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An authentic narrative of a voyage performed by Captain Cook and Captain Clerke, in his Majesty's ships… Ellis, William 1782

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Array  J-
*
_. :«3SgvSfe      _   	     AN  AUTHENTIC
N   A   R
A  T   I  V   E
OF     A
VI OlYl A   G   E
PERFORMED      BY
Captain CO 0 K and Captain CLERKE^
IK   HIS   MAJESTY S   SHIPS
RESOLUTION   and DISCOVERY,
During the Years 1776, 1777* 177S, 1779, and 1780^ •smu^   AN   AUTHENTIC
NARRATIVE
OF     A
O   Y   AlG  E
PERFORMED     BY
Captain COOK and Captain CLERKE,
IN   HIS MAJESTY'S SHIPS
HESOLUTION   AND   DISCOVERY
During the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779* and 1780;
IN  SEARCH   OF   A
NORTH-WEST   PASSAGE
Between the Continents of Asia and AM£RicAt
I NCLUDJNG §M
A faithful AccounV of all their Discoveries, and the
unfortunate Death of Captain COOK.
illustrated with
A C H A R T and a Variety of C U T S.
By    W.     E   L   L   I   S,
ASSISTANT     SURGEON   TO   BOTH   VESSELS,
VOL.    I
LONDON,
Printed for G. Robinson, Pater^nofter Row; J. Sewell?
Cornhill;.?and J. Deerett, Piccadilly.
MpCCLXXXJI. £
/Sh ozs
f     III
(£?
a
//
j 3fq.
mm
f ft'
f/J
«e<9  ^m» CONTENTS
C   fit   A  P.     I*
CT3 ti E jhips put in commiffion—fall down to Long
~* Reach—proceed to Plymouth—-the Kefelution falls f$r
the Cape of Good Hope—the Difcovery follows feme tiMe
after her arrival there—both 0ps leave the Cape, and
proceed to'the fouthward—difcover Marions Ifles—and
the ifland of Deflation—proceedings there, and departure —feme account of the ijland* t
.-X.     .. .     CHAP.     II. * :
The Jhips proceed to Van-Diemerfs Land—arrival in Adventure Bay—meet with no good water—^catcb plenty of
ftfh—parties fent to cut wood^—feme of the natives make
their Appearance—defcription of them—are frightened by
the dlfcharge of a mufqujefy and run into the woods—-^
pay us another vlfit—a farther defcription of them, and
of Adventure Bay. h H
C  H  A  I*.    III. I      <
Depdrture from Van-Diemetfs Land—arrival at Neiu
Zealand—feme of the natives venture aloing-Jide—appear
fufpicious and diflrujlful—the tents ereded on Jhore—•
brew fpruce-beer—filthinefs of the New ILealanders—
Tiu-drrooa's attachment to Captain Cook and Omai—
Kihooraht the chief who killed the unfortunate Mr, Rowe,
vijits the Jhips; is difllked by his countrymen—the Difcovery drags her anchor in a fquall,—preparations for
leaving New Zealand—Tiu-arrooa and another boy beg
to accompany Omai —the mother of the former inconfole-
uble*-our departure, 24
A a C M A r. I   O  N   T  E  N T  S,
"~ "7 CHAP.     IV.
Pafs through CooPs Straits—difcover an ifland—affords <?
pleafing profpecl—are- feen by the natives—two of then*
come off in a canoe—the boats fint to look for a landing-
place—but return without fuccefs—feme account of the
natives—leave the ifland—difcover two more—the natives
very readily come onboard— defcription. of them—the arrival of a chief—he enters into a league of friendfhip.
with us—our boats fent on Jhore, attended by a number of
canoes—the king of the ifland fends Captain Gierke a pig
and feme cocoa-nuts—the return of the boats— are not able
to land—the Jhips /land off'and on for the night. 3 ;
CHAP.     V.
The boats again fent onjhore—they return without any fup+.
ply—the behaviour of the King—-promifes them p^ovifionsx
but deceives them-r-Qmai finds five of his countrymen—
leave Watieu and proceed to the Small Ifland—procure
ajlock of grafs-for the cattle and feme cocoa-nuts—arri%£
at Harvey's Ifland—defcription of the natives ■?- are great
thieves—the boats fent to open a trade with them—but return without Juccefe—Captain Cook determines to proceed
to the Friendly Ifles, by way of P aimerJlon's IJle — anal
kears away accordingly. 43
CHAP.     VI.
Jlot fultry weather with thunder and lightning — arrive at
Palmer/Ion's Ifland—find no anchorage for the Jhips —
the boats fent on Jhare— account of this ifland—inhabited
by numerous flocks of birds—,the reefaffords excellent fijh—r
particularly large eels—defcription of them—many Jharks
—find part of a canoe, and a piece of plank upon the
beach—pafs Savage Ifland—and defcry the Friendly Ifles—-
anchor off Ana^ooka. - rp
. ':! ' 7""   ' r. :\ C U A Bs CONTENTS.
CHAP.     VII.
Captain Cook's order relative to trade—the tents erecled, and
markets heldonfhore—the Difcovery parts her fmall bower
cable-—the arrival of Feenow—the~ Difcovery parts her
hejl bower cable—Captain Cook accompanies Feenow to
fiappi guith the~. Jhips—receives great civilities there—
is entertain&tL^yith boxing and wrefiling matches and
dances—departs from Happi—the paffage to Anamooka
very dangerous—Arrival of Powlahow—who proves to be
the king—flrittyres on Feenow'§ conducl—Powlahow «N
Jjis $he Jhips—Feenow arrives and pays him homage.     58
%%i ,7|   H *A   P.     VIII.       '•-7V.^"-
% he Jhips leave Anamooka—the paffage to Amflendam dan->
gerous on account of the rocks—arrival there—are informed that  Malla-wagga  is  King—the Captains vi-
fit him,   hut    are   difappolnted Malla-wagga   pays
homage to Powlahow—the captains accompany Powlahow
lo Moa, to  be prefent at a ceremony called Anache—
account  of that ceremony—arrival at Middleburgh	
departure for Otapeipe. 70
>   r...M*    -CHAP.      IX.  %    -;•■----;,-•
Recount of the Friendly Iflands—produce—animalsT-rde-
fcription of the natives—drefs—houfes—food—rcookery—-
amufements—manufaclures—canoes—burial places— funeral ceremonies—form of government-—weapons, 85
I%1--/-..     ■-.   c h a p.   x, I -   •■/•'#•'
(,eave the Friendly IJks—the Difcovery carries away her
main-top-mafl in a fquail—difcover an ifland—-feme of the
natives put off-—ajbort defcription of them and the ifland—
continue our courfe 4o Otaheitee—and anchor in Ohitapeab
harbour—receive intelligence of the Spaniards having been
there—who'had erecled a houfe and crofs on Jhore—leave
three of their people there, and depart for Lima—tliey
return, and after a jhort flay take away, thofe they had
lefi-^and again depart for Lima—Orette, the friend op
M. C  O  N- T  Bi N   T  S,
M* Bougainville, vifits us—feme account of the placed
the Moral of Wyeatuah—ungenerous behaviour of the
Spaniards refpetting us—leave Ohitapeah, and arrive a£
MatavaBay—Otoo vifits the captains. 119
C  H   A  P.     XI.
Omai finds his fifler married—her hufband's behaviour ±~he is
led into temptation, and turned out of the Jhip—the natives
very ingenious at fabricating flories—an inflance of it—the
people ofOtaheitee engaged in a war with thofe of Imaio--*-
the caufe of that war—a human facrifice' is offered id the
god of war by Tohaw—feme defcription of the place of
facrifice—Tohaw and his friends Potatow and Tapaow9
fail for Imaio—Otoo's behaviour—is threatened by 'Tohaw—we fail for Imaic—the-natives Jleal two of our
goats---arrival at Huaheine—lofe one of our quadrants—*
the thief taken—threatens Omai, and is again confined but
makes his efcape—arrival at Uriatea—two of our people
leave the Jhips—are at length taken—leave Uriatea, and
Jleer for Bora-bora—feme account of the feciety of Ar-
■ I %> ■      .§     'I I^
CHAP.     XII.
reots*
Depart from the Society Ifles—difcover a low fandy
ifland—catch manyfijb and turtle—nearly lofe two of the
Difcovery9s men—leave the ifland—defcription of it—■
amoving flocks of birds—proceed to the northward—fee
more land—anchor off A'tout, one of the Sandwich Ifles—
proceedings there—the Refelution drags her anchor, and
flands out tofea—ihe king and queen vifitCaptain Clerke—»
the Difcovery fails—both jhips anchor sff Oneehow, an*
other of the Sandwich Ifles—tranfaclions there-—fome account of thofe ijlands* 162
CHAP.     XIII.      7f
We depart for the northward—fall in with the north-weft
coaft of America—trace the coafl as well as the wind and
tveattih* permit—are put to an allowance of water—
difi CONTENTS.
difcover King   George's Sound—where we anchor—the
natives vifit us—account of mem, and of our tranfaclhns
• there—departure from Kirfe Qejoxge's   Sound, 180
§  ;    .      7   C  HAP.     XIV.'  ,J|7.-, 7;,'   , '
Recount of King George's Sound—produce—whmls-~-in-
habitants— temper—drefs—houffs—foodrrrcwkery—manu*
failures—canoes—fijhing-tackle—weapons—language.-
209,
C   H   A  P.     XV.
Peparture from King George's Sound--the Refolution
fprings a leak—experience much blowing weather—continue to trace the coafl—Captain Cook goes onjhore-^we
difcover Sandwich Sound—and anchor there—feme of the
Americans make their appear ance--~defcription of them—*
weigh our anchors and fland on, but the weather proving
pad, are at night obliged to let them go again—more of the
natives vifit us, hut behave infolently—account of them—'
proceed through the Sound—feme account of it. 230
,j§C   H  A   P.     XVL If-
f,eave Sandwich Sound, and continue to trace the coafl—*
difcover the river Turn-again—iran)actions during our
courfe up antfidown the river—occurrences during our run
Wni the coqjl fill our arrivaf ti£Proyjdence Bay.       249
||7 .    '.-;  c h a ^r|.xvii.   '•■■ -'J||:7
%ranfq§lons   and   occurrences   at  the   ifland   of   XJn^
lafchka-r-we depart from thence, and continue to trace the
wi;ifiii   'w$--  ?■      ■ 28x
CHAP.     XVIII.
^ranfaclions till our departure from the Tfchutfehi Nofs*
$    1    '' il    !        3I°
f CHAP. CONTENTS,
i^^. CHAP.- XIX*   ■; ;.  '>.r^M
blred our courfe to the American Jhore—falt in wiWthi
ice—numerous herds of fea-horfes, or morfe, upon it—*
fee land, which Captain Cook denominates Icy Cape—
trace the ice-^-difcover the Afiatic continent, which we
continue to trace till we again arrive at the Tfchutfchi
IBB 333
*
E     R     H     A
Tage 5, line 3, for ofiread.oL   P. 18, 1. 3, for as, r. who,   P* it*
1. l J, for tops   r.   top.    P. 26, 1. 17, for  their jrillis.    P.  34,  1.  8,
for to  r. on.    P. 50,  1. 7, for man r many. ^J?.tiao,  1- ,.M dele £0.
fpf 143, 1. 10, for here r. there.    P. 163, 1. o\ /o> ~aa deg, a* miri. Ei
»-. aoa deg. aa min. E.   P. 17a. 1.14, for a th r. a4th.   P. 194,1. 24,
* for abounds r. abounded,   P. 196, 1. 6, for getitfig r. getting; 1. 7,
far getting r. forming.    P. aio, 1. ,6, infert pait.   P. aa8,1. z*forz
put k.   P. a8a, 1. ia, for wc /-. we.   P. ao5,£ 5,/or the .r. the.    P
,.30.$, I. a, from the bottom, for  or r.for*    P. 316, for lfcbiitpc&y t'
* ^fchutjcbf*    P. 3*5^1. 57 for top r/tpps.    P.,346,  J. ,15, /or bitds   r«;
549, 1. 13, for aud r. and
y»r plung r. plunge,    P. 35 a, 1. 3, /or 8, r, 186.
50, lw5ty from the bottom^ DIRECTIONS  for placing the CUT S.
VOL.     L
Chart of the Difcoveries,  &c.
View of the Ifland of Defolation
 — Market-place at Amfterdam
1 a Hut and Plantation at Amfterdam
Canoe of the Friendly Iflands
Man of O'taheite in a Mourning Drefs
View in the Ifland of O'nechow
Native of King George's Sound
"     Sandwich Sound
Page I v.
72 vx
95-
110^
130^
175 v
191
236
--*■
V O L.     II.
Hut on the Weft €oaft of America
Man of U'nalafchka
Woman of U'nalafchka
View of Karaka-cooah Bay in O'whyhee
Man of Sandwich Iflands
Woman of Sandwich Iflands
View^of the Huts and a Boat-houfe at O'whyhee
Double Canoe of Sandwich Iflands
View of a Morai at O'whyhee
. in O'whyhee with one of the Prieft's Houfes
Kamtfchadale travelling in Winter
View of the Town of St. Peter and St. Paul
Woman of Kamtfchatka
H
45
46
140
IS°
165
180
182
207
237
23$
w  UY^ t^fy tll'i
C^^w^K^   V<ry+~f
I
3 . ^.V^.J"(H"UJ
CHAP.   -I  •• "'; ' fT
!xitf J2>i/tf ^ in commijjion—fall dowii to
Long Reach—proceed to Ply mouth—-the
Reflation fails for the Cape of Good Hope
—the Difcovery follows fome time after
1 her arrival there—both Jhips leave the
Cape} and proceed to the fonthward—difcover Marions ifes—and the if and of
Deflation—proceedings there, and departure—fofne account of the if and.
1N February 14th, 1776, the Refolii-
tioii and Difcovery -Were put iri
commiffion, and the pendants hoifted. After Undergoing a thorough repair, &c. in
the dry dock, they were mooted along fide
the hulk, and continued in that fituation,
taking in the neceflary ftores, till the 12th
of May, when the Difcovery fell down to
Galleons. Some days after the Refolution
followed, and anchored in Long Reach,
Vol. L B     -?& and and the Difcovery having received heif
gunners ftores on board, proceeded to the
feme place, and after a ftxort ftay, both ve£-
fels fell down to the Nore, where the Resolution remained. The Difcovery had orders to make the beft of her way to Plymouth, but contrary winds having obliged
her to put into Portland, it, was near a
week before fhe arrived there.
About a fortnight after, the Resolution
anchored in the Sound. From this time
to July 12th, every body was afiiduoufly
employed in compleating her ftoek, when
in the afternoon of the fame* day, fher
weighed, and made fail for the Cape of
Good Hope. The Difcovery was: equally
prepared for fea ; but Captain Clerke's affairs detained him in town a confiderabls
time after, and he did not arrive in Plymouth till the firft of Auguft.
In the afternoon fhe got up her anchor.,
and made fail likewife for the Cape.
On the 7 th in the morning, they faw
Gape Finifterre, bearing S. S. E. J E. di-
ftant (   3   )
ftant five or fix leagues, and in the afternoon of the 13th faw Porto Sanclo, and
the next day Madeira. On the 26th and
27th, paffed the iflands Sal, St. Nicholas,
and Bonavifta, and early the next7 morning flood in for Porto Praya bay, as Captain Clerke was not without hbpes^of
finding the Refolution there.
They now  foon loft the N. E. trade
wind, it fluffing to the S. W. but upon
approaching the equinoctial, it gradually
veered round to the S.  E.    September
24th,  in the  evening,   the  corporal  of
marines fell overboard and was drowned.
October 31ft, about two in the afternoon,
they faw the appearance of land, which
from its bearings, &a they ftrongly fuf-
pected was the Table HiH, or.fome of the
high land near it;  but the  next day a
heavy gale of wind arofe from the S. E.
and continued to blow with great violence,
till the 8 th of November, when it became
more moderate, and fliifted to the S. W.
The next  niorning, to their great joy,
B 2 they ' \  '. ^   ( 4 1^7 :    -    ;
they faw the Table Hill bearing E. by &
and at.11 at night, having very light airs,
anchored, but immediately after a heavy
fquall from the fouthward came on, and
drove the Difcovery, in fpight °f her
anghor, towards Penguin Ifland, which
eireumftance obliged her to weigh it again
and make fail. At one in the mornings
having flood over to the S» E. fide of the
ba^ fhe came to, and at fix weighed ;
and With ifee afiiftariee oi her boats got
fafe iri about nine, when ihe1 fahited Xk^
fort "with ifeirteeii guns, which was returned with ari etftial iJftaber, and tb#
Refolution, overjoyed Mi feeing her long
expected conform faluted with nine gun&.
The daily occurrences at the Cape,
were fo little intereftiiig and entertaining
(being nothing more than refitting the
fhips, repairing the rigging, receiving on
board ftores and proviiiobs) m not to require a relation of them; it therefore will
be only neceffary to fay, that -by the 31 ft of
November, both veflels were ready for fea*
The I   5   )
The next day (December i ft) at five 1%
the afternoon, we weighed and made fail;
and having faluted the fort, Jftood out off
Table Bay. When plear of the land, we
fteered a S. S. E. and S. E. courfe, it be-?
ing Captain Cook's intention to afcertam
the reality of feme land to the fouthward,
which was faid to be dlfcoveced by Mon^
fieur Kerguelea, and which he had in
vain fought for in his laft voyage. The
Flinch charts were unluckily incorrecl:,
for the Resolution, in her tracT:, pafled
over the very fpot where it was faid to
exift.
As we approached the fouthern parts,
we by degrees found great alteration in
the weather, which now became very cold,
with thiek fogs, rain, and ftrong gales of
wind, and coughs and colds were general
in bot^i fliips. On the 16 th we defcried
land, which upqp. & nearer-view,- proved
to be two fmall iflands, affording at a distance a rocky, barren, and dreary profpedl:,
and ajmoft   furrounded with fogs ; the
B 1 more fr*«*
I  •   "   ( 6 )      " & '
more lofty parts were covered with fnow^
Upon a nearer view, we faw a few trees,
upon the low ground, but they were thinly
fcattered.
Thefe, which were called Prince Edward's Ifles, with three or four others farther
to the eaftward, were firft difcovered by
Monfieur Marion in 1774 and 1775. The
eaftern one lies in latitude 46 deg. 35 min.
fouth, and longitude 37 deg. 51 min.
eaft; the weflern one 46 deg. 54 min.
fouth latitude, and 37 deg. 39 min. eaft
longitude.
We paired between them, and continued
our courfe, and on the 24th at four in the
morning again faw land, which proved to
be that we were in queft of. Our ob-
ferved latitude at noon was 48 deg. 24
min. fouth, and longitude 68 deg. 30 min.
eaft. At three in the afternoon, we difcovered more land to the fouthward,
which was a continuation of the former.
We now directed our courfe immediately
for it, and at eight in the evening anchored - 17 )    ;   '    ;    '
chored in a fmall bay? about half a mife.
from fhore. The rocks were almoft
covered with penguins, and numbers of
fhags flew round us. Captain Cook immediately ordered out one of the boats, to
fee if they could difcover a convenient
watering-place, and to make likewife
fome obfervations upon the produce of the
place. She returned about an hour after,
and the officer who went in her informed
the captain, that there was a fecure harbour, and that water might be procured
from a fine ftream with very little trouble.
He farther told him, tliat there were
numbers of feals, fea bears, and penguins, and brought off feveral of the latter, as a proof of his affertion. This account induced the captain to ftay a day
or two ; and early the next morning (the
25 th) the anchors were weighed. The
wind being directly againft us, we
were reduced to the neceffity of ftanding
.fome way out to fe,a, that we might have
a greater fcope to work to windward.
The Refolution fucceede4 very well 5
P 4 bm but the Difcovery being a good way out,
it became for a tiine almoft calm, whicl|
prevented Jier from getting in till near
three in the afternoon, when ihe dropped hef anchor in twelve fathom water,
the bottom muddy. When moored, thg
fouthernmoft point of the harbour bore
S. E. \ S. j the N. j E. point E. by S.
and the head of the harbour N. W. by
W. our diftance from fliore about a quarr
tcr of a mile. The entrance, and indeed
the harbour itfelf being very narrow, we
were obliged to tack every minute. -
As this place, afforded a retreat for
feals and fea bears, the captain determined
to embrace the opportunity of fupplying
the fhips with blubber, which we migbi
afterwards convert to oil at our Jeifure,
This plan we found of the greateft ufe to
us in the courfe of our voyage, as our
flock would otherwife have been quite
exhaufted,
»
The next day (the 26th) parties were
fent out for this purpofe, and in the fpace
of five or fix hours .had filled air the
hogfhead§ (   9
hogfheads we could fpare. Some of our
men brought feveral of the hearts of
thefe animals on board, and a few declared them to be nearly as good eating
as that of a bullock ; but, in fact, we^fiad
not as yet experienced hungry bellies
enough to induce us to relifh them.
On the 27th, we celebrated Chriftmazs
flay, when the Jailors had double allowance of grog. The next day- (28th)
i$e filled our water cafks, and brought
off a load or two of long coarfe grafs,
which grew upon fome low marfhy
ground at the head of the harbour, for our
flock. Soon after all thofe animals which
Jiad eaten of it began to difcover evident
fymptoms of pain and uneafiriefs, and
fome of their bodies became tenfe and
fwelled ; in fhort, feveral of them died.
Captain Cook alarmed at this, ordered
every partidte to be thrown away, concluding that fomething poifonous had
been brought on board with it; but upon investigating .the; matter more clpfely,
it §        ' rI0 }
it was found that our people had cut it
upon a fpot where a great number of
penguins had been fitting, and that a
confiderablc quantity of their dung Jiad
been included in it.    This was immediately pronounced  to be the  caufe of
their -death, and feveral fimilar inftances
were related of cattle in England dying in
confequence  of eating grafs on   which
dijfeks and geefe had dunged.    On the
morning   of   the   29th   we  got  under
way,  and proceeded  along the  eaftern
coaft of this ifland, which is moderately
low and even, and affords to appearance
feveral very good harbours. Upon the ap*-
proach of evening, the commodore made
the Difcovery's fignal to take the lead,
and look out for a proper place to anchor
in for the night,  and fuch a one being
found, we anchored in fixteen fathom,
muddy bottom, about a quarter of a mile
from fliore.
fltln this day's run, we were not without
pur apprehenfions j being obliged to paf§
through (
II
4$irough many extenfive fields (if I may
be allowed the expreflion) of fea weed,
[fucus gigartinus, Lin.) and as they
generally indicate a rocky neighbourhood,
we were fearful of meeting with fome of
thofe dangerous obftru&ions.
The fhips were no fooner fecured, than
Captain Cook 'ordered out the pinnace,
and went on fhore on the eaftern fide ;
while the Difcovery's fmall cutter, with
the matter, was fent to a fmall ifland to
the weftward, to take the bearings and
cUftancesfof   the   different   remarkable
points of land.    The feals and fea bears
were more numerous  than  at the laft
place,  and fome of them much larger.
The    next   morning   (the    30th) \ we
weighed, and made fail, and after coafting
fome time, in order to afcertain the extent
of the land, we  ftood  to tjte eaftward,
fliaping our  courfe  for Van Diemen's
Land. ffl
This  ifland   was  firft  difcovered  by
Monfieur Kerguelen.   Chriftmas-harbour
(which !    h
•' /-'       (  1Z ) 3,
(which was that part of it where we firft
landed, and which was fo called in remembrance of Chriftmas day) lies nearly
in latitude 48  deg. 41 min. fouth, and
in longitude 68 deg. 52 rriin. eaft.    It is
eafily  to  be  known  by a  remarkable
pierced rock on its eaftern fide, which is
like the gateway of fome old caftle.  The
harbour is very fecure, and is furrounded
by high land.    If we may judge of the
general produce of this place, from what
we  faw of   it   at  Chriftmas Harbour,
it is certainly as rocky, barren, and defo-
late an ifland as can well be conceived,
which induced  Captain Cook to call it
the Ifland of Defolation.    It does not afford' a fingle fhrub, and is covered, in
fome few" fpots on|y, with mofs and four
or five fpecies of plants, among which is
one fomething refembling a cabbage in
its appearance.    Its inhabitants are feals^
fea bears, penguins falca cirrhata apteW$
nodytes antarclicaj gulls, * Port Eemont
hens "(tarus  caiiarafiesj^ quaker   birds
ffroteU  m
MS (procellqria   aquila)    petrels    (procella
ria capenfs, vittataj terns^ fhags, ducks,
and a white bird about the fize of
a groufe, which we called a fnow bird.
Its beak is ftrong and black, with a hollow protuberance at the bafe, fomething
like that of a petril; it has four toes;
its feet are of a fleih colour. At the bafe
of the wing is a black, hard round
knob, which projects about a quarter of
an inch; its eyes are furrounded with a
kind of membrane which appears as if
corrugated, and is alfo of a flefli colour.
We found this a well flavoured bird;
I which circumftance, with the great plenty
of ducks and fhags, induced^ur fportf-
men to be out pretty often, but at laft they,
became fhy, and almoft quitted the fpot.
*The" Caftern part of this ifland affords
the fame fcanrea afpect as Chriftmas Harbour, and in fhort the whole is an affem-
biage of fauge rocky matter, only calculated for the rdO$ence of fuch half-formed
animals
a .1    *4   )
animals as feals and fea bears.* The"
thermometer was from 34 to 36, and once
50 degrees.
C   11   Ix   X •        11*.
The Jhips proceed to Van-Diemen's land—
arrival in Adventure Bay—meet with
no good water—catch plenty if fifh—
parties fent to cat wood—fome of the
natives** make their appearance-**—defcription of them—ate frightened by the
aifcharge of a mufquetj and run into
the woods—pay us another vifit—afar-
■ ther , defcription of them*, and of Adven*
iure Bay.
OUR courfe from the Ifland of Defola-
tion, was nearly E. by N. and
E. N. E. The weather after a few days
run, became more moderate and warm,
the thermometer rifing to 50. anjd 55 *
The wind proved tolerably fteady, tho'
now and then a fquall ufed us . rather
roughly, in one of which the Refolution
carried I   >5   )
■carried away her fore-top-maft and main
top-gallant maft. We continued ftand-
ing on, in daily expectation of feeing the
land, and on January 23d, 1777, were
by our obfervations within a few leagues
of it; but the weather being hazy, we
faw nothing till the next day, Friday
24th, in the morning, when we defcried
part of New Holland, bearing N. by W.
diftant about nine leagues. We traced
the coaft, pafling Storm Bay and the Fluted
Cape, till the 27th, and at two in the
afternoon the Difcovery anchored in Adventure Bay in 13 fathom of water,
fandy bottom. The Refolution at this
time was in the offing, and did not arrive till paft four. The bearings on board
the Difcovery when moored, ] were as
follows : Penguin Ifland N. 74 E.
diftant a mile and half; Cape Frederick
Henry N. 25 E. and the watering
place N. 77 W. diftant from the neareft
fhore about a mile.
Soon after, the Commodore went on'
fliore: I   j i6)      ^ j
fliore to fix upon & proper plaee for
erecting the Aftronomers Tents, and
likewife to look for a convenient fpot
for wooding and watering. In the two
former he fucceeded very well, but in the
latter, by no means to his mind, every run
of water (at Ieaft every one that would
have fuited our purpofe) proving brack-
ifh. Our people on board were alfo enw
fljoyed in catching fifli, with which this
Bay abounds, particularly j|; very large
rays, which afforded thejn excellent fpoiQ
and a variety of other fifli. The next
morning (28th) parties w"ere fent out to
wood and water, and as fifh were fo plentiful, \ another gang of h^fids were dif-
patched to haul the fean. Several of the
gentlemen likew^e made excurfions into
the woods in fearch of gagie. We ob-
ferved from the fhips many ftrK>kes in
different parts, and fome at no great
dlftance, but faw none of the natives till
the evening, when about 20 of them
came to the wooding place, and feveral
m-        6 others /      J.   ...    (    I   1 ■ M'' ,- ■:
others to our watering party. 'They were
entirely naked,   and fome had a kind of
bludgeon   in   their hands,   about   three
feet long, which, upon their approaching
ourwooders, they threw down, and made
figns for them to lay afide their hatchets,
&c.   which was complied with.    They
then came near, and examined our faws,
and other different tools ; but what fur-
prifed  them moft,   was  our  cloathing,
which they at firft thought was part of
our body.    They were below the middle
fize,   of a dark brown colour,   and not
ill made.—The party with our waterers,
paid a deal of attention to what they were
employed about, and examined the cafes
with fome nicety ; but the boat, which
lay at fome little diftance from the fhore,
attracted their notice  more particularly,
and fome of them got hold of the rope,
and were hauling it on fhore.   The officer
who attended,   made figns for them to
defift ;   but they difregarding  him, he
fired a mufquet over their heads, which
Vol. I. C fudden .'
1
(    i8
fudden and unexpected noife fo alarmed
them, that every foul, as well thofe
as were with the wooders as waterers,
clapped their hands upon their heads,
and ran off with the greateft expedition. Our fifhermen were very lucky,
and brought off a variety of fifh, amongft;
which were fome of the largell: rays we
ever faw, and a very uncommon looking
fifh, which we called an elephant-fifh (chi-
mcera callorynchus^ Lin.) The fhooting
party were not fo fortunate : birds of all
kinds were very fhy, particularly the
fhags and ducks.
Early the next morning (29th) our
parties were employed on fhore", as be-^
fore; but the water proving very bad,
Upon trial, the Commodore thought it
moft prudent to relinquSh his fcheme of
flaying there any longer^ and accordingly gave orders for every thing to be
brought on board. WJiSft our people
were employed in getting off the Aftro-
nomers tents, and various other matters,
I the (*9   )
tne natives again paid us a vifit. We
now had a better opportunity of making
our Remarks than before.
Their colour, as has been before obferv-
ed, was dark brown: their hair (which was
ihort and woolly) and beard were formed
into fmall diftinct lumps, with a mixture
of reddifli brown earth, and fome kind of
liquid, which appeared to be of an oily
nature : this mode of dreffine their hair
gave them an uncommon appearance.
The man who feemed to be the principal
among them, had his face entirely painted
with this compofition. Their teeth were
in general bad, their nofes flat, lips thick,
foreheads low, but their eyes were dark
brown and lively. Their arms and breafts
were marked with lines running in various
directions, but totally different from any
we had ever feen before, the fleih being ele -
vated or raifed up as it were in little ridges.
Round the^ necks of fome of them was a
kind of cord, about the thicknefs of our
whip-cord, very ftrong,  and twifted in
C 2 the <f
( *o 5 .-
the lame manner as our's, confuting of
three fmaller cords;jfg They were rather
averfe  to  parting   with   thefe.     Their
women  were very plain ;   their  heads*
fhaved quite clofe, except a very narrow
circle of hair, which quite furrounded it.
Some of them had the fMn of fome animal thrown over the fhoulders, and fait--
ened before, which feemed to be merely
for the convenience of carrying their children, two or three of which they had with
them.      Thofe  who   had no   children,,
were without this, or any other covering.
They readily accepted of every thing that
was offered them,  but fet no particular
value upon any thing.    Their language1
was entirely new to us, and they feemed
to fpeak  very  faft.    When any thing
pleafed them, they always exprefled their
fatisfaction by a fhout.    Having got alt
our things to the boats, we took leave of
our  new friends, and departed for the
fhips.
We  weighed our anchors  the  next
6
morning morning (30th) and flood out of the Bay.
At noon Penguin Ifle bore S. E. diftant
a mile and half, and Cape Frederick
Henry N. by W.
Adventure Bay (fo called laft Voyage
by Captain Furneaux of the Adventure)
lies in lat. 43 deg. 14 min» S. and long.
147 deg. 28 min. E.
The land furrounding it is moderately
high, and covered with variety of trees to
the very tops. They are in general tali
and ftraight ; fome afford an agreeable
fpice, and others abound with gums. The
under-wood is fo thick as almoft to render
travelling impracticable in the valleys; between the hills are fine lagoons, where
are found fhags and ducks, but very fhy
and not plentiful : this circumftance induced us to believe that the natives frequently moleft them. In all our excur-
fions, wc faw not one tree that had the
leaft appearance of fupplying the inhabitants with food, fo that in all probability they are reduced to the neceflity
of principally living upon what fliell-fiui
C 3    7 they mt
\    . ( % )
they can collect from the rocks. We fa>*f
the remains of two or three old huts, or
rather fheds, in and round which were
fcattered mufcle and cockle fhells in a-
bufidance, but not the leaft appearance
of any thin^ elfe. Nor did we fee any
thing like a boat or canoe ; fo that in fact
they feem to be nearly upon a par with
the wretched natives of Terra del Fuego.
The only quadruped we faw diftinctly
was a fpecies of opoffum, which agrees in
many refpects with Mr. Pennant's defcription of the Surinam opoffum, and from
the particular conformation of its hind
feet, viz the firft and fecond toes clofely
united, it probably may be the fame
fpecies.
The birds are various, though not nu-
rnerous, and fome of them very beautir
ful, particularly a fpecies of parroquet,
and a fmall bird of the motacilla genus
with a bright blue head, which we, on
that account, called motacilla cyanea.
Among a variety of fifh, we obferved
ifae atherina hepfetus, and a new fpecies
of (    23    )
of oftracion, only one of which was
caught. The foil is in general good ; we
planted potatoes, Jtidney-beans, peach an£l
apricot ftones, which poflibly may fucceed
very well,
C 4
CHAP, I i \
I
iti^r
' : -, ;  CHAP. III.  :     7   >
Departure from Van Diemens land—arrival at New Zealand—-fome of the natives ve?7ture alongfide—appear fufpici-
ous and diflrufiful—the tents erecled on
fhore—brew fpruce-beer—fithinefs of
the New Zealanders—Tiu-arrooas attachment to Captain Cook and Omai—
Kihoorah^   the chief who killed the unfortunate Mr. Rowe, vifits the Jhips; is
difliked by his countrymen—the Difcovery drags her anchor in a fquall—preparations for  leaving New Zealand—
Tiu-arrooa and another boy beg to accompany Omai—the mother of the-former
inconfolable—our departure.
ROM  Adventure Bay we purfued
an E. N. E courfe.    February 4th,
Tuefday, early in the morning, one of
the Difcovery's marines fell over board,
and   was   drowned.     On   Monday  the
ipth,. in the afternoon, we faw the Coaft
of (   25    )
of New Zealand, the extremes bearing '
from E. to S. by E. and on Wednefday
the 12th, both fhips anchored in Ship
Cove, Charlotte Sound. When moored,
the N. point of the Cove bore N. 42 E?
the S. E. point S. 35 E. and the N.
part of Motuara Ifland N. 61 E.    :
The fhips were fcarcely fecured before
we obferved feveral canoes of the natives
croflmg frorn* the Hippa to the oppofite
fhore, along which they paddled, and
flopped at fome diftance to reconnoitre us ;
but at length they came nearer, and ex-
pofed- fomething white in their hands,
which they waved backwards and forwards. This we fuppofed to be in token
of peace, and of courfe ahfwered it immediately ; they then came along fide
fthe fhips, though not without evident
figns of fufpicion and diftruft. We pur-
chafed a fifh or two and a few other
trifles, and theyjfbon after departed.
The head of one of thefe canoes was
purioufly ornamented with carved open
work. g '■'' --
(
2
The next day (Thurfday 13th) the
tents were fent on fhore, with the cooper,
and all the empty calks, the aftrono-
mers tents and parties to wood and
water. Coppers were alfo fixed up on
fhore, to boil the blubber we had collected
at the Ifland of Defolation, while the remaining hands on board repaired the
rigging, and performed the neceflary
.duty of the fhips. As we had now met
with but little refrefhment finceour departure from the Cape, Capt. Cook, ever attentive to the health of his fhips companies propofed brewing a kind of beer,
from a tree which bore fome refem-
blance to^the fpruce fir, the good effects
of which he had experienced in their
former voyage. Other coppers were
therefore fixed for that purpofe. On
Tuefday the 18th, the beer was ferved
out, and found to be fo pleafant and falu-
tary, and fo generally approved of by all
parties, that the Commodore determined to
carry as much of it to fea as he could.   The
oil
n !;§§§      '    g
pit party on fhore were conftantly attende4
by many of the natives, who received the
fcum and pieces of blubber that remained
after boiling with the greateft thankful-
nefs ; and indeed you could not oblige a
New Zealander more than to give him
the oil out of the fhips lamps, which he
would fwallow with all the greedinefs
imaginable. Of thofe who were the moft
.conftantly on board, a young lad called
Tiu-arrooa, was the principal ; he was
poffeffed of good-nature, and had a great
fliare of fenfe and difcernment. He was
greatly attached to Captain Cook and
Omai, and was j conftantly with one or
the other. His father was late chief of the
diftrict in which our fhips lay, and was
killed, with feveral others, about fix weeks
before our arrival, by a ftrong party of
another diftrict, who attacked them in
the night. Tiu-arrooa and a few others
efcaped with the greateft difficulty.
A  few | days   before our   departure,
Kitoorah (the chief who headed the party
that, 1
§{  *8
that cut off the unfortunate Mr. Rowe)
paid us a vifit. At firft he was very fhy,
£nd would not venture on board, fearful
no doubt that we fhould revenge the
death of our people upon him ; but when
he found we took no notice of it, he laid
afide that diffidence, and readily came to
the fhips.—He was much difliked by his
own people, who frequently defired us
to fhoot him, at the fame time exprefling^
their difapprobation of him in pretty
fevere terms, *
On the 20th (Thurfday), we had very
heavy fqualls of wind, in confequence of
which the Difcovery drove, and was
obliged to let go her fheet-anchor, and
both veffels ftruck yards and top-mafts.
The natives al| this time fupplied us
plentifully with fifh, among which was
the elephant-fifh, but one in particular,
which they called a mogee, was not inferior to a falmon. We alfo frequently
procured very excellent lobfters.
Captain It v   .■  !  2g ; ,
Captain Cook having given orders fof
riking the tents, &c. and preparing for
fea, on the 23d every thing was put on,
board.    Tiu-arrooa and another lad having expreffed a defire to continue with
Omai, were permitted by the captain to
accompany him.   The mother of the former came  on board, and with tears entreated him to remain behind, telling him,
among many other powerful arguments,
that we fhould kill and eat him 5 but he
was too refolute and firm to pay any attention to her perfuafions, and the poor
woman went on fhore quite inconfolable.
The next morning (Monday 24th), at
nine, we weighed and made fail, but ha^
Ing very light winds, we were obliged at
noon  to anchor again in  nine fathom,
muddy bottom,   Point Jackfon" bearing
north, Cape Koamaroo E. | S. and the
Hippah, S. by W. iW.
At eight the next day (Tuefday 25th),
we again got up our anchor, and made
fail,   ftanding  through   Cook's  Straits IN
SI' ;^    i 3° )
At noon, Cape Terra-wittee bore S.
E. by S. Cape Koamaroo W. t§S<
and fome rocks called the Brothers,
from W. by S. to N. W. by W. our ob-
ferved latitude being 41 deg. 6 min.
fouth.
So much has already been faid of the
natives, with their manners, cuftoms,
houfes, furniture, canoes, &c. &c. that
as we can make no improvement, a repetition would be both tedious and ufe-
lefs.
■
CHAP;
MMMiMaMMIiliMMMiMMMialJtt (
3*
-  chap.- IV.       ' ^:m
Pafs through Cook's Straits—difcover an
ifland—affords a pleafing profpecl—
are feen by the natives—two of them
come off in a canoe—the boats fent
to look for a landing-place—but return
without fuccefs—fome account of the
native's—leave the ifland—difcover two
more—the natives very readily come on
board—defcription of them—the arrival
of a chief-—he enters into a league of
friendfhip with us—our boats fent on
fhorey atte?ided by a number of canoes—
the king of the ifland fends Captain
Gierke a pig and fome cocoa-nuts—the
return of the boats—are *not able to
land—the Jhips Jl and off and on for the
night.
E continued in Cook's Straits the
beft part of Wednefday (February 26th). At noon, Cape Terra-witte
bore N. W. by W. and Cape Palllfer
E. by N. diftant about four leagues.—
From I
I
(
3*
From this time to  the 17th of March
(Monday), we continued nearly a N. E*
coaft.    At  noon   oiir  obferved  latitude
was 33 deg. and 23 min. S.  In the afternoon we   paffed   the trunk  of a  tree*
which  appeared  much  weather-beaten,
and was furrounded with barnacles. Early
in the morning of the 29th  (Saturday),
being in   lat.   22 deg.   11   min.   fouth,
and longitude 201 deg. 50 min. eaft, we
paffed feveral pieces of wood and rock-
weed : feveral man of war birds were
obferved ;  and a bird, fomething like  a
cuckow,  flew round  the fhips.    Thefe
being indications   of  the  proximity of
land, we kept a good look-out, but upon
examining our  charts, we   found none
laid down nearer than the Society Ifles.
