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BC Historical Books

An abridgement of Portlock and Dixon's voyage round the world, performed in 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788 Portlock, Nathaniel, 1748?-1817 1789

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effAPTER  £
Ac$$&nf\of*the jiiffer$nt Perfo^mhofrfl carried
on the Fur Trade. jj— The King George's
Sound Company ejlablifhed.—Two Veffels pur-
chafed.—The Completion of their Crewsy and
Names of the Officers^.f-^Paffagtfrom Grave*
fend to Portfmouth.—Employments.—Their
Departure from Portfmputh.—Arrival at
Grueryfey.    j||| ft
■-. i "\ ■
Various \Refrefhme>nft procured at Guemfey.—>
... Leave that Place $Mproceed on the Voyage,
&~ArrivaJ at St. f^gQx—Refrefhmenis to be
—-- „,-■
C O N T E N T S.   I;   • v
met with there,—Departure from thence.-—
Fprtunate Prefervation of a  Boy, who fell
overboard,—-^Arrivalat Falkland's I/lands.
%M immm tier' '
AX X*>'
Leave Falkland's Iflands.—Arrival at Sandwich Ijland\.—UnritiyqBehavtpur of the Natives. —Refrefhments procured,—Departure
from Whahoa,—Account of the prefent Go-
M^vernment^^Anchor at Oneehow.—rTranfac**
iions tmre.
Continuations of TranfaUions at Oneehoift;
Departure from it.—Arrive infigHt of A-
merica.—Meet with Ruffian Settlers.—Arrival in Copik's Ritper.—-Vifted by a Ruffian
Chief.—Anchor in Coal Harbour.—Vift the
Ruffian Settlement.-r-Indians come to the Ships
with Furs.—Sheefo a Tvieving Difpofition.
Bring SalmorL—Defcflption of the Cmintry.
Jlequejled by the Indians to join againft the
' Ruffians. CONTENTS.
Rufians.—Proceed towards Prince Williams
Sound.—Prevented making it by contrary
Winds.—Proceed along the Loajt.
CHAPTERfV.   >       :
Arrive at Owhyhee.—Reftejhments obtained.-—
Natives Propenfity to theft.-—*Plan of future
Proceedings.—Leave Owhyhee% and Anchor at
Whahoa Vifted by Taheeterre.—Pernicious
Effects of the Tava-Root.—An Eatooa ere&~
ed.—Chiefs make Offerings to their Gods.—
Meditate an Attack on the Ships.—Shewn
the Effect of Fire Arms.—Indians embark
for Atooi. Take leave of Taheeterre.—The
old Pr left.-~ Anchor in Wf?noa Bay, Atooie
\—An Excurjim on Shore.
.•^,    .   CHAPTER   VI. *   .     ■ '%
Variety of Refrejhments procured.—Vifted by
the King.—A large Jhark caught.—Orate-
ful Behaviour of Neeheowhooa.—Arrival at
Oneehow.—Leave Oneehow,   and arrive at
a 3 - Atooi.—'-
Atooi.—Remarkable Cirmmfkance of a Woman, vi^U^ktpffl a&*feifrBreaft.--*-Chief
Exercife wiib Spears.—Houfe buifffor Captain Portlock.—fyave Atoqr9 and arrive at
Oneehow*—An Attempt on the Life of an
■Atooi Chief —^^epartufie frem Sandwich
K:..\vVirl.        *M>]
CHAPTER   $11.
Arrival at MontSgu fftand.—Anchor in Han-
rifng's, Bay.—Boatsfent on a Trading Expedition.—Meet with a Veffelfrom Bengal.—
Their diftrefjed  Situation. — Refrejhments
fent them.—Vifted by a powerful Tribe of
Indians.—Their Propenfty to theft.—Leave
Montagu Ifland.—The Ships feparaie'.—
Arrival if the King George in Hinchinbrooke
Cove.—Indians vift the Ship with Sea-otter
Skins. Boats fent on a Trading Expedition.
Plundered by the Indians.—Arrival of the
Nootka.—Long-Bcatfent to Cook's River.—
Departure of the Nootka.—Lo?ig-Boafs Re-
[xtufn.—Vifted by different Tribes of Indians.
—Abundance CONTENTS.
•^Abundaty^Mjf Salmon,   Merrings^and
ygCrabs.—Departure froa? Por& E&$es*<tox&
V,P§$   C H A P T E Rk-tfH&«<ft' «»^  ' '
Short Accotifrt of*fffiM&Wiuf<im ^und:^3De-
fcription of the Inhabitants.—Thei&*PerybnSi
—Manners,—Difeafes,—Drefs,—and Ornaments.—Food,—Cookery,—Weapons.—Proceed along the Coaft.—AmhbrHn Port lock's
Harbour.—TranfdBiens   there.—Vift an
Indian   Habitation.—An   Account of the
J. i|* ^
s being there and leaving the SmaM*
Pox.—Another Vift from the Natives.—
Ceremonies to be obferved.—fof. Woodcock
fent as an Hoftage into the Country.-—An Account of the Natives.—Their Thieving Dif-
poftion, &c.— Leave the Coaft of Afnerica*
Arrival at Sandwich I/lands.—Receive a
Letter from Captain Dixon.—Leave that
Place and Arrive at China.
The ^uee?i Charlotte .arrives at Port Mulgrave.
—Tra?ifa&ions there.*--Account of the Inhabitants.— CONTENT
bitants.—Their Method of Fifhing,—Coo
ing)—Burial Places.—Leave Sort \MuU
grave.—Arrival at Norfolk Sound.—De±
fcription of that Place.—The Manners and
Cujloms of the Inhabitants.—Departure
from   Norfolk   Sound.—Proceed along the
Coaft.—Arrival at Port Banks.—D^-
fcription of that Place.
■  |;:., .    CHAPTER x. §, ;   ' m
Leave Port Banks and proceed along the Coafl.
—Difcover a Group of I/lands.—Trade with
the Natives and procure a great Number of
Sea-Otter Skins.—Short Account of the Inhabitants qf^ueen Charlotte's I/lands,—Meet
with Two Englifh Vejfels.—Paj]age from the
Coajl to the Sandwich I/lands.—Tranfadltons
there.—*Leave Sandwich IJlands and proceed
to China.—-Arrival at Canton.
'CHAPTER'   XI.     ""   ' jfl
TranfaBions at Canton.---Death of Mr. M'Leod*
"Short Account of Tyaana,  a Sandwich
I/land Chief—Furs fold.—Reafon for their
not fetching a better Price.—Short Account
of the Fur-Trade.—Ships y4eave Wampoa.
Death of Mr. Lauder, Surgeon to the £>ueen
Charlotte\-~-The Veffelspart Company.—Arrival at St. Helena.—The Veffels meet there.
Departure fr%n thence, and Arrival in
JLnglandMk    "ytffl-   n: '^^feP^'^^^p-   '
'■§8 s>|
- , •    A
, 'Zgffil :W HAPTER   Ijjg;. y. '; -
Account of the different perfons who firjl carried on the Fur Trade.—The King George's
Sound Company eftablifhed.—Two veffels pur-
chafed. The completion of their crews, and
names of the officers.—Paffagefrom Gravefend
to Portfmouth.—Employments.-r—Their departure   from   Portfmouth.—ArMval    at
H   Guernfey.
x HOUGH that   illuftrious  navigator,
Captain Cook, did not, with all his fkill
and all his perfeverance, obtain the great
objeft of his voyage to the Weftern coaft of
America, the difcovery of a practicable
pai^ge from the North Pacific to the North
Atlantic ocean, he furnifhed |Philofbphy
with many additional fa£ts, and he opened
to pomifterce feveral   extenfive   pfofpe£ts^
•   '' -       J   The iCL
1 A   VOYAGE   TO   Tttt
The voyages of the prefent reign, as they
were profeeurted wit^ views the moft difin-
terefted, were expo fed to. the world without
referye, and every nation and every individual had thus an opportunity of forming
new defigns, either for the cultivation of
fcienee, or the advantage of traffic.  , ■.;...
If Great Britain owe' f^ethmj&to France,
for her dsfcoveries  in former  times,   the
French are nrilcb indebted in the prefent to
th&" BflfeHli mariners, for laying open the
whold globe to humeri ^es, and to human
induftry.    The French King, with a noble
emulation, feems  to have fent out feveral
officers with fuitable accommodations,   to
follow the trails of the fucceffive voyages,
which had been fo happily atchieved under
his Majefty's aufpices;   though an Efigffih
fe^man may be allowed to fayT   that the
French navigators failed in their wake, at a
great diftance a-ftern.   No fooner were the
voyages of Cook,  of Clerk,   of Gore and
King   accomplilhed,   and  their narratives
publifhed, than a new expedition wis, in
178 5, difpatched from France, under the
€on«* ;    , -  N0RTH-WE§T COASf 5t AMERICA.        J
con$u€tof Meflfe. Peyrov^ and t>e Laiiglei
in onfer to glean on this ample field!, what
the misfortune of Cook had left unattained,
As early indeed as 1781, a well known
individual, Mr. Bolts, attempted an adventure to the North Pacific Ocean, from the
bottom of the Adriatic, under the Entpe-
ror's Flag ; but this feeble effort of an- imprudent man failed prematurely, owing to
caufes which have not yet been fufficientljj
explained. . The projeft of Bolts appears
to have been early, and adopted by the
Britifh fubjelts, who are fetiled in Afia,
and* who Hand high, in an aftiva age, for
knowledge and for enterprize. They were
naturally ftruck with the fuggeftion of
Captain Cook, what a gaif&ful trade might
be carried on- from America to China for
furs; and a brig of fixty tons, with twenty
men, under the command of Jathes Hanna,
was, in pu^fuit of tMs flattering objefty
difpatched1 frofti the ri^'er of Canton in April
1785, and after coafting Northward,, and
traverfing die Souttern''^xtreitiity of J&pan,
this brig arrived in the $lbfe$juent Auguft at
B 2 Nootka —aa
V.   :
Nootka Sound, the American mart for peltry : whatever may have been the fuccefs of
Hanna, in 1785, he performed, in a larger
veflel, a fimilar voyage in 1786. In this
year the merchants of Bombay fent two ref-
fels under the dire&ion of James Strange *r
while the traders of Bengal difpatched two
fliips which were commanded by Lieutenants
Mear and Tipping, to the American coaft
for furs, in the hopes of^Indian profits.
Thefe feveral adventures, the gains of which
were no doubt greatly amplified, incited to
fimilar purfuits the torpid fpirit of the Por-
tugueze at Macao, whofe fathers had been
the difcoverers, the conquerors, and mono-
polifts of the Eaft. §|L    •. ,.- ,i . - .;
Thefe enterprizes have proved extremely
important to the world, though their profits^
confidering the capital and the rifques, were
not envioufly great. Thefe enterprizes, however, by enlarging the limits of difcovery,
made navigation motfe fafe in the North
Pacific Oce&n i'f$they familiarized the South
Sea iflanders to European perfons, manners
and traffic $  they taught the American fa-
vages, th&t ftrength muft always be ft&bor-
dinate to difcipline: and having difcovered
Hie Ahooa Indians on the borders of Nootl^l
Solind, who had % farAdvanced fitom the'lf
favage ftate as to refufe tofelftto Mr. Strange,
for any5price, cthe peflffy whll6lPfl!l9y-h8S al~
re^8y engaged to Mr.'Hanna. p^he^^nter-
prizes Save afcertaine#*his exhilarating truBl
to nilnkSid, that civilization and morals
muft tor ever accompany each other. In
the effluxion of agdf^er^&ds often arife,
when mankind, by #confentaneAus fpirit,
purfuewith'ardori anafagous enterprizes. At
the Smefc'poch, Coluhibus and Gaffia were
em^KM?^ the origin difcoVe^ng the'lands
in the Weft, tfife othe^ in exploring^the regions *of the E&ft§ In the preferit- times, the
Britfh, the French,;Carid the Spaniards, at
the fame momentallied themfelvesin fearcKt
ing every coaft and ever^%re$k, witMhe glorious purpofe of benefitting the Buflran rae%
by adding to their ^appiiiftls.pWhfle tifofe
adventures we're thus 'performing from .the
Eaftern extremities bf-Afia, to the Weftern
jfhores' rdf America^ private peffdhs ^uil'deft
tdoK-k mbre:afdti6usrvoyage^ M a like kind,
B 3 from m
J^-om England. It was in MayHi'785, that
Richard Cadman Etdjes, and o||herjtraders,
enticed injo a co§§raerq^j[ parti^jr#iip, ^nde}*
the titlg of ^^^Cii)g George's Soujid Company, $)r carrying on a r^r tr^de |$om the
W^fterji coaft j^;;Ame||ca £p China,| For
thi^pgigjojfe, tjieyjj^affied a licence froj^i
the South Sea Company, who, without carrying on any traflic therpfelves, ftfpd in the
mercaiarjfflba w^ of more adventurous mer-
if^jajQts. tfjji^y ^^cpr^d alfo a iimilaj^^ence
froW|tl§g^ft^^p^:^pi9|>any, who, at the
/?fne$i9» engaged to give ti^em a freight of
tea$ %gfgrp^gton. jpfj|{^ enterprize of the
I^HISG^^ge'sSoi^^Comp^iy a|bne evinces
^^!;&^lfe#9Mrtnerfl1ips and Englifti
capites cojuJ*| ^ndertaj^i and execute, v^ere
^ey lef§:oppofed by pipju^ice, and reftrained
hy mojnop<^ies. ^&BHfeder to execute this de-
ngg^ljigjj^i'ng George's Sound Company
py^cljgfed a~§)$p of 320, and a fnow of 200
tons $ ^|4ng thiyj a fi^e and burthen which
Captain Cc^||^-g||fr adequate trials, recom-
meggjft4 %¥ W$ &*?¥% ^or dift^nt empjpy-
#ients, an^^fki^^ pwing $> the merct^iits
expgfig8?& ?nS^4-&?PP$R ?j9°ys m dj?
11/ ..;|Pi ;Jj•    greateft
'greats^numbers. Thefe veffels were in^
fee^iatrfy put into-dock, in order ifchat they
aaaight flae completely fitted for fo long a
voyage. With aihthe fkiil and diligence of
tjie flripwid^ats of the Tfaames, jtwas not,
however, tjil the 8fch of July that thefe vad
fete' were moored at Deptford, for the con*
vienience of<'£tting their riggiag, engaging
feamen, and taking onboard fuah ftores &nd
cither necefflaries as were judged needful fof
a v&yage>tff fueh length aad variety. The
beft prbvifions were pwfi$Mfed, aiieing ths
dheapeflrjiii'the end ; a&d great attmtioia wp
iafed in providing thofe aiticles which' were
thouglht^oft likelyiko j^rfeferve rihe hea|th of
the^rews, by adding to their ooxiifbrts. fp||
In the mean time, the Owners appointed
Mr. N^rfia«iel iPortlock Commandfer of the
larger vefTel, andGeo#ge Pixdft of the fmqjd
ler^ both of diem having accompanied Cap-
taiS.C4«tfin his laft voyage to the Paeiiic
Ocean, were deemed 3&oft proper for an adventure which required no common knowledge and experience: othfcr officers of dto*
petent talents were at the fame time appQlnt-
B 4 edj • /
, ed, in order that they might know each other
and facilitate the outfit-^ The nriii&iy of
this enterprize attra&ed the noticed federal
perfons, who were e&iinent eitheMbr. talents
or ftation, and whfei promoted this voyage
by their countenance, i or ftreiigthened. the
Companyiby their approbation, rf When$ir
Jofeph Bai^tksiand Lor«MVJulgrav^ Mr. R&fe
and Sir John Dickccame oa boatd^the Se-
fc^tanj^ tonthe Treafury yarned therilargeft
veffel the King George, and the Rrefideattof
the  Roykl  Spciet^jcalled the  fhialler the
Queen Charlotte. Exsluilve of the profits of
traffic, or the advantages of difcovery, this
voyagj^was deftii^fbtp<®ther national objefts*
Several gentlemen's fons who l^il /hewn anr
inclination to engage in a fea-faring life, were
f>ut:under Captain Bprtlock's <^re,  for the
purpofeof being eafjyi^itiated inJ^&^now-^
ledge of a prof effion ygfetch requires length of
experience, rather than£$|fQ$vemitt£ifce of genius.    At; the fame time was engaged William Philpot E^ans, md JofepfoWoodooeft,
two of the pupils of Mr. Wales, the Mafter
of the Mathematical School in Chrift'-fc Hof-
pital, who were able to afiift in teaching the
**■•- -I        ■ $Wi ' /  boys NORTH*WEST COASlT OF AMERICA.        9
boys the rudiments ofcna$fe;ation, arid rfiight
be ufefSlfy employed in 'tiffing vie\#l *# re-
markamfc firtSis, and ;Wfcoriffi?u£12ng iShatfe
of commodious harbdurs;11
Having got moft of their ftores on bo&r-cl,
they proceeded down the river, and arrived
off Gravefend on the 29th of Auguft, when
the articles of agreement 'refpefting the
voyage were read to both ftiips companies:
fome of them at firft refufed to fign, but
after a proper explanation, they all chearfully
confented, except two, who were immediately
difcharged. The next day, the crews were
paid their river wages, with a month in advance, and having ftood towards the Downs
with a frefh South Wefterly wind, the fhips
came to anchor the fame evening in Margate Roads.
From this time to the 7th of September,
they were detained by a very fevere gale in
the Channel,, when they came to anchor at
Spithead. During their ftay there, they were
employed in getting fuch articles as had not
been provided in London, that were thought
to A  VOYA^  TO  T,HE
to be?#fceflary in (o long a voyage. j^By
$P $ £^k every tfgjfigw^s got re^iy; at 7
o'Clopl^ rronu^he inorning of ^jhe i6jth got
under fail; and at .$ o'clock ^g tlf£ ey^ning
of the 20th came to anchor in Guernfey
-•■■■' ■    i   CHAPTER    II. ^fjg>"-
Various Refrefhr%ei$s procured at Guernffipgr--
Leave that Place and proceed on fbgfVoyage.
—Arrival at St. Jago.—Rcfrtfy^'^fs to be
.•jftet with there.—Departure from tfofflce.—
Fartun&te prefervat,ion  of a Boy  thff feU
^ffverfagrd.—Arrival at Fftikla^d Iftayds.
jtVs it v&$ the intention of the Owners to
have tire J$yi£ quantity of li/jj^pr fenfgdout
to the fhip;\,£#$ipanies as if cuftomary on
board .his Majefty's veffels, their principal
bufmefs- at Guernfey was* to procure §: pi'9f
per-fuppfy 6f liquor for that purpofe. Aa^
cordingly, they receivqid on board a quality
of fgirits, port wine, and cyder, which engaged, them till the 24th.
On the 25th unmoored, h£d a very-^easgj
gale, when the wind fuddenly chopping
round, Captain Portlock gave orders for the
top-gallant maft to be ftruck, ajjd got u]%>q
ilfck; likelwife caufed preparation to be ma^fi
|^r ftri^fcg the top-mafts, and fpliced one of
the 12
It    •
the new cables to the beft bower, intending,
fliould the gale continue till the evening, to
lower the top-mafts, and to have veered to
a cable aftd half on the beft bower, and half
a cable on the fmall oife. %f tfte fhip had not
held faftwith thete precautions, he meant to
have run through the Little Ruflels, as he had
a pilot tin boafd, and behaving the lower
yard aloft, might have brought her under
the courfes, and on occafion, the top-fails
£fcfe reefed -, but foriunately, towards' the
evenM^y the wind got round to the ^Northward;-though it continued BfiJvriftg^in fud-
den gufts through1 thevnight?:- At fix o'clock
in the morniiig br^the 26tB,D weighed Anchor ^'and on Monday thei^^^.^ftdber,
arrived fafe at St: Jago, whefe^after \waiting
on the Commander of the fort, whois ftiled
the Captain Moor, and paying a port charge
of four dollars for each veffel, Captain Port-
lock went to infpe<9??he welIs,xboth of which
he found' tc^fierexcelfent water. rThey were
informed that a market wbiHd^be held at
Praya on the morrow, where they could be
provided with plenty pf-Iive;ftbck;, and various : kinds of rrefrefhments, : which are
r^:\     li   .■ V     brought NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
brought there by the inhabitants from different parts of the ifland. On the 25th.)
were employed in purchafing hogs, goats*
fheep, and oranges, which they met with in
tolerable plenty. E Every bufinefs at this
place being compleated, they propofed leaving
it the firft opportunity; and by day-light
the 29th,  unmoored, weighed, and made
lit 11* IgSrJ;
St. Jago is generally mountainous, and
appears to be a very fine ifland; but their
fhort ftay, and other profeffional duties, pre-
veg|ed them from having any opportunities
of viewing the interior parts of the country.
The vallies are fertile, and there is mijch
land, which feems fit for producing fugar
cane. They raife cotton. Some of the natives appear to be induftrious, but are exceedingly oppreffed by the Portugueze fol-
diers, who exa£t an exorbitant toll from the
unhappy countrymen who bring their commodities to market. On the whole, they
found the refrefhments which St. Jago fup-
plies,^ makes it a very eligible ftation for
thofe veffels to touch at, which are employed
ill in i      I
14 A   VOtfAtfE   TO   THE'
in the Southern Whale Fifherv. From this
time to the 15th of November nothing particular occurred, when DaVid GiUmour, a boy
about ten years old, fell overboard from the
weather main fhrouds, and not beiftg a!6fe to
fwim, dropt a-ft"ern, when tvzrf effort to-fave
him would have been n*fe!efs, had not Providence enabled him to! keep above water till
the boat picked him up, which was at the
diftance of two hundred yards from the fhip,
and had been about ten minuted in the water:
when got on board, he was almbft de&d with
fright and fatigue. On the 4th of January,
they came to anchor at Falkland Iflands,
where they found a tolerable good hafbour,
and other conveniences for watering, with-a
fandy bottom in twelve fathom water. fts
happened unluckily, that neither of the
fliips had a feparate map of Falkland Iflands j
this circumftance, together wrtfh variable
winds, occafioned them to approach with
great caution. At this place all Mnds had5
leave given them to go on fhore, with a'
doiitile allowance of brandy, and fome frefh
pork killed for the occafion, made thfcf
($hriftmas pafs very pleafantly.   Some of ihe
jlf - ; -"M- '   ' ■ ,S PeoP^e
people on fhore made excurfions into various parts of the country, and they difco-
vered the ruins of a town, with fome garden
grounds around, where they found feveral
forts of vegetables, fuch as horfe-raildifh,
lhalots, a few fmall potatoes, and fome celery, which was in a degenerate ftate \ they
likewife faw a hog, but he was fo wild they
could not catch him. Amongft a variety o£
the feathered creation, which they found at
Falkland Iflands, was the yellow winged
Buntkig, the rufty crowned Ploter, and the
eiiiereorasLark, which had never been figured
in England before, and may be ittn in Capt,
Pofttock's Voyage, lately publifhed*
w A -V-DYAGE   TO  TttE
League Falkland Iflands'.—Arrival d¥S&ndwich
1 -jfflands.^—Unrufy behaviour of the Natives.—
Kefrefhments procured. — Departure from
WfWhahoa.—Account of thje prefent Government.—They Anchor at Oneehow.—Tranf-
aSlions there.
AVING completely furnifhed them-
felves with every neceffary that could be
procured at Falkland Iflands, on the 23d of
January, with a fine Southerly breeze,
weighed anchor,- and came to fail. On the
27th they doubled the Eaft Point of Staten's
Land. From this time to the 7 th of May,
they experienced a great deal of bad weather. In rounding Cape Horn, and being
now in-the Latitude of 20 deg* 1 min.
South, and 134 deg. 11 min. Longitude,
they expefted to have fallen in with the
Iflands of Los Majos, being the fituation
they are laid down in; but unfortunately
for them, they could find no fuch Iflands, be-
ing a miftake of the Spaniard from whofe,
charts Captain pook copied it. Their people
being many of them in a fickly condition,,
obliged them to,make away as faft as pofliA
ble to Owhyhee, the principal of the Sandwich | Iflands, where they arrived. on the
24th :• when a number of the natives-came,
off in their&anqes, and brought with them,
fome fmall hogs and a few plantains, which
were bought for beads and fmall pieces_of
iron:, a number of theirrfifliing lines w^|~
<purchafed, many of them being from three,
to four hundred fathoms long, and perfectly
well made ; fome of two, and others $f three
ftrands, and much ftronger than our lines-
of that fize. The Indians traded ^jwith
chearfulnefs, and did not $iew any diwo$%:
tion to a6l difhoneftly. After difpofing of.
every thing they had to fell, and viewing ther
ihip all round, they returned- to the fhore
perfectly well fatisfied. As Karakakooa Bay
was the.jpnly harbour they knew of $£
Owhyhee^they determined to makei^^foon
as poflible, which they, expefted to nave
done rthe next day, but were.oiiappoinjted bv
contrary winds.  In the night they obffrved
C a great *
A  tffcYAGE   TO  THE
a grtlrt fltimbai: of fires all along the fhof&V
and were ift&iried to think, were aghted m
drder to alarm the country. 1 It is cuftomai^
for the natives to light fires wfoen they make
offerings to'their Gods for fuccefs in war,
w'hich might poffibty h&Ve been the cafe at
this titfte. ff *Tft£y obferved & fhyne& in the
natives a$ 'tlifcy approached Kar&Sakooa, fre-
^tifefrtly enquiring after CaJ>fcaiii King, and
feemed by their be*haVid$t *te think they
werfe come to revenge the death of Captain
On the 26th an inferior Chief came art
!>bard, who informed them that Tetfeeoboo
was TCiiig of Owhyhee, when Captain Cook
was killed at that ifland, and that the prefect feng's hame was Maiha Maiha: he im-
$'61*tuneii 'Captairi ^Pbrtlock very ftrongly to
go oil fhore. On his declining, that propofal^
%& told hfel that the King; would pay him a
f iiit the neXt d&y. They paid little regard
to this intelligence, as it was &ot likely that
he would venture on board after the aftiVe
$art he took in that ^unfortunate affray
whicn terminated in  the much lamented
death of Captain Cook. Many ianoesiame
along fide, and the people were very importunate to come on board: they behaved in
a very daring, infolent manner, and it was
with difficulty they were prevailed on to
quit the-(hip. They put up with thefe in*
conveniences rather than ufe violence, if it
could poffibly be helped 3 yet thefe appearances made them fearful of doing their bull-
nefs at Karakakooa with eafe, particularly
to fill their water, and get the fick people on
fhore. As they approached the harbour,
great numbers of canoes joined thuenn, and
hung fo much on the fide of the fhip as to
retard their progrefs (o long, that they did
not get anchored till four o'clock. As foon
as this was done, they were immediately fur-
rounded with amazing numbers of the natives, who grew very troublefome, conftant-
ly crawling up the cable and the fhip's fide,
vfrhichkept the people fo much employed,
that it was fome time before they could get
moored. During this time, no Chief, who
had any command on the people, aaade his
appearance, which was very unfortunate fear
them; for could they have got a perfon of
v C 2 if    confequence <20
iconfequence cm board, he would have kept
the reft in order,  and their bufmefs would
have been done wi|fe eafe and difpatch.    In
the courfe ,of the afternoon they purchafed a
number of fine hogs,, and a good quantity
of fait, with plantains^potatoes, and taro,
which laft was the;beft they had ever feen.
Bread-fruit   was  fearce,    and   what j'they
-got was not in a perfect ftate, wljich made
them conclude it not to be the proper feafon
for it.   At night, fires were lighted all round
the bay, and the peopk; on fhore were ij|.
conftant motion. Several canoes continued
near the fhip, and about midnight one of
the natives, brought off alighted torcji, feern-
ingly with an inten&pnlpf feting fire to the
veffel:~ on their driving hiui away, he paddled
to the Queen Charkrt%;  but  they  being
equally prepared, he. made his way to fhore
.again. Next day, by day-light, they were visited by greatynultitudes of the natives; but
50^11 no Chiefs $9^de their appearance-  and
vthe people gr$w fo infolgit and daring, that
they wera^inder a neceffifjf of^: placing cen-
tinels with cutlaffes to prevent their boarding them.    This unexpected reception con-
^inced'them that nothing could be done on
fhore but with a very ftrong guard, and
taking a ftep of that nature might be productive of fatal confequences, which determined them to leave Karakakooa as foon as
poffible. Notwithftanding the concourfe of
Indians that furrounded the fhips, they faw
numbers collected in bodies on fhore; fome
on the^beach, and others on the top of a
hill which commands the watering place;
and there appeared a great number of Chiefs
amongft: them. At nine o'clock Captiain
Portlock gave orders to unmoor; but the
#oud of people was fo great, that their boats
could fcarce pafs to their buoys. In this
fituation, it became abfolutely neceffary to
drive them away; and Captain Portlock was
defirous of ufing fome method that would
frighten without hurting them ; accordingly, afeer drawing out the fhot, they fired fix
four pounders and fix fwivels; at the fame
time their colours were hoifted, and thejhip
taboo'd, by hoifting a white flag at the maintop-gallant maft head. This had the desired effe£l; for, immediately on their be*
ginning to fire, the Indians made fir fhorj* U-9
with the utmoft precipitation. In the hurry
and qonfufion which was occafioned by this
alarm, many of the canoes were overfet, the
owners not flaying to right them, but fwam
immediately on fhore.        -.ft   \fLs     * . *
They now unmodred without moleflation,
and ljj>on after began to warp out of the bay,
until they were at the diflance of three
leagues from Karakakooa, where they wer|
immediately furrounded by a great number
of canoes, with plenty of hogs, and vegetables ©f various kinds, which were purchafed,
and the hogs falted for fea flock. This
fituation they found much more convenient
for carrying on their bufinefs than the harbour; for here they had a fine free air*
whereas in the bay it was fo extremely clofe
and fultry, that there is a great probability of
the meat being fpoiled even after it is falted,
On Sunday the 28th, they flood along the
ftrt^re, many of the canoes ftill continuing
about the fhip, fome of which brought water
in cakbafhes, which was bought for nails, water at this time beginning to be ar\ article of
(ppnfequence to the;m. Having broached
their 5 2d butt, and having yet no certaipty
of bei^ig able tQ water at thefe iflands, they
now proceeded to Whahoa, where they came
to anchor in a good bay, which Captain
Portloqk named King George's Bay;
foon after their arrival, feveral canoes came
along fide with cocoa-ni|ts and plantains, in
return for which they had fmall pieces of
iron, and a few trinkets. On the 2d of June
great numbers of both fexes were in the
water, impelled by curi$£ty to pay them a
vifit, notwithftandgpg they were fome distance from fhore; and as watering the fhips
was of material cpnfequence, Captains Port-
loe& and Dixpn both went on fhore, where
$J*ey met with no oppofition from the natives) but on the contrary, they were revived with marks of l^i^dn^fs, and every
queftion anfwered with readjnefs and plea-
fure. On enquiry for water, they were
conducted to a kitjd of bafon formed by the
r<>cks, about fifty yards from the pjace where
they landed $ trot the quantity fo fmall, that
it would not even afford a temporary fupply.
On this they egquifed for jjiore, but found
f G 4. none 24
none to be had but at a confiderable diftanee
to the weftward.    After making the Indians
fome trifling prefents, they returned to their
boats, and rowed to the northward clofe to a
reef which appeared to run quite acrofs the
bay, about a quarter of a mile diftanee from
the beach.    Having*proceeded nearly a mile
in this dire£tipn, a fmall opening in the reef
prefented itfelf, for which they fleered.   The
channel was narrow, but in the middle they
had   two   fathoms,   water;   after   getting
through they had from three to four fathom
over a bottom of fine fand, and good room
between the reef and beach for a number of
veffels to ride at anchor.     They landed on a
fine fandy beach, amid ft a great number of
the inhabitants,,who all behaved with great
order,   and  never   attempted  to   approach
nearer than they defired.,   They informed
them there was no water near their landing*
place, but plenty farther down along fhore;
and one of the natives undertook to be their
guide.     However, their progrefs was foon
impeded by a little fait-water river that has a
communication ' with King  George's  Bay.
This putting a flop to their progrefs  by
\M land,
land, they had recourfe to their boats, and
attempted'to get to the weftward within the
reef, but found the water fo fhallow that it
was-impracticable; fo they returned by the
paffage^hey went in $t, and afterwards rowed
to the Wiftward, keeping clofe along  the
outfide of the reef, until they got near the
watering place pointed out by the Indians.
In this fituation, feeing a fmall opening in
the reef, they made for it; and the moment
they made it a breaker overtook them, and
nearly filled and overfet their boats.    However,   through  good  management .of  the
fteerfmen, who were the third mates to each
fhip, they efcaped without any misfortune,
though they  had  the   mortification, after
getting over the reef, to find the water fo
fhallow they could not get within two hundred yards of the fhore.    Under thefe cir-
cumftances, they found they could not water
here without an infinite deal of trouble, be-
fides the danger of lofing their cafks, getting
the boats dafhed to pieces againft the rocks,
and the inconvenience of carrying their cafks
fo far  amongft a  multitude   of   Indians,
p-which would make it neceffary to hav#an
armed 2k
armed force on fhore, the fhips lying at too
great a diftanee for them to cover or fecure
a watering party: they therefore determined
to give up the idea, and fent two boats, the
firft opportunity, to examine the Weflern
part of the bay for a good landing place and
convenient watering.
