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BC Historical Books

A journal of Captain Cook's last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and in quest of a North-West Passage, between… Ledyard, John, 1751-1789 1783

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J* t /
/7Srf pil A &^^a^fc^*  r    %  :    -  w>j*f.' mf-i^st ll O&'z&iJF'4^*5
"uiimWi. ma SUsls U   R   N   A
O   F
. Captain
V   O   Y   I   G    E
TO      THE :{
I Pacific Ocean j
and in qjjest o f  a
North-Weft Pajfage^
Performed in the Years 1776, 17771 i7f$» M||
,779' §      IS
Jllufkated with a CHART, (hewing the T^f^o!
the Ships employed in this Expedition.
Faithfully narrated fiom the original  |§|
Mr.   J O H N   L & D M:A R
•    HlA .   R    T ; F   ' QM& 'Sg&
Printed and fold bj-|N A T H *\ N ^^^p' l3|f|SnRI
a few Rods North of the Cout6Ho.w||!
jf,    -.'y;'i'v
- =——.;t£?£ j
• /$& 0*£&
,-vy- ./-j-.
'****i ^ft/-'
I   '/»»
Vr^L-p   hf\t  Office
-M«rj Fm
To his Excellency 1 *
Jonathan Trumbull^§£^
J Governor and Commander in
chief of the Militia of the
State of Conne&icut, and
Admiral of the fame.
THE affability and generofity I was honored with
JP-Y you at my firft arrival in my native country,
after a long abfence, was truely worthy the diftinguiihed
chara&er you always have had, and I fincerely hope
ever will fuftain in this country 5 I havereceived it as a
teftimony of that original urbanity and dignified familiarity which diftinguifhes the magiftrate from the tyrant—-
the people from ilaves, and is ftill the boon of which
every fon of this country participates. Such virtues, like
the rofe in the bud, are lovely in ordinary life 5 but when
transferred to the bofoms of the fair and great, become
by the contrafting change more perfectly beautiful: This
amiable charafter alone naturally infpires an attachment
and a wiih to participate of its favors.
Under this influence I have prefumed to dedicate |he
following work to your patronage* being fully fennble
that let its intrihfic merit be what it will, the approba^g
tion which I humbly hope for f^n your beneficence will
l)e abfolutely neceffary to its ^^^fperity.
I have the honor to fubip^e myfelf     m
Your Excellency's moll refpe£$j|j8SBB
and moftc^WyS^t humi>le j§|^& m
mn <~>mr
P    R   E    FA    Cf E.
THE importance of nautical difcovery has encreafed fo
muchfince the voyages of Vasc a de Gam a, Columbus and Magellan, that at this day mankind have the
higheft efteemfor the information they receive in matters
of this kind, and read the accounts of fuch travellers with
the moft liberal approbation, and confumate fatisfaftion:
The following voyage among many others it is prefumed
will ftme the praifes of the civilized and enlightened
world; the obje£l was noble, it was glorioufly concluded, and terminated happily. The difcovery of a North-
JWeft Paffage fom Europe to the Eaft-Indies has long
been an obje£l of emulation and% enterprife, and competitors in fame have rifen among every commercial nation in Europe to determii e its exiftence or non-exiftence :
It will be needlefs to recapitulate the various inftances
of this kind in this work fince they are to be found in
works of that kind publiihed by thofs Navigators them-
felves: neither do the many other difcoveries made at
different times in the fouthem hemifphere ccme pro-
peiiy within the limits of cur present hiftory. It may
however be thought .neceff^ry io obferve that all the for*
mer voyages m?de in queft of a North-Weft Paffage
have been on the north eaft fide of America wheieat
this was made on the north-weH fide of that continent.
The voyage commenced on the? 12th day of July, 1776^
and terminated on the 6th day of Olober, 17S0*} the
equipment confifted of two fhips: the Resolution of
about fix hundred tons burthen, and the Discovery of
about three hundred tons: the firft commanded by^fe
JAMES COOK,   and the latter by  Capt. CHARLES
A iVjIyage —
a ■*, A Voyage performed in his Brill   tannic Majefty's Ship Refo-
lution, in Company with the
Difcovery j under the jCom-
mand of Capt. James Cook.
ON the 12th day of July 1776 the Refolution unmoored, and dropt from Plymouth Sound intoCor-
fon-Bay; and on the 13th weighed again and came to
fail, ftanding down the Channel. The Difcovery who
was to be our confort, was at this time detain*Jf at the
Nore on account of her commander, Captain Clerke^
uneafy at his delays and anxious to proceed, Captain
Cook was determined to proceed and wait for him at
the Cape of Good-Hope, and left inftruftions behind proper for the pocafioripto be delivered to captain (2|erke
when he flfould teach Plymouth.
Our prefent deftination was the Cape of pood-Hope,
and as it is feldom any occurrences happen^fn a paffage
fo familiar as this,   worthy the notice of |h ingM&is
reader, I fhall only obferve that we touch^^^^^lflfe,
and looked into Porto Praya at St. Jago, a^^na^jp^
beft of our way to the Cape.    In general vf£^d|av<2i
xy favorable paifage,  and arrived fafe before tl^^^ft
in Table-Bay the middle of September followl^^^^^
Difcovery after a very tedious paffage did r# ^^^
igntill three weeks after our arrival.    The RefS^li^
inline mean time had nearly refited to rerifel^^^^
lj|jp, and was on that account able to aflift^^^^^-
fe^i^e Difcovery,   fo that by the   27th o|/W^S0|er
'feoth Jhips were in order for fea. \$fiS&
?*fik     , '^4m: •'•"■»* ^yL "   ^i&%^s ,    " ■ -;:*li*
;: [
m   ■
v    '^    . I
The Cap* of G©od-Hope is very romantic and feme
how majeftically great by nature: the mountains that
foxn the proinontorytare as rugged as lofty, they impel
the imagination to wonder rather than admire the j|o-
velty. But the town and ganifon at their feet difpfay
a emtraft that molifies ana harmofttees fo as to render
the whole highly finiihed. The land near the town was
enti ely barren until Improved by the induftry of the
inhabitants, which has rendered it very fertile. The
adjacent country j9 highly luxuriant, and no place can
T>oaft a greater plenty or variety of productions: their
wines are very fine,, particularly the Qonftantia fo much
celebrated and fo feldom drank in its purity in Europe.
As this was the only port we had the leaft expectation ojvifiting that was poffeffed by Europeans until
our return we improved it to the beft advantage in ac*
cumulating -the beft ftores and a** great a quantity?! of
them as poffible, againft the day of adverfity, which we
had a right to anticipate : but after our (hips were already fo filled that we e^-nid not ftow i*i the whole above
eighteen months provifions a t full allowance; fout reduo
ed to an allowance of two thirds the eftim«t€ would be
fwo^e.ns provifions, W& this was the cafe as foon a$
we left the Cape, and continued fo the whole voyage,
uplefs relieved by the adventitious fupplies offomefor-
-tiinate Iiland. It was alfo expected that we ihould take
with us a colle&ion of the animal fpgeies fgtforder to
diftribute among the remote Iflands we lhoul$ vifit—*
we accordingly took on boird four horfes, "fix horned cattle, a number of fl^ep and goats, hoks, dogs and cats,
tefides, hares rabbits and monkeys, ducVs, geefe, tur-
kie¥ and peacocks, thus did we referable the ark and
appear as though we were going as well to flock, as
to difcover a new world.
On the tuft day of December we took our a.epai
from this great promontory and launched into that
we tonfc our departure
menfe t
menfe ocean which furrounds fo great a part of the fouth-
ern hemifphere. Our courfe from the Cape was about
S. S E. half E. and as we advanced to the fouth ward the
weather was not only very flormy and tempeftuous, but
rendered highly dffagreeabie when not fo, by a conftant
feftes of-foggs.
On the 13th we came inirfight of land lightly covered with fnow, which proved to be two iflands difco-
vered a few years fince by Monfieur Marion, they are
in lat. 46. 18. fouth.
On the 2 3d we difcovered a diftant refemblance of land.
On the 25th flood in to the land, and font boats to
reconnoitre the coaft.
On the 2^th having received a favorable report from
the boats we entered a deep bay that afforded us a good
retreat and came to anchor.
On the 57th as a number of our people were rambling
about the Ihore in the bay,   one of them found a glafs
bottle fufpended by a wire between two rocks:   it was
corked and fealed over with a parchment within it, he
brought it on board to be examined by the   Captain,
well imagining the circumftance to be very extraordinary.   Upon examination we found wrote in the French
and Latin languages an account importing, that in thjft
year 1772, this iiland was difcovered by Mon£ de Ppl
gulen: that it contained plenty of water, but no wo©*||
that it was barren and without inhabitants,-   bufehat
the ihores abounded with fifh, and the lan4 with fealU
|§|a-lions,|ind penguins, &c.
^The   contents of the  parchment were  entiri
and a Ihort account of the voyager" who left S^^^^^^8
focllie necelfary to render ou; difcoveries' m$Ms^m
I v\ \ h*!'£C *   •
",. ■  ~',
_ l;:-..>r?... II
1 Wonf de Kergulen,a lieutenant in theFrench i«vieed|
Mom. ae iv   6       » him,4he la Fortune and
\*Vhev°Zl^ HefaSfrom"he Mauritius about the
L^eld o   the yea! §1 and on the i3th of Janu-
S foltowinl he difcoveredlhe iflanl* are now fpeak-
ary toiiowin^ f Fortune.   Soon after
ff fdelerSf fw td - it is faid of a confider-
Monf. de Kerguien i , officerg m
able "tent  uP°n wh °h       fengg« fc J
a boat to found a-head K| Allouarn)
^6 KCaC vJnS *° -head and finding a bay to
111 waVehi (nip'»narne, ordered his yawl to take
which he gave his ui P de K      len being
poffeflion.   In the mean tim, ^ ^.^ agpin>
driven to leward and^^ 0ro8.VePtre, and the
^^^w HNIaccount of bad
1    1 ^  Kergulen returned to the Mawitius, and
*,M? J. St AlSarn continued for three days to take
Mont de St. Al«»™ d doubied it8 northern «x.
the bearings of the land, an ^ g    ^ pj
tremxty beyond whlChnn and from thence reaped his courfe^to Ne and i>atavia to the Iue of
turned b^ the way of A m ^ aftei.
France where he died. M n ^
wards the ™™™ i'Oifeau, in order to
^a\SltvP^hthSpgtetended land j but return-
cd with difgrace.'*
That the land we now fell in with is the fame go-
5 U Kerialen is certain;  but that he ever faw |
£S5 coyun^uch as he pretends near |f is very pro-
:^c t
two degrees to the northward. It is ragged, detached,
and almoft totally barren; it feems to have been fitly
appropriated by nature to be the refidence of the innumerable herds of fea-dogs, and feals that cover its
Ihores: there are alfo vail flocks of different kinds^f
fea-birds ; it is without any kind of woods, or even ihi?-
bery, and the only plant we could find of the culinary
kind was a fpecies of wild ca bbage, which was as wretched as the foil it was indigenious to.    «||k-.' ||
Il On the 30th we took leave of this forlorn land and
proceeded to the fouthern extremity of New-Holland
called Van Dieman's Land,from a Dutch navigator of
that name.
From theaft of January 1777 to the 19th we had a
fucceflton of hard gales of wind in which we loit one
of our topmafts, and were otherwife very roughly dealt
On the 24th the Difcovery made the fignal for feeing land, which proved to be New-Holland* V
On tfte 26th we flood off and on, to find i|e bay
called by Tafman,  Frederick Henrv's Bay. ^'
On the 27th entered Frederick HenryVBay and moored both Ibips. We remained at this place only a few
days, in which time we procured a good recruit of wood
and water, and fuch grafs for the animals on board as
the country afforded; ,we caught a tolerfble fupply of
iilh with our feins, and this joined with our exercifes
lefreihed the people.
The accounts given by Capt Cook in a fotmer vgyage
of New-Holland are fo full and petfea, and our ffefent
i :
■Jm n
vifit was fo partial that it entirely excludes any of my
obfervations: Yet I cannot bu^ remark the difparity
which is fo o%vious, between a noble country and its
ignoble inhabitants: The ill and of New-Holland (for
its boundaries are now afcertained) is by much the larger!: now known, and moft eligably fituated in the map
of nature, about one half within and the other without
the tropic of Capricorn, and its extent is fully fuffrci-
ent to gratify the moft ambitious wiih—even the Em-
prefs of RuiTia might be gratified with fuch a portion.
From its northern extremity oppofite New-Guinea to its
fouthern called Van Dieman's, it comprehends above 30
degrees of lat. and from eaft to weft about 43 degrees
of longit. The vicinity of its northern boundaries to the
moft commercial parts of the Eaft-Indies is alfo a moft
glorious circumftance j and yet with all thefe advantages, the New-Hollander is a mere favage, nay more
he puifefTes the loweft rank even in this clafs of beings—
at leaft thofe I fa'w to the fouthwarci were fuch. They
: are the only people who are known to go with*their
' peifons entirely naked that have even been yet difcovered. Amidft the moft ftateiy groves of wood they haVe
neither weapons of defence, of any other fpecies of in-
ftruments applicable to any other of the various purposes of life 5 contageous to fea chey have no canoes
and expofed from the nature of the climate to the natural inclemencies of the feafons as well as from the.
anoyances of the be afts of the fore ft; they have no houfes
to retire to, but the temporary flielter of a fewr pieces
of old bark laid tranfverfly over fome fmall poles: They
appear alfo to be inactive, indolent and unaffe&ed with
r^he leaft appearance of curiofity,, they are of a mid-
;\fTing ftature, but indifferent in their perfons, of a dark
Complexion bordering on black, their hair a little wo^:
ly, their features difcordant and wSSi^ut any kind o£§ap?
nament or diefs.    As we had obferveci' no quadruples c
of the domeftic kind here we left a boar and a fow,
which were prefented fo an elderly man among them :
We alfo diftributed as prefents among them feveral medals to perpetuate the memory orthe voyage. Our qo*
Itnical refearches were tMerably fuccefsful.
On the ift of February we left New-Holland,   and
on  the 10th were off Charlotte-Sound at.New-Zealand.
On the 12th we entered a cove, and both fhips moored..   New-Zealand  coniifts of two iflands  feparated by
a narrow ftrait called Cook's Straits : Taken colle£live*
ly they are about fix hundred miles long,   but very unequal in breadth:   They are fituate between the 35th
arid 47th degrees of fouthern lat. and between the 166th
and 179th degrees of long, eaft from  Greenwich;   and
as the climate is admirable, fo is the  appearance of the
foil,  but near the fea-coaft the land is inclined to be
mountainous:    It is aim oft every  where, covered  with
ftately forefts,  and almoft impenetrable thickets:   The
country appears to be but thinly inhabited, and we con-
jficluxe that this failure in population originates chiei|p
from the conftant ftate of warfare  that fubfifts among
the inhabitants, their feeble advancements in agriculture,
and the deiultory manner of their lives in general.   T^
New-Zealanders are generally  well made,   ftrong and
robuft, particularly their chiefs, who among all tjte favage fons of war I ever faw,  are the moft formidable.
When a New-Zealander Hands forth and bran/lifhes his
fpear the fubfequent idea  is (and nature makes the cot|^
feflion) there Hands a man.    It p theitenati^. courage,
their great perfonal prowefs,  th|S%irr#erf^^^i|repe-
dity, and determined fixed  perfeveranc^| il^|^^^tf|
duftive of thofe obftinate attacks we have *^^j^^|^
Shem when we have appealed to tip d|^}oi]^^ w&|
In the article of drefs among *hera|there is^p^p^^
IS Ift'.
*l 111 pi Pj      I •
diverfification:  In common they wear a clout about the
loins, fabricated from a fpeciesof grafs, which they twift
and unite together fo as 10 referable our manner of weaving, but if the  feafon or their caprice lequires^pejr
add what they call the   Bugabuga or the Toga,  and
fometimes both.   The Bugabuga is a very coarfe cover-
inK made with little trouble,  and affords, a good iliel-
ter from coli ^n*et weather:    The Toga is different
and is equally calculated tor ufe and elegance:   The
Bueabuga is formed round and converging to the top
where there is an apperture juft fufficient to_ admit the
head to pafs through, and when on, covers the body as
low as the hip:   If « rtorms, or they have occaiion to
ftop where they have no other inciter they fquat down
upon their hams, and then the bottom of the Bugabuga
reaching the ground, forms aihelterto the whole body
(the head excepted)  which looks in that fituation  as
if it had been fevered from a human foim,   and fixed
upon a hay-cock.   The Toga is their ne plus ultra m
this fort of manufactory :   It is in ttze and foim like a
common blanket;   its texture is iimple, but the induf-
B  and ingenuity befto wed upon it in other iefpe«8
renders it compaa, ftrong and handfcme : The materials of the manufaa&re are the grafs before-mentioned,
which is a kind of filk-grafs,   faid to be  indigenous to
the country, and the hair of their dogs blended together.
This garment they wear mantle-wife,   commonly leaving the right arm andbreaft uncoveied, carrying a foear
in the right hand from thirty to forty feet long.   They
paint their faces with a coarfe red paint,   and oil or
g#afe the head and upper part of the body: The hair m
both as well as their drefs is wore much alike, and
being generally, long and black, it is tied in a knot upon the top of the head. , They are very curijofly ta-
towed or punOaated in different parts of the body, particularly in the face.   The food of the tf ew-Zealanders m : c    js " ic-:,: ,       ";■
is chiefly fifo, fotne of which they dry and feme they cat
raw- They have alfo fome yams upon the northern If-
land, but not in plenty: They have n^ hogs or other
animals, except a few fmall dogs, which they eat oc-
cafionaily. They'have fine large ftrong canoes, fome
of which will carry upwards of an hundred men, and
in thefe they generally fight their enemies. ■    -
Notwithstanding New-Zealand has been vifitedfeve-
tal times by different voyagers, lind particularly by
Cook, yet their ferocious manners have prevented their
vifitants from being other wife than very partially acquainted with their manners and cufloms: But in general they may be faid to referable thofe who have no
other guide to knowledge or improvements, but the ftrong
diaates of nature and neceffity, and the direaion of*
Cew traditionary precepts, and thefe rendered imperfoa
by time and the imperfeaion of the mind: After a labored enquiry on our part with regard to their anceftors
*nd the original population of the country, the only Information we have obtained, is, | That their fore-fat#rs
it fome very remote period, but how remote they knew
pot, caw from a far diffctnt ifland called HawgeeC
This is hnperfea, but as we afterwards aaually difcovered an ifland called by its inhabitants Owyhee, or
rather as they pronounce it Hawyhee. I cannot trank
the information ufelefs, but highly fortunate, aswiil be
remarked hereafter. $
As to the religion of the New-Zealaaders we k^>w
little about it. however this I fliall not h^g^e to
sbferve, that they have fome idea that refpeas a M|d,
and they are not a foamed of him, and if raa^j^^^
religious ceremony wkh;|ffeem^*ey alfo^o ^||§pP
honor; for here, as wWM* ^mong the troftic^|p^!|i
adultly M punifhed  wij^g|&ath,   and ^m^io^m-
&im of &cfi an intercourses fliaree th##me f||f|' but
-f#?v>   >f."
- Jpft,
'   .-.V--
w -
fe'"'    -J
fh^ laft piece of policy, for I cannot call it virtue, will
not I think redound to their honor • it feems however to
be the cafe with all uncivilized  beings to be aauated
by extremes.^They are fufceptable of the tender pafli-J§
ons, and their women   of communicating as well as receiving the moft ardent love.   Belonging to the  Difcovery there was a youth, with whom a young Zealand-fi
er girl, about fourteen years of age, fell defperately in
love,  nor was he wholly indifferent  to  this  engaging
Brunett; what time he could fpare he generally retired
with her, and they fpent the day, but oftener the night
in a kind of filent converfation, in which, though words
were wanting, their meaning was  perfeaiy underftood;   *
the language of love   among all the languages in this
fublunary world is thefooneft comprehended. But though
our failor appeared amiable in her eyes in the habit of
a  ftranger   he   waspconfcious that  to    ornament   his
perfon in the fafhion of New-Zealand would ftiil recommend him more to his miftrefs and the country he was
in; he therefore fubmitted himfelf to be tatowed from
head to foot* nor was fhe lefs folicitous on her part to   ;
fet herfelf  off to the   bell advantage.   She had fine
hair, and her chief pride   was in the dreffirig   of   hellfl
head.   The pains fhe took, and the decorations fhe uftd   *
would perhaps have done honor to an European beauty
had not one thing been wanting to render it flill more
pleafing. ^ - H
Gowannahee, (that was her name) though young,
was not fo delicate but that the traits of her country-
might be traced in her locks, to remedy this misfortune
fhe was furnilhed with combs and taught by her lover
how to ufe them. After being properly prepared he
w<3|ild by the hour amufe himfelf with forming her hair
into ringlets, rendering them fit for the refidence of the \
little loves.   The diftafte arifing from colour gradually
wortf' ■ ■'■■■■'■-[/   i '  P   , I -;:-   : ■ . ■' .J
Wore off; their fentiments improved, and from imparting their paflions, they became at laft capabeandde*
firous of communicating the hiftory of their lives to each
other. Love and iealoufy directed her inquiries concerning the women in the country from whence he came,
wifhing at the, fame time that he would flay with her
arid be a Chief. He made her to underhand that the
Women in her country were man-eaters, andif hefliould-
fiay with her he might alfo be eat by them; ihe an-
fwered no, and faid fhe would love him.J He laid the
men would kill hinTwhen left behind and alone* She
faid no if he did not fhoot them. He .acquainted her
that nine or ten of his countrymen had b^en killed and
eaten by them though they did not jt the men of
her country.   Her  anfwer was, that a great while
ago, and the people who did it, came from the hills a
great way off. This excited his curiofiry to know it* any
of her relations were amon^ the mUiderers; (he fished
and appeared much affeaed When he afked hegthat
queftiori.MHe afked if fhe was at the feaft when they
broiled arid eat the men? She wept, hung down her
head and faid nothing. He became ftill more pieiTmg
as fhe grew referved; he tried every wining way that
love and curiofity fuggefted, to learn from her what he
found ihe knew and feemed inclined to conceal, but
fos artfully avoided his enquir es. He afked hef|why
Ihe wasfofecret? She pretended not to widerftand him*
Finding all hi? perfuafions ineffeaual he turne|: from
her, feemingly in great anger, and threatened to leave
her ; this had its^ intended effea, fhe caugMVhim round
the neck ;—he afked her what fhe meant J^Sh^faid her
countrymen would kill her if foe fhould di^Se any
thing; he laid they fhould not know it; D^^^^^^^Si-
hate me faid fhe ? He faid no, but fove h^^|g^^d
preffed her to his breaft; ihe grew compoj|»d^|
ly informed him what flj£ knew about the mattS
V^* •    IP;' •       ■ I     **    ]     •
She gave him to underfland that one Goobaa, a very
bad man, who had been often at the fhipandhad ftolei*
many things, when he came to underfland foe was about
to fail went  up into the hill country  and invited the
warriors  to come.down and kill the ftrangers.     They
at fifftrefufed, faying  the ftrangers were ftronger than
they, particularly insinuating the force of the fire arms,
he told them they need not fear, for he  knew where
they muft come   before they departed, in order to procure grafs for their cattle,  and that on fuch occafions
they   left their   fire-arms  behind them in the fhip   or
carelefsly about the ground, while they were at work.*
They faid they were no enemies but friends,   and that
they mull not kill men with whom they were in friend-
ibip.   Gooboa faid they  were vile enemies,   and complained of their chaining him  and beating||him,    and
ihewed  them   the   marks and bruizes   he had received
at the (hip: And rold them befides how they might de-
firoy their fire-arms by throwing water over them.   Gooboa undertook to conduft   them  in fafety to the place
where the ftrangers were to  come,   and fhewed them
where they might  conceal  themfelves until he fhould
come and give them notice, which he did.   And when
the men were bufy about geting grafs and not thinking
any harm,   the warriors rulhed out upon them and killed them with their Patapatows, and then divided their
bodies among them.    She added that there were women
as well as men concerned,   and  that the women mad*
the fires while the warriors cut the dead men in pieces;
that they did not eat them all at once,  but only their
entrails;   that the warriors had the heads which were
efleemed the beft,   and the reft of the flefh was diftri-
buted among the croud.    Having by various queftions
in the courfe of feveral  days obtained this relation vof
which he faid he had no reafon to doubt the truth, he
forbore to   afk her what part her  relations and herfelf
bore in this tragedy as there was reafon to believe they
JQ2B1 were all equally concerned.. J He was however very fo-
licitious to learn if any fuch plot was now in agitation againfl the people that might be fent upon the fame
fervice to Grafs-Cove or elfwhere. Her anfwer was, no 5
the warriors were afraid at firft that the fhips were come
to revenge the death of their friends, and that was the
reafon why fhe was forbidden to fpeak of killing the
ftrarigerSj-or to confefs any knowledge of it were fhe
afked the queftion. She faid foe was but a child about
ten years old, but foe remembered the talk of it as a
great achievement; and that they made fongs in praif©
of it,  , U       M .    .   — I
On the 25th of February the flaps being ready  for
fea, the precaution of muftering the fhips-company was
taken, when it was found that one was miffing:   This
was our adventurer who with his faithful/Gowannahe*
had completely made their efcape.     A&eflenger was
immediately difpatched on board the Refdfution to know
how to proceed: And when the meffage was delivered,
the captains and officers were joyous over their bottle*
At firft it only furniihed a fubjeft of pleafamry; but it
came at laft to be feriouily debated whether the man ih mid
be fent for back, or not.     Moft were foT leaving him
to follow his own humor:  But Capt. Cook thinHng it
would be a bad precedent,  and an encouragment to o-
ther enamoratoes, when they came to the happier elm
mates to follow the example, was for fending an armed
force and bringing the man  back at all  hazards.- :mj&
this ©pinion was his own Captain with  whom  he^ps
a favorite, who gave orders foi the cutter to ^l^^per^
ly manned, a ferjeant's guard of marines>to be put on
board, and his mefs-mate to be a guide to dir^t them, for
it was fuppofed he knew where he was.    Tr^^J|^Sn-
ftantly done.    It was midnight before the cutter rllched
the intended rendezvous, and two ^|hemoinirf^bef^^|
the jjiard found the fpotwhlrc thelo^-^^vere. Th^fuim
L PS B printed ■:■'
prized them in a profound fleeploGked in each others arms,
dreaming no. doubt of love,  of kingdoms,  and of diadems 5 of being the progenitors of a numerous family ©f
princes to govern the  kingdoms of Ea-keinnommauwee
and T Avi-Poenammoo.   Love like this is not to be'foun%
in thofe countries where the fe$afted refinements of feqj|
timent   too often  circumfcube the  purity of affeafgjpl^
and narrow it away to mere conjugal fidelity.   God of
love and romance! this pair ought to have been better
heeded by thee, and at ieaft feeluded from the purfuit
of thofe who never did, and perhaps nmet will be able
to offer to  thy   deityfhip one  fmgle  facrifice of pure,
fublimated romantic fentiment.   Turn thine eyes now
and behold the predicament in which thy cruelty, thy
caprice and thy ingratitude,   thou hypocrite hath ldft
the forlorn Gowannahee and her  haplefs  Mate!   Even
the rugged guard when they came to bind their prifodjj?,
ver could not but with they had never fe en their unfor tun«?
ate fhipmate,  who was  not only rendered unhappy in
his affeaions, but had ftili to abide the rigid fertfenes
of a cotlft very unlike to love.   But the fituation of the
gtiard was critical leaft the cries  and   lamentations of
Gowannahee  fhould  roufe the fa vages to flaughter under the   advantages of a dark night and a thick wood,
they therefore  haftened to the cutter leaving this unfortunate girl the pifture of moft diftreffing anguifo.   It
was noon the next day before they arrived at the fliips,
and the captains began to be anxious for the fafety of
the people.     When they arrived the prifoner was carried on board the  commodoie,  where   he* underwent a
lon< examination,  and made a full confeffion of all his
■views'   and   the   pains  he   had taken to bring them to
perfeaion.    That he had considered the hazard and reward, and that  the   ardent  love  for  his  Gowannahee
ffca-d determined him,   and would, had the dangers that
might have enfued been greater.   Capt. Cook aftonifo-
' cd at the young mans extravagant notions, pleafed at
m. Ik
his franknefs inftantly forgave him and ordered him to
his duty, telling him he was convinced that even his
prefent fituation and feelings muft be a fiifficient pu-
niihment for a much greater crime. riim^'-
Iffijn the 27th of February both fhips came to fail,
and on the aSth cleared the land paffmg through Cook's
We took with ut from New-Zealand two boys 5 the
oldeft called Tiberua, was about feventeen years old:
The other called Kohaw was about ten.||Tiberua was
the fon of a Chief, flout and well made, but*bf a ferocious gloomy afpeft : Kohaw was a young lively agree-
afcre child. It is faid they were purchafed from their
parents, if they were, it was upon fuch conditions as
were kept concealed." They were however intended
by Captain Cook as fervants to Qmai (the native of
Otaheite) and were to be left with him at that I'fland.
The cattle we had on boar3 which we brought from
the Cape Good-Hope were in good circumftances having been well refrefhed by being on foore; and we had
procured a good fupply of fuch wild grafs as |£ew-Zea-
land afforded for their fubfifiance atfea. W^ had al-
foinade a confiderable quantity of beer from the {pruc$
of that country, which is good and in unbounded plenty,
Jt is efteemed an excellent fea-beverage and J|. great
anti-fcorbutic While it lafted the allowance of fpirits
was withheld from the people. We alfo took wildcel-
lery and fcurvy-grafs with us to fea, b#h which are na
tural to the country. Our courfe from New-Zealand
was generally E. B. N. March is ever a blowing month
and we here felt its force having from the fit ft of that
month to the 20th experienced a fuccpion ojEfcard gales,
and as we approached the tropic of Capsi^rn vio^t
^Pi**§ut tne^e were ^ent -*n meie/ t° Vs$j$fW£ *$*
ittUCh diftrefftd for water. On r'! i    »
(• ;-i  'J
ii B
On the 2oth of March we made land/which proved
to be a new-difcovered ifland called by the natives
Manganooanooa it lies in lat. 21. 54. fouth and in 201
59 eaft long, it is about eight leagues in length and
four in breadth: It makes a delightful appearance and
like other tropical iflands in this ocean is covered thick
with cocoanut, palm, bread-fruit and other trees, and
produaions common  to the climate.
On the 30th we went in with the  land, and being
about a mile and an half from the fhore faw 5 or ©"o®
people 'armed with fpears and clubs drawn up in a body upon the beach ihouting and runing about, but whether they appeared here to oppofe our landing or only
in confequence  of their furprize could not be determined,  though the fhore did not appear favourable, to fee
if we could find anchorage for the fhips and fome kind
©f a landing place for we were veryfhort of water and
the  weather was hot but we were fome time  withheld
from doing this by the apperance of a canoe which we
faw approaching the fhip with one man in it.     He approached the ih^p with diffidence but did not feem much
terrified^    As foon as he was near enough to us we fhew-
edhimfeveral European trinkets and made fuchfigns to
him, as we thought he would beft underfland meaning
to conciliate  his  good  will and prevail   upon   him  to
eome on board the fhip.   He  accepted of fome of the
trifles offered him,   particularly fome fhreds  of fearlet
broad cloth, but no iron.   He would not come on board,
but as  he went away   beckoned us to the fhore  and
fpoke   to  us:   What we could   underfland  of his dif-
eourfe was a friendly affurance of good treatment* and
that his country afforded both meat and drink.     After
this Jfee fent three   boats manned and armed to reconnoitre the fhfcre,  and determine if it was acceffable to
the purpofes of watering.     They   were abfent the befl
part of the day,   and finally returned with an account
that the ifland was furrounded bjLone continued reef of|
"fil coral-
/ I
•oral rocks and could not be approached. Thisismuch
the cafe with all the tropipal iflands in the  fouthern
and northern pacific  oceaias.    The boats during their
abfence had been inceffantly furrounded by the inhabitants, fome in canoes, others on floats made of bamboo,
and fome fwiming.    The moft   of them brought fome-y
thing   with them:   Some hogs,  fome fruit,   said  fome
the manufaaures of the country, all of which were exchanged with us for almoft nothing in our efteem,  but
highly pleafing to thefe new-found fons of Mur.
The enter view we had with thefe people fully convinced us that they were (to appearance) the fame people who inhabit the tropical iflands in the two Pacifies.
WThat thefe appearances are that conftitute fuch an o-
pinion will be amply treated of when it will be more
agreeable to the hiftorian and the reader to attend
to them.
On the % iff we again difcovered land, which prov-
ed to be another new-difcovered ifland go. leagues from
Manganooanooa, called Awgadoo. This we palled with-
\ out particular examination, judging from the tremen-
duous furf upon  its foores that it was equally inacceff-
ab'le as Manganooanooa.   On the ift of April we were
foifortunate as to fall in with another new-difcovere$|*
ifland called by the natives Wattew, fituate in laij§MQ.
51. fouth, and long. 201. -28. eaft.    This ifland vvi^^^
fo found equally difficult to approach  with our bo^^
but as   their   canoes are better .calculated for a high
forf,   feme of our officers were determined to land in
- t%j$m} and take a view of the ifland."   Omai (the'Ot$j||l
hej|e Indian)   was in their fuite.   When they landed
th$y were for fometirae unable to advance throji^pfte
furroujiding, wondering throng.'9They had noti^^^^g
jjwhalf a mile before they were plundered of dlS^^^^R
tS&J-e they had about th«m:  Some things wemtafelli by ■'.
. BI'
[       *4
fflere dexterity, and others by force, which they than***
prudent to fubmtk to.   After this they pa Jed uhmoleft*
cd until they thought proper to return.   When they ar-
lived again to the fea-more they found a number of Feo»
pie together round a large fire, and prepairing a roaft*
ed pig and fome fruit for their entertainment.   Our adventurers were rather perplexed when invited to the en-*
tertainment by the very people who had Juft robed then!
•C every thing they had, and would have been glad t<*
have excufed themfelves,  but they thought it moft prudent at this time to renounce their refentment, and give
the fmiters the other cheek:  They therefore fet down
with them, and eat a moft humiliating morfel—a thing
badly digefted in a Britifh fliip of war.    They were
however richly repaid for this misfortune by finding fe-
veral natives of Heuheine among the company.    Hue-
heine is one of the Society-Ma nds 500 leagues to the
eaftward of this.   This circumftance was known as foon
as the natives came to undetftand that Omai was one of
that country.   Our adventurers were all furprized at the
information,   but particularly Omai who impatienfand
traivfported flew info their arms in an excefs of joy and
wept fot fome time.   It had its effea upon thofe who
were lefs interefted, and when the natives who had juft
plundered the ftrangers found Omai a former neighbour
%<£ thefe foreign  inhabitants who were now  chiefs a-
«ong them,  they retu.ned every thing  valuable they
had taken from him and his companions,  and loaded
them with fuch prefents as the country produced.   As
foon as thefe matters were fettled Omai denied to be
particularly informed how they came there ; m this he
was fully gratified, and related it afterwards to Capt.
,   Cook in thefe words s   " About twelve years from that
I time fourteen petfons (including men, women ^gg
d«n)  were removing with their effeas nom Humane
to Otaheite (which both belong to a clatterf**'<•»*
nearly in fight of each other called the Society-lflmds)
«& A* M
-    \ '     I   :^>.:.r^.V-:.;-.:-i:.|
oom c
and were overtaken in a ftorm, blown off from the land
and driven they knew not where for the fpace of thirteen
days,during which time half their number had died through
exceflive fatigue and hunger, and that after that time they
who had finally furvived were rendered fo extremely weak
as to be infenfible4what happened to them until they found
themfelves on that ifland and in the hands of the people
they were then among.'5 Omai,offered to interceed with
the captains for his countrymen if they would accept
of a paifageand return to Otaheiree, which they declined.
We had been laying to with the fhips during this interview.    And,   H    ^    ,  -   ,. ■ . •        Ip: ....'"■:'
On the 4th of April we again,came
On the 7th'though we had caught feveral calks of rain
water we were obliged to diftii fea water into frefh fox
which purpofe we had a machine on board. This watei
difcoloured the meat that was boiled in it and tinclurej
other things with a difagreeable blacknefs, but was nevertheless equal to rain water which cannot well be
caught in a fhip without tafting of the tar communicated
from the rigging. Our courfe was now about S. W. until the 18th when we fell in with a group of iflands that
were difcovered about thirty years ago, called PaImerf-
ton-Ifles. Some of thefe ifles are uninhabited, low and
without water; thofe which are inhabited are fome-
what higher but inacceffable to our boats, and of oln-
fequence we did not vifit them. The inhabitants according to the accounts of thofe who have vifited them
do not differ from thofe of the other illanders here a-
bouts. We varied our courfe now from W. S. W. to N.- Wgj
Palmerfton Ifles are fituate in latfcsAii, fouth, and
164. 14. eaft longit. v g
'    Qn the 15th we hacThard gales of wind, ppnder and
^|exee lightening.   Hove to during the ftormj^
On ;.Fb<
iF ft
"  '
On the 26th at night we made fail and paft an ifland
called Savage-Ifland^ difcovered by Cook in a former
On the aoth w§ fell in with one of that group of
jflandj called the Friendly Iflands. This ifland by the
.&a-tiv<es is calied Ana-inoca/ but Abel Tafman a 0utch
navigator who firft difcovered thofe iflands called it
1 Rotterdam: But 1 fhall d*ftfoguifh it *by the name o€
On the   30th we entered a road-ftead on the north
fide of thp ifi-md &.&d ca,me to an anchor with both fhips:
we were immediately furrounded by the natives in their
eanoe« m lufuaJ -among rail thefe  ifland^ .and without
csny ceiemony mMm$4 ifcfc -ft foee hrifk traffic with them
for their hogs tod tropical fruits, which they exchanged very eagerly for little ir-w fo&r,uments c<r almoft a-
&y ttetg  of fiturope^m -tnfe^ufafituBe, with which they*
«were fomewhat ccnfiideraiWy acquainted fr,pm  the yifits
ijpf foisaer voyages.
iQjPit-he 2dof JVfey we got fuch of our live ifock on fhof£
to g£a#e as had fcuw-e-i the long and diftreffing paffage
we   ha4 undergone from Mew-Zealand hither, particularly for want of water.   'We alfo fent a.guard on fhoi$
-and people to wood and water. |rAs this was the  firft
••opportunity  we had hitherto had of a free  intercourse
with/the inhabitants of the  fouthern  tropical  iflands.
-and as individuals were peileUed of a plentiful' fupply
of articles for traffic which they might difpofe of to fhf
illative for lefs than their real value and by that means
hurt the trade that refpe£ted the fupply of fhips provi-
fion, Gook laid fome reftri£Uons on private bargains until further orders, which  had a very good  effeclJ|We
remained here until the 4th of May when aftet a moft
falutary refreihment  of.our people and the   cattle w-^
had on board  befides  having ^procured a confideiable
fp ||g foppl)^8% t
fupply of pork which we falted ; we fet fail for a
group of fmall iflands within fight to the northward
called the Appy-Iflands by the natives. I think we
reckoned thirt^five of thofe iflands, but, except four
of them, they are very diminutive, and only reforted to
pccafionally from the larger ones- the principal:"of which
is called by the natives Calafoy, which is about thirty
miles in circumference and thick inhabited. We were
three days cruizing about amoag thefe" iilaiid¥.   And,
On the 17th of May we anchored at Calafoy,. where*
we remained until'the 25 th, and procured a fine fupply
©f provifions, and had a very friendly. interview with
the inhabitants. ft
On the 26th we fcg^in came to fail, and returned to
Anamoca, but naving very bad weather we did not reach
it until the 5th of June when we anchored in our old
birth: We tarried here only four days, and,
On the 19th fet fail for an ifland called by the natives Tongota boo, and by Tafman Amfterdam, as being
the largeft ifland in all that group, which collectively
we called the Friendly Ifles. Tongotaboo lying S. W.
about nine leagues from Anamoca we reached it the
fame night though we paffed through very difficult navigation, and anchored in a fine harbour on the north
fide of the ifland about one fourth of a mile fr$f^||p
fhore. The inhabitants who had heard of oufjarrlval
and expe£h'ng a vifit from us came off to us to the number of two or three hundred canoes bringing large fup*
flies of hogs and the provifions of the country^
|| On th£ 10th of June we carried two large tent®
two aftronomical tents and a markee a-fhore acpom^P
nied b$f a ftrong guard of marines, and erefted them^fe
a fpacious green encircted 1/ | grove of tall trees a|g
boui^^^; rods from the waternfide, which l^fnoifh ot*
& * a wffl OUCj fWM
our encampment on the eaft we had a beautiful lagoon
that reached feveral miles into the country on the
margin of which were disperfed fome houfes : On the
fouth a branch of the fame lagoon and on the weft a
thin tali woods in which was interfperfed feveral mope
houfes; after our tents were pitched and the guard
appointed Cook went on fhore attended by a chief called Polahow who was the fupreme governor of all thefe
iflands and invited him to his markee. Polahow was a
man about fifty-five years of age and about the middle
ftatuie, but exceflive fat and corpulent, yet active and
full of life She was exceeding good natured andhumane3
very feniible and prudent, and remarkably timorous :
He was attended by another chieE called Phenow, who
was one of the moft graceful men I ever faw in the Pacific ocean. He wasaboutx5 feet ii inches high, fle-
fhy but not fat, and completely *formed: He was open
and free in his difpofition, full of vivacity, enterpriz-
ing and bold, expert in all the acquirements of his country, particularly in their art of navigation, over which
he prefided, and what is efteemed among them as a
neceffary ingredient in a great character was poffoffei
of uncommon ftrength and agility; he was befides extremely hardfome, he had a large prominent eye full
||f fire and great expreffion, an aquiline nofe and a well
formed facer His hair which was. long, hung-after the
nianner of the country in thick buihy ringlets over hii
(houldeis: With all thefe accomplilhments he was extremely popular among the people, and the idol of the
fair, having himfelf one of the moft beautiful brunetts
for a wife that the hands of nature ever finifhed, ■ but
during our ftay he was feldom with her or,
his a£Uve foul was ever on the wing, and in his canoe which failed exceedingly fwift he would iri^wenty-
four hours fur round the whole group of iflands^W4'aJ«.
moft vifit them individually. If we loft any goods, and
they were carried either in land upon Tongota bo otf or
t© t
to any of the detached iflands our only confidential re-
fourfe was Phenow; or if any other emergency requir-r
ed difpatch, policy, courage or force, Phenow was the
man to advice and aft. fin fhort, without his particular allittance joined to that of Polahow our vifit at thii
large populous ifland would have been one continual
broil proceeding from the pilfering difpofition of the inhabitants, our methods of obtaining fatisfa£Uon and their
tumultuous and fa£ttous difpofitions: But that my accounts
of thefe two noble Indians may be entirely true and
impartial. I muft obferve that notwithftanding this general attachment to our intereft and friendfhip, which
did them fo much honor, and us fo much effential fer-
vice, they fornetimes fell into temptation themfelves
and did as others did. Howpoften, Phenow, have I
felt for Thee, the embarraffments of thefe involuntary
offences againft a*people thou didft as well love and
wouldft as foon have befriended when thou waft accufed
and flood condemned as when not, and at that inftant
would moft willingly have foared with thee thofe dif-
treffes which refultecf only from imputed guilt and ,4
theory of moral virtue thou cbuldft be no farther acquainted with, than from the dilates of uncultivajlbd
nature or imagine from the countenances of ftrangj^^^
more favage themfelves with all their improvement*
than thou wert without a Tingle one ©f themSJ
The converfation at the markee between Cook and
thefe two Chiefs could be carried on but very indifferently from* our ignoraneec&f the language which though
radically the fame as at New-Zealand and Otaheitee
yet differing inphe dial eel confounded us a ^good :|eal
at firft. It was however apparent that they $Nre -e&g.
*ft£mely friendly and difpoled to do us ayw||jgood
they could and as little ill as poflible for^^^|w in-
* timated plainly to Cook that it did not lay in hf| power to^ij^good at all. times on account of fus ^imerous
R mm fubje&s
'-^■•f '.   ;
fcbje&s who would he faid on fuch an occafion as our
vifit, even wrangle with one another and perhaps with
the ftrangers, and when they went out of the markee
Polahow to convince/ Cook' in a ftronger manner than
he could by words of his fincerity Ted him accompanied
ftill by Phenow td a fnug commodioiis houfe of his owrr
that wa-s fituated- in a thick embowiing fhade about'20
pa ces from one of our tents and made him an offer of if;
this Cook accepted, and afterwards made occafional ufe
of, and fometi-mes Polahow Jodged in it himfelf.
