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The American fur trade of the far west ; a history of the pioneer trading posts and early fur companies… Chittenden, Hiram Martin, 1858-1917 1902

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Array     HISTORY
OF
THE AMERICAN FUR TRADE
OF THE
FAR WEST
feSSSK  American Fur Trade
OF THE
Far West
A   History   of the Pioneer Trading   Posts and   Early
Fur Companies of the Missouri Valley and
the   Rocky   Mountains   and   of
the Overland Commerce
with   Santa Fe.
MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS
HIRAM   MARTIN  CHITTENDEN
Captain Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., Author of
"The Yellowstone."
THREE VOLUMES  APPENDICES.
■ A-      i
COPY OF LETTER FROM PIERRE MENARD TO
PIERRE CHOUTEAU. I       :
An account of the first attack by the Blackfeet upon the Missouri Fur
Company at the Three Forks of the Missouri in the summer of 1810.
Below are given in the original and corrected French and
in English translation copies of a letter found among the
Chouteau papers. It is probably the only document in existence that was written upon the identical spot where the old
fort of the St. Louis Missouri Fur Company stood at the
Three Forks of the Missouri. It narrates an important event
in the series of disasters which overtook the company in that
quarter, and is a genuine messenger from that forlorn band
under Henry who later, when driven from this position,
crossed the Divide and built the first trading establishment
upon Columbian waters. The original of this letter, in four
pages, written upon a sheet of fine light blue paper, full letter size, and still in excellent preservation, is in the possession of Mr. Pierre Chouteau of St. Louis. The names in
brackets marked * are as printed in the Louisiana Gazette of
July 26, 1810, from an interview with Menard.
trois   fourches   du Missourie 21 Avrill 1810
Trois Fourches du Missouri,  21 Avril, 1810.
Monsieur
Monsieur
Pierre Chouteau eqr
Pierre Chouteau eqr.
Je matandais
}
Monsieur et beau frere
Monsieur et beau-frere
Pourvoire vous Ecrire Plus favorable
que
Je m'attendais pouvoir     vous ecrire   plus favorablement que
i 894
ATTACKED BY THE BLACKFEET.
Je ne suis Ameme de le faire a present     Les prospect   de vent
je ne suis a mSme de le faire k present    Les prospects devant
nos yeux il lia dix Jours etait      Beaucoup Plus flateurs   quil    le
nos yeux il y a dix jours etaient beaucoup  plus flatteurs qu'ils ne
sont aujourdhuit    un    party de nos Chasseurs on Etez de fait Par
sont aujourd'hui.    Une partie de nos chasseurs a    6t6    d6faite par
les pied noirs   le 12 du present    il lia heus Deux homme   De tuez
les Pieds-noirs le 12 du present.    II y a eu     deux hommes de tues,
tous leurs castors pilliez   et Beaucoup de pieges De perdues   et
tous leurs castors pilles,   et beaucoup  de pieges de  perdus,    et
lamoniton     de plusieur   de nos Chasseurs et 7 de nos Chevaaux
1'amonition   de plusieurs de nos chasseurs, et 7 de nos chevaux.
Nous avont Etez aleure poursuite   maist malheureusement nous
Nous avons 6t€    a leur poursuite, mais   malheureusement nous
navont   pas pux les rejoindre     Nous avon   ramasse 44 piege   et
n'avons pas pu    les rejoindre.    Nous avons ramasse 44 pieges et
3 chevau   que nous avont Ramene icy et nous Esperont trouvez En-
3 chevaux que nous avons ramenes ici, et nous esperons trouver encore quelque   piege      Set     malheureuse afaire   a toute afet
core quelques pieges.    Cette malheureuse affaire a tout   a fait
Decouragez Nos Chasseurs     II   ne veulle      plus aller a la chasse
decourag£     nos  chasseurs.    lis ne veulent    plus aller a la chasse
icy'ss i]    en partira     se pendent de mains 30   qui son   tous de gens
ici.     lis en partiront. cependant   demain    30, qui sont tous de gens
a gage   les 14 Lous et 16 Fransais     il   vont aUandroit   ou les
a gage, les 14 loues et 16 Francais.    lis vont a 1'endroit ou les
autres on   Etez De fait   Je ne leur donne que 3 pieges Chaque  ne
autres ont et6    d6faits.    Je ne leur donne que 3 pieges chacun, ne
croient   point prudent Dans risque   daventage   et surtous lorsque
croyant point prudent d'en   risquer davantage,  et surtout lorsqu'
il   ne doive     point Se Se pare   et La moitier devent   tonjours
ils ne doivent point se  separer, et la   moitie   doivent toujours
Eti?es au campement.    Le parti    qui a etez de faite   Consistait Au
etre    au campement.    La partie qui a &t6   defaite     consistait  en
onze personne    et les trois quare   Etait     a lez tendre    Leurs
onze personnes, et les trois quarts £taient alles tendre    leurs
piege  Lorsque les Sauvages on fonce      au campement   Le   deux per-
pieges lorsque les sauvages enfoncaient le campement.   Les deux per- INCIDENTS  OF  THE  FIGHT.
895
son      tuez Son James Chique [Cheeks*] et un nomez haire   [Ayres*]
sonnes tues sont James Chique [Cheeks]   et un nomine" Haire [Ayres],
Angage de Mes      Crou [Crooks] et McLanell [McLellan] que Mess
engages de Messrs Crou [Crooks] et McLanell [McLellan] que Messrs
Silvestre [Chouteau] & Auguste [Chouteau] avait    equipe* Pour "chasse
Silvestre [Chouteau] & Auguste [Chouteau] avaient £quip6s pour chasser
de Moitiez   il manque   autres ses deux   Le Jeune Hulle [Hull*] qui
de moiti6.    II manque, outre   ces deux, le   jeune Hulle [Hull]   qui
etait du m§me camp et flyharte [Freehearty*] et son homme qui Etait
etait du meme camp, et flyharte [Freehearty] et son homme qui etaient
campez Environ 2 mill     Plus haut    Nous avont trouvez 4 des piege
campes environ 2 milles plus haut.    Nous avons trouv6   4 des pieges
de se   derniers et La place ou les Sauvages les on   poursuive   mait
de ces derniers et la   place ou les sauvages les ont poursuivis, mais
nous navont  point trouvez la place ou il   on   Etez tuez    Dans le
nous n'avons point trouve   la place ou ils ont 6te"    tues.   Dans le
Campement ou les deux premier  on Etez tuez Nous avon trouvez un
campement ou les deux premiers ont ete   tues nous avons trouves un
Pied noire qui avait aussi Etez tuez et en suivant leure trase
Pied-Noir   qui avait aussi ete    tu6, et en suivant leur   trace,
Nous avon  vus quil  En avait une autre de Blesse dangereusement
nous avons vu   qu'il y en avait un   autre de bless€ dangereusement.
tous les Deux Sil le blese   meure on  recu Leure more de la main
Tous les deux, si   le bless6 meurt, ont recu leur    mort de la main
de Chique [Cheeks]     car il ni   a que Lui qui sai    defendue   Set
de Chique [Cheeks],    car il n'y a que lui   qui s'est defendu.    Cette
malheureuse affaire nous Cause une perte considerable   maist Je ne
malheureuse affaire nous cause une perte considerable, mais  je ne
croi   pas pour Sela de vaire perdre Courage    Les ressource   de Se
crois pas pour cela devoir     perdre courage.    Les ressources de ce
payis Son   imance     en Castors    il est vrait que nous ne feront
pays  sont  immenses en castor.     II est vrai   que nous ne ferons
rein Se printemp   mait Je me flate   que nous feront   Lautone    pro-
rien ce printemps, mais je me flatte que nous ferons Al'automne pro-
{quelque chose]
chaine    Jes pert que   Dici a mon De pare Jevairais les Ser pent
chaine.   J'espere que, d'ici k mon depart,   je verrai les Serpents
M 896
VISIONARY  SCHEME.
et les taite plate     Mon Intention est de les faire Reste icy Si
et les Tete-plates.    Mon intention est de les faire rester ici, si
Je puis et de les Encourage a la Guere   Contre Les pied noirs  Jus"
je puis, et de les encourager k la guerre contre les   Pieds-noirs, jus-
qua   Se que nous puission   Enprend    pri Son nice et en renvoiez
qa'k ce que nous puissions en prendre prisonniers, et en renvoyer
un pour faire des proposion      de pais   Seque  Je croi   Serat ayse
un pour faire des propositions de paix, ce que je crois sera   ais6
En leur Lesent   des traiteurs au bat de la Chute (word torn out)
en leur laissant des traiteurs au bas de la chute [du Missouri.]
Si nous navont   point La paix avec Ses ma- (rest of word gone) ou
Si nous n'avons point la   paix avec ces ma[udits (?)], ou
quil    ne Soi      point detruit    nous ne devont point pense   a
qu'ils ne soient point detruits, nous ne devons point penser a
havoire detablisement    icy    assure    Madame Chouteau de mon es-
avoir      d'etablissement ici.    Assurez Madame Chouteau de mon es-
time la plus Sain Saire ainsi. que vos Chers enfants   et Croiez Moix
time le plus sincere       ainsi que vos chers  enfants, et croyez-moi
pour La vie votre Devouez
pour la   vie votre devoue.
Pierre Menard
Pierre Menard,
tous les jours Devoire )
ir )
Nous nous atendont
Nous nous attendons tous les jours de voir
les pied noire  icy et nous Le desiront
les Pieds-noirs ici, et nous le   desirons
Faveur de Mr.
Wm. Bryante
(Address on back of letter)
Monsieur Pierre Chouteau
St. Louis.
(Brief put on after receipt of letter)
Lettre de Monsr.
P. Menard du
21 Avril 1810. DISCOURAGING   PROSPECTS.
(Translation.)
897
Three Forks of the Missouri,
April 21, 1810.
Mr. Pierre Chouteau, Esq.,
Dear Sir and Brother-in-law :—I had hoped to be
able to write you more favorably than I am now able to do.
The outlook before us was much more flattering ten days ago
than it is today. A party of our hunters was defeated by
the Blackfeet on the 12th inst. There were two men killed,
all their beaver stolen, many of their traps lost, and the
ammunition of several of them, and also seven of our horses.
We set out in pursuit of the Indians but unfortunately could
not overtake them. We have recovered forty-four traps and
three horses, which we brought back here, and we hope to
find a few more traps.
This unfortunate affair has quite discouraged our hunters,
who are unwilling to hunt any more here. There will start
out tomorrow, however, a party of thirty who are all gens
a gage, fourteen loues and sixteen French. They go to the
place where the others were defeated. I shall give them only
three traps each, not deeming it prudent to risk more, especially since they are not to separate, and half are to remain in
camp.
The party which was defeated consisted of eleven persons,
and eight or nine of them were absent tending their traps
when the savages pounced upon the camp. The two persons
killed are James Cheeks, and one Ayres, an engage of
Messrs. Crooks and McLellan whom Messrs. Silvester and
Auguste [Chouteau] had equipped to hunt on shares. Besides these two, there are missing young Hull who was of the
same camp, and Freehearty and his man who were camped
about two miles farther up. We have found four traps belonging to these men and the place where they were pursued
by the savages, but we have not yet found the place where
they were killed.
In the camp where the first two men were killed we found 898
HEAVY   LOSSES.
a Blackfoot who had also been killed, and upon following
their trail we saw that another had been dangerously
wounded. Both of them, if the wounded man dies, came to
their death at the hand of Cheeks, for he alone defended
himself.
This unhappy miscarriage causes us a considerable loss,
but I do not propose on that account to lose heart. The
resources of this country in beaver fur are immense. It is
true that we shall accomplish nothing this spring, but I trust
that we shall next autumn. I hope between now and then
to see the Snake and Flathead Indians. My plan is to induce
them to stay here, if possible, and make war upon the Blackfeet so that we may take some prisoners and send back one
with propositions of peace—which I think can easily be
secured by leaving traders among them below the Falls of
the Missouri. Unless we can have peace with these
(ma—?) or unless they can be destroyed, it is idle to think
of maintaining an establishment at this point.
Assure Madame Chouteau of my most sincere esteem as
well as your dear children, and believe me always your devoted Pierre Menard.
We are daily expecting to see the Blackfeet here and are
desirous of meeting them.
(Address on back of letter.)
Monsieur Pierre Chouteau,
St. Louis.
Through the kindness of
Mr. Wm. Bryant.
(Brief on back of letter after receipt.)
Letter from Mr. P. Menard,
April 21, 1810. B.
LETTER FROM MANUEL LISA TO GENERAL
CLARK.
On the conduct of Lisa's office as Indian agent.
St. Louis, July ist, 1817.
To His Excellency, Governor Clark:
Sir :—I have the honor to remit to you the commission of
sub-agent, which you were pleased to bestow upon me, in the
summer of 1814, for the Indian nations who inhabit the
Missouri river above the mouth of the Kansas, and to pray
you to accept my resignation of that appointment.
The circumstances under which I do this, demand of me
some exposition of the actual state of these Indians, and of
my own conduct during the time of my sub-agency.
Whether I deserve well or ill of the government, depends
upon the solution of these questions:
1. Are the Indians of the Missouri more or less friendly
to the United States than at the time of my appointment ?
2. Are they altered, better or worse, in their own condition at this time ?
1. I received this appointment when war was raging
between the United States and Great Britain, and when the
activity of British emissaries had armed against the Republic all the tribes of the Upper Mississippi and of the northern
lakes. Had the Missouri Indians been overlooked by
British agents?
No, your excellency will remember that more than a year
before the war broke out, I gave you intelligence that the
wampum was carrying by British influence along the banks 900
HOSTILE  INDIANS.
of the Missouri, and that all the nations of this great river
were excited to join the universal confederacy then setting
on foot, of which the Prophet was the instrument, and
British traders the soul. The Indians of the Missouri are to
those of the Upper Mississippi as four is to one. Their
weight would be great, if thrown into the scale against us.
They did not arm against the Republic; on the contrary, they
armed against Great Britain and struck the Iowas, the
allies of that power.
When peace was proclaimed more than forty chiefs had
intelligence with me; and together, we were to carry an
expedition of several thousand warriors against the tribes of
the Upper Mississippi, and silence them at once. These
things are known to your excellency.
To the end of the war, therefore, the Indians of the
Missouri continued friends of the United States. How are
they today when I come to lay down my appointment ? Still
friends, hunting in peace upon their own ground, and we
trading with them in security, while the Indians of the
Upper Mississippi, silenced but not satisfied, give signs of
enmity, and require the presence of a military force. And
thus the first question resolves itself to my advantage.
2. Before I ascended the Missouri as sub-agent, your
excellency remembers what was accustomed to take place.
The Indians of that river killed, robbed and pillaged the
traders; these practices are no more. Not to mention the
others, my own establishments furnish the example of
destruction then, of safety now. I have one at the Mahas
more than six hundred miles up the Missouri, another at the
Sioux, six hundred miles further still. I have from one to
two hundred men in my employment, large quantities of
horses, and horned cattle, of hogs, of domestic fowls; not
one is touched by an Indian; for I count as nothing some
solitary thefts at the instigation of white men, my enemies;
nor as an act of hostility the death of Pedro Antonio, one of
my people, shot this spring, as a man is sometimes shot
among us, without being stripped or mutilated.   And thus ENERGETIC   MEASURES.
QOI
the morals of these Indians are altered for the better, and the
second question equally results to my advantage.
But I have had some success as a trader; and this gives
rise to many reports.
"Manuel must cheat the government, and Manuel must
cheat the Indians, otherwise Manuel could not bring down
every summer so many boats loaded with rich furs."
Good. My accounts with the government will show
whether I receive anything out of which to cheat it. A poor
five hundred dollars, as sub-agent salary, does not buy the
tobacco which I annually give to those who call me father.
Cheat the Indians! The respect and friendship which
they have for me, the security of my possessions in the heart
of their country, respond to this charge, and declare with
voices louder than the tongues of men that it cannot be true.
"But Manuel gets so much rich fur!"
Well, I will explain how I get it. First, I put into my
operations great activity; I go a great distance, while some
are considering whether they will start today or tomorrow.
I impose upon myself great privations; ten months in a year
I am buried in the forest, at a vast distance from my own
house. I appear as the benefactor, and not as the pillager, of
the Indians. I carried among them the seed of the large
pompion, from which I have seen in their possession the fruit
weighing 160 pounds. Also the large bean, the potato, the
turnip; and these vegetables now make a comfortable part
of their subsistence, and this year I have promised to carry
the plough. Besides, my blacksmiths work incessantly for
them, charging nothing. I lend them traps, only demanding
preference in their trade. My establishments are the refuge
of the weak and of the old men no longer able to follow their
lodges; and by these means I have acquired the confidence
and friendship of these nations, and the consequent choice of
their trade.
These things I have done, and I propose to do more. The
Aricaras, the Mandans, the Gros-Ventres, and the Assiniboines, find themselves near the establishment of Lord Sel- 8SSS3
902
LOYALTY  TO   THE   GOVERNMENT.
kirk upon the Red river. They can communicate with it in
two or three days. The evils of such communication will
strike the minds of all persons, and it is for those who can
handle the pen to dilate upon them. For me I go to form
another establishment to counteract the one in question, and
shall labor to draw upon us the esteem of these nations, and
to prevent their commerce from passing into the hands of
foreigners.
I regret to have troubled your excellency with this
exposition. It is right for you to hear what is said of a public agent, and also to weigh it, and to consider the source
from which it comes. In ceasing to be in the employment of
the United States, I shall not be less devoted to its interests.
I have suffered enough in person and property, under a
different government, to know how to appreciate the one
under which I now live.
I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, your
excellency's obedient servant.
Manuel Lisa. c.
NOTES ON THE ASTORIAN ENTERPRISE.
Numbers of the Astorians — Arrivals and departures from Astoria —
Deaths among the Astorians — Biographical notes — Loss of the Tonquin.
THE NUMBER OF THE ASTORIANS.
The Astorians, properly so called, included those persons
in the service of the Pacific Fur Company who went to the
Columbia by the Tonquin, the Beaver, or by Hunt's overland
expedition. There^were a few scattering arrivals besides
theseT" The Tonquin arrived within the mouth of the
Columbia March 25th, 1811, and the Beaver May 9th, 1812.
One detachment of HunFiTparty arrived January 18, 1812;
another February 15, 1812; a third (Crooks and Day) May
10, 1812; and a fourth January 6th, 1813. The principal
departures were by the Tonquin June 1, 1811; by Stuart's
overland expedition June 29, 1812; by the Pedler, April 3,
1814; and by the Northwest brigade April 4, 1814.
ARRIVALS.
By the Tonquin: There sailed from New York by the
Tonquin 22 crew and 33 passengers. There were taken on
24 Sandwich Islanders, making a total of 79. There were
left at the Islands 2 (crew) leaving 77 who arrived at the
mouth of the Columbia. There were lost in crossing the bar
8 (4 passengers, 3 crew and 1 Sandwich Islander), leaving
69 who entered the Columbia. There sailed on the Tonquin
27 (16 crew, 3 Astorians and 8 Islanders). There remained
at Astoria 42 (27 whites and 15 Islanders). One of the
crew had left the ship and remained at Astoria. mm
904
ARRIVALS   AT   ASTORIA.
The Overland Expedition—West: The total number of
persons who left the Aricara villages July 18, 1811, with Mr.
Hunt, was 64, as we learn definitely for the first time on the
journey at the Caldron Linn, November 8, 1811. The number is arrived at as follows:
September 2 Left among the Crows Edward Rose    .....    I
October     1 Trapping party detached at Snake river 4
October    10 Trapping party detached at Fort Henry 5
October   28 Antoine  Clappine  drowned at  Caldron  Linn   ...   I
October   30 Reed and 3 men set out  down river from Caldron
Linn, 2 returning 2
October   31 McLellan's party sets out from Caldron Linn    .    .    4
October   31 McKenzie's  party sets  out  from  Caldron Linn   .   .   5
November 9 Hunt's party sets out from Caldron Linn    .    .    . .  . 2^
November 9 Crook's party sets out from Caldron Linn    .... 19
~4
This number includes 1 woman and 2 children. The number given by Crooks is 60, but he doubtless omitted Rose and
the woman and children.
Jan.  18, 1812, arrived at Astoria parties of Reed, McLellan and
McKenzie  II
Feb. 15    "           I         "       "         Hunt's   party  34
May 10    I           J         I       "         Crooks and Day  2
Jan.   6, 1813        I I       " Carson, Delauney, St. Michael,
Dubreuil,   LaChapelle,   Landry,
and Turcot         7
Still detached, including Rose (for Cass and Detaye, see next line) 5
Perished—Clappine,  Detaye,   Cass,   Carriere,   Provost    .... 5
1'   . 64
The total number who reached Astoria was 54.
On the Beaver: Irving says that the Beaver sailed with
1 partner, 5 clerks, 15 American laborers and 6 voyageurs,
and took on 12 Islanders. One of the company's men died
en route which would leave in all 38. Franchere places the
number who arrived at Astoria at 33, and Cox, who was one
of the passengers, at 36.
Fugitive Arrivals: There were 7 arrivals from various
sources, but none of them of importance.
The total number of persons who entered the company's
service on the Columbia, including the Islanders and fugitive LOSS   OF   LIFE. 905
arrivals, was therefore 144.    This is a maximum number,
the minimum given by any authority being 135.
PERISHED.
The following is the number of Astorians who are known
to have lost their lives during the continuance of the enterprise :
On the Columbia Bar  4
In the Tonquin   massacre  3
On   the   Beaver ~ .    .    . 1
Of  the   Overland   Party  5
With  Reed on  Snake river  10
Lost at Astoria from various causes (Ross)    .     . 4
Total      . 27
Ship crews lost:
On Columbia Bar (including 1 islander)    ... 4
Tonquin Massacre (including 8 islanders)    .    . 24
On   the   Beaver  2
Shipwreck of the Lark  8
Total 38
Grand total        65
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
Cox, Ross, was one of the clerks of the Pacific Fur Com-
panyfcame to Astoria in the Beaver and entered the Northwest service in 1813. He was commonly known by the soubriquet of "Little Irishman." He remained on the Columbia
six years, ascending the river nine times and descending it
eight. His chief importance in Astorian history arises from
the fact thatThe published an account of the enterprise which,
although the least trustworthy of the original authorities, is
still an important work. Its-~title is Adventures on~'the
Columbia River, London, 1831.
Day, John, a hunter in the overland party under Hunt.
According to Irving he was a Virginia backwoodsman, but
had for several years been on the Missouri in the service of
Crooks and others. He was about forty years old in 1811,
six feet two inches high, in form erect, with a step elastic, and
"a handsome, open, manly countenance." He was a true representative of the American hunter.   He joined Hunt's party
h
1 906
DAY  AND   DORION.
and went with the overland expedition to Astoria. He was
somewhat broken in health at this time and fell behind with
Crooks on Snake river when Hunt went on with the main
party in the winter of 1811-12. He and Crooks were robbed
of everything and stripped naked in the following spring on
the Columbia. A large southern tributary of the Columbia
that enters the river at this point is still called John Day's
river.
Not liking the prospect at Astoria, Day resolved to return
with the overland party under Robert Stuart; but before he
reached the Walla Walla he became violently insane and was
taken back to Astoria. Irving says that he died within a
year, but this must have been a mistake for he was certainly
alive in the spring of 1814. As a matter of fact Day seems
to have remained in the service of the Northwest Company
for upwards of seven years and to have died in the upper
Snake river country in 1819.. Ross speaks in his Fur
Hunters of a "defile where the veteran John Day died in
1819," and elsewhere refers to " Day's Valley." It was
somewhere near Godin river. Ferris repeatedly refers to
this valley as " Day's Defile."
Dorion, Pierre, a half-breed, and son of the Dorion who
accompanied Lewis and Clark on a portion of their expedition across the continent. He was hired by Hunt as an
interpreter and joined the overland expedition with his
Indian wife and two children. He figures frequently in
Irving's account of the expedition and generally in an interesting way. His death at the hands of the Indians near
Boise river, Idaho, has already been related.
Dorion's wife was a woman of remarkable fortitude and
perseverance, as will be seen from her experiences as related
in the text. She and her children were still living in Oregon
in 1850. One of the boys, Baptiste Dorion, was guide to the
naturalist, Townsend, on a trip along the Columbia in 1834.
Franchere, Gabriel, one of the clerks who sailed in the
Tonquin. His service on the Columbia was entirely at
Astoria, and he was an eye witness of all the events which FRANCHERE,   HUNT  AND   MILLER.
907
transpired there from March 25, 1811, when the Tonquin
entered the Columbia, until April 4, 1814, when he left Fort
George for home. Whatever is known of Franchere is to
his credit. He was a man of ability and strictly honorable
in all his relations. It is greatly to his honor that he had
no hand in the negotiations connected with the transfer of
Astoria and emphatically disapproved of McDougal's conduct.
Franchere did an inestimable service to the cause of
Western history in leaving an admirable account of events at
Astoria. It is written in a clear, simple and direcTstyle, and
is our best authority, except Irving's work, upon Mr. Astor's
great enterprise. Franchere's Narrative was written in
French and published in Montreal, 1819. An edition in
English was published in 1854.
Franchere, after his return to Montreal, continued his
connection with the fur business. He was engaged to the
Northwest Company for several years, and in 1833 was
employing men in Montreal for the American Fur Company.
Hunt, Wilson Price, chief partner jn the Pacific^Fur
Company, except Mr. AstorJ and leader of the overland
Astorian expedition:" Born at Asbury, New Jersey, date
uncertain. Went to St. Louis in 1804 and was in business
with John Hankinson in that city until Mr. Astor began to
negotiate with him concerning his proposed enterprise on the
Pacific. After the affairs of the Pacific Fur Company were
wound up Hunt returned to business in St. Louis. In 1822
he was appointed postmaster of St. Louis by President Monroe. He was one of St. Louis' prominent business men and
was highly respected by those who knew him. The events of
his life which are most important in the present connection
have already been related.
Miller, Joseph, "a gentleman well educated and well
informed, and of a respectable family in Baltimore. He had
been an officer in the army of the United States, but had
resigned in disgust at being refused a furlough, and had
taken to trapping beaver and trading with the Indians."
I 908
REED,   ROSS  AND   STUART.
(Irving.) Miller was with Crooks and McLellan in 1809
and joined the Pacific Fur Company with these gentlemen.
The same imperious temper which drove him out of the army
caused him to quit the new company when Hunt's expedition was about half way across the continent. After spending the fall and winter trapping and roving over the country
until from one cause or another he was reduced almost to
starvation, he was picked up by Robert Stuart in 1812 and
acted as guide to Stuart's party from Snake to Bear river.
For this very excellent service he was taken to task by the
rest of the party, who thought that he was leading them too
far to the south. They accordingly abandoned his guidance
and made their senseless detour to the north. Miller's
course was exactly right and to him belongs the credit of
opening that part of the Oregon Trail which lay between
Snake and Bear rivers.
It is quite possible that Miller may have seen Salt Lake
in the winter of 1811-12.
Miller returned to St. Louis with Stuart's party and nothing further is known of him.
Reed, John, a clerk in the Pacific Fur Company, an Irishman by birth, and one of the unluckiest of the Astorians.
His unfortunate affair with the tin box on the Columbia, and
his untimely death on the Boise have already been related.
Nothing is known of him except his connection with Astoria.
Ross, Alexander, a clerk of the Pacific Fur Company, who
sailed with the Tonquin. After the downfall of Astoria he
entered the Northwest service and remained there for many
years. Much of his work was in the country around the
headwaters of the Snake river. The greatest service which
Ross performed was the publication of his two works,
Adventures on the Oregon or C^lMmBuTftver and Fur Hunters of the Far West. Both of these works are valuable
contributions to the history of the fur trade.
Stuart, Robert,- oi Scotch extraction and a nephew of
David Stuart. Both were partners in the Pacific Fur Company and both sailed in the Tonquin.   Young Robert Stuart LOSS  OF  THE  TONQUIN.
909
appears to have been a man of great ability and spirit. It
was he who forced Captain Thorn, at the pistol's mouth, to
turn about the ship at the Falkland Islands. He was selected
to take charge of the returning overland expedition,
although he had not crossed the country before and although
there were in the party both Crooks and McLellan, who had
crossed. After the affairs of the Pacific Fur Company were
closed up, Crooks and Stuart entered Mr. Astor's service on;
the Great Lakes. When Crooks rose to the general agency
of the company, Stuart was placed in charge oi the Northern
Department with headquarters at Michilimackinac. Many
of his letters may still be seen in the old Astor letter books.
LOSS OF THE TONQUIN.
The following account of the loss of the Tonquin appeared
in the Missouri Gazette of May 15, 1813, being the first published account of that disaster. It has never before been
reproduced.
I Loss of the Ship Tonquin near the Mouth of the Columbia.
1 A large ship {The Beaver'] had arrived from New York
after a passage of near seven months, with merchandise and
provisions for the company. It was here we learnt with
sorrow that the story of the Tonquin having been cut off was
but too true. The circumstances have been related in
different ways by the natives in the environs of the establishment, but that which, from their own knowledge, carries
with it the greatest appearance of truth is as follows: That
vessel, after landing the cargo intended for Astoria, departed
on a trading voyage to the coast north of Columbia river
with a company of (including officers) 23 men, and had proceeded about 400 miles along the seaboard when they stopped on Vancouver's Island at a place called Woody Point,
inhabited by a powerful nation called Wake-a-ninishes.
These people came on board to barter their furs for merchandise, and conducted themselves in the most decorous and
friendly manner during the first day, but the same evening
f
I "J"  I
910
MASSACRE   OF  THE   CREW.
Information was brought on board by an Indian, whom the
officers had as interpreter, that the tribe where they then lay
were ill-disposed and intended attacking the ship next day.
Captain Jonathan Thorn affected to disbelieve this piece of
news, and even when the savages came next morning in
;great numbers, it was only at the pressing remonstrance of
Mr. McKay that he ordered seven men aloft to loosen the
sails. In the meantime about 50 Indians were permitted to
come on board, who traded a number of sea otters for
blankets and knives; the former they threw into their canoe
as soon as received, but secreted the knives. Every one when
armed moved from the quarter deck to different parts of
the vessel, so that by the time they were ready, in such a
manner were they distributed that at least three savages were
opposite every man of the ship, and at a signal given they
rushed on their prey, and notwithstanding the brave resistance of every individual of the whites they were all butchered
in a few minutes. The men above, in attempting to descend,
lost two of their number, besides one mortally wounded,
who, notwithstanding his weakened condition, made good
his retreat with the four others to the cabin, where, finding
a quantity of loaded arms, they fired on their savage assailers
through the skylights and companion-way, which had the
effect of clearing the ship in a short time, and long before
night these five intrepid sons of America were again in full
possession of her. Whether from want of abilities or
strength, supposing themselves unable to take the vessel back
to Columbia, it cannot be ascertained. This fact only is
known, that between the time the Indians were driven from
the ship and the following morning, the four who were
unhurt left her in the long boat in hopes of regaining the
river, wishing to take along with them the wounded person,
who refused their offer saying that he must die before long
and was as well in the vessel as elsewhere.
" Soon after sunrise she was surrounded by an immense
number of Indians in canoes [who had] come for the express
purpose of unloading her, but who, from the warm recep-
W* DESTRUCTION  OF THE  SHIP.
911
tion they met with the day before, did not seem to vie with
each other in boarding.
The wounded man showing himself over the railing,
made signs that he was alone and wanted their assistance,
on which some embarked, who, finding what he said was
true, spoke to their people wno were not any longer slow in
getting on board; so that in a few seconds the deck was
considerably thronged, and they proceeded to undo the
hatches without further ceremony.
" No sooner were they completely engaged in thus finishing this most diabolical of actions, than the only survivor of
the crew descended into the cabin and set fire to the magazine containing nearly nine thousand pounds of gunpowder,
which in an instant blew the vessel and every one on board
to atoms.
The nation acknowledge their having lost nearly one
hundred warriors, besides a vast number wounded, by the
explosion, who were in canoes round the ship. It is impossible to tell who the person was that so completely avenged
himself, but there cannot exist a single doubt that the act
will teach these villains better manners and will eventually
be of immense benefit to the coasting trade. The four men
who set off in the long boat were two or three days after
driven ashore in a gale and massacred by the natives." D.
THE "FLATHEAD DEPUTATION" OF 1832.
[Letter from G. P. Disoway to the Christian Advocate
and Journal and Zion's Herald, Friday, March 1, 1833.]
THE  FLATHEAD  INDIANS.
The plans to civilize the savage tribes of our country are
among the most remarkable signs of the times. To meliorate the condition of the Indians, and to preserve them from
gradual decline and extinction, the government of the United
States have proposed and already commenced removing
them to the region westward of the Mississippi. Here it
is intended to establish them in a permanent residence.
Some powerful nations of these aborigines, having accepted
the proposal, have already emigrated to their new lands, and
others are now preparing to follow them. Among those
who still remain are the Wyandots, a tribe long distinguished as standing at the head of the great Indian family.
