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The mining, engineering and electrical record. [1916] 1916

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       MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
Mining and Scientific Press
Controlled by T. A. Bickard
Published weekly at San Franciaco,  Cal.
In every issue valuable articles are published on
mining, metallurgy and geology, the latest news from
special correspondents at the principal mining centres,
letters giving the ideas and experience of »uccessful
men, and other items of useful knowledge.
THE. MINING    MAGAZINE
T. A.  Rickard. Editor
Established September,  1909
Published monthly at London, England
A monthly magazine is the natural corollary of a
technical weekly. It permits of more deliberate and
more extended notice of matters concerning which the
news element is less important.
The Mining Magazine includes a review of the
world's progress in mining, metallurgy, and economic
geology, written by men who have personal knowledge
of the  regions and conditions  discussed.
COMBINATION'   RATE
To  new subscribers  to Combination
both  papers  in yearly  rate.
Canada, United States and Mexico „...|6.00
United  Kingdom     7.00
Other  countries in  Postal  Union     8.00
Address either office:
MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS
420 Market St., San Francisco
THE   MINING   MAGAZINE
819 Salisbury Honse, London, E. O.
Important Auction
At Vancouver, B. C, of the Contracting Equipment formerly used by the British Columbia
Electric Railway Co., Ltd., on construction work
at Lake Buntzen and Coquitlam Lake. Originally
costing $250,000.
Including New Baldwin Locomotive and Tender, Air Compressors, Mining Locomotives, Logging and Yarding Engines, Stationery Engines,
Hoists, Motors, Pumps, 24 Mechanical Stokers
(new), 2 Lidgerwood Panama Type Cableways
(complete), 1,100 feet and l,20l) feet span, 2£ in.
Cable, Boilers, Drills, Tunnel Bars, 20 tons of Hollow, Round and Octagonal Drill Steel, etc.
Will be sold by Public Auction during APRIL. Catalogues on application to tht Auctioneers
I F. GRIFFIN & CO.
448 Seymour St., Vancouver, B.C. & 311 California St., San Francisco
Technical
BOOKS
At Tremendous Reductions!       New Books at Discount Prices !       Over
1,000,000 volumes in stock on every conceivable subject in strictly classified
order.    Sent on Approval.    State Wants.    Catalogue No. 280, Post Free
Books Purchased.
W. & G. F0YLE, 121-123 Charing Cross Road, London, W.C., Eng.
(4
Britannia Mine,
Howe Sound,
British Columbia"
24 Pages with Supplement
24 Illustrations
Price: 25c. a copy
The August Number
"The Mining, Engineering
and Electrical Record"
containing the Article on The
Britannia Mine having been
insufficient to supply the demand, we have published a
reprint as above
Technical   Press,  Limited
303   World  Building
Vancouver, B.C.
WIRE ROPES
For Mining and Every Other Purpose
Brattice Cloth
Miners' Lamps
Large Stocks'Carried at Vancouver
AERIAL TRAMWAYS
BLONDINS      HAULAGES      CABLEWAYS
SUSPENSION BRIDGES
Estimates Given on Application
LOCKED COIL CABLES A SPECIALTY
GEORGE CRAD0CK& Co.
Limited
169 Cordova St. W.    -   Vancouver, B.C.
Phone: Seymour 1456 THE MINING, ENGINEERING AND
ELECTRICAL RECORD
Established 1895 E. A. HAGGEN, Editor
Published Semi-Monthly by TECHNICAL PRESS, LTD.
World Building, Vancouver, B. C.
Telephone Seymour 3825
Cable Address: *' Kanagan." Vancouver, B. C.
Subscriptions payable in advance: ?3.00 per
annum, including postage in Canada, and to Great
Britain. To United States and other countries,
$3.50 per annum, including postage.
Subscribers requiring change of address must
notify the office of the publishers in writing.
Advertising Rate Cards supplied on application
to  publishers.
Volume XXI, No. I.
Single  copies,   20c.
VANCOUVER, B.C., FEBRUARY, 1916
Index to Advertisers—Page   VII
Directory of Engineers, etc.—Page VII
GENERAL ARTICLES.
Page.
Mining Conditions in British Columbia..
By Alex. Sharp, Consulting Mining Engineer, Vancouver. The extent of the Cordilleran Belt occupied
by British Columbia is noted, and the inference drawn
from the heavy mineral production in the portions of
the belt to the south that this Province is destined to
become one of the world's greatest mining fields. The
wealth of coal is reviewed; the possibilities of placer
gold production pointed out; and the wealth of lode
minerals indicated. The importance of Canadian capital
becoming interested in raining development is urged,
and it is suggested that Government aid would do much
to promote the mineral industry. The statistics quoted
show that in the ten years from 1905 to 1914, metal
mining has made relatively little progress.
Mineral Wealth of British Columbia in Relation to its
Economic Value	
By Prof. Odium, B. Sc, Vancouver.
This is a summary of an address before the Vancouver
Chamber of Mines. Statistics are quoted to show the
total mineral production of the Province to date; the
progress in production in twenty years; and the comparative value of the leading minerals. The relative
importance of the mineral production of British Columbia to the entire mineral production of the Dominion is
shown; also the relative importance of the several mining divisions. The amount of labor employed and of
population dependent on the mineral industry are shown,
and a bright future predicted for mining in this Province.
•Electricity in  the  Mining  Industry-Mine  Telephone
Equipment 	
By H. N. Keifer, Electrical Engineer, Vancouver.
This is a paper read before the Vancouver Section of
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. It is
fully illustrated to show the best class of mine telephone
installation under all conditions likely to  arise.
The Coal Fields  _ 1  10
Accidents _  11
Recent Publications   12
Books Reviewed   12
Petroleum and Natural Gas Resources of Canada;  12
Business Notes   14
By-products of Coal  14
Nipissing Mining Company   15
Potash from Alunite   15
Cost of Doing Things  15
Surf Inlet Gold Mines, Limited '.._ ■  ig
Standard Silver Lead-Mining Company  u,
Le Roi No. 2, Ltd _  x6
Mining in Ontario   \-j
A New Munitions Industry   17
The Clayburn Company  £-  \y
*Nicoll Thompson, New President of Vancouver Board
of Trade   19
•Dominion Rotary Products Company, Ltd „  17
*Hon. Lorne A. Campbell, Minister qt Mines  26
* Illustrated. Mining, Engineering and Electrical Record
Established October, 18)5.
VANCOUVER, B. C, JANUARY & FEBRUARY, 1916 No. 1
Vol. XXI
MINING CONDITIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By Alexander Sharp.*
British Columbia has a total area of about
382,000 square miles, of which 285,000 square miles
are practically unexplored. Four ranges of mountains traverse the entire length of the Province in
a north-westerly direction. Between lie beautiful
well-watered valleys of varying width suitable for
farming. The mountain ranges are part of the
great Cordilleran system of mountains, more generally known as the Rocky Mountains, or mineral belt
that extends from far south Cape Horn, north
through South America, Mexico, Western United
States of America, British Columbia, Yukon, part of
"Western Alberta, and Alaska. In Canada it has a
length of nearly 1,600 miles, and a width of fully
400 miles; includes all British Columbia, Yukon
Territory, part of Western Alberta—approximately
700,000 square miles. Fully half of that area is
within the Province of British Columbia.
Gold and other precious metals are distributed
over the Province. In almost every river and creek
of importance gold is found in some quantity, while,
in the major part of the mountains explored, veins of
gold, copper, silver, lead, zinc and iron ores have
been discovered. In addition, there are mountains
of building stone, granite, marble and clays. Enormous resources of coal of excellent quality, varying
from lignite to anthracite, are conveniently distributed over the Province. Deposits of sulphur and
salt exist; also pronounced indications that there
exist subterranean reservoirs of petroleum oil and
natural gas.
British Columbia's share of the mineral wealth
contained in the great Cordilleran belt is enormous,
although not more than twenty, per cent, of the
mineral area has been prospected or explored. It
has been proven to possess great gold, silver, copper,
zinc and coal mines. Some of the greatest placer-
gold deposits on the Continent of America are within
our boundaries.
The Western United States is recognized as one
of the greatest mining regions of the. world, noted
for its wealth of precious metals.   Development and
* Consulting Mining Engineer, Vancouver, B. C.
geological conditions warrant the assumption that in
Canada this mineral belt will be equally productive
of great wealth. In the United States, the Rocky
Mountain yield annually is fully $485,000,000 of
mineral wealth over a length of 1,400 miles. In
Canada the total from the Rocky Mountains mineral
belt is only $38,000,000 annually over a length of
1,600 miles. British Columbia is entirely of this belt
(700 miles long by 400 miles wide). The total annual mineral production is about $30,000,000. Fully
$17,000,000 of this amount is from placer and lode
mining (gold, silver, copper, zinc, lead, etc.), the
balance from coal, clays and stone.
COAX..
The coal mining industry of B. C. may be said to
have commenced at Nanaimo in the year 1851. For
a number of years the quantity mined was very limited. It was not until the year 1882 that the output
Exceeded 200,000 tons per year. In the year 1913.
2,137,483 tons were mined, valued at $7,481,190.
Approximately the half of this amount was produced
from the coal mines of Vancouver Island; the other
half from the mines of the Crows" Nest Pass district.
The total quantity of coal and coke produced from
B. C. mines to date is about 45,000,000 tons, valued at
about $150,000,000. The construction of the railway
through the Crows Nest Pass district, undertaken
by the Laurier Government, practically doubled the
output of coal. The output of the mines on Vancouver Island has remained nearly stationary for a
number of years. The development and producing
capacity are ahead of the market.
PLACER   GOLD.
With the arrival of 450 adventurers from Sau
Francisco in the spring of 1858 gold mining commenced on the Fraser River, at Hope and Yale.
Gradually the miners worked their way up the river,
past the junction of the Thompson and Fraser, on to
Lillooet, Chilcoten, Quesnel and Barkerville. Here
the "boys" were happy and successful for a number
of years. Fully 5,000 miners were engaged in
mining and working for the yellow metal, with pan,
rocker and sluice. The record yield of gold was
mined during the year 1863, amounting to $3,913,560.
Our total production of placer gold to date is fully
$73,000,000. Since 1864 placer gold mining has become less from year to year. Last year it was only
a little over $500,000. ' MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
The history of a gold boom is much the same the
world over. In a few years the richer bars and
creeks get worked out, until it no longer pays to
mine with pan, rocker or sluice. It then becomes a
question of hydraulic mining, or dredging, which
is too expensive for single enterprise." The diggings
become abandoned, as on the Fraser River. Not so,
however, in that gallant little colony, New Zealand.-
Thirty or forty years ago there was washing for
gold on the rivers there by an English miner, known
by his front name '' Dick." So he was called '' Dick.''
He had washed for gold a number of years, experienced that the gold was getting scarcer, and harder
to get as time passed. Nevertheless he came to the
same conclusion as to the future possibility of placer
mining in New Zealand as the late Dr. Dawson, of
the Geological Survey, did with reference to the
future of mining on the Fraser. The gold was there,
but it required some mechanical means to extract it
from the sand, and gravel bars, and river beds.
Well, to make a long story short, Richard Seddon
was elected to Parliament; was for 16 years Prime
Minister, and became the Right Hon. Richard Seddon. During his "term of office he carried the
principle of State aid into much of the industrial life
of New Zealand, and voted a sufficient grant of-
money to induce some party to invent a suitable
machine to wash gold from the rivers and "bars, in
large quantities. The result is, the modern dredge
was given to the world. The diggings in-New Zealand never became abandoned until the gold was all
taken out. In this way the miner gets his own/
There are hundreds' of 'millions of yards of placer
ground in the Fraser, and other rivers" in the Province, that will run from 5 cents to 50 cents per yard
in gold. If the principle of State aid had been
applied there, as in New Zealand, the" rivers would
have continued to produce millions of gold each
year.
LODE  MINING.
Lode mining may be said to have commenced here
about the year 1892,. on the discovery of the silver-
lead ores in the Slocan, and gold-copper ores at
Rossland. Early days in the Slocan and the Koot-
enays were pleasant and profitable to many of us.
I was one of the many thousands who helped to
blaze the trails through that rich -and beautiful
district of our fair Dominion., . To find a mine that
would be our. "..very own ".-was the ambition that
filled, many a breastT No longer were* we going to be
hewers of wood and.drawers pf water, but- miners,
so to speak, .with our own. vine and fig tree, no man
making us.afraid. It's to tell you of our success
and failure-that.I ask your attention. In the years
1893-^5, hunpeds of. mineral clajmswere located on
the silver-lead mountains of Slocan, and. the -gold-
copper mountains of the Kootenays. Indeed prospecting for minerals was general over the Province.
The principal mines found during these years were
in the Rossland and Nelson districts. It soon became
apparent, however, that all the holes dug in the
hillside were not mines, nevertheless, a fair measure of suceess was likely to be attained.
Take
THE SLOCAN COUNTRY,
for instance. Speaking generally, I think I am correct in saying that several hundred locations were
made on silver-lead ore veins, large and small The
galena or silver-lead ores found away up on the
crest of the mountains were often very rich in
silver and lead, containing 80 ounces or more of
silver, and 40% of lead to the ton, with very little
zinc. Such a class of ore furnished an excellent
smelting product, on which miners and smelters
made money. This character of ore in many eases
extended to a depth of from 100 to 500 feet below
the apex of the mountain, but by degrees, as a further depth was mined, a greater percentage of zinc-
blende made its appearance. The zinc replaced the
galena (silver-lead ore), until the proportion of zinc
in the veins would be the greater. The result of
this was the smelters placed a penalty of 50 cents
per unit of galena, that contained more than 10%
of zinc. This, of course, was a knock on the head
to the silver-lead miners of the Slocan. For a time
some of the miners resorted to hand-picking of the
zinc from the galena. Some of the larger mines
erected concentrating plants, to separate the zinc
from the silver-lead ore, which was only partially
successful. At all events there was no market in
Canada for zinc concentrates. They had to be shipped to Europe and the United States, but the long
freight haul, duties and other drawbacks, often
made the sales unprofitable. As a consequence a
number of shipping mines and a larger number of
prospects were shut down, and remain so until
to-day.
Much of the condition of affairs exists at low-
grade gold-copper camps. There the ore near the
surface was the richer. Ore bodies found at further
depth in many cases would not exceed $5.00, $8.00
or $10.00 per ton, in gold, silver and copper values.
Conditions such as these were disappointing to the
individual miner, and small companies who were too
poor to experiment on the best process of milling and
smelting low-grade, complex ores. The larger companies with unlimited capital could do so, while the
small concerns who owned a zincy mine in Slocan.
or a low-grade gold-oopper mine in the Kootenay
district, had to shut down, sell out or wait for better days. I have always believed it unfortunate that
the Governments of the_cojrntry did not see it-to-be
their duty to demonstrate along the lines of discover- MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
ing the best process to mill and smelt the low-gr^de.
complex ores of the Province. The science of metallurgy is advancing so rapidly these last few years,
as to leave little doubt as to the successful outcome.
Note the success of the milling process at the Britannia Mine, zinc-lead mines at Broken Hill, Australia,
New Zealand and Transvaal. The success of milling
and smelting the low-grade ores of the United States
is a perfect revelation.
GREAT   MINING   FUTURE   FOR   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
A party asked me the other day where I thought
the next great mining boom would be? I said, "British Columbia." He shook his head, but before we.
parted he admitted there was no place on earth so
full of mining hopefulness as British Columbia. I
made my convert by explaining to him the richness
of the great Cordilleran mineral belt I have been
telling you about, and how, right here in British
Columbia, there was a greater unprospected, unexplored area than the area of the States of Colorado
and Montana combined, from which approximately
$123,000,000 in precious metals are produced every
year. British Columbia is on the same Rocky Mountain Cordilleran mineral belt as these states. It is
the opinion of Geologists and Mining Engineers that
the mineral possibilities of the one area are as good
as the other. The climate is no more unpropitious
in British Columbia than the states mentioned.
You may ask, why all this unexplored territory,
with possibilities so great ? What of the prospectors,
that they are not stampeding into that new country ?
My answer is, The prospector is a shrewd, levelheaded business man. He knows no international
boundary line, in so far as prospecting is concerned.
He prospects in countries where he has the best
chance of working his property or selling it. His
chance for doing so, to his mind,, is in the country
south of us. Prospecting is the initial stage of mining. The prospector has got to be encouraged.