' They returned on board, and found a pretty brifk trade carrying on for hogs, fogar-
cane, and vegetables; the Captain having
left orders for every thing that was brought
to be purchafed. As they had no time to
lofe, they were under a neceflity of coming
to, fome refolutibn about watering the fhips j
and both the Captains being inclined to think
the natives might be induced to bring water
off, fufficient at leaft for a prefent fupply;
at all events, with proper care, they had
fuflxcient to ferve three months logger, but
it happened to be all in the ground tier; they
therefore determined to have all the water
got to hand, and the ground tier filled wj&h
fait water. In the mean time, all hands that
could be fpared were employed in repairing
the rijgjng, ana in every refpe£l making the
veffels fit for the farther profecution of their
voyage, as foon as the crews were properly
refrefhed. Their prefent fituation being
the moft eligible one they knew of at thefe
iflands, they refolved not to quit it till all
their hufinefs was compleated. Early on
the 3d of June, Mr. Hay ward and Mr .White,
in a boat from each fhip, were difpatched to
examine the Weft part of the bay for a landing place and frefh water; they were Eke-
wife ordered to land, and make an excurfion
to that part of the ifland, as there appeared,
from the fhip, to be a fine deep bay in that
fituation. The natives now began to bring
them water very brifkly, and fome of their ca~
labafhes contained near ten gallons ; for one
of thefe they gave a tenpenny nail, which was
much cheaper than they could poffibly procure
the water themfelves, allowing for the damage
the boat would fuftain, and the prefents they
would have been under the necelfity of making on fhore to the Chiefs. m:. .
The weather being now fine, all the ailing
people were fent on fhore, under the care of
he Surgeon of the King George -, and as the
4- i
natives had behaved, to this time, in a quief,
inoffefive manner, there was rib 'danger of
their being molefted. No Chiefs of confe-
quence as yet had paid tRfem a vifit; inferior
ones indeed came on board without feruple,
and fome of them flept on board evePy4iight:
' amongft the reft they had a daily vifit from
an old prieft, who always brought, by way
of prefent, a fmall pig, and a branch of the
cocoa-hut tree. From hihi they learned that
their prefent king's name was Taheeterre;
and%hat he was alftS king of Morotoe and
Mowee. The old man informed them that his
refidence was in a bay round the Weft point,
and importuned them very much to bring the
fhips there, as that place, he faid, afforded
plenty of fine hogs and vegetables. ^Indeed
they had fome reafon to think the inhabitants
on that part of the ifland were more numerous than in King George's Bay, as they ob-
ferved moft of the double canoes came round
the Weft point; but as the people now
brought/them plenty of water, they determined to keep their prefent fituation, it being
in many refpecls a very eligible one; for they
had hitherto been favoured with a moft re-
frejfhing fea breeze, which bbws^ over the
low land at the head of the bay -, and the
bay all round has a moft beautiful appearance, the low land and vallies being in a
high ftate of cultivation, and crouded with
plantations of taro, fweet potatoes, fuga$v
cane, &c. interfperfed with a great number
of cocoa-nut trees.* which renders the pro-
fpe£l truly delightful. .■•-,'•; f   s     ^ ;
In the afternoon, the boats returned) and
Mr. Hay ward reported that he had landed in
-jjjie Weft p4£t of the bay, where hejmet wit]}
a pond of flanding water a but it was very
inconveniently fituated, and could ?not be got
at without difficulty^He afterward^fwalke^|
up to a rifing groundr~>from whiph he could
perceive the land round King George's Bay
to fall in, and form a fine jcjeep b$y, running
well to the Northward, and the V^ftward
land ftretching out to the Sou^ward. Th^SL-
however, did not induce them to change their
prefent fituation. Towards evening the Surgeon returned on board .with the invalid
and reported that the inhabitants had be-
haved in a.very quiet and inpffenfive marpar^
though &
1    "'
1' 1
. 'ill
. &
ir 1
' If
though they were rather incommoded by the
multitudes which curiofity brought about
them.    By the 4th of June all their water
was got from the ground tier, and the cable
coiled down.    The inhabitants now brought
them water in fuch plenty, that by noon this
day, they had filled all their empty cafks,
having produced twenty-nine butts,  eight
hogfheads,  and three brandy pipes, which
contained 130 gallons each:  as good water,
in any quantity,  may be procured at this
ifland with the great-eft facility,  for fmall
nails and buttons, it undoubtedly is the beft
and fafeft way of procuring it.    Potatoes
and taro they met with in plenty; but bread,
fruit, and yams fcarcely ^ny, which made
them conclude they were not cultivated by
the natives of Whahoa.    Having compleat-
ed their water, and procured fuch refrefh-
ments as the place afforded, they determined
to maHe for Oneehow without lofs of time,
in order to get a fupply of yams, which that
ifland produces in abundance.    On the 5th
they weighed, when their friend the prieft
came on board to take his leave, and brought
a Tery good feathered cap,  as a prefent for
Captain Portlock, from Taheeterre; in return he fent him two large towees, and otfati?
articles of trifling value; they likewife gavd
the prieft a light horfeman's cap, and another
to a young Chief who had been a conftant
vif&or fince their arrival, being defirous to
fliew any future navigator tfea£ might touch
there, tJiatiflie place had recently been vi-
fited by Briftfh fhips. They were highly delighted- with <heir prefents, and after many
profeffions-of friendfhip, took theirHeave adi
went on fhore. In ftretching along the
Wefterh -part of the ifland they were accon**-
panied bf a number of canoes, who brought
fome flying-fifli to fell, the largeft of J&e
kind thfcy had ever <feen, many of them
meafurilig from eleven to twelve inches in
length, and thi^k in proportion : they catch
thefe fifh in nets, which the people manage
wilfh arnazing dexterity. Captain Portlock
thinks Whahoa the firft ifland in the whole
group, and moft likely to be turned to ad-
Vantage, were it fettled by Europeans, #ian
any of the reft, there being fcarcely a fp<$t
that does not appear fertile. They fosmd
lifcre a great numbfcr of warriors and waiSike
m inftru- A   VOYAGE   TO  THB
inftruments; many of their, warriors tatooed
in a manner totally different fromgany they
had before feen at any of the Sandwich Iflands; there faces wpe tatooed fo as to appear
quite black, and ggpt part of the body tatooed in a variety o£> forms. The greateft
part^ghf^aggers left in the time ofC^ok,
feemmoftlytf center,in this iiland, j§or they
fcarcely e$er faw a large canoe in which the
natives had not one a piece, and atjOwJjyhee
they did not fee above ;t$go or three.-^guhey
are a dangerous and definitive weapon, they
did not fuffer any to be made iiwithpft fhip*
though ftrongly imgortuned by the natives.
Captain Portlock fays, he was always averfe
to it in the laft voyage, thinking it jjf ry imprudent to furnifli thgrn with w^apomrthat
might, at one,time or another, be turned
againft themfelves ;|}:and his fufpicipns were
but too well founded, as it was fuppofed
that their late Commander, Captain.Cook,
fell by one of thefe daggers. He unfortu-
|!||£ly fet the example, by ordering fome daggers to be made after the mpdel of the Indian
pahooas, and this practice was followed by
evegy one on board that could raife. iron
^miMm :If"-IB '        ■     enough
enough to make one; fo that the armourer,
during their flay at thefe iflands, was employed in little elfe than making thefe de-
ftru£tive weapons; and fo liberally were they
difpofed of, that Captain Portlock faw eight
or nine given by Captain Clerk to Maiha
Maiha in exchange for a feathered cloak;
though fince their arrival this time they pur-
chafed fome cloaks confiderably better than,
that of Captain Clerk's for a fmall bit of
iron worked into the form of a Carpenter's
plane: thefe the Sandwich Iflanders make
ufe of as adze, and call them towees, and
to them they anfwer every purpofe of an
edged tool.
Since the year 1778, which was the time
thefe Iflands were difcovered, there appeared
to be almoft a total change in the Government. From every thing they could learn,
Taheeterre was the only furviving Monarch
left amongft the Iflands. He then was
King of Moretoi only; and Peereoraune, who
now governs Whahoa, was at war with
him, and had fent a number of fighting
canoes to attack his dominions.    It feems
that 6 A
I 3
that Peereoraune's forces were worfted oil
this occafion ; for prefently after Taheeterrd
took poffeflion of Whahda, and ftufhed with
his fuccefs, he attacked and took thf Ifland
of Mowee, which, as before obferved, is now
annexed to his dominions. Tereeoboo,
who at that time was King of Owhyhee and
Mowee, fell in battle whilft defending his
dominions.|f They had no reafbn to doubt
the truth of thefe relations, for Maiha
Maiha, the prefent King of Owhyhee, at the
time they laft were there, was only an inferior Chief, and is now, as they underftood,
in fome manner fubje£l to Taheeterre; befides
which, the Whahoa Chiefs having in then
poffeflion moft of the daggers left at Owhyhee, is a moft convincing proof that they
have been victorious -, for they know that the
natives of thefe Iflands will never part with
their weapons but at the expence of their
lives. From the beft information that could
be got, they found that the principal of the
Sandwich Iflands were governed at this time*
by the following perfons: Whahoa, More-
toi, and Mowee, were fubject to Taheeterre;
Maiha Maiha governed Owhyhee and Ranai; NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
nd a Chief, whofe name they underftood
was Ta'aao, was King of Atooi and Onee-
At five o'clock in the morning of the 7th
of June they were off Atooi 5 the Eaft fide
of the land rifes gradually from the fea fide
till it terminates in high land, which feems
fituated near the center of the ifland. Thefe.
hills are clothed to the fummit with lofty
trees, whofe verdure has a beautiful appearance. The land next the fhore affords a few
bufhes/but feems quite-uncultivated, and destitute of inhabitants. rOn the Eaft ete fhore
is a few fmall fandy bays, but they afforded us
no fhelter for fhips to ride in. After palling
the South Eaft point, they found the land
cultivated in general, and houfes were fcat-
tered here and there all along fhoie to the
Weftward. By noon they had feveral canoes
about the fhip, from whom they procured
a few vegetables; but the furf ran fo high on
the beach that the natives could not bring
off any confiderable quantities.
As they knew Atooi affbfded plenty of
D z fine 36
fine hogs and other refrefhments, they flood
in for Wymoa bay, where Captain Cook
anchored the laft voyage, being defirous to
get fome good hogs for falting, and likewife
taking a live flock to fea, but were difap-^
pointed, and obliged to anchor at Oneehow.
No fooner were they moored than feveral
canoes vifited them, bringing yams, fweet
potatoes, and a few fmall pigs. Amongft
the people who came in thefe canoes were
feveral faces whom Captain Portlock remembered again, particularly an old prieft
in whofe houfe a party of them took up their
abode when detained all night on fhore by
a heavy furf, and who treated them in a
friendly manner. Their principal bufinefs
being to procure a good flock of yams, they
had the pleafure to have them brought in
great plenty; but they began to be doubtful
g,bout the hogs, for as yet they had {etn but
few, and thofe none of them exceeding the
weight of twenty pounds. They expected
to find no difficulty in procuring water, as
Mr. Bligh, who was Mafter of the Refolu-
tion during the laft voyage, difcovered the
bay they now lay in, and found two wells of
frefli water in the neighbourhood of their
prefent fituation.
Early oh the 9th they were furroundedby
canoes, who brought a plentiful fupply of
yams and fugar-cane. A Chief named Ab-
beflfboe/iwhom Captain Portlock knew when
at this Ifland before, paid them a vifit, and
immediately recognized his old acquaintance.
Having appointed fix perfons to trade with
the natives, the Captain went on fhore in
fearch of the wells mentioned by Mr. Bligh,
accompanied by Abbenooe as a guide. Upon
their landing, a number of the natives who
were affembled on the beach, retired to a
confiderable diftanee, alid they walked to the
wells without the leaft moleftation; one of
them had tolerable good water, the other
very brackifti and (linking. The good water was fituated about half a mile to the
Eaftward of the beach, and the direfl path
to it was over a fait marfh, to avoid which a
confiderable circuit muft be taken which
renders th6 fituation very inconvenient. A
fhip in diftMfs for water might procure it
here, though much time muft be fpent in
3 3
doing it. The Captain recommends to all
(hips watering among Indians, to have their
ca(ks hooped with wood inftead of iron, for
the purpofe of filling on fhore ; thefe might
be darted afterwards into other ca(ks. ^By
this means much mifchief might be avoided,
for the Indians would have no temptation
to (leal them, and might fafely he trufted to
afiift in rolling them.     '       >§j ,,
..■ After examining the wells, they made an
cxcurfion into the country, accompanied by
Abbenooe and a few of the natives. The
ifland appeared well cultivated, its principal
production y^msj there $re befides, fweet
potatoes, fugar^cane, and the fweet root
called by the natives tee. A few trees are
fcattered here and there, but in little order
or variety; fome that grew near the well juft
mentioned, were about fifteen feet high,
and proportionably thick, with fpreading
branches and q. fmooth bark; the leaves
were round, and they bore a kind of nut
fomewhat refembling a wallnut; another
kind were nine feet high, and had bloffqms
of a beautiful pink colour. They alfq observed XSORTH-WjBfiT COAST OF AMERICA.      39
ferved another variety, with nuts growing on
them like our horfe chefnut. Thefe nuts,
they underflood, were ufcd by the natives as
fubftitutes for candles, and they give a moft
excellent light. After having viewed every
thing remarkable on this fide the iflaMd, they
repaired on board, accompanied by Abbe-
nooe, and found a brifk trade carrying on
with the natives; a few hogs had likewife
been purchafed, fufiicient for daily confump-
chap- 40
-J"- -f  CHAPTER  £$>.• 'Wm- f
Continuation of tranfa^ions at Oneehow.—Departure fr$&i it.—Arrive in fight of At&eri-
ca.—Megfo wi& %uffi4nffcttlers.—-rArrival
in Cook's River.—Vifite^by aRuffa$ft£hiefi
- Anchor in CoalJ^arbo^'r.—Vift the^Ruffian
Settlement.—Indians come to the fhip s with
Furs.—Shew a thieving difpoftion.—Bring
Salmon.—Defcription of the Country.—Re-
quefted by the Indians to join againft the Ruffians.—Proceed towards Prince  William's
Sound.—Prevented making it by   contrary
winds.—Proceed a-long the Coaft.
AVING already obferved that Oneehow
belonged to Ta'aao, King of Atooi, they
learnt that he was there at prefent, and that
Abbenooe governed Oneehow in his abfence.
They made the old man a prefent of fome
red baize, with two large towees, which he
fent away immediately to Ta'aao at Atooi,
and gave them to underftand that they might
expeft plenty of hogs and vegetables from
that place iM confequence of that prefent.
They feemed to place little reliance on this
piece of information; but on the 10th, was
agreeably furprifed to fee Abbenooe's mef-
fenger return,  accompanied by feveral large
double canoes, wMeh brought a number of
f ery fine hogs to be difpofed of, together with
taro and fugar cane.   The meffenger informed them that Ta'aao himfelf meant to have
paid them a vifit, but that he could not leave
Atooi under fix or feven days, being detained
there during that time in order to perform
fome religious ceremonies, for one of his
wives who was lately dead •> and this information was likewife confirmed by Abbenooe.
However, they had no great reafon to regret
the abfence of his Majefty, *for Abbenooe
kept the natives in very good order, encouraging them to bring whatever the ifland
afforded ; and after the people of Atooi had
difpofed of their cargo,   he fent them back
for a frefh fupply. #
Being defirous  of making Ta'aao fome
further acknowledgement, for his fupplying
us /
ns with the various refrefhments Atooi afforded, though at fuch a confiderable diflj
tance, they fent him as a prefent a light-
horfeman's cap. This, however, Abbenooe
fcarcely thought fufficient, and ftrongly importuned Captain Portlock to fend with it
an armed chair, which he had in the cabin,
as it would be peculiarly ufeful, he faid, to
one of the King's wives, who had lately
Iain in. He willingly complied with his
friend's requeft, and the cap and chair were
difpatched to Atooi, under the care of fpecial
meflengers. Their bufinefs now went regularly and brifkly forward, the trading
party were bufily employed in bartering for
yams and other refrefhments; and others
were bufied in killing and fal^ng for fea
flore. Obferving the natives to break the
yams in bringing therp. off, which prevents
their keeping for any length of time, Captain Portlock's Second Mate was fent on
fhore on the nth to purchafe fome, by
which means they procured a large quantitjf
of very fine ones. Since their arrival at this
place, fuch of the feamen as were fcarcely
recovered were fent on fhore,   and found
great benefit from exercife and land air.
Indeed the inhabitants of this Ifland are not
numerous, and they were kept in fuch order
by Abbenooe, that the people walked about
wherever inclination led them, without the
leaft moleftation: befides hogs and vegeta-
tables, they purchafed fome fait fifh of various kinds, inch as fnappers, rock-cod and
bonetta, all well cured and very fine; the
natives fupplying them with water in cala-
bafhes, fufficient for daily ufe, and to replace what had beengexpended iince they
left Whahoa. Curiofities too found their way
to market, and they purchafed fome very
fine fly flaps; the upper part compofed of
Jbeautiful variegated feathers, the handles
were human bone, and inlaid with tortoife-
fhell in the neateft manner, which gave
ihefti the appearance of fineered work. By
the 12th they had purchafed near thirty
hogs, weighing, on an average, about fixty
pounds each; the principal part of which,
were brought from Atooi: thefe they
falted for fea-ftore, as they got daily fupplies
fufficient for prefent confumption. By this
fime fhey had procured near ten tons of yams
on 44
on board the King-'George, and about eight
tons on board the i Queen Charlotte. The
health of both fhipscrews perfeftly reftored,
and every neceflary bufmcfs compleated,
they now began to ifeake preparation for fea,
as the feafon for commencing stifaeir operations on the American Coaft, was already
begun. At five o'clock in the morning of
the 13th of June, they unmoored, and at
eight weighed, and got under fail; (landing
out of the; Bay, which attained the name of
Yam Bay, from the great quantity of yams
they perciived there. As their vifit to thefe
Iflands was a very tranflent one, they had
little opportunity of obtaining any information refpe6ling the manners and cuftoms
of the natives, fo that the reader muft col-
left what little intelligence can be given from
the following, detail of their tranl&ftions.
Hog^, fweet potatoes, taro., fugar canes
and yams, may, as has been obferved, be procured in aim oft any quantity ; and water is
fo cleverly procured^ that in little more than
one dpy, they got upwards of thirty tons on
board. Amongft the tefreflimerfts theft
Iflands abound with,   the fweet root or tee,
which they met with in great abundance at
Whahoa, deferves particular attention, as it
ferved them to make very good beer 5 which,
after two or three trials, they brought to
perfection. The great utility of this root,
was not known in the laft voyage, fo that
the method they made ufe of to brew it, may
not be amifs in this place. The root was
peeled very clean, cut into fmall pieces, and
put into a clean kettle, and fix of the large
roots were found a fufficient quantity for
twelve gallons of water. This was put on
the fire at three o'clock in the afternoon,
and after boiling an hour and a half, was
put away tja cool. By the time the water
was lukewarm, a gill of prepared yeaft was
added, and afterwards it was put into a
cafk. It generally began to work about midnight, and by nine o'clock the next morning,
it was excellent drink. They found it ne-
ceffary to make ufe of yeaft only once; the
grounds fermented the liquor afterwards, and
they were inclined to think that when yeaft
cannot be had, a little leaven would anfwer
as a fubftitute. This beer was conftantly
drank by fuch of the failors as were afflifted
(W with 46"
with thefcurvy, and they found great benefit
from it; fo that in addition to its being very
ufefulas common drink, they found it a moft
excellent antifcorbutic. Having fuGceeded fo
wrell in brewing the fweet root, they tried
fugar-cane by the fame method, and made a
good wholfome drink from it, though much
inferior to the other. They flood to the
North North Weft along the weft fide of
Oneehow, which form feveral fine bays,
that feem to afford good fhelter and anchor
rage: at ten o'clock their worthy friend
Abbenooe took his leave of them, and all
the canoes left them; on which occafioh
they hoifted their colours and fired ten guns^
by way of taking leave of this friendly little
ifland; and from this time to the 16th of
July, was fpent in their paffage to the coaft
of America, which was feen extending frofri
North Eaft to Weft by North, diftant from
the neareft land about twelve leagues. On
the 19th, they were greatly furprifed to hear
the report of a gun, which they anfwered; but
it not being anfwered again, they fired a fe-
cond, when another was immediately fired
from the fhore:   it was now evident that
fome other nation had got to this place before them, which was a great mortification
to them: (bon after they perceived a boat
rowing out towards the (hips,   on which
they tacked and (lood for fhore, in order to
meet her.    By feven  o'clock they got on
board, and were found to be Ruffians. Having   no   one  on   board   who  underftood
their language,  the information they got
was but little; they found they came from
Kodiac,   and proceeded to Cook's River in
boats.    The harbour which they intended
to make* the Ruffians informed them was a
very good one, and they offered to take a
perfon in their boat to examine it.    Their
offer was accepted,   and Mr. McLeod was
fent along with them to examine the harbour,,
and (bund the entrance,  there being: fome
rocks near it.   The Ruffians left them about
half paft eight o'clock, and immediately afterwards, they came to anchor in thirty-five
fathoms water, over a bottom of coariefand
and (hells..    At four o'clock in the morning1
of the 20th, Mr. McLeod returned, and informed them, that the harbour was a very
good one, and that there was a fafe paffage
into 48
into it on either fide of the ft&all  Ifland at
the entrance.   After examining the harbour,
he landed on a beach juft without the South
entrance of it, where the Ruffians had taken
up their abode.   It feems they only continue
here during the Summer feafon, as they had
nothing more than tents, covered over with
canvafs or fkins.    He obferved but few fea-
otter fkins amongft them, and thefe appeared moftly green, as if they had been recently taken from the animal.    The party confided of twenty-five men:   they had alfo a
number-of Indians alcpg with them, who
had fkin canoes,   and feemed to be on the
moft  friendly  terms  with   the   Ruffians;
which inclined them to think they were not
natives of that  place,   but  brought from
Kodiac or Oonalafka, for the purpofe  of
hunting, efpecially as Mr. McLeod could not
perceive an Indian habitation near the Ruffian fettlement.    The Ruffian Chief brought
them a prefent of a quantity of fine falmon,
fufficient to ferve both fhips for one day;
for which they gave him fome yams, with
direflions how to drefs   them;   fome beef,
pork, and a  few  bottles  of brandy.    He
made his acknowledgements in th6 beft mariner he was able, and went on fhore perfectly
Well pleafed with his reception. Thefe people, quite contrary to Ruffian cuftom, were
particularly careful not to get intoxicated;
but they had reafon to think, it proceeded from a fear of being furprifed by the In*-
diansj for they obferved them to be con-
ftantly on their, guard, with their arms always ready; and that no man'flept without
a rifle barrell'd piece under his arm, and his
cutlafs* and a long knife by his fide. They
now began to be in want of food, and the
crews flood in need of fome exercife on fhore,
which induced the Captains to get into the
adjacent harbour, and more particularly as
there was not the leaft appearance of any1
inhabitants near it* fo that their bufi^
nefs could be carried on without danger
or moleftation; another reafon for doing (b^
Was to try to find out how long the Ruffians
had been there, and how long they intended
to (lay: alfo to know where their (loops lay,
as they had none in Cook's River: likewife
to enquife in what manner they procured
their furs, whether by bartering with the In-
E dians. 9   f
A   VOYAGE   TO   TEfe
dians,   or killing the  aniimls themfeivesk
By eleven o'clock on the 2o*hrthey anchored
in eleven fathoms water, well into the har-^
hour, over a bottom1-of Hack muddy fand.
Captain PoEtlock,- early in the morning of
the 21 ft, went on (hore in fearch of a convenient place for wooding and warring the"
lhAp&; both of which, he found to his fatis-
fa&ion.very convenient. None of the natives
had yet made their appearance^ but as the
Ruffians were conftantly on their guard for
fear of being furprifed by the Amerkansy
they judged it prudent to be the fame; and
accordingly fent a  cheft with arms along"
with? the parties on fhqre.   In the afternoon,
the feine was hauled at the head of the bay
where they lay, but with lifctle fucc^fe, o&ly
a few colefifh  being cai^jht.   Whilft t&ey
were doing this,* the Ruffian Chief paid them
a vifit, #nd informed them th&t the place,
where they hauled the feine was not ft&ckect
^ith fifliy but that near his refideifce plenty
might be eiught: tfoty accordingly, tGtfkJfshe
fgine thither, and in feveral hauls caught-
about thirty falmon,  and a few flat fifli*
This indifferent fuccefs, as their friend the
' ::m&',   :¥''.i I I'M Ruf-
iian informed them, was owing to the time
of tidSfe, b&ng then low water; whenrlhe befb
time for hauling the feine was at high water. However, he informed them that if
they would lea^e the feine all irfght, and a
jfrian along with it> ifcey would have plenty
of fifh ti&e next morning. They embraced
the offer- with pleafilre, and left one of the
failors, who had fome trifling knowledge of
ffie Ruffian language. The Ruffian fettle-
ment was fituated on a pleafant piece of flat
ground, about three miles in length, and
about two hundf&l yards over, bound by a
good fandy be^th on one fide, and a fmall
lake of ffefh water, which empties into the
fta, on the other: in this lake they catch
plenty of fine falmon : the beach terminates
at ea&iv e$d in high points of land, wfech
form a fnug bay, .where fmall craft might
He vitffi great (afety. The Ruffians were
twenty^five in number, exclufive of the Indians, which they now found were brought
from Kocpac and Oonalafka. They had two
(kin boats, each calculated to row twelve
oars, and the thwarts were double banked.
He underfto^d thd&the Chief and the In-
a dians. if*
A voyage to th£
dians, took up their abode in a fmall tent
covered with canvas, and the remainder flept
under the two boatsjuft mentioned. Amongft
the party were three Indian women:   they
have no bread, their diet chiefly confifts of
fifh,   and a mefs made of the root of a
plant; they bacl alfo fome very good  tea.
They foon perceived that they procured no
furs by barter with the Americans, and that
th^ got no fea-otter fkins, nor indeed furs>
of any kind: but what the Kodiac Indians
caught   in   hunting.     During their  flay
among the Ruffians they were all very b$|ily
employed,   fomejdreffing   green   lea-qtter
(kins,   others   repairing   their   boats  and
cleaning arms: moft of the Indians were out
on a hunting party, the few that were left,
were bufied in letting darts to their fpears,
making   fhufif   from   tobacco,   of   which
they feem very fond, and their women  in
cooking. •, It was very evident they were
under great apprehenfion from the American Indians; indeed the Chief gave them to
underftand, that they had attempted to fur-
prize them feveral times, that they were a
fet of favage, cruel people, tyut fpoke much
m favour of the Kodiac and Oonalafka In
At feven o'clock on the 22d, the whale-
boat was fent on (hore to the Ruffian fettle-
ment, to learn what fuccefs they had had
with the feine: the boat returned about
nine o'clock, deeply laden with fine falmon,
part of which was fent on board the Queen
Charlotte. After this, they weighed and (lood
further up Cook's River, but with faint
hopes of fuccefs, being apprehenfive the
Ruffians had drove the Indians away from
the place. Soon after, they anchored, and
fwo fmall canoes came off from the fhore,
nearly a-breaft of the (hip, and went along-
fide the Queen Charlotte: they had nothing
to barter, except a few dried falmon, which
Captain Dixon purchafed for beads, and al-
fo made them a few prefents, in order to
convince them that their intentions were
frkiidly, and that they^yifhed to trade with
them in a peaceable manner,. They feemed
to comprehend Captain Dixon's meaning,
and promifed to bring furs tfag following
day. Aboijt feyen o'clock the ne*t day,
'■'■ . E 3    <      '■■''" they L
they had the fatisfaclionrif feeing two large,
and feveral fmall canoes pufhing off froriif
the fhore: the large ones containing about
twenty perfons, an#the i$riallsr but one or
two; when ati fefti^Jiftanfe they J$ti§ied in a
(hng, whijgfe was continued for q, c@nfiderar
ble length of time^' and afterwards came
along-ftdg, extending their ffms, as a toki^'
of tbgir pacific intentions, and many of
them held up green pljajtts, probably^for the
feme motive: moft of them h#d their faces
daubed with red oker and black lead, which
had a very difgufting appearance ^thgir nofes
and. ears were in general ornamented with
fmall blue beads or teeth, and tbfey had 3
flit cut in the under lip, in a fine parallel
with the mouth, which was addJSned in 3
fimilar manner. They procured from this
party near twenty fea^tter (feiins, and a
few cloaks of the. earlefs mammot fkins,
neatly fewed together.: jfchey traded in a fair
and open manner, andiiwere:very importU4
nalse with them to got on fhore. . They irir
treated one of ;|Jlem,.:^a appeared to be a
Chief, to go on board, which he declined,
ynlefs they would let a fisilor go in the car
cioe as an hoftage; but whilft they were
talking to him another of his companions
ventured on board, and prefently afterwards
$he Chief and feveral others followed his example : but to convince them that they were
perfectly fafe, they fent one of their people
into the canoe. A$|er flaying fome time on
'board, and gratifying their curiofity witti
looking at the veffel, they left them and paddled on fhore, feemingly well fatisfied with
their reception. From this favourafele beginning, they were inclined to think they
could not change for a better fituation;
therefore •determined to keep il a Ifew days.
On the 30th they were vifited by feveral
canoes, from whom they purchafed fome
•good fea-otter (kins, together with feveral
marmot clocks, racoons, and foxes; they
alfo brought plenty of frefli falmon, w hich
were obtained for beads and buttons. Their
traffic for fome days continued in the fame
(late, and the behaviour of the natives was
very quiet and peaceable; however, according to Indian cuftom, they made no fcruple
of thieving, and fome of them that were on
E 4 board
-"*.-- - J.6
board the King George on the 3d of Auguft?
gave a fpecimen of their talents in that line,
by flealing the hooks from a block-ftrap,
and a grjndftqne handle, which being made
of iron, was no doubt a prize : they did not
think it prudent to ufe violence with them
upon thefe trifling depredations, but contented themfelves by giving a better look out
for the future. | An elderly Chief went on
"jboard the Queen Charlotte, from whom
Captain Dixon learned fome information
refpefting the Ruffians. He clearly underr
(lood from the old man's pointing to the
guns, and defcribing the explqfion|^they
made, as well as from other circumftances,
that there had lately been a battle between
the Ruffians and the Natives, in which the
Ruffians had t>een worded: the Chief at the
fame time intimated, that he would not
quarrel with us on th$t account, as he was
certain we belonged to another nation, from
the difference of our drefs. How the quarrel originated they could not learn, but moft
probably it was occafioned by theft. The
Indians in leaving the fhip, gave them to
underftand  that the  neighbourhood   was
drained of furs, but that they would go t&
procure more in the adjacent country.
Auguft the 5th, in the morning, one large
canoe and feveral fmall ones came along-
fide, bringing four good fea-otter fkins, a few
martins, racoons, and foxes, and plenty of
fine falmon.    The large canoe had been ab-
fent two days to trade for furs in various
parts of the river, and the people now gave
^hem to underftandthat the adjoining country were entirely drained of furs, and that
they could not procure any more.    One of
the Indians had on a very good nankeen
frock; and another a blue frock, which they
wanted to fell: feveral of them had a number of fipall blue glafs beads, which they
feemed jsery fond of, but the frocks were held
in very little eftimation. Thefe articles muft
doubtlefs have been procured from the Ruffians previous to their quarrel, and foon after
they came into the river,  they were inclined
to believe the information we obtained from
their vifitors refpe6ling the fcarcity of furs in
Kfhis part, as they had obferved for fome days
$|paft the canoes came from different quarters,
and \m
■ I
and the few fkins they brpught were very indifferent ; they therefore determined to -q-uk
Cook's River the firft opportunity, and proceed to Prince William's Sound, where they
expedted a good fiapply of thefe valuable
furs. The land about this place is prettily
diverfified with vallies, and gently riling
grounds, which; in general is clothed with
pines and flirubs ; many of the vales have
jfrnaJl rivers of water which difcharge t&em-
ielves into the fea, and in one of them were
feveral houfes, and fome ftages on which
the natives dry their falmon: fhefe con-
Crafted w<th the mountains fituated behind
them, which are entirely covered w4th fnow,
43ompofe a landfcape at once beautiful and
pidlurefque. Befides the various fofts of
for mot with here, which have already been
enumerated, Cook's River produces native
fulphur, gingfang, fnake-root, black-lead,
coal, together with the greateft abundance
of fine falmon, and the natives behave quiet^-
ly, and barter f#hl^; fo that there is great
probability of a good trade being made here,
were there any one of fufficient enterprize to
undertake it.    Upon their leaving Cook's
River, feveral fmall canoes came off from a
town near the South point of Trading Bay.
In one of them was a man who had been
very ufefal in procuring furs, upon which
account he received the name of the Fafibar...
They clearly underftood from him, that the
Ruffians frequented the Weft fide of the
ifland to the Southward, and that there is a
paffage betwixt that and the main. If fo,
they think it muft be greatly incom^
moded with (hoals, and dangerous on account of the rapidity of the tides. Their
friend, the Faftor, brought nothing to dif-
poie^ -of, but a few falmon. jf|It (eemk his
principal motive in paying this vifit, was to
beg their afliftance againft the Ruffians.
He was veryiimportunate with them to grant
Jiis requeft, intimating at the fame time that
he could prefently aflemble a large fleet of
canoes, with which, affifted by their ihips,
they could eafily get the better of their enemies. On their refufing his requeft, he
feemed greatly mortified ; but to confole him
uin fome meafure for his difappointment, they
gave him a light horfeman's cap, of which
he was>very proud; and his countrymen beheld 6o
held him with fuch a mixture of admiration
and envy, that they queftioned whether he
would be able to keep it long in his poffef-
fion. They alfo diftributed a few trifles'
amongft the other Indians, and they returned
on fhore perfectly fatisfied, though they did
'not meet with fuccefs in.their embafly.    ■&
The fhips now left Cook's River, and from
the ioth of Auguft to the 23d of September, were kept beating about the coaft without being able to get into any harbour.
When they were off King George's Sound
this day, about two o'clock, they perceived a
canoe coming off from fhore: they fhortened
fail and brought to, for her to come up*
She had two Indians in her, but neither of
them could be prevailed upon to go into the
(hip. They had fome fifh which were
bought, and a few trifling prefents were made
them ; after which they left the fhip, and
paddled for that part of the coaft which lays
betwixt Woody Point and King George's
Sound. At five o'clock, the North point of
the entrance into King George's Sound bore
73 deg. Eaft; the breakers that lie off that
fif*-'''    If ;i§   ' "■     "H   " ' - point NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA*
point Eaft, half North, three leagues diftant.