The earliest travelers in Canada first discovered this tribe
while ascending the St. Lawrence, at Montreal. They were
subsequently driven by the Iroquois, in one of those fierce
internal wars that characterize the Indians of North America, to the northern shores of Lake Huron. From this resting place also their relentless enemy literally hunted them
until the remnant of this once powerful and proud tribe
found a safe abode among the Sioux, who resided west of
Lake Superior. When the power of the Iroquois was weakened by the French the Wyandots returned from the Sioux
country, and settled near Michilimackinac. They finally
took up their abode on the plains of Sandusky, in Ohio,
where they continue to this day. EXCHANGE  OF  TERRITORY.
913
The Wyandots, amounting to five hundred, are the only
Indians in Ohio who have determined to remain upon their
lands. The Senecas, Shawnees, and Ottawas have all sold
their Ohio possessions, and have either removed or are on
their way to the west of the Mississippi. A small band of
about seventy Wyandots from the Big Spring have disposed
of their reservation of 16,000 acres, but have not accepted
the offered lands of the government in exchange. They
will retire into Michigan, or Canada, after leaving some
of their number at the main reservation of Upper Sandusky.
The wonderful effects of the Gospel among the Wyandots
are well known. Providence has blessed in a most remarkable manner the labors of our missionaries for their conversion. Knowledge, civilization, and social comforts have
followed the introduction of Christianity into their regions.
To all of the Indians residing within the jurisdiction of the
states or territories the United States propose to- purchase
their present possessions and improvements, and in return
to pay them acre for acre with lands west of the Mississippi"
river. Among the inducements to make this exchange are
the following: perpetuity in their new abodes, as the faith of
the government is pledged never to sanction another removal ; the organization of a territorial government for their
use like those in Florida, Arkansas, and Michigan, and the
privilege to send delegates to Congress, as is now enjoyed
by the other territories. Could the remaining tribes of the
original possessors of this country place implicit reliance
upon these assurances and prospects, this scheme to meliorate their condition, and to bring them within the pale of
civilized life, might safely be pronounced great, humane, and
rational.
The Wyandots, after urgent and often repeated solicitations of the government for their removal, wisely resolved to
send agents to explore the region offered them in exchange,
before they made any decision upon the proposal. In November last the party started on the exploring expedition,
1 ■■■
mm
914
A  LAND   OF   SAVAGES.
and visited their proposed residence. This was a tract of
country containing about 200,000 acres, and situated between the western part of Missouri and the Missouri river.
The location was found to be one altogether unsuitable to
the views, the necessities, and the support of the nation.
They consequently declined the exchange.
Since their return, one of the exploring party, Mr. Wm.
Walker, an interpreter, and himself a member of the nation,
has sent me a communication. As it contains some valuable
facts of a region from which we seldom hear, the letter is
now offered for publication.
Upper Sandusky, Jan. 19, 1833.
Dear Friend:—Your last letter, dated Nov. 12, came duly
to hand. The business part is answered in another communication which is inclosed.
I deeply regret that I have had no opportunity of answering your very friendly letter in a manner that would be satisfactory to myself; neither can I now, owing to a want of
time and a retired place, where I can write undisturbed.
You, no doubt, can fancy me seated in my small dwelling,
at the dining table, attempting to write, while my youngest
(sweet little urchin!) is pulling my pocket-handkerchief out
of my pocket, and Henry Clay, my only son, is teasing me
to pronounce a word he has found in his little spelling book.
This done, a loud rap is heard at my door, and two or three
of my Wyandot friends make their appearance, and are on
some business. I drop my pen, dispatch the business, and
resume it.
The country we explored is truly a land of savages. It
is wild and romantic; it is a champaign, but beautifully undulated country. You can travel in some parts for whole
days and not find timber enough to afford a riding switch,
especially after you get off the Missouri and her principal
tributary streams. The soil is generally a dark loam, but
not of a durable kind for agriculture. As a country for
agricultural pursuits, it is far inferior to what it has been CHARACTER   OF  THE   COUNTRY.
915
represented to be. It is deplorably defective in timber.
There are millions of acres on which you cannot procure
timber enough to make a chicken coop. Those parts that
are timbered are on some of the principal streams emptying
into the great Missouri, and are very broken, rough, and cut
up with deep ravines; and the timber, what there is of it, is
of an inferior quality, generally a small growth of white,
black, and bur oaks; hickory, ash, buckeye, mulberry, lin-
wood, coffee bean, a low scrubby kind of birch, red and
slippy elm, and a few scattering walnut trees. It is remarkable, in all our travels west of the Mississippi river, we never
found even one solitary poplar, beech, pine, or sassafras tree,
though we were informed that higher up the Missouri river,
above Council Bluffs, pine trees abound to a great extent,
especially the nearer you approach the Rocky mountains.
The immense country embraced between the western line of
the state of Missouri, and the territory of Arkansas, and
the eastern base of the Rocky mountains on the west, and
Texas and Santa Fe on the south, is inhabited by the Osage,
Sioux (pronounced Sooz), Pawnees, Comanches, Pancahs,
Arrapohoes, Assinaboins, Riccarees, Yanktons, Omahaws,
Blackfeet, Ottoes, Crow Indians, Sacs, Foxes, and Iowas;
all a wild, fierce, and war-like people. West of the mountains reside the Flatheads, and many other tribes, whose
names I do not now recollect.
I will here relate an anecdote, if I may so call it. Immediately after we landed in St. Louis, on our way to the
West, I proceeded to Gen. Clark's, superintendent of Indian
affairs, to present our letters of introduction from the Secretary of War, and to receive the same from him to the different Indian agents in the upper country. While in his office
and transacting business with him, he informed me that
three chiefs from the Flathead nation were in his house,
and were quite sick, and that one (the fourth) had died a
few days ago. They were from the west of the Rocky
mountains. Curiosity prompted me to step into the adjoining room to see them, having never seen any, but often heard THE  FLATHEAD  DEPUTATION.
of them. I was struck with their appearance. They differ
in appearance from any tribe of Indians I have ever seen:
small in size, delicately formed, small limbs, and the most
exact symmetry throughout, except the head. I had always
supposed from their being called " Flatheads," that the head
was actually flat on top; but this is not the case. The head
is flattened thus:
From the point of the nose to the apex of the head, there
is a perfect straight line, the protuberance of the forehead is
flattened or leveled. You may form some idea of the shape
of their heads from the rough sketch I have made with the
pen, though I confess I have drawn most too long a proboscis for a flat-head. This is produced by a pressure upon
the cranium while in infancy. The distance they had traveled on foot was nearly three thousand miles to see Gen.
Clark, their great father, as they called him, he being the
first American officer they ever became acquainted with,
and having much confidence in him, they had come to consult
him as they said, upon very important matters. Gen, C. related to me the object of their mission, and, my dear friend,
it is impossible for me to describe to you my feelings while
listening to his narrative. I will here relate it as briefly as I
well can. It appeared that some white man had penetrated
into their country, and happened to be a spectator at one of
their religious ceremonies, which they scrupulously perform
at stated periods. He informed them that their mode of
worshipping the supreme Being was radically wrong, and
instead of being acceptable and pleasing, it was displeasing
to him; he also informed them that the white people away
toward the rising of the sun had been put in possession of the
true mode of worshipping the great Spirit. They had a book
containing directions how to conduct themselves in order to
enjoy his favor and hold converse with him; and with this
guide, no one need go astray; but every one that would
follow the directions laid down there could enjoy, in this life,
his favor, and after death would be received into the country
where the great Spirit resides, and live for ever with him. INTERVIEW   WITH   GEN.   CLARK.
917
Upon receiving this information, they called a national
council to take this subject into consideration. Some said,
if this be true, it is certainly high time we were put in possession of this mode, and if our mode of worshipping be
wrong and displeasing to the great Spirit, it is time we had
laid it aside. We must know something about this, it is a
matter that cannot be put off, the sooner we know it the better. They accordingly deputed four of the chiefs to proceed
to St. Louis to see their great father, Gen. Clark, to inquire
of him, having no doubt but he would tell them the whole
truth about it.
They arrived at St. Louis, and presented themselves to
Gen. C. The latter was somewhat puzzled being sensible of
the responsibility that rested on him; he, however, proceeded
by informing them that what they had been told by the white
man in their own country was true. Then went into a succinct history of man, from his creation down to the advent
of the Saviour; explained to them all the moral precepts contained in the Bible, expounded to them the decalogue; informed them of the advent of the Saviour, his life, precepts, his death, resurrection, ascension, and the relation he
now stands to man as a mediator—that he will judge the
world, etc.
Poor fellows, they were not all permitted to return home
to their people with the intelligence. Two died in St. Louis,
and the remaining two, though somewhat indisposed, set out
for their native land. Whether they reached home or not
is not known. The change of climate and diet operated
very severely upon their health. Their diet when at home
is chiefly vegetables and fish.
If they died on their way home, peace be to their manes!
They died inquirers after the truth. I was informed that
the Flatheads, as a nation, have the fewest vices of any tribe
of Indians on the continent of America.
I had just concluded I would lay this rough and uncouth
scroll aside and revise it before I would send it, but if I lay
it aside you will never receive it; so I will send it to you just
i
-A aaramn
918
FLATHEAD   INDIANS.
as it is, I with all its imperfections," hoping that you may
be able to decipher it. You are at liberty to make what use
you please of it. Yours in haste,
Wm. Walker.
G. P. Disoway, Esq.
The most singular custom of flattening the head prevails
among all the Indian nations west of the Rocky mountains.
It is most common along the lower parts of the Columbia
river, but diminishes in traveling eastward, until it is to be
scarcely seen in the remote tribes near the mountains.
Here the folly is confined to a few females only. The practice must have commenced at a very early period, as Columbus noticed it among the first objects that struck his attention. An essential point of beauty with those savages is a
flat head. Immediately after the birth of the child the
mother, anxious to procure the recommendation of a broad
forehead for her infant, places it in the compressing machine. This is a cradle formed like a trough, with one end
where the head reposes more elevated than the other. A
padding is then placed upon the forehead, which presses
against the head by cords passing through holes on each side
of the cradle. The child is kept in this manner upward of
a year, and the operation is so gradual as to be attended with
scarcely any pain. During this period of compression the
infant presents a frightful appearance, its little keen black
eyes being forced out to an unnatural degree by the pressure
of bandages. When released from this process the head is
flattened, and seldom exceeds more than one or two inches
in thickness. Nature with all its efforts can never afterward restore the proper shape. The heads of grown persons
often form a straight line from the nose to the top of the
forehead. From the outlines of the face in Mr. Walker's
communication I have endeavored to sketch a Flathead for
the purpose of illustrating more clearly this most strange
custom. The dotted lines will show the usual rotundity of
a human head, and the cut how widely a Flathead differs
from the rest of the great family of man.    So great is this
m*+3 TRADITION   OF  THE  BEAVER.
difference as to compel anatomists themselves to confess mat
an examination of such skulls and ocular demonstration
only could have convinced them of the possibility of moulding the head into this form. The " human face Divine "
is thus sacrificed to fantastic ideas of savage beauty. They
allege also, as an apology for this custom, that their slaves
have round heads, and that the children of a brave and free
race ought not to suffer such a degradation.
This deformity, however, of the Flathead Indians is
redeemed by other numerous good qualities. Travelers
relate that they have fewer vices than any of the tribes in
those regions. They are honest, brave, and peaceable. The
women become exemplary wives and mothers, and a husband with an unfaithful companion is a circumstance almost
unknown among them.    They believe in the existence of a
good and evil Spirit, with rewards and"punishments of a
future state. Their religion, promigpg tr> th^ virtuousa-for
death a ch*mPtp w^prp p^rpetna1 ^mm^r will shine over
plains filled with their much beloved buffalo, and upon
streams abounding in the most delicious fish.    HenTThey
wilt spend their time in hunting and fishing, happy and
undisturbed fiuin every enemy7 while the bad Indian will
be consigned to a place of eternal snows, with fires in his
sight that he cannot enjoy, TunHraffalo and deer that cannot
be caught to satisfy his hunger.
A curious tradition prevails among them concerning beavers. These animals, so celebrated for their sagacity, they
believe are a fallen race of Indians, who have been condemned on account of their wickedness by the great Spirit,
to their present form of the brute creation. At some future
period they also declare that these fallen creatures will be
restored to their former state.
How deeply touching is the circumstance of the four
natives traveling on foot 3,000 miles through thick forests
and extensive prairies, sincere searchers after truth! The
story has scarcely a parallel in history. What a touching
theme does it form for the imagination and pen of a Mont-
■
Mi
; am
ii
i 920
MISSIONARY   FIELD.
gomery, a Mrs. Hemans, or our own fair Sigourney! With
what intense concern will men of God whose souls are fired
with holy zeal for the salvation of their fellow beings, read
their history! There are immense plains, mountains, and
forests in those regions whence they came, the abodes of
numerous savage tribes. But no apostle of Christ has yet
had the courage to penetrate into their moral darkness.
Adventurous and daring fur traders only have visited these
regions, unknown to the rest of the world, except from their
own accounts of them. If the Father of spirits, as revealed
by Jesus Christ, is not known in these interior wilds of
America, they nevertheless often resound the praises of the
unknown, invisible great Spirit, as he is denominated by the
savages. They are not ignorant of the immortality of their
souls, and speak of some future delicious island or country
where departed spirits rest. May we not indulge the hope
that the day is not far distant when the missionaries will
penetrate into these wilds where the Sabbath bell has never
yet tolled since the world began! There is not, perhaps,
west of the Rocky mountains, any portion of the Indians
that presents at this moment a spectacle so full of interest
to the contemplative mind as the Flathead tribe. Not a
thought of converting or civilizing them ever enters the
mind of the sordid, demoralizing hunters and fur traders.
These simple children of nature even shrink from the loose
morality and inhumanities often introduced among them
by the white man. Let the Church awake from her slumbers and go forth in her strength to the salvation of these
wandering sons of our native forests. We are citizens of this
vast universe, and our life embraces not merely a moment,
but eternity itself. Thus exalted, what can be more worthy
of our high destination than to befriend our species and
those efforts that are making to release immortal spirits from
the chains of error and superstition, and to bring them to
the knowledge of the true God. G. P. D.
New York, Feb. 18, 1833.
i ORIGIN   OF   THE  DEPUTATION.
921
'The following letters were published in the Christian
Advocate of May 10, 1833.]
THE FLATHEAD INDIANS.
The following correspondence and communication will
be read with great interest. Is it not the voice of Heaven
to us ? The field opens gloriously. Read Mr. M'Allister's
letter below. The men are ready; let the Missionary Society
have the means. Let the whole Church become a missionary band; not for this object particularly, but for every
object. These documents necessarily shorten our notice of
the missionary anniversary of our Church, held on the evening of the 23d of April, but we shall continue it in our
next.
St. Louis, Mo., April 16. [1833.]
Dear Brethren:—The communication respecting the
Flat Head Indians, which appeared a few weeks since in
your paper, and the call of Dr. Fisk, have excited considerable attention. I have just received a letter from Brother
Brunson, propounding several questions, which he wished
me to have answered here, so that the desired information
might be rendered available to the Christian public. I
called immediately upon Gen. Clark, who received me kindly.
He informed me he was just answering, or had just
answered, some communications upon the subject. I was
struck with the propriety of an immediate communication
from this place; I therefore send you this, sincerely wishing
it may be useful.
Gen. Clark informed me that the publication which had
appeared in the Advocate was correct. Of the return of the
two Indians nothing is known. He informed me the cause
of their visit was the following: Two of their number had
received an education at some Jesuitical school in Montreal,
Canada, had returned to the tribe, and endeavored, as far
as possible, to instruct their brethren how the whites approached the Great Spirit.    The consequence was a spirit of
I
'n
Z.& 922
LETTER FROM ROBERT CAMPBELL.
inquiry was aroused, a deputation appointed, and a tedious
journey of three thousand miles performed, to learn for
themselves of Jesus and him crucified. Will not these
Indians rise up in the day of judgment to the condemnation
of hundreds and thousands who live and die unforgiven in
Christian lands?
I had the good fortune to become acquainted with Mr.
Campbell, who was one of the first traders among those
Indians. He left on yesterday for the Rocky mountains
and the country beyond. A few hours before his departure
he favored me with the enclosed letter, which I wish you
to publish with these remarks. Mr. Campbell is a very
Intelligent and gentlemanly man, and you may rely upon
his information. Yours as ever,
E. W. Sehon.
Rev. Mr. Sehon:
Dear Sir :—In compliance with your request I shall give
you a few very brief answers to the questions you have put
respecting the Flat Head Indians.
i. Prospects of a mission? I cannot pretend to say
what prospects there would be in a religious point of view.
The Flat Head Indians are proverbial for their mild disposition and friendship to the whites, and I have little hesitation in saying a missionary would be treated by them with
kindness.
2. Distance from St. Louis to Council Bluffs? The
distance is about five hundred miles.
3. Whether suitable interpreters can be obtained for the
Flat Head Indians? There would be some difficulty to
have religious matters explained, because the best interpreters are half-Indians, that you could not explain to their
minds the matter you would require to have told to the
Indians.
4. The number of the Indians? There are about forty
lodges of these Indians, averaging, say seven Indians to a
lodge. LETTER   FROM   MR.   M ALLISTER.
92S
5. Do steamers go as far as the Council Bluffs ? With
the exception of the American Fur Company's steamboats,
which ascend as high as the Yellow Stone, none go as far as
the Bluffs.
6. Do fur traders go to the Flat Head country, and at
what seasons of the year, and will they allow the missionaries to go in their company ? There is every season one or
more companies leaving St. Louis in the month of March*
and I doubt not but they would willingly allow a missionary to accompany them; but the privations that a gentleman;
of that profession would have to encounter would be verjr
great, as the shortest route that he would have by land would
not be less than one thousand miles, and when he reached
his destination he would have to travel with the Indians, as-
they have no permanent villages, nor have the traders an)r
houses, but, like the Indian, move in their leather lodges,
from place to place throughout the season.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Robert Campbell..
St. Louis, April 13, 1833.
St. Louis, April 17, 1833.
Messrs. Editors :—The visit of the Flat Head and Nose
Pierce, or Pierced Nose, Indians to our place to inquire of
the white man how he ascertains the will of the Great Spirit,
has excited much interest in their behalf among the benevolent in different parts of the United States, and well it may*
when we consider the distance they traveled, and the countless hardships they endured to learn by what means we have
access into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in the
hope, of the resurrection of the dead and the glory of God.
Interrogatories have been proposed in reference to the tribe
or band of Flat Heads, who sent the deputation to this city
to wait on Gen. Clark, and in answering the question as to>
their number,  Mr. Campbell confines his answer to that
particular band, and states the number at about two hundred
and eighty.    This statement, though strictly true and fulbg
if
\t 924
PACIFIC   COAST  INDIANS.
covering the inquiry proposed, might induce many not
otherwise informed to suppose that the Flat Heads constitute a mere handful of people buried in the deep recesses of
the stony mountains, near three thousand miles from the
abodes of civilized man, and are scarcely worth looking
after. This is not the fact: the deputation was from the
Cho-pun-ish tribe, residing on Lewis river, above and below
the mouth of the Koos-koos-ka river, and a small band of
Flat Heads who live with them. The Cho-pun-ish or Pierce
Nose Indians are about seven thousand in number, according to Gen. Clark's account.
The Indians residing on the tide water of the Oregon and
below the great falls are about eight thousand in number.
Those residing on the northwest of the Oregon, on the coast
of the Pacific, number about six thousand. Those on the
southwest on the same coast number about ten thousand two
hundred; all these Indians are Flat Heads except one tribe—
the Cook-koo-oose—living on the coast of the Pacific; these
do not flatten the head, and are fairer in their complexion,
and number about fifteen hundred. The Flat Heads living
on Kilmox bay speak the same language with the Lucktons,
Ka-kun-kle, Lick-a-wis, Yorich-cone, Neek-e-to, Ul-le-ah,
You-itts, Shia Stuck-kle, and Kila-evats. The presumption
is that it is the vernacular language of all those tribes living
on the Oregon below the Great Falls and on the Pacific coast,
northwest and southwest of the mouth of the Oregon. Gen.
Clark discovered on the waters of the Oregon and coast of
the Pacific more than sixty tribes of Indians, numbering
about eighty thousand souls. It is not, however, to be presumed that his account is complete. It is highly probable
that the coast of the eastern Pacific is frequented by Indians
from Behring's Straits to Upper California, and many tribes
no doubt exist in the interior both south and north of the
Oregon, which did not come to the knowledge of Messrs.
Lewis and Clark.
How ominous this visit of the Cho-pun-nish and Flat
Head Indians!    How loud the call to the missionary spirit
«r-*U THE  CROSS  ON  THE  ROCKY  MOUNTAINS.
9^5
of the age! It calls to my mind a declaration made by
Bishop Soule, when preaching at a camp in this country.
Speaking of the missionary zeal of the Methodist preachers,
of their extended field of labors, their untiring perseverance
to compass the earth and spread Scriptural holiness through
all the world: " We will not cease," said he, " until we
shall have planted the standard of Christianity high on the
summit of the Stony Mountains."
Already would it seem that a door is open, and the Indians
from the lofty summit of the Rocky mountains look far east
with burning desire to behold the coming of the messenger
of God. Among the Cho-pun-nish and Flat Heads of
Lewis river the work will commence; the honesty, hospitality, docility,, and mildness of these Indians strongly recommended them first to the consideration of the civilian and
Christian missionary; here the missionary may learn perhaps the language spoken by those of Kil-a-man bay on the
Pacific: this will give access to perhaps twenty or thirty
thousand below the Great Falls and on the Pacific.
One word more and I shall close. Many of our fellow-
citizens have gone from this country so diseased as to render
it doubtful whether they could ever reach the mountains and
have returned from thence with constitutions restored and
health renewed, to the astonishment of all that knew them.
If you think the information herein contained would serve
the purposes of Christian benevolence, give it a place in your
Journal. Yours affectionately,
A. M'Allister.
V
Wm
n
m
v^^
. w ■■    ^
I   ^ K
MISCELLANEOUS DATA RELATING TO THE
FUR TRADE.
State of the fur trade in 1831 — General Ashley's method of moving
parties through the Indian country — A fur hunter's business accounts.
STATE OF THE FUR TRADE IN  1831.
[Letter from Thomas Forsyth to Lewis Cass, Secretary of
War, Manuscript Department, State Historical Society of
Wisconsin.]
St. Louis, October 24, 1831.
Sir:—In compliance with the request contained in your
letter of the 9th ultimo, I have the honor to give the following as answers to your queries. I am sorry to say that these
•answers are not so complete as I would wish them to be, but
it seems impossible to collect more detailed or comprehensive
information in this country on the subject of the trade from
this place to Mexico and to the base and west of the Rocky
mountains. Several persons with whom I have conversed,
and who have decidedly the best knowledge of the subject,
are unwilling to say anything about it, while others, who pretend to much knowledge of the business, are too ignorant to
.give even a plain common account, but tell so many wild
stories and deal so much in the marvelous, that it appears
unsafe to depend on anything they relate—
THE FUR TRADE ON THE FRONTIERS.
The fur trade of the countries bordering on the Mississippi
and Missouri rivers, as high up the former river as above the
Falls of St. Anthony, and the latter as the Sioux establishment some distance above Council Bluffs, is carried on now THE  ST.   LOUIS  TRADERS.
927
in the same manner as it ever has been. This trade continues to be monopolized by the American Fur Company,
who have divided the whole of the Indian country into departments as follows: Farnham & Davenport have all the
country of the Sauk and Fox Indians, as high up the Mississippi river as Dubuque's mines (without including the Fox
Indians who reside at that place) as also all the Winnebago
and other Indians who reside on the lower parts of Rock
river; also the Iowa Indians who live at or near the [Black]
Snake Hills on the Missouri river. The division of Mr.
Rolette includes all the Indians from Dubuque's mines to a
point above the Falls of St. Anthony, and up the St. Peters
[Minnesota] river to its source, as also all the Indians on the
Wisconsin and upper parts of Rock river. Mr. Cabanne
(who is a member of the American Fur Company) has in
his division all the Indians on the Missouri as high as a
point above the Council Bluffs, including the Pawnee Indians of the interior, in about a southwest direction from his
establishment. Mr. Auguste P. Chouteau has within his
department all the Indians of the Osage country and others
who may visit his establishment, such as the Cherokees,
Chickasaws, and other Indians. Messrs. McKenzie, Laidlaw & Lamont have in their limits the Sioux Indians of the
Missouri, and as high up the river as they choose to send or
go. The American Fur Company bring on their goods annually in the spring season to this city from New York,
which are then sent up the Missouri river to the different
posts in a small steamboat. At those places the furs are
received on board and brought down to St. Louis, where
they are opened, counted, weighed, repacked, and shipped
by steamboats to New Orleans, thence on board of vessels
to New York, where the furs are unpacked, made up into
bales, and sent to the best markets in Europe, except some
of the finest (particularly otter skins), which are sent to
China.
Mr. Rolette procures his goods at Mackinaw, takes them
on in Mackinaw boats to Prairie du Chien (by way of Green
1
Sf
(I
ft 928
FUR   TRADE   MERCHANDISE.
Bay, the Fox and Wisconsin rivers), where he assorts them.
They are then forwarded, by clerks hired for the purpose,
with the same boats and men, to the different trading posts.
Farnham & Davenport take up their goods from this city to
the Indian villages in keelboats, with their clerks and men.
Mr. Cabanne and Mr. McKenzie & Company take up their
goods in the American Fur Company steamboats as before
stated. The goods of Mr. A. P. Chouteau are transported
by water in keelboats, as high up the Osage river as the
water will admit; from thence they are carried in wagons
to his establishment in the interior of the country. In the
spring of the year when the Arkansaw is high Mr. Chouteau
sends his furs down that river to New Orleans from whence
they are shipped to New York.1
By the time that the Indians have gathered their corn, the
traders are prepared with their goods to give them credits.
The articles of merchandise which the traders take with
them to the Indian country are as follows: viz., blankets 3
points, 2^2, 2, ij4, 1; common blue stroud; ditto red; blue
cloth; scarlet do; calicoes; domestic cottons; rifles and shot
guns, gunpowder, flints, and lead; knives of different kinds;
looking glasses; vermilion and verdigris; copper, brass, and
tin kettles; beaver and muskrat traps; fine and common
bridles and spurs; silverworks; needles and thread; wampum ; horses; tomahawks and half axes, etc. All traders at
the present day give credit to the Indians in the same manner
as has been the case for the last sixty or eighty years. That
is to say, the articles which are passed on credit are given at
xThe reader will remember that the two principal divisions of the
American Fur Company's field of operations were the Northern Department, headquarters at Michilimacinac, and the Western Department, headquarters at St. Louis. What the writer here calls departments were really sub-departments of these two. Rolette belonged to
the Northern Department, Farnham and Davenport to the Western Department, as of course did the Missouri traders. Whether Auguste P.
Chouteau, who controlled the trade with the Osage Indians, was connected with the American Fur Company, or wholly independent of it,
is not very clear from the records. DETAILS   OF   THE  BUSINESS. 929
very high prices. Formerly, when the opposition and competition in the Indian trade were great, the traders would sell
in the spring of the year, payment down, for less than one-
half of the prices at which they charged the same articles to
the same Indians on credit the preceding autumn. This
was sometimes the occasion of broils and quarrels between
the traders and the Indians, particularly when the latter
made bad hunts.
The following are the prices charged for some articles given on credit to the Sauk and Fox Indians, whose present population exceeds six thousand souls and who are compelled
to take goods, etc., of the traders at their very high prices,
because they cannot do without them, for if the traders do
not supply their necessary wants and enable them to support
themselves, they would literally starve. An Indian takes on
credit from a trader in the autumn—
A   3-point   blanket   at $10.00
A   rifle   gun 30.00
A pound of gunpowder    .    .                4.00
Total   Indian   dollars $44.00
The 3-point blanket will cost in England, say 16 shillings per pair
1 blanket at 100 per cent is equal to $ 3.52
A rifle gun costs in this place from $12 to 13.00
A pound  of  gunpowder  .20
$16.72
Add 25 per cent for expenses        4.18
$20.90
Therefore, according to this calculation (which I know
is correct), if the Indian pays all his debt, the trader is a
gainer of more than ioo per cent. But it must be here observed that the trader takes for a dollar a large buckskin,
which may weigh six pounds, or two doeskins, four musk-
rats, four or five raccoons, or he allows the Indian three dollars for an otterskin, or two dollars a pound for beaver.
And in my opinion the dollar which the trader receives of
the Indian is not estimated too high at 125 cents, and perhaps in some instances at 150 cents.
I *-mm
93°
CREDIT  TO  THE INDIANS.
In the spring the trader lowers his price on all goods,
and will sell a 3-point blanket for five dollars, and other articles in proportion as he receives the furs down in payment,
and as the Indians always reserve the finest and best furs for
the spring trade. In the autumn of every year the trader
carefully avoids giving credit to the Indians on any costly
articles, such as silverworks, wampum, scarlet cloth, fine
bridles, etc., unless it be to an Indian who he knows will pay
all his debt; in which case he will allow the Indian on credit
everything he wishes. Traders always prefer giving on
credit gunpowder, flints, lead, knives, tomahawks, hoes, domestic cottons, etc., which they do at the rate of 300 or 400
per cent, and if one-fourth of the prices of those articles be
paid, he is amply paid. After all the trade is over in the
spring it is found that some of the Indians have paid all for
which they were credited, others one-half, one-third, one-
fourth, and some nothing at all; but taken altogether, the
trader has received on an average one-half of the whole
amount of Indian dollars for which he gave credit the preceding autumn, and calls it a tolerable business; that is, if
the furs bear a good price the trader loses nothing, but if
any fall in the price takes place he loses money.
The American Fur Company ought to be satisfied with the
Indians, for they have monopolized all the trade, especially
at the posts before mentioned. There is a man now in this
city who receives annually a sum from that company on
condition that he will not enter the Indian country.2 They
have also monopolized the whole trade on the frontiers
together with the Indian annuities, and everything an Indian has to sell, yet they claim a large amount for debts
due them for non-payment of credits given to the Indians
at different periods.
TRADE TO AND WEST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
I visited this country as early as April, 1798, and in many?
conversations I had with the French people of this place, all
aIt is difficult to imagine who this individual was, if not General
William H. Ashley, the founder of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. MANUEL   LISA.
931
that they could sayj)n_thesubject of the Indian trade was
that therg_werx-ma nyjkadjan nations inhabiting the country
bordering on the Missouri river who were exceedingly^ cruel
fcjall tEe white people thafwent ambn^tEem. "TnTTughest
point then known up the Missouri river was Cedar Island,
which is somewhere in the Arikara country. The Arikara,
Mandan, Blackfeet, Crow, Arapahoe, Assiniboin, and other
Indians were well known in those days (1800) to the Hudson Bay and Northwest Companies Clerks belonging to
those companies with their men would visit the Missouri
annually at different places for the purpose of trading with
the Indians.
After the arrival of Lewis and Clark from the Pacific, a
company was organized at this place for the purpose of trading with the Indians up the Missouri river to its forks and
higher if necessary. That company did not exist long, as it
appeared they were deficient in management and understanding of their new business. After their dissolution a
Mr. Manuel Lisa carried on a trade with the nations as high
up as the Sioux Indians. He afterwards with others,
formed a company who extended their trade up the Missouri river to the Mandan villages. Mr.j Manuel Lisa appeared quite sanguine of success, having the sole management of this company, and it is supposed by some people
that if he had been well assisted by his partners, he might
have done something; but all his endeavors fell to the
ground, and he died some years ago, insolvent. Mr. Manuel Lisa and his partners followed the custom of employing
men to hunt in the Indian country.
After the war with Great Britain commenced our Indian \
trade almost ceased to exist, except where it was continued (
by some few hunters who got up among the Indians and j
would, in the spring season, bring down a few furs; yet
the Hudson Bay and the Northwest companies at the same 1
time extended their trade, and sent hunting parties to different points on the Missouri river as also to the Rocky mountains.    This kind of trade or business of hunting was con-
1 932
GENERAL  ASHLEY.
ducted on a small scale until General Ashley took it in hand
about the year 1821 or 2, when he took a number of hunters
up towards the mountains as also some goods to trade with
the Indians.
In 1823 Gen1. Ashley was attacked by the Arikaras. He
then descended the Missouri river to Council Bluffs when
Colonel Leavenworth went up (Gen1. Ashley and party being in company) and severely punished the Indians for their
audacity. After this Gen1. Ashley took more men as hunters and more goods up towards the base of the Rocky mountains. About this time (say 1824-5) Gen1. Ashley was
nearly one hundred thousand dollars in debt, as I have been
informed, since which he has paid off all his-debts and has
now an independent fortune.