Offer him a bonus for real mines discovered; give
him some assurance that the ore from his mine will
be milled or smelted, at reasonable freight and treatment charges, and you will find this 285,000 square
miles of unprospected country run over with prospectors next year.
Canadians, I presume, want a share of the mineral wealth that is stored up in the mountains. If
so, they must begin and "drill." I never visit such
cities as Spokane, Seattle and Denver without being
impressed with the fact that a large number of the
leading citizens there are men who, in early life,,
were prospectors or investors in mines during the
early stage of development. Now they are millionaires, in control of banks, the street railways, etc., .
of their respective cities. Some of them are owners
of our best British Columbia mines, while th« most
of the "boys" who-blazed the trails and discovered '
the mines of Slocan and Kootenay, and other districts remain poor. Their life's work is left behind,
upon the mountains, awaiting more favorable conditions for mining their several properties. This is
indicated by the large number of unworked Crown
granted mineral claims, on which taxes are being
paid, namely, Rossland district, 1,295; Slocan and
Ainsworth district, 1,328; Nelson district, 776. Total,
3,399.
I don't for a minute believe these are all mines,
but a large number of them are. Many of the boys
that own them believe they are, and some of them
know the ear-marks of a mine as well as any
engineer.
BACKWARD   STATE   OF   MINERAL   INDUSTRY.
Every available mine in. the Province should be
working, to increase the wealth of the nation, enrich
the owners, and employ labor. As matters are, the
business of lode mining, has remained stationary for
a number of years,_ as will be observed from the
following figures, taken from the Minister of Mines'
Report, 1914:
Year. Total Value.
1905 ,....,., $15,180,164
1906   .-,-,,,-  17,484,102
. 1907  16,216,847
1908   14,477,411
1909  14,191,141
1910  |  13,228,731
1911   11,454,063
1912   17,662,766
1913  _  17,190,838
1914  15,225,061
(To be continued)
MINERAL WEALTH OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN
RELATION TO ITS ECONOMIC VALUE.
*By Prof. Odium, B.Sc.
The mineral products in British Columbia from
the beginning of the industry up to and including
the year 1914 amounted in value to the following:
Gold,  Placer $ 73,269,603
Gold, Lode      81,595,516
Silver        37,709,281
Lead    13,468,462
Copper   ....:     86,939,370
Coal and Coke 1  149,814,462
Building Stone, etc.;     23,827,101
Zinc, etc       2,198,949
Grand Total | $486,822,049
•Address before Vancouver Chamber of-Mines. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
The following will show how the mineral production has increased in 20 years, since 1894:
Value for 1894 $ 4,225,717
Value for 1904  18,977,359
Value for 1914.  26,388,825
Of the totals of the leading minerals, from the
beginning of the industry to and including 1914, we
get the following comparison:
Coal  $154,865,119
Copper       86,939,370
Gold, lode    81,595,516
Gold, placer    73,269,603
Thus we see that coal leads, copper coming second, lode gold third, and placer gold fourth.
But adding the lode and placer gold we get
the following order:
Gold    $154,865,119
Coal and coke  149,814,462
Copper      86,939,370
Silver        37,709,282
The grand totals of these metals, including zinc,
may be given in the following short table:
Gold, lode $ 81,595,516
Copper       86,939,370
Silver      37,709,282
Lead       31,458,462
Zinc       1,708,250
Total  $239,420,880
The" total coal and coke produced is as follows:
Coal  $132,507,063
Coke      17,307,399
Coal in tons    41,199,3871
Coke         3,101,869
Comparing the total values of the mineral pro
ducts of British Columbia with the totals of Canada,
we get the following:
British
Canada.        Columbia.
Gold $11,296,309       $5,674,004
Silver   14,518,638 1,876,736
Copper   10,817,713 6,121,319
Lead      1,771,877        1,771,877
Iron       1,138,912 Nil
Coal and coke  34,130,385 7,745,847
Grand Total $73,673,234     $23,189,783
By these figures we see that British Columbia
produoed in 1914 31% of the total for the Dominion
of Canada.
This table gives the district comparisons for
metal products:
Boundary, M.D  50.25%
Rossland    13.65%
Cassiar  12.10%
Coast   J_L. 11.75%
Slocan      4.73 %
Ainsworth      3.05%
Nelson      2.75%
East Kootenay    1.65%
All others  01%
GOLD.
The Placer gold for 1914 was valued at $565,000,
of which over 93% came from Atlin and Cariboo districts.
Lode gold amounted to $5,109,004. Of this
amount Rossland gave $2,864,201, Boundary gave
$1,775,048, and Nelson gave $316,210.
About 74% of the lode gold is obtained from
the smelting of copper-bearing ores, the balance by
the use of stamp-mills.
SILVER.
In 1914 the chief silver-producing districts, with
their products, were as follows:
Slocan and Slocan City M. D  49.35%
Fort Steele   13.65%
Boundary      9.64%
Ainsworth     9.15%
Nelson     4.18%
Trail Creek    3.75%
Skeena    3.64%
Coast      2.54%
All others  42%
LEAD.
In the production of lead during 1914 in B. C,
the results are:
Fort Steele M. D  24,863,105 lbs. 49.13%
Slocan and Slocan City.... 15,233,910 lbs. 30.10%
Ainsworth       8,069,525 lbs. 15.92%
Nelson    2,004,436 lbs. 3.95%
Omineca        323,482 lbs. .64%
All others       130,590 lbs. .26%
Total in lbs  50,625,048 lbs.     100.    %
COPPER.
The copper output for 1914 stands thus:
Boundary   16,428,959 lbs.       36.52%
Rossland    3,779,830 lbs. 8.40%
Coast and Cassiar  24,199,621 lbs.       53.74%
Yale-Kamloops           14,525 lbs. .03%
Nelson       586,764 lbs. 1.03%
LABOR EMPLOYED.
The number of employees in the British Columbia mines in 1914:
Cariboo and Cassiar      378
East Kootenay       108
West Kootenay       1 958
Boundary         891
Lillooet    g
Coast district      613
Total employed in the shipping mines  3 954 MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   SL*CTRIOAL   RECORD
There were 2,175,971 tons of ore mined.
Men employed in the non-shipping mines:
Coast and Cassiar „  35
Ainsworth    22
Slocan   49
Nelson  10
Trail Creek  12
Lardeau    4
Boundary  ;  86
Lillooet   2
Grand Total  220
The above two tables give the average rather
than the actual number employed in 1914 in B. C.
Adding the two we get a total of 4,174 men
employed in the direct work of mining the metals.
This number does not include the large number of
prospectors, clerks in offices, smelting men and their
officials, the men at work in the coal mines and many
others, as general freighters and caterers of food
and clothing.
We may safely say that there must be fully
12,000 in all employed in the Province of B. C. during 1914.
From these figures we may conclude that fully
50,000 persons are provided for by the mining interests of the country. This makes a good showing
and makes clear the far-reaching importance and
influence of this single industry. And yet we are
safe in saying that in time to come this number will
be quadrupled and then doubled, with room for further expansion.
And what is true of mining is also true of every
industry in British Columbia. As our present small
population of a few hundreds of thousands swells
into millions, as will'be the case with our children,
so will the immense importance of the mining wealth
of the Province become more and more manifest.
proof and rust-proof. Its outer iron case is curved
on top, forming a roof from which water and falling
objects easily slide off.   (See Figs. 1 and 2.)
STOCK ROOM ENGINE   ROOM
REPAIR SHOP tUftMNTCNECNTS
orrici
FIG. 1
The apparatus inside the case is doubly protected by two iron doors, a special treatment being
given each part so that they will resist the action of
such disturbing elements as mentioned above. When
the inner door is closed, only the metal transmitter
mouthpiece,  receiver  cord—which is  impregnated
ELECTRICITY  IN  THE  MINTNG INDUSTRY-
MINE TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT.
By H. N. Keifer,* M.AmJnst.Elect.Eng. fig. 2
——~ with a moisture-resisting compound—and the gener-
Mine telephone systems usually consist of seve- ator handle are exposed.   When the outer door is
ral instruments  connected to  one pair of wires, closed even these parts are protected.   When the
forming a party line. Local battery magneto telephones are used, and signalling is done by a code of
rings. The severe conditions encountered in underground operation of apparata of this nature, due to
moisture, gases, acidulated water, etc., make it
necessary to provide unusually well-protected telephone instruments for this service. The type of
metal mine telephone shown is fireproof, moisture
* Electrical Engineer on staff of Northern Electric Co., Vancouver, B\ C. Paper read before Vancouver Section
Am. Inst. Elect. Eng.
set is in use, it is evident that only this outer door
need be opened.   (See.Fig. 3.)
By turning the generator handle you ring the
bells of every telephone on the system. The bells
ring only as long as the crank is being turned, by
virtue of the alternating current generated through
this operation. To signal any certain telephone on
the system, a pre-determined signal, or system of
code rings, is employed, such as two short, three
short, a long and a short, or any other combination MINING.   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
FIG. 3
of rings that may be desired. It is a very simple
matter to turn the generator crank to correspond to
the signals desired, and since the bells on the calling
telephone ring similarly to every other set of bells,
there never is any question as to whether or not the
proper signal is being sent over the wire.
The instrument most generally used is equipped
with a ringer,which is clearly shown in the upper centre of the interior view of telephone set (Fig. 4). The
gongs of these ringers emit a very loud, distinct ring
which can be heard for a long distance underground.
It is, however, often desired to provide loud ringing
bells in conjunction with the telephone instruments
at certain points when conditions are such that the
bells furnished with the telephones are not adequate;
in this event ringers or bells as a part of the instru-
FIG. 4
ment are unnecessary, and telephones without
ringers installed in them are furnished to meet just
such requirements.
Two types of extension bells are shown, one
being of the loud ringing type and the other of the
type ordinarily' used for an extension signal in
offices, etc., the latter being mounted in a wooden
case, and is not suitable for use in connection with
telephones installed underground.
By the use of extension bells advantageously
placed the operator can be summoned to his telephone whether or not he is in its immediate vicinity.
Extension bells are also useful in places where it is
necessarv to have a signal heard, but where it would
be impracticable to place a telephone; for instance,
where two drifts converge, or at a particular noisy
section of the mine. The important point, however,
is to have the signal heard, the telephone being
placed at a point that is both quiet and accessible.
It is possible to operate a system such as that
shown diagramatically with as many as forty bells,
counting the extension bells and those in the telephones themselves connected to one circuit; but it
is advisable where as large a number of telephones
and bells as this are installed, to split the circuit up
for obvious reasons.
In the superintendent's office, engine house and
other dry and protected parts of the mine operation
which should have communication with each other
and the mine, a wooden case telephone or a desk
FIG. 5
stand telephone can be used, and are recommended.
These two types of telephones are shown in Figs. 7
and 8.
When the mine system requires more lines than
one, they should be terminated in a switchboard
located at some central point such as the superintendent's office or engine house. These boards do not
require expert attention; ki fact, it is no great
burden for a clerk to operate the switchboard in
connection with his regular work.    (See Fig. 9.)
These boards are built on the sectional plan,
similar to the well-known sectional bookcases. As
more telephones are added to the system and the
board as originally installed becomes inadequate to
FIG. 6
handle the service requir-ed, another section may
easily be added to the board without much more MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
FIG. 7
trouble than in adding a section to a bookcase. This
furnishes a system that is exceedingly flexible, and
one that will grow with the mine at no great expense
for additional equipment.    (See Fig. 10.)
FIG. 8
MINE SIGNALLING SETS
The old method of electric signalling in mines
was by means of single stroke bells operated by
battery current. Batteries at best are expensive for
this kind of service, as they must be renewed frequently, even when not furnishing current due to
their deterioration.
The failure of one cell in such a system as previously mentioned may cause the failure of the entire
circuit at a critical moment, and put.the whole system out of service. This usually means a loss of
valuable time and sometimes loss of property or life.
To provide a reliable system for such important
work a signal set has been designed and perfected.
This set consists of a strong iron case containing a
FIG.  10
powerful hand generator and two terminals to which
the line wires are connected. The line wires are
brought out from the set either through a hole in
the bottom or through a drip loop pipe at the top.
The outer door is fastened with a strong hasp and
staple, and is locked with a padlock. On the front
of the cover of this set is a small box having a glass
FIG. 9
FIG.  11
-window in which is hung the padlock key. In case
of emergency this window must be broken in order
to open the set and to turn the generator crank.
This arrangement prevents tampering with the apparatus and ensures its use only under circumstances
that warrant.    (See Fig. 11.) MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
These sets are usually designed so that they
will ring 30-2500 ohm signal bells connected on to a
IY2 mile full metallic circuit of No. 12 BWG iron
wire, or a 28% mile circuit of No. 12 B & S gauge
hard-drawn copper wire. The generator is mounted
inside the metal case on an iron plate, which is held
firmly against an iron shoulder with iron screws.
The generator handle only protrudes through this
plate. All other mechanism and wiring is entirely
encased even when the outer door is open.
WIRING  IN  MINES.
" Much of the trouble encountered in mine telephone and signalling systems is due to poorly
constructed wiring. This condition is due largely to
a lack of knowledge on the part of the mine operator regarding the proper line material to use, and
the most efficient method of installing this part of
the equipment.
There are several kinds of conductors that may
be used for telephone systems in mines, and several
different methods of supporting these conductors are
■Oil
FIG. 12
For receiving the signals loud ringing bells are
used, these bells being mounted on a wooden backboard to which is attached a canopy to provide protection from falling rock or other objects. (Fig. 5.)
No batteries are required with this system, and there
are no switches to open or close. To ring all the bells
simultaneously it is only necessary to turn the generator crank of the signalling set. As in the case of a
battery system, the hand generator does not deteriorate either when standing idle or when furnishing
current.
Two different systems have been described: one
a party line telephone system, and the other a
magneto signalling system for emergency service.
By combining these two systems into one, as shown
in the diagram, a considerable saving can be effected
in the wiring installation, as well as in the maintenance of the two systems; this can easily be done
without interfering in the least with the proper
working of either svstem.    (See Fig. 13.)
O
Flat HeadHails-
I    1
-E3
FIG. 14
also recommended. The different arrangements vary
in cost of material and installation, generally speaking, the most expensive being the most durable and
satsfactory. On account of the wide variation in
conditions which exist in mines, and, indeed, in
different parts of the same mine, no one type of installation can be recommended in all cases, but as a
general proposition it is always better to be on the
safe side and put in the best to be had, as in the
long run it will be found that this is the cheapest
and most satisfactory.
The following kind of conductors can be used
M«y
r
C
m-
im>,
ESl
FIG.  13
FIG. 15 MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
for   wiring   the   mine   telephones   and   sigrtaffing
systems:
1.    Cable.
(a) Armored cable.
(b) Ferrin circular loom cable.
2. Braided, weatherproof, iron or copper wire.
3. Bare iron wire.
The use of cable for mine telephone and signalling systems when properly designed and manufactured is probably the best method of wiring that
can be used. Lead covered cable has been used to
some extent in mines, but in many cases has given
trouble. The lead sheath is subject to attack from
dilute, organic and inorganic acids, and it is extremely difficult to prevent electrolytic action, espe-
FIG.  16
cially if metal supports are used. Furthermore, the
lead sheath is mechanically weak, necessitating
support at very frequent intervals, and it is found
that the constant jarring of the cars or cage is often
sufficient to cause crystallization, and a parting of
the sheath, which permits the entrance of moisture
into the cable, and, of course, causes trouble. For
the above reasons the use of lead covered cable in
mines is not advocated.
From observations which have been made in
connection with wiring installations in mines it has
been determined that the best cable for this purpose
is of the armored type; this, however, is quite expensive, but where reliability and long service is
taken into consideration, it is found that this cable
has proven far the best. The cable of this type is
constructed as follows:
Three stranded copper conductors are used, each
being equivalent to one No. 18 B. & S. gauge con-
ductor, and consisting of three No. 23 B. & S. gauge
1             I
)
{
1             1
, N
f ,
.;»                vL
r              T
)
(
(
i
FIG. 18 A
wires. Over each of these stranded conductors is
placed a 1-16 in. wall of rubber, over which is placed
a layer of tape. Two of these conductors are then
twisted together and the third laid beside them,
after which a jute filler is put on to make the cor«
of the cable round. Over this core is placed a wrapping of tape, another layer of jute, and then the
armoring, consisting of No. 14 BWG galvanized iron
wire. Over this armor is then placed another layer
of jute, and over all a heavy cotton covering which
is saturated with a moisture-resisting and preserva-
Method ofTying
FIG. 18 B
tive compound.