From this time to the 28th, they were kept
beating off and on, trying to get into King
George's Sound, without effecl, when they
were obliged to finally bear away for Sandwich Iflands.
Arrive at Owhyhee.—Refrefhments Stained.-**
Natives propenfity to Theft.—Plan of future
Proceedings.—Leave Owhyhee and anchor at
Whahoa.—Vifted by Taheeterre.—Pernicious
Effect of the Tava Root.—An Eatooa ereSi-
ed.—ChiPfs make Offerings to their Gods.—
Meditate an Attack on the Ships.—Shewn
the EffeSl of Fire Arms.—Indians embark
for Atooi.—Take leave of Taheeterre.—The
old Prieft.—Anchor in Wymoa Bay,   Atooi.
—An Excurfion on Shore.
*N the 16th of November they arrived off
Owhyhee, where feveral canoes came off to
them with a few fmall fifh, the fea running
fo high that the natives could bring off nothing elfe* When night arrived, they perceived fires lighted in different parts of the
country. The next morning, being notmore
than 4 miles from fhore, a number of canoes
-$S^ .-IT-. "''.    ■ .!■•        : were ftOfrTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
were prepared to follow them. The adja-*
cent country is very pleafant, and there appeared feveral villages fituated affjidft fine
groves of cocoa-nut trees* As they run
along the fhore, the natives of both fexes
were affembled on the beach in great numbers, waving pieces of their white cloth as a
token of thair peace and friendfhip. .They
prefently came off with the different productions of the ifland, fuch as hogs, breadfruit, taro, cocoa-nuts, plantains, fowls and
geefe of a wild fpecies, with plenty of fait.
Their trade went (b brilkly forward, that in
a very fhort time they purchafed hogs fufficient to fill feven tierces, befides great numbers of a fmaller fort for prefent ufe, and
near two tons of vegetables; fb plen&fully
did the natives fupply them, that they were
under a neeeffity of turning fome away that
were brought, The Indians all the time
traded very fairly; but fome of the fpefla-
tors, of whom they had great numbers of
both fexes, (hewed their ufu-al propenfity to
thieving. One man had dexterity enough in
his profeffion to (leal a boat hook out of} £
boat atong-fide, though there was a boat*
keeper A   VOYAGE   TO  THE
keeper in her; and another crept up triS
rudder chains, and dole the azimuth com-*
pals out of one of the cabin windows, and
got clear off with it, notwithftanding a per-
fon was fet to look after them over the flern.
Many other trifling articles were flolen in the
courfe of the day, which they did not wonder at, confidering the number of canoes
around them, which was not lefs than 250,
which contained more than 1000 people.
When the trade was over, the natives in-
treated them to flay near the land, and in the
morning they would bring us plenty of fine
hogs. On a promife being made them, they
paddled on fhore, leaving them in a moft
friendly manner; and, the next day they
purchafed very fine ones upon their ufual
< On the 19th of November, the Captain
confulted refpefting their future proceedings*
having now pretty well drained Owhyhee,
by purchafing all the trade they had brought.
The fhips were very light from having fuch
a quantity of water expended, and their rigging flood much in need of repairing and
|£ . over-hauling $ to
over-hauling; fo that they concluded it beft
to quit their prefent fituation and proceed
for King George's Bay, Whahoa, where they
coljdd lie well (htfltered from the prevailing
winds, and do every thing neceffkry both for
the hulls and the rigging of the fhip&>ftln
their paffage froth Owhyhee to Whahoa, a
little before dark on the 19th of November,
they faw a canoe to the South-Weft making
after them, wit» & fmall mat up for a fail,
and paddling very hard. On this they
brought to, and picked her up. There were
four men in the3 canoe, befides a quantity of
provisions. ; It feems they belonged to thd
Ifland-of Mowee,-#nd on their ftandihg in for
the Eaft point of it, had put off with their
little cargo, hoping to make a good market
of it; but upon the (hip's bearing away
from the ifland, they found the weather fo
bad, with a ftrong wind dire6lly againft
them, that they could not reach the fhore,
therefore bore away after them> fet their little
fail, and ufed every effort in their powe£ to
get up with the (hip.f They were greatljjf
pleaftd to have it in their power tfrfave therif}
for in a little time they muft all have pe-
Kfi  i WW? riftied. 66
rifhed. Their canoe, when they came along-*
fide, was almoft full of water, and themfelves
fo much fpent with fatigue, that they were
obliged to help them up the (hip's fide. All
their things were got into the (hip, the canoe
hauled in upon deck, and every method in
their power made ufe of to recover them,
which had the wifhed-for good effect; and
never were tnen more grateful than thefe
poor Indians, for the little favours they we|§
fb happy in fhewing thermit- iS him
^On the 22d, being off Mowee, a number
of large and fmall canoes ca«ne alongffide,
with the vari$u£ produce of the ifland,bi8(j|
: On the 23d, it being nearly calm* the Indians that they picked ijp at fea, took this
opportunity of going on fhore. They endeavoured to prevail on them to (lay till next
morning,, that they might have an opportunity of (landing clofe in fhore, when tfefj£
might havdk gone, with greater fafety; but
they choig to go this time, and made light
of the diftanee, though not lefs than five
leagues.    Thefe poor fellows did not go
away empty-handed, for befides the prefents
they had from the Captain, almoft every
perfon on board gave them fome little token
of friendfhip, fo that their misfortune turned
out to great advantage.
On the 30th, they anchored in King
George's Bay. A few canoes came along-fide
immediately afterwards, but brought little
with them : they were given to underftand,
that water was wanted, and was defired to
be fupplied in the fame manner as formerly,
which they would have been very glad to have
complied with; but they informed them, that
both water and every thing elfe was taboo'd
by the King's order. Finding things in this
fituation, they gave to a man who appeared
to be of the moft confequence amongft them,
a prefent for the King, and another for the
old Pried, requefting him at the fame time
to inform the King, that they were in want
of water, and|(iich refrefhments as the
ifland afforded, and therefore, fhould be
glad if he would immediately take off the taboo, that they might obtain a fupply of
thefe articles.   Ac fun-fet the natives left
F a the jm
the (hip, and went on fhore. Early
next morning, they had fqme canoes along-
fide, Jtwho brought them water and a few
vegetables, notwithftanding the taboo. Sp4on
after a large quantity of canoes came round
Point Dick into the bay, and landed at
the^head of it: prefen^ly their old friend
the| Pried paid them a vifi^ and came, according to cuftom, in a large double canoe decorated with branches of the cocoa-nut tree.
After paddling round the fhip with great fa-
lemnity^ and running down every fmall canoe that, came in his vvay, he came, alpng-
fide; bxx% before he ejitered the fhjpi. he en-
quijred fgr Capt. Portjock, on %hofip appearance he handed up a fmall pigj w^ich
^t his coming on board w^s prefented to tf^r;
Captain, as a token of peace and friendfl^p*
This,has been obferved to be the^ufuaLjprac-
tice at all thefe iflands. The old man in-
forme^them that the King, who had juft arrived in th^ bay with a large fleet of cap$es,
would be on board to pay them a vifit^j and
upon his returning again on fhore, the taboo
would be taken off, and the natives at liber-
ty to bring them every thing the iflajid afforded.
forded. They made him a prefent, and
likewife gave him one for the King, which
they defired he would carry on fhore and deliver with his own hand. The Prieft left
them about ten o'clock, arid returned about
eleven in his own canoe, accompanied by
many others, both large and fmall; in a
very large canoe paddled by 16 flout men,
was the King himfelf, attended by many of
the principal Chiefs. When his canoe came
near the fhip, all the reft paddled at fome
diftanee, to make room for his Majefty, who,
after paddling three times round the fhip
with great flate, entered on board without
the leaft appearance of fear, and would not
fuffer any of his attendance to follow him,
fill he had got permiflion for their admittance, which was given to eight or ten
principal Chiefs. The King brought them
a few hogs, and fome vegetables by way of
a prefent, for whidi he received a prefent,
which highly pleafed him: many of the
Chiefs likewife Brought trifling prefents,
for which they received fuitable returns, being defirous to keep themfelves oh a friendly
footing at this ifland. J
F i The m
If I
S; The King, whole name is Taheeterre, is
an exceeding flout well made man, about
fifty years old; appears to be fenfible an4
well difpofed, and is much efteemed by his
fubjetls: he inquired whether they had been at
Owhyhee, and on being anfwered in the affirmative, he was very defirous of learning
fome particulars refpefting that ifland, and
the King, with whom hefeemed to be at variance: but they could give him no information, but that the King was in good health,
and the ifland in a very flourifhing condition,
Taheeterre remained on board the greateft
part of the day, and gave the natives directions to bring us plenty of water, and every
thing elfe the ifland afforded: towards evening he returned on fhore, perfectly fatisfied
with his reception, and the prefents that
were made him. They foon began to feel the
good effe6lsof Taheeterre's vifit, the natives,
now no longer under the influence of the
taboo, brought them plenty of water, and they
procured a good fupply of hogs and vegetables, fo that a party was employed in faking
pork' for fea (lore. S^lr-     i- '■'. Jpl NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
On the 3d of December, Taheeterre paid
thein another vifit in much the fame manner
as before^ great numbers of canoes were
about the (hips, anjd multitudes of both
fexes playing in the water, notwithftanding
their diftanee from the (hore, which was
not lefs than two miles^ Their old friend
the Pried was almoft conftantly on board,
and, according tocuftom, drank vaft quantities of yava, which kept him in a moft
wretched condition; he feemed quite debilitated, and his body was entirely covered
with a kind of leprous fcyrf. The old man
had generally two attendants with him, to
chew the yava-root for him, and he found
them fo mjuch employment that their jaws
were frequently tired, and he was obliged to
hire fome of the people in the canoes to chew
for him, at a bead for a mouthful. One of
the yava chewers, a very intelligent fellow,
informed them that to the weftward of Point
Rofe, in Queeij Charlotte's Bay, there was
an exceeding fnug harbour, where the fhips
might lay with fafety. As they had a heavy
fyvejl fetting into the Bay, round Point
Dick, which catjfpd the fhip to roll very
F 4 much, 7
much, they determined to fend the long-boat
down to examine it, and if found a fafe fi-
tuatipn, to remove the fhip thither, The
$$flri6l where the harbour lies is cmled by
the natives Whyteetee, and the yava chewer,
who was found to be a man of fome pro-*
perty, offered himfelf j&§ a pilot, which was
readily accepted,      -'   :  ' " 'W1 ■
On the 4th they received another vifit frbm
his Majefty, and in addition to his ufual
prefent, he brought a l^ge quantity of fine
mullet, which he told them were caught in a
fmall lake at the head of the Bay. He frequently eat with them, but could never be
perfuaded to tafle either wine or fpirits; nor
did he even ufe the yava, but always drank
water. He feemed greatly delighted with
the attention paid him ; indeed his vifittffeem
to have been no ways unacceptable, for he
not only encouraged the natives to bring
them freely water and other neceffaries, but
at the fame time kept them in good order.
This afternoon their water was compleated,
having in the fpace of three days filled forty
butts, befides a numHer of puncheons and
<; ■'■'■"  : * ■•        "S|>  v §.^ brandy NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.     73
brandy pieces; fo eager did the natives pur-
file this profitable trade. They now began
to want fuel, and no fooner was it mentioned
than the natives brought them a plentiful
fupply, for nails and buttons. Numbers of
(harks were caught, and after taking out
their livers, they were given to the natives,
who confidered them as very acceptable,pre-
fents; particularly the old Pried, who got
two, and having got them lafh'd to his canoe,
was going to fend them on fhore, when the
following odd accident happened: One of
the fharks not being properly fecured, fell
out of the canoe, and funk to the bottom
in eleven-fathom water; at the fame, time
there was feveral large hungry ones fwim-
ming about, yet an Indian went down with
a rope, flung the dead fhark, and afterwards
hauled him into his canoe, without any apparent fear of the others that furrounded
him. They fottnd the fharks were efteemed
valuable, as they anfwer a variety of pur-
pofes ; they eat the flefli, the fkin ferves for
cover to their drum heads, and the teeth they
fix in wooden inftruments which they ufe as
knives. ■ *        "•   ^:       "% ''
-    ';•# The *7 A
The natives continued to bring them
plenty of every thing, and great numbers
vifited the fhip to gratify their curiofity:
thofe who had no canoes would fwim from
the fhore, though two miles diflant; and
after daying all day in the water, fwim away
for the fhore with as much compofure as if
they had only a few yards to go,
jl .The old Pried continued his vifits, fome-
times going on fhore, under pretence of paying a morning vifit to his Majedy; but it
was foon found his principal motive was to
replenifh his flock of yava, of which, as
has already been obferved, he confumed a
great quantity. He now began to appear
very redlefs and uneafy; on the Captain's
inquiring into the caufe, he hinted that Taheeterre and his principal warriors were me-*
ditating fome mifchief againd the fhips; and
taking them upon deck, pointed to a large
houfe on the top of a hill. This houfe, he
allured them, was building for an Eatooa, or
God's Houfe, wherein they were going to
make great offerings to their different J£a-
tooas, and to cOnfult them on the event of
$n attack on the fhips, which they were determined on, provided they met with encouragement from their Oracles. He appeared
quite difpleafed with the King's conduft on
thisoccauon, and defired they would be con-
dantly on their guard againd him. Though
this piece of information feemed rather improbable, yet they thought it prudent to be
on their guard to prevent a furprize; and at
the fame time ordered a condant watch to be
kept on the cables, sto prevent their being
cut by the natives. They had obferved the
natives building this houfe a day or two before the Pried pointed it out to them, and
had feen people going up towards it, loaded,
probably with offerings to their different Deities. Towards noon, they obferved with their
glaffes that the houfe was nearly finifhed,
2nd the natives were covering it with red
cloth. As they had conflantly treated the
King and his attendants with great kindnefs,
they could fcarcely give any credit to the old
Pried, although the hopes of pofleffing all
the iron they had on board might probably
tempt then* to the attack. At any rate, they
determined to admit Taheeterre on board as
ufual, 70
ufual whenever he came, and to regulate
their conducl by his behaviour. \ " '"'
Towards noon the next day, the King came
off in a large double canoe, attended by a
number of his principal Chiefs, all of whom
were admitted on board, and treated with
the ufual freedom; but they kept well provided for an attack, had one been attempted;
having all the loop-holes in the combings of
the hatches fore and aft opened, and ten or
twelve dand of arms below under the direction of proper people, who would very foon
have cleared the decks if the Indians had offered them any violence: befides which, cen-
tinels were placed in different parts of the
fhip, and all their great guns and fwivels
were  pointed  into  the canoes  along-fide,
with lighted matches at hand.     Taheeterre
could not help obferving their fituation, and
fpoke of it to his attendants; notwithdanding
which, he obferved his ufual manner.   After
being on board fome time, he was very defi-
rous to fee theeffefts of their fire-arms, which
Captain Portlock fhewed him, by difcharging
a pHtol loaded with ball at a hog that flood
at fome diftanee, and killed it on the fpot.
The King and his attendants were flartled at
the report of the piftol; but when they few
tj^e hog lie dead, and  the blood running
from the wound, they were both furprized
and, terrified; and they had not the leaft
doubt but this fatal effefl of their fire-arms,
made a deep impreflion on their feelings,
and prevented them from making the attack.
The King ftdicl on board near two hours,
and after receiving: a fmall prefent, took his
leave, informing them at the fame time that
he intended leaving the bay, and returning to
his refidence at Whyteetee, in the eveiung.
They could not help remarking, that immediately $fler the King left the fhip,  all the
cajxoes left thpm, an<^paddled to the fhore
in diff^jpent parts of the bay $ bu|the grj§|J:eft
number pfj them landed in.the Eaftern part
of it, where the King had a temporary refidence.
Soon afterwards the old Prieft came on
board, not in a large double canoe as ufual,
but iny£ fmall old cra^y one, tljf^wc^ild
^arcely <$rry him, and appeared as if hejhad
come 78
come off by flealth. The moment the old
man got upon deck, he began to tell them that
the^King was a great rafcal, perfifted in his
former flory, and begged them to watch him
narrowly. After haranguing for a fhort
time, he left them and went on board the
Queen Charlotte, where he fpent the remainder of the day. By this time their wooding
bufinefs was compleated, having purchafed
a quantity fufficient for at leaft fix months
f* * "XT * 1 1 1
coniumption. Next morning theiong boat
came back, and Mr. Hayward informed the
Captain, that the place where his guide con-
dueled him, was a fmall bay clofe to a fandy
beach, where the natives generally landed with
their canoes; but no place for a fhip to ride
in with fafety. Adjoining to the beach, in a
beautiful valley, furrounded by fine groves of
cocoa-nut trees and a delightful country,
there was a large town, where the Yava
Chewer informed them the King ufually*
refided; and the diftricl round it was called
Whyteetee.  f^ .f*c v '        >";VIS| 'rilP '
According   to Mr. Hay ward's  account,
there was very few canoes to be feen; neither
ther did he fee any great number of inhabitants: fo that they reafonably concluded,
that moft of them were come into the bay,
led either by bufmefs or curiofity. From
this time not a fingle native came near the
(hips for two days, and their canoes were
hauled out of fight; but they perceived great
numbers about the houfe at the top of the
hill. By day-light of the 17th, the old
Prieft came on board, and feemed quite enraged at the King's recent condu6l. He,informed them that the King and all his principal Chiefs had been making offerings to
their Gods, and confuting them; but that
the Gods were good for nothing, and that
the King and his adherents were no better
than villains for intending to do them any
mifchief, after the many prefents they had
received from both fhips.,§They thanked
him for his intelligence, and told him they
ihould be conftantly on their guard. For
fome time Captain Portlock had been impori-
tuned by the Yava Chewer, and a very fine
young man of *the firft confequence in the
ailand, and a conftant companion of the
King's, to take; them along with him t$>
Atooi. Ill
j i
Atooi. But he never thought they were in
earned till on the 17th, when the young
Chief, whofe name was Paapaaa, came on
board, and joined his intreaties with thofe
of the Yava Chewer, in fo preflmg a manner, that he promifed to take them on board,
and they returned on fhore to prepare them-
felves for the paflkge. The Yava Chewer
being now as it were a gentlfeman paffenger,
no longer confidered hjmfelf as afervant, but
took to drinking Yava heartiiy^and laid in a
plentiful flock ofrjthat root. Towards th£
evening this day, the natives were obferved
uncovering and pulling to pieces theiF new-
built houfe oiiithe hill, andabouteight o'clock
feveral large houfes were on fire along the
fhore near the b^; but as no Indians were
on board, they did not know whether by accident or defign.
Next morning the old Pried came on
board, andaipon enquiring tiie caufe, he told
them they were houfes belonging to Gods
whom the Chiefs were difple&fediwith, therefore out of revenge they had burned Qods
and houfes together.    The^JLing paid them
another vifit, but he appearedIforiiwhat fhy^
On the Captain's taking notice of the. red"
houfe on the top of the hlll?,nelappeared a
good deal confufea! and waving the conver-
fation, began to talk about hislwp cotjntry-
men who were going ?w7th them to Atooi,
He feemed very much intereded in Paapaaa's
.    i /• i 1        S;3115 -AJQ -, '3X1 ro,.! j O (a ' i   , i
welfare, and particularly requeued, them to
take care of him and treat him well; and if
they flopped at Atpo/, he begged that they
would leave hi mender the care'of Taaao,
who it feems is fcrothej to Taheeterre, and a
relation of Papaaafs. The two paflengers
afkea them for a few trifle's to leave amongd
their friends, which was granted them*. The
apjtaln iikewfjie made thlTKing a prefent, on
which ne took his leave of them for the laft
time; and after taking a very affeclionate
one or his countrymen," he quitted the fhip
and 'went on fhore:- the other canoes re-
mained along-nde. to diipole or their car-
goes\ and a good fupply 6f hogs was purchafed,1 , which enroled mem to fet the falters
to work again. They now began to get every
thing ready for fear The old was yet
oh board | butftowarcts noon; oh the' ioth of
G December, H
A Voyage to the
December, he took his leave, and Captain
Portlock made him a preient with which he
was highly pleafed.S He then went on board
the Queen Charlotte to take leave of Captain
Di^pn, and toon after left the, fhips, and
with the other canoes paddled for fliore.- ^fc
They chanot cqme-tojanchor again till the
which, feveral canoes came off, and thej|en
quired for, th|e^King^ ari^ their old friend Abbenooe, whO|4mey were^opformed, were-with
the principal Chiefs at Apoonoo, ?a town in
here tlT
the "North" Eaft part^of therifl&n
King ufually reiides,; but.were informe
Kins and his retinue would fhortly be down
Of <«! ■
at Wymoa. Tjhe^natives in the mean time
fupplied them,with eveivy thipg they could
wifh for. The next day. Captain Portlock, hfs. two paffengers, went on
fhpre with- an intention of walking ^round
the Weftern point of the ifland, m hopes, of
iindine a,weli-fheltere4" pay for'the mipVte
lie, fhore, he was
received in a m6Jl friendly mannenby a vaft
number of the inhabitants, and afterwards
Were joined by fome people of confequence,
who offering to go' with them, their proffer
was accepted, and they were of great fervice
in keeping the natives at a diftanee, though
they did not croud round them with any
mifchievous intention; but on the contrary,
to render them any little fervice in their
power. After walking two or three miles
along the fhore, they fat down to take
a little refreshment. During their repaft, a
Chief named Tyaana, who they underftood
was brother to the King, joined them, and
prefled the Captain very much to go back
with him to Wymoa, and eat with him
there. As he was very anxious to find out a
good bay for the fhips, he declined this
friendly offer, but promifed to call on him on
his return; on which he took his leave with
many profeflions of friendfhip, and they
continued their walk along the fhore. &.
Being difappointed in his fearch for a harbour, they began to think of returning bac!&
to the fhip; but after walking four or five
miles, they found it would be impracticable
to reach Wymoa before night came on, and
G a being rii
A Voyage to th£
being not far from a comfortable houfe belonging to Abbenooe, determined them to
take up their abode in it all night, being
all greatly fatigued with their walk. They
arrived at the houfe about fun-fet, and one
of Abbenooe's men, who had joined them in
the courfe of the afternoon, gave directions
for a hog and a dog to be immediately killed
and drefled for their fuppers, together with
a large quantity of taro. The houfe was
well lighted up with torches made of green
ruflies, and at eight o'clock fupper being
ready, it was ferved up in great order, and. they
feemed to think few people ever eat heartier
than they did. Their friend's man afted as
mafter of the ceremonies, and ferved the
provifioh to each perfon ; and after the feaft
was over, he ordered the remainder to be put
by for their ufe in the morning before they
left the houfes which they did; and previous
to their quitting the houfe, there were near
one hundred women about it, moftly with
children in their arms. They were very
anxious to know the Captain's name, which
they pronounced Popote; and fuch of the infants as could fpeak, were taught to call on
Popot^. On this, he diftributed fome trifling prefents amongft them, to pleafe them.
They then walked to Wymoa, and reached
the fhore abreaft of the Queen Charlotte,
about nine o'clock. During the Captain's
abfence they had carried on a brifk trade for
provifions, and the decks were covered with
fine hogs fit for falting. $JL
Variety of Refrefhments procured.—Vifited by
the King.—A large Shark caught.—Grateful Behaviour of Neeheowhooa.—Arrival at
Oneehow.—Leave Oneehow, and arrive at
Atooi.—Remarkable Circumftance of a Woman with a Puppy at her Breajl.—Chief
Exercife with Spears.—Houfe built for
Captain Portlock.—Leave Atooi, and arrive
at Oneehow.—An Attempt on the Life of an
Atooi Chief,—Departure from Sandwich
N the 25th, the 'Chief named Tyaana,
whom Captain Portlock met with on fhore,
came off in a large double canoe, and brought
him a prefent of fome hogs and vegetables,
which was accepted, and a fuitable return
made. He informed them that the King
and a number of the principal Chiefs would
be down in a day or two; and in the meantime,
time, they fhould have whatever the place
produced. After many profeflions of friend-
fhip, Tyaana took his leave and went on
fhore. .This day the Captain.fenpiiis boat
fox a feilor and the two Chiefs whom he
had left on fhone, after their excurfion there;
his man returned, but the two Chiefs chofe
to remain on fhore a day or two longer
amongd their n&w friends, who were greatly
carefled bv the natives.
On the 28th, they obferved a great number of canoes come round the Eadern point
of the bay ; and foon afterwards their good
friend Abbenooe came on board, but fo much
reduced, and fo covered with a white fcurf
from the immoderate ufe of the yava, that
they fcarcely knew him. He brought two
canoes loaded with different kinds of provi-
fions, as a prefent for the two fhips. After
flaying a fhort time with Captain Portlock,
he went on board the Queen Charlotte with
the prefent he intended for Captain Dixon,
and ^returning again in the evening, took up
hisbiodgings wife,Captain Portlock. The
next rday Abbenooe went on fhore, and pfg-
'.a^^^py  _    ,.    , G 4 , fently t*
fently afterwards returned in company with
Taaao and mod of the principal Chiefs belonging to the ifland^ His Majefly brought
a very handfome prefent^confiding of hogs,
taro, cocoa-nuts, and piaiitains, together
with cloths, mats, and fevecal elegant feathered cloaks; all which he infided on their
receiving: they were accordingly got info
the fhip, and an ample return was made
him. The two Chiefs who came with them
being ftow on board, Captain Portlock took
this opportunity of introducing them to the
King, agreeable to Taheeterre's req;ued;
previous to which he gave them a few trifling articles, which they prefented to him,
and were received with great affability and
kindnefs; and he affured the Captain they
fhould be under his immediate protection.
According to the ideas they had entertained,
they found Abbenooe was a man highly
efteemed by the King, who confulted him on
every occafion. Taaao appeared to be about
forty-five years of age, ftout and well made,
and feemed the bed difpofed man that they
had met among the iflands. He offered
Captain Portlock his friendftrip in the mod
earned manner; and.aflured him he fliould
be fupplied with every thing this and the
adjacent iflands afforded. He requeded
Abbenooe to day on board, in* order to prevent any of the natives difpiiting with their
people. The King and his attendants daid^
on board about two hours, and gratified
their curiolity by looking at different parts
of the fhip, which they feemed greatly to admire. After taking leave, they went on
board the Queen Charlotte, where they flaid
a fhort time, and then returned on fhore.
Abbenooe attended his Majefty, and then returned on board, where he ftaid all night;
and as he condantly took up his abode with
them, they hung him up a cot in the cabin,
which pleafed him fo much that he never
flept out of it/        ( ""I
On the 7 id, the King naid them another
vifit, accompanied by an elderly Chief, whofe
name was Neeheowhooa, who they under-
dood was uncle to the King, and a perfon of
the fird confequence. This old Chief, it
feems, in his time, had been one of the
greated warriors that Atooi, or any of the
iflands 9°
iflands could boad of, and has been greatly
indrumental ij|f fettling them under their
prefent>rKings, Taheeterre and Taaao: his
body was almod covered with fears, and he
was quite a cripple; and to add to his dif-
treffed fituation he had entirely lod an eye,
and the other was in a very weak date, occasioned by fome wounds he had lately received in battle, and which was beyond their
art to heal. Taaao appeared very unhappy on
account of his uncle's fituation; and per-r
haps thinking they could perform wonders,
begged of them to cure him. Captain
Portlock recommended hitn to the care of his
Surgeon, who waflied his wounds, applied
dreffings to them, and gave him fome frefli
ones, which he was to make ufe of once a
day. Neeheowhooa feemed perfectly to un-
derdand the Surgeon's inftruclions, and pro-
mifed to follow them in the moft punctual
manner. After remaining on board a few
hours, Taaao and his uncle left them,
highly pleafed with the treatment they had
IvA k.
though  fine,  very
few canoes made their appearance.    Upon
afking Abbenooe the reafon, he informed
fltiem that it was occafioned by a tabooara
being laid on fyy the King, which it feems is
a kind of tax impofed upon the fubje&s by
the King, and confifts of a certain portion
of their various produce.    At Abbenooe's
requeft, Captain Portlock accompanied him
on fhore  to fee the ceremony,   which he
could   not but  admire;   great order   and
regularity were obferved; men, women, and
even children paid their contributions with
£hearfulnefs and good-will.    Some brought
hogs, others taro,  bread-flruit, and indeed
every  thing  the  ifland produced;   all  of
which were placed in two feparate heaps.
Taaao and moft of the principal Chiefs attended, to fee the tabooara was punctually
complied with; and when it was finifhed,
the  whole was  divided into two  parcels,
which the King informed Captain Portlock,
was for the two fhips, and defired him to
fend boats on fhore to take them off.    He
was greatly pleafed with the King's method
of proceeding, and dete#mii?aed he fhould not
]be a lofer by his liberality, though he happened 9
pened to have nothing about him which h
thought a fuitable return for fo noble a prefent, the magnitude of which aftonifhed him.
After taking a very friendly leave, the King
retired to a houfe fituated a little to the
Eaft ward of the River, where he refides when
at this part of the ifland f and Captain Port-
lock went off accompanied by Abbenooe, in
his large boat to the fhip. Next day the
weather being tolerably fine, they fent the
long boat on fhore for more provifions, and
Captain Portlock, accompanied by his friend,
followed in the whale boat. They landed
abreaft of the village of Wymoa, and whilft
the people were getting the hogs, &c. in the
Jong boat, walked two or three miles up a
valley which leads from Wymoa towards
the mountains: this valley abounds with
taro, which is planted in trenches that contain about fix inches depth of water.
The taro grounds are divided at convenient
diflances by raifed foot-paths, which, as well
as trenches, are made of ftone in a very regular manner, and muft have coft the natives
an infinite deal of time and trouble. Abbenooe conducted Captain Portlock to a
Wki..<   • S' ■ H' ; .  large NORTH-WEST COAST.QE.AMERICA.
large new houfe belonging to himfelf, fi-
tuated fome diftanee up the valley, and very
well built, after their manner: he there fat
down a little while,, and after taking fome
refrefhment, returned to Wymoa.
In the afternoon of the 4th of January,
they caught a fhark fo large that it was obliged to be hoifted out of the water by the tackle ^ it meafured thirteen feet and a half in
length, eight and a half in circumference, and
the liver fix feet; its mouth was fo large that
it admitted the head of a puncheon with
eafe. On its being opened, there were found
forty-eight young ones in her, each about
eight inches, long ; two entire turtles -weighing each fixty pound, befides feveral fmall pigs,
and a large quantity of bones. The liver was
kept for oil, and the fifli given to the.
natives, \ who confidered it an ineftimable
treafure. Taaao paid them another vifit,
which he informed Captain Portlock "was. his.
farewell vifit, as he intended to return to
Apoonoo, but that he fhould leave Abbenooe on board, who was to accompany them
down  to  Oneehow,   which ifland and its .
produce, 94
produce, he preffed the Captain to accept of
as a prefent, and defired Abbenooe to fee
that the natives fupplied them with plenty
of every thing, without taking any thing
for it in return: he was this time accompanied by Taaevee his elded fon, a very fine
boy about twelve years old. Captain Port-
lock, after exprefling^himfelf in a suitable
manner, for the magnitude of the prefent
made him, had miilh to do to get leave for
the people of Oneehow to have fomething
given them for their goods: but after fome
little altercation, he got leave for them to
be paid for digging and bringing of the
yams. After this affair was fettled to mutual
fatisfa6lion, the Captain made the King and
his attendants fuch piefents as he thought
fuitable to the generofity of his vifitors.
Amongd the people of confequence, who
attended Taaao oil his farewell vifit, was his
uncle Neeheowhooa; his wounds were getting better, and he feemed quite at a lofs
how to exprefs his gratitude and thankful-
nefs: he begged permiflion whild there? to
come on board every day to have them dref-
fed, and feemed to think they would foon
be healed. Aftenattending his nephew on
fhore, he returned with a large double canoe full of hogs, for a prefent to the Surgeon:
and Captain, as a token of-his gratitude:
the hogs were taken on board, but declined
accepting them as a prefent, though it was
with great difficulty the old warrior could bel
prevailed on to take any thing in exchange.
He was defired to go daily on board to have
his wounds drefled, which pleafed j him
much, andj^e departed highly fatisfied with
his reception.
On the 7th, the King in a large double
canoe,   attended by  feveral others,   fet off:
for Apoonoo, Abbenooe dill remaining onboard, who was found a very ufeful friend.
They then weighed anchor and made fail
for Oneehow, where they came to anchor in
Yam bay.    The Captain accompanied by
Abbenooe, took a walk on fhore, where he
found great part of the country poorly cid^
tivated.    Upon enquiring the reafon, Abbenooe told him, fince they took in their dock
of yams, the people had in a great meafure
negle&ed ,»
A voyage to the
neglecled the ifland; barely planting enough
for their own ufe : and that fome had entirely Ileft the ifland, and taken up their future refidence at Atooi. In the evening
they returned on board.
On the 20th, feveral of the people had
leave to go on fhore, all of whom returned
except three, who were in a very poor date
of health, and whom the Captain thought
of letting remain a few days on fhore, for
the benefit of their health. Abbenooe had
provided them a comfortable houfe, and ordered them to be fupplied by the natives
with every refrefhment they could get. Soon
after a heavy gale coming on, they were under the neceffity of cutting their cables, and
running outtof the bay, being obliged to
leave the three invalids on fhore. Abbenooe and feveral Indians were on board
at that time, and went to fea with them.
From: the 21ft to the 27th, they were
kept beating off and on, about Oneehow
and Atooi; fuch a heavy fea running that
no canoe could come off to them, till this
day, when a few ventured off from Yam Bay.
