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A narrative of the adventures and sufferings of John R. Jewitt ; only survivor of the crew of the ship… Jewitt, John R. (John Rodgers), 1783-1821 1816

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ff<3»^i. wm^tj
' Dire scenes of horror on a savage shores
4 la which, a witness s&d, a part I bore."
NEW-YORK i      *
Ko. &U Pearl-strefet
J. G.
MO 7..
i :*c SOTO JUM- •
^  ¥MJL^ m%
Beit Remembered, That on the eighth day of March, in the thirty-ninth year of the independence of the United States of America, John It. Jezoitt, of the said District,
JC. S. hath deposited in this office, the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as
proprietor in the words following, to wit :
j| A Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John It. Jewitt; only survivor of
the crew of the ship Boston, during.a captivity of nearly three years among the savages of Nootka Sound: with an account of the manners, mode of living, and religious
opinions of the natives. Embellished with a plate, representing the ship in possession of the savages.
'Dire scenes of horror on a savage shore,
" In which, a witness sad, a part I bore."
In conformity to an Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled "An Act
for the encouragement of Learning, for securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to
the Authors and proprietors oCsuch copies, during the times therein mentioned."
Clerk of the District of Connecticut,
A true copy of Record, examined and sealed by me, *
Clerk of the District of Connecticut*
,! S
w& '$$kme$ of the Crew of the Ship Boston, belonging to Boston, in Massachusetts, owned by Messrs. F. fy T. Amory, Merchants of that place: all oj
whom, excepting two, ivert on the 22d of March, 1803, barbarously mur*
dcrcd by the savages of Nootka. gp
—since dead;
John K. Jewitt, of Boston, in England, Armourer,
the writer of the Journal from whence this Narrative is taken, and who
at present, November, 1816, resides in Middjetown, in the state of Conr
John Salter,
B. Delonissai
William Ingraharn,
Edward Thompson,
Adam Siddle,
Philip Brown,
John Dorthy,
Abraham Waters,
Francis DufEeld,
John Wilson, (black man,)
William Caldwell,
Joseph Miner,
William Robinson,
Thomas Wilson,
Andrew Keliv%
Robert Button,
James M'Clay, fe
Thomas Platten,
Thomas Newton,
Charles Bates,
John Hall,
Samuel Wood,
Peter Alstrom,
Francis Marten,
Jupiter Senegal, (black man,)
of Boston,
of New-York,
of BIyth, (England,)
of Hull,       Do.
of Cambridge, (Mass.)**'
of Situate, Do.   *e
of Philadelphia,   m
of Penton, (Eng.)
of Virginia,    **
ot Boston,    §jjj
of Newburyport,
of Leigh, (Scotland.)
of Ayr, Do.
Do. Do.
of the Isle of Man,
of Dublin,
of Blakeney, Norfolk, (Eng.)
of Hull, Do.
of St. James Deeping,   Do.
of New-Castle, Do.
of Glasgow, (Scotland
John Thompson
who escaped
jgagg A List of Words in the Nootkian Language^ the
most in use*
Sfujfl, or. Moon,
Fresh water.
fountain, or hill.
Fire, or fuel.
A fish-hook.
Sick-a-minnyi Iron.
Toop-helth, €Hoth.
Cham-mass, Fruif.
~u .k ( Sweet, or pleasant
Cham-mas-sisb, ^ g the [^
Moot-sus, Powder.
Chee-pokes, Copper.
Hah-welks, Hungry.
Nee-sim-mer-hise, Enough
Knife, or dagger.
Goose, or duck.
To blow.
Een-a-qui-shit-tle, To kindle a fire.
Ar-teese, To bathe*
Ma-mook-su-mah, To go to fish.
Ar-smootish-check-up, A warrior.
Charalt-see-klat-tur- J Go off, or go
wah, (    away.
Ma-kook, To sell.
Kah-ah-pah-chilt,| GJ^nJe some-
Oo-nah, How many*
f«-yah-ish, Much.
Kom-me-tak, I understand.
I-yee-ma-hak, I do not understand.
Mac-kam- >
mah-sish,  )
To play.
To laugh.
Do you want to buy.
Bring it.
One hundredr
FOR JUNE, 1815.
.REVIEW*.      :'|r I  '  T
& Narrative of the adventures and sufferings of John R. Jewittj.
during a captivity of nearly three years among the savages
of Nootka Sound: urith an. account of the manners, modes of
Hying) and religious opinions of the natives. Middletowny
G onnecticu t, 1816*. 12ano*
The ship Boston, of Boston, Massachusetts} was surprised by
the savages, on the coast of Nootka Sound, in March, 1&0S.,,
when the captain and all his crew were massacred, except. J>ew~
kt, the armourer, and another, who luckily escaped the slaughter^
and. was afterwards preservedby the address of his companion.
Jewitt's own life was saved by the Nootka king, who wished
to keep him in his service to* repair his muskets-,.and, make
daggers and other iron and steel weapons for himself and his
tribe.. Soon after this massacre, the ship teok fire and was totally destroyed.. All hopes of present escape being now cut off*>
Jewitt endeavoured to reconcile himself to his fate, and to make
his condition as comfortable jas possible. He applied himself to>*
learning the language, in which he soon became a proficient;;
and, by prudent\ compliant, and* cheerful deportment, joined
with his skillin the manufacture of daggers* and Cheetoolth, or*
war clubs, he speedily made himself a great favourite^ of the*
king, Maquina, and his people.. He was at last considered by;
them as an adopted.citizen, and one of high rank too ; for mv
embassy was sent to^another tribe to procure him a wife : audi
he had.the honour of marrying a young A-i-tiz-zart princess*.
But in spite of his royal alliance, and all his influence alid*ho-^
"  •!      'ffflr' T '"    P      ' Wff^:   ' 6
nours at court, he never could subdue hk-disgust to the superstition, the filth, andgrossness of savage manners, any more than
he could reconcile his%aste to their luxurious repasts of blubber
and putrid fish; and he sighed in secret to return to a Christian
land and civilized society. After making several ineffectual attempts to communicate .intelligence of his situation to some-
European or American vessel, he at last succeeded, and by the
kid of some address, effected his escape in July, 1800, when
he was taken on board a brig from Boston.
The immediate occasion of the massacre on board the ship
Boston, was awattto insult offered by the captain to Maquina, the Nootka king; but it was in fact the bloody revenge of
a long series of injuries which this tribe had experienced from
their civilized visiters. An English or American captain had
robbed Maquina's house by force, in his absence ; a Spaniard
had wantonly killed four of his chiefs ; and, finally, a captain
Hanna had resented a petty theft of one of the natives, who
Stole a chisel from his carpenter, by firing upon their canoes*
and killing twenty of them.
It is by bloody atrocities such as these, and by the propagation of vice and disease, that civilized man has hitherto delighted to display his superiority over the savage. Shall we then
wonder that the Christian name has become a reproach and an
abomination among the heathen—that the missionary labours
in vain, as long as Christian faith is thus contradicted by Christian practice ?
 1 Oh what are these ?
Death's ministers—who thus deal death
Inhumanly to men, and multiply,
Ten thousand fold, the sin of him who slew
His brother; for of whom such massacre
Make they, but of their brethren, men of men r}
The Nootkians are not a very interesting people; they occupy about a middle rank in the scale of intelligence amoBgt)i% REVIEW. T
savages of the eastern world; they are decidedly inferior in
ability and quickness of conception to the inhabitants of the
Sandwich islands, and as much superior tofthe miserable natives
of New-Holland; while they seem to be more gross and filthy in
their manners, but less licentious in their morals, than most of
the islanders of the South Seas, and the other savages of that
part of the globe. They are described, such as they are: the
voyager neither attempts, like Bougainville, and the earlier
visiters of Otaheite, to adorn his savages with the elegance
and taste of Arcadian simplicity; nor does he dwell with complacent vanity on his own exploits, like Valiant among the
Hottentots—a second Gulliver in Lilliput.
As Jewitt understood their language, and was finally adopted
into the nation, his account of the religious opinions and worship, the manners, customs, and government of the Nootka savages, is curious and satisfactory. These are%ubjects upon
which the traveller, who is ignorant of the language of the
people whom he describes, and new to their usages, is liable to
the grossest mistakes. We see this every day in the ludicrous
blunders which Frenchmen, and other foreigners make, with respect to our own laws and customs ; and how much more strongly do all these causes of error operate where there is no sort
of community, in manners or religion, to guide conjecture. We
do not wish to give a disproportionate importance to this unassuming little volume, and shall therefore abstain from extract
or analysis. It is proper, however, to state, that there is scarce
any relation of savage manners which can lay higher claim to
authenticity than this simple narration. The facts are undoubt-
ed,ahd the book was prepared for the press by a literary gentleman of Connecticut, who has scrupulously abstained from
all digression or embellishment of style, and restricted himself
to a plain relation of the story, in simple and correct language*
The form and size of this volume afford pretty strong proof
liiat arts of literary manufacture are yet in their infancy amopg
^'-^n 8 REVIEW.
us. If by any clianee these materials had fallen into the hands
of one of the regularly-bred literary artisans of London, the
lean narrative would have been larded and stufied out with
sonnets, sentiments, and* philosophy, with digressions and- disquisitions, political, commercial, and economical, until at length,
" J.ewitt's Voyages and Travels" were fit to be ushered to the
world in full pomp of quarto typography. The very mention of
the name of Kinneclimmets, the Climmerkabee. of his Nootkian
majesty, an officer who discharges the double duties of poet
laureat and court wit, and whose sole business,is to amuse the
king and his subjects with monkey tricks and buffoonery, would:
have naturally led to,an examination of the relative merits of
the English comic writers of the present age, and a discussion*
of the peculiar excellences of Dihdin, Cherry, Reynolds, Mor.*
ton, and George Colman the younger. A still more favourable
opportunity for, digressing wrould be found in Mr. Jewitt's account of the Nootkian orators, of whom he observes," that in
speaking., they appear to be in the most violent rage, acting like
ao many maniacs, foaming at. the mouth, and spitting, most fti?
riously; but. this, says he, is rather a fashion.with them than.a
demonstration of malignity, as, in. their public speeches^ they
always use the same violence, and he is esteemed the greatest
orator who- bawls the loudest, stamps, tosses himself about,
foams, and spits the most." This would ofxourse have led to
a disquisition on the present state of parliamentary ancfepolitical
eloquence in Great Britain and the United States*
It. would have been well if this were all; for, ^as our worthy
armourer relates, with grave simplicity, that Yeailhlower, the
king's eldest brother, (a royal duke we presume,), came tcrJnm,
for the purpose of getting Ins teeth filed sharp, in,order to bite
off his wife's nose, your, thorough bookmaker could never have-
lost so glorious an opportunity to dilate this little matrimonial
squabtjle, into a M Genuine Book" of the Nootkian court, for the;
improvement of the morals and t&ste of the British axicLAjaie^
riean public, and the edification of those who are desirous of
prying into the present state of royal and noble morals, in every
quarter of the globe.
Our Connecticut Redacteur has done much better ; by scrupulously adhering to the simple truth, he has made a book
which, while it may communicate a good deal of entertainment
and useful information to all classes of readers, is peculiarly fitted
for the perusal of the young; it forms, in fact, a very appropriate
companion to Robinson Crusoe* It is, to be sure, not so enter*
taining; that was an advantage not to be obtained without bold
deviation from real facts ; but it is written in the same unaffected, perspicuous, and pleasing style; and though the writer never
indulgerin reflections or general remarks, a serious air of piety
and morality reignj through the whole.
I was bom in Boston, a considerable borough
town in Lincolnshire, in Great Britain, on the
21st of May, 1783. My father, Edward Jewitt,
was by trade a blacksmith, and esteemed among
the first in his line of business in that place. At
the age of three years I had the misfortune to
lose my mother, a most excellent woman, who
died in childbed, leaving an infant daughter, who,
with myself, and an elder brother by a former
marriage of my father, constituted the whole of
our family. My father, who considered a good
education as the greatest blessing he could bestow on his children, was very particular in paying every attention to us in that respeqt, always
exhorting us to behave well, and endeavouring
to impress on our minds the principles of virtue
and morality, and no expense in his power was
spared to have us instructed in whatever might
render us useful and respectable in society. My
brother., who was four years older than myself,
and of a more hardy constitution, he destined for
his own trade, but to me he had resolved to give
an education superior to that which is to be ob*
-Jm 12
narrative *>f
taitffed in a common school, it being his intetitioft
that I should adopt one of the learned professions."
Accordingly, at the age of twelve, he took tne
from the school in which 1 had been taught the
first rudiments of learning, and placed me under
the care of Mr. Moses, a celebrated teacher of an
academy at Donnington, abouttwenty miles from
Boston, in order to be instructed in the Latin Ian*
guage, and in some of the higher branches of the
Mathematics. I there made considerable proficiency in writing, reading, and arithmetic, and
obtained a pretty good knowledge of navigation,
and of surveying; but my progress in Latin was
slow, not only owing to the little inclination 1 felt
for learning that language, but to a natural impediment in my speech, which rendered it extremely difficult for me to pronounce it, so that in
a short lime, with my father's consent, I wholly
relinquished the study.
The period of my stay at this place was th6
most happy of my life. My preceptor, Mr. MoseS,
was not only a learned, but a virtuous, benevolent, and amiable man, universally beloved by*
his pupils, who took delight in his instruction, and
to whom he allowed every pfoper amusement
that consisted with attention to their studies.
One of the principal pleasures I enjoyed, Was
in attending the fair, which is regularly held twice
a year at Donningtofi, ifi the spring and in the JOHN R. JEWITT,
fall; the second day being wholly devoted to
selling horses, a prodigious filmiber of which are
brought thither for that purpose. As the scholars
on these occasions, were always indulged with a
holyday, I cannot express with what eagerness of
youthful expectation I used to anticipate these
fairs, nor what delight I felt at the various shows,
exhibitions of wild beasts, and other entertainments that they presented* I was frequently visited
by my father, who always discovered much joy
on seeing me, praised me for my acquirements,
and usually left me a small sum for my pocket
expenses.    .       .   j|; •- \
Among the scholars at this academy, there was
one named Charles Rice, with whom I formed a
particular intimacy, which continued during the
whole of my stay. He was my class and room
mate, and as the town he came from, Ashby, was
more than sixty miles off, instead of returning
home, he used frequently, during the vacation,
to go with me to Boston, where he always
met with a cordial welcome from my, father,
who received me on these occasions with the
greatest affection, apparently taking much pride
in me. My friend in return used to take me
with him to an uncle of his in Donnington, a
very wealthy man, who, having no children of his
own, was very fond of his nephew, and on his account, I was always a welcome visiter at the
mtm 14
house. I had a good voice, and an ear for music,
to which I was afevays passionately attached^
though my father endeavoured to (Jjgeourage this
propensity, considering it (as is too frequently the
case) but an introduction to a life of idleness and
dissipation ; and having been remarked for my
singing at church, which was regularly attended
on Sundays and Festival days by the scholars^
Mr. Morthrop, my friend Rice's uncle, used frequently to request me to sing; he was always
pleased with my exhibitions of this kind, and it
was no doubt one of the means that secured me
so gracious a reception at his house. A number
of other gentlemen in the place would sometimes
send for me to sing at their houses, and«as I was
not a little vain of my vocal powers, I was much
gratified on receiving these invitations, and accepted them with the greatest pleasure. ; , .M
Thus passed away the two happiest years of
my life, when my father, thinking that I had received a sufficient education for the profession he
intended rne for, took me from school at Donnington, in order to apprentice me to Doctor
Mason, a surgeon of eminence at Conningsby,in
the neighbourhood of the celebrated Sir Joseph
Banks. With regret did I part from my school acquaintance, particularly my friend Rice, and returned home with my father, on a short visit to
toy family preparatory to my intended appren- i
ffceship. T?he disinclination I ever had felt for
the profession my father wished me to pursue,
was still further increased on my return. When a
child, I was always fond of being in the shop5
among the workmen, endeavouring to imitate
what I saw them do \ this disposition so far increased, after my leaving the academy, that I
colild not bear to hear the least mention madte
of my being apprenticed to a surgecfn, and I used
so many intreaties with my father to^persu&de him
to give up this plan, and learn me his own t£ade,
that he at last consented. More fortunate would it
probably have been for me, had I gratified the
Wishes of this affectionate parent, in adopting the
profession tie had chosen for me, than thus in-
duced him to fecrifice them to mine, However
it might have been, I was at lengm introduced .
into the shop, and my natural turn of mind corresponding with the employment,! became, in a
short time, uncommonly expert at the work to
which I was set. I now felt myself well contents
ed, pleased with rfty occupation, andtreated withfB
much affection by mytfather, and kindness by my
step-mother, my father having once more entered the state of matrimony with a widow much
younger than himself, who had been brought up
in a superior manner, and was an amiable and
sensible woman.
in 1.6
About a year after I had commenced this apprenticeship, my father finding that he could carry on his business to more advantage in Hull,
removed thither \f ith his family: an event of no
little importance to me, as it in a great measure
influenced my future destiny. Hull being one of
the best ports in England, and a place of great
trade, my father had there full employment for
his numerous workmen, particularly in vessel
work. This naturilljfleading me to an aequaitjt-
anc^ with the sailors on board some of the ships,
the many remarkable stories they told me of their
voyages and adventures, and of the manners and
customs of the nations they had seen, excitfd a
strong wish in me to visit foreign countries, which
was encreased by my reading the voyages of
Captain Cook, aiid some other celebrated navigators. ;       . ■* •-> .   \ .
Thus passed the four years that I lived at Hull^
where my father was esteemed by all who knew
him, as a worthy, industrious, and thriving man*
At this period a circumstance occurred which
afforded me the opportunity I had for some time
wished, of gratifying my inclination of going
abroad.   . *j|?  ; ijf ;■■•.■
Among our principal customers at Hull, were
the Americans who frequented that port, and
from whose conversation, my fath% as well as
myself, formed the most favourable, opinion of
that country, as affording an excellent field for
the exertions of industry, and a flattering prospect for the establishment of a young man in life.
In the summer of the year 1802, during the peace
between England and France, the ship Boston,
belonging to Boston, in Massachusetts, and commanded by Capt. John Salter, arrived at Hull,
whither she came to take on board a cargo of
such goods as were wanted for the trade with the
Indians on the North-West coast of America;
from whence, after having taken in a lading of
furs and skins, she was to proceed to China, and
from thence home to America. The ship having
occasion for many repairs and alterations, necessary for so long a voyage, the captain applied
to my father to do the smith work, which was very
considerable. That gentleman, who was of a social tito, used often to call at my father's house*
wheite he passed ttiany of his evenings, with his
*ghief and second mates, Mr. B. Delouisa, andl
Mr. William Ingraham 1 the latter a fine young
man of about twenty, of a most amiable temper,,
and of such affable manners as gained him the
love and attachment of our whole crew. These
gentlemen used, occasionally, to take me with
them to the theatre; an amusement which I was
Very fond of, and which my father rather encouraged than objected toT as he thought if a good
means of preventing young men, who are natyr*
w  .
&■& *8
rally inclined to seek for something to amuse
them, from frequenting taverns, alehouses, and
places of bad resort, equally destructive of the
health and morals, while the stage frequently
furnishes excellent lessons of morality and good
In the evenings that he passed at my fathers,
Captain Salter, who had for a great number of
years been at sea, and #een almost all parts of the
world, used sometimes to speak of his voyages,
and observing me to listen with much attention
to his relations, he one day, when I had brought
him some work, said to me in rather a jocose
manner, | John, how should you like to go with
me ?" I answered that it would give me great
pleasure ; that I had for a long time wished to
visit foreign countries, particularly America,
which I had been told so many fine stories of,
and that if my father would give his consent, and
he was willing to take me with him, I would go*
11 shall be very glad to do it," said he, " if your
father can be prevailed on to let you go, and as
I want an expert smith for an armourer, the one
I have shipped for that purpose not being sufficiently master of his trade, I have no doubt that
you will answer my turn well, as I perceive you
are both active and ingenious, and on my return
to America, I shall probably be able to do something much better for you in Boston; I will take the JO»N R. JEWITT.
first opportunity of speaking to your father about
it, and try to persuade him to consent.55 He accordingly, the next evening that he called at our
house, introduced the subject: my father at first
would not listen to the proposal. That best of
parents, though anxious for my advantageous establishment in life, could not bear to think of
parting with me : but on Captain Salter's telling
him of what benefit it would be to me to go the
voyage with him, and that it was a pity to keep a
promising and ingenious young fellow, like myself, confined to a small shop in England, when
if I had tolerable success, I might do so much
better in America, where wages were much'liigh-
er, and living cheaper, he at length gave up his
objections, and consented that I should ship on
board the Boston as an armourer, at the rate of
thirty dollars per month | with an agreement that
the amount due me, together with a certain sum
of money which my father gave Captain Salter
for that purpose, should be laid out by him on the
North-West Coast, in the purchase of furs, on my
account, to be disposed of in China for such
goods as would yield a profit on the return of the
ship; my father being solicitous to give me every
advantage in his power, of well establishing myself in my trade in Boston, or some other maritime town in America. Such were the flattering
expectations which this good man indulged rear
mVv' 20
pecting me. Alas! the fatal disaster that befell
us not only blasted all these hopes, but involved
me in extreme distress and wretchedness for a
long period after*. *|f*.. -.- .■:■■■ ^« - - \ • - ;|£;    • w
The ship having undergone a thorough repair^
and been well coppered, proceeded to take on
board her cargo, which consisted of English cloths,
Dutch blankets, looking-glasses, beads, knives,
razors, &c. which were received from Holland,
some sugar and molasses, about twenty hogsheads of rum, including stores for the ship, a great
quantity of ammunition, cutlasses, pistols, and
three thousand muskets and fowling pieces. The
ship being loaded and ready for sea, as I was preparing for my departure, my father came to mef
and taking me aside, said to me with much emotion, H John, I am now going to part with your
and heaven only knows if we shall ever again
meet. But in whatever part of the world you are,
always bear it in mind, that on your own conduct
will depend your success in life. Be honesty industrious, frugal, and temperate, and you will
not fail, in whatsoever country it may be your lot
to be placed, to gain yourself friends. Let the
Bible be your guide, and your reliance, in any
fortune that may befall you, on that Almighty Being, who knows how to bring forth good from evil.,
and who never deserts those who put their trust in
him." He repeated his exhortations to me, to JOHN R. JEWITT.
lead an honest and a Christian life, and to recollect that I had a father, a mother, a brother, and
sister, who could not but feel a strong interest in
my welfare, enjoining me to write him by the
first opportunity that should offer to England,
from whatever part of the world I might be in,
more particularly on my arrival in Boston. This
I promised to do, but long, unhappily was it, before I was able tojfuifil this promise. I then took
an affectionate leave of my worthy parent, whose
feelings would hardly permit him to speak, and
bidding an affectionate farewell to my brother,
sister, ap<d step-mother, who expressed the greatest solicitude for my futurej|fortyne, went om
board the ship, which proceeded to the Downs
to be ready for the first favourable wind. I found
myself well accommodated on board, as regard*
ed my work, an iron forge having been erected
on deck; this my father had made for the ship,
on a new plan, for which he afterwards obtained
a pateni; while a corner of the steerage was appropriated to my vice bench, so that in bad
weatheftl co^ld work below.  •:■,--* J| itf
: On the ftiird day of September, 1802, we sailed from the Downs, with a fair wi&d, in company
with twenty-four sail of American vessels, most
of which were bound home.    j§     ^   - *
I was seasick for a few of the first days, but it
was of short continuance, and on my recovery,
M ]
I found myself in uncommonly finePhealth and
spirits, and went to work with alacrity at my
forge, in putting in order some of the muskets,
and fnaking daggers, knives, and small hatchets,
for the Indian trade, while in vi7et and stormy
weather I was occupied bilow in filing and polishing them. This was my employment, having
but little to do with sailing Hhe vessel, though I
used occasionally to lend a hand in assisting the
seamen in taking in and making sail. As 1 had
never before been out of sight of land, I cannot
describe my sensations, after I had recovered
fronBlhe distressing effects of sea^ckness, on
viewing the mighty ocean by which I was surrounded, bounded only by the sky; while its
waves, rising in mountains, seemed every moment
to threaten our ruin. Manifest as is the hand of
Providence in preserving its creatures from destruction in no instance is it more so, than on the
great deep; for whether we consider in its tumultuary motions, the watery deluge tHat each
moment menaces to overwhelm us, the immense violence of its shocks, the little that interposes between us and death, a singleftplank
forming our only security, whiteh, should it unfortunately be lobsened, would pllinge us at once
into the abyss, our gratitede ought strongfy to be
excited towards that superintending Deity, who
-m   « AOHN R. J&WITT.
fjjso wonderful a manner, sustains our lives amid
the waves. - ; '^/.*i*-- •-: afigfrjfi;^  %; .:..  <
We had a pleasant and favourable passage of
twenty-nine days, to the island of St. Catharine,
on the coast of Brazils, where the Captain had
determined to stop a few days, to wood and
water. This place belongs to the Portuguese!
On entering the harbour we were saluted by the
fort, which we returned* The hext day the Governor of the island came on board of us with his
suit. Captain Salter received him w|th much
respect, and invited him to dine with him, which
he accepted* The ship remained at St. Catharine's four days, during which time we were busily employed,in takingin wood, water, and fresh
provisions; Captain %J|er thinking it best to
furnish himself here^with a full sfjpply for his
voyagfe to the North-West Coast, so aslnot to be
obliged to stop at the Sandwich Islands. Stf
Catharine is a very commodious place for vessels to stop at that are bound round Cape Horn,
as it abounds with springs of fine water, with excellent ofcahges, plantains, and bananas* >
:-, Having completed our stores, we put to sea*,
and on the twenty-fifth of December, at length
passed Cape Horn, which we had made no less
than thirty-six days before, but were repeatedly
forced back by contrary winds, experiencing very
$$ugh and tempestuous weather in doubling if* >w?
Rl !
Immediately after passing Cape Horn, all our
dangers and difficulties seemed to be at an end;
the weather became fine, and so little labour was
necessary on board the ship, that the men soon
Recovered from their fatigue, and were in excellent spirits. A few days after we fell in with an
English South Sea whaling ship, homeward
bound, which was the only vessel we spoke with
on our voyage. We now took the trade wind, or
monsoon, during which we enjoyed the finest
weather possible, so that for the space of a fortnight we were not obliged to reeve a topsail, or
make a tack; and so slight was the duty, and easy
the life of the sailors, during tfe time, that thef
appeared the happiest of any people in/the world.
Captain Salter, who had been for many years in
the East-India trade, was a most excellent seaman, and preserved the strictest order and discipline- on board his ship, though he was a man of
a mild temper and conciliating manners, and
disposed to allow every indulgence to his men,
not inconsistent with their duty. We had on
board a fine band #f mureic, with which, on Saturday nights, when the weather was pleasant, we
were accustomed to be regaled, the Captain ordering them to play for several hours, for the
amusement of the crew. This to me was most
delightful, especially during the serene evenings
which we experienced in traversing the Southern /.
0 £
Ocean. As foi: myself, during the day, I was con-
stantly occupied at my forge, in refitting or repairing some of the iron work of the vessel, but
principally in making tomahawks, daggers, &c.
for the North-West Coast. ||
- During the first part of our voyage, we saw
scarcely any fish, excepting some whales, a few
sharks, and flying fish; but after weathering Cape
Horn, we met with numerous shoals of sea-porpoises, several of which we caught; and as we had
been for some time without fresh provisions, I
found it not only a palatable, but really a very
excellent food. To one who has risver before
seen them, a shoal of these fish presents a very
striking and singular appearance; beheld at a
distance coming towards a vessel, they look not
unlike a great number of small black waves,
rolling over one another in a confused manner,
and approaching with great swiftness. As soon
as a shoal is seen, all is bustle and activity on
board the ship, the grains and the harpoons are
immediately got ready, and those who are best
skilled in throwing them take their stand at the
bow, and along the gunwale, anxiously awaiting
the welcome troop, as they come gamboling and
blowing around the vessel, in search of food.
When pierced with the harpoon, and drawn on
board, unless the fish is instantly killed by the
stroke, which rarely happens, it utters most piti-
3 2G
ful cries, greatly resembling those of an infant.
The flesh, cut into steaks and broiled, is not unlike
very coarse beef, and the harslet, in appearance
and taste, is so much like that of a hog, that it
would be no easy matter to distinguish the one
from the other : from this circumstance the sailors have given the name of the herring hog to this
fish. I was told by some of the crew, that if one
of them happens to free itself from the grains or
harpoons, when struck, all the others, attracted
bys the blood, immediately quit the ship, and
give chace to the wounded one, and as soon as
they overtake it, immediately tear it in pieces.