At nine the next   morning (Sunday
30th), we difcovered land bearing about
N. E.  The Difcovery being a-head, mad
the fignal, which was anfwered by,the
Refolution.    The winds foon after proving light, and being fome diftance from
th
e I (.    33     ) ;■     7
the land, night came on before we could
diftinguifh objects clearly;   fo got our
tacks on board, and flood off and on tilL
morning (Monday 31ft), when we made
all fail for the land.    At four we were
running along the foufh-fide, at about the
diftartce of four tniles, which, as the fun
was juft rifing, afforded a moft pleafing
profpect. The interior parts rofe in moderately high hills, upon the tops of which
were trees of various kinds.    The fides
nfcxt the fea were very woody, and we
could  plainly   diftinguifh coco nut and
plantain trees in abundance.—Upon our
nearer  approach to the vfhore, £we  faw
many of the natives running along the
beach, and, by the help of our piaffes,
found that fome had large  clubs upon
their fhoulders, and that others were armed with long fpears.    As we proceeded,
the  Indians  followed  us, fhouting and
hollowing, thtjr number increaffihg very
fall.     Soon after two of them put off
in a canoe (the only one we faw), and
Vol. I.
D
came ■ ••
came within fifty or fixty yards of the
ffi^j9s,^but would not venture neairer,
though we made all the friendly figns
we could think of, and fhewed therii
Beads, hatchets, looking-glaffes, and
many other articles of Indian trade.
Their complexion appeared to be of the
dark dlive eaft, their hair was fattened ta
the top of their heads fomething hi the
New Zealand fafhion f one of them had
a large peart oyfter-fhell fufpended from
his neck, and fomething round hi# Aid-
die ; the other was naked.—The canoe
was neatly made, and furniflied with
an out-rigger; the ftern was high for fb
fmall a boat, and terminated in a kind of
Captain Cook finding the littfe probability there was of opening an intercourfe
with the natives in this runner, ordered
the pinnace and fmafi cutter to be got
out, which, with the large cutter of the
Bifcovery, and proper officers on board
each, with trade of various kinds, were (   35   ) :.f
fent in fhore, to fee if there was a poffi-
bility of landing,  and to endeavour to
purchafe fomething from the inhabitants.
During their abfence, we founded feveral
times, but got no ground at forty fathom.
About three hoiirs after, they returned,
and the information we received was,
that the ifland (at leaft this part of it)
was furrounded with a reef of coral rock,
upon which a heavy furf was continually
breaking ; fo that it was totally impracticable to land without deftroying the
boats, and endangering the lives of
thofe who were in them. About a quarter of a mile from the reef, they found
ground at twenty-one fathom.
During their cruife, they had an opportunity of making a few remarks upon the natives^ many of whom fwam to
them from the fhore. They were flout
and well made, but all armed ; fo that it
was more than probable they would have
oppofed us, if we had fucceededfo far as
to have landed upon the reef    Some df
D 2 them rBa
-J-"^   J "
:-;i',     "   (13'6 I '       -'
them were armed with pata-patows, likd
thofe of the New Zeelanders ; and their
language referhbled, in many refpects,
that of Otaheitee. They quite difregarded
hatchets arid nails, but were much pleafed
with looking-glaffes : like all other Indians they were given to thieving, and one
of them very artfully ftole a bunch of
beads out of one of the boats, with which
he fwam off. Our people could not
procure a iingle coco nut, nor would
they part with any thing they had. The
fhore appeared very delightful, the trees
being lofty and fhady, and the air was ab-
folutely perfumed with the fcents of va-
rious flowers.
We 'were much chagrined at our bad
fuccefs for feveral reafons, but more particularly on account of our live flock,
which were almoft in a ftarving eonditiom
Finding that nothing more could be
done, at noon we made fail, ftanding to
the northward, the extremes of the ifle
bearing N. E. by E. and S. by E.
•■   I        "    " "     1  "i ■ 1  The '§(   37   )
The next day (Tuefday, April ift),at
noon, land was again difcovered, bearing
N. by E. The Difcovery, being near
three miles a-head of the Refolution,
made the fignal. At four in the afternoon, it bore from N. E. {■ N. to N. E.
1 E. diftant about feven leagues; we
flood off and on for the night, and at day-
jbreak (Wednefday 2d) it bore N. &
about four leagues. It appeared to .be an
ifland nearly of the fame extent as the
former. At five the Refolution hoifted
the Difcovery's fignal to make fail a-head
to the N. E. and at feven we faw another
fmall ifle bearing N. I E. At noon
jtacked, the fmall ifle bearing E. and the
body of the large one S. E. by E. our
latitude being 19 deg. 47 nun. fouth,
and longitude 202 deg. 12 min. eaft. All
the afternoon we were making the beft of
pur way for the large ifland, but being
obliged to work to windward, night came
on before we could reach it, fo of courfe
ftpod off and on till morning.    During
3 \the ill
III!
IHi> ."
i
the night we faw feveral fires on fhore %
and the next day, at five in the morning,
the Difcovery made all fail for the ifland,
jn confequence of a iignal from the Refo-
lutiom
As the fhips were ftanding in, many
of the natives put off, Ibme in Angle,
others in double canoes; the fingle have
feldom room enough to contain more than
one perfbn, the double ones will hold
eight or ten. They foon paddled along
fide, and with very little perfuafion came
fan boatfd ; Aeir fize was above the middle
ftandard, and7tthey were ftour- well-made
people, with fine open countenances;
their colour of the olive eaft, with a mixture of brown. Their hair was black;
in fome J6ftgy in others flftrt, and wore
in a variety of forms, juft as convenience
or fancy directed. None had more than a
W&&W piece of cloth round their mid*
die, which was painted or dyed of different patterns, with red, black, and yellow.    Several were marked or tatowed
moft (    39   ) *       ,
moft curioufly from the middle downwards, particularly upon their legs. They
were very friendly and good-natured, and
ran about the fhip with as little ceremony,
and appeared as perfectly at eafe, as if
they had been long ufed to them. In
this interval Captain Cook ordered out
the pinnace and large cutter, and fent
them on board the Difcovery, with Mr.
Gore the firft lieutenant, and Omai, to
learn if there was a poffibility of anchoring, and if any refrefhments could be
procured from the natives, for, as fhe
was much nearer the fhore than the Refolution, of courfe all the canoes came to
her. Soon after their arrival, a double
canoe, paddled by eight people, with a
tall flout man ftanding up in her, came
alpng-fide ; he, without any ceremony,
came on board with a branch of a coco
nut tree in his hand, and feveral roots df
the a'wa (piper methyfiicum Fofieri) %. fpe-
cjes o£ pepper, with which they intoxicate
themfelve^.
D 4 Oftiai mm
m
1:: -• ..v.  ( 4° ? '7.   '. .
Omai accofted him in the Otaheitee
language, which appeared to vary but
little from his own. It feems the intent
tion of this vifit, was to eftablifh peace
on both fides, after the ratification of
which, we were to be fupplied with hogs,
bread-fruit, plantains, and in fhort every
thing the ifland produced. After the
ceremony (not one word of which we
underftood) was over, and every article
agreed to by the chief on his part, and by
Omai on our's, the Refolution's boats
(in one of which the Aree went), attended
by the Difcovery's large cutter, and a
number of canoes, proceeded to the fhore*
At noon our obferved latitude was 19 deg.
59 mill. S. In the afternoon, the King of
the ifland fent Captain Gierke a prefent
of fome coco nuts, and a young pig,
who liberally rewarded the bearers with
fome nails," a large piece of fcarlet cloth,
and, fomq hatchets.
In the evening the boats returned, with
the difagreeable news of not being able to
find (41    )
find a place where the fhips could ride in
fafety, nor even a landing-place for a boat;
this part of the ifland being fur rounded
by a reef, upon which a continual furf
Was breaking.
This information damped our fpirits 3
good deal, for we were all elate with hope,
and had already anticipated the pleafure
and fatisfaction we fhould experience, in
the many good things the ifland produced ; efpecially as the natives were
full as defirous of our landing as we
could poffibly be ourfelves. '"   J|7 .
We were determined however not to
give up the point in this manner, but to
make another trial; and fince it was
impoffible to effect a landing in our
boats, thofe who were to go upon |his
expedition were to land in the canoes of
the natives, who from long experience
are very dextrous at this kind of work.
Having thus fettled our plan, we flood
off and .on for the night.   " 7 —   I      T^l I I I
mm
(   42    )
*f'-'-*f:- CHAP.   V. ■'--',;■-■-■--
The boats again fent on fhore—they return
without any fupply—the behaviour of
the  King—*promifes  them provifions,
but deceives them—Omai finds five of his
countrymen—leave Watieu and proceed
to the fmall Ifland—procure a flock of
grafs for the cattle and fome coco nuts
—arrive at Harvey s IJlana1—defcrip-
twn of the natives-r-'are great thieves
~—the boats fent to open a trade with
them—but   return   without fuccefs—
1 Captain  Cook determines to proceed to
j   the Friendly Ifles3 j by  way of Palmer-
\ fions Ifle—and bears aw ays accordingly.
g|BHH|
HE next morning (April.33}, at
"nine the Refolution s pinnace and
cutter, in the former of wh^ch^ were
Mr. Gore the firft lieutenant, the furgepn^
and Omai, attended by the Difcovery's
large cutter, were fent on fhore. The
H    HI H natives ,; (   43   )
natives came-to the fhips, bringing coco
nuts, plantains, and the intoxicating
pepper root, but no hogs, which would
have been the moft welcome fight ; we
gave them in return knives, red cloth,
and nails. At feven in the evening the
boats returned, but without either hogs,
bread-fruit, plantains, or any thing elfe.
The account we received was, that they
had with great difficulty got on fhore in
the Indian canoes ; as foon as they were^
landed, the natives led them in great
form to the King, who behaved rather
f eferved upon the occafion : upon informing him that we were in great want of
provifions, he faid that we fliould have
hogs and other things, but as they were
at a diftance up the country, it would be
fome time before his people could get
them. They waited a confiderable time,
But none appearing, they again requefted
that fome might be brought, or at leaft
fome bread-fruit, plantains or coco nuts.
They were defired to flop a little longer,
IP which .   J    - -   ' (   44   )
which thev did till it became rather late,
and they deemed it prudent to get on
board as foon as they could. The inhabitants would at firft fcarce permit
them to go, but feeing them refolutely
bent on departing. *&ey at laft acquiefced,
having taken from them almoft every
thing they could find, • and glad were our
gentlemen to efcape fo cheap,   as they
were apprehenfive of being: detained on
r i:
fhore much againft theirJlinclinations..
One circuinftance was very remarkable ;
which waSj^Oma-i's finding five of his
countrymen upon this ifland. The account they gave was, that in pafling from
pne ifland to another they were drove out
to fea, and after beating up and down for
feveral dajrs and nights, and fuffering
almoft the extremes of hunger, thirft, and
fatigue, they at laft feji in with this
ifland ; the inhabitants of which not
only very humanely afforded them pr^
tectipn but likewife gave them wijes^
and in fhorty that they were^nowyjookgif'
§! upon, '' ■■. - ■( M--1   I.
ttpon as natives of the place. This affair,
according to Omai, happened near tex*
years ago.
Both the men and women were cloth-
ed much In the Otaheitee manner; they
were armed with fpears and clubs, the
latter being curioufly carved. The Indian
name of this ifland is Watieu, that of the
fmaller one Modu-ete. During the night
we flood off and on, and the next morning (April 4th), fhaped our courfe for the
fmall ifle, purpofing to try if we fhould
be more fortunate in cur attempts at that
place than at the former.
At ten, the boats from both fhips
were difpatched on fhore, not for the
purpofe of procuring provifions, for the
ifland was uninhabited, but to cut grafs
&c. for our live flock, the providing for
which was the principal object. After
they had well loaded the boats, they
Were to bring coco nuts, bread-fruit,
plaintairis, &c. if the place produced
theih 1 in which cafe fuch a number of
Aail^ :-
.
Hi!*'
>;    ^ ( 46 )§
nails, hatchets, &c. were to be left, as
were thought a fufficient rec^pipence for
them. Our obferved latitude to-day was
19 deg. 47 min. S.
At half paft fix in the evening, thq
boats returned with a plentiful flock of
grafs and many coco nuts, which were
the only fruit they could find. The
latter were divided amongft the fhips
companies, and the former afforded a.
moft welcome repaft to our cattle, which
were reduced almoft to the laft extremity.
Our people faw the remains of two or
three old huts, which had poflibly been
erected there by thofe who came from
Watieu for the purpofe of fifhing.
This ifland is alfo furrounded with a
reef, which rendered landing rather difficult. It is very fmall, being not more
than a mile and half in length, and is
fituated about ten miles from Watieu.
At eight in the evening we hoifted m
the boats, and bore away for Hervey's
Ifland, which Captain Cook 4ifcovered
Sfer- during u
(47 ) ft"
during his laft voyage. The next day
(April 5th) the fhips companies were put
to two-thirds allowance of every fpecies
of provifion except grog. Soon after
day-light the next morning (April 6th),
we faw Harvey's Ifland, bearing W. S.
W. At ten, we had very light airs, and
the Difcovery got too near the Refolution, and was obliged to get out her large
cutter to tow her clear. Soon after we
faw feveral Indians putting off in their
canoes ; at firft they kept aloof, as if to
reconnoitre, but at laft ventured along-
fide. Their appearance was altogether
wretched, and very different from the
inhabitants of the tropical ifles in general. .Their hair was black and fhaggy,
they were very dirty, and had only a
very fmall ftrip of cloth round their
middle.
They wanted every thing they faw,
and one of them was handing the oars
out of the Difcovery's cutter, which was
along-fide. Thefe we were not willing to
6 part (   43    1
part with, and of courfe oppofed him^
which enraged the fellow fo much, that
he caught up his paddle and ftruck one of
our people over the head with it. Some
of them finding a piece of beef towing
over board to frefhen, very dexteroufly
divided the rope, made off with the beef,
and afterwards fold it on board the Refolution for fome nails. In the afternoon,
the boats were fent in fhore, well manned
and armed, to try if a trade could be
opened with the natives. They returned
in about two hours, with only a few coco nuts, the inhabitants being more dif-
pofed to commit hoftilities then to traf-
fick. This ifland, we found during our
run along fhore, was two feparate ones,
which circumftance, with its being inhabited, were unknown before.
Captain Cook now rinding it impracticable to reach Otaheitee in any reafon-
able time, as the wind continued fo far
tothe eaft ward, and it being abfolutely
neceffary to procure food for the cattle,
gave _
; ,   •     I 49 ) , I
gave lip all thoughts of it for the prefent,
efpecially as the feafon was too far advanced to flop any time at the Society
Ifles and then proceed to the northward.
He therefore determined to make the beft
of his way to the Friendly Ifles, and ordered the Difcovery, which was the beft
failing fhip, to keep two miles a-head,
purfuing a W. S. W. courfe : and as
Palmerfton's Ifland was in our way, he
propofed flopping there a day or two, and
taking in a frefti fupply of grafs and coco nuts ; a fufficient quantity of which,
efpecially of the former, he hoped to procure to laft to the Friendly Ifles. At five
in the afternoon we bore away, and at
fix the body of Hervey's Ifland bore E.
by N. diftant about three leagues.
vol. r. (
CO
§ C H A P.    VI.        -
Hotfultry weather with thunder and lightning—arrive at Palmerflonys Ifland—i
find no anchorage for theJhips—-rthe boats
fent on Jhore—account of this Ifland—inhabited by numerous flocks of birds—the
reef affords  excellent fifh—particularly
large eels—defcription of  them—many
■ fharks—-find part of a canoe and a piece
qf plank upon the beach—pafs Savage
Ifland*—and defcry the Friendly Ifles—
anchor off Anamooka.
FROM the feventh to the twelfth, we
had very light airs and calms : the
weather was hot and fukry, the thermometer ftanding at 83, and 84. We had
alfo much thunder and lightning, attended with frequent fqualls and heavy
fhowers of rain. The latter proved very
acceptable to us, as we collected feveral
hogflieads,  and though it was ftrongly
impregnated impregnated with the flavour of the tar,
which it had contracted from the rigging,
ftill in our prefent fituation it was much
too valuable to be loft.
On Sunday, April 13th, at fix in the
morning we faw Palmerfton's Ifland bearing W. At noon our obferved latitude
was 18 ° 6' S. and longitude 197 ° 23''
E. when it bore W. by N. diftant about
five leagues. In the courfe of the day,
we had light variable winds, and during
the night flood off and on. In the morn-
ing (April. 14th), at four,'the land bore
W. between three and four leagues diftant.
At eight, boats from both {hips wereient
to found, but returned in the afternoon,
having found no proper anchorage, but
had difcovered a kind "of inlet or break
in the reef, where the boats might land
with fafety.-
Our firftcare the next day (April 15th)
was to cut grafs fofrthe ftock, which were
in a moft piteous condition, nor did we
think of engaging in any other bufinefs
E 2 \    '      till .
.$- *    (   52    ) f
till we had got a fufficient quantity to
maintain them till our arrival at the
Friendly Ifles. After this the people
were employed in gathering coco nuts^
which were diftributed to the fhip's company. The grafs and nuts being brought
on board, we, on Friday evening (April
17 th}, bore away, fleering a wefterly
courfe.
Palmerfton's Ifland lies in latitude 18 °
4' S. and 1960 40' E. longitude ;   it was
difcovered  and thus called by Captain
Cook in his laft voyage.   It confifts of an
extenfive   reef,   which  is  nearly feven
leagues in circumference : upon different
parts of this reef, rifes a fmall patch of
land,   of which there are in all nine.
The largeft is not more than a mile and
half in circumference ; fome of them not
1-50 yards.    Within the reef is a lagoon,
which, as far as we faw, had no connection with the fea: it appeared to be in
fome places between two and three fathom deep.
Ths — « =«	
t   53   )
The produce of this place confifts prin^
clpally of coco nuts, and very fine fcur-
vy-grafs.    The only inhabitants we faw
were   rats,   lizards,   man  of   war  and
tropic   birds,  boobies,   noddies   and   a
. few curlews.    The tropic and man of
war birds were fo numerous, that  the
trees were abfolutely loaded with them,
and at the fame time fo tame as to fuffer
themfelves to be taken off the boughs ;
a convincing proof that they are never
molefted by any hujnan beings.
The reef affords fhelter for variety of
excellent  fifh, particularly a large eel,
which we found moft excellent eating.
This fifh is very ugly in itsv appearance,
which is fuflicient to create horror and
difguft,   and had it not been for Omai,
who told us it was very fine, it is more
than probable that we fhould have remained ignorant of its goodnefs.    The
idea which it would firft ftrike one with,
is that of a large fnake ; its length is between four and five feet, and fpotted or
E 3 variegated ■
**"■
w4$
(   54   )
variegated with brown and black ; in cir*
cumference it is about ten or twelve
inches ; the head is fmall and rather flat,
with fmall fiery eyes ; the part, immediately behind the head is as it were fwelled
cr puffed up to a confiderable fize ; the
mouth is wide and well armed with fmall
but very fharp teeth. There are likewife
an incredible number of fharks continually
lurking about the reef, which though fmall
are very ravenous. None of our boats
could pafs or repafs to the fhips, without
twelve or fourteen of thefe gentry after
them, fo that if any of our people had been
unfortunate enough to fall overboard, they
muft inevitably have been devoured.
Upon the beach,' we found the remains
of a cance, and a piece of plank, which
appeared to have compofed part of an
European veffel. Some diftance from thefe
was another piece of wood, rudely carved,
which, from ,the figures upon it, Omai
faid had once belonged to a burying place
of fome iflands in thefe feas.
W: '     '   '      ' ,:M' We We paffed Savage Ifland (fo denominated laft voyage on account of| the ferocity of its inhabitants) on the 23d in-
ftant at midnight, when it bore from
W. by S toN. W.'byN. Our weather
was in general cloudy and fqually, with
thunder, lightning, and heavy rain. On
Monday evening (April 28th), being according to our reckoning not far from
the eaftermoft of the Friendly Ifles, we
paffed the night in ftanding to the northward and fouth ward. The next day
(29th), at nine in the morning, we de-
fcried the eaftern range of thofe iflands
from the maft-head. At noon, they bore
from N, W. by N. to W. by N. our .
diftance from the neareft being about
four miles., v
At four, we had no lefs than fifteen
iflands in fight, the largeft of which,
called by the natives Anamooka, by us
Rotterdam, bore N. W. | N. At fix
the Refolution made the fignal for calling
anchor, and half an hour after both fhips
E 4 came came to j Three Hill Ifland (a fmall ifle
with three elevations upon it) bearing
N. W. by N. The night was very
fqually, with thunder and lightning.
April 30th, in the morning, at fix, we
weighed,  and   made   fail,   fhaping  our
courfe for Anamooka, as well as variable
winds would permit.    At nine, many of
the natives put off in their canoes, and
came along-fide without any hefitation or
appearance of fear, and totally unarmed.
This  confidence which  they repofed in
us, was, we thought, a proof, and a convincing one too, of a peaceable and friend*
ly difpofition,   and  the name by which
thefe iflaiids are diftinguifh ed, viz.
Friendly, is well applied. We pur-
chafed of them (for all their canoes were
freighted with fome good thing or other)
coco nuts, fowls, bread-fruit, and yams,
for which we paid beads, nails, knives,
and fmall piece? of red cloth. At noon
the weather became fo thick and hazy with
hard rain* that we were not able to dif-
tinguifh -    ■ .f.   (    57   )     .        ■'.
tinguifh the land, and all the afternoon
and night we were employed in Handing
off and on9 not being able to find an an*
choring place.
The next day (May ift), at noon, Ana- J
mooka bore E. | S. about four miles diftant. At fix in the afternoon we anchored in forty-feven fathom, fandy bottom, the north point of Anamooka bearing E. N. E. diftant five miles. At daylight (Friday 2d) we got up our anchor,
and inade fail. Numbers of the natives
came off to us, and we foon purchafed a
fufficient quantity of hogs, yams, plantains, fowls, &c. &c. for the fhip's company, and bid adieu to every fpecies of
fhip's provifion except grog.    At noon
the extremes of Anamooka bore S. E. by
S. and S. § W. diftant from the neareft
fhore three miles. At four in the afternoon, both veffels anchored, and foon after
were moored a cable each way, the bef):
)}Ower of the Difcovery being in feventeen
fathom, the fmall bower in twenty-feven
fathom, (    53    )
fathom, her diftance from the reef about
three cables length.
CHAP.    VII.   §
Captain Cook's order relative to trade—
the tents erected^ and markets held op
Jhore—the Difcovery parts her fmall
bower cable—the arrival of Feenow—the
Difcovery parts her beft bower cable—
Captain Cook accompanies Feenow to Hap-
pi with the Jhips—receives great civilities
there—4s entertained with boxing and
wrefiling matches and dances—departs
from Happi — the paffage to Anamooka
very dangerous—arrival of Powlahow*—
who proves to be the king—Jlriclures on
Feenow's conduB—Powlahow vifits the
Jhips—Feenow arrives and pays him ho^
mage.
S foon as the fhips were fecured,
Captain Cook iffued an order to
prohibit all trade, except for neceffaries,
which was read to the fhip's companies.
6 -      | fill     The )
(    S9
The fubftance of it was, that there fhould
be a perfon appointed from both fhips to
hold a market with the natives on fhore,
for fuch provifions as the ifland produced.
That two other perfons fhould likewife
be appointed to trade on board; and that
none other fhould prefume to pur chafe or
buy, without leave of the captain, or, in
his abfence, that of the commanding officer.
That no curiofities fhould be bought
till the fhips had procured a fufficient
flock of refrefhment; after which a general trade would be opened, and every
one at liberty to purchafe what he thought
proper.
The next day (May 3d) the aftrono-
mers tents, inftruments, &c<||were got
on fhore, together with the coopers, the
empty cafks, &c. and the marines. The
chief of the ifland furnifhed us with a
large hut for our reception on fhore, in
the front of which the market was held ;
* a line Ill
t
v
60
)
a -line was drawn between the natives
and us,. at fome diftance from the hut,
to prevent their crowding too near, and
none of them were permitted to come
within it. We were abundantly fupplied
with hogs, fowls, yams, plantains, breadfruit, and coco nuts, and in fhort fared
fumptuoufly every day.
On the fourth, a party of men were
fent to cut wood, as the ifland apparently afforded plenty of that article ; amongft
other trees they unluckily cut down feveral of the manchineel, the juice of which
getting into their eyes,  rendered  them
blind for feveral days.    In the afternoon,
the Difcovery's final! bower cable parted,
having been divided by the rocks ; the
ftreamranchor was directly carried out to
fteady the fhip to the weftward, but the
ebb tide run fo ftrongly to the eaftward,
that they were obliged to poftpone it till
flack water, which was near twelve at
night.    Moft  of the boats and people
were employed   the   next   morning   in
fweeping ( "6i   J
fweeping for the anchor, which was too
Valuable an article to be loft; they did
not fucceed however till the afternoon*
when they purchafed it by the buoy rope.
The cable was cut about twenty-eight
fathoms from the anchor.
In the courfe of this day we were vi-
fited by a chief, whofe name the natives
told us was Feenow 5, this man came
from the ifland of Tonga-taboo or Amfterdam ; he had a numerous retinue,
who paid him great refpect. One of
them, who appeared to be a principal man,
made a long oration, in the courfe of
which he gave us to underftand, that
Feenow was Agee-lahee, or king of Anamooka, and all the furrounding ifles, of
which he enumerated near a hundred.
There were likewife feven or eight fine
haridfonle girls with him, which we were
told were his wives.
Having, before the arrival of this chief,
loft feveral things from the fhips, which
we could impute to iio one hut the Inn
dians* frill!
if
Pii!
dians, the Captain complained to him of
the thefts, and begged that he would exert his authority, and get them reftored :
Feenow promifed to do it, and in the
courfe of the day they were returned.
The bottom where the Difcovery lay
being very rocky and uneven, Captain
Gierke determined to fhift it farther to
the weftward. The next day (May 7th)
he gave orders to weigh the ftream-anchor,
and heave fhort upon the beft bower ; but
the united force of the whole fhip's company were not able to purchafe it, the
cable having got foul of a rock ; they
waited till flack water, when the fhip
would tend to the ebb tide and probably
clear it, but at eleven the cable parted.
The recovery of this anchor caufed an infinite deal of trouble, as it had got in a
hole between the rocks, and could only
be feen when the water was perfectly
fmooth ; but at laft, after a number of
unfuccefsful trials, they were lucky
enough to weigh it.
Feenow (  H  )
Feenow had for fome days paft been
very defirous that Captain Cook would
accompany him to fome iflands, which he
faid were about two days fail from Anamooka ; thefe iflands he called Happi,
which in the language of thefe people
fignifies a clufier. As this bid fair for a
new difcovery, the Captain very readily
accepted his invitation.
On Wednefday morning (May 14th)
we weighed, and made fail, and after a
troublefome and dangerous paffage, occa-
fioned by the number of rocks and fhoals
through which we were partly obliged to
pafs, arrived at Happi on the 17th. We
here experienced a repetition of thofe civilities from Feenow, which we founJ at
Anamooka ; every thing was conducted
with the greateft regularity and decorum,
and in fhort, nothing was wanting to render our flay as agreeable as poffible.
He entertained us with boxing and
wreftling matches, and variety of dances
both by men and women, which exceeded
every wmx?
I'Tmil'iilt ■■
maw
m
mi
iill
(  H   )     .§ /
every thing of the kind that was ever feeri
before. An idea cannot be conveyed by
words, for their attitudes were fo various
and different from any other dances, and
at the fame time fo regular and exact*
that the whole company, which confifted
of thirty or forty people, feemed to be
actuated by one foul.
Feenow having given a fpecimen of
what his countrymen could do, defired
Captain Cook to entertain him with fome*
thing in our way. The next day (May
30th) the marines frorn both fhips were*
fent on fhore to] perform their exercife^
which however did not appear to ftrike
him with any very great furprize. Probably, he was confcious of his fuperiority
over us in that particular; at leaf! if he
was not, mofl of us were. "However,
left he fhould think us a parcel of poof
creatures altogether, a number of fireworks were fet off in the evening, which
feemed v to turn the balance iri our fa
vour.
Oa '    II   ('65 I   f
On the 29th, we weighed our anchors,
and made fail. Sunday (June iff) in
the evening, it being very fqually, wet,
and dark, the Refolution made the fignal
of danger, having got too near the
breakers, upon a reef of coral rock, which
almoft furrounded us, but fortunately
fhe foon cleared them. On the ad, at one
in the afternoon, the weather became fo
fqually, that Captain Cook thought it prudent to eaft anchor, for we were enclofed
on every fide with rocks and fhoals, and
the violence of the wind prevented us
from feeing in what direction to proceed :
we accordingly dropped our beft bowers
in forty-three fathom water, with a fandy
bottom,and took in our top-gallant-yards.
This difagreeable  weather  continued
till the 4th, during which time we underwent a good deal of anxiety, for our fitu-
ation was truly alarming, as we muft unavoidably have gone upon the rocks if
our cables had parted.    Having got up
our anchors, we agiin made fail, and on
■■"■ Vol. I.        '  f::    F I  the/.
ill Ill
JiiJii
IBIWI
ifell
the 6th, at three in the afternoon, an>*
chored off Anamooka,. about three quarters of a mile from fhore.
One of Captain Cook's reafons for flopping here a fecond time, was to look at
fome melons and cucumbers, the feeds of
which he had planted fobn after our arrival in May ; but to his great regret
they were in a very poor flate, having
been nearly deftroyed by vermin.
The day after our fecond arrival here,
we were informed that another great man
from Tonga-Taboo, or Amfterdam, was
arrived, whofe name was Fatafee-Powla-
how. This gentleman foon after came^
on board; he was above the middle fize,=
exceeding fat, and appeared to be about
forty. His attendants were numerous,
and there was not one of them but told
ias that this man was the real king of
Tonga-Taboo, Anamooka, Happi, and in
fhort all the iflands which we before fup-
pofed Feenow king of.. I This ftrange account furprifed us a good deal, as every
body body had taken it for granted that Fee-
now was fovereign, every mark of re-
fpect and fubmiffion being paid him, and
how to account for the ufurpation (if
fuch it was) of this man, was a circum-
flance we could not readily fucceeded in.
Feenow had gone the day before our
departure from Happi, to a neighbouring
ifland called Va-vow, from which he was
to return at the end of three days, with
a large flock of red feathers and various
other things. The time elapfed, but no Fee-
now appeared. This circumftance, though
it did not flrike us then, appeared againft
him now with double force, and gave us
great reafon to fuppofe, that our old
friend had really affumed a title to which
he had no right, and that in fact he was
abfent for no other reafon, but to avoid
an interview with Powlahow, in the courfe
of which all his  confequence muft fall
to the ground.
Powlahow, during his flay on board,paid
great attention to the different parts of the
F  2 fhip, M-
lifi n
HBTr-1*! ''
ill
fhip, and, amongfl other queftions, afked
us what we came to< thefe iflands £m ?
He faid, we appeared to be in want of
nothing, and that we all looked well and
in health* A queflion of this kind came
fo unfufpected, that at firft the Captain
was at a lofe what reply to make, but
recollecting himfelf, he told him he came
there by the order of his King, who was a
great and mighty prince, and was defiroim
of entering into a league of friendfhip
with him ; that there was a large flock
of hatchets, knives, beads, red cloth,
&c. on board, which he would barter with
him for hogs, and fuch articles as the
ifland produced. This anfwer fatisfied
him very well, and at the defire of the
Captain he went down with him into the
great cabin, where he received a prefent
fuitable to his rank, and then went oa
board his canoe very much pleafed*
The  next  morning  Feenow arrived,
and in the prefence of fome of our gentlemen, who by chance were with Powlahow* \
(   69   )
laow, acknowledged tim as his fuperior
and paid him the homage of a fubject,
but with a countenance fo expreflive of
ihame, that every one who faw him felt
for and pitied him.    Feenow's conduct
was however natural enough ; for moft
people are anxious to appear greater than
they really are, efpecially if they are likely to gain any thing by it, which moft
probably was the cafe with him ; and in
this refpect it anfwered his purpofe very
well, for he received many prefents on
that account, which otherwife would not
have been given him. We found however, that though he was not king, he
was one of the principal men, and gene-
raliffimo of the king's forces, and upon
all oeeafions led them out to battle.
* 3 (
7°
?ii
i
111
CHAP.   VIII.
The flips leave Anamooka—the paffage fa
Amfterdam dangerous on account of the
rocks—arrival there—are informed that
: Malla-wagga i: King—the Capta ns vifit
him^ but are difappointed—Malla-wagga
pays homage to Powlahow—the Captains
accompany Powlahow to Moa> to be pre-
fent at a ceremony called Anache—account of that ceremony—arrival at Mid-
dleburgh—departure for Otaheitee.
."F N the afternoon we got up our anchors
A and made fail, attended by Powlahow and Feenow, in their canoes, which
went at a great rate, and a number of
fmaller ones. The royal canoe was di-
ftinguifhed from the reft by a fmall bundle of grafs, of a red colour, fattened to
the end of a pole, and fixed in the flern
of the canoe in the fame manner as our
enfign ftaffs,
k §''      "   v"     ... Wc { 7l
We found this paffage a moft trouble^-
feme and dangerous one ; we could clearly
perceive the bottom (which was one continued bed of coral), throughout the time,
and here and there a rock towering its
head above the reft. The Difcovery did
fall foul of one, and had we not the ad*
vantage of fmooth water and a fleady
breeze, in all probability we might have
run upon more of them.
On the ninth, at eleven in the morning, the Refolution let go her anchor, as
did the Difcovery foon after, but ftill fur-
rounded in a manner by rocks. Amfterdam, or Tonga-Taboo, then bore S, 75
W. but at a good diftance. The boats were
foon after fent away to look for a more
fecure place for the fhips, and having
found one, we removed to it, and at five
anchored for the night in about eight fa-^
thorn, fandy bottom,. The next morning
(June 10th) we weighed and flood for Amfterdam, and in the afternoon both fhips let
go their anchors in a fine fecure- harbour,
F 4 oi^r
II f: ( 1 I
depth of water being ten fathom, with a
black fandy bottom ; our diftance fr@m
the fhore about half a mile.
The next day (June nth) the tents and
obfervatories were got on fhore, and the
gunner  of each fhip appointed to trade
with the natives". The market was held
in a pleafant fpot of ground, furr6unded
with trees, and in the front of one of
Powlahow's houfes, adjoining to which
the fhips tents were pitched. Every
article of trade was in the greateft plenty
except bread-fruit, the feafon for which
was then over ; but the want of this wasj
amply fupplied   by yams   and  tarrow.
The cattle likewife were fent on fhore,
as they had been at Anamooka.
In the courfe of the day wq were vsx-
formed that a very old man, whofe name .
was Malla-wagga, was the real King of
all thefe iflands, but being overwhelmed
by the infirmities of age, he was unr
able to hold the reins of government,
which   were  therefore   turned   over to
Powlahow.  »*UWii Hi
ill (73
Powlahow. This circumftance appeared very ftrange to us, no lefs than three
people having been pointed out to us
as king ; but as this was the cafe, the
Captains thought it neceffary to pay their
refpects to him, and informed Powlahow
of their intentions, who readily agreed
to accompany them. In the morning
Captains Cooke and Gierke, attended by
Omai, Powlahow, and fome of the officers,
fet off by water (having a man with them
to act as pilot), for his refidence, which
was at a part of the. ifland called Moa,
and about fix miles diftant.
Upon their arrival, they were received
by a large concourfe of people, who ex-
preffed the greateft fatisfaction at feeing
them. After walking' a few paces, Powlahow went into a plantation, attended by
an old woman, and put on a very fine garment and a kind of large mat, after which
they all went to a pleafant green, for-
rounded by tall majeftic trees: on one
~ fide was a fpacious  houfe,  where the
Captains I
^*m
IS]
I  'I     (;
Captains feated  themfelves,   Powlahow
fitting under the hedge of a plantation.
After waiting fome time,   in eonftant
expectation of being introduced to his
majefty, and not feeing any probability
of its being done, Powlahow was afked
the reafon of the delay : he told them
that Malla-wagga was gone down to the
fhips. The gentlemen were not perfectly ■ pleafed with this intelligence, after
having been at the trouble of going fo far,
in an exceeding hot day; however, finding
his majefty was not vifible, they made the
beft of it, and returned to the boats.
Moa is a moft pleafant fpot, and much
fuperior to that part of the ifland where
our tents were erected, which probably
is the reafon why the king and nobility
refide there*
The houfes are all very good, and in.
general large, fome of them being be^?
between fifty or fixty feet in length,
fixteen or eighteen feet wide, and lofty
enough to admit of an upper floor.    The
wood .   ft ■ '.    'I 7S } l
wood work is good, and lafhed or tied
together with line of different colours,
fo difpofed as to form diamonds and various other figures. They are all well
thatched, and will not admit a drop of
rain ; the bottoms or floor are covered
with mats.
§||Upon the return of the Captains to the
fhips, they found that no Malla-wagga
had been there j a piece of information
which perplexed them a good deal, being
totally unable to account for Powlahow's
behaviour.    The next morning Feenow
came on board, and told us he was going
for the old man ; they both returned the
following day.    As foon as his majefty
came on board, he faw Powlahow, who
chanced to be there, and to the furprife
pf us al|,  paid him homage, by bowing
and touching his feet.
This extraordinary circumftance puzzled us all, not a perfon in  either fhip
being able to unravel the myftery.   What
could induce Powlahow himfelf to carry
6 the '   .   ' (   76   )        I  I
the Captains to fee the old man as king,
when he mull be confcious that he really
was not, is certainly very ftrange.
Malla-wagga is the father of Feenow
andTubou (the latter a man of great power
and confequence in the ifland), and Pow-
lahow's father, whofe name was Fatafee
Powlahow, is dead, and it is by no means
clear that Malla-wagga could ever have
been king. He has been generaliflimo, a
poft which his fon Feenow now poffefles, as
has been mentioned before. Thefe miftakes
however muft arife from our imperfect
knowlege of their language, which is the
only clue to guide us to the truth. We
alfo received another piece of intelligence ;
which was that Powlahow's aunt, by the
father's fide, was nominally queen of all
the Iflands, to whom he himfelf paid
homage, as well a$ to a fon and daughter
of her's by a man of Fidgi (an ifland
about five days fail from Amfterdam) j
and that during her life they alfo were
fuperior to him in point of rank, but
upon (   77   )   : \ .
upon her death all their confequence
ceafes. Both fon and daughter are disordered in their fenfes ; the name of the
former is Latoo-labooloo. Malla-wagga is
a very old man, apparently not Iefs than
feventy, and is at times quite childifti :
he was much better pleafed with a few
beads than with hatchets or nails.
Having expreffed a defire of feeing our
method of fighting, an account of which
he had probably heard from his fon
Feenow, Captain Cook ordered all the
marines on fhore for that purpofe. In
return for this piece of complaifance,
we were entertained with fome capital
heivahs or entertainments, in which all
the principal people affifled, efpecially
Tubow, who was one of the firft rate performers.
July 8th, the Captains and fome other
gentlemen were invited by Powlahow'to
be prefent at a ceremony, which he called
Anache, the meaning of which we could
not clearly comprehend, but it feems to
be. ( 73 ) ;   ;|
be, the people fwearing allegiance to his
fon, and poflibly is always obferved when
the child arrives at a certain age. Before
this ceremony he was never fuffered to
eat with his father, but afterwards will
always fit at table with him.
m
The company arrived at Moa (the place
mentioned before) about eight in the
morning, and found Powlahow with about
fifty of his nobles about him, drinking
a'wa. Going a little farther, they obferved a great number of people affem-
bled, and fitting on each fide the road of
a fpacious green furrounded with lofty
trees; they immediately called out Taboo,
and defired the Captains, &c. to fit down
and pull off their hats.
In one place fat fix or feven agees or
chiefs finging, and by them were lying
feveral flicks, with a fmall yam tied to
each. After continuing their fong for
fome time, two of them took one of the
above flicks with a yam, and carried it
between them upon their fhoulders, followed f -    ( ™ 1 ■   I     '
lowed by five or fix others with clubs
and fpears : this was repeated by a like
number of people feveral times. The
yams were depofited under a large fpread-
ing tree on a green, facing a burial-place ;
after which all the agees, except three or
four, went away.
They being gone alfo^ a man came
carrying a pigeon on a flick, but it was
not left under the tree with the yams.
Here a paufe enfued, and the gentlemen
afking if the ceremony was over, were
told no, but that Taboo would come
jrefentry,during which time they could not
be upon the fpot, but might retire behind
the fence of a plantation not far off, through
which they might look and fee the whole,
Omai being of their own complexion^
and dreffing himfelf in their manner was
readily admitted, and Captain Cook being
defirous of feeing the whole, was with
much difficulty fuffered to be prefent,
though not till he had ftripped himfelf
from his. waift upwards-
,; At 180 )
At   four in  the afternoon the bthef
gentlemen were conducted to the fence of
the plantation, and on looking through
faw a number of people affembled  together under  the fame  tree  the  yams
were left in the morning.    Soon after
came the prince (a fine boy about twelve
years old) attended by three agees, and
followed by fifteen  couple   of women,
each couple carrying a long flip of white
cloth.   The prince then feated himfelf on
the green with his attendants, as did the
women, who delivered the cloth, and then
rofe up and feated themfelves at a diftance.