One of them called along-fide the long-boat,
(which was fent into the bay on the 2 2d,
inftant, to endeavour to get in the ends
of the cables, and lie at anchor there till
the fhip arrived) with a letter from the
Officer, acquainting him that nothing could
be done: likewife arrived the three invalids, who had been kindly treated by the
natives while on fhore; who not feeing the
■ fhip fo foon as they expe£led, fuppofed they
were gone to Wymoa Bay, and were prepar-
. ing to fend them to Atooi juft at the time
the long-boat made her appearance in the
bay. The Indians that were on board all this
time, began to be very defirous of getting on
fhore, being perfeftly fick of their fea voyage.
The weather ftill continuing very ftormy^
they were under the neceflity of returning
to Wymoa Bay, where the people had leave
again to go on fhore; Abbenooe at the fame
time attending them, to prevent any quarrels between the natives and them; and
upon their returning*, the Captain found not
fo much as a theft had been attempted, but
every luxury the ifland produced had beeii
given them. *
H A remark- 9s
A remarkable circumftance related by Mr.
Goulding, a volunteer in the fervice, fliews
the great regard the natives have for their
dogs:  In walking a confiderable way alone
the fhore, he met with an Indian and his
'wife; fhe had two puppies, one at each
bread:. . The oddity of the circumftance
induced him to purchafe one of them, which
the-woman could not, by all his perfuafions
or temptations, be induced to part with;
but the light of fome nails had fuch powerful attraction upon the man, that he in lifted
upon her parting with one of them. At
laft, with every fign of real forrow, fhe did,
giving: it at the fame time an affe&ionate
embrace. Although he was at this time a
confiderable way from the fhip, the woman
- would not part with him till they arrived
where the boat was lying po take him on
board, and juft upon his quitting the beach,
* fhe very earngftly intreated to have it once
more before they parted; upon his complying with which, fhe immediately placed it at
the breaft, and after fome time returned it
to him.again. j|v    - : ry^^p/--. >,'■•...- .
II: ' :   1    I • I" ft! •    IllThl
This day, at Captain Portlock's requeft]
two Chiefs that were on board from Wymoa, exercifed with their fpears, The dexterity and aftonifliing expertnefs fhewn by
them, wonderfully furprized every one on
board. One of them, whofe name was
Na-Maa-te'erae, that is blind of one eye, is a
Well-made man, of about five feet fix inches
high, his fkin much affected by his immoderate drinking of yava; and though he appears
to be a perfon of very little property, is yet
much refpefted, and his Company courted by
all the principal men of the ifland^ which
they fuppofed, proceeds from his having beenj
and flill is a great warrior. The lofs of his
eye he met with in battle, by a ftone flung
from a fling; but this accident does not
prevent him from being a moft expert warrior, his manner of exercifing giving them
convincing proofs to the contrary. He took
his ftand about three or four yards from the
cabin door, unarmed; the other perfon
flood about eight or ten yards from him*
provided with five fpears. Upon the fignal
being given for commencing the action, a
fpear was thrown with the utmoft force
H a at Fl
at Namaate'erae, which he avoided by a
motion of the body, and caught it, as it pafled
him, by the middle. With this fpear he
parried the reft without the leaft apparent
concern. He then returned the fpear to his
adverfary, and armed himfelf with a pahoa.
They were again thrown at him, and again
parried with the fame eafe. One of the
fpears ftruck a confiderable way into the
bulk-head of the cabin, and the barbed part
Was broke off in endeavouring to get it out.
The remarkable coolnefs he fhewed, at the
time the fpears were cad at him, proved at
once his courage and expertnefs. All who
were fpe&ators of the fight, fhuddered at the
danger he was expofed to, and were aflo-
nifhed to fee with what eafe he parried every
thing that was cad at him.
This day, the Captain and Abbenooe being on fhore, the Captain obferved in the
village of Wymoa, about three hundred
yards from the beach, a dring of four or five
houfes, tolerably large, in very good order,
without inhabitants. On afking the reafon
of their being taboo'd, he was informed that
they we're houfes built for the King, whenever he honoured Wymoa with a vifit, and
that no perfons whatever were allowed the
ufe of them in his abfence. Abbenooe like-
wife informed him, that the King had given
him directions to build him a houfe on a
clear fpot jud to the Wed ward of thefe
houfes, and that he brought him to that
place for him to point out a fituation to his
own liking. For fome time he refufed accepting the favour; but upon his friend's
earned entreaty, he at lad confented to gratify his generofity; and no fooner was his
confent made known, than workmen were
immediately employed. Some ran to fetch
wood from the country, others a long kind
of grafs to thatch it with, all of which was
executed with the utmod difpatch and plea-
fure, delighted with the idea of having their
friend Popote amongd them. Near the
fpot fixed on, was a large flat done, on which
the Captain etched the initials of his name,
the country he ferved, and the year of our
Lord, which he explained to them as well as
he could; and as foon as they underdooil
the meaning of it, they were much pleafed,
H 3 f and
and the done was ordered to be placed in the
center of the houfe. One great inconvenience attend their houfes; namely, their
want of windows: the extreme hot weather
they have fo much of, makes it very uncomfortable and clofe; but they feem to guard
againd any thine but the rains and cold.
When they find it too warm, they go direftly
into the water to cool themfelves, it being a
matter of indifference to them whether night
or day. He requeded of his friend, that in
the building of his houfe he might have windows in it, one at each end, one at each fide
the door, and one at the back, for the benefit of both light and air. It was ordered to
be done fo, and every thing being fettled to
general fatisfaflion refpecling the building,
they proceeded up the valley, attended by a
great number of the natives, both young and
old, who behaved withtheJgreated hofpitality
and friendfliip, preffing him to go into every
houfe he came to, "and partake of the bed
fare in their power to give ; and numbers of
the women bringing him their children to
bone—that is, falute them by touching nofes;
Jiis compliance with which gave them fingu-
fer pleafure, and at the fame time gave him-
felfqas much* atHe was pleafed to fee fo
much happinefs in the faces of hundreds of
Indians, whom they had formerly fb much-
reafon to think were a treacherous people.
'This excurfion-gave him afrefh opportunity
of obferving the amazing ingenuity and in-
dudry of the natives, in laying out their
\ taro and fuga^cane grounds, the greateft
part of which alje made upon the banks of
the river, with exceeding good caufe-ways
made of banks,of earth, leading up the valley and to each plantation. The taro beds
are in general about a quarter of a mile over,
dammed in, and they have a place in one
part of the bank which ferves as a gate-way.
When the rains commence, which is in the
Winter feafon, the river fwells with the torrents from the mountains, and overflows
their taro beds; and when the rains are over,
and the rivers decreafe, the dams are flopped
up, and the water kept in to nourifh the
taro and fugar-cane. During the dry fea-
fpn, the water in the beds is generally about
one foot and a half or two feet over a muddy
bottom.    The fugar-cane, generally in lefs
water fi
water, grows very large and fine; and is a
great article of food with the natives, particularly the lower clafs. The taro alfo
grows frequently as large as a man's head,
and is efleemed the bed bread kind they
have: they frequently make a pudding of it,
which they call poe, and keep till it becomes
a little four; and then they are remarkably
fond of it, prefering it to any thing elfe. The
Indians that were a little while at fea with the
Captain, almod fretted themfelves to death,
when their dock of poe was gone; which
was very foon done, from the immoderate
quantity they eat of it. The Captain has
feen Abbenooe eat near two quarts of it at
a meal, befides a quantify offifhor pork:
whild they were walking amongd thefe taro
beds, a number of the natives were in them,
gathering it and fugar cane to fupply the
fhips; they were up to their middle in
After gratifying his curiofity amongd the
plantations, his friend accompanied him to
a large houfe, fituated under the hills on,
the Wed fide of the valley, and about two
or three miles from the fea beach: he found
this houfe very large, commodious and
cle#i, with a new mat on the floor. On
the left fide of the door was a wooden
image of a tolerable large fize, feated in a
chair; which nearly referable one of o|ff
armed chairs. There was a grafs plat all
round the image, and a fmall railing made
of wood: befides the chajrs were feveral
to-es, and many other fmall articles. Abbenooe informed him, that this houfe ha4
been built with the to-es he had given him
upon his fird calling at Oneehow: and that
the other articles were prefents that he had
made him at different times: and that the
image was in commemoration, that he had
been amongd them. Few people were admitted into this houfe. Amongd other articles in it, were feveral drmns, one in particular was very large; the head of which,
was made of the fkin of the large fhark
already mentioned: and he was told thefe
drums were dedicated to fheir gods. They
had fome refrefhments, fuch as pork, faked
fifh, taro, plantains and cocoa-nuts; and
then returned to the beach.:  the long-boat
being ra
I?   /
being in fhore to take off fome provifions of
different kinds, /that-. .were collected bv a
Tabooara or General tax laid on the natives"
by;the;''Kihg.';.' Captain Portlock ordered the
officer in her to remain at anchor, a little
Smance from the beach, until fome of the
things' came d&wn : and during the whole
time 'had great reafon to be well fatisfied with
the natives, who attended fome in canoes,
others fwimming about. The Captain went
off in the long boat, attended by Abbenooe
iand fome of the Chiefs, who were highly
Selighted with the-fail to the fhip, as there
happened to be a very brifka breeze. The
method of fleering with-:the rudder, took
very !much their-attention ; and Abbenooe
took a fpell at the helm^a-ahd faid that he
would try to deer their canoes in the fame
Way.JN3n their arrival on board, every
thing'1 was in good order. He fays it is not
in 'ffis power, to give the praifes that is due
to ffieie people, from the King to the tow-*-
tow : their attention and unwearied induftry
in fupplying them with every thing in their
power was beyond example: their hofpita-
jiity and generofity were unbounded,   and
their eagernefs to ddla-6ts of kindhefe'-was
amazing. He feems to hope, that by the help
"of their own ingenuity, they will be enabled
from their obfervations upon our methods
of failing, building, &c.°fo bring thefe Articles among themfelves, to much greats
advantage than they %re;Tat prefent. His
friend Abbenooe's attachments tb; bom
fhips companies was lingular; in general-he
flept on board the King George, where a
cot was hung up for him -inPthe cabin : the
old man had fome falls before he w&srufed
to it, by getting in at one fide, and faffirig
out of the other; but he always got up again
with the greateft good nature, and'ftn a
very little time furmounted that difficulty.
' • Oh the. 8th, the King arrived in the bay,
attended as ufual: he came on board and
appeared very well pleafed with th'g friendly
intercourfe that fubfifted'J between his fub-
jefts and the people. The failors always
went on fhbre unarmed,'which prevented
the natives having any apprehtenfions of
danger; and created a mutual confidence in
I fpach other.    The King ftaid on board a few
hours IOo
I    X
hours, and then went on board the Queen
Charlotte, to fee Captain Dixon. From
this time, to the id of March, they experienced a great deal of bad weather, and
wgre driven out to fea; and this day came
to anchor in Wyn&oa Bay, in thirty-feven
fathoms water: made an attempt to get the
Queen Charlotte's anchor, without fuccefs.
Th$' anchors of the King George had
been got before. A Chief of fome confe-
quence, named Nohonjitehitee, who ha4
been -y£ry often on board, and rendered
them a great deal of fervice in procuring
pifpvifions, prefifed Captain Portlock very
much to take him on board. The man ap-
pe^F§ftiiiEp very earned ip his folicitations,
that at lad he confented to his going in the
fhip, and meant to have given hjrn a trip to
,the North-Wed coad: and at their next
touching $t thefe iflands, either to hfve left
him tfeere, or brought him to England.
He informed the Captgin he had c#lle£led a
great number of little articles, which he
m^de a prefent of to his father, a very old
man, almpft worn out with age: butPaoa-
reare,   one of the King's meflengers, who
rules with unbounded fway, when the King
and principal Chiefs are from the ifland,
knowing the old man was poflefled of thefe
things, went to him and demanded all his
treafure, conraKng of a few to-es, beads,
rings, and various trifling articles which
his fbn had given him. The old man
denied having any thifeg, for he had taken
the precaution not to lodge them in his
own houfe, but had depofited them in a
hole in the ground, at a convenient diftanee from the houfe. The meflenger ftill
"perfifted in his telling him where they were,
and the old man continuing obftinate, the
meflenger caught hold of him by the throat,
^hd threatened that iPhe would not give up
his goods he would murder him, which had
nearly been the cafe before he would make
'the difcovery; at laft he was obliged to do it,
and the greedy meflenger took them all away.
Nohomitethitee landed with his canoe juft
as his father was in this fituation, but did
not interfere; perhaps not for want of courage, but dreading to lay hands on a meflenger of   the King, who are held in great
V m
efteem. ', He left his father to get out of th
affair, amd came.onboard as before related.
Being pretty late in the evening, and,knowing they never allowed any of ^ them to come
on board in the night, he took care to call
frequently out for Popote, in a moft piteous
tone, to let him know it was he, and that
he wanted to come on board, which he did.
He then unfolded his forrowful tale, and
wanted Captain Portlock to punifh the mef-
fenger for his behaviour ; but had he been
inclined to do it he could not, for he never
after that time put himfelf in his power.
Nohomitehitee in a few days after that,
being tired of living on fait provisions, left
them, and they had no opportunity before
they left the iflands to enquire what was done
in the affair. From this time to the 3d of
March was employed in getting ready for
fea; and leaving, for the fe.cond time, thefe
friendly iflands, made the beft of their way
for the coaft of America, where they arrived
on the 24th of April, without meeting with
any very remarkable occurrence; they looked
for!  p! ii
1 ■/!
11" lif li
»           V'*fc®^
i j]
|! 1 .
.  ;FV
\   if       .
Arrival at Montagu Ifland—Anchor in Hammings Bay—Boats fent on a Trading Expedition.—Meet with- a veffel from Bengal.—
Their diftreffed Situation.—Refrefhments fent
them. — Vifted by a powerful Tribe of Indians. — I heir Propenfity to Theft. — Leave
Montagu Ifiaitd.—The Ships feparate.—Arrival of the King George in Hinchinbrooke
Cove.—Indians vifit the Ship with Sea-Otter
Skins.—Boats fent on a Trading Expedition—j
Plundered by the Indians.—Arrival of the
Nootka—Long-Boats fent to Cook's River.—
Departure of the Nootka.—Long-Boats return.—Vifted by different Tribes of Indians.
—Abundance of Salmon, Herrings and Crabs.
—Departure from Port Etches.
\j P O N coming to anchor at Montagu
Ifland they were vifited by five canoes, fome
containing but one, others two men in them;
they were rather furprized to find that they
had not thefkin of any animal amongft them;
they pofleffed many beads of various colours,
which they feemed to put a great value on,
and they were obferved to be of the fame
kind with thofe ken in Cook's River the
Summer before. Their vifitors frequently
repeated the word Nootka, pointing at the
fame time up the Sound. Never having,
either at this place or in Cook's River, heard
the natives make ufe of the word before,
they were induced to think they had been
taught the word by fome vifitors who had
recently been at Nootka; and they were foon
convinced that there had lately been fome
people trading with them, for on afking for
the fea-otter fkins, they were given to under-
dand that all they had-been able to get
was fold to a Thomas Molloy, who, they
underflood, had left the Sound. This piece
of information, however incorrefl it might
be, convinced them that they had very little
to hope for from that place. However, they
ftood in for Prince William's Sound. Towards evening their vifitors left them and
paddled out of the bay, after dealing feveral
fifhing lines that were hanging overboard,
'Ms "  ;' "    * mS,        1       The ■Ill
jf i£
The only wind to which this bay is'-expofecf
is the South-Weft, aid with that a veffel may
run before it into the barbour. On the 25th
they got fome waiter for prefentWfe,!ftid fomel
of the IpigrCompany "were fent on/fhore fen
' the 26th to gather fhell-fifli, which^wePStte
only refrefhment this place was kno^Srto5
Afford.  The only fjfece to walk in was along
the beach, the adjacent country being en*
tirely covered with fnow. There were^plenty
|P wild geefe ^nd ducks, but fo fhy that they
cduld not get within fhot.    In a walk Cap-J
tain Portlock rook along the beach, he fava
the remains of two Indian huts, and a*quantity-of wood that had been cut down with
edged tools 5  the cuts in the wood" were fo
^%rge and fair as to convince him thejffwere
made by tools of a- diffBfentkihd to th^fiftffed
by Indians; it wasinerefor^concIu$S¥*ffiat
I the Ruffians had vifited this place the laft
- f NofTncftan6 coming near| they deteM6ned
htfo leav£ ffee place?;! %fttflicordingly^ on the
P*29th they unmoored the fhip, weighed and
•tfailld cfit"3^3:he bay; but th£Tame evenfcg
OSS?-. * wer$ NORTH-W$Sjr £OAST OF AMERICA.^       II5
vve^under the,necefEty pf.jpmru^gmag^n,
oniaccountof contrary wind. B^tronrthe^^Qf
rMay, jlbhQy^veighe^ig^d ftgeyed upthe Spun^Jj
and oft the,4$ G%me):to ancbpr in aTb^y
,farther. upj|ihe[%»nj3, where the long-boat
andiiwhale-bq^t b^#g#Jg Ipfgach fhip were
.made ready for a trying expedition up the
.fiauudpand early on ^^e mopping of Ae
5th fet out, under the command of Captain
riE&con. dn the n^eftn tyne Captain Porilock
I had I all &ands: employed in clea^i^g and re-
^JaaiHng thenfhips, and thinking it neceffary
; for botkvfcflplsto be p^i fhore, it was done, and
bbjjUtibe 10th every thi^g was finiftied, jwhen
- Captain DixQureturned^qd gave the following account of his excurfion:
cc This mornings the 5 th of IN^jy, I fet
i qui witlrithe boats, in order to fearch for Indians,,,and if poflible to purchafe fome furs;
iany intention x was to make Hinchinbrooke
.eCove'ifitft, and from thence proceed to Snug
Corner Cove, as I knew they were the moft
siikely places to meetfwith inhabitants. B^d
- weather coming on at eight o'cjpck, I ppt
binto a Cove idSMoritagu IQ&nd, but towards
12 nine Ii6
nine, the weather' clearing up, I proceeded
round the North-Eaft end of the ifland into
a large bay. Here I found fome Indians on
a hunting party, who gave me to underftand
that they belonged to Cape Hinchinbrooke.
It being late in the evening, I came to an anchor for the night in the long-boat, and
made the whale-boats faft, one on each fide.
" As the Indians did not leave us when
the night came on, I ordered fix hands
to keep watch, and the remainder to have
their arms ready, fo that I might call them
at a moment's notice. ^The Indians fculked
about us till near two o'clock, waiting, no
doubt, for an opportunity to cut the boats
off, but finding us attentive to all their motions, they then left us. At four o'clock next
morning I weighed and flood over for. Cape
Hinchinbrooke, where I came to anchor at
half pad ten.fAt this place I found feveral
Indians, and purchafed a few fea-otter fkins.
The Ihdians frequently pointed to Snug
Corner Cove, and endeavoured to make me
underftand a veflel lay there. Though this cir-
cumdance drongly excited my curiofity, and
made me particularly anxious to know whether this piece of intelligence was true, yet
the day being by this time far fpent, I determined to keep my prefent fituation during
the night, as the weather was very unpro-
mifing: fo that our flanding for Snug Corner Cove, under fuch circumftances, would
be attended with fome degree of difficulty
and danger. A ftri£l and vigilant look out
was more neceffary this night, if poflible,
than |he preceding one. The Indians
whom I had traded with for furs during
the afternoon, were a different tribe from
that I met with in the bay. Their behaviour
was very daring and infolent, though they
did not direclly attack us; nor did they leave
the boats till day-light next morning. x I
make no doubt, but a fight of the various
articles I had brought to trade with thefe
people, occafioned them to lurk about us
all night, in hopes of a booty; but finding
themfelves difappointed, they paddled away
feemingly much difcontented.
" Early in the morning of the 7th, I fet off
for Snug Corner Cove; but the win4 during
3 .w
ii 8
14 I
"1 i 1
the whole day being very ligiit, th^long
boat made very little way; fo that the whale-
boats were obliged to take her in tow: tiM
retarded mj^paffage fo much, that I did not
arrive in the cove till 11 o'clock at night.
. Contrary to my expe6lation, I found no
veflel, neither did I perceive any of the in-
Hfefeitants*: notwithftanding which I ordered::
the fame ftri6l watch to be kept as before,
rememfifering, that the Di&oyery was boarded by the natives in this very cove, during
Captain Cb6k!s laft voyage, in open day.
During tH£ night none of the inhabitants
came near us.   - " ■■' -;|f.j •^■•' '   " ■• "£|t£
fjB£ At delight in the morning of the
8th,- two Indians came along-fMe in a canoe,
and gave us to underftand, that there was a
fhip at no great diftanee; and at the fame
time offered to tfondu6l me to it for ^a ft ring
W beadkif Glad to embrace this propofal,
I wilfingl^ aefcepted their offer; and fet off
in the whale-boats, leaving the long-boat
at anchor. I had not gone far, before the
wither grew very bad; &ftd flif guide&gave
me the flip. I Hfr&ever cdn&fcftled the fearciS
;af:' -:. H    ' ;-'' along
along ftiore till- 12 o'clock; by wMch time
I had got into the entrance of a large bay,
and the Weather growing very fqually with
heavy dorms of fnow and fleet, I thp^^t
it food advifeable to return to the boat,
where: I arrived about three o'clock. At
half pad fix,|£if,x canoes came into the cove
yifhere we lay, and told us thgre was a fhip
nofifar off, to wfeicfy they were going, and
offered to fhew mq leeway. Th^ weather was
'tken very bad; b#t as they were going up
the inlet, and not, out to fea as my guides
h&d done in the rooming, I fet out witlji
them in my own whale-boat; and at ten
o'clock in the evening, we arrived in the
cre^k, where the veflel I fo much wiflied to
fee lay. I found her to be a fnow, cajjed
the NoQtka from Bengal, commanded fcgr a
Captain Meares> under Ejgglifh colours. I
leaicfied from Captain Meares, that he had
felled from Bengal in March 1786, and that
he had touched at Oonalafka in Aug^l:
from t%ence he proceeded to Cook's J^iver,
whicfe he intended to make by way of
the Barren Iflands* but the weather^at
4bat tiffte being thick and hazy, he got into
I a Whit- 120
iii iff
Whitfuntide Bay,  through which he found
a way into Cook's River.   In this draight he
met with a party of Ruffian fettlers, who
informed him, that the land totheEadward
of the  draight  is called by them Kodiac,
and that they had a fettlement there: like-
wife, that two European veffels were then at
anchor at Kodiac, and that they had lately
feen two other fhips in Cook's River.    This
intelligence induced him to deer for Prince
William's Sound, where he arrived the latter1
end of September.    He had wintered in the
creek,  where I now found him;   and his
veffel was dill fad in the ice: the fcurvy had
made fad havock amongd his people,  he
having lod his fecond and third Mate, Surgeon,   Boatfwain, Carpenter, Cooper, Sail-
maker, and a great number of his foremad
men, by that dreadful diforder; and the re-,
maining part of his crew were in fo feeble a
date at one time, that Captain Meares him-
feif was the only perfon on board able to
walk the   deck.    It gave  him very  great
pleafure to find two veffels fo neai him who
could in fome meafure affid him in his dif-
trefs, and 1 had no Jefs fatisfaftion in af-
furing him, that he fhould be furnifhed
with every neceffary we could poflibly fpare.
As Captain MearesYpeople were getting better, he defired me not to take the trouble of
fending any refrefhments to .him, as he
would come on board us very fhortly in his
own boat.
<c I left the Nootka, at three o'clock in the
morning of the 9th,   and got to my boats
about eight:  at ten o'clock, I weighed and
flood down for our fhips, being now con^
vinced that there was no profpe6t of my
meeting with any furs of confequence.   Towards noon it grew nearly calm,  and the
whale-boats were obliged to take the longboat in tow:  whilfl we were proceeding
in this manner acrofs the found, fome canoes
joined us; and one of the Indians had a few
fea-otter fkins,  which he offered  to fell.
Happening to cad his eyes on a frying-pan,
which my people had to drefs their viftuals
in, he requeded to have it in barter; accordingly it was offered him; but he abfolutely
xefufed to take it entire, and defired us break
pff the handle,   which he feemed to regard
as A   VOYApE   TO  TJHE
^-arjt&ing of in^lima|)le value; and reje^ed;
the bottom parjf with, contempt*. Towards
fix. q'cIoc^, the wind fyefliej$^ the whale-
bqats were cad off; and foon a|ter thftwea-
ther grew very rqugh, with coijtflant fnqjjft
and fleet, whif^: oc^ljj#ned the boa^s to fe-
parate. The night was very doripy, a^cj I
did not get on board my own veffel, till four
o'clock in the morning of the tenth: the
l^kig; George's boats arrived nearly about
the fame time.'f
They now found out, the n^niber of
fhips that had fegen on the coad, and the
gf?a$ price given for the fkins, -i&d made
the value of the$£ c|argo m\ich lefs th^n they
ecjed. The* only art^les the natives
*$$#}& even look: at, were green #$3 red
fe©3<}£, and u^W||^ught|iron, in pieces nearly
two feet long: they therefore ordered a tent
to be erected on fhore for -the 3rmoureE4
and-- they were tiSfily ^mplstoed in working
■lip iron into to-es, about eighteen inches or
|wf>:feet long.; thefe being articles the Indians gg| very fand.of. AbQUt eight o'clock,
|Capt^ir| Portlock being on fhsre, giving di~
redtion s NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      12$
reftions about the Armourers tent, he w$f
informed from the fhip, that they faw a boat
about the entrance of the bay, plying into
the harbour: conjecturing it to be the
Nootka's long-boat, he went immediately
on board, and fent his whale-boat out to
their afliljance. At ten o'clock, her boat returned with the Nootka's-long-boat in tow.
Their aflidance was very acceptable, for the
long-boat's crew were almod worn out with
wet and cold, and were in a very weak condition. Captain Meares was in the feoat
himfelf, and from him they received fome
further account of their didrefling fituation
during the Winter: and by the accounts,
it was a very deplorable one; for before the
Winter broke up, the Captain and a Mr.
Rofs, his Chief Mate, Were the only two
perfons capable of dragging the dead bodies from the fhip over the ice: and not a
fingle perfon, but what was deeply afHi£lf#
with the fcurvy. They learned from Captain
Meares, that on his arrival in the found, he
could not for a long time purchafe one fingle
fkin, they being all difpofed of to his con-
fort,   the  Sea-Otter*   commanded   by Mr.
P 1 1:1
\ 1
J,   |
III     ;
«1 ;                 11 -
::' |
• g r
,,—     .I
Tipping, who, as well as Captain Meares,
was a Lieutenant in the Navy. Both thefe
fhips had traded with unwrought iron and
fmall tranfparent beads, of the fame kind
as they faw the natives have in Cook's bay.
Captain Meares informed them that feveral
other fhips had been trading on the Coad at
different times, a circumdance that they had
not the lead idea of before they left England,
which had the appearance at that time of
entirely ruining their projecl; and they were
under the neceffity of feparating, by which
means they would be able to explore the
whole coad; and it was immediately deter^
mined, that Captain Dixon fhould make
the bed of his way to King George's Sound,
and the King George to remain in and about
Prince William's Sound: Captain Portlock
likewife difpatched his long-boat on a trading
expedition to Cook's River, under the direction of Mr. Hayward his third Mate,
and Mr. Hill, with fix good and trudy men,
in whom they could place entire confidence.
Hinchinbrooke Cove was appointed as a
place of rendezvous for the long-boat, and
for her to lie there.    On the twentieth of
;:'f' * '-SI'' '' Junea NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      I2j
June, towards evening, the wind blew drong
and in fqualls; but the next morning, being
the 2id of June,   the weather grew moderate,   when  allflhands   were employed in
wooding, watering, brewing and working in
the hold. The Queen Charlotte havingfinifh-
ed cleaning, breaming and paying, fhe was
hauled off the beach into her former dation
in the afternoon, and compleated their watering, having filled, forty butts, two brandy pipes and nineteen puncheons.   At five
o'clock, Captain Meares took leave of them,
after being furnifhed with flour, loaf fugar,
molaffes, Sandwich Ifland pork, gin, brandy and cheefe,   and two good feamen, to
affid in navigating his fhip to China,  at
which place he was to return them: their
names   were George Willis   and Thomas
Dixon, both of whom went at their own re-
queds, and not from any intreaty.    Befides
tiiie above articles,   they furnifhed Captain
Meares with  150 cocoa-nuts, which it was
thought would be a great help to recover the
people.    Next day,  the long-boat fet off for
her expedition to Cook's Riyer; the crew all
in high fpiiits, and well fitted out for a fix
week's cruize.
On ■ J&   m$mj
y$tOn the 13th they werevifited by two largs
canoes, containing about forty natives, wifch
a number of fmall canoes j attending them :
they brought only two very indifferent fjdns,
iand a few furs, which were purchafed, and -.a
-prefent made the Chief, -whofe name ttoy
I uederdood was Sheenawaa. This they found
to he a very powerful tribe in the Sound;
they weraaaudacious thieves, andifehat was
very remarkable, the little boys were furnifhed wWi fmall hooked dicks for the pur-
\ pofe of picking pockets.   /Their vifitorsive-
mained about the fhip till, about 6 o'clock,
when they left] them and went .out of the
charbour.   At- this time the Queen Charlotte's
people were about two miles firom the fhips
*:on*a fifhing party, and the Indiansiimme-
ediately joined them.    Beings apprehenfive of
their pillaging the boat, Captain Portlock
kept a look out with his glafs,  and prefenty
a perceived a druggie betwixtihe two parties;
j on this he immediately fet off in the whale-
\ boat,twhich was always .kept ready aisned,
icto their affiffance, and leaiyfing directions for
lithe yaul to follow, pufhed out towards them
riwith all fpeed. jj The Indians no|iboner faw
M north-west coast of America;    .'127
the boat tfian thgy took to tMe^addles^nd
went off as fad as they were able.  Ojfpdn
joining the boat they found the Indians had
taken away all their ftfliiftg lines,f'^ndWrere
jud forciiighhbk anchor ofctfiof thei'boat as
rthey hove in fight.   On enquiry, they found
the people had no fire-arms an the *fe©at,
which was very Unlucky, as-tven the fight
of a mufket will prevent the Indians froin
attempting any violence, fo thoroughly have
sffee Ruffians taught thetii, by experience,? the
fatal effect-of ^fire-arms.     Captain Meares
informed them that, fince^their vifit fin the
i Refolution, a party of Ruffians had wintered
in the Sou&d, and, according to the defcaap-
tion given, in the very place they were now
• at anchor in, where tlieyf had? a battle with
the natives, who were beat off;  but fev^n
Ruffians loft theiMives initfae conteft. 'M
llOn the 14th, having every thing ready
for fea, and thinking this a^good opportunity
for parang, Captain Dixon went on board
1&$ King George, and they tobkbleave lof
each other. The* aQueen Charlotte fhaped
he^coi&fe out of the^Sound, and the King
' jfe \ Jf' George ,m
George made for Hinchinbrooke Cove, where
they arrived next day. If  a
We fhall now follow the King George till
their arrival at China, at which place they
met with Captain Dixon again; and then
fhall give an account of the proceedings in
the Queen Charlotte, from the time of their
feparation to their arrival at China.     /.  ;
On the 16th Captain Portlock had, in the
courfe of the day, feveral canoes along-fide,
of whom he purchafed ten or twelve good
fea-otter fkins; they likewife hauled the
feine frequently, but without fuccefs.
On the 18th the Captain went in the
whale-boat with an intention of furveying
the harbour, but whild engaged in this bufi-
nefs he faw the enfign flying \ this being the
fignalfor canoes, he returned on board, and
purchafed a few good fkins from the natives.
On enquiry for falmon, he was given to un-
derdand, that when the fnow melted from
the hills there would be plenty. As the articles he had to barter with were held in no
.■■-*."••■    ""■ .'if  * .'«&■ '     great
" great effimation, he difpatched MjrrGreflle-
man, the Second Mate, with the whale-boat
and yaul, on board the Nootka, to requed of
Captain Meares fome articles of trade, which
he could well fpare.    Having now no other
way of getting on fhore but in the.Sandwich
Ifland ajpoe, and fhe being difficult to manage/ it became neceffary to have fome fafer
kind of conveyance. Accordingly, the Carpenter,   aflided by feveral other hands? began to build a punt of twelve feet long, fix
feet wide, and about three feet deep;   the
Captain approved of the plan very much, as
this punt could not fail to be ufeful in wooding and watering whild rthe boat§ were ab-
fejnt.'   The harbour affording very fine crabs
and mufcles,   a number of the people were
fent to procure fome,  and they returned in
the evening wijh a good quantity of each.
Several canoes came along-fide with a trading party,   who brought  fome very good
fea-otter fkins and a few indifferent ones.
The weather being fine, all their operations
on fkore went brifkly forward;   one  part I
were employed cutting wood/ another faw* 130
§ i I
?ffig *pknk, and the Carj^enfHr, with his a£>
Bftallts-,- about the piiiit; '• a': ' -;#'::'-;' <J%* ~ ■
Two canoes vifitedtfietfi oil the aid, and
brought a few good fkirirs. ^They infoftoe-d
the Captain that the adjacent country was
.-jt&SIed TackSafctimute, and ffiat it was inhabited by a tribe, ifie name Hi whofe Chief
was Nootuck, and the name bfanother^ ©Set
belonging to the ;Ime tribe was Corcha.
Thr§e caftoes belonging to .Nootuck's tfibt
came 16 the flfip the next day, but brought
nothih^except a few halibuts. ''":''-^Pi
Wm' On the 25th the whsSg-boat rSMried j
ft6m the Sound; they' Mdc]pirted with*ffed
yaul fuft off the North r-pbfct - rdf the 1>ay.
