancouver demonstrated that he never made such a voyage.
The story is one of many myths connected with the long
search for a "Northwest Passage," connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific. Two centuries after Shapely's
reputed voyage Sir John Franklin's ill-fated followers
may have discovered a Northwest Passage, but, if so,
their story perished with them. We know that one of
the parties sent out to search for Franklin, namely that
under Captain McClure, reached the east coast of
Banks Island by way of Bering Straits and the Arctic;
there they left their ship frozen in the ice in Mercy
Bay and thence made their way on foot to Delay Island,
whence another vessel that had entered the Arctic from
the east carried them to England; thus they were the
first to make the Northwest Passage but not all of it
by ship.    To Captain Roald Amundsen, subsequent
V i6
discoverer of the south pole, belongs the distinction of
having first sailed entirely through the passage. Entering the Arctic between Labrador and Greenland in
1903 in the little ship Gjoa, he reached Bering Straits
two years later.
In April, 1790, word reached London that the
Spaniards had committed depredations upon British
commerce on the coast of northwest America and that
they had seized the British trading post in Nootka
Sound. Energetic protests were sent to Madrid, and
preparations for war were made. In consequence the
Spanish government offered restitution and recognition
of equal rights to British subjects in those seas, reputed
before to belong only to the Spanish crown. This in
history is what is known as the "Nootka Controversy."
It was deemed expedient that an officer should be
sent to Nootka to receive back, in form, a restitution of
the territories on which the Spaniards had seized, and
also to make a survey of the northwest coast from the
thirtieth degree of north latitude towards Cook's River.
The man selected for this task was Captain George
Vancouver of the Royal Navy. His instructions provided, among other things, that he should pay particular attention to the examination of the supposed
Straits of Juan de Fuca, said to be situated between 480
and 490 north latitude, and to lead to an opening
through which the sloop Washington was reported to
have passed in 1790, and to have come again to the
northward of Nootka. Also, attention was to be given
to the Archipelago of St. Lazarus, the existence of
which was almost assumed upon the authority of a
Spanish admiral named De Fonte, De Fonta or De
Fuentes, and of a Mr. Nicholas Shapely, from Boston Captain George Vancouver, r. n.
From portrait painted probably by Samuel F. Abbott, in tbe National
Portrait Gallery, London.  one\
in America, who was stated to have penetrated through
the archipelago, by sailing through a mediterranean
sea in the coast of northwest America within a few
leagues of the oceanic shores of that archipelago, where
he was said to have met the Admiral.
George Vancouver, the officer selected for the per-*
f ormance of these tasks, was then about thirty-two years
of age and was a native of Lynn in Norfolk. When
about thirteen he joined the British navy and served as
a midshipman under the celebrated explorer Captain
Cook on both the Second Voyage, 1772-75, and the
Third Voyage, 1776-80. On these voyages Vancouver
acquired invaluable experience and also a knowledge
of the region he was himself to explore, for in 1777 and
again in 1778 Cook's expedition spent some months upon the northwest coast, sailing from the region of the
present Oregon to beyond Bering Straits and discovering some of the chief landmarks.
After his return from the third voyage, Vancouver was
made a lieutenant and saw service at various stations,
particularly in the West Indies. His selection to command the expedition we are about to describe was
undoubtedly due in large measure to his experience
under Cook. He was, in addition, endowed with great
executive ability and in the management of his expedition was a strict disciplinarian. His surveys of the
North Pacific coast were worthy of the best explorer
of any time. No other man under analogous conditions has given to the world a detailed survey of equal
excellence of so many miles of intricate coast. His
charts were those by which the coast was navigated for
a century after his death. He was a modest, unselfish,
generous man, and, though a strict disciplinarian, was i8
constantly watchful over the welfare of his men and
saw that they received due recognition for the services
rendered by them.
A new vessel of three hundred and forty tons burden
was purchased and on being launched was named the
Discovery. The Chatham armed tender, of one hundred and thirty-five tons, was ordered to be equipped
to attend on the voyage to be undertaken. Both vessels
were sheathed with copper, and both mounted a number of four-pounders and swivels. The crew of the
Discovery numbered one hundred, with Zachary
Mudge, captain; Peter Puget and Joseph Baker, lieutenants ; and Joseph Whidbey, master. The Chatham
was manned by forty-five men, with Lieutenant W. R.
Broughton, commander; James Hanson, lieutenant;
and James Johnstone, master.
The expedition sailed from Carrack Road on the ist
of April, 1791, and proceeded by way of the Cape of
Good Hope, Australia, and New Zealand to Owhyee,
the present Hawaii. Here they remained for seventeen
days taking on fresh water and provisions and repairing
the ship. On Tuesday, April 17, 1792, a year and seventeen days after leaving home, they reached north latitude 390 20', west longitude 2360 8'. Soon after midday
they passed considerable quantities of drift wood, grass,
and sea-weed; many skegs, ducks, puffins, and other
aquatic birds were flying about them, and the color of
the water announced their approach to land. At four
in the afternoon they reached soundings at the depth
of fifty-three fathoms of water with soft brown sandy
bottom. Land was now discovered at a distance of
about two leagues, on which the surf broke with great
violence.   The shore appeared straight and unbroken, one~\
of a moderate height, with mountainous land behind,
covered with stately forest trees, excepting some spots,
which had the appearance of having been cleared by
manual labor. This may be regarded as the end of
the voyage to the northwest coast of America.  mm
Vancouver Misses Columbia River
On Thursday morning, April 19, 1792, Vancouver's
expedition, according to his reckoning, was in latitude
400 3', longitude 2350 51'. From here it may be said
his survey of the northwest coast of America was commenced. Here they found immense numbers of whales
playing about them. Most of them were of the species
which in Greenland were called finners. In the afternoon they passed Cape Mendocino. This cape is said
to have been discovered and named by Cabrillo in his
expedition of 1542-43. The meteorological conditions
southward of the cape are quite different from those
northward. Fog is more prevalent southward and
rainfall is heavier northward. The strong northwesterly winds of summer are less violent southward of the
cape, which forms a partial lee for vessels working
their way northward. The currents in the vicinity of
this cape are irregular. The mountains at the back of
the cape have a considerable elevation, and form, altogether, a high steep mass, which does not break into
perpendicular cliffs, but is composed of various hills
that rise abruptly and are divided by many chasms.
The present lighthouse and buildings are situated on
one of the western spurs about four hundred feet above
the sea. Mendocino Bay, not mentioned by Vancouver, lies twenty-one miles northward from Point
From Cape Mendocino, the coast took a direction N.
13 E., and along this the expedition ranged at the dis-
-*»■ 22
tance of about two leagues. The coast passed on the
afternoon of Sunday, the 22nd of April, seemed to be
generally open with a sandy beach, but the evening
brought them to a country of a very different description, whose shores were composed of rocky precipices
with numberless small rocks and rocky islets extending
about a mile into the sea; the most projecting part was
by Vancouver named Rocky Point, which name it still
retains. It is a bald point with cliffs about two hundred feet high, bordered by numerous rocks and ledges
extending two hundred to three hundred yards off
shore. It is covered with oak and scrub pine for a
half mile back to the redwood forest. Through the
oak growth project two rocky pinnacles about two hundred and fifty feet high. When abreast of Rocky
Point, Vancouver discovered that the color of the sea
suddenly changed from the oceanic blue to a very light
river colored water, extending as far ahead as could be
discerned. This gave him reason to suppose that some
considerable river or rivers were in the neighborhood.
If he had paid more attention to his instructions, he
would have found that what gave him reason to suppose
was a considerable river or rivers, was the entrance to
Humboldt Bay, which is the first important harbor
north of San Francisco.
In the afternoon of April 24, because of the condition of the tide, they were under necessity of coming to
their first anchorage on the northwest coast of America, in thirty fathoms of water, with a bottom of black
sand and mud, in latitude 42° 38', longitude 2350 44'.
To a low projection from the high rocky coast Vancouver gave the name of Cape Orford, in honor of his
much respected friend, the noble Earl of that title.
This name has been continued as Point Orford. m
Soon after Vancouver had anchored near Cape Orford, natives from different parts of the coast visited
the vessels. Vancouver says a pleasing courteous
deportment distinguished these people. Their countenances indicated nothing ferocious; their features
partook rather of the general European character; their
color was a light olive; and besides being tatooed in
the fashion of the South Sea islanders their skins had
many marks, apparently from injuries in their excursions through the forests. None seen exceeded five
feet six inches in height. They were tolerably well
limbed, though slender in their persons; bore little or
no resemblance to the people of Nootka; nor did they
seem to have the least knowledge of the Nootka language. They seemed to prefer the comforts of cleanliness to the painting of their bodies; in their ears and
noses were small ornaments of bone; their hair which
was long and black, was clean and neatly combed, and
generally tied in a club behind, though some among
them had their hair in a club in front also. They were
dressed in garments that neatly covered them, made
principally of the skins of deer, bear, fox, and river
otter; one or two cub skins of the sea otter were also
observed among them. Their canoes, calculated to
carry about eight people, were rudely wrought out of
a single tree.
About three o'clock in the afternoon of April 25,
the vessels passed within a league of Cape Blanco, and
at about half that distance from some breakers that lie
to the westward of it. It was found that this cape, was
formed by a round hill on high perpendicular cliffs,
some of which were white a considerable height from
the level of the sea. This cape was discovered and
named Cape Blanco in 1603 by Martin de Aguilar, a Ss
Spanish navigator. Near it he thought he saw the
mouth of a large river, which he named St. Inez, but
afterwards it was known as the Rio de Aguilar. From
Cape Blanco to the Columbia River, a distance of two
hundred and eight miles, the coast is remarkably
straight, and trends in a general north by west direction.
At eight o'clock in the morning of April 26, the vessels passed Cape Perpetua - so named by Captain Cook
in 1778. Vancouver located it in latitude 440 12',
longitude 2360 5'. It is nine miles northward from
Heceta Head. It consists of two projecting points;
the northern one, being the bolder, reaches a height of
eight hundred feet in a short distance from the beach
and one thousand feet in about three quarters of a mile.
The rocky cliff forming the face of the northern point
is reddish in color with a few rocks, awash at low
water, close under its face.
They pursued their course northward and in the
afternoon passed Cape Foulweather. Vancouver described it as a conspicuous promontory, almost as singular in its appearance as any they had seen along the
coast. A high round bluff point projected abruptly
into the sea, with a remarkable table hill situated to
the north, and a lower round bluff to the south of it.
It also was named by Captain Cook in 1778. It has
a seaward face six and a half miles in length, consisting
of rocky cliffs over sixty feet high.
On the morning of April 27, they were abreast of
Cape Lookout. It is remarkable for the four rocks
which lie off from it, one of which is perforated. It
projects about one and a half miles at right angles to
the coast, a narrow, rocky promontory four hundred
and twenty-five feet in height at its seaward extremity.
The southern face is nearly straight, with precipitous one]      VANCOUVER MISSES COLUMBIA RIVER 25
cliffs, in which are numerous caves. The north side of
the cape is clean and bold for the first mile, and then
is much broken and marked by caves and several cascades.
Noon of April 27, brought them up with a very conspicuous point of land in latitude 46 ° 19', longitude
2360 6'. Vancouver presumed it to be that which
Meares "called Cape Disappointment, and the opening to the south of it, Deception Bay." This "very
conspicuous point" is now charted as Cape Hancock
or Disappointment. On this double naming hangs a
very interesting story of historical discovery. Captain
Bruno Heceta in July, 1775, discovered a bay with
strong currents and eddies, indicating the mouth of a
great river or strait in latitude 460 9', which but for the
latitude the navigator would have identified with the
Straits of Juan de Fuca, but which he now named
Bahia de la Asuncion, calling the northern point San
Roque and the southern Cabo Frondoso. It was subsequently called by the Spaniards Ensenada de Heceta,
and was, of course, the mouth of the Columbia River
between Capes Disappointment and Adams. Captain
John Meares, on Sunday, July 6, 1789, rounded a promontory in about latitude 460 io', with great hopes that
it would prove the Cape San Roque of Heceta; and so,
indeed, it was, the bay being the mouth of the great
river of the west. But Meares found breakers extending across the bay, which he named Deception, and the
cape, Disappointment, and wrote: "We can now with
safety assert that no such river as that of Saint Roc
exists, as laid down in the Spanish Chart." Captain
Robert Gray on May 10, 1792, "left Port Gray, where
he was attacked by the Indians, and killed some of
them, and next day passed over the bar which he had
lit  I 26
been unable to enter, at the mouth of the great river.
This was the Ensenada de Heceta, discovered in 1775
by Heceta, who named it Point San Roque and Fron-
doso; the Deception Bay behind Point Disappointment
of Meares in 1789. Earlier in this year it had been
seen by Gray himself and by Vancouver, but now it
was entered by Gray for the first time, and was named
the Columbia River, from the vessel's name, the northern and southern points being called respectively Cape
Hancock and Point Adams."
Vancouver endeavors to excuse himself for not having discovered the Columbia River. He says: "The
country before us presented a most luxuriant landscape,
and was probably not a little heightened in beauty by
the weather that prevailed. The more interior parts
were somewhat elevated, and agreeably diversified with
hills, from which it gradually descended to the shore,
and terminated in a sandy beach. The whole had the
appearance of a continued forest extending as far north
as the eye could reach, which made me very solicitous
to find a port in the vicinity of a country presenting so
delightful a prospect of fertility; our attention was
therefore earnestly directed to this object, but the sandy
beach bounded by breakers extending three or four
miles into the sea, seemed to be completely inaccessible
until about four in the afternoon, when the appearance
of a tolerably good bay presented itself. For this we
steered, in the hope of finding a division of the reef,
through which, should admittance be gained, there was
great reason to expect a well sheltered anchorage; but
on approaching within two or three miles of the
breakers, we found them produced by a compact reef,
extending from a low projecting point of land along one]      VANCOUVER MISSES COLUMBIA RIVER
the shores to the southward, until they joined the beach
to the north of Cape Disappointment."
Cape Disappointment, the north point at the entrance to Columbia River, is the only headland on the
low sand beach that extends from Tillamook Head to
Point Grenville, a distance of over eighty miles. The
extreme southeastern point is marked by a lighthouse.
The Columbia, the great river thus narrowly missed
by Vancouver, enters the ocean in latitude 460 15', and
with its tributaries, drains a large and productive country. Below the cascades it flows through a canyon
averaging five miles in width between the high cliffs
on each side; of this width the river occupies about one
mile, the rest being marsh, low land, and low islands.
Near the mouth, the river becomes wider, and in some
places is five miles across. It is navigable for deep-
draft vessels to the Cascades, a distance of about one
hundred and twenty-five miles; but as a rule they seldom go above the mouth of the Willamette, a distance
of eighty-five miles from the sea. The commerce of
the river, both foreign and domestic, is extensive. The
exports are principally fruit, wheat, flour, lumber, and
fish; the imports are coal, cement, fuel-oil, manufactures, and general merchandise.
On April 27, the expedition passed Cape Shoalwater
and next day reached Point Grenville in latitude 470
22', longitude 2350 58^'. It was at this point that the
Spaniards Heceta and Perez anchored, July 13, 1775.
This is a broken, rocky promontory with nearly vertical, whitish cliffs over one hundred feet high. Numerous rocks extend for some distance off the point.
This point was named by Vancouver after the Right
Honorable Lord William Wyndham Grenville, son
of George Grenville, an English statesman. 28
Noon of April 28, brought Vancouver in sight of
land which he considered to be that which by Barclay
had been named Destruction Island. He described it
as being about a league in circuit, low and nearly flat
on the top, presenting a very barren aspect, and producing only one or two dwarf trees at each end. A
lighthouse and fog signal are now established on its
southwestern point. This island has an interesting history. On July 14, 1775, Captain Bruno Heceta with
Padre Sierra, Surgeon Davalos, Cristobal Revilla, and
a few sailors landed in the vicinity of Point Grenville,
erected a cross and took formal possession of the newly
discovered country. Senor Quadra had anchored the
schooner Sefiora a few miles further north near this
island. He resolved to send a party ashore to obtain
wood and water. Accordingly, six men, under command of the boatswain - Pedro Santa Anna, were sent
to land in a boat. Some three hundred Indians were
hidden in the woods near the landing and no sooner
had the Spaniards left the boat than they rushed to
attack them. Two of the crew sprang into the sea and
were drowned, the rest were immediately killed and
torn in pieces and the boat broken up for the nails in
it. Quadra and some others desired to march with
thirty men against the Indians to avenge the massacre,
but a council of war decided that such an act would
be unwise. Because of this catastrophe, the island was
named Isle de Dolores, the Isle of Sorrows. In 1787,
Captain Barclay changed the name to that of Destruction Island.
At four o'clock of April 29, Vancouver discovered
a sail to the westward standing in for the shore. This
was a great novelty to him for he had not seen any vessel except the Chatham during the preceding eight one]      VANCOUVER MISSES COLUMBIA RIVER
months. The newcomer soon hoisted the American
colors and fired a gun to leeward. She proved to be
the ship Columbia, commanded by Captain Robert
Gray, belonging at Boston, from whence she had been
absent nineteen months. Believing this to be the same
person who had formerly commanded the Washington,
Vancouver desired him to bring to, and sent Mr. Puget
and Mr. Menzies on board to acquire such information
as would be of service in their future operations. On
the return of the boat it was found that Captain Gray
was in command of the Washington at the time conjectured by Vancouver. His relation MTthe voyage,
however, differed very materially from that published
in England. Captain Gray was astonished when told
that he was reported to have sailed through the Straits
of Juan de Fuca. He assured the officers that he had
penetrated only fifty miles into the straits; that he found
the passage five leagues wide; and that he understood
from the natives that the opening extended to a considerable distance to the northward. The inlet he
supposed to be the same that De Fuca had discovered,
which opinion then seemed to be universally received
by all modern visitors. He also informed them that
he had been off the mouth of a river (the Columbia)
in latitude 460 10', where the outset, or reflux, was so
strong as to prevent his entering it for nine days.
While Puget and Menzies were making their visit
to Captain Gray, Vancouver was admiring the most
remarkable mountain they had seen on the coast of New
Albion. He located it as being in latitude 470 38', and
described it as being divided into a very elegant double
fork, and its summit as being covered with eternal
snow. It rose conspicuously from a base of lofty
mountains, which likewise were covered with snow,
if 30
and which descended gradually to hills of moderate
height, and terminated in low cliffs falling perpendicularly on a sandy beach. On the ioth or nth of
September, 1773, Captain Juan Perez saw a lofty
mountain covered with snow in latitude 480 7' and
called it Santa Rosalia. By later writers the mountain
seen by these navigators is supposed to have been
Mount Olympus. On the 4th of July, 1778, Captain
John Meares, saw this mountain, located it as being in
latitude 470 10', declared it to be fit as a home for the
Gods, and named it Mount Olympus. It is the dominating peak of the Olympic Range and the Olympic
Having obtained from Captain Gray the desired information, Vancouver directed his course northward
along the coast. In this connection he says: "The
thick rainy weather permitted us to see little of the
country, yet we were enabled to ascertain that this
coast, like that which we had hitherto explored from
Cape Mendocino, was firm and compact, without any
openings into the mediterranean sea, as stated in latitude 470 45'; or the least appearance of a safe or secure
harbour either in that latitude, or from it southward to
Cape Mendocino; notwithstanding that, in that space
geographers have thought it expedient to furnish
many." When it is remembered that in fact there were
and are many safe and secure harbors between the
points mentioned by Vancouver in the foregoing statement, one is forced to the conclusion that this statement
is an unfortunate one and had better not have been
While at anchor in latitude 470 45', Vancouver found
a constant current, without intermission, setting in the
line of the coast to the northward, at an uniform rate one]      VANCOUVER MISSES COLUMBIA RIVER
of near half a league per hour. They observed that as
they directed their course along the coast, it continued
to increase in height with numberless detached rocky
islets, amongst which were some sunken rocks, extending in some places a league from the shore. As they
passed the outermost of these rocks at the distance of
a mile, they plainly distinguished the south point of
entrance into the Straits of Juan de Fuca. The opposite side of the strait, though indistinctly seen in consequence of the haze, plainly indicated an opening of
considerable extent. They now saw several villages
scattered along the shore, whose inhabitants came off
to the vessels for the purpose of trading.
About noon of April 29, the vessels reached the south
entrance to the Straits of Juan de Fuca, which Vancouver understood the natives to distinguish by the
name of "Classet." This point was named Cape Flattery by Captain James Cook, in 1778. In his Journal
of his last voyage he says: "Between this island or
rock, and the northern entrance of the land, there appeared to be a small opening, which flattered us with
the hopes of finding a harbour. These hopes lessened
as we drew nearer; and at last, we had some reason to
think, that the opening was closed by low land. On
this account, I called the point of land to the north of
it Cape Flattery." By this name Vancouver, in a foot
note, recognizes it, and by this name the point has been
called since then. It is a bald, rocky head, with cliffs
one hundred and twenty feet high, rising to an elevation
of one thousand feet one mile back from the beach.
Numerous rocks and reefs border the cliff eastward
and southward of the cape. Fuca Pillar stands one-
fourth of a mile from the western point of the cape. It
is a rocky column one hundred and forty feet high, and
m 32
sixty feet in diameter, and leans slightly to the northwestward.
Tatooche Island lies three-eighths of a mile northwestward from Cape Flattery. It received its name
in honor of the great Chief Tatooche who visited Captain John Meares when he entered the Straits of Juan
de Fuca. It is one hundred and eight feet high, flat
topped and bare. The main island is about one-fourth
of a mile in diameter, with three smaller ones and
several reefs awash close to it on its northwestern face.
A reef, the outer rock of which is usually awash,
extends one-fourth of a mile westward. The Cape
Flattery lighthouse and fog signal and several buildings
are situated on the western end of the island. There
are also a storm-warning display and reporting station
and a wireless station on this island. The passage between the island and cape is a very dangerous one.
Vancouver with the Discovery followed the Chatham between Tatooche's Island and the Rock Duncan,
hauling to the eastward along the southern shore of the
Straits of de Fuca. As they proceeded along the shore
Vancouver's vessels passed the Indian village of Classet,
which was situated about two miles within Cape Flattery. This village appeared to be extensive and populous. The inhabitants of it were civil, orderly, and
friendly. The few who came off resembled, in most
respects, the people of Nootka. Their persons, garments and behavior were similar; some difference was
observed in their ornaments, particularly in those worn
at the nose; for instead of the crescent, generally
adopted by the inhabitants of Nootka, these wore
straight pieces of bone. Their canoes, arms, and implements were exactly the same. They spoke the same
language.    These   were   the   Makah   Indians,   the iuJB
descendants of whom still inhabit that section of the
sea coast. About two miles beyond the village the
ships passed a small open bay, with a little island lying
off its eastern side. At seven o'clock in the evening
they came to anchor in twenty-three fathoms of water,
on a bottom of beach sand and mud about a mile from
the south shore. This was about eight miles within
the entrance of the supposed Straits of de Fuca.
The "small open bay" which Vancouver passed is
now known as Neah Bay. This bay has an interesting
history. It was discovered by Captain Alfarez
Quimper, August I, 1790, and excepting Nootka, was
the only port of the Northwest actually occupied by
the Spaniards. Quimper named it Port Nunez Gaona.
In March, 1792, the authorities of Mexico, besides
sending Sefior Quadra to Nootka to meet Vancouver,
dispatched Lieutenant Salvador Fidalgo to Nunez
Gaona to fortify and hold the port for Spain. In the
autumn of the same year, Quadra ordered the port
abandoned and moved Fidalgo and all the property to
Nootka, where the Lieutenant was to command until
further instructions were received from the government
of Spain and Great Britain. By the fur traders the
port was called Poverty Cove. Captain Charles
Wilkes in 1841 named it Scarborough Harbor. Neah
Bay is the Indian name and by this it is now known and
charted. It is located five miles eastward of Cape
Flattery and is used extensively by vessels in southerly
and westerly voyages when the wind is too severe to
venture outside. Its proximity to the strait and ease
of access at all times makes this anchorage very
valuable; there is usually some swell, especially in
northerly or westerly weather, when it is rather uncomfortable. 34
Vancouver's instructions directed him to pay a
particular attention to the examination of the supposed
Straits of Juan de Fuca, but he was not required to
determine whether there was such a man as Juan de
Fuca, and whether he narrated to Michael Lok the
story of his discovery of the strait which by Captain
John Meares was named in his honor. Notwithstanding this he says: "By my having continued the name
of De Fuca in my journal and charts, a tacit acknowledgement of his discoveries may possibly, on my part,
be inferred; this, however, I must positively deny, because there has not been seen one leading feature to substantiate his tradition; on the contrary, the sea coast
under the parallels between which opening is said to
have existed is compact and impenetrable; the shores of
the continent have not any opening whatever, that bears
the least similitude to the description of De Fuca's entrance; and the opening which I have called the supposed straits of John de Fuca, instead of being between
the 47th and 48th degrees, is between the 48th and 49th
degrees of north latitude, and leads not into a far
broader sea or mediterranean ocean. The error of a
degree in latitude may, by the advocates for De Fuca's
merits, be easily reconciled, by the ignorance in those
days, or the incorrectness in making such common astronomical observations; yet we do not find that Sir
Francis Drake, who sailed before De Fuca, was liable
to such mistakes."
It occurs to me that Vancouver was unfortunate in
his reference to Sir Francis Drake. Most certainly
his account of his return voyage because of the uncertainty of its latitude, has caused much trouble to those
who have studied it. Concerning it, Bancroft, after
making an exhaustive examination of the authorities «r2lr
says, "From the marked difference in writers who were
contemporaries with Drake, and whose good faith in
this matter is not questioned, the reader will perhaps
conclude with me that Drake's companions in their
notes and verbal statements did not agree respecting the
northern limit of the voyage; that observations in the
north had been few and contradictory; that possibly
the regular diary, if any had been kept, was lost, and
memory alone depended on; and at any rate, that the
truth cannot be known respecting the latitude of the
freebooter's landfall."
It also occurs to me that Vancouver after having
missed finding the mouth of the Columbia River,
Gray's Harbor, and divers other openings in the coast
before reaching the Straits of Juan de Fuca, might well
have not written the paragraph under consideration.
In addition to this, it will be observed in following his
account of his explorations, that he, with all his astronomical appliances and the added astronomical
learning of two centuries, made mistakes of latitude
which were more erroneous than these of De Fuca.
Moreover, it will be observed that he frequently apologized for like errors made by other navigators;
but De Fuca must be disbelieved, because he made an
error of perhaps not more than half a degree of latitude,
for it will be recalled that De Fuca was not exact in
fixing his latitude. He says "that he followed his
course in that voyage west and northwest . . . until hee came to the latitude of fortie seuen degrees, and
there finding the land trended North and North-east,
with a broad inlet of sea, between 47 and 48 of latitude,
he entered therein."
Vancouver's survey was made by order of the Lords
Commissioners of the Admiralty.    The fourth edition
m 36
of the British Columbia Pilot, including the coast of
the United States and British Columbia from Cape
Flattery and Juan de Fuca to Cape Caution, etc., was
published by order of the successors of the same Lords
Commissioners of Admiralty in 1913, that being one
hundred and twenty-one years after the order to Vancouver. Both orders were official and ought to receive
like consideration. The latter says: "Juan de Fuca
straits, formed between the south coast of Vancouver
Island and the mainland of the state of Washington,
was discovered in 1592 by a Greek Mariner, Apostolos
Valerianos, commonly known as Juan de Fuca, a native
of Cephalonia, employed by Spain; and rediscovered
by Barkley, an Englishman, in the service of the Austrian East Indian Company in 1787."
Another objection made to De Fuca's story is that
he claimed "that at the entrance of this said strait, there
is on the northwest coast thereof, a great headland or
island with an exceding high pinacle, or spiral rocke,
like a pillar thereupon." In reference to this, Rear
Admiral T. S. Phelps, in his Reminiscences of Seattle,
Washington Territory, and the U, S, Sloop-of-War
Decatur, during the Indian War of l8$5'5^f says:
"It apparently applies to the western entrance to the
strait under consideration, and the locality of the high
pinnacle or spired rock, is naturally ascribed to a position on the northwest side of the entrance near Vancouver's Island, where, to all observers, an object of
this description never did exist. All doubt on this
subject is at once removed by applying the paragraph
in question to the western entrance of Johnstone's Strait,
or rather to the Goletas Channel at the northwest end
of Vancouver's Island, where it properly belongs, and
then on Mount Lemon, near the southwest end of one]      VANCOUVER MISSES COLUMBIA RIVER
Galiano (now the Nigei) Island, a remarkable promontory, twelve hundred feet high, we find a solution of
the difficulty, and that at the entrance of said strait-
calling the various bodies of water separating Vancouver's Island from the mainland as one continuous
strait - There is on the northwest coast thereof a great
headland or island with an exceeding high pinacle or
spiral rock like a pillar thereon' - which fully answers
the description, and reconciles the paragraph with the
truth as we find it in nature." It seems to me that the
Admiral's solution of a seeming difficulty is a reasonable one, and that "the various bodies of water separating Vancouver's Island from the mainland" may be
called one continuous strait. In fact, they, with like
bodies of water, are now well known as the "Inside
Passage to Alaska."
De Fuca says that "hee entered thereinto, sayling
therein more than twentie dayes, and found that land
trending still some time northwest and northeast, and
north, and also east and southeastward, and very much
broader sea than was at said entrance, and that he
passed by divers islands in that sayling." Also he said,
that "he went on land in divers places, and that he saw
some people on land, clad in beasts' skins; and that the
land is very fruitful, and rich of gold, siluer, pearle,
and other things, like Nouva-Spania." And also he
said, "that he being entered thus farre into the said
strait, and being come into the North Sea already, and
finding the sea wide enough every where, and to be
about thirtie or fortie leagues wide in the mouth; he
thought he had well discharged his office, and done the
thing he was sent to doo." This quaint description of
De Fuca's voyage, if we adopt the Admiral's explanation of it, is a fair counterpart of Vancouver's voyage
Iw 38
in 1792 to the entrance to Queen Charlotte's Sound,
and of what he came in contact with and saw - in other
words, the waters that would be voyaged through and
that would be seen in making such a "sayling." In
fact, the strait, as it is now known, is the connecting
channel between the Pacific Ocean and the inside passages, extending southward to Puget Sound, and northward to the inland waters of British Columbia and
southeast Alaska. It extends eastward about fifty
miles to Race Rocks, with an average width of over ten
miles. Eastward of Race Rocks it extends northeastward for thirty miles with an average width of eighteen
Smiles, connecting northward with the Strait of Georgia
through the channels of Washington Sound, and connecting southward through Admiralty Inlet, which
enters in its southern part with Puget Sound. Within
these limits, extending from Commencement Bay
northward to Queen Charlotte's Sound there are two
extensive archipelagoes, with innumerable channels
and inlets upon the shores of which are located many
Indian villages, inhabited by Indians, descendants of
those whom De Fuca saw.
On the morning of April 30, Vancouver weighed
anchor, and with a favorable wind, steered to the east
along the southern shore of the Straits of Juan de Fuca.
At noon their latitude was 48 ° 19'. About five o'clock
in the afternoon, a long low sandy point of land was
observed projecting from the craggy shores into the
sea, behind which was seen the appearance of a well
sheltered bay; and at seven they hauled around it, and
having turned up a little way into the bay they anchored on a bottom of soft sand and mud in fourteen
fathoms of water.    The low sandy point of land, from one]      VANCOUVER MISSES COLUMBIA RIVER
its great resemblance to Dungeness in the British Channel, Vancouver called New Dungeness.
Vancouver makes no mention of what is now known
as Port Angeles, situated fifty-six miles eastward of
Cape Flattery. This is somewhat surprising for he
says the day was clear, the sea smooth, and that he
steered at the distance of about two miles from the
southern shore. The entrance to it is eleven miles
southeastward from Race Rocks lighthouse. It is easy
of access by the largest vessels, and is frequently used
by them when weather-bound, and awaiting orders for
a tug. The prominent feature in approaching it is the
lighthouse and buildings on the eastern point of Ediz
Hook. The town of Port Angeles, situated on the
southern shore, is a place of some importance.
On the afternoon of April 30, Vancouver observed
to the north and northeast of New Dungeness high land,
like detached islands, amongst which, Third Lieutenant
Baker discovered a lofty mountain northeast of Belling-
ham which in compliment to the lieutenant was by Vancouver called Mount Baker. From New Dungeness
this mountain is a very conspicuous object, and it dominates the San Juan Archipelago. It is an extinct
volcano whose many native names Pukhomis, Puksan,
and Kulshan all mean "the fire mountain." Galiano
and Valdes, the Spanish navigators, called it Mount
Carmelo. It has an altitude of ten thousand, eight
hundred and seventy feet. According to Indian tradition, it has been in eruption many times during the past
century. An eruption took place in 1852, when a
great body of lava flowed down its side. The first ascent of it was made from the west side by Edmund T.
Coleman,   an  English  landscape  artist  and  Alpine
c 40
m      mm
climber, in August, 1868. Mr. E. S. Ingram with a
party made a like ascent, July 3, 1891, and found the
summit to be an elliptical plateau, a third of a mile in
length, with a snow filled crater, and that a small crater
one thousand feet below was filled with sulphur crystals
and sulphurous gas and that steam in clouds was blowing from it. The ascent of the mountain is now
frequently made by climbing parties from Bellingham,
and the annual race to its summit, inaugurated in recent
years by a Bellingham Mountain Association, is doing
much to extend a better knowledge of it.
On the low land of New Dungeness Vancouver
found a number of very tall straight poles, supported
by spurs from the ground. Their appearance induced
the opinion that they were the uprights for stages on
which Indians might dry their fish; but on a nearer
view this seemed improbable, as their height and long
distance from each other would have required spars
of a greater size to reach from one to the other, than
the substances of the poles was capable of sustaining.
Poles like these were found at various other places. At
Port Townsend he found on one of the low points projecting from the eastern shore two of them set in the
ground, about fifteen feet high, and rudely carved; on
the top of each was stuck a human head recently placed
there. The hair and flesh was nearly perfect, and the
heads appeared to carry the evidence of fury or revenge,
as, in driving the stake through the throat to the
cranium, the sagittal, with part of the scalp, was borne
on their points some inches above the rest of the skull.
Between the stakes a fire had been made, and near it
some calcined bones were observed, but none of these
appearances enabled Vancouver to satisfy himself concerning the way in which the bones had been disposed one]      VANCOUVER MISSES COLUMBIA RIVER 41
of. To the north on a very long sandy spit seventeen
long supported poles were seen like those seen at New
Dungeness. Though these afforded an opportunity of
examining them, they did not contribute the least instruction concerning the purpose for which they were
intended. They were uniformly placed in the center
of a low sandy spit, at the distance of about eighty
yards from each other; and it seemed that they were
required to be of certain definite heights, although not
all equally high. They were generally about six inches
in diameter at the bottom, and perfectly straight; and
when too short, a piece was added, which was very
neatly scarfed on; the top of each terminated in two
points like a crescent, or rather like the straight spreading horns of an ox. The tallest of these poles was supposed to be about one hundred feet and the shortest not
so high by ten or fifteen feet. Between several of them,
large holes were dug in the ground, in which were
many stones that had been burnt, which gave the holes
the resemblance of the cooking places in the South Sea
Islands. There was, however, no appearance of any
recent operations of that kind. Vancouver was not
able to determine whether the poles had been erected
for a religious, civil, or military purpose; that he "left
to some future generation." Their purpose is still undetermined.
On May 2, Vancouver weighed anchor at New
Dungeness and steered for Port Discovery, which had
been discovered the preceding day, and moored in it
about noon in thirty-four fathoms of water, about a
quarter of a mile from the shore. He found that the
entrance to this harbor was formed by low projecting
points, extending on each side from the high woodland
cliffs which in general bounded the coast.
>I >0*^
It was at Port Discovery that Vancouver made his
first encampment on shore, which was very commo-
diously situated close to the north side of the stream or
brook which flows into the port. Here the tents, observatory, and instruments were sent on shore, and
guarded by a party of mariners. On Thursday morning May 3, they set seriously to work on board and on
shore. The sail-makers were repairing and altering
the sails, coopers inspecting the casks, gunners airing
the powder, and parties cutting wood, brewing spruce
beer, and filling the water casks; whilst those on ship
board were as busily employed in necessary repairs
about the rigging, getting the provisions to hand, clearing the main deck and after holds for the reception of
ballast, the carpenters stopping leaks about the bows,
and the rest assisting the caulking of the Chatham's
Being desirous of obtaining further knowledge of the
Straits of Juan de Fuca, Vancouver directed the Discovery's yawl and launch with the Chatham's cutter,
properly armed and supplied with stores for five days,
to be in readiness early Monday morning May 7, to
make the proposed survey. The start was made accordingly. Mr. Menzies, with two of the young gentlemen, accompanied Vancouver in the yawl. Mr.
Puget commanded the launch, and Mr. Johnstone the
Chatham's cutter. Having rowed against a strong tide
along the shore about two or three leagues to the northeast from the entrance of Port Discovery, they rounded
a low projecting point. This on Vancouver's chart is
noted as Point Wilson, and this name it still retains.
High yellow cliffs, surmounted by a thick forest, extended from Port Discovery to Port Townsend, and
these attained a height of four hundred to five hundred tii
feet midway; they were very steep, and broke down
suddenly under a hill two hundred and fifty feet at
about four cables westward of Point Wilson. This
point stretches towards Admiralty Head, and between
them is the entrance to Admiralty Inlet. The point
is formed of sandy hillocks covered with coarse grass,
and on the extremity of it is a lighthouse, from which
is exhibited, at an elevation of fifty-three feet above
high water, a light visible thirteen miles in clear weather. Telegraph cables are landed on the eastern side
of the point.
Extending their survey along the beach, they found
another point similar to that which they had passed, and
distant from it about two miles. On Vancouver's chart
this point is named Point Hudson, and it still retains
that name. Why it and Point Wilson were so named
is not stated. Point Hudson is on the western shore of
Port Townsend, about one and three quarters of a mile
southeastward from Point Wilson, and is low and
sandy. Its extremity is marked by a light. On the
high land back of the point is a wireless telegraph
station, and in the depression between that hill and the
summit of Point Wilson are the buildings of a military
post, in front of which is a wharf for landing supplies.
Submarine telegraph cables are laid eastward from
this wharf. From this point a very spacious inlet presented itself to Vancouver, to which he gave the name
of Port Townshend (now known as Port Townsend)
in honor of George Townshend the noble marquis of
that name.
The town of Port Townsend, known as "The Key
City," is situated immediately southward and westward
of Point Hudson. It is the chief port of entry for
Puget Sound and the one in most frequent use.   The
< n 44
depths at the wharves are ample. Here are found all
the modern advantages of urban life. Its municipal
water system supplies the purest water by gravity from
the Olympic Mountains. The city is provided with a
complete sewerage system, banks, theatres, hotels,
churches, school houses, gas and electric plants for
lighting, heat, and power. It has three parks and play
grounds for the enjoyment of its people, and these have
been chosen with the greatest wisdom and discernment
as to the pleasure loving people in their different
moods. Chetzemaka Park, named in memory of a
friendly Indian chieftain, former benefactor of the
pioneers of the city during the last Indian war, is easily
accessible. The frontage of this park on the waters of
Admiralty Inlet is a protected bight, where the children may play in the salt water, which leaves its stretch
of shingle and sand with immunity from dangerous
undertow. The Lucinda Hasting Park, which was
given to the city in memory of a reverend matron of
pioneer days, occupies a nook in "Happy Valley" with
the calm waters of a small lake to reflect its peaceful
The residence portion of this city occupies a prominence, with a gentle slope from the land side and
commanding scarfed bluffs, with a most magnificent
outlook on the water side. The business district occupies the lower levels on the waterfront, with ample
room for expansion to meet the requirements of an increasing population. The outlook from the city is
most inspiring. To the northwest across the roadstead
of the Straits of Juan de Fuca, the rugged shores of
Vancouver Island may be seen; to the east, the silent
white peaks of the Cascades; Mount Baker, the magnificent, and Mount Rainier, the lofty, as sturdy sen- -» "jc
tinels at either end, are ever in sight, and to the west the
rock-ribbed Olympics with their mantle of eternal
snow, lift their heads into the clouds of the upper air,
thus signaling voyagers to their unexplored mysteries.
Across Admiralty Inlet is Whidbey Island with its
strikingly peculiar gray marrow-stone banks.
I  /  Mount Rainier
It was on Monday, May 7, 1792, that Vancouver
from Port Townsend saw "a very remarkable high
round mountain, covered with snow." This he distinguished by the name of Mount Rainier, after his friend
Rear Admiral Rainier. Peter Rainier, the man thus
honored, was Commander-in-chief of the East India
station from 1794 until 1804. During that time he
assisted in the capture of several ports yielding immense booty, his share of which made him a very rich
man. In the Trafalgar promotions of November 9,
1805, he was promoted to the rank of Admiral of the
Blue. He was elected to Parliament for Sandwich, in
May, 1807. He died at his house on Great George
Street, Westminster, April 7, 1808. He was a bachelor.
