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A narrative of the adventures and sufferings of John R. Jewitt, only survivor of the crew of the ship… Jewitt, John R. (John Rodgers), 1783-1821 1816

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m narrative
Hi   ^ ^ltioF
!& 0IM8fj Stiff VIYOR OF THE CR8Stf:. OP THE   i
■•".. '"'<-'4ship-boston,|''t(wBI
|§|i| AMONG THE'" "SIR?
eMtXUtfte* foft$ tfoo Ptete^
0ne represef^tgj^he.^hip in possession of the Savages, an|^^^
other a Portrait of the Indian Chief Maquina*
(f ,J|!fEe scenes of horror on a savage shore, w
" In which, a witness sad, apart I*bore."
m;'S': /"■-■:..':'  MIDDLETOWN:     ■'-" ^"''r^^m
And Re-printed by Rowland Burst, Wakefield;
4M* ^i^jN^tlWcottneStiia^L $$+
1 ^       BE   IT   REMEMBERED;   That
i m ij. o. j -olfcgihe eighth day< of'Marchr in the
thirty-ninth year of the Independence
of the Untied States of America, John R. Jewitt,
of the said District, hoik deposited in this office,
the titleof a?Booty the rijgfit whereof $$&*hi&mi$ as
fifypprietor, in tfte wordsr^illow^^ to wit,
A narrative of the adventures and sufferings of
John RjWezmtt^ only survivor of the vrew of the
ship Boston during a captivity of nearly three
years <tm6n^the mvages of- Nootka MoundWWith
an account of the manners, mode of living, and
religious opinions of the natives. MptbelHshed
with twoplaiisj representing the ship in possession
of the savages, and a portrait of their Chief, Maquina. l|rr; ; ::.L.i|pi. -p. ■ /
" Dire scenes of horror on a savage shore,
" In which, a witness sad, a parte! bdfre."
In conformity to an act of the Congress of the
United States^ entitled, if An act for the encou*
u ragement qf learning, by securing the copies
§i of Maps', Charts, and Books, to the proprietors
m of such copies, during the times therein men*
*' tioned "
Clerk of the District of Connecticut.
A true copy of Record, examined and sealed by me,
: * • •     gtENRY W. EDWARDS;   ||
Clerk of the District of ConBecticut. '•fir
Wf     . • -'• S %*< f .h;'C?-i ^>'i- ;■ £ si -■•   V - -- -     • •.,   U   •  --.     ■    ■   j^-;--;-.:-•---*--_■.*-•—: = v-
The following very inte^festiii^^waTte
has passed through many editions in
America,' and there cai||b£ptio doubt
but it will excite i^«ch ^ffipamy^in this
cofcklirys more e^jafefet&lly as tte|piero
o€ thebnaxrativ^ i£ a native of Great
Britain. II
The editor of this edition received
the copy from the hands of Mr. Jewitt,
the author, at Middletown, in the State
of Connecticut, in which town he has
been some time advantageously settled
in business, and at whose house the editor has spent many pleasant hours. His
companion in misfortunes, Thompson,
on his arrival at Boston, immediately
went to Philadelphia, his native place, 4
where he was soon after taken ill and
We have many books of fiction in
our language, which have been forages
read with%nuch avidity by our youth ;
many of them, with allthe aid of fiction,
certainly not equally interesting with
this w^|kia:utheniicated parmtiive. iw*
^Mln. many pants the; nidde of, expres-
sion ;in itie narrative might,iJS)erhajpes^
have been improved, but the editor
has thought j it best jfor the author! to
speak at all times for himself. fL       tK
../\,''::  n3   e   ki  •
,    . ... I
vmm^ . .■ • -.'/- f   - ft
^   WL
»^^!^ \ATLVM.
JL was bora inSfeiftn, a considerable bor<S§gh
town   in Lincolnshire,   in Great-Britain^-on the
21st of May, 1783.    Mother, Edikrd&ii^
was by trade a blacksmith, and esteemed i|i|4jg
the first in* his lineWf busine^jlpfffiiat place. ^At
the age ofnthree years I had the mis||rttfne to lose
%ty mother, a   most excelle^|j£oman, who died!
in childbed, leavinglp infant^Wanghffr, w|fa\wflp
^r^^^^nd anfilcler brother by a forper marriage:
ofer$y*^herjJ^stituted the whole of oui^anpfti
M^ father,   who considered a good educationjflasr
the greatest blessing he could besto#fon Jus chilQ
>ren,  wasr veryijpartieular in p^|ing^^er^^^yir
tion to us   iu that^esp^jjjjalways exhoriiag'^ife
to behave well, and'etfdeavoudng to impress||||p
oui| minds the principles of virtue and morall^^;
■ a^JJ||B> expense in his power was spared@|^^^
us instructed in whatever might render ^|e useful
anc|respectable in society.      M^brotlj|ei^ wbo"j§jfcfc-
b       : .     i
* ■*, '"to^gf «.=■- ~9± 6
four years older than myself and of a more harde^
consitution,   he destined for his own trade, but
to me he had resolved to give an education sup?
rior to that whicft is to be obtained in a comnM>n
school, it being his intention that  I  should adopt
one of the learned ^professions.    Accordingly at the ||
a*e of twelve he took me from the school in which
I had been taught the first rudiments of learning*
and   placed   me under the  care of   Mr. Moses,|||
a celebrated teacher of an academy at Donnington,
about  eleven miles from Boston, in order to bef|
instructed in the Latin language, and in some of
the higher branches of the Mathematics^ I there-
made considerable proficiency in writing, reading,
and arithmetic, and obtained a pretty good know*
ledge of navigation and of surveying;   but my
progress in Latin was slow, not only owWng to the
little inclination I felt for learning that language^
butto a natural impediment in my speech, which «
rendered it extremely difficult for me to pronounce
it   so that in a short time, with my father's con-
gent, I wholly relinquished the study. ||j.
The period of my stay at this plaoe was the most
ft happy of my life. My preceptor, MrfMoses, was
not only a learned, but a virtuous, benevolent,
and amiable man, universally beloved by his pupils, who took delight in his instruction, and to
whom he allowed every proper amusement, that
H consisted with attention to their studies. ■  |j
'W ijjpne of the principal pleasures I enjoyed was in
attending the fair, which is regularly held twice a
year at Donnington,, in the spring and in the fall,
the second day being wholly devoted to selling
horses, a prodigious number of which are^brought
thither for that purpose. As the scholars on these
occasions ware always indulged with a holiday, I
cannot express with what eagerness o{ youthful
expectation I used to anticipate these fairs, nor
what delight I felt at the various shows, exhibitions of wild beasts, and other entertainments that
they presented; I was frequently visited by my father, who always discovered much joy on seeing
me, praised me for my acquirements, and usually
left me a small sum lor my pocket expenses.
Among the scholars at this academy, therfe
was one named Charles Rice, with whom I formed
a particular intimacy, which continued during the
whole qf my stay. He was my class and room
mate, and as the town he came from, Ashby,
was more than 60 miles off, instead of returning
home, he used frequently during the vacation, to
go with me to Boston, where he always met with
a cordial ewelcome from my father, who received
me on these occasions with the greatest affection,
apparently taking much pride in me. My friend
in return used to take me with him to an uncle
of his in Donnington, a very wealthy man, who,
having no children of his own, was yery fond of
Ail!!' M   %   A: w
his nephew, and on his account I was always
a welcome visitor at the house; I had a good
voice, and an ear for music, to which I was always passionately attached, though my father endeavoured to discourage this propensity, considering
it, (as is too frequently the case) but an introduction to a life of idleness and dissipation, and having been remarked for my singing at church,
which was regularly attended on Sundays and
festival days by the scholars, Mr. Morthropy my
friend Ricete uncle, used frequently to request me
to sing; he was always pleased with ray exhibitions
of this kind, and it was no doubt one of the means
that secured me so gracious a reception at his
house. A number of other gentlemen in the place
would sometimes- send for me to sing at their
houses, and as I was not a little vain of my vocal
Ipowers, I was much gratified on receiving these
invitations, and accepted them with the greatest
Thus passed away the two happiest years of
*my life, when my father, thinking that I had received a sufficient education for the profession he
intended me for, took me from school at Donnington in order to apprentice me to Doctor Mason, a
surgeon of eminence at Reasby, in the neighbourhood of the celebrated Sir Joseph Banks. With
regret did I part from my school acquaintance,
particularly my friend Rice, and returned home &
with my father, on a short visit to my family,
preparatory to my intended apprenticeship. Tbe
disinclination I ever had felt for the profession my
father wished me to pursue, was still further increased on my return. When a child I was always fond of being in the shop, among the workmen, endeavouring to imitate what I saw them
do; this disposition so far increased after my leaving the academy, that I could not bear to hear
the least mention made of my being apprenticed
to a surgeon, and I used so many entreaties with
my father to pursuade him to give up this plan
and learn me his own trade, that-he at last consented. More fortunate would |§1| probably have
been for me, had I gratified the wishes of this
affectionate parent, In adopting the profession he
had chosen for me,.than thus to have induced Lim to
sacrifice them to mine. However it might h||ye been,
I was at length introduced into the shop, and
my natural|§ turn of mind corresponding withgjhe
employment, I became in a short time uncommonly
expert at the work to which I was sd^^^^p? felt
myself well contented, pleased with my J|||||alion«
and treated, with much affectioji by my father, and
kindness by my step-mother, my father having
once more entered the state of matrimony, with a
widow much younger than himself, j^Jlo ha^beeq
brought up in a superior manner, and wa«aupi^
Me ted sensible woman. \
B 3
.j-"-:-- 10
> About a year after I had commenced this appren~
tieship, my father finding that he could carry on
his business to more advantage in Hull, removed
thither with his family. An event of no little
importance to me, as it in a great measure influenced my future destiny. Hull being one of the
best ports in England, and a place of great trade,
my father had there full employment for his numerous workmen, particularly in vessel work., "This
naturally leading me to an acquaintance with the
sailors on board some of the ships : the many remarkable stories they told me of their voyages and
adventures, and of the manners and customs of
the nations they had seen, excited a strong wish in
me to visit foreign countries, which was encreased
by my reading the voyages of Captain Cook, and
some other celebrated navigators, iilfi
1 im .-!-.
Thus passed the four years that I lived at
pl, where my father was esteemed by all who
knew him, as a worthy, industrious, and thriving
man. At this period a circumstance occured which
afforded lie the opporigpf^ I had for some time
wishe^   of  gratify ingf-iny inclination
Among our principal customers at Hull, wer#
the Americans who frequented that port, and from
whose conversation, my father as well as myself
formed the most favorable opinion of  that coun* 11
try, as affording an excellent field for'the exertions
of industry, and a flattering prospect for the establishment of a young man in life.    In the summer
of the year 1802, during the peace between England and France, the ship Boston, belonging to
Boston,   in   Massachusetts,   and  commanded  by
Captain John Salter, arrived at Hull,  whither she
came to take on board a cargo of such goods as
were  wanted for the trade with the Indians, on
the North-west coast of  America,   from whence
after having taken in a lading of furs and skins,
she was to proceed to China, and from thence home
to America.   *!ne ship, having occasion for many
repairs and alterations,   necessary for so long a
voyage, the Captain applied to my father to do the
smith's work, which was very considerable^:: That
gentleman, who was' of a social Sam, use<§often
to call at my father's house, where he passed many
of his evenings, with his chief and second mates,
Mr. B, Delouisa and Mr. William Ingraham, the
latter a fine young man of about twenty, of-a most
amiable temper,, and of such>a$fobie manners, as
gained him the love and aKJIIIHent of the whole i
crew.      These   gentlemen   used  occasionally to
take me with them to the theatre, an amusement
which I was very fond of, and which my father
rather encouraged than objected to, as he thought
it a good means of preventing young men who are
naturally inclined to seek for something to amuse
them,   from frequenting taverns^ ale-houses, and m
1     I2 W-' ^
places of bad resort, equally destructive of the
health and morals, while the stage frequently furnishes excellent lessons of morality and good
In the evenings that he passed at my father's,
Captain Salter, who had for a great number of
years been at sea, and seen almost all parts of
the world, used sometimes to speak of his voyages,
and observing me listen with much attention to
his relations, he one day when I had brought him
some work, said to me in rather a jocose manner,
John, how should you like to go with me? I
answered, that it wou^d give me great pleasure,
that I had for a long time wished to visit %reigo
countries, particularly America, which I had been
told so many fine stories of, and that if my father
Would give his consent, and he was willing to take
me with him, I would go. I shall be very glad
to do it s^aid he, if your father can be prevailed on
to let you go, and as I want an expert smith for an
armourer, the one I have shipped for that purpose
not being sufficiently master of his trade, I have
no doubt that you will answer my turn well, as I
perceive you are both active and ingenious, and
on my return to America I shall probably; be ^tle
to do something much better %r you in Boston;
I will take the first opportunity of speaking to
your father about it, and try to persuade him to
consent.    He accordingly the next eveniag that he 13
caile$ at our house, introduced the subject: mj
father at first would not listen to the proposal.
That best of parents, though anxious fjbr my advantageous establishment in life, could not beaifjto
think of parting with me, but on Captain SalterV
telling him of what benefit it would be to me
to go the voyage with him, and that it was a
pity to keep a promising and ingenious young fellow, like myself, confined to a small shop in Iffrg-
land, when if I had tolerable success, I might
do so mnch better in America, wheriSSfages were
much higher and living cheaper, he at length gave
up his objections, and consented that I should ship
on board- the Boston as an armourer, at the rate
ofUhirty dollar's per month; with an agreement
that the amount due to meflbgether with a certain
sum of money which my father gave Capt. Salter
fojishat pu%ose, should be laid out by him on the
Korth-west coast ^in the purchase of furs for my
account; to be disposed of in China for such goods
as w%#ld yield a profit on the return of the ship;
my father being solicitous to give me every advantage in his power, of well establishing myself" in
my trade in Boston, or some other maritime town
of America. Such were the flattering expectations
which this good man indulged respecting me.
Alasl the fatal disaster that befel us, not only
blasted all these hopes, hu£ involved me in extreme distress and wretchedness for a long period
after. Mil W;i;
The ship having undergone a thorough|ggepair
and been well coppered, proceeded to take on board
her cargo, which consisted of English cloths, ThkU$jl&
blankets, looking glasses, beads,   knives, razors,
«&c. which were received from Holland, some sugar
and molasses,   about twenty hogsheads of  rum,
including stores for the ship, a great quantity of
ammunition, cutlasses, pistols, and three thousand
muskets and   fowling   pieces.     The ship   being
loaded and ready for sea, as I was preparing for
my departure, my father came tome, and taking
me aside, said to me with much emotion, John,
I am now going to part w||k you, and heaven
only knows if we shall ever again meet.      But in
whatever part of th&world you are, always bear it
in mind, that on your own conduct will depend
your success in life.    Be honest, industrious, frugal, and temperate, and you wilt not fail, in whatsoever country it may be your lot to be placed,
to gain yourself friends.    Let the Bible b&your
guide, and your reliance in any fortune that may
befal you, that Almighty Being, who knows how
to bring forth  good from  evil, and who never
deserts those who put their trust in him.    He repeated his exhortations to me to lead an honest
and christian life, and to recoiled that I had a
father, a mother, a brother, and sister, who could
not but feel a strong interest in my welfare, enjoining me to write him by the first opportunity
that should offer to England, from whatever part ■■■■■»■   • m    '
t)f the world I might be in, more particularly^*!
my arrival in Boston. This 1 promised to do, but
long unhappily was it before I was able to fulfil
this promise. I then took an affectionate leave of
my worthy parent, whose feelings, would hardly
permit him to speak, and bidding an affectionate
farewell to my brother, sister, and step-mother,
who expressed the greatest solicitude for my fu*
tare fortune, went on board the ship, which
proceeded to the.Downs, to be ready for the first
favourable wind. I found myself well accommodated on board as regarded my work, an iron forge
having been erected on deck; this my father had
made for the ship on a new plan, for which^Jhe
afterwards obtained a patent; while a corner of the
steerage was appropriated to my vice bench, so that
in bad weather I could work below.
On the third day of September, 1802, we sailed from the Downs with a fair wind, in company
With twea%-four sail of American vessels, most of
which were bound home^ili
I was sea-sick for a few of the first days, but it
was of short continuance, and on my recovery I
found myself in uncommonly fine health and spirits,
and went to work with alacrity at my forge, in
patting in order some of the muskets, and making
daggers, knives, and small hatchets for the Indian
trade, while in wet and stormy weather Iwasoe* '.W
1«     .  .#
cupied below in filing and polishing them. This
was my employment, having but little to do with
sailing the vessel, though I used occasionally to
lend a hand in assisting the seamen in taking in
and making sail. As I had never before been out of
sight of land, I cannot describe my sensations,
after I had recovered from the distressing effects
of sea-sickness, on viewing the mighty ocean by
which I was surrounded, bound only by the sky,
while its waves rising in mountains, seemed every
moment to threaten our ruin. Manifest as is the
hand of ProvUlence in preserving its creatures from
destruction, in no instance is it more so than on the
great deep; for whether we consider in its tumul-
tary motions the watery deluge that each moment
menaces to overwhelm us., the immense violence of
its shocks, the little thaMj^erposes between us and
death, a single plank forming our only security,
which, should it unfortunately be loosened would
plung* us at once into the abyss, our gratitude
ought strongly to. be excited towards that superintending Deity who* in so wonderful a manner
sustains our lives amid the waves.
We had a pleasant and favourable passage of
twenty-nine days to the Island of St. Catherine on
the coast of Brazils, where the: Captain had determined to stop for a few days to wood and water.|
This place belongs to the Portuguese. On entering
the harbour we were saluted by the fort which.we
\ returned. The next day the "Governor of the
Island came on board of us with his suite; Captiitt
Salter received him with much respect and invited
him to dine with m%i, which he accepted. The
ship remained at St. Catherine's four days, during
which time, we were busily employed in taking in
wood, water, and fresh provisions, Captain Salter
thinking it best to furnish himself here with a full
supply for his voyage to the North-West coast,
so as not t#he obliged to stop at the Sandwich
Islands. St. Catherine is a very commodious place
for vessels to stop at that are bound round Cape
Horn, as it abounds with springs of fine water,
with excellent oranges,  plantains, and bananas.
Having   completed   our stores we put to sea,
and on the  twenty-fifth of December, at length
passed Cape Horn, which we had made. no  lesjk'
than thirty-six days before,  but  were repeatedlfe
0kced back by contrary wfids,  expriencing very
rough and.tempestuous weather in doubling it.
Immediately after passing Cape Horn,' all bur
dangers and difficulties seemed to be at an end; the
weather became fine, and so little labour was necessary on board the shipv that the men stfon recovered from i their fatigue and were m excellent
spirits. A few days after we fell in with an En*--
Msh South Sea Whaling Ship, homeward bound,
which was the on*y   vessel we spoke   with  on.
'(h W   /
....;•;•' .   18    / .; ,
our voyage. We now took the trade wll^ior
monsoon, during which we enjoyed the finest weather possible, so that for the space of a fortniglil:
we were not obliged to reeve a topsail or to make
a tack, and so light was the duty and easy the life
of the sailors during this time, that they appear*
ed the happiest of any people in the wTorld.
■ . ■
Captain Salter, who had been for many ryears
in the   East-India trade,  ^as  a  most excellent
seaman, and preserved the strictest order and disefl
pline on board his ship, though :he was a man
of  mild/temper  and   conciliating manners,   anl|
disposed'to allow every indulgence to his men5
not inconsistent with their duty.    We had on board
a fin^ band of   music, with  wrhich on^ Saturday
nigjhts, when the weatfier was pleasant, we were
accustomed to be regaled,   the Captain ordeMBIfe
/them to play for several hours for the amusement
of the crew.    vThis to me was most delight^!,
especially during  the serene evenings we experienced in traversing the Southern Ocean.    As for
inryself, during the day I was constantly occupied
at <my forgejpn refitting or repairing some of the
ironwork x>f the vessel, but principally in mak*
ing tomahawks, daggers, &i$for the North West
H During the first part of our voyage we saw
scarcely any fish, excepting some whales, a few
»fc^.;-^-Z-. •-■■ 10
sharks, and flySag fish ; but after weathering Cape
Horn we met with numerous shoals of sea porpoises, several of whom we caught, and as w@
had been for some time without fresh p^ffions,
I found it not only a palatable but really a very
excellent food. To one who has never before seea
them, a shaol of these fish presents a very striking
and singular appearance; beheld at a distance-coming towards a vessel they look not unlike a great
number of small black waves rolling over one
another in a confused manner and approaching
with great swiftness As soon as a shoal is seen
all is bustle and activity on board the ship, the
grains arid the harpoons are immediately got ready,
end those who %re best skilled in throwing them
take their stand at the bow and along tbe gunwale
^xiouslyjsawaitiog the welcome troop as they
eeme, >famboIir^'n^%^vinji> around the vessel,
in starch of food* When pierced with .Thenar-
pooo and drawn on board, unless the fish is instantly killed by the stroke, which rarely happens,
it utters most pitiful cries, greatly resembling those
of an Infant. The flesh cut into steaks and broi!ei||
is not unlike very coarse beef, and the harsle|lin
appearance and taste is so much like that of a hog,
that it would be no easy matter to distinguish the
one from the other; from this circumstance the
sailors have given the name of the herring hog to
ibis fish; I was told by some of the crew, that if
one of them happens to free itself from the grains.or 20
i«jr    *■■
harpoons, when struck, all the others, attracted
by the blood, immediately quit the ship and g|||g
chaSe to the wounded one, and as soon as they
overtake it immediately tear it in pieces*     We
also caught a large   shark, which had followed
the ship for several days with a hook which I
made for the purpose, and although the flesh was
by no means equal to that of the herring hog, yet
^to those destitute as we were of any thing fresh,
I found it eat very well.    After passing the Cape
when the sea  had become   calm we saw great
numbers of Albatrosses, a large brown and white
bird of the goose kind, one of which Captain Salter
shot, whose wings measured from their extremities
fifteen feet.    One thing, however, I must not omit
mentioning,  as it struck me in a most singular
and extraordinary manner^   This Was, that oa
passing Cape Horn in J)i*cembx^^nich^was |8idV
Attmm^in mat climate, the nights were so light,
without any moon, that we found no difficulty
whatever in reading  small print which we fre*
quently did during our watches.
In this manner, with a fair wind and easy wea~
ther from the 28th of December, the period of our
passing Cape Horn, we pursued our ppyage to the
Northward-until the 12th of March||l803, when
we m<*de Woody Point in Nootka Sound on>|fhe
North-west Coast of America. We immediately
stood up the Sound for Nootka, where Captai® ,  - § - Jj,   21     . :   *■'-
Salter had determined to stop in order to supply
the ship with wood and water before proceeding
up the coast toelrade. But in order to avoid the
risque of any molestation or interruption to his
men from the Indians, while thus employed, he
proceeded with the ship about five miles to the
Northward of the village, which is situated on
Friendly Cove, and sent but his chief mate with
several of the crewr in the boat to find a good place
for anchoring her. After sounding for some time,
they returned with information that they had d$£-
covered a seWre place for eanchoragei*on^lhe
Western side of an inlet or small bay af%bOut half
a mite from the coast, near a small island which
protected it from the sea, and where there was
plenty of wood and excellent water, The ship
accordingly came to anchor-in this place, at twelve
o'clock at night, in twelve fathom water^rfluddy
bottom, and so near the-shore that to prevent*ihe
ship from winding we secured her by a hauser to
the trees. IE       PS
On the morning of the next dayf the 13th, seve-"
ral of the natives came on board in a canoe from
the village t)f§§footka, with their king, called
Maquina, who appeared much pleased on seeing
us, and with great seeing cordiality, welcomed
Captain Salter and his officers to his country. As
#>had never before beheld a savagefof a§^ naSoA*
it may readily bellipp$sed that the n^fi^pf their
C 3 22
appearance,   so different from any people that I
had hitherto seen, excited i% me strong feelings of
surprize and curiosity.    I was, however, particularly struck with the looks of, their king, who was
a man of a dignified aspect, abdut six feet in height
and extremely strait and well proportioned;   his
features were in general good and his face was
rendered  remarkable by a large Roman nose, a
.very uncommon form of feature among these people;  his complexion was of a dark copper hue,
though his face, legs, anofarms were, on this occasion, so covered with red paint, flat their natural
colour could scarcely be perceived, his eye-brows
were painted black in two  broad stripes like a
new moon, and his long black hair, which shone
with oil, was fastened in a bunch on the top of
his head and strewed or powdered all over with
white down, which gave him a most curious and
extraordinary appearance.    He was dressed in a
large mantle or cloak of the black sea otter skin,
which reached  to his knees,  and  was  fastened
around his middle by a broad belt of the cloth of
"Hhe country, wrought, or painted with figures of
several colours; this dress was by no means unbecoming, but on the contrary had an air of savage
magnificence. | His men were habited in mantles
of the same cloth, which is made from the bark
of a tree, and has some resemblance to straw matting, these are nearly square and have two holes
in the upper part large enough to admit the arms-*- they reach as low as the knees and are fastened
round their bodies wty a. belt about four inches
broad of the same cloth.
From'his having frequently visited the English
and American ships that - traded to the coast,
Maquina had learned the signification of a num*
ber of English words, and in general could make
himself pretty well understood by us in our own
language. He was always the first to go on
board such ships as came to Nootka, which he was
much pleased in visiting, even when he had no
trade to offer, as he always received some small
present, and was in general extremely well treated
by the commanders. He remained on board of
us for some time, during which, the captain took
him into the cabin and treated him with a glass
of rum; these people being very fond of distilled
spirits, and some biscuit and molasses which
they prefer to any. kind of food that we can
offer them* :
As there are seldom many furs to be purchased
at this place and it was not fully the season, Capt.
Salter had put in here not so much with an expectation of trading as to procure an ample stock
of wood and water for the supply of the ship on
the coast, thinking it more prudent to take it on
board at Nootka, from the generally friendly
disposition of tbe people, ^than to endanger the mfety of his men in sending them on shore for
that purpose among the more ferocious natives of
the north. With this view, we immediately set
about getting our water casks in readiness, and
the next and two succeeding days, part of the crew
were sent on shore to cut pine timber, and assist the
carpenter in making it into yards and spars for the
ship, while those on board were employed in refitting the rigging, repairing the sails, &c. when we
proceeded to take in our Wood and water as expeditiously as possible, during which time I kepi myself busilj employed in repairing the muskets,
making knives* tomaxes, Ǥoc. and doing such iron
work as was wanted for the ship.
Meantime more or less Sf the natives came on
board of us daily, .bringing with fhem fresh salmon
with whkh they supplied us in great plenfy, receiving in return some trifihg ancles. Captain
Salter was always very particular before admitting
these people on board to see that they had no arms
about them, by obliging them indiscriminately to
throw off their garments, so that he felt perfectly
secure from any attack* jjg§g
On the 15th the king came on board with several pf:bis chiefs; he was dressed as before in his
magnificent otter skin rnbe* having his face highly
painted, and his hair tossed off withlhe white down
which>iooked like snow ;^feis ctiiifs were dossed in
K*F*BBt-r . =»»»«*:.: 2$      "
mantles of the country cloth of its natural colour,
which is a pale yellow; these were ornamented^
with a broad border, painted or wrought in figures
of several colours, representing men's heads, various animals, &c. and secured around them by a
belt like that of the king from which it was distinguished only by being narrower: the dress of the
common people is of the same fashion, and differs
from that of the chiefs in being of a coarser texture, and painted red, of one uniform colour.,
Captain Salter invited Maquina and his chiefs
to dine with him, and it was curious to see how
these people (when they eat) seat themselves (ia
their country fashion, upon our chairs) with their
ieetjinder them crossed like Turks.   They^lannot
endure the taste of salt, and the only tiling they
Would eat with us was the ship bread which they
were very  fond of,   especially   when  dipped- in
molasses, they haaralso a great liking for tea and
coffee, when well sweetened. Jf As iron weapons
and tools of almost every kind are in much request
among them, whenever thsy came on board they
were always very attentive to me, crowding around
me at the forge, as if to see in what manner I did
my work, and in this way became quite familiar,
a circumstance, as will be seen in the end, of great
importance  to  me.      The   salmon  which   they
•brought us furnished a most delicious* treat to. t m
men who for a long time had lived wholly on 'salt*
provisions excepting such few sea fit|i as we had
the good fortune occasionally to take. We in*
deed feasted most luxuriously, and flattered our-
selves that we should not want while on the coast
for plenty of fresh provisions, little imagining the
fate that awaited us, vand that this dainty food war
toptove the unfortunate luti to our destruction I
Onjthe 19th, the king came again on board, and
w^ invited by the Captain to dine with him. He
had mueh ©on variation with Captain Salter rarid in*
formed Mm that th#r§ w§?§ plenty of wild daefet
and geeee near Frkndly .Cove, on which the Captain madi Mm a premiC of & doybIe«barrglI©d fowh
Jtag piece, with whteh he &pptar#d to be peailx
pleased, iM'lGtnr/gfter wwnSB ®nor©r
fOth we were nearly ready
lug taken in what wood i
our depar«
water wa
rere in
Tte nest Jay Maquina came on board with nine
pair of wild ducks, as a present, at the same time
he brought with him the gun, one of the locks of
which he had broken, telling the Captain that it
wmpeshAk, that is bad. Captain Salter was very
much offended at this observation, and considering
it as a mark of contempt for his present, be called toe king a liar, adding other opprobrious terms,
and taking the gun frdm him, tossed it indignantly
into the cabin, and calling rae to him, said, i John,
this fellow has broken tbi&be^utifu I fowling piece,
see if you can mend it :r On examining it i tol4
him that it could be done. As I have already
observed, Maquina knew a number of English
words, and unfortunately understood but too well
the meaning of the reproachful terms that the Captain addressed to him. He said not a word in
reply, but his countenance sufficiently expressed
the rage he felt, though he exerted himself to sup-
preslfit, and I observed him while the Captain
was speaking, repeatedly put his hand to his throat,
-and rub it upon his bosom, which he afterwards
told me was to keep down his heart, which was
rising into his throat and choaking him. He soon
.after went on shore with his men, evidently much
On the morning of the 22d, the natives came off
to us as usual with salmon, and remained on board ;
when about noon Maquina came along side, with
a considerable number of his chiefs and men in their
canoes, who after going through the customary
examination, were admitted into the ship. He
had a whistle in his hand, and over his face a
very ugly mask of wood, representing the head of
some wild beast, appeared to be remarkably good
humourej^land gay, and whilst his people sung smd capered about the deck, entertaining us with
a variety of antic trick and gestures, he blew his
whistle to a kind of tune which seemed to regulate their motions. As Captain Salter was walking
on the quarter deck, amusing himself with their
dancing, the king came up to him, and inquired
when he intended to go to sea? He answered tomorrow. Maquina then said, * you love salmon —
much in Friendly Cove, why not go then and
catch some?' The Captain thought that it would
be^ very desirable to have a good supply of these
fish for the voyage, and on consulting with Mr.
