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Menzies' journal of Vancouver's voyage, April to October, 1792. Edited, with botanical and ethnological… Menzies, Archibald, 1754-1842 1923

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     ARCHIVES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
MEMOIR NO. Y.
MENZIES' JOURNAL OF
YANC OUTER'S
YOYAGE
APEIL TO OCTOBER, 1792.
Edited, with Botanical and Ethnological Notes, by
C. F. NEWCOMBE, M.D., . „>
and a Biographical Note by
J. FORSYTH.
PRINTED   BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by WnxUM H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923.  •T™
Provincial Library,
Victoria, B.C., 1922.
The Hon. J. D. MacLean, MB., CM.,
Provincial Secretary and Minister of Education,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
■ Sir,—I have the honour to transmit herewith the fifth memoir
of the Provincial Archives Department, entitled " Menzies' Journal
of Vancouver's Voyage," April to October, 1792, edited, with notes,
by Dr. C. F. Newcombe, a leading authority on the early exploration
of the North-west Coast, and whose knowledge of the botany and
ethnology of the district has been of greatest service in the preparation
of this work.
The original MS. journal of Archibald Menzies is in the possession of the British Museum, but a certified copy is in our British
Columbia Archives Department, which was acquired a few years ago.
As the whole journal is a voluminous document, it was deemed advisable for the present to publish only that portion which related to
Vancouver Island and Puget Sound.
In Memoir No. I., "The First Circumnavigation of Vancouver
Island," Dr. Newcombe vindicated the contention of Captain Vancouver
that his ships were the first to complete the navigaton of the inner
channels which separate the island from the mainland of British Columbia, and this contention is borne out in Menzies' journal.
It is several years since the last Archives Memoir was issued, but
with the great appreciation which is being accorded by students of
British Columbia history it is hoped that we may be able to continue
those publications more regularly.
With your approval, the next bulletin will deal with early mining
days on Fraser River and the Cariboo District, which should appeal
to every one in the Province. His Honour Judge F. W. Howay, who
has made a special study of this period in our history, and who is at
the same time a recognized authority on the early history of the Pacific
Coast, has very kindly consented to edit the memoir.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
JOHN FORSYTH, ;'*;
Librarian and Archivist.
I  >——T ;»-
CONTENTS.
Page.
Biographical Note on Archibald Menzies  vii.
Preface  xiii.
Menzies' Journal  i
Appendix—
Plants collected by Menzies—
I. Ferns and Flowering Plants  132
II. Mosses  149
III. Lichens  150
IV. Marine Algse  151
Notes, Ethnographical, etc  153
Bibliography  156
Maps and Charts  163
Index  165
MAPS.
Port Discovery, Admiralty Inlet, and Puget Sound to mouth of
Fraser River.    From Vancouver's Atlas.    London, 1798     20
Jarvis Canal, Desolation Sound, and Discovery Passage. From
Vancouver's Atlas.   London, 1798     64
I
J &SS
ILLUSTRATIONS.
Facing Page.
Archibald Menzies.    From the painting by Eddis in the Linnean
Society, London    vu.
Mrs. Menzies, the wife of Archibald Menzies.    From a miniature
in the possession of C. D. Geddes, Esq., Edinburgh    ix.
Stix House, Aberfeldy,  Scotland, the birthplace of Archibald
Menzies.    From a photograph by E. Menzies-ElHs    xi.
Meggernie Castle, the home of the Menzies of Culdares and Stix,
in   Glenlyon,   Scotland.    From  photograph   by   Sir   David
Menzies     xi.
Castle   Menzies,   near   Aberfeldy,   Scotland,   where   Archibald
Menzies got his first lessons in botany  xii.
Farewell letter of Archibald Menzies to his mother, March 36th,
1791.    From a photograph by E. Menzies-Ellis xiii.
Archibald Menzies' farewell message to his brother William, March
30th, 1791.    From a photograph by E. Menzies-Ellis xiii.
Blanket-making, showing spinning and weaving on Vancouver
Island.   From a painting by Paul Kane    155
Indian tomb, showing canoe form of burial.    From drawing by
H. J. Warre   155
BOTANICAL PLATES ACCOMPANYING APPENDIX.
(Collected by Menzies in Alaska, but also found in Northern British Columbia.)
Chimaphila Menziesii (R.Br.) Spreng. Menzies' Wintergreen.
From Hooker, Flor. Bor.-Amer., II., PI. 138.    1834    135
Gentiana Douglasiana Bongard. Douglas' Gentian. From a drawing by Menzies in Hook., Flor. Bor.-Amer., II., PI. 148.    1837 137
Memiesia ferruginea Smith.    From Smith, J. E., Plant. Icon.
Ined., III., PI. 56.    1791   139
Menyanthes crista-galli Menzies. From Hook., Bot. Miscell., I.,
PI. 24.    1828.    (Drawing by Menzies.)   141
Parnassia fimbriata Konig.   From Hook., Bot. Miscell., I., PL 23.
1828.    (Drawing by Menzies.)   143
Rubus stellatus Smith. Menzies' Raspberry.. From Smith, J. E.,
Plantarum Icon. Ined., III., PI 64.    1791    145 Archibald Menzies.    Prom the painting by Eddis in the Llnnean Society, London.  i m
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE.
ARCHIBALD MENZIES, Scottish botanist, explorer, and traveller,
was born at Stix or Styx, an old branch house of the Menzies
of Culdares about 4 miles west from Aberfeldy, Perthshire, Scotland,
and was educated at Weem Parish School. According to the Weem
Kirk register, he was baptised on March 15th, 1754.
It is remarkable that nearly all the Menzies in the vicinity of
Castle Menzies were either gardeners or botanists; an old record of
proceedings shows that no fewer than seven of this name were employed
at the same time at the Castle gardens.
Sir David Menzies, of Plean Castle, to whom the writer of these
notes is indebted for much information, in speaking of Castle Menzies,
which was founded in 1057, says: " When Sir William Wallace took
shelter in the ancient portion of Castle Menzies, it had a castellated
parapet running round its wall-head and flanking turrets, from which
it could be defended by hurling missiles, arrows, etc. The first floor
is supported on arches of stone, proof against any fire, as are also the
walls, which are 7 feet thick in places; in them are secret rooms, one
of which is the charter-room, where many of the deeds were preserved
from destruction in the fire of 1502. These MSS. date back before
the time of Wallace, as this part was built when the Barony of Menzies
was founded by King Malcolm Canmore in 1057. It remained so till
1571, when the Armorial shield was inserted over the ancient doorway
commemorating the marriage of the Chief to Barbara Stewart. This
date, 1571, has nothing to do with the building of the Castle, etc. 1577
over the dormer windows is the date when the Castle was altered to
its present condition."
It was in the gardens of this ancestral home that Archibald
Menzies, the subject of this memoir, received his first lessons in botany,
and where it was his privilege later to add many new varieties of trees
which he had discovered during his travels. Many of these may be
seen on the wooded sides of Weem Rock at the back of the Castle.
On leaving home, Menzies journeyed to Edinburgh and as a botanical
student entered the Royal Botanic Garden, where it may be mentioned
his elder brother William was already employed. Menzies was also at
this time studying for the medical profession, and attended the Edinburgh University Botanic classes under Dr. John Hope, who is described
as a genial and painstaking teacher and who took a deep interest in
Menzies' education.
In 1778 Menzies made a botanical tour through the Highlands
and Hebrides and later became assistant to a surgeon at Carnarvon.
J *BS
Vlll.
Menzies' Journal.
He subsequently entered the Royal Navy as assistant surgeon on board
the " Nonsuch," under Captain Truscott, and took part in Rodney's
victory over the Comte de Grasse on April 12th, 1782. After peace
was declared he served on the Halifax Station. In a letter of introduction to Sir Joseph Banks dated August 22nd, 1786, Dr. Hope says:
" Mr. Archibald Menzies was early acquainted with the culture of
plants and acquired the principles of botany by attending my lectures.
He was particularly acquainted with the Scotch plants, of the rarest
of which he made a collection for Doctors Fothergill and Pitcairn.
He has been several years on the Halifax Station in His Majesty's
service as a surgeon, where he has paid unremitting attention to his
favourite study of botany, and through the indulgence of the Commander-in-Chief had good opportunities afforded him."
Menzies' first correspondence with Banks was while he was on
board the " Assistance " at Halifax, N.S<, from which place he sent
botanical news and an assortment of seeds for the collection at Kew
Gardens. Upon the arrival of the " Assistance " at Chatham, England,
in August, 1786, Menzies sent up to London a small box of Acadian
plants, together with a note to Sir Joseph, in which he promises to
visit him in a few days, but says: " Meanwhile I am informed there
is a ship, a private adventurer, now fitting out at Deptford to go round
the world. Should I be so happy as to be appointed surgeon of her, it
will at least gratify one of my greatest worldly ambitions, and afford
one of the best opportunities of collecting seeds and other objects of
natural history for you and the rest of my friends!" A few days
later Menzies announces that he was happily appointed surgeon to an
expedition round the world: "... Two vessels are going in
company, a ship, the ' Prince of Wales' (commanded by Captain
Colnett), and a sloop, the 'Princess Royal.' The proposed route is
round South America and by the Japanese Islands to China, and then
round the Cape of Good Hope homeward. Their chief object is the
fur trade. But it is not allowed for the ship's company to trade or
barter for any curiosities." He expresses the hope, however, that they
would not be debarred from picking up curiosities if they came in their
way, and asks Sir Joseph to intervene with Mr. Etches, who was the
merchant and ship-owner. As a result of Sir Joseph's influence Mr.
Etches agreed to dispense with the restrictions in the case of Menzies,
of whose conduct and manners he highly approved.
The voyage of the " Prince of Wales " round Cape Horn to the
North Pacific Ocean occupied nearly three years. Menzies had sent
home a consignment of plants and he had brought back the ship's company in perfect health, only one man having died.   In a letter dated ,-»«-r?^-*-~7—- j„
I      I   I 11^
Mrs. Menzies, the wife of Archibald Menzies.   From a miniature in the possession of
C. D. Geddes, Esq., Edinburgh.
J  ^•^
Biographical Note. ix.
July 14th, 1789, and written just before landing in England, he tells
of an interesting discovery he made while on the west side of North
America, as follows: " In a remote corner inland the natives had a
short warlike weapon of solid brass, somewhat in the shape of a New
Zealand pata-patos, about 15 inches long. It had a short handle, with
a round knob at the end; and the blade was of an oval form, thick
in the middle but becoming thinner toward the edges, and embellished
on one side with an escutcheon, inscribing Jos. Banks, Esq. The
natives put a high value on it; they would not part with it for considerable offers. The inscription and escutcheonal embellishments were
nearly worn off by their great attentions in keeping it clean. . . .
To commemorate this discovery I have given your name to a cluster
of islands round where we were then at anchor. In the course of a
few days I shall have the honour of pointing out to you their situation
and extent on a chart which I have made of the coast; as also of
presenting you with a few mementoes from that and other parts of
it.   Till which I am, with due respect," etc.
Having attained some fame as a botanist, the British Government
appointed him in 1790 as Naturalist to accompany Captain Vancouver
in the " Discovery " on a voyage round the world. He visited the
Cape of Good Hope, Australia, New Zealand, the Sandwich Islands,
and the North-west Coast of America. Owing to the sickness of Mr.
Cranstoun, the surgeon of the " Discovery," Menzies was appointed
in his place, and his services in this connection were commended by
Captain Vancouver, who says in the preface to his journal of the
voyage that not one man died from ill-health between the date of the
departure of the expedition from the Cape on the way out and that of
its return in October, 1795.
Before setting out on the voyage, Sir Joseph Banks, at the request
of Lord Grenville, furnished Menzies with formal instructions. He
was to investigate the whole of the natural history of the countries
visited, paying attention to the nature of the soil, and in view of the
prospect of sending out settlers from England, whether grains, fruits,
etc., cultivated in Europe are likely to thrive. All trees, shrubs, plants,
grasses, ferns, and mosses were to be enumerated by their scientific
:names as well as those used in the language of the natives. He was to
dry specimens of all that were worthy of being brought home and all
that could be procured, either living plants or seeds, so that their names
and qualities could be ascertained at His Majesty's gardens at Kew. Any
curious or valuable plants that could not be propagated from seeds were
to be dug up and planted in the glass frame provided for the purpose.
He was also to examine beds of brooks, sides of cliffs, and other places X.
Menzies' Journal.
in a search for ores or metals and mineral substances. He was also to
note the sort of beasts, birds, and fishes likely to prove useful either
for food or in commerce. Particular attention was to be paid to the
natural history of the sea-otter and obtain information concerning the
wild sheep, and note particularly all places where whales or seals
are found in abundance. Inquiry was to be made into the manners,
customs, language, and religion of the natives and information obtained
concerning their manufactures, particularly the art of dyeing. He was
to keep a regular journal of all occurrences, which journal, together
with a complete collection of specimens of the animals, vegetables, and
minerals obtained, as well as articles of the cloths, arms, implements,
and manufactures of the Indians, were to be delivered to H.M. Secretary of State or to such person as he shall appoint to receive them.
Lord Grenville, in transmitting a copy of these instructions to the
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty under date of February 23rd,
1791, emphasizes the necessity for impressing upon the commander of
the ship that he was to afford every degree of assistance to Mr. Menzies,
as the service he has been directed to perform _" is materially connected
with some of the most important objects of the expedition."
Sir Joseph Banks was apparently apprehensive as to the treatment he might receive, as witness his last letter to Menzies (August
10th, 1791), in which he says: | How Captain Vancouver will behave
to you is more than I can guess, unless I was to judge by his conduct
toward me—which was not such as I am used to receive from persons
in his situation. . . . As it would be highly imprudent in him to
throw any obstacle in the way of your duty, I trust he will have too
much good sense to obstruct it."
Although Captain Vancouver and Menzies were usually on good
terms, the latter being permitted (according to Sir Joseph's wish)
to build a glass frame for his plants upon the quarter-deck, yet the
relationship became strained when the Captain demanded Menzies'
journals and the latter refused to give them up until Sir Joseph
Banks and the Admiralty had granted permission, which was in
accordance with instructions issued to him before entering upon this
voyage. Menzies' work was further retarded when Vancouver took
the man who was tending the plants and placed him before the mast.
When Menzies complained that he had lost many of his best plants
through this action, Vancouver placed him under arrest for " insolence
and contempt."
Although the ability of Captain Vancouver and the fact that he
accomplished fine work is readily admitted by every one, yet he appears Stix House, Aberfeldy, Scotland, the birthplace of Archibald Menzies.    From a photograph
by E. Menzies-Ellis.
Meggernle Castle, the borne of the Menzies of Culdares and Stix, in Olenlyon, Scotland.
From a photograph by Sir David Menzies.
i.
J  *m3^m.^^i
^m*
Biographical Note.
xi.
to have been indiscreet at times in exceeding his powers in the matter
of discipline. Sir Charles H. Read, who had access to a copy of
Vancouver's journal which had been annotated by the surgeon's mate
of the " Discovery," remarks that Vancouver " seems to have been a
somewhat arbitrary commander," but this is probably explained by
Vancouver's poor state of health at this time.
From Chili Menzies brought home the Monkey Puzzle tree lAurau-
caria imbricata), the first to be introduced into Great Britain. Of the
latter the story is told that he obtained seeds when dining with the
Spanish Viceroy at a banquet at the Capitel St. Jago. While dessert
was being served Menzies noticed some nuts of a kind he had not seen
before; he put some in his pocket, and on returning to the ship planted
them in the glazed frame which had been erected on the quarter-deck
for the purpose of preserving plants for the Royal collection at Kew.
By the time the ship returned to Britain five of the seeds had taken
root and grown into young trees. One of these lived at Kew until the
autumn of 1892.
Menzies next served on board the "Sanspareil " in the West Indies
under Lord Hugh Seymour.
All mention of Menzies indicates that he was of a kindly disposition and most painstaking in the discharge of his duties, and his name
was highly honoured and respected among the botanists at Kew.
He was elected a member of the Linnean Society in 179A and
upon the death of A. B. Lambert became President of the Society.
Among his papers are two diplomas, one shqwing that he obtained the
degree of M.D. at Aberdeen University in July, 1799, and another
appointing him a member of the Nature Research Society of Leipzig.
Upon retiring from the Navy, Menzies followed his profession of
doctor and surgeon at 2 Ladbrook Terrace, Notting Hill, London,
where he died on February 15th, 1842, and was buried at Kensal
Green. His wife, by whom he had no family, predeceased him by
five years. He had four brothers, William, Robert, John, and James,
all of whom were botanists and gardeners. His herbarium of grasses,
sedges, and cryptogams was bequeathed to the Edinburgh Botanical
Garden. Sir J. E. Smith dedicated to him the ericaceous genus
" Menziesia."
Many of the personal relics of Archibald Menzies are now in the
possession of his grand-nephew, Mr. C. D. Geddes, of Edinburgh, to
whom the writer of these notes is indebted for the privilege of obtaining many of the photographs to illustrate this memoir, as also to Mr.
Menzies Ellis.
I TWH^PlMHWiMIHUH
xu.
Menzies' Journal.
W
The following publications by Menzies are recorded in the Royal
Societies Catalogue (IV., 345) :—
Descriptions of Three New Animals found in the Pacific Ocean
{Echeneis lineata, Fasciola clavata, Hirudo branchiata).
Linnean Transactions, 1791, I., 187-8.
A New Arrangement of the Genus " Polytrichum." lb., 1798,
IV., 63-84.
Polytrichum rubellum and P. subulatum.    lb., 1798, IV., 303-4.
Account of an Ascent and Barometrical Measurements of Whar-
ra-rai, a Mountain in Owhyhee. Magazine of Natural
History, I., 1828, 201-208; II., 1829, 435-42.
Proceedings of the Linnean Soc, I., 139-41, Gentleman's Magazine. 1842, I., 668-9.
A Description of the Anatomy of the Sea Otter, by Everard Home
and Archibald Menzies. Royal Society Philosophical Transactions, 1796, pp. 394. Also in separate form, pp. 3-12, plates
8, 9, and 10.
J. FORSYTH. BBR
U-
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Archibald Menzies' farewell message to his brother William, March 30th, 1791.    From a
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Farewell letter of Archibald Menzies to his mother, March 30th, 1791.    From a photograph by
E. Menzies-Ellis. I
3
PREFACE.
THE transcript of Menzies' journal received by the late Provincial
Archivist, Mr. E. O. S. Scholefield, consisted of 874 quarto
pages, representing 345 of the original manuscript. On examination
it was found that the transcriber reported the absence of several leaves,
but, on the other hand, some of the numbers were in duplicate.
The period covered by the journal extends from December 1790,
to February 16th, 1794, beginning in London and ending in the
Hawaiian Islands, with a description of an ascent of " Mounaroa."
That portion of it relating to the North-west Coast of America during
the year 1792 is taken from the entries made between April 7th and
October 13th, original folios 103 and 200B. Within the time herein
included the expedition under Captain Vancouver coasted along the
mainland shore from latitude 35° 25' north off what was then known
as New Albion, but now included in Northern California, to latitude
520 18', where for that year the survey ended at Point Menzies, in
Burke Channel. The serious work of the navigators began at the
time they entered the Strait of Fuca at the end of April and continued
until August 17th, when the boat party which Menzies accompanied
reached their turning-point near the present thriving Norwegian settlement at Bella Coola. This was less than a year before Mackenzie
passed the same place.
As so little is known of Captain Colnett's first voyage to the
North-west Coast of America, in which Menzies took part, the scattered references to it in the following pages become of value.
Menzies' first voyage to the coast is referred to in a few places,
and, meagre though they be, add something to the very imperfect
knowledge of it. Leaving London in September, 1786, the " Prince
of Wales," in which vessel Menzies sailed with Colnett, after forming
a settlement at Staten Island, in the Straits of Magellan, passed on
without stopping to Nootka, where the ship arrived in July, 1787,
with many of the crew suffering from scurvy. With her consort, the
" Princess Royal," under Duncan, the " Prince of Wales " remained
at Nootka for about a month, during which time Menzies botanized
in the woods, watched over, as his journal says, by the wife of
Maquinna's brother. Recognizing her in 1792 at Tahsis, he made her
some small presents. Early in August the ships sailed for Prince
William's Sound, Alaska, but, meeting Captain Dixon just outside
the harbour, were persuaded by him to sail to the Queen Charlotte
Islands instead. That the expedition made a stay of some duration in these islands is evidenced by the date 1787, of Johnstone's XIV.
Menzies' Journal.
sketch of Rose Harbour, and by a reference in Hooker's Flora Bor.-
Americana to a plant as having been collected by Menzies there.
That the expedition went northward soon after is shown by Johnstone's
plans of Port Etches and of Snug Corner Cove, in Prince William's
Sound, dated 1787; Johnstone being Colnett's second in command
on the "Prince of Wales." Returning from the north, Menzies says
that when the ships were anchored near Banks Island, which was
named by him, he had an opportunity of exploring the interior waters
leading to what is now known as Douglas Channel through Nepean
Sound, and this anchorage was, no doubt, that one "with difficult'
access" which they reached after experiencing " various disasters
and distresses " at the latter end of 1787.
Here too we have the evidence afforded by Johnstone, whose
sketch of Calamity Harbour is amongst those of this year published
by Dalrymple. Before leaving the coast it is shown by Johnstone's
sketch of Port Brooks, just north of Cape Cook, that Colnett touched
at the west coast of Vancouver Island, though there is no evidence
of any stay at Nootka.
After spending the winter months in the Hawaiian Islands the
two ships sailed from Oneehow on March 20th, 1788, and on the
31st of the same month parted company, the " Prince of Wales,"
which carried Colnett, Menzies, and Johnstone, going direct to Prince
William's Sound and the "Princess Royal" heading for Nootka.
Very little is known of Colnett's voyage of this year, but we find
that Captain Douglas, of the " Iphigenia," reported to Mears that he
found an inscription on a tree in Snug Corner Cove, Prince William's
Sound, stating that Etches, the supercargo of the " Prince of Wales,"
had been there on May 9th. Vancouver also says that Johnstone had
been at Port Mulgrave in 1788. It is possible that Colnett went as
far north as Bering's Straits, but the only evidence supporting this is
contained in the references by Hooker and others to certain plants
having been found there by Menzies. From Duncan's report of his
voyage of 1788, contained in Dixon's | Further Remarks," it is clear
that Colnett was expected to return by way of the Queen Charlotte
Islands, for under the date of August 19th Duncan says that he left a
letter for him on that date at Etches Sound. The " Prince of Wales "
was only a day's easy sail from that locality not very long after, as her
last anchorage on the coast was at Port Wentworth (in Hakai Channel),
north of Calvert Island, as we learn from Menzies.
Colnett and Duncan met in the Hawaiian Islands again before
sailing for China, where they arrived in December.    Here Colnett Preface. xv.
h
remained in order to organize the new expedition to Nootka, with the
intention of founding a settlement there, which had such an unfortunate ending. The " Prince of Wales" was loaded with a cargo
of tea, and left China on February ist, 1789, under the command of
Johnstone, carrying Captain Duncan and two young Hawaiians as
passengers, with Menzies still acting as surgeon. After a short stay
at St. Helena the ship continued her voyage and arrived in England
on July 14th, 1789.
Although we can find no record of Menzies' doings between the
date last mentioned and the beginning of 1780, there can be little
doubt that he was fully occupied in arranging and distributing the
various collections made during this voyage. An extract from the
first pages of his journal will give some idea as to the circumstances
in which he joined Vancouver's expedition:—
" At the conclusion of the disturbance which happened between
us and Spain in the year 1790, the advantages held out to this Country
by the conventional articles were deemed of so much importance, as
to induce government to send Vessels to prosecute the discoveries that
were made on the North West Coast of America, & thereby obtain
a more correct knowledge of that Country & the different Inlets with
which it is variously intersected. For this purpose the Discovery a
Ship of three hundred & thirty Tons & the Chatham a Brig of one
hundred and forty Tons then laying at Deptford, were about the middle
of November ordered to be got ready, as they were deemed in every
respect sufficiently adapted for this service.
" These Vessels had been taken up for a different expedition
some Months before, & were in great forwardness in their equipment
under the direction of Capt. Henry Roberts who was to command it—
when their Officers & Seamen were called away to the Armament
about the beginning of May which put a stop to their further preparations.—In this interval however the Discovery became useful as a
receiving Ship for impressed Seamen, and the Chatham was employed
as a Tender on the same service till the Armament broke up—when
the alteration which then took place in their destination occasioned a
change of Commanders & consequently of Officers & Seamen.
" Captain Roberts was detained to go out on his Expedition (as
it was said) the following Spring, & Mr. George Vancouver who had
been appointed his first Lieutenant was promoted to the command of
the Discovery about the middle of December & consequently entrusted
with the sole direction of this expedition to the North West Coast of
America. The Discovery was at the same time paid off, & recommis-
sioned, so that Captain Vancouver had the pleasure of naming his agawo
warn
i^aafc
xvi.
Menzies? Journal.
own Officers & entering the full compliment of Seamen, an indulgence
that ought always to be allowed on any similar occasion, as the success
of an Expedition of this nature may greatly depend on the harmony
& good understanding which is more likely to subsist among those
of the Commanders choosing.
" 1790 Deer. The command of the Chatham was given to Lieutenant William Robert Broughton, and as she was in want of some
essential repairs she was hauled into a Dock in Woolwich Yard to
have them compleated.
" At this time I had been upwards of twelve months retained by
Government to go out as Naturalist on that Expedition planned for
Captain Roberts, but as a state of tedious suspence was more intolerable to me, than the hardships of a long Voyage or the dangers of
traversing the wildest Forests, I requested leave of the Treasury to
go out as Surgeon of the Discovery, promising at the same time that
my vacant hours from my professional charge, should be chiefly
employed in their service, in making such collections & observations
as might tend to elucidate the natural history of the Voyage, without
any further pecuniary agreement than what they might conceive me
entitled to, on my return—My chief objects being a desire to complete
my servitude in the Royal Navy & the pleasure of exercising my
profession,—and as two assistant-surgeons were allowed the Discovery,
I trusted I should have time sufficient on my hands to perform my
promise to their satisfaction—and by that means cheerfully devote
to the service of my Country that experience I had already gained
in a long circumnavigation & particularly on that Coast where those
Vessels were to direct their course & perform their operations.
" The Treasury gave a favorable hearing & readily agreed to my
proposal, but the Commander of the Expedition made some objections, what they were I never heard, nor am I at this moment anxious
to know, being conscious of the rectitude of my own intentions—The
Treasury then resolved upon my going out in my present capacity &
soon after requested me to go aboard the Discovery to see that the
accommodations intended for me should be fitted out agreeable to
my wishes for the preservation of such objects of Natural History
as I should be directed to collect."
After a lengthened period of uncertainty we see that, through
the influence of Sir Joseph Banks, Menzies was at last assured of a
position with Vancouver's expedition. His duties included the distribution of useful plants as well as the collecting of new and rare
species. Preface.
In this he was only following the policy, common at that time,
and greatly stimulated by the friend and benefactor just mentioned.
It will be recalled that David Nelson, who accompanied Cook in his
last voyage, had a similar mission in the "Bounty," under " Breadfruit " Bligh. Turned adrift with his commander by the mutineers,
Nelson died at Timor on July 20th, 1789, at the very time when
Menzies was landing in England on his return from China. Nelson
had been at Nootka and in Alaska with Captain Cook, but his collections seem to have become partially mixed with those of Menzies
from the same places.
Amongst the members of Vancouver's crew of the " Discovery "
may be noted the name of Richard Collett, Gunner, who was with
Cook in his last voyage (Menz. Jnl., Dec. 31st, 1791), and John
Ewins, " Botanist's L't." With Broughton, the " Chatham's " Muster
Roll shows James Johnstone as Master. Johnstone had already been
on the North-west Coast with Colnett and had proved himself to be
an able nautical surveyor. His experience was taken advantage of
by Vancouver on repeated occasions, as his narrative shows.
As one of the older men (set. 36 in 1790) and with many years
of active service behind him, Menzies seems to have been treated
with respect by his fellow-officers, and owing to his genial nature he
managed to escape the difficulties of his somewhat anomalous position
as naturalist amongst men whose activities were applied to less
sedentary employments. He was ever ready to share the hardships
of the boat excursions, and warmly praises the cheerful endurance of
his companions without once speaking of his own trials. He made
somewhat detailed geographical notes of not only the places visited
by himself, but also of those surveyed by the proper officers, who
seem to have readily communicated to him the result of their explorations. In a region so full of intricate channels the reader will find
it difficult to follow these without the use of a modern chart. It is
hoped that the marginal notes will help in identifying many of the
places not named in Vancouver's maps.
Professor Meany's " Vancouver's Discovery of Puget Sound"
will prove to be of greater value to the reader in this connection than
its title would suggest. Although but 10 pages out of 244 are devoted
to the Puget Sound of Vancouver, the volume includes Vancouver's
journal for nearly the whole period covered by Menzies in the part
under consideration.
It will be found that Lieutenant Puget's account is both confirmed
and supplemented; that there are far more details in the account
of Puget and Whidbey's examination of Desolation Sound and the
2 JKjHKMISt
*BHSHSS
XVU1.
Menzies' Journal.
mi)
f
m
channels on the east side of Redonda Island, and of the anchorage on
its west side where the Spanish and British ships lay for seventeen
days from June 26th until July 13th. From the mountain on the
north of this anchorage there can be little doubt that Mr. Mudge first
sighted the cape to which Vancouver gave the discoverer's name.
Menzies relates how he climbed this mountain, accompanied by
some of the ship's officers and men, and the height given by him as
shown by a small mercurial barometer tallies closely with that given
on the charts for Nipple Mountain.
Beginning his botanical work in Port Discovery, some 24 nautical
miles from Victoria, he found a Flora almost identical with that of
South-east Vancouver Island, with the addition of the fine large
Rhododendron which is now the State flower of Washington. He
speaks enthusiastically of the scenery and climate of this region, and
mentions, under the names of similar trees and shrubs which he had
collected in Nova Scotia, nearly all of their conspicuous relatives as
he met with them.
It was in Port Discovery, too, that he first saw the Arbutus which
bears his name and which is such a plentiful ornament of the coast
from Victoria to Comox. On Protection Island he noticed that plant
of peculiar distribution, the Cactus, now known as a variety of Opuntia
polyacantha.
Although Menzies was a generous donor of the great collections
he made during his voyages, it was many years before his specimens
were described and recorded. Amongst the earliest authorities to
undertake this work were Sir J. E. Smith, founder and President of
the Linnean Society of London (1791); R. A. Salisbury (1806);
Esper (1800-1808); Turner, c. (1808-1819); Acharius (1810);
Pursh (1814); and Lambert (1803). When Pursh was writing his
Flora Americae Septentrionalis he had in his charge a collection of
plants made during the Lewis & Clark expedition of 1804-1806, and
these had the first claim upon his attention.
It will be noticed that many of the species from the coast, the
types of which are attributed to these explorers, had already been
mentioned or collected some ten years earlier by Menzies.
Sir W. J. Hooker's work in connection with the description of
Menzies' plants seems to have commenced in 1830 (Botanical Miscellany), and to have ended with his description of Rhododendron
californicum in 1855. But his most frequent quotations of Menzies'
collections, with descriptions of new species, are to be found in his
Flora Boreali-Americana, 1829-1840. *5^
Preface.
xix.
There can be little doubt that the voyage under consideration
led to the journeys of Douglas and Scolder. The former, especially,
was able to complete the .work of his predecessor by sending home
the seeds and living plants of trees and flowers of which Menzies,
owing to the conditions in which he worked, could only make herbarium
specimens. Both Douglas and Scouler acknowledged their indebtedness, and the latter uses the following words: " While in London
(1824) I received much important information from Dr. Richardson
and Mr. Menzies with respect to the countries I was about to examine.
The knowledge acquired from Mr. Menzies was peculiarly interesting,
as he had already explored the very coast I had to visit, and cheerfully
allowed me at all times to examine the plants he had collected on the
North-west Coast, and to direct my attention to those which were most
likely to be useful when cultivated in this country." (The Edinburgh
Journ. of Science, Vol. V., p. 196, foot-note.)
Sir William Hooker, himself an admirable botanical draughtsman,
frequently speaks of the excellent drawings in his possession made
by Menzies in the field. Some of these are reproduced in the present
volume; some seem to have been lost, as the Director of the Royal
Gardens at Kew, writing in February, 1915, says that at that time after
careful search no evidence has been found of the existence of a collection of plant drawings by Archibald Menzies.
He expressed, however, the opinion that there could be little doubt
that an unnamed drawing of Sanguisorba media in the Kew collection
is the one mentioned by Sir W. J. Hooker as having been made on
the spot by Menzies. Later he was good enough to send a photograph
of this drawing and the information that Dr. Rydberg considers the
plant to be specifically distinct from S. media L., and has proposed
the name 5". Menziesii. This is evidently the same plant now on our
lists as 5". microcephala Presl., and was probably collected by Haenke,
who was on the North-west Coast in 1791 with Malaspina and touched
at many of the places visited by Vancouver's expedition.
Although in some cases Menzies doubtless lost the honours of
first discovery by the fact that Pursh was entrusted with the collections of Lewis and Clark before he saw those of Menzies, yet the
latter must have gained something by the misfortunes of Mozino, the
botanist accompanying Quadra to Nootka in 1892, where he spent four
months, with a skilful artist, Echeverria. Mozino's work was to be
completed in Madrid, and he arrived there in 1803 and worked at his
various collections until the French invasion of 1808. Taking refuge
with DeCandolle at Montpellier and afterwards at Geneva, Mozino
fri  MENZIES' JOURNAL of VANCOUVER'S
VOYAGE.
APRIL TO OCTOBER, 1792.
(Note.—The original spelling in Mernies' MS. has been retained in the printed
Journal and index.)
RECURRING to former Voyages in this part of the
Pacific, it appears that the North East Wind has
generally prevaild so far to the Northward as our
present situation, those who have made their passage more
westerly have met the variable winds in a much lower Latitude particularly when the Sun is to the southward of the
Equator, from thence it would seem that a passage inclining
into the variable winds in a more westerly meridian instead
of an easterly course within the limits of the Trade wind
would have a better chance of succeeding sooner.
Early this morning our attention was fixd on a number
of small substances floating on the surface of the water,
sometimes singly but generally collected in large patches of
which we were every moment passing vast quantities on both
sides of us & the sea appeard coverd with them as far as
the eye could distinguish them within our horizon. A bucket
was lowered down in the water in which several of them
were pickd up & I found them to agree very nearly with
the Medusa velella of Linnaeus—a kind of sea blubber,
The greatest number of them were small but the full
sizd ones were about 3 inches long, of an oval depressed
form & edgd with a very delicate blue gelatinous margin
minutely dotted with purple spots—The under side is somewhat concave & beset with papillae & soft pendulous filaments
particularly round the centre—The upper side is prominent
in the middle of a silvery tinge & concentrically striated-
having a thin erect pellucid membrane placd / diagonally,
which answers the purpose of a little sail in wafting it about
on the surface of the Ocean in search of its food. A wonderful contrivance of nature in the locomotive powers of
an animal so seemingly helpless, & when it is disturbed or too
much harrassd either by the roughness of the sea strength
of the wind or other accidents it immediately turns over on
its back to elude the danger.
1792.
April 8th.
Velella.
—— ^L^ SSHffl
Menzies' Journal.
Off Coast of California.
1792.
April 8th.
Oniscus
fulgent.
Cook, Third
Voy., II., 257.
Probably a
mollusk of the
Nudibranch
division.
In the same
Oniscus which I
for examination
ferent directions
light it emitted
this little Insect
short character
Svstema Naturae.
bucket I found a most beautiful species of
immediately put into a glass of Salt Water
wherein it swam very quick about in dif-
& according to its position respecting the
various colours of the brightest hue.   As
has not yet been described the following
may serve to distinguish its place in the
Oniscus.
fulgens O. ovalis compressus, pellucidus, cauda biseta.
Its whole body is about a quarter of an
inch long, oval, compressed & transparent,
consisting of eight Segments besides the
head part, which is of an obtuse form;
each   segment  is   closely  joind  near   the
middle but a little separated towards the
edges; the Antennae  &  feet are  small &
short; the tail consists of two diverging
bristles about one fifth the length of the
body.
This undoubtedly is the same kind of Insect which Mr
Anderson met with in this Sea a little further to the Northward & is mentioned in Capt Cook's last Voyage, & as his
specific name is very applicable / I have retaind it & added
the foregoing description.
Those upon deck in the forenoon saw a bird fly past the
ship very much resembling a Duck in its flight & general
appearance. In the evening we had it calm dark & heavy
with some slight showers of rain.
The 8th continud calm & serene all day & as the Jolly
Boat was lowerd down in the water to go on board the
Chatham I took that opportunity to examine farther the
large extended patches of Medusa velella which still coverd
the surface of the sea all around us, & to many of these
I found adhering in clusters another kind of Vermes of
the same natural order but to what genus it belongs to I
am really at a loss to determine.
This little animal is about an inch & a half long,
its body is somewhat Cylindric but tapering towards
the tail, the underside is flat but the upper side is convex somewhat inflated & of a blueish tinge, the Mouth
-retri—1L1UISI Menzies' Journal.
Off Coast of California.
is retractile & opens beneath near the extremity with
four retractile feelers placed above it, the sides to the
very extremity of the tail are furnishd with numerous
soft filaments of a deep blue colour by the motion of
which it swims about in the water.
On rowing a little distance from the ship I shot one
of the large dark brown birds which were at different
times seen in the course of this passage & found it to be
a species of Albatross agreeing nearly in its characteristics
with the Diomedia fuliginosa but as I was somewhat doubt-
full of its being the same bird, I have here subjoind the
following short description of it.
This Bird is about 7 feet between the tip of its
wings moderately extended / & three feet in length
including the Bill which is 4 inches & of a chocolate
colour, the upper mandible is longer than the under &
hookd at the end: The front—a small spot under each
eye pointing backwards; the rump, crissum inner half
of the tail & shafts of the quills are white; the rest of
the head neck & tail together with the upper parts of
the body & wings are of a dark brown, but the gullet
& belly are of a dusky cinereous colour;  the legs toes
& claws are black; the trides dark hazley.
The 9th was gloomy weather with several banks of
dark clouds all round the horizon & though we had no rain
yet there seemd to be a great deal of humidity in the air.
We were favord most part of the day with a very light
breeze from the Westward which on the following day veerd
round by the Southward to the South East quarter where
it gradually encreasd in strength to a fresh breeze & continued to blow pretty constant from between South East
& South South East for the four following days, the weather
too continud dark & gloomy & sometimes hazy with a few
slight showers of rain in squalls.   A number of Whales
were seen in the course of this day who were no doubt
allurd by the abundant store of food afforded them by the
sea blubbers which we still continud passing in vast quantities & did not get entirely clear of them till the 12th when
we reachd the Latitude of 360 21' North & Longitude 225°
East, so that nearly in the parallel of 36 North we found
them to extend about 8 degrees of longitude but how far
they   extended  in  other   directions   we   were  uncertain.
1792.
April  8th.
Diojnedia
nigripes And.
(Black-footed
Albatross).
April 9th.
April 12th.
asatr    ■"' asxaa
ma*m»w
Menzies' Journal.
Off Coast of California.
1792.
April 12th.
April 15th.
April 17th.
New Albion
Drake, 1579
of
During this period the surface of the sea was remarkably /
smooth & as tranquility is so necessary for the preservation
of the delicate structure of these tender animals, it would
seem that this part of the Pacific is seldom visited by boisterous weather or violent gales of wind, otherwise we should
probably find them more scatterd about the Ocean & less
numerous.
In the forenoon of the 15th a small Bird was seen in
its flight somewhat like a Plover & though we were now
approaching the continent of America & had reason to
believe we were not far from it, yet we had no other
signs of our being in the vicinity of land excepting that
the weather also became more boisterous & unsettled. In
the evening we sounded but found no bottom with a hundred
& twenty fathoms of line, the South East Wind still continued & during the night & following day blew in strong
gales & frequent squalls with rain & thick gloomy weather.
We also quitted that smooth sea which we had been sailing
through for some days past & now got into a much rougher
element.
On the morning of the 17th we sounded with a hundred
& again with a hundred & thirty fathoms but had no ground.
Some drift wood was seen at different times & a Seal in
the forenoon & at noon we were in Latitude 390 20' North
& in Longitude 235 ° 54' east. The weather which had been
squally with strong gales & lightning on the preceding night
still continued boisterous till about four in the afternoon
when it became more moderate. About this time we past
some drift wood & a good deal of Sea Weed mixd with
grass the Zostera marina, we also saw a / number of Birds
such as Auks Divers & Shags which indued us again to
Sound when we struck ground in 65 fathoms minute brown
sand, it was at this time so thick & hazy that we could not
see any great distance ahead of us, we however soon after
discoverd that we were close in with the Coast of NEW
ALBION by seeing the land East by North about two
leagues off, we stood in for it till we were within three
Miles of the shore & then tackd hauling our wind to the
South westward to ply off & on for the night, during which
we had but light winds & a good deal of rain. At 8 in the
evening we sounded with 90 & at 10 with upwards of 100
it Menzies' Journal.
Off Coast of California.       5
fathoms but had no ground which shews that Soundings
extend but a very short way off this part of the Coast.
The land we saw this afternoon presented a prospect
by no means unpleasant, it was of a very moderate height
varied with hills & Valleys, the former rising higher inland
& mostly coverd with tall dusky trees with here & there
clear spots mounting up their sides, the Valleys & lower
ground near the sea side seemd to form extensive pastures
as they appeard coverd with verdure or low bushes of a
much lighter hue than the wooded parts, the shore itself was
apparently streight without any appearance of inlet within
our view, & seemd to trend nearly North & South, but the
extreme points we saw were not very distant on account of
the thick hazy weather.
The forenoon of the 18th we had but light airs of wind
with some rain & thick hazy weather, At noon we were
about 4 leagues from the shore / in Latitude 390 27' North,
the extremes of the land N 24 W. & S 6o° E. the latter
about 10 leagues off. In the afternoon we continud our
course to the Northward with a more favorable breeze,
edging a little in with the Coast to have a better view of
it. We were met by several flights of Birds seemingly
Puffins going to the Southward probably to their breeding
haunts, they flew close to the surface of the water—frequently following one another in a line. When at 4 in the
afternoon we got within 7 or 8 miles of the shore we steerd
to the Northwestward along the Coast till the evening when
we again stood off & on for the night.
This part of the Coast appeard to rise steep from the
water side to form a firm & compact ridge of Mountains
which were mostly coverd with wood of a dusky hue to their
very summits though some naked cliffs & patches were seen
& here & there reddish streaks or chasms seemingly the beds
of torrents falling down the sides of these Mountains, which
appeard to gain considerably in elevation as they extended
to the Northwestward.
In the morning of the 19th the wind was baffling & the
weather dark & hazy so that no part of the land was distinctly seen except a bluff point which was our northern
extreme on the preceeding noon, we therefore steerd off to
the Southward till it cleard up which it did towards noon,
& the wind at the same time springing up favorable we again
1792.
April
17th.
April 18th.
Off Mendocino
Co., Cal.
April 19th. gJpmHHBar-n;
Menzies3 Journal.
Off Coast of California.
3^B
iffiS
1792.
April   19th.
Balwnoptera
sp. (Finback
Whale).
Blunt's Beef of
modern charts.
Awash at high
tide.
April 20th.
April 21st.
stood along the Coast in our progress to the Northward.
Early in the morning several Whales were seen about the
ship seemingly of that kind called Finners. Our Latitude
this day was 400 3 North when the Northern extreme of
the land / which we found to be Cape Mendocino bore north
ten degrees West about nine leagues off, & the bluff point
bore N 2 W four leagues off.
We coasted on to the Northward till a little after five
when we were abreast of two small rocky Islets a little off
the Point of Cape Mendocino & the appearance of shoal &
broken water a head made us haul our wind off shore for
the night, & a little after we had Soundings in 40 fathoms
minute dark brown sand, but on trying again about an hour
after we had none with 70 fathoms nor in the night time
with a hundred & twenty, so that the line of Soundings does
not seem to extend above 4 or 5 leagues off this part of the
Coast. The wind which was from the South East freshend
during the night into a strong stormy gale with heavy sea
& thick rainy uncomfortable weather.
The land we saild along this afternoon was high &
broken into huge elevated mountains of verdant pasturages,
checquerd with woods & winding valleys & presenting to
the eye a pleasing prospect & to the mind the rural idea
of a hilly country seemingly capable of the highest state of
improvement & cultivation.
The gale from the South East continued on the following day with unremitted fury attended with heavy sea thick
hazy weather & almost constant rain, which induced us to
preserve a good distance from the land & what was very
singular this tempestuous weather did not in the least
depress the Mercury in the Barometer which continued a
little above 30 inches all day.
On the 21st the wind became more moderate but / the
weather continud thick & hazy with constant rain, & though
we were at noon by our estimation at no great distance from
the shore abreast of us yet we could not see any part of
it.—The afternoon was mostly calm with thick fog, we
sounded with a hundred & seventy fathoms but had no
ground. Saw some Whales, the spoutings of these afterwards in the hazy horizon loomd so as to be taken for
strange vessels under sail, & it was even some time before
the deception was clearly detected. Menzies' Journal.
Off Coast of California.
Next morning the weather cleard up so far that we had
a view of the land pretty early when we stood in for it &
at noon our Latitude by a Meridian Altitude was 400 32'
North, when the bluff bore S 64 E nine leagues & Cape
Mendocino was to the Eastward of us 6 leagues so that
we congratulated ourselves on having kept our ground so
well during the late boisterous weather. We stood in till
we were within 6 or 7 Miles of the shore & preserving nearly
that distance, we coasted along it in the afternoon with a
favorable breeze for about 14 leagues without observing the
appearance of any distinguishable Port or Inlet, though in
the evening we could not be far from the situation of Port
Trinidad by the Spaniards. We observd a good deal of pale
or muddy water along shore, & at five we hauld our wind
which was moderate to the South West for the night being
then within 6 or 7 miles of a low rocky point guarded by
a number of small detachd rocks which also lind the shore
someway to the Southward of it.
/ About 6 or 7 leagues to the Northward of Cape
Mendocino the Coast appears to incline in a little & form
a large shallow sandy bay backd by a considerable tract of
low land coverd with wood & rising with a very gradual
ascent to form dusky mountains a considerable way inland.
On the morning of the 23d we again stood in for the
shore a few miles to the Northward of where we quitted
it on the preceeding evening, As we approachd the Shore
we came into exceeding pale & muddy water forming a
defined line with the other as if it rushd out of some considerable river or Inlet, at first we were a little alarmd
thinking it might be shallow water & tryd Soundings but
had no ground with 50 fathoms of line, & it appeard of the
same colour all along shore to the Northward & Southward
of us.
We coasted on to the Northward along a rocky indented
shore well lined with peaked insulated rocks; in some places
the shore formd steep banks of reddish earth rising into
hills of a moderate height diversified with woods & pasturage. In the forenoon we passed on the inside of a small
naked rock about 6 or 7 miles from the shore in the Latitude
of 41 ° 20 N. At noon our Latitude was 41 ° 36' N. the
northern extreme of the Land formd a low flat point coverd
with Trees, bore N n° E three leagues off & obtaind the
1792.
April 22nd.
Discovered by
Heceta and
Quadra,
Ju.  7th, 1775.
Wrongly placed
to N. of C.
Mendocino in
Barrington's
map of their
voyage.
April 23rd.
St. George's
Beef and Point
St. George,
near Crescent
City, Humboldt
Co., Cal.
Dragon channel
replaces
Dragon Bocks.
fc MBBCK
8       Menzies" Journal.
Off Coast of California.
1792.
April   23rd.
HlfH:
Crescent City,
site of.
V&SS.
April 24th.
n
C.   Blanco  of
Vizcaino,  1603.
Coos Co.,
Oreg.
Probably of the
Kusan Tribe.
The ornament
of the well-
known
name of Point S* George, And some naked rocks & breakers which are scatterd off it for about 7 miles were named
the Dragon Rocks. In the afternoon we stood round the
outside of / these Rocks where we had Soundings in 45
fathoms fine black sand, & again hauld in on the North side
of them where we deepend our water & on account of our
distance off the shore had but a very indistinct view of a
large Bay which formd on the North Side of the Point.