By his will he left one-tenth of his estate, proved at two
hundred and fifty thousand pounds, toward the extinguishment of the national debt.
A determined effort has been made to change the
name of Mount Rainier to Mount Tacoma. The
United States Geographic Board has twice been petitioned to make such a change. The last of these
petitions was presented to it in 1917. In a statement
by C. Hart Merriam before the Board at that time, he
said: "The advocates of the name Tacoma claim that
the proposed change is necessary in the interests of
'justice to the mountain.' The logic of this claim is
hard to find; on the other hand, it may be truthfully
said that the name Rainier should be retained in justice
(ill 48
to its discoverer, in justice to the science of geographic
names. For more than one hundred years it has been
engraved on every important map of western North
America, and for the same period has appeared in the
geographies, atlases, histories, and other documents
relating to the Pacific coast, no matter where published,
whether in Canada, England, France, Germany, Italy,
Russia, Holland, Spain, Arabia, or the United States.
No geographic feature in any part of the world can
claim a name more firmly fixed by right of discovery,
by priority by international usage, and by the conspicuous place it holds on the official charts of the civilized
nations of the earth." The Geographic Board in both
instances refused to change the name, and it would
seem that it acted wisely.
The agitation for the change of the name Mount
Rainier to Mount Tacoma originated with the citizens
of the city of Tacoma, who claim that long before the
time of Vancouver's discovery, the Indians within sight
of the summit of this pre-eminent peak called it Tak-
ho-mah. They claim that the word Tak-ho-mah means
plenty of food or nourishment; and hence, a woman
who had plenty of nourishment in her breast was called
"Takhomah Sladah," or the "motherly woman," and
that in the course of time the nourishing breast of a
woman was called "Takhomah" because it furnished
plenty of food for the young. The word as applied to
the mountain means that the earth is their mother, for
she feeds them, and that the round snow-capped mountain, which resembles the breast of a woman, gives them
drink and overflows and makes the grass grow rich
from the white water which flows from her. There is
much significance in this interpretation of the word
Takhomah, for eight glaciers, namely, Cowlitz, Em- one]
mons, White River, Carbon, Bailey-Willis, Puyallup,
and Nisqually, furnish a supply of water for the Cowlitz, White, Carbon, Natches Tietan, Des Chutes,
Chehalis, Puyallup and Nisqually rivers. Edna Dean
Proctor in this connection appropriately makes the
mountain say:
" I am Tacoma, Monarch of the Coast!
Uncounted ages heaped my shining snows;
The sun by day, by night the starry host,
Crown me with splendor; every breeze that blows
Wafts incense to my altars; never wanes
The glory of my adoring children boast,
For one with sun and sea Tacoma reigns.
Tacoma — the Great Snow Peak — mighty name
My dusky tribes revered when time was young!
Their god was in avalanche and flame -
In grove and mead and songs my rivers sung,
As blithe they ran to make the valleys fair —
Their Shrine of Peace where no avenger came
To vex Tacoma, lord of earth and air."
Mount Rainier is located in the Rainier National
Park, which is eighteen miles square, with an area of
two hundred and seven thousand, three hundred and
sixty acres, and it lies wholly within the Rainier National Forest Reservation, which covers an area of two
and a quarter million acres of land. It stands in the
greatest stretch of primeval forest in the United States.
The summit of the mountain, with an altitude of fourteen thousand, four hundred and eight feet, is about
one and one-half miles southeast of the center of the
The first explorers to climb this mountain were compelled to make their way from Puget Sound through
the dense growth of one of the world's greatest forests,
over lofty ridges and deep canyons, and across perilous
111 50
glacial torrents. The hardships of the climb to the
timber line were more formidable than the difficulties
above it.
The conditions of those earlier days have changed.
On Thursday morning, August 10, 1911,1 was at Tacoma, visiting Judge Miles Clifford. We were up at six
o'clock and had breakfast at seven, and then started for
Mount Rainier by way of the Tacoma Eastern Railroad to Ashford. At Kapowsin, we passed Electron,
the site of the immense plant which turns the energy of
the Puyallup River into the power that supplies the
entire street-railway systems of Seattle and Tacoma.
After passing lakes Kapowsin and Chop, the road began the ascent through the rugged canyon of the Nisqually River, which for four miles wound its way,
"Where the mountain wall
Is piled to heaven, and through the narrow rift
Of the black rocks, against whose feet
Beats the mad torrent with perpetual roar;
Where noonday is as twilight, and the wind
Comes burdened with the everlasting moan
Of forests and far-off waterfalls."
At La Grande on the Nisqually River we crossed a
magnificient mountain thoroughfare bridge built by
Pierce County and the state of Washington to connect
with the government road through the National Forest
Reservation. Here the city of Tacoma has constructed
its hydro-electric power plant, which of its kind is the
finest municipal plant in the world. The water is
taken from the river three miles above this point and
is brought through a tunnel to the edge of the canyon
directly opposite La Grande, where it is carried in a
steel pipe over a steel truss bridge four hundred feet
above the river. %
We arrived at Ashford at noon. There we left the
train and took an automobile bus to the National Park
Inn. This was the beginning of many new experiences
and wonderful revelations of the glory and grandeur
of this mountain region. A splendid road built by the
National Government winds through Succotash Valley
and penetrates a primeval forest of giant trees, past the
ranches of those who have made their homes on the
mountain side; frequently crossing deep ravines and
bounding brooks on well-constructed bridges; through
green glades walled and roofed by masses of heavy foliage edging along the side of canyons which rise from
the depths below, curving about the base of mighty
peaks, until we came to the National Park Inn and Long-
mire's Cabins. This road at that date was extended to
Narada Falls, but since then it has been completed to
Paradise Valley. A rustic entrance and lodge has been
constructed at the boundary line dividing the National
Forest Reservation from the Rainier National Park.
Here everyone passing through the entrance is required
to register his or her name. We had dinner at Long-
mire's Cabins. The senior Longmire came to this
place in 1861 and entered an eighteen acre claim upon
which he thought were located mineral paint springs.
The springs are of no value for that purpose but are
valuable for their medicinal qualities.
Upon arrival at Longmire's we found Judge Clifford's son Ray waiting with three mountain ponies,
Billy, Jimmy, and Mike, and ready to act as our guide;
he was the first guide to conduct a party of tourists during the night to the summit of the mountain, and, of
course, we felt that we were safe under his guidance.
We left Longmire's at 3 130 P. M. and arrived at Paradise Valley Camp at 6:10.    In making the ascent we
1 ,\
I «fl SFiS
traveled the pony trail which follows the course of the
Paradise River, passing Carter Falls, Madcap Falls,
Washington Torrents, and Narada Falls, the latter having a sheer drop of one hundred and eighty-five feet.
Paradise Valley, or Park, as it is sometimes called, is
located six thousand feet above sea level at the snow
line of the mountain and about eight thousand four hundred feet below its summit. We were met at the Reece
Camp by Jimmy Reece and his dog "Bing." Jimmy,
who was the first and only child that had been born at
the camp, now had grown old and large enough to be
its hostler.
After supper I was introduced to Mr. P. B. Van
Trump, who with General Hazzard Stevens made the
first ascent of the mountain to its summit, August 17,
1870. I was much interested in listening to his account
of that ascent, which was begun at Longmire's with an
Indian guide named Sluiskin. Van Trump told me
about the difficulties they had to meet and overcome in
making the ascent to the snow line. The ascent 'from
Paradise Valley to the summit was made from the
south side of the mountain. Van Trump and Stevens
wanted Sluiskin to go with them. He first treated the
matter of their making the ascent as a joke, but when
they gave him to understand they were in earnest and
were going to make the attempt, he became very serious,
and begged them not to do it, saying to them that there
was an evil spirit up there who would certainly destroy
them. When they started, with tears in his eyes, he
bade them good-bye and said that he would wait two
days for their return and then he would go back and
tell his people that they had been destroyed by the evil
spirit. When they returned, he at first hesitated to
believe that it was they but when convinced that there
I one]
was no mistake about their identity, he was overjoyed
and embraced them fondly. When they got to the
summit, they found that the mountain had been an explosive volcano which threw out volcanic ash and not
lava and that the crater of the principal peak was about
one mile in circi^mference. They spent the night in
the crater and were kept comfortably warm by the
steam which was emitted from it.
In reference to the name of this mountain Van
Trump is quoted by a correspondent in the American
Anthropologist, of January, 1892, as saying: "The
first Indian I heard pronounce the name of the mountain was old Sluiskin, who guided General Stevens and
myself to the snow line when we made the first ascent
to the summit, in 1870. Sluiskin's pronounciation, as
near as I can represent it by letters, was Tah-ho-mah,
and in his rendering of it there was, besides its music,
an accent of awe and reverence, for Sluiskin was very
imaginative and superstitious about Tahoma, believing
that its hoary summit was the abode of a powerful
spirit, who was the author of its eruptions and avalanches, and who would visit dire vegeance on any
mortal who would dare to invade (if that were possible) his dread abode. When Stevens and I were encamped at the foot of the snow line we would often be
awakened by the thunder of falling rocks or the deep
thud of some avalanche. At such times Sluiskin would
start from his blanket and repeat a dismal, dirge-like
song as though he would appease the mountain spirit.
Mishell Henry, another old Indian guide to the two-
named mountain, prides himself in giving its true name.
He has several times drilled me in pronouncing it, always smiling gravely and dignified at my ineffectual
attempts to give his deep chest notes.   Henry was the first rj?
to mark out the present route to the snow line, and even
ascended it for two miles without leaving the saddle.
He guided our party (the Bayley party) in 1883, and
himself ascended to the eight thousand foot level. Beyond that nothing could tempt him, for beyond, in his
view, lay danger, folly, rashness; for even Henry, who
is intelligent, and much more of a philosopher than the
rest of his tribe (the Klickitats) associates the sublime
summit of Tahoma with awe, danger, and mystery."
The next morning we were up at 3:40 and made the
descent in three hours by way of the improved highway
from Narada Falls. The recollection of that morning
will never be forgotten. From Paradise Valley at that
hour of the morning the mountain appeared only as an
uncertain bulk shadowed upon the night. Then came
a surprise. Gradually the east, beyond the great hills,
showed a faint silver glow. Silhouetted against the
dim background, the profile of the peak grew definite
with no other warning, when suddenly from over Sluiskin Falls the moon shot forth, huge, majestic, and
gracious, flooding the lower world with brightness.
Clouds and mountain ranges alike shone in glory.
As we came down we stopped at Narada Falls. The
name of these falls is an East Indian word meaning
"peace." The name was given to them many years ago
by a party of Theosophists who visited them. Our
next and last stop was made at the bridge which crosses
the Nisqually River. From this point a fine view was
had of the Nisqually Glacier. Though much shrunken
since the epoch when it filled the whole canyon, the
glacier is still a vast river of ice, and its front, seen
several hundred yards above the bridge, rises several
hundred feet. In 1905, Prof. J. N. Le Conte of Berkeley, California, established the fact that this glacier one]
has an average downward movement in summer of sixteen and two-tenths inches a day. He also determined
the fact that the movement of the glacier is greater at
the center than on the sides, and greater on the convex
side of a curve than on the concave side. The measurements were taken by running a line from one lateral
moraine to the other with a transit, setting stakes across
the glacier at short intervals and ascertaining the advance they made from day to day. It has been estimated that in twenty-five years this glacier has retreated
fully one thousand feet.
No one can visit Mount Rainier without being impressed with its wild flowers. In Our National Parks,
John Muir says: "Of all the fire-mountains which,
like beacons, once blazed along the Pacific Coast,
Mount Rainier is the noblest in form. Its massive
white dome rises out of its forests, like a world by itself. Above the forests there is a zone of the loveliest
flowers, fifty miles in circuit and nearly two miles wide,
so closely planted and luxuriant that it seems as if
Nature, glad to make an open space between woods so
dense and ice so deep, were economizing the precious
ground, and trying to see how many of her darlings
she can get together in the mountain wreath - daisies,
anemonies, columbines, erythroniums, larkspurs, etc.,
among which we wade knee-deep and waist-deep, the
bright corollas in myriads touching petal to petal. Altogether this is the richest sub-alpine garden I have
ever found - a perfect floral elysium."
I made a second ascent of Mount Rainier from Longmire's to Paradise Hotel, Sunday, August 4, 1918. I
found conditions much changed since I was there in
1911. The auto road had been completed to Paradise
Valley.    It is a wonderful piece of engineering and W%&F
road construction. It was constructed under the direction and supervision of the celebrated engineer Eugene
Rickensecker. I was told that the distance by trail
from Longmire's to the hotel at Paradise Valley is five
miles; by the auto-road it is fourteen miles. In many
places the roadway has been hewed out of the solid
rock, and has a sheer downward look of a thousand
feet or more. From Longmire's to the Nisqually
bridge the roadway is wide enough for three automobiles to pass easily; from there to Paradise Hotel it is
only wide enough for one automobile. Travel over
the roadway is under the direction and control of the
United States Department of the Interior. Its management is by telephone, from Nisqually bridge to the
hotel. Travel is one way at a time-no passing of
automobiles is permitted. In this way collisions are
avoided. The Sunday I was at the mountain, four
hundred and forty-two automobiles passed over the
roadway up the mountain by two o'clock in the afternoon.
The Longmire's Cabins, at which I stopped in 1911,
had been supplanted by a large well-conducted hotel.
A very large and elegantly furnished hotel had been
built at Paradise Valley with a dining-room seating
capacity of five hundred persons. This hotel had been
built of timber from the Silver-forest - a tract of land
which was burned over about thirty-five years ago.
Trees in this forest, which are seen on the way up to
Paradise Valley, stand as gray signals of destruction
occasioned by the fire. Strange to say the trees have
not decayed, but become so well seasoned, that when cut
and worked into lumber they take a polish equal to
that of mahogany.   Not only has the hotel been erected IW
with timbers taken from this forest, but also the tables
and seats have been manufactured from it. The effect
is wonderfully beautiful. The ridge of the building
must be at least fifty feet high, but a photograph taken
of the building in winter time shows it almost entirely
covered with snow. Our chauffeur told me that in the
spring of 1918 he saw the snow so deep in Paradise Valley that it covered the tree tops.
Mount Rainier in shape is not a simple cone, tapering
to a slender, pointed summit. It is rather, a broadly
truncated mass resembling an enormous stump with
spreading base and irregularly broken top. Its life
history has been a varied one. Like all volcanoes,
Rainier has built up its cone with the materials ejected
by its own eruptions. At one time it attained an altitude of not less than sixteen thousand feet, if one may
judge by the steep inclination of the lava and cinder
layers visible in its flanks. Then a great explosion followed, that destroyed the top part of the mountain, and
reduced its height by some two thousand feet. This
left it beheaded, and with a capacious hollow crater,
surrounded by a jagged rim. Later this great cavity,
was filled by two small cinder cones. Successive feeble
eruptions added to their height until at last they formed
together a low rounded dome which now constitutes its
summit. That it should retain so much of its internal
heat is not surprising in view of the recency of its
eruptions. It is known to have been active at intervals
during the last century, and actual records exist of
slight eruptions having taken place in 1843, 1854, 1858,
and 1870. Indian legends mention a great cataclysmal
outburst at an earlier period. At present it may be
regarded as quiescent.    The steam jets in the crater at
. s*P
the summit, as well as the hot springs at Longmire
Springs, attest the continued presence of subterranean
fires within the mountain. It is claimed, however,
that no apprehension need be felt as to the possibility
of an early renewal of its activity. Puget Sound
On Wednesday morning May 9, Vancouver found
himself in a very fine cove near the south extremity of
a narrow shoal passage through which Mr. Johnstone
had passed from Port Townsend. While detained in
it by unfavorable weather, some of the young gentlemen
in their excursions found several oak trees, not exceeding three or four feet in circumference. "In consequence of this valuable discovery, the place obtained
the name of Oak Cove" and is now charted as Oak Bay.
Having determined not to depart from the continental boundary, the western arm of Admiralty Inlet was
the first object of Vancouver's examination. He entered it on May 10, and by the 1 ith at noon had reached
Hazel Point, which was so named "in consequence of
its producing many of those trees." This point he
found to be situated due south of the observatory in
Port Discovery, in the latitude of 490 39'. At Hazel
Point he found that the channel divided into* two
branches, one taking a direction nearly due north, now
known as Dabop Bay, and the other southwest. The
northern arm was found to terminate at a distance of
about seven miles in a spacious basin where bottom
could not be found with seventy fathoms of line.
Dabop Bay is the largest inlet in Hood Canal, and extends about nine miles in a northerly direction westward of Oak Head, Toandas Peninsula, parallel to the
canal. Quilcene Bay, its western arm, is shallow and
marshy at the head, where there is the post village of
&{ f
Quilcene on the left bank of Big River. This village
is connected with Port Townsend by railway. Abreast
of Oak Head, on the western side of Dabop Bay, the
Dusewallips River enters Hood Canal, and the detritus
brought down by its water has formed a shallow flat in
front of it, extending nearly three-quarters of a mile.
On the morning of May 12, they were at Hazel
Point. To west and northwest lay that range of snowy
(Olympic) mountains, which they had noticed the
morning they had spoken with the Columbia. These
gradually descended in a southern direction, whilst the
summit of the eastern range which now and then appeared, seemed to give bounds to the low country on
that side. From here they continued their researches
of the southwest branch of Hood Canal. The habitations of most of the natives appeared to be situated
about the extremity of the inlet, and they were found
to be a civil and well-disposed people. The inlet was
named "Hood's Channel" after the Right Honorable
Lord Hood, who had signed the original instructions
for Vancouver's voyage. It is now charted as Hood's
Lord Hood was again honored by the Vancouver
expedition. In October, 1792, Lieutenant Broughton
while exploring the Columbia River, saw a high mountain. Vancouver in his account of this discovery says:
"The same remarkable mountain that had been seen
from Belle View Point again presented itself, bearing
at this station S. 67 E.; and though the party were now
nearer to it by seven leagues, yet its lofty summit was
scarcely more distinct across the intervening land
which was more than moderately elevated. Mr.
Broughton honored it with Lord Hood's name; its appearance was magnificent; and it was clothed in snow
.* one]
from its summit, as low down as the high land, by
which it was intercepted, rendered it visible." Another
recognition of the Admiral's name is that of Hood
Head, an island-like mass on the western side of Hood
Canal, three miles southward of Foulweather Bluff,
and a prominent feature in entering the canal.
I voyaged through Hood Canal from Seattle, August
27, 1913, in the steamship Potlatch under command of
Captain R. B. Holbrook. Our first stop was made at
Port Ludlow. It lies nine miles southward of Point
Marrowstone and on the west side at the entrance to
Hood Canal. From the entrance, the bay extends in
a general southerly direction, two and one-half miles,
terminating in a basin one-half mile in diameter. The
town of Port Ludlow, on the north side of the basin,
is an important mill port and exports much lumber.
Ship building is also an industry and repairs to wooden
vessels are made here. The wharves are available for
deep draft vessels. We then visited Port Gamble.
This is an inlet on the eastern side of the canal, about
five miles from its entrance. It is about two miles long
and half a mile wide with an average depth of five
fathoms. On the western shore at the entrance is beautifully situated the town of Port Gamble. Lumber
mills are located here from which much lumber is
shipped. We next stopped at Hoodsport, a post village
on the west side of the canal, thirty-six miles from the
entrance to the canal. It has a landing wharf with
fourteen feet of water. A stage road runs from here
nine miles to Lake Cashman, a resort much frequented
in summer. The towering peak of Mount Ross rises
almost sheer from the waters of this lake. Potlatch,
an important post village on the west side of the canal
two miles southward from Hoodsport and opposite the
iH *
great bend, has a substantial wharf with twenty-five
feet at low water along the face of it. There is also a
long trestle carrying a logging railway out into the port
where logs are rolled from the cars into the water.
This railway is said to be twenty-five miles long, and
rises by switch-backs into the high back country. We
arrived at Union City at 6:15 P. M. This is as far as
Vancouver went. Union City, a place of about two
hundred inhabitants, is beautifully located on the east
side of Annas Bay. It was founded in 1856 by two
Indian traders by the names of Wilson and Anderson.
The latter died and the former sold his interest in the
place to John McReavy, who developed it.
Vancouver found Indians and their habitations near
where Union City is now located, and he says they
were a "civil people." He further says, "This deplorable disease [smallpox] is not only common, but is
greatly to be apprehended is very fatal amongst them,
as its indelible marks were seen on many; and several
had lost the sight of one eye, which was remarked to be
generally the left, owing most likely to the virulent
effects of this painful disorder." The Snokomish
Reservation is located near Union City, and upon it is
found the Twana tribe of Indians. From a former
population of fifteen hundred, it has dwindled to about
three hundred and fifty individuals. This diminution
has probably been the effect of smallpox, the "deplorable disease" referred to by Vancouver. These "civil
people" have espoused the Quaker religion with Chief
David Charley as their minister.
Between the Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de
Fuca is the Olympic National Forest. It lies within
the Olympic Peninsula and covers portions of Clallam,
Jefferson, Chehalis, and Mason counties in the state »*H
of Washington. It comprises the Olympic Mountain
group, with its relatively abrupt slopes upon the east,
north, and south, and its long slope to the west. The
Olympics are a group of mountains of nearly circular
shape, radiating from a central mass which culminates
in Mount Olympus, with an altitude of eight thousand,
one hundred and fifty feet. Many other summits rise
to altitudes ranging between seven and eight thousand
feet, and large areas lie above timber line, which has
an altitude of from five to six thousand feet. Near
timber line are considerable areas of open country,
some covered with ice, others barren and rocky, while
some consist of open grass lands. Glaciers and snow
fields are numerous in the central mountains; though
individually of small extent, collectively they cover a
large area. As a whole, this region is wild, rugged,
and inaccessible. It has been estimated that the merchantable stand within the boundaries of this forest,
approximates twenty-five billion, five hundred million
board feet and is capable of producing a sustained
annual yield of two hundred and fifty million board
feet. Thirty-seven percent of this consists of Douglas
fir; thirty-five percent of western hemlock; fifteen percent of amabilis and grand fir; eight percent of Sitka
spruce; and five percent western red and Alaska cedar.
In this forest is found as great a variety of big game
as in any other part of the United States outside of
Alaska. Here is the last stand of the elk. It is said
that as many as five thousand of these noble animals
roam at will over the jagged peaks of the Olympic.
Bear and cougar also abound in this region.
Returning to Port Discovery, Vancouver, on the
afternoon of May 17, caused the tents and observatory
to be re-embarked, and everything to be put in readiness
l! A \Wm
for sailing the next morning. A light wind from the
S. E. and pleasant weather favored their departure.
The ships arrived at the entrance of the port about
breakfast time. Vancouver landed on the east end of
Protection Island, in order, from its eminence to make
a more accurate view of the surrounding shores. In
most directions, they seemed much broken, particularly
in the northern quarter which appeared to be occupied
by an archipelago. On his return on board he directed
Mr. Broughton to use his endeavors, in the Chatham,
to acquire some information in that direction, whilst he
continued his examination with the Discovery up Admiralty Inlet, which they had discovered in the boats,
to the eastward of Foulweather Bluff. The first inlet
to the southeastward of that point on the starboard, or
continental shore, was appointed as the place for the
next rendezvous.
Vancouver having already traced the western shore
of Admiralty Inlet in the boats, after leaving Port Discovery kept the eastern side on board, which like the
other abounded with verdant open places. On one of
these beautiful lawns, nearly a league within the entrance of the inlet, about thirty of the natives came from
the surrounding woods, and attentively watched them
as they sailed along. On the south side of the lawn,
were many uprights in the ground which had the appearance of having formerly been the supports of the
large wooden houses. After advancing about four
leagues up the inlet, because of bad weather and tide
conditions, the Discovery anchored for the night, in
eighteen fathoms of water, about half a mile from the
eastern shore. The next morning, Saturday, May 19,
the explorers weighed anchor and pursued their route
up the inlet. one]
Vancouver was infatuated with his surroundings.
He says: "To describe the beauties of this region, will,
on some future occasion, be a very grateful task to the
pen of a skilful panegyrist. The serenity of the climate,
the innumerable pleasing landscapes, and the abundant fertility that unassisted nature puts forth, require
only to be enriched by the industry of man with villages, mansions, cottages, and other buildings, to render
it the most lovely country that can be imagined; whilst
the labour of the inhabitants would be amply rewarded,
in the bounties which nature seems ready to bestow on
cultivation." Existing conditions show the foregoing
was not an exaggerated statement.
Having advanced about eight leagues from their last
night's station, they arrived off a projecting point of
land, on which stood an Indian village, consisting of
temporary habitation's, from whence several of the
natives assembled to view the ship as she passed. Here
the inlet divided into two extensive branches, one
(Puget Sound) taking a southeastern, the other (Col-
vos Passage) a southwestern direction. Near this
place was their appointed rendezvous with the Chatham ; and near the village point they found a commodious roadstead, in which they anchored.
Next day in the meadow and about the village many
of the natives were seen moving about, whose curiosity
seemed little excited on account of the ship at anchor.
Towards noon Vancouver went on shore to the village
point, for the purpose of observing the latitude. On
this occasion he visited the village and found it the
most lowly and meanest of its kind. The best of the
huts were poor and miserable, constructed something
after the fashion of a soldier's tent of two cross sticks
about five feet high, connected at each end by a ridge-
. >l
pole from one to the other, over some of which was
thrown a coarse kind of mat, over others a few loose
branches of trees, shrubs, or grass; none of them, however, appeared to be constructed for protecting their
occupants, either against the heat of summer, or the
inclemency of winter. In them were hung up to be
cured by the smoke of the fire they kept constantly
burning, clams, mussels, and fish, seemingly intended
for their winter use. Not all the clams were reserved
for that purpose, as he frequently saw them strung and
worn about the neck, and these, as inclination directed,
were eaten, two, three, or half a dozen at a time. Nearly the whole of the inhabitants belonging to the village,
which consisted of about eighty or a hundred men,
women, and children, were busily engaged like swine
in rooting up the beautiful verdant meadow in quest
of a species of wild onion, and two other roots, which in
appearance and taste greatly resembled the farrane,
particularly the largest; the size of the smallest did not
much exceed a large pea.
On May 23, some of the young gentlemen connected
with the Discovery extended their walk to a cove which
Vancouver had visited the first evening of their arrival,
and found it communicated by a narrow passage with
an opening apparently of some extent. In consequence
of this information, Vancouver, accompanied by Mr.
Baker in the yawl set out the next morning to examine
it. They found a most excellent harbor, which after
the gentleman who discovered it, was by Vancouver
named Port Orchard. It is not definitely known who
was then honored. It probably was H. M. Orchard of
the Discovery. The muster roll of that vessel shows
that a man by that name was mustered in as clerk on
that vessel, that his birthplace was Cornwall, and that tS
he was thirty-one years old. It also shows that December 1, 1792, he was appointed midshipman, and that he
again was listed as clerk December 1, 1794. In October 1, 1792, Lieutenant Broughton, while exploring the
Columbia River, named a small tributary east of Gray's
Bay, Orchard's Bay.
Port Orchard, as it is now known, is an extensive
body of water lying westward of Bainbridge Island.
It is about fifteen miles long and has an average width
of over three-quarters of a mile. The country around
Port Orchard is being rapidly settled, and many towns
and post villages, each with one or more landing
wharves for the shipment of farm produce, having
sprung up in recent years. All of them are in daily
communication by steamer with Seattle, and many of
them by telegraph and telephone. I voyaged to Port
Orchard, July 11, 1911, and July 27, 1918. On my
second visit I found many changes had been made.
When the future importance of the Pacific coast began
to dawn upon the minds of men of the east, the Congress of the United States decided that there should be
a naval station on the northwest coast. The commission to whom was left the selection of a site for it, after
a careful examination, recommended the north shore
of Port Orchard Bay as offering the best advantages
for the purpose, and most certainly the recommendation
was a wise one. Here may be seen different types of
the best fighting machines and implements of the world.
In the placid waters of the bay, ride grim, gray battleships and cruisers, while lesser craft dart to and fro
across the harbor. When I was there in 1911, the
Pennsylvania was in the dry dock being overhauled,
and beside the Chippewa on which I voyaged, there
were anchored in the harbor, the steamships Charles- 68
ton, St. Louis, Princeton, Oregon, and St. Paul. The
government dry dock then in use was six hundred and
forty feet long, over all, five hundred and seventy-three
feet on the blocks, and had a width at the entrance of
ninety-three feet and eight inches. On my visit in
1918, I found that a second dry dock, doubling the
capacity, had been constructed. When I was there
in 1911, visitors were permitted to inspect the navy
yard every day from 8 A. M. and were allowed to
go on board of the vessels. When I was there in
1918, no visitors were allowed unless they had permission from the proper officers. Bremmerton is a
town on the east side of the Navy Yard, and Charleston is on the west side. Both have landing wharves
and post offices. Sidney is on the south side of Sinclair Inlet, opposite the Navy Yard, and has two landing wharves and a post office. This town is beautifully
located and presents an attractive appearance. Many
of the officers and principal men connected with the
Navy Yard have their homes in Sidney.
Vancouver discovered on his return from Port Orchard that the natives were preparing to depart with
all their stock and effects. These consisted chiefly of
the mats for covering their habitations, their skin and
woolen garments, their arms, implements, and such
articles of food as they had acquired during their temporary residence. These with their family and dogs
all found accommodation in a single canoe. The dogs
belonging to this tribe of Indians were numerous, and
much resembled those of Pomerania, though in general
somewhat larger. They were all shorn as close to the
skin as they were in England; and so compact were
their fleeces, that large portions could be lifted up by a
corner without causing any separation.   They were com- I
posed of a mixture of a coarse kind of wool, with very
fine long hair, capable of being spun into yarn. This
gave Vancouver reason to believe that the native woolen
clothing might in part be composed of this material
mixed with a fine kind of wool from some other animal,
as their garments were all too fine to be manufactured
from the coarse coating of the dogs alone.
After the parting of the vessels at Port Discovery,
Vancouver in his journal only says of Mr. Broughton
and the Chatham, that in the afternoon of Friday, May
25, "the Chatham was seen from the mast head over the
land, and about sunset she arrived and anchored near
us. Mr. Broughton informed me, that the part of the
coast he had been directed to explore, consisted of an
archipelago of islands lying before an extensive arm of
the sea stretching in a variety of branches between the
N. W. north and N. N. E." |
In the preceeding chapter we left the Discovery and
Chatham at anchor near what Vancouver called Restoration Point. Restoration Point lies across Puget
Sound, immediately west from Seattle. It is the extreme north-eastern point of Bainbridge Island. No
mention of this island is made by Vancouver. The
probabilities are that he did not discover that it was
an island. It lies in a deep bight of the Great Peninsula, and its eastern coast forms the western shore of
Puget Sound, abreast of West Point. It is nine miles
long, north and south, moderately high, with high
bluffs along the eastern coast, broken by several indentations forming good harbors and anchorages. It
consists of logged off land. Formerly the timber on
it was converted into lumber. The largest sawmill in
the world, at one time, was located on this island. It
was owned by Captain William Renton, a pioneer 70
citizen of Seattle. He was succeeded in ownership by
the Port Blakely Mill Company, which at one time
was the largest land-owning concern in the state of
Among the important ports and harbors of Bain-
bridge Island are Port Madison, and Eagle and
Blakely harbors. Port Madison is on the western shore
of Puget Sound, twelve miles southward of Point-No-
Point. At the head of Port Madison is Agate Point.
Here is located the Squamish Indian Reservation. The
buildings of this tribe are prominent from the inlet.
Here was the home of Chief (Sealth) Seattle. The
main house of the tribe was across the inlet on the mainland. Chief Seattle's home orchard is still to be seen
at Agate Point. At the launching in 1914 of the steamer "Squamish," one of a fleet of vessels daily plying between Seattle and Bainbridge Island, Miss Blanche
Thompson of Seattle, the great-great-granddaughter of
Chief Seattle, very fittingly was the sponsor for the
Eagle Harbor is situated on the eastern shore of
Bainbridge Island five miles southward of Point Monroe and opposite Elliott Bay. A ship building plant is
located on the north side of this harbor three quarters
of a mile from its entrance, with ways capable of handling vessels of four thousand tons displacement. Eagle
Harbor village and post office is on the south side of
the bay. An extensive creosoting plant is located there,
with wharves capable of accommodating vessels of
large size. From here there is an extensive trade to
foreign and domestic ports in prepared piles and paving blocks. Blakely Harbor lies about one mile southward of Eagle Harbor. It is about one mile long and
a half mile in the entrance, narrowing to the head. "*"3*f
Port Blakely, at the head of the harbor, is a large mill
port and exports a large amount of lumber.
The importance of Bainbridge Island is not only due
to the fact that it is the seat of important industries, but
because it affords homes for a large number of Seattle
citizens. Beginning with Fort Ward, a post of the
federal government, north of the west point of the
island, there are a large number of places well suited
for permanent homes and summer camps. Many such
homes are already in existence, and many camps have
been located on small tracts, fronting on the water front
or in the pleasant woods behind. Typical of such
places is Pleasant Beach, just west of Fort Ward, whose
residents are so situated that they may reach Seattle in
time for business in the morning and return home in
the evening immediately after the conclusion of business hours. Directly facing Seattle, only three miles
from Magnolia Bluff, are the several resorts of La-
View, Rolling Bay, Manitou Park, and Yeomalt.
On Vancouver's return from the examination of "the
small opening to the westward" he directed that a party,
under the command of Lieutenant Puget and Mr.
Whidbey, in the launch and cutter, should proceed,
with a supply of provisions for a week, to the examination of (Colvos Passage) that branch of the inlet leading to the southwestward; which was accordingly
carried into execution, at four o'clock the next morning,
May 20. The main arm of the (Admiralty) inlet
leading towards Mount Rainier still remained unexplored. Accordingly, Vancouver directed that Mr.
Johnstone, in the Chatham's cutter, should accompany
him in the Discovery's yawl, for the purpose of examining said "Main Arm." On Saturday morning,
May 26, accompanied by Mr. Baker in the yawl, they
k 72
departed from the ship, and directed their route along
the shore of the inlet, which was about a league wide.
Towards noon they landed on a point (not named, but
probably Point Brown) on the eastern shore. After
dining on this point, they passed around it and found
that the inlet terminated in an extensive circular compact (Commencement) bay, the waters of which
washed the base of Mount Rainier, though its elevated
summit was yet at a very considerable distance (forty
miles) from the shore.
From Commencement Bay they proceeded to the
northwest, up the inlet (Puget Sound) and it was not
long before they found that it divided into two
branches, the one taking a northwardly direction; the
other stretched to the southward. With the assistance
of a strong tide, they rapidly passed through a fairly
navigable channel the one that led to the southward.
They found it near half a league wide, with soundings
from twenty-four to thirty fathoms free from any appearance of shoals, rocks, or other interruptions. The
eastern shore was found nearly straight and compact;
but on the western, three wide openings (Hale Passage,
Carr Inlet, and Balch Passage) were seen, whose terminations were not distinguishable. Having advanced
about three leagues from the south, or inner point of
entrance, they halted about eight in the evening for the
night, on a small (Ketron) island, lying about a mile
from the eastern shore.
By noon next day they reached Point Johnson on the
larboard shore, where the inlet was again divided into
two other large branches, one (Dana's Passage) leading
to the southwestward, the other (Case's Inlet) towards
the north. The southwest branch became their first
object of investigation.   This they found divided into one]
two narrow channels (Budd and Eld inlets) leading
to the southward. Up the westernmost (Eld Inlet)
about six miles they took up their abode for the night.
Early in the morning of May 28, they started and soon
found the channel to terminate in low, swampy ground
with a shallow sandy bank extending some distance into
the channel. Having satisfied themselves with the extent of the inlet in that direction they returned, and
about nine o'clock landed to breakfast about two miles
within the main entrance of the southwest branch.
At this place Vancouver determined "to return on
board of the ships." On the way back they proceeded
to ascertain if any communication existed with the inlet
by way of Whallochet Bay. The farther they advanced, the more doubtful it became, until at length
about three leagues north of the above point it terminated in a shallow flat before a swampy bog.
Towards noon of the 29th, they landed on the north
point (Evans) of the entrance into Col vos Passage, the
second opening they had passed on Saturday evening.
The strength of the ebb tide facilitated their progress,
and their conjectures were soon proved to have been
well founded in this being the same inlet which Vancouver had directed Puget and Whidbey to examine.
Through this channel Vancouver's party were carried
with great rapidity, and in the evening arrived on
board. The land composing the eastern shore of this
channel, and the western shore of that they had pursued on Saturday morning, was now ascertained to be
the most extensive island they had yet met with in their
several examinations of the coast, and Vancouver
named it after his friend Captain Nasborg of the Royal
Meanwhile Puget and Whidbey had explored all
II mm
those parts of the inlet which Vancouver had passed
by. Vancouver says: "Thus by our joint efforts, we
had completely explored every turning of this extensive
inlet; and to commemorate Mr. Puget's exertions, the
south extremity of it I named Puget's Sound." As the
name "Puget Sound" appears on Vancouver's chart, it
would seem that by "the south extremity," he meant
all that portion of the inlet which lies south of Hart-
stene Island; from the entire sentence, however, it is
evident that he meant all that portion of the inlet south
of Colvos and Dalco passages. As now charted, this
would include, the Narrows, Hale's Passage, Carr
Inlet, Balch Passage, Drayton Passage, Nisqually
Reach, Case Inlet, Budd Inlet, Eld Inlet, Totten Inlet,
Hammersly Inlet, Pickering Passage, and other small
bodies of water.
Under special names the great body of water now
known to the commercial world under the general
designation of Puget Sound may be described as a
series of vast interior canals, giving unsurpassed facilities for navigation in the very heart of a prosperous
section of the country. It extends about thirty-five
miles in a general southerly direction from the southern end of Whidbey Island, and then turns southwest-
ward, traversing by eight principal arms an area of
twenty-two miles square. The extreme southwestern
arm, Case Inlet, reaches within two miles of the head
of Hood Canal, and between lies comparatively low-
ground and a large lake. At its northern end it connects with Possession Sound and the inland waters
eastward of Whidbey Island that lead through Deception Pass into Rosario Strait.
Peter Puget, the man honored in the naming of
Puget Sound, entered the English navy, August i, 1778, one]
as a midshipman. He saw service in the North Sea,
the West Indies, and elsewhere, and was booked as a
lieutenant under Captain Vancouver on the Discovery,
November 23, 1790. He was transferred to the Chatham as commander, January 14, 1793. Ultimately he
became a rear-admiral of the blue. He died at Bath,
October, 1832, at his home in Grosvenor Place, after a
long and painful illness.
/j  yj
j      Tacoma
Charles Wilkes was born in the city of New York,
April 3, 1798, and died at Washington, February 8,
1877. ^e entered the navy in 1816 and in 1823 was
given a separate command. In 1826, he was made a
lieutenant and in 1838 was placed in command of an
exploration expedition to the South Sea and around the
world. In July 1842, he was promoted to be commander. In 1861, he was sent to the West Indies to
look after the Confederate steamer Sumter, and, on
November 8, forcibly removed Slidell and Mason from
the British Mail Steamer Trent. He was promoted
to the rank of commodore in 1862, and subsequently he
was appointed acting rear-admiral. In making his
exploring expedition around the world, his ships Vin-
cennes and Porpoise arrived off the mouth of the
Columbia River, April 29, 1841, but owing to the
roughness of the water on the bar, they were turned
northward and entered the Straits of Juan de Fuca with
a view of beginning the survey of the coast in that
quarter. The night of the 10th was passed just below
the Narrows leading into Puget Sound, which by the
assistance of the tide he passed through on the nth and
that night cast anchor at Fort Nisqually, at the head of
the Sound. He began his work from a stake on Point
Defiance. In his report of the survey he says: "The
first bay at the bottom of Admiralty Inlet was named
Commencement Bay; into this falls the Puyallup which
forms a delta and none of the branches into this division
/ 78
are large enough for the entrance of a boat." Thus at
that early date, Commencement Bay was located,
named, and given a place in the government records.
Nicholas de Lin, a native of Sweden, was the first
white man to settle on Commencement Bay. In 1852
he secured a half section of land at the head of the Bay
on the south side, and erected the first log cabin. Soon
thereafter, De Lin, Michael T Simmons and Smith
Hays built a little water-power sawmill along the
shores of what is known as "Old Tacoma," and in 1856
sent a ship load of lumber to San Francisco. In that
year Peter Judson came and located a claim on the half
section just north of that of De Lin. Miles Galiher
later acquired the De Lin property, including the mill.