Immediately after this, feveral men came
with each his coco nut branch and large
flick,  and in the fpace of three minutes
made a commodious little houfe, to which
the prince withdrew with the agees who
attended him.    After that came Powlahow attended by two men, and fat down
at a fmall diftance from the houfe    A
fhort paufe enfued, when upon fomething
being faid by a man who appeared to be
mafter niaftef of the ceremonies, feveral of the
people who were feated ran off, and after
a fhort flay returned. Then two men came,
with each a green bough in his  hand,
made their obeifance to the prince, and
for a few minutes fat before him.    That
done, the agees with the yams came in
by pairs,   laid them  down at his feet,
and feated themfelves round him ; when
the man, mentioned before as mafter of
the ceremonies, made a fpeech, and was
anfwered by different people, feemingly
in the affirmative.    The harangue Continued about a quarter of an hour, after
which all the people difperfed, and thus
ended the ceremony for the day.
The next day it was repeated with fome
little variation $ for they prefented him
with fifh of different kinds and awa ; and
befides the women's bringing cloth, fome
of the men laid mats befpre him, which
with the cloth were wrapped round him,
fo that by the time the whole Was over,
he hid more things upon him than he
Wol* I. *    G could p>
(     S2     f '
could move under. The whole ccnqjuded
with entertainments of be>xiag, wreftling,
dancing^, &c.
This ceremony feeins to be an allegorical or figurative acknowledgement of the
obedience of the people to their prince.
The yams which were brought probably
implied, that they would always fupply
him with whatever was neceflaty for the
fupport of life, as good fubjects ought to
do. The cloth brought by the women
(which is their peculiar manufacture)
might have nearly the fame meaning,
and fo of the fifh and awa. The fubftance
of the fpeech might be to inform the-
people, that the prince was arrived at
fuch an age, °and. to know if they would
acknowledge him as kino: after the death
of his father, to which it is likely they
gave an anfwer in the affirmative.-
July 10th, Captain Cook prefented
Powlahow wTith a bull and cow, a fow
and boar, and two ducks. To Feenow*
he gave a horfe and mare, and to Malla-
||wagga< h
"^ifegga a ram and two ewes ;  but the old
gentleman paid fo little attention to them',.
that   the   captain   ordered  them to   be
brought on board again.
On the morning of the I ith, both the-
fhips weighed, and made fail, and were
employed till fix at night in turning to the
eaftward, between two reefs not more
than a quarter of a mile afunder.
At feven we anchored, but having frefh
gales and fqually weather, the Difcovery
drove off the  bank, and was obliged to
, Weigh hef anchor^ and make fail: fhe
continued working to windward till one
the next morning, arid then anchored a-
gairi. During the night we had frefh gale
at nine in the morning, (July 12th) w
|jot in the boats ; and at eleven weighed
our anchors. We continued turning to
the eaftward till the 1 :th, when we came\
■   to, off the weft fide of Middleburgh, and
foon after we moored  fhip ; when the
M*. W.  part   of Middleburgh   bore N*
16 E;   a fmall ifland   N.   1^   W.   the.
n G 2 eaft
b
m •  (84 y
eaft part of Amfterdam N. 30 W. and
the S. part N. 78 W. our diftance from
fhore three quarters of a mile.
Soon after we had fecured the fhips,
a. double canoe arrived from Amflerdanv
probably with inftructions to the people at
what rate to fell their various articles, and
to inform them of the prices we had given.
The following day the gunners were fent
on fhore as ufual, to trade, and found
abundance of every thing,, particularly
fhaddocks, with which this ifland abounds.
The natives treated us with civility, but
not in the fame degree as at the other
iflands. We ftaid here till the 17th fn-
ftant, when the fhips being ready for fear
and every thing got on board, we weigh
ed our anchors, and made fail, fhaping
our courfe' for Otahertee, having fome live
hogs on board, a number of yams, and
fome cafks of corned pork.
CHAR i   8S   )
CHAP.   IX.
Account of the Friendly Iflands -produce—
animals—defcription of the natives—drefc
Up houfes—food—cookery—a mufe merits—
manufactures—canoes—burial places—*
funeral ceremonies—form of government—
weapons,.
MANY particulars have already been
related   of thefe iflands  in the
courfe of the laft voyage; but as our flay
among them this time was of a much
longer duration, of courfe we had a greater
fcope for obfervations. But much remains for future navigators ; the moft
perfect account we can produce is at beft
but a confufed piece of work, and what
little we can relate is in general confined
to a few common articles, fuch as the drefs,
food, and manufactures of the natives;
^every thing beyond being little more than
£onje&ure. It is from the form of govern*
-S;       G 3 ment? I 7I|
|,  86   )
ment, laws, manners, cuftpms, and religik
on of a people, that we are to derive m
rnufement and inftruction : and as the
only road to obtain this, is by a knowledge of the language of the country,
every account that can be given muft of
courfe fall far fhort of the truth, till that
knowledge is acquired
Anamooka, or Rotterdam, lies in lat. i
20 deg. 14 min. S. it is almoft furround-
ed by a reef of coral rock, and affords no
good harbour. The foil is rich and fertile, except when you approach the fhore,
where it becomes fandy: it is of a very
moderate elevation, and is well clothed
with trees of various kinds, but affords
but little good water, on which account
{he natives are obliged to go inland for
what they ufe in cooking.
Our watering-place was nearly a quarter of a mile from the beech, and was in
fact nothing more than a ftanding pool,
in which the natives bathed themfelves -5
the water was both thick and muddy, an^
not 87   |
siot very palatable, but we found no bad
effects from the ufe of it.
The Happi iflands Jay in about a S. W.
direction from* Anamooka; Lefoogo,
which is the name of that, off which the
fhips anchored, is in latitude 19 deg. 46
min. S. and longitude 18 5 deg. 1 o min.
E. They are all (at leaft all we law) low,
flat iflands of fmall dimenfions, and afford
but little water : moft of them are well
covered with trees, which prove the foil
to be good.
Tonga-taboo,  or Amfterdam, is in lat.-
min.  S. and 185 d
eg.  8 min.
o
E. longitude. It is the largeft that we
faw of the Friendly Ifles, and is low and
flat, without the leaft elevation. Water
here alfo is a fcarce article, fo much fo
that we were obliged to dig a well upon
a fmall ifland about three miles from the
fhips; but after all, it proved - brackifh
and unpalatable,    fi
Middleburg,   or   Eaoowe,    is  to  the
northward of Amfterdam, in lat. 21 deg.
G 4 21 (SB   )
21 min. S. This ifland is by far the moft-
pleafant of the whole, and is interfperfed
with lawns, hills, and dales, as beautiful
as can be conceived. The foil upon the
hills is nearly of the colour of red-oker,
that in the vallies black and rich. It affords fine water, but not convenient for
the ufe of fhips, being too far inland.
The iflands of Va-vow and Fidgi we
never faw; but by the account of the natives they are both high land, and plentifully fupplied with water.
The foundation of all thefe iflands, is
a folid bed of coral rock, the points of
which project even upon the tops of the
hills in fome places. The inland parts
are but thinly inhabited, the natives preferring thofe which are near eft the lea
for the convenience of launching their
canoes. This however muft not be taken
in a general fenfe, for fome of the chiefs
have their houfes a confiderable diftance
from the fhore.
The houfe^ do not form towns or vil~
m 1 kges. I   89   )
lages, but are built about five hundred
yards or more from each other, and generally in the midft of a plantation, the
whole of which is frequently fenced in
with a hedge of bamboo, or reeds with a
door-way; and fometimes a man's whole
eftate is inclofed in this manner.
Thefe iflands are populous, but we
cannot pretend to afcertain the number
of inhabitants. Their produce is breadfruit, plantains, bananas, coco nuts,
yams, tarrow, a kind of fweet potatoe of
a yellow colour, a fruit refembling an apple, which we never faw ripe, fugar cane,
a nut [jnocarpus edulis, Forfl. Nov. Spec.
Plant.) which eats much like a chefnut,
particularly when roafted, and very fine
fhaddocks. The latter were very plentiful at Middleburgh; at Anamooka they
were fcarce, but at Amfterdam there were
none. They have alfo many trees in.
common with the Society Ifles ; fuch as
the toa-tree [cafuarina equifetifolia. Forfl.)
the   Chinefe paper   mulberry-tree,   the
candle ^n
^iJill
candle-tree - (aleurites triloba^ Forfl.) $$
Barringtonia fpeciofa, the athrodacJilis JpL
no [a, and feveral others.
me
Their tame animals are hogs, dogs, and
poultry; they have likewife rats, and a
very large fpecies of bat [yefpertilio vam-
pyrus^ <Linnjet.) Lizards are very numerous, particularly about the houfes,
.and a large green lizard fomething like a
guano, but fmaller. The natives never
deftroy either of thefe, but fuffer them,
to run about unmolefted ; and when any
of our people through wantonnefs killed
any of them (which frequently was the
cafe) they always exprefled their difap-
probation, by telling us it was very bad.
Their birds are ducks, herons both white
and grey, kingsfifhers, rails, doves and
pigeons, parroquets, cuckows, and a very
iinall fpecies of martin. The fea affords
variety of fifh, but they did not appear to
J*e a very great article of food, at leaft
during our flay. Both the green and
hawk's-bill turtle  are found here, and
.   muft -      .    ...        (f 9*    ) : .      '.    ;      -
muft be rather plentiful, if we may
judge from the quantity of tortoife-fhell
which they expofed to fale* There are
variety of ihell fifh, and fome of the moft
beautiful little crabs that can be conceived.
The people of both fexes are tall, well
made, and exactly proportioned. We
did not fee once inftance of deformity
amongft them. The men are in general
above the middle fize, but now and then
you meet with one below that ftandard;
the women are tall in proportion, and
rather mafculine Their complexion is
dark olive, but in thofe who are expofed
jo the effects of the weather it is mucli
darker while thofe whofe fuperior flation
in life entitles them to a greater degree
of indulgence, are confiderably lighter.
The natives of Fidgi of both fexes are
greatly darker than any of the other
Jflanders, their complexion nearly approaching to black. M -.-
Their liii
ifi
( 92 )
Their features are generally good;
their eyes bright and lively, their nofe
fomewhat flat, their mouth and lips well
proportioned, the former not being too
wide, nor the latter too thick, and their
teeth white as ivory.
Their hair is originally black, but both
men and women have a method of dreff-
ing it with lime and other materials,
which render it of various colours, brown,
yellow, white, &c. We once faw an old
man whofe hair was of the deepeft car-
rotty colour.
Long hair is a mark of diftinction, and
none are permitted to wear it but the
principal people. The agee girls and
women let it hang in ringlets down to
their waifts, and the men likewife wear
it in the fame form. This is the only
place where we faW fhaying in fafhion,
for the men, particularly the agees, are
very anxious to free themfelves from their
beards. This is performed with two fhells
whofe 9J
whofe outward furface is rather rough
and by rubbing the edges together, at
the fame time inclofing the beard between
the (hells, they cut it tolerably clofe.
This operation however is rather painful and tedious, and obferving how expeditious and clean we performed it, they
were defirous of trying it alfo; and it fo
far exceeded their expectations that fcarce
a day paffed without plenty of cuflomers.
They have a cuftom of anointing their
heads, necks and bofoms, with an oil
which they call monoi; it is fqueezed from
the kernel of the cocoa-nut, and afterwards perfumed very highly with various
fweet-fcented flowers and herbs.
Both men and women are marked or
tattowed ; the former from the fhort ribs
to the knee, and fometimes lower, the
latter upon the infide of the hand. Some
of thefe marks feem to be to diftinguifh
the different tribes to which they belong,
the other poflibly are for ornament.   The BiP'
l»:
(   94   5     '-
inftruments ufed upon this occafioti ar6
nearly the fame as at Otaheitee.
Their cloathing confifts of £ mats of
different degrees of finenefs, and cloth
made of the Chinefe paper mulberry-tree*
Both men and women drefs much alike.
The better fort always wear a great deal
more than their inferiors : their drefs
confrfts of one large piece of cloth wrapped feveral times round their middle*
and tied with a fafh or girdle of the fame
kind; the upper part is plaited or folded,
fo that it may be pulled up to the fhould-
ers if meceffary, the bottom part reaches
below the calf. Over this they put a
fine mat fimilar to'what the natives of
Otaheitee call pooerou* They wear no
covering upon their feet or legs. Round
their necks they frequently put a kind of
ruff or necklace of flowers, or leaver of
various kinds which are generally choferi
for their fragrance or colour : thefe or-*
naments they call cau-colla. Rings ot
6 tortoife-'   (    95   -
fdrtbife-fnell are very generally worn both
by men and wome^Sjffi
The houfes of thefe people are of va-
fckniU fizes and dimenfions, according te
the wealth and degree of the pofleffoit
The roof, which is elevated upon fix or
eight polls, is well thatched; either with
the branches of the coco nut tree, or
wift; thofe of the palm-tree. Some are
open all round, but the major part are
inclofed on one fide. The richer kind- of
people build their houfes in the midft of
their plantations, which are fometimes.
of confiderable extent, and furrounded
with a fence of bamboo* To- thefe you
enter by a door tied to a poft with a cord
made of the braided fibres of the coco
rpit; this opens and fhuts as if hu^^^d
on hinges. The floor is always covered
with mats, upon which they fit in the
day, and fleep in the night.J§ Their furniture is not confiderable ; it confifts. of
a large wooden difti, in, which they mix
tKeir awa; bafkets of different forts and
__^_ iizes> w\
■i
II '; I'-1'
m,
l«
m
111
.-•■. 77I7 ; 1j|; p' :i ., 7 ;,
fizes, in which they put their combs, fifE*
hooks,  and  tools; two or three ftools,
which they life as pillows, & bundle or
two of  cloth,  and   frequently  a   tame
pigeon upon a ftick. I -M^'^S':
H As thefe iflands produce the fame ar-
tides of food as  the   Society Ifles, of
courfe there can be no great variation in
their manner of living. Bread-fruit, yams,
plantains, and tarrow, generally conftitute
their meals;  for though they have hogs
and fowls, they are only eaten upon particular occafions.' Their method of cooking them is  the fame as at Otaheitee.
Sometimes they drefs a few fifh ; thefe
they boil in the green leaves of the plantain-tree, which ferve as a bag to hold
both fifh and water.    Having tied thern
up, they wrap them again in three or four
other leaves, and place them upon a number of ftones made hot for that purpofe,
till they are done fufficiently.  They then
take out the fifh, and pour the foup into
little cups made  of jthe green plantain
leaf •■'.$ 97   J    .   *
leaf, of which every one in company has
*oiie, and as they eat the fifh they drink
a little of the foup, till both are expended.
They are not very nice iii cleaning the
fifh, but eat bonesy guts, and fcales altogether. - i '
W Their drink is water or coco nut milk
in general: but the better fort of people
always take a draught of awa before they
eat; we never faw them ufe it at any
other time, and even then, they are far
more moderate than the people of Otaheitee, and make it in a much cleanlier
manner. If
There is a law or cuftom here, which
forbids, at particular times, a perfon of inferior rank to eat in the prefence of his
fuperiors, and even Powlahow is not exempt from it; for upon the unexpected
appearance of thofe two before mentioned people, whilft he has been eating,
Tie has immediately defifted, and put the
vi&uals on one fide, apparently a good
deal confufed. ft -f If
|   Vol. L               H                    They* Ill
■rJf
lli
M
■ I ( 9 -1'. ■ / '
They rife as foon as it is light, and-
the firft thing they do, is to wafh them-
felves in the fea, and afterwards in frefh-
water, which they collect in fmall wells5
or pits dug for that purpofe. After this
they fit down to their breakfaft, which,
as has been before obferved, generally
confifts of bread-fruit, yams, or plantains:
this ended, every one amufes himfelf as.
he thinks proper. If there is any bufmefa
going forward, that of courfe becomes
the object; if not, they fit and difcourfe.
of indifferent things.
As the heat of the day comes on, they
for the moft part fleep. Their firft meal
being fo early, they generally eat again
about eleven, and in the afternoon about
four.    At  eight  in the   evening, or as
r
foon as it becomes dark, they fup, and
foon after retire to reft.
Their amufements are dancing, wreft-
ling, finging, and boxing, at all which
they are very expert. The dances of the
women are generally if not ajways in the
eyeoing. e
('199    )
evening, and by torch-light.    Upon this
occafion they  are  always   well-dreffed :
their heads are decorated with wreaths,
compofed of a plant fomething like ivy ;
round their waift they wear an elegant
piece of cloth, and over it a broad fringe
of plantain  leaves. | The whole of this
drefs is very becoming, and fets off their
perfons, which are naturally good, to th
greateft  advantage.     Their  movements
are very regular, and they- keep excellent
time  to their mufic,  which confifts of
pieces of bamboo of various lengths, cut
off at one of the joints.   Thefe the men,
k who perform^ the haftrumental part, hold
in their hands, and ftrike one end againft
the ground ;   this emits a hollow found,
deep in proportion to its length.    One
man likewife holds in one hand a piece
of bamboo about three feet long,  and
with the other ftrikes it with a fmall piece
of flick, keeping  time  with the other
men; this mufic is far from being disagreeable.    The muficians fit  together,
H  2 forming 55^^3^^
f f i ob    p
forming a fmall circle, and the wometi!
dance round them, and their attitudes
and motions are beyond defcription.
The men very rarely intermix pf§ the?
women's dances, tfitjugrr we once faw Po-
lahow-in the rriidft of them, and, notwith-
ftanding his corpulency, he kept as good
time  as the beft of them.    The dancer
of the men differ very little from thofe
of the women;  but in their grand hei-
vahs they fometimes   perform together.
\ The muficians in this cafe are more numerous, and moft of them fing, but not
all in the fame key, for they have different parts, as we have of treble, bafe,.
tenor,   &c. ;    and  the  harmony  which
arifes when the  mufic and fmging are
joined is very pleafing.  Befides the bamboo' they have a kind of drum, formed"
out of the hollowed*trunk of a tree, upPn
wffith they ftrike with wooden  drum-
flicks ;  this, ftrange   as  it may appear,
adds much to the agreeablenefs of the
■whole*
Their Their grand heivahs feem to be divided
'into different acts : they firft begip. with
a dance of the men, which continues
near a quarter of an hour; and when
finifhed, another large party of performers come in, and divide themfelves in-
ito two companies, not forming a circle as
in the dances, but a line, with the mufic
;in front, fomething like this :
Performers.
Performers*
.«*"»».
Mufic,
Every performer has a fmall wooden
inftrument in his hand, about three feet
longi fhaped fomething like a bakers
peel. As foon as the mufic ftrikes up,
they alfo begin and perform an incredible
number of motions with this inftrument,
H  3 all m
(
102
)
all moving as if only one man, with
great quicknefs and in exact time to the
mufic. After this has continued about
feven or eight minutes, they all, by very
gradual and indeed almoft imperceptible
degrees, change places, fo that thofe who
were behind are now in front, and thofe
who were in front are now in the middle, obferving the different attitudes and
motions with the inftruments throughout
the time. This continues till they have
gained their proper places, when
the two companies recede from each
other ftill farther, and foon after two
men make their appearance, dreffed in a
very antic manner, with each a kind of
club in his hand. The various motions,
actions and attitudes, which thefe two
harlequins put themfelves into, together
with the regularity and exactnefs they
obferve, are fuch as cannot be defcribed,
and even if they could, perhaps would
not be credited. During their performance, the two companies remain inactive* •jSB
c
i   ^ I03!
active, but as foon as the harlequins ar
retired, they begin again, but vary in their
performances, defcribing circles and fem>
circles in this manner,
.♦ .•»•«. ♦
Performers.
Performers.    \
Performers.
"**     4*    .
•    J     5 »       >   .
« ; «        •  - <
1   »    - T     «   ,
Performers.
Mufic.
and exchange their places as before ; in
ftiort, the whole of their performance is
fuch as does the greateft credit, not only
to thofe who bear a part in it, but to the
people in general.
Their wreftling matches are much like
thofe of Otaheitee, as is their mode of
challenging, viz. by ftriking with the
hollow of their right hand upon the bended joint of their left elbow, which pro^
duces a loud hollow found, fomething
refembling that of a child's pop-gun, it
will therefore be unneceffary to fay more
aJ)out it. <t|!",
H 4 When i   104   I
11
ill
When a man gives a challenge to box,
he throws out his arms, firft his right and
then his left, feveral times, as if ftriking
at fomebody, at the fame time dancing
as it were round the circle (for a circle
is moft commonly formed by the fpecta-r
tors), if any one accepts it, he gets up
and does the fame, after which they fall
to. and generally give and receive very
fevere blows, till one or other owns himfelf vanquifhed ; but if one chances to
knock down the other, the conteft is im-
jnediatety at an end.
The victor, either in wreftling or boxing, receives a kind of plaudit from the
company. The women frequently v engage in thefe boxing matches, and;fome-?
times deal heavy blows. But this kind
of diverfion amqngft the female fex did
not altogether coincide with our ideas of
delicacy, and we expreffed our difappro-
batjon of it, which had fo good an effect,
ttiat we ne-ygr faw it a fecond time.
:^M Another —
:' M l°5 *" ''
Another kind of diverfion they have is
fomething fimilar to our cudgel-playing,
only in lieu of flicks they ufe clubs made
of the bottom part of the branch of the
coco nut tree, which is hard and very
tough, With thefe they will engage
each other for a confiderable time : they
fhew great dexterity in warding off and
parrying the blows of their antagonifts,
but they fometimes get terribly .banged
about the head, and in the courfe of the
fight muft fuffer feverely; but fuch is their
great good-nature, that we never faw an
inftance of a blow being given in anger.
Thefe fportsv as well as the before
mentioned dance, are feldom exhibited
but upon particular days, for the entertainment of the king and his nobility,
many of whom frequently engage in
them, and fomeAnes Powlahow lays his
dignity afide for a time, and dances with
his women.
Their finging has been occafionally
pientioned before, but their common fongs
iHi &re
ill mm
are very different from thofe fung at their
heivahs. In thefe there are no feparate
parts, but the whole is fung in one tune :
they have a greater variety of notes than
the people of Otaheitee, and thofe wh@
fing (generally two or three girls, and
fometimes a man and a girl) fnap their
fingers throughout the whole of the fong,
which feems to be by way of keeping
time.
Their mufical inflruments are drums,
flutes, pieces of bamboo, as before ob-
ferved, and & kind of pipe fimilar to the
fyrinxy or fiflula agrefiis of the ancients.
The flutes are made of a joint of bamboo,
about eighteen inches long, and clofed at
both ends. They have four holes, one
at each end, and on each fide, fo that
either end may be ufed: to three of
thefe holes they apply the middle finger
of the left hand, and the thumb and
middle finger of the right; the other they
apply to the right or left noftril, as at
Otaheitee,    The tunes which they play
upon (   *©7   )
-upon *them, though not various (at leaft
pur ears were not nice enough to diftin*-
guifh any very material difference)  are
Ik
both pleafmg and mufical.
The pipes are compofed of feven or
eight joints of reed of unequal lengths,
and fecured together by the fibres of the
coco nut. Though this inftrument was
very common amongft them, we feldom
faw them ufe it,
»
Chaftity among thefe iflanders is nof
much regarded as a virtue ; for, except
moft of the Agee girls, who were proof
againft every temptation that was offered
them, there were very few that had the
leaft objection to a private interview.
The manufactures are cloth, mats, and
bafkets. The former is made of the Chi-
nefe paper mulberry-tree, and undergoes
the fame procefs as at Otaheitee, only the
inftrument made ufe of in beating it out
is not grooved but plain. They print it
in various patterns, with a kind of ftamp
made of reed or cane; the colours they
make ■j*»4
'(    10!
)
.make ufe of are brown and black, but
fboth very indifferent. They have alfo a
light i yellow dye, but we never had
n opportunity of learning its comgp-
jfition. Their mats are of two or three
different kinds ; one is made of a fpecies
of bandanus, the fame as that of Otahei-
tee ; another of a fpecies of hibifcus^ and
a third either of the leaves of the coco nut
or palm-tree. Thofe made of the hibif-
cus are the ftrongeft and by far the fineft ;
they are chiefly worn by the better fort
di people, and are fringed all round. The
people of the Society Ifles call thefe Poo-
etoUj-the name at thefe iflands is Naffe-
naffe.
Of 'their bafkets they have various
kinds, which differ greatly in their fhape,
ufe, and fize. Some of them are made of
the fame materials as their mats, but the
beft and ftrongeft are formed of the twifted
or rather braided fibres of the coco nut,
which they dye black and brown in different fhades. Some of thefe they deco-
6 rate ■ -*»
■nun
(   I09    )
f%ie with a kind of white bead, and row&
©f red feathers, which make them look
iifegant enough. lip
Of the coco nut fibres they alfo make
ropes and lines of different degrees of
thieknefs. That of which they make
their fifhing nets is as fine as fmall packthread, but this is the production of the
bark of another tree. Some of thefe
nets are of the fame form as our calling:
nets, and ufed in the fame manner; in
Sieu of lead they fatten flones round the
fottom: the needles with which they
Uiake them are alfo like our's.
Their fifh-hooks are much like thofe
of Otaheitee ; their fhank is compofed of
mother of pearl, and the hooked part i&
frequently tortoife-fliell. |j|
Their tools are hatchets of various fizes,
niade of a hard dark-coloured flone ; files,
made of fifh-fkin; and a drill, made exactly upon#the fame plan as thofe ufed by
our blackfmiths.
The I  f
(   II0  }
The canoes of thefe iflands are without
exception the beft we ever faw: the
double ones are made large enough to
carry fifty or fixty people, and fail at a
great rate. Upon them they generally
fix or erect a hut or flied which is for
the reception of the mafter and his
wives and family. They are all made
of the bread fruit-tree, which is an exceeding light wood : the workmanfhip is -
very neat, and they appear on the outfide
as if compofed of one folid piece : but
upon clofer infpection, you find that
they confift of a great number, which fit
exactly one with the other, and by
means of a ledge on the infide are fe-
cured together with coco nut line. The
tingle ones are furnifhed with an outrigger. The large canoes are taken great
care of, \ and generally put into a houfe
built on purpofe.
The burial plates of thefe people are
called Affia-tooka, and every family of
|fe diftinction  H> A.
diftinction has one belonging to It. Thefe
repofitories of the dead are generally
erected in fome retired fpot, and furround-
ett with trees of a particular kind, fuch as
the cafiiarina and athrodacJylis. The ground
is elevated in the form of a mount, about
three or four feet high, upon the top of
which are built three or four clofe
huts with a fmall door-way : in thefe
they depofit the bodies, and leave them*
The mount is fometimes enclofed with a
wooden fence, and fometimes with flones.
Thefe places are in general about one
hundred and fifty or two hundred feet
in circumference, but fome are, much
larger and very neatly finifhed.
Of the ceremonies attending a funeral
we can fay but very little, as only one
that we know of, occurred during our
flay, and of this only one of our people
got an accidental view. He was defirous
of feeing the whole, but they were quite
averfe to an indulgence of that kind.
Upon  this occafion,  he faid feveral of
thenu m
m
(   "*  }
them, both men and women, wore &
wreath, made of a twining kind of plant,
round their necks and waifls ; and by their
lamentations and geflures he judged them
to be relations of the deceafed. •
All the information we could get of;
the natives relative to thefe affairs is, that
upon the death of a perfon, all the relations affemble together, and make a dif-
mal howling, beating themfelves upon
their check-bones with their fifts till th^r
blood runs. This is looked upon as a
great mark of affection, and the more
they torture themfelves in this manner the
greater efteem they are fuppofed to have
entertained for the deceafed. They alfo
cut off the firft joint of their little-finger ;
the right-hand finger is dedicated to the
father, the left to the mother. Cutting
off the hair is alfo another of their mourning ceremonies.
Thefe people believe the exiftence of
the foul in a feparate ftate, and that after
death they go to a very pleafant place,
much fuperior to that which they enjoy
during • .  (    "3    )
during life ; for they fay it abounds'with
every good thing they can poflibly wifh
for : but thefe bHfsful abodes are, according to them, entirely for the refidence of
the agees, thofe of inferior rank not being
fuffered to have any fhare in them.
The form of government, with refpect
to its foundation, is much the fame as at
the Society Ifles; but it is carried on
with much greater order and regularity,
and a fuperior degree of refpect is fhewed
to the king. No one dares to addrefs
him without firft paying him homage,
which is done by kneeling down and
bowing the head to his feet, which the
perfon afterwards gently taps once with
the fingers and knuckles of each hand,
after which he feats himfelf at a diftanci|,
and then proceeds to relate his bufinefs.
The agees always fit at a diftance, forming a femi-circle, the king being in front
with four or five of his attendants behind
him, and generally an old woman near
him, with a fan.
if Vol. I. ' I ' ■"; The i! 'flfl
(    "4    |     If.    "'"
The crown is hereditary, and has been:
in the prefent family for five generations.
The king's authority, though abfolute in
almoft every refpect, is flill in fome mea-
fure curbed by Feenow and Tubow : the
former, Powlahow told us, could difpoffefs
him. of his throne,, and kill him if he was
a bad man.  By which he probably meant,
that if he neglected the duty of his fixation, or acted in  a manner that would
prove prejudicial to the good or welfare
of the ftate, Feenow could lawfully de-
pofe and kill him.    Tubow is likewife a
man of the firft confequence; his bufinefs
is to infpect the wenuah-taboo,   that is
to examine the ftate of the iflands with
refpect to their produce, and if there is a
probability of any one fpecies of provifion
felling fhort (which fometimes is the cafe,
particularly when the feaforv proves dry),
he is to taboo it, or ifliie an order to forbid its being touched till the next feafon;
By thefe wife precautions they are entirely
iivefted of the fear of want Some few, days
before :..   |  .    (   II5   f ■     ■
before our departure from Amfterdam almoft every thing was tabooed, as our long
flay had pretty well drained them of
every thing they could fpare.
The lower clafs of people are kept in
great fubjection by the chiefs, who in
fact do juft as they pleafe with them, and
feem to regard them as an abject fet of
beings, over whom they have an unbounded right During our flay at Anamooka,
immediately after the market for the day
was over, one of the agees ordered the
croud to difperfe, and every one to retire
to his home ; which they not doing fo
readily as he thought they ought, he
caught up a large flick, and fell upon
them moft furioufly. One man was
knocked down, and when taken away was
to all appearance dead. The agee took
no manner of notice of it, and walked
away as unconcerned as if nothing had
happened.
On the day our marines were exercifed
on fhore at Happi;  Feenow, who was
I  2 willing
\ tlitfi
willing to know what execution our mu£
kets would do at a diftance, defired them
to fife at a canoe that chanced to be paff-
ing by, and kill the man who was in her.
This ftrange requeft was certainly, not
complied with, and we remonftrated with
him as well as we could, on the cruelty of
killing a man who had committed no
fault; his anfwer was, that he was only a
flave and fit for nothing elfe.
Whilft we lay at Middleburgh, a man
fitting very unconcerned, and looking on
amidft the croud of people that fur-
rounded our market-place on fhore, wa&
on a hidden attacked by three or four people armed with clubs, who broke one
of his thighs, fractured his fkull in a terrible manner, and in fhortdifpatched him.
This affair fhocked us a good deal, as it
had the appearance of barbarity and cruelty in the higheft degree ; but, upon enquiry, we found that the man had carried^
on an intrigue with the wife of an agee,
who, in confequence of difcovering it, had
cm!        I fent I      <   ll7   )
Sent fome of his people with orders to
difpatch him wherever they found him.
Thefe people are feldom at war except
with the natives of f idgi (an ifland mentioned before), whom they are much
afraid of, and in general get terribly
worfted. They told us thefe people
were cannibals ; an account which can
fcarce be credited, confidering the amazing
fertility of the ifland, which our friends
told us abounded with every good thing.
This report however was not confined to
a few people, for every one upon being
afked agreed in the ftory.
The weapons ufed at the Friendly Ifles,
are clubs and fpears : the former made of
the cafurina, or toa-tree, which is an
exceeding hard and heavy wood, and are
in general curioufly carved j their length is
from three to four feet. The fpears are
of different lengths, and barbed in various
directions with the bones of the fling-
*ay, which muft render them a moft de-
ftructive weapon. They have likewife
W ,       I 3   H    ''It   bows VSMil
filfSi]
. %.    ( ,i8 i    .:
bows and arrows, but never ufe them in
war, confining them entirely to fhooting
\ at a mark. T he natives of Fidgi on the
contrary, make them a principal weapon,
and it is to this alone that thefe people
afcribe their fuperiority; which circum-
flance one would think might induce
them at leaft to try the experiment.
The weather, during our flay at Anamooka, was very unfettled, and part of
the time it rained very hard ; the winds
were variable* At Amfterdam it was in
general fine, but at Middleburgh we hacj
much rain with  frefh gales  from  the
N^S,  -        '•' : •-.'-■ - *"'~\   - fe
lllill
CHAP, CHAP.     X. j
eave the Friendly Ifles—the Difcovery
carries  away  her  main-top-maft in a
fquall—difcover an ifland—fome of the
natives put off—a fcort defcription of
them and the ifland—continue our courfe
io Otaheitee—and anchor in Ohitapeah
harbour—receive intelligence of the Spaniards having been there—who had ere fled a hoiife anderofs onJhore—leave three
of their people there > and depart for Lima—they return, and after a Jhort flay
take   away  thofe   they   had left—and
again  depart for Lima—Orettet  the
friend of Mr. Bougainville, vifits us—
fome account of the place—ihe Moral of
Wftdtuah—ungenerous behaviour of the
Spaniards refpeeling sis—leave Ohita-
peahy and arrive at Mat aval bay—Otoo
vifits the captains.
N July the 17th at noon, the extremes of Middleburgh bore from
N. N. E. to S. E. by S. our diftance from
ihe neareft fhore about three miles.   On
I 4 the ■f / c5j
K K;
(  J2° )
the 2cth, the variation of the compafs
was § deg. 5 1 mini eajlerly. From this
time to the 28th nothing material occurred ; but on the 29th, at half paft fix
in the evening, a violent and heavy fquall
came on, which carried away the Difco-
very's main-top-maft. This reduced them
to the neceflity-of putting up a jury-maft,
which job was not completed till Auguft
the 2d, in the afternoon. Auguft the 7th,
we found the variation to be 7 min. eaft-
erly, and on the 8th, at'half paft eleven
in the morning, being in latitude 2 3 deg.
§J S. and longitude 209 deg. 52 min. E.
we faw land bearing N. N. E. of which
the Difcovery made the fignal to the Refolution. At noon, it was about ten or
twelve leagues diftant; but not being
able to reach it, in any reafonable time, we
flood upon our tacks for the night. T he
next day we flood in for it, and at eight
founded fo and got ground from eighteen
to thirty fathoms, the bottom fine fand,
about a quarter of a mile from a break in
the reef which furrounded the ifland.
6 Some (      121
Some of the natives put off in two
of their canoes, and came within about
a hundred yards of the fhips ; they made
many figns to us, and their language
feemed to refemble that of the Society
Ifles. By their figns they feemed to wifh
us to depart; one of them founded a
conk fhell, and at the fame time the
reft brandifhed their paddles, rather in a
threatening and menacing manner. We
endeavoured by every means to perfuade
them to come on board, but without ef-
fea.
They were flout well made people, of
the dark olive complexion; their hair
was black and long, and fome few had it
tied in a knot upon the top of their heads.
Three or four had large pearl oyfter-fhell^
fufpended from their necks by way of ornament. The natives on fhore appeared
to be numerous, and fome of them were
clothed in white ; one or two of thofe in
the canoes had only a fmall ftrip of cloth
rQijjijl their waift.
Their Bill
( i22 )
Their canoes were neat; the gunwale
was decorated with white fhells, which
had a pretty effect: their paddles were
like thofe of the Friendly Ifles, only not
terminating in a point, but on the contrary quite round.
The ifland had a pleafant appearance;
the interior parts rofe in moderately high
hills which were covered with verdure to
the top. Along the fhores were borders
of low land which were well clothed with
trees, particularly the coco nut tree.
Off the weftern fide there was a break
in the reef apparently wide enough to admit a fhip with fafety. The natives call
this ifland Toobooi. At nine we made fail
and bore away, keeping a N. E. courfe,
our obferved latitude at noon being 23
deg. 9 min. S.
On the 13th of Auguft, at half paft five
in the morning, we faw the ifland Mai-
tea bearing N. by W. and at feven de-
fcried Otaheitee, bearing W. by N. 1 N.
At noon the extremes of Otaheitee-ete, or
the ' ( I23§) •
the leffer ifland, bore W. | S. and S. W.
by W. diftant about fix leagues; our
obferved latitude being ij deg. 44 min.
S. At fix Ohitapeah harbour bore S. W,,
diftant two miles. As we approached the
land, the winds became light and variable,
being affected by the furrounding mountains, Captain Cook therefore thought it
moft advifeable to fland off and on for the
night, and take the advantage of the
morning to get in. At day light, the
entrance of Ohitapeah harbour bore S. by
W. fix or feven miles diftant, and at ten
we anchored, in thirty-two fathoms, and
foon after moored fhip.
The fhips were fcarcely anchored, before numbers of the inhabitants came off
to us, and prefently recollected fome of
their old acquaintance, at the fight of
whom they expreffed great joy and fatif-
faction; and it might be fuppofed, that
they were equally happy in feeing their
countryman Omai returned after fo long
$ voyage.—-On the contrary, they fcaree
XQok (
4
W
took any notice of him, and had he not
dealt out his prefents of red feathers, &c
pretty largely, its poflible they would not
have fpoke to him. The next day, after
fome general enquiries, we found that
Oberea and Wyeatuah (who was king of
Otaheite-ete, or Tiarraboo, when captain
Cook was laft he re) were dead ; and that
fome other fhips had been there fome time
after the Refolution's departure. This
information of courfe excised our cu-
euriofity a good deal, and we enquired
more particularly into it. They told us,
that about the latter end of the year 1774,
there arrived two fhips from Remah (by
which we fuppofed they meant Lima),
that the people who came in them flaid
between three and four months, and had
erected a houfe on fhore. During their
refidence, the commander, whofe name
was Oridde, died, and was buried on fhore
fome little diftance from the houfe. At
the departure of the fhips, they took with
{hem four of the natives, who voluntarily
ISfe offered )
offered to go, and left behind them a
young man called Martee'mo, and two
priefls.
Atthe end of about two months they
returned, and brought with then? only
one of the natives; two having died at
Lima, and the other choofing to remain
there. They^appeared this fecond time to
be in a great hurcy, and after a fhort flay
(during which time they were employed
in wooding and watering), took back
Marteemo and the *two priefls, leaving
ftrict orders with Wyeatuah to take care
of the houfe, &x. as they intended to return in a fhort time; but however they
never made their appearance again.
Thefe were the heads of our information, which, as Omai was our interpreter,
might come fomething near the truth.
The houfe, which was a wooden one,
was divided into two rooms, one behind
the other; the windows, or rather'portholes, opened and fhut in the infide with
Aiders.    It is likely that the houfe was
made
\w (     126     I
made at the place from whence the fhips
came, as every plank was numbered. The
furniture was very inconfiderable, confining of a table, two or three flools, an
old tub, an old gold laced hat, and a few
other trifling articles. At fome diftance,
in the front of the houfe, upon the fpbt
where the commander was buried, was
erected a large crofs with this carved in-
fcription upon it, Chri/lus vincit, Carolus
tertius imperat. Captain Cook ordered
it to be taken down, and the following
words to be put upon it, Georgius tertius,
annis 1767, 69, 74, 79.
Marteemo, as far as we could under-
fland, was a very fenfible, clever young
man, and held in much efteem by the na-
natives.' It feems probable, that he was left
therewith a view of learning the language,
manners, and cuftoms of the country ;
in the former they told us he was very
intelligent. The two priefls no doubt
were to endeavour to make converts, but
they did not appear to be very fuccefsful,
for for we could difcover no traces of the!
good effect of their apoftolical miffion;
and it is not unlikely, but that the reverend fathers might be fo far led aftray
by the good things of the ifland, and the
condefcenfion of its female inhabitants, as
totally to forget the bufinefs they were
fent upon.
The man who had been at Lima, was
frequently on board the fhips, and very
readily anfwered any queflions we put to
him relative to his treatment, &c. there.
He appeared to like the Spaniards very
well, but frequently expreffed his fur prize
at their not having red feathers (which
are with thefe people the Jummum bonum
and extent of all their wifhes) as well as us.
In this refpect we were very fortunate,
having laid in a good flock at the Friendly
Ifles.    Among many of our dairy vifitors
was a man called Orettee, who was an
old taio of M. Bougainville's :  feldom a
day paffed without this man's dining on
board the fhips, where he generally contrived (     128;    §
f
Jrived to get drunk. Of our female vi-
fitors, a woman whofe narne was Poorahi
was the principal; fhe became captfain
Clerke's taio, and exchanged names wi^b
him/ She generally had a fine young
girl with her, whofe na&fe was Outopah,
of a moft winning and engaging behaviour.
As our flay at this place was not of any
long continuance, getting out the Discovery's m aft was poftponed till we fhould
arrive at Matavai Bay, We were however conftantly employed in getting in
water, and flatting that which we took in
at the Friendly Ifles : our armourers too
were continually employed at the forge,
in making trade of various- forts for the
purchafmg of provifions.