We coasted on till 10 in the evening when we hauld our
wind off shore under easy sail for the night.
Point S* George is in the Latitude of 41 ° 46' North &
in the Longitude of 2360 00' East, the Land behind it is a
low flat tract of considerable extent densely wooded with
pines & has much the appearance of an Island from both
sides, but our distance from the shore has left this point
doubtfull. On the South side we saw the appearance of a
small opening & we do not conceive it at all improbable that
a small river may here disembogue itself as we saw a great
deal of white muddy water about the entrance of this apparent opening & along shore to the Southward of it. Saw
also some Sea Otters this day.
Early on the 24th we again stood in for the land &
fetching near to the place where we quitted it on the pre-
ceeding evening reassumd our course to the Northward
examining & surveying the Coast. In the forenoon we
passed on the outside of another group of naked rocks &
breakers 4 or 5 miles from the shore in the Latitude of
42° 28' North & had Soundings in 45 fathoms about 2
miles from them. Our Latitude at noon was 42 ° 36' North
& our Longitude 235° 44' East, the Northern extreme of
the Land stretched out into a low hammoc point bore N
22 W 5 or 6 leagues which will be nearly / the situation
of Cape Blanco. In the afternoon we had it chiefly calm
& finding the tide or a strong current setting us very fast
in shore we dropped anchor in 36 fathoms till a breeze
should spring up to favor our progress to the Northward
which happend towards midnight when we both weighd &
made Sail out from the Land.
When we anchord two Canoes came off from the Shore,
one went along side of the Chatham & the other paddled
towards us without shewing any kind of dread or apprehension.   When she came along side we invited her Crew Menzies' Journal
Oregon Coast.
1792.
April 24th.
tooth-shell,
Dentalium
pretiosum Shy.
The canoe
resembles the
river canoe of
Paget Sound
Indians.
on board, & the whole of them consisting of seven Men
accepted very readily of the invitation, having first made
their Canoe fast along side, which shewd a degree of confidence that indicated their mild & peaceable dispositions.
Most of them appeard on our Decks naked having left their
garments which were made from squirrel racoon & deer skins
in the Canoe; they wore Caps on their heads made from
the breast & belly parts of Shag Skins which fitted them
very close & comfortable; Each of them had his ears & the
septum of his nose perforated, in the latter some of them
wore an ornament made of the tooth shell but which they
readily parted with on thrusting a small nail in the place
of it. Their bows & arrows were of an inferior sort, the
latter were armd with a kind of flinty stone fastend in a
slit in the end of the Arrow by means of hardend Resin.
We saw no Sea Otter Skins among them, nor did they
bring or offer any thing to barter, but receivd with avidity
whatever was offerd them. Their Canoe was by no means
calculated to go far to sea or / enduring much bad weather,
it had some distant resemblance to a Butchers Tray being
truncated at both ends short broad & shallow. It was about
18 feet long 4 feet & J^ broad in the middle but a little
narrower towards the ends, & it was about 2 feet deep
formd of one piece of Pine Tree dug out & tolerably well
finishd, so that the wood on this part of the Coast must be
pretty large.—The blades of the paddles were narrow & cut
square off at the end, the shafts ended with a small knob.
These Natives remaind with us about an hour, & after leaving us paid a short visit to the Chatham, after which they
went towards the shore & we saw no more of them. They
were of a middling size with mild pleasing features & nowise
sullen or distrustfull in their behaviour, they were of
copper colour but cleanly, as we observd no vestige of greasy
paint or ochre about their faces or among their hair, some
had their bodies markd with slight linear scars crossing each
other in various directions & some were Tatooed in different
parts.
On their coming along side & after they were on
board they kept constantly repeating the word Slaghshee
the meaning of which we did not comprehend, some thought
it was their word for friendship, others imagind they meant
Iron a metal they were very desirous of posessing, for dur- 10       Menzies' Journal.
Oregon Coast.
1792.
April   24th.
April 25th.
Orford, Cape.
Named by
Vancouver in
honour of Lord
George Orford.
Menzies'
conjecture has
been confirmed,
but the name
Is still
represented by
Port Orford.
Gregory, Cape
of Cook, 1778.
Beplaced by
Cape Arago in
American maps
of 1855.
ing the time they were on board their attention was so much
engagd on other objects that all my endeavours provd fruitless in collecting any part of their language which appeard
to us to be a very clattering / jargon.
As the weather was moderate & the wind favorable
from the Southward we stood in on the morning of the
24th towards the hammoc point which formd our northern
extreme on the preceeding noon, & as we approachd it we
discoverd some breakers & a cluster of naked rocks about
two or three miles off it, one of which is of a conical form
& renders this point so remarkable that it can easily be dis-
tinguishd in whatever direction it is made. The South side
of the Point is made up of steep cliffs of light brown rocks
& though the Coast appeard broken with some apparent little
opening to the Southward of it yet that part of the shore
for a considerable way appeard strewd over with breakers
& detachd rocks that a near approach would require the
utmost caution.
Our Latitude at noon was 43 ° 6' North when the
Hammoc Point we past in the Morning bore S n° E five
leagues which places it in Latitude 420 51' North its Longitude being 235 ° 41 East & as it is the most conspicuous
point on this part of the Coast I think there can be no
doubt of its being Cape Blanco of the Spaniards, though
Capt Vancouver has namd it Cape Orford, nor can the
difference between our settlement of it & Cap* Cook's have
any weight in this consideration as that able Navigator
by his own account settled it by a long estimated distance
which will always be allowd to be less or more liable to
fallacy, besides as the land hereabouts is low we are pretty
certain that he was too far off to see the extremity of the
point & this is very evident from our not finding any particular point on this part of the Coast within four leagues
of the situation he assigns to Cape Blanco.
/ We continued our progress to the Northward with a
favorable breeze & about three in the afternoon passed Cape
Gregory in Latitude 43° 23' North & Longitude 235° 48'
East, it is a projecting steep bluff of a moderate height facd
with light brown cliffs on the South Side & though we differ
here also a little from Cap* Cook, this must be attributed to
the distance he was from the Cape & the boisterous weather
he met with in making this part of the Coast so early. V
Menzies' Journal.
Oregon Coast.       n
About 6 or 7 miles to the Southward of this Cape we
observd a small break in the shore like a creak or opening, but in passing it, it did not seem deserving of much
consideration.
In the evening we again hauld out from the land with
the wind Southerly which encreasd in the night time to a
very fresh gale attended with frequent showers of rain &
lightning so that we were hardly able to preserve our station.
We this day tracd about 26 leagues of the Coast which
assumd a very different appearance from any part we had
yet seen of it, for to the Northward of Cape Blanco the
shore forms for the most part a fine white sandy Beach
which here & there rose into elevated banks among the trees
that might easily be mistaken for snow or white cliffs, as
was the case we conceivd in some measure with Cap* Cook,
for that part of the Coast we quitted this evening agrees so
exactly with his description of it, that it would seem even
as if his snow had not yet dissolvd.—The Country inland
appeard low & almost level nothing to be seen but one
extended forest of Pine trees as far back as the eye could
reach, but from Cape Blanco to the Southward / as far as
Point S* George the shore appears very broken rocky &
indented, here & there lind with detachd peaked rocks &
rising suddenly to form an uneven hilly country almost every
where coverd with wood.
We stood in again for the land early on the morning of
the 26th & being a little hazy had but a very indistinct view
of this part of the Coast besides we were now a few leagues
to the northward of where we quitted it on the preceeding
evening. We bore up along shore & soon after passed Cape
Perpetua which forms a naked low projecting hilloc, & as
the day advancd the breeze freshend from the Southward
& became very squally which indued us to edge out a little
from the land & at noon though we were about the Latitude
of Cape Foulweather & the land still in view yet the haze
over it & our distance from the shore prevented our having
a distinct view of the Cape. In the afternoon it still blew
a fresh gale from the South West quarter & squally weather
with rain & hail, but towards evening it moderated a little
& we gradually edged in again nearer the land for a low
point round which we had some expectations of finding a
harbour but in this we were disappointed it being apparently
£
1792.
April   25th.
Coquille Biver.
April 26th.
Perpetua and
Foulweather,
Capes.
Cook, 1778. H»N«»li
Oregon Coast.
C. Lookout of
Meares, 1788.
Voy., 168, and
illustration of.
The Three
Brothers of
Meares.
Off the
Columbia River,
in Meares'
Deception Bay.
Meares, Voy
167.
a bay skirted round with low land of no great depth & it
being dark we stood off again for the night & had Soundings
from 50 to 75 fathoms fine black sand.
From Cape Perpetua in our run this day to the Northward the Mountains appeard high & rose with a steep ascent
from the water side coverd with trees to their very summits
—Some of the Valleys had a fertile appearance & in a fine
day would no doubt yield a more favorable prospect.
/ In the morning of the 27th we stood in for the land
with the wind from the South West quarter which blew
very fresh & in frequent squalls with showers of rain &
some hail: Those who were on deck at this time saw also
a Water Spout. We bore up along shore a little to the
Northward of Cape look out which is in the Latitude of
44° 33' North & Longitude 2360 10' East. This point is
renderd conspicuous by three remarkable naked rocks laying
a little off it, one of which is piercd & answers pretty well
Mr Mears description of it, who named it.
The land we saild along this forenoon was formd into
large Bays with white sandy beaches skirted with low flat
land extending inland into deep valleys with intervening
mountains forming projecting points on the shore & rising
inland to considerable height apparently more than any we
had yet seen on the Coast.
About noon seeing some whitish water ahead indued
us to haul the wind to the North West off the land to
avoid the apparent danger of getting into shoal water. The
exterior edge of this water like the former we met with
made a defined line with the other & appeard muddy like
the over Sowings of a considerable river. Our Latitude
was 46° 14' North & the northern extreme which made a
naked rocky point apparently separated from the land behind
it which was coverd with Trees bore North about 5 or 6
miles from us. I could see at this time from the Mast head
the appearance of a river or inlet going in on the South side
of this rocky point which I took to be what Mr Mears namd
/ Cape Disapointment, it is by us in Latitude 460 19' N &
Longitude 2361 4' East.
In the afternoon our distance from the land was too
great to have a distinct or satisfactory view of the shore
opposite to us which appeard to be defended by a long reef
of breakers & some shallow water.—Here the country again Menzies' Journal.
Washington Coast.       13
assumd a low & flat appearance cOverd with trees for a
considerable distance inland.—At 8 at night we were in
24 fathoms water over a bottom of dark brown sand, & as
we then hauld off we gradually deepend our water & had
regular Soundings the whole night.
Early in the morning of the 28th we had heavy rain
& easterly wind with which we edgd in for the shore & bore
up about 6 or 7 leagues to the Northward of where we hauld
off on the preceeding evening & had soundings in the forenoon from 19 to 10 fathoms about 5 or 6 miles from the
shore. The land here is low & thickly coverd with wood
close down to the brink of a steep cliffy shore which
appeard pretty streight with a number of elevated rocks
scatterd along it but laying at no great distance from it;
the land further back rose pretty high & mountainous
towards the summit of which we observd several patches
of snow. Tho' the country here was by no means unpleasant yet there was a sameness in the extent of prospect which
soon fatigued the eye & did not afford it that treat of verdant
hills interspersd with woods & fertile dales which the Coast
more to the Southward presented.
At noon our Latitude was 47 ° 30' N & what is calld
Destruction Island was at the same time about three leagues
to the Northward of us. / It is low & flat coverd only with
verdure & engirdled by steep rocky cliffs. In the afternoon
we had light variable wind with somewhat hazy weather, &
perceiving the influence of a current setting us in shore we
droppd Anchor in 19 fathoms about 4 miles from the shore
& the same distance to the Southward of Destruction Island
where we remaind the evening.
At three next morning we both weighd anchor & made
Sail along the coast to the Northward with a favorable
breeze gradually increasing & soon after we saw a ship
nearly a head of us a little way out from the Coast which
on seeing us brought to & fird a gun to leeward, in passing
we edgd a little down towards her & spoke the Columbia
of Boston commanded by Mr Gray—At the name of Gray
it occurrd to us that he might be the same who commanded
the Sloop Washington at the time she is said to have per-
formd that remarkable interior navigation on this Coast
which was so much the subject of polemic conversation in
England before our departure.—We immediately brought
3
April 29th.
1792.
April 27th.
April 28th.
1
»
Destruction Id.
of Meares,
1788. Perhaps
not of Barkley,
1787, as quoted
by Vancouver, ■
I., 212. BBBBI
S5^gBS"¥SS
14      Menzies' Journal.
Washington Coast.
1792.
April 29th.
BSS
to & sent a Boat to the Columbia in which I accompanied
L* Puget in order to obtain what information we could, &
the reader may easily conceive the eagerness with which
we interrogated the Commander when we found him to be
the same man which our ideas had suggested, & indeed it
may appear no less curious than interesting that here at the
entrance of Juan de Fuca's Streights we should meet with
the very man whose Voyage up it in the Sloop Washington
as delineated by the fertile fancy of Mr Mears gave rise to
so much theoretical speculation & chimerical discussion— /
I say interesting because it enables us to detect to the World
a fallacy in this matter which no excuse can justify.
Mr Gray informd us that in his former Voyage he had
gone up the Streights of Juan de Fuca in the Sloop Washington about 17 leagues in an East by South direction &
finding he did not meet with encouragement as a Trader to
pursue it further he returnd back & came out to Sea again
the very same way he had enterd—he was therefore struck
with astonishment when we informd him of the sweeping
tract of several degrees which Mr Mears had given him
credit for in his Chart & publication.
He further informd us that in his present Voyage he
had been 9 months on the Coast & winterd at Cloiquat a
district a little to the Eastward of Nootka where he built
a small sloop which was at this time employd in collecting
Furs to the Northward about Queen Charlotte's Isles—That
in the Winter the Natives of Cloiquat calling to their aid
3 or 4 other Tribes collected to the number of upwards of
three thousand to attack his Vessel, but their premeditated
schemes being discoverd to him by a Native of the Sandwich
Islands he had on board whom the Chiefs had attempted to
sway over to their diabolic plots in solliciting him to wet
the locks & priming of the Musquets & Guns before they
boarded. By this means he was fortunately enabled by
timely precautions to frustrate their horrid stratagems at
the very moment they had assembled to execute them.
/ He likewise told us that last year the Natives to the
Northward of Queen Charlotte's Isles had murderd his
Chief Mate & two Seamen while they were employd fishing
in a small Boat a little distance from the Ship, & that the
Natives of Queen Charlotte's Isles had .surprizd an American Brig the Lady Washington commanded by Mr Kendrick Menzies' Journal.
Washington Coast.       15
& kept posession of her for upwards of two hours, when the
united exertions of the Master & Crew happily liberated
them from the impending destruction & made the Natives
quit their prize in a precipitate flight in which a vast number
of them lost their lives. On this occasion the Natives had
watchd an opportunity to posess themselves of the arm
chests on deck while open, by which stratagen they were able
to arm themselves & disarm the Ship's company, but the
latter rallying on them afterwards from below with what
arms they could collect, renderd their vile scheme abortive.
As soon as the Boat was hoisted in we made sail &
pursued our course along shore till about noon when we
enterd the famous Streights of Juan de Fuca. The weather
was at this time so thick & hazy that we had no observation
to determine our Latitude. The whole shore we saild along
this forenoon is steep & rocky & entirely lind with a vast
number of elevated rocks & Islets of different forms & sizes,
but the land itself is of a very moderate height coverd with
Pines & stretching back with a very gradual acclivity to
form an inland ridge of high mountains in which Mount
Olympus claimd a just preeminence. / We saw no point
worthy of particular notice in the situation Cap* Cook places
Cape Flattery, the South point of de Fuca's entrance tho
about three leagues further to the Northward agrees better
with his description of it than any other on this part of the
Coast.
About a Mile or two off this South point of entrance
is a flat naked Island coverd with verdure & f acd round with
steep rocks, round the North end of which we hauld into
the Streights passing between it & a small Rock showing
above water about a mile to the Northward of it, where
we met a rippling of the Tide which at first occasiond some
alarm till the cause became evident. Some Canoes came
off to us from a village on this Island which was not seen
till we passed it as it is situated on a chasm on the East
.Side of it, This is what Mr Mears called the village of
Tatootche, & though we had reason to believe that we saw
most of its inhabitants at this time about the Rocks upon
the Beach & in their Canoes gazing on us as we passed, yet
we think that we should over rate their number if we were
to call it as many hundreds as that author has estimated
them thousands.
1792.
April   29th.
Juan de Fuca's
Straits.
Capt. Barclay's
" boat's crew,
however, was
despatched,
and discovered
the extraordinary straits
John de Fuca,
and also the
coast as far as
Queenhythe."
(?Queniult.)
Meares, Voy.,
Ohservs. on
Prob. Exist
N.W. Passage,
LV.
Mt. Olympus,
alt. 8,150 ft.
Of
See PI. IV.,
Mem. I. of
this series.
Sketch of the
Entrance of the
Straits of Fuca,
by Duncan,
1788.
m i6
Menzies1 Journal.
Strait of Fuca.
f )M
1792.
April 29th.
Cape Claaset of
Duncan, I.e.
'Neeah Bay.
Puer to Nunez
Gaona of the
Spaniards.
April 30th.
A little after we passed this green Island we had a
transient view of the Pinnacle Rock close to the shore of
Cape Clanset, but at this distance it did not appear to us
so very remarkable as it is represented, nor did it answer
the idea we had been lead to form of its situation, for we
earnestly lookd for it as we were passing on the Outside
of the Cape but could not then distinguish it from the high
Cliffs behind it.
/ As we kept close to the Southern Shore in passing
the Village of Clanset we had light fluctuating winds which
afforded several of the Natives an opportunity of visiting
us but the weather being thick & rainy their stay was very
short. About 5 Miles within the Streights we saw the
appearance of a small Cove shelterd by a little Island
where the Spaniards about a Month afterwards attempted
to establish a Settlement & sent a Vessel commanded by a
Lieutenant for that purpose from Nootka.
The Columbia who bore up along shore & followd us
into the Streights kept under way all night but there being
little wind, & that chiefly against us we anchord a little
before dark under the Southern Shore about three leagues
from the Entrance.
(Half a page blank in the original.)
Having now enterd on our interior examination of Juan
de Fuca's Streights, we on the morning of the 30th of April
both weighd Anchor & after making Sail steerd to the
Eastward along the Southern shore on a firm supposition
that it was the Continental shore which we had tracd thus
far from a little to the Southward of Cape Mendocino.
We were favord with a fine Westerly breeze which soon
dispersd the Fog & brought with it fair & clear weather.
In the forenoon as we went along Canoes came off to us
here & there from the Shore with Sea Otter Skins for
which they askd Copper or Cloth, but they were able to
keep with us a very short time as we had a fair fresh
breeze. The Columbia was seen again working out of the
Streights, & it would now seem as if the Commander of
her did not put much confidence in what we told him of
our pursuit, but had probably taken us for rivals in trade
and followd us into the Streights to have his share in the Menzies" Journal.
Strait of Fuca.       i)
gleanings of those Villages at the entrance, & this is conformable to the general practice among traders on this Coast,
which is always to mislead competitors as far as they can
even at the expence of truth.
Towards noon we edged into midchannel to have the
advantage of a meridian altitude which gave our Latitude
480 18' about 12 leagues to the Eastward of the South point
of entrance.
The Streights appear in general to be about 3 or 4
leagues wide, the Southern Shore / is nearly streight without forming any very striking points or bays—it rises steep
into Mountains near the entrance of a very moderate height,
but as we advancd to the Eastward to very high mountains
coverd with impenetrable forests of Pines till near their
summits, where they were capt with snow in abundance as
were also some Mountains in our view on the North side.
We were not above 18 leagues from the Entrance, when
the Streights widend out to 9 or 10 leagues across, we however continud our course along the southern shore & in the
evening went round the point of a low sandy spit which
jutted out from it in very shallow water, when we came to
an anchor on the East side of it in 14 fathoms fine black
sand about half a mile from the spit which appeard a long
ridge of sand strewd over with a good deal of drift wood
& some high poles kept erect by four or five supporting
poles round the bottom of each—What was meant by these
we were at a loss to determine. We were now about 20
leagues inland in an East by South direction true from Cape
Clanset.—The Country assumd a very different appearance,
the land near the water side was low mostly coverd with
Pines to the very verge of a fine stony & sandy Beach, but
in the North East quarter a very high solid ridge-of Mountains was observd one of which was seen wholly coverd with
Snow & with a lofty summit over topping all the others
around it upwards of twenty leagues off nearly in a North
East direction—This obtaind the name of Mount Baker after
the Gentleman who first observd it.
Next morning being the first of May I / accompanied
Cap* Vancouver & some of the Officers of both Vessels who
set out pretty early, in two Boats from us, & one from the
Chatham to examine the shore to the Eastward of us for
a Harbour.
1792.
April 30th.
New Dungeness.
Pta. de Santa
Cruz, Oaamano,
1790.
The poles for
nets used to
trap birds as
mentioned by
Scouler, 1825,
and many
subsequent
travellers.
See Appendix.
Mt. Baker, alt.
10,827 ft.
M. del Carmelo
of Spaniards,
1790.
May 1st.
u *sa<*
18
Menzies" Journal.
Strait of Fuca.
1792.
May   1st.
/. de Carrasco
of Quimper,
1790.
Valerianella
congesta
(Sea-blush).
Port
Discovery.
Pto. de la
Bodega y
Quadra of
Quimper, 1790.
Carr Point,
west shore.
When we left the Vessels it was a little foggy & calm,
but clearing up soon after it became exceeding pleasant &
serene, which added not a little to our enjoyment in this days
excursion. We kept along shore to the South eastward
starting in our way vast flights of water fowl such as Auks
Divers Ducks & Wild Geese, which were so exceeding shy
that the sportsmen had very little opportunity of shewing
their dexterity. After a row of about four leagues we came
to an Island the rural appearance of which strongly invited
us to stretch our limbs after our long confined situation on
board & the dreary sameness of a tedious voyage. Its north
west side was guarded by a high naked perpendicular cliff
of reddish earth & sand quite inaccessable, but the South
side presented a sloping bank coverd with green turf so even
& regular as if it had been artificially formed.
We found on landing that Vegetation had already made
great progress, the shore was skirted with long grass & a
variety of wild flowers in full bloom, but what chiefly dazzled our eyes on this occasion was a small species of wild
Valerian with reddish colord flowers growing behind the
beach in large thick patches.
On ascending the Bank to the summit of the Island, a
rich lawn beautified with nature's luxuriant bounties burst
at once on our view & impressd us with no less pleasure
than novelty—It was abundantly croppd with a variety of
grass clover & wild flowers, here & there adornd by aged
pines with wide spreading horizontal / boughs & well shel-
terd by a slip of them densely copsed with Underwood
stretching along the summit of the steep sandy cliff, the
whole seeming as if it had been laid out from the premeditated plan of a judicious designer.
To the Northward & North west ward the eye roved
over a wide expanse of water which seemd to penetrate the
distant land through various openings & windings, but a
little to the South East of us appeard an Inlet which promisd
fair for affording good shelter for the Vessels—Its entrance
presents a prospect truly inviting with gentle rising banks
on both sides coverd with fine verdure & tufted with tall
trees loosely scatterd, we therefore embarkd to examine it
& went up about 4 miles, some walkd along shore on a fine
pebbly beach, others were employd sounding in the Boats till
we came to a low sandy point on which we found a run of
sast mw
Menzies' Journal.
Port Discovery.       19
fresh water sufficient to answer all our purposes with good
anchorage close to it & the whole well shelterd by the favourite Island we had left shortning the entrance which on that
account obtaind the name of Protection Island. Here we
kindled a fire & regald ourselves with some refreshment,
after which we returnd on board where we arrivd about
midnight each well satisfied with the success & pleasure of
this days excursion.
In going into the Harbour one of the Gentlemen shot
a small animal which diffusd through the air a most disagreeable & offensive smell, I was anxious to take it on
board for examination & made it fast to the bow of the
"Cutter, but the stink it emitted was so intolerable that I
was obligd to relinquish my prize. I took it to be the Skunk
or Polecat.
In the absence of the Boats this day the / Vessels were
visited by several of the Natives from a small Village abreast
of them who brought some fish to barter for trinkets.
At day light on the 2d both Vessels weighd & with a
light air of wind from the Westward proceeded towards the
Harbour we had visited on the preceeding day, which we
enterd about 9 & with the assistance of the Boats towing
a head soon after came to off the low Sandy point in 34
fathoms over a black stiff Clayey bottom. In passing within
Protection Island & entring the Harbour, the right hand
shore was kept close aboard which was found pretty steep
& the most eligible Channel.
In the afternoon I accompanied Cap* Vancouver to
the head of the Harbour which we found to terminate in
a muddy bank of shallow water on which the Pinnace
grounded—This lead to the discovery of a species of small
Oyster with which the bottom was plentifully strewd but
being now out of season they were poor & ill flavord & consequently not worth collecting. We then landed on the East
Side where we saw the remains of a deserted village of a
few houses one of which had been pretty large & in make
resembled the Nootka habitations as described by Cap* Cook,
but neither of them seemd to have been inhabited for some
time. On a Tree close to it we found the skeleton of a child
which was carefully wrapped up in some of the Cloth of
the Country made from the Bark of a Tree & some Marts,
but at this time it afforded tenement to a brood of young
1792.
May   1st.
1
I
Skunk.
May 2nd.
Near .the present Junction
City, Wash.
Ostrea lurida
(the Olympic
Oyster). 20
Menzies' Journal
Port Discovery.
S§£
553:
Hi
gig
iffi
1792.
May 2nd.
Acer
macrophyllum
(Sycamore or
Great Maple of
Menz), Alnus
orgontij Pirus
diversifolia,
and Arbutus
Menziesii.
May 3rd.
Gibb Point.
May 4th.
Oalvpso bulbosa
(False
Lady-slipper).
Rhododendron
californicum
(Large-flowered
Bhododendron).
Arctostaphylos
tomentosa
(Manzanita).
Mice which ran out of it as soon as we touchd it—A wooden
Cup was found close to it on the same tree & a bunch of
small yew Boughs fastend together, which were probably
the remains / of some superstitious ceremony.
Besides a variety of Pines we here saw the Sycamore
Maple—the American Aldar—a species of wild Crab & the
Oriental Strawberry Tree, this last grows to a small Tree
& was at this time a peculiar ornament to the Forest by its
large clusters of whitish flowers & ever green leaves, but
its peculiar smooth bark of a reddish brown colour will at
all times attract the Notice of the most superficial observer.
—We met with some other Plants which were new to me &
which shall be the subject of particular description hereafter.
On our return in the evening we found the Tents &
Marquee pitchd on the low point near the Vessels together
with the Observatory in which the Astronomical Quadrant
was fixd for taking equal altitudes to ascertain the rate of
the Time-keepers.
Next day being remarkably serene pleasant weather
part of our Powder was landed on another low point at
a little distance to be aired under the care of the Gunner,
& this duty was daily attended to till the whole stock was
perfectly dried.—The Seamen began to repair the rigging
& the Mechanics were severally occupied in their different
employments, while my botanical pursuits kept me sufficiently engaged in arranging & examining the collections I
had already made.
On the 4th I landed opposite to the Ship to take an
excursion back into the Woods which I had hardly enterd
when I met with vast abundance of that rare plant the
Cypropedium bulbosom / which was now in full bloom &
grew about the roots of the Pine Trees in very spungy soil
& dry situations. I likewise met here with a beautiful shrub
the Rhododendrum ponticum & a new species of Arbutus
with glaucous leaves that grew bushy & 8 or io feet high,
besides a number of other plants which would be too tedious
here to enumerate.
In this days route I saw a number of the largest trees
hollowd by fire into cavities fit to admit a person into, this
I conjecturd might be done by the Natives either to screen
them from the sight of those animals they meant to ensnare
or afford them a safe retreat from others in case of being   Menzies' Journal.
Port Discovery.       21
pursued, or it may be the means they have of felling large
trees for making their Canoes, by which they are thus partly
scoopd out.
Next day in the forenoon some Natives came along side
in a Canoe with Fish & a few pieces of Venison for which
they found a ready Market & soon after left us having
nothing else to dispose of & seemingly little curiosity to
gratify, our appearance affording them no degree of novelty
lead us to suppose that ours was not the first European
Vessel with which they had had intercourse, tho' from the
few European commodities we saw amongst them the intercourse did not appear to be very extensive. From the
affinity of their dress Canoe & language they appeard to be
of the same nation with the Nootka Tribe & were like them
fondest of Copper & Brass Trinkets for their Ears; they
also took Iron with which Metal many of their arrows were
barbed.
/ In strolling about the verge of the wood with some
of the officers, we saw several stumps of small trees as if
they had been cut down with an Axe not many months ago,
from this it was thought probable that some other Vessel
might have been here before us, as I never observd the
Natives on any part of this Coast make use of an Axe in
felling of Timber of any kind preferring always an Instrument of their own construction somewhat in the form of a
small adze which hackd it in a very different manner from
an Axe.
The Carpenters were now employd in Caulking & on
the various necessary repairs—the Blacksmiths had their
Forge going on shore—a party were cutting down fire wood
—Another brewing Beer from a species of Spruce—in short
the weather being so favorable & vivifying every spring
was set in motion to forward our refitment.
The 6th being a day of relaxation parties were formd
to take the recreation of the shore & strolling through the
woods in various directions saw in one place a number of
human bones deposited in a thicket & coverd carefully over
with Planks, others were found suspended in an old Canoe
coverd with the bark of Trees & with Moss, but what much
surprizd them in one place of the wood they came to was
a clear Area where there had been a large fire round which
they found a number of incinerated bones & about half a
1792.
May 4th.
May 5th.
t
More probably
belonged to the
Salishan
(Clallam)
people.
May 6th.
See Illustrations by Warre
in Sketches oi*
N. Am. &
Oreg. Terr, and
Kane in
Wanderings of
an Artist. 22       Menzies1 Journal.
Port Discovery.
1792.
May 6th.
Meares, Voy.,
pp. 255-6-7.
This Chimasra
is now listed
as Hydrolagus
Colliei.
May 7th.
Point Wilson.
dozen human skulls scattered about the Area—This lead to
various conjectures, some supposing it to be a place allotted
for human sacrifices made to banquet the unnatural gor-
mondizing appetites of the Inhabitants who in a late publication are all / alledged to be Cannibals but without any
rational proof that brings the least conviction to my mind.
The number of human bones seen in different parts of the
Harbour almost equally advancd in decay would rather lead
us to suppose that Battle had been fought here at a period
not very remote & that the vanquishd on that occasion suf-
ferd by the refined cruelties of their Conquerors on the
above spot, for it is the known practice of the American
Tribes on the opposite Coast to burn their vanquishd enemies
& it is not improbable that the same horrid custom prevails
here.
The Seine was daily hauled at the Tents & with some
degree of success though we seldom obtaind a sufficient
supply for all hands, the fish generally caught were Bream
of two or three kinds, Salmon & Trout & two kind of flat
fish, one of which was a new species of Pleuronectes, with
Crabs which were found very good & palatable & we seldom faild in hauling on shore a number of Elephant Fish
{Chimcera Callorhynchus) & Scolpings (Cottus scorpius)
but the very appearance of these was sufficient to deter the
use of them, they therefore generally remaind on the Beach.
Early on the morning of the 7th I set out with Cap*
Vancouver & some of the Officers in three Boats manned
& armed & provided with five days provision, our object
was to examine & explore the country to the eastward of
us, We proceeded out of the Port with foggy weather &
little wind & keeping the right hand shore close on board
we rowed for about two leagues to the North East ward,
where we enterd a large opening which took a Southerly
direction & which afterwards obtaind the name of Admiralty Inlet, but as the weather continued still very foggy we
landed on the point till it should clear up a little, & took
several hauls of a / small Seine we had in the Boat but
without the least success.
A little before noon the Fog dispersd when we saw
the opening we had enterd go to the South Eastward a
considerable extent & a little distance from us another arm
branching off to the Southward, we walkd along shore to the Menzies' Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.
point of this arm which we reachd by noon when a Meridian
Altitude by a quick silver horizon gave our Latitude 480 7'
30* North. In this walk I found growing in the Crevices
of a small rock about mid way between the two points a
new Speices of Claytonia, & as I met with it no where else
in my journeys, it must be considerd as a rare plant in this
country. I namd it Claytonia furcata & took a rough sketch
of it which may be seen in my collections of Drawings.
The shores here are sandy & pebbly—the point we came
to was low & flat with some Marshy ground behind it &
a pond of water surrounded with willows & tall bulrushes,
behind this a green bank stretchd to the Southward a little
distance from the shore which was markd with the beaten
paths of Deer & other Animals. While dinner was getting
ready on the point I ascended this Bank with one of the
•Gentlemen & strolled over an extensive lawn, where solitude
rich pasture & rural prospects prevaild—It presented an
uneven surface with slight hollows & gentle risings inter-
spersd with a few straddling pine trees & edged behind with
a thick forest of them that coverd over a flat country of
very moderate height & renderd the Western side of this
arm a pleasant & desirable tract of both pasture & arable
land where'the Plough might enter at once without the least
obstruction, & where / the Soil though light & gravelly
appeard capable of yielding in this temperate climate luxuriant Crops of the European Grains or of rearing herds of
Cattle who might here wander at their ease over extensive
fields of fine pasture, though the only posessors of it we
saw at this time were a few gigantic Cranes of between
three & four feet high who strided over the Lawn with a
lordly step.
To the North east of us across Admiralty Inlet which
is about a league wide we had from this eminence a most
delightfull & extensive landscape, a large tract of flat country coverd with fine Verdure & here & there interspersd
with irregular clumps of trees whose dark hue made a
beautiful contrast aided by the picturesque appearance of
a rugged barrier of high mountains which at some distance
terminated our prospect in lofty summits coverd with
perpetual snow.
After dinner we proceeded examining this southerly
arm, dividing the boats for the purpose of sounding &
1792.
May 7 th.
Neither the
species nor the
sketch are
quoted by
Hooker and
other authors.
Point Hudson. Menzies" Journal.
*«**».■.
Admiralty Inlet.
Port Hadlock.
Salicornia
ambigua
(Samphire <
Glasswort).
Kilisut.
May 8th.
exploring & fixing on a distant point as a place of meeting in the evening. Invited by the enchanting appearance
of the Country & fine serene weather, I walkd with Cap*
Vancouver & some others along the Western shore for a
considerable distance as it afforded me an opportunity of
exploring for natural productions as I went along. After
a long walk we met with a thick pine forest which obligd
us to embark & the shore here taking an Easterly direction
we rowd along it & towards evening we found the arm also
winding a little to the Eastward & terminate in a small basin
of shallow water being here divided only from the end of
another arm by a flat muddy beach / coverd with thick beds
of marsh samphire. Being thus satisfied of its termination
we returnd back to the place of rendezvous where we met
L* Puget with the Long Boat, but Mr Johnstone who had
crossed over to the Eastern shore of the arm was lead into
an armlet which he supposd would join with ours a little
further on & that after exploring it he would be able to
meet us in the evening at the place appointed, after pulling
a long way he found his mistake & being late he took up
his quarters in it all night, so that we were separated for
the evening, in consequence of which this armlet obtaind
the name of Johnstone's decoy, it takes nearly a South East
direction & is very narrow at the entrance.
The next morning was calm & pleasant & we set off
on our return back in expectation of meeting Mr Johnstone
whose Swivels we heard at a considerable distance pretty
early, he joind us about 9 after a fatigueing row where we
were at the entrance of a small brook filling our water Cags;
here we met with some detention by the Long Boat getting
aground upon a flat with a falling Tide, but in the mean
time the Pinnace went over to the opposite shore to take
Angles & prepare Breakfast, so that there was very little
time lost. After the Long Boat floated they all three
pulld to the Northward & while we walkd along the Eastern
shore & on a Beach a little to the Southward of Johnstone's
decoy, not far from where we Breakfasted we saw two
human heads impaled upon the points of two poles erected
a few yards asunder & about twelve feet high, part of the
Skin about the Chin was hanging down, but the rest of
the face teeth & black long hair was entire in each— /
The poles enterd under the Chin piercd their Vertex, & in f
Menzies" Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.       25
their formation, the poles had a degree of uniformity that
requird a good deal of trouble. Having crossd over the
entrance of Johnstone's decoy we enterd on a low narrow
beach about a mile long, on the middle of which we found
nine or ten long poles erected in a row at nearly equal
distances from one another which was about ninety or a
hundred yards apart, Each pole was lengthend by two
pieces neatly joind together to about 90 feet high terminating with a Trident by leaving the stumps of two opposite
branches & the middle piece about a foot long at the
extremity of the upper Pole, The heel of each was sunk
in the ground & was further shord up by four other poles
each about 30 feet long which spread out round the bottom
& fastend about the middle pole as supporters. What was
the intention or meaning of the Natives in erecting these
poles with so much pains & trouble we were at a loss to
form the most distant conjecture, we saw some of the same
kind erected upon other Beaches since we came into the
Streights but no where so numerous & regular as here.
Having now finishd our examination of the first small
Arm which was namd Port Townsend, we pursued our walk
to the South East along the shore of Admiralty Inlet &
passed some perpendicular sandy Cliffs which exposd to
view some thick strata of fine Fullers Earth. A white
animal was also seen which we supposd to be a Dog about
the size of a large Fox but it made off so quick into the
Woods that those who saw it were not certain what it
was. About noon we reachd a low point which was the
most / distant one we saw in this direction when the fog
cleard up on the forenoon of the preceeding day & from
this though the arm inclind a little more to the Southward
yet it was so trifling that the same general direction to the
South Eastward continued for about 4 or 5 leagues further
& then it appeard to be separated by a bluff point into two
arms one of which seemd to take a more easterly direction.
The Arm was still between 2 & 3 miles wide & appeard a
fine navigable Channel for Vessels of any burden.
Having dind on this point which was flat with a salt
marsh & pond behind it we embarkd in the afternoon &
separated on different pursuits with the Boats, but made
the bluff point we saw ahead the place of meeting again
in the evening.    From this Point we had a fine view of
1792.
May 8th.
¥■
§
Basalt Point.
Foulweatner
Point. «*v
26       Menzies" Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.
1792.
May 8th.
Mt. Bainier,
alt.  14,408 ft.
May 9th.
Querent
Garrya.no.
(Garry Oak).
May 10th.
Port Lndlow.
a very lofty round topped mountain coverd with Snow
about five & twenty leagues off nearly in a South East
direction which afterwards obtaind the Name of Mount
Rainier in Latitude 470 3 North & Longitude 2380 21'
East.
The Weather in the afternoon was Cloudy with
Showers which in the evening began to rain very hard &
became foggy, we rowd hard to gain our intended place
of rendezvous but our endeavours provd fruitless on
account of a strong tide of Ebb which set against us, &
the night was so very dark & foggy with excessive rain
that the only means we had of keeping together was by
frequent firing of Muskets, at last the night being far
advancd all idea of reaching the intended place this evening was given up & we rowd in for the Starboard / shore
& went along it for some way before we could find a
landing place to pitch our Tents & kindle a fire on, the
latter was found a very difficult task it being so dark &
every thing so wet, it was midnight before we could get
under any kind of shelter & then every thing about us was
completely drenchd, & in this situation the greatest part
of the Boats Crews passed the night without any covering
to shelter them from the inclemency of the weather.
The following day continud thick rainy weather so that
we could not stir to any advantage.—As intervals of fair
or clear weather permitted parties strolld along the Beach
& met with some Oak Trees on which account our present
situation was called Oak Cove, it stretches a little to the
Westward & nearly meets the termination of Port Towns-
end as has been already noticed.
The morning of the 10th was fair & we set out again
pretty early to explore the Southern Arm, after crossing
Oak Cove we kept the Starboard Shore on board & about
nine fell in with a few Canoes of Indians seemingly a fishing party as they had no women with them or any thing to
traffic.—We landed soon after on the inside of the point
of a Cove which was named Indian Cove to Breakfast &
about eighteen of the Natives landed close to us upon the
Beach, where they very quietly laid down their Bows &
Quivers upon the stump of a tree & sat themselves down
very peaceably. They were but indifferently cloathd with
the Skins of Animals chiefly / Deer Lynx Martin & Bear ^^
Menzies' Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.       27
Skins, One of them had a very large skin of the brown
Tyger Felis concolor which was some proof of that Animal
being found thus far to the Northward on this side of the
Continent, but we saw very little of the Sea Otter Skins
among them, which also shows that that Animal is not fond
of penetrating far inland.—The rocky cliffs near the Point
where we breakfasted abounded with the Terra ponderosa
aerata & on the Beach was found different kinds of Iron
Ore & a variety of the siliceous order.
After distributing some Trinkets among the Indians
who readily accepted of any thing that was offerd them,
& who appeard to speak a different language from those at
the entrance of the Streights, we embarkd & in crossing
over the Cove saw a small village at the bottom of it, to
which the Natives who were with us went after we parted.
On the opposite point to where we breakfasted the
Latitude observd was 47 ° 56' N & we went but little further
when we found the tide of Ebb run so strong to the Northward together with a fresh breeze of wind that we were
compelld to wait till the Flood made in our favor, & then
proceeded till in the afternoon we reachd a round clump of
trees which had the appearance of an Island but which we
found joind by a narrow beach to the Western Shore, from
mis the arm took a South Westerly direction which we
pursued till dark, & then / stopped for the night which
was serene & pleasant on a snug Beach where we were
very comfortable on the Larbd shore. The country on both
sides of the arm still preservd a very moderate height &
every where coverd with pine forests close down to the
Beach & this afternoon I found on the western side a
good number of hazle nut Trees for the first time on this
side of America.
Next morning at day break we set out pursuing this
Arm which was nearly two Miles wide in a Southerly
direction with fair weather but little or no wind. In the
afternoon we found a branch going off in a North West
direction which we followd to its termination & finding it
only a deep Bay we returnd back along the opposite shore
& about dark pitchd our tents for the night near its Southern point of Entrance. At a place we landed on near the
bottom of the Bay I saw vast abundance of a beautiful new
species of Vaccinium with ever green leaves in full bloom,
1792.
May 10th.
I
I        }
Foulweather
Bluff.
Sannon Point.
Ooryhis
caUfornioa
(Hazel).
May Uth.
Hood's Canal
of Vancouver.
Dabop Bay.
Vaccinium
ovatum
(Evergreen
Huckleberry). ^•MHH
Menzies' lournal
Admiralty Inlet.
1792
May 'llth.
May 12th.
it grew bushy & was of a dark green colour like Myrtles
which it much resembled in its general appearance. I had
seen it before in several other places since we came into
the Streights but no where in such perfection as here, I
therefore employd this afternoon in making a delineation
of it as we went along in the Boat.
We felt it exceeding cold next morning before the
sun got up, the Mercury in a Thermometer exposd to the
open Air was so low as 42 ° of Farenheit's scale, this was
occasiond by our being close under that high ridge of
Mountains with snowy summits which support the Peaks
of Mount Olympus & which now lay between us / & the sea
coast, but their sides were every where coverd with one
continued forest of Pinery.
Soon after day break we were again in motion pursuing
he Arm which still lead to the Southward & as we stopt
about noon to get a Meridian Altitude we were overtaken
by a Canoe with two men who made signs to us that there
were more before us. The Seine was hauld with indifferent
success while I took a stroll about the Woods where I found
three different kinds of Maple & a Rhamnus Arbutus &
Ceanothus that were new to me beside several others.
After dinner we set out to continue our examination of
the arm which was now hemmed in by lofty Mountains on
one side & low flat country of considerable extent on the
other. About five in the afternoon we observd smoke &
some Natives on a Beach on the Starboard shore to which
we pulled in with the Boats & on landing found two or
three families occupied in drying & smoking of Clams
skewerd upon small rods—We saw but a few men, the
women & Children having fled into the Woods at our
approach & from all appearance their residence seemd to
be a temporary one merely for the purpose of drying &
collecting of fish—They told us that more Natives were
on the opposite point where the arm seemd to take an
Easterly direction, we crossed over & found them more
numerous living on the Beach without any kind of habitation shelter or covering whatever which leads us to
conclude that they were only a foraging party in pursuit
of Game collecting & drying of fish / for we procurd from
them a number of Salmon & flat fish & the men purchasd
several Bear Skins but we saw no Sea Otter Skins amone Menzies' Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.       29
them. Several of them were pock markd—a number of
them had lost an eye, & amongst them were some whose
faces we recollected seeing in Indian Cove, this was better
confirmd by finding in their posession some of the Trinkets
we had there distributed—They had also Iron Chinese
Cashes (a kind of base Money piercd with a hole) & beads
'which clearly showed that they had had either a direct or
^indirect communication with the Traders on the exterior
part of the Coast.
On this point we saw some Oak but in a very dwarf
state & on the opposite shore saw pretty large Trees of
Maple American Aldar & several other Plants which I had
not before observd on this Coast.
Having spent some little time with the  Indians &
j satisfied ourselves with respect to the termination of the
Arm, we could do nothing else but return back the way
we came, & for the night which was fine & pleasant we
rested at a little distance from the Indians without the least
disturbance or Molestation.
At day light on the 13th we set out oh our return to
the Vessels & had the mortification for the first time since
our departure to find a fresh Northerly breeze right in our
teeth, which made our progress not only slow but exceedingly laborious for the people who kept pulling on their
Oars the whole day with very little intermission till nine
iat night / when we landed & pitchd our Tents to enjoy
a little repose, These exertions became now necessary on
account of the exhausted state of our provisions.
The next morning was calm & pleasant but it soon
after became dark & gloomy with fluctuating airs in every
direction. We set off again by the dawn of day & about
three in the afternoon we reachd as far as the bluff point
at the Division of the two Arms, when it became very thick
& foggy & began to rain very hard with Easterly wind, &
as it was the intention to look into the arm leading to the
South East we landed & erected our Tents upon a fine plain
to the Southward of the Point in hopes that the following
day would be more favorable for the pursuit. In strolling
about the Beach one of the gentlemen knockd down an
animal about the size of a Cat with a stone & as he was
going to pick it up it ejected a fluid of the most offensive
smell & impregnated the air that no one could remain any
1792.
May 12th.
Meares and
other traders
had crossed
from China to
the  North-west
Coast with
Chinese in
their crews.
I
\   '
May 13th.
May 14th.
Foulweather
Bluff. ■   mmM"
30       Menzies' Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.
1792.
May 14th.
Skunk.
May 15th.
Port Discovery
again.
North-western
Bedwing
(Agelaius
phoeniceus
caurinus).
May 16th.
time within some distance of where it fell. I satisfied
myself however that it was the Skunk (Viverra Putorius).
The morning of the 15th was thick fogg with constant
rain which entirely frustrated the design of any further
researches, & as all our provisions were now expended we
were obligd to set out pretty early for the Vessels without
waiting the return of fine weather, in this we were luckily
assisted by a fresh breeze from the South East which
enabled us to reach the Port by three in the afternoon, wet
hungry & uncomfortable.
In this excursion which carried us about (blank) Miles
in a southerly direction from the Port we saw only the few
Natives / I have already mentioned, silence & solitude
seemd to prevail over this fine & extensive country, even
the featherd race as if unable to endure the stillness that
pervaded every where had in a great measure abandond it
& were therefore very scarce—A few large Cranes that
inhabited the inland pastures, some white headed eagles that
hoverd over the Arms & pearchd in the trees on both sides
watching for fish seemingly their only prey, a few Ducks
that were seen in two or three places on the ponds behind
the points & a kind of small Blackbird with red Shoulders
(Oriolus phcenicius) that hopped about amongst the Bull-
rushes with a few Crows that seemed to accompany the
Indians comprehended our ornithological list of this extensive tract. We found every where a due depth of Water
for the purposes of Navigation but fresh water was scarce,
a few runs we here & there fell in with supplied our wants
but many of these would no doubt be dried up in the
summer months. The land on each side of us was of a
moderate height & nearly level till we came to the foot of
that ridge of lofty mountains between us & the sea coast
which extended as far to the South ward as we went.