We also caught a large shark, whldh had followed
the ship for several days, with a hook which I
made for the purpose, and although the flesh was
by no means equal to that of the herring hog, yet
to those destitute, as we were, of any thing fresh,
I found it eat very well. After passing the Cape,
when the sea had become calm, we saw great
numbers of albatrosses, alai^erjtepwn and white
bird of the goose kind, one of which Captain Salter shot, whose wings measured from their extremities, fifteen feet. One thing, however, I
must not omit mentioning, as it struck me in a
most singular and extraordinary manner. This
was, that on passing Cape Horn, in December,
which was midsummer in that climate, the
tiights were so light, without any moon, that we JOHN R. JEWITT.
fcuntfno difficulty whatever in reading small print,
which we frequently did during our watches. %■
In this manner, with a fair wind and easy weather from the 28th of December, the period of our
passing Cape Horn, we pursued our voyage to
the northward, until the 12th of March, 180%
when we made Woody Point, in Nootka Sound,
on the NortH*West "Coast of America. We immediately stood upfthe Sound for Nootka, where
Captain Salter had determined to stop, in order
to supply the ship with Wood and Water, before
proceeding up the coast to trade. But in order
to avoid the risk of any molestation or interruption to his men from the Indians, while thus
employed, he proceeded with the ship about five
miles to the northward of the village, which i&
situated on Friendly Cove, and sent out his chief
mate, with several of the crew, in the boat, to find
a good place for anchoring her. After sounding
for some time, they relumed with information that they had discovered a secure place
for anchorage on the western side of an inlet or
small bay, at about half a mile from the c#ast,
near a small island, which protected it from the
sea, and where there was a plenty of wood, and
excellent water. The ship, accordingly, came to
anchor in this place, at twelve o'clock at night,
in twelve fathom water, muddy bottom, and so
near the shore, that to prevent the ship from
P. M *
winding, we secured her by a hawser to the tre£s;
On the morning of the next day, the thirteenth,
several of the natives came on board in a canoe5
irom the village of Nootka, with their king, called Maquina, who appeared much pleased on
seeing us, and with great seeming cordiality
welcomed Captain Salter and his officers to his
country. As I had never before beheld a savage
of any nation, it may readily be supposed that
the novelty of their appearance, so different from
any people that I had hitherto seen, excited in
me strong feelings of surprise and curiosity. I
was, however, particularly struck with the look3
of their king, who was a man of a dignified aspect, about six feet in heighth, and extremely
straight and well proportioned; his features were
in general good, and his face was rendered remarkable by a large Roman nose, a very uncommon form of feature among these people; his
complexion was of a dark copper hue, though
his face, legs, and arms were, on this occasion,
so covered with red paint, that their natural colour could scarcely be perceived, his eye-brows
were painted black in two broad stripes, like a
new moon, and his long black hair, which shone
with oil, was fastened in a bunch on the top of his
head, and strewed or powderedall over with white
down, which gave him a most curious and extraordinary appearance.  He was dressed in a large JOHN R. JEWITT.
mantle or cloak, of the black sea-otter skin, which
reached to his knees, and was fastened around
Ms middle by a broad belt of the cloth of the
country, wrought, or painted, with figures of several colours j this dress was by ho means unbecoming, but on the contrary, had an air of savage
magnificence. His men were habited in mantles
of the same cloth, which is made from the bark
of a tree, and has some resemblance to straw
matting; these are nearly square, and have tw&
holes in the upper part large enough to admit the
arms, they reach as low as t^e knees, and are
fastened around their bodies with a bell about
four inches broad, of the same cloth* J|
From his having frequently visited the English
and American ships that traded to the coast, Ma-
rquina had learned the signification of a number
of English words, and, in general, could make
himself pretty well understood by us in our own
language. He was always the first to go on board
such ships as came to Nootka, which he was
much pleased in visiting, even when he had no
trade to offer, as he almost always received some
small present, and was in general extremely well
treated by the commanders. He remained oa
board of us for some time, during which the
captain took him into the cabin and treated him
with a glass of rum, (these people being very fond
*©f distilled spirits,) and some biscuit and mQlas-
ii fr   .
U ;j?
ses, which they prefer to any kind of food that
we can offer them, n^ , T
jg|: As there are seldom many furs to be purchased
at this place, and it was not fully the season, Captain Salter had put in here, not so much with an
expectation of trading, as to procure an ample
stock of wood and water for the supply of the
ship while on the coast, thinking it more prudent
to take it on board at Nootka, from the generally
friendly disposition of the people, than to endanger the safety of his men in sending them <gj|
shore for that purpose among the more ferocious
natives of the north. With this view, we immediately set about getting our water casks in readiness, and the next, and two succeeding days,
part of the crew were sent on shore to cut pine
timber, and assist the carpenter in making it into
yards and spars for the ship, while those on board
were employed in refitting the rigging, repairing
the sails, &c. when we proceeded to take in our
wood and water as expeditiously as possible, during which time I kept myself busily employed
in repairing the muskets, making knives, tomax-
es, &c. and doing such iron work as was wanted
for the ship. Meantime more or less of the natives came on board of us daily, bringing witll
them fresh salmon, with which they supplied us
in great plenty, receiving in return some trifling
articles. Captain Salter was always very partictr-
lar before admitting these people on board, to see
that they had no arms about them, by obliging
them, indiscriminately, to throw off their garments, so that he felt perfectly secure from any
attack. On the fifteenth the king came on board
with several of his chiefs; he was dressed, as
before, in his magnificent otter skin robe, having
his face highly painted, and his hair tosf£d off
with the white down, which looked like snow;
his chiefs were dressed in mantles of the country
cloth, of its natural colour, which is a pale yellow;
these were ornamented with! a broad border,
painted or wrought in figures o£ sejverspl colour^,
representing men's heads, variou^a*4mals, &c.
and secured around them by a belt like that of
the kingpifrom which it was distinguished only
by being narrower: the dress of the common
people is of the same fashion, an4 differs from
that of the chiefs in being of a coarser texture,
and painted red, of one uniform colour. #
Captain Salter invited Maquina and his)chiefs
to dine with him, and it was curious to see how
these people, when they eat, seat theiit?etve^,
in their country fa&hion upon our chairs, with
Iheir feet under them, crossed like Turks. They
cannot endure the taste of salt; and the only
thing they would eat with us was the ship bread,
which they were very fond of, especially when
dipped in molasses; they had also a great liking 32 NARRATIVE OS1
for tea and coffee when well sweetened. As iron
weapons and tools of almost every kind are in
much request among them, whenever they came
on board they were always very attentive to me,
crowding around me at the forge, as if to see in
what manner I did my work, and in this way became quite familiar; a circumstance, as will be
seen in the end, of great importance to me. The
salmon which they brought us furnished a most
delicious treat to men who, for a long time, had
lived wholly on salt provisions, excepting such few
sea fish as we had the good fortune occasionally
to take. We indeed feasted most luxuriously, and
flattered ourselves that we should not want, while
on the coast, for plenty of fresh provisions, little
imagining the fate that awaited us, and that this
dainty food was to prove the unfortunate lure to
our destruction! On the 19th, the king came
again on board, and was invited by the Captain
to dine with him. He had much conversation
with Captain Salter, and informed him that there
>vere plenty of wild ducks and geese near Friendly Cove, on which the Captain made him a present of a double barreled fowling piece, with
which he appeared to be greatly pleased, and
«oon after went on shore,   f
On the 20th we were nearly ready for our departure, having taken in what wood and water
we were in want of. JOHN R. JEWITT.
The next day Maquina came on board with
nine pair of wild ducks as a present, at the same
time he brought with him the gun, one of the
locks of which heihad broken, telling the Captain
that it xvaspeshak, that is, bad; Captain Salter was
very much offended at this observation, and considering it as a mark of contempt for his present?
he called the king a liar, adding other opprobrious terms, and taking the gun from him, tossed it
indignantly into the cabitij and calling me to'hhti,
said, | John, this fellow has broken this beautiful
fowling piece, see if you can mend it:'5 on examining it I told him that it could be done. As I
have already observed, Maquina knew a number
of English words, and unfortunately understood
but too well the meaning of the reproachful terms
that the Captain addressed to him. He said not
a word in reply, but his countenance sufficiently
expressed the rage he felt, though he exerted himself to suppress it, and I observed him, while the
Captain was speaking, repeatedly put his hand to
his throat and rub it upon his bosom, which he
afterwards told me was to keep down his heart,
which was rising into his throat and choaking him.
He soon after went on shore with his men, evidently much discomposed.
On the morning of the 22d the natives came
off to us, as usual, with salmon, and remained on
board, when about noon Maquina came along
*md MM
side with a considerable number of his chiefs and
men in their canoes, who, after going through the
customary examination, were admitted into the
ship. He had a whistle in his hand, and over his
face a very ugly mask of wood, representing the
head of some wild beast, appeared to be remarkably good-humoured and gayf and whilst his people sung and capered about the deck, entertaining us'witll a variety of antic tricks and gestures^
he blew h^whistle to a kind of tune which seemed to regulate their motions. As Captain Salter
was walking on the quarter-deck amusing himself
with their dancing, the king came up to him and
inquired when he intended to go to sea? he answered, to-morrow. Maquina thenlaid, 'you love
salmon—much in Friendly Cove, why not go then
and catch some?' The Captain thought that it
wrould be very desirable to have a good supply of
these fish for the voyage, and on consulting with
Mr. Delouisa it was agreed to send part of the
crew on shore, after dinner, with the seine, in order to procure a quantity—Maquina and his chiefs
staid and dined on board, and after dinner the
chief mate went off with nine men, in the jolly
boat and yawl, to fish at Friendly Cove, having
set the steward on shore at our watering-place to
wash the captain's clothes. Shortly after the departure of the boats, I went down to my vice
bench in the steerage, where I was employed in JOHN R. JEWITT.
cleaning muskets. I had not been there more than
an hour when I heard the men hoisting in the long
boat, which, in a few minutes after, was succeeded by a great bustle and confusion on deck. I
immediately ran up the steerage stairs, but scarcely was my head above deck when I was caught
by the hair by one of the savages, and lifted from
my feet; fortunately for me, my hair being short,
and the ribbon, with which it was tied, slipping, I
fell from his hold into the steerage. As I was falling, he struck at me with an axe, which cut a deep
gash in my forehead, ani penetrated the skull, but
in consequence of his losing his hold, I luckily escaped the ftil force of the blow; wMclyotherwise,
would have cleft my head in two. I fe^ stunned
and senseless upon the floor. How long I continued in this situation I know not, but, on recovering
my senses, the first thing that I did was to try to
get up; but so weak was I, from the loss of blood,
that I fainted and fell. I was, however, soon recalled to my recollection by three loud shouts or
yells from the savages, which convinced me that
they had got possession of the ship. It is impossible for me to describe my feelings at this terrific
sound. Some faint idea may be formed of them
by those who have known what it is to half waken
from a hideous dream, and still think it real. Never ! no, never shall I lose from my mind the impression of that dreadful moment!   I expected
i^mSb I
every instant tti share the wretched fate of my unr*
fortunate companions; and when I heard the song
of triumph, by which these infernal yells was succeeded, my blood ran cold in my veins. Having
at length sufficiently recovered my senses to look
around me, after wiping the blood from my eyes,
1 saw that the hatch of the steerage was shut. This
was done, as I afterwards discovered, by order of
Maquina, who, on seeing the savage strike at me
with the axe, told him not to hurt me, for that I
was the armourer, and would be useful to them
in repairing their arms ; while, at the same time,
to prevent any of his men from injuring me, he
trad the hatch closed. But to me this circumstance
wore a very different appearance, for I thought
that these barbarians had only prolonged my life
in order to deprive me of it by the most cruel tortures. I remained in tMs horrid state of suspense
For a very long time, when at length the hatch was
opened, and Maquina, calling me by name, ordered me to come up. I groped my way as-well as I
was able, being almost blinded with the blood
that flowed from my wound, and so weak as with
difficulty to walk.  The king, on perceiving my
situation, ordered one of his men to bring a pot of
water to wash the blood from my face: which
having done, I was able to see distinctly with one
of my eyes; but the other was so swollen, from
my wound, that it was closed. But what a texri&T
spectacle met my eyes! six naked savages
^standing in a circle around me, covered with the
blood of my murdered comrades, with their daggers uplifted in their hands, prepared to strike.
I now thought my last moment had come, and
recommended my soul to my Maker. The king
who, as I have already observed, knew enough of
English to make himself understood, entered the
circle, and placing himself before me, addressed
me nearly in the following words:—-"John—I
speak—you no say no—you say no—daggers
comep He then asked me if I would be his
slave during my life—if I would fight for him in
his battles—if I would repair his muskets and
make daggers and knives for him, with several
other questions; to all of which I was careful to
answer, yes. He then told me that he would
spare my life, and ordered me to kiss his hands
and feet to show my submission to him, which I
did. In the mean time his people were very
clamorous to have me put to death, so that there
should be none of us left to tell our story to our
countrymen, and prevent them from coming to
trade with them ; but the king, in the most determined manner, opposed their wishes, and to his
favour am I wholly indebted for my being yet
among the living. As I was busy at work at the
time of the attack, I was without my coat, and
what with the coldness £>f the weather, my fee-
i&P 38
bleness from loss of blood, the pain of my wound,
and the extreme agitation and terror that I still
felt, I shook like a leaf, which the king observing,
went into the cabin, and bringing up a great coat
that belonged to the captain, threw it over my
shoulders, telling me to drink some rum from a
bottle wrhich he handed me, at the same time
giving me to understand, that it would be good
for me, and keep me from trembling as I did.   I
took a draught of it, after which, taking me by the
hand, he led me to the quarter deck, where the
most horrid sight presented itself that ever my
eyes witnessed; the.heads of our unfortunate
Captain and his crew, to the number of twenty-
five, were all arranged in a line, and Maquina ordering one of his people to bring a head, asked
me whose it was : I answered, the Captain's ; in
like manner the others were showed me, and I
told him the names, excepting a few that were
so horribly mangled that I was not able to recognise them.  I now discovered that all our unfortunate crew had been massacred, and learned,
that after getting possession of the ship,|4he
savages had broke open the arm chest, and magazine, and supplying themselves with ammunition and arms, sent a party on &hore to attack our
men who had gone thither to fish, and being joined by numbers from the village, without difficulty,
overpowered and murdered them, and cutting off JOHN R. JEWITT
their heads, brought them on board, after throwing their bodies into the sea. On looking upon
the deck, I saw it entirely covered with the blood
of my poor comrades, whose throats had been
cut with their own jack-knives, the savages having seized the opportunity, while they were busy
in hoisting in the boat, to grapple with them and
overpower them by their numbers; in the scuffle the Captain was thrown overboard, and dispatched by those in the canoes, who immediately
cut off his head. What I felt on this occasion,
may be more readily conceived than expressed.
After I had answered his questions, Maquina
took my silk handkerchief from my neck, and
bound it around my head, placing, over the
wound a leaf of tobacco, of which we had a
quantity on board. This was done at my desire,
as I had often found, from personal experience,
the benefit of this application to cuts.
Maquina then ordered me to get the ship under weigh for Friendly Cove. This I did by
cutting the cables and sending some of the natives aloft to loose the sails, which they performed
in a very bungling manner. But they succeeded
so far in loosing the jib and topsails, that, with
the advantage of a fair wind, I succeeded in getting the ship into the Cove, where, by order of
the king, I ran her ashore otf*a sandy beach, at
eight o'clock at night*- 1
WM  '
We were received by the inhabitants of the
village, men, women, and children, with loud
shouts of joy, and a most horrible drumming
with sticks upon the roofs and sides of their
Jhouses, in which they had also stuck a great
number of lighted pine torches, to welcome their
king's return, and congratulate him on the success of his enterprise. ^1
Maquina then took me on shore to his house,
which was very large, and filled with people,
where I was received with much kindness by
the women, particularly those belonging to the
king, who had no less than nine wives, all of
whom came around me, expressing much sympathy for my misfortune, gently stroking and
patting my head in an encouraging and soothing
manner, with words expressive of condolence.
How sweet is compassion,even from savages!
Those who have been in a similar situation can
alone truly appreciate its value.
In the mean time all the warriors of the tribe,
to the number of five hundred, had assembled
at the king's house to rejoice for their success.
They exulted greatly in having taken our ship,
and each one boasted of his own particular exploits in killing our men; but they were, in general, much dissatisfied with my having been
suffered to live, and were very urgent with Maquina to deliver me to them to be put to death,4 JOHST R. JEWITT.
which he obstinately refused to do, telling them;
that he had promised me my life, and $Tould not
break his word ; and that besides, I knew how
to repair and make arms, and should be of great
use to them.|p.' .. \J|.. ;'.--j| ; ', . .- * . .'% . Jh
The king then seated me by him, and ordered
his women to bring him something to eat, when
they set before him some dried clams and train
eil, of which he ate very heartily, and encouraged me to follow his example, telling me to eat
much, and take a great deal of oil, which would
make|me strong and fat; notwithstanding, his
praise of this new kind of food,! felt no disposition to indulge in it, both the smell and taste be
ing loathsome to me; and had it been otherwise,
such was the pain I endured, the agitation of my
mind, and the gloominess of my reflections, that
I should have felt very little inclination for eating.
Not satisfied with his first refusal to deliver me
up to them, the people again became clamorous
that Maquina should consent to my being killed,
saying that not one of us ought to be left alive
to give information to others of our countrymen,
and prevent them from coming to trade*, or iiir
duce them to revenge the destruction of our ship;,
and they at length became so boisterous that he
caught up a large club in a passion^ and drove
them all out of the house. During this scene, a
gonof the king:, of about eleven years old, attract-
"i tfl
ed, no doubt, by the singularity of my appearance came up to me: I caressed him ; he returned
my attentions with #uich apparent pleasure, and
considering this as a fortunate opportunity to gain
the goodwill of the father, I took the child on
my knee, and cutting the metal buttons fix>m off
the coat I had on, I tied them around his neck.
At this he was highly delighted, and became so*
much attached to me that he would not quit
me* ;-       ' • - '    ||:
. The king appeared much pleased with my attention to his son, and telling me that it was time
to go to sleep, directed me to lie with his son
next to him, as he was afraid lest some of his
people would come, while he was asleep, and
kill me with their daggers. I lay down as he ordered me; but neither the state of my mind, nor the
pain I felt^ would allow me to sleep. About mid^
night I was greatly alarmed by the approach of
one of the natives, who came to give information
to the king that there was one of the white men,
alive, who had knocked him down as he went
on board of the ship at night. This Maquina
communicated to me, giving me to understand
that as soon as the sun rose he should kill him.
I endeavoured to persuade him to spare his life,
but he bade me be silent and go to sleep. I said
nothing more, but lay revolving in my mind
what method I could devise to save the life t# JOHN R. JEWITT.
this man. What a consolation thought I, what a
happiness would it prove to me, in my forlorn*
state, among these heathen, to have a Christian,,
and one of my own countrymen, for a companion,
and how greatly would it alleviate and lighten
the burden of my slavery ! As 1 was thinking ofT
some pfen for Ms preservation, it all at once*
came into my mind, that this man was probably
the sailhsaker of the ship, named Thompson, as
I had net seen his head among those on deck,
and knew that he was below at work upon the*
sails, not long ^before the attack.  The more E
thought of it, the more probable it appeared to^
me; and as Thompsons was a man nearly forty
years of age, and had an old look, I conceived if
would be easy to make him pass for my father,,
and by this means prevail on Maquina to spare
his life. Towards morning I fell into a doze, buf
was awakened, with the first beams of the sun, by
the king, whotold me that he was going to kill the*
matrwho was onboard the ship, and ordered me*
to accompany him*   I rose an& followed him,,
leading with me the young prince his son.
On coming to the beach I found all the men of
the tribe assembled. The king addressed them,
saying, that one of the white men had been found
alive on board the ship, and requested their opinion as to saving his life, or putting him to death.
They were unanimous for the latter. This deter*
■ i 1
l :i
II all
mination he made known to me; Having arranged my plan, I asked him, pointing to the
boy, whom I still held by the hand, if he loved
his son ; he answered that he did; I then asked
the child if he loved his father, and on his replying in the affirmative, I said, | and I also love
mine." I then threw myself on my knees at
Maquina's feet, and implored him with tears, in
my eyes, to spare my father's life, if the man on
board should prove to be him, telling him that if
he killed my father, it was my wish that he
should kill me too, and that if he did not, I w^uld
kill myself, and that he would thus lose my services; whereas, by sparing my father's life, he would
preserve mine, which would be of great advantage to him, by my repairing and making arms for
him. Maquina appeared moved by my entreaties,
and promised not to put the man to death if he
should be my father. He then explained to his
people what I had said, and ordered me to go on
board and tell the man to come on shore. To
my unspeakable joy, on going infe the hold, I
found that my conjecture was true. Thompson
wras there '^ he had escaped without any injury,,
excepting a slight wound in the nose, given him
by one of the savages with a knifer as he attempted to come on deck, during the scuffle.
Finding the savages in possession of the ship, as
he afterwards informed me, he secreted himseljf
in the hold, hoping for some chance to make
his escape ; but that the indian who came on
board in the night, approaching the placfe where
he was, he supposed himself discovered, and being determined to sell his life as dearly as possible, as soon as he came within his reach, he
knocked him down, but the indian immediately
springing up, ran off at full speed. I informed
him, in a few words, that all our men had been
killed; that the king had preserved my life, and
had consented to spare his, on the supposition
that he was my father: an opinion which he
must be careful not to undeceive them in, as it
was his only safety. After giving him his cue, I
went on shore with him, and presented him to
Maquina, who immediately knew him to be the
sailmaker, and was much pleased, observing
that he could make sails for his canoe. He then
took us to his house, and ordered something for
ustoeat.      ";!  . ■'    •    '   \i||;
On the 24th and 25th the natives wTere busily
employed in taking the cargo out of the ship,
stripping her of her sails and rigging, cutting
away the spars and masts, and, in short, rendering her as complete a wreck as possible; the
muskets, ammunition, cloth, and all the principal
articles taken from her, being deposited in th$
lung's house.
&$f 48
While they were thus occupied, each one
taking what he liked, my companion and myself being obliged to aid them, I thought it best
to secure the accounts and papers of the ship,
in hopes that on some future day I might have it
in my power to restore them to the owners. With
this view I took possession of the Captain's writing
desk, which contained the most of them, together
with some paper and implements for writing. I
had also the good fortune to find a blank account
book, in which I resolved, should it be permitted
me, to write an account of our capture, and the
most remarkable occurrences that I should meet
with during my stay among these people, fondly indulging the hope that it would not be long
before some vessel would arrive to release us*
I likewise found in the cabin a small volume of
sermons, a bible, and a common prayer-book of
the Church of England, which furnished me and
my comrade great consolation in the midst of
our mournful servitude, and enabled me, under
the favour of Divine Providence, t& support with
firmness the miseries of a life which I misbt
otherwise have found beyond my strength to endure. As these people set no value upon things
of this kind, I found no difficulty in appropriating
them to myself, by putting them in my chest,,
which though it had been broken open and rifled1
by the savages^ as I still had the key, 1 without JOHN ft. HEWITT.
much difficulty secured. In this I also put some
small tools belonging to the ship, with several
other articles particularly a journal kept by the
second mate, Mr. Ingraham, and a collection of
drawings and views of places taken by him,
which I had the good fortune to preserve, and on
my arrival at Boston I gave them to a connexion of his, the honourable Judge Dawes, who
sent them to his family, in New-York.      -%    '1j|
On the 26th two ships were seen standing in
for Friendly Cove. At their first appearance the
inhabitants were thrown into great confusion,
but soon collecting a number of muskets and
blunderbusses, ran to the shore, from whence
thev kept up so brisk a fire that they were evidently afraid to approach nearer, and after firing
a few rounds of grape shot, which did no harm
to any one, they wore ship and stood out to sea.
These ships, as I afterwards learned, were the
Mary and Juno of Boston.
They were scarcely out of sight when Maquina expressed much regret that he had permitted
his people to fire at them, being apprehensive
that they would give information to others, in
what manner they had been received, and prevent them from coming to trade with him.   !
A few days after, hearing of the capture of the
ship, there arrived at Nootka a great number of
canoee, filled with savages, from no less than BK
twenty tribes to the north and  south.   Among
those from the north were the Ai-tiz-zarts, Schoo-
mad-its, Neu-wit-ties, Savin-nars, Ah-awz-arts,
Mo-wntch-its, Suth-setts, Neu-chad-lits, Mich-
la-its, and Cay-u-quets; the most of whom were
considered as tributary to Nootka.   Fromfthe
south, the Aytch-arts, and Esquiates, also tributary, with the Kla-oo-quates, and the Wickan-
ninish, a large and powerful tribe, about two
hundred miles distant. These last were better
clad than most of the others, and their canoes
wrought with much greater skill; they are furnished with sails as well as paddles, and with
the advantage of a fair breeze, are usually but
twenty-four hours on their passage.
H Maquina, who was very proud of his new acquisition, was desirous of welcoming^hese visiters
in the European manner.   He accordingly ordered his men, as the canoes approached, to/assemble on the beach with loaded muskets and
blunderbusses, placing Thompson at the cannon
which had been brought from the ship, and laid
upon two long sticks of timber in front of the
village, then taking a speaking trumpet in his
hand, he ascended with me, the roof of his house,
and began drumming, or beating upon the boards,
with a stick, most violently.   Nothing could be
more ludicrous than the appearance of this mot-
!y group of savages collected on  the  shoret JOftN R. JEWITT.
dressed*as they were, with their ill-gotten finery
in the most fantastic manner, some in women'
smocks, taken from our cargo, others in Kotsacks,
(or cloaks,) of blue, red, or yellow broadcloth,
with stockings drawn over their heads, and their
necks hung round with numbers of powder-horns,
shot-bags, and cartouch-boxes, some of them
having no less than ten muskets a piece on their
shoulders, and five or six daggers in their girdles.
Diverting indeed was it to see them all squatted
upon the beach, holding their muskets perpendicularly, with the but pressed upon the sand,
instead of against their shoulders, and in this position awaiting the order to fire. Maquina at last
called to them with his trumpet to fire, which
they did in the most awkward and timid manner,
with their muskets hard pressed upon the ground,
as above mentioned. At the same moment the
cannon was fired by Thompson, immediately
on which they threw themselves back, and began to roll and tumble over the sand as if they
had been shot, when suddenly springing up, they
began a song of triumph, and running backward
and forward upon the shore, with the wildest
gesticulations, boasted of their exploits, and exhibited as trophies what they had taken from us.
Notwithstanding the unpleasantness of my situation, and the feelings that this display of our
spoils excited, I  could not avoid laughing at
' l 01
the strange appearance of these savages, their
awkward movements, and the singular contrast
of their dress and arms.
When the ceremony was concluded Maquina
invited the strangers to a feast at his house, consisting of whale blubber, smoked herring spawn,
and dried fish and train oil, of which they eat
most plentifully. The feast being over, the trays
out of which they eat, and other things, were immediately removed to make room for the dance,
which was to close the entertainment. This was
performed by Maquina's son, the young prince
Sat-sat-sok-sis, whom I have already spoken of,
in the following manner: three of the principal
chiefs, drest in their otter skin mantles, which
they wear only on extraordinary occasions, and
at festivals, having their heads covered over with
white down, and their faces highly painted, came
forward into the middle of the room, each furnished with a bag filled with the white down,
which they scattered around in such a manner
as to represent a fall of snow. These were followed by the young prince, who was dressed in
a long piece of yellow cloth, wrapped loosely
around him, and decorated with small bells, with
a cap on his head, to which was fastened a curious mask in imitation of a wolf's head, while the
rear was brought up by the king himself, in his
robe of sea otter skin, with a small whistle in his JOHN R. JEWITT.
mouth, and a rattle in his hand, with which he
kept time to a sort of tune on his whistle. After
passing very rapidly in this order around the
house, each of them seated himself, except the
prince, who immediately began his dance, which
principally consisted in springing up into the air
in a squat posture, and constantly turning around
on his heels with great swiftness in a very narrow circle. This dance, with a few intervals of
rest, was continued for about two hours, during
which the chiefs kept up a constant drumming,
with sticks of about a foot in length, on a long
hollow plank, which was, though a very noisy, a
most doleful kind of music. This they accompanied with songs, the king himself acting as chorister, while the women applauded each feat of
activity in the dancer by repeating the words
Wocash! Wocash Tyee! That is, good! very good,
prince! As soon as the dance was finished Maquina began to give presents to the strangers in
the name of his sort Sat-sat-sok-sis. These were
pieces of European cloth, generally of a fathom in
length, muskets, powder, shot, &c. Whenever he
gave them any thing, they had a peculiar manner
of snatching it from him, with a very stern and
surly look, repeating each time the words, Wocash Tyee. This I understood to be their custom,
and was considered as a compliment, which if
omitted, wf uld be supposed as a mark of disre-
1 m
gard for the present. On this occasion Maqtiiha
gave away no less than one hundred muskets,
Ahe same number of looking-glasses, four hundred yards of cloth, and twenty casks of powder^
besides other things.
After receiving these presents the strangers
retired on board their canoes, for so numerous
were they, that Maquina would not suffer any but
the chiefs to sleep in the houses; and in order to
prevent the property from being pillaged by
them, he ordered Thompson and myself to keep
guard, during the night, armed with cutlassesr
and pistols^
In this manner tribes of savages from various
parts of the coast continued coming for several
days, bringing with them blubber, oil, herring
spawn, dried fish, and clams, for which they received in return, presents of cloth, &c. after which
they, in general, immediately returned home. I
observed that very few, if any of them, except
the chiefs, had arms, which I afterwards learned
is the custom with these people whenever they
come upon a friendly visit, or to trade, in order
to show, on their approach, that their intentions
are pacific.
Early on the morning of the 18th the ship was
discovered to be on fire. This was owing to one
of the savages having gone on board with a fire
brand at night, for the purpose of plunder, some JOHN R. JEWITT.
sparks from which fell into the hold, and communicating with some combustibles, soon enveloped the whole in flames. The natives regretted
the loss of the ship the more, as a great part of
her cargo still remained on board. To my companion and myself it was a most melancholy
sight, for with her disappeared from our eyes
every trace of a civilized country; but the disappointment we experienced was still more severely felt, for we had calculated on having the
provision to ourselves, which would have furnished us with a stock for years, as whatever is cured
with salt, together with most of our other articles
of food, are never eaten by these people. I had
luckily saved all my tools excepting the anvil
and the bellows, which was attached to the forge,
and from their weight had not been brought on
shore. We had also the good fortune, in looking
over what had been taken from the ship, to. discover a box of chocolate, and a case of port-wine,,
which, as the indians were not fond of it, proved^
a great comfort to us for some time, and from one
of the natives I obtained a nautical almanack
which had belonged to the Captain, and which,
was of great use to me in determining the time..
About two days after, on examining their booty, the savages founda tierce of rum, with whicht
they wrere highly delighted, as they have become;
yery fond of spirituous liquors since their inters
; Ifr-
t M
course with the whites. This was towards evening, and Maquina having assembled all the men
at his house, gave a feast, at which they drank so
freely of the rum, that in a short time they became so extremely wild and frantic that Thompson and myself, apprehensive for our safety,
thought it prudent to retire privately into the
woods, where we continued till past midnight.