Some years back Gen1. Ashley extended his trade and
hunting excursions west of the mountains, but he has since
sold out to MessrL. Sublette, Jackson & Smith and now has
nothing more to do with the business either of hunting or
trading about the mountains. He brings on goods &c. from
the eastward to this city and furnishes Sublette, Jackson &
Smith with all they require and receives annually from them
their furs in payment. Sublette & C°. transport their goods
by water from this place up the Missouri to the Little Platte,
thence in wagons to a given point on the Missouri river east
of the mountains, as also round a spur of the^mountains to
the waters of Columbia. From what I can learn, there is
but little trading done on either side of the Rocky mountains by Sublette, Jackson & Smith. It is altogether by
hunting that they collect so many furs.
In the Hudson Bay establishments on Red river there are
many half-breeds who are altogether brought up to hunting. ■ They were formerly provided with an outfit to hunt by
some of the Hudson Bay trading establishments, so that they
became well acquainted with all the country on each side of
the Rocky mountains. From them the Hudson Bay Company collected much fur. But Gen1. Ashley (as I have been
told) has had the address to gain over many of those half- THE   COLUMBIA   FUR   COMPANY.
933
breeds to the American concern, by which means the returns
of fur to the Hudson Bay establishments have been much
curtailed.
Messr*5. McKenzie, Laidlaw and Lamont are three young
Scotchmen, of whom the two former were once in the employ of the Hudson Bay Company. But when that company and the Northwest Company joined their concerns
together, about nine hundred clerks and men were dismissed
that service. McKenzie and Laidlaw were among that number, and coming to St. Louis, they formed a concern with
Lamont and others, calling themselves the Columbia Fur
Company and trading under that firm. They~were unsuccessful at the commencement and at one time were forty or
fifty thousand dollars in debt, but one fortunate season of
trade enabled them to pay off all their debts, leaving much
money for themselves. After this they made arrangements
with the American Fur Company for goods, and have been
doing a good business ever since, so as to be now wealthy.
Messrs. McKenzie & C°. send goods and hunters up the Missouri river from their establishments, toward the mountains,
and from the knowledge McKenzie and Laidlaw obtained
(during their employment in the Hudson Bay Company) of
the country and Indians, they now trade with the Blackfeet
and other Indians who always heretofore were in favour of
the Hudson Bay Company. Perhaps it would not be exceeding the truth to say that half a million of dollars in furs
are now annually brought down the Missouri river that formerly went to Hudson Bay, and it is the enterprising spirit
of Gen1. Ashley which has occasioned the change of this
channel of trade.
All traders procure as much wild meat as possible from
the Indians, but where this article is scarce they have the pre^
caution to take provisions with them in the fall of the year
as they go into the Indian country. I am informed that Mr.
A. P. Chouteau has a very large farming establishment in
the Osage country, where he raises every article of necessary
food and in greater abundance than is necessary for himself, 934
LOSSES  IN   THE   FUR   TRADE.
his very numerous family and followers. Messrs. McKen-
zie & C°. have some domestic animals at their establishment;
but the buffalo, elk, bear and deer (particularly the buffalo)
are so numerous that they are never in want of provisions
of the meat kind. Their corn they can obtain in abundance
from the Arikara and Mandan Indians and they can be supplied with I little flour from St. Louis so that they can never
be in want. It is said that Sublette, Jackson and Smith take
with them some horned cattle, which they drive with their
wagons and which serve for provisions until they reach the
buffalo country.
It is impossible for me to ascertain the number of lives
that have been lost on the routes to and from the Rocky
mountains or Mexico. In the Indian country bordering on
the frontiers no lives have been lost, according to my present
recollection for the last fifteen years, except Findley and two
others on Lake Pepin in the summer of 1824, and two men
by the Winnebagos near Prairie du Chien in the summer of
1828. Smith (the partner of Sublette and Jackson) was
killed this past summer on his way to Santa Fe, having gone
that way with some goods.
I have no doubt that in most of the misunderstandings
which take place between the whites and Indians in the interior of the Indian country, the fault is with tbe white people,
except among the Comanches, or Hietans, as some call them.
They are a roving, plundering, murdering nation.
The following are the names of the different nations of
Indians who inhabit the country between this and the Rocky
mountains and west of the Mississippi, viz., Sauks, Foxes,
Sioux, Otoes, Iowas, Mahas, Pawnees, Paducas, Snakes,
Shoshones, Delawares, Peorias and Kickapoos, and there
may be others that I have never heard of, or having heard
of, have forgotten.
TRADE TO MEXICO.
The trade to Mexico from this country is carried on by
individuals.     Sometimes two, three, or more individuals THE   SANTA   FE   TRADE.
935
will join their small adventures together, either at St. Louis
or on the route, and sell them to the best advantage at Santa
Fe or other places in Mexico, during the winter months.
Those people who are inclined to go to Mexico, prepare by
purchasing goods, wagons, mules, and horses and hiring of
men. The whole cavalcade rendezvous at Independence,
Jackson county, in this state, about the month of May.
They then move off together after having formed such regulations among themselves as are deemed beneficial to the
whole, which regulations continue in force on the whole
route from this state to Santa Fe.
From what I can learn there is little or no danger between
this and the supposed line dividing Mexico and the United
States, unless the cavalcade fall in with a war party of Pawnees or Paducas on their way to war against the Comanches
or Hietans (as some call them), and then if the party of
whites have in number say ioo or 150 men, the Indians will
not attack them, but will try every stratagem to steal their
horses and mules, because those Indians know that when
they have once got the horses and mules, the white people
cannot get their wagons away, but will abandon them,
whereby the Indians will get much booty. By this mode
they have succeeded in more than one instance, and after
carrying away what they can they destroy the balance both
of the goods and wagons.
In May last upwards of two hundred men left Independence for Santa Fe and from what I am informed they did
not meet with any difficulty either in going or returning.
This was told me by a few who have returned. It appears
that after the line above mentioned is crossed (in going outwards) the white people are more apt to fall in with the Hietans who follow the buffalo near the base of the mountains
to the northward during the spring and summer months,
and to the southward during the autumn.
Parties from this place on their arrival in the mountains,
hide their goods and then they go into the settlements to
make the necessary arrangements, after which, by means of ij MUM? J^wJfcwgi
RELATIONS   WITH   THE  INDIANS.
bribes, their goods are smuggled in. They then sell them
so as to be here again about this time (October) or ensuing
month with the returns, whatever they may be. I cannot
form any idea, neither can I gain any information as to the
amount of goods taken, or the number of men employed, in
the annual trade to Mexico, and I am equally uninformed as
to the amount of returns from that place. In August last
Mr. Charles Bent set out from St. Louis with a number of
wagons loaded with goods for Santa Fe and drawn by
oxen. His party consisted of from thirty to forty men, and
if he succeeds with his ox wagons the oxen will answer the
triple purpose: Ist, drawing the wagons; 2nd, the Indians
will not steal them as they would horses and mules- and
3rdly, in cases of necessity part of the oxen will answer for
provisions.
OBSERVATIONS RESPECTING OUR RELATIONS WITH THE
INDIAN NATIONS.
It is lamentable indeed for any one who has the least
knowledge of Indians to observe that not only those who
visit this place, but also those who have never been at any
of the military posts, should have so little respect for the
American people. In March, 1818, when I was at the city
of Washington, I had several long conversations with Mr.
Calhoun (then Secretary of War) on Indian affairs. I told
him that it must appear strange to many people to perceive
that we, as Americans, speaking the same language with the
British, whose manners and customs were the same, exceeding them perhaps in our Indian expenditures, and having
all the Indians residing within our own territories, still had
not the same influence over them that the British had.
Therefore (said I) there must be a fault somewhere. To
this Mr. Calhoun replied, that I ought not to point out an
evil without showing a remedy for it. I answered by saying that we ought to follow the same policy (so far as possible) towards the Indians that the British pursued with
such success.    The British government have a well-regulat- DEFECTS  OF  AGENCY  SYSTEM.
937
ed Indian Department. No person is eligible for an Indian
agency under that government unless he can speak some one
of the Indian languages; for it is natural to suppose that a
man understands at least the general manners and customs
of all Indians if he has been among them long enough to
learn any one of their languages, and they (the British)
have brought their Indian affairs to a perfect system. But
our government appoints young men to Indian agencies,
generally from the interior of the United States, who, in all
probability, have never seen more than three or four Indians
together in the course of their lives, and those Indians perhaps civilized. When the old chiefs and warriors hear of
the arrival of their new father (as they term the new agent)
they call at the agency to see him, but the agent does not
know what to say or do to them and perhaps does not give
them a pipe of tobacco, or even a good or bad word. The
Indians then go away dissatisfied, and consequently in cases
of this kind, everything depends on the interpreter. If the
interpreter is an honest man he may teach the agent something in the course of years; but on the contrary, if he is a
designing man, and wishes that no one should share his influence, he will keep the agent and the Indians in continual
broils and quarrels, and nothing being rightly done, the
public service must suffer. Instead of trying to heal the old
sores that have existed for the last fifty or sixty years between the American people and the Indians, the breach is
made wider and fuel is added to the flame. I have been
told that a young man who was appointed an Indian agent
on the Missouri river cut off the ears of a half-breed who
resided among the Sioux Indians because, being in a state
of intoxication, he made use of some extravagant language
disrespectful of the American people. Another agent on the
Mississippi turned out of the guard-house an innocent Indian
to other Indians, his enemies, who shot him down and butchered him in a horrid manner, in the presence of an American garrison of soldiers. Another Indian agent also invited some chiefs to a council, when a number of their ene- 938
ASHLEY S   METHOD  OF   MARCHING.
mies arrived at the agency, organized themselves, descended
the Mississippi river, attacked the chiefs and others who
were invited, and on their way to the council, killed nine and
wounded three out of sixteen persons. In my intercourse
with the Indians for the last forty years I never found that
coercive measures ever had any good effect with them, but
that conciliatory measures always tended to produce every
purpose required. I am, &c.,
Thomas Forsyth,
The Honorable Lewis Cass,
Secretary of War, Washington City.
(Thomas Forsyth's Letter Book, 1822-33.    Mss. Dept
State Historical Society of Wisconsin.)
GENERAL ASHLEY S METHOD OF MOVING PARTIES THROUGH
THE INDIAN COUNTRY.
In compliance with your request in relation to my manner of equipping and moving parties of men through the
Indian country in the course of my general excursions to the
Rocky mountains, I will observe that, as mules are much the
best animals for packing heavy burthens, each man has
charge of two of them for that purpose, and one horse to
ride. The equipage of each horse or mule consists of two
halters, one saddle, one saddle blanket, one bear skin for
covering the pack or saddle, and one pack strap for the purpose of binding on the pack, and a bridle for the riding
horse. One of the halters should be made light for common use, of beef hide, dressed soft; the other should be made
of hide dressed in the same way, or tarred rope, sufficiently
strong to hold the horse under any circumstances, and so
constructed as to give pain to the jaws when drawn very
tight. The rein of each halter should not be less than sixteen feet long. A stake made of tough, hard wood, about
two inches in diameter, and two feet long, with an iron
socket, pointed at one end to penetrate the earth, and at the CARE  OF  THE  HORSES.
939
other end a band of iron to prevent its splitting, should be
provided, to be used when in the prairies, with the halter last
described. This stake, when well set in the ground, will
hold any horse.
In the organization of a party of, say from 60 to 80 men,
four of the most confidential and experienced of the number
are selected to aid in the command; the rest are divided in
messes of eight or ten. A suitable man is also appointed
at thehrnd of ench mri^- whoie duty it is to make "known
the wants of his mess, receive supplies for them, make distributions, 'watcff^oySTKiFconduct, enforce order, etc., etc.
The party thus organized, each man receives the horse
and mules allotted to him, their equipage, and the packs
which his mules are to carry; every article so disposed of is
entered in a book kept for that purpose. When the party
reaches the Indian country, great order and vigilance in the
discharge of their duty are required of every man. A variety
of circumstances confines our march very often to the borders of large water courses; when that is the case, it is found
convenient and safe, when the ground will admit, to locate
our camps (which are generally laid off in a square) so as
to make the river form one line, and include as much ground
in it as may be sufficient for the whole number of horses,
allowing for each a range of thirty feet in diameter, < On
the arrival of the party at their camping ground, the position
of each mess is [jointed out; wneretheir packs, saddles, etc.,
are takerToff, and with them a breastwork immediately put
up, to cover them frdnTa night"attack bylndians; the horses
are then watered and delivered to the horse guard, who keep
them on the best grass outside and near the encampment,
where they graze until sunset; then each man brings his
horse within the limits of the camp, exchanges the light
halter for the other more substantial, sets his stakes, which
are placed at the distance of thirty feet from each other, and
secures his horses to them. This range of thirty feet, in
addition to the grass the horse has collected outside the camp,
will be all-sufficient for him during the night.    After these 940
PRECAUTIONS  EN  ROUTE.
regulations, the proceedings of the night are pretty much
the same as are practiced in military camps. At day light
(when in dangerous parts of the country) two or more men
are mounted on horseback, and sent to examine ravines,
woods, hills, and other places within striking distance of the
camp, where Indians might secrete themselves, before the
men are allowed to leave their breastworks to make the
necessary morning arrangements before marching. When
these spies report favorably, the horses are then taken outside the camp, delivered to the horse guard, and allowed to
graze until the party has breakfasted, and are ready for
saddling. In the line of march, each mess march together,
and take their choice of positions in the line according to
their activity in making themselves ready to move, viz.: the
mess first ready to march moves up in the rear of an officer,
who marches in the front of the party, and takes choice of
a position in the line, and so they all proceed until the line
is formed; and in that way they march the whole of that
day. Spies are sent several miles ahead to examine the
country in the vicinity of the route, and others are kept at
the distance of a half mile or more from the party, as the
situation of the ground seems to require, in front, rear, and
on the flanks. In making discoveries of Indians, they communicate the same by signal or otherwise to the commanding officer with the party, who makes his arrangements
accordingly. In this way I have marched parties of men
the whole way from St. Louis to the vicinity of the Grand
lake, which is situated about one hundred and fifty miles
down the waters of the Pacific ocean, in 78 days. In the
month of March, 1827, I fitted out a party of 60 men,
mounted a piece of artillery (a four pounder) on a carriage
which was drawn by two mules; the party marched to or
near the Grand Salt lake beyond the Rocky mountains,
remained there one month, stopped on the way back fifteen
days, and returned to Lexington, in the western part of Missouri, in September, where the party was met with everything necessary for another outfit, and did return (using the A  FREE   HUNTERS  ACCOUNTS.
941
same horses and mules) to the mountains by the last of
November, in the same year.
A FREE HUNTER'S BUSINESS ACCOUNTS.
The following seven exhibits, taken from many hundreds
still among the Chouteau papers, will convey a good idea of
the business transactions of the wilderness, and will show
to what an extent the methods of business in the older and
settled portions of the country obtained even in these remote
sections where civilized man was yet almost an entire
stranger. The particular person, whose accounts are here
exhibited appears now and then in the narratives of that
period and is believed to be the one for whom Gardiner river
in the Yellowstone National Park is named.
COPY OF A FREE HUNTER'S CONTRACT.
Articles of agreement made and entered into at Fort
Union, Upper Missouri, on the fifth day of July, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, by and between Kenneth
Mackenzie, agent of the American Fur Company, and Johnson Gardner, citizen of the United States and free hunter in
the Indian country	
The said Johnson Gardner hereby agrees to sell, and the
said Kenneth Mackenzie agrees to purchase, all his stock of
beaver skins now en cache on the Yellowstone river, at and
for the price per pound net weight of four dollars twelve
and a half cents, to be delivered by the said Johnson Gardner
to the agent or servants of the said Kenneth Mackenzie on
the spot where it is cached, the weight thereof to be regulated
and adjusted by Francis A. Chardon and James A. Hamilton on its arrival at Fort Union, the number of skins being
.... and the weight now considered to be     The said
Johnson Gardner further agrees to sell, and the said Kenneth Mackenzie agrees to purchase, all his stock of castorum
at and for the price per pound of three dollars, the weight
thereof to be adjusted by the parties aforesaid. The said
Kenneth Mackenzie hereby further agrees to and with the Stf5£3es*S££&*2
.mum.
CONTRACT   WITH   JOHNSON GARDNER.
said Johnson Gardner to furnish and supply and equip
two men to hunt and trap beaver for the fall and spring
seasons next ensuing, at the entire charge and cost of the
said Kenneth Mackenzie, to hunt and trap under the direction of the said Johnson Gardner; and the said Kenneth
Mackenzie further agrees to furnish a third man, and at his
cost and charge to supply a moiety or one-half of the
requisite, necessary and usual equipment for a beaver hunter,
and the said Johnson Gardner hereby agrees to supply the
said third man with the other moiety or half part of the
needful equipment usual for a beaver hunter, and it is hereby
agreed by and between the said Kenneth Mackenzie and
the said Johnson Gardner that an entire moiety or half part
of the beaver skins and castorum killed, taken and secured
by the united skill and exertions of the said Johnson Gardner and the said three men to be furnished as aforesaid
shall be the just and lawful share of the said Kenneth Mackenzie, the other moiety or half part to be the just and lawful
share of the said Johnson Gardner, and it is further agreed
that the said moiety or half part which shall become the
property of the said Johnson Gardner shall be purchased of
him by the said Kenneth Mackenzie at and for the price of
three dollars fifty cents per pound for beaver skins taken
and secured in the fall approaching, and four dollars per
pound for beaver skins taken and secured in the spring following, and three dollars per pound for castorum. Signed,
sealed and delivered by the said Kenneth Mackenzie and
said Johnson Gardner at Fort Union the day and year first
above written.
In the presence of
J. A. Hamilton.
Kenneth Mackenzie,
;H * -|.      Agt.U. M.O.
his
Johnson X Gardner.
mark BUSINESS   PAPERS.
943
COPY OF AN ACCOUNT CURRENT BETWEEN JOHNSON GARDNER AND THE AMERICAN FUR COMPANY.
" Mr.   Johnson Gardner in account with the American
Fur Company, U. M. O.
DR.
CR.
1831,
1820-1833.
To   Sundries   ad
July 12.
By 53 Beaver Skins
vanced as per
at $6.50,.   \   .
$ 344.50
account A. .   .
$4,034.70
1832,
July 21.
" 1 Otter skin,    .
2.50
" 206 Beaver skins
i
— 278 lbs.  at
/
$4 V6i ....
1,146.75
/
" 1 Otter skin,    .
2.00
/
" 27^ lbs. Beaver
1
skin (at Fort
/
Cass) at 3 60-100
95.37
/
" Note on Smith,
/
Sublette & Co.
1,321.48
/
1833,
/
June 30.
*' 16 Beaver Traps
left at Fort
Pierre, .   .   .
" Balancecarried
192.00
/
$4,034.70
down,    .   .   .
930.10
$4,034.70
1833,
June 30.
To balance, .   .   .
$930.10
For Am. Fur Company,
J. Archdale Hamilton.
Fort Union, Sept. 12, 1833.
Copy of receipt for note referred to in above account current:
"$1371.48.
Received of Johnson Gardner a note on Messrs. Smith,
Sublette, and Jackson for thirteen hundred and seventy-one
dollars forty-eight cents, which he wishes me to collect for
him and be placed to his credit at 5 per cent interest, which
I will endeavor to do if no unavoidable accident will happen
to me or the note.
(Signed) K. Mackenzie.
The above is a true copy of the receipt.
Witness:    S. P. Winter." 944
LIQUOR   AND   FEASTING.
Copy of weigh-bill of beaver mentioned in above account
current.
" Fort Union, August 6, 1832.
We, Francis A. Chardon and J. Archdale Hamilton, hereby certify that we have carefully weighed two hundred and
six beaver skins purchased by the American Fur Company
of Johnson Gardner and declare the weight thereof to be two
hundred and seventy-eight pounds, as witness our hands the
day and year first above written.
(Signed) F. A. Chardon.
J. Archdale Hamilton."
Extract from Account | A " referred to in above account
current.
11832.
June 28
July
July
29
30
2
5
6
7
8
Your share of advances to Tullock & Co. $ 12 00
Liquor 8.00,  Feast 4.00 $ 12 00
Ditto   4.00  4 00
Shirts 8.00, Pantaloons 5.00  13 00
Liquor 11.00, Feast 2.00  13 00
Ditto 6.00, Suit of clothes 70.00   ... 76 do
Knives 4.00, Powder .75, Shoeing horse 3.00 7 75
Tobacco .75, Cow skin 1.00  1 75
Liquor  3 00
Ditto         .    .    . ;K  12 00
Ditto 10.00, Tea 2.00,  Pork 2.00         .    . 14 00
Blanket  12.00, Vinegar  1.00, Axe 6.00    . 19 00
Sugar  1.00  1 00
Thread   1.00,   Biscuit   8.50  9 50
Salt 6.00, Pepper 4.00, Handkfs 4.00    .    . 14 00
Coffee 18.00, Tea 8.00, Sugar 24.00    .    . 50 00
File 1.50, Tin Pans 2.00, Kettle 5.00    .    . 8 50
Tin Cups 2.00, Knives 4.00, Awls 1.50    . 7 50
Tobacco 15.00, Sirsingles 6.00    .... 21 00
Liquor   14.00  14 00
Rice 4.00, Knife 2.00, Liquor and Keg 27.00 3$ 00 $334 00
Total     . $346 00"
This amount seems to have been spent by Gardner while
at Fort Union between spring and fall hunt. It is worth
note that of this amount $109, or about one-third, is for
liquor and feasting. OUTFIT   FOR   FALL   HUNT.
COPY OF GARDNER S SHIPPING BILL.
"Shipped in good order per bull boat Antoine four pac-
tons of beaver fur marked and weighing as follows:
No. i 56 skins weighing 73 lbs. marked J G
1    2 50     I " 81    "
"    3 50     " " 76    "
"    4 50     " I 74    I
Total 206 304 N. B.  1  Otter Skin.
Crossings of the Yellowstone,
July 18, 1832.
The above boat is bound for Fort Union."
COPY OF BILL FOR AN EQUIPMENT FOR FALL HUNT.
"Equipment for hunt, July 9th, 1832, viz.:
16  Traps   12.00  $192 00
5   Horses 60.00  300 00
1   Horse  in  January,   1833  60 00
S   Saddles and apichemons  25 00
8   Trap springs 16.00, Flints 1.00  17 00
Powder 9.00, Balls 12.00, File 1.50    .    .    .    . 22 50
Knives 7.50, Kettle 5.00, Axe 3.00    .... 15 50
Wages of 3 men  750 00 $1382 00"
COPY OF A TRADER'S ENGAGEMENT.
"Before the subscribing witness personally appeared the
undersigned Colin Campbell, who voluntarily binds and by
these presents does engage himself to Pierre D. Papin, agent
of Pratte, Chouteau & Co., for Sioux outfit on the following
terms and conditions to say— The said Campbell engages
himself to said Papin, agent for said Sioux outfit, for and
during the term of two and a half years from the first of
June one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine.
"The said Papin, agent as aforesaid, for services faithfully rendered, promises to pay the said Campbell the sum
of three thousand six hundred and sixteen dollars lawful
money of the United States. The said Campbell on his
part binds himself to serve, obey and execute with fidelity 946
TRADER S   ENGAGEMENT.
the orders or known wishes of his employers or any other
persons entrusted with their business, to keep their secrets,
make them acquainted with any thing which may come to
his knowledge affecting their interest, and to do all such
things as are usually done or ought to be done by a good and
faithful clerk and trader.
In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hand and
seals this eighth day of November one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six.
C. Campbell,    (Seal)'1
[No signature.]     (Seal)
Witness:   Jacob Halsey.
I F.
LIST OF TRADING POSTS.
List of trading posts in the country west of St. Louis during the
period from 1807 to 1843, with a few belonging to the periods before
and after, and also a few military posts—The total number of posts
referred to in this list is about one hundred and forty.
MISSOURI RIVER POSTS.
Fort Orleans. This was the first fort ever built on the
Missouri river. In 1720 the Spanish sent an expedition of
two hundred men to the Missouri to destroy the tribe of the
Missouris who were friendly to the French. Their plan was
to join the Pawnees, who were at war with the Missouris.
They unfortunately lost their way and came first to the latter
tribe. Supposing them to be Pawnees, the Spanish unfolded their scheme directly to their intended victims. The
astonished Missouris did not acquaint them with their mistake, but made instant preparations, took the Spaniards by
surprise, and destroyed the entire party.
As a result of this expedition the Louisiana government
ordered the erection of a fort on the Missouri. TJie work
was entrusted to M. Bourgemont, who built Fort Orleans,
in 1772, on an island in the Missouri, some two hundred and
fifty miles above its mouth. The actual location was about
five miles below the mouth of Grand river, opposite the old
village of the Missouris. The fort was the scene of considerable activity for several years, and from it M. de
Bourgemont made an important expedition to the country of
the Paducas in 1724. There is a tradition that when Bourgemont left the fort a year or two later to go down to New
Orleans, the Indians attacked it and massacred every in- ■JUL.' ■ «■
948
FORT   OSAGE.
1)
mate. De Margry says that | en 1726 la Compagnie des
Indes supprima cette poste."1
In the valley of the Osage river, and for the accommodation of the Osage Indians, there were several posts, but
they are scarcely ever mentioned in the annals of the time.
They played a quite insignificant part in the history of the
trade. Among these may be mentioned Forts Carondelet,
Marais de Cygnes, and Pomme de Terre.
Fort Osage, or Fort Clark, stood near the site of Sibley,
Missouri, about forty miles below the mouth of the Kansas. General William Clark passed this point in 1808 with
a troop of cavalry on his way to make a treaty with the
Osages. He selected the site for a post on his return.
Lewis and Clark, June 23, 1804, had notejd it as a good site
for a fort. The post was occupied off and on until 1827,
but not continuously with a regular garrison. It was permanently abandoned on the founding of Fort Leavenworth.
It was here that was located the only government trading
factory west of the Mississippi. (See further, Part III.,
Chapter VI.) If
Chouteau's Post, or the Kansas Post. This was first established by Francis G. Chouteau on an island three miles
below the mouth of the Kansas river for the trade of the
Kansas Indians. The great flood of 1826 washed it into
the river, and Chouteau then went about ten miles up the
Kansas river, where he would be safe from a similar calamity in the future, and built a post on the right bank of the
river.    It was maintained for many years.
French Fort. This post is noted by Lewis and Clark in
1804, and by Doctor James in 1819 as being in ruins. It
was on the Kansas shore, opposite the upper end of Kickapoo
Island, back on the bluffs and in rear of an old village of the
1«
There was a French post for some time on an island a few leagues
in length over against the Missouris. The French settled in this fort
at the east point [of the island] and called it Fort Orleans."—
Du Pratz. mr
COUNCIL   BLUFFS.
949
Kansas Indians. Whether built as a trading post or a military fort is unknown. Bogy in his history of Missouri
says that "the French government had a regular post and
officer at [near?] the mouth of the Kansas river."
Camp Martin was a name given to a winter cantonment
of United States troops at Isle a la Vache during the winter
of 1818-19. The troops were a part of the Yellowstone
Expedition and were commanded by a Captain Martin.
Leavenworth Fort. For circumstances of early history
of this post see Part III., Chapter VI.
Blacksnake Hills, a post established by Joseph Robidoux
where the city of St. Joseph now stands. Audubon in 1843
uttered the following prediction concerning the situation:
" I was delighted to see this truly beautiful site for a town
or city, as will be, no doubt, some fifty years hence."
Nishnabotna. In 1819 Robidoux, Papin, Chouteau, and
Berthold, trading with a capital of $12,000, had their principal establishment near the mouth of this stream. Name
variously spelled.
Council Bluffs. This name, though not specifically applied to any post, denoted a locality where many trading
posts have been built. It was one of the most important
points on the whole course of the Missouri and was resorted
to by traders from the very commencement of the fur trade
on the upper river. The meeting of the two great valleys,
the Missouri and the Platte, which was in this vicinity, had
something to do with the importance of the place. - The particular situation always known in those early years as Council Bluffs was twenty-five miles above the modern city of
that name, and on the opposite side of the river about
where the little town of Calhoun is now located. On the
3rd of August, 1804, Lewis and Clark held a council there
with the Oto and Missouri Indians and gave the name from
this circumstance. In the course of the next fifty years
there were probably not fewer than twenty posts established between this point and the mouth of the Platte, but all
are now swallowed up in the great cities that have taken 95o
BELLEVUE.
»}
their places on both sides of the river. It is impossible now
to recover the names of all, or the locations of some whose
names are known. Even those which are best known it is
difficult to locate precisely.
Crooks and McLellan's post in 1810 was on the west bank
of the river a little above the mouth of Papillon creek and
therefore near the later site of Bellevue. It was broken up
in the spring of 1811 when its proprietors entered the service of the Pacific Fur Company.
Bellevue. This was an important place during most of
the fur-trading era and promised at one time to be the progenitor of the future city which was bound to arise in that
vicinity. The early history of Bellevue is exceedingly obscure. Some authorities say that Lisa built the first post
there in 1805 and gave it its present name. This is a mistake. Crooks and McLellan seem to have been the first to
locate near there. The next occupant was the Missouri Fur
Company under Joshua Pilcher, who must have moved down
there soon after Lisa's death. Fontenelle and Drips apparently bought Pilcher's post and established it in their
own name, which it retained for many years. At a date
between 1830 and 1840, which is not exactly known, the
American Fur Company moved to Bellevue from Cabanne's
post some distance above, and established a new post there
under the management of P. A. Sarpy. The Indian agency
of John Dougherty was also located near there at about the
same time. The agency was at Cote a Quesnelle just above
the American Fur Company post.
Fort Croghan, a military post of temporary character
which stood a little above the present Union Pacific bridge
in Omaha. When it was established is uncertain, but it
was abandoned in the fall of 1843.
Cabanne's Post was located near the old site of Rockport,
nine or ten miles (by land) above the Union Pacific bridge
in Omaha and six or seven miles below Fort Calhoun. It
was established between 1822 and 1826 for the American
Fur Company by J, P. Cabanne, who remained in charge mm
POSTS   NEAR   COUNCIL  BLUFFS.
951
until 1833, when he had to leave the country on account of
the Leclerc affair. Pilcher succeeded him, and the post was
later moved down to Bellevue. The Columbia Fur Company also had a post near here which was absorbed by Cabanne's establishment in 1827.
Fort Lisa was located about a mile above Cabanne's post
and five or six miles below old Council Bluffs. It was
founded by Manuel Lisa as early as 1812 and it continued
to be occupied as late as 1823. During this period it was
the most important post on the Missouri river. It commanded the trade of the Omahas, Pawnees, Otoes, and other
tribes.
Engineer Cantonment, " about half a mile above Fort
Lisa, five miles below Council Bluffs, and three miles above
the mouth of Boyer river " (James), was the winter encampment of Major Long's scientific party in 1819-20.
Camp Missouri was the winter encampment of the troops
attached to the Yellowstone expedition of 1819-20. It was
located at the old Council Bluffs and on or near its site was
built the post which for several years after was known as
Fort Atkinson. It was abandoned in the spring of 1827.
The post formed a quadrangle with the usual bastions or
block houses at two opposite corners.
Fort Calhoun is the name which has succeeded to that of
Fort Atkinson in the history of this locality and survives in
the name of a little village near by. How it came to be applied to this post is not very well understood.
Cruzcite's Post, an early trading establishment two
miles above old Council Bluffs, built in 1802. (Lewis and
Clark.) §§!      |£§££§ 8
Fort Charles was an old trading post which stood about
six miles below the present Omadi, Nebraska. It was occupied in 1795-6 by a Mr. McKay.    (Lewis and Clark.)
Pratte and Vasquez, in 1819, had a trading post at the
Omaha village a considerable distance above Council Bluffs,
possibly at the old village above Blackbird Hill nearly oppo-
a .;s>-"r-~.jp^w.
«**■*
952
MISCELLANEOUS  ESTABLISHMENTS.
site the modern town of Onawa, Iowa. The exact location
is nowhere stated.
Big Sioux Post, an American Fur Company post at one
time maintained near the mouth of the Big Sioux river by
one Laf ramboise.
Vermillion Post was an important trading post for the
convenience of the lower Sioux tribes. It was located just
below the mouth of the Vermillion river about on the present
line between Clay and Union counties, South Dakota. Another Vermillion fort of earlier date and sometimes called
Dickson's Post stood on the north bank of the river about
half way between the Vermillion and the James. The Columbia Fur Company also had a post there.
Riviere a Jacques. The Columbia and American Fur
Companies had establishments at this point for the trade of
the Yankton band of the Sioux.
Ponca Post was established for the trade of the Indians
of this name. It was just below the mouth of the Niobrara.
The Columbia Fur Company also had a post here.
Fort Mitchell. This post was established in 1833 Dy Nar-
cisse Le Clerc and named for D. D. Mitchell. It was abandoned four years later, and for several years furnished excellent fuel for steamboats until the old palisades were all
used up.
Handy's Post was situated on the west bank of the Missouri where Fort Randall later stood. Very little is known
of its history.
Trudeau's House, also called Pawnee House, was an establishment occupied by one Trudeau in the years 1796-7.
It was on the left bank of the river a little above and opposite the site where Fort Randall later stood.