Ferrin circular loom cable may also be used,
but it does not give the same factor of safety in
Connection with this most important service in
mines that is obtained where the armored cable is
installed. This type of cable is made up composed
of ordinary solid conductors having a rubber and
braided covering, the conductors being twisted in
pairs and having a jute filler saturated with a moisture preservative compound, over which is placed a
serving of impregnated tape, and on top of which
is woven a circular loom of heavy cotton, which is
also impregnated with a weatherproof compound.
The circular loom covering differs from ordinary
braiding in that the strands are laid longitudinally
and transversely instead of being braided diagon-
Mounted oh TTfntifA'
(fain* t£sianaarilPtb*
FIG. 17
FIG. 19
ally. This makes a much stronger fabric, as the pull
on the cable is resisted by the heavy longitudinal
strands. Cable of this type is usually furnished
with conductors of No. 14 or No. 18 B. & S. gauge.
(To  be   continued) io
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
THE COAL FIELDS.
. The severe winter conditions created a coal
famine among consumers in the Coast cities, largely
due to the inability of dealers to secure sufficient
teams and motor trucks to handle orders, and to the
closing of suburban roads and streets by the depth
of the snow. The coal companies were handicapped
in making shipments from several causes. The cold
spell resulted in prevalence of '' grip,'' and in some
mines as much as 50% of the miners were laid up,
and production correspondingly reduced. The South
Wellington railway to Oyster Bay was blocked by
snow, and the railways on Vancouver Island were
tied up. The Merritt mines were unable to ship coal
over the C. P. R. system owing to the shortage of
cars, a condition for which there should be no excuse
in these days of shortage of railway freight. In
Vancouver the dealers raised the price of coal $1 per
ton to cover the extra cost of delivery through the
deep snow, and it was rumored that this advance
would be doubled. The City Council of Vancouver
called the dealers on the carpet to explain their
action in raising the price, and bought the C. P. R.
stock of coal to relieve the situation. Owing to the
stormy weather, tugboats were unable to continue
delivery of coal between Vancouver Island docks and
the mainland.
Vancouver Trades and Labor Council has requested Hon. Lome Campbell, Minister of Mines, to
take steps to replace with white labor the Chinese
employed at Vancouver Island coal mines.
Pennsylvania miners have asked for 20% increase in wages, recognition of U. M. W. of A., two-
year working agreement, and 8-hour day. Operators
claim these concessions, if granted, would raise the
price of coal to consumers 60c per ton, and have
suggested arbitration.
Japanese and Australian coal has been offered
for sale at Vancouver at $12 a ton. Two years ago
the same coal was on the market at $5 a ton.
The Wellington Colliery Co., Ltd., one of the
companies controlled by the Canadian Collieries,
Ltd., has issued a writ against the Pacific Coast Coal
Mines, Ltd., claiming $250,000 damages for coal
removed from the Alexandra Mine, formerly operated by the Dunsmuirs. The Alexandra adjoins on
the south the Fiddick property operated by the
Pacific Coast Coal Mines, who have endeavored for
some time to acquire from the plaintiffs the mining
rights on that property. The claim was also made
that when the Dunsmuirs operated the Alexandra
Mine they removed coal from the Fiddick property,
but at that time the rights of the settlers to the coal
underlying their holdings were in dispute, the Duns-
muir interests claiming that all coal belonged to
them under their E. & N. Railway grant.
Coal is selling at $40 a ton in Italy.
The Nenana coal fields of Alaska are now believed to be more valuable and extensive than
formerly supposed. 900 miles of coal lands in that
field have now been surveyed.
The coast mines of British Columbia have
hitherto found an important market in Alaska. This )
is likely .to be filled in future by the home supply. A
coal mine has been opened at Kaehemak Bay, near
Seldovia, by Capt. J, E. Berbet, who shipped supplies
to Seldovia and Seward. He proposes supplying
Valdez, Cordova .and Juneau.
The Alaska Railway Commission purchased
3,000 tons of coal from the Cumberland mines of the
Canadian Collieries, Ltd., the supply being delivered
at Seward.
Anthracite deposits have long been known to
exist at Glacier, on'Mt. Baker, and for the past three
years reports have been in circulation of arrangements to open a coal mine there. An engineer who
recently examined .the field gave an estimate of 3,-
000,000 tons of anthracite. Prof. Milner Roberts, of
Seattle, has reported favorably on the possibilities
of a coal-field in this section of Mt. Baker.
The Vancouver School Trustees let a contract
for the supply of No. 1 Washed Nut coal for the city
schools, the price being $5 a ton. The coal supplied
was not satisfactory, and James Ashworth, M. E.,
was called in by the Board to report on it. He
found the coal supplied was a washed nut, but not
No. 1, and the Trustees ordered the supply removed
and the better grade substituted in accordance with
the contract.
The impression has got abroad that there is no
anthracite coal at Skidegate Inlet on Graham Island.
This is a mistake, due to the fact that the material
mined as coal by the British Pacific Company, and
which proved useless as fuel, was declared by a Russian geologist to be Schungite. The property of the
Queen' Charlotte Mining' Company, known as the
Cowgitz Mine, does contain anthracite, as that company mined and sold over 10,000 tons which proved
an excellent anthracite fuel. The property was
Crown granted, and has not been sold to, or since
operated by, the British Pacific or any other company, as commonly supposed.
An eastern engineer who was called in to examine the Lake Kathlyn coal area taken up by C.
Frank and others with a view to .mining anthracite
coal, has advised that the plan of developmentsM
hand be abandoned and the mine opened at another
point. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
11
- ACCIDENTS.
George Jacques sustained two broken ribs by-
being struck by a car when in a prostrate position
after having slipped and fallen while working at the
top of the slope at the Coal Hill -Mine- at Merritt.
J. W. Millburn was killed in the Morden.Mine
of the Pacific Coast Coal Co., Ltd., sustaining injuries
by a fall of coal he was endeavoring to move, knowing it was not safe. There was plenty of timber
available, but deceased did not consider it necessary
to place a sprag under the overhanging top coal.
At the inquest, in reply to Robert Bonnar, manager
of the mine, a witness stated the coal in the Morden
Mine was full of slips, and many a time shots would
work their way to a great distance.
David Richard was electrocuted at Trail Smelter
while operating an electric crane. He was holding
an iron girder when his hand came in contact with
the switch, sending a current of 550 volts through
his body.
S. R. Popham, electrician, was killed at the
Imperial Oil Company's plant by falling from a ladder and breaking his neck.
J. P. Morgan was killed at the Britannia Mine
by a fall from a trestle.
John Fanning was fatally injured by being
crushed between two cars he was coupling at the
Western Fuel Co.'s No. 1 Mine at Nanaimo, and
Hugh Bennett was killed by a fall of coal while
working in the south side section of the same mine.
John Linklater, of North Vancouver, was killed
by falling down the 186 ft. raise of the Granby
Company's mines at Phoenix.
Duncan McKinnon was killed at the Mother
Lode Mine at Greenwood by being struck on the
head by a falling rock and thrown 100 ft. down the
chute at the head of which he was standing when
struck.
John Dean, a blaster, was killed by suffocation
in the Centre Star Mine at Rossland.       .''f'?||P
Mike Zichora.was killed, and P. Bartoletti seriously injured, by a cave-in at the B. North Mine of
the Crows Nest Pass Coal Company at Coal Creek,. .
James W. Williams, mining engineer, was killed
in a blast at the Iron Mask Mine, Kamloops.
-    REPORT  OF BUREAU  OF MINES ON FATALITIES  IN
MINES.
The fourth quarterly, report of the Inspection
Branch of the-B. C. Bureau of Mines shows-five men
were killed in the coal mines of British Columbia
during the last quarter of 1915, as against four
fatalities for corresponding period of previous year.
For the same period of 1915 there were seven fatalities in. the metal mines, as against none "for-corresponding   period   of   1914.     This   was   probably
accounted for by the fact that most of the metal
mines were not operating towards the endof 1914 on
account of the disorganization of the metal markets
following the declaration of war.
The number of fatalities in coal mines for 1915
was large compared with previous year, due to- the
flooding of the Fiddick Mine of the Pacific Coast
Coal Company, at South Wellington, when 19 lives
were lost, and to the explosion at the Reserve Mine
of the Western Fuel Company at Nanaimo, when
22 lives were lost. The number of fatalities in coal
mines for 1915 was 52, as against 17 for previous
year. These fatalities all occurred in the mines of
four companies as follows:
Crows Nest Pass Coal Co., Coal Creek    1
Crows Nest Pass Coal Co., Michel     1
Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Ltd, Cumberland 3
Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Ltd., Extension    2
Pacific Coast Coal Mines, S. Wellington  20
Western Fuel Company, Nanaimo  25
The causes of the fatalities are classified as follows:
Balled underground—
Falls of roof and rock... : :.....    4
Falls of coal I   1
Mine cars and haulage   ■ 3
Asphyxiation 1    1
Drowning  • • : _-..:„ 19
Gas explosion  | J&j|
Killed on surface—
Mine cars at tipple    1
Loading boom at tipple :.....    1
The number of fatalities in- the metal mines
shows an improvement over previous year, although
the risks, - owing to increased production, were
greater. There were 16 fatalities in 1915, as against
19 for previous year. The fatalities occurred at the
following mines:
Nickel Plate    1
Phoenix    : ,....:....-....    2
War Eagle     1     '•; ■■-■:■
Queen-  a .:.;:...:..... : :..;    1
Britannia   .: :.:.-     2       " JJ*'|
Le Roi ...: ..............:     1
Gold Drop :.; :..    1
Standard   ..: '.... :.    2- p*',-
Utica  ...—. :....    1
Hidden Creek .:..     1
hwWS" R°cner de Boule  :...:.........;....    1
•   Motherlode .: ] :   1
Centre Star     1
'  The following is the classification of causes of
fatalities in metal mines: ^ S0ti r^M ■■■■"■
Killedunderground—-
-r^iFails of ground:.;.:;.;.:: r..:^/~.l:::..jn:i,;....:,;.   5
Picking into unexploded powder...!:.'.     2 12
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
Suffocation from fumes    1
Falling into chutes, etc   —  4
Returning on unexploded shot   1
Mine fire - -  1
Sliding material in chute  1
Killed on surface—
Flying rock from shot   _  1
FOREIGN REPORTS.
A miner imprisoned four days at Shamokin, Pa.,
was rescued by 120 men working 96 hours in relays.
By a fall of coal in the Wingate Mine of the
Carbonado Coal Co., at Carbonado, Wash., two men
were killed; 100 others were rescued after 12 hours
work by the rescue force.
Eighteen men were killed by a gas explosion in
Mine 2 of the Jefferson and Clearfield Coal and Iron
Company at Ernest, Pa.
Twenty-five miners were killed in a fire in the
timbers on the 1200 level of the Pennsylvania Mine
of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. at Butte.
RECENT PUBLICATIONS.
Manufacture of Gasoline and Benzene-Toluene
from Petroleum and Other Hydrocarbons,, by C. B.
Dutton, and E. W. Dean, being Bulletin 114, 250 p.,
with plates and diagrams. U. S. Bureau of Mines,
Washington, D.C.
How a Miner Can Avoid Some Dangerous Diseases; by Dr. A.. J. Lanza and Joseph White, being
Circular 20, 26 p., with diagrams. U. S. Bureau of
Mines, Washington, D. C.
Dictionary of Altitudes in Dominion of Canada, by James White,' 251 p., cloth. Commission of
Conservation, Ottawa.
Statistics of Mineral Production of Alabama for
1914, by Eugene A. Smith, 64 p. Geological Survey,
University, Ala.
Graphic Studies of Analyses of Coals, by Oliver
C. Ralston, with preface by H. C. Porter, being Technical Paper 93, 41 p. U. S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.
Shot Firing in Coal Mines by Electricity, Controlled from Outside, by H. H. Clark and C. M.
Means, being Technical Paper 108, 30 p. U. S.
Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.
Five Thousand Facts About Canada, by F.
Yeigh, Canadian Facts Publishing Company, 588
Huron Street, Toronto, Ont.
Bulletin 92, 41 p. Mining and Metallurgical
Society of America, 115 Broadway, New York.
Preliminary Report on Mineral Statistics of
Province of Quebec for 1915. Minister of Colonization, Mines and Fisheries, Quebec.
Report on Ardlethan Tinfield, by J. B. Godfrey,
77 p., with diagrams. Geological SSrvlyJ' Sydney,
N. S. Wales.
Compressibility of Natural Gas at High Pressures, by G. A. Burrell and I. W. Robertson, being
Technical Paper 131, 12 p., with diagram. U. S.
Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.
Metal Mine Accidents in United States for year
1914 by A. H. Fay, being Technical Paper 129, U. S.
Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C.
BOOKS REVIEWED.
ELEVATORS,     BY     JOHN    H.     JALLINGS,     PUBLISHERS,
AMERICAN   TECHNICAL   SOCIETY,   Chicago.
This is a volume of 217 p., bound in cloth,
printed on good book paper, and well illustrated
with plates and diagrams. The author is qualified
to handle his subject, having been superintendent
and chief constructor for the J. W. Reedy Elevator
Company, and now mechanical superintendent and
elevator expert with the Karstner and Hocht Company, of Chicago. In the first part of the volume
the history of elevator development is reviewed, and
the different types are described, special chapters
being devoted to belt power elevators, and worm and
gear. Chapter II. deals exhaustively with steam elevators and types of engines used in operating them;
also with hydraulic elevators and auxiliary devices.
Part ni. is devoted entirely to electric elevators,
describing the early types, the difficulties with variable speeds, the requirements of, and faults in, motor
design, control and types of controllers, both direct
and alternating current. Safety doors are given
much attention and clearly illustrated. The transmission problem is discussed, with suggestions for
location of engine, single and tandem gearing, provisions for speed and load variations, end thrust of
worm shaft, winding drum, cables and counterpoise
weights. A chapter is devoted to traction elevators,
discussing drum and cable arrangement, limit stop
arrangements, hand switches and oil buffers. The
"herringbone" spur gear type is described, and the
difficulties with traction types enumerated. The volume should be studied by all handling elevators,
from the manufacturer to the "elevator boy."
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS RESOURCES
OF CANADA.
The second volume of the work "Petroleum and
Natural Gas Resources of Canada" consists of 386 p.
with diagrams of drillholes, maps and plates. The
publication is issued by the Mines Branch of the
Canada Department of Mines, and the authors are
F. G. Clapp and others.
This volume deals, in its first section, with the
oil and gas fields of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Ontario. The second section is devoted to the oil and gas fields of Manitoba, MLNING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
13
Saskatchewan,   Alberta,   British   Columbia,   Yukon
and Northwest Territories.
Nova Scotia—The possibilities of oil development are confined to the oil shales of Pictou and An-
tigonish counties, analysis showing 10 to 11 galls, of
crude oil and 17 to 38 lbs. of sulphate of ammonia
per ton.
Prince Edward Island—Drilling has been carried to depths of 2,082 ft. without results, though
there is a possible oil formation, being an extension
of the Nova Scotia strata, but occurring here at
great depth, at which it has not been tested.
New Brunswick—Seepages occur in Albert and
Westmoreland counties. Wells drilled as far back
as 1876 yielded oil in commercial quantities. Of
wells drilled in St. Joseph and Dover fields, half produced oil in quantities of from half a barrel to two
and a half barrels a day. The Maritime Oilfields,
Ltd., has drilled over 30 wells in the Stony Creek
field, of which 25 were producers, 11 yielding oil and
gas, 12 gas, and two oil. The gas production has
been from 17,000 to 7,000,000 cu. ft. per day. The
Albert shales may become the basis of an important
petroleum industry. Gas from the Stony Creek field
is piped to Moncton through 9% in. pipe ten miles
long, and to Hillsboro through 4% in. pipe 6% miles
long, and sold at 38c per 1000. The maximum consumption was in Feb., 1913, when 98,000,000 cu. ft.
were used, and the lowest in August, when consumption was 48,000,000 cu. ft. The original rock pressure was from 430 lbs. to 725 lbs. Cost of wells is
about $10,000 each. Albertite, representing the residuum of petroleum seepages, was mined to the extent of about 230,000 tons, and sold at prices from
$15 to $20 per ton.
Quebec—Gaspe is the only county which has
produced oil in commercial quantity but never profitable. The conditions are unfavorable in that the
rocks have steep inclinations and are much broken.