Delouisa, it was agreed to send part of the c,rew
on shore after dinner with the seine, in order to ^Rg
cure a quantity.v Macquina and hisfthiefs staid
and dined on board, and after dinner the chief mate
went off with nine||aen in the jolly-boat and yawl,
to fish at Friendly Cove, having set the steward
on shore at our watering place, to wash thee*iDap-
tain 's clothes. IkI
Shortly after the departure of the boats, I went
-down to my vice bench in the steerage, where I
was employed in cleaning muskets. I had not
been there more than an hour, when I heard the
men hoisting in the long boat, which, in a few
minutes after, was succeeded by a great bustle
and confusion on deck, I immediately ran up
the steerage stairs, but scarcely' was my head
above deck, when I was caught by thepuur by one of the savages, and lifted from my feet; fo|§
tunately for me, my hair being short, and the ribbon with which it was tied slipping, I fell frorn
his hold into the steerage.    As I was falling, he
struck at me with an axe, which cut a deep gash in
my foreheackjand penetrated the skuiU but in consequence of his. losing his hold, T luckily escaped
the full force of the blow; which*, otherwHse, would
havelfcleft  my   head  in   two.     I   fell,   stunned
and senseless, upon the floor—how long I continued in this situation I know not, but on recover-
ing my senses, the first thing that I did,, was to
try to get up , but so weak&as I, from the loss
of blood, that I fainted and fell.    I was, however,
soon   recalled   to   my   recollection   by three  loud
shouts or yells from the savages, which convinced
me that they had got posession of thM^hip.    It is
impossible for me to describe my feelings at this
terrific* sound.     Some faint idea may be formed
of them by those who have koo#n .wUdJtjfljtt is  to
half waken from a hideous dream and still think it
real.    Never, no, never shall I iosetfrom my mind
the imfiession of^that dreadful moment.    I "0$#l.
pected every instant'% share the wretched fate of
my.lnofortunate companions, and when 1 heard tire
;song of triumph, by which these infernal yells was
succeeded, my blood ran cold in my veins.
Having at length sufficiently recovered my senses
to look-around me, after wiping, the blood front'*my m
eyes, I saw that^the hatch of the steerage was sbut.
.This was done as ip afterwards discovered, by order
of Maquina, who on seeing the savage strike at
me with the axe, told hjm not to hurt me, for that fe
was the armourer, and would be useful to them in
repairing their arms: wBUe at the same time to
prevent any of his men from injuring me, he had
the hatch closed. But to me this circumstance wore
a very different appearance, for I thought^ that
these barbarians had 4ply prolonged my life in order
to deprive me of it by the most cruel tortures. §Mfe
■» lIllP
^SlS '4K-- r3§P /
I remained in this horrid state of suspense for a
very long time, when at length the hatch was opened, and Maquina,  calling me by name, ordered
me to come up.    I groped m^ way up as #ell
as I Was able being almost blinded with the blood
that   flowed  from  my wound,   and so weak a^
with difficulty to walk.   The king, on perceiving
my situation,   ordered one of   his men to tirjtig
a pot of water to wash the blood from my face,
which having done,T was able to see distinctly with
one of ms^eyes, but the other was so swollen from
my wound, that it was closfd.    But what a teiffic
spectacle met my eyes : six naked savages, standing in a circle around me, covered with the blood of
my murdered comrades, with their daggers uplifted
in their hands, prepared to strike.    I now thought
my last moment had come, and recommended my
soul to my Maker.
%£v I
Ticking whtof* as I have already observed, knew
enough of English to mafe ^mself understood, en
tered the circle, and placing himiBlf before me, addressed me nea*l^(|^the Mtewing woirds—" John
—I speak—you no say no—You say no—daggers
comei*"    Be then asked raeMI would be his slave
during my life—If I would fight for him An his-
battles—If 1 would repair his muskets and make
daggers and  knives for him—with several 0pier
questions, to all of which/I was careful to answer,
yes.    Be then fold me that he woald spare my life,
and ordered me to kiss his hands and5 feet to sfio^r
my submission te^him, which! did.—In the mean
time his people were very clamorous t§have me put
to death, so that there should be none of Us left to
tell our story toour countrymen, and prevent them
from coming "f& trade wilt them; but the king, M
the most determined manners-opposed their wishes*
and to ^s' favour aw I wholly indebted for my
being yet among Hie living.
As I was busy at work at tfie time of the at*
tack, I Vas without my coat, and what wrtfi the
coldness of the weather, my feebleness from loss
of blood-, the pain of my wound anlNhe extreme
agitation and terror that I still felt, I shook like a
leaf, which the king observing, went into the ca-
bin> and bringing op a greatcoat that belonged
to the captain, threw it over njy sh%ulders, telling"
rae to drink some rum from a bottle Which he
D 2 32
banded me, at the same time giving me to understand that it would be godp for me, and keep me
from trembling as I did.    I took a draught of ii^
after which, taking me by the&hand, he led me
to. the quarter deck, where the most horrid sight
presented itself that ever my eyes witnesed—the
heads of our unfortunate captain  and his crew,
to the number of twenty-five, were all arranged
in ajine, and Maquina ordering one of his people
/to bring a head, asked ^ne whose it was: I answered, the captain's; in like manner the others
were shewed me, and I told him the names, excepting a few that were so horribly mangled that
J was not able to recognize them.
I now discovered that all our unfortunate crew
had#been massacred, and learned, that after getting
possession of the ship, the savages had broke open
the arm chest and magazine, and supplying themselves with ammunition and arms, sent a party on
shore to attack our men, who had gone thither to
fish, and being joined by numbers from tbe village,
without difficulty overpowered and murdered them,
and cutting off their heads, brought them on board,
after throwing their bodies into the sea :    On loo%,
ing upon the deck, I saw it entirely covered with
the blood  of   my poor comrades,   whose throats
bad been cut with their own jack-knives, the savages having seized the opportunity while the^f
were busy in hoisting in the boat, to grapple with them, and overpower them bys their number*; inM
the   scuffle the   captain was   thrown   overboard,
and dispatched by those in the canoes, who immediately  cut off his head:    What I felt^on thi»^
occasion,   may be   more readily conceived than
After I had answered his questions, Maquina
took my  silk handkerchief from my  neck,  and"
bound it around my head, placing over the wound'
a leaf of tobacco, of which we had a quantity on
board.     This was done at my desire, as 1 had
often found, from personal experience, the -benefit1*'
of this application to cuts.
$faquinatften ordered me to get the ship under^
weigh for Friendly Cove.    This I did by dirtting'
the cables, and sending some of the natives aloft
to loose the sails', which they performed in a* very
bungling manner.    But they succeeded so far* iH*
loosing the jib and top-sails, that?, wMrtbe advaiS||
tage of fair wind, I succeeded in; gerjfng -|jj|$f# ship*
into the Cove, where, by order of tbe king, I ran1
her ashore on* a sandy beach, at eight o*cfock at'
We were received by tftte inhabitants of tJj^
village, men, women, and children, with loud
shouts of joy, and a most rrorritte lemming with
slicks upon the* roofs, and sides of their houses,
D 3 in which they had also stuck a great number of
lighted pine torches, to.welcome their king's return, and congratulate him on the success of his
enterprize. p|
Maquina then took me on shore to his house,
which wras very large, and filled with people—
where I was received with much kindness by the
women, particularly 'those belonging to the king,
who had no less than nine wives, all of whom
came around me, expressing much sympathy for
my misfortune, gently stroking and patting my
head in an encouraging and soothing manner,
with words expressive of condolence. How sweet
is compassion even from savages! Those who
have been in a similar situation, can alone truly
appreciate its value. ||
h   +m -. -   -r*.~ ■ c,e
In the mean time, all the warriors of i^e tribe,
tpithe number of five hundred, had assembled at
tjie§ijug's Jiouse, to rejoice for their success/ They
exiled greatly in haying taken our shi^ and each
,on|:boasted of his own particular exploits in killing-
our men, but they  were in general much dissatisfied with my having been suffered to livevand
were very urgent with Maquina to deliver me to
them, to be put to deathjl which  he obstinately
refused to do, telling them that he had promised
me my life, and would not break his word; and
■ 35-'   '
that besides,  I knew how to repair and to make
arms, and should be of great use to them,
The king then seated me by him, and ordered
his women to bring him something to eat, when
they set before him some dried clams and train
oil, of which he ate very heartily, and encouraged
me to follow his example, telling me to eat much,
and take a great deal of oil, which-lWould make
roe strong and fat; notwithstanding his praise
of this new kind of food, I felt no disposition
to indulge in it, both the smell and taste being
loathsome to me; and had it been otherwise, s$ch
was the pain I endured, the agitation of my mind,
and the gloomines of my reflections, that I should
have felt very little inclination for eating.
Not satisfied with his first refusal to deliver me
r?^Cwt '•.••7 ■■'■-.-   ■       ? -   ...-   -.   -.■ -.   _,.■_■_ ...
i . , -       -:Jgg MM
up to them,   the people again becamefelamorous
that Maquina should consent to^tby being kill^,:-^^
saying that not one of us ought to^e left '&$$£$
to give information to others of our countrymenj^ffl
and prevent them from coming to trade, or induce
them to revenge the destruction of our ship, and.
they at length became so boisterous, that he caughlf
up a large club in a passion, and drove them alj|
out of the house.    During this scene, a son of the
king, about eleven years old, attracted no doubt by
tbe singularity of my appearance, came uj||o me :
I caressed him; he returned my attentions|with •     ,: 3(t.'      fe     '     '     #   ,
much apparent pleasure, and considering this as
a fortunate opportunity to gain the good will of the
father, I took the child on my knee, and cutting
the metal buttons from off the coat 1 had on, 1 tied
them around his neck. At this he was highly
delighted, and became so much attached to me,
that he would not quit me.
The king appeared much pleased with my attention tojiis son, and telling, me that it was time W
go to sleep directed me to lie with his son next to
him, as he was afraid lest some of his people weald
come while he was asleep and kill me with their
daggers. I lay down as he ordered me, but neither
the state of my mind nor the pain I felt would
allow me to sleep. f§j|
About midnight I was greatftf alarmed by the
approach of one of the natives, who came to give
information to the king that there was one of the'
white men alive, who had knocked him down
as he went on board-the ship at night. This Maquina communicated t& me, giving me to* understand that as soon as the sun rose he should kill him*
1 endeavoured to persuade him to spare his life,
but he bade me be silent and go to sleep. I said
nothing more but lay revolving in my mind what
method 1 could devise to save the life of Hits'man.
What a consolation thought I, what a happiness
would it prove te me in my forlorn state among" these heathens, to have a Christian and one of my
own countrymen for a companion, and how greatly
would it alleviate and lighten the burden ol my
As I was thinking of some plan for his preservation, it all at once came into my mind that this
man was prpbably the sail maker of the ship, named
Thompson, as I had not seen his head among those
on deck and knew that he was below at work upon
sails not lorJg before the attack. The more I
thought of it the more probable it appeared to me,
anj as Thompson was a man nearly forty years of
age, and had an old look, I conceived it would be
easy to make him pass for my father,Htnd by this
means prevail on Maquina to spare his life. Towards morning I fell into a doze, but was awTakened
with the first beams of the sun by the king, who
told me he was going to kill the man who was on-
board the ship, and ordered me to accompany him.
I rose and followed him, leading with me the young
prince, his son.
On coming to the beach I found all the men of
the tribe assembled. The king addressed them,
saying that one of the white men bad been found
alive on board the ship, and requested their opinion
as to saying his life or putting him to death. They
were unanimously for the latter: This determination he made known to me.    Having arranged my plan, I asked him, pointing to the boy, wrhora
I still held by the hand, if he loved his son, h&
answered that he did; I then asked the child if
he loved his father,   and on his replying in the
affirmative,   I said, and I I also love mine.    I,
then threw myself on my knee& at Maquina's feet,
and implored him, with tears in m*p eyes, to* spare
my father's life, if the man on board*should prove
to be him, telling him that if he killed my father*
it was my wish that he should kill me too, and
/ 111 • '
that if he did not, I would Mil myself,—and that
be would   thus lose my services;   whereas,   by
sparing my father's limy he woulde preserve mine,
which would be of great advantage to bimy by my
repairing and making arms for him.
e. I
■ ■ i
Maquina, appeared moved by my entreaties, and'
promised not to put the man to death if he should
be my father.    He then, explained to his people
what I had said, and ordered me to go on board,
and tell the man to come on shore.    To my unspeakable joy, on going into the held,   I found
that my conjecture was true.    Thomson wasthere,
he had escaped without any injury, excepting a
slight wound in the nose, given him by one of the
savages with a knife, as he attempted to come on
deck, during the scuffle.    Finding the savages in
possession of the ship, as he afterwards informed
me, he secreted himself in the hold, hoping for
some chance to make his escape—but that the la- dian who came' on aboard in the night, approaching
the place where he was, he supposed himself discovered, and being determined to sell his life as
dearly as possible, as soon as he came within his
reach, he knocked him down, but the Indian immediately springing up ran off M full speed,
i informed him, in a few words, that-all our men
had been killed;  that the king had preserved my
life, and had consented to spare his on the supposition that he ftas my .father, an opinion which he
must be careful not to undeceive them in, as it
was his only safety.   After giving him his cue, I
went on shore with him, and presented  him to
Maquina, who immediately knew him  to fee the
sailmaker, .and was much pleased, observing that
he could make sails for bis canoe.    He then took
us to his house, and ordered something for us to
/' ". y_ ^ — ■ e
On the 24th and 25th, the native* were busily
employed in taking the cargo out of the ship, stripping her of her sails and rigging, cutting away the
spars and masts, and in short, rendering her as complete a wreck as possible,them uskets, ammunition,
cloth, and all the principal articles taken from her,
being deposited in the .king's house.
While they were thus occupied, each onc*takiug
whaftie liked, my companion and myself being
M: 1
1  1   ,
• i
obliged to aid them, I thought it best to secure
the accounts and papers of the ship, in hopes that
on some future day, I might have it in my power
to restore* them to the owners.    With this view I
took possession of the captain's writing desk, which
contained the  most of them, together with some
paper and implements for writing.    I had also the
good fortune to find a blank account book, in which
I resolved, should it be permitted me, to write an
account of our capture, and the most remarkable
occurrences that I should meet with during my stay
among   these   people;   fondly indulging the hope
that it W'Ould not be;long before some vessel would
arrive to    I likewise found in the cabin,
a small volume of sermons, a bible, and a common-
prayer book of the Church of England, which furnished me and my comrade great consolation in the
midst of our mournful servitude, and enabled me,
under the favour of Divine Providence, to   support, with firmness, the miseries of  a life which
1 might otherwise have found beyond my strength
to endure.
As these people set no value upon things of this
kind, I found no difficulty in appropriating them to
myself, by putting them in my-chest,-which-though
it had been broken open and rifled by the savages,
as 1 still had the key, I without much difficulty
secured. In this I also put some small tools belonging to the ship,   with several other articles, particularly a journal kept by the second mate, Mr.
Ingraham, and a collection of drawings and views
of places taken by him, which I had the good fortune to preserve, and on my arrival*at Boston, I
gave them to a connection of his, the honourable
Judge Dawes, who sent them to his family in New-
York.   '      :  f ■ \."  /:- 'Ht; * J^!?'    _
On the 26th, two ships were seen standing in for
Friendly Cove. At their first appearance the in-
habitants were thrown into great confusion, but
soon collecting a number of muskets and blunderbusses, ran to tne shore^from wrhence they kept
up so brisk a fire at them, that thej were evidently
afraid to approach nearer, and after firing a few
rounds of grapeimot which did no harm to any one,
they wore ship and stood out to sealf These ships,
asTE afterwards learned, were the Mary and Juno
of Boston.
They were scarcely out of sight when Maquina
expressed much regret that he had permitted his
people to fire at"th«in,' being appreh#isive that
they would give intormation w otKers in what
manner they had been received, aim prevent them
from coming to trade with nim.
A few days after hearing of the capture of the
ship, there arrived at Nootka a great number of
canoes filled with savages from no less than twenty
E ' II I
tribes to the North and South. Among those from
the North were Jhe Ai-tiz-zarts, Scboo-madgits,
Neu-wit-ties, Savin-nars, Ah-owTz-arts, Mo-watch-
its, Suth-set|s, Neu-chad-lits, Mich-la-its and Cay-
u-quets; the most of whom wrere ^considered as tributary to Nootka. From the South, the Ay tch-arts
and Esqui-ates also tributary, with the Kla-oo-
quates, and the Wickannish, a large and powerful
tribe about two hundred miles distant. These last
were better clad than most of the others, and their
canoes wrought with much greater skill; they are
furnished with sails as well as paddles, and with the
advantage of a fair breeze5 are usually but twenty-
four hours on their passage.
Maquina, who was very proud of his new acquisition, was desirous of welcoming these visitors
in the European manner. | He accordingly ordered
his men, as the canoes approached, to assemble o%
the beach with loaded muskets and blunderbusses,
placing Thompson at the cannon which had been
brought from thirship and laid upon two long sticks
of timbe|%in front of the village, then taking a
speakirigRtrumpet in his hand, he ascended with
me, the roof of his house, and began drumming or
beating upon the boards with a stick most violently..-^   . \ |||
Nothing could be more ludicrous than the ap*
iing couia oe more ludicrous tnan the ap-
e of this motly groupe of savages collected^ on the shore, dressed as they were, with their ill-
gotten finery, in the most fantastic manner, some
in women's smocks, taken from our cargo, others in
Kotsacks,ipv cloaks) of blue, red or yellow broadcloth^ with stockings drawn over their heads, and
their necks hung round with numbers of powder-
horns, shot-bags, and cartouch-boxes, some of mem
having no less than ten muskets a piece on" thefcr^
shoulders; aud five or six daggers in their girdles.
Diverting indeed was itfjo see them all squatted
upon- the beach, holding their rnliskets perpendicularly, with the butt pressed upon the sand| instead
of against their shoulders^ and id thisc position
awaiting the order to fire. Maquina, at last, called to them with his trumpet to fire, whicrfthey did
in the most awkward and timid manner, with their1
muskets bard pressed upon the groundras above;
mentioned. At the same moment the cannon was
fired by Thompson, immediately on wbjeh they
threw themselves back and began to roll and tumble
over the sand as if they had been shot, when sud-
denly springing up, they began a song of triumph
and running backward and forward Upon the shore,
with the wildest gesticulations, boasted of their
exploits, and exhibited as trophies, what they had
taken from us. Notwithstanding the unpleasantness of my situation, and the feelings that this
display of our spoils excifed, I coulafnot avoid
laughing at the strange appearance of these sa-
Wm rili
vages, their awkward movements, and the sin
gular contrast of their dressjtnd arms.
When the ceremony,jwas concluded, Maquina
invited the strangers tp. a feast at his house, consisting of wliaie blubber, smoked herring spawn,
and dried fislLahd train oil, of which they eat most
plentifully. is The feast>eing over, the trays, out
of which thej eat, and other things were immediately removecl to make rooni for the dance, which
was to clpse the entertainment. This was per-
formed by Maquina's son, the young prince Sat-
safesok-si8, whom I have already spoken of, in
the follpwing manner;—Three of the principal
chiefs, dresfejin their^ptter-skin mantles, which
they wear only on extraordinary occasions and at
festivals, having their heads covered over with
white down, and their faces highly painted, came
forward jnto the,middle of the room, each furnished
l?$j^kjj. bag filled with white down, which they
scattered around in such a manner as to represent
a fall of snow,. These were followed by the young
prince, who was dressed in a long piece of yellow
cloth, wrapped Joosely around him, and decorated
with small bells, with a cap on his head, to which
was fastened a, curious mask in imitation of a
wolf's head, while the rear was brought up by
the king himself, in his,robe of sea-otter skin, with
a small whistle in his mouth and a rattle jn^is
hand, with which he kept time to a sort of tune :;  r 45  '   ' -        J:
on his whistle. After passing very rapidly in this
order around the house, each of them seated himself, except the prince, who^mmediately began
his dance, which principally consisted in springing
up into the air in a squat posture, and constantly
turning around on his heels with great swiftness, in
a very narrow circle.
This dance, witlfa few intervals of rest, was
continued for about two hours, during which the
chiefs kept up a constant drumming with sticks
of about a foot in length on a long hollow plank,
which was, though a very noisy, a most doleful
kind of music. This they accompanied with songs,
the king himself acting as chorister, while the
women applauded each feat of activity in the
dancer, by repeating the words, WocashM Wocash
Tyee! that is good! very good prince.
As soon as the dance was finished, Maquina began to give presents to the strangers, in the name
of bis son Sat-sat-sok-sis. These were pieces of
European cloth, generally of a fathom in lengfii*
muskets, powder, shot, &c. Whenever he gave
them any thing, they had a peculiar manner of
snatching it from him with a very stern and surly
look, repeating each time the words, Wocash
Tyee. TRis I understood to be their custom, and
was considered as a compliment! which if omitted,
would be supposed as a mark of disregard for the
E 3 '   ..11
• jR?' present. On this occasion, Maquina gave away
no less than one hundred muskets, the same number of looking-glasses, _Jpur hundred yards of cloth,
and twej^&easks of powder, beside other things.
After receiving these presents, the strangers re- %
tired on board their canoes, for so numerous were
they, that Maquina would not suffer any but the
chiefs to sleep in the houses; and%h order to prevent the property from being pillaged byfliem, he
ordered Thompson and myself to keep guard, during the night, armed with cutlasses and pistols. M
In this manner tribes of savages from various
parts of the coast, continued coming for several
days, bringing x with them, blubber, oil, herring-
spa w;n. dried fish and clams, for which they re-
ceived, in retdrn, presents M cloth, &c. after
which they in general immediately returned home.
I :0jtaerj$ejt that very few, if any of thenM except
the chiefs, had arras, which I afterwards learned
is the /^custom with these people, whenever they
come upon a friendly visit or to trade, in order
to shew, on their approach* that thei^|intentions
are ..pacific. E||
Early on the morning of the 19th, the ship was
discovered % be on fire. This was owing to one
of the savages having gone on board with a firebrand, at night for the purpose of plunder^ some
li \¥'\M '        • 47 ';    If '" '
sparks f^em which fell into the hold, and comma*
nieating with some combustibles, soon enveloped
the who^e in flames.    The natives regretted the
loss of; the ship the more, as a great part of her
cargo still remained on board.     To my companion and myself, it was a most melancholy sight,
for with her disappeared from our eyes every"trace
of a civilized conntry ; but the disappointment we
experienced, was still more severely felt, for we
had calculated on having the provision to  ourselves, which would rjave furnished us with a stock
for years, as whatever is cured with salt, together
with most of our other articles of food, are never
eaten by these people.    11 had luckily saved all
my tools, excepting the anvil and the bellows,
which was attached to the forge, and from their
weight had not been brought on shore.    We had
also the good fortune, in looking over what had
been taken from the ship, to discover a box of
chocolate, and, a case of port wine, which as the
Indians were not fond of it, proved a great comfort to us for some time,  and from one of the
natives I obtained a nautical almanack,   which
had belonged to the Captain,  and which was of
great use to me in determining the time.
About two days after^ on examining their booty,
the savages found a tierce of rum, with which they
were highly delighted, as they have become very
fond of  spirituous liquors since their intercourse •, -f -48 ■      "' •;
with the whites. This was towards evening, and
Maquina having assembled all the men at his
house, gave a feast, at which they drank so freely-
of the rum, that in a short time, they became so
extremely wild and frantic, that Thompson and
myself, apprehensive for our safety, thought it
prudent to retire privately into the woods, where
we continued till past midnight. ftt
On our return we found the weomen gone, who
are always #ery temperate, drinking nothing but
water, having quitted the house and gone td%he
other huts to sleep, so terrified were they at the
conduct of the men, who lay all stretched out on
the floor, in a state of complete intoxfisationJlMow
easy in this situation would it have been for us to
have dispatched or made ourselves masters of our
enemies, had there been any ship near to w^hich we
could have escaped, but as we were situated, the
attempt would have been madness. The!w?Sh of
revenge was, however, less strongly impressed
on my mind, than what appeared to be so evident
an interposition of divine Providence in our favour;
How little can man penetrate its designs, and how
frequently is that intended as a blessing, which
he views as a curse. The burning of our ship,
which we had lamented so much, as depriving us
of so many comforts, now appeared to us in a
very different light, for had fhe savages got possession of the rum, of which there were nearly ..  ,; 49 "'   :
twenty puncheons on board, we must inevitably
have fallen a sacrifice to their fury in some of
their moments of intoxication. This cask fortunately, and a ease of gin, was all the spirits tbey
obtained from the ship. To prevent the recurrence
of similar danger, I examined the cask, and finding
still [a considerable quantity remaining, I bored
a small hole in, the bottom with a gimblet, which
before morning to my great joy completely etnp-
i*ed ft |l§     A |
By this time the wound in my head be^an to be
much better, so that I could enjoy some sleep
which s||rha:di been almost deprived of by the pain,
and though I was still feeble from the loss of blood
and nay sutjefings, I found myself sufficiently well
to go torwork at-j^y trade-in making for the king
and bis wives bracelets and other small ornaments
of copper or steel,, and in repairing the arms, making use of a largei square stone for the anvil, and
heating my metal in a common wrood fire. This
was very gratifying, to, Maquina, and his women
particularly, and secured me their good will.
In the mean time great numbers from the other
tribes kept continually flocking to Nootka, bringing with them in exchange, for the ship's plunder
such quantities of provision, that notwithstanding
the littl%jjuccess that Maquina met with in whalings
this season, and  their gluttonous waste, always "■"'* ''   I50
eating to excess when they have it, regardless of
the morrow, seldom did the natives experience
any want,of food during the summer. As to
myself and companion, we fared as they did, never
wanting for such provision as they had, though We
were obliged to eat it cooked in their manner, and
with train oil as a sauce, a circumstance not a
/little unpleasant, both from their uncleanly mode
of cooking, and many, .of the articles of their food,
which to an European are very disgusting; but, as
the saying is, hunger will break through stone
wa&s, and we found, at times, in the blubber of
sea animals, and the flesh of the dog-fish, loathsome as it general was, a very acceptable repast.
But much oftener would poor Thompson, who
was no, favourite with them, have suffered from
hunger, had it not been for my furnishing him
with provision. This! was enabled to do^ from
my worJsftiMaquina allowing me the privilege,
when not employed for him, to work for myself in
making bracelets and other ornaments of copper,
fish-hooks, daggers, &c. either to sell to the tribes
who visited us, or for our own chiefs, who on
these occasions besides supplying me with as much
as I wished to eat, and a sufficiency for Thompson, almost always made me a present of an European garment, taken from the ship, or some
fathoms of cloth, which were made up l%my comrade, and enabled us to go comfortably clad for some time, or small bundles of penknives, rasors,
scissors, &c. for one of which  we could almost
always procure from the uatiyes,   two or three
fresh salmon, cod, or halibut; or dried fish, clams
and herring spawn from the stranger tribes; and
had we only been permitted to cook them after our
own   wavji as we   had   pots and other utensils
belonging to the ship, we should not  have had
much  cause of complaint in this respect,  but so
tenacious are these people of their customs, particularly in tbe article of food and cooking, that the
king always obliged me to give whatever provision
I bought to the women to cook.    And one day
finding Thompson and myself on the shore, employed in boiling down sea-water into salt, on being told  what it was,   he was  very much displeased, and taking the little  we had procured,
threw it into the sea.    In one instance alone, as a
particular favour,   he allowed   me to boil some
salmon  in  my own way,   whenll invited him
and his queen to eat with me; they tasted it, but
did not like it, and made their meal of some of it
that I had cooked in their country fashion.