Fort Recovery was located at the lower end of American
or Cedar Island a mile below the modern city of Chamberlain, South Dakota. This post was established in 1822 by
the Missouri Fur Company which then included the prominent traders, Pilcher, Charles Bent, Fontenelle, and Drips.
It was also called Cedar fort and may have been first so
mxr^M 3>T
FORT KIOWA.
953
named. This may have been the site of the old Missouri
Fur Company post which burned in 1810 and the fact of its
reestablishment may have given it its name. Leavenworth
in 1823 refers to it as a post " called by the Indian traders
Fort Recovery and sometimes Cedar fort."
" Fort Brasseaux " was located in this vicinity, or possibly
ten or twenty miles above. The only reference to it that has
fallen under the author's notice is in a letter by Gen. Ashley
dated at this post July 19, 1823, written to Major O'Fallon,
Indian agent, in regard to the Aricara campaign then in
progress.
Fort Lookout was a post of the Columbia Fur Company
and must have been built as early as 1822.    Near it was
Fort Kiowa, belonging to the American Fur Company
and also built as early as 1822, or immediately after the
Western Department went to St. Louis. The sites were so
close together that early references confused the two more
or less. They were situated on the right bank of the Missouri some ten miles above where Chamberlain, South Dakota, now stands. The journal of the Yellowstone expedition of 1825 says of the American Fur Company post:
" Fort Kiowa consists of a range of log buildings containing
four rooms, a log house and a storehouse forming a right
angle, leaving a space of some thirty feet. At the south
corner of the work is erected a block-house near which stands
a smith's shop. At the north corner is erected a small
wooden tower. The whole work is enclosed by cottonwood
pickets. The sides or curtains of the work are 140 feet
each." Referring to Fort Lookout in 1833, when it was
used as an Indian agency, Maximilian says that it " is a
square of about sixty paces surrounded by pickets twenty
or thirty feet high [ !] made of square trunks of trees placed
close together." The buildings consisted of three blockhouses.
Sublette and Campbell had a house near here in 1834.
Fort Defiance was built by Harvey, Primeau and Company about 1845-6.    They were ex-clerks of the American
££■**—"" " rl-  ^ 954
LOISELL S   POST.
Fur Company, bold and energetic men, who had set up an
opposition on their own account in defiance of the American
Fur Company. The location is on the right bank of the
Missouri about six miles above the upper end of the Great
Bend, near the mouth of Medicine Creek. This was also
called Fort Bouis from one of the firm.
Cedar Fort, or Fort aux Cedres, is a name which was applied to at least two different posts on as many Cedar Islands
in the Missouri river. Their history is confused and uncertain. We have noted one already. The oldest one was at
one time known as
Loisell's Post and was probably the first trading establishment built in the Sioux country along the Missouri river.
It was about thirty-five miles below Fort Pierre. Loisell
was in possession in 1803-4. The post was 65 to 70 feet
square, with the usual bastions. The pickets were about 14
feet high. There was a building inside 45 x 32 feet divided
into four equal rooms. This was probably the real Fort
aux Cedres which is so known in the narratives of the times.
Several authorities speak of it as an old Missouri Fur Company trading post, but if so it was possibly the one which
burned in the spring of 1810, for no such post is mentioned
by Bradbury or Brackenridge in 1811, or by Leavenworth
in 1823.
Fort George, a post belonging to Fox, Livingston and
Company, 21 miles below Fort Pierre, on the right bank of
the Missouri. It was built by Ebbetts and Cutting, agents of
the firm, in 1842. The post was probably not occupied more
than three or four years, for Fox, Livingston and Company did not remain long in the country.
Teton River posts. The mouth of the Teton river (first
called Little Missouri and now Bad river) was the most important locality in the Sioux country. At this point the
Missouri river, after a long southerly course, turns abruptly
east and continues in this direction for many miles, gradually bearing off to the southeast. This bend was nearest of
any point on the river to the Black Hills and the upper Platte FORT   TECUMSEH.
955
country. It therefore became a natural shipping point for
all the region round about. The local situation was ideal.
A fine bottom about a mile wide and six miles long lay along
the right bank of the Missouri river immediately above the
Teton. The treeless bluffs were so far back that hostile
bands of Indians could not approach the fort unobserved.
The bottoms were fertile and afforded a camping ground for
Indians and grazing for stock.
Who built the first post here is not known, but very likely
it was the original Missouri Fur Company. It is hardly
probable that they would have overlooked so important a
situation.   The earliest definite record is that of
Fort Tecumseh, which stood two or three miles above the
mouth of the Teton. It was the principal establishment of
the Columbia Fur Company upon the Missouri and was
probably established in 1822. It was turned over to the
American Fur Company December 5, 1827, with an inventory of property amounting to $14,453. I* retained its name
for five years after this event and was managed by William
Laidlaw, one of the old Columbia Fur Company men. In
the course of time the river began to cut into the bottom
where the fort stood and necessitated the rebuilding of it in
a less exposed situation. The new site was 3 miles above
the mouth of the Teton and back about a quarter of a mile
from the Missouri. Work was begun in 1831 and a large
part of the lumber was manufactured during the following
winter. The erection was so far completed in the spring of
1832 that on the 15th of April Mr. Laidlaw and Mr. Halsey,
the clerk, moved into it. Work was continued on it during
the summer and the full change was not accomplished before
the end of the season. On the occasion of the visit of the
steamboat Yellowstone between May 31 and June 5, 1832,
with Mr. Pierre Chouteau on board, the new post was christened
Fort Pierre, in honor of the distinguished visitor and representative of the house at St. Louis. The new post was 325
by 340 feet and contained about two and a half acres of V
POSTS   NEAR   MOUTH   OF  TETON   RTVER.
ground. It was one of the finest on the river and was the
most important establishment except Fort Union*
The Navy Yard or Chantier of Fort Pierre was located
some distance above, probably near Chantier creek. It was
here that boats and lumber for the post were manufactured.
Teton Post is a name which may be used to designate a
post belonging to the firm of P. D. Papin & Co., which
Maximilian calls the French Fur Company. The members
of the company were Papin, the Cerre brothers and Honore
Picotte. The post was probably built about 1828 or 1829.
It stood just below the mouth of the Teton. The firm sold
out to the American Fur Company and entered its service
October 14, 1830, and the property was at once moved up to
Fort Tecumseh.
Sublette and Campbell commenced erecting an opposition
post a "little below old Fort Tecumseh" October 17, 1833.
The post continued to do business only a year when it was
sold to the American Fur Company.
Scattered through the Sioux country on both sides of the
Missouri there were many subordinate posts or houses of the
American Fur Company dependent upon Fort Pierre. There
were no fewer than three in the valley of James river
(Riviere a Jacques). There was one at the forks of the
Cheyenne, another at its mouth, one at the Aricara villages
and others on Cherry, White and Niobrara rivers, and
among the Brule, Ogallala and other bands of the Sioux.
In fact wherever there was an inducement to trade these temporary houses were erected.
Old Fort George was below but near the mouth of the
Cheyenne river.   Nothing further is known of it.
Aricara Post. Manuel Lisa had a post in this vicinity, but
its exact location or particular name is not known.
Fort Manuel was on the west bank of the river—just
above latitude 460 N.
The Mandan Villages were another important locality and
the site of several posts. The course of the river here
changed from a general easterly direction to one nearly due POSTS   NEAR   THE   MANDANS.
957
south. It was the point nearest the Red river settlements,
and was the home of the Mandan and Minnetaree Indians.
Fort Mandan, the first structure built here, was the winter
quarters of Lewis and Clark in 1804-5. ft stood on the left
bank of the Missouri 7 or 8 miles below the mouth of Big
Knife river and opposite, though a little above, the site where
•Fort Clark later stood.
Lisa's Fort was the next one built in this locality. It was
situated on the right or south bank of the river some ten or
twelve miles above the mouth of the Big Knife near where
the names Emanuel Rock and Emanuel Creek now are. The
post was abandoned upon the breaking out of the War of
1812, but was occupied by Pilcher in 1822 or 1823 under the
name of Fort Vanderburgh.
Sublette and Campbell had a post in 1833 a little below
this point.
Tilton's Fort was built by James Kipp in 1822 for the
Columbia Fur Company. It was on the opposite side of the
river from the Mandan villages and a little above the site of
Fort Clark. Being driven from this position in 1823 by the
Aricaras he crossed and established a house in the
Mandan Villages. In the winter of 1825-6 Kipp went to
the mouth of
White Earth river, 140 miles above, and built a post for
the Assiniboine trade. This post passed into the hands of
the American Fur Company in 1827 with the rest of the
Columbia Fur Company posts. In 1830 McKenzie ordered
the erection of a new post for the Mandan trade and Kipp
was put in charge of the work. It was built in the spring of
1831 and was named
Fort Clark, for General William Clark. It was on a bluff
in an angle of the river and on its right bank, 55 miles above
the N. P. R. R. bridge at Bismarck, N. D. The post was
132 by 147 feet, on the typical plan, and was a substantial
structure. It ranked as one of the most important posts on
the river.
The Mouth of the   Yellowstone was the next important
I v<
958
POSTS   NEAR   MOUTH   OF   YELLOWSTONE.
?m
point above the Mandans and several posts sprang up here
during the fur trade. It does not appear that the Missouri
Fur Company ever established a post here, although it is not
easy to understand why they did not. The first post was
built by
Ashley and Henry in 1822 on the tongue of land between
the two rivers about a mile above the junction and next to
the Missouri. It was abandoned in the fall of 1823. In 1825
three sides of the stockade and a part of the buildings were
still standing.
No other attempts were made to establish a post in this
vicinity until 1828, when Kenneth McKenzie, then the leading partner in the "U. M. O." sent a party to the mouth of
the Yellowstone to build a post. They probably commenced
work about October 1 of that year. This post seems to have
been named
Fort Floyd, while the name
Fort Union was applied to another post two hundred miles
farther up. The name Union was, however, soon transferred to the mouth of the Yellowstone, and the advanced
post was abandoned. Maximilian says that Union was
begun in 1829.
There is some confusion in regard to the establishment of
the important post of Fort Union, and to enable the reader to
draw his own conclusions the correspondence of the American Fur Company relating to the subject will be reproduced
here. McKenzie wrote to Chouteau from the Vermillion
river October 2, 1828, that he had just returned with Indian
Agent Sanford from the Mandans; that four days before he
left, the keelboat Otter had left for the Yellowstone to establish a post for the Assiniboine trade. And in a letter from
Fort Tecumseh December 26, 1828, he said: "The Otter
arrived at the Yellowstone in sufficient time to build a fort
and have all necessary preparations made for security."
This establishes the fact that a post was built at the Yellowstone in 1828 and fixes October ist as pretty close to the
actual date of commencement. FORT  UNION.
959
In a letter written at Fort Tecumseh March 15, 1829,
McKenzie says: "Your favor of the 5th of December
reached me on the 25th ult., the date of my arrival from Fort
Floyd near the Yellowstone"; and again in the same
letter, " Old Glass came to Fort Floyd last fall." In a
letter to W. B. Astor April 19, 1830, Pierre Chouteau,
Jr., says: "A mon arrivee ici [St. Louis] le 16, j'ai
trouve des lettre de Mr. McKenzie du 28 December, 1829,
et de 2 et 20 Janvier, 200 milles au dessus de la Roche
Jaune. Les chasseurs des montagnes n'avaient pas aussi
bien reussi dans la chasse d'automne qu'il esperait, mais
il esperait un meilleur succes pour le printemps. II est
d'opinion qu'il fera beaucoup plus de robes cette annee que
de coutume; c'est a dire dans les trois posts d'en haut, chez
les Mandans, a l'embouchure de la Roche Jaune, et Fort
Union 200 milles audessus, et il dit que le pays du haut est
tres rich en castors et robes." Taken as they read these
extracts mean that there were three posts on the upper river
in 1829, the Mandan post, Fort Floyd and Fort Union 200
miles farther up.
The only clue to the origin of the name "Union" that has
come to our notice is in a letter from McKenzie in which he
discusses the trade situation and his desire to fix upon some
point at which he can unite all the routes of trade. "Keeping in view a union at some convenient point above with the
free hunters," he thought that he could control the trade
both of the rivers and of the mountains.
Fort Union was the best built post on the Missouri, and
with the possible exception of Bent's fort on the Arkansas,
the best in the entire West. It was 240 by 220 feet, the
shorter side facing the river, and was surrounded by a palisade of square hewn pickets about a foot thick and twenty
feet high. The bastions were at the southwest and northeast
corners, and consisted of square houses 24 feet on a side and
30 feet high, built entirely of stone and surmounted with
pyramidal roofs. There were two stories; the lower one was
pierced for cannon and the upper had a balcony for better
•msm >-*v
960
FORT   WILLIAM.
)
observation. The usual banquette extended around the
inner wall of the fort. The entrance was large and was
secured with a powerful gate which in 1837 was changed to
a double gate on account of the dangerous disposition of the
Indians owing to the smallpox scourge. On the opposite
side of the square from the entrance was the house of the
bourgeois, a well-built, commodious two-story structure,
with glass windows, fire-place and other "modern conveniences." Around the square were the barracks for the
employes, the store houses, work shops, stables, a cut stone
powder magazine capable of holding 50,000 pounds, and a
reception room for the Indians. In the center of the court
was a tall flag staff around which were the leathern tents of
half-breeds in the service of the company. Near the flagstaff stood one or two cannon trained upon the entrance to
the fort. Somewhere in the enclosure was the famous distillery of 1833-4. All of the buildings were of cottonwood
lumber and every thing was of an unusually elaborate character. Nathaniel J. Wyeth, when he visited Union in 1833,
declared that he had seen no British post that could compare
with it.
Fort Union always had a large complement of clerks,
artisans, and engages about and was the most extensively
equipped of any of the posts.
It had the honor of entertaining numerous distinguished
visitors, among whom were Catlin in 1832, Maximilian in
1833, and Audubon in 1843. (For a very elaborate and
detailed description of the fort see Audubon and His
Journals, vol. II., p. 180.)
Fort William was a fort belonging to Sublette and Campbell and was named for the former. It was located on the
left bank of the Missouri opposite the mouth of the Yellowstone and on the site where Fort Buford was afterwards
built. It was commenced August 29, 1833, and was abandoned when Sublette sold out to the American Fur Company
a year afterward.
Fort Mortimer was Fort William resurrected under a new FORT   JACKSON.
961
firm, Fox, Livingston & Co., of New York. This event took
place in 1842 and the post succumbed to the American Fur
Company three years later.
Fort Assiniboine was a temporary post at a point some
distance above Union where the steamer Assiniboine was
caught by low water in the summer of 1834 and compelled
to spend the winter. The intention probably was to make it
an outpost of Union. It was 100 feet square and the buildings ranged round the interior were in all 134 feet long and
18 feet deep. The post was abandoned April 2, 1835, and
Lamont, who was in charge, brought the property back to
Union. It is not known how far above Union this post was
located, but wherever it was it marks the first advance of
steamboats beyond the mouth of the Yellowstone.
Fort Jackson was built by C. A. Chardon in December,
1833, at the mouth of Poplar river (Riviere aux Trembles).
Chardon had a force of twenty men with a strong equipment
and built a post fifty feet square. The name was probably
given for Andrew Jackson, for in a letter from this point
Chardon says, " We are all Jackson men." McKenzie thus
states the purpose of the establishment: "I consider it
desirable to establish a wintering post west of this, partly
for the convenience of the Indians who frequent that section,
but principally with a view of compelling our opponents
[Sublette and Campbell] to divide their forces, for the
principle of divide and conquer has often been verified/'
The next important point above the mouth of the Yellowstone was the Blackfoot country near the mouth of the
Marias. Prior to 1831 no post had been successfully established in the country of these Indians. About October ist
of that year James Kipp commenced one on the left bank of
the Missouri just above the Marias and called it
Fort Piegan in honor of the Piegan band of Blackfeet.
The post was occupied only during the winter, when it was
abandoned by Kipp, who went down the river with the
returns. It was then burned by the Indians. In the spring
of 1832 D. D. Mitchell went up the river and built a new
1
.■rJMBtaM •^mmg
962
FORT   M KENZIE.
m
post about six miles above the mouth of the Marias on the
left bank of the river and called it
Fort McKenzie. It stood 120 yards back from the river.
It was 140 feet square and was built on the regular plan, but
with an exceptionally strong gate provided with double
doors.
In 1833 Alexander Culbertson selected a new site for a
post on the right bank of the Missouri at the mouth of the
Shonkin, but it does not appear that a post was actually built
here.
Fort McKenzie was occupied as late as 1843, for there is
extant a letter from William Laidlaw written at Fort Union
December 5, 1843, in which the writer says that he has
"lately heard from Mr. Chardon, who is in charge of Fort
McKenzie at the Blackfeet;" and he adds that "the Blackfeet are getting more and more troublesome in consequence
of certain retrenchments of liquor heretofore given them in
their ceremonies, the discontinuation of which had become
absolutely necessary for the better regulation of that post.
They, however, are so much dissatisfied that Mr. Chardon
says that he can not get out at the gate more than once a
week." Tradition says that the hostile feeling of the Blackfeet was due to the wanton massacre of some of their number
by Chardon and Harvey the winter before. In any event
Chardon was compelled to move down stream into a different neighborhood and build a new fort. After he left, the
Indians burned Fort McKenzie and the post was often
referred to afterward as Fort Brule. The site is known to
this day as Brule Bottom. ( For a more complete description
of this post see Audubon and His Journals, vol. IL, p. 188;
also the works of Maximilian, Prince of Wied.)
Fort Chardon was the name of the new post at the mouth
of the Judith. It was probably built in the fall of 1843 —
not before that. It was occupied only for a short time when
Alexander Culbertson moved the establishment to a point
on the right bank of the Missouri opposite Pablois Island,
about 18 miles above where the Fort Benton bridge now THE   THREE   FORKS.
963
crosses the river.    This event probably took place in 1845,
and the new post was called
Fort Lewis, in honor of the explorer, Captain Meriwether
Lewis. The situation proving unfavorable to the trade, the
post was torn down in 1846 and rebuilt in a more favorable
location farther down stream and on the left bank. The
name Lewis was retained for several years. In 1850 the
post was rebuilt of adobe and was dedicated amid grand festivities on Christmas day of that year. At the same time it
was rechristened by Mr. Culbertson
Fort Benton, in honor of Thomas H. Benton, who had so
often rescued the company from disaster. This noted post,
situated at the head of navigation on the Missouri river,
belongs to a later period than that covered by this work.
The Three Forks of the Missouri. The Missouri Fur
Company built a large post here early in the year 1810.
According to Lieut. James H. Bradley, who visited the site
of the post in 1870, and could still make out enough from the
ruins to trace the general outline, "it was a double stockade
of logs set three feet deep, enclosing an area of about three
hundred feet square, situated upon the tongue of land (at
that point only half a mile wide) between the Jefferson and
Madison rivers, about two miles from their confluence, upon
the south bank of the channel of the former stream called
Jefferson slough.'' {Transactions of the Montana Historical Society, vol. II.) The site was at that time mostly
washed away by the river and is believed to be now entirely
gone. The post was abandoned in the fall of 1810 owing to
the persistent attacks of the Blackfeet. An anvil was left
behind and remained on the site for upwards of forty years
afterward and may now be in the bed of the river. With
the lapse of years and the partial oblivion which overtook
those early events, tradition linked this post with the expedition of Lewis and Clark, and it was the popular belief that
these explorers passed a winter there. The post came to be
known locally as " Lewis and Clark's fort." The only relic
of this post still in existence is a letter written on the spot in
m\      TWm 964
POSTS  AT   MOUTH   OF  THE  BIGHORN.
the spring of 1810.   It is reproduced elsewhere in this work.
(Appendix A.)
This completes the list of posts on the Missouri proper, but
there were several important ones on the Yellowstone which
were directly dependent upon Fort Union.
Braseau's Houses were on the left bank of the Yellowstone about 50 miles above the mouth. They were built by a
well-known trader who flourished upon the upper river in
the early years of the trade.
The Crow country was favored with numerous trading
posts, the principal situation being at the mouth of the Bighorn river. The first post built here, and the first known to
have been built above old Fort aux Cedres on the Missouri
was
Fort Manuel, Manuel's Fort, or Fort Lisa, built by
Manuel Lisa in 1807. It was situated on the right bank of
both rivers. In 1809 it passed into the hands of the
Missouri Fur Company and was probably abandoned in the
summer of 1811 when Henry came down the river after the
abandonment of his post on the Snake.
Fort Benton was the second post built here, but whether
upon the same site as Fort Manuel is uncertain. It was built
by the Missouri Fur Company under Joshua Pilcher in 1822
and was abandoned in the following year.
Ashley and Henry built a post in this locality in the fall of
1823.   It was abandoned probably in 1824.
Fort Cass. This was the first American Fur Company
post in the Crow country. Its establishment is duly referred
to in the American Fur Company correspondence. The following extracts from Wyeth's Journal of August 17 and
18, 1833, give the essential facts relating to it: "About
3 miles below the mouth of the Bighorn we found Fort
Cass 1; it " is situated on the east [right] bank of the Yellowstone river, is about 130 feet square, made of sapling
cottonwood pickets with two bastions at the extreme
corners, and was erected in the fall of 1832."   It was built OTHER   POSTS  ON   THE  YELLOWSTONE.
by Samuel Tulloch and was often known as Tulloch's fort.
It was abandoned in 1835.
Fort Van Buren was the second American Fur Company
post on the Yellowstone. It was built in the fall of 1835 an(^
named for the Vice President of the United States and was
abandoned in 1843. ft was on the right bank of the Yellowstone near the mouth of Tongue river.
Fort Alexander, the third Crow post of the American Fur
Company, was built as early as 1839. Larpenteur says that
it was built by himself in 1842, but it is mentioned in the
company's license for 1839. The post was on the left bank
of the Yellowstone opposite the mouth of the Rosebud. It
was abandoned in 1850.
Fort Sarpy was the last of the Crow posts of the American Fur Company and was not built until after 1843. fts
date was 1850; its name was for John B. Sarpy; it stood on
the right bank of the Yellowstone about twenty-five miles
below the mouth of the Bighorn, and it was abandoned
between September, 1859, and September, i860. The post
was 100 feet square, with pickets 15 feet high, but no flanking arrangements.
Fox, Livingston & Company built a post, probably in
1843, on the Bighorn river at the mouth of the Little Bighorn.   It was soon abandoned.
There were many posts in the Missouri valley whose
location is not known. Forts Volcano, Lucien and Madison
are of the number, the last being in the vicinity of the Mandans.
In the letter books of the American Fur Company may
still be seen applications for licenses to trade on the upper
river, and from these we may form some idea of the development and gradual decline of its trade.
The posts received from the Columbia Fur Company in
1827 were Council Bluffs, Vermillion, Riviere a. Jacques,
Ponca, Tecumseh, and the Mandans.
In 1831 the "U. M. O." licenses were for Vermillion,
Riviere a Jacques,   Ponca,   Lookout,   Forks  White river, 966
THE  PORTUGUESE   HOUSES.
Tecumseh, Hollowood on Teton, Mouth Cheyenne, Little
Cheyenne, Aricara villages, Heart river, Mandans, Mouth
Yellowstone, Mouth Marias. It will be noted that Union,
Clark, and Piegan are not yet mentioned by name. Fort
Cass was first mentioned in 1833.
In 1839 the list included Vermillion, Sioux, Lucien, Pierre,.
John, Clark, Union, Alexander, Van Buren and McKenzie.
The name Lucien has not elsewhere come to our notice. It
was doubtless given in honor of Lucien Fontenelle to some
post ordinarily mentioned by locality only. Fort John was
the post on the Laramie to be described farther on.
In 1851 the company maintained Vermillion, John, Pierre,.
Clark, Berthold, Union, Alexander, and Benton.
In 1859 there were Pierre, Clark, Berthold, Union, Sarpy,
and Benton.
CIS-MONTANE POSTS.
Under this heading will be considered those posts along
the eastern base of the Rocky mountains which were not
immediately dependent upon the Missouri river as their line
of communication with St. Louis.
The Portuguese Houses stood very near the junction of
the North and South Forks of Powder river, near where
the military post of Fort Reno later stood. All we know of
them is from the following extract from the report of
Captain W. F. Raynolds, who explored the country around
the sources of the Yellowstone in 1859 and i860, and visited
the site of these houses on the 26th of September, 1859.
"After a ride of about 15 miles we came to the ruins of some
old trading posts, known as the 'Portuguese houses,' from
the fact that many years ago they were erected by a Portuguese trader named Antonio Mateo. They are now badly
dilapidated, and only one side of the pickets remains standing. These, however, are of hewn logs, and from their
character it is evident that the structures were originally
very strongly built. Bridger recounted a tradition that at
one time this post was besieged by the Sioux for forty days,
1 POSTS  AT   THE   MOUTH OF   THE  LARAMIE.
967
resisting successfully to the last alike the strength and the
ingenuity of their assaults, and the appearance of the ruins
renders the story not only credible but probable."
Fort William, named for William L. Sublette, was the
first trading establishment ever built at what later became an
important situation—the confluence of the North Platte
and Laramie rivers. The work was begun with 13 men
about June 1, 1834. (Wyeth.) " William L. Sublette has
built such a fort as Fort Clark (Mandans) on Laramie Fork
of the river Platte and can make it a central place for the
Sioux and Cheyenne trade." (Fontenelle, Sept. 17, 1834.)
"Fort Laramie was built in 1835 [1834] by Robert Campbell and was called Fort William." (Wislizenus, 1839.)
The post was located on the left bank of the Laramie about
a mile above its mouth. Sublette sold it to Fitzpatrick, Sublette and Bridger in 1835, and these gentlemen entered into
relations with Fontenelle the same year, thus virtually turning the post over to the American Fur Company. The post
was then, or soon after, rechristened
Fort John, for Mr. John B. Sarpy. Its early history is
exceedingly obscure. In 1839 it was noted by Wislizenus as
being rectangular in shape, 80 by 100 feet, surrounded by a
palisade of cottonwood pickets 15 feet high, with flanking
towers on three sides and a very strong gate. At this time
the name Laramie was coming into popular use and gradually replaced "Fort John" in common usage, but the latter
name alone was used in the business transactions of the
American Fur Company.
Before 1846 another post was built about a mile farther
up stream and to this the name
Fort Laramie was given. Fort John is said to have been
demolished soon after. About 1849 the American Fur Company sold out to the government and moved some distance
down the river. The famous military post of Fort Laramie
then began its career and was for many years a principal
base of operations against the hostile Indians.
Fort Platte was situated on the right bank of the Platte .*.-»
Jx.
li
i   ■
968
POSTS  ON   THE  SOUTH   PLATTE.
in the tongue of land between the Platte and the Laramie and
about three-fourths of a mile above the junction. It was
built about 1840, for it receives no notice from Wislizenus
in 1839, but was visited by Sage in 1841. Fremont in 1842
noted it as belonging to Sybille Adams & Company, but
in 1843 it belonged to Pratte, Cabanne & Company. It
probably lasted only a few years.
La Bonte was a temporary trading house on the Platte at
the mouth of La Bonte creek.    It was in operation in 1841.
' In the valley of the South Platte, some thirty or forty
miles below where Denver now stands, were several trading
establishments whose history it is impossible to make out
satisfactorily.
Fort Lupton stood on the right bank of the river about
ten miles above the mouth of the St. Vrain. It was an adobe
structure, the ruins of which are still visible.
Fort Lancaster was noted by Fremont in 1843 as being
"the trading establishment of Mr. Lupton" and was apparently identical with Fort Lupton.
Fort St. Vrain was also on the right bank of the river and
about opposite the mouth of the St. Vrain. It belonged to
Bent and St. Vrain.    This post was also known as
Fort George, and was in charge of Marcellus St. Vrain in
1841.
Between Lupton and St. Vrain there were two other posts
at some indefinite time before 1842. Sage noted them in
that year and Fremont two years later, and both speak of
one of them as having been abandoned for a long time and
the other as only recently abandoned. It appears that the
lower of these two posts, which was about six miles above
Fort St. Vrain, belonged to two traders by the names of
Locke and Randolph. They failed in their enterprise and
abandoned their post in May, 1842.
The other post belonged to
Vasquez and Sublette. It was occupied in 1839 when
Wislizenus passed it.
The valley of the   Arkansas   below the mountains was
/ POSTS   ON   THE   UPPER ARKANSAS.
969
always an important one in the fur trade, and there were
many posts or houses, mostly of a temporary character,
located here. The first habitation ever built here, so far as
we have any knowledge, dates from some time prior to 1763,
when a trader visited the Arkansas and built a temporary
fort on its upper course near the foot of the mountains. The
fact is recorded by Amos Stoddard in his Sketches of
Louisiana.
In 1806 Lieutenant Pike built a small temporary redoubt
on the south bank of the Arkansas, a little above the mouth
of Fountain creek.
In all probability Chouteau and De Munn had a temporary
house in this locality during their three years' stay there in
1815-17, but there is no record of it.
In the winter of 1821-2 Jacob Fowler built a log house
on the modern site of Pueblo, Colorado, and occupied it for
upwards of a month.
Gant and Blackwell built a post on the upper Arkansas,
about six miles above Fountain creek, in 1832. Captain
Gant is said to have been the first hunter to form friendly
relations with the Arapahoes.
In 1842 a trading post was built at the mouth of Fountain
creek. James P. Beckwourth claims that it was built under
his direction in October of that year. Sage confirms the date
of 1842, but simply says that it was built by "independent
traders." He adds that it was called the "Pueblo." Other
authorities mention George Simpson and his associates as
builders of the post. By whomever built, the date seems
clearly to have been 1842.
Wislizenus in 1839 found a small post called Fort Pueblo
four miles above Bent's fort, " inhabited principally by
Mexicans and Frenchmen." Farnham mentions the same
post and calls it El Pueblo. He locates it five miles above
Bent's fort on the north bank of the river.
There were in 1843 *wo posts in this locality, one on
American soil and one on Mexican, from which smuggling
operations, particularly in liquor, were carried on exten- £s*l     —fc*r
970
BENT S   FORT.
sively from Santa Fe to the trading posts  farther north.
From these obscure and unsatisfactory references it is
clear that there were, all through the period of the fur trade,
small and transient trading houses in the valley of the
Arkansas from Bent's fort to the mountains. None of them
amounted to anything of note. The one post of importance
in this entire section was the celebrated
Bent's Fort,or Fort William,which stood on the left bank
of the river about half way between the present towns of
La Junta and Las Animas, Colorado. The Bent brothers
first built a stockade near the mouth of Fountain creek, but
afterward moved down stream where they would be more
in line with the trade between the United States and Taos
on the mountain branch of the Santa Fe Trail. The fort was
thus in touch with the trade of Santa Fe and that of the
mountains. It was founded in 1829 and became a very
important post. It was 150 by 100 feet in size, the longer
sides extending north and south. The walls were adobe,
about six feet thick at the base and 17 feet high. The
entrance was through a large gate on the east side. At the
northwest and southwest corners were cylindrical bastions
or towers ten feet inside diameter and 30 feet high, loop-
holed for musketry and cannon. The interior was divided
into two parts, one of which was devoted to the buildings
and the other to corrals, wagon sheds and material and stock
generally. The buildings had clay floors and gravel roofs.
In 1839 the fort had in its employ from 80 to 100 men. It
was in full operation in 1843. In 1852 it was destroyed by
Colonel William Bent, for whom it had received its name,
Fort William.
Glenn's Post was a temporary trading house in the Osage
country on the Verdigris river about a mile above its mouth.
It was built by Hugh Glenn and was apparently abandoned
in 1821, when Glenn joined Jacob Fowler in an expedition
to Sante Fe. FORT  DAVY   CROCKETT.
971
TRA-MONTANE POSTS.
On the western side of the Continental Divide there were
few American posts, and fewer still of any permanence or
importance.
Robidoux's Post on the Gunnison stood on the left bank
of that stream a short distance below the mouth of the
Uncompahgre river.
Fort Uintah, built by the same Robidoux who built the
post on the Gunnison, stood on the banks of the Uintah river
some distance above the mouth of the Du Chesne and in the
foot hills of the Uintah mountains. These were early posts
although the dates of their establishment are not known.
Robidoux was in the country as early as 1825. Fremont,
who passed Fort Uintah in June, 1844, records that the
fort was attacked shortly afterward by the Utah Indians and
all its garrison massacred except Robidoux, who happened
to be absent. If this is a correct report, it is the only instance
of a successful attack by the Indians upon a trading post of
the West. j" ff 3:|| ll.
Fraeb's Post, built by Henry Fraeb and James Bridger,
stood on St. Vrain's fork of Elkhead river, itself a branch of
Yampah river, Colorado. Fraeb was killed in the latter part
of August, 1841, in a battle between his own party of sixty
men and a war party of Sioux. The whites lost five men and
the Indians ten. The post was probably abandoned soon
after.