It was now near fun-fet, and Cook being defirousof
teaching the natives? (once Sob all?) what he expelled
of them lelative to them conduft at the te&fcs,, defired
Polahow a?nd Phenow to fignify to their people that at
the going down of the fun they rnuft retire and by no
means approach the ground they had giv&en us until it
again rofe or his guaftd woxaid feill them: Phenow in-
ft&ntly fteped on to the gpeen and proclaimed this* intelligence to the n^ivses* that were prefent who all jfpl
ftantly retired; at the fame time a picfeet^marcfeii while
the drum beat a retreat t© poffefe an advanced fpot
th^t commaiided|!a view of our encampment and the
(hips in. the harbour; this well timed! parad%had a very
goodeffe*H and wa^s a^mea-ms ever after of fupportihg* that
dignity and oftentation which much excells preceptor
force when applied to fuch wild untutored creatures
as thefe were.
ll'Cook invited Polahow and Phenow on board with:
him but only the latter went. Polahow declined the
offer on account of a; kind of afthmatic complaint that war
particularly troublefome to him in the night, but chiefly
from a view the good; old man had in lodging in his*
houfe to obforve the conduct of his people with regaNfe
tarn. It was juft dufk when they parted, and a* I fcrtjp
bteen prefent during part of this firft interview and was
;\l:..x .
detained on more by my duty I was glad he did not go
off and afked him to my tent, but Polahow <ch<*ferather
to have me go with him to his houfe, whet-e we wen*
and fat down together without the entrance $ we had
been here but a few minutes before one of the natives
advanced through the grove to the fkirts of the green
and there halted, Polahow observed him, and told im
he wanted him, upon which I beckoned to the IndtaJt
imd he eame to us; when he approached Polahow, he
fquated down upon his hams a»d put his forehead to the
foie of Polahow's foot and then received fome dire A i*
Jlfiais from him and went away and returned again very
cippn with fome baked yams and fifh relied up in fiefh
plantain leaves and depofited in a little bafket made of
palm-tree leaves, and a large cocanut foell of cleaiafrefh"
water and a jfmallerone of fait water, thefe he fat down
and went and brought a mefs of the fame kind and fat
them down by me.
Pe&ahow then defired I would eat, but p&efering lait,
which I had in the tent, to the fea-water which they
t$ed, I called Ae iffP-e guard and had feme ofti.tkatt
brought me to eat mth my filh, which were really moft
delightfully dreffed and of which  I eat very heartily.
Their animal   and  vegetable  food u drell|d in the
fame manner here as at the fouthern and northern tropical iflands throughout thefe leas, being all baked a-
meng hot ftones laid in a hole andjftovered over firft
*with leaves and  then with  mould*   Palahow w^g &d
*fyy <the chief who waited on him both with vjfp^als%$d
drlttki    Aftar he had fi-miftied^tfie remains w^^Sgfcd
#way by the chief in waiting who returned foon^ftej
with ttffo  large leparate rolls of cloth and^tv^|H^7J»
low woodon ftools.   The clothpwas for a covering while
a fleep, arid $be ftools to raife and w^^&^esS^&^
f|e do €>n a pillow J Thdftwere left wfthi^the ioulo
y BS-5
mm sstl
or rather under the roof—one fide being open. The
floor within was compofed of coarfe dry grafs, leaves
and flowers, over which was fpread large well wrought
matts. On this Polahow and I removed and fat down
while the * chief unrolled and fp*Yead out the cloath 5
after which he retired and in a few minutes there appeared a fine young girl about 17 years of age, who^
approaching Polahow ftooped and kiffed his great toe,
and then retired and fet down in an oppofite part of
the houfe. It was now about nine o'clock and a bright
moon foine, the fky was ferene and the winds hufhed.
Suddenly I heard a aumber of their flutes beginning
nearly at the fame time burft from every quarter of the
l&iurrounding grove:   And whether this was meant as aa
^Jfexhilarating ferenadeor a foothing foporific to the great
l?olahow I cannot tell, though in faft from the appearance of the young girl and other circumftaaces I muft
epnfefs my heart fuggefted other matters; but my heart
at that time wa« what Potehow's ought to have been
|fnd not what it wasr-I appeal to any one. Polahow
^Immediately on hearing the mufie took me by the hand
^Intimating that he was going to fleep and fhe wing me
ft%e other cloth which was fpread nearly befide him and
I the pillow, invited me to ufe it.     I pretended to ac-
I quiefce, but a bed of flowers only added to my uneafi-
nefe. As foon as Polahow had lain down, the girl approached him and fpread the cloth over him after which
Ihe fat down behind him as he lay upon his fide and
began one of the moft extraordinary operations I ever
before had feen or heard of, which was pa ting him on
the pofteriors with the palms and back of her hands alternately in a conftant and quick fucceffion of gentle
ftrokes which fhe continued with unremitted uniformity
and celerity until fhe found her lord faft'a fleep when
fhe gently rofe a^td went off. This performance lafted
about three quarters of an hour and both the novelty of
it and the fituatio^fl was inrefpe&rag a variety of ob-
W$m Wi     je$s
jJtfjif. t
jefl&jnd fentiments left me in a kind of liftlefs re^en%/
Whether  this ceremony refpe£Ved Polahow merely as C
mark of diftinftion, or whether the operationffwas  applied as a provocative to certain paflions — as a lulaby to
fleep, or to affuagethe embarraffments he wall-under in
that altitude fom his afthmatic complaints I cannot de-
determine.    Tt is true faid I, rifing from my reverie and
walking out into the   middle of the green in the  full
moon  fhine,   where   I   could extend my profpefla and
where the  founds that proceeded from the cirdumventu-
lating flutes   would more regularly pafs the ear.—It  is
true, that of all the animals from the polypus to man,
the latter   is  the moft happy  and  the moft   wretched^
dancing through life  between  thefe two extremes,   he
fticRifnis  head among theftars, or hisnofe in the earth,
or fufpended by a cobweb in fome middle  altitude he
hangs like a being indigenous to no fphere or usiitfor
any, or  like* thefe Indians he is happy beoaufe   he is
infenfible of it or takes no pains to   be fo.
On the ioth we got what few fick we had on flior^|||r      '
and alfo brought our cattle on fhore; we alfo eftablifh-
ed a mart upon the green before our encampment, and-M-
appointed particular perfons to traffic with the natives^
for   the  provifions   of the country,  and that the tradgft
fhould wholly centre  there, nothing was purchafed at'' ■$&
the fhips,   by this  means   we had every day a regular
fair exchange; the natives fet down in a circle  on the
outfide of the green with their goods, and our purveyors
walked round and purchafed ; they caqae ccnftantly every
day by feven or eight  in the morning and went reg&sjjgjj
larly and happily away before fun-dowri^n the eveflfeijg.
We had alfo our wooders and waterers and %il-makejS|
or&ihore, and everybody was bufily employed^ a rvj£^e
utmoft expedition made % getting ready feWea^(a*|t^^;
Afteg&the dSaifkets were over there being gener*iP|J^^
hour or two, and fometimes thofe before dark, :he na**^
£    \$m pftiv£$,
N a)
tiys^Ab pertain usiand exhibit their o^rt accbnfjpliftj
i^€r|t|^^4::^pini j Hatches at;^fe^ihg^ boating > "iff.'
P^tfier '^^t^^xcercifea,, of wlffch the'jf we^"|rfery; va%,
and^^^^icji they were by |lfe^
amongJall^h^jpe^e   we had #ver vfftred ^6efor#fer
1  after.   Thefe- ext^ttes, v^ie  ajj^ayjt'" petfous^^ii^t^
gre<*n within the^^cle, ^id among $e Indian fpe^^i^
there were a  cgifain. number of elderly|rieh w'KctflpMwV:
ed ove* aiid regulated the.exejcifo^ when one of tlw
wr#^l|ers ot; cqmb?t&nu ^asiairly.^^xp^lled^ tney"5gnm-
e^itvby a fhort fon^u^^tencjs,^feh they fung,/e^;
Pl&ftkig-th&t h© was fallen, ^Jy fallen,,.g£; that ^ Was
f-#|ly. conquered.,-, and, that, the. viSor  ^p#the fieltf ;t
from this ther^fj&u* no appeal, nor -Jpjeed didthey j^m.
,;tfj|want jp| fo^-among: theit rouj$|jff exe^cifes Ijjl^lk
fa^jp an$| of thea^xhojioric - gnyiciyj,. TOlitiou^ye yi^^fu)^
but prefervfogctheir tempers,. or^|ngfefs,irafo§ble3 tKan^
we generally^ar£-, q$it the ftage wi^itne lame goodn^^Sy
ture with which they entered it; when they wreftle they
i$$ize eaefcotherrby a ftrong! p&aited-girdle mad*, of the
fibers of- the cocoanuts and: wore round the waift f^
KSat' purpofe, and prefer ihe near: the fame o^rmions>in |
i^i^oo^teft that we db:in what we^all*hitg-fogipr fcuffling.jV
jin boxing their  mano^uviaasv a*e5 dMer^nrr^They havp
llwhrhands clinched- and bound round* feparately witfe
fmati cords which perhaps we^e intended to advent their..
I^iiching* each other, when clofly engaged and.prevent^
::*^bg foul pjay^ ot it,might be to preferve> the. joint^fdiS
the jS&gers efpeciaAly the thumb ftojti,being^diflocatedi^
^erl^pscttre bfeft-general, idea I can convey of,their at#ii
j$5tudta in' this exetcife is „ to, compare them with thofi&
iSt|he ancient gladiators of Rome* which they mud|Trer-
IP^l**! They -aieflrery exfteftand i^&pidUn thefe -pfar^
formances, but &$>they;Naxe:meag family efforts co^kil^^
and prowefs the^l^htfrme: no long^%hte|th-|^purpofet/
of* fuch a corijj&eatioii; is i?ii£wero^and^ the connbataRt aiSa
fooa as,he finds he fliali be Conquered is very  foldom
■    •■:'W.:..- .-,■•-   C: "fttCh*^ c
fuch an obftinate fool as to be b^t out off his fenfe|i®
M$ made feniible* he is f^!^t'^fetire8''ni'dft commonly
with a whole fkin:   But the^xercile of fhe clp> is not
fo, and as tl\efe conte|ts are verf^fevere and even dan*^
gerousWheyafiv feldom performi^ffvVe^ never faw h|rt
on^Bhftanlte oCit, but it was amoft capital one, Jfe the
* perform*^ were capital chaVaOers and though we expected the exhibition would be #ery foott/p^et it laflf-
^ aeat twen-ty; minutes, pr$ppfted Dw^^y^ f§ *ne
combatants in avo^^g ea<p others flows, fr^^tfhich
||*SJ& no lef§ violet th^p  artiul:    A&er  beiiig pretty
*y#ll buffeted about  the be^r,  a fortuitous ,$fow upoii
xjm head of one decided the njat^er and^the';tx)nque|5|l
cd was carried off, whUp the vi$qr elated with fuc-^fs
ftodd and enjoyed the fobfequent foouta of praife that
proceeded from the fpejftators: When thefe foouts end,-
ii the young women round the circle rofe, and fong,
and danced a fbort kih^tJof interlude in celebri^ion of
the   fcero^—But alas! what did ^m avail him when a
fon of Polahov^B entered the lifts brandifhbig an enormous club and expofing his brownylhbulders and that
arm that had fo long met with no rival, andjthat front
which wore the m^rks of maay a vi&ory.   This young
airtftef was a fpurious defendant of PolaHow's, and about
twenty-four > or  five years old and was fo well knajSrh
Hot only at Tongotaboo but among all the neighbouring iflands for his feats  withf the  club-that he could
$f late meet with ho competitor which was the cafe
httjiv, and after he had waited #n tie green u^®pfe|
had received two fjiouts, he retired; anil th% exhibit**
on ended:   He had one eye kn#|M oj^^^dfliis 'Jlptcl
aJiH body ha# begn at different P|ij^^^®^ffil^^P|e.
M^8 9i^jntire pieife oi[tcaJn^
J^m$ are|e^eanjf to be foirarsa^ell c^nd^^PPolaJ
aW* is generally prefent,  an$l wl^^::^M i^heleafo
$&& gfft who enter $m lifts v*||^^yj> wiH^fe^^^-
Z*W$* ^ tn^fr P^Ce arld cdmilllfenlvhira ^i|P^he
%m rafef ir
' '"'$•'
manner of the country, which is by^feting down croff-
leged before fim, and inftantlyjlifing agaia, and whe-
Blfther victorious or otherwife, before They quit the lifts
repeat the fame compliment. This exercife of the club
feems in all its parts to refemble that of the gauntlet
among the ancients and fo indeed do the other games
of wreftling and boxing.
Thefe llxhi bilions on the part of the natives were con-
fidered by usiri^t kind of dubious light for though they
evidently entertained us, we we|gpiot certain" they were
foiely intended for that purpofe^Mid if thc*y happened
to5§be numerous on any of thole-occjfions we had alwa#|jfc
the guard u^der arms.   The fpeftators on fome of thofjp
occafions amounted to above ten thoufand people. However we ne vet let them know by any fuperfluity  of pa^
rade or other means that we were jealous of thdjr numbers or   theiffboldnefs and fkill, though  we|bcertajpy
were, and prudence demanded it^^pte.,onlf| defence
Sj^as certainly our imaginary  greatnefs, and this wu^d
■finavoidably decline  if not preserved by feme iludied
me|ns.   It&Svas therefore determined t<|rprefervo and if
poflibie to  p#note this imaginary fuperioiity; and   as
nothing could be more   condufive to;acccmplifh it than
fomo extraordinary exhibition that would be incompre-
henfibly great to vp^rn, and without any hazard ofmif-
Jfe^iage on our part, we were refqlved to play off fome
of our fire-works that were brought from Woolwich for
feme fuch ocoafion ; this was made known to the natives at
the conclufion of one of their games,on which eccafion they I
expreffed great fatisfa£lion, and a night being pitched
upon, overy thing1 was prepared for the occafion.   The
natives expe&ed it would have been an heiva, as they
tall their games, at leaft fomewhat like their owli, and
according to our perfonal   appearance   anticipated  thj|f
fatisfaffion of finding us inferior  to them;   I^t in this
they were totally rniftaken, for when the firft /ky-racket
Ii   m* Pi afteided I
'afcended fl
off and ap
who remai
of the moft
'and Pheno*
fome other
not lefs aft
~ly have wo
to  themfel
their peopl
ways contir
Ky of his pe
Iand pacify
pe the reft
flower  pot
crackets, fl
were upon
Rhe enterta
perfe nothii
dersSfhey -
podrri'efs of
our mather
motion of
ceived a g:
ha pperied
and alfo  a
one half of feveral thoufand Tnmans-raa
aied no more that evening; fomeW tpofe
d fell prone upon the earth with tf^l^faces
id fome in other attitudes, but allexpleflive
xtreme furprize and aftoniftunent Polahow
who fat next to Cook and his officers with
diari Chiefs and women of diftin&iort, were
iifh@d than the multitude, and would'inftant-
ipedCook as a being of much fuperiqr order
s, and intreated him not to hurt Jhem or
adding that they were.friends and would <ftr
5 fuch; Cook affured Polahow that he notice fhould be hurt, and begged him tofpeak
life* people, and gsriiiade them to liay^nd
theheiva.   After this were exhibited fome
horrizon til wheels,   rofes,   water-rackets
>ents, &c. and it is h£rd to fay whet her they
I whole moft.terrified or delighted.    WTjift
nent ended'%id the affernbly began to $i£-
was heard but cries expreffive qf, the Won-
feen, the greatnefs of our hetya, and tlife;
\eir owhfMhdeed thistnd the eiifnbft|on Si
deal an%c'phifofophicaff^apparatusp atfj&ujr
tents, confirmed them in the fear and ad-
jr greatnefs; and theff circumftancefee-
t addition from an eclipfe of theft^ whirring our ftay-^his we foretold to them,
uainted them with the time itwould dif-
v.1* ■:•■'.
Thefe ci:
deed fjfcm
thofe of an
when occaf
tmftances joined with others fecured us in-
en infults but were ineffectual to pJ^|^|i
e diftant kind; thefts, and indeed^rolbbedes.
i offered, grew daily aftetftthe firft we^ekto
t firft the ifriter pofitions of Polahow ai^&ft^
ticularlyP now tended partly to aleviate thel^^p^p,
vonidSces Ml
^M^nl^u^ j^ thep^f^
ll^^gr^^Wjay with CojJ^, ^hp, as jhe was £$$££ of the
^j|jjj&;.¥as joft^ ^uenqed aioxe by ^c^irin^l^ hW
4to«t ¥?ur >n^iv€3 than ths fear J>f looting ihel' i&iend-
;mK* -9^ ^f^ftW^ftp^-^-!!?* °* *«?? hp-npi of b,eip|r.
^IffiP n,iej ^ t^e diftrifigtioii of im^^ht^al juftice »
#^fen4t^tuftfef remembered tj^t t\^e ability .Ojf p$r-
Jpg§4ng jt|ie fmportan^ errancl before ,us dejpen^ed very
-JMfifc || gipj entire % upe-A thje jpreqa^pjjs fvy^ie^ we
jri^^t 09^u-;e ^tomif^ej|nd oth^r ^jf^nd^s^he
^pyft ,o/ ^^f^uj^c^ ^^^5J?" jnxjpus, a^nd JE^cito^ujn
^e ^onCj|rnr|^tj. big perhaps po cpn^e^tiojrs ^tll
^^u^|^5 |eyejrit^jwh^ he ^medme3 t^fed towards tj$e
»atdyes cm thefe pccafions. and he #buld peAaps have
i|pie J^^t^vtp have ^opfidfi^d that t^ l^^kerllgp P^
•|^pfme ppj^ris. -^n^pg^pejgt jo/ extre||je^^^^^|^
nature J&enaedlto inform the hafiilted natives of life
.^yitji.Qf this i©?|xim |)y |}jp||i|iiifeftatfon of th^ir fu|>3fe-
J^eft reffn*tm^n^; fpr >pfoK w<^ pjit l^go^hcp''me
4pyt4 UPt §0 a^^ whe; e into th-e eou^ry upon j^nols or
|>lea|iire wit^o^: dag§f$f |t jyill ^n?^^4^.. P|f*iPfi-
ftlPr^ ^ $$$$£$f °( P^^ift1^?^ i.^j^e4 uJ^5jl1'e .Mi-.
l|V4Sr^9ff ^r^ft^^SI 9*^ fi^8ft4i?fl Wus pof?Jc <^n t^&
ip^c^s; jbfi-t aspne^as, foj^e^
^^juf^l fh^n ^me o^J^(| J lh^ll mention ^t. ^Wf^ffi
tyro ^^^wjs,a noj^je^ and hgn,thatj^e hiiff bfoug^^Toip
home at the expenceof much care and trouble; a^.|^ey
had been too long admired and gazed at by the people ^fot
fp wifo $he#? thei^ pwn, and th-e ©fjppr^unitjies that daily
re4 &? take them, were tpp f^yora^lie not tp deter-
min^ thjem |o mike tfeern Atph ?^"hc i^prnii|g after tjtey
,|n u^fprtunal^ ciccuriiftanee with^f |jh'$ exertlgns both
<ff fpliey and djfpt^hj f»n4 thg^f^if foot an p^qer frpp
rae ft^?? to the tents with orders immediately tc*|put
W: W, 9$ "^ poor I
I^^Pol^w undet i^i^^^f^t^^f^i Slfifer 2$$tt
a^"uF^4hcr'bac|: bf thofe W^^^^^^^^^^P:
Pn^tiw ^ct—buf ^Plieribw IfopjAJhed' on" £ttt^of<?*$ iTS?"'
abl^^^ had ifr $8 ftdftti"tfirffc^
^^^^™iiy tp^jputfu^im, lb *w£te gH^to'ffeut^'Poft^
ho|^^Ho really Mappet^tf at tn^83time*"tb^jpfein^nbceW.
It%a£ypd^^ Polahow, ib\
b^^ebalfin^l^ ] a fejhgeY ' ;|jl* hisv owti diiminibris* " In^nw^
©wn hllul^^
fajM^timf untorifcious 6#any4 dfehSttit:' Indr&ftcf ^}W^
more by Jherwfeepirig; andp difeac^eil  multitil|b aboiif
him, arid the^fcbVing iriftgaties d|f fils Tit^'^gr^ri^^i 0^
i^guard| ahff ftiirmore WhtfrThe faWthe" ahgr^dc^
;#p^ar%ft^ from the fltfps: But iibt^lh^J
ftanding this conflift he faluted Cook td fhe4* gfeateil*1
advantage aiid-manifefted a dignity tint even did honor to his perplexeoTfitua^bri.   .Aif eVeht of fuch import--
aqfier fopn^lt^0$^a great c°ncbuff£ cif^^
■■jj^ who formed*irf a body "'ijft-h-e"*a3*
jacei^^rpve/^nd fifemed deteriS^ed tb"f efoueth^ir prince*
otkp.Ȥp^ h^|Ke attemptk Cq^ faw; this* with CplicerhK
part^laima« it oont^pQ^d him ijrT his cfjfnfon* fi &•*,
greeab'le tojbis* jiipprtancethafthV nitiyelsf ^5§ld"ne]^^
dire at&^him,rancihewa8 deterfmriW iManftlyfto ^^^
it^|ut? lieverthelef^
arif£ from too lS^cft* p^Hpita^y|j|^
to advi^iis.people fj^^ni^tv^;aj^||^ him' fcKAt^fn-'
foon as |-|^gp^
fined|#Spould bj| '{e'^/lL^if^b^^ hrs: ^ofl^aW
tempte^^ do" f|^ Jbr£^ thS| jfeT w^o^^hf^tl^^^v
«a$id^eafi% deftroy* thlmWaM*'t1^elif6ide'te^k'^^^^^:-
to bea,t|to^ arp& and theTO^fd^^
t\$eed a nulL1|}|Mii^^ n%S*ftfr ^^^^^^^^
poin ted .at Ti|S||K|p^^ a'rjf (hV lf§9|f^
fyifi& \ ^^^^^^^0%- ft ile^f^ tft^" g Ui^K^Pi^ ■ ■
il#i ^ii&4« i^ our opiiratfons fff^Fln©t*6t3y^^pbut"
til the
^^ia w
til L
l K
chiefs. The old. man rofe and fpo&e to his chiefs, from
which we could collect that the power of our IJre-wprfcl^
were much infiftedon, as well as the immediate dangefc
of h|s own life which they could not refcue and the promises Cook had made him, for which reafon he defired
them to withdraw, which ho^evef they did with great
reluctance. gA partial peace being thus effected, Pola-
how's diftreffes began to fubfide, and though h<|was
not altogether indebted "to Cook on that account, yet
hc^Was willing to exprefs h|s gratitude, though it was
enly ^facrificing to his timidity. He therefore defired
tha liberty to fpeak with fome of his chiefs, whom he
dispatched after afhort conference to contrive fome way
to appeafe the threats of Cook, and if poffible procure
him his liberty •
The next day PhenSw having heard of the fituaticn of
Polahowvand finding himfelf circumvented by the very
means   that |Nre moft diftreffing   to him,  returned in
fpite of fhame and all the contending paffions that fluQtrSt-
ed in his manly heart to deliberate his lord and friend Po-
lafiowj when he came to the tents grief,/forrow, remorfe
kt& fear were foftrongly delienated in his whole appearfe
ance that it was impoflible for Cppk himfelf not to feel
a fympathetic diftrefs, efpecially from his interview with
Polahow, whofe feet he wet with his tears and wiped
them v^iththe hair of his head ; asfoonir& thefe emotions
had {ubfided he told Cook he mould have  the fowls be-
fore fun down, and begged him inftantly to releafe Polahow, which Cook ventured to comply with, and the guard
from this quarter was accordingly taken off.   But Phenowv*
as pru<|e.otas valiant, perceiving by the methods Cook
bad taken in this matter tnat it was a circumllance of g^fet
importance in our eftimation for them to make j*ree vSth
©ur property wljttjfyit our confent, and tliit it copfe^d
tke idea of foame and guilt on thofe who did, and that I
he hamfelf being a chief of great diftin&fon, it Would
render the fhame, if imputed to himftill more flagrant^
was determined not only to throw off the odium of the
imputation from himfelf by laying it at the door of fome
obfcure perfons but by a munificient prefent to C<§6k
to preveql any enquiry who thofe unknown culprits were,
or if they fhould finally be forgiveri: thefe were Phenow'a
intentions, and he took care immediately to fet them
out to the beft advantage with Cook ; and he knew be*
fides that he had many friends among the ftrangers,
which was true, for every body loved Phenow. Accordingly he difpatched his fwiftfailing canoes to fome of
the neareft circumadjacent iflands to procure what he
knew would be highly delectable to Cook—a quantity
of fine red feathers, and befides this they were to come
loaded with provifions, which had for fome time paft
from our feudes with thfc natives been geting fcarce»
On the other hand Polahow had difpatched number-*
lefs little troops into the country upon the fame bufi-
nefs. The news of this difturbance arid the happy ter*
mination of it had now become very diffufive, and the
next day we had a vaft concourfe of people as well as ari\
accumulation of provifions, fuch as we had never be*V
fore feen, nor could have concieved, for, befides the
provifions that had actually been fent for, thofe who
came merely as fpeftators of what they knew would
produce fome kind of entertainment*-had alfo brought
fomething, and hardly any body came empty handed.
Cook anticipating the events of the day had made fuch
regulations on board and on fhore as he thought ne-
*ceffary, and having received the loft fowls according
to Phenow's promife and being full of th^jjdea of receiving the fupplies of provifion promife^ him by polahow and Phenow—came ort (hbre the neilt day drfNjEjfed,
with a number of his officers, attended by twb,F^^^
h^rns, and made it ori his part a d2/ of pftafure.r^^^ Si
8-      '
[   The^two parties fent out  by Polahoto ahd PhfenoW
arrived nearly together, about n o'clock in" the forenoon,
and their approach was foon known by the movetoent*
/of the people.   Polahow's party arrived firft and entered
upon the green before our encampment in pairs through
an avenue among the people, and making a very formal
and regular proceffion, they retired after they had disburdened themfelves of their loads, by the fame rout in
which they entered.  The manner of feheir bHnging their
loads was upon a fhort pole carriedbspon  the. fliotrideri
jqi two men from the middle of which Hung fufpenffled the
j provifions,  fometimes  cohfifting of bafkets  orPifh, of
bunches of yams, bread-frnit,> planta ins,   bananas, fhdd-
docks, cocoanuts, and every now and then a hog; 4sjrid
every couple  as they retired tufned tdwards'Polfehow
: as, he  and his   chiefs fet among Cook and his officers,
and complimented him..   This'ptbeeffion was hot'liiflf
over before Phenow's men entered the oppofite fide df
the green  in the fame manner,Wbut the firft of them
were fo gorgeoufly fet off with a prons and mantlets of red
•and yellow feathers that they entirely took of our Mat-*
Antion for fometime to Polahowys men, who neverthe-
lefs were inuch more numerous than his.    About two
o'clock this proceffion of wealth ended, and Cook with
;his officers, Polahow, Phenow, and a numerous company of the refpeclive fufos dined.    In the mean tfaie the
natives werdSiforming two lofty edifices,   compofed of
.fticks laid tranfverfly  over each other in  four fquares,
beginning with a bafe about 12 feet,  and contracting
SjM gradually until it rofe about 40 feet high: The ori«
$g|hey called Polahow*,  and the other Phenow,  and the
former was the higheft;   thefe they filled with yams to
the top,   and to crown the   oblation  deposited on the
fummit of e$fch two large barbacued hogs:   After din-
|jperffhere was a grand heiva,   as they denominate all
their gamesj-fcfeut this was a kind of war-dance,   and
differ eat
■ r
different from any thfog we had hitherto feen among
them, but had nothing in it that deferves particular
defcription, though it feems to be in the higheft eftim-
ation among them. In the evening the people withdrew, bit fome of them living alftoo great a diftance-
to return that night flept at a little diftance in thc
The next day we were fully employed in carrying
part of the provifions on board, nor did we complete
this bufinefs under two fucceeding days: Our decks
were full of hogs notwithftanding we had been killing
and falting night and day, and we had got full yams
enough to laft us two or three months. We were fully
convinced that we were ftrangers to the unbounded pfentt
of thofe happy iflands, and Cook not to be behind haj|§
with thofe two munificent chiefs, prefigure! them with
a ho?fe and a mare, a bull and a cow| and tws goats,
befides other things of the greateft value to them, and
with which they were highly delighted, fl' ^
We had now been at Tongotaboo 26 days and pof-
fibly fhould have remained there longer, but for the fupply of provifions we received by this laft prefent from
Polahow and Phenow, which enabled us to' fail immediately.
On the ?th of July we got every thing on board, whei^
we invited Polahow, Phenow and feveral other chiefs,
and made them all rich prefents, particularly the two
firft. In the afternoon we took our leave of them, and
unmoored and came to fail plying to windward through
a different paffage to the eaftward, but meeting with/,
obftru&ions, did not clear Tongotaboo until the morn-
j|g of the 19th when we reached the Ifland Eaowheer
Trhis alfois one of the Friendly-Iflands, and was called
by V
liilB :
by Tafman Middleburgh. It is about 30 miles S. E.
of Tongotaboo, and is a moft beautiful ifland, thick
inhabited, and between thirty and forty miles in cir-*
cumfeience: We ftayed here until the 18th, when we
weighed, failing E. S. E. as near as we could lay: Our
appointed rendezvous in cafe of feparation being the
Ifland of Otaheite, and as we had nothing very inte-
refting on our paifage thence, the time may not be mif*
approved if we give fome further defcription of Tongotaboo* This ifland lies in lat. 21 19 fourh, and longit.
184 *o eaft from the meridiaa of Greenwich, from which
we always calculated: It is about 130 miles in circumference, but of an irregular form: It is very low
like moft of theFriendly-lfles, and exceedingly woody
and the foil beyond comparifon rich and exuberant:-.
iWpffords but very indifferent water, and isiubje£\ed to
heavy dews,'and we had while there the fhoek of an;
earthquake; the furrounding foores and the foundings
n^r the lan4 are ail coral rocks; the internal parts of
the ifland as well the outfides of it are covered with 3
kind of lava, which is the cafe with moft of the i/lands
in this ocean. The inhabitants like thofe of the other
inhabited iflands we vifited in its neighbourhood are a
very fine people, exceeding in beauty, in ftature, ftrength,
and the improvments of their mental capacities any
*>f the great variety of people among the iflands feat-,
tered throughput this orean: If this can be an exception, they are indeed not quite fo light coloured as at
Otaheite and the Society-Iftes : The manner of their cultivating their land exceeds even the inhabitants of fome
elands we afterwards difcovered and called Sandwich-
Iflands: The pains they have taken to clear up the
woods when we cpnfider the difadvantages they muft have
labored under for want of hufbundry implements, is a-
ftonifliing, and as ftrong a proof of their unlimited industry, at the elegwee in which they have kid it ouj|
and [
2nd otherwife improved it, | of their rural tafte and
gocd judgment. Thefe inelofures alfo indicate feparate
property among them, which was a certain intimation
i* my opinion of an energeticjurifprudence andatoereaf-
ing civilization.
Their language is radically the fame as that which
pervades all the tropical iflands in this part of the o-
cean, and I may more particularly fay lo not only of
their animals and the common productions of nature,
but of their manners and cuftoms throughout. A minute
detail of their hiftory jn thefe refpe£U would be un-
neeeffary as that of Otaheite or of Sana*wich-Iflands,
of which I fhill treat more largely hereafter, will apply to them with the ftricleft propriety in every thing
that concerns a reader who makes his fpscul at ions upon
a m°re general and comprehenfive fcale than thofe who
are pleafed even with a repetition of things of no more
«onfequence in their firft relation.
On the'i 3th of Auguft we made the ifland of Otaheite about 2 leagues diftant. |||
On the 14th we flood in for the land and anchored
in a finall bsy on the eaft fide of the ifland called by
the natives Otaheite-peha. We were immediately fur-
rounded by the inhabitants in their canoes, and the little
village within the bay was full of people dancing
and runing about with joy at our arrival, which was en-
creafed when they found it was Cook, or Tutee as they
pronounce it; who was known among them from a former
voyage here. A boat was foon hove cut and Cook with
other gentlemen and Omai went on-fhore, wh#re mey
were very much furprized to find a large woode||,crcpr>
liJUout 9 feet high ercfted in. the villagej|w8|fc. a|§in-
J|£jf|tion j^the- latin language, importing that in 3p^^
^^ly^/pwo Spanilh fhips had been there, and^k^
j^-^mBufr t [3       ■ ■   '.
Ii "II
..II 4 $f    ft    1 <■..""' ■•■
p-tffeflion of thetiftand in the name-of hiscCatitolic Ma-
jeftyw This was alfo confirmed by. many fubfequeig^
apperarancea as^fpell as from the informations of the in-
habitants. At a littfe diftance from, this, they found, m
houfe built with boards a little in the European ftiler
and within it a large mahogany cheft with a Spanifh lock
ta it, this the natives readily opened andfhewedus feveral Spanifh garments, which they faid belonged to a
man the Spaniards had left there, who was r^ir dead—
and gave us furthermore to under ft and that the Spaniards
had taken three of the natives with them, when they
wesjt away, and when we afked where they came from
they pronounced the word Rem a, which; we made no
doubt was Lima in Spanifh America.
We alfo found afterwards that the Spaniards had left
feveral American hogs and a bull and a cow, among
them, but the two latter were dead. What the purport
of this vifit from the Spaniards could be time muft dif-
cov^r. |||
When €*ur boat returned they brought off the croft
the Spaniards had erected—eraced their infcription, and
after^puting on one in favor of his Britannic Majefty
erected it-again in the place from which we took it.
The next day we had a number of vifitors, among whom
was a fifter to Omai, who came to welcome her brother
to^Kis native country again; but the behaviour of Omai
on the occafion was confonant to his proud empty ambitious
heart, and he refuted at firft to own her for his fifter;
the reafon of which was, her being a poor obfcure girl,
and as he expe&ed to be nothing tut king, the connexion
would difgrace him.
Jdn the ztd of Auguft we unmoored and came to fail
ftetringfor the old rendezvous, a bay called by theTia-
t*ves Mattavai. and by us Port-Royal, from its excel*^
lency as a harbour. On t
-■-,   On the 23d both fhips entered  and <moored abQflfc
>nbon in Mattavai-Bay.    We were immediately I vifittfd
'according to* cuftom by the natives intheirn«anoes,^ho
were almoft frantic with joy to fee us^arld>without^Btty
ceremony ran down between dufk crying out {&&{&&*
of their old acquaintance,1 many of-whom' they feUtfdarid
embraced vdHnr the greareft affection. ■ Oapt. Cook a*rid
JL,ieut. Gbre were particularly recognized, arid foundmore
t>ld'acquaintance than they knew how to -difpofo W-fth •
in fhort the fhip"was* fo crouded and confuted that*we
could attend tof no duty the remaining pa rt of the day
Cook fairly   gave it up as  a day offeftivity, not orify
-to the O'taheiteeans* but to his own people pa^tfea4afiy
thofe who had been there before who We're? apparently
andmj*ny in reality as much and perhapshmofre pifcaftd
than if they had been mooredJ in any part in Great-
• On the t4th we fent*all mr tents, faffls;wate^afts
-.had whatever  ftores wanted airing or fffepmringrshe
tents were erefted on the-famefpot where 'theyfera^-
ly vfrere, and a guard of marines fet over the whole.
I This ifland has fo often been viftted by the Engiah
French and Spaniards,! particularly by thefortner*wkb
firft difcovered it between twemy and thirty v*as*
ago together with theiiflands in the neighborhood
its hiftory now as far as could be obtained is almoft S
j verfally known ; but as every vifiter fur-nimes fome new
additional circumftances, thefe ought not to be omit-
tea\ and are what I fhall chiefly confine myfelf to, topper with a general defection of the Country, its in-
*abriams :and manners for the information of fuch^s may
»ot yet have been made acquainte&to|h them.
Mattavai-Bay is fituate in latitude, i^^ofeb^h
^dfojig,*i*eaft.   The ifland tahtnt oilfi^^^I
ill5*; m
' '      C . ;        l   f§   I   ;     ;'C:    "1
lifts of twjf petiinfulas, nearly of an equal  magnitude,
and is about  160 miles in circumfeience||the form being
fomewhat irregular;  the internal parts of the ifland are
high and craggy, but towards the   fei the land either
^nfifts of gentle Hopes or level plains that reach   the
fea, after which it protulerates in a continued bed of
coral, which like a border furrounds the whole.    This
is the cafe with all the ifhnds   in the neighbourhood,
and this invariable uniformity in their conformation i$
remarkable.   The  country is very  fertile,  particularly
the plains  where the inhabitants refide ;    it   produces
bread-fruit,    cocoanuts,    bananas   of   thirteen    forts,
plantains,  and fruit not  unlike an   apple,   fweet   potatoes, (though not in plenty) a few yams   and  fugar-
canes; befides a number of curious plants, and the moft
of thefe the  earth produces fpontaneoufly.    They have
no European fruit, garden fluff, pulfe, legums or grain
©f any kind; perhaps the bread fruit may deferve a particular description.—It  grows  on a  tree of about the
fize of a middling oak with large leaves deeply finuated,
and when broken from the branch exubes a white milky
juice, the fruit is about the fize of a childs head and
nearly ftaped  liked it*; it is covered with a fkin the
^rface of  which   is reticulated,   and it has   a fmall
core; it is quite white, and when roafted or boiled has
the confiftence of new wheat-bread,  and refembles it
in tafte only it is fweeter.   It abounds alfo (though in
no great plenty)  with hogs,   dogs,  and poultry,  all
which are tame;   and upon  the coafts are plenty  of
■fifh. -r-.'■ "M
The inhabitants are of the largeft fize of Europeans,
the men are tall, ftrong well limbed and fairly fhaped*
The women of fuperior rank among them are alfo in
general above our middle fize;   but thofe  of the 1$$,
ferior rank are below it, fome of them are quite fmaIf;
which defeat in ftature may pio)>ably proceed fk#M#heirv
1 early
m t
•tarly commerce with the men in which they differ from
their fuperiors. Their complexion is a clear olive or
brunette and the whole contour of the face quite hand^
fome, except the nofe, which is generally a little inclined to be flat.- Their hair is black and courfe. The
wen have beards, but pluck the great eft part of them
out; they are vigorous, eafy, graceful and liberal in
their deportment, and of a courteous hofpitable difpofi-
tion, but fhr#vd and artful. The women cut their
hair Ihort, and the men wear theirs long. They have
a cuftom of ftaining their bodies in a manner that is
univerfal among all thofe iflands, and is called by them
tatowing; in doing this they prick the fkin with an in-
ftrument of fmall (harp bones, which they dip as ^^a-
flon requires in a black compofition of coal-duft and
water, which leaves an indelible ftain. The operation is painful, and it is fome days before the wound ia
well. %fr   ■■       c. ..■.-■■'■       ^        -
Their cloathing confifts of cloth made of the inner
rind of the bark of three different kinds of trees: The
Chinefe-paper-mulberry, the bread-fruit-tree, and a kind
of wild fig-tree, which in the conformation 6f different
forts of cloth are differently difpofed of by ufing one
fingly, or any two or all of them together. The principal 'excellencies of this cloth are its coolnefs and
foftnefs; its imperfeftions being pervious to water and
cafily torn; and they fometimes, efpecially if it is wet,
weir fine mats of which they have a great variety.'
This cloth they wear indifferent waysjuft as fancy leads
them, but very feldom cover any part of the body ex-
tiept about the loins, and their is little difference in
this refpeft either with regard to jex or conditionvunlefs
it be in the quantity put on, which is generally the
greatef* on the people of fuperior raik; neither do the*
4bv«H;the feet, or feldom the head, not this part only
1|? G with wr%
with a temporary kind of bonnet made ima few mlnutef
of palm-tree leaves, which they fling away an hour after|
At one of their heiva's indeed ©r on fome fuch occafton
when the women are dreffed, they *taB a kind of turban
on the head which they highly eft&eni; it' confifts of
human hair plaited in threads, fcarcely thicker than
fewing filk, aadfis when extenuated feveral hundred
yards in length, The children of both ftxes g© quite
naked until they are four or fivt years- oM. \
The houtfes  or rather dwellings of thefe people   arfc
ffmpl-e ftfti-flures, but ha v* an ftfir-ot n&atnefs and el«?ga*n*c%
snd frre very *^11 calculated for the climate $ they £?<$
gene>r%liy of an oblong fquare, arad pne #£ a middling-
fize is about 30 feet long and 10 broad $  t|ie rpff ift
raifed on three rows of pillows   paEQllel t& $a#h other
one on each fide and the other in the middle; the re®£
eonfifts of two flat fides terminating in a ridge,' an$ i$
thatched with palm-leaves^4he floor is Covered with dry
grafs, over which Is  fpread matts,  on wfoich they Jit
by day and fleep by night, andevtfry thing ispreforv-
ed exceedingly neat.
The food of the inhabitants is much thegreateft part
of it vegetables, of whick the bread-fruit the principal- part. Thechiefs eu but little pork, the commonalty lefs and the wome-a none, unlefs by ftcalth. Dogf?
and fowls are their moft frequent difh| and the dogs
are preferable to #ieir fowls; they are indeed a very
fine difli, efpecially cooked in. their way.. The procefs
is Amply thfe, while the animal is dreffing they dig a
hole about two feet deep, in which they kindle a lire
and heat a quantity of Jiones, when they are fufficient-^
ly heated they take out about half of them leaving the
r«ft to cover the bottom of the hole, the dogpv when
cleaned and dr«fTe.d is wraped up with feveral folds of
|r^fe;J. 1
^reen plantain leaves and laid in the hole, then the
remainder d>i the ftones ar^jfid around it and the lighteft
)pf themupon the top of i|, then another quantity of leaves
afe laid thick over the whole, and laft of iff the whole
is covered over with the mould. If the animaMslarg^
it will remain two hours, if fmaller a lefs time before
it is prepaftd. ~ This is the oily method the^ have of
cooking their food, whether flefli, fifo, fowl or fruit;
but the fmaller fiih are eat raw, and falt-water is their
only fauce.
For drinjfjHiey have in geriepl nothing  but water
or cocoanut-milk:    But they  moftly uie  water c|nl^
They have a drink comprefled from the rootxf a plant
they call ava ; but this rather than exh|ieratet
fthaiigh-it is ufed by  them as a fpirituous drink: /This
howev#-is feldom drank by the poor fort, and never by
thi women, tplefs very fee re tly.   They are neat both
in cpikihg arid in eating  almoft to an extreme.   The
men and women never eat together,  though it be hut-
band and v$it|e, nor do the men generally eat out of the
fame, dilb*   They eat with great voracity though they
confume feit a moderate quantity, and notwithftanding
their mouths are crammed as full as they can contaii^g
yet   are  they very   convertible  and  full   of   talfei^t
their meals^f Preparatory to all their meals it is a cu-vl'
ftom to lay afide a little modicum of what they are eating in fome by-place which they do as an offering to,,
their god or gods.     After meals ht mid-day they gen*-
<aU^fJleep;  indeed  the are extrkmely indolent,   and
fleeping and eating is almoft all they do.
||/f^e^m1nements>|Te mufic, dancifig, wreftlifg and *
Itoxirig^l .which a.i| like thofe at Tongotaboo.    JSp
*S^3£:language afOtaheitee is th^%me that is^okeia
jij^lout ^D^e fbuth-fea iflands, frid wlfi therefore
MZSESis 3 m
v fi
ferve as a fpecimen for the wholly but how l£ fhould
equally correfpond with that of New-Zealand is ftill
more remarkable, and I have on that account added a column of the New-Zealand language oppofite to that
which contains the Otaheitee language f the words in
each column have their fignification expreffed in'Englifo
in a third column.
v Otaheite.
• Taata
Pa parea
Hea jjjg
War on
Tea ta
Wa hinee
Ma eau wee
Terr ing a
! Tahai
Ono >
....     vKngluV
A Chief   -■
A Man
/A, Woman
The Head
The Hair
The Ear
The Fere head
The Eyes     ;
The Cheeks
The Nofe
The Mouth
One    :W\-
By this fpecimen without adding a great number of
words it appears to demonftration that thefe two languages wer$ aboriginally the fame and will hav^its
influence in fupporting the conclufion that the people
whomake ufeof it were alfo originally the fame.—That
the inhabitant* of the fouth fea iflands aie the fame
people with each other and all derived from the fame common fouice is beyond doubt, but from what fource is yet
Q6s t
difficult tb {fifterl&ine. If we endeavour to determine
the queft^9i ^f>y reafons founded ©n the analogy of Ian*
guage, as vral as manners we fhall moft certainly conclude that they all originally came from the weftward,
that is, from Aflia; but if we give due weight to the
thoufand adventitious circumftances that attend a fortuitous emigration as well as the more folid and rational confederation of the fituation of thofe Mes, particularly refpe&ing the winds, as well as a variety cf other
caufes, it is as probable and perhaps more fo they came
from the eaft ward, which is America. ItJbpens a wide
field for fpeculation however, and as the objefl refpefts
the ways of God to man upon a large feale of enquiry,
men of every eaft will purfue it with equal curiofity. I
never' invite the mifanthropift to the curious enquiry,
but perhaps fome future occurrences my elucidate the
matter.    ;   V ' ..       ,Jt'\ . ■'." ,'"   '
As to the religion, laws and government of the people
much has been faid about them by former voyagers,
and in truth too much, efpecially about their religion
which they are not fond of difcovering, and therefore
when urged on the matter have often rather than d^$*
pleafe-thofe who made the enquiry told not only different accounts, but fuch as were utterly inconfiftent wiffe
what we knew to be true from occular demonftration.