On the 16th the wind was light & unsettled with Rain
& thick weather—We were visited by some of the Natives
in a single Canoe & during our absence they frequented the
Port in greater numbers, one day in particular about thirty
came in four or five Canoes & they always- behavd themselves quiet & harmless—They all spoke a dialect of the
Nootkan language, hence it is / probable that this forms
the Eastern boundary of that great & numerous nation,
though I am inclind to think that its limits hardly extend so f
Menzies' Journal.
Port Discovery,       31
far & that the permanent habitations of these visitors are
situated much nearer the sea coast from which foraging
parties occasionally come up here in pursuit of fish & game
for sustenance.
The ship being found crank 20 Tons of shingle ballast was got on board & Lieu* Broughton & Mr Whidbey
employd themselves in making an accurate survey of the
Harbour & settling its exact situation by a vast number
of astronomical Observations, the result of which gave the
Latitude of the Observatory 48° 2' 30" North & 2370
22' 20" East longitude from the Meridian of Greenwich.
Captain Vancouver named it Port Discovery but we afterwards found that the Spaniards had named it Port Quadra
the year before, & having then anchord in it, surely gives
their name a prior right of continuing, to prevent that confusion of names which are but too common in new discoverd
countries.
The wooding watering & every other necessary refitment being now compleated, the following day was employd
in getting every thing ready for leaving Port Quadra—The
Tents & Observatory were struck & sent on board with the
Astronomical Instruments & Time-keepers—I employd the
day in getting on board some live plants which were new
to me as I did not know that I should any where else meet
with them, & in planting them in the frame on the Quarter
Deck.
At day / light on the 18th of May we both weighd
anchor & with light variable airs of wind & the assistance
of the boats ahead we got out of Port Quadra by the
Channel to the Eastward of Protection Island, as Captain
Vancouver was going to land on that Island to take some
bearing I went with him to have another short stroll on
that delightfull spot & among other Plants I collected I
was not a little surprizd to meet with the Cactus opuntia
thus far to the Northward, it grew plentifully but in a
very dwarf state on the Eastern point of the Island which
is low flat & dry sandy soil.
About noon the Vessels were advanced between the
Island & the Main when in our return we called on board
the Chatham where Captain Vancouver left orders for a
short separation of the Vessels. At this time a fresh breeze
sprung up at West with which we steerd for Admiralty
1792.
May 16th.
11
May 17th.
May 18th.
Prickly Pear
{Opuntia
polyacantha
borealie). *BW
Stiff
J1
;,f
32       Menzies" Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.
1792.
May 18th.
Haro Strait.
On west shore
of Whldbey Id.
?Mutiny Bay.
May 19th.
Foulweather
Bluff.
Possession Sd.
Restoration
Point
Blake Id.
Colvos Passage.
The second
passage runs
S.B., not S.W.
May 20th.
Inlet whilst the Chatham hauld up to the North West ward
being dispatchd to look into a large opening that appeard
in that direction on the other side of this large gulph, &
after obtaining what information they could of the size &
general direction of it & the other branches in that quarter
they were directed to follow us into Admiralty Inlet pursuing the South East Arm that was left unexplored by the
Boats & keeping the Starboard shore of it aboard till they
fell in with us.
We soon after enterd Admiralty Inlet & passing Port
Townsend on our right continued our course with a moderate breeze till about five in the afternoon when we came to
an Anchor on the Larboard Shore in 28 fathoms water
about 10 or 12 miles from the Entrance.
About 8 in the morning we weighd & made Sail with
the tide of flood in our favor to the South Eastward, Soon
after we passed the bluff Point & enterd the New Arm
which preservd nearly the same width & general direction
& which we continued sailing up with a fine breeze from
the N W.—On our left hand we passed a wide opening
going off to the Northward & soon after on our right a
pleasant point coverd with the richest verdure in Latitude
47° 38' north & Longitude 2370 46 East on which we
observd a small village & some Natives, To the Southward of this the Shore inclind in to a large Bay with a
round Island of it coverd with wood, after passing which
we found that the arm here divided into two branches, one
going to the Southward which was narrow & another to
the Southwestward, on which account we hauld in for the
Starboard Shore & came to an Anchor about six in the
evening on the inside of the Island in 35 fathoms water
close to the inner point of it. A Canoe came along side
with two or three men in her & after receiving some little
presents they paddled off in great haste towards the Village
we passed on the Point.
Two Boats were now provided with arms ammunition
& a weeks provision to go off in the morning to examine
the Arm leading to the Southward, & though' their mode of
procedure in these surveying Cruizes was not very favorable
for my pursuits as it afforded me so little time on shore at
the different places we landed at, yet it was the most eligible
I could at this time adopt for obtaining a general knowledge f
Menzies' Journal.
Puget Sound.       33
of the produce of the Country, I therefore embarkd next
morning before day light with / Lieutenant Puget in the
Launch who commanded the party together with Mr
Whidbey in the Cutter who was directed to continue the
survey & about the dawn we enterd the Arm which lead to
the Southward & appeard to be about half a league wide
with sandy shores low land coverd with Trees to the waters
edge on both sides, after pursuing it for about three leagues
we passed at noon a large opening or rather deep bay going
off to the Eastward & apparently ending among very low
marshy land, & as we saw an opening on the North East
side of this Bay, we conjecturd that it might probably join
the other branch of the Arm & make the land we passed on
our left hand in the forenoon an Island.
Up this Bay we had a most charming prospect of
Mount Rainier which now appeard close to us though at
ieast 10 or 12 leagues off, for the low land at the head
of the Bay swelled out very gradually to form a most
beautiful & majestic Mountain of great elevation whose
line of ascent appeard equally smooth & gradual on every
side with a round obtuse summit coverd two thirds of its
height down with perpetual Snow as were also the summits
of a rugged ridge of Mountains that proceeded from it to
the Northward.
We pursued our Southerly direction with a strong flood
tide in our favor & about two in the afternoon we came to
another arm leading off to the Westward which we enterd
& found a very strong tide against us. At this time we
were at a loss how to account for this as it evidently appeard
to be the flood tide by rising on the shore, though we afterwards found that it was occasioned by a number of Islands
round which the Tide had reverted / & as it was very strong
against us we disembarkd on the Point to dine till it should
slacken a little. While we were here two Canoes passed on
the opposite shore who dodged us at a distance several times
in the forenoon, they afterwards crossed over & went into
a small Cove close to us, where we soon followed them
& on the Point of it saw a number of old deserted huts
amongst the trees but saw none of the Indians till we were
returning back from the end of the Cove, when we heard
them hailing from the opposite shore, & as we began to pull
across towards them we observd the women & children
1792.
May 20th.
DalCO passage
leading to
Commencement
Bay.
Vashon Id.
%      J
Through  " The
Narrows."
Hale Passage.
Probably
Fosdlck Point. Menzies" Journal.
Puget Sound.
Ash (Fraxinus
oregana)
Mountain Ash
(Pirus
sitchensis).
May 21st.
Carr Inlet.
Pigeon
Guillemot
(Cepphus
columba).
Herron Id.
scudding into the woods loaded with parcels, but the Men
put off from the shore in two Canoes to meet us, we made
them some little presents to convince them of our amicable
intentions, on which they invited us by signs to land, & the
only one we found remaining on the Beach was an old
woman without either hut or shelter, setting near their
baskets of provision & stores, the former consisted chiefly
of Clams some of which were dried & smoaked & strung up
for the convenience of carrying them about their Necks,
but a great number of them were still fresh in the shell
which they readily parted with to our people for buttons
beads & bits of Copper. After making some presents to
their women whom we prevaild upon them to recall from
the woods we left them & were followd by the two Canoes
with some men in each till we brought up in the evening,
& while we were erecting a small marquee for ourselves &
a tent for the people they lay off at a little distance gazing
on us with astonishment & greatly surprizd no doubt at the
expeditious manner in / which we erected our houses, they
staid with us till it was dark & then went to the opposite
shore where they kindled a fire & staid for the night.—Here
I found some small trees of both the American & Mountain
Ash neither of which I had before met with on this side of
the Continent—The other Plants I saw in the course of this
day were nearly the same as I had before examined in the
other arm the former cruize.
Early the next morning we were visited by the two
Canoes who after we went off rushd on shore to examine
the place we had occupied where we left them & soon after
ran through a narrow gut leading to the Southward &
winded round into a wide deep bay which lead off N W
about 4 Miles, this we pursued passing on our right a
high sandy Cliff in which a species of Diver burrowed
very numerously like Swallows, we saw more of them in
the Cliffs of a small Island a little further on which was
also inhabited by a great number of Crows attending their
young, here we landed & shot several of them which were
found very good—We went but a little further on when we
were convincd that the bottom of the Bay was entirely
closed up by a low Beach & some naked marshy land behind
it. As we were pulling across we saw some Natives before
us on the western shore, three of whom put off in a Canoe Menzies' Journal.
Puget Sound.       35
to meet us, we made them amicable signs to come along side
of the Boat, but no inducement could make them venture
near us, on the contrary they with menacing signs wanted
us to return back the way we came, & treated with contempt
the alluring presents we held up to them. As their dispositions were thus inimical it was not / thought prudent to give
them any further uneasiness by visiting their habitations, it
was however necessary to convince them by some means or
other that we were still inclind to be friendly & an expedient
was hit upon which answerd the purpose, Some Copper
Iron Medals Buttons & other Trinkets were fastened on a
piece of Board & left floating on the surface of the water
while we pulled away to a little distance & sufferd the
Indians to take it up, this was repeated two or three times
with the same success, by this method they venturd to come
along side of the Boats. They were three stout fellows,
two of them were much pitted with the small pox & each
destitute of a right eye. As we kept pulling along shore
they followd us accepting of little presents but offering no
return. On the whole their disposition appeard still shy
& distrustfull notwithstanding our liberality & friendly
behaviour towards them. They seemd to value Copper but
would not part with their Bows or Arrows in exchange
for it. They frequently mentioned the Words Poo Poo
pointing to the direction we came from by which we supposed they meant the report of our Muskets which they
might have heard while we were amusing ourselves in
shooting young Crows on Crow Island. They kept calling now & then with a vociferous noise to other Indians
on the opposite shore in which we could plainly perceive
ourselves distinguished by the name of Poo Poo men. As
the weather was now very sultry we hauld in for a small
Creek on purpose to dine in the heat of the day, / here we
found two or three small runs of water & was going to haul
a small Seine we had in the Launch, but the appearance of
six Canoes with about 20 people in them which our shy followers had collected by their voiciferous noise prevented it,
These strangers paddled directly into the Creek & landed
close to us, but a mark was drawn on the Beach which they
perfectly understood to prevent their intermixing with our
party till we had dind when we could better watch their
motions & pilfering dispositions.
1792.
May 21st.
I 36
Menzies' Journal.
Puget Sound.
1792.
May 21st.
The Indians being thus disposed, some in their Canoes,
others setting down on the Beach close to them, we went
to dinner on an elevated bank in the edge of the Woods
between them & the Boats, with our fire arms loaded at
hand, where we had not only the Boats in which the people
were at dinner under our eye, but likewise the Natives, who
were now joind by another Canoe with four men in her, &
notwithstanding they had obeyd our request, we could not
help conceiving that there was something suspicious & dis-
trustfull in their behaviour, for they were all armed with
Bows & Quivers well stored with Arrows, & there were no
women with them. A little after they quitted the Beach &
went into their Canoes where they appeard for some time
in earnest consultation as if they had some deep plot in
view, & we had no doubt but we were the subject of it,
from their pointing sometimes to us on the Bank & then
to the Boats, but as we were all armed & ready to act
jointly from the Boats as well as from the Shore, we
chose rather to conceal our suspicions & keep a / watch-
full eye over their Motions. Soon after this we observd
three Canoes stealing as it were towards the Boats, but
they were called to & orderd back by expressive signs which
they obeyd. In a little time another Canoe was seen coming
into the Creek, & as she approachd almost all of them in
a moment jumpd out from their Canoes on the Beach &
were stringing their Bow with every apparent preparation
for an attack. At first we thought it was to oppose the.
Canoe coming in but we soon perceivd that their aim was
at us by seeing them advance in a body along the Beach
over the line that had been drawn as a Mark & explaind
to them, One man more daring than the rest jumpd up
the Bank within a few yards of us with his Bow & Arrows
ready in hand with intention as we thought of getting
behind a tree where he could molest us with more safety.
At this instant we all jumpd up with our Muskets in our
hands ready to oppose them, & made them understand by
menacing signs, that if they did (sic) return back again
to their Canoes, we would that moment fire upon them, &
they seeing the people in the Boats equally ready & armed
at the same time they sneakd reluctantly back to their places,
but as for the man who jumpd up the Bank, it was actually
33SS
«cf Menzies" Journal.
Puget Sound.       37
necessary to point a Musket to his breast before the deter-
mind villain would recede from his purpose.
Having thus retird to their station seemingly much
dissatisfied with the repulse / they met with & still in deep
consultation & some of them sharpening their Arrows as
if they were again preparing & had not yet given up their
purposd attack. We however set down again to finish our
Meal, & as we could no longer have the smallest doubt of
their hostile intentions, we watchd their motions very narrowly & none of them were sufferd to approach near to
us & had their temerity carried them so far as to
discharge a single arrow at us the consequences would
instantly be fatal to them, as it was determind to punish
such an unprovokd attack with deservd severity to deter
others from aspiring at such diabolic schemes & committing
such atrocious actions, by which already too many have lost
their lives on this Coast, a whole Boats Crew being cut off
& massacred in the year 1787 not thirty leagues from our
present situation, besides acts equally guilty & alarming to
strangers. As they were convincd of our watchfull eye
over their treacherous conduct & impressed with an idea of
our readiness to oppose their hostilities, they now appeard
somewhat irresolute how to act, & this was thought a good
time to fire off one of our Swivels from the Launch that
they might see we had other resources for their destruction
besides those in our hands & more powerfull ones, but they
shewd less fear or astonishment at either the report of the
Swivel or the distant effect of the Shot than any Indians
I / ever saw so little in the way of intercourse with civilized Nations. They however now seemd to relinquish their
design & on seeing our things carried down to the Boat
they began to offer their Bows & Arrows for sale which
was a convincing sign of their peaceable intentions & they
were readily purchased from them, as by this means we
disarmd them in a more satisfactory manner.
These people were in all about thirty in number &
in general stout & resolute men—They had no women or
Children with them which made us more suspicious of their
designs—They had a number of skins such as Bears Lynxes
Racoons Rabbets & Deers which they readily parted with
for any kind of trinkets that were offerd them in exchange,
1792.
May Slat.
- :-
fj
\
Belonged to the
Imperial Eagle,
Capt. Barkley. 38
Menzies" Journal.
Puget Sound.
1792.
May 21st.
South Head;
Pitt Passage.
May 22nd.
Pitt Passage.
Ketron Id.
TriglocMn
maritimum
(Sea Arrow
Grass).
but we saw no Otter Skins amongst them & I believe they
were seldom to be met with so far inland.
When the things were got into the Boats we set off
to pursue our examination along shore which now took
an easterly turn, followd by all the Canoes very amicably
disposed, & offering every little thing they had in the way
of barter, so that whatever was the cause of their late
behaviour they now seemd wholly to forget it, & finding
we were going out of the Bay they soon quitted us &
paddled in different directions towards their habitations.
In the afternoon the wind set in from the Southward with
hard rain which obligd us to pitch our Tents pretty early
on the western point of a narrow passage leading to the
Southward opposite to the narrow gut we came through in
the morning.
On the morning of the 22d we had fine weather again
with little wind, we set out pretty early & / rowed through
the narrow passage after which finding we were amongst a
number of large Islands which renderd the Survey & examination more tedious & perplexing we stood to the Eastward
as Mr Whidbey wishd to take up his former angular bearings in the main branch which we reachd about noon &
landed on a small Island close to the Eastern Shore about
two leagues to the Southward of where we quitted the same
reach two days ago. Here we dind after which we pursued the main arm to the Southward & as we were standing
for a point on the Western Shore we had very heavy rain
thunder & lightning with dark hazy weather that obligd us
to land in a commodious place near the Point & encamp for
the night.
Here three Canoes with some men in them came to us
from the Eastern shore, they had a quantity of the young
shoots of rasberries & of the Triglochin maritimum which
they gave us to understand was good to eat & freely offerd
us all they had which were accepted of & though we made
no use of them yet we did not leave their generosity unpaid
making a small present to each which was infinitely more
valuable to them. We requested them to get us some fish
& they went over immediately & brought us some Salmon
& if we understood them right they told us there were
plenty up a river on the eastern shore where they came 1.^1
Menzies' Journal.
Puget Sound.       39
from—They paddled off again in the dusk of the evening
so that we remaind quiet & unmolested all night.
The morning of the 23d was so thick & foggy that we
did not quit our place of Encampment till after breakfast
when it cleard up so that we could go on with our examination—We first / pulled over to the opposite shore in
expectation of finding agreeable to the Account of the
Natives a River & procuring some more fish, we found it
a large Bay so flat & shallow that we could not approach
near the shore seemingly backd by a large extent of Marshy
Country, but we did not see any appearance of a River
though there may probably be some large streams as the
water was brakish, & as we were not likely to obtain a
nearer view of them or gain any advantage from them we
pursued the Arm which now took a sudden turn to the
North West, followd by a number of Canoes which joind
us from the large Bay, & as we were pulling on our Oars
without any wind they easily kept up with us for some
time & behavd very peaceably, & as I found one of them
very communicative I amused myself in obtaining some
knowledge of their language which I found very different
from that spoken at Nootka or at the entrance of De Fuca
Straits.
As we were passing the Island we had examined yesterday on our right we were joind by a Canoe in which was
one of our one eyed acquaintance who had behavd so
treacherous & was so active against us two days before,
bis conduct then entitled him to no favor from us & we
took no further notice of him than that of neglecting him
when we bestowd little presents on all the rest who were
with us on which account he soon went away & the other
Canoes likewise soon left us. We continued up this reach
which is about three leagues in the above direction & about
half a / league wide, passing about the middle of it a large
opening going off to the Southward & reaching an Island
at the further end of it about two in the afternoon where
we landed to dine & on account of the heavy rain thunder
& lightning which set in soon after we were obligd to pitch
our Tents & remain on it all night.
On the 24th we set out pretty early to continue our
examination, here the arm trended more to the Northward
N N W. & after pursuing it about 7 or 8 miles we found
1792.
May 22nd.
May 23rd.
Nisqually Biver
and Flats.
Anderson Id. -
Named after
A. 0. Anderson,
Df the Hudson's
Bay Co., who
gave  assistance to the
U.S. Exploring
Expedition
under Commodore Wilkes
when In charge
of Fort
Steilacoom
near by.
Nisqually
Beach.
Dana Passage.
Hartstene Id.
May 24th.
Case Inlet. 40      Menzies" Journal.
Puget Sound.
I f.J*'
1792.
May 24th.
Pickering
Hartstene Id.
May 25th.
Squaxln and
Hope Ids.
Totten Inlet.
Cushman Point.
May 26th.
Bid Inlet.
it terminate in shoal water & low marshy land near which
we breakfasted in a small Creek & tried a haul of the Seine
with very little success only one Salmon Trout—As we
passed this morning a narrow arm going to the Southward
we put back & pursued it with very rainy weather & soon
found it inclining a little to the Eastward to meet the large
opening we passed yesterday, making the land on the left
of us a large Island, on the south side of which we encampd
for the night & found the country exceeding pleasant, & the
Soil the richest I have seen in this Country—The Woods
abound with luxuriant Ferns that grow over head.
Next morning we again pursued the arm keeping the
Starboard Shore on board & passing on the other side some
Islands that were divided by two or three branches leading
off to the Eastward, we found the Arm which was now
about a Mile wide winded round to the Southwestward &
by noon we saw its termination though we could not get
with the Boats within two Miles of it on account of the
shallowness of the water which was one continued flat, dry
at every retreat / of the Tide, & on which we found abundance of small Oysters similar to those in Port Quadra.
We returnd back the Arm till we came to the last opening
we had passed in the morning & then struck off to the Eastward about two Miles & encamped on the point of another
arm leading to the Southward.
We had on the morning of the 26th fine pleasant
weather with which we pursued our examination in an
arm leading to the Southward which we soon found divided
into two branches leading nearly the same general direction
for about 4 or 5 miles & then terminating among low land.
Near the termination of the Westermost branch we saw two
Indian Villages one on each side of it inhabited by about 70
or 80 Natives each. We visited one of them & they receivd
us in the most friendly manner without shewing the least
signs of distrustfull behaviour or any fear or alarm when
we landed amongst them, for the women remaind in their
huts & some of them had pretty good features, while the
Children followd us begging for presents. They seemd to
be of the same Tribe as those we saw before though very
different in their friendly & peaceable dispositions, Their
Huts were small wretched Sheds coverd with Mats made of
Bullrushes & their Dresses were chiefly formd of the Skins Menzies' Journal.
Puget Sound.       41
of the wild animals of the forest, that which was peculiar
to the Women was a dressd Deer's Skin wrapped round
their waist & covering down to their knees or rather below
them, & the men too generally wore some little covering
before them to hide those parts / which modesty & almost
the universal voice of nature require.
We made but a short stay among these people & on
leaving them distributed some Beads & little ornamental
Trinkets chiefly of Brass & Copper among the Women &
Children of which they were very fond.
On our return back to the Northward we kept the
Continental shore a board & by two in the afternoon we
came on our old ground by the large opening we had
passed on the 23d so that we had now entirely finishd
this complicated Sound which afterwards obtaind the name
of Pugefs Sound, & after dining on the East point of the
opening a favorable breeze sprung up from the Southward
which we made use of to return to the Ship by the nearest
route we could take.
In the dusk of the evening as we were passing the
Island on which we dind on the 22d near the Eastern shore
of the Main Arm we saw a fire kindled upon it which we
could not suppose then to be any ones else but the Natives,
till we afterwards understood that it was Cap* Vancouver
& his party putting up for the evening, they likewise observd
our Boats & Sails but as we were at some distance they
took us for Canoes & so they went on surveying & examining tiie very ground that we had gone over.
When we came into the Main Arm finding the breeze
freshening & likely to remain steady in our favor we continued on under Sail all night & arrivd at the ship about
2 o'clock the / next morning, but as they had removd her
out of the place we had left her in towards the Point where
the village was on we were obligd to fire off some Swivels
which they answerd from the Ship & thereby discoverd to
us her situation.
We now found that the Chatham had joind two days
before us, after examining the North West side of the gulph
which they found to consist of a vast number of Islands
with wide & extensive openings leading to the Northward
& North westward.
1792.
May
!6th.
Bndd Inlet and
the site of
Olympia,
though not
described,
were Included
in this day's
survey, as
shown by
Vancouver's
chart.
Nisqually
Beach.
Ketron Id.
Bestoratiou
Point.
May 27th.
San Juan
Archipelago.
Si
1
Mm '»    s-
42       Menzies1 Journal.
Puget Sound.
It 13*
1792.
May 27th.
Fast of
Vashon Id.
May 28th.
Restoration Pt.
One or more
species of
BooTcera
(Brodicea of
Smith).
See Appendix.
Shoots of
Rubus
spectabiliSj a
common
sub-acid relish
of Indians of
N.W. Coast.
We also learnd that Cap* Vancouver & Mr Johnstone
set off yesterday morning with two Boats to examine the
arm leading to the South Eastward which we have already
supposed to join with the one we were in.
While we were absent the Natives one day brought a
deer along side of the ship which they had ensnard by means
of a large net on the adjacent Island & disposed of it for
about a foot square of sheet copper. This being a day of
recreation it indued a party of Officers with a number of
Men from both Vessels to land on the Island to try their
luck & enjoy the sport of the Chace & they were not wholly
disappointed for they started two or three Deer but could
not kill any of them, & as the party had spread out through
the woods in different directions they ran no little danger
of shooting one another among the Bushes.
That as little time as possible might be lost of the fine
weather we now enjoyd in our investigation Lieutenant
Broughton saild on the / forenoon of the 28th with the
Chatham taking with him Mr Whidbey with a Boat & Boats
Crew from the Discovery, & left word for Cap* Vancouver
that he would follow back the opposite shore of this arm
(which was presumd to be the Continent) & enter the first
opening leading to the Northward which he would pursue
till he met with a division of it & then he would bring to
with the Vessel & send two Boats off to examine its
branches.
I landed on the Point near the Ship where I found a
few families of Indians live in very Mean Huts or Sheds
formd of slender Rafters & coverd with Mats. Several of
the women were digging on the Point which excited my
curiosity to know what they were digging for & found it
to be a little bulbous root of a liliaceous plant which on
searching about for the flower of it I discoverd to be a
new Genus of the Triandria monogina. This root with
the young shoots of Rasberries & a species of Barnacle
which they pickd off the Rocks along shore formd at this
time the chief part of their wretched subsistance. Some of
the women were employd in making Mats of the Bullrushes
while the Men were lolling about in sluggish idleness.—
There were about 70 Inhabitants on this point but a number
of them removd with all their furniture since the Ship lay
here.   One day a Chief with some others visited the Ship Menzies' Journal.
Restoration Point.
43
from the Eastern Shore of the Arm to whom Cap* Vancouver made some presents of Blue Cloth Copper Iron &c.
but as soon as they got / into their Canoes they offerd
every thing they got for sale to our people but the Copper,
which shewd they put most value on that Metal.—They
were of the same Tribe & spoke the same language as those
we saw in Puget's Sound.
In the edge of the wood I saw a good deal of Ash &
Canadian Poplar.
On the 29th Cap* Vancouver & Mr Johnstone returnd
from their Cruize when we learnd it was their fire we saw
on the small Island in our return to the Ship on the evening
of the 26th as already related. We further learnd that they
pursued the Arm they went to examine in a South East
direction for about four leagues when they found it enter
that extensive Bay running up almost to the bottom of
Mount Rainier which we have already described—then
Steerd on a South westerly direction for about three leagues
till they came into our Arm leading to the South ward, &
being doubtfull of its being the same that we went up they
pursued it & went over nearly the same ground that we did,
with only this difference that they were more tenacious of
keeping the Larboard Shore on board & we the Starboard
so that they did not examine the small arm leading to the
westward.
In one place in the South East Arm they saw two or
three small Huts from which about ten Natives accompanied them a little way in four Canoes offering them
nothing else for sale but Bows & Arrows, which we conceive was a sure sign of their peaceable intentions.
(f. 1346 blank.)
The Morning of the thirtieth of May was calm & clear
till eight, when a light breeze sprung up from the Southward with which we weighd & made Sail to the Northward
back the arm to join the Chatham. At noon our Latitude
was 470 42' north within three or four miles of the arm
leading off to the Northward which we soon after enterd,
but having calms & baffling winds alternately we were obligd
to ply up the arm, & about the dusk of the evening had sight
of the Chatham an (sic) Anchor close to a point of the
Starboard Shore, but the ebb tide setting strongly against
1792.
May 28th.
*
Asb (Fraxinus
oregana)  and
Popuius
trichocarpa
(Cottonwood).
May 29th.
Commencement
Bay and
vicinity of
Tacoma.
May 30th. '■    W"       '   ■—■
44
Menzies" Journal.
Off Everett, Wash.
1792.
May 30th.
May 31st.
Billot Point
Everett Bay.
Gedney Id.
June 1st.
Port Susan.
us prevented our getting up with her till midnight, when we
came to an Anchor close to her, & were informd that she
reachd this place the evening of the day she parted with us,
and next morning Mr Broughton dispatchd Mr Whidbey
with two Boats to examine the openings that lay to the
Northward.
The forenoon of the thirty-first I had a stroll on shore
on the point under which we lay & which at noon was ascer-
taind to be in Latitude 470 58' north & Longitude 2370 37'
East which is about 34 leagues inland from the entrance
of the Straits & as the most easterly situation the vessels
anchord in—Mr Broughton namd the point from the vast
abundance of wild roses that grew upon it Rose Point—A
large Bay which went off to the Northward was the most
easterly situation which our Boats explord in this Country,
it terminates in / Latitude 48 ° North & 238 ° 2' East
Longitude. The land every where round us was still of
a very moderate height & coverd with a thick forest of
different kinds of Pine trees. In a marshy situation behind
the Beach I found some Aquatic plants I had not before
met with.
In the afternoon we both weighd to follow the Boats
up the arm to the Northward but did not proceed far when
we came to again near an inland (sic) in mid-channel for
the night during which it raind very heavy. Some dogs had
been left on shore on this Island whose yellings were heard
several times in the night.
In the morning of the first of June we weighd anchor
& finding the Arm a little to the Northward of us divide
into two branches, we stood up the Eastermost which soon
in the afternoon we found to terminate in a large Bay with
very shallow water & muddy bottom, on which the Chatham
who was about two miles ahead of us got aground owing
to the inattention or unskilfulness of the leadsman, for on
sounding afterwards they found they had run over a flat
of near half a mile so very level that there was not more
than a foot depth of water difference, yet the leadsman
passed over this space without perceiving it, till they struck,
which was upon an ebb tide, & it afterwards fell about five
feet—they carried out a small Anchor three hawsers length
from the Vessel & after heaving tight waited the return of
the flood tide which about 11 floated them without having T
Menzies' Journal.
Off Tutalip, Wash.       45
receivd any injury, when they hauld out and brought to in
deeper water.
Next morning we had rain & foggy weather which
continued till about noon.    In the forenoon we both weighd
i& with a light northerly air returnd down the arm till we
came a little below the point of division & then anchord
near the eastern shore abreast of a small Bay formd between
two steep sandy bluffs into which we found some small
streams of fresh water empty themselves which was rather
a scarce article hitherto / in our different explorings.—We
■also saw some of the long Poles already mentioned erected
upon the Beach.
In the evening the two Boats returnd after having
carried their examination to the termination of the west-
-ern branch which was namd Port Gardner & which like
the rest they found to end with Shoal water surrounded
by low land.—In this arm they saw two Villages pretty-
numerously inhabited with Natives, they supposd there
might be upwards of 200 in each, & they behavd very
peaceably. They found Oak Timber more abundant in
this arm than any we had yet explored & the country to
the westward of it they describe as a fine rich Country
abounding with luxuriant lawns, cropt with the finest
verdure & extensive prospects teeming with the softer
beauties of nature as we have already mentioned in our
view of it from Port Townsend.
We remaind here the two following days with fine
pleasant weather. The latter being the King's Birth Day,
Capt Vancouver landed about noon with some of the
Officers on the South point of the small Bay where he
took posession of the Country with the usual forms in
his Majesty's name & namd it New Georgia & on hoisting
the English Colours on the spot each Vessel proclaimd it
aloud with a Royal Salute in honor of the Day.
We both weighd anchor early on the morning of the
5th & with a moderate breeze from the Northward made
Sail back again out of the Arm after having explored its
different branches. We were joind from the Western
branch which the Boats last examined by several Canoes
who accompanied us to near the entrance of the Arm,
where a fresher breeze from the North West carried us
from them & they remaind with their Canoes for some
1792.
June 1st.
June 2nd.
Tulalip.
Anchorage
shown on
Vaneouver'i
chart.
Saratoga
Passage.
Gardner's
name still in
use for large
inlet farther
north.
June 3rd.
June 4th.
South point of
Tulalip Bay.
June 5th.
J i If,
111
46
Menzies" Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.
1792.
June  5th.
Foulweather
Bluff.
June 6tb.
South of
Marrowstone
Point.
Smith's Id.
Oyster-catchers
(Scematopus
Bachmanii).
On Cypress Id.
Rhinoceros
Auklet
(OerorMnca
monocerata).
time motionless gazing upon us with the utmost astonishment, & as we were obliged to ply soon after against the
breeze back Admiralty Inlet, our whole mechanical manoeuvres in working the Vessels with so much apparent ease
seemd greatly to increase their admiration, by which we
were pretty certain that we were the first Vessels they ever
saw traversing their / winding Channels.
In the dusk of the Evening we passed the bluff point
at the division of the first long arm & about midnight came
to an Anchor a few Miles beyond it on the Western shore,
but the Chatham being swept by a strong eddy into Oak
Cove was obligd to come to in the entrance of it much
sooner.
Next morning we had westerly wind, but being favord
with a strong ebb tide we both weighd & plyd against a
pretty fresh breeze till towards noon when it fell nearly
calm & having got out of Admiralty Inlet we both came
to an Anchor on the outside near the North point of its
entrance. As Capt Vancouver & Mr Broughton were at
this time going off in a Boat to observe for the Latitude
& take bearing on a small Island about 4 or 5 miles to the
Northward of us I accompanied them to examine it, at the
same time for plants, but I found nothing different from
what I had before met with in the Arms—About the Rocks
were a number of black Sea pies of which we shot several
& found them good eating—Most part of the Island was
faced with a sandy cliff & coverd with Pines densely copsed
with Underwood.
Mr Whidbey having receivd orders before we left the
Vessel to equip two Boats with the necessary arms & provisions & to proceed to the Northward along the Eastern
shore of this gulph examining the different Inlets he might
fall in with till he came to a place on the North side where
the Chatham had anchored which Mr Broughton had named
Strawberry Bay, & which was pointed out as the place of
rendezvous. On our return from the small Islands we
found Mr Whidbey had gone off with the .two Boats to
execute these orders & that the Vessels had been visited
by a few Natives who had nothing to dispose of but a
few Water Fowls particularly a blackish colourd species
of Auk with a hornlike excrescence rising from the ridge tmm9m**m
1
Menzie/ Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.       47
of its Bill, & as it appeard to be a new species I named it
Alca Rhinoceros & describd it.    (Vide fig:)
/ We cannot quit Admiralty Inlet without observing
that its beautiful Canals & wandering navigable branches
traverse through a low flat Country upwards of 20 leagues
to the Southward of its entrance & 8 or 9 leagues to the
Eastward & to the North East, thus diffusing utility &
ornament to a rich Country by affording a commodious
& ready communication through every part of it, to the
termination of the most distant branches. Its short distance from the Ocean which is not above 26 leagues, & easy
access by the streights of Juan de Fuca is likewise much
in its favour should its fertile banks be hereafter settled by
any civilized nation. Its shores are for the most part sandy
intermixed with pebbles & a variety of small silicious stones
abounding with Iron Ore in various forms, for we hardly
met with a Rock or Stone that was not evidently less or
more impregnated with this usefull Metal which the benevolent hand of Nature has so liberaly dispersed throughout
almost every part of the world but perhaps no where so
apparently abundant as along the Shores of this great Inlet.
At the angular windings of these Canals we generely
found low flat points evidently formed by the deposits of
the Tides & Currents embanking them round by a high
beach, behind which were frequently seen ponds of Salt
Water that at first no less astonishd our curiosity concerning their formation than baulked our hopes when we
approachd them either to quench our thirst or fill our Water
Cags. Many of these ponds were at the distance of some
hundred yards from the Sea Side & appeard to us to have
no other means of communication or supply than that of
oozing through the beach & loose gravely soil which composed the Point.
The general appearance of the Country from this
station was as follows. To the South West of us a high
ridge of Mountains ran from the outer point of de Fuca's
entrance in a South East direction,—gradualy increasing
in height to form the rugged elevated peaks of Mount
Olympus in Latitude 47° 48' N / & Longitude 236° 30' East
& afterwards diminisliing suddenly & ending a little beyond
the termination of the first long arm we examined.
1793.
June 6th. mm
If
48       Menzies" Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.
1792.
June 6th.
To the South East of us down Admiralty Inlet was
seen through a beautiful avenue formed by the Banks of
the Inlet Mount Rainier at the distance of 26 Leagues,
which did not diminish but rather apparently augmented its
great elevation & huge bulky appearance; from it a compleat
ridge of Mountains with rugged & picked summits covered
here & there with patches of Snow & forming a solid &
impassable barrier on the East Side of New Georgia, runing
in a due North direction to join Mount Baker about 15
leagues to the North Eastward of us & from thence proceeded in high broken Mountains to the North Westward.
Between us & the above Ridge & to the Southward of
us between the two Mountains already mentioned a fine
level Country intervened chiefly covard with pine forests
abounding here & there with clear spots of considerable
extent & intersected with the various winding branches of
Admiralty Inlet as already mentioned. These clear spots
or lawns are clothed with a rich carpet of Verdure & adornd
with clumps of Trees & a surrounding verge of scatterd
Pines which with their advantageous situation on the Banks
of these inland Arms of the Sea give them a beauty of
prospect equal to the most admired Parks in England.
A Traveller wandering over these unfrequented Plains
is regaled with a salubrious & vivifying air impregnated
with the balsamic fragrance of the surrounding Pinery,
while his mind is eagerly occupied every moment on new
objects & his senses rivetted on the enchanting variety of
the surrounding scenery where the softer beauties of Landscape are harmoniously blended in majestic grandeur with
the wild & romantic to form an interesting / & picturesque
prospect on every side.
The Climate appeard to us exceeding favorable in so
high a Latitude, a gentle westerly breeze generaly set in the
forenoon which died away in the Evening & the Nights were
mostly calm & serene, nor do we believe that those destructive Gales which drive their furious course along the exterior
edge of the Coast ever visit these interior region^ but with
the mildest force, as we saw no traces of their devastation
that would lead us to think otherwise. The Soil tho in
general light & gravely would I am confident yield most of
the European fruits & grains in perfection, so that it offers
a desirable situation for a new Settlement to carry on Hus- *-^
tmm
T*
Menzies' Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.       49
bandry in its various branches, if the scarcity of fresh water
which we frequently experiencd in most of our excursions
through it, might not be severely felt in dry seasons, as
many of the Rillets which supplied our wants, seemd to
depend on Rain or the Melted Snow from the Neighbouring Mountains, which of consequence might then be dried
up & cause an insurmountable difficulty in procuring that
useful element so necessary to the existence of the animated
creation.
The Woods here were chiefly composed of the Silver
Fir—White Spruce—Norway Spruce & Hemlock Spruce
together with the American Abor Vitae & Common Yew:
& besides these we saw a variety of hard wood scattered
along the Banks of the Arms, such as Oak—the Sycamore
or great Maple—Sugar Maple—Mountain Maple & Pen-
sylvanian Maple—the Tacamahac & Canadian Poplars—the
American Ash—common Hazel—American Alder—Common Willow & the Oriental Arbute, but none of their hard
wood Trees were in great abundance or acquired sufficient
size to be of any great utility, except the Oak in some particular places, as at Port Gardner & Oak Cove. / We also
met here pretty frequent in the Wood with that beautiful
Native of the Levant the purple Rododendron, together with
the great flowered Dog wood, Common Dog-wood & Canadian Dog-wood—the Caroline Rose & Dog Rose, but most
part of the Shrubs & Underwood were new & undescribed,
several of them I named, as Arbutus glauca, Vaccinium
lucidum Vaccinium lucidum, Vaccinium tetragonum, Loni-
cera Nootkagensis, Gaultheria fruticosa, Spiraea serrulata,
Rubus Nootkagensis. Others from particular circumstances
were doubtful & could not be ascertained till they are hereafter compared with more extensive description &c. on my
return to England.
The wild fruits were Goosberries, Currants, two kinds
of Rasberries, two kinds of Whattleberries, small fruited
Crabs & a new species of Barberry.
The Inhabitants of this extensive Country did not
appear to us on making every allowance of computation
from the different Villages & strolling parties that were
met with to exceed one thousand in all, a number indeed
too small for such a fine territory; but when we reflect
that the hunting state is by no means a favorable state for
1792.
June 6th.
See Appendix.
•**» —Ml
50      Menzies" Journal.
Admiralty Inlet.
1792.
June 6th.
\\&l
June 7th.
June 8th.
Cypress Id.
Orcas and
smaller islands
at the San
Juan group.
population, & that in this Country neighbouring tribes are
generaly at War with each other, which from their savage
disposition & inexorable cruelties makes great havock
amongst the weakest Tribes, our surprize at the fewness
of Inhabitants will in some measure cease. But there is
another cause which may have powerfuly co-operated to
occasion this depopulation & that in the advantages &
novelty which a traffic with civilized Nations has held out
of late years by trading vessels along the Sea Coast, which
has no doubt been a sufficient allurement to entice considerable emigrations from the interior Country, & this idea is
by no means inconsistent with their roving dispositions &
ways of life, for they seem to have no permanent or fixd
habitations, but wander about from place to place just as
the whim or necessity of the moment impells them, or as it
happens to suit their conveniency for procuring subsistence
either by fishing or hunting.
/ Most part of the 7th of June was calm till 4 in the
afternoon when a light breeze set in from the Westward
with which we both weighd & stood to the Northward near
the Eastern side of the Gulph & having gone about 5 or 6
leagues we came to an Anchor again in the evening near
some Islands & broken land on the North side.
The forenoon of the 8th was mostly calm with a strong
Tide running to the Southward, which detaind us till it
changd in our favor about 3 in the afternoon, when both
vessels weighd & began plying to the Northward for an
opening in that direction, but it soon after fell calm, & the
Discovery with the assistance of her Boats was able to get
into Strawberry Bay on the East side of the opening near
the entrance where she came to an Anchor at 6 in the
evening, while the Chatham was impelled by a strong flood
Tide into an opening a little more to the Eastward, in which
situation as neither helm nor canvass had any power over
her, all were alarmd for her safety & anxious to hear of
her fate. Mr Broughton himself was not at this time on
board he went off in the forenoon in a Boat, to finish his
Survey of the Islands that were to the Westward of us, on
the North side of the Gulph, & as the rugged appearance
of these seemd to offer a new field for my researches I
accompanied him by a friendly invitation. Menzies' Journal.
Cypress Island.      51
On landing we could not help noticing the great difference between these Islands & that fine Country we had
so lately examined, tho not removd from it above 2 or 3
leagues. Here the land rose rugged & hilly to a moderate
height & was composd of massy solid Rocks coverd with
a thin layer of blackish mould which afforded nourishment
to a straddling forest of small stinted pines. The Shores
were almost every where steep rugged & cliffy which made
Landing difficult & the woods were in many places equally
difficult of access from the rocky cliffs & chasms / with
which they abounded, but I was not at all displeasd at the
change & general ruggedness of the surface of the Country
as it producd a pleasing variety in the objects of my pursuit
& added Considerably to my Catalogue of Plants.
I here found another species of that new genus I
discoverd at Village Point in Admiralty Inlet, & a small
well tasted wild onion which grew in little Tufts in the
crevices of the Rocks with a species of Arenaria both new.
I also met with the Lilium Canadense & the Lilium Cam-
schatcense, the roots of the latter is the Sarana so much
esteemd by the Kamtschadales as a favourite food. Vide
Cook's Voyage.
We rowed through some small Channels among these
Islands & on our return again in the cool of the evening
which was serene & pleasant we saw several Deer browsing
among the Cliffs in different places: they were no wise shy
as they sufferd us to approach very near them & it happend
unluckily that neither Mr. Broughton or myself had any
thing with us but small shot for our pieces which could have
no effect upon them, indeed the reason was we hardly
expected to meet with any quadruped on these Islands so
did not provide ourselves for it. As we were afterwards
crossing the Channel to join the Vessels in Strawberry Bay
we landed on a small flat Island where we shot a number
of black sea pies & carried them on board with us together
with the young of a large Crane we got upon another Island
which I took to be the Ardea Canadensis. As it was late
before we joind the Ship Mr. Broughton remaind on board
the Discovery all Night,    and
Next day a Boat came to us from the Chatham when
we were informd that she was at an Anchor in a critical
situation at the entrance of an opening to the Eastward of
1792.
June 8th.
The Saranne
Lily, Fritillaria
camtschatcen-
8i8, is not so
common here as
F. lanceolata.
Both eaten by
natives.
June 9th. 52
Memies? lournal.
Cypress Island.
1792.
June 9th.
Deception Pass.
June 10th.
Common Trout
(Salmo
myjciss).
June 11th.
us where they lost their stream Anchor by the force &
rapidity of the / Tide which ran at the rate of about 5 miles
an hour & snappd the Cable as they were bringing up. As
often as the Tide slackend they used their endeavours by
every scheme they could think of to recover the lost Anchor
but without success & the loss of it was more severely felt
as it was the only one of the kind they had been supplied
with.
We were likewise informd that early in the Morning
Mr. Whidbey had called along side of the Chatham after
having explored the first opening he was directed to enter,
which it seems he found to communicate by a narrow Channel with what he had before conceived to be the termination
of Port Gardner making the North East side of Admiralty
Inlet a fine large Island which obtaind the name of Whidbey's Island. After a short stay on board the Chatham, the
two Boats set off again to continue their examination of the
Continental shore to the North East ward. The Brewers
landed from the Discovery with their Utensils & began
to make Beer from the fresh branches of the Spruce, &
another party began watering from a small run at the
bottom of the Bay.
In the forenoon of the 10th the Chatham came into
the Bay & Anchord on the inside of us & in the afternoon the two Boats returnd from the North ward having
made the Land to the Eastward of us which was pretty
high & hilly a group of Islands coverd with Pine Forests
to their very summits & surrounded with rocky shores &
rocky Channels. The bottom of this Bay was a stoney
beach on which the Seine was repeatedly hauled without
success & behind it was a small Pond in which was found
a particular variety of Trout I had not seen before with a
vermilion colourd spot near the lower angle of the Gills but
differing in no other respect from the common fresh water
Trout. The Bay was shelterd on the West side by an
Island but the Anchorage was much exposed to the Southerly Wind.
At day light on the nth we both weigh'd & made Sail
to the Northward through the Inlet leaving / Strawberry
Bay with a light breeze from the Southward & serene
pleasant Weather. About 8 we passed an opening leading
to the Eastward & enterd a wide & spacious opening of an "^
Menzies' Journal.
Gulf of Georgia.       53
unbounded horizon to the North West & as we advanced
on we could perceive that the South West shore was composed of a broken group of Islands intersected by numerous
inlets branching in every direction while the opposite shore
on our right appeard streight & formed by a tract of low
land backd at some distance by a high broken ridge of
snowy mountains stretching to the North west ward from
Mount Baker which at Noon bore N780 E* when our Latitude was 48 ° 50' North about 2 miles off the Eastern shore;
at this place the opening was about 3 leagues wide.
In the afternoon we continued our course along the
Starboard shore with a very light breeze & seemingly a Tide
against us so that our progress was very slow & in the
evening stood in for a large Bay where we came to an
Anchor in 5 fathom over a soft bottom about half a mile
from the Shore.
As this Bay was eligibly situated for the Vessels to stop
at, Captain Vancouver & some of the Officers went on shore
to look for a commodious place for erecting the Observatory
on, & carrying on the other duties while the Boats might be
absent. I accompanied this party who landed on the South
side of the Bay where we saw the scite of a very large Village now overgrown with a thick crop of Nettles & bushes,
we walkd along the Beach to a low point between us & the
bottom of the Bay where we found a delightful clear & level
spot cropt with Grass & wild flowers & divided from the
forest by a winding stream of fresh water that emptied
itself into the bottom of the Bay & added not only to the
beauty but to the conveniency of the situation for carrying
on all our operations to the best advantage, it was therefore
determined to remove the Vessels abreast of this point the
next morning & dispatch two boats to examine the Star
board shore of the large arm / to the northwestward.
Early on the Morning of the 12th Cap* Vancouver set
off in the Pinnace accompanied by Lieut. Puget in the
Launch to explore the Shore & openings on the North side
of the great North West Arm. These Boats were well
armed & equipped with every necessary for 10 days.
The Marquee Tents & Observatory were pitchd on
the spot allotted for them on the preceeding evening—the
Astronomical Instruments & Time-keepers were landed &
the necessary observations for ascertaining the rates of the
1792.
June 11th.
Birch Bay.
Nettle (Vrtioa
Lyallii).   Much
used formerly
by Indians for
making twine
and nets.
June 12th. 1792.
June 12th.
Aspen Poplar
(Populus
tremuloides or
Vancouver- *
ensis).
Menzies" Journal.
Birch Bay.
Melanthiunij
probably
Zygadenus
vcnenosus
(Poison
Camas).
latter were diligently made & continued under the direction
of Mr. Broughton.
The Blacksmiths Brewers & Carpenters were also on
shore employed on their different occupations as the weather
continued serene mild & pleasant & exceeding favorable for
prosecuting every pursuit both on board & on shore.