The next day they had a Very heavy gale -^f
wind, and the yaul not mftiffk her Appear-
aftce* ?t;gave them great uSeafftfefs, as her
crew were n6tc6niy "e'xpbfed to the weatfeer,
but might probably be driven out of -fhe
Sound anSpa%}l-;perife nefraer could the
whale^Mat biYent'to look for and -aflid thefn>
without rdhning a great:'rifk-oF lofii1gJtier
crew likewife. However, the weather grow- NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.   IJI
ing moderate on the 27th, the whale-boat
was fent in fearch of the yaul, with proper
refrefhments for her crew, and at nine
o'clock both boats came alQjng-fide^ the
yaul's crew in a niiich better date than could
be expe&ed. The whale-boat met the yaul
#t the entrance of 'the bay, making an effort
to get in, which mud have been a fruitlefs
one, had they not met and taken them in
tow; for the boats were fcarcely got along-
fide before it began to rain and blow as vio*
lently as before, a   <,'.;; ,:,^S^^>-' -"111
3 From this to the 30th bad weather pre*
vented any bufmefs from going forward on
fhore. During this interval only three canoes
came ak>ng-fide, with cod and halibut fufficient to Xerve the fhip's company one day,
and a few middling fea-otter fkins. The weather now growing moderate, the parties re-
fumed their^djfferent employments on fhore.
II On the 4th of June Meffrs. Creffleman
and Bryant were fent with the whale-bo#t
and yaul, on a trading expe^itiqjl, up an
opening between the harbour tjhey lay in and
K 2
•     ' *#
Snug Corner Cove, by which means they
Were likely to ^obtain part of the trade intended for the Nootka. a Juft as night came
on a'few Indians came alung-fide with fome
halibut and cod, but no furs*
The weather being' fine on the 6th, a
!'party :wais "ISnt to dig a piece of ground for
ra garden, orJsa fmall ifland fituated in the
entrance of "the cove, and which was named -
Garden Ifland.   After the ground was ready, :
a variety or feeds were iown in it, lucli as
cabbage, onion, Scotch kale, radifh, favoyj
"JJtirflane, thyme, celery, fpinach, cauliflour,
xiurnip, mudard, rape andPcrefs, with peas,
beans, Frenchi;beans,:'and lettuce, befides c$fts
and barley.-• The foil being toleraMf"godtf,
at would be:$SK&ef eA'raotdinaryif, among fo
-great a variety, nothing fhould come to perfection.    Ih;the evening the whale-boat and I
•yaul returned from their expedition, with a
few very good fkins, which they purchafed of,
-a Chief whofe name was Sheenaawa, and
-who Was cdjfijeftured ■ to be the fame perfon
-Who paid them a vifit at Montagu Ifland.
The Captain intended them for a longer trip,
rIP - ■ - Hf^a but
fet it feems they unluckily got into a large
flat bay, where the boats grounded, and before they could extricate themfelves from
the fhoals the tide ebbed, and left them dry
for near two miles round. Sheenaawa and
his .tribe, which confided of near two hundred men, faw their fituation and paid them
a vifit, mod of them armed with knives and
fpears. The boats crews at fird were greatly
alarmed at their fituation; but their fears
rather fubfided, when they found that plunder was what the Indians wanted :, this they
endeavoured to prevent, but at the fame
time kept their plunderers in good temper 3
which was the mod prudent method the
people could poflibly have taken, for had
they acled in any other manner, and drove
to have prevented them from dealing by
force, not a man in either boat could have
efcaped the vengeance of their numerous
opponents. This plundering party obtained
an excelleut booty in their own edimation ;
they dole mod of the trading articles, two
mufkets, two pidols, and fome of the people's cloaths; but/what old Sheenaawa feemed
Jo regard as a thing of inedimable value, was 134
Mr. Creflleman's quadrant, which he feized,
together with his ephemeris and requifite
tables. It was at this time, that they purchased the fkins jud mentioned: Sheenaawa s
people affefting to traffic as a fort of introduction to their depredations.
Captain Portlock being at Garden Iffe
on the 9th, faw the Nootka turning in towards the port I on this, the whale-boat and
yaul were immediately fent to heraffiffance;
and in the afternoon, fhe anchored jufi
without the King George. Some Indians
came into the bay on the 10th, and appeared fhy on feeing the Nootka, which could
not be accounted for any other way, than
they having fired at fome of the natives jud
before they left Sutherland's Cove, and
wounded one of them. Captain MeareS
went on board the King George, to requed
of Captain Poitlock to fend his carpenter
on board the Nootka, to examine her mads,
pumps anda fides;, which was complied with.
The carpenter found her mads and yards in
good order, but the iides in many parts were
dangeroufly open, and her pumps in a very
bad condition ; on thi§, he was fent tp work.
on board her; the armourer was fet to work
on her pump geer: a party of men were
fent on fliore to cut fire wood for her, and
the cooper employed in brewing fpfupe beer
for her ufe. t£
On the 1 itiV the long-boat returned from
Cook's River, and had met with tolerable
fuccefs. Meffrs. Hayward and Hill affuring
Captain Portlock, that Qiuch more bufmefs
might be done in another trip. As
<the boat was cleared, he ordered her to be
fitted put with provifions, and an ^flprt-
ment of trade, for a fecond expedition. After the boat's arrival in Cook's River, foon
after getting above point Bede, they fell in
I with a body of Kodiac Indians, who they
jfuppofed were hunting on account of the
Ruffians, but they faw no Ruffian party;
and the inhabitants in the river behaved in
a friendly manner. Early next morning,
the boat failed again for Cook's River, with
pofitive orders to return by the 20th .of July.
By the 17th, the artificers belonging to the 136
King George, had put the Nootka in a con«
dition fit for fea.
For fome time pad the weather had in
general been very wet, which affected the
health of the failors very much; and many
of them were laid up with fevers and violent colds. If The Nootka being ready for
failing, at one o'clock on the 19th fhe
weighed anchor, and flood out for the cove.
Spruce beer, which was now in good order,
was daily ferved out; and the fick people
found great benefit from it. The Surgeon,
and thofe people who had been ill, took a
walk on fhore on the 20th, and gathered a
good quantity of water creffes, which they
found growing near the frefh water rivulets.
The people caught plenty of flounders
along-fide with hook and line; thefe, together with crabs, which were now very fine,
proved an excellent change from fait provi-
lions. Some of them in fifliing along-fide
for flounders, caught feveral cod and halibut ; on this, the canoe was fent on the
22d, at fbme didance into the bay, to try
fov them,   and they foon returned with a
load of fine halibut and cod. This fuccefs
induced them to fend her out frequently
with a fifhing party, and they caught confi-
derably more, than what was fufficient for
daily confumption, fo that the remainder
was falted for fea dore. In the afternoon,
a party of Indians vifited the fhip bringing
a few good fea-otter fkins ; they pointed to
the South Wed, and grave them to under-
dand that plenty of furs might be procured
from that quarter: on this, Captain Port-
lock difpatched the whale-boat and yaul on
the 24th, on a trip to the South Wed part
of the found with provifions for a month,
and a proper affortment-of trade. Some of
the people, who had leave to go on fhore,
afcended the highed hills in the neighbourhood ; on the fides of which, they found
good quantities of fnake root, and a variety
of flowers in full bloom. In the evening they
obferved two Indian boats and feveral canoes come into the bay. They landed on a
fandy beach, about three miles didant from
the fhip. Early next morning, their new vifitors came along-fide: the party confided of
about twenty five perfons. Their Chief appeared i38
peared to be a well difpofed man, rather low
in flature, with a long beard; and feemed
about fixty years of age: he was entirely
difabled on one fide, probably by a para-
letic droke.
The old man made Captain Portlock a
prefent of a good fkin, but had little to fell
except a few falmon: he gave the Captain to
underftand that his name w^s Taatucktel-
lingnuke; that the country he came from
was called Cheeneecock, and fituated in the
South Wed part of the found.    The whole
of this   party were very friendly and well
difpofed.    The country  wherelSheenaawa
and his tribe take up their refidence, is called Taaticklagmute:   they, it feems, are the
mod powerful tribe about the found, and
bated by all their neighbours, with whom
they are continually at variance.    Sheenaawa, (whofe rapacious difpofitipn has already
been noticed) whild the Nootka wintered in
Sutherland's Cove, fent frequent meffages,
intimating that he intended to come and cut
them off.   Thefe meffages or rather threats*
were always delivered to an Indian girl that
an officer belonging to the Nootka had
purchafed on their fird arrival in the found.
This girl made her efcape from the Nootka,
towards the latter part of the Winter; and
propably gave the Indians an account of her
weak and defencelefs fituation: for there is
hardly a doubt, from the number of men
that Sheenaawa had with him at the time
he plundered the King George's boats, but
that he then meditated an attack on the
Nootka, but very bad weather coming on
immediately afterwards, probably fruftratdi
his defign.pi
The party who were daily fent out to fifh
for cod and halibut, had their hooks and
lines often broke by large ground fharks:
feveral of them were killed, but they were
of no ufe, their livers yielding fcarcely any
oil. Taatucktellingnuke vifited the fhip on
the 26th, and was particularly anxious to
take one or two of the people with him on
tbrore to fpend the night, offering at the
fame time, to leave fome of his people on
board as hodages till their return. Captain
Portlock complied with this Angular requeft,
and n
and gave two of the people leave to accompany him on fhore: he left three of his
tribe on board, being defirou§ to convince
them that he intended no harm. Early the
next morning, the friendly old Chief came
on board in one of his boats, and after exchanging hodages, and receiving a few presents, he went on fhore highly pleafed. ;
. Thefe Indians lodged in temporary huts,
compofed only of a few flicks and a little
bark: the principal part of their food was
fifh, and by way of variety they eat the inner rind of the pine bark dried; but their
greateft luxury was a kind of rock weed covered with the fpawn of fome fifh or other,
of which they gathered and eat great quantities : they alfo eat the inner rind of the
angelica and hemlock roots, which though
poifon to Engliflimen, by conftant and habitual ufe, becomes to them familiar and
ferviceable. In hauling the feine on the
30th. they caught a large quantity of herrings, and fome falmon: the :xherrings
though fmall, were very good; and two
Jiogftiheads of them were faked for fea dore.
IJIiil- '    J    i       At NORTH-WEST COAST OF 'AMERICA.      iJfi
At noon on the 6th of July the whale-
boat and yaul returned from their expedition,
without the lead fuccefs, not having feen a
fingle canoe during their trip. Captain Port-
lock was now convinced that nothing could
be done by fending the boats on another ex-
pedition,and expecting the long-boat's return
in a few days, after which he intended to
get to fea as quick as poflible, all hands
were fet to work in getting the fhip ready.
Large quantities of falmon were daily caught,
but the unsettled date of the weather not
permitting them to cure it on board, the
Boatfwain was fent with a party on fhore,
to build a kind of houfe to fmoke them in.
On the 9th the houfe was finifhed, and
the Boatfwain, with his party, were employed in fmoking falmon; they had fufficient room to hang 600 fifh uj> conveniently,
and feven fires being condantly burning,
they were cured very well.
The feine was frequently hauled on the
lith, and not lefs than 2,000, falmon were
caught at each haul; indeed, they were now
in a
jfi fuch numbers along the flxores, that any
quantity whatever might be caught with the
greateft eafe,f|jL,.*   v : -  .      :     ., .   : -ipfe: •
; : On the 2id -Captain Portlock took fe^ral
..of the .people who were lately  recovered
•from ficknefs on fhore,  to take a walk and
gatjber water-crefles.    This little excurfion
had a wonderfully good effect on every one jj
they fat down on the grafs and made a hearty
meal on fried pork and falmon, and, by
way of fallad, had an abundance of water-
crefles:   they likewife gathered a fufficieijj:
quantity to ferve every perfon on board.
Near the place where diey landed was a
frefh water lake, in which there was abundance of falmon, <and not-far from it was a
piece of wild wheat growing, at lead two
feet high,   amongd which they found the
•water-crefles.     This  wheat,   with  proper
care,   might  certainly be made  an ufejjul
article of food.    They returned on board in
the evening without feeing any Indians.
Next day at noon, the long-boat came,
g-fide, and all her crew in good health.
H la
In this trip they had experienced a great
deal of very bad weather, and had not m£t
with fuch good fuccefs as they expefted.
They fell in with numbers of the Kodiac
Indians, who always behaved in the mod
friendly manner, as did all the inhabitants
of the river.
In the afternoon of the 24th they com-
pleated their wood and water, and everything
from the fhore was got on board. They
lopped all the branches off the highed tree
on Garden Ifland, and fixed a daff about
ten feet long at the top, with a wooden
vane on it, and near the bottom was in-
fcribed the fliip's name, with the year and
day of the month,
Every thing being ready for fea, they
weighed anchor at two o'clock in the morning of the 26th, and flood out of-the cove.
On quitting the harbour (which obtained
the name of Port Etches) Captain Portlock
at 'firft intended to dand out of the Sound
by way of Cape Hinchinbrooke, but on
opening that paflage,   the weather looked
very M4
very thick and dirty, on which he came to
the refolution of pufhing for the paflage on
the Wed fide of Monta'gu Ifland. Accordingly they dood to the South-Weft, but
meeting with contrary winds, did not get
through qtt the morning of the 3 id, when
they were w^ll clear of the land, the South
Wed point of Montagu Ifland being three
leagues diflant.
Short Account of Prince Williams Sound.
Defcription of the Inhabitants.—Their Per-*
fonSy—Manners,—Difeafes,-^-Drefs, — and
Proceed along the Coaft.—A?7chor in Port lock's
Harbour. — TranfaBio?is there. — Vifit an
Lidian Habitation. -— An Account of the
Spaniards being there and leaving the Small-
Pox.—Another Vifit from the Natives.—
Ceremonies to be obferved,—Jof. Woodcock
fent as an Hoftage into the Country.—-An Account of the Natives.—Their Thieving Dif-
pofitioti, &c.—Ledve the Coaft of America.
*—Arrival at Sandwich Iflands.—Receive a
Letter from Cdptdin Dixon.-—-Leave that
Place and Arrive at China.
'N taking leave of Prince William's
Sound, though a copious defcription of the
natives, their manner's, cudoms, 5cc. and
produce of their country, may perhaps be
unneceflary, yet, a few particulars may be fe«*
le£ted> which probably willjgive the^eader
L fatisfa£lion, ,«
iiMilhH K'
fatisfaftion, as they are the refult of clofe at-*
tention, and minute remarks on their behaviour and general conduct.
Thefe people are, for thg mod part* fliort
in ftature, and fquare made men | their faces,
men and women, are in general flat and
round,  with high cheek bones and flattifh
ijipfes : their teeth are very good and white $
eyes dark^ quick of fight: their fmell very
good,  and which they quicken by duelling
o£ the fnake-root parched.    As to their com-
plexions, they are generally lighter than the
Southern Indians, and fome of their wojgen
have rofy cheeks.   Their hair is black and
draight,   and they are fond of having it
long I but on the death of a friend they cut
it fliort, to denote them to be in mourning;
nor does itafeem they have any other way to
mark their forrow and concern for the lofs of^
their relations.    The men   have generally
bad ill-fhaped legs, which is attributed to
their fitting in one conflant pofition in their
canoes.   They generally paint their faces and
hands.    Their  ears and   nofes^are bored,
and their under lios flit.  In the hole in the
nofe they hang an ornament* as they deem
it, made of bone or ivory* two or three inches
long: at the ears, they moftly wear beads
hanging down to the flioulder -, and in the
flit in the lip, they have a bone or ivory in-
drument fitted, with holes in it, from which
they hang beads as law as the chin : thefe
holes in the lip disfigure them very much,
fome of them having it as large as the
mouth. But with all this fancied finery*
they are remarkably filthy in their perfon S|
and not frequently changing their garments,
they are very loufy; I and in times of fcarcity,
thefe vermin probably ferve them as an article of food, for they often pick and eat them %
and in general they are very large;f Their
clothing confids wholly of the fkins of animals and birds. In judice to them it mud
be faid, that in general they were found very
friendly -, and they appear fo remarkably
tender and affectionate to their women and
children, that you cannot pleafe them mord
than in making them fmall prefents-, but
your attention to their women mud be carried no farther, for nothing gives them
;#, L 2   ' greater
greater difpleafure than taking liberties witf
ii 1
Another very prevalent inclination, is, that
of thieving: this, however, is by no means
peculiar to them, but is equally to be feen
in all other Indians, not only from drangers,
but from one another. In the courfe of
their trading they were frequently feen to
deal from each other, and on being detected,
they will give up the articles they have
dolen with a laugh, and immediately appear
as unconcerned as if nothing had happened
amifs. Thieving with dexterity, is rather
confidered a grace than a difgrace, and the
complete thief is a clever fellow; but the
bungling pilferer is lefs admired. The man
who comes as a profeiTed thief may generally
be known, for his face will be all daubed
with paint; and whild you may be viewing
the curious figure he cuts with his painted
face, you may be fure that his hands are not
idle, if there is any thing near him worth
dealing; and whenever you fee his arm
flipped from out of the fleeve of the frock of
fkins which they always wear, you may red
affined that the perfon is intent on thieving;
and they always conceal the articles they have
ftolen under their frocks, until they have an
opportunity of dowing them away in their
canoes.    But notwithdanding all Captain
Portlock's care, and all the people's vigilance,
they frequently dole little things from them :
however, on the Captain appearing rather
angry, and endeavouring to convince them
of the impropriety of their behaviour, they
became lefs addicted to thieving.     Upon the
whole, they appear a good kind of people,
and there is not the lead doubt, if a fettle-
ment of fufficient drength was edablifhed,
would be an indudrious fet of people in
hunting,  and procuring the fea-otter and
other fkins, for fale to the fet tiers.    The
weaker  tribes   are frequently robbed  and
plundered by the dronger, and prevented
from hunting ;  which would not  be the
cafe were there a  proper fettlement edablifhed in fome convenient place, for that
would give protection to the whole.     The
inhabitants of this Sound, and indeed from
hence to King George's Sound, are by no
means fo numerous as was in general ftip-
pofed| ,F§
I $6
!        j
pofed; therefore, not fo dangerous to fet^
tiers. This Sound, and as far as Comptroller's Bay, would fcarcely muder tferee
hundred fighting men; and Cook's River,
according to Mr. Hill's obfervation, could
not muder much above that number; and
the whole of thefe people dand fo much in
awe of fire-arms, that a few men, well proi
vided, would be perfectly fecure.       .
; The place mod likely for wintering $t
#nd forming a fettlement, feems to be the
Wed harbour of Port Etches: it hath feveral advantages over any place Captain
Portlock faw upon the coad; one of them is,
that it lies fo near the fea, that in all probability it would be one of the lad places that
Would freeze, and one of the fird in which
the ice would break : In the next place, the
fettlers would be much flickered by the high
land lying to the Eaflward and Northward,
from the bleak winds in the Winter; and
they would have all the Southern afpeft open
over the low land which lies to the Southward, which land in a very little time might
be turned to very ufeful purpofes in raifing
articles of food. They might fee from this
fituation, the paffkge from fea and a great
part of the Sound. The furrounding country after the fnow leaves it, which is about
the middle of June, is pleafant enough; the
weather is at times, long before that period,
very fine and pleafant, and at other times
exceedingly boiderous with conffant rain,
which walhes in a fhort time great quantities of the fnow away, foon leaves the lower
parts clear, and you may immediately perceive the vegetables coming ford?.7* This
country abounds wrA trees of the pine kind,
fome very large; a good quantity of alder
and witch hazel. The fruit-bufhes are in
great abundance; fuch as bilberry-bufties,
rafberry-buflies, drawberries, alderberry-
bufhes, and currant-bufhes, red and black.
The vegetables, are water-crefief, wild celery, four-dock, fhepherd's purfe, angelica,
hemlock, wild peas, and wild onion. Unfortunately none of the feed that was fown
on Garden Ifland came to any perfection;
but probably it was fpoiled by age, being
near twelve months old before the fhip left
England.    There were no berries fit for ga-
L 4
thering A  VOYAGE   TO  THE
thering when they left Port Etches, but in a
ftiort time would be quite ripe, and any
quantity might be gathered for a Winter's
dock. They made ufe of alder-buds when
they were young as greens, and when they
were boiled they eat very well. All the
fhip's company partook of them one day for
dinner, but they had a drange effeft; not a
perfon on board but -what was phyficked in a
jnod extraordinary manner: On fome it
a£led as an emetic as well as a purge, and
kept working for thirty-fix hours. The
buds of the young black currant-bufhes"
were made ufe of as tea, with the pine-tops
ynixed, which drank very pleafant. The articles of food of the inhabitants, are fifli, an$
animals of all kinds, of which they eat veYy
heartily when they have it in their power;
they alfo eat the vegetables which the country affords, and the inner bark of the pine-
tree, which in the Spring mud be of infinite
fervice in recovering them from the fcurvy,
with which difeafe, there is reafon to think,
they are muph afflifted during the Winter,
as many of them fiad fwollen legs and fores,
which  certainly proceeded from that dif-
|i      eafe -3 [0RTH-WEST COAST OP AMERICA,
eafe; for as the Summer advanced, little of
thofe appearances were to be feen.    They
never fmoke their provifions; and for want
of fait, have no other way of curing their
Winter dock of fifh than drying it in the
fun : their frefli fifli they generally road, by
running fome dick through tofpreadit, and
then putting it before the fire.    Their animal food they generally drefs in bafkets or
wooden veffels,   by putting to it  red-hot
flones, until the vicluals are drefled enough;
and it is furprifing to fee how quick they
drefs their provifions in this way.     During
the Summer feafon they lead a drange wandering life; and the fhelter they live under
in bad weather, when from home, is either
their canoes, or fmall fheds made of a few
dicks, and covered with a little bark.    Their
Winter habitations are alfo ill-made and in-
confident ;   they in general are  not  more
than from four to fix feet high, about ten
feet long, and eight feet broad, built with
thick plank, and the crevices filled up with
dry mofs; and one of thefe houfes is generally occupied by a great number of inhabitants.    Their weapons for war are fpears
o *54
df fixteen or eighteen feet long, headed with
iron, bows and arrows, and long knives; all
of which they are amazingly dexterous in
ufing. Their fifhing implements are wooderi
hookg, with lines made of a fmall kind of
rock-weed, which grows to a confiderable
length. With thefe hooks and lines they
catch halibut and cod; falmon they either
Ipear or catch in wiers; and herring thet
catch with fmall nets. § Their implements
that they kill the fea-otter and other amphibious animals with, are harpoons made of
bone with two or more barbs, at the top of
a daflf fix or eight feet long, on which is
faflened a large bladder as a buoy, and darts
of about three or four feet long, which they
throw with a wooden indrument of about a
foot Ions;. W!
It fhould before have been mentioned,
that in the bay where the water-creffes grew,
was a tree with an infcription on it; the
characlers, fome were of opinion, were
Greek: it appeared as if the infcription had
been made in the latter part of the preceding year, and probably by a man who fome
time after the Nootka's arrival, left her.
m This
This man is a native of one of the iflands in
the Mediterranean, and it fliould feem, was
drove from the Nootka by bad ufage, and is
|dill among the Indians.
Being well clear of Montagu Ifland, they
flood to the Southward and Eadwafd, with
an intention of making: a harbour near
Cape Edgecombe.
On the 6th of Auguff, they faw an opening in the land, which promifed well for a
good harbour, and fituated about eight
leagues to the South-Ead of Crofs Cape.
On drawing near the opening, a large Indian
boat came out with twelve people in her,
and only three of them men, thored women
and children. About noon, they anchored in
.a mod fpacious and excellent harbour, entirely land-locked. Soon after they were
moored, the Indian boat which had followed
them in, came along-fide, and gave them a
fong in the ufual Indian manner : their language was totally different from that fpoken
by the natives in Prince William's Sound;
but they extended their arms as a token of
peace,   pearly  the  fame as  thofe  people.
Their 156
Their boat was the body of a large pine-
tree, neatly excavated, and tapered away towards the ends until they came to a point;
indeed the whole was finifhed in a neat and
very exact manner. Captain Portlock made
His vifitors fome trifling prefents, and (hewing them a fea-otter's fkin, made figns for
them to bring him fome, which they feemed
inclined to do. They were ornamented with
beads of various forts, and had fome tin
kettles and towees, which inclined the Captain to think, that the Queen Charlotte had
touched near this neighbourhood ; particularly, as they made him underfland that the
veffel from which they procured thefe articles, had been in a port to the Eadward of
Cape Edgecombe, and that fhe had two
mads. This information induced Captain
Portlock to think that the Charlotte might
dill be fomewhere about the Cape; and as
he had formed an intention of fending the
long-boat on a trading expedition, he determined to fit her out with all poflible dif-
patch. The Indians, after receiving a few
prefents, left the fhip and went on fhore,
where they remained a fhort time, and then
returned with a few good dry fea-otter fkins,
Thefe Indians are not fo particular in dreff-
ing or ftretching their fkins, as the inhabitants in Prince William's Sound, or Cook's
River $ neither were any of them marked
with paint, as is the practice in* the Sound
and River. On a marked fkin being fhewn
to the Chief, he immediately knew what
country it came from, and defcribed the inhabitants as having their under lips flit, and
wearing ornaments in them; he alfo defcribed their canoes, with their method of
paddling; and on being fhewn a model of
the Prince William's Sound canoes, he knew
it "to be the fame fort with thofe he had beqa
defcribing. He informed Captain Portlock
that they had a frequent intercourfe with
the natives of Prince William's Sound, in
the courfe of which, quarrels often arofe,
and battles frequently enfued; and one of
the n:en fhewed a deep wound near his lip,
which he received in an engagement with
them. The daggers which the people hereabouts ufe in battle, are made to flab with
either end, having three, four, or five inches
above the hand, tapered to a fliarp point.
Towards > A  VOYAGE   TO   TftE
Towards evening, the Indians prepared toga
on fliore ; but by way of fecuring the Captain's friendfhip, were defirous to leave one
of their party on board for the night, and
take one of his people on fhore; As they
feemed to betrav neither a mifchievous or
thieving difpofition, he had no objection to
the propofal; particularly, as the perfon
who went with them, might have an oppor-*
tunity of obferving what number of fea-otter
fkins they pofl^fied; and might alfo form
fome idea of their manner of living. Accordingly, one of the people was fent on fhore,
and that they'might be under no apprehen-*
fion about his fafety, two of the Indians
f ifaftead of one as was fird propofed} remained on board, and behaved remarkably
well. They were both young, very well
made, good-looking men, and appeared to be
brothers. || : ■'"' fi ' ••   i-' • ■•' I
Next morning, the Indians returned with
the man they had taken away the night before; but they brought very little trade.
SRheir refidence was at the foot of a hill near
a run of frefh water, which iffued out of an
adjacent NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      1 $g
adjacent valley. Their houfe (for they had
only one) appeared to be only a temporary
habitation, and they feemed to have but few
articles of trade amongd them.
- Early in the morning of the 7th, the longboat was lpnt oft a trading expedition towards Cape Edgecombe, witfa. particular orders to return in feventeen days. The adjacent country abounding with white cedar,
the carpenter was fent on fhore with a party
on the 8th, to cut fome for fawing into
flieathing-boards; the remainder of the fhip's
company were bufied in various neceffkry
employments. In the courfe of theaday, a
fmall canoe came along-fide with one man
and a woman in her, but had nothing- to
fell. After fome time, they went .'on ftrore
in order to give their tribe intelligence of our
being in the harbour. Towards eyiening,
their firfl vifitors came along-fide, and the
two young men again requeded to fleep on
board, which was permitted; and Jofepk'
Woodcock, one of the Captain's apprentices/
flept on fhore witljt their party. When tW
Indians left the fhip, they did not-go to their
old 100
old habitation, but took up their abode in £
final] bay near the fhip; where they eredted
a miferable hut, infufficient to keep out
either wet or cold.
Not having any fuccefs in hauling the
feine near the fhip, the whale-boat was fent
with it up an arm of the found which extended to the Northward. At the head of it
they found a frefh water rivulet, where they
caught a few good falmon, and a great number of very indifferent ones, mod of which
were differed to efcape. Thofe of the bad
fort had a mod difagreeable colour, to appearance, as if in a date of putrefaftion,
and the upper jaw had a number of large
teeth projecting almod "right out of it*
Since their arrival they had frequently fQQn
in the frefli water creeks (in which places
thefe kind of falmon get a confiderable
height) many of them dying, and great numbers on the bank quite dead: indeed, there
is reafon to fuppofe that few of them fur-
vive the approach of Winter: but the other
fort keep in deep water, and about the
mouths of creeks.        v ^ ;
111    •   " :' ';'.-'-.-   '■        —    ; The
J NOR-fH-WfcST COAST OF AMEftlCA^      i&t
The fma?H canoe, which vifited the fhip
in the morning, returned again at eight
o'cfeck, in company with two large boats*
containing about twenty-five men, women
and children: after finging near an hour,
they took their leave, and went on fhore to
the little bay juA mentioned; where fome of
them ere£ted temporary huts to lodge in %
but others contented themfelves with fuch
kind, of fhelter, as fome -rocks which hung
over tfee beach afforded. On leaving the fhip*
they promifed to bring fome very good furs
the next morning. Accordingly, foon after
day-light they came along-fide with five very
good fea-otter, and a number of beautiful
JWack fkins, which appeared to be a fpecies
of feal.
\ This tribe graded very fairly, and as they
did not feem to be of a thieving difpofition,
Captain Portlock admitted a number of them
on board. When dinner was brought info
the cabin, they required very little invitation to partake; but begun to eat very hear*
tily, and fo well did they relifli the victuals,
that the table was prefen% cleared; and
M there A   VOYAGE  Tto.Ttftf
there was occafion for another courfe, whie&
was brought in, and they fell to v/ith as keen
an appetite as at fird ; till at length, being
fairly fatiated, they gave over, though with
fome relu&ance. fSoon afterwards, they returned to the fhore, well fatisfied with their
entertainment.' In the afternoon, an- Indian b6at vifited the fhip with two men and
two children in her. One of the men was
a remarkably fine-looking fellow, and appeared to be a perfon of great confequence.
They brought a few good fea-otter fkins,
and a number of wild geefe. The method
they make ufe of in catching thefe birds, is
to chace .and knock them down, immediately
after they have fhed their large wing feathers,
at which time they are not able to fly.
Thefe Indians were ornamented with beads
t)f a different fort to any that had hitherto'
Been feen, they had alfo a carpenter's adze,
with the letter B, and three fleurs-de-lis on
it. They procured thefe articles from two
veffels, which had been with them to the
North Wed; and the Chief defcribed them,
as having three mads, and that they had a
drum on board, and a number of great guns.
Thefe circumdances render it probable that
the veffels defcribed by the Chief, were the
French men of war that were fitting out
for difcovery, at the time the King George
and Queen Charlotte left England j Befides
thefe two fhips, they alfo mentioned another
veffel with two mads, having been on the
coad, and that an unfortunate accident
happened to one of her boats, which was
fifhing at anchor in the mouth of the port
where fhe lay; whild fifhing, the wind came
in frefh from the fea> and when endeavour^
ing to weigh their anchor, the cable flipt on
the broad fide of the boat, which overfet
hen and before any aflidance could be
given them from the fhip, five men were
drowned. This boat they defcribed to be
exactly like the King's George's whale-boat.
This Chief and his little party took leave of
Captain Portlock on the ioth, and told him
that he would return in ten days with more
furs.      , j|jp v. ;: j a-. -   ' ; , \:    •
On the nth, two large boats came into
the found from the Eadward, with a tribe
which were entire drangers: they brought
M a a few
P i
a few good fea-otter firing, and fome of the
black fkins before mentioned. This new
party of traders l&d not albciate with the
other Indians; but after their btrfmefs w>&$
over, they went on fhore in a bay not far
from theihip, whele the cooper was employed in bre^dii^fprucebee^; and to^Mp their
lodging in a g<^>d convenient h&ufe, which
Ire and his Miftants had built to fheft&r
themfelvfcs from the rain, and which w&s
well covered with cedar bark. §6me of tffeir
former acquaintance came on board in the
evening, and a hoflage wis fent on fhore as
-tlfual: indeed it Was abfolutely neceffary to
conform to their cudom in this :-3particular
for more tb&n once. When Captain 1P@rt~
lock riftifed to exchange hodages with thefts,
they were immediately alarm'&d, and would
not come near the fhip on any account
whatever: but on his permitting a perfon
to go with them on fhore, they would receive him on entering their boat with a general fliout of exultation, and feem perfectly convinced that no harm was intended
them. On thefe occafions, inflead of one
ilndian daying on board in exchange for the
\\r .   .., * a   a       •■; perfon NORTH-WEST COAST OF AFRICA.      165
perfon fent on fhore, more than ha^lf a dozen
wout$ offer themfelves as volunteers, and
three or four of them generally flept on
On the 12th, p$rt of the fhip's company
had leave given to recreate themfelves on
fhore. Jfln the coprfe of their ramble, they
fell in with a large quantity ofrlndian tea;
this difcovery was a timely one, for thf
greated part of their tea was expended* and
this newly-difcovered tea proved an excel-*
lent fu^ditutf. It grows on a low fmall
fhrub, not mgre than twelve inches from the
ground; the leaf is about half an inch long,
and tapej£ gradually to a point, the under
part covered with a light downy fubdance.
In' the forenoon, Captain Portlock wept in
the whale-boat, accompanied by a young Indian, who had generally been on board, t€>
vifit their'residence. After proceeding a confiderable way up the found, they arrived at
the Indians habitation about noon, and
found one fmall temporary houfe, and the
ruins of two others, which had been much
larger, an$ appeared to have been made ufe
of as Winter habitations.    On the beaehi
was a large boat capable of holding thirty
perfons, and three others to hold ten people
each.   From this circumdance, the Captain
expe&edto have feen a numerous tribe, and
was quite furprifed to find only three men,
three women, the fame number of girls, and
two boys about twelv^ years old, and two
infants.    The olded of the men was very
much marked with the fmall-pox, as was a
girl who appeared  to  be about fourteen
years old.    The old man endeavoured to describe the exceflive   torments  he endured,
whild he was afflicted with the diforder that
had  marked his face,   and   gave  Captain
Portlock to underdand that it happened fome
years ago: he faidthe didemper carried off
great numbers of the inhabitants, and that
himfelf had lod ten children by it.   He had.
ten   drokes   tattoed  on one of his arm»
which it feems were marks for the number
of children he had lod.