They affured us for infta&ce that they never ifacrificed
human bodies, but an accident happened that contradicted it and gave us the full proof ofgit, its operation
and its defign ; which were thQ fame as Ihave mentioned
at Sandwich Ifl ands, and was anoblatfcn to the God ©f
war made previous to that undertaking. In fhort the
only ftandard that feems juftifiable ta^dge by is what
we faw prafliced, that was obvious andithe i^|erences
that naturally followed could not well be mifui^ieiftood.
a t
( '
t tii
TheJ|rbelieve the immortality pfthe.jfcM ^ leaft its
c|iifl|jnce in a federate ftate:   But how^j-jfexjjft^ whether as a mere fpiritipal fubftance or wjiet^r;itis united
again to a corporeal ormaterial form, aad what form is un-
cejta^n j it fe fupppfed they have notions of tranfimgia-
JlQ|i£ our conjectures originate from obferving that uni-
v®§l?h conftant and uniform regard which they pay in a
Jgf&er or lefs degree to every fpecies of fubordinate being, even to the minuteft infeft and the moft infignificant
reptile*   This was never efteemed & philosophical fenti-
*fc<t»t, or a mere dictate  o| nature, becatife the people
$$j$p entertain thefe notions are not led to embrace them
fi^m the unbiaffed impulfes of nature,whtch would lead
them to regard thek own fpecies more than thofe of any
other.   It muft-jtherefore be from other motives, a||d know
ftirip^^ifo probable as religion or4fuperftition,  which
f^re indeed fynonomeus terms when applied to thefe people,   befides it is wellknown to have been areligioojs
fentimeatr among many other people both ancient and
modern who claim the appellation of civilised.   It exif\s
now among feveral Afiatic fe£fcs both eaft and weft of
$i\e Ganges particularly among the Bangans fo called«
fram abftaininj; from the ;ufe of all animal food:   It ia
well  known that fome tribes in Afia have built hof-
pitfclsfor certain fpecies of fubbtdt&ate fefciags.  ^   >   ,
ife The Ckafaeilean* do indeed eat animal flefla: Eut it
is ©frtasti they do no£ allow their women to eat much
•fit, and that either dp riot tntiv-erfally eat of it: We
Inow tk^No'^Pptn inft$nse« whfc*<ein they do not,
and thofe refpeS tteb birds: Th^Kingfiflier and the
ileron: They are befides vgry obfervant of the manner in wifieh they kill tb& animals they do make ufe
srf# endeavoring ito mitigate the paiigs *f the dying anv*
iM*, and alfo tb (often fche aft that deprives if of iiM||
For which purpofo they ftrangle or drown them,||and
living previoufly difpofed of the animal fo as they are
fare it will die—they run out of  fight,  and leave it
until I
until expired. In other refjp^s tltiffy'-if^ihsi-d tKif^-^Sd.
ftill furtjifer: There are a great mftny'tttt* #boiat tWifc*
dwellings, but though a tat fhbi&ld fteal ft**o one o^hei^
difhes of food and deffroy it, or fhould} they ei? fhetP
cloath or do any other of thofe mlfcheviouS -Wlfcfesiffl&y \
are 'ii$8£ted to, and fhould lhft*y catteh hiiti in tlierfa££s
W Would only flgnify his d-ifpteafure-elfey waving his0
Kaitti to it v^ry friendly and politely fo'lte £one^ Ma^A^
Wftfcn they Tarer|3hmg by a flj* or muf&rfo they t>ni(3
frighten it away.
If the fl^tem of tranfmigration forms ai^r partfcrf tte'
Otaheitean religion,  it is  likly to  eonipiofe a   coi*fi**i
derails part, if not-the whole of if | ifoifc caii)be reduKi
cedto any fyftem aea^l^One argoa^eiufe in^g teSrerfM
ality ;aM fttiQ obfervance among the p$o$&p®pii ana*.:
ther is, that &l! the c&ftoms of mankind? appear fo h&
derivative and trad-itiohary,  and th^thi^ fend»en$ ml
religion exlfts in Afia, from wheaoe k>'ii probable S&
emigrated with  the peop'e,   andl tffk tfaa fehtimeRi,?
where it does exift, and ori^inafiy did exift,   does,; tsel
originally did form a fyftem as materially' diffid&rft*m
my other as fyftems gefje-rally are a**d perhaps mo&r
fo as the combination ofth&fe fontfments <whic& fo rait were whenj&imarily promulgated the moft wjM faa-
eiful, ihno&sifr, mifohievous, fubtile, awl ^refore the,
moft  cfcri&us opinions that  ever entered the  headi h*£
that child of contradictions, fo well knpwa by the nsy&Q,
ef Man to Conceive of: Why, what ama^ag «jaantitie*>
ef beef, mutton, pork and fowl hath it faved in Indo^
ftan; and on the other hand how hath it mcrtafed tJMfc
frolifle gerieratioii of flies, mufquetos, batts, tasa^f^tes^
toads and fnakesj. Ar#*ot  the plains of Siamr,   Pegr*;
and Aracan rendered th^ moft deie&able iputsma eai&H
by iif^ ^^ '
; c '   ■   "    ;       #. -       '- #They.
vjjLffl ■mil
'-'■/■.*■■ V'■:'.  I-- s^   I     ■    /     " v
They have other religious cuftoms that as plainly m*7
dicate their fource as this,  but they are fimple, detached, individual and various ; they feem to be fragments of many different  theories:   To unite them if
poffible, would? difcover their abfurdity, and they ieen^
to be kept by the priefts for  charge:   circumc|fion is
•n*^ of them; though in Hawkefworth's compilation o§[
^former voyage it is faid not to be a religious cuftom:
B*i J£ Cook had then  taken  it for granted that |he
Otaheiteans were the greateft lyars ©n earth efpecial-
\f when queried about their religion he would not have
believed their report and to fay that the prepuce of the
male was abfcinded merely from  motives of cleanli-
»efs was to fay nothing even fuppefe it had that effect.
If it had been enjoined the  Otaheiteans to%ut of their
nofes fet religion fake, and they had faid-'Ae amputa-:
tion was from motives of cl^anlinefs,   the ft-^y would
have been much more plauiible: And as for the particular form of the incifion,  it is not fo different from that
fiow ufed among the Jews, as theirs may be from the
form of the operation by father Abraham:  Befides, they
have the fineft inftruments to perform the ceremony and
fhe Otaheitean lias only an oyfter-fhell;   and the inem-^
ber is a delicate, a nervous and fenfible member.   Sa->
Ct^cing is another of  thofe   religious ceremonies that
is iaCompatable with the fyftem of tranfmigration,   and
indeed as the oblation confifts of a human being it is
different from any civilized ufuage,  is a folitary wandering  barbarous  cuftom,  and is therefore   foujad n$*,
where but among a detached arid fcattered people, and,
Plough always found there does not appear to be comprized in atjy code or fyftem of other cuftoms where we
find fuch;   which indeed is feldofii as the foftance of
fcaiiimigratipa here.   ,'J ^Sp;.'% '^^}
Their "S
Thei* notions of a deity and the fpeculative parts
of their religion is involved even among themfelves in
myftery and perplexed with inconfiftences, ^9nu their
priefts who alone pretend to be informed of it have by
their own induftrious fabrications and the addition of
its traditionary fables rolled themfelves up in endlefs
mazes and inextricable labyrinths: None of them a&
alike in their ceremonies and none of them narrate alike
when enquired off concerning the matter: therefore
what they conceive refpefting a God we cannot tell •
though we conclude upon the whole that they worfhip
one great Supreme^ the author and governor of all things^
but there feems to be fuch a firing of fubordinate goda
intervening between him and the leaft of thofe, and the
characters of the whole fo contrafting, whimfical, ab-
furd and ridiculous that their mythology is very droll, and
reprefents the very beft of the group no better than a harlequin. rj|
The government at Otaheite refembles the early ffate
of every government, which in an unimproved and unrefined ftate, is ever a kind of feudal fyftem of fubor-
dination: Securing licentious liberty to a few, and a
dependant fervility to the reft. Otaheite, as I have
had occafion to obferve before, confifts of two penin-
fulas, each of thefe are prefided over by chiefs they dif-
tinguilh by an appellation, fignifying the great chief,
and this is the fiift order among them : The leffer di-
Vifion of the ifland confifts of circles or diftri&s of which
there are in the whole about one-hundred: Over each
of thofe diftri£ls a chief prefides, whom they call chief
without- tfie affixa, Great: This conftitutes the fecond
order: The third order are thofe who occupy and im*-
prove certain portions of land in each diftrift, for which
he is accountable to the chief of the diftri£t: He is %
kind of tenant. The fourth order are thofe who labor
and cultivate the land and do other fei vices under the
it        ||£        H ..i tS&ant, 'U   ■
11 4
ill .'•"'■ ■'
tenant, which conftitutes the fifth ■ and laft order. The
priefts are chiefs by rank though they do not immedi-.
a'tely intermeddle in the civil department.
One OtocJ was fupreme chief of the northern penin-
fula, and vtas polTeited of the government by a collateral right Hli predeceffor the amourous queen Oberea
dying without ifTueT*Wefupreme chief is by every body much refpe&ed and reverenced : But he did not appear to me to hold any particular power without his
own diftrift any more than the other, except in thefe
two inftances, which are a negative refpe«Sting war and
refpe£fing peace.
With regard to diftributive juftice and the inoftenfible
parts of their government we are little imformed ;
but it cannot be fuppofed to be very regula r^ There is apparently but little oppofition of intereft, andevery defire
and every appetite being eafily gratified their cannot be
many crimes.
fcl mmkl
We left at this ifland two cows and a bull, two ewes
and a ram, a pair of goats, feveral pair of geefe, and
1 great variety of European feeds, Which we planted^
and while we flayed took "care  of.
On the 29th of September we came to fail, leaving
Otaheite.    And,      \       ':'     ■.'■■■.'"■'■ ':M-. jk
*®n the 30th anchored in a fine bay at the ifland
called by the natives lmayo, where we continued until
the 12th of Oftober, and procured a confidefable addition to our flock of provifions. From hence, we proceeded to the ifland of Hueheine, where we arrived and
came to anchor in a bay on the eaft fide of the ifland
%n the 13th.
On the 14th finding our birth foul we hove up, warped
nearer in fhore and to»k frefo moorings. As
K m
M Asthis Wiethe native ifland of Omai and where he was
finally to be left, and pro poling to remain at it fome
time on that account particularly, we fent the lints on
fhore with the ufual guards. Omai had ever fince our
arrival among thefe iflesbeen declining nomonly in our
eftimation but in the opinions of the natives, among whom
he was envied for underjgrved riches and diipifedfor his
obfcure birtrv^and impudent pretentions to rule and command, in fhort his ignorance and vanity were infupportable.
Captain Cook, however, was  determined to   fupport
him while under his  care, and leave him in as happy
a fituation after he was gene aspcflible; he accordingly
purchafed about an acre and a half of the beft ground, of
the chiefs, for which he gave them the ufual articles of
traffic—axes, hatchets, faws> nails, knives, &c. and this
he circuntferibed with a deep ditch, hove up the ground
within,and laid part of it out in a garden, wherein were^J
planted   and fown a variety of European garden ief^f'
and upon the corner of the garden fronting the be&£h
he" built him a   fmall houfe, or rather box, for  it was
chiefly meant only  to preferve his effeftsfrom the,, ravages of the people he was to be left among ; it was about
20 feet by 15, compofed of a flight frame and covered
with boards we fawed in the country; there was no iron
work about it for fear that fhould be a temptation to the
natives to hurt the edifice on that account; it took 30
days to build it from the materials we;madeufe of, and
when finifhed all Omai's effe&s wej^put into it, and he
went on fhore and took poffeflion of it.   Cock alfo leftfc
the two New-Zealand boys here as companions and fer-rf
vants to Omai.   we alfo left him a horfe and mare,  a
eow with calf, fheep, goats, turkies, geefe^a  pair oifi!
fabbit8, a monkey and two cats*Jf       '$$£■■        Wm
Kill      .      mm -. Om •■;
On the fiiftftof November being, ready to fail Capt.
Cook made an entertainment in behalf of Omai at his little houfe, and in order to recommend him ft ill further
to the chiefs of the ifland invited them alfo 5 everybody
enjoyed themfelves but Omai who grew more dejected as
the time of|h|§ taking his leave of us forever approached
the nearer, TMJta/heti he came finally forbid adieu t^
fcene was very affecting to the^whole^lSmpany* It is
certainly to be lamented that Omai will never be of any
ferviceto his country from his trayels, but perhaps will
render them and himfelf too the more unhappy.
On the id, after getting every thing on board, we left
the bay under an eafy fail, and fa luted Omai with feveral
guns as our laft adieu, and at the fame time to %rprefs
an idea of our greatnefs on the natives and the confequence
of ourrefentments fhould they hurt Omai after our departure.   ,;'■■■■:■ "'* '■ -W
On the 3d of November we reach the ifland of Ulier
tea* And,
On the 4th entered a deep bay in that ifland and
came to an anchor clofe. in with the fhore.    $^*j»
We continued at TJlietea near a month, and were generally employed in augmenting feme part of our ftorea
or adding to our provifions which was one great concern
as this was t he la ft ,^f thefe happy iflands we fhould touch
at for provifipris, and where we fhould procure our next
fupply we knew not 5 we had ever fince our arrival at
the Eri|ndlferIflands to this time, including nine months,
j^t no iwl.of the fhips provifions, and had added to this
falvage about nine months fupply of pf^rkmpre^ arid two
or three of yams and plantains, to which we had become;
fo habituated that we had in a manner loft^the repll of
pur biiket,efpecially when we could get breadfruit.
:•' . AS t
As we were now about to take leave of thefe iflmds feveral of our people who had been waiting for the op-
pettunity to make their efcape andftay behinerus, began
to put their refolutions into execution. The firft was one
of the marines who quit his poft when om ceatry at the
tents about midnight and went off with his miftrefe; the
conlequence of this wasithat arm-lit mats were font
round the ilknd^H,^rcn^Pffim ; they were gpne two
days befpre they, found him, and he was betrayed by
powerful prefents to thofe who knew where he was, or
he would never have been found: he had quitted hismili-
tary garb and affumed the drefs of the country, and when,
taken wasfiting with his girl, who was cfrelEng hie head
with flowers in the houfe of her parents. She was a woman of good and numerous connexions, and when* ihe
found the defperate fituation of her dear foldier fhe flew
into; the woods and collected a body of her-male friencis
to aflift her in refcuing him from the hands of^his enemies,
and in fad would have done it; had we not hailed with
the prSfoner to the boats, whgie we had hfrdly arrived
before two hundred and more appeared all armed.coming
down the hills: the young lad bore the fate he anticipated
with fortitude; though he lamented the lofsof his lover.
He was confined at his return and expe&eda very fevere
punifhment, but it did not happen fo, and his, remarkable good character finally excufed him.M      .,      -if^
This circumftance added to fome private hints alarmed
Cook, and fearing as his departure grew nearer that^his*
men might go off in a body, it determined him immiN?
diately to hawl off and lay at ar^achor in %s middtte
of the bay, where the means, of efcape, vi^uld bezels
practicable, but the very night before this,topjkplac^ie
of the midfoipmeq and,a gunnej'smate from the Difcovery
abfented themfelves; this wa&ftill more alarmfog, ai§|
fj? foon as thefoips were removed out into the bay. Cook
^oa^ned the fon and daughter by marriage, of t$$ chief
.** HMJl
of the ifland, gn board the Difcovery, and then publifhed
his reafons for doing it to the people, and defired. them to
inform the father, of the young prifoners and other chiefs,
thatunlefs they returned the deferters they fhould never
more fee their young prince or his partner, he at the fame
time offered large premiums to thofe who fhould bring them
back, for it wasibtmd thatjije couid not intereft ourfehes
in the purfuit of themTueing convinced*Tti£y were not
upon the ifland. Thefe meafures were calculated to influence both the chiefs and the people, the rffeOion^ of
the former and the interefts of both ; but after waiting
feveral days to no purpofe, and being anxious, to depart,
Cook applied himfelf to another ftratagem—He gave
out that fince he could not obtain his people, and not
being willing that the innocent captives he had on board
lhould fo dearly fuffer for the tranfgreflioris of his people, he had determined to deliver them from their confinement, and as he fhould then take his final farewel of
them, and wanted to leave them upon friendly terms, invited the chiefs and people, as many as would, to pay
him a vifit, and bring if they had any thing to market,
for which they fhould receive a'good price, and that the
whole fhould end with a grand heiva on our part; this
took, and the next day after it ilTued we were vifired
by people of all denominations from different parts of
the ifland: The chiefs, particularly the father of the
young captives were in raptures, and their firft interview was extremely affecting; nothing was feen or heard
on board the fhips and in the canoes but fhouts of Joy
and merriment. Cook as foon as he faw the provifions
pretty well purchafed up and the people beginning to
difperfe hove out a private fignal to the Difcovery and
the boats were all inftantly out manned, armed and regularly detached in different parts of the bay; this appearance alarmed the natives, and they betook themfelves to flight, and to compleat the alarm and inform
k the
_'■>' [
boats without to begin their duty one of |fie cannon
^was fired;   this produced the defired confufion, and terminated in the capture of almoft every canee.,-and in the
impnfonment of ^11 the chiefs on board each fhip. -The
great chief naw found the meafure of hilmisfcrtunes to
be compleat, and abfbrbed in grief Mtopjn his children
and lwoong^uporjLthe ir neckSj^NvoulonoJhave been
the author of teivPlef for two   deferters.   As foon as
this tumultuous feene had a little fubfided Cook inform-
J ed them that he would never releafe either of them or
the canoes that were taken or the people in them until
he fhould recover his two fugatives.    It was too late to
temporize or evade in the matter.   The great chief immediately informed Cook that if he would let any four
of the chiefs then prefent go as he fhould order he would
endeavour to get his men, but declared he|| was afraid
he never fhould. for he faid they were gone to the ifland
Bolabola whether he was afraid topurfue them, but added
that he would fend to the chief of Bolabola and get his
eonfent if he could;   this accordingly done, and Cook,
taking advantage of every circumftance, fent by the fame
chiefs a fmall prefent to the chief of Bolabola accompanied by a threat that if he did not aid and aflift in procuring
his men, that he would come with his fhips and deftroy him
and his people- without mercyJ|In the mean time Cook
took care by every art to mitigate theforrowof hi&royal
captives,>and make their confinement fit aseafy as pofti-
bie, and finding it to add too fenfibly to the other griefs
©f the principal chief, to fee fo many of the people confined,   ordered   them to be  liberated,   but  kept theifl
canoes, they were accordingly all pit on fhore but the
chiefs.    Two days were elapfed and we had no intelligence of the deferters or thofe that went after th^fean^
at length a  third.    '■'■,/:'"-. f    W '  '        ^^^
|| Onjthe fourth however a number of canoes were &|a
^apring the bay fhouting and exprefling their joy, and
S P? as-
trf^£ I*
!  ti
■" 2r    .■      I    6* : ]      'C  .:.
as they approached we faw with our glaffes our two
men bound hand and foot by the Indians: A eircom-
ftance we v/He glad to obf&rve as it extremely mortified them and difcovered how interefting the pUifuit
had been to t|*e chiefs^ who went after them. They
were no foen«f brought on board than the guard was
difiriiffed and the^fWnel s taken off over the chiefs: li
And as they now faw the real came of Their confin-
ment at an end they were under rio farther apprehen-
fions, arid were as folly convinced of our future friend-
Ihip as if this caufe which had interrupted it had never happened.
This matter fo full of danger and diftrefs to the whole
ifland beifcg thus happily terminated they forgot their
forrow and fpent the two remaining days with us with
great chearfukiefs, which'Cook heightened in many re-
fpeas,   particularly by many valuable prefents amdng* .
the chiefs:   Particularly the great chief,   his fon  and
daughter,  and thofe who went after his men that ab-*||
fented themfelves: To thefe he was very liberal.        >'
It Our deferters were taken at an obfcure little iflandJI
N. B of Bolabola, diftant from that ifland 10 leagues.
The nrtdfoapmsU was reduced  and  put upon the fore-
caftte, the gunner's mate was reduced and puriifhed.
On t^ 7th of D€CCmber we came t0 ftil atl<J run
over to Bolabola to get part of a broken anchor we
were isforaied was there and fuppofed to be left there
by Monf. Bouganville. This we purchafed of the chief
of the ifland in order to work up into articles of trade
if future opportunity fhould require it. We left dwjja
ifland of Bolabola the fame night fteenng N. by ^
upon the trade blowing E. by N.        || |
* *
The Society-Iflands we reckon only eight in numlspl
including Otaheite, Imaya, Hueheine, Uletca, Bo^bola,
* . /   Mauiua,
^-.Ms^m c
Maurua, Tubai and Otaha: The three laft we did not
vifit. The people, manners and cuftoms being the fame
among them all, I have not treated of them refpe&iv-
ly, and what is faid of Otaheite is applicable to them all:
The firft five are nearly of an equal magnitude, except
Otaheite which is about twice as large^as either of
them. The whole group takes in about two degrees
of latitude, and three of longitude.
S tafc.-»>*'tf;
On the 22d we croffed the equator.
On the *$d we were by observation in lat. t north,
Jongit. 203. 55 eaft*   In the evening we faw low land a-
head. .. ■ $jjfe.- fcv
On the -24th we came up with it and anchored within a cables length of the fhore. This is a low, fmall
ifland, moftly a bed of coral rock, and fcarcely more
than is -feet above the furface of the water on the-
higheft part of it, but as it was our firft difcovery j£
the northern hemifphere, arid produced us a noble fupply gf furtle we kept a merry chriftmafs at it. fwe
caught shpve   300 large turtle  to one fhip:   But our
people fuffefed much in their enterprizes on fhore for* 5
this pu-zfofe : The Difcovery had nearly loft two menlx
is them. Befides the great quantity of turtle upon this
ifland it was covered with innumerable flocks of fea- y
birds: Tfee fhores alfo covered with fifh, particularly^
lharks,   of whitfh none of u$ had ever feen the like in
number* liSfe
\ '?..Jfcffi*;
On the tft pf January, 1778, we unmoored an&Jm+
tfoued our courfe tp the northward,   fleering N. bpflii
jndN. N. £. il
Qn the loth our lat. wa,s zt   10 north, long?9»|p
.eaft#  and about two o'clock we difcovered high land,
Aj£| I bearing t
bearing N. N. E. right a-head: This *was immediately determined from cur pofiticn to be a new difcpvery,
and of courfe gave everyone joy: As we continued our
courfe fta tiding for the firft difcovered land, which now
appeared to be an ifland,   we faw more land  to windward of the former,.bearing N. E. by E. which had alfo the appeaf^^e of arifallmd.    Towards evening ^he
wind failing we could not get   in with the  land,   ajgii
therefore tacked and   flood  off S. by E. and S. S. E.
under all the fail we could fe*t, hoping by a good board,
the next morning to weather the windward ifland : But
in thisj: we were much deceived finding as we app^ach-
.ed the firft difcovered ifland the next morning that we
had fell to leward two leagues owing to a lee-curreflt:
As we approached near the fhore we could difcern the
• laid ro'be culti/ared, faw fmokes, and foon after houfes
|gnd inhabitants: When we were near enough the fhfre
to examine for a harbour we bore away and run down
the coaft weft ward and northward in queft of one, and
about four  o'clock entered a fhallow  bay; it affordad
-but indefferent profpe£t, but it was thought beft not%e
rifk a further purfilit and we accordingly run in andlfn-
chored in feven fathom   water three fourths  of a mile
from a  village  we   faw- in  the bite   of the bay and
r^ne  fourth of a mile from a reef that  projected from
*the weftern extremity. f||
We had been approached feveral times by fome canoes at a diftance, but none of them would come near
enough to;converfe- with us or that we might,fee what
fort of people they were, until we anchored and furled
-cir fails: Thof<j% who came firft w%re armed and appeared inexprelfibly furprized, though not intimidate
ed: They fhook their fpears at us, rolled their eyes sfc
%nut and made a variety of wild uncouth geftj^la*flw*$:
But we   had   exchanged but few words   wit|pfpp#&
I? I W; ' beforft.
vjV before we found to our joy and furprize that with lit—
tle^variation their language was the fame as thatof our
acquaintance at: the fouthenviilands.    In a little while
after we had anchored, a number of canoes were round
and at length fome of them came on board.   They were
exceeding wild : Ran upMto us and examined our hands
and faces, then up our fhirt-fleeves and opening the bofoms of our fhiits to view fuch parts of our
bodies as were covered by our deaths: They then enquired if we could eat,   whieh we   difcovered by eating fome bifcuit:   As foon as they obferved this they
run to the fide of the fhip   and   called to thofe in the
canoes, who hove on board feveral little pigs and fome
fweet potatoes:   Among other a£ls of hofpitaiity exhibited on this otgpafion,   was the prefentment of an Indian's arm ro;ifted,  which they fignified to us was very goop eating : But our furgeAn to whom this cfler was
firit made imprudently prevented any thing#uiious-that?
might   have   been difcovered on   this occaficn   by  ex-
preiing the gteateft degree of abkoriance at the.a'£Hon,
wfcichfofrightened the Indian that he immediately went:
off with it, \ and wej'never after  faw  another inftance
©f  it while among them A They had no knowledge of |
iron or European articles, but the moment we difcovered its obvious imrlartance IjRey were In raptures ab©ut
it, andyf|ave us a^y tiling the^pollefled in- exchange
for it." M Immm
IpThe next day we were vifited by a great npltrtode
of canoes, bringing yams, fweet poratoesyfthogs, plantains and other tropical fruits^V^hichfShey gfliedily
exchanged for little bitsffof #d iron, nails and other
articles. ' Hi I 4§iiliiMiM
The third day after our arrival we wei^^fh$fe and
trade^wi^ them there, and viewed the country, of which
I fti|il give a full ac®tit hereaftertf|Nl
X .-..■• We m
We regained at this place about i we^k* and then failed to vifit fome other iflands* to the N. W. aridfraffiftg IW#
fmall barren iflands anchored off the Wefterm^ft called
NehowA The ifland we left was called Ottawa!. We
traded with the natives at Nehow as we had done, at
Otfowai. We remained at Nehow untilt tfee fe^etld <3rl
The ifland we had feeri fo wiridw&rd tff that of Ot-
towai, the two barren iflands and Nehow made five i&
number^ and Cook was ftfongly of the opinion that there
were more farther to the eastward, whi&h proved to be true
as we fli^il fee in the feqtfel of the hiftory. The gromj*
already k^wfi he colle&ivly called Sandwich Ifland$.
NehoW is fituate in lat- %i 44 north longit* 199 eaft.
I have defered any particular aecoitst of thefe iflands
at this time not only becaufe our ftay was fhort among
them, but becaufe we afterwards vifited them and o-
thers of the fame ciuftet to the eaftward on our return
^rlm thenorthwaid a twelvemonth after when we hzk
S^nore extenfive acquaintance with them, and ^onfe-
^S&tly a better fund of information,   v ^
On the 3d of Februar|- we again launched into Jlat
exfonfive oceaii th||^feparates America an£ Afia, and
continued our courfe to the northward and eaftward
inten<fmgfb fall in with America in about 40 degrees
of nortijtiatitucku
fiWe had in general a very comfortable paffitge until
after Jfe made the coaft when we had a feries of very
bad weather.  ■ '.   '   .   'f§   -    . v^^; %:/   ;,,,
On the 7 th ofMarch we fell in with the coaft ofAmerica
inJat. 49 deg.^. lung. i$$E. a little below|Jape B^pco,.
and tracing it ifothWly until the afcth we entered aninlet in 49* N. Fftsttt the 7th fo the 2$th wje had the mggedeft
weathet we had yet experienced. /The weather wee
cold, the gales of wind were fuccejfive and ftrong, and
fometitnes very violent. Our foipf'complained. We were
Ihort of Water, and had an unknown coaft to explote*
And the very day we purpofed to reconnoitre for 3/|arbavf
the wind veered to the N. E. and forced us off the coaft
a full week. We entered this inlet about'4 o'clock. &
the afternoon. The extremes of the opening at the en*
trance were about 2 miles diftant, and we had theprofpe£l
of a fnug harbour. It was matter of doubt with mapy ©£
us whether we fhould find any inhabitants here, but W*
had fcarcely entered the inlet befoie we faw thai hardy*
that intript|§, that glorious creature man approaching u#
from the fhore. As we advanced into the inlet we found it
ftitl more favorable, and perceived feveral fmalMAaade
between the two fhores. Night approaching we came
to an anchor between one of thofe iflands and the eaftera
fhore about one quarter of a mile from each. In the even*
ing we were vifited by feveral canoes full of the native^
they came abreaft our fhip within two rods oi us and there
ftaid the whole night, wthout offering to approach nearer
or to wifidiaw farther from us, neither Would they con#
verfe with us. At the approach of day they departed ift
the fame referve and filence. f||
On the 30th we fent our boats to examine afmallc^fifc
in the ©ppofite ifland, which anfwering our wifoes we
moved with both ffiips into it and moored within a fest
rods of the furrounding beach.
This inlet proving to be a found was called :Geoi|te*«(||
Sound.    It lies in lat. 49. 33«N. and in t.33. 16VE. lonj&|
and as it   afforded excellent timber we furnifherd 6tn>
$yj£££ with a new mizen-maft, fpare yards and other fpars,
belles wood.   It alfo afforded us excellent wat€^,a:^i^5
riety of good fiih and the fltores with fome excellent
Hf ||jt>la*lts«:
V„JJ^ m
planter The country round this found ij|generally h|gh
and/mountainous, though further to the northwar^ and
ea#ward it appears more open and level. It is intirej$f>
covered with woods, fuch as maple, afh, birch, oak^ hemlock, but moftly with tall well grown pine. We alfo
found currant bullies, wild rafberry and juniper buflies,
arid little erabed apple-trees, but could not learn whether
they bore any fruit, neither is it probable they do. We
faw no plantations or any appearance that exhibited any
knowledge of the cultivation of the earth, allfeemed to
remain in a ftate of nature ; but as our obfeivations dd
Brit extend three miles into the country theyaie imperfect. Neither did we explore the found highei up than
three leagues, as that fatisfied us that it was of no gipat
e&tent ieyond. The light in which this country will
appear moft to advantage lefpefts the variety of its animals, andthe richaefs of their furr. They have foxes, fables,
hares, maimofets, ermines, weazles, bears, woi\ es, deer,
moofe, dogs, otters, beavers, and a fpeciesoi weazle called the glutton; thefkinof this animal was fold at Kam^
chalka, a Ruffian faftory on the Afiatic coaft for fixty
rubles, which is near 12 guineas, and had it been fold in
China it would have been worth 30 guineas. We purchafed
wlae here about ijco beaver, befides other ikins, but
took hone but the beft, having no thoughts at that time
of ufmg them to any other advantage than converting
tft&ti to $£he piirpofes of cloathing, but it afterwards
h#|*jperied that fkins whichdid not coft thepurchaferfix-
pence fterling fold in China for ;ioo dollars^Neither
did-we purchafe a quarter part of the beaver and other
furrjkins we might have done, and moft certainly fhould
have done had we known of meeting the opportunity of
diiW&Bngof them to fuch an aftdnifhing profit.
W*On the  ift of April we were vifited by a number of
thf^natives in their boats,   which refemble our  bat* ;
HH teawjgf t
*teaux: The*y are about 20 feet in length, contrafted aft
, each end, and about 3 feet broad in the middle, and 2 feet
and an half deep from end to end: They are made from
; large pine-trees, and we fuppofe burnt out. Thi||jwas
the fi ft fair opportunity after our arrival-that I had of
examiningflthe, appearance of thofe unknown aborigines of North-America. It was the firft time top 1$iat I
had been fo near the ftiores of ||hat continent ^hich
gave me birth fr®m the time I at firft left it; and though
more than two thoufand miles diftant from the! neareft
part of New-England I felt myfelf plainly affected: All
the affectionate paflions incident to natural attachments
and early prejudices played round my heart, and indulged them becaufe they were prejudices.j||I was ha^
m&hjzed by it. It Toothed a home-fick heart, and rendered me very tolerably happy. -4m        lift;:
|§|;I had no fooner beheld thefe Americans th*ri Ilfet
them down for the fame kind of people that inhabit the
■..oppofite fide of the continent. They are rather above
the fiddle ftafure, copper-coloured, -&nd of an athletifc
make. They have long blacfc)|hair, which thfivger
Berally wear in a club on the top of the head, they fiffij
•it when drefFed with oil,.paint and the downe of birds.
They alfo paint their faces* with red,   blue and   white
/colours, but from whence they had them or how they
were prepared they would not inform us, nor could we
tell. Their elbathing. generally confifts of fkins^f bilt
they have two other forts, of garments, the one is made
,of the inner rind of fome fort of bark twifted anduniN
ed together like the woof of our coarfe eToatha&the #•
ther very ffrongly refembles the  New-ZealS^rTogO,
^nd is alfo principally made with the hairof tjfeir d#$#,
y^hich aremoftly white^ and of the domeftic k^id : ^fcj
orirthis garment is difplayed very naturally tfo^^^icr
■^^|heir catching the whale—we faw nothing jjpweil
done by a lavage in our travels.   Their garments of all
H \' kindfr
?.l 13
$iad* ere wore mantle-^ife, and the borders of them
are fringed or terminated with fome particular kind of
•ornament like its Their richeft fkins when converted
«o garments are edged with a great curiofity. This is
nothing tefe than the very fpecies of wampum fo well
knows on the oppofite fide of the continent: It is iden~
kicallythefame ; and this wampum was not only found
aaiong all the oborigines we faw on this fide the continent, but even exiftsunmutilated on the oppofite coafts
of North-Afia. We faw them make ufe of no coverings
to their feet or leg*, and it was feldom they covered
their heads: When they did it was with a kiad of a
bafket covering made after the manner agnd form of the
Chinefe and Chinefe-Taitars hats. Their language ie
ray--guttural, and if it was poffible to reduce it to our
orthography would very much abound with confona-atSi
la their manners they refemble the other aborigines of
^orth-America, tlieyare bold and ferocious, fly and reserved, not eafily provoked but revengeful 5 we faw no
•figne of religion or worfhip among them, and if they Ca-
erifice it isto.the God of libert^|pB>   pic'       '    W:
Winces a petty was fent to procure foaie grafs for our
Cattle they would not fuffer them to take a blade of it
urithoutpayment, nor had weamaft or yard without aa
acknowledgment. They intimated tous that the country
all round further than we could fee was theirs* Water
£nd wood they charged us nothing for. Capt, Cook would
not credit this faft when he firft heard it and went in
perfon to be allured of it, and perfifting in a more peremptory tone in his demands, one of the Indian s took him by
the arm and thruft him from him, pointing the way for him
to go about his bufinefs. Cook was ftruck withaftonifh-
•*ent, and turning to his people with a fmile mixed with
admiration exclaimed, § This is an American indeed I'9
*od mffcmtiy offered this brave mm. what he thoigh t prpv
IP-'* -■ j?e* t
per to tske; after which the Indian took him andhis
men to his dwell inland offered thetnTuch as he had to eat.
This characteriftic of theirs and having found but one
inftance of theft among them fet thefe people high in
Cook's opinion.. The houfes we faw near this cove appeared to b%.only temporary refidences from whence it
was fuppofed that in winter they relied into the interior forefl^^nd in fummer lived any'where that beft
anfweredth^purpofes of fifhing or hunting.
The food we faw them ufe confifted folely of dried filli
and blubber oil, the beft by  far that any man am#ig
us had ever feen : this they put into fkins.   We purchafed
great quantities of it, and fituated as we were with re^
fpeft to butter or fuet, it was a very good fuccedaneum to
either, and was conftantly u fed to fry with; befides it fur—
nifhed our lamps, and anfwered many other   purpofes ufe-
ful and neceffary.    Like all uncivilized men they are hof-
pitable, and the firft boat that vifited us  in the   Cove
brought us what no doubt they thought the greateft pof-
fible regalia, and offered it to us to eat; this was a human
arm roafted     I have heard it remarked that human flefrr
is the moft delicious, and therefore tailed a bit, and fodid
many others without fwallowing the meat   or the juices
but either my confcience or my tafte rendered it veryodfj?
ousto me.
We intimated to pur hofts that what we j|ad tailed
was bad, and expreffed as well as we could our dip|S
probation of eating it on account of/ its beine part^f a
man like ourfelves. They feemed to be fenfihie by the
Contortions of our faces that our feelings were difeufted,
and apparently paddled off with equal dilTatisfa£\ion and
difa ppointment themfelves. We were complimented once
l^fore in the fame flile, at our firft difcovery ofSanfwich-
Iflaails. 5ffi|
The ff
9HuU'*Ju*J3Hr<   ':
| The cuftom of eating human flefh is very extenfiveand
pervades much thegreateft part of the habitable eatth,
and as itfeems. aboriginally to have been derived from
the antecedent cuftomof facrificing human flefh,it welld
be curious to enquire into the matter/
^  The cuftom of facrificing is. very ancient pThe firft
gitance we have of it is in the lives of Cain ajid Abel^
Their facrificesconfiftedjn part of animal flefh, burit upon an alter dedicated to their God.rThis cuftom exiftg
now among all the uncivilized and JeWifh nations:in the
e^r^iai rites requifite to prove it analogous to the firft
l^ftitutiori.^The only mutilation in the ceremony materia
ally^iflferent, is th*| the barbarous'nations have added
human flefh.   Whethe^his additional ingredient in the
QOlation took place at a ffmote fobfequent period by t ho,ent: intervention of any extraordinary circumfence
independant, of the original form does not appear, unle^
Replace the fobfequent period below the time of Abraham or^perhaps below the time of    The circu-m-
ft^nceof Abraham's intended facnfice of Ifaac to which
he   was injoined by the   Deity,   though he  abfolute\y
did not do it, yet wag fufficient  to introduce the idea that
fuch a fecrifice was the moft pleafing to God, arid zs i%
was an event very remarkable it probably became an hi£-
torical fubje£t, and  went  abroad  among  other-tribes.,
lip was handed  down   among  them^prtradition, and
liable to air the changes incident  thereto, and in time
the ftory might have been tha* Abraham not only offered
but really did facrifice  his own fori.' But perhaps the
ftory of Jepfha, judge of Ifrael,  is more to the point.
It is faid he facr.ifi.ced his daughter as a burnt-offering
to the   God who  had been propitious to   him in warf|
which does appear to be an aft independant of cuftom or
tradition, as it tranfpired wholly from th^oMigatfe]| of
s rpfo   vow made to the Deity in the fulnefs of a heart
(^charged with hopes and fears»|tlt_is alfo a fa€t tna^
* after t
after thi|>. particularly in the reign of the wicked Ahaz,
It was a general cuftom, efpecially among the heathen, to
make their children " pafs through the fire ;" by which
I fuppofe it is uriderftood that they  were facrificed with
fire.      It feems then that the circumftance of  adding
human   flefh   in  the   ceremony  of facrificing   did take
place  before   \ha years antecedent to Chrift,  and moft
probably from   the example of  Jeptha.    After this we
.§nd it thifting places, attending the duffufive emigrations
of the tribes, and commixing with mankind in genera],
but efpecially with thofe difunited with the|piofen descendants of the great Abraham • whofe defcenqants being
conftantly favored w th civil and religious inftruclions
from Heaven itfelf, were not only prefer ved from fuperfti-
tion arid barbarity themfelves, but were the means of fur-
nilhing the detached heatheiPpth a variety of cuftoms
and ceremonies, that from the mere light of nature they
never could have thought of; nor could they preferve pure
and uncorrupt  after they had adopted them.   Even the
favored Ifraelites were perpetually deviating into fchifms
and cabals and frequently into downright  idolatry, mm
all the vanity of fuperftition and unbridled nonfenfe from
the imbecility of human policy when uninfluenced by heavenly wifdom and jurifpudence.   No wonder then that the
feparate tribes fromtjjie houfe of Abraham, though they primarily received many of their principles of civil andreli-
gious government from a pure fountain, fhould debafe and
contaminate them by the fpurious conjunOion of things
derived from their own  imaginations.    Ana this  feems
to have been the courfe of thingsfip this day.    There
hath always  been   a   part  of mankmd^onfpicious for,,
knoledge, fuperior in wifdom,   and fav^ed   by heaven,
from whom  others are feparated;   and thefe,   like the
moon, have only Ihone with borrowed light. Some cuftom*.
may be local and indigenous to particular times arid cir-?
cum^ancea, both in the civilized and uncivilized jgrorid. Mr
C t    76    1 ■.....
but far the greater part are derivative and were original-?
ly beftowed on man by his fupieme Governor; thofe that-
we find among the civilized and wife, meafuied on a
philofophic fcale, are uncorrupted, while jhofe that we
find exifting in parts remote from civilization and knowledge, though they have a refemblance which plainly iatjjfc;
mates from whence they came, are yet debrfed, mutilated*
and by fome hai dly known. But who,that had feen a human
body facrificed at Otaheite to their God of war, would
not perceive an analogy to antient cuftom on thofe oc-
•cafians, and attribute it rather to fuch cuftom than any
other caufe whatever, and the cuftom is not confined to
Otaheite alone, it pervades the iflands throughout the
Pacific-Ocean- It was the cafe with the ancient Britons.
The Maxicans depopulated fociety by this carniverous
fpeciesof facnfice. 1 h|pcould not be the effeft of accident, want or caprice. Ir may be worth notice to remark
furthermore: that in the time of Ahaz thefe facrifices were
made in high places. It was fo in Mexico*— is fo at Otaheite and other iflands. The Mexicans flung their victims from the top of their tern pie dedicated to their God
of war. The Otaheiteans and the other lilanders prepare
thofe oblations on their morafs.    ./$?,....
Thefe people are poffeffed of a variety of impliments
calculated for war, hunting, fifhing and other purpofes,
fome of which are remarkably analogous to ancient models, particularly the lance, which is every way fvmilar to
that ufed in ancient tournaments and feats of chivalry.
They have alfo a kind of armor that covers the body from
the breaft downward to the Inees; this confifts oi moofe-
fkin, covered externally with flips of wood fewed to the
leather tranfveifly, and made ibort or long as beft fuits
the,part of the body it covers. They have alfo good
bows and arrows, and Hone hatchets; alfo a variety of
fnaresboth for fowl and quadrupedes. * Their fiftring geer
is highly curious.   I can give no adequate defcription of
*he# [
the variety and Angularity of thefe matters: They have
near a dozen different kinds of fiih-hooks, and all made of
wood, but was an European to fee any one of them without any previous information of their defign, he would as
foon conclude they were intended to catch men as fifh.
They have a harpoon made from- a mufhelfhell only, and
yet they have fodifpofed of it as to fubdue the great leviathan and tow the tanweiidiy monfter to their fhoies.
Let not man think meanly of himfelf, but claim that
g'ori us rank his amazing powers fo juftly entitle him
to. If Defcartes and Newton from the improvements
of ages could produce at laft themagnificient fyftem of
Philofophy that hath immortalized them;; why fhould not
thefe glorious favages, who, without any of thofe great
collateral' afiiftances, without which th*y could have
done nothing, have difcovered fuch aftonifhing fagaeity,
be intitled to equal veneration, and the name of Ben
Uncus be a3 great as that of Ifaac Newton.        Ill
We found a few copper bracelets and three or four
rough wrought knives with coarfe wooden hafts among
the natives at this place, but could not learn from the
appearance of either of thofe articles or from any infor^
mation they could give us how they became peffeffed of
them but it was generally thought they came from a
great'diftance and not unlikely from Hudfon's-Bay. Commerce isdefufive and nothing will impede its progiefs
among the uninformed part of mankind, but an intervene
tion of too remote a communication by water, and as
this, cannot be the cafe with regard to the inhabitants
of a continent, it feems intirely conclufive to fojfefe
ro part of America is without fome foit of commercial
intereourfe, immediate or remote. -
On the a6th of April we towed out of the found ina
calm, about fun down we were favored with a breeze that
ijfave us a tolerable offing, but before 12 at night the
J 3?
Wind veered fr^mN. N. W.toE.-.S E. and wasWuc|eed-
ed by a fudden and impetuous gale of wind that threw
us into the utrnoft confufion from* its unexpected appro&h
and our unprepared -fituj|ion to receive it. This gal§c.