In May, the weather becaa^fftncommonly mild
and pleasant, and so forward was Vegetation, that
I picked plenty of strawberries"^by the middle of
the month. Of this fruit there are great quantities
.on this coast, and I found them a most delicious
treat.      M&i    _Jmm fe 1,1
If'"-* ' "f52     ^
My health now had become almost re-estab-^
lished, my wound being so far healed, that it gave
me no farther trouble. I had never failed to wash
it regularly once a day in sea water, and to dress it
with a fresh leaf of tobacco, wttch I obtained
from the natives, who had taken it from the ship,
Ijfit-made no use of it. This was-all the dressing I
gave it, except applying to it two or three times,
a little loaf sugar, which Maquina gave me, in
order to remove some proud flesh, which prevented
it from closing. j§§
My cure would doubtless have been much sooner
effected had I have been in a civilized country,
where I could have had it dressed by a surgeon
and properly attended to. But alas! I had no
gofcd Samaritan, with oil and wine, to bind up my
wounds, and fortunate might I even esteem myself
that I was permitted to dress it myself, for the
utmost that I could expect from the natives, was
compassion for my misfortunes, which I indeed
experienced from the women^;particularly the
queen, or favourite wife of Maquina, the mother of
Sat*sat-sok-sis, who used frequently to point to my
head, and manifest much kindness and solicitude for
me. I must do Maquina the justice to acknowledge,
•that he always appeared desirous of -sparing me
any labour which he believed might befcurtful to
me,^ frequently enquiring in an affectionate man-
ner, if my head pained  me.*. As for the others some of the chiefs excepted, they cared little what
became of me, and probably would have been gratified with my death.
My hlaltPbeiug at length re-established and
my wound healed, Thompson became very importunate for me to begin my journal, and as I had no
ink, proposed to cut his finger to supply me witii-
blood for the purposewhenever 1 should want it.
On the first of June, I accordingly commenced a
regular diary, but had no occasion to make use of
the expedient suggested by my comrade, having
found a much better substitute in the expressed
juice of a certain plant, which furnished me with a
bright green colour, and after making a number of
trials, I at length succeeded in obtaining a very tole-
rable ink, by boiling the juice of the black-berry
with a mixture of finely powdered charcoal and
filtering it through a cloth. This I afterwards preserved in bottles, and found it answer very weilf? so
true is it that "necessity is the mother of invention."
As for quills I found no difficulty in procuring them,
whenever I wanted, from the crows and ravens
with which the beach was almost always covered,
attracted by the offal of %haies, seals, &c. and
which were so tame that I could easily kill them
with stones, while a large clam shell furnished me
with an ink stand. SS
The  extreme  solicitude of ^Thompson   that I
F should begin my journal, might beconsidered as
singular in a man, who neither knew how to read
or write, a circumstance by the way, very uncommon in an America, were we less acquainted witP
the force of habit, he having been for many years
at sea, and aeeusjpmed to consider the keeping of
a journal as a thing indispensable. Trjiipin was
born in Philadelphia, and at eight years old ran
away from his friends and entered as a cabin bo^jpa
board a ship bound tp London, on his anival there
finding himself inj|stress^he engaged as an apprentice to the captain of a Collier, from whence hewas
impressed on board an English man of war,j||nd
continued in the British naval service about twertt^|
seven years, <Mring which he was present at the
engagement under Lord Howe wj|k the French fleet
in June 1T$P, and when peace was made between
England and France was discharged. He was,a.
very strong and powerful man, an expert boxer,
and perfectly fearless; indeed so little was his
dread of danger, that when irritated he was wholly
regardless of tiis life. Of this the following will
furnish a sufficient proof :
One evening about tjjje middle of April, us I was
at the house of one of the chiefs, wherelhad been
employed on some work for him, word was brought
me that Maquina was going to kill Thompson. I
immediately hurried home, where I found the king
in the act of presenting a loaded musket at Thomp- 55
Sten, who was standing before him with his breast
bared and calling on him to fire. I instantly stepped
up to Maquina, who was foaming with rage, and
addressing him in soothing words, begged him for
*my sake not to kill my father, and at length succeeded in taking the musket from him and persuading him to sit down.
On enquiring into tbe cause of his anger, 1 learned that while Thompson was lighting the lamps in
the king's room, Maquina having substituted our's
for their pine torches, some of the boys began to
teaze him, running around him and pulling him by
the trowsers, among the most forward of whom was
the ydtang prince.|| This caused Thompson to spip:
the oil, which threw him into such a passion, that
without caring what he did, he struck the prjnce so
violent a blow in his face with his fist as to knock
him down. The sensation excited among the' sava-
gelM&y an act, which was considered as the l%hest
indignity, and a profanation of the sacred person of
majestyy. may be easjly conceived. The king was
immediately acquainted w'ith it, who, on cdmirig in
and seeing his son's face covered with blood, seliSd
a musket and began to load it, determined to take
instant revenge on the audacious offender, and had
I arrived a few moments later than I did, my
companion would certainly have paid with his
life for his rash and violent conduct. I found
the utmost difficulty in pacifying Maquina, who
F %   m
m for a long time after could not forgive Thompson,
but would repeatedly say, | John, you die-
Thompson kill."
yr.-ijiBii! i
But to appease the king was not all that wras
necessary. In consequence of the insult offered to
their prince, the whole tribe held a council, in
which it was unanimously resolved that Thompson
should be put*to death in the most cruel manner.
I however interceded so strenuously ^th Maquina,
for his life, telling him that if my father was killed,
I was determined not to survive birn, that he refused
to deliver him up to the vengeance of his people,
saying, that for John's sake they must consent to
let him live. The prince,, who,, after I had succeeded in calming his father, gave me an account
of what had happened, lold rae that if was wholly
out of regard to me, as Thompson was my father,
that his life had been spared, for that if any one of
the tribe should dare to lift a hand against him in
anger, he would most certainly be put to death*
Yet even this narrow escape produced not much
effect on Thompson, or induced him to restrain the
violence of his temper. For not many weeks after,
be was guilty of a similar indiscretion, in striking
the eldest son of a chief, who was about eighteen
years old, and according to their custom was considered as a Tyee, or chief himself, in consequence
of his having provoked him by calling him a white '1' ' •    s7 '
slave.   This affair caused great commotion in the
village, and the tribe was very clamorous for his
death, but Maquina would not consent.    I used
frequently to remonstrate with him on the imprudence of his conduct and beg him to govern his
temper better, telling him that it was onr duty since
our lives were in the power of these savagesy to dd
nothing to exasperate them.   But all I could say on
this point availed little, for so bitter was the hate
he felt for themr which he was no way1 backward
in manifesting both by his looks and actions, that
Khe declared he never would submit to their insults,
and that he had much rather be killed than be obliged to live among them, adding that he only wished
he had a good vessel- and some guns, and he would
destroy the whole of the cursed race ; for to a brave
sailor like him, who had fought the French and
Spaniards with glory, it was a punishment worse
than death to be a slave to such a poor, ignorant,
despicable set of beings.   |lj
A& for my self 1 thought very differently. A&er
returning thanks to that merciful Being whrr had in
so wonderful a manner softened the hearts $f tftd
Savages in my favour, I haW determined from the
first of my capture to adopt a conciliating cdndtocf
towards Am, and conform my self, as far a||^|a#
in my power, to their customs and mode 'ffiMj$&&.
rag, trusting that the same divine goodnl&^^p^J
had rescued me from dieathj woufd not al
F 3 ss
suffer me to languish in captivity among these?
heathens. With this view, I sought to gain their
good-will by always endeavouring to assume a.
cheerful countenance, appearing pleased with their
sports and buffoon tricks, making little ornaments
for the wives and children of their chiefs, by which
means I became quite a favourite with them, and
fish-hooks, daggers, <&e. for themselves.
As a farther recommendation to their favour,,
and what might eventually prove of the utmost
importance to us, I resolved to learn their language, which in the course of a few months residence I so far succeeded in acquiring, as to be
able in general to make myself well understood,
X likewise tried, to persuade Thompson to learn it,
as what might prove necessary to him. But he
refused, saying, that he hated both them and
their cursed lingo, and would have nothing to do,
with it. lit
By pursuing this conciliatory plan, so far did I
gain the good-will of these savages, particularly,
the chiefs, that I*scarcely ever failed^ experiencing
kind treatment from them, and was received with
a simile of welcome at their houses, where I was
always sore of having something given me to eat*
whenever they had it, and many a good meal have
I had from them, when they themselves were short
of provisions and suffering for the want of them* *1$l
And it was a common practice with me, when we
had nothing to eat at home, which happened not
unfrequently during^my stay among them   to go
around the village   and on noticing a smoke from.
any of the houses, which denoted that they were
cooking, enter in without ceremony, and ask them
for something, which I was never refused.    Few
nations, indeed, are there so very rude and unfeeling, whom constant mild treatment and an attention to please, will not mollify and obtain from
some return of kind attention.    This, the treatment.
I received from these people, may exemplify, for
not numerous,   even among those calling themselves civilized, are there« instances to be found of
persons depriving themselves of food to give ittojjk;;
stranger, whatever may be his merits.
It may perhaps be as well in, this place to gfve
a description of Nootka; some accounts of the
tribes who were accustomed to visit us; and the
manners and customs of the people, as far as I
hitherto had an opportunity of observing them.
. The village of Nootka, is situated in between
49 and 5Q jfteg. N. lat. at the bottom of Friogdiy
Cove, on the Wester North-west side. It con«
sists of about twenty houses or huts, on a small
hill, which rises with a gentle ascent from the
shore. Friendly Cove, which affords good and
secure anchorage for ships close in-with the shore, mm
ffl     I
is a small harbour of not more than a quarter or
half a mile in length* and about half a mife or
three quarters broad, formed by the line of coast on
the East, and a long point or head land, which
extends as much as three leagues into the sound,
in nearly a Westerly direction. This, as well as
I can judge from what I ,have seen of it, is in
general from one to two miles in breadth, and
mostly a rocky and unproductive soil, with bH&*
few trees. The Eastern and Western shores of
this harbour* are steep and in many parts rocky,
the trees growing quite to the water's edge, but the
bottom to the North and North-west is a fine
sandy beach el half a mile or more in extent^!!
From the v#age to the North a4d Norf$&astr
extends a plain, the soil of which is very excellent,
and with proper cultivation may be made to produce almost any of our European vegetables ; this
is but little more than half a mile in breadth, and
is terminated bp the sea-coast^ which- in His plfcce
is lined with rocks and reefs, and* cannot be approached by ships. The coast in the neighbourhood of Nootka is in generallow, and but Kttle
broken into hills and vallies. The soil is gooilf
welt covered with fine forests of pine, sj^fg09beacM
and other trees, and abounds with streams- of the
finest waterr the general appearance being the
same lor many miles around*
i»-.V K '    ' '•   '' 6I v  *     ■  :
The village is situated on the ground occupied
by the Spaniards, when they kept a garrison he.e;
the foundations of the church and^ the governor's
house are yet visible, and a few European plants
are still to be found, which continue to be self-
propagated, such as onions, peas, and turnips', but
tbe two last are quite small, particularly the turnips, which afforded us nothing but the tops for eating. Their former village stood on the same spot,
but the Spaniard! finding it a commodious situation,
demolished the houses and forced the inhabitants to
retire five or six miles into the country. With
great sorrow, as Maquina told me, did they find
themselves compelled to quit their ancient place of
residence, but with equal joy did they repossess
themselves of it when the Spanish garrison was ex*
pelled by the English.
The houses as I have observed are above twenty
in number, built nearly in a line. These are of
different sizes according to the rank or quality of
$j$$jfyee7 or chief, who lives in them, each;|av-
ing one, of which he is considered as the lord.
Thejj£ vary not much in width being usually from
thirty-six to forty feet w^te but are of very different
lengths, that of the king which is much the longest
being about one hundred and: fifty feet, while the
smallest which contain onl^two families do not exceed forty feet in length, the house of the king is
also distinguished from the others by being higher* !P-Jtt'
Their method of building, is as follows : they
erect in the ground two very large posts at such a
distance apart as is intended for the length of the
house. On these, which are of equatebeight, and
hollowed out at the upper end, they lay a large spar
for the ridgepole of the building, or if the lengjti of
the house requires it, two or more, supporting Their
ends by similar upright posts; these spars are sometimes of an almost incredible size, having myself
measured one in Maquina's house which I found to
I be one hundred feet long and eight feet four inches
in circumference. At equal distances from these
two posts, two others are placed on eith side, to
form the width of the building; these are rather
shorter than the first, and on them are laid icj^ifee
manner spars, but of a smaller size, havingpthe
upper part hewed flat, with a narrow ridge on the
oatef side to support the ends of the planks. ffj
The rool is formed of pine planks with a broad
feather edge, so as to lap well over each ofKery
which are laid lengthwise from the ridge-pole in the
centre, to the beams at the sides, after whitih the
top is covered with planks of eight feet broad,
which form a kind of covjng projecting so far over
the ends of the planks, that form the rota** as completely to exclude the rain. On these thepllay
large stones to prevent their being displaced bjfthe
wind. The ends of the planks are not secured to
the beams on which they are laid by any fastening, so that in a high storm I have often known all ?|he
-men obliged to turn out and go upon the roof to^re-*
vent them from being blown off, carrying large
stones and pieces of rock with them to secure the
boards, always stripping themselves naked on these
occasions whatever may be the severity of the
weather, to prevent their garments from being wet
and muddied, as these storms are almost always
accompanied with heavy rains. The sides of their
houses are much more open and exposed to the weather, this proceeds, from their not being so easily
made close as the roof, being built with planks of
about tefjfeet long and four or five wide, which
they place between stancheons or small posts of the
J^right p| the roof, of thes^phere are four to each
range o|? boards, two at each end and so near eacttr
other as to leave space enough for admit|pg a
plank. The planks^r boards which they make use
of for buibiing^heir houses, and for other uses, \
they procure of different lengths as occasion re-
quires, by splitting them out, with hard, wooden
wedges from pine logs, and afterwards^ dubbing tnem
down Vith their chiselsf^itb much patience, to
the thickness wanted, rendering thenxiquite
There is but one entrance; this is place^usually
at the end, though sometimes in the middle as ^ as
that! of Maquina's. Through the middle of the
building from one end to the other, runs a passage 61 ;■.'.'■  . "-■*•
of about eight or nine feet broad, on each side of
"which, the several families that occupy it, live,
each having its particular fire place, but without any
kind of waller separation to mark their respective
limits; the chief having his apartment at the upper
end, and the next in rank opposite on the other
side. They have no other floor than the ground;
the fire place or hearth consists of a number of
stones loosely put together* but they are wholly
without a chimney, nor is there any opening left in
the roof, but whenever a fire is made, the plank
immediately over it is thrust aside, by means of a
pole, to give vent to the smoke. The height of
the houses in general, from the ground to the center of the roof does not exceed ten feet, that of
Maquina's was not far from fourteen; the spar
forming the ridge pole of the latter was painted in
red and black circles alternately, by way of ornament, and the large posts that supported it had
their tops curiously wrought or carved, so as to represent human heads of a monstrous size, which
were painted in their manner. These were not,
however, considered as objects of adoration, but
merely as ornaments.
The furniture of these people'^p^yery simple,
and consists only of boxes, in wjhich they put
their clothes, furs, and such tilings as they hold
most valuable; tubs for keepingjheir provision^rof
spawn* and blubber in; trays from which they eat^ 65
baskets for their dried fish and other purposes, and
bags made of bark matting, of which they also
make their beds, spreading a piece of it upon the
ground when they lie down, and using no other
bed covering than their garments. The boxes are
of pine, with a top that shuts over, and instead of
nails or pegs, are fastened with flexible twigs;
they are extremely smooth and high polished, and
sometimes ornamented with rows of very small
white shells. The tubs are of a square form, secured in the like manner, and of various sizes,
some being extremely large, having seen them
that were fix feet long by four broad and five deep.
The trays are hollowed out with their chisels from
a solid block of wood, and the baskets and mats
are made from the bark of trees.
From bark they likewise make the cloth for their
garments, ink the following manner :tt-A quantityr
of this bark is taken andput into fresh wateffi
where it is kept for a fortnight, to give ittime|Ji|'
completely soften; it is then taken out and beaten
upon a plank, with an instrument made of bone,
or some very hard wood, having grodves or hollows on one side of it, care being taken to keep
the   mass  constantly   moistened   with  water,   in-
order to,  separate, with more ease, the hard and
woody  fron^rthei^oftfad  fibrous   nartsJLwhieh,
^lerrcompleted/^gi^y parcel out into skeins, like
thread.    These they lay in the air to bleach, and
g    it 33i M§'
afterwards dye them black or red, as suits their
fancies, their natural colour being a pale yellow.
In order to form the cloth, the women by whom
the whole of this process is performed, take a certain number of these skeins, and twist them together, by rolling them with their hands upon their
knees into hard rolls, which are afterwards connected by means of a strong thyead, made for the
Their dress usually consists of but a single garment, which is a loose cloak or mantle (called
Kzdsack) in one piece, reaching nearly to the feet.
This is tied loosely over the right or left shoulder,
so as to leave the arms at full liberty.
flai I
Those of the common people are painted red
with ochre,, the better to keep out the rain, but the
chiefs wear them of their native colour, which is a
pale yellow, 'ornamenting them with borders of the
sea otter skin, a kind of grey cloth made of Jthe
hair of some animal which they procure from the
tribis to the South, or their own cloth wrought or
painted with various figures in red or black, representing men's heads, the sun and moon, fish and
animals, which are frequently executed with much
skill. They have also a girdle of the same kind,
|pr securing this mantle, or Kutsdck, around them,
which is. in general stillpoore highly ornamented,
and serves them to wear their daggers and knives >f -    671       f|    :  '
in. In winter, however, they sometimes make use
of an additional garment, which is a kind of hood,
with a hole in it for the purpose of admitting the
head, and falls over the breast and back, as low
as the shoulders; this is bordered both at top and
bottom with fur, and is never worn, except when
they go out*
The garments of the women- vary not essentially
from those of the men, the mantle having holes in
it for the purpose of admitting the arms, and being
tied close under the chin, instead of over the
shoulder. The chiefs have also mantles of the
sea otter skin, but these are only put on upon
extraordinary occasions; and one that is made from
the skin of a certain large animal, which is brought
from the South by the Wickanninish and Kla-iz-
«arts. This they prepare by dressing it in warm
water, scraping off the hair and what -flesh adheres
to it carefully with sharp muscle shells, and spreading it out in the sun to dry, on a wooden frame,
so as to preserve the shape. When dressed in this
manner, it becomes perfectly white, and as pliable
as the best deer's leather, but almost as thick again.
They then paint it in different figures, with Such
paints as they usually employ in decorating their
persons: these figures mostly represent human
heads, canoes employed in catching whales', &c.
fpiis skin is called Metamelth, and" is probably
g 2  m
'»'I'- '■'ijliiii
got from an animal of the mouse kind, it is highly
prized by these people, is their gjjeat war dress, and
!only worn when they wish to make the best possible
display of themselves. Strips or bands of it, painted as above, are also sometimes used by them for
girdles or the bordering of their cloaks, and also for
bracelets and ancle ornaments by some of the inferior class.
ill   ■ '
On their heads when they go out upon any excursion particularly whaling or fishing,fthey wear
a kind of cap or bonnet in form not unlike a large
sugar loaf with the top cut off. This is made of the
same materials with their cloth, but is in general of
a closer texture and by Way of tassel has a long strip
of the skin of the Metamelt&attached to it, covered
with rows of small white shells or beads. Those
worn bytfhe common people are painted entirely red,
the cjaiefs having theirs of differant colours. J£he
one worn by the king and which serves to designate
him from all the others, is longer and broader at the
bottom; tljte top, instead of being flat, having upon
it an ornament in the figure of a small urn. It is
also of a much finer texture than the others, and
plaited or wrought in black and white stripes wjth
the representation in front of a canoe in pursuit of a
whale, with the harpooner standing in the prow prepared to strike.    This bonnet is called Seeya-poks.
Their mode of living % very simple—th^r food
rx. "I .69
consistiug'almost wholly of fish, or fish spawn fresh
or dried, the blubber of the whale, seal, or sea-
cow, muscles, clams, and berries of various kinds ;
alLof which are eaten with a profusion of train oil
for sauce, not excepting even the most delicate fruit
as strawberries and raspberries.    With so little variety in their food,-no great secret^can be expected
in their cookery.   Of this, indeed, they may be said
to^know but two methods viz.  by bojling and
steaming, and even the latter is not very frequently practised by them.    Their mode of boiling is as
follows r   Into one of their tubs, they pour water
sufficient to cook the quantity of provision wanted.
A number of heated stones are then put in to make it
boil, when the salmon or other fish are put in without any other preparation than sometimes cutting off
the heads, tails and fins, the boiling in  the mean
time been kept up by the  application of   the hot
stones, after which it is left to cook until the whole
is nearly reduced to one mass.    It is then taken out
and distributed in the trays.    In a similar manner
they cook their blubber and spawn, smoked or dried
fish, and^in fine, almost every thing they eat, nothing going down with them like broth.
When they cook their fish by steam, which are
usually the  heads, tails, and fins of the salmon,
cod and halibut, a large fire is kindled, upon which
they place a bed of stones, which, when the wood
II G 3 a.! t
e -      ■■■        -70 |/ , Je
is burnt down, becomes perfectly heated.    Layers
of green leaves or pine boughs, are then placed
upon the stones, and the fish, clams, &c. being
laid upon them, water is poured over them, and
the *whole closely covered with mats, to keep in
the steam.    This is much the best mode of cooking,
and clams and muscles done in this manner, are
really excellent.    These, as I have said, may be
considered as their only kinds of cookery; though
I have, in a very few instances, known them dress
the roe or spawn of the salmon and the herring,
when first taken, in a different manner; this was
by roasting them,#the former being supported between   two split pieces of pine,  and   the other
having a sharp stick run through it, with one end
fixed in the ground;   sprats are also roasted by
them in this way, a number being spitted upon one
stick; and this kind of food, with a little sajt,
would be found no contemptible eating even to an
At their meals they seat themselves upon the
ground, with their feet curled up under them,
around their trays, which are generally about three
feet long by one broad, and from six to eight inches
deep. In eating they make use of nothing but
their fingers, except for the soup or oil, which they
lade out with clan shells. Around one of these
ti*y s, from four to six persons will seat themselves,
constantly dipping in their fingers of clam shells; 71
one after the other. The king and chiefs alone
have separate trays, from which no one is permitted
*$£ eat with them, except the qoeen, or principal
wife of the chief, and whenever the king or one of
the chiefs wishes to distinguish any of his people
with a special mark of favour on these occasions,
he calls him and gives him some of the choice bits
from his tray. The slaves eat at the same ii&te9
and of the same provisions, fareing in this respect
as well as their masters, being seated with the family, and only feeding from separate trays.
Whenever aijeastis given by the king or any of
the chiefs, there is a person who acts as a master
of ceremonies, and whose business it is to receive
the guests as they enter the house, and point out
to them their respective seats, which is regulated
with great punctiliousness as regards rank;4jthe
king occupying the highest or the seat of honour,
his son or brother sitting next him, and so on with
|jbe chiefs according to their quality ; the private
persons belonging to the same family being always
placed together, to prevent any confusion. The
women are seldom invited to their feasts, and only
at those times when a general invitation is given to
the village.
As whenever they cook* they always calculate
to have an abundance for all the guests, a profusion in this respect being considered as the highest W2 -
luxury, much more is usually set before them than
they can eat. That wThich is left in the king^s
tray, he sends to his house for his family, by* one
of his slaves, as do the chiefs theirs, while those
who eat from the same tray, and who' generally
belong to the same family, take it home as common
stock, or each one receives his portion, which is
distributed on the spot* This custom appeared
very singular to my companion and myself, and
it was a most awkward thing for us at first, to
have to lug home with us, in our hands or arms,
the blubber or fish that we received at these times,
but we soon became reconciled to it, and werP very
glad of an opportunity to do it.
In point of personal appearance the people of
Nootka are among the best looking of anyw the
tribes that I have seen. The men are in general
from about five fee^six to five feet eight inches in
height; remarkably strait, of a good form, robust,
and strong, with their limbs in general well timed
and proportioned excepting the legs and feet, which
are clumsy and ill formed; owing no doubt t#their
practice of sitting on them, though I have'seen instances in which they wrere very well shaped, this
defect is more particularly apparent in the women,
who are for*the most part of the time within doors,
and constantly sitting while employed in their cooking and other occupations. The only instance of
deformity that I saw amongst them was a man of dwarfish stature; he was thirty^ears fid ami but
three feet three inches high,, jhe had howeverrno
other, defect than his J^iminu^ve .sjjze being well
made, and as strong and able to bear fatigue as
what they were in^general,
Their complexion, when- freed from the paint
and oil with which their skins.are generally po-
vered, is a brown, somewhat inclining to a copper
cast. The shape of the face is oval;; thejfeatures
are tolerably regular, the lips being thin and the
teeth very white and even; thejr eyes are:^laek,
but rather small, and the nose pretty well formed,
RIPS    *fw WH   I
being neither flat nor very.^rominen^itheir Jpair
is black, long andj coarse, but they, hav^n^^earq^
completely extirpating it,rtaS;Well as the hair from
their bodies, Maquina ^being the ;^.ly exception,
who suffered his^ea^^p?growr onjfeis, upper^ip, >in
the manner of mustachios, which was considered
as a mark of dignity.
As to the women, they are much whitg^&nany
of them not beinfedarker thanthose in some of the
Southern parts of Europe. They are in general
jtery well looking, and some quite ^ndsorae.
Maquina'§ Jkvourite wife in particular, whjftfwasa
Wickinninish princess, would be considered as a
beautiful wroman in any country- She was un-
commonly well formed, tall,  and of a majestic 74
appearance; her skin remarkably fair for one of
these people, with considerable colour, her features^
handsome, and her eyes black, soft, and languishing; her hair was very long, thick, and
black, as is that of the females in general, which
is much softer than that of the men; in this thejj
take much pride, frequently oiling and plaiting
it carefully into two broad plaits, tying the ends
with a strip of the cloth of the country, and letting
it hang down before on each side of the face.
The women keep their garments much neateil
and cleaner than the men, and are extremely mo-|
dest in their deportment and dress; their mantle,
or Kutsack, which is longer than that of the men,
reaching quite *to their feet, and completely enl
veloping  them,  being tied close under the chinj
and bound with a girdle of the same cloth, or of seal
otter skin around their waists; it has also loose
sleeves which reach to the elbows.    Though fond
of ornamenting their persons, they are by no means1
so partial to paint as the men, merely colouring
their eyebrows black, and drawing a bright red
stripe from each corner of the mouth towards the
ear.    Their ornaments consist chiefly of ear-rings,y
necklaces, bracelets, rings for the fingers and anclesfl
and small  nose jewels, (the latter are, however,
wholly confined to the wives of the king or chiefs,) |
these are principally made out of copper or brassj
':>..  ■■; e   75   .   •
highly polished, and of various forms and sizes;
the nose jewel is usually a small white shell or
bead suspended to a thread.
The wives of the common people frequently
wear for bracelets and ancle rings, strips of the
country cloth or skin of the Metamelth painted in
figures, and those of the king or principal chiefs,
bracelets and necklaces, consisting of a number of
strings of Ife-waw, aij^article much prized by them,
and which makes aj^very handsome appearance.
This Ife-waw, as they term it, is a k|nd of shell
of a dazzling whiteness, and as smooth as ivoryy|||
is of a cylindrical form, in a slight^egree curved,
about the -size of a goose quit], hollow, three inches in length, and gradually tapering to a point,
which is broken off by the natives, as it is taken
from the water; this they afterwards string upon
threads of bark, and sell it by the fathom; it forms
a kind of circulating medium among these nations,
five fathoms being considered as the price of a slave
their most valuable species of property^, Itis^rin-
cipally obtained from the Aitizzarts, a people living
about thirty or forty miles to the Northward, who
collect it from the reefs and sunken rocks with
which their coast abounds, though it is also brought
in considerable quantity from the South. j|
Their mode of taking if has beettShus described to
me :—To one end of a pole is fastened a piece of !
:        Jp-- r -   '   76     '   ~ •■'■■"
plank, in wHfcha considerable number of pine pegs
jare inserted, made sharp at the ends; "above the
plank, in order to sink it, a stone or some weight
is tied, and the other end of the pole suspended to a
long rOpe; this is let down perpendicularly by the
Ife*wawfishers in those places where that substance is found, which, are usually from fifty to
sixty fathoms deep. On finding the bottom, they
raise the^bie up a few feet, and let it fall, this
they1le*jjeat a numbed:of times as if sdtinding, when
they oYaw it*up, and fake off the Ife4xaw which is
found adhering' to the points. This -method of
procuring 'A is very laborious and fa«guiilg, especially is they seldom fake more than two or three
of tlleliShellilllipme, andHequehtly none;
Though the wbmen, as I have1said,- mdlie bitt
i SirSi&i Me-     <:Ma        Watf'tiwmSm
littltnase of paint, the very reverse is 'tnPcifoe? with
the iriedV In decorating their heads and faces\ tjleyr
placeJttl^|ptftcipal prlue, and1 none 4^p%ur most
fashionable beans, when preparing iorja:grandlalI,
can nemoife particular; for I have knowtf Maqui-
na, after having been employed more than an hour
in painting ras face," rub the whbte^off, and re-
commence the operation anew, when n||did hot
entirefyplease him.