I landed at the place where the Tents were erected &
walked from thence round the bottom of the Bay to examine
the natural productions of the Country & found that besides
the Pines already enumerated the Woods here abounded
with the white & trembling Poplars together with black
Birch. In consequence of my discovery of the latter place,
the place afterwards obtaind the name of Birch Bay. I
also found some other Plants unknown to me, two of which
had bulbous roots & grew plentifully near the Tents, one of
them was a new species of Allium from six to ten inches
high & bore a beautiful number of pink colourd flowers,
the other had a thick set spike of pale green colourd flowers
& appeard to be a new species of Melanthium of which I
made a rough drawing & collected roots of both to put in
the plant frame as neither of them were at this time in Seed.
In one place in the verge of the Wood I saw an old
Canoe suspended five or six feet from the ground between
two Trees & containing some / decayed human bones
wrapped up in Mats & carefully coverd over with Boards;
as something of the same kind was seen in three or four
instances to the South ward of this, it would appear that
this is the general mode of entombing their dead in this
Country, but what gave rise to so singular a custom I am
at a loss to determine, unless it is to place them out of the
reach of Bears Wolves & other Animals & prevent them
from digging up or offering any violence to recent bodies
after interment.
On the following day Mr. Whidbey sat out about 2 in
the afternoon with two Boats one from us & another from
the Chatham to explore the opening which we had passed
on the morning of the nth leading to the Eastward & which
was supposd not to reach any great distance' from the
appearance of the land behind it which formd a solid ridge
of high snowy Mountains. These Boats had not gone far
on their intended expedition when they observd two Vessels
coming from the Southward & steering towards the Bay, Menzies' Journal.
Birch Bay.       55
the sight of these in this remote corner so unexpectedly
indued them to return in the dusk of the evening to
acquaint us with it, & as it was expected that they would
Anchor near us in the course of the night, the two Boats
were detaind till we should obtain some further information
about them, but the night being very dark we saw nothing
of them & early next morning the Boats were again dis-
patchd to pursue their intended examination, while Mr.
Broughton who wishd to know something more of the
strange Vessel went out with the Chatham in search of
them, having his reducd Crew augmented by an Officer &
ten Men from the Discovery & Mr. Johnstone was left
behind to carry on the Astronomical Observations on Shore.
Soon after they got out of the Bay they saw the two Vessels
laying at Anchor under the Land in a Bay a little to the
North East of us & as they soon after got under way on
seeing the Chatham she soon joind them & found them to
be Spanish Vessels belonging to his Catholic Majesty, the
one a small Brig / between 40 & 50 Tons named Sutil &
commanded by Don Dionisio Alcala Galeano Captain of a
Frigate in the Spanish Navy, the other was a Schooner
named Mexicana & commanded by Don Cayetano Valdes
likewise Captain of a Frigate. They both saild from
Acapulca on the 8th of March & arrivd at Nootka the nth
of April where they had remaind until the 5th of this Month
when they saild for the Streights of De Fuca which they
enterd on the day following to examine & survey it, in continuation they said of what had been already done by other
Vessels of his Catholic Majesties, for it was now we learnd
that they had Vessels employd on this examination last Year
that anchord in the same Harbour we did on our first arrival
& had namd it Port Quadra, These had made a Chart of
the Streights & this interior Navigation considerably to the
North West of our present situation but did not put off
much time to examine the narrow Inlets going off on either
side, & the business of these two Vessels was to prosecute
the examination of the great North West Arm & settle by
their Time Keepers the different head lands of what had
been already surveyd by their Pilots.
They further said that they had at Nootka the Frigates
Getrudie, Conception, Aranzara & the Brig Activa under
the Command of Don Quadra Captain of a Man of War
1792.
June 13th.
In Ensenada de
Lara, i.e.,
Lummi Bay.
Bee Sutil y
Mexicana, p. 48.
The Spanish
ships were
passing from
Bellingham
Bay towards
Birch  Bay,
where the
lights of
Vancouver's
ships were
seen at
midnight.
June 14th.
Semiahmoo Bay.
Spelling
erratic here.
As given in the Mm
\L&\
56       Menzies' Journal.
Birch Bay.
1792.
June 14th.
¥oy. of Sutil y
Mexicans,
pp. 16, 17,
these were
GertrudiSj
Aransazu. and
Goncepcion,
frigates, and
the brigantine
Activa.
■ Fraser River
is not shown
on either the
Spanish nor
the British
charts made at
this time, but
no passage has
been found by
the present
editor to
warrant the
statement that
Vancouver
" denied its
existence."
June 15th.
June 16th.
Syringa or
Mock Orange
(PMladel/pnus
Gordonianus).
& Commander in Chief of their Navy in Mexico & California, who had come to Nootka early in the Spring to
deliver up that Settlement to any person duly qualified from
our Government to receive it agreeable to the Conventional
Articles.
In the place where the Chatham met these Vessels they
said that they expected to find a large River but it provd
only a large deep shallow Bay surrounded by low Land.
On the Morning of the 15th we had a fresh breeze of
wind from the Eastward which provd squally with / very
heavy Rain & dark cloudy weather so that the Chatham was
not able to get into the Bay again till about Noon when she
anchord along side of us & the Spanish Vessels followd the
object of their pursuit to the North west ward.
The following day we had dry weather with a gentle
breeze from the Southward which cooled the Air & made
it pleasing & refreshing. I landed on the opposite side
of the Bay, where I enjoyd much pleasure in Botanical
researches, in wandering over a fine rich meadow cropt
with grass reaching up to my middle, & now & then penetrating the verge of the Forest as the prospect of easy
access or the variety of plants seems to invite. Here I
found in full bloom diffusing its sweetness that beautiful
Shrub the Philadelphus Coronarius which I had not met
with before in any other part of this Country, & having
collected a number of other Plants in this little excursion
I returnd in the afternoon round the bottom of the Bay to
have them examind & arrangd, & in this route I saw another
old Canoe laying in a thicket with some human bones in it
far advancd in decay which seemd to have been wrapped
up & coverd in the same manner as in the other Canoe
already mentioned.
We had not yet seen any of the Natives since we
anchord here but in this days excursion I saw two or three
recent fire places on the Beach which made it very evident
that they had been lately in the Bay, & a fresh path which
went back from them into the Country indued me to follow
it in expectation of reaching their village, but I found it
lead only to a small well of fresh water dug in the middle
of the Meadow with two or three large shells laying on
the brink of it which were intended no doubt to serve as
drinking Cups.
m Menzies' Journal.
Birch Bay.       57
In the evening Mr. Whidbey returnd with the two
Boats from the South East ward having entirely finishd
his examination in that quarter & brought the continental
shore to our present situation & the / following day being
Sunday a day of recreation to all hands, some of the Officers
went to the South point of the Bay to determine the Latitude of it which by the mean of several Meridian Altitudes
by different Sextants places it in 48 ° 52' 30" North.
At day break on the 18th of June I accompanied Mr.
Johnstone who set out with two Boats in order to connect
their former Survey in the Chatham among the Islands on
the South West side of the Arm with our present situation.
We rowed across & landed upon the Eastermost of a group
of small Islands where we staid breakfast & where Mr.
Johnstone took up his first bearings, after which we proceeded to the South Westward landing here & there as
occasion required it to continue the Survey.
Nothing could be more conspicuous than the contrast
that now appeard between the opposite sides of this great
Arm, Here the Shores were rocky rugged & cliffy rising
into hills of a moderate height composing a numerous group
of Islands thinly coverd with stinted Pines, while the side
we left in the Morning was fine sandly pebbly beaches backd
by an extensive tract of fine flat level country coverd with
a dense forest of Pinery & at some distance swelling out
gradually into a high ridge of snowy Mountains stretching
to the North West-Ward from Mount Baker & approaching
the course of the great Arm with high & steep declivities.
On a Point where we landed to dine we found growing
some trees of Red Cedar; the Plants we met with in other
respects did not differ much from the Plants I had collected
a few days before on the Southermost of these Islands; a
new species of the Genus Epilobium & another of the Genus
Polygonum excepted. In the Cliffs of a small rocky Island
I also found a species of Saxifraga / I had not before met
with & towards evening we reachd the outermost extent of
our intended excursion being a small Island which Mr.
Johnstone had formerly settled & on which we encamped
for the night. The weather was exceeding mild pleasant
& favorable for our pursuits.
Early next morning we quitted the Island on which we
had encamped to return to the Vessels by a different rout,
1792.
June 16th.
June 17th.
June 18th.
Maria Id.,
probably.   On
Spanish maps
this Is Alata,
meaning
Shrub Id.
" Red Cedar."
Our Coast
Juniper was
formerly known
under this
name, which
was originally
applied to
Junipcrus
virginiana.
See Appendix.
June 19th. ifc'
i
mlm
58      Memies? Journal.
Gulf of Georgia.
1792.
June 19th.
Bark of Tlmja
plicata (Giant
Cedar).
Blankets.
See Appendix.
Probably of
wool of
Mountain-
goat (Oreamnot
montanus).
Vane., Voy. I.,
284.   Whidbey
reported seeing
on east side of
Whldbey's Id.
" forty dogs
in a drove,
shorn close to
the skin like
sheep."
the weather was then hazy with gentle showers but it soon
cleard up & the rest of the day was fair & pleasant with little
or no wind. We had not gone far when the appearance of
smoke issuing from a part of the wood on an Island before
us indued us to land at a place where we found four or five
families of the Natives variously occupied in a few temporary huts formd in the slightest & most careless manner by
fastening together some rough sticks & throwing over them
some pieces of Mats of Bark of Trees so partially as to
form but a very indifferent shelter from the inclemency of
the weather.
Their food at this time was some dried fish & Clams;
we also saw some fresh Halibut & purchasd two large pieces
of it for an English half penny each. In one Hut some
pieces of the flesh of a Porpuse were seen by some of the
party who had taken it for Venison & nearly purchasd the
whole of it with great eagerness at a very high price when
the mistake was discoverd & all importunities suddenly
ceased, tho the Natives were somewhat surprizd at this
turn of conduct & could not comprehend the cause, yet they
were by no means displeasd at finding themselves thus freed
from the temptation of parting with their favourite food.
The Women were employd in making Mats & large
Baskets for holding their provisions stores & Luggage. In
one place we saw them at work on a / kind of coarse Blanket
made of double twisted woollen Yarn & curiously wove by
their fingers with great patience & ingenuity into various
figures thick Cloth that would baffle the powers of more
civilizd Artists with all their implements to imitate, but
from what Animal they procure the wool for making these
Blankets I am at present uncertain; it is very fine & of a
snowy whiteness, some conjecturd that it might be from the
dogs of which the Natives kept a great number & no other
use was observd to be made of them than merely as domesticated Animals. Very few of them were of a White
colour & none that we saw were coverd with such fine wool,
so that this conjecture tho plausibly held forth appeard
without any foundation. On our landing we observd that
all their dogs were muzzled, a precaution which we supposd
the Natives had taken to prevent their giving us any disturbance or alarm at our approach to their Village, & indeed
the whole tenor of their conduct shewd them to be an harm- Menzies' Journal.
Gulf of Georgia.       59
less & inoffensive tribe, so after distributing some few
trinkets amongst their women & children we left them apparently well satisfied with our short visit, & afterward walkd
for some distance along the Sea side where we passd a low
extensive Morass well cropd with Bullrushes of which large
patches had been pluckd by the Natives & were now laid
neatly out upon the Beach to season them for making their
Mats, & it is probable that the conveniency of procuring a
good supply of this Plant so necessary to their domestic
comforts indued these few families to fix their temporary
residence in the vicinity.
After a walk of about two Miles we embarkd in our
Boats to pursue the survey & in the afternoon having got
out from amongst the Islands we crossed the great Arm to
the Vessel where we arrivd about Sun set.
/ Next morning two Canoes came from the Northward
& paid us a visit pretty early; Curiosity seemd to be their
principal motive as they had nothing to dispose of neither
fish nor furs. In the bottom of one of the Canoes I was
told they had some Bodies coverd up which were supposd
to be dead as they would not suffer them to be examind,
but it is probable that it might be some of their women
hiding themselves from strangers which is not uncommon
amongst Indian Tribes.
This & the following day we had fair pleasant weather
with a light breeze of wind from the South ward.
About noon on the 22d the Launch returnd to the Ship
having accidentiy parted Company with the Pinnace on the
evening of the 19th as they were coming back a long Arm
that had carried them among the snowy Mountains to the
Latitude of 500 32' North; they had explord several Arms
leading to the North ward & traced the large opening a
considerable way to the North West ward which they found
to preserve that direction uninterrupted by the intervention
of any land as far as the eye could discern from the most
distant point of it they had explord. The Weather continued remarkably serene & pleasant this & the following
day.
At noon on the 23d of June Cap* Vancouver & L*
Puget returnd to the Ship in the Pinnace after being absent
about eleven days & a half, & the latter gentleman was so
1792.
June 19th.
Probably on
the north shore
of Orcas Id.,
where such a
swamp exists
opposite East
Sound.
Pule
(Scirpus
occidental^).
June 20th.
June 22nd.
Under command
of Mr. Manly.
See Puget's
narrative,
23rd Ju.
June 23rd. Menzies" Journal.
Birch Bay.
1792.
June 23rd.
Semiahmoo and
Boundary Bays.
This village not
mentioned by
Vancouver.
Strait of
Georgia.
Roberts and
Sturgeon
Banks   off
Fraser River.
obliging as to favor me with the following Extracts from
his copious journal of this long Cruize.
When they left the Ship on the Morning of the 12th
they first explord a large shoal water Bay till they came to
a conspicuous White Bluff / of a moderate height forming
the western point of it & which afterwards obtained the
Name of Cape Roberts. Here they landed to dine near a
large deserted Village capable of containing at least 4 or
500 Inhabitants, tho it was now in perfect ruins—nothing
but the skeletons of the houses remaind, these however
were sufficient to shew their general form structure & position. Each house appeard distinct & capacious of the form
of an oblong square, & they were arrangd in three separate
rows of considerable length; the Beams consisted of huge
long pieces of Timber placed in Notches on the top of
supporters 14 feet from the ground, but by what mechanical
power the Natives had raisd these bulky beams to that
height they could not conjecture. Three supporters stood
at each end for the longitudinal beams, & an equal number
were arranged on each side for the support of smaller cross
beams in each house.
After going round Cape Roberts they soon had a clear
& uninterrupted view of the great North West Arm, the
Northern shore of which took a Westerly direction for
about 4 miles & then they met with an extensive shoal laying
along shore the outer edge of which they pursued for about
15 miles in a North West direction & found it much
indented with small Spits; its greatest extent from the
Shore was about 3 leagues & the land behind was low &
woody; in two places they saw the appearance of large
Rivers or Inlets but could not approach them even in the
Boats.
Next day they proceeded up a narrow Arm which took
an easterly direction for about ten miles & encampd for
the night at the head of it.—It was found inhabited by a
number of friendly inoffensive Indians similar in their
persons manners clothing & ornaments to those / of Admiralty Inlet.—A supply of fresh Fish was procurd from
them for small Trinkets & in their dealings they seemd to
act with a confidential honesty.—They were wonderfully
alarmd at the report of a Musket, hence it was concluded Menzies' Journal.
Burrard Inlet.
61
that our people were the first Europeans with which they
had had any immediate intercourse.
After quitting this Inlet on the following day they soon
after enterd another Arm leading to the Northward about
a mile & a quarter wide & formed on both sides by ridges of
stupendous snowy Mountains rising almost perpendicular
from the Water's edge. Near the entrance they passed
some Rocky Islands on which they shot a few Sea Pies, &
the water appearing very soon whitish & muddy indued
them to try frequently for Soundings but they could find
no bottom with near a hundred fathoms of line. After Tuning up about 5 leagues they found it to terminate a little
beyond the Latitude of 500 North in two shallow Bays
chokd up with drift wood & skirted with a small track of
low marshy land backd by high snowy Mountains. In
returning back from the head of this Arm they were obligd
to bring up pretty soon for the night on account of blowing
& rainy weather. At this place they were visited by a few
Indians who behavd very peaceably.
As they were pursuing their examination back the Arm
on the following day, they found some branches going off
on the West side, making a number of Islands some of them
pretty large & all coverd with Pines, so that they were two
days & a half before they got out again to the great North
West Arm, which after pursuing its Northern shore for
about S or 6 leagues further they still found it to preserve
its spacious appearance, the Mountains on the right side of
it to the South / West were high & coverd with Snow &
an Island appeard at a little distance from them in mid
Channel.
About noon on the 17th they enterd another narrow Arm
which carried them to the North-ward in a winding direction about 40 miles between two ridges of high steep snowy
mountains—they did not reach the head of it till the afternoon of the following day when they found it terminated
in low marshy land about the Latitude of 500 52' North &
Longitude 2350 18' East, where they saw two Huts & some
Indians curing Fish, some of which they easily procurd for
small Trinkets—In this branch they also met with whitish
water but no Soundings with a hundred fathoms of Line,
nor no regular Tides towards the head of it but a constant
drain down.
e
1792.
June 23rd.
Howe Sound.
Bowen,
Gambler, and
Anvil Ids.
Jervis Inlet.
-    ----- 6a       Menzies" Journal.
Jervis Inlet.
1792.
June 23rd.
Hi
Jervis Inlet,
Vancouver's
boat.
Now Malaspina
Strait.
At Spanish
Bank, entrance
to Burrard
Inlet.
In going up this Arm they here & there passed
immense Cascades rushing from the Summits of high precipices & dashing headlong down Chasms against projecting
Rocks & Cliffs with a furious wildness that beggard all
description. Curiosity led them to approach one of the
largest where it pourd its foaming pondrous stream over
high rugged Cliffs & precipices into the fretted Sea with such
stunning noise & rapidity of motion that they could not
look up to its sourse without being affected with giddiness
nor contemplate its romantic wildness without a mixture of
awe & admiration.
On the 19th as they were Rowing back against a fresh
Southerly breeze Mr. Puget went into the Pinnace with
Cap* Vancouver leaving direction with Mr. Manley to
following them with the Launch—They continud pursuing
the Western / Shore & towards the dusk of the evening
found a Channel branching off into which the Pinnace went,
but those in the Launch on account of being at this time
some way astern, not observing her motion, kept following
back the Arm they had come up, by which the two Boats
parted Company, & this was not discoverd by either party
till late, & tho they fird Muskets & made large fires yet
they were not able to effect a junction.
Mr. Manley on the following day finding that they
were very short of provision in the Launch & at a great
distance from any resource, made the best of his way back
to the Ship where they arrivd about noon on the 22d as
already mentioned. The Pinnace at the same time pursued
the Channel she went into, came out again by noon into the
great North West Arm which still preservd its spacious
appearance & as there was no likelihood of determining its
extent soon they prepard to return to Birch Bay to bring
the two Vessels further on to facilitate the examination &
as they were returning along shore next morning they saw
two Vessels laying at Anchor not far from the entrance of
the first Arm they had explored. At first sight they took
them to be the Discovery & Chatham moved so far to meet
them, but a nearer view soon rectified their mistake, when
they found them to be the two Spanish Vessels already
mentioned. They went on board the Brig & were very
politely detaind to breakfast with the Commander Don
Dionisio Galeano.   He told Cap* Vancouver that they were
fe^fecaa Menzies" Journal.
Off Eraser River.       63
sent from Mexico by an order from the Court of Spain on
the same service with us, & proposd a junction of the
Vessels & Crews / to facilitate an examination of these
Streights in which he said their Pilots had been employd
last year & traced the great North West Arm as far as the
Island our party saw in Mid-Channel.
After the Pinnace left the Spanish Vessels they had a
long & tedious pull along the outer edge of the Shoal
formerly mentioned without any resting place till 11 at
night which was about 14 hours on their Oars & four hours
before breakfast made 18 hours of constant & hard rowing
in this days run which was certainly very fatiguing & laborious exercise for the Men. They encampd for the night to
the Westward of Cape Roberts & arrivd in Birch Bay as
already related about noon on the day following.
In this excursion the Boats went over in their different
traverses up the winding arms & back again about a hundred
& five leagues. The general appearance which the Country
now assumd when compard to that which we had so lately
examined formd a very striking contrast, here they were
carried by narrow unfathomable Inlets among high ridgy
mountains whose summits were invelopd in perpetual snow
while their sides were clothd with a continued forest of
Pinery & adornd with Cascades of the most wild & rapid
torrents.—The Shore of the great North West Arm as far
as they went is in general rocky with a border of lowland
stretching along it producing Pines of immense dimen-
tions.—They found but few Inhabitants in the Northern
branches but if they might judge from the deserted Villages
they met in this excursion, the Country appeard to be
formerly much more numerously inhabited than at present,
tho they could form no conjecture or opinion on the cause
of this apparent depopulation which had not an equal
chance of proving fallacious / from their circumscribed
knowledge of the manners & modes of living of the Natives.
In the afternooikthe Tents & Observatory were struck,
the Artificers & Brewers with their different Implements
were all collected on board & every thing got ready for sailing, from Birch Bay in Latitude 480 35'—30" North &
Longitude 2370 32' East of Greenwich.
Early in the Morning of the 24th we both weighd &
with a moderate breeze from the Eastward soon passed
1792.
June 23rd.
Texada Id.
June 24th. 4k -u
64
Menzies' Journal.
Gulf of Georgia.
1702.
Jnne 24th.
Canal del
Rosario of
Spanish maps;
Gulf of Georgia
of Vancouver.
June 25th.
Malaspina
Strait.
At the entrance
to Desolation
Sound.
June 26th.
Cape Roberts & stood up the great North West Arm.
About two in the afternoon being joind by the Spanish
Brig & Schooner & favord with a visit from the Commander
they agreed to keep under Sail & stand on with us all night
as the Channel was spacious & apparently free of danger—
Our progress however was very slow, the evening breeze
being very light & baffling with Showers of Rain & cloudy
weather.
Next morning a light breeze from the South East ward
which freshend towards Noon enabled us to stand on to the
North West ward with the two Spanish Vessels still in company, & as the weather was favorable their Commanders
dind on board the Discovery with Cap* Vancouver & staid
till pretty late in the evening. We proceeded in a North
Westerly direction through a Channel about three leagues
wide with high wooded mountains & rocky shores on both
sides. By a Meridian altitude at noon we found ourselves
exactly in the Latitude of Nootka 490 36' North & we were
at the same time about three degrees of Longitude to the
Eastward of it. Towards evening we saw several Whales /
but few or no Birds & as we proceeded the Arm became a
good deal narrower & our Navigation much more dangerous,
being amongst a number of Islands which were in general
barren & rocky but with deep water close to, so that it was
difficult to find Anchorage & perilous to be under Sail all
night in such a situation, at last however we came into
water of a moderate depth & about eleven anchord close
under one of the Islands in 30 fathoms—The two Spanish
Vessels followd our example & came to at the same time
close by us. The weather continud fair & pleasant during
the night.
On the morning of the 26th Don Alcala Galeano who
had the sole direction of the Spanish Vessels came on board
the Discovery to make overtures to Cap* Vancouver of a
juncture of the two parties to facilitate the examination of
this intricate Country, saying, that his Boats & Crews were
ready to aid in the execution of any plan of operation that
might be devised for that purpose, & as his Vessels were
of a small draught of Water they might be commodiously
employd on difficult & distant excursions offering at the
same time the chief direction of the parties to Capt
Vancouver, which was declind—& Cap* Galeano then pro- a
o
■a
0
a
O  Menzies' Journal.
Off Desolation Sound.       65
posd to send one of his Boats to examine a large opening
'leading to the Northward & on his returning on board, he
dispatchd Don Valdes Commander of the Schooner in one
of their Launches upon that service.
At the same time as the Country appeard now much
broken & divided by Inlets in various directions, Cap*
Vancouver / pland two boats expeditions & orderd the
.parties to get themselves ready. In the afternoon Mr.
Johnstone set out with the Chatham's Cutter & Launch to
examine the openings which lay to the North West ward,
whilst Mr. Puget & Mr. Whidbey went off in the Discovery's Launch & Cutter to pursue those leading to the
I North Eastward, & as the rugged & wild appearance of the
Country was likely to afford some variety to my pursuits I
accompanied the latter party. We had gone but a short
distance from the Vessels, when Cap* Vancouver sent a
Boat after us to say that he intended to remove the Vessels
to the entrance of an opening about two Leagues to the
Northwestward where we should find them on our return,
& a fresh Northerly breeze of wind coming on soon after
accompanied with thunder & rain, made the Vessels drive
'with their Anchors & causd them to heave up & hasten to
the intended place where they came to in 30 fathoms rocky
;bottom & were better shelterd. The two Spanish Vessels
accompanied them but anchord at the same time nearer the
Shore in ten fathoms.
The small Island where we left the Vessels at Anchor
& from which we took our departure on this excursion is
about 26 leagues in a N 640 E direction from Friendly
Cove in Nootka Sound that is in Latitude 50° 6' North &
Longitude 2350 18' East from Greenwich.
After visiting some small barren Islands & part of the
supposed Continental Shore to the South Eastward in order
to connect it with our present survey, we directed our course
along shore to the North Eastward & soon after enterd a
small intricate arm scarcely half a mile wide / which took
us South Easterly about two Leagues &.having reachd its
termination we turnd back & brought to for the Night in a
small Cove about two miles from the head of it.
On our way back next morning we found another small
branch in this Arm leading to the North ward which we
traced about 4 miles till it became so narrow & shallow
1792.
June 26th.
Lewis Channel,
etc.
Desolation
Sound.
Te-ak-arne
Arm,
Redonda Id.
Kinghorn
Island.
Malaspina
Inlet
Okeover Arm.
June 27th.
Lancelot Arm. 66
Menzies" Journal.
Malaspina Inlet.
''■
1792.
June 27th.
Thynne Id.
Desolation
Ann.
Mink Id.
Deep Bay.
Melville, Mary,
and Morgan
Ids.
Prideaux
Haven.
waterd that it was not thought worth while to put off time
in following it further, we therefore put back & breakfasted
on a small Island about the middle of it wooded with Pines,.
after which we returnd out to the great Arm & proceeded
along shore to the North Eastward passing a large Island
in mid-channel, where the Arm is at least a league wide,
We soon after rounded out a deep Bay, on the West side of
which we saw a great number of fish stages erected from
the ground in a slanting manner, for the purpose of exposing the fish f astend to them to the most advantageous aspect
for drying. These Stages occupied a considerable space
along shore & at a little distance appeard like the Skeleton
of a considerable Village; they were made of thin Laths
ingeniously fastend together with Withies of the Roots of
Pine Trees & from the pains & labor bestowd on them it was
natural to infer that Fish must be plenty here at some season
of the Year, & that a considerable number of Natives rendezvous for the purpose of catching & drying them for
winter subsistance, but as we observd no Huts or places of
Shelter for their convenience, it is probable they make but
a short stay.
/ After quitting this Bay we followed the same Shore
which still trended North Eastward & soon after passed by
a narrow Channel on the inside of a Cluster of steep rocky
Islands wooded with Pines, but did not proceed above a
league when at the farther end of these Islands we came to
a small Cove in the bottom of which the picturesque ruins
of a deserted Village placd on the summit of an elevated
projecting Rock excited our curiosity & indued us to land
close to it to view its structure.
This Rock was inaccessable on every side except a
narrow pass from the Land by means of steps that admitted
only one person to ascend at a time & which seemd to be
well guarded in case of an attack, for right over it a large
Maple Tree diffusd its spreading branches in such an
advantageous manner as to afford an easy & ready access
from the summit of the Rock to a conceald .place amongst
its branches, where a small party could watch unobservd &
defend the Pass with great ease. We found the top of the
Rock nearly level & wholly occupied with the skeletons of
Houses—irregularly arrangd & very crouded; in some places
the space was enlargd by strong scaffolds projecting over
TTitinimMBU 1'    ' ■' ■ I      III
Menzies' Journal.
Homfray, Channel.       (rj
the Rock & supporting Houses apparently well securd—
These also acted as a defence by increasing the natural
strength of the place & rendering it still more secure &
inaccessable. From the fresh appearance of every thing
about this Village & the intolerable stench it would seem as
if it had been very lately occupied by the Natives. The
narrow Lanes between the Houses were full of filth N
nastiness & swarmd with myriads of Fleas which fixd themselves on our Shoes Stockings & cloths in such incredible
number that the whole party was obligd to quit the rock in
great precipitation, leaving the remainder of these Assailants
in full posession of their Garrison without the least desire of
facing again such troublesome enemy. We no sooner got
to the Water side than some immediately stripped themselves quite naked & immersed their Cloth, others plungd
themselves wholly into the Sea in expectation of drowning
their adherents, but to little or no purpose, for after being
submersd for some time they leapd about as frisky as ever;
in short we towd some of the Cloths astern of the Boats,
but nothing would clear them of this Vermin till in the evening we steepd them in boiling water.
From what we saw & experienced the few minutes we
were in this Village we have no doubt but these troublesome
guests have obligd its late Inhabitants to quit it & remove
to some fresh situation, & this will in some measure account
for the number of deserted villages we have observd in our
different excursions through this Country. The Natives
being so indolent & filthy in their manner of living, that
Vermin & their own nastiness obliges them often to quit
their situation & move about from one place to another.
We pulled out a little from the Shore & lay on our Oars
before the Village while Mr. Humphries took a sketch of it,
& tho I can give but a very unequal idea of its romantic
appearance, yet I will attempt to follow the expressive /
strokes of his Pencil in a few words.
The Rock itself is somewhat round of a moderate
height & projects into the Cove; its face is here & there overgrown with Raspberries & other Bushes, while the Summit
is occupied with the crouded remains of the Village consisting of posts spurs & planks crossing each other with the
utmost confusion in all directions. At the landing place
which is a small Beach close to the Rock are standing the
1792.
June 27th. ppwp
PJ»"M-J».JI_..Jl-.» « ■«».
- i»!.,,,,., >-—J
68
Menzies" Journal.
Homfray Channel.
1792.
June 27th.
Mt. Addenbroke
of present
charts,
alt. 5,140 ft.
Homfray
Channel.
June 28th.
Forbes Bay.
Brettell Point.
Channel and
Double Ids.
Toba Inlet.
Pryce Channel.
Posts & Beams of a solitary House which from its size
painted ornaments & picturesque shelterd situation seemd to
have been the residence of the Chief or some family of
distinction. The Shore on both sides is Rocky, crouded
with large Stones & drift wood & here & there verged with
Maple Trees whose waving branches & light colord foliage
formd a beautiful contrast with the gigantic aspect & dark
verdurous hue of a thick forest of Pinery which spread over
a high prominent Mountain that swelled out immediately
behind to form the back ground with a steep acclivity from
the outer point of the Cove.
This Village from the disasters we met with obtaind
the name of Flea Village & is situated about three leagues
to the North East ward of the situation of the Vessels & a
high conspicuous Mountain to the Westward of it on the
opposite side of the Arm was namd from its figure Anvil
Mountain. We now found the Arm taking a turn round
the bottom of this Mountain to the North West ward & was
contracted to about a mile & a half wide with rocky shores
& high steep mountains wooded with Pines on both sides;
those to the Northward / had their summits checquerd
with Snow; but night coming on we soon brought to &
occupied ourselves in getting clear of the Fleas by soaking
our cloths in boiling water.
Early on the morning of the 28th we again set out &
soon after passed a Bay with some low land round the
bottom of it & a large stream of fresh water emptied itself
into it which collected from the Mountains over it in rappid
torrents. After this we found the Arm rounding gradually
to the Westward & about Noon came to a naked point where
a large branch turnd suddenly off to the Northward with
two small Islands in its entrance wooded like the rest of the
Country with Pines.—Soon after leaving this point to prosecute our examination in the Northern branch, we met with
Cap* Valdes in the Spanish Launch on his way back from
the head of it; he readily shewd us his Survey of it, & told
us that it terminated in shallow water surrounded with low
land about eleven miles off, & that he saw Mr. Johnstone
with his Boats on the preceeding day in the Western opening we had just passed. As Mr. Puget who commanded
our party had no particular orders how to act in case of
meeting in this manner with Cap* Valdes we took our leave Menzies' Journal.
Toba Inlet.       69
of him & continued our examination in the Northern branch
which was soon after found to take a turn East North East
& went in that direction about nine Miles to its termination
preserving its breadth all the way which was in general about
a mile & a quarter wide.
/ On each side were high steep Mountains coverd towards
their summits with Snow which was now dissolving & producing a number of wild torrents & beautiful Cascades. As
we advancd the country became more dreary & barren, large
Tracts were seen without the least soil or vegetation, exposing a naked surface of solid rock, of which the mass of
Mountains appeard entirely composd—the Woods became
scrubby & stunted & the Trees were but thinly scatterd
except in Valleys & near the water side. It was observable
however in these stinted situations, where Vegetation was
making as it were a slow beginning, that hard woods such
as Birch Maple Medlers Whortle berries &c were most predominant & not Pines the general covering of the Country.
In the dusk of the evening we passed a number of Fish
stages erected in the way of Slanting from as like those
already mentioned. We soon after brought to, but the dread
of being near any old habitation & encountering another
attack of the Fleas made us sleep in the Boats all night, as
it was too dark to pick out a proper place for encampment
on shore.
Next morning we were pretty early in motion & Soon
reachd the head of the Arm which we rounded out in very
shallow water, extending so far from the shore that we
could not Land tho allurd by the prospect of a pleasant
Valley with a considerable track of low marshy Meadows
backd by a forest of Pines & high snowy Mountains from
which a number of foaming torrents fell into the Valley
& formd a considerable winding Stream that glided gently
through it.
/ On our way back from the head of this Arm which
is about 8 leagues Northwestward of the situation of the
Vessels we found ourselves greatly assisted by a strong
Drain or Current setting in our favor apparently occasiond
by the great number of Torrents & Waterfalls which were
observd rushing down the sides of the Mountains from the
melted snow & these afforded such a considerable supply
that the Water was perfectly fresh & of a whitish colour
1792.
June 28th.
Medlar or
Service Berry
(Amelanchier
florida).
June 29th. Menzies" Journal.
agpHopH^E »ji*«,»|HI
Toba Inlet.
June 30th.
Lewis Channel.
Near Teakerne
Arm.
for several Miles, & even after the Water became brakish
the whitish colour continud for some distance, so that this
appearance was probably occasiond by the admixture of
Snow & Sea Water tho I am at a loss to account for it.
A little after noon we got out of this branch & after
dining on one of the small Islands at the entrance we
pursud the Western opening which we had left a little before
we met the Spanish Launch the preceding day, & did not
proceed in our examination above two Leagues when we
found it divide into several branches, some went to the
Southward & South west & one took a Northerly direction,
which consistent with our plan of examination we should
have pursued had we not been informd by Cap* Valdes that
Mr. Johnstone was seen somewhere in this Arm, & as we
might now be on the ground which he had explord it was
thought advisable in this doubtfull situation to return to the
Vessels for fresh orders by the Southern Arm which
appeard wide & spacious, we therefore crossd over &
encampd this evening in a very indifferent place at the
entrance of it & after we brought to we fird some Swivels
in expectation of being heard & answerd by Mr. Johnstone's
party or those on board the Vessels, but there was no
return made from / either & we remaind quiet & unmolested
all night.
We set out again on the morning of the 30th on our
return to the Vessels & had to encounter a strong breeze
from the South East with heavy rain & dirty weather that
greatly retarded our progress, obliging us to keep close in
shore & follow its windings to make any head way against
it, with this slow progress however we soon came to the
entrance of a narrow Channel leading to the South East
Ward which we followd as it was the direction we expected
to find the Vessels in, but did not proceed above a league
when we found them both at an Anchor near the further
end of it together with the two Spanish Vessels & Capt
Valdes arrivd on board on the evening of the .day we
met him.
During this expedition we met with none of the Natives.
In one place in the Northern branch we saw a Canoe which
appeard to have been recently hauld up among the Bushes
& as we conjecturd the Owners might have fled to hide
themselves in the Wood on our approach, we left some ■«*
Menzies' Journal.
Lewis Channel.
7i
little presents in the Canoe such as Beads Medals Looking
Glasses pieces of Iron & Copper &c to convince them on
their return that we were amicably disposd, but on looking
into it on the following day we found these Articles
untouchd on which account it had not probably been visited.
Tho these Channels are a considerable distance removd
from the Ocean yet we found them frequented by Whales
Seals & Porpusses, but we saw very few sea Otters, which
shews that these Animals are not fond of penetrating far
into the inland branches tho the Channels are deep &
spacious abounding with insulated / Rocks & Caverns that
form commodious recesses for such Animals.
The Shores in general were steep rocky & indented
forming in many places high perpendicular precipices with
scarcely a sandy Cove to be met with. The sides of the
Mountains which were high & broken with immense Rocks
& precipices, were mostly coverd with tall Pines except their
upper region which was checquerd with Snow & every where
presented a dreary & gloomy aspect, especialy amongst the
Continental Mountain where the Vegetable Creation became
scanty & stinted & where lifeless tracks of huge lofty Rocks
prevaild forming Mountains of immense elevation.
On the afternoon of the following day the same Boats
were again dispatchd provided with a weeks provision
under the Command of the same Officers with orders to
proceed to the South Eastward along the Continental Shore
as far as they might find it necessary to confirm its connection with our present situation, as the Vessels had passed it
in a cursory manner on the evening of their arrival here &
on their way back to obtain some knowledge of the relative
position of the Islands scattered through this great Inlet &
the trendings of the opposite shore as far as their time would
allow to elucidate our further progress.
Next forenoon Mr. Johnstone returnd to the Discovery
with the two Boats under his Command & from his Report
I am enabled to draw up the following short detail of their
proceedings. On meeting the Spanish Launch the day after
they set out as already noticd / they enterd the NorthernArm
where we left off exploring in the last excursion, as we had
then surmisd, & tracd it but a short distance when they
were joind by two Canoes from the Western shore of it,
containing about a dozen or fourteen of the Natives.   The
1792.
June SOth.
July 1st.
July 2nd.
Bute Inlet. Menzies" Journal.
Bute Inlet.
only articles of traffic they had were Bows & Arrows which
they readily barterd for small Trinkets. This indicating
their peaceable disposition they were sufferd to follow the
Boats till they stopped for the night & then they quietly
went to the opposite shore where a large smoke was seen
issuing from the woods.
Early on the following morning these Natives again
returnd to the Party with more Bows & Arrows to dispose
of, which they no sooner had done than they again peaceably
departed & our party continud tracing the Arm in a Northerly direction between two ridges of high mountains whose
summits were coverd with snow which was now dissolving
& producing several beautiful Cascades on both sides, but
their progress was tardy & toilsome owing to the strength
of the Current which was found pretty constant against
them the whole day. They stopped for the night near the
head of the Arm where the Water was of a very pale
colour & nearly fresh from the vast supply of torrents &
streams that emptied into it from the sides of the Mountains,
& soon after they set out the next morning, they found it
terminate in a shallow sandy flat, skirted by a low marshy
plain & backd with high Mountains in about the Latitude of
500 44' North, which was about nine leagues from its
entrance. As they were putting back off this flat they
suddenly deepend their Water to 70 & 80 fathoms, which
shews the great depth of these Arms even close to their termination. / The same cause which retarded their progress
on the proceeding day was now favorable in accelerating
their return back the Arm, so that on the following morning
they reachd the place where they were visited by the Natives,
& where they had seen the smoke they now discoverd a
pretty considerable village of upwards of twenty houses &
about 30 Canoes laying before it; from which they concluded
that its Inhabitants could not be far short of a hundred &
fifty. In passing this Village they purchasd from the
Natives a large supply of fresh Herrings for Nails, &
immediately after enterd a narrow Channel leading to the
Westward, through which the Water rushd in Whirlpools
with such rapidity that it was found extremely difficult even
to track the Boats along shore against it, & this could hardly
be accomplishd had it not been for the friendly activity of
the Natives who in the most voluntary manner afforded them Menzies' Journal.
Cardero Channel.
71
every assistance in their power, till both Boats were safely
through these narrows, & then returning peaceably home to
their Village clearly shewd that they had no other passion
to gratify on this occasion than that of doing a good office
to strangers.
Having got through this difficult pass, the Channel was
found to open out much wider, & the strength of the current
was greatly diminishd but the weather set in so thick & rainy
that they were unable to carry on their Survey with any
degree of precision. Under these unfavorable circumstances Mr. Johnstone conceivd it of little utility to proceed
further on new ground & therefore returnd back by the same
Channels they had before explord, & had a continuation of
the same thick weather with heavy rain which obligd them
to take shelter pretty early in the / evening & detaind them
at the same place the day following. On their way back it
was their intention to examine the Arm which we had last
explord, but their vicinity to the Vessels indued them first
to visit them to learn what had been done by the other boats.
As the weather was favorable on the 3d of July Mr.
Johnstone was again dispatchd in the afternoon with the
same two Boats & a Week's provision to pursue the examination of the Channel leading to the Westward from where
he had left off a little beyond the Narrows on account of
bad weather as already mentioned in his preceeding cruize.
During the absence of these Boats when the weather
was any wise favorable I made frequent Botanical excursions in different directions into the Woods on both sides
of the Channel as they were found here pretty thin & easily
penetrated on account of being much less encumberd with
Underwood than the Forests of New Georgia & those along
the outer skirts of the Coast.
In these excursions I saw some Wasp nests suspended
to Trees of a curious & extraordinary structure. That from
which the annexd Drawing was taken (Plate ) was suspended to the extremity of a branch of the Canadian Pine
about 8 feet from the ground; its figure was globular, about
4 inches in diameter, & perforated underneath with a small
hole of a size sufficient to admit one of the Wasps in or
out at a time. The outer covering was composd of a paper
like substance of a light ash colour & made up by several
folds overlapping one another here & there like the Tiles of
1792.
July :
ind.
Cardero
Channel.
PoUstes sp. I
1
Redondn Id.
Nipple Summit,
alt. 2,876 ft.
Mr. Mudge was
probably one of
the party.
Vancouver,
I., 828, named
Point Mudge
" after my first
lieutenant,
who had also
discovered the
inlet from the
top of a
mountain he
had ascended
in this neighbourhood."
Perhaps a more
accurate
estimate than
that of the
chart.
Lewis Channel.
a house to throw off the wet, but this substance being of a
tender & spongy texture was further guarded by being built
under the shelter of a large Maple leaf to ward off the Rain
& heavy droppings from the branches. / This exterior
covering was evidently made up of minute fibres of rotten
& decayd wood, bleachd by long exposure to the weather,
which had been collected & agglutinated together by some
waxen matter into its present form & appearance by the indefatigable labour of these wonderfull & curious Mechanics.
On the inside of it was found a small cluster of Cells
like Honeycombs, fastend round the Twigs to which the
Nest was suspended for greater security & these Cells con-
taind the young brood of this little but curious Hive.
In order to vary my excursions & search the upper
regions of the Woods for Botanical acquisitions I one day
ascended a hill on the North Side of the Channel close to
the Ship in company with some of the Gentlemen, & found
my journey amply repaid by a number of new Plants never
before discoverd. As we did not know the time it might
take us to reach the summit, we took with us some men to
carry provision & water & landed pretty early in order to
have the fatiguing part of the Journey over before the heat
of the day. I also carried with me a portable Barometer
to ascertain the height we might reach from the sea side, &
as the day continud clear & serene without any material
change of weather taking place between the observations,
they will I think give the height of this Hill tolerably
accurate. The first station was at the Sea Side on our landing in the Morning where the Mercury in the Barometer
in
stood at 29. 85 & the second station was on the top of the
Hill in about three hours & an half after where it stood at
In   Pts
27. 10 & where the temperature of the air by Farenheit's
Thermometer was at the same time 64°. The difference
between these two observations of the Barometer shew that
In   Pts
the / Column of Mercury sunk by our ascent 2. 75 which
makes the perpendicular height of the Hill about 867 Yards
above the level of the Sea, but it is a mere hilloc in comparison to others immediately behind it, & particularly to
the great range of continental mountains which terminated
our view to the Northward. Menzies' Journal.
Redonda Island.       75
Though the day was favorable our view from the top
of the Hill was very circumscribed on account of the higher
mountains which every where surrounded us, those to the
Southward & South West were more remote by the great
Arm intervening which appeard underneath us like a large
Lake checquerd over with a great number of Islands of different size & figure, many of the smaller ones were naked
& rocky, but the larger ones were in general wooded with
Pines of a stinted appearance, this added to the broken
rugged & gloomy prospect which the Country presented on
both sides made this part of the great Arm be named
Desolation Reach.
In this journey the Genus Pyrola was enrichd with four
new species which I met with no where else & on the top
of the Hill I found two new species of Pentstemon, a new
species of Ribes Andromeda coerulea, Pinus Strobus—Pinus
inops. H.K. & a great variety of Cryptogamic Plants,
besides many other undescribed Plants which I had before
met with in other parts of the Country.
Another day I went a small excursion with Mr.
Broughton in his Boat. We penetrated by a small branch
a short distance into the Island on the South Side of the
Channel where we lay & near its termination, seeing a large
stream of water rushing down out of the Woods we landed /
close by it to take some refreshment, not in the least suspecting but that it was fresh water, till we tasted it, & to our
great surprize found it to be saltish. This lead us to trace
its source & found it came from a Lake in the Wood which
was apparently filled at high water by the impetuous force
with which the Tide rushes into these narrow Inlets, but
the same impelling force not acting upon its return it continued pouring out at a narrow gap a more gradual stream
during the recess of the Tide which at this time had fallen
from it about twelve feet perpendicular height.
We here killed some large Grouse which on starting
perchd in the Pine Trees, & we saw some Deer but did not
get near enough to have a shoot at them; it is surprising how
fond these Animals are of insulated situations to which
probably they are driven by being chaced or harrassed by
other animals such as Wolves, Foxes &c
Near the bottom of a deep Cove which obtaind the
name of Cascade Cove about a mile & a half to the North
1792.
July !
nd.
Now limited to
the southern
entrance only.
Pinus strobus,
the Eastern
White Pine
with five leaves
in each fascicle,
is replaced
here by
P. monticola.
P. inops (two-
leaved) Is
similarly
replaced by
P. comtorta,
the Scrub Pine
of the Coast.
Cliff Id. and
Squirrel Cove.
Teakerue Arm
on W. side of
Redonda Id «*w
Menzies" Journal.
Redonda Island.
" Shanus
albus " here is
meant for the
grass Schmnus
albus L.,
now known as
Rynchospora
alba.
July 5th.
Savary Id.
SHH
East of the Ship there was a beautifull Waterfall which
issued from a Lake close behind it & precipitated a wide
foaming stream into the Sea over a shelving rocky precipice
of about thirty yards high, its wild romantic appearance
aided by its rugged situation & the gloomy forests which
surrounded it, rendered it a place of resort for small parties
to visit during our stay. On the Banks of this Lake I found
the following Plants. Linnoea borealis, Myrica gale /
Anthericum Calyculatum, Drosera rotund ifolia, Menyanthes
trifoliata, Shanus albus, & in the Lake itself we found some
Bivalve Shells which were quite new to me.—It appeard to
be very deep & its sides were strewd with a great number of
fallen Trees.
About noon on the 5th of July L* Puget & Mr. Whidbey
returnd to the Ship with their Boats & Party & from the
Report of the former Gentlemen I am enabled to give the
following short account of their excursion.
After their departure on the 1st of July they proceeded
agreable to their orders along the Continental shore to the
South East ward but were not able to go far on new ground
when they stopped for the evening on one of the Islands &
pitchd their Tents in a delightfull plain with a fine smooth
beach before it for the Boats, that renderd the situation both
desirable & pleasant & such as they of late seldom enjoyd.
Next day they continued ranging along shore to the South
Eastward with fair wind & pleasant weather till about noon
when having obtaind a satisfactory view of the unbroken
continuation of the Continental shore & the termination of
the group of Islands which here occupied a space of about
four leagues in a SSE & NNW direction, they returnd back
among these Islands which are low & in general thickly
coverd with streight Pines, they also produce the wild fruits
of the Country such as Raspberries Goosberries Red
Whortle berries &c together with abundance of wild Onions,
& the sandy Beaches abounded with fine Clams easily pro-
curd & well flavord—they also afford places of resort / to
Gulls Shags & other Oceanic Birds besides a great number
of Seals. Thus fertilized with Fruits & Game, renderd them
a desirable situation for Inhabitants, accordingly they were
visited from one of these Islands by a small party of Natives
who made off to the Boats over a long flat with pieces of
porpus or Seals flesh in their hands which they offerd to our
m Menzies' Journal.