On Christmas morning, 1864, Job Carr rounded
Brown's Point in a canoe and seeing a pleasant spot
across Commencement Bay, paddled to the shore at
nearly the same spot that had attracted De Lin. He
erected a log cabin, which is still preserved by the city
of Tacoma in Point Defiance Park, and proceeded to
clear a place for himself in the forest. These early
and slender beginnings received an enormous impetus
in 1868 in the arrival of General Morton Mathew Mc-
Carver. He had been a lifelong frontiersman of wonderful capacity. Becoming interested in prospective
railroads, he figured out that Puget Sound was the best
place for a terminus of them on the Pacific coast. He
bought or preempted all the land he could on the Bay,
including all of Carr's claim, except five acres, built a
cabin and removed his family to it, and then began his
aggressive work of building a town. He persuaded the
firm of Hanson, Acerson, and Company to build a sawmill there. Then he began making preparations to
file a plat and begin the sale of town lots.    For this
I i
purpose he wanted an appropriate name. The place
had been called Puyallup and Commencement City,
but neither of these suited him. In September, 1868,
Mr. Philip Ritz, a cultured man and scientific farmer,
visited the place on a tour gathering information for
the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. He had just
been reading Theodore Winthrop's book, The Canoe
and Saddle, in which that author declared that the
Indian name for Mount Rainier was "Tacoma." Mr.
Ritz warmly advocated the choice of that name for the
new town. General McCarver and his family became
advocates of the name, but his partner, Lewis M. Starr
of Portland, did not like it. The General, however,
had his own way, and his son-in-law, C. P. Ferry, who
was clever with the pen, changed "Commencement
City" to "Tacoma" on the plat before it was used for
selling lots or for filing of record, which was done
December 3, 1869. The city was incorporated by an
act of the territorial legislature November 12, 1875.
The city of Tacoma is located on a peninsula extending into Puget Sound. On the east side of the peninsula is Commencement Bay, in which Tacoma Harbor
is situated. The entrance to this harbor is between
Points Brown and Defiance four miles apart, but
abreast Point Brown it is reduced to two miles. The
Puyallup River discharges at the head of the harbor
between newly-built wharves or piers. The waters of
the harbor are deep throughout, ranging from ninety
fathoms in the entrance to twenty-five and thirty fathoms to the mud-flats which rise abruptly. The harbor
is easy of access and free from dangers.
On the west side is the Narrows - one of the many
arms of the Sound. The business section of the city
lies along the waterfront on the east side of the Cape,
ti &>>
-mr-fl >PF**
known as Point Defiance. The land on which the city
is built is high, and, for the most part, level, breaking
abruptly to the shore line. The charm of Tacoma as
a place for residence is easily explained. The residence portion of it is situated upon the higher ground,
and is thus lifted above the stir and noise of the business portion; its citizens continually enjoy pure air,
good drainage and the most delightful views. Such is
the gradient slope of the hillside that, like raised chairs
in a theatre, the windows of nearly every house upon it
command the incomparable view spread before it.
Across the bay, the eye follows the meanderings of the
Puyallup River - "a thread of silver winding through
the meadow of the valley on through the Indian Reservation, until it is lost in the dark pine forests of the
foothills." Then above this dark girdle, the great
snow-capped Mount Tacoma, as its citizens love to call
it, lifts her mighty hoary head far into the clouds.
Looking to the west from these same windows are seen
the jagged peaks and white snow caps of the Olympics,
forming another beautiful and distant horizon.
When the contest for the location of the terminus of
the Northern Pacific Railroad began, the population
of Tacoma was less than two hundred. McCarver was
the managing director of the railroad company for the
Pacific coast. After examining the various points on
Puget Sound for a terminus of the railroad, he finally
fixed upon the west shore of Commencement Bay, as
the location most to his liking, and as we have seen, the
name of the city was to be Tacoma. The last spike on
the railroad was driven by him about three o'clock on
the afternoon of December 16, 1873, and a little later
the first through train from Columbia River to Puget
Sound arrived at Tacoma.    Its arrival was made the one]
occasion of much rejoicing, particularly in Tacoma,
whose people felt that their city was now in fact, what
they had so long claimed it to be, the real terminus of a
transcontinental railway. This train was brought over
the mountain on temporary switchbacks. The overland trade of the port now is served by the Northern Pacific Railway, the Chicago, Milwaukee and St.
Paul Railway, the Puget Sound Railway, and the
Oregon and Washington Railway.
Prior to November, 1880, the little town of Steila-
coom was the county seat of Pierce County, Washington, but as Tacoma grew and the principal interests of
the county became centered there, it was decided that
at the general election held in that month, the question
of a permanent location of the headquarters of the
county offices should be left to a vote of the people and,
on the 10th of the month, the county commissioners
formally declared that by an overwhelming vote Tacoma was the choice of the people. At the opening of
the year 1887, the population of Tacoma did not exceed nine hundred. This had been the result of a
gradual, steady growth since the little sawmill settlement was electrified by the news that it had been chosen
as the site for the terminus of the Northern Pacific
Railroad. After the creating of Tacoma as the county
seat its population increased very rapidly. In 1890 the
population was 36,006; in 1900, it was 37,714; and in
1920, the United States census credited the city with a
population of 96,965.
Tacoma's public schools are excelled by few, if any,
in this country in their equipment, instruction and general advantages. The city offers the children free text
books, the best of buildings, modern courses in business,
commerce, language, a night school for foreigners and
/ if
technical students, private seminaries for the girls, and
college courses in two institutions - Whitworth College
and the University of Puget Sound. These go to make
this city one of the leading educational centers of the
Pacific Northwest. The brightest star in its public
school system is the high school building and its accompanying stadium. These two structures, standing
on an eminence overlooking the Bay, have been the subject of much wonder and admiration on the part of
visitors from all over the world. No other public
school system in the world has an athletic field such as
this stadium. It is a commodious amphitheatre of reinforced concrete, shaped like a horseshoe, which opens
on and gives an unobstructed view of the waters of
Commencement Bay. Originally it was a deep gulch
with the magnificent high school sitting at its edge.
Now it is a thing of beauty capable of comfortably
seating thirty thousand people. There has been completed a second high school which is situated in the
southern part of the city, constructed at a cost of
$378,000, exclusive of furnishings.
Tacoma is a city of parks. It has within its limits
more than one thousand acres of well-kept breathing
spots and recreation grounds. Point Defiance Park
contains six hundred and thirty-seven acres of land,
ten miles of fine highways already built and more in
construction, and three miles of separate paths. This
park was granted to the city by the War Department
with the proviso that if the government found it necessary in case of war to use the tract for military purposes
it could regain its title. Following the roads, running
through the park, the visitor's eyes first feast upon a
profusion of flowers in hot houses or outdoors, then
gazes upon rare animals in cages and next finds he is "3£
in the midst of a mighty forest. Lofty firs standing
hundreds to the acre and growths of mammoth red
cedar line the highways on both sides. The road leads
into a jungle of soft maple, vine maple, intertwining
with alder, birch, yew, shittim, hemlock, and swamp
cedar with a dense under-growth of ferns, devil's club,
and salmon berries. Pushing further on the visitor
comes out on a plateau and thence, through a growth of
madrona and deciduous trees underlaid with thickets
of huckleberry bushes and other small plants, he beholds the Sound. He turns away from this vista with
reluctance to retrace his steps to the busy world only
a few blocks away and yet seemingly hundreds of miles
distant. Wright Park is the most artistic park in the
city, consisting of twenty-seven acres and located in the
central section of the city. Few parks in this country
contain as great a variety of trees or offer as many opportunities to the lover and student of botany. It has
a wonderfully well-selected collection of foreign trees
growing within its confines and also has a conservatory
which attracts many visitors every day in the year.
McKinley Park, in the southeastern section of the city,
contains over twenty acres and is one of the most prominent recreation places of the city. This big park overlooks the entire waterfront, the harbor, the Puyallup
valley and the greater part of the business section of the
city. Spanaway Park is the second largest of the city's
resting places, containing three hundred and thirty-nine
acres of land. This park is located on the shores of
Spanaway Lake, a large fresh water body south of the
city, and is one of the popular summer resorts. The
other parks of the city are all close to the business and
residence sections, where they are needed, and, being
under the supervision of the Metropolitan Park Board,
t 84
are maintained and kept in excellent condition. As a
pleasure resort, Tacoma has much to offer not only to
the visitor and the tourist but to its own citizens.
At LaGrande, on the Nisqually River, forty miles
from Tacoma, the city has constructed a municipal
power plant, the cost of which was $2,500,000. Thirty-
two thousand horse power is generated by this plant, all
of which, except a small fractional part converted into
light, is for sale by the city to manufacturers and all
power users, at a minimum cost to the consumer. The
city has also completed at a cost of $2,250,000, a water
system by which the city is supplied with forty-two
million gallons of water daily. This system has its
source in Green River forty-three miles from Tacoma
and the water is delivered by gravity.
Tacoma was the first city on the Pacific coast to adopt
the commission form of government. The control of
the city's affairs is lodged with a mayor, four commissioners, and a comptroller. The adminstrative functions are divided into four departments, viz: health
and sanitation; public safety, including police and fire;
public works, including power; and finance. The mayor is commissioner of health and sanitation and each of
his colleagues is responsible for one of the other departments and is under bond against malfeasance or misfeasance in the discharge of his administrative duties.
Elections are surrounded with restrictions which make
it impossible for any aspirant for office to be the candidate of a political party, and all the appointments
are made from a waiting list approved by a civil service
board. All elective officers are subject to recall upon
petition of twenty-five per cent of the electors. Legislative powers are given to the people through the
initiative and referendum.   The results have been, in one]
brief, to banish party politics from municipal affairs,
to make the city officers directly accountable for the
work of their departments, and to restore to the people
the power to exercise their will and enforce their wishes
in matters most vital to their interests.
My second visit to Tacoma from Seattle was made
August 29,1913, on the steamship Tacoma, commanded
by Captain Paddy Burns. The return was made on the
steamship Indianapolis, commanded by Captain Howard Penfiel. This vessel was named after my native
city, where I was born May 28, 1838. My last visit
was made in an automobile August 3, 1918. The distance between Seattle and Tacoma proved to be thirty-
two miles and the time in making it two hours. It was
made over the Pacific Highway, which follows the
shore of Puget Sound from the city of Vancouver, B. C,
to the coast of Mexico. It is brick-paved and wide
enough for three automobiles to pass safely. Here, in
Vancouver's time, was an Indian trail scarcely wide
enough for two Indians to pass. This gives one some
idea of the wonderful changes that have been made on
the North Pacific coast since Vancouver's day.
Vashon Island, the largest in Puget Sound, is directly to the northward of Tacoma and distant three miles
from the shore line. It has numerous settlements upon
it. Farming and fruit raising are the principal industries, and produce is shipped from landings on both
sides of it. It has a very productive soil and is known
as the "Home of the Big Strawberry." It has an extensive population and is the summer home of many
Tacoma families. Vashon is its principal town, with
a landing wharf in twelve feet of water under the bluff
one mile southward of Point Beals.
Colvos Passage on the western side of Vashon Island 86
is about eleven miles in length in a general north and
south direction, with an average width of one mile. It
is nearly straight and free from outlying dangers. The
northern entrance is about four and one-half miles
south by west from Alki Point, and the southern entrance is about four miles westward from Point Brown
and abreast of Point Defiance. The currents of this
passage, especially the ebb, have greater velocity than
in Puget Sound, the eastern passage, and advantage of
this is at times taken by vessels from Tacoma to Seattle,
although the distance is a little greater. Seattle
It was during the visit of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes
to Puget Sound in 1841, that he discovered Elliott Bay,
upon the shores of which the city of Seattle is now
located. The bay was named by him, probably in
honor of Rev. J. L. Elliott, chaplain of the Vincennes.
It is now more generally known as Seattle Harbor. It
is almost circular in contour. In the proceedings of
the American Society of Civil Engineers of 1912, General H. M. Chittenden says: "Into the spacious enclosure of Elliott Bay, a ship can enter without tug and
pilot and pass directly to berth under her own steam
in all conditions of weather, and always feel certain that
her hull will not touch bottom. It is the most favored
port in the world in this respect, excepting only one or
two of its sister ports on the Sound, which enjoy the
same advantage." The entrance to the bay is between
West Point and Alki (Battery) Point about five miles
southward. The bay proper, included between Smith
Cove and Duwamish Head has a width of nearly two
miles and extends south-southeastward for nearly the
same distance to the flats at the head. Duwamish River
enters it at the head and formerly through two channels
or waterways, each of which was about one thousand
feet wide. These have been thrown into a single strait
On the evening of July 19, 1912, at five o'clock, I
passed Irondale and for the fourth time entered Elliott
Bay.    The sea was shimmering and sparkling in the
«   J 1
light of a beautiful sunset like a million diamonds.
The Jefferson moved majestically, leaving behind her
a broad white wake of foam. So quiet were the waters
that the track was broken neither by wind or ripple of
countercurrent. The water was of the darkest marine
blue with occasional spots of lighter tints. The annual
Potlatch was being held at Seattle. This was the evening for an exhibition of fireworks on the bay. As we
approached the city, the hills upon which it is located
sparkled with thousands of electric lights, twinkling
like the millions of stars in the sky above them. A man-
of-war stood in mid-bay and it was illuminated to the
water's edge with electric lights, and many vessels in
like manner illuminated were moving to and fro. Together it was the most beautiful display of electrical
lighting that I had ever witnessed. And in the words
of Alice Harriman:
I Behold! where moaned the trees their coming fate,
A spreading city lies 'twixt lake and sea,
Where hunter followed game tracks dank and dim,
Commerce and culture touch glass rim to rim,
Where Indian fished, lie world-ships filled with freight —
Seattle, splendid, sired by Destiny!"
Seattle, situated in the northeastern part of Elliott
Bay, is the largest and most important city in Puget
Sound, and covers practically the entire northeastern
shore of the bay. There is an extensive system of
wharves along the front of the city, and vessels of any
draught can go directly there to load and discharge
their cargoes, as these wharves extend into deep water.
The city is the terminus of, or connects with, several
transcontinental railways. It is also the terminus of
several lines of trans-Pacific steamers and connects with
ports north and south both by rail and water.
m one]
The origin and development of Seattle reads like a
romance. September 25, 1851, John N. Low and Lee
Terry concluded to locate a town site on Puget Sound
and with this in mind, made a joint location on Alki
Point, which location is now indicated by a boulder
monument. Low hired David T Denny to remain on
the claim with Terry while he returned to Portland for
his family. On the 28th of the month, Terry and
Denny laid the foundation for the first cabin, which was
built for John N. Low. On Thursday, November
13, Arthur A. Denny, John N. Low, Carson C.
Boren, William N. Bell and their families and Charles
C. Terry landed at Alki Point. Of these pioneers
there were twenty-four persons, twelve of whom were
adults and twelve children. The first work to be done
by the colony was to provide shelter for the winter, and
this was done by finishing the house begun for John N.
Low. All took shelter in it when it was finished.
They next built a log house for Arthur A. Denny,
which increased their room very materially and made
all more comfortable. This used up all the timber
suitable for log houses which they could get without a
team and then they split cedar logs and built houses
for William N. Bell and Carson C. Boren. These were
considered quite fancy, but were not so substantial as
the log houses. After a careful examination of the
harbor, timber, and feed for stock, Denny, Bell, and
Boren, February 15, 1852, located and marked three
claims in one body. Such was the beginning of Seattle,
which has in sixty-six years grown from a pioneer
colony of twenty-four persons to an estimated population of three hundred and fifty thousand.
In March, 1853, Henry L. Yesler started the first
sawmill in the territory of Washington.    It was located
-^— 5£g^
on ground in Seattle assigned to him for that purpose.
Near the mill was erected a cook house that became
famous in the early days of the city. It served, as Mr.
Yesler has said, "for town hall, courthouse, jail, military headquarters, storehouse, hotel, and church. Elections, social parties, and religious services were held
under its roof." The mill was of such importance to
the community that Mr. Yesler was often referred to
in after years as the real father of the city. He at one
time was its mayor, and "Yesler Way," which runs east
and west through the center of the city from Lake
Washington to Pioneer Place on Elliott Bay, being the
main artery through which the city is entered from the
bay, was named in his honor. All points of the city are
reached from Pioneer Place and it is about this point
that the business activities of the city are located. Near
here, in a small triangular park, is located the first
totem pole that will be seen by a tourist going to Alaska.
It was not placed there by the Indians but was taken
from an Indian village on Tongass Island, near Ketchikan, by members of the Post-Intelligencer business
men's excursion to Alaska in 1899, and brought to Seattle. The pole has six figures, which, commencing from
the bottom and reading upward, are the raven, whale,
frog, mink, man, and the raven again.
Seattle is wonderfully and beautifully located. It
rests on a series of hills between Puget Sound, its western boundary, and Lake Washington, its eastern boundary, while Green Lake and Lake Union, two large
bodies of fresh water, are entirely within its limits.
The Olympic Mountains tower to the westward, the
Cascades to the eastward, and to the south Mount
Rainier completes the picture. Its lakes, harbor, hills,
and mountains form a natural setting which is incom- one]
parable. Most beautifully is this setting expressed by
Seattle's poet, Mrs. Alice Rollit Coe, in her "Lyrics of
Fir and Foam:"
Queen of the West!    Fair city of our hope
Seated like Rome, upon her seven hills,
With majesty of mountain girth about,
And at thy feet the sea.    Mist-swathed at dawn
Bounded with jewels, like the sky, at night
The soft Pacific wave that laps thy feet
Urges thy freighted ships to distant shores,
Bringing the treasures of the East again.
Here is thy throne of beauty; here we see
The last great monument that man has set
To mark his slow and painful westward way."
The city was named in honor of an Indian chief
whose name was Sealth but who was generally known
as Seattle. He was born at the "Old Man's House"
on the Fort Madison Reservation. His home was near
Fort Madison. His father was a Suquampsh, his
mother, a Duwampsh. He was a large, strong, and
noble looking Indian and a great orator, who had much
influence over the hostile Indians of the Puget Sound
country. His disposition was not of the turbulent,
aggressive kind, but rather of a mild and generous type,
with all the firmness and courage necessary to defend
and maintain the rights of his people against unfriendly
tribes. These traits, coupled with more than ordinary
intelligence, gave him his influence among the Indians
of Puget Sound and commanded the respect and friendship of the early white settlers. He was about eighty
years old at the time of his death, which occurred in
That which has most characterized Seattle and given
to it the preeminence which it has attained, has been the TEBw*
high character, energy, and vim of its citizens. On
June 6, 1889, the city had a fire which entirely
destroyed its commercial and business district. Not
a bank, business block, hotel, or newspaper office except one was left standing. Only a scattering fringe
on its outskirts was left. Then, facing a loss exceeding
$7,000,000 and at a time when hope might well have
stood aghast in the midst of desolation, even before the
ashes of the old Seattle had begun to cool, its citizens
held a mass meeting and planned a new and greater
Seattle. There was an obstacle in the way of the ultimate accomplishment of that work. East and at some
distance north of the old center stood the hills, in sullen
protest against extension. Their slopes were dotted
with small buildings of many kinds. On one sightly
elevation a huge hotel had been erected. But the demands of a growing business population for more room
became insistent. To meet these, it was resolved to
regrade the hills by washing them down. This involved great problems of engineering which Seattle
solved to the astonishment of the world. The huge
hotel and other buildings located on the hills were ruthlessly dismantled, torn down, and removed. The hills
were washed away with hydraulic rams) their great
bulk being carried by the force of the water out into
the depths of the bay. By this means, in various parts
of the city contiguous to the business district, many
hundreds of acres were lowered and made level and
accessible for a new business center. In the southern
part of the city the vast amount of earth washed down
from Beacon Hill was used to fill in the tide lands at
the head of the harbor, creating a spacious acreage for
manufacturing enterprises. These regrades cost the
city more than eighteen million dollars. one
Lake Washington, the east boundary of Seattle, is
one of the most beautiful bodies of fresh water in the
world. It is twenty-eight miles long and from one to
six miles wide. It never freezes and is quiet enough to
afford canoeing the year round. In 1854, General
George B. McClellan, then western military engineer,
submitted to Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, a report in which he said that after examining Puget Sound
and the lakes in and about Seattle, he was of the opinion
that by using Salmon Bay, Lake Union, and Union Bay,
a ship canal could be made connecting Lake Washington, and that such a canal would create the finest naval
basin in the world. Captain Thomas Perry, u. S. Nv
said this was a grand and daring scheme, and Lieutenant Commander Drake, pronounced it the "finest
ideal spot on the globe." In 1898, Theodore Roosevelt,
then Assistant Secretary of the Navy, in a report to the
President said: "I cannot too strongly recommend the
construction of this canal; Lake Washington is a large
sheet of fresh water with excellent banks. It is very
deep, and of course free from tides. The necessity on
that coast for fresh water, where sea-going vessels can
be repaired and freed from barnacles, is most apparent." The conception of these distinguished persons
met with a hearty approval and co-operation by the
citizens of Seattle and an energetic campaign was commenced to bring about its full realization. Success
crowned their efforts, and now the construction of the
canal is an accomplished fact. The canal, as finished,
creates the most magnificent land-locked fresh water
harbor in existence, and extends Seattle's waterfront
from fourteen to one hundred and forty miles in length.
Another remarkable undertaking of this kind was
the building of the Duwamish River Canal by the 94
citizens of South Seattle through the direct and voluntary taxation of their property. This canal is four and
one-half miles long and gives to the city thirty-two
miles of fresh water harbor by using bends of the
crooked Duwamish as slips for the dockage of smaller
vessels. The main channel will accommodate the
largest sea-going vessels, while the fall of the river
causes a backing-up of the fresh water which eliminates
the necessity of a lock. This project cost $1,500,000,
c>f which the United States Government appropriated
$225,000. Harbor Island is situated at the mouth of
the Duwamish River. Upon this are located the Harbor Island Terminals similar to the Bush Terminals at
Seattle's supply of electrical power is as cheap and
attractive as that of any other city on the Pacific coast.
It has three large hydro-electric plants operated by private companies and a large one owned and operated
by the city. There are also steam relay plants which
furnish about twenty-two thousand steam horse power.
Its developed water power provides nearly two hundred and fifty thousand horse power. It is estimated
that in the Cascades and Olympic mountains which
surround the city on the east and west, there are two
million, five hundred thousand horse power which can
be utilized for its further development.
Taking thought for the future, the Board of Park
Commissioners, serving without compensation, procured for Seattle thirty-seven parks with an aggregate
area of about two thousand acres, and has through an
expenditure of $5,000,000 created a natural paradise
of flora and fauna in the midst of her paved streets and
business activities. Many of these valuable parks have
been donated by public spirited citizens, so that the one]
greater part of the money expended has been spent in
the improvement of these beautiful tracts on which
nature has lavishly bestowed her charms. The parks
have every advantage in the way of fresh water lakes,
magnificent trees, and an undergrowth of ferns and
shrubbery. One of them because of the large number
of madrona trees growing in it is named Madrona
Park. The parks are supplemented by a system of
boulevards thirty miles in length and covering two
hundred and twenty-five acres, which under a comprehensive plan, connects every park in the city by
beautiful winding ways, bordered with trees, shrubs,
flowers, and lake shores.
As an educational center, Seattle ranks with the foremost cities of the country. Her school buildings are
of the most modern construction and equipment. With
her seventy-one public schools, including six high
schools, many of which offer evening instruction, to say
nothing of her private and parochial schools, she is able
to offer the best facilities for the educational purposes
of her children. In addition to this, the University of
Washington possesses, perhaps, the greatest natural advantage of all of the state universities. The history of
this university is unique and interesting. In 1854-55,
the legislature located it at Seattle, but provided for
a branch at Boisfort. This was such a bad arrangement that it was set aside in 1857-58, and the University
and its branch were united and located at Cowlitz
Farms. Nothing, however, was done towards the construction of buildings under either of these acts. Mr.
Arthur A. Denny, who had been a member of the
legislature when the acts mentioned had been passed,
as he was leaving Seattle for Olympia for another
session in i860, was met by the Rev. Daniel Bagley, tl
who said to him that if he would get the university
located at Seattle, and have him appointed a commissioner with power to sell the lands donated to the state
by the government, he would undertake to get the buildings so well started before the next legislature met that
it would be difficult to remove the university. This
Denny succeeded in doing but in doing so he had to
agree that Seattle would give the territory ten acres of
land as a site for the university. Denny met this demand, and subsequently gave something more than
eight acres of it himself, while Charles C. Terry and
Judge Lander gave the remainder. The ground thus
donated is now near the busiest part of Seattle and
promises to become at no distant day its business center.
Bagley succeeded in making his promise good, and
during 1861 and the early part of 1862 a general school
building, a boarding house, and a house for the president were finished, and the University of Washington
Territory was formally opened with Asa Mercer as
President in the autumn of 1862.
The gift of Mr. Denny, the "Father of Seattle," and
his associates, is destined to become the greatest financial asset ever attached to a state university. The land,
which is now in the very center of the city, has been
leased for a term of fifty years to a building company,
which pays a large and ever-increasing rental, with the
stipulation that the buildings themselves will eventually revert to the university. The old university
building was deserted in 1895 for spacious new quarters
on the enchanting shores of Lake Washington. This
matchless campus covers three hundred and fifty acres,
part of it still remaining "a forest primeval." The
Alaskan-Yukon-Pacific Exposition was the enrichment
of the university by property aggregating about two
III one]
million dollars, a legacy of beautiful and substantial
buildings besides many other improvements.
Seattle is a city of beautiful homes, located on beautiful streets, and has a magnificent array of church structures, of which St. James Catholic Cathedral stands
easily first. Its Carnegie Library and eight branches is
used by one million people yearly. It has many clubs,
of which the "Rainier" at Fourth Avenue and Marion
Street, is one of the oldest and most exclusive. The
Arctic Brotherhood also has a very substantial and well
equipped club house. Its business center is rapidly
being built up with "skyscrapers" one of which, a forty-
two story building, is the tallest outside of New York,
and as the city is approached through Admiralty Inlet
and Puget Sound is a beacon to it almost from Whidbey Island. Without doubt, Seattle is destined to be
the metropolis of the Pacific coast. What more fitting
in this connection than the closing lines of Mrs. Coe's
"How beautiful thou art
Stretching thine arms to greet the Orient;
Gazing with eyes of mystery, to pierce
The far sea spaces; dreaming mother-like;
The boundaries of thy power still unset,
The wonder of thy destiny unknown."
A place for freeing sea-going vessels from barnacles
was one of the reasons given by Roosevelt for the construction of a ship canal to Lake Washington. The
barnacle, the Lepas antifera of Linnaeus, is a mollusk,
which envelopes its body in a shell and then attaches
itself to a rock or timber below the surface of the sea
or to the bottom of a vessel. Vessels often are impeded
in their progress by the great number of these creatures
which accumulate on their bottoms and for this reason
'H If-
I*    '
they have to be removed. Being salt water creatures,
they immediately fall off when taken into fresh water,
and this is why Roosevelt advocated the making of a
naval basin of Lake Washington. Among the mollusks
the pholas and teredo are two other interesting examples. The pholas which is often called the piddock,
is a soft-bodied creature in a fragile shell, yet it can
bore its way into the hardest of stone. It makes its two
shells, its hammer and chisel. It first protrudes a stout
foot, and with this to act as a sucker, it glues itself to
the stone upon which it is to work; then by action of its
shell, it slowly and laboriously grinds itself into the
stone or other hard material to which it may have
attached itself and when it has got far enough to make
itself a home, it rests content, and burrows no farther.
The teredo, a genus of acephalous testaceous, is a
mollusk that bores and penetrates the bottom of vessels
and other submerged wood, and is more to be dreaded
and disliked than the pholas. It does enormous damage to wooden ships and to the timber defences of
harbors, wooden supports of bridges, and other submerged timbers. It is a long whitish worm, about an
inch in circumference, and from twelve to thirty inches
long. It can eat its way through any sort of wood.
Not content with making a channel for itself through
the solid timber, it builds a tunnel of lime or shell
wherever it goes. Through this it can move freely,
and at the same time be sure that its boring will not
cause the woodwork to collapse upon it. It is said
that it was from watching the work of these creatures
that Sir Isambard Brunei got the idea for building the
Thames Tunnel. He caused his men to drive rods
into the mud and clay while they were protected by
a shield.   As the boring progressed, the shield was fft&r
pushed more and more forward into the heart of the
river's foundation. But behind, where they had excavated, they guarded against a collapse by building an
archway of brick, like the tube of the teredo. The
waters of the Pacific coast simply teem with them. At
almost any landing you can see their destructive work
by examining wooden piles upon which the wharves
are constructed. There is but one way, so far as I have
learned to prevent this destruction and that is to copper-cover the bottoms of ships and other submerged
wood. It will be remembered that Vancouver's ship
Discovery was copper-covered, and no doubt it wasj
done for this purpose.
Possession Sound enters Admiralty Inlet at the southern point of Whidbey Island and extends in a general
northerly direction for ten miles to its junction with
Port Susan and Saratoga Passage. From its entrance
it extends for three and a half miles with an average
width of two miles, and then expands into an irregular
basin about six miles in diameter. The eastern part of
this basin is filled with extensive flats, a large portion
of which are bare at low water, and rise abruptly from
deep water. These flats are intersected by several shifting channels forming the mouth of the Snokomish
The city of Everett, the county seat of Snokomish
County, Washington, is located on the eastern shore of
Possession Sound, about four miles from Point Elliott,
and is the most important town on the sound. In order
to reach tidewater, the Great Northern Railway Company constructed its road from the Great Lakes to the
Pacific coast over Stevens Pass and followed the
Snokomish River to its mouth. This location, having
a sheltered harbor of ample depth with many miles of
\ -.■ r
fresh water front and surrounded by thousands of acres
of delta land, well adapted to terminal and manufacturing purposes, led to the building of the road to this
point as its western terminus. For the accomplishment of this great undertaking credit must be given to
James J. Hill. Hill was born in Wellington County,
Ontario, in 1838. His boyhood days were spent on a
farm. His parents were able to give him a fairly
good education. His father died when James was only
fifteen years of age, and, having met with financial
reverses, left his widow and children almost without
means. Thus the boy was thrown upon his own resources. He felt that the West would give him the
best opportunities, and acting upon this conclusion, he
left the old home and the country of his birth, and
emigrated to St. Paul, Minnesota, then a mere village
on the hem of civilization. For a time life was hard
for him, but he met the situation with courage and a
determination to make a place for himself. He began
his career in St. Paul with no higher occupation than
that of "roustabout" on the wharf, where he earned two
dollars a day carrying wood and freight on his back
from the wharf to the decks of the Mississippi steamboats. From this lowly beginning, he gradually but
surely won his way to the presidency and principal
ownership of a railway system which gridirons north
Minnesota, connects with Lake Superior at Duluth,
provides two tracks, through the Red River valley to
the Canada line, traverses the whole of Dakota and
through Montana as far as the Great Falls of the Missouri, and then through the canyon of the Missouri and
the canyon of the Prickly Pear to Helena, and ultimately on to the oriental terminal at Seattle, connecting
also with Vancouver on the north and Portland on the
rife one]
south. Over six thousand miles of track are represented by this great undertaking. To say that Hill
superintended the construction of this gigantic railway
would be to give but little idea of the work he accomplished in the years of its building. He was not
only the prime mover and engineer of the undertaking,
but he saw to every detail of it being carried out. He
died a multimillionaire in St. Paul, in a mansion that
cost more than a half million dollars and from the
windows of which he could look down upon the old
wharf where he once toiled so hard and honestly as a
Port Gardner Bay constitutes an excellent harbor for
the city and is the entry port of the towns and camps of
a rich mining belt within a district of thirty miles long
by twenty miles wide. The Monte Cristo, Great Lake,
Silver Creek, Troublesome, Sultan, Shillaquamish, and
North Port mines send ores to its great smelter and in
various ways contribute to the substantial growth of
the city. MM
1 I   fir
■HW Explorations Around the Gulf of Georgia
Vancouver devoted considerable time to exploring
two inlets to which he gave the names of Port Susan
and Port Gardner respectively. The name of the latter has since been changed to Saratoga Passage. On a
projecting point of this inlet an exploring party under
Whidbey found a large Indian village. Upon landing
on the opposite shore the white men were met by upwards of two hundred natives, some of them in canoes
and others walking along the shore. These last were
attended by about forty dogs, all of them shorn close
to the skin like sheep. Next morning further up the
inlet more than a hundred Indians visited them. The
chief displayed great hospitality, and perceiving that
Whidbey's party were at breakfast, presented them with
water, roasted roots, dried fish, and other articles of
food. The chief had two hangers, one of Spanish, the
other of English manufacture, on which he seemed to
set very high value. He manifested no small degree
of curiosity in examining Whidbey's clothes and expressed a great desire to be satisfied as to the color of
the skin they covered, making signs that Whidbey's
hands and face were painted white, instead of being
black or red like their own. When convinced of his
mistake by the opening of Whidbey's waistcoat, his
astonishment was inexpressible. Whidbey concluded
that these Indians had not before seen any Europeans,
though, from the different articles they possessed, it
was evident that a communication with them had taken 104
place, probably by means of distant trading tribes.
Still further up the inlet the explorers came to another
populous village of natives, and several canoes came
off with not less than seventy of them. They conducted
themselves with the utmost friendliness, showing, by
repeated invitations to their dwellings, the greatest
hospitality, and making signs that they had plenty of
food to bestow. In these entreaties the ladies were
particularly earnest, and expressed much chagrin and
mortification that their offers were declined.
On another branch of the inlet, named by Vancouver,
Penn's Cove, the explorer saw two deserted villages, in
one of which were found several sepulchers formed
like a sentry box. Some of them were open, and contained skeletons of many young children tied up in
blankets; the smaller bones of adults were likewise
noticed, but none of the limb bones could be found.
This gave rise to the opinion that these had been appropriated by the living inhabitants of the neighborhood to useful purposes, such as pointing their arrows
or other weapons. The surrounding country, for several miles in most points of view, presented a delightful
prospect, consisting chiefly of spacious meadows equally adorned with clumps of trees; amongst which the
oak bore a very considerable proportion, in size from
four to six feet in circumference. In these beautiful
pastures, bordering on an expansive sheet of water,
deer were seen playing about in great numbers.
There are now several small settlements located on
Penn Cove. Coveland is at the head of it and San de
Fuca on the north shore. Coupeville, the county seat
of Island County, Washington, is beautifully located
on the south shore. It has a population of about fifteen
hundred people, and is the largest town on the island.
■rita one]
It was incorporated in 1910 with a population of one
thousand and fifty persons. It is the chief distributing
point of the island. In the immediate vicinity of this
town are some of the richest and finest cultivated
ranches in the state of Washington.
Vancouver, on the return of Mr. Whidbey and his
party, had spent a fortnight in the examination of this
inlet, which in honor of the Board of Admiralty of
Great Britain who had commissioned him, he distinguished as Admiralty Inlet. This, as indicated by his
chart, extends from Commencement Bay to the entrance
to the Straits of Juan de Fuca. They then had to
return about forty miles to enter upon a new field of
inquiry. Vancouver thought that after the great fatigue that his people had undergone, they were well
entitled to a respite. Accordingly, Sunday, June 3,
was devoted to fishing and taking recreation on shore,
and on Monday, the 4th, they were served with as good
a dinner as the officers were able to provide for them,
including a double allowance of grog to drink to the
King's health, that being the anniversary of His Majesty's birth. On this auspicious day, Vancouver, accompanied by Mr. Broughton and some of the officers,
went on shore about one o'clock, and pursuing the usual
formalities observed on such occasion, with the discharge of a royal salute from the vessels, he took formal
possession of the coast, from that part of New Albion,
in the latitude of 390 20' north, and longitude 2360 26'
east, to the entrance of Admiralty Inlet, said to be the
supposed Straits of Juan de Fuca; as likewise all the
coast, islands, etc. within said straits, as well on the
northern as on the southern shores; together with those
situated in the interior sea they had discovered. To
this interior sea Vancouver gave the name of the Gulf
1 f
of Georgia, and to the continent, binding said gulf, and
extending southward to the 45th degree of north latitude, the name of New Georgia, in honor of His Majesty, King George III, who was much interested in the
On June 3, Vancouver's vessels sailed out of Possession Sound and proceeded toward Strawberry Bay but
were delayed by adverse weather and did not arrive
until the 8th. Meanwhile the launch and cutter were
sent out under Puget and Whidbey to explore the adjacent shores. Strawberry Bay lies on the west side
of an island, which because of an abundance of cypress
trees was given by Vancouver the name of Cypress
It is said by A. Frank Morris in Western Tours, that
in passing Cypress Island there may be seen what appears to be a woman in a long white robe standing on
the edge of a high cliff in the act of leaping into the
waters of Rosario Strait four hundred feet below.
There is an interesting and pathetic legend connected
with this apparition. When Fidalgo, the Spanish
Commander, first anchored his ship in Fidalgo Bay,
these islands were inhabited by hostile Indians and each
tribe was at war with the other. The two strongest and
most warlike tribes were led by Chief Sacrinia, an old,
pitiless, and crafty fighter, and Swift Canoe, a young
chief hardly out of his teens but a noted and fearless
Old Sacrinia had an adopted daughter, a white girl,
whom he had captured in infancy. As the years passed
by, she was attended by Indian girls and given the same
attention as if she had been the Chief's own daughter.
When she was about fifteen years old, trouble arose
between Sacrinia's people and those of Swift Canoe, one]
and in a battle fought near Port Angeles many were
killed, and Swift Canoe was captured and carried to
Cypress Island, the headquarters of the Sacrinians
where after a trial, he was condemned to death. During
his confinement he was visited by members of the tribe,
who were curious to see him, and among these was
White Dove, the white daughter of Sacrinia. Swift
Canoe smiled when he caught sight of White Dove,
and like a startled deer, she noted the smile, returned it,
and then fled to her own wigwam.
Eagle Feather, a young brave who stood guard over
Swift Canoe, had long paid unsuccessful court to White
Dove. He saw the two smiling at each other and this
enraged him. He realized what it meant and that she
might be the means of helping Swift Canoe to escape.
On the third day of the trial, she came again in the
morning and this time did not attempt to leave when
the prisoner smiled at her. That night Eagle Feather
doubled his vigilance and just before dawn when most
of the guards were nodding drowsily, was startled by
the appearance of a white apparition which seemed to
float over the ground in the direction of the tent where
Swift Canoe was a prisoner. For a few moments he
stood in a dazed condition but gradually his brain
cleared and a crafty smile came over his face and he
sank to the ground to watch events. It was not long
before the white apparition stealthily approached and
cut the thongs with which Swift Canoe was bound.
Silently the two stole from the camp on the shores of
Secret Harbor, and as they left the danger zone, they
went more swiftly and with less care, climbing to the
top of the lime cliff, the highest point on the island's
shore. Close at their heels, but silent as a Nemesis,
went Eagle Feather, until as the two young lovers §i^
reached the summit and stood on the edge of the big
lime rock, he was but a few feet from them. Silently
they stood for a few moments, then Swift Canoe drew
the young girl to him and kissed her. After a few
moments they commenced to talk, and from this Eagle
Feather knew that White Dove had stolen a canoe and
taken it around to the north side of the island near
Eagle Rock, where are many nests of the big bird.
Silently he crept close to the young couple until he
could have touched Swift Canoe with his fingers.
Then the thought came to him like a flash that he would
push his enemy over the edge, where he would drop
four hundred feet to his death. Just at this point a
slight noise which had startled him had also been heard
by the lovers. Swift Canoe hastily thrust White Dove
into the shade of some bushes and crouched on the
edge of the cliff, ready to spring on anyone who appeared. For several seconds no one moved, then gradually Swift Canoe rose to his feet. Hardly had he
straightened up than Eagle Feather rushed at him.
Both men were young, strong, supple and knew the
wrestling game, and for a few minutes neither gained
an advantage, when without warning, the abutting
ledge on which they struggled broke and fell, carrying
with it the two young lovers of White Dove. In a few
moments far below a dull splash was heard as the
heavy flat rock with its human freight dropped into the
waters of the Sound. Then there arose a number of
faces from behind adjacent rocks and bushes, showing
that not only the guard, but the old chief and many of
his warriors, had been silent witnesses of the grim
tragedy. As they stepped from their several hiding
places, the darkness which had been slowly giving way
ft one]
to the light of day, was tinged with strong streaks of
the magnificent gold and red of the Pacific sunrise, than
which there is nothing more beautiful in the world.
The old chief stood silent for several minutes, then
pointing to the bush where White Dove lay hidden, he
bade the Indians bring her out. She stood before him
in her pale beauty, the white garments she wore clinging to her form, and her nut-brown hair hanging in a
beautiful mass over her shoulders. The old man
looked at her for a long time, then led her to the edge
of the cliff and upbraided her as a traitor.