At Three Rivers a gas flow of 80,000 to 100,000 cu.
ft. per day was obtained, but proved shortlived.
Ontario—The petroleum production has fallen
from 750,901 bis. in 1898 to 217,299 bis. in 1912. The
producing districts were: Bothwell, Coatesworth,
Dutton, Leamington, Blytheswood, Comber, Staples,
East Tilbury, Raleigh, Onondago, Pelee Island, Richardson Station, Thamesville, Wheatley, Petrolia, Oil
Springs, Plymton, Moore Township, Dawn, Euphe-
mia, Zone. Petrolia has been the largest producer.
Natural gas production reached its zenith in 1912,
when there were 1,247 producing wells, with 1,448
miles of pipe line, and an output of 12,529,463,000
Cu. ft. Port Colborne was the first town in Canada
to use natural gas. Oil Springs and Petrolia pools
are amongst the -most remarkable in the world, in
that they show slow decline in production. Of 7000
wells in Petrolia, producing in 1897 and 1898, .4000
are still producing. The principal oil occurrences
are associated with the Trenton limestone, a fossil-
iferous, bituminous limestone of dark grey color, in-
terstratified occasionally with bituminous shales, and
haying a total thickness of 600 ft. The Trenton
limestone is overlaid by the Utica shale, a black,
bituminous shale about 100 ft. thick, which is supposed to have composed the original cover which
held the oil and gas in the Trenton limestone. The
Trenton is the most important source of oil and gas
in Ohio and Indiana, but in Canada the most productive portions are in the Cincinnati anticline,
where the upper portion of the Trenton has been replaced by dolomite or magnesian limestone.
Manitoba — The Dakota formation is of the
greatest importance, as it is the chief bitumen bearing formation in the Northwest. Natural gas has
been utilized at Treherne and Melita. No wells have
been drilled deep enough to prove the Dakota.
Saskatchewan—Niobrara shales, exposed on
Carrot River, burn with a bluish flame and strong
odour of petroleum. No commercial gas or petroleum have been obtained. Bituminous shales occur
in the Pasquia hills which may form the basis of a
petroleum distillation industry, a sample yielding
40.05 galls, crude oil and 33.5 lbs. ammonia per ton.
Yukon and Northwest Territories — The most
promising region for petroleum is the Mackenzie
Basin, and the prevalence of oil shales may warrant
an industrial development in the future.
Alberta—The cretaceous formations are probably the only source from which oil and gas are likely to be developed in large quantities in Alberta.
There is evidence of three widely diffused anticlines,
one crossing the boundary in the vicinity of the
Sweet Grass Hills, with its axis passing west of Bow
Island; the second entering from Saskatchewan in
the vicinity of the 52nd parallel, and extending
northwesterly almost to Vegreville; the third crossing the Athabasca River in the vicinity of Crooked
Rapid. Owing to the disturbed nature of the country at Waterton Lake and Okotoks it is not considered this territory affords favorable indications for
a large supply of natural gas or petroleum, and east
of there the gas and oil-bearing sands lie at such
depth that all wells have yet failed to reach them.
The gas development at Medicine Hat and Bow Island is described. Early drilling operations in
Southern Alberta are described.
British Columbia—The position is thus summed
up: Drilling on the west coast of Vancouver Island
for oil, and on the east coast for coal, produced
neither gas-nor oil. Drilling on Queen Charlotte Islands for oil, and on the east coast for coal, showed
neither gas nor oil. A drill hole, put down 1,200 ft.
on Pender Island for coal, gives off nitrogen gas, of
no commercial value.    A  report by a  responsible 14
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
.geologist on the smaller islands on the coast; showed
considerable possibilities - for oil and gas. Drilling
in the Delta of the Fraser River has not found oil or
gas in any quantity. Near Horsefly are shales carrying several per cent, of oil, and similar shales occur
on the North Thompson River. Flathead district has
distinct possibilities which only drilling can determine. Owing to geological disturbance oil and gas
could scarcely exist in most portions of the province.
The oil seepage on Evans Arm is mentioned, also oil
locations on Seymour Inlet. Oil shales, similar to
those of New Brunswick, exist at Ashcroft. The
utilization of slack and waste coal from the coal
mines is urged for the production of petrol. Reports of a strike of oil at Pitt Lake are stated to
have been without foundation.
BUSINESS NOTES.
The Jenckes Machine Company, through its Vancouver Agency, supplied the Granby Consolidated
Mining, Smelting and Power Company with six
hoists, for its Anyox plant, two each being used in
the smelter, dock and mine.. The company is building air compressors and rock drills at its works at
. Sherbrooke, P. Q..
Boyd's, Limited, of Vancouver, have arranged
with the municipality of Port Moody under a bylaw for the guarantee of $200,000 towards the establishment of shipbuilding yards, the guarantee bearing, interest at 7%. The company is to be exempt
from taxation and supplied with water at not exceeding 5e per 100 cu. ft.
.The Sullivan Machinery Company, manufacturers of mining and quarrying machinery, made profits of about $540,000 in 1915, nearly all of which was
earned in the last four months of the year. The
earnings were about 14% on the- capital stock of
.$3,846,800.
Hadfields, Ltd., have appointed F. T. Peacock,
of Vancouver, attorney for the company in place of
A.. F. Cagney, who enlisted.
The Diamond Drill Contracting Company has
appointed Thomas Connors, of Rossland, its attorney
in place of W. A. Stone, formerly of Vancouver.
The. Bates & Rogers Construction Company has
appointed R. E. Ross, of Glacier, superintendent, its
attorney in place of W. C. Ruegnitz.
The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, with of-
,fices_in the Fisher Building, Chicago, have.issued a
.leaflet illustrating the Duntley Electric Hammer
Drill; also booklet descriptive of Chicago Pneumatic
; Compressors and Giant Fuel Oil and Gas Engines.
- .-^ • The Giant Explosives, Limited, has changed its
title to the Giant Powder Company of Canada, Ltd.
Langley & Hazlitt, Ltd., of Vancouver, report
■an active demand for Armorcote roofing, made by
the Eclipse Paint and Manufacturing Company, of
Cleveland, Ohio, for whom they are agents for British Columbia.
The Canadian Explosives Company, Ltd., have
shipped from their British Columbia works about
4,000 tons of gelignite to Australia.
The Sutton, Steele & Steele Manufacturing,
Milling and Mining Company have installed in Denver, Colo., a plant to demonstrate their eight patented machines for dry concentration and separation
of minerals.
The Allis Chalmers Company, of Milwaukee,
have issued a new catalogue of hydraulic machinery
for which the Canadian Allis Chalmers Company,
with offices in Vancouver, are agents.
F. W. Walsh, manager for the Goodyear Tire &
Rubber Company's Vancouver branch, has moved
his office and warehouse from 1213 Granville Street
to 1010 Homer Street.
The Stephens-Adamson Manufacturing Co., of
Aurora, 111., have installed a belt conveying plant
for feeding the ovens of the Illawarra Coal Co., the
largest producers of coke in Australia.
The Canadian Sirocco Co., Windsor, Ont., issue
a neatly printed house organ entitled "Sirocco Service." "
We have to thank the Canadian Westinghouse
Company, Ltd., for a copy of their excellent dairy
for 1916.
The Pennsylvania Crusher Company's offices, in
the Stephen-Girard Bldg., Philadelphia, send out literature concerning their picking tables for coal, steel
frame hammer mills, single roll crushers and stoker
coal crushers.
The Sullivan Machinery Company issue descriptive booklets of their Sullivan Air Feed Stoping
Drills, Sullivan Rotator Hammer Drills, and Sullivan
Air Compressors. The Ritchie Contracting & Supply Company, Ltd., of Vancouver, are agents.
The Hayden & Derby Manufacturing "Company,
of 199 West 40th St., New York, issue catalogue of
their Metropolitan Injectors.
The Weber Chimney Company, of 1452-6 Mc-
Cormick Building, Chicago, issue handsomely illustrated catalogue of factory and works chimneys
which they have erected, including the "heavenly
twins" of the B. C. Electric Company at Vancouver.
The Electrical Testing Laboratories, Inc., 80th
St. and East End Ave., New York, issue brochure
descriptive of their testing service.
BY-PRODUCTS OF COAL.
Dr. Frank Adams, of McGill University, has
devoted considerable attention to waste in mining
coal. Only about 6 per cent, of the efficiency of coal
is obtained, fully 50 per cent, being lost in the min- MINING,   ENGINEERING /.AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
15
ing, and, of what remains, 88 per -.'cent, of the efficiency being dissipated in. the-burnings He recalls an
estimate made by Dr. Douglas, now the chancellor
of Queen's University, that the.,great Rio. Tinto mines
lost in thirty years $70,000,000 in sulphur alone
through unskilful.treatment of ores.      M &i?-T "
The by-products of coal are receiving sdmewhat
more attentipn at the works of the large steel and
iron companies in Nova.Scotia and at Sault Ste.
Marie, where by-product ovens have-been installed.
The trinitro-toluene required in the -manufacture -of
explosives for the shells presently being exported in
vast quantities.is,.however, only one-result from-the
by-products of the coke ovens. Mr. Edgar Stansfield
and Mr. F. E. Carter, of the Department -of Mines,
have in a recent brochure drawn attention to the
commercial products of coal tar, and to the important
part which these products and their derivatives play
in the industries of the. country. There was a time
when the market for such products-was limited, but
when, now, the output of our factories has-'-reaehed
the vast sum of $1,400,000,000, and is being increased
by a new export trade, there will be profitable openings which will warrant the commercial utilization
of these by-products: The great diversity and-importance of the applications of these coal tar-byproducts in our industries form a sufficient reason
for referring to some of them. u'i&riii
COAL  TAR  BY-PRODUCTS.
Benzol and its derivatives are in wide use as the
basis in the preparation of the numerous aniline dyes
and in the manufacture of explosives, and are of importance in preparing iron varnishes, in supplying
fuel for combustion engines, and hi carburetting gas.
Naphtha is required as a rubber solvent in the preparation of waterproof fabrics, and for cleansing
purposes. Naphthalene is employed in the hide industry, in driving motors, and in carburetting gas.
Carbolic acid is not only an antiseptic and disinfectant, but gives rise to picric acid, so essential.in explosives, and is the source of many substances used
in the color industry and in photography. Creosote
oil is an antiseptic, a timber preservative fast growing in use, a lubricant, and a binder in the manufacture of patent fuels. Anthracene oil is employed
for lubricating, for timber preservation, and for dye J
purposes. Finally, pitch is important for road-making, cable insulation, roofing, patent fuels, and the
manufacture of varnish. The chemical laboratory;
becomes all-important to the manufacture^sr in the
application of these by-products to their industries,
and it is in just such cases- where our university
laboratories can and are performing a most valuable
part in advising and assisting manufacturers in the
establishment of their works on a scientifieai^g^
cure basis. mint
NIPISSING "MINING COMPANY.
A new vein system has been opened m the Nipis-
-sin'g; .In a- winzesunk from No. 4 level of the Meyer,
af-a .depth of-75-ft, an Mnch seam of ore running
-between 7000 and 8000 Ozs. silver to the ton was
developed. In the Little Silver Bluff, a vein 4 in.
-wide carries silver of a value of 4000 ozs. to the ton
over a width ofJah inch and a half. Nipissing is a
-large purchaser-of silver ore. The production for
-last half year was:
Nipissing and Cus-
"Ore Mined toms bullion shipped.
Value. Value
July .-^:-.-..;::-;...-.:..$lJ79-998 $262,616
August-::.;.::.....,.... 179,048 118^047
September  ../r...::... 178,484 120,976
Oetober ,......:.- ;,.. 177,183- 24l'930 '
November     164,846' 275,767
.December. --.■,.;„,,..-ll-2,907:- -379 642
POTASH FROM ALUNITE.
,.......,A.-plant is operating at Marysville, Utah, for the
.extraction of.potash from Alunite. The output is 30
jtonsy.a day. Two tons of ore produee a-ton of commercial. fertilizer. The United States demand for
TPOtash, is. short by 700,000 tons, equal -to 2,000,000
rtons. of sulphate, with the result the potato, citrus
:andctobacco production has-been-seriously affected.
A plant will be in operation next month.at Gold-
field, Nev., to treat the alunite deposits 25 miles west
of Goldfield. It is proposed to handle 100 tons of ore
a day, and by crushing and calcining to produce 30%
sulphate of potash, now selling at $50 a ton. The
normal price is $25 per ton. The promoters expect
to earn 2007c profit on present prices.
COST OF DOING THINGS.
j J .. -—■.-■ A-J*
COST OF PRODUCING GOLD.
The following is the cost of producing gold to
.the following, companies:    '$$&
iSj-i   ...... ^qS&i* Cost per oz.
:Yuba Dredging, California $6.26
Camp Bird,.: Colorado, ,     7.65
Mysore, India j    8.39
Yukon Gold, Yukon and Alaska - &76
.North, ;Star, .California  :.. 11.08
Alaska Treadwell,. Alaska   11.85
J^oidfield Consolidated,,Nevada  11.93
Waihi, New Zealand;.:j:,;. \ 7 ,._,„... 12.20
East Rand Proprietory, South Africa  13,41
Ilomestake, North Dakota ....;..r...  13.72
■j^wis of Gwaliat. Western Australia.......,..,...,..,,. 14.84
'"ortland,-dolor-ado ......,..;;,.;.;......,.....,,.,.. .;,:■.:.-... 14.84 16
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
Mining. Cost per ton.
COSTS AT HOLLINGER.
The following are the costs at the Hollinger
Gold Mine, Ont.:
Milling.
June 17th  $1,106
July 15th   1.067
August 12th   0.984
September 9th   0.940
October 7th  0.916
November 4th   0.867
December 2nd   0.882
&2.015
$3,941
1.874
3.874
1.782
3.464
1.735
3.356
1.798
3.376
1.906
3.477
1.982
3.522
SURF INLET GOLD MINES, LIMITED.
The annual general meeting of the shareholders
of Surf Inlet Gold Mines, Limited, was held in the
Board of Trade Rooms, Molsons Bank Building, Vancouver, B. C., on Friday, January 7th, CoL J. Duff
Stuart, president, being chairman.
The balance sheet to Sept. 30th, 1915, audited by
Messrs. Riddell, Stead, Hodges & Winter, chartered
accountants, was presented and showed:
ASSETS.
Mining properties for which fully paid shares
were issued, $650,000.00; discount on shares sold,
$271,705.40; expenditure to date on mining and development work, $59,374.13; taxes and water rentals
paid to date, $1,286.26; mine equipment, buildings
and machinery, $2,807.52; cash in bank, $61.82; interest paid in advance, $21.33; incorporation expenses, $1,003.50; total, $986,259.96.
LIABILITIES.
Share capital authorized, $1,000,000.00, divided
into 1,000,000 shares of $1.00 each, of which there
are subscribed and issued 984,929 shares, $984,929;
Merchants Bank of Canada, $1,172.00; miscellaneous, $158.96; total, $986,259.96.
The chairman reviewed the changes in the original agreement with the Tonopah Belmont Development Company, stating an extension of the option
on the D. L. S. Group, given for six months, had expired on January 1st, and the option had been taken
up by the company paying the sum of $150,000 falling due on that date. It was proposed to distribute
from this payment a dividend of 14c per share, absorbing $137,890.60. The only change in the original
option was the modification of the mill from a capacity of 500 tons a day to 250 tons, but the purchasers had undertaken to provide such larger mill
as might be justified by development.
The directors were re-elected for the ensuing
year as follows: Col. J. Duff Stuart, E. A. Cleveland, A. H. Wallbridge, A. H. MaeNeill, K.C., Jonathan Rogers, W. B. Burnett, M.D., B. G. Hawkins.
The following officers were re-elected for ensuing year:    Col. J. Duff Stuart, president;   E. A.
Cleveland, vice-president; A. H. Wallbridge, treasurer; B. G. Hawkins, secretary.
STANDARD SILVER-LEAD MINING CO.
The following is the statement of the company
for month of December, 1915:
OPERATING ACCOUNT.
Receipts.
Preliminary settlements for 1049 tons $108,686.54
Final settlements for October  8,068.58
Zinc sales   13,770.28
Boarding house  4,334.10
Store supplies  „  1,424.53
Umpires    487.61
DISBURSEMEN
Supplies.
Ore production  $5,369.31
Tramming   1       28.00
Milling  |  1,089.79
Power      153.93
General expense      346.32
Shipping  and  selling    261.40
Boarding house   2,600.60
Taxes   _  2,000.00
Insurance      160.45
Casualty insurance ~    480.92
Salaries   	
$136,771.64
TS.