The face of the country here exhibits a
very different appearance from that of the
Friendly Ifles. Mountains and vallies,
hills and dales, and in fhort every thing
confpire to form the moft romantic views
imaginable; while at Amfterdam, &c. you
M had had only one continued tract of low level
land. At a little diftance from the fhips was
a remarkably pleafant valley, which ran
winding between the mountains to a great
diftance ; in the midft of it is a fine ftream.
of water, which at the head of the valley
takes its rife from a beautiful cafcade
that appears to burft out of the rocks.
On each fide the ftream are placed the
houfes of the natives, interfperfed with
plantations of bananas, coco nuts, breadfruit, and aifcind of apple-tree : the lofty
hills on each fide, whofe tops reach beyond the clouds, the variety of birds
which are continually flying from place to
place, and the noife of the falling water,
re-echoed by the furrounding hills, afford
a fcene linking beyond defcription.
Ohitapeah is the principal place of Ota-
heitee-ete, being the refidence of the king
and moft of the principal people. The
.grefent king is a minor, and fon to the.
late Wyeatuah ; he is about ten years old,
and is a fine lively fenfible boy.
Vol.1.   W   f '"IB* •    The I
( *3° ) \
The morai of the late king ftands upon the banks of a rivulet not far from the
Spafaifh houfe ; it is- very neatly fenced
in with bamboo, and the cbrpfeis placed
upon a kind of bier, and wrapped up in*
a great quantity of cloth, over which are
fpread feveral pieces of fcarfet woollet*
cloth, which had been given him by the
^Spaniards. His houfe is at a little diftance*
from the morai, but almoft tumbled to*
pieces; for thefe people never repair or live
in the houfe of any one that iatiead ; that
and every thing belonging to it being raaj
as they call it; which word has nearly the
fame meaning as taboo at the Friendly
Ifles, and means unlawful or forbid.. This
word is ufed on many occafions ; fdr in-
flance, if you afk any of the women to eat
while tfie men are pcefent, they will fhake
their heads, and fay it is maa raa, or meat
which they are forbid to eat.
Thefe  good  people,  notwithftanding;
they fupplied us very largely with every
produce of the place, yet in feveral re-
m~   ^    v       '' '-■'••"    ;-%ect^ WElUfdei
J.C&Uyerjtttlp.
Publifb 6d Decf 14* 1781,% G.Robiniim. I fpects had loft -that degree of cordiality
for US) which was experienced in the
courfe of the former voyage. This we had
great reafon to attribute to the infinuations
and mal-practices of the Spaniards, who
(if the natives are to be relied on) took
every,method to leffen that friendfhip and
good opinion, which they faw thefe people entertained of us, by reprefenting us
as a fet-of idle, piratical people, who lived
entirely by plunder ;jrthat we had no
place of abode, but were obliged to cruize
about from place to place to procure a
living, with many other circumflances
sgqpally falfe andiunjuft.
The behaviour of the Spaniards during
•tbeir flay was truly characteriftic ; fcarce
:any of the natives were permitted to en-
ker the great cabin, and not a woman was
differed to come on board; the co$a-
inander never went on fhore, without a
guard to mceme him, wiuch withathe adr
vantage they had oyer us in fine fi^rlet
cloths (for the people oijQtaheitee, lifee
K  a moft 'it i- ■ l r32 i ■
moft others, are fond of fhew), and the
_great ftate they always affumed, abfo-
lutely got the better of our popr friends,
and they looked upon them almoft as a
fuperior race of beings.
However, we in fome meafure overcame their prejudices againff us, and by
dealing out our prefents (particularly red
feathers) in a judicious manner, they
readily confeffed we were more valuable
taios than the Dons. Vjj^
The Spaniards left behind feveral hogs,
goats, and dogs, and likewi.% a bull and
cow : the latter died, but the bull was.
kept at Oparre, the refidenGe of Otoo, and
was really a fine animal.
Weilaid at this place till the 23d in-
flant, when we weighed our anchors,
and flood out of the harbour, at nine in
the morning, with feveral of the natives
on board as paffengers.tif
At noon the N. W. point of Otaheitee
bore N. W. by N. diftant about three
leagues, and the eafterrnoft land in fight
S. E^ S. E. | S. The Refolution, being a good
way a-head, got into Matavia Bay before
it was dark; but night coming on, and
having very fqually weather, the Difcovery
flood off and on, it being more prudent
to take the advantage of the meaning to
get in, rather than run the rifque of, getting too near the reef, which might have
proved   a  dangerous   affair.    The   next
day, as foon as it became light, fhe flood
in for the bay, and at eleven let go her
anchor in five fathom of water, a fandy
bottom, about half a mile from the neareft
ihore.
We now fet about the neceffary preparations for getting out the Difcovery s
mail: and as captain Cook intended to
refide here fome time, the ailronomers
tents, inftruments, and other apparatus,
were got on fhore, and erected upon point
Venus. The fhips tents were alfo pitch-
ed, and the marines, with the coopers,
and all the empty cafks, with various
other affairs, were fent on fhore.
K 3 Ihe \
\
I     '.'I    *34    |      ^ ;§■'
-r The next day, Otoo, wiA his brothers
and fiflers, vifited the, captains. He is
lull fix feet high, and raw-bdned, but not
iat Enue, who is his fecond brofiber,4l
a fine handfome young fellow, but greatly addicted to drinking awa; the young-
eft is about feventeen, a Sandfome youth.
His three fillers are very plain women ;
the young eft, whofe name is Terrara, is
a very agreeable lively girl.
CHAI . i   '35   t
*'■ 'CHAP. ' XL '     ' ;§r'
^maifinds hisfifier married—her hufband's
behaviour—he is led into temptation, and
turned out ofthejhip—the natives very ingenious at fabricatingftories—an inflance
of it—the people of Otaheitee engaged in
a war with thofe of Imaio—the caufe of
that war—a human facrifice is offered to
the god of war by  Tohaw—fme  der
fcription of the place of facrifice—Tohaw
and his friends Potatow and Tapaow%
fail for Imaio — Otoos behaviour — is
.threatened by Tohaw—we fail for Imaio
—the natives fieal two of our goats—?
arrival at Huaheine—lofe one of our qua
drants — the thief taken — threatens
tOmai, and is again confined—but makes
his efcape—arrival at Vriatea—two of our
people leave the flips—are at length taken
—leave Uriatea, andfleer for Bora-bora
—-fome account of thefociety of Arreois.
/KMAI found his After married and
\^Jr fettled here, who received him very
cordially and affectionately, but her huf-
bandj who was quite of the inferior fet of
K 4       .   '      people, (    136   ) \
people, would not condefcend or deign to
fpeak to him. But he foon altered his behaviour, for finding that Omai was pof-
fefled of many valuables, he then received
him with open arms, and was continually
with him, both on board and on fhore.
An unlucky circumftance however happened, for being one day on board the
Refolution in the great cabin, juft before
dinner, a knife and fork attracted his notice fo much as to induce him to conceal
them. It was foon difcovered that the ufual
number was not there, and the Captain's
fufpicion immediately refting upon him,
he was fearched\and the things found,
for which he got a good flogging, and was
turned out of the fhip. Captain Cook
wifhed much to have fettled Omai at this
place, and put him under the protection of
Otoo ; but he never would hear of it, and
declared that he would remain no where
but at Huaheine. His reafon for fixing
upon this ifland in particular was, be-
oaufe its fituation he faid was very convenient for him, to chaftife the infolence
Si:   .     ..   .;-.-oi      ^.   .:;■   ./■ of (   137   ) I
of the Bora-bora men, for whom he has,
the moft inveterate hatred.
Omai had been very lavifh of his things
at Ohitapeah, and he alfo diftributed them
here in a manner that a good deal dif-
pleafed Captain Cook, who often advifed
him to be more frugal, but without effect.
The people at this place did not appear
much to like him, and frequently turned
up their nofes at him as he paffed
along: but at length Tohaw (the lorcf
high admiral, as we ufed to call him), who
was a man of a fine generous fpirit, took
a great deal of notice of him, gave him
two or three fervants, and was very de-
firous of his living with him, but Omai
would not liften to reafon.
We were nowconftantly vifited by many
of the principal arees, among whom were
Oammo (hufband to the late queen Obe-
rea), Potatow, and Tohaw.
On the 27th inftant, fome people from
Ohitapeah came on board the Difcovery,
and informed the Captain that two Spa-
nifh
■IwF -.. Cf'38
siifh fhips had arrived at that place on
the preceding evening. He immediately
waited upon Captain Cook, and related
the information he had .received : whilft
they were difcourfing of the affair, one of
the Indians introduced himfelf, and faid
he had actually been on board one of the
thips, and that the clothing which he then
*had on, was given him by one of the
commanders. It appeared to be perfectly new, which, with the many proteftar
lions and affurances the man made reflecting the truth of the report, induced
Captain Cook to fend a boat, with an officer, attended by this genius, who voluntarily offered to conduct them, to afcer-
tain the truth : in the interim both veffek
Igere cleared for action, in cafe the Dons
fhould think proper to attack us. jOn the
evening of the 29th the boat returned,
having looked into Ohitapeah harbour,
-where there was not the leaft appearance
of a fhip, confequently the whole was
nothing more than a ftory which thefe
ingenious ( *39   )
ingenious people had contrived to hatch
up. Indeed their conductor was fo fen^
fible of this, that betook the firft oppor*
tunity of making his efcape by jumping
Overboard, and by that means, in all
probability, efcaped a good kicking.
We found our friends engaged in a
war with a neighbouring ifland called
Imaio, or York Ifland, which, as far as
we could team, appeared to be an old affair. When Captain Cook was at Ota>
iaieitee in the courfe of his laft voyage,
they were preparing a very formidable
fleet to attack that ifland, which formerly
was tributary to Otaheitee, but revolted
fome years fince. Soon after the departure of the Refolution they failed, and
upon landing their forces a brifk engage-
ment enfued, and our friends entirely
routed them, and obliged them to fly to
the mountains. They foon after fhed
for peace, and very gladly accepted of it
upon any terms ;|when it was agreed
that one of Tohaw's family fhould refider
ere (    Ho 1
there as  governor.     This they readily
affented to, and for fome time appeared
perfectly fatisfied ;   but it did not continue long, for by degrees they began to
difpftte the authority of their new governor, and at laft difpatched him.    This
was the caufe of the prefent war ; and in
confequence of it, on the evening of the
J ft of September, "lb-haw offered a human
facrifice to their god of war, whom they
call Oro.    Thefe kinds of religious rites
we find  are cuftomary things  amorigfl:
them upon any particular occafion.    The
perfon facrificed is always one of the low-
eft and moft ufelefs perfon they can find:
he is totally ignorant of the affair, till the
perfons who are fent to difpatch him arrive, when they knock him on the head
without   any  hefftation.     The  body  is
then conveyed to  the place of facrihce:
with great  form and  ceremony.    This
place feems to bevfet apart entirely for
religious affairs of this nature! on one
fide was a houfe for the refidence of the
**■■•'        .§:   , ' . priefts* priefls, at fome diftance from which wks
a large piece of board elevated upon two
polls rudely carved, upon which were
placed feveral hogs and dogs that probably were killed upon this occafion^Near
this was a kind of flat fhed raifed upon
four polls, and decorated all round near
•the top with garlands made of particular
kfnd of trees, fuch as the emotoo, awa,
and etee, and upon its top feveral bunches
of plantains and coco nuts were placed;
On one fide was a kind of altar formed
of ftone, and raifed about two feet from
the furface of the ground, upon various
parts of which were fixed thofe rude
kinds of carvings that are ufually to be
diflinguifhed near moraii, and in the midft
of thefe were a number of human fkulls,
which belonged to thofe who had formerly
been facrificed. Near the houfe were
two large drums, upon which two men
were almoft continually drumming during
the ceremony. The prieft takes out one
of the eyes, which he offers to the god, at
the fame time making a long prayer,<in>
ploring
fin •   ■'  '■   '
II'
mm\
(    H* ' )  ; %■
ploring his protectidn during the war*
and begging that victory may crown their
arms, after which the body is interned.
As it was Tohaw's relation whom the
jjeople of imak) had murdered, he of
courfe was the moft active man, and had
made great preparations ; Otoo, Potatow,
and another chief whofe name was Ta-
paow, were aHb to affift him. On the
19th, the two latter, with Tohaw, failed
for Imaio, whilft OfcQp was to mufter hb
forces and join him the next day. Ao
cordingly there was a review of his war
•canoes ; after which, inftead of going to
the affiflance of Tohaw, as was expected,
they all departed to the feveral diflridts to
which they belong; the confequence of
which was, the admiral and his friends
were very roughly handled, and obliged to make off in the beft manner they
•could,
This behaviour of Otoo enraged old
Tohaw exceedingly, who declared vengeance againft him, and even threatened
•to dethrone him, which he faid it was no
very
pa vety difficult fe&tt# to{eom!f*afs, as WyeV
atuah,   the  young  kSxg of  Tiarrabbo,
is his nephew; arid their combined forced
niigjit eaffily give him a <fhoek which he
would not readily get the better of.
Oh the 2$ifa of Septemher, in-the af^
ternbbn, after taking leare of all Our old
friends at Matavai,both veftels weighed anCt
made fail, accompanied by Omai in a large
doiible canoe, which he had^urehafed here..
Soon after we Dore away to get clear of
the reef, and at fix,, being a go$& diftance
from it, we brought to for the night, with
the main top-fail to the mail. At daylight we made fail, fleering a due courfe-
for Imaio, which then bore abofit W. S. W.
At eight we were pretty near it, and there
being a fine bay a-head, the boats wert
got out to fee if there was a fufficient
depth of water for the fhips. if
At ten they returned with an account
of its affording excellent accommodations;
we therefore flood in for it, and at elevek
Bothikips anchored in about feven fathom
wates,
Til
II r (   H4   )
water, witha muddy bottom, theRefolutloa
being on the eaftern fhore, the Difcovery
on the weftern. It was till this time a
matter of doubt, whether this ifland afforded any fhelter for veffels, but we now
found that a little farther to the eaftward
there was another harbour equally as convenient as this.
On Thurfday (October the 2d), in the
morning, the king of the ifland, whofe
name is Mahine, vifited the captains; he
was attended by feveral people, and two or
three handfome women.  He appeared to
be about forty, was above the middle fize,
and rather fat; he had many fears upon
his body, and has loft one eye, all which
he fays are the confequences of the many
wars he has been engaged in.    He has
a fon,who he intends to fucceed him, provided he can become independent; but
the people of  Otaheitee  will  probably
always   be  too powerful for   him,  and
of courfe put in a king of their own
choofing.
We (   HS   )
e here heard of the death of Oammo,
by fome- people who had followed the
fhips from Otaheitee, who had been ill
feveral days before our departure.
On Monday evening (Sept. 7th), the
natives ftole one of the Refolution's goats,
which with our other live flock had been
fent on fhore to graze : the large cutter,
with an officer, in the morning was dispatched to Mahine's refidence, to inform him of the theft, and beg that he
would exert his authority, and affift us
to recover it. In the evening he returned
with the goat, and the perfon who had
ftolen it; who, in order tcuflrike him
with fome degree of terror, was by order
of captain Cook put into irons.
But thefe ingenious people did not reft
here, for during the abfence of the above
boat, they ftole another. This proof of
their dexterity greatly difpleafed captain
Cook, who the next day fent two ftrong
parties on fhore, well-armed, with orders
to deftroy fome of their canoes, ,&c. and
Vol. I. I fmce
i (    H6   }
fince lenient meafures proved ineffectual^
he was determined to act with fome degree of feverity. One or two of their
houfes were burnt, and feveral hogs
brought off; which mode of conduct
alarmed them fo much, that the day after
the goat was returned.
Having completed our wood and water,
and got every thing on board, we weighed
our anchors and flood out of the harbour.
Imaio is, without exception, the moft
pleafant of all the Society Ifles. Its appearance is truly romantic, and it abounds
with variery of landfcapes that are delightful beyond defcription : it is divided
nearly in the centre by a range of mountains, that rife in a variety of forms, appearing like old ruined caftles or churches.
At the bottom of them is a large tract of
moderately high land, interfperfed with
groves of various trees ; on one fide of this,
the land makes a hidden break, and forms
a moft delightful valley, beyond which
"the  fcene is beautifully contrafted, and
the. ' (   H7   )
tne   view   clofed   by   feveral   irregular
mountain!*®
The next courfe we fleered was for Hu-
aheine, which we foon reached, and anchored in Owharre harbour. Here the
aftronomers tents, as well as thofe belonging to the fhips, were again pitched;
and, having the convenience df a large
houfe, captain Cook ordered all the
bread, which was in a very rotten and
bad condition, to be got On fhore and
dried. As this was the ifland which
Omai fixed upon for his refidence, the
carpenters were fet to work to erect him
a houfe to contain his valuables, which
would by no means have been fecure in
one of his own country, and in the courfe
of a few days it was completed. Our
reception at this ifland was very friendly;
and dne of the principal men, whofe name
Was Mahine, fupplied the Difcovery with
abundance of hogs, fowls, and very fine
bread-fruit; the latter fuperior to any we
had ever met with before.
L 2 One :
I (148. } .      . gj
One evening we were alarmed on board
by the firing of a mufket from the fhore,
and obferving moft of the natives running
about in great confufion, we immediately
fufpected fome theft had been committed ;
boats from both fhips were fent to en-
quire into the caufe of this uproar, and
upon their return, we found our conjectures proved true, for fomebody had flolen
a quadrant from one of the aftronomers
tents, which being enclofed in a box, and
not put in fo fecure a place as it ought to
have been, fome of thefe ingenious people had contrived to carry off. This was
a lofs which could not be put up with ;
ftrict fearch therefore was made after the
thief, and with much trouble and difficulty he at laft was caught, carried on board
the fhip, and put in irons ; the quadrant
was found, concealed amongft fome high
grrafs, about a quarter of a mile from the
tents. The man, after undergoing fome
hours confinement, receiving a fevere
flogging,  and having his   head  fhaved
(which J       (  149 )
(which is an operation they are by no
means fond of), was difcharged; but no
fooner was he on fhore, than he declared
vengeance againft Omai, who had been
very active in fecuring him, and threatened to burn his houfe and deftroy him.
In fact,   feveral   attempts  of this  kind
were made during the night, and poor
Omai was obliged to be very circumfpecr,
and carefukin keeping watch.    Not content with this, the villain deftroyed feve-
ral grape vines, which Cmai had brought
from the Cape of Good Hope, and which
he was particularly anxious to prefer1
vc
thefe were planted upon the fide of a
hill, not far from his houfe, and in all
probability would have fucceeded very
well in their growth.
Complaints were made to captain
Cook of thefe outrages, who, anxious for
the fafety of Omai, and fearing that if
this man remained upon the ifland, fome
mifchief would enfue, determined to take
an opportunity of fecuring and conveying
L  3 him
Fftljiil
?*8f (
150
)
him. on board, with an intent to leave
him upon fome of the iflands we might
fall in with, in our way to the northward.
This plan was accordingly put in execution, and the gentleman confined in
irons ; but a day or two after, by fome
means or other, which never could be
found out, he contrived to make his ef-
cape. Captain Cook ftrongly fufpected
that fomebody on board the fhip had fet
him at liberty, which it is more than
probable was the cafe.
During our flay,   Omai gave feveral
entertainments on fhore, to which moft
of the gentlemen of the fhips were invited, and captains Cook and Clerke always made a point of being there, as it
might in the end prove ferviceable to
him: for the natives feeing their countrymen fo much refpected by the captains, might on that account be induced
$0 behave better to him after their departure.
:M if The ; 1    '    ( '5I }
The time at length arrived for failing,
and in the morning Omai, attended by his
two New Zealand boys, vifited both fhips,
and with many tears took a moft affectionate leave of all his friends, who could
not forbear fympathizing with him. Having got into his canoe, we again bid him
farewell, got up our anchors, and foon
after flood out of the harbour, making the
beft of our way for Uriatea, with many
paffengers on board, both male and female.
The next day we anchored in Oha-
maneno, one of the harbours of that
ifland; and in the afternoon moored both
fhips clofe to the fhore, the Refolution
being on one fide, and the Difcovery on
the other. Many of our old friends
came off in their canoes, and, amongfl the
reft, Oreo the chief of the ifland, who
eafily recognized captain Cook: a brifk
trade was foon opened on both fides5
we ha4 as plentiful a fupply of every
thing as we could wifh for.
L 4 (   *52   )
As this was the laft of the Society Ifles
we propofed flopping at, every thing was
got on fhore that wanted the leaft repair.
Our tents were pitched, the forge erected,
parties were fent to wood and water, and
a proper place was fixed upon for making
aftronomicai obfervations.
A day or two after our arrival, Boba
the chief of Otahaw, with his wife Teina-
mai, waited upon us, and made the captains a prefent of feveral hogs, bread-fruit,
coco nuts, &e. Mr. Forfter mentions in his
publication, that he was to be married to
Miverua the daughter of Opoone, king
of Bora-bora ; however that might have
been, he now lives with Teinamai.    She
by  no   means   anfwers   the  defcription,
given of her in the laft voyage, having
fince had feveral children ; and is altered
in every refpect much for the worfe, ex-,
cept in her temper and difpofition, which
are  equally as   good  and  agreeable  as
before.
'§. : - -     ■'■'.< .   ■'- i -m We ■•■■■ x". ■. ISll jt,     ;:
We continued repairing our rigging,
mending fails, wooding, and watering,
&c. with all expedition, and were nearly
upon the pednt of failing, when two ol?
the Difcovery's people were miffing. As
this happened in the evening, it was concluded that they were carrying on ah intrigue with fome of the ladies, and no
more was thought of it; but the morning-
can\e,.?and hearing nothing of them, we
were rather alarmed, and made very ftrict
enquiry of the natives, who at firft declared they were perfectly ignorant of the
matter; but with much perfuafion one
^formed us, that they had the preceding
night embarked in a canoe with two or
three of the inhabitants, and paddled ou£
to fea.
This at once difclofed the whole of theji?
plan, and many circumftances occurred,
which confirmed us in our fufpicion, viz.
that they had made their efcape with a
view o£ remaining with the natives, and
pne of them had gone fo far a few days
before
y
z^r
V fin vt
ItKi h
(      154     }
before as to defire captain   Cook's per-
miflion to flay.
No time was now to be loft in the recovery of them : accordingly, boats well-
manned and armed were fent to different
parts of the ifland, but all returned without gaining any intelligence : the next
day was fpent in the fame manner, and
with as little fuecefs.
We had now only one refource left,
which was to fecure fome of the principal
people, arid keep them in cuftody till our
men were delivered up, which was done
the following day.
Captain Gierke having occafion te go
on board the Refolution, found Oreo's
fen and daughter with her hufband there,
and having informed captain Cook of his
intention, who readily agreed to the plan,
he invited them on board the Difcovery,
under a pretence of giving them fome
hatchets, knives, and beads. As the
captain had frequently made them pre-
fents before, they accompanied him without (    155     )
out the leaft hefitation, but no fooner wefe
they arrived in the great cabin, than a
centinel -was pla^d at the door, and the
window fecured. This proceeding of
courfe furprifed them a good deal, and
Captain Gierke having explained the reafon of it, and the neceffity he was under
of doing it, they burft into tears, and begged he would not kill them. He affured
them he would not, and that the moment
his people were brought back, they fhould
be releafed: this however did not quiet
their apprehenfions, and they continued
in a ftate of great defpondency all night.
No fooner was it known amongft the natives, that Moedua (which was the name
of Oreo's daughter), with her brother and
hufband, were confined as prifoners, than
a large party of women affembled on
ihore, and even in the water near the
fhips, and fet up a moft difmal hovvling,
ftriking their bofoms, and cutting their
heads with fharks teeth, which caufed a
plentiful
it i •    mm ))   ■
plentiful effufion of blood, and gave them
the appearance of furies rather than women y fome worked themfelves f*up to
fiich a pitch as to become nearly frantic,
whilft the royal prjfoners bewailed their
fituation in filent forrow.   This contjrmed
near half an hour, when having entirely
exaufted themfelves with pafllon, they re-?
tired.
In the evening, feveral of the chiefs
had formed a defign of feizing -captains
Cook and Clerkf^ as they took their evening walk, and would certainly have put
it in execution, had he not received timely
intelligence from a girl who came with
us from Huaheine.    She had  been on
fibore almoft the whole day, and towards
evening came on board in a great fright,
telling us that Tootee and Taatee (the
names the  captains went by)  would be
killed.      Captain   Clerke   was   then   on
fhore.  A ftrong-armed party were directly
fent, who in their way overtook feveral
of the natives armed with clubs and flicks.
iBSf ■   '.      ' III a (   '57   )
As foon as they faw our men they appeared much eonfufed, and made off, a
few mufkets were difchSrged after them,
but without doing any mifchief. The captain in his walk had met with one or two
of the chiefs, and obferved feveral others
lurking about, which, with their behaviour, made him rather fufpicious, fo
he very wifely turned back, and went ^i
board the Refolution. which rendered their
hfchexne abortive. In the morning, Oreo
came on board the Difcovery, and with
tears in his eyes begged permiffion to
fpeak to his fons and daughter, which ^e
was fuffered to do. Being E informed,
that unlefs he brought back our two men,
Captain Clerke would carry the prifoners
to England, he faid he would do all in
his power to find them, and after a fhort
flay departed.
At length the runaways were brought on
board, and put in. irons, and Moedua with
her hufband and brother, fet at liberty:
after receiving feveral prefents from the
captain,
"^^ (
ic8
;
captain, as a fmall recompence for their
confinement, they went or* fhore, and were
received with great joy by their countrymen and women, who had affembled for
that purpofe.
Our deferters we found had paddled
all night, and the next morning arrived
at Bora-bora; and having refted themfelves proceeded to a fmall ifland called
Tubai, where they were taken.
Having nothing now to detain us, we
got up our anchors, but the wind not
proving favourable, we were obliged once
more to let them go. However, on the
9th of December (Sunday) we again
weighed and made fail, accompanied
by numbers of our old friends in their
canoes, who attended the fhips a con-
fiderable way beyond the harbour, and
then very cordially bid us adieu.
Captain Cook at firft had fome idea
of flopping a day or two at Bora-bora;
but the harbour not proving a good one,
he purfued his courfe to the northward.
ill .        '§'      The
j The fociety of the areeois is efleented
the moft polite eftablifhment in thefe
iflands ; the members of which are always people of rank and fortune, and are
diftinguifhed by being tattcwed in a peculiar manner, particularly thofe who are
natives of Bora-bora. ||g
It will here be neceffary to obferve,
what it is that firft conftitutes a member,
and fome of the rights and privileges annexed to this fociety. It is in confequence
of a moft cruel and inhuman action: a
man muft connect himfelf with a girl,
and the firft child he has by her, muft
be ftrangled the inftant it is born. At
the next meeting they muft bring wit-
neffes to prove this horrid deed, after
which they are admitted as members.
They generally go in companies of ten
or twelve fail of canoes, and let them
direct their courfe to whatever ifland they
pleafe, they are always certain of being
well received; nay, if they have even he^n
at war but a few days before the vifit, all
animofity
ss i       ( p- ) K
animofity is laid afide, and they are £$
perfect friends as if nothing had happened.
One of their privileges is to keep two,
three, or more women at once, who however muft be members. They always
wear the beft cloth the iflands produce,
and eat many peculiar things, which
others, even if arees, are not permitted to
do. They are generally diftinguifhed for
their prowefs, valour, and activity in battle ; and if any of them ihew the leaft
figns of cowardice, he is excluded the
fociety; which is efteemed fuch a disgrace, that from that time he lofes all his
confequence, and nobody will affociate
with or fpeak to him. Their amufements
during thefe meetings confifl of boxing,
wreftling, dancing, and making feafls and
entertainments, at which crowds of female fpectators attend, the faireft of
whom are always made choice of by the
conquerors. In general, they continue in
this fociety to the age of thirty or thirty-
4 five, (   161   )
five, when by fuffering one of their children to furvive, they debar themfelves of
the privileges of an arreoi. Many remain
members all their lives, and die in a moft
emaciated ftate, occafioned by their very
debauched way of living.
Vol. T. (     162     )
CHAP.   XII.
Depart from the Society Iflles~—difcover a low
fandy ifland—catch many fifh and turtle—nearly lofe two of the Difikovery's
men—leave the ifland—defcription ofit—+
ama%ing flocks of birds—proceed to the
northward—fee more land—anchor off
A'touiyOne of the Sandwich Ifles —proceedings there—the Refolution drags her an-*
chor, andfiands out to fea—the king and
queen vifit Captain Clerke—the Difcovery fails—both fhips anchor off Oneehowy
another of the Sandwich Ifles —tranf-
atJions there—-fome account  of thofe
iflands.
OUR weather, after leaving the Society Ifles, was pleafant, with a
frefh trade-wind. On the 22d, we obferved a greater number of birds than
iifual, which increafed as we continued
our courfe; and inoft of them being fuch
as ;      ( 163 )
as never fly very far from land, we concluded ourfelves,.to foe in the neighbourhood of fome. W   |g
Orders were given to. keep a good look
out; and we-flood on, the birds, (which
were boobies, men of war j$irds, egg birds,
and tropic birds) becoming more numerous till the 24th, when being in latitude
2 deg. 3 min. M& and longitude 22 deg.,
22 min. Ef we difcovered a low fandy
ifle, with a few .trees, upon it,rjwhich had
the appearance of being burnt or fcorched
up by the heat of the fun.  ji
In the afternoon, we were well in with
the land, and captain Cook having taken
a view of it, fignified his intention of
flopping there for a day or two, as he apprehended it might prove a convenient
place for catching turtle. About an
hour after, we anchored off the S. W.
part of it, and the Refolution fent a boat
to look for a convenient landing-place ;
but not meeting with one, we weighed
and flood on towards the N. W. part of
M 2   . it, •■&■'     ( i6+ i   -■■ f
ft, when we anchored again about two
miles fro& the fhore, oppofite to a fmall
patch of coco nut trees, which from that
circumftance we called Coco Nut Point, and
near which there was a break in the reef,
large enough to admit boats. Parties
from both fhips Were fent on fhore^ and
the firft night they turned upwards of
thirty turtle; we alfo fent our boats to
catch fifh, and had very good fuccefs, fb
that with fifh and turtle we lived exceedingly well. This proved a welcome fiip-
ply, for our flock of frefh provifions had
been confumed a few days before our
difcovery of this ifland.
We employed ottrfelves in this manner*
till the i ft of January, during which time
we had collected a confiderable number
' of turtle for both fhips, but had nearly
loft two of the Difcovery *s men, who unthinkingly ftrayed from their party, and
proceeding in a directly oppofite direction to what they ought, had well nigh
perifhed with heat and thirfh    In the
evening, (   i6j   )
evening^ captain Cook made the fignal
for the boats to return, and the next
morning (January 2d), We weighed out
anchors, and proceeded to the northward.
This place, which we called Chriftmas
Ifland (having fpent that anniverfary
there), is one of thofe low lagoon iflands
fo frequeutly to be met with between the
tropics.. It is furrounded by a reef of
coral rock, upon which a heavy furf continually vents its fury. Its appearance is.
defolate and barren, being little more than
a large fand bank of a femicircular form,
covered in fome places with a low brufh
wood. The foil is compofed of fand,
flones, and the decayed fhells of crabs,
and other fhell-fifh. Its inhabitants are
innumerable flocks of boobies, man of
war birds, egg birds, petrels, tropic birds,
and two or three fpecies of plover, moft
of which were fo tame as to be taken off
the bufhes. In one or two places we
found fmall patches of coco nut trees,
the fruit pf which was fmall, and the milk
M   2 poor
3 (i 166   )f '    '
poor and infrpld, and"thd: trees considerably flinted in their growth. The reef
abounds with various kHfds of fifh, particularly a fpecies of fnarknabout four feet
in length, which conftantly attended our
Boats to and from the fhips : there are
alfo very large^ cavallas, fnappers, and a
fifh which we called a rock cod. On
fhore, we found numbers of a fpecies of
crab, which from their bright red colour
we called foldiers, and abundance of land
crabs. We likewife faw feveral rats,
which were fmaller than our's, and their
colour more red. We tried in many
places for frefh water, but could procure
none but what wa§ very brackifh, and
totally unfit for ufe.
Our courfe from hence was nearly
north : we had a fine fteady breeze, and
the "weather was fine and pleafant. On
the 17th, our latitude was 20 deg. 25 min.
N. and longitude 200 deg. 45 min. E.
The next day (Jan. 18th), being in latitude 21 deg. 1 j min. N. and longitude
7 200
H .   .   - I (|i67 ) .-. : " ,
20b deg. 49 min. E. we faw land to the
eaftward, and foon after deferied more to
the N. W. for which we fhaped our courfe;
but night coming on, we tacked and flood
off till morning (Jan. iQth)^ when we
proceeded to trace the coaft in a S. W. and
W. direction. The land at firft prefented
rather a barren appearance, but upon a
clofer view, it improved upon us, particularly on the weftern fide, which con-
fifted of a large tract of fine level plains
and beyond them a double range of hills
whieh were covered with trees, Upoa,
* the fhore we faw a few clufters of coco
nut trees, but by no means fo abundant
as at the Society Ifles. A$ we drew
nearer inshore, fome of the inhabitants
put off in their canoes, and very readily
came along fide. Their colour was more
of the copper call than that of the natives
of Taheitee, and they wore their hair long,
and of different hues, like the people of the
Friendly Ifles. Their drefs was nothing
more than a narrow flip of cloth round
M 4 their ■ -•"] (    i68    ) .  /
their middle, and they were marked or
tattowed in different parts of their body.
Their cloth was flamped or printed in va,-
various patterns not much unlike our
printed linens ; their language nearly re-
fembled that of Taheitee. They were
eafily perfuaded to come on board, and,
like all other Indians foon began to thieve,
but nothing of any confequence was loft.
We faw no weapons among them, nor
did they behave abruptly or difagreeably,
but in their difpofition feemed friendly
and good-natured. We purchafed a few
pigs and fweet potatoes of them, for
which we gave them a hatchet or two, and
a few fmall nails, with which they appeared
very well fatisfied. In the evening we
flood off, intending to examine the place
more clofely the next day.
In the morning (Jan. 2cth) at fix, captain Cook made the fignal for the Difcovery's fix-oared cutter, which, accompanied with the Refolution's pinnace and
large cutter, was fent to look for a fafe;
place I 169 I
place for the fhips to anchor, and to try
what foundings were to be found nearer
in-fhore. During their abfence, we flood
off and on, being fearful of venturing too
near. The natives came off as yefterday,
and we bought a few hogs, tarrow, fweet
potatoes, and fugar-cane, of all which they
appeared to have plenty, and excellent of
their kind. At three in the afternoon
the boats returned, having found a tolerable birth, and at four both veffels came
to. Soon after captain Cook went on
fhore in the pinnace, attended by the Difcovery's cutter, both well-armed. He was
received on fhore very cordially by the
natives, who treated him during his flay
with great refpect and attention, and
brought many fmall hogs, potatoes, tarrow, or eddoes, and fugar-cane, all which
were purchafed at a very eafy rate. Thev
women were rather ordinary, and in general mafculine, and will fcarce bear a com-
parifon with the fair dames of Taheitee.
*!Their drefs is the fame as that of the men,
only
111
m ':    . •. ( _•#   )
only the cloth is wider, and reaches down
to the knees. Their hair is cut fhort behind, and long before, but turned back
Kk£ our foupees, which mode of wearing
it -does not fet them off to the greateft
advantage. Many, who were alongside
m ifcelr canoes, pleaded hard to come on
boarct, but captain Cook had giyf£ flrict
orders, previous to his anchoring, not to
,faffed a ftagle won>a|i td be admitted mt^
the fhips, $.s there were feveral people
in both, who flill had the venereal dtfeafe.
But notwithflanding   every p£eefgu|%E>a,
many of our men contrived to have connexions with them, in confequence of
which we found this terrible diforder-
raging among them when we arrived
thffe the fecond time.
The next day (Jan. 21 ft), the launches
were fent to fill water, which could be
procured without much difficulty, from a
fine river at no great diftance from the
fhips, and parties were difpatched io the
fhore to trade  with the natives,  while
others (   J7l   )
others were to fuperintend the market on
board the fhips. They fupplied us with
abundance of every thing the ifland proceed, ^nd ^ the evening our trading
parties returned with abundance of fine
hogs, potpjg^s, fugar-cane, &c.
The 22d was very windy, with much
rain, which prevented our boats from
landing, as a heavy furf broke upon the
fhore. Our friends however came off in
the midfl of it, and a brifk trade was car-
ried on, on board. We alfo purchafed
m&ay of their ornaments, fuch as fans,
necklaces, bracelets, clpaks, and caps,
compofed of red and yellow feathers,
which were very curious, the latter being made in form of helmets. They
alfo brought off fome fpears, which were
about ten feet long, admirably polifhed,
and the end intended for execution, was
about eight or ten inches in length, had
many barbs, and was pointed.       ||;
During a heavy fquall, the Refolution
fragged her anchor, and fwung near a
.\ui fhoal. (   *72   )    -
fhoal. f Her fituation being rather dangerous, captain Cook ordered the anchor
to be weighed, and flood off fhore ; but
the winds foon after becoming light, and
a ftrong current fetting to the weftward,
flie fell confiderably to leeward, and at
laft was obliged to ftand ont to fea. The
Difcovery, being fecure, flaid behind.
The 23d was very rainy during the
whole day, but as there was but little wind,
captain Gierke fent the Difcovery's boats
on fhore to trade as ufual, and many of
the inhabitants came on board as before.
Early the next morning (Jan. 2 th),
the Difcovery weighed and made fail; but
the wind proved fo light, that fhe fell to
leeward, and was obliged foon after tocome
to. The Refolution at this time was out of
fight. About nine, the king of the ifland
came alongfide in a double canoe : captain Clerke, underftanding who he was,
requefted him much to come on board,
which he appeared willing to do, but his
attendants were fo fearful of his receiying
fomq ,, • -.jf 173V '     "
fome hiirt or other, that they intreated
him not to do it. He ventured howevet
as far as the gangway, where he fat down,
and prefented the captain with a curious
carved bowl; in return for which he received fome large nails, a cut-glafs bowl,
and fome other trifles, which pleafed him
exceedingly. After a fhort flay, his attendants bore him in their arms to his
canoe, and he went on fhore. His name
was Tofnahana ; he appeared to be about
thirty years old, and was above the middle fize; he was clothed in the fame
manner as the meaneft of his fubjects,
and could only be diftinguifhed by the
great refpect they paid him. Soon after
his departure, the queen arrived in another
canoe, and in the fame manner was permitted to go no farther than the gangway. She likewife made captain Gierke
a prefent of fome elegant ruffs made of
various coloured feathers, for which he
gave her fome beads, looking glaffes, and
a piece of fear let cloth; after which fhe
1  was
■e^r (    !74   )
was carried into her canoe, and proceeded
to the fhore. She was young, and had
a pleafing countenance, but her drefs was
not remarkable.
At feven the next morning (Jan. 25th),
the Difcovery got up her anchor, and
made fail, with a fine breeze. Soon after
ihe faw the Refolution, and bore down to
her. The three following days were fpent
by both fhips in turning to windward, to
regain their old fituations if poffible, but
they could not reach even the weflern-
moft point of the ifland. The next day
(29th), therefore they bore away for a
fmall ifle about feven leagues to leeward
of this, and at ten in the morning were
running along fhore, when captain Cook
fent the pinnace to ftrike foundings, and
fee if we could anchor with fafety. Soon
after fhe made the fignal of anchorage,
and the Refolution came to; but the Difcovery, having thirty and forty fathoms
with a rocky bottom, continued to fland
on ;  about half an hour after fhe let go
her   (f*7S   )
her anchor in twenty-three fathoms of
Water, the bottom a fine white fand, and
about two Miles off fhofe.
This ifland was confiderably fmaller
than the other, and had rather a wretched
appearance ; the foutfr point of it is ter*
minated by a high bluff rock, the interior
parts are low, with here and there a fmall
elevation, and not a tree is to be feen.!
In the morning (30th), our new acquired friends came off with fweet potatoes, yams, and fait; in the two latter articles they feemed to abound. The yams
were large, and the fait was equal to any
We ever faw, both for colour and quality.
The boats were fent on fhore to trade as
fifual, but they found the landing far more
difficult than at the laft place, on account of
a very heavy furf, which, when the wind
varies in the leaft to the weftward, rolls
in at fo terrible a rate, as totally to cut
6*ff all communication with the fhore.
In the evening, they brought off what
few articles they conveniently could, but
88! left
WMTi v|. ;•:■'  .. I v6 ) '
left two or three of the gentlemen behind,
who fuperintended the market, till the
weather fhould be moire moderate. ;||
P| The next day (31ft), we again tried, to
land with our boats, but were obliged to
defift; and in the evening had frefh gales
with rain. The Refolution being too near
in-fhore, weighed and anchored farther
out.||
if. This morning (Feb. ift), the weather
being more moderate, the boats were fent
on fhore, and in the afternoon brought
off the gentlemen, with fome yams and
fait, but were obliged to leave the principal part of their purchafes behind.
About five in the afternoon, the wind being very high, and a heavy fwell running,
the Refolution drove, and foon after got
under way, intending to anchor again,
but by the time it was dark the current
had fet her nearly out of fight.