Turning towards the brink of the precipice and
pointing down to the water, the old chief, with a
quiver, commanded: "Jump!" The Indians, stoics
though they were, were horrified, and the younger men
among them cried out, but before anyone could interfere White Dove stepped to the edge of the cliff with
a smile on her lips and spreading her hands out like
the wings of a bird, leaped lightly from the precipice.
The old chief stood with folded arms and looked into
the face of the sun as it rose over the tree tops of Guemes
Island; then, with the single word, "Come!" strode
back to camp, followed by his awed people. No lamentations of sorrow were allowed by the stern but sad
chief, but it was seen that he was fast failing, and one
morning when his absence was noted, his trail was followed to the summit of the hill, and there on his knees,
facing the sun, the old chief was found dead with a
grim smile on his face. The next day members of the
tribe who were returning from a hunting trip, reported
seeing the body of White Dove floating on the face of
the cliff about thirty feet from the top, and now, any
time, if you are in a boat at sunrise and glance up near
/& no
the top of Eagle Cliff, you will see in the act of jumping to the water below "The White Lady of Cypress
In tracing the voyage of Vancouver from Possession
Sound to Strawberry Bay, attention is first directed to
Admiralty Inlet. It connects the Straits of Juan de
Fuca and Puget Sound, and extends in a general southeast and northwest direction from Point Wilson and
Admiralty Head for about seventeen miles to Point-
No-Point and the southern point of Whidbey Island,
with an average width of three miles. Its shore is
formed by Whidbey Island and is indented by several
shallow open bights, affording neither shelter nor anchorage. The western shore is more broken and
irregular, the principal inlets being Port Townsend at
the northern part, and Port Ludlow and Hood Canal
near the southern part. This inlet was first explored
in the summer of 1790 byAlfarez Manuel Quimper,
who entered it from the Straits of Juan de Fuca, and
named it Seflor de Santa Rosa. From a military standpoint the entrance to the inlet is well guarded and
protected. At Port Townsend is located Fort Worden,
across the inlet at Admiralty Head is Fort Casey, and
south of that at Marrowstone Point is Fort Flager.
These forts are within gunshot of each other and could
completely prevent an entrance to the inlet.
After leaving Admiralty Inlet, Vancouver sailed
through Rosario Strait. This strait was also discovered by Quimper in the summer of 1790, and he named
it Boca de Fidalgo in honor of Lieutenant Salvador
Fidalgo. The name was changed to Rosario Strait,
and by that name it since has been known. The group
of islands located between Port Townsend and the
Strait of Georgia, formerly known as the Gulf of one]
Georgia, and the west coast of the state of Washington
and the east coast of Vancouver Island, was designated
on the earlier maps and charts, as the Haro Archipelago, in honor of Gonzalo Lopez de Haro. At a later
date the name was changed to San Juan Archipelago,
by which name it is now known. The body of water
in which this group of islands is located is called Washington Sound and embraces the passages and bays
northward of the eastern end of the Straits of Juan
de Fuca. Its principal passage is Haro Strait. This
strait is that which is commonly used by vessels, making
the city of Victoria; it is also the widest and best
equipped for navigation. Rosario Strait, formerly
known as Canal de Rosario, the eastern passage, is
principally used by smaller vessels running between
Blaine, the settlements on the islands, Bellingham Bay
and Puget Sound ports. The distance between these
channels is about twenty miles and their length the
same, making an area of four hundred square miles,
which is full of islands, ranging in size from ten or
twelve miles in length to mere trap rocks, having two or
three pine trees. It is said that there are one hundred
and seventy-two of these islands.
The Chatham arrived in Strawberry Bay on Sunday
morning, June 10, with the loss of her stream anchor,
and in the afternoon the boats that had been dispatched
on the 7th with Mr. Puget and Mr. Whidbey returned
from their survey. From the officers, Vancouver became acquainted with the fact, that (Deception Pass)
the first inlet communicated with Port Gardner, by a
very narrow and intricate channel, which, for a considerable distance, was not forty yards in width, and
abounded in rocks above and beneath the surface of the
water.    These impediments, in addition to the great 112
rapidity and irregularity of the tide, rendered the passage navigable only for boats or vessels of small burthen. This determined all the eastern shore of the
gulf to be an island, which in its broadest part, was
about ten miles across. This, in consequence of the
fact that Mr. Whidbey had circumnavigated the island,
Vancouver distinguished by the name of Whidbey's
Whidbey is the largest island of San Juan Archipelago. It has a very peculiar shape, with an extreme
length, extending north from Possession Point on the
south to Hoypus Point, a distance, following the lay
of the land, of about thirty miles. Coupeville, the
county seat of Island County, situated on Penn Cove,
is the largest town on this island. Oak Harbor, further
north, was named Oak Cove by Vancouver because of
the fact that some of his young gentlemen found several
oak trees at the head of the cove. The town of Oak
Harbor is the center of a large farming and logging
district. This island was one of the earliest places
settled in the Admiralty Inlet region. In 1848,
Thomas W. Glasgow made a canoe trip to it, built a
cabin, sowed wheat and planted potatoes at a point
nearly opposite to Port Townsend. He was driven
from the island by the Indians. The first settler after
Glasgow's attempt was Isaac W. Ebey who entered a
claim on the island, likewise opposite to Port Town-
send, October 15, 1850. R. H. Lansdale settled on
Penn's Cove in 1851, and a large number of others, including Captain Thomas Coupe, founder of Coupeville, settled there in 1852 and 1853.
As has been stated, one way of entering Padilla Bay
from Rosario Strait is through Guemes Channel eastward  of  Guemes   Island,  which   channel   separates
tt*a one]
Fidalgo and Guemes islands. Vancouver makes no
mention of either of these islands. Fidalgo Island was
discovered by Quimper in 1790 and by him named in
honor of Lieutenant Salvador Fidalgo, who during that
year was actively engaged in northwest coast explorations. Mount Erie, located in the southwest part of
the island has an altitude of one thousand, two hundred
and fifty feet. On the southeastern part of the island
is located the Swinomish Indian Reservation.
Anacortes, with a population of 4,196, according to
the census of 1910, is the largest town and principal
seaport of Skagit County. It was incorporated in 1891
and has grown steadily since. It is situated on Fidalgo
Bay, an ideal harbor of ample depth to accommodate
the largest sea-going vessels. It is chiefly devoted to
lumbering and fishing and is admirably located for the
latter industry. Vast quantities of salmon are captured
in the nearby waters, and halibut and cod are brought
in from the banks farther north and salted, dried,
canned or kept in cold storage until put upon the
market elsewhere. The city has fish canneries, drying
and salting plants, a fertilizer and oil plant, cold storage plant, sawmills and shingle mills. The Great
Northern Railway affords good railroad facilities for
One of the serious charges made against the many
fish canning establishments of the Pacific coast has been
that of the great waste of the by-products of the canneries. This led to the construction of two large
establishments at Anacortes to use these. The Russian
Cement Company of Gloucester, Massachusetts, manufacturers of the Le Page liquid glue, has here a great
glue, oil, and fertilizer factory. The Robinson Fisheries Company owns and operates a similar plant, hav-
1 fSP" Tj«P
' liil
ing a capacity for handling one hundred tons of fish
offal daily. The waste products, used by these establishments, are procured from the canneries from
Tacoma to Point Roberts, from Bellingham to Port
Angeles, and the Hood Canal district. Dogfish are
caught in large numbers and used for this purpose.
These fish, being of the shark species, were not formerly
considered as edible. The fish oil and glue obtained
by these establishments is sold everywhere, while the
dry fertilizer goes largely to Europe and Japan, the
latter country taking practically all that is made at the
Anacortes plants.
Because of its extensive codfish packing houses Anacortes is referred to as "The Gloucester of the Pacific
Coast." There are two of these packing houses, and
they operate four ocean vessels each year on the codfish
banks of Bering Sea. The vessels sail from home late
in March or the first week in April and return with
their catch early in August. They carry about one
hundred and fifty men, including masters of the vessels,
and eighty-five dories. They also carry nine hundred
tons of salt. In one year they caught six hundred and
thirty-one thousand fish, weighing 2,791,500 pounds,
which upon arrival were worth $83,745. They also
brought 18,400 pounds of salted cod tongues worth
$1,104.00. These packing houses are busy all the year
and ship their products to all parts of the world. It
is claimed that Anacortes is the greatest salmon canning
center in the world. It has seven canneries with a
capacity to pack twenty thousand cases of canned salmon daily with forty-eight one pound cans to the case.
This requires two hundred and forty thousand salmon
daily of an average weight of six and one-third pounds.
J  ■
etiM one]
One of the enjoyable features of living on Puget
Sound is the fact that sea foods are available at all
times. There is the greatest variety of fish. Oysters
are also raised in beds at various points and may be
had in season at low prices. Clams may be dug by
anybody wishing them. Salt water crabs, which are
such a delicacy in the East, may be caught during the
season in the bay about Anacortes. Fidalgo and Ut-
salady crabs are now regarded as the choicest taken in
the Puget Sound waters. They are caught in traps
built of wire and tarred netting, and each fisherman
operates about a dozen of these traps, setting them in
feeding grounds in which the water is from thirty to
sixty feet deep. The crab fishermen of Anacortes use
rowboats, each fisherman having his own complete outfit, and each boat returns to port every evening laden
to the guards with its crawling freight. Each crab is
measured and the three commercial sizes are separated
and shipped in different boxes, each box carrying sixteen dozen, weighing about six hundred pounds. No
crabs measuring less than six inches across the shell are
marketed, the sizes being six, six and a half, and seven
inches or more, the largest Puget Sound sea crabs often
measuring more than eight inches in diameter.
North of Fidalgo Island, across the Guemes Channel, is Guemes Island with Padilla Bay to the east and
Bellingham Channel to the west. This island is almost triangular in shape, with one point of the triangle
extending to the south, one to the east and the other to
the north. This channel and island were named by
the Spanish Lieutenant Francisco Elisa, in honor of
Pacheco de Padilla Guemes Horcasitas, Viceroy of
Mexico from October, 1789 to July, 1794.    Guemes, Br
I' it
opposite to Anacortes, is the principal town on this
island and to the north of it at Clark's Point is located
an Indian village.
Because their anchorage in Strawberry Bay was exposed and supplied them with no sort of refreshment
excepting a few wild onions or leeks, Vancouver quitted
it on June 11 and sailed up the Gulf of Georgia to the
northwest to a more commodious situation on a bay
which, because of the abundance of black birch upon
its shores, he named Birch Bay.
After anchoring the vessels in Birch Bay, Vancouver
directed Mr. Whidbey, in the Discovery's cutter, attended by the Chatham's launch, to proceed to the
examination of that part of the coast unexplored to the
southeast. Upon his return Mr. Whidbey reported
that the broken part of the coast that he had been employed in examining, was found to extend but a few
miles to the westward of the spot where his former
researches had ended, and that altogether it formed
an extensive bay, which Vancouver distinguished as
Bellingham Bay, probably in honor of Sir William
Bellingham, who was comptroller of store-keeper's accounts at the time of Vancouver's departure from England.
Bellingham Bay was first explored by (Alfarez Manuel Quimper in the summer of 1790, and named Bahia
de Gaston. I have visited the bay and the city of
JSellingham several times. The last visit was made in
the summer of 1918. We approached the bay through
Guemes Channel late in the evening. The shipyard
and other coast concerns, as well as the city, were
sparkling with thousands of electric lights; the sight
was most enchanting. This beautiful bay is about ten
miles long and five miles wide and affords ideal an-
ctiM one]
chorage. An additional advantage is the fact that the
teredo, destroyer of waterfront property, is banished
from the bay by the cold fresh waters of the Nooksack
and other streams that flow into it. The quiet beauty
of the entrance to Bellingham Bay, the cliff-lined, curving outlines of Deception Pass, the curious rock formation in the neighborhood of Anacortes, the rock reefs,
isles, and cliffs of Chakanut and the splendid view of
the dreamy, romantic islands towards the west comprise
a never-to-be-forgotten wealth of scenic diversion.
Bellingham City is located in the northwest corner
of the state of Washington and is the commercial center
of Whatcom and San Juan counties. It was formed,
December 28, 1893, by the consolidation of the towns of
Whatcom and Fair Haven. It now has a population
of 25,000. The city covers about twenty-three square
miles of territory and is the business center of Whatcom County, of which it is the county seat. The Great
Northern, Northern Pacific, Canadian Pacific, and
Bellingham Bay and British Columbia railroads, the
latter now a branch of the Milwaukee system, all enter
the city. Electric railroads operate in outlying sections for long distances, giving the merchants large
volumes of suburban trade. The principal educational establishment is the Bellingham State Normal School, the largest in Washington.
Beautiful Lake Whatcom skirts the city, offering
ideal haunts for summer camping and fishing. The
rich soil surrounding Bellingham is particularly
adapted to bulb culture, the United States Government
bulb farm in this vicinity being one of the spring attractions of the city. A noted floriculturist of the
United States Department of Agriculture has stated
that the success of the Bellingham gardens furnishes n8
abundant proof of the theory that the soil of Whatcom
County is the equal, if not the superior, of that of Holland for bulb culture, and that the only thing necessary
to make this section world-famous in this line, is to
apply the expert knowledge of the Dutch to the productive soil of Whatcom County.
In the Puget Sound country there is one condition
which immediately appeals to tourists and newcomers,
and that is an almost entire absence of all sorts of insects, there being exceptionally few flies, mosquitoes,
gnats, and other pests. This obviates the necessity for
door and window screens. All of this is claimed by
the citizens of Bellingham, and, in addition to this,
they say they have no poisonous reptiles nor plants to
contend with.
It is claimed that Bellingham has the largest salmon
cannery and the largest shingle mill in the world, one
of the four largest sawmills in America, the largest
planing mill on the Pacific coast, and the largest and
finest theatre west of the Mississippi River. This theatre was built at a cost of one hundred and fifty-two
thousand dollars and will seat twenty-two hundred
On June 12, after having despatched Mr. Whidbey
from Birch Bay to examine that part of the coast unexplored to the southeast, Vancouver in the yawl, accompanied by Mr. Puget in the launch, directed his
researches to the main inlet of the Gulf of Georgia.
The most northerly branch of the inlet attracted their
attention but it caused them little delay. It soon terminated in two open bays, now known as Semiahmoo and
Boundary bays.
Semiahmoo Bay is funnel-shaped and is connected
at its eastern end by a narrow channel with Drayton one]
Harbor. This harbor is a small basin-like cove formed
by the extension of a sand spit northward from Birch
Point. It is about two miles in diameter, but flats,
bare at low water, occupy a large area in the eastern
and southern parts of the harbor. Several long
wharves, some of them occupied by canneries, extend
from the north shore to the edge of the flats. The town
of Blaine is situated on the northern shore near the
entrance. The south bluff of the harbor terminates at
its east end in a long, low spit, more than a mile long.
This spit for a short time in the summer of 1885, during the gold craze, was the site of Semiahmoo City.
Several buildings and canneries constituting the town of
Semiahmoo, at present are at the northern end of the
sand spit. A considerable part of Semiahmoo and
nearly all of Boundary Bay lie northward of the international boundary. The town of Blaine, located on the
line, is the station of the Great Northern Railway
where trains stop and the baggage of passengers is examined by the respective government customs officers.
The word Oregon is said to have occurred first in
1778 in Captain Jonthan Carver's Travels through the
Interior Parts of North America, where it denoted a
large river which that adventurer had heard the
Indians of the upper Mississippi mention. The Missouri was probably intended, but William Cullen
Bryant in 1818 in "Thanatopsis" applied it to the
Columbia River. Actual settlement of the Oregon
country by New Englanders began in 1832 and a
Methodist Mission for the Indians was established in
1834 at Salem. Great Britain made claims to the
country, and this was the beginning of the International
Boundary Question, which in 1844 was a prominent
factor in the presidential contest, the Democratic party 120
m \M
i "I
insisting on extending the claim of the United States
as far north as latitude 540 40'. The question, however, was amicably settled, June 15, 1846, by the United
States and Great Britain, in which settlement the boundary line between the United States and that of her
Britanic Majesty was to be continued westward along
"the 49th parallel of north latitude to the middle of
the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel and of Fuca's Straits to the
Pacific Ocean." That parallel of latitude crosses
Boundary Bay-hence the name.
Point Roberts, named by Vancouver after a former
commander of the Discovery, is the termination of an
easily distinguished promontory which stretches south-
westward from the delta of Fraser River. The eastern point of the promontory is a remarkable white cliff,
two hundred feet high, its summit being crowned with
trees. From it the land gradually falls westward and
terminates in Roberts Spit, a low shingle point, within
which is a small space of level clear land. Roberts
Bank, formed by the alluvial deposits of Fraser River,
extends from Roberts Spit in a slight curve for nine
and a half miles in about a 3000 true direction to the
Sand Heads; at this point the edge of the bank is four
and a half miles from the shore; it then takes a general
north direction for a further distance of twelve miles
and forms Point Grey. The portion of the bank northward of Fraser River is named Sturgeon Bank. There
is a granite monument twenty-five feet high erected on
the summit of Boundary Bluff. It marks the forty-
ninth parallel of north latitude, the boundary between
the British and United States possessions. Attention
will always be attracted to Point Roberts because of the
M one]
fact that this boundary line cuts across it south of Fraser
River, thus giving this important point to the United
States, while the balance of the peninsula belongs to
the Dominion of Canada.
At five o'clock in the morning of June 13, Vancouver
directed his course to the eastern shore and landed
about noon on a low bluff point which formed the
south point of an extensive sound, with a small arm
leading to the eastward. The point was named Point
Grey in compliment to a friend, Captain George Grey,
of the Royal Navy. Upon this point the British
Columbia University is now located. The outlook
from this point is one of the most beautiful upon the
northwest coast.
Vancouver, after describing Point Grey, says that the
intermediate space between it and Port Roberts was
occupied by a very low flat which extended behind
Point Roberts, and joined the low land in the bay to
the eastward of that point. There were two openings
between the two points. These he says could only be
navigable for canoes as the shoal continued along the
coast to the distance of seven or eight miles from the
shore, on which were lodged, and especially before the
openings, logs of wood, and stumps of trees innumerable. This is a description of the mouth and delta of
the Fraser River. Vancouver, however, did not discover and recognize it as such. On his return trip
from this excursion to the north, Friday, June 22, he
met the Spanish explorers Galiano and Valdes, near
Texada Island, and showed them the sketch he had
made of his excursion to the northward, and pointed
out the only spot which he conceived had been left unexamined, nearly at the head of Burrard's Channel.
They seemed much surprised that Vancouver had not 122
found a river, said to exist in the region he had been
exploring, named by one of their officers, Rio Blanca,
in compliment to the then prime minister of Spain.
Fraser River rises in the Rocky Mountains about
midway along the eastern boundary of British Columbia and runs almost due west in two branches for some
two hundred miles. There they join and flow southerly through the Cariboo, Lillooet, and Yale districts,
till near Chilliwack it abruptly turns to the west and
formerly found an outlet through three channels into
the Strait of Georgia. Several tributaries of importance add to its volume, among them being the Thompson draining the Kamloop and Shuswap Lake areas,
the North Fork, Chilcotin, Nechaco, Black Water,
Quesnel, Lillooet, Nicola, Harrison, and Pitt. From
its last westerly turn it flows through a wide alluvial
plain mainly deposited from its own silt. It is navigable for vessels drawing twenty feet of water to New
Westminster, about fifteen miles from its mouth, and
light draught boats can ascend it to the town of Yale
ninety-five miles further inland. Another stretch in
the interior of one hundred miles is also navigable for
small crafts from Soda Creek to Fort George Canyon.
Its total length is about seven hundred and fifty miles.
In point of magnitude and commercial importance, it
is second only to the Columbia River on this coast.
As we have already seen, the Spanish explorers
Galiano and Valdes discovered the Fraser River in the
summer of 1792; they, however, did not enter or navigate it. It was left to Alexander Mackenzie to, in part,
navigate it. In 1793 he ascended Peace River to the
headwaters of the Parsnip and, on June 11, in latitude
540 24', reached the "Height of Land," and the apex
of the great shed which parts the falling waters, sending
tm one]
those on one side to the east and those on the other side
to the west, and from there he voyaged on the Bad
River and reached the Fraser River, June 17, and embarked upon it the next morning. He imagined it to
be the majestic Columbia that was flowing riotously
at his feet; and so thought Simon Fraser when he first
saw it thirteen years afterwards, and so Fraser continued to think until 1808 when he descended it and
gave it his name. Mackenzie followed it for some
days, but, learning from the natives that the river was
very long and the current rapid and dangerous and
that it ran toward the midday sun, he decided to leave
it and voyage by land, and, on July 4, set out on a
journey which ultimately brought him on July 8, to the
tide waters of the Pacific in Bentick Arm. Thus was
completed the first crossing of North America north of
Simon Fraser, after whom the Fraser River was
named, was born in 1776, at Bennington on the Hudson,
New York. His father was a United Empire Loyalist
of Scottish stock, who died in prison after his capture
by the Revolutionary army at Burgoyne's surrender.
Simon spent his early years at Cornwall, Upper Canada.
At the age of sixteen he became a clerk in the Northwest Fur Tradlng>Company, earning a partnership in
the company ten years later. Then it was that he entered upon his life in the far west at Grand Portage
and Lake Athabasca. In 1805, he was sent to build
posts west of the Rocky Mountains in British Columbia, then known as New Caledonia, and to follow the
river which Mackenzie mistook for the Columbia
down to the sea.
Fraser's expedition was begun in the autumn of 1805.
The succeeding winter was spent at the Rocky Moun- 124
-♦  n
tain House on the Peace, then the westernmost distributing depot of the Northwest Fur Company. The
spring of 1806 was very backward, the ice in the river
melted very slowly, and the conditions were such that
Fraser did not advance on his expedition before May
21. On that day he and his companions set out in two
canoes. On the 23rd, they turned southward up the
south fork of the Peace. They passed the divide between Arctic and Pacific waters, reached the stream
that was supposed to be the Columbia, and, on June 11,
came to the mouth of the Nechaco, or Stuart River,
and, entering it, encamped near where now stands Fort
George. From this point they entered regions that had
not before been explored by white men. From here
they first explored Stuart River and located and built
Fort St. James at the southeast end of Stuart Lake.
September 3, Fraser proceeded to Fraser Lake, explored it, and constructed Fort Fraser near the east
end of the lake. During the ensuing winter fort building went forward in a satisfactory manner. During
the winter of 1807, Fort^St> George was built at the
confluence of Stuart and Fraser rivers. It was here
that Fraser gathered his forces and supplies and made
ready for his voyage of further exploration down the
hitherto unexplored river. He embarked about the
middle of May, 1808. The natives he met reiterated
the assertion that had before been made to Mackenzie
that the navigation of the river was impossible and this
they well might have done for Fraser says, "The tremendous gulfs and whirlpools which are peculiar to
this river are ready every moment to swallow a canoe
with all its contents, and the people on board, and the
high rocks render it impossible to stop the canoe or get
on shore even when it is stopped."    Fraser found it one
necessary several times to leave the stream and carry
the boats and luggage past impassable places. Constantly he was reminded by the Indians of the impossibility of making the voyage, but he persisted until
near the mouth of the stream and then turned back.
Conditions have changed since the days of Simon
Fraser. Now, more than a century and a quarter since
then, travelers are carried through the perilous part
of the Fraser River Canon in luxurious passenger
coaches. I have thus passed through it many times
over the Canadian Pacific Railway and have had many
opportunities of viewing the canon and river from a
car window. Since I first passed through it, a second
railway has been built on the opposite side of the canon.
Above this is the picturesque old Cariboo Trail, built
by the British Columbia Government at an enormous
cost, to accommodate the gold hunters of 1858 and the
sixties. In passing through the cafion, one who looks
from a car window down into the abyss with its swirling waters madly racing through, wonders at the courage and admires the fearlessness of the men who first
dared to attempt their navigation in a frail canoe.
The entrances to the Fraser River have almost constantly been changing. In 1912 it was entered between
Robert's Bank and Sturgeon Bank at a distance of
about four and a half miles from Point Garry lighthouse on the north side of the river. North Ann-is
another entrance to the river, navigable with local
knowledge for vessels of light draught at high water.
It has a length of about fourteen miles. Its junction
with the main stream occurs immediately below New
Westminster, from whence it runs in a westerly direction, and enters the Strait of Georgia, through Sturgeon Bank, about five miles northward of the £and jp^pp
Heads and southward of Point Grey. Two low partially-wooded islands lie in its entrance and divide the
channel into three arms. These islands constitute the
Richmond municipality, a suburb of the city of Vancouver.
In the morning of June 13, while proceeding up the
eastern branch of HowerSound, Vancouver was met by
about fifty Indians in canoes. They conducted themselves in a friendly manner and presented the explorers
with several cooked fish. They manifested a great desire
to imitate the white men's actions, and one of them even
consented to fire a musket, though with much fear and
trembling. They minutely watched all Vancouver's
transactions and examined the color of the skins of his
party with infinite curiosity. Vancouver concluded that
his party were the first people from a civilized country
they had ever seen. He and his men landed for the
night about half a league from the head of the inlet and
about three leagues from its entrance. Some of the
young gentlemen, however, who preferred the stony
beach for their couch, without duly considering the
line of high water mark, found themselves incommoded
by the flood tide, of which they were not apprized until
they were nearly afloat; and one of them slept so
soundly that Vancouver believed he might have been
conveyed to some distance, had he not been awakened
by his companions. The inlet thus explored was
named by Vancouver, Burrard's Channel, after Sir
Harry Burrard of the Royal Navy.
This channel now known as Burrard Inlet, is the
first great harbor which indents the shores of British
Columbia north of the 49th parallel of latitude. It
differs from most of the great sounds of this coast in
being comparatively easy of access to steam vessels of
ititt one]
any size. Its close proximity to Fraser River and its
having become the terminus of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, likewise add considerable to its importance.
It is divided into three distinct harbors, namely, English Bay, or the outer anchorage; Vancouver, above the
First Narrows; and Port Moody at the head of the
eastern arm of the inlet, which formerly was the terminus of the railway.
On June 14, Vancouver entered Howe Sound, named
by him in honor of Earl Howe, who is chiefly remembered by Americans as the commander of the British
fleet that aided in the capture of New York City in
1776. The low fertile shores to which the explorers
had become accustomed, "here no longer existed; their
place was now occupied by the base of the stupendous
snowy barriers, thinly wooded, and rising from the sea
abruptly to the clouds; from whose frigid summit, the
dissolving snow in foaming torrents rushed down the
sides and chasms of its rugged surface, exhibiting altogether a sublime, though gloomy spectacle, which
animated nature seemed to have deserted. Not a bird,
nor living creature was to be seen, and the roaring of
the falling cataracts in every direction precluded their
being heard, had any been in our neighborhood." Towards noon Vancouver considered that they had advanced some miles within the western boundary of the
snowy barriers, as some of its rugged lofty mountains
were now behind and to the southward of them.
I have voyaged through Howe Sound from Vancouver to Squamish and return. Our vessel left Vancouver with about three hundred passengers, composed
chiefly of religious enthusiasts, destined to Bowen
Island for a day's outing. Evidently they had been
told that sea-sickness could be avoided by smiling, for
,4 w*
Mi y?
most of them had pinned on them a badge marked
"Keep Smiling." They were a noisy and seemingly a
happy crowd. They sang long and loud their "hallelujahs" and uttered their "amens" with much fervor.
We arrived at Bowen Island about 11:30 A. M. and
while there had served to us on the boat for seventy-
five cents one of the best dinners that I have ever eaten
on a steamboat. The day was a most beautiful one
and the voyage a most enjoyable one. The captain
was a most obliging gentleman and proved to be very
communicative. He assumed to have a comprehensive
knowledge of Vancouver and his explorations. He
told me how he had come into possession of a "life history of Vancouver," and how it had interested many
persons to whom he had loaned it. This excited my
curiosity and I asked him to loan it to me, which he
kindly did. It proved to be Professor Meany's Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound, a copy of which
I had in my library. He also told me that he had
dug up an iron kettle which Vancouver had left at his
landing at the beach in English Bay, Burrard Inlet.
The fact is that no such landing was made, and of the
only one made in the inlet Vancouver says: "We landed
for the night about half a league from the head of the
inlet, and about three leagues from the entrance. 1 .
The shores in this situation were formed by steep rocky
cliffs that afforded no convenient space for pitching
our tent, which compelled us to sleep in the boats."
He also told me that Vancouver narrowly escaped having trouble with the Indians in Howe Sound, and
would have had it, but for the fact that he threatened
to fire a swivel at them. He pointed out the place
where he said that this incident occurred. This also
was a fictitious story.
*tm HB
Howe Sound lies close northward of the entrance to
Burrard Inlet. It is an extensive sheet of water penetrating the continent in a northerly direction for
twenty-four miles, and it is almost entirely hemmed in
by rugged and precipitous mountains rising abruptly
from the water's edge to elevations of four thousand to
more than six thousand feet. This sound is notable for
the depth of its water and its many islands.
The Britannia Mines anchorage, at which our vessel
called both as we voyaged to and from Squamish, is
the most important landing, commercially speaking, in
Howe Sound. The importance attaching to this landing grows out of the fact that located at and running
back for several miles from this point, is to be found
the world famous Britannia Copper Mine and its
equipment. Copper in this region was first discovered
in 1888, but it was not until ten years later that actual
work on the property was begun. The payroll of the
Company numbered eighteen hundred men. Provision must necessarily be made for the housing and entertainment of these producers, and this has been done.
For the entertainment of the residents there are recreation halls and moving picture centers. This realization of the twentieth century civilization is in evidence
near by where Vancouver only found "near forty of the
natives" who offered him "some fish, their garments,
spears, bows, and arrows, to which these people wisely
added their copper ornaments."
Howe Sound carries a depth of water above one hundred fathoms nearly to its head, where the Squamish
River from the north discharges its water, carrying
with it its detritus, and by so doing has made a mud
flat which extends into the sound for about a half mile.
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway has its southern
'm 130
terminus at this point, and reaches a deep water landing by a roadway constructed on piles driven into the
mud. Northward of the Squamish Landing is Mount
Garibaldi, the nearest example of an extinct volcano
within easy reach of Vancouver. June 16, Vancouver
resumed his course to the northwestward along the continental shore of the Strait of Georgia, from Point
Gower to Welcome Point, a distance of about fifteen
miles. Vancouver takes no account of the intervening
space except to say, "This part of the coast is of a
moderate height for some distance inland, and it frequently jets out in low sandy projecting points." One
of the projecting points is Rock Point next westward
of Point Gower. The White Islets are two bare rocks,
fifteen feet high, with deep water close to them, situated
one and a half miles off shore and five miles westward
from Point Gower. A white occulting light is exhibited on the western of these islets. It is known as
the Seechelt Light. Four miles northwestward of See-
chelt Light is Trail Bay between Mission Point and the
Trail Islets. These islets, four in number, lie a little
more than half a mile off the western end of the bay,
and if necessary small vessels may drop an anchor inside the easternmost in twelve fathoms of water. I
visited Seechelt Bay on the steamer Chilco. There is
a very marked drop in the land at the head of the bay,
across which, by a portage of half a mile, the Seechelt
Indians carry their canoes into Porpoise Bay at the
head of Seechelt Inlet. The Seechelt Mission is located at this point, and excursion steamers often visit
it. The Mission has a large Roman Catholic Church
in which the first representation of the Passion Play
was given in 1890. Native communicants came from
all parts of British Columbia for these religious serv-
.11 m
ices, which occupied three days. The play was repeated at the mission opposite Vancouver in 1891, and
at Mission Junction on the Fraser River in 1892.
There are about two hundred and fifty of the Seechelts,
who are wards of British Columbia.
On the afternoon of June 16, Vancouver entered
Malaspina Strait, which is named after an Italian navigator who, in 1791, commanded a Spanish expedition
that searched for the Northwest Passage. Next day
Vancouver entered what is known as Agamenon Channel and came to an inlet which he named after Sir
John Jervis, one of the most celebrated of British naval
officers. The width of this inlet caused Vancouver to
hope that he had discovered a breach in the range of
snowy mountains, but this hope was disappointed by
their coming to the inlet's head. Lack of provisions
forced them to turn back toward the ships at Birch
Bay, distant more than a hundred miles. The surrounding country presented an equally dreary aspect
with that in the vicinage of Howe's Sound. The cataracts here rushed from the snowy mountains in greater
number and with more impetuosity than in Howe's
Sound; yet the color of the water was not changed,
though in some of the gullies there was the same chalky
aspect. The pine, which flourishes where no other tree
can find soil to sustain life, holds but a feeble and uncertain foothold here; and it is not uncommon to see
whole mountain sides that have been denuded by the
blasts of winter, or the still greater destruction of the
avalanche which accompanies the thaw of summer.
On June 23, Vancouver reached the ships in Birch
Bay after having traversed in this expedition upwards
of three hundred and thirty miles. During his absence
the other boats of the Discovery and Chatham had been
■kii 132
J fl
engaged in attempting to gain some further knowledge
of the numerous islands in the region round about, but
these were found to be so numerous as to preclude any
correct examination. Lopez, Shaw, Orcas, San Juan,
Saltspring, Suturna, Mayne, Galiano, Valdes, and
Gabriola are the most considerable of these islands.
San Juan Island, the largest of the Washington
Sound group, is about thirteen miles long, with a greatest width of six miles. It is rugged and partly wooded,
with numerous elevations ranging from four hundred
to one thousand feet in height. The northern end of
the island is indented by several small bays, which with
the exception of Roach Harbor, are shoal and of no
commercial importance. At Roach Harbor a large
amount of lime is made, and in addition there is a
barrel factory. It has been estimated that more than
half a million barrels of lime are annually shipped from
the island. A monument has been erected on this
island marking the last scene of its occupation by the
British, and a blockhouse used for its defense is yet
to be seen. Another interesting thing to be seen on
this island is the Washington Rock, where centuries
ago nature chiseled the prototype of "The Father of
his Country."
San Juan County, Washington, was organized October 31, 1873. By the act of the legislature creating it,
it was provided that it should comprise the "De Haro
Archipelago, hitherto known as the disputed islands."
The last phrase of the preceding sentence calls attention
to some interesting facts in American history. As we
have already seen, the question of the boundary line
between the United States and Great Britain was
amicably settled June 15, 1846. By that settlement it
was agreed that the line was to be continued westward
MM   one]
along "the 49th parallel of north latitude to the middle
of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island, thence southerly through the middle
of the said channel and of Haro's Straits to the Pacific
Ocean." This treaty appears to have been made under
the impression that there was only one channel between
the continent and Vancouver Island. Subsequently a
contention arose between the two governments as to
the construction of the treaty. Both countries claimed
ownership of San Juan and other islands. The earliest
trouble in regard to this arose in 1854, when the American collector of customs learned that several thousand
cattle, sheep, and hogs had been shipped to San Juan
Island without compliance with the customs regulations
of the United States.
The final trouble, however, arose in 1859, when a pig
belonging to Charles J. Griffin, a representative of the
Hudson's Bay Company, residing on the island, got
into the potato patch of Lyman A. Cutler, a citizen
of the United States, who also was a resident of the
island. Cutler told Griffin to keep the pig out of his
potato patch, to which Griffin answered, "Keep your
potatoes out of my pig." Instead of doing so, Cutler,
with his rifle, killed Griffin's pig, and then offered to
pay for it. Griffin refused Cutler's offer and demanded
the payment of one hundred dollars, which Cutler refused. That afternoon Cutler was called upon by a
high official of the Hudson's Bay Company, who had
just arrived on the island in her majesty's ship Satellite,
and who threatened to arrest him and take him to Victoria to be tried. Cutler replied that if he attempted
this he would shoot him, and reached for his rifle as if
he meant to carry his threat into immediate effect.
Cutler was not further molested, but the matter was ™*%p*
m §
reported to General Harney, who had taken command
of the new military district of Oregon with headquarters at Port Vancouver. He established a military post
on the south end of the island, and Captain Pickett,
afterward known to fame as the hero of Gettysburg,
was placed in command of it. An English camp was
established on the north end, and ships kept guard in
both harbors until 1871. This joint occupation of the
island was arranged by Lieutenant General Winfield
Scott, Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the United
States. In the meantime, the two camps maintained
the friendliest social relations. In 1871, the matter of
dispute by mutual agreement was referred to the Emperor of Germany, as an arbitrator for settlement. His
decision was in favor of the contention of the United
San Juan County as it is now recognized is composed
of the three large islands, San Juan, Lopez, and Orcas,
and several smaller ones, and has about two hundred
square miles of territory. The islands have soil and
timber not different from the mainland. Heavy timber in the forests, clay loam in the bottoms, shot clay,
ledges of lime rock and mineral form the hills and
hillsides, and great shoals of fish in the waters are the
foundations for the prosperity of its citizens. All parts
of the county are well served by steamboats. Friday
Harbor on the southern shore of San Juan Island one
mile westward from Turn rock is a small cove one mile
long and nearly as wide. A small settlement, by the
same name, the county seat of San Juan County with a
post office, is located on the southern shore of the cove. The City of Vancouver
Rounding Point Grey from the southward, a vessel
enters Burrard Inlet upon the southern shore of which
is located the city of Vancouver. I entered this city
over the Canadian Pacific Railway, Tuesday morning
July ii, 1911. At six o'clock the chimes of a distant
church added much to the charm of the occasion. I
walked through the city and enjoyed the roses, which
were in full bloom. Then I made a hasty visit to Stanley Park, and at ten-forty left the city for Seattle on the
steamship Iroquois. That was my first introduction to
the waters of the Pacific Ocean. It was on this voyage
that I first saw the line which so distinctly distinguishes
the fresh water of Fraser River from the salt water of
the Strait of Georgia. The afternoon was pleasantly
spent on the deck of the Iroquois. After she had
passed Victoria I had a fine view of Mount Baker to
the northeast and Mount Olympus to the southwest.
Both were snow-capped and in the sunlight presented a
most impressive appearance. Later in the afternoon I
saw Mount Rainier with her hoary head lifted over fourteen thousand feet into the ethereal blue. Thus it was in
one afternoon I saw the four distinctive features of a
voyage from Vancouver to Seattle, not making mention
of the passage through Active Pass, which to the newly
inducted voyager is quite as interesting as either of the
others.    I have visited the city many times since then.
The city of Vancouver was formerly known by the
name of Granville.    In 1886, at the suggestion of Sir 136
W. C. Vanljorn, the chief executive of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, it was changed to Vancouver, in honor
of Captain George Vancouver. Its first settler was
John Morton, who built a log cabin near the waterfront,
where is now located the establishment of a large trading company. The land he owned is now worth, in
places, four thousand dollars per front foot. Until
the time of its incorporation in 1806 the site of the city
was covered with a forest, the denseness of which may
be understood and appreciated by making a visit to
Stanley Park, where primitive conditions still exist.
The clearing of such a forest and making it a habitable
site was no easy undertaking. What it meant can better be realized by what Commander R. C. Mayne has
said about clearing the site for New Westminster. "Of
the severity of that labor," he says, "no one unacquainted
with the difficulty of clearing the bush as it exists in
British Columbia can form an accurate conception.
Falling of the trees form but a small part of it. When
they are down, they are of course, with the scanty resources at the settler's command, too large to be removed, and they have to be sawn and cut into handy
blocks for removal or burning. That done the hardest
work yet remains. In forests such as these the roots of
the giant trees have been spreading underground for
ages, forming a close and perfect network some eight
or ten feet beneath the surface. To dig this mass of
interlaced roots up would defy the strength and patience of ordinary men; and it is only the wonderful
dexterity of the Canadian - and, indeed of the American generally - in handling his axe that enables him to
enter upon, far less accomplish so difficult a task."
From May to July, 1886, the growth of Vancouver
was very rapid, but in July a fire, spreading from the
1 * I] one]
surrounding forest, swept away every house but one in
the place, and, with this one exception every building
now seen in the city has been constructed since then.
Phoenix like it has grown to be a city with an estimated
population of one hundred and twenty-five thousand
people. Ships lie banked along its wharves, each
emptying its commerce and swallowing a load of precious freight to world scattered ports. No seaport in
America has a more wonderful harbor; it is claimed
that it has the third finest harbor in the world.
In at least two respects this city is unique. It has an
underwater twenty-five mile cable for telephonic communications between the city and Vancouver Island.
The other unique feature is that the revenues of the city
are raised by the single tax system, that is by a tax levied
upon its real estate.
The city has close at hand a water supply which is
capable of producing one hundred thousand horse
power. It has an ample supply of the best water,
which is brought into it from a mountain stream by
means of pipes laid under the Inlet.