On our return we found the women gone, who
are always very temperate, drinking nothing but
water, having quitted the house and gone to the
other huts to sleep, so terrified were they at the
conduct of the men, who all lay stretched out on
the floor in a state of complete intoxication. How
easy in this situation would it have been for us
to have dispatched, or made ourselves masters of
our enemies, had there been any ship near to
which we could have escaped, but as we were
situated, the attempt would have been madness.
The wish of revenge was, however, less strongly
impressed on my mind than what appeared to be
so evident an interposition of Divine Providence
in our favour. How little can man penetrate its
designs, and how frequently is that intended as
a blessing which he views as a curse! The burning of our ship, which we had lamented so much,
as depriving us of so many comforts, now appeared to us in a very different light; for had the
ravages got possession of the rum, of which there JOHN K. JEWITt.
were nearly twenty puncheons on board, we must
inevitably have fallen a sacrifice to their fury in
some of their moments of intoxication. This
cask, fortunately, and a case of gin, was all the
spirits they obtained from the ship. To prevent
the recurrence of similar danger, I examined the
cask, and finding still a considerable quantity remaining, I bored a small hole in the bottoM with
a gimblet, which, before morning, to my great
joy, completely emptied it. w
By this time the wound in my head began to
be much better, so that I could enjoy some sleep,
which I had been almost deprived of by the pain;
and though I was still feeble, from the loss of
blood and my sufferings, I found myself sufficiently well to go to work at my trade, in making
for the king and his wives, bracelets, and other
small ornaments of copper or steel, and in repairing the arms, making use of a large square stone
for the anvil, and heating my metal in a common
wood fire. This was very gratifying to Maquina,
and his women particularly, and secured me their
good will.
■ In the meantime great numbers from the other
tribes kept continually flocking to Nootka, bringing with them, in exchange for the ship's plunder,
such quantities of provision, that notwithstanding
the little success that Maquina met with in whaling this season, and their gluttonous waste, always
>jX* 60
eating to excess when they have it, regardless of
the morrow, seldom did the natives experience
any want of food during the summer. As to myself and companion, we fared as they did, never
wanting for such provision as they had, though
we were obliged to eat it cooked in their manner,
and with train oil as a sauce, a circumstance not
a little unpleasant, both from their uncleanly
mode of cooking, and many of the articles of
their food, which to an European are very dfe-
gusting: but, as the saying is, hunger will break
through stone walls, and we found at times, in
:the blubber of sea animals, and the flesh of the
dog-fish, loathsome as it in general was, a very
acceptable repast. But much oftener would poor'
Thompson, who was no favourite with them, have
suffered from hunger, had it not been for my
furnishing him with provision.  This I was enabled to do from my work, Maquina allowing;
me the privilege, when not employed for him, to>
work for myself in making bracelets and other
ornaments of copper,, fish-hooks, daggers,  &e.
either to sell to the tribes who visited us, or for
our own chiefs, who on these occasions, besides
supplying me with as much as I wished to eat,
and a sufficiency for Thompson, almost always
made me a present of an European garment,
taken from the ship, or some fathoms of cloth,
which were made up by my comrade, and e&- JOHN R. JEWITT,
abled us to go comfortably clad for some time,
or small bundles of penknives, razors, scissors,
&c. for one of which we could almost always
procure from the natives two or three fresh salmon, cod, or hallibut; or dried fish, clams, and
herring spawn, from the stranger tribes ; and had
we only been permitted to cook them after our
own way, as we had pots, and other utensils belonging to the ship, we should have not had much
cause of complaint in this respect; but so tenacious are these people of their customs, particularly in the article of food and cooking, that the
king always obliged me to give whatever provisions I bought to the women to cook; and one
day finding Thompson and myself on the shore,
employed in boiling down sea-water into salt, on
being told what it was, he was very much displeased, and taking the little we had procured,
threw it into the sea. In one instance alone, as a
particular favour, he allowed me to boil some salmon in my own way, when I invited him and his
queen to eat with me ; they tasted it, but did not
like it, and made their meal of some of it that I
had cooked in their country fashion. i|p
In May the weatherjjbecame uncommonly
mild and pleasant, and so forward was vegetation that I picked a plenty of strawberries by the
middle of the month. Of this fruit there are great
quantities on this coast, and 1 found them a mosjfc
1 w it*
delicious treat. My health now had become almost re-established, my wound being so far healed that it gave me no farther trouble. I had never
failed to wash it regularly once a day7 in sea-
water, and to dress it with a fresh leaf of tobacco,
which I obtained from the natives, who had
taken it from the ship, but made no use of it*
This was all the dressing I gave it, except applying to it two or three times, a little loaf sugar,
which Maquina gave me in-order to remove
some proud flesh which prevented it from closing.
My cure would doubtless have been much sooner
effected had I have been in a, civilized country,
where I could have had it dressed by a surgeon,
and properly attended to. But alas! I had no
good Samaritan, with oil and wine, to bind up
my wounds; and fortunate might I even esteem
myself, that I was permitted to dress it myself,
for the utmost that I could expect from the natives, was compassion for my misfortune, which
I indeed experienced from the women, particularly the queen, or favourite wife of Maquina,
the mother of Sat-sat-sok-sis, who used frequently to point at my head, and manifest much
kindness and solicitude for me. I must do Maquina theijustice to acknowledge, that he always
appeared desirous of sparing me any labour
which he believed might be hurtful to me, frequently inquiring, in an affectionate manner, if JOHN R. JEWITT.
my head pained me. As for the others, some of
the chiefs excepted, they cared little what became of me, and probably would have been
gratified with my death. §
My health being at length re-established, and
my wound healed, Thompson became very importunate for me to begin my journal., and as I
had no ink, proposed to cut his finger to supply
me with blood for the purpose, whenever 1 should
want it. On the 1st of June, I accordingly commenced a regular diary, but had no occasion to
make use of the expedient suggested by my
comrade, having found a much better substitute
in the expressed juice of a certain plant, which
furnished we with a bright green colour, and after making a number of trials, I at length succeeded in obtaining a very tolerable ink by boiling the juice of the blackberry with a mixture of
finely powdered charcoal, and filtering it through
a cloth. This I afterwards preserved in bottles^
and found it answer very well, so true is it that
"Necessity is the mother of invention." As for
quills, i found no difficulty in procuring them,
whenever I wanted, from the crows and ravens,
with which the beach wras almost always covered, attracted by the offal of whales, seals, &c.
and which were so tame that 1 could easily kill
them with stones, while a large clam shell furnished me with an inkstand.
■!•■ 60
The extreme solicitude of Thompson that I
should begin my journal, might be considered as
singular in a man who neither knew how to
write or read ; a circumstance by the way, very
uncommon in an American, were we less acquainted with the force of habit, he having been
for many years at sea, and accustomed to consider the keeping of a journal as a thing indispensable. This man was born in Philadelphia,
and at eight years old ran away from his friends
and entered as a cabin boy on board a ship bound
to London: on his arrival there,finding himself in
distress, he engaged as an apprentice to the captain of a collier, from whence he was impressed on
board an English man of war, and continued in
the British naval service about twenty-seven
years, during which he was present at the engagement under Lord Howe with the French
fleet, in June 1794, and when peace was made
between England and France was discharged.
He was a very strong and powerful man, an expert
boxer, and perfectly fearless ; indeed so little
was his dread of danger, that when irritated he
was wholly regardless of his life. Of this the
following will furnish a sufficient proof.
One evening about the middle of April, as I
was at the house of one of the chiefs, where I had
been, employed on some work for him, word
was brought me that Maquina was going to kill JOHN R. JEWITT.
Thompson. 1 immediately hurried home, where
I found the king in the act of presenting a loaded
musket at Thompson, who was standing before
him with his breast bared, and calling on him to
fire. I instantly stepped up to Maquina, who was
foaming with rage, and addressing him in soothing words, begged him for my sake not to kill my
father, and at  length succeeded in taking the
musket from him, and persuading him to sit down.
On inquiring into the cause of his anger, I learned that while Thompson was lighting the lamps
in the king's room, Maquina having substituted
our's for their pine torches, some of the boys began to tease  him, running around  him,  and
pulling him  by the trowsers, among the most
forward of whom was the young prince. This
caused Thompson to spill the oil, which threw
him into such a passion, that without caring what
he did, he struck the prince so violent a blow in
his face with his fist as to knock him down.   The
sensation excited among the savages by an act
which was considered as the highest indignity,
and a profanation of the sacred person of majesty, may be easily conceived.   The king was
immediately acquainted with it, who, on coming
in and seeing his sou's face covered with blood,
seized a musket and began to load it, determined
to take instant revenge on the audacious offender;
and had 1 arrived a few minutes later than I did, J
6 62
my companion would certainty have paid, with
his life, for his rash and violent conduct. I found
the utmost difficulty in pacifying Maquina, who,
for a long time after, could not forgive Thompson, but would repeatedly say, "John, you die—**
Thompson kill". But to appease the king was not
all that was necessary.   In consequence of the
insult offered to their prince, the whole tribe held
a council, in which it was unanimously resolved
that Thompson should be put to death in the
most cruel manner.   I however  interceded so
strenuously with Maquina for his life, telling him
that if my father was killed, I was determined
not to survive him, that he refused to deliver him
up to the vengeance of his people, saying, that
for John's sake they must consent to let him live.
The prince, who, after I had succeeded in calming his father, gave me an account of what had
happened, told me that it was wholly out of regard to me, as Thompson was my father, that his
life had been spared, for that if any one of the
tribe should dare to lift a hand against him in
anger, he would most certainly be put to death.
Yet even   this narrow escape produced not
much effect on Thompson, or induced him to
restrain the  violence  of his temper.  For  not
many weeks after, he was guilty of a similar indiscretion, in striking the eldest son of a chief,
who was about eighteen years old, and according JOHN R. JEWITT,
to their custom was considered as a Tyee, or
chief, himself, in consequence of his having provoked him by calling him a white slave. This
affair caused great commotion in the village, and
the tribe was very clamorous for his death, but
Maquina would not consent. I used frequently
to remonstrate with him on the imprudence of
his conduct, and beg him to govern his temper
better, tellinsr him that it was our duty, since our
lives were in the power of these savages, to do
nothing to exasperate them. But all I could say
on thif point availed little, for so bitter was the
hate he felt for them, which he was no way
backward in manifesting, both by his looks and
actions, that he declared he never would submit
to their insults, and that he had much rather be
killed than be obliged to live among them, adding that he only wished he had a good vessel and
some guns, and he would destroy the whole of
the cursed race; for to a brave sailor like him,
who had fought the French and Spaniards with
glory, it was a punishment worse than death to
be a slave to such a poor, ignorant, despicable
set of beings.   •     . ||7\        ;' |§|
As for myself, I thought very differently. After
returning thanks to that merciful Being who had
in so wonderful a manner softened the hearts of
the savages in my favour, I had determined,from
the first of my capture, to adopt a conciliating
te'- w <
conduct towards theri, and conform myself, as
far as was in my power, to their customs and
mode of thinking, trusting that the same Divine
Goodness that had rescued me from death, would
not always suffer me to languish in captivity
among these heathen. With this view, I sought
to gain their good will by always endeavouring
to assume a cheerful countenance, appearing
pleased with their sports and buffoon tricks,
making little ornaments for the wives and children of the chiefs, by which means I became
quite a favourite with them, and fish hooks, daggers, &c. for themselves. As a farther recom-
mendation to thefi^avour, and what might
eventually prove of the utmost importance to
us, I resolved to learn their language, which, in
the course of a few months residence, I so far
succeeded in acquiring as to be able, in general,
to make myself well understood. I likewise tried
to persuade Thompson to learn it, as what might
prove necessary to him; but he refused, saying
that he hated both them and their cursed lingo,
and would have nothing to do with it.
By pursuing this conciliatory plan, so far did I
gain the good will of the savages, particularly
the chiefs, that I scarcely ever failed experiencing kind treatment from them, and was received with a smile of welcome at their houses,
where I was always sure of having something JOfiN R. JEWITT.
given me to eat whenever they had it; and
many a good meal have I had from them when
they themselves were short of provisions, and
suffering for the want of them. And it was a
common practice with me, when we had nothing
to eat at home, which happened not unfrequent-
ly during my stay among them, to go around the
village, and on noticing a smoke from any of die
houses, which denoted that they were cooking,
enter in without ceremony, aiid ask them for
something, which I was never refused. Few nations indeed are there so very rude and unfeeling, whom constant mild treatment and attention
to please will not mollify, and obtain from theia
some return of kind attention. This the treat*
ment I received from these people may exemplify, for not numerous, even among -those- calling
themselves civilized, are there instances to be
found of persona depriving themselves of food to
give it to a stranger, whatever may be his merits*
It may, perhaps, be as well in this place to
give a description of Nootka, some accounts of
the tribes who were accustomed to visit usr
and the manners and customs of the people, as
far as I hitherto had an opportunity of observing
• The village of Nootka is situated in between
49 and 50 degrees northlatitude, at the bottom of
Friendly Cove^ on the west, or north-west side*
I   ill
It consists of about twenty houses, or huts, on a
small hill, which rises with a gentle ascent from
the shore. Friendly Cove, which affords good and
secure anchorage for ships close in with the
shore, is a small harbour of not more than a quarter or half a mile in length, and about half a mile
or three quarters broad, formed by the line of the
coast on the east, and a long point, or headland,
which extends as much as three leagues into the
sound, in nearly a westerly direction. This, as
well as I .can judge from what I have seen of it^
is in general fron^one to two miles in breadth,
and mostly a rocky and unproductive soil, with
but few trees. The eastern and western shores
of this harbour are steep, and in many parts
locky,the trees growing quite to the water's edge;
but the bottom, to the north and north west, is a
fine sandy beach of half a mile or more in extent. From the village to the north and north-east
extends a plain, the soil of which is very excellent, and with proper cultivation may be made to
produce almost any of our European vegetables j
this is but little more than half a mile in breadth,
and is terminated by the sea coast, which in this
place is lined with rocks and reefs, and cannot
be approached by ships. The coast in.the neighbourhood of Nootka is, in general, low, and but
I little broken into hills and vallies. The soil is
good, well covered with fine forests of pine, JOHN R. JEWITT.
spglice, beach, and other trees, and abounds with
streams of the finest water, tt|e general appearance being the same for many miles round.
The village is situated on the ground occupied
by the Spaniards when they kept a garrison
here p the foundations of the church and the governor's house are yet visible, and a few European plants are still to be found, which continue
to be self propagated, such as onions, peas, and
turnips ; but the two last are quite small, particularly the turnipa, which afforded us nothing but
the tops for eating. Their former village stood on
the same spot; but the Spaniards finding it a
commodious situation, demolished the houses,
and forced the inhabitants to retire five or six
miles into the country. With great sorrow, as
Maquina told u», did they find themselves compelled to quit their ancient place of residence,
but with equal joy did they repossess themselves
of it when the Spanish garrison was expelled by
the English. :/    !$jp'   ' ■•'■^ '     '
The houses, as I have observed, are above
twenty in number, built nearly in a line. These
are of different sizes, according to the rank or
quality of the Tyee, or chief, who lives in them,
each having one, of which he is considered as
the lord. They vary not much in widtjjt, being
usually from thirty-six to forty feet wide, but are
of very different lengths ; that of the king, whicl
tic* i
1 ■
is much the longest, beirig about one hundred
and fifty feet, while the smallest, which contain
only two families, do not exceed forty feet in
length, the house of the king is alio distinguished
from the others by being higher.
Their method of building is as follows : they
erect in the ground two veiy large posts at such
a distance apart, as fs intended for the length of
the house ; on these, which are of equal height,
and hollowed out at the upper end, they lay a
large spar for the ridgepole of the building, or if
the length of the house requires it, two, or more,
supporting their ends by similar upright posts:
these spars are sometimes of an almost incredible size, having myself measured one in Maquina's house which I found to be one hundred feet
long, and eight feet four inches in circumference.
At equal distances from these two posts two
others are placed on each side, to form the width
of the building ; these are rather shorter than the
first, and on them are laid, in like manner, spars,
but of a smaller size, having the upper part hewed flat, with a narrow ridge on the outer side
to support the ends of the planks. The roof is
formed of pine planks with a broad feather edge,
so as to lap well over each other, which are laid
lengthwise from the ridgepole in the centre to
the beams at the sides ; after which the top is
covered with planks of eight feet broad, which JOHN R. JEWITT.
form a kind of covering, projecting so far over
the l»Mcls of the planks that form the roof, as
completely to exclude the rain : on these they
lay latge stones to prevent their being displaced
by the wind. The ends of the planks lire not
secured to the beams, on which they are laid,
by any fastening, so that in a high storm I have
often known all the men obliged to turn out and
go upon the roof to prevent them from being
blown off, carrying large stones and pieces of
rock with them to secure the boards, always
stripping themselves naked on these occasion^,
whatever may be the severity of the weather, to
prevent their garments from being wet and muddied, as these storms are almost always accompanied with heavy rains. The sides of their
houses are much more open and exposed to the
weather: this proceeds from their not being so
easily made close as the roof, beiiig built with
planks of about ten feet long, and four or five
wide, which they plftce between stancheons, or
small posts, of the height of the roof; of these
there are four to each range of boards, two at
each end, and so near each other as to leave
space enough for admitting a plank. The planks
or boards which they make use of for building
their houses, and for other uses, they procure of
different lengths, as occasioq requires, by splitting
them out, with hard wooden wedges, from pine
logs, and afterwards dubbins; tliemidoWp with
their chisels, with mych patience,to the thickness
wanted, rendering them quit^f smooth.   t \ :^j^
fa There|is but orys  entrance ;; this is  placed
usually  at  the end^though sometimes in the
noddle, as was that of Maquina's. >| Through the
middle of the building, from one end  to the
other, runs a passage of about eight or nine fe$t
broad, on each side of which the several families that occupy it live,* each having its particular
fire place, but without any kind of wall or separation to mark their respective limits^ the chief
having his apartment at the upper end, and the
next in rank opposite, on the other side.   They
have no other floor than the ground ;  the fire
pla^e, or hearth, consists of a number of stones
loosely put together; but they are wholly without
a chimney, nor is there any opening left in the
roof; but whenever a fire is made, the plankfim-
mediately over it is thrust aside, bjft means of a
pole, to give vent to the smoke.   The height of
the houses in general, from the ground to the
centre of the roof, does not exceed ten feet; that
of Maquina's was not far  from  fourteen: the
spar forming the ridgepole   of the latter was
painted in red and black circles, alternately, by
way of ornament, and the large posts that supported it had their^tops curiously wrought, or
carved  so as to represent human heads; of|jo*
monstrous size, which were painted in their
manner. These were not, however, considered
as objects of adoration, but merely as ornaments.
|||The furniture of these people is very simple,
and consists only of boxes, in which they put
their clothes, furs, and such things as they hold
most valuable ; tubs for keeping their provision
of spawn and blubber in ; trays from which they
eat; baskets for their dried fish and other purposes ; and bags made of bark matting, of which
they also make their beds, spreading a piece of
it upon the ground when they lie down, and
using no other bed covering than their garments.
C~> i-J CD
The boxes are of pine, with a top that shuts over,
and instead of nails or pegs, are fastened with
flexible twigs; they are extremely smooth and
high polished, and sometimes ornamented with
rows of very small white shells. The tubs are of
a square form, secured in the like manner, and of
various sizes, some being extremely large,having
seen them that were six feet long by four broad
and five deep. The trays are hollowed out, with
their chisels, from a solid block of wood, and the
baskets and mats are made from the bark of trees.
From this they likewise make the cloth for their
garments, in the following manner. A quantity
of this bark is taken and put into fresh water,
where it is kept for a fortnight to give it time to
completely soften; it is then taken out and beaten
upon a plank with an instrument made of bone,
or some very hard wood, having grooves or hollows on one side of|t, care being taken to keep
the mass constantly moistened with water, in order to separate with more ease the hard and
woody from the soft and fibrous parts, which,
when completed, they parcel out into skeins, like
thread. These they lay in the air to bleach, and
afterwards dye them black or red, as suits their
fancies, their natural colour being a pale yellow.
In order to form the cloth, the women, by whom
the whole of this process is performed, take a
certain number of these skeins and twist them
together by rolling them with their hands upon
their knees, into hard rolls, which are afterwards
connected by means of a strong thread made for
the purpose. tf •%
Their dress usually consists of but a single
garment, which is a loose cloak or mantle, (called Kutsack^) in one piece, reaching nearly to the
feet. This is tied loosely over the right or left
shoulder, so as to leave the arms at full liberty.
Those of the common people are painted red
with ochre, the better to keep out the rain; but
the chiefs wear them of their native colour, which
is a pale yellow, ornamenting them with borders
of the sea otter skin, a kind of gray cloth, made
of the hair of some animal, which they procure
from the tribes to the south, or their own cloth,
wrought or painted with various figures in red or
black, representing men's heads, the sun and
moon, fish, and animals, which are frequently
executed with much skill. They have also a girdle of the same kind for securing this mantle, or
Kutsack, around them, which is in general still
more highly ornamented, and serves them to wear
their daggers and knives in. In winter, however,
they sometimes make use of an additional garment, which is a kind of hood, with a hole in it
for the purpose of admitting the head, and falls
over the breast and back as low as the shoulders ;
this is bordered both at top and bottom with fur,
and is never worn except when they go out. The
garments of the women vary not essentially from
those of the men, the mantle having holes in it
for the purpose of admitting the arms, and being
tied close under the chin instead of over the
shoulder. The chiefs have also mantles of the
sea otter skin ; but these are only put on upon extraordinary occasions, and one that is made from
the skin of a certain large animal, which is
brought from the south by the Wickanninish and
Kla-iz-zarts. This they prepare by dressing it in
warm water, carefully scraping off the hair, and
what flesh adheres to it, with sharp muscle shells,
and spreading it out in the sun to dry, on a
wooden frame, so as to preserve the shape. When
dressed in this manner, it becomes  perfectly
t:-4 '
white, and as pliable as the best deer's leather,
but almost as thick again. They then paint it in
different figures with such paints as they usually
employ in decorating their persons: these figures
mostly represent human heads, canoes employed
in catching whales^ &c. This skin is called metamelth, and is probably got from an animal of tie
moose kind ; it is highly prized by these people,
is their great war dress, and only worn when they
wish to make the best possible display of themselves. Strips or bands of it, painted as above,
are also sometimes used byr them for girdles, or
the bordering of their cloaks, and also for bracelets and ancle ornaments by some of the inferior
class. ,.a.::.|| . ;.a;M,a . - ,,.a ; '.^/: ■.'■['■'■^'■■■m
m On their heads, when they go out upon any
excursion, particularly whaling or fishing, they
wear a kind of cap or bonnet, in form not unlike
a large sugar loaf, with the top cut off. This is
made of the same materials with their cloth, but
is in general of a closer texture, and by way of
tassel has a long strip of the skin of the metamelth attached to it, covered with rows of small
white shells or beads. Those worn by the common people are painted entirely red, the chiefs
having theirs of different colours. The one worn
by the king, and which serves to designate him
from all the others, is longer and broader at the
bolt )m j the top, instead of being flat, having
upon it an ornament in the figure of a small urn.
It is also of a much finer texture than the others,
and plaited or wrought in black and white stripes,
with the representation, in front, of a canoe m:
puj&uit of a whale, with the harpooner standing
in the prow prepared to strike. This bonnet is
called Seeya-poks.        ^|i;.Jf*      *
Their mode of living is very simple : their food
consisting almost wholly of fish, or fish spawn,
fresh or dried, the blubber of the whale, seal, or
sea-cow, muscles, clams, and berries of vaMous
kinds; all of which are eaten with a profusion
of train oil for sauce, not excepting even the most
delicate fruit, as strawberries and raspberries.
With so little variety in their food, no great can
be expected in their cookery. Of this, indeed,
they may be said to know bait two methods,viz.
by boiling and steaming; and even the tatter is
not very frequently practised by them. Their
mode of boiling is as follows : into one of their
tubs they pour water sufficient to cook the quan-
tity of provision wanted. A number of heated
stones are then put in to make it boil, when the
palmon or other fish are put in, without any other
preparation than sometimes cutting off'the head%
tails, and fins, the boiling in the meantime being
kept up by the application of the hot stones,
after which it is left to cook until the whole is
nearly reduced to one mass. It is then taken out Narrative of
and distributed in the trays. In a similar manner
they cook their blubber and spawn, smoked or
dried fish, and in fine, almost every thing they
eat, nothing going down with them like broth. 1
When they cook their fish by steam, which
are usually the heads, tails, and fins of the salmon, cod, and halibut, a large fire is kindled,
upon which they place a bed of stones, which,
when the wood is burnt down, becomes perfectly
heated. Layers of green Idaves or pine boughs,
are then placed upon the stones, and the fish,
clamf, &c. being laid upon them, water is poured over them, and the whole closely covered
with mats to keep in the steam. This is much
the best mode of cooking; and clams and muscles done in this manner are really excellent.
These, as I have said, may be corisidered as
their only kinds of cookery ; though I have in a
very few instances known them dress the roe or
spawn of the salmon and the herring, when first
taken, in a different manner; this was by roasting
them, the former being supported between two
split pieces of pine, and the other having a sharp
stick run through it, with one end fixed in the
ground ; sprats are also roasted by them in this
way, a number being spitted on one stick; and
this kind of food, with a little salt, would be found
no contemptible eating even to an European. JOHN R. JEWITT*
n- At theft meals they seat J&emselves upon the
ground, with their feet curled up undegr them,
©round their trays, which are generally about
three feet long by one broad, and from six to
eight inches deep. |n eating they make use of
nothing but their fingers, except fo|f the soup or
oil, which they lade out with clam shells. Around
one of these tiayp^from four to six persons will
seat themselves, constantly dipping in their fingers or clam shells, one after the o^her.. The king
and chiefs alone have separate trays, from which
no one is permitted to eat with them except the
queen, or principal wife of th§ chief^ and whenever the king or one of the chiefs wishes to distinguish any of his people with a special mark
#f favour on these occasions, h# calls him gpd
gives him some of the choice bits from his tray.
The slaves eat at the same time, and of the same
provisions, fareing in this respect as wejl as their
iqaasters, being seated with the farr^Jy, and only
feeding from separate trays. Whenever a feast is
given by the k|pg or an^ of the chiefs, there is a
person who a£is as a master of ceremqmieSj and
whftse business it is to receive >the guests as they
enter the house, and point out to them their respective seats,, which is regulated wi|h great
punctiliousness as regards rarik;; the king occupying the highest, or the seat of honour, his son*
or brother sitting next to him, and so on with the*
i 78
chiefs, according to their quality; the private
persons belonging to the same family being always placed together to prevent any confusion.
The women are seldom invited to their feasts,
and only at those times when a general invitation
is given to the village. ^
As whenever they cook, they always calculate
to have an abundance for all the guests, a profusion in this respect being considered as the highest luxury, much more is usually set before them
than they can eat. That which is left in the king's
tray he sends to his house for his family by one
of his slaves, as do the chfefs theirs, while those
who eat from the same tray, and who generally
belong to the same family, take it home as common stock, or each one receives his portion,
which is distributed on the spot. This custom
appeared very singular to my companion and
myself, and it was a most awkward thing for us, at
first, to have to lug home with us, in our hands
or arms, the blubber or fish that we received at
these times, but we soon became reconciled to
it, and were very glad of an opportunity to do it.
In point of personal appearance, the people of
Nootka are among the best looking of any of the
tribes that I have seen. The men are in general
from about five feet six to five feet eight inches in
height, remarkably straight, of a good form, robust, a^nd strong, with their limbs in general well JOHN R. JEWITT,
turned and proportioned, excepting the legs and
feet, which are clumsy and ill-formed, owing no
doubt to their practice of sitting on them, though
I have seen instances in which they were very
well shaped : this defect is more particularly apparent in the women, who are for the most part
of the*time within tloors, and constantly sitting
^hile employed in th#ir oooking and other occupations. The only instance of deformity that I
saw among them was a man of dwarfish stature ;
he was thirty yrears old, and but three feet three
inches high; he had, however, no*other defect
than his diminutive size, being well made, and
as strong and able to bear fatigue as what they
were in general. Their complexion, when freed
fronffthe paint and oil with which their skins are
generally covered, is a brown, somewhat inclining to a copper cast. The shape of the face is
oval; the features are tolerably regular, the lips be-
ingfthin, and the teeth very white and even : their
eyes are black, but rather small, and the nose
pretty well formed, being neither flat nor very
prominent: their hair is black, long, and coarse,
but they have no beard, completely extirpating
it, as well as the hair, from their bodies, Maquina
being the only exception, who suffered his beard
to grow on his upper lip in the manner of mftsta-
chios, which was considered as a mark of dignity.
As to the women, they are much whiter, many
I i
w 30
of them not being darker than those in some of
the southern parts of Europe. They are in general very well looking, and some quite handsome.
Maquina's favourite wife in particular, who was
a Wickanninish princess, would be considered as
a beautiful woman in any country. She was uncommonly well farmed, tall, and of a maje^bc
appearance; her skin remarkably fair for one
of these people, with considerable colour, her
features handsome, and her eyes black, soft, and
languishing; her hair was very long, thi&k, and
black, as is that of theiemales in general, which
is much softer than that of the men; in this tjhey
take much pride, frequently oiling and plaiting it
carefully into two broad plaits, tying the ends
with a strip of the cloth of the country, and letting
it hang down before on each side of the face, m
The women keep their garments much neater
and cleaner than the men, and are extremely
modest in their deportment and dress; their
mantle or Kutsack, which is longer than that of
the men, reaching quite to their feet, and completely enveloping them, being tied close under
the chin, and bound w7ith a girdle of the same
cloth, or of sea otterskin, around their waists ^ it
has also loose sleeves which reach to the elbows.