Labor.
Total.
$14,193.30 $19,562.61
653.00
681.00
2,179.75
3,269.54
348.00
501.93
617.50
963.82
525.85
787.25
625.25
3,225.85
2,000.00
160.45
480.92
•300.00
300.00
Totals  $12,490.72 $19,442.65 $31,933.37
Relative operating profit , $104,838.27
OTHER  DISBURSEMENTS.
Development    $250.00     $1,569.25
Aylard Tunnel   208.41       1,255.60
$1,819.25
1,464.01
Totals  $458.41     $2,824.85     $3,283.26
Actual operating profit $101,555.01
HOME OFFICE ACCOUNT.
Receipts—Interest  $        .58
Disbursements—General expense   1,009.81
Net profit for December $100,545.78
Balance Dec. 1, 1915  336,396.85
$436,942.63
Dividend No. 36
Dividend No. 37
2y2e $50,000.00
2%c  50,000.00
100,000.00
Balance Dec. 31, 1915.
.$336,942.63
LE ROI NO. 2, LIMITED.
F. A. Labouehere, secretary Le Roi No. 2, Ltd.,
539b Salisbury House, London Wall, London, E. C,
advises the following report has been received from MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
17
the company's managers at Rossland:
JOS1E MINE REPORT FOR NOVEMBER.
Shipped 1,555 tons of ore and 38 tons of concentrates. The receipts from smelter are $34j407 (£7,-
094:), being payment for-1,920 tons ore shipped and
$286, being payment for 40 tons concentrates ship-
pea; sundries, $7; total, $34,700.
Estimated working costs for corresponding period: Ore production, $6,300; milling, $500; total,
$6,800.
Development, $10,700; stores purchased and unused, $1,200; total, $11,900.
A NEW MUNITIONS INDUSTRY.
MINING IN ONTARIO.
The British America Nickel Company proposes
to resume work in spring. The company owns the
Murray Mine at Sudbury, where there is a large
amount of ore proved up by diamond drilling, and
a shaft has been sunk 700 ft. The company will refine in Canada.
The Genesese Mining Company, of Rochester,
N. Y., is working the property at Cobalt formerly
held by the United States Cobalt Mining Company,
Ltd.
The Porcupine Gold Mining Company has taken
over the Standard Mine in Deloro Township.
A strike of high-grade ore is reported on the
Vipond.
The demand for nickel is slack.
The Tretheway Company has taken an option
on the LUcky Cross at Swastika, where there is .a
mill.
The Temiskaming will sink its shaft from the
900 ft. level to explore the lower Keewatin contact.
The Beaver is sinking its shaft from the 1,300
ft. level to 1,700 ft., to intersect the Keewatin contact.
Kirkland Lake's banner property is Tough
Oakes, on which four veins have been developed.
No. 7 was cut in the porphyry at the 200 level, and
is 4 in. wide, of high-grade ore, with milling on each
wall. Good ore occurs for a length of 275 ft. in No.
3, and rich ore was developed at contact of veins
Nos. 3 and 6.
The Rand Syndicate, operating a gold property
in Deloro Township, has made the first shipment of
copper ore from Cobalt, weighing 24 tons, and consigned to the United Metals Refining Co. at Chrome.
The ore is from Portage Bay, on Montreal River,
near Latchford. The Rand Syndicate is working a
copper prospect at Cedar Lake, near the Sterling
Mine, where there is a shoot of massive ore one to
two feet wide, and averaging 22% copper.
The Northern Miner, of Cobalt, is authority for
the statement that the Wabi Iron Works at New
Liskeard has received a contract for making of steel
covered bullets for the British Government.
The bullets are manufactured under a patent
obtained by Dr. Wilson, a member of the Mines
branch of the Bureau of Mines at Ottawa. The ordinary shrapnel bullet is one-twelfth antimony, and
antimony is now a prohibitive price. The new process laps the lead in a steel jacket by an automatic
process. Antimony was necessary to harden the
lead, but the new process encloses it in steel and
answers the same purpose. The steel is punched into
the shape of a cup, and the lead afterwards enclosed
in it. The bullets now being made are V2 hich for
shrapnel shells,-and there are about three hundred
and seventy-six of them in one shrapnel shell.
The Wabi Iron Works have the sole right to
manufacture the bullets in Canada and the United
States.
THE CLAYBURN COMPANY.
The Clayburn Company is earning a high reputation for the quality of firebrick which it supplies,
its manufactures successfully competing with the
best British and American material. The fire-boxes
of the boilers of H. M. S. Kent were entirely re-lined
with Clayburn firebrick when the warship was docked at Esquimalt for repair after her participation in
the battle with the German Pacific fleet off the Falkland Isles. The Pacific Steel Company at Seattle
used about 280,000 Clayburn firebrick in.building its
furnaces. The Trail Smelter ordered about 40 carloads of Clayburn firebrick for the additions being
made to its plant.
FRICTIONLESS ROTARY COMPRESSOR.
The Dominion Rotary Products Company, controlling the Goldman-Harris patents, has arranged
to manufacture in Vancouver and place on the market for the supply of Western Canada, the Friction-
less Rotary Compressor. The invention has been pat-
tented throughout the civilized world, and, if it will
do what is claimed for it, will revolutionize the cost
of equipment of mines with air compressing machinery. The company's representative in Vancouver is
Walker Weidrick, and he has completed arrangements with the Ross & Howard Iron Works, Ltd., of
Vancouver, for the preparation of the patterns and
the establishment of a new industry on the coast by
the manufacture here of this type of air compressor.
Under the supervision of O. B. Graham, engineer
for the Dominion Rotary Products Company, the
working drawings have been prepared in the city,  MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
19
Parts of Frictionless
ricks; and the heaviest piece has a ewight of 300
lbs. The Model B. Machine, illustrated herewith,
has a total weight of 1,800 lbs., or less than the
weight of the flywheel of the ordinary compressor
of similar capacity. The patentees claim the machines can be built in any size for any type of work.
Compression is carried to the end of the piston stroke,
eliminating leakage..
In a mountainous country like British Columbia
such a light, easily transportable machine is worth
much to mine operators undertaking preliminary
development, as it removes what has proved to be
one of the main difficulties in using power drills in
prospecting work, and there should be a large sale
Rotary Compressor
for such a machine.
The compressor will be on the market by July
next, and Mr. Wiedrick intends arranging for its
demonstration to mining men and contractors. The
principle of rotary compression has been made applicable to railway, street, and motor car brakes,
refrigeration, pneumatic tools, ventilation, vacuum
and compressed air cleaning, hoisting machinery,
elevators, gas compressors, engine starters, machine
shops, painting, and sand blasting, as well as to mining and quarrying. It is also being applied to the
driving of motor cars, an application which will be
welcomed in these days of costly gasoline.
NICOLL THOMPSON, NEW PRESIDENT OF
VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE.
The Vancouver Board of Trade has paid the
mineral industry a high compliment by electing as
its president for the ensuing year Nicoll Thompson,
Canadian manager for the British iron and steel
firm of Cammell, Laird & Co.. Ltd. Mr. Thompson
has been all his life closely associated with the iron
and steel industry, and as a result has been brought
in close contact with mining in British Columbia.
In Mr. Thompson the mineral industry has always
had a loyal friend. During the past year he has
been chairman of the Mining Committee of the Ven-
couver Board of Trade, and that committee has never
done better work than during his chairmanship.
Mr. Thompson is one of the old timers of Vancouver, having arrived here in 1888, when, with
Ernest Evans, he became one of the founders of
Evans & Coleman, Ltd., a firm that has developed
into one of the most important and successful mercantile firms on the coast. After being associated
with this firm for from 10 to 12 years, Mr. Thompson
left it to accept the management of the Vancouver
branch of the Albion Iron Works, which, at that
time, had foundries .in Victoria and Vancouver. He
then started iron works of his Own in Vancouver,
and has ever been an active advocate of a floating
dry dock for Vancouver and the development of the
shipbuilding and iron and steel industries for British
Columbia. He went to England some years ago with
a view to interesting British capital in this industry,
and spent some time at Niagara Falls, experimenting
with electric smelting of the magnetite ores so prevalent on this coast. On his return to the coast he was
appointed agent for Canada for Cammell, Laird &
Co., Ltd., and has represented them for over eight
years, supplying a large proportion of the iron and
steel used hi the province, and making specialties of
drill steel, shoes and dies for stamp mills and shells
for rolls used in concentrating plants.
Mr. Thompson has been associated with the iron
and steel industry from boyhood, having served his
apprenticeship with the Palmer Shipbuilding Company at Jarrow-on-Tyne, and having been two years
at the Cleveland Iron Works, Middlesboro, then
known as the Bolchow and Vaughan Works at Clay-
lane, where he was employed when the Bessemer
process Avas first introduced, and was associated with
the important event of rolling the first steel rail produced there by that process. Mr. Thompson is a
member of the Canadian Mining Institute. 20
Mining, engineering and electrical record
ra
K-
The effective service given by the West Kootenay Power and Light Co., Ltd., under his policy of
providing transmission lines along the boundary between Nelson and Phoenix, and supplying power at
attractive rates to the various mining camps within
reach of these lines, has been of immense value in
developing the low grade ore deposits of southern
British Columbia, resulting in a production of about
$120,000,000, or close on 36% of the entire metal
production of the province.
Hon. Lome A. Campbell hails from Perth, Ont.,
and was educated as an electrical engineer. He was
appointed manager of the W. K. P. & L. Co. shortly
after its organization. He is a member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and other technical organizations. His age is 45 years. He was
elected Member for Rossland in 1912. In addition
to being vice-president of the West Kootenay Power
and Light Company, he is president of the McGilli-
vray Creek Coal Mines, Ltd., operating in Alberta,
the affairs of which company he has handled with
such success that it has entered the list of dividend
payers.
The new Minister of Mines was adverse to accepting the portfolio on account of his business engagements, and it was solely due to the urgent representations of Hon. W. J. Bowser, the Premier, as to
his duty to the Conservative party and to the province, particularly at the present juncture, that Mr.
Nieoll Thompson, Canadian Manager Cammell Laird & Co., Ltd.
HON. LORNE A. CAMPBELL, MINISTER
OF MINES.
British Columbia is to be congratulated on the
appointment to the portfolio of Minister of Mines in
the Provincial Government of Hon. Lome A. Campbell, member for the constituency of Rossland. Mr.
Campbell is the most capable man for the position
who has ever filled it. His residence at Rossland for
about 20 years, and his close contact with the mining industry which, as managing director of the
West Kootenay Power "and Light Company, Ltd.. he
has done so much to develop, place him in a position
to understand the requirements of his important
portfolio. He has already inaugurated a policy of
progress and reform which cannot fail to have a
beneficial effect on the development of the mineral
industry of British Columbia.
Hon. Lome Campbell, Rossland, B. C, Ministerof Mines MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
21
Campbell consented to joining the Cabinet. Since
doing so he has entered on his new duties in the same
spirit that has animated his business and professional
interests—a determination to do the best that in him
lies to promote the development of the mineral resources of the province and restore British Columbia
to the position formerly held as "the Mining Province of the Dominion."
A VIGOROUS MINING POLICY
Immediately after his return at the bye-election
Hon. Mr. Campbell left for Ottawa to interview the
Dominion Government on various matters, including the necessity of extending the work of the Geological Survey in this province, the subsidizing of
electrolytic refineries for copper on the coast and in
the interior, the development of zinc refining, the
establishment of custom smelters at the coast for
silver-lead and copper ores produced tributary to
tidewater. Hon. Mr. Campbell is the first Minister
of Mines to demand for the province the fulfilment
of the terms of the agreement with the Dominion
Government by which British Columbia entered Confederation, namely, the undertaking of the Dominion
to have a thorough Geological Survey made of the
province—a portion of the Confederation contract
that has not been carried out by the Dominion simply for the reason that public men, as a rule, overlooked this provision of the contract, or were not
aware of its existence. Mr. Campbell's representations will result in new life being thrown into geological work in the province, of so much value to
prospectors and mining investors.
The new Minister.of Mines recognizes the necessity of increasing the gold production of the province to help to meet the credit requirements of the
British Empire in carrying the war to a successful
issue. He is credited with the statement that although British Columbia is producing 30% of the
world's output of lead, Canada has recently had to
import lead from the States, and he urges the increased production of lead and zinc, British Columbia now having the opportunity to control the
world's zinc market. He has placed the stamp of
Government recognition on the desirability of assisting coal mining by the development of industries
producing and utilizing the by-products of coal.
On the question of labor in mines, Hon. Mr.
Campbell has announced his intention of endeavoring to have white labor substituted for Oriental
where such is employed, as in the case of the Vancouver Island f.oal mines. He also proposes to take
steps to encourage prospecting, and secure to the
discoverer the reward of his enterprise.   An impor
tant feature" of his policy is the construction of roads,
trails and bridges to give access to those parts of the
country likely to prove attractive and profitable to
the prospector, but at present inaccessible for want
of transportation facilities. The Minister proposes
to place at the disposal of miners and prospectors the
services of departmental experts in advising as to
value of ores and methods of treatment. An active
system of field work is to be inaugurated, the new
camps being thoroughly covered by engineers and
geologists so that reliable data shall be available for
the information of" prospectors and investors. He
also proposes to arrange for an ore testing plant at
Vancouver, or more convenient centre, where prospectors can have their ores sampled and reliable
data supplied as to the best method of treatment.
The annual report of the Provincial Bureau of
Mines will be published earlier in the season, so that
prospectors may have the benefit of any information
it contains before starting out each spring, and preliminary reports and maps will be published on new
discoveries and prospective mining fields.
One of the first works undertaken by Mr. Campbell on his assuming office was the issue of instructions to the Bureau of Mines to have compiled and
published as soon as possible all available data as to
the extent of iron ore deposits and the character of
the ores tributary to the coast, this being done with
a view to securing the installation of iron and steel
works in British Columbia.
Another important step taken by the Minister
is an amendment to the Taxation Act, to allow prospectors to enter on claims which have reverted to
the Crown for non-payment of taxes, and prospect
them, with proviso for acquisition of the ground on
payment of arrears of taxes.
The Minister has also before him the acquisition of metallurgical rights where excessive royalties
and onerous conditions are imposed, such as the Minerals Separation Process, and their being made available to operators free of the existing burdensome
conditions.
; This is the first progressive mining policy inaugurated in the British Columbia Legislature since
the late Hon. Col. Baker was Minister of Mines,
about 20 years ago, and Hon. Mr. Campbell, and the
Cabinet with which he is associated, should have the
support of the mining community in giving effect to
it. The farmer, the manufacturer, the merchant, the
professional man, will all benefit Irom it as well as
the prospector, miner, and mine operator. MINING;   ENGINEERING   AND  ELECTRICAL   RECORD
0
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VANCOUVER, B.C., APRIL, 1916
Index to Advertisers—Page  VII
Directory of Engineers, etc.—Page VII
EDITORIAL.
Page
NOTES      22
CANADA'S  NICKEL  RESOURCES       24
INDIFFERENCE    OF    HOME    CAPITAL    TO    MINING
DEVELOPMENT     \    25
FINANCING THE "WAR LOAN   25
DOMINION   GOVERNMENT   POLICY   AND   THE   COAL
INDUSTRY        25
CANADIAN MINING JOURNAL ON THE DEPARTMENT
OF MINES       26
ORGANIZATION  AND   FINANCE   OF  MINING   DEVELOPMENT        26
GENERAL ARTICLES.
MINING   CONDITIONS   IN   BRITISH   COLUMBIA       27
By Alex. Sharp, M. E.
The writer urges Government aid for providing smelting
facilities for small operators, and deals with the importance of organizing the iron and steel industry to utilize
the iron ores of the Province and aid the development
of coal mining. The safety of mining as an investment when conducted on business lines, and the prospective value of British Columbia as a prospective
producer of placer and lode gold, are emphasised. •
ELECTRICITY    IN    THE    MINING    INDUSTRY—MINE
TELEPHONE  EQUIPMENT       29
*By H. N. Keifer, M. A. I. E. E.
The best methods of running cables in shafts, roads
and entries are described; Rope haulage signalling
systems and mine rescue telephone equipment receive
special attention.
RELATIONS     BETWEEN     CUSTOM     SMELTERS     AND
SMALL  MINES   	
By J. M. Turnbull   M. E.