Savory Island.       JJ
people in the most open & friendly manner, & though these
presents were not accepted, yet their generosity & good
intentions were rewarded by some little presents in return
that highly pleasd them & establishd at once a mutual confidence on both sides. As their number was but small &
they had no women with them some of the Gentlemen
expressd their wish to be conducted to their habitations but
after repeated solicitations they found them so unwilling to
comply with their request, that rather than offend them they
suppressed their curiosity & gave the business up, & after
purchasing from them some Bows Arrows & other little
articles of curiosity they parted with them on the best terms,
as in these little dealings they appeard to conduct themselves
with the strictest honesty & friendship. Two of them had
been sent off to their Village for Fish but they were so
dilatory that our party did not wait their return.
Our party continued their examination of these Islands
& the Southern Shore opposd by strong wind & disagreeable
sea which renderd their progress tardy & difficult on this &
the following day, when on the evening of the latter they
came to the entrance of an opening leading to the North
West Ward & landed on its / Southern Shore to encamp
for the Night. The opposite point which was a steep bluff
had a large Village upon it & was very numerously inhabited
as they conjecturd by the number of Natives that visited
them in their Canoes & crouded so fast that some apprehensions were entertaind they might be too troublesome about
the Boats during the Night, & a Swivel was therefore fired
off to intimidate them, which had the desird effect in sending
them peaceably home to their habitations & our party enjoyd
their rest in quietness.
Next morning which was the 4th of July they enterd on
the examination of this Channel which was more than a Mile
wide & ran in the direction of North by West environd on
both sides by Land of a moderate height coverd with Pines,
but they proceeded little more than two Leagues when they
were agreeably surprised on meeting with the Tide of flood
coming from the Westward in such a rapid stream that they
could hardly stem it with the Boats. This affording such a
favorable prospect of finding a passage through to the North
West Ward for the Vessels that they immediately returnd on
board with the intelligence in order to have the Vessels
1792.
July 5th.
Discovery
Cape Mudge
and Yuculta
Village. i^ii
■**"■■—T—     '      i 7_".'jj|i|;.;fwg^~g.
Menzies" Journal.
Discovery Passage.
S:
S5S
\
July 12th.
S. and W. of
Stuart Id.
Cardero
Channel.
Loughborough
Inlet.
removd thither which was not above five leagues in a direct
line to the South West of our present situation, but some
little time was put off in connecting & finishing their Survey
thus far, so that they did not arrive on board the Discovery
till the following day as already mentioned.
Nothing material happend from this time till Mr.
Johnstone's return which we lookd for with some degree of
anxiety as it was supposd that he would determine whether
there / was a likelihood of any navigable passage for the
Vessels to the North West Ward, or whether we should be
obliged to return back to the Ocean the way we came by
De Fuca's entrance for notwithstanding that Mr. Puget &
Mr. Whidbey met with the flood tide coming from the West
Ward, yet as that circumstance might be occasiond or
influence! by the broken & insulated appearance of the
Country, the idea of a free passage to the North West Ward
still remaind a conjectural point even with themselves.
The Spaniards undertook no further excursions but
waited the event of Mr. Johnstones return with equal
anxiety. We continued visiting one another during our stay
on the most cordial terms of friendship, which was mutually
cultivated on both sides by frequently spending our convivial
hours together in the most social manner.
Early on the 12th of July Mr. Johnstone return'd with
his two Boats & party & as this excursion was so very interesting to us, I shall state the following particulars from his
copious report. After their departure on the 3d of July
they that evening reachd the Channel where they formerly
left off, but by another entrance a little to the South Ward
of their former, where the Tides were in like manner subject
to violent commotions & rapid whirlpools that made its
navigation difficult if not altogether impracticable to Vessels
of any considerable burthen & this difficulty was renderd
more alarming by the depth of Water which was from 60
to 70 fathoms. From these Rapids they pursued the Arm
which was about one mile wide in a westerly direction, but
the / two following days were mostly spent in examining
some branches that went off to the Northward, the last of
which had carried them about 8 leagues between two high
ridges of steep Mountains whose summits were coverd with
Snow that waterd their sides with many torrents and beautiful cascades.   In this Arm they stopped the second even- Menzies' Journal.
Loughborough Inlet.       79
ing & thought themselves secure from any disturbance by
pitching upon a small Island for their place of rest, but in
the middle of the night they were hastily roused from their
repose by the flowing of the Tide, which had risen so much
higher than they expected & rushd upon them so suddenly,
that every person got completely drenchd before they could
remove to the higher ground. This little disaster renderd
them so uncomfortable for the remainder of the night that
they could not enjoy their slumber but anxiously looked
forward for day break to depart. In these Arms they only
saw two Canoes with two or three Natives in each who on
observing the Boats paddled hastily to the shore & fled to
the Woods with the utmost precipitation. In passing one of
these Canoes Mr. Johnstone rowed round near enough to
throw some small Trinkets into it, to convince its owners
on their return that they had no cause to be alarm'd.
They again got into the main Channel on the 3d day &
pursued it in a westerly direction, but did not proceed far
when they had evident indications of the flood tide coming
from the Westward which was a pretty certain sign of a
communication with the Ocean to the Northward of Nootka,
but to ascertain whether it was Navigable for the Vessels /
stimulated them to push forward with greater eagerness
without putting off any more time in examining the collateral
branches that went off to the Northward, indeed these soon
became so frequent that they appeard to be the intersections
of a numerous group of Islands which as they approachd
the Ocean occupied a considerable space on the North Side
of their tract, & the Weather was frequently thick &
unfavorable with heavy rain & a strong breeze of wind often
against them yet they anxiously persevered in their pursuit
with toilsome labour & gaind sight of the Sea on the 10th
of July seven days after their departure: but the preceeding
day being thick & foggy with constant rain they were
extremely apprehensive least after exploring so far they
should not be able to obtain a satisfactory view of their
situation, to ascertain their object with greater precision, &
in this state of despair they passed the night uncomfortably
in a small Island indifferently shelterd, till a change of wind
at day break dispers'd the Fog & fortunately brought clear
& fair weather, when they rowed to a small Island a little
farther to the Westward where they had the pleasing pros-
1792.
July 12th.
Back into
Cardero
Channel.
wmiilUJ 1 8o
Menzies' Journal.
Queen Charlotte Sound.
1792.
July 12th.
By Nodales
Channel.
Queen Charlotte
Sd. had been
visited and
named six
years earlier .
by Capt.
Strange in the
Experiment.
Kwakiutl, the
language
spoken here, is
different from
Nootkan,  but
the two peoples
frequently
intermarried.
pect of a clear & unbounded horizon in a North West direction, which from the distance they ran they had no doubt of
being the open Sea nearly about the Latitude of 51° North &
upwards of one hundred miles in a direct line from the
Vessels, but they could not put off time to wait till noon to
ascertain their situation more accurate by their meridian
altitude, as their stock of provision was nearly expended &
a fresh breeze from the Westward was now favorable / for
their return, with which they set out for the Vessels at
five in the morning & in some part of their way by a different
route more Southerly to that in which they went, as it was
Mr. Johnston's wish to find a more eligible Channel for the
Vessels to go through than by the Rapids which was the
only part he most dreaded, but their provision being wholly
expended indued him to relinquish the exploring of any
passage of uncertain direction to the Southward which had
the least chance of protracting their return., they therefore
hastend night & day to join the Ships which they did about
two in the morning on the 12th of July harassed with
hunger & fatigue being for the last two days upon a single
scanty meal & without any rest or out of the Boats for the
last 24 hours.
On the first day of their exploring they saw but very
few Natives & those were very shy notwithstanding every
enticing means was used to establish a confidential intercourse, but as they approachd towards the sea coast Villages
& Natives were more numerous than in any part they had
yet examined & they were not a little surprized to find that
many of them were arrivd with Muskets which they could
handle & use with much ease & great dexterity. The
Natives near the Sea Coast spoke the same language as the
Nootka Tribe, & some of them could blab several English
words, from which it evidently appeard that they have had
some late intercourse with the English or American Traders.
They also talkd much / of Maquinna the Chief of Nootka
Sound with whom they seemd to have kept up a considerable
commercial intercourse as they spoke of having receivd from
him almost every article of Traffic in their posession such
as Cloths Muskets &c.—These Muskets did not appear to
be of English Manufactory as their Barrels were securd to
the Stocks by means of Iron hoops, so that it appears
extremely probable that Maquinna has been the grand agent Menzies' Journal.
Johnstone Strait.
81
through which the bartering Commerce of this interior
Country has been carried on by some inland communication,
for the Channel by which our party penetrated to the Ocean
runs to the North West ward about 20 leagues behind
Nootka & tho the intervening Mountains opposite to that
Port are of considerable height with snowy summits yet in
several places deep Valleys & Chasms seemd to penetrate
through & renderd this inland communication more evident.
Mr. Johnstone having made known that they reachd in
sight of the Ocean at that part of the Coast namd in our
late Charts Queen Charlotte's Sound, the Channel of communication by which he penetrated obtaind the name of
Johnstone's Streights in honour of his persevering zeal in
the prosecution of this discovery. Cap* Vancouver resolvd
to proceed thither with the two Vessels, & on comparing
what had been done by the other Boats, it appeard pretty
evident by the flood tide coming from the Westward that
the Channel where Mr. Puget / & Mr. Whidbey left off
communicated with Johnstone's Streights & as it seemd to
then as far as they examind it to be a navigable Channel it
was determined to attempt a passage that way in preference
to the Rapids where Mr. Johnstone was apprehensive of
most danger, & for that purpose we on the following morning quitted our situation in Desolation Reach which was in
Latitude 50° 11' North & Longitude 2350 21' East from
Greenwich.
The Morning of the 13th set in with a fresh breeze
from the Westward with which both Vessels weighd & made
Sail leaving the two Spanish Vessels behind at Anchor after
taking a cordial leave of our new friends with whom we
now parted, but first steerd to the South East for about two
leagues & then hauld over between the Islands to the South
West Ward till we came to the entrance of the Channel
where we Anchord in the afternoon & Mr. Puget & Mr.
Whidbey were immediately dispatchd with two Boats to
prosecute their examination of it & ascertain whether it was
a navigable passage for the Vessels into Johnstone's
Streights.
I landed with Cap* Vancouver & some of the officers
on the North Point of the Entrance which was afterwards
named Cape Mudge. It forms a steep elevated naked bank
on the edge of which we found a considerable village con-
1792.
July 12th.
Inland
communication
was well
known to the
Spaniards and
traders some
years before
this.
Indicated on
maps by Dixon
and Meares
without name
and shown by
Dalrymple
with name in
1789. See Mem.
No. I. this ser.
July 13th.
Discovery
Passage.
Xnculta, now
the official
spelling, but
with many
variants.
«m<w»x» HH
82
Menzies' Journal.
Cape Mudge.
1792.
July 13th.
This is the first
description of
members of the
Kwakiutl
Indians.
Arbor vitce.
Ova tree is
similar to but
not identical
with this
Eastern
species.   It was
later described
as Thuja
plicata, the
well-known
Giant Cedar of
this Coast.
sisting of about 12 houses or Huts plankd over with large
boards some of which were ornamented with rude paintings
particularly those on the fronts of the houses. They were
flat roofed / & of a quadrangular figure & each house con-
taind several families to the number of about 350 Inhabitants
in all on the most moderate calculation, for there Were 18
Canoes along side of the Ship before we left it, & on landing
we counted about 70 on the Beach, so if we allow only 4
persons to each Canoe which is very moderate it will give
upwards of the number we have above computed.
Like the generality of Natives we met with in this
Country these were of a middling stature & rather slender
bodied, of a light copper colour: they were awkward in their
motions & ill formd in their limbs which no doubt in some
measure proceeded from their constant practice of squatting
down on their heels in their posture of setting either on
Shore or in their Canoes: They have flat broad faces with
small starting eyes:—Their Teeth are small & dirty; their
Ears are perforated for appending Ornaments either of
Copper or pearly Shells; the Septum of the Nose they also
pierce & sometimes wear a quill or piece of tooth-shell in it;
their Hair is streight black & long, but mixd with such
quantity of red-ocre grease & dirt puffed over at times with
white down that its real colour is not easily distinguishable;
they have long black Beards With long Hair about their
privates, but none on their Breasts or on the Arm pits.—
Some had ornamented their faces by painting it with red-
ocre sprinkled over with black Glimmer that helped not a
little to heighten their ferocious appearance.
/ The women & children did not appear any wise shy
or timerous tho we were pretty certain our party were the
first Europeans they had ever seen or had any direct intercourse with, nor did they seem to regard us or the Vessels
with any particular degree of curiosity.
The women were decently coverd with Garments made
either of the Skins of wild Animals or wove from Wool or
the prepared bark of the American Arber Vitae Tree, but
many of the Men went entirely naked without giving the
least offence to the other Sex or shewing any apparent
shame at their situation.
We saw but few Sea Otter Skins amongst them which
shews that these Animals do not much frequent the interior
25= Menzies' Journal.
Yuculta Indians.       83
Channels & perhaps only straggling ones at particular
Seasons, for the Fur of the few pieces we saw was of a
very inferior quality to those found along the exterior edge
of the Coast.
Their Fish-hooks are nearly the same as at Nootka
Sound & we saw some Fishing-Nets drying upon stakes
before the houses; their Bows were lin'd with Sinews &
shap'd like those we saw on the East Side of this great
Gulph, & the Arrows were also fastend in the same manner,
but most of them were armed with pieces of Muscle Shell
instead of flinty stones. Their Canoes were small with projecting prows & dug out of one piece of Timber each with
four or five small thorts & some of them had their outside
ornamented with rude figures painted with red-ochre: their
Paddles were short with round handles & pointed blades.
/ Some Fish & Curiosities were purchasd from them
for Beads & small Trinkets, & in these little dealings they
appeard to be guided by the strictest honesty, indeed their
whole conduct during our short stay was quiet friendly & hospitable, pressing us often to partake of their entertainment
such as Fish Berries & Water, & we in return endeavourd
to make them sensible of our approbation by distributing
among the Women & Children some small presents, which
made them appear highly gratified.
Behind the Village we saw a considerable quantity of
the American Cock Spur Thorn, backd by a dense Forest of
Pine Trees into which we were lead by a small path till we
came to a large clear Area that appeard to be intended as a
place of amusement, but what Games they exhibit here we
had no opportunity to know. We afterwards walkd to the
Westward along the side of the Channel on a pleasant clear
level pasture for near two Miles, where we observd in the
verge of the wood their manner of disposing of their dead
which was by putting them either in small square boxes or
wrapping them well up in Mats or old garments into square
bundles & placing them above ground in small Tombs
erected for the purpose & closely boarded on every side, but
as we saw only two or three of these places they might
probably belong to the Chiefs or some Families of distinction.—After enjoying this walk we returnd on board in the
dusk of the evening.
1792.
July 18th.
Sinew-lined
bows are not
reported from
north of this
in B.O.   Bows
lined with
snake-skin
were common
in the south.
Mussel-shell
arrow-points.
Made from
pieces of the
Giant Mussell
(Mytilus
calif ornianus).
From this point
northwards  the
canoes were
furnished with
projecting
sterns as well
as bows.   Sec
plate in Vane,
I., 364,
showing the
" Discovery on
the Rocks.*'
Cockspur
Thorn.   The
species here
referred to is
Douglas' Thorn
(Cratwgut
brevispina).
They walked
northward to
the site of the
present village.
MWWgmw
mtsmvaua** 84
Menzies" Journal.
Menzies Bay.
1792.
July 14th.
Menzies' Bay
on the west
larboard shore,
or
Nymphe Cove.
Discovery
Seymour
Narrows.
Elk Bay.
/ Early in the morning of the 14th both Vessels
weighed & ply'd up the Arm against a fresh North West
Wind till we gaind about ten Miles & then Anchord again
about 8 in the forenoon in a small Bay on the Star board
Shore, where we intended to remain till our Boats returnd.—
In the afternoon the Captain & some of the Gentlemen going
on shore to make some Astronomical observations gave me
an opportunity to accompany them to examine the natural
productions of the Country, which I found here exceeding
barren & met nothing new except a species of Penstemon.
We afterwards visited two Huts in a small Cove close to
our landing place containing several Families to the Amount
of about thirty people, & as my time was not otherwise much
occupied I got them to count their Numerals which I found
to agree nearly with those of the East side of the Gulph of
New Georgia; hence it is probable that they spoke a broken
dialect of the same language, of which however our constant
movement from place to place did not suffer us to obtain
but a very superficial knowledge. We therefore consider
this to be about the Western limits of that Nation as we
soon afterwards fell in with the Nootka language.
The small Bay we now occupied lays in Latitude 500 8'
North & Longitude 2340 45' East. The Tide of Flood came
here from the Westward in a strong race & the Vertical rise
was from eight to ten feet. The Country around us was of
a moderate height & of a very hilly rocky & barren appearance tho every where thinly coverd with stinted pines.
In the evening our two Boats returnd & the Gentlemen
reported that the Channel we / were now in lead into Johnston's Streights about four Leagues off, & appeard to be a
clear & navigable passage that far, only in some places it was
very narrow & the Tide run very rapid.—We were to get
under way with the next Ebb but had no Wind, we therefore
remaind in this Bay till the following afternoon; when both
Vessels weighd & with the assistance of the Ebb Tide began
plying against a fresh Westerly breeze through a very
narrow pass with high rocky shores on both sides, & were
followd by some Canoes from the small Village for about
two leagues up the Arm & having gone about another league
we anchord again at 8 in the Evening on the Larboard Shore
where we stopd for the night. Menzies' Journal.
Johnstone Strait.
At day light on the 16th we again weighd & having
made Sail we soon after got into Johnstone's Streights where
we met a fresh breeze & rough water but taking the advantage of the Ebb Tides we kept plying to the Westward this
& the following day & brought to on either side during the
Flood Tides as we found it necessary, for though the
Channel was seldom above two Miles wide yet it was so
deep that we could get no Anchorage except in the small
Bays dose in shore.—We passed on the South Side of an
Island laying nearly mid-channel, while the Chatham went
on the other side, & we found both sides sufficiently safe &
clear of any apparent danger. On the following day when
we came to the first opening leading off to the Northward,
which Mr. Johnstone had passed unexamined in order to
ascertain the communication with the Ocean, Mr. Puget &
Whidbey were sent with our Launch & Cutter Manned &
Armed to explore it, after which they were to follow us to
the next / opening to the Westward on the same side of the
Channel & search for us about the Entrance of it. We
passed some small Villages on the Southern shore but had
no intercourse with any of the Natives, which we supposd
might proceed from their shyness or the panic with which
they might be struck at seeing two large Vessels traversing
their Channel to Windward with so much apparent ease &
moving in every direction so obedient to our will with such
mechanical powers as they could have no idea of, & must
no doubt afford to their uncultivated minds a subject of the
utmost admiration & astonishment.
In the evening as we were standing into a Bay to
Anchor on the Southern Shore a breast of a low Marsh
which seemd to run back into a Valley between the
Mountains we shoald our Water so unexpectedly that both
Vessels were nearly aground.
On the 18th we continued our progress to the Westward
in the main Channel while the Chatham was sent over to the
North Shore to look into a Bay or Opening off which there
appeard some small Island, but as we had little wind it was
near noon before she enterd it & we lost sight of her, when
we concluded it to be an opening, we therefore made but
little advance till on the following morning when we were
joind again by Mr. Puget & Mr. Whidbey in the two Boats.
After having explord the Branch they went to examine to
1792.
July 16th.
Pender Id.
Port Neville.
July 17th.
Havannah
Channel.
Adams River.
July 18th.
Havannah
Channel.
Milly Id.
IBBVBf 86
Menzies' Journal.
Johnstone Strait.
1792.
July 18th.
Johnstone
Strait.
Alt. 5,000 ft.
here.
Wakashians of
Cook, Voy., II.,
837.   The
Kwakiutl word
for "welcome"
is very
different from
wakash and
was probably
used by traders
with other
words which
remain as part
ot the
" Chinook ••
Jargon.
July 20th.
Cathlagees of
Menzies;
Oheslakees of
Vancouver;
Cathlaginess
its source in weighing in the morning we carried away one
of the flukes of our small bower Anchor which situated as
we were was a great & an irreparable loss to us.
The South Side of this Channel rose in most places
abruptly into high steep broken / Mountains coverd with a
continud forest of Pines to their summits which in some
places was checquerd with patches of Snow, but the Land
on the North side tho' hilly is of a moderate height, the
great chain of high continental Mountains being five or six
leagues removed & extending to the North Westward with
elevated rugged snowy summits apparently forming every
where an impenetrable barrier to any communication with
the opposite side of the Continent.
We continued passing several Villages on the South
Shore as already mentioned, but hitherto the Natives
remaind so shy that we had no intercourse with them. We
were now however visited by some Canoes & Natives from
whom we procurd a quantity of Salmon. We found that
they spoke the Nootka language, & it was evident to us at
first sight that they were of the same Tribe by their crying
out Wakash Wakash as they were coming along side, which
is their expression for friendship, & as it so readily distinguishes the Individuals of this extensive Tribe to a
Stranger, I think they may be very aptly named as Captain
Cook has already hinted the Wakashion Nation.
As we advancd to the Westward we soon found the
Northern Shore to be much broken with Islands & Inlets,
but we kept on along the South Side till we came abreast
of a large Village which Mr. Johnstone & his party had
visited in their Boats, & reported it to be very numerously
inhabited with great abundance of Sea Otter Skins. Here
we anchord in seven fathoms about ten in the Evening.
Early in the Morning of the 20th we were visited by a
great number of Natives in their Canoes from the Village,
& a small traffic / commencd for Sea Otter Skins & Salmon,
of the former there was here a more plentifull supply than
any part we had yet visited, & the eagerness with which they
were sought after afforded a good deal of jocular merriment
even to the Natives. A middle aged man was announced as
the Chief & admitted on board, his name was Cathlagees &
his attention was chiefly occupied in regulating the traffic
between us & his Countrymen which he did with great acute- •*.&-■
Menzies' Journal.
Nimpkish Indians.       87
ness & seemd anxious to preserve a good understanding on
both sides.
In the afternoon I went with Cap* Vancouver & some
of the Officers accompanied by the Chief to the Village
called Whannoc, we found it pleasantly situated, exposed to
a Southern Aspect on the slopeing bank of a small creek
well shelterd behind by a dense forest of tall Pines. The
houses were regularly arranged & from the Creek made a
picturesque appearance by the various rude paintings with
which their fronts were adornd. On our approach to the
landing place in the two Boats, several of the Natives
assembled on the Beach to receive us, & conducted us very
orderly through every part of the Village, where we observd
that the Houses were built much in the same manner as at
Nootka, but much neater, & the Inhabitants being of the
same Nation differd very little either in their manners or
dress from the Nootka Tribe. Several families lived in
common under the same roof, but each had their sleeping
place divided off & screend in with great decency, & with
a degree of privacy not attended to in the Nootka habitations. The Women were variously employd, some in culinary occupations, others were engagd in / Manufacturing
of Garments Mats & small Baskets & they did not fail to
dun us for presents in every House we came to in a manner
which convincd us that they were not unaccustomd to such
Visitants. Buttons Beads & other Trinkets were distributed
amongst them, & so eagerly solicitous were they for these
little articles of ornament that our pockets were soon
emptied of them, & tho they were free & unreservd in their
manners & conversation, yet none of them would suffer any
of our people to offer them any indecent familiarities, which
is a modesty in some measure characteristic of their Tribe.
On coming to an elderly Chief's House we were enter-
taind with a song which was by no means unharmonious, the
whole group at intervals joind in it, & kept time by beating
against planks or any thing near them with the greatest regularity, after which the old Chief presented each of us with
a slip of Sea Otter Skin & sufferd us to depart. In preparing for this vocal entertainment the Natives made such a
bustle in arming themselves with Clubs Spears Sticks
Paddles &c for beating time with, that we'were at first a
little alarmd & had some suspitions of their having hostile
1792.
July 20th.
of the anonymous author of
a journal of
the Voyage of
the Chatham.
(See Meany,
E. S.   A New
Vancouver
Journal.)
Whannock,
Menzies.
Whanneck of
the anonymous
writer just
referred to;
Whnlk of
recent writers.
.UMHS1PUUU1»IUM Menzies' Journal.
Nimpkish Village.
1792.
July 20th.
1 I
%■
intentions, till their conduct evinced the contrary & we were
then happy that good understanding had not been interrupted by our unfounded distrust.
We saw Muskets in several Houses, most of them
appeard to be of Spanish Manufactory by the make of the
Lock & the manner in which the Barrel was fastend to the
Stock by broad hoops.—Cathlagees had no less than seven
Muskets in his own House kept in exceeding good order.
/ The number of Inhabitants in this Village we estimated to be about 500 & their commercial intercourse with
the Natives of Nootka by some inland communication was
pretty evident from their own accounts, for they assurd us
of having receivd from thence most of the Articles of
European Manufactory in their posession, so that it appears
extremely probable that this is the Channel by which that
post has been of late years supplied with a considerable share
of its fine Fur from the Northern regions, for they are well
acquainted with traffic & the value of their own commodi-
ities, but in their dealings seem to act fair & honest.
Upwards of 200 Sea Otter Skins were procurd from them
during our short stay at more than double the value I ever
saw given for them on any other part of the Coast, consequently many of our Articles of Commerce begin now to
lose their intrinsic Value amongst them. Iron though valuable to most other Indian Nations was here scarcely sought
after. The articles they most esteemd were Sheet Copper
& coarse broad blue Cloth; Of the former they took
from half a sheet to two thirds for a Skin, & of the latter a
piece about the square of the Cloth, but they sometimes
preferrd Woollen Cloth made up in the form of short
Jackets or Trowsers. They likewise eagerly asked for fire
arms powder & shot, but both policy & prudence should ever
prevent them from being distributed amongst them, as such
powerful weapons render them too formidable to neighbouring Tribes & be apt to increase the horrors of War between
them, they also make them more inclind to ill use or take
advantage of any / small Vessel that may be.led thither on
commercial pursuits.
This Village is about 20 leagues from the entrance of
Nootka nearly in a North direction, & as the interior parts
of that Sound have not yet been thoroughly explored, it is
probable some of its branches may penetrate nearly across Menzies' Journal.
Nimpkish Village.       89
& afford an easy means of communication to the Natives
of both places.—Saw here a pewter Basin on the bottom of
which was La Flovie V. Francois.
We remaind here till the following forenoon at which
time we weighd & stood back again under an easy sail to the
Eastward, till we came to that part we passed on the 19th
where the North side of the Channel became broken &
insular. Here we anchord in the afternoon close to one of
the Islands & steadied the Ship by a Hawser fastend to a
Tree on Shore. This being the place of rendezvous we
waited in daily expectations of being joined by the Chatham,
so that no excursion was undertaken or nothing particular
happend for the following six days, only one of the Officers
was sent in the Cutter the day after we anchord into an Arm
leading to the Eastward on purpose to look for the Chatham,
with orders not to go far, he therefore returnd on the day
following without seeing or hearing any thing of her.
We were almost daily visited by small parties of the
Natives in their Canoes from the Village, who generally
brought us a supply of Salmon, tho by no means sufficient to
supply all the Ship's company. Some of the people were
employd on the Island cutting fire wood / & a party was
engagd at times in fetching Water from the opposite side of
the Channel, for none was to be met with on the side we
were on, it being mostly Islands & low land.
The surrounding Islands & low land being every where
coverd with a continued forest of Pines afforded but little
variety of Soil or situation for Botanical researches, so that
I made but few new acquisitions during our stay at this
place. Two new species of Vaccinium was pretty common
in the woods & grew in some places to upwards of 12 feet
high, the one had large black berries & the other red,—
which were now beginning to ripen, & as they posessd a
gratefull acidity we found them extremely pleasant & palatable after being so long upon salt provision. The only
other fruit which the woods at this time afforded us was a
new species of Rasberry that grew at least to ten feet high,
& of which there were two varieties, one with a large red
fruit & another with a yellow that were both equally grate-
full & pleasant but were not met with in any great abundance. These Fruits together with a daily supply of fresh
Spruce Beer greatly assisted to correct the bad tendency of
1792.
July 20th.
La Flavie,
French ship of
about BOO tons,
Capt. Magon.
July 21st.
East end of
Hanson Id.
V. parvifoUum
and ovalifolium
(Red and Black
Huckleberry).
Itubus
spectabilis.
**tnmtm 90      Menzies' Journal.
Hanson Island.
1792.
July 2lst.
First collected
by Menzies in
Alaska, 1787.
m.
July 27th.
Havannah
Channel and
Call Creek.
Fife Passage
or Sound.
our present mode of living.—I have also met with the
Menziesia ferruginea which I had not observd in any part
of our more interior Navigation or in New Georgia, hence
it is very probable that this rare plant is only to be found
towards the outer skirts of the Coast.
/ The weather being at this time rather unsettled &
squally, Mr. Whidbey was sent one day in the Cutter to
examine some Bays on the opposite side of the Channel
between us & the Village for a more commodious harbour
in case it should be found necessary to remove the Ship into
a place of greater safety. I accompanied him to examine
the produce of the Country, but found nothing different
from what I had before seen in other parts, we returnd on
board again in the evening & had not long quitted the place
we had been examining, when as we afterwards understood
the Chatham came into the Channel & Anchord nearly off it,
though we saw nothing of her.
Soon in the afternoon of the 27th Mr. Broughton came
on board the Discovery in his Boat & acquainted us that they
had anchord with the Chatham a little to the Westward of
us on the preceeding evening, & in attempting to weigh this
morning in order to join us, they found their Anchor had
hook'd a Rock, which baffled all their endeavours to clear
with the strongest purchase they were able to make use of.—
After parting with us on the 18th they enterd a Channel
which carried them five or six leagues to the North West
Ward before it terminated, they then continued tracing the
Continental Shore through a number of winding Channels,,
some of which were very narrow & yet so deep that they
sometimes could not find bottom with a hundred fathoms
of line, & even obligd to Anchor at one time close to the
Shore in / upwards of 70 fathom. They however per-
severd in their object, sometimes with their Boat, &
sometimes with the Vessel, till they came out by a Channel
nearly opposite to us on the preceeding day, having by their
track surrounded a large group of Islands which obtaind the
name of Broughton's Archipelago. They saw- some Villages
& were in several places visited by a number of the Natives
from whom they now & then got a small supply of Fish but
they saw very few Furs or any other thing for traffic. In one
place where they had but little wind the Chatham was drove
on shore by the force of the Tide but as it fortunately
SrHS Menzies1 Journal.
Broughton Archipelago.       91
happend to be rising they soon got her off again without
receiving any damage. As the weather was squally and
unsettled Mr. Broughton remaind on board the Discovery
all night.
The forenoon of the 28th we had westerly wind &
heavy Rain but weighd pretty early & plied to the westward
in order to assist the Chatham in clearing her Anchor which
we found they had accomplishd in heaving a tight strain on
their Cable the evening before & leaving it in that state all
night by which means the Anchor came loose in the Morning
& they were enabled to get under way & join us when we
immediately hauld the wind & stood to the Northward across
a large Sound strewd over with a number of Islands till we
came to the Channel where the Chatham left off exploring
the Continental Shore & enterd it about two in the afternoon, but there being little wind & the Tide making against
us we went but a little way up when we were obligd to
anchor for the night, which remaind / calm & fair till about
nine next morning, when a light favorable breeze sprung up,
with which we both proceeded North Easterly up the
Channel to its first division into two branches, where in going
into the Westermost, we enterd upon new ground, but having
little wind & night coming on we anchord in 47 fathoms
about two miles from its entrance. Before we got under
way in the morning we were visited by a small party of the
Natives in their Canoes, who as we were weighing Anchor
removd from us to a little distance & there remaining
stationary continued gazing upon us as we were making Sail
with the utmost astonishment, & as it is probable we were
the first Vessels they had ever seen in these Channels their
excited curiosity at seeing us thus manoeuvre will not appear
extraordinary.
Next morning we found the Arm in which we anchord
was not above half a mile wide so consequently did not
expect it would go far, & close to us it sent off a branch to
the Westward, As the day was nearly calm & fair I in the
forenoon accompanied Capt Vancouver & some of the
Officers in the Pinnace on a short excursion up the northern
branch, & about two miles from the Ship we passed a large
stream of fresh water issuing out of a deep gully round the
mouth of which we observd a vast number of Salmon leaping & gamboling.—Here the Arm took a sudden turn round
1792.
July 27th.
July 28th.
Queen
Charlotte Sd.,
east end.
Fife Sound.
July 29th.
Tribune
Channel and
Simoom Sd.
Simoom Sd.
July 30th. -—-—'--—~—f-re -.—
iv
w
92
Menzies' Journal.
Simoom Sound.
mfi
emu
IP
5£~
1792.
July 30th.
O'Brien  Basin,
Shawl Bay.
July 31st.
Sutlej Channel.
Hemlock of
Eastern Canada
as then named.
Afterwards
separated from
Pinus and
placed in genus
Tsuga, of which
our lowland
form is T.
heterophylla.
Phalacrocorax
sp.   One of the
Green
Cormorants.
Aug. 1st.
to the Westward & soon after ended in a small Basin which
was separated from the Western branch by a low isthmus of
only about a hundred yards wide where we landed & walkd
across & afterwards returnd to the Ship to dinner. / The
Country on each side was coverd with Pines, steep, Mountainous & rocky.
Early in the morning of the 31st two Boats were
equipped & sent off under the direction of Mr. Puget & Mr.
Whidbey up the Western branch on a surveying expedition,
while Cap* Vancouver & Mr. Broughton went off at the
same time in the Pinnace with intention to accompany them
a short way to see if it was practicable to follow them
further up with the Vessels, & if so, to settle on a place of
rendezvous.
A party began to Water & another to brew Spruce Beer,
but after erecting the Brewing Utensils on shore, they
brought me word that there was none of that particular
Spruce from which they used to Brew to be found near the
landing place, on which I recommended another species
(Pinus Canadensis) which answerd equally well & made
very salubrious & palatable Beer.
In the forenoon I employd myself in examining a small
collection of Plants I made on the preceeding day, but in the
afternoon I accompanied a shooting party who went in a
small Boat under a high perpendicular Cliff about two miles
off which we had passed on our right hand as we enterd the
Arm in the Vessels. Our Game was a particular kind of
Shag {Pelecanus Urile) that were breeding in the Horizontal
Crevices of the Rocks & at this time were very numerous as
the young ones were beginning to fly, to them our chief aim
was directed with some success & we found them next day
very palatable.
In the forenoon of the 1st of August I accompanied a
party of the Officers of both Vessels who were going to spend
the day towards the' head of the Arm, in order to profit by
the opportunity in examining their route for rare plants,
particularly the deep gully from which the large Brook
emptied its rapid stream in to the Arm. Here we first
landed & on seeing the vast number of Salmon which kept
still gamboling about the mouth of it, the Boat was sent on
board the Discovery for the Seine & on the first haul we
mashd about four dozen of them, & the second haul was
m* Menzies' Journal.
Simoom Sound.      93
nearly as successfull. The day becoming dark & gloomy
with heavy rain obligd us to return on board sooner than we
intended with our collection of Salmon which was an acceptable supply for all hands on board both Vessels, & what was
very remarkable the same Seine was hauled in the same place
again & again on the two succeeding days without catching
a single fish, though they were seen equally abundant in the
water.
In the Gully I found a new species of Henchera &
another of Polytricum with plenty of the two Vacciniums
which were here very productive with red & black berries.
The weather continued dark & gloomy the remainder of
this & on the following day with frequent loud Claps of
Thunder preceeded by vivid flashes of lightning, which was
the first we had experiencd in these interior regions.
Mr. Johnstone made the Latitude of this place in 500
30' 30" North with the artificial Horizon—The / Vertical-
rise of the Tide was about ten feet, but the Stream either
way was scarcely perceptible.
In the forenoon of the 3d we had hazy weather with
some Rain & little wind. About two in the afternoon Cap*
Vancouver & Mr. Broughton returnd in the Pinnace, having
penetrated by the Western branch into the Sound, & there
having appointed a place of meeting with the other two
Boats, they were orderd to proceed on their examination,
while the two Commanders hastend back to take the Vessels
thither by the Channel we came in at, as the Western branch
was not found sufficiently eligible. In point of refreshment
they were tolerably well off, as they had the good fortune to
kill a Deer soon after their departure from the Vessels.
Every thing was now got off from the Shore, & both
Vessels immediately weighd to return back the Arm, but
there being but little wind we were not able to proceed far
when we were obligd to anchor again in the dusk of the
evening in sixty fathoms.
Next morning was mostly calm but we got under way
pretty early to take the advantage of the ebb Tide in dropping down the Arm. About ten in the forenoon a fresh
breeze sprung up from the Westward, against which we
continued plying till in the evening we reachd the entrance
where we observd the two Boats coming round the outer
point from the Westward, & both Mr. Puget & Mr. Whidbey
1783.
Aug. lit.
? Tolmiaea
MenziesU,
common hereabouts and
first described
as Heuchera.
Aug. 3rd.
Fife Sound.
Aug. 4th.
9BM
nsSS ES
94
Menzies' Journal.
Queen Charlotte Sound.
1792.
Aug. 4th.
JP
fSS
BBS
Bast of Point
Boyles of
Vancouver.
Aug. 5th.
5ES:
Queen Charlotte
Sd.
lies
Aug. 6tb.
Near Deserters'
Islands.
with their party soon after joind us, having pursued the
Continental shore through intricate winding Channels that
led them out into the Sound.—They met with a few
straggling parties of the Natives & particularly a Chief who
had his Arm blown / up with Gun powder on the other side
of the Sound, & which they dressd for him.—They also met
with some falls of Salt Water of fourteen or sixteen feet
high which surprized them not a little but as none of them
were above the reach of the Tide at high water, it is probable
that these falls were from Basins filled at that time which
continued emptying slowly until the next return of the Tide
as we have already observd in another place.
Having but little wind in the evening & the Tide making
against us we were indued to drop Anchor in very deep
water a little to the westward of the entrance of the Channel
we came out of.
The morning & forenoon of the 5th was Calm with very
thick fog till about noon when it cleard up so as to enable
us to get a Meridian Altitude of the Sun which made our
Latitude 50° 50' North & we were at the same time near the
North Shore of this great Sound & about 25 leagues nearly
due North of Nootka Sound.
The great North West range of high Mountains was
not now far removd from us, their Summits were coverd
with Snow & their sides every where wooded with a continued forest of Pines down to the shore of the Sound which
appeard bleak & rocky. The Sound is here about five
leagues wide & every where interspersed with numerous
Islands.
Soon after noon a moderate westerly breeze set in, &
being at the same time favord with the ebb Tide, we both
weighd, & continued plying to windward along the northern
shore of the Sound till the Evening when it fell nearly calm,
but as the Sound was wide, we kept under way all night,
with very litttle wind & hazy weather.
The 6th continued Calm & hazy till a little past noon
when it cleard up with a light breeze from-the Westward
against which we continued plying till about half past four
in the afternoon, when we were standing in towards the
North Shore of the Sound, going at the rate of about three
knots through the Water, the Discovery struck upon a small
bed of Rocks under Water & there stuck fast.   On sounding Menzies' Journal.
Queen Charlotte Sound.       95
close round her we found from three to six fathoms water,
except the Rock she struck on which had only two fathoms.
A small Anchor & Cable was immediately carried out from
the quarter & every attempt made to heave her off the way
she came on, but without effect, as the Tide had already
ebbed a little, & was now falling from her so very fast that
she began to heel a good deal to Starboard, on which the
Top Gallant Masts were took down, the yards & top masts
struck, & a stout spar was got over the side to shore her
up.—In this alarming & critical situation Mr. Broughton
bore down with the Chatham & came to an anchor in very
deep water close by us, in order to be ready with his Men
& Boats to give every assistance that might be necessary for
our preservation, & from his well known coolness & intrepidity we derivd no small consolation. As the water fell
from her forward, she became deeply immergd abaft &
. heeld so considerably that part of her main Chains were in
the Water, so that we could scarcely stand on her deck
without grasping by the Rails or the Rigging, for at low
water she had only three feet of Water on the Rock under
her forefoot, while there were three fathoms & a half of
water under the main Chains / & five fathoms under the
stern post, fortunately however there was but very little
wind & no swell that could any wise molest us, so that we
waited patiently for the return of high water, but in the
mean time employd the Boats in sounding round us to obtain
a more thorough knowledge of our situation, & in carrying
out an Anchor & Cable into deep water to heave her off.
And'to make certain of her floating at high water she was
lightened by starting 17 Ton of water & heaving a quantity
of Wood & Ballast over board. With these precautions we
had the satisfaction to get her afloat against about two
o'clock the next morning without receiving any apparent
damage & as we had very little wind & thick fog, the forenoon was chiefly employd in restowing the Booms & getting
up the Yards & Topmasts, on which occasion John Turner
one of the Seamen had the misfortune to have his right arm
fractured by the Mast Rope being carried away in swaying
up the Main top gallant Mast. About noon it cleard up a
little so as to enable us to ascertain our Latitude which was
500 55' North & soon after a fair breeze springing up, we
weighed, & with the Tide of Ebb pursued our course to the
1792.
Aug. 8th.
lauwa^a
«gg>»otl**** Menzies" Journal.
Queen Charlotte Sound.
1792.
Aug. 6th.
One of the
Barnacles.
California
Mussel.
Aug. 8th.
North Westward followd by our Consort, who about six in
the evening being a little astern made the signal of distress
having struck upon a sunken reef of Rocks by keeping too
close to an Island they were coming past, & it being ebb Tide
they remaind fast. We immediately dropped Anchor in 75
fathoms & sent an Officer with Boats to her assistance &
in the mean time Mr. Whidbey was sent ahead with the
Pinnace to Sound & look out for the best Channel, I accompanied him on / this service. We had not gone above four
Miles from the Ship when we came to a small barren Island
on which we landed to take some bearing & here I saw vast
abundance of a new species of Lepas adhering to the Rocks
in large Clusters, together with a large species of Mussel
which was likewise new. A great number of Sea Otters
which we disturbd & frightend off the Rock when we
landed, continued swimming about it while we staid & afterwards followd us some way in the Boat, sometimes approaching it very near. In returning again on Board we had to
encounter a strong Tide which retarded us till very late in
the evening & having had no accounts from the Chatham we
passed the night under considerable anxiety for the safety
of our friends, as from their exposed situation the rapid
Tides & heavy swell it was not any easy matter to eradicate
the idea of shipwreck from our minds.
Till at day light next morning we had the pleasure of
seeing her at Anchor a little distance from the Reef on
which she grounded, & soon after she got under way & came
towards us, when our Boats came along side, & we were
informd that she had got off the Rocks a little after midnight, that a swell rolling on the reef occasiond her thumping a good deal on the Rocks which twisted her Rudder &
causd much uneasiness for her safety—They were obligd to
shore her up on both sides, but not having a sufficient
number of Spars on board for the purpose, the Tide happend
to drift a very good one along side at the moment they*
wanted it & which was made / use of, & as she made no
Water it was supposd that her bottom sustaind no material
damage.
The Chatham having come up with us we weighd &
directed our course to the West ward ■—In passing the rocky
islet we visited on the preceeding evening hi the pinnace,
there being little wind, the Tide drifted the Chatham so near Menzies' Journal.
Queen Charlotte Sound.
97
to it that she touchd another sunken rock & hung upon it for
about two minutes but got off again without receiving any
apparent injury. The wind being scanty & rather against us
in the afternoon, we stood in towards the Northern shore of
the Sound & anchord within half a Mile of it in 55 fathoms
where the Woods appeard to be small scrubby Pines that
bore evident marks of the Oceanic blasts to which they were
much exposd, for we were now in sight of the Sea & nearly
out of this great intricate Sound, having a spacious opening
& an unbounded Horizon in a West North West direction.
The morning of the 9th was foggy till the day was well
advanced, when we both weighd Anchors & proceeded cautiously to the Westward with a light fair breeze out to Sea,
passing through a narrow Channel of about a Mile wide
between some Islands coverd with Pines in the entrance of
the Sound. We were in this passage about noon when our
Latitude by an indifferent observation was 51 ° North, and
though there appeard a spacious Channel between these
Islands & the Northern Shore yet we did not attempt it, as
we observd some low picked rocks & breakers strewd in two
or three places at half-tide which shewd it to be foul ground
& by no / means a commendable passage to Navigate without previous knowledge of its Soundings.
Soon afternoon it became very thick & foggy with a
moderate breeze of wind from the Westward, against which
we continued making short tack to keep to Windward of
these Islands till in the evening it cleard up & we found
ourselves drifted over to the Southern Shore of the Sound
& anchord within half a mile of it, as the uncertainty of the
Currents & Winds renderd it rather dangerous to be under
way during the night.
The morning of the 10th was foggy as we had it pretty
regular for some days past, till about 8 when it cleared with
a moderate breeze from the Eastward, with which we
weighd & stood to the Northward on the Outside of the
Islands across the entrance of Queen Charlotte's Sound for
the entrance of Fitzhugh's Sound, having now traced the
Continental Shore through its various intricate windings &
circumvolutions to the point which divides these two Sounds
on the Outer Edge of the Coast & which lays in Latitude
51 ° 16' North & Longitude 232 ° 30' East, for at noon we
had an observation about four miles to the Northward of it
1792
Ang.
8th.
Aug. 9th.
Between Pine
and Storm
Islands.
Near Shadwell
Passage.
Aug. 10th.
Fltzhngh Sd.
of Hanna,
17S6.
*o*K 98
Menzies' Journal.
Fitzhugh Sound.
mm
1792.
Aug. 10th.
False Egg Id.
iSTi "■
The well-
named Peril
Rocks are
Pearl Rocks of
recent charts.
Smith's Inlet
of Hanna.
Duncan's Plan
of, published
by Dalrymple,
1789.
Aug. 11th.
in Latitude 51 ° 20' North, within half a mile of some small
Islands laying close to the Continental shore, which here
formd a hilly uneven Country wooded every where with
Pines & backd at no great distance by elevated Mountains
capt with Snow.—The shore itself was rocky & indented
with small Bays which on both sides of the Point were
choakd up with drift wood that bleachd by exposure / to
the'Weather & appeard at a distance like white sandy Bays.
To the Westward of us, off the South end of Calvert's
Island, we saw what Cap* Hanna who first visited this part
of the Coast called the Peril Rocks, which appeard to be an
extensive Shoal that renders the approach to this Sound
from sea ward extremely dangerous.
In the afternoon we passed some openings that branched
off to the Eastward, one of which has been called Smith's
Inlet by some of the Traders, & continued our course up
Fitzhugh's Sound which is from three to four miles wide in
the direction of North West by Compass, keeping the western
shore on board till we came to Duncan's Port Safety,, where
we both anchord late in the Evening, & found it to be a
small Cove or Bay about two Leaugues up the Sound on
Calvert's Island in Latitude 51 ° 30' North & Longitude 232 °
23' East.
Having securely stationd the Vessels in Safety Cove,
two parties got ready & set out at day break on the morning
of the nth with four Boats manned & armed to continue
the examination of the Continental Shore. The Captain
accompanied them in the Pinnace to give the necessary
instructions before they separated at the entrance of the
Cove, where Mr. Puget & Mr. Whidbey with our Long Boat
& Cutter had directions to go back & begin at Smith's Inlet,
& explore the Eastern side of the Sound to a point then in
sight about five leagues to the North ward of us on the
same shore, while Mr. Johnstone with the other two Boats /
went on to begin at that point & from thence proceed to
explore towards the Head of Fitzhugh's Sound, & as his'
excursion seemd to offer a more interesting field for Botanical researches I accompanied him to examine the natural
produce of the Country, & Capt. Vancouver went with us in
the Pinnace to see if the Vessels could be moved higher up
the Sound before our return, & if so to fix on a place of
Meeting. Menzies' 'Journal.