The manner in,which they paint themselves fre-
quentiy varies, according' to!the occasion, t>uW iC
oftener is-the niere^ctate "of whim*   The most ■ .i-    m     ?7
usual method is to paint the eye-brows black, in
form of a*half moon, and the face red in small
squares, with the arms and legs and part of the
body red ; sometimes one half of the face is painted
red in squares, and the other black; at others, dotted
with spots, of red and black instead of squares, with
a variety of other devices, such as painting one
half of the face and body red, and tbe other black.
But a method of painting which ^they sometimes
employed, and which they were much more particular in, was by laying on the face a quantity of
bear's grease of about one eighth of an inch thick ;
this they raised up into ridges resembling a small
bead in joiner's work, with a stick prepared for the
purpose, and then painted them red, which gave
the face a very singular appearance. On extraordinary occasions, the king and principal chiefs used
to strew over their faces, after painting, a fine black*
shining powder, procured from some mineral, as
Maquina told me it was got from the rocks. This
they call pelpelih and value it highly, as, in their
opinion, it serves to set off their looks to great
advantage, glittering especially in the sun, like
silver.—This article is brought them in bags by
the Newchemass, a very savage nation who live a
long way to the North, from whom they likewise
receive a superior kind of red paint, a species of
very fine and rich ochre, which they hold in much
h ..        m
U l!
Notwithstanding this custom of painting themselves, they make it^n invariable practice, both
in summer and winter, to bathe once a day, and
sometimes oftener ; but as the paint is put on with
oil, it is not much discomposed thereb^g and
whenever they wish to wash it off, they repair to
some piece of fresh, water and scour themselves
iif. with sand or rushes. I*
In dressing their heads on occasion of a festival
oravisi^Aey are full as particular, and almost
as long, as^n painting.    The hair, after being well
oiled, is carefully gathered upon^the top of>Aeii
head, and secured by a piece of pine or spruce
bough, w.ith the green leaves upon it.    Aftej^ha^j^
ing it properly fixed in this manner^ the king and
principal chiefs used to strew all over it the white
down obtained from a species of large brown eagle,
which abounds on this coast, and which they are
very^articular^jp,arranging so as not|4o have a
single feather out of ^place, occasionally wetting
the hair to make it adhere.    Ibis, together wit^
the bough,   which  is sometimes of  considerable
size, and stuck over with feathers .by means $1
turpentine, gives tbem a very singular and grotesque  appearance,   which they, however, think
very becoming* and the first thing they do on
learning the arrival of strangers, is to go and (It
corate themselves in this manner. M 7
The men also wear bracelets of painted leather
or/copper, atod large ear-ring's of the latter, but
ti^e ornament   on which they appear to set the
most value, is the nose-jewel, if such an' appella-
tiou may be given to tHe wooden stick which some
of them employ for ^ttiis purpose.    The king and
^jpfefs, however,   wfcar them of a different form,
being either small piece* of polished copper or brass,
of which I made many for them, in tbe shap^of
hearts and  diamonds,   or a twisted conical flletl
about half an inch in length of a blueish colour and
very bright,   which is brought from the< South.
These are supsended by a small wire or string to the
hole, in the gristle of the nose, which is formed in
infancy, 6^ boreing it with a pin, the hole being
afterwards enlarged by the repeated  insertion of
.wooden pegs of an increased size, until it becomes
about the diameter of a pipe stem,   though some
have them of a size nearly sufficient to admit the
*4fttie finger*
The common class who cannot readily procure
$*e more expensive jewels that I have mentioned,
substitute for them, usually, a smooll^yimd stick,
some of which are of an almost incredible length,
for I have seen them projecting not less than eight
er nine inches*beyond the face on each side; this
is^lftade fast, or secured in its place by little wedges
on each side of it. These sprit-sail-yard fellows,
as my messmate used to call them, when rigged
h 2 m ■jf ■   '  80 '
out in this manner, made quite a strange show, and
it was his delight, whenever he saw one of them
coming towards us with an air of consequence proportioned to the length of his stick, to put up his
hand suddenly as he was passing him, so as to
strike the stick, in order, as he said, to brace him
up sharp to the wind; this used to make them
very angry, but nothing was more remote from
Thompson's ideas than a wish to cultivate their
The natives of Nootka appear to have but little
inclination for the chace, though some of them were
expert matiksmen, and used sometimes to shoot
ducks and geese, but the seal arid the. sea-otter
form the principal objects of their hunting, particularly the latter. ||| £&j
Of tins animal, so much noted for its valuable
skin, the following description may not be uninteresting : The sea-otter is nearly five feet in
length, exclusive of the tail, which is about twelve
inches, and is very thick and broad where it joins
the body, but gradually tapers to the end, which is
tipped with white. The colour'of the rest is a shining silky black, with the exception of a broad white
stripe on the top of the head. Nothing can be
more beautiful than one of these animals when seen
swimming, especially when on the look out for any
object.   At such times it raises its head quite above 81
the surface, and the contrast between the shining
black and the whiffc, together with its sharp ears
and a long tuft of hair rising from the middle of its
forehead, which looks like three small horns, render it quite a novel and attractive object. They
are in general very tame, and will permit a canoe
or boat to approach very near before they dive. I
was told, however, that, they are become much
more shy since they have been accustomed to shoot
them with muskets, then when they used only
The skin is held in great estimation in China,
*more especially that of the tail, the fur of which is
finer and closer set than that oh the bodj¥^ This is
always cut off and sold separately by the natives.
The value of a skin is determined by its size, that
being considered as a prime skiff which wlB reach,
in length, from a man's ^cttfn to his feet. The food
of the sea-otter is fish, which he ii very dexterous
in taking, being an excellent swimmer, wfthvfeet
wefibed Bike those of a goose. They appear tofibe
wholly confined to the sea coast, at least to thtfipt
water. They have usually1 three or four yrfiffg at
a time, but 1 know not how often theyr breed, nor
in what place they deposit their young, though
?f%ave frequently seen fhem swimming arounoPthe
mother, when no larger than rats, elire flesh is
eaten by the natives, cooked in their usuafmodj^by
H 3 Wf H4
^M^l anfis far pr||^M^yp^of A seal, of
which th^|make fl|u^:;ac^i|i#
^ttlit^not great' hunters, there are few people
more^xpert in fishing^ Their lines are generally
made froi^^fifesinew^f thepvbale, and are ■ ex-
^|mel| stron^^^^te hook, H^^sua|^«nake
use o^a straight piece of hard wood,||n the lower' I
part of which is inserted and well secured, with
^Um|'- otr^lale^bew,^^^^>f bone. ^m^te|very
■ shaf|||at ;||^^^^tnd bear$l||§ b^^^iseayto
^ak^dret^^^bo^^roiip^^' whi||||iSey preferred, not only a^^ to break, Ifeiut
.more certain of securing the fish. Cod,Jpalibut,
and other sea,^fisH'^ere^ot. only caught by them
with %>okat bulp^tesalmoi^^^ti
'/,lj£i!!Q§ifffi&. pF^SlE'.' "—-V"r- -;.; S ee-: :">.:' ,r■&;;^e:■.,.'.: :
^o take t]|is latter fisr^l^J prifesepror^pw-
ing method:    One person seats himself in a small
canoe, and baiting his hook with a||prat|^hich
they are always careful to procure as fresh as possible, fastens his line to theJianale^Kth^paddle; !
this, as he plies it. ij| thf|water#keeps^|he fish in
I constant motion, ^ as to give it the appearance of
life, which rH^palmon seeing||fctp8 apit, and is
instantly hooked^nu^by ^i^idden and dexterous
motion of the paddle^rawn on board.    I have
known some of the native|§ake no le§s than eight
or ten salmon of a morning^a this manner, anil have seen from twenty to thirty canoes at a time isr
Friendly Cove thus employed.    p|
They are likewise little less skilfulirl|taking the
whale. This they kill with a kind of javelin or
harpoon, thus constructed and fitted—The barbs
are formed of bone, which are sharpened on the
outer side, and hollowed within, for the purpose
of forming a socket for the staff; these are then
secu^llifirmly together with a whale sinew, the
point being fitted so as to receive a piece ot muscle
shell, which is ground to a very sharp edge* and
secured in its place by means of turpentine. To
this head or prong is fastened a strong line of whale
sinew^|iibbut nine feet in lengthy tirthe end of
whichis tied a bark rope from fifty to sixty fathoms
long^Jbaving from twenty to thirty seal-skin floats
or buoys, attached to- it at certain intervals, in
order to check the motion of tfie whale, and obstruct his diving. In the socket of the harpoon a
staff or pole of about ten feet long, gradually tapering fromj$he middle to each end, is placed; this
the harpooner holds in his hand, in order to strike
the whale, and immediately detaches it as soon as
the fish is struck.
The whale is considered as the king's fish,-and
no other person, when he is present, is permitted to
touch him, until the royal harpoon has'fijgMrawn
his blood, however near he may approach;   and Si
it would be considered almost as sacrilege for any
of the common people to strike a whale, before he
is killed, particularly if any of the chiefs should be
present. They also kill the porpoise and sea cow
with harpoons, but this inferior game is not inter-
dieted the lower class..
With regard to their canoes, some of the handV
soraest to be found on the whole coast are made at
Nootka, though very fine ones are brought by the
Wickininish and the Kla-iz-zarts; who have them
more highly ornamented. They are of all sizes,
from such as are capable of holding only one person to| their largest war canoes, which will carry
forty men, and are extremely light. Of these, the
largest of any that I ever saw, was one belonging
to Macquina, which I measured, and found to be
forty4wo feet six inches in length at the bottom,
and fmty-six feet from stem to stern. These are
made of pine hollowed out from a tree with their
chisels solely, which are about three inches broad
and six in length, and set into a handle of very
hard wood.
This instrument was formerly made of flintf or
some hard stone ground down to as sharp an edge
as possible, but since they have learned the use of
iron, they have almost all of them of thaAietal;
Instead of a mallet for staking this chisel, tfcey
make use of a smooth round atone, which they hold • 85        ;      %.
in the palm of the hand. With this same awkward instrument, they not only excavate their
eanoes and trays, and smooth their plank, but cut
down such trees as they want, either for building,
fuel, or other purposes, a labour which is mostly
done by their slaves.
Tbe felling of trees, as practised by them, isa
slow and most tedious process, three of them being
generally from two to three days in cutting down-a
large one; yet so attached were they to their own
method, that notwithstanding they saw Thompson
frequently with one of our axes, of which there
was a number saved, fell a tree in less time than
they could have gone round it with their chisels,
still they could not be persuaded to make use of
them. >
* ■ lfi$ ft
After hollowing out their canoes, which they do
very neatly; they fashion the outside, and slightly
burn it for the purpose of removing any splinters
or small points that might obstruct its passage
through the water, after which they rub it over
thoroughly with rushes or coarse mats, in order to
smooth it, which not only renders it almost as
smooth as glass, but forms a better security for it
from the weather; this operation of burning and
rubbing down the bottoms of their canoes, is prae-
tised as often as they acquire any considerable
'« degree of roughness from use. The* outside,
this means, becomes quite Mack, and to complete
their work, thefapajnt the inside of a bright red,
with ochre, or nome other similar substance; the
prows and sterns are almost always ornamented
with figures of ducks, or some other kind of bird,
the former being so fashioned as to represent the
head $ and the latter the tail; these are separate
pieces from the canoe, and are fastened to it with
small flexible twigs or bark cord.
Some of these canoes, particularly those employed in whaling, which will hold about ten men, are
ornamented within about two iuches below the gunwale,; with two parallel lines on each side of very
small white shells, running fore and aft, which has
a Jvery pretty effect. Their war canoes have no
ornament^of jhis kind, butjare painted ^in®|m-^«.t-
side with figures in white chalk, representing
eagles, whales, human heads, &c. They are very
dexterous in the use of their paddles, which are
^mBStff neatly wrought, and are five feet long, with a
short handle, and a blade seven inches broad in the
middle, tapering to a sharp point. With these they
will make a canoe skjin very swiftly on. the water,
with scarcely any noise, while they keep time to the
stroke of the paddle with their songs. g|p$:
With regard to these, they have a number which Ihey sing on various occasions ; as war,* whaling,
and fishing, at their marriages and feasts, and at
public festivals or solemnities.    The language of
the most of these appears to be very different, in
many respects, from that used in their  common
conversation^ which leads .me to believe, either
that they have a different mode of expressing themselves in poetry,§k>r that they borrow their songs
from their neighbours; and what the more particularly induces  me to the latter opinion is,   that
whenever any of the Newchemass, a  people from
the Northward, and  who speak a very different
language, arrived, they used to tell me that they
expected a new song, and were almost always sure
to have one.
Their tunes are generally soft and plaintive, and
^though not possessing great variety, are not defici-
ent in harmony.—Their singing is generally accompanied with several rude kinds of*instrumental
music; among the most prominent of which in a
kind of a drum. This is nothing more than a long
plank hollowed oat on the under side and made
quite thin, which is beat upon by a stick of about
a foot long, and renders a sound not unlike beating
on the head of an empty cask, but much louder.
But the two most favourite instruments are the
* A specimen of one of their war songs will be found at
the end of this work* ell nil
mttle and the pipe or whistle; these are however
only used by the king, the chiefs, or some particular persons ; the former is made of o*ried seal-skinf
so as to represent a fish, and is .filled with anum-
ber of small smooth pebbles, it has a short handle
and is painted red. The whistle is made of bone^
generally the leg of a deer, it iflshort^bttt emits a
very shrill sound. They have likewise another
kind of music, which they make use of in dancing,
ingfche manner of castanets, this is produced by^j
number of muscle or cockle shells tied together
and shaken to a kind of tune, which isaccori^^?
nied with the voice.
Their slaves, as 1 have observed, form their
most valuable species of property. These are of
both sexes, being either captives taken by themselves in war, or purchased from the neighbouring
tribes, and who reside in the same house, forming
as it were a part of the family, are usually kindly
treated, eat of the same food, and live as well as
their masters. They are compelled however at
times to labour severely j as not only all the menial
offices are performed by them, such as bringing water, cutting woodland a variety of others, but they
are obliged to make the canoes, to assist in building and repairing the houses, to supply their masters with fish, and to attend them in war and to
fight for them.       a
111 None but the king and chiefs have slaves, the
common people being prevented from holding them
either from their inability to purchase them, or as I
am ratherinclined to think from its being considered
as the privilege of the former alone to have them,
especially as ail those made prisoners in war belong
either to the king or the chiefs, who have captured
them, each one holding such as have been taken by
himself or his slaves. There is probably howrever
some littletdistinction in favor of the king, who is
always the commander of the expedition, as Ma-
quioak had nearly fifty, male and female, in his
house, a number constituting about one half of its
inhabitants, comprehending those obtained by war
ancNfmrchase, whereas none of the other chiefs had
more than twelve, The females are employed
principally in manufacturing cloth, in cooking,
eollectiugSberries, &c. and with regard to food and
living in general have not a much harder lot than
their mistresses, the principal difference consisting,
in these poor unfortunate creatures being considered
as free to any one, their masters prostituting them
whenever they think proper for the purpose of gain.
In this way many of them are brought on boardlttie
ships and offered to the crews, from whence an opinion appears to have been formed by some-of our
navigators, injurious to the chastity of their females, than which nothing can be more generalry*
untrue, as perhaps in no part of the wrorld is that
virtue more prized. 90
The houses at Neotka as already stated, are
about twenty, without comprising those inhabited
by the Klahars, a small tribe that has been conquered and incoporated into that of Nootka, though
they must be, considered as in a state of vassalage
as they are not permitted to have any chiefs among
them, and live by themselves in a cluster of small
houses at a little distance from the village. The
Nootka tribe which consists of about five hundred
warriors, is not only more numerous than almost
any of the neighbouring tribes, but far exceeds them
in the strength and martial spirit of its people; and
in fact there are but few nations within a hundred
miles either to the North or South but are considered
as tributary to them.
In giving some account of the tribes that were
accustomed to visit Nootka, I shall commence at
the Southward with the JKla-izzarts, and the Wick-
ininish, premising that in point of personal appearance there prevails a wonderful diversity between
the various tribes on the coast, with the exception
of the feet and legs, which are badly shaped in
almost all of them from their practice of sitting pa
them. m
The Kla-iz-zarts are a numerous and powerful
tribe, living nearly three hundred miles to the South
and are said to consist of more than a thousand war-
riors.   They appear to be more civilized than any of the others, being better and more neatly dressed,
more mild and affable in their manners, remarkable
for their sprightliness and vivacity, and celebrated
for their singing and dancing. They exibit also
greater marks o| improvement in whatever is
wrought by them; their canoes though not superior
to those of Nootka in point of form and lightness,
are more highly ornamented, and their weapons
and tools of every kind have a much higher finish
and display more skill in the workmanship. Their
cast of countenence is very differentjjrom that of
the Noolkians, their faces being very broad, with
a less prominent nose and smaller eyes, and the top
of the head flattened as if it had been pressed down
with a weight. Their complexion is also much
ikirer, and their stature shorter, though they are
well formed and strongly set.
They have a custom which appears to be peculiar
to them, as I never observed it in any of the other
tribes, which is to pluck out not only their beards,
and the hair from their bodies, but also their eyebrows, so as not to leave a vestige remaining.
They were also in general more skilful in painting
and decorating themselves, and I have seen some of
them with no less than a dozen holes i$each of their
ears to which were suspended strings of small beads
about two inches in length. Their language is the
same as spoken at Nootka, but their pronunciation
is much more'hoarse and guttural.   These people
I 2 m
92 .'   •
are not only very expert in whaling, but are great
hunters, of the sea otter and other animals, with
which their country is said to abound, and the Metamelth a large animal of the deer kind, the skin of
which I. have already spoken of, another of a light
grey colour, with very fine hair from which tliasr,
manufacture a handsome cloth,eftbe beaver, andjfj
species of large wild cat, or tyger cat.
The Wickinnish, their neighbours on the North,
are about two hundred miles from Nootka. They
area robust strong and wrarlike people, but considered by the Nootkians as their inferiors in courage.
This tribe is more numerous than that of Nootka,
amounting to between s£x and seven hundred warriors., Tbough not so Xcivilizect_as theJKJa-iz-^arts
and less skilful in their manufactures, like them
they employ themselves in hunting as well as in
whaling and fisbing. Their faces are broad but less
so than the Kla-iz-zarts, with a darker complexion,
and a much less open and pleasing expression of
countenance, while their heads present a very different form, being pressed in at the sides and lengthened towards the top, somewhat in the shape of a
sugar loaf. These people are very frequent visitors
at Nootka^a close friendship subsisting hetween
the two nations, Maquina's Arcomah, or Queen,
Y-ya-tintla-no, being the daughter of the Wickinninish king.
• t .   •    Jjpff
The Kla-oo-quates adjoiniag them on the North
are much less numerous, their force not exceeding
four hundred fighting men; they are also behind
them in the arts of life. These are a fierce, bold,
and enterprizing people, and there were none that
visited Nootka, whom Maquina used to be more on
his guard against, or viewed with so much suspicion. The Eshquates are about the same number;
these are*#considered as tributary to Maquina:
^te&jbr ;cpasf^aboundsj with rivers, creeks, and
marshes. gf|
To the North the nearest tribe of any importance
is the Aitizzarts; these however do not exceed
three hundred warriors. In appearance they greatly
resemble tbe people of Nootka, to whom they are
considered as tributary, their manners, dress, and
style of living also being very similar. They reside
at about forty miles distance up the sound. A considerable way farther to the northward are the
Cayuquets% these are a much more numerous tribe
than tfiat of Nootka but thought by the latter to be
deficient in courage and martial spirit, Maquina
having frequently told me that their hearts were
a little like those of birds. U
There are also both at the North and South
many other intervening tribes, but in general
small hi nuniber and insignificant, all of whom
as well as the above mentioned speak the same 94
m l
ill :
language.   But the Newrchemass who come from
a great way to the Northward,jjand from some
distance inland, as I was told by Maquina, speak
quite a different languageJP although   it is   well
understood by those of Nootka*   These were the
most savage looking and ugly men that I ever saw^g
their complexion being much darker, theie: staturjtre
shorter, and their hair coarser, than that of the dper
nations, and their dress and appearance dirty in an
extreme.    They wear their beards longMike Jews,
and have a very morose and surly  countenace. I
Their usual dress is a Kootsuk made of wolf skipip
with a number of the tails attached to it, of which
I have seen no less than ten on one garment, banging from the top to the bottom ; though the^lome-
iimes wTear a similar mantle of bark cloth, of a much
coarser texture than that of Nootka, the%S^ginal
of which appears to be the same, though from their
very great filthiness it was almost impossible to discover what it had been.
Their mode of dressing their hair also varies essentially from that of the other tribes, for they
suffer that on the back of the head to hang loose,
and bind the other over theilfforeheads in the man-
nerofa fillett,ewith a strip^f their country cloth,
ornamented with small white shells* Their weapons are the Cheetoolth, or war-club, which is
made from whale bone, daggers, bow and arrows,
and a kind of spear pointed with bone or copper*
lfc >
They brought with them no furs for sale excepting
a   few wolf skins, their  merchandize consisting
principally of the black shining mineral called pel-
peth, and the fine rid paint which they carefully
kept in close mat bags, some small dried salmon,
clams, and roes of fish, with occasionally a little
coarse matting cloth.    They were accustomed to
remain a much longer time at Nootka than the other
tribes, in order to recover from the fatigue of a
long journey, part of which wras over land, and on
these occasions taught their songs toeur savages*
*The trade of most of the other tribes with Nootka, was principajly train oil, seal or whale's blubber^ fish fresh or dried, herring or salmon spawn,
clams, and muscles, and the yanrn, a species of
fruit which impressed and dried, cloth, sea otter
skins, and slaves.    From the Aitizzarts, and the
Caynquets^i particularly  the   former,    the   best
I-whawand in the greatest quantities was obtained.
The Eshquates furnished us with wild ducks and
geese,  particularly the latter.    The Wickininish
and Kla-iz-zarts brought to market many slaves,
the best sea otter skins, great quantities  of oil,
whale sinew, %nd#cakes of  the yama,   highly
ornamented  canoes, some I-whaw, red ochre and
pelpeth of an inferior quality to thlfet obtained from
thee Newchemass£'\ but particularly the so much
valued Metamelth, and an excellant root called by
j the Kla-iz-zarts Quawnoose,   This is the size of a ■f   96
small onion, but rather longer, being of a tapering
form like a pear, and of a brownish colour. It is
cooked by steam, is always brought in baskets
ready prepared for eating, and is in truth a very
fine vegetable, being sweet, mealy and of a most
agreeable flavour. It was highly esteemed by the
natives who used to eat it as they.did every thing
else with train oil. From the Kla-ijR-zarts was
also received, though in no great quantity^ a cloth
manufactured by them from the fur already spoken
of, which feels like wool and is of a grey Ihlour.
Many of the articles thus brought, particularly
the provisions, were considered as presents, or
tributary offerings, but this must be viewed as little
more than a nominal acknowledgement of superiority, as they rarely failed to get the full amount of
the value of their presents. I have known eighteen
of the great tubs, in which thef|keep their provisions, filled with spawn brought in this way. On
these occasions a great feast is always made, to
which not only the strangers, but the whole village
men, women, ^and children are generally invited,
*and I have seen five of the largest tubs employed
at such time, in cooking at the king's house. At
these feasts they generally indulge in eating to an
excess, making up in this respect for their want of
iniebrating liquors, which they know no method of
preparing in any form, their oidy drinkLbeiag:
water. fm
> . W " • w ■■■■
Whenever they came to visit or trade, it wa*
their general custom, to stop a few miles distant
under the lee of some bluff or rock, and rig themselves out in their best manner, by painting and
dressing their heads. On their first coming on shore
they were invitecrHo eat by the king, when they
brought to him such articles as he wantsd, after
which the rest of the inhabitants were permitted to
purchase, the strangers being careful to keep them
in their canoes until sold, under strict guard to
prevent their being stolen, the disposition of these
people for thieving being so great, tftat it is necessa-
ry to keep a watchful eye npon#§hem.
This was their usual mode of traffick, but whenever they wished to purchase any particular object,
as for instance, a certain slave, or some other thing
of wbiohthoy—were._:v^ry—dosivous, the canoe that
came for this purpose would lie off a little distance
from the shore, and a kind of ambassador or representative of the king or chief by whom it was sent,
dressed in their best manner, and with his head
covered with the white down, would rise, and after
making known the object of his mission in a pom- i
pous speech, hold up specimens of such articles mp[
he was instructed to offer in payment, mentioning
the number or quantity of each, when if the bargain was concluded, the exchange was immediately
made* 4& On their visits of friendship or traffic, the chiefs
alone used to sleep on shore, this was generally
at the house of the king or the head chief, the others
passing the night on board of their canoes, which
was done not only for the preservation of their
property, but because|^hey were not permitted to
remain on shore, lest they might excite some dis-
fturbauce or commit depredations.
All these people generally go armed, the common class wearing only a dagger suspended from
their neck behind, with a string of metamelth, and
sometimes thrust in their girdles. Ths chiefs, in
addition to the dagger, carry the cheetolth, or war
club suspended in the same manner beneath their
mantles; this in the hands of a strong man, is a
powerful weapon, in the management of which,
some^rthe older chiefs are very dgxterouSt It is
made from the bone of a whale, and is very heavy.
The blade is about eighteen inches long and three
broad, till it approaches near the point, where it
expands to the breadth of four inches. In the
middle, from whence it slopes off gradually to
an edge on each side, it is from one to two inches
in thickness* This blade is usually covered with
figures of the sun and moon, a man's head, &c.
and the hilt, which is made to represent the head
of a man or some animal, is curiously set with
small white shells, and has a band of metamelth •
fastened to it in order to sling it over the shoulder.
Some of the tribes have also a kind of spear headed
with copper or the bone of the sting ray, which is a
dangerous weapon; this is, however, not usual,
and only carried by the chiefs. The bow and
arrow are still used by a few, but since the introduction of fire-arms among them, this weapon has
been mostly laid aside.
But to return to opr unhappy situation. Though*
my comrade and myself fared as well, and even
better than we could have expected among these
people, considering their customs and mode of living,
yet our feass lest no ship would come to our release,
and that we should never more behold a Christian
country, were to us a source of constant painif Our
principal consolation in this gloomy state, was to
go on Sundays, whenever the weather would permit, to the borders of a fresh water pond, about a
mile from the village, where, after bathing, and
putting on clean clothes, we would seat ourselves
under the shade of a beautiful pine, while I read
some chapters in the Bible, and the prayers appointed by our Church for the day, ending our
devotions with a fervent prayer to the Almighty,
that he would deign still to watch over and preserve our lives, rescue us from the hands of the
savages, and permit us once more to behold a Christian land. •• li    -    100 ■  * ■
In this manner were the greater part of our Sundays passed at Nootka; and I felt grateful to heaven, that amidst our other sufferings, we were at
least allowed the pleasure of offerings our devotions unmolested, for Maquina, on »y explaining
to him aSwell as was in my power the reason of
our thus retiring at this time, far from objecting,
readily consented to it.    Thepoud above mentioned
was small, not more than a quarter of a mile inuj
.breadth, and of no great length, the water being|
very clear, though not of great depth, and bordered by a beautiful forest of pine, fir, elm, and
and beach,   free from bushes  and  underwood—a
most delightful retreat, which was rendered still
more attractive by a great number of birds that
frequented it, particularly the humming bird.    Thither we used to go to wvash our clothes, and felt
secure from any intrusion from the natives, as they
rarely visited it, except for the purpose of cleansing
themselves of their paint.    J|lf
.In July we at length thought that the hope of
delivery we had so long anxiously indulged, was
on the point of being gratified. A ship appeared
in the offing; but^alas! our fond hopes vanished
almost as soon as formed; for instead of standing
in for the shore she passed to the northward, and
soon disappeared. I shall not attempt to describe
our disappointment—my heart gunk within, me,|aad 101
I felt as though it was my destiny never more to
behold- a Christian face. Four days after there
occurred a tremendous storm of thunder and lightning, during which the natives manifested great
alarm and terror, the whole tribe hurrying to Maquina's house, where, instead of keeping within,
they seated themselves on the roof, amid the se-
verest of the tempest, drumming upon the boards,
and looking up to heaven, while the king beat the
long hollow plank, singing, and, as he afterwards
told me, begging Quahoofze, the name they give
to God, not to kill them, in which he was accompanied by the whole tribe; this singing and drumming was continued until the storm abated.
As the summer drew near its close, we began to
suffer from the frequent want of food, which was principally owing to Maquina and the chiefs being Out
whaling, in which he would not permit Thompson
and myself to join, lest we should make our escape
to some of the neighbouring tribes. At these times
the women seldom or ever cook any provision, and
we were often hungry, but were sometimes fortunate enough to procure secretly, a piece of salmon,
'some other fish, spawn, or even blubber, which,
by boiling in salt water, with a few onions and
turnips, the remains of the Spanish garden, or
young nettles or other herbs, furnished us a delicious repast in private.
H   k m In the mean fee, we frequently received accounts from the tribes who came to Nootka, both
from the North and South, of there being vessels
on the coast, and were advised^ by their chiefs to
make our escape, who also promised us their aid,
and to put us on board. These stories, however,
as 1 afterwards learned, were almost all of them)
without any foundation, and ^merely invented by
these people with a view to get us into their power,
in order to make slaves of us themselves, or to sell
us to others.