The city is favored with mountain scenery and other
delights attaching to the proximity of mountains in a
degree enjoyed by few other cities of this country. It
would be difficult to give an adequate description of
the scenery of the mountains standing just across the
Inlet. Capilano Canyon is one of the wonders of this
continent. Thousands of the residents of Vancouver
visit this place almost every week and seem never to
tire of its wonderful scenery. I have visited it twice
and crossed it on its wonderful suspension bridge. One
of the recreations offered to tourists is mountain climbing. Ascents sufficiently interesting and arduous to
satisfy the average person can be made in a day, start-
m 138
ing from the city after breakfast and returning in time
for supper. But that which interested me more than
mountain climbing was a visit to Stanley Park. My
first visit to it was in 1911 but it was brief and
unsatisfactory. I visited it again July 18, 1912. I
had heard marvelous stories about it, and I wished to
verify them or be able to say that they were not "faked."
To do this I was up at four o'clock in the morning for
a walk to and through the park. None except the
milkmen were moving in the streets at that hour, and
when I got into the park, I found a reign of profound
stillness, except that the birds were chanting their
morning anthems.
A guide board with an index hand pointed the way
to the "big trees." The path called Tatlow Walk led
into a dense forest with many big trees on either side of
it. When I had about reached the center of the park,
I came to what is known as the Seven Sisters. At this
point are grouped fifteen "big trees," seven of which are
larger than the others. They all stand on an area of
land, as I stepped it, of about one hundred and fifty
feet square. One of these trees, a Douglas fir, at its
base had a circumference of forty feet. That so small
a space should produce so many giants was one of the
most interesting things that I found in the park.
Branching off from Tatlow Walk is a bridle path which
leads to what is said to be the two largest trees in the
park, each with a circumference of fifty-four feet.
Midway between the Seven Sisters and the beach on
Tatlow Walk, is a cedar which to my mind is one of
the most beautiful and satisfactory trees in the park.
It has a circumference of forty-seven feet, and is perfect in form and straight as an arrow. It is in a dying
condition, and hundreds of people have cut their names •m
11 §
II w
k. fk
into its body, notwithstanding that in doing so they
were violating a law of the park which prohibits this
outrage.    Strange infatuation!
What has been known as "The Big Tree" was a disappointment to me. At its base it has a circumference
of sixty-four feet, and in this respect is the largest tree
in the park, but much of this is due to the fact that it
is knotty and has an unnatural circumference for a tree
of its kind and height. It is dead and has had the
heart burned out of it. This has been taken advantage
of and photographs are shown of it with a two horse
wagon backed into its hollow trunk. Being on the
road side and easy of access, it has become a favorite
place for people to go and have their photographs
taken with their vehicle backed into or by the side of
it. A photographer has a cabin close by but he was
not up when I was there, and so I could not have my
"picture" taken-a great disappointment!
The park is so tangled with down-timber and undergrowth that without its man-made paths it would almost be impossible to get through it. The big trees,
consisting of three species, namely, Douglas fir, hemlock, and cedar, are found in all parts of the park, and
many of them must be more than a thousand years old.
An abundant younger growth is coming on, and to me
it was a pleasant thought that in a thousand years from
now, these will be the big trees of Stanley Park. As I
walked through the forest I saw several "big snails"
crawling across the path. Some of them were as much
as six inches long and one inch thick, and as they
crawled their slow pace, they left behind them their
slimy trail. There were giant ferns to be seen in great
abundance. Some of the brakes were higher than my
II 140
V hi
I saw but few animals but I think I have never heard
so many different kinds of birds in one morning as I
did that morning. The songs of the many thrushes
were especially delightful, and as I wearily walked
along the park boulevard toward the city, it occurred
to me that as Elbert Hubbard has said: "There are
parks and parks, but there is no park in the world that
will exhaust your stock of adjectives and subdue you
into silence like Stanley Park at Vancouver." The
city has fifteen parks, all of which are under the supervision of a board of park commissioners, whose report
of December 31, 1911, shows that the total cost of their
acquisition and maintenance to that date amounted to
$652,585.81. I     I
Because of its peculiar location, it may be said without t exaggeration that Vancouver is the commercial,
financial, and industrial center of the province of British Columbia. It is the western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which has a continuous line of
three thousand miles and was until late years the only
transcontinental line on the western continent owned
and operated by a single corporation. It is also the
western terminus of the Canadian Northern and Great
Northern systems in Canada, and has direct oceanic
connection by a number of steamship lines with the
Orient and Australia.
My last visit to the city of Vancouver was made in
the early part of July, 1918. I took a sight-seeing auto
and made the rounds of it, and found that many changes
had been made in it since I first visited it in 1911.
This was especially noticeable in its new additions,
especially "Shaughnessy Heights"-and the improvements of its streets and the many permanent buildings
that had been erected.   The spires and towers of its
■tBfl wr
churches were very much in evidence. The Rogers,
an eleven-story building, which occupies a full quarter
of a block or square in the heart of the city is a most
beautiful and attractive building - beautiful because of
its simple outlines and finish. The Hotel Vancouver,
constructed and named by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in honor of Captain George Vancouver,
is a monumental structure. I have always stopped at
this hotel when visiting Vancouver. On this occasion I
was assigned to a very desirable room overlooking the
court house and its lawn. The court house, built of stone,
has a large dome surmounted with a figure representing
Justice. On the lawn is a flagpole made out of a single
log with a length of two hundred and five feet, measuring twenty-two inches at the top and sixty inches at the
butt. The tree was cut in 1912 by the Brooks, Scanlon
and Objien Company on their New Westminster District forest and presented to the provincial government
for the purpose which it is filling. In 1914, the same
firm cut another log two hundred and twenty feet long
for a flagpole in the Kew Gardens in England. Several derricks and pile drivers had to be assembled on
the Vancouver wharf when this huge stick was lifted
bodily and laid very carefully along the deck of a large
freight steamer sailing for England.
(L>~V u
m Trees and Shrubs of the Northwest Coast
For some unaccountable reason Vancouver was
prone to minimize the forest of the Northwest coast,
both as to species and the size of the trees, and it will
be observed as we follow him further in his explorations he is prone to speak of the "scrubby pines" and a
very few other species. He nowhere takes account of
the great forests existing on the coast and islands he was
These forests are among the most wonderful in the
world. How they have been produced is explained
by the favorable conditions under which they have
grown. They have had an abundance of moisture and
sunlight and a comparatively mild climate, superinduced by the Japan current, in which to make that
growth. One of the wonders of a voyage through the
Inside Passage to Alaska is the green tree covering of
the almost perpendicular rock sides of the mountains.
These trees seem almost like parasites upon the rocks
to which they cling and from which they rise. Frequently I have seen bushes nearly a half foot in diameter growing on rocks ten and twelve feet high. In one
instance I found a Douglas fir as thick as my arm
growing from the top of such a rock. I climbed
to the top of the rock and found it was covered
with a deep layer of moss and that the seed from which
the tree had grown must have germinated in this. I
took hold of the fir and with little effort turned it over
and by so doing found that it was well rooted under- 144
neath the moss from which it evidently had drawn its
One is astonished at the great durability of the fallen
boles of some of the trees of the Pacific coast. Underwood in his Alaska, an Empire in the Making, tells
us that, "a red cedar tree one thousand one hundred and
thirty-seven years old was cut in the Snoqualmie forest
in 1910, and marketed for shingles. This tree got its start
in life some seven hundred and twenty years before the
discovery of America. At the time when William the
Conqueror fought the Battle of Hastings and founded
the British aristocracy, this Washington cedar had attained the dignity that comes with two hundred and
ninety-four years; and when Cortez began the conquest
of Mexico, it was hoary with the weight of seven hundred and forty-seven years. Perhaps struck by lightning or blown down by storm, it fell to the ground two
centuries before Columbus crossed the Atlantic Ocean
in search of America. In the moss that formed upon
it after it had fallen, another cedar took root, and its
roots spread down the sides of the dead tree and reached
the ground. The annular rings of the standing tree
showed it to be seven hundred and fifty-seven years old,
while similar marks of the fallen one showed it had been
growing three hundred and eighty years before it was
laid low. The tree had lain on the ground for seven
hundred and fifty-seven years, and probably more. At
the end of that time shingles from it were cut and
scattered broadcast in the United States to demonstrate
the durability of the wood. What Nature is long in
producing she does not speedily destroy."
The government of the United States is protecting
and preserving most of its forests in national parks and
forest reservations extending through the coasts and one]     TREES, SHRUBS OF NORTHWEST COAST       145
islands of California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska.
Notable among these are the Yosemite, Sequoia, General Grant, and Mount Rainier parks and the Mount
Rainier, Olympian, Tongass, and Chugach national
forest reservations. British Columbia supervises and
controls her forests as a whole and grants leases to parts
of them with restrictions to those who are engaged in
the lumber business. The species of trees, their character, and size change very much from the south to the
north. Of some of these an account will be taken; it
must be understood, however, that this is not comprehensive and inclusive. Such an account would of itself fill a volume.
The first of these trees which demands our attention,
botanically speaking, is the western white pine, pinus
monticola. This tree is found on Vancouver Island
and in southern British Columbia to northern Idaho
and Montana, and south into California. It reaches
the sea level on the shores of the Straits of Juan de
Fuca, and elevations of ten thousand feet on the California Sierra Mountains. It grows to a height of one
hundred feet, and occasionally one hundred and fifty
feet, with a trunk ranging from four to eight feet in
diameter. It is a splendid looking tree, having bluish-
green fronds and cones from eight to twelve inches
long. The Monterey pine, pinus radiata, growing
from Vancouver Island southward and the scrub pine,
pinus contorta, from the coast of Alaska south to Men-
docinri, California, are other pines found on the Pacific
The tamarack, larix occidentalis, is a tree which
sometimes attains a height of two hundred and fifty feet.
Trees six feet in diameter and two hundred feet high
are quite common.   For the first fifty years of its growth
i 146
this larch, commonly called the western larch, is pyramidal in shape but thinly branched. After that the
lower limbs die and fall off, leaving a bare trunk with
a mere wisp of a top. The wood of the tamarack is
close-grained, very heavy, exceedingly hard and strong,
and of a bright light red color. It is found through
the basin of the upper Columbia River from southern
British Columbia to the western slopes of the continental divide of northern Montana, and to the eastern
slopes of the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. It grows
in moist bottom lands and on high benches and mountain sides. The fibrous roots of the tamarack were the
Indian's thread; tough and fine as a shoe maker's
waxed end, it sewed the canoe of birch, making a seam
that scarcely needed the wax of the balsam to make it
water tight.
Menzies or Sitka spruce, picea sitchensis, grows in
moist, sandy, and swampy soils from Cape Mendocino
northward through the coast region of Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska to the eastern
end of Kodiak Island. The wood is straight-grained,
light, soft, and weak. The tree with a tapering trunk
and enlarged base grows to a height of one hundred to
two hundred feet, with a broad pyramidal head of
drooping branches. The trunk ranges from two to six
feet in diameter, is buttressed, and much enlarged at
the base. It dwindles to a starveling shrub when the
limits of its range are reached in the north, but in
southeastern Alaska and on the coast ranges of British
Columbia, Washington, and Oregon it is one of the
largest and most beautiful trees on the Northwest coast.
Not uncommonly individual spruce trees contain over
fifteen thousand feet of lumber. During 1915 a single
log was brought into a mill at Ketchikan that scaled
eighteen thousand feet. It was one hundred and fifty-
four feet long and forty-one inches in diameter at the
top. Many stands yield fifty thousand board feet per
acre and in restricted areas run as high as one hundred
thousand feet. Two examples of extreme age in the
Sitka spruce were noted in Portage Bay between Petersburg and Juneau. A section of a log fifty-four inches
in diameter taken at twenty-five feet above the ground
had six hundred rings, thus showing it to be six hundred years old; another log fifty-four inches in diameter eight feet above the ground had five hundred and
twenty-five rings. Both were entirely sound. Black
spruce, picea mariana, and white spruce, picea canadensis, are also found on the Northwest coast.
Archibald Menzies, for whom the Menzies spruce
was named, and who discovered it and many other
trees and plants of the northwestern coast, was the
naturalist of Vancouver's expedition. He was a surgeon in the royal navy, and had previously visited the
Pacific in a vessel engaged in the fur trade. He was
taken on this voyage for the specific purpose of making
scientific researches. For the purpose of preserving
such new or common plants as he might deem worthy
of a place amongst His Majesty's very valuable collection of exotics at Kew, a glazed frame was erected on
the after part of the quarter-deck, for the reception of
those he might have an opportunity of collecting.
Menzies was born at Weims, Perthshire, March 15,
1754, and died at Ladbroke Terrace, Notting Hill,
February 15, 1842. His life was one of continued advancement as a scientist and of distinguished services
rendered to his country. In 1790, he was elected a
fellow of the Linnean Society and, January 10, 1842,
a month before his death, he became its President. 148
Menzies' Bay at or near to the southern entrance to
Discovery Passage and Point Menzies in River's Channel were named in honor of this distinguished naturalist.
The mountain hemlock, tsuga mertensiana, is found
in southeastern Alaska, British Columbia, and southward to Central California, Montana, and Idaho. It
usually grows to a height of seventy to one hundred
feet but occasionally it is found one hundred and
fifty feet high with slightly tapering trunk four to
five feet in diameter. It grows at no great distance
from the sea, and because of this, its wood can be
transported to shipping points without great expense.
Along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the
Selkirk Mountains it is very abundant. The bark on
the young tree is thin, rather lustrous, and of a dark-
gray-brown color; on old trunks it ranges in thickness
from ten to twelve inches and is divided into oblong
plates which are broken into broad rounded ridges,
with dark red-brown scales. The wood is of a light
red or yellow color. For many years the coast lumbermen were prejudiced against the wood of this hemlock, placing it in a class with its eastern namesake.
Of late years, however, it has begun to be recognized
as one of the most valuable of woods, for it has been
ascertained by scientific tests and practical use that it
is in many respects quite equal to the highly prized
fir, and superior to it for all work requiring a fine
polish. It is also, next to spruce, the most important
of the pulp woods. Its bark is rich in tannin, and is
used in tanning leather. Superb trees of this species
are found on the mountains at an altitude of six thousand feet, but only in moist situations. On dry, high
ridges, the tree has a stunted growth.   When young or
rite ryjT
growing singly the tree is decidely pretty, and the yewlike fronds which enshroud the trunk can be made into
a most welcome bed for the weary prospector or
The western hemlock, tsuga heterophyllia, is also
found on the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains.
It is most abundant and of the largest size on the coast
of Washington and Oregon, where it frequently grows
two hundred feet high with a trunk six to ten feet in
diameter. It is esteemed one of the most valuable
trees of the coast.
The Douglas or red fir, pseudatsuga douglasii, is,
perhaps, the most abundant and the most valuable tree
on the Pacific coast. It attains immense proportions,
growing straight, high, and clear of imperfections. It
is often found three hundred feet in height with a base
circumference of from thirty to fifty feet. The average
size, however, and the most prized by the lumbermen,
are trees of about one hundred and fifty feet and five
to six feet in diameter. It is scientifically described as
standing midway between the spruce and the balsam.
Its slender trunk, crowded with densely-clothed, long,
pendulous branches which soon disappear, leaves it
naked for two thirds of its height and surmounted by
a comparatively small narrow head.
The wood of this tree is of light red or yellow color,
is soft, light, and durable. It is largely manufactured
into lumber in British Columbia, western Washington,
and Oregon, and used in all kinds of construction, railway ties, piles, and for fuel. It is most abundant and
of largest size on Vancouver Island and near the sea
level of the coast regions of southern British Columbia,
and of Washington and Oregon, and on the foothills of
the Cascade Mountains.    John Muir calls it, "The
# i5o
magnificent silver fir." It was discovered by and
named in honor of David Douglas, a British botanist,
who was born in Scone, Scotland, in 1798. In his
youth he was employed in the Glasgow botanical
gardens where he attracted the attention of Sir William
Jackson Hooker, who procured for him an appointment
as botanical collector for the horticultural society of
London. In this capacity he traveled extensively in
America. In 1824, ne explored California and the
Columbia River and, in 1827, traversed the American
continent from Fort Vancouver to Hudson's Bay,
where he met Sir John Franklin, with whom he returned to England.
There are two species of the sequoias, namely:
sequoia washingtoniana, and sequoia sempervirens.
The first named of the Sequoias is known as the "big
tree," and is confined to a narrow area on the western
slope of the Sierras in California. A very careful study
of them was made by Professor Ellsworth Huntington
of Yale University in 1911. An account of his work
was published by the United States Department of the
Interior in 1913, and to this I am indebted for most of
my information. These trees when young have a pyramidal shape, and a round top when they are old. They
attain a height of two hundred and fifty to three hundred and twenty-five feet, and a diameter of twenty to
thirty-five feet. They have fluted trunks with reddish-
brown, fibrous bark, one to two feet thick. The wood
is red, soft, coarse, light, and durable, and is used for
shingles, fencing, and in general construction work.
Professor Huntington says that three thousand fence
posts, sufficient to support a wire fence around eight
or nine thousand acres of land have been made from
one of these giants, and that was only the first step
towards using its trunk. Six hundred and fifty thousand
shingles, enough to cover the roofs of seventy or eighty
houses, formed the second item of its product. Finally
there still remained hundreds of cords of wood. The
upper third of the trunk and all the branches lie on the
ground where they fell, not visibly rotting, for the
wood is wonderfully enduring. Huge as the sequoias
are, their size is scarcely so wonderful as their age. A
tree that has lived five hundred years is still in its early
youth; one that has rounded out one thousand summers
^and winters is only in full maturity; and old age, the
three score years of the sequoias, does not come for
seventeen or eighteen centuries. How old the oldest
tree may be is not yet certain. Professor Huntington
counted the rings of seventy-nine that were over two
thousand years of age, of three that were over three
thousand, and of one that was three thousand and fifty.
He says that in the days of the Trojan War and of the
exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt this oldest tree
was a sturdy sapling, with stiff, prickly foliage like
that of a cedar, but far more compressed. John Muir
thinks that some of the living trees have reached the
age of five thousand years. The Sequoia National
Park contains the largest groves of the oldest, the biggest, and the most remarkable trees living in the world.
They number one million, five hundred and sixty thousand. Of them twelve thousand exceed ten feet in
diameter. The General Sherman tree, most celebrated
of all, is two hundred and seventy-nine and nine-tenths
feet high with a diameter of thirty-six and five-tenths
Sequoia sempervirens, commonly known as the redwood, is a resinous, aromatic tree with tall, fluted
trunk and short horizontal branches.    It grows to a ff
height of two to three hundred feet and has a diameter
ranging from ten to twenty-five feet. Its head is small
and irregular. The bark which is about twelve inches
thick lies in ridges two to four feet long, is checked
crosswise, and shows a bright close inner layer. The
wood is light, soft, brittle, red, with a satiny lustre,
splits easily, and is very durable. Its preferred habitat
is a moist, sandy soil. It is found from the southern
borders of California to Oregon and probably to
Nootka. Large forests of it are found on the seaward
slope of the Coast Range and occur in isolated groups
farther inland. Because of their great size and the
even grain of their cedar-like wood, they are recognized
as among the most valuable of timber trees and owing
to the fact that they come down to the coast, they are
being rapidly destroyed. They were discovered in
1792 by Archibald Menzies.
Red or canoe cedar, thuya plicata, is a pyramidal tree
which grows one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet
high with a stout, often corrugated and buttressed
trunk, sometimes fifteen feet in diameter at the ground
and in old age often separating toward the summit into
two or three divisions. Its wood is light, soft, brittle,
coarse, durable, and of a reddish thrown color. It is
largely used in Washington and Oregon for the interior
finish of buildings, doors, window sashes, fences, shingles, and in cabinet-making and cooperage. It takes a
very brilliant polish, and so great is the variety of
shading in its coloring that a large house may be finished in it without any two rooms being alike. It
lasts well under ground, and on this account is much
used for telegraph poles and fence posts. It is chiefly
used in the manufacture of shingles, for which purpose
it is unequalled by any other wood.    From this tree one]     TREES, SHRUBS OF NORTHWEST COAST       153
the Indians of the northwest coast split the planks used
in the construction of their lodges, carve the totems
which decorate their villages, and hollow out their
great war canoes; and from the fibres of the inner
bark they make the thatch for their cabins, their
blankets, ropes useful in fishing and harnessing their
dogs, and their baskets and game bags. This cedar is
found on the coast region from Cape Mendocino north
to Yass Bay in Alaska, and east into the mountains of
Idaho and Montana.
1 The Monterey cypress, cypressus macrocarpa, is
found on the coast of California south of the Bay of
Monterey, occupying an area about two miles long and
two hundred yards wide from Cypress Point to the
shores of Carmel Bay, with a small grove on Point
Lobos, the southern boundary of the bay. I visited
Monterey August 18, 1911, and went to Cypress Point
to see the cypress trees, which before then I had been
told were a grove of the cedars of Lebanon. I brought
home with me some of the limbs of a fallen tree. They
are as hard as the horns of an elk and much resemble
them. They are very strong and have the appearance
of being as durable as iron. The trees grow to a height
of forty to sixty feet and become gnarled and flat-
topped when old. The trunk is short with a diameter
of from two to three feet.
The Sitka cypress, chamcecyparis nootkatensis, is
found along the coast from Oregon northward to
Alaska. It is most abundant and of the largest size
near the coast of northern British Columbia and in
Alaska, where it ranges from sea level to an elevation
of three thousand feet. It grows to a height of over
one hundred feet, with a tall trunk five to six feet in
diameter.    At high elevations on the Cascade Moun-
j 154
tains it is only a low growing shrub. Its wood
is very close-grained, hard, rather brittle, exceedingly durable and has a bright clear yellow color;
because of this it is known as the yellow cypress.
It is fragrant with an agreeable resinous odor. It
is much valued for interior finishing and for the
manufacture of furniture. The Indians along the
northern coast of Alaska make many articles for domestic use from this wood. It commands a higher price
than either the Douglas fir or the giant arbor vitae.
It is especially valuable for its lasting qualities. It
has been known to last as sills for sixty years. It requires to be well-seasoned before use on account of its
liability to shrink lengthwise as well as laterally. On
account of the pungent odor which it emits when freshly cut and which it never loses, it is credited with
resisting the teredo. The long and slender pendulous
fruits which hang from the branches give the tree a
graceful appearance.
Red juniper, juniperus virginiana, ranges from a
shrub to a tree sixty to ninety feet high, with pyramidal
form, and a trunk three to four feet in diameter, ^v an-
couver says he found it at Birch Bay. It may be that
he had in mind the red cedar, juniperus scopulorum, a
tree that is found on the coast of Washington and British Columbia. This tree grows to a height of thirty
to forty feet, with a short trunk sometimes three feet in
The Pacific yew, taxus brevifolia, is found as single
individuals or in small clumps from Queen Charlotte
Islands and the valley of the Skeena River southward
along the coast ranges of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon to the Bay of Monterey. The tree
usually grows to a height of forty to fifty feet, with a one]     TREES, SHRUBS OF NORTHWEST COAST
tall straight trunk one to two feet in diameter, with a
broad head of long, horizontal, pendulous limbs. The
wood of this tree is heavy, hard, very strong, and of
red color. The Indians use it for canoe paddles, spear-
handles, bows, and other small articles. The settlers
use it for fencing. The birds are very fond of its
translucent scarlet berries.
The quaking asp, populus tremuloides, is a slender
tree which grows from forty to eighty feet high, with
angular, scarred twigs, and large vigorous roots. The
bark is rough and dark on the base of the trunk, becoming pale greenish brown or nearly white, and
marked with broad, dark bands below the limbs. The
wood is soft, close-grained, light, weak, and not durable
and of a light brown color. It is useful, although not
much used on the northwest coast. It is used for wooden-ware, light barrels, such as those used for sugar and
flour, for crates and boxes, fence rails, fire wood and in
making log houses. Commercially it is valuable for the
manufacture of pulp. Where it can be obtained it is
used almost exclusively by the beavers both for food
and in the construction of their houses and dams. j| This
aspen has, perhaps, a more extensive distribution than
any other tree that grows in North America. I have
found them wherever I have travelled and in the north
as far as the head of Cook Inlet, where they are very
small. A peculiarity of this tree is the power of its
seeds to germinate quickly in soil made infertile by
fire and its seedlings to grow rapidly in exposed situations. It is now widely spread over vast areas of the
slopes of the Rocky Mountains swept by fire of their
former covering of coniferous trees. It thus acts
as a nurse to hard wood and conifers that later
succeed   it.    Aspen   is   a   general   term   applied   to I
trees of this genus whose leaves have flattened
petioles. The round-stemmed ones are poplars proper. There is no mystery in the trembling of the
leaves. The stem is long and flexible and flattened
in a plane at right angles with the blade of the leaf.
Now, given a leaf that is dangling from its twig, and
has four flat surfaces exposed, it is a cautious breeze
indeed that is able to get by without disturbing the leaf's
unstable equilibrium. Given a tree top of similarily
made and hung leaves and you have a quaking asp. In
the autumn the leaves turn to a golden yellow, and this
makes a grove of these trees most beautiful.
The black Cottonwood, populus trichocarpa, is the
giant of the genus, reaching two hundred feet in height
and a diameter from three to eight feet. The range of
this tree covers the coast plain from Alaska to southern
California. It attains its greatest height in dense forests along river banks and on low islands. Its wood is
light, of a dull brown color without any great quality
to recommend it. It is used in Washington and
Oregon for the staves of sugar barrels and in the manufacture of wooden-ware. Its principal use is zfor the
manufacture of excelsior, for which purpose it 'is well
adapted. The dark rich green of the leaves gives this
tree its name. They are ovoid, three to four inches
long, with the finest saw-toothed margins. It is the
largest of the broad leaved trees of British Columbia,
Washington, and Oregon.
The willows are distributed from the equator to the
Arctic circle. There are one hundred and seventy
species of them. Six of these are found on the Pacific
coast, namely: The silver-leaved willow, salix ses-
silifolia] peach willow, salix amygaloides] western
black willow, salix lasiandra; black willow, salix nut-
talii; Hooker willow, salix hookeriana] and the Sitka
willow, salix sitchensis.
The western black birch, betula occidentalis, probably the one mentioned by Vancouver as having been
found at Birch Bay, was discovered by Archibald
Menzies in 1792. According to Sargent it grows in
southwestern British Columbia and Washington. It is
nowhere common. Those of the largest size grow on
the alluvial banks of the lower Fraser River, and on
the islands of Puget Sound. This graceful little tree is
a; true birch in habit and in the lustrous horizontal
lenticelled bark, which it sheds in thin papery layers,
and the bronze color of which is quite sufficient to
justify its name and to identify the tree. Its brown
wood is locally used for fencing and fuel. It is too
small to be important commercially. In the north it
is supplanted on the coast by the black birch, betula
kenaica, which is found from Lynn Canal northward
to the head of Cook Inlet. This is a tree with wide
spreading branches and grows from thirty to forty feet
high with a trunk twelve to twenty inches in diameter.
It also is too small to be of any commercial value.
The alnus or alders are trees and shrubs with astringent scaly bark and soft straight-grained wood. They
are found in swamps, river bottom-lands, and on high
mountains. Nine of them are recognized as indigenous to North America, and of these three are found
on the northwest coast, namely, the Sitka alder, alnus
sitchensis; Oregon or red alder, alnus oregona] and the
paper leaf alder, alnus tenuifolia.
The Sitka alder, alnus sitchensis, is found on the
northwest coast from the borders of the Arctic circle to
Oregon. As a tree it sometimes grows to a height of
forty feet with a trunk seven to eight inches in diameter.
iM ri
It is found on the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains. In southeastern Alaska on the rich bottoms near
the mouths of mountain streams it often is a tall tree,
but at the upper limits of tree growth it is a low spreading shrub.
The Oregon or red alder, alnus oregona, usually is
a tree from forty to fifty feet high, but occasionally it
is found with a height of eighty feet, and with a trunk
three feet in diameter. It has a gray or nearly white
bark and a light, soft, brittle, close-grained, light brown
wood. Though weak and brittle, it is made into furniture, and by the Indians in Alaska the trunks are
hollowed into canoes. It is found in southeastern
Alaska and on the coast to California. It reaches its
largest size near the shores of Puget Sound.
The paper leaf alder, alnus tenuifolia, is found on
the banks of streams and mountain canyons from Francis Lake in latitude 61 ° north to the valley of the lower
Fraser River, and is the common alder of eastern
Washington and Oregon. It is a small tree, but occasionally grows thirty feet high with a trunk six to
eight inches in diameter. Its primary virtue is that
it thrives in places so boggy that even willows and
poplars cannot grow. It is one of the prettiest of the
The Pacific white oak, quercus garryana, is the only
oak found in British Columbia. It is practically confined to the southern part of Vancouver Island, with
the finest trees of it growing in the vicinity of Victoria.
It is also found in the lower valley of the Fraser River
and to the southward through western Washington and
Oregon and the California coast valleys to the Santa
Cruz Mountains. It ascends in its shrubby form to considerable elevations on the western slopes of the Cascade
dat ^
Mountains. It usually grows to a height of sixty or
seventy feet. Sometimes it is found with a height of one
hundred feet with a trunk two to three feet in diameter.
In the vicinity of Victoria, trees are found with a diameter of three or four feet, from which logs ten to twenty
feet long can be obtained. Its wood is hard, close-
grained, tough, strong, and valuable and of a light brown
or yellow color. It resembles that of the English oak
and is very beautiful when made into furniture and
cabinet work. It is used in the manufacture of carriages and wagons, ship building and cooperage, for
which it is principally useful. As an ornamental tree,
it is very picturesque in appearance and gives to a landscape an appearance which is usually associated by the
citizens of Victoria with English pastoral scenes.
The Oregon crab apple, malus rivularia, is found
from the Aleutian Islands southward along the coast
and islands of Alaska and British Columbia to Sonoma
County, California. Its greatest size is in the Washing and Oregon valleys. Its favorite habitat is a deep
rich soil in the neighborhood of a stream. The wood
is heavy, hard, very close and of a light brown color
tinged with red. It is used for mallets, mauls, tool
handles, and the bearings of machinery. The apples
are oblong and few in number. The Indians consider
them worth gathering for food.
The wild cherry, prunus emarginata, is a tree which
occasionally grows to a height of thirty to forty feet
with a trunk twelve to fourteen inches in diameter.
Those of the largest size are found on Vancouver
Island, in western Oregon and Washington, and on the
Santa Lucia Mountains. It usually is found near to
the banks of streams in low rich soil, or less commonly
on dry hill sides.    The wood is close-grained, soft, and
11 sw
brittle and of a brown color streaked with green. The
fruit ripens from June to August, with a thick skin
bright red at first, and when fully grown becomes almost black, with thin, bitter astringent flesh.
The broad-leaved maple, acer macrophyllum, grows
to a height of eighty to one hundred feet with a straight
trunk from two to three feet in diameter. Its wood is
light, soft, weak, close-grained, and of a rich brown
color tinged with red. It is found on the banks of
streams, rich bottom lands and the rocky slopes of
mountains on the coast of Alaska south of latitude 550
north, and southward on the islands and coast of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon west of the
Cascade Mountains. It is very common on Vancouver
Island, and regarded as the most valuable of the deciduous trees of the northwest coast. Much of the wood is
"curly," which adds greatly to its value for cabinet-
making material. It is used in the manufacture of
furniture, mantles, interior finishing, and for handles.
The beauty of this wood is well displayed in the interior
finish of the government buildings at Victoria.
There are two native maples on the northwest coast
in addition to the broad leaved already described,
namely, the vine maple, alnus circinatum and the
dwarf, alnus glabrum. The former of these is found
on banks of streams and the coast of British Columbia
southward through Washington and Oregon to Cape
Mendocino, and is one of the most abundant deciduous trees of the coast. The tree grows forty feet
high, often with a vine-like contorted trunk, ranging
from ten to twelve inches in diameter. The latter is
found from Lynn Canal southward to the Blue Mountains of Oregon. It is a low tree which occasionally
reaches a height of forty feet with a trunk eighteen 1
inches in diameter. It attains its largest size on Vancouver Island and the Blue Mountains of Oregon.
Of the genus rhamnacece there are about sixty species
widely distributed throughout the world. Of these
five species are indigenous to the United States. Only
one of them, however, is found on the northwest coast,
namely, the cascara bearberry or coffee tree, rhamnus
purchiana. Its range extends from Puget Sound
through California and east to Colorado. The tree
grows from thirty to forty feet high, with a slender
trunk eighteen to twenty inches in diameter, separating
ten to fifteen feet from the ground into numerous stout,
upright branches. It has a thin brownish bark, and light
wood, soft in texture and of brownish color. The bark
possesses the drastic properties peculiar to most of the
other species of the genus, and is a popular domestic
remedy under the name of cascara sagrada, which, as
such has been admitted into the American materia
medica. It was named in honor of Frederick Pursh,
a botanist, who was born in Tobosk, Siberia, in 1774.
He was educated in Dresden, and came to America and
spent twelve years in botanical explorations in the
United States. He visited England in 1811 and published a Systematic Arrangement and Description of
the Plants of America, This was recognized as the
most important work on the botany of North America
until it was superseded by Torrey and Gray, Flora of
North America,
The dogwood, cormus nuttallii, is found in the valley
of the lower Fraser River and on Vancouver Island,
and from there southward through western Washington
and Oregon, and on the coast ranges of California to
the San Bernardino Mountains. The tree sometimes
reaches a height of fifty feet with a diameter of eight to
i \   I
1 WV
1    ff
1 m
1  A
I i
ten inches. It has a fine grained, hard, pinkish wood,
which takes a good polish. Occasionally it is used for
ornamental work. It usually grows in moist, well-
drained soils under the shades of coniferous forests and
is fairly abundant on the mainland and islands. In its
national habitat it is easily first in a land of splendid
flowering trees. Its flowers in coloring and form are
very much like its eastern relative cormus florida, but
are twice as large.
The madrona, arbutus menziesii, after which one of
the parks in Seattle is named, is an evergreen shrub or
tree which grows from forty to one hundred feet high,
with smooth, reddish brown bark, and smooth red
branches. When growing on exposed rocks and headlands it does not attain a great size but trees a foot in
diameter are common, although as a rule twisted and
crooked; when growing in forests, however, they grow
fairly straight, sometimes attaining a large size. On
the Alberni Road in the vicinity of Nanoose Bay many
fine specimens are to be seen. Mr. Gosnell measured
one tree which was ten feet five inches in circumference.
As yet no use has been found for the wood. It is hard,
fine, and close-grained and takes a good polish but it is
apt to warp and crack if used before it is well-seasoned.
It bears large conical clusters of white flowers, above
the vivid green of its leatherly leaves. The red-brown
trunk and bright red branches add a rich color note to
it, which is intensified when the copious scarlet fruit
appears and the two-year-old leaves turn to scarlet or
orange in the autumn. The Japan current makes these
trees hardy on the west and the northwest coast regions.
They are found from California to Nanoose Harbor on
Vancouver Island, where they are quite common.   Mrs. one]     TREES, SHRUBS OF NORTHWEST COAST       163
Rogers in her tree book says: "No American tree of
considerable size equals this one in beauty the year
around," and of that beauty Bret Harte concludes a
poem with the following stanza:
Where, oh, shall he begin
Who would paint thee, Harlequin?
With thy waxen burnished leaf,
With thy branches' red relief,
With thy polytinted fruit,
In thy spring or autumn suit,
Where begin, and oh, where end,
Those whose charms all art transcend.
The Oregon ash, fraxinus oregona, is found on the
Pacific coast from Puget Sound south to the Bay of
San, Francisco and back to the foothills of the Sierras.
It is most abundant and of largest size on the bottom
lands of the rivers of southwestern Oregon. It grows
to a height of seventy to eighty feet, with a trunk occasionally four feet in diameter. Its wood is of a
brown color, coarse, hard, light and porous. It is
largely used in the manufacture of furniture, for the
frames of carriages and wagons, in cooperage and the
interior finish of houses, and for fuel. It is one of the
most valuable of the deciduous-leaved timber trees of
the Pacific coast.
The salmon berry, rubus nutkanus, a member of the
rose family, grows abundantly in high wooded hollows.
It is from three to nine feet high with brown prickly
stems, fine foliage and flowers and conspicuously beautiful fruit. The fruit is a firm, smooth raspberry, with
a bright orange color, more or less tinted with red. It
is rather pleasant but insipid. The Indians use the
berry as a food and in season offer them for sale to Bti
tourists. My first acquaintance with it was at Sitka,
where I first saw the bushes growing in the old Russian
The Devil's Club, fatsia horrida, I have found wherever I have traveled on the coast and islands of Washington, British Columbia, and southeastern Alaska. It
is a member of the ginseng family. It grows from two
to twelve feet high, and consists of a stout stem which is
covered with long sharp spines that are extremely poisonous. It has large palm-like, prickly leaves. In the
autumn the leaves turn to a beautiful golden yellow
color. The yellow leaves and bright red berries,
with their striking contrast, in the midst of green
conifers make a mountainside or valley a very beautiful
picture, but one that must be carefully avoided, as I
learned by accidentally falling into a clump of them.
The pain caused by the sting of the poisonous sharp
spines is very excruciating and continues for hours
after one has been stung by them. Horrida, horrible,
tells the story of what the sting means. Without a
doubt it has been rightly named the "Devil's Club."
The salal, gaultheria shallon, is a member of the
heath family. The floor of the redwood forest on the
northwest coast is often carpeted with this little under-
shrub while in other places one can wade waist deep
in it. I first got acquainted with it in the suburbs of
Seattle. It grows much larger on Vancouver Island,
where it forms dense, impenetrable thickets. Its dark
purple berries have an agreeable flavor and make good
pies and sauce. They form an important item of diet
among the Indians of the coast.
The pale elder, sambucus glauca, grows in gravelly,
rather dry soil of valleys and river bottoms from British
Columbia to the southern borders of California.    The
*m one]     TREES, SHRUBS OF NORTHWEST COAST       165
trees grow from thirty to fifty feet high with a trunk
sometimes enlarged at the base with a diameter of
twelve to eighteen inches. I saw one in the vicinity of
Mount Rainier that was about twenty-five feet high
with a diameter of about eight inches. It surprised me,
for it was the largest elder that I had ever seen. The
wood of this tree or shrub is light, soft, weak and yellow, tinged with brown. The fruit is rather sweet and
juicy and is edible. It makes good pies and a fairly
good wine.
Vancouver also says that he found gooseberries at
Birch Bay. Being about the smallest of the shrubs
growing on the Northwest coast, it seems fittingly proper to close this chapter with a brief consideration of
them. The gooseberry mentioned by Vancouver evidently was grossularia menziesii, known as the canyon
gooseberry. It grows in swampy or wet places, such
as Vancouver found at Birch Bay. It has pretty
fuschsia-like flowers and small prickly fruit.
mlM  Vancouver Island, Eastern Shore-
J Esquimalt and Victoria
Vancouver Island was first discovered in 1592 by
Apostolos Valerianos, generally known as Juan de
Fuca, if credit is to be given to his account of the discovery of the straits which bear his name. If Fuca's
story was fiction, then as a matter of history, it is true
that the first mention of it as an island, by a white man,
must be accredited to John McKey, who by his own
request was left at Nootka by Captain James Strange
in 1786. His story was narrated to Captain Charles
William Barkley, who arrived at Nootka in June, 1787.
He told Barkley that during the year he had lived
with the natives he had learned from them and by his
own observations that Nootka was really on a big island
around which a boat could be sailed southward from
Nootka. Barkley, taking McKey with him, sailed
southward from Nootka and on the way discovered
Barkley Sound, and as we have already seen, rediscovered the Straits of Juan de Fuca. In 1778, Captain
James Cook was at Nootka and explored the western
coast of the island.
The island was first occupied by the British in 1842.
In that year the Hudson's Bay Company established
their headquarters on the site of the present city of
Victoria. In 1849, the island was granted to the Hudson's Bay Company for a period of ten years. A
government for it was established, and Richard Blancf-
hard was sent from England  as its governor.    He
/jy ^
i i68
resigned in 1850 and was succeeded by James (afterwards Sir James) Douglas. An assembly was called
and held its first meeting in Victoria in August, 1856.
While the island was thus constituted and governed as
a crown colony, the mainland known as New Caledonia
remained practically unknown and was inhabited only
by Indians and a few fur traders. Gold was discovered
on the Fraser River in 1852, and miners began to crowd
into the country, and this made the establishment of some
form of government a necessity. Therefore the whole
of the mainland west of the Rocky Mountains was
created a crown colony under the name of British
Columbia. In 1866, the two colonies were united by
an Act of the Imperial Parliament, and on July 20,
1871, British Columbia became a province of the
Dominion of Canada.