Though fond of ornamenting their persons,
they are by no means so partial to paint as the
men, merely colouring their eye-brows black, JOHN R. JEWITT.
and drawing a bright red stripe from each corner
of the mouth towards the ear. Their ornaments
consist chiefly of ear-rings, necklaces, bracelets,
rings for the fingers and ancles, and small nose
jewels; (the latter are however wholly confined
to the wives of the king or chiefs ;) these are
principally made out of copper or brass, highly
polished and of various forms and sizes; the
nose jewel is usually a small white shell or
bead suspended to a thread. The wives of the
common people frequently wrear for bracelets
and ancle-rings, strips of the country cloth, or
skin of the metamelth, painted in figures; and
those of theiring or principal chief's bracelets
and necklaces, consisting of a number of strings
of Ifertvaw, an article isuch prized by them, and
which makes a very handsome appearance.
This Ife-waWj as they term it, is a kind of shell, of
a dazzling whiteness, and as smooth as ivory, it is
of cylindrical form, in a slight degree curved,
about the size of a goose quill, hollow, three
inches in length, and gradually tapering to a
point, which is broken off by the natives as it is
taken from the water ; this they afterwards string
upon threads of bark, and sell it by the fathom ;
it forms a kind of circulating medium among these
nations,five fathoms being considered as the price
of a slave, their most valuable species of property.
It is principally obtained from the Ai-tiz-zarts, a NARRATIVE OP
people living about thirty or forty miles to the
northward, who collect it from the reefs and sunken rocks, with w7hich their coast abounds, though
it is also brought in considerable quantity from
the south. Their mode of taking it has been thus
described to me. To one end of a pole is fastened a piece of plank, in which a considerable number of pine pegs are inserted, made sharp at the
ends; above the plank, in order to sink it, a stone
or some w'eight is tied, and the other end of the
pole suspended to a long rope; this is let down
perpendicularly by the Ife-waw fishers in those
places where that substance is found, which are
usually-from fifty to sixty fathoms deep; on finding the bottom they raise the pole up a few feet
and let it fall; this they repeat a number of times,
as if sounding, when they draw it up and take off
the Ife-waw which is found adhering to the points.
This method of procuring it is very laborious
and fatiguing, especially as they seldom take
more than two or three of these shells at a time,
anc|jfrequently none. -|t;- • ^e ■
Though the women, as 1 have said, make but
li||le use of paint, the very reverse is the case
with the men. In decorating their heads and faces
they place tjaeir principal pride, and none of our
most fashionable beaux, when preparing for a
grand ball, can be more particular: For I have
known Maquina after having been employed for JOHN R. JEWITT.
more than an hour in painting his face, rub the
whole off*, and recommence the operation anew
when it did not entirely please him. The manner
in which they paint themselves frequently varies,
according to the occasion, but it oftener is the
mere dictate of whim.    The most usual method
is to paint the eye-brows black, in form of a half
moon, and the face red, in small squares, with the
arms and legs and part of the body red ; sometimes one half of   the face is painted red in
squares, and the other black; at others, dotted
with  red spots, or red  and black   instead of
squares, with a variety of other devices, such as
painting one half of the face and body red, and
the other black. But a method of painting wrhich
they sometimes employed, and which they were
much more particular in, was by laying on the
face a quantity of bear's grease of about one eighth
of an inch thick ; this they raised up into ridges,
resembling a small bead in joiner's work, with a
stick prepared for the purpose, and then painted
them red, which gave the face a very singular
appearance.    On extraordinary  occasions, the
king and principal chiefs used to strew over their
faces, after painting, a fine black shining powder,
procured from some mineral, as Maquina told
me it was got from the rocks. This they call pel-
pelthj and value it highly, as, in their opinion,
it serves to set off their looks to great advan- NARRATIVE 0*
tage, glittering, especiallyjin the sun, like silver.
This article is brought them in bags by the New-
<hemasS) a very savage nation who live a long
way to the north, from whom they likewise receive a superior kind of red paint, a species of
very fine and rich ochre, which they hold in
niuch estimation.
Notwithstanding this custom of painting themselves, they make it an invariable practice, both
in summer and winter, to bathe once a day, and
sometimes oftener; but as the paint is put on
with oil, it is not much discomposed thereby,
and whenever they wish to wash it off, they re-
repair to some piece of fresh water, and scour
themselves with sand or rushes.
x In dressing their heads on occasion of a festival or visit they are full as particular, and almost
as long as in painting. The hair, after being well
oiled, is carefully gathered upon the top of the
head, and secured by a piece of pine or spruce
bough, with the green leaves upon it. After having it properly fixed in this manner, the king and
principal chiefs used to strew all over it the white
down obtained from a species of large brown
eagle which abounds on this coast, which they
are very particular in arranging so as not to have
a single feather out of place, occasionally wetting
the hair to make it adhere. This, together with the
bough, which is sometimes of considerable size, ^Qilft R. JEWtTT,
and stuck over with feathers by means of turpentine, gives them a very singular and grotesque
appearance, which they however think very becoming, and the first thing they do on learning
the arrival of strangers is to go and decorate
themselves in this manner.
H The men also wear bracelets of painted leather or copper, and large ear-rings of the latter,
but the ornament on which they appear to set the
most value, is the nose-jewel, if such anappelia*
lion may be given to the wooden stick which
some of them employ for this purpose. The king
and chiefs, however, wear them of a different
form, being either small pieces of polished cop*
per or brass, of which I made many for them, in
the shape of hearts and diamonds, or a twisted
conical shell about half an inch in length, of a bluish colour, and very bright, which is brought from
the South. These are suspended by a small wire,
or string, to the hole in the gristle of the nose,
w?hich is formed in infancy, by boring it with a
pin; the hole being afterwards enlarged by the
repeated insertion of wooden pegs of an increased size, until it becomes about the diameter of a pipe-stem, though some have them of a
size nearly sufficient to admit the little finger.
The common class, who cannot readily procure
the more expensive jewels that I have mentioned, substitute for them, usually, a smooth round
8 tfi
stick, some of which are of an almost incredible
length; for 1 have seen them projecting not less
than eight or nine inches beyond the face on
each side; this is made fast or secured in its*
place by little wedges on each side of it. These
sprit-sail-yard fellows, as my messmate used to
call them, when rigged out in this manner, made
quite a strange show, and it was his delight whenever he saw one of them coming tow7ards us with
an air of consequence proportioned to the length
of his stick, to put up his hand suddenly as he
was passing him,- so as to strike the stick, in order, as he said, to brace him up sharp to the
wind: this used to make thern very angry; but
nothing was more remote from Thompson's ideas
than the wish to cultivate their favour. r
The natives of Nootka appear to have but little incllhatiofi for the chace, though some of them
were expert niarksmen^ and used sometimes to
shoot ducks and geese; but the seal afld the sea-
otter form the principal objects of their hunting.;
particularly the latter. Of this animal, so much
noted for its valuable skin, the following description may not be uninteresting. The sea-otter is
nearly five feet in length, exclusive of the tail.;
which is about twelve inches,* and is very thick
and broad where it joins the body, but gradually
tapers to the end, which is tipped with white.
The colour of the rest is a shining silky black, JOHN R. JEWITT,
with the exception of a broad white stripe on the
top of the head. Nothing can be rrpre beautiful
than one of these animals when seen swimming,
especially when on the look out for any object.
At such times it raises its head quite above the
surface, and tbe contrast between the shining
black and the white, together with its sharp ears,
and a long tuft of hair rising from the middle of
its forehead, which look like tfiree small horns,
render it quite a novel and attractive object.
They are in general very tame, and will permit
a canoe or boat to approach very near before
they dive. I was told, however, that they are
become much more shy since they have been
accustomed to shoot them with muskets, than
when they used only arrows. The skin is held in
great estimation in China, more especially that
of the tail, the fur of which is finer and closer set
than that on the body. This is always cut off and
sold separately by the natives. The value of a
skin is determined by its siz#, that being considered as a prime skin which will reach, in length,
from a man's chin to his feet. The food of the
sea-otter is fish, which he is very dexterous in
taking, being an excellent swimmer, with feet
webbed like those of a goose. They appear to
be wholly confined to the sea-coast, at least to
the salt water. They have usually three or four
young at a time: but 1 know7 not how oftep they
■•_'; ■ vtjt-
£   4 »!
breed, nor in what places they deposit their
young, though I have frequently seen them swimming around the mother, when no larger than
rats. The flesh is eaten by the natives, cooked in
their usual mode, by boiling, and is far preferable to that of the seal, of which they make much
aCCOUglt.';' "11;'  ' 7 a. / ■.,, ■,:|f-.-'' 'a -•"> '     :: \$|j; '
But if not great hunters, there are few people
more expert in fishing. Their lines are generally
made from the sinew of the whale, and are
extremely strong. For the hook, they usually
make u#e of a straight piece of hard wood, in the
lower part of which is inserted, and well secured,
with thread or whale sinew, a bit of bone made
very sharp at the point, and bearded ; but I used
to make for them hooks from iron, which they
preferred, not only as being less liable to break,
but more certain of securing the fish. Cod, halibut, and other sea fish were not only caught by
them with hooks, biit even salmon. To take this
latter fish, they practise the following method:
One persoik seats himself in a small canoe, and
baiting his hook with a sprat, which they are a§fe
ways careful to procure as fresh as possible, fastens his line to the handle of the paddle; this, as
he plies it in the water, keeps the fish in constant
motion, so as to give it the appearance of life,
wlich the salmon seeing, leaps at it, and is instantly hooked, !&»d by a sudden dexterous mo-
tion of the paddle, drawn onboard. I have known
some of the natives take no less than eight or ten
salmon of a morning in this manner, and have
seen from twenty to thirty canoes at a time, in
Friendly Cove, thus employed.    They are likewise little less skilful in taking the whale.   This-
they kill with a-kind of javelin or harpoon, thus
constructed and fittedv The barbs are formed of
bone, which are sharpened on the outer side, and!
hollowed within, for the purpose of forming a
socket for  the staff ;| these are then\ secured
firmly together with whale sinew,the point being
fitted so as to receive a piece of muscle shell,
which is ground to a very sharp edge, and secured in its place by means of turpentine.  To this
bead or prong is fastened a strong line of whale*
sinew, about nine feet in length; to the end of
which is tied a bark rope from fifty to sixty fathoms long, having from twenty to thirty seal skin
Joats or buoys, attached to it at certain intervals,
in order to check the motion of the whale, and
obstruct his diving, N In the socket of the harpoon,
a staff or pole, of about ten feet long, gradually
tapering from the middle to each end, is placed';,
this the harpooner holds in his hand, in order to
strike the whale, and immediately detaches it as
soon as the fish is struck. The whale is considered as the king's fish, and no other person, whenf|
he is present, is permitted to touch him until the
mm $0
royal harpoon has first drawn his blood, however
near he may approach ; and it woukl be considered almost as sacrilege for anyr of the common
people to strike a whale before he is killed, particularly if any of the chiefs should be present.
They also kill the porpoise and sea cow with
harpoons ; but this inferior game is not interdicted the lower elas3.
■-. With regard to their canoes, some of the handsomest to be found on the whole coast, are made
at Nootka, though very fine ones were brought
by the Wickanninish and the Kla-iz-zarts, who
have them more highly ornamented. They are
of all sizes, from such as are capable of holding
only one person, to their largest war canoes, which
will carry forty men, and are extremely light. Of
these, the largest of any that ever 1 saw, was one
belonging to Maquina, which I measured, and
found to be forty-two feet six inches in length, at
the bottom, mid forty-six feet from stem to stern.
These are made of pine, hollowed out from a
tree with their chisels solely, which are about
three inches broad, and six in length, and set into a handle of very hard wood. This instrument
was formerly made of flint, or some hard stone,
ground down to as sharp an edge as possible; but
since they have learned the use of iron, they
have almost all of them of that metal. Instead
of .a mallet for striking this chisel, they make JOftN R. JEWITT,
use of a smooth round stone, which they hold in
the palm of the hand. With this same awkward
instrument they not only excavate their canoes
and trays, and smooth their plank, but cut down
such trees as they want, either for building, fuel,
or other purposes, a labour which is mostly done
by their slaves.
;  The falling of trees, as. practised by them, is a
slow and most tedious process, three of them being generally from two to three days in cutting
down a large one ; yet, so attached were they to
their own method, that notwithstanding they saw
Thompson frequently with one of our axes, of
which there was a number saved, fall a tree in
less time than they could have gone round it
with their chisels, still theyr could not be persuaded to make use of them.|; If *■■ <
K After hollowing out their canoes, which  they
do very neatly, they fashion  the outside,  and
slightly burn it, for the purpose of removing any
splinters, or smalt points, that might obstruct its
passage through the water; after which they rub
Ipt over thoroughly with rushes, or coarse mats,in
order to smooth it, which not only renders it at-
most as smooth as glass, but forms a  better security for it from the weather ; this operation of
burning and rubbing down the bottoms of their
canoes, is practised as often as they acquire any
considerable degree of roughness from^use. The NARRATIVE 01
pi-u    ilt; i«!
outside, by this means, becomes quite black; and
to complete their work they paint the inside of a
bright red, with ochre, or some other simjlar^ub-
stance ; the prows and sterns are almost always
ornamented with figures of ducks, or some other
kind of bird, the former being so fashioned as to
represent the head, and the latter the tail i these
are separate pieces from the canoe, and are fastened to it with small flexible twigs, or bark cord.
Some of these canoes, particularly those employed in whaling, which will hold about ten men,
are ornamented within, about two inches below
the gunwale, with two parallel lines on each side,,
of very small white shells, running fore and aft,,
which has a very pretty effect. Their war canoes
have no ornament of this kind, but are painted
on the outside with figures in white chalk, representing eagles, whales, human heads, &c. They
lare very dexterous in the use of their paddles,
which are very neatly wrought, and are five feet
long, with a short handle, and a blade seven:
inches broad in the middle, tapering to a sharp
pdfnt.  With these they will make a canoe skim
very swiftly on the water, with scarcely any noise,
while they keep time to the stroke of the paddfe
with their songs.
With regard to these, they have a number,
which they sing on various occasions j as war,*
* A speejjnen of one of tbeir war songs, will be found at the end of
this work. JOHN R. JEWITT,
whaling, andifishing, at their marriages and feasts,
and at public festivals or solemnities. The lais-
guage of the most of these,nppears to be very different in many respects from#that used in their
common conversation, which leadsme to believe,
either that they have a different mode of expressing themselves in poetry, or that they borrow
their songs from their neighbours, and what the
more particularly induces me to the latter opinion, is, that whenever any of the Newchemass, a
people from the northward, and who speak a
very different language, arrived, they used to tell
me that they expected a new song, and were
almost always sure to have one. a       fe|p\
Their tunes are generally soft and plaintive,
and though not possessing great variety, are not
deficient in harmony. Their singing is generally
accompanied with several rude kinds of instrumental music; among the most prominent of
which, is a kind of drum. This is nothing more
than a long plank, hollowed out on the under
side, and made quite thin, which is beat upon
by a stick of about a foot long, and renders a
sound not unlike beating on the head of an empty cask, but much louder. But the two most favourite instruments are the rattle, and the pipe
or whistle ; these are, however, only used by the
king, the chiefs, or some particular persons ; the
former is made of (jried seal skin, so as to repre*- NARRATIVE OF
sent a fish, and is filled with a number of small
smooth pebbles, it has a short handle, and is
painted red. The whistle is made of bone, generally the leg of a deer, it is short, but emits a
very shrill sound. They have likewise another
kind of music, whichithey make use of in danc-
ing, in the manner of castanets, this is produced
by a number of muscle or cockle shells, tied together and shaken rto a kind of tune, which is
accompanied with the voice. '
||;Their slaves, as I have observed, form their
most valuable species of property". These are of
both sexes, being either capives taken by themselves in war, or purchased from the neighbouring tribes, and who reside in the same house,
forming as it were a part of the family, are usually kindly treated, eat of the same food, and live
as well as their^masters. They are compelled
however, at times, to labour severely, as not only
all the menial offices are performed by them, such
as bringing water, cutting wood, and a variety
of others, but they are obliged to make the canoes, to assist in building and repairing the
houses, to supply their masters with fish, and to
attend them to war, and to fight for them. None
but the king and chiefs have slaves, the common
people being prevented from holding them, either
frdm their inability to purchase them, or, as I am
rather inclined to think, from its being consider- JOHN R. JEWITT
fed as the privilege of the former alohe to have
them, especially as all those made prisoners in
war belong either to the king or the chiefs who
have captured them, each one holding such as
have been taken by himself or his slaves; There
is probably, however, some little distinction ih
favour of the king, who is always the coiiiman-
der of the expedition, as Maquina had nearly fifty,
male and female in his house, a number constituting about one half of its inhabitants, comprehending those obtained by war and purchase,
whereas, none of tljte other chiefs had more than
twelve.   The females are employed principally
in manufacturing cloth, in cooking^  collecting
berries, &c. and with regard to food and liv§ng,
in general have not a piuch harder lot than thei|
n^stresses ; tne principal difference consisting in
these poor unfortunate creatures being considered as free to any one, their masters prostituting
them whenever they think proper, for the purpose
of gain. In this way many of them are brought
on board the ships and offered to the crews, from
whence an opinion appears to have beien formed
by some of our navigators, injurious to the chastity of th^ir|emales, than whiqh nothing can be
more generally untrue, as perhaps in no part of
the world is that virtue more prized.
- The houses at fvfootka, as already stated, are
about twenty, without comprising those inhabits!
Mid., i
' s
§6 ttAitftATIVS OE
edifoy the Klahars, a small tribe that has been
conquered and incorporated into that of Nootka^
though they mist be considered as in a state of
vassalage, as they are not permitted to have any
chiefs among them, and live b^themselves in a
cluster of small houses^ at a little distance from
the village-. The N&kka tribe*, which consists of
about five hundred warriorsj is not only more mi*
iiierous 4han almost any of the neighbouring
tribes, but far exceeds them in the strength and
martial spirit of its people ; and in fact, there are
bit few nations within a hundred miles, either to
the North or South, but1 are considered as titulary to them* ; ' ^p r w :",k • :-■'■* •"• '-':'-:'''
I' In giflng some acCc^int of the ti$be# thaP^vere
accustdined to visit Nootka, I shall comiience
lit the^^uthwarilf wlh the Kla-iM-fearfl, and
thelWickSininish^ premising tftat in point of
personal appearance, there prevails a wonderful
diversity between the various tribes on the coast,
with the exception of the feetltnd legs, which are
badly shaped in almost all of them, from their
practice of sifting on tlem. The Kla-iz-zarts are
& numerous and powerful tribe, Ifving nearly
three hundred miles to the South, and are said to
consist of more than a thousand warriors. They
appear to be more civilised than any of the others
Seing better and more neatly dressed, more
iiii#and%ffable HI theft''manners, remarkable for
fit j6hn r. jewsot. 97
their sprightliness and vivacity, and celebrated
for their singing and dancing. They exhibit also
great marks of improvement in whatever is
brought by them ; their canoes, though not superior to those of Nootka in point of form and
lightness, being more highly ornamented, and
their weapons and tools, of every kind, have a
much higher finish, and display more skill in the
workmanship. Their cast of countenance is very
different from that of the Nootkians, their faces
being very broad, with a less prominent nose, and
smaller eyes, and the top of the head flattened as
if it had been pressed down with a weight. Their
complexion is also much fairer, and their stature
shorter, though they are well formed and strongly set. They have a custom which appears to be
peculiar to them,as I never observed it in any of
the other tribes, which is to pluck out not only
their beards, and the hair from their bodies, but
also their eye-brows, so as not to leave a vestige
remaining. They were also in general more ski!^
ful in painting and decorating themselves, and I
have sfeen some of them with no less than a dozen holes in each of their ears, to which were suspended strings of small beads about two inches
in length. Their language is the same as spoken
at Nootka, but their pronunciation is much more
hoarse and guttural. These people are not only
very expert in whaling, but are great hunters of
ItasB i:-
Iff I
the sea ottqr, and other animals, with which their
country is said to abound, as the Metamelth, a
large animal of the deer kind, the skin of which
I have already spoken of; another of a light gray
colour, with very fine hair, from which they manufacture a handsome cloth ; the beaver, and a
species of large wild cat, or tyger cat. >
The Wickinninish, their neighbours on the
north, are about two hundred miles from Nootka:
they are a robust, strong, and warlike people,
but considered by the Nootkians as their inferiors in courage. This tribe is more numerous than
that of Nootka, amounting to between six and
seven hundred warriors. Though not so civilized
as the Kla-iz-zarts, and less skilful in their manufactures, like them they employ themselves in
hunting^ as well as in whaling and fishing. Their
faces are broad, but less so than the Kla-iz-zarts,
with a darker complexion, and a much less open
and pleasing expression of countenance, while
their heads present a very different form, being
pressed in at the sides, and lengthened towards
the top, somewhat in the shape of a sugar loaf.
These people are very frequent visiters at Nootka, a cl$se friendship subsisting between the two
jiations; Maquina's Arcomah or Queen Y-ya-tin-
tla-nOy being the daughter of the Wickinninish
king. The Kla-oo-quates, adjoining them on the
north, are much less numerous, their force not JOHN R. JEWITT.
exceeding four hundred fighting men ; they are
also behind them in the arts of life. These are
a fierce, bold, and enterprising people, alid there
were none that visited Nootka whom Maquina
used to be mtore on his guard against, or viewed
wMi so much suspicion. The Eshquates are
about the same number; these are considered as
tributary to Maquirife,: their coast abounds vith
rivers, creeks, and marshes. To the north, the
nearest tribe of any importance is the Aitizzarts ;
these, however, do not exceed three hundred
warriors. In appearance they greatly resemble
the people of Nootka, to Whom § they are considered a! tributary, their manners, dress, and
style of living also being verisimilar. They reside at about forty feiles distance up the sound.
A considerable way farther to the northward are
|he Cayuquets | these are a much more numerous tribe than that offSootka, but thought by the
fetter to be deficient in courage and martial spirit, Maquina having frequent!jitold me that their
hearts were little, like those of birds.
P There are also, both at $ie north and south,
many other intervening tribes, but in general
small in number, and insignificant; all of whom,
as well as the above mentioned, speak the same
language. But th#Newchemass, who come from
a great distance from the northward, and from
some distance inland, as I was told by Maquina, NARRATIVE OF
1 Si
speak quite a different language, although it is
well understood by those of Nootka. These we£e
the most savage looking and ugly men that I
ever saw, their complexion being much darker,
their stature shorten and their hair coarser, than
that of the other nations, and their dress andiap-i
^earance dirty in an extreme. They wear their
beards long like Jews, and have a very moros^|
and surly countenance. Their usual dresses a
Kootiisck made of wolf skin, wifb a number of the
tails attached to it, of which I have seen no less
than ten on one garment, hanging from the tcf) to
the bottom; though they sometimes wear a similar mantle of bjprk cloth, of a m^ch coarser texture than that of Nootka, the original colour of
which appears to be the same, fhough from their
very great filthiness it was almost impossible to
discover what it had been. Their mode of dress-^
ing their hair also varies essentially from that of
the other tribes, for they suffer that on the back
of the head to hang loq§e, and bind the other over
their foreheads in the manner of a fillet, with a
strip of their country *floth, ornamented with small
white shells. Their weapons are the Cheetoolthf
or war club, which is made from whale bone,
daggers, bows and arrows, and a kind of spear,
pointed with bone or copper. They brought with
them no furs for sale, excepting a few wolfskins ;
their merchandise consisting principally of the JOHN R. JEWITT.
black shining mineral called pelpelth, and the
fine red paint, which they carefully kept in close
mat bags, some small dried salmon, clams, and
roes offish, with occasionally a little coarse mat-
tin? cloth. They were accustomed to remain a
much longer time fit Nootka than the other
tribes, in order to recover from the fatigue of a
long journey, part of which w;as over land, and
on these occasions taught their songs to our savages. The trade of most of the other tribes with
Nootka was principally train oil, seal or whale's
blubber, fish, fresh or dried, herring or salmon
spaw7n, clams, and muscles, and the yarna^ a species of fruit which is pressed and dried, cloth, sea
otter skins, and slaves. From the Aitizzaris, and
the Cayuquets, particularly the former^ the best
I-whaw, and in the greatest quantities, was obtained. The Eshquates furnished us with wild
ducks and geese, particularly the latter. The
Wickinninish and Kla-iz-zarts brought to market
many slaves, the best sea otter skins, great quantities of oil, whale sinew, and cakes of the yamar
highly ornamented canoes, some I-whaw, red
ochre, and pelpelth of an inferior quality to that
obtained from the Newchemass, but particularly
the so much valued Metamelth^ and an excellent
root called by the Kla-iz-zarts Quawnoose. This
is the size of a small onion, but rather longer, be-
iug of a tapering form, like a pear, and of abrow*i-
9 102
ish colour. It is cooked by steam, is always
brought in baskets, ready prepared for eating, and
is in truth a very fine vegetable, being sweet,
mealy3 and of a most agreeable flavour. It was
highly esteemed by the natives, who used to eat
it, as they did every thing else, with train oil.
From the Kla-iz-zarts was also received, though
in no great quantity, a cloth manufactured by
them from the fur already spoken of, which feels
like wool, and is of a gray colour.
Many of the articles thus brought, particularly the provisions, were considered as presents, or
tributary offerings, but this must be viewed as
little more than a nominal acknowledgment of
superiority, as they rarely failed to get the fall
amount of the value of their presents. I have
known eighteen of the great tubs, in which they
keep their provisions, filled with spawn brought
in this way. On these occasions a great feast is
always made, to which not only the strangers,
but the whole village, men, women, and children,
are generally invited, and I have seen five of the
largest tubs employed at such time in cooking
at the king's house. At these feasts they generally indulge in eating to an excess, making up in
this respect for their want of inebriating liquors,
which they know no method of preparing in any
form, their only drink being water.
Whenever they came to visit or trade, it was JOHN R. JEWITT.
their general custom to stop a kw miles distant,
under some bluff or rock, and rig themselves out
in their best manner, by painting and dressing
their heads. On their first coming onshore, they
were invited to eat by the king, when they
brought to him such articles as he wanted ; after
which the rest of the inhabitants were permitted
to purchase, the strangers being careful to keep
them in their canoes until sold, under strict
guard, to prevent their being stolen, the disposition of these people for thieving being so great
that it is necessary to keep a watchful eye upon
them.    }$!& -,  ..-, a'"--"'--a-a:      .  /  v   "   /,§a <•- ir"r
This was their usual mode of traffick; but
whenever they Wished to purchase any particular object, as for instance, a certain slave, or
some other thing of which they were very desirous, the canoe that came for this purpose woul&
lie off a little distance from the shore, and a kind
of ambassador or representative of the king or
chief bv whom it was sent, dressed in their best
manner, and with his head covered With the
white down, would rise, and after making known
the object of his mission, in a pompous speech,
hold up specimens of such articles as he was instructed to offer in payment, mentioning the number or quantity of each; when, if the bargain was
concluded, the exchange was immediately made.
On their visits of friendship or traffick, the
yfiii •tin
chiefs alone used to sleep on shore, this w7as ge*
nerally at the house of the king or head chief,
the others passing the night on board of their canoes, which was done not only for the preservation of their property, but because they were not
permitted to remain on shore, lest they might excite some disturbance, or commit depredations.
All these people generally go armed, the common class wearing only a dagger suspended from
their neck behind, with a string of metamelth,
and sometimes thrust in their girdles. The chiefs,
in addition to the dagger, carry the chetoolth, or
war-club, suspended in the same manner beneath
their mantles ; this in the hands of a strong man
is a powerful weapon, in the management of
which some of the older chiefs are very dexterous. It is made from the bone of a whale, and is
very heavy. The blade is about eighteen inches
long, and three broad, till it approaches near the
point, where it expands to the breadth of four
inches. In the middle, from whence it slopes off
gradually to an edge on each side, it is from one
to two inches in thickness. This blade is usually*
covered with figures of the sun and moon, a man's
head, &c. and the hilt, which is made to represent the head of a man or some animal, is curiously set with small white shells, and has a band
of metamelth fastened to it in order to sling it
over the shoulder.   Some of the tribes have also JOHN R. JEWITT*
a kind of spear, headed with copper, or the bone
of the sting ray, which is al) dangerous weapon ;
this is however not usual, and only carried by the
chiefs. The bow and arrow are still used by a
few, but since the introduction of fire arms among
them, this weapon has been mostly laid aside. '>
a But to return to our unhappy situdlion.
Though my comrade and myself fared as well,
and even better than we could have expected
among these people, considering their customs
and mode of living, yet our fears, lest no ship
would come to our release, and that wre should
never more behold a Christian country, were to
us a source of constant pain. Our principal consolation, in this gloomy stale, was to go on Sundays, whenever the weather would permit, to the
borders of a fresh water pond, about a mile from
the village, where, after bathing, and putting on
clean clothes, we would seat ourselves under the
shade of a beautiful pine, while I read some chap&
ters in the Bible, and the prayers appointed by
our Church for the d$y, ending our devotions
with a fervent prayer to the Almighty that he
would deiglp still to watch over and preserve our
lives, rescue us from the hands of t|e savages, and
permit us once more to behold a Christian land.