But I was still more.strongly solicited to leave
Nootka by a woman.    This was a Wickinninish
princess, a younger sister of Maquina's wife, who
was there on a visit.    I had the good fortune, if it
may be* so called, to become quite a favourite with
bef.    She appeared much einterestedgforme—asked
me  many questions respecting  my country, if I
had a mother and sister at home, and if they would,
not grieve for -my absence.    Her complexion was
fairer than that of the Women in general, and her
features more regular, and she would have been
quite handsome had it not been for a defect in one
of her eyes, the sight of which had been injured by
some accident, the reason, as Maquina told me,
why she had not been married, a defect of this kind
being; by these savages considered as  almost au
insuperable objection.    She urged me repeatedly to
return with her, telling me that the Wickinninish 10?
were much better than the Nootkians; that har
father would treat me more kindly than Maquina,
give me better food and clothes, and finally put
me on board one of my own country vessels. I
felt, however, little disposed to accompany her,
considering my situation with Maquina full as-
eligible as it would be with Wickinninish, if not
better, notwithstanding all she said to the contrary.
On the 3d of September, the whole tribe quitted
Nootka, according to their constant practice, in
order to pass the autumn and winter at Tashees
and Cooptee, the latter lying aDourrmrt^w«w-ay
the Sound, in a deep bay, the navigation of which
is very dangerous, from the great number of reefs
and rocks with which it abounds. On these occasions every thing is taken with them, even the
planks of their houses, in order to cover their new
dwellings. To an European, such a removal exhibits a scene quite novel and strange : canoes piled
up with boards and boxes, and filled with men,
women and children, of all ranks and sizes, making
the air resound with their cries and songs.
At these times, as well as when they have occasion to go some distance from their houses, tbe
infants are usually suspended across the mother's
shoulders, in a kind of cradle or hammock, formed
IK K % 104
of bark, of about six inches in depth, and of tbe
length of the child, by means of a leather band
inserted through loops on its edges; this they also
keep them in when at home, in order to preserve
them in a straight position, and prevent any distortion of the limbs, most probably a principal
cause of these people being so seldom deformed or
crooked. tjjjjj
The long boat of our ship having been repaired
and furnished with a sail by Thompson, Maquina
gave us the direction of it, we being better acquainted with managing it than his people, and
^lienoading her as deep as she could swim, we proceeded in company with them to the North, quitting
Nootka with heavy hearts, as we could entertain
no hopes of release until our return, no ships
ever coming to that part of the coast. Passing Cooptee, which is situated on the southern bank, just
within the mouth of a small river flowing from
the east in a narrow valley at the foot of a mountain,
we proceeded about fifteen miles up this stream to
Tashees, between a range of lofty hills on each side,
which extend a great distance inland, and are
covered with the finest forest trees of the country.
Immediately on our arrival, we all went to work
very diligently in covering the houses with tbe
planks we had brought, the fraices being ready
erected, these people never pretending to remove
the timber.   In a very short time the work waa #' 105   ,
eompleted, and we were established in our new
Tashees is pleasantly situated and in a most secure position from the winter storms, in a small
vale or hollow on the south shore, at the foot of a
mountain.    The spot on which it stands is level,
and the soil, very fine, the country in its vicinity
abounding with the most romantic views, charmingly diversified, and fine streams of water falling
in beautiful cascades from  the mountains.    The
river at this place is about twenty rodsin width,
and, in its deepest part, from nine to twelve feet.
This village is the extreme point of navigation, as
immediately beyond, the river becomes much more
shallow, and is broken into falls and rapids.    The
houses here are placed in a line like those at Nootka, but closer together, the situation being more
confined, they are also smaller, in consequence of
which, we were much crowded, and incommoded
for room*.
The principal object in coming to this place, is
the facility it affords these people of providing their
winter stock of provisions, wyich consists principally of salmon, and the spawn of that fish; to
which may be added herrings and sprats, and herring
spawn. The latter, however, is always procured
by them at Nootka, previous to their quitting it.
At the seasons of spawning, which are earl^rja
* K 3 If ;
spring and the last of August, they collect a great
quantity of pine branches, which they place in dif*
ferent parts of the Cove at the depth of about ten
feet, and secure them by means of heavy stones.
On  these the herring deposit their spawn in immense quantities ; the bushes are then taken up,
the spawn stripped from the branches, and after
being washed and freed from the pine leaves by the
women, is dried'and put up in baskets for use.    It
is considered as their greatest delicacy, and eaten
both cooked and raw : in the former case, being
boiled and eaten with train oil, and in the latter,
mixed up with cold water alone.
The salmon are taken at Tashees, principally in
pots or wears.    Their method of taking them in I
wears is thus :—A pot of twenty feet in length,
and from four to five feet diameter at the mouth, is
formed of a great number of pine splinters which
are strongly secured, an inch and a half from each
other, by means of hoops made of flexible twigs,
and placed abought eight inches apart.   At the end
it tapers almost to a point, near which is a'small
wicker door, for the purpose of taking out the fish.
This pot or wear b  placed at the foot of a fall or
rapid, where the water is not very deep, and the
fish driven from above with long poles, are intercepted and caught in the wear, from whence they are
taken into the canoes.    In this manner I have seen
more than seven, hundred salmon caught in the
■rl!i! space of fifteen minutes. *I have also sometimes*
known a few of the striped bass taken in this man-
ner, but rarely.
At such times there is great feasting and merriment
among them. The women and female slaves being
busily employed in cooking, or in curing the fish for
their winter stock, which is done by cutting off the
heads and tails splitting them, taking out the back
bone, and hanging them up in their houses to dry.
They also dry the halibut and cpd, but these instead of curing whole, they cut up into small
pieces for that purpose, and expose to the sun.
The spawn of the salmon, which is a principal
article of their provision, they take out, and without any other preparation, throw it into their tubs,
where they leave it-to stand and ferment, for
though they frequently eat it fresh, they esteem it
much more when it has acquired a strong taste, and
one of the greatest favours they can confer on any
person, is to invite him to eat Quakamiss, the
name they give this food, though scarcely any
thing can be more repugnant to an European palate,
than it is in this state; and whenever they took it
out of these large receptacles, -which they are
always careful to fill, such was the stench which it
exhaled, on being moved, that it was almost impossible for me to abideit, even after habit, had in a
great degree dulled the delicacy of my senses.—
When boiled it became ^ss offensive, thought! f.h-
still retained much of the putrid smell and something of the taste.
Such is the immense quana^iojthese fish, and
they are taken with such facility, that I have
known upwards of twenty-five hundred brought into
Maquina's house at once, and at one of their great
feasts, have seen one hundred or more cooked in
one of their largest tubs. yjjjjjM
I used frequently to go out with Maquina upon
these fishing parties, and was always sure to receive a handsome present of salmon, which I had
the privilege of calling mine; I also went with him
several times in a canoe, to strike the salmon,
which I have attempted to do myself, but could
never succeed, it requiring a degree of adroitness
that I d;d i^ot possess. I wa&aiso permitted to go
out with a gun, and was several times very successful in shooting wild ducks and teal, which are
very numerous here, though rather shy. These
they cooked in their usual manner, by boiling,
without any farther dressing than skinning them.
In many respects, however, our situation was
less pleasant here than at Nootka. We were
more incommoded for room, the houses not being
so spacious, nor so well arranged, and as it was
coldeu, we were compelled to be much more within
doors.    We, however, did not neglect on Sundays, 109
when the weather^ould admit, to retire into the |
woods, and by the side of some stream, after bathing, return our.thanks to God for preserving us,
and offer up to him our customary devotions.
I was, however, very apprehensive, soon after
our arrival at this place, that I should be deprived
of the satisfaction of keeping my journal, as Maquina one day observing me writing inquired of
me what I was doing:, and when I endeavoured
to explain it, by telling him that I wras keeping an
account of the weather, he said it was not so, and
that I was speaking bad about him, and telling
how he had taken our ship and killed the crew, so
as to inform my countrymen, and that if he ever
saw m^writing#1 it again, he would throw it
into the fire. I was much rejoiced that he did/
no more than threaten, and became very cautious
afterwards not to let him see me write.
Not long afte&I finished some daggers for him,
^!*ilkh I polished highly ; these pleased him much,
and he gave me directions to make a cheetuoilh, ia
which I succeeded so far to his satisfaction, that he
gave me a present of cloth sufficient to make me a
complete suit of raiment, besides other things.
Thompson, also, who bad become rather more of a
favourite U\<xu formerly, since he had made a tine
sail for his canoe, and some garments for him out
ef European cloth, about this time completed as- II*
other, which was thought by the savages a most
superb dress.    This was a Kootsuk or mantle, a
fathom square, made entirely of European  vest
patterns of the gayest colours.    These were sewed
together, in a manner to make the best show, and
bound with a deep trimming of the finest otter-
ski|^ with which the arm-holes were also bordered;
while the bottom was farther embellished with five
or six rows of gilt but tons, placed as near as possible to each other.    Nothing could exceed the pride
of Maquina when he first put on this royal robe,
decorated like the coat of Joseph, with all  the
colours of the rainbow, and  glittering with  the
buttons, which as he strutted about made a tinkling, while he repeatedly esecjaimed, in a transport
of exultation, Klew shish Katsuk—mick hum alack
uWoo^a.    A fine garment-*~Nootka can't  make
them. &
Maquina, who knew that the chiefs of the tribes
who came to visit us, had endeavoured to persuade me to escape, frequently cautioned me not
to listen to them, saying that should I make the
attempt, and he were to take me, he should certainly prut me to death.    While here he gave me a
book in which I found the names of seven persons!
belonging to the ship Manchester, of Philadelphia,!
Captain Brian, viz.—Daniel Smith, Lewis Gillon,
James Tom, Clark, Johnson, Ben and Jack. These
men, as Maquina informed me, ran away frordfete :|f;  ;f      k     111       ''■:'■*      :
ship, and came to him, but that six of them soon
after went off in the night, with an intention to go
to |he Wickinninish, but were stopped by the Esh-
quiates, and sent back to him, and that he ordered
them to be put to death; and a most cruel death
it was, as I was told by one of the natives, four
men holding one of them on the ground, and forcing
open his mouth, while they choaked him by ramming stones down his throat.      pf
As to Jack, the boy, who made no attempt fo go
off, Maquina afterwards sold him to the Wickinninish. I was informed by the princess ¥uqua9
that he was quite a small boy, who cried a great
deal, being pu#to hard Ia6oup3%ood his strength
by the natives, in cutting wood and bringing water,
and that when he heard of the murder of our crew,
it had such an effect on him, that he fell sick and
died shortly after. On learning the melancholy
|j||ie of this unfortunate lad, it again a wakened in my
bosom those feelings that I had experienced at the
shocking death of my poor comrades.
The king finding that I was desirous of learning
their language, was much delighted, andlftook
great pleasure in conversing with uie. j On one of
these occasions, he explained to me his reasons for
cutting off our ship, saying that he bore no ill will
to mji countrymen, but that he had been several
j times treated very ill by them.   The first injury of * lia m
which he bad Ca«b to complain, was done him by
a Captain Tawnington, who commanded a schooner
which passed a winter at Friendly Cove, where he
wras well treated by the inhabitants.    This man
taking advantage of Maquina's absence, who had
gone to the Wickinninish to procure a wife, armed
himself and crew, and entered the house where there
were none but women, whom he threw into the
greatest consternation, and searching the chests,
took away all the skins, of which Maquina had
no less than forty of the best; and that about the
same time, four of their chiefs were barbarously
killed by a Captain Martinez, a Spaniard.
That soon after Captain Hanna, of the Sea-Otter
in consequence of one of the natives having stolen a
chisel from the carpenter, fired upon their canoes
H which were along side, and killed upwards of
twenty of tbe natives, of whom several were Tyees
or chiefs, and that he himself being on board the
vessel, in order to escape was obliged to leap from
the quarter deck, and swim for a long way under
These injuries bad*excited in the breast of Maquina, an ardent desire of revenge, the strongest
passion of the savage heart, and though many
years had elapsed since their commission, still they
were not forgotten, and the want of a favourable
opportunity alone prevented him from sooner aveng- 113
iog them. Unfortunately for uj* the long wished
for opportunity at length presented itself in our ship,
which Maquina finding not guarded with the usual
vigilance of the North West Traders, and feeling
Ms desire of revenge rekindled by the insult offered
him by Captain Salter, formed a plan for attacking, and on his return, called a council of his chiefs,
and communicated it to them, acquainting them
with the manner in which he had been treated.
No less desirous of avenging this affront offered
their king, than their former injuries, they readily
agreed to his proposal, which was to go on board
without arms as usual, but under different pretexts,
in great numbers, and wait for his signal for the
moment of attacking their unsuspecting victims.
The execution of this scheme, as the-readerknows,
was unhappily too successful.
And here I cannot but indulge a reflection that
has frequently occurred to me on the manner in
which our people behave towards the natives. For
||jough they are a theivish race, yet I have
no doubt that many of the melancholy disasters
have principally arisen from the imprudent conduct
of some of the captains and crews of the ships employed in this trade, in exasperating them by insulting, plundering, and even killing them on
slight grounds. This, as nothing is more sacred
with a savage thajj the principle of revenge, and no
L 1
'   |;| 114 -'^ • . j
people are so impatient under insult, induces them
to wreak their vengeance upon the first vessel or
boat's crew that offers, making the innocent too
frequently suffer for the wrongs of the guilty, as few
of them know how to discriminate between persons
of the same general appearance, more especially
when speaking the same language. And to this
cause do I believe, must principally be ascribed the
sanguinary disposition with which these people a?e
reproached, as Maquina repeatedly told me'lhattf
was not his wish to hurt a white man, and that he
never should have done it, though ever so much in
his power, had peylfiot injured him. fp
And were the commanders of our ships^to treat
the savages with rather%nore civilityethan they
sometimes do, I am inclined to think they would
find their account in it; not that I should recommend to them a confidence in the good faith and
friendly professions of these people, so as in any
degree to remit their vigilance, but on the contrary,
to be strictly on their guard, and suffer but a very
few of them to come on board tbe ship, and admit
not many of their canoes along side at a time; a
precaution that would have been the means of preventing some of the unfortunate events that have
occurred, and if attended to, may in future, preserve many a valuable life. Such a regulation too,
from what I know of their disposition and wants,
would produce no serious difficulty in trading with the savages, and they would soon become perfect
reconciled to it. i
p Among the provisions which the Indians procure
at Tashees, I must not omit mentioning a fruit that
is very important, as forming a great article of their
food* This is what is called by them the Yama, a,
species of berry that, growsin bunches like currants.,,
upon a bush from two to three feet high, with a
large, round and smooth leaf. This berry is black
and about the size of a pistol shot, but of rather an-
oblong shape, and open at the top like the blue
whortle berry. The taste is swreet, but a little
acrid, and when first gathered^|f eaten in any great
quantity, especially without oil, is apt to produce
eholics. To procure it, large companies of women
go out on the mountains, accompanied by armed
men, to protect them against wild beasts, where
they frequently remain for several days, kindling a
fire at night, and sheltering themselves under sheds
constricted of boughs. At these parties, they
collect great quantities. I have known Maquina's
queen and her women return loaded, bringing with
ilhem upwards of twelve bushels. In order to preserve it, it is pressed in the bunches between two
planks, and dried and put away in baskets for use.
It is always eaten with oil.
OM)erries of various kinds, such as straw berries, raspberries, black berries, <&c. there are great
L 2 wk I Ml
quantities in the country, of which the natives are
very fond, gathering them in their seasons and eating them with oil, bit the yama is the only one
that they preserve.
Fish is, however, their great article of food, as
ahnost all the others, excepting the yama, may be
considered as accidental. They nevertheless are
far from disrelishing meat, for instance, venison
and beaffs flesh. With regard to the latter, they
have a most singular custom, which is, that any
one who eats of it is obliged to abstain from eating
any kind of flesh fish whatever, for the term of
two months, as they have a superstitious belief,
that should any of their people after tasting bear's
flesh, eat of fresh salmon, cod, &c. the fish,
though at ever so great a distance ofT, would come
to the knowledge of it, and be so much offended
thereat, as not to allow themselves to be taken by
any of the inhabitants. This I had an opportunity
of observing while at Tashees, a bear having been
killed early in December, of which not more than
ten of the natives would eat, being prevented by
the prohibition annexed to it, which also wras the
reason of my comrade and myself not tasting it,
on being told by Maquina the consequences.
As there is something quite curious in their management of this animal, when they have killed
one, I shall give a description of it.    After ws\\ V'-:|117    ;     -•■:■■■;-
cleansing the bear from the dirt and  blood, with
which it is generally covered when killed, it is
\ brought in and seated opposite  the* king  in an
upright  posture,  with a chief's bonnet, wrought
in figures on its head, and its fur powdered over
with the white  down.     A tray  of   provision is
'then set before it, and it is invited by words and
gestures to eat.     This mock ceremony over,v the
reason of which I could never learn, the animal is
taken and skinned, and the flesh and entrails boiled
up into a soup, no part, but the paunch being rejected.
This dressing the bear^as they call it,.is an occasion of great rejoicing throughout the village, all
the inhabitants being invited toa&great feast at the
king's house, though but few, of thems in consequence of the penalty,~$$ill venture to eat of the
flesh, but generally content themselves with their
favourite dish of, herring spawn and water. The
feast on this occasion was closed by a dance from
Sat'Sat-sak+sis, in the manner I have already described, in the course of which he repeatedly shitted ■
his mask for another of a different form.<Jj|
A few days after a^cond bear wTas taken, like
the former by means of a trap*   This I had the curiosity to go and see at thf place^herf it was
caught, which was in the following manner,    Qn-.
j the edge of a small stream ol?,water in the inoua--.
X*, 3- 1
tainsf%hich the salmon ascend, and near the spot
where the bear is accustomed to watch for them,
which ie kriown by its track, a trap or box about
the height of a man's head is built of  posts and
planks with a fiat top, on which are laid-a number
of large stones or rocks.    The top and sides are
then carefully covered with furf^so as to resemble
a little mound, and wholly to exclude the light, a
narrow entrance of the height of tBPbuildiog only
lieing left, just sufficient to admit the head and
shoulders of the beast    On the inside, to a large
plank that covers the top, is suspended by a strong!
cord a salmon, the plank being left loose so that a
forcible pull will bring it down.    On coming to its-
usual haunt, the bear enters the tra^, and in en-
deavojiring to pull away the fish, brings down thef
whole covering with its load of stones upon its
head, and is almost always crushed to death on the.
spot, or so wounded as to be unable to escape.
They are always careful to examine these traps
every day, in order if a bear be caught, to bring it
immediately, for it is not a little singular, that
these people will eat no kind of meat that is in the
least tainted, or not perfectly fresh, while, on the
contrary, it is hardly possible for fish to be in too
putrid a state for them, and I' have frequently
known them when a whale has been driven ashore,
bring pieces of it home with them, in a state of
offensiyeuess insupportable to any thing but a crow, 119
and devour it with high relish, considering it as preferable to that which is fresh.
Oh the morning of the  13th of December, commenced what to «P appeared a mostsingular farce.
Apparently without any previous notice, Maquina
discharged a pistol close to his son's ear, who immediately fell down as if killed, upon which all the
women of the house set up a most lamentable cry,
tearing handfuis of hair from their heads, and exclaiming that the prince was dead, at the same
time a great number of the inhabitants^ rushed into
the house armed with their daggers, muskets, <fcc.
enquiring the cause of their outcry, these were immediately followed by two others dressed in wolf*
skins, with masks over their faces representing the
head of that animal; the latter came in on their
hands and feet in the manner of a beast, and taking
up the prince carried him off upon their backs, retiring in the same manner they entered.    We saw
nothing more of the ceremony, as Maquina came
to us, and giving us a quantity of dried provision,
ordered us to quit the house and not return to the
village before the expiration of? seven days,   for
that if we appeared within that period, he should
kill us,l§l
At any other season of the year such an order
would by us have been considered as an indulgence, in enabling us to pass our time in whatever fill
way we wished, and even now, furnished as we
were, with sufficient provision for that term, it was
uet very unpleasant to us, more particularly
'Thompson, who was always desirous to keep as
much as possible out of the society and sight of the
natives, whom he detested. 'Taking with us our
provisions, a bundle of clothes, and our axes, we
obeyed the directions of Maquina, and withdrew
into the woods, where we built ourselves a cabin
to shelter us, with the branches of trees, and keeping up a good fire, secured ourselves pretty w^UL
from the cold. Here we* passed the prescribed period of our exile, with more content than much of
the time while with them, employing the day in
reading and praying for our release, or in rambling
around |pid exploring the country, the soil of which
we found to be very good, and the face of ityfbeau-
tifully diversified with hills and: vallies, refreshed
with the finest streams of water, and at night enjoyed comfortable repose upon a bed of soft leaves,
with our garments spread over us to protect us from
the cold.
At the end of seven days we returned, and found
several of$he people of A-i-tiz-zart with their king
or chief at Tashees, who had been invited by Maquina to attend the close of this performance, which
I now learnt was a celebration, held by them annually, in honour of their god, whom they call
Quahootze, to return him their thanks for his past, 121
and implore his future favors. It terminated on
the 21st, the day after our return, with a most extraordinary exibition. Three men, each of whom
had two bayonets run through his sides, between
tbe ribs, apparently regardless of the pain, traversed the room, backwards and forwards, singing
war songs, and exulting in this display of firm*
On the arrival of the 2oth, we couhl not but call
to mind, that this being Christmas, was in our
coantry a day of tbe grestest festivity, when our
fellow countrymen assembled in their churches,
were celebrating the goodness of God, and the
praises of the Saviour. What a reverse did our
situation offer—captives in a savage land, and
slaves to a set of ignorant beings, unacquainted with
religion or humanity, hardly were we permitted to
offer up our devotions by ourselves in the woods,
while we felt even grateful for this privilege. Thither with the king's permission, we withdrew, and
after reading the service appointed for the day,
sung the hymn of the Nativity, fervently praying
that heaven in its goodness, would permit us to
celebrate the next festival of this kind in some
Christian land.
On our return, in order to conform as much as
was in our power to the custom of our country,
we were desirous of having a better snpper tba& 122
usual. With this view we bought from one of the
natives, some dried clams and oil, and a root eal-
led Kletsup, which we cooked by steaming, and
found it very palatable. This root consists of many
fibres, of a bout six inches long, and of the size of
a crow quill* It is sweet, of an agreeable taste,
not unlike the Quanoose, and it if eaten with oil.
The plant that produces it I have never seen.
On the 31st, all the tribe quitted Tashees for
Cooptee, wither they goto pass the remainder of
the winter| and complete their fishing, taking off
every thing with them in the same manner as at
Nootka. We arrived in a few hours at Cooptee,
wfyichis about fifteen miles, and immediately set
about covering the houses, which was soon completed.
This/pjaee, which is their great herring and sprat
fishery, stands just within the mouth of the river,
oxi the same side with Tashees, in a very narrow
valley at the foot of a high mountain. Though
nearly as secure as Tashees. from the winter
storms* it is by no means so pleasantly situated,,
though to us it was a much more agreeable residence, as it brought us nearer Noqtkar where we
were impatient to return, in hopes of finding some
vessel there, or hearing of the arrival of -one
is ear. •    123       ||.'
^Fhe first snow that fell this season, was
after our arrival, on New-Years; a day that like
Christmas, brought with it, painful- recollections,
but at the same time led us to indulge the hope of a
more fortunate year than the last.
Early on the morning of the 7th of January,
Maquina took me with him in his canoe on a visit
to JDpquesta, chief of the A-i-tiz zarts, who had
invited him to attend an exhij&tipa at Jsis village
similar to the one with whichjjhe had been entertained at Tashees. This'f^ftis^^^en twenty
and thirty miles distant up^^^tound^and stands
on the banks of a small river a65uTthe size of that
of Cooptee, fust within its entrance, in amlley of
much greater extent than that of jFasheesf|Pt consists of fourteen or fifteen houses, built and disposed in the manner of those at Nootka. The tribe,
which is considered as tributary to Maquina,
amounts to about thre^hundred warriors, and the
inhabitants, both men and women, are among
the best looking of any people on the coast.
On our arrival we were received at the shore by
the inhabitants, a few of whom were armed with
muskets, which they fired, with loud shouts and
exclamations of Wocas%, wocash. ■
We were welcomed by the chiefs messenger, or
master of ceremonies, dressed in bis best garment*, :/;V;v; e|$"- m   ;   ^
with his hair powdered with white dopn, and hol&
ing in fris hand the cheetoolth, the badge of his
office. This man preceded us to the chief's house,
where he introduced and pointed out to us our respective seats. On entering, the visitors took of
their hats, which they always wear on similar og-
casionsgand Maquina his outer*obes, of which he
has several on whenever he pays a visit, and seated
himself near Hie chief. Hi
As I was dresse^liL,European clothes I became
quite an ■ '4B^Kfi^:^ttlliNiKy to theseflpeople, very
few of whompadSj^y^-ssen a white man. They
crowdea^arouhW^elrr^iumbers, taking hold of my
clothes, examining my face, hands and feet, and
even opening my mouth to see if I had a tongue,
for notwithstanding Jhad by this time become well
acquainted with their language, I preserved the
strictest silence, s Maquina on our first landing
having enjoined me not to speak, until he should
Having undergone this examination for some
time, Maquina at length made a sign to me to.
speak to them. On hearing me address them in
their own language, they were greatly astonished
and delighted, and told Maquina that they now
perceived that I was a man like themselves, except
that I was white and looked like a seal, alluding to
my blue jacket and trowsers, whi^h they wanted to persuade me to take off, as they did not like
their appearance. Maquina in the mean time gave
an account to the chief, of the scheme he bad formed for surprising our ship, and the manner in which
he and his people had carried it Into execution,
with such particular and horrid details of that transaction as chilled the blood id rayeveins. Trays of
boiled herring spawn and train oil were soon after
broughCin and placed before us, neither the chief
or any of his people eating at the same time, it
being contrary to the ideas of hospitality entertained by these nations, to earany part of the food
that is provided for strangers, always waiting until their vigors have finished ^before they have
their own brought in.
The following day closed their festival with an
exhibition of a similar kind, to that which had been
given at Tashees, but still more cruel; the different tribes appearing on these occasions to endeavour to surpass each other in their proofs of fortitude and endurance of pain. In the morning twenty
men entered the chief's house, with each an arrow
run through the flesh of his sides, and eiffier arm,
with a cord fastened to the end, which as the performers advanced, singing and boasting, was forcibly drawn back by a person having hold of it.
After this performance was closed, we returned (§/.
Cooptee, which we reached'at midnight, our men
m ". • -       ""       126     f    ■     ••    |k .
keeping time with their songs to the stroke of their
The natives nowr began to take the herring
and sprat in immense quantities, with some salmon,
and there was nothing but feasting from morning
till night, I i
The following is the method they employ to
take the herring:   A stick  of about seven feet
Jong, two inches broad, and half an inch thick, is
formed from some hard wrood, one side of which is
set with sharp teeth, jnade from whale hone, at
about half  an  inch apart.     Provided  with this
instrument, the fisherman seats himself in the prow
of a canoe,   wiiich is  paddled  by another,   and
whenever he comes to a shoal of herrings, which
*cover the water in great quantities, he strikes it
with both hands upon them, and at the same moment turning it up,'brings it over the suje of the
eanoe, into which he lets those that are taken drop.
Si is astonishing to see how many are caught by
those who are dexterous -at this kind.of fishing, as
they seldom fail when the shaols arenumerous, of
taking as many as ten or twelve at a stroke, and
in a very short time will fill a canoe with them.
Sprats are likewise caught in a similar manner.
About   the beginning   of  February,   Maquina/
gave a great feast, at which were present not only all the inhabitants, but one hundred persons from
A-i-tiz-zart, and a number fronts Wickinninish,
who had been invited to attend it. It is customary
with them to give an annual entertainment of this
kind, and it is astonishing to see what a, quantity of provision is expended, or rather wasted
on such an occasion, when they always eat to the
greatest excess. It was at this feast that'I saw*
upwards of an hundred salmon cooked in one tub.
The whole residence at Cooptee presents an almost
uninterrupted succession of feasting and gormandizing, and it would seem as if the principal object
of these people was to consume their whole stock
of provision before leaving it, trusting entirely to
their success in fishing and whaling, for a supply
at Nootka.
On the 25th of February, we quitted Cooptee,
and returned to Nootka. With much joy did
Thompson and myself again find ourselves in a
place where, notwithstanding the melancholy recollections which it excited, we hoped before long
to see some vessel arrive to our relief, and for this
we became the more solicitous, as of late we had
become much more apprehensive of our safety, in
consequence of information brought Maquina a
few days before we left Cooplee* by some of the
Cayuquets, that there were twenty ships at tie
northward, preparing to come against him, with
M 2 I
m iRm
128    ,   ,":   I   -.;■■-■:
an intent of destroying him and his whole tribe,
for cutting off the Boston.
r!H- :
This story, which w*as wholly without foundation, and discovered afterwards to have been invented by these people, for the purpose of disquieting him, threw him Into great *alarm, and
notwithstanding all I could say to convince him
that it was an unfounded report, so great was his
jealousy of us, especially after it had been confirmed to him by some others of the same nation,
that he treated us with much harshness, and kept
a very suspicious eye upon us. Nothing indeed
could be more unpleasant than our present situation, when I reflected that our lives were altogether
dependent on the will of a savage, on whose caprice and suspicions no rational calculation could
be made.-      * 3$BSl!IPlil9
Not long after our return, a son of Maquina's
sister, a boy of eleven years old, who ha$Jheen
for some time declining, died. Immediately on
lis death, which was about midnight, all the men
and women in the house set up Ibu^^fjes and
sbYieks, which awakening Thompsotp and myself,
so disturbed us that we left the house*. This
lamentation was kept up during the remainder of
the night. In the morning, a great fire was kindled,
in which Maquina burned in honour of the deef&sed,
ten fathoms of cloth, and buried with bint ten 129
fothoms more, eight of I-whaw, four "prime sea]
otter skins, and two small trunks, containing our
unfortunate captain's clothes and watch.