This is a report of an informal taik given by request
of Vancouver Chamber of Mines on the marketing and
smelting of ores, with a view to informing the prospector and small shipper as to the reasons for the
differences between the assay values of ores and the net
returns received from the smelters, and was not intended as a technical dissertation on the subject.
SALT DEPOSITS IN CANADA   3'6
EFFECT OF SMELTER FUMES ON LIFE AND VEGETATION     '    37
WHITE ISLAND SULPHUR COMPANY      37
BEAR  CREEK MINING  COMPANY,  LTD    38
MONARCH MINE AT  FIELD,  B.   C    39
DOMINION OF CANADA ASSAY OFFICE       40
RECENT   PUBLICATIONS      40
'Electrical Engineer on staff of Northern Electric Co., Vancouver, B. C. Paper read before Vancouver Section Am.
Inst. Elect. Eng. Mining, Engineering and Electrical Record
Established October, 1895.
Vol. XXI
VANCOUVER, B.C., MARCH & APRIL, 1916
No. 2
EDITORIAL NOTES.
Unless prospectors and holders of undeveloped
mineral claims become more reasonable in their demands from operating mining companies, the manner
in which the country is at present tied up must be the
subject of remedial legislation. Profccbly the fairest
way to adjust that will be to tax claims held undeveloped for a certain number of years on the valuation
the owners place on them. Similar legislation was
adopted by the New Zealand and Australian Governments against land speculators and monopolists with
successful results in breaking up the large holdings
and bringing the land into cultivation. "We have in
mind a group of undeveloped claims near Vancouver
for which the owner was offered and refused $75,000
by an operating company. He places a valuation of
$500,000 on these claims which he will neither work
himself nor allow anybody else to work. The price
offered was liberal and is not likely to be improved
upon by any bona fide mining investors. The dog-
in-the manger policy responsible for this condition
of things cannot be permitted to continue.
The policy of the Georgia River Mining Company, Ltd., is one to be commended to the attention
of development companies. In this case the promoters have'done at their own expense sufficient development work to prove the property a meritorious
prospect before asking the co-operation of the public
in providing the further funds required to open it
up. All the average mining investor asks is a square
run for his money, and he gets it under the policy of
the Georgia River Mining Company, Ltd. The adoption of such a policy by development companies
would reduce the losses experienced by small investors to a minimum, and vastly improve such investments in public favor
In the annual report of the Granby Consolidated
Mining, Smelting and Power Company, Ltd., reference was made to the adoption of the carbide lamp
for lighting purposes in preference to candles-. C.
M. Campbell, superintendent of the company's
Phoenix Mines, informed the Rossland meeting of the
Western Branch of. the Canadian Mining Institute
that during the 14 months prior to the introduction
of the carbide lamp the candle bill was $7,687.84, or
0.0053 c. a ton of ore, whereas, for the 14 months succeeding the introduction of the carbide lamp, the cost
was $4,624.64 or 0.0039 c. a ton. The men pay for
their lamps but the company furnishes the supplies
and repairs. Ernest Levy, manager of Le Roi No. 2,
expresses the opinion that carbide lamps are injurious
to the eyes of the miners.
There have been, few more scandalous promotions than many of the oil companies of Calgary.
The Alberta Government appointed a Commission to
investigate them, but strange to say the Supreme
Court decided against the Government, with the
result the investigation was stopped. It is a gross
miscarriage of justice that the Supreme Court should
attempt to intervene against the exposure and punishment of those responsible for the rascality associated with Calgary oil flotations, and if the courts of
Justice are going to stand in with this kind of thing
it is time they, and the judges responsible for such
prostitution of justice, should also be investigated.
The Alberta Government has shown its sincerity in
the matter and its desire to put an end to dishonest
promotions by entering criminal proceedings against
the promoter of one of the companies whose affairs
have properly been the subject of severe criticism.
The government should go further and adopt legislation to put an end to the repetition of such farcical
decisions on the part of the Supreme Court, so far as
its provincial jurisdiction is concerned.
A desirable amendment to the Mineral Act of
B. C. would be provision for crediting development
work done between staking and recording mineral
claims as assessment. As matters stand a prospector
after staking might deem it desirable to do some
development work to ascertain whether the claim
might be wdrth recording and his enterprise should
be rewarded by his being given credit for that work
against assessments. Then, in the survey, it is the
custom of the surveyor to include any fractions found
to be outside the limits of the staking. To hold these
it is necessary to do and record assessment on them.
The work of the surveyor should count on such assessment.
The Mining Committee of the Vancouver Board 23
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
of Trade and the Vancouver Chamber of Mines are
urging on the Provincial Government the desirability
of securing the patents of the Minerals Separation
Company in order that the mining industry may be
promoted by having the use of the process free from
the tyrannical conditions imposed on operators by
the San Francisco representative of the company.
There is a determined sentiment among mining men
that if these patents cannot be secured by the Government under equitable terms, legislation shall be enacted to prevent the monopolistic and exacting conditions the company seeks to enforce. American
operators are applying the principles of the process
under the judgment which holds the patents to be
invalid, and Canadian mine operators must be placed
in as favorable a position as the operators south of
the line. The Canadian patents are controlled by a
German firm whose manipulations have been attacked
by the British and Australian Governments, and
properly so.
Empire wants at the present time more than anything else to finance successfully the great war is
energetic wealth production and the importation of
available capital from neutrals as the United States.
There is a good deal of American capital ready to
come in for mining and other developments and its
is urgently wanted since the source of supply of capital from Great Britain has been cut off. But the
Dominion Finance Department immediately proceeds
to try to stop it by levying a tax on every American
cheque and draft that comes into Canada; and has so
manipulated the tariff that the company which dares
to try to develop the mineral resources, and imports
machinery for the purpose, is mulcted from 35 per
cent, to 50 per cent, as if with the object of putting
an end to all new developments. When will the
people of Canada become aroused to the necessity of
electing to public offices men who have been educated tin statesmanship rather than business pawnbrok-
ing?
The   Dominion  Government   has   appointed   a The deepest mine in the world is said to be the
Commission to enquire into economic conditions in St. John del Rey, the lowest workings of which are
Canada, but the remarkable feature of the Commis- at a vertical depth of 5,711 ft.    The Village Deep, on
sion is that there is not a recognised student of econ- the Rand is worked to a depth of 7,500 ft. on the in-
omics on the Board. cline.
The war has opened the eyes of British statesmen
to the value of the mineral resources of the Empire
as nothing else could have done. For many years
Germany has recognised the value of the metal industries and has controlled the British supplies and
markets. On two occasions recently Walter Runci-
man, President of the British Board of Trade, which
is a Government organization, stated: '' We must see
that control of the metals of the Empire passes entirely from German hands; we must keep control of the
world's coal supply; we must secure control of the
supply of oil." ffj
  'ill
It is gratifying to note an improvement in the
coal trade of British Columbia. More shipping is
coaling from Coast mines; and the mines of the interior and the Crows Nest Pass have been enjoying
greater activity than for some time. Crows Nest
Pass Coal Co. is again on the dividend list, and the
shares1 which have for some years been inactive
have experienced considerable movement and show
improved quotations on the Eastern exchanges. It
looks now as if the time may be at hand when the
coal resources of the country may come into their
own.
The necessity of care in the selection of mining
investments was well illustrated by T. A. Rickard in
an address before the Institution of Mining and
Metallurgy, when he said: "The capital available
for mining is limited, and the more of it that is
squandered over wild-goose chases or will-o'-the-
wisps, the less of it will there 'be for intelligent enterprise. When money is furnished for foolish ventures, the industry suffers by disgusting or disappointing those who would otherwise participate in
reasonable projects."
The Finance Department of the Dominion badly
requires a man with some horse-sense at its head.
What Canada, and in fact every part of. the British
The London Mining Journal says the Enemy
Contracts Annulment Act adopted by the Australian
Government, and which had for its object the cancellation of contracts for zinc and other ores with
the German firm of Beer, Sondheimer and Co., and
two other firms with German alliances, has received
general approval, but the Australian Metal Exchange
scheme has been the subject of much hostile criticism. The Journal states that, as a result of the British Government assuming control of a large number
of special branches of the metal trades there is virtually a state monopoly in tungsten, aluminum, molybdenum, platinum, antimony, and the finer brands of
spelter—a policy which Hon. Lloyd George declares
has saved the British Government $75,000,000.
The efforts of mining companies throughout the MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
24
British Empire to increase the gold output to support
the credit of the nation in. the war has been attended
with success. South Africa alone increased the gold
output by 750,000 fine ozs. over the production of
1914.
The London Mining Journal suggests that with
the close of the war active steps may be taken to
prove that through the coinage of silver lies the economic salvation of the world.
The adoption of fine coal dust as fuel promises
important results, including the substitution of coal
in heating and steaming plants now using California
oil in British Columbia. It seems probable that oil
shales can also be used successfully for fuel under
such conditions—a development which would be of
great importance to the oil shale localities of the
Eastern Provinces.
The chemical industries are suffering from a
shortage of sulphuric acid. British Columbia could
do much to relieve this situation by the utilization of
its pyrite deposits. There is an enormous tonnage of
pyrites at the Hidden Creek Mine at Anyox, in which
the copper values are too low to admit of the mineral
aggregate being smelted for its copper content alone.
As the deposits run from 40 to 50 per cent, sulphur it
is ideal material for manufacture of sulphuric acid
and the residue could be subsequently treated for
copper, so that no values would be lost. The Granby
Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company,
which owns the deposits, offers to supply the pyrite
on reasonable terms to chemical works for manufacture of sulphuric acid.
The Government of British Burma has resolved
to cancel all titles to unworked mineral lands. The
time has come when the British Columbia Government should place such a tax on unworked Crown
granted mineral lands so that the owners will either
be forced to develop them or turn them over to those
will. The mining development of the country cannot
be held back for the benefit of the drones and monopolists who close the mineral lands of the country
against development.
The Mining Journal considers mining has demonstrated in the war its dominating influence in the
material existence and progress of the world.
Some effort should be made to ascertain the
economic value of the alunite deposits on the west
coast of Vancouver Island for the production of
aluminum, since it turns out the deposit is of the
natro-alunite or soda type-  and not available for
potash as was at one time supposed. There is a
great and growing demand for aluminum, and cheap
power, which is the important element in the economic production of the metal, is available in proximity to the deposits.
The mischief of exaggerated statements as to
mineral deposits and prospective production is well
exemplified in the case of molybdenite. A few British Columbia boomsters promised all kinds of tonnage, despite the fact that there are only two or three
• known deposits in the Province that carry molybdenite of the coarse cube character constituting the principal trade in the mineral. While molybdenite is one
of the most common minerals in this Province it is a
fact that the deposits are generally of a flakey character, low grade, and difficult to handle from a
metallurgical point of view. British dealers have
become disgusted with the negative result of the
bombastic promises made from this country by people who did not know what they were talking about,
and the London Mining Journal very properly reminds Canada that her much talked of supplies are
still below the horizon.
CANADA'S NICKEL RESOURCES.
One lesson that Canada has gained from the war
is that this country must conserve its natural resources and insist that those resources of special military
value must be controlled by the Dominion Government. We have in mind especially the nickel production. The neglect on the part of the Dominion Governments of the past to control the refining and marketing of nickel is to a large extent responsible for
this terrible war. It is time the Canadian nation
recognised its responsibilities and took steps to assure
itself that the nickel production of the country shall
never again be used against the British Empire by an
hostile nation.
The export of nickel outside the British Empire
should at once be put an end to; and the refining of
this valuable metal in this country should be insisted
upon. In view of what has occurred the Government
which permits the continuance of existing conditions
fails in its duty to the country and to the Empire.
If the export of unrefined nickel were stopped it
would bring to Canada important industries, afford
increased employment for the people of the country,
and enhance its national prestige. There is no mistaking the sentiment of the Canadian people among
those who have studied the problem, and who cannot
fail to view with sorrow the wreckage of civilization
for which the short-sighted policy of the past is largely responsible. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
INDIFFERENCE OF HOME CAPITAL TO MINING
DEVELOPMENT.
As a result of the indifference of the business
men of the Coast cities to mining, Spokane is reaching out for the organization of the mineral industry
of British Columbia,- and is getting the benefits connected therewith. Vancouver from its position
should be the financial and organisation centre of the
northern Pacific coast, but today it is rapidly losing
ground as such, and there is danger that the time is
not far distant when this ground may be lost for all
time.
To the north Juneau is becoming a centre of organisation and activity in the mineral development of
the north. In the City of Vancouver today there
are over $30,000,000 on deposit in the banks which
should be available for development of the natural
resources of the country, but the bulk of this capital
is controlled • by mossbacks and pessimists who
are the curse of any community with which such men
may happen to be associated. Vancouver is suffering, and deserves to suffer, in consequence.
In Vancouver the stock exchange is in an inactive state, and doing nothing to make known the
bona-fide investment opportunities of the Province.
In Spokane the stock exchange is organizing a publicity bureau to further the interests of mining investments in British Columbia and the CQeur D'Alenes-
,and the Chamber of Commerce takes steps to stop
wild-eat promotions. Mining engineers and mining
operators who have long been associated with British
Columbia are leaving the Province to make their
headquarters in Spokane, and one of the principal
reasons for the change is that they can get in Spokane the banking accommodation necessary to their
business, while the much vaunted banking system of
Canada has proved a rank failure as an adjunct to
development of natural resources and industries so
far as Western Canada is concerned.
FINANCING THE WAR LOAN.
Ottawa dispatches state the Dominion Government proposes to float a domestic war loan of
$300,000,000. With a practically idle gold reserve of
over $100,000,000 there is no necessity for the Dominion Government to float such a loan. On that gold
reserve the Dominion Government can safely issue
$500,000,000 of national currency including the present Dominion note issue of $164,714,231.
What Canada is suffering from today is the
dearth of money in circulation. The Dominion note
issue is at present entrusted to the banks, and as they
do not pay interest on it, and are not forced to circulate it, the issue, which was originally devised to
put money in circulation with which to do the business of the country, remains in the bank vaults to
defeat its purpose. The former value of the Canadian banking system is thereby destroyed, and instead
of a benefit, the system, as now conducted, has become a hindrance to the progress of the country.
If the Dominion Government would establish a
National Bank of issue on the lines of the issue
department of the Bank of England, it could control
the money in circulation so that it should neither be
in excess nor insufficient to meet the demands of
business, and we should have in Canada permanent
j prosperity instead of the "boom" or "burst" alternations that the present banking system has brought
upon the country.
The national bank of issue could handle the entire $500,000,000 issue of national currency, which
would bring back prosperity to the country .by giving
the people enough money in circulation with which to
do their business, and without the necessity of
saddling the public treasury with an annual interest
charge of $5,000,000 a year under tine proposed
system of raising the money.
If Canadian financiers honestly studied the history of the Bank of Venice or the war finance of Pitt
and Napoleon, and such authorities on "money" as
Walker, Mill, Jevons, their eyes would be opened by
the lessons of history.
DOMINION GOVERNMENT POLICY AND THE
COAL INDUSTRY.
There is no more glaring inconsistency in the
public administration of Canada than the fact that
the Dominion Government holding office ostensibly
under the National Policy, flings that policy to the
winds when it comes to supplanting British Columbia
coal by a foreign product like California oil.The
Public Works Department of the Dominion, the railway and steamship companies, and the manufacturers who take as their motto "Let British Columbia
Flourish by her Industries," through substituting
California fuel oil for coal are responsible for driving from this Province 20,000 persons formerly dependent on the coal industry. We ask them whether
that is an achievement to be proud of? Is it not
rather a policy pregnant with disloyalty and treachery to the public welfare ?
A. C. Flumerfelt, who is well posted on the subject, intimated the other day that one of the advantages that would accrue from the promotion of a shipbuilding policy, and one of the reasons for the Government supporting it, would be the development of
the coal export trade which had .been largely lost to
the Province through the want of home shipping
facilities.    It is to be hoped the federal members re- MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
26
presenting British Columlbia in the Commons and
Senate will wake up and put a stop to the farce of
Dominion dredges and steamers operating on the
coast being steamed with California oil instead of
British Columbia coal. It is little use these gentlemen trying to assure their constituents of their patriotism, loyalty to home industries, and measures for
the economic welfare of the Dominion when they
have not uttered a squeak against the unlimited importation of a foreign fuel product like California oil
in competition with coal, which is one of the most important natural resources of the eastern and western
coasts.