Fort Davy Crockett was an inferior trading post located
in the beautiful valley of Brown's Hole on Green river and
stood upon the left bank of the stream. Very little is known
of it. As seen by Wislizenus in 1839 it was a low one-story
building with three wings and was built of lumber and
adobe. It was not surrounded with pickets. According to
Farnham, who also saw it in 1839, it was a "hollow square
of one story log cabins with roofs and floors of mud, constructed in the same manner as those of Fort William," on
the Arkansas. It belonged at this time to three Americans
by the names of Thompson, Craig and St. Clair,   In the
1
1 .Sear"
FORT  BRIDGER.
closing years of the fur trade, just before the founding of
Fort Bridger, it was a favorite rendezvous and wintering
ground for the free trappers. The situation, however,
despite the sublime natural environment, was wretched in
the extreme, and the post was familiarly known among the
trappers as "Fort de Misere."
Fort Bridger, which stood in the beautiful valley of
Black's Fork of Green river, was one of the famous posts of
the West. Its history, however, belongs to the emigration
period and it was founded in the very year which has been
designated as the dividing line between this period and that
of the fur trade. It has the further distinction of being
founded by one of the most noted characters which either
period produced. Fortunately we have the founder's own
account of the establishment of the post (Letter from James
Bridger to Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Dec. 10,1843). It is as follows : " I have established a small fort with a blacksmith
shop and a supply of iron in the road of the emigrants on
Black's Fork of Green river which promises fairly. They, in
coming out, are generally well supplied with money, but by
the time they get there are in want of all kinds of supplies.
Horses, provisions, smith work, etc., bring ready cash from
them, and should I receive the goods hereby ordered will do
a considerable business in that way with them. The same
establishment trades with the Indians in the neighborhood,
who have mostly a good number of beaver among them."
There is no more important landmark in the history of the
West than the event thus described.
Fort Bonneville or Bonneville's Fort are names applied
to a rude stockade which Captain Bonneville built on the
right bank of Green river, five miles above the mouth of
Horse creek, early in August, 1832. Though apparently
commenced with a view of making it a trading post it was
abandoned as soon as built and was never of any consequence whatever in the trade. The trappers called it " Fort
Nonsense," or"" Bonneville's Folly."
We are fortunate in having a detailed description of this mm
FORT  BONNEVILLE.
973
establishment from the pen of one who saw it during construction and the year following. It is from Life in the
Rocky Mountains, by W. A. Ferris: " This establishment
was doubtless intended for a permanent trading post by its
projector, who has, however, since changed his mind and
quite abandoned it. From the circumstances of a great deal
of labor having been expended in its construction, and the
works shortly after their completion deserted, it is frequently
called f Fort Nonsense.' It is situated in a fine open plain,
on a rising spot of ground, about three hundred yards from
Green river on the west side, commanding a view of the
plains for several miles up and down that stream. On the
opposite side of the fort, about two miles distant, there is a
fine willowed creek, called Horse creek, flowing parallel
with Green river, and emptying into it about five miles below
the fortification. The view from the fort in one direction
is terminated by a bold hill rising to a height of several
hundred feet on the opposite side of the creek, and extending
in a line parallel with it. Again on the east side of the river,
an abrupt bank appears rising from the water's edge, and
extends several miles above and below, till the hills, jutting
in on the opposite side of the river, finally conceal it from
sight. The fort presents a square enclosure, surrounded by
posts or pickets of a foot or more in diameter firmly set in
the ground close to each other and about fifteen feet in
length. At two of the corners diagonally opposite to each
other block houses of unhewn logs are so constructed and
situated as to defend the square outside of the pickets and
hinder the approach of an enemy from any quarter. The
prairie in the vicinity of the fort is covered with fine grass,
and the whole together seems well calculated for the security
both of men and horses."
Ashley's Fort was a temporary trading house, said to have
been built in 1825, on the west shore of Utah Lake near
where Provo, Utah, now stands. It was to this point that
Ashley is supposed to have hauled his wheeled cannon in
1826.
- 974
FORT  HALL.
Fort Hall was built by Nathaniel J. Wyeth in the year
1834 on the left bank of the Snake river, a little above the
mouth of the Portneuf. The circumstances of its founding
have been fully outlined in the chapters on Wyeth's enterprise in Part II. of this work. Its history as a trading post
is almost entirely associated with the Hudson Bay Company,
to whom Wyeth sold it in 1836. It was an exceedingly important point during the emigration period, and later became
a military post of considerable note.
Fort Henry was built by Andrew Henry in the fall of
1810 on Henry Fork of Snake river, near the mouth of the
Teton, and probably near where the village of Egin, Idaho,
now stands. It was abandoned by Henry in the spring of
1811, and was occupied for ten days by Hunt and the overland Astorians in October of that year. Nothing is known
of it after this time. It consisted only of two or three log
houses.
Camp Defiance " on the supposed waters of the Bonaven-
tura " is the description of a trading locality mentioned by
William L. Sublette in his application for a trading license
for the year 1832.
Astoria was the Pacific Fur Company post on the Columbia river. For its history see the chapters on Astoria, Part
II. I
Fort William was a post established by Nathaniel J.
Wyeth on the upper end of Wappatoo Island, at the mouth
of the Willamette river, in the winter of 1834-5. It was
occupied only for a short time. See chapter on Wyeth's
enterprise, Part II.
This list will not describe the Hudson Bay Company posts
which were located within what is now United States territory, for the reason that their history, except as related
to the Astorian enterprise, is not a part of this work. There
were nine of these posts besides Fort Hall—Vancouver, Nis-
qually, Simcoe, Walla Walla, Okanagan, Spokane Flathead,
Owen, Boise, and possibly one or two others. Of these
Okanagan, Spokane, and the Flathead post were founded by
the Astorians. G.
THE FORT.TECUMSEH AND PIERRE JOURNAL.
Below are some extracts from the daily journal kept at
Fort Tecumseh and its successor, Fort Pierre, which give as
clear a picture as can now be had of the kind of life led at a
fur trading post of the better class.    The year is 1832.
" Saturday, [March] 3rd. Fair, pleasant weather. Mr.
Laidlaw and the Indians went out to surround [hunt buffalo]. They returned at 1 P. M., having killed meat
enough to load their horses.
" Sunday, 4th. Moderate and cloudy with rain at intervals. Gabriel V. Fipe and five Indians arrived from White
river post with seven horses and mules and two hundred
buffalo tongues.    .    .    .
" Wednesday, 7th. Weather continues the same as yesterday. Several Indians of Gens de Poches band arrived
on a begging visit. The Blackfeet Indians [Sioux band]
who arrived yesterday left us today. One of them stole a
kettle; we fortunately missed it before the fellow had pro>
ceeded far. Mr. Laidlaw and some Indians went out after
them and succeeded in recovering the kettle. The Gens de
Poches, who arrived today, say that Baptiste Dorion has
been lately killed by a Sawon Indian; but we have reason to
suppose the story to be fictitious.    .
I Friday, 9th. A continuation of fair, pleasant weather.
Five more lodges Yanctons arrived and camped. There is
now about three feet of water on top of the Missouri ice.
Two men arrived from Cedar island. They were obliged to
leave their plank [for new fort] and trains on the way—
the ice being so bad that they could not travel on it.    .    .    .
"Tuesday, 13th.    Still continue strong gales from the mm
|p
•lill-
976
FINE,   PLEASANT   WEATHER.
north and colder, but the weather is now clear and the
Indians are crossing on the ice in great numbers with robes
to trade (Gens de Poches).    .    .    .
"Friday, 16th. Strong north winds, cold and cloudy,
with snow at intervals. Baptiste Defond arrived last evening from the Sawon post with horses and mules.    .    .    .
" Sunday, 18th. Moderate and clear. Two Indians arrived from WThite river post with a letter from Mr. Papin,
the commandant.
" Monday, 19th. Mild and clear throughout the day.
Nothing new.    Finished duplicate ledger.
" Tuesday, 20th. Still mild and pleasant weather. Employes making packs and pressing them.    .    .    .
" Friday, 23rd. Still continues fine weather. Most of
the lodges left us today. They have gone up the Little Missouri [Teton]. The Missouri ice broke up at this place
today.    .    .    .
" Wednesday, 28th. Same weather as yesterday. Ice
still drifting a little. Missouri four feet above low water
mark. Mr. Picotte and a voyageur arrived from the Navy
Yard in a canoe.    .    .    .
" Friday, 30th. Fine weather. Ice commenced drifting
at 9 P. M., and the water rose about four feet from sunrise
to sunset. In the morning Baptiste Defond departed down
stream to meet the steamboat Yellowstone.    .    .    .
"Tuesday [April], 3rd. Moderate and pleasant. Missouri still rising. It is now eight and one-half feet above
low water mark. Last evening J. Jewett arrived here from
the Ogallala post with horses and mules, in all sixteen.
I Wednesday, 4th. A continuation of fine, pleasant
weather.
" Thursday, 5th. Same weather as yesterday. Messrs.
Laidlaw and Halsey moved up with their baggage to the
new fort [Pierre].
" Friday, 6th. Still fine and pleasant. Hands employed
variously. Two men arrived from the Yankton post with*
three horses.    They report the arrival of Mr. P. D. Papin mm
umm
A   MURDER   ON   CHEYENNE   RIVER.
977
at the mouth of the White river with two skin canoes laden
with buffalo robes.
| Saturday, 7th. Mr. William Dickson arrived from
Riviere au Jacques with twelve packs furs.
I Sunday, 8th. Two men arrived from the Navy Yard
with the news that the Indians have stolen all the company's
horses at that place.
" Monday, 9th. Clear and moderate with north wind.
Missouri falling fast. On the 6th inst. the water was so
high that the old fort was nearly surrounded with water.
Employed variously hauling property from the old fort, etc.,
etc. At 11 A. M. five skin canoes loaded, with buffalo
robes under charge of Colin Campbell arrived from the
Ogallala post on Cheyenne river. They bring news of the
murder of Francois Querrel by Frederick Laboue, the company's trader at Cherry river. Laboue arrived in the
canoes.    .    .
" Wednesday, 1 ith. Moderate north winds and pleasant.
Several Sawons arrived last evening. The Missouri rising.    .    .    .
" Friday, 13th. Strong northerly winds and pleasant.
Mr. Dickson left for Riviere au Jacques.    .    .    .
I Friday, 20th. We had a shower of rain in the morning.
At 10 A. M. it cleared off. Hands employed variously.
At 3 P. M. four men arrived from the Navy Yard. Buffalo
in sight from the houses. Mr. Laidlaw and some Indians
went out and they returned at 4 P. M., having killed four
cows.
"Saturday, 21st. Calm and cloudy. Sent off Campbell
and twenty-two men to Cherry river to bring down the
peltries at that place.
" Sunday, 22nd. Clear and moderate winds from the
northwest.
Monday, 23rd.    Fair, pleasant weather.
Tuesday, 24th.    Same weather as yesterday.
Wednesday,  25th.    A  continuation of fine,  pleasant
weather.    Nothing new.
n
u
« i1 m
978
ARRIVALS   WITH   FURS.
"Thursday, 26th.    Still fine, pleasant weather.
" Friday, 27th. Weather same as yesterday. At five
o'clock P. M. Messrs. McKenzie, Kipp, and Bird with nine
Blackfeet [Sihasapa] Indians arrived in a bateau from Fort
Union. McKenzie brought down one hundred and eleven
packs of beaver skins.    .    .    .
" Wednesday, [May] 2nd. Cloudy with rain at intervals.
Mr. Cerre arrived yesterday from the Yanctonnais with
ninety odd packs robes. Hands employed making and
pressing them.
" Thursday, 3rd. Clear and pleasant.. Nothing new.
Hands employed pressing packs, etc., etc The Indians are
now coming in every day to trade
" Friday, 4th. Moderate and clear. Mr. Bird and the
Indians returned from the Sawon camp.    .    .    .
1 Monday, 7th. Moderate winds and disagreeable rainy
weather. Colin Campbell, with eleven skin canoes laden
with buffalo robes, arrived from Cherry river. Mr. Campbell, while at Cherry river, disinterred the body of the
deceased F. Querrel; and, as seven wounds were found in
the body, Frederick Laboue was put in irons immediately
on the arrival of the canoes.    .    .    .
"Friday, nth. Fair, pleasant weather. Sent off two
men to the Rees with goods for the trade of those Indians.
Pierre Ortubize and two men left in a skiff in search of the
steamboat. Hands employed in making and pressing
packs.
" Monday, 14th. Clear and pleasant. Crossed sixty-
four horses to the other side of the Missouri. At 4 P.
M. had a thunder shower. Indians coming in from every
quarter to trade.    .    .    .
"Thursday, 17th. Clear and fine. Employed crossing
horses for Fort Union, etc., etc.    .    .    .
" Saturday, 19th. Still continues clear and pleasant
weather. But no news of consequence. At 4 P. M. two
men arrived.    Halsey's child was born.    .    .    .
" Monday, 21st.    Clear and pleasant.    Sent off twenty mmm
ARRIVAL   OF   THE
"YELLOWSTONE."
979
men to the Navy Yard to cut timber and bring it down on
rafts.
" Tuesday, 22nd. Fine, pleasant weather. Mr. Fontenelle, with twenty men and a number of horses, arrived here
from St. Louis. They bring news of the steamboat Yellowstone.    She is now between this place and the Poncas.
" Wednesday, 23rd. Cloudy with rain at intervals.
Eighteen men arrived from steamboat Yellowstone. She is
stopped for want of water about sixty miles below White
river. William Dickson and family arrived from Riviere
au Jacques.    .    .    .
" Friday, 25th. Clear and fine. Baptiste Defond arrived from the steamboat at the Big Bend. Messrs. McKenzie, Fontenelle, and others left here in a keelboat to
meet her.    .    .    .
"Thursday, 31st. Same weather as yesterday. Missouri still rising. Four men arrived from White River post
with horses, robes, etc.    Steamboat Yellowstone arrived at
5p.m.... mm I
" Tuesday, [June] 5th. Fine and pleasant weather.
Steamboat Yellowstone left here for Ft. Union. Water
falling.
" Wednesday,   6th.    Fine  and  pleasant  weather.    Mr.
Fontenelle left here with forty odd men for Ft. Union and,
one  hundred   and ten or fifteen   horses.    Water   rising.
•        •        •
I Monday, nth. Fine weather with south winds. Keelboat Flora left here for Fort Union with a cargo of merchandise, etc. Keelboat Male Twin left here for the Navy
Yard to bring down timber.
I Friday, 15th. Hot and sultry the first part of the day.
Keelboat Male Twin arrived from the Navy Yard. Latter
part of the day we had a fine, refreshing shower. I forgot
to say that four bateaux also arrived from the Navy Yard
today. They, as well as the Male Twin, were loaded with
pickets for the fort.    .    .    .
\ Sunday, 17th.    Keelboat Male Twin and four bateaux
m •draft   „<
98O
SHIPMENT   OF   FURS.
conducted by Mr. Honore Picotte left here for St. Louis
loaded with 1,410 packs buffalo robes.
"Wednesday, 20th. Fine, pleasant weather with moderate southerly winds. The Missouri still rising. It is now
nearly over the bank. Joseph Jewett, who left here on the
10th, arrived today from the Ogallalas with dry meat,
lodges, etc. 480 lbs. dry meat was left here in the spring,
but the wolves broke into the house and ate it all except about
20 pieces.    .    .    .
I Sunday, 24th. Steamboat Yellowstone arrived from
Ft. Union.    Sent down 600 packs robes on board of her.
'*' Monday,. 25th. Steamboat Yellowstone left us for St.
Louis with a cargo of 1,300 packs robes and beaver. Mr.
Laidlaw went on board. He is to go down as far as Sioux
agency and return by land. Ortubize has got a keg of
whiskey and is continually drunk himself and he tries to
make as many of the men drunk as will drink with him.
" Sunday, [July] ist. Messrs. Laidlaw and Dickson left
us for Lac Traverse in quest of some Canadian Pork Eaters
expected here this summer.    Castorigi sick and off duty.
" Sunday, 8th. Same weather as yesterday, with the
exception of a light shower in the morning. At 2 P. M.
Messrs. Brown, Durand, and two Americans (all beaver
trappers) arrived with about a pack of beaver.
" Monday, 9th. Fine weather; at 6 A. M. Henry Hart
arrived from Ft. Union with three bateaux loaded with
robes, etc. Loaded one boat with 120 packs beaver and
other skins and put on board of another 30 packs of robes.
She is to take on 120 or 130 packs at Yancton post.
" Tuesday, 10th. Strong gales from the north. Four
bateaux ready to start for St. Louis, but they were detained
here all day by the wind.
" Wednesday, nth. Four bateaux laden with 355 packs
buffalo robes and 10,230 lbs. beaver skins left here for St.
Louis.    They will take in 120 or 130 packs robes at Yancton mmm
mg/mmmmmm
CATLIN   AT   FORT   PIERRE.
981
post.    Water rising fast.   It is now five  feet  above low
water mark.    .    .    .
" Thursday, 19th. Jewett and Ortubize returned from
hunting, having killed two bulls. On their arrival on this
side of the river, we discovered two more bulls on the opposite side, when we immediately recrossed them. At night
they returned, having killed one more bull.
j Friday, 20th. Cloudy, and hot, sultry weather. Vas-
seau and two men belonging to Le Clerc Company arrived
at the mouth of Teton river for the purpose of building and
establishing a trading house there. Leclaire and a few
men arrived here from Fort Lookout.    .    .    .
i Sunday, 29th. Pleasant weather and light northerly
winds. At 10 A. M., Mr. Laidlaw arrived on the other side
from the east with 36 Pork Eaters. He lost two on the
road. Employed the greatest part of the day crossing the
men and their baggage. At 12 M. Cardinal Grant arrived
from the Yancton post.    .    .
" Thursday, August 2nd. Calm and pleasant. Plenty
of buffalo. Mr. Laidlaw went out to hunt them and killed
three.    .    .    .
I Saturday, 4th. Four Brule Indians arrived in search
of a trader. They are encamped five days' march from
this.    .    .    .
" Monday, 6th. Baptiste Dorion, Charles Primeau, and
Hipolite Neissel left here this morning with four Indians,
who arrived on the 4th with Mdse., to trade meat, etc., etc.
Sent up Ortubize to the Navy Yard (or shanty) [Chantier]
to hunt for our men at work there.    .    .    .
" Tuesday, 14th. Messrs. Catlin and Bogart arrived
from Ft. Union on their way to St. Louis.
"Wednesday, 15th. A fine, pleasant day. Baptiste Dorion and G. P. Cerre arrived from the Brule camps, with
dry meat, robes, etc.
" Thursday, 16th. Light southerly winds. Mr. Catlin
left us for St. Louis, accompanied by Mr. Bogart, in a skiff.
I Friday, 17th.   A fine, pleasant day, with a refreshing
tl ;
982
DORION   KILLS  AN   INDIAN.
shower in the evening. In the early part of the day news
was brought in of a band of buffalo not being far from the
fort. Consequently a party went out to hunt them. Baptiste Dorion was one of the party; they all returned without
killing any buffalo; but Dorion fell in with a Stiaago [ ?]
Indian riding off with one of the Company horses. After
a little scuffle he killed the Indian and we got back the horse.
We suppose he was a Ree. Dorion did not fire at the Indian
till he had fired two arrows at him.
" Saturday, 18th. Hot, sultry weather. Hands employed variously. Finished hay-making and have five mud
chimneys under way. Brown arrived from the lumber
yards, also two rafts of timber.    .    .    .
"Tuesday, 21st. Weather as yesterday. At 11 A. M.
Mr. Brown arrived from the lumber yards. Two of the
men there, Louis Turcot and James Durant, having stolen
a canoe and deserted last evening. Mr. Brown, with one
man, left here in a canoe at 12 M. in pursuit of them. Several lodges, Yanctons and Esontis [ ?] arrived on the other
side the Missouri and camped there.
" Thursday, 23rd. Fine weather. Mr. Brown arrived
with the two deserters, Turcot and Durant. He caught
them in the middle of the Big Bend.
" Friday, 24th. A continuation of fine, pleasant weather.
Twelve or thirteen lodges Indians crossed the river and
camped alongside of us. Commenced planting the pickets
of the fort.    .    .    .
" Sunday, Sept. 9th. Southerly winds and pleasant
weather. The prairies are on fire in every direction. G. P.
Cerre arrived from the Sawon Camp.
" Monday, 24th. Laidlaw, Halsey, Campbell, Demaney,
and an Indian left for Sioux agency, near Fort Lookout, and
on
1 Sunday, the 30th, they returned, accompanied by Dr.
Martin, who visits this place for the purpose of vaccinating
the Indians. Messrs. McKenzie and Fontenelle, with several others, arrived from Ft. Union in a bateau, having M KENZIE  FROM   FORT  UNION.
983
on board about 6,000 lbs. beaver skins. In the evening Wm.
Dickson arrived from River Bois Blanc in quest of Mdse.
for the trade there."
'.,- *3g*^<«-;
H.
JOURNAL OF A STEAMBOAT VOYAGE FROM ST.
LOUIS TO FORT UNION.
The journal which follows, like that which has just been
given, affords a better idea of one of the peculiar features of
fur trade life than can be had in any other way. The navigation of the Missouri river was a science sui generis. The
reader will note especially the hourly presence of serious
obstacles, such as sand bars and snags; the great annoyance
from winds and storms; and the overshadowing importance
of the wood question. He will also note how few of the old
river names still survive, and how many " forts " or trading
houses were then in existence whose very names are now
utterly forgotten.
The following statistics show the rate of speed made by
the vessels whose annual voyages are recorded in the Sire
Journal. The distance from St. Louis to Fort Union was
about 1,760 miles:
In 1841
In 1842
In 1843
In 1844
In 1845
In 1846
In 1847
the trip
the trip
the trip
the trip
the trip
the trip
the trip
up consumed
up consumed
up consumed
up consumed
up consumed
up consumed
up consumed
80 days and the trip down 21 days.
76 days and the trip down 22 days.
49 days and the trip down 15 days.
54 days and the trip down 16 days.
42 days and the trip down 15 days.
44 days and the trip down 31 days.
40 days and the trip down 14 days.
The trip of 1847 was the shortest both ways of those here
given. The average daily speed up was 44 miles: down.
123 miles. THE  STEAMBOAT   "OMEGA."
985
log of steamboat omega, from St. Louis to Fort Union,
1843-
Joseph A. Sire, Master.
Joseph La Barge, Pilot.
Among the passengers were the Naturalist Audubon and
party.
(Translated from the original French.)
April 25. Tuesday. Left St. Louis at 11 A. M. Water
high but falling slightly. Current strong. We make slow
progress. Reach St. Charles at 4 o'clock next morning,
when we put Sarpy on shore, who returns to St. Louis.
April 26. Wednesday. Set out at 6 A. M. Current
still strong. Took wood twice. The steamboat Rowena
passed us at the entrance to the channel along Bonhomme
Island. Met the Troja at Leve Cul. Camped at South
Point at 8:30 P. M. The river is undoubtedly in fine condition for night running; but it is dark and the weather
threatening. Moreover, we have too much to lose to risk
our cargo for the sake of gaining a little time.
April 27. Thursday. Set out rather late. At times
our progress was very slow. It was 9 P. M. when we
passed Portland. As the weather is clear we run all night.
Passed the mouth of the Osage at day-b>reak.
April 28. Friday. The current still strong and the river
rising. Passed Jefferson City, where we met the Mary
Tompkins and the Weston going to St. Louis. Wooded*
at 11 A. M., 9 miles above Jefferson City. Much difficulty
in finding wood. We found some by chance, 4^ cords,
below the large island 4 miles below Rocheport We tried
in vain to stem the current along the bluffs (de monter les
cotes). At 10 P. M. I decided to put to shore on a little
island in order not to consume our wood to no purpose.
We had the good fortune to find some poles (perches) and
I had 300 brought on board.
April 29.    Saturday.    Set out as soon as it was light,
*
I
/j 986
CROSSWISE   OF   THE   CHANNEL.
which enabled us to take some advantage of the current.
We succeeded in ascending. Wood still scarce and poor.
Stopped at Boonville to take on Booker, a mulatto. Passed
Glasgow at 7 o'clock. Great difficulty in doubling the point
opposite the mouth of the Chariton. Camped on the island
below Old Jefferson at 9 :i5 P. M. I send the yawl to look
for some poles.
April 30. Sunday. Set out at 4 A. M. Current still
strong, and to cap the climax the wind rises with incredible
force. It is useless to try to keep on, and we put to shore 4
miles from our last camp, where, most fortunately, we find
poles and dry mulberry, which permits us to fill the boat.
At 1 P. M. the wind seems to moderate. We set out, and
thanks to the wood which we had chopped and the poles
we had taken, we get along very well. As the night is fine
we continue our voyage, and at break of day are at the
1 Coupe du Petits O." Took 5 cords of wood at Fine's.
Passed Lexington at the dinner hour, where we were overtaken by the John Auld, which pushed along by.
May 1. Monday. Current still strong. Overtook the
John Auld at camp, where we took 6 cords of wood and then
lay to for the night at the head of the chute.
May 2. Tuesday. Set out before day. It seems that
we are making better progress. In fact, since the water is
falling the current is less strong. Stop at Owen's, where I
take 12 barrels flour for Richardson. Stopped at Liberty
Landing for dispatches from Mr. Laidlaw, and at Madame
Chouteau's, where I find everything abandoned. Passed
the bad place at the mouth of the Kansas river after sunset.
The weather was so fine that I decided to run all night. At
6 A. M. we reached Leavenworth.
May 3. Wednesday. Set out at 8 A. M. We got along
well, although often slowly. At 4 P. M. we reached the
little island below village 24. In order to avoid a bad chute
on the right we took the left hand channel and had the misfortune to run aground. We got ourselves clear once, but
had the misfortune to get fast crosswise the channel.    It FRIGHTFUL  GALES.
987
rained and blew in a frightful manner. We were compelled to stay where we were for the night in the hope of
extricating ourselves in the morning.
May 4. Monday. We get clear, but by a false maneuver
of the pilot we get aground again. Broke our large cable.
Finally succeeded in getting off by shoving the stern around.
The wind blows with incredible force, and we have to pass
a place very dangerous on account of snags. We remain at
the bank until 6 P. M., and finally camp at the wood yard
above village 24.
May 5. Friday. Set out at day-break. Took o cords
of wood 400 yards farther on. The strong wind annoys us
much. Arrived at Robidoux [Blacksnake Hills or St.
Joseph] at 1 P. M. and remained there an hour taking 5
cords of wood, 10 barrels lard, and some provisions. The
wind increases. We enter the Nadowa chute We have
hard work to overcome the wind at Nadowa Island, and it
is with difficulty that we arrive opposite our last year's encampment at 8 P. M.
May 6. Friday. The wind blows frightfully all night,
with such violence that it seems as though the smoke-stacks
would be blown down. It moderates a little at sun rise and
we set out. We do not go far before it blows as strong as
it did before. We land to cut some axe helves and get a little wood. It is one o'clock when we resume our journey,
and in spite of wind and current we arrive at the Iowas at
sunset, where I discharge the freight for the agent. We go
on to Jeffrey's Point, where I take 10 cords of wood for
which I give an order upon the House for $20.
May 7. Sunday. We set out at day-break. Good
wood, calm weather, and good progress. Passed the Grand
Nemaha (Tapon Glaire) and stopped at Brown's at Nishna-
botana, where I take 5 cords of wood that I do not pay for.
(I forgot to say that we chopped some wood at the point
above Tapon Glaire.) Passed the Little Nemaha, where
we were obliged de muler pour prendre a droite.   We lost 988
BOAT  INSPECTED   FOR  LIQUOR.
fully an hour. Finally we camped at a point on the left in
view of Long Island.
May 8. Monday. We made good progress as far as to
Beau Soleil Island, where we tried in vain to pass to the
right along the prairie. It was necessary to take the old
channel. Took 8j^ cords of wood at Hank Roberts. We
found everything carried off by the water at Akays (?).
Passed to the left de I'Jsle de VEtroit; passed the Grand
deboulis. A little farther all the houses are demolished by
the flood. Passed Table river. Stopped at McPherson's,
where we bought and cut some wood, and finally went into
camp opposite the mouth of the Weeping Water.
May 9. Tuesday. Passed Trudeau Island, Five Barrels
Island, la Purre a Calumet, L Oeil de fer. I find no wood.
I decide to have some cut a little further on.
Tried the left hand channel, where the steamboat Pirate was
lost, but could not get through. Tried the right hand, but
it was shallow, bouleverse and full of sand bars. Found 5
cords of wood at Baptiste Le Clair's, which we took.
Crossed to Abbadie's, where we put off his freight. Went
on to L'Issue, where I put off freight for the sutler and for
Captain Burgwin. Set out at 7 P. M. and camped above
the bad sand bar near the marsh at Hart's cut-off at 9 P. M.
May 10. Wednesday. We progressed finely as far as
Hart's Bluffs (cotes a Hart), where, at 7 A. M., we were
summoned by an officer and four dragoons to land. I
received a polite note from Captain Burgwin, informing me
that his duty obliged him to make an inspection of the boat.
We put ourselves to work immediately, while Mr. Audubon
goes to call upon the Captain. They return in about two
hours. I compel, as it were (en quelque sort), the officer to
make the strictest possible inspection, but on the condition
that he would do the same with the other traders. I have the
men chop 15 cords of Hard vert for the return trip. Heaven
knows if it will be there when I get back. Resumed our
journey at noon. Passed the house of Mr. Cabanne, Boyer
river, Fort Manuel, and stopped for the night at the head of ROSIN   TO   MAKE  WOOD  BURN.
989
Four-house Cut-off in the hope of finding wood there. I
was cruelly disappointed. There is nothing but some elms
there, which will be very difficult to split. I dread to use
drift wood, but we shall have to come to it and will use rosin
to make it burn.
May 11. Thursday. We soon find some drift wood,
which we proceed to cut, since there is no other kind in this
country. As I expected, it will burn only by the aid of rosin.
Passed Soldier river. Proceeded slowly on account of the
wood. Cut some more wood, which was worse than the
other. It is almost impossible to keep going. We camp at
8:30 P. M. Tomorrow I hope to find some ash at Little
Sioux river.   The water rose 5 feet last night.
May 12. Friday. Scarcely had we started when we
were obliged to lay to on account of the fog. Started again
half an hour later. Found the difficult chute of the Little
River of the Sioux stopped up, and the channel passing
through the mud bars. Stopped at the end of the long
straight stretch and chopped some ash. It is a good place
for this kind of wood. Passed Pratt cut-off, Wood's bluffs,
and camped at Blackbird. The water rose last night 2j4
feet.
May 13. Saturday. Just as we were on the points of
starting a fog arose, which compelled us to remain in camp
until 6:30 A. M. During this time I had some ash cut.
Came on in good shape. Passed McClellan's Bluffs, where
a cut-off has formed on the opposite side, which saves two
or three miles. Chopped some Hard sec below the prairie,
where the Omaha village stands. Passed this prairie.
Chopped some more wood about 3 miles below Sergeant's
Bluffs. There is enough here for several years. Passed
Setting Sun Bluffs. Camped at the mouth of the Big Sioux.
It is wretched weather, rainy and windy. Last night the
river stopped rising.
May 14. Sunday. We depart before day break by
moonlight. The weather is uncertain all the morning. At
11:30 A. M. we stopped at the point where we arrested 4
.  .   . 990
UN   COURANT D  ENFERS.
deserters two years ago, and loaded the boat with dry wood.
We push on at i :30 P. M., but the wind, which had risen
with incredible force, and the strength of the current (for
the water commenced to rise again last night) made us give
it up. I had the boat put to shore and set the men to cutting
wood for the return trip. Instead of subsiding the wind
increases. It is rather a hurricane. I am momentarily in
fear that the smoke stacks will fall down. If this wind continues it will be a sleepless night (nuit blanche) for me.
May 15. Monday. The wind continues* to blow as hard
as yesterday. I set the men to cutting bois de Hard again.
At about 3 P. M. the wind seems to soften. In case it continues [to fall?] I will have the boilers pumped up so that
we may be ready if it falls enough. We set out, but Great
Heaven, how slow we go! Often we drift backward by the
force of the current. We come as far as to the foot of the
bluffs of Little Iowa river. Last night the river rose 14
inches, and I think that it is still rising. The Omega does
all she can, but she is too heavily loaded to continue against
a strong current like this, and the wind of this country,
which is almost always strong.
May 16. Tuesday. The river rose 11 inches last night,
and consequently we have a h—1 of a current (un courant
d'enfers). It is 11:30 A. M. when we reach the Vermillion
houses. We set out again at 12:30, after having taken on
some wood which I left there last year; but scarcely had we
doubled the point of the island when the engineer announced
the sad news that one of our boilers had burned out. We
have to tie up, and I much fear that we shall be here a part
of tomorrow. I set the men to cutting green Hard, which
will be of use, if not for the return trip, then for next year.
May 17. Wednesday. We remain here longer than I
thought we should, for at the hour of this writing we have
not finished [the repairs]. I have more wood cut and we
have 50 to 60 cords. The water, which had risen last night,
has commenced falling since dinner. May it so continue
until we reach Fort Pierre. fl
^s. LAID  UP   FOR   REPAIRS.