Vancouver Island is the largest island on the Northwest Pacific coast. It has an extreme length of about
two hundred and eighty-five miles, with an average
width of about sixty miles, and is separated from the
mainland of British Columbia by Juan de Fuca, Haro,
Georgia, Discovery, Johnstone, and Broughton straits,
Goletas Channel, and Queen Charlotte Sound. Its
coasts are deeply indented with bays, sounds, and harbors, which furnish good shipping facilities for its
various activities. The country on the southern and
eastern coasts is comparatively level, while the interior
is much broken by mountains and heavily wooded valleys. The greater part of the agricultural land of the
island is covered with trees and thick underbrush. The
cost of clearing such land ready for plowing runs from
forty-five dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars an
acre. The quality of the soil varies, the rule being the
heavier the timber the better the land. ^r
The climate of Vancouver Island closely resembles
that of Great Britain. The proximity of the snowcapped Olympic Mountains have a marked effect on
the summer temperature, which is never intensely hot,
while the Japan current striking the west coast brings
with it moisture and heat which tempers the severity
of the winter weather. On the southern and eastern
parts, holly, ivy, broom, gorse, heather, privet, and
other old country shrubs thrive to perfection, and all
of the old-fashioned English flowers are seen in the
gardens and fields.
The mineral production of Vancouver Island is
nearly one half that of the interior province^of British
Columbia, which is universally recognized as the great
mineral province of the Dominion of Canada. This is
derived from a small fraction of the potential mineral
resource and consists chiefly of coal. The immense
possibilities of iron and copper are just beginning to be
Next to her minerals the most important of the
natural resources of the island is its immense timber
reserve. The celebrated Douglas fir comprises about
eighty per cent of this. This tree is the most widely
distributed and valuable found on the Pacific coast and
grows as far north as latitude 510, where it is supplanted
by cypress, yellow cedar, red cedar, hemlock, and
spruce. It attains immense proportions, sometimes
towering to a height of three hundred feet, with a base
circumference of thirty to fifty feet. The best average
trees are one hundred and fifty feet clear of limbs
and five to six feet in diameter. It is the staple of the
island's commerce, and is prized for its durability and
strength and is known and used throughout the world,
being admirably suited for all purposes.    The spruce
in I I
and cedar excel? all others in growth and picturesque
grandeur. The cedar is readily turned to a very great
variety of uses by the people of the island while in commerce it is utilized not merely for the celebrated British Columbia shingles but also for fine lumber. Its
beautiful veining makes it especially desirable for interior work. Hemlock, spruce, maple, cottonwood,
alder, and yellow cedar are also numbered among the
commercial trees of the island.
There are few, if any, countries of its extent that
offer such a variety of attractions to the hunter and
angler as Vancouver Island. Its game birds include
blue and ruffed grouse, English pheasant, ptarmigan,
snipe, plover, swan, brant, Carolina and Virginia rail,
quail, sandhill crane, pelican, and numerous varieties
of ducks and geese. Of beasts, there are elk or wapiti,
black-tailed deer, black bear, wolf, wolverine, panther,
lynx, raccoon, beaver, otter, mink, marten, and other
fur-bearing animals. While there are five species of
salmon in the waters of the island, only two of them
are sporting fish. The one that comes in the greatest
numbers is the cohoe, a fish running from five to twelve
pounds. Cohoe fishing begins early in July at Camp^
bell River and the run lasts from a month to six weeks.
In August they can always be taken in the waters close
to Victoria and among the islands in that neighborhood.
The second sporting salmon is the spring, which, when
of very large size is generally called the "tyee." These
fish run from the beginning of December to the end of
April. The great run of this salmon in the southern
waters begins at the end of July, and it is at this time
that people flock to Campbell River. These fish run
anywhere from thirty pounds up. The "steelhead"
and "cutthroat" are the two distinct species of trout «£
to be found in the waters of the island. The steelhead
trout is a sea trout running from five to as high as
twenty-five pounds. The cutthroat trout is also a sea
trout, and is so called from the red streak which comes
under the gills in all mature fish some time after they
have been in fresh water. The Cowichan, Courtenay,
Campbell, and Oyster rivers are some of the best places
on the island in which to catch these fish. Nearly all
of the northern waters swarm with grayling, running
from one to two pounds in weight.
There are numerous islands in the straits which
separate Vancouver Island from the continent, many
of which support prosperous communities of farmers
and fruit-growers. The climate is mild and equable,
and, being sheltered from the north winds, the more
delicate varieties of fruits and vegetables do well. Apples, plums, pears, peaches, apricots, nectarines, grapes,
figs, melons, tomatoes, etc., grow to perfection. Sheep-
raising is one of the chief industries and is highly
The approach to Esquimalt is through the Straits of
Juan de Fuca. Esquimalt, the Indian of which is Isch-
oy-malt, is pronounced "Squimalt" by most of its citizens. It is a seaport city with a population of about
one thousand persons, located on the southeast coast of
Vancouver Island, four miles from the city of Victoria,
with which it is connected by an interurban railway.
It has a very fine harbor which offers safe anchorage
for vessels of any size. It is admirably adapted for a
maritime stronghold, and has been utilized for that
purpose. It is the headquarters of the British Squadron, with a navy yard, dry-docks, barracks, arsenal,
marine railway, metrological station, and hospital. In
1894, me British Government commenced work on the
, M 172
defenses of the city, consisting of earthworks with disappearing guns, and two parapet forts on the hills, for
protection against a possible attack by land. The harbor of Esquimalt is kept thoroughly mined and wired,
and constitutes one of the best defended naval stations
in the world. Hatley Park, the residence of Sir James
Dunsmuir, once lieutenant-governor of the province of
British Columbia, is on the western shore of the inlet.
The Dunsmuir Castle is the most notable residential
building on the Pacific coast.
Victoria, the old capital of Vancouver Island and
now the capital of British Columbia, with an estimated
population of fifty thousand persons, is the largest city
on Vancouver Island. Originally it was known as
u< Fort Camoys^n, "Camouson" being the Indian name
for the inlet now known as Victoria Harbor. In 1841,
Fort Camouson was selected as the administrative centre and chief depot of the western department of the
Hudson's Bay Company. In June, 1843, it was
founded as a trading post and depot for whalers. In
1845, the name was changed to Fort Albert in honor
of Prince Albert. After the treaty of 1846, by which
the United States obtained possession of the Oregon
Territory, the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company on the Pacific coast was transferred from Fort
Vancouver to the post and by an order from England
the name was changed to Fort Victoria in honor of Her
Majesty, Queen Victoria. At that time the post had
more than three hundred acres under cultivation and
possessed a large dairy farm from which the Russian
colonies in Alaska received supplies. The site for a
fort was selected by Governor James Douglas on the
east shore of Victoria Harbor, one mile from its entrance, and the men and material for its construction
mm "Ml
were obtained from the lately abandoned forts Mc-
Loughlin and Simpson.
The approach to "The Naples of the North" is
through the Straits of Juan de Fuca, with Sooke Hills
beyond; and the crested battlements of Douglas fir that
meet the eye from every side is a sight long to be remembered. At the head of the land locked harbor are
the parliament buildings, which have been much enlarged within the last few years, faced with spacious
evergreen lawns, parked with shrubbery and brilliant
with myriads of flowers almost all the year round. This
noble edifice has challenged the admiration of visitors
from all portions of the globe. It fronts the harbor, giving a magnificent outlook from its windows and terraces,
and is a triumph of stately architecture and imposing
strength. Directly in front of the harbor on the east
side is the Empress Hotel, and to its right rises the
Post Office and Customs House. The scenery about
the city presents a wide diversity of beautiful views.
From the mainland and especially from Beacon Hill
over the Straits of Juan de Fuca loom the Olympics,
snow-crowned, with their ridged and serrated peaks,
making a background of majestic grandeur. "Over
them," as has been well said, "float those 'cloud armadas' of the skies, the shifting cloudships, some with
furled sails and idle, some with snowy canvas spread
to the winds, sailing to far-away harbors through
dreamy seas of deep and distant blue."
The general rule in North American cities is that
climatic conditions are exceedingly trying to health,
comfort, and happiness. An exception to this almost
universal rule is the city of Victoria. It will always
enjoy cool summers and moderate winters. It will
never have extremes of either heat or cold, since Na- !4i
ture, herself, has decreed what the climate shall be.
The isothermal line denoting forty degrees above zero
in winter and sixty above in summer intersect here and
produce as near as possible both an ideal summer and
winter temperature. For twenty years the highest summer temperature was 84.2 and its lowest winter 17.3
degrees above zero. The rainfall is only one half as
large as that of the cities on the mainland and ranges
from twenty-six to twenty-eight inches annually. The
city has a very large proportion of bright sunshine during the entire year.
Suburban Victoria is celebrated for its unique charm
and loveliness. Its lovers of nature have built stately
homes or dainty bungalows among the still unscarred
forests, or by the shores of the bays, coves and inlets
that indent the waters of the Pacific. Beacon Hill
Park and the Gorge are among the city's most attractive features both to visitors and residents. Each of
these beautiful parks has an individuality of its own,
and each is essentially different from the other. With
its suburbs and adjoining communities, Victoria has
from sixty to sixty-five thousand inhabitants, mainly
English and Canadians, with some Scotch, Irish, and
Americans and many Asiatics.
Residents are not provided in Victoria with homes
for mere existence. They are transformed into homes
that have a distinctive name and characteristics of its
own. They have ample room and breathing spaces.
They are embowered in trees and flanked with flowers.
The green velvet carpet of each lawn is spotlessly kept.
Every natural advantage from a protruding point of
a natural rock to the patriarchial oak is used for the
finest effect.
Starting from or coming into Victoria, a ship passes one]      VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        175
around Discovery Island. From this point, if the day
is clear, the traveler obtains a magnificent view of the
mainland and the snow-capped peaks of Mounts Baker,
and Rainier, towering in the distance and of the Olympics across the Straits of Juan de Fuca. In the Olympic
range, there are twenty-two peaks especially prominent
among the more or less conspicuous ones. Unlike the
other mountains of the Pacific northwest, these are not
isolated volcanic cones, but form a range of jagged
peaks connected below. These are massive, clear-cut
heights with sides like the face of a diamond, some
white with great depths of level snow and others blue
and shining like flint, too perpendicular to admit of
either snow or ice to cover them. These mountains,
though not as high as some, impress one with a sense of
elegance and stateliness which belong peculiarly to
themselves. I can understand why the Straits of Juan
de Fuca with its sparkling waters is called the "Opal
Saanich Inlet is a deep indentation into Vancouver
Island, extending in a southerly direction for fourteeen
miles and carrying deep water to its head, which terminates in a narrow creek, the head of which is within
four miles of the Esquimalt harbor. It forms the
southeast part of the island into a peninsula about
twenty miles long in a north and south direction, and
with a breadth varying from eight miles at its southern
part to three miles at its northern. This is known as
Saanich Peninsula, and its northern end is low and
wooded with no distinguishing features. On the southern coast of this peninsula are the harbors of Esquimalt
and Victoria. A mile and a half from the head of the
inlet is the large Langford Lake. It is two and a half
miles from Esquimalt, and from it, if necessary, a good 'if
supply of fresh water could be obtained for that place
and the vessels in its harbor.
Sansum Narrows, Stuart Channel, Telegraph Harbor, Thetis Island, and Oyster Harbor are among the
chief natural features north of Saanich Inlet. The
town of Ladysmith, founded in 1900, is situated on
Oyster Harbor, and lies at the head of the low cliffs
between the coal wharves and Williams Point. The
country southward and southeastward of the town, is
mountainous and densely wooded. Ladysmith has a
population of about four thousand and depends on the
coal mines in its vicinity, of which the principal are an
extension of the South Wellington mines, situated from
nine to twelve miles to the northward.
The next important town on the east coast of Vancouver Island is Nanaimo, situated on the bay of the
same name. It is built on land sloping from the water
to a height of two hundred and thirty feet, and is
fronted by a number of wharves. These wharves are
used for shipping coal, the main export of the port.
The Western Fuel Company's wharf at the south end
of the town port, is nearly eight hundred feet long, with
depths alongside of twenty to thirty feet. Three loading chutes deliver seven hundred tons of coal per hour,
and in close proximity are coal bunkers with a capacity
of seven thousand tons. The south end of the wharf is
connected with the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
by a ferry slip, which accommodates freight cars on
barges to the mainland.
Nanaimo, named after an Indian tribe, was first
settled in 1849 as a Hudson's Bay Company station and
is one of the oldest towns in British Columbia. In
1857, it consisted of a few colliery buildings along the
shore of the harbor and about a dozen remarkably The Hudson's Bay Company Blockhouse
At Nanaimo, B. C, built in 1853  one]      VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        177
sooty houses, inhabited by coal miners and a few Hudson's Bay Company's officers. To the left of these
houses stood the Company's old blockhouse, which is
still standing, on which were mounted four or five
honeycombed twelve-pounders with which the great
fur company were wont to awe the neighboring Indians
into becoming respect and submission. The city still
has a sufficient suggestion of the Arcadian touch to
justify the phrase "old-fashioned," but differing from
other cities of "the last West," the city is glaringly new.
It has all the quaintness of an old New England seaport, and yet it teems with the hustle and bustle that
denotes the activities of a western town. The "remarkably sooty houses" of 1857 do not disfigure the city of
the present time, for now one could live in the city for
years, and unless they were told there were coal mines
underneath, they would never know it. There are no
suggestions of the usual earmarks which go with a coal
mining town; no coal dust, no unsightly works, no untidy reminders of the great industry are to be seen.
The city is well equipped with public buildings.
Along the summit of the slope on the western side of
the harbor are several prominent buildings, the southernmost being the old blockhouse of the Hudson's Bay
Company, an octagonal tower with a block roof, which
has been re-erected here as a landmark.
It is claimed that Nanaimo Harbor and adjacent
waters yearly behold the most remarkable herring fish
run on the Pacific coast. For several months in the
year the waters fairly teem with herring, and the
growth of the industry has been very rapid during the
past few years. In 1905-6 but six firms at Nanaimo
were engaged in the business with a total capital invested of nine thousand dollars and employing one 178
hundred and fifty men. On the opening of the season
of 1909-10, forty-three firms were ready to commence
operations on a scale never before attempted. Over
fifteen hundred men were employed and the quantity
of fish caught amounted to no less than fifty-six million
What gives to Nanaimo a distinctive place upon the
Pacific coast is, however, its collieries. Coal was first
discovered at Nanaimo in 1850 by the Indians, who
brought a canoe load of the black stones to the Hudson's Bay Company's blacksmiths at Victoria. At first
the Indians were paid one blanket for eight barrels of
coal taken out.
The Wellington coal mines are located at this point.
These were discovered by Richard Dunsmuir, a Scotch
coal expert of the Hudson's Bay Company. The
stumbling of his horse uncovered the outcropping of
the best coal in British Columbia. He and two of his
friends invested $4850 each in developing the mines.
At the end of two years Dunsmuir bought the interest
of one of his partners for $243,000, and at the end of
five years the remaining partner's share for $729,000.
It has been said that the five Dunsmuir mines at Wellington and North Wellington have cleared fifty thousand dollars each per month. Four companies operate
the mines at Nanaimo, namely, The Western Fuel
Company, the Pacific Coast Coal Company, the
Nanaimo-Vancouver Coal Company, and the Western
Collieries. The output of the Western Fuel Company
amounts to about one million tons annually. What is
known as the Nanaimo coal area is by far the largest in
British Columbia; it is estimated that it covers an area
of three hundred and fifty square miles. The coal
produced in these mines is of a cretaceous formation
.:-^~,:;. one]       VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE 179
and seems to be a medium between the bituminous coal
of Nova Scotia and the anthracite of Pennsylvania.
It makes a good fire and is used for domestic and manufacturing purposes and by the steamships.
I visited Nanaimo, August 25, 1913. The Industrial
World Workers had succeeded in inaugurating a
serious labor strike among the coal miners, the outcome
of which had been the loss of several lives. This was
not stopped until the city was placed under martial law.
Several hundred men were under arrest and were to
be tried by the civil authorities and a court martial
the next day. Hundreds of idlers were on the streets
and very little business was being transacted. All of
the mines had been closed, and I was told that it would
take a year to get business into a normal condition.
Denman and Hornby islands lie off the southern
shore of the Strait of Georgia, abreast Texada Island,
off the northern shore. Baynes Sound is a narrow sheet
of water fifteen miles long and accessible to vessels of
heavy draught. This sound was named in honor of
Sir Admiral R. L. Baynes who visited Esquimalt,
Nanaimo, and Burrard Inlet in September, 1858. The
entrance to this sound lies between Yellow Island and
Point Reef, two miles within it on the north side, and
Point Maple on the south side. It is about one mile
wide, but the navigable channel is reduced to a breadth
of less than three cables by the shoals extending from
either shore. At the northern end is the mouth of the
Courtenay River, one of the largest streams in Vancouver Island, and in this neighborhood there is a
large extent of good farming land cleared and cultivated. In Union Bay, on the western side of the sound,
is the shipping place of the Union Collieries Company,
situated near the town of Cumberland.    A railway, rvw
fourteen miles in length, connects the wharf with the
mines. Port Augusta occupies the head of the sound,
and is a well-protected anchorage. The north entrance to Baynes Sound is also the south entrance
to Comox Harbor. The name Comox is derived
from Comoux, the name of an Indian tribe, and is
said to mean plenty or an abundance, and if so, it
was well applied in this instance. On the east side and
near the mouth of Comox Harbor is the town of
Comox, with a steamer landing and post office. The
Comox River empties into the harbor and is the outlet
for Comox Lake, which is five miles long. Cumberland located near the east end of this lake, is an incorporated municipality, steamer landing and an important coal-mining city.
As Vancouver was rowing southward on the morning of June 22, for Point Grey, where he purposed to
land and breakfast, he discovered two vessels at anchor
at the south extremity of Texada Island, which on a
nearer approach he discovered were a brig and a
schooner, wearing the colors of Spanish vessels of war.
These vessels proved to be a detachment from the commission of Sefior Malaspina, who himself had visited
the coast the preceding year. They were the Sutil,
under the command of Sefior Don D. Galiano, and the
schooner Mexicana, commanded by Sefior Don C. Valdes.
They had sailed from Acapulco on March 8, in order
to prosecute discoveries on this coast. Sefior Galiano,
who spoke a little English, informed Vancouver, that
they had arrived at Nootka on April 11, whence they
had sailed on June 5, in order to complete the examination of this inlet, which had, in the preceding
year, been partly surveyed by some Spanish officers,
. **?*
whose chart they produced. Vancouver experienced
no small degree of mortification in finding that the
external shores of the Gulf of Georgia had been visited
and already examined a few miles beyond where his
researches during his excursion had extended. From
them Vancouver also learned that Sefior Quadra, the
Commander-in-Chief of the Spanish marine at San Bias
and in California, was, with three frigates and a brig,
waiting his arrival at Nootka, in order to negotiate
restoration of those territories to the crown of Great
With a fine breeze and pleasant weather, Vancouver's vessels sailed out of Birch Bay, Sunday morning, June 24, and directed their course up the Gulf of
Georgia, to the northwestward. About two o'clock in
the afternoon they were joined and saluted by the Spanish vessels. Next morning a great number of whales
were playing about in every direction; and though the
explorers had been frequently visited by these animals
in this inland navigation, there seemed more about them
now than the whole of those they had before seen, if
collected together. This circumstance Vancouver concluded in some measure favored the assertion in the
publication of Mr. Meares that a passage to the ocean
would be found by persevering in their present course.
This, however, was rendered very doubtful, as Vancouver had been informed by his Spanish friends, that,
notwithstanding the Spaniards had lived upon agreeable terms with Mr. Gray and other American traders
at Nootka, they had no knowledge, except from the
history of it published in England of any person having
ever performed such a voyage. Sefior Valdes, who had
been on the coast the preceding year and spoke the Indian language fluently, understood, from the natives,
that this inlet did communicate with the ocean to the
northward; he, however, did not place much dependence on this information.
In passing from Savary's Island Vancouver says:
"We seemed now to have forsaken the main direction
of the gulf, being on every side accompanied by islands
and small rocky islets; some lying along the continental
shore, others confusedly scattered, of different forms
and dimensions. Southwestward of these islands, the
main arm of the gulf extended in a northwest direction,
apparently three or four leagues wide, bounded by high
though distant land. Through this very unpleasant navigation we sailed, still keeping close to the continental
shore, which was compact. About dark we entered a
spacious sound stretching to the eastward. Here I was
very desirous of remaining until daylight; but soundings could not be gained though close to the shores.
The night was dark and rainy, and the winds so light
and variable, that by the influence of the tides we were
driven about as if we were blindfolded in this labyrinth,
until towards midnight, when we were happily conducted to the north side of an island in this supposed
sound, where we anchored in company with the Chatham, and the Spanish vessels, in thirty-two fathoms of
water, rocky bottom." This anchorage^was made on
the north side of Kinghorn Island, which separates
Lewis Channel and Desolation Sound.
At break of day on June 26, Vancouver found that
they were surrounded by a detached and broken country, whose general appearance was very inhospitable.
Stupendous rocky mountains rising almost perpendicularly from the sea, principally composed the northwest,
north, and eastern quarters; on these pine trees, though
not of luxurious growth nor of much variety, were one]      VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        183
produced in great numbers. The infinitely divided appearance of the region in which they had arrived rendered it necessary to send out boat parties, while the
ships moved to a station on the northern side of Lewis
Channel. This situation presented as gloomy and dismal an aspect as nature could well be supposed to
exhibit, had she not been a little aided by vegetation.
The very circumscribed view that they had of the country rendered it impossible for them to form the most
distant idea of any circumstances relative to the situation
in which they had become stationary. Their residence
here was truly forlorn. An awful silence pervaded the
gloomy forests, whilst animated nature seemed to have
deserted the neighboring country, whose soil afforded
a few small onions, some samphire, and here and there
bushes bearing a scanty crop of indifferent berries.
The steep rocky shores prevented the use of the seine,
and not a fish at the bottom could be tempted to take
the hook. Nor did the exploring parties meet with a
more abundant supply, whence the place obtained the
name of Desolation Sound, which name it still retains.
Some days were devoted to exploring the region of
the Redonda Islands and Malaspina and Toba inlets.
Near the head of Toba Inlet they found several
deserted Indian fishing weirs, and along the shores,
which were mostly composed of high steep barren
rocks, were several fences formed of thin laths, stuck
either in the ground or in the chinks of the rocks, with
others placed along them in different directions.
Ranges of these were fixed along the rocky cliffs in the
line of the shore, others varied from that direction, and
from their appearance were supposed to be intended
for the drying of fish. Toba Inlet, as it is now known,
extends in a general northeasterly direction for eighteen 184
miles from the northern end of Homfray Channel, with
very deep water. An Indian village is situated on the
right bank of the river about one and a half miles from
its mouth. In the bight on the northwest side of the
head of the inlet is a small cemetery, situated on the
southern bank of a creek, with two wooded shacks on
the northern bank.
Messrs. Puget and Whidbey found that the surrounding country up Toba Inlet nearly corresponded
with that in Howe's Sound, and, like it, was nearly
destitute of inhabitants. That it had been more populous was manifested by the party having discovered
an extensive deserted village, computed to have been
the residence of nearly three hundred persons. It was
built on a rock, whose perpendicular cliffs were nearly
inaccessible on every side, and connected with the main
by a low narrow neck of land, about the center of which
grew a tree, from whose branches planks were laid to
the rock, forming by this means a communication that
could easily be removed, to prevent their being
molested by unfriendly neighbors. The point which
was presented to the sea was protected by a platform,
which with much labor and ingenuity had been constructed on a level with the houses, and overhung and
guarded the rock. The whole seemed so skilfully contrived, and so firmly and well-executed, as rendered it
difficult to be considered the work of the untutored
tribes they had been accustomed to meet, had not their
broken arms and implements, with parts of their manufactured garments, plainly evinced its inhabitants to
be of the same race. While examining these abandoned
dwellings, and admiring the rude citadel projected
from their defence, the exploring party was suddenly
assailed by an unexpected enemy, whose legions made one]       VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE 185
so furious an attack upon each of their persons,
that, unable to vanquish their foes, or to sustain
the conflict, they rushed up to their necks in water.
This expedient, however, proved ineffectual; nor was
it till after all their clothes were boiled that they were
disengaged from an immense horde of fleas, which they
had disturbed by examining too minutely the filthy
garments and apparel of the late inhabitants.
Messrs. Puget and Whidbey devoted the first five
days of July to examining the main channel of the Gulf
of Georgia and of the land to the south of it. While
doing this work they for the first time touched Vancouver Island, the exact place being at Cape Lazo.
Here there is a kelp bar where great quantities of kelp
grow during the summer. There is now a wireless
station on Cape Lazo.
Meanwhile another party under Mr, Johnstone returned from exploring the region of Bute Inlet. On
its western shore they found an Indian village, situated
on the face of a steep rock and containing about one
hundred and fifty inhabitants. From the point on
which the village was erected, a very narrow opening
was seen stretching to the westward, and through it
flowed so strong a current, that the boats, unable to
row against it, were hauled by a rope along the rocky
shores forming the passage. Having passed these narrows with the aid of the Indians, the explorers found
that the channel widened and the rapidity of the tide
decreased. The boats now sought shelter from the
inclemency of the weather in a small cove on the south
side of the arm they had quitted. Here they were
detained until the morning of July 2, when they returned to the ships.
The weather being tolerably fair, Mr. Johnstone and
M 186
Mr. Swaine were again dispatched, Wednesday, July
5, to examine the continental shore through Arran
Rapids, the narrow passage from whence they had
returned. On July 12, they returned and Mr. Johnstone announced that a passage leading into the Pacific
Ocean to the northwestward had been discovered.
He further reported that he had succeeded in finding
his way through Arran Rapids into Cordero Channel,
the arm leading to the westward, making the intermediate land lying before the entrance into Bute's
Channel, nearly a round island three or four leagues
in circuit, which obtained the name of Stuart's Island.
He found Cordero Channel was not less intricate than
Arran Rapids, neither of which he considered a safe
navigation for shipping, owing to their being so narrow,
to their irregular direction and rapidity of the tides,
and to the great depth of water.
I voyaged on Bute Inlet on the steamship Cassiar
by way of what is known as the Homfray-Bute Inlet
route. This arm of the sea penetrates the mainland for
nearly forty miles in a winding course to the northward,
with a general width varying from one to two miles.
The shores on both sides rise abruptly and almost perpendicularly in many places to stupendous mountains
from five to eight thousandjeet high whose summits
are generally covered with snow all the year round.
Cordero Channel, through which Messrs. Johnstone
and Swain passed from Arran Rapids, winds from its
entrance between Stuart and Valdes islands, in a general east and west direction for nineteen miles, with an
average width of one mile at the eastern part, but only
half a mile in the western. Its shores are generally
rocky and mountainous, and the channel is studded
with numerous small islands, and it is not without one]      VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        187
dangers, the water in most parts, however, being very
deep. Formerly it was considered unsafe to enter or
leave Cordero. Channel by its eastern entrance; now,
however, this passage and others are much used by
the lumber industry in towing rafts, for if they come
southward through Discovery Passage, the western
route, they have to cross the Strait of Georgia, where
they often meet with heavy weather which breaks up
their rafts. They therefore prefer to take an eastern
route through Cordero Channel and Uaculta Rapids,
or by Hole-in-the-wall, for by so doing they can proceed southward along the coast of the mainland
through sheltered channels.
I visited Loughborough Inlet on the steamship
Cheakamus via the Shoal Bay - Loughborough Inlet
route, July 5, 1918, that being just one hundred and
twenty-six years after Johnstone's visit to it. July 6,
Mr. Johnstone and his party continued their researches along Chancellor Channel leading to the
westward, in which they found the tide approaching
them from the westward. Chancellor Channel through
which they had passed, is eight miles long and leads
into Johnstone Strait. Its western entrance is between
Point Eden in latitude 500 24 j£', longitude 1250 50',
and the west end of West Thurlow Island, and the
south coast of Hardwick Island, where it is half a mile
wide with depths of over forty fathoms; the channel,
however, widens gradually from the entrance to a general width of a little under a mile.
Mr. Johnstone found that about two leagues west
from Cordero Channel, the arm they had quitted, the
channel again branched off in two directions, one,
Wellbore Channel, stretching a little to the northward,
and the other, the continuation of Chancellor Channel,
111 7r
to the southward of west. The former, Wellbore Channel, demanded their first attention, and was found to be
an intricate passage, containing many sunken rocks and
rocky islets, occasioning great irregularity in the tides,
which were extremely violent; this continued about two
leagues, where the channel widened, and the water became less agitated. Their course along the continental
shore led them into a continuation of Chancellor Channel. They continued along the northern shore of this
channel in the firm reliance of finding it to lead to the
ocean. Under this impression, Mr. Johnstone thought
it of importance to ascertain the fact as speedily as
possible; for which purpose, he steered over to the
southern shore of Johnstone Strait, which they found
was nearly straight, and entire, rising abruptly from the
sea to mountains of great height.
Mr. Johnstone and his party made slow progress to
the westward through Johnstone Strait, in consequence
of a fresh gale from that quarter. On the morning of
the 8th they passed an Indian village, on what is now
known as Alert Bay. A westerly wind and pleasant
weather returning with the morning of the ioth, they
rowed to an island conspicuously situated, from whence
their expectations were gratified by a clear though distant view of the ocean. The land constituting the
different shores of the passage appeared of moderate
height, much broken, and seemed to form various other
channels to the sea. From here they directed their
course homeward, being upwards of one hundred and
twenty miles from the ships, where, as we have already
seen, they arrived on July 12.
Vancouver made Senors Galiano and Valdes acquainted with the discoveries that had been made, and
of his intention of departing in consequence thereof. one]      VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        189
These gentlemen now begged leave to decline accompanying Vancouver further, as their miserable vessels
were unequal to a co-operation, and they were apprehensive their attendance would retard Vancouver's
progress. Sefior Galiano favored Vancouver with a
copy of his survey, and other particulars relative to
this inlet of the sea, which contained also that part of
the neighboring coast extending northwestward from
the Straits of De Fuca, beyond Nootka to latitude
500 3', longitude 2320 48'. He likewise gave Vancouver a letter to be forwarded to Sefior Quadra at Nootka,
by Chief Maquinna, or any of his people with whom
he might chance to meet, together with an introductory
one to Sefior Quadra, when he should have the pleasure
of meeting him at Nootka. After an exchange of good
wishes, they bade each other farewell, having mutually
received every kindness and attention that their peculiar
situation could afford. Vancouver was assured that
on his arrival at Nootka he would meet a most cordial
reception, and be more pleasantly situated than he
could imagine, as the houses there had lately undergone a thorough repair, and all the gardens had been
put in the highest order for the purpose of being so
delivered into his possession.
With a light breeze from the northward, in the
morning of Friday, July 13, Vancouver weighed anchor in Desolation Sound and left his Spanish friends,
they intending to pursue their researches to the westward through the channel Mr. Johnstone had discovered, which was by Vancouver named Johnstone
Straits. It was James Johnstone who was thus honored. Professor Meany says: "Little is known of his
life. He entered the navy as a midshipman on the
Keppel brig on the American station, under Lieutenant
m n
Whitworth." From Vancouver's Journal we learn
that in 1790 he was mustered on the tender Chatham
under Lieutenant Broughton as master. He held that
place until August, 1792, when Vancouver, who regarded him as one of his most valuable aids, made him
a lieutenant of the Chatham. Professor Meany further
says that he became a commander on June 22, 1802,
and was advanced to the rank of captain June 22, 1806.
Afterwards he was a commissioner at Bombay.
From Desolation Sound Vancouver directed his
course southward, trusting that they would find a passage into Johnstone Straits westward of Point Mudge.
In this route they passed through the assemblage of
islands and rocks lying at some distance before the entrance into Desolation Sound. These'were mostly of
a moderate height from the sea, tolerably well wooded,
and the shores not wholly composed of rugged rocks
afforded some small bays bounded by sandy beaches.
Numberless whales enjoying the season were playing
about the ship in every direction, as were also several
seals; the latter had been seen in great abundance during their residence in Desolation Sound, and in all the
remote excursions of the boats, but they were so extremely watchful and shy that not one could be taken.
As the explorers were crossing the gulf they were
visited by several canoes of friendly Indians who
brought young birds, mostly sea fowl, fish, and some
berries, to barter for trinkets and other commodities.
Soon after mid-day they anchored about half a mile to
the northward of Point Mudge, so named by Vancouver after his first lieutenant. It is now known as
Cape Mudge.
Vancouver and some of his officers visited the Indian
village on this point.    They were received by a man   one]      VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        191
who appeared to be chief of the party. He approached
them alone, seemingly with a degree of formality,
though with the utmost confidence of his own security,
whilst the rest of the Indians were arranged and seated
in the most peaceable manner before their houses.
Vancouver made him presents, and the chief immediately conducted them up to the village by a very-
narrow path winding diagonally up the cliff, about one
hundred feet in height and almost perpendicular. Close
to the edge of this precipice stood the village, the houses
of which were built after the fashion at Nootka, though
smaller, not exceeding ten or twelve feet in height, very
close together in rows, separated by a narrow passage
sufficiently wide only for one person. On the beach,
at the foot of the cliff, were about seventy canoes, mostly small, though amongst them were some that would
carry at least fifteen persons. On a computation, therefore, deduced from these and other circumstances, they
were led to conclude that this village, though occupying a very small space, did not contain less than three
hundred persons. The spot where it was erected was well
chosen to insure its protection; the steep, loose, and
sandy precipice secured it in front, and its rear was
defended by a deep chasm in the rocks; beyond these
was a thick and nearly impenetrable forest; so that the
only means of access was by the narrow path they had
ascended, which could be easily maintained against
very superior numbers. On a low margin of land extending from the more elevated woodland country, the
explorers saw two sepulchres built with plank about
five feet in height, seven in length, and four in breadth.
These boards were curiously perforated at the ends
and sides, and the tops covered with loose pieces of
plank, as if for the purpose of admitting as great cir- WWi
culation of air as possible to the human bones they
enclosed, which were evidently the relics of many different bodies.
Vancouver speaks of the peaceable manner in which
these Indians "arranged and seated" themselves before
their houses, and how "in an honest manner" they exchanged their fish and wild fruits for European articles. Such was not their reputation in after years,
when this tribe, designated as the U-cle-tas, were known
as the Ishmaelites of the country, whose hands were
literally against every man, and every man's against
them. In 1858 there was a great fight between them
and the men of a northern tribe, and many were killed
on both sides. In 1860 the U-cle-tas attacked and robbed
some Chinamen, and escaped to their village at Point
Mudge, which, being stockaded for protection against
other tribes, they no doubt thought would be equally
efficacious against white men. Her Majesty's gunboat Forward was sent to demand restitution, and on
approaching the village was fired upon from the stockade with loud shouts of defiance. The gunboat first
fired a shell or two over the Indians but they mistook
this leniency for inability to hit them, and coming out
in front of the stockade fired several volleys at the gunboat, which fortunately fell harmless against her sides.
The gunboat then opened fire upon the canoes on the
beach, and lastly upon the stockade. It was not until
several of the natives were killed that the Indians came
to terms, and restored the plunder. This experience
and the good offices of the missionaries since then has
worked a complete reformation among these Indians.
Cape Mudge is now an Indian reservation for the
benefit of these people.
On July 16, Vancouver's ships passed out of Dis- one]      VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        193
covery Passage into Johnstone Strait. On their way
they sailed through Seymour Narrows, probably named
in honor of Lord Ijugh Seymour of the British navy. X
It is a strait nearly two miles long and in places very
narrow. The tides and tidal streams run with great
velocity, the flood or south-going stream attaining a
rate of twelve knots at some of the highest tides and
and the ebb of ten knots. To the natives the Narrows
were known as Yaculta, the home of an evil spirit, who
lived in their depths and delighted to snatch canoes
and devour their occupants, and to vex and toss the
whales about. She slept only at slack-tide, and then ;
boats or ships might go through in safety, provided they |
did not make sufficient noise to awaken her. If they
tried to go through at any other stage of the tide,
Yaculta stirred the whole passage into action in trying
to get hold of them.
Many vessels have been wrecked in trying to pass
through these Narrows. June 18, 1875, the United
States steamship Saranac was lost. She entered the Narrows too late, was caught in the current, and struck
broadside on Ripple Rock. She swung off and headed
for the Vancouver shore, and was there made fast with
hawsers to trees. There was only time left to lower a boat
with the papers of the ship and a few provisions, when
she sank in sixty fathoms of water. The escaped crew
camped on the shore and remained there while a small
boat went to Nanaimo for help. In 1882 the United
States steamship Wachusett entered the Narrows too
late, and was seized by the current, drawn down into
a big eddy and hurled against Ripple Rock with such
force that the false keel was entirely torn away. In
1883, the coasting steamer Grappler, returning with a
pack and crew from the northern canneries, took fire
!   ) y^ XT TjT
as she entered the Narrows. The hemp rudder-ropes
burned; the frantic passengers leaped overboard as the
boat careened and whirled in the rapids; the captain,
with his life preserver belted on, was sucked down in
an eddy and lost his life. A few, however, made their
escape. The rings of floating kelp that drift in the
race-way, are said by the natives to be the queues of the
seventy Chinese who were lost at that time.
I have passed through these Narrows many times,
the first voyage having been made in the steamship
Princess Royal, Sunday July 23, 1911. The day was
a most beautiful one with a cloudless sky. We arrived
at ten o'clock in the morning. Just before entering we
saw a neatly painted British man-of-war at anchor in
Menzies Bay near the Vancouver shore. The crew,
in their Sunday garb, were in small boats fishing in the
bay. Between this vessel and the Narrows was the
hulk of a vessel which had been wrecked in trying to
pass through them. From our boat as we entered the
Narrows we could see the "gorge white with foam,
waves rearing and breaking madly, deep holes boring
into the water, fountains boiling up like geysers," with
a great trough next the shore and a bulge in the center
of the stream over Ripple Rock. Our ship reeled,
shook in a most violent manner, staggered without
making any headway, and after persistent effort to stem
the tide, turned about, retreated, cast anchor in Menzies
Bay and remained there until three o'clock in the afternoon. Then she steamed through the Narrows on a
smooth surface of water. Just after we passed through
we saw the steamship Spokane beached in Plumper
Bay, a cove to our starboard. She had struck Ripple
Rock a few days before with a loss of two lives.
One of the most stupendous undertakings in railroad one]       VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        195
construction is the proposed building of a railway and
traffic bridge across Seymour Narrows. This was first
proposed in 1873, and the cost was estimated at eighteen
million dollars. The Canadian government found itself unable at that time to meet such a heavy outlay and
nothing further was done. The agitation, however, has
since been kept alive and it now seems probable that the
bridge will ultimately be built. The purpose of this
movement is to connect Victoria and the other coast
cities of Vancouver Island with the remainder of British Columbia, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan,
the three prairie provinces of Canada.
Vancouver's vessels entered Johnstone Strait on the
morning of July 16, and were immediately affected by
more swell than they had experienced in this inland
navigation, indicating that the ocean, in a westerly
direction was not quite so remote as it had been estimated to be by Mr. Johnstone. After they had proceeded about ten miles from Point Chatham, the tide
made so powerfully against them as to oblige them to
anchor in a bay on the northern shore of Thurlow
Island, so named by Vancouver in honor of Edward,
first Baron Thurlow. About four in the afternoon
they again proceeded but made little progress on account of a fresh westerly gale and anchored again
nearly abreast of Thurlow Island.
The explorers now began to see Indians who were
armed with muskets and possessed other articles of
European manufacture. From some of the Indians
they were able to purchase a supply of fresh salmon.
Late in the evening of July 19, they anchored off the
Indian village where they expected to find Maquinna.
The next morning showed the village to be large and
populous.    Visitors brought them an abundance of the THE INSIDE PASSAGE TO ALASKA
t      . W
skins of the sea otter, of excellent quality, which were
bartered for sheet-copper and blue cloth. The Ty-cie,
or chief of the village, paid the ship an early visit, and
received from Vancouver some presents which highly
delighted him; Vancouver understood his name to be
Cheslakees. He acknowledged Maquinna to be a
greater chief, as he also did Wicananish, but so far as
Vancouver could learn, he did not consider himself to
be under the authority of either. On being asked if
Maquinna was at the village, he answered in the negative, saying they seldom visited, and that it was a journey of four days across the land to Nootka Sound.
Accompanied by Mr. Menzies, some of the officers,
and Cheslakees, Vancouver repaired to the village and
found it pleasantly situated on a sloping hill above the
banks of a fine fresh water rivulet, discharging into a
small creek or cove. The houses, in number thirty-
four, were arranged in regular streets; the larger ones
were the habitations of the principal people who had
them decorated with paintings and other ornaments,
forming various figures. The house of Cheslakees, was
distinguished by three rafters of stout timber raised
above the roof, similar to the architecture at Nootka.