None of the children under ten or twelve
years of age were marked, fo that there is
great reafon to fuppofe the diforder raged but
little more, than that number of years ago;
and as the Spaniards were on this part of
the coad in 1775, it  is very probable that
thefe poor wretches caught this fatal infection. They were amongd them in the height
of Summer, and probably they caught the
diforder about the month of Auguft, To fee
their manner of living at that feafori of the
year, one would think it a miracle that any
of themefcaped with their lives: men, women and children were all ■huddled together
in a clofe houfe near a large fire, and entirely furrounded with dinking fifh:   round the
houfe, for at lead one hundred yards, and
all along: the banks of a little creek that ran
down   by  this   miferable   dwelling,   were
ftrewed with dinking fifh;   and in feveral
places were beds of maggots a foot deep, and
ten or twelve feet in circumference;   nay,
the place had fuch a  dreadfully offenfive
fmell, that even the young Indian himfelf,,
though habituated to fuch, wretched fcenes
from his earlieff infancy, having now been
abfent a few days, could not bear it, but
earnedly entreated the Captain to return on
H The fufferings of the poor Indians, when
the diforder was at its height, mud h^ive
been inconceivable; and no doubt the country was nearly depopulated, for to this day
it remains very thinly inhabited. A number
of the Indians who came into the Sound
from the Eadward, were marked with the
fmall-pox, and one man in particular had
lod an eye by that diforder: but none of the
natives from the Wedward had the lead
traces of it. Thefe circumdances make it
prqbable that the veflel, from which thefe
unfortunate Indians caught the infection,
was in a harbour fomewhere about Cape
Edgecombe; and none of the natives to the
Wedward of this Sound having any inter-
coufe with her, by that means happily ef-
caped the diforder. Jl
On the 15th, the long-beat returned
from her expedition to the Eadward of Cape
Edgecombe, when they had brought fome
pretty good fea-otter fkins,. The people
with whom they bartered had a number of
articles, the fame as thofe on board the
King George; fuch as tin kettles, rings, &c.
I       f ; ,   ' f fo NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
fo that it was pretty evident #ie Charlotte
had been in that neighborhood. Whjlft
they were at anchor, and bufied in putting
the boat to rights, fome of the Indians cut
their cable, and afterwards made for the
fhore. The people in the long boat purfued
them, and deflroyed their canoes; but the
Indians fled into the woods with precipitation. On the long-boat's return, one of the
people fell overboard, but was providentially
faved by another of them fwimming to him
with an oar, by which he kept himfelf above
water till they got him on board.
On the 18th, Captain Portlock went in
the whale-boat to furvey part of the Sound,
and landing in a fmall bay, found a fort of
monument, erecfed probably to the memory
of fome didinguifhed Chief. This edifice
was compofed of four pods, each about
twenty feet long, and duck in the ground,
about fix feet diflant from each other.
About twelve feet from the ground there
was a rough boarded floor, in the middle of
which, an Indian ched was depofited; and
on that part of the edifice which pointed up
the A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
lie Sound, there was painted the refemblance
of a human face. As none of the inhabitants were near, they intended to examine the
chedj but on one of the boat's crew attempting to get up for that purpofe, the
whole fabric had like to have given way, on
which he defided, as Captain Portlock was
not willing to dedroy a building that probably was looked on by the Indians as facred.
On the 20th, their late vifitor from th(
North-Wed made his appearance in a large
boat, along with about twenty men and
women, and twelve children. This Chief J
came along-fide with great parade, ancj. fing-
ingin their ufual way, and by way of addi-J|
tion, their finging was accompanied by indru-
mental mufic, fuch as a large old ched for a
drum, and two rattles. The Chief was
drefled in an old cloth cloak that formerly j
had been fcarlet, with- fome old gold fringe
about the fhoulders, and ornamented with
buttons down each fide: with this coat, and
his hair full of white down, (which they
always wear when in full drefs) he difplayed
as much importance as any Spanifh Don
would have done. • He had befides in his
boat, another old drefs that was compofed
of different coloured pieces, and worn chiefs*
ly by his wife.    The Chief did not produce
any thing for fale, but foon went on (bore,
probably to fort his trade, for he foon returned ; but did not come on board until he
had entertained them with finging; during^
which time, the Chief afted different characters, and always changed his drefs for each
reprefentation; at the iame time, fome of
his people held up a large mat by way of
fcene, to prevent them on board from feeing
what  was  going  on behind  the  curtain.
At one time he appeared in the character of
a warrior, with all the ferocity of an Indian
about him; and at another time, he repre-
fented a woman, in which charafter he wore
a very curious mafk, reprefenting a woman's
face. After this entertainment was over, the.
Chief and fome of his people went on board,
and trade commenced.     During the day,
Captain Portlock bought about twenty-five
pieces of good fea-otter fkins; but the Chief
traded in fo very tedious a manner, that he
£ould not purchafe the whole of his furs before mm
I-   /
j 7%
fore the evening came on. The Chiff rev
mained op. board with one of his. people;
and as lie- required a hodage, Jofeph Wood-?
cock was fent on fhore with his party.
Wo^cock having frequently been on
fhp^e as an h$i|$ge, he was well ki^own to
the natives, and they feemed very fond of h$£
company. On one of thefe occafions, he remained amongd the Indians for three days,
during which time he had an opportunity of
feeing thejr cudoms and mode of living,
Their filth and nadinefs was beyond conception; their food, which, confided chiefly
of fifh, was mixed up with dinking oil, and
other ingredients equally difagreeable; and
the remains of every meal were thrown into
a corner of their hut, upon a heap of thf
fame kind that was in a date of putrefaction,
which, together with large quantities of f$t
and dinking oil, caufed a very loathfome
and offenfive fmell; and what rendered it
ftilf worfe, the fame apartment ferved them
both to eat and fleep in.
his tmcomfortable fituation, frequently
induced Woodcock to take a ramble into
the woods;  but he was  always natrowly
watched by fome of his new companions,
who feemed to apprehend that he was endeavouring to make his efcape from them,
-Oftce ki particular, having rambled a confiderable diflance from the Indians place of
residence, he begun to amufe himfelf with
whittling,   not  expecting,   if fthe  native's
"l&krd him, it could poffiblybea matterbf
offence; but in this he was midaken, for
feveral of them immediately ran up to him
and infided upon his giving over:   at 'fiffi:,
he did not comprehend thtir meaning, and
w&nt on with his whidling;  however, one
of them foon put a dop to it, by laying feis
har^d on Woodcock's mouth, being appre-
henfive that he meant the whidling as a fig-
%al for fome of his companions to 'tome for
Win. /fExcept their watching him fb clofely9
they always treated him with greaft kindnefs,
and at meal-times gave him what they considered as choice dainties;  mixing his fifh
with plenty of flunking oil, 'which in their
opinion gave it an additional and mod agreeable refifh 5 and he found it no eafy matter I
to perfuade them to let him eat his fifh
without fauce.-: Thefe poor wretches by
living in fo filthy manner, were entirely covered with vermin, and when the lice grew
troublefome, they picked and eat them with
the greated relifh and compofure: fome-
times indeed, when they were greatly pef.
tered, and had not an opportunity of rid-*
ding themfelves of their guefls in that manner, they would turn their jackets and wear
them infide outwards by way of giving them
a few hours of refpite. Poor Woodcock
foon became as much incumbered with vermin as his companions; but ufe had not as'
yet reconciled him to fuch. troublefome
gueds, and he felt his fituation very difa-
greeable. At length, he perfuaded one of the
women to rid him of the vermin, and fhe
(probably confidering them as a peculiar
dainty) accepted the office with pleafure,
and entirely cleared him from every thing
of the kind.
M The next morning trade again commenced, and the Chief at lad difpofed of all
his furs.   Captain Portlock finding the adja- &0RTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      I75
cent neighbourhood was flript of all their
furs, determined to go to fea the firft
opportunity. Accordingly, in the morning
of the 2 2d, they weighed anchor and dood
out of the Sound.
This party from the North Wed* were
much more addicted to thieving than any of
the Indians in the Sound; and it was ado-
nifhing to fee with what patience they would
wait, when once they had fixed on any thing
to deal, and with what dexterity they would
convey their booty away. j| One fellow took
a liking to Captain Portlock's drinking mug*
and he got it under his frock, but unfortunately for the poor fellow, it happened to
be half full of beer, a part of which fpilling
over, difcovered the thief.    Notwithdand-
ing, two people were condantly in the cabin to watch the Indians,   one fellow found
an  opportunity to get a cutlafs under his
frock, and was not difcovered till he was
going down the fide of the fhip; and another found means to deal four pair of
ted dockings, with which he got out of the
fhip undifcovered,   .     a W .    -..•/,...§| \
id t§
J 76
The wotnen at this Sound, (which has obtained the name of Port-lock's Harbour}
disfigures themfelves in a mod extraordinary
manner, by making an incifion in the under
lip, in which they wear a piece of wood of an
oval form : they wear them large in proportion to their age, and fome old women had
them as large as a tea faucer. The weight of
this trencher weighs the lip down, and leaves
all the lower teeth entirely expofed; which
gives them a very difagreeafble appearance.
When eating, they generally take more iSIl
the mouth than they can fwallow, and aftbt
madicating it, they put part on the piece
of wood, and take it in occafionally as they
empty their mouths. The children have
their lips bored, when about two years old,
and wear a peice of copper wire to prevent
it from clofing; this they wear until they
are about fourteen yeats old, when they
take out the wire, and introduce a piece of
Wood nearly the fize of a button. Both
fexes (as is the general charafteriftic amongd
the Indians) are addifted to indolence and
lazinefs, are fond of dirt and filth, and differ but little in their manners and cuftoms,
front  thofe   of   Prince William's    Sound,
which have already been defcribed.
• Nothing remarkable happened in their
paflage from the coad to Sandwich Iflands,
and on the 27th of September, they faw O-
whyhee, at about eight leagues didant. At
day-light next morning, being about fix
miles from the land, a multitude of canoes
came off with the different productions of
the ifland, in abundance, and in)the courfe
of the day, they bought a vad quantity of
hogs and vegetables. Having procured an
abundant fupply of provifions^ | Captain
Bortlock left Owhyhee and ihaped a courfe
for Atooi, and in the moaning of the 3d of
Oftober, they were not more than two
leagues from the South point of that ifland^
on which, they edged away for Wymoa
Bay. In running along fhore, a number of
canoes came off, but had fcarcely any thing
to fell, giving them to underfland that the
King was at Oneehow, and that he had tabooed the hogs before he fet out for that
ifland: they alfo informed the Captain*
that Captain Dixon had left a letter for
N him ri
him with Abbenooe, which lay at his houfe
at Wymoa. On this, Captain Portlock
dfetched in for the Bay, and when about a
mile from the fhore, brought the main-top-
fail to the mad. Soon afterwards, Taheira,
fen to Abbenooe, came on board, and informed him that the letter was tabooed in his
father's houfe, and that it could not be had-
until Abbenooe either came himfelf, or fent
directions for its being delivered. Finding
this the cafe, they bore away for Oneehow,
and came to an anchor there on the 4th.
a In the afternoon, the King, accompanied
by Abbenooe, and mod of the other principal men of Oneehow, came on board, and
brought with them a good quantity of yams
and potatoes. Abbenooe told Captain Port-
lock, that he would immediately difpatch a
meflenger for his letter, and preffed him hard
to day till the man's return, which he faid
would be in thirty-fix hours. This being a
•good opportunity of procuring a dock of
yams, the Captain willingly complied* with
Abbenooe's requeft. A Chief of fome con-
fequence, named Tabooaraanee, belonging
to Owhyhee, took his paflage on board the
King George to Oneehow, and was received
by the Kinggand principal men with much
fatisfaclion. This i^hief informediGfaptain
Portlock that he was prefent when Captain
Cook was killed; and oni>feeirig a-bayonet
in the cabin, he laid hold of it, and faid the
Orono (the name by which Captain Cook
wa& diffinguifhed) was killed with a weapon
of that kind, the point entering between hi^K
fhoulders and coming out at'iihis bread.
Abbenooe acquainted them, that the Nootka
had left Oneehow near a month, and that
they parted on very bad terms, Captain
Meares^fiaving fired on them, but that no
perfofi was hurt: he alfo mentioned Tyaana
jping off on board the Nootka. f|K
In the morning of the 6th, a Chief brought
a letter on board, which was left by a Mr.
David Rofs, Chief Mate of the Nootka,
wherein he mentioned their paving left an
anchor in Yam Bay, and fuppofes their cable was cut by the natives. By the afternoon, they had procured near twelve tons of
yams, and filled up their water.. f ■ -
;-:■"■••■: la-   \ ]   I'N z '%:   'Early Ml
ft ■
ftEarty next morning, Abfcenooe's fbeflen-*
ger retuinred from Ato6i, w%h Gaptaiii
Dixon'd :< lettar. Every thing now being
ready fdrhfea, they weighed anchor and got
under'Tail, in order to proceed to China,
whic^s was the nexrfe; place of theiar deftima-
|j|:Oi3D'the 4th of -November, they^paflifd the
Iflands of Saypan and Tipian, whichdiad a
mod beautiful appe^ ran rRp^^^^0^^M
^j| Atcday-light in the morning of the iSthJ
threy were furrou&ded by a great: number of
©ftifiefe fifMng-boats.|: afad. foon afterwards
fcekxg'a (Bfainefe veffelifteeafing towards thfemi
they fhortened fail, tod fefit a boat on boac<j|
her for a pilot; the boat prefently returned
With qnie* aiKJ Captfefefi^ortloefccagredd Ah
him to eirryithe fhip to Macaol Theyan«
ch&red in Macao Roads lohi the 20th, and
the ^vh^i^boEt was fdistfiOrtiifeore tfo Maeafo*f
|p:NextrtJiOfkiing the boatsfeeturned, and tfi#
Officer btfktght a lett££froft| Captain Qixon,
informing th&w of hisxf&fe arrival JitasChinaj
#t£ 1 * M Having
Having finifhed their bufinefs at Macao,
they weighed anchor on the 23d, and proceeded towards Wampoa, at which place they
came to anchor on Jhe 25th, where they met
with Captain.Dixon, whofe proceedings we
fhall now give an account of from the time
of thein| feparation,! to their arrival
China. 111   m m
Site   f feat fa ■:'-"■ ' '#1
- -fffg   C H A P T E RfiX. |'^ -■flf v
TI&<? Queen Charlotte arrives at Port Mulgrave.
Tranfaflibns there'.—Account of the Iihabi-
tants.—Their Method of Fi/hing,—Cooking,
—Burial Places.—Leave Port Mulgrave.
*~~Arrivhl at Norfolk Sound.—Defcription
of that Place.—The Manners and Cuftoms of
the Inhabitants.—Departure from Norfolk
Sound.—Proceed along the Coaft.—Arrival
at Port Banks.—Defcription of that Place.
.FTER the veffels parted company, Captain Dixon deered for the paflage between
Cape Hinchinbrooke and Montagu Ifland, a
with an intention of danding well in with
the coad, in hopes of meeting with a harbour on his paflage to King George's Sound.
They kept coading along with light variable
winds, till the 2 2d of May, when feeing the
appearance of an inlet, the Captain determined to examine it, as there was a proba-
"' \ ■'"';'     ,:.    ;v: '"-':       . ■'"$.'   IiIIH TSORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      13
bility of finding inhabitants, and confe-
quently fome trade might be expected. Accordingly, next morning the Second Mate
was fent in the boat to look for anchoring j
ground ; and foon afterwards, they perceived
a fingle canoe with one perfon in her, which
gave them great pleafure, as there was now
a certainty of their finding inhabitants in the
adjacent harbour. The Mate returned in
the forenoon, with an account that he had
found an excellent harbour, and fctn a number of inhabitants; on which they dood in,
and came to anchor in the evening. Thefe
people were found to be a different nation \
from thofe of Prince William's Sound *, not
only from their difference of language, but
from the condruftion of their canoes, which
were altogether of wood, and very neatly
finifhed. The inhabitants were greatly
pleafed at the arrival of the fhip ; and un-
derdanding that they were come for furs,
an old man brought ten excellent "fea-otter
fkins, which he fold for towees. This ci.r-
cumdance, together with their feeing very
few ornaments amongd the Indians, gave
them reafon t® expe£t a good traffic; but a
N a. few iHi
few days convinced them that their conjei
tures were built on a fand^foundation, for
they procured very few valuable furs, and
the Indians were remarkably tedious in their
trading: four or fix of them would come
along-fide in a canoe, and wait an hour before they produced any thing to fell; they
■ then by fignificant fhrugs, would hint at having fomething to difpofe of, and wifh to fee
what would be given in exchange, even ber
fore their commodity was expofed to view.
If this manoeuvre did not fucceed, a few
trifling pieces of old fea-otter fkins were
produced, and a confiderable time was taken
up in concluding the bargain. This hai$||
hour was calculated to contain about feventy
inhabitants, including women and children;
they in general are about the middle fize;
their limbs draight and well-fhaped; but
like the other inhabitants on the coad, are
particularly fond of painting their faces
with a variety of colours : fo that it is no
eafy matter to difcover their real complexion:
however, one woman was prevailed on by
perfuaiion and a trifling prefent, to wafh her
face and hands, and the alteration it made
m her appearance was abfolutely furprizing;
her countenance had all the chearful glow
of an Englifh milk-maid; and the healthy
red which flufhed her cheek, was even beautifully contraded with the whitenefs of her
neck: her eyes were black and fparkling;
her eye-brows the fame colour, and mod
beautifully arched ; her forehead fo remarkably clear, that the transflucent veins were
feen meandring even in their minuted
branches : in ftiort, fhe was what would be
reckoned handfbme, even in England. But
this fymmetry of features is entirely de-
droyed by a cudom extremely Angular, and
which has never been mentioned by any navigators whatever: an aperture is made in
the thick part of the under-lip, andincreafed
by degrees in a line parallel with the mouth,
and equally long. In this aperture, a piece
of wood is condantly wore, of an eliptical
form, about half an inch thick; the fuper-
ficies not flat, but hollowed out on each fide
like a fpoon, but not quite fo deep; the
edges are likewife hollowed in the form of a
pulley, in order to fix this precious orna-
inent more firmly in the lip, which by this
means A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
means is frequently extended at lead three
inches horizontally, and consequently distorts every feature in the lower part of the
face. I This curious piece of wood is wore
only by the women, and feems to be con-
fidered as a mark of didin&ion, it not being
worn by all indifcriminately, but only by
thofe who appeared in a fuperior dation to
the red. |g ;.'...:'    , ■ a   -.  j|,: . .;
..." Their habitations are the mod wretched
hovels that can be conceived : a few poles
iluck in the ground, without order or regularity, enclofed and covered with loofe boards,
conditute an Indian hut; and fo little care
is taken in their condruftion, that they are
quite infufficient to keep out the fnow or
rain; the numerous chinks and crannies
ferve, however, to let but the fmoke, no particular aperture being left for that purpofe.
The infide of thefe dwellings exhibits a complete picture of dirt and filth, indolence and
lazinefs; in one corner are thrown the bones
and remaining fragments of victuals left at
their meals'; in another, are heaps of fifh,
pieces of dinking flefh, greafe, oil, &c.  In
m       ihort \ NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      187
fliort, the whole ferved to fhew in how
wretched a date it is poflible for human
beings to exid; and yet thefe people appear
contented with their fituation, and probably
enjoy a greater portion of tranquility than
is to be f#und under the gilded roofs of
the mod demotic monarch. 'Tis probable, that the chief reafon why thefe Indians
take no greater pains in the druclure of their
habitations is, that their fituation is merely
temporary; no fooner does the mader of a
tribe find game begin to grow fcarce, or fiilv
not fo plentiful as he expected, than he takes
down his hut, puts the boards into his canoe, and paddles away to feek out for a fpot
better adapted to his various purpoles; which
having found, he prefently ere6ls his dwelling
in the fame carelefs manner as before.
The boat was one day fent out with feven
people to catch halibut, which are very plentiful at this place, but their fuccefs was
greatly inferior to that of two Indians who
were fifhing at the fame time; which is rather
extraordinary, if we confider the apparent
inferiority of their tackle to that of Captain
Dixon's t88
Dixon's people.    Their hook; is a large Ample piece of wood, the fhank at lead half an
inch in diameter; t^jt part which turns np,
and which forms ajjjacute angle, igconfider-
ably fmaller, and brought -gradually to a
point; a flat piece of wood, about fix inches
long, and near two inches wide, is neatly;
laflied to the fhank, On the back of which is
rudely carved the representation of an hu-
inan face.    'Tis not likely that this was altogether jtntended $s an ornament to their
hooks, but that it is intended as a kind of
Deity tmnfure their fuccefs in fifhing, which
is conducted in a Angular manner: They
bait their hook with a kind of fifh, called
by the failors fquids, and having funk it to
the bottom, they fix a bladder to the end of
the line as a buoy, and fliould that not watch
diffidently, they add another.    One man is
fufficient to look after five or fix of thefe
lines: when he perceives a fiih. bite he is in no
great hurry to haul up his line, but gives
lim time to be well hooked, and when the
fifh is hauled up to the furface of the water,
he knocks him on the head with a fhort club
provided for that purpofe, and afterwards 0
ffows his prize away at his leifure. This i
done to prevent the ha&but (which fome-
Ifimes'are very large)- from damaging, or
perhaps upfeftkig his canoe in their dying
■jIThey drefs their victuals by putting heated
flones into a kind of wicker bafket, amongd
pieces of fifh, feal, porpoife, &c. and covered
tip clofe; fometimes they make broth, and
fifh-fbup by the fame method, which they
always preferpfftto boiling; though Captain
Dixon gave  them  fome -s&rafs  pans,  and
pointed out the mode of ufing them;- 'Tte
Indians are particularly fond of chewing a
plant which-appears to be a fpecies of tobacco ; not eontent, however, with chewing'
it in its fimpte;date, they generally nlix lirrie
along wkhitv- and fometimes the inner AnS-
of the pine-tree,  together vftfeh a rofinous
fubdance extfacled from it.    About a mild
and a half from where the fhip lay at anchor1
were a number of white rails, on a level
piece of ground; at that didan^e they appeared to be condruftedwith fuch order and
regularity, that Captain Diion concluded
■K# them
fill V
them beyond the reach of Indian contrivance,
and confequently, Ihat they were ere6ted by
fome civilized nation: willing to be fatisfied
in this particular, he took an opportunity
of going to the fpot, and to his great fur-
prize, found it to be a kind of burying-
place, if that it may be called fo, where dead
bodies are not deposited in the earth.
The manner in which they difpofe of their
dead is very remarkable: they feparate the
head from the body, and wrapping them in
furs, the head is put into a fquare box,
and the body in a kind of oblong died. At
each end of the ched which contains the bp-
dy, a thick pole, about ten feet long, is
drove into the earth in a flanting pofition, fo
that the upper ends meet together, and are
firmly lafhed with a kind of rope prepared
for that purpofe. About two feet from the
top of this arch, a fmall piece of timber
goes acrofs, and is very neatly fitted to each
pole: on this piece of timber the box which
contains the head is fixed, and drongly fe-
cured with rope: the box is frequently decorated  with two or three rows  of fmall
fliells, and fometimes teeth, which are let
into the wood with great neatnefs and ingenuity, and as an additional ornament, is
painted with a variety of colours; but the
poles are uniformly painted white. Sometimes thefe poles are fixed upright in the
earth, and on each fide the body, but the
head is always fecured in the pofition already defcribed. What ceremony is ufed by
thefe people, when they depofit their dead
in this manner, could never be learned,
as nothing of that fort happened during the
veflel's day in the harbour. The different
forts of furs purchafed here, were the fea-
otter, land-beaver, and fome cloaks made
from the earlefs marmot: and the articles
of trade, were towees and beads. The natives being dript of all their furs, Captain
Dixon weighed anchor on the 4th of June,
and dood out of the harbour, fhaping his
courfe along fhore to the Southward.
¥| On the nth, they faw Cape Edgecombe,
and the fame afternoon, opened a very large
and extenfive bay, which had every appearance
1 192
an<Je of  an excelfenf harbour;  but nighf
coming on, they did not come to anchor.
The next morning at day-light, they again
dood for the-Bay, and at fix o'clock, faw a
large boatt full of people, a very confiderable
didance out at fea, making towards them as
fad as poffible: fhe hoided fomething which
tjad the appearance of a white flag, -but1
they could not didinguifh, with the help of
their glafles, what nation fhe belonged to |
fome judging them to be Ruffians, and
others thought they might poffibly be Spa-
niairds, who had been left here ever finite?
.tEeryear 1775, at which time, two Spanifh
veflels were at anchor near this place; of
tEat they belonged to fome fhip which probably lay here, at prefent. Hdwever, the1
boat on coming near, was found to be ait
Indian canoe,r "which belonged to the place?
they were fleering for. The Indians had feen*
the fhip on the preceeding evening, and;
Had Mod fight of her duritig the night.
What had been taken for a white flag on feeing the canoe, was a tuft of white feathers,
which the Indians had hoided at the top of
a long NOftTH-WESlt4 COAST OF AMERICA.      I^J
a long pole, as an emfetem of peade or friend-
fhip.    They purchafed a few furs from the
people in this canoe^itnd were given to un-
derdand that they^vould meet with plenty
in the adjacent hafbour,   which encouraged
them to proceed.   At twelve o clock they
came to an anchor in an excellent and well
flickered fituaticfn.    One of the Mates* who
had been out in the whale-fcoat^to examine
the harbour, faw a large cave, forftied  by
Wature in the fide  of a mountain, abouft
four miles to the Northward of the anchor-
ing-birth:   curiofity prompted hi*n  to go
on fhore, in order to examine it,I as there
appeared fomething,   which,   at a diflance
looked bright and fp&rkling.    On getting
into the cive, he found the obje£t whfeh attracted his attention,   to be a fquare box,
with a human head in it,   depofited in the
manner already defcribed at P^rt Mulgrave:
the bdk was very beautifully ornamented
with fmall fhells, and feemed to have been
left there recently, being the only%ne in th&
place.    i?his  circumflance feems to fhew,
that the  natives  of this place difpofe  of
their dead in the fame manner as at Port
Mulgrave s
I \m
Mulgrave; but probably make choice of|
caves for that purpofe, in preference to thej
open air.
' i 1
;•  By day-light, in the morning of the 15th,
they had a number of canoes, full of inhabitants, along-fide: after a confiderable time
fpent in finging, a brifk trade commenced,
,and they bought a number  of   excellent
fea-otter fkins.    The people feemed far more
lively and alert, than thofe they had left at
Port Mulgrave; and from every appearance,
they had reafon to ejipecT: an excellent trade
at this place.    To-es were the article of
traffic held in j the fir A edimation  by the
natives; but they always refufed fmall ones, I
wanting  them in general  from eight to
fourteen inches long. | Befides thefe,   they
traded with pewter bafons, hatchets, howels, 1
buckles^  rings, &c\ | Of thefe, the bafb|is
were bed liked |   for though the hatchets
and    howels    were \   obvioufly   the   beftifl
tools thefe people could poffibly have had,
yetj- they were only taken in exchange for
furs of inferior value.    Beads of every fort
were condantly refufed with contempt, when
offered fcokf H-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      lf§
offered by way of barter, and would fcarcely
be accepted of as prefents. Amongd the
people who came to trade, was an old man,
who feemed remarkably intelligent: he gave:
fhem to underdand, that a good while ago
there had been two veffels at anchor near
this place, one of which, was confiderably
larger than the Queen Charlotte; that they
carried a great number of guns, and that
the people refembled them in colour and
drefs. He fhewed Captain Dixon a white
fhirt they had given him, and which he
feemed to regard as a great cui^ofity: on examining it, the Captain found it to be
made after the Spanifli fafhion, and immediately judged thefe veffels defcribed by the
Indian to-be the Spaniards* who (as has already been related) were on this coad in
1775. Should this conjedture be right, it
fufficiently proves, that this place is feldom
vifited by Europeans; for in that cafe, a variety of fhips would have rendered the old
man's accounts confufed and imperfeft; on
the oontrary, his remarks were ^ways clear
and pertinent * arid uniformly tended to de-
fcribe   the   fame objecV    Though   trade
O 2 principally Wm
princfpally^gaged Capt^ift DiXon's atten-*
tion, yet a variety of neceffary employments;
were carried on, and parti^PW^ere frequently
fent on fhore to cut fit%£wood, arid fill
water.   v'   ; '*% v u:-'; «WWpW^v :^^^^
At firdj' the natives behaved civilly
enough, arid fufflted the people to follow
their various employments lifemdleded; but
they foon grew verjr t&kkfclefoine, and tat*-
tempted to pick thdir po^fegf&jfland even to
-ffeeafl thfe?r fews and aStes, :in the mod dpeS,
daring marifter: MUeed they could fcarcefy
be fedrained fro$t theS piffcceedings with*
ouF violence; but this it was neither the
Captfiin's inter&d or inclination to offer,, if
W<^md pofliMy be-avoided. Luckily, thfe
^atives^had frdquen^ly feen him fhodt bkds,
%nd as the pedple went on fhore ttrell armed,
the fight of a few muftpiets kept thei$ndfkri!&
iSi a kind of awe. Thi&' harbour (which
Captain Dixon didinguiflied by the name of
Norfolk Sound^ is a very extenfive place;
but how far it dretches to the Northward is
uncertain. 3f The fhore here, in common
with the red of the coad, abounds with
V ' .■•"■     ' a ■ "    ' ■# .' pines. •-M
pines. There i&ialfo greater quantities of
the witch-hazle here than had nitherto been
met with. There was alfo various kinds of
flowering-trees and fhrubs ; amongd which
were wild-goofeberries, currants, and raf-
berries; wild parfley is found in great plenty,
and they frequently picked great quantities
of it, which eat excellently, either as afallad,
or boiled among foup. The faranne, or wild
Lilly-root, grows here in great plenty and
perfection. There are very few wild ducks
or geefe feen here, and thofe fliy and difficult of approach..; Captain Dixon was frequently on fhore with his fowling-piece,
but He fhot any thing that came in his way,
indifcriminately; his motive being rather to
fhew the Indians the effects of fire-arms,
than to purfue game; and the event fhewed
that his intention was completely anfwered.
The inhabitants frequently caught halibut;
and large quantities of falmon were frequently feen hung up on fhore to dry; but
they were not willing to fell it, which fhews,
tjiat fifh is a principal and favourite article
of food here: a few falmon, indeed, were
bought, but they were of a very inferior!
O 7 kind.
F I9<
kind to thofe met with in Cook's River.
Fifh, however, being the only frefh provifion
in their power to obtain, the boat was frequently fent out with fix hands, to catch fifh
for the fhip's company; and they were always
tolerably fuccefsful, catching great numbers of fine rock-fifh, and fome hake, but
very few halibut. There are great quantir
ties of mufcles in fome parts of the Sound,
together with a few crabs, dar-fifh, &c.
The number of inhabitants in the harbour
Viere edimated at four hundred and fifty,
including women and children. Their
make, fhape, and features, are pretty much
the fame with thofe at Port Mulgrave. Their
faces are alfo painted with a variety of colours. The women ornament, or rather
didort their lips, in the fame manner as has
already been defcribed; and it fhould feem,
that the fenjale who is ornamented with the
larged piece of wood, is mod refpe6ted by
her friends, and the community in general.
This curious operation of cutting the under-
lip of the females never takes place during
their infancy, but feems confined to a pecu-
liaiperiod of life.   When the girls arriye at
the age of fourteen or fifteen, the center of
the under-lip, in the thick part of the mouth,
is fimply perforated, and a piece of copper-,
wire introduced to prevent the aperture from
doling: the aperture afterwards is lengthened from time to time in a line parallel
with the mouth, and the wooden ornaments
are enlarged in proportion, till they are frequently increafed to three, and even four
inches in length, and nearly as wide; but
this generally happens when the matron is
advanced in years, and confequently the
mufcles are relaxed. Their traffic, and in^
deed all their concerns, appear to be con*
du£ted with great order and regularity: they
condantly came along-fide to trade at daylight in the morning; and never failed to
fpend more than half an hour in finging,
before the traffic commenced. The Chief
of a tribe has the entire management of all
the trade belonging to his people, and takes
infinite pains to difpofe of their furs advan-
tageoufly. Should a different tribe come
along-fide to trade whild he is engaged in
traffic, they wait with patience till he has
done; and, if in their opinion, he has made
O 4
a good 200
a good market, they frequently employ him
to fell their fkins; fometimes, indeed, they
are extremely jealous of each other, and ufe
evefy precaution to prevent their neighbours
from obferving what articles they obtain in
exchange for their commodities. About
"twelve o'clock, they condantly left the fhip,
and went on fhore, where they flaid about an
hour, which time was taken up in eating.
This evidently fhews, that they have at lead
on^ fixed meal in the day, and that it is regulated by the fun. They likewife frequently left the fhip about four in the afternoon ; but this-time was not fo exaftly obferved as at noon. When the traffic of the
day is pretty well over, they begin to fing,
and never leave off till the approach of night y
thus beginning and ending the day in the
fame manner. One peculiar cuffom is
praftifed by the traders here, totally different
from that of any other part of the coad;
the moment a Chief has concluded a bargain, he repeats the word Coo thrice, with
quicknefs, and is immediately anfwered by
all the people in his canoe, with the word
W/faah, pronounced in a tone of exclamation,
but with greater or lefs energy, in proportion as the bargain he has made is approved
of. One of the Chiefs, who came one day
with fome furs, happening to cad his eyes on
a piece of Sandwich Ifland cloth, which
hung up in the fhrouds to dry, became very
importunate to have it given him. The
man to whom the cloth belonged, parted
with it very willingly, and the Indian was
perfectly overjoyed with his prefent. After
felling what furs he had brought with great
difpatch, he immediately left the fhip and
paddled on fhore, without finging a parting
fong, as is generally the cuftom.