99*
May 18. Thursday. It takes us another day to complete
our repairs. This is due to the difficulty of introducing
rivets between the flues and the wall of the boiler. The
water continues to fall rapidly — 3 feet since yesterday
noon. Messrs. Laidlaw and Drips passed down at 8 o'clock
with 4 Mackinaw boats. I write to the house and Mr.
Audubon sends his dispatches.
May 19. Friday. We push on at day break. We find
the current still strong in spite of the fall of water. Lost
considerable time in passing the mouth of the Vermillion.
It is necessary to sound, and we find only 4J4 feet. Cut 8
or 10 cords of.wood at the first point on the left above the
Vermillion. We find the channel which follows the bluffs
below the Petit Arc extremely bad (there is considerable
ash at this place). We cut some more dry Hard at the
beginning of the point below the Perkins' woods. We went
into camp at the said woods.
May 20. Saturday. The water fell only 2j^ inches last
night. We set out at break of day in spite of wind and rain,
which hinder us a great deal. We arrive at noon at the
ash point on the right going up, below Bonhomme Island.
It is useless to try to chop any: the water has flooded everything. I am seriously embarrassed; when opposite the
entrance to the Bonhomme channel we find enough dry
Hard to fill the boat. It is half past three. All day long the
wind blows as it only can on the upper Missouri. Often we
scarcely move at all. We pass to the left of the island.
The water is shallow and swift. Finally we come to the
first prairie to the right, where there is a good quantity of
drift.    Camped at 8130.
May 21. Sunday. Set out at 3:15 A. M. The wind
blew all night and is blowing still. We still see a good deal
of drift wood, but we are not in need of any. Passed Manuel river and Bazille river. A little below we saw a band
of cows [buffalo], something that has not been seen here for
many years. At 10 A. M. we arrive at Fort Mitchell, where
we cut dry wood from the pickets, houses and fences.    If
11
to /
992
A  VOLLEY  FROM   SHORE*
the Indians or others do not burn this establishment, there
will be enough dry wood there for two or three years.
Resumed our voyage at n A. M., but the wind, which
increases, retards us considerably. Passed Chouteau river.
There the wind becomes almost irresistible. Nevertheless
we enter the channel of Ponca Island, but at the head of the
island, where the bluffs rise directly from the water (trem-
pent a I'eau), we are forced to stop. I land on the island
and go to cutting green wood, which will be of use on the
return trip or next year. It is 3 P. M. Finally, toward 6
o'clock, the wind seems to moderate. We set out and follow those interminable bluffs, which trempent a I'eau, and go
into camp on the opposite shore at the commencement of the
prairie at 8:30 P. M. Last night the water fell only an
inch and a half.
May 22. Monday. We push out at 3 A. M. Passed
the town at 4:30. All along the bluffs (cotes), where it is
shallow, we move slowly. Cut more wood at 6 A. M., some
miles below Handy's. It is necessary to take wood
wherever one can find it. In passing Handy's point a party
of savages fired a volley at us, two shots of which passed
through the men's cabin. Fortunately no one was hit. It
is probably those rascally Santees; no one else would be
capable of such an attack. We had much difficulty in passing the point of oaks opposite the river Pratte. We had to
sound, and found only 4 feet large. During this time I had
some oak wood cut, poor fuel for steam. Finally we lay to
at 8 P. M. at Little Cedar Island. It will be necessary to
chop some wood in the morning, notwithstanding that we
have commenced this evening.
May 23. Tuesday. After cutting some wood we set
out at 5 130 A. M. Cedar Island is no longer worth the
trouble of stopping there, since it is impracticable to land
where the best wood is. Took the same route as last year;
passed to the right of Snag Island (Isle aux Chicots).
Took on board the hunters whom I sent out last night.
Passed the Three Islands safely, but opposite the Bijoux
X A  BROKEN   SPAR.
993
Hills at Desire Island I plunge into the sand bars and soon
we are aground athwart the current. Our spars break and it
is dark before Durack returns with others. We will begin
again tomorrow morning. The heat has been unsupport-
able all day.    Thermometer 92 °.
May 24. Wednesday. We find the boat in the morning
pretty much in the same situation. We set at work immediately and are just about to get afloat again when one of
the spars breaks, and we are obliged to send 2 miles to look
for another on an island where they are very scarce. It is
10 A. M. and the yawl has not yet returned. We
met La Charite, who is descending the river in a skin canoe
with goods for the Poncas and brings me a letter from Mr.
Honore Picotte. The yawl returns at last and we succeed
in extricating ourselves, but we go aground again, again get
off, and after having sounded again find only one passage
and that a doubtful one. We lurch and break one of our
rudders, but 10 minutes afterward we are afloat. We put to
shore to mend the rudder, and meanwhile I have some wood
cut from drift. At 6 P. M. we resume our journey and
come to the head of the Bijoux Hills before night, where I
send out men to chop a little wood. The river continues to
fall slowly. The wind has changed to the N. W., and it has
turned cold.
May 25. Thursday. We did not get off until 6 A. M.
because I had a full load of dry wood taken on. The wind
rises with rain and the weather is frightful. We are obliged
to stop and sound before we reach John's Bluffs. We run
with difficulty on 4 feet of water. The river has fallen considerably and in many places we find no more water than
we have to have. Passed White river. At American river
(Riviere des Americans) we spend a good deal of time in
sounding. At the head of the channel at Cedar Island we
find no way out. Nevertheless, Desire, whom I send to
sound, reports 4.4 feet.   We shall try it tomorrow morning.
May 26. Friday. We are a little late in starting, for it
is very necessary to see clearly before leaving the channel. aaana
/
994
AUDUBON   CROSSES  THE  GREAT  BEND.
R/f
i
Sent out the yawl. Found the same depth again, 4ft. 4
inches. Passed through. Stopped at the foot of the bluffs
below Fort Lookout, where we cut more cedar, which we
have to go a good way for. We had much trouble at two
places in passing Fort Lookout point. We passed to the
right of Deslaurier's Island for the first time. I believe that
the [good] water was that way last year, but it did not suit
Francis [pilot] to try it, and I was compelled to lighten the
boat of her whole cargo. At the head of the chute we had
to sound, and found just enough water to pass. If we drew
4 inches more we should frequently have had to lighten half
the cargo. Much trouble in passing along the bluffs below
the Great Bend. Put ashore Mr. Audubon, his companions,
and 3 men, who will camp on the other side of the Bend and
wait for us there. Chopped more drift wood and camped
at 8:15 at the first bluffs on the right going up. I forgot
to say that I have sent 3 men express to Fort Pierre with
papers for that establishment.
May 27. Saturday. Scarcely have we set out when we
consumed two hours making a crossing. A little farther it
looks for a moment as if we should be obliged to lighten the
cargo a half (it was raining in torrents), but we have the
good luck to get through. Passed the chain of rocks at
dinner time, and at 3 P. M. arrived at the head of the Great
Bend, where I have some wood cut, and Mr. Audubon and
companions return on board. We try in vain to pass to the
right of the island below the mouth of Medicine river. We
have to return and take the small channel to the left. There
is a good deal of good cedar wood at the entrance and if the
channel remains there it will be a good place to get wood.
Camped near the head of the channel at 8:30 P. M.
May 28. Sunday. As far as to the mouth of the Medicine river there is good wood. We have much difficulty
to the point where we broke our rudder last year. We get
along very well after that. I do not cut any wood at the
bluffs below the Grand Cedar Island, because I expect to
find some where I cut some last year opposite La Chapelle
^v mmrmmmmn
ARRIVAL  AT  FORT  PIERRE.
995
Island. But a large sand bar has formed there. I am compelled to stop in sight of Simeneau Island at i :30 P. M. to
cut some poor wood. Resumed our voyage at 2:15. We
got along well to Ebbitt's house, where I take on 30 packs
of robes and Major Hamilton. At the head of Simeneau
Island there is not enough water, only 3 feet large. To take
off half the cargo will not be enough. I therefore decide to
await until tomorrow morning. Perhaps some changes
will take place.
May 29. Monday. I send out to sound the channel.
No more water than yesterday, but appearances are more
favorable. Where there was no water yesterday we find 3
feet 6 inches. The gentlemen from Fort George pay us a
visit and take dinner with us.
May 30. Tuesday. In one place we find 4 feet. In the
other 3 feet 10 inches. We set to work and it is 5 P. M.
before we have passed those two cursed bars. We were
obliged to send the yawl for wood. Messrs. Picotte, Chardon, and several others arrive from the fort [Pierre].
Camped at 8 P. M. opposite Fleury Island, where we loaded
up with dry wood. Fleury, who came on board, tells me
that the river has risen 7 inches since noon.
May 31. Wednesday. It seems that we may not be able
to reach the fort [Pierre], for we shall not be able to pass
along the small island below the fort. We resolve to try the
small channel to the left, but after a long trial we are convinced that it is impossible. I send to the fort for the ferry
boat and a Mackinaw boat, and having transferred some
lead and tobacco we are able to pass up the right of the
island. We reach the fort at 3 P. M. The unloading of
the freight for this post is finished at sundown.
June 1. Thursday. I remain at the fort a part of the
forenoon on account of business. Write to the House and
to Durack with my instructions concerning the Trapper.
Crossed at 11 A. M. Took on some articles I had need of.
Gave some provisions to Durack for his journey. Cut 2
cords of drift wood and stopped for the night above old
■ 996
SHORT   OF   WOOD.
Fort George at 9:30 P. M. (There is a good deal of drift
wood at the old dirt village.)
June 2. Friday. We set out at 3 A. M. Passed the
Big Cheyenne, the island at Ash point, to the left of Assiniboine Island, where we could not land and consequently
could not take on the wood which I left there last year.
Stopped five times to take on drift wood. Passed to the
left of Little Cheyenne Island and camped about 2 miles
below the Little Cheyenne at 8:45 P. M.
June 3. Saturday. The wind blows violently all night
and has not stopped when we set out. We try to pass to the
left of Touchon Kaksah, but are obliged to go back about
2 miles and take the right hand channel, and we pass to the
head of a small willow island. We come along very well,
although there are some bad places. It is not surprising
for we are today in the worst part of the Missouri. -Stopped
at the willow island below the mouth of the Moreau at 10
A. M. and took on some very poor drift wood, but there is
no other. We try the right hand of Prele Island, where we
went down last year, but we find no way out. We go back
and take the left hand channel, where we lost 2 days last
year, and find good water. Passed Grand river, where I
thought I could land and cut up an old house for wood, but
we could not get in there. Passed the rampart and landed
opposite the little island below the old Aricara village.
The weather is threatening, and I believe a bad storm is on.
I have scarcely a cord of wood for the start tomorrow
morning, but I hope I have enough to reach the ash point
below the old village.    It is 8:30 P. M.
June 4. Sunday. We get a late start on account of our
bad wood. Stopped a little farther on at Ash point below
the old Aricara village. Stopped again at La Chapelle Point
where we take in the remains of the Primeau houses.
Passed La Bourbeuse, Fort Manuel, and camped at Pri-
meau's fort a little below Beaver river, where we load up
with cord wood, leaving some for the return trip. I note
that this side of the Bourbeuse, and even below there is a ■■ *M
EFFORTS   TO   GET  FUEL.
997
good deal of drift wood. All day we have had a north wind
which has delayed us a good deal. But for that we should
have made a much better day.
June 5. Monday. We have just enough water at the
second Beaver river crossing. Passed Cannon Ball river,
Mitchell's wintering house, Bouis' wintering house, where
we fill the boat with worthless wood, which makes me
curse all the rest of the day. It is only by the aid of rosin that
we can raise barely enough steam to keep us moving very
slowly. I have left several cords of the same wood for the
down trip. Passed Apple river, the place where the Assiniboine burned, and finally went into camp at 9:20 P. M., at
the beginning of Heart River Point. We have passed today
a good deal of drift wood between and considerably below
Bouis' wintering ground. If the water does not carry it off
between now and next year it will be very easy to get. The
water seems to be rising rapidly all day. It rose two inches
last night.
I forgot to say that we were not able to land opposite the
mouth of the Riviere au Berchet, where I had chopped some
oak wood last year. It is necessary therefore to go there
again, although the report is that the Indians have burned a
part of it.
June 6. Tuesday. We set out at day break. We lose
a good deal of time in finding the channel a little above the
mouth of Heart river. It is 9 A. M. when we get clear.
We meet Kipp with four barges at the Square Buttes. He
joins us. I write to St. Louis by the barges, care Mr. Bur-
guiere. Passed the Square Buttes, where we cut some ash
wood. Camp at the point where the Assiniboines met us
two years ago. Filled the boat with poor ash wood, which
Mr. Chardon had cut for us. All day the weather has been
miserable, rain and an east wind.
July 7. Wednesday. Bad weather continues all night.
We reach Fort Clark early. We are much delayed in getting the freight ashore, for it rains continually. The wind
rises with such force that I decide to remain here all day.
r 'mmmmm&i
998
DIVERS   EMBARRASSMENTS.
Give a feast to the Aricaras and get everything ready to
start at daybreak tomorrow.
June 8. Thursday. We are off at 2:45 A. M. We pass
safely the Grosventre bar because the water is up; otherwise
I think we should have had a hard time of it there. Stopped
with these Indians and lose an hour in being polite to them.
Passed the Great Rock. Passed the wintering ground of
the Aricaras last year, which is situated a little below
Dancing Bear, where there are three wagons which I must
take to Fort Clark on my way down. At the same time we
can cut some wood from the lodges and houses. Camped
a little above the wintering ground at 8 P. M. I have the
boat loaded with ash and dry Hard. Three times today we
have cut bois de bature. The river continues to rise. It is
high enough for a good down trip.
June 9. Friday. We set out again at the same hour.
Passed Dancing Bear an hour later. This point has de-
boulee a good deal and it will be of use to cut wood there
for the down trip. Passed without difficulty the place which
used to be so bad. The channel has improved greatly.
Passed the mouth of the Little Missouri and all the bad
places below and above the river without difficulty. Stopped
at the prairie a little below the foot of the Great Bend to
pack our cylinder. During this time we kill a cow. We
pass to the left of the little island. In passing the chute our
yawl is considerably damaged. We land for a moment to
put it on deck and during this time I have some bois de
bature cut. We get ourselves entangled in a channel tout
le long de terre, which has no outlet. We have to back out
and follow the island. We do not go far along the bluffs
qui trempent a I'eau, when we run into the same difficulty
and have to withdraw. We lie to finally at 10:30 P. M. at
the place where we cut wood every year. I will have the
boat loaded tomorrow morning.
June 10. Saturday. We cut wood until 4:30 A. M.
Stopped a moment and killed two bulls. Passed the Little
Knife river at 12 o'clock.    A little farther we cut some dry mm
ARRIVAL AT  FORT  UNION.
999
Hard. Passed the chain all right. Met four lodges of
Assiniboines at the beginning of White River Point. Again
we cut a good lot of dry Hard, little more than we cut last
year, at the upper end of the point. Met the same Indians
again at 7 P. M. Camped near the Butte au Cure at 8145
P. M.    Strong wind and rain.
June 11. Sunday. We start a little late on account of
bad weather. Cut some ash wood at 9:30. Continued our
journey at 11 o'clock. It blows strong all day and at times
we scarcely move. Do our best we cannot reach the Muddy. We camp at 9 P. M. at the foot of the bluffs below
that river. The water has fallen a little since day before
yesterday.
June 12. Monday. The water fell last night about three
inches. We set out at 3 :i5 A. M. and soon pass the Muddy.
Stopped to cut a little dry wood. We have no more.
Stopped again at 11 A. M. at the place where we usually cut
wood. We fill the boat with dry Hard. I am indeed
afraid that we shall not reach [the fort] this evening.
Wind strong and frequent rain. Finally we start at 12:45.
We make but slow progress on account of wind and current.
Passed Fort Mortimer opposite the mouth of the Yellowstone, and reached Fort Union at sunset. The water continues to fall.
June 13. Tuesday. We discharged the freight for the
fort in a short time, made some repairs, and spent the rest
of the day at the fort. The water is still falling, but not
fast.
June 14. Wednesday. It was after breakfast when we
set out [on the return trip]. Stopped a little way down
and took on enough wood, if we do not run aground, to
carry us to Fort Clark. It is 9:30 A. M. when we pass the
mouth of the Yellowstone. Made good progress the rest
of the day. Stopped for the night at 8 :i5 a little below the
mouth of Knife river. The water continued to fall last
night.
June 15.    Thursday.    As I anticipated we had a good
tW Wi
iooo
ASSINIBOINES   ABOARD.
deal of trouble at the head of the island at Little Knife river.
Run aground, worked a long while, and did not get off till
noon. We ran the Great Bend without difficulty until we
reached the island at the foot, where we ran hard aground
again and did not get off until sunset. Camped eight or ten
miles farther down. Tomorrow will be another bad day.
I forgot to say that at midnight there came on board a band
of Assiniboines who, in my inmost soul, I would like to send
to the devil. I had to pass the rest of the night with them,
and to take ten of them along with us as far as to the Grosventres.
June 16. Friday. Contrary to my expectations we did
not ground at the mouth of the Little Missouri. Stopped
opposite Dancing Bear, where I took on several wagons for
Fort Clark and also some good dry wood from Chardon's
houses. Farther down we stopped at an old village where
there was some more good wood. A little farther down we
had to cast anchor because of a break of a valve stem. We
came slowly to the bank and resume our voyage at 5 P. M.
Put off the Assiniboines at the Grosventres. We soon came
to the bad sand bar. We looked for a channel a long while
without finding a sure one. It being already late and a prospect of bad weather, I put to shore a little below the mouth
of Knife river. Tomorrow morning we must sound. River stationary last night.
June 17. Saturday. We sound the channel—scarcely
enough water, but by aid of the spars we force ourselves
over the bar. We are soon at the Mandans, where I take
on board 500 odd packs. Set out at 2:30, make good
progress. Took the rest of the wood that Chardon had had
cut; passed Heart river after sunset; struck the bar but had
the good luck to back off. Camped at the same place where
we camped on our way up on the 5th.    River stationary.
June 18. Sunday. Started a little late. Passed Cannon Ball river. Killed a cow and a bull. Wooded at Beaver river. I left four cords which were too far to go after,
and we have enough anyway, and the heat is insupportable. nmmmm
9m
AT  PIERRE  ON  DOWN   TRIP.
IOOI
In backing up we scuttled our yawl. Ran aground at the
same place, but got off soon. Put to the bank a moment.
After that we got along all right. Camped a little above
Prele Island, where we remained two days last year waiting
for the channel to cut out.    The river is still stationary.
June 19. Monday. This has been a day of running
aground and of fatigue, but we expected it. We find all the
channels changed. Passed the Moreau and ran aground a
little below. Aground again opposite Touchon Kaksa.
Stopped at the bluffs opposite the Little Cheyenne, where we
cut a little cedar, but set out again three-quarters of an hour
later. Stopped at Assiniboine Island at 6:30 P. M., where
I have the yawl fetch the wood which I left there last year.
The heat is extremely oppressive today. The water does
not fall any yet. As I am writing a hurricane rises accompanied with thunder and rain, lasting much of the night. It
already commences to turn cold.
June 20. Tuesday. It is still blowing too hard this
morning to set out, but at 5 A. M. the wind seems to fall a
little. I have the fire lighted. As nearly as I can judge by
the water marks the river has risen four inches. Passed the
island at Ash point, where there is a bad place. We soon
reach the Big Cheyenne. We have much trouble at the
crossing and more at the place where we generally cut cedar.
The weather is so bad that I stop and go to cutting wood. I
send and have the channel sounded, which takes a long
while on account of the wind. Finally we get by. Stopped
at 7 P. M. a little above the dirt village, where we gathered
all the drift wood we could find. Finished work at 8:30.
All day we have had wind and rain. The river still seems
to be rising.
June 21. Wednesday. We soon reach the fort
[Pierre]. I learn with pleasure that the Trapper left nine
days ago. The water rose last night and is still rising. I
therefore wait all day at the fort. It is frightful weather
all day.
June 22.    Thursday.    Set out a little late.    Arrived at
/', 1002
MOSQUITOES  IN  EVIDENCE.
I
the farm, where we take on wood which is all soaked. It is
not surprising, for it has rained and blown ever since we left
Fort Clark. Resumed our voyage at 8 o'clock. A little
trouble below the farm and a little above Lachappelle Island
(always a bad place) passed Frederick with six barges
and camped at foot of the bluffs below White river. The
wind is still high.    The river stopped rising last night.
June 23. Friday. A little late in starting again. But
that is on account of the gloomy weather which we have had
for some time. Today it has turned out pleasant. Made
good progress all day. We take more of the cut wood on
Ponca Island. It is too far to carry it. We stop below
Manuel river, where we cut up some good drift wood.
There is a good deal of it from the head of Bonhomme
Island to Manuel river, and it will be a good resource for
next year. Camped at the point above Vermillion. I
would much have preferred to have reached the place where
we cut some wood on the way up, but it is too late and here
we are in the land of snags. The river rose an inch last
night.
June 24. Saturday. We reach a wood pile in a little
while. Wooded quickly. Stopped at the Vermillion
houses where the channel is so full of snags that we cannot
get to the bank. I land with the yawl. As Paschal has not
the means of sending the packs to me—all his horses having
been stolen and one man killed by those brigand Santes,
probably the same who fired on us on our way up—I bring
four packs in the yawl and at 10 A. M. we set out. I do not
stop where we have some wood cut below Little Iowa river,
because we have enough to take us to Hart's bluffs. We
came along finely and camped at Little Sioux river where
the mosquitoes eat us up. The weather threatens wind and
rain.
June 25. Sunday. We came along very well. Stopped
at the cut-off at Hart's bluffs, where we take on the rest of
the wood that we cut on our way up. Stopped at Hardin's
and at Sarpy's, where we met the Oceana.   We remained BACK AT  ST.  LOUIS.
IOO3
some time and put off 11 barrels of lard and two of biscuit.
Took some wood from opposite Baptiste Leclair's. Stop
again at Arcot's, where we take three cords that I do not
pay for. We came along very well until in sight of the narrows, when our packing blows out. We can scarcely reach
the bank, being in a place full of snags. It is dark when we
stop.
June 26. Monday. We have a good deal of trouble in
extricating ourselves from the obstructions in which our
wheels are buried. It is necessary to repair the arms. The
sun is already high when we set out. Stopped at Brown's
and took five cords of wood which I do not pay for. Stopped
at Robidoux, where I take on six cords more, which I do
not pay for non plus a $1.50. Finally we camped at Leavenworth.    Met the steamboat Admiral at Weston.
June 27. Tuesday. Set out as usual. Stopped at
Madame Chouteau's. Took wood at Sharp's; also at the
chute of Mammy's wood yard. Camp at Old Jefferson,
where we take three cords of wood to fill the boat.
June 28. Wednesday. In spite of wind and rain we
make good progress. Took five cords at Bear river. Continued our journey and camped at night opposite St. Charles
where we took four cords of wood at Chauvain's.
June 29. Thursday. Reached St. Louis in time for
breakfast.
my J*+m j •*> utmx^ ggg
-I INDEX.
Abbott, Samuel, in service of Am.
F. Co., 312, 318, 319
Absaroka mountains, 733 et seq.
Absaroka, name of the Crow Indians, 855
Act of Congress excluding British
traders, 310
prohibiting liquor traffic, 355
Affair of 1780, 103
Albatross, The, chartered by Mr.
Hunt, 220
Alexander, Fort, 388, 965
Algonquian family, 847
American Falls, 480
American Fur Company, business
methods, 375 et seq.
buys out S. W. Co., 311
chartered, 167 J
cdffiperition. in trade, 295, 344
enters mountain trade, 295, 299,
329, 365
established on  the Upper  Missouri, 337
factory  system opposed by,  I5»
.319
history of, 309 et seq.
liquor    traffic    embarrassments,
24, 355 et seq., 367
Northern Department, 320, 928
opposition traders, 380
promotion of science, 380
Western Department, 320, 928
American  fur trade,  early dgyel-
opment of, 83 et seq.
on Northwest coast, 95
situation ofTn 1807, 95
American hunter, 55
American Revolution, 77
American State Papers, x
Antelope, 827
Ants, used as food, 839
Apache Indians, 883
Arapaho Indians, 852, 878
Aricara Indians, 264, 861
attack Ensign Pryor's party, 121
attack General Ashley, 267
depredations of, 324, 603
influence of Leavenworth's campaign upon, 603
Lisa's difficulties with, 117
perfidious character of, 264, 862
smallpox among, 623
treaty of peace with, 598
villages of, 266
Aricara  Indian  campaign,  588  et
seq.
criticism of, 600 et seq.
list of officers in, 590
negotiations   for   peace   in,   597
et seq.
Aricara Post, 956
Arkansas river, 774
fords of, 539
its   relation   to   the   Santa   Fe
Trail, 537 "".
trading posts, 490, 969
Armigo,   Governor,  lays  duty  on
wagons, 529
Artisans, 57
Ashley, Gen. W. H., advertises for
young men, 262
biographical sketch, 247 et seq.
cRange^in business methods, 273
defeated by Aricaras, 248, 267,
588
defeated for Gov. of Mo., 273
descends   Green  river  by  boat,
274, 779
elected to Congress, 249
expeditions of, 249, 263, 264, 274,.
932
grave of, 250
in Aricara campaign, 588 et seq.
inventory  of merchandise,  4
meets Gen. Atkinson at mouth
of Yellowstone, 278, 615
method     of     moving     parties
through Indian country, 938
'1
A ioo6
INDEX.
quoted, 267
relations with Am. F. Co., 249,
930
sells out to Smith, Jackson and
Sublette, 4, 279
south of Great Salt Lake, 276
success of, 248, 281, 327
takes cannon to Great Salt Lake,
279, 940
transaction   with   Ogden,  277
Ashley beaver, 249
Ashley creek, 274, 275
Ashley's Fort, 277, 973
Ashley—Henry   posts,    263,   271,
958, 964
Ashley Lake, 276
Assiniboine, Fort, 961
Assiniboine,  Indians, 857
attack Piegans at Fort McKenzie, 674
smallpox among, 625
threaten to stop Lisa, 118
treaty of peace with Blackfeet,
332, 673
Assiniboine,    the    steamboat,    38,
357
Astor,  J.  J.,  biographical  sketch,
163 et seq.—
founder of Am. F. Co., 94, 167
quoted, 21, 26, 341
relations with N. W.  Co.,  168,
229
relations with Russian Government,  170
relations with St. Louis traders,
147, 229, 319
relations   with   U.   S.   Government, 167, 237
retires  from business,  363,  364
views on Pacific fur trade, 165
et seq.
Astor medals, the, 342
Astor,  W.  B.,  quoted on Leclerc
affair, 349
Astor, W. W., quoted, 167
Astoria, beginnings^ at. 200
closing affairs of, 223 et seq.
criticisin—of   enterprise,   239   et
"-"SeqT
establishment of,  175
. expeditions from, 265 —"
fort, 974
overland    connection    with   St.
Louis, 228
rechristened Fort George, 223
sale of, 221
United States to blame for failure of, 237
Astoria criticism of, 239 et seq.
Astorians, the, at Aricara villages,
188
at Caldron Linn, 192
at Cheyenne village, 189
at "Devil's Gate," 474
at Fort Henry,  191
at   Nadowa,   183
final   departure   from   the   Columbia, 224
number of, 903
number   of   who   perished,   238
905
Oregon Trail opened by, 45^
avefland"~~j ourneys   of,   189   efi
seq., 206 et seq.
reach  the  Columbia,   194
routes of, 196, 214, 241, 457
Atkinson,  Fort, 630, 951
Atkinson,  Gen.  Henry,  biographical sketch, 618
commissioned with B. O'Fallon
to treat  with  Indians,  608
meets Ashley at mouth of Yellowstone, 278, 615
on   Yellowstone   Expedition   of
1819, 567
on   Yellowstone   Expedition   of
1825, 608 et seq.
sends   treaties   to   Washington,
616
Athapascan family of Indians, 848
Audubon, cited x, 620, 627
crosses Great Bend of the Missouri, 994
passenger   on  the  Omega, 678,
985
quoted, 277, 949
B
Bad lands,  753
Baird and Chambers take a party
to Santa Fe, 504
Baird, James, see McKnight, Baird
and  Chambers
Bancroft, H. H., cited, 655
criticism   of   Irving's   writings,
244,  432
Bannock  Indians, 886
"Battle ground,"  Santa Fe Trail,
540,  54i
Battle of  Fort McKenzie, 673 et
seq. INDEX.
IOO7
Battle of Pierre's Hole, 657 et seq.
Bayou Salade, 749
Bear, black, 825
Bear, Grizzly, see Grizzly bear
Bear lake, 793
Bear river, 477, 793
Beaver, commercial importance of,
818
description of, 818 et seq.
methods of capture, 820
Beaver fur, caring for, 821
decline in price of, 364
pack of, 40, 821
Beaver,  The,   arrives  at  Astoria,
204
cruises   the   Pacific   ocean,   218
et seq.
Becknell,  William,   father  of  the
Santa Fe Trail,  501, 503
on Green river, 506
takes first wagons to Santa Fe,
50i,  504
Beckwourth, James P., biographical sketch, 688 et seq.
cited, x, 277, 969
in Am. F. Co. service, 351, 690
with General Ashley, 275, 689
Beer Springs, see Soda Springs
Bell,   Captain,   descends  the  Arkansas, 1820, 577, 583
Bellevue, post at, 391, 950
Bent and St. Vrain, notice of, 543
Bent, Charles, goes to Santa Fe,
509
Bent's Fort, 543, 97©
Benton, Fort, on Bighorn, 150, 964
on  Missouri,  963
Benton, Thomas H., opposes factory system, 15
secures appropriation for Santa
Fe Trail, 510, 532
Berger, Jacob, sent on a mission
to the Blackfeet, 331
attempts to kill Alexander Harvey, 696
Bernard,  Pratte  &  Co.,  arrangement with Gen. Ashley, 7, 280,
329
assume  agency  W.   Dept.  Am.
F. Co., 322
second contract with Astor, 330
Berthold and  Chouteau,  negotiations with Astor, 316 et seq.
Berthold,    B.,    letter    concerning
Manuel Lisa, 131
Berthoud,   Edwin   L.,   assistance
acknowledged, xiv
quoted, 750
Biddle, Thomas, cited, 114
on competition in Indian trade,
on liquor question, 23
Big Blue river, Oregon Trail, 465
Big Elk, speech of, 557
Big  Muddy  river,  Oregon  Trail,
477
Big   Sandy   river,   Neb.,   Oregon
Trail, 465
Big Sandy river, Wyo., 476, 780
Big Sioux river, 768
Big Sioux post, 952
Big Spring, Oregon Trail, 469
Big Timbers of the Arkansas, 803
Bighorn mountains, 734
Bighorn river, 765
Bighorn  sheep,  828
Bird, desperado, 663
Birds of little importance in  fur
trade, 835
Bissonette, Antoine, killed, 115
Bitter Root mountains, 739
Black,   Captain,   takes   possession
of Astoria, 223
Blackfeet Indians as warriors, 854
at Three Forks of the Missouri,
142 et seq.
battle    with    the    Assiniboines,
372, 673 et seq.
country of, 850, 853
defeat Jones and Jmmel, 152
deputies visit Fort Union, 332
description of, 850
hostility of toward the whites,
142 et seq., 854
importance of in the fur trade,
854
kill   Henry   Vanderburgh,   299,
669
massacre of in 1842, 373
name of, 851
smallpox amonsr. 625
trade beginnings  with, 334
treaty   of   peace   with   Assiniboines, 332
Black  Fork  of  Green  river,  476,
780
Black Hills, 734
forests of, 735
Blacksnake Hills, post, 949
Blanca Peak, 737
Blood Indians, 851, 853
Blue mountains, 740 ««KI
■ "•'"--;'
.V
—*
IOO8
INDEX.
mm
mm
Boat Encampment, on Columbia,
156
Boat song, Canadian, 57
Bodmer, artist to Maximilian, 638
Bois Brule Indians, 865
Boise, Fort, 480, 974
Boise river, 480, 785
Bonneville, Captain, adventures of,
396 et seq.
biographical sketch, 397, 427
enters mountain trade, 299, 398
estimate of his work, 428 et seq.
expedition of, its purpose, 398
fall hunt of 1833, 421
history-made man, 396
ill success as a trader, 305, 428
leave of absence, 398, 427, 431
maps of, 307, 429, 430
name given to Great Salt Lake,
430
reinstated in the army, 430, 431
relations with Ermatinger, 403
relations with Irving, 432
relations with Wyeth, 404
results of first year's operations,
405
results of second year's  operations, 424
returns to the states, 427
Salt Lake exploration, 406
takes   wagons   to   Green   river,
43i
Walker   expedition   to   California, 411 et seq.
winter quarters on Salmon river,
401
Bonneville, Fort, 400, 780, 972
Bonneville, Lake, 430, 793
Boston merchants in N. W. trade,
95
Boundary lines, political, 798
Bourgemont, M. de, 947
Bourgeois, explanation of term, 51
Brackenridge, H. M., accompanies
Lisa's expedition, 188
cited,  x,  114, 722
interposes   in   quarrel   between
Lisa and Hunt, 188
quoted, no, 635, 716
work of, 636
Bradbury,      John,      accompanies
Hunt's expedition, 184
cited, x, 717
interposes   in   quarrel   between
Lisa and Hunt, 188
interviews John Colter, 184, 717
warns  Pierre Dorion,  184
work of, 634 et seq.