The irregularities of the public official who was
responsible for the change have been exposed at
Victoria, and he has had to resign his position and return to the prairies. Who knows whether similar investigations might not have shown that California
gold was a more powerful persuader than economic
reasons for the change of the Dominion dredging
and steamship services from British Columbia coal
to California oil as fuel?
CANADIAN MINING JOURNAL ON
DEPARTMENT OF MINES.
?HE
The Canadian Mining Journal attacks the volume
issued by the Department of Mines on "Petroleum
and Natural Gas Resources of Canada, Vol. II.," and
calls it "an inaccurate report." When one reads
a criticism of this character it is presumed the critic
knows his subject. The Journal states "Carbon
monoxide,hydrogen and heavy hydrocarbons or illum-
inants it may safely be said are never found in natural gas," and quotes Burrell and Siebart (Bull. 42
U. S. Bureau of Mines) as authorities. In Technical
Paper 109 U. S. Bureau of Mines, dealing with the
composition of natural gas, G. A. Burrill, who is one
of the authorities quoted, says "the authors believe
that these constituents are not present in natural
gas, although many published analyses contain
them," and adds "Cady and McFarland, however,
report small quantities of carbon monoxide and
olefine hydro-carbon in many samples they examined."
In the "Petroleum Industry of California," Bull
69 of California State Mining Bureau, analyses show
hydrogen in the gas of the Midway field. Analyses
published by the Kansas Geological Survey show
carbon monoxide in nine out of 16 samples, and
hydrogen in four samples. Analysis of natural gas
from Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, Ohio, Indiana
and Kansas show both carbon monoxide and hydrogen inappreciable quantities. (Jour. A. Chem. Soc.
Vol. XXIX.)
In his "Treatise on Petroleum," Sir Boverton
Redwood quotes analyses showing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the natural gas of Ohio and Russia.
Until it is proved that the eminent chemists on
whose authority these analyses are given have been
in error it is dishonest technical journalism to attack
the Department of Mines on this score. We admit
the Department leaves much to be desired in the way
of competent and progressive public service, but at
th same time it has published much valuable technical literature, sometimes in the face of difficulty.
.ORGANISATION AND FINANCE OF MINING
DEVELOPMENT.
If ever there was a time when the Provincial
Government should take steps to secure clean and
businesslike methods in the organisation of development and operating companies that time is now.
British Columbia has been the dumping ground in the
past of crooked promoters and fakers driven from
Eastern Canada and the States, with the result that
the public have been robbed of millions of dollars by
deliberate swindles and gross misrepresentation in
the name of mining. Legitimate mining has probably suffered more from this cause than from any
other. These rotten promotions have not been confined to mining and land speculations by any means,
hut have extended to banking and financial promotions. Even men holding prominent places in civic,
business and political life have lent their names to
these discreditable schemes. The time has come
when every man, no matter who he may be, who lends
his name to any promotion scheme not organised on
strictly business lines should be exposed and condemned without consideration.
It would also be well if the Provincial Department of Mines prepared and submitted to the Legislature a measure following the legislation of Ontario,
Alberta, and Manitoba, and some of the States, providing for the investigation of all promotions,
whether in mining, banking, finance or industrials;
the acquaintance of prospective investors with all
facts connected therewith; and the prosecution of all
promoters guilty of misrepresentation regarding the
schemes into which they seek to inveigle the public.
British Columbia has been drinking the dregs for
the past two years of the cup of bitterness resulting
from the wide-spread frenzied finance of the preceding years, and the Province should apply the lesson
which has been learned at so much cost.
Let mining promotion now set the example in a
change from the bad conditions of the past to a policy of conservatism, honesty and integrity for the
future. Thus alone can a reputation be established
for mining investment which will restore it in public 2?
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
confidence. There is no reason why mining investments should not be placed on the highest plane and
set the example for sound methods in all other classes
of company organisation. No man or company is
justified in offering for sale shares in a mining proposition which has not been examined and endorsed
by reputable mining engineers; and no promotion of
any kind should be undertaken which has not the
soundest of assets and prospective resources behind
it. This is the policy which shall guide our editorial
work in dealing with future promotions- and we
shall spare no effort to prevent the public from becoming the victims of unscrupulous stock selling
schemes organised in the name of mining.
MINING CONDITIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
By Alexander Sharp, Consulting Mining Engineer,
Vancouver, B. C.
(Continued from last number.)
There is nothing very exciting about the progress of British Columbia Mining as shown by these
figures. The record year was 1906, when a value of
$17,484,102 in gold, silver, lead, copper and zinc was
produced. Since that year the average has been a
little lower. This may somewhat be attributed to
the fact that only those mines favored with large
veins, with ore easily mined, milled, or smelted, can
operate under present milling and smelting conditions.
What can any individual miner or small company do, for instance, with a silver-lead mine, carrying a greater percentage of zinc than 10 per cent.?
Only shut it down, or give the mine to the smelter
company, at the rate of 50 cents per unit on zinc
above 10 per cent. One mine I need not name paid
penalty on zinc to smelters amounting to $2,820,342
during one year—equal to a deduction of $2.71 per
ton of ore shipped. Other mines had similar experiences. I need not trouble further enumerating instances. This will suffice, but there are innumerable
mines, as well as the one mentioned shut down. Had
they been in any other country but British Columbia
they would have been working.
Miners and others interested have appealed to
the Government over and over again, on matters of
treatment and taxes, but without success. It seems
to be the opinion in Government quarters that the
mining progress is satisfactory. They may find out
some day. It needs no prophet to see that the day is
near at hand—indeed it has arrived, when Government parties will have to take a much greated interest in the development of the industrial life of a new
country such as ours, or, like everything else out of
date, will be passed by on the other side, and that is
putting it mildly.
It is the
DUTY   OF  A   GOVERNMENT
to stand by the individual miner and small Company
in building or bonusing a modern reduction plant, or
smelter somewhere on the coast, for the assembling
and treatment of coast ores. This would greatly
encourage the opening up of many new mines by
operators with limited means, unable to erect an ore
treatment plant themselves. The freight and treatment charges by many of the company smelters have
never been very satisfactory to miners, especially
those having low grade, complex ore. On every
occasion the smelter has the business end in their
own hands. So much for treatment, or freight and
treatment; 95 per cent, of tjhe gold and silver values
only paid; no pay for silver unless one ounce per
ton, and so on. I hold in my hand here a circular
from a smelting company, written to a small ore
shipper, intimating that the charges for ore treatment would be $2.50 per ton, but when copper drops
to 15 cents per pound or under, the former rate would
be charged, which was, I understand, $1.50 per ton.
In other words, during the period of a high price of
copper the Smelter Company takes the increase, and
the mine runs for the smelter's profit.
I could enumerate to you a long list of such
smelter practices, and tell you of how a railroad company that once owned the smelter, 12 years ago, now
owns the mines in the district, by exhausting the
patience of the mine owners, who sold out.
These are conditions that only a Government can
deal with—something along the same lines that the
New Zealand Government did in a certain coal district there. When the coal operators were charging
too high a price for the coal, the Government opened
up a coal field on a nominal capitalization (no watered stock), today runs the mine, sells the coal at a
fair profit just to remind the large coal owners that
the Government was elected to protect the interest
of the public as. a whole. That is what the Government of B. C. should do towards the mining interest.
THE  PRINCIPLE   OF  GOVERNMENT  AID ~*
is not altogether new in practice. It is not Utopian.
Canadian Governments have taken over railroads
bonused railroads, guaranteed their bonds, subsidised steamship lines, assisted farming. Why not mining? It is my earnest belief that if the Government
was to come forward in the establishing of a smelter
and reduction plants the ;productiom of precious
metals in the Province would amount to $50,000 000
inside the next 10 years.
• The only assistance the mining industry ever
received at the hands of a Government was the L yad
Bounty Grant of the'Laurier Government. But fcr
that grant the mining industry would have been in MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
28
a sorry plight today. In addition, the day has arrived when the Province should take care of its own
ores. There is no labor created within the Province
in shipping our ores to Tacoma. Refine our own
copper and zinc, and manufacture them into finished
articles of commerce. Why, one would think our
national pride would demand it. The war appears
to have brought about the likelihood of zinc in some
form being made at Nelson and Trail for war munitions, and we read of our Provincial Government
going to assist the works at Nelson. Well, "better
late than never." Had they done so years ago, we
might have had some zinc to make our war m,=
itions with. In the meantime we have to ship it fr :n
the United States.
MANUFACTURING
Talking about the manufacturing of our mining
products into finished articles of commerce „ reminds
me that I never read about the Canadian Manufacturers Association without thinking that in Canada
we only manufacture goods in part. There were imported in Canada products of the mine and manufactures of mine products for the year 1913 amounting to $252,806,046. It is estimated that there is contained in the coal fields of Canada, 1,234,269,000 tons
of coal. Annually there is mined from our coal minei
about 15,000,000 tons.
We import fully 18,000,000 tons of coal valued at
$48,000,000. The iron smelters in Canada use annually fully 300,000 tons of iron ore mined in Canada,
and we import fully 2,000,000 tons. We import
about $7,500,000 of copper goods, $2,000,000 zinc,
and about $2,000,000 lead, $12,000,000 petroleum,
etc. I need not add further to the list, but it all
shows the generous people we are to buy so lavishly from our neighbours when we have all these materials in our mines. Indeed our mines are idle because
we don't mine them. It perhaps has been easier, and
perhaps cheaper to import mineral products and
manufactures of the same from other countries, than
to go to the trouble and expense of developing our
own resources of the same nature. However, I believe the day has arrived when Canadian enterprise
will meet the new conditions of trade, and with
energy turn to the development of the native resources rather than permit production to lag, and our
mining resources to remain idle. As matters exist,
all the iron goods made in Canada contain nearly
70 per cent, of imported iron. All the copper and
zinc used in Canada is imported, we don't refine those
metals.
COAST   COAL   MINES.
You remember I said that the coal mining industry of Vancouver Island had made little progress
of late years, and that the producing capacity of the
mines was ahead of the market. The Island coal
mines have improved greatly these last ten years,
but, owing to the development of the oil wells in California, the market for Island coal has fallen off
there, while the local market has not improved suf- •
ficiently to fully employ the coal mines.
A larger and a fuller market requires to be created for the development of the Coast Coal Mines.
This can best be done by the establishment of iron
and steel works on the coast. British Columbia has
the iron and coal in enormous quantities.
The figures I read you, as to our imports indicate
our trade balance is on the wrong side. The only
sure way to put the trade balance on the right side
is to fully develop our mineral resources. Governments are very much what the people make them—an
indifferent people, an indifferent government. Hitherto the people of British Columbia have been indifferent as to their wealth of minerals, at best only
mined in a promiscuous sort of way. Whenever
people get in earnest on a subject, so will the Governments. Then suitable smelters and reduction plants
will be erected, and an
IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
on the coast will  be attended to.
In this connection I may say some time ago I
was written to by a British iron firm wishing information as to the iron ore deposits of British Columbia.
Naturally I wrote the Mines Department at Victoria,
and received the reply that their Bulletin on iron ore
deposits was out of print and referred me to Vancouver Public Library, where I might get the information. That shows the interest taken by the Mines
Department in the development of an iron industry.
Canadian people don't wish to see the great
wealth from the mines all gathered up by large corporations, and the.millions in annual dividends distributed in other centres of population, or we would
remain forever poor. Personally I am rather proud
of the most of our large mining companies, but I believe the Canadian people should earnestly consider
the whole situation. It is only right that the individual miner or small mining company should get their
own, namely, a share of this great mineral wealth.
Many have found the mines, and more are being
found every -day. We are too poor to equip our
mines with a reduction plant or smelter. The banks
of Canada will not assist mining, as banks do on the
American side. We are thus handicapped in operating alongside of large companies- with Wall Street
at their back, and unless the Government comes to
our assistance, as in New Zealand, Australia and the
Transvaal, our mineral wealth will flow into thf
United States of America.
VALUE   OF   MINING.
It appears unfair that in a democratic country
like this, because a man is poor, he has to leave his
mine on a mountain side without a dollar, or forced 29
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
to sell for the proverbial mess of pottage, because it
so happens the ore is a little high in zinc, or silicious
matter. Mining is a great and honorable business.
No money is so clean as that taken from Mother
Earth. Mining economically and well managed is
no more hazardous than any other well conducted
business. Allow me to draw your attention to a
recent issue of the "National Banker," which says:
"The combined dividends paid by gold and silver
mines.of the United States are stated to be greater
than those of all its banking institutions; and the
combined dividends of the copper properties of tht
United States are shown to exceed those of all railroads of the nation. Moreover it is stated that 52
per cent, of the freight handled by these same railways is either ore or some commodity connected with
mining.
"Seventy-six mines of the United States paid
dividends amounting to more than $75,500,000 between January 1st and October 1st, 1914. The dividends for the same period this year will be greater.
Furthermore it is stated that Bradstreets and Dunns
commercial agencies supply the somewhat startling
addenda that 36 per cent, of all legitimate mining
investments failed, as against 54 per cent, of general
commercial lines.
'' Government statistics are quoted as follows, to
show the returns upon capital invested: Railroads,
3 per cent.; National Banks, 6*4 per cent.; Insurance,
11 per cent.; Lumbering, 14 per cent.; Mining, 182
per cent.
The same bright and profitable future is ahead of
CANADIAN MINING.
We have a country so large and rich in mineral
resources as to be second to no other land on earth.
The,question is, develop it, and see that the greater
part of wealth from the mines remains in Vancouver
and other Canadian cities. Of the 20 per cent, prospected, there are now operating some of the best and
largest mines in the world.
The coal mines of Vancouver Island, Nicola, and
the Crows' Ness Pass district, have no superior in any
land for heating power or by-products. Compared
with the gold-copper mines of the Granby, Britannia
Rossland, and the Boundary District, there are none-
greater. As a gold mine, the Nickel Plate at Hedley
is famed the world over. The Atlin District is coming to its own as a gold producer. The Standard,
Slocan Star; and other mines of the Slocan District
are among the greatest of silver-lead mines. There
are many smaller mines that are being made greater
by development each day. The Fraser River is one of
the greatest placer deposits on the continent oi
America, capable of yielding millions each year.
Then here, right at home (not away in a far
land), are 285,000 square miles of unexplored mi i-
eral area, one of the largest unprospected areas in
the world, with the possibilities of great wealth. Th-;
application is in the hands of the people of this Province. We ought to be the richest people per capita
of any nation on earth. We can if we will. One oi
our poets has said: " To thine. own self be true.'
True to our destiny.    True to our heritage.
After the war is over the commercial world will
be greatly changed. The world will enter upon a
newer and greater industrial expansion than ever
before. The Empires of the East are awakening,
like a mighty giant from ages of sleep. Russia has
arranged on a policy of railway expansion involving
the construction of 10,000 miles of railway each year
for ten years, and other great developments. Wh).
will supply the material for this wonderful construction? Will it be the United States of America or
Germany? Russia will prefer the orders should be
given to the British Empire. British Columbia, with
its iron and coal resources and other metals, can supply every inch of the track, and other equipments of
this railway construction. Will we rise to the occasion ?
ELECTRICITY  IN  THE  MINING INDUSTRY-
MINE- TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT.
(Continued from last number.)
By H. N. Keifer.*
CaJble is superior to any other form of conductor
for carrying the telephone and signalling circuits
down shafts. On account of its construction it will
maintain its insulation better than single wires, and
being a single unit- it is easier to protect and install
than is the case with two or more wires. As there-
is always danger of pieces of coal, slate, &c, falling
from the cage, it is necessary to protect the cable
when installed in a shaft. In order to obtain this
protection, armored cable such "as previously described is often used. Besides armoring the cable- there
are several other ways of protecting it, one of which
FIG. 20
consists of encasing the entire length of cable in a
wooden covering, or moulding, each section of this
being grooved out to approximately fit the cable, and
the upper part, or cover, being fastened down in such
a manner that it exerts a clamping pressure on the
cable and prevents it from sliding down the shaft.
When the shaft is not too deep, a clamp at the top is
generally sufficient to hold the cable in place.
•Electrical Engineer on staff of Northern Electric Co Vancouver, B. C. Paper read before Vancouver Section Am.
Inst. Elect. Eng. MINING. ■ ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
30
3 Another very good method that is used for protecting cable is to run it through conduit, or piping.
•When the shaft is of considerable depth it will be
necessary to support the cable by bending the conduit
at frequent intervals.