Soon after day-light the next morning,
he appeared along-%le, dreffed in a coat
made of the Sandwich Ifland cloth, given
him the day before, and cut exaftly in the
form of their fkin-coats, which greatly re-
femble a waggoner's frock, except the collar
and wrid-bands. The Indian was more
proud of his newly-acquired drefs than ever
London beau was of a birth-day fuit; and
the Captain was greatly pleafed with this
proof of thefe people's ingenuity and difpatch.
ill 202
patch. The coat fitted exceedingly well; the
feams were fewed with all the drengh the
cloth would admit of, and with a degree of
neatnefs equal to that of an Englifh mantua-
On their endeavouring to get the meaning
of fome words in the Indian language from
one of the Chiefs, and pointing to the fun,
he gave them to underdand, that notwith-
flanding their apparent fuperiority in pof-
feffing various ufeful articles which the Indians did not, yet that their origin was the
fame ; that they both came from above; and
that the fun animated and kept alive every
creature in the univerfe. This man had,
no doubt, fome idea of a Supreme Being;
and if the probability of their morning and
evening hymn, being intended as a kind of
adoration to that Supreme Being, be admitted,
it will ferve to give no very inadequate idea
of their religion. Befides their ordinary
drefs, the natives at this place have a peculiar kind of cloaks, made purpofely to defend
themfelves from the inclemency of : they appear to be made of reeds fewed
^a""   * N - ;     very NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.     203
very clofely together, and are exa&ly the
fame with thofe wore by the inhabitants of
New Zealand. The furs purchafed at this
place were about two hundred excellent
fea-otter fkins, a good quantity of inferior
pieces of fea-otter, together with a large
parcel of indifferent pieces and flips; about
one hundred good feals, and a great number of fine beaver tails.
By the 22d, the natives being dripped of
every thing worth carrying away, Captain
Dixon determined to leave the harbour the
fird opportunity; and the next day, a light
breeze coming on from the Wedward, they
weighed and got under fail.fl It was the
Captain's intention to keep well in with the
land all along the coad, in order to examine
every place where there was a probability of
finding inhabitants. At fix o'clock, a fine
entrance prefenting itfelf to the Ead North
Ead, they doo'd in for it, and foon afterwards came to anchor in a fecure harbour,
completely land-locked, and within mufquet
fhot of the fhore.    Though this appeared
a mod
£ mod eligible fpot for the natives to take?
up their abode in, yet no people were to be
feen: on this a four-pounder was fired in the
evening, in order to excite the curiofity of
iter inHabitant^/' if there flaould be anva
within hearing.   '■■"■-,'*$  J§$^~:--  % y'yWi
| The morning of the 24th was very fine,
but no Indians were to be feen," on which*
Captain Dixon went in the whale-boat to
fcfcfc-for inhabitants in the adjacent creeks
ftd harbours.    A paflage up a corner of
the'bay, to the Eadward of their dation,
fird engaged his attention; but he returned
without fuccefs.    The creek run a confide^
able didance inland, and terminated at the
foot of a mountain, from whence it received
a copious fupply of frefli water.    Near this
place were the vefliges of an Indian hut,
which* feemed to have been recently taken
away, and probably had been the refidence-
of fome hunting party.    Various kinds of
flowers and flowering fhrubs were fpringing
up in the valley near the rivulet, and though
no inhabitants  were  found here,   yet the
• 'IBI     -ma' ' ft-   •   place NORTH-Wg^T COAST OFA MERICA.      20$
place feems peculiarly fc\*^le$>r a Sutfrmefr
refidence,' and the more fo, as there is a probability of meeting withrfine lahndh ^ulthef
on in the feafon.
, The afternoon and following day were
employed by the Captain in fearching for
inhabitants, but with no better fuccefs than
before. This harbour obtained the name
of Port Banks, in honour of Sir Jofeph
Banks. The profpeft at Port Banks,
though rather confined, yet has fomething
in it more pleafing and romantic thanr
any they had feen on the coad. The land
to the Northward and Southward rifes to
an elevation fufficient to convey every idea
of Winter; and though its fides are perpetually covered with fnow, yet the numerous pines, which ever and anon pop out
their bufhy heads, entirely dived it of that
dreary and horrific cad with the barren
mountains to the North-Wed of Cook's
River. To the Eadward, the land is con-
fiderably lower, and the pines appear to
grow in the mod regular and- exact order :
thefe, A   VOYAGE   TO  THE
thefe, together with the bufhwoods aftd
ihrubs on the furrounding beaches, form a
mod beautifuf contrad to the higher land,
and render the appearance of the whole
truly pleafing and delightful. If
CHAPTER  X.     f   »"
Leave Port Banks and proceed along the Coaft.
—Difcover a group of Iflands.—Trade with
the Natives and procure a great Number of
Sea-Otter Skins.—Short Accowit of the Inhabitants of£>jteen Charlotte's Iflands.—Meet
with Two Englifh Veffels.—Paffage from the
Coafl to the Sandwich Iflands.—TranfaSlions
there.—Leave Sandwich Iflands and proceed
to China.—Arrival at Canton.
-/xS daying any longed at Port Banks was
only a needlefs wade of time, they weighed
anchor in the morning of the 26th, and
dood out of the harbour, dill keeping clofe
in with the coad; and at noon on the 27th
they faw an appearance of a fine bay, but
on fending a boat to examine it, the Officer,
on his return, informed Captain Dixon, that
the bay afforded no place for a fhip to aftchor
in, the greated part of it being fhoal water.
Difap- 20$
A  VOYAGE   TO  ttiE
Difappointed of meeting with a harbour at
this place, they kept danding to the Southward, and on the 2d of July, danding in
for the land, they faw feveral canoes full of
Indians, who appeared to have been out at
fea, making towards them; and when the
canoes came up with the fhip they had the
pleafure of feeing a number of excellent beaver cloaks, which tfie Indians, at fird, were
not inclined to fell, though they endeavoured
to tempt them by exhibiting various articles
of trade, fuch as towees, hatchets, adzes,
howels, tin-kettles, and pewter-bafons.
Their attention was entirely taken up with
viewing the veffel, which they apparently
did witjb: marks of wonder and furprize.
tAfter their curiofity in fome meafure fub-
fided, rftjfcey began to trade, and Captain Dixon
prefently bought all their fkins and cloaks,
in exchange for towees, which they feemed
to like very much. After the trade was
over, the Indians made figris for the fhip to
go in towards fhore; giving thejp to under-
dand that they would find more inhabitants
and plenty of furs. On danding in within
a mile of the fhore, they faw an Indian town,
confiding North-west coast of America. 209
confiding of fix huts, built in a regular
manner, and pleafantly fituated, but the
fhore was rocky, and afforded them no place
to anchor in. On this they dood in for a
bay which prefented itfelf to the Eadward,
and as they advanced up it there, was every
appearance of an excellent harbour; but
unluckily both wind and tide were againd
them, fo that they found it impoffible to
make the harbour; therefore hove to, in order
to trade with the Indians, who by this time
were about the fhip in ten canoes, contain-
ing 120 people, many of whom brought
beautiful fea-otter cloaks, others excellent
fkins, and,infhort, none came empty-handed;
and the rapidity with which they fold them
was a circumdance additionally pleafing:
they fairly quarrelled with each other who
fhould fell his cloak fird, and fome actually
threw their furs on board, if nobody was
at hand to receive them; but particular care
was taken to let none go from the veflel
unpaid. Towees were the only articles bartered with on this occafion, and in lefs than
an hour near three hundred fea-otter fkins
wexe purchafed,   of an  excellent quality.
IP "I-   ! 1 The
The cloaks generally contained three fea-
otter fkins, one of which was cut into two
pieces, afterwards they are neatly fewed together, fo as to form a fquare, and are
loofely tied about the fhoulders with fmall
leather drings fadened on each fide. Trade
being entirely over by 3 o'clock, they made
fail and dood out of the bay, with an intention of trying for the harbour the next
In the forenoon of the 3 d, feveral canoes
came along-fide, but they found them to be
the Indians traded with the day before, and
that they were dripped of every thing worth
purchafing; which made Captain Dixon
Jefs anxious of getting into the propofed
harbour, as there was a greater probability
of meeting with frefh fupplies of furs to the
, In the afternoon of the 5th, they met
$vith a frefli tribe of Indians, bringing a
number of good cloaks, which they difpofed
of very eagerly; but trade now feemed to have
taken a different turn jj brafs pans, pewter
m batons. NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.     211
bafons, and tin kettles, being the articles
mod edeemed by thefe people. Captain
Dixon now judged it more advantageous to
ply along fhore, as circumdances required,
than come to anchor; efpecially, as he had
every reafon to conclude that the natives
did not live together in one focial community, but were fcattered about in different
tribes, and probably at enmity with each
other. | The Indians did not leave the fhip
till evening came on, and then promifed to
return the next morning with more furs.
In the forenoon of the 6th, the Indians
returned with fome excellent fea-otter cloaks,
which they difpofed of with the fame facility
as before. The furs in each canoe, feemed
to be a diflinft property, and the people were
particularly careful to prevent their neigh*
hours from feeing what articles they bartered
for. Meeting now with a frefh tribe of
Indians, Captain Dixon was convinced that
coading along fhore to the Eadward, was
attended with better and fpeedier fuccefs,
than lying at anchor could poffibly be. Being clofe in fhore in the afternoon of the
Ps 7th,
Ss a Voyage to ? #e
7th, a number of canoes were feen putting
off, on which they fhortened fail and lay
to for them. The place thefe people came
from had a very lingular appearance, and on
examining it narrowly, it was found that
they lived in a very large hut, built on a
finall ifland, and well fortified after the
manner of an Hippah, on which account,
this place was didinguifhed by the name of
Hippah Ifland. The tribe who inhabit this
Hippah, feem well defended by Nature from
any fudden affault of their enemies; for the
afcent to it from the beach is deep and dif-
ficult of accefs. And the other fides, are
well barricadoed with pines and brufhwood.
Notwithflanding which, they have been at
infinite pains in raifing additional fences of
rails and boards, fo that they mud furely
repel any tribe, who fliould dare to attack
their fortification. A number of circum-
dances had occurred fince their firfl trading
in Cloak Bay, which ferved to fliew, that the
inhabitants at this place were of a more fa-
vage difpofition, and had lefs intercourfe
with each other, than any Indians met with
)&fti the Coad; and there was great reafon to
3R; "  If 'IP fufpeft NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.     213
fufpecl, that they were cannibals in fome
■degree. Captain Dixon no fooner faw the
fortified hut jud mentioned, than this fuf-
picion was drengthened, as it was, he faid,
built exaftly on the plan of the Hippah of
the favages at New Zealand. The people,
on coming along-fide, traded very quietly,
and drongly importuned thofe of the Queen
Charlotte to go on fh&re: at the fame time,
giving them to underfland (pointing towards
the Ead) that if they vifited that part of
the coad, the inhabitants itihere would cut
•off their heads.
A number of excellent cloaks and fome
good fkins were purchafed from this party,
which confided of not more than thirty-fix
people, andastfeey were well armed with
knives and fpears; it is probable they expected to meet th^r enemies, being equally
prepared for war o£tradeJ|
Having  done trading s^vith  this   party,
Captain Dixon proceeded to the Eadward,
and on the 9th, fell in with another tribe
of Indians, from whom he purchafed fome
P 3 very 214
very good cloaks, and a few good fkins.
In one of the canoes was an old man, who
appeared to have fome authority over the
red, though he had nothing to difpofe of:
he gave them to underdand, that in another
part of thefe iflands (pointing to the Eadward) he could procure a plentiful fupply
of furs; on which Captain Dixon gavefeim
a light-horfeman's cap: this prefent added
greatly to his confequence, and procured
him the envy of his companions in the other
xanoes, who beheld the cap with a longing
eye, and feemed to wifhit in their poffeflion.
There were likewife a few women amongfl|
them, who all feemed pretty well advanced
in years: th§*r urider lips were diflorted in
the %ne manner as thefe of the women at
Port Mulgrave and Noffblk Sound, and
the pieces of wood were particularly large.
One of thefe lip pieces appearing to be peculiarly ornamented, Capt^jji Dixon ^fhed to
purchafe it, and offered the old woman to
whom it belonged a hatchet; but ihgs fhe
refufed with contempt: towees, bafons, and
feveral other articles were afterwards fhew#
to her, and condantly rejected.    The Cap-
tain began now to defpair of making his
wifhed-for purchafe, and had nearly given it
up, when one of the people
fhew the old lady a few buttons, which
looked remarkably bright, fhe eagerly em*
braced the offer; and was now altogether as
ready to part wkh her wooden ornament, as
before fhe was defirous of keeping it. This
cuiaous lip-piece meafured three and feven*
eighth inches long, and two and five-eighth
inches in the wided part; it was inlaid
with a fmall pearly fhell, round Which
was a rim of copper. In danding along
fhore to the Eadward, they met with different
tribes of Indians, with whom they traded
much in the fame manner as before.    .     —
On the 24th, eleven canoes came along-
fide, containing near one hundred and
eighty men, women, and children, which
was by far the greated concourfe of people
they had feen at any one time ; but curiofity,
it fed&is, had chiefly induced the natives to
vifit the fhip at that time, for they brought
Scarcely any thing to fell; indeed, till now,
they feldom had feen any women or children
*"    "   " V 4 . £ in
:|'tf! 2l6
in the trading parties; for the men, probably expecting to meet with their adverfaries,
for the mod part left the women and children behind, as an ufelefs incumbrance.
The land which they had been cruizing
along for fome time pad, was now judged to
be a group of iflands; and as it was pretty
evident that no more trade could be expefted
on that fide, Captain Dixon purpofed danding round a point to the South-Ead, in order to try what the oppofite fide afforded.
After proceeding round the point, they
fell in with feveraLjtribes of Indians, who
brought fome very good furs.
On danding round the iflands, land was
feen to the Eadward, which they fuppofed to
be the Continent; and on the 29th, the tide
fetting out from that land, it frequently
drove large patches of fea-weed, long grafs,
and pieces of wood, by the veffel, which made
them conclude that there is a large river fetting out from that part of the coaft. The
river called Los Reys by De Fonte, is near
this place ; and though what he fays about
it is almod incredible,1 yet from the above
circumdance, it appears very probable that
there are deep inlets into the country.
In the afternoon of the 29th, no lefs than
eighteen canoes came along-fide, containing
more than two hundred people. This was
not only the greated concourfe of traders
they had feen, but what rendered the circumftance additionally pleafing, was the great
quantity of excellent furs they brought, and
the facility with which they traded.
Amongd thefe traders was the old Chief
whom they had feen on the other fide thefe
iflands, and who now appearing to be of the
fird confequence, Captain Dixon permitted
him to come on board. The moment he got
on the quarter-deck, he began to tell a long
dory, the purport of which was, that he had
lod in battle the cap which had been given
him ; and by way of corroborating this circumdance, he fhewed feveral wounds which
he had received in defending his property.
Notwithdanding this, he begged for another
cap, 2l8
cap, intimating at the fame time, that he
would never lofe it but with his life.
The Captain, willing to gratify his ambition, made him a prefent of another cap, and
found it was not bedowed in vain, for he
became extremely lifeful to them in their
traffic I whenever any difpute ox midake
arofe in the unavoidable hurry occafioned by
fo great a number of traders, they always
referred the matter to him, and were con-
dantly fatisfied with his determination.
On Captain Dixon pointing to the Eadward, and aiking the old man whether any
furs were to be procured there, he gave the
Captain to underdand, that it was a different
nation from his, and that he did not even
underdand their language, but was always
at war with them; that he had killed great
numbers, and had many of their heads in his
poffeflion. The old fellow feemed to take
particular pleafure in relating thefe circum-
■ftances, and took uncommon pains to make
Captain Dixon comprehend his meaning.
He clofed his relation with advifing him not
to go near that part of the coad, for that
the inhabitants there would certainly dedroy
him and his people. .,:■..-    ^
. They endeavoured to learn how the Indians difpofed of the bodies of their enemies
who were flain in battle; and though they
could not underdand the Chief clearly
enough, pofitively to affert that thefe poor
wretches are feafled on by the victors, yet
there is too much reafon to fear, that 'this
horrid cudom is pra£tifed on this part of
the coad. The heads are always preferved as
danding trophies of victory.      :    j  ,
Of all the Indians they had feen, this
Chief had the mod lavage afpeft; and his
whole appearance fufficienffcly marked him as
a proper perfon to lead on a tribe of cani-
Jbals. His dature was above the common
fize; his body fpare and thin; and though
at fird fight he appeared lank and emaciated,
yet his dep was bold and firm, and his limbs
apparently drong and mufcular; his eyes
were large and goggling, and feemed ready
to dart out of their fockets jj his forehead
deeply ''O
deeply wrinkled, not merely by age, but from
a continual frown; all this,joined to a long
vifage, hollow cheeks, high elevated cheek
bones, and a natural ferocity  of temper,
formed a countenance not eafily beheld without , fonae degree of emotion: however, he
proved very ufeful in conducting the traffic
fo as to give general fatisfacTion; and the
intelligence he gave Captain Dixon, and the
methods he took to make himfelf under-
ftood, fhewed him to poflefs a drong natural capacity*    Befides at lead three hundred
and fifty fkins, which were procured from
this  party,   they  brought  feveral  racoon
cloaks, each cloak confiding of feven racoon
fkins, neatly fewed together \ they had alfo a
good quantity of oil, in bladders of various
fizes, from a pint to a gallon: this was a
mod excellent fort for the lamp, was perfectly fweet, and chiefly collected from the
fat  of animals.     Towards. evening:, thefe
numerous tribes of Indians having difpofed of
every faleable article, they left the fhip and
paddled for the fhore.
Next day in the afternoon, eight canoes
came off to the fhip, but they brought very
few furs, and* thofe of an inferior quality;
intimating at the fame time, that their dock
was nearly exhauded. Some of them had
been out oil a fifhing party, and caught a
numher of halibut, which proved a feafon-
able refrefhment to the fhip'rf company.
Hitherto all the people that had been met
with at thefe Iflands, though evidently of a
favage difpofition, had behaved in a quiet
orderly manner, but this evening they gave
a convincing proof of their mifchievous difpofition, and that in a manner which fhewed
a confiderable degree of cunning. The
people who had got the halibut to fell, artfully prolonged their traffic more than was
cuftomary, and endeavoured by various
means to engage the attention of the people
on board. In the mean time feveral canoes
paddled flily adern, and feeing fome fkins
piled againfl one of the cabin windows, one
of the Indians thrud his fpear through it, in
order to deal the furs, but perceiving the
•noife alarmed thofe on deck, they paddled
away with precipitation:   Captain Dixon,
however, 222
however, willing to make them fenfible that
he was able to punifh attempts of this fort,
even at a diflance, ordered feveral mufkets
to be fired after them, but did not perceive
that they were attended with any fatal effefts.
It being pretty evident that few furs more
were to be expe6ted from this part, Captain
Dixon judged it mod prudent to make for
King George's Sound, efpecially as the time
was nearly at hand when he expected to join
Captain Portlock at that place.
On the id of Augud, in the evening, a
canoe, with fourteen Indians, came along-
fide*, but had nothing to fell; they gave the
people on deck to underdand that one of
their companions was killed with a mufket
fhot, and at the fame time endeavoured to
make them fenfible that they were not at
Variance with them on that account. Indeed
they came along-fide the veffel without the
lead fear, and it is probable that the defign
of their vifit was to inform the Queen Charlotte's people of the above circumdance.
The iflands jud left have proved uncommonly fortunate; a few remarks concerning
them may, perhaps, not be unacceptable to
the reader. There is every reafon to fuppofe,
not only from the number of inlets they
met with in coafting along the fhore, but
from meeting the fame inhabitants on the
oppofite fides of the coad, that this is not
one continued land, but rather forms a group
of iflands, and as fuch they were diAinguifhed
by the name of §)ueen Charlotte's Iflands.
The number of people inhabiting thefe
iflands were eAimated at 1,700, and the
great plenty of furs met with here diffidently
indicated that the natives have had no in-
tercourfe whatever with any civilized nation;
and there is no doubt but Captain 'Dixon
may juAly claim the honour of adding Queen
Charlotte's Iflands to the geography of this
part of the wad. The ornaments feen a-
mongft them were very few; and 'tis probable that their knives and fpears have been
obtained by war rather than traffic, as there
feems to be an univerfal variance amongd
the different tribes. However, be all this as
it may, they undoubtedly approach much
nearer A  VOYAGE   TO   THE
nearer to a date of favage brutality than
any Indians that were fQQn on the coad.
The Indians in general are very jealous of
their womea, and would feldom permit them
to come on board; but this was not altogether the cafe with thefe favages, many of
whom not only permitted, but urged their
females to come on board, whenever invited;
but it was foon found that they were not
indigated to pay thefe vifits from any amorous difpofition, but merely for the fake of
plunder, as they were by far the mod rapacious thieves that had been feen during the
voyage, dealing every thing indifcriminately
which they could lay their hands on, and
that with a degree of dexterity which would
not difgrace a difciple of the fuftitia hulk.
Notwifhdanding the general tenor of thefe
women's behaviour, one indance of ^feeling
and fenfibility was met with amongd them
which was perfectly adonifliing, and is not,
perhaps, always to be feen amongd the kx
in civilized countries.    ■'..,•,        ■'*$£>
It was on the 24th of J^iy (as has already
been related) when the natives came alongr
fide principally through euribfity^ that a
Chief and his wife were very defirous to fee the
fhip. Captain Dixon, willing to gratify
them in this particular, and thinking that
a fight of the veffel would be a flafiding
fubjeft for them to talk about, permitted
them to come on board. They had a little
child along with them, of which they feemed particularly fond, and not caring to trud
it with the people in their canoe, the Chief
came on board by himfelf, leaving their teiv
der charge with his wife. When the poor
fellow fi'rd came on deck, he was a good deal
frightened, and began to fing, and make a
number of humiliating gedures; the intent of
which was to imprefs them with a favourable opinion of him. By degrees, he grew
eafy, and was prevailed on to go down into
the cabin: having daid there fome time, he
came upon deck, and after fatisfying his cu-
riofity with looking at various things, went
into his canoe very well pleafed. The wo*
man, after giving her infant a maternal kifs,
came over the fide without the lead hefita-
tion; and when fhe got on the quarter deck,
gave them to underftand, that fhe was only
Q^ come 226
come to fee the veffel, and with a modeflr
diffidence in her looks, endeavoured to be-
fpeak their indulgence and permiffion for
that purpofe. She was neatly dreffed after
their fafhion: her under garment," which
was made of fine tanned leather, fat clofe
to her body, and reached from her neck to
the calf of her leg: her cloak or upper garment was rather courfer, and fat loofe like
a petticoat, and tied with leather firings.
Having taken notice of every thing which
feemed to attract her attention, Captain
Dixon made her a prefent of a dring of
beads for an ornament to each ear, and a
number of buttons, with which fhe was
highly pleafed, and made her acknowledgements in the bed manner fhe was able. She
was fcarcely got into the canoe, before a
number of women flocked about her, and
feeing the beads in her ears, began to talk
very earneflly : mod probably to tax her-
with incondancy, for fhe immediately claf-
ped her infant to her bread with uiifpeakable;
fondnefs, and burd into a flood of tears;
and it was a confiderable time before the
Toothings of her hufband., and the apologies
•of her friends, could bring back hef former
chearfulnefs and tranquility. Harmony being at length redored in the canoe, the Chief
held up his child, and endeavoured to make
them fenfible that it was equally dear to hint
as his wife; intimating at the fame time^
that though he had received no prefent, yer,
he hoped his little one would be remembered.
On this Captain Dixon gave the child a
couple of towees, which pleafed the Chief
wonderfully: a few butt6ns were alfo didri-
buted amongd the other women in the canoe, and they left the fhip foon afterwards,
perfectly fatisfied with their prefents.
Though every tribe at thefe iflands is go^
verned by its refpeftive Chief, yet they are
divided into families, each of which appears
to have regulations, and a kind of fubordi-
nate government of its own. The Chief
ufually trades for the whole tribe, but fome-
tiines, when his method of barter has been
difapproved of, each feparate family has
claimed a right to difpofe of their own furs,
and the Chief always complied with this re-
qued; though it is uncertain whether he
Q2 receives
11.. A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
receives   any emolument upon  thefe   oc-
cafions*- . . :~ jfa Y:   a     ^   "    ,;:aa:.      a-
The number of fea-otter fkins collected at
Queen Charlotte's Iflands was no lefs than
1,821, many of them very fine: other furs are
found in lefs variety here, than in many
other parts of the coad. Racoons, pine
martin and feals, being the only kinds that
were feen. Towees, at fir ft, were quite a
leading article in barter : but fo great a number of traders required a variety of trade,
and they were frequently obliged to produce
every article on board,, before their numerous friends were pleafed.
• Captain Dixon ftood on for King George's
Sound, and on the 8th of Auguft, being
en no great didance from the entrance into that harbour, they faw a fail, and pre-
fently afterwards a fmaller veffel in company : this gave them fome hopes that it
might poflibly be the King George and her
long-boat; but on coming up with them,
they proved to be two veffels from London,
2frd belonged to the  fame owners as ths
$£■   I|. -       -  .ft ,     ft    King NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.     22$
King George and Queen Charlotte. Thefe
veffels had been in King George's Sound,
but the King George was not arrived there.
As, therefore, there was no neceffity for the
Charlotte to proceed into that harbour^
they took leave of their new partners in
trade, and fhaped a courfe for Sandwich
Iflands. . -     _   a     -
. A few general remarks concerning the
coad of America, in addition to what has
occafionally been faid, may not be difpleafing
to the reader. m
: This vad country, with very little deviation, ti$s the appearance of one continued
fored, being covered with pines of different
fpectes, and thefe intermixed with alder,
birch, witch-hazle, &c. befides various kinds
of brufh-wood: and the valleys and low
grounds, which are expofed to the fun, and
fheltered from the wind, afford wild currants, goofebernes, rafberries, and various
other flowery fhrubs. The foil on the hills
is a kind of compod, confiding of rotten
mofs and old decayed trees.    This is fre-
Q 3 1 quently 23G*
quently wafhed down into the vallies by the
fudden meting of the fnow, and there incorporating with a light fand, forms a foi|
in which mod of the Englifh garden productions might be cultivated with fucpefs.
What number of inhabitants the coad^
from Cook's River to King George's Sound,
may contain, is not eafy to determine with
any degree of certainty ; but from a moderate computation, there cannot be lefs than
Ipn thoufand; indeed, appearances might
warrant the conjecture of there being con-
fiderably more, as the women appear very
prolific, and the people ire totally free from
that long catalogue of difeafes, which luxu*j£
and intemperance have introduced amongd
more civilized nations. But then it mud be
remembered, that neighbouring tribes are
generally at war with each other; and thefe
commotions, both from the nature of theij?
weapons, and the favage difpofition of the
people, mud be attended with fatal confe-
quences; befides, there is reafon to fuppofe,
that numbers are yearly lod at fea, as they
go out to a very confiderable didance from.
P the Si
the land on fifhing parties, and fhould bad
weather fuddenly come on, it is impoffible
for their canoes to live. Thefe circum-
dances • certainly tend to depopulate the
country, and in fome meafure account for
its being,fo thinly inhabited. The hair of
both fexes is long and black, and would be
an ornament to them, were it not for the
large quantities of greafe and red oker con*
dantly rubbed into it, which not only gives
it a difguding appearance, but affords a
never-failing harbour for vermin. Som©*
times, indeed, the women keep their hair in
decent order, parting it from the forehead
to the crown, and tying it behind after the
manner of a club. The young men have no
beards; but this does not arife from a. natural want of hair on that part, for the old men
had beards all over the chin, and fome of
them had whifkers on each fide the upper-
lip. As this fuppofed defect amongd the
natives of America has occafioned much
fpeculative enquiry amongd the learned and
ingenious, every opportunity was taken of
learning how it was occafioned; and they
were given to underdand, that the young
[I! 0^0
men got rid of their beards by plucking them
Out, but as they advance in years the hair is
differed to grow. It might be imagined,
that the chilren of thefe favages would enjoy
the free and unredrained ufe of their limbs
from their earlied infancy: this, however, is
not altogether the cafe. Three piecesof bark
are fadened together, fo as to form a kind of
chair; the infant after being wrapped in
furs, is put into this chair, and lafhed fo
clofe, that it cannot alter its podure even
with druggling; and the chair is fo contrived, that when a mother wants to feed
her child, or give it the bread, there is no
no occafion to releafe the infant from its
fhackles. Soft mofs is ufed by the Indian
nurfe to keep her child clean; but little regard is paid to this article, and the poor infants are often terribly excoriated; nay,
boys of fix or feven years old, may frequently
be ken, whofe pofteriors have been evident
marks of this neglect in their infancy.      <f||
Ornaments feem to differ in particular
places, more than drefs.    The aperture, or
fecond mouth above the chin, feems confined NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      233
fined to the men of Cook's River and Prince
William's Sound; whilst the wooden ornament in the under-lip is wore by the women
only, in that part of the coad from Port
Mulgrave to Queen Charlotte's Iflands.
Befides the ornaments already mentioned,
the Indians are very fond of mafks or vifors,
and various kinds of caps, all which are
painted with different devices; fuch as birds,
Ijeaffs, fifties, and fometimes, ?*eprefentati|>ns
of the human face; they have likewife many
of thefe devices carved in wood, and fome of
them are far from being ill executed. Tljyefe
curiofities are greatly valued, and are carfpf
fully packed in neat fquare boxes, that they
may the more conveniently be carried about.
Whenever any large party came to trade,
thefe treafures were fird produced, and the
principal perfons dreffed out in all their
finery, before the finging commenced. In
addition to this, the Chief (who always conducts this vocal concert} puts on a large
coat made of the eik-fkin, tanned, round the
lower part of which is one, or fometimes
two rows of dried berries, or the beaks of
birds, which make a rattling noife whenever
It ;lfll H ¥        %   he 234
he moves. In hjs hand he has a rattle, or
more commonly a contrivance to anfwer the
fame end, wfiicJlfis of a circular form, about
nine inches in diameter, and mad£ of three
fmall dicks bent round at different diflances
from each dCMf; great numbers of birds'
beaks and dried berries are tied to this curious indrument, which is fliook by the
Chief with great glee, aftd %i his opitiion,
makes no fmall addition to the concert.
Their fongs generally confid of feveral
ftanzas, to each of which is added a chorus.
The beginning of each danza is given out
by the Chief alone; after which, both m^[
and women join, and fing in oftaves, beating
tirrifc- regularly with their hands or paddies :
mean while, the Chief (hakes his rattle, and
makes a thoufand ridiculous gediculations, intervals in different notes from
the reft; and this mirth generally continues
near half an hour without inteitniflion.
Whether or no they make ufe of any
hieroglyphics to perpetuate the memory of
events, cannot be afcertained, though their
numerous drawings of birds and fifhes, and
' their NORTH-WEST COAST   OF AMERICA.      235
their carved reprefentations of animals and
human faces, might perhaps, warrant a fup-
pofition of the kind. Many of thefe carvings are well proportioned, and executed
with a confiderable degree of ingenraty,
which appears rather extraordinary amongd
a people fo remote from civilized refinement.
But then, we mud confider, that this art is
far from being in its infancy; a fondnefs for
carving and fculpture, was difcovered amongd
thefe people by Captain Cook: iron implements were then alfo in ufe; and their
knives are fo very thin, that they bend them
into a variety of forms, which anfwer their
every purpofe nearly as well as if they had
recourfe to a carpenter's tool-ched.
At what period iron was introduced on
this coad is very uncertain, but it mud
doubtlefs be a confiderable time ago, and
their implements certainly are not of Englifli
manufacture; fo that there is little doubt of
their being obtained from the Ruffians.
The only implement that was feen (iron excepted) was a to wee made of jafper, the fame
as thofe ufed by the New Zealanders.
IP- 'lit       1   m % The
1 j
a 236
j The ingenuity of thefe people is not confined to devices on wood,  or drawings on
bark; they manufacture a kind of variegated
blanket, or cloak, fomething like the Englifh
horfe-cloths; they do not appear to be wove,
but made entirely by hand, and are neatly
finifhed.    Thefe cloaks are made of wool,
collected from the fkins of beads killed in the
chace; they are held in great edimation, and
and only wore on extraordinary occafions.
Befides the fkin-coats wore in common, they
ave large cloaks purpofely for wear, made
f the elk-fkin, tanned, and wore double,
>metimes three-fold.
Though thefe poor favages are in their general manners, trulv in a date of unculti-
vated harbarifm, yet in one inftancethey can
boad of a refinement equal to that of more
polite nations, and that is gaming, which is
carried on here to a very great pitch. The only
gaming implements they faw, were fifty-two
fmall round bits of wood, about the fize of the
middle finger, and differently marked with
red paint. A game is played by two perfons
with thefe pieces of wood, and it chiefly con-
fids in placing them in a variety of pofl-
tions. A man at Port Mulgrave lod a knife,
a fpear, and feveral towees at this game, in
lefs than an hour. Though this lofs was
at lead equal to an Englifh gameder lofing
his edate, yet the poor fellow bore his ill-
fortune with great patience and equanimity
of temper. ;      ' .at, • '   f|.   ;~
. Time is calculated by moons, and remarkable events are remembered with eafe,
for one generation; but whether for any
longer period, is very doubtful. What other
particulars refpedting the manners and cuf-
toms o£ thefe people, occurred during the
voyage, have already been given in the former
part of this work.
After quitting the American Coad, they
deered for Sandwich Iflands, and arrived in
fight of Owhyhee on the 5th of September.
The next day they were furrounded by a
number of canoes, and the Indians traded
very eagerly; many of them climbing up
the fliip's fide for that purpofe, and numbers
merely to gratify their curiofity,   and look
for A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
for any thing they could run away with.
One of this lad defcription, watching his
opportunity whild all the people were bufi-
ly engaged with the traders, fnatched a poker from the armourer's forge, and jumped
overboard with it. They repeatedly called
tohim to bring it back, but all in vain; the
fellow fwam off with it, and feemed remarkably well |>leafed with his acquifition.