Continued with veryvlittle intermiffian ur#til the ift ^|
May, when it abated and we had fair weather. We
parted Cqnipany with our con fort the Difcovery the fiift
njf ht and concluded from our own diftreffes. fome irre-
pairable misfortune had attended her. We hy to on that
account the greater! part of the time, and foe a^&pting
the fame pita- occafioned our meeting again two days before the gale entirely fubfided. This gale was very fe-'
vere, and was the means of opening a defeftive place in
the Refoiution's bottom, which #as of an alarming nature.
We dad not meet with an opportunity of repairing it untill
fome'time after, when we found that the complaint originated from.a holeeatthrougl the bottom of the fhip as far
as the fheathing by the rats,'a-.IP the ihaething being old
gave way when the ftjip ftrained : we were fur prized to
fijfSthe apperture ftoped up by fome old (bakings of yarn.*
aad oakum, that by fome accident was wafhed into it.
We continued our courfe, after this the coaft trending
#$j>lk N. W. untill the ioth of May being then in Lat.
$$>*• S3 N. and Long. $17. 23 E, without any particular
occurrence. M
On the 1 rth of May we found the coaft abruptly trending to the weiftward of fouth* appearing to be broken,
detached and irregular in the height.
On the 12th at nine in the morning we entered an inlet, fleering as it trended, which was about N. N. W.
and N. At fix in the evening perceiving bad weather-
approaehit&g we tun in with the land and both flaps anchored, and finding the weather as ^et to be toleia-t|^A.
vm flung out the boats aWl font them on fliore t$.$jtjft
sUSHls <- Sfc&h ' [
with the feine, but caught nothing. The piftasres efthe
Refolution with the fi ft lieutenant^ fome other gentlaa*
men and myfei'* went to the oppofite fhore to fhootfomO
wiid fowl. Wre had feme fuccefs, and being engaged
in our fp<vrs, and not fufpefting the country from its
inhofpirat appearance to be inhabited were furprized
when we fow fe era! large boats full of Indians alrsa?*-
dy clofe upon us ^pm  behind a fmall iftand.
We  had   but three or four fowling   pieces with ust
and the  Indians being numerous, and we being out of
the fight of the fbips our fituatiorf was mentioned to rVfjg,
Gore (the fiift lieutenant} g| beitig difagreeable.   Kir,
Gore confeffed he was afripd the Indians would want to
%,uarrel, which he fhould be forty to do though under
no apprehenfions for our own faferyv but for the ¥0es of
the fa vages,   who muft faerifice their  prowefs to  une#
qual force.   He therefore gave orders to let them com£
within mufket (hot, and then row fofjrhe fhips: We indeed fuffered them to come nearer, and they hallooecf to
Its, making fizns that they' wanted to trade, and we returned them for anfwe^ as well as we could to follow
tas,   and we would trade.     This they complied with,
touting-, flaking their fpears and ufing a variety of noi-
les and geftieulations that we knew nothing of until the#
<&me within   hail of the fhips,   foon after which they
ftopped.    The people on board as well ns thofe on flior^
ebferving our fituation, and mifconftruing our   cfcgwin|f
them to the fhips to have fome interview with them to
a flight we were making frsm them, were uneafy, and
an armed boat put off from each fhip,  the one to afSft
us and the other the people on fhd:e, who were with-*
out arms.   But we foon got on board with the penijacei
rectified the milfal<e^and boats were fent to try^^hey
could not by fome friendly means perfuade the^fafegeS
to^b (hips, but in vain—they turned their boa|$about
and were foon cut of fight. ||
We m
ji ■ §
We could perceive them to be a different kind of
people from thofe of Geoige's-Sound, and to have (kin-
' On the 13th though the weather was bad we came
to fail and purfued our courfe up the inlet not without
hopes of the dear Paffage,|which was now the only
theme. The weather increafing to be bad, about four
"in the afternoon we came to and moored in a fnug
xoad-ftead, convenient for water, and what was ^f moie
importance for the purpofe of examining and repairing
the leak occafioned by the tempeftuous night we left
George's-Sound. -'mHt-
On the 14th while we were employed in thefe feveral
fervices we were vifited by the natives who were the
fame kind of people we had feen the preceding day.
We continued here until the 20th, during which time
we fent our bojats to explore the inlet, and found it to
be a large found without any communication to any o-
iher fea or water northward. We therefore called it
Sandwich-Sound. It lies in lat. 61 39 north longitude
k 14 eaft, about 1500 miles from George's-Sound. The
inhabitants feem to be a diftinft tribe from thofe at
George's-Sound,. and bear a very ftriking iefemblance if
not an exaft one to the Efquimaux. I need give no o-
ther defcription of them. Their fkin-canoes, their double bladed paddles, their drefs and other appearances
of lefs note are the fame as on the coaft of Labrador
and in HudfonVBaywf We found them poffelTed of a
few knives and copper trinkets like thofe we had feen
at GeorgeVScund, and found the wampum among them,
which proves the commercial intereouife asuniverfai as
I before obferved it to be. $£
On [
Onthe20thof April we same to fail again, having
watered <$jd repaired the  leak in the Refolution.   We
puttied the direftion of the coaft,-^hich trended from S.
W* to S. mealing to get out to fea aga^n.
On the 21 ft we opened the fouthern extreme feen
yefterday, and doubling it entered another opening ve*.
ry capacious trending full to the eaftward. Courfe all
night N. E. by E. If '
|    On the   2 2d and 23d moftly calm.
iff On the 24th we had hard fqualls with fleet^
K:On the 25th fleered N. by W. the land to ftarboard
trending N. E. high and mountainous. At noon paf-
fed fome large iflands bearing W. S. W.
On the a 6th the land exceeding high en both fides—*
paffed two vulcanoes.
On the 27th found ourfelves in what we conje£tured
to be a vaft river, having a ftrong foutheriy current-
founded 40 fathoms. This gave us hopes again of a
On the 29th we entered a large bay,-and foundfthe
water biakifh. Came to an anchor in 9 fathoms, and
fent the boats to explore the coaft. To the NTk.they
entered a narrow opening trending N. Vf. which they
purfued to 8 and 3 and a half fathoms water. They
returned the fame day. We were now in 620 15 north
2090 55 eaft. The country here though it had fome
exceeding high mountains was in man^: places level,
open, and well covered with wood, and inhabited. The
inhabitants are the fame as thofe we left in Sandwich-
■Seund. We called them the New-Efqimaux: They were
t^^poffeiTed of a little iron, and fome European beads.
It u remarkable  that we diftinctly heard pronounced
L the t
the words Yaucta,Yonerbe, which I ve/y well, remember
to have heard pronounced by the American ifl<Mans fronf^
the frontiers of the northern. American St^tesi^ They
have here as well as at the other parts of thl coaft w£
had hitherto explored a plenty and variety of rich furrs,
which they exchanged with us upon the fame terths
we had hitherto praftifed.
On the ift day of June we came to fail, r£ttirnft*g
'by the fame rout we^ came, to the fea.
On the 6th we cleared the inlet which we called
Hinchinbrole-Sound, the navigation of which had b&n
very fatigue ing.
On the 7th courfe S. by E. halfE. coafting alotig the
main. In the afternoon ran upou a fcmken re£f of roCka.
Eut our good fortune ftill accompanying us got off without damage. *M
, On the nth we paffed a great number of feals, fea-
horfes and fevetal whales.
Ort the 15th loll fight of land, and had blowing weather with fleet and ra!
On the 16th the weather abated, and W^ftood W.
S. W. with a ftiff breeze.   Lat. $6* 23 long. -205 1%.
On the 17th ftood in and faw the land trend m E*
mi^ E. 2  leagues from the land.
|||»|^he  iSth our   lat, was 55 long<||2.oo 58 withia
•jo^fmile of the ftinre.   At 3 in the afternoon we ob-
•^pe'ved 3 canoes, making to us from the fhore in whkjte.
*$£re fix Indians. When they came along fide which-they
did without any hefitatjon they made figns to u|01a£drop.
ohr anchors, and fhewed us a pair of old plUflib^ecpi es, and black cloth waiftcoat. Thefe circumftances
were as qu$ous as unexpected. We hove to, and the
Indians came clofe along fide, and made fignsto us to
give them ..a rope, which being done one of the Indians
made the end of it faft to a little box made of bark r
Bnd defired us to hale it on board, after which they returned to the fhore. This box contained to our infi-
nite furprize feveral feparate notes written upon European paper, and in European charaflers, but we could
not underfland the language though we thought we
faw the figures 1778 pretty plain. This occafioned
much fpeculation but was not thought of fufficient con-
fequence to detain the (hips for a further enquiry by
fending ©n fhore tfter the Indians. We therefore continued.our courfe along the coaft.
On the 2ift courfe S. W. and S. S. W. paffed lwci'
lofty vulcanoes.    The land covered with fnow.   Hove to
and caught feveral hundred holybret,  and cod-fifh—
an acceptable fupply  ! P|
On the 24th altered our -fourfe S. by E.
On the  25th we changed our courfe W. as the
land trended.   About 7 in the evening we faw diftant
land bearing nearly foutH.   By 10 o'clock we   had a
thick fog ; fired fignal guns to the Difcovery and burnt/
falfe fires.    At 3 o'clock in the morning heard the noife
of a furf,   founded 24 fathoms.   The noife of the forf-S
encreafing we were alarmed;   fired a fignal of diftt@#
and came to an anchor with the Difcovery juft under
eur lee.
'■■ *$*M
'■  "JM
On the 27th the fog cleared upy an<|j^^|^nd our-,
felves embayed with rocks, reefs,and an ifland, all^M^fe^
twlf cables length.   We were not only am^ed^> fi^d  :M
40J&& in fuch a frightful fituation, but we^Krn^ *rM
iM? 1:6
aftonifhed to conceive how we got there, as the leaft
accidental deviation from the courfe we had fteered would
have been fatal, and we did not fteer uniformly to a-
ny particular point, but generally as we conceived the
coaft to trender fiom the bearings and diftances taken
the preceeding day. Erom this circumftanee we named
the ifl4nd in view Providence Ifland. In the afternoon
we entered a paffage between Providence-Ifland and the
main that opened to the northward,and finding a fnug bay
in the riland we entered it with both fhips and moored.
This ifland with a few rocks to the S. W. forms the
fouthern and weftern extreme of that part of the continent which took fo abrupt a direftion to the^buthward
and weftward from the lat. 59 33 noi$th, and long.
217 33 eaft-> Providgrice-Ifland in $5 itf north, 195 eaft.
Whiie we were bufied in watering in this harbour
we were conftantly vifited by the nati/es, among whom
wa found other intimations like thofe we had feen lately of an European intercourfe with this part of the world,
and we doubted'much if fome Europeans were not actually at that time there. This, however, we deferred
Squiring about at prefent as we expefted to touch at
the fame ifland on our return to the fouthward if un-
fuccefsfu4 in our future attempts for the Paffage to the
On the 2d of July we came to fail, and paffed through
the remaining part of the ftreight betwee^ the ifland
and the main, and purfaed our courfe, fleering E. N.E.
On the 5th fteered N. N. E. The land low and trending very much eaft ward.   Lat. 574 long. 109 40.
On the 6th we continued the fame courfe, and finding the water fhoal tacked and flood S. E.  this leading us to 3 and a half fathoms tacked again am flood
N*   We were  now  in a laborious  and perilous navigation, M
fation, and continued fo until the 15th, when weelea-.
ed a labyrinth of rocks, fhoals, and fpits of fand, but
found ouifelves again involved on the 16th and were
obliged to bring to an anchor, and fend the boats out
to explore. The neareft land about 7 leagues diftant.
Our boats were out all night, founded in-different di-
re£h'ons without being able to find a channel to the
northward, eaft ward or weft ward.
,On the 17th to crown our joys it came on to blow,
and we parted our beft bower cable in the bend and
and loft the anchor.    .'ip     * ''"!$''     :'-c|l
On the 18th the gale abating we fpent the day in
fweeping for our anchor which we finally recovered by
the exertions of a mad-hardy Tar,   who dived to the
freezing   bottom   and   hooked a   grapling to the ring*
The anchor was in five fathem water.
The 19th was fpent in founding without fuccefs.
On the 2©th Captain Cook himfelf went out and found
a channel with regular foundings from 8 to 10 fathoms,
to the S. E. In confequence of this we weighed and
came to fail.   Lat. 59 37 longit. 197 ifijjf
On the 21ft the neareft land $ leagues.||Hove to having a head-wind and current fetting foutherly.    Inlihe
afternoon were much-furprized to fee eight canoes full
of Indians padling full fpeed towards the fhips. They
did not hefitate to come near enough to the fhips to
converfe and  traffic, but would not come on board of
us. They were tall, well made, wild fierce looking
people, in fkin-canoes, and every way like allfthofe we
had feen fince we left George's-Sound, except in the
MreCs of their hair, which was exa&lyv^like th^Maho-
metan Tartars. fe
s u
j©n the 2?4 deepened our water to 40 fathoms, which
gave us much fatisfa&ion.
On the 33d had a heavy fnowftorm, which lafted until the 26th when it cleared up. X
On the 29th altered our courfe to N. N. E. and N.B.
On the ift of Auguft our lat. was 61 14 long. 191 33.
^or|tinued©ur courfe along the coaft varying as it trended.
Qnme$th our lat. was 64 44 long. 192 42. To
To day we were oppofite a fmall uninhabited ifland.
Hove to and fent our boats on fhore. They brought
us off f#me€wild cellery, and a kind of chichilling>
^fepAnderfbn our furgeon died this day of a lingering
ilij|efs that he had been fubjeft to Feme years. He was the
firft perfon we had loft. His funeral ceremonies were
decently performed according to the cuftom of the fea.
Gtf the 6th ftoddW. by N. with the American fhore
|-board carrying from 4 to 6 fathoms founJfngs.
Oh the 8 th pur navigation being critical, and having a violent foow-ftorm both fhips anchored.
On the icth we had fine weather and opened a
large inlet which afterwards proved to he a deep ipa-
clous found, which we called NortcnVSound after
Sir Fletcher, Speaker of the Britifh Commons, ^t lie*
in lat. 66 27 long. 18& 3. We anchored in this found,
woqded and watered. We faw ,afew inhabitants of the
Eqtj|maux kind, but they feemed to be poor.
On the nth wepveighed,   and fleering northward*^*]
On the i«$h paffed the eaftern and weftern extremes of
Afia and America keeping the American fhore a-bo^fd.
On the 13th ftood to the eaftward, wi$ the €oa#iljiJ
view until the 17th when the weather of a fudden^e-^
came piercing cold. Q$&
nsL*i t
On ffctS 18th we faw ice a-head, btoken, dfita^Sei
and low. Lat. 69 46 long, 192- Finding the ice penetrable we advanced into the openings. Thefe loofe
fields of iiS are covered With numerous h^rds or $el-
horfes who repofe tbemfelf es upon them, after fh^
h^ve completed their excurfions in the water in purfuit
oftheir food, whieh is fiih and fuch marine^ produ&i-
©ns. as-th^y find at the bottom of the water. The?y are
a large unweilctly fluggifh animal weighing fome of theni
nine hundred and fome eleven hundred weight. Their
legs are very ihort and terminate in a webed membrane.,
wuji which they fwim very fwift and are very aOivein
the Water though exceeding clumfy out of that ele-
menf. They are amphibious and between a quadruped
and a fifli, their heads are fomewhat like thofe of a dogf
without ears, except two large white tufks that project
downward from the upper jaw about eighteen inches or
two feet; thoji have a thick /kin like that of a horfe,
and the hair iPof a chefnut colotm - They are €4&e%W*
ing fat, and will produce mor£ than a barrel of oil.
©n the 19th we lay to among the ice, and font th&
boats to the ice to hunt the fea-horfe.    Killed feveral
and brougbt them on board,  but it was thought- an ill
reward fbf^raRr labor bf the people when they und§ft|£.
ffofcfii thirl-the ihorf pittance of European fooW was to ffii
.withheld  from them,   and this, fubftituted in its room.
Buff CdoTl wW determined upon the^point,   and fet the
eftakhple himfeE by making it  his conftant food while
it hfted.   The people at firft murmered, and at laft eat*
it through mere vexation ; an4 trying to fee who v^otfld
eat moft of it in order, to confume it the fooner, Tome
of the p&ple rather ovdrdid the matter, which producing fome laughable cifcumftarices, the Tars fwote ^^]
would eat% thing elfe that Couk 0^^t th<|p
wertfcef fain that nothing would kill him ^Krhelms
■ t
• 11;.
above or the earth beneath or in the waters under the
earth.      . ' '..'.'-.    r . 'ip    .'/    ' ■■'■■)
On the aeth we continued laboring among the ice*
Lat. this day 70 9 long* 194 SS* ll
Nothing remarkable until tjie 25th when we had
blowing weather, which rendered our fituation among
the ice dangerous. This occafioned a council of officers, and it was refolved that as this Paffage was impracticable for any purpofe of navigation, which was
the great objeft of the voyage to purfue it no further
at leaft that feafon. The (hips too were in bad condition, the winter approaching, and the diftance from a-
ny known place of refrelhment very great.
On the 28th we left the ice and flood S. S. W.
Our higheft lat. being^ 71  17  long. 197*
On the 29th ftooimore to the weftward with a view
to trace the ice to the Afiatic  fhoie.
On the xft of September made the Afiatic coaft in
lat. 58 10 long. 18 2 2. '0'
On the 2d we paffed agaia the two cape^^iat form
the caftern and weftern ex tremes of Afia and America,
and as we kept the middle of the channel, whioh is a-
bout 14 leagues over, had the pleafure to fee both, continents at once. The Afiatic cape is called by the
Ruffians the Ifchutka Nofs. The American cape, Cape
Prince of Wales.
From this we   went   again to Norton's-Sound.   Our
vifit here on our rout to  northward being but   parti^
and the fupplies we took of wood and water being bq$.
final! as foon as we   could find a road-ftead we anchored, determining to fupply ourfelves well with th<£|/*r--
■   tides'
-*»-• \ ticles, and to have a thorough forvey of this exllrtiive
Sound. This detained us until the 17th day^f September. We were vifited by fome of the natives while
here, and purchafed an agreeable fupply of good fifli.
We alfo refrefhed ourfeives much by our exercifes on
(bore in which we were feldom met by the natives and
never molefted. The country had a tolerable appearance generally covered with wood and abounded with
ducks, buftards, eagles and other fowl, but we faw no
animals. We alfo found an unbounded plenty of whurts,
red and black currants. Thefe curiofities were moft in-
duftrioufly gathered and eat/and fuch an excellent ef-
fe£i had they upon us that when we left this place the
people (who from long confinement, hard duty, fcanty
and almoft any fare had become pale, languid and poor)
were transformed into new beings almoft, and were literally grown fat, plump and rofy.
On the 17th the boats that were fent out to explore
and furvey returned Jjaving traced the found to the head
and examined both ttfores. t' • \.jfc-._   \   ;,.
On the iSth we weighed and failed retracing the
Coafts we had before explored, without any particular
I On the 25 th we had a fevere gale of wind, and the
Retention again fprung a. leak, which was fo bad that
we were, kept pumping and bailing night and day until wve again got into Providence-Harbour. We patted
feveral iflmds during our run to Providence-1 (land, which
were barren and uninhabited.
p£)n the apth were again overtaken-with a fevere gale
i|j!^re<| doubly fo by the embarraflment^^ were al^
^aa^undej: from our leak. m
Oa I»
-' i
r      '
On the sd of Oflober we made  the Ifland of Provider^  w^ph we left the ad of July on our rout to
.■ the northward,   and  the next day entered our old har
bour and both fhips moored in feven fathoms clofe in
with the more.   Our firft care was to examine and repair our leak which  we immediately fet about.   When
this matter was completed, we overhauled our rigging,
eauiked the upper works, and then watered.    We had
-i|    alfo in the mean time fet our armourers and fmiths at
work to cut up a fpare bower anchor and work it into
natchets,   fpikes,   and fuch other forms as would   beft
anfwer the purpofes of traffic among the tropical ifland*
where we were now  going to wait  the returns of an-
other ieafon in order to make  a fecond attempt for the
■jHi thou«h in faa we were well convinced alrea-
ay of its non-exiftence. Cook alone feemed bent upon
a fecond trial.
taflA have before obferved that we had noticed many
111 V?Tia,?CoS t0 the e*ftwa^ of this, as far almoft as
V/ntvf ' und' 0f an ELiroPean intercourfe, and that
I ^re at thlS ifland in Partic^ar met with circum-
^.^ftances that did not only indicate   fueh an intercourfe
| . out feemed  ftrongly  to intimate that feme   Europeans
|§were aaually fomewhere on the fpot.   The appearance*
tn at formed thefe conjeaures were fuch as thefe:   We
found among the inhabitants of this ifland  two different kinds of people, the one we knew  to be the aborigines of America, while  we   fuppofed the  others  toll
*ave come from the oppofite coaftsof Afia.§There were
two different dialetfS alfo obferved, and we found them
tend of tobacco, rum, and fouff, tobacco we even found
them pofTefied of,   and we .obferved feveral blue lfoen^
thuts and drawers among them.    Rut the  moft remar§*
able cucumftance was a cake of rye-meal newly baked
with a pi«ce of falraon in it feafoned with pepper ar&alt, ■
V-lpr*rHC& r
which Was brought and ptefented to Cook by a comely
young chief attended by two of thofe Indians which
we fuppofed to be Afiatics. The chief feemed anxious
to explain to Cook the meaning of the prefent and the
purport of his vifit, and he was fo far fuccefsful as to
perfuade him that there were fome ftrangers in:the country, who were white* and had come over the great waters in a veffel fomewhat like ours, and though not fo
lfcrge was yet much larger than theirs.   '. ^^^^^B&
In confequence of this Cook was determined to explore the ifland. It* was difficult however to hx upon a
plan, that would at once anfwer the purpofes of fafe-
ty arid expedition : An armed body would proceed flow-
ly, but if they fhould be cut off by the Indians, the
lofs in our prefent circumftances would be irreparable,
and a fingle perfcn would entirely ri/k his life though
he would be much more expeditious if unmolefted, and
if he fhould be killed the lofs would be only one. The
latter feemed the beft, but it feemed extremely
hard to fingle out an individual and command him to
go upon fuch an expedition, and it was therefore thought
proper to fend a volunteer, or none. I was at this time
and indeed ever after an intimate friend of John Gore
Efq; firft lieutenant of the Resolution, a native of America as well as myfelf, and fuperior to me in command
he recommended me to Capt. Cook to undertake the expedition, with which I immediately acquiefced. Capt.
Cook affured me that he was happy I had undertaken
the rout as he was confcious I fhould perfevere, and
after giving me fome inftruft ions how to proceed he wifo-
ed me well and defired I would not be longer abfent
than a week if pcflible, at the expiration of which he
fhould expe& me to return. If I did not retur||by that
time he fhould wait another week for me, and no longer*
The young chief before-mentioned and his two alfenjlp
Wm& §1   ants IT
HI .-..  'm§i
ants were my guide AI took with me fome pre-
fonts adapted to• the tafte of the pndiaps foirlfe feanfiy "*^
bottles ahfi'iome *i^ fwent
entirely una^ed^By' the advfo<pof dllpi/cSopk.' The
firft day we proceeded aboM 11 miles-into tl#int*§iip%
part of the parid' without %ny"remarkable dccdrrenc|8
until we approabhecT a' Village: jult^efore nighfi^ffn^p
Village confiftebf &f abouttWity^ts^fome of them large
and fpaciotif though not veiy higli. The^ fillts are com-
pofed of a kind of flight''frarne tie£ted4 over a* ^fqp^iS
hole funk about 4 feet into the ground; the frame is
covered at trie bottom withy turf ahaiaipwards ft is
thatched with coarfe grafs; the whole village was" out
to fee us and men, women and children crouded about
m^l^t, was. conduced by the youn^Cbief who was my;
j^Mide and feemed proud and aiTiduous to fer v erne into one
of the larg^ft hutts. J was furprized at the behaviour o|
the Indians, for though they were curious to keMoie; yw
they did not exprefs thai: extraordinary curiofity that
would be expea^d had they never feen an European/before, and I was gladtoperceive it^as i^was an*evidence
in favor of what I wifoed to find true viz. thatMthere
were Europeans now amo&g them. TJhe worn en of the houfe
which were almoft the; on)j ones I lyad feen a,t this lfJjM|
were much more tolerable than I expelQied to have founjg
them, one in particular feemed, very bujyfo pleafe me,tcf<
her therefore I made feveral prefen|g with wrS^Jk (lie: wJ
extremely well pleafed. As^was now dark, piy young^
chief intimated to me that we muft tarry where '"wl|
weje that night, and proceed * furtfier the next 4ayj|
to whichT very readily ccnceeded, bemz nj^im&'figu^d| -
Our entertainmeht''the tobf^quent part'^f *the 'evening,
did not c^iii^ of much delicacy or variety ^ihij^ l^J^
fome dryedfijh, and-thac! fcufe bread ^ fome fp^f^,
of which we all participated.' Qerem-inv" W^8-^^V&T
vited to the feaft, and nature prefixed over'the &*$faf>
tainment until morning.   At day-light Per pheejrf (whi|fc
■^k'W#S' t
S-8? -$& ^P? w^m y°nn% chl$£ that;$3f my guide)
let me know he was ready to j;o on, upon which I flung
off the f^jnj j had flept in, put on my (hoes and outr
fide^veft, and arofo to accompany him, £fter repeating
foy prefents to my friendly guefts. We had j^itherto,
travelled in a northerly dire£\iqn, but now vvent to thf
weft ward and tothgvard. I was no\y fo |uucli r£|iev|s4
from the3|spprehenfion of any infult or injgfy from the
Indians, that* my journey would hgve been even agrees
a$i§ had I not been taken lame, v^jth a fwelling in the
feet, which rendered it extremely painful tgy^alk j the
Cj9un%*y was alfo rough and hilly, and the weather w$$
. arvd cold.*Jjj^bout 3 hours.before dajk we came to a large
bay, which appealed to be 4 leagues over. Here my;
gui<^e, .Per.pheela too£ ja canoe and all ou.r baggage,
and fet off, feemingly ||o crofs th$ bay. ^Hje appeared
to leave me in an abrupt manner, and. told me to fql*
lo,w the two attendants. This gave me fom£ unsafinefs*
l now followed Peiph^ela's two attendants, keeping
t)ie b,ay in v^ew, but we had not gone a^pye fix miles
before we faw a canoe approaching us from the oppofite
fide of the bay, in which v^ere two Indians, as foon as my,
guides faw the canoe we ran to the fhore from th&
hills and nailed them, and finding they .djjt tiot hear <*-$
we, got fom^e bufhes and waved them in the, air, whic-hk
they fay^, and iWd dire£\ly for us^.   This  canoe wa*.
-fepi'b^ Perph^Ja to bring n||aciofs the bay, and fh^tjtr
en the/diftance of the journey
It 'was. beginning to be dark when the canoe caaae,
to us.     lt^was a fkin canoe, after the Equimaux^plar^
with* two holes to accommodate two fetters.   Tr^e Jfc
dianSkthat came in the cari&e talked a little with my
two guides, altid then came to me and defire/^gwoui<^
get into the   cinoe,  which I did not vgky* readily a-
grellto, however,   as there was no othelypfee fi^ me
but to-be thiuft into the fpace between theptoles ex-
■~W tended I
:.;•';! ; «
tended at length apon my back and wholly excluded
from fe*eing the way I went or the power of extricating myfelf upon any emergency. But as ihere was no
alternative I fubmitted thus to be flowed away in bulk,
and went head foremoft very fwift through the water
about an hour, when I felt the canoe ftri^e a beach,
and afterwards lifted up and carried fome diftance, and
then fet down again; after which I was drawn out by
the fhoulders by three or four men, for it was now fo
dark I could not tell who they were, though I was con-
fcious I heard a language that was new. I was conduced by two of thofe perfons who appeared to be
ftrangers'about 40 rods, when I faw fome lights and a
number of huts like thofe I left in the morning. As
we approached o*fe of them a door opened, and dif-
-ibvered a lamp, by which to my joy and furprize I dif-
covered that the two men who held me by each arm
were two Europeans, fair and comely, and concluded
from their appeaiance theyj-were Ruffians, which I foon
after found to be true.- As we entered the hut which was
particularly long I faw aranged on each fide a platform
of plank a number of Indians, who all bowed to me,
and as I advanced to the farther end of the hut the a-
rangment was compofed of other Kuflirns. When I
reached the end of the room I wasfeatedon a bench
covered with furr-fkins, and as I was much fatigued,
wet and cold, I had a change of garments brought me,
confifting of a blue iilk fhirt and drawers, a furr-cap,
Isopts an$i gowii, all which I put on with the fame che^|ij
fulnefs they were prefented with. Hofpitality is a viraf
tue peculiar to man, and the obligation is as great to
receive as to confer. As foon as I was rendered warm
and coriajbrtable a table was fet before me withalaqfS
upon it; all the Ruffians in the houfe fet down round
me, and the bottles of fpirits, tobacco, fnuff, and whatever Perpheela had was brought and fet upon i|; thefe
'3k T prefented
Sa I prefented to the company, intimating that they wete
prefenis ffom Commodore  Cook, who was an Englifh-
»ian.   One of the company then gave me to underfland *
that all the white people I faw there were fubjefts of
the Emprefs Catharine of Ruffia, and rofe and kiffed my
hand the reft uncovering their heads.   I then informed them as well as I could that Commodore Cook wanted to fee fome of them, and had fent me there to con
dua them to  our mips.    Thefe preliminaries ovs» we
had fome fupper, which confifted of feme boiled whal*
holybret fried in oil,   and^ fome broiled falmon      The
latter I eat,   and they  gave me fome rye-bread    but
would eat none of it themfelves, but they were veiv fond
©f the   rum, which they drank without any mixture or
ttieafure.     I  had a very comfortable bed compofed of
different fur-fkins both under and over me,   and beinz
harraffed the preceedmgday I went foon to reft.   Afte
I had lain down the Ruffians affembled the Indians in
atyvery filent manner, and faid prayers after the manner
i »f the Greek Church, which is much like the Roman ^
I could not but obferve  with what particular falisfac'*i;
hon the Indians performed their devoirs to God through!!
the medium of their   little crucifixes,   and   with  wOt
pleafure they went through the multitude M ceremonil
attendant on that fort of woifhip.    I think it a religS- {
teft calculated | the world to gain profelytes when tha
fe-ple are either unwilling or unable to fpdHate   W:
Where they cannot be made acquainted with the hifto
ry and principles of chriftianity wiihout acromial edu-,.
I had a very comfortable nights reft, and did not wake
the next mornng untill lat«. As foon as I was up I was
er>nduaed to a hutt at a little diftance from the one I had
three feet rrom the .ground, and covered with drj-«coar#
grafs ?nd fome Snail green bull**   There wer« feviS
• •:;..•;., " f'W '"■'"'■■Im    *$ of • $*'»
I 'iifcl
©Ttfre jli^^^M^W ;^P*» tjl«|| Jt^t cohrTjiftect
nfe  aiidfeVersil Indians Wl||^<s| hejjjTOg, %n? water in
srlikge copper (fsftdron"offctA ft$|«|s Wmm °f -h'c-'
aMthe ft^m wKic'h< e'Vapbrated frorig^the hot water ,ren-:
diked the hiifi vflfticlv Wasrivery tighf extreemly hot, and
ftiffoeatingv   I1 foAfi'underftood, tftiS. Was a hot bath pi
^n^fh'Twas aike'dWmWe?u# of in fubh aftilndly manner,
arid' the-appata&SWrig i littlfeuriOUs jgthat I c&ice^d-
^B tift1 but'tsefeteT' Hacf. Shifted tihdteffiijg «iyfel|, I was;
o««ft'o*Vwtne-fudderi tj^flfh'of the ai^fainted away
af^MlblWupor{th!e>iatf9r|p>as'fitting on.   Iwaa^
tttjWeve'r foiri' relieved by' having fome, cojft and. luke-y
Warm wa^adminiftereJi to my face and deferent,partsi0f M
vAVtic&r    I finiftied'undreffing myfelfand proceeded^?
Sawthe-reflEdo. who" were now all naked vthe  Indj?ns
WhoTervedus'brought us. ' as'.wf fet or extended ourfelves,
on the platforms water ot different temperature from that.
^hicH Was as fSffS^Sl^SSM^M HI
hot'Water'was accompanied with fome hard. fo|p and ^
■to-brnftil it was not howeyprthrow^oijtbe. body from
mS, but fprin^ea'onwitH the green Mbes, after th«r
Sbeiame aUaftquitVtold Which concluded thecere-^
tions Deo \ f. ,reff d     d returned to oUt  lodgings,
& JfHpM MM on the table,' but the fi,.
S Wrelapfelnmy fpirita, ^4,Mfet wpu J^X had
notSa reco& to fome of thebran'^r I h^$^# which;
hfopilyfavedme.'   I was a good deal uneasy lea^the,
Se of my difcompofure fhould difobhge my friends
who meant to'tteat me in the beft manner they could.   I
lth«eSe^tributed my iUnel\teth^bath which might
SioffiWhave partly, occafioned it,; for I ana, not very fub-
wfto Sn«r   I«ould eat none iff* breakfaft howejl,
i^rcd arid-boiled, produced a compffitton of foe»^S t
offenfiveatnineor ten in the morning.     I therfcfor^ de*
fired I might have a peieeof fmoaked Salmon broiled dry,
which I eat with fome of my own bifcuit.   After breakfaft
I intended tohavefet off on my return to the mips though
there came on a difagreable fnow ftorm.    But my ,new
found friends objefled to itr and   gave me to underfland
that T (hould go the next day, and if I chofe three of them
would accompany me, this I immediately agreed to as it
anticipated a favor I intended to have afked them, though
I before much doubted whether they would comply with
it.    I amufedmyfelf withindoors while it mowed without, by writing down a few  words of the original languages of the American Indians,  and the Afiatics who
came over to this coaft with thefe   Ruffians from Kamchatka.   The Numerals  in  the two  languages  are as
TanttSiKfi    i||
fconhoqueet     j||
Choke p'   ..'■■■
Chauke     %
O olo
-,'-v^P        ■
I fhall not make any particular obfervations on the
foregoing fpecimens, but content myfelf that I have
brought thofe new and remote languages to the, clofets of
my countrymen, whofe learned eafe will abetter enable
Jtfiem to improve fuch an obje£\t>f cutiofity in invefHgat-
ing the origin of nations than I might doji^ffelf. Thefe
languages however are fo guttural that it ^^m^^^y dif-
ficul|for oae to obtain as it is to cemaumioate theifrtiue
■W^ found
*u <W\
found by our orthography, and thole who fpeak^Kpro*
P^ly muft do it E Gutture, Per Labia, In Palato, et Per
Den res, as they would the Hebrew which it fo much re-
fembl^c. The word Schee which Hands for eight in the
lift of American numerals, is indeed very nearly like the
Hebrew word Sehin. Indeed the guttural is theuniver-
fal and radical pronounciationof all the aboriginal languages on this continent, from Greenland to the Iftmus
of Darien, and from Nova Zembla all over the northern
partsof Europe and Alia.
In the afternoon thfe weather cleared up and I went out
to fee how   thofe Ruffian adventurers were  fituated.    I
found the whole village to contain about 30 huts, all of
which were built partly under "ground, and covered with
turf at the bottom, and coarfe grafs at the tops.
11   Hi : cfij
The only dircumftance that can recommend them is their
warmth, which is occafioned partly by  their manner of
conftm&ion, and partly by a kind of oven, in which they*
constantly keep a fire night and day.   They fleep on platforms built sn eacfeffideof the hutt, on which they havea
number of Bear an#,other fkins, which renders them comfortable, & as they H&fcp been educated in a hardy manner*,
they need little or no-lther fupport than what they procure
from the fea, and from hunting.    The number of Ruffians
w;re about 30, and they had wUh  them  about 70  Kam-
chadales, or Indians from Kamchatka, thefe with fome of
the American Indians whom they had entered into frien^n
fhip with occupied  the  village, enjoyed every benefiipa
common with the Ruffians, and were converts to their Religion.   Such other of the aborigines of the ifland as had
not become converts to their fentiments in religious and
civil matters, were   exeluded from fuch   privileges and
were prohibited to wea.r certain   arms-    I alfo  foundry
fmall fbop of about 30 to/is burthen laying in a cove beljj
hind the village, and a hutt near her contattfigg her fails,
\M cordage, I
cordage, and other fea equipage, and one old Iron three-
pounder. It is natural to an ingenious mind when it enters a
town, a houfe, or fhip that has been rendered famous by any-
particular events to feel the full force of that pleafure
which refults from the compleateft fatisfaftion that can
be obtained to gratify a noble curiofity. I was nofoon-
er informed that this floop was the fame in which the famous Bheering had performed thofe difcoveries which did
him fo much honor, and his country fuch great fervices,
than I was determined to go on board cf her and indulge
the generous feelings the occafion required. I intima-
ed my wifhes to the man that accompanied me who went
back to the village and brought a canoe in which we went
©n board, where I remained about an hour, and then returned. B
Bheering was a Ruffian by birth, and like his prede-
ceffor and Prince^ Czar Pe-er feemed born to render
thofe fervices to his country which none but the really
gre*t and thofe obftinately bent ort doing good can do.
There is a hiftory of his life and difcoveries extant, but
I have never had the happinefs to fee it.    though I was
(informed Cook had it with him. I am therefore under the
neceffity of recommending my readers to this hiftory for a
more perfeft account of his proceedings in general as welf
as thofe whiefi concern the prefent voyage, than what I
am now a bie to furnilli them with for the want of it. lam
Inclined to wifli that fo great a character as Cook's could
ndt. be ftained by envy. Eut it is an abfolute faft that
Eheering's difcoveries upon the coafts of America from'
the latitudes 59 N. and longitudes jj|rc E. #the ifland
of Providence, and from thence takif|g«Wie coaft^^Mene-
MB to the two famous capes, the Ifcutfta Nofs, andfejpe
Prince of-Wales were antecedent to Cooks', and they not
°^.mucn facilitated his own navigation, bat deprived
hm of the honor of being the foie difcoverer ©f the N. W.
^ntinentof America, though it muft be acknowledged
m that
tw m
thit Bheering's knowledge of fuch parts as he did explore were incorreft, imperfe£l and infinitely below the
eonfummate acrtaracy of Cook. Bheering Js difcoveries
were thofe of an otfcUre un (lifted genius who had every
difficuly tofiarmount that can be thought incidentfto w
man illiberally educated, and to fuch a vaft undertaking,
and Cook's, thofe of a perfon whofe fome had already
been eftablfhed, whofe genius had ail the affifb.nce of art^
and whofe equipments in other refpe£ls were the ftudied
accomodations of the greateft nautical kingdom on earth..
This little bark belonged to Kamchatka, and came
from there with the Afiatics already mentioned to this
ifland (which they call O^nalatchka ) in order to eftabliih
a pelt and fur factory. They had been here about five
years, ad^go over to Kamchatka in h~r once a year to de«|
liver their merchandise, and get a recruit of fuch-.fupa
plies as they need/rom the chief faOory there, of which \
fhall take further notice hereafter.
The next day I fet off from   this village well fatisfied
with the happy iftueof a rout which was now asagieable
as it was at firft undefitable.    I wasaccompanied by three •
of the principle Ruffians and fome  attendants*   We  em-
fc*rked at the village in a largeikin bqaf much  like our
large whale-boats rowing with ifc -oars, and as we ft-uclfej
dire&ly  acrofs the bay we (hortened cur diftance   feveraL
miles, and the next day puffing the feme village I had
before been at, we arrived by fundown at the bay where
the flaps lay, and before dark I got on board wit h our new
acquaintance.   JJThe fatisfa&ion this difcovery gave Cook,
*nd the   hrj^r>vtha,t redounded to me m y be eafily ima*
gine^ifjid the feveral conjectures refpefting thj^ lappeai-
ance of a foreign intercourfe re&iried and. confijuie,d.
-Providence- lilmd   is about   19 .leagues in  ciccumfe^
fence, and about 3 miles from the- main,, hilly
jin as to timber, and fuch ay they make'ufe of is what
drifts HI
drifts upon the fhores (torn different parts offthe coaft
on the continent It produces however feveral plants
and flowers common to the climate, and among others a
plenty of whurts. «,;..
On the firft of November we fet fail, and paffing through
the ftreigh^ to the fouthward loft fight of Providence
Iflmd fleering eaftward and fouthward toward Sandw^fc
-{lands .We had now been nine months upon the coaft of A-
merica,' vfce had feen and fuffere-4 a great deal, arid we had
ftill more: to fee no doubt, but I believe nobody thought
more to fuffer. We had however the agreable reflection
of havingexploredthe greateft part of the unknown coafts
of northern and weftern America, and of having affce^i
tained and fixed the exaft limits to the whole of it, as
well as the northern and eaftern coafts of Afia, and the
iflands in the intermediate ocean.   :p t|§ -^   |Mk.. *   r
We met with i-o particular occurrences on our paffage from America to^Sandwich- Iflands, Coo&was very much inclined to think tja^re were other,Mgnds con-v
tiguous to^thofe we had s already difcovered, and di£«
tinguilhed by that appellation on our rout to the np^l\^
ward^and Jha|Ithey Sty to the eaftwa rd, with this v&w.
wiffailei eaftward j^ntil.,we found ouifelves in the LaiW
ot^ttoy^^-, and that ifland-4 degrees weft we&fjhen run.
0^^^^^^   This^nfwered  Cook's  expectations.
And,'.1^^       "    *   ^--;--      ;•■'. W^^''^\
On,tb^a6th q£.November we difcovered land 2 degrees, eaft of Attowai, which we afterwards found to be
a.n ifland called by the natives Hawyhee or Owyhee.
On the  27th| in faihng in with Ow^ee^^^K difcovered  another ifland,   called by the hanvea Matove^
which;jis; nearlyin Tight of Attowai^ thefe ^vtith^^ehtin,
Nehqtgj  Maggad^^d^foaue other lmal|^^«up|f|i^^
fill II      poie ^n> «r
'.!'- '/.j. iii.- aHKpr
pofe a group of fen iflands moftly in fight of each other,
comrjijfehending about of lat. and degrees of
longitude. Owyhee whieh^Js the eafternmoft and moft
confiderable, lies, in lat.. 19 28 north, and -204 eaft
longit. from Greenwich, is nearly in a parallel latitude
ll^th Cape Lucas, which is the fouthernmoft part of California in South-America-, and is about 900 leagues
diftant frcrn0t.
It was immediately and very naturally fuppofed, that
Cook's firft object now would be to find a harbour, whese
our weather beaten" fhips might be repaired, and our
fatigued crews receive the rewards due to their per-
feverance and toil through fo great a piece of navigation as we had performed the laft nine or ten months,
but it was not fo, and we continued laying off and on
the north fide of Mauwee, and particularly Owyhee
until the 7th of December without any other fupplies
than what was brought off to us by the naftyes in their
€anoes fome leagues from the'fhore. This conduct of
the commander in chief was highly reprobated and at
laft remonftrated ag#nft by th^'peopleipn board both
fhips, as it appeared very manixeft that Cook's conduft
was wholly influenced by motives of intereft, to which
he wailpf||ently facrificing not only the fhips, but
the healthN and happinefs of the brave men, who we§ji|
weaving the laurel that was hereafter to adorn his brows;
Cn the 8th of December we ftretched to the fouthward and eaftward in order to get round to the fouthern fide of Owyhee and get into a harbour, but it was
the 16th of January before wre found one, owing partly to the predeterBnined delays of the commander,
and partly ^ 4>ad weather.