A number of the natives came off to
the Difcovery the* nextfday (Feb. 2d),
with their canoes laden with fait, yams,
fweef fweet potatoes, ancj fifh' dried and faked.
Of the roots, a fufficient quantity Were
purchafed to v fupplyr the fhip's company:
two months at leaft. At ten fhe got
up her anchor, and made fail after the
Refolution, who ifould jufl be diflinguifh-
ed from the maft-head. At two in the
afternoon fhe ^ined her, and both directed their courfe to the northward.
As we vifited thefe iflands a fecond
time, and had an opportunity of making
a greater number of remarks,- relative to
the manners andreuftoms, &c. of the in-
habitants, than our fhort flay this time
would permit, a fuller and more particular
account will be given afterwards : it will
therefore fuffice for the prefent to exhibit
a concife view of what appeared to us
the moft ftriking and remarkable,
A'towi, which is the name of the
largeft ifland, is compofed, on the.N. W.
fide, of a large track of level land, the interior parts, as has been obferved before,
confifting of a double range of hills. The
Vol. I. N% houfes (    '7*   )
houfes of the natives &e in geiiera! fit&^
ated near the fhore, and placed in chifterfc*
fo as to fotm final! towns or viSages.
Their external appearance greatly refe&i-
bles the top of a barn placed upon th&
ground, with a fmall entrance in the mid-
die. Some of them we&e elevated upon
polls about three feet high, particularly
thofe rieareft the fea; froin which we
may conclude, that they a#e during fome
parts of the year fubject to intedations.
They are well thatched on the otstfide
with dry £rafs, fo as tot&fty to pfceveftfc the
entrance of rain. The floor is alfo well
ftrewed with dry grafs, upon which mats
of varitms fizes arid- dimenfions are
placed. Thefe mats are of a very clofe,
compact texture, and made; of different
patterns, fohle of which are really elegant.
They vary greatly in their degree of fine-
nefs. Their canoes or boats arei&e neateft
wre ever faw,. and conlpofed of two different coloured woods, the bottom being
dark, the upper part light, and furnifhed
with '§•     (    i?9-   )   •    f    ■     •
with an out-rigger. *S Befides thefe, they
have another mode of conveying themfelves in the water, upon very light flat
pieces of board, which we called fhark-
boards, from the fimilitude the anterior
part bore to the head of that fifh. Upon
thefe they will venture into the heavieft
furfs, and paddling with their hands and
feet, g^t on at a great rate. Indeed,
We never faw people fo active in the
'•water, which jdmoft feems their natural
element.
O'neehow, which is the weftermoft
ifland, is very fmall, and rather low.
It produces fugar-cane, plantains, fweet
potatoes, yams, and fait; in the two latter articles it exceeds A'towi. The inhabitants are not numerous; their houfes,
&c. are exactly like thofe of the above
mentioned ifle.
C H A P l80
\
CHAP.    XIII.
1
We depart for the northward—fall in with
the N. W. coafl of America—trace the
coafl as well as the wind and weather
permit—are put to an allowance of water
—difcover King George1 s Sound—where
.we- anchor*—the natives vifit us—account
of them, and of our tranfactions there-
departure from King George s Sound* •
IN the afternoon of the 2d of February,
the Difcovery joined her confort, and
proceeded in a N. N. E. and N. E. direction for the coafl of America. On the
13th, our lat. was 31 deg. 21 min. N„ and
long. 205 deg. 12 min. E. we had finooth
water, and open cloudy weather, with
a fwell from the N. E. On the 16th, we
began to find it cold., the thermometer
Handing at 56 deg*   This is not fo much
ta to be wondered at,  confidering we had
fpent near a twelvemonth between the
tropics.    From this time to the 2 3d,\ our
weather was in general clear and pleafant,
with fine breezes from the S. W. we had
fome   albatroffes' and  petrels about  us,
and the fea was in general pretty fmooth.
On the 24th, it became very hazy and
foggy, which Continued more or lefs till
the 1 ft of March.  Our courfe during this
time was nearly N. E.    On the 25 th, at
feven in the morning, we paffed a log of
wood with barnacles on it; and on the
27th, being in latitude 43 deg. 47 min.
N.  and longitude 224 deg.   38 min. 36
feconds E.  we paffed another.    In the
night we obferved the aurora borealis very
ftrong, between the N. N. W. and N. E.
and the next day faw feveral whales about.
The Weather how became warmer ; the
thermometer, which had been as low* as
48 deg. rofe to 53 and 54 deg. and we
had calms till the 3d of March, when a
breeze fprung up, though not a very faA
HWr: ' $|pr'■  - N 3       h        vourable
v w~~
^"
pK
if
M
( ,82 I
yourable one, our courfe being^little better
than E. S. E. We faw to-day fome divers, which induced us to think we were
not far from land
The 5 th, was cloudy and hazy, with
light winds inclinable to calms, with a
fwell from the northward ; and on the
6th, we paffed feveral pieces of drift wood
and fome rock-wee^ The water being
difcoloured, captain Cook ordered the lead
to be hove, but got no ground. In the
afternoon we faw. two feajfe, feveral
whales, and fome porpuffes. The next
day (the 7th), at day-light, being nearly
in latitude 44 deg. 33 min. N. and Ion-
.gitude 235 deg. 36 min. E. we faw land
(being part of America) bearing N. E.
At eight, the extremes bore N. N. E. and
S. E.« by E; they appeared the higheft
part of the land, and made in feveral
bluff capes and fmall bays or inlets, the
whole forming a deep bay, the extremes
of the land in fight being the two points
of it.    At nine,  the water having  the
appearance '-.'■(   *83   )   f    ; ■■■
appearance of foundings, we got a eaft of
the lead, and found bottom at ninety-five
fathom. We faw a great number of
birds of the gull kind.
The next dkj we had a flrong breeze
from the weftward. The air was much
colder than yefterday, with open cloudy
Weather, but very unfettled and fquafiy,
with fhowers of hail. The wind not
proving favourable for exploring the
coafl, we flood to the fouthward, to avoid
getting too near the land. The 9th, was
equally as unfettled as the day before;
fometimes being calm, at others fqually,
In the morning there was no land in fight,
but at two in the afternoon we faw it extending from N. E. pK to N. E. by E.
but at a good diftance.
The weather on the ieth was heavy
dark, and cloudy, with fhowers of hail,
the air cold and piercing. In the courfe
of the night We had a favourable fhift of
wind, which we took the advantage of,
and flood in for the land; and in the
N 4 morning (    184
morning at fix, were well in with it, the
northern extreme making in a bluff point
with white cliffs, and whigh proved to
be Cape Blanco, bearing N. ~ E. and the
fouthern one making in a long low point
S. E. by E. our diftance from the fhore
about feven miles. The land near the
fhorefcwa$_pf a moderate height: die hills
were covered with ftrait tall trees of the
fir kind, and where they were but thinly
fcattered, the ground was covered with.
fnow. There were a number of white
fandy beaches, which at a diftance appeared like chalk cliffs : this part of the coafl
runs nearly N. and S. and in a ftrait direction, without the leaft appearance of a
bay or inlet. During* the night, we had
frequent fqualls with fhowers of hail and
fnow, which continued more or lefs the
beft part of the next day. The fqualls were
generally fo heavy, as to oblige us to get
down our top-gallant-yards, and clofe-
reef our top-fails. As the wind continued
fo long to the weftward, and fo frefh with-
ah (   .i»S    )
al, Pwe could do nothing more than fland
off and on, which plan we continued till
the 15 th, but we fell to leeward confidera-
bly. Our weather was now dark and
cloudy, with a nafty moift atmofphere:
in the afternoon, the wind being more
moderate, we wore fhip, and flood in for
the land again. In the night, we had
light airs and calms. On the 16th, we had
moderate breezes with cloudy weather,
and in the afternoon faw feveral whales.
The 17th, and part of the 18th, were
rainy and difigreeable ; but the 19th was
fine, clear, and pleafant, with a fine little
breeze from the S. S. E. which in the afternoon almoft died away, and in the
courfe of the night fhifted to the northward. We continued however to fland
in for the land, and the next day a hawk
was feen flying round the fhips.
In the night the veffels loft fight of
each other; but the Difcovery firing a
gun, the Refolution anfwered it with a
light.    The next day we had the wind
from v. si
I (   l86' >
from the fouthward, which in the afief-*
noon frefhened up, but towards evening it
became fqually and ra^*y, when it fhifted
to its old corner, W. by N. our latitude
today at noon was 45 deg. 50 min. N.
On jhe 2 2d, we had a fine breeze and
open cloudy weather ; and at half paft
feven faw the land bearing N. by E. ,&£;
eight, we were about twelve leagues froti|
it: our latitude at noon was 47 deg. 20
min. N. .At four in the afternoon, the
fbuthern extreme bearing E. S. E. ~ E,
terminated in a low point, and continued
level as far to the northward as W. by N.
it then became high, and mountainous,
inland, while the fea-coaft was of a moderate height, forming feveral deep bays,
and vallies, with broken land.
The northern extreme bore N. by W.
§ W. and was alfo level, but not fo low
as the fouthern* and had two remarkable
round hills inland; our diftance from the
nearefl fhore was about five-leagues.
til     - '       -■    2f I       At (    «87
|§|^kt fix, the extremes, bore N. by W. and
E. S. E« the northernjfxtrfme about tea
leagues diftant; a high round hill, N. N. E.
and a rock detached from$he main knd,N,
| W. Within this rock the land was broken, and had much the appearance of a
favour. All this jart of the coafl was
well flocked with wood, and afforded the
moft pfpmifing appearance of arry we had
yet feen. At half paft fix we had a heavy
fWell, fetting in upon the land. As our
prater began to grow rather fhort, we were
this day put to an allowance of two quarts
a day per man.
The next day was thick, heavy, rainy,
and difegreeable, with fqualls, on which
account, though the winds blew from the
S. S. W. we flood off from the land.
The 24th, was in general pleafant, but
the 25 th was thick and rainy, with lulls
and fqj|all$ alternately. £t noon, our }a-
titude :t$as 48 deg. 28 min. N. and the
next day we had a very heavy fwell from
the W. S. W. On the 28th, we had open
eloudy weather, but about ten it became
US
1ft i
BL |(    188 )   ■ I      • •
fog;gy, and the fhips loft fight of each
otheift fignallPbelhg made andlanfwered,
they foon afcertained their fituatibn with
refpect to diftance, and the fog clearing away, they refumed theiF^otfrfe together.
Early the next morning, having moderate breezes and fine weather, we thought
we deferied land, fo tacked and flood in
for it. We had a great number of por-
puffes about, which were variegated with
black and white. At half paft nine, we
plainly faw the land upon oufl weather-
bow making very high, with fnow upon
the tops of the hills, and at twelve had
land all round us, our latitude being 49
deg. 28 min. N. We had a fine breeze,
and as there was fome profpedt of finding
a harbour, captain Cook continued to
fland on. At three in the afternoon, we
were about three leagues diftant from it -,
it appeared very woody, and in one part
we defcried an opening, which bid very
fair to fuit our purpofe. Captain Cook
therefore gave orders for bearing away,
and at four we were clofe in fhore, run
ning
/
m ,-.§,-■. .-I (|.^9 ),:.... : ,
ning up what appeared to be a deep found,
having twenty and thirty fathoms of water.
Soon after,  two  or three  canoes, vwith
feveral of the natives on board, put off
and came to the fhips, but at firft kept at
fome diftance,. and addreffed us in a very
harfh and uncouth language, after which
they by degrees came along-fide.   They
were painted red, and fome wore a kind of
garment edged with fur, and faftened^-
crofs the $hoirider£jl&e the New Zealand
hahoos.-   One of them had feveral fkins
fewed  together,  and  thrown  over   his
fhoulders.
The captains gave them feveral things,
fuch as hatchets and nails, but they did
not feem to underftand their ufes, and afterwards they returned to the fhore. This
found appeared to be very extenfive, and
contained many fmall iflands. At feven,
the Refolution let go her anchor in eighty-
four fathom, muddy bottom, and at half
paft, the Difcovery anchored in feventy
fathom.
Early
If
I? nil %
. Early in the morning (Md&dayrjqthfg
tft&ny of the Amjs^cm^ mm& iM to :the
fhips, of whom we parchafed a confider-
ablemember of £>ear, wolf, lynx, arid fea-
beaver f&tns, for which we gave^them
knives, look!iig-gIaffes,^ired cloth^ and
fmall hatchets. They were to aB appear**
ance a miferabkr fet of beings : they were
under the middle fize, and Hfemade, theitf
leg$L being fte?il and a^acles large, which
is protb&bfy occa^Je-iieji by theiofi^iifeteuildly
fitting wi$i their leg^jift^er them. Tfeegg
colpur was fighter tiaan any we had yet
met with, but rendered black bysfilflt and
dirt. Moft of them were ^aubed over
their arm$, face, ang|4ndeed algiofl theil
whole bodies, with red earth. Some of
jfchem had the lower part of ^eyr^facfi
that is from the bottom of the nofe to th§
chin, of a darker colour. Their hair was
long and fhaggy, and powdered as it were,
with the down of birds, and daubed with
the fame colour as their bodies. Their
face was broad, with high-cheek bones,
mouth   -..    ■  '   ., I  IfM ) ^      .:;:
mouth wide, ftofe rather flat, and thek
teeth bad and uneven. Upon their heads
they wore a kind of bonnet, fhaped like
a tin-cover, the top of it flat. Moft of
them had a Tdiid of cloak apparently made
of the bark of a tree, the bottom was or*
namented with a long fringe cotnpofed
of the fame materials as the cloak; jhat
part which furrouftded the neck being
triiamfcd wMi the fur of the fea-beav£r.
Some were clothed with the Ikins
of bears and wolves fewed together.
Their canoes were different from any we
had feen before ; they were wide, writh*
out an out-rigger, and rather pointed at
both ends; when they paddle, they fit
in the bottom. Their paddles were about
five feet long, rather broad in the middle,
and terminating in a long narrow point.
In one or two of their canoes were feveral
women, whom we at firft could fcarcely
diftinguifh from the men, their drefs
being the fame ; but upon a clofer
examination, we found that their faces
wer£
p!I-
gSB
l".JUi
!!#-i '        I I921P\       - :
were not ornamented like thofe of the
men, and that with refpect to flature, they'
were in general fhorter.
There was one article of trade which
fome of thefe people expofed to fale today, that we never faw before in any
country : this was, feveral human fkulls
and dried hands. Some of our feamen
made figns of eating the flefh, which
figns they readily made too, probably
becaufe they faw us do it; and from
this circumftance they were pronounced
to be cannibals, though it is not unlikely
but that we were too hafly in forming
our conjectures.
The matters of both fhips were fent
this morning in fearch of a more fecure
birth for them, this being too open and
expofed ; and the launches were difpatch-
ed to fill fome of our cafks at the firft
convenient watering-place, of which there
appeared to be plenty. -One or two of
the officers went on fhore in quell of
game, but met with nothing hut a rac-
2 coon* m
codri, which they faw fporting on the fide
of a moffy rock, and which they brought
on board. They found the fhore fo encumbered with rocks, and the fallen decaying trunks of trees, which (as well as
the living ones) were fo elofe to each
other, as alm&ft to prevent a perfon from
penetrating to any diftance. In the evening the mailers returned with an account
of a convenient place, with a handy fpot
for watering, but then the entrance was
too narrow to rifque the fhips : they like-
wife found another, at no great diftance
from this, but there was no watering-
place ; fo both were rejected, and it was
agreed that the veffels fhould next day
be removed to a cove, not far from the
fpot where they then lay; and as the fhore
was fteep-to, and no danger could happen in confequence of rocks or fhoal-
water, they were to be fecured to the
trees on fhore by hawfers.   5"
Tuefday (31ft), the greateft part of
this day was fpent in moving the fhips jn-
Vol. L O. to ;
lllll
( 194 )
to the before mentioned cove, and fecuf-*
ing them. In the morning the natives
came, as yefterday, to traffic with us, but
they were not fo well fupplied. The
news of our arrival in this place feemed
to have fpread a good deal, for feveral
canoes from more diftant parts vifited us
to-day, and brought a large flock of furs,
moft of which we bought at an eafy rate.
They were very fond of brafs buttons,
pieces of copper and brafs, particularly if
bright, and pewter and tin, which they
converted into bracelets, being very fond
of fhew. Their hair was generally parted
on the top of their heads, and when
fprinkled or powdered with the down of
birds is deemed full dreffed. Thefe people make ufe of bone pata-patows, nearly
of the fame form as thofe of New Zealand, but rather longer and narrower;
thefe they ornament with carved wOrk,
Their language proved very difficult for
11s to learn,'being rough and harfh, and
abounds with confonants, particularly ty s9
and k. H (    *95    )
Wednefday, April ift. This morning
a wooding-party were fent on fhore, and
the aftronomers obfervatories and inflru-
ments were erected upon a rock, not far
from the fhips, which was called the Aftronomers Rock. In the afternoon boats
were difpatched for the purpofe of finding fpruce, to brew for the fhip's company; they returned in the evening with
feveral kinds, though none of them the
right American fpruce. This afternoon
there was a little difturbance amongft the
Indians : one of them had been guilty of
fome offence, upon.which the chief of the
party ordered all the canoes on fhore ;
the criminal was taken out, and fix of the
people flripped themfelves, and gave him
a good beating, his goods were handed to
him, and he was defired to come there no
more, m E
We purchafed a few fifh and mufcles
to-day, which proved very good. This
being an article that we wifhed to encourage them to bring, we gave a good
O 2 price
/ (    *96    1
r
price for, and afterwards fcarce eve
wanted fifh. We found ourfelves not a
little difappointed at the very fcanty fup-
ply of game this place afforded. Before
our arrival, every one was employed in
getitng his fowling-piece in order, and
gettiing bullets, as we fully expected to
meet with plenty of hares and deer ; but,,
fo far from that, we fcarce faw a fingleduck*
Thurfday 2d. A new party of Indians,
in four canoes, arrived this morning, who
before they began to trade, entertained us
with one of their fongs and dances.
One of them got up and danced, at the
the fame time ringing, while feveral
others beat time with their paddles againft
the fide of their canoes, and at a particular
inftant they all joined with him in a
kind of chorus.
This continued for the fpace of fifteen
or twenty minutes, after which they came
alongfide, and we bought variety of fkins,f
particularly  rome of the fpotted  lynx,,
which were very beautiful,
Friday'' R- ■  € I97 • )  - li  .
Friday 3d. The brewers, wooders, and
Waterers, were very bufily employed on
Chore, in their feveral departments. The
water was exceeding good. Several fhoot-
|ng parties were out to-day, but returned
without any kind of fuccefs, having feen
only a fhag or two, a few gulls, and here
and there a fmall flock of plovers upon the
rocks, all which were fo fhy as not to
come within reach of their guns..
Saturday 4th. About ten tBSs morning
we were alarmed by an unaccountable up-
foar amongft the Indians, who were pad-
ling about in flrange confufion, and talking with more than ordinary vehemence.
After fome altercation they proceeded tO;
the place where the Refolution's people
were wooding and watering, and fome
began to collect Hones with great eage
nefs, whilft others ran into the woods and
pulled down the branches of trees, which
they formed into fpears. This appearance alarmed all our parties on fhore, who
foon after hailed the fhips for arms, which
O  3 were
s» I
*m
iv&al,
Hi
"■  i''    ( I?8 y
were immediately fent, and they drew
themfelves up in the beft order they
could. The obfervatories were guarded by
a party armed with mufquets and cutlaffes,
and thofe on board were equally diligent
in fecuring arms and pointing the great
guns to the fpot where they were aflem-
bled ; for we expected that they intended
to attack the fhips, as well as our parties
on fhore.
They obferved us arming, and gave us
to underftand that they did not mean to
moleft us, but that a ftrong party of their
enemies were coming to attack them.
After a fhort confultation, they threw
away their flones, hauled their canoes
upon the fhore, and prepared themfelves
for battle, getting their fpears in order,
and wetting the handles that they might
grafp them the firmer. Soon after the
enemy appeared, confifting of fourteen
large canoes filled with people : at fight
of the fhips they flopped, and appeared
at a  lofs  in. what manner  to  proceed.
They '        /'     (   J99   ) / i
They debated fome time, and at laft
difpatched a canoe to our party, and a
warm difpute was carried on for fome time
on both fides. It appeared evident, that
nothing prevented their falling upon our
friends but the fhips, which they apprehended would interfere in the difpute.
Things continued in this ftate near twp
hours, when both parties, after a deal of
menacing, agreed to make up matters for
the prefent, and thus the affair ended.
Sunday 5th. ,About feven this morning we expected the two parties would
engage : challenges were given on both
fides, they jhrew flones, brandiflied their
fpears, and advanced with their canoes towards each other, as if coming to immediate action, when the chief of our party
evidently in a paffion got up and made a.
fpeech. The enemy repeated th§ chal*
lenge (which they gave in a rude fmging
manner, accompanied by all the people,
who likewife beat time as it were againft
the fides of the canoes with their pad-,
P 4 1    dies),
m 39
dies),   fhook their fpears, and went off
in triumph.
We had a little buftle to-day alongfide
the fhips ; one of the natives ftole a bearV
fkin out of a canoe, whilft the owner's
back was turned, who foon after miffed
it, and charged the perfon who was in the
next canoe with the theft, and who in fact
really did take it. He denied the charge
however, and the other flill perfifted in
his accufation, and began to fearch for it:
the thief upon this took up his paddle,
and ftruck the other over the head, which
made the blood run pretty freely: the
other fnatched up a kind of kn^fe (which
they ufually carry with them), made a
ftroke, and cut one of his fingers nearly
off; upon this parties were formed on
both fides, and after much altercation the
affair ended.      |K|
Monday 6th.   The natives to-day fup-
plied us plentifully with fifh ;   we  alfo
bought near twenty gallons of train-oil,
and a quantity of blubber,  and feveral
R bales bales of fifh dried in fmoke, which eat
much like our red-herrings. The Refo-
lution's fore-mail, upon examination,
proved fo bad, that captain Cook thought
it neceffary to get it out to repair.
Tuefday 7th. The weather which had
hitherto been fine, clear, and pleafant, was
to-day cloudy and foggy, and appeared
very inclinable to change ; we had like-
wife but few canoes about us. The beft
part of the day was employed in getting
out the Refolution's mall, which, with the
afliftance of moft of the Difcovery's hands,
and a great deal of trouble, was at laft
effected. In the courfe of the night we
had feveral heavy fqualls from the eaftward, and the whole of the next day was
very rainy, and the wind at times blew
a perfect hurricane. Not a canoe came
near us the whole day. In the evening
the fqualls were fo violent and inceffant,
that we were under fome apprehenfion
left the Difcovery's cable and hawfers
.fhould part : .with much difficulty her
M ;i: fmall- II MB
(      202      )
fmall-bower-anchor was carried out, which
fecured her effectually.
Thurfday 9th. In the courfe of the
fqualls laft night, the Refolution fprung
her mizen-maft, which therefore was
obliged to be got out, and a new one
placed in its room. We were fortunate
in being at a place where all fizes of
them could be procured, and with very
little trouble. Several fkulls and hands
were purchafed to-day as curiofities, and
we bought plenty of fifh, but fkins of
"every kind were become fcarce.
Friday 'ioth. From this day to the
16 th, nothing occurred worth mentioning.
The weather was very unfettled, being
fometimes rainy, at other times foggy, and
always cloudy. Three new canoes arrived, laden with various articles and fame
good furs, which were purchafed much
cheaper than any we had yet bought,
Thurfday 16th. The weather now beT
gan to alter for the better. ?The Refo-
lution's   people   were   bufily   employed
in (   203   )
in getting out the mizen-maft, forming
the new one, and getting the fore-maft
alongfide. We had many canoes, with
Indians about us, with whom we trafficked for fifh and train-oil ; but fometimes they were cunning enough to cheat
us, by filling up the bladders in which it
was generally contained, with water, and
now and then we found in fome nothing
but water.
Several of their women were alongfide
to-day, who varied in no one particular
from the men in their drefs. Thefe we
were given to underftand, were quite at
the fervice of any body who would pay
them handfomely; but they met with few
cuftomers, as the fair ones were both old
and ugly.
From the 17th to the 2 2d, the weather
was fine and pleafant, and all hands were
bufy in their feveral departments. ^
Captain Cook in his pinnace, attended by the Difcovery's cutter, went up
the found to make his obfervations up-
m on . '" - 1 2°4 )
on the different parts of it. In the courfe
of his excurfion, he difcovered two of
their towns (one at a good diftance from
the other), at both of which he landed,
and experienced very civil treatment fromt
the natives. Their houfes were very indifferent, built of wood, and flunk abominably of fifh, vafl numbers of which
were hung up to dry in every part of
them.
On Tuefday the 21ft, the Refolution's
new mizen-maft was got in, and the next
inojrging a fleet of fourteen canoes arrived from the fouth point of the cove.
They advanced with great order and regularity, finging to the time of their pad-r
dies, the ftroke of which they accompanied with a fmall bundle of fcallop-
fhells, the noifef of which rendered the
whole not unpleafant. One of the canoes, which appeared to be the principal
one, and was very large and painted,
preceded the reft, and paraded backwards
and forwards before the fhips in a curious
4 manner. (
205
manner. After this piece of ceremony
was ended, they divided into two parties, one going to the Refolution, the
Other to the Difcovery, and a trade was
opened on both fides, but they fet a high
price upon their goods.
Thefe people wene very flout; fome
of their heads were ornamented with*
feathers tied upon a fmall twig of a tree,
and ftuek in their hair ; fome wore a kind
of necklace, and others were decorated
with the green boughs- of trees. Moft of
their faces were painted red, and fome all
over theaP bodies ; their clothing varied?
but tittle from what we had feen before,
except one who wore a large fkin, apparently that of the elk, with the hair off,
and ornamented with various figures in
bl
CtC K~
At vi&Rf'ln the morning, the captain-^]
again viftted the firft of the Indian towns,
which lies near the entrance of the harbour, wheie "they were as well received a$
yefttrday.    It eonfifted of two rows of
houfe (
206   }
houfes, very ill built, and admitting both
wind and rain ; the flench was very
difagreeable, and might be fmelt at fome
diftance. Their furniture confifted of a
few bafkets and boxes, in which they put
their fifhing-tackle, &c. the remaining
part of the houfe being ornamented with
rows of dried fifh. Upon the beech wer^
ninety-four canoes, and the number of inhabitants were computed to be about four
hundred.
In the afternoon, one of the fervants of
the Refolution's gun-room, from fome
provocation received from one of the natives, wounded him in the upper part of
his arm : the Indian was greatly enraged,
quitted the fhip, and went into his canoe,
where he made^a long harangue, and
threatened very hard. The affair was not
enquired into, and the man, though pof-
fibly very deferving of it, was not punifhed.
.^thurfday 23 d. We were now employed in bending our fails, and getting all
ready for fea.    The Indians for feveral
days '§" '       '    (   207   ) ,
days paft brought very fine fpring onions,
Which we very gladly bought, and they
afterwards fupplied us fo well with them,
that almoft every one in the fhips fecured
& fea flock.
Friday jz4th. About feven in the evening, juft as it became dark, feven large
Canoes came roilnd the jorthjx>int of
the cove. As the time of night was rather unfeafonable, and we had fome little
reafon, in confequence of the affair which
happened on Wednefday, to fuppofe they
intended fome foul play, we got under
arms. We might however have faved
ourfelves the trouble, for they offered not
the leaft infult, and foon after came
alongfide, and began to trade. They were
well laden with fkins, particularly beaver,
and were well armed.
Saturday 25 th. At feven in the morning, the Difcovery got up her ftream-
anchor. The Indians who arrived laft
night, departed about ten this morning,
after entertaining us for fome time with
feveral
'If (     2°$  )      '
feveral of their fongs, which differed but
little from thofe mentioned before, except
that one of them danced in an antic manner, and wore a mafk which, he varied
feveral times during the performance.
The next day (26th), the weather began to affurne its old appearance, and
the hills were overhung with fogs. At
two in the afternoon, the Refolution-
loofed her hawfers, got up her anchor,
and with the affiftance of her boats was
towed out of the cove; the. Difcovery
followed foon after, and captain Cook, as
there was but little wind, began to doubt
of clearing the harbour that night, and at
firft feemed inclinable to fland in for a
bay which was fituated near the town, but
a little after a fine breeze fprung up, which
he was determined to make the moft of,
fo both veffels fpread all their fails, and
made the beft of their way out.
CHAP. (   209   )
CHAP.     XIV.
Account of King George| Sound—produce-
animals—inhabitants—temper—drefs—
houfes—food—cookery— manufactures—
canoes —fifhing-tackle—weapons — language.
KING George's Sound is fituated
on the N. W. coafl of America,
and is extenfive ; that part of it where the
fhips lay, and which we called Ship-Cove,
is in latitude 49 deg. 36 min. N. and longitude 233 deg. 28 min. E. The whole
found is furrounded by high land, which
in fome places appears very broken and
rugged, and is in general covered with
wood to the very top.
It is well fupplied with runs of water,
and wood may be procured without any
difficulty, as well as mails of any fize,.for
the trees grow remarkably tall ajnd ftrait.
The moft prevailing ones are fir of feveral
Vol. I. P fpecies,
mm
mmum (
2IO
fpecies, yew, and arbor vitce ; the others
are birch, maple, poplar, willow, and elder. Of fhrubs there are currant, goofe-
berry, and rofe-trees, march ciftus, rafp-
berries, whortle-berries, and brambles.
The plants are much the fame as in our
of the world, fuch as plantain, dock,
cudweed, fumitory, eye-bright, faxi-
frage, nettles, and violets. The foil is
rich and loamy inland, but as you approach the fhore it becomes mdre light
and fandy.
The only living quadrupeds we-faw,
Were fquirrek and raccoons ; ttefe wMch
^we faw fkins of, were the hear, wolf, deer,,
elk, lynx:i6r wild cat, rbx,fea-beaver, and
'otter. The birds are eagles, hawks, ravens,
crows, woodpeckers, crefted jays, thrufh-
es, a fmall beautiful fpecies of humming-
hird, plQvers, ducks, fhags, and gulls.
We faw no great variety of fifh ; what
we purchafed, were chiefly of the roach
and dace kind, and a fmall fifti very Hke
an anchovy.    The only fhell-fifh we ob~
ferved^
■Ml (
21 I
ferved, were mufcles, which were very
plentiful among the rocks.
The tides in. the cove were regular in
their ebb and flow: at the full and change
of the moon it was high water at twenty-
fix minutes after mid-day ; its flow then
was eight feet and half. Befides this flow
of the tides, we obferved an irregular
kind of outfet down the cove, which muft
have been occafioned either by the melting of the fnow, or the rain which fell very
plentifully at times, and confequently cauf-
ed a more than ufual overflow.
The nien, as has been before mentioned,
are in general below the middle fize, but
frequently we faw among them fome fix
feet high, and flout in proportion, but
they are all badly made about the legs.
Their colour has a ftrong tinge of the
copper, but it is fo hid by dirt and filth
as not to be difcerned without fome difficulty. They have but little beards, and
jhe make of their face varies a good deal,
fome being as broad as they are long,
P 2 others
/■\ (     212
others oval, but in all the cheek-bones are
high and prominent.
They were good-natured and friendly,
unlefs provoked; but when affronted
their blood rifes immediately, and their
looks as well as actions plainly fhew that
they would immediately revenge themfelves, if it was in their power. Sometimes they are in terrible paffions, which
is very evident when they make a fpeeeh,
or harangue each other; they foam at
the mouth, and have the ftrangefl geftures
imaginable, and in fact appear like perfect madmen.
Their hair is long and fhaggy, and
naturally black, but fo bedaubed with red-
earth, greafe, and dirt, and various other
mixtures, that it is almoft impoffible to
difcover its real colour. The men are
very whimfical in ornamenting their
faces, and every day feems to produce
a new face. When they have a mind to
be particular, they make ufe of a kind
of (lamp, compofed of the fmall twigs of
y| trees, (        2*3        ) ■    ■ x    ■ ;   ,
trees,  and formed according to fancy :
this they dip into the prepared  mixture
of black, red or brown earth, and oil, and
then prefs it upon their face, which leaves
the impreffion behind.    Some black their
face entirely,   and  then   fprinkle   fmall
particles of white or black  talc (which
they have here in abundance) upon it;
others make one half of their face black
and the other red ; in fhort, there is no end
to  their  fancy.     One of their greateft
beaux frequently was on board the fhips ;
and in order to obferve the manner of
painting their faces, a looking-glafs was
fhewn him ;  which he no fooner found
the ufe of than he fet down to drefs his
face, which employed him full two hours;
for he no fooner put on one face than he
difliked it, and demolifhed the whole, and
continued rubbing out and painting, till
he made one that pleafed him.
They frequently make a hole through
the griftle of the nofe, in which they wear
fmall pieces of copper or brafs fufpended
p 3 r   ^S*7
ill
lllil .'§(    2lj,    )     ;
by a thread, and fometimes they fill the
orifice with fifties bones.*
Upon their heads they wear a kind of
bonnet of a very compact texture, from
the top of which hangs a taffel made of
leather; thefe bonnets are fometimes
made with a round globular top, but in
general flat. They are frequently painted or ftained, in a rude though ingenious
manner, with the form of fome large fifh
refembling a whale, purfued by feveral
canoes, and a man in one of them in the
aft of ftriking him.
Round their flioulders they wear a kind
of cloak, made of the interior bark of the
fir-tree, and formed or wove in the fame
manner as fome of the New Zealand ha-
hoos :  the bottom is generally fringed,
and the neck part trimmed witfy the fur
of the  rea-beaver.    Some of them  are
made of the-kair of an animal which re-
fembles  wool, but how or where they
7 j
procured it, we could never learn.   They
likewife wear a kind of fhort petticoat
compofed I   2l$
coinpofed of the fame materials as the
cloak, and both fometimes ornamented
wTith an embroidered border.
The men alfo frequently clothe themfelves in the fkins of beafls, particularly
the bear, wolf, and fea-beaver, and fome
have the fkin of a large animal, which we
fuppofed to be that of the elk or moofe-
deer, and exceedingly well tanned and
dreffed, fomething like our buckfkin, but
much thicker.
Their ornaments are bracelets, made of
horn, or copper ; necklaces, made of fifh-
bones, and lengths of platted hair and
leather, which they wear upon their ancles and wrifts, and fometimes upon both.
They have alfo a method of marking or
tattowing themfelves, feveral inflances of
which we faw; this was upon the arm,
and generally was the form of a large fifh,
much refembling that upon their bpn-
nets. qjj|
The women are clothed nearly the fame
as the men, but their faces are not daubed
P   4 or
mm
:
1
5* 21 6
)
or painted of different colours, tnbugh
pretty well befmeared with dirt, and they
are not poffeffed of the fragrance of the
rofe. Notwithftanding thefe circum-
ftances, fome few of our gentlemen got
the better of their feelings, fo far as to
admit them to their bed, in which cafe
the poor creatures always underwent the
ceremony of the mop and pail, and their
hair was as well combed as time would
permit; for it is natural to fuppofe that
fuch a load of filth muft harbour many
very difagreeable companions.
It was a prevailing opinion, that the
women brought on this occafion, were not
of their own tribe, but belonging to fome
other, which they had overcome in battle. What led us to fuppofe fo, was the
different treatment which was obferved
between thefe and thofe who were not
expofed in this manner. The former
were mute, did not dare to look up, appeared quite Rejected, and were totally under the command of thofe who brought
'0: them; I   217  .)
them j the latter on the contrary were as
full of converfation as the men, behaved
with eafe, and (comparatively fpeaking)
evidently were under no kind of con-
troul. PI
The houfes or habitations of thefe people, are built of wood, and are cold, filthy, and flinking. The roof is nearly
flat, and covered with planks, which they
can move as occafion requires. They
are placed fo loofely, and at fuch a diftance from each other as to admit the
wind and rain with great freedom; the
fides are not much more compactly put
together, fo that they afford but little
warmth. At a fmall diftance from the
houfes a number of poles, with others
tied acrofs, were erected, which feemed to
be for the purpofe of drying fifh, and
whale's flefh ; and in the front of moft
of the houfes was part of the trunk of a
very large tree elevated upon polls, which
muft have occafioned them immenfe labour and pains to raife up in this man-
tm ner: •■'..('    218     )
ner; this we could never learn the ufe
of       , '   .      :   ;
Their furniture has been mentioned
before, but at the upper end (if fuch a
diftinction can properly be made) of fome.
houfes, were placed two large -carved
pieces of wood, refembling a mo nitrous
face. Some were of opinion that thefe
were what they paid fome degree of fu-
perftitious refpect to, but as we never
faw an inftance of it, it can be but conjecture.
Their food confifts of blubber, frefh
and dried fifh, niufcles, which they have
in great abundance, dried whale's flefh,
the roes of fifh dried, and roots of different kinds, particularly of a fpecies of
fern, which has a fweetifh tafte. They
boil their fifh in wooden troughs, into
which they put a conftant fucceffion of
red-hot flones, and by that means keep
the water fimmering till they are fuf-
ficiently done. Their drink is water
and  train-oil,   and   in   the   latter   they
frequently .:  ( 2i9 )
frequently  dip their dried mufcles and
fifh. "€ '.     1 J
The interior bark of the fir-tree, is
what they manufacture their cloaks of,
in general. After it is dry, they beat it
with a bone-inflrument, which has grooves
in it on one fide, fomething like thofe of
the Society Ifles, till the fibres are fuf-
ficiently feparated, after which it is fit for
ufe.
The boxes' and chefts which thefe people make are fometimes very large, and
ornamented with human teeth and carved
work ; at the latter they are very clever
; and ingenious; we purchafed of them
variety of images in different attitudes,
but they principally excel in their imitations of the heads of animals, and the
human face, fome of which are by no
means contemptible. Ip
Their canoes are of various fizes ; the
largeft being capacious enough to contain
fifty people, the fmalleft three. The
principal ones are ornamented at the head
and (      220      )
and flern with human teeth placed in
various forms, and their fides with the
figures of beafts and large fifh, rudely
painted in white. They are apparently
made out of one tree, but the upper part
of the head and flern are feparate pieces,
and tied on by cords, made of the twifted
bark of the fir-tree. They are very dexterous in managing thefe canoes, and
keep very exact time with their paddles
which are about five feet long, the blade
and pointed extremity being near two
thirds of the wThole.
We faw fcarce any tools amongft them
except knives, which were of a femi-
circular form, and badly made, but it is
evident that they muft have others from
the manner in which they carve.
Thefe people are very ingenious in
making calls to imitate the notes of different birds and animals, by which means
they take great numbers ; they likewife
make ufe of whalebone fpringes, like thofe
ufed with us to catch fnipes.    Amongft
other Other articles of trade, they frequently
brought birds of feveral kinds for fale,
particularly a beautiful fpecies of humming-bird, and a bird of the fnipe kind,
and it is not improbable but fome of them
were caught in this manner.     • .'-' ;*
Their fifhing-tackle is of feveral kinds.
That which they ufe in killing the whale,
is fometimes compofed of bone, and fometimes of fhell. That of bone is about fix
inches in length, very fharp at the end,
and furnifhed with two barbs, one above
the other: the upper end of this is fo
contrived, by means of a focket, as to fix
upon a rod or -pole about ten feet in
length ; this rod is forked at the end, fo
that two of the pieces of bone are to be
fixed on at the fame time. To that extremity of the bone, which is placed upon
the pole, is tied a long and very ftrong
rope, at the end of which is fixed a feal-
fkin blown up. j The animal is no fooner
ftruck than the bone flips out of the focket, and remains fixed in its body, and the
feal- (      222      }
feal-fkin prevents it from keeping long
under water, when they purfue it, and foon
pierce it to death with their fpears. The
others are made of mufcle-fhells, ground
very fharp at the fide as; well as point,
and are exactly upon the fame plan as
the others.
Their fifh-hooks are made of bone,
with a very fharp and barbed point; their
ufual bait are mufcles. Their method of
catching fmall fifh is by means of a kind
of grate, made of fmall pieces of wood
tied together ; this, they place in the narrow flreams or inlets about the time of
high water ; all the fifh which were between this and the fea muft of courfe be
left behind at low water.
The weapons ufed by them, are fpears,
pata-patows, and bows and arrows. The
fpears are of different lengths, and pointed with bone ; the pata-patows are made
fome of wood and others of ftone, and
nearly of the Tame form as thofe of New
Zealand.   Their bows are about four feet
and .(   223   )
and half in length, made of yew, and
rather round in the middle, from whence
they encreafe in width and become flat,
gradually tapering to a point : the firing
is made of twifted-gut. The arrows are
near three feet in length, and feathered
at one end, the other fi fometimes pointed
with bone, fometimes with copper, and
frequently with mufcle-fhell, but always
barbed.
Thefe people were very fond of pieces
of brafs, copper, tin, and.pewter, particularly if bright, and formed fo as to
make bracelets : even buttons were good
trade ; thefe they tied with a piece of
firing and put round their wrifts. Iron
did not appear to be much valued, though
they very readily took it; it is certain that
they muft have fome way of procuring it,
and probably from the fouthward towards
California, for they had a number of
knives of different fizes, but all made
very badly, and in a femicircular form.   .