Prefently one of the canoes picked him up,
and they paddled away for the fhore. On
this, the Captain determined to make an
example of him, and the more fo, as, if he
was differed to efcape with impunity, they
would find it impoffible to trade with fuch
a 'multiplicity of people, without being
continually fubjecl to their depredations:
on which feveral mufquets were fired at the
thief, and they prefently faw he was very
feverely wounded by his bleeding profufely.
After fome time, his companions were per-
fuaded to bring him along-fide, and they
got him on board. The bail had flruck his;
under jaw, and hurt part of the upper lip.
The Surgeon dreffed the wound in the bed
manner he was able, and fent the poor fel-
low away; but before he left the fhip, he
petitioned the Captain for a towee, and received it. The Indians were not in the
lead intimidated by this circumdance, but
traded prefently afterwards, as if nothing
had happened.     ' ?fv
Having procured a good fupply of hogs
and vegetables, together with a large quantity of excellent line for making rope, at
Owhyhee, they deered for Whajboa, and
anchored in King George's Bay on the ioth.
The next day all the fhip's company were
bufily employed, in purchafing wood and
water, the natives bringing both thofe articles, together with what refrefhments the
ifland afforded, as ufual. About noon the
King came on board, and repeatedly en-
quired for Popote: after flaying fometime,
and receiving a few prefents, he returned on
fhore.   "      • - '    . JIM,   .
By the 13th, the wooding and watering
bufinefs being compleated, they weighed
anchor, and made ;fail for Atooi,   Befor
they 240
A  VOYAGE   TO   Tit
they were well out of King George's Bay, they
faw a large canoe putting off in a hurry,
and when it came near, they found it to be
Taheeterre and his attendants. When the
King came on board, he feemed forry that
they fhould leave Whahoa fo foon, and at
the fame time frequently infinuated, that
their being fo fpeedily fupplied with wood
and water, was in confequence of his immediate orders for that purpofe; and that
the fame refpeclful attention fhould be
fhewn to Popote whenever he arrived.
On this Captain Dixon made him a prefent
of a few faws and axes, which pleafed him
greatly; and he took his leave with many
profeflions of friendfliip.
On the 16th they arrived near the Ead
fide of Atooi, and on danding along
fhore, were joined by a great number of
canoes. The people rejoiced to fee them
again; numbers afked after Popote, and
feemed concerned that he was not in their
company. ; ,/   ■ .'Jtv .•   :
In the afternoon they anchored in Wymoa NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.   £4!
ftioa Bay. f'Early the next morning they
Were furfounded with canoes/; bringing the
greeted abundance1 #f fine hogs and vegetables ; and Abbenooe was particularly
anxious rto accommodate Captain fDixon
with every thing in his power. 'ffcSPw^
On the 18th their decks were crowded
with vifitors of rank, and amorigd the red,
Tyheira' (fon to Abbenooe) infafoduced his
#ife anil two little boys: the elded was a
fhatp little fellow about four years~tfid ;
the younger,' an infant in his | mother's
arms: Tyheira, by way of compliment,
had named his elded Pbpote,i after Captain
Portlock • and the other, Ditteana, after*
Captain Dixon. l In the forenoon Taaao
came on board, in a large double canoe,
accompanied by another, in which were
his daughter and two nieces. The attendants on thefe great perfons were very numerous, and joined in a heeva, or fong, on
their coming along fide, fuperior to any
thing of the kin$l ever heard at thefe
The '42
The kigg was gseatjj* pleafed to feeitl^em
again, and inquired j)£rtiGularly after popote J He feemed fol^itous to accommodate them with ever$f^ng the, iflai^d afforded ; and indeed^ all the Chie£sJOjried
with each other in foppj^ing their-$r$rio]fc$
wants. Amongd the many indances of
l^iildnefs and good-natured attention fe^ey
met with at this tkne from the Chiefs in
general, an a£tioqi of Nohomfitahaite's
int^P not be omitted, a^ it does' fytfti the
greeted fyonous, ^nd would reflect credit
cv^en on. a perfon of education and rejined
iqn§bility. ^Nofconx&tahaite hadi been c&en
on, bo^lrwhen thW were lad at Atopi* and
jjy that j^ew was p^rfofjaU^B acquainted
-tytfh all tljiie p^gj^|| Being j^^rally .xu-
tmuaand inq^ifi^ivea he ^pwtookjan opppr-
ttfllity .$& g°h*g ^0]v^ft them, fcc* aik a
fisher ($f quedions.about th£ .voyage. On
going down between deck^, hetmet with, the
Carnenter who had been, trailed with a
fingering diforder for ^ confiderable time,
and aL pref^ntj wav^ve^£vyeak .and. poorly
His pale countenance and emaciatedJjgwe
affected poor Nohomaitahaite very fenfibly y
ri tear of pity dole unheeded down Hjos cheek 5
and he began to enquire about his complaint,
in a tone of tfendernefs arid compaffion:
feeing him very weak and infirm', he gently
chafed and prefled the finews and fnufcles of
his legs and thighs, and gave him all the con-
folation in his power. Prefently afterwards
-he came uponJdeck, called his canoe, and
went on fhore in a hurry, without taking
leave of any jlerfon on the cpihrter^-decb,
3frhich was contrary to his ufual?! cuflom;
but he returned very fhortly, biSfiging afihe
3fif>wl along with him, which he immediately
catftied down tqgthe Carpenter; fold hiii^tb
-haveit drefled imitediately, and he hoped ih
^would make him better in a day or two. ■
|BSAt rroon a frefh breeze fpWidgiflg upfront
the Northwdtd, Captain Di^on wifhed to
Embrace this oppofjunity of weighing &n~
'C&^lf but on looking oyer his dock of vf-
getables it was judged ri^MTapf to^ir^ure >a
further fupply. No fooner were the King
kfid Chiefs informed of this ci?£uj|tflance,
than^hey alt Went on fbtore, promifing to
retten fhortly with great plenty $f£fero ; a£-
^ Ra cordingly 244
£ordinglty by three o'clock they all returned,
each bringing a large double canoe, loaded
svith taro and fugar-cane, fo that now they
were completely furnifhed with every necef-
lary article the ifland afforded.    The. expedition and difpatch with whichlthis lad taro
was brought, and thehvvfree and generous
manner in bringing it on board, both fur-
prized and pleafed Captain Dixon, and he
«was not flowaia making fuitable returns.
{M> the King he gave apaham,^ largei$>aize
clfiak|&%ed with ribbon, and a very [large
^bwee,. which pleafed him fo much that he
tbegan to think himfelf the greated monarch
In the univerfe.||The other Chiefs were rewarded with towees, axe^Jjnd faws, el#rely
to their fatisfaftion.     The ladies too, (of
fjyhom they had no fmall number on bqford)
0were liberally ornamented with buttons and
b§ads;>fin fliort,   all parties were perfectly
^leafed, and were profufe in their profefli<$ns
rof kindnefs and acknowledgment.
!jj   The differen%{produ6lions of thefe iflands
have already been noticed, yet a fhort fup-
-.plementary account, in addition to what has
\*WS^Hi rW$- ^ ' ' '  ^    already. NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      Z^f
already been faid about them, will find a
place here.   r> "a'-- V:::'' .-^^^^p1
|p Thefe people, in their temper and difpo-
fition, are harmlefs, inoffenfive, and friendly;
not fubjecl to pafliojpr or eafily provoked : in
their manners they are lively and chearful,
ever ready to render any little fervice in their
power even to drangers, and purfue every
thing they undertake with unremitting diligence and application. When attached to
any perfon they are deady in their friendfhip,
and are not eafily tempted to neglect the
intered of a perfon for whom thd^ have once
profefled a regard. Their language i# foft,
fmooth, and abounds with vowels. In their
converfation with each other, it appears very
copious, and they fpeak with great volubility
when converfing with each other ; but when
converting with their vifitors they only made
ufe of thofe words which are mod expreffive
and fignificant. The Sandwich Iflanders in
general are about the middle fize, their limbs
drait and well proportioned. Some of the
Chiefs, and particularly the women, are inclined to corpulency,   and   their  fkin   is
R 3 fmoother
I'M >A/VOYAGE   350; TH$
fgnoothff and fofter than thofe of th%£om<?
mon rank; but this is owing to want of e^
ercife, and an unlimited indulgence in the
article of food. They are in general o^ a
nut colour, though fome of the women are
fairer, and their hands and fingers are rer
mark§bly ffjiall arid delicate. Both fe%es go:
naked except about the wai|fc. The men
wear a narrow pi^pe of clofh, called a maro^
barely fufficiejif? to cojjer the adjacent par^y
\fhe ahou, of women's drefs, is much larger,
and generally reaches from the waid to tfyg,
middle of the thigh. The beards of the men
are fufffgffl to grow]; their hair is cut clofe
on each fide of the lp|i, but gr6ws long
frq|n thp fore^^d to thg bacl^jof the nec^,
fomewhajarefembling an helmet. The wo-
mefi cut theirs quite clc^g behind and on the
top C|£'th§ head; the front is turned up in t^
form of a toupee, and is frequently daubed
with cpcoa-ngfvoil, and lime made from
fhells, which often gives it a fandy difagree-
able colour. Somefimes, by way of ornament, they wear a wreath of flowers, fancifully difpofed, about {he head; inflead of a
bracelet a fhell is tied round the wrid, and a
fbndnefs for tffis ornament has rendered bt#^
tons fB mWeh edeemed by tttlfe gay damfels
in general*** the neck too is decorkted witfhP
various forts of fhells, faftened on fftingf
after the manner of a necklace.    Bfot thef
mod beautiful ornament wore by the women
is a^ecklace, or araia, made from the variegated feathers of the humming bird, which
are fixed on firings fo regular and&en as to
have a furface equally fmooth asvelvet; and'
tfite rich colour of the feathets gives it an
appearance equally rich and elegant,"   Th$
caps and1 cloaks wore by the men af e^flilrfu-*
perior^n beauty and elegance, w The cloaks'
are in general about the fize of tll&fe wor6*
byfthe Spaniards; the ground is net-work^f
and the feathers are fewed on ill alternate
fquares, or triangular forms of red aficfyel^
low, which have a mod brilliant appearand.
The ground of the caps is wicker Work in
the form of a helmet; the elevated part front
the forehead to the^ind part o^tlie netk^s
about a hand's bi%dth, and general covered
with yellow feathers, the fide#bf th£ caj*
with red.   This cap, together with the doak,
Jias an appearance equally fplendrd; if^not
R4    , , fnperior
w\ 24&
fuperior^to any fcadet and gold whatever*
Thefe truly elegant ornaments  ar& fcarce,
and only ngfTefled by Chiefs of high rar^,
who^vear them f n extraordinary occa%ns.
There are cloaks of an inferior kind, which
have on|y a narrow border of red and yellow
feathers, thdrefl being covered with feathers
of the tropic and mgn of war bird.    Nor
are thefe caps and cloaks, though confefledly
elegant in a fuperior degree, the only proofs
of invention and ingenuity fhewn by thefe
people in matters of ornament.  Their mats
ar$ made y^ith a degree of neatnefs equal to
any of European manufacture, and prettily
diverfified with a variety of figures dained
with red.    Thofe ufed to deep on are plain,
and of a coarfer kind, but made with an
equal  degree  of neatnefs   and  regularity.
Cloth is  another article which gives thefe
Indians equal fcfcope for fancy and invention.
It is made from the Chinefe paper-mulberry
tree, and when $/et ^it being of a foft malleable fubdance) is beat out with fmall fquare
pieces of wood,   from twelve to eighteen
mches wid$, and afterwards damped with
yario^s colours, and a di^rfty of patterns,
the neatnefs and elegance of whi^h woiild
not difgrace- the window of a London linen-
draper.    The different colours with which
their cloth is damped are extra&ed from vegetables found in the woods^ There is another kind of cloth much finea&than the above,
and beat out to a greater extent:  it is of a
white colour,  and frequently wore by the
Aree women, in addition to the ahou.  Fans
and jfjjp-flaps are ufed by both fexes.    The
fans are ufualiv madeo&tjie cocoa-nut fibres.
peatly wove;   the mounting is of a fquare
form,  and the handle frequently decorated
with hair.     The fly-flaps are very curious;
the  handles  are  decorated  with alternate
pieces of wood and bone, which at a didance
Jjas the appearance of finiered work;   the
upper part or flap is the feathers of the man
of war bird.     Fifh-hooks are made of the
pearl oyder-fhell,   and fo contrived as to
ferve for both hook and bait.    Thofe intended   for fharks are  confiderably larger,
and  made of wood.    The form of their
gourds,  or calabafhes, is fo very various,
that they certainly make ufe of art to give
them different fliapes: fome are of a globu-
.wm 250
far form, with a long narrow necR like a
bottle; others are tall? and circular, but of
equal width from top to bottom;   others
again, though narrower towards the nr^uth^
yet are diffidently wide to admit the hand |
many of thefe are%ery prettily dained wftfr
undulated lines, which at a di'dance appear
like paintlf   Their houfes greatly refemble
an haydackin fhape, and are neatly thatched
with flags or rufhes;  the door-place is- fo
very low that they are obliged to enter al-
mod double.     They have no better contrivance for a door than a few temporary
boards^   The infide of their dwellings are
fcept neat and clean;  a coarfe mat is fpread
on the floor; and as they have no feparate
appartments* that part of the room appropriated for repofe is rather elevated,   and
covered with mats of a finer fort.    The
houfhold utenfils are placed on a wooden
beftch, and confifl of gourds,   and wooden
bowls and difhes, which,   in general, constitute the whole of their furniture.    Tl^fe-
who are pofleffed of hogs or fowls, keep therifc
in fmall out-houfes appropriated for tha*$
purpofefThe method univerfally praftifed
to dref$ their Actuals is bakpg, whfph is
ifene in the following manner: a hole|f
chjgibi the ground fufficiently deep t&anfwer
the purpofe of an oven, at the bottom of
^l||ph a number of hot dones are laid; thefe
beijig covered with leaves, whatever they
^ant to drefs is laid #n them; more leaves
$jre now laid on, and another layer of hot
jftones being added, the oven is covered. If
a hog is baked the belly is always filled with
hot dones. Cudom has rendered this mode
of dreffing vic%ials fo very familiar, that
they can tell the exact time when any thing
is fufficiently done; and in baktJig yams or
taro they far excelled them on board the
Charlotte. They alfo drefs the young tops*
of taro fo as to be an excellent fubditute for
greens, though on board they never could
boil them fo as to eat palatably. The canoes are not only finifhed with neatnefs
and ingenuity, but at the fame time are
lafting proofs of perfeverance and indudry.
They are made of a fingle tree, and are
from twelve to forty or fifty feet long.
The hollowing thefe trees, and bringing
$ach end to a proper point with their rude
unfafhioned 252
unfafliioned tools, mud beMa Work of time
and unremitting attention : they are in general about an inch thick, and heightened
with additional boards neatly fitted round
the fides. The fingle canoes are deadied
by an outrigger, and the double ones are
held together by femicircular poles, firmly
laflied to each part of the canoe : over thefe,
and parallel with the canoe, is a kind of
platform, which ferves to carry hogs, vegetables, or any thing they want to conv§^
from one place to another, and at the fame
time is a convenient feat for the principal
perfons pf both fexes, whild the towtows,
who paddle, always fit in the body of the
canoe. Their paddles are about four or five
feet long, and greatly refemble a baker's pail.
Thefe people are very dexterous at catch-
jngMifh, two indances of which they had
an opportunity of feeing.    » 1|§&
IfcOne day, when a number of Indians wei%'
along-fide, one of the Queen Charlotte's
people, who was fifhing with a hook and
line, had his bait taken  by a large fifh;
/.aj    |     •'■•.;. being NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.      2C$
being unwilling to lofe hk line (which being a Sandwich Ifland one was regarded as a
curiofity) he veered it away, but was afraid
to haul it again ; on this an Indian requeded
to$|ave the management of it, i^hich being
granted, hev played the fifh with eafe, and
in a fhort time sjcikit fafe into his canoe. It
proved to $e a Ga^fallie, and weighed oijg
hundred pounds. Another time, a large
fhark laid hold of a fmall line, which was
:ipmediately giveij^p an Indian who happened
to be along-fi^e ;^ie played the fhark for at
Je$ft two miles without hurting the line, and
he only got' away at lad by drawing the
hookjdraight as wire. f        tftc " 'a   a^^
Another fpecies of ingenuity met with
amongd the natives here, is carving :-fthey
have a number of wooden images reprefent-
ing human figures which they edeem as their
Gods ; but it is a matter of do#>t whether
religion is held in any great edimation
amongd them, for every God amongd the
jfiands might be purchafed for a few toweefp
Sometimes their yava difhes are fupported
by three of thefe little wooden images; and
this 8 54
Mfc*5jT   \'
this is reckoned a niifter-|$ece iiftheir carv
31 The inhabitant of tl&fe iflands appear
fubject to very-lew difeafeSfij- afid thou^roe^
doubtlefs have been injured by their 3SKS
heftion wim Europeans, f&t fo fimple fPtheir
Manner (i^iving, tha^i they pay little regard
15 this cirdifriftance, and fe§fh to thi&k it an
fiffair of no consequence. It is j#obable%at
feiod of thfitr diftfrders prbfceed from an5fn-
inoeerate ufe or yava; it weaKefis tie efefy
fivers the body with a kind of Sfprofy /debilitates and emanates thlv'whole frame |
makes the body paralyse; haftlfeis old age;
and, no doubt, brings on death itfelf.       f||
||lThe heeWS, or fongs, rathfef refeinble a
qulfck energellc rfi'Sifeifcr of fpeSfcifffg, than
finging; and the performers fldffi to pay
more attention to the motions of'^he body,
than the modulations of the voice. fThfc
women are the mod frequent performers Sfir
^Sis kind of merriment: they begin their
performance flow aflid jfSgular ; bit by M3Sp^
jjjrees it grows brifker anil more animated,
-     ( ¥   W: tfll NORTH-WES r COAST OF AMERICA.     255
till it terminates in.gonvulfions of laughter.
It is very evident, that thefe people lj^ive f$p;
the lead idea of melody, as the tones and
modulation in all their fongs are invariably
the fame; however, there feems to be fome
degree of mventipn in the compofitioi^.of
the vjprds, whi§Ji are often on temporary
fjjhje&s; and the frequent peals of laughter*
are, no doubt, excited by fome witty;allufion
contained in them. They have drums, which
fomejftmeSj are beat as an addition to their
heevas; thefe are about twelve or fixteen
inches high ^feveral holes are cut in- the
fides, and a hog's fkin, and fometimes a
fhafk's, is drained over one end: but they
produce %very dull heavy found, j^i^ v3jj|
It already has been obferved, that the
Chiefs .br9tjjgjit an ab#fl$ant fgpply of/provifions on board; and every thidg beingjr§#dyr
for fea, they weigjhed anchor at five o'clock
on the 18th, and came to fail, their friends
toJ^ng le#ye of them v^th a }*niv?rfal wifll
for a good voyage, and the mod unrejferved
marks of friendfhip and attachment.
China 2S&
, Jpftfca was the next place of their defiina-
tion, and they were already in the fame latt^
tude, d^fequently had tfcily the:&ngitude W
rui|:down; but the Captain judgedff|jtmod:
prudenf j§> deer to |fte SouthwaiB,: Biltthey "
werepin*1%bout th%teen^eg. thirty miri.
North latitude, if^ tfilh fe£ar away to the
Wedward, a$ that track was mod likely for
a trade Wind.
iMOn the 2 2d of October, they paffed the
iflands of Tinian, Say pan, aria Aguigam
Thefe iflands are remarkably free from rdfcks
or fhoals, fo that veffels may fafelyVun by
them in the nighttime in ptoder#te weather;
they are all tolerably level*, and have a very
beautiful appearance. - *
IffOn the 8th of November, they weriin
fight of the Lima Iflands, and faw a great
number of Chinefij fifhitig-boats. In the
forenoon, a Pilot came on board; and the
fame evening, jf they anchored' lii Macao
■ - - • • j
Next morning,-the Captain went to Ma-
cao, in order to procure a choppe for their
paflage to China. He returned again ontne
nth, and brought a Pilot along with him.
They then weighed anchor, and proceeded
towards the Bocca Tigris; and on the 16th5
came to anchor at Wampoa.   •
CHAP- ,25
Tranfadlionsat Cant on.—Death of Mr. M'Leod.
Short Account of Tyaana, a Sandwich Ifland
Chief—Furs fold.—Reafons for their not
fetching a better Price.—Ships leave Warn-*
poa.—Short Account of the Fur Trade.—
Death of Mr. Lauder, Surgeon to the Queen
Charlotte. — The Veffels part Company. —
Arrive at St. Helena.—The Veffels meet
there.—Departure from thence, and Arrival
in England.
HE arrival of the King George has already been noticed, and an account given of
her tranfa&iohs after the fhips parted company. ' -' ■  ■ /§'      '
In the morning of the 26th, both Captains went to Canton, and Mr. Brown,
(Prefident of the Supercargoes) affined them,
that their bufinefs fhould be expedited without delay. #^
On the 29th, Mr. William M'Leod, Fird
Mate of the King George, departed this life.
His death was not occafioned by any diforder caught during the prefent voyage> but
from an old complaint. At the time of his
being taken ill, (which was on the 28th) he
was on a vifit on board the Locko Indiaman,
and his drinking fome dale porter after dinner brought on fo violent a relapfe of his
diforder, as was fuppofed to be the immediate caufe of his death. He died univerfally
lamented, and was interred in the forenoon
of the 30thj on Frenchman's Ifland, i
On the 2d of December, the Superintend
dantof the China cudoms, (a John Tuck, as
he is commonly called) came down from
Canton to meafure the veflels* and made
each Captain a prefent of two buffaloes,
eight jars of famfhu, and eight bags of
ground-rice. -J*.
This nejefiary   piece of bufinefs   bei
over, a faftory was hired at Canton, and the
S z
'cargo ■wm*
cargo of both fhips  fent up thither on tlieJ
^th; \Mt for a whole month, the bufinefs
was entirely at a dand, and none of the furs
were difpofed of.
In order to form fome idea of the
probable reafons for this delay, it will be
neceffary to obfef^e, that thefe furs were
configned to the Etfff-India Company's
Supercargoes, who Were to fell them to the
bed advantage. # Accordingly, after the fkins
were properly aflbrted, two thoufand five
hundred fea-otter, befides fundry other fkins,
were offered to the Hong Merchants, in
expeftation of their taking them at an advantageous price; but in this particular
the Captains were woefully difappointed, for
the moment thefe Hong Merchants had
looked the fkins over, and fixed a value 011
them, no other Merchant durd interfere in
the purchafe; befides, the quantity juft
mentioned, was not differed to be divided!,
and there were not maiiy people, except the
Hong Merchants, who had it in their power
to buy fo large a parcel, and advance the
money immediately-.:-' add tdt this, the duty
on  merchandize at  the^-Port  of Canton,
ems c
feems not to be regulated by any fixed rule,
but reds in a great meafure in the breads of
thofe appoinced by the Hoppo to lay it on,
I and who fix it higher or lower at pleafure.
With thefe people the Hong Merchants
have great influence ; fo that had any indifferent perfon been at liberty to purchafe the
fkins, and difpofed to give an advantageous
price for them, the fear of having an enormous duty to pay, would at once deter them
from any attempt of the kind. During this
time, fome of the refufe fold to confiderable
Captain Portlock being one day on a vifit
to Mr. Cox, an Englifh gentleman refident
at Canton, wa%much furprized to fee his old
friend Tyaana, whom the reader may recollect he met with on his fird vifit to the
Sandwich Iflands. Tyaana immediately recollected him, and fo fenfibly was he affected
with the interview, that he clafped his arms
about l)im in the mod affecting manner, and
reclined his headonCapfcPortlock's fhoulder,
while tea^s ran unheeded down his cheeks.
It was a confiderable time before he became
III     S3 calm 2
calm or collected enough to pronounce the
name of his old acquaintance Popote, or to
enquire after his friends at Atooi.     On enquiring how  he came to China, it feems
Captain Meares had touched at Atooi in his
paflage from the coad of America lb China,
and Tyaana exprefling a wifh to accompany
^im to Pretane, Captain Meares had taken
him on board and brought him to Matlb,
at which place he left him in the care of
Mr. Rofs his ChiefilMate, of whom Tyaana
was remarkably fond. pThey remained fome
time at Macao,  and  Tyaana was generally
indulged in walking about whenever his inclination led him: on thefe occafions,   he
conftantly wore a beautiful feathered cap and
cloak, with a fpearin his hand, to fhew that
he was aaperfon of confequence, and did not
like to wear any other drefs,  except  the
inaro, which is always wore by the Sandwich
Iflanders about the waiA.    Such an appearance, however, being fcarcely moded in a civilized country, Mr. Rofs got a light fattin
waidcoat and a pair^of trowfers made for
h|n, which he at firfc wore rather reluctantly, but afterwards  they became  habitual.
' Tyaana, though no papift, ufed often to
frequent the places of public worfhip at
Macao, and always paid particular attention
to the external ceremonies of the congregation, danding up when they dood up,
kneeling when they kneeled, and in fliort,
conformed to all their rules with the mod
obfequious decorum. His noble and generous fpirit was fhewn oh many occafions;
one time he went up to an orange-dall, and
picking out half ^dozen of the fined* gave
the woman who fold the oranges! a couple of
nails for them, things of great edimation in
his own country, obferving at the fame time,
that though one nail was more than fufficient for his purchafe, yet he would make
her a handfome prefent befides. The good
woman, however, was not by any means
fatisfied with fuch payment, and was going
to raife a disturbance; but fome gentlemen,
who luckily happened to be with Tyaana at
the time, foon fatisfied the orange-feller.
When the Queen Charlotte arrived in
Macao Roads, Mr. Rofs and Tyaana went
with Captain Dixon, as paflengers to Warn-
~'" S 4 f      , .-^§  -" poa..
*\ sy
poa.^ During this fhort paffage,adTyapia
often exprefled his diflike of the Chfiefe, and
could fearcel^ beiprevented from throwing
their Pildt overboard. When he arrived at
Canton, he was particularly noticed by the
gentlemen at the Englifh factory, and in
fliort, by every perfon at that place.
A Captain Talker, o|the Milford, from
Bombay, gave a fumptuous entertaiment to
a number of Englifh gentlemen, and of
courfe Tyaana (being a favourite) was
amongd the guefls.y After dinner, being
upon deck, a number of poor Chinefe in
fmall fampans were about the fhig^ afking
alms, as is cuflomary there.. Tyaana immediately enquired what they wanted, and
was told they were beggars; on which, he
obferved, that it was wrong to let any perfon
want fopd; that they had no people of that
defcription at Atooi; at the fame time he
was very importunate to have fomething
given them. Captain Tafker willing to gratify him Jin this particular, ordered all the
broken victuals to be brought upon decky
and Tyaana had the diflribution of them
amongd the poor Chinefe, which he did in
thefmod impartial manne^ Captain Port-
lock afked him if he was ffip. willing to g&
to Pretane, but he faid that he expected to
have been there rin twelve moons, but that
now he fliould be glad to return to Atooi.
It feems Captain Meares had engaged in a
Portugueze expedition to the coad of Ame-
rica, and promifed to leave Tyaana$t AtoQi,
in his paflage th&her.   i|yfej^  sa    d^&
m The gentlemen at Canton, defirous to give
him lading proofs of their ffiendfhip, furnifhed him with whatever could be ufeful
or acceptable; fuch as bulls, cows, fheep,
goats, rabbits turkies, $cc. with oranges,
mangoes, and various kinds of plants; fo
that fhould he arrive fafe with his cargo,
it will be of the utn^ft importance to his
H Tyaana is tall, being fix feet two inches
in height, and exceedingly wel|,made, rather
H inclined to corpulency; has a pleafing and
animated countenance, with expreffive features 266
tures and fine pierdng eyes: in fhort, his
'Whole figure has fomething in it exceedingly
prepoflefling, and fhews him to be a perfon
of the fird confequence.       -   P     ♦ 0-t • ; a t
The furs already mentioned, after being in
the market till the 26th of January, were
then fold and delivered to the Ead-India
Company's ^Supercargoes for 50,000 dollars.
There dill rdfeained fundry parcels of infe-
L|4or furs to difpofe of; and as thefe kept the
Captains at Canton, they at lad were bought
by an old Chinefe Merchant, whofe name
was Chichinqua, and who obferved, that he
had no other motive for making this pur-
chafe, than a with to haden their departure,
it being a pity, he faid, that two fuch fmall
veffels fhould be detained at a heavy expence
for fuch a trifle.
By this time a cargo of- teas was got on
boafd each veffel, and all their bufinefs being
finally fettled, they weighed anchor, and on
the 9th of February, arrived in Macao
Before they left this place, a Mfend gave
them the following account of the different fhips that had been at China, with
furs, with the quantity each veflel had,    ~r
The fird was fitted out by a Captain
Hanna, being a brig of fixty tons, and
thirty men jlflie arrived in King George's
Sound, in Aiigufl 1785, and procured five
hundred and fixty fea-otter fkins; and arrived at Macao in Decembtfr, the fame y#r.
The total amount of which fkins fold for
20,600 dollars. The fame veflel made a
jfecond trip^ when they procured only four
Thundred fkins, which was fold for 8,000
dollars. N| a .
The fnow Captain Cook, Captain Lorie,
of 300 tons, and the fnow Experiment,
Captain Guife, of one hundred tons, were
fitted out at Bombay, and left that place in
the beginning of 1786. They arrived in
King George's Sound in June, where they
procured fix hundred fea-otter fkins, which
fold for 24,000 dollars.
The *>
g|The Nootka, Captain Meares, was fittrf
out at Bengal, \% a fet of gen^&ie!p,who
diled themfelves the Bengal Fur Society,
and failed from thence in March 1786. She
procured three hundred and fifty-feven fkins3
whiJffbldfor 14,242 dollars. ;  : -
The Imperial Eagle, Captain Berkley, had
eight hundred fkins, and the price fixed on
them was 30,000 dollars, though they were
not folir^wjhen thefe fhips left China.
The  Spaniards   had
about feventeen |iui
likewife   imported
* which were not
The two French fhips, commanded by
Peyrouil and De Langle, procured about fix
hundred fea-otter fkins, which were fold for
io-$po dollars; and the furs brought by
thefe two f|fips, fold in all for 543857 dollars. ■ '•       ■;;.: V ' -'^gtfe   :'■ :1§y-. ^ ^ W->.,/   -"'-'i^l
^01.^'J   *jx* y$'-'i^£k SSI
What furs the Ruffians procure on the
Americanfcoad, it is.impoflibfe to afcertain,
as they never bring them fo the Canton
ffi market;
market;   but   they   feem   to  think  tlieir
annual collection cannot exceed fivefiund5?ed
fkins.# nfif5   ;'    ;-t-'M   ;     '':"v^ 'IWJfe
From the above fketch,' it appears very
plain that the fur trade, if once fet on a
proper footing, by eflablifhing a factory on
the coad, would be a very lucrative branch
of commerce.    And there are likewife other
articles to be met with, which might be
made ufeful; fuch as ginfang, copper, oil,
fpars, &x. with great quantities of falmon.,
IjiOn the 9th of February, ^788, they
weighed, and dood down Macao Roads, from
whence they proceeded on their courfe to
Oil England. ■     *■■ :%     '     mW
* On the 28th of February, the Queen
Charlotte lod her Surgeon, j He was taken
ill long before they left Wampba, but for
fome time they had hopes of his recovery,
being young and of a found conditution;
yet his diforder baffled the power of medicine, and he refigned himfelf to the Divine
will 27<
will with the greated eompofure, being perfectly fenfible to the lad moment; and the
next day he was committed to the deep. -.
MFrom this tigrie to the 28 th of March,
thev experienced "a great deal of ficknefs in
paffingj through mhe Straights of Banca
and Sunda, the land on both coaft s being
low, flat, and marfhy; and they had in
general light winds, with hot fultry weather.
.. J^The King George lod two of their people with the flux. .,. t
They now agreed to part company, and
each make the bed of their way to St.
Helena* where the, King George arrived
on the 13th of June, and the Queen Charlotte on the i8th« •
ykHere they got on board fome frefh provifions, and fuch ot%r neceflaries as could
be procured, and made the bed of their
way to England, where the King George
arrived the 22d day of Augud, and the
. af-; . •    ,   ';   '' it ' ,.       ; Queen NORTHrWEST COAST OF AMERICA.     27$
Queen Charlotte not till the 17th day
of September, all hands well, and in high
fpirits. :jpa • •  a*jjic   :jr-    -  ■■>%
The grand objeft of the Voyage, of which
an account is given in the preceding fheets,
being to trade for furs, with an expectation*
no doubt, of gaining more than common
profits by an undertaking which at once was
new, hazardous, and uncertain, the world
will naturally enquire whether fuch expectation has been anfwered; and more particularly, as reports have been induflrioufly
propagated to the contrary. ^
K That the King George's Sound Company
have not accumulated immenfe fortunes,
may, perhaps* be true; but it is no lefs certain, that they are gainers to the amount of
fome thoufands of pounds;  and that the
voyage did not anfwer the utmod extent of
their wifhes, undoubtedly was owing to
their own inexperience; for when the King
George and Queen Charlotte arrived at Canton, and even a month from that period,
prime fea-otter fkins fold from eighty to
ninety Ok,
ninety dollars each. Of this quality, thefe
/hips had at lead two thoufand on board, befides a large quantity of furs of inferior value ; but though they could have fold their
cargo with eafe, they were not at lifcerty to
difpofe of one material article, the fole management of it being veded in the hands of
the Ead-India Company's Supercargoes;
and at length, the fkins jud mentioned, Were
fold for lefs than twenty dollars each.
.' From Ijiis plain datement of fadls, the
public m$y at once perceive, that this branch
of commerce, fo far from being a lofing one,
is, perhaps, the mod profitable and lucrative employ that the enterprizirig Merchant
can poffibly engage in.


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