Bradley,   Lieut.  Jas.   H.,  quoted,
963
Bradshaw, Captain, assists Walker's party, 417
Brady Island, story of, 466
"Brasseau, Fort," 270, 953
Brasseau's houses, 964
Brasseau,    John,    and    smallpox
scourge, 625
Bridger, Fort, i, 366, 476, 972
Bridger,      James,      biographical
sketch,  257   "
builds Fort Bridger, i, 476
cited, 65
discovers Great Salt Lake, 258,
795
guide to Captain Raynolds, 461
in Am. F. Co. service, 366
member R. M. F. Co., 292
quoted, 972
see also "Fitzpatrick" and "Sublette"
wounded by the Blackfeet, 300,
671
Brigade, meaning of term in fur
trade, 38
British colonial history, 72 et seq.
British   competition   in   American
* "furtra3e720
British^flag  at  mouth  of  Snake
river, 201
British  influence  among  Indians,
. 342, 557, 617, 629
British traders excluded from U.
S. territory, 310        —
British use of liquor along boundary, 26, 27, 357
Broadhead,   G.  C,  assistance acknowledged,  xii
Broadus, Mr., loses his arm, 547
Brown's Hole, 748
Brown, J. C, quoted, 537
report  not  published,  534
surveyor   Santa   Fe   road  commission,  533
Brule, Fort, 373
Bryant,  W.  G,  uses name "Oregon," 792
Buenaventura river, 307
Buffalo,    commercial    importance
of, 817
description of, 809 et seq.
extermination of, 816
flesh of, 810 INDEX.
IOO9
hunting of, 812
importance of to the Indian, 816
numbers of, 816
uses of, 810
Buffalo Fork of Snake river, 783
Bull-boats, 35
Burgoldt, Paul, map work of, vii
Burgwin, Captain, and liquor inspection, 679 et seq.
Burnt river, Oregon Trail, 481
Business code of the wilderness,
68, 69
Cabanne,  J.  P.,  and  Leclerc affair, 347
quoted, 380
trading post of, 950
Cable,  Claude,  owner  of  Mackinaw letter books, 311
Cache, meaning and application of
term, 41
"Cache     Creek,"     frequency     of
name, 42
"Caches," The, 42, 504, 539
Cache valley, 42, 749
Cactus, 805
Caddoan   family,   848
Caldron   Linn,   arrival   of   Astorians at, 191
location of caches at,  198
meaning of term, 198
Calhoun, J. G, interest in Yellowstone expedition, 563
Calhoun, Fort.,951
California Trail, 480
Camas root, 806
Campbell,     Robert,     biographical
sketch, 260
letter   in   regard   to   Flathead
Mission, 645, 922
Campbell and  Sublette, see Sublette and Campbell
Camp keepers, 54
Canadian boat song, 57
Canadian river, 775
Canoes, use o* in fur trade, 34
Captain Bonneville, 243, 432
Caravans of the plains, 38
Carpenter   killed   by   Mike   Fink,
711
Carson,   Alexander,   detached   at
Snake river,  191
joins  Astorians,   186
Carson, Kit, cited by Inman, 538
goes to Santa Fe, 509, 539
runs away, 539
Carson Lake, 797
Carver, Jonathan, originates name
Oregon, 792
Cascade range, 741
Cascades of the Columbia, 482
Cass, Fort, 337, 964
Cass,   Governor,   and   the   liquor
traffic, 28
Cass the hunter killed, 208
Castorum, 821
Catholic missions in Oregon, 648
Catlin, George, at Fort Pierre, 981
alleged    painting    of    Flathead
Indians, 642
on board the  Yellowstone, 340,
642
with Colonel Dodge in 1834, 631
work of criticised, 637
Cedars, varieties of, 802
Cedar Fort, 954
Cedar islands in the Missouri, 802
Centennial valley, 744
Cerre,  M.   S.,  chief  assistant  of
Capt. Bonneville, 399
goes to states with returns, 405,
425
with Wyeth at Fort Union, 359
Chambers, Samuel, see McKnight,
Baird & Chambers
Chambers, Col. Talbot, seizes boat
of Am. F. Co., 313
suit brought against, 313
Chantier, meaning of the term, 47
situation  of  at   Benton,   Pierre
and Union, 47, 956
Chaplain,   companion   of   Ezekiel
Williams, 652
Chappell,   Phil  E.,  assistance  acknowledged, 464
Chardon, F. A., instigates Blackfoot massacre of 1842-3, 373
Chardon Fort, 373, 962
Charles, Fort on Hudson Bay, 87
on Missouri, 951
Cheyenne Indians, 852, 867
Cheyenne river, 767
Chick, Jas. S., assistance acknowledged, 464
Chimney Rock, Oregon Trail, 467
Chopunnish Indians, 888
Chouteau,     Auguste,     associated
with Laclede, 99, 100
member Mo. F. Co.. 138
member   Commission   of    1815,
559
el IOIO
INDEX.
m
on the founding of St. Louis,
IOO,   IOI
Chouteau Bluffs, origin of name,
339
Chouteau,   G   P.,   assistance   acknowledged, xii
Chouteau and De Munn, imprisonment of, 497, 545
Chouteau   Island   in   the   Arkansas, 540
Chouteau papers, xii, 384
Chouteau,   Pierre,   assistance   acknowledged, xii, 105
Chouteau, Pierre Jr., ascends Missouri    on    Yellowstone,    339,
340
biographical sketch, 382 et seq.
Fort Union distillery, 360
quoted on Bonneville, 406
quoted on mountain trade, 329,
366
quoted   on   miscellaneous   subjects, 25, 27, 30, 58, 330, 337,
338, 339, 342, 345, 626, 959
quoted    on     Sublette-Campbell
compromise, 353
sends warning to McKenzie, 361,
362
Chouteau, Pierre Sr., defeated by
Aricaras in 1807, 123
in  charge  of  trading  party  in
1807, 120
member Mo. F. Co., 138 -
Chouteau Post, 948
Cimarron desert, 531
Cimarron river, 541, 775
lower spring of, 541
upper spring of, 541
Clappine, Antoine,  drowned, 191
Clark's   Fork   of   the   Columbia,
787
Clark Fort, see Osage Fort
Clark, Fort, at Mandans, 389, 957
Clark, Malcolm, attempts to kill
Alexander Harvey, 696
Clark, William, calls for report on
Fort Union distillery, 360
connection of with Flathead mission, 643, 915 et seq.
member of Commission of 1815,
559
Clarke, John, builds post at Spokane, 205
member of Pac. F. Co., 169
Clearwater mountains, 740
Clearwater river, 786
Clerk in the fur trade, 53
Cloud Peak, 734
Coasts of the Platte, 466
Coeur d' Alene Indians, 892
Colonial   beginnings   in   America,
72 et seq.
Colorado mountains, 736
Colorado river system, 760, 778
name of, 779
Colter,  John,  adventures  of,   119,
713 et seq.
death of, 723
discoveries of, 717
interview   with   Bradbury,   184,
717
meets Lisa at mouth of Platte,
115, 713 .
responsibility for Blackfoot hostility, 721
route of in 1807, 716
stories not believed, 722
Columbia   Fur   Company,   sketch
of, 323, 933
Columbia, Great Plain of, 787
Columbia River Fishing and Trading Co., 448
Columbia river, bar at mouth of,
174, 7.89
description of, 787 et seq.
-historical character of, 791
name of, 791
navigation of, 789
relation   to   the   American   fur
s*— trade, 790
system, 760, 783 et seq.
upper course of, 787
valley   of,   a   fine   fur   country,
787, 789
Comanche Indians, 880
Commerce   of   the  Prairies,   viii,
544
Competition in  the  Indian trade,
17 et seq.
American F. Co. methods, 344
between Am. F. Co. and R. M.
F. Co., 295 et seq.
Continental Divide, 726 et seq.
Cook, Captain, voyage of, 95
Cooke,   P.  St.  G., cited,  x
quoted, 538, 631
Cooper,  Braxton,  his  expeditions
to Santa Fe, 505, 506
with  Ezekiel  Williams, 653
Corn, its use by the Indians, 807
Cottonwood,  its  uses  in  the  fur
trade, 799 et seq. mm
INDEX.
IOII
Coues, Elliott, assistance acknowledged, ix
cited, ix, 494
opinion of Irving's works, 246
works on western history, ix
Council Bluffs, 949
Council Grove on Santa Fe Trail,
526, 536, 803
Courthouse   Rock,   Oregon   Trail,
467
Cox,    Ross,   biographical   sketch,
.905
cited, x
Irving's reliance on, 246
Coyner, David H., author of "Lost
Trappers/' x, 651, 655
Coyote, 830
Croghan, Fort, 950
Crooks,   Ramsay,   agent   Am.   F.
Co., 312
attacks U. S. Factory system, 15
biographical sketch, 381
goes  to  Europe  to   see  Astor,
317
joins Pac. F. Co., 162, 182
member overland Astorian Expeditions, 182, 206
on Snake river, 1811, 192
purchases  Northern Dept.  Am.
F. Co., 364
quoted on Fort Union distillery,
356, 362
quoted on liquor traffic, 27
quoted   on   miscellaneous   subjects, 15, 311 to 319, 326, 343,
355 I
quoted   on   the   voyage   of   the
Yellowstone, 341
sick in Pierre's Hole, 210
Crooks and Day arrive at Astoria,
196
robbed by the Indians, 195
Crooks and McLellan, post of, 950
relations with Lisa, 131, 161, 186
sketch  of  their  enterprise,   159
et seq.
Crooks   and   Stuart,   see   "Stuart
and Crooks"
Cross Timbers, 803
Crow Indians, 855
first post in their country, 119
smallpox among, 626
Cruzatte's post, 951
Culbertson,  Alexander,  biographical sketch, 388
Culebra mountains, 737
Customhouse regulations at Santa
Fe, 527 to 529
Cutting, Agent F. L. & Co., 369
experience     with     Assiniboine
chief, 372
D
Dalles, The, 482, 790
Davy Crockett, Fort, 971
Day, John, becomes insane, 207
biographical  sketch, 905
enters service Pac. F. Co., 183
see also "Crooks and Day"
Deer, 827
Deer creek, Oregon Trail, 470
Defiance, Camp, 974
Defiance, Fort, 953
De la Verendrye, referred to, 766
"De  Munn,   Julius,   see   Chouteau
and De Munn
goes to Santa Fe, 497
Des Chutes river, 482, 788
Desert, Great American, 754
Cimarron, 531, 754
Desertion of engages, 62
De Smet, Father, cited, ix
Oregon mission, 648
quoted on the Oregon Trail, 460,
461
quoted, miscellaneous, 58, 471,
839, 884
De Soto, discovery of Mississippi,
72
Devil's Gate, Wyo., 470
Diamond Springs, Santa Fe Trail,
537
Dickson's post, 952
Disoway, G. P., quoted, 644, 912
Distillery  at  Fort  Union,  356  et
seq.
Dodge,   Colonel,   expeditions   of,
631, 633
Dog, uses of, 833
Dolly, The, 203
Dorion,       Pierre,       biographical
sketch, 906
enters service of W.  P.  Hunt,
184
experiences of his wife, 225
killed, 225
Dougherty, John, quoted, 7
Drainage, areas of river systems,
760
Drips, Andrew, appointed  Indian
agent, 368 IOI2
INDEX.
biographical sketch, 392
cited, 8
enters mountain trade, 295, 366
quoted, 372
reports   liquor   smugglers  from
Santa Fe, 369
Drouillard,     George,     associated
with Lisa, 114
death of, 143
kills Antoine Bissonette, 115
Ebbette, agent F. L. & Co., 369
Edible roots, 806
Edwards, Ninian, member of
Commission of 1815, 559
Elk, 826
Elkhorn monument, 827
Elm Grove, Santa Fe Trail, 464
Engages, 58
Engineer  Cantonment,  573, 951
Ermatinger, H. B. Co. trader, relations with Capt. Bonneville,
403
relations with Wyeth, 445
Exploration, geographical, iii
Express, application of term, 41
Factory system of trade with the
Indians, 12 to 15
Fair  held  by  Indians  on   South
Platte r., 877
Falkland  Islands,  affair of  Tonquin at, 173
Fall and spring hunts, 42
Falls Indians, 853
Farnham,     Russel,     biographical
sketch, 315
carries^Am.  F.  Co.  trade  into
Mo. r., 315
— field of work, 927
in service Am. F. Co., 312
journey   from  Astoria  to  New
York, 224
outfit seized by Col. Chambers,
313
winters   among   the   Flatheads.
205
Farnham, T. J., cited, x
observations on  Wyeth's enterprise, 454
quoted, 377, 472
Fauna of the west, 809 et seq.
Ferris, W.«A., biographical sketch,
395
cited, x, 276, 468
quoted, 401, 747, 749, 889, 973
visits   geysers   of   the   Yellowstone, 366
wounded, 669
"Fiery Narrows," 211, 470
Fink, Mike, noticed, 261
sketch of his career, 707 et seq.
Fires of the prairies, 756
Firs, varieties of, 801
Fish, Mrs. M. J., cited, 436
Fishes, relation to the fur trade,
835
Fisk, President, and Flathead mis-
sionj 642
Fitzpatrick,  Thomas, biographical
sketch, 259
goes to Santa Fe, 294
in Aricara campaign, 590
lost, 297
member R. M. F. Co., 292
quoted, 20
repudiates contract with Wyeth,
68
robbed by the Crows, 20, 68, 301,
35i, 361
secures Ogden's fur, 293
takes part in Aricara campaign,
590.
Fitzpatrick  and  Bridger  pursued
by   Vanderburgh   and   Drips,
295 et seq., 667 et seq.
wanderings of in 1830, 293
Fitzpatrick, Sublette and Bridger,
304, 450
Flathead Indians, 889, 891, 918
deputation of to St. Louis, 641,
891, 912 et seq.
Flathead lake, 787
Flora  of the  plains  and  mountains, 799 et seq.
Floyd, Fort, 328, 958
Floyd,   Sergeant   Charles,   monument to, 81
Fontenelle creek, 780
Fontenelle,    Lucien,    biographical
sketch, 391
enters mountain trade, 295
Fontenelle, Lucien, on Bonneville's
work, 405, 425
quoted, 305, 365, 967
with Bonneville on Green r., 400
Forests of the mountains, 801
Fort, see "Trading Post" INDEX.
IOI3
Fort aux Cedres, 954
Fort de Prairie, 156
Forty Years a Fur Trader, 394
Fowler,   Jacob,   see   "Glenn   and
Fowler"
builds house on upper Arkansas,
969
cited, x
journal of, 503
quoted, 504, 629
Fox, Livingston and Co.
post, 956
367 et seq.
sell out to Am. F. Co., 372
Fox,  Tonquin mate, lost on Columbia bar, 174
Fraeb, Henry, biographical sketch,
260
leaves R. M. F. Co., 304
meets    Fitzpatrick    on    North
Platte, 183 , 295
member R. M. F. Co., 292
Fraeb's post, 260, 781, 971
France, colonial policy of, 71
-Franchere,    Gabriel,    biographical
sketch, 906 —•'
cited, x
tr—criticism of Astoria, 244
leaves Fort George, 224
quoted, 233, 234, 236
^iews of on Astorian enterprise,
"""    234
Franklin, Mo., birthplace of Santa Fe trade, xii, 516
Free  hunters,   trappers,   or   freemen, ii, 3, 55
business accounts of, 941 et seq.
Fremont,  Gen.  J.   G,  cited,  459,
464, 779
explorations of, 639
incident at Independence Rock,
472
wrecked in Platte Canon, 471
Fremont Peak, 733
French and Indian War, 76, 85
French Fort, 948
French Fur  Company, 345
French fur trade, 85
Front Range, 736
Fruits, 806
Fur-bearing animals, 826
Furs, methods of procuring, 3
packs of, 40
Fur companies on Missouri river
in 1819, 150
Fur trade,  American,  authorities
for history of, viii et seq.
British influence in, 20
character of the business, 2
competition in, 18
decline of, 364
early importance of, 1
first business in a new country, 1
influence of upon the Indians,
iv
loss of life in, 8
magnitude of, 7
miscellaneous notes by Thomas
Forsyth, 926
number of persons engaged in, 7
of Northwest coast, 94
period of defined, i
profits and losses in, 6-8
relation of to the Indians, 9
relation of to river systems, 761
relation of to Western history, iii
rise of in America, 83
royal grants of, 85
slow development of in United
States, 94
state of in mountains, 1834, 3°3
unjust distribution of profits,
306
Gallatin, Albert, map of Western
country, 307, 430  >
Gallatin Fork of the Missouri, 744
Gallatin valley, 744
Game, prevalence of, 834
Gant and Blackwell, traders, 296,
409, 878, 969
Garces, Francisco, journals of, ix
Gardiner's Hole, 746
Gardner,   Johnson,   accounts   of,
941 et seq.
avenges murder of Hugh Glass,
705
Gates of the mountains, 763
George,   Fort,   on   the   Columbia,
christened by Captain  Black,
223
George,   Fort,   on   the   Missouri,
370, 954
George, Fort, on the Platte, 968
George, Old Fort, 956
Gervais, John Baptiste, leaves R.
M. F. Co., 304
member  R. M. F. Co., 292
Gila river, 783 ioi4
INDEX.
Gilbert Peak, 738
Glass Bluffs, 705
Glass,  Hugh, adventures of, 268,
698 et seq., 823
at Fort Floyd, 328
death of, 705
in Ashley's fight at Aricara villages, 270, 699
Glenn and Fowler, 502
Glenn's post, 970
Godin,   Antoine,   slays   Blackfoot
chief, 659
killed, 663
Gold,   discovery   of   in   Colorado,
486
Goose  creek, 480
Gordon, William, see "Jones and
Immel"
Government factories, abolition of,
15
Government publications, x
Government    relations    with   the
Indians, 9 et seq.
Grand Canon of the Colorado, 782
Grand  Encampment  creek,  Colo.,
877
Grand Portage on Lake Superior,
89
Grand river, 781
Grand Teton, 731, 736
Grande Ronde, 481, 749
Grande Ronde river, 785
Grasses, 805
Grasshoppers, 839
Gratiot, Charles, quoted, 16, 147,
165, 181, 229, 555
Gray, M. L., assistance acknowledged, xiii, 410, 662
Greasewood, 804
Great American desert, 754
Great Basin, The, 792
Great   Bend  of  the  Yellowstone,
745
Great Britain and the fur trade, 86
Great Falls of the Missouri, 763
Great Salt Lake, 793
historical  data  concerning,  258,
307,. 794
Green river, 476, 779
Ashley's attempt to navigate, 274
first known use of name, 507, 779
rendezvous on  (1833), 300
valley of, 748
Gregg, Josiah, cited, viii, 504
enters Santa Fe trade, 509
follows new route, 535
notice of, 544
quoted, 67, 70, 537, 539, 548, 869
Grey  Eyes, Aricara  chief, killed,
. 593 I   I
Grizzly bear, description of, 822
noted encounters with, 823
Groseilliers, founder of H. B. Co.,
86
Grosventres of the Missouri, 858
Grosventres of the Prairies, 851
Grosventre river, 783
Gunnison, Captain, death of, 782
Gunnison river, 782
H
Hall, Fort, 451, 479, 785, 974
sold, 455
Halsey, Jacob, biographical sketch
of, 393
carries smallpox to Fort Union,
623
Hamilton, J. A., sketch of, 389
Ham's Fork, 476, 780
Handy's Post, 952
Harney Peak, 735
Harrison, Dr. B., 300
Harvey, Alexander, and Blackfoot
massacre, 373, 694
exploits of, 692 e. seq.
Harvey, Primeau & Co., 697
Hawaiian Islands annexed to U.
S., 172
Hayden, F. V., observations upon
the buffalo, 817
Head of navigation on Missouri,
764
Heart river, 767
Hempstead, Stephen, quoted, 132
Henry, Alexander, arrives at Astoria, 222
cited, ix
journal of, 222
notes on affairs of upper Missouri, 146
Henry, Andrew, at Three Forks,
Missouri, 144
biographical sketch, 251
builds Fort Henry, 144
crosses Continental Divide, 144
defeated     by     the     Blackfeet
(1823), 264
horses of stolen by the Assiniboines, 263
joins Ashley below Aricara villages, 269 INDEX.
IOI5
loses a keelboat, 263
member Mo. F. Co., 138
operations   after   Aricara   campaign, 270
retires from the fur trade, 272
takes part in Aricara campaign,
270, 589
Henry Fork, Idaho, 784
Henry Fork, Wyo., 780
Henry Fort, 144, 974
abandonment of,  145
reoccupied  by  Astorians,   191
Henry Hall, Tucker and Williams,
439
Henry lake, 784
Hidatsa Indians, 858
Hill,   Walter   H.,   assistance   acknowledged, 643
Historical     Societies,     assistance
from, xi
Hivernans, or winterers, 58
Hoback river, 783
Hoback,   Robinson   and   Rezner,
detached at Fort Henry, 191
fate of, 225
hunting tour, 207
join overland Astorians, 186
"Holes" of the mountains, 743
Holy Cross  mountain, 737
Honey bees, 840
Horse, The, importance of, 832
Horse creek, tributary of  Green
r., 780
Horse creek, Oregon Trail, 469
Horseshoe   creek,   Oregon   Trail,
470
Hubbell, J.  B., organizes Northwestern Fur Co., 367
Huddart,   William,  on  Green  r.,
1824, 507
Hudson  Bay Company, founding
of, 87
liquor traffic of, 27
organization   and   methods   of
business, 92
posts of, 974
relations  with the Indians,  17,
92 §#§§   g§
struggle with the Northwest Co.,
9i
traders around Great Salt Lake,
795
union with N. W. Co., 92
Hudson, Henry, discoveries of, 86
Humboldt, Baron von, error of in
regard to Red river, 776
Humboldt lakes, 797
Humboldt river, 797
Hunt, W. P., alarmed at Rose, 686
among the Cheyennes, 189
arrangement    with    McDougal,
221
arrives at Astoria, 194, 220, 221,
223
assigned to maritime part of enterprise, 204
at Aricara villages, 188
at Caldron Linn, 191
at Sandwich Islands, 219
biographical  sketch, 907
criticism of his work, 232
deceives Lisa4 186
detaches trapping parties, 191
joins Pac. F. Co., 169
leaves Astoria, 224
leaves Caldron Linn, 192
leaves Missouri river, 192
leaves Nadowa, 185
leaves St. Louis spring of 1811,
184
leaves Snake r. for the Columbia, 224
opposed by Lisa in St. Louis, 183
organizes   overland   expedition,
182
quarrel with Lisa, 187
race with Lisa, 185
returns to Astoria with Albatross, 218
returns to Astoria with Pedler,
223
spends winter of 1810-11 in St.
Louis, 183
wanderings of over the Pacific,
218 et seq.
Hunter, The American, 55, 229
Hunter and Trapper, 53
desertion among, 62
dress of, 60
improvidence of, 58
lack of interest in geology, 63
language of, 63
life of, 65 et seq.
shelter of, 61
subsistence of, 62
wages of, 62
winter camp of, 61
I
Iatan Indians, 876
Iatan, Oto chief, 874
■ • wm
1016
INDEX.
Iberville founds lower Louisiana
colony, 74
Immel and Jones, see "Jones and
Immel"
Independence, Mo., 463, 517
Independence Rock, 471
Indians, American, British system
— of dealing with, 936
— characteristics of, 841 et seq.
-effects of liquor and disease upon, 24, 619
ethnic relations of, 848
impression  of  steamboat  upon,
34i
influence of fur trade upon, iv,
. 936
life   of,   white   man's   fondness
for, 846
linguistic families of, 847
of Columbia valley, 891
permanent village  tribes, 844
predatory tribes, 841
Question, 10, 912, 936
trade with, 12, 17, 928
wars of, 846
Inman, Col., cited, 538, 656
Insurrection of 1837 in New Mexico, 513
International boundaries, 798
Iowa Indians, 874
Irving,  Washington,  accuracy  of
his chronology, 240
cited, v, viii
critics answered, 240 et seq.
motive of his works on the fur
trade, 241
quoted, 770
relations with Mr. Astor, 242
relations  with  Captain  Bonneville, 399, 429, 430, 431
Wyeth's Journals consulted by,
456
Isodoro, a Spaniard, killed by Alexander Harvey, 694
J
Jackson, David, 261, 289, 292
Jackson, Fort, 961
Jackson Hole, 261, 289, 746
Jackson Lake, 746, 783
Jackson's Little Hole, 747
Jackson,      President,      reinstates
Bonneville, 430
James, Dr. Edwin, ascends Pike's
Peak, 576, 580, 583
edits  report of  Long's  expedition, 584
quoted, 574
James river, 768
Jefferson, Thomas, and Louisiana
Purchase, 80
John Day river, 482, 783, 788
John, Fort, 365, 390, 469, 967
John Gray river, 783
Johnson, James, contractor, 569
Joliet and Marquette, discover the
Mississippi, 73
Jones,  Ben, joins overland Astorians, 186
Jones   and   Immel,   biographical
sketch, 158
defeated and slain by Blackfeet,
153
expedition  to  Three  Forks  in
1823, 151
interview   with   the   Blackfeet,
151
site of battle with Blackfeet, 152
Jordan river, 794
Journal   of   Fort   Tecumseh   and
Fort Pierre, 975 et seq.
Journal of steamboat voyage, 984
et seq.
Journals of trading posts, 49
Junction of Santa Fe and Oregon
Trails, 464, 536
K
Kansas Indians, 872
Kansas Post described, 948
Kansas river, 771
ford of on Oregon Trail, 465
Keelboat, its use in the fur trade,
32
Keemle, see "Jones and Immel"
Kelley,  Hall J.,  and the Oregon
Question, 434 et seq.
on the Columbia, 453
relation of to name Oregon, 792
relation of with Wyeth, 438
Kelsey, agent F. L. & Co., 370
kills   desperadoes  on   Simeneau
Island, 371
Kennedy, Lieutenant, visits Sioux
in 1815, 561
Kephart,  Horace,   assistance   acknowledged, xi
discovers Leonard's    Narrative,
397 mm
INDEX.
1017
Kimball,    Lieutenant,    commands
Sioux escort, 120
Kiowa, Fort, 953
Kiowa Indians, 879
Kiowan family, 848
Kipp, James, 389
builds fort at Mandans, 324
establishes Fort Piegan, 334, 673,
961
Knight-errantry of the fur trade
ii
Koch,  Peter,  assistance acknowledged, viii
replies to H. H. Bancroft, 246
La Barge, Joseph, father of Captain La Barge, 561
La Barge, Captain Joseph, 348
assistance  acknowledged,  xiii
pilot on the Omega, 678, 985
La Barge creek, 780
La   Bonte   creek,   Oregon   Trail,
470
La Bonte, post, 968
Laclede, Pierre Liguest, 98
arrives at Fort de Chartres, 99
his plans  for  founding a  post,
ioo
prediction concerning St. Louis,
101, 112
Ladoga, The, and the Walker Expedition, 417
Lafayette and Captain Bonneville,
398, 432      . E        WM
Laidlaw,     William,     biographical
sketch, 387
enters Columbia Fur Company,
323
quoted, 346
La Lande, Baptiste, goes to Santa
Fe, 491
Lamme, Mr., death of, 509
Lamont, Daniel, 390
enters Columbia Fur Company,
323
Lancaster, Fort, 968
Langford,   N.   P.,  ascends  Grand
Teton, 732
La   Prele   creek,   Oregon   Trail,
470
Laramie, origin of name, 409
Laramie, Fort, 469, 967
Laramie, Peak, 736
Laramie river, 469, 769
Lark,   The, Astor's annual ship,
220
Larpenteur,  Charles, biographical
sketch, 394
cited, ix, 369 et seq., 620
quoted, 353, 386, 389
role of during smallpox scourge
at Fort Union, 623 et seq.
La Salle, enterprises of, 73
Lava plains, 754
Lawrence  and   Great   Salt  Lake,
794 §    WSR
Leavenworth,   Colonel,   and   Aricara   Campaign,   588   et   seq.
arrives  before Aricara  villages,
592
attacks Aricara villages, 592 et
seq.
biographical  sketch, 606
conduct before Aricara villages,
593 et seq.
death of, 631
founds Fort Leavenworth, 630
misunderstanding   with   Joshua
Pilcher, 604 et seq.
quoted,  599,  602
review  of his  conduct  of Aricara campaign, 600 et seq.
Leavenworth,  Fort, 630, 949
Le    Clerc,    Francis,    incident    in
Green River Valley, 210
Leclerc, Narcisse, affair of, 346
Lee, Jason and Daniel, 449, 642
Legal  restraint,  absence  of,  68
Leonard,   Zenas,   adventures   of,
409 et seq.
cited, x
Narrative of, 397
quoted, 59, 67, 407, 411 et seq.
Letter  from  Three  Forks of the
Missouri in 1810, 142, 893
Lewis,   Captain   M.   L.,   contracts
with Mo. F. Co. for return of
Mandan chief, 139
kills a Grosventre Indian, 853
Lewis and Clark, cited, ix
expedition of, 80, 634
at Mandans, 766
quoted, 114, 889
return of, i
Lewis, Fort, 963
Lewis, James,  destroys the  Tonquin, 179
Lewis,   Reuben,  member   Mo.   F.
Co.,  138
Life in the wilderness, ii, 65, 731 1018
INDEX.
Liquor, confiscated at Fort Leavenworth, 357
fondness of Indians for, 23, 26,
358
for boatmen, 25
fraud in  selling to Indians, 24
importance of in  Indian  trade,
23,, 355
prohibitory   act   of   1832,   355
smuggling into Indian country,
23, 678 et seq.
traffic, 22 et seq.
Lisa,   Manuel,   applies   to   Crooks
for goods, 317
biographical  sketch,  125 et seq.
business relations, 130
connection with Pryor's expedition,  121
death of, 129, 150
early  operations  of,  138, 931
enemies of, 130
great ability of, 113
in War of 1812, 128, 899
Indian wife of, 133
interest in Yellowstone expedition of 1825, 129, 573
language of, 135
letter to General Clark, 135, 899
made  Indian agent,  127
marriages of, 132
monument to in Bellefontaine
cemetery, 136
name of, 135
opposes  W.  P.  Hunt,  183
plans to enter  Santa  Fe trade,
126, 493
portrait of,  135
quarrels with W. P. Hunt, 187
quoted, 130, 556
race with W. P. Hunt, 185, 187
relation with Crooks and McLellan,   161
relations with the Indians, 116
religion of, 136
work of, 129 et seq.
Lisa, Fort, at Aricaras, 956
at Bighorn river. 119, 964
at Council Bluffs, 128, 149, 951
at Mandans, 957
Lisa, Menard and Morrison,  114,
138
Little   Blue   river,   Oregon   Trail,
465
Little  Colorado  river, 783
Little Missouri river, 766
Little Sandy creek, Oregon Trail,
476
Little  Soldier, Aricara chief,  597
et seq.
Locke and  Randolph, post, 968 •
Log of Steamboat Omega, 984 et
seq.
Loisell's post, 954
Lone Tree, on Oregon Trail, 481
Long, Major S. H., cited, x
at Council Bluffs, 573
criticism   of  his   work,   582   et
seq.
establishes identity of Canadian
river, 578, 583
expedition of 1819-20. 567, 575
itinerary of route, 579 et seq.
quoted, 584
report of, 584 et seq.
Long's Peak, 576, 584, 736
Lookout,  Fort, 953
Lorretto in battle of Fort McKenzie, 674
story of, 671
Losses in the Fur Trade, 8
"Lost Trappers," story of, 651
Louisiana Gazette, xi
Louisiana, historical sketch of, 71
et seq.
named by La Salle. 74
transfer of to the United States,
104
Louisiana Purchase, 79
Lucien, Fort, 965
Lupton, Fort, 968
M
McAllister,    letter    on    Flathead
mission, 923
McCoy, John, cited, 464
McDougal,   Duncan,   criticism  of,
232
decides to abandon Astoria, 216
in control at Astoria, 175
member Pac. F. Co., 169
threatens   Indians    with   smallpox, 202
McKay,     Alexander,     killed     in
Tonquin massacre, 179
member Pac. F. Co., 169
sails on the Tonquin from Astoria,   176
Mackenzie, Alexander, 89, 90
McKenzie, Donald, arrives at Astoria,  195 INDEX.
IOI9
breaks up post on Snake r., 216
builds post on Snake r., 205
criticism of, 232
member Pac. F. Co.. 169
offended at Astor,  183
McKenzie, Fort, 336, 373, 388,962
battle of, 373, 673 et seq.