On th^i^th of January, 1779, we entiled |^r harbbttr,
which wis a commodious bay fituate: nearly in the middle
mm     7' of
■■■ I
e( the fouth fide of Owyhee, and about a rifii§-and a
half deep, the extremes of the bay ciiftant about two
miles.   We entered with both fhips, and anchored in 7
fathoms water about the middle of the   bay having on
one fide a townj containing about 300 hundred Jioufes
called by the inhabitants Kiverua,   and on the ©the*
fide a town containing 1100 houfes,   and called Kirekakooa.   While we were entering the bay which they
called Kirekakooa after the town Kirekakooa we were
furrounded by fo great a number of canoes that Cook or*
dered two officers into each top to number them with
as much exaclnefs as they could, and as they both exceeded  3000 in their amounts I (hall.with Mety fay
there was -2500 andpas thme were-upon an avarage 6
perfons at leaft in each canoe it will follow that there
"was at leaft 15000  men,   women and children in the
canoes, befides thof£ that were on, floats, fwimpig with*ft
eut floats,   and iftually on board and hanging  round
the outfide of the fhips.    The crouds on fhore werefliw
more numerous.    The beach, the furrounding rocks, tl||
tops of houfes,  the branches of trees and the adjacetff
hills were all covered, and the fhouts of joy,  and admiration proceeding from the fonorous voices of the men
confufed   with  the fhriller exclamations of the women
dancing   and clapping rheir  hands,   the overfetingfof
canoes, cries of the children, goods on float, and hog*
that were brought to market fquealing formed one^of
the moft tumultuous and the moft curious profpefts that
can be imagined.   God of creation thefe are  thy fto-
mgs, thefe are cur brethern and our Afters,  the works
©f thy hands, and thou* apt not without a witnefs even
here where for ages and perhaps nnce the beginning it
has been hid from us, and though the cireum fiance may
be beyond our comprehenfion let ft not leffen the |faief
ijfcthe fa£r.   Among aft this immenfe- multitude of people there was not the leaft appearance of infuit^|Thef
Wfmmm ■p
J.  '     ,1 ;l\r
11 -'111
IP 'lit
/■   :      ■; {'. -104 pj "■ ' "m
had heard of tut riches by thofe who had c^trief off to
us and traded,   and from the people at Attowai,   and
concluding from our hovering round the ifland thatjive
fhould vifit thlm on fhore, had prepared to meet us with   :,
fupplies and give us a welcome.     This previous  P**
paration was the reafon of this vaft afferriblage of peof
pie and provifions,  and emty one want ing rto make the
firft bargain occafioned their coming all together.   We
purchafed as many hogs that and the following day or
two as we did for two months after,   and had befides
the advantage of refufing any but fuch as were of the
"beft kind. Il
> As foon as the Refolution was moored capt. Cook wentS
on fhore in his -Pennaee attended only by his barges ^^M
and two of the  chiefs, and landed uppn a  fine beach be*
fore the weft part#f the vtown of Kirekakooa.^His crev^
Wire without arms and had himfelf only his hanger, which
lj|e never   went without \ the chiefs had each  two long
llvhite   poles which they held upright and  waved to the
people in the canoes, to make room, and  as they paffed
through the throng, the chief cried out in their language
that the great Orono was coming, at which they all bow?
$d and covered their faces wi|pheir hands until he was
paffed    but  the  mojgent tM| was done they refumed
WESm clamourous fhouts, clofed|he vacant places aftem,
and as many as could crouded upon his rear to the ihore.
* The two chiefs firft landed and joined many other of
their brother officers who fi| alfo white rods in their
hands and obferving the tranfafltions of the two chieflan
the Pennaee had alfo made an avenue among the people
on fhore. Cook in the mean time improving the awful re-
fpea he faw paid him among the natives, p$rmi|lp «ra
feif to be carried upon the Ihoulder? of his bargptfen -f^
1 the boat "to the furamit of the beach: tl^ barge^l^^
covered.   As foon as he was fet downy the multifd* c
on the beach fell proftrate with their faces to the ground,
and their aims extended forward. Thofe upon the adjacent hills, upon the houfes, on theftone wil's nd in the
tops of the trees alfo hid heir faces while he pa fled ahng
the opening, but he was no fooner paft them than they
rore and followed him. but if Cook happened to turn his
head or look behind him they were down again in an in-
ftant, and up again as foon, whenever his face was re*
verted to fome other quarter, this punctilious perform mes
of refp^£\ info vaft a throng being regulated folely by the
Accidental turn of one m^n^head, and the tranfition being
fudden andfhort rerde;cd it very difficult even for an individual to be in proper attitude, if he lay protVate but a
fecond too long he was pretty ftren^t to 1 ile again untr he
had been trampled upon by all behind him, and if he dared not to proftrate himfelf he wjuld ftumbieover thofe before him who did. This produced a gieat many laughable
circumftances, and as Cook walked very faft to get off from
the fand into the thides of the town, it rendered the matter fti 11 more difficult. At length however they adopted
a medium that much better answered a runing compliment
and did not difple?fe the chiefs, thi§ was to go upon all
fours, Which was truely curious among at leaft ten thoufand
people.. This concourie however did not continue long,
for after paffing through a fmall part of the town only to the
Mo*m, ( vhich I thai! defcribe hereafter.) This befog a fan£Ufied fpot, and the people in general foibid to
approach it, Coo,k wa* left much to his fa tisf action, attended only by a few chiefs and their domeftics, or rather
-Rik-frmas whofe characters I Avail particularly defaibe
hereaftar. T*he ftrft bufinefs Cook withed to accompl.-lh
was to obtain a commodious fpot to erect his tent.« upon,
particularly the aftroriomical tents, and obfervin^ a
fquare potato patch between the S. E.fide of the Mora-
and the fea-that particularly"ftruck his fancy, he ^dd g|t?
the chiefs Concerning it.   They immediately made   Ip
O the /
the offer of it which Cook accepted and made the chiefs
that were prefent fome valuable prefents.    Matters  thus
far had moved with Cook in the old Otaheitee ftile, and
he difrnot fuppofe a greater degree   of refinement in ne-
gociating would be required among the chiefs here tham
there j but he wasmiftaken, for it was no fooner agreed
that Cook ihnuid have liberty to poifefs the before mentioned ground^ than the chiefs required that Cook's people
fhould never after fun-fet proceed without the limits pre-
fcribed, and that their own people fhould at all times be
utterly excluded from entering them, and as a ratification
of what they had promifed, they dire&ly fixed on the top
of the wall that furrounded the ground a number of the
white rods before  mentioned.    The  chiefs on   our fide
wrere made an exception to this  agreement,  and thofe a-
mong the natives were to be   admitted as   we   pleafed.
Thefe propofitions furprized Cook as   they were new and
unexpected; and   he  wiihed upon the   whole that  they
might not be attended with fome of the difficulties they
feemed  to portend, but when he contemplated the  good
.fenfe by which they were dictated* and the harmony they
were   calculated to produce he  acquiefed.   After this
Cook returned  on  board taking with him feveral of the
chiefs who  dined   with him upon the fruits of their own
country,  which  they .liked boiled and roafted after our
manner as well as their own.    In the afternoon I was fent
with a guard of marines fele&ed for the purpofe from both to take potTeffion of our intended encampment, and in
reeeivin^my orders particular care was taken to mention
at large the above mentioned agreement, which I was enjoined carefully to maintain uninfringed.   The ardour of
curiqfity  was now fomewhat  abated, but I had no fooner
landed  with the marines in compleat uniform, than fhe
town began to pour forth itsthoufands again, but landing
within the limits notified by the white rods, not a fmgl$:
individual approached beyond them, and our tents  were
lift pitched; E
pitched and Gentries pofted before fun-fet without anoyance,    f'could not but reflect in this fituation how much I
flwas indebted either to tie timidity or real innocence hof-
pitality and  generofity of thefe people whofe   iirmenfe
Spmbers had they all been   women would have trampled
me  to attorns, §The intrinfic difference between us and
them in every refpe£\ was ceitainiy gieat, but the greareft
difference was imaginary refpe&ing them and imputed to
us, the moment therefore that this fuppofed fuperionty of
ours fhould ceafe to exift or be diminifhed,our confequence
and importance would be at an end, or at leaft could only
be fupported the worftof all aids, an appeal to aims, which
in ourfituation would ruin us though we conquered^
As foon as the fftn fet I ordered fome additional fen-
tries, and though the wondering Indians did not entirely
evacuate the furrounding walls until dark," yet they
retired in thegreateft peace and good order.
The next morning as foon asthefunrofe they began a-
gain to affemble upon the walls, wheie they continued
untill night in the fame manner they had done the pre-
ceeding day. In this fort matters were conducted at the
tents, aad peace, plenty and good order prevailed. At
length fome of thofe difficulties Cook had forefeen and endeavoured to provide againft began todifcover themfelves.
The people at the tents complained that according to orders they were fecludfcd the fociety of fhefair, while the*
peopleon board were not, and that it was a juft matter of
complaint. This was partly true, and to remedy it would
be 10 oppoie and argue down the ftrongeft paflionSl pair
ions which feperately confidered were not againft the articles of war, and which like hunger would pervade ftone
wa lls.A   Their complaints had never been prefered to Cook
inf<$in\ Mr. King the 2d Lieut, of the Resolution and
\ftrimorSer in chief had the command of the tents, accom^
>ao^d by' the Aftronomer of the Difcovery and fame 6-
Sl§ ther mm
ther gentlemen. Thefe gentlemen had determined upon
giving a tacit con fent to the wifhes of the peop!e within this fa cried jurifdict ion upon feveral principles, they
were fenfib e that J fhould Cook receive tlutii iemon-
ftrancesfrom their hands he wculd refent it, and impute it
to the imbecility of their command or to fecret wiihes in
them to abet the demands of the people, and convert them
ul imately to anfwer their own puip^fes, but were ihey ro
fuller the peope to admit their miftieffea or Jo go out to
meet them wiihout noticeing the matte , fhould it finally
produce any mifchief ihey then wou d have fome colour
of excufe*— but they hoped this would not be the cafe**''
they hoped t hei. to Venus wou'd he more propitious and produiri e of far other ci cumitatrees. The '
people had often atten pted to profecute the illicit a-
mours when they rifqued the lefenttnent of their Officers,
hut they no fooner perceived themfelves freed frcag'th.s
r^ftraint by their Conduct, than they were cVteimined
whenever opportunist) fa vexed to improve the hint. For
my own part I really forefaw the mifchiefs that would
enfue, and endeavored to put the matter upon ano her
footing, though without fucceis. The em ba rr a flm en ts
our enamouratoes were already under, were ftill greater
from our contiguity to the Morai, which the women of
the country never dare approach from religious motives,
exclufive of the confideration of beini? fhe firft to infringe
upon the conditions they have fubfifting betweentheit
chiefs and us of another kind.
There was in fhort no alte/narive but for our people to,
go without the lines and meet their miltrefles upon neutral ground. This was at f\rft done by the officers wit^
the ulmoft {ecrecy—but what can b,§. hid from je?|lou%
love, and thefleeplefs eyes of enxiety—our foldiers and,
frrilrtrs faw it and practifed it. It was i-mpoflibie for a
Ruaaber ef men upon half a^n, acre of ground tQ go outa^tv
return t
feturn all upon the fame bufinefs and not have fome rencounter that would lead to .a difcovery, which was foon
the cafe both between officers and men, and then the coven int was no more. This matter was at laft well known
aiwong the inhabitants, butas it had never been productive of any mifundetHandings on either fide, it was taken
ii > other notice of by people in general: but the chiefs
tnaught differently the/ knew it was a breach of cove-
nsnt.This might be efteemed trivial on our part and indeed
it was, but it was the begining of our fubfequent misfortunes, and acknowledged to be fo afterwards when it was*
too late to revert the consequences. In a few days the
white rods were taken, -down by fome of the Inhabitants,
and a free egrefs and regrefs took place : the inhabitants
had accf.fs to our tent«, viewed our conduct in private and
unguarded hours, had every opportunity to form an opinion
of our manner and a b litities, I nd contr^ft ihem with their
own nay, were ev^n inftiuctedin the nature and ufe of our
firearms, and permifed to piove our own perfonal prowefs
in wreftling, boxing and other athletic exercifes, and in
fome inftmces with fuccefs en their fide. It alfo flung
temptations in their way to theft which they diligently
improved and we refented.
%i was not however untill fome time after our arrival
that we faw thefe appearances, and not till near our final
de parture that we faw the evils that refulted from thenjf
The thirddgy after our acquaintance Capt. Cook was incited on fhore by a number of the chiefs, grhong whdfei was a
prieft, to a kind of entertainment or rather certmony that
he could not underfland, as they either could or would not
explain it to him, he was obliged to comply at 3 hazard
with their requefts to come at theknow'edge of "a cir-
cumftance they were more anxious to communicate than
he was to receive.
00k was attended by three   of his lieutenants, 2nd a
* M
^E: w
draftfinan uniformly dreffed. As they paffed the tents
after landing, I was invited by Lieut. King to mafce^ one
mi the party, our rout led to a romantic n lent fpot weft of
ihe iVIjrai which wa3 the reiH-rue of the prieft that
conducted the cerem >ny. It confuted of a circle of lar.t e
cocoanut and other trees that ftood upon the margin of a
pond of water in the^ center of which was a bathing plice.
,J|pon<the north fide of the pond were a row of houfes Handing among the trees, and weie null delightful y fituated. ;
jhefe houfes extended almoft to the Mora?, neareft which
was thatof the prieft^who was the lord of this beaut iiull
recefs. Between the houfes and the pond-were a number
of gr:ifs plots interfected by feveral fquare holes with water in them which were private baths. On the eaft fide
under the wall of the Morai was a thick aibour of low
fpreading trees, and a number of ill carved images inter*
fperfed throughout j to this retreat we were all conducted,
and Capt. Cook was placed by one of thofe images which was hung round with old pieqes of their
cloths and fome viands. When the company were all
feated the natives formed a fern ici rcle in front of Cook,
who with his lieutenants ©n each iide #ompjfed the
tafe. The prieft, who had been very bufy in forming
this arangment now proceeded to the moft important
part of duty, and began to anoint the head of Cook
with cocoa nut-oil infufed with a milky juce that is obtained from the bread fruit, uttering at the fame time
with a jargon we knew nothing of fome kind offpeech,
the chiefs at certain periods vociferating with a ftrong
-fonorus voice a kind or amen. This part of the ceremony lafted about twenty minutes, and was fucceeded
by a long, uninterrupted, formal oration by the prieft,
which was run over-with the greateft rapidity, and lafted about half an hour. Notwithftanding, the language
here is almoft verbally the fame as at Otaheite, and
the other iflands we could not underftand a, word this
\ [
t IX
Levitehad fpoken. §At the end of the fpeechthe reft 6f
the natives gave a fliout, and this was fucceeded by a fone
of a How majertic ccmpofition and was fliort.   The fong
«nded and was fucceeded by a barbiguel hog and bread!
• uit, but howev er ceremonious the najtRes hfed been in the
.preceedirtg part of this   exhibition, they now were of a
»diffe.ent opinion,and made the mott ftrenuous efforts of
It was at this time about ten o'clock in the morning
Jind we did not partale with our friends,   except in a
drink of cccoanut-milk ; thoy, however, finifted the hoe'
and then rofe to wait upon Cook into town.
wS,h"drW beCn \ere 111111 and Iwdten
waning with anxiety the arrival of their Orono   la Hi
orgreateft Chief/ whofe>rme was Kireeaboo, whom we
expefted every day and every/hour according to^!
reports of the. natives from the^md of Mauwee whet*
he had been at war with the dhief of that ifl1n'd.
I On the 22d of January foM of the chiefs and other
warriors, who had beeji atWlauwee came into the hJ
and the next day feverafmore hundred made their apnea!:
ance, but it was not until the *sth that Kireeaboo £me
He was attended by , nua)ber of double canoes   The
largefl-we had ever feen,   being   between 60 an'd ^
feet in   length,-^a large retinue of ftout,   c^X
bold looking hardy chiefs, befides other attend,nKl
about  3o men  With  paddles.   Jn the for^ *Z H a   ■
parts of his canoe were placed feve-alillf    and^ind«
of wicker work ^^^^^^^W
different colours, .|uf chiefly red and bUirt  lfe,5f
carry to war with theg^They   took HHBh|-'-
the mips as they entered,tle bar   but imJ •        ?.^M
lr on the b^ri, „«,,    V*>'"?<M ''» out landed immediate
fcrvi    and LirS^- ^a^pnient' which C<*>* °^
S'   aa4 beinM*0US to falute Kireeaboo rowed
m Ii
in his pennaee direfily to the tents from whence lie
went out t& meet him* Te interview was worthy Cook
and Kireeaboo, aM they feemed from that m ment to
Conceive an uncommon attachment to each other. 'KM
reeaboo was an old man and very feeble, about 5 feet
* inches high, an<f of si flender nuke, he had a countenance very expreffive of donfcioiis dignity and meritj
and conducted himfelf at all times worthy a ruler of
the people.
After file c^etn^nies of the firft ftlutafion were over
Cook invited Kireea-feoo and fed him by the hand to his
markee atte**d£d bf a concourfe of his chiefs, who expTeff*
ed the livelieft fenfe of the honor done their king. Our
v,aftronomers were at this time rectifying their mathe~
matical aparatus in the front of their obfervations. It
was a bright day, and the appearance was even brilliant tons, but much l^pre fo to Kireeaboo and his attendants, who even expreffed a fupecftitious fear as they
approached it. They had heard what terriMe things our
guns were, and therefore were particularly apprehensive
of danger from our two telefcojpes that ftood eleveted above
the reft. The quadrants did nofttappear to be dangerous
inftruments, but both from their conftru£tion and ufe were
a perfeft myftery, about which they made endlefs en-o
quiries, and would Tiave Idolized if one might judge
from their extravigant exclamations and geftures. A great
part of the forenoon was fpent in fatisfying the curioft-
ties of thefe untutored foils of men, and in endeavor-
trfgf to inform them of our knowledge, and judge of the
capability of theirs. But after all the only conclufion
they made was that as we had fo much to do with the fun
and the reft of the planets whofe motions we were con-
ftantly watching by day and %ight,. and which we had
informed them we were guided by on the ocevin| we
muft either have come from thence,, or be fome JrSther^
way particularly connected with thofe obje£h,cfnd m
ftrengthfitl m-
ftrengthen this inference thev obferved that the eotout
of our fkins partook of the red from the fun, and the
white from the moon and ftars, befides ||t!?ey frid we
dealt much, with fire that we could Mil others with it,
but that it would not hurt us though we were clofe by
it, and that we rendered it in all things intirely fub-
fervient to us.
When the ufual hour of dining arrived Cook invited
JCitee-iboo and his attendants on board, and as his ta-
tfle was no otherwife o namented than with the productions of Owyhee his guefts were the better accom^
Kireeaboo made  his  dinner folely with bread-fruit
and a drink of water, but his chiefs who wera younger,
ufed both pork and fowls—they made no ufe of knives
or forks, and  cramed their mouths as full as they pof-
fibly could, but the quantity they eat was very moderate, they alfo drank cnly water, refufing wine, porter,
rum  or any other  kind of liquor.     After dinner they;
were conducted upon deck, where they were again highly entertained with a new fcene,  and one much better
adapted to their imderftanding than that they had lately been at on fhore.   Some of them were employed ^in
/ineafuring the fhip's  length,   and others   her   breadth,
whielfifthey; did with a line, and' then meafured it into
fathoms as we do, and fome of them ventured as far ar-
loft as the main and fore-tops, bu^ook their rout through
lubbers hole rather than by the^|tftock ihrouds.    None
of them would go higher or offer to venture *)ut upon
the yards.    Others again were in the fhip\s hold it which
they exp^effed the utmoft admiration.     Kireeaboo  was
on the quarter deck with Cook, and had every minute
fome   of  the chiefs running   to him and relatin^^hat;
.;^^^nad feen for,his ir%>rmation>    After this th^^^^.
naogpiwas manned   with   the crew in blaek^caps and
P white \m
C       "4       1
white (birrs, and rowed uniformly to the Difcovery, the
Fiench horn playing.   The evening was fpent on board'
with Capt. Clerke.    Kireeaboo  was fo much pleafed
with the attention that had been  ihewn  him  and   his
chiefs that he defired Cook and Clerke would fpend the
next day with him and his chiefs on fhore, defiling alfo that they would bring their chiefs with th*m, which
was readily agreed to, and the next morning both Captains and all the  officers that could attend dreffed  in
their uniforms,   and went to Kiverua where  Kireeaboo*
generally reftded.   They all dined together in   Kiree^l
aboo's houfe: The dinner confined of a hog and potatoes baked after their manner fpread on green plantain*!
leaves, round which  they all feated themselves crolT-
legged, there was no ceremony, except th t of warning
the mouth and hands both before and after dinner with
clean water, and the only u ten fils at the feaft were pieces of bamboo, which were ufed as knives;   the natives
drank water,   and   our  officers   to conform as near   as
poflfble to the   contour of the entertainment drank co-
coanut-miik.     After  dinner they went out to take the
air under an adjacent dude, where they were entertained with a dance by the women while they were voluptuj
oufly ft retched along the grafs or reclined againft the trees.
One of the gentlemen from the difcovery brought his violin
with him, and one from the   Refolution   a ge man-fluter
and as th^company feemed to want a variety, they played
upon each in turn    The violin produced the moft # moderate laughterjpions: the natives, who feemed fo relifh-
it.a*  many dope ba^rlf-pe , or much mo:e indifferently,
but when we accompanied it by a voluntary dance or cotillion they had a different opinion, the flute they much admired and examined   very   cu irfly.     Tffe   drum   and   fife
(though not   prefent) is the mufic they  mrft delight in.
When  the fun was  upon the decline Kireeaboo^grlhis
fuit croiTed the bay to Kirak akooa in  older to ccmpleat
H the r
ihe entertainment of his guefts by an exhibition of the
gyninaftic Hnd at which a large conccurfe of people of
all denominations were prefent. The difpofition of the
affembly was an extenfive circle in the midft of which
was performed, wreftiing. boxing and other athletic ex'||
ercifes which I need ntfffuither deferibe than refer ing
my readers to the accounts of thofe games at Tongotaboo
one of the friendly :fUnds, wi h which they entirely cor-
refpond except in one particular, which was a circumftance
we had neve; before met with, this was a fort offtandard
o* infignia which was brought on and introduced into the
circle by one of thofe who had laft excelled in thofe exer-
cifes, and when the fports were over it was taken by
the victor or victors, and preferved by them as a teftimony
of their prowefs untill they were excelled in fome fub-
|fequsnt rsnccuntei. The lofs of this badge of honoi never
k)Ccafiond any uneafinefsor repining, and the inveftment
was decifive as the <i€\ion which won it : it was the Ihout
of contenting hundreds that clofed eveiy feat which declared to whom it was due.
This ftandard feemed to have a refemblance of the''
ancient Roman one : The ft: ft* was about 13 (eet long,
en the  top there was a tiuck with fome holes  in it/
through which a, line was rove, and to the ends of tht?
line hung a fhort broad pendant,  underneath,this about
two feet frcm the truck was another cord 4
a tranfvtrfe fttek about 4 feet long, to  which a.large
man-jof war bird was fixed with the tips of the wings
fpread to each  end of the ftick,   and  the whole was
ornamented with little tufts of variagated feathers.
*3rhis ceremony was very well conducted, tut fell
(bort in feveral refpeda to thofe of the fame kind at
Tongft^boo* At fun-down the fports ended, and after
^M&o:* nad Sone off in triumph with the infignia
afpOory th£jgp£gy diffolved,    Kireeaboo wenVo-
¥*- m
|      Mm       1
trer unattended ^nd without 'ceremony to Kivema, an4
our otfieers to their feveral ftups.
The next evening Cook invited Kueeaboo and  hi*
people to another entertainment, which they afterwards
juilly called the fiery  que.    This was the exhibition*
of fome of the fire-works we had brought from Woo||
wich,    The fame of  this   intended   entertainment and
the manifeft preparations that had been making on the
beach at lyireekafcooa by our  gunner  and yoernen exm
tended the  report far and neai, by which means ther$
was an immenfe number of fpectators.     As foon as it
was well dark Cook landed at the fpot where the preparations were, attended by Kireeaboo, and a great num*
per of men and women, in their canoes.   The  nativ^a
had  been fome of tlnem all day waiting,  and their expectations were wound up to the laft extremity, fome
of them had begun to jeer us, and e*prefs a gieat con-*
tempt of our heiva, as they called it.    Cook expected
fome  laughable circumftances, and was willing to improve it, he  therefore took the necefTary   precautions,
and when every thing was ready, and the people as filenlj
as the night  he ordered a fky-racket off.
I <Jo think this £art of the fcene undefcribeable.—
Cook and the officers near him certainly could not
do it they were fo entirely overcome with laughter:
They could hardly hold the old feeble Kireeaboo"
^nd fome elderly ladies of quality that fat among them,
and before they had any ways recovered themfelves from
this paroxifm nearly the whole hoft that a moment before furrounded them had tied, fome towards the town,
fome to thr hills, aad feme into the water, many they
did not know where, and many had been trampled un*
der foot and remained motionlefs there. It however
happened luckily that rhe object which at firft* cauffed
ikcir fear did not long  coajfcmue^ and 2s that expired
thS the terfofs of thofe.who fted as well as the few who
remained behind fcibfidedf, and Kireeaboo rofe and called himfelf to the hindermoft of the people to rettfrn,
and fent after the reft: This had fuch an effect that
many did return, an<i w*ir the remaining part of the
evening, but there were many who were frightened paft
recovery, and did not appear any more that night. How-
e er when we came to proceed and lire another racket
though thofe that had returned faw their king and the
reft ©y the company fafe, and themfelves'unhurt yet they
could n^t refill the former impulfe, and again took to
their heels, and though they foon returned they continued t-> do fooccafionally through the whole ceremony, except at the exhibition of the water-rackets, which
feemed to reconcile them to'the opinion of the entertainment being calculated to pleafe and not to hurt them,
und when all was over they parted wifh us highly
pleafed, ihouting our greatnefs and goodnefs.
On the 26th of January I fent a billet on board to
Cook, defirin-^ his peimiifioh to,make an excurfion into the interior parts of the country propofing if practicable to reach the famous peak that te minated the
height of the ifimd. My propofal was not only granted, but promoted by Cook^ who very much wanted
fome informations refpe&ihg that part of the iflUnd, particularly rthe peak, the tip of which is generally covered with mow, and had exited great curiofity. He
defired the gunner of the Refolution, the boranift fent
out by Mr. Banks* and Mr. Simeon Woodruff to be of
the party*. He alfo procured us fome attendants among
the natives to sffift us in carrying cur baggage and di-
re&?ng us through the woods. It required fome prudence to make a goo-f equipment for this tour, for though
we had the full heat of a tropical fun near the margin
of the ifland we knew we fhould experience a different
temparafnent in the air the higher we advanced toward
d£k fl
wards the peak, and that the tranfition would be fud-
den if not extreme, we therefoje took each of us a woolen blanket,   and in  general nude alteration in
our dreffc   and we each took a bottle of brandy.   A-
mong the natives who were to attend us was a young
chief whofe name  was O'Crany and two youths from
among the commonalty.     Our courfe lay eaftward and
northward from the town, and about two o'clock in the
afternoon we fet out, when we had got without the town
we met an old acquaintance of mine (who ought   indeed to have been introduced before.)   He was a middle aged man   and belonged to the order of their Mida
or priefthood,   his name was Kunneava.t We faluted
each other, and the old man afked with much  impatient curiofity where we were going,   when we had informed him hedifapproved of our intention, told us that
we could not go as far as we p opofed, and would have
pexfuaded us to return; but finding we were determined
in our iefolve$, he turned and accompanied us ;  about
two  miles without the town the land was level,   and
continued  of one  plwin of  little  enclofures  feparatecj
from each other by low broad walls | Whether this cir-
cumftance denoted feparate proplity, or was done foie-
ly to difpenfe with the lava that overfpread the face of
the country,   and of which the walls are compofed    I
cannot fay,    but probably it denotes a diftin£t poflef-
fion.    Some of thefe fields were planted, and others by
their appearance were left fallow.- In fome we faw the
natives collecting the coarfe grafs that had grown upon
it during the time it had lain unimproved, and burning
it in detached heaps.    Their fweet potatoes are moftly
railed here, and indeed are the principle objecl of their
agricultuie,   but it requires an infinite deal of toil on
account of the quantity of lava that remains on the land
notwithftanding what is ufed about the walls to Come
at the foil, and befides they have no implements of
huibandry v     -     c :  %J9 f I • \ ■""."■""" mm c
husbandry t? at we could make u'e of had the ground
been free from the lava;- If any thing can recompence
their labor it muft he an exuberant foil, and a beni-
ficent climate. We faw a few patches of fugar cane
interfperfed in moift places, which were but final!:
But the cane was the largeft and as fweet as an? we
had ever feen, we alfo palled feveral groups of plantain-trees.
T'^efe enclofed plant?ticns extended about 3 miles
from the town, near the b ck of which they commenced,
and were fucceeded by what we called the open plantations. Here the land began to rife with a gentle af-
cent that continued about ore mile when it became
abruptly fteep. Thefe were the plantations that contained the bread-fruit -trees. (What Ceres a e thy wheat-
en flteves, and thyjellow harvefts compared with this
fcene! Have the fongs of p> ets done thee fo much honor firm a fickly theme, what would they do another
deity from beholding this extenftve difplay of fponta-
neous vesutation.    Son of— whit are thy fields but
the fad teftimony of toil, and when thy feeble plants
hath palled the thoufand dangers that attend its pro-
grefs to a ftate of perfection in the field, what is it
then, are not the fubfequent operations neceffary for the
ufe of man ftill more numerous and complicated. Man
eareth it by the fweat of his brow. But behold now
thefe b ead-fruit-plains thine eye cannot difcern their
limits, and the trees are like the cedars of Lebanon
in number and in ftature—can the groveling fwine trample them under his feet, or are they deftroyed by a
guft of rain. Here is neither toil or c&re, man ftretch-
eth forth his hand and eateth without parfimony or anticipated want.)
|$jAfter leaving the b'ead-fruit-forefts we continued up
^e afcent to the diftance of a mile and an j|alf further
kl II
1 to
tfeer, and found the land thick covered with wi^l fern,
among which our botanift found a new fpecies.    Itwa$
now near fun-down, and beinr up ?n the fki. ts of thofe
woods that fo   rem^lcaM^y fu $knd,jd  this ifland at  a
uniform diftance of 4 and 5  miles from   the fhoie, we
concluded to halt, efpecially as there was a hut hard by
that would afford us a better retreat du ing night than
what we might expect if we   proceeded      When  we
reached the  hut we found it inrrbit~d by ?n elderly
man,   his wife  and daughter the ein b em of inn >cent
uninftru&ed beauty.    They were  fomew hat difcompofs
ed at our appearance and eqiuprnenf,  and would have
left their  houfe through fear had not the  Indians who
accompanied us   perfutded  then    o'heiwtfe;     and   at
laft reconciled them to us.    We fat down together before the door, and from the height of the fituation we
had a complete retrofpe£live view of our rout,   of th$
town, of part of the bay and one of our fhips,   befidea
shr extenfive profpeft on the ocean,  #nd a diftant view
of three of the neighbouring iflm.ds*
It was exquifitly entertaining. Nature had beftowed
her graces with her ufual negligent fublimity. The
town of Kireekakooa and our fhip in the bay created
the contrail of art as well as the cultivated ground below, and as every object was partly a novelty it tranf-
ported as well as convinced. £
As we hadpropofed remaining at this hut the night,
and being willing to preferve what provifions we haa"
r?ady dreffed, we purchafed a little pig and had him doffed by our hoft who finding his account in his vifitants be--
ftired himfelf and foon had it ready. After fupper we hid
fome of our brandy dilated with the mountain water, End
we had fo long been the poor brakifh watttat
the bay below that it was a kind of neftar tons. Ap
foon as the fun fet we found a confierable difference in the
ftate [
ftate of the air. At night a heavy dew fell and we felt it very chilly and had recourfe to our blankets notwithftanding
we were in the hut*   The next morning when we came
to enter the woods we found tllere hadileen a heavy rain
though none of it had apprcached us notwithftanding we
were within «oo yards of the fkirts of the foreft.    And  if
feemed to be a matter of fa£t both from the informations
of the natives and our own obfervations that neither the
rains or the dewsdefcended lower than where the woods
teraSnated,   unlefs at the equinoxes or  fome   periodical
conjuncture, by which means the fp#ce between the woods
andthefhores are rendered warm and fit for ihe purpofes
of culture, and the fublimated vegetation of tropical productions. We traverfed thefe woods by a eompafs keeping
a direct courfe for the peak, and was fo happy the firft day
as to find a foot-path that trended nearly our due courfe
by which means we traveled by eftima tioa about 15 miles,
and though it was no extraordinary march had circumftan-
ces been different, yet as we found them we thought it a
very great one,for it was not only exceflive miry and rough
but the way was moftly an afcent, and we had been unufed
to. walking, and efpecially to carrying fuch loads as we
had.Our Indian companions were much more fatigued than:
we were, though they had nothing to carry, and whatdif-
pleafed us very much would not carry any thing.The occa-
fional delays of our botanical refearches delayed us fome-
liliing.   The fun had not fet when we halted yet meeting
with a Situation tha t pleafed us,and not being limited as to
time  we)|^nt the remaining part of the day as humour
di&ated,filrie botanizing and thefe who had fowling pieces
with thedlpn (hooting, for my part I could not but   think
the prefent appearance of our encampment claimed a part
of our attention, and therefore fet about  fome alterations
and amendments.   It was the trunk of a tree that h&d fell
by  the  fide of the   path and lay with one  end tranf-
vetfly over another, t|ee that hadiallen before in an op-
' ill  Q^ ' M #':%: ■' ■  p°fite «■*»
pofite direction, and as it meafured 22 feet in circumference and lay 4 feet from the ground, it efforded very
goodfhelter except at the fides which defeft I fupplied
by large pieces of bark and a good quantity of boughs
which rendered it very commodious, and we flept the
night under it much better than we had done the preceed-
ing, notwithftanding there was a heavy dew and the air
cold, the next morning we {et out in good fpirits hoping
that day to reach the fnowy peak; but we had nbtgone
a mile forward before the path thit had hitherto fo much
facilitated our progrefs hitherto began not only to take a
direction fouthward of weft but7 had beenfolittle frequented as to be almoft effaced^ in this fituation we confulted
our indiah convoy, but to'no purpofe. We then advifed a-
mong ourfelves and at length concluded to proceed by the
neareft rout without any beaten track, and went in this
manner about 4 miles further rinding the way even more
fteep & rough than we had yet experienced^ but above all
impeded by fuch impenetrable thickets as would render!
it impoffible for us to proceed any further. We therefore
abandoned our defign and returning in our own track
reached the retreat we had improved the laft night, havjl
ing been the whole day in walking only about 10 miles,
and had been very atTiduotis too. We found the country
here as well as at the fea Ihore univerfally overfpread with|
lava, and alfo faw feveral fubteranean excavations that
had every appearance of paft eruption and fire. Our Bo-
tanift to day met with great fuccefs, and we had alfo fhot a
dumber of line birds of the livelieft and moft vapagated
plumage that any of us had ever met with, b\0 we heard
no melody among them. Except thefe we faw%o other
kmd'crf birds except the Screach-Owl, neither did we fee
any kind of quadrupede, but we caught feveral curious
infects. The woods here are very thick and luxuri<?i#^e
lar^ft trees are nearly thirty feet in the girt, and j|%^
with the fhruberry underneath and the whole int^^^p
with vines renders it very umbrageous.^   -   >-■"     ^^SmB 123
The next day about two in the afternoon we cleared the
%oods   by our old rout, anctby fix  o'clock Reached the
legits, having penetrated about-24 miles and we fuppofed
within 11 of the peak.   Our Indians were   extremely  fatigued though they had  no   baggage, and we were well
convinced that though like the Stag and   the  Lion the|r
appear fit for expedition and  toil,yet like *hofe animals
they are fit for neither, while the humbly Mule will per-
fevere in both. ip
According to an attitude of the quadrant, the Peak of
Owyhee is 35 miles diftant from the furfaceof the water,
and its perpendicular elevation nearly 2 miles. The Ifland
is exactly 90 leagues in circumference, is very nearly of
a circular foim, and rifes on all fides in a moderate and
pretty uniform afcent from the water to the Peak, which
is lharp and caped as I have before obferved with mow,
which feem3 to be a new circumftance, and among us not
altogether accounted for. As a truth, and a Phenomenon
in natural philofophy I leave it to the world. Owyhee has
every appearance in nature to fuppofe it once to have be en
a vulcano. Its height, magnitude, fhape and perhaps
its fituation indicate not only that, but that _its original formation was effected by fuch a caufe The eafern
fide of the ifland is one continued bed of lava from tri^
fummit to the fea; and under thefea in 50 fathom water
fome diftance from the lhore ; and this fide of the Ifland
utterly barren- and devoid of even a tingle ilnub. But
there is no traiition among the inhabitants of any fuch cir-
On tWiefPff February one William Wat man one of our
quar^r ^Snners died.    He was an elderly man $||t having
been^with Cook in the fhip Endeavour on a f^§|||fevoyage
was much lamented by him—he died with  a^Pfw-fever
||fe*%ad partly been haliened if not brought on by intem-
pftance»   This wasrhe fecond perfon that had died in the
ml     Resolution I*
Br *E:" *
jll': i iVi'^-'
Rtfolutlbn: The next day he was carried on fhore to be
intere^^firm it feems it was his own requeft when he
fo^^RI fliouM not recover, to be intered in the Morai
cwhich Cook promifed him fhould be done. Our old friend
Kikinny the prieft that anointed Cook, as foon as he heard
ofWatman's death anticipated Cook's requeft by makeing
him an offer of a place in the Morai, and had therefore
waited on fhsre to attend Watmari's body to the grave.
When the Pennaee landed with WatmanV body we expected thevcuriofitry of the natives would have been excited to come in crouds to fee it and to obferve our con-,
cluft upon the occafion—but it was quite otherwife, th||
people all fhut themfelves up in their houfes, and nobody
was feen but two or three men who attended Kikinny.
As the circumftance of this mans death Was an event
that would be much noticed by the Natives as well as the
manner in which we fhould difpofe of the corps, it Was determined to render the whole matter is magnificent and
refpectable as th&fituation of the affair would permit, the
tody was therefore inclofed in a coffin coveted with colors and borne by the bargemen, who walked in the cenj
tte. Cook and his ©ffieers with fome of the people followed two and two according to their rank. In the front
at an advanced diftance preceeding a guard of marines
marching to the tune of a fife that played the funeral
march, and with their arms reverted, when we had aflcend-
ed the Morai and reached the grave the RJ#rd opened
their ranks and performed the ufual evolutions on thofe
occafions ; Cook and his officers read prayers, and Kikinny and his fquat down upon their hams before them paying griftt attention, and were oftenfibly much affected.
When we began to cov^r the remains, Kikinn^ feked k
little pig he had under his aim by his hinder legs, and
beating its head againft the ftones hove into the*grave,
and would have done the fsme with ofte or two m<freJiogs
they had with them' had not Cook interpJofcdr Tfif|fetaf
W, . mm inony over arid the guatd marched off, Cook ereQed a poft
wir&i an infciiption fuitable to the oCGafion*   This graire
was ever after vifited by the natives, who itrewed it over
fjNth  viands  and   animal   fteftu   They feemed to pay a
greater attention to th^s mans grave than to thofe of their
own people.     I obfervec} one night a light^upon the
Morai after this affair,  and as it was an unufual   eir-
v cumftance,  I went up  upon  the Morai to fee if I could
know the reafon of it; when I had atlcended  I obferved
11 or 13 men fitting in a circle round a fire.   I advanced
to them and uncovered my head, not ohoofing tfirftt dowA
among them or interrupt their bufinefs, nor indeed to ftay
if I found my company wa-s intruftve.    The company all
looked at me and thenfpoke to each other: I  could un-
derftand fome of them : they told fome old giey-headed In*
dians that I was the Kakakoalahi, or chief warrior at the
tents,and that Iwis well known in t&etown, H that I was
9 good man : that Kunneava was my friend, and that my
name was Ourero(a nd^gfieftmt^ty the Indians) and
that I had.faved an old woman from being drowned in the
fea byexpofing my own life,all which was true. Upon this
.reprefentation and more that I did but itifiperfe£tty comprehend, I was called by one of the old Indians to come
and fit down by him,which I complied with. I fet half an
hour there, during which   time they killed  a pig in   th*
manner Kikinny had done his, opened it while wariia and
threw'the entrails into the fire and left them to Confumes
£he caicafe of the pig was thrown upon Watman's grave.
When I went away I had feveral   prefents of fruit made
die, 2nd the next day irt confequence of my laft nocturnal
vifit, had feveral fowls, a pig and other things fent me by
the fame old men.    It feems the foie purpofe of this afferav
My was to facrifice (if I may fo call it) to the manes of
V^Wftaan,  and I related ft to fhew that their charity to the
.*Iead iaconfiftent with the real idea of this virtue, and
breaths the pureft fpirit of philanthropy. It is aftfexample
that will put feven eights of Chriftendom to the blufh.
Thofe i-lL
j£- .   ;    f, -126 -'|j ■       ■ y ; *■
Thofe readers who.have feen the publication of Cook's
formeiVvoyages will meet with but little that is new
in many parts of my hiftory refpecting this people, there
is fofgeneral a conformity in th<* obje£ls of it to thofe
at Otaheite and the tibpicai ifhnds throughout. An
Inftance of it is the Morai at this place, the general
ftruclure and the ultimate defign of it is the fame as
at Otaheite. It is a fquare pile of ftones nearly 9®
feet long on each fide, and is from 7 to 15 feet high
according to the elevation of the ground on which it
ftands : It4s eompofed of different kinds of ftone, thofe
that compbfe the fides are in general large, and many
of them fquare, but do not appear to hive been made
fo by art. The intermediate fpace feems to have been
filled up after the ftru&ure of the fides with round ftones
and fome pieces of lava, the furface is even and level
all over. On the fides of the wall there is a. low paled fence eompofed - of fmall round fticks ludely put together though at infinite deal of trouble as it was ef-
fefted without the affiftance of any mechanical inftru-
ments, but thofe which we found them poffeffed of at
our firft arrival, the beft of which was a ftone hatchet.
On the tops of the pales are fortuitoufly placed human
fculls, and other bones of the human body, which belonged either to their ovtacrimiaals, who had been there
fagrificed to the god of war (calied.Ehatua) or to thofe
who had fullered the fame fate Ipycrbeing made prifoners
of war, or to both, and t&ey are confide red as trophies
in either cafe. The bodies or rather the ilefh of thofe
victims are ea^ and the entrails burnt as oblations.
The Morai is alfo made of interment, but re-
fp-scts only the chiefs, the people inter their dead near
their houfes, where they erect fome ill-formed image o-
ver or near the grave, which is; alfo me cafe with the
chiefs that are intered in the Morai with this difference only, that their images aie larger and better made.
Both [
Both the chiefs and commonalty keep up a fucrUffion
ef food near their graves.    The particular manner in
which they laft difpbfe of the remains of thejr dead we
were never able to learn.   iSThere were two deaths at
Kireekakooa while  w*ere there the firft* time,   but the
interments that fucceeded  were in ths night;  whether
they   did this merely to fcreetf the   ceremony of their
laft ohfequiea from us, or whether$t was really the cuftom we could not tell.   Here are however fome ceremonies previous to the interment that are curious thougfc
I cannot fay common fince we never knew but one ih-
ftance of it; and that refpe8ed a  chief.   The circum-
ftance aluded to is this: As foon as the per fon was dead,
and while the body remained flexible it was firft placed   and fupported in a feting pofture, then   the  legs
were prefTed clofe to the hams, the body and head bent
forward until the chin refted upon the knees, and the
arms prefTed clofe to ;the fides,   and bending from the
elbows in cofrTormity to the direction of the thighs the
hands met at the fore part of each knee under the chin;
and in this pofture the whole  was confined   by   bandages of cloath,   and -there were multiplied  until the
form of the corpfe was loft,  and could not be known
from a bundle of cloath of the fame magnitude without
any thing contained within it.    I think the attitude of
this corpfe refembies that of fome of the poftures of the
human foetus, and that they mean to have the body left
in its laft ftate in the form moft  peculiar to it in its
primogenial ftate of exiftence—and as it is difficult to
conceive  how they fhould  become   poffeffed of fo curious a piece of knowledge as refpects the operations
in the receffes of the womb of themfelves^ or that this
information fhould if   poffible   originate  from   chance:
It may be fuppofed to be'a traditionary cuftom, and the
knowlegde derived from a fource were by the alTiftance
»f art and the improvement df the mind:   Such a cir-
'i   , L_
guftiftan&s can only 3bc fuppofed with propriety to have
originated, and *h«it may be from either of the continents remotely 01 immediately, but it would be a per-
l^ex putluit to enquire fil&n .whfch, or at what period
and by what means.
Xhe Town of Kireekakooa is about a mile and an haif
injlength, but,narrow anctfof an unequal breadth, and
as I have before obferved contains about noGbeufes,
laine reckon  1300 including fome detached buildings.