This boy was considered as a Tyee or chief,
being the only son of Tootoosch, one of their pt£n~
cipal chiefs, who had married Maquina's sister,
whence arose this ceremony on his interment ; it
being an established custom with these people,
that whenever a chief dies, his most valuable property is burned or buried with him; it is, however,
wholly confined to the chiefs, and appears to be a
mark of honour appropriate to them. In this instance Maquina furnished the articles, in order that
his nephew might have the proper honours rendered him. HI
Tootooch, his father, was esteemed the first war*
rior of the tribe, and was one who had been parti-
cularly active in the destruction of our ship, having
billed two of our poor comrades, who were ashore,
whose names were Hall and Wood. About the
time of our removal to Tashees, while in the enjoyment of the highest health, he was suddenly seized
with a fit of delirium, in which he fancied that he
saw the ghosts of those two men constantly stand-
iag by him, and threatening him, ecrthat he would
take no food, except What was forced into ffts
mouthy* A short time before this he had lost a
daughter of  about fifteen years of age,   which
I      M3 Km
m ' 130      ■' f
afflicted him greatly, and whether his insanity, a
disorder very uncommon amongst these savages,
no instance of the kind having occurred within the
memory of the oldest man amongst them, proceeded
from this cause, or that it was the special interposition of an all-merciful God in our favour, who
by this means thought proper to induce these barbarians still further to respect our lives, or that
for hidden purposes, the Supreme Disposer of
events sometimes permits the spirits of the dead to
revisit the world, and haunt the murderer, I know
not, but his mind from this period, until his death,
which took place but a few weeks after that of his
son, was incessantly occupied with the images of
the men whom he had killed*
This circumstance made much impression upon
the tribe, particularly the chiefs, whose uniform
opposition to putting us to death, at the various
councils that wrere held on our account, I could
not but in part attribute to this cause, and Ma|
quina used frequently in speaking of Tootoosch's
sickness, to express much satisfaction that his hands
had not been stained with the blood of any of our
When Maquina was first informed by his sister,
of the strange conduct of her husband, he immediately went to his house, taking us with him;
suspecting that his disease had been caused by us,
it v - .•      ■      131      W ■■■      ^
and that the ghosts of our" country men had beei^
called thither by us, to torment him. We found
him raving about Hall and Wood, saying that they
were peshak, that is, badv Maquina then placed
some provision before him, to see if he would eat.
On perceiving it, he put forth his hand to take
some, but instantly withdrew it with signs of
horror, saying that Hall and Wood weTe there,
and would not let him eat. Maquina then pointing
to us, asked if it was not John and Thompson
who troubled him. Wik, he replied, that is, no,
John klushish—Thompson klushish—John and
Thompson are both good; then turning to me,
and patting me on the shoulder, he made signs to
me to eat. I tried to persuade him that Hall and
Wood were not there, and that none were near him
but ourselves : he said, I know very well you do
uot see them, but I do. pti
At first Maquina endeavoured to convince him
that he saw nothing, and to laugh him out of his
belief, but finding that all was to no purpose, he
at length became serious, and asked me^lf I had
evervseen any one affected in this manner, and
what was the matter with him. I gave him to
understand, pointing to his head, that his brain
was injured, and that he did not see things as formerly.
Being convinced by Tootoosch's conduct, that we had jio agency in his indisposition, on oUrKe-
tJurn home, Maquina asked me what was ddne in
my country in similar cases. I told him that such
persons were closely confined, and sometimes tied
up and whipped, in order to make them-better.
After pondering for some time, he said that he
should be glad to do any thing to relieve him, and
that he should be whipped, and immediately gave
orders to some of his men to go to Tootoosch's
house, bind him, and bring him to his, in order
to undergo the operation. Thompson was the person selected to administer this remedy, which he
undertook very readily, and for that purpose provided himself with a good number of spruce
branches, with which he whipped hint most severely* laying* it on with the best will imaginable,
While Tootoosch displayed the greatest rage, kicking, spitting, and attempting to bite all who came
near him. This was too much for Maquina, who,
at lengh$!>unable,to endure it longer;^ordered
Thompson to desist, and Tootoosch to be carried
back, saying that if there was no other yway of
curing  him  but by whipping,   he must' remain
The application of the whip produced no beneficial effect on Tootoosch,. for he afterwards became still more deranged; in his fits of fury,sometimes seizing a club, and beating his slaves in a
most dreadful manner, and striking, and spitting
if ■■
at all who came near him, till at length his wife
no longer daring to remain in the house with him,
came with her son to Maquina's*
The whaling season now commenced, and Maquina was out almost every day in his canoe, in
pursuit of them, but for a considerable time, with
no success, one day breaking the staff of his harpoon, another, after having been a long time fast
to a whale, the weapon drawing, owing to the
breaking of the shell, which formed its point, with
several such like accidents, arising from the imperfection of the instrument. At these times he always
returned very morose and out of temper, upbraiding his men with having violated their obligation to continence preparatory to whaling. In this
state of ill humour he would give us very little to
eat, which added to the women not cooking wheu
the men are away, reduced us to a very low
In consequence of the- repeated occurrence of
similar accidents, I proposed to Maquina to make
him a harpoon or foreganger of steel, which would
be less liable to fail Mifij The idea pleased him,
and in a short tinlekcJ completed one for him, with
which he was much delighted, and the very next
day went out to make a trial of it. He succeeded
j|ith it in-taking a whale** Great wTas the joy
throughout tbe village, as soon as it was knowa 134
that the king bad secured the whale, by notice from
a person stationed at the head-land in the offing.
All the canoes were immediately launched, and,
furnished with harpoons and seal-skin floats, hastened to assist in buoying it up, and towiug it in.
The bringing in of this fish exhibited a scene of
universal festivity. Aa soon as the canoes appeared
at the mouth of the Cove, those on board of them
singing a triumph to a slow air, to which they kept
time with their paddles, all who were on shore,
men, women and children, mounted the roofs of
their houses, to congratulate the Mug on his success, drumming most furiously on the planks, and
exclaiming Wocash-^-wocash Tyee*
The whale on being drawn on shore, was immediately cut up, and a great feast of tbe blubber
given at Maquina's house, to which all$h# village
were invited, who indemnified themselves for their
lent, by eating as usual to excess^ I was highly
praised for the goodness of my harpoon, and a
quantity of blubber given me, which I was permitted to cook as I pleased, this I boiled in salt water
with some young nettles and other greens for
Thompson and myself, and in this way we found it
tolerable food. $m
Their method of procuring the oil, is to skim it
from the water in which the blubber is boiled, and ^■■' -   ;    ..f|f   135   .      . ,   ";   -
when cool, put it up into whale bladders for use,
and of these I have seen them so large as, when
filled, would require no less than fiveor six men to
carry. Several of the chiefs, among whom were
Maquina's brothers, w ho after the king has caught
the first whale, are privileged to take them also,
were very desirous, on discovering the superiority
of my harpoon, that I should make some for them,
but this Maquina would not permit, reserving for
himself this improved weapon. He however gave
me directions to make a number more for himself
which I executed, and also made him several
lances, with which he was greatly pleased.
As these people have some very singular observances preparatory to whaling, an account of them
will, I presume, not prove uninteresting, especially
as it may serve to give a better idea of their manners.
A short timej^efore leaving Tashees, the king makes
a point of passing a day alone on the mountain,
whyier he goes very privately early in the morning,
anadoes not return till late in the evening. This is
done, as I afterwards learned, for the purpose of
singing and praying to his God for success in whaling the ensuing season. At Cooptee the same ceremony is performed, and at Nootka after the return
thither, with still greater solemnity, as for the next
two days he appears very thoughtful and gloomy,
scarcely speaking to any one, and observes a most
rigid last.    On these occasions, he has always-a r '   ->'   .|| ;|  136   '      &    .
broad red fillet made of bark, bound around his
head, in token of humiliation, with a large branch
of green spruce on the top, and his great rattle in
his hand. In addition to this, for a week before
commencing their whaling, both himself and the
crew of his canoe observe % fast, eating but very
little, and going into the water several times in the
•course of each day to bathe, singing and rubbing
their bodies, limbs and faces with shells and bushes,
so that on their return I have seen them look as
though they had been severely torn with briers.
They are likewise obliged to abstain from any commerce with their women for the like period, the
latter restriction being considered as indispensible
to their success.
Early in June Tootoosch, rrie*crazy cinef, died.
On being acquainted with ^jtis death life whole
village, men, women and eftildren, set up a loud
-cry, with every testimony of the greatest grief,
which they continued for more than three hours.
A-s soon as.he was dead, the body, according to
their custom, was laid out on a plank, having the
bead bound round with a red barjfrfijiiet, which is
with them an emblem of mourning and sorrow.
After laying some time in this manner, he was
wrapped in an otter skin robe, and three fathoms
of I-whaw being put about his neck, he was placed
in a large coffin or box of about three, feet deep,
which was ornamented on the outside witb^Wo ■  - .    ....   ,  -§    e    137        ■f"
rows of the small white shells. Jn this, the most
valuable articles of his property were placed with
him, among which were no less than twenty-four
prime sea otter skins.
At night^JjHhich ifptheir time for interring the
dead, the coffin was borne by eight men with two
poles, thrust through ropes passed around it, to
the place of burial, accompanied by his wife and
family, with their hair cut short, in token of grief,
all the inhabitants joining the procession. The
place of trarial was a large cavern on the side of a
hill at a little distance from the village, in which,
after depositing the coffin ckrefuily, all the attendants repaired to Maquina's house, where a
number of articles belonging to the deceased, consisting of blankets, pieces of cloth, &c. were burned
by a person appointed by Maquina for that purpose,
dressed and painted in the highest style, with his
head covered with white down, who, as he puts
in the several pieces, one by one, poured upon
tWa quantity of oil to in crease the flame, in the
intervals between, making a speech and playing off
a variety of buffoon tricks, and the whole closed
with a feast, and a dance from Sat-sat-sak-sis, the
king's son.
The man who performed the ceremony of burning
on this occasion, was a very singular character,
named Kinneclimmels.    He was held in high est& '.'■ ; r ■    138 f''   .    ■   r If
mation by the king, though only of the common
class, probably from his talent for mimicry and buf-
foqnry, and might be considered as a kind of king's
jester, or rather as combining in his person the
character of a buffoon with that of master of ceremonies and public orator to his maj|&ty, as he was
the one who at feasts always regufated the places
of the gu/sts, delivered speeches on receiving or
returning visits, besides amusing the company at
all their entertainments, with a variety of monkey
pranks and antic gestures, which appeared to these
savages the height of wit and humour, but would
be considered as extremely low by the least polished
people. Almost all the kings or head chiefs of the
principal tribes were accompanied by a similar
character, who appeared to be attached to their
dignity, and are called in their language, Climmer-
This man, Kinneclirnmets, was particularly
odious to Thompsou, who would never jojnjn the
laugh at his tricks, but when he began, would almost always quit the House with a very surly
look, and an exclamation of cursed fool! which
Maquina, w%> thought nothing could equal the
cleverness of his Climmer-habbee, used to remark,
with much dissatisfaction, asking me why Thompson never laughed, observing that I must have had
a very good-tempered woman indeed for my mother,
as my father was so very ill-natured a man. ■■' "    y i39    ■%   -"it
Among those performances that gained him the
greatest applause, was his talent of eating to excess, for Iv have known him devour at one meal,
^■"■•■fiiliiSf"- :^%e^' ^1 ■  %3& • tllSlii
no less than seventy-five large herrings; and at
another time, when a great feast was given by
Maquina, he underfooK, after drinking three pints
of oil by way of a whet,.'to eat four dqed salmon,
and five quarts of spawn, mixed np with a gallon of
train oil, and actually succeeded in swallowing the
greater part of this mess, until his stomach became
so overloaded, as to discharge its contents in the
Idish. One of his exhibitions, however, had nearly
cost him his life; this was on the occasion of Kla~
quafege-na, one of the chiefs, having bought him a
new wife, in celebration of which he ran three
times through a large fire, and burned himself in
such a manner, that he was not able to stir for
more than four weeks. These feats of savage
skill were much praised by Maquina, who never
failed to make him presents of cloth, muskets, &e.
on such occasions.
The death of Tootoosch increased still more the
disquietude which his delirium had excited among
the savages, and all those chiefs who had killed
our men, became much alarmed, lest they should
be seized with the same disorder, and die like hirif|
more particularly, as I had told Maquina, that
I believed his insanity was a punishment inflicted
fjB/1 I
140 .. '   m
oh him by Quakootze, for his cruelty in murdering
two innocent men, who had never injured him.
Our situation had now become unpleasant in the
extreme. The summer was so far advanced, that
we nearly despaired of a shif*arriving to our relief,
and with that expectation, almost relinquished the
hope of ever having it in our power to quit this
savage land. We were treated too with less indulgence than before, both Thompson and myself
being obliged, in addition to our other employments, to perform the laborious task of cutting and
collecting fuel£ which we had to bring on ,$ur
•boulders from nearly three miles distance, as it
consisted wholly of dry trees, all of which, near
the village, had been consumed.
To add to this, we suffered much abuse from the
common people, who, when Maquina or some of
the chiefs were not present, would insult us, calling
us wretched slaves, asking us where was our Tyee
or captain, making gestures signifying that his head
had been cut off, and that they would do tbe like
to us; though they generally took good care at
such times to keep well out of Thompson's reach,
as they had more than once experienced, to their
cost, the strength of his fist. This conduct was not
only provoking and grating to our feelings in the
highest degree, but it convinced us of the ill dispor 141
sition of these savages towards us, and rendered us
fearful leaf they might at some time or other persuade or force Maquina and the chiefs to put us to
We were also often brought to great distress for
the want of provisions, so far as to be reduced to
collect a scanty supply of muscles and limpets
from the rocks, and sometimes even compelled to
part with some of our most necessary articles of
clothing, in order to purchase food for our subsistence. This was, however, principally owing to
the inhabitants themselves experiencing a great
scarcity of provisions this season; there having
been, in the first place, but very few salmon caught
at Friendly Cove, a most unusual circumstance,
as they generally abound there in the spring, which
was by the natives attributed to their having been
driven away by the blood of our men, who had
been thrown into the sea, which with true savage
inconsistency, excited their murmurs against Maquina, who had proposed cutting off our ship. Relying on this supply, they had in the most inconsiderate manner, squandered away their winter
stock of provisions, so that in a few days after
their return, it was entirely expended.
Nor were the king and chiefs much more fortunate in their whaling, even after I had furnished
Maquina with the improved weapon for that pur-
i'- n 3 ii
m rflf
pose; but four whales having been taken during
the season, which closes the last of May, including
one that had been struck by Maquina and escaped,
and was afterwards driven on shore about six miles
from Nootkai in almost a state of putridity. These
afforded but a short supply to a population, including all ages and sexes, of no less than fifteen hundred persons, and of a character so very improvident, that after feasting most gluttonously whenever
a whale was caught, they were several times for a
week together, reduced to the necessity of eating
but once a day, and of collecting cockles and muscles from the rocks for their food.
And even after the cod and halibut fishing commenced, in June, in which they met with tolerable
success, such was the savage caprice of Maquina,
that he would often give us but little to eat, finally
ordering us to buy a canoe and fishing implements,
and go out ourselves and fish, or we should have
nothing. To do this, we were compelled to part
with our, great coats, which were not only important to us as garments, but of which we made our
beds, spreading them under us when we slept.
From our waut of skill, however* in this new employ, we met with no success; on discovering
which, Maquina ordered us to remain at home.
Another thing, which to me in particular, proved
an almost constant source of vexation and disgust,
and which living among them had not iu the least ' '%■        r .        143
reconciled me to, was their extreme filthiness, not
only in eating fish, especially the whale, when in
a state of offensive putridity, bat* while at their
meals, of making a practice of taking the vermin
from their heads or clothes, and eating them, by
turns thrusting their fingers into their hair, and
into the dish, and spreading their garments over
the tubs in which the provision was cooking, in
order to set in motion their inhabitants.
Fortunately for Thompson, he regarded this
much less than myself, and when I used to point
out to him any instance of their filthiness in this
respect, he would laugh and reply, Never mind
John, the more good things the better. I must,
however, do Maquina the justice to state, that he
was much neater both in his person and eating
than were the others, as was likewise his queen,
owing no doubt to his intercourse with foreigners,
which had given him ideas of cleanliness, for I
never saw either of them eat any of these animals,
but on the contrary they appeared not much to
relish this taste in others. Their garments, also,
were much cleaner, Maquina having been accustomed to give his away when they became soiled,
till after he discovered that Thompson and myself
kept ours clean by washing them, wiien he used
to make Thompson do the same for him.
Yet amidst this state of endurance and disap-
■ W 144
pointment, in hearing repeatedly of the arrival of
ships at the north and south, most of which proved
to,be idle reporta, while expectation was almost
wearied out in looking for them, we did not wholly
despond, relying on the mercy of the Supreme
Being, to offer up to whom our devotions on the
days appointed for his worship, was our chief
consolation and support, though we were sometimes obliged, by our task-masters, to infringe
upon the Sabbath, which was to me a source of
much regret.
We were, nevertheless, treated at times with
much kindness by Maquina, who would give us
a plenty of the best that he had to eat, and occasionally, some small present of cloth for a garment,
promising me, that if any ship should arrive within
a hundred miles of Nootka, he would send a canoe
with a letter from me to the captain, so that he
might come to our release. These flattering promises and marks of attention, were, however, at
those times when he thought himself in personal
danger from a mutinous spirit, which the scarcity
of provisions had excited among the natives, who,
like true savages, imputed all their public calamities, of whatever kind, to the misconduct of
their chief, or when he was apprehensive of an at-:
tack from some of the other tribes who were irrM
tated with him for cutting off the Boston, as it
had prevented ships from coming to trade with. 145
them, and were constantly alarming him with idle
stories of vessels that were preparing to come
against him, and exterminate both him and his
At such times, he made us keep guard over him
both night  and day,   armed  with cutlasses and
pistols, being apparently afraid to trust any of his
own men.    At one time, it was a general revolt
of his people that he apprehended; vthen three of his
principal chiefs, among whom was his elder brother, had conspired to takeaway his life; and at
length, he fancied that a small party of Klaoo-
quates, between whom and the Nootkians, little
friendship subsisted, had come to Nootka, under a
pretence of trade, for the sole purpose of murdering
him and his family, telling us, probably to sharpen
our vigilance, that their intention was to kill us
likewise; and so strongly were his fears excited
on this occasion, that he not only ordered us to
keep near him armed by day, whenever he went
out, and to patroie at .night before his house while
they remained, but to continue the same guard for
three days alterthey were gone, and to fire at one
and at four in the morning, one of the great guns, to
let  them know, if, as he suspected,   they  were v
lurking in the neighbourhood, that he was on his
While he was thus favourably disposed towards 146   '
us, I took an opportunity to inform him of the ill-
treatment that we frequently received from his
people, and the insults that were offered us by some
of the stranger tribes in calling us white slaves,
and loading us with other opprobrious terms. He
wras much displeased, and said that his subjects
should not be allowed to treat us ill, and that if any
of the strangers did it, he wished us jp punish the
offenders with death, at the same time directing us,
for our security, to go constantly armed.
This permission was soon improved by Thompson
to%e best advantage; for a few days'after, having
gone to the pond to wash some of our clothes, and
blanket fi#"Maquina Jt several Wickinninish who
were then at Nootka, came thither, and seeing him
washing the  clothes, and the blanket spread upon
the grass to*ry, tfiey^began according to custom,
-fef^usult him^fand   one  of   them bolder than the
oth%rs.#walked over the blanket.     Thompson was
higfely incensed, and   threatened the  Indian  with
death if he repeated %e offence, but he, in contempt
of the threat?  trampled  upon the  blanket* when
drawing ln% cutlass,   without farther ceremony,
Thompson cut-off  his head, on seeing which the
< others ran off at full speed; Thompson then gathering up the clothes and blanket, on which were the
marks of the Indian's dirty feet, and taking with
him the head, returned and informed the king of
what had passed, who was much pleased, and highly
-W • -' 147 :
commended his conduct. This had a favourable
effect for us, not only on the stranger tribes, but
the inhabitants themselves, who treated us afterwards with less disrespect.
In the latter part of July, Maquina informed me
that be was going to war with the J-y-charts, a
Iribe about fifty miles to  the south,  on  account
of some  controversy that had arisen the preceding
summer, and that Imust make a number of daggers
forhis men, and cheetoolths for his chiefs,   which
having .completed, he^vished .%ee£o make for his
own use a weapon of quite a different form, in order
to dispatch his enemy by one blow on the head, it
being  the calculatiSi of these nations on going to
war5< to surprise their adversaries while asleep.—-
This was a steel dagger, or more properly a spike,
of about six inches long, made very sharp, set at
right angles in an iron handle of fifteen inches M^^
terminating at the lower end in a crook or turn,, so
as to prevent its being wrenched from the hand, and
at the upper, in a round knob or head, from whence
the spike  protruded.     This instrument I polished
highly, and the more to please Maquina, formed on
(he back of the knob, the resemblance of a man's
head, with  the mouth open, substituting for eyes,
black beads, which I fastened in with red sealing wax.
This pleased him  much, and was greatly admired
by his chiefs, who wanted me to*make similar ones |||    v       '     :     148 ■. :.;§
for them, but Maquina would not suffer it, reserving for himself alone this weapon.    |fe
When these people, have finally determined on
war, they make it an invariable practice for three
or four weeks prior to the expedition, to go into the
water five or six times a day, when they wash and
scrub themselves from head to foot with bushes intermixed #ith briars, so that their bodies and faces
will often be entirely covered with blood. During
this severe exercise, they are continually exclaiming. "Wocash Quahootze^leechamme ah welth,
wile*eiish tau-ilth—-Karsab-matemas— Wiksish
to hauk matemas—/ ya-ish kah shuttle—Assmoo*
tish warich matemas;" which signifies good or
great God, let me live—Not be sick—Find the
enemy—Not fear %im—Find him asleep, and kill
a great many of them.-mm
During the whole of this period, they have no intercourse with their women, and for a wTeek,
before setting -oatejabaiain from feasting or any kind
of merriaient, appearing thoughtful, gloomy, and
inorose, and for the three last days, are almost
constantly in the water, both by day and night,
scrubbing and lacerating themselves in a terrible
manner. Maquina having informed Thompson,
and myself that he should take us with him, was
very solicitous that he should bathe and scrub ourselves in the same way with them, telling me, that .^  . I :    ^  149   '     ,   -        \ J       -
it would harden ourafcins, so that the weapons of
the enemy would not pierce them, but as we felt
no great inclination to amuse ourselves in this
manner, we declined it.
The expedition consisted of forty canoes, carrying
from ten to twenty men each. Thompson and myself armed ourselves with cutlasses and pistols, but
the natives, although they had a plenty of European arms, took with them only their daggers
and cheetoolths, with a few bows and arrows, the
latter being about a yard in length, and pointed
with copper, muscle shell, or bone: the bows are
four feet and a half long, with strings made of
whale sinew.
To go to A-y-chart, we ascended from twrenty to
thirty miles, a river about the size of that of
Tashees, the banks of which are high and covered
with wood. At midnight, we came in sight of the
village, which was situated on the west, bank,
near the shore, on a steep hill difficult of access,
aaf well calculated for defence. It consisted of
fifteen or sixteen houses, smaller than those at Nootka, and built in the same style, but compactly
placed. By Maquina's directions, the attack was
deferred until/the first appearance of davvn, a3 he
said that wTas the time when men slept the soundest.
At length all being ready for the attack,  we
O landed with tbe greatest silenq|p, and going around
so as to come upon the foe in the rear, clambered
up the hill, and while the natives, as is their
custom, entered the several huts, creeping on all
fours, my comrade and myself stationed ourselves
without, to intercept those who should attempt to
escape, or come to the aid of their friends. I
wished if possible, not to stain my hands in the
blood of any fellow creature, and though Thompson
would -gladly have put to death all the savages in
the country, he was too brave to think of attacking
a sleeping enemy.
Having entered the houses, on the war-whoop
being given by Maquina, as he seized the head of4
the chief, and gave him the fatal blow, all pro-1
ceededto the   work of  death.    The  A-y-charts
being thus surprized, were unable to make resistance, and with the exception of a very few, whip
were so fortunate as to make their escape, were all
killed or taken prisoners ou condition of becoming,
slaves to their captors.    I had the good fortunj to
take four captives, whom Maquina, as a favor,
permitted me to consider as mine, and occasionally
employ them in fishing for me; as for Thompson,
whdihirsted for revenge, he had no wish to take
any   prisoners,   but with   hisf|cr|tlass, the only
weapon he would employ against them, succeeded
in killing seven stout fellows, who came to attack
him, an act which obtained him great credit with ' . f      151 '' W • m
M&quina^nd the chiefs, who after this, held him
in much higher estimation, and gave him the
appellation of Chehielswma-kar, it being the name
of a very celebrated warrior of their nation in ancient times, whose exploits were the constant theme
of their praise.
After having put to death all the old and infirm
of either sex, as is the barbarous practice of these
people, and destroyed the buildings, we re-embarked with our booty in our canoes, for Nootka,
where we were received with great demonstrations of joy by the women and children, accompanying our war song with a most furious drumming
on the houses. The next day a great feast was
given by Maquina, in celebration of his victory,
which was terminated as usual with a dance by^
Repeated applications had been made to Maquina, by a number of kings or chiefs, to purchase
me, especially after he had shewed them the
harpoon I had made for him, which he took much
pride in, but he constantly refused to part with me
on any terms.—Among these, the king of the
Wickinninish was particularly solicitous to obtain
♦me, having twice applielPto Maquina for that
purpose, once in a very formal manner, by sending
bis messenger with four canoes,#who as he
approached the  shore, decorated in their highest
O 2-ii •
•■ ^;~. r H 152
Btyle, with the white down on his head, <&e.
declared that he came to buy Tooteyoohannis, the
name by which I was known to them, for his
master,.and that he had brought for that purpose
four young male slaves, two highly ornamented canoes, such a number of the skins of metamelth, and of
the quartlack, or sea otter, and so many fathoms ef
cloth and of i-whaw, while as he mentioned the different articles, they were pointed out or held up by
his attendants, but even this tempting offer had no
influence on Maquina; who in the latter part of the
summer, was again very strongly urged to sell me
by Ulatilla, or as he is generally called Machee
Ulatilla, chief of the Klaizzarts, who had come
to Nootka on a visit.
This chief, who could speak tolerable English,
bad much more the appearance of a civilized man,
than any of the savages that I saw. He appeared to
be about thirty, was rather small in his person, but
extremely well formed, with a skin almost as fair
as thatfSof an European, good features, and a
countenance expressive of candour and amiableness,
and which was almost always brightened with a
smile. He was much neater both in his dress and
person than any of the other chiefs, seldom wearing
paint, except upon his eye-brows, Which after the
custom of his country, were plucked out, and a
few strips of the pelpelth on the lower part "of his
face.    He always treated me with much kindness, 153
was fond of conversing with me in English and in
his own language, asking me many questions
relative to my country, its^manners, customs, &c.
and appeared^ to take a strong interest in my fate,
teSlhg me, that if he could persuade Maquina to
part with me, he would put me on board the first
ship thfft came to his country; a pfomise, which
from his subsequant conduct, I have good reason
to think he would have reformed, as my deliverance at length, from cajffivity and suffering was,
ua$er the favour of divine providence, wholly
owing to hirri, the dbly letter that ever reacfftfd an
European or Americari3 vessel, out of sixteen that
I wrote at different ttiflesy and sent to variolic
parfi'dfthe coirsf; fMfeg been delivered by him in
persoi^ So much pleased'was I with this man's
beh^vlour^to^nfe'while at Nootka, that I made for
him1 a Cheetoolth, wh$eTt; I burnished highly, and
engraved with figures; with this he was gxei0$
delignletf, I als$ Woyld have' made for him a
harpoon would Maquina have consented.
Pv*ith hearts full of dejec|fon and almost lost to
hope, no ship having appeared off Nootka this
season, did my companion and myself accompa^ffr
the tribe on their removal in September, to Tashees,
relinquiifiing inr conscience, for six months, even
the remotest expectation of relief*
Soon after our   establishnieht   there',
O 3
;uma .; 154 •    - ~
informed me, that he and his chiefs had held
council both before and after quitting Nootka, in
which they had determined that I must marry one
of their women, urging as a reason to induce me
to consent, that as there was now no probability
of a ship coming to Nootka to release me, that I
must consider myself as destined to pass the
remainder of my life with them, that the sooner I
conformed to their customs the better, and that a
wife and family would render me more contented
and satisfied with their mode of living. I remonstrated against this decision, but to no purpose, for
he told me that should I refuse, both Thompson
and myself would be put to death, telling me
however, that if there were none of the women of
bis tribe that pleased me, he would go with me to
some of the other tribes, where he would purchase
for me such a one as I should select. Reduced to
this sad extremity, with death on the one side, and
matrimony on the other, I thought proper to choose
what appeared to me the least of the two evils, and
consent to be married, on condition, thatasFdid
not fancy any of the Nootka women, I should be
permitted to make choice of one from some other
tribe. mm tt£!