Fitzhugh Sound.       99
We therefore proceeded to the Northward in the three
Boats, passing two openings on the Western Shore till about
Noon, when we came to the intended point on the eastern
shore where we commencd our examination, but soon after
the Weather became thick & foggy with incessant rain, that
we were obligd to take shelter by landing our Tents in a
small Cove where we remaind unable to stir out from the
inclemency of the Weather till about noon on the following
day, when it moderated a little so as to encourage us to set
forward in our examination & having passed some small
Bays & two or three Islands close to the Shore, we continued
on till we came to an opening that branched off to the
North east ward about eight or nine leagues from the
entrance of the Sound. We had scarcely enterd this Arm
when a thick fog came on with heavy rain & very unpleasant
weather, we however persevered in going on, till about six
in the evening, when we were about seven or eight Miles up
the Arm & then landed in a large Bay on the Starboard
Shore, pitching our Tents in the edge of the Wood near
the conflux of a considerable Rivulet that collected in a
deep / Valley from the adjacent snowy Mountains, & here
we passed the night wet & uncomfortable as it continued to
rain incessantly.
On the 13th the Weather still continued so unfavorable
that we were detaind at our encampment till about noon,
which occasiond the Rivulet to be named Detention Rivulet.
It appeard indeed to be the most considerable fresh Water
Stream we had yet met with on this Coast. On its Banks
we found Black Currants & Raspberries in abundance, & the
Woods were well stored with red & black Whortle berries.
The Menziesia grew here also in abundance.
The weather had by no means a settled appearance, but
the rain having somewhat abated, we embarkd again in our
Boats about noon & proceeded up the Arm which now took
a North East by North direction nearly about two Miles wide
between ridges of high snowy mountains adornd with foaming Torrents tumbling headlong down their steep sides over
rocks & precipices, from the Melted Snow & the late Rains.
In the afternoon we passed on our right a high steep Mountain separated from the rest & remarkable only for its conic
form & naked rocky barren summit, for the other Mountains
1792.
Aug. 11th.
Ewahshua and
Hakal.
Near Namn.
Burke Channel.
Unnamed,
but S. of
Restoration
Bay.
Aug. 13th.
Menziesia
ferruginea. ioo      Menzies' Journal.
Burke* Channel.
'1792.
Aug. 18th.
Kelkpa.
Aug. 14th.
Empetrum
nigrum
(Crowberry),
the Swedish
Dogwood, and
Roseroot, showing a cool
moist climate.
Ewatna Inlet.
The Kwatlena
Indian Reserve.
Aug. 15th.
on both sides of it were every where coverd seemingly higher
up with Pine Forests to the very edge of the Snow.
We continued on till dark when having surrounded a
rocky barren point which formd a small Peninsula, we found
on the North side of it a commodious Beach for encampment
stored with / plenty of drift wood for making large fires to
dry & warm ourselves after the uncomfortable rainy weather
we had lately sustaind.
Though the morning of the 14th had a dark gloomy
unsettled appearance, we commenced our operations pretty
early by first landing on the barren point we had passed so
late on the preceeding evening to take bearings; here I first
met on this Coast with the Empetrum nigrum, Cornus
Suecica, Rhodiola rosea &c besides a new dwarf species of
Vaccinium.
The Crew of the Pinnace being only Victualled for three
days their provision was now expended, which obligd Cap*
Vancouver to return to the Ship, leaving Mr. Johnstone the
Command of the other Boats with orders to proceed in
exploring the continental shore as long as his provision
lasted. After parting we therefore proceeded up the Arm
in a North East direction till about noon when we found it
divide & enterd a branch leading off South Westerly, but
the afternoon being very rainy with foggy weather which
continued all night we were not able to carry our examination far when we stopped for the evening in a small Cove
on the starboard side, having passed many pleasing Cascades
& on the opposite side a large Bay where a considerable
stream of fresh water emptied itself into the Arm.
The morning of the 15th was still rainy & thick weather
but cleard up about breakfast time when we pursued our
Survey up the Arm which took a turn to the Southward &
seen after ended in a deep Valley that made a considerable
break in the mountains in that direction. We then put back
& din'd at the place where we / encampd on the preceeding
evening, after which we returnd down the Arm, having little
Wind with thick foggy weather & frequent showers of heavy
rain, but as we had only to go over our old ground we rowed
on till dusk, when we came to the entrance of the Arm &
brought to in a snug Cove round its eastern point where we
pitchd our Tents on a small Isthmus for the night which
continued to rain very hard throughout so that we were all Menzies' Journal.
Burke Channel.
101
wet & uncomfortable particularly the Men who had no other
shelter but what they formed by the Boat Sails which were
found very inadequate to screen them from the inclemency
of such boisterous weather & such deluge of rain.
On the 16th it continued Rain & fog till after breakfast
time when the forenoon cleard up into fair & sunshiny
weather with which we proceeded up the North East Arm
assisted by a favorable breeze between two high ridges of
dreary rocky mountains whose steep sides were thinly coverd
with stinted woods while their summits were capt with perpetual Snow & many places were seen of considerable extent
towards the upper regions of the Mountains exposing only
a naked surface of rugged rocks without the least apparent
vestage of vegetation.
As we advancd oh we found small black Birch Maples
& Medlers with, some Vacciniums to form the principal
woody covering to these Mountains & Pines were only thinly
scatterd here & there in Valleys near the Waterside making /
as it were a slow progress.
At noon we observd for our Latitude which we found to
be 52° 22' North & soon after passed an opening going off
to the North West ward & in a Bay nearly opposite to it we
observd some Smoak near the Beach which indued us to
land in expectation of seeing some of the Indians, but we
found only an old deserted Hut that had been so lately
occupied that the remains of the Fire was still burning by it,
& behind it we found a large Canoe of 42 feet long hauld up
into the Woods to be repaird.—The Water was now brakish
& pale colourd which made it pretty evident that the termination of the Arm was not very far off, we therefore proceeded anxiously on to reach the head of it, to save the
necessity of sending other Boats to so great a distance to
finish it—In the afternoon the foggy & rainy Weather again
returnd, but as the breeze continued favorable we kept going
on under these disadvantages & in the evening the Arm again
divided into two branches, one took a South Easterly direction which we followd till the dusk of the evening & then
stopped near a large stream of fresh water for the night at
the entrance of the Arm, the Western point of which afterwards obtaind the name of Point Menzies.—The Water of
the Arm was here almost fresh & very pale, but no other
1792.
Aug. loth.
Aug. 16th.
See Appendix.
Labouchere
Channel.
South Bentinck
Arm.
Dividing S.
Bentinck Arm
from Burke
Channel. 102       Menzies1 Journal.
Burke Channel.
1792.
Ang. 16th.
Aug. 17th.
Return by
Burke Channel.
Aug. 18th.
s**%.
signs of its ending, for it was not in the least contracted in
its weadth which was here rather better than a mile. over.
On the 17th our provision being very nearly expended
it was not thought prudent with the bad weather we had to
run on any further as it was not now likely we should be able
to / finish all our branches, We therefore at day break set
out on our return to the Vessels, leaving the heads of these
different Arms undetermined. By nine we reachdthe place
where we had yesterday seen the Smoke—here we landed
to breakfast & found the fire still burning at the root of an
old tree & everything else in the same situation.—After
leaving pieces of Copper Nails Beads & other Trinkets in the
large Canoe we pursued our way back the Arm with the
most unfavorable Weather till the evening when we stopped
on a fine pebbly Beach within a league of where Cap*
Vancouver parted with us, & for the first night since we left
the Vessel had fair pleasant Weather but very cold.
Next morning we were again in motion at day break,
as we had the comfort of fair Weather, but we did not long
enjoy it when it came on to rain again very hard with fluctuating gusts of wind that greatly retarded our progress.-—
As we had this day but a single scanty meal, every exertion
was used to reach the Vessels both by rowing & sailing, &
after persisting in our endeavours with fatiguing toil till
ten at night we were obligd to stop about five leagues from
them & spend the night in the Boats very uncomfortably, as
it raind incessantly & all the Shelter we could make from
the Boats Sails &c. was very inadequate to defend us from
its inclemency. In this situation we anxiously lookd forward for day-light, when we again set out, cold, stiff, wet &
hungry, & were greatly impeded in our progress by the wind
& heavy swell being against us, up Fitzhugh's Sound.—About
ten in the forenoon we saw the Vessels under way off the
entrance / of Safety Cove & as they advancd up the Sound
to meet us we got on board the Discovery about noon, When
we were informd that two days before they were visited in
the Cove by the Venus Brig from Bengal Commanded by Mr.
Shepherd on a Commercial Voyage trading for Furs along
the Coast. Mr. Shepherd brought a letter to Cap* Vancouver
from the Master of the Doedalus Store Ship who had been
laying at Nootka Sound for some time waiting our arrival.—
This letter containd a short account of the melancholy fate Menzies' Journal.
Safety Cove.       103
of Lieu* Rich* Hergist who was charged with this Ship as
Naval Agent & Mr. Wm. Gooch who was coming out in her
to join the Discovery as an Astronomer together with one of
the Seamen who were massacred on shore by the Natives at
Woahoo one of the Sandwich Islands.
In this situation of affairs Cap* Vancouver resolvd on
closing the first seasons examination of the Coast, & go to
Nootka with both Vessels to join the Store Ship; for the
Weather was now become so cold wet & uncomfortable that
the men were no longer able to endure the fatiguing hardships of distant excursions in open Boats exposd to the cold
rigorous blasts of a high northern situation with high dreary
snowy mountains on every side, performing toilsome labor
on their Oars in the day, & alternately watching for their
own safety at night, with no other Couch to repose upon
than the Cold Stony Beach or the wet mossy Turf in damp
woody situations, without having shelter sufficient to screen
them from the inclemency of boisterous weather, & enduring
at times the tormenting pangs of both hunger & thirst, yet
on every occasion / struggling who should be most forward
in executing the orders of their superiors to accomplish the
general interest of the Voyage.—In short it is but justice to
say that on this arduous service both Officers & Men were
hourly exposed to various hardships & dangers, yet went
cheerfully through the fatiguing operations of the Summer
without murmur. And if we look back on the different
winding Channels & Armlets which the Vessels & Boats
traversed over in following the Continental Shore ever since
they enterd De Fuca's Streights, it will readily be allowd
that such an intricate & laborious examination could not have
been accomplishd in so short a time without the cooperating
exertions of both Men & Officers whose greatest pleasure
seemd to be in performing their duty with alacrity & encountering the dangers & difficulties incidental to such service
with a persevering intrepidity & manly steadiness that
afforded a most pleasing omen to the happy issue of our
future endeavours in this arduous undertaking.
Both Vessels now directed their course out to Sea by
the North end of Calverts Island about the Latitude of 5l0
46' North through a Channel formd on the North side by a
numerous group of Islands of a moderate height wooded
with Pines.   The wind being against us we were obligd to
1792.
Aug. 18th.
Aug. 19th.
Hakai Channel.
»«WWMHHWIIIhl.i>d Menzies" Journal.
Port Wentworth.
ply through till about eight in the evening, when we were
able to make a stretch out to Sea about two leagues to the
Southward of a little round Island off Port Wentworth
where the Ship Prince of Wales / last Anchord before she
left the Coast in the latter end of the year 1788, & at that
time the Port was named in honor of Governor Wentworth
of Nova Scotia.—During the night we had moderate wind
from the South East with foggy weather & some rain.
The same thick rainy weather continued on the following day, so that we could not see to any great distance—
We estimated our Latitude to be 51 ° 22' North, & towards
evening we had an encrease of blowing weather from the
South East with heavy rain which reducd us to double reefd
Top Sails & obligd us to spend the night on different tacks.
On the 21st the Wind was from the same quarter but
more moderate accompanied with a great swell & thick rainy
weather so that we had no observation to ascertain our Latitude but saw the Westermost of Scott's Islands S 50 E by
Compass about 4 or 5 leagues distance. About midnight as
we were standing in towards the Coast we shoaled our Water
very suddenly from sixty to seventeen fathoms—rocky
bottom which gave some alarm—we immediately tacked &
made the Chatham signal to do the same & as we stood out
soon deepend our water again. This sudden & great
inequality of Soundings would induce a cautious Navigator
to approach this part of the Coast with the utmost circumspection.
In the morning of the 22d we had light southerly wind
with fair weather but a little hazy which cleard up towards
noon / & enabled us to have a meridian altitude that deter-
mind our Latitude 51 ° 7' North, when the Westermost of
Scott's Islands bore S 24 E. by compass seven Miles.—In
the afternoon we had it a little hazy again with a light breeze
from South South West, which we kept close hauled to the
South East & neared the Islands slowly,—At seven in the
evening we were however so near as to perceive that there
was no eligible passage for Vessels between them, at least
it appeard in this direction very dangerous being interspersed
with small peeked Rocks & Breakers the whole way across
from one Island to the other, & each seemd well guarded
with detachd Rocks all round. ■WHWWM
Menzies' Journal.
Triangle Island.       105
On the 23d we had dark hazy weather with some Rain
& a moderate breeze from the South East. At noon we
observed in 500 49' North, when the Westermost of Scott's
Isles bore N 60 E by Compass about six leagues. We stood
close hauld to the Eastward with light wind for the afternoon & at night tacked & stood to the South west ward with
Southerly wind & a heavy swell from the same quarter.
Next morning we had some Rain &: hazy weather with
moderate wind from the South ward, but as the day
advanced the wind shifted to the Westward & the Weather
bacame fair & clear. At Noon Westermost of Scott's Isles
bore N 10 E by Compass about the distance of eight or nine
Miles when our Latitude was 500 43' North.
In the afternoon we stood to the Eastward a / little to
the Southward of Scott's Islands in order to ascertain their
relative position. The Westermost is naked elevated &
rocky with some litle verdure here & there & well guarded
by detached picked rocks all round it. The second is a
barren rock & much smaller than the former. The third
has a few trees on it of a stinted appearance & nearly the
size of the second. The eastermost & largest seems to be
divided into two Islands which are well coverd with Trees
& separated from the shore to the Eastward of them by a
Channel of two leagues wide. They are of a height sufficient to be seen ten or twelve leagues off. About dusk of
the evening being close in with the Coast, we brought to for
the night to wait for the return of day light to examine the
exterior Coast as we went along to the Southward.
At day light on the 25th we bore up & made Sail again
with a gentle breeze from the Westward & some showers of
rain, which made it so thick & hazy over the land that we
could not well discern its appearance excepting at short
intervals. We proceeded to the Southeastward along the
shore which seemd to be much indented with Bays & Inlets,
& the Land rose in many places into steep Mountains of
considerable height separated by deep winding valleys every
where well wooded with Pines.—At noon our Latitude was
500 18' North Cape Split rock (so named from a remarkable
rugged elevated rock about a mile off the point) bore South
75° East by Compass. By four in the afternoon we were
abreast of this Cape which is in Latitude 500 10' North &
Longitude ( ) & it makes a very conspicuous point on
1792.
Aug. 23rd.
Triangle Id.
Aug. 24th.
Triangle Id.
Cox Id.
Aug. 25th.
Solander Id. off
Woody Point,
now Cape Cook.
mttau*tri*?nnf>ft>tfuuiKii^ut* io6       Menses' Journal.
Cape Cook.
1792.
Aug. 25th.
Aug. 26th.
Esperanza
Inlet.
Castillo de San
Miguel of the
Spaniards.
Aug. 27th.
Aug. 28th.
this part of the Coast. As we went round Splitrock / we
saw some small Rocks between it & the Shore, so that the
Channel does not appear by any means to be a safe passage.
We had a fresh breeze from the Westward with which we
proceeded about six leagues further along the Coast till
about sun set when we stood off & spent the night under an
easy Sail with very little wind.
The 26th we had a light breeze of wind from the Eastward against which we kept plying but made very little
progress. Our Latitude at noon was 490 51' North, Cape
Splitrock North 760 West by Compass. We were not at
this time above four or five miles from the Land abreast of
us which was low & coverd with wood, off which there
appeard a number of small Islands but the Country behind
appeard very mountainous & so elevated that the summits
of several of them were still coverd with patches of Snow.
Some of the Natives visited us in their Canoes, & after
disposing of some Fish which they brought off to us, they
made but a short stay when they paddled again to the
Shore. In the evening we were abreast of the West entry
into Nootka Sound but as it was hazy we stood off & on all
night.
Next day we kept plying to the Eastward against a
breeze of wind which sometimes blew fresh & squally with
dark hazy weather & some drizzling rain that greatly
retarded our progress & entirely obscured the inland mountains from our view, we could however observe that those
nearest to us rose with an easy & gradual acclivity & were
skirted along shore with a fine extended / level border of
Land where the luxuriant appearance of the Forest sufficiently indicated the fertility & richness of the Soil. These
mountains were separated by wide intervening valleys
densely wooded up the sides of the Mountains as far as the
eye could discern.
In the morning of the 28th we stood in again with a
light favorable breeze from the Shore, but a thick fog still-
hovering over the Land we could not make out our situation
sufficiently clear to run in, so that we were obligd to stand
off again till it dispersed, when we bore up for the entrance
of Nootka Sound & arrivd in Friendly Cove about four in
the afternoon, & after coming to an Anchor an Officer was
sent on shore to wait on the Governor & on his return we
1 !■■ Menzies" Journal.
Nootka.
107
saluted the Fort with thirteen Guns which number was
returnd from a Spanish Brig in the Cove on board of which
Don Quadra's broad pendant was flying.
The weather being so thick & hazy in the forenoon those
on board the Chatham did not observe our motion when we
tack'd, so that they continued standing in for the shore &
guided by their Soundings got into the Cove & saluted the
Fort two hours before us. This Fort, if it might be called
such, was no other than two Guns mounted on a small
Platform on the outer Point of the Cove, with a Flag Staff
on which the Spanish colours were hoisted & a small guard
mounted to give it the appearance of a place of defence.
Besides the Spanish Brig above mentioned which was
named Activa & commanded by / Don Menendez, we found
here an English Brig namd the three Brothers from London
on the Fur trade commanded by Cap* Elder, & the Dedalus
Transport commanded by Cap* New sent out from England
a few Months after us, with Stores Provisions & Trade for
our expedition. After touching at Rio Janiero this Vessel
came around Cape Horn & from thence directed her course
for the Marquesas, a day or two after leaving which they
discoverd on their way to Owhyhee, a group of Islands well
peopled with friendly Natives & with a commodious harbour
about the Latitude of ( ) South & Longitude ( )
& while procuring Water & other refreshments at the Sandwich Islands in the Month of May last, they met with a
melancholy accident in having Lieu* Hergist their Agent &
Commander Mr. Gooch who was coming out Astronomer to
our expedition & a seaman cruelly murderd by the Natives
on the Island of Woahoo. Of this fatal disaster the following relation is given from the information of those who were
on the spot at the time it happend.
Having but little success at Owhyhee & the windward
Islands in procuring water & refreshing the people they
went to Woahoo & came to an Anchor on the North West
Side in expectation of obtaining by this means a quicker
supply of these necessary Articles. Mr. Hergist however
finding that this mode of Watering the Vessel by the Natives
was too dilatory, he orderd the first Mate Mr. Neil to go on
shore in the Cutter with some empty Casks to expedite the
business, but be ref usd to go / without having the Crew &
himself sufficiently armed (there being only two Musque-
1792.
Aug. 28th.
Salvador
Menendez.
Valdes,
according to
Bancroft.
Alder,  R. N.,
according to
Vancouver. i-o   .
mSkl^F:   ■
108       Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
1792.
Aug. 28th.
II Iff
toons that skipped into the Stancheons on the sides of the
Boats). On which some altercation took place between
them, & Mr. Hergist finding him persist in his conditions,
rather than allow more fire arms, went himself accompanied
by Mr. Gooch the Astronomer & a Native whom they had
brought down from some of the Windward Islands, who
strongly importund them not to go on shore unarmd, as they
were bad people. This indued Mr. New the Master of the
Ship to slip two Muskets with Ammunition into the Boat
unknown to Mr. Hergist, & thus equipped they pulled for
the Shore with the Water Casks, & on Landing the two
Gentlemen accompanied by two of the Seamen walked up
the banks of the Rivulet till they found a convenient place
for filling the Casks which was at no great distance from
the Boat. Here the two Seamen were left employd in filling
the Casks with some of the Natives, while the two Gentlemen took a stroll back into the neighbouring Plantation,
where their Indian Friend again & again implored them not
to venture unarmd, but all to no purpose, for they crossed
the Rivulet a little higher up & made towards a Village on
the opposite side. Not long after a group of the Natives
were seen arming themselves with daggers &c & assembling
on a small eminence close to the Watering place, among
which they observd a resolute fellow swaggering with a large
knife in his hand & haranguing the Natives that assisted in
filling the Water Casks in a hasty speech, on which they /
all went away & began to remove their effects from the
adjacent houses. Alarmd at such hostile appearances &
dreading the safety of the Officers, one of the Seamen calld
out as loud as he could for them to return, but unfortunately
they were too far off, on which the Natives on the adjacent
eminence rushd down hastily towards the two Seamen brandishing their Arms & a short scuffle ensued, from which the
Seamen endeavourd to extricate themselves by running off to
the Boat. And here let me relate with pleasure an instance of
heroism & presence of mind in one of these Seamen Thomas
Franklin seldom to be met with. The other, was a Portuguese & falling a little behind was soon overtaken in their
retreat—his shrieks made Franklin look round when he saw
one of the Natives grasping him from behind round the
middle with his left hand, while uplifting the other with a
large dagger in the act of Stabbing him, & notwithstanding
amuiuim SSSSs *!PP
Menzies" Journal.
Nootka.
109
the imminent danger to which his own life was exposed, he
instantly flew to rescue his Comrade with that stern intrepidity characteristic of true bravery, which made the Indians
though very numerous shrink back from their intended purpose & though unarmed he kept them for some time at bay,
& made his Comrade run before him with the idea of affording him all the protection in his power, in this manner they
had nearly reachd the Boat, when they perceivd the Natives
forming a strong group on the Beach to cut off their retreat.
This Franklin proposed to / cut through, having first encour-
agd his companion to follow his example & keep close to
him, he rushd boldly on & succeeded, but his Comrade fell,
as also did three or four of the Indians by the blows which
this resolute & honest fellow was obligd to bestow in his own
defence As soon as he gaind the Boat the Indians instantly
retird & left the Beach clear.—His own safety was out of the
question, to rescue his Officers who were then at the mercy
of the Natives occupied this honest Tars whole attention,
for this purpose he instantly snatchd up one of the Muskets
& desird any one of the Boats Crew to follow him with the
other; such an example of fortitude would make the most
despicable Coward brave—they all offerd to accompany him
but Franklin suggested the necessity of four remaining with
the two Musketoons to guard the Boat & secure their retreat
in case they succeeded in rescuing the Officers. This was
agreed to, & Franklin with another man armed with the two
Muskets proceeded to the place where he last saw the Portuguese & where they found him dead stripped naked &
stabbed in the breast with his head much bruised—They
afterwards went to an eminence where at a considerable
distance they perceivd Mr. Hergist & Mr. Gooch surrounded
by a large group of the Natives walking towards some
Huts—They haild them to return to the Boat; but they
either did not hear, or hearing, had not the power of returning, for after they enterd among / the Huts they were
seen no more.—It was then about sun set & the two Men
durst not proceed further with such weak force.—They
waited some time & finding no hopes of the Gentlemens
returning to the Boat, they thought it most prudent to go
on board with the melancholy tidings to procure more
assistance.
1792.
Aug. 28th.
HKK*
ipamToi no
Menzie/ Journal.
Nootka.
1792.
Aug. 28th.
if  I
The Natives gathering fast about them prevented their
carrying off the Body of their unfortunate companion—
They had sufficient opportunity of revenging his death, but
prudence suggested to them the forlorn situation of their
helpless Officers, which if alive might only tend to hurry
their destruction, for they plainly saw by their audacious
behavious shouting & hallowing that the Natives were ready
for any mischief.
Franklin's recital of the transactions on shore created
much alarm on board, where it seems no look out had been
kept to send them any assistances—An attack was now
expected to be made on the Ship in the night by the Natives
in their Canoes, which in a state of irresolution hurry &
confusion induced them to cut the Cable & stand out to Sea.
At this sight what must have been the feelings of the two
unfortunate Gentlemen on shore surrounded by armed audacious Savages ready to execute their inexorable cruelties.
Next morning Mr. Neil the first Mate was sent on shore
with the Cutter manned & armed & an Indian that remaind
on board all night who landed to enquire after the Gentlemen,
he soon after returnd with the melancholy information of
their being both murderd / on the preceeding evening & that
their Bodies were cut up & divided amongst the Chiefs.
This account so exasperated the Boats Crew that they
expended all their ammunition firing amongst the Natives,
one of them in a frenzy of defiance kept waving a Hat &
Shirt in his hand which they supposd belongd to either of the
Gentlemen & he was fired at several times before he fell.—
Such is the account of this event from the general information of the Officers & Crew of the Doedalus.
After dinner I accompanied Cap* Vancouver with some
of the Officers to pay our respects to Don Quadra Governor
& Commandant of the Settlement. We found him on shore
at a decent house two story high, built of Planks with a
Balcony in the front of the Upper Story after the manner
of the Spanish Houses, One end of the ground floor was
occupied as a Guard Room, & the other as a Kitchen &
Servants' Hall, while the Upper Story was divided into
small apartments & occupied by the Governor & his Officers,
who were separated by a large Hall in the middle where they
commonly dined. On our landing the Guard was turned
out in honor to Cap* Vancouver, & the Governor & his
ilii
MmSe
mot* Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
in
Officers receivd us at the door, & conducted us with great
attention & civility up Stairs to the Great Hall. Here we
should have been much at a loss for conversation as none
of us could speak the Spanish language, had this deficiency
not been amply supplied by a Mr. Thos Dobson a Gentlemen
who came / out as one of the Mates of the Doedalus, &
who could speak the Spanish Language fluently & on this
occasion was so obliging as to act as our Interpreter. After
some general conversation concerning our Voyage & the
route we had hitherto pursued, the Governor with great
frankness offerd us every refreshment & accommodation
which the Settlement could afford during our stay at
Nootka—He begged that the Commanders & Officers might
consider his House as their Home & that the oftener they
came to it the more pleasure he should enjoy, & indeed his
conduct sufficiently proved that this was by no means a
ceremonious invitation, for his table was daily crouded with
the Officers of the different Vessels that occasionally visited
the Cove, & his Hospitality seemd to have no other bound
then the limited sphere of supply to which his present situation confind him. After leaving the Governor's we took a
walk round the place & found several other Houses erected
here by the Spaniards as Barracks, Store Houses & an
Hospital on the Scite of the Old Village formerly occupied
by Maquinna the Chief of the District & his Tribe, there
were also several spots fenced in, well cropped with the
different European Garden stuffs, which grew here very
luxuriantly, particularly in the places formerly occupied by
the Habitations of the Natives, which by that means had
been well Manured & notwithstanding the advantage & great
utility that were thus derived from Horticulture in this
Country, it seems not one of the Natives had yet followed
so laudable an example, tho' they were very fond of the
productions of these Gardens, especially / the different kinds
of Roots when they were brought to the Table, yet they
were too indolent to be at the trouble of rearing them.
There was a well-stockd poultry yard, & Goats Sheep &
Black Cattle were feeding round the Village. Blacksmiths
were seen busily engagd in one place & Carpenters in
another, so that the different occupations of Building &
repairing Vessels & Houses were at once going forward.
In short the Spaniards seem to go on here with greater
1792.
Aug. 28th.
Reoccupied and
fortified by
Spaniards on
Apr.,  1790.
Jewitt found
turnips, etc.,
here in 1803. Bjran^
112       Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
1792.
Aug. 28th.
Aug. 29th.
Mr. Wetherell
in Meany's
" New Vancouver Journal,"
p. 18.
t.*l
activity & industry than we are led to believe of them at any
of their other remote infant Settlements.
The situation of the Village is upon a rising neck of
Land with Friendly Cove & the Shipping right before it, &
behind it a high Beach washd by the rude Surges of the
open Ocean & along the Verge of its Bank a pleasing path
was frmnd for walking where the mind could contemplate at
ease the fretted wildness of the briny 'element foaming
against Rocks & Shores without feeling the force of its
fury—while on the other side huge Mountains presented
themselves coverd to their very summits with a continued
forest of stately Pines whose dark verdurous hue diffused a
solitary gloom—favorable to meditations.
Next morning Don Quadra visited the Discovery with
some of his Officers & breakfasted with Cap* Vancouver—
He was received with a Guard under Arms & saluted with
thirteen Guns on his coming on Board & as many on his
leaving the Ship. He afterwards visited the Chatham where
the same compliments were paid him, & the two Commanders
with as / many of the Officers as could be spared from the
duty of the Vessels dined with him afterwards on Shore at
a very sumptuous entertainment, & the first toast he gave
after dinner was the Sovereigns of England & Spain which
was drank under the discharge of a Royal Salute of 21 Guns
from the Vessel which bore his broad pendant in the Cove—
In short the evening was spent with that unreserved conviviality that made us forget we were strangers, in the mutual
pleasure which each individual seemd to enjoy.
Here we met with a Cap* Weatherhead lately Commander of the Matilda one of the Botany Bay Transports
who left England about the same time we did, & having
deliverd his Cargo at Port Jackson in New South Wales,
he left that place to proceed on the Southern Whale Fishery,
& on his way touchd at Otaheite to refresh his people, but
about six days after leaving that place he lost his Ship on a
rocky Shoal in about the Latitude of 22° South & the Longitude of 138^ West, he was however enabled to save all his
people & brought them in the Boats to Otaheite, & when
they landed in this manner without their Vessel, the Natives
of Matavai plunderd them of every thing they had, which
so incensed the Royal Family that with the people of Oparre,
they made a descent on Matavai, routed all the Inhabitants
\l , Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
"3
to the Mountains and demolishd with ruin & destruction the
fertile plains of that district And what rendered these civil
commotions still more distressing, many of the ill disposed
of Cap* Weatherhead's Crew had taken the part of the /
Matavaians & fled with them to the Mountains, so that
they threatened Oparre with destruction in return. Cap*
Weatherhead himself & a few of his people lived under the
protection of the Royal Family at Oparre where they were
very hospitably treated till the Jenny, a small Vessel from
Bristol touchd there some time after for refreshment on her
way to this Coast, on the Fur Trade, & brought Cap*
Weatherhead & two or three of his People to this Port, the
rest of his men staid at Otaheite with the Natives, a party of
whom intended to fit out a Whale Boat they had, with such
provisions as the Island afforded, & undertake the hazardous
Voyage of returning to Botany Bay.
No sooner was Cap* Weatherhead's situation made
known to Don Quadra than he immediately took him under
his own protection, & with that disinterested humanity which
formd a striking trait in his character, he offerd to forward
his passage home across the Continent by the way of Mexico,
which he afterwards did by carrying him in his own Vessel
to Monterrey in California & from thence he sent a Vessel
with him to Ste Bias with recommendatory letters to provide
for his journey from thence across at the different places he
might touch at, & at parting he urged him to accept of a
purse of two hundred Dollars for his own pocket. Such
acts of generosity are seldom to be met with & as they
redound so much to the credit of this worthy man it gives
me much pleasure to relate them in this page.
In our walk yesterday a spot near / the Beach behind
the Village was pitchd upon as the best situation for the
Observatory, which this day was landed with the Astronomical Instruments & erected together with a Markee &
large Tent for the Attendants. The Watches & Time keepers
were afterwards landed to ascertain their rate of gaining by
equal altitudes under the direction of Mr. Whidbey Master
of the Discovery.
And next day with the assistance of the Spanish
Caulkers & some from the Merchants Ships in the Cove they
began to give the Discovery a thorough Caulking.
(Half a page is here blank in the original MS.)
1792.
Aug. 29th.
Quadra's
generosity. £3S
fffffo
WIff
114      Menzies" Journal.
Nootka.
6«S
1792.
Sept. 1st.
Lieutenant
Hergist of
Vancouver, etc.
Ingraham and
others' were
wrong  in   stating that the
Spaniards were
the first to
complete the
circumnavigation of V.I.
The Spaniards
themselves
never made the
claim and their
journals show
that they were
far behind
Vancouver's
boats and
ships.
Tahsis of the
charts.
Hannapa of
Meares.  Voy.,
109,   229,  2S4.
/ The first of September in consequence of the death
of Mr. Hargist, Lieutenant Hanson of the Chatham was
appointed to fill up his place as Naval Agent on board the
Doedalus & Mr. James Johnstone Master of the Chatham
was promoted to fill the Vacancy.
The Chatham having been previously prepared was with
the preceeding night's Tide which rose about ten feet hauled
on the Beach to view her bottom after the heavy thumping
she sustaind on the Rocks in Queen Charlotte's Sound.—At
low water they saw her Keel—the false one was broke in
two places & several pieces of Copper were knockd off the
bottom, but the greatest damage was the foot of the Stear
being a good deal shatterd & most of the gripe at the scarfing to the Keel broke off. To repair these damages it was
necessary to haul the Vessel on Blocks, but before that could
be done she must be lightened by starting the Water & landing her Stores & Provisions which was immediately set
about.
About noon the two small Spanish Vessels which we
left behind in July last in Desolation Sound arrivd in the
Cove—they staid only one night & saild next morning for
Mexico, we had the pleasure however of finding our friends
all well after circumnavigating the great Island, for they
followd us through Johnstone's Streights & came out to Sea
at Queen Charlotte's Sound, & keeping close in with Cape
Scott, they came through an / inner passage between that &
Scotts Islands.
We were not long in the Sound when we were visited by
Maquinna the Chief of the District together with his Brother
& Families, who came on hearing of our arrival from the
back part of the Sound where they had taken up their
winter residence about ten leagues off.
At Hanapa, a Chief mentioned in Mears's Voyage, also
paid us a Visit, together with his Son who had through his
intercourse with the English Traders acquird a smattering
knowledge of the English Language, & pronouncd & understood a number of words very distinctly; indeed he seemd
to have a quick & ready comprehension in acquirements of
this kind, as evinced from the stay the Spaniards made in
the Sound he was equally conversant in their language, &
was remarkably pertinent in his enquiries about the state of
friendship which now subsisted between the two Nations •
Menzies" Journal.
Nootka.
"5
after the quarrel which he had lately beheld between them
in this Port The Chiefs too were very inquisitive on this
point as they had an idea we were come to take revenge of the
Spaniards for their late conduct & were anxious in obtaining
information privately from both parties.
We were likewise visited by another aged Chief named
Floopannanoo, whose Tribe occupied one of the North west
branches of the Sound, & who Joind to a Countenance truly
Savage, a most amiable & friendly disposition as appeard
from every account we had of his conduct. Both he &
Hannapa seemd to be dependants of Maquinna, or at least
cooperated / with him in all his measures.
After paying this ceremonial visit & receiving the accus-
tomd presents, which is always expected when a Vessel
arrives in the Sound, most of the Chiefs went home to their
own residences, & the principal duty now going forward was
removing the Stores from the Transport to the two Vessels
for which they were intended, & for which the weather
remaind hitherto remarkably pleasant & favorable.
Don Quadra whose benevolent mind seemd wholly occupied in contributing to our entertainments & amusements,
now proposed as the Weather was favorable to take a jaunt
up the Sound to visit the Chief of Nootka at his own habitation, that he might have the pleasure of recommending
the English Commanders & their Officers to the particular
notice of the Chief & his Tribe, & thereby do 'away any
alarm they might preposess about our quarreling, by convincing them of the friendship that subsisted between the
two Nations, & likewise as the place was so soon to be given
up to the English, he wishd for their own happiness to do
away any bias they might have formed in favor of the
Spaniards from their residing so long amongst them. A
proposal so humane & friendly met with a general concurrence. In consequence of which a Messenger was sent to
Maquinna to acquaint him that Sr Quadra, Captain
Vancouver & Mr. Broughton with a party of the Officers
proposd to visit him next day at Tashees which was / the
name of his Village where he at this time resided.
On the morning of the 4th two Boats from the Discovery, one from the Chatham & a large Spanish Launch
were equipped for this excursion, & set out with a large
party pretty early.   The Discovery's Pinnace, being the most
1792.
Sept. 1st.
rhupananutl of
Mozino,
Notieias, 65.
m
At the head of
the western
arm of
Nootka Sd.
Sept. 4th. "~35SHB
116      Menzies1 Journal.
Nootka.
1792.
Sept. 4th.
Mahwinah  of
Haswell;
Marvinas Bay
of charts.
3 t
Wild clover
(Trifolium
fimbriatum).
'l.*i
commodious Boat, Sr Quadra with some of his Officers.;
embarkd in her along with Cap* Vancouver, & the rest of
the party divided themselves in the other Boats. We then
pulled along the western shore of the Sound, which in an
eminent degree posessd the general dreary rocky aspect of
the Country, & was every where coverd with a forest of
Pines down to the Waters edge. We did not go above two
Leagues when we put on shore to breakfast at a small
harbour called Maweena, & soon after setting out again we';
enterd a considerable branch leading to the North West
Ward & winding inland by a deep Valley between very high
steep mountains. The Water was smooth & the day was
uncommonly favorable for our excursion, we therefore
proceeded at an easy rate, with drums beating & Fifes play-!
ing to the no small entertainment of the Natives, as it gave
a martial solemnity to our Visit, highly gratifying to their
feelings in thus imitating their own customs on similar occasions, for in their friendly Visits their approach is always
announced by vociferous songs & plaintive airs.
The afternoon was well advancd before / we reachd in
sight of the Village of Tashees which we found situated in
a retired situation near the head of the Arm, & on account
of being so late, it was agreed not to make our Public Entry
till next day. The whole party therefore brought to &
encamped for the night in a fine Meadow delightfully skirting a small Bay a little short of the Village, but while the
Tents were pitching & dinner getting ready, a party of the
Officers walkd along the Beach & paid their respects to the
Chief at his own House in a short visit, which he & several
of his Attendants returnd by coming to the Encampment to;
dine with us.
In the evening our curiosity was excited in observing a
number of Females busily occupied in digging up a part of
the Meadow close to us with Sticks, with as much care &
assiduity as if it had been a Potato field, in search of a small
creeping root about the size of a pack thread. This I found
to be the Roots of a new species of Trifolium which they
always dig up at this time of the year for food. After
washing it clean they mix it with a quantity of Oil & eat a
portion of it raw with their Fish or Animal food in the
same manner as we do Sallad. Wherever this Trifolium
abounds the ground is regularly turnd over in quest of its
liO Menzies" Journal.
Nootka.
"7
Roots every year, though till this moment we ascribed such
digging to their searching after the Sarane or Roots of
Lilium Camschatcensa which we knew they collect & use as
food here / & on other parts of the Coast.
The novelty of our Encampment indued a number of
the Natives to flock round us, but they behavd very quiet &
peaceably, & in the dusk of the evening very orderly retired
to their own habitations, leaving us to spend the evening
with our new friends in social hilarity & mirth.
After breakfast next morning we all embarkd in the
Boats & made a kind of martial parade with our little
musical Band before the Village of Tashees, where we
landed amidst the noisy acclamations of the Natives.
Maquinna together with his Brother & Attendants received
us on the Beach, & we were conducted to the Chief's House
which was large & spacious & occupied by himself, his
Brother & other families of distinction. Here we found the
Women decently seated on Mats spread on little risings on
each side of the House & Benches were placed at one end
coverd over with rich Furs & clean Mats for the party to
set down on. We first advancd to the Royal Mat to pay
our respects to the Chiefs Wives & Daughter, the latter was
a young Girl about thirteen years of age named Apinnas,
who the Spaniards informd us had been lately recognizd &
inaugurated in a most pompous & solemn manner by the
whole Tribe as the Sucessor of her Father.
When the Natives were assembled on this occasion, a
Throne was erected on which the young Princess was seated
by her Father, & from thence Copper Iron Beads &c. &
every other / article of any value the Chief posessed was
thrown down & scatterd in the most profuse manner
amongst the people, who scrambled for it & expressed their
approbation by continual plaudits. After this ceremony they
continued their rejoicing by feasting singing & dancing for
some days, till the Chief with respect to riches was brought
almost upon a level with the poorest of his Tribe.
On turning to those seated on the other side of the
house I instantly recognizd in the Wife of Maquinna's
Brother an old acquaintance the daughter of an elderly Chief
who had a numerous family & lived in the North East
corner of the Sound & to whose friendship I owed much
civility & kindness when I was here about five years ago.
1792.
Sept. 4th.
Saranne
{Fritillaria
camtchatcen-
sis).    See
Appendix.
Sept. 6th.
Apenas of
Spaniards.
For her puberty
ceremony at
Copti  (Cooptee
of Jewitt) see
Sutil y
Mexicana, Voy.,
142-6, and
Mozino,
Noticias,
28-30.    The
scene at Copti
is Illustrated
by Plate 10 in
the Atlas of
the Voyage of
the Sutil and
Mexicana.
I n8       Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
1792.
Sept. 6th.
1S?1
l,*l
She & her Sisters were then very young, yet they frequently,:
shewed so much solicitude for my safety, that they often
warned me in the most earnest manner of the dangers to
which my Botanical rambles in the Woods exposed me, &
when they found me inattentive to their entreaties, they
would then watch the avenue of the Forest where I enterd,
to prevent my receiving any insult or ill usage from their
Countrymen. But it was not till after I left them that I
became sensible how much I owed to their disinterested zeal
for my welfare by knowing more of the treacheries &
stratagems of the Natives on other parts of the Coast.—I
emptied my pockets of all the little Trinkets they containd
in her lap & begged her to come on board the Vessel with
her Father who she told me was still / alive, that I might
have an opportunity of renewing our friendship by some
gratifying present.
As soon as the Party was seated Sr Quadra explaind
to the Chief the purport of our visit & with a disinterested
zeal which markd his benign character he said every thing
in recommending Cap* Vancouver Mr. Broughton together
with their Officers & the English Nation in general to his
kind attention & to a friendly intercourse with all his tribe;
he assurd him of the friendship & good understanding which
subsisted between the English & Spaniards, & that the latter
were only to quit his Territories by a mutual agreement
between the two Nations, but that they would ever continue
steadily their friendship & respect for him and his Tribe.
The Chief assented, but expressed his sincere regret at the
prospect of losing so soon Sr Quadra to whom he seemd
attached by the most sacred ties of friendship.
The object of our visit being thus introduced Cap*
Vancouver & Mr. Broughton made presents to Maquinna &
his Brother together with their Wives & Apinnas the Heiress
apparent, consisting of Sheet Copper, Blue Cloth, Blankets,
Beads & a number of other ornamental articles which were
receivd with satisfaction & the Chief in return presented
some rich Furs.
During this time a number of the Natives were equipping themselves in the adjacent houses, & now assembled at
the Chiefs door in a group of the most grotesque figures
that can possibly be imagined, dressed, armed, / & masked
in imitation of various characters of different Countries,
ILL Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
119
some represented Europeans armed with Muskets & Bayonets, others were dressed as Chinese & others as Sandwish
Islanders armed with Clubs & Spears; the rest were equipped
either as Warriors or Hunters of their own Nation. After
a party of them armed with long Spears entered & were
drawn up at the further end of the House, the Actors came
in one at a time & traversed the Area before us, with the
most antic gestures. If a Warrior he shewd the different
evolutions of attacking an enemy, sometimes crouching
down, sometimes retreating, at other times advancing with
firm steps & eyes steadily fixed on the Commanders who
were seated in the middle of our group, & to whom all
their feigned aims & motions were directed, sometimes with
much pointed archness as to occasion some alarm of their
intentions being real. The Hunters equipped with various
marks & implements, shewd all the wiles & stratagems usual
in taking or chasing of different Animals as Deers Bears
&c. While those armed with Muskets represented Sentinels
or went through various motions of the manual exercise.
And those representing the Sandwich Islanders traversed
the Area in the different attitudes of wielding their Clubs
or darting their Spears, & as each finishd his part he
retreated back & took his station among the masked group
at the further end of the house.
Maquinna who sat along side of us / during the first
part of this entertainment now stole away as if going to
give some orders at the further end of the house. He
instantly masked himself behind the group & enterd the Area
capering & dancing with great agility, which he performd
much to the satisfaction of the whole group, who testified
their approbation by repeated & universal plaudits.
The Natives had hardly finished when Cap* Vancouver
anxious to shew them a specimen of our English capering,
got some of the Sailors to dance a Reel or two to the Fife.
Soon after this, our dinner which was Cooking on the
outside of the house was announcd to be ready. Maquinna
orderd a large Plank to be brought in, which he very dexterously formd into a Table in the middle of the House
sufficiently large for the whole party, with lesser Planks
extended on each side for Seats & every thing else that could
contribute to luxury & comfort was profusely provided by
Sr Quadra, who had brought along with him on this occasion
1792.
Sept. 6 th.
*«nng,
MM) i2o      Menzies" Journal.
Nootka.
lift 1
1792.
Sept. 6th.
Sept. 6th.
J. A
Sept. 8th.
Aranzazu,
Lieut.
Caamano.
Clarence Strait
of Vancouver
(III., 419) who
not only his Steward Cooks & Culinary Utensils but even
his Plate, so that our dinner was served up in a manner that j
made us forget we were in such a remote corner, under the
humble roof of a Nootka Chief.—Maquinna his Wives &
Daughter, together with other Chiefs sat at the head of the
Table, partook / of the Entertainment & joind us in drinking
a convivial glass of wine after dinner, while the rest of the-;:
Natives entertaind themselves at a Mess not less gratefull to)
their palate.   It consisted of a large Tunny & a Porpus cut
up in small pieces entrails & all into a large Trough with a '•
mixture of Water blood & fish Oil, & the whole stewed by
throwing heated Stones into it.    When thus cooked they
seated themselves round the Trough, some with Spoons,
other with large Shells, scooping it up & devouring it with
relishing appetites.
After this we took a walk in a rich Meadow at the head
of the Arm, & in the afternoon took leave of our friends &
embarking in our Boats, rowed about two Miles back the
Arm to a point on the opposite side, where we pitched our
Tents & encampd for the night.
Next day returnd to Friendly Cove where the whole
party din'd on shore with Sr Quadra.
Maquinna & a large concourse of the Natives having
arrivd in the Cove on the 6th Cap* Vancouver orderd a
display of Fireworks to be exhibited on shore in the evening before the Governor's house, which highly entertaind
both the Spaniards & Natives, but of all that were exhibited
the Water Rockets excited most admiration. The Natives
afterwards amused us in the Governor's house with a Specimen of their singing dancing & capering till they were perfectly tired, consisting of such uncouth attitudes & gestures
as are not easily described / but which they performed with
great glee & good humour till late in the evening & then
retired very orderly to rest.
On the 8th a Spanish Frigate named Aranzaza Commanded by L* Comano arrivd in the Cove from the Northward where she had been on a surveying expedition, examining the Coast on the inside of Queen Charlotte's Isles, &
opposite the North End of these Isles they enterd a large
Inlet going to the North East Ward which they conceivd to
be the Straits of Admiral de Fonte, & traced it as far as
55/^° North Latitude, where its capaciousness had so little
'■•A v-: Menzies" Journal.
Nootka.
121
diminished, that there were reasons to conclude from its
appearance that it must penetrate a considerable way inland,
but the unfavorableness of the weather prevented their pursuing it further.
Mr. Alexander Cranstoun Surgeon of the Discovery &
Mr. House Boatswain being invalided on account of ill state
of health, were both on the 9th discharged into the Doedalus
Store Ship to take their passage to England by the way of
Port Jackson together with Mr. Philips Carpenter who was
sent home by the same conveyance under Arrest. In consequence of which the following changes & appointments took
place. Mr. Bray Carpenter of the Chatham & Mr. Noot
Boatswain were removd into the Discovery, & Messrs.
Laithwood & Philiskirk from the Discovery were appointed
to fill the vacancies on board the Chatham / & as Cap*
Vancouver did not conceive himself warrantable to make a
new Surgeon to fill up the vacancy on board the Discovery
while I was on the spot, he solicited me to take charge of
the Surgeon's duty, as the success of our expedition so much
depended on the health & welfare of the Ship's Company,
which he could more confidently entrust to my care, & this
he urged with a degree of earnestness that I could not well
refuse, especially as he requested at the same time that in
case of my not accepting of it, to state my having refused
it in writing, & as I did not know how far this might operate
against my interest at the Navy Office, I with considerable
hesitation accepted of the appointment, on Cap* Vancouver's
promising me that he would take care it should not interfere
with my other pursuits, more than the real exigences of the
service required, & as I had done the Surgeon's duty in the
most critical situation since we left the Cape of Good Hope,
& constantly prescribed for Cap* Vancouver himself since
we left England on account of Mr. Cranstoun's ill state of
health, I conceivd the difference of now attending the duty
wholly would be very little specially as there were two
assistant Surgeons on board & the Ship in general healthy.