It is fituate along the ibpre  within a few reds of the
water, and is in generality compact, and as the houfes in thojfe places ftand fo as to create a breadth there
are a number of little ftreets that interfect each other
very happily though th«y do not feem to have  been
i|e effefts of much defign, and a yeiy agreeable and
uncommon circumfta&ce to be found among thefe .rude
fon.s of nature, was, that thefe little avenues were gene-
tally payed.    The houfes  here differ  altogether from
thofe to the fouthward in their form, though not much
II other refps&s:   They are exa&ly like a tent,  the
frame is light and for the moft part lafhed together, ejc»
•gept now and then where two large pofts met, and there
wasfi kind m a mortice,  both the fides and the encjp
are thatched with coarfe -grafs,|^nd  fometimes palm-
tree-leaves.   They have but one paffage which is ufed
both as a door .and window : The infide of the houfe is
without partitions above or below,  the ground within
being hardjand dry is covered with thick coarfe grafs,
dryed plantain and palm-tree-leaves,   over vwhich they
fpread large well-wrought mats, which makes the houfe
cleanly,  and gives it an air of elegance and comfort,
and as they lave no chairs, tables, beds and fuch kind
of furniture there is root* enough.   They are of different  teagnitudes,   but  in general,they are between $o
and 40 feet fquare : There are coooanut and other trees
interfperfea -
int^fperfed artificially among the houfes all over the
town, and;in about the middle of it thece is-a level courfe
for running and other exercifes, whipnis very beautifully ikirted with trees from end to end, and is kept very clean.    There are alfo in different places fquare $-
lev a ted yards-for bleaching and otherwife manufacturing   their  cloth.     The Morai ftands in  the north weft
part of the town oppofite that part of the bay where
our. (hips lay.   The Town of Kiverua whieh lies on the
oppofite fide of the bay half a mile diftant is about
half as large as Kireekakooa.   Both fhe towns contain
about  15000 inhabitants,   and we were told they were
the   largeft   towns-^n the ifland.     Owyhee is divided
into $iftriet8 or circles, each of which is prefided over
by a chief or-chiefs, who are fubordinate to one, which
was Kireeaboo, who holding no particular or local pof-
felfionc lived fometimes in one-circle, and fometimes in
another in a kind of rotation,  or as humor di&ated or
exigencies   required.   If   I   have the number right the
whole ifland is contained in 12 circles, and according to
their accounts and our own eftimation contains almoft or
quite 100,000 inhabitants.   It was difficult for us» from a
ihort and imperfe£\   acquaintance with  thefe people, to
gain much knowledge of the nature of their government,
but the general tenourof it like their other cuftoms, their
manners, language, drefs, perfons and difpofitions fo nearly aproximate to thofe of the fouthern tropical inlanders,
that it certainly does not differ much from theirs, though
1 think their laws much better adminiftered than at the
fociety iflands, especially at Otaheite:   there are three
orders by which ths fuperior are diftinguiihed from the inferior people, they are called in their language the Qro-
no, the Kakakoa and the Mida, thefe  it feems compofe the
fegiflative and executive parts of their   police.   The Mi-
da   are their prkfts and the Kakakoa   are  their military
men.    The Orono is a branch I cannot well define, uniefs.
I call it the civil part of the corporation,   They a<e all
i§| chieftains,.
i H
chieftains, and the Orono go to war as well as the Kakakoa, butthe Mida dp nota£t in the field, they ki$ the
people up by oratorical incitements. It was faid by fome
«fus that the OroJ|> implied royalty, and that thofe
who had that title wet^lhe immediate defcendantsof the
(Supreme chief. I do not mean by the Kakakoa being a
feie£t body ©f warriors, that they arc the only men with
the Orono who go to war. The body of the people figlfl*
as well as the Kakakoa, but the chiefs are always fore-
moft, and (hare equally all the honors of victory, akd the
difgface of a defeat: this renders them refpe&abjjf* and
dear to the people, and makes them proud and valtfftr6u$
themfelves—-nothing is more difgraceful than for fTteffc
men or even the commonalty to receive a woundf^in the
back, the ftigma endures *s indelible as the mai&lf?nd as
theygonaked it is Conftantly expofed^1        :    ; r^;
Whether the invefttiture of authority and power are
nominal or hereditary is not certain, though I incline to
think the latter, which certainly is the beft in their fyftem,
Jpr two reafons: thofe who are in power are in no danger
of corruption, and the tenures of the chiefs are revocable.
Tms was evident to us from the inftance of Kireeaboo's
eldeft fon, who, though heir apparent to his father, was
deprived for mifdemeanours of his title and authority;
he was indeed afterwards forgiven on account of hisfin*
cere repentance, and a great many virtues he poffeffed,
and reftored to his former priveleges. This fon was one of
the ftouteft and moft intrepid men I few among them, was
of a complexion fo much darker than general that it rendered him fingular in thatrefpeft, and he always went
dreffed in black cloth which is an emblem of war among
fhem, which his foul feemed to delight in. He had gone
not long before our arrival over to Mauwee, where the
greatnefs of his character and the importance of his defign
foon put him at the head of the whole force of that ifland,
ami *
I    *>*    $
and hQfaflivityandenterprizingdifpolitioft did notfuffer
him to flop fhort of an attack in the very heart of Owyhee,
where he fought his father in feven pitched battles before
he was entirely fubdued, and it was principally owing to
this untutored hero that .our own quarrels with the^ Owy-
h^ans fubfequent to the death of Cook were fo obftinately
maintained and protracted by them. •.'§§
• "this loofe defcription of the outlines of their govern-
ttienfSs all we were able to obtain, though no doubt it
comprehends a fyftem if thoroughly known that would bo
much more to their honor in ourefteem, Itwasveiy e-
vident that their government poffeffad that .energy which
is ever the refultof ceconomical jurifprudence,  and the
/perfection of government; a proof of it is the cool deliberate deprivation of life when required by their laws, and if
this proves the dignity of their authority; the manner in
which they execute the decree fpeaks equally loud in favour of their poliGy, the chiefs condemn and they make
the body of the   people execute.   The criminal in this
* cafe is bound to a ftake. The chiefs eaft the firft fton^f
and then the fpectators at large untiljhe malefaftor expires, and there is a particular fpot of ground where his
body is afterwards difpofedof$ butsl believe tms'laft cir-
eumftance refpe&s the chiefs only. A condemned malefactor of an inferior clafs, we generally underftood was
preferved as a facrifi£e to the god of war, provided they
were not then poffeffed of any prifoners of war. In matters
not capital the offender feems to be difregarded as an oti-
jeft not meritorious of public notice, and is generally well
threflied or kicked by fome of the chiefs, or by all of them
whenever they know his demerits and happen to meet him *
We could hot learn that they had any other methodof pu-
nUhing capital or inferior-crimes.     -3^^®  %$S^
^Thcy have marriages among theoi, but whether they
are civil or religious appointments we cannot tell, but the
cuftom m
cuftom does not feem to be refpeQable, at leaft among the
chiefs, and we were told that a man coumdifb&cl his wife!
at pleafure, and keep all her effects, though I believe Jpkis
very feldom happens. It is however very rrianifeft imi>ng
the chiefs, that not only marriage, but a commerce &itn
the women in any other refpeQ is in very indifferent#fti-
mation,andit is'adifagreeable circumftance to the hifto-
rian that truth obliges him to inform the world of a cuftom among them contrary to nature, and odious to a delicate mind, yet as fuch a remarkable incident in the;hi$k>$y
of a new difcovered, a remote and a numerous people, will
tend to iilucidate the enquiries of the ingenious in fuch
fubjorcts as may t ranfpire from t he various accounts of men
and manners here or elfewhere given, it would be to omit
the moft material and ufeful part of hiftorical narration
to omit' it; the cuftom alluded to is that of fodcmy, which
is very prevalent if not univerfal among the chiefs,and we
believe' peculiar to them, as we never faw any appearance
of it among the commonalty. As this was the firft instance we had ever feen of it in our travels, we w.eie cautious how we credited the firft indications of it, and wailed untill opportunity gave full proof of the circumftance.
The cohabitation is between the chiefs and the moft beautiful males they can procure about 17 yeais old, thefe they
call Kikuana, which in their language fignifies a relation.
Thefe youths follow them wherever they go, and are as
jnrrowly looked after as the womenlin thofe countries
whe;e jealoufy is fo predominant a paffion j they are extremely fond of them, and by a fhoeking inveifion of the
laws of nature, they beftow all thofe affeOionsupdn them
that we re intended for the other fex. We did not fully
difcover this circumftance until near our departure, and
indeed lamented we ever had, fnr though we had no right
to attack or ever to difapptove of cuftoms in general that
differed from our own, yet this one fo apparently infringed and infulted the firft and ft rongeft dictate of nature,
and ft
irnd we had ^pm education and a diffufive obfervation
the^world,fo*ftropg a prejudice againft it, that the firft
inftahce.%efawgofit.S?|e condemned a man fully reprobated. Our officers indeed did not infult the chiefs by
any means, but our foldiers and tars to vindicate their
owny^Mderftil modefty, and at the fame time oblige the
infult|2 women, and recommend themfelves to their.favors
be&#me^vere arbitrators, and the moft valourous defenders and iupporters ot their own tenets.
I have before obferved that ther,e is a remarkable
conformity* in|moll of the cuftoms and appearances a-
rnong thefe iflanders and thofe to the fouthward. I
fhail therefore generally confine my obfervations to
thofe particulars only where there is zny remarkable
difference. This is in fome meafure the cafe with their
drefs. The people here have indeed th-3 fame fpeeies
of cloath they have to the fouthward, and it is fomewhat
Sffeil&ctUt^d like it, but it is much more variegated
in the conelufive Beftowment made upon it; they have
a great variety of colours here, and though rudely compounded they look v4$y well at a littl$ diftance. Thefe
colours they ufe profufely upon their cloath in a variegated and very fanciful drapery. They wear it in the
fame manner they do at the fouthward. But exclufive
Hf this kind of diefs they have large cloaks, and caps
made of feathers, which are very gay; the plumage of
jwhich they are competed is as lively and as variegated as can well be imagined, and is procured from the
numerous birds that inhabit the mountains, which they
catch with a glutinous matter that refembles our birdlime, but is much better. The cloaks are made nearly fquare, and &re worn oyer the fhoulders with the two
upper corners tied under the chin. The form of the
cap is a real curioftty being the exa£t model of t|i|;
ancient helmet. Many of them have their hair which
is lltefe and ftrong cut into the fame form.     :*$^.  ^!
Both mWi\
Both the vegetable and animal produ£tions of Owyhee are like thofe of the fouthern iftarids/^The animal*
are the fame not only in their kind, bit^RaVe that approximation which Indicates even the fame breed, and
what is equally remarkable is that thefe inlands as wjill
Is every other of the tropical iflands in thejfouth fea
have no other animals, and hogs, dogs and rats Include
iht whole of their number, and none of thofe iflands
are found without thofe animals that are inhabited, and
thofe which are uniahabited have none of them except
rats. Even New-Zealand hath dogs, and they arc of
the fame kind. It is remarkable too that none of thofe
dogs ever bark, and are equally in 20 deg. north, and
40 deg. fouth the fame iluggifli, fhort-legged,J little-
eared creatures. The bread-fruit here andever^wheE^
elfe where it is known is the fame, but the yams at
Sandwich-Iflands are infinitely fuperior to thofe of the
fouthern iflands: They are chiefly the produce of.the
Ifla|fl of Nehow, which is the wefternmoft of Sand^ich-
tflarids. The potatoes we found here are peculiar to
thefe iflands: They are large and fweet, but watery j
the eddy-root, or what is known here and at CJtahrite
by the,name of Terra is alfo mneh fuperior to&af^-
mong the fouthern iflands. Cocoanuts are not fo plenty
here as at the fouthward. Another matter peculiar to
thefe iflands is fatt, but as they have no advantages from
nature that would lead to a difcovery of the art of making
fait, or facilitate theoperation afterwards more than they
have at the other iflands, it is a matter of fome curiofity
hew they became acquainted with it. They make it of
fea water, which they leave in the holes of the rocks to e-
vaporate. We procured a quantity of this faltmoie thaa
fufficient fqr our ufe the fucceeding partof the voyage.
On the 3d of February our launch was fent on fhore to
bring off-fhe Refolutioh's rudder, which had been'fent on
(bore to have the pintles repaired, and the crew not hefeg able of fitemfelves to get it off, the mafters mate invited
ia parcel of the natives that were ftanding round the en-
^Impment to affift them, to which pey very readily
affectec* 3 compliance, and as many as 50 or 6~o joined
ourYj^ple, and got hold of a rope that w#s hitched to
me fetd of the rudder,' and pretended to pull and labor'^ery hard, though at the fame time they were in
if£t' doipg all they could to retard the bufinefs^ to ridicule and make their paftime of the people. This
oxafperated the mate, and he ftruck two or three of them,
which being obferred by a chief that was prefent he
interpofed: The mate haughtily told the chief to order his people to affift him, and the chief as well as
the people hairing np intention, hut of (hewing their
Wreg|ird an4 fcorn, which had long been growing to-
vyards us laughed at him, hooted him, and hove ftones
at him and the crew, who taking up fome trunnelsthat
were laying by fell upon the Indians, beat many of
them much and drove the reft feveral rods back, but
the croud collecting «tt a little diftance, formed and began to ufe ahufive language, challenge our people and
throw ftones, fome of which came into our encampment. Jj&
Though I plainly forefaw thefe things, and was con-
fciotis that they originated chierly from our imprudence
as well as the propenfity among the natives to envy
and if they dared to infult our fuperior merit, yet as
an officer stnd a man who had every confequence to
abide in common with my fellow adventurers I could
not juftify a paffive conduit, and therefore acquainted
the commanding officer at the tents of the difturbance,
requefting that I might put the guard under arms, and
at^ieaft make a fticw of refentment, to which he ac*^
quiefced and cam% out of his tent to appeafe the fray
in perfon, and it was a $ity that fo much foftnefs, humanity *mm
M f.
inanity, and goodnefs fhould have been foroughl^Mialt
with as he was, for they pelted him and the file $>T
men with him with ftones back to the ihcafcpm^^fe
t*his, however, didlnot provoke him tofire^ong thtj^v
and after laughingly Tayingj they were a fet of f|f^
rogues and were fpoiled he retired again ?o his ob-
fervatory. At fun-down the natives retired," and tlrie
crew got the rudder off with the affiftance of the guard
very eafily,   ;--.; \:">   ' .V.:^^1^^^..'  'pll
Inftances  of this kind though  of lefs apparent  importance  had  happened feveral  times before   this oh'
ihore,   but on board hardly a day palled after the* firft
week that did not produce fome   petty difturbance ia|
one 01 both of the fliips,   and they  chiefly proceeded
from thefts perpetrated by the natives in a manner lit*
tie fhort of robbery;   Cook and Kireeaboo w«re fully
employed in  adjufting and compromizing  thefe differ-^
ences, and as there was really a reciprocal difi1iterl?f|S^
ed regard between him and this good ol^ man it tended much to facilitate thefe-amicable negociations—bufl
in the mldft of thefe meafures Cookflwas infenfible of
|§ie daily decline of  his greatnefs and import a nct|Jin
the eftimation of the natives, nay, fo confident wasjle,
and  fb fecure in the oppofite opinion thatlbn. th|| 4th
of Februarvsjte came to Kireekakooa with his boats to
purchafe and carry off the fence round the Moraijpwhich
he wanted to Ivood the ilrips with.    When he landed
he fent for the Prieft Kikinny and fome   other chiefs,
and offered them two iron hatchets for the fence.   The
chiefs were aftdfeilhed not only at the inadequate price,
but at the prof&fai and refuted him. 4B
Qojppwas as much chagrined as they were furpriz-
<*d|| and. not meeting with the. eafy acquiefcerce he
expected to his ||equifitions g.ave immediate orders to
)xmpeople to afcend the Morai, break down the f-s^ce
'-yii an4 i
aha? load theboats with it, leading the way himfelf to
enforce his orders. The poor difmayed Chief* dreading,
Ki« difple^fure, which they faw approaching followed
him upon'the Morai to behold the fence that enlpof-
ed the mandril of tH^I noble anceftors, arfA the images
of their god# torn to pieces by a handful of rude
ftrangers without the po%ijf|; or at leaft without the resolution of cppriing tHeir facril|gious' depredations;
tV he ft Cook had afcendeirthe Morai he once more offered the*batchet£to the chiefs. It was a very unequal price It the honeft chiefs'would have accepted of
the bribe, and Cook offered it only to evade the imputation of||akin[g their proper%||withbut payment.
The chiefs ^gain refufed it. Cook then added another
hatchet and kindling into refentment told them to take
it or nothing—Kikinn^, to whom the offer was made
turned pale, and tremb'ed as he flood, but ftill refufedi
Cook t|ihift'|hem into his garment that was folded round
him, and left him immediately to haften the execution
of his orders. As for Kikinny he turned to fome o%-
his menials and made them take the hatchets out of
his garment, not touching them himfelf.
By this time a confiderable concourfe of the native*
had affembled under the walls of the Morai, where we
were heaving the wood down, and were very outrageous, and even hove the w6cd and images back as we
threw them down, and I cannot think w ha t|pre vented
from proceeding to greater lengths, however it fo happened that we got the whokiato'the bo^ts^!arid fafely
on board.
•there was another accideht alfo that happened about
this timeon board  the Difcovery that was conduced
with equal impiudrnce by Cspn Gierke?! An Indian
chi«ffwh-o( had froin our fi*^- arrival beenvan intimate
kHA a* very ufeful friend of his, finding theKhips were
S preparing fl
[    13*
preparing to fail had come on board attended by-t#p|
or three canoes to make him a vifit.   Clerke knew thg*v
value of the man, and had received the ftrongeft proofs
not only of his honefty (but of h{s honor  and uncommon attachment to his perfoa,   and the r$fpe& due to
him and his people,   for this famg, chief had  with his
own hands killed one  of his men.inr prefence of  the
fhij^for ftriking one of ClfVkVs boys: And he was e-
qually rigid in his demands upon Clarke vy'hen any lefs-
abufe happened  to  be   given by tjiofe of the  chiefsi
Clerke as ufual invited the chief betowjto dinner, and
as the (hip's company were alfo below at their dinne^y
and no canoes along fide but this chief's, which they
never gave themfelves any concern about, the deck wjp3
without a watch; during this recefs from duty the carpenter's mate who  had ' been   the forepart of the day
at work under the bows came upon deck,   and  being
anxious  to finifti his work before dark took th^ jolly
boat forward, and went to work before the hands were
When the people were turned up the jolly boat was
miffing, and nobody thinking where (lie might be, neg-
le&ed to look further after her than along fide, and
finding (lie was not there, the fubordinate officers were
made acquainted with it, and foon after Clerke who
came upon deck, and finding the boart gone gare immediate orders to have the canoes along fide feized,
and the natives in them brought on board, and was
going to punifti them. The chief in the mean time
knew nothing of the matter, but hearing a noife upon,
deck, and the voices of his own men, came up and
enquire^ into the matter. Clerke in a bafe fupercili-
ous manner anfwered him that his people had ftolen
his boat, and that he would punifh them for it. 3lhe
chief was now highly incenfed,   ordered his people to
$$B     com£ t
come to him, and fimply afked them if they knew any
thing of our boat, though the manner in which he afked
was very ftrikirig. The people faid they did not. This
perfectly fatisfied the chief, and turning f© Clerke he
pointed to his own breaft, and defired Clerke to kill him
if he would think him fo bafe after all the teftimoniea
of honor and friendfhip he had made him. This, however, was anfwered only by a ftrut acfofs the deck,
and a couflet of genteel curfes and imj^ecations>, and
while the noble chief was ftanding confounded and dif-
mayed at his fituation, behold the* jolly boat was found
fare under the bows. We fhall foon fee the confequence
of fuch conduct.
On the evening of the sth W€ ftruck oujr tents> and
every thing was taken on board, and it was very ma-
nifeftly much to the fatisfa£ion of the natives. A little after dark an old houfe that flood on a comer of the
Morai took fire and burnt down; this wfeuppofed was
occafioned by our peoples carelefly leaving their fire near
if but it was not the cafe, the natives burnt it themfelves>
to' fhew us the refentment they entertained towards us, on
account of our ufing it without their confent, and indeed
manifeftly againft it. We had made a fail loft of one
part of it, and an hofpitalfor our lick of the other, thougl|]
it evidently was efteemed by the natives as holy as the
reft of the Morai, and ought to have been confidered fo.
Ilftfc had?no'^;been 19 days in the bay Kireekakooa, in
the Ifland of Owyhee, we had repaired our fhips. had iem
galid and refrefhcd our people, and had lain in a fupply of
pork that would probably fupport us 6 months; the only
article we wanted in paticular was water, which \%q$ Kjsre
Sfcery brackifli and bad, In order therefor® to procure a
JjjfclMy of this neceffary article, we determined fo ^fit the
|^ of Mauwee, where we were informed by th^iatives
C   -■.;■'    0   '  »4°    H    "
We mighf get plenty of it, and ^at there was at good
harbour. |H
On the 6*cth of February we unmoored and catipe to fail
ftanding aJbong the fouthiide of Owyhee, intending to vifit
Mauwee and wa ter our (hips. IK
Pjn,the 7th we had^a Jwd gate of wind, and being clofe
ln ^ithft^foMtl^rn and wefternlhoreofvPwyhee, vjfhic||
$ffiDg highland occafioned the wind t^at came partly off
tjhe  land to ^me in  irregular and moft  terrible gufts,
%ch#* we hasd n^verfeen.    '. c. v/JE: :,^f^'-j|m
On the 8th the gale became not only more violent but
pore irregular and embarra-ffing, and before nigjit wag
improved i§fo a mfcre hurricane; we wiencbed the Jaef d of
pur foren\aft, m<& fprung it about 9 fee* feelow tk$,-hounds,
and alfo made agrjedt deal of wajb*df| During this ievere
pigjht the Difcovery h*4 loft us.  rffilf..: .:§.
On the 9th the violence of the gjale orratlter the tornado ceafed, but the exccffiVe mutability of the wind, and
the irregular fea, wa$ fuch as demanded our beft ljcill and
^remitted attention to j^eeo the fhip under any kind qf
On the roth the ^feather became tolerably fettled, and
hauling off the land we faw the Difcovery in the S. E.
quarter, and before night fpoke her all well. We informed her of pur fuuation, and that \n copfequence of the mif-
Igtiiine, it was determined to return g2#n to, pur old harbour atKireekakooa.
Op the nth of February we again entered Kireefufcbpa
bay, and moored both (hips in their old births*.     M^S^"'
On the t arh we got the foremaft out and fent it onffbri^
with the carpenters, we alfo fentour two obfervatori*JM
outhore, and a markee for a guard of marines.
Otic -
t      H*      3
M Our return to'this bay was as difagreeable to us as if
was to the inhabitants,for we weve recipr-dbally tired of
eachother. They had bej,n opprefled and were weary of
our proftituted aliianoe, and we were agrieved by the con~
ftderati»njof wanting the provifi ns and refreflimentsof fhe
country, which we had every reafon to fuppofe from their
bet^vior antecedent to our departure would now be withheld from us ot brought in fuch fmall quantities as to be
worfe than no -e. What we anticipated was true. WW hen
we enteral the bay where before we had the ihouts of
^houfands to we come our arrival, we had the asontification
not to fee a fingle canoe, and haidly any inhabitants in the
towns. Cook was chagrined and his people were four-
od. Towards night however the canoes came in, but
the provifions both in quantity and quality plainly informed us that times were a itered, and what was very remarkable was the exorbitant price they afked; and the parti-
cubtr fancy they all at once took to iron daggers off dirks,
which was the only article that was any ways current,
with the chiefs at leaft. It was alfo equally evident from
the looks of the natives as well as every other appearance
that our former friendfhip was at an end, and that we had
nothing to do but to haften our departure to fome different ifland where our vices were not known, and where our
extrinfic virtues might gain lis another fhort fpace of being wondered at,and doing as we pleafed,oras our tars
espreffed it of being happy by the month. ™
Npr was their paffiveappearance of difguft all we had
to fear, nor did it continue fbng : before daik a canoe
with $ number of armed chiefs came along fide of us without provifions and indeed without any perceptabledefign^
after ftgfetag a flw? time only they went to the Difcovery
where they went m board a part of them. Here they affe£l-
ed great fttendihip, and unfortunately overafiiag tfefc'dijjk
fem^ance Clerke was jealous & ordered two centiriels on
ri^jgongways. Thefe men were purpofely fent by the chief
itl who
■■■ i f
wjfea had formerly been fo very intimate with Gierke, and
afterwards fo ill treated by him with the charge of dealing
J^s jolly boat. They came with a determination of mi&»
chief, and effected it. After they were returned to the ca-
hoe all but one they got their paddles and every thing
ready for a ftart. Thofe in the canoes obferving the fentry.
to be watchful took off his attention by fome converfa-
tion that they knew would be pleafing to him, and by
this means favored the defigns of the man on board, who
watching his opportunity fnatched two pair of tongs, and
other iron tools that then lay clofe by the armourers at
work at the forge, and mounting the gangway-raifj" with
one leap threw himfelf and his goods into the canoe, that
was then upon the movement, and taking up his paddlo
^joinedjhe others and ftanding direftly for the fhore, they
were out of our reach almoft inftantaneoufly ; even before
a mufket^ould be had from the armed cheft to fire at them.
3|he fentries had only hangers. This was the boldeift exploit that had yet been attempted, and had a bad afpeft
with it. Clerke immediately fent to the commodore who
advifed to fend a boat on fhore to endeavor at leaft to regain the goods if they could not the men who took them,
but the errand was illy executed as contrived, and the
mafter of the Difcovery was glad to return with a fevere
drubing from the very chief who had been fo male treated
.byCleike: the crew were alfo pelted with ftones and had
all their oars broke, and they had not a fingle weapon in
the boat, not even a fingle cutlafs to defend themfelves.
When Cook heard of this he went armed h&tofelf in per-
fon to the guard on fhore, took a file of marines and went
through the whole town demanding reftitution, and
threatening the delinquents and their abettotswith tlJK
fevcreft punifhments, but not being able to effeft any
thing, came off juft at fyn-fet highly difpleafcd avlgtmff
a little concerned at the bad appearance of things. Btl$*
even this was nothing to what followed.
•fl •' : :^M Oft I
I On the 13th at night the DifcoYcry's largo cutter
r/hich was at her ufual moorings at the bower buoy was
aken away.. ...;       - . ,       .       :   *
On the 14th the captains met to confult what fhould
M done on this alarming occafion, and the iffue of their
pinions -Was that one of the two captains (hould land
pith armed^ boats and a guard of marines at Kiverua, and
Ittemptto perfuade Kireeaboo who wasthen at his houfe
1 that town to come on board upon a Tifit, and that when
e was on board he fhould be kept prifoner until hisfub-
ftsihould releafe him by a reftitutionof the cutter, and
; it was afterwards thought proper, he or fome of the fa-
ily who might accompany him (hould be kept as perpe-
Lal hoftages for the good behavior of the people, during
pe remaining part of our continuance at Kireekakooa, and
pis plan was the more approved of by Cook as he hadfo
ppeatedly on former occifions to the fouthward employed
: with fuccefs
Clerke was then in a deep decline in his health, and
0 feeble to undertake the affair though it naturally delved upon him as a point of duty not well transferable
therefore beg ed Cook to oblige himfo much as to take
iatpart of thebufinefs of the day upon himfelf mhi«
pad. This Cook agreed to, but previous to his landing
ide fome additional arrangements refpefling the poffible
ent of things, though it is certain from the appearance
the fubfequent arrangements that he guarded more a-
linft the flight of Kireeaboo or thofe he cou'd wifh to feo
an from an attack, or even much infuit.   The difpo-J|
1 of our guards when the movements be^an wer$ thu^
>ok in his pennaee with fix private marines: a corponri
jeantand two lieutenants of marines went a head  folded by the launch with other marines afid feamen oa
ie quarter, and the final! cutter on the other with onlr
I citwon board.   This part of the guard rowed for
8®    HI Kireekakoa. Wk
Ktreekafioa; &af Targe cutter and t#b bf&ts frolrf|the
BWovery had orders to proceed-to the mouth of thef bay,
format equal diftances acrofs,and prevent anyveomrtfuii-'
cation by water from any otherflpartof the iflcin&to the
townswithinthebay, Prffom thernwithour|"Cook landed
a;tKiveru*a about nine o'clock in the mofnin^Swith tho
marines in the pennaee, and went by a circuitous mirf-h to
the houfg^jbf Kireeabio in order to evade the fufpiciori of
^§|defign. This rout led them through a confidetable
part of the town which difove ed every fymptom of mif^
chifef^ though Cook blinded by fome fat^T c^fe c-»uld
nottperceive it, or too felf-confident wruld not regard it.
tf The town was evacuated by the women and children,
who hadretired to the ctrcumadjicent hilft, and aff-*
peared almoffijdeftitute o men, bnt there weteaf that*
time   200 chiefs and m^e than  twice  that number of
other men derached and fec-eted in diff^renf pa?ts of
the houfes neareft to Kireeaboo exdufive of unknowti
numbers: without the fkirts of the town, and thofe that
• were feen were dreffed many of them in black.   When*
the gu'ttd reached Kireeahoo's houfe, Cook ordered the
lieutenant pi marines to go in  and fee   if he was at
fo&s, and if he was to bring him out;- the lieutenant,"
went in and found the old man firing with twoorfhree
-01$:women of diftin-ftion,   and when he gave Kireea-,
boo to underftand that Cook was without and^anted.
to fee him he difcovered the greateft marks of-une||^
nefs/but arafe and accompanied-vne lieutenant out, hol&|l
ing his hand;   when he  came before Cook he fquatedy
down upon his hams as a mark of humiliation, and Coot,
took him %y the hand from th|; lieutenant^and conM
verfed"l%h h$n.
J The appearance of our parade both ^ w^^er^^^ftl
f$fo|re, though conduced with'ihs utmoft'fi!enc^^iid'
with as little oftentation as-J^ffible, had  alarmtif|&ic'
Wm       P^P -t-c towj&jiK c
towns on both fides of the bay, but particularly Kive«*
rua, who were in complete order for an onfet otheiwife
it wou d have been a matter of iurprize, that though
Cook did not fee -20 men in paffing through the town,
ye* before,he had converted 10 minutes with Kireeaboo he was fur rounded by three or four hundred peal
pte, and above half of them chiefs. Cook grew unea-
fy when he obferved this, and was the more urgent in
his pe-fuafinns with itireeaboo to go- on board, and
^Elualfy peifuaded the old man to go at length, and
led him within a rod or two of the iliore, but the juft
fea s and conjectures of the chiefs at laft jthterpofed.
They held the oid man back, and one of the chiefs
threatened Cook when he attempted to make them quit
Kireeaboo. Some of the croud now cried out that Cook
was going to take their king from them and ki|thim,
and there was one in particular that advanced toward*
Cook in an attitude that alarmed one of the guard, who
frefentedvhis bayonet and oppofed him: Acquainting
Cook in the mean time of the danger of his fituation,
and that the Indians in a few minutes would attack him,
that he had overheard the man whom he had juft flopped
frcm rufhin< in upon him fay that our boats which were
out in the harbour had iuft killed his brother, and he
would be revenged. Cook attended to what this man
faid, and defired him to fliew him the Indianthat had
dared to attempt a combat with him, and as foon as he
was pointed out Cook fired at him with a blank. The
Indian perceiving he received no damage from the fire
ruihed from without the croud a fecond time, and threatened any one that fhould oppofe hirn, Cook perceiving
this fired a ball, which entering the Indian's gr|[ivn he
fell and was drawn off by the reft. i^J'k •p^p^S^ig'
the people determined to oppofe his defigna,J^^^^i|
hejfhpuld not fucceed without further>bl6odJp^^per-
edr|he lieutenant of marines (Mr. Phillips) to withdr^^l
m t
IS :
\ \
■; ':|||p-rM^W-'■■■^Kmi •1.4^ ■     IP"' :-W^M Wl-:/'<4
his meri, and get them into the boats, which were thefe
laying rpady to receive 'them. This was effe&ed by the
ferjeant, but the inftant they began to retreat. Cook was
hit with a ftone, and perceiving the man who hove,
(hot him dead : The officer m the boats perceiving the guard retreating, and hearing this third dif-
charge ordered the boats to fire, this occafioned the
guard to face about and fire, and then the attack became general, Cook and Mr. Phillips were together a
few paces in' the rear of the guard^and perceiving a
general fire without orders quitted Kireeaboo, and ran
to the fibre to put a flop to it, but not being able to
make themfelves heard, and being clofe preffed upon
by the chiefs they joined the guard and fired as they
retreated. Cook having at length reached the margin
of the water bstwsen the fire of the boats waved with
bis hat to ceafe firing and come in, and while he was
doing this avchief from behind ftabed him with one
of our iron daggers juft under the fhouTder-blade, and
pafTed quite through his body. Cook fell with his face
in-the water and immediately expired. Mr. Phillips
not being able any longer to ufe his fufee drew his fword
Mdengageing the chief who he faw kill Cook foon difpatched him, his guard in the mean time were all killed
but two, and they had plunged into the water and were
fwimming to the boats, he flood thus for fome time the butt
of all their force, and being as complete irt the ufe of his
fword|§as he was accomplifcd : his noble atchi^vments
ftruck the.barbarians with awe, but being wounded and
growing hint from lofs of bloo||^ and exceffive action, he
plunged into the lea with his fword|in his hand and fwam
to the boats, where however he was fcarcely taken dfi|
board before fome body faw one of the marines that had
fwam from the ihore laying fiat upon the bottom. Phillips
hearing this run aft, thisw himfelf in after hil&^fed
brought him up with him t© the furface of the watj^pnd
oth were taken in. mm
WM       WR*' ■ .o •   ■ c I   m \kk W*£       till
fe;.«, i§The boats had hitherto kept up a very hot fire, and lay-   jj
ing off wirhout the reach of any weapons but ftones had
received no damage, and being fully at leifure to keep up
an unremitted and unifoim aaion made great havoc among-
the Indians, paticularly among the chiefs who flood fore-
moft in the crowd and were moft  exposed,   but  whether
from their bravery ot ignorance of the real   caufe that \
deprived fo many of them of life, they made fuch a  ftand,
maybe queftioned firice it is certain that they in general
if notunive.fallyunderftood heretofore that  it was the
fire only of out arms that deftroyed  them; this} feems^ to
be ftrengthened by the circumftance of the large   thick
mats they were obferved to wear, which were   alfo  con-
ftantly kept wef, and furthermore the Indian that Cook
fired  at with a blank difcovered no fear when he found
his mat unbarnt, faying in their language when he fhewed
it to the by-ftanders that there was no fire h<A touched it.
This may be fuppofed at leaft to have had fom^influenie.
It is however   certain whether from one . or   both#ho^
caufes that the numbers who fell made rto^ppar|ht ri&J
preffionon thofe who furvived,   they were   immediately
taken off and had their places fupplied in a conftant determined fucceffion.
Lieutenant Gore who commanded as firft lieutenant under Cook in the Refolution, which layopprfite the phice
where this attack wasmade, perceiving with hisglafs that
the guard on fhore was cut off, and that Cook had fejjl, immediately pa (Ted a fpr ing upon one of the cables, and
bringing the fhip's ftarboard guns to bear, and fired twq
round (hot over the boats into the middle of ^heerdyd and
both the thunder of the cannon and the effects .oJ|$£ (hot,
opperated fo powerfully, that it produced a mf»ft §|||&fej
tate retreat from the fhore to the town. Tfi^ ^a^i^^f"
that the boats might land and fecure our dea^*^^^^^
lkutsn$&t  who commanded the boats did v^^^^m
■ ■ .-.
impraye the hint, though the people in the boats were eager at leaft to get the bodies of their cotmades and their|
loft commander, if they did no more. Mr. Phillips w,-s
fo enraged at thi* palpable inftance of apparent pufilani^
mity, that the altercation he had with this other lieutenant would have ended in the immediate death of one of
them had not a fignal from the fhip that inftant hove out
put an end to it by orders to retunr.
When the boats from the fhore reached the fhips the
boats in the mouth of thf bay alfo returned.   The conduct of the lieutenant, who commanded the boats at th$
town, was an objecl   that required  an early attention,
bm  from the fi matron of other matters of more immediate importance it was defe ed... Our maft thac was
repairing at   Kiteekskaa,   and  our aftronomical   tents
wore only protected by a corporal and fix maines ex-*
clufjve of the carpenteis at work upon it, and demand*
ed immediate piotfcticn:  As fon, therefoie, as the peo**
pie were leffelhed with fome grog  and reinfoiced tley
were oxdeied thither.     In the mean   time  the marine
who had been taken up by Mr. Phillips difcove ed returning life and feemed in a way to recover,   and we
found Mr. Phiiiips's wound not dangerous, though very bad.    We alfo obferved at Kiverua that our  qmim
were drawn of by the Indians, which was a rifl   ffliQlf
fight, but after the boats were gone they did-     Rfpte
of our cannon,  which were firing at them j^PpiiMinutes, but they had no fooner effected this m^j^^man-
^ihey retired to the hills to  avoid our fbot.     The expedition to Kiverua had taken up about an ho.u^iijIJ
an half, and we loft befides Cook a corporal and JK&e •
Notwithftanding the difpateh that was ufed in fend**
ing a force to. Kireekakoa, the fmal-J party there were already attacked before their arrival,   but by an excellH||
■%M mancevre I /'..'•_■■■:■
m?no*uvTe of taking poffeflSof^pf the Morai they-defehd*
ed themfelves without any material damage until the
fucc|u.8 came.c The natives did not attempt to moleft
the boats m their debarkation of our people, which we
much wondered at,J§nd they foon joined the others upon the Morai amounting in the whole to about do.
M . Phillips notwithstanding his'wound, was prefent,
and in conjunction wi h lieutenant King carried the
chief command. 1 The plan was to a& enly defenfiv-
ly unti we could get ou. rnaft into the water to tow
off, and our tents into the boats; and as foon as that
was effefled to return on board: This we 8fd in about
an hours time, but not without killing a number of
the natives, who itfolutely attacked us and endeavor-
ejlto mount tue walls of the Morai, where they were
lowed, but being oppoied with our (kill in fuch modes
of attack and the gteat fuperiority of our arms they
were even repulfed with lofs, and at length retreated
among the houfes adjacent to the Morai, which affording a go-d opportunity to retreat to our boats we embraced it and got off all well. Our maft was taken on
-the booms and repaired there though to difadvantag-^g
About two o'clock Capt. Clerke came on board to take
Command of the Refolution, and the fame day Mr. John
Gore who had been Cook's firft lieutenant, and next in
command at Cook's death, went on board toutake command
mi the Difcoveiy. Abouf four o'clock Clerke font threfc
boat well matired and armed to Kiveni^^ith orders to
demand the bodies of pur dead, and if $efu*fed to return
without doing a$y thij^g to obtain thw by fo^ee. Mr.
King who was now lieutenant in the Re^^fion toofe
the command in the Pennaee carrying a white||^£B the
ft^n; the boats fo med in a line within ftones throw|jij§h£
(hare where they remained afe^ita quaver of an h$|$l|p*!-
^pfing with the inhabitants^ who upon^Heing m approach
mh had
*Ji m
had aff*mbledag^in, as numerbius and as well appdfet-»d*
as- ever; nothing mati&idi"*happened during this parley :
we demanded ihebo#es, and they refufed them, or what
was#i8 b^d, they ridiculed us, and when we moved to return hove fi nes at us, fhewed us Cook's hanger all bloody,
his hat and the cloaths of the other dead.
It The people in the boats who fuppofed they were going to attack them again were much difappointed, and
at their return v€nted their Complaints, and lomewhat
more than aiked to be revenged upon their favage inful't-
ing foes; but they would .have taken perhaps an undue
advantage had they attacked them from the boats, e\ en
fuppof»ng them to have had the faireft claim to juftice,
in a profecution of the broil, for they were entirely fecure
even from being wounded in the conteft, and in fact it
wbuld have looked toe much like fporting with the lives of
men, and turning war which is or ought to be one of the
moft fenous circumftances in life into a cruel farce, not to
fay any thing woifjp; befides there really at that time was
noneceffity for it, for the bodies were gone we did not
know where, and h^d we again ftrewed the fhore with
their dead, wenever fhould have obtained the bodys un^
lefs we had landed and took them. After dark the fen-
tiies upoqthe gangways faw a canoe approaching thefhip
in a very filent and hafty manner, and when fhe got
within call the officer of the deck hailed her, but the Indians returning no anfwer the fent.y fired at her, and (hot
one of the Indians through the leg, upon which he bawled out tutee tutee, that is Cook. Clerke was. acquainted
with the matter and came upon deck and ordered her a-
lon^fuieand the Indians on board: there were only three
of them, and and one had Cook's hat on his head which he
gave us to underfland he had brought at the hazard pf hay
life: t^5 manthatwas wounded was taken to the furgeolj
andy^^his wound dreffed.   IJut we were extremely $*f
H :..'     fe&ed .   IP   '■ ■ ■ H I  ' *** 1*  ■   -^ ■■f   ■ '5
ieSed and difgufted when the other indian produced
from a bundle he h?d under his,arm a part of Cook's thigh
wrapped up in clean cloth which he faid he faw himfelf
eut from the bone in the manner we faw it, amd when we
enquired what had become of the remaining part of him,
he gnaihed his teeth and faid it was to be eaten that night.
As foon as the wound' of the Indian that was fhot. was
dreffed, they departed with a promife if they could to
bring the remainder.of Cook's body the next night.
The profpe£l||of recovering^Cook's body though by
pieces afforded fome fatisfa&ion, and we therefore fuf-
pended the further profecution of bufinefs on fhore for the
next day.v.-In the evening about the fame time he appear-
od before, we faw the fame Indian with other parts of
Cook's body, to wit, the upper part of his head and both
his hands, which he faid he had been at infinite pains to
procure, and that the other parts could not be obtained,
efpetSaly thefiefhwhich was moftly eat up: fhe head
was fcalped and all the brains taken out: the hands were
feored and falted : thefe fragments of the body of rise unfortunate Cook were put into a b x and prefeved in hopes
of getting more of them: the Indians who brought them
were well fatisfied with prefents, and returned again to
Ae fhore the fame night, and though they affored us they
fould not procure any more of thofe remain.*: we yet
waited another day but faw no more of the Indian, j
■ ^ ; '■* ' -111      *3I^       ■ •■ 9
On the ryththe Difcovery having the leaft draught of
water was ordered to remove as near the watering place
as poffible: moore, and with a fpring bring her broad-
fide to bear upon it, in order to protect the watering par-,
tie's in cafe of infult. As foon as this was done the boats
with a fmall-party landed, and made out togetoffone turn
of water but no more: the natives had aifembled to.oppofe
them behind the houfes and the fbne walls, frorn^h
.'■' .   ..' •' •'
i&ey difcltaf^ld whole clouds of ftones, and mmm fo fome
places within 20 yards of Pur people, wounded feveral of
them very badly t and at length they began to dome out
todrt the beach upon which a fignal \tfas made for the
boats to return, and thdfliip fired twoc nnon which killed
three men, and we afterwards heard took off a woman's
%ttn. -
As we had hitherto to aft onV on the defenfive partj|
and finding wecould not fucceed we were determined to
alter our mode of attack: go to fea without^ater we
could not, and al we made no doubt that our endeavors at
any of the other iflands who had h?ard of our fituationt
would be attended with the fame difficulties, we W6tei
determined to try the eonteft here where th« broil firft
On the 18th vv6 took all the force we could fpare
from"both  (hips and landed at eight in the morning*
We were attacked again in the fame manner thefmall
party had been yefterday, upon which we forteed fuch
of our feamen as were  moft expert at fmall arms in*
to twodivifions in conjunftion with the marines amounting to about twenty-five each divifidn: Of fome of the
other feamen we compofed two fcouting parties arme4fc
withpiftols, cutlaffes, hand grenades and torches: The
waterers had arms and w'lere to act as occafion required*
Our firft manoeuvre was to draw them from among the
houfes on to the beach by ftratagem and fcxpofe them
to the fire of the fhip as well as  dtfrs;   but railing in
this we joined the two divifions and advanced through
an avenue that led directly into this part of the town
in a foltl column: The natives feeing this flung them*
ftlves into it to oppofe our progiefs and attacked us at
elofe quarters with their fhort fpears, daggers and.ftones,
but they foon gave way when the front of the column
preffed upon them with their bayonets and retired to
fome ~
fome houfes about ten rods off where  they again rallied: During this little attack we had feveral wounded, but none killed;   the Indians took off the moft of
their killed, which were near a hundred: In the mean
while   our fcouting parties improving the opportunity
had circumvented   that part of  the town neareft  the.
watering place and had juft fet fire to it, and joining us
we retreated to the beach pretendedly in great diforder,
and the natives feeing their town in flames and fup-
pofing we were   going off followed  us to, the  water
where we again attacked them, and  the  fhip improving the opportunity made fuch ufe of her   cannon that
they foon again, run and were  purfued  many  of them
into the flames of their own houfes, where if they were
not inftantly  killed they were   burnt to death.     The
fire had now fpread univerfally, and the houfes confift-
ing of light dry materials, burnt with fuch rapidity that
in half an hour everyone north -weft of the Morai was leveled, and had this part not been deta ched from the feuth-
eaft part, the whole town of Kireekakoo^   confifting  of
above a thou fa nd   houfes,   would have   baen deftroyed:
thus ended this day's bufinefs, |||
On the 18th we again landed for water, and as  th$t
part of the town was burnt from  whence  only we   had
been annoyed before : we thought ourfelves  fecure; but
we were miftaken, the natives had now aiTembled   upon
the top of a fteep hill'.above the watering place, and rolled down large rocks upon us: and fome of them   came
down  to a  houfe that flood near the bottom of the hill,
where they meant to continue until we (hould embark and
then attack us: but as the way to this houfe was obfcured
by rocks and broken walls, and favored an app^feh;   as
many of  our men as could without danger of^^^^'ry
creptup toit: came by fur prize Upon thofe with^^pind
after a frnart   difpute killed every one of.them I and-r;fciit-
ing off two^of the heads of  the nativel^fixed them on a
Us \ ■■ - - p^*e 1
pc . If ,   ; . v tf" p^:   J        •
pole ami expofed them to the view of thofe on the hill;
^ne of our men was wounded in the fkirmifh, and we had
two of pur water calks ftove by the rocks, but ft ill fortunately no lives were loft.