This being settled, the next morning by day light
Maquina with about fifty menS^Jwo canoes, set
out with me for A-i-tiz-zart, taking with him a
quantity of cloth, a number of muskets, sea otter 155
skins, <fcc. for the purchase of my bride. With the
aid of our paddies and sails, being favoured with a
fair breeze, we arrived some time before sun set at
the village. Our arrival excited a general alarm,
and the men hastened to the shore, armed with the
weapons of their country, making many warlike demonstrations, and displaying much zeal and activity. We in the mean time remained quietly seated
in our canoes, where We remained for about half an
hour, when the messenger of the chief, dressed in
their best manner, came to welcome us, and invite
us on shore to eat. We followed him in procession
to the chief's house, Maquina at our head, taking
care to leave a sufficient number in the boatsto protect the property. When we came to the house, we
were ushered in with much ceremony, and our respective seats pointed out to us, mine being next to
Maquina by his request. |||
After having been regaled with a feast of herring
spawn and oil, Maquina asked me if I saw any a-
mong the women who were present that I liked, I
immediately pointed out to a young girl of about
seventeen, the daughter of Upquesta, the chief, who
was sitting near him by her mother. On this Maquina making a sign to his men, arose and taking
me by the hand, walked into the middle of the
room, and sent off two of his men to bring the boxes
containing the presents from the canoes. In the
i mean time • Kinneclirnmets, tbe master of cererao- 156
nies, whom I have already spoken of, -made himself
ready for the part he was to act, by powdering his
hair with white down.-^-When the cbestfe^nere
brought in, specimens of the several articles were
taken out, aud shewed by our men, one of whom
held up a musket, another a skin, a third a piece
of cloth, &c. On this, Kinneclirnmets stepped
forward, and addressing the chief, informed him
that'all these belonged to me, mentioning the
number'of each kind, and that they were offered to
him for the purchase of his daughter Eu*$tiovh'ee-ea-
qua, as a wife for me. As he said this, the men
who held up the various articles, walked up to the
chief, and with a very stern and morose look, the
complimentary one on these occasions, threw them
at his feet. Immediately on which, all the tribe,
both men and women, who were assembled~on this
occasion, set up a cry of Klack-ko-Tyee, that is,
Thank ye chief. His men, after this ceremony,
having returned to their places, Maquina rose, and
in a speech of more than half an hour, said much in
my praise to the A-i-tiz-zart chief, telling him that
I was as good a man as themselves, differing front'
them only in being White, that I was besides
acquainted with many things of which they were7
ignorant; that I knew how to make daggers,
cheetoolths, and harpoons, and was a very valuable person, whom he was determined to keep always
with him.; praising me at the same time for the
goodness of my temper, and the manner in which r 157     .  Jf^ '-
I had conducted myself since I had been with
them, observing that all the people of Nootka,
and even the children, loved me.
While Maquina, w7as speaking, his master of ceremonies was continually skipping about, making
the most extravagant gestures, and exclaiming
Wocash. When he had ceased, the A-i-tiz-zart
chief arose amidst the acclamations of his people,
and began with setting forth the many good qualities and accomplishments of his daughter; that he
loved her greatly, and as she was his only one,
he could not think of parting with her. He spoke
in this manner for some time, but finally concluded
by consenting to the proposed union, requesting
that she might be well used and kindly treated by
her husband. At the close of this speech, when
the chief began to manifest a disposition to consent
to our union, Kiuneelimmets again began to call
out as loud as he could bawl, Wocash, cutting a
a thousand capers and spinning himself around on
his heel like a top,
When Upquesta had finished his speech, he directed his people to carry back the presents which
Maquina bad given him, to me, together with two
young male slaves, to assist me in fishing. These,
after having been placed before me, were by Maquina's men taken on board the canoes. This
ceremony being over, we were invited by one of fr -'  |; ,.   .'     158 '
the principal chiefs to a feast, at his house, of
Klassamit, or dried herring, where after the eating
was over, Kinneclirnmets amused the company
very highly with his tricks, and the evening's entertainment was closed by a new war song from our
men, and one in return from the A-i-tiz-zarts, accompanied with expressive gestures, and wielding
of their weapons.
After this our company returned to lodge at Up-
questa's, except a few who were left on board the
canoes, to watch.the property. In the morning
I received front tbe chief his- daughter, with an
earnest request that I would use her well, which
I promised him; when taking leave of her parents,
she accompanied me with apparent satisfaction on
board of the canoe. Ill
The wind being a-head, the natives were obliged
^ilfeave recourse to their paddles, accompanying
them with thmx songs, interspersed with the witti-
cisms and buileoory of Kinneclirnmets, who, in his
capacity of king's steersman, one of his functions
which I forgot to enumerate, not only guided the
course of the canoe, but regulated the singing of
the boatmen. At about five in the morning, we
reached Tashees, where we found all the inhabitants collected on the shore to reeeive us. We
were welcomed with loud shouts of joy, and exclamations of Wocash, and the women taking mf bride u^der their charge, conducted her to Maquina1*
house, to be kept with them for ten day$; it being
an universal custom, as Maquina informed me,
that no Intercourse should take place between the
new married pajr during that period. At night Ma-
quina gave a great feast, wThich was succeeded by a
dance, in which all thej^women joined, and thus ended:
the festivities of my marriage.
The term of my potation being over, Maquioa>
assigned me as an apartment, the space in the upper part of his house, between hirn and his elder bron
ther, whose room was opposite.    Here I established   myself with my family, consisting  of myself
and wife, Thompson, and the little Sat-sat-sak-sisf
who had always been strongly attached to me, and
now solicited his father to let him live with me, to
which   he   consented.    This boy was   handsome,
extremely well formed, amiable, and of a pleasant
sprightly disposition,    I used to take a pleasure in
decorating him  with rings, bracelets, ear jewels,
&c. which I  made for him of copper, and ornamented and polished them in my best manner*    I
was also very careful to keep him free from vermin
of every kind, washing, him s.nd combing his hair
every day.    These  marks  of attention  were not
only very pleasing to the child, who delighted Hi
being  kept neat and clean, as well as in being
dressed off in his finery, but was highly gratifying
K 160
both to Maquina and his queen, who used to ex$j
press much satisfaction at my care of him.
In making my domestic establishment, I determined, as far as possible, to live in a more comfortable and cleanly manner than the others.—
For this purpose, I erected with planks, a partition
of about three feet high, between mine and the
adjoining rooms, and made three bedsteads of the
same, which I covered with boards, for my family
to sleep on, which I found much more comfortahle
than sleeping on the floor amidst the dirt.
Fortunately I found my Indian princess both
amiable and intelligent, for one whose limited
sphere of observation must necessarily give rire to
but a few ideas. She was extremely ready to
agree to any thing that I proposed relative to our
mode of living, was very attentive in keeping her
garments and person neat and clean, and appeared
in every respect, solicitous to please me.
She was, as I have said, about seven tee^fier
person was small, but welt, formed, as y^fe her
features, her complexion was, without exception,
fairer trMn any of the women, with considerable
eolour in Ler cheeks, her hair long, black, and
much softer than is usual with them, and her teeth
small, even, and of a dazzling whiteness,   whil§ '■< . ;     .  161
heexpression of her countenance, indicated sweet-
less of temper aju! modesty. She would, indeed,
isave been considered as very pretty in any country,
tnd excepting Maqnina's queen, was by far the
landsomest of any of their women. H
With a partner possessing so many attractions,
many may be apt to conclude, that I must have
found myself happy, at least comparatively so;
but far otherwise was  it with me, a compulsory
marriage with the most beautiful and accomplished
person in the world, can never prove a source of
Beal happiness; and in my situation, I could not
but view this connexion as a chain that was to bind
me down to this savage land, and prevent my ever
again seeing a civilized country; especially, .when
in a few days after, Maquina  informed me that
there had been a meeting of his chiefs, in which it
had heen determined, that as I had married one of
their women, I /iust be considered as one of them,
and conform to their customs, and that in future,
neither myself nor Thompson should wear our European clothes, bat dress in Kutsaks like themselves.    This order was to me most painful, but I
persuaded Maquina, at length, so far to relax in
it as to permit me to wear those I had at present,
v hich were almost worn out, and not to compel
fi hompson to change his dress, observing, that as
Bp was an old man, such a change would cause his
death. . :m 162
, Their religious celebration, which the last year
took place in December, was to this commenced on
the 15th of November, and contfnued for fourteen
days. As I was now considered as one of them,
instead of being ordered to the woods, Maquina
directed Thompson and myself to remain, and pray
with them to Quahootze to be good to them, &ad
thank him for wha;t he had done.
It was opened in much the same manner as the
former. After which, all the men and women iu
the village assembled at Maquina's house, in their
plainest dresses, and without any kind of ornaments
about them, having their heads bound around with
the red fillet, a token of dejection and humiliation,
and their countenances expressive of seriousness and
melancholy. The performances during the continuance of this celebration, consisted almost wholly
iq singing a number of songs to mournful airs, the
king regulating, the time by beatipg on his hollo$ff
plank or drum, accompanied by one of his chiefs,
seated near him with the great rattle. In the mean
time, they eat but seldom, and then very little,
retiring to sleep late, and rising at the first appearance of dawn, and even interrupting this short
period of repose, by getting up at midnight and
The ceremony was terminated by an exhibition
of- a similar character to the one of the last year, but still more crueli| A boy of twelve years old,
with six bayonets run into his flesh, pne through
each arm and thigh, and through each side close
to the ribs, was carried around the room, suspended
upon them;, without manifesting any symptoms of
pain. Maquina, on my enquiring the reason of
this display, informed me that it was an ancient
custom of his nation, to sacrifice a man at the close
of this solemnity, in honour of their God, but that
bis father had abolished it, and substituted this
in its place. The whole closed on the evening of the 29th, with a great feast of salmon
spawn and oil, at which the natives, as usual,
made up for their late abstinence.
A few days after, a circumstance occurred,
which, from its singularity, I cannot forbear
mentioning.. I' wat sent for by my neighbour
Yealthlower\ the king's elder brother, to file his
teeth, which operation having performed, he informed me, that a new wife, whom he had a
little time before purchased, haying refused to
sleep with him, it was his intention, provided she
persisted in her refusal, to bite off her nose. I
endeavoured to dissuade him from it, but he was '
determined, and in fact, performed his savage
threat that very night, saying that since she would
not be bis wife, she should not be that of any other,
and in the morning sent her back to her father.
P %
mm 164
This inhuman act did not, however, proceed
from any innate cruelty of disposition, or malice,
as he was far from being of a barbarous temper;
but such is the despotism exercised by these savages
over their women, that he no doubt considered it
as a just punishment for her offence, in being so
obstinate and perverse; as he afterwards told me,
that in similar cases, the husband bad a right,
with them, to disfigure his wife in this way, or
some other, to prevent her ever marrying again.
About the middle of December, we left Tashees
for Cooptee.    As usual at this season, we found
the herrings in great plenty, and here the same
scene of riotous feasting that I witnessed last year,
was renewed by our improvident natives, who, in
addition to their usual fare, had a plentiful supply
of wild geese, which were brought us injtreat quantities by the Esquotes.     These, as Maquina informed me, were caught with nets made from bark,
in the fresh waters of that country.    Those who
take them, make choice for that purpose, of a dark
and rainy night, and with their canoes stuck with
lighted torches, proceed with as little noise as possible, to the place where the geese are collected,
who, dazzled by the light, suffer themselves to
be approached very near, when the net is thrown
over them, and in this manner, from fifty to sixty,
or even more,  will sometimes be taken at one
a 1
On the 15th of January, 18G5, about midnight,
I was thrown into considerable alaim, in conse-
quence of an eclipse of the moon, jpeing awakened
from my sleep by a great outcry of the inhabitants.
On going to discover the cause of this tumult, I
found them all out of their houses, bearing lighted
torches, singing and beating upon pieces of plank,
and when I asked them the reason^! this proceeding, they pointed to the moon, and said that a
great cod-fish was endeavouring to swallow her,
ai^yfiat they were driving him away. The origin
of tils superstition I could not discover.
Though,  in some respects,  my  situation   was
rendered more comfortable since my marriage, as
I lived in more cleanly manner, and had my food
better and more neatly cooked j of which, besides,
1 had always a plenty, my slaves generally fur-
l^ishing me, and Upquesta never failing to send me, an
ample supply by the canoes that came from A-i-tiz-
zart; still, from my being obliged at this season
of the year, to change my accustomed clothing,
and to dress like the natives, with only a piece of
#loth;'of   about two  yards long, thrown  loosely
around me, my European clothes having been for
some time entirely worn out, I suffered more than
Jf can express from the cold^J especially as I was
compelled to perform the laboriouswaak of cutting
and -bringing the fire wood, which was rendered
atild more oppressive to me, from my comrade$|fer
P 3
I -4 • ':1'' I66 "  ■ ' M-m
a considerable part of the winter, not having it in
his power to lend me his aid, in consequence of an
attack, of the rheumatism in one of his knees, with
which he suffered for more than four months, two
or three weeks of which, he was so ill as to be under the necessity to leave the house.
This state of suffering, with the little hope I
now had of ever escaping from the savages, began
to render my life irksome to me, still, however, I
lost not my confidence in the aid of the Supreme
Being, to whom, whenever the weather and a
suspension from the tasks imposed on me, would
permit, I never failed regularly, on Sundays, to
retire to the wood to worship, taking Thompson
with me when he was able to go. iy
On the 20th of February, we returned to our
summer quarterns at Nootka, but on my part,
with far different sensations than the last spring,
being now almost in despair of any vessel arriving
to release us, or our being permitted to depart if
there should.—Soon after our return, as preparatory to the whaling.season, Maquina orderedtne to
make a good number of harpoons for himfelf und
his chiefs, several of which I had completed w\th
some lances, when on the 16th of March, I wa*
taken very ill with a violent cholic, caused, I presume,, from having suffered so much from the cold,
in going without proper clothing.    For a number of 16? .    % .
hours I was in great pain, and expected to die,
and on its leaving me, I was so weak as scarcely
to be able to stand, while I had nothing comforting
to take, nor any thing to drink but cold water.
On the day following, a slave belonging to Maquina died, and was immediately, as is their custom in such cases, tossed unceremoniously out of
doors, from whence he was taken by some others, and
thrown into the water. v The treatment of this poor
creature made a melancholy impression, upon my
mind, as I could not but think, that such proba*
bly, would be my fate should I die among these
heathens, and so far from receiving a decent burial,
that I should not even be allowed the common
privilege of having a little earth thrown over my>
remains.. «    S
The feebleness in which the violent attack of
my. disorder iiad left me, the dejection I felt at the
almost hopelessness of my situation, and the want
of warm clothing and proper nursing, though my
Indian wife, as far as she knew how, was always
ready, even solicitous, to do every thing for me
she could, still kept me very much indisposed,
which Maquina perceiving, he finally told me,
that if I did not like living with my wife, and that
was the cause of my being so sad, I might part with
her. This proposal I readily accepted, and the
next day Maquina sent her back to her father.
i On-parting with me, she discovered much emotion, begging me that I would suffer her to remain
till I had recovered, as there was no one who
would take so good care of me as herself. But
when I told her she must go, for that I did not
think I should ever get well, which in imth I but
little expected, and that her father would take
good care of her, and treat her much more kindly
than Maquina, she took an affectionate leave,
telling me that she hoped I should soon get better,
and left her two slaves to take care of me.
Though I rejoiced at her departure, I was
greatly affected with the simple expressions of her
regard for me, and could not but feel strongly
interested for this poor girl, who in all her conduct
towards me, had discovered so much mildness, and
attention to my wishes; and had it not been that I
considered her as an almost insuperable obstacle to
my being permitted to leave the country, I should
no doubt have felt the deprivation of her society a
real loss* After her departure, I requested Maquina, that, as I had parted with my wife, he would
permit me to resume my European dress, as, otherwise, from not having been accustomed to dress like
them, I should certainly die. To this he consenteo|§
and I once more became comfortably clad.
Change of clothing, but more than all, the hopes
which I now began to indulge, that in the course of r    H    . ' -.p69     '   ..::.    - ;   . e ■
the summer I should be able to escape, in a short
I time restored me to health, so far, that I could
again go to work in making harpoons for Maquina,
who probably, fearing that he should have to part
with me, determined to provide himself with a good
I shall not, however, long detain the reader with
a detail of occurrences that intervened between this
period, and that of my escape, which, from that
dull uniformity that marks the savage life, Would be
in a measure, but a repetition, nor dwell upon
that mental torture I endured, from a constant
conflict of hope and fear, when the former, almost
wearied out with repeated disappointment, offered
to our sinking hearts no prospect of release, but
death, to which we were constantly exposed from
the brutal ignorance and savage disposition of the
common people, who in the various councils that
were held this season to determine what to do with
us, in case of the arrival of a ship, were almost
always for putting us to death, expecting by that
means to conceal the murder of our crew, and to
throw the blame oiit on some other tribe. These
barbarous sentiments were, however, universally
opposed by Maquina and his chiefs, who would
not consent to our being injured. But as some of
theiri customs and traits of national character,
which I think deserving of notice, have not beea
Wm: mentioned,  I shall proceed to give an account of
them. m
The office of king or chief, is, with those people,
hereditary, and descends to the eldest son, or in
failure of male issue, to the elder brother, who hi
the regal line, is considered as the second person in
the kingdom.    At feasts, as I have observed, the
king is always placed in the highest, or seat of honour, and the chiefs according to their respective
ranks, which appear, in general,  to be determined
by their affinity to the royal family, they are also
designated by the embellishments of their mantles,
or Kutsaks.    The king, or head  Tyee, is their
leader in war, in the management of which be is
perfectly absolute.    He is also president of their
councils, which are almost always regulated by his
opinion.    But he has no kind of power over the
property of his subjects, nor can he require them
to contribute to his wants, being in this respect, no
more privileged than any other person.    He has in
common with his chiefs, the right of holding slaves,
which is not enjoyed by private individuals, a regulation probably arising from their having been origi*
nally captives taken in battle, the spoils of   war
being understood as .appertaining to the king, who
receives and apportions  them  among his several
chiefs and warriors, according to their rank and de-
\ serts. « lm
dto»a»i<jfr 171
In conformity with this idea, the plunder of the
Boston, was all deposited in Maquina's house,, who
distributed part of it among his chiefs, according to
their respective tanks or degree of favour with him,
giving to one, three hundred muskets, to another,
one hundred and fifty, with other things in like
proportion. The king is, however, obliged to support his dignity by making frequent entertainments,
and whenever he receives a large supply of provision, he must invite ♦ the men of his tribe to his
house, to eat it up^ otherwise, as Maquina told me,
he would not be consider as conducting like a
Tyee, and would be no more thought of than a
common man.
With regard to their religion—They believe in
the existence of a Supreme Being, w7hom they call
Quahootze, and who, to use Maquina's expression,
was one great Tyee in the sky, who gave them their
fish, and could take them from them, and was the
greatest of all kings. Their usual place of worship,
appeared to be the water, for whenever they bathed,
Iftey addressed some words in form of prayer to the
God above, intreating that he would preserve them
in health, give them good success in fishing, &c.
These prayers were repeated, with much more energy, on preparing for whaling or for war as I have v
already mentioned.
Some of them would sometimes go several miles - . ■    172   :  ; \
to bathe, in order to do it in secret; the reason for
this I could never learn, though I am induced to
think it waain consequence of some family or private quarrel, and that they did not wish what they
said to be heard; while at other times, they would
repair in the same secret manner, to the woods, to
pray. This was more particularly the case with
the women, who might also, have been prompted by
a sentiment of decency, to retire for the purpose of
bathing, as they are remarkably modest.
I once found one of our women more than two
miles from the village, on her knees in the woods,
with her eyes shut, and her face turned towards
heaven, uttering words in a lamentable tone, among
which I distinctly heard, Wocash Ah-welth* meaning good liord, and which haa nearly the same
signification with Quahootze. Though 1 came
very near her, she appeared not to notice me, but
continued her devotions, and 1 have frequently seen
the women go alcLre into the woods, evidently for
the purpose of addressing themselves to a superior
being, and it was always very perceptible on their
return, w hen they had been thus employed, from
their silence and melancholy looks.
They have no belief, however, in a state of future existence, as I discovered, in conversation
with Maquina, at Tootoosch's death, on my attempting to convince him that he still existed, and 173
that he would again see him after his death: but
he could comprehend nothing of it, and pointing
to the ground, said, that there was the end of him,
and that he was like that. Nor do they believe in
ghosts, notwithstanding the case of Tootoosch
would appear to contradict this assertion, but that
was a remarkable instance, and such a one as had
never been known to occur before; yet from the
mummeries performed over the sick, . it is very
apparent that they believe in the agency of spirits,
as they attribute diseases to some evil one that has
entered the body of the patient. Neither have
they any priests, unless a kind of conjurer may be
so considered, who sings and prays over the sick,
to faiVQ away the evil spirit. ||
On the birth of twins, they have a most singular
custom, which, I presume, ha§ its origin in some
religious opinion, but what it is, I could never
satisfactorily learn. The father is prohibited for the
space of two years from eating any kind of meat, or
fresh fish, during which time, he does no kind of
labour whatever, being supplied with what he has
occasion for from the tribe. In the mean time, he
and his wife, who is also obliged to conform to the
same"abstinence, with their children, live entirely
separate from the others, a small hut being built
i<for their accommodation, and he is never invited to
any of the feasts, except such as consist wholly of
:dried provision, where he  is treated  with  great;
ft ^./ -'■'. ''If    ;   '       : 1-74 ^ /If \   r
respect, and seated amon^the^Bhiefs, though no
more himself than a private individual.
Such births are very rare among them; an instance of the kind^ however, occurred while I was
at Tashees the last time, but it wras the only one
known since the reign of the former king. The father always appeared very thoughtful and gloomy,
never associated with the other inhabitants, and was
at none of the feasts, but such as were entirely of dried
provision, and of this, he eat not to excess, and con*
stantly retired before the amusements commenced.
His dress was very plain, and he wore around his head
the red fillet of bark, the'symbol of mourning and
devotion. It was his daily practice to repair to the
||iountain, with a chief's rattle in his hand, to sing
and pray, as Maquina informed me, for the fish
to come into their waters. When not thus employe^, be kept continually at home,.except when
sent for to sing and perform his ceremonies over the
sick, being considered as a sacred character, and
one much in favour with their gods.
These people are remarkably healthful, and live
to a very advanced age, having quite a youthful
appearance for their years. They have scarcely
any disease but the cholic, their remedy for which |
is friction, a person rubbing the bowels of the sicfe
violently, until the pain has subsided, while|lhe
conjuror, or holy man is employed, in the mean r     175      :
time, in making his gestures, singing, and repeating
certain words, and blowing off the evil spirit, when
the patiept is wrapped upin a bear skin, in order to
produce perspiration. |g
Their cure for the rheumatism, or similar pains,
which I saw applied by Maquina, in the case of
Thompson, to whom it gave relief, is by cutting or
scarifying the part affected. In dressing wounds,
they simply wash them with salt water, and bind
them up with a strip of cloth, or the bark of a tree.
They are, however, very expert and successful
in the cure of fractured or dislocated limbs, reducing
them very dexterously, and after binding them up
with bark, supporting them with blocks of wood,
so as to preserve their position.
« ■...
During the whole time I was among them, but
five natural deaths occurred, Tootoosch and bis
two infant children, an infant son of Maquida, and
the slave whom I have mentioned, a circumstance
not a little remarkable in a population of about
fifteen hundred; and as respects child-birth, so
light do they make of it, that I have seen their
women the day after, employed as usual, as if
little or nothing had happenedj|e
The Nootkians in their conduct towards each
other, are in general pacific and inoffensive, and
appear by no means an ill tempered race, for I do
1: 176
not recollect any instance of a violent quarreJ between any of the men, or the men and their wives,
while I was With them, that of Yealthlower, excepted. But when they are in the least offended, they
appear to be in the most violent rage, acting like so
many maniacs, foaming at the mouth, kicking
and spitting most furiously; but this is rather a
fashion with them, than a demonstration of malignity, as in their public speeches, they use the same
violence, aod he is esteemed the greatest orator,
who bawls the loudest, stamps, tosses himself
about, foams and spits the most.
In speaking of their regulations, I have omitted
mentioning, that on attaining the age of seventeen,
the eldest son of a chief, is consideredas a chief^him-
seif, and that whenever the father makes a present,
it is ahvays done in the name of his eldest son, or if
he has none, in 'that of his daughter. The chiefs,
frequently purchase their wives at the age of eight
or ten, to prevent their being engaged by others,
though they do not take them from their parents until they are sixteen. Iff
WTith regard to climate, tbe greater part of tbe
spring, summer, and autumn, is very pleasant, the
weather being at no time oppressively hot, and the
'winters uncommonly mild, for so high a latitude,*
at least as far as my experience went. At Tashees
and  Cooptee,   where we passed the coldest paj| of-the season, the winter did not set in till late in
December, nor have I ever known the ice, even on
the fresh water ponds, more than two or three
inches in thickness, or a snow exceeding four inches
in depth, but what is wanting in snow, is amply
made up in rain, as I have frequently known it
during the winter months, rain almost incessantly
for five or six days in succession.
It was now past mid-summer, and the hopes we
had indulged of our release, became daily more
faint, for though we had heard of no less than seven
vessels on the coast, yet none appeared inclined to
venture to Nootka.    The destruction of the Boston, the largest, strongest, and best equipped ship,
with the most valuable cargo of any that had ever
been fitted for the North West trade, had inspired
the commanders of others with a general dread of
coming thither, lest they should  share the same
fate; and though in the letters I wrote (imploring
those who should receive them, to come to the re-
lief of two unfortunate Christians who were suffering among heathen) I stated the cause of the Bos*
ton's capture, and that there was not the least dan«^
ger in. coming to Nootka> provided they would follow the directions I laid down, still I felt very littj^
encouragement,   that  any  of these  letters would
come to hand, wiieo on the morning of the  nine-
Igaenth of July, a day that will be ever held by me
«: grateful remembrance,  of the mercies of God,
SWfe" |;-  178   ^ ^ |"
while I was employed with Thompson in forging
daggers for the king, my ears were saluted with
the joyful sound of three cannon, and the cries of
the inhabitants, exclaiming, Weena, weena—Ma-
methlee—that is, strangers—white men.
Soon after several  of our people,  came running
into the house, to inform me that a vessel under full
sail was coming into the harbour.   Though my
heart bounded with joy, I repressed my feelings,
and affecting to pay no attention to what was said,
told Thompson to be on his guard, and not betray
any joy, as our release, and perhaps our lives,
depended on our conducting ourselves so as to induce the natives to  suppose  we were not very
anxious to leave them.    We continued our work
as if nothing had happened, when in a few minutes
after, Maquina came in, and seeing us at work,
appeared much surprised, and asked me if I did
not know that a vessel had come.S I answered in
a careless mariner, that it was nothing to me. How,
John, said he, you no glad go board.    I replied
that I "cared very little about it, as I had become
reconciled tPHheir manner of living, and had no
wish to go awTay.    He then told me, that he had
called   a  council of   his   people   respecting  us,
and that  we must leave off work and be present
at it.
The men having assembled at Maquina's house, 179
be asked them what was their opinion should be
done with Thompson and myself, now a vessel bad
arrived, and whether he had not better go on board
himself, to make a trade, and procure such articles
as were wanted. Each one of the tribe who wished,
gave his opinion. Some were for putting us to
death, and pretending to the strangers, that a different nation had cut off the Boston, while others,
less barbarous, were for sending us fifteen or twenty miles back into the country, until the departure
of the vessel. These, however, were the seati-
mehis of the common people, the chiefs opposing
our being put to death, or injured, and several
of them, among the most forward of whom were
Yaelthlower and the young chief, Toowinnakin-
nish, were for immediately releasing us; but this,
if he could avoid it, by no means appeared to accord with Maquina's wishes.
Having mentioned Toowinnakinnish, I shall
briefly observe, that he was a young man of about
twenty-three .years old, the only son of Toopee-
shottee, the oldest and most respected chief of the
tribe. His son had always been remarkably kind
and friendly to me, and I had in return frequently
made for him daggers, cheetoolths, and other
things, in my best manner. He was one of the
handsomest men among them, very amiable, and
much milder in his manners than any of the others,
as well as neater both in bis person and house, at
m least his apartment, without even excepting Maquina. mk
With regard, however, to Maquina's going on
board the vessel, which he discovered  a  strong
inclination to do,.there was but one opinion, all
remonstrating  against it,   telling   him   that  the
captain would kill him or  keep him prisoner, in
consequence|§of his having   destroyed   our ship.
When Maquina had heard their opinions, he told
them that he was not afraid of being hurtJrom
going on board the   vessel,  but that hs^jjHuld,
however, as it respected that, be guide|tty John,
whom he had always found true.    He then turned
to me, and asked me if I thought there would be
any danger  in his going on board.    I answered,
that I was not surprised at the advice hia people
had given him, unacquainted as they were with the
manners of the white men, and judging them by
thefrown,- but if they had been with them as much
as I had, or even-himself, they would think very
different.    Tfcal he had almost always experienced
good and civil  treatment from them, nor had he
any reason to fear the contrary now, as they never
attempted to harm those who did not injure them,
and if he wished to go on board, he might do it,
in my opinion with security.