In this manner were the greater part of our Sundays passed at Nootka ; and 1 felt grateful to
heaven that, amidst our other sufferings, w7e were MIA",
i a
at least allowed the pleasure of offering up our
devotions unmolested, for Maquina, on my explaining to him, as well as was in my power, the
ipason of our thus retiring at this time, far frofe
objecting, readily consented to it. The po:*tt
above menJfciined was small, not mo*e than a
quarter of a mile in breadth, and of no great
|§ngth ; the water being very clear, though not of
great depth, and bordered by a beautiful forest
of pine, fir, elm, and beach, free from bushes and
underwood, a most delightful retreat, which was
rendered still more attractpe by a great number
of birds that frequented it^particularly ttte teum-
ming bird. Thither we used to go to wash
our clothes, and felt secure from any intrtisio|l
from the natives, as they rarely visited it except
for the purpose of cleansing themselves of their
paint.   .    , I ' : '.. ■%: -: a- " :|§i
In July we at length thought that the hope of
deHvery we had so long anxiously indulged was
on the point of being gratified. A ship appeared
in the offing, but alas! our fond hopes vanished
almost as soon as formed; for instead of standing
in for the shore, she passed to thekiortlnvard, and
soon disappeared. I shall not attempt to describe
our disappointment; my heart sunk w7ithin me,
and I felt as though ft was my destiny never
more to behold a Christian face. Four days after
there occurred a tremendous storm of thundll
$nd lightning, during which the natives manifested great alarm and terror; the whole tribe hurrying to Maquina's houseyfvhere, instead of keeping
within, they seated themselves on the roof amid
^e severest of the tempest, drumming upon the
boards^ and looking up to heaven, while the king
beat the long hollow plank, singing, and, as he
afterwards told me, begging Quahootze, the name
they pve to God, not to kill them, in which he
was accompanied by the whole tribe; this singing and drumming was continued until the storm
abated.   _A ■'■ '■'■;,■     l    .     - • <  -        ' ■**§
As the summer drew near its close we began
to suffer from the frequent wTant of food, which
ms principally owing to Maquina and the chiefs
being out whaling, in which he would not permit
Thompson and myself to join, lest we should
make our escape to some of the neighbouring
tftfees. At these times the women seldom or ever
cook any provision, and w7e were often hungry,
but were sometimes fortunate enough to procure,
secretly, a piece of salmon, some other fish,
spawn, or even blubber, which, by boiling in salt
water, With a few onions and turnips, the remains of the Spanish garden, or young nettles
and other herbs, furnished us a delicious repast
m private. In the mean time we frequently re-
i Geived accounts from the tribes who came to
Nootka, both from the north and south, or there 108
.'   :i
being vessels on the coast, and*Were advised by
their chiefs to make our escape, who also promised us their aid, and to put us on board* These
stories, however, as I afterwards learned, were
almost all of them without any foundation, and
merely invented by.these people with a view to
get us into their power, in order to make slaves
of us themselves, or to sell us to others. But I was
still more strongly solicited to leave Nootka, by
a woman. This was a Wickinninish princess, a
younger sister of Maquina's wife, who was there
on a visit. 1 had the good fortune, if it may be so
called, to become quite a favourite with tier. She
appeared much interested for me, asked me many questions respecting my country, if I had
a mother and sister at home, and if they would
not grieve for my absence. Her complexion was
fairer than that of the women in general, and her
features more regular, and she would have been
quite handsome had it not been for a defect in
one of her eyes, the sight of which had been injured by some accident, the reason, as Maquina
told me, why she had not been married; a defect
of this kind being by these savages considered as
almost an insuperable objection. She urged me
repeatedly to return with her, telling me that the
Wickinninish were much better than the Nootki*
ans; that her father would treat me more kindly
than Maquina, give me better food and clothes, JOHN R. JEWITT-
and finally put me on board one of my own qpgi-n-
try vessels. I felt however, little disposed to accompany her, considering my situation with Maquina full as eligible as it would be with the
Wickinninish, if not better, notwithstanding all
she said to the contrary. |      %
On the third of September the whole tribe
quitted Nootka, according to their constant practice, in order to pass the autumn and winter
at Tashees and Cooptee, the latter lying about
thirty miles up the Sound, in a deep bay, the
navigation of which is very dangerous from the
great number of reefs and rocks with which it
abounds. On these occasions every thing is taken
|^th them, even the planks of their houses, in or-
dqj* to cover their new dwellings. To an European, such a removal exhibits a scene quite novel and strange: canoes piled up with boards ja-nji
boxes, and filled wi|h rpen, women, and children,
of all ranks and sizes, making the $ir resound
with their cries and songs. At these times, as
well as when they have occasion to go some distance from their houses, the infants are usually
suspended across t$e mothers shoulders, in a
kind of cradle or hammock, formed of bark, of
about six inches in depth, and of the length of
the child, by means of a leather band inserted through loops on its edges j  this they also
keep them in when at home, in older to pre«
to no
Itrr 1
serve them iti a straight position, and prevent
any distortion of the limbs, most probably a principal cause of these people being so seldom deformed or crooked.    The long boat of our ship
having been repaired and furnished with a sail
by Thompson, Maquina gave us the direction of
it, we being better acquainted with managing it
than his people, and after loading her as deep as
she could swim, we proceeded in company with
them to the north, quitting Nootka with heavy
hearts, as we could entertain no hopes of release
untM our return, no ships ever coming to that part
of the coast. Passing Cooptee, which is situated
on the southern bank, just within the mouth of a
Ismail river flowing from the east in ahiaiyow
valley at the foot of a mountain, we proceeded
about fifteen miles up this stream to Tashees,
between a range of lofty hills on each side, which
extend a great distance inland, and are covered
with the finest forest trees of the country. Immediately on our arrival, we all went to work very
diligently in covering the houses with the planks
we had brought, the frames being ready erected,
these people ne^r pretending to remove the
Himber. In a very short time the work was com-
flpleted, and we were established in our new
Ifttesidence. ~-|p •'•   : .#' i  '■" - a   •
Tashees is pleasantly situated, and in a most
secure position from the winter storms, in a small JOHN R. JEWITT.
vale or hollow oft thejsouth shose, atithe foot $
a mountain. The spot ontlvhich it stands is level,
and the soil very fine, the country iai^s vicinity
abounding with the most romantic views, charmingly diversified, and fine streams of water#4l-
ing in beautiful cascades from the ilBaountains.
The river at this place is about twenty rods in
width, and, in its deepest part, from nine to twelve
feet. This village is the extreme point of navigation, as immediately beyondfthe river becomes much more shallow, anc$ is brofeen into
rapids and falls. The houses here are placed $n a
line like those at N$otka,but closer together, the
sitfation being Iftore confined^ they are also
smaller, in consequence of which we were much
crowded and incommoded for rodpi. •
II The principal object in coning to this place, is
the facility it affords thes#| people of providing
their winter stock of provisions, which counts
principall|||pf salmon and the spawn of thatfjish;
to which may be added herring and sprats, anlt
hiring spawn.: The latter, however, is always
procured by them at Nootka, previous to their
quitting it.| At the seasons of spawning, which
are ea4y in the spring and the last of August,
they ^collect a great quantity of pipe blanches,
which they place in different parts of the Cove,
atfthe depth of about ten feet, and secure them
bv means of heavy stones. On these the heyring^ I
deposit tfceir Spawn in imtoense quantities ; the
bushes a#fi then taken up, the spawn stripptid
jfrom the brancliii, and after being washed and
freed from the pine leaves by the women, is dri*
ed and put up in Baskets for use. It is considered
as their greatest delicafcy, and eateli both cooked
and raw : in the foniier case, being boiled and
eaten with tiain <stl, and in the latter, n#xed up
with cold water alone. • ■'*■ :^f$gr-;:       -" ~   .^ :§|
The salmon are taken at Tashees, principally
in pof® or wears! Tlteir niethod of taking them
in wears is thus; a pot of twenty feet in lengtl,
and from four to five feet diameter at the mouth,
is formed #f a great number of pine splinters,
which are strongly secured, an inch and a half
from each other, by means of hoops made of flex-*
ible twigs, and placed about eight inches apart.
At the end it tapers almost to a point, near which
is a small wicker door, for the purpose of taking
out the fish. This pot or wear is placed at the
foot of a fall or rapid, where the water is not very
deep, and the fish driven from above with long
poles, are intercepted and caught in the wear,
froin whence they are taken into the canoes. In
thfe manner I have seen more than seven hun-
hundred salmon caught in the space of fifteen
minutes. I have also sometimes known a few of
the striped bass taken in this manner, but rarelyJ|
|| At sush times there is great feasting and met* JO-HJf R. JEWITT*
riment among the mi: the women and female
slaves being busily? employed in cooking, or in
curing the fish for their winter stock, which is
done by cutting off the heads and tails, splitting
them, taking out the back bone, and hanging
them up in their houses to dry.| They also dry
the halibut and cod, but these, instead of curing
whole, they cut up into small pieces for that purpose, and expose to the sun. The spawn of the
salmon, which is a principal article of their provision, they take out, and without any other preparation, throw it into their tubs, where they
leave it to stand and ferment, for though they*
frequently eat it fresh, they esteem it mucllmoi^
when it has acquired a strong taste ; and one of
the greatest favours they can confer on any per
son, is to invite them to eat
the name
they give this food, though scarcely any thing
can be more repugnant to an European palate
than it is in this state ; and whenever they took
it out of these large receptacles, which they are
always careful to fill, such was the stench which
it e^ialfed, on befeg moved, that it was almost
impossible tor me to abide it, even after habit
had in a great degree dulled the delicacy of my
senses. When boiled it became less offensive,
though it still retained much of the putrid smell
and sometliiiig of the taste*. ......    |^ ^
# Such is the immense quantity of these fi^I%
i i
- 114
and they are taken with such facility, that I have
known upwards of twenty-five hundred brought
into Maquina's house at once, and at one of their
great feasts have seen one hundred or more
cooked in one of their largest tubs. J| v ||#:>::
< I used frequently to go out with Maquina upoi&
these fishing parties, and was always sure to receive a handsome present of salmon, which 1 had
the privilege of calling mine ; 1 also went with
him several times in a canoe to strike the salmon, which I have attempted to do myself, but
could never succeed, it requiring a degree of
adroitness that I did not possess. I w7as also permitted to go out with a gun, and was several
times very successful in shooting wild ducks, and
teal, which are very numerous here, though rather
shy* These they cooked in their usual manner,
by boiling, without any farther dressing than
skinning therm In many respects, however, our
situation was less pleasant here than at Nootka*^
We were more incommoded for room, the houses
not being so spacious, nor so well arranged ; and
as it was colder, we were compelled to be much
more within doors. We however did not neglect
on Sundays, whep the weather w7ould admit, to
retire into the woods, and by the side of some
stream, after bathing, return our thanks to God
for preserving us, and offer up to him our customary devotions.   I was however very apprehen- JOHN R. JEWITT.
slf|f, soon after our arrival at lhi$ place, that I
should be deprived of the satisfaction of keeping
my journal, as Maquina one day, observing me
writing in it, inquired of me what I was doing,
and w hen 1 endeavoured to explain k by telling
him that I was keeping an account of the weatliT
er, he said it was not so, and that I was speaking
bad about him, and telling how he had taken our
sfcip and killed the crew, so as to inform my
countrymen, and that if he ever saw me writing
in it agai% he wo$id throw it into the ire. I was
much rejgjeed that he did no more than threaten,
-and became very cautious afterwards not to let
him see me write* l$M- a ^
Not long after, I finished some daggers for
him, which 1 polished highly ;these pleased him
much, and he gave me directions to make a
|?Jieetooitb, in which 1 succeeded so far to his satisfaction, that he gave me a present of eloth sufficient to make me a complete suit of raim^fit,
besides other things. Thompson^ also, who had
becoirge rather more of a favourite than formerly,
since he had tqade a fine sail for his canoe, and
some garments fbr htei out of European cloth,
about this time completed another,, which was
thought by the savages a most superb dress. This
was a Kootswk or mantle, a fathom square, made
entirely of European vest patterns^ of the gayest
colours. These were sewed together in a manner IS
mi r
to make the best show, and bating with a deip
trimming of the finest otter skin, with which the
arm holes were also bordered ; while the bottom
was farther embellished with fife or si& rowslbf
gilt buttons, placed as near as possible to each
other. Nothing could exceed the plide of Maquina when he first put on this royal robe, decorated,
like the coat of Joseph, with all the colours of the
rainbow, and glittering with the buttons, which
as he strutted about made a tinkling, while le
repeatedly exclaimed in a transport of exultation,
Mlew shish Katsuck—wick kum atack Nootka. A
fine garment—Nootka canl make him* % ^ ;
Maquina, who knew that the chiefs of the tribes
who came to visit us had endeavoured to persuade me to escape, frequently cautioned me not
to listen to them, saying that should I Aiafte the
attempt, and he #ere to take me, he should certainly put me to death. While here, he gave me
a book in which I found the names of seven per*
sons belonging to the ship Manchester of Philadelphia, Captain Brian, viz.—Daniel SnUth^
Lewis Gilten, James Tom, Clark, Johnsott, Ben/
and Jack. These me^ as Maquina informed mep
ran away from the ship, and came to him, but that
six of tfiem soon after went off in the night, with?
an intention to go to the Wickinninish, but were
stopped by the Eshquiates and sent back to him,
and that fie ordered them to be put t#deatb; ao# Jd&tf R. JEWITT.
a most cruel death it was, as I was told by one of
the natives, four men holding one of them on the
ground, and forcing open his mouth, while they
fhokedhim by ramming stones down his throat.
As to Jack the boy, who made no attempt to go off?
Maquina afterwards liold him to the Wickinninish. I was informed by the princess Yuqua that
he was quite a small boy, who cried a great deal,
Ifeing put to hard labour beyond his strength, by
the natives, in cutting wood and bringing water,
and i^bat when he heard of the murder of our
crew, it had such an effect on him that he fell sick,
and died shortly after. On learning the melancholy fate ijf this unfortunate lad, it again awakened in my bosom those feelings lhat Ihhcl experienced at the shocking deatfi Of my poor comrades.
The king finding that I was desirous of learns
ing their language, was much delighted, and
took greai pleasure in conversing with rae.| On
one of these occasions, he explained to me his
reasons for cutting off our ship, saying that he
bore no iliwill to my countrymen, but that he
had been several times treated very ill by them.
The first injury of whi#h he had cause to complain, was done him by a captain Tawnington,
who commanded a schooner wrfeich passed a winter at Friendly Cove, where he was well treated
by the inhabitants. This man taking advantage of
Maquina's absence? who had gone to the Wick?, j
inninish to procure a wife, armed himself and
g$ew, and entered the house where there were
noneifut women, whom he threw into the greatest consternation, and searching the chests, took
away all the skins, of which Maquina had nole^
than forty of the best; and that about the same
time, foup of their chiefs weiie barbarously killed
by a captain Martinez, a Spaniard, | That soon
after Captain Hannf, of the Sea Otter, i® consequence of one of the natives having stolen a chis^
el from the carpenter, fired upon their canoe$|
which were along side, and killed upwards of
twenty of the natives, of whom several were Ty-
ees or ehiefa; and that heiiimself, being on board
the vessel, in order to escape, was obliged to|eap
from the quarter deck, and swim for a long way
underwater* -a :a :_ ...;|| a||,-.a.$|jf«-- ;-a-\
■-.-•■ These injuries had excited in the breast of
Maquina an ardent desire of revenge, the strongest passion of the savage heart, and though many years had elapsed since their commission^
still they were not forgotten, and the want of a
favourable opportunity alone prevented him front
sooner avenging them. Unfortunately forms, the
long wished for opportunity at length presented
itself in oi|r sjbip, which Maquina finding not
gimrded with the usual vigilance of the Nprth
West Traders, and feeling his desire of .revenge,
rekindled by the^psult offered him by Capt Salt
ter, formed a plan for attacking, and on his return, fialled a council of his chiefs, and commu-
ffieatdd it to them, acquainting them with the
mitiner in which he had been treated.    No less
desirouf of avenging this affront offered their
king, than the former injuries, they readily agreed
tobis proposal, which was to go oi board without
arsfff, as usual, but under different pretexts, in
greater numbers, and Wait his signal for the mo-
flaent of attacking their unsuspecting victims. The
execution of this scheme, as thl reader knows,
was urtfaappily too successful. And here I cannot
but indulge a reflection that has frequently occurred to me, on the manner in which our people
beha&e towards the natives. For though they are
a thievish race, yet I have no doirbt that many
of the melancholy disasters have principally arisen from the imprudent conduct of some of the
captains and crews of the ships employed in this
trade, in exasperating them by insulting, plundering, and even killing them on slight grounds.
This, as nothing is mc#e sacred with a savage
than the principle of revenge, and no people are
so impatient under insult|induces them to wreak
their vengeance upon the first vessel or boat's
crewT that offers, making the innocent too frequently suffer for the wrongs of the guilty, as few
of them know to discriminate between persons
■of the eame general appearance, more especially \t ml
when speaking the same language. And to this
eause do I believe, must principally be ascribed
the sanguinary disposition with which these peo*
pie are reproached, as Maquina repeatedly told
•me that it was not his wish to hurt a white man,
&nd that he never should have done it, though
^ver so much in his power, had they not injured
(him. And were the commanders of our ships to
treat the savages with rather more civility than
they sometimes do, I am inclined to thtfik they
would find their account in it; not that I should
tecommend to them a confidence in the good
faith and friendly professions of these pfeople, so
as in a#y degree to remit their vigilance, but on
the contrary, to be strictly on their guard, and
suffer but a very few of them to come on board
the ship, and admit not many of their canoes
<Blong side at a time; a precaution that would
haveibeen the means of preventing some of the
♦unfortunate events that have occurred, and if attended to, may in future preserve many a valuable life. Such a regulation too, from what I know
of their disposition and wants, would produce no
serious difficulty in trading with the savages, and
they would soon become perfectly reconciled
■&> it.   fe ■■■ ,  ' : .;|r   .  i    ' ;   >
Among the provfeions which the Indians procure at Tashees, I must not omit mentioning a
fruit that is very important, ad forming <a great JOHN R. JEWlTT.
Slrticle of their food. Thi» is what is called by
them the Yama, a species of berry that grows in
bunches like currants, upon a bush from two to
three feet high, with a large, round, and smooth leaf.
This berry is black, and about the $ze of a pistol
shot, but of rather an oblong shape, and open at
the top like the blue whortleberry. The taste is
sweet, but a little acrid, and when first gathered,
l|f eaten in any great quantity, especially without
oil, is apt to produce chores. To procure it, large
companies of women go out on the mountains,
accompanied by armed men, to protect them
against wild beasts, wheri they frequently remain for several days, kindling a fire at nigfit,
and sheltering themselves under sheds constructed of boughs. At these parties they collect great
quantities. I have known Maquina's queen, and
her women, return loaded ; bringing with them
upwards of twelve bushels. In order to preserve
it, it is pressed in the bunches between two
planks, and dried and put away in baskets for
use. It is always eaten with oil.     i§ -?jp
P Of berries of variousiinds, such as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, &c. there are great
quantities in the country, of which the natives
are very fond, gathering them in their seasons,
and eating them with oM, but the Yama, is the
oni^bne that they preserve. :     j|a ,|g
jj^Fistfcis, however, their great article of food, a$
n 12.2
almost all the others, excepting the yama, may be
considered as accidental. They nevertheless are
far from disrelishing meat, for instance, venison
and bear's flesh. With regard to the latter, they
have a most singular custom, which is, that any
one wbo eats of it is obliged to abstain from eating any kind of fresh fish whatever, for the term of
two months, as they have a superstitious belief,
that should any of their people after tasting bear's
flesh, eat of fresh salmon, cod, &c. the fish,
though at ever so great a distance off, would come
to the knowledge of it, and be so much offended
thereat, as not to allow themselves to be taken
by any of the inhabitants. This I had an opportunity of observing while at Tashees, a bear having been killed early in December, of which not
more than ten of the natives would eat, being
prevented by the prohibition annexed to it, which
Lfibo was the reason of my comrade and myself
Hot tasting it, on being told by Maquina the con*
sequence.       ir ■ -
As there is something quite curious in their
management ofIhis animal, when they have killed one, 1 shall give a description of it. After well
cleansing the bear from the dirt and blood, with
,whieh it is generally covered when killed, it is
brought in and seated opposite the king, in an up-
light posture, with a chief's bonnet, wrought in
figures, on its head, and its fur powdered over
*with the white down. A tray of provision is then
set before it, and it is invited by words and gestures to eat. This mock ceremony over, the reason of which I could never learn, the animal is
taken and skinned, and the flesh and entrails boiled up into a soup, no part, but the paunch, being
rejected*' ■> fc-.-:;   :  • '■   ^:M\  •   S   '■.'■-:.■
This dressing the bear, as they call it, is an
occasion of great rejoicing throughout the village,
all the inhabitants being invited to a great feast
at^he king's house, though but few of them, in
consequence of the penalty, will venture to eat of
lite flesh, but generally content themselves with
their favourite dish of herring spawn and water.
The feast on this occasion was closed by a dance
from Sat-sat-sak-sis, in the manner 1 have already described; in the course of which he repeatedly shifted his mask for another of a different
form. : ■; i||p °|b: -Mi : a? --.a : a a-a' t: ■:■■■■ ..a a
%§ A few days after, a second bear was taken,
like the former, by means of a trap. This I had
the curiosity to go and see at the place where it
was caught, which was in the following manner:
On the edge of a small stream of water in the
mountains, which the salmon ascend, and near
the spot where the bear is accustomed to watch
for them, which is known by its track, a trap or
box about the height of a man's head is built of
posts and planks, with a flat top, on which are
ii/i 124
laid a number of large stones, or rocks: the toji
and sides are then carefully covered with turf, so
as to resemble a little mound, and wholly to ex-
elude the light, a narrow entrance of the height
of the building only, being left, just sufficient to
admit the head and shoulders of the beast. 0i|
the inside, to a large plank that covers the top, is
suspended by a strong cord, a salmon, the plank
being left loose, so that a forcible pull will bring
it down. On coming to its usual haunt, the^bear
enters the trap, and in endeavouring to pull away
the fish, brings down the whole covering withits
load of stones upon its head, and is aifnost
always crushed to death on the spot, or#so
vyounded as to be unable to escape. They are al*
ways careful to examine these traps every day,
in order if a bear be caught, to bring it away, and
cook it immediately, for it is not a little singulai|
that these people will eat no kind of meat that M
in the least tainted, or not perfectly fresh, while,
on the contrary, it is hardly possible for fish to be
in too putrid a state for them, and 1 have fr^j
quently known them, when a whale has been
driven ashore, bring pieces of it home with them
in a state of offensiveness insupportable to any
thing but a crowr, and devour it with high relish,
considering it as preferable to that which is fresh.
On the morning of the 13th of December commenced what to us appeared a most singular; * II
farce. Apparently without any previous notice
Maquina discharged a pistol close to his son's
ear, who immediately fell down as if killed, upon
which all the women of the house set up a most
lamentable cry, tearing handfuls of hair from
their heads, and exclaiming that the prince was
dead; at the same time, a great number of the
inhabitants rushed into the house, armed with
their daggers, muskets, &c. inquiring the cause
of their outcry ; these were immediately followed by two others dressed in wolfskins, with masks
over their faces, representing the head of that animal ; the latter came in on their hands and feet
in the manner of a beast, and taking up the
prince, carried him off upon their backs, retiring in
the same manner they entered. We saw nothing
more of the ceremony, as Maquina came to us,
and giving us a quantity of dried provision^ ordered us to quit the house and not return to the
village before the expiration of seven days, for
that if we appeared within that period, he should
kill us. '■'$> -M' '■ '#'■''" '•' :- f ' ■ ' ; -w
- At any other season of the year such an ordef
wdiild by us have been considered as an indulgence, in enabling us to pass our time in whatever way we wished, and even now, furnished as we
were, with sufficient provision for that term, it was
not  very  unpleasant to  us,  more particularly
ff hompson^ who was always desirous to keep as
11* 126' ' -| NARRATIVE OF |j['.. %■
much as possible out of the society and sight of
the natives, whom he detested. Taking with us
our provisions, a bundle of clothes, and our axes,
we obeyed the directions of Maquina, and withdrew into the woods, where we built ourselves a
cabin to shelter us, with the branches of trees,
and keeping up a good fire, secured ourselves
pretty well from the cold. Here we passed the
prescribed period of our exile, with more content
than much of the time while with them, employing the day in reading and praying for our release, or in rambling around and exploring the
country, the soil of which wre found to be very
good, and the face of it beautifully diversified
with hills and vallies, refreshed with the finest
streams of water, and at night enjoyed comforta^
ble repose upon a bed of soft leaves, with our
garments spread over us to protect us from the
cold.   < Jfaa < ",- -   .     -. -a *
At the end of seven days we returned, and
found several of the people of A-i- tiz-zart with'
their king or chief, at Tashees, who had been invited by Maquina to attend the close of this performance, which 1 now learnt was a celebration,
held by them annually, in honour of their god,
whom they call Quqihootze, to return him their
thanks for his past, and implore his future favours. It terminated on the 21st, the day after
our return, with a most extraordinary exhibition.
i!   ft JOHN R. JEWITT.
Three men, each of whom had two bayonets run
through his sides, between the ribs, apparently
jegardless of the pain, traversed the room, backwards and forwards, singing war songs, and exulting in this display of firmness. f| fe^^P^
K.On the-arrival of the 25th, we could not but
call to minil, that this being Christmas, was in
our country a day of the greatest festivity, whelk
iftu fellow countrymen assembled in their church-
es, wrere celebrating the goodness if God, and the
praises of the Saviour. : What a reverse did our
situation offer, captives in a savage land, and
slaves to a set of ignorant beings, unacquainted
with religion or humanity, hardly were we permitted to offer up our devotions by ourselves in
the w7oods, while we felt even grateful for this
|?rivilege. Thither, with the king's permission, \sf$
withdrew, and after reading the service appointed for the day, sung the hymn of the Nativity,
fervently praying that heaven, in its goodness,
would permit us to celebrate the next festival of
this kind in some Christian land. On one return,
in order to conform as much as was in our power
to the custom of our country, we were desiroiil
of having a better supper than usfpal. With tfeflfe
view we bought from one of the natives some drUf
ed clams and oil§ and a root called Kietsmp,
which we cooked by steaming and found it veiyi
palatable.  This root consists of many fibres, of
J4**- 128
about six inches lon^, and of the size of a crow
quill.   It is sweet, of an agreeable taste, not un4|
like the Quanoose, and it is eaten with oil.    The
plant that produces it I have never seen.
On the 31st all the tribe quitted Tashees for
Cooptee, whither they go to pass the remainder
of the winter, and complete their fishing, taking
off every thing with them in the same manner as
at Nootka. We arrived in a few hours at Coopsf
tee, which is about fifteen miles, and immediate^!
ly set about covering the houses, which was soon
completed.      # r
This place, which is their great herring and
sprat fishery, stands just within the mouth %f the
river, on the same side with Tashees, in a very1
narrow valtey at the foot of a high mountain.
Though nearly as secure as Tashees from th4T
winter storms, it is by no means so pleasantly
situated, though to us it was a much more agree-
ble residence, as it brought us nearer Nootka,
where we were impatient to return, in hopes of
finding some vessel there, or hearing of the larri*!
val of one near. #    a|
|t The first snow that fell tfcfe season, was the da^
after our arrival, on new-years day; a d&y that,
like Christmas, brought with it painful recollect
tions, but at the same time led u$ to indulge th#
hope of a more fortunate year than the last. JOHN R. JEWITT.
II-Early on the morning of the 7t& of January
Maquina took me with him in his canoe on a
visit to Upquesta, chief of the A-i-tiz-zart% who
had invited him to attend an exhibition at his
village, similar to the one with which he had
been entertained at Tashees. § This place is between twenty and thirty miles distant up the
soufild, and stands on the banks of a small river
about the size of that of Cooptee, jist within its
entrance, in a valley of niteh greater extent than
that of Tashees; it consists of fourteen or fifteen
houses, built and disposed in the manner of those
at Nootka. Th# tribe, which is considered as
tributary to Maquina, amounts to about three
hundred warriors, and the inhabitants, both men
and women, are among the best looking of any
people on the coast.
On our aiiwal we were received at the shore
by the inhabitants, a few of whom were alined
with muskets, which they fired, with loud shouts
and exclamations of Wocash, wocash.      #   |>   ;
We were welcomed by the chiefs messenger,
or master of ceremonies, dressed in his best gar*f|
ments, with his hair powdered with white down,
and holding in his hand the cheetoolth, the badgfe
of his office. This man preceded us tfr the chiefs
house, w?here he introduced and pointed out to
us our respective seats* On entering, the lisiter^
took off their hats, which they always wrear on
M 330
m i
r '.111
similar occasions, and Maquina his outer robe^§
of whichjie has several on whenever he pays a
visit, and seated himself near the chief.   As I
was dressed h%European clothes, 1 became quite
an object of curiosity % these people, very few
of whom had ever seen a white man.   They
crowded around me in numbers, taking hold of
my clttfees, examining my face, hands, and feet,
and even opening my mouth to see if I had a
tongue, for notwithstanding 1 had by this time
become well acquainted with their language, 1
preserved the strictest silence, Maquina on our
first landing having enjoined me not to speak
unjtil he should direct.   Having undergone this
examination lb|some time, Maquina at lengths
made a sign to me to sg)eak to them. On hearing
me address them in their own language,  they
were greatly Astonished and delighted, and told
Mgqujjia that they now perceived that 1 was a
man like themselves, except that I was white,
and looked like a seal, alluding to my bluejacket and trowsers, which they wanted to persuade
me to take off, as they did not like their appearance. Maquina iijlhe meantime gave an account
to the chief, of t^e scheme he had formed for
surprising our ship, and the manner in which he
and his people had carried it into execution, witfe
such particular and horrid details of that transaction as chilled the blood in my veins.   Trays: JOHN R. JEWITT.
of boiled herring spawn and train oil were soon
after bmught in and placed before us, neither the
chief or any of his people eating at the same
time, it being contrary to the ideas of hospitality
entertained by these nations, to eat any part of
the food that is providedfor strangers,always waiting until their visiters have finished, before hey
have their own brought in. wum'       Jfe W
The following day closed their festival with an
exhibition of a similar kind to that which had
been given at '|7ashees, but still more cruel, thib
different tribes appearing on these occasions to
^pndeavour *o surpass each other in their proofs
of fortitude and endurance of pain. In the morning twenty -men entered the duel's house, with
»©ach an a¥row ritti through the flesh of his sides,
and either affii, with a %ord fastened to the end,
#hich, as the performers advanced, singing and
boasling, was forcibly drafvn back by a person
having hold of ft. After this performance #as
closed we returned to Cooptee, wrhich we reached at midnight, our men keeping time with their
songs to the stroke of their paddles. iS- : r
jpirhe natives now began to take the herring and
sprat in immense quantities, wklf some salmon,
and there was nothing but feastfeag from morning
3&11 night. The following is the method they employ to take the herring. IA stick of about seven
feet long, two inches broad, and half an inch HI1!