On the 19th we again landed, and a large body of the
natives had very unwifely affembled on the Morai to attack us: which the Difcovery obferving, difcharged a
broadfide of her cannon into the midft of them, which de-
ftroyed many of them and difperfed the reft : after this we
were unmolefted.
On the 20th we again landed, and were entirely unmolefted, though great numbers of the natives were ftill on
the hill. In the afternoon we faw a number of white flags
difplayed on poles ftuck up both on the hill and on the
Morai, and on the tops of the houfes in the S. E. part of
the town, and before we went off a number of boys and
girls preceeded by a prieft came down the hill with little
white flags and green branches, and bringing at
the fame time fome prefents of fruit and provifions: after
thefe arrived, others came from the town in the fame manner, and brou rht a number of hogs, and bread-fruit enough
to fupply the ihips.for two or three days, which was now
highly^acceptable^^everthelefs we did not accept of it
until a boat was fent to the fhips to know the pleafure of
the c$mmander8|| we foon after heard a cannon from the
^^nmi>dore,J^P>few white colours difplayed, which we
jfeset|riot to0f$e informed the natives was a declaration of
3»Bp£e, fr^^hey immediately concluded it to be fo, and
fiwe of Ihern ventured on board with us.
This however on the pari^pjC the natives was only a tran-
mint overture : a fineffe their betters make ufe of as well
as themfelves, a nd are on that account in no danger of being deceived by too mujfch faith in public treaties,'m
.'fllK    Hi .. O*
SiSi *SS
On the 2 ift having compleated the water of both fhips
and got the Resolution's maft up and rigged, we* got every
thing ready for fea. #1
On the 2 2d finding we were not vifited by the natives,
and that their declarations of amity were infincerc, we
unmoored arid in the evening gotunder way, with a light
Dreeze off the land, and as we left the bay we funk the box
thatcontained the fmail remains of Cook's body in that
Ocean where he had acquired his he*or, and in that fpot
where his exploits terminated: a fa lute with the cannon
was made 33 ufual onfuchoccafions.
Our water onboard being bad; after we had pa (fed the
Ifland Mauwee wo came to off the Ifland Wagadoo, in
hopes of meeting with better, but being difappointed,
On the 24th'we again came to fail, and paring the
Ifland Nehun and two other fmaller iflands,
On the 25th we anchored in the fame road-ftead cff
the iflands of Attowai, where we had before been in Fe-
briifory, 1778, and which was the firft of thefe iflands that
we difcovered on our fiift expedition to thepnorthward.
As there wa s a fine rivulet of water here, we were determined if poifible to empty all the water wefcaqlgot at
Owyhee, and replace it with this: but \t was firft necef-
fary to know if t^his was pra£\icable: we had great iiafan
to fuppofe it was not, for we had not only more wjpi|||i|^
civilized men to deal with, but an injured and^^j|e-
rated people: nay more, a people who had heard ojfotj^c
tranfa£tions at Owyhee, and knew us to be no jfiiore than
men like themfelves, and therefore no longer in drf^d of
us: we had alfo at our firft vifit here fpread the venerea 1
difeafe among thsrn, which had fince m$de the moft ftiP6k-
itig ravages: though in juftice to Cook 1 muft obferve that
llljg&aufes which produced it was fuch as he would have
I [
punifhed in the fevereft manner had he known it, as all
Communication between our people and thofe were when
we were here in 177* ftri£Uy prohibited by him.
The only hopes then that we had of being* able to land
and water here, were either thofe that originated from be-
flowing great prefents on all the chiefs at leaft: and thofe
of mere force, or perhaps a little of each, which indeed
was the^cafe. We were on fhore three fucceffive days
with all the force we could fpare from the (hips, but had
not the chiefs exerted themfelves in the moft ftrenuous
manner in our favor, they certainly would have attacked
us, though they ft ill ftood awed when they faw our little
intrepid handfull; and fo far our force wasof fervice to
us? and it was beft not put to a further proof, for there were
more than 15000 of the natives round us every day, and
above half that number fighting men.
On the 2?th we had the pleafure to finifh our watering bufmefs: And as going on fhore to trade for provifions would by no means do we remained on board,
and though the natives did not come off to us with that
plenty they ufed to do, yet we found it worth our
while to continue here feveral days,
On the 4th of March we again came to fail, and the
fame *day anchored at the Iiland of Nehow, from which
we took our departure on our firft paffage to the northward in February, 1778.     - vV'Ji    J|      "        ^   '"'■■
The greateft   part  of rhe . produce   of this" iff
yams, and we procured at this vifit as well as
£0j.psor   about two   months  funnlv •    W»  AlA  i
rmer about two months fupply:   We did not how#|
;r at $his time as we did before, but fent <
the fhore which we found anfwered
our boats to
much better pur?*
• .' The t       is7
The whole group called Sandwich-Iflands, make ten
in number, they lay in a fouth-eafteri|^and horth-we-
fteily dircftion.
Owyhee to the S. E. lies in lat. 19. 28. north, fcfid
iongit. 203. eaft, and Nehow to the north-weft lies in
lat. 21. 49. north, and Iongit. 198. 39. eaft. Owyhee,
Mauwee, Nehun, Wagadoo, Attowai and Nehow are
all large iflands from 90 to 30 leagues in circumtemnee,
and thick inhabited.
In my accounts of the principal one which is Qwy*
hee I have been fo particular as to exclude the propriety of adding a diftinct and feparate accpunt of the
reft; but as we are now forever to take our leave of
them, and quit the remoter parts of the Pacific-Ocean
it will be natural at leaft if not requifite to make fome
reflections on that multitude of iflands and immenfe
number of people, who inhabit them throughout this
extended and almoft boundlefs world of waters, JfThe
iilands are a kind of curiofity themfelves; in point of
fituation and formation: But this refpects'a very learned fubje£l; or rather a fpeculative curiofity, and is foreign from the more immediate objects of our difcoveries. It is a fubjeft only fit for a philofopher; and he
ia&uft be a very good one too. But I am no philofopher:
However as a traveller and a friend to mankind I (hall
moft freely relate any matter of curious fact to be improved by them. It is a fa£t that every ifland we vifited in the Pacific-Ocean h more or lefs oveifpread
with lava, marked with fiffures, excavations and every
indication of fubrerraneous fire: Many of them (hew
indubitable proofs that they have partook of fome extraordinary ftruggle in nature foffici^ff^itheeto place
them in their prefent fituation, or to have deftr^ed them
if their original forms had been what Ifiey ^^fel%
When $$
ip'iP. v V    t  ;   H      3 : ; ;;;•'■  C .;.§/.;
Whe^ or in whst manner thefe events took place in nature
I leave to the ingenious: But as we never could obtain
any intelligence of the prefent inhabitants of any fuch
occurrences we cannot fbppofe it of any late date.
But had thofe people inhabited them originally, either
antecedent to the univerfal deluge, or fubfequent to
that period, and prior to the eventual convulfions juft
mentioned, and it had been poffible for them to have
exifted they would have remembered fuch remarkable
cventsr And again fuppofing the deluge not to have been
tmiverfil, and thofe extraordinary changes never to have
taken place in the manner already fuppofed, but by a
lefs violent and.a frequent fucceiTnn of convulfive alteration?, yet the leaft of fuch appearances, efpecially
among them would have been noticed let us fuppofe
them to have inhabited thefe iflands at any period whatever : But they know nothing of any fuch changes or
any thing of the leaft of thofe caufes which have beyond all doubt exifted here, and in fome inftances according to appearance of the lava and other calcinated
matter from very late eruptions § And thefe confide rations do not only refpeft the ifland, but its inhabitants.
It argu*s that if they were created and exifted here
independant of an antecedent derivation from the reft
of mankind, that they were very lately made, and have
come very im per feft frcm the lateft woiks of the Creator : And yet I have heard it fuppofed: Though I
confefs unworthy confutation.
It argues alfo that the inhabitants of thofe iflands
did not originally exlft there, that they are emigrants
from fome other parts of the earth; and is a preemptive argument that they are not very early emigrants :
This is ftiil more evident' from anologicai inferences.
We have pretty plain proofs that the Otahe|feans hq||^
notions of tranfmigraticn, and we know that tho|B: fei|t
timents t
timents of religion firft tranfpired in India feveral hundred years fince the birth of Chrift.
R What is more fluctuating and liable to change is theit
language, and yet the language^ that pervades even all
the iflands fpoken of in this hiftory (if it may be called
fuch) have many words fimiiar in their orthography, and
expreffive of the fame ideas with thofe in the prefent
languages oftheMalaynefe, Javanefe, of Prince's-lfland,
and even of Madagafcar, and yet it is very probablet
that all thofe different languages were a thoufand if not
five hundred years ago very different from what they
now are. j
Thofe confiderations refpeft an emigration, and a late
emigration. I efteem an emigration late in this inftance
that commenced a thoufand years back. But I believe
thofe who have read the voyages that refpeft the iflands
in this part of the terraqueous world, have before'now
been fully convinced that the inhabitants of them were
derived from one common origin, and the only difficulty that remained was to fix that common origin, the
particular country and  people.
It is  certainly very   remarkable if the inhabitants
of thefe ifles did emigrate from the fame fet of men i
The fame nation, tribe, horde or feft:   And theie are
the ftrongeft reafons to think fo let the local fituation
of their anceftors be where it might;  That muft give
way jto that univerfal fimilarify of appearances that fup-
ports the prior fentiment.   But as providence when we
are able to inveftigate its proceedings ever aftE  uni*
formly, and fo orders events as to correfpond with the
caufes which   produce   them,   we are not to discredit
|p extraordinary faft,   though we cannot immediately
comprehend  it,   and in  endeavoring to account for it
^^tre to judge according to the general operation of
'#|^gs, 1 I believe
.    I
4 I
i [
I believe it #ill be thought too cutious to fuppofe
that the^aborigines of thpfe ifles individually considered
emigrated from either of the continents: But talking the
ifltnds colleftively, and fuppofing them originally peopled from one of the continents is very natural and rational. The cafe thus fituated reduces the enquiry to
two queftsons: From which of the continents America
or Afia did the inhabitants of thefe iflands immediate*!
ly emigrate, and what illand or iflands did they firft
emigrate $o? ~ .■_/., 161^
vHte New-Zea landers fay their  anceftors came from
an ifland called Hawyjee:   Now Owyhee as we have
oarelefsly pronounced it is pronounced by its inhabitants Hawyhee.   This is a curious circumftance, and admits of a prefiimption that  the Ifland Owyhee or Hatf*
wyhee is the ifland from which the New-Zeaianders
originally emigrated : It fuperceeds anological evidence
—bat Owyhee is in 20 north, and New-Zealand in 40
fouth, and not above 300 leagues diftant from the fouthern parts of New-Holland, and is befides fituated in the
latitudes of variable winds, which admit of emigrations
from any quarter.   On the other hand the languages of
Owyhee and New-Zealand were   originally the fame
and a8 much alike as that of Otaheite and New-Zealand:  Not  to mention other circumftances of the like
kind: -Whereas the language at New-Zealand and New-
Holland have very liftle or no refemblance  to each o-
ther: This difference with many others between New-
Zealand and New-Holland cannot be reconciled:  But
the difficulties that may arife from confidering the diftance between New-Zealand and Owyhee may be as
there are clutters of iflands that we know of, and may
be others unknown that occuppy at no great di|anM
from each other the intermediate ocean from Q^yhee
to New-Zealand.    The obvious reafoningfethajil^jld
■•■ . '-■     M  ' f. l6jE 3    >'        .;     ■■■- ;W M
be ufed to conclude the New-Zealanders emigrants from
Owyhee would be firft to fuppofe them from the Friendly
Ifles, then the Society-Ifles, and then Sandwich-Ifles,
and the gradation thus formed is very rational and argumentative, becaufe all their manners and cuftoms have
the fame rout. Suppofe then that the iflands we have
mentioned were peopled from Owyhee, and fuppofe it to
be the firft ifland fettled, the fecond and ultimate queftion
is from which of the continents—America or Ail a ? Its
fi tuation refpeft ing America, and the trade winds, ftrong-
ly infer from that continent, for it is twice the diftance
from Afiathat it is from America $ and a fhip, fitted for
the purpofe at China, which is in a parallel latitude,would
be more than two months in reaching it, and we muft fuppofe the emigrations that refpeft thefe people to have been
merely fortuitous: But a canoe drove by ftreft of weather from the fouthern part of California, or the coaft:
©f New-Galicia, the oppofite parallel would reach Owyhee in a direft courfe in half the time or lefs: The.
diftance is about 900 leagues, and we few people at
the Ifland Manganooanooa, who had been driven from
Otaheite there,*which is 500 leagues.     - ll
But if we fuppofe Owyhee peopled from South-America, we fhall be fomewhat difappointed in fupporting
the conjecture by arguments that refpeft their manners
and cuftoms, and thofe of the Californians, Mexicans,
Peruvians, or Chilinefe: There is but a faint analogy
compared with that which we fhould find on the fourth*
eaftern coafts of Alia in thefe refpefts. Let us then
without attending to the few analogical cuftoms that
fubfift between the Owyheeans and the South-Americans rev erfe our fyfterryjof emigration : Suppofe thejlp-r
habitants of Sandwich-Iftands to have come from the
Society-Iflands, and thofe from the Friendly Ifles? and
the New-Zealanders from them, the inhabitants of th-
-_ W Friendly L
i €2
Friendly Ifles from New-Caledonia, from the Hebrides,
New-Guinea, Celebes, Borneo, Java, or Sumatra, "and
finally from the continent at Malacca. ' "'%
To give the diftinft pofition'of thefe   iflands and  num-
berlefs   others oflefs   note all  around them would be
needlefs, as a moments adve fion to the chart will do it to
more advantage.    Suppofing the emigration we  are now
fpeaking of to take this  courfe, the moft apparent argument in its favor is the proximity of the feveral iflands to
each otherfroift the Friendly Ifl^s to the continent; but
its   fufficiency  will abate if we confider emigrations as I
think they areoftener the effefts of accident than preinten-
tion efpecially when out of fight of land | Befides it is evident from occular proof that though New-Guinea,  and
New-Holland are very near to each other, that there has
never be^n any intercourfe between them: and yet from
msny appearances there feems to have been one between
New-Guinea and New Hebrides and the Friendly Ifles,
although farther diftant frcm each other.   There is indeed
no remarkable fimilarity in the people, cuftoms and manners of N?w-Guinea and the Friendly Ifles,   but an exaft
conformity between the domeftic animals, and vegetable
productions of both countries: Some fruits that we call
tropical, are peculiar to all places within the tropics : But
bread-fruit   is   no where known but among thefe iflands
and the ill inds further northward on the coaft of Alia : It
'is not known at New-Holland but it is  at New-Guinea%
Therefore wherever I can find  this bread-fruit in particular,  I (bail fuppofe an   intercourfe to have once fub-
fifted, and the more fo when I find a correfpondent agree-
ibent between the  animals ©f different places: And  it
ought to be remembered alfo that there are no other animals throughout thofe  iflands   unlefs they are near the
continent; thofe remote  iflands have no other:- It isvAe
fame with their vegetables.    The remote iflands hav^^^
water-melons, guavas and fuch other fruits. M; Th efe observations will materially apply to the circum-
ftaicesof emigration. A canoe in pe fling along its own
coaft, br vifit ing a neighbouring ifland would take on
board a hog, a dog, a fowl and bread-fruit for iutfiflanco
in preference to a monkey, a make, a guava or four fop:
Andiffhe isdriven accidentally on to iome foreign ifland
they turn to greater advantage ftill.
[ - On the  15th of March we came to fail fleering N. W.
from the iflands, meaning to fall in with that part oi northern  and "eafiern Afia th^f fo:ms the peninfula generally  called K'mptfchatka ; but z 0 cor ding to the -pronunciation of the Rtsffirn emigrants who inhabit it, and the
dialeft  of the  aborigines of   the   country Kamchatka:
This is me of the ibuthem- circles of Ruffian  Siberia,
called   thus from   its being a place where ma'lefactors
of rank from the Court of Ruffia are exiled: The word
Siberia in   Rufs   fignifying  a prifo©:    It was formerly
called Afiatic Tartaiy, and was almoft wholly unknown
until the reign of   the prefent. Emprefs Catharine, who
has diffufed not only throughout this circle, but nearly  all the reft detached companies of European troops,
which  have lately been encreafed by the junction  of
fome of theCoffacks and the Indians themfelves: Thefe
troops keep the  country j in   awe ;   and by eltablifhing
faftories for pelt  and fur have of late made great advances toward colonization and added fomething very important to the revenue of the Emprefs.   At this time we
were in want of many European articles that refpefted
not only the comfort of our perfons, but the fafety of the
(hips:  We had yet an immenfe trzft of ocean to traverfe,
and  re-explore, and after that was finifhed if we were fo,
fortunate as to efcape the dangers that thofe who beft
knew them, the moft ftrongly anticipated; other circum-
ftancj^s fubfequsnt to thefe our beft wifhes would fti.lj£
add to our embarraffments, and if we were not drow$f<;
e^llfesuld be ftarved to death without Some kindofre—
im ■■
I     16*4     ]
lief. We were befides almoft naked for want of clothing of all kinds, particularly fhoes, for there was not
a new pair in either flap. Indeed it was a certain truth,
though not revealed to the people, that fhould we
meet with no recruit of bread, and perfevere in our pro-
poled fecond attempt in the exploration of a North-Weft
Paffage ; we muft have been neceffiated to reduce our pittance of bread or, flour, wbich was now at half allowance
toa ftill fmaller quantity, and perhaps too fmall. before we could poffibly reach any port where we could be
fure of a fuppiy.
Thefe confiderations then induced us to bend our courfe
towards Kamchatka, though in faft we had little encouragement to expeft relief when we (hould get there..
I fhall not detain my readers with a dull detail of
immaterial incidents while at fea on this paffage, and
only limply obferve that it was rendered extremely
trying and fevere not only from the fudden change of
climate in leaving the tropical latitudes, and entering
on a winters coaft, and a new coaft, but from other
circum ft an ces: Our clothing as is obferved before was
really miferable, our food was the fame on monday morning and funday evening—pork and yams begun, and
pork and yams ended all our bills of fare, and we h*td
befides but half an allowance of the latter of thofe arr
tides and when peeled, and the rotten and decayed
parts defalcated the remainder was oh ye epecures, but
fcanty I affure ye ! Befides, it was the month of March,
and to crown the jeft our (hip was fairly worn 011$,
We pumped and bailed her half the paffage.
On the aoth of April in a thick fnow-ftotm accompanied by a feverje gale of wind we parted company
with the Difcovery, our lat. was 4*. 38. north.
On if'- '?.    e . **s   i  " :
. On the 25th we came in fight of the coaft of Kam*
chatkaj and the next day we entered a fpacious bay-
called by the Ruffians Awatfka, and came to an anchoc
among fome loofe ice in the chops of the bay.
On the 26th weighed, and run further up towards*
village we faw on the north-weft fide of the bay, but
were not able to approach it within three quarters of
a mile for the ice that furrounded the fhore. The Dif.
eovery had been fe para ted from us fince the 20th; we
were very much concerned for her fafety, and were
not relieved from, our anxiety until the 30th, when to
our infinite joy we faw her coming up the bay, all well.
The inhabitants of the village, who confifted at this
time only of a Ruffian guard of 15 or 20 mifersble looking men commanded by a ferjeant, and about 60 Indians^ were very much frightened when they firft faw our
fhips, having never before feen any thing of the kind,
except two or three little coafting barks of theirs made
on that coaft, and were therefore drawn up to oppofe
our landing, which was partly on the icej but the ferjeant imderftanding a little of the Galman language
made himfelf intelligible to our draughtsman, who fpoke
it fluently, and accompanied thofe who firft landed.
By this means an eclairciilement foon took plsce, and
the ferjeant invited the gentlemen into his houfe, and
regaled them with a difh of fifh and fome whurtss By
him we were informed of feveral particulars that gave
us much fatisfaftion, and nothing more fo than the probability there was of getting fome fupplies from the
commander in chief, who refided at a fettlement called Bolchairetfkoi or Bolcharecka finuate about 50 Eng-
lifh miles back in the country towards the Sea Ochotft:
And as the ferjeant was going to fend off an immediate exprefs to this gentleman to acquaint him of our
arrival, it was thought proper to write him by the fame
If       opportunity
0 Ji c
opportunity, and as he was a German by birth and e-
ducationwe fent the letter in that language. The courier with thefe d^fpatches was drawn by a fledge with
10 or 12 dogs, and returned again >with the Governor's fecretary, and a letter to Capt. Clerke complimenting him,. qp^lhis-ar/ival, and tendering his beft fervices whenefer^lie was made more fully acquainted
with the fupplies, a&d added that after that he would
do himfelf the honor to wait upon him in per fon. As
it was difficult to tranfmit fo perfeft an account of fuch
articles as we wanted by letter as if fome one who well
unde ftood the bufinefs could do in peifon, and for o-
ther reafons added to thefe, Captain Gore (as Captain
Clerke was very ill) determined to wait on the Governor himfelfl and to make the vftt more agieeable
as well as more refpeftable lieutenant King who fpoke
the French and Mr. Webber theMaughtfman, who fpoke
the German languages accomp||fied him, taking the
Governor's fecretary with them.
In the mean time as the ice broke ftpn^l^S (hores
we birthed t|& flaps nearer in, and begaSy^^ater
and wood:   We;   alfo  ftripped the  Refolutiow^^ppws,
and made other neceffary repairs and equipment?^
c ISfe
On the cthofMay feveral Ruffian andfPolifli triden
fur came to our fhips from   Bolchare^l^^^rough1|ieftf:
ters to   Capt^Clerke  from Capt. Gore, vl^Kad fafe arrived at that pl^e with his fuit.
Thefe traders belonged to others ii^differelf^^rts of
Siberia, and were a company coramimVied to f!$i|jte$$r
furs, for which priviledge they paid the Mtaaefs fo m^h
annually. They pure ha SgM the moft of our tu^for whipF
they gave what we tienftnought a great price, b^t $&$&
we afterwards vifi ted Chini we found ouiinjftake i||j^hey
gavfeusfor the  glutton-fkinseach 60 iumBl^j|^iG^f|
W*l}m I
1^7       3
nearly eo^ual to Spanifli dollars: For beavor-fkins about
15 rubles each upon an average.
On the 23d our gentlemen returned from Bolcha-
recka with the Governor, who was a Major in the Ruflhn
army, an agreeable fenfible well bred man. He was fa-
luted with eleven guns, and other marks of refpeft from
both fhips at his arrival, and when he went away had many very valuable prefents made him. g||
On the 25th theGovemor left us,with packets both public and private, which he undertook to tranfmit to Great-
Britain, acrcfs the continent by the way of Peterfburgh:
This we found afterwards to be honorably executed.
The fupplies we received here were 20 head of poor
cattle, 400 weight of tobacco, tar, cordage and canvafs,
and particularly about 9000 weight of rye-meal which
was all they had: This rye-meal we afterwards mixed
with our flour, and ferved it out in equal portions.
The Bay Awatfka is large and capacious, being generally 6 and 7 leagues broad : on the fouth fide there is a
fettiement called Paratanka, containing a few houfes, and
achurchwith aGreekprieft. On the N. W. fideisfiru-
ate the village oppofite which we lay, called Peter and
Paul from two lofty mountains behind it^ which they have
diftinguifhed by thofe names ; it contains about 30 huts,
fome of which are built with logs, as we do in our new
American feylements, and others are ereftedon pofts about
ji 4 feat from the jtfound, confifting of a flight fra me of a conical form and a tm^ph. Befides the Ruffians who inhabit it, there are fouielWe aborigines of the country, wbp>
are 'civilized, and occafi-onSfcly bear arms: But are gceefe
rafiy employed in hunting or^fifhing. The native^pft'
fom^^he^httSg^remote from. the Kamchadales are a
tolerablt^pSS^fcurthe Kamchadales'are the reverfe, not
■only *f
ortly 6f them but of any peorMe I <*ver faw: They are of g
diminutive fize, narrow foreheads, high- cheek-bones,
finall eyes funk into their heads and guamy: Almoft no
iiofe* ia monfterous mouth and thick lips; their hair is
black and ftrait: They are indolent, ignorant, fuperftiti-
©us, jealous, cowardly, and more filthy and dirty than the
imagination can conceive in perfons dreis and manner of
The'drfefsof them and the Ruffian's confifts ©fa gown tied
found the waift with a fafh or   girdle, and lined with fur,
a fur cap and faal-fcm boots.    The drefs of the women   is
nearly the fame.   As neither they nor the Rufliaris apply
themfelves to any kind of agriculture, they have no kind
tof vegetables but what grow wildrand no bread but what
cot&*s either from fome of the more fouthern circles, or from
jtftrfeow   and Peterfburgh: Their  principal fubfiftance
there arifesfrom hunting and fifhin*, but moftly from the
latter   refburce.   Among   their fiih they have   plenty of
coodfalmon, which they preferve by drying them,  and
thisforms the principle part of their winters provifions.
The face of the country is high and mountainous, and
thick covered with well grown woods, which chiefly confifts of Mrch, Pine and beach, and the internal parts of it
abounds with a variety 6f wild animals, among which is
.the Batran or wild ftteep : This is a large* ftately fctmi-
dftble *«imal in- its original ftate, and very unlike the little
Micatt timid animal thatexifts in our flecks and folds of
ihzt name As the inhabitants have no horfes, they make
Ufe of a number of midling fised dogs; And as they tr«-
J£ mW in winter, they ufe them moftly for that purpofe
in light (ledges, with which they travel 40 or $o miles
a day very comfortably.
We faw at this place feveral gentlemen who had bel|
txiled hither fr*m the court of Ruffia, particularly acer- tafti Count, who it is did had carried his amours with hef
Imperial Majefty fo far, that to conceal the matter it wa$
fteceffaty her gallan*ihould fpfcrid the reminder of hisdays
in the forefts of Siberia—hunt for hisoWn fubfiftance, and
exclufively produce annually fomtich fur to his miftrefs a$
a tribute to her generofity and goodnfefs*
On the t*xth of June having received our fupjplieson
t)oard, repaired our fhips, Wooded and watered, we un-*
moored and waited a wind.
:0On the 13th finding no wind, towed to the mouth of th©
»y and came to.   v        |j|r        c^ff-v    |    '   ^":--
On the 14th it was^alm all day, and in the afternoon
We had a flight (hock of an earthquake.
On the 15 th it continued calm uritil rioqii when it cloud*
edup and became very black and dark: the two mountains
Peter and Paul were covered with the atmofphere near
half way from their fummits doWri, and at t#o o'clock, we
had again a fmallfhockof an earthquake, and heard al
hollow rumbling noife in the air, and the atmofphere continuing to condenfe, it became almoft as dark as night, and
the face of heaven looked very wilds we fingled the flops
of the iheet-anchor and eafed the (hip aloft at all thefe
portentous appearances. Between three and four the*
mountain Paul exploded with a tremendous (hock that
convulfed every thing aroiirid us: The report that attend*
fcd the explofion was very loud at firft? but gradually de*
creafed until it fubfided to a foufidlike that of giumb
diftant thunder: About ha If after four it began to thunder, and the air being furcharged with eleftricalflatter,
perhaps from the mountain, the atavfph^re was one continued (beet of flame: We put our eleftrical chalks to the
maft-head, Soon after it began to thunderJBtere ^fcll
"fluwers of fmall fragments of. lava about the fizl? of a
XT walnut
m m
[        -*7°
walnut: This was fucceeded by fhowers of mud, and byi
five there followed a fall of dry, white, fine afhes, which
produced a very ftrong fulphureous fmell: Our fhip was
covered with mud and afhes, which lay feveral inches
thick on our decks. About eight in the evening the
commotion had pretty well ruhfided, but the mountains
were ftill covered with a thick cloud and continued to
barn. By a mathematical meafuration'we were zo miles
in an horizontal direction from the fummit of the mountain Paul.
On the 16*& we had a fair and eafy wefterly breeze
which fhot us out to fea: We obferved the mountlin
Paul ftill emiting columns of fmoke as was ufual before,
it being an old vulcano. We alfo obferved the country
all round within 30 miles to be covered with afhes, which
being of a lightNcolour looked very much like a new fallen
fnow: We alfo found the furface of the fea impregnated
with mud and afhes % or 9 leagues off the land. There
is another vuleano in this bay which fome times has its
eruptions. The village called Petet and Paul is fituate
inlat. 5S*°   15  N. longt. 15$° E.     j|       .*.' M
On the 17th continued our courfe to the northward.
gi On the 19th fteeredE. by N. lat. 54.^56 N.
On the 20th same in fight of land, high, and covered with fnow; called by Bheering,   Kamfchatki-nofs,
but  found that cape a degree more to the fouthward
than he had laid it down.   Lat. 55. 52.
On the 2 ift we continued to fteer E.  N. E.  faw a
whale, two feals and a number of fea-lions.
On the 12d we flood to the north-eaft,  and fe-^frg^
c hange in the colour of the water, we founded, but fou^ti
nil '    t 171        ]     '   ■
f^sj^j v *tv r-w->-1
no ground in 100 fathom. We continued the fame courfe
till the 25th, when we were inflat. S9 deg. 9 min.and
Ung. 168 deg. 3omin^E.
On the 26th we changed our courfe E.N.E. and finding the fea covered with gulls and lhags, we founded but
found no ground at 120 fathom.
IpOn the 27th we flood E. half N. and found ourfelves
by obfervation in lat. 59 deg. 57 min. long. 172 E. We
changed our courfe, and flood N. N. W.
On the aSth, early in the morning, we came in fight
of land, very high and covered with fnow, the extreme
point of which bore N. E. diftance  about  6 leagues.
We continued our courfe along fhoie, with regular foundings at about 54 fathom, free from reefs, and a very
bold fhore.   We fteered this courfe till '•' J|||
The 30th, at noon, when we were in lat. 62 deg.
. 1 min. 1|
On the ift of July, the weather began to grow hazy,
with thick fogs,   We ftill kept coaft ing on till
The 3d in the morning, when the £pg§ left us and it
began to rain. At ten in the morning, faw a very high
point of land, bearing from us N. N.E. diftance about
7 leagues. We hauled upon ^ wind, and floodE. N. E.
till two in the afternoon, when we paffed a fmall ifland,
called by the Ruffians St. Nicholas; in fome parts very
high ^nd covered with fnow. Lat. 6%. deg. 4s min.
long. 187. / ■ c      ' ■#...- ^
On the 4th at one in the morning?, we bore away N.
|||ifE. and about noon, the next day, faw land frlm W.
'."to N. E. appearing like two iflands. ^^o'clof^ w,e
HI-..*" hauled
M r
hauled up to Vt. N. W. being rfear land, and founding
from 26 to 29 fathom.
§||On the *th we continued coafting from N, half W. to
N. hflf E. with the land to the weft ward high and fnowy,
Lat. 67 deg. 10 min. long, 1*7 E, -'    ,       wmL. WMw
On the yth faw ice in a large body to the eaftward,
diftance about i or 3 leagues, and about noon polled fe*
verar large' fields of Ice, We tacked and ftood N. W,
by W, with a ftiif gale and heavy fhdw,
lEOn tfi| %th fell in with the ice again in a folid Body j
at the fame time bore away S. S, w.
On the pth^ it tHrfc-e iti Jhe morning, we hauled up
along fide the felid ice, freezing cold all day.   hf$$
6$ deg, **• min. fp: . k-   ^
On the 10th continued Stir cotifi-e 311 the morning,
and at nine paffed a large field of loofe ice, diftance
about 3 miles, and ,at noon went through it.
Qn the nth we fouhd burfelvfes furrounded with ice,
We kept working to the foutlveaft paffing many l?rge
Jields of fee, covered with fea ci&vs. We kept luffing
up and bearing away, till with fojrife difficulty fte got
thrbu ;h. Lat. obferved 87 fH^. 40 iiiin. long. i?6deg,
jo min.   We continued working through the ice till
"The *4*h, When by obfervaifoli fcfe were in lat. 69
tleg. jy min. Welpontinued bearing away to the north*
ward, till
|S.The 15th, tohea by obfervation Wfe were jn laiv 70
deg. %l min.and   being tery &ear the tee, a larg«|Mi<^|;
bear paffed us ir the water-,   but foadc for th£ ice at
* gte^t rate*   In half an hour, we faw multitudes of
th€H| '••1/ 1     11     *       : r     ■
<he« upon the ice, mafkiftg to the e*ftwatd, whwwt
obferved the fea-cows, as the be*i» approached them,
Hying like fheep purfued by dogs. W ■
On the -20th we came in fight of lafid at the di&atHte
of about 5 or 6 leagues, bearing from & E. founded from 24 to 21 fathofo.
On thfc 2 ift we ftood ftom W. half N. to W. N. W.
and at fix o'clock we paffed a large ifland of ice, on
which were whole herds of fea-cows of an enormous
fize. W-t fired feveral muftets among them, which fent
them to the water with dreadful yellings. At nine in
the evening we came in fight of the American fhore,
diftaht about 6 league. We fteered all night W. by
N. and next morning found ourfelves almoft furround-
gd with fields of ice drifting to the fouthward. At 12
©•clock vfre hauled our wind to the fouthward, and, by
ihe aifcrtneft of our feameri, we paffed it with very little dat&age.W.  % " '        ft M[- .     .."
On the morriiag ctf the 2 3d It came on to blow very
fiUrd, and beforenoon, we found ourfelves clofely blocked up in the ice, and could fee it all round us in a
folid bod>% toa great diftance. At the fame time we
few the Refolutiofi bearing N.E.half E. fome mifesoff,
which was the laft fight We had of her, during the
Mole day. In this hbuid fituation, we handedall our
fails, unbent our fdre-top-fril, and moored (ftip with
both our ice-anchors, ©ne to each bow.        -fj
- We how begatt to iefleft on our conditien; The winter drawing on apace j our provifions (hart, and what
*e had but very indifferent; and no relief to be expeaed*
&& ffeople's fpiiits began to fink, and it was with dif-
fc-etifty that they were peifuaded to exert themfelves
fe* their oWiddftemncc. ^Fortunately for us, wf had
m§A 0f
'"'       ,'  C      .'■"' t     'H ,   3  ''   . -    ■      .  m
in the evening, a (hift of wind from W. N. W. with z
fteady breeze, when our Captain, looking over the (larboard qaarter, dirfcerned the ice to the fouthward, feemlv
ingly to leave the fhip, and foon heard a crafh, as if a
thoufand rocks had been rent from their foundations,-
which, we afterwards perceivecP^to be the parting of
the ice in different directions; and foon after foundour*-
felves releafed. We inftantly got up our ice-anchors,
and (haped our courfe from S. E. toE. S. E. but were
frequently flopped by large pieces jjpwhich carried a-
way great part of our fheathing forward, and damaged
oar ftern, fo that the (hip made water at the rate of
three inches an hour.
On the 24th we continued our courfe E. S. E. and
came in fight of the Refolution, which had likewife
received much damage abo«t her bows. We were now
clear of the ice, and, till three in the afternoon, failed in company, till we came up with a folid body, on
which we faw a number of amphibious aaimals, fome of
them very large. We inftantly got out and manned
our boats, and in three hours returned with eleven of
the largeft, about which all hands were employed the
next day in (kinning and  cutting them up for blubber.
On the 25th we paffed feveral fields of ice. And
at noon was at the extreme of the eafternmoft land in
fight. Being then in lat. 69 deg. 1*2 min. and, by
a lunar observation, in long. 187 deg. 16 min. E. of
London. ■$£
On the 27th we found ouffelves involved again a-
mong the loofe ice, fome of which it was out of off
power to efcape,* and the leak ftill continuing ratherit
increase than abate, our Captain, with Mr. Bailey the
aftronomer, and Mr. Burney,/bur ift lieut«nant,Sj|y^
on board the Refolution, to te^pu our fi^Ption|^^|
Commodore* Commodore,?whom they found fo ill as to be paffed all
hopes of recovery. Upon calling a council of officers,
it was nnanimoufly agreed, that we fhould proceed as
feft as poffible to fome poft, where we might repair
our damages, aril Kamchatka was appointed our place
of rendezvous. We were now in lat. 68 deg. ie min*
and in long. 153.     -/ -,J| .,.." • .       r      ^
On the 28th, at two in the morning we came in fight
of the Afia fhore, very high and covered with fnow> diftance about 7 or B leagues, we made fail and flood
to the fouthward. About noon we found ourfelves in
lat. 67 deg. n min. and in long, by double altitudes
iSS deg. 10 min. E. The extreme of the eafternmoft
land diftant about 6 leagues. At ten at night we faw
a great number of ducks, geefe, and fea-parrots very-
near us, by which We judged land could not be far off.
On the 19th at noon we were in lat. 6$ deg. 50
min. and long. 188 deg. 17 min. bat no land in fight.
On the 30th we fteered till noon to the S. E. with
a fteady breeze, and came in fight of two iflands right
a-head, diftant about five or fix leagues, The-weather then became thick and hazy, and though we were
certain that the main land of Afia and America were
at no great diftance, we could fee neither till about
Tour o'clock in the afternoon, the weather clearing up,
we faw a paffage or ftreight, to which we bore away,
and found the two continents at feven o'clock on each
fide of us. ..This ftreight was called Bheering's Streight,
the entrance of which we found the fame as has been
already defcribed; and the current at this time fetting
to the N; W. very ftrong, made our paffgae Mt^s|jj£
difficult but dangerous.
|||On the 31ft we paffed Tfchutiolfkoi-nofs,^called by
||||j^aiiors Tufkan-nofs, and foon came in fight oi Cook's
Town, I
" I    tf$ ■ I   .
^wft,^rhich we vifited $& i*ft feafea, aaha* already
lae-^ mentioned*      Jt ;' \: >   , J||
Nothing remaiJkabUi till Auguft the jth, *hen w6
had an oirfcrvatjfon, and found 4jprfelv«s fa jat. 62 deg*
37 min*        fi
On the fth at noon we were by oWervation in lat*
61 dig. M.min. and in long. 1:83 d*g« 45 «nin» and at
no great diftance from the land. At four o'clock havr
ipg a dead calm, the companies of both ffcips employed
themfelves inftfhmg, and very fortunately caught a number of large cod, which were equally diftributed amor^g
the crews. STo this place we gave the name of thf.
Bank of Good Providence; and as foon as the fcr$$ze
ipoing up, we mz&e (ail and flood to S. W.
'" On the 9th at noon we were by observation in the
long, of jH &*&• 3<5 min. j+\fez.  i    j||
On the reth we continued our courfe, and on the tath
at noon we were in lat. 5^ deg. 37 QsJp.^irith the jBbip's
bead to the S. W. "        ' || "       -%r
In the evening of the 13* we had the Refolution^
boat on board, to compare time, who brought the difv
agreeable news of the Captain's beinjf £iveh over by
the futgeop. W;. .: ^   .   .  jj^ •    ,
On the 13th being ift foundmgf, and th« weather calm*
we hove to in order to get feme fiih for the fiefc, and a
few cod weie caught and diftibuted accordingly.
On the  i?th the wkid that had teen againft. us fW
♦fome  days paft (hifted in cur favor, and at nine in   tM^
morning the man at the maft-head calkdout land to the
N. W. which was foon known $0 be Bheering Ifland, lat*
at'noon SS ■** S|| 4^-1 I
Nothing remarkable till the 21ft, when early in th«
morning the man at the maftrhead again came in fight of
land. It was then at a very great diftance, and upon our
ftarbaord bo^r, but before night we were only diftant
from the mouth of Kanfsltatka bay, 12 or 13 leagues.
Or* the 2 2d at nine in the_moming we had the Refolu-
^Ron'sboat on board, to acquaint Capt. Gore with the
death of om commodore. We were then within fight of
the flag at the mouth of Kamchatka bay, of which mention has already been made, and the wind being favorable, we continued our coufe for the entrance of the
harbour, which then bore from us W. S. W. lat. at noon
5*deg. 54mm. c':;^       \ * "
On the 13d a little before midnight we came to author within the light-houfe.
On the 24th our Capt. being now Commodore, made
the fignal to get under way by towing, all the boat*
were accordingly got out, and the Commodore went on
board the Refolutiom, where it was refolved, for t he greater convenience of repairing the fhips, and for erecting
the tents and forge to go within.the upper harbour. And
about four in the afternoon both fhips came to, and were
moored in three fathom and a half water, muddy bottom^
Early next morning the tents wereereQed, and the
fick were got on ffiore.
From the time we fet fail out of this bay in June, till the
prefent day, we had been in no harbour to refit; and
had been driUfn from ifland to ifland among the ice, till
©ur fhips had m a manner loft their fheathing, and were
ctherwifeina miferabk condition: we  were therefor*
appy in arriving fafe. |
Kiiii Y Auguft
I',' r
Auguft 25th; an exprefs was fent to Balchaiareka,t©c
acquaint the governor of our arrival, and of the death of
our late commander: at the fame time another exprefs
was fent to Paratanka, to defire the attendance of the
prieft, in orcler to confult with him concerning the inter-?
ment of Capt. Clerke, whofe dclfre was, to be buried in
his church: while we were waiting the iffue ofwtefe
meiTages, the feveral promotions took placerthat followed
in confeqence of the Commander's death. Mr. Gore went
on board the Refolution, and Mr. King, firft Lieut, of the
Refolution* took command-of the Difcovery. Other promotions took place, which the reader will remark by the
fequel. The firft care of the commanders of both fhips
was to provide for the recovery of the fick, and the repair*
of the fhips; and for that purpofe a houfe was procured
for the reception of the former, and a contrivance made
for heaving the latter dry.
The weather being now temperate and the country delightful, the officers and gentlemen rather" chofe to deep
in their Marquees on fhore, than in the apartments in the
fort, or in the houfes in the town. It was however
thought expedient to fhew every mark of the
Ruffian officers, who, though not of the firft rank, were
notwithftanding the only people with wjtom we had any
concern, or with whom we c©uld have any communication; they were therefore frequently inrited to dinner, and they as often attended.
On the 26th the prieft arrived, when Capt. Gore acquainted him with the death of our commander, and of
his defile to be buried in his church. The good old gentleman feemed much concerned; but ftarted feveral difficulties; and appeared very unwilling*to comply with
the dying roqueft of the deceafed. He urged feveral rea-
fons to Anew the impropriety of it; thofe  cf moft weigh$|
Were '. ;f|  ;     '   •        J^t'       *79~       1 ' '••    ;    |fc . " -
were, that the church wasfoon to be pulled down ; that
it was every winter three feet deep in water; and that in
a few years no veftige of it would remain, as the new
church was to be erected near the town of A-watch-a upon
a diier and more ccnveniet fpot. He therefore advifed the
remains of the Commander depofi ted at the foot of
a tree, thefcite of which was to be included in the body
of the new church, wheiethe Captains bones might probably reft for ages undifturbed. Thefe reafons whether
real or fiftitious, the officers who had charge of the funeral could not difprove, and therefore people were fent
to dig the grave, wheiethe prieft (hould diieft.
The 30th was appointed for  the  interment;   and to
make the funeral the more folemn, every officer was defired to appear in his uniform; the marines to be drawn
up under aims, and common men to be dreffed as nearly
alike  as poffible,  in cider to attend the corps from the
water-fide to the grave.    All this was readily acceded to,
and the proceffion began about ten in the morning, when
minute guns from the fhips were fired, and the drums muffled as ufual, beat the deadm?rch., When the corpfe arrived at the grave, it wasdepofited under the triple discharge of the marines; and the gra ire being covered, it
was fenced in by piles driven deep in the ground, and the
infide afterwards filled up with ftones and earth, to preserve  the body from being devoured in the winter by
bears or other wild beads, who aie remarkable for  their
fagacity in fcenting out   the bodies of dead paffengers
when  any happen* to perifh and  are buried near the
im m
r^This ceremony over, an efcutcheon was prepared and
neatly painted by Mr. Webber, with the Captain's coat
of arms properly%nblazoned, and placed in the church
of Paratanka,  and uWemellth th| following infcripti-
on 2  ^   .^ ;c||| v    ' ^%...       iL
There Hi^^^jrred at the foot of a Tree,
Nsar theOftrog of St. Peter and St. Paul.