McKenzie,   Kenneth,   biographical
sketch, 384  et seq.
concludes treaty with Blackfeet,
332
distillery project of, 356 et seq.
emissaries in Crow country, 422
enters Col. F. Co., 323
leaves Indian country, 362
quoted on Berger's mission, 333
quoted  on   robbery  of  Fitzpatrick, 302
quoted     on     Sublette-Campbell
opposition,   351
quoted,  miscellaneous, 301, 302,
357, 851, 958, 959
McKenzie, Owen, 387
Mackinaw Company, 93, 309
purchased by Astor, 309
Mackinaw  boats,  34
Mackinaw letter books, xiv, 311
McKnight,   Baird  and   Chambers,
imprisonment  of,  496,  501
McKnight,   John,   builds    a    post
on Arkansas, 501
McKnight,     Robert,    returns    to
Chihuahua, 501
McLellan,    Robert,    see   "Crooks
and McLellan"
arrives at Astoria,  195
biographical notes,  159, 162
conduct in Pierre's Hole, 210
joins Pac. F. Co., 162, 183
threatens Lisa,  162,  186,  188
McLoughlin,    John,    and    N.    J.
Wyeth, 453
and J. S. Smith, 286, 289
McNees Creek, 541
McNees and Munroe, murder of,
509, 548
McTavish, John George, at Astoria, 217
Maize or Indian corn, 807
Madison, James, relation of to Astor's enterprise, 167
Malgares, commander of Spanish
expedition to Pawnees in
1806, 495
Malheur river, 481
Mallett    brothers    name    Platte
river, 769
visit Santa Fe, 489
Mandan   chief,   return   of   to   his
nation,  119, 139, 654
Mandan, Fort, 957
Mandan, Indians, 859
country of, 766, 859
smallpox   among,   621   et   seq.,
860
Mangeur de lard, 58
Manifesto of partners at Astoria,
July i,  1813, 217
Manuel, Aunt, 132
Manuel, Fort, 119, 956, 964
Manuel Lisa, see "Lisa"
Map  accompanying present  work
in pocket Vol. Ill
Marias  river,  situation  at  mouth
of, 764
Marmaduke,    Governor,   goes   to
Santa Fe, 505. 508
Marquette and Joliet discover the
Mississippi, 73
map by, 763
Martin, Camp, 949
Mathieu, with Bonneville's horses
on Bear river, 400, 402
Mauvaises Terres, 753
Maxent Laclede and Co., 98
Maximilian,  Prince of Wied, 638
ascends the  Missouri, 357
at battle of Fort McKenzie, 373,
.674
cited, viii
quoted, 357, 602, 663, 675, 705,
953
May  Dacre,  Wyeth's    ship,   448,
452
May, William P., robbed by Kel-
sey's  men,  371
Means, John, death of, 509, 549
Medals, Astor, 342
Meek,     Joseph,      adventures    of
cited, ix
among the geysers, 290
return   route   from   California,
419
Menard,   Pierre,   associated   with
Lisa in 1807, 114
letter of, written at Three Forks
of Missouri,  1810,  142, 893
member Mo. F. Co., 138
Mercantile  Library of  St.  Louis,
xi
Merchandise for Am. F. Co., 376 1020
INDEX.
for the fur trade, 4
inventory of  Gen.  Ashley's,  4
Meriwether, D., arrested by Spaniards,  500
Mexican  Revolution, 550
Mexican escort to Santa Fe Caravan,  512
Michilimackinac, head quarters
Northern  Department,  376
Middle Park, Colo., 749
Military escorts to Santa Fe Car-
avans,   511,   512
Military occupation of trans-Mississippi territory, 628 et seq.
Milk river,  764
Mill  creek in old  St.  Louis,  no
Miller, Indian agent at  Bellevue,
682
Miller, Joseph, adventures of, 207,
795, 907
becomes guide to Stuart's party,
208
enters Pac. F. Co., 183
withdraws   from   Pac.   F.   Co.,
191
Miller river, same as Bear river,
208
Mineral wealth of the mountains,
63
Minnetarees, 858
Mirages, 757
Missionary work, 640
Mississippi,   importance   of   navigation in early history, 78
length of, 763
name of, 7^3
Missoula, lake, 787
Missouri, Camp, 570, 951
Missouri Indians, sketch of, 875
attacked by Spaniards, 875, 947
Missouri   Fur   Company,   articles
of association,  138
causes of failure of first organization,  147
first expedition of, 140
"first organization dissolved, 146
members of, 138
operations  of,   139  et  seq.
origin of, 137
reorganization of, 147
termination of,  157
under   Joshua   Pilcher,   150   et
seq.
Missouri Gazette, xi
Missouri Intelligencer, xii, 510
"Missouri Legion," in the Aricara
campaign, 591
Missouri river, 762 et seq.
first steamboat to enter, 106
importance of in fur trade, 774
length of, 762
mouth of, 772
name of,  762
navigation, head of, 764
physical   characteristics   of,   772
et seq.
source  of,  762
system, 760, 762 et seq.
Mitain,   Omaha   woman,   romance
of, 133
Mitchell, D. D., at battle of Fort
McKenzie, 675 et seq.
biographical sketch, 388
builds Fort McKenzie, 336, 673
loses a keelboat on upper Missouri, 336
Mitchell, Fort, 952
Mojave  Indians, 888
Moki  Indians, 888
Monroe,  President, interest of in
Yellowstone    Expedition     of
1819, 563
More  and   Foy  killed  by   Blackfeet, 401, 443, 447, 662
Morrison,   Wm.,   associated   with
Lisa in 1807, 114
attempts   to   open   trade   with
Santa  Fe,  491
member Mo. F. Co., 138
Mortimer, Fort, 370, 960
Mosquitoes,  838
Mountain life, attractions of, 731
Mountain  sheep, 828
Mountain    trade    unprofitable   to
Am. F. Co., 365
Mountaineer, use of term, 53
Mulkey,   Mrs.   William,   daughter
of Andrew Drips, xiii, 392
Muscleshell river, 764
Mustang, 832
N
Nadowa, winter camp of Astorians, 1810-n, 183
Napoleon Bonaparte and Louisiana, 78
Navajo  Indians, 882
Navajo   Blanket,  882
Navigation, head of, on Missouri,
764
II
m INDEX.
I02I
Navy  yard   of   Fort   Pierre,   47,
956
New Fork, 780
New Park, 749
Nez Perce Indians, 888
relation to Flathead mission of
1832, 643, 924
cited, x
Nicollet, J. N., cited x
notice of, 638
Nidiver,   George,   kills   two   Indians at one shot, 415
quoted, 407
Nimrod, The, voyage of in  1844,
681
Niobrara river, 767
Nishnabotna, post, 949
Nixon, O. W., cited, 642
Northern Department Am. F. Co.,
320, 928
North Park, Colo., 749
North Platte, Ford of, 470
Northwest Brigade arrives at Astoria, 217, 221
leaves Astoria, April 4th,  1814,
224.
Northwest Fur  Company,  carries
trade to the Columbia, 89, 201
conduct in War of 1812, 558
exonerated from blame in connection with Astoria, 238
historical  sketch of, 88 et seq
purchases  Astoria, 221
relation with J. J. Astor, 168
rivalry with H. B. Co., 91
unites with H. B. Co., 92
Northwest   Fur   Company,   name
given   to   Leclerc's   Company,
346
Northwestern Fur Company buys
out Am. F. Co., 367
Nuttall, Thomas, accompanies Astorian party,  184
cited, x
notice of, 635
with N. J, Wyeth, 449, 636
O'Fallon,   Benjamin,   commissioner to treat with Indians, 608
quoted,  154
see   "Yellowstone   Expedition"
Ogallallas, 865
Ogden, Peter Skeen, in Salt Lake
valley, 749
name given to Humboldt river,
797
relations   with  Ashley,   277
relations with  Fitzpatrick, 293
Ogden Hole, 748
Ogden river, 793, 796
Okanagan post, 202, 974
Okanagan  river,  788
Old Park, 749
Omaha  Indians,  871
Omega, log book of, quoted, 984
et seq.
voyage  of,  678
One-Eyed   Sioux,  560
Opposition,   meaning   of   term   in
Mo.  R.  trade,  378
Oregon, origin of name, 792
Oregon Trail, the, character of as
a public highway, 460
eastern   terminus   of,   97,    463
future occupation of route, 462
general   description   of,   460   et
seq.
historical sketch, 214, 457 et seq.
impression   upon   the   Indians,
461
itinerary of, 464 et seq.
junction   with   Santa  Fe   Trail,
464, 536
Orleans, Fort, 75, 947
Osage, Fort, 628, 948
Osage Indians, 872
Osage river, 772
Oto Indians, 874
Overland   Astorians,
see
'Asto
rians
Overland journeys, 38
Owen,   William,   ascends    Grand
Teton, 732
Owls in prairie dog holes, 832
Owyhee river, 307, 785
Pacific Fur Company, origin and
scope of, 168, et seq.
Pacific Spring, Oregon Trail, 476
Packs of furs, how composed, 40
Paduca Indians, an ancient tribal
name, 876
Paine, Thomas, and Captain Bonneville, 397, 432
Pai-Ute Indians, 886
Palmer, Joel, itinerary of Oregon
Trail, 459, 464, 475
Pambrun, H. B., trader on Walla
-■.«WM1Em
mmmmmmmmmmmm 1022
INDEX.
if
Walla, 424, 443
Panimaha Indians, 868
Panther, American, 830
Parker, Samuel, cited, x
mission to Oregon, 642
quoted, 475
Partisans, or leaders, 51
Pattie,   James   O.,   expedition   of,
5°7
Patriotism on  the prairies,  524
Pawnee Indians, 868
Pawnee Rock, Santa Fe Trail, 538
Payette   river,   786
Pedler,   The,   chartered   by   Mr.
Hunt, 220
voyage of from Astoria, 224
Pemmican, 811
Pend d' Oreille Indians, 892
Pend d' Oreille lake, 787
Phillebert's Company, 497, 654
Picotte, Honore, notice of, 388
quoted, 29
Piegan, Fort, 335, .961
attacked by Indians, 335
Piegan Indians, 851
valor of, 677
Pierre, Chouteau Jr. and Co., 366
Pierre, Fort, history of, 340, 955
locality of, 767
Pierre's Hole, 289, 657, 747, 784
battle of, 298, 442, 657 et seq.
rendezvous in, 657
Pike's Peak, 736
first ascent of, 576, 580, 583
first   measurement   of   altitude,
576, 580, 583
Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, cited,
ix, x
expeditions of, 81, 96, 494, 634
experience with La Lande, 491
taken to Santa Fe, 494
Pilcher,       Joshua,       biographical
sketch,  158
conduct   in   the   Aricara   campaign, 589 et seq.
member Mo. F. Co., 149, 158
misunderstandings     with     Col.
Leavenworth, 604
quoted, 153, 154, 603, 606
succeeds Manuel Lisa, 150
tour of the Northwest, 156
Pines, 801
Plains, The, 751 et seq.
Plains rivers, 774
Platte, Fort, 368, 967
Platte river, 768 et seq.
fords of, 466, 470
locality at mouth of, 768
name of, 769
north  fork of, 769
south  fork,  770
Plus, meaning of term, 40
Poison Spider creek, 470
Political  boundaries,   798
Ponca Indians, 871
Ponca post, 952
Pond, Pangman and Company, 89
Poplar, 801
Portage des Sioux, council at, in
1815, 559
Portneuf river, 479, 785
Portuguese ho'uses, 966
"Possibles," meaning of term, 62
Posts of Am.- F. Co. named in licenses, 965
Posts trading, see "Trading posts"
Potts, companion of Colter, 719
Powder river, Wyo., 766
valley     a     favorite     wintering
ground, 294, 766
Powder river, Oregon, 481, 785
Powell, J. W., and the "Ashley"
inscription,  274
Prairies,  The,  751
Prairie dog, 831
Prairie fires, 756
Pratte, Cabanne & Co., 367
Pratte. Chouteau & Co., purchase
Western Dept., 364
Pratte and Vasquez post, 951
Price river, 781
Prices in the mountains, 4, 5, 929
Prickly Pear, 805
Prince Paul of Wurtemburg, 636
Profits and losses in Am. F. Co.
business, 377
Profits in the fur trade, 6
Profits in Santa Fe trade, 7
Provo river, 794, 796
Provost, Etienne, discovers South
Pass, 261, 271
falls out with Gen. Ashley, 280
in Salt Lake valley, 275
massacre   of  party  by   Indians,
276
meets  Gen.  Ashley  near  Green
river, 275
sent  by  McKenzie  to  bring in
free trappers, 328
Pryor, Nathaniel, defeated by Aricaras, 121 et seq. INDEX.
IO23
escorts  Mandan  chief  up  Missouri, 120
relations with Manuel Lisa, 121,
131
Psoralea esculenta, 806
Pueblos, 881
Purcell, James,  discovers gold in
Colorado, 486
story of his Santa Fe expedition,
492
Pyramid Lake, 797
Quaking Asp, 801
%' R
Rabbit Ear creek, Santa Fe Trail,
542
Raccoon, The, arrives at Astoria,
222
leaves Fort George, 223
Raft river, Oregon Trail, 480
Rainier, Mount, 742
Rampart range, 736
Rattlesnakes, 837
Raynolds, Captain, and the Oregon Trail, 461
quoted, 966
Recovery, Fort, 952
Col. Leavenworth at, 590
Red river of Natchitoches, 776
navigation of, 535
Reed, John, arrives at Astoria, 195
biographical sketch, 908
massacre of party. 225
robbed of dispatches, 203
visits   caches  at   Caldron  Linn.
205
Rendezvous of the mountains, 39
beginning of, 272, 273
of 1826, 279
of 1830, 292
of 1832, 296
of 1833^300
of 1834, 304      I      II liBM
Renville, Joseph, founder Col. r.
Co., 323
Republic, The, of St. Louis, assistance acknowledged, xi
Rezner, Jacob, see "Hoback, Robinson and Rezner"
Richards, Gov. W. A., assistance
acknowledged, 197
Riley, Major, escorts Santa Fe
traders, 509, 511
Rio Colorado, Santa Fe Trail, 542
Rio Grande, 535, 776
Rio San Juan, 783
Rio Virgin, 782
Rivers,  their  relation  to  the  fur
trade, 759 et seq.
River systems of the west, 760 et
seq.
relation to fur trade, 761
relation to territorial expansion,
761
River of the West, 791
Riviere a Jacques post, 952
Roads of the prairies, 755
Robidoux posts, 949, 971
Robidoux on Green river, in 1824,
507
Robinson,  Edward,   see  "Hoback,
Robinson and Rezner"
Rock creek, 480
Rock  with  impression  of  human
feet, 613
Rocky  mountains,   application   of
the name, 728
physical aspects of, 728 et seq.
Rocky   Mountain   Fur   Company,
contract with Wyeth, 301-3, 446,
448, 450
decline of its business, 299, 303
losses of life and property, 306
offer   to   divide   territory   with
Am. F.  Co., 299
origin of, 262
place of in western history, 305
et seq.
promotes    geographical    knowledge, 306
termination of, 304
true application of name, 292
Rootdigger Indians, 886
massacre   of  by  Walker  party,
411, 418
Rose, Edward, Aricara campaign,
.590, 597
biographical  sketch, 684 et  seq.
grave of, 688
Hunt's alarm over, 189, 686
incident at  Mandans  1825,  614,
687
Leavenworth's   opinion   of,  686.
687
method of hunting buffalo, 612
noticed, 655
on      Yellowstone      Expedition,
1825, 610, 687 1024
INDEX.
fff
warns Ashley against Aricaras,
266
Ross,     Alexander,     biographical
sketch, 908
cited, x, 221, 884
opinion  of, about J.  S.   Smith,
271
quoted, 233
Round Grove, Oregon Trail, 464,
536
Round   Mound,   Santa   Fe   Trail,
542
Routes from St. Louis to seaboard,
2
Routes    of    overland    Astorians,
196, 214, 241
Russian fur trade, 94
Russian  government,  relations  of
J. J. Astor with, 170
iRuxton, Frederick, cited, x
Sac Indians in War of 1812, 559
Sage brush, 803 et seq.
Sage, Rufus, cited, x, 466, 749
quoted, 62, 467, 472. 538
Saint Ange de Belle Rive, 102
St. Lawrence valley, the highway
of the fur trade, 84
St.  Louis,  arrival  of first  steamboat, 106
character of population at time
of cession, 108
comparison    of   old    and    new
towns, 109 et seq.
defenses, ancient,  103,  no
early growth of, 105
early inhabitants, 106
emporium of western fur trade.
2, 97
headquarters   Western   Department, Am. F. Co., 320
historical sketch, 97 et seq.
magnitude  of  fur  trade  before
cession, 109
magnitude of fur trade at present time, 109
offspring of the fur trade, 109
St. Louis Republic, assistance acknowledged, xi
St. Louis traders, early, 109
opposition   to   Mr.   Astor,   229,
312, 316 et seq.
St. Vrain, Ceran, quoted, 520
sketch of, 543
takes   expedition   to.  Santa   Fe,
509
St. Vrain, Fort, 543, 968
Salishan family, 848
Salmon, description of, 835
Salmon Falls, 480
Salmon river, 786
Salmon  River mountains,  740
Salt river, 783
Sand hills of Nebraska, 752
Sanford, J. F. A., in Washington,
30
quoted, 368
Sangre de  Cristo mountains,  737
San  Luis  valley,  750
San Miguel,  Santa Fe Trail, 542
Sans Arcs Indians, 865
Santa Clara Spring, 542
Santa Fe, arrival ot caravans at,
528
caravans, 523 et seq.
caravans,    military    escorts    of.
m 532
commercial isolation of, 487, 516
description of, 487 et seq.
expeditions, condensed summary
of, 508
historical sketch of, 484
Santa   Fe   Road   Commission,   of
1825, 510, 533
Santa Fe trade, custom house difficulties, 527, 528
divisions  among  small  proprietors, 520
early expeditions, 489 et seq.
influence of in war with Mexico,
i", 513
magnitude of, 518, 521, 935
Mexican proprietorship of, 508
profits in, 520
prohibited, 522, 529
statistics of, 519
transportation of specie, 526
Santa Fe Trail, description of, 530
et seq.
incidents of, 545
itinerary of, 535 et seq.
junction with Oregon Trail, 536
location of, 534
mountain branch, 532, 543
wagons first used on, 501, 504
Saones, a Sioux tribe, 865
Sarpy, Fort, 390, 965
Sarpy,   Gregoire,  390
Sarpy, John B., 390
Sarpy, Peter A., 391 INDEX.
IO25
Sarpy, Thomas L., 390
Science,   cause   of   promoted   by
traders, iv
Scott's Bluffs, story of, 467
Seever,    William,    assistance   acknowledged, xiii
Sehon, E. W., letter on Flathead
mission, 645, 922
Selkirk colony, 91
Seton, Alfred, and Captain Bonneville, 399
home journey from Astoria, 224
Sevier Lake and river, 796
Shahaptian family, 848
Shasta, Mt., 742
Sheepeater Indians, 888
Shoshonean family, 848
Shoshone Falls, 785
Shoshone Indians, 884
Shoshone Lake, 783
Sibley,   G.   G,  and   Ezekiel   Williams, 653
member   Santa  Fe  Road  Commission, 510, 533
quoted, 570, 628
Sierra Blanca, 737
Sierra Nevada, 741
Sinclair killed at Battle of Pierre's
Hole, 298
Siouan family, 847
Sioux Indians, 863 et seq.
in War of 1812, 557
participants    in    Aricara    campaign, 590 et seq.
relations with the traders, 865
Sire, Joseph A., 393
master of Omega, 1843, 985
quoted, 680, 683
steamboat master, 678
Smallpox scourge of 1837, 620 et
seq.
Smith, Jedediah S., adventures of,
282 et seq.
American    Fork,    Cal.,    named
from,  286
among   the   Mojave   Indians   in
1826, 283
at Fort Vancouver, 286
attacked by Mojave Indians in
1827, 285
biographical sketch, 252 et seq.
California    expedition,    283    et
seq.
carries  express  to  Henry,  253,
269, 588
commended  by  Gen.  Atkinson.
272
complimented     by     Alexander
Ross, 271
death of, 253, 292, 552
generously treated by H. B. Co.,
286, 289
'geographical knowledge promoted by, 306, 307
in Aricara campaign, 590
in H. B. territory 1824, 271
meets    Sublette    and    Jackson
1829, 287, 289
partner of Gen. Ashley, 272
party   massacred   by   Umpquah
Indians, 286
remarkable character of. 282
returns to Great Salt Lake 1827,
284
route across the Sierras, 284
trouble with Spanish authorities,
283, 285
winters in California 1826-8, 284,
286
Smith, Jackson and Sublette buy
out Ashley, 279
enter Santa Fe trade, 292
quoted, 66
sell out to R. M. F. Co., 292
Smith Fork of Bear river, 478
Smuggling    liquor    into     Indian
country, 23, 368, 678 et seq.
Snake Indians, 884
massacre   Provost's  party,  276
Snake river, 783
canon, 786
cataracts of, 785
first crossing of. 480
lower crossing of, 480
navigability of, 785
physical characteristics of, 784
Soda Springs on Bear river, 479
Sources of Continental river systems, 760
Sources of the History of Oregon,
456
South Park, Colo., 749
South Pass, description of, 727
discovery of, 271, 475
referred to, 292
South Platte river, ford of, 467
road along, 467
Southwest Fur Company, 310
Sowles,   Captain,   timid   counsels
of, 219
Spalding,   Rev.   H.   H.,   ascends 1026
INDEX.
Grand Teton, 732
Spanish authority in Mexico overthrown, 500, 516
Spanish colonial history, 72 et seq.
Spanish   expedition   of   1720,   75,
947
to Pawnees in 1806, 495
to Council Bluffs in 1824, 507
Spanish fur trade, 86
Spanish governors of upper Louisiana, 102
Spanish jealousy of the U. S., 78
Spanish  Peaks, 737
Spanish   settlements   in   America,
antiquity of, 483
Spanish Trail, 781
Specie, transportation of  by pack
animals, 526
Spring hunts, 42
Stansbury,   Howard,   on   mileage
of Oregon Trail, 459, 464
Statistics of the fur trade, 7
Steamboat, Missouri river, annual
voyage of, 36
description of, 35
first at St. Louis, 106
first on Missouri river, 106
impression upon the Indians, 341
introduced into Am. F. Co. service, 338
journal of voyage to Fort Union, 984 et seq.
Steamboat        navigation,        early
growth on western rivers, 106
Stephens, Alfred K., free trapper,
409
killed, 298, 410, 442, 662
Stevenson, James, ascends Grand
Teton, 732
Stinkingwater river, 766
Stoddard,   Amos,   his   connection
with transfer of Louisiana, 104
quoted, 105, 490, 969
Stone, Bostwick & Co. enter Am.
F. Co., 316, 321
Storms of the prairies, 755
Storrs,  Augustus,  goes  to   Santa
Fe, 508
Streams of the mountains, familiarly known  to  trapper,  760,
762
Stuart and Crooks with overland
Astorians east
arrive in St. Louis, 213
at Caldron Linn, 208
first winter quarters, 212
miss South Pass, 211
robbed by the Crows, 209
second winter quarters, 213
turn off to find Hunt's trail, 209
visited by the Arapahoes, 212
Stuart, David, established post at
Okanagan, 202
member Pac. F. Co., 169
winters on Thompson river, 205
Stuart, Robert, agent Am. F. Co..
312
bearer   of   dispatches   to   New
York. 206
biographical sketch, 908
horse  of,   stolen  by  Snake  Indians, 207
in charge of Northern Department, 320
incident with Captain Thorn at
Falkland Islands, 173
member Pac. F. Co., 169
Stuart. Capt. W. D.. 300
Sublette,   Andrew,   death  from  a
grizzly bear, 824
Sublette and  Campbell at mouth
of Yellowstone, 350
divide field with Am. F. Co., 354
firm of, 255, 304
ill success on Missouri, 353 et
seq.
opposition to Am. F. Co., 350
posts of, 953, 956, 957
Sublette's cut-off, 476, 478
Sublette,  Milton  G.,  biographical
sketch, 254
contract  with  Wyeth,  301,  302.
303, 446, 448, 45o
member R. M. F. Co.. 292
turns  back  from expedition  of
1834, 449
Sublette, William L., at mouth of
Yellowstone 1833, 350, 447
biographical sketch, 254
in Aricara campaign,  590
liquor license of, 25
pockets profits of R. M. F. Co.,
303
trip from  St.  Louis to rendezvous 1830, 291
winter journey to St. Louis, 290
with Ashley in Aricara fight, 266
wounded   at   battle   of   Pierre's
Hole, 298, 661
Sultana, The, Wyeth's ship, 439
Surgery on the plains, 547
Sweetwater river, 471, 474, 769
■
MKr INDEX.
I027
Swift,   Lieutenant,  measures  altitude of Pike's Peak, 580, 583
Switzler, Irvin, cited, xii, 250
Tahoe lake, 797
Talbot, kills Mike Fink, 711
drowned, 711
Taos, 533, 750
valley of, 750
Tecumseh, Fort, 324, 955
changed to Fort Pierre, 340
journal of, 975
Territorial  expansion,  relation of
to river systems, 761
Teton Indians, 865
Teton Mountains, 731
Teton Pass, 732
Teton Post, 956
Teton river, Idaho, 784
Teton river, tributary of Missouri,
767
Thanatopsis,   and   name   Oregon,
792
Thing, Captain, goes to Fort Hall,
452
Thompson, David, arrives at Astoria, 201
cited, ix
in service N. W. Co., 89
Thompson   Fork,   Oregon   Trail,
478
Thorn, Captain Jonathan, 171
attempts to cross bar of Columbia, 174
comments on, 181
killed, 179
trouble   with   Tonquin   passengers, 172, 173
Three Buttes, 741
Three Forks of the Missouri, 745
letter from in 1810, 142, 893
post, 141, 963
Tilton & Co., name of Col. F. Co.,
323
Tilton's post, 957
Tobacco, plants used for, 808
Tongue river, 766
Tonquin, The, 171
arrives at  Nootka,  177
authorities  for account of loss
of, 176
destroyed,  180, 909
enters   Columbia,   175
first published account of disaster, 176, 909
massacre of crew, 179, 909
sails from Astoria, 176
voyage of, 171 et seq.
Townsend, J.  K., cited, x
noticed, 636
observations  upon  Wyeth's  enterprise, 453
Trade with the Indians, 9 et seq.
Trading posts,  description of, 44
et seq.
geographical location of, 49
journals of, 49
life at, 48
list of, 947 et seq.
Trader's engagement, 945
Transportation methods, 32 et seq.
Trapper,   the,   see   "Hunter   and
Trapper"
Trapping   fraternity,   the,   51    et
seq.
Trapping, method of, 54
Treaty between Blackfeet and Assiniboines, 333
Treaty of Paris, Feb. 10, 1763, 77,
88
Treaty of San  Ildefonso,  March
21, 1801, 78
Trudeau's house, 952
Trudeau, Zenon, founder of a St.
Louis Fur Co., 137
sixth Spanish governor of Upper Louisiana, 103
Tulloch,     Samuel,    builds    Fort
Cass, 337
Two Kettles Indians, 865
U
Uintah, Fort, 971
Uintah mountains, 738
Uintah river, 781
Umatilla river, 481, 788
Uncompahgre river, 782
Union, Fort, 327, 858, 958 et seq.
Union Fur Company, 369 et seq.
sells out to Am. F. Co., 372
Union Pass, 727, 733
United   States,   responsibility   of,
for Astorian failure, 237
Upper Missouri Outfit, origin of
name, 326
Utah Indians, 887
Utah lake, 794 1028
INDEX.
Valleys of the mountains, 743 et
seq.
Van Buren, Fort, 965
Vancouver, Fort, 482
Vanderburgh, Fort, 153, 957
Vanderburgh, W. H., battle with
Blackfeet, 328
biographical sketch, 392
death of, 299, 665 et seq.
enters mountain trade, 295, 328
in  Aricara campaign,  591,  598,
605
Vanderburgh  and Drips, Am.  F.
Co. agents, 295
at rendezvous in Pierre's Hole,
299, 666
enter mountain trade, 295
misled     by     Fitzpatrick     and
Bridger, 299, 667
Vasquez and Sublette Post, 968
Vegetables, garden, 807
Vermillion   creek,   Oregon   Trail,
465.
Vermillion post, 952
Vermillion river, 768
Victor, Mrs. Frances Fuller, cited,
ix, 290, 792
quoted, 791
Virgin river, 782
Volcano, Fort, 965
Voyageur, The, 55
W
Wages in the fur trade, 62
Wagonhound creek, Oregon Trail,
470
Wagons on Oregon Trail, 431, 647
on Santa Fe Trail, 431, 501, 504
Wakarusa   creek,   Oregon   Trail,
465
Waldo,  David  E.,  in  partnership
with David Jackson, 292
Waldo, William, cited, xiii
quoted on J. S. Smith, 253
Walker California Expedition, 411
et seq.
arrives at Monterey. 417
crosses Sierra Nevadas, 416
discovers Mariposa trees, 417
discovers Yosemite  417
massacres   Rootdigger    Indians,
411, 418
returns to Bear river, 419 et seq.
route across Sierras, 420
Walker,  I.  R., chief assistant to
Capt. Bonneville, 399, 406, 409
epitaph of, 417
Walker lake, 797
Walker, Wm., Wyandotte interpreter, account of Flathead
mission, 643, 914
Walla Walla Indians, 892
Walla Walla river, 788
War of 1812, 555 et seq.
influence upon Astorian affairs,
204,  231
War with Mexico, iii, 513
Warren, Gen. G. K., and Bonneville's maps, 430
Wasatch mountains, 739
Waterhouse, Professor, on dress
of hunter, 61
Weber river, 793, 796
Weiser river, 786
Western Department, Am. F. Co.,
date of establishment, 320, 928
Western Engineer, description of,
570 et seq.
Westport, Mo., 464, 517
Wheeler, O. D., assistance acknowledged, 395
White Earth river. Kipps' post at,
957.
White river, 767
Whitman, Marcus, 642
his work in Oregon, 647
extracts   arrow   from   Bridger's
back, 672
Whitney, Mt"., 742
Wilderness life, ii, 65, 731
Wilkinson, B., member Mo. F Co.,
138
Wilkinson,   Gen.   J.,   warns   Pike
against Lisa, 126
Willamette river, 789
William, Fort,  on Arkansas, 543,
97c
at   mouth   of   Willamette,   452,
974
at mouth  of  Yellowstone,  351,
960
on Lake Superior, 90
on Laramie, 305, 449, 967
Williams, Ezekiel, adventures of,
651 et seq.
goes to Santa Fe, 509
Willows, 802-
Wind river, 766
Wind River mountains, 733 INDEX.
IO29
Wislizenus, Dr. F. A., 639
cited, x, 758, 969
quoted, 464, 531, 536, 967
Wolf, 829
Wurtemburg, Paul, Prince of, 636
Wyeth, J.  B.,  cited, x, 439
quoted, 440, 441, 472
Wyeth, N. J., agrees with Bonneville for joint hunt, 404, 445
at Battle of Pierre's Hole, 442,
659
at Fort Union, 359, 447
at     Green     river    rendezvous
(1833), 446
at   Pierre's   Hole   rendezvous,
297, 441 et seq.
biographical sketch, 435
character  of  enterprise,  436  et
seq.
cited, x, 397
contract with R. M. F. Co., 301,
446, 448, 450
criticism of enterprise, 455
cuts loose from Hall J. Kelley,
438 ,
division   of   party   in   Pierre s
Hole, 442
enters mountain trade, 299
failure of enterprise, 453
first expedition of, 439 et seq.
Fort Hall built by, 451
Fort Hall sold by, 455
journals of, 456
leaves Pierre's Hole with M. G.
Sublette, 443
operations on the Columbia, 452
quoted 6, 59, 277, 300, 303, 451,
521, 960, 967
reaches the Columbia, 444
reports McKenzie for distillery
at Fort Union, 360, 447
returns home, 455
second expedition, 448 et seq.
starts east in spring of 1833, 444
strength of first expedition, 444
Wyeth's creek, Oregon Trail, 465
X
XY Fur Company, 90
Y
Yakima river, 788
Yampah river, 781
Yankton Indians, 864
Yanktonais Indians, 864
Yellowstone, The, voyage of, 339,
340, 979
Yellowstone   Expedition,   1819-20,
562 et seq., 629
estimate of results, 582 et seq.
expectations in regard to, 563 et
seq.
failure of, 574
mismanagement of, 569 et seq.
purpose of, 563
transportation of troops, 568 et
seq.
Yellowstone   Expedition  of  1825,
608 et seq., 629
Yellowstone National Park, visited by Colter (1807), 716, 717
visited by Ferris (1834), 366
visited by Meek (1829), 290
Yellowstone river, description of,
765 et seq.
Yellowstone river, importance of
situation at mouth, 764
Yosemite, discovered  by   Walker
Expedition, 411
Young, Brigham, referred to, iii
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