One
cf*n9*
vltfriRa "'  I    (    224    )
One day when trade was going on
along-fide the Refolution, the natives offered two filver fpoons to fale, which were
immediately purchafed and given to captain Cook : they appeared to be of a very
old make, and were fomewhat different
from our's in form. We were not able
to learn from whence they had them,
but this circumftance favours our belief
of their having connexions to the fouth-
ward.
Their language is harfh and difagree-
able; an idea may be formed of it from
the following vocabulary.
A.
AaN 'taob
Bone of any kind.
A'chi-lfk
What does he fay ?
f" A kind of wool, of which
Acho-chomer
< fome of their  cloaks were
Lmade.
Achock luk
What is this ?
A ck-amumpts
Grafs.
A'haa
That.     -
Ahav-ahah
To breathe.
A'ilah A'llah '*
AlleN-famah
Alon-ivxfoop
Ama m-nultz
An-ama
Aow-co omer
Aow-watli nna
A pfoop
Apuck-fama
Ark-aNkqua
Afh-po\>ner
ANfh-lufe
As -luctz
A*wex-amus
(     22S    )
SLook  this way.   This  h
made ufe of, when fpeak-
ing to any one  and  they
do not hear.
Cold;
To tie a knot.
A fifh of the herring-kind.
The nipple.
The image of a man.
An eagle.
The hair.
The beard.
To cut.
The currant-bum.
The face.
The lip. ;§f
The cheek.
Caflk    .   §. .   .
CauNts-hock
Cheche-anacoo ma
Cheche-c heah
Chev-cletz
Clul-ahak
ChinwNnney
Chetox-eltz
Choap
ClaNh-afheet    .
Vol. L
The eye.
Clothing,    t
The fingers.
The teeth.
A balket. gg
The nails.
A fifh-hook.
C A weapon refembling a New
I    Zealand patow.
The tongue.
To get up.
Ct Claclack- (     226     )
CIahclack-to\na
The foot.
Cla^umiz
Train-oil.
ClaNt-war
To paddle.
Clay-whamiz
The clouds.
C'lecletz     t
f Tp ihoot an arrow or fire
I    a gun-    '.J|   '   •
Clyo mi
Give me fomething more.
Co-conixo
The hand.
Co-os
A man.
Cor
Shew it me.
Co-tio
A fword or knife.
F
£W
Fifh of any kind.
E'mick       ;||:
Fire.
Enifb or Nos
The (ky.
En-oomer
To fuck.
E -oomer
, To eat.
Etch-aNttow
A fpear.
Etts-auk
Wood.          "...     |L    |
£tts-muNcket
The root of the fern-plant.
-     H.               ■ ,.  '-•
H ack-onek
A box.
ffaiyea
A fnake.
How-whilk
Friend.
1 fuck
Jah^rfimer
I.
Onions.
A racoon*
h\. £$f
JaVput*
A canoe.
Jah-poaks
Copper, or brafs j
K.
ttah-a nne
A crow.
Kats-kahmany
A butterfly.
KleVhock
A bear-fkina
Kom-metcha
To hop.
Kom-mu'ttle fheet
To run.
KoNos-hinne
A raven.
Kovfha    ■ ;|  ■•
Smoak.
Ko w-iltz
Tofteal.
Ko w-weeb
The elder-tree.
{La la-leach
Luk-fheet
Mavki-lifa
A bow-ftririg
Maa-Wok
Trade or barter.
MoakYa
A ftbfiev
Mooftaxtte
A bow.
Mu m*mowt
A to-wtf*
h.   ;
Na^h-heir
Give me,
$ eat- faw
The- nofe.
0,2
t.
To look at.
freffe water
M. Oza-mah?
Oku\neltz
O'pultz
0\ibtz
Ow-hapa
Pa^h-pa
Pook-fhleet
Qua-qua*aker
QueMs
Qui, a^rtzik
Sa-aharNty
Sah-finna
Sak-kia
SaWarp
Se-books
Sikexts-fko
Sloot's-mar
So-wah
Tfi-ki^mminy
Ta'x-pleet
(     228     )
Rain.
A cup, bowl, or bafon.
The fun or moon.
A fmall kind of curlew.
A paddle.
The ear.
To blow.
ojr
The fea-beaver.
Snow.
A wolf-fkin.
S.
An arrow.
A humming-bird.
A long.
The chin.
A hat or cap,
A rope.
A wornan.
You.
T.
Iron.
To At down.
Ton- Ton-os
Too-pilfh
Too-quNea
(    229
A boy.
The fea.
A bead or button.
Wah-coNfh
Friendfhip.
We^nah
Strangers.
Whick         ' "
No.
WafTau
Where is.
Their method of counting numbers.
SawN-wak
A>la||^
Catfa
Mb  f
So^cha
KoNpo
I
2
3
4
5
At'la-po
A\la-quafh
Saw'-aquafh
High-ho
Saw-katz *. K-J
1 230 )
CHAP,    XV.
departure from King George's Sound—^the
Refolution fprings a leak—experience
much blowing weather—continue to trace
the coafl—Captain Cook goes onJhore-^L
we difcover Sandwich §ound—and an&
chor there—fome of the Americans make
fheir appearance—defcription of them—*
weigh our anchors and fland on, but the
-weather provmg bad are at night obliged
to let them go again—-more of the natives:
vifit us, tut befiave infblently—'account,
of them—proceed thfougli the Soundr-*
fome account of itf
E got out of the found juft after
dark, fleering nearly a weft courfe,
to get clear of the land, with a fine gale
from the E. S. E. In the courfe of the
night it blew very frefh% and the weather
was dark and rainy: in this fituation the
Refolution fprunk a leak in her flarboards
quarter, which alarmed captain Cook ex-
2 || seemingly (     23I     )
ceedingly at firft, but every one exerting
themfelves, it was fortunately difcovered
and flopped. Having loft fight of the
Difcovery, fhe lay-to till half paft five in
the morning, and having joined her, they
both proceeded together. About ten, the
gale increafed, and became fo violent, that
we took in every fail except the fore-fail,
and foon after balanced the mizen. Towards the afternoon it moderated, and
about five was nearly calm. As the
night approached, the wind again increafed with fhowers of rain, which continued almoft the whole, of the next day
(April 28th), with a heavy rolling fea.
The 29th, was cloudy with moderate
gales : our latitude was 51 deg. 56 min.
N. and we paffed a piece of rock-weed.
We now kept about a N. N.'E. courfe,
and the next day faw a feal, and a land
bird of the fnipe kind. May ifl, was
moderate and fair, with a few fhowers of
ha% and our latitude was 54 deg* 43
mn* N»    At half paft feven in the even (      232      )      -|     '        •
ing, we faw the land extending from N.
-f- E. to E. N. E. about fix leagues diftant. Our weather on the 2d was cloudy,
with fhowers of fmall rain; but the
land was very vifible on our flarboard-
fide, appearing very high, and almoft
covered with fnow. It lay in a N. W.
and S. E. direction per compafs, and the
fhore appeared bold*to : we paffed feveral
inlets, which had the appearance of good
harbours. Our latitude at noon was 56
deg. 52 min. N. and we faw a large
flock of geefe.
The-g 3d we paffed running along
fhore, as well as light winds would permit us. At noon, the land bore from S.
77 deg. E. to N. 55 deg. W. and at eight
in the evening, S. 85 deg. E. and N.
44 deg. W. diftant about five leagues.
The weftern extreme appeared as a high
mountain, which proved to be mount St.
Elias, near which captain Bering anchored in 1741. We paffed a great quantity of weed to-day, and faw a feal an4
a whale. (    233   )
The 4th was fine and clear, with light
breezes, which induced us to fland nearer
in for the land. Our latitude was 58
deg. 21 min. N. and longitude 220 deg.
36 E. we faw a great number of feals
and feveral whales, with innumerable
flocks of gulls and brown petrels.
The 5th, 6th, and 7th, were fine and
pleafant, with light winds, and fmooth water, which rendered our approach to Cape
St. Elias very flow. We had now numbers of whales about, and on the 6th, at
three in the afternoon founded, and found
a fliff muddy bottom at the depth of fixty
fathom. From the 8th to the 10th, we
had fcarce any wind. In the evening of
the 9th, we faw land to the weflward of
cape St. Elias, the extremes extending at
eight from S. 84 deg. W. to N. 42
deg. E. ; i
Our latitude on the 10th, was 59 deg.
52 min. N. and at noon the land extended from N. 60 deg. W. to E. by N.
our diftance from. the fhore about three
leagues.
«2tll ■ J|:./  • ■ ( 234 >
leagues. We had light airs and calms almoft throughout the next day, till towards evening, when a fine breeze fprung
up from the eaftward. During the calm,
captain Cook ordered 0ut a boat, and
went on fhore at the neareft place, which
was an ffland not above a league from
us. He faw a red fox, which made off
as foon as it faw him. Whilft he was
abfent, we foundcM two or three times,
and found a muddy bottom at thirty
fathom; In the evening we faw mkny
feals in pairs. |§|
The 12th was heavy and cloudy, with
a breeze from the eaftward. At five in
the morning, we faw the appearance of
an inlet bearing N. \ E. and at feven
founded, and got ground at fifty-three
fathom, muddy bottom, about fix or feven
leagues off fhore. At eight 'we bore
away, keeping a S. W. courfe, when that
point of it fet at five, bore N. by E. §
E. At noon, we difcovered another open*
ing,  the eaftermoft part of which bore
4tje (   235
due W. our latitude being 59 deg. 54 min.
N. At half paft twelve we bore away
for this opening ; at three, the weather
became hazy and foggy, with fmall
drizzling rain, and atfour the Refolution
hauled up to N. N. E. for a deep bay on
the eaftern ficte of the opening, which
formed a cape by the falling back of the
land; this cape was named Cape Hin-
cKnbrook,, At five, our foundings were
from five to nine fathoms, and at fix we
anchored in twelve fathom, muddy bottom. The harbour in which we lay, appeared to be furrounded in every direction
by land, which was much higher than
at King George's Sound, and more covered with fhow. The fhore was compofed almoft entirely of rocks, nearly
perpendicular, but of no very great height^
with here anrl there a fmall fandy beach.
The trees were of the fame kind as at
the laft plac^ but not fo large or numerous, nor, did they grow up to the tops of
Soon •..' ■   ■■■ (JN6 }   "■■■   i
Soon after we had anchored, a party
were fent in the Refolutidl's pinnace to^
explore the oppofite fide of the bay, and
our feamen on board got out their hooks
and lines, and in a fhort time ■ caught
feveral fine cod-fifhj which proved a per-
fecT: treat. The pinnace hadtfhot been
gone above twenty minutes^SSiffire tne^
defcried' twofMiioes wifil^eair^ thirty
Aineri&&ns in them, paddling* towards
hefX -CFpetaS^hiscthey p^led back towards
the fhips, aiid the canoes followed#feme
diftanq&l When they arrived^ttty nfear
the fhips, {they began a 9$&& of fong,
fomething J&emblirig thofe of the ii§tivel|c
of King George's Soun^ at the fame
tirfe paddling round the fhipsr this done,
they^dvan#d nearer, but could not be
perfi#ded t©~come alongfide. They werif
a better lccfeng people man the laft, and
were fat and jolty, as if they lived well.
Some were clothed with fkins of birds
fewed togethelr, and made like a fhirt,
others had the fkins of beaftslciadi in the
4     fame wjsb& \&i.
<7^Jj&<2i&£ f£B\
A JS^ative-
£?tf/an^fn^im/ QjtKtridi
JO'u&fisfiiZ 2)ecri4i.j&i &y (rJloiinsen.
m.
Ill
Iliifi
'fc,B
1111
Miii
iii  <      :      (   237   )
fame form. Two had caps on their
heads, nearly the fame as at the other
place : moft of their faces were 'daubed
with red earth, and one had half his face
black. j
Their canoes were conftru&ed upon a
different plan from thofe of King George's
Sound, they were much broader and apparently more commodious. They con-
fifted of a frame, which was covered
with the lkin of fome large fifh,
brought over the fides, and was then
braced very tight, and fattened in the in-
fide of the canoe: their paddles were
roughly made, were very light and- differently fhaped from the laft, not ending
in that long point.'' Their language we
did not underftand.
The boat being alongfide, captain
Clerke gave one of them a glafs-bowl,
which pleafed the man fo much that he
pulled off his drefs, which was made of
bird's fkins, and threw it into the boat,
making figns that it fhould be carried on
board. (238   )
board. Another gave one of our pe<k>fef
an arrow, which differed in nothing front
thofe of the laft place, except in being
more clumfily made, and having a deep
divifion at the bone end, for the reception
of a pointed flone, or fome other fub-*
fiance. Thefe people appeared well dif-
pofed, and after a fhort flay departed*
The 13th was very thick, cloudy, an4
hazy, with drizzling rain and fqualls.
At ten we got up our anchors and made
fail. We continued (landing on till four
in the afternoon, when, though we coul^f
fee to no great diftance, we found wg
were furrounded with a number of iflands
or broken land, forming deep founds
iflands, and bays, one of which on the*
eaftern-fide we hauled up for. The?
wind blew in very hard fqualls down the
bay, with fhowers of hail and fleet; and
the weather being very unfettled, and
likely to continue fo, it was deemed moft
prudent to anchor as foon as poffihle*
At five, we were a-breaft of the bay,, acid
carried (   239   )
carried foundings from twenty-five to fix
fathoms, and between eight and nine we
let go our anchors in twelve fathoms,
with a muddy bottom, in the mouth
of a large cove.
In the morning about five, feveral canoes put off, an$ came alongfide the Dif-
cove*y; but feeing only one or two of
our people upon deck (for,as it was early
the reft were not up), they came on
board without afking, and by their behaviour did not appear to be fo well difpofed
as we could have wifhed. They ftole
feveral things in an inftant, and upon being defired to return them, one of them
gulled out a large knife., which he had
beneath his drefs, and feemed by his actions to threaten to kill the firft man that
fhould oppofe him. Another threw; the
rudder of the fmall cutter overboard,
whichlh^^iiBmediately followed, and
made off with. Thefe and feveral other
proceedings; of the like nalure, induced
the captain (who had been juft informed
H§:   .§" of of what had happened) to order all hands
to be called, which was no fooner done,
than upon feeing fuch a number of
people coming upon deck, they all made
off as faft as they could, got into their
canoes, and paddled away.
Thefe   people  vary  in  fome  things
from thofe we faw the day before yefler-
day.    Their drefs was made of the guts
of fifh fewed together, with fleeves down
to  their  wrifts ;   under  this  they  had
jackets made of the fkins of beafls.  They
had caps on their heads like the laft Indians, and their under lip was cut through
lengthwife;   through this opening they
frequently put their tongue.    Some  of
them had blue beads, and other orna-
ments fixed in this flit, and alfo through
the griftle of the nofe.   They had feveral
fpears, which were all headed with iron;
their knives were near eighteen inches
long, and fhaped fomething like a hanger,  thefe they wore round their necks.
From the circumftance of the headland
iron* I iron, we thoughg.it probable that thef
might by fome means or other have connexions   with   the   Ruffians, who   have
extended their trade an immenfe way.'
Their canoes were covered entirely with
fkins, and a round opening in the middle
where the perfon feats himfelf, and fattens the fkin fo tight round his middle as.
totally to exclude the entrance of water.
Their paddles were about four feet long
and well made.  In the courfe of the day,
the wind "was fo violent that we thought
it neceflary to moor the fhips.
On the 15th, the wind abated greatly,
but the rain continued.     At eleven   in
the morning, feveral of the  Americans
came alongfide in their canoes, and brought
the calumet of peace with them, being
confcious poflibly that they had not behaved properly the day before.  This w^i
the firft inftance we faw of it ;^it was a
flick about four feet long, upon which in
different parts were tied the feathers of
birds, and perfectly anfwered the defcrip-
Vol. I. R tion e
tion given in the Ruffian voyages and
difcoveries.
One of them offered it feveral times ta-
fome of our people who were in the boat
alongfide, but they taking no notice of
him, he at laft threw k into the boat.
Some few had their faces painted, of
rather daubed with red-earth ; and many
wore gloves made of the fkin of animals,
as well as flockings with the hairy fid
inwards.
They had bows and arrow's with them ;
fome of the latter were pointed with copper : we likewife faw a larger kind of arrows or rather darts, fome about five feet,
others between fix and feven feet long.
Thofe of five feet they throw by means
of a piece of wood about a foot long, with
a fmall hollow or groove in the middle^
which receives the dart;   at the bottom
is a hole for the reception of one  finger, which enables them  to   grafp the
piece of wood much firmer, and to throw
with greater force.    They are pointed
with (|243 )
With a piece of bone near four inches
long, which readily takes in and out.
The larger ones are furnifhed with a
bladder and line, and are for the purpofe
of killing the fea-beaver. |
Thefe^ people were fond of blue beads,
for five or fix of which a beaver-fkin
might be purchafed worth ninety or a
hundred dollars.
The next day (May 16th), was rainy
during the whole morning, but in the
afternoon it "became fine and pleafant, and
we had many canoes alongfide trading.
This place abounds with innumerable
flocks of wild fowl, and many fhooting-
parties were out, but they always returned
with 'very little game, occafioned by the
great fliynefs of the birds, which probably are harraffed a good deal by the natives.
$t half paft two the next morning, we
weighed and made fail with a light breeze,
our courfe being about §. W. but we
found ourfelves fo furrounded with land,
R  2 that
TO
III
-    M
liil C    244|}
that we were at a lofe in fome' meafure*
which way to proceed. At eight, our4
foundings were from fifty to fifteen fa*-
thorns at about one mile from fhore, and
from fifteen to five off a clufter of
rocks-.
At eleven, we fhoaled from ten to five-
fathom, and foon after the winds became^
very light, and the weather had an un~
promifing appearance, in confequence of
which captain Cook gave orders to bring,
the fhips to an anchor, as foon as they/
could be" got to U convenient fpot. At
'noon, our latitude was 60 deg. 51 minv
N." and at half paft two we came-to in
nineteen' fathom, a muddy bottom.
The captain having received intelligence from fome of the natives of arc
opening at or near the bottom of the bay'
we now were in, thought it a good op*
portunky to afcertain the truth; of it.'
Soon after, boats from both fhips;
were fent, well-manned and armed, with-
orders to the officers to proceed in difS
S®p feren£ ' H 245 L
ferent directions, and penetrate as fer as
they thought prudent. They returned
in the evening, but discovered nothing
of any confequence.
The next morning at half paft three,
we again weighed and  made fail,   our
courfe being nearly due fouth, but the
wind was fo light that we made poor work
•of it.    We were now Handing acrofs to
the oppofite or weftern fide of this ex-
tenfive found.   At noon, our latitude was
60 deg.  31  min. N. and our longitude
,*about 212 deg. 36 nun. E.    In the afternoon   ab&ut   four,  a  large canoe,  with
feven Americans, overtook .us, and made
figns for  a boat to be got out, and go
^alongfide them, to trade.    This requeft
of theirs was complied with, but nothing
was purchafed except a cap, as they did
aaot appear fond' of our articles of trade,
which confifted of knives,  hatchets, and
beads of different forts.    They varied in
110 refpecl: from thofe we faw on the 16th,.
except having more ornaments in the flit:
R 1 of (    246    )
of their under lip. At five the wind
ihifted, which obliged us to tack ; at half
paft fix our foundings were fifty fathoms,
the bottom coarfe fand, and at ten they
varied from twelve to twenty fathoms. §s
We were obliged to tack frequently in
the night, and proceed with great care
and circumfpection, there being many
rocks feattered in various parts of the
channel we were now entering.
As we went on the next day (May
19th), we faw an incredible number of
whales and feals fporting round us, from
whence we concluded that we were nearly
out of the found, and not far from the fea.
Soon after the weather became thick and
foggy, with fmall rain, and at half pafl;
ten our foundings were twenty-two fathom, muddy bottom. At five in the-
afternoon we founded again, and got
from thirty-three to twenty-one fathom,
and at nine let go our anchors for the
night infttwenty-feyen fathom, about
lh|§! niiles froni the eaftern fhore.
The (    247    )
The next morning was thick and foggy. About ten, a fine little breeze fprung
up from the N. N. E. which both fhips
took the advantage of, weighed their anchors, and made all fail. The beft part
of the afternoon we were Handing through
the channel, and at five, being clear of it,
and again in the open fea, we faw land as
far to the fouth ward as S. 53 deg. | W.
which extreme, at fix, bore S. 7 d eg. W.
Sandwich Sound, fo called by captain
Cook in honour of his lordfhip, is very
large and extenfive. It is formed on
the weftern fide by £ long ifland, which
was called Montagu Ifland, - and is
bounded on the eaftern fide, by the continent, at leaft what we fuppofed to be the
continent, though it is not improbable
but it may be a chain of iflands.
From what little we faw of it, the productions appear to be much the fame as |§
King George's Sound. The foil is deep
^nd black, intermixed in fome places with
ftreaks of blue clay.
R 4   - It mm
•    '   §    248   )
It affords excellent fhelter for all kinds
of water fowl, but they are fhy to a degree. The principal land-birds we faw
were eagles, thrufhes, growfe, owls,
fnipes, and feveral fmaller birds. We
met with no quadrupeds* but frequently
faw the tracks of bears in the fnow.
The inhabitants of this place feem to
form the line of connexion between thofe
of King Georges Sound, and the natives
of Unalafchka, and the other weftern parts
of America     Like the former, they daub
their faces, have the fame  ftrange gef-
tures  (though not  in fo high a degree),
when they make  a fpeech, wear nearly
the fame  caps, and  fome of them are
clothed in the fkins of beafts.    But they
are much more fimilar to the latter ; their;
hair is cut fhort y they have the fame blad-
der-drefs; their canoes are covered with
{kin   in the fame manner; they have a
hole in the under lip, in   which they fix
ornaments, and many of their weapons are
exactly the fame.
WBk   -   ,      III    "I  • CHA P, 249
CHAP. I
Leave Sandwich Sounds and continue to
trace the coafl—difcover the river Turn-
again—tranfaBions during our courfe tip
and down the river—-occurrences during
our run along the coajl till our arrival ii%
Providence Bay.
E had a fine frefh breeze on the
 I twenty-firft,  from the N. W.
which aflifled us greatly, and we continued to trace the coafl, which ran near-
Iv in a S. W. direction. The land was
not fo high as that of Sandwich Sound,
but equally rugged and uneven, and almoft entirely covered with fnow. Our
latitude, at noon, was 59 deg. 30 min.
N. and our longitude 208 deg. 44 min.
E. We paffed much rock-weed, ftraw,
pieces of flicks, and feathers, which moft
likely came from fome inlet or river.
The next day(2 2,d), our breeze changed
to a gale, which handled us very roughly,
and
II
H:ffr
1 and made us clofe-reef our top-fails,but we
ftill kept nearly a S. S. W. courfe, though
at a good diftance from the land. At
eleven we faw more land, bearing S. W.
and at noon were in latitude 58 deg. 23
inin. N. In the afternoon the wind became
more moderate, and at fix we tacked fhip,
and flood to the northward.
The 3d was clear and pleafant, but
rendered cold by the wind which blew off
the land, At half paft ten, being well in
with it, tacked; at noon, our latitude was
59 deg. 9 min. N. The land here formed a confiderable bay, and bid fair for
fome difcovery, which induced captain
Cook to examine it. The whole of the
next day was fpent in turning to windward, and we faw numbers of fhags,
gulls, and puffins.
The weather on the 25th, was pleafant,
with a fine breeze from the N. N. E. our
courfe being N. W. At feven, our foundings were from thirty-two to twenty fathom, with a rocky bottom.   About nine, j
we (    251    ) •      ,
we faw the appearance of a wide inlet,
upon our larboard bow, which we hoped
to derive fome advantage from, and foon
after obferved a large fmoke upon a part
of the land, which had the appearance
of an ifland. At noon, the eaflern part
of this fuppofed ifland bore S. 3 7 deg. E.
abput nine leagues diftant, and the inlet
mentioned above N. N, W. {- W. for
which we were now directing our courfe,
our latitude being 58 deg. 40 min. N. At
three, were Handing through the inlet,
which proved to be a channel through a
clutter of fmall, high, rocky ifles, the
fouthermoft of which was a remarkable
fugar-loaf hill, and round the fides and
top of which innumerable flocks of brown
petrels were flying. This, at half paft
three, bore E. by .S. and the northermoft
ifle bore due north; our diftance from
fhore being a mile and a half, and our
foundings from thirty-fix to feventeen
fathoms. At half paft four, finding we
gould not pafs between the ifles as we at
f"' f f      - - :■*    • firft (
252   )
firft intended, on account of the ebb-tide
which was running very flrong, we bore
away in order to go round the clutter,
the fugar-loaf hill bearing N. 59 deg. E.
and a very high fnowy mountain to the
weftward, which was called Mount St.
Auguftine, N. 75 deg. W. At feven, we
were pretty well in, but difcerned more
land than we expected.
The  next morning  (26th), the wind
chopped round to the north, which was the
very direction we wanted to fleer in: our
courfe now was E. N. E.  and it blew
frefh at times, with a much heavier fea
than could be expected  confidering the
manner in which we were furrounded by
land.    At noon, our latitude was 59 deg.
9 min.  N.  when Mount St. Auguftine
bore N. 84 deg. | W. diftant about nin
or ten leagues.    At five, we were Handing into a bay, which appeared to contain a good harbour ;   but at half paft
fix we tacked and flood out again, our
foundings   being   twenty-three  fathom,
with a bottom of fand and mud.
e Ill;      .   - I   III   I ■
The land which furrounded this bay wa^
high, and had a barren afpect; the bottom was  in many places clothed with
trees, but they were apparently flinted i'n-
their growth;  the middle and tops of
the hills had not a fhrub of any kind upon them, and feemed tabe little elfe than
Jblid rock.    The fnow lay but in fmall
Quantities, owing perhaps to the winds
which at times blow here very violently.
At feven, the Refolution fplit her jib in
a fquaft.
SOn the 27 th, we had thick,- foggy
Weather, with final! drizzling rain, and
.Rght breezes, for the beft part of the
day. At ten, our foundings Were forty
fathoms, with a rd£ky bottom. Soon-
after the wind fhifted, when we fleered ai
N. N. W. courfe, and at five in the afternoon k hauled farther round to*the'" fouth-
Ward. We" were now Handing up a chair-
Bel* which was formed on the eaft-fide by
a track of low level larid, and on the
Weft by high broken land,  making in?
'    .4 ' .        ( 254 )   ;
large lumps, which probably form iflands
At feven our breeze frefhened from the
fouthward, which however proved but
of little ufe to us, as the tide was fo ftrong
that we loft ground confiderably. At
nine, we had light airs and calms ; and
at twelve our foundings were twenty-
three fathoms, the bottom fand and
gravel.
The next morning at two, our foundings were from twenty-fix to thirty-three
fathoms. At five, we found the tide
running fo ftrong as to carry us aftern at
a very confiderable rate; we therefore
thought it neceffary to anchor, and the
Difcovery, having got ground at twenty-
two fathom, a grey fandy bottom, let go
her's, but having neglected to fecure the
cable properly with the dog^ffopper, the
tide carried her fo faft aftern, that had not
thefplice of the other cable been too large
to pafs eafily through the hawfe-hole, in
all probability fhe would have loft both
anchor and cables.    The Refolution was
not (   2$S    ) .'
not fo lucky, having loft her anchor and
cable. After the fhips were fecured, the
log was tried to afcertain the rate of the
tide, which was found to run at the rate
of four miles an hour.
At ten we weighed and made fail, and at
half paft eleven anchored again. The Refolution fent two of her boats to endeavour
to regain her anchor and cable, "but they
did not fucceed. Some time after, we faw
a canoe with two Indians in it making
for the fhips, but the tide prevented their
reaching us. The eaftern fhore feemed to
bev inhabited, as we faw feveral fmoke
and fires upon it, for which reafon captain Cook called it Smoky Cape. At
eight in the evening, having a fine breeze
from the eaftward, both veffels weighed
and made fan, though the tide was at that
time againft us. The tide that fets to the
northward, we foundry a lead and line
to be a flood-tide, a circumftance which
proved unfavourable to our wifhes, as we
were at firft in hopes of finding a paffage
inta ■   (    256    )
into the northern feas, without going any
farther to the weftward.
At five the next morning (May 2gth)|T
wind and tide being againft us, we came-
to in twenty-four fathoms, the bottom
fand arid ftones.    At half paft twelve we
weighed, the tide fettirig to the  north-'
ward, and at fix let go our anchor agairi.
The low land on the eaftern fide had &
fertile appearance, arid was well covered
with trees; it was very level, with here
and there  a fmall eminence, upon the
tops of which was a little fnow, the other
parts being entirely free from it.    Behind this runs a ridge of fnowy mountains.    The  weftern fhore  confifted  of
very irregular fnowy hills ; the norther-
moft  part had a ridge of low land apparently at fome diftance from the hills;
We faw very few birds about, it being
near the breedingfieafon ; how and theri
a porpufs fhewed his back above water.
May 30th, at one in the morning, we
weighed arid made fail.    The tide fetting
to 257   )
to the ; fouthward, ended about three
quarters paft twelve. At three our foundings were from nineteen to twenty-fix
fathom, a faridy bottom, and at four the
north point of the eaftern land bore N*
4 deg. W. At half paft fix, the norther-*
ly tide having run its courfe, we anchored
about five miles from the weftern fhore.
The northern extreme of the eaftern land
now made in a kind of bluff, bearing NL
by W. and feemed to make a curve to the
N. E. the weftern fhore altered its ap*
pearance, and became confiderably lower,
trending towards the eaftern. At noon
our latitude obferved was 60 deg. 37 min.
N. and at one we weighed, and proceeded
up the river, for fuch it appeared to be.
Soon after, two canoes from the eaftern
fhore, with an Indian in each, came alongfide, of whom we bought a fmall fkin<
and a harpoon or dart, like thofe of the
natives of Sandwich Sound. They appeared to be the fame kind of people,
and differed in no one xefped, their ca-
Vol. L V I noes
III!
If
ifi
I
ffll'f Hfly
1 noes too were the fame. At fix, ouf
foundings were from forty-two to thirteen!
fathom, and at eight we let go our anchors in twenty fathom, with a bottom of
yellow clay arid mud. I This tide befriended us greatly, for notwithftanding
we were* turning to windward, and of
courfe obliged to tack frequently, we
made nearly twelve leagues. We were
now about two miles from the weftern
fide of the river, which had a fine and
beautiful appearance, being every where
covered with trees. The fhores now
trended to-the N. W.      "-' '
At three quarters paft one, the next
morning (31ft), the ftream fetting to the
fouthward ended, and at three we got up
our anchors, made fail, and purfued our"
courfe. At fix we had from thirty-twa
to fifteen fathoms, at half paft eight the
tide ended, fetting to the northward, and"
at half paft nin*e we anchored again. Soon
/after, five canoes, viz. two large and three
fmall, with feveral of the natives, wha
had
1 ••'•	 iad for fome time been endeavourine to
o
overtake us, came under our flern ; in each
of the large canoes were fixteen or feven-
teen people, in the fmall ones two. We
purchafed very little of them, as their,
vifit feemed to be the effect of curiofity,
and they were not very willing to trade.
Their drefs was made of the fkins of
fmall animals fewed together, and fur-*
riifhed with fleeves. This animal is
called by the Ruffians, yevrafhka. Their
cheek bones were very high, and one of
them had fome blue beads in the flit of
the under-lip. At firft, the weather was
very thick and hazy, which greatly ob-
ftrudted our vifion; but about noon it
became more clear, and we faw a large
inlet on the eaftern fhore, bearing N. 76
deg. E. which from its fituation may pof-
fibly have fome connexion with Sandwich Sound: the reft of our view was
terminated on all fides by land, fome of
which was  very low,  and nearly on a
S 2 level
itif
II 1 (    26o   5    .- jg
level with the water.    Our latitucfe £<$*
day by account was 61 deg. 12 min. N.
At three, captain Cook fent his and the
tfrifcovery's cutters to explore an opening behind the low land. At four we
weighed and flood nearer in fhore, and
at half paft fix came-to again. Some little time after, feveral Americans, in feven
canoes, put off from the weftern fhore,
and came along-fide. We purchafed
feveral articles in the curiofity-way, fuch
s bows, arrows, fkin-jackets, darts, and
martin fkins. They had a great number
)f blue beads, which they prized very
highly : it is § very probable that the
Ruffians from Ochotfzk and Kamtfchatka
vifit thefe people frequently and regularly,,
on account of the furs, &c. which no doubt
turn to very good account.
Atone in the morning (June iff), the1
cutters returned, with an account of having found an opening to the north eaftward, behind the narrow ridge of land,
into a kind of river or lake ; the broadeft
part (     26l     )
part they were in, was between four and
five leagues acrofs, the narroweft about
two miles. It appeared to extend a con-
fiderahle way, and they had foundings
from fifteen to twenty fathoms, the bottom fand and fmall flones. f||
At four we weighed, and at eight the
Refolution made the fignal for the Difcovery's large cutter, which with their
own were fent to explore the inlet on the
eaftern fhore. Our foundings were from
(even to feventeen fathoms. When we
got up our anchors this morning, we
found from the moft exact ofyfervations
we could make, that the tide had fallen
between twenty-three and twenty-four
feet. At eleven we anchored, and at
half paft, the cutters returned; the wind
and tide were fo much againft tl^em, as to
prevent their entrance; but they faw
enough to convince them that it was
needlefs to attempt any thing farther, as
the land to all appearance joined on all
fides.    Having thus explored this river
•   S 3 as
1
III
:fi (    7.62    )
as far ^s it was poflible to carry the fhin^
nothing now remained, but for us to make
the beft of our way back again. Captaia
Cook called it the River Turnagain. At
half paft two, the cutters with an officer
were fent to take poffeflion of this part
of America, and at four we weighed, but
at feven let e;o our anchors again,
At half paft feven the boats returned ?
they had met with feveral of the natives,
who at firft appeared afraid and retired
among the trees, but afterwards, finding
our people had no intention to hurt them,
they readily came forward. They had
many dogs with them, one of which wa§
bought,and carried on board as a frefh meal,
and two or three pieces of falmon, which
were alfo purchafed. The foiLwas good,
but only about a foot deep, under which
was a bed of cold fand with a fmall mixture of clay: there were abundance of
trees, fuch as willows, birch, poplar, elder,
fir, and many rafpberry, rofe, and currant-
frees.    At half paft eleven, the tide be-
m    * :1  i■',-. "I-■'.!■'■ Hi i     * 26s *   ~; •: ;H
ing favourable, we weighed, and at twelve
the point where the cutters landed, which
was called Point Poffeffion, bore S. E.
| S. our diftance off fhore fix or feven
miles. Qur latitude to-day was 61 deg.
6 min. N. ?||
We came-to at five the next morning,
in feventeen fathoms, fandy bottom
about four miles off fhore, when. Point
Poffeflion bore N. 61 deg. E. Several
of the natives came off to us in their
canoes, of whom we bought bows, arrows, quivers, and various other articles
in the curiofity-way, as alfo ermine, martin, and fox fkins.
P? At half paft ten the tide became favourable, and we weighed, but at two the
Refolution ftruck on a bank with only two
and two and half fathoms of water upon
it, where fhe continued till flood-tide.
The Difcovery immediarely anchored as
per fignal from the Refolution. At fix.
it being nearly high water, fhe hoifted
fier fails and got off, Handing out beyond
S 4 th© ^       -§;' ( 264 )  < ■ .   <
the fhoal, when fhe anchored. Many of
the natives now came to us, of whom we
bought fome excellent frefh falmon, an$
likewife fome large pieces of halibut.
This afforded us a treat which we had
not experienced before for a long time,
and which we now flood rnuch in need
of.
The next morning (June 3d), about
fix, foon after we had anchored, a large
canoe, entirely laden with frefh falmon,
came along-fide ; the whole cargo was
foon bought, and at a very moderate price,
for half a falmon might be purchafedHfer
a nail or button. We alfo bougiit a
bafket full of fmall red berries refembling
currants, which made moft excellent pies.
Weinow for the f)rft time obferved, that
fome of the Americans made ufe of double
paddles, like thofe of the Efquimaux.JS§|
eleven we got up-bur anchors and made
fail, but the wind, whicn, had now Alined
to the fouthward, impeded us in our
progrefs greatly.    About three the Dif- j 265)
covery was near being aground, having
fhoaled her water all at once from feven-
teen to five fathoms, but with the aflifl-
ance of her fmall cutter fhe was towed
into deeper water.
We now went on, anchoring an4
weighing alternately every fix hours,
and the nearer we approached the fea, the
lefs we were affected by the tide. On
$he 5 th, about eleven in the morning,
being near the fpot where the Refolnfcon
Joft her anchor and cable, fhe got out two
of her boats, and endeavoured to recover
them by fweeping, but they failed in their
atterripts, and were obliged to leave both
behilfd. In the afternoon we obferved a
finoke upon the top of a high mountain,
which, with the affiftance of our glaffes,
we plainly faw iffued out of a fmall fif-
fure or opening nqar its fummit. At half
paft feven we anchored, when Mount
St. Auguftine bore S. 60 deg. W. the
yolcano, N. 65 deg. W. and the extremes
of the rocky ifles (which we paffed in
coming
:><# (    266    )
comfag up, and which captain Cook dew
nominated, Barren Ifles, from their defo-
Jate appearance) S. 9 deg. E. to S. 30
deg. E. our diftance ffom the eaftern
fhore being feven miles. At twelve we
weighed for |he laft time in the river, and
made fail with a fine .breeze from the
W. S. W. our pourfg being near S. S. E.
and £L H,
At four the next morning (June 6th),
Mount St. Auguftine bore S. 7 8 deg. W.
.|he volcano N. 34 deg. W. and the weftern
part of the Barren Ifles fouth, our diftance
i off fhore being about three leagues^ At
noon, our latitude was ^S deg, 38 min.
N^and we faw npany^ whales about, one
of which had Lt§ head almoft covered with
barnacle^. About eight in the evening,
duifing a calm intervals one of the Djtf-
cover^r's people faw a large j|ih fwimming
near the fhip's head ; he directly got a
hook and line, and foon after caught
it; whilft he was hauling. it up the
fhip's fide, feveral others made their ap-
pearance. (    267   )
pearance, which were no fooner feen
than almoft every perfon on board prepared their hooks and lines, and in the
fpace of a quarter of an hour, thirteen
were taken, and many more made their
efcape. They were of the halibut kind,
and fome of them were above four feet
in length, and weighed fixty pounds.
This fortunate capture furnifhed us
wi|h another treat, and raifed the fpirits
of every one on board. The Refolution
was rather more lucky than the Difcovery
The next day (June 7th), the weather
"^pame thick and hazy, with light airs
and calms ; which rendered our fituation
irkfome and difagrdeable, as we were exceeding anxious to purfue our courfe with
all expedition, as the feafbn advanced
very fall, and we had an immenfe track
pf land to explore. We faw many birds
to-day, fuch as puffins, guillemots, and
>$trels.
fit! •       .       (    268   ))
Our weather on the Sfh > was cloudy,
with a breeze from the J5. :S. E. oiir
<£Ourfe E. At noon wej:acked, and ftoofl
to the S. W. our latitude being ^j deg.
^4 min. N. a high black hill which ap**
speared to be an ifle, then bore S. 71 deg.
-W. and the fputhermoft land in fight, S%
25 deg. W,
The 9th was thick and hazy^with fmall
drizzling rain, and the wind flill kept in
its old quarter. At half paft five we
tacked fhip, being very near the -land,
which the hazinefs of the weather if prevented our feeing before; the extremes
of it then bom N. by W and W. S. W.
our diftance fronia rocky point about two
miles.
H The 10th and jith were thick and
hazy, which rendered exploring a tedious,
bufinefs, and the wind flill continued unfavourable. Our foundings thefef'two
days were from thirty to fifty-five fa-
thom* with a coarfe, black, fandy bottom.
I. f:        I   ^    We I  269 j
We faWfeveral flocks of ducks, and fome
Curlews ; an indication that we were not
far from land. At five in the afternoon
the fog became fo thick that the fhips loft
fight of each other, but as they fired guns
as fignals to each other, they were fortunate enough not to part company. At ten
the fog clearing away to the weftward
we faw the land bearing W. by S.
The 12j^h and 13 th were fpent in working to windward ; our latitude on the latter day was 56 deg. 49 min.. N. . The
fouthermoft land made in a gentle decline
for a * confiderable way, the northern
on the contrary was very high, forming
hills and mountains, but with very little
fnow even upon the higheft; the whole
prefented a moft barren appearance witlft0
out the leaft verdure. In the afternoon
We* faw fome iflands laying off to the
eaftward.
On the 714th we had open cloudy
weather,* witibnioderate breezes frorn the
S. W. our cpurfe beiog S. S. E.   At three
in
I
m /'•ft*'   C' 27°   )    *'       •
in the morning, our foundings were feven-*
ty-five fathom. At half paft nine, wd
were running along the eaftern fide of
the iflands mentioned yefterday as laying
to the eaftward, at the diftance of about
two miles. They appeared to be a mafs
of folid rock, crufted over in a few places
with mofs, which was the only produce5
of them. Our latitude at noon was 56
deg. 23 min. N. when the extremes of
the iflands bore S. 86 deg. W. and N*
43 deg* W. diftant about three* leagues.