Nothing particular happened for the few following days,
the Boatswain & Carpenter's Stores were surveyed on
board / of both Vessels, & the Surgeon's Stores & Medicines on board the Discovery. The weather which had been
remarkably fine & pleasant since our arrival, set in on the
12th with the Wind from the South East Quarter accom-
1792.
Sept. 8th.
(III., 380,
381) refers to
Caamano's
chart and his
" supposed
straits of
De Font." 122       Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
1792.
Sept. 8th.
Ingraham.
Arrived at
Nootka at
midnight, Sept.
10th.  (Ingr.
Jnl. of Hope.)
Sept. 16th.
This murder is
mentioned  also
in the Voy. of
Sutil y
Mexicana,
pp. 148-151;
by Ingraham,
I.e.; Mozino,
Noticias,
p. 45.   The
Nootka chiefs
attributed it to
a native of the
neighbouring
tribe at
Hesquiat.
(Hashcoat of
ingraham.)
* Transcription
note.—"Alteration  in  pencil
in the MS."
Fenis and
St. Joseph
under command
of Andrede,
with Duflta as
supercargo
according to
Vane, I.,  402.
J.S
panied with fog & rain.   About this time two Trading'
Vessels arrived in the Cove, the one was an American Brig
named the Hope Commanded by Mr. Ingram & the other a
Sloop named the Jackall from London Commanded by Mr.
Stewart, both employed in collecting Furs on the Coast.
On the 15th a Boy belonging to one of the Spanish
Vessels who had been missing some days was found murderd
in the Woods at a little distance from the inner point of the
Cove, he was brought to the Village where I had an oppor-;
tunity of inspecting his Body, & found that his throat & the]
right side of his neck had been cut & mangled in a dreadfull ]
manner; there were some deep gashes on the inside of his
thighs, & apparently a small piece cut out of the Calf of
*con
each Leg, though it is probable that the extraction of the
strong Muscles composing that part might occasion the
Vacuity. This would be of very little consequence had it
not been afterwards urged as a proof that the Natives who
were supposed to be the Murderers were Cannibals & cut
out these pieces for the purpose of eating them.
For some days after nothing of import occurred excepting two more Vessels arriving in the Cove, one was a Brig
under Portuguese Colours named the Fenis from Macao
Commanded by Mr. Robert Duffin, who was formerly on
this Coast with Mr. Mears & was Chief Mate of the /
Argonaut, at the time she was seized by the Spaniards in
this Port. The other Vessel was the Margaret an American
Ship from Boston commanded by Mr. McGee, both these
Vessels were employd in collecting Furs on the Coast.
Soon after our arrival a correspondence commenced
between Sr Quadra & Cap* Vancouver relative to the delivering up of the Port of Nootka to us by the Spaniards, agreeable to the articles of the late Convention between the two
Nations. The former declard himself empowerd by the
Court of Spain to enter into a general discussion on this
subject, in order to ascertain our claims on this Coast, &
settle the line of demarcation. But the latter having no
powers to act in this way, nor any other instructions than
merely to receive the place when it was given up to him,
could not enter into any discussion.
Early however in the course of this correspondence
Cap* Vancouver so far understood that the place was to be
aL Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
123
delivered up to us, that he made the necessary arrangements
for retaining posession of it. The Store Ship had landed
the greatest part of her Cargo into Store houses, & the
Chatham was to be left behind for the Winter in charge of
it & the Settlement. Even the mode of putting us in poses-
sion of the Territory was agreed upon, for it was said that
Sr Quadra was to deliver up all the Houses Gardens &c as
they stood, agreeable to his orders & the wishes of his /
Catholic Majesty, & that before he went away he was to
haul down the Spanish Colours on the Fort & on our hoisting the English Colours, he was then to salute the British
Flag.—But having now explaind himself more fully on this
subject he declard that he did not conceive himself author-
izd from the information he obtaind from the Traders on
the Coast, to give up any more than the small corner of the
Cove occupied by Mr. Mears in building his Vessel, which
was not above a hundred yards wide in any direction, &
which he conceivd would fulfill the tenor of the Convention.
He was willing likewise to leave us the use of the Houses &
Gardens until the pleasure of his Court should be known.
But Captain Vancouver who was not impowered to enter
into any discussion could not accept of the place on these
limited conditions, & the correspondence broke up, both
parties agreeing to ref err the business to the two Courts at
home. Soon after coming to this determination Sr Quadra
early on the 22d of Sepr sailed in the Brig Activa for California to forward his dispatches parting with us in the most
friendly manner, & on his way to the Southward he touchd
at the entrance of De Fuca's Straits & evacuated the Settlement which had been established there but a few months
before, sending from thence L* Fidalgo with the Ship
Princessa to relieve Lt Camano & remain at Nootka with
the Troops in charge of the Settlement for the Winter.
/ Our plan being thus deranged we necessarily remaind
behind sometime to finish our repairs & take on board of
both Vessels as much of the Stores Provision & articles of
trafic as they could well stow to supply their immediate
wants, the rest were all returnd on board the Store Ship
who was to proceed with them to Port Jackson New South
Wales, & from thence return to us here next Summer with
such Stores &c as that Settlement could spare to supply our
wants.
1792.
Sept. 16th.
Sept. 22nd.
Nunez Gaona,
i.e., Neeah
Bay.
~3
iSS 1792.
Sept. 22nd.
Compare with
list for same
year in
Vancouver,
Voy. III., 498.
Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
Alder was in
command,
Vane, I.e.
Ewen, Vane,
I.e.
Barkley, and
so given by
Dalrymple with
his sketch of
" Wic-a-na-
nish's
Harbour,"
1787.
Moore
commanded the
Phoenix.
Torres commanded the
Santa
Gertrudis.
Aranzazu,
Lieut.
Caamano.
On the same day which Sr Quadra sailed the Ship
Columbia of Boston commanded by Mr. Gray with a small
Sloop her Consort which was built on the Coast last Winter.
called the Adventure arrived in the Cove where they remaind'
all night & sailed early the following morning with a Cargo
of Furs collected on the Coast for China.
There were at this time ten Vessels riding at Anchor in
this small Cove, besides two small ones building on shore,
which had been brought out in frame, one by the Ship
Margaret of Boston & the other by the Three Brothers of
London; & this perhaps was the greatest number of Vessels
hitherto collected together in this Sound at any one period,
but the number which visited this Coast in the course of the
Summer has been far greater, as may be seen by the following account of them which I receivd soon after our arrival
here.
/ A List of Vessels on the N.W. Coast of
America in the year 1792.
English.
H.M. Discovery	
H.M. Brig Chatham .....	
Ship Doedalus	
Ship Butterworth 	
Sloop Jackall	
Sloop Prince Lee Boo	
Brig Three Brothers 	
Schooner Prince Wm Henry
Jenny Schooner 	
Brig Halcyon	
1   Venus 	
Snow  	
Vancouver
Broughton
New—London
Brown  London
Stewart      „
Sharp „
Elder „
Ewens        „
Baker—Bristol
Barclay—Bengal
Shepherd     „
Moore
Spanish H.C.M. Vessels
Lt. Gertrude Ship ....
Princessa Ship 	
Aranzaza Ship 	
Activa Brig	
Brig Sutil	
Schooner Mexicana
Mexico
Fidalgo
Comano
Menendez
Galeano
Valdes Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
Portuguese
Brig Fenis 	
Sloop  	
Brig Felice Aventura
/
imertcans
Ship Columbia	
Sloop Adventure	
Ship Margaret	
Brig Hope 	
Ship Jefferson 	
Brig Hancock 	
Brig Lady Washington
French
Duffin—Macao
Cole—       „
Vicana—
Gray—Boston
Haswell— „
Magee—    „
Ingram—fm China
Roberts—      „
Crowel—       „
Kendrick—
1792.
Sept. 22nd.
Fenis and
St. Joseph,
Andrede in
command.
Vane, 1.0.
The Florinda
was Cole's ship
Bancroft,
Hist. N.W.
Coast, I., 266.
Also reported
by Ingraham
and Haswell.
Vlana
commanding.
Ship La Flavie  „ France
Colours Unknown
Schooner Grace   „   Coolidge—China
(Half a page is here blank in the original MS.)
La Flavie,
Magon in
command.   Met
at Nootka by
Galiano and
reported to be
of 500 tons
and flying the
new French
/ The 23d & three following days we had fair pleasant
weather but cloudy with a moderate breeze of wind. A
party from both Vessels were employd in reloading the
Store-Ship, & others in.watering from a small Cove on the
Western side about two Miles up the Sound, as there was
no water to be got nearer to us except in wet or rainy
weather on which account the Spaniards were obliged to dig
pretty deep draw wells to supply their wants at the Village.
On the 27th very strong gales set in from the Southward & Southeast quarter accompanied with thick gloomy
weather & almost incessant heavy rain, so that we had very
boisterous & unsettled weather for the remainder of this
month.
In the evening of the 28th one of the Chatham's Cables
parted in the nip of the clinch in a violent squall & in swinging round to the other Anchor she took the ground on the
North West side of the Cove but was soon hove off again
by the other Cable without having received any apparent
injury. It was supposd that the drip at the House had
rotted that part of the Cable where it gave way, as our
operations requird its being kept constantly bent for some
10
The Grace was
an American
ship from
New York.
Sept. 23rd.
Sept. 27th
Sept. 28th 126       Menzies" Journal.
Nootka.
1792.
Sept. 28th.
Oct. 1st.
William Alton,
Director of the
Boyal Garden
at Kew.
Oct. 2nd.
At Neeah Bay.
M
time past both at Sea & during our interior navigation.
After this Squall the wind became more moderate with incessant rain all night.
The weather continued somewhat moderate for the two
following days with a good deal of rain especially in the
forenoon. On the / afternoon of the latter the wind shifted;
to the North West & was followd by fair clear pleasant
Weather. By the late heavy Rains different streams emptied
themselves into the Cove from which we were enabled to'
water the Vessels more commodiously.
Early on the 1st of October the Fenis Brig saild for
Macao & in her Mr. Mudge first Lieutenant of the Discovery went home with dispatches for Government by the
way of China, this occasiond a Vacancy which Mr. Swain
who had been lately made Master of the Chatham was
appointed to fill & he was succeeded in the Chatham by
Mr. Manley.
By Mr. Mudge I sent home a collection of Seeds
adressd to Sir Jos: Banks B* for his Majesty's Garden &
which I was afterwards happy to find that Mr. Mudge had
taken great care in their preservation, by which some valuable Plants were added to the great collection at Kew
through the uncommon skill & industry of Mr. Acton in
rearing them.
Saild likewise the Jackall in the forenoon to collect Furs
along the Coast, & in the afternoon two Vessels were seen
off the entrance of the Sound, some Boats went out to assist
them in, but the breeze died away that they were obligd to
come to in the Offing for the night. Next day they both
came into the Cove, one was a Spanish Frigate called the
Princessa / commanded by L* Fidalgo who had been sta-
tiond for some months past at the entrance of the Straits
of De Fuca, establishing a Settlement there, but which they
now entirely relinquishd probably from the unexpected turn
which the late Negociation about Nootka had taken, & had
they given up Nootka, it is not at all unlikely but their intention was to establish themselves at the entrance of De Fuca
by removing every thing from hence to that Settlement.
The other Vessel was the American Brig Hope they
parted with Sr Quadra at De Fuca's Straits in company with
Mr. Gray Commander of the Columbia who had followd
him there in order to dispose of his small Vessel before he Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
127
left the Coast. The above Spanish Frigate proved to be the
very same Vessel which Martinez had when he capturd the
English Vessels under the Command of Mr. Colonet in
this Port
Before L* Camano gave up his Command he this day
gave a very elegant entertainment to his successor & a large
party of the Spanish & English Officers at his House on
Shore.
Maquinna & his Brother Wagh-elas-opulth visited the
Cove this day together with another young Chief named
Nannacoos who was a very great favourite with Sr Quadra
& all his Officers, & they were very much hurt indeed at not
being receivd as usual at the Governor's house,—for while
Sr Fidalgo was station'd at De Fuca's entrance his Pilot
strolled one day into the Woods & was murderd in a most
shocking manner / by the Natives,* in consequence of which
S* Fidalgo was resolved to keep the Chiefs & all the rest of
the Natives at due distance & not suffer any of them to
approach the Settlement without being minutely watched.
The Nootka Chief could not bear the idea of suspicion &
left the Cove in a huff.—Seven head of black Cattle & a
number of Sheep Hogs & Poultry were landed from the
Princessa for winter Stock for the Settlement.
Mr. Ingram on coming into the Cove saluted the Fort
with nine Guns, which compliments was returnd with five,
& on L* Comano visiting his Vessel next day, he complimented him also with nine Guns. In short saluting was so
common among the Trading Vessels that visited the Cove
that there was scarcely a day past without puffings of this
kind from some Vessel or other, & we too followed the
example, & puffed it away as well as any of them, till at last
we were become so scarce of ammunition to defend ourselves
from the treacherous Indians, that we were obligd to get
supplies of Powder from both the Spaniards & Traders
before we left the Coast.
The Commanders of the two Spanish Vessels & a
number of their Officers din'd on board the Discovery with
Cap* Vancouver on the 3d & on this occasion Sr Fidalgo was
* who were afterwards seen rejoicing in their Savage Cruelties by placing part of his remains on a stick & dancing
round it in a Ring.
1792.
Oct 2nd.
Refers to
Nootka
Incident of
1789, when
Colnett was
made prisoner.
Wahelaasaplil-
the of
Ingraham,
Aug. 3rd,
1792.
Nanaquius of
Mozino in Voy.
of Sat. and
Mexie, 161,
and Notic, 66.
Oct. 3rd.
ingraham was
also invited.
(Hope's
journal for
same date.)
,<uam luiuMUuHuimi li
128       Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
1792.
Oct. 3rd.
For
biographical
note see
Appendix.
Atanasio
Echeverria.
Malaspina was
at Nootka from
Aug. 13th to
28th, 1791.
Oct. 5th and
6th.
}.*
receivd as Commandant, by a Guard & a salute of / eleven
Guns; & after dinner was over the health of the Sovereigns
of Spain & England were drank under the discharge of 21
Guns. The Aranzaza Frigate was at this time unmooring^
in order to leave the Port & follow Sr Quadra to Cah^orniaJ
so that we took leave of our friends Sr Cormano & his
Officers when they left the Discovery in the evening & they
went away in the course of the night.
There  were  two  Botanists  attachd  to  the   Spanish
Squadron who visited the Coast this Summer, one of them;!
had been in the Aranzaza to the Northward & had made m
considerable Collection of Plants from the different places
they touched at, the other whose name was Don Jose Mozino
remaind at Nootka with Sr Quadra together with an excel-j
lent draughtsman Sr Escheverea a Native of Mexico, whoj
as a Natural History Painter had great merit.    These told
me that they were part of a Society of Naturalists who were)
employd of late years in examining Mexico & New Spain for
the purpose of collecting Materials for a Flora Mexicana'
which they said would soon be publishd, & with the assis- I
tance of so good an Artist it must be a valuable acquisition. .■
Sr Malaspini who has been some time out on Discoveries
with two Vessels under his Command they all agree is a]
very able Navigator & fitted out in the most ample manner
for Discoveries with Astronomers Naturalists Draughtsmen
&c.—He has already examined the Shores of South America1!
& this Coast / & is now surveying the Philipine Islands.—
He is to return by Peru & Chili round Cape Horn, to publish
the result of his enquiries: So that the Spaniards mean to
shake off now entirely that odium of indolence & secrecy!
with which they have been long accused.
On the 5th & 6th the Markee Tents & Observatory were
struck & brought on board, together with the Astronomical
Instruments, & preparations were now making for leaving1
the Port with the first fair wind. The Jenny Schooner of
Bristol Commanded by Mr. Baker arrivd in the Cove from
a Trading Cruize along the Coast.—This Vessel touchd at
Otaheite & the Sandwich Islands on her way to this Coast,
& from the latter place they brought away with them two
women, who were still on board, though some of the American Traders were so malevolent as to report to us that they
had been disposd of on the Coast as slaves. Menzies' Journal.
Nootka.
129
For the four following days the weather was very
unsettled thick & hazy with the Wind from the South East
quarter, blowing at times pretty fresh, & accompanied with
a good deal of rain. On the 8th a large party of the Officers
of both Vessels din'd on shore with Sr Fidalgo. On Landing Cap' Vancouver was saluted & a Guard turned out to
receive him, & the day following Sr Fidalgo visited the Discovery & had the same compliments paid to him on his
coming on board & going away.
On the 10th the Ship Buttersworth of London with her
Consort the Jackall arrivd in the Cove / these together with
the Prince Lee Boo were under the direction Mr. Brown
Commander of the Buttersworth & were the only English
Vessels who had an exclusive Grant from Government for
Trading on this Coast.
We had Southerly Wind on the 1 ith with dark gloomy
weather & much rain. In the forenoon a Schooner arrivd
in the Cove namd the Prince William Henry of London who
had spent the Summer to the Northward collecting Furs,
she was Commanded by Mr. Ewens a Master in the Royal
Navy, who as soon as he anchord favord us with a visit on
board the Discovery, & told us that he left England about
the middle of Dec' 1791 & touchd for refreshments at
Maderia, Cape Verde Islands & Staten land, then coming
round Cape Horn, he touchd at the Sandwich Islands &
arrivd at Queen Charlotte's Island on this Coast the last day
in May 1792, making his passage from England to this Coast
in five months & a half, which is certainly by far the quickest
we have yet heard of by the same route.
There were now seven English Vessels, a Spanish
Frigate & two American Vessels riding at Anchor in the
Cove, besides the two small ones that were building on
Shore.
The South East Winds which now began to prevail
were always boisterous & attended with- thick Weather &
excessive hard rain with a heavy Swell tumbling into the
Sound. The Spanish Officers who winterd here informd us
they had experiencd / this kind of weather for upwards of
two Months without intermission, & that it generally set in
about the latter end of October.
The Latitude of the Observatory at Friendly Cove was
490 34' 20" North, & the Longitude as determined by the
1792.
Oct. 6th and
6th.
Oct. 10th.
Oct. lltfa. Menzies1 Journal.
Nootka.
Hog Id.
mean result of a great number of angular distances of thft£
Sun & Stars taken on both sides of the Moon was 2330 31'
30" East of Greenwich, which is nineteen Miles of Longitude
more Easterly than assignd to it by Cap* Cook's Observations.
(Half a page is here blank in the original MS.)
/ Early on the morning of the 12th a fight breeze set
in from the North West & brought on the appearance of
settled Weather, the Summits of the inland Mountains were
clear, which here indicate a favorable change, in consequence I
of which we began to unmoor, but this was a business nofej
easily effected, our Cables being so much overlaid by those'
of other Vessels who had come later into the Cove, & who I
had been carrying out Anchors in all directions to securer
themselves in the late boisterous weather, that we were not
able to haul out to the entrance of the Cove from amongst I
them till late in the evening.   When this was accomplished;-
Mr. Whidbey was sent with a Boat to assist in getting out "J
the Store Ship, & on his reporting her ready a little after
ten at night, we weighd Anchor & made Sail with a light"
breeze out of the Sound, but the Chatham in getting under!
way after us was unable to Weather the little Island & got
ashore on the Point of it under the Fort, where she was in
imminent danger of being dash'd to pieces from the high
Surf that broke on the Rocks which happend to be steep,
had she not receivd timely assistance from the Store Ship';
& Spanish Launch by which they were enabled to haul her
off / again into deep water without receiving any perceptible I
damage.   As we had Sail'd out we were unacquainted with
i-lfi- accident till the following day.
Cap* Vancouver & Mr. Broughton waited on Sr Fidalgo
in the forenoon to pay their respects to him before their
departure, & it is but justice to add that he was very obliging
& ready in facilitating our operations by every aid in his"
power, & in the evening he returnd the visit by coming on
board the Discovery to take leave of us. It .was but natural
to feel some reluctance at parting as during our stay at
Nootka the Spanish Officers & we lived on the most amicable
footing. Our frequent & social meetings at Sr Quadra's
hospitable mansion afforded constant opportunity of testifying our mutual regard & friendship for each other, by that Menzies1 Journal.
Nootka.
131
harmony & good understanding which always marked our
convivial hours. In short even in this distant sequesterd
gloomy region we passed our time together chearfully &
happy.
In the morning I went on shore to the wood to collect
the Seeds of several Plants which I had left to ripen on the
bushes to the very last moment.
The American Ship Margaret & Brig Hope sail'd in the
forenoon for China, at the same time the Jenny Schooner
went / out Commanded by Mr. Baker whose intentions were
to touch on some parts of the Coast to the Southward & then
proceed round Cape Horn for England with what Furs he
collected in the course of the Summer. But previous to his
departure he requested the favor of Cap* Vancouver to take
the two Women he had on board & carry them to their
relations at the Sandwich Islands which was agreed to & in
consequence thereof they both came on board the Discovery
this morning to take their passage for Oneehow their native
Country, one of them was about fourteen years of age
named Teheeopea & the other was a few years older named
Tahemeeraoo.
We were on the morning of the 13th off the entrance
of Nootka Sound waiting for the Chatham & Doedalus who
about eight we perceivd coming out & soon after both joind
us. At the same time we saw a Brig standing in for the
Sound from the Northward which displayd English Colours
& we supposed to be the Three Brothers going in to join her
Consort the Prince William Henry. We now shaped our
course to the South East Ward with a scanty breeze of Wind
which proved very inconstant in its direction.
As we were near Point Breakers at noon we had a good
opportunity of determining its Latitude which we found to
be 490 24' North, that is, nine Miles of Latitude more Northerly than it is laid down by Cap* Cook, which surely / arose
from some accidental error. In the afternoon we had
Soundings in ninety fathoms about three leagues off shore.
The land about Point Breakers is every where coverd with
a Forest of Pines & is very low for several Miles back, it
then swells into those huge mountains which form the
interior ridge of this great Island & whose summits were
now seen in many places coverd with Snow apparently fresh
laid during the late stormy weather.
Oct. 13th. lifil'
132
Menzies1 Journal.
Hook.,
126.
i.e., n.,
Ex. VI., t. 193.
J. Bot. 6, t. 6.
fl I., t. 88.
Fl. I.,
12.
Fl. I.,
Fl. I.,
Fl.  II.
t. 196.
Fl. II.,
t. 196.
30, t.
319.
26.
, 184,
184,
Fl. II.,
APPENDIX.
PLANTS COLLECTED BY A. MENZIES ON THE
NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
I.   Ferns and Flowering Plants.
Abbreviations—
B.M.—Botanical   Magazine.    (By   Curtis,   Sims,   W.   H.
Hooker, etc.)
B.R.—Botanical Register.    (By Edwards, Lindley, etc.)
Fl.—Flora Boreali-Americana.  1833-40.   (By W.J. Hooker.)
Icon. Ined.—Plantarum Icones hactenus Ineditae.   1789-91.
(Smith, J. E.)
Exot. FL—Exotic Flora, etc., 1823-27.    (Hooker, W. J.)
Names of plants in italics are those used by early writers, but
now replaced by others.
Abies grandis Lindl.    (White Fir.)
Silver Fir of M.   Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Abronia latifolia Esch.    (Sand Verbena.)
A. arenaria Menz.
" California."    (Also in Admiralty Inlet.—C. F. N.)
Acer circinatum Pursh.    (Vine Maple.)
1 Sugar Maple " of M.    Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Acer Dotjglasii Hook.    (Mountain Maple.)
Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Acer macrophyllum Pursh.    (Broadleaf Maple.)
" Sycamore or Great Maple " of M.    Port Discovery,
etc.
Achlys triphylla (Smith) DC.    (May Apple.)
Achillea millefolium L.    (Yarrow.)
Aconitum delphinifolium DC.    (Monkshood.)
Allium acuminatum Hook.    (Wild Onion.)
J Nootka."
Allium recticulatum Fraser.
" Nootka."    (The plant so named by Hooker is probably A. Geyeri Wats.—C. F. N.)
Alnus oregona Nutt.    (Red Alder.)
" American Alder " of Menzies.
Amsinckia intermedia Fisch. & Meyer. Ferns and Flowering Plants.
133
Echium Menziesii Lehmann.
Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H.
[Antennaria marg.    (Pearly Everlasting.)
Andromeda Polifolia L.    (Marsh Andromeda.)
Nepean Sound, B.C.
Androsace Cham.s:tasme Host.
" Islands of Behring's Straits."   (Probably not Menzies.
C. F. N.)
Anemone narcissiflora L.
Anthericum calyculatum.   See Tofieldia.
Arbutus Menziesii Pursh.    (Menzies' Arbutus.)
Port Discovery, Wash.   Jl. 117.    May 2nd, 1792.
" Strawberry Tree " of Menzies, I.e.
Arctostaphylos tomentosa (Pursh) Douglas.
Arbutus   tomentosa   Ph.      (Manzanita.)      (Bearberry.)
Probably the "glaucous arbutus" of the Journal, 117B,
at  Port  Discovery,  May,   1792.    (Common  there.—
C. F. N.)
Arenaria laricifolia Pursh.    (Sandwort.)
Arenaria verna L.
" Columbia."
Arnica Menziesii Hook.
Near A. latifolia Bong., but considered to be distinct by
Kurtz, Flor. Chilcatgebietes, 389.    1894.
Artemisia norvegica Fries, var. pacifica Gray (Wormwood.)
A. chamissoniana Hook., I.e.
Aspidium.   See Polystichum.
Aster Menziesii Lindl.
" N.W. coast."    (Probably collected in California.—
C. F. N.)
Atriplex Gmelini C. A. Meyer.    (Orache.)
A. angustifolia Hook., I.e.
Atriplex   zostepjefolia   (Hook.)   Watson.   (Narrow
Orache.)
Chenopodium zosterifolia Hook., I.e.
Azalea procumbens.   See Loiseleuria.
Bahia artemisi^efolia Less.
Berberis Aquifolium Pursh.    (Oregon Grape.)
Berberis nervosa Pursh.
Berberis glumacea DC.
Fl. I., 329.
Fl. 11.
, 119.
Fl. I.,
18.
Pursh, I., 282
A. procera,
B.R., 21, t.
1753.
B.R.  1791.
Pursh,
I., 282
Fl. II.
t. 130
, 36,
Fl. I.,
98.
Fl. I.,
99.
Fl. I.,
t. Ill
331,
Fl. I.,
324.
=£5
Fl. II., 12.
Fl. II., 128.
Fl. II., 127.
Fl., 115.
Fl. I., 29.
B.B., t. 1425.
E.B. I., 29.
B.B., t. 1426. mmm
i34
Menzies' Journal.
. .  v.; t
Fl. II., 92,
t. 167.
Fl. U., 92,
t.  168.
Fl. I., 223,
t.  70.
Fl. I., 22.
Fl.  I.
t.  10.
22,
Fl. II.
, 27.
Fi. II.
, 216.
Fl. n.
t. 216.
Fl., t.
, 215,
:., t. 27
fi. n.
, 214.
Fl. II.
t. 131.
37,   _
Fl. II.
, 105.
Fl. I.,
125.
Fl. I.,
125.
Fl. I.,
104.
Fl. II.
165.
M
Betula occidentals Hook.    (Western Birch.)
Birch Bay, Washington, was named after this tree,
which is mentioned as occurring there by Vancouver
and Menzies. The species was named from specimens
collected in the same locality by Scouler.
Boschniakia glabra C. A. Meyer.    (Broom Rape.)
BOSCHNIAKIA HOOKERI Walp.
(Orobanche tuberosa Hook.)
Brodiaa.   See Hookera.
Calandrinia Menziesii Hook.
I North-west coast of America, south of the Columbia."
Calt,ha biflora DC.    (Marsh Marigold.)
I Banks'   Isles  on  the   North-west  coast  of  America.
Menzies."
Caltha leptosepala DC.
Calypso bulbosa Oakes.   B.M. 54, t. 2763.
Port Discovery, near the ship, May 3rd.
■ Cypripedium bulbosum" of Menz. MS.
Campanula linifolia A. DC.    (Harebell.)
I Port Wentworth and Sledge Island."
Carex Gmelini Hook.    (Sedge.)
Carex macrocephala Willd.
Carex Mertensii Prescott.
Carex ovalis Good.
I Columbia River.    Menzies."
Cassiope Stelleriana (Pall.) DC.
. " North-west coast, probably Banks' Islands."
Castilleja pallida (L.) Kunth.  (White Painter's Brush.)
Ceanothus l^vigatus Hook.    (Sticky Laurel.)
"Nootka."   Hooker.    (Port Discovery & Puget Sound.
Menz. in Journ.)
Ceanothus thyrsifiorus Esch.    (California Lilac.)
(Probably Californian.—C. F. N.<)
Cerastium arvense L.    (Meadow Chickweed.)
I Columbia.    Mr. Menzies."
Cham^cyparis nutkatensis (Lambert) Spach.    (Yellow
Cypress.)
As Cupressus Nutkanus Lambert.
I Nutka.   Mr. Menzies."
The "new species of Thuya" found by Menzies in
Burke Channel in Boxer Reach near Gribbell Island,
and at Kildala Arm, Kitimat.  -1
s
ft Ferns and Flowering Plants.
135
Chenopodium.   See Atriplex.
Chimaphila Menziesh (R. Br.) Spreng.
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt.    (Prince's Pine.)
Chrysanthemum nanum Hook.    (Ox-eye Daisy.)
Not recognized by recent writers.    C. arcticum was
found by Krause in Lynn Canal and by McEvoy in
Observatory Inlet.
Cladothamnus pyrol^eflorus Bong.
Tolmiea occidentalis Hook.
Claytonia.   See Montia.
Clintonia uniflora (Schult.) Kunth.
SmUacina uniflora Menz.   Hook., I.e.
Near Port Stewart, Alaska.    Menzies.   Also in Kildala
Arm, Kitimat, 1793.    Fol. 321.
"Dracana borealis, var.,11 of Menzies.)
COLLOMIA  HETEROPHYLLA Hook.
" California, 1792."
Coptis aspleniifolia Salisb.    (Gold Thread.)
Cornus NuTTALLii Audub.    (Nuttall's Dogwood.)
" Great Flowering Dogwood."   Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Cornus canadensis L.    (Canadian Dogwood.)
Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Cornus occidentalis (T. & G.) Coville.    (Western Dogwood.)
C. alba Hook.
The " Common Dogwood " of the Journal, fol. 138.
Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Cornus suecica L.
Burke Channel, B.C.    Menzies, Journ. MS., fol. 354.
Corylus californica (A. DC.) Rose.    (Hazel.)
The Hazel frequently noted by Menzies in Admiralty
Inlet.    Fol. 138, etc.
Crataegus brevispina Douglas.    (Hawthorn.)
The Hawthorn noticed by Menzies at Cape Mudge, B.C.
Cryptogramma acrostichoides R. Br.
" Nootka Sound."
Cupressus.   See Thuya and Cham«cyparis.
Cypripedium bulbosum Menzies.   See Calypso.
Delphinium Menziesii DC.    (Menzies' Larkspur.)
"Hab. in Nova-Georgia."
fi. n.
49,
t. 188.
PI. II.
49.
Fl. I.,
320.
Fl. II., 45.
. II.,
190.
175,
B.M., t. 2895.
Fl. I.
t. 11.
24,
F.B. I., 276.
Fl. II., 264.
Fl. I.
B.R.,
25.
t. 1192. ;'■ M
136
Menzies" Journal.
Fl.
I.,
46.
Fl.
I-,
85.
Fl.
t.
II.
189.
, 174,
Fl.
L.
55.
Fl.
L,
81.
Fl.
II.
,  89.
Jl.
32(
, 354.
FI.
II.
, 207.
Fl. II.
t. 204.
, 203,
Fl. II.
B.M.,
, 6.
t.   2942
Fl.
II.
, 182.
Bot. Mag. 94,
tab. 5714.
Fl.
II.
, 182.
Fl. II., 182.
Fl.  l.c.
Dentaria tenella Pursh.    (Pepper Root.)
As D. tenuifolia Ledeb.
" Banks of the Columbia."
Dicentra Formosa (Andr.) DC.    (Dutchman's Breeches.)
" Nootka Sound."
Disporum Smithh (Hook.) Piper.    (Fairy Bells.)
Uvularia Smithii Hook., l.c.
" Nutka Sound."
Draba incana L. var. b. Hooker.    (Whitlow Grass.)
Draccena borealis of Menzies.   See Clintonia.
Drosera anglica Hudson.    (Sundew.)
D. longifolia.   Nepean Sound, 1793.
Drosera rotundifolia L.
Echium Menziesii Lehm.   See Amsinckia.
Teakern Arm, Redonda Island, B.C.
Empetrum nigrum L.    (Crowberry.)
Nepean Island, B.C., and Burke Channel.
Epilobium minutum Lindl.
Epipactis decipiens (Hook.) Ames.    (Rattlesnake Plantain.)
Spiranthes decipiens Hook.
Goodyera Menziesii Lindl.
Erigeron salsuginosus (Richardson) Gray.
Aster salsuginosus Hook.
Erythronium giganteum Lindl.    (Large White Dogtooth
Lily:)
E. grandiflorum var. g., albiflorum Hook.
E. giganteum Baker.
" Fort Vancouver. Menzies." There is an obvious
error here, for Menzies did not visit the Columbia
River. Broughton, in the Chatham, surveyed the
Columbia River from the 21st of October to the
10th of November, 1792. It was too late in the season
then for the finding of this plant. It is common in the
northern part of Admiralty Inlet.
Erythronium revolutum Smith.    (Pink Dogtooth Lily.)
E. grandiflorum, var. d., Smithii Hook.
" King George's Sound.    Menzies."
A purple-flowered species of wide range along the coast
of Vancouver Island and reaching the mainland at the
head of Kingcome Inlet.    (C. F. N., 1917.)    Specimens   from   the   following  localities  touched   at  by tab cxtvm ■
s^y     I    (^s^n/m'/M' &My6r'l,////'/''
Gentiana Douglaslana Bongard.    Douglas' Gentian.    Prom a drawing by Menzies In Hook.,
Flor. Bor.-Amer., II., PI. 1*8.    1837.  Ferns and Flowering Plants.
Menzies have been seen: Nootka, Cape Mudge, and
near " Cheslakees " village at the mouth of the Nimkish
River.
Eschscholzia californica Cham.
"Monterey, Calif., 1792."
Eutoca Menziesii R. Br.   See Phacelia.
Fatsia horrida (Smith) B. & H.    (Devil's Club.)
Panax horridum Smith & Hook., l.c.
Fragaria chilcensis (L.) Duch.
F. bracteata Heller, etc.    (Strawberries.)
Strawberries are frequently mentioned by Menzies in
his journal, but do not appear in the published records.
- The above are common in the places mentioned by
him.
Fraxinus oregana Nutt. Sylva 3, 59, t. 99. (Oregon Ash.)
Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Fritillaria lanceolata Pursh.
" Nutka Sound. Menzies." In his Journal, under date
June 8th, Menzies speaks of the " Saranne root"
(Lilium camtscatcense L.) as occurring on one of the
islands of the San Juan group, probably Orcas. Both
species are credited to this region by Piper, Flora of
Washington, p. 192.
Garrya elliptica Douglas.    (Quinine Bush.)
" California."
Gaultheria Shallon Pursh.    (Salal.)
("A. Menzies ... the first discoverer of this
shrub."—Pursh.)
Gentiana Douglasiana Bong. var. patens Hook.
Gentiana Menziesii Griseb.
Menzies records the discovery of two new Gentians in
mountains bordering on Nepean Sound, B.C. This is
in latitude 53° 10', nearly the same as that at which the
editor collected G. platyphylla, the species most like G.
Menziesii, according to Grisebach.
Geum calt,hifolium Menzies.    (Mountain Avens.)
G. radiatum Hook., l.c.
Gilia inconspicua (Smith) Douglas.
Described from plants grown from seed received in
1793- (Probably collected at Monterey in 1792 by
Menzies.—C. F. N.)
Gnaphalium chilense Spreng. Menzies" Journal.
Straits   of   de   Fuca,
G. luteo-album Hook., l.c
" North   California,   Menzies.
Scouler."
Godetia purpurea (Donn) Watson.
(Enothera purpurea Hook., l.c.
Goodyera Menziesii.   See Epipactis decipiens.
Habenaria   gracilis   (Lindl.)   Watson.    (Slender   Bog
Orchis.)
Platanthera gracilis Hook., l.c.
Habenaria graminea (Lindl.).
Platanthera graminea Hook., l.c.
Habenaria obtusata (Pursh) Richardson.
Platanthera obtusata Hook., l.c.
Habenaria Menziesii (Lindl.)    (Menzies' Orchis.)
Platanthera Menziesii Hook., l.c.
Closely resembles H. orbiculata (Pursh) Torrey.
Hookera coronaria Salis. Parad.    Lond., t. 98.    (False
Onion.)
Brodicea grandiflora Smith in Hook., l.c.
" New Georgia.   Menzies."
Hookera hyacinthina (Lindl.)    Kuntze.
cinth.)
Hesperoscordon Lewisii Lindl., Hook., l.c.
Hookera pulchella Salisb.
Brodiaea congesta Smith.   Tr. Linn. S., 10, t.
New Georgia.    Smith.
Hosackia parviflora Benth.
I California. Menzies." (More likely from Admiralty
Inlet, where it is common at the dates Menzies was
there.—C. F. N.)
Juncus balticus Willd.    (Rush.)
Juncus falcatus E. Meyer.
/. Menziesii R. Br. MS.
Kalmia polifolia Wangh.    (American laurel.)
K. glauca Menzies.
Nepean Sound, B.C., 1793.
Ledum groenlandicum CEder.    (Labrador Tea.)
L. palustre and L. latifolium Menzies, MS., fol. 3266.
Nepean Sound, B.C. Gathered in quantities as a substitute for tea. Also mentioned by Vancouver at same
time.   (II., 299.)   Hook., I.e., also credits Menzies with
(Wild Hya-
1.  i If WMH
Ferns and Flowering Plants.
139
L. palustre var. B. latifolium from the " N.W. coast,
lat. 59°."
Leimanthium Nuttallii Hook.   See Zygadenus venenosus.
Lepidium Menziesii DC.    (Pepper Grass.)
Leptarrhena amplexifolia (Sternb.) Ser. (Pear Leaf.)
L. pyrocefolia R. Br.
I Behring's  Strait.    Menzies."    More probably from
the coast of B.C. or S.E. Alaska, where it is common.
There   is   no   evidence   that   Menzies   was   ever   in
Behring's Strait.
Ligusticum scothicum L.    (Lovage.)
Seaforth Channel and Gardner's Canal.
Lilium canadense L.    (Tiger Lily.)
San Juan Islands, probably Orcas Island (var. parvi-
florum Hook.
LiNN-ffiA borealis var. Americana (Forbes) Rehder.
Kildala Arm, in Kitimat Channel, B.C., and Teakerne
Arm, B.C., 1793.
Listera convallarioides (Sw.)    Torr.    (Tway Blade.)
Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv.    (Alpine Azalea.)
Azalea procumbens Hook., l.c.
" Banks' Islands and Mt. Edgecombe, lat. 540.
coast.    Mr. Menzies."    Nepean Sound, B.C.
Jl., fol. 326.
LoNiCERA sp.    (Probably L. ciliosa (P.L.) Poir.)
L. " Nutkagensis Menz." in Journal.
Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Lupinus bicolor Lindl.
" California.    Mr. Menzies:"   Hook., l.c.
Lupinus densiflorus Benth.
Lupinus Menziesii Ag.
California.
Lupinus Nootkatensis Donn.
Lutkea pectinata (Pursh) Kuntze.    Bong. Veg. sit., t. 2.
Eriogynia pectinata Hook.
" Behring's Straits.   Mr. Menzies."  The type described
by Pursh as Saxifraga pectinata.
(Fl. Am., Sept., I., 312. " On the N.W. coast
Herb. Banks.")
Lycopodium complanatum L.    (Clubmoss.)
Madia exigua (Smith) Greene.    (Tar Weed.)
Sclerocarpus exiguus Smith.   Rees. Cyclop., 31.
N.W.
Menz.,
B.R., 1109.
Fl. I., 162.
B.R., t. 1689.
B.M., t. 5019.
B.M., t. 1311.
Fl. I., 163.
Fl. I.,. 255,
t 22.
Fl. I., 68.
Fl. I., 256,
t. 89.
Fl. U., 181.
Fl. II.
Fl. II., 44. 140
Menzies' Journal.
FI. II., 70.
FI. II., 86.
FI. II.
B.M.,
, 100.
t. 1501.
Fl. II., 49.
Fl. I.,
t. 72.
224,
B.M.,
PI. I.,
B.M.,
PI. I.,
Fl. I.,
t. 74.
t.   1336.
225.
t.   1309.
225.
226,
PI. II., 160.
Fl. II.,
Menziesia ferruginea Smith.
" In Americae borealis tractu occidentali copiosissime
crescit." Collected by Menzies. Sir J. E. Smith established the new genus and species in the work quoted
and dedicated them to the tireless traveller and botanist
from whom he had received the specimens. These were
collected during Menzies' first visit to the North-west
coast.   Burke Channel, B.C., Journal, fol. 354.
Menyanthes crista-galli Menz.
Hook., Bot. Misc. II., 45. (The plate from a drawing by Menzies.)
Menyanthes trifoliata L.    (Buckbean.)
Teakerne Arm, Redonda Island, B.C. .
Mertensia maritima L.    (Sea Lungwort.)
Lithospermum maritimum Hook., l.c.
Micromeria Douglasii Benth.
Mimulus alsinoides Dougl.
Mimulus Langsdorrfii Donn.
I Nootka   and   California."
Menzies, as it is a very common plant along the whole
coast of British Columbia.
Monotropa Hypopitys L.    (Pine Sap.)
M. lanuginosa.
Montia parvifolia (Moc.) Greene.
Claytonia filicaulis Hooker.
I Nootka and  Queen  Charlotte
Mr. Menzies."
Montia perfoliata (Donn) Howell.
Claytonia perfoliata.
" First discovered by Mr. Menzies."
Montia sibirica (L.) Howell.
Clayfonia alsinoides Sims.
Montia spathulata (Dougl.) Howell.
Claytonia spathulata Hook.
Myrica californica Cham.   (Sweet Gale.)
Myrica Gale L.    (Sweet Gale.)
Kitimat Arm, B.C.,    " Perfuming the marshes."
Nemophila Menziesii Hook. & Arn.
California.
Nemophila parviflora Dougl.
" California.   Mr. Menzies."   Common in Admiralty;
Inlet and Puget Sound.
(Yerba Buena.)
Doubtless   collected   by
(Spring Beauty.)
Islands, July,  1787.
m, Menyanthes cristo-galU Menzies.   From Hook., Bot. Miscell., I., PI. 24.    1&2&.
(Drawing by Menzies.) •3-3
,JJ_
ill is
Ferns and Flowering Plants.
141
Nicotiana nana Lindl.    (Tobacco.)
"N.W. America. A. Menzies, Esq. (Herb, nostr.).
Originally discovered by the excellent Menzies."
Hook., l.c.
Professor C. V. Piper, of Washington, D.C., informs
the editor that the " Nicotiana nana " referred to above
is now known as Hesperocheiron nanus or Capnorea
nana and that it came from the Rocky Mountains.
He adds that he doubts very much if Menzies ever got
it on the North-west coast, as it has never yet been
found west of the Cascade mountains.
Vancouver, Voyage, III., 256, gives Whidbey's account
of " square patches of ground, in a state of cultivation,
producing a plant that appeared to be a species of
tobacco: and which, we understood is by no means
uncommon amongst the inhabitants of Queen Charlotte
Islands, who cultivate much of this plant."
Vancouver here derived his knowledge from Menzies
and Johnstone, both of whim visited the Queen Charlotte Islands with Colnett in 1787, when the latter made
a plan of Rose's Harbour, which was published by
Dalrymple in October, 1789. The former also made
some botanical collections in these islands.
Hoskins an American, in 1791, writing of Rose's Harbour under the name of Barrell's Sound, says that he
went ashore with Captain Gray (of the Columbia), and
at the head of the sound they found a meadow containing
some tobacco plants, wild celery, etc. In a later passage
Hoskins states that the men here " chew tobacco in a
green state with which they mix a substance resembling
lime. They put quids of this plant into their mouths
as big as a hen's egg." (Hoskins, Narr. of a Voyage to
the N.W. coast of America, 1791-2. MS. pp. 52
and 59.
Captain Ingraham, too (Journ. of the Brigantine Hope,
MS. transcript, p. 125), says: "The natives chew a plant
(as many among us do) which may, perhaps, be worthy
of attention. It appeared to me to possess some of the
properties of tobacco. ... I have procured a good
quantity of the seed and shall send them home for investigation, etc." Captain Dixon (1787) speaks of the
11
Fl. II., 91. I
m
142
Menzies' Journal.
Fl. 11., 105.
Fl. I., 120,
t. 41.
B. Misc. I.,
43, t. 23.
Fl. I., 60.
Fl. U., 107.
Fl. II., 95.
B.M., 3645.
B.K., t. 1132.
Fl. II., 98.
B.K., t. 1217.
Fl. II., 96.
B.M., t. 6834.
B.M., t. 3762.
Fl. II., 79.
B.B., t. 1180.
Tr., 294.
same custom at Port Mulgrave, Yakutat, Alaska. Many
other writers also speak of this native tobacco, but,
so far, no satisfactory identification of its species has'
come to hand.
The possibility of the tobacco collected by Menzies on
the Pacific coast having been found by him at Trinidad
Harbour must not be overlooked. He went ashore there
with Vancouver on May 2nd, 1793. It was this port
that in June, 1775, the Spanish expedition under Heceta
noted that the natives smoked tobacco in small wooden
pipes in the form of a trumpet and procured it from
little gardens where they had planted it. (Barrington,
D. Miscellanies, Lond., p. 489. 1789.)
Unfortunately, Menzies' own account of Trinidad is
missing from his Journal.
Orthocarpus tenuifolius Benth.
Pachystima myrsinites (Pursh) Raf.    (Evergreen Box
Myrtle.)
Myginda myrtifolia Hook.
Parnassia fimbriata Koenig.    (Grass of Parnassus.)
Panax.   See Fatsia.
Parrya Menziesii (Hook.) Greene.
Hesperis Menziesii Hook.
I California.    Mr. Menzies."
Pedicularis Menziesii Benth.    (Menzies' Lousewort)
" Not clearly identified."    Gray.
Pedicularis parviflora Smith.
P. Wlassoviana Stev.
Pentstemon diffusus Dougl.
Pentstemon Menziesii Hook.
"Nootka Sound. Menzies, 1788." This plant grows
freely near the sea on some of the rocky islands.
(C. F. N.)
Pentstemon Scouleri Lindl.
Phacelia Menziesii (Brown) Hook.
Eutoca Menziesii.    (Scorpion Weed.)
" California Mr. Menzies." It also occurs on Whidbey Island and some of the islands in the Strait of
Georgia.    (C. F. N.)
Philadelphus Sp.    (Syringa, Mock Orange.)
[m,  I• • u Ferns and Flowering Plants.
143
Spiraea opulifolia Hook.
" Fort Vancouver.    Mr.   Menzies."   This   is  a very
common plant in places visited by Menzies in 1792, but
he never went to the Columbia River.   Fort Vancouver
did not exist then.    (C. F. N.)
Phyllodoce   empetriformis   (Smith)   D.   Don.    (False
Heather.)
Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.    (Pine Bark.)
Menziesia empetriformis Hook.
" Nutka, on the N.W. coast of America.   Mr. Menzies."
May not this be the Andromeda ccerulea of Menzies
which he found on Nipple Summit, Redonda Island?
(C. F. N.)
Picea   sitchensis   (Bong.)   Trautv.   &   Meyer.    (Sitka
Spruce.)
Pinus (Abies?) Menziesii Hook., l.c.
Pinus contorta Dougl.    (Scrub Pine.)
P. inops of Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, etc., in MS.
Pinus montt.cola Dougl.    (Mountain Pine.)
Pinus strobus Menzies MS.
Plantago macrocarpa Cham. & Schlecht.    (Coast Plantain.)