1&2 . NA&RATFVE Ofr
thick, is formed from some hard wooc| one sijle
of which is set witl| sharp teeth, made from
whale bone, a| about half an inch apart. Provided with this instrument, the fisherman seats
himself in the prow of a canoe. Which is paddled
by another, and whenever he comes to a shoal
of herring, which cover the water in great
quantities, he strikes St with both hands upoh
ithem, aid at the same momenta turning it up,
brings it over the side|[)f the canoe, into which
||e lets those that are t&ken drop.*! it is astonishing t0 see how many are caught by those
who are dexterous at this ki®d of fishing, as they
seldom fail, when the shoals are numerous, of
taking as many as ten or twelve at a stroke, and
inp very short time will fill a canoe with them.
Sprats are likewise caught in a similar manner
f. About the beginning of February Maquina
gave a great feast, at which were present not
only all the inhabitants, but one hundred persons from A-i-tiz-zart, and a number from Wick-
inninish, who had been invited to attend it. It is
customary with them to give an annual entertainment o£ this kind, and it is astonishing to see
what a quantity of provision is expended, or rather
wasted, on such an occasion, when they always
eat to the greatest excess. It was at this feast that
I saw upw7at$s of a hundred salmon cooked in
one t$b.  The whole residence at Cooptee pre^ J0JHN R. JEWITT*
sents an almost uninterrupted succeipon of feast-
ing and gormondizing, and it would seem as if
■fee principal objecffcf these people was to consume their whole st^ck of provision before leav<»
it, trusting entirely to their success in fishing and
whaling, for a supply at Nootka.
a On the 25th of February we quitted Cooptee,
and returned to Nootka. With much joy did
Thompson and myself again find ourselves in a
place, where, notwithstanding the melancholy
recollections which it excited, we hoped before
long to see some vessel arrive to our relief, and
for this we became the more solicitous, as of late
we had become much more apprehensive of our
safety, in consequence of information brought
Maquina a few days before we left Cooptee, by
some of the Cayuquets, that there were twenty
ships at the northward preparing to come against
him, with an intention of destroying him and his
whole tribe for cutting off the Boston. This story,
which was wholly without foundation, and discovered afterwards to have been invented by
these people, for the purpose of disquieting him^
threw hirn into great alarm, and notwithstanding
all 1 could say to convince him that it was an ufa-
founded report, so great was his jealousy of us,
especially after it had been confirmed to him by
some others of the same nation, that he treated
us with much harshness, and kept a very suspi- NARRATIVE OP
ill a
cious eye upon us.   Nothing indeed could be
more  unpleasant  than ourf present situation,
when I reflected that our lives were altogether
dependant on the will of a savage, on whose caprice  and suspicions   no   rational   calculation
could be made.  .    • ^ ; .-.:   f ; .      v'i%i|^'- >W:
Not long after our return, a son of Maquina's
sister, a boy of eleven years old, who had been
for some time declining, died.   Immediately on
his dfetth, which was about midnight, all the men
and women in the house set up loud cries and
shrieks, which awakening Thompson and myself,
so disturbed us that w7e left the house.   This lamentation was kept up during the remainder of
the   night.   In the morning,  a  great fire   was
Irindled, in which Maquina burned, in honour of
the deceased, ten fathoms of cloth, and  buried with  him  ten  fathono  more,  eight of I-
whaw, four prime sea otter skins, and two small
trunks,   containing   our   unfortunate   captain's
clothes and watch. This boy was con#der^fl as a
Tyee or chief, being the only son of Tootoosch^
one of their principal chiefs, who had married
Maquina's sister, whence arose this ceremony on
his interment; it being an established custom
with these people, thatftwhenever a chief dies,
his most valuable property is bumedi>r buried
with him ; it is, however, wholly confined to the
chiefs, and appears to be a mark of honour ap~
propriate to them. In this instance Maquina furnished the articles, in order that his nephew might
have the proper honours rendered him. Tootoosch his father, was esteemed the first warrior
of the tribe, and was one who had been particularly active in the destruction of our ship,having
killed two of our poor comrades, who were
ashore, whose names were Hall and Wood.
About the time of our removal to Tashees, while
in the enjoyment of the highest health, he was
suddenly seized with a fit of delirium, in which
he fancied that he saw the ghosts of those tw7o
men constantly standing by him, and threatening
him, so that he would take no food, except what
was forced into his mouth. A short time before
this he had lost a daughter of about fifteen years
of age, which afflicted him greatly, and whether
his insanity, a disorder very uncommon amongst
these savages, no instance of the kind having oc-
curred within the memorylof the oldest man
amongst them, proceeded from this cause, or that
it was the special interposition of an all merciful God in our favour, who by this means thought
proper to induce these barbarians still fartlter to
respect our lives, or that for hidden purposes, the
Supreme Disposer of events, sometimes permits
the spirits of the dead to revisit the world, and
haunt the murderer, I know not, but his mind
from this period until his death, which took
* I
place but a few weeks after that of his sonfwaS
incessantly occupied with the images of theamen
whom he had killed. This circumstance made
much impression upon the tribe, particularly the
chiefs, whose uniform opposition to putting us to
death, at the various councils that were held on
©ur account, I could not but in part attribute to
this cause, and Maquina used frequently, in
speaking of Tootoosch's sickness, to express
much satisfaction that his hands had not been
stained with the blood of any of our men. When
Maquina, was first informed by his sister, of the
Strange conduct of her husband, he immediately
went to his house, taking us w7ith him ; suspecting that his disease had been caused by us, and
that the ghosts of our countrymen had been called thither by us, to torment him. We found him
raving about Hall and Wood, saying that they
were peshak, that is, bad. Maquina then placed
some^provision before him to see if he would eat,
On perceiving it, he put forth his hand to take
some, but instantly withdrew it with signs of horror, saying that Hall and Wood were there, and
would not let him eat. Maquina then poiuting to
us, asked if it was not John and Thompson who
troubled him. Wik, he replied, that is, no; John
Jclushish—Thompson klushish—John and Thomp-^
son are both good; then turning to me, and
patting me on the shoulder, he made signs to
xne to eat. I tried to persuade him that Hall and
Wood were not there, and that none were near
him but ourselves: he said, "I know very well
y&u do not see them, but I do." At first Maquina
endeavoured to convince him that he saw nothing,
and to laugh him out of his belief, but finding that
all was to no purpose, he at length became serious,
and asked me if 1 had ever seen any one affected
in this manner, and what was the matter with
him. I gave him to understand, pointing to his
head, that his brain was injured, and that he did
not see things as formerly. Being convinced by
Tootoosch's, conduct, that we had no agency in
his indisposition, on our return home Maquina
asked me what was done in my country in simi-
lar cases.   I told him that such persons were
closely  confined,  and sometimes tied up and
whipped, in order to make them better.   After
pondering for some time, he said that he should
be glad to do any thing to relieve him, and that
he should be whipped, and immediately gave
orders to some of his men to go to Tootoosch's
house, bind him, and bring him to his, in order
to undergo the operation.   Thompson was the
person selected to administer this remedy, which
he undertook very readily, and for that purpose
provided himself with a good number ofspruce
branches, with which he whipped him most severely, laying it on with the best will imaginable, I
!    !|
while Tootoosch displayed the greate^rage,kicking, spitting, and attempting to bite all whocglkie
near him. This was too much for Maquina^who^
at length, unable to endure it longer, ordef¥d
Thompson to desist, and Tootoosch to be carried
back, saying, that if there was no other wTay of
curing him but by whipping, he must remain mad.
The application of the whip produced no
beneficial effect on Tootoosch, for he afterwards
became still more deranged; in his fits of fury,
sometimes seizing a club, and beating his slaves
in a most dreadful manner, and striking and spitting at all who came near him, till at length his
wife, no longer daring to remain in the house
with him, came with her son to Maquina's.
The whaling season now commenced, and
Maquina was out almost every day in his canoe
in pursuit of them, but for a considerable time,
with no success: one day breaking the staff of his
harpoon, another, after having been a long time
fast to a whale, the weapon drawing, owing to
the breaking of the shell which formed its point,
with several such like accidents, arising from the
imperfection of the instrument. At these times he
always returned very morose and out of temper,
upbraiding his men with having violated their
obligation to continence preparatory to whaling.
In this state of illhumour he would give us very
little to eat, which added to the women not cook-
ing when the men are away, reduced us to very
lowHtre. ||
If In consequence of the repeated occurrence^
gffhilar accidents,! proposed to Maquina to make,
him a harpoon, or forganger, of steel, which
would be less liable to fail him. The idea pleased
him, and in a short time I completed one for him,
with which he was much delighted, and the very
next day went out to make trial of it. |He succeeded with it in taking.a whale. Great was the
joy throughout the village as soon as it was known
that the king had secured the whale, by notice
froin a person stationed at the head-land in the
offing. All the canoes were immediately launch-
^d^ and, furnished with harpoons and seal skin
iloats, hastened to assist in buoying it up and in
towing it in. The bringing in of this fish exhibited a scene of universal festivity. As soon as the
canoes appeared at the mouth of the cove, those
on board of them singing a song of triumph to a
slow air, to which they kept time with their paddles, all who were on shore, men, women, and
children, mounted the roofs of their houses, to
congratulate the king on his success, drumming
most furiously on the planks, and exclaiming
Wocash, iv o cash Tyee.   %   ft #a <^
,f|The whale, on being drawn on shore, was immediately cut up, and a great feast of the blubber given at Maquipa's house, to ^hict%all the
Jtt- 140
village were invited, who endemnified themselves
for their lent, by eating, as usual, to excess. 1 was
highly praised for the goodness of my harpoon,
and a quantity of blubber given me, which I was
permitted to cook as 1 pleased; this I boiled in
salt water, with some young nettles and other
greens, for Thompson and myself, and in this
way we found it tolerable food. ■%.
Their method of procuring the oil, is to skim
it from the water in which the blubber is boiled,
and when cool, put it up into whale bladders for
t|se, and of these I have seen them so large as,
when filled, would require no less than five or
six men to carry. Several of the chiefs, among
whom were Maquina's brothers, who after the
king has caught the first whale, are privileged to
take them also, were very desirous, on discovering the superiority of my harpoon, that I should
make some for them, but this Maquina would
not permit, reserving for himself this improved
weapon. He however gave me directions to
make a number more for himself, which I executed, and also made him several lances, with
which he was greatly pleased.
As these people have some very singular observances preparatory to whaling, an account of
them will, I presume, not prove uninteresting,
especially as it may serve to give a better idea of
their manners* A short time before leafing Ta~ JOHN R. JEWITT".
shees, the king makes a point of passing a day
alone on the mountain, whither he goes very privately, early in the morning, and does not rtturft
till late in the evening. This is done, as I afterwards learned, for the purpose of singing and
praying to his God lor success in whaling the
ensuing season. At Cooptee the same cereminy
is performed, and at Nootka, after the return
thither, with still greater solemnity; as for the
next two days, he appears very thoughtful and
gloomy, scarcely speaking to any one, and observes a most rigid fast. On these occasions he
has always a broad red fillet, made of bark, bound
around his head, in token of humiliation, with a
large branch of green spruce on the top, and his
great rattle in his hand. In addition to this, for a
week before commencing their whaling, both
himself and the crew of his canoe observe a fast,
eating but very little, and going into the water
several times in tfete course of each day to bathe,
singing and rubbing their bodies, limbs, and
faces, Avith shells and bushes, so that on their return, 1 have seen them look as though they had
been severely torn with briars. They are likewise
ot3lged to abstain from any commerce with their
women for the like period, the latter restriction being considered as indispensible to their success.
Early in June, Tootoosch, the crazy  chief,
died. On being acquainted with his death, the
i .1
whole village^ ftien, women, and children, set ufS
a jloud cry, with every testimony of the greatest grief, which they continued for more  than
three hours, As soon as ho was dead, the body/
accord||ig to their $ustom* was laid out on a
plank, having the head bound round with a red
bark fillet, which is \$ith them an emblem of
mourning and sorrow. After laying some time iri
this manner, he was trapped in an otter skin robe,
and three fathoms of i-whaw being put about
his neck, he was placed irf=a large coffin or box,
of about three feet deep, which "was ornamented
on the outride, with two rows of the small white
shells. In this, the|most valuable articles of his
property were placed with him, among which
were no less than twenty-four prime sea-otter
skins. At night, which is their time for interring
the dead, the coffin was borne bv eight men
with  tw7o  poles, thrust  through   ropes  passed
around it, to the place of burial, accompanied
\y his wife and family, with their hair cut short,;
in token Aof grief, ail the inhabitants joining th#
procession. The plafe of burial was a large cavern on the side of ta hill, at a little distance from
the village, in fvhich after depositing the coffin
carefully, aill the attendants repaired to Maquina's
house, where a-number of articles belonging to
the deceased, consisting of blankets, pieces of
cloth, &c. were burned by a person appointed bj[> VOHN R. JEWITT.
Maquinf, for that purpose, dressed arid painted in
the highest stvle, with his head covered with
white down; who, as he put in the ^several pieces,
one by one, poured upon them a quantity of oil
to increase the flame, in the intervals between,
making a speech and playing off a variety of buffoon tricks, and the whole closed with a feast and
m dance from Sat-sat-saksis, the king's son.
The man w7ho performed the ceremony of
burning on this occasion, was a very singular
character, named Kinneclimmets. He was held
in high estimation by the king, though only of the
common class, probably from his talent for mimicry and buffoonery, and might be considered as
a kind of king's jester, or rather as combining in
his person the character of a buffoon, with that of
master of ceremonies, and public orator to his
majesty, as he was the one who at feasts always
regulated the places of the guests, delivered
Speeches on receiving or returning visits, besides amusing the company, at all their entertainments, with a variety of monkey pranks and antic
gestures, which appeared to these savages the
height of wit and humour, but would be considered as extremely low by the least polished people. Almost all the kings, or head chiefs of the
prirfedpal tribes, were accompanied by a similar
character, who appeared to be attached to their 144
dignity, and are called in their language, C?W$j€,
mer-habbee.    :P" • '•- ^ ■; :'Hpn^|'-       =
This matt, Kinneclimmets, was particularly
odious to Thompson-, who would never join in
the laugh at his tricks, but when he began, would
almost always quit the house, with a very surly
look, and an exclamation of, cursed fool! which
Maquina, who thought nothing could equal the
cleverness of his Climmer-habbee, used to remark
with much dissatisfaction, asking ni^why Thompson never laughed, observing that I must have
had a very good tempered woman indeed for my
mother, as my father was so very illnatured a
man. Among those performances thatgained him
the greatest applause, wras his talent of eating to
excess, for 1 have known him to devour at one
meal no less than seventy-five large herring, and
at another time, when a great feast was given by
Maquina, he undertook, after drink ing three pints
of oil by way of whet, to eat four dried salmon,
and five quarts of spawn, mixed up with a gallon
of train oil, and actually succe eded in swallowing the greater part of this mess, until his stomach
became so overloaded as to discharge its contents in the dish. One of his exhibitions, however, had nearly cost him his life; this was on
occasion of Kla-quak-ee-na, one of the chiefs,
having bought him a new wife, in celebration of
which he ran three t imes through a large firer JOHN R. JEWITT.
and%)urned>himself in such a manner, that he
was not able to stir for more than four weeks.
^Phdie feats of savage skill were much praised
by Maquina, who never failed to make him a
present of cloth, muskets, &lc. on such occasions.
W The death of Tootoosch increased still more
the disquietude which his delirium had excited
among the savages, and all those chiefs who had
killed our men became much alarmed, lest they
should be seized with the same disorder, and die
like him ; more particularly, as 1 told Maquina,
that 1 believed his insanity w7as a punishment
inflicted on him by Quahootze, for his cruelty in
murdering two innocent men, who had never
injured him.
Our situation had now become unpleasant in
the extreme. The summer was so far advanced
that we nearly despaired of a ship arriving to
our relief, and with that expectation, almost relinquished the hope of ever having it in out
power to quit this savage land. We w7ere treated
too with less indulgence than before, both Thompson and myself being obliged, in addition to our
other employments, to perform the laborious
task of cutting and collectiBg fuel, which we had
to bring on our shoulders from nearly three miles
distant, as it consisted wholly of dry trees, all of
which near the village had been consumed. To
add to this, we suffered much abuse from the
13 £:.■!'.! i'K.-i'1-
common people, who, when Maquina or some of
the chiefs were not present, would insult us, calling us wretched slaves, asking us where was our
Tyee, or captain, making gestures signifying that
his head had been cut off, and that they would
do the like to us ; though they generally took
good care to keep well out of Thompson's reach,
as they had more than once experienced, to their
cost, the strength of his fist. This conduct wf|s.
not only provoking and grating to our feelings in
the highest degree, but it convinced us of the ill
disposition of these savages towards us, and rendered us fearful Jest they might at some time or
other persuade or force Maquina and the chiefs
to put us to death. || ;,
We were also often brought to great distress
for the want of provision, so far as to be reduced
to collect a scanty supply of muscles and limpets
from the rocks, and sometimes even compelled |
to part with some of our most necessary articles j
of clothing, in order to purchase food for our subsistence. This was, however, principally owing
to the inhabitants themselves experiencing a
great scarcity of provisions this season; there
having been, in the first place, but very few salmon caught at Friendly Cove, a most unusual
circumstance, as they generally abound there in
the spring, which was by the natives attributed
to their having been driven away by the blood
of our men, who had b^rHfcrown into the sea,
which, with true savage inconsistency, excited
their mufaurs against Maquina, who had proposed cutting off our ship. Relying on this supply, they had in the mo§t inconsiderate manner
squandered away their wirller stock of provisions,
So that in a few dajfe after their return it was
entirely expended. Nor were She king and chiefs
much more fortunate in their w7haling, even after
1 had furnished Maqftna with the improved
weapon for that purpose ; lH$t four whales having
been %aken during the season, which closes
the last of May, including one that had been
struck by Maquina and escaped, and was afterwards driven on-shore about six miles from
Nootka, in almost a state of putridity. These afforded but a short supply to a population, including all ages and sexes, of no less than fifteen
hundred persons, and of a character so very improvident, that after feasting most gluttonously
whenever a whale was caught, they were several
times, for a week together, reduced to the necessity of eathig but once a day, and of collecting
cockles and muscles from the rocks for their food.
And even after the cod and halibut fishing com-
menced, in June, in which they met with tolerable success, such was the savage caprice of
Maquina, that he would often give us but little
to eat, finally ordering us to buy a canoe and
*i If
*%^" 1        '   ^R^fTIV$ OJ*JL -.&^^^^:
fishing ^pleme^ajite oi&iireelves and fist,
3 <j§*^i
ui piy^rf«* nave nothing* To do this, we were
compelled to part with ou%great coats* which
were not only important|to us as garments, but
of which we^g^de our be^^spreadijpg them under us wh^n fve slept*; Effom our want of skill,,
however, in this new employ, we met with no
success, on discovering wj^ggh, Maquij^ ordered
us to re mai n at hom e. | |j^[Jj$jfr • '$$,-;'; .-«, * - ,v
% Another thingfw^ich^to me in particulai^pro-
ved an almost cor^i^^it souree^pf vexation and
disgust, and which: J^yin^ among them had not
in the leastfrecojigjled me to, was fheir extreme
■filthinfi9S,hnot onljjjp eating fish, especially the
whale, when in a state of offensive putridity, bq|
while at their meals of making a pg&ctice of
taking the vermin from their heads* or clothe^
and eating theft, by turns thfrusting their fingers
into their haw, and? into the dish, and spreading
t|teir garments over the tubs in which the provision was cookibg, in order to set in motion the$f|
inhabitants. .Sprtdnately. for Thompson he regarded this much less than myself, and when I
yfsed to point out to him any instance of theia
filthiness in this respect, he woi||d laugh and reply, " Never mind Johiif the more good things
the better." 1 must however do Maqj&fi&the jus^
tice to state, that he w7as much neatetf both in his
person and eating than were the others, a3 was JOHN R. JEWITT,
likewise his queen, owing no doubt to hts intercourse withf foreigners, which had given him
ideas of cleanliness, for I never saw either of
them eat any of these animals, but on the con-
trary, they appeared not much to relish this taste
ingothers. Their garments, also, w7ere much
cleaner, Maquina having been accustomed to
give his away when they became soiled, till after
he discovered that Thompson and myself kept
ours clean by washing them, when he used t<$
make Thompson do the same for him. |f|f
i Yet amidst this state of endurance and disap^
pointm^nt, in hearing repeatedly of the arrival
of ships at the north and south, most of which
proved to be idle reports, while expectation was
almost wearied out in looking for them, we did
not wholly despond, relying on the mercy of the
Supreme Being, to offer up to whom oar devq^
lions on the days appointed for his worship, was
our /chief consolation and support, though we
were sometimes obliged by our task-masters tcr
infringe upon the Sabbath, which was to me a
source of much regret. «
\ We were nevertheless treated at times w ith
much kindness by Maquina, who would give us
a plenty of the best that he had to eat, and occasionally, some small present of cloth for a garment, promising me, that if any ship should
arrive within a hundred miles of Nootka, he
13 »ffw n
I -  I
i i
J*  , y)
would send a canoe with a letter from me to the
captain, so that he might come to our release.
If hese flattering promises and marks of attention
Were, however, at thole times when he thought
himself in personal danger from a mutinous spirit which tfee scarcity of provision had excited
among the natives, who, like true savages, ftn-
puted all their public calamities, of whatever
kind, to the misconduct of their chief: or when
he was apprehensive of an attack froip some of
the other tribfils who were irritated with him for
cutting off the Boston, as it had prevented ships
from coming to trade with them, and who were
constantly alarmirig him with idle stories of vessels that were preparing to pome against him, and
exterminate both him and his people, the Cayu-
quets. At such times he made us keep guard
over him both night and day, armed with cutlasses and pistols, being apparently afraid to trust
any of his own men. At one time i§ was a general revolt of his people that he apprehended; then
three of his principal chiefs, among whom was
his elder brother, had conspired to take away his
life; and at length he fancied that a small party
of Klaoiquates, between whom and the Noolki-
ans little friendship subsisted, h£d come to Noofr
ka, under the pretence of trade, for the sole
purpose of murdering him and his family, telling
ns, probably to sharpen our vigilance, that the is JOHN R. JEWITT*
intention was to kill us likewise, and so strongly
w^fre life fears excited on this occasion, that he
not only ordered us to keepiiear him armed by
day,' whenever he went out, and to patrole at
night before his house while they remained, but
to continue the same guard for three days after
they were gone, and to fire at one and at four in
the morning, one of the great guns, to let them
know7, if, as he suspected, they were lurking in the
neighbourhood, that he was on his guard. While
he was thus favourably disponed towards us, 1 took
an opportunity to inform him of the ill treatment
that we frequently received from his people, and
the insultslliat were offered us by some of the
stranger tribes in calling us white slaves, and
loading us with other opprobrious terms. He was
much displeased, and said that his subjects should
not be allowed to treat us ill, and that if any of
the strangers did it, he wished us to punish the
offenders with death, at the same time directing
%s, for our secuiity, to go constantly armed.
pPhis permission was soon improved by Thompson to the best advantage; for a few days after,
having gone to the pond to wash some of our
clothes, and a blanket for Maquina, several Wickinninish, who were lien at Nootka, came thither,
and seeing him washing the clothes, and the
blanket spread upon the grass to dry, they began,
according to custom, to insult hi% and one of NARRATIVE OF
them, bolder than the other^ walked ovier the
blanket. IThompson ffas highly incensed, and
threatened the Indian with deatj|if he repeated
the offence, but he,j|n contempt of the threat,
trampled upon the blanket, when dfpwing his
cutlass, without farther ceremony, Thompson
cut o|F his head-on s^|ing which, the others ran
off at full speed; Thompson then gathering up
the clothes and|)lanket,on which were the marks
of the indian's dirty feet, and taking \ypth hip the
head, returned aad informed the king of what
had passed, who was much pieced, and highly
Commended his conduct. This had a favourable
effect for us, not only on the stranger tribes, but
the inhabitants themselves, who treated us afterwards with less disrespect.
In the latter part of July, Maquina informed
me that he was going to war with the Ay-eharts,
a tribe living at about fifty miles to the south, on
account of some controversy that had arisen the
preceding summer, and that I must make a number of daggers for his men, and cheetoolths for
his chiefs, which having completed, he wished
me to make for his own use a weapon of quite a
different form, in order to dispatch his enemy by
one blow7 on the head, it being the calculation of
these nations on going to war, to surprise their
adversaries while asleep. This was a steel dagger, or more properly a spike, of about six inches JOHN R. JEWITT. 15^
Jfoftgl made very sharp, set at right arigles in an
iron handle of fifteen inches long, terminating at
the }ow7er end in a crook or turn, so as to prevent
.lis being wrenched from the hand, and at the upper, in a roupd knob or head, from whence the
spike protruded. This instrument I polished highly , and the more to please Maquina, formed on
the back of the knob, the resemblance of a man's
fl^ad, with the mouth open, substituting for eyes
black beads, which 1 fastened in with red sealing wax. This pleased him much, and was
greatly admired by his chiefs, who wanted me to
make similar ones for them, but Maquina would
not suffer it, reserving for himself alone this
weapon. / 'a.% . 'a s;-f|;. a Jr '■• '; -: -•----.
: When $iese people have finally determined on
war, they make it an invariable practice for three
Ip* four weeks prior to the expedition, to go mto
the water five or six times a day, where they
Wash and scrub themselves from head to foot
with bushes intermixed with briars, so that their
boclifs and faces will often be entirely covered
with blood. During this severe exercise, they
fire continually exclaiming, | Wocash Quahootzey
Teechamme ah welth, wik eiish taU'%lth-—Kar-sab~
nmtemc^—Wik-sish to hank matemas—/ ya-ish
kah^shittle—As-smootish warich matemas—Which
signifies, Good, or great God, let me live—Not
Hi 154
be sick-^Find thi enemy—Not fear him—Fi&d
him asleep, and kill a great many of him.
f During the whole of this period they hive no
intercourse with their women, and for a weeli at
least, before setting out, abstain from feasting or
any kiM of merriment, appealing thoughtfttl,
gloomy, and morose, and for the three last days,
are almost constantly in the water, both day and
night, scrubbing ahd lacerating themselves in
a terrible manner. Maquina having informed
Thompson and myself that he should take us
with him, was very solicitous that we should
bathe and scrub ourselves in the same w7ay
with them, telling me that it would harden
our skins so that the weapons of the enemy
would not pierce them, but as we felt no great
inclination to amuse ourselves in this manner
we declined it.        # c ill   a       ?.
The expedition consisted of forty canoes, carrying*from ten to twenty men each. Thompson
and myself armed ourselves with cutlasses and
pistols, but the natives, although they had a plenty of European arms, took with them only their
daggers and cheetoolths, with a few bows and
arrows, the latter being about a yard in length,
and pointed with copper, muscle shell, or bone:
the bows are four feet and a half long, with strings
jnade of whale sinew.   J.        \ ■ / ,    .
To go to A-y-chart we ascended, from twenty
i  s
|p thirty miles, a river about the size of that of
Tashees, the banks of which are high, and covered
with %>od. At midnight we came in sight of the
village, which was situated on the west bank, near
the shore, on a steep hill, difficult of access, and
well calculated for defence. It consisted of fifteen
or sixteen houses, smaller than those at Nootka,
and built in the same style,but compactly placed.
By Maquina's directions, the attack was deferred
until the first appearance of dawn, as he said
that was the time when men slept the soundest.
i At length, all being ready for the attack, we
landed with the greatest silence, and going around
so as to come upon the foe in the rear, clambered
up the hill, and while the natives, as is their custom, entered the several huts, creeping on all
fours, my comrade and myself stationed ourselves
without, to intercept those who should attempt
to escape, or come to the aid of their friends. I
wished, if possible, not to stain my hands in
the blood of any fellow creature, and though
Thompson would gladly have put to death
all the savages in the country, he was too
brave to think of attacking a sleeping enemy.
Having entered the houses, on the war-whoop
being given by Maquina, as he seized the head
of the chief, and gave him the fatal blow, all proceeded to the work of death. The A-y-charts,
feeing thus surprised, were unable to make^re-
« 56
distance, and with the exception of a very few,
who were so fortunate as to make their escape,
were all killed, or taken prisoners on condHlbn of
becoming slaves to their captors. 1 also had the
good fortune to take four captives, whoni Maquina, as a favour, permitted me to consider as mine,
and occasionally employ them in fishing for me:
as for Thompson, who thirsted for revenge, he
had no wish to take any prisoners, but with his
cutlass, the only weapon he would employ against
them, succeeded in killing seven stout fellows
who came to attack him, an act which obtained
him great credit with Maquina and the chiefs,
who after this held him in much higher estimation,
and gave him the appellation of Chehiel-sumd-
har, it being the name of a very celebrated warrior of their nation in ancient times, whose
exploits were the constant theme of their praise.