At eight it became hazy, and .we had a
great number of feals, whales, and birds
about, and at ten the wind fliifted to
S. E. by E. our courfe being W. by S.
The next day (June 15th), we had fine
Heady gales from the E. and E. S. E.
with cloudy weather; we made all the
advantage we could of this favourable
change, and fet every fail the fhips could
carry. About noon it became very thick
and hazy, with a fmall continued rain.
At half paft two we faw the land bearing
V       .     ■Ill    N. W.. I 271 )
N. W. by W. about three leagues diftant,
and at three we hauled our wind, keeping
a foutherly courfe. We had a very irregular fea going, and at eight fcarce any
wind. At nine it began to clear up
When we faw a high bluff ifland bearing
\V. S. W. and more land to the weft-
ward, which appeared to be part of the
continent: the former captain Cook called
Foggy Ifland, the latter Foggy Cape ; our
foundings then Were feventy-two fathom,
with a bottom of fand and mud. At
twelve we wore fhip.
Our courfe the next day was S. S. W,
with a fine breeze from the W. N. W„
At two in the morning our foundings
were forty-five fathom, and at three we
faw land bearing S. E. by E. \ E. At four
Foggy Ifland bore S. W. \ W. The
land in this part was very irregular, and
made in many broken points, fome high
and others low, with a good deal of fnow
upon various parts of it. There were
feveral fmall iflands of various fhapes and
fizes at fome diftance from it, one of which
11 was I '        I l272   )    ■     -  -"...
was fomething like a church with two
ipires, and was called Pinnacle Point;
At eight this point bore N. 67 deg. W.
The weather was fo hazy at noon that
we could get no obfervation ; our foundings were fixty-five fathoms.* At three
it became almoft calm, and at four the extremes of the land bore N. 11 deg. W.
and S. 71 deg. W. At eight Pinnacle
Point bore N. 28 deg. W. our diftance
from the fhore about fix leagues.
June 17th, we had light airs and fine
Weather. At four the extremes of the
land bore N. 3 deg. W. and S. 64 deg.
W. and at eight we faw more land to the
fouthward, bearing S. 23 deg- W. At
noon our latitude was ^ deg. 30 min. N.
and longitude 201 deg. 9 min. E. We
faw many fmall ifles in various parts, and
in the afternoon obferved innumerable
floeBs of birds of the diver kind, and
many whales. ||§
The whole of the next day was pleafant, with calm weather till towards the
evening, when a little breeze fprung iip
from ■ (   273   )
from the E. S. E. which on the 19th en->
creafed to a fine gale, our courfe being
W. S> W.    At four  in the  morning a
duller of   ifles,   which in  the Ruffian
voyages   are   called   Schumagin's   Ifles
bore S. 47 deg* W. and the weft point of
the riiain S. 77 deg. W. our diftance off
fhore being about five leagues. Thefe ifles
were in fact nothing but huge rocks, without the leaft appearance of verdure, and
afforded a fine retreat for the water fowl:
the  main  was  almoft  entirely  covered
with fnow.    At noon our latitude  was
55 deg. 17 min. N. when the Weft part
of a paffage, formed   by  Schumagin's
Ifles, and the main, bore from S. 21 deg.
W. to S. 46 deg. i W.   Notwithstanding
the  barren  appearance of the land, we
found that *it was inhabited ; and fix or
feven of the Americans came off to us in
their fmall fkin  canoes.    One of them
tied a fmall piece of wood to a rope which
had been thrown over to them by fome
of the Difcovery's people, and made figns
Vol. I.      I        m for Vt<
£ 274 I ^ ^ .§
for them to haul it up, at the fame time-
repeating the word Callikaah, which word,,
in their language, we afterwards found,
fignified writing. Upon examination,
they found it was in two pieces, and tied
together ; they opened it, and found a
note inclofed, wrote in the Ruffian language, but not a foul on board understood
a fyllable of it. ^
Captain Gierke, who as wTell as many
others, at firft fuppofed that fome Ruffians
had beencaft away there, ordered three gifiis
to be fired as a; fignal to the "Refolution^
(who was a-head) to bring-to. She rrn-
mediately fent a boat on board, and captain Clerk e waited upon captain Cook with
the note, and a confultatron was held„
when they agreed that k cotftd be nothing:
more than a kind of certificate left by
feme Ruffian traders, who had been there,,
-Which We afterwards found to be the cafet
Some 0% them fliewed feme fine pieces of
frefh falmon, as an inducement to us to?
btfr we were too much in a hurry to
f •     #pay anxious to get on.
(   275
pay any attention to thofe things; and
having made fail we purfued our courfe,
as the wind Was favourable, and we were
At half paft feven, we had thirty fathom
with a gravelly bottom, and at eight the
weftermoft land in fight, appearing like
an ifle, bore S. 70 deg. W. our diftance
off fhore being about three leagues.
The next day (June 20th), we had
light breezes and fine weather ;'at half
paft three in the morning, we faw breakers bearing N. 68 deg. W. two miles
diftant, and at four a very high mountain
bore N. 50 deg. W. off fhore about three
or four leagues.£ At five we faw rocks
above water, a-breaft of the Refolution,
who directly hauled off, and at eight we
faw more rocks and breakers a-head,
which induced captain Cook.to haul farther off. This part we called Rocks
Point. At noon our obferved latitude was
54 deg. 44 min. N. The land now appeared to trend quite away to the wefl-
T z ward: ward:   in the   eveaing we faw many
whales,  and  had a fwell from the  E.
s. e. ^^m -.  .f$u
On June 21 ft, we had fine weather and
calms. At eight the high mountain bore
N. 12 deg. W. and at ten our foundings
were thirty-five fathom, the bottom fand
and fmall flones. At noon our latitude
was 54 deg. 17 min. N. when the high
mountain bore N. 5 deg. W. and the
weftermoft of two other very high-peaked
mountains, which proved to be a volcano,
N. 81 deg. W. During the afternoon we
caught a vafl number of halibuts, fome
of which meafured five feet ten inches
in length, and weighed upwards of one
hundred and twenty pounds.
The next day was rather hazy and
foggy, with light airs and calms, till towards noon, when it cleared up a little,
and we faw the volcano bearing N., 5 2
deg. W. our latitude being 53 deg. 51
min. N. In the evening it became hazy
and rainy, and the wind fhifted to the
fouth-eaftward. (   277   )
The 23d was much the fame as the preceding day with refpect to weather, and we
faw nothing of the land till four i n the
afternoon, when it bore W. by N. diftant
about fix leagues, and at fix the high
mountain (not the volcano) N, 75 deg. W,
twelve leagues diftant.
The weather on the 24th was thick and
cloudy, and we had frefh breezes from
the weflward. At ten we tacked fhip,
and flood to the fouthward, with the Wind
at W. S. W. We law innumerable
flocks of birds palling by from the fouthward to the northward, and at noon the
extremes of the main bore N. N. E. and
N. W. by N. diftant eight leagues. At
two in the afternoon we founded, and
got ground, at fifty-three fathom, with a
black fandy bottom, and at four tacked
and flood to the W. N. W. the wind being S. W.
We had a fine little breeze from the
eaftward the next day, and we altered
our courfe to W. S. W. At eight the volcano bore N. 9 deg. E. and at ten we faw
T 3. more
u (     278     )
more land to the W. N. W. and hauled
our wind. We faw a great number of
birds and whales. At half paft eight in
the evening, we faw more land to the
W. S. W. appearing as two iflands, the
fouthermofl the higheft ; and at eleven,
the weather becoming foggy, we hauled
off fhore, our courfe being S. E. i E.
with the wind at N. E. by E.
At half paft one the next morning
(June 26th) webore away, our courfe being
W. S. W. the wind E. by S. At half paft
four, as we were running on, the weather
being very thick and foggy, the Refolution
hailed the Difcovery, and defired her to
come-to immediately, as there was a noife
at no great a diftance from us, which ex-*
actly refembled the furf breaking upon
the fhore. Both fhips very foon after let
go their anchors, and in the courfe of a
few minutes the fog cleared away,^and
we found to our great furprize that we
were in the mouth of a fmall bay, not
above a mile from fhore, and^urrounded
in various directions by fmall iflands and
rocks, t|279   I
rocks. That our fituation may be the
better afcertained, it may not bemmifs to
give the bearings and diftances of the various rocks, &b. the extremes of the
land off which we lay, bore N. and S. 5
deg. E. An ifland lying off the northern
part of it, N, | W. a fandy bay, S. W.
.diftant one mile ; a high rock S. £* by S.
one mile diftant, and other rocks above
water, E. -J^K. diftant a male arid half.
This was a mpft providential efcape ; if
we had Hood on fi$e minutes longer, we
muft in all probability have been on fhore,
or if we had varied our courfe either to
the right or left, we fhould have run the
rifk of being upon the rocks, j
The land, which proved to be'an ifland,
had a very rocky appearance in almoft
every part, except the bay off which we
had anchored, which was covered with
verdure. There was but little fnow except
upon the tops* of the higheft hills, the
Other parts being free from it.. About
nine captain Clerke fent his jolly-boat to I    i 2%v )
cut grafs for the goats, as they were much
in want of frefh food ; fhe returned at
four in the afternoon with a good ftock.
The men who went in her had feen the
remains of an old hut, and fome pieces
of drift wood, which had apparently been
lately chopped, or cut with tools of the
hatchet kind.  They had alfo feen feveral
eagles, and two or three frrialler birds,
one of the nefts of which they had found,
with fix eggs in it, and had brought it
on board.    The weathe? throughout the
day was very foggy, with a wet haze.
Captain Cook called this bay Providence
Bay, and the eaftern extreme of it Cape
Providence.
CHAP, 4"
(    28,  )
CHAP.    XVII.
^Tratfatlions and occurrences at the ifland of
Unalafchka—we depart from t hence t and
continue to trace the coafl.
AT half paft fix the next morning
(June 27th), we weighed and made
fail, and at eight were flanding between
the north point of the bay and a fmall ifland
to the northward of it, which, together,
formed a channel about two miles wide:
our foundings were from twenty-five to
thirty fathom. At nine, having but little
wind, and the tide carrying us in fhore,
we dropped our anchors again, in thirty-
eight fathom, fand and fhells.
Soon after, boats were fent from both
fhips to cut grafs, which returned at twelve.
The productions of this part of the ifland
were much the fame as the laft; amongft
other things, two fpecies of willow were
found, but they were only twelve or fourteen inches high : the foil was of a light,
loamy
fifMK
iJilW %
(     282     )
loamy nature, except in the mar flies,
where it was black and rich. Our people
faw a hut on fhore, which, from its flruc-
ture, was evidently a temporary one ; it
was compofed of pieces of drift-wood, the
ends of which were tied or fattened together, and afforded but indifferent fhel-
ter; it flunk abominably, and, from the
fifh bones and fea eggs, which were quite
freih, it was apparent that people had been
there very lately.
At one in the afternoon, wc weighed
and made fail, fhaping our courfe for a
paffage, which, when at anchor, bore N.W«
by W. ~ W. As we were Handing acrofs
a very deep bay, we obferved a number
of people in canoes, very bufily empfoyed
in towing a whale on fhore, which they
probably had juft killed. When they faw
us, fome of them.immediately made for
the fhips, and appeared glad to fee us.
They were much like thofe of Sandwich
Sound, but had a kind of bonnet upon
their heads,   very different  from thofe
J^people^ M\
(#83    )   I
people: their canoes were nearly the fame,
and they all ufed double paddles ; their
under-lips had a round perforation, but
we faw no ornaments in them ; one of
them had fome blue beads on his bonnet.
We purchafed fome of their darts, which
w^ere about four feet long, not feathered
at the end, and pointed with a long piece
of bone, which was barbed ; fome were
pointed with flone, and one or two had
four prongs. In return for thefe, we gave
them beads, which they appeared fond of,
and after flaying fome time with us, departed
At fix, our foundings were twenty-
feven fathoms, fhelly bottom, and at eight
we anchored in thirty-eight fathom, fand
and fhells: the extremes of the paffage
we were flanding for, bore N. 45 deg. W.
and N. 62 deg. W. our diftance from the
neareft fhore being about three miles.
The next morning we had light winds,
and the weather was inclinable to be thick
and foggyV    At three, we weighed arid
made
«■■ "  (1*8*   )  1
made fail. At five, having got to the
mouth of the paffage, the ebb-tide from
the weftward was fo ftrong as to fet us
back falter than we got there. At fix, we
intended to anchor, but the bottom proved
rocky, and foon afterjthe fhips were fet in
a ftrong race, occafioned by the meeting
of the tides round the different points of
the furrounding ifles. At nine, we
anchored, the paffage bearing N. 79 deg.
W. At noon, the Refolution weighed,
made fail, and got out her boats to tow
her into a fine harbour, which fhe lay at
fome little diftance from. The Difcovery
was then three or four miles diftant, but
foon after fhe alfo weighed, and, haying
the advantage of a little breeze, with the
afliftance of her boats, got into the harbour, and both fhips anchored about fix.
We had many of the natives with us
during the day, who were not fo much
furprifed at feeing a fhip as might have
been expected. It is plain they took us
for Ruffians, from their frequent repetition
of 2*5     ) '
of the word Roofky: they alfo perfectly
underftood the ufe of tobacco, which they
afked for by that name; and when it was
given them, immediately put it in their
mouths ; fome likewife made figns of
taking fnuff.——From all thefe circum-
flances, we concluded that they muft have
frequent intercourfe with the Ruffians.
Early the next morning, all hands were
called, the empty cafks got out of the hold,
the boats hoifled out, and a large party
of men fent on fhore to water; another
party was difpatched to cut grafs, while
thofe remaining on hoard were preparing
for the reception of the water. We purchafed to-day feveral darts, and other articles of curiofity, of the natives, who were
a very well behaved people ; we gave
them fnuff, tobacco, beads, and nails in
return. We faw neither bows nor arrows
amongft them, and we obferved that fome
had two, others three holes in their under-
lip, and not a continued one as at Sandwich   Sound.     Thefe  people generally
brought hi
m
§( 286   ).
brought with them a vegetable, fome-
thing refembling celery, which they eat
a good deal of: this feems to be nearly
the fame plant as the morkovai of the
Kamtfchadales, who are likewife fond
of it. '     '"' '     • '" ;
At feven in the evening, having completed our water, and got a good flock
of grafs, we made ready for fea.
The next morning (June 30th), the
Refolution got up her anchor and made
fail, but wind and tide being both againft
her, fhe was obliged to come-to again.
Soon after, captain Cook fent two of his
boats on board the Difcovery, to aflift her
in carrying out hawfers, for the purpofe
of warping put, and informed captain
Gierke that he intended to do the fame.
All hands were now employed ; but the
weather fhortly after became thick, and
the fhips making but little progrefs, we
anchored again at noon, and captain Cook
fignified his intention of continuing here
till to-morrow. *
6 la -   JL   I 287
In the afternoon, all the people that
could be fpared, were permitted to go on
fhore and gather herbs, or amufe themfelves in any other manner they thought
proper ; and fome of the gentlemen having been informed that there was a fmall
Indian village near the entrance of the
harbour, on the eaftern fhore, took this
opportunity of walking there. The hills
over which they were obliged to pafs,
were high, but not very difficult to climb,
on account of the length of grafs, which
prevented their feet from flipping ; there
were many fmall ponds of water upon
the top, occafioned probably by the melting of the fnow, very little of which was
now to be feen.
Upon their arrival at the village, they
were very civilly received by the inhabitants, who pulled ofj^jheir bonnets, and
made very low bows; there were not
more than eighteen or twenty, including
women and children,^   The town confifl-
„ed of eight or ten houfes, one of which
was I  288|J    jf.      •
Was large, the others much fmaller; tndf
largeft was about thirty feet in length,
And eighteen feet wide, raifed nearly fix
feet above the furface, and hollowed the
fame depth below it: there were two 6--
penings on the top, one, which was in
the middle, for the admiffiori of light, the
other as an entrance to the houfe, which
was effected by means of a long poll, Witf*
notches cut in it for the reception of the
feet in defeending : the bottom was lined
with dry grafs, and the roof fupported
by flakes fet upright, acrofs which were
placed balks, and over the whole was
thrown dry grafs and earth, which gave
it the appearance at a diftance of a large
hillock : it was divided into partitions, in
each of which the feveral families fleep :
the fmell which iffued from it was very
ftrong and difagreeable. At fome fiiftance
from the houfes, were erected ftages for
the purpofe of drying fifh, upon which
were - hung large pieces of halibut and
whale's flefh, and in feveral places were
B great 289
)
V
I
-great numbers of the fhells of fea eggs,
which appear to make no fmall part of their
food.    There were only two women, one
j '
-Very old and grey-headed, the other, who
appeared to be about twenty, had a child in
her arms ; fhe was dreffed in a feal-fkin
jacket, and her cheeks were marked or
itatoWed in a particular manner ; fhe had
an ornament in her under4ip made of
bone,and was, to all appearance, tolerably
neat and clean. The men were clothed
in bird-fkin jackets, the feathered fide in-
wardsj and none were feen with the blad-*
der jacket on, which feems to be ufed only
when they are going upon the waterV
-—Afte-t having looked about as much as
•they thought neceffary, the gentlemen
returned, the natives bowing very refpect*
fully at their departure, which was a piece
of good manners they could not help returning.
The weather the next rhorning (July
1 ft), was fine and pleafant, and the fhips
again endeavoured to get out, but found
f -    ' f U "'   ■"- "'■   4£
%\\ {   2go   }
it impracticable, on account of the wind
and tide. The men from both fhips
were permitted to go on fhore as yefter*
day, and feveral fhooting parties went
out: fome of them brought on board a
brace of fine groufe, and three or four
birds of the fnipe kind ; and one of the
gentlemen caught a young fox, which
he brought off with him, and kept feveral days on board, but, by fome means or
other, he broke his chain, and moft likely went overboard, for we faw nothing of
him afterward Sv
At fix the next morning', taking the
advantage of a fine breeze from the S. E.
We weighed and made fail, Handing th rough
the opening^nentioned on the 27th in-
ftant, our courfe being N. W. by N. At
noon our latitude was 54 deg. 19 min. N.
At four in the afternoon, our courfe was
N. the wind being E. N. E. and at ten;
we fleered N. E.  the wind being S. E.
H*~ ■       :■■&■ : i      1   ■ The n6xt day (July 3d), was cloudy,
with a frefh gale from the fouth-eaftward.
At half paft fix in the morning, we faw
land, bearing E. S. E. our courfe being
N. E. by E. At noon, it became more
moderate, when the land bore from S. ^ E.
to N. E. by E. our diftance off fhore about
five leagues, our latitude being 55 deg. 30
min. N. At fix in the evening, we faw
high land, appearing like an ifland, bearing
E. - N. bur foundings then were forty-
eight fathom, with a fine fandy bottorn,
and We had light airs and calms, and
faw feveral whales*
July the 4th, was thick and cloudy, inclinable to fogs, with light airs and calms,
and a fwell frorn the W. S. W. At eight,
the extremes of the land bore S. | E. and
E. N. E. the rieareft part being about feven leagues diftant. At half-paft nine, the
weather being very thick and foggy, we
hauled off fhord, our courfe being N. N. E.
and our foundings thirty fathom. At ele-
Ten,it became calm, and both fhips brought-
U 2 to,
pi
f.
i
1111
trn
ill
all;!
i£ (    292   I
to, main-top-fail to the maff, and otn?
hooks and lines were put overboard: 11$
the fpace of half an hour, we caught feve-
fal fine cod. At noon, we had a breeze
from the eaftward, when we made fait*.
arid flood to the northward. We faw feveral albatroffes and fome divers about,
knd a few puffins. In the afternoon, we
had hazy Weather, with a fight drizzling;
rain.
The next day was heavy, cloudy, and
difagreeable, with a breeze from the E. S.
E. our courfe N. E. At five, We faw the
land, bearing E. N. E. At feven, we
had ground at thirty-eight fathom*, and at
noon our latitude was 56 deg. 30 min. N*
when the north part of the land in fight
bore N. 70 deg. E. and the neareft part
E. S* E. four leagues diftant. In the afternoon, we caught more cod, and at four
the extremes of the land bdre S. E. and*
E. N. E. off fhore about fix leagues, ouf
foundings being thirty-fix fathom, With a;
-tbttoi& ; ■'. -j-. ■. ( 293  )   ~" '■' .^- ■•■■
bottom of fine black fand.    At eight, it
became thick and foggy.
The next morning (July 6th), we had
light breezes from the N. E. with open,
cloudy weather, our courfe being N. N.
W.    At four, the extremes of the land
bore E. and E. S. E.    At nine, captain
Cook fent an order to captain Clerke to
put the fhip's company to two-thirds allowance of beef, pork, bread, and flour,
as we were now in a latitude where fifh
were very plentiful, and he thought it
prudent to referve as much of the fhip's
provifions as he could with propriety, left
it might be wanted in future upon more
prefling occafions ; in confequence of this
order, hooks and lines were diftributed to
the fhips companies.    At noon, our latitude was 56 deg. 54 min. N. and longitude 199 deg. 12 min. E. when the land
bore from E. to E. N. E.  nine leagues
diftant.    As we flood on, we paffed a feal
fleeping upon the furface of the water.
At eight, our foundings were thirty-one
u 3
. < iJiii
'ill* (    294    )     r
fathom, the bottom black fand, when the
extremes of the land bore S. 2 1 deg. E.
and N. 56 deg. E. ; a deep bay, which
captain Cook called BriftolBay, S. 60 deg.
E. our diftance from the neareft part being
about fix leagues. At half paft eight,
tacked fhip and flood to the N. N. W.
with the wind at N. E.
The th, was calm the beft part of the
day, with fine and pleafant weather. At
eight, the land bore from N. E. by E. to
S. E. by E. and foon after both fhips
brought to, and all hands employed themfelves in fifhing;, when they met with all
O' J
the fuccefs they could poffibly wifh for..
About noon, a breeze fprung up from
the N. E.; fo made fail and flood E. S. E.
In the afternoon, we faw a flock of duck§,
feveral fmall birds of tthe fnipe kind, and
a few brown fheerwatqrs and gulls. At
half-paft eleven at night, we fhortened fail
and tacked, our courfe being S. the wind
E. S. E. ; and at twelve, having feventeen
fathoms, we brought to, main-topfail to
the (   295   )
the maft, about four leagues diftant from
the fhore.
At one the next morning (July StiV,
wore fhip and made fail, Handing to the
northward, the wind atS. E. though very
light. At four, it became calm, and having a good depth of water for fifhing, we
put our hooks and lines over, and caught
plenty of fine cod. % At half pafl ten, a
light breeze fprung up from the N. E. our
courfe N. N. W. At noon, the extremes
of the land bore N. 59 deg. E. and S. S,
E. diftant from the neareft part about five
leagues, our latitude being 57 deg. 17
min. N. At four, the land . bore from
S, E. to S. S. E. and at eight our found-.
ings were twenty-fix fathom, a black
fandy bottom. At ten, both veffels
tacked.
The next morning at two, we had light
breezes, and at fix faw a low point of
land bearing N. E. our courfe being N. E.
by N. with the wind at W. N. W. At
eightjthe Refolution being nearly a league
U 4 a-head
:SI
«M    S
M ' f 296 )    I   ■ '
a-head of the Difcovery, fired a gun, as %
fignal to make more fail, the wind now
frefhening up. At ten, we altered our
courfe to N. by E. The land now trend?
ed away to the eaftward, and had in many
places a remarkable appearance, refem-
bling large broken columns or pillars;
the high land was very fnowy. At noon,
our latitude was ^J deg. 47 min. N. and
at one, we faw more land bearing N. by
E. At two, we had thirteen fathom,
with a rocky bottom. At fix, our foundings were from thirteen to ten fathom^
and at nine tacked and flood to the S. W,
the wind W. N. W. f     .
At two the next morning (July icth),
we faw a point of the low land mentioned
yeflerday morning, extending as far as
W. N. W. which effectually put a flop to
our farther progrefs to the northward on.
this part of the coafl: at three, therefore,
pptain Cook hailed the Difcovery, and
ordered her to go a-head, keeping a S. W.
courfe, and to be particular in her found-
4 ^ng5« ings. The weather was clear and pleafant,
with an eafterly breeze. *|At a quarter paft
eleven, fhe fhoaled her water from fifteen
to five fathom, and obfefving patches of
white or fhoal water in many places a-
round us, fired a gun, as a fignal to the
Refolution, and wore round, her courfe
being N. E.    The foundings now gradually increafed to twelve fathom ; and the
fhips bejkig pretty near each other, captain Cook ordered the Difcovery to keep
full a-head, but to go upon the other tack
after dinner, and to hoift out her boats
and fend them a-head to found.   At noon,
our latitude was 58 deg. 15 min. N.; and
at one, it being calm, and a tide fetting
us nonfiderably to leeward, the Refolution
hoifted the fignal for anchoring, and foon
after both fhips came-to; we found the
tide fetting to the fouthward.    At four,
we weighed and made fail,  our courfe
foutherly, and foundings from twelve to
five fathom.    At half paft feven, we let
go our anchors again, and it became very
,,  ' '    . hazy; (    298    )
hazy; no part of the land could be feen
except a high round hummock on the N.
W. fhore, which bore N. 77 deg. W. and
a mountain on the S. E. fhore, bearing S.
38 deg. E.       §---     -•  ••;   %- § ;
At half paft one the next morning (July
11th), we weighed and^made fail,  our
courfe W. by N. the wind  S. W. by S.
At four, we tacked and flood to the S. E.
by S. our foundings being thirteen fathom.
At fix, it became thick and foggy, and at
eight, finding it impoffible to proceed any
farther in fuch thick weather, without
Funning great rifks, both veffels anchored.
At one in the afternoon, the fog cleared
up a little, when we weighed and flood
S. S. E. and at half-pafl two, tacked £nd
flood W.N. W. and W. by N. our foundings being from fifteen to twenty-two
fathom. We faw feveral arctic gulls, and
had a fwell from the S. W. At half paft
fix, we had fome thunder and lightning,
but both very inconfiderable, and at feven,
faw high land bearing N. W. | W.    At
nine, (    299   3
nine, the wind frefhened, and blew rather
hard at times, till ten, when we were
taken aback, and at eleven it became more
moderate.
Our courfe the next day was N. W.
the wind S. W. but fo light as to carry us
fcarce a mile an hour; the weather clear j
and pleafant. At fix, we faw land bear- j
ing N. W. | W. and at noon the round
liummock (which we now found to be an
ifland, and which captain Cook denominated Round Ifland, bore N. W. diftant
four leagues. At four, Round Ifland bore
N. 45 deg. W. diftant four leagues, and
the weftermofl land in fight N. 89 deg.
W. At nine, being well in with the land,
we tacked and flood to the northward,
and at ten tacked again, pur courfe S. W.
the wind W. by N. and W. N. W,
r At two the next morning (July 13th),
our foundings were from eighteen to thirteen fathom; and at three, our courfe ftil}
being nearly S. W. we fhoaled from thirteen to feven fathom. At this time Round
/ Ifland -   (   300   ) "
ifland bore N. 12 deg. W. four miles di-
ftantw We directly hauled off the land,
keeping an E. S. E. courfe, with our boats
a-head founding, the Difcovery, as drawing leaft water, being ordered to take the
lead.    At ten, we refumed our former
courfe, our foundings varying from eight
to twelve, and foon after to nine fathom,
the bottom fandy.    At noon, our obferv^
ed latitude was 58 deg. 15 min. N. when
Round Ifland bore N. 25 deg. E. diftant
about ten leagues.    The land here was
very broken, having the appearance of
iflands, with here and there a patch of
fnow, but not a tree to be feen.    At three
in the afternoon, wTe had light airs, and at
twelve it became calm, with hazy weather,
the weftermofl land  in fight bearing W.
n. w. iw.   ■■; ■■■'.'' I    1
In the -morning, we had light airs and
calms, with fine pleafant weather. At
fix, our foundings were twenty-fix
fathom, and at eight Round Ifland bore
N. 26 deg. E.    Many of the feamen put
over {   301 I  '
over their hooks and lines, and caught a
fine fupply of cod, .pollacks, fmall halibut, and a fpecies of flat fifh refembling a
dab. About two in the afternoon, we faw
two morfes, or fea-horfes, afleep in the
"water, arid a boat from the Difcovery
with three or four people were fent to attack them; but before they came near
^liough to do any execution, vthe animals
di&ppeared: thefe were the firft we had
ifeen.
At half?paft four the next morning
(July 15th), it became exceeding thicfe
and foggy, on which account we anchored. At feven, it cleared up in fome degree, and we weighed our anchors, keeping nearly a weft courfe. At noon, our
latitude was 58 deg. 21 min. N. when
we faw the weftern extreme bearing N.
61 deg. W. diftant-eight leagues. In the
afternoon, we faw a fea-bear : thefe ani-
riials are faid to be found no farther to the
northward than latitude 56 deg. but this
•§g a proof to the contrary.   At eight, the
foi
III (    3°2    )
fog again increafed, and at ten we let gd
our anchors in feventeen fathom, a fandy
bottom. The fhips rode with their heads
W. by N. during the whole tide.
The fog clearing away about five
(July 16th), we faw the land, the neareft
part bearing N. 18 deg. W. about five
miles diftant, which was much clofer than
we expected. We weighed foon after,
our foundings being from fixteen to twenty-one fathom. At nine, captain Cook
fent his large cutter on fhore, with directions to the gentlemen who were in her
to make what obfervations they could.
At half paft eleven, the tide began to*
make from the weftward, on which account we anchored. We had feveral fea-
bears about the fhips, one of which We
ftiot at, but were not fortunate enough
to kill him. Our latitude to-day was
c8 deg. 36 min. N. At half paft five,
the tide from the eaftward began to make,
and at fix we weighed, having very light
airs.    The boat returned at eight in the
evening* |(    3°3    )x   >   '
evening.   The low land was covered with
plants and flowers of various kinds, which
afforded a moft pleafing appearance^ and
at  the fame  time emitted   a  fragrance
which was  delightful,   particularly the
marfh ciflus (ledum paluftre\ which was
in full  flower.     The hills were  compofed of maffe& of loofe flones, which
rendered them very difficult to afcend;
fome of the gentlemen however reached
the top of one of the higheft, upon which
they buried a bottle containing a paper",
upon which the names of the two fhips
were wrote, with that of their command-
errand the date of the year.   The weather
was very hazy, which greatly obstructed
their view.    They faw a deer and fawri,
feveral red foxes, and the tracks of bears.
Upon the beach they found the putrified
carcafe of a fea-horfe, out of the head of
which they took the teeth.    The rocks
fwarmed with fhags and guillemots, moft
of which had   young ones.    Amongft
many plants and fhrubs, were cran-ber-
rles, whortle-berries, monk's hood, geranium*
iil .%'"'■_       ',   <   3°4   | •      "
Siium, the faranne {Jilium Kamtfchatcenfe9
Lin.) poppy, dock, violet, golden rod, and
ftralerian. The foil was a kind of ligh£
fand, with a fmall mixture of day, very
llony, and not more than a foot deep, ijat
fome places not fo much. This place was
called Cape Newenham. At twelve, it
became hazy, when Cape Newenham bore
N. by W. diftant fix leagues.
What little wind we had the next day
was E. N. E. our courfe N* W. the weather Warm and pleafant. At four in the*
morning, Cape {feweriham bore N. 41
deg. E. our diffamce from th€ rieareft
fliore being about five leagues. At noon
our foundings were feventeen fathom, and
we faw a few .gulls, puffins, and guille-*
mots about. At half paft ten in the evening*
having fhoaled our water to ten fathoms*
we tacked fhip, and flood to the S. W^
The next day in the morning (July
18th), we had a fine little breeze from
the S. E. our courfe N. N. W. At eight
we fhoaled from feventeen to ten, and
from (   3°5   )
from thence gradually to five fathom^
When we tacked and flood to the W. S.
W. the wind being E. S. E. Cape New-»
enham then bore S. 42 deg. E.    Boats
from the Difcovery were ordered to keep
a-head and  found.     This  was a con
tinuation  of   the  fhoal  we  were run-
ing  upon   laft night  at half paft   ten.
At ten we deepened our water$ and foon
after bore away; our courfe being N. N.
E. the wind S. S. E.    At noon our obferved latitude was 59 deg. 23 min. N.
Cape Newenham bearing S. 31 deg. E.
diftant fourteeen or fifteen leagues.    The
foundings from the boats were from five
to eight fathom; but at half paft three
they had only four fathom: we immediate-*
ly hauled our wind,  and  flood to the
N. W. and at five the Refolution, who
Was a goocLway a-ftern, made the fignal
for  anchoring ; ffoon after which both
fhips came^-to in fix fathom.    When at
anchor, a point of low land bore due N*
diftant two leagues,  arid Cape NeWen-
foim (at leaft as much as we faw of it)
Vox..!.   I X . ,   .S. 	
(
3°6
)
S. 24 deg. E. diftant eighteen leagues. At
feven in the evening the boats returned,
with an account that to the weftward
there was a bank about two leagues from
us, part of which was dry at low water ;
this bank was a continuation of the po^nt
of low land mentioned before as bearing
due N. The tide by its ebb and flow had
formed a kind of channel through it,
whofe depth was near five fathorri. In
the courfe of the night the Refolution
parted her cable.
Early the next msrning, two Americans, in their canoes, were feen reconnoitring the fhips at a diftance; they flaid
about a quarter of an hour, during which
time they fririg a kind of fong, and then
departed. At eight captain Cook fent
for the Difcovery's launch to affift the
Refolution's boats in recovering the anchor. They had nearly hoifted it in laft
night by the buoy-rope, which unluckily
broke, fo that they had only their labour
or their pains. However, at feven in
the evening, they were fortunate enough
tor (   3°7   )
fo get the clinch of a hawfer over one of
the flukes, by which means they fecured
it. The weather to-day was very warm,
and the fhips were peftered with gnats,
which found means to explore their way
from the, fhore, and tormented us not a
little. '"  "ff      "W
At eight the riext fnbrnmg fjiily 2cth},
the Refolution made a fignal for the Difcovery's large cutter to found to the S. W.
At two in the afternoon fhe returned with
the difagreeable news that the ihoal extended a confiderable diftance to the
Weftward; being fiirrotirided in this rnari<
her, by the continent oil orie fide, and
this uhfuf moimtable barrier on the other1,
we had nothing left but to return back,
and proceed to the fcuthward, till we had
entirely got out of its neighbourhood.
And this was no eafy tafk on account of
the little depth of Water in many places
We had already paffed, arid by which we
were obliged to return; HH We weighed  o\rr anchors  the rieijfe
morning at three, and flood to the fouth-
ward,  with the boats a-head founding.
At half paft fix, one of them made the"
fignal for fhoal-water,  and foon after alt
the reft ;  we therefore came-to directly,
and found a ftrong tide running.  A fugar-
loaf hill bore S. E. by E.   and a part of
the land making in a kind of a cape, N. E*
This cape was denominated Shoal Nefs
by captain Cook.    At eight,  a  fleet of
fmall canoes, confifling of twenty-eighty
made their appearance.    At firft they remained at a diftance, but feveral of thenar
at length   ventured   along-fide.     Some'
were clothed iri garments made' of fkins-
of the fpotted field moufe, and had a kind-
of bonnet on their heads, forriething Mke:
thofe  before mentioned!, but without  a?
hole through them for the reception   of
the head.     Their  hair was  in general
very fhort, and fome were fhaved clbfe ;
they had a hole in one fide of their under* ■■•'.-       ■%' I   3°9   )        ;
Jip, and beyond that another in the cheek,
in both which they had ornaments. Their
faces  were not painted,  but were very
dirty, and the fhape of it varied greatly;
being long and thin in fome, and round
in others ; upon the whole, they were a fet
of ill-looking people.   Their canoes were
covered with fkin, like thofe mentioned
before, but they were wider, and the hole
In  which   the   perfon  fits  Was  larger.
They in general ufed fingle paddles, but
had doubles ones fecured upon the outfide
of their canoes;  none had the bladder-
drefs.    They did not appear to be much
£CCuftomed to fhips, nor were they very
honeft, for they frequently made off with
nails and other things that were handed
down to them, as the price of their various articles of trade, without returning
an equivalent.    We purchafed fome of
their bows  and   arrows,  the points  of
of  which were   compofed   of fea-horfe
teeth, and barbed, and feveral other things
in the curiofity-way, as alfo a few dried
X 3 falmon.
g«s
wlfti falmon.    Aijer about half an hour's flay
they departed.
At eleven we got up our anchors and
made fail, with the boats a-head, who
got from five to ten fathom, but very irregularly. At noon, our latitude was
59 deg. 25 min. N. when the fugar-loaf
hill bore S. 62 deg. E. diftant eight
leagues, and Shoal Nefs, N. Jjl, E. | E.
At three we let go our anchors, and at
fix weighed them again ; our foundings
from nine to fifteen fathoms. At nine
we came-to for the night, when Cape
Newenham bore S. S. E. I E. ten leagues
diftant.
|| C H A P..f£VIII.
%ranfac7ions   till our   departure from
the Xfchuffchi Nefiy
T fix the next morning (July 22d)
we weighed and made fail, our
courfe flill being S. and S. by W. with a
frefh breeze from the S* E. and E. S. E.
our boats continuing a-head founding.
At eight we had from thirteen to fifteen
fathom a ( -III
fathom, and Shoal Nefs bore N. 26 deg.
E. At half paft nine we fhoaled to nine
fathoms, when we tacked and flood to the
E. N. E. the Refolution's boats keeping
a-head Upon this tack,and the Difcovery's
upon the other. At eleven we anchored,
the tide being againft us ; when the fugar-
loaf hill bore N. 6 deg. E. Shoal Nefs, N.
jy deg. £. twelve leagues diftant, and the
neareft part of the fhore about three
leagues di slant. Cape Newenham could
not be diftinguifhed. We endeavoured this afternoon to catch fome fifh,
but met with little fuccefs, the water being too. fhallow. In the afternoon at five,
we got tip our anchors, and having made
fail, flood S. S. mi the wind being eaft,
and our foundings fifteen, thirteen, and
fourteen fathom. At fix we faw Cap6
Newenham bearing N. 40 deg. E. feven
or eight leagues diftant. At eight, having from fixteen to twenty fathoms, we
made the fignal for |e boats to come on
board, and foon after hoifted them in.
x 4 July
mm '% _. ■'   (   31*    I ;    ;     '
July 23 d, at half paft two in the morning we bore away, our courfe being S. S.W.
with the wind E. by N. At four, the
Refolution made the fignal for the Difcovery to go a-head and found, and at five
we fhoaled from eighteen to ten fathom;
we immediately hauled the wind, and
flood S. S. E. This no doubt was a continuation of that extenfive fhoal we Were
fo near on the 20th. At fix we had
from nineto thirteen fathoms; and at two
in the afternoon, haying deepened them
to twenty-three fathoms, we bore away to
S. S. W. and a&feven altered our courfe
to W. S, W. We had many puffins,
fea parrots, guillemots, arctic, .and othes
gulls, about us to-day.
1 he weather, which for thefe feveral
days paft was fine arid clear, now became
thick and foggy. We however continued our W. S. W; courfe, till five
in the afternoon {July 2 a th), having from
twenty-feven to thirty-five fathoms, when
we proceeded in a W. S. W. direction.
- ■ .    4. All ( 3!3 ) *
All the next day was thick and foggy*
and we frequently loft fight of each other,
but by conftantly repeating the neceffary
fignals, we were fortunate enough to
keep together. Our courfe was flill
W* S. W. but at nine it became fo very
thick as to render our proceeding any farther extremely dangerous ; captain Cook
therefore ordered the fignal to be made
for anchoring, and both fhips came-to foon
after, in thirty-two fathoms, with a bottom of coarfe fand,        |||
At feven the enfuing evening, the fog
cleared up, and we got up our anchors,
and flood to the N. N. W. the wind being N. E. and E. N. E. At half paft nine
we faw a whale, which was the firft we
had obferved for near a fortnight, and
fome time after faw feveral others, and
likewife a feal.   We had no land in fight
to-day.   <
The following day  (July 27th) was
cloudy, with frequent thick fogs^ Our
courfe was W. by N. and W. N. W. with
4
the the wind at north. At one in the afternoon, it fhifted to N. E. by E. and at four
to E. N. E. our courfe being N. and N.
by W. At twelve we had twenty-fix fathom, and foon after tacked fhip, and flood
to the eaftward. The firft part of the
next morning was fine and clear, with a
frefh breeze from the N. E. At three we
tacked and flood N. W. by W. our foundings being twenty-fix fathom. At eight
it became very foggy, but of no long continuance, and at noon our obferved latitude was 59 deg. 54. min. N, At two in
the afternoon it again came on exceeding
thick, with a ftrong breeze from the N.
N. E. which at three encreafed to a hard
gale, which obliged us to take in our
top-gallant-fails, and reef the top-fails. We
continued flanding to the N. W by W»
and W. N. W. till twelve, when we tacked
fhip and flood to the eaftward.