!^^^^p';.^^BThe .Body of       §
CHARLES   CLERKE,   E s ||J| re,
Commander  of His Britannic Majefty's
Ships, the Refolution and Difcovery $
To   which   he  fucceeded   on the   Death of
pAMES   COOK,p3qvui,     ||   *
Wlis was killed by the Natives of an Ifland w§
difcovered in the South-Sea, after having ek*
plored the Coaft of America,  from 42 deg*
symiii. to 70 deg. 40min. 57iec. N»
fi| in fearch o£ a North-Weft Paffage
filiih'.. — :   ftom  tv u r o p B;|.to   the .,:tf
||| K a s t -1 n d 1 1 s.
jfe, ;m The fecond  attempt beittjg made by
CaItaim  Clbr^I',   ^whb failed Within  fome few
Leagues of Captain Cook; but was brought
\M. up by a folidBody of Ice, which he found  ft;
from the America to the Afia, Shore,     ■ J|.
and almoft tended due Eaft and
Weft. He Died  at Sea, r
on his   Retuhrn to the        /.:J|
Southward on the
22d   Day   o£
•". ;/||;:   V.. April, 1779, , • '      -    ,'"
Ag*i>> 38 Years.
M Another ■T«
^Another inferiptioi was fixed tigon the tret ufiJer
which he was interred. This tree was at fome diftance
from the town and near the hofpitjppound which.federal people had already been burfeSy but none fo hig|t
upon the hill as t|e fr|)t ||inted o^t for the grave of
Capt. Gierke. The inaription placed on this tree was nearly the fame as that at Paratanka,  and was as follows:
R Beneath this Tree lies the Body of   :
Captain|C    H   A  R   L  E S    CLERKE,
; 1'CoMMAWDER of His Britannic Majefty's Ships,
the Refolution and Difcovery. %
Which Command he fucceeded to, on the 14th
.'-i , of February, 1779, on the Death xA   ^ c   ;
;'• Captain Jambs Cook,     .    --■,;'.;r^
Wko was Killed by the fiatives of fome Mfcit^s |t|
he Difcovered in the Stfrrt r-Sia;s .3|B
|jp :  - to the Dafe above. •    * fe .. ;*
Captain CtiaxE Died at Sea, '\
tf a lingering Btnfefs, ok the * ad Bit of
August, 1779, V r
'.:.-■   v •    In the 3#t$i Yeat of his Age,  ■- ^8 "^
t||L6d was interred on the $©t|f fo|fcwi6|f.
1 ;;■, fi
On this osjlafion the inhabitants of both towns, and
thofe of the whole country for many miles round, attended 5 and the crews of both (hips were fuffered to
continue a fhore, and to divert themfelves, each as he
liked beft. It was the Captain's ddjjtre that they (hould
have double allowance for three days fucceffively, and
all that while to be excufed from other duty, than what
the ordinary attendance in the fhip required, but the
feafon being far advanced, and a long tract of unknown
fea to tra-verfe before they could reach China, the officers reprefenting the hardfhips and inconveniencies
that fo much loft time might bring upon themfelves,
they1 very readily gave up that part of the Captain's'
requeft, and returned to their refpeftive employments
early the next day.
On *d of September the Governor arrived at Paratanka,
and with him an officer called by the Ruffians Propofick,
the fame as in England is called Collector or Surveyor.
They informed Capt. Gore, that a (loop was daily ex>
peftcd from Janefka, laden with provifions and dore*
of all forts for our ufe; but expreffed fome apprehenfions
for her fafcty, as the boats had been looking out for her
feveral days. This news was of too much importance
to be flighted.   Accordingly |j$
On the 3d the pinnaces and boats from both fhipt
were fent to the entrance of the bay, to affift her, in
cafe (he (hould be in fight, in towing her in $ but it
The nth before (he arrived.   She was a batk of a-
bout 100 tons, and had two guns mounted, which (he
fired as a falute,  when (he dropt anchor, and was ap-
fwered by a volley from the garrifon, which   confifted
of a fubaltern and   «c foldiers.     She  was   no  (boner
moored, than the Captain waited on the Governffkfoi
inftruftions Inftruftions, and then Came or|| boarC the Refoluf|on.
He was introduced to the Com^uodore, to whom he,
delivered the invoice of his ladingj, among which was
wearing apparel and tobacco, two articles that were
above all others acceptable to the fhips companies.
As foon as thfcGovernor had executed his commiffion,
and delivered up the ftores to the Commodore, he took
his leave and returned to Bolchaia-reka, and the fhips
being lightened before, and their bows heaved up dry,
fo that the carpenters could get at the leaks, the Captains
and principal officers finding little elfe to amufe them,
made a party to fcour the woods for game ; bi^|his proved
the worft feafon in the yearfor hunting. Thef had been
told, that rein-deer, wolves, foxes, beavers, and ftone-
rams every where abounded in the foreftsof this country,
and they had promifed themfelves great fport in purTuing
them; but after (laying out full two days and nights,
during which time they had been expofed to feveral fevere ftorms, they returned much fatigued, without hav-
ing.been able to kill a fingle creature. The partie*
who had been fent out towood and water had fucceeded much better.; As foon as the fhips were ready to
launch, they werejeady to compleat the hold. In fhort,
the utmoft difpatcflPWas made to haften our departure,
fo that by the latter end of September we were in rea-
dinefs to put to fea. The cattle with which we were
bow fupplied, one would have thought, had dropt from
another region. It is among the wonders of nature,
with what celerity every vegetable and every animal
changes its app-J-uanee in this climate. On the itf$||
•f June, when we left the harbour of Kamchatka, the
fpring had but juft begun to announce the approach
«f fummer by the budding of the trees, and the fprout-
ing of the grafs; but now, on our return, it was mat*
ter of furprize to find the fruits ripe, and the harveft
iu foil per feft ion..|jThe cattle were merf fkin and bone,
f jifcich we were glad to accept at opr firft coming ; but
Jr fi
[     -il4      3
that wfre nc$ fent us were fine and fat, and would
haye made rio bad figure in Smithfield market. The
grafs waslln many pl^cf*! as high as our knees, and
fte corn, where any^'gr^^^pre the promifing appearance of a fine 9fop. In (hort,|j§|Dm thje moft dreary,
barren, and defolate afjpeft,J|that any habitabliPcountry could prefent, this was become one of the moft delightful 5 Mr. Nelfon reaped a rich harveft of rare plants,
and had the additional pleafure of gathering them in
tAeir m?ft exalted ftate.
Tn this interval of idle tiihe, between com pleating
ouf^epairs, and clearing the harbour, we had leifur^
to take a view of the town near the fhore, where we
ftrft moored, and that of Paratanka,||where the prt|ft
lived and where the c|urch was fituated. Thefe tovms
have received fome improvement, fince they becamf
fubjeft to the Ruffians; but are ftill moft wretched dwellings. The houfes are built (if we may call that building, which is half dug out of the earth, and half fet
upon poles) in two different forms 5 one for their fura-
mex   and the other for their winter refidence.        f|
Their., winter habitation is made by digging a fquar«
hole in the earth, about 5 or fi feet deep, the length and
breadth being proportioned to the number of people that
are to live in it.   At elach comer of this fquare hole
they fet up a thick poft, and in the intermediate fpace
between thefe corner ports, they place other pofts at certain diftances, and over thefe they lay^balks, fattening
them together with ftrong cords, which they make of
nettles prepared in the manner of hemp.   Aerofs th*fe
they place other balks, in the manner of a bridge,   then
oover the whole with thatch, leaving a fquare opening
ift the middle, which fetves at once for a door, window,
and chimney.   On one fide of this fquare is theit fireplace, and on the oppofite fide is ranged their kitchen
1 •«, I
I     lis     I ' ; '
furniture.    On the two other fides are a kind of,broad-|jjj
benches made with earth, on which each^mily lie,  and||
in one of thefe huts or houfes there live feveral families.
To enter thefe huts by the only opening at top, they ufe
a ladder, not made with rounds between two fides, like
ours^but* confiftinj? only of narrow flips of wood fattened
to a plank.   This ladder the women mount with great
•agility, with children at their backs,  and though  the
fmoke would blind and fuffbcate thofe who are not ufed
to it   yet the Kamflnatfkadales find  no inconvenience
from it. v
Their fummer huts, called Baiagans, are made by fixing up pillows about r 4 feet above ground, and laying
balks over them *s before. On thefe they make a floor,
and then raife a roof, which they thatch with grafs.
To thefe balaga*s, they have two doors, which they
afcend by the fame kind of lad^r. f| c^>  ,
In the winter they ufe the baiagans for magazines, the
thatch fecures what they lay up in them from rain, and
by taking away the ladder, it becomes inacceffible to
wild beafts and vermine. :||
It being fummer, we had no accefs to their winter
dwellings, which were all fhut up, and they were not
over-fond of expofing their poverty; for though they
have little to boaft of, they are not without pride;
The whole furniture of the commonalty confifts of difhes,
bowls troughs and cans; their cans are made of birch
bark their other utenfils of wood, which, till the Ruffians introduced iron among them, they hollowed with in-
ftruments made of ftone or bone; but with thefe tools their
Itwoik was tedious and difficult. In thefe bowls they
drefs their food,  though being wopd, they will not bear
fite. . m* T
Z In
*», j
&&&&&& fiW
'"■ t'1©^ter ^e ni€n are emPloyed in hunting, mak-
in^fledges,#id fetching wood; and the women in weaving nets, andfjpinning thread.
Klnrhefpring the risers begin to thaw, and the fifli that
wintered in them go towards the fea; the men therefore in this feafon are bufied in fifhing, and the women
in curiug what they catch.
»In the fummer, the men build both their winter and
fummer huts, train their dogs, and make their houihold
utenfils and warlike inftruments; but the wom$n make
all the cloathing, even to the flioes. Their cloathsfor
the moft part, are made of thefkinsof land and fea-ani-
mals, particularly deer, dogs and feals; but fometimes
they ufe thefkins of birds, and frequently thofe of different animals in the fame garments. They commonly
wear two coats, the under one with the hair inwards*,
and the upper one with the hair outwards. The women
have befides an under garment, not unlike Dutch trow-
fers, divided and drawn round the knees with a firing.
They are filthy beyond imagination; they never
wafli their hands or faces, nor pair their nails. They eat
out of the fame difh with their dogs, which they never
waili. Both men and women plait their hair in two
locks, which they never comb; and thofe who have
fhort hair, fupply the locks with falfe. This is faid of
the lOmcnatkadales who live more to the north; thofe
in the towns which we faw, had learnt of the Ruffians
to be more cleanly.
^Ifheyaie very fuperfticious;    and th<s women in particular, pretend to avert misfortunes,  cure difeafes, and
foretel future events, by muttering incantations ov^r the
'fins of fifties, mingled with a certain herb, which tpey
gather from tho woods  in the fpring with much labor.
T?hey :: ",;  ,'• i      1*7   .  1 ; .  '..-.'
They pretend alfo to judge, of good and bad fortune, by
the lines of the hands, and by their dreams, which they
relate to each other as foon as they wake. They dcead
going near the buqfong mountains, leaft the invifibie beings that inhabit^thenffifhould hurt them, and think it
a fin to drink, or to bathe in the hot fprings with which
their country abounds, becaufe they fuppofe thofe fprings
to be heated by the evilfpirits that produ'e them. They
are faid never to bury their dead; but, binding a ftrap
round the neck of the corps, drag it to the next foreft,
where they leave it to be eaten by the bears, wolves,
or other wild inhabitants. They have a notion, that
they, who are eaten by dogs, will drive with fine dogs
in another world. They throw away all the cloaths of
the deceafed, becaufe they believe that they who wear
them will die before their time.
The country is faid to abound with wild beafts, which
are the principal riches of the inhabitants j particularly foxes, fables, ftone-foxes, and hares,tmaimots, ermins,
weafles, bears, wolves, rain-deer, and ftone-rams; but
our gentlmen were much difappointed, who went in pur-
fuitof them. They have a fpeciesof weafle, called the
glutton, whofe fur is fo much more efteemed than all
others, that they fay, the good fpirits are cloathed with
it. Thejfpaws- of this animal are as white as fnow ;
but the hair of the body is yellow. Sixty rubles (a-
bout 12 guineas nearly) have been given for a (kin ;
and a fea-beaver for a fingle paw. M
Of the bears, the inhabitants make good ufe ; of their
fkinsthey make-their beds, coverings, caps, collars and
gloves; and ©f their flefh and fat their moft delicate
The K'imchatkadales, all along the northern coafts,
have a particular manner of dreffing their food; which
r& I
■s     3
is the. very rev£rfe of that of the Indians in therfouth.
There they r^ft or ftew withi ftones made hot and buried, as it were, in the earth with their meat, by which
its relifti is faid to be much improved. But here they
boil it with hot ftones immerfed in. wa rer, by which
its rlasvour is rendered more infipid. The fame neeef-
fity however, feems to have pointed out t-He'fagte means
-to the people of the torrid and of the frigid zones; fo^
both being equally unacquainted with iron, and wood being incapable of lefifting fire, when brought in coritaft
with it, though the principle was obvious, the application was difficult ? thofe ; therefore of the torrid zone
would naturally be led to call the warmth of the earth
to their aid: While thofe in the frozen climates would
think water a more ready affiftant; add to this, that the
colder regions abound\with hot fprings; fome in Kamchatka, in particular, are fo hot, as to approach nearly
to the degree of boiling water; but thefe they thim
it finful to ufe, as we have already obferved.        r|C
The dogs  of this  country are like  our   village curs
and are of different colours.    They feed chiefly on fiih,
md their ma fter;s ufe them to draw Hedges, inftead of
horfes or rein-deer. - - •
The Teas and. lakes abound with a variety of amphibious adimals, of which fea Is and fea-.horfes and fea-
cows are the moft numerous, and the moft profitable.
Of the fkins of the fea 1 they make their canoes, and on
their flefh and fat they feed delicioufly. Whiles are fometimes eaft upon the (bores, but very feldom, unlets
With the teeth and bones of the fea-horfe ar.djeg-
cow they point their arrow sj and weapons of war ; and of
ihmr fat and blubber they make their oil.    Theff-h^V'e
'etiergin their lakes, but their fkins Lear a great pr|cf.:
if- ' ■■■"■ % '..' ' -/   '   ■% t
They have birdsof vaiious kinds in gteat abundance^
Among the fea-fowl, they have the puffin, the fea-crowf,
the greenland pigeon and the comnorant. They have
fwarfs, geefe and ele ven fpecies of ducks ; and they h^ve
plovers, fnipes, and fmall birds without number* They
have likewife four kinds of eagles; the black eagle,,
with a white head; the white eagle; the fpotted eagle,
and the brown eaglet They have vultures alfo, and
hawks innumerable.
This country fwarms with infects in^the fummer, which
are very troublefome; but they have neither frog, toad
nor ferpent. Lizards are not rare ; but they believe thefe
creatures to be fpies fent from the infernal powers to in-
fpeft their lives, and foretel their death; and therefore
whenever they fee one,they kill it, and cut it in fmall
pieces, that it may not carry back any intelligence to
their hurt. |||
But what is moft remarkable, and deferves the attention of the curious, is tfee remarkable conformity
between the Kamfhatfkadales towards the eaft, and of
the Americans, that live on the oppofite coaft juft over
againit them, in their perfons, habits, cuftoms and food I
both drefs exactly in the fame manner, both cut holes in
their faces in the fame manner already defcribed, ir*
which |J|hey put bones like fa I fe teeth 5 and both make
their canoes exactly in the feme manner. They are a-
bout 1 2 feet long and two broad, lliarp at the head and
ftern, and flat at the bottom 5 they confift of flat pieces
of wood, joined at both ends, and kept apart in the middle by atranfverfe piece* through which there is a hole
juft big enough for the man to fet in his legs, and tov
fe&t himfelf on a bench made on purpofe ; ^"his fkeletonil
covered with feal-fktn, dyed of a kind of a purple colour,
and the whole is  ftvirted with loofe fkin, which, when
5-JE m
the man is feated,,he draws clofe round him, like the
mouth of a purfe, and with a coat and cap of the fame
fkin, which covers his whole body, makes the man and
his boat appear like one piece; and thus clad, and thus
feated andfurrounded, he fears neither the roughft fea
the fevered weather.
And now we have had occafion to mention this fimi-
larity between the inhabitants on the oppofite (hore of
Afia and America; we (hall embrace this opportunity,
to correct a very material error in our account of laft
year's voyage, where, fpeaking of the Ruffian difcoveries>
we took notice, after examining Bheering's Stieights,
though the Ruffians fuppofed that the lands were parted,
here we found the continent to join, by which the reader
will no doubt imagine, that we have aliened, that the
two continents of Afia and America join, which they
do not; but are feperated by a ftreight between two
promontories, which in clear weather, are fo near as to
be feen in failing through, with the naked eye. But
what is meant is this.^When Bheering made his difcovery, in cqjrfting along the American fhore, he difcovered
a found or ftreight, which having furmounted, he found
himfelf in a great bay, which he imagiied was another
fea and that the land he had paffed was not the American continent, but a great ifland feperated from the continent by the found or ftreight juft mentioned. This
found therefore, and this bay we examined, and found
that what the Ruffians hadmiftaken for an ifland, is actually a part of the American Continent. Hence it appears,
that notwithftanding all that was written againft it,
Bheering is juftly entitled to the honor of having difcovered all that part of the N. W. continent of America,
that has been hitherto marked in our maps as paita-
* *      »
It remains now only to give a fhort defeiption of the
bay and harbour where we repaired ,• which at the erm-
trance §§3
trance is between two very high bluff rocks; on the ftar-
board as we enter is the light-houfe, of which mention has already been made, and at the diftance of a-
bout 20 miles the vulcano, from whence flames and
afhes are fometimes emitted to great diftance, and to the
great terror of the inhabitants. The bay is about t
leagues deep, and lies from S. E. to N. W. And from
N. E. to S. W. It is about 4 leagues. It is inaccef-
lible during the winter, by reafon of the ice 5 but very
fafe and convenient during the fummer.
The harbour where we lay to careen and repair,
would contain about 20 fhips of the line in perfeft fafe-
ty, being clofely furrounded with high hills, except at
the entrance. The people are civil,and in their way very
obliging; but their manner of living affords nothing
very enchanting for Tailors.
Our (hips being now in as good repair as we had
reafon to expeft from the length of the voyage they*
had paffed, the rigorous weather to which they had beea
ex£ofed, the boifterous feas they had (hipped; and, a-
bove all, from the violent concuffions of the ice that
had fhaken their very frame, and had ftripped them of
their fheathing : And being likewife plentifully provided with provifions and ftores, by the generofity of
her Imperial Majefty of Ruffia, and by the care and
benevolence of her governor and officers,
On the 9th of Oftober, 1779, we weighed, and fo©n
were without the light-houfe, fhaping our courfe to the
fouthward, and
On the 10th were in lat. 52 deg. 36 min. when wc
had a dead calm, and went to fifhing for cod, with
good fuccefs-%   Thermometer 5$.
On-the nfh we purfued our courfe, and by noon were
in lat. 51 deg. 1 min.
On the 12th we flood S. W. and at night founded
tt $1 fathom, having in the afternoon paffed three fmall
iilands to the weft ward of us, Lat. 50 deg. 19 min.
Thermometer 48  deg. 52 half min.
On the I3<hwe were in lat. 50.   Courfe as before.
On the 14th we ftill continued the fame courfe.   Lat.
4*i deg. s° mm....   c ,,     ■. .:■.' 'M   S:-^.c ■•   ~
The 15th we altered our courfe in fearch of fome
iflands, which the Ruffians faid were inhabited by people of a gigantic fize, who were covered with hair ;
but who notwithftanding were very civil, and would
fupply us with cattle and hogs, with which their ifland
afcpundedr Thefe iflands, however, we never found,
though we continued fearchi$g for them till
The 19th, when a ftorm came on, and we loft fight
r>f ihe Difcovery; but next day were in company, and
relumed our courfe, the  gale   continuing till     jfltt;,
The 22d, when we found ourfelves in lat. 41 deg.
and long. %. from London 149 deg. 20 min. The wind
which had abated in the day, freiliened again about 9
at night, and foon irtcreafed^o a gale, when we were
obliged to lie-to, as we imagined, from the ufual figns,
and founding at 80 fathom, that we muft be near land.
In the morning of the 33d we flood N.N. W. in fearch
pi land, but found none.    At noon by double altitude
lat. 41 deg. 48 tm\n. long. 146 deg. 1.7 min. E,   About
10 at night we altered our courfe \t". S. W^ and fo
continued till    ■. "\ ; "^ml
-"'-'    :     ..... • ;    '_• * '" ■':. %S The 25th, when by the time-piece, we were inlong*||§
145 deg. 29 min. E. and continued -sur courfe with anfcp
cafy fail. At 3 I ^e afternoon a large piece of tunfeg^
paffed us to the northward.   And '■''t^p^
On the *6th, early in the morning, the man at the:gg
maft-head called out Land, diftant about 7 or S leagues,
bearing E. by N. to N. W.   We then found ourfelves
within fight of Japan.   Lat. 40 deg. 56 min. long. 140
deg. 1 y min. E.   Thermometer 52 deg. $s »»n.
Early in the morning of the 27th we faw a fail, feem-
ingly very large making towards us from the fhore. We
cleared (hip, and made the fignal to the Difcovery to do
the fame. She was a fquare rigged veffel with two
mafts, very fhort, and built much in the manner of the
Chinefe junks. We hoifted Enghfh colours. She looked at us, but made fail to the weftward, and we continued our courfe.
On the 28th we faw land bearing W. N. W. to S.
half W. diftant about 6 leagues. We then founded 64
fathom, aad flood from S. to S. E. by E. Lat. 39 at
noon, long. H° d^- IO min> Thermometer S9 and
a half.
' On the 29th we again flood S. half W. and in the
morning obferved another veffel making to the eaftward
at a great diftance. We again hoiftedEnglifh colours,
but (he paid no attention to them, and we purfued out
On th^soth we were in lat. 36 deg. 41 min. fleering S. W.    Thermometer 64 and a half. .
On fhe 3 ift few land very high, from W. half N. to
N, W. at a great diftance.   Lat.  34 deg. 35 min.      ^
A a
November r
E     104
November ift, fteered all day from S. to S. W. faw
a high mountain, which feemed to be a vulcano; but
at a great diftance.    Tacked and flood to the northward.
On the 2d we again tacked, and flood E. half S. and,
finding:!the water of a milky colour, founded, but had
no ground at isofathom. Lat. 36 deg. 30 min. Thermometer 70 and a half.
The 3d, the wind from the S. S. E. we ftill continued working to the fouthward.; but made little way.
The 4th, the wind being againft us, we advanced but
(lowly, being at noon in 35 deg. 49 min. only; with
a great fwell from the S. W.    Thermometer 72 and a
half, ; ;;k
The 5th we had only advanced 2 min.
On the 6th the wind drifted to the N. E. made fail
and flood ail day S. by W. to S. S. W. Lat. 35 deg.
15 min.
The 7th the fea all round was covered with pumiee-
ftones floating to the northward. We now approached
the climate where bonettoes, albatroffes, (harks, dolphins, and flying-fifh are feen to play their frolicks.
\ On the 8 th we faw fea-weed, pieces of timber, great
||yintities of pumice, and other figns of land;   but none
came in fight.   At night we fhortened fail.
On the 9th we flood the whole day S. W. Lat. 32
deg. 48 min.   Thermometer 7 land a half.
The 10th it blew a heavy gale from N. N* W.
Hauled our wind to N. K. g||
Oil *1tf
fciOn the i ith bore away again S. by W. but the gale
increafing towards night, hauled our wind to the northward.
The 12th the gale continued, lay-to, with the (hip's
heads to the weftward. fhipped many heavy feas, and
the rain fell in torrents.
The lgth theftorm abated. StoodS. S. W. all day,
Lat. at noon 35 deg. 56 min. Long. 140 deg. iS
min. E.
On the 14th made fail, W. S. W.   At 11 A. M. the
Difcovery made the fignal for land, which we anfwered.
It then bore S. W. diftant 7 or 8 leagues, and appeared like a burning mountain, from whence proceeded, as
we fuppofed all the pumice we had feen.     In the night
faw volumes of flame proceeding from it, very awful.
On the 1,5th loft fight of the vulcano; but in thee-
vening another made a ftill more awful appearance.
We were now in lat. 23 deg. 56 min. long. 139 deg.
20 min. E.   Thermometer 72 and ahalf.
On the 16th we bore away W. half S. Wind frefh
from E. N. E. at noon found ourfelves in lat. 24 deg.
*$ min. having, by the variation and fetting of the current gone 20 miles to the northward. Long, by watch
238 deg. 16 min. 2ofec. E.   Ther. 75 and a half.
Early on the 17th, being near the tropic, and exp^ft-
ing the weather t® continue fine, we fhifted our canvafs
and running-rigging, and bent our old ones, kr^pJng
what we had ftill to expeft before we reached ourliative
fhores; and we made the fignal for the Difcoyep^ to go on
our hullbeamm fearch of land, but found .||&ni||' L%t*
atpoon, 23 deg. 46 mm. ip
hhh^h^h^rh^^^^^h Wl
OatSfe x 8th we ftood the whole day W. S. W. with
a ftiff breeze.   And
On the 19th were in lat. 22 deg.  30 min. ||
The  20th  continued our ceurfe without  any thing
?$%?■■   g?M Ni*a
The 2 ift we weieinlat. jti deg. 4*2 min. a hard gale
and heavy rain.
The «2d we kept our courfe the whole day. Lat. at
noon, 20 deg. 46 min.
The 23d altered our courfe, and ftood W. by N.
Lat. 21. *
The 24th hauled our wind, and ftood N. N. W.
Hard gale from N. E.
The 25th, the gale increaling we lay-to, with the
(hip's heads to the northward. Lat. at noon, 21 deg*
-*q min.
The§26th  we  again bore away, W. S. W, and fo
continued all day.
The 27th continued the fame courfe all day. At night
(hortencd fail, and hauled up to N. N$ W.
Early on the 28th we were furprifed by breakers clofe
under our bows. Made the fignal to the Difcovery ; and
immediately tacked to the fouthward. At 7 wore (hip,
and again ftood to the N. W. At 10 faw breakers from
N. K. by E. to W» S. the neareft diftant about a mile.
We founded at 54 fathom, and bore away W. S. W.
"keeping a proper diftance from the reefs, and coafting a-
long till we paffed them. About noon, the S. W. end
bore from us N. N. W. diftant about 2 miles, lat. 22
deg. 3c min. leng. 13c deg. 17 min.. 23 fee. We
then made fail, K N. W. which courfe we continued
all night. : On
•*? I ROn the 29th, about S A. M. we came in fight of a
whole fleet ef fmall craft, which we took to be fifhing
veffels. They were at a great diftance, and not ©n*
of them left their employment to come near us. Lat*.
21 deg. 58 min. We were now only diftaat from Mo-
cao, the port to which we were bound, about 26 leagues.
On the 30th we wore (hip, and ftood to the fouthward, and about n in the morning, the man at the
maft-head called out Land, bearing W. half S. diftant
about 3 leagues. This proved one of the northernmoft
of the Ladrons Iflands: As foon as we came withia
diftance, we fired two guns for a pilot, and one came
prefently along fide, and our Captain agreed for 35 dollars to carry us into Mocao.
^December the ift, about two in the afternoon, after
a paffage of one and twenty days, we eaft anchor within four miles of the harbour, whera we were met by
two Chinefe gentlemen, who told us of the French war,
and of his Majefty's (hip the Sea-horfe having left that
place about the time we left Kamchatka. About S
in the evening our boats were manned, and our 3d
lieutenant went t© the Englifh fa£lory there for news^
and about ten returned with the magazines and newspapers for 1776, 1777, 17785 being the lateft they had
received. He li^ewife brought a confirmation of the
French w^5 and of the continuance o£ the Araericaa
war; and that five fail of Englifh (hips were now at
Vampo, near Canton, in China. % ■. j^
gOn the 2d early in the morning we made fail, and
anchored a-breaft of the ifland, andfaluted the governor
with 13 guns, which were anfwercd with an equal number jixom the fort. We had fcarce dropt anchor, whea
jwe were vifited by two Englifh gentlemen, who after
learning who we were and what we had been  upon,
perfuaded If,
ferfuaded fie Commodore to leaveSour then fituatlfn
ami to moor the (hips in a fafer birth to the leeward
of a fmall ifland about two miles diftant, where they
tnigji|^emam without danger. |lf .•
It was now three years fince we had been in any
port, where we could convetfe any otherwife than by
figris; and before any one wa* buffered to go alhore,
the Commodore called all hands aft, and ordered them
to deliver up their journals, and every writing, remark,
or memorandum that any of them had made of any
\particular refpecting the voyage, on pain of the fever-
eft punifliment in cafe of concealment, in order that
all thofe journals, writings, remarks or memorandums,
refpecting the voyage, might be fea led up, and directed to the Lords of the Admiralty. At the fame time
requiring that every chart of the coafts, or of any part
of any of the coaft where we had been, or draught ©f
any thing curious mightfbe^delivered up in like
manner, in order to accompany the journals, &c. all
which was complied with ; and the papers were made
up and fealed accordingly in fight of the whole crew,
the papers of the commiflioned officers by themfelves,
the papers of the non-commiffioned officers by themfelves, and the papers of the marines and common men
by themfelves. The boats were then ordered out and
fent to Mocao for frefh provifions, which next day were
dealt out to the fhips companies at full allowance. But
before thefecould return, there came from the town boats
with beef, veal, pork, ducks, geefe, turnips, carrots,
lemons, oranges, and every other article of provifions
whicfr the ifland produced.; fome as prefents to the
Captains and officers; but by far the greateft part to
make their market.
Being now fafely moored, the firft thin£ that claimed**
the attention of the Commodore, was to provide as well
§P II as [
as he could for  the fafety of the crews in their return
home.   The news of a French w|j, without letting ua
know at the fame time the order iffued by the French
king in   our favor,   gave us much concern.   Our (hips
were ill   fitted for war; the decks fore and aft being
finifhed flufb had no covering for  men or officers;    it
was therefore thought neceffary to ftrength-tn theftanch-
ions a nd rails, and to raife a kind of parapet, mufket-
proof on both decks;    and likewife to ftrengthen the
eabbins as much as poffible, in cafe of action.   And as
it was  agreed that   both (hips could carry more  guns
if any were to be purchafed,  the Commodore was for
taking the (hips to Canton, till perfuaded from it by fome
gentlemen belonging to the Englilh fa&ory, who undertook to negociate the bufinefs without giving umbrage
to the Chinefe, who certainly would, they faid,be offended
at the appearance of (hips of war in their river,   and
would oppofe their progrefs ; reminding him at the fame
time of the   difagreeable difpute in which Commodore
Anfon was   formerly involved on a fimilar occafionj^nd
how hurtful it was*to theCompany's commerce for feveral
years after.   Upon thefe reprefentations the Commodore
relinquifhed his   defign, and Capt. King, with other officers, were fent in ayCompany's fliip,   affifted by one or
two gentlemen belori^mrto the faftory, to Canton, to
purchafe cannon and fuch other ftores as were not  to
be had at Mocao.    .'Ji|; -•■ :   .■%;
On the 18th they fet fail, and at the fame time two
Portuguefe veffelsfrom the harbour of Mocao, came and
anchored clofe by us. They were bound to Bengal
and Madrafs, and very readily affifted us with ropes for
running-rigging, fome canvas, and with 60 fathom of
cable. They likewife exchanged four fmall cannon and
feme fla©twith the Difcovery for a fpaie Anchor.
VAC     JI;    .      :.    ■       .  ■.•,#;-...   ,:Si. ■  '" c    The
# 1
i The 25th being Chriftmafs day, was kept, as is'ufual
with Englifh fa ilor Jfin jollity a nd mirth ; and what added
to  the pleafure of me day there was not a man ill in
either (hip. 'W^^^^^^m" vV'!![%-■  il    ."!lfi
mOn the 2Sth the Commodore received a letter from
Capt. King, with an account of the difafters that had
happened in the paffage, having loft two anchors and
their boat, and were feveral times in danger of running
afhore; that they did not arrive at Canton till the 24th ;
but that he hoped foon to return with the cannon and
ftores, for which he had bargained, though at a great
It Here they learnt that the (kins we had brought with us
from the N. W. continent of America, were of nearly
double the value at Canton, as at Kamchatka.     ?
■'"'.•jjatly on the 29th there came into the harbour of
Mocao a Spanifh galoon from Manilla, faid to have more
than four millions of treafure oil board ,• an^ before v<re
left our ftation there came in another worth double that
fum. We were unacquainted with the Spanifh war, or
thefe (hips, had we been pToperly commiffioned, might
cafily have been captured. It is aftpnifhing, that none of
cur cruifers have ever lain in wait for thefe fhips, as their
voyage is annual, and their courfe known.   ,:M
|f The feme evening a quarrel happened between a party of ®ur failors,on fhore with leave, and fome of the
town's people, in which feveral were dangeroufly wounded
©n both fides; and Mr. Burney, ift Lieut, of the Refolution, had a dagger run through hi* left arm in endeavoring to put an end to the fray. For this infult the Governor fent to demand fatisfaaion; but upon examination ihe town's people were found to be the aggre$^&
The Governor   made   a very  handfcme apology for his
Stniftake, and the affair ended without any fericuseonfe-
We were now vifited daily by ftrangers who came out
of curiofity to fee fhips that had been fo mnny years
upon difcovery ; and every one was anxious to learn
what he could concerning our courfe, but that we were
not at liberty to tell. Among the reft eime two French
fpies. as we imagined; but not being able to make out
any thing criminal againft them, ihey were fullered to
depart. The fufpicion arofe from fome of our men, who
having particularly marked them, infilled that they had
formerly failed with them in the French fervice. Nothing remarkable till
January the 8th, 1780, when Capt. King,   with the
officers that accompanied him^ arrived in the company's
veffel, with the cannon,  ammunition,   and ftores from
Canton.    Thefe being fhipped, nothing remained to be
done,   but to take on board the live flock which the
Commodore and officers had purehafed for their own ufe,
and nine head of cattle to be killed at fea for the ufe
of the fhip's  company,   the   beef   and pork  which we
brought from England being now fcarce eatable. | Pro-
vifionsofall kinds were here very dear, and very indifferent ;   but   what made us   amends was the price they
gave for our beaver-fkins, on which they fet a great va-,
On the nth of January we unmoored, and the wind
being fair, came to fail with a pleafent breeze ; but
the wind dying away in the evening, we call anchor, and
in the night John Cave, quirter-m.after, and Robert
Spencer, ran away with the great cutter.    And
On the -iath we were the whole day detained in endeavoring to recover them J but to no purpofe.
On the 13th we paffed the fort, and faluted the garri-
fon with 13 four pounders, which they anfwered with an
equal number.
11    IB Wc ^^^^
. We had now nothing but abeatentra&to pafs in our
way to our long-wilhed for native country.
On the -zoth we made tfes little group of iflands known
by the name of Pulo Condore, in lat. 8 deg. 40 min.
N. at one of which we anchored, and found it inhabited.
Here we both wooded and watered, and the carpenters
felled fome large trees, which were afteiwards fawed
on board. The trees on thefe iflands are chiefly cedar,
iton wood, mangrove, manchiconella and box. Some
nutmeg trees there were, but of a wild kind, that bear
a fruit without taft or fine 11. In purfuit of game, of
which there was plenty, our gentlemen fell in with a
party of natives, one of whom accompanied them to the
fhips. We made him underfland, that we wanted provifions; and he had not left us long, before more than 20
boats came round the ifland laden with fruits, fowls,
clucks,and other provifions,which they readily exchanged
for any thing we offered them,though they were not wholly unacquainted with the ufe of money ; for being inform-
ed,that buffaloes were on the illuid, wepurchafed feven,
three of them of a large fize, for four dollars. Here we
found the cabbage-tree and other fuccufent greens, with
whiehour people made very free without afking queftions.
If On the 28 th we unmoored, and on 'm       x J*;
The 31ft made the Ifland of Banca, and having paffed the ftraits . '    j|
On the 5th of February we made the Illand of Sumatra,  where we faw a large fhip lying at anchor,  and
On the 7th paffed the Illand of Java, where we faw
two more. We made the fignal to the Difcovery to
prepare for a£ioti|and we did the fame, hoifting Eng-
lilh colours.   It was fome time before they lhewed a-
ny 20£
ny, but at length they hoifted Dutch colours. We fent
our boat on board, and received the firft news of a Spanifh
war.    We purfued our courfe, and     ■'.   '.;p^c
On the i ith we made the Ifland of Cocoterra. Here,
from a healthy fliip's company, feveral of our people fell
ill of*the flux, and fo continued for fome time ; however,
having got plenty of good water on board, we failed
On'the 13th directing  our  courfe to Prince's Ifland.
HP * '
On the 15th we  entered the Bay of JPrince s Tfland,
where Capt. Cook when he commanded the Endeavour,
anchored in his return to Europe. Here we purchafed
turtles, fowls, and fome deer; and here we laid in ftore
of cocoa-nuts, plantains, and other vegetables ; and having completed our flock of water fet fail
On the 18th, directing our courfe for the Cape of
Good Hope.    Nothing remarkable till
The 25th of March, when we were attacked by a
fevere ftorm, attended with thunder, lightning and rain,
which lafted five day's without intermiffion.
On the 7th of April we were alarmed by finding
our rudder-head almoft twifted off. We got the pennants fixed to fleer with tackles, it being the carpenter's opinion it could not laft till our arrival at the
next port. However, by proper application it lafted till
we arrived at the Cape.      |§|
On the 9th we fell in with Cape Lagullas, where a-
biQUt 9 in the morning we faw a fmall veffel cruifing,
which proved to be the Eaft-India Company's fnow,
Betfey, locking out for the Eaft-India fleet. 4She left
England the 5th of November,   and Falfe Bay on the
>|th inftant. She confirmed the account we had received of the Spanifh war.     We exchanged fome   tiifles.
pmd foon parted.   And m On
■ m %■ -■ :  r -: 2o4   iv / 'f -. - ,
n the 12th we entered Falfe Bay, came to, and
moored the fame day, after having faluted the fort with
13 guns, which was anfwered by the fame number.
We had fcaree dropt anchor, when the Governor came
on board, bringing with him a packet of letters for
Capt. Cook, which had lain there ever ftnce the beginning 17791 he had heard of the death of Captain
Cook* by a Dutch veffel, and exprefled great concern
for that unhappy event; afking a thoufand qufftions
concerning the particulars.
The firft care of our Commodore was to provide for
the lick; and by three in the afternoon they were all
landed, and fent to the hofpital under the care of the
furgeon's mate; All hands were next fet to their different employments, fome to wood and water|| and fome
to complete the repairs. Thefe they forwarded with
the j^tmoft Expedition, every one being eager to get to
his. native country. Of the repairs, the Refoluticn*s
rudder was the moft material. The firft thing therefore
to be done was to unhinge it and get it on ih:>re : And
though this was immediately put in  hand, it  was
The -27th before it was reftored again to its place/
By the 29th,  the fick, whovwere numerous when we
arrived at the Cape, we having US ilkof the flux, were
pretty well recovered :   The repairs were in forward-
nefs, and the  ftores ready to be taken on board   at a
moment's notice, when neV/s wgs brought us,   that an
exprefs was at rived at Table Bay from England, in the
SibbaM^frigate, which had ohly been  ten weeks from,
Plymouth, and thatfShe was to .return again as foon as
fhe had delivered her dirpatchis;   Both Captains went;
inftantly to4earn the dmientV, and on their fpf&ftf^fflK?
ders were given to prepare as  faft as prflible  to 6rat':
This was joyful news.   The fubftance of thefe difpat$t-r
H~ Wk 'e-s;"' .•  .
es related chiefly to the courfe the Eaft-Tndimen were
to fteer, to fall in with the convoy appointed to meet
them ; with fome inftructions for our Commodore, re-
fpecting the papers that were to be tranfmitted to the
Admi alty, which were all put on board the frigate,
and Mr. Portloek, matter's mat-?, embarked along with
them. ill
?  On the 30th they fet fail; but it was       ■'$;...-.
The 7th of May before we were in readinefs to follow. About noon, on that day, the fignal was madefor
unmooring. We had now 120 live fheep on board, and
the Difco\ery a like proportion. We had all other
provifions in equal plenty, and we had likewife a heaj-
thy crew in high fpirits, wifhing for nothing but a fair
wind to fhorten our voyage j but that was not yet to
be obtained. We had fcarce falufed the garrifon on taking leave, when the wind died away, and a great fwell
enfued, which continued till
The 9th, when the fnow came in fight, which we
fpoke with the 8th of April. We fent our pinnace for
news from fea ; but fhe had feen only one fail pafs fince
we firft fpoke with her.     ; f|*. ~
On the 19th of April their whole crew were near be ing
blown up, by the fnow's taking fire forwards : The fhip
was much damaged, and they were putting into the
Cape to refit, and then were bound for St. Helena..
On the isth we made fail, and purfued our courfe
home, without any material occurrence till
The 10th of June, when^the Difcovery's boat brought
us word, that in exercifing the great guns, the carpenter's mate had his arm fluttered in a (hocking manner,
by m
by part of the wadding being left in after a former
difeharge; another man flightly wounded il the fame
On the i-2th it began to Mow very hard, and fo continued till next day, when the Difcovery fprung her main-
top-maft; and we were obliged to lie-to till another
was put up.
On the 13th we croffed the line to the northward, and
©bferved a water-fpout to the N. W. at no great diftance ;
and for the remainder of the month had fine weather.
Thermometer from So to 7% and a half. M
July the ift we had the Difcovery *s people oh board to
compare time, lat. at noon 20 deg. N.    Long. 34 W.
On the 13th the (hip's birth was celebrated onboard,
and double allowance given to the whole crew, who
were at this time in perfect health.
On the 27th at day-light, the Difcovery made the fignal for feeing a fail. We inftantly began to clear fhip in
cafe of ari enemy, and hoifted Englifh colours; and on
our near approach the fail did the fame. .She was bound
to the fouthward, and we purfued our courfe.
On the ift of Auguft juft at fun fet we few a fail at a
great diftance to the 'weft ward ; but in the morning (he
was quite out of fight. We were then in lat. 43 deg.
56" min.N.
On the 7th we were in lat. 48 deg. long. 10 deg. ie
min. W. a heavy gale with rain.
On the 9th the wind fhiftea* to the eaftward, when we
fhaped our courfe to the north of Icfe-land*. Blew hard
aUday.  ' *V -   *?£■ ;:. '   :     ■* ':;
'  'li  ."'" ■   ' ■ *- "'    On pip'-'   -  -/   '    t     W    3    • '" -
On the 2ift being then in lat. 58 deg. 4. mini N*
long. 9 deg. 6 min. faw a fail ftanding to the fouthward,
when we made the Difcovery's fignal to chafe; but the
gale continuing, could not come near enough to hale
her. In the evening the man at the maft-head called out
land diftant about 3 leagues.
Early on the 22 made the fignal for a pilot, and at eight
o'clock a pilot came off, and by deven wewerefafely
moored in the harbour of Strumnefs, in the north of Scotland. We were foon vifited by the gentlemen in the
On the 23d frefh beef and greens were ferved out in
plenty to both fhips companies; and the fame day our
paffengers went on fhore, and fet eut for London. The
Captains and officers went likewife on ihore, and the
men had liberty to divert themfelves by turns during our
By the 29th we had got wood and water enough on
board to ferve us to London ; and at noon the fignal was
made to weigh; but the wind coming about, and blowing frefh from the S. E. obliged us not only to relinquifh
our defignfor the prefent, but detained us till the 19th
of Septeripuber.
On the 20th of September Capt. King of the Difcovery,
Mr. Bailey our aftronomer, andMr. Webber, left the fhips,
and fet out for London, andMr. Burney, ift Lieut, of the
Refolution, took the command of the Difcovery in the
abfence of Capt. King. llV
During our flay the. fhips were vifited by gentlemen
from all the iflands round; arid by the Apollo Frigate
and her confort; they brought in a prize valued at 10,000].
and both Captains came to vifit Capt. Gore on board
iJ the fi
the Refolution, who now was taken very ill, and fo
continued to the end of the voyage. The fame afternoon, the wind came round in our favor, when the fignal was made for unmooring* and both fhips got under
way.    At night we  came  to an anchor with the tide.
On the a 3d Samuel Johnfon, ferjeant of marines, died,
and next morning his corpfe was committed to the deep.
On the -25th the wind came again to the   eaftward,
and continued againft us moft of our paffage.
On the 28th we paffed by Leith,   off which we a-
gain fpoke with his Majefty's fhip Apollo.
fit On the 29th John Davis quarter-mafter, diedJ|Our
detention at Strumnefs proved unfortunate for thefe two
men, who died in their paffage. Had the fhips arrived in a dire£l courfe, their friends would at leaft have
had the fatisfa&ion of adminiftering all in their power
to their recovery, which, to perrons who had been fo
long abfent, would have been no fmall confolation.
On the 30th we came to an anchor off Yarmouth, in
company with his Majefty's floops of war the Fly and
Alderney. Our boats were immediarely fent on fhore for
provifions; and for a fpare cable for our fmall bower,
that we had being near worn out.    We  lay here  till
The 2d of O£tober, when we weighed and failed.
Oft-the  4th we came to at the Nore.    And,
On the 6th dropt our  anchor  at  Deptford,   having
been abfent juf^our years, three months and two days.
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