After having put to death all the old and infirm
of either sex, as is the barbarous practice of these
people, and destroyed the buildings, we re-embarked, with our booty in our canoes, for Nootka,
where we were received with great demonstrations of joy by the women and children,
occompanying our war song with a most furious drumming on the houses. The next day
a great feast was given by Maquina, in celebration of his victory, which was terminated, as
usual, with a dance by Sat-sat-sak-sis.
eated applications had been made to Maquina, by a number of kings or chiefs, to purchase
^rie^especially after he had showed them the
^arpoon 1 had made for him, which he took
much pride in, but he constantly refused tp part
with me on any terms. Among these, the king of
the Wickinninish was particularly solicitous to
obtain me, having twice applied to Maquina for
that purpose, once in a very formal manner, by
sending his messenger, with four canoes, who as
he approached the shore, decorated in their highest style, with the white down on his head, &c,
declared that he came to buy Tooteyoohannis,
the name by which 1 was known to them, for
his master, and that he had brought for that purpose four young male slaves, two highly ornamented canoes, such a number of skins of the
metamelth, and of the quartlack, or sea otter, and
so many fathoms of cloth and of I-whaw, while
as he mentioned the different articles, they were
pointed out or held up by his attendants, but
even this tempting offer had no influence on Maquina ; who in the latter part of the summer was
again very strongly urged to sell me by Ulatilla,
or as he is generally called, Machee Ulatilla,
chief of the Klaizzarts, who had come to Nootka
on a visit. -
This chief, who could speak tolerable English,
bad much more the appearance of a civilized
14 158
man than any of the savages that I sawr^IIe
appeared to be about thirty, was rather small in
his person, but extremely well formed, with a
skin almost as fair as that of an European, good
features, and a countenance expressive of candour and amiableness, and which was almost
always brightened with a smile. He was much
neater both in his dress and person than any of
the other chiefs, seldom wearing paint, except
upon his eye-brows, which, after the cultom of
his country, were plucked out, and a few strips
of the pelpelth on the lower part of his face. He
always treated me with much kindness, was fond
of conversing with me in English and in his
own language, asking me many questions relative
to my country, its manners, customs, &c. and appeared to take a strong interest in my fate, telling
tne, that if he could persuade Maquina to part
with me, he would put me onboard the first ship
that came to his country ; a promise, which from
his subsequent conduct, I have good reason to
think he would have performed, as my deliverance, at length, from captivity and suffering was,
under the favour of Divine Providence, wholly
owing to him, the only letter that ever reached an
European or American vessel, out of sixteen that
1 wrote at different times, and sent to various parte
of the coast, having been delivered by him in
person.  So much pleased wa«f I with this man's JOHN R. JEWITT.
JL 0 *j
behaviour to me while at Nootka, that I made
for him a Cheetoolth, which I burnished highly ?
and engraved with figures; with this he was greatly delighted; I also would have made for him a
harpoon, would Maquina have consented.
With hearts full of dejection, and almost lost to
hope, no ship having appeared off Nootka this
Season, did my companion and myself accompany the tribe on their removal in September to
Tashees, relinquishing in consequence, for six
months, even the remotest expectations of relief.
m Soon after our establishment there, Maquina
informed me that he and his chiefs had held $
council, both before and after quitting Nootka, in
which they had determined that I must marry
tme of their women, ursine, as a reason to induce
me to consent, that as there was now no probability of a ship coming to Nootka to release me, thai
I must consider myself as destined to pass the remainder of my life with them, that the sooner I
conformed to their customs, the better, and that
a wife and family would render me more con-
tented and satisfied with their mode of living. I
remonstrated against this decision, but to no purpose, for he told me, that should 1 refuse, both
Thompson and myself would be put to death|
telling me, however, that if there were none of the
women of his tribe that pleased me, he would
go with me to some of the other tribes, where he
would purchase forme such an one as I should
select. Reduced to this sad extremity, with death
on the one side, and matrimony on the other, I
thought proper to choose what appeared to me
the least of the two evils, and consent to be parried, on condition, that, as I did not fancy any of
the Nootka women, 1 should be permitted to
make choice of one from some other tribe. a
This being settled, the next morning by day*
light, Maquina, with about fifty men in two canoes, set out w7ith me for A-i-tiz-zart, taking with
him a quantity of cloth, a number of muskets,
sea-otter skins,;&c. for the purchase of my bride.
With the aid of our paddles and sails, being favoured with a fair breeze, we arrived some time
before sunset at the village. Our arriiai excited
a general alarm, and the men hastened to the
shore, armed with the weapons of their country,
making many warlike demonstrations, and displaying much zeal and activity. We, in the mean
time, remained quietly seated in our canoes,
where we remained for about half an hour, when
the messenger of the chief, dressed in their best
manner, came to welcome us, and invite us on
shore to eat. We followed him in procession to
the chief's house, Maquina at our head, takirig
care to leave a sufficient number in the boats to
protect the property. When we came tdlhe house,
we were ushered in with much ceremony, and JOHN R. JEWITT.
our respective seats pointed out to us, mine being
mext to Maquina, by his request.
After having been regaled with a feast of her-
rii% spawn and oil, Maquina asked me if 1 saw
any among the women who were present that I
liked. 1 immediately pointed out to him a young
gill of about seventeen, the daughter of Upquesta,
the chief, who was sitting near him by her mother. On this Maquina .making a sign to his men,
arose, and taking me by the hand, walked into
the middle of the room, and sent off two of his
men to bring the boxes, containing the presents,
from the canoes. In the mean time Kinneclimmets, the master of ceremonies, whom I have already spoken of, made himself ready for the part
he was to act, by powdering his hair with the
wrhite down. When the chests were brought inr
specimens of the several articles were taken out,
and showed by our men, one of whom held up
a musket, another a skin, a third a piece of cloth,
&c. On this Kinneclimmets stepped forward, and
addressing the chief, informed him that all these
belonged to me, mentioning the number of each
fcind, and that they were offered him for the purchase of his daughter Eu-sioch-ee-exqua, as a
wife for me. As he said this, the men who held
Up the various articles, walked up to the chief,
and with a very stern and morose look, the complimentary one on these occasions, threw them
14* 162
at his feet. Immediately on which all the tribe,
both men and women, who were assembled on
this occasion, set up a cry of Klack-ko-Tyee,
that is, Thank ye chief. His men, after this cere-v
mony, having returned to their places, Maquina
rose, and in a speech of more than half an hour,
said much in my praise to the A-i-tiz-zart chief,
telling him that I was as good a man as themselves, differing from them only in being white,
that I was besides acquainted with many things
of which they were ignorant; that 1 knew how
to make daggers, cheetoolths, and harpoons, and
was a very valuable person, whom he was determined to keep always with him ; praising me at
the same time for the goodness of my temper,
and the manner in which 1 had conducted since
I had been with them, observing that all the people of Nootka, and even the children loved me.
^fWhile Maquina was speaking, his master of
ceremonies was continually skipping about, making the most extravagant gestures, and exclaiming Wocash. When he had ceased, the A-i-tiz-zart
^hief arose amidst the acclamations of bis people, and began w7ith setting forth the many good
qualities and accomplishments of his daughter;
that he loved her greatly, and as she was his only
one, he could not think of parting with her. He
spoke in this manner for some time, but finally
concluded by consenting to the proposed union,
requesting that she might be well used and kindly
treated by her husband. At the close of this speech,
when the chief began to manifest a disposition
to consent to our union, Kinneclimmets again
began to call out as loud as he could bawl, Wocash, cutting a thousand capers, and spinning
himself around on his heel like a top.
V When Upquesta had finished his speech, he
directed his people to carry back the presents
which Maquina had given him, to me, together
with two young male slaves to assist me in fishing. These, after having been placed before me,
were by Maquina's men taken on board the canoes. This ceremony being over, we were invited by one of the principal c|uefs to a feast, at his
house, of Klussamit, or dried herring, where, after
the eating was over, Kinneclimmets amused the;
company very highly with his tricks, and the
evening's entertainment was closed by a new
war-song from our men, and one in return from
the A-i-tiz-zarts, accompanied with expressive
gestures, and wielding of their weapons. Jl f
After this, our company returned to lodge at
Upquesta's, except a few who were left on board
the canoes to watch the property. !n the morning
Breceived from the chief his daughter, with an
earnest request that I would use her well, which
I promised him, when taking leave of her parents, #ARRATI?E OF
• Mi Wr
N :I|1
she accompanied me with apparent satisfaction
on board of the canoe. " V' ffl'' >
Si The wind being ahead, the natives were oblfp
ged to have recourse to theft paddles, accompanying them with their songs, interspersed with
the witticisms and buffoonery of KinnecUrtwhet&f
who, in his capacity of king'& steersitt&n, one
of his functions which 1 forgot to enumerate, not
only guided the course of the canoe, but regulated the singing of the boatmen. At about five in
the morning we reached Tashees, where we found
all the inhabitants collected oft the shore to receive us. We were welcomed With loud shouts
of joy, and exclamations of W#cash, and the
women taking my bride under their charge, conducted her to Maquifta's house, to be kept with
them for ten days; it being an universal custom,
as Maquina informed me, that no intercourse
should take place between the new married pair
during that period. At night Maquina gave a
great feast, which was succeeded by a dance,
in which all the women joined, and thus ended
the festivities of my marriage. § j
v The term of my restriction over, Maquina assigned me as an apartment, the space in the
upper part of his house, between him and his
elder brother, whose room was opposite. Here I
established myself with my family, consisting of
myself and wife, Thompson, and the little Sat
fat-sak-sis, who had always been stfongljr attached to me, and now solicited his father to let him
live with me, to which he consented. This boy
was handsome, extremely well formed, amiable,
and of a pleasant, sprightly disposition. I used to
take a pleasure in decorating him with rings,
Bracelets, ear jewels, &c. which 1 made for him
of copfffer, and ornamented and polished them
in my best manner. I was also very careful to
keep him free from vermin of every kind, washing him and combing his hair every day. These
marks of attention were not only very pleasing
to tHe child, who delighted in being kept neat
and clean, as well as in being dressed off in his
finery, but was highly gratifying both to Maquina
and his queen, w7ho used to express much satisfaction at my care of him. # r 1? ^IK
In making my domestic establishment, I determined, as far as possible, to live in a more
Bbnifortable and cleanly manner than the'others^
For this purpose, I erected with planks, a parti-
pon of about three feet high, between mine and
the adjoining rooms, and made three bedsteads
of the same, w7hich I Itovered with boards, for my
family to sleep on, wfeich I found much more
comfortable than sleeping on the floor amidst
the dirt.      a -.     • -*    >      ~> : ) >    ;
m Fortunately I found my indian princess both
amiable and intelligent^for one whose Kmitedf" .NARRATIVE OF
sphere of observation must necessarily give rise
to but a few ideas. She was extremely ready to
agree tetany t^ing that 1 proposed relative to our
mode of living, if as very attentive in keeping her
garments and pepon neat and clean, and appeared in every respect solicitous to please me*
SJ^ was, as I fhave said, labout seventeen; her
person was small, but well formed, as were her
features, her complexion was, without exception!
fairer than a#y &f the women, with considerable
colour in her cheeks, her hair long, black, and
much softer than is usual with them, and her
teeth small, even, and of a dazzling whiteness,
whife the expression of her countenance indicated
sweetness of temper and modesty. She would,
indeed, have been considered as very pretty is
any country, and excepting Maquina!s queej|$
was by far the handsomest of any of their women.
With a partner possessing so many attractions,
jnany may be apt to conclude, that I muft have
£pund myself happy, at least comparatively so;
Jtmt far otherwise was it with me, a compulsory
marriage with the most beautiful and accomplished person in the world, can never prove a
source of real happiness, and in my situation, I
could not but yiew this connexion as a chain
that w7as to bind me down to this savage land,
and prevent my ever again sfceing a civilized
country; especially, when in a few days after, J0HN R. JEWITT.
Jtfaquina informed me that there had been a
meeting of his chlfefe, in which it was determined, that as 1 had married one of their women,!
must be considered as one of them, and conform
to their customs, and that in future, neither myself nor Thompson should wear our European
clothes, but dress in KutSaks like themselves.
This order was to me most painful, but I persuaded Maquina, at length, so far to relax in it
as to permit me to wear those 1 had at present,
which were almost worn out, and not to compel
Thompson to change his dress, observing, that
as he was an old man, such a change would
cause his death. tf:   ^
Their religiousf celebration, which the last
year took place in December, was in this, commenced on the 15th of November, and continued for fourteen days. As I was now considered
as one of them, instead of being ordered to the
I wroods, Maquina directed Thompson arid myself
■ to remain, and pray with them to Quahootze to
I be good to them, and thank Mm for what he had
I done. It was opened in much the same manner
I a| the former. After which, all the men and women in the village assembled at Maquina's
I house, in their plainest dresses, and without any
I kind of ornaments about them, having their heads?
I bound around with the red fillet, a token of de-
Ijection and humiliation, arid their countenanced
M u
expressive of seriousness and melancholy. The
performances during the continuance of this celebration, consisted almost wholly in singing a
number of songs to mournful a^, the king regulating the time by beating on his hollow plank
or drum, accompaniedby one of his chiefs, seated near him with the great rattle. In the mean
time, they eat but seldom, and then very little,
retiring to sleep late, and rising at the first appearance of dawn, and even interrupting this
short period of repose, by getting up at midnight
and singing. It was terminated by an exhibition
of a similar character to the one of the last year,
but still more cruel. A boy of twelve years old,
with six bayonets run into his flesh, one through
each arm and thigh, and through each side close
to the ribs, was carried around the room, suspended upon them, without manifesting any
symptoms of pain. Maquina, on my inquiring the
^ason of this display, informed me that it was an
ancient custom of his nation, to sacrifice a mar\
at the close of this solemnity in honour of their
God, but that his father had abolished it, and
substituted this in its place. The whole closed
on the evening of the 29th, with a great feast of
salmon spawn and oil, at which the natives, as
usual, made up for theifelate abstinence.
. A few days after a circumstance occurred,
which, from its singularity, I cannot forbear men- his wife, she should not be that of any other,
and in the morning sent her back to her father.
This inhuman act did not, however, proceed
from any innate cruelty of disposition, or malice^
as he was far from being of a barbarous temper ;
but such is the despotism exercised by these
savages over their women, that he no doubt considered it as a just punishment for her offence, in
being so obstinate and perverse; as he afterwards told me, that in similar cases, the husband had aright, with them, to disfigure his wife
in this wray, or some other, to prevent her ever
marrying again.      ft Jl
m About the middle of December we left Tashees for Cooptee. As usual at this season, wq
found the herring in great plenty; and here the
same scene of riotous feasting as 1 witnessed the
last year, was renewed by our improvident natives, who, in addition to their usual fare, had a
15 1*70
I!: m
plentiful supply of wild geese, which were
brought us in great quantities by the Esquates.
These, as Maquina informed me, were caught
with nets made from bark, in the fresh waters of
that country. Those who take them make choice,
for that purpose, of a dark and rainy night, and with
their canoes stuck with lighted torches, proceed,
with as little noise as possible, to the place where
the geese are collected, who, dazzled by the light,
suffei: themselves to be approached very near,
when the net is thrown over them, and in this
manner, from fifty to sixty, or even more, will
sometimes be taken atone cast. W
On the 15th of January, 1805, about midnight,
I was thrown into considerable alarm, in consequence of an eclipse of the moon, being awakened from my sleep by a great outcry of the inhabitants. On going to discover the cause of this
tumult, I found them all out of their houses,
bearing lighted torches, singing and beating upon
pieces of plank, and when I asked them the reason of this proceeding, they pointed to the moon,
and said that a great cod-fish was endeavouring
to swallow her, and that they were driving him
away. The origin of this superstition I could not
discover..      J  .        . ■  ||k   -   a|t:,   ,  - ■ ■     j
Though in some respects my situation wad
rendered more comfortable since my marriage,
as I lived in a more cleanly manner, and had my JOHft R. JEWITT.
food better and more neatly cooked, of which^
besides, I had always a plenty, my slaves generally furnishing me, and Upquesta never failing
to send me an ample supply by the canoes that
came from A-i-tiz-zart; still, from my being
obliged, at this season of the year, to change my
accustomed clothing, and to dress like the na-
tives, with only a piece of cloth of about two
yards long thrown loosely around me, my European clothes having been for some time entirely
Worn out, I suffered more than 1 can express from
the cold, especially as 1 was compelled to perform the laborious task of cutting and bringing
the fire wood, which was rendered still more oppressive to me, from my comrade, for a considerable part of the winter, not having it in his power to lend me his aid, in consequence of an attack of the rheumatism in one of his knees, with
which he suffered for more then four months,
two or three weeks of wrhich he wras so ill as to
be unable to leave the house. This state of suffering, with the little hope i now had of ever escaping from the savages, began to render my life
irksome to me, still, however, I lost not my confidence in the aid of the Supreme Being, to
whom, whenever the weather and a suspension
from the tasks imposed on me, would permit, I
never failed regularly, on Sundays, to retire t<^
Jl 172
the woods to worship, taking Thompson with me
when he was able to go. 1 .'■•IS
On the 20th of February we returned to our
summer quarters at Nootka, but on my part,
with far different sensations than the last spring,
being now almost in despair of any vessel arriving to release us, or our being permitted to depart if there should. Soon after our return, as
"preparatory to the whaling season, Maquina ordered me to make a good number of harpoons
for himself and his chiefs, several of which 1 had
completed, with some lances, when on the 16th
of March 1 was taken very ill with a violent
cholic, caused, I presume, from my having suffered so much from the cold in going without proper
clothing. For a number of hours 1 w7as in great
pain, and expected to die, and on its leaving me,
I was so weak as scarcely to be able to stand,
while I had nothing comforting to take, nor any
thing to drink but cold water.-- On the day following, a slave belonging to Maquina died, and
was immediately, as is their custom in such cases^
tossed unceremoniously out of doors, from whence
he was taken by some others, and thrown into
the water. The treatment of this poor creature
made a melancholy impression upon my mind,
as 1 could not but think that such probably would
be my fate should I die among these heathen,
and so far from receiving a decent burial, that I JOHN R. JEWITT.
should not even be allowed the common privilege
of having a little earth thrown over my remains.
a The feebleness in which the violent attack of
m^ disorder had left me, the dejection I felt at
the almost hopelessness of my situation, and the
want of warm clothing and proper nursing, though
my Indian wife, as far as she knew how, was always ready, and even solicitous, to do everything
for me she c9uId,'still kept me very much indisposed, which Maquina perceiving, he finally told
me, that if I did not like living with my wife,
and that was the cause of my being so sad, I
might part with her. This proposal 1 readily accepted, and the next day Maquina sent her back
to her filther. On parting with me, she discovered much emotion, begging me that I would suffer her to remain till 1 had recovered, as there
was no one who would take so good care of me
as herself. But when I told her she must go, for
that I did not think I should ever recover, which
in truth I but little expected, and that her father
would take good care of her, and treat her much
more kindly than Maquina, she took an affectionate leave, telling me that she hoped I should
soon get better, and left her tvyo slates to take
care of me. . " i^9^^:-^^0m "^i^lf--* ^c;^fe^^|$^p^..... ^fl^.;
iPThough  I rejoiced at  her departure, I was
Ifreatiy affecflfcl vvfth the simple expressions of
her regard for me, fend could not but feel strongly
15* H4
interested for this poor girl, who, in all her conduct towards me, had discovered so much mildness and attention to my wishes; and had it not
been that I considered her as an almoslinsuperable obstacle to my being permitted to leave the
country, I should no doubt have felt the deprivation of her society a real loss. After her departure, I requested Maquina, that, as I had parted
with my wife, he would permit me to resume
my European dress, for, otherwise, from not having been accustomed to dress like them, I should
certainly die. To this he consented, and I once
became more comfortably clad.
Change of clothing, but more than all, the
hopes w|tich I now began to indulge, that in the
course of the summer I should be able to escape,
in a short time restored me to health so far, that
I could again go to work in making harpoons for
Maquina, who, probably, fearing that he should
have to part with me, determined to provide
himself with a good stock.
|l shall not, however, longer detain the reader
with a detail of occurrences that intervened between this period and that of my escape, which,
from that dull majforipf$y that; marks the savage
life, would be in a measure but repe|itions, nor
dwell upon that mental torture I endured, from
a constant conflict of hope and fear, when the
former, aliJMȤt wea^d out with repeated disap* john r. JEifrarT.
pointmentS, offered to our sinking hearts no prospect of release but death, to which we were constantly exposed from the brutal ignorance and
savage disposition of the common people, who,
in the various councils that were held this season
to determine what to do with us, in case of the
arrival of a ship, were almost always for putting
us to death, expecting by that means to conceal
the murder of our crew, and to throw the blame
of it on some other tribe. These barbarous sentiments w7ere, however, uniformly opposed by Maquina and his chiefs, who would not consent tp
our being injured. But as some of their custonjs
and traits of national character, which 1 think de-
Ijpirving of notice, have not been mentioned, J
^hall proceed to give a brief account of them. ||
s:. The office of king or chief, is, with those people hereditary, and descends to the eldest son,
or in failure of male issue, to the elder brother,
who in the regal line is considered as the second
person in the kingdom.  At feasts, as 1 have observed, the king is always placed in the highest,
or seat of honour, and the chiefs according to
their respective ranks, which appear, in general,
to be determined by their affinity to the royal
family, they are also designated by the embellishments of their mantles, or Kutsaks. The king,
or head Tyee, is their leader in war, in the manage in eM of which he m perfectly absolute* Jtfj& NARRATIVE OF**
is also president of their councils, which are afc
most always regulated by his opinion. But he
has no kind of power over the property of his
subjects, nor can he require them to contribute
to his wants, being, in this respect, no more privileged than any other person. He has, in common
with his chiefs, the right of holding slaves, which
is fiot enjoyed by private individuals, a regulation
probably arising from their having been originally
captives taken in battle, the spoils of war being
understood as appertaining to the king, vHtb receives and apportions them among his several
chiefs and warriors, according to theiferank and
deserts. In conformity v#th this idea, the plunder of t8e Boston was alPdeposited in Maquina^
house^who distributed part of it among his cmifs,
according vb their respective rariks or degree of
favour with him, giving to one tBree hundred
muskets, to another, one hundred and fifty, with
other things in like proportion. The king is, however, obliged to support his dignity by making
frequent entertainments, and wfienever he receives a large supply of provisions, he must invite
all the men of his tribe to his house, to eat it up,
otherwise, as Maquina told me, he would not be
considered as conducting like a Tyee, and would
be no more thoudiftff than a common ihan.
With regard to their religion—They believe
in the existence of a Supreme Being, whom thejrI
call Quahootze; and who, to use Maquina's ex-
l^ression, was one greait Tyee in the sky, who
gave them their fish, and could take them from
them, and was the greatest of all kings. Their
usual place of worship appeared to be the water,
for whenever they bathed they addressed some
words in form of prayer to the God above, in-
treating that he would preserve them in healtWf
give them good success in fishing, kc. These
prayers w7ere repeated with much more energy,
on preparing for whaling or for war, as I have already mentioned. Some of them would some-
limes go several miles to bathe, in order to do it
in secret; the reason for this I could never learn,
though i am induced to think it was in consequence of some family or private quarrel, and
that they did not wish what they said to be
heard; while at other times, they would repair
in the same secret manner to the w7oods to pray.
This was more particularly the case with the
women who might also have been prompted by
a sentiment of decency to retire for the purpose
of bathing, as they are remarkably modest. I
once found one of our women more than two
miles from the village, on her knees in the woods,
with her eyes shut, and her face turned towards
heaven, uttering words in a lamentable tone,
among which 1 distinctly heard, Wocash Ah-welth^
meaning good Lord, and which has nearly the w
i 1
same signification with Quahootze. Though I
came very near her she appeared not to notice
me, but continued her devotions, and I have
frequenth| seen the women go alone into the
woods, evidently for the purpose of addressing
themsplves to a superior being, and it was al*
ways very perceptible on their return, when they
had thus been eaiplojfed, from their sijence and
melancholy looks. ||
They have no belielhowever in a state of fu*
ture existence, as 1 discovered in conversation
with Maquina, at Tootoosch's dea|h, on my at*
tempting to convince him that he still existed,
and that he would again seehim after his death:
but he§could comprehend nothing of it, and
pointiiig to the ground, said that there was an
end of him, and that he was like that. |Nor do
they Relieve in ghosts, notwithstanding the case
of Tootoosch would appear to contradict this aSr
sertion, but that was a remarkable instance, and
such a one as had never been known to occur
before ; yet from the mummeries performed over
the sick, it is very apparent that they believe in
the agency of spirits, as they attribute disease to
some evil one that has entered the body of the
patient. Neither have they any priests, unless a
kind of conjurer may be s6 considered, who sings
and prays over the sick, to drive aWay the evil
spirit-      i ' W'    ' ;« I
\ On the birth of twins they have a most singular custom, which, I presume, has its origin in
some religious opinion, but what it is i could
never satisfactorily learn. The father is prohibited for the space of two years from eating any
kind of meat, or fresh fish, during which time he
floes no kind of labour whatever, being supplied
w7ith wThat he has occasion for from the tribe. In
the mean time he and his wife, who is also obliged to conform to the same abstinence, with their
children, live entirely separate from the others, a,
small hut being built for their accommodation,
and he is never invited to any of the feasts, except such as consist wholly of dried provision,
where be is treated with great respect, and seated among the chiefs, though no more himself
than a private individual. Such births ate very
rare among them, an instance of the kind however occurred w7hile I was at Tashees the last
time, but it was the only one known since the
reign of the former king. The father always appeared very thoughtful and gloomy, never associated with the other inhabitants, and was at
none of the feasts but such as were entirely of
dried provision, and of this he eat not to excess,
and constantly retired before the amusements
commenced. His dress was very plain, and he
wore around his head the red fillet of bark, the
symbol of mourning and devotion. It was his daily
ar 180
practice to repair to the mountain, with a chiefs
rattle in his hand, to sing and pray, as Maquina
informed me, for the fish to come into their waters. When not thus employed, he kept continually at home, except when sent for to sing and
perform his ceremonies over the sick, being considered as a sacred character, and one much in
favour with their gods.
. These people are remarkably healthful, and
live to a very advanced age, having quite a
youthful appearance for their years. They have
scarcely any disease but the cholic, their remedy
for which, is friction, a person rubbing the bowels of the sick violently, until the pain has subsided, while the conjurer, or holy man, is employed, in the mean time, in making his gestures,
singing, and repeating certain words, and blowing off the evil spirit, when the patient is wrapped up in a bear skin in order to produce perspiration. Their cure for the rheumatism, or similar
pains, which I saw applied by Maquina, in the
case of Thompson, to wrhom it gave relief, is by
cutting or scarifying the part affected. In dressing wounds, they simply wash them with salt
water, and bind them up with a strip of cloth, or
the bark of a tree. They are, however, very expert and successful in the cure of fractured or
dislocated limbs, reducing them very dexterously, and after binding thein up with bark, support- JOHN R. JEWITT.
ing them with blocks of wood, so as to preserve
their position. During the whole time I was
among them, but five natural deaths occurred,
Tootoosch and his two children, an infant son of
Maquina, and the slave whom i have mentioned,
a circumstance not a little remarkable in a population of about fifteen hundred : and as respects
childbirth, so light do they make of it, that 1 have
seen their women the day after, employed as
usual, as if little or nothing had happened.
The Noofkians in their conduct towards each
other, are in general pacific and inoffensive, and
appear by no means an illtempered race, for I
do not recollect any instance of a violent quarrel
between any of the men, or the men and their
w7ives, while I was with them, that of Yealthlow-
er excepted. But when they are in the least offended, they appear to be in the most violent
rage, acting like so many maniacs, foaming at
the mouth, kicking and spitting most furiously ;
but this is rather a fashion with them than a
demonstration of malignity, as in their public
speeches they use the same violence, and he is
esteemed the greatest orator who bawls the
loudest, stamps, tosses himself about, foams, and
spits the most.
In speaking of their regulations, I have omitted
mentioning, that on attaining the age of seventeen,
the eldest son of a chief is considered as a chief
A '--■St
himself, and that whenever the father makes a
present, it is always done in the name of his
eldest son, or if he has none, in that of his daughter. The chiefs frequently purchase their wives
at the age of eight or ten, to prevent their being
engaged by others, though they do not take them
from their parents until they are sixteen.
With regard to climate, the greater part of the
Spring, summer, and autumn, is very pleasant,
the weather being at no time oppressively hotj
and the winters uncommonly mild for so high a
latitude, at least as far as my experience went.
At Tashees and Cooptee, where we past the coldest part of the season, the winter did not set in
till late in December,, nor have I ever known the
ice, even on the fresh water ponds, more than
two or three inches in thickness, or a snow exceeding four inches in depth ; but w;hat is wanting in snow, is amply made up in rain, as I have
frequently known it, during the winter months,
rain almost incessantly for five or six days in succession.
H It was now past midsummer, and the hopes
we had indulged of our release became daily
more faint, for though we had heard of no less
than seven vessels on the coast, yet none appeared inclined to venture to Nootka. The destruction of the Boston, the largest, strongest, and best
equipped ship, with much the most valuable car- JOHN R. JEWITT.
go of any that had ever been fitted out for the
North-West trade, had inspired the commanders
of others with a general dread of coming thither,
lest they should share the same fate ; and though
in the letter I w7rote (imploring those who should
receive them to come to the relief of two unfortunate Christians who were suffering among heathen) I stated the cause of the Boston's capture,
and that there was not the least danger in coming
to Nootka, provided they would follow the directions I laid down, still I felt very little encouragement that any of these letters would come
to hand, when on the morning of the nineteenth
of July, a day that will be ever held by me in
grateful remembrance of the mercies of God
while I was employed with Thompson in forging
daggers for the king, my ears were saluted with
the joyful sound of three cannon, and the cries of
the inhabitants,  exclaiming, Weena,  weena-—
Mamethlee—that is strangers—white men.       Jj
Soon after several of our people came running
into the house to inform me that a vessel under
full sail was coming into the harbour.   Though
my heart bounded with joy, I repressed my feelings, and affecting to pay no attention to what
was said, told Thompson to be on his guard, and
not betray any joy, as our release, and perhaps
our lives depended on our conducting ourselves
so as to induce the natives to suppose w7e were 184
not very anxious to leave them. We continued
our work as if nothing had happened, when in a
few minutes after, Maquina came in, and seeing
us at w7ork, appeared much surprised, and asked
me if I did not know that a vessel had come. I
answered in a careless manner, that it was nothing
to me. How, John, said he, you no glad go
board. I replied that I cared very little about it,
as 1 had beconle reconciled to their manner of
living, and had no wish to go away. He then told
me that he had called a council of his people respecting us, and that we must leave off work and
be present at it. - •. #   - ; ;...: ..
i    The  men  having assembled  at Maquina's
house, he asked them  what was their opinion
should be done with Thompson and myself now
a vessel had arrived, and whether he had not
better go on board himself, to make a trade, and
procure such articles as were wanted.   Each one
of the tribe who wished, gave his opinion. Some
were for putting us to death, and pretending to
the strangers that a different nation had cut off
the Boston, while others, le$s barbarous, were
for sending us fifteen or twenty miles back into
the country until the departure of the  vessel.