Our weather the next morning was
dark, thick and cloudy, with fmall rain,
with the wind at N. but more moderate
than c
than yefterday. . At three we wore fhip3
and flood W. by N. At half paft four
we faw high land bearing W. by N. our
foundings were thirty-eight fathom, with
$ gravelly bottom. At eight the land
which now appeared to be an ifland, extended from W. 1 S. to W. N. W.
diftant about four leagues ; the north
point ended in a very high bluff-head,
which, from its lingular appearance, captain Cook called Point Upright. At
eleven we were tolerably near the
land, which made in high, ragged, perpendicular cliffs, the whole forming a
kind of bay. We faw no trees, but it
was covered in many parts with grafs,
&c. with here and there a fmall patch
of fnow. There were numberlefs flocks
of guillemots, and auks; of the latter
there were two fpecies, one with an upright creft upon its head, the other very
fmall ; we alfo faw fome few puffins and
fea-parrots. At half paft eleven we tacked,
our courfe E. N. E. but the wind was
very
mm "•   . j 316 1 -_
very light, and the fmall rain continuing,
iehdered every thing abput us very uncomfortable. Our latitude to-day at noon,
by an imperfect observation, was 60 deg.
22 min. N- when Point Upright bore N.
45 deg. W. At two in the afternoon,
the fog which hung about the land begun
to difperfe, and the clouds to feparate, but
at three it again became very thick. At
lour, Point Upright bore N. 44 deg. W.
and a fmall high ifland laying off the weftern
extreme \S* 73 deg. W. our diftance off
fhore being two leagues. At half paft
fix we tacked, and flood to the S. E. and
at twelve it became calm.
The weather the next day (July 3Cth)
was in general foggy, with fhort intervals
of clearnefs, and the winds light and variable. At five in the morning, we faw
the weftern extreme of the ifland bearing
W. \ S. We had many guillemots, puffins, and gulls about to-day. At four in
the afternoon we wore fhip, and flood W,
!' I      'ft.. N, W, (
3*7
fj. W. the wind being N. by E. and N
E. by E. and at twelve we had moderate
breezes from the S. $. E. and S. E.
July 3 ill, we ha$ operi cloudy weather,
and were free from fogs. § At eight we
had a fine breeze from the S. E. out
courfe being nearly N. E. throughout the
day. We had no land in fight, and our.
foundings were thirty-four fathoms, a foft
muddy bottom, j Our latitude at noon was
61 deg. 16 min. N. and at fix in the afternoon, we paffed a piece of drift-wood.
The next day (Auguft ill), we had
Open cloudy weather. At four we paffed
the body of a large tree, and at fix a good
deal of drift-wood, moft of which appeared to have been long in the water.
At eight the wind fhifted to E. N. E. and
and at nine to N. N. W. our
N. E. and foundings from twenty-four id
twenty-one fathoms. We had many
arctic gulls about. At half paft eleven;
we had a fliff breeze from the N. by E.
our courfe N. W. by W. and our latitude
was i 318 ) :
wts 61 de*g. 58 min. N. In the afternodn we
paffed more drift-wood, and a fhag,r apparently quite exhaufled with fatigue^
pitched upon one of the Difcovery's anchors. At eight we tacked fhip, ouf
courfe being E. ~ N. the wind N. by E.f|
The weather on the fecond wa§ thick, *
heavy,and rainy, with a warmdifagreeable
atmofphere, and a frefh breeze from the
E. N. E. our courfe S. E. We paffed
much drift-wood, and at eight we had
little winds and rain; with a heavy irregular fea from the northward. Many
gulls and large flocks of fheer-waters'
about. At two in the afternoon it became1
calm, and our foundings were nineteen
fathoms, with a fine fandy bottom.
The following day we had open cloudy
weather, with intervals of fimfhine, and a
flight breeze from the W. by N. our
courfe N. by W; Oiir foundings were
eighteen fathom, arid at noon our latitude'
by forne double altitudes was 6 2 deg. 3 3
min.  N;   ih the afternoon' -we fleered
I"    .' M  '• .-•       N.N. E. (   3*9   ) '      .1
N. N. E. the wind being E. S. E. and Si
E. by E. At four, we had fourteen^ fathom, and at fix they deepened to twenty*
Soon after, we faw land bearing W- \ N.
diftant about eight leagues. At eight,
we had thirteen fathom, and the land
bore S. 84 deg. W. |||
On the fourth, we had a ftrong breeze
from the E. by N. our courfe being N. N.
E. At half paft three in the morning,
captain Cook hailed the Difcovery, and ordered her to keep a-head,-and found. At
eight, we had thirteen fathom and a half,
the bottom brown fand and fhells. At two
in the afternoon, we faw land extending
from N. to W. N. W. about fix leagues
diftant. At three, we had ten fathom,
and foon after hauled clofe to the wind,
having fince one been about a point and
half from the wind. As we proceeded,
our foundings became irregular, from ten
to feven fathom, and then deepening to
-At four, the Difcovery, feeing
a kind of rippling a-head, which had
rather t 320 ) ^
Utther a fufpicious appearance, tacked^
and the Refolution foon after followed
tier example. At half paft four, the Difcovery came under the Refolution's ftern5
as by fignal, arid at feven both veffels let
o their anchors, as it became very thick.
When it cleared up, we faw a high bluff
ifle, bearing W. by S. diftant about three
leagues.
The next day (Auguft 5th), was fog-
y, with fmall drizling rain. At four j
we prepared for getting up our anchors,
but as it foori after became very thick,
we defifted. At nine, we weighed, and
about ten, a boat was fent on board the
Difcovery, with an account of the death
bf Mr Anderfon the iurgeon,fwho
had been in a declining ftate for near a
twelvemonth paft: he was fucceeded by
Mr Law, the furgeon of the Difcovery.
At noon, the extremes of the land, which
proved to be the main, bore N. E. by E.
and N. W. ± W. At half paft one, w«*
anchored in  eight fathom,   about  two
miles ..:.   ,  • ^   (   321    )  .,
iniies diftant from the ifland, the extremities of which bore S. and S. 36 deg;
E. the land on the rriain to the weft-
ward was high, and bore N. 48 deg. W".
and the eaftermoft land in fight N. 58
deg. E. We found the tide fetting ftrong
from the E. by S. Soon after we were
anchored, captain Cook fent boats from
both fhips to cut grafs for the flock, of
Which there appeared to be plenty, and
Which was a repait they flood much in
need of: himfelf like wife, with fome of
his officers, went oil fhore to make what
obfervations they could.
The ifland was very fmall, but covered
in almoft every part with Variety of herbage, amongft which were many plants
common in England, and two or three
fpecies of willows, but very diminutive,
riot beirig above eighteen inches j in
height. Berries (fuch as cran-herries
and whortle-bernes) were remarkably
plentiful, but their time was too fhort to
permit them to colled many. They a-
.   Vol. L '■ f  "; Y      \; *      feended
ill /
(     322
fcended the hill, but the weather wa&
very.unfavourable for a great extent of
vifion : they faw much land in different
directions, and upon the beach found a
fledge, which induced captain Cook to
call it Sledge Ifland.
At three the next morning, we weighed and made fail, keeping a W. and W.
S. W. courfe, with a light breeze from
the fouthward. At feven, we faw more
land bearing N. W. Mid at eight, Sledge
Ifland bore S. 72 deg. E. two leagues
diftant. At noon, our obferved latitude
was 64 deg. 40 min. N. arid at one, wre
faw an ifland bearing N. 85 deg. W. feven leagues diftant. At fourth was calm
and foggy, When the extremes of the5
main bore E. and N. by E. At &£-, we
had from ten to feven fathom, and at
feven tacked and flood S. S. E. the wind
being S. W. When we faw moire land to £he
weftward bearing N. W. |- W. At eight,
we anchored for the night, when Sledge
ifland bore S. 64 deg. E. the other ifiand! m
323
. J6 deg. W. fix leagues diftarit, and
the weftern part of the main N. 52 deg.
W. our diftance off fhore being about five
mile's.
In the morning (Auguft 7th), we had
cloudy weather, with light foutherly
breezes. At eight, w£ weighed and
made fail, our courfe W. S. W. and W.
At one in the afternoori, we tacked, and
at eight the wind blew frefh from the N.
by E. arid N. E. our courfe being N. W.
~ N. and oiir foundings from twelve to
fifteen fathom. The weftermofl: land in
fight then bore N. 55 deg. W. our diftance off fhore about three leagues. At
twelve, we had hard rain, our foundings
being eleven and twelve fathorhs.
The next morning was thick and hazy,
with light winds arid hard rain. At three,
Having fhoaled to nine fathom, we bore
away, the wind S. by E. and S< our
courfe N. E. and N. At four, we faw
the larid bearing N. W. by N. arid foori
"4fter hauled up to E. S. E. At five*
ES!^'-'        Ya-      '"'"".    filing
. r i (    324 )
having light winds, and drifting faft dri
fhore, we let go our anchors, when the
extremes of the land bore N. 80 deg. W.
and N. 48 deg. i E. the weftern extreme
making in a high peaked hill, our diftance
from fhore two miles.    At eight, We took
the advantage of a breeze which fprung
up, and weighed and made fail. At ten, our
foundings being feven fathom, We tacked and bore away to the W. N. W. the
wind being N. N. E.    At noon, we had
frefh  breezes,  and the extremes  of the .
main bore N. 65 deg.  W. and  E. § S.
pur foundings being from eight to thir-'
teen   fathoms.     At four, we had rain,
tacked and flood to the E.  N. E.  the
wind N. and foon after faw a long neck
of low land, running out from the north-
ermoft high land, bearing N. 2 deg. E.
and  a  high   fteep  rock S. 88 deg. W.
We faw many objects upon the low land
refembling trees.    At half paft five, tacked fhip and flood W. N. W. and at feven wore, our courfe E. by N. the fteep
rock (   325   )
rock bearing S.-W. At nine, we faw
the point of low land a-head, about three
miles diftant, and foon after fhoaled our
water to five fathom, when we tacked and
flood to the weftward, and foon after
anchored.
Auguft 9th. The next morning we
had thick, cloudy, rainy weather, with
fqualls and hard gales from the N. by W.
At eight, we weighed and made fail, and
at nine wore fhip and flood W. |p N. At
noon, our latitude was 65 deg. 45 min.
N. when the high rock bore S. W. by S.
and the ifland to the weftward W. S. W.
£ W. At two in the afternoon, we bore
away for the weftern ifland, our courfe S.
W. by W. ; but, upon our nearer approach, we found there were two inftead
of one. At four, the extremes bore N.
and W. by N. the eaftermoft about a
mile diftant. They were entirely compofed qf rugged pointed "rocks from the
bottom to the fummit, and here and there
we faw a fmall patch of grafs.    Captain
Y 3 Cook (
3 26
)
Cook named them the Ifles of Difappoinfc
ment. At feven, we faw more land bear-
ing W. by S. and at eight the extreme^
of the land from S W. I W. to H W.
and a bluff head forming the north poiii^
of a bay W. S. W. five or fix leagues diftant. At ten, we wore fhip, our courfe
being N> E by N.
The next day was fine and clear, with
moderate breezes from the N. W. At
two, we wore fhip and kept a W. ~ S.
courfe. At four, we had frefh gales, and
at five faw land bearing N. At eight,
the land fet at five bore N. 16 deg. E.
and the fouth point of a bay S. 85 deg.
W. off fhore two or three miles The
land fo^nied a deep bay, and was moderately high, in fome parts .rocky, with $
flope of low land, which fgemed welf covered with verdure. Upon One part of
it we faw feveral houfes, abotit which
were placed upright what appeared to. B%
the jaw-bones of whales. By the aifift-
ance of our glaffes, we difcovered malm
inhabi- {   327
inhabitants, who feemed to be running
"about in great confufion, and fome making off to the mountains. The fouther-
mofl part confifled of a double ridge of
high mountains, the top of which were
covered with fnow. At ten, we anchored
in thirteen fathom, with a gravelly bottom, the two points of the bay bearing
N. 16 deg. E. and S. 31 deg. W. the
village N 31 deg. W. and the ifles of
Difappointment N. E. § E.
Soon after we had anchored, the Refaction's pinnace, in which was captain
Cook, attended by the large cutters of
both fhips, all well manned and armed,
proceeded to that part of the fhore where
the village was fituated. As they approached, they faw between fifty and fixty
people Handing upon aneminence near the
houfes,as if prepared to defend themfelves
againfl any attack that might be made.
Having i reached the fhore, three of
jheni came , down ; but upon captain
Cook's approach  (who landed by him-
1$
dli ■I       1       (   328|) I _/
£elf), they retired : he however followed
them, and, by every fign of friendfhip,
endeavoured to perfuade them to lay 2.-
fide their fears, and at the fame time
fhewed them beads and various other ar-r
tides. Thefe feemed to engage their attention, and at lafl one of them came near
I enough to the captain to receive abunch of
beads, which he carried to his two cornpa-
nionsj and after fome conference they collected courage, and readily joined him.
The others, feeing the reception their
comrades had met with, came down to
"meet them. Several of the officers who
were in the boats now followed the captain ; but the natives made figns that too
many fhould not come at once,and appeared very circumfpect and upon their guard,
for, as the others approached, they retired,
till having arrived at their houfes, they
fixed a line, made of the fkin of the fea-
horfe, acrofs, and gave the gentlemen to
underfiand they were not to go beyond
jt.    Having fettled matters thus far, they
brought ,'■■" (   329   ) •,
brought out various articles of trade, fuch
as fea-horfe hides and teeth, feal fkins,
ropes made of hides, gloves, and half-
boots, both curioufly ornamented with
embroidery. Many different things were
purchafed, and, having come to a good
underflanding, the rope was removed,
and the captain, officers, &c. were permitted to take a nearer view of their
houfes. Thofe which were fuppofed to
be their fummer habitations, were nearly
of a cylindrical form, covered with the
fkins of the morfe, or fea-horfe, and
propped up or fupported by the bones of
whales, as were likewife the roofs of
their winter huts. The latter were a-
bout five or fix feet below the furface of
the earth, the bottoms covered with
boards, and the tops, after being fecured
with the bones of whales, as mentioned
before, were covered with dried grafs
and earth, much like thofe of the natives
of Unalafchka, but the entrance was at
jhe front, and not on the top.    In thefe
were
^t
■Jul
SB were obferved many fledges, and various
Utenfils in the fifhing way. -p
The men (for they faw neither women
3ior children) were flout and well made,
and in general  below the middle fize,
though three or fonr were near fix feet
high ; their colour nearly bordering upom
the copper, their faces broad, high cheekbones, fmall eyes, flat nofes, and -thick
9ips : their teeth were bad, and appeared
as if worn down to the flumps ; they had
no holes for the reception of ornaments
-either in the under-lip or cheek, but they
had blue beads, and many others of dif,
-ferent kinds, in their ears ;   their hair
was very fhort, and fome were  fhaved
cldfe ;   in  general, they had  hut little
beard.    Their drefs confifled of jackets
with  fleeves,  fome  made of dog-fkins
with the  hair on, others with Lthe  fkin
tanned and dreffed, and fattened round
the middle with a belt; their breeches,
ttockings, and fhoes, were all of a piece,
and made of the fame materials as the
jll jackets; -r
(   331   )       '. '•• j\-   '
j||dieir  fhoes were ornamented
with embroidery, which does credit to
their women, and fhews great ingenuity
and tafle.    They were all armed with
bows, 'quivers of arrows at their backs,
and fpears headed with iron exceeding
fharp and bright, and inlaid with white
and yellow metal:   their bows were by
far the beft we had feen, but they would
not fell one, nor would they truft them
put of their hands ; their arrows were
much  like  thofe  of America,  but the
fharp  end was   compofed   of   fea-horfe
tooth, and not barbed.    They very readily fhew the goodnefs of their arms by
fhooting feveral arrows, which went to a
great diftance, and with amazing velocity.    The perfon who appeared to be
their chief, was  quite an old man; he
had a mark or line acrbfs his nofe, and
extending beyond his cheek-bones, at the
termination of which were the forms of
two fifh : this had the exact appearance
pf tatowing, and in all probability was
done m:   ;;f      .  {   332   )j| -   4 •     *•
done in that manner, but it-was the only
inftance  feen.    There were numbers of
dogs, which they keep for the purpofe of
drawing their fledges; they were much
like thofe  of Kamtfchatka,  and quite as
large.     Many of them   had   evidently
been juft killed, which induced the captain to fuppofe they were intended as fa-
crifices to theijj gods, to infure them fuc-
cefs and victory in cafe we attacked them.
In  various fpots,  at  fome little diftance
from their houfes, were piles of flones,
in which were placed upright the ribs or
jaw-bones of whales :   the captain was
very defirous of knowing the ufe or intention of them, but could not learn.
The natives behaved with great civility, and the old chief made the captain a
prefent of feveral fine trout, in return for
fome beads which he had received, and
one of them brought a large piece of fea-
horfe flefh, which he made figns was
very good; but the gentlemen declined
26? "ii^f>
eating.    They were likewife entertained
with With a dance ; three of them fung, at the
fame time ftriking a kind of drum with
a flick, while three others danced, putting themfelves in various poftures, but
keeping time to the ftrokes of the drum.
Several of their canoes were feen, Which
were nearly the fame as the large open
canoes of Sandwich Sound. The hills
were compofed of rocks and loofe flones,
with very little verdure upon them ; hvit
the plains were extenfive and well clothed with plants and herbs, amongft which
wrere fcurvy-grafs, colt's foot, cotton-
grafs, and monk's hood : trees were quite
out of the queftion, not a twig being feea
in any part.
Having made as many obfervations as
the time would permit, the captain took
his leave of them, and returned to the
fhip. At three in the afternoon, we
weighed and made fail, and flood to the
northward, tracing this part of the coafts
which proved to be the continent of Afia,
till five in the afternoon, when we bore
away
if '      . ' (   334   )        . ._ \|
away to N. E. by N. with the wind at St
;§? W. There were many conjectures
formed refpectjng this part wg had juft
left, fome fuppofing it to be part of Ali^
find othefs declaring in favour of ir^ being part of the great ifland Alatfchka, fo
curioufly and accurately laid down in a
book intitled Ruffian Difcoveries in the
Northern Archipelago, by a Mi4 Stadilin.
Time however proved the former con-
lecture to be true, it being the Tfehutfchki
Nofs, which, in the Ruffian charts, is laid
down feveral degrees farther to the nortl
ward.
jS:H Aii
■ (   335   )
CHAP.    XIX,
ire5l our courfe to the American fhore
foil in with the ice—numerous herds of
fea-horfes^ or morfey upon it—fee land7
which   Captain Cook denominates  Icy
Cape—trace the ice—dijleaver the Afiatie
continent\ which we continue to t   cetitt
e again arrive at ihe Tfchutfchi Nofs
W
WE now proceeded in a N. E. by N.
direction, for the coafl of Ame-*
rica. On the eleventh, at eight in the
morning, the extremes of the ifles of Di£*
appointment bore from S. 9 deg. E. to S.
7 5 deg. E. -and the north point of the bay
we left S. 40 deg. W. our foundings being twenty-five fathom,, hroken ftiells
and gravel. At noon, our obferved latitude was 66 deg. 5 min. N. At four,
in the afternoon, we fhoaled our water to
ten fathom, when we altered our courfe
m (336    )
to E. N. E. the iflands of Difappointment
bearing S. 26 deg. W. and S. 34 deg. W.
and the extremes of land to the eaftward
N. 66 deg. E. and S. 20 deg. E.    At five,
our depth of water was only feven fathom,
fo hauled our wind, arid, at half paft five,
we dropped our anchors in fix fathom,
; with a brown fandy bottom, the eaftern
land bearing from N. 73 deg. E. toS. 8*
deg. E. and the ifles of Difappointment
S. 33 deg. W. and S. 39 deg. W.   Soon
after, captain Cook difpatched a boat to
found to the N. E. ; and, after a flay of
about half an hour, fhe returned, with an
account of the water proving very (hallow in that quarter ; this determined him
to weigh the firft opportunity, becaufe,
if blowing weather came on, the fhips
might drag their anchors, and by that
means run into fhoal water.    At nine,
we had a breeze from the  northward,
which both veffels took the advantage of,
and got up their anchors, flanding to the
weftward.
1 At At  four  the next morning  (Auguft
12th),   the weather was moderate   and
jfirie, our courfe W. N. W. with the wind
at N. . but at eight it became   cloudy,
the extremes of the eaftern land (part of
America) bearing S, 52 deg. E. and S. 36
deg. E. and the extremes of the land to
the weftward (part of Afia) from S. 60
deg. W. to S. 49 deg. W. our foundings
being twenty-nine fathom, fandy bottom.
At noon, our obferved latitude wras 66
deg. 19 min. N. when a high peaked hill
upon the American fhore bore S. 44 deg„
E.    At eight in the evening, the peaked
hill bore S.   34 deg. E. and the ifles of
Difappointment S. 8 deg. W. and S. 15
deg. W. diftant about eight leagues. - At
twelve, we tacked and flood N. E, | fsL
the wind N. W. by N.    We were obliged
to tack frequently in the courfe of the day,
on account of our irregular foundings.
The next day we had light airs and
calms, with fair and pleafant weather, and
faw many arctic and other gulls about^
Vol, I: Z witbf m     7
\ I m )   ■.   I   ;
with a few guillemots. At eight, tne'
land to the weftward, which was now
almoft out of fight, bore S. 26 deg. W.
diftant twelve leagues,- our foundings
from twenty to thirteen fathoms. At
noon, it became' quhe cairn, when the
weftern land bore from S* 27 deg. W. to
S. 34 deg. W. the peaked fell S. 29 deg*
E. and the northermoft part of the American continent S. 51 deg. E.? At eight
in the evening, we had a fine breeze from
the S. E. our courfe being N. when th%
northern part of the eaftern land bore S.-
70 deg. E. diftant twelve or fourteen
leagues. At twelve,-we had frefh breezes
from the fonthward, with cloudy weather*
but no land in fight. ;
At four in the morning (Auguft 14th),,
We had frefh breezes from the S. E. with
fqually weather, our foundings twenty-
two fathom. At nine, faw land, the extremes of which bore from N. 6y~ deg. E.
to N. 14 deg. W. and at ten, it became
hazy, with fmall drizzling rain.   At rioo%
thg p -• : . < 339 )
Pf breeze freihened to a gale, the extremes of the land bearing N. E; | E. and
E. We had many fulmars about, as
well as gulls and guillemots. At two in
the afternoon, we fhoaled our water to
thirteen fathom, fo tacked and flood to
the Si S. W. At four, wore fhip, our
courfe E. N. E. and at five bore away to
W. the extremes of the land in fight from
E. by S. to N. Wi by N. the neareft part
bearing N. about three leagues diftant.
At eight, our foundings were fixteen fathom, and at twelve it was fqually, with
ram.
The' riekt morning wTas cloudy, with
fmall rain, and ftrong gales from the S.
by W. attended with hard fqualls, which*
With a heavy fea going, tumbled us about
terribly. At fix, we were .obliged to take
in all our fails but the fore-fail, maintop-fail, and mizen-ftay-fail, and to get
down top-gallant-yards. At eight, it became rather more moderate, and our
foundings   were   twenty-three   fathom,
i a. with With a muddy bottom. At noon, our latitude wras 68 deg. 20 min. N. when we'
altered our courfe to N. W. the wind being S. S. W. In the afternoon, the wind
decreafed greatly, and our foundings were
"twenty-fix fathom. At twelve, we hauled our wind, our courfe being W. | S.
At one in the morning (Auguft 16th),
We bore aWay, our courfe N. N. W. the
wind S. by W. but at four, as it became
thick and foggy, we hauled our wind a-
gain. At feven, the fog. clearing away,
w^e purfued our former courfe. Several
fmall birds of the water-wagtail genus
flew round the fhips, and fome perched^
upon the rigging. At four in thejafternoon, our foundings were twenty-three
fathom, and at eight twenty fathom, the
bottom a foft mud.
The next day was foggy, with fine"
clear intervals of funfhine, our courfe N.
N. E. At eight, our foundings were
fourteen fathom ; and we began to experience more cold than we had done before^ ' I  34i   ) ;
fore, the thermometer Handing at 3 5 deg.
At ten, we had thirteen fathom, when we,
hauled our wind, keeping a N. W. courfe.
At noon, our obferved latitude wras 70.
deg. 32 min. N. and at one in the afternoon we defcried a large field of ice, extending from N. N. E. to W. by N. and*'
faw feveral morfes, or fea-horfes, fwim-
ming  about.    At   four,   it   coming   on:
foggy,   and being very near the ice, we
tacked fhip, our foundings twenty-three
fathom.    At  half paft  five, we tacked
and flood again to the N. W. but were
foon after obliged to defift, and purfue
out former courfe, on account of the ice.
We now faw from the maft-head another
large field of  ice bearing S   W.    We
continued   tacking   in | this manner till
twelve, when, having only thirteen fathom, we proceeded in a W. N. W. dw
rection.    We purfued this courfe till four
the   next morning, at  which time, we
tacked in twenty fathom.    At fix, we
Jiad a fhqwer of fleet, and at feven, hav, I   "• -I ( 342
ing only twelve fathom, we again, tacfesef
and flood to the N. W. the wind beingf
W. by S. and W. S, W, We were now
in rather a difagreeable fituation, being
unable to proceed to the eaftward on account of the fhoalnefs of water, and the
Wind not permitting us to weather the ice
pn the other tack ; we befides found a
|irong current fetting to the eaftward,
At eleven, we faw the ice again, dHlarit
about three miles, and at twelve were
clofe in with it: it appeared higher than
that of yefterday, and made in varioil^
odd forms'and was that kind of ice calletfr
packed ice. We foon after tacked, the
thermometer Handing at 327 deg. and
our obferved latitude was 70 deg. 43
min. N. We faw four or five arctic gulls
#nd two whales. At half paft five in the
afternoon, we defcried a low patcjh of
barren land, almoft inelofed with ice, expending from E. to S. E. by S. our diftance from the neareft part being aboifit
^tiree, miles, and our foundings thirteen
m fathom* (   343   )
fathom. Captain Cook called this Icy
Cape. Our longitude to-day, at eight
^n the morning, was 198 deg. 34 min. E.
At fix, the Difcovery, being to the eaftward of her confort, flioaled her water
almoft fuddenly to fix fathom and a quarter, when fhe directly fired a gun and
tacked, as did the Resolution, whofe
depth of water was nine fathom. At feven, ©ur foundings vaskd from feven to
thirteen fat|om% bpfc very irregularly,
and at eight they were from eight to ten
fathoms. We found that the cuipent had
$%Hried *fs feveral miles farther to the eaftward than we were yefterday. At half
paft eleven, we again tacked, flandimg to
the S. W. with the wind N. W.
The next day (Auguft 19th), the
weather was very variable ; fometimes
the fky was totally ohfcured by fhowers
of fleet and fnow. and at other tijnes fcarce
a cloud was to ba feen. At eight in the
paorning, ws tacked and flood to the N,
Wt with the wind W. S. W. our found-
M2 2 4.     .    ■  ' -,; inp wmmmm
' |<    344    )     '   ■ I
|ngs being thirteen fathom. At eleven,
paffed many pieces of loofe ice, and at
twelve faw more ice a-head, our obferved
latitude being 70 deg. 8 min. N. At
two, we tacked and flood to the fouth-
ward, and foon after, obferving many
herds of morfes fleeping upon the ice,
captain Gook ordered out boats to attack
and kill fome. In the courfe of the afternoon, the Refolution's people killed
nine, and the pifcovery's four. As foon
as they were brought on.board, the fea-
rnen began to cut them up, and, a frefh
meal being in our prefent fituation a very
defirajble object, feveral fleaks were taken*
off and broiled, which were declared to be
very tolerable eating by fome, and much
difliked by others ; the flavour of the
meat was fifhy, and flrongly impregnated with train-oil, and, in its appearance,,
very coarfe and black. Having fecured
our boats, we purfued our courfe, and at
eight our foundings were fourteen fa-
thorn?
Ill   ' -'t.  ■   ■ ■   -   III i: ^   345   ^
It was thick and foggy almoft the
whole of the next day (AuguH 20th.) At
three in the morning, thought we faw the
appearance of land, the extremes of
which bore N. E. and S. E. by S. diftant
about four or five miles. We had light
airs, and our foundings were fourteen faT
thorn.
The fog continued till half paft ten the
following day, when it became tolerably
cjear, and we faw land extending from E.
N. E. to S. E. by E. At noon, our obferved latitude was 69 deg. 33 min. N?
our longitude, at eight in the morning,
being 195 deg. 56 min. E.; our found-
ipgs were thirteen fathom, and we had
but little wind. j|,t four in the afternoon, the extremes bore E. by N. and S.
by W. Qur diftance off fhore being fix or
feven leagues. At eight, we found a
fmall fet of the water from the N. N. E.
and at twelve wq had light airs and fair
weather;.      — ( •
At ■|- ;     ■   (346   )
At four the next morning (Auguft 2 2d)1
the extifcmes of the land in fight bore
from S. 10 deg. W. to N. 73 deg. E. our
diftartce from the fhore about eight or
nine leagues. It foon after became thick
and foggy, and continued fo the remaining part of the day. At eight, our foundings were feventeen fathom and a half,
with a fandy bo&om, our courfe being
W. the wind S. S. W. At noon, we had
nineteen fathom, the bottom a hard mud^
and at eight in the evening they increafed
to twenty-one fathom. In the courfe of
the day, we obferved many flocka of
fmall bitds flying to the fouthward, and
faw a great number of ducks. At twelve,
we heard a noife refembling that of a furf
breaking over rock§ : we immediately
wore fhip and flood off to the E. S. E..
o^r depth of water being twenty-two fathom. The winds throughout the day
were very light and variable.
In the morning we had' light breezes
and thick foggy weather, and at half paft
one : (   347   )
one paft fome drift ice." At eight we had
twenty-two fathom, and at noon our
courfe was W. S. W. the wind N. At
four in the afternoon the fog cleared
away, but the weather was cloudy, and w$
had feveral fhowers of fnow; the thermometer varying from 42 j deg. to 35
deg. At twelve our foundings encreafed
jfo twenty-five fathom.
We had open cloudy weather the next
day (Aug, 24th), with frefh breezes from
the N. W, our courfe as yefterday. At
eight our depth of water was twenty
fathom, with a fandy bottom, and our
longitude about 190 degr 25 min, E. At
noon our latitude Was 69 deg. 30 min.
N. and in the afternoon we had feveral
fhowers of fnow, and ohfVved a fwell
from the W. N. W. At eight we had
thirty fathoms.
At three in the morning, we tacked
and flood S. by W. the wind W. by S*
and at five faw the appearance of land to
$ie S. E. which we iminediately flood
1 -     ;; fa* I
( 348- I
for, but foon after djfcovered it to be on-»
iy a fog-bank, fo refumed our former
courfe. At fix the wind fhifted to the
S- W. our courfe being W. N. W. and
at eight we got twenty-nine fathoms,
with a muddy bottom. In the afternoon
we had frefh gales from the W. S. W,
and at fix paffed fome drift wood. At
eight our foundings were twenty-eight
fathoms.
The wind fhifted in the courfe of the
night to N. N. W. our courfe being W.
and W. by S. At fix (Aug. 26th), we
had fome land birds about the fhip, and
at eight faw the ice from the maft-head
extending from N. by E. to N. W. 1 W.
our longitude being 184 deg. 2 min. E.
At noon our latitude was 69 deg. 38 min.
N. the ice then bearing from N. E. by N.
to N. by W. diftant about four or five
miles; and our courfe being W. by S.
with the wind at N. N. W. At fix, the
wind coming round to the fouth-eaftward,
we hauled off the ice, being not more than
Wk half
/ .   ; (§349§j        '    '
I
half a mile' diftant frqrri it.= At eight wef
tacked fhip, and flood to the N. E. the
extremes of the ice bearing N. N. E. and
S. | W. our foundings being, twenty-fix
fathoms.
At four in the-:mormng (Aug. 27'tM,
we tacked and flood to the S. W. having
frefh gales from the S. S; E. attended with
raim. At one in the afternoo'n, faw the
ice from W. S. W. to N. W. our foundings being twenty-fix fathom, with a
muddy bottom* At half paft five it came
on thick aud foggy, and foon after we had
rain. We alfo faw feveral morfes or fea-
horfes, and many fmall birds, which We
fuppofed to be the tringa hbata of Lirmse-
ns. At feven, being near the,ice,Jour
boats were got out to make another attack upon the fea-horfes, which though
not very palatable, were flill preferable to
felt provifions, and they befides afforded
us a good flock of blubber, which we afterwards found of fingular fervice to us,
as our flock of oil muft otherwife have
9 beeri *
b€dn all exhaled, without the poflibility
of renewing it. They returned at nine,
but were obliged to leave the major-part
of What they had kille^behmd, as it eameV
on foggy, and they were appre herifive*
of lofing the fhips, as well as being en-
clofed hy the ice. Art twelve we tacked
iand flood to Ae Weftwaifd, the wind be-
ing~M. J*J. W. and $heweather thick and
foggy- :" "^;'%    '% .'   /"-'J
The next morning at lave, we tacked
-fiiip,afidpuffiuedaN*-j W.coutfe,having
LJight breezes  from the W. by N. and
inuch loofe ice about.    From eight till
noon it -v^as neatly cahsx, durtag wh«0*
dime moft of^ur boats were employed in
iidHing fea-horfes, whiA werein this part
.-jrmrnerojtis beyond imagiimtion.    We obferved many of their young, Which they
are cremarkably earefulof, arid will defend
ito'lhe utmoft : upon the leaft appearance
jof-danger they embrace them with their
?fbre feet, and plung into the Water.   Our'
people killed feveral of them, but tne old
ones •     j (   35^   ) r
ones would not quit the boats till they
Were deltroyed alfo ; and once they were
<very near Having the Difcovery's fmall
cutter with their enormous teeth. At
four the ice Extended from N. to S. S. W.
zmr courfe being S. with the wind E. S. E,
At.half paft five we'tacked, and flood to
the N. ^E. not being able to clear the ice
upon the other tack, the eaftern extremity
|of which bore S. by W. diftant about one
mile, and extended a confiderable diftance1
to the S. W. At feven it blew pretty
frefh, and at eight we -got down top-gallant-yards, and reefed our top-fails; our
foundings were twenty-fix fathom. At
twelve our courfe wras E. N. E. the ice,
Which we were very near, bearing N. W.
The thermometer to-day was as low as
31 deg. *
The next day (Aug. 29th), We had
dark cloudy weather, with moderate gales
from the W. N. W. and N- W. our
courfe being S. W. At four the ice bore
from N. to W. by S. and at eight there
fell '2
111 -"I*  * 3j
fell feveral fhowers of fmall rain, attende
with frequent thick fogs.     At nine, out
longitude being nearly 18 * deg. 18 mim
E. we faw land, being part of the cor£-
tinent of Alia,-- bearing from S." S. W. to
S. W.  our foundings at this time were
twenty-three fathoms, with a fandy bottom.    At noon, our latitude by account
was 68 deg* 46 min.   N. when the exu
tremes of the land bore from S. 5 5 degu
E« five miles diftant, to N. 85 deg. W,
three  leagues  diftant,  the' neareft  part
bearing S. by W.  about two miles,1 our
foundings being eight fathom.    We foon
after tacked, and Hood to the N. N. E
the wind N. W.   The  land to the eaftward; was low and level, that behind it
moderately high, with little or no fnow,
but the whole as barren as can well be
conceived : we did not obferve the leaft
ke upon or near the fhore.    At two we
tacked and Hood W. S. W. | W. At four
we had fhowers of fmall rain, our foundings were fifteen, and at five twelve fk-
Ife R thorns i&aa
I   353
thorns. At fix tacked again, and proceeded in a N. E. by N. direction, the
extremes of the land bearing S. E. and
W. S. W. our diftance off fhore about
three miles. At ten we brought-to, maintop-fail to the mall, for the night.
At two the next morning (Aug. 30th)
We bore away and made fail, our courfe
E. the wind N. N. W._ the weather dark
and gloomy, with continued fhowrers of
fnow. At eight our foundings were
twenty fathoms, and at ten faw the land
bearing S. S. W. ~ W. At eleven, the
weather being clearer, we faw the extreme^ of it, which bore S. E. by E. and
W. by N. our foundings regularly de-
creafing as we approached it, from twenty to ten fathoms, the neareft part being
about three miles diftant. It was of a very
moderate elevation, and almoft entirely
covered with fnow, which had fallen in
the courfe of the day. We foon after altered our courfe to S. E. and at noon the
land extended from W. ~ N. to E. S. E.
Vol. L i§A a our (    354   )
our foundings fourteen fathoms. At one
in the afternoon our courfe was N. E. by
E. the wind N. by W. At four aur depth
of water was fifteen fathom, and at fix
it fhoaled to ten, on which account we
hauled off. At eight the extremes bore
W. S. W. I W. and S. S. E. 1 E. the
nearefl part being about fix miles diftant.
At half paft eleven we hauled the wind,
and flood off for the night, our courfe being N. E. the wind N. N. W. ^
We bore away again to E. N. E. at
twro in the morning, and at four the land
bore S. E. by E. and S. W. by W. our diftance from the nearefl part being four
leagues. At fix we bore away to E. by
S. and at eight we had twenty-two fathom ;J the eaftern extreme appeared like
an ifland, but wre afterwards found jjiat it
Was connected with the main by low land,
and projected considerably from it. This
part captain Cook called Eaft Cape. At
noon it was hazy and cloudy over the
land ;  our latitude obferved was 67 deg.
m   ■•#• fv   ' '    m (   355   )
38 min. N. At four the eaftermoft land
in fight bore S. 9 leagues diftant, and the
Eaft Cape N. 80 deg? W, three leagues.
At half paft five faw more land bearing
S. 77 deg, E. fo hauled farther off, our
foundings being twelve fathoms. At
twelve it became fqually With fhoWers of
fleet, our depth of water being thirteen
fathom. In the courfe of the day we faw
great numbersrof brown fheerwaters, and
fome puffins, and fea parrots,        ||
The next day (Sept. ifl), we had open
cloudy weather, with flight fhowers of
fleet. At half paft two in the morning,
we tacked and flood N. E. by E. At fix
we obferved large flocks of birds flying
paft us, and at eight our foundings were
fixteen fathom, with a black fandy bottom, the extremes of the land bearing
S. E. by E. and S. W. our diftance from
fhore being between three and four leagues.
At four in the afternoon we w-ere within
feven miles of the land, which was moderately high and level, and without thofe
A a 2 irregular; I   "I -i 356 )      I
irregular fummits fo frequent on the American coafl; we did not however fee the
leaft appearance of trees.
Early the next morning we bore away
to E. by N. the wind N.-. W. by N. and
at four we had, frefh breezes, with frequent fhowers of fnow. At fix, we faw
fome diftant land to the eaftward, appearing like an ifland, which bore S. E. i
E. We had many whales about, and
variety of Tea-birds, fuch as fheerwaters,
fulmars-, arctic and other gulls-,, and
numbers of the fcalfoped-toed fandpiper^
[tringa lobatar Lin.). Our obferved latitude was- 66 deg. 40 min. N. and our
foundings twenty-one fathonw At three
in the afternoon, we faw more land, bearing S. 72 deg. E. and at ten were Handing round the eafiermofl part of the continent, near the: fpot we anchored off on
the icth of AuguH, our courfe E. S. E.
Part of the fore and the whole of the afternoon were very pleafant: the land, as-
we proceeded farther to the fouthward,.
became -J" (357  )  ■ ;*■
became ki general more lofty and elevated, but flill very regular, with many low5
and long extended plains, which were
well clothed with herbs and plants of
various kinds.
S Our weather the next day was clear*
and pleafant, with a fine breeze from the:
N. W. our courfe being S. S. W. At
eight, we were abreaft of the place we:
flopped at on^Aiiguft the ioth, the north
point of the road bearing S. 64 deg. W.
four miles diftant. The wind being fair,
captain Cook purfued his courfe, and continued to trace the land, which now made
a confiderable bend ta the fouth-wefl-
ward. By the help of our gfaffes, we
faw two or three towns as we paffed a-
long, but none of the inhabitants would-
venture out to us. We had many birds
about, and a hawk flew by the fhips*
Our latitude to-day was 65 deg. 31 min.
N, At two in the afternoon, weobfervf
ed a fmall drain of the tide from the N.
E.    At four, the two points of the road
8.     H    il k^e* ■;-.-■  (is* J
bore N.jo. deg.r E. and N. 40 deg. W.
and the fouthermoft land in fight S. 22
deg. W. At twelve, we hauled the wind,
our courfe JL by N.
In the morning early (September 4th),
we bore away again as ufual, our courfe
being N. W. by W. At eight, we had
no ground at twenty-five fathom ; but at
eleven fhoaled from twelve to feven fathoms, and foon after to five : we directly hauled off, and our foundings becainji
gradually deeper. At noon, we faw a
fpit of low land, running off from the
fcuthern extreme, which bore S. by W.
As we approached this, our depth of water became lefs. Our latitude was- 64
deg. 39 min. N. At three in the afternoon, we bore away for the American
continent, our courfe S. S. E. the wind
N. by W. and N. N. W. At four, the
fouthermoft land in fight bore S. 46 deg.
W. and at fix S. 5i deg. W. At nine,
we hauled the wind, our courfe being E,
w
N.
END   OF   THE   FIRST   VOLUME.    ;  

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