After reflecting a few moments, he said, with
.much apparent satisfaction, that if I would write "-'■ 181   "   ft: -:
a letter to the captain, telling him good of him,
that he had treated Thompson and myself kindly
since we had been with bim, and to use him well,
he would go. It may easily be supposed that I
felt much joy at this determination, but knowing
that the least incaution might annihilate all .my
hopes of escape, was careful not to manifest it,
and to treat his going or staying as a matter perfectly indifferent to me. I told him that if he wished
me to write such a letter, I had no objection, as
it was the truth, otherwise I could not have done
I theif proceeded to write the recommendatory
letter, which the reader will naturally imagine was
of a somewhat different tenor from the one he had
required; for if deception is in any case warrantable,
it wasr certainly so in a situation like our's, where
the only chance of regaining that freedom of which
we had been so unjustly deprived, depended upon
it; and I trust that few, even of the most rigid,
will condemn me with severity for making use of it,
on an occasion which afforded me the only hope of
ever more beholding a Christian country, and preserving myself, if not from death, at least from a
life of continued suffering,
The letter which I wrote, was nearly in the fol
lowing terms |
iirr. 182
To Captain
of the Brig
Nootka, July 19, 1805.
The bearer of this letter is the Indian king by the
name of Maquina. He was the instigator of tbe
capture of the ship Boston, of Boston, in North
America, John Salter captain, and of the murder
of twenty five men of her crew, the two only survivors being now on shore—Wherefore I hope you
will take care to confine him according to his merits,
putting in your dead-lights, and keeping so good a
watch over him, that he cannot escape from you.
By so doing we shall be able to obtain our release
in the course of a few hours.
rtjfoHN R. Jewitt, Armourer of the Boston,
for himself, and
John Thompson, SaiUmaker of the said ship*
1 have been asked how I dared to write in this
manner, my answer is, that from my long residence
among these people, I knew that I had little to apprehend from their anger on hearing of their king
being confined, while they knew his life depended
upon my release,* and that they would sooner have
given up five hundred white men, than have had
him injured. This will serve to explain the little
apprehension I felt at their menaces afterwards, 183
for otherwise, sweet as liberty was to me, I should
hardly have ventured on so.hazardous an experiment.
On my giving the letter to Maquina, he asked
me to explain it to him. This I did line by line, as
he pointed them out with his finger, but in a sense
very different from the real, giving him to understand that I had Written to the captain, that as he
had been kind to me since I had been taken by him,
that it was my wish that the captain should treat hint
accordingly, and give him what mollasses, biscuit
and rum he wanted. When I had finished, placing his
finger in a significant manner on ray name at the
bottom, and eyeing me with a look that seemed to
read my inmost thoughts, he said to me, " John
you no lie V9 Never did I undergo such a scrutiny,
or ever experience greater apprehensions than I felt
ait that moment, when my destiny was suspended
on the slightest thread, and the least mark of embarrassment on mine, or suspicion of treacheryfon
his past, would probably have rendered my life the
sacrifice. Fortunately I was able to preserve my
composure, and my being painted in the Indian
manner, which Maquina baa since my marriage,
required of me, preventefipauy change in my countenance from being noticed, and I replied with considerable proratitade, looking at him in my turn,
with all the confidence I could muster, §5 Why do
you ask rae such a question, Tyee ? have you ever
fr, <
ml ' - : ' 184  :   -I- "^-    -
known me to lie m fk No."   | Then how can you
suppose I should tell you a lie now, since I have
never done it."    As  I was speaking, he still.continued looking at me with the same piercing eye,
but observing nothing to excite his suspicion, he tpid
me that he believed what I said was true, and that
he would go on board, and gave orders to getfteady
his canoe.    His chiefs again attempted to dissuade
him, using every argument for that purpose, while
his wives crowded around  him, begging him on
their knees, not to trust  himself with the white
men.    Fortunately for my companion and  myself,
so strong wTas his wish of going on board the vesssl,
that he was deaf to their solicitations, and making
no other reply to thera, than, " John no lie," left
the house, taking four prime skins with him as a
present to the captain.
Scarcely had the canoe put off, when he ordered
his meirtto stop, and calling to me, asked me if
I did n$| wrant to go on board with him. Suspecting this as a question merely intended to ensnare
me, I replied that I had no wish to do it, not
having any desire to leave them.
On going on board the brig, Maquina imme-
mediately gave his present of skins and my letter
to the captain, who on reading it, asked him into
the cabin, where he gave him some biscuitand a glass
of rum, at the same time, privately directing his
1 raa&e to go forward, and return with five or six of
the men armed.    When they appeared, the captain
-told Maquina that he was bis prisoner, and should
continue so, until the two men, whom he knew to
be on shore, were released, at the same time ordering him to be put in irons, and the windows secured, which was instantly done, and a couple of men
placed as a guard over him.    Maquina was greatly
surprised and terrified at this reception; he however, made no attempt to resist, but requested the
captain to permit one of his men to come and see
him,    One of them was accordingly called, and
Maquina said something to him which the captain
did not understand, but, supposed to be an order to
release us, when the man returning to the canoe,
it was paddled off with the utmost expedition to the
shore.    As the canoe approached, the inhabitants,
who had all collected upon,the beach, manifested
some uneasiness at not seeing their king on board,
but wheu on its arrival, they were told that the captain had made  him a prisoner, and that John had
spoke bad about him in the letter, they all both men
and women, set up a loud howl, and   ran  backwards and forwards upon the shore like so many lunatics, scratching their faces, and tearing the hair
in hand fills-from thrir heads.
j|||After they had beat about in this manner for some
time, the men ran to their huts for their weapons,
as ikpreparing to attack an invading enemy; while
It * • . '   ' 186   -      .-.;      ;.     ..   i
Maquina's wives and the rest of the women, came
around me, and throwing themselves on their knees,
begged me with tears to spare his life, and Sat-sat-
sak-sis, who kept constantly with rae, taking me
by the hand, wept bitterly, and joined his entreaties
to theirs, thatl would not let the white men kill his
father." I told them not to afflict themselves, that
Maquina's life was in no danger, nor would the
least harm be done to him.
The men were however, extremely exasperated
with me, more particularly the common people, who
came rnnning in the most furious manner towards
me, brandishing their weapons, and threatening to
cut me in pieces no bigger than their thumb nails,
while others declared they would burn me alive o-
ver a slow fire, suspended by my heels. All this
fury, however, caused me but little alarm, as I
felt convinced they Would not dare to execute their
threats while the king was on board the brig.
jThe chiefs took no part in this violent conduct,
but came to me, and enquired the reason why
Maquina had been thus treated, and if the captain
intended to kill him. I told them that if they
would silence the people, so that I could be heard,
I would explain all to them. They immediately
put a stop to the noise, when I informed them that
the captain, in confining Maquina, had done it
only in order to make them release Thompson and -   "387      ■    ■
myself, as he well knew we were with them, and
if they would do that, their king would receive no
injury, but be well treated, otherwise he would be
kept a prisoner.
As many of them did not appear to be satisfied
with this,   and began to repeat their murderous
threats—Kill me,  said I to them, if it is your
wish, throwing open the bear skin  which I wore,
here is my breast, I am only one "among so many,
and can make no resistance, but unless you wish
to see your king hanging by his neck tggthat pole,
pointing to the yard-arm of tbe brig, and the sailors
firing at him with bullets, you will not do it.    O
no, was the general cry, that must never be; but
what must we do?   I told them that their best plan
would be, to send Thompson on board, to desire
the captain to use Maquina well till I was released,
which would be soon.   TMs they were perfectly
willing to do, and I directed Thompson to go on
board.   But he objected, saying that he would not
leave me alone with the savages.    I told him not to
be under any fear for me, for that if I could get him
off, I could  manage well enough for myself, and
that I wished trim immediately on getting on board
the brig, to see the captain and request him to
keep i^aquina close till I was released, as I wits in
no danger while he had him safe. \
When I saw Thompson oJP, I asked the natives
R. 2 188
what they intended to do with me. They said I
must talk to the captain again, in another letter,
and tell him to let his boat come on shore with Maquina, and that I should be ready to jump into the
boat at the same time Maquina should jump on
a*hore. I told them that the captain, who knew that
they had killed my shipmates, wrould never trust
his men so near the shore for fear they could kill
them too, as they were so much more numerous,
but that if they would select any three of their number to go with me in a canoe, when w?e came within hail, I would desire the captain to «eud his boat
with Maquina, to receivlMe in exchange for him.
This appeared to please them, and after some
whispering among the chiefs, who from what words
^overheard, concluded that if the captain should
refuse to seafl his boat with Maquina^the three
men would have no difficulty in bringing me back
with them, they agreed tcjllny proposal, aft| selected three of their stoutest'men tofctrave^ me. Fortunately having been for some time accustomed to
see^ie armed, and suspecting no design on my part,
they paid no attention to the pistols that j| had a-
bout me. ,-mi
As I wras going into the canoe, little Sat-sat-sak-
sis, who could n6t bear to part with rae^ asked ma,
with an affecting simplicity, since I was going a-
way to leave him, if the white men would not let 189
bis father come on shore, and not kill him. I told
him not tone concerned, for that no one sh&qld injure his father, when taking an affectionate leave of
me, and again begging me not to let the white men
hurt his father, he ran to comfort his mother, who
was at a little distance, with the assurances I had
given him. f||
On entering the canoe, I seated myself in the
prow facing the three men, having determined if it
was practicable, from the moment I found Maquina
was secured* to get 0$ board ther vessejjr before he
was: released, hoping by that means, to be enabled
to obtain tbe restoration of what property, belonging
to the Boston, still remained in the possession of
the savages, which I thought, if it could be done, a
duty that I* owed to the owners. With feelings of
joy impossible to be described, did I quit the savage
ehore, confident now that nothing could thwart my
escape, or prevent the execution of the plan that I
had formed, as the men appointedf|to convey and
guard me, were armed with nothing but their paddles, m SMS
As we came within hail of the brig, they at once
ceased paddling,   when presenting my  pistols- at
them, I ordered them instantly^p go on^ orMfe
would shoot the whole of\ them,    A proceeding m
wholly unexpected, threw themkstp great cogp|||p
nation,   and   resuming their  paddles,  in a few
1 r 3 m 190
moments, to my inexpressible delight, I once more
found myself along side of a Christian ship, a
happiness which I had almost despaired of ever
again enjoying. All the crew crowded to the side
to see me as the canoe came up, and manifested
much joy at my safety. I immediately leaped on
board, where I was welcomed by the captain,
Samuel Hill, of the brig Lydia of Boston, who
congratulated me on my escape, informing me that
he had received my letter off Kloiz-zart, from the
chief Machee Ulatilla, who came off himself in his
canoe, to deliver it to him, on which he immediately proceeded hither to aid me. I returned him my
thanks in the best manner I could for his humanity,
though I hardly knew what I said,, such was the
agitated state of my feelings at that moment, with
joy for tny escape, thankfulness to the Supreme
Being who had so mercifully preserved me, and
gratitude to those whom he had rendered instrumental in my delivery, that I have no doubt, that
what with my strange dress, being painted with
red and black from fiead to foot, having a bear-skin
wrapped around me, and my long hair, which I
was not allowed to cut, fastened on the top of my
head in a large bunch, with a sprig of green spruee,
I must have appeared more like one deranged than
a rational creature, as captain Hill afterwards told1
me, that he never saw any thing in the form of
man, look so wild as I did when I first came on
board. * 191
The captain then asked me into the cabin, where
I found Maquina in irons, with a guard over him.
He looked very melancholy, but on  seeing me,
his countenance brightened up, and he expressed
his pleasure with the welcome of % Wocash John;"
when taking him by the hand, I asked the captain's
permission to take off his irons, assuring him ^that
as I was with him there was no danger of his being
in the least troublesome.    He accordingly consented, and I felt a sincere  pleasure in freeing from
fetters,   a man,  who, though he had caused the
death of my   poor   comrades,   had nevertheless,
always proved my friend and protector, and whom
I had requested to  be thus  treated, only  with a
view of securing ray liberty.    Maquina smiled and
appeared much pleased at this mark of attention
from me*    When  I  had freed the king from his
irons, captain Hill wished  to leara the particulars
of our capture, observing that an account of the destruction of the ship and her crew had been received
at Boston before he sailed, but that nothing more
was known, except that two of the men were living,
for whose rescue the owners had offered a liberal
reward, and that he had been able to get nothing
out of the old man, whom the sailors had supplied
so plentifully with grog, as to bring him too much
by the head,to give any information.
I gave him a correct statement of the whole proceeding, together with the manner in which my life 192
and that of my comrade had been preserved. On
hearing my story, he was greatly irritated against
Maquina, and said he ought to be killed. I observed that however ill he might have acted in taking
our ship, yet/ that it^might, perhaps, be wrong
to judge an uninformed savage, with the same
severity as a civilized person, who had the light
of religion and the laws of society to guide
him. That Maquina's conduct in taking our ship,
arose from an insult that he thought he had received
from^eaptain Salter, and from the unjustifiable
conduct of some masters of vessels, who had robbed
him, and without provocation, killed a number of
his people. Besides that, a regard for the safety
of others ought to prevent his being put to death,
as I had lived long enough with these people to
know that revenge of an injury, is held sacred by
them, and that they would not fail to retaliate,
should weekiil tbeir king, on the first vessel or
boat's crew that should give them an opportunity;
-and that, though he might consider executing him
as but an act of justice, it would probably cost the
the lives of many Americans. *#|
The captain appeared to be convinced from what
I said, of the impolicy of taking Maquina's life,
and said that he would leave it wholly with me
whether to spare or kill him, as he was resolved
to incur no censure in either case. I replied that
I most certainly should never take thelife of a. man
II who had preserved mine, had I no other reason,
but as there was some of the Boston's property still
remaining onshore, I considered it a duty that I
owed to those who were interested in that ship, to
try to save it for them, and with that view I
thought it would be well to keep him on board till
it was given up. He concurred in this proposal,
saying if there was any of the property left, it most
certainly ought to be got.
During this conversation Maquina was in great
anxiety, as from what English he knew, he
perfectly comprehended the subject of our deliberation; constantly interrupting me to enquire what
we had determined to do with him, what the
captain said, if his life would be spared, and if I
did not think that Thompson would kill him. I
pacified him as Well as I was able, by telling him
that he had nothing to fear from the captain, that
he would not be hurt, and that, if Thompson
wished to kill him, he would not be allowed to do
it. He would then remind me that I was indebted to him for my life, and that I ought to do
by him, as he had done by me. I assured him
that such was ray intention, and I requested him
to remain quiet, and not alarm himself, as no
harm was intended him. But I found it extremely
difficult to convince him of this; as it accorded so
little with the ideas of revenge entertained by
them.    I told him however, that he must restore
... ., W e        >    194 p'.-      -
all the property still in his possession, belonging
to the ship. This he was perfectly ready to do,
happy to escape on such terms.
But as it was now past five, and too late for
the articles to be collected, and -brought off, I told
him that he must content himself: to ere main on
board with me that night, and in the morning he
should be set on shore as soon as the things were
delivered. To this he agreed, on condition that
I would remain with him in the cabin.e I then
went upon deck, and the canoe tha||hrought me
having been sent back, I hailed the inhabitants,
and told them that their king had agreed to stay on
board till the next day, when he would return,
but that no canoes must attempt to come near the
vessel during the night, as they would be fired
upof^e They answered, Woha9 woho—very well,
verg well.
Ithen returned to Maquina, but so great were
his terrors, that he would not allow me to sleep,
constantly disturbing me with his questions, and
repeating, «* John, you know when you was alone,
and more than five hundred men were your enemies,
I was your friend, and prevented thej<|from putting you and Thompson to death, and now I am
in the power of your friends, you ought to do the
same by me.; I assured him that he would be
detained on board no longer than whilst the proper- 195   -     I. ;. .   - •■§. -.
ty was released, and that as soon as it was done,
he would be set at liberty*
At day break I hailed the natives, and told them
that it was Maquina's order that they should bring
off the cannon, and anchors, and whatever remained with them of the cargo of the ship. This they
set about doing with the utmost expedition, transporting the cannon and anchors by lashing together
two of their largest canoes, and covering them with
planks, and in the course of two hbursjLthey
delivered every thing on board that I could recollect, with Thompson's and my^cnest, containing
the papers of the ship, &c.
When every thing belonging to the ship had
been restored, Maquina was permitted to return
in his canoe, which had been sent for him, with
a present of what skins he had collected, which
were about sixty, for the captain, in acknowledgement of his having spared his life, and allowed
him to depart unhurt.
Such was also, the transport he felt when captain
Hill came into the cabin, and told him that he was
at liberty to go, that he threw off his mantle, which
consisted of four of the very best skins, and gave it
to him, as a mark of his gratitude, in return for
which, the captain presented him with a new great 196   . §; ■
coat arid hat, with which he appeared much delight-
ed%The captain then desired me to inform him that
he should return to that part of the coast in November, and that he wished him to keep what skins he
should get, which he would buy of him.^This Maquina promised, saying to me at the same time,
" John, you know I shall be then at Tashees, but
when you'come makepote, which means, fire a gun
to let me knowyand I will come down." When
he came to the side of the brig, he shook me cordially by'the hand, and told me that he hoped I would
come tpJSee him again in a big ship, and bring ranch
^f$fii% of blankets, biscuit, mollasses and rum, for
him and hiason who loved me a great deal; and that
he would keep all the furs he got for me, observing
at the'same time, that be should never more take a*
letter of recommendation froth any one, or ever trust
himself on board a vessel unless t-HVas there Then
grasping both my hands, with much emotion, while
the tears trickled down his cheeks, he bade me fare-
^fell, and stept into the canoe, which immediately
paddled him on shore.
Notwithstanding my joy at my deliverance, and
the pleasing anticipation I felt of Otffle more behold-
ing a civilized country, and again being permitted
fo offer up my devotions in a Christian church, I
could not avoid experiencing-a painful sensation on
paring  with fefe savage; chiefAwho had preserved' - -ie "■ 197    ■■;■■■
my life, and in general treated me with kindness,
and considering their ideas and manners, much
better than could have been expected.
My,pleasure was also greatly^ damped by an unfortunate accident that occurred to Toowinnakin-
nish. That interesting young chief had come on
board in the first canoe in the morning, anxious to
see and -comfort his king. He was received with
much kindness by captain Hill, from the favourable
account I gave of him. and invited to remain on
board. As the muskets were delivered, he was in
the cabin with Maquina, where was also the captain, who on receiving them, snapped a number in
order to try the locks; unluckily one of them
happened to be loaded with swan shot, and going
offV discharged its contents into the body of poor
Toowinnakinnisb, who was sitting opposite. On
hearing the report, I instantly ran into the cabin,
where I found him weltering in his blood, with the
captain, who was greatly shocked at the accident,
endeavouring to assist him.
We raised him up, and did everything in our
power to aid and comfort him, telling him that we
felt much grieved at his misfortune, and that it waa
wholly unintentional; this he told me he was per-,
fectly satisfied of, and while we dressed and bound?
up his^wounds, in the best manner we could, he
bore the pain with great calmness, and bidding me
s H
ml farewell, was put on board one of the canoes, and
taken on shore, where after languishing a few days,
he expired. To me, his misfortune was a source
of much affliction, as he had no share in the massacre of our crew, was of a most amiable character,
and had always treated me with the greatest kindness and hospitality.
The brig being under weigh, immediately on
Maquina's quitting us, we proceeded to the northward, constantly keeping the shore in sight, and
touching at various places for the purpose of
Having already exceeded the bounds I had prescribed myself, I shall not attempt any account of
our voyage upon the coast, or a description of the
various nations we met with in the .course of it,
among whom were a people of a very singular
appearance, called by the sailors the Wooden-lips.
They have many skins, and the trade is principally
managed by their women, who are not only expert
in making a bargain, but are as dexterous in the
management of their canoes, as the men are elsewhere.
After a period of nearly four months from our
leaving Nootka, we returned from the northward
to Columbia river, for the purpose of procuring
masts, &e. for our brig, which had suffered consi- 199       ..- '
derably in her spars during a gale of wind. We
proceeded about ten miles up the river, to a small
Indian village, where we heard from the inhabitants, that captains Clark and Lewis, from the
United States of America, had been there about a
fortnight before, on their journey over-land, and
had left several medals with them, which they
shewed us. The river at this place, is of eonsride-
erable breadth, and both sides of it from its entrance,
ftiplered- with forests of the very finest pine timber,
fir and spruce, interspersed with Indian settlements, ii
From this place, after providing ourselves with
spars, we sailed for Nootka, where we arrived in
the latter part of November. The tribe being
absent, the agreed signal was given, by firing a
cannon, and in a few hours after a canoe appeared,
which landed at the village, and putting the king
on shore, came tjjf to the brig.—--Enquiry was
immediately made by Kinneclimmits, who was one
of the three men in the canoe, if John was there, as
the king had some skins to sell them if he was. I
then went forward and invited them on board,
with which they readily complied, telling me that
Maquina had a number of skins with him, but that
he would not come on board unless I would go on
shore for him. This I agreed to, provided they
would remain in the brig in the mean time. To
this they consented, and the captain  taking them
S 2        H
m 1 >"■   . 200
into the cabin, treated them with bread and molasses. I then went on shore in the canoe, notwithstanding the remonstrances of Thompson and the
captain, who, though he wanted the skins, advised
me by no means to put myself in Maquina's
power; but I assured him that I had no fear as
long as those men were on board.
As I landed Maquina came up and welcomed
me with much joy : on enquiring for the njyen, I
told him that they were to remain till my return.
B Ah John," said he, " I see you are afraid to
trust me, but if they had come with you, I should
not have hurt you, though Wshould have taken
good care not to let you go on board of another
vessel.!' He then took his ehest of skins, and stepping into the canoe, I paddled him along-sidethe
brig, where he was receivaB and treated by Captain Hill with the greatest' cordiality, whoboight
of him his skins. He left us much pleased with
his reception, enquiring of Me how many moons it
would be before I should come back again to see
him and his son; saying, that he would keep all
his furs for me, and that as soon as my son, who
was then about five months old, was of a suitable
a<*e to take from his mother, he would send for
him, and take care of him as his own.
As soon as Maquina had quitted us,  we got
under weigh, and stood again to the northward. 201        II
We continued on the coast until the eleventh of
August, 1806, when having completed our trade,
we sailed for China, to the great joy of all our
crew, and particularly so to rae. With a degree
of satisfaction that I can ill express, did I quit a 4
coast, to which I was resolved nothing should
again tempt rae to return, and as the tops of the
mountains sunk in the blue waves of the ocean,
I seemed to feel my heart lightened of an oppressive load. fe
We had a prosperous passage to China, arriving
at Macao in December, from whence the Brig proceeded to Canton. There jLhad the good fortune
to meet a townsman ano^ an old acquaintance, in
the mate'of an English E|st India man, named
John Hill, whose father, a wealthy merchant in
IJulLyin the Baltic trade, was a next door neighbour
to mine. Shortly after our arrival, the captain
being on board of an English ship, and mentioning
his having had the good fortune to liberate two men
of the Boston V crew from the savages, and that one
of them'was named Jewitt, my former acquaintance
#§o#s     Wkf§&$^    M*i§ : "^      -$i?   W?    W$    ■'&&
immediately came on board the brig to see me.
Words can ill express my feelings on seeing
him. Circumstanced as I was, among persons who
were entire strangers to mejfjto meet thus in a
foreign land, with one between whom and myself
a considerable intimacy had subsisted, was a plea-
S 3
I sure that those alone who have been in a similar situation can properly estimate. He appeared on his part, no less happy to see me, whom
he supposed to be dead, as the account of our capture had been received in Eugland some time before
bis sailing, and all my friends supposed me to have
been murdered. From this young man, I received
every attention and aid that a feeling heart, interested in the^fate of another, could confer. He
supplied me with a new suit of clothes, and a hat,
a small sum of money for my necessary expences,
and a number of little articles for sea stores on my
voyage to America.    I also gave him a letter for
my father, in which*!" mentioned   my wonderful
ftfi^bii^br-' '-$ijr ^M> *fe$f- is       ■-flii
preservation and escape, through the humanity of
captain Hill, with whom I should return to Boston.
This letter he enclosed to his father, by a ship
that was just sailing, in consequence of which it
was received much earlier than it otherwise would
have been.
We left China in February, 1807, and after a
pleasantjroyage of one hundred and fourteen days,
arrived at Boston. My feelings on once more
finding myself in a Christian country, among a
people speaking the same language with myself,
may be more readily conceived than expressed.
In the Post Office in that place, I found a letter
for me from my mother, acknowledging the receipt
of mine from China, expressing the great joy of my 203
family on hearing of my being alive aud well**
whom they had for a long time given up for dead,
and requesting me to write to them on receiving her
letter, which I accordingly did. While in Boston,
I was treated with much kindness and hospitality
by the owners of the ship Boston, Messrs. Francis
and Thomas Amory of that place, to whom I feel
myself under great obligations for their goodness to
me, and the assisance which they so readily afforded a stranger in distress.
m ;: -   ■ .,   " ■."•■' 204
Names of the Crew of the Ship Boston, belonging to
Boston in Massachusetts, owned by Messrs and T.
Amory, Merchants, of that place—All of whom,
excepting two, were on the ^d of March, 1803, bar*
barously murdered by the savages of Nootka.
John Salter,
B. Delouissa,
William Icgraham,
Edward Thompson,
Adam Siddle,
Philip Brown,
John Dorthy,
Abraham Waters,
William Caldwell, of Boston,
Joseph Miner,  .
William Robinson,
Thomas Wilson,
of Boston,
of New York,
of Blyth (England)
of Hull       ditto
of Cambridge, (Mass.)
ot Situate,        ditto
of Philadelphia?
of Penton, (England)
Robert Burton,
James M'Clay,
Thomas Flatten,
Thomas Newton,
Charles \Bates,
John Hall,
Samuel Wood,
Peter Alstrom,
Francis Marten,
Chief Mate
Second Mat©
Ditto     *
of Newport,
of Leigh, (Scotland)
of Air, di#
Ditto, ditto ||
of the Isle of Man
of Dublin,
|3 11 do.  Ditto
of Hull,
of St-James Deeping   do.  Ditto
i do. Ditto
of Newcastle
of Glasgow, (Scotland)
Ditto m
Sail Maker,
Jupiter Senegal (blackman) 1
juytic » Philadelphia, m^       s    ,
/ohn Thompson, * |       wfao e8caped—since dead
wBfr' of Hull, (England), Armourer,
John R. Jewitt, ol"    • *    *       Narrative is taken, an*
Connecticut. f||     &M ■ '■■■" ' ^ - 205 '
Commencing with a Chorus repeated at (he end of
each line.
Hah-yee hah yar har, he yar hah.
Hah-yah hee yar har-—he yar hah.
Ie yie ee^yah bar—ee yie hah.
Ie yar ee yar hah—ee yar yah.
Ie yar ee 1 yar yar hah— Ie yar ee yee yah 1
I-ye ma hi-chill at-sish Kla-ha—Hah-ye-hah.
Que nok ar parts arsh waw—Ie yie-yar.
Wawhoo naks sar hasch—Yar-hah.     i-yar hee
-I'yar*    •    el ^Spi ' ill
Waw hoo naks ar hasch yak-queets sish ni-ese,|
Waw har.    Hie yee ah-hah.
Repeated over and over with gestures and brandishing of weapons. ;
iproTE.      a 'H-'--'-: ,r-.'.-
Ie-yee ma hi cftftll, signifies, Ye do not know.
It appears to be a poetical mode of expression, the
common one for you do not know, being, Wik*
kum-atash; from this, it would seem that ...they
have two languages, one for their songs and another for common use The general meaning of
this first stanza appears to be. Ye little know ye
men of Klahar, what valiant warriors we are.
Poorly can our foes contend with us, whenr^e
come on with our daggers, &c.
The Nootkians have no songs of an historical
nature, nor do they appear to have any tradition
respecting their origin.
■^SEWSCiSS'&'t; **■■* ' 206
In the Nootkian Language, the most in use.
KChild,   '
Tanassis check-up,
Hap-se up,
*Teeth.   :    j|   .
Choop,   :
,'. Feetf    pi-.
Sun or Moon.
i Sky.
Toop elth,
Fresh water.
Mountain or hill.
Kia-tur miss,
Fire or fuel.
s No. 207
K lac k-e- miss,
Sonar,       m&
Kloos a-mit,fll
Cham* mass,
Hah-we Iks,
Klick-er yek,
4  Quish-ar,
Mar met-ta,
Pook shit-tle,
Slave. . §p
OiLf , e||.;,:
Sea otter.
Salmon.      |p
A fish hoo|l4      g|
Fish hooks.
Cloth. ■
C Sweet or pleasant to the
I     taste
Hungry. ||1
Knife or dagger,
Goose or duck.
To blow.
To kindle a fire.
To bathe.
To go to fish.
A  smootish check-up* A warrior
Cha-alt-see klat-tur wah,Go off, or go away.
Ma-kook, To sell.
Kah-ah-pah-chilt, Give rae something.
Oo-nah, How many.
ly ah-ish, Much.
Ko-rame-tak, I understand.       || 208
I-yee ma hak,
Kit* -whar,
Mac kam-mah-sish,
Kah ah-coh,
Att la,
Hy-o, 1        f-
1 do not u nderstand.
pFo pjay.
To laugh.
Do you want to boy.
Bring it.
Three.   :.:e
six.  - '.■; ■ <:   ;
Eighie- •     ^Bgg
T^lnty. -
One thousand.
Rowland Hurst, Printer, Wakefield.    


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