The other houses were constructed after the same manner of architecture, but appeared rather less filthy, and
the inhabitants were undoubtedly of the same nation,
differing little in their dress, or general deportment.
Several families lived under the same roof, but their
sleeping apartments were separated, and more decency
seemed to be observed in their domestic economy than
Vancouver recollected to have been the practice at
Nootka. The women, who in proportion appeared
numerous, were variously employed; some in their different household affairs, others in the manufacture of \
garments from bark and other material. The making
of mats for a variety of purposes, and a kind of basket,
wrought so curiously close as to hold water like an
earthen vessel without the least leakage or drip, comprehended the general employment of the women, who
were not less industrious than ingenious.
At the conclusion of this visit Vancouver and his
party were entertained at the house of an elderly chief
with a song by no means unmelodious, though the performance of it was rendered excessively savage, by the
uncouth gestures and rude actions accompanying it.
The song being finished, the Vancouver party were each
presented with a strip of sea otter skin, the distribution
of which occupied some time. After this ceremony a
song from the ladies was expected. During this interval Vancouver observed in the hands of the numerous
tribe that then surrounded them, many spears pointed
with iron, clubs, knives, and other weapons with which
they were not furnished on their first approach to the
village. Vancouver was not altogether satisfied with
this change in their appearance, though he had every
reason to believe their intentions were of the most inoffensive nature, and that it was most probable they
had thus produced their arms to show their wealth, and
impress them with an idea of their consequence. Vancouver, however, deemed it most advisable to withdraw, and informed Cheslakees that he was about to
retire; on which he, with his relations, accompanied
them to a sandy island, now known as Cormorant Island,
whither Vancouver went to observe its latitude.
Alert Bay, upon the shore of which the Indian village is located, is three-quarters of a mile wide and
half a mile long, and affords well-sheltered and good
anchorage in from five to eight fathoms of water with
O   -r
sand and mud bottom. The first thing that attracts
the attention of the tourist on rounding into Alert Bay,
is the Indian burial ground on the south point on the
right hand as the bay is entered. It is fantastically
decorated with streamers and flags of different colors,
and a variety of grave fences and epitaphs. The next
thing which particularly attracts his attention is a fine
totem pole, about thirty feet high, strangely carved and
painted, which guards the entrance to the chief's house.
There are many of these totem poles in the village,
which has a population of about two hundred individuals. The village is located on the eastern shore of the
bay, and has a post office and salmon cannery. Round
the northern shore are the church and establishments
of the Church Missionary Society's Mission, including
a sawmill and pier, with about twelve feet of water at
its extreme. Here the salmon cannery has turned its
attention to the canning of clams, which abound in the
waters of the neighborhood.
I first approached Alert Bay, July 23, 1911, at 7:45
p. M. The sky was clear, but the mountains in the distance seemed almost enveloped with white floating
clouds, the effect of which was most beautiful. Sunset was at 8:15 o'clock, making fifteen hours of
continuous sunshine - the longest day of sunshine
that I had ever experienced. At 8:30 o'clock the
mountains were enveloped in a mist, and at 8145
we were at Alert Bay with its totem poles, the
first that I had seen. The village was close to the
water's edge, along which were Indian men, women,
and children and their dogs. We left the bay the next
morning at 5:30 o'clock, with the fog horn blowing,
the fog not having yet fully disappeared. This to me
was a new and a most interesting experience.    I have ^*s
visited the bay frequently since then and have always
found it attractive and interesting. Alert Bay was
named after the Alert, an English man-of-war that
was in service in the North Pacific waters and was lost
while entering the harbor at Sitka.
Vancouver did not explore Broughton Strait and
Goletas Channel. It is my thought, however, having
voyaged through them several times, that this book will
not be complete without some consideration of these important bodies of water and their accessories. Broughton Strait, connecting Johnstone Strait with Queen
Charlotte Sound, lies between Vancouver and Malcolm
islands. It is fifteen miles long, and varies in width
from one to four miles. There are several islands in
the eastern part of the strait, of which the principal
ones are Cormorant and the Pearse islands. The high
mountain ranges which rise abruptly from the southern
shore throughout the whole course of Johnstone Strait,
in one almost continuous chain, recede considerably
from the shore line on entering Broughton Strait and
become detached into more or less isolated groups, leaving the land near the coast comparatively low.
From Beaver Cove the coast trends in a westerly
direction for five miles to the mouth of the Nimpkish
River, and is rocky and* comparatively low. This
river, which is the outlet of Nimpkish Lake, flows into
the strait at the head, a bight in the coast abreast of
Cormorant Island. The river is encumbered with
rapids and is only navigable for canoes except for a
short distance within its mouth.
Beaver Harbor, in latitude 500 43', longitude 1270
25', is on the south side of Queen Charlotte Sound,
about eleven miles west of the western entrance to
Broughton Strait.   The shores of the harbor are com-
paratively low and are wooded. Point Thomas, the
southeast point of the harbor, is low and a rocky ledge
dries out one cable northward from it. Two thirds of
a mile west from Point Thomas the land is cleared, and
there is a large Indian village and a mission station on
the site of the old Fort Rupert of the Hudson's Bay
Fort Rupert originally was known as Fort McLough-
lin, and was located in Millbank Sound. About 1839,
the Hudson's Bay Company removed it to where it is
now located and rechristened it Fort Rupert. It was
strongly fortified because of the hostility of the natives
near it and the frequent visits of the Haida and other
northern tribes of Indians. It stood in the middle of
the Indian village. It was surrounded by beautiful
gardens. For a stockade, pine trees were sunk into the
ground and fastened together on the inside with beams.
Round its interior ran a gallery, and at two opposite
corners were flanking bastions mounting four nine-
pounders. Within were the usual shops and buildings,
while smaller stockades protected the garden and outhouses. Here was to be seen the chief's house, which
was a famous lodge one hundred feet long and eighty
feet wide, resting on carved posts; also, a great potlatch dish in the shape of a recumbent man, holding
food enough for one hundred people. An earthquake
in 1865, did much damage to the fort and at present
nothing but its ruins are to be seen.
The Kwakiutl Indians of Fort Rupert, like those of
Alert Bay, were war-like and cruel. As the steamer
on which William Duncan, the Apostle of Alaska, first
went north to his mission in 1857, approached Fort
Rupert, dismembered and disembowelled human
bodies were seen strewn all over the beach of a near-by *^«r
island. A few days before, a Haida canoe had come
to trade with the Fort Rupert Indians. Some slight
breach of etiquette on the part of the visitors brought
upon them the rage of the local Indians. They did
nothing at the time, save to nurse their wrath. But
when the time for departure came a large party that
had preceded the Haidas, laid in wait for them at the
nearby island where they knew they would camp for
the night, and killed every one of them except two
young men, who were made slaves, one of them being
the son of a Haida chief. And there the dead bodies,
mangled and mutilated, were allowed to lie scattered
over the beaches of the passage as a proof of the prowess
of the slayers. In 1867 the village was bombarded by
the British warship Clio until the tribe surrendered
some murderers. Since then the Kwakiutls have been
peaceable and their annals eventless. Now the young
men of the village desert it every summer to work at
the mills and fish canneries.
Beaver Harbor was named after the historic steamer
Beaver which was commanded by Captain William
McNeill. She was the first steamship to navigate the
tnorth Pacific and was owned by the Hudson's Bay
Company. She was built in Blackwell, England in
1835; and sailing around Cape Horn from England,
carrying in her hold her own machinery, arrived at
Fort Vancouver in the spring of 1836. There her
machinery was set up and she was converted from a
sailing vessel into a steamship. Though clumsy, she
was substantial, her oak timbers being unusually heavy.
Her small wheels were placed far forward like the
fins of a seal, her square poop stood high out of the
water, slanting toward the rudder. Long before Victoria was dreamed of, this small black Beaver was
I El
«■ #
plying her paddles through the glistening waters of
cold, placid sounds and bays around Vancouver Island
and far to the northward. Every year, with the utmost
regularity, she made her rounds among the northern
stations, leaving Victoria, after the Hudson's Bay
establishment had been moved to that place, in April
and returning in November. The natives of the various localities knew almost to a day when to expect her,
and were always on hand with their skins to trade for
clothing, blankets, arms, and tobacco; a full supply of
which the little steamer always carried. February 13,
1882, she ran on the rocks at the first narrows in Burrard Inlet, filled and sank. Afterwards, she was raised
and beached at Branville, and now under the bold,
high bluff of Brockton Point promontory are her remains, the prey of relic hunters and the teredo.
While anchored near Broughton Island, Vancouver
was visited by a few Indians, among whom was Chief
Cheslakees from Alert Bay. Cheslakees remained on
board the Discovery the most of the day. He sat at
Vancouver's elbow whilst he was writing, and saw him
frequently advert to a small memorandum book, which
unperceived he managed to take away in a most dexterous manner. He contrived to fold it in a very small
compass in a Sandwich Island mat which Vancouver
had given to him. Vancouver knowing that no other
person had been near him could not be mistaken as to
who had purloined the missing book. Cheslakees,
when accosted, appeared somewhat ashamed at the
detection, but more mortified when Vancouver took
from him the presents he had given to him. These,
however, about two hours afterwards, on his pen-
etential application, were restored to him by Vancouver.    In this connection, Vancouver says:    "Steal- one]      VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        203
ing a book, incapable of being in the least degree
serviceable to him, or useful to any other person than
the owner, strongly marked that natural inordinate
propensity to thieving, which with few exceptions, influences the whole of the uncivilized world, as if impelled by mere instinct, and destitute of reason, they
were unable to restrain such inclinations."
For many days the explorers continued to work their
way northwestward, examining the coasts on both sides
and naming islands, inlets, capes, and other points of
interest. On the afternoon of August 6, in Labouchere
Channel the Discovery ran upon a bed of sunken rocks.
A signal indicating the situation was immediately made
to the Chatham and she anchored in fifty fathoms of
water, about a cable and a half from the Discovery, and
all of her boats were sent to the assistance of the Discovery. The stream anchor was carried out, and an attempt
made to heave the ship off, but to no effect. The tide
fell very rapidly, and the force with which the ship
had grounded, occasioned her swerving considerably
forward. On heaving, the anchor came home, so that
they had no resource left but that of getting down their
topmasts, guards, etc., shearing off the vessel with spurs
and spare topmasts, and lightening her as much as possible by starting the water, and throwing overboard
their fuel and part of the ballast they had taken on
board in the spring. Soon after the ship was aground,
the tide took her on the starboard quarter; and as she
was afloat abaft it caused her to take a sudden swing,
and made her heel so very considerably on the starboard side, which was from the rocks, that her situation
for a few seconds was alarming in the highest degree.
The shears were got over with all possible dispatch,
but notwithstanding this, by the time it was low water, 204
the starboard main chains were within three inches of
the surface of the sea. When the tide was at its lowest,
about nine o'clock at night, the ship's fore foot was only
in about three and a half feet of water, whilst her stern
was in four fathoms. In this uncomfortable situation,
they remained, expecting relief from the returning
flood, which to their inexpressible joy was at length
announced by the floating of the shears, a happy indication that the ship was righting. Their exertions
to lighten her were, however, unabated until about two
o'clock next morning, when, the ship becoming nearly
upright, they hove on the stern and, without any particular efforts, or much strain, had the satisfaction of
feeling her again afloat, without having received the
least apparent injury.
That same afternoon, the Chatham also ran upon the
rocks. The Discovery was instantly anchored, and her
boats were sent to the assistance of the Chatham. One
of them soon returned with the information that the
Chatham had been driven by the tide on a ledge of
sunken rocks, but had the consolation of hearing, that
although she had frequently struck when lifted by the
surge, it had not been violently; that no damages had
yet been sustained; and that her present very uncomfortable situation could not be of long duration, as it
was nearly half ebb when she grounded. She did, in
fact, get safely off.
This mishap occurred when they were near the open
sea, yet islands, fogs, and other obstacles so delayed
them that it was not until the 9th that they reached a
place where the ocean ahead seemed perfectly open
and uninterrupted. They had now arrived at a part of
the coast that had been visited by traders from Europe
and India.   The Experiment, commanded by Mr. S. m
Wedgborough, passed through the inlet and he named
it Queen Charlotte Sound. This and other names by
the first discoverers of the coast were adopted by Vancouver in his charts and journal.
The dangers to which his ships were exposed still
continue to exist in these waters. Fogs on the coast
northward of Cape Caution are prevalent, especially
during the summer months. The northwest winds,
which prevail during that season, condense the vapor
which arises from the comparatively warm water surrounding Queen Charlotte Islands and the coast of
southeastern Alaska. During the prevalence of the
northwest winds this vapor is dispersed, but during
calms or with light winds, and especially with
southwesterly winds succeeding northwest winds, it
approaches quickly from seaward in the form of dense
fog, or drizzling mist and rain. At times fog will be
found at the entrances to the sound during the forenoon,
dispersing near noon by the heat of the sun, the afternoon becoming clear and fine. In the outer parts of
Queen Charlotte Sound it has been observed that the
fog sweeping in from eastward often breaks up after
passing the groups of islands blocking the sound, making a line of fog-bank stretching between the Gordon
and Millar groups, and leaving the area to the southeast of this line comparatively clear. A great current
which exists in the Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering
Sea is known to the Japanese as the Kuro Siwo or Black
Stream from its color as compared to other waters of
the Pacific. By geographers it is called the Japanese
current. This current splits on the western end of the
Aleutian chain of islands; one portion of it sweeps
eastward south of the Aleutians and, striking the shore
of the continent, is deflected southward.    It carries
1 206
with it a warm, moist atmosphere, which is condensed
on the snowy peaks of the coast ranges and causes the
remarkable rainfall which characterizes the coast as
far as Oregon. It is this that bends the isothermal lines
northward and makes the temperature depend on the
distance from the sea instead of the distance from the
equator and creates the mild climate of the southern
portion of Alaska and in fact that of the whole northwest coast of America as compared with the northeast
coast. The constant moisture caused by this current
and the long summer days force vegetation like a hothouse and makes the density of the forest and the luxuriance of the undergrowth equaled only by that of the
Queen Charlotte Sound is an extensive arm of the
sea, connecting the inner waters northeastward of Vancouver Island with the Pacific. The sound extends in
an east-southeast direction, and is fifty miles long, with
an average width of from ten to fifteen miles, being
bounded on the north by the coast of the mainland and
on the south by the northeast of Vancouver Island. In
the western half of the sound are numerous rocks
and islands through which are the two good broad
Goletas and New channels, and on the northern shore
along the coast of the mainland is the North Channel,
somewhat obstructed by islands and shoals.
I first crossed Queen Charlotte Sound, July 24, 1911,
our vessel having entered it through Goletas Channel
at 12:15 P. M. A dense fog closed in about us and
presently we were at sea with no land in sight. The
fog horns kept up a constant warning, which was responded to by the blowing of the whistle of the steamship. The sea was rough and our vessel dipped and
rocked violently.    Most of the passengers found it one]       VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        207
necessary to return to their berths, but it was my good
fortune not to find it necessary to do so. In this respect I have found that I am a very good sailor. I
enjoyed the tempestuous sea; it was a new experience
to me. The return trip was the very antithesis of the
former. Our vessel entered the sound from Fitzhugh
Sound at 3 130 P. M. The weather was balmy; the sky
was azure blue with cumulus clouds floating overhead;
snow-capped mountains were seen in the distance; the
sea was gently wavy, shimmering, and sparkling like
a million diamonds; the ship was followed by a long
trail of white foam and by gulls, ever on the lookout
for something to be cast overboard for them to eat.
The sunset that evening was one of indescribable
beauty. Notwithstanding, most of the passengers were
seen in groups, here and there, playing cards, reading,
talking, tatting, and seemingly unconscious of this wonderful display of beauty and grandeur.
From Queen Charlotte Sound the expedition proceeded to an investigation of Smith's Inlet and Fitzhugh Sound. A party under Lieutenant Puget and
Mr. Whidbey explored the former, and about half way
up it discovered a large Indian village. It was built
upon a detached rock, connected with the mainland by a
platform, and, like those before mentioned, constructed
for defense. A great number of its inhabitants, in
about thirty canoes visited the party, and used every
endeavor to prevail on them to visit their habitations.
They offered to barter skins of the sea otter and other
animals; and beside promises of refreshment, made
signs that could not be misunderstood, that the female
part of their society would be very happy in the pleasure of their company, all of which offers were declined.
ii »'W
Smith Inlet, as it is now known and charted, is entered through Smith Sound, which, by that name, was
not described by Vancouver. This sound is about
eight miles long in an east and west direction, with an
average width of three and a half miles, the entrance
to it, between points Jones and Long being four and a
half miles wide. At six miles within the entrance, on
either side of a cluster of islands, is a channel leading
into Smith Inlet.
On August 19, Lieutenant Puget and Mr. Whidbey
entered Rivers Inlet, about a league north of Smith's
Inlet. There are now seven large salmon canneries on
the inlet, each with a wharf. A mail steamer calls at
each of the establishments. It was my privilege to
visit these places in 1918. We entered the inlet by the
southern passage between Penrose Island and the mainland. To the north of us was a chain of small, round,
tree-covered islands with bare, black, rocky bases, and
to the south of us was a snow-capped peak. Whilst
admiring and enjoying these beautiful surroundings,
a gentleman asked me if I had read Black Rock, and
when I answered that I had not, he assured me that I
ought to do so, because it was based on the situation that
surrounded us. This excited my curiosity, and on my
return, I hastened to buy and read the book. Imagine
my disappointment when I found that it is a tale of the
Selkirks, and that not a sentence of it related to the
black rocks of River's Inlet, the beauty of which is quite
As we entered River's Inlet I counted seventy boats
with Indians in them fishing. We first visited the
Wadhams cannery, located on the south side of the
inlet. Just beyond the Wadhams cannery we visited
the Strathcona cannery, which we found to be well one]       VANCOUVER ISLAND, EASTERN SHORE        209
located. I noticed that a fishing boat used in connection with it was numbered 1589. We arrived at the
Kildala cannery at the head of the inlet at 2130 P. M.
The Wannock River enters the inlet at this point, and
on the north side of it is located the Kildala cannery
and a wharf which we visited; on the south side of the
river is a sawmill, cannery, and a church, and on both
sides of it is located the Indian Oweekayno village.
Wannock River is the outlet of the Oweekayno
Lake, and connects that lake with the inlet. Through
this river the salmon reach the lake and from it enter
its tributaries for spawning. The cannery of the British Columbia Company, known as the B. C. Cannery,
was visited. The Victoria Sawmill is located at this
port. Here we noticed the arrival of a large company
of Indian men, women, and children. They had come
to work in the cannery, and were a well appearing body
of people. Here I noticed and gathered facts in connection with the cleaning of fish nets with bluestone.
The McTavish cannery, a new one not in operation,
was visited. Here also were several boat loads of
Indians who had just arrived. They, too, were a good
looking lot of people. The Brunswick cannery was
visited. This we found was the most complete outfit in
the inlet. Near by and in connection with it is a Methodist hospital for the use of injured and sick people
from Smith and River's inlets. This cannery is located
on the north side of the inlet and near to the approach
to Schooner Passage, the entrance to which is three
miles eastward of Lone Islet. This passage is about
four miles long, with a uniform width of two cables.
It has densely wooded shores and presents the appearance of a broad, beautiful canal meandering through
the country.   The sun was setting as we entered the m
passage which gave to the scene a most charming effect.
Beaver cannery was the next one visited. It is located
in a cove off the south side of the passage. The vessel
as it approached the cove disturbed a flock of fifty or
more bald eagles of all sizes that had gone to roost for
the night in the trees that bordered the cove. As they
circled in flight in the twilight about the cannery they
made for me a novel and attractive sight - one that I
shall not forget. Never before had I seen a flock of
§ Nootka Sound
On August 17, while lying in Safety Cove awaiting
the return of some of his boats, which were out exploring, Vancouver was surprised by the arrival of a British
vessel off the entrance. She proved to be the brig Venus
belonging to Bengal, commanded by Mr. Shepherd,
lately from Nootka and bound on a trading voyage along
these shores. From her Vancouver received the pleasant tidings of the arrival at Nootka of the store ship
Daedalus, laden with a supply of provisions and stores
for the expedition's use, and he also learned that Sefior
Quadra was waiting there with the greatest impatience
to deliver up the settlement. Vancouver now resolved, in
consequence of this intelligence, to abandon the northern survey of the continental shore for that season. On
Sunday, August 19, they took their leave of these northern solitary regions, and sailed out of Safety Cove, their
route being through Hakai Passage, in order to make
the best of their way towards Nootka.
On reaching the entrance to Nootka Sound, Vancouver was visited by a Spanish officer, who brought a
pilot to conduct the Discovery to an anchorage in
Friendly Cove, where they found riding his Catholic
Majesty's brig Active, bearing the broad pennant of
Sefior Don Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra,
commandant of the marine establishment of San Bias
and California. The Daedalus store ship and a small
merchant brig called the Three Brothers of London,
was also there.   Sefior Quadra received the explorers
Mm Wii
with many civilities, including a formal dinner, at
which the health of the sovereigns of Great Britain
and Spain was enthusiastically drunk.
Sefior Quadra omitted no opportunity of impressing
on the minds of the natives the highest and most favorable opinion of Vancouver's little squadron; and the
more effectually to insure a good understanding in the
future he proposed a visit of ceremony to Chief
Maquinna. It was agreed that they should set out the
next morning for his royal residence, which was about
seven leagues up the sound, at a place called Tahsheis.
About 8 :oo o'clock next morning Sefior Quadra accompanied Vancouver in the Discovery's yawl, which, with
their own and a Spanish launch and the Chatham's
cutter, contained as many Spanish and English officers
as could be taken, they departed for Tahsheis, which
place they reached about two o'clock in the afternoon.
Maquinna received them with great pleasure, and it
was evident that his pride was not a little indulged by
their showing him this attention. He conducted them
through the village, where they appeared to be welcome
guests, in consequence perhaps of the presents that
were distributed among the inhabitants, who conducted
themselves in the most civil and orderly manner. After
visiting most of the houses, they arrived at Maquinna's
residence, which was one of the largest, though it was
not entirely covered in. Here they found Maquinna's
daughter, who not long before had been publicly and
with great ceremony proclaimed sole heiress of all
Maquinna's property and dominion. Near her were
seated three of his wives, and a numerous tribe of
relations. The young princess was of low stature, very
plump, with round face, and small features; her skin
was clean, and being nearly white, her person, though one]
without any pretensions to beauty, could not be considered as disagreeable. To her and to her father,
Vancouver made presents suitable to the occasion,
which were received with the greatest approbation by
themselves and the throng which had assembled; as
were also those made to his wives, brother, and other
relations. These ceremonies being ended, a most excellent dinner, which Sefior Quadra had provided, was
served, at which they had the company of Maquinna
and the princess, who was seated at the head of the
table and conducted herself with much propriety and
During their conversation while on this little excursion, Sefior Quadra very earnestly requested that
Vancouver would name some port or island after them
both, to commemorate their meeting and the very
friendly intercourse that had taken place and existed
between them. Conceiving no spot so proper for this
as the place where they had first met, which was nearly
in the center of a tract of land that had first been circumnavigated by them, Vancouver named that country
the Quadra and Vancouver Island; with which compliment Sefior Quadra seemed highly pleased. The
island continued for a time to be known by that name.
Afterwards it was changed by dropping the name
Quadra, which name was transferred to an island due
east of Vancouver Island across Discovery Passage.
Sefiors Galiano and Valdes arrived at Nootka Saturday, September 1, from the Gulf of Georgia. They
had pursued a route through Queen Charlotte's Sound
to the southward of that which Vancouver had navigated, and obligingly favored Vancouver with a copy
of their survey. It will be recalled that Vancouver
arrived at Nootka on August 28, that being three days
before the arrival of Galiano and Valdes. To whom
then, belongs the distinction of having first circumnavigated Vancouver Island? Vancouver did not
claim the distinction. In naming the island he designated it as, "a tract of land that had first been circumnavigated by us," meaning that it had been jointly
navigated by himself and the Spaniards.
The Honorable E. O. S. Scholefield, Provincial
Archivist, has very courteously furnished me with
Memoir No. i of the Archives of British Columbia,
entitled "The First Circumnavigation of Vancouver
Island," by C. F. Newcombe, M. D. This memoir
shows that Doctor Newcombe expended much time
and means in making an exhaustive examination of the
subject in hand, namely, not "The First Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island," but in his own language
"to vindicate the contention of Captain George Vancouver that his ships were the first to complete the
navigation of the inner channels which separate the
island, now called by his name, from the mainland of
British Columbia." Doctor Newcombe says: "The
final proof of the insular character of Vancouver Island
was made by the boat party, under Johnstone and
Swaine, which was dispatched by Vancouver from a
bay on the west side of Redonda Island, near the entrance of Desolation Sound, where the Spaniards and
British were at anchor. Leaving this place on July 4,
1792, with only a week's provisions, the flying expedition passed to the northwest through the Euclataw
Rapids, and onwards by Cordero and Wellboro Channels until they reached Johnstone's Straits, noting
various inlets on the continental shore, which they
partially explored. The mouth of the Nimpkish River
was gained in the morning of the 8th, and helped by a one]
fresh easterly gale, the boat proceeded until midnight,
when they sheltered under the lee of a small island,
somewhere near the mouth of Queen Charlotte Sound."
But this does not establish the fact that Vancouver had
circumnavigated the island which by him was named
the Island of Quadra and Vancouver. The circumnavigation of an island is to sail around it. This Vancouver did not finally accomplish until Tuesday, October 16, 1792, when he saw the entrance of De Fuca's
Straits, which he had entered the preceding April 29.
Galiano and Valdes sailed from Nootka June 4, and
according to Vancouver, after having sailed around
the island, arrived at Nootka the first of the following
September. This shows a difference in time of forty-
five days in favor of the Spaniards and for this reason
to them must be given the credit of having first circumnavigated the island.
M  The West Coast of Vancouver Island
In the middle of October, 1792, Vancouver's little
squadron left Nootka Sound and cruised southward
along the American coast, stopping at San Francisco
and other places and ultimately reaching Monterey in
Mexico, where they were kindly entertained by Sefior
Quadra. Thence, in January, 1796, the Discovery
and Chatham sailed for the Sandwich Islands, where
the explorers spent some weeks.
The ships made their second departure from the
Sandwich Islands on March 30, 1793. On May 2, the
Discovery, which had parted company with her consort, sighted land a few miles northward of Rocky
Point, the place named Porto de la Trinidad by Sefior
Quadra's expedition of 1775. About six that evening
they anchored in this port and soon after were visited
by two of the natives in a canoe, who in exchange for a
few arrows and other trivial articles, received some
iron, with which they returned to the shore highly
pleased. After dark another party followed their example; these came with a large fire in their canoes.
Two of them ventured on board of the ship, but could
not be tempted to descend below the deck.
The next morning, Friday, May 3, Vancouver went
on shore with a guard of marines, and a working party,
in search of wood and water; these were found conveniently situated a little to the southward of a small
Indian village. Most of the inhabitants of the village
were absent in their canoes, trading alongside the ship,
leaving a few old women to attend Vancouver and his
party. These Vancouver accompanied to their habitations, which consisted of five houses, neither wind or
water tight, built of plank rudely wrought like those at
Nootka. The entrance to these houses was a round
hole in one corner of the house close to the ground,
where with difficulty a grown person could find admittance. Four of these houses seemed to have been
recently built and were on a level with the ground.
These appeared to be calculated for two families of
six or seven persons each; the other, which was smaller
and nearly half under ground, Vancouver supposed to
be the residence of one family, making the village according to this estimate contain about sixty persons.
The merchandise of these natives consisted of bows and
arrows, some very inferior sea otter skins, with a scanty
supply of mussels of a very large size, small herrings,
and some flat fish. Their numbers during the forenoon
seemed to multiply from all quarters; particularly from
the southward, whence they arrived both by land and
in canoes. They seemed to have assembled in consequence of fire signals that had been made the preceding evening, soon after the last party returned to the
shore. Those who came from the southward were all
armed with bows and arrows. These they at first kept
in constant readiness for action and would not dispose
of them nor even allow their being examined by Vancouver's people. They seated themselves together, at
a distance from the other natives, which indicated them
to be under a different authority. At length, however,
they became more docile and familiar and offered for
sale some of their bows, arrows, and sea otter skins.
Bows and arrows were the only weapons these people
appeared to possess.   Their arrows were made very IW
one]       WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND        219
neatly and pointed with bone, agate, or common flint;
and they had knives made of the same materials.
"The men seemed very careless and indifferent in
their dress," says Vancouver; "their garment was
thrown loosely over them, and was little calculated
either for warmth or decency; for the former, they
provided whilst afloat, by burning a large fire in their
canoes; of the latter they were completely regardless.
The women attended more particularly to these points;
some were covered from head to foot with a garment
of thin tanned hides; others with a similar though less
robe of the like materials; under this they wore an
apron, or rather petticoat, made of warmer skins not
tanned, of smaller animals, reaching from the waist
below the knees. Amongst these people, as with the
generality of Indians I had met with, some mutilation,
or disfiguring of their persons, is practised, either as
being ornamental, or of religious institution, or possibly to answer some purpose of which we remain
ignorant. At Trinidad the custom was particularly
singular, and must be attended with much pain in
the first instance, and great inconvenience ever after.
All the teeth of both sexes were, by some process ground
uniformly down, horizontally, to the gums; the women
especially, carrying the fashion to an extreme, had
their teeth reduced even below this level; and ornamented their lower lip with three perpendicular columns of punctuation, one from each corner of the,
mouth, and one in the middle, occupying three-fifths
of the lip and chin. Had it not been for these frightful
customs, I was informed that amongst those who visited
our party on shore the last day, there were, amongst the
younger females, some who might have been considered
as having pretensions to beauty.   The men had also mu
some punctuations about them, and scars on their arms
and bodies, from accident, or by design, like the people
who had visited us to the southward of Cape Orford."
On May 5, the Discovery left this place and, at daylight on the 18th, came in sight of the coast of the
Island of Quadra and Vancouver. Two days later,
she reached Nootka.
A Spanish officer who visited the Discovery prior to
their anchoring delivered to Vancouver a letter, journal, and; other papers left by Mr. Puget. By these
documents Vancouver became informed that the Chatham had arrived at Nootka, on April 15, and had
departed thence on May 18, agreeably to the instructions Vancouver had given Mr. Puget in the event of
his not arriving there by about the middle of May.
In his voyage of 1793 Vancouver anchored but once
on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and that was in
Saiefy Cove, Nootka Sound, but as I became well acquainted with this coast in the course of a trip in the
summer of 1918, I shall mention some of the most important and interesting places. The voyage in question
was made upon the steamship Princess Maquinna,
named in honor of the daughter of the chieftain mentioned earlier in this book.
The outer or western coast of Vancouver Island lies
between Point Bonilla, at the entrance of the Straits
of Juan de Fuca, and Cape Scott, the northwest extreme
of the island, a distance of upwards of two hundred
miles. It is broken with deep inlets, the principal of
which are Barkley, Claoquot, Nootka, Kyoquot, and
Quatsino sounds, all of which afford good and secure
anchorage. The coast is mostly low and rocky, but
rises immediately to mountains of considerable height. one]       WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND        221
It is fringed by numerous rocks and hidden dangers,
especially near the entrance of the sounds, and the
exercise of great caution and vigilance is required on
the part of navigators to avoid them.
Barkley Sound, an extensive arm of the sea, about
thirty-five miles northwestward of Cape Flattery, is
thirteen and a half miles wide at its entrance, and
though encumbered by numerous islands and rocks it
maintains this breadth for eight miles inland, above
which it separates into several narrow inlets or canals,
the principal of which, the Alberni Canal, extends
about twenty miles in a northerly direction, its head
reaching within fourteen miles of the eastern or inner
coast of Vancouver Island. The first discovery of this
sound, the native name of which is Nitinat^ was made
in July, 1787, by Captain Charles William Barkley,
commander of the Imperial Eagle, a British ship sailing under Ameriearn colors. He made a sketch of the
sound, which without giving him credit for it, was
afterwards published by Captain John Meares. This
sound has three main channels, namely Eastern, Middle, and Western. Like all the sounds on the west
coast of Vancouver Island, Barkley is subdivided into
several smaller sounds or arms, running five, six, or
more miles inland.
Cape Beale is a bold rocky point one hundred and
twenty feet high; rocks above and below water extend
about three-quarters of a mile southward of it. This
cape forms the eastern extreme of Barkley Sound. A
lighthouse is located on a small islet close off Cape
Beale, forty-two feet high, from which is exhibited,
at an elevation of one hundred and seventy feet above
the sea a flashing white light, visible in clear weather
il 222
a distance of eighteen miles. A life-saving station with
a motor life-boat and life-saving appliance is situated
on the western side of Bakfield Creek.
The Eastern Channel of Barkley Sound is twelve
miles long in a northeasterly direction, with a breadth
varying from one to one and a half miles. Its shores
are low and rugged, except in the north part, which
becomes high. On the western side, three cables distant from King Island, are the Channel Rocks, one
cable in extent. A lighthouse and whistle-buoy mark
the eastern side of the Channel Rocks. At four miles
within Cape Beale on the east side of Eastern Channel,
lie the entrances to two creeks. Banfield, the southern,
extends one and a quarter miles in a southerly direction,
with a breadth of from one to two cables; the other,
Grappler Creek, the northern arm, extends two-thirds
of a mile eastward from the entrance of Bayfield Creek,
being about forty yards wide, with from eight to ten
fathoms of water. Banfield Creek is a life-saving station and is connected with Victoria and Cape Beale by
telegraph. The town of Banfield, named after W. E.
Bayfield of H. M. S. Constance, who lived for a time
at this place and traded with the Indians, fronts north
on Eastern Channel and has a post office, and is the
terminus of the Pacific Cable Telegraph line, which
connects Vancouver Island with New Zealand.
Alberni Canal, the continuation northeastward of
Barkley Sound, extends in a winding northerly direction for twenty-two miles, with a width varying from
two cables to one mile and terminates in a fine anchorage at its head; the shores on either side are rocky
and rugged, rising abruptly from the sea to mountains
two thousand to four thousand feet high; at the head,
however, the land becomes low and fertile and a large one]       WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND        223
extent of it is fit for cultivation. This canal was named
in honor of Don Pedro Alberni, a Spanish officer, who
was in command of a company of volunteer soldiers in
an expedition under Lieutenant Francisco Elisa that
arrived at Nootka, April 5, 1790. One of the most
delightful and interesting voyages that I have made
was that through Alberni Canal ui the afternoon of
July 21, 1918. My notation, in leaving it was, "a wonderful voyage!"
Port Alberni, at the head of Alberni Canal, formerly
charted as Stamp Harbor, is a secure anchorage, two
miles in length and varying in width from four cables
to one mile. A good road connects with the town of
Alberni, which is located one and one-half miles up
Somas River at the head of the inlet. The town of
Alberni has a population of about six hundred people,
with a church and post and telegraph offices. It is
connected with Nanaimo and Victoria by railroad.
Clayoquot is the English of Clo-o-quoth, the name
of a west coast tribe of Indians, and means a people
different from what they formerly were. I have been
unable to find who first used the name in naming
Clayoquot Sound. On August 12, 1776, Lieutenant
Bruno Heceta, who then was acting as commander of
the Spanish ship Santiago on a voyage of discovery to
the northward, noticed that in the first fifteen leagues
above latitude 49° there were two salient points with
a bight three or four leagues deep and a beach and low
hills. Bancroft says, this "may have been Clayoquot
Sound, or perhaps by an error of latitude Barclay
Sound, farther south." Captain John Meares sailed
south from Nootka, June 11, 1788, to Clayoquot Sound
and spent two weeks during which time he was lavishly
entertained by Wi/fcananish, the Indian chief of that
II '•*
region. He named the sound Port Cox. On the last
day of August, 1788, Captain Robert Gray entered the
sound and named it Hancock Harbor. He, too, was
honored with a visit from Chief Wihcananish. In
May, 1791, Lieutenant Francisco Elisa spent about fifteen days in a careful examination of Cayuela or Clayoquot, and the adjoining region. In September, 1791,
Captain John Kendrick was in the sound and obtained
many furs before the arrival of Captain Gray on the
18th of the month. Captain Gray remained there during the winter and built a small vessel the materials
for which had been brought in part from Boston.
Clayoquot Sound is composed of a number of inlets
covering an area thirty miles long and sixteen miles
wide. The entrance to it is fringed by numerous dangerous rocks, which require caution to avoid. It lies
between Points Cox and Rafael, seventeen miles apart
in a northwest and opposite direction.
Sidney Inlet, westward of Clayoquot Sound, is ten
miles long in a northerly direction, and varies in width
from a half to one mile. Its shores are high and rugged, rising abruptly from the sea for two thousand to
three thousand feet. The Sidney Inlet copper mine
is located on the side of one of these mountains, a thousand feet from the level of the sea. It is operated by
the Sidney Inlet Copper Mining Company, and much
good ore of a high grade is being taken from it. Our
vessel anchored at its landing both going and returning
from Port Alice, and I brought home with me some
fine specimens of its ore.
On the afternoon of August 7, 1774, Juan Perez, in
command of the Santiago, approached the west coast
of Vancouver Island, cast anchor and called the anchorage San Lorenzo, which anchorage since then has
by some writers been identified as being the same as
Nootka Sound. August 10, 1775, Bruno Heceta, lieutenant and acting captain of the Santiago, sighted land
in the region of Nootka and saw a mountain in the
northwest which resembled the peak of Teneriffe, and
another farther south which resembled the Cuchillada
de Roldan in Valencia. The first of these probably
was Mount Victoria with an altitude of seven thousand,
four hundred and eighty-four feet, and the second
Mount Alexandra with an altitude of six thousand,
three hundred and ninety-four feet. On March 29,
1778, Captain James Cook in making his third voyage
entered Nootka Sound and anchored in eighty-five
fathoms of water, so near the shore as to reach it with
a hawser. Among other things he says: "The next
morning, after coming to anchor, I lost no time in endeavoring to find a commodious harbour where we
might station ourselves during our continuance. I had
very little trouble in finding what we wanted. On the
northwest of the arm we were now in, and not far from
the ships, I met with a convenient snug cove well suited
to our purpose. On my arrival in this inlet, I had
honored it with the name of King George's Sound; but
I afterwards found that it is called Nootka by the natives."
Captain Cook while in the sound made careful survey of it and the surrounding country and procured a
considerable quantity of furs, which he carried with
him on his return trip. In two respects these were of
great value for they enabled him to study and describe
the fur-bearing animals of the country and their value
was learned in Siberia and China; this brought about
the great fur-trade of the northwest Pacific coast.
Many navigators were at and in the vicinity of Noot-
m ft
ka before Captain Vancouver entered it. A brief mention of some of these follows. Captain James Hanna
left China, in April, 1785, and reached Nootka in
August. He left Nootka, in September, and reached
Macao in December. Two vessels, the Captain Cook
and Experiment, under the general supervision of Captain James Strange, reached Nootka in June, 1786.
Captain Charles William Barkley arrived at Nootka
in June, 1787, and obtained eight hundred skins, and,
in July, sailed southward. Captains Duncan and Coined: in command of the Princess Royal and Prince of
Wales sailed from England, in September, 1786, and
arrived at Nootka, in July, 1787, and from there
directed their course to the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Captain John Meares, in command of the Felice Adventurer, sailed from Macao, in January, 1788, and
anchored in Nootka Sound on May 13. He came prepared to and did build the first vessel on the North
Pacific coast, and christened it the North West America. Meares gave Maquinna two pistols for the ground
upon which he located and built the ship. He built for
himself and men a two-story wooden house, and around
this he threw up a breast-work and mounted on it a
small cannon. Captain Robert Gray, in the Lady
Washington, September 16, 1788, was towed into
Nootka Sound by the aid of boats from the vessels of
Meares and Douglas, which were at anchor in the
sound. February 17, 1789, Commanders Estevan
Joseph Martinez and Gonzales Lopez de Haro sailed
from San Bias in the Princessa and San CarAlos and,
on May 6, the first named ship entered Nootka Sound
and was followed by the other on the 13th of the same
month. Martinez named the sound Santa Cruz de
Nutka.    He took formal possession of the port for ^ws
one]       WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND        227
Spain, erected barracks for his men, and formed a battery of six or ten guns on Hog Island, commanding the
entrance to the sound and the anchorage known as
Friendly Cove. On July 3, 1789, Captain Colnett in
command of the Argonaut was towed into the sound
by a Spanish launch of Martinez. Lieutenant Francisco Elisa, in command of an expedition consisting of
three vessels sailed from San Bias, February 3, 1790,
and anchored in Nootka Sound April 5. He also took
formal possession of the port by unfurling the Spanish
flag and having it saluted by a general discharge of
the newly mounted guns. He sailed to the northward, ^
May 5, 1791. He was superseded by Alfarez Ramon
Antonio Saavedray Guyralda, who had sailed from San
Bias in the San Carolos, Februarys, 1791, and arrived
at Nootka late in March. Alejandro Malfepina, engaged in a scientific exploring voyage around the
world, on August 13, anchored at Nootka. He at once
set up an observatory on the shore and spent fifteen
days in a scientific survey of the adjoining region. He
sailed out of the sound on August 28. Captain John
Kendrick in command of the Lady Washington sailed
from the coast of China and with' the help of the
Spaniards entered Nootka Sound, July 12, 1791. From
there he sailed to Mawinah, where he obtained about
eight-hundred sea otter skins. From there he sailed
to Clayoquot, where he was also fortunate in obtaining
many furs. The transport Aranzazu, under command
of Lieutenant Jacinto Caamano, sailed from San Bias
March 20, and arrived at Nootka May 14, 1792. It
was from this place that he made an exploration of the
northern coast of Queen Charlotte Islands, and the
eastern coast of the strait dividing these islands from
the mainland.    Dionisio Galiano and Cayetano Valdes
m Wf
sailed from San Bias in the Sutil and Mexicana, March
8, 1792, and arrived at Nootka on May 12, and, on
June, 4, as we have already seen, started for a survey
of the inland waters between the eastern coast of Vancouver Island and the mainland. Already a full account has been given of Vancouver's arrival at, and departure from Nootka Sound. I visited it in July, 1918.