These, however, were  the  sentiments  of the
common people, the chiefs opposing our being
put to death, or injured, and several of them,
among the most forward of whom were Yeaith-
lower and the young chief, Toowinnakinnish^
were for immediately releasing us ; but this, if
he could avoid it, by no means appeared to accord with Maquina's wishes.      ,
Having mentioned Toowinnakinnish, I shall
briefly observe, that he was a young man of
about twenty-three years of age, the only son of
Toopeeshottee, the oldest and most respected
chief of the tribe. His son had always been remarkably kind and friendly to me, and I had in
return frequently made for him daggers, chee-
toolths, and other things,in my best manner. He*
was one of the handsomest men among them,
very amiable, and much milder in his manners
than any of the others, as well as neater both in
his person and house, at least his apartment,
without even excepting Maquina. c
] With regard, however, to Maquina's going on
board the vessel, which he discovered a strong
inclination to do, there was but one opinion, all
remonstrating against it, telling him that the captain would kill him, or keep him a prisoner, in
consequence of his having destroyed our ship.
When Maquina had heard their opinions, he told
them that he was not afraid of being hurt from
going on board the vessel, but that he would,
however, in that respect, be guided by John,
whom he had always found true. He then turn-
fid to me, and asked me if 1 thought there would
is* 186
be any danger in his going on board. I answered^
that I was not surprised at the advice his people
had given him, unacquainted as they were with
the manners of the white men, and judging them
by their own; but if theyliad been with them as
much as I had, or even himself, they would
think very different. That he had almost always
experienced good and civil treatment from them,
nor had he any reason to fear the contrary now,
as they never attempted to harm those who did
not injure them, and if he wished to go on board,
he might do it, in my opinion, with security
After reflecting a few moments, he said, with
much apparent satisfaction, that if I would w7rite
a letter to the captain, telling him good of him,
that he had treated Thompson and myself kindly since we had been with him, and to use him
well, he would go. It may readily be supposed
that I felt much joy at this determination, but
knowing that the least incaution might annihilate
all my hopes of escape, 1 was careful not to manifest it, and to treat his going or staying as a
matter perfectly indifferent to me. I told him
that if he wished me to write such a letter, I had
no objection, as it was the truth, otherwise I
could not have done it.    *!        ^
I then proceeded to write the recommendatory letter, which the reader will naturally imagine was of a somewhat different tenor from <he JOHN R. JEWITT.
one he had required ; for if^deeeption is in any
case warrantable, it was certainly so in a situation like ours, where the only chance of regaining that freedom of which we had been so unjustly deprived, depended upon it; and I trust
that few, even of the most rigid, will condemn
me with severity for making use of it, on an occasion which afforded me the only hope of ever
more beholding a Christian country, and preserving myself, if not from death, at least from a life
of continued suffering. il
The letter which I wrote was nearly in the
following terms:     §
To Captain ,
of the Brig
Nootka, July 19, 1805.
THE bearer of this letter is the Indian king by the name of
Maquina. He was the instigator of the capture of the ship
Boston, of Boston in North America, John Salter captain, and
of the murder of twenty-five men of her crew, the two only
survivors being now on shore—Wherefore I hope you will
take care to confine him according to his merits, putting in your
*dead-lights, and keeping so good a watch over him that
he cannot escape from you. By so doing we shall be able to
obtain our release in the course of a few hours.
JOHN R. JEWETT, Armourer
of the Boston, for himself and
John Thompson, Sail-maker of said ship.
I have been asked how I dared to write in
this manner: my answer is, that from my long I
residence among these people, I knew I had little to apprehend from their anger on hearing of
their king being confined, while they knew his
life depended updn my release, and that they
would sooner have given up five hundred white
men, than have had him injured. This will serve
to explain the little apprehension I felt ait. their
menaces afterwardsjifor otherwise, sweet as liberty was to me, 1 should hardly have ventured on
Bo hazardous an experiment.    ?|( ,|* ..:.; - .|jr;-:
On my giving the letter to Maquina, he asked
me to explain it to him. This I did line by lipe,
as he pointed them out with his finger, but in a
sense very different from the real, giving him to
understand that I had written to the captain, that
as he had been kind to me since I had been taken by him, that it was my wish that the captain
should treat him accordingly, and give him what
molasses, biscuit, and rum he wanted. When I
had finished, placing his finger in a significant
manner on my name at the bottom, and eyeing
me with a look that seemed to read my inmost
thoughts, he said to me, | John, you no lie.**
Ipever did i undergo such a scrutiny, or ever experience greater apprehensions than 1 felt at that
moment, when my destiny was suspended on the
slightest thread, and the least mark of embarrass-
ment on mine, or suspicion of treachery on his
part, would probably have rendered my life the
sacrifice. Fortunately I was able to preserve my
composure, and my being painted in the Indian
manner, which Maquina had since my marriage
required of me, prevented any change in my
countenance from being noticed, and I replied
with considerable promptitude, looking at him
in my turn, with all the confidence I could muster, " Why do you ask me such a question, Tyee ?
have you ever known me to lie ?" " No." " Then
how can you suppose I should tell you a lie now,
since I have never done it." As 1 was speaking,
he still continued looking at me with the same
piercing eye, but observing nothing to excite his
suspicion, he told me that he believed what I
said was true, and that he would go on board,
and gave orders to get ready his canoe. His chiefs
again attempted to dissuade him, using every
argument for that purpose, while his wives crowded around him, begging him on their knees not
to trust himself with the white men. Fortunately
for my companion and myself, so strong was his
wish of going on board the vessel, that he was
deaf to their solicitations, and making no other
reply to them, than, u John no lie," left the hoqse,
taking four prime skins with him as a present to
the captain. ■     i} r
Scarcely had the canoe put off, when he ordered his men to stop, and calling to me, asked
nie if I did not want to go on board with hiau Pi
Suspecting this was a question merely intended
to ensnare me, 1 replied that 1 had no wish to do
it, not having any desire to leave them.
f On going on board the brig, Maquina immediately gave his present of skins and my letter
to the captain, who on reading it, asked him into
the cabin, where he gave him some biscuit and
a glass of rum, at the same time, privately directing his mate to go forward and return with
five or six of the men armed. When they appeared, the captain told Maquina that he was his
prisoner, and should continue so until the two
men, whom he knew to be on shore, wrere released, at the same time ordering him to be put
in irons, and the windows secured, which was
instantly done, and a couple of men placed as a
guard over him. Maquina was greatly surprised
and terrified at this reception ; he however made
no attempt to resist, but requested the captain
to permit one of his men to come and see him.
One of them was accordingly called, and Maquina said something to him which the captain
did not understand, hut siipposTed to be an order
to release us, when the man returning to the canoe, it was paddled off with the utmost expedition to the shore. As the canoe approached, the
inhabitants, who had all collected upon the beach,
manifested some uneasiness at not seeing their
king on board, but when, on its arrival, they were
told that the captain had made him a prisoner,
and that John had spoke bad about him in the
letter, they all, both men and women, set up a
loud howl, and ran backwards and forwards upon
the shore like so many lunatics, scratching their
faces, and tearing their hair in handfuls from
their heads. ; ; ||; :, :
After they had beat about in this manner for
some time, the men ran to their huts for their
weapons, as if preparing to attack an invading
enemy; while Maquina's wives, and the rest of
the women, came around me, and throwing
themselves on their knees, |,begged me with
tears to spare his life, and Sat-sat-sak-sis, who kept
constantly with me, taking me by the hand, wept
bitterly, and joined his intreaties to theirs, that
I would not let the white men kill his father. I
told them not to afflict themselves, that Maquina's life was in no clanger, nor would the least
harm be done to him. ;
The men were, however, extremely exasperated with me, more particularly the common people, who came running in the most furious manner towards me, brandishing their weapons, and
threatening to cut me in pieces no bigger than
their thumb nails, while others declared they
wrould burn me alive over a slow fire, suspended by
my heels. All this fury, however, caused me but
little alarm, as I felt convinced they would not
dare to execute their threats while the king was
on board the brig. The chiefs took no part in this
violent conduct, but came to me, and inquired
the reason w7hy Maquina had been thus treated,
and if the captain intended to kill him. I told
them that if they would silence the people, so
that I could be heard, I would explain all to
them. They immediately put a stop to the noise,
when I informed them, that the captain in confining Maquina, had done it of his own accord,
and only in order to make them release Thompson and myself, as he well knew we were with
them, and if they would do that, their king would
receive no injury, but be well treated, otherwise
he would be kept a prisoner. As many of them
did not appear to be satisfied with this, and began to repeat their murderous threats—Kill me,
said I to them, if it is your wish, throwing open
the bear skin which 1 wore, here is my breast, I
am only one among so many, and can make no
resistance, but unless you wish to see your king
hanging by his neck to that pole, pointing to the
yard arm of the brig, and the sailors firing at him
with bullets, you will not do it. O no, was the
general cry, that must never be; but what must
we do? I told them that their best plan would
be to send Thompson on board to desire the
captain to use Maquina well till I was released,
which would be soon. This they were perfectly
— JOHN R. JBYTITtf. f93
willing to do, and I directed Thompson to go &n
board. But he objected, saying that he would not
Jfeave me alone with the savages. 1 told him not
to be under any fear for me, for that if I could
get him off, 1 could manage well enough for myself, and that J wished him immediately on getting on board'the brig, to see the captain, and
request him to keep Maquina close till I was released, as 1 was in no danger while he had him*
safe.     '  •".■     •     :-   j§';--' ■ .'. ?|p •■• •;# «
When I saw Thompson off, I asked the natter
what they iitended to do with me. Th&y siaid I
must talk to the captain again, in another letter,
and tell him to let his boat come on shore with
Maquina, and that I should be ready to jump in*
to the boat at the same time Maquina should
Jump on shore. 1 told them that the captainf-who
knew that they had killed my shipmates, would
never trust his men so near the shore for fear
they would kill them too, as they were so much
more numerous, but that if they would select
any three of their number to go with me in a
tanoe, when w7e came within hail 1 could desire
the capta&n to send his boat with Maqiiina, to
deceive me in exchange for him* Slf > . v :
* This appeared to please them, and after some
whispering among the chiefs, who, from what
words 1 overhear^, concluded that if the captain
should refuse to send his boat with Maquina^
KMMi^MMfe-- 194
if i
the three men would have no difficulty in bring*
ing me back with them, they agreed to my pm-l
posal, and selected three of their sfoutest men
to convey me. Fortunately having been for some
time accustomed to see me armed, and suspecting no design on my part, they paid no attention
to the pistols 1 had about me. *|f        p
| As 1 was going into the canoe, little Sat-sat-
sak^sis, w7ho could not bear to part with me, j
asked me, with an affecting simplicity, since I
was going away to leave him, if the white men
would not let his father ipme on shore, and not
kill him. I told him not to be concerned, for that
no one should injure his father; when taking an
affectionate leave of me, and again begging me
not to let the white men hurt his father, he ran
to comfort his mother, who was at a little distance,
with the assurances I had giver|him.
^On entering the canoe, I seated myself in the
Pl'ow facing the three men, having determined if
it was practicable, from the moment I found Maquina was secured, to get on board the vessel
before ife was released, hoping by that means
to be enabled to obtain the restoration of what
property, belonging to the Boston, still remained
1 vi the possession of the savages, which I thought,
if |t could be done, a duty that I owed to the
4,pwners. With feelings of joy impossible to be described, di^d 1 quit this savage shore, confident
'jaow that nothing could thwart my escape, or pre- JOHN R. JEWITT.
vent the execution of the plan 1 had formed, as
the men appointed to convey and#guard me,
were armed with nothing but their paddles. As
we came within hail of the brig, they at once
ceased paddling, when presenting my pistols at
them, I ordered them instantly to go on, or "I
would shoot the whole of them. A proceeding so
wrolly unexpected, threw7 them into great consternation, and resuming their paddles, in a few
moments, to my inexpressible delight, 1 once
more found myself along side of a Christian ship,
a happiness which I had almost despaired of ever
again enjoying. All the crew crowded to the side
to see me as the canoe came up, and manifested
much joy at my safety. I immediately leaped on
#oard, where I was welcomed by the captain,
Samuel Hill, of the brig Lydia, of Boston, whs
congratulated me on my escape, informing me
that he had received my letter off Kla~iz-zaji,
frcftn the chief Mackee Ulatilla, who came off
himself in his canoe to deliver it lo him, on which
he immediately proceeded hither to aid me. I re-
ititrned him my thanks in the best manner 1 could
for his humanity, though I hardly knew what 1
saidftsuch was the agitated state of my feelings at
that moment, with joy for my escape, thankfulness
to the Supreme Being who had so mercifully preserved me, and gratitude to those whom he had
rendered instrumental in my delivery, that 1 have
no doubt, that what w7ith my strange dress, being
1 i I
fainted with red and black from head to foot',
having a bear skin wrapped around me, and my
long hair, which I was not allowed to cut, fastened on the top of my head in a large bunch,
with a sprig of green spruce, 1 must have appeared more like one deranged than a rational creature, as captain Hill afterwards told me that he
never saw any thing in the form of man look so
wiie| as I did wheii I first came on board. v {
3 The captain then asked me into the cabin,
.where 1 found Maquina in irdtes, with a gpard
owl&im. He looked very melancholy, but on
seeing me his countenance brightened up, and
he expressed his pleasure^with the welcome of
| Wocash ^ohn ;" when taking him by the hand,
1 askfd the captain's permission to take off his
irons, assuring him that as I was with him tjhere
was no danger of his being in the least troublesome. He accordingly consented, and I felt a
sincere pleasure iri freeing from fetters5jjft man,
who, tltough he hadbeaused the death of ifcy poor
comrades, had nevertheless, always proved my
friend and protector, and whom I had requested
to bte thus treated, only with a view of securing
my liberty. Maquina smiled and appeared much
pleased at this mark of attention from me. When!
bad freedthe king from his irons, captain HH1 wished to learn the particulars of our Capture, observing tliat an account of the destruction of the skip
Sftd her crew had been received at Bosttm before JOHN K. JEWITT.
he sailed, but |hat nothi ng more was known, except
that two of the men were living, fo?r whose rescue
the owners had offered a liberal reward* ftnd that
he had bfen able |o get nothing oyt of the old man,
whom the sailors h^d supplied^*? plentifully wfth
grog, as to bring b^m too much by the head tp
give any infbrmq^on.:^ ^H^-:i^- ^''^l^-^^- r
._'. I gave him a correct statement of the whole
proceeding, together with the manner in whi&h
my life and that of my cofirade had been preserved. On hearing my story he was greatly irritated against Maquina, and said he ought to be
killed. I observed thatfhowever ill he might haye
acted in taking our ship, yet that it would, perhaps, be wrong to judge an unipforrfed savage
with the same severity as a civilized person, whf>
had the light of religion and the laws of society
to guide him. Thait Maquina's conduct in taking
our ship|?arose from an insult that he thought he
had received from captain Salter, and from the
unjustifiable conduct of some masters of vessels,
who had robbed him, and without provocation
killed a number of his people. Bepdes Jhat, a
regard for the safety of others ought to prevent hi$
Jbei#g put to death, as I had lived Iqng enough
wjtil these people to know that revenge of an injury is helde&ered by*them, arjd that they wotflii
not fail to retaliate, should he Mil their/king, on
the>ifirst vessel m foaai's crew that shwld give
§m   -i*M-h' A   17* k- ; --fa - Izktm" M
as 198
them aft opportutfity ; and that^though he might
consider executing him as but an act of justice, it
would probably cost the lives of many Americans.
r" The captain appeared to be convinced, frotiSl
What 1 Said, of the Impolicy of taking Maquina's
life, and said that he would leave it wholly with
me whether to spare or kill h$m, as he was resolved to incur no censure in either case. Jlre-
plied that 1 most certainly should never take the
"fife of a man who had preserved mine, had 1 n$i
other reason, but as there was some of the Boston's property still remaining on siiore, I considered it a duty that I owed to those who were in-
"feresteil in that ship, to try to save ft for them,
3tnd with that view I (Sought it would be well to
keep him on board till it was given Ip. He concurred in this proposal, saying if the#fe was any of
the property left, it most certainly ought to be got.
During this conversation Maquiia was in great
Anxiety, as from what English he k^ew, he perfectly comprehended the subject of our delibera-
Jfion; constantly interrupting me to iriquire what
We had determined to do With him, what the
captain said, if his life would be spared, and if
I did not think that Thompson would kill him*
% pacified him as well as I was able, by telling
Hiim that he had nothing to fear from the captair^
that he would not be hurtyand that if Thompson
"wished to kill hitti, which was vefy probable,
he would not be allowed to do it. He would theft JOHN R. JEWITT,
remind me that I was indebted to him for my life,,
and that 1 ought to do by him as he had done
by me 1 assured him that such was my intention, and 1 requested him to remain quiet, and
not alarm himself, as no harm was intended him.
But I found it extremely difficult to convince him
of this, as it accorded so little with the ideas of
revenge entertained by them. I told him, however, that he must restore all the property, still in
his possession, belonging to the ship. This he was
perfectly ready to do, happy to escape on such
terms. But as it was now past five, and too late
for the articles to>be collected, and brought off^
ItolU him that he must content himself to remain
on board with me that night, and in the morning
he should be set on shore as soon as the things
were delivered. To this hff agreed, on condition
that 1 would remain with him in the cabin. I
then went upon deck, and the canoe that brought
me having been sent back, 1 hailed the inhabi-
Stents, and told them that their king had agreed
to stay on board till the^next day, when he
would return, but that no canoes must attempt
to come near the vessel during the night, as
they would be fired upon. They answered,
Woho, vjoho—very well, very well. 1 then returned to Maquina, but so great were his terrors
that he would not allow me to sleep, constantly
disturbing me with his questions, and repeating.
HI John, yqg know when you was alone, and more
than five hundred men were your enemies, I was
your friend, and&prevented them frenu putting
you and Thompson to death, aitd now I am in
the power of your frienda, you ought to do the
same by me.5' I assurefl him>jthat he would be
detained on board no longer than till the property
-was released, and that as soon as it was done
Jbe would be set at liberty.  ■/•        - i|| *
At da^ break I hailed the natives, and told
them#hat it was Maquina's order that they should
bring off the cannon, and anchors, and whatever
remained with them of the cargo of the ship.
This they set about doing with the utmost expedition, transporting the cannon and anchors by
lashing together two of their largest canoes, and
covering them with planks, and in the cqfirse of
two hours they delivered every thing on jboard
that I conlii recollect, with Thompson's and my
chest, containing the paperlfipkf the ship, &c.    u
When every thing belonging to the ship had
been restored, Maquina was permitted to return
in his canoe, which had been sent for him with a
present of what skins he had collected, w|rt$h
were about sixty, for the captain, in acknowledgement of his having spared his life and allowed
him to depart unhurt; such was also the trans*-
port he felt when captain Hill came into the
cabin, and t#kl him he wasuat liberty to go, that JOHN R. JEWITT.
he threw off his mantle, which consisted of four
of the very best skins, and gave it to ham as a
mark of his gratitude, in return for which the
captain presented him with a new great coat and
hat, wpth which he appeared much delighted.
The captain then desired me to inform him that
lie should return to that partfof the coast in November, and that he wished him to keep what
skins he should get, which he would buy of him.
This Maquina promised, saying to me at the
same time, " John, you know I shall be then at
Tashees, but when you come make pow, w7hich
j^eans, fire a gun to Jet iae know, and I wiH
come down." When he came to the side of the
brig, he slook me cordially by the hand, and told
me that he hoped|l would come to see him
again in a big ship, and bring much plenty of
blankets, biscuit, molasses, and rum, for him and
his son who loved me a great deal, and that he
would keep all the furs he got for me, observing
tat the same timet; that he should never more take
a letter of recommendation from any one, or
ever trust himself on board a vessel unless i was
there. Then grasping both my hands, w7ith much
emotion, while the tears trickled down his cheeks,
he bade me farewell, and stept into the canoe,
which immediately paddled him on shore.
Notwithstanding my joy at my deliverance,
and the pleasing anticipation I felt of once more
i 302
beholding a civilised coiuHry, andWain beins;
permitted to offer up my devotions in a Christian
church, I could not avoid experiencing a painful
sen^ttion on parting with this savage chief, Who
had preserved my life, and in general treated me
with kindness, and, considering their ideas and
manners, much better than could have been expected. ;.' • ■ ■. \. ■ v * .' 'If
*■: My pleasure was also greatly damped by atr
unfortunate accident that occurred to Toowinna*
kinnish. That interesting young chief had #mf
on board in the first canoe in the morning, anxious to see and comfort his king. He was received with much kindntssiy captain Hill, from the
favourable account I gave of him, and invfted to
remain on board. As the muskets were delivered he was in the cabin with Maquina, wllfre
was also the captain, who on receiving them,
snapped a number in order to try the locks;
•unluckily one of them happened to be loaded
with swan shot, and going off, discharged if$.
contents into the body of poor Toowilnakinnish|
who w7as sitting opposite. On hearing the report,
I instantly ran into the cabin, where I found him
Weltering in his Mood, with the captain, who was
geeatly shocked at the accident, endeavouring tfr
assist him. We raised him up, and did every
thing in our power to aid and comfort him, telling him that Vye felt much grieved at l||s misfor- JOHN K. JEWITW.
tune, and that it was wholly unintentional,; this
he told me he was perfectly satisfied of, and while
we dressed and bound up his wounds in the best
manner we could, he bore the pain with great
calmness, and bidding me farewell, was put on
'|tpard one of the canoes, and taken on shore,
where after languishing a few days, he expired.
To me, his misfortune was a source of much affliction, as he had no share in the massacre of
our crew, was of a most amiable character, and
had alw?ays treated me with the greatest kind-
ness and hospitality.
|| The brig being under weigh, immediately oH
Maquina's quitting us, we proceeded to the
northward, constantly keeping the shore in sight,
and touching at various places for the purpose of
trading. .  ■   - ■ -gf|f ' -■>- *'%■■• :."
Having already exceeded the bounds I had
prescribed myself, 1 shall not attempt any account of our voyage upon the coast, or a description of the various nations we met with in the
course of it, among whom were a people of a
v|ry singular appearance, called by the sailors
the Wooden-lips. They have many skins, and the
trade is principally managed by their women,
who are not only expert in making a bargain,
but are as dexterous in the management of their
Canoes as the men are elsewhere. •>
B  After a period of nearly four months iom our
W 204
leaving Nootkk, we returned from the northward
to Columbia river, for the purpose of procuring
masts, &c. for our brig, which had suffered considerably in her spars during a gale of wind. We
proceeded about ten miles up the river, to a
small Indian village, where we heard from the
inhabitants, that Captains Clark and Lewis, from
the United States of America, had been there
about a fortnight before, on their journey overland, and had left several medals with them,
which they showed us. The river at this place
is of considerable breadth, and both sides of it,
from its entrance, covered with forests of the
very finest pine timber, fir and spruce, interspersed with Indian settlements. From here, after pro!
viding ourselves with spars, we sailed for Nootka,
where we arrived in the latter part of November.
The tribeibeing absent, the agreed signal was
given, by firing a cannon, and in a few hours after a
canoe appeared, which landed at the village, and
putting the king on shore, came off to the brig.
Inquiry was immediately made by Kinneclim-
mits, who was one of the three men in the ca-
tioe, if John was there, as the king had some
skicis to sc4l them if he was. I then went forward andpnvited them on board, with which
they readily complied, telling me that Maquina
had a number of sfeins with him, but that he
would 4M>t c^me on homd unless I wqu14 go on JOHN R. JEWITT.
sh^re for him. This I agreed to, provided
they would remain in the brig in the mean
time. I To this they consented, and the captain taking them into the cabin, treated them
with bread and molasses, jfJ then went on
shore in the canoe, notwithstanding the remonstrances of Thompson and the captain, who,
though he wanted the skins, advised me by no
means to put myself in Maquina's power; but I
assured him that I had no fear as long as those
men were on board. As 1 landed, Maquina came
u^and welcomed me with much joy: on inquiring for the men, I told them that they were
to remain till my return. | Ah, John," said he,
M I see you are afraid to trust me, but if they
had come with you, I should not have hurt you,
though I should have takep good care not to let
you go on board of another vessel." He then took,
his che^t of skins, and stepping into the canoe, I
paddled him alongside the brig, where he was
received and treated by Capt. Hill with the greatest cordiality, who bought of him his skins. He
left us much pleased with his reception, inquiring of me how many moons it would be before
I should come back again to see him and his son,
who had begged him hard to let him come with
him to see me: saying, that he would keep all his
fors for me, and that as soon as my son, who was
then about fiye months old, was of a suitable age
I- 206
to take from his mother, he would send for him^
and take care of him as his own. : -        «
As soon as Maquina had quitted us we got
ttnder way, and stdod again to the northward.
We continued on the coaat ifntil the eleventh of
August, 1806, when having completed our trade,
we sailed for China, to tie great joy of allfour
crew, and particularly so to me. With a degree
of satisfaction that 1 can Ml express, did I quit a
coast to which I was resolved nothing should
again tempt me to return, an® as'thfe tops of the
^mountains sunk in tfte blue waves of oceartp1!
Seemed to feel my heart lightened of an oppressive load. '-1|- ■■•" * ~ !' -i ; ' * *||
■' We had a prosperous passage to China, arriving at Macao In December, fronl whfence the
brig proceeded to C$$l©ii. There I had tfre good
fortune to meet a townsman and an old acquaintance, in the maite of an English East-lndiaman,
named Jisbn Hill, whose father, a wealthy merchant itj Hull, fei the Baltic trade, was a next
door neighbour to mine. Shortly after our arrival,
the captain being on boatd of the Eiglish'^hip,
%nd mentioning his having had the good jfiSrtune
4So liberate two men of the Boston's crew frorii
the savages, anil that one of theml^vas named
Jewitt, my former acquaibtance immediately
tame on board-the brig to see me. M
Words can ill express my feelings dn seeing
him. Circumstanced as I was, among persons w7ho JOHN R. JEWITT.
were entire strangers to me, to meet thus, in a foreign land, with one between whom and myself, a
Considerable intimacy had subsisted, was a pleasure that those alone who have been in a similar
situation can properly estimate. He appeared on
$jjfe. part no less happy to see me, whom he suppds-
ed to be dead, as the account of our capture had
ileen received in England some time before his
sailing, and all my friends supposed me to have
been murdered. From this young man i received every attention and aid that a feeling heart,
interested in the fate of another, could confer.
He supplied me with a new suit of clothes, and
a hat, a small sum of money for my necessary
expenses, and a number of little articles for sea-
stores on my voyage to America. I also gave him
a letter for my father, in which 1 mentioned my
wonderful preservation, and escape, through the
humanity of captain Hill, with whom I should return to Boston. This letter he inclosed to his father by a ship that was just sailing, in consequence of which it was received much earlier
than it otherwise would have been. —
We left China in February, t807, and after a
pleasant voyage of one hundred and fourteen
days arrived at Boston.* My feelings on once
more finding myself in a Christian country,
among a people speaking the same language with
* Mr. Thompson arrived with me in Boston, and shortly after sailed for
Havana, where he died, a few days after his arrival, with the yellow feve& 203
myself, may be more readily conceived than expressed. In the Post-Office in that place I found
a letter for me from my mother, acknowledging
the receipt of mine from China, expressing die
great joy of my family on hearing of ~my being |
alive and well, whom they had for a long time
given up for dead, and requesting me to write toj
them on receiving her letter, which 1 accordingly
did. While in Boston, I was treated with mueh#!
kindness and hospitality by the owmers of the
ship Boston, Messrs. Francis and Thomas Amory
of that place, to whom I feel myself under great
obligations for their goodness to me, and the assistance which they so readily afforded a stranger in distress,        p ',• %
Commencing with a chorus repeated at the end of each Une»
Hah-yee hah yar har, he yar hah.
Ie yie ee yah har—ee yie hah.
Ie yar ee yar hah—ee yar hah. Slliil
Ie yar ee I yar yar hah—Ie yar ee yee yah !
I-ye mahi-chill at-sish Kla-ha—Ha-ye-hahV
Que nok ar parts-arsh waw—Ie yie-yar.
iVaw-hoo naks sar hasch—*-Yar-hah. I-yar hee I-yar.
.JjVaw hoo naks ar hasch yak-que&etsj|sh ni-ese,
Waw har. Hie yee ah-hah.
Repeated over and over with gestures and brandishing of weapons*
NOTE.   .   - -/|tj|
Je~yee ma kfcchilh signifies, Ye do not know. It appears to be a poetical
mode of expression, the common one for you do not know, being, Wik-
kum-atash ; from this it would seem that they have two languages, one
for their songs, and another for common use. The general meaning of
this first song appears to be, Ye little know ye men of Klahar, what
valiant warriors we are. Poorly can our foes contend with us, when we
come with our daggers, &c.
The Nootkians nave no songs of a historical nature, nor do they a-jgr
pear to have any tradition respecting their origin.
End of the Third Edition.  m
m      fi
tsmmmmim ■■msm


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