P. lanceolata var. b. Hook., l.c.
Polygonum paronychia Cham. & Schlecht    (Knotweed.)
Polygonum spergulari^eforme Meisn.
P. coarctatum and P. lineare Hook., l.c.
Polystichum   munitum    (Kaulf.)    Presl.    (Chamisso's
Fern.)
Populus tremuloides Michx.    (Trembling Poplar.)
Birch Bay.    Trans., 291.
Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray.    (White Poplar.)
Birch Bay.   Trans., 291.
Potamogeton natans L.
Potentilla villosa Pallas.
Primula nivalis Pall.
" Mt. Edgecombe.   Menzies."
Primula saxifragifolia Lehm.
" Unalashka.   Menzies."
Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir) Britt.
Abies taxifolia Lambert.   Pursh, Fl. Am., Sept., II., 640.
" North-west coast.   Menzies."  (Pursh.)  Douglas Fir.
Fl. II., 40.
Fl. n., 162.
Fl. II.,
Pi. II.,
Fl. II., 261.
Fl.
II.
, 171.
Fl.
I-i
194.
Fl.
II.
120.
Fl. II., 121.
Fl. II., 164. Fl. II.,
t. 137.
Fl. II.,
t. 136.
Fl. II.,
48,
47,
Menzies1 Journal.
(Wintergreen.)
coast,  and  Columbia  Rive£|
Mr. Menzies."
M.'s Journ.   MS.,
Pyrola aphylla Smith.
Pyrola dentata Smith.
"Nutka   Sound,   N.W.
Menzies."
Pyrola picta Smith.
"Nutka Sound, N.W. coast.
Pyrola secunda L.
Kildala Arm, near Kitimat, B.C.
fol. 321.
Pyrus diversifolia Bong.    (Crab Apple.)
P. rivularis Hook., l.c.
" Nootka Sound and other parts of the North-west
coast of America.    Menzies."
Pyrus sitchensis (Roem.) Piper.    (Mountain Ash.)
P. americana Hook., l.c.
"Mountain Ash," Menz. (Carr Inlet).
Quercus Garryana Dougl.   Hook., l.c. (Garry Oak.)
Menzies, MS., frequently speaks of an Oak which he
found   near   Port   Townsend   and   other   places   in
Admiralty Inlet.
Rhamnus californica Esch.    (California Buckthorn.)
Rhamnus oleifolius Hook., l.c.
" North-west coast of America.   Mr. Menzies."   " Its.
estimable discoverer found it not only on the banks of
the Columbia, but in California."   Hook., l.c.
Rhamnus Purshianus DC.    (Cascara Sagrada.)
Rhodiola rosea.   See Sedum roseum.
Rhododendron californicum Hook.
R. maximum Hook.
" N.W. coast.    Menzies."   Menzies found this shrub
at Port Discovery, Washington, early in May,  1792.
(It still grew there plentifully in 1917.—C. F. N.)
Rhododendron kamtschaticum Pall.
" Banks' Island and Port Edgecombe, N.W. coast.    Mr.
Menzies."   This is an error in locality and, probably,
in the name of the collector.
Ribes laxiflorum Pursh.    (Currant.)
Ribes Menziesii Pursh.
" Port Trinidad.    Menzies."    (Menzies collected here
in May, 1793.)
Ribes sanguineum Pursh.    (Red-flowered Currant)
Hook., l.c. 64.
f/ui/'ttj  jit/utiu*.
Rubus stellatus Smith.    Menzies' Raspberry.    From Smith, J. H., Plantarum loon.
Ined., III., PI. 84.   lTftl. SS Ferns and Flowering Plants.
Ribes speciosum Pursh.
R. stamineum Smith.   Hook., l.c.
"North   California.    Mr.   Menzies."
Menz., MS., cum c. nitidiss.    Hook.,
Rosa nutkana Presl.
R. fraxinifolia Hook., l.c.
Romanzoffia sitchensis Bong.
" Port Trinidad. Menzies." Hooker adds that Menzies'
original description and sketches were in his possession.
Rubus Menziesii Hook.    (Raspberry.)
(A variety of R. spectabilis Pursh according to Bot.,
Calif., I., 172.
Rubus parvtflorus Nutt.    (Thimbleberry.)
R. Nutkanus (Moc.) Lindl.
Queen Charlotte Sound, lat. 51 °.
Rubus spectabilis Pursh.    (Salmonberry.)
Rubus pedatus Smith.    (Creeping Raspberry.)
Burke Channel, B.C.
Rubus stellatus Smith.
" Near Foggy Harbour, North-west coast.    Menzies.
(A rare species found at Port Simpson, B.C., W. B.
Anderson, and in Kasaan Inlet, Alaska.—C. F
Rubus strigosus Michx.    (Red Raspberry.)
Rynchospora alba (L.) Vahl.
Schoenus albus L.    Menz. Jl., MS.
Sagina saginoides (L.) Britt.    (Pearlwort)
Spergula saginoides Hook., l.c.
Salicornia ambigua Michx.    (Samphire.)
Salicornia herbacea, L.    Menz. MS.
Reported frequently by Menzies as occurring in swamps
near the sea.    Eaten as a " pot herb."   Kitimat Arm,
Menz., Jl., fol. 321.
Sanguisorba microcephala Presl.    (Burnet.)
5". media, B. minor.    Hook.
" At Port Wentworth.   Mr. Menzies."   Hooker adds:
" I have a beautiful drawing, made on the spot by Mr.
Menzies."    This is probably the species referred to as
new in the Journal, fol. 326, collected in Nepean Sound,
B.C.
Sanicula arctopoides Hook.
Sanicula Menziesii Hook. Fl. I., 254.
Fl. I., 250.
Fl. I., 243.
Fl. I., 253.
Fl. I., 250.
Fl. I., 252.
Fl. I, 243.
Fll I., 245.
Fl. I., 251.
Menzies' Journal.
The following list of Saxifrages has been compiled from
Hooker's Flora Bor., I., pp. 242-255.    Much doubt is felt&
however, as to the authenticity of some of the localities given
for Menzies' plants.    No evidence has come to light that hg|
collected anywhere near Behring's  Straits and Nelson's
plants must have become mixed with his.
Saxifraga bronchialis L.
" North-west   coast.     Nelson.    Behring's   Straits^
Menzies." These stations could be reversed.  (C. F. N.)
S. DAHURICA Pall.
S. Eschscholzii Sternb.
S. flagellaris Willd.
S. LEUCANTHEMIFOLIA Michx.
S. nudicaulis Don.
S.   SERPYLLIFOLIA Pursh.
S. sileniflora Sternb.
S. spicata Don.
"Behring's Straits."
Sedum roseum (L.) Scop.    (Rose-root.)
Burke Channel, B.C.
Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb.) Endlich.    (Redwood.)
"N.W. coast," Hook.    "Nootka," Nutt, Sylva  (not
known north of Oregon.—C. F. N.)
Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.
Silene Menziesii Hook.    (Campion.)
Silene Scouleri Hook.    (Campion.)
Sisyrinchium californicum Ait
I California.    Banks' Herbarium."
Smilacina borealis.   See Clintonia.
Spiraea arlefolia Smith.
Mixed localities given by Hooker for the Pacific coast.
Spiraea cham^edrifolia Pall., var. B.
" Sledge Island, Behring's Straits."
(An improbable locality for Menzies, who may, however, have collected s. betulifolia Pall., or a segregate, in
the Chilcat region, where it has been found by Krause.
(See Kurz, Flor. Chilcat., 371.)
Spiraea Menziesii Hook.
(This grows in the lagoon at Nootka, where Menzies
collected occasionally.—C. F. N.)
Spiranthes Romanzoffiana Cham.    (Ladies' Tresses.) Ferns and Flowering Plants.
147
(Goldenrod.)
Menzies."
SOLIDAGO ELONGATA Nutt.
S. elata Hook., l.c.
" North-west coast.    Mr.
Stipa comata, Trin.
Stipa juncea Willd.    (Feather Grass.)
Swertia perennis L., var., obtusa Griseb.
Tanacetum huronense Nutt.    (Tansy.)
Omalanthus camphoratus Hook.
" California.    Menzies."
Taxodium.   See Sequoia.
Taxus brevifolia Nutt.    (Yew.)
Reported by Menzies in Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Tellima grandiflora (Ph.) Dougl.
Tellima parvtflora Hook.
" North California."   Menzies.
Tetranthera.   See Umbellularia.
TlARELLA ilACINIATA Hook.
Thuya sp. nov.   Menzies' Journ.    MS.
See Chamaecyparis nootkatensis.
Thuya plicata Donn.    (Giant Cedar.)
The " American Arbor Vitae " of Menzies' Journ.
Tofieldia sp.    (Bog Asphodel.)
T. coccinea Hook.
North-west coast.   Menzies.   As Anthericum calycu-
latum.   Teakerne Arm, Cascade Cove.    Menz.
Jl., fob
321.
Trautvetteria grandis Nutt.    (False Bugbane.)
Actcea palmata Hook.
Triglochin maritima L.    (Arrow Grass.)
Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.)   Sargent.    (Western Hemlock.)
Admiralty Inlet.    " Hemlock Spruce " of Menzies.
Umbellularia californica (H. & A.) Nutt.    (Mountain
Laurel.)
California.
Uvularia.   See Disporum.
Vaccinium cespitosum Michx.    (Dwarf Whortleberry.)
Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl.    (Mountain Bilberry.)
V. myrtilloides Hook., I.e., II., 32.
Vaccinium Oxycoccus L.    (Cranberry.)
Nepean Sound, B.C.
Fl. II.
, 5.
Pursh,
72.
Fl. I.,
Fl. II.
66.
Fl. I.,
321.
B.E., t. 1178.
Fl. I., 239.
PI. I., 239.
Fl. I., 289,
t. 77.
Fl. II., 165.
Fl. II., 179.
Fl. I., 26.
Nutt Sylv.
B.M., t. 5828.
Fl. II., 83,
t. 126.
B.M., t. 8429.
B.M., t. 8447,
« Fl. II.
t. 1ST.
33,
Fl. II.
B.M.,
B.B., t
34.
t.  4732
1354.
Fl. n.
t. 28.
34,
Fl. II.,
34.
Fl. n.
32.
fi. n.
84.
Fl. I.,
t. 18.
30,
Fl. I.,
Fl. II.,
Menzies1 Journal.
Vaccinium ovalifolium Smith.    (Black Huckleberry.)
Vaccinium ovatum Pursh.    (Evergreen Huckleberry.)
" Columbia.   Menzies."   M. in Journ., I22B, reports
this shrub from Admiralty Inlet, etc.
Vaccinium parvifolium Smith.    (Red Huckleberry.)
Vaccinium obtusum Pursh.   Hook., l.c.
A species unknown to Hooker.
Vaccinium uliginosum L.    (Bog Whortleberry.)
Vaccinium Vitis-Id^ea L.    (Mountain Cranberry.)
Vancouveria hexandra (Hook.) Morr. & Dec.
Epimedium hexandrum Hook.
Viola adunca Smith.    (Dog Violet.)
Zostera marina L.    (Eel Grass.)
Zygadenus venenosus Nutt.    (Poison Camas.)
Leimanthium Nuttallii Hook., l.c. Mosses.
149
II.   Mosses.
Abbreviations—
M. Ex.—Musci Exotici.   1818-20.   (By W. H. Hooker.)
Tr. L.S.—Transactions of the Linnean Society of London,
IV., 1798.
Bot. Misc.—Botanical Miscellany.   1828-30.   (W. J. Hooker.)
L. & J.—Mosses of North America.   1884.    (Lesquereux &
James.)
Bartramia Menziesii Turner.
K. & S., Ann. Bot. I., t 11, fol. 1.    1805.
Hypnum circinale Hook.
Hypnum robustum Hook.
Isothecium stoloniferum (Hook.) Brid.
Hypnum stolonif. Hook.
Mnium Menziesii (Hook.) Muell.
Bryum Menziesii Hook., Bot. Misc. I., 36, t. 19.
Neckera Douglasii Hook., I.e., I., 131, t. 35.
Neckera Menziesii Drumm.
Plagiothecium elegans (Hook.) Schimp.
Hypnum eleg.   Hook.
POGONATUM ALPINUM ARCTICUM Brid.
Polytrichum syj,vaticum Menz.
Pogonatum contortum (Menz.) Lesq.
Polytrichum cont. Menz.
Pogonatum dentatum (Menz.) Brid.
Polytrichum dent. Menz.
Polytrichum attenuatum Menz.
Polytrichum gracile Menz.
Polytrichum strictum Banks.
Thutdium crispifolium (Hook.) Kihdb.
Hypnum crispifol. Hook.
Thuidium laxifolium (Hook.) Macoun. & Kindb.
Hypnum laxifol. Hook.
M.  Ex.
t.  67
M. Ex.,
t. 107
M. Ex.,
t. 108
M.   Ex.
t.'74
L.  & J
, 249.
L. & J
, 283.
L. & J
, 282.
L. & J
,  366.
M.  Ex.
t.   9.
Tr. L.S
f. 6.
. t. 7,
L. & J.
262.
T.L.S.,
t.  2.
t.  7,
T.L.S.,
f.  4.
T.L.S.,
f. 2.
T.L.S.,
f. 3.
T.L.S.,
t.  1.
M. Ex.,
t.  7,
t. 6,
t. 6,
t.  7,
t. 31.
M. Ex.,
t. 30. Tuckerm. I.
29.
Tuckerm. I
37.
Tuckerm.  I
85.
Tuckerm. I
248.
Tuckerm. I
89.
Tuckerm. I
38.
Tuckerm. I
159.
Tuckerm. I
53.
Tuckerm. I
60.
Hook., Bot.
Misc. I., t.
Menzies1 Journal.
88.
III.   Lichens.
Cetraria californica Tuckerm.
California.
Cetraria juniperina (L.) Ach.
N.W. coast of America.
Cetraria lacunosa Ach., v. stenophylla Ach.
N.W. coast.
Cladonia gracilis (L.) Nyl., v. elongata Fr
California.
Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.
Pacific coast of America.
Evernia vulpina (L.) Ach.
Pacific coast of America.
Leptogium palmatum (Huds.) Mont.
Monterey, Cal.
Parmelia perforata (Jacq.) Ach.
Pacific coast of America.
Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach., var. enteromorpha (Ach.)
Tuckerm.
California.
Peltigera venosa (L.) Hoffm.
N.W. coast of America.
Physcia erinacea (Ach.) Tuckerm.
California.
Physcia leucomela (L.) Michx.
California.
Pilophorus cereolus (Ach.), var. acicularis Tuckerm.
Pacific coast of America.
Ramalina homalea Ach.
California.
Ramalina Menziesii Tuckerm.
California.
Ramalina reticulata (Noehd.) Kremp.
California.
Stjcta anthraspis Ach.
California.
Umbilicaria angulata Tuckerm.
Pacific coast of America. «*■
Marine Alga.
151
IV.   Marine Algje.
The following list is taken from the Nereis Boreali-
Americana, by W. H. Harvey, Wash., 1852-58, with corrections to correspond with the Marine Alg# of Vancouver
Island, by W. S. Collins, Ottawa, 1913.
Abbreviations—
Coll.—Collins, F. S.:   Marine Algae of Vancouver Island.
1913.
Harv.—Harvey, W. H.: Nereis Boreali-Americana.   1851-58.
Turn.—Turner, D.: Fuci, sen Fucorum Icones, etc.   1809-19.
Costaria Turneri, Grev.   Turn., 1819, t. 226.
Cystophyllum geminatum (Ag.) J. G. Agardh.
Banks' Island, 1787.
Desmarestia ligulata (Turn.) J. G. Agardh.
Egregia Menziesii (Turn.) Areschong.
Phyllospora Menz. Ag.
Menziesii. Turn.,' I.e.   Nootka Sound.
Fauchea laciniata J. G. Agardh.
Callophyllis lac.
Gigartina radula J. Ag.
Gymnogongra linearis J. Ag.
Port Trinidad, Cal.
Halidrys osmundacea Harv.
Port Trinidad, Cal.
Halosaccion glandiforme (Gmelin) Ruprecht.
H. hydrophora.
Nootka Sound.
Hypnea musciformis Lam.
Nootka Sound, 1787.
iRIDiEA CORDATA  (Turn.)  J. Ag.
Banks' Island.
Lomentaria ovalis forma subarticulata (Turn.) Harv.
Nootka Sound.
Odonthalia floccosa (Esper) Falkenb.
Rhodomela flocc.    (Turn., 1808, t. 8.)
Port Trinidad, Cal.
Polysiphonia nigrescens var. Menziesii Harv.
Prionitis lanceolata Harv.
Prince William's Sound and Nootka.
Harv.
I., 90.
Harv.
I., 78.
Coll.
110.
Harv.
t. 3.
I., c,
I., 62,
Coll.
Harv.
117.
IL, 171
Harv.
II., 178
Harv.
Harv.
Coll. 118.
Harv. II., 194.
Harv.
Turn.
t.  116
II., 180
1809,
Harv.
Turn,
t. 81.
I., 78.
1809,
Ooll.
Harv.
122
I-.
24.
Harv. II., 197. 152
Menzies1 Journal.
Harv.
Ptilota ASPLENIOIDES Ag.
Prince William's Sound.
Harv.
Ptilota plumosa Ag.
Prince William's Sound.    1787.
Harv. I., 24.
Rhodomela larix (Turner) Ag.    (Turn.,
Nootka Sound.
1819, t 207.)
Harv. I.
Rhodomela pilulifera Grev.
Nootka, 1787.
SsS Ethnological Notes.
153
ETHNOLOGICAL  NOTES.
Bird-nets.
An early reference to the use of large nets raised on
high poles to trap birds is that by Krasheninikoff and Steller
about 1741. (Grieve, History of Kamtchatka, p. 161.
1764.) In 1825 Dr. Scouler was told by some of the Indians
at Port Discovery that the high poles noticed there by
Vancouver were for catching birds (Journal of a Voyage to
N.W. America. Oreg. Hist Soc. Quarterly, VI., p. 196),
and the same explanation was given to Wilkes and Paul
Kane in the same neighbourhood in 1841 and 1846. Coleman in 1868 saw them on Orcas Island, where they were
used with smoky fires at night. (Harper's New Monthly
Magazine, Nov., 1869, p. 794.) Finally there use was continued until quite lately at the mouth of the Chemainus
River, Vancouver Island.
Woollen Blankets.
Nearly every historian of the early voyages mentions
blankets of the wool of some animal. The first definite
statement as to the animal itself was made by Ledyard
(Journ. of Capt. Cook's Voy., p. 71), who speaks of garments " principally made with the hair of their dogs, which
are almost white and of the domestic kind." This observation was made at Nootka in 1778, but as neither Cook
himself nor any other journalist of his third voyage noticed
the manufacture or use of dog's hair at Nootka, it is most
improbable that the blankets seen by Ledyard were made
there. A more likely supposition is that they were brought
by visitors from the southward, of whom mention is made.
No other reference has been found to confirm the idea
that dog's hair was used at Nootka in weaving, or at any
of the villages belonging to the same stock, except at Neeah
Bay, Washington.
According to Vancouver these dogs were like those of
Pomeranian breed, with thick fleeces so compact that large
portions could be lifted by one corner without causing any
separation. They seem to have varied in colour from
yellowish-white to brown and to have been unable to bark.
Ledyard, Capt.
Cook's Last
Voy., p. 71.
Vane, I.,
p. 284. wlJiit- Ethnological Notes.
manufacture of the finest blanket of the North-west Coast.
It is also used for making common cedar-bark mats and
capes.
In the area where this loom is used many of the tribes
form cords of vegetable fibre or wool by twisting strands
together with the fingers and then roll them tighter on the
leg or thigh as at Nootka and the Chilcat region and making
no use of a distaff. The same people may use a small
spindle and whorl when making string for their nets.
The second kind of loom (see illustration) is a large,
heavy apparatus consisting of two posts supporting two
adjustable rollers which are tightened in their slots by
small wedges. Heavy rectangular blankets are made on
this loom, often with decorated edges. For spinning the
wool a whorl of about 7J4 inches in diameter is used. This
is made of big-leaved maple, is concavo-convex, with the
convexity sometimes carved, and has a strongly lipped
ovoid hole in the centre. The spindle is often 3 or 4 feet
long, thick at the handle, and tapering from a shoulder,
which rests against the whorl.
155 156
88131
Menzies' Journal.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
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Campos, Rafael Torres. Espana en California y en el
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Coleman, E. T. Mountaineering on the Pacific. (In
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Cooper, J. G. Catalogue of plants collected in Washington
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Dalton, —. Ethnographical collections from the North
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Hawai & Tahiti, formed during the voyage of Captain
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Dawson, George Mercer. Notes and observations on the
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157
Denys, Ferdinand. Isle de Quadra et Vancouver
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Dixon, George. Voyage round the world, 1785-1788. 360
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Dixon-Meares controversy. (In The Monthly Review,
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Ellis, William. Authentic narrative of a voyage performed by Captain Cook and Captain Clerke. . . .
2 v., 21 pi., map.    London.    Robinson, 1782.
 Same, 3rd ed.    1784.
Espinosa, y Tello, Jose, 1763-1815. Relacion del viage
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clxviii.-L.185 pp., tab. & atlas. Madrid, Imprenta real,
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[Forsyth, John] A check-list of books and pamphlets relating to the history of British Columbia and the Pacific
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Gibbs, George. Tribes of western Washington and northwestern Oregon. Wash. Govt., 1877. (U.S.: Geogr.
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Giglioli, E. H. Appunti interno ad una collezione ethno-
grafica fatta durante il terzo viaggio di Cook. (Arch,
per l'anthropologia, e l'enthnologia, XXIII.   Florence,
I895-)
Grenville, Lord. Letter to the Lords Commissioners of
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fee Haswell, Robert. Log of Gray's voyage. (Bancroft, H,
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Herbert, Hon. and Revd. Re Hookera & Brodiaea.
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Home, Everard, and Menzies, Archibald.   A description
of the anatomy of the sea otter.    (In Royal Society,
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12
v"
«r 158
-\'\. i
I
7f
Memies? Journal.
Hooker, W. J.   The Botanical Miscellany, Vol. i.    1830.
  Flora Boreali-Americana.   2 v., Q.    London, 1829-
1840.
 A brief memoir of the life of Mr. David Douglas,
with extracts from his letters.    (Companion to the
Botanical Magazine.    London.)
 Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels
in North America, 1823-1827.    London, 1914.
 See Botanical Magazine.    1855.
Hoskins, John. Narrative of a voyage to the northwest
coast of America and China on trade discovery, performed in the ship " Columbia Rediviva," 1790-93.
(Transcript in Provincial Archives, B.C.)
Howay, F. W. The dog hair blankets of the coast Salish.
Seattle, 1918. (Wash. Hist. Quarterly, Vol. IX.,
1918.)
  Some remarks upon the New Vancouver Journal.
Seattle.    (Wash. Hist. Quarterly, Vol. VI., 1915.)
The voyage of the Hope.    Seattle.    (Wash. Hist.
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  See also under Boit, J.; Scholefield, E. O. S.
Ingraham, Joseph.   Journal of the voyage of the Brigan-
tine Hope.    .    .    .    1790-1792.
Journal of Captain Cook's last voyage to the Pacific ocean.
.    .    .    London, 1781.
Joyce, A. T.    Handbook to the Ethnographical Collections
at the British Museum.    London, 1910.
Kane, Paul.   Wanderings of an artist among the Indians
of North America.    .    .   455 pp., illus., 8 pi., map.,
tab. O.   London.    Longmans, 1859.
Kissell,  Mary L.   A new type  of  spinning in  North
America.    (In   American   Anthropologist,   new   ser.,
XVIII., No. 2, 1916.)
 Aboriginal American weaving.    (In National Association of Cotton Manufacturers, Transactions.    Boston, 1910.)
Krascheninnikoff, S. P.   History of Kamchatka and the
Kurilski   Islands.    .    .    .   trans,   by   James   Grieve.
280+[8] pp., 5 pi., 2 maps, Q.   Gloucester.   Jefferys,
1764. Bibliography.
159
Lambert, A. B.   A description of the genus Pinus.   Folio.
London, 1803.
 A description of the genus Pinus.    2 v. and atlas, Q.
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Ledyard, John.   Journal of Captain Cook's last voyage.
Hartford (Connecticut), 1783.
Manning, W. R.   The Nootka Sound controversy.    (In
Amer. Hist. Association.   Annual report for the year
1904.   Washington, 1905.   Pp. 279-478.)
Meany,   Edmond   S.,   ed.    A   new  Vancouver   journal,
annotated by E. S. Meany.    (Wash. Hist. Quarterly,
April, July, Oct., 1914, and Jan., 1915.    Seattle, 1914-
15.)     (Part of a journal of the voyage of H.M.S.
" Chatham " from March to October, 1792.)
- A new Vancouver journal on the discovery of Puget
Sound.    Seattle, 1915.    (A reprint in separate form,
with an  introd.   and additional notes  by  Professor
Meany.)
Meares's voyage from China to America; review of.    (In
The Monthly Review, Vol. IV.   London (85).   London,
I79T-)
Meehan, Thos. The plants of Lewis and Clark s Expedition across the continent, 1804-1806. (Proceedings
Acad. Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia, 1898.)
Menzies, Archibald. Descriptions of three new animals
found in the Pacific ocean. (In Linnsean Soc. Transactions, Vol. I.    London, 1891.)
  A new arrangement of the Genus Polytrichum &c.
Also some corrections of the general description of
Polytrichum Rubellum, with an account of another new
species of the same genus. (In Linnean Soc. Transactions, Vol. IV.   London, 1798.)
 Some account of an ascent and barometrical measurement of Wha-ra-rai, a mountain in the Island of Owhyhee; extracted from the MS. Journal of Archibald
Menzies, Esq., F.L.S. (In The Magazine of Natural
History, Vols. I. and II.    London, 1829.)
  [and Home] .   A description of the anatomy of the
Sea Otter. (Royal Socy. Philosophical Transactions.
London, 1796.)
Menzies, David P. The Red and White book of Menzies.
Ports., illus.    Glasgow, 1894. pj
T!
160
Menzies' Journal.
Mozino, Joseph Mariano. Noticias de Nutka; diccionario
de la lengua de los Nutkeses y descripcion del Volcan
de Tuxtla. cix.-L.117 pp. O. Mexico, Imprenta y
Fototipia de la Secretaria de Fomento, 1913. (Sociedad
Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica.)
Murray, Andrew. Report of the Oregon Committee on
the Botanical Expedition to Oregon.    ? Edinburgh,
1853-
Newcombe, Charles Frederic.   In the tracts of Captain
Ingraham; a lecture before the Natural History Society
of B.C. Daily Colonist, Victoria, B.C., Jan. 26th &
Feb. 10th, 1904. (Gives Ingraham's denial of Ken-
drick's circumnavigation of Vancouver Island.)
  Guide to the Anthropological Collection in the Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C. (Plate 23, Blankets
and Blanket-making. From paintings by Paul Kane in
the collection of Sir E. B. Osier, Toronto.)
— Vancouver's Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island ;
a lecture before the Natural History Society of B.C.
Daily Times, Victoria, B.C., Nov. 16th, 1909.
  The First Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island.
Memoir No. 1. Archives of British Columbia, Victoria, B.C., 1914.
Nuttall, Thomas. North American sylva. 3 v., Q.
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Pennant, Thomas. Arctic zoology. Vol. I. London,
1784.
Piper, Charles Vancouver. Flora of the state of Washington. 637 pp., front., 19 pi., 3 maps, O. Wash.
Govt., 1906. (Smithsonian Institution. U.S. National
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Pursh, Frederick. Flora Americae Septentrionalis. 2 v.
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Read, Sir Charles H. Account of a collection of ethnographical specimens formed during Vancouver's voyage
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161
Rees, Abraham. Cyclopedia; or, universal dictionary of
Arts, Sciences and Literature. 39 v. London, 1819-
20.
Richardson, Sir John. Fauna Boreali-Americana. . . .
Vol. 1., Mammalia.   4to.    London, 1829.
Salisbury, R. A. Paradisus Londinensis. 2 v., 4to. London, 1806-1819.
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never before been published according to the Editor's
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two renderings of the journal shows that they only
differ in minor details, such as the spelling of scientific
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 Introduction to the study of botany.   London.
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Sudworth, G. B. Trees of the Pacific slope. (In U.S.:
Dept. of Agri., Forest Service.   Washington, 1908.)
Swan, J. G. The Indians of Cape Flattery. (Smithsonian
Contr. to Knowledge, 220.)    Washington, 1869. 162
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Sketches of North America and the Oregon
5 p., 20 pi., map, F.   London.   Dickinson,
Warre, H. J.
Territory,
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Wilkes, Charles. Narrative of the U.S. exploring expedition. 5 v. and atlas., illus., 12 ports., 52 pi., 13 maps,
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Wilson, Captain. Report on the Indian tribes inhabiting
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Maps and Charts.
MAPS AND CHARTS.
Charts showing the Intricate Channels followed by
Vancouver's Ships in 1792.
British Admiralty Charts:
No. 2689. Admiralty Inlet and Puget Sound.
„     579. Fraser River to N.E. point of Texada Island.
„     580. N.E. point of Texada Island to Broughton
Strait.
„     561. Johnstone and Broughton's Straits.
„    1923. B.—Cape Caution to Port Simpson, south
portion.
B. U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey:
No. 6403. Port Discovery and Washington Harbour.
„   6450. Admiralty Inlet and Puget Sound to Seattle.
„   6460. Puget Sound.    Seattle to Olympia.
„   6380. Washington Sound.
Dalrymple, Alexander.   Charts of the North West Coast
of America.   London, 1789-91.   Amongst these are:—
1787. Johnstone, James.
Plans & sketches of Port Etches, Prince
Williams Sound, Alaska.
Calamity Harbour, Banks Island, B.C.
Rose's Harbour, Queen Charlotte Islands,
B.C.
Port Brooks, Vancouver Island.
1788. Duncan, Charles.
Port Stephens, Principe Channel, B.C.
Millbank Sound, B.C.
Port Safety, Calvert Island, B.C.
Luxoena Bay, Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C.
Etches Sound, Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C.
Ahouset, Vancouver Island, B.C.
Entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
1786. Hanna, James.
Part of the N.W. Coast of America.
Wedgbrough.
Track of the Snow " Experiment" in company with the " Captain Cook." i64
Menzies' Journal.
Arrowsmith, A. A map exhibiting all the new discoveries
in the interior parts of North America. Jan. 1., 1795-
(Shows most of the places on the N.W. Coast which
were surveyed by Johnstone and Duncan in the Prince
of Wales and the Princess Royal under Colnett in
1787-88. It is perhaps the first map published indicating the Columbia River and a reproduction of Quim-
per's survey. Some of the information was probably
afforded by Commander Broughton on his return to
England in 1793.
/ I
it INDEX.
(Note.—The spelling in Menzies' M.S. has been retained.)
Page.
Acapulca      55
Activa (ship) 55, 107, 123   124
Adams River    85
Addenbroke, Mount     68
Admiralty Inlet 	
 22, 31, 32, 46, 47, 48, 51, 52   60
Adventure (ship)  124, 125
Albatross      3
Aha Rhinoceros     47
Alder, American 20,   49
Allium   51,   54
Anderson Island     39
Andromeda coerulea     75
Anthericum Calyculatum     76
Anvil Island     61
Anvil Mountain     68
Apinnas   117
Aranzaza (ship)   55, 120, 124, 128
Arbor Vitae, American 49,   82
Arbutus xviii.,   20
Arbutus glauca    49
Arbutus, Oriental      49
Ardea Canadensis     51
Arenaria     51
Argonaut  (ship)    122
Arran Rapids      72
Arrows  35, 36, 72, 77,   83
Ash, American  34,   49
Ash, Mountain     34
Ash     43
Assistance (ship)   viii.
Auk       46
Auraucaria Imbricata    xi.
Baker, Mr 128, 131
Baker, Mount 17,48,53,   57
Banks Island     ix.
Banks, Sir Joseph viii.
Barberry      49
Barnacle 42,   96
Basalt Point      25
Baskets  58,   87
Beads  71, 83, 87, 102, 118
Page.
Bears 37,   54
Beer, Spruce 21,   92
Bibliography   156
Biographical Note   vii.
Birch       69
Birch, black 54, 101
Birch Bay 53, 54, 62,   63
Bird-nets  153
Bird traps  17,   25
Birds      64
Blackbird      30
Blanco, Cape 8, 10,   11
Blankets   58, 118, 153
Botanical Appendix   132
Broughton, Mr     44
Boundary Bay     60
Bowen Island     61
Bows   35, 36, 72, 77, 83
Boyles, Point    94
Brass     41
Bray, Mr   121
Brettell Point      68
Broughton, Lieut	
....xvi, 31, 42,44,46, 50, 51, 54,
55, 75, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 115, 118, 130
Broughton's Archipelago    90
Budd Inlet     41
Bulrushes   40, 42,   59
Burial Customs, Indian..21, 22, 56,   83
Burke Channel 99, 101, 102
Burrard Inlet 60,   62
Bute Inlet     71
Butterworth (ship)   124, 129
Buttons   34, 35,   87
Caamano, Lieut.
.120, 123, 127, 128
Cactus opuntia xviii., 31
Call Creek   90
Calvert's Island 98, 103
Camano.   See Caamano
Canoe burial 21, 56
Canoes   83
Cape Split Rock 105, 106 —
i*r
166
Menzies" Journal.
Page.
Cardero Channel 74, 78,   79
Caroline Rose      49
Carr Point     18
Carrasco, Isle de     18
Cascade Cove    75
Cascara Sagrada    28
Case Inlet      59
Castillo de San Miguel  106
Cathlagees 86,   88
Cedar, Giant     58
Cedar, Red     57
Channel Island     68
Chatham (ship)    xv.,
31, 42, 46, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 62,
65, 85, 89, 90, 91, 95, 96, 104, 107,
114, 115, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130
Chatham 43,   44
Cheslakee's Village    87
Chimcera     22
Chinese money     29
Clallam people     21
Clams 34, 58,   76
Clanset, Cape      16
Clarence (Strait)   120
Classet.   See Clanset.
Claytonia     23
Cliff Island     75
Cloiquat       14
Cloth   43, 58, 80, 88, 118
Clover-roots     116
Clubs       87
Cock Spur Thorn, American     83
Colnett, Captain xiii., xiv., 127
Colonet.   See Colnett.
Columbia (ship)  	
 13, 14, 16, 124, 125, 126
Comano, Lieut.   See Caamano, Lieut.
Commencement Bay     43
Conception (ship)      55
Cook, Captain 86, 105, 130, 131
Copper	
.. .34, 35, 41, 43, 71, 88, 102, 114, 118
Cornus Suecica   100
Cottus scorpius    22
Cove    33
Page.
Cox Island  105
Crab apple  20
Crabs (fruit)     49
Crane  30, 51
Crane, Sandhill   23
Cranstoun, Alexander   121
Crow Island  35
Crows  30, 34
Currants   49
Currants, Black   99
Cushman Point   40
Cypress Island   46
Cypropedium bulbosom  20
Dabop Bay    27
Dana Passage   39
Deception Pass  52
Deep Bay  66
Deer  37, 51, 75, 94
De Fuca Straits	
. .39, 47, 55, 78, 103, 123, 126, 128, 132
Deserters' Islands   94
Desolation Reach 75, 81
Desolation Sound 64, 66, 114
Destruction Island   13
Detention Rivulet   99
Disapointment, Cape  12
Discovery (ship)  ix.,
xv., 51, 52, 55, 62, 64, 65, 71, 78,
90, 91, 92, 94, 102, 103, 112, 113,
115, 121, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130
Discovery Passage 77, 81, 84
Discovery, Port  18-22, 30, 31
Diver  34
Dobson, Thos  112
Doedalus (ship)   	
 102, 110, 111, 114, 121, 124, 131
Dog Rose  49
Dog-wood  49
Dogs  58
Double Island  68
Dragon Rocks    8
Drosera rotund ifolia   76
Ducks    30
Duffin, Robert  122
Duncan, Captain adv. Index.
167
Page.
Eagles      30
Echeverria  128
Eld Inlet    40
Elder, Captain   107
Elk Bay     84
Elliot Point     44
Ellis, Menzies    xi.
Empetrum Nigrum. See Crowberry 100
Epilobium        57
Escheverea. See Echeverria, Atanasio.
Esperanza Inlet  106
Etches, Mr viii., xiv.
Ethnological Notes  153
Europeans  61,   82
Everett Bay     44
False Egg island      98
Felice Aventura (ship)   125
Fenis (ship)   122, 125, 126
Ferns    40, 132
Fidalgo, Lieut 123, 126, 127, 129
Fife Passage or Sound 90, 91,   93
Fir, Silver      49
Fish-hooks        83
Fish, Elephant     22
Fitzhugh Sound  97, 98, 102
Flattery, Cape     15
Flea Village      68
FlooPannanoo, Chief   115
Fonte, Admiral de  120
Forbes Bay    68
Fothergill, Dr viii.
Foulweather Bluff 27, 29,   46
Foulweather Point     25
Foxes       75
Fraser River     60
Friendly Cove 65, 106, 120, 129
Galiano, Don Dionisio Alcala	
 55, 62,   64
Gambier Island       61
Gardner,  Port   45, 49,   52
Gaultheria fruticosa    49
Geddes, C. D    xi.
Gedney Island     44
Georgia, Strait of  52,   60
Getrudie (ship)    55, 124
Page.
Gibb Point    20
Glasswort      24
Gooch, Mr. Wm 103, 107, 109
Gooseberries  » 49, 76
Grace (ship)   125
Gray, E. Robert  13, 14, 124
Gregory, Cape     10
Grenville, Lord  ix.,   x.
Grouse     75
Hadlock, Port     24
Hakai  99, 103
Halcyon  (ship)     124
Halibut       58
Hama, Captain     98
Hanapa   114, 115
Hancock (ship)   125
Hannon Point     27
Hanson Island     89
Hartstene Island 39,   40
Havannah Channel 85,   90
Hazel   27,   49
Hemlock       92
Henchera  93
Hergist, Lieut. Rich'd 	
 103, 107, 108, 109, 114
Herrings      72
Homfray Channel     68
Hood's Canal     27
Hope (ship)   122, 126, 131
Hope Island 40, 125
Howe Sound    61
Huckleberry, Evergreen     27
Hudson, Point     23
Humphries, Mr     67
Hydrolagus Collici      22
Ingraham     122, 127
Ingram.   See Ingraham.
Iron    27, 43, 47,   71
Jackall (ship)   122, 124, 126, 129
Jackson, Port 121, 123
Jenny (ship)   113, 124, 128, 131
Jefferson (ship)   125
Jervis Inlet  61,   62
Johnstone, James   xvii.
Johnstone's decoy    24
SSSSBtM*?**?*'
DUUUUUUIt mmm
168
Menzies" Journal.
Page.
Johnstone's Streights	
 81, 84,85,86, 114
Juan de Fuca Straits  15,   16
Kelkpa   100
Kendrick, Captain     14
Ketron Island  38,   41
Kilisut     24
Kwahshua      99
Kwakiutl  80,   82
Kwatlena Indian Reserve  100
Kwatna Inlet   100
Labouchere Channel  101
Lady-slipper, False      20
Lady Washington  (ship) 14, 125
La Flavie (V. Francais)   89, 125
Lancelot Arm      65
Lepas    96
Lewis Channel      70
Lichens   150
Lilium camschatcensa  51, 117
Lilium Canadense      51
Linnean Society    xi.
Linnoca borealis     76
Lonicera Nootkagensis     49
Lookout, Cape      12
Looking-glasses       71
Looms   154
Loughborough Inlet      78
Ludlow, Port      26
Lummi Bay      54
Lynxes        37
McGee   122
Malaspina, Strait 62, 64, 65, 128
Malaspini.   See Malaspina.
Manley, Mr 59, 62, 126
Maple 68, 69, 74, 101
Maple, Mountain     49
Maple, Pensylvanian     49
Maple, Sugar     49
Maple trees     29
Maple, Sycamore     20
Maquinna 	
 80, 114, 115, 118, 119, 120, 127
Margaret (ship)  122, 124, 125, 131
Marine Algae '  151
Page.
Marrowstone Point    46
Martinez  127
Mary Island     66
Matia Island     57
Matilda  (ship)     112
Mats 42, 58, 59, 87, 117
Marveena  116
Mears, John 14,   15
Medals     71
Medlers   69, 101
Melanthium     54
Melville, Island     66
Mendocino, Cape 6, 7,   16
Menendez, Don   107
Menyanthes trifoliata     76
Menzies' instructions     ix.
Menzies' Bay     84
Menzies' Castle  vii.
Menzies, Sir David   vii.
Menzies, William  vii.
Menzies, Point  101
Menziesia ferruginea  90,   99
Mexicana (ship)    55, 124
Milly Island     85
Mink Island     66
Monkey Puzzle tree    xi.
Morgan Island    66
Mosses     149
Mozino, Don Jose  xix., 128
Mudge, Mr xviii., 74, 126
Mudge, Cape  77,   81
Muskets   60, 80, 88, 119
Mussel     96
Myrica gale    76
Nails    ■     72
Nannacoos, Chief   127
Natives  30, 34,   58
Navigation 30, 55,   90
Neeah Bay 16, 123
Neil, Mr  HO
Nelson, David  xvii.
Nettles        53
Neville, Port     85
New Albion      4
New Dungeness     17 Index.
169
Page.
New, Captain  107, 108
New Georgia 45, 48, 73, 84,   90
Nimpkish village      87
Nipple Summit     74
Nisqually Reach  39,   41
Nisqually River     39
Nisqually Flats    39
Nodales Channel    80
Nonsuch (ship)  viii.
Nootka 39, 55, 64, 65,
79, 80, 81, 83, 87, 88, 94, 102, 106, 130
Nootka language 30, 84,   86
Numez Gaona  123
Nytnphe Cove    84
Oak 26, 29, 45,   49
Oak Cove 26, 46,   49
O'Brien Basin     92
Observatory  31, 53, 63, 113, 129
Okeover Arm     65
Olympus, Mount      15
Onion, wild 51,   54
Oniscus         2
Orcas Island   50,   59
Orford, Cape       10
Oriolus phoenicius      30
Otter, Sea  16,   38
Oyster-catchers     46
Oysters     40
Paddles 9, 83,   87
Pearl Rocks     98
Pelecanus Urile     92
Pender Island    85
Pentstemon  75,   84
Peril Rocks (see also Pearl Rocks)     98
Perpetua, Cape  11,   12
Pewter basin    89
Philadelphus Coronarius     56
Philips, Mr  121
Pickering Passage    40
Pine Island    97
Pinnacle Rock      16
Pinus Canadensis     92
Pitcairn, Dr viii.
Pitt Passage      37
Plenronectes  22
Page.
Point      33
Polecat       19
Polygonum       57
Polytricum       93
Poo Poo     35
Poplar     43
Poplar, Aspen    54
Poplar, Canadian    49
Porpoise    58,   71
Prideaux Haven     66
Prince Lee Boo (ship)   124, 129
Prince of Wales (ship) 	
 viii., xiii., xv., 104
Prince Wm. Henry (ship)  '...
 124, 129, 131
Princess Royal  (ship)    viii., xiii.
Princessa  (ship)   ...123, 124, 126, 127
Protection Island 19,   31
Pryce Channel  68,   70
Pto. de la Bodega y Quadra     18
Puffins         5
Puget, Lieut. .. .xvii., 33, 53, 59, 60,
62, 65, 68, 76, 78, 81, 85, 92, 93,   98
Puget's Sound 41, 43, 132
Pyrola     75
Quadra, Don	
55, 107, 110, 113, 115, 116, 119,
120, 122, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 130
Quadra, Port  31, 40, 55, 112, 118
Queen Charlotte Islands   129
Queen Charlotte Sound	
 80, 81, 91, 94, 97, 114
Rabbits      37
Racoons       37
Rainier, Mount 26, 33, 43   48
Ramsay Arm    70
Raspberries..38, 42, 49, 67, 76, 89,   99
Redonda Island  74-76
Restoration Bay      99
Restoration Point 41,   42
Rhamnus      28
Rhodiola rosea  100
Rhododendron    20, 49
Ribes      75 170
Menzies" Journal.
Page.
Roberts, Captain Henry  xv.
Roberts, Cape  60, 63,   64
Rose Harbour   xiv.
Rose Point    44
Rubus Nootkagensis     49
Safety Cove   102
Safety, Port      98
St. George, Point       8
Samphire      24
San Juan Archipelago      41
Sarana        51
Saratoga Passage      45
Savary Island     76
Saxifraga      57
Scirpus occidentalis      59
Scolpings      22
Scott's Islands 104, 105
Sea-blush       18
Sea Otters ...71, 82, 83, 86, 87, 88,   96
Sea pies   46, 51,   61
Seaweeds    150
Seals       76
Semiahmoo Bay     60
Seymour Narrows    84
Shadwell Passage     97
Shag        92
Shag skins      9
Shags       4
Shanus albus       76
Shepherd, Mr  102
Simoom Sound     91
Skunk  19, 29,   30
Smith's Inlet    98
Smith's Island      46
Snow  (ship)     124
Solander Island  105
South Bentinck Arm  101
South Head     38
Spaniards  31, 120, 122, 128
Spanish Bank    62
Spears      87
Spiraea serrulata      49
Spruce, Hemlock    49
Spruce, Norway    49
Spruce, White     49
Page.
Spruce beer  92
Squaxin Island  40
Squirrel Cove  75
Stewart, Mr  122
Storm Island   97
Strawberry Bay  46, 50, 51, 52
Strawberry tree, Oriental  20
Strobus   75
Stuart Island  78
Sturgeon Banks  60
Susan, Port  44
Sutil (ship)    55, 124
Sutlej Channel  92
Swallows     34
Sycamore    49
Syringa or Mock Orange   56
Tacamahac   49
Tashees    115, 116, 118
Tahsis    114
Tatootche Village  15
Terra ponderosce rata   27
Teakerne Arm   70,   75
Texada Island   63
Three Brothers (ship)   124, 131
Thuja plicuta   58
Thynne Island   66
Tiger, brown  27
Toba Inlet  68
Totten Inlet   40
Townsend, Port  32, 45
Trees    33
Triandria monogina   42
Triangle Island  104, 105
Tribune Channel   91
Trifolium   116
Triglochin maritimum  38
Trinkets    •
 35, 41, 59, 60, 72, 79, 83, 87, 102
Trout ("cut-throat")  .,  52
Truscott, Captain   viii.
Tulalip  Bay    „„,  45
Turner, John    95
Vaccinium 27, 89, 93, 100
Vaccinium lucidum  49
Vaccinium tetragonum    49 IHIIIUIPWP
B#
mm
Index.
171
Page.
Valdes, Don Cayetano...55, 65, 68, 70
Valerian   18
Vancouver, Captain 31,
41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 53, 59, 62, 64,
65, 81, 87, 91, 92, 93, 98, 100, 102,
103, 110, 112, 115, 116, 118, 119,
120, 121, 122, 123, 127, 129, 130, 131
Vashon Island   42
Velella  1, 2
Venison   58
Venus (brig)  102, 124
Vessels, list of 124, 125
Village Point  51
Waddington Harbour   72
Wagh-el as-opulth.   See Wahelaa-
saplilthe.
Wahelaasaplilthe    127
Wakash     86
Wakashion nation   86
Washington, Sloop   14
■Wasp nests   73
Water fowls  46
Weatherhead, Captain  112, 113
Page.
Weem    vii.
Wentworth, Port  104
Whales  64,   71
Whannoc       87
Whattleberries     49
Whidbey, Mr 31,
33, 38, 42, 44, 46, 52, 54, 57, 65, 76,
78, 81, 85, 90, 92, 93, 96, 98, 113, 130
Whidbey's Island     52
Whortleberries 69,   99
Wilson, Port     22
Whortleberries, Red  49,   76
Willow       49
Windward Islands  108
Wolves 54,   75
Woody Point   105
Wool, fine white      58
Woollen blankets  153
Yarn, twisted woollen    58
Yew, Common      49
Yuculta Rapids     72
Yuculta Village     77
Zostera Marina       4
VICTORIA,   B.C.:
Printed by William H. Collin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1923. ~~f ■
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