I have mentioned the fact that Captain Cook had an
opportunity at Nootka Sound of studying the fur-bearing animals of the northwest coast, and he evidently
improved the opportunity, for the earliest English account and description of the sea otter that I have found
is that in Cook's Third Voyage Round the World.
This animal proved to be the turning point in the
history of the North Pacific coast. It played an important part in the discovery by white men of all the
region bordering Bering Sea on the south and east.
After its practical extermination from Kamschatka, the
Russians, in the middle of the eighteenth century, gradually uncovered and devastated its haunts on the Aleutian Islands and the neighboring groups until its growing scarcity in the more accessible regions led to its
pursuit and virtual extinction in the uppermost parts
of its range. At the time of the discovery of the Prib-
ilof Islands in 1786, sea otters were very abundant there,
and as many as five thousand are said to have been
taken from St. Paul Island during the first year of its
occupancy. They were abundant also on St. George
Island. They rapidly declined in numbers, and according to Vaniaminoff had become scarce by 1811 and
extinct within the next thirty years. For some time after the commercial extermination of the sea otter on the
Pribilofs many of the animals retained a foothold
among the Aleutian Islands and in other parts of the one]       WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND 229
North Pacific, but the incessant persecution to which
the species was subjected gradually reduced it to the
verge of total extinction. Now the pitiful remnant
left is protected for a term of years in the hope that
the species, which ranks among the most valuable of
all the fur bearers, may gradually repopulate its former haunts.
Some idea of the extent of the trade in the skins and
the fearful destruction of the sea otter is shown by the
fact that from 1786 to 1797, one hundred and fourteen
thousand, one hundred and ninety-five skins were sold;
from 1797 to 1821, ninety thousand, nine hundred and
forty; from 1821 to 1842, twenty-five thousand, four
hundred and sixteen; and from 1842 to 1862, twenty-
five thousand, eight hundred and ninety-nine. Until
1910, fleets in British Columbia and Alaska were specially equipped to hunt sea otters. In 1909 the British
Columbia fleet caught thirty-five and the Alaska fleet
thirty-two, making a total of sixty-seven. In 1914, but
one skin was secured in Alaska and it sold for two hundred dollars. Formerly the skins were worth in
Europe from two to five hundred dollars each.
Nootka Sound is a large sheet of water containing several islands, and from its north side three
narrow arms penetrate the land for distances of
eighteen, seven, and fourteen miles respectively. Its
entrance is five miles wide between Points Maquinna
and Escalante, which lie northwest and southeast from
each other. At the entrance the shores are low, and
have several off-lying dangers, but inside the sound
they become high, rugged, and precipitous. From seaward the appearance of the land near the entrance of
the sound offers to the navigator many striking features,
which in fine weather renders it almost impossible to
m 230
be mistaken. The low land of Point Estevan and
Point Maquinna at the entrance, with the breakers off
them and Nootka Cone, one thousand, six hundred and
nineteen feet high, within the southeast point of Nootka
Island are conspicuous features; and if coming from
the southwestward, the same is true of Conuma Peak,
a remarkable steeple-shaped mountain, four thousand,
eight hundred and eighty-nine feet high, twenty miles
northeastward of the entrance.
The University of California, through the courtesy
of Professor George B. Rigg, has furnished me with
much valuable material for use in the writing of this
book, among which is an account by H. S. Swarth of a
zoological exploration conducted by the University
upon Vancouver Island in the summer of 1910. In
describing Nootka Sound Mr. Swarth says: "The
permanent white population of Friendly Cove is
limited to Mr. Smith, the storekeeper. The whole of
the peninsula has been set aside as a reservation for the
use of the Indians, and the store is held by lease. There
is a Catholic Mission here, a neat little church in carefully kept grounds, and a priest is resident during the
winter months, but was away at the time of our visit.
The Indian village of Friendly Cove has been where it
is since before the coming of the white man, and the
advantages of the site are so obvious that it had probably been occupied for ages previous to that time. The
town is at the southeastern extremity of Nootka Island
on a projecting spit, which is some half mile in length,
perhaps a quarter of a mile across, from bay to ocean,
quite level, barren of timber, and covered with grass.
At the extremity of the peninsula a string of rocky
islets extends at right angles into the sound, giving the
shelter that forms the cove a placid, unruffled bay in one]       WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
almost any weather. On the sheltered side is a beach
a few hundred yards long, extending nearly the length
of the town, an ideal landing for canoes, and in sunny
weather a delightful place in which to loaf, bathe, and
do laundry work, as we observed. This beach, however, is not of hard sand, but of a yielding, coarse
gravel, in which one sinks ankle deep at every step, but
on this rocky, precipitous coast one is not apt to be
critical of such minor details. Above the beach is a
short, steep rise of a few yards to the level ground
beyond. On the seaward side of the peninsula is another fine stretch of beach, about two miles in length,
and of the same general character, though with here
and there short stretches affording firm, sandy footing.
At the northern end of this beach, where the coast becomes more rocky and broken, is a large lagoon, opening
into the sea and flooded by the tides, surrounded by grassy meadows, and with several streams flowing into its
upper end. About the outer beach, as elsewhere in the
region except for the limited village site, the forest extends nearly to the high tide mark, impassably dense,
dark, and forbidding. About half a mile from the
village, and only a stone's throw from the beach, is a
small, shallow, freshwater lake, several acres in extent.
The town itself and its inhabitants, we found quite as
interesting as the animal life we were there to study.
Probably in many respects the straggling rows of cabins
present an appearance not greatly unlike the village
first seen by Captain Cook, for even in those days the
northwestern coast Indians built rather elaborate
wooden domiciles. True, many of the houses are now
embellished with glass windows, and a few have more
or less elaborate bay windows or even front porches,
but these details cannot be seen at any distance, and at
i ifl 232
a close view most of the houses are quite satisfyingly
old and weatherbeaten in appearance; while some even
of the most pretentious, if approached from the rear,
are seen to be there of ancient design and workmanship,
contrasting strangely with the more modern and garish
'front' It is doubtful if the village is as large as it
was when Cook saw it, for he estimated the population
at two thousand, and from the number of houses, it
appears to be far below that at the present day. I had
no other way of forming an estimate, for during the
summer most of the able-bodied inhabitants are absent,
fishing or working at the canneries, and the village had
a very deserted aspect at the time of our visit. Some
distance behind the town, at the edge of the beach, and
nearly hidden in the woods, is the Indian burying
ground, the graves embellished with the most extraordinary decorations. The ancient custom of these
people to bury with the departed, or to adorn his tomb
with, his most cherished possessions, leads now-a-days
to most incongruous combinations. Above the various
graves were to be seen among other things, a phonograph with several broken records, a sewing machine,
an iron bedstead, and a carefully constructed miniature
full-rigged ship, all very much the worse for the weather they had been through."
In this connection it is most appropriate to make a
self-explanatory quotation from Professor Meany's
Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound, He says:
"Nootka, wild, romantic Nootka, deserted and neglected by white men for more than a century, though
once the most frequented harbor on the Pacific coast
of America, what a lure is this Nootka to one who has
searched * for truths among the rare and scattered
records!   With  a  heart filled with enthusiasm  the
present writer visited the famous little harbor of
Friendly Cove in the summer of 1902. Being secretary, he undertook, on behalf of the Washington University State Historical Society, to erect a monument
of granite to mark the place where Vancouver and
Quadra met in August of 1792. The cost of the monument was borne for the Society by the pioneer, Orion
O. Denny, the first white boy born in Seattle. Canadian law offered an obstacle in the way of customs
charges. This condition annoyed the genial and dignified governor, Sir Henri Joly G. de Lotbiniere, who
asked the privilege of bearing the charges himself.
Thomas Stockham was about to construct a little trading post at Friendly Cove and volunteered to help with
his crew of three white men and one Indian to hoist
the heavy granite to its place on the summit of a rocky
islet in the mouth of the harbor. Here we placed the
monument, with its inscription facing the sea, on August 23, 1903."
The western shore of Nootka Sound from Friendly
Cove trends in a northerly direction for about six
miles to the entrance of Kendrick Arm and Tahsis
Canal. It is rocky, and near the south part some islets
lie parallel to it for a distance of nearly two miles, at
about three cables from the shore. Marvinis Bay,
four miles northward of Friendly Cove, on the east side
of Nootka Island, is of small extent and open to the
southward; it only affords anchorage for coasters, and
over a rocky bottom. Our vessel visited the fish canning establishment of the Nootka Packing Company,
located at this point, and we found it surrounded by
many small islets and rocks, many of which were covered with kelp, one specimen of which measured
twenty-seven feet in length.   We found the storekeeper
if 234
of Friendly Cove in charge of the store on the wharf
at this anchorage. He kindly pointed out to me the
entrance "up the sound at a place called Tahtheis,"
where Maquinna had his royal residence, at which a
most excellent dinner was served by Sefior Quadra and
at which he and Vancouver had the company of
Maquinna and the Princess. From the storekeeper I
purchased for my grandchildren two very fine Indian
bows with steel pointed arrows. At this anchorage I
also purchased a photograph of an old Indian chief and
his half-blood grandson, said to be descendants of Chief
Esparanza Inlet, the entrance to which lies between
the northwest side of Nootka Island and the mainland
of Vancouver Island, is about sixteen miles long, in a
winding northeasterly direction, with an average width
of about one mile, narrowing at the head and connected
by a narrow pass, Tahsis Narrows, to the Tahsis Canal
in Nootka Sound.
Much of this part of Vancouver Island has not been
explored, and the exploring of it will be a difficult
undertaking. Mr. Swarth says: "The forests of the
west coast must be seen to be appreciated. I had seen,
as I supposed, densely forested regions in the eastern
and central portions of Vancouver Island, and had also
heard tales of west coast conditions, but these had not
prepared me altogether for the jungles we entered.
Everywhere, over hill and valley, is the dense impenetrable forest, Douglas fir and spruce, mostly a tree
wherever there is a possible foothold for one, and underneath a matted tangle quite impenetrable except
along the water courses. Devil's club and salmonberry
bushes reach out long thorny branches in all directions,
while everywhere is the bush we heard so aboundingly one]       WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
vilified by woodsmen and hunters-the ubiquitous
salal. On the east side of the island the latter occurs
mainly as a small, rather innocuous shrub, easily trodden under foot, but it thrives on the west coast, forming
thickets higher than a man's head, and as absolute a
barrier as a stone wall. Altogether the forests appeared to me to be somewhat more tangled and impassable than the worst I had seen in southeastern Alaska -
more uniformly dense and without the welcome relief
of the open 'park' country so characteristic of some of
the Alaska islands."
Kyuquot Sound, the eastern entrance to which is
twelve miles from Esparanza Inlet, is a large sheet of
water penetrating from the coast to a distance of fourteen or fifteen miles inland, in two large arms and several smaller ones, and contains several islands. A whaling station is located on this sound. I visited it twice,
and in the next chapter I shall give an account of the
whaling industry.
Quatsino Sound, the northwesternmost of the deep
inlets, on the outer coast of Vancouver Island, penetrates the island in a northeasterly direction for upwards of twenty-five miles. The approach to it, between Point Reef on the east and Entrance Island, eastward of Cape Parkins, on the west side, is nearly six
miles wide, narrowing to less than one mile at Bold
Bluff, the entrance to the sound five miles within.
From the bluff the sound takes an easterly direction,
nearly straight for thirteen miles, and branches off in
two arms.
The Princess Maquinna arrived at Port Alice in the
southeast arm of Quatsino Sound, July 25, 1918. Here
we found the Whalon Pulp and Paper Company was
constructing buildings on an extensive scale for the
%), 236
manufacture of pulp and paper. To the accomplishment of this purpose the company had erected the largest single sawmill that I had ever visited. While there
I saw them take out of the water a spruce log forty
feet long, six feet in diameter at the butt and five and
a half feet at the top. Every foot of this log was
utilized, the best boards of it were to be used for
aeroplane lumber, and the rest of it was cut into lengths
for various other purposes. I witnessed the inspection
of the aeroplane boards; it was simple but seemed to be
effective. The port was full of logs, and I was told
that most of them consisted of silver and Sitka spruce.
It was a very interesting and instructive day that I
spent at this port.
The coast of Vancouver Island from Quatsino Sound
to Cape Scott, the northwest extreme of the island,
takes a general northwesterly direction; it is mostly
rocky and iron bound, indented by several bays, most
of which are small, and from most of the projecting
points rocks extend, in some places nearly one mile
from the shore. From Cape Russell to Cape Scott, the
coast, from five hundred to six hundred feet high,
trends in a northwesterly direction and is indented by
three open bays, which are each nearly one mile in
length but afford no shelter whatever. This completes
the description of the west coast of Vancouver Island
and its dangers.
—^5 i
Whales and Whale Fisheries of the
Northwest Pacific
April 7, 1792, Vancouver arrived in latitude 350 25',
longitude 2170 24', where he found himself in the midst
of immense numbers of sea blubber of the species
medusa villilia. In the afternoon his ship passed
within a few yards of about twenty whales of the anvil-
headed or spermaceti species. His conclusion was that
these whales were induced to resort hither to feed upon
the immense number of the medusa. On Monday,
June 25, he had reached a point in the Strait of Georgia
beyond the present site of the city of Vancouver. In
his record of that day he says: "In the course of the
forenoon a great number of whales were playing about
in every direction; and though we had been frequently
visited by these animals in this inland navigation, there
seemed more about us now, than the whole of those we
had before seen, if collected together." He also says,
that in sailng from Desolation Sound to Menzies Bay,
in Discovery Passage, "Numberless whales enjoying
the season were playing about the ship in every direction." These quotations and many other that might be
made show the great abundance of whales that were to
be found in the North Pacific Ocean a century and a
quarter ago and how tame they were at that time.
The first of these animals that I have had the privilege
of seeing was a dead one that was brought from the
Atlantic coast to Indianapolis, many years ago, on two
open flat cars for exhibition.    The next one was seen
1 1
on July ii, 1911, sporting in the Strait of Georgia between Vancouver and Active Pass. After that in making voyages to and from Alaska I saw many of them,
singly or in pairs, but I have never seen a school of
them. I saw a beluga or white whale, near Kodiak,
October 1, 1914. On my return trip of that voyage I
formed the acquaintance of Alfred Hauger, an intelligent man who had long been engaged in whale
fishing, and from him I gained much information about
whales and whale fishing. The following are the
whales which he said are found on the northwest coast:
right whale, bowhead whale, humpback whale, sulphur
bottom whale, fin whale, California gray whale, sperm
whale, bottlenose whale, white whale, and killer whale.
The mammalia is the highest order of the animal
kingdom. Strange as it may seem, a whale belongs to
this order, and not to that of the fishes, which in form
and habitat it so much resembles. It is a hot, red-
blooded creature, breathing by means of lungs, which
lie in the interior of the body in a definite chest cavity,
shut off from the rest of the cavity of the body by a
large muscular partition or diaphram. Frequently it
has vestiges of the hairs which cover the bodies of
other mammals or the presence of a few scattered hairs
in the neighborhood of the mouth. It brings forth its
young alive and suckles them with milk. At Kyuquot
Whaling Station I saw the foetus of one that was six
feet long that had been taken from a slaughtered mother whale. The bones of the skull are like those of
other mammals and only differ slightly in their relative arrangement.
Whales are the giants of creation; they are not only
the largest of the living animals, but of all animals that
have existed, except perhaps the one hundred and thirty one]
foot dinosaur, and in many respects are the most interesting and wonderful of all creatures. They are all
fish-like in form, with tapering body, one pair of paddles, no apparent vestige of hind limbs, no external ear,
tiny eyes, and black, piebald, or white coloration.
They are divided into two families, namely, mystaco-
ceti or toothless whalebone whales, and odontoceti or
toothed whales. All of the members of the first family
are called whales, but of the second only certain of the
larger ones are so termed, the smaller species being
popularly spoken of as bottlenoses, dolphins, and porpoises.
The early days of whaling was "shore whaling" by
means of small boats, and the whales attacked and captured were those which approached close enough to
the shores to be seen from the land. This whaling was
carried on by means of harpoons and lances. The first
whaling vessels were small sloops fitted for cruises of a
few week's duration, and, after capturing one whale,
they returned to port. From the small sloops of those
early days the vessels were increased in size until large
barks, ships, and brigs were in almost universal use.
The tools, weapons, and implements of those early days
were well adapted to the capture and cutting up of
whales, and the later whalers found it difficult to improve upon them. The most marked improvement
made was the harpoon-gun invented by Svend Foyn
in 1867. This gun is heavily constructed throughout
and has a bore of three inches and is placed in the
extreme bow of the whaling vessel. The harpoon is a
very heavy missile, weighing several hundred pounds.
A bomb containing roughly a pound of powder is
screwed on to the harpoon, and the latter then rammed
home.    Coiled upon the iron plate under the gun muz-
zle is the "foregoer," made of the best Italian steam-
tarred hemp, four and a half inches in circumference,
one end of which is attached to the harpoon about
eighteen inches from the point. Attached to the other
end of the "foregoer" is one of the main whale lines
from the winch, this line being of Russian steam-tarred
hemp, about four hundred fathoms in length and five
and a half inches in circumference. Thus equipped a
vessel is ready for action.
Near the top of the masthead is located the lookout
barrel, from which point of vantage the lookout can
cover a much larger area than a man on deck would
be able to do. As soon as a whale is sighted, the vessel
is run as close to it as possible, and when within range
the gun is fired. A time fuse is attached to the bomb
on the harpoon, this being ignited by the discharge of
the gun, and five seconds after the discharge the bomb
explodes. On the shaft of the harpoon are barbs,
which expand on entering the body of the whale, making it next to impossible for the harpoon to be drawn
out. As soon as struck, the whale sounds and goes to
the bottom. These animals have enormous strength
and will at times tow the vessel several miles before
beginning to weaken. As soon as the line slackens, it
is snubbed around a heavy steam winch on the deck just
ahead of the bridge, after which the wounded whale
is played in much the same manner that a fish is played
by an expert angler, a continual strain being kept on
him, slackening sometimes to avoid a wild rush, but
always reeling in slack at every opportunity. The
strain soon begins to tell on the whale, his rushes growing shorter and less vicious, and finally he rises to the
surface, lashing the water white in his struggles.
Should he blow blood when he reaches the surface, one
the whalers know he is mortally wounded, and wait
until he dies, but if he blows clear and is quiet, the
"pram," a peculiar spoon-shaped boat adapted from a
Norwegian model, is lowered and rowed along side and
a long lance is driven into him until he blows blood,
which shows an internal hemorrhage, from the effects
of which he soon expires, falling over on his back in
his last struggle, and then sinking to the bottom. The
line is now rapidly hove in until a heavy strain shows
the slack is in and the weight of the whale is showing,
when the line is run through a heavy iron block at the
foremost head, this mast being heavily rigged in order
to stand the tremendous strain. Fathom by fathom
the line comes in until at last the dead body is alongside.
A chain is attached around the tail, and the winch then
heaves the tail out of water, causing the animal to hang
vertically head down from the bow. The vessel is then
forced ahead at full speed to bring the body to the
surface. The lobes of the tail are then severed and
brought on board. In order to make the carcass more
buoyant, air is blown into the abdominal cavity by
means of an air pump.
If the whaler is not ready to return to the station
immediately, a buoy with the ship's flag attached, is
secured to the whale, and both allowed to go adrift
while the vessel continues its hunt, sometimes as many
as three whales being brought in at one time, all with
their tails out of the water, and hoisted to the bow.
Upon arrival at the station the whales are attached to
a buoy in front of the ship, from which a line is taken
and the animal hauled into the mouth of the slip between two cribs filled with rocks, which act as guides
to keep it centered at the same time to ballast the nose
of the slip under water at all stages of the tide.    A THE INSIDE PASSAGE TO ALASKA
large one and one-half inch diameter iron chain is then
attached to the tail of the whale and it is hauled out of
the water under the "flensing" shed by a powerful steam
winch. As soon as the whale is in place, men with
long-handled knives commence "flensing," that is, removing the blubber. This is a layer of fat directly
under the skin, covering the whole body like a huge
blanket and varying in thickness from four to seven
inches. The men walk from the head toward the tail,
cutting long gashes in the blubber as they go, then a
steel hook attached to a wire cable is hooked in at the
end of a strip, the steam winch heaves in on the wire,
and the long strips are peeled off one after another.
As fast as removed the strips of blubber are put into
the slicer, or blubber cutter, and chopped into half-
inch slices, which are dropped into an endless bucket
elevator to be hoisted to the blubber pots, where the oil
is tried out by means of steam pipes running through
pots. After the blubber is exhausted in these pots, it
is conveyed in a chute to a drainage tank, where the
bulk of the water is separated by gravity, and then to
the dryer, where, mixed with the residue of the meat,
it is turned into guano. After the blubber is removed
from the carcass, the inside fat is taken out by chopping
through the ribs; then the carcass is hauled up to the
carcass platform, which is at right angles to and a few
feet higher then the main slip. Here another gang of
men remove the meat from the skeleton. This meat,
which very much resembles beef both in appearance
and flavor and is frequently eaten at the station, is put
into pots arranged on both sides of the platform, where
it is boiled and the oil extracted from it by acid processes. After the oil has been dipped from these meat
pots, a sluice is opened and the residue is allowed to one]
drop into the chute, where it is run into the drainage
tank before mentioned, thence going into the hot-air
dryer with the blubber residue. Here it is made into
guano by a drying process which dries the material
thoroughly and then shreds it fine, after which it is
ready for the market, its value as a fertilizer being very
high. The blubber oil is ready for barreling as soon
as it is cold, but the meat oil has to be clarified first, to
remove the little particles of meat remaining in the
liquid. The latter is the darker of the two oils, both
before and after clarifying.
Heretofore, the parts of the whale utilized and the
products prepared at a whaling station were as follows:
Tails and tongues, sliced into thin strips, salted and
shipped to Japan, where they are eaten; oil, guano,
bone meal and the baleen or whalebone of commerce.
A glue was also made from the residue of the blubber
after boiling, which was used for coating the insides
of the barrels to hold the oil. In addition, experiments
were made with the preparation of a meat extract from
the flesh, and with the preparation of leather from the
skin and stomach wall. An important addition to
these uses, is the preparation and utilization of the
flesh of whales as a food for the human family. In
this connection, I find that it has been estimated that
a fifty ton whale represents a food value in bulk of a
herd of one hundred steers of one-half ton weight, five
hundred sheep of two hundred pounds each, or three
hundred hogs of three hundred and fifty pounds each.
Seven whaling stations have been established along
the Pacific coast, and fully equipped for the preparation and handling of whale products. Each of these
has its whaling fleet, which scours the ocean for a supply for the plant.   These plants disposed of about one
$ §
thousand whales during the season of 1918. As I have
said, it was my privilege to visit the Kyuquot Station
in that year. My visit was at a fortunate time. The
flensed carcass of a monster female whale was on the
floor of the plant, and six others were anchored in the
bay. These consisted of two sperm whales, one finback, one bowhead, one sulphur bottom, and one humpback. They had just been brought in from a distance
of sixty miles, thus showing how scarce whales are
getting to be on the Pacific coast. When our vessel
came into the bay and stirred the water it was red with
the blood of the slaughtered whales. I was able to
examine the various processes of handling and converting whales into their various products. I was especially interested in the process of preparing and canning the flesh for human food and could see no reason
why it would not be perfectly edible. In every detail
it was done in a most cleanly manner. Certainly the
flesh of a whale is grown or made from the cleanest of
food and is free from diseased conditions. Other nations use and relish the flesh of the whale as food.
Why should not Americans do so? By doing so the
question of a meat supply will be much simplified.
The orca or killer whales grow to a length of twenty
to thirty feet. They are powerful, rapacious animals,
and are the only whales that feed upon their own kind
land upon large prey. Their upper and lower jaws are
armed with sharp, saw-like teeth. They are the tiger-
hearted gladiators of the sea. The killer whale never
'hunts alone. It pursues its titanic quarry in couples
and trios, and sometimes in veritable wolf-like packs
of a half dozen. I witnessed one of these attacks in
Queen Charlotte Sound. They have been known to
assault the largest whales of the sea.    Burns tells of an one]
attack of this nature upon a large bowhead whale, and
Scammon of one upon a Californian gray whale.
Scammon says: "They made alternate assaults upon the
old whale and her offspring, finally killing the latter,
which sunk to the bottom, where the water was five
fathoms deep. During the struggle the mother became nearly exhausted, having received several deep
wounds about the throat and limbs. As soon as their
prize had settled to the bottom, the three orcas
descended, bringing up large pieces of flesh in their
mouths, which they devoured after coming to the surface."
The common porpoise is a gregarious whale found
in both the Atlantic and Pacific. It reaches a length of
five to six feet and is generally blackish, but white on the
belly. Like the stormy petrel they have the reputation
of presaging foul weather, when they sport and chase
one another about vessels, an instance of which I witnessed in Lynn Canal.
1 ffifl I
Burke Channel, Dean Channel, and
Bentinck Arm
On May 18, the Chatham under Lieutenant Puget
and, on May 23, the Discovery under Vancouver in
person sailed northward from Nootka Sound to resume the exploration work at the point where it had
been left off the previous year. The ships found a convenient anchorage in Observatory Inlet on Restoration
Cove, and, during the next three weeks, boat parties
explored many inlets including Burke Channel, Dean
Channel, and Bentinck Arm, the first of these being
named by Vancouver after Edmund Burke, the celebrated English writer and statesman.
On a branch of Bentinck Arm an exploring party
under Johnstone observed a native house of very singular construction. As they advanced towards it some
smoke was observed, and three Indians approached
them with much caution and showed great disapprobation at their landing; but on receiving some nails and
trinkets, they became reconciled and attended Mr.
Johnstone with some of his party to their habitations,
which were found to be of different construction from
any before seen. They were erected on a platform
raised and supported nearly thirty feet from the
ground by perpendicular spars of very large size. The
building occupied a space of about fifteen by thirty-
five yards and was covered by a roof lying nearly horizontal, and parallel to the platform. It seemed to
be divided into three different houses, or rather apart-
!i **ll
ments, each having a separate access formed by a long
tree on an inclined position from the ground to the
platform with notches out and in by way of steps, about
a foot and a half apart. Up one of these ladders only
Mr. Johnstone and one of his party were allowed to
ascend. By removing a broad board placed as a kind
of door on the platform where the ladder rested, they
entered on a small arm before the door of the house or
apartment to which the ladder belonged. Here they
found four of the natives posted, each bearing a rude
dagger-like weapon made of iron. They only permitted Mr. Johnstone to look about him and seemed
much averse to his entering the house, which he prudently did not insist upon.
At the mouth of the near by creek were a great number of wicker fish pots, which induced Mr. Johnstone's
party to ask for something to eat, but instead of fish,
the natives brought them a kind of paste or bread, supposed to be made from the inner bark of a pine tree.
Their language was quite new to the party, and they
appeared to be wholly unacquainted with that spoken
at Nootka.
On their way back to the ships Johnstone's party saw
several bears. Two young cubs were killed and proved
to be excellent eating.
In a former chapter an account was given of Alexander Mackenzie and his discovery of the Fraser
River. After he had voyaged some distance down that
river he turned his face to the west in the hope and
expectation of reaching the Pacific Ocean. The final
voyage was made down the Bella Coola River, and,
at eight o'clock in the morning of July 20, 1793, that
being two months and five days after Vancouver's men
had been there, he found himself afloat on the tide
waters of the ocean at the head of North Bentinck Arm.
Concerning this voyage Bancroft in his History of
the Northwest Coast says: "It was not a pleasing sight
that greeted them after their devoted toil. Spread out
before these northern fur-traders, who had ventured
so far to see what this great northwest was made of, was
a broad uncovered beach, dripping with sea-weeds. A
thick fog shut out the surrounding hills. Sea and sky
were murky and opaque. A strong west wind chilled
both blood and spirits. There were many seals, so
quick of movement as almost to dodge the bullets sent
after them. Only some small porpoises seemed willing
to be shot. In the distance was the white-headed eagle,
which had come with them from the interior to see the
ocean, and nearer gulls and ducks, both diminutive, and
some dismal dark birds of evil omen, smaller than the
small gulls. To crown all, as the day wore away the
wind rose and the sea grew boisterous, so that after a
voyage of ten miles from the entrance of the river they
were obliged to land their leaky canoe in a small bay,
opposite another small bay in which was an island, and
carry ashore their scanty stock of provisions, consisting
now of twenty pounds of pemmican, fifteen pounds of
rice and six pounds of flour, for ten half-starved men
upon a savage shore, with a thousand miles of wilderness between them and security."
Next morning, Mackenzie sailed southwesterly and
came to Vancouver's Point Menzies, and coasted the
land called by that navigator King Island. He met
many boat-loads of natives who had had intercourse
with Vancouver and manifested neither fear nor curiosity at their appearance.    Entering Vancouver's Cas- THE INSIDE PASSAGE TO ALASKA
cade Canal, they were greatly annoyed by the Indians,
who assumed an arrogant tone and threatened an
attack. One man made himself especially obnoxious,
having been beaten and shot at, as he said, by Vancouver. The westernmost point of this memorable
journey was here attained. Landing at a place which
from a distance looked like sheds, but on nearer approach proved to be the ruins of a village, Mackenzie,
the better to defend himself from the natives, whose
numbers and boldness were constantly increasing, took
his position on a rock, which was none too large to
accommodate his little force. The day passed, however, without an attack, and there they spent the night
of the 21 st, keeping a careful watch in turn, two at a
time. The next day the sky was clearer, and Mackenzie obtained more satisfactory observations. Mixing
some vermilion in melted grease, he marked in large
letters on the southeast side of the rock on which they
had slept the previous night, these words: "Alexander
Mackenzie, from Canada, by land the twenty-second
of July, 1793."
Burke Channel, as now known, is a long inlet on the
east side of Fitzhugh Sound, three miles northward of
Namu Harbor. It leads to Bella Coola anchorage, at
the head of North Bentinck Arm, a distance of fifty-
five miles in a general northeasterly direction, from its
junction with Fitzhugh Sound. It lies between high,
precipitous rocky mountains, the sides of which are
covered with stunted pine trees, and mostly snowcapped, becoming more lofty as the head of the inlet
is approached. This channel and arm, though not surveyed in detail, have been frequently traversed both by
day and night.    I voyaged through them July 13, 1918.
North Bentinck Arm is eight miles long, and just one]    BURKE CHANNEL, DEAN CHANNEL, ETC.  251
within the entrance, on the north shore, is a small bay
affording anchorage for small craft. The head terminates in a sand and mud flat, fronting low swampy
ground, covered with grass, which is submerged at
high water. Here the inlet is one and three-tenths
miles wide. Bella Kula, formerly known as Bella
Coola, at the head of North Bentinck Arm, affords an
indifferent anchorage close to the sand flat at the mouth
of the Bella Kula River, off the wharf on the south side.
Small vessels may find shelter, during summer, on the
north shore in the cove northward of Custom House
Point. Bella Kula River is a stream of considerable
size and velocity, the deposit from which has formed
a steep bank at the head of the inlet. The water is
quite fresh alongside, and if pumped in at low water is
fit for drinking. There is a Norwegian settlement on
the southern shore of the bay. A long narrow wharf
with a depth of sixteen feet or more at its outer end>
with several buildings on it, extends from the shore
near the settlement. A government wharf is situated
on the north side of the entrance to the river. This is
the anchorage reached by Mackenzie in 1792, an account of which has already been given. The rock upon which he made the inscription, noting his arrival at
this point, has been defaced, the inscription having
been obliterated by time. In its place has been cut
into the face of the rock the following inscription: "See
Appleford 10, Imperial Block, Interior, Vancouver
and S." I was told that the man who defaced this historical rock, was a real estate agent, who lived at
Victoria and operated in that city and Vancouver.
On May 30, Vancouver set out in the yawl, accompanied by Lieutenant Swaine in the cutter, to examine
the main arm of Burke Channel.   They had not gone
far until they landed on some rocks near the western
shore, where they were visited by a few of the natives,
who appeared to be of a different race from those they
had seen to the southward and used a different language
to that spoken by the inhabitants of Nootka. Their stature was much more robust than that of the Indians further south. The prominence of their countenances and
the regularity of their features resembled those of the
northern Europeans; their faces were generally broad,
with high cheek bones. Had it not been for the filth,
oil, and paint with which from their earliest infancy
they had been besmeared from head to foot, there was
reason to believe that their color would have differed
but little from that of laboring Europeans who were
constantly exposed to the alterations of the weather.
On his way back to the ships Vancouver explored
Dean Channel. I voyaged through this channel on
July 14, 1918. On our way through it, we passed logging camps operated by the Ocean Falls Pulp and
Paper Company. The surroundings were impressive;
the mountains resembled stone walls covered with ivy.
The grotesque marking of the snow on the mountain
sides looked like hieroglyphics. At Kinsquit, the
place to which Mackenzie came from Bella Coola, are
located two canneries and an Indian settlement. Here
also is the mouth of Dean River, from the mouth of
which is seen on the eastern side a sand bank. Two
miles above here the inlet is contracted to about one
mile in width by two spits. The bay at the head of the
inlet is circular in form. When I was there a railroad,
extending into it, had been constructed into the forest.
I was informed that logging camp No. 17, which had
just been organized, consisted of one hundred and
seventy-five men, engaged in logging for the Ocean
Falls Pulp and Paper Company. When it is remembered that there were about twenty such camps thus
engaged, one gets an idea of the fearful destruction of
timber which is now taking place along the various
inlets in this section of the country.
To one arm of Dean Channel, Vancouver gave the
name of Cascade Channel. It is now known as Cascade Inlet. The width of this channel did not anywhere exceed three-quarters of a mile; its shores were
bounded by precipices much more perpendicular than
any they had yet seen during this excursion; and from
the summits of the mountains that overlooked it, particularly on its northeastern shore, there fell several large
cascades. These were exceedingly grand, and much
the largest and most tremendous of any the explorers
had ever beheld. The impetuosity with which the
waters descended produced a strong current of air that
reached nearly to the opposite side of the channel,
though it was perfectly calm in every other direction.
Near the south point of Cascade Channel they met
friendly Indians, who invited them to visit their habitations, and the invitation was accepted. They found
the village to consist of seven houses situated in a small
rocky cove close round the point. On approaching
the dwellings the Indians desired that they would not
land there, but on the opposite side of the cove. This
Vancouver's party did and by so doing secured their
confidence. They were visited by about forty of the
male inhabitants, but the women and children remained in their houses. The construction of these were
very curious. The back parts of them appeared to be
supported by the projection of a very high, and nearly
perpendicular rocky cliff and the front and sides by
slender poles, about sixteen or eighteen feet high.   Van- 254
couver desired to become better acquainted with these
curious mansions, but the repugnance shown by their
owners to his entering them, induced him not to make
the attempt lest it might give them serious offense and
disturb the harmony that existed. Not one of them
had a weapon of any kind, and they all conducted themselves in the most civil and orderly manner.
In Hakai Passage the explorers passed close to a
rock on which another native village was situated.
The rock appeared to be about half a mile in circuit and
was entirely occupied by the habitations of the natives.
These appeared to be well constructed; the boards
forming the sides of the houses were well fitted, and
the roofs rose from each side with sufficient inclination
to throw off the rain. The gable ends were decorated
with curious paintings, and near one or two of the
most conspicuous mansions were carved figures in large
logs of timber (evidently totems) representing a gigantic human form, with strange and uncommonly distorted features. The Indians made objections to
Vancouver and his party landing. Their number
amounted at least to three hundred. After being
gratified with some presents, they returned to their
rock, and the party continued their route homeward.
About noon of June 8, in a bay opposite an opening
on the western shore that had the appearance of communicating with the ocean, the explorers fell in with
about forty native men, women, and children. The
natives received them with caution and desired that
they land at a rock a little distant from their party.
On complying, they were visited by most of the women
and boys, who, after receiving some presents, gave them
to understand that the women would have no objection
to their company, but Vancouver declined their solici- f
tations. The whole of this party were employed in
gathering cockles and in preparing a sort of paste
from the inner bark of a particular kind of pine tree,
intended as a substitute for bread. This they washed
in sea water, beat it very hard on the rocks, and then
made it up into balls. It had a sweetish taste, was
very tender, and by them seemed to be considered'
good food. About ten o'clock at night, the explorers
arrived on ship board and found all well. During
Vancouver's absence some excellent spruce beer had
been brewed from the trees found in that locality, and
a sufficient supply of fish for the use of all for every
day had been procured.
i \  From Restoration Cove to Salmon Cove
On Monday morning June 10, the weather in Restoration Cove was rainy and unpleasant without the
least prospect of any alteration. Vancouver directed
that the observatory with everything else should be
taken from the shore; in the afternoon they weighed
anchor and towed out of the cove. By noon next day,
they arrived in Hakai Passage, and, at three o'clock,
anchored within a cable's length of the western shore
about a league to the southward of the Indian village
on the detached rock. Several of the natives came off,
and brought in their canoes sea otter and other skins to
exchange for iron and copper. All their dealings
were carried on with confidence and in the strictest
honesty. In this situation they remained until eight
in the morning of June 12, when they proceeded but
so slowly that the village on the rock bore west of them
at a distance of about a half mile, and the rendezvous
appointed with Mr. Johnstone, who had been sent to
explore Portlock Channel nearly in the same direction
about a league further. This they reached by six in
the evening and anchored in twenty fathoms of water,
steadying the ship by a hawser to a tree on an island.
Amongst the skins brought thither by the Indians was
that of an animal whence the wool was procured with
which the woolen garments worn by the inhabitants of
northwest America were made. These appeared evidently too large to belong to any animal of the canine
race, as they had before supposed.   They were, exclusive
of the head and tail, fifty inches long and thirty-six inches
broad exclusive of the legs. The wool seemed to bear but
a small proportion to the size of the skin. It was principally produced on the back and towards the shoulder,
where a kind of crest was formed by long bristly hairs,
that protruded themselves through the wool, and the
same sort of hair formed an outer covering to the whole
animal, and entirely hid the wool which was short, and
of a very fine quality. All the skins of this description
that were brought to them were entirely white, or
rather of a cream color; the pelt was thick, and appeared of a strong texture, but the skins were too much
mutilated to determine the kind of animal to which
they belonged. This evidently was the mountain goat.
In the afternoon they had the honor of a female
party on board. Those of the women who appeared
to be of the most consequence had adopted a very
singular mode of adorning their persons. A horizontal
incision was made about three-tenths of an inch below
the upper part of the under lip, extending from one
corner of the mouth to the other entirely through the
flesh; this orifice was then by degrees stretched sufficiently to admit an ornament of wood, which was confined close to the gums of the lower jaws and whose
external surface projected horizontally. These wooden ornaments were oval and resembled a small oval
platter dish made concave on both sides; they were of
various sizes but the smallest Vancouver was able to
procure was about two inches and a half; the largest
was three inches and four-tenths in length and an inch
and a half broad; the others decreased in breadth in
proportion to their length. They were about four-
tenths of an inch in thickness and had a groove along
the middle of the outside edge for the purpose of fl
receiving the divided lip. These hideous appendages
were made of fir and neatly polished, but presented a
most unnatural appearance, and were an instance of
human absurdity that would scarcely be credited without ocular proof. Labret, though not given by Vancouver, is the name of this lip ornament.
Vancouver at first considered the inhabitants of this
region to be a much finer race of men than those further south; the dif