There are several methods used in
RUNNING CABLE IN ROADS AND ENTRIES
In cases where the road is timbered it is considered good practice to fasten the cable to the
timbers by means of porcelain cleats. It is advisable,
however, to run the cable in the upper corner of the
roadway so as to avoid it being injured by, the cars
if they go off the track. In some cases the cable has
been run in the back of the timbers, but this is considered poor practice as it is very difficult to get at
it in case trouble occurs. In roadways where there
is no timber, but where the roof is good, the cable
may be suspended therefrom. There has been developed a special type of insulator support for this class
of construction, this insulator support consists of a
pin which is driven into the roof, or the wall of the
mine, and the insulator is then slipped over the end
of the pin and given a quarter turn, which securely
locks it in position. The insulator is made of porce
lain, and the pin is of malleable iron and unbreakable.
put in place, an ordinary porcelain knob is then
screwed to the plug with a lag screw of the proper
length and size.    This method of supporting, how
FIG. 21
Another method of
SUPPORTING  CABLE  IN  ROADWAYS
consists of a creosoted wooden expansion plug which
contains a hole through its centre. It is also sawed
half-way through in a longitudinal direction. In one
end of this plug is a conical opening into which fits
a wooden cone, which expands when the plug i3
driven' home in the hole, which has previously been
drilled in the rock or coal for this purpose. This
expansion of the inner end of the plug holds same
very firmly in place.    After the plug has finally been
FIG. 22
ever, is not quite as rigid as the one previously de
scribed, but will prove satisfactory provided the
cable is supported at frequent intervals, not however,
exceeding twenty feet. Care should be taken in installing the cable to see that the supports are so ar
ranged that the cable, or wire, does not touch tht
roof.
Cable is sometimes run in a conduit, and in somt
cases this conduit has been fastened to the ties of
the track running through the roadways. The conduit serves as a very good protection for the conductors, but is open to the objection that injury is
liable to occur if the ears run off the track. When
conduit is used it should be so installed that it will
drain itself and prevent the collection of moisture.
A very good way of
INSTALLING  ARMORED  CABLE
in roadways is to place it in a shallow trench on a
layer of sand; rough boards are then placed over the
cable, and the trench filled in with sand or dirt. tb>
boards being used to eliminate the danger of picii
or crowbars harming the cable if by any chance an>
of the workmen are making any excavations in th'
neighborhood. A notable instance of the advantagr
of using armored cable occurred recently in the
Houlton Colliery, England, .in which hundreds of
tons of rock fell and over a hundred lives were lost.
After the accidenl it was found that the armored
cables were not injured in the slightest way. This
feature is important as it makes it possible where
the roof falls and the men are cut off to still maintain telephone communication.
The use of insulated weatherproof copper dr
iron wire is somewhat cheaper than cable, and will
give fairly satisfactory service when  properly in
stalled, provided the conditions in the mine are not. 31
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
too severe. No. 14 B. and S. gage weatherproof
copper wire- or No. 12 BWG weatherproof iron wire
are generally used for this class of construction.
,FOR  STRINGING THE  CIRCUIT
either two separate wires may be used, or a twisted
pair. In using twisted pair the installation is somewhat cheaper due to the fact that but one insulator
is required to support the wire. However, under
some conditions, there is liability of trouble occurring, due to the fact that the wires are touching each
other, and as a general proposition the use of two
single wires is somewhat better construction. Where
timbers exist they are, of course, the proper place to
which the supports for the wires should be fastened.
Standard porcelain knobs put in place by the use of
lag screws are generally used for supporting these
conductors. There has, however, been developed a
special type of insulator and bracket for this purpose,
which consists of a strong steel channel section arranged with spring threads upon which the insulators
are screwed, this bracket being arranged to support
two insulators of a special type designed to give high
insulation resistance when subjected to severe moisture conditions such as encountered in most mines.
No. 10 BW gage Bare BB galvanized iron wire is
sometimes used for carrying the telephone circuits
in mines, and it has been found that under favorable
conditions and where the installation has been properly made, that fairly good satisfaction is secured
through the use of this type of conductor, the method
of supporting these conductors being the same as
used for the weatherproof copper and iron wires, as
previously mentioned. It is, of course, necessary in
stringing this wire that extreme care be used so that
it does not touch the coal, rock, timbers or anything
else but the porcelain insulators.
ROPE  HAULAGE  SIGNALLING  SYSTEMS:
In many mines, rope haulage is used as motive
power for moving coal cars, this system being equivalent to a cable road, the car being drawn by moving
cable. In the operation of such a system it is
necessary that the operator on the cars or "trip
rider'' be able to quickly signal the engineer to stop
or start the cars; this is usually accomplished by
stringing two bare iron or copper wires suitably
supported on insulators alongside the tracks, and
connecting the ends terminating in the engine room
FIG. 23
FIG. 24
with a battery and relay. When the "trip rider"
desires to signal the engine room, he short circuits
the two wires by means of a suitable piece of metal,
which energizes the relay and causes a local circuit
bell to ring. Code signals are used to indicate what
is wanted. There is considerable demand for telephones which can be connected directly to the present rope haulage signal wires, and the most satisfactory method of doing this is to use the two wires
as one side of the telephone circuit, and the ground
as the other side.
In order that the telephone will not interfere
with the rope haulage signalling| it is necessary to
connect the telephone instruments through a condenser to the signal wire, as shown in the diagram,
Fig. 20.
MINE RESCUE TELEPHONES:
There has recently been produced a light, serviceable and extremely simple telephone equipment
for mine rescue work, to be used either alone or in
conjunction with any of the now well-known types
of oxygen-breathing apparatus on the market. This
equipment consists substantially of a special throat
transmitter and head receiver held in place by a
leather harness to be worn by one or more members
of the advance or rescue party, and a standard head
receiver and chest type transmitter equipment for the
use of the man at the outside, or at the rear, who is
directing the rescue work.    See fig. 21. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
32
FIG. 25
As a man equipped with any of the standard oxygen breathing appliances which covers his mouth
cannot use the ordinary type of telephone transmitter, a special transmitter known as the '' throat transmitter," has been developed, which is the only type
of instrument that will satisfactorily meet the requirements of rescue service. . (See fig. 22). This
transmitter is very light and compact, and is provided with a soft rubber cap designed to be heid
firmly against the throat. This transmitter has been
found by actual test to be entirely satisfactory, and
to transmit speech clearly and distinctly.
The method of keeping the advance party connected up with the rear is accomplished through a
small wire cable consisting of two copper conduct
ors covered with an elastic enamel and two servings
of cotton, covered over with a stout linen braid impregnated with a moisture resisting compound. This
wire' is furnished in 500 ft. coils, and is carried on a
reel in a leather case fastened to the belt of the chief
of the rescue party, and pays out as he advances.
Each end of this coil is equipped with special connectors; one end for connecting to the jack attached
to the head telephone equipment worn by the rescuer
through a cord and plug, and the other end for connecting with a cord running-to the battery and apparatus box at the rear.
As the reels of wire used are very light, several
of them can be carried along by the rescue party, a'id
as soon as one is run out, another can be connected
on by means of connectors and the party proceeds
another 500 feet and so on.    (See fig. 23).
In many cases it will be found desirable to use
cable for carrying the circuit down a shaft or into a
slope mine up to the edge of the danger zone. For
this purpose a large box equipped with a cable reel
is furnished. It consists of a heavily reinforced,
metal-bound, mortise-cornered box, containing a reel
on which is wound 1300 feet of special No. 16 B.
& S. gage stranded, twisted, paired rubber-covered
and braided cable.    (See fig. 24.)
As this equipment will be more often used at the
top of a shaft, a heavy ratchet and pawl are provided
to prevent the reel from turning after the proper
amount of cable has been paid out. On the end of
the cable, which is either let down the shaft or slope,
is a connector which joins with the coil of wire carried by the rescue party. The electrical contact with
the inside end of the cable is made through a pair of
collector rings mounted on the reel against which
press commutator brushes leading to a connector in
the upper right hand corner of the box. Connection
between the reel box and the smaller battery and
apparatus box is made by attaching the cord furnished with the latter-mentioned piece of apparatus
to the connector referred to.
The.battery and apparatus box is always a
necessaryfpart of the equipment, and must be located
at the point where the person who is directing the
rescue work in the rear, by means of a telephone is
stationed. It contains 12 dry batteries mounted in
a separate removable compartment which can be
easily lifted out. The circuit extends from the battery to two flat springs, which press against metal
strips fastened to this removable compartment so
that when it is put in place it is automatically connected with the batteries.    (See fig. 25.)
The operator's telephone set, which consists of a
chest type transmitter and head-hand receiver, is
connected with the other apparatus mounted in the
battery box through four screw-binding post terminals.    (See fig. 26.)
The battery key operates in two directions, and
has three positions—neutral, right and left. When
the handle is pushed one way it connects the battery
gage across the battery terminals. This testing
apparatus is provided so that when the equipment is
to be used, it can be immediately determined whether
the batteries are in good condition or not, as it would
be a serious matter to have the rescue party proceed
into the mine and later find that the batteries were
too weak to give good service.   When the handle
FIG. 26 -33
itttaSING,   ^ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
is pushed-in the opposite direction, it locks, in that
position until releasecbi&nd disconnects the batteries
"from-the circuit, which of course saves current while
.theiapparatus is temporarily out of service. When
-the keyvis in its neutral or central position, the batteries' are connected with the circuit.
There is no question but that this telephone
'rescue'equipment has-expedited mine rescue work—
crionriatter where the.rescue party may be, they are at
.all times'in personal touch with the outside world.
This hasI eliminated the feeling of isolation that so
frequently proved a "bug bear" to the rescue party
rihat ventured-.forth into the unknown, cut off from
every outside help and encouragement.
When. Speaking of electricity in mines the telephone should-not be overlooked, as it is as much a
part of the electrical equipment of the mine as are
the motors which operate the coal cutters, pumps,
(&c; >*The, use.'of the telephone in connection with
undergrpiund mining operations has increased the
effjoieaicy of such operations beyond comprehension,
and further, without such equipment at our disposal
the "safety first" slogan would l)e altogether Utopian, where to-day it is a vital force.
..RELATIONS BETWEEN CUSTOM  SJIHLTERS
■ v   -,»•,%       AND SMALL MINES
i Py, Prof. Jj. M Turnbull. Mi E.*
(.Summary Qf informal talk by Prof. Turnbull, at Vancouver
Chamber bf Mines, given by request, for information of
Prospectors and small Mine-owners concerning marketing
of ores.)
The ayerage prospector, small mine owner or
■manager, and others interested in mining on a small
sqale, have usually very vague ideas in regard to the
operations of a smelter. Their ideas in regard to the
values of ore are, as a rule, based on the gross values.
If the gross value of the ore, figured on full assay at
■market prices of metals, is, say $20, .and the smelter
treatment rati1 is say;$5.00, one would at first sight
expect to;get a net of $15, and when, instead, one gets
$8.00 or $10.00, it is natural to feel that there is something wroijig, and that all the deductions made by
the smelter, which account for the difference, cover
a large hidden profit for the smelter—in fact that
one has practically been robbed. If, however- one
was familiar with how these deductions were arrived
at, ami had. an idea as to what deductions were reasonable a.hd justified, and what ones not, he would
be jn a bfcttter position to see what kind of a deal he
w'as^ef^hg, and judge its fairness for himself.
SMELTERS  AND, THE  PUBLIC.
In answer first to the broad question : Do present
day smelters of custom ores make exorbitant charges,
or rob the min-er? I have no hesitation whatever in
answering "No" to this question in general.    In the
♦Professor of Mining Engineering at University of British
Columbia.
great majority of cases where charges seem excessive
there is a good reason back of them. This is partly
due to competition, and partly, in common with other
large business, due to the fact that in the long-run it,
pays to be reasonably honest. In exceptional ease's
exorbitant charges may be obtained; but eventually
they discourage production, on which the life of the
smelter depends, and the modern policy is ^..encourage the producer with fair rates, and so build up a
permanent business, in return for the large capital
investment required. While not usually guilty of
robbery and extortion, smelters are in business to
make a profit, and endeavor to buy and sell to best
advantage. The small miner can hardly expect as
good rates as the large steady producer, but by knowing something about the business he can often-market
his ore to better advantage, and get the best contract
possible.
SMELTER PROFITS.
The A. S. & R. Co., the so-called Tru-.t, in 1915,
did a volume of business amounting to $22o,000,000,
on which their net profit was some $13,000,000, or
5 per cent, on the turnover. Of this, however, nearly
$4,000,000 was put back in the form of new construction for 1916. 1915 was a good year, and.the profits
do not look very great compared with some of the
"War Baby" stocks. The profits were very good,
much better than many former years, but hardly
look like extortion or robbery.
On a tonnage of over 4,000,000 tons the average
net profit was about $2.25 per ton. In B. O. our
smelters are largely engaged in smelting ores from
their own mines, and their total profits are from both
mines and smelter, ami the smelting profits are not
separately given in annual reports.. In the. case of
the Trail Smelter, which smelts the largest tonnage
of custom ores in B. ('.. this tonnage is from 12 to
15 per cent, of their total only. 1 happen to know
positively, from my past connection with this smelter
that their rates are not extortionate on custom ores.
Having given the smelters a fairly good character, 1 will now take up certain points in connection
with their operations and charges in detail. While
there is no.big nigger in the fence, there are a few
small niggers, a knowledge of which inay.be of some
benefit to vou
SETTLEMENTS IN GENERAL:
Theoretically a smelter opefaxes on the idea'that
he takes your ore. extracts the pure metals from it,
and hands them back to you, charging you'a-fair
price for the Avork of doing so. In praotie'o-tinsels
found to be impossible however. Each lot of or-e' "cannot be smelted separately, and its contents'-kept separate. For economical smelting an average constant
mixture must be maintained, so that before the ore MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
34
ever, sees the furnace it is mixed up with other ores,
and since ores are received irregularly, some are
smelted quickly and others may be delayed some
time, in' order to keep the furnace mixture reasonably
constant. A dozen different ores may be in the furn-
aee at once and the metal produced is 'merely an average. The average losses can be determined, but no
one can tell what the exact loss is on any particular
one of them. What the smelter does is to put each
lot separately through the sampling mill* and assay
the sample, determining the metal contents by this
assay. The losses can only be assumed in each case
from the average loss on all the ores smelted together.
A smelter test oh any lot of ore consists of an
accurate sampling and assay. There can be no real
smelter test on one lot. To ship a carload for a
smelter test means therefore that you get an accurate
sample, and the smelting quality of the ore is largely
judged from the analysis made in the laboratory,
long before the ore gets near the furnace; Since
metal is produced by the smelter in one lot from
many lots of ore, it is practically impossible to separate if into proportionate small lots and hand each
mine back its proportion, nor could it be sold hi
this way to advantage, since metal selling is a complicated business, based on large contracts, etc., so
that'the smelter is compelled to'act as selling agent.
Selling costs money; therefore the smelter always
deducts a marketing charge from your ore in some
form or other.
Extracting the metal from your ore and selling
it takes on the average about three months; there-.
fore, unless you wish to wait three months for your
returns on ore, the smelter is compelled to act as
banker, and advance you the money on the basis of
the ore assay. This means interest charges which
are also deducted from you in some form. The price
of metals may vary greatly in three months- however,
so that if the smelter pays you on the basis of the
price at the time he receives, the ore, he may make a
profit or loss on the sale of metal three months later,
according as the price goes up or down in the meantime.
This method of payment is known as "spot"
settlement. It is not usually desired by the smelter,
since a slump usually occurs when metal prices are
high, when everybody is shipping all he can and
the smelter is overstocked with ores, so that the tendency is for the smelter to make a larger loss on the
slump than gain on the rising "market. To place the
risk of gain or loss on the mines, the smelter may
make contracts on a three months settlement, that is
pay 90 per cent, spot and adjust the balance on the
price of metals three months after receipt, paying
you in fact as near as possible on the basis of what
thejr actually receive for the metal.   By paying you
spot, on a rising market, and switching to three
month basis before a slump, the smelter stands to
make an extra profit.   The miner's interest obviously..
calls him to do the opposite if possible.   It isa-..
kind of gussing contest, and the best guesser wins. .
I need hardly say who is likely to be the best gussser,
and the smelter is hardly likely to allow you to
switch to- your own advantage when you please, so
that you should not allow them to do so either, which ■
you can accomplish by making a contract over a
considerable period, choosing if possible which kind
of settlement you prefer, if you can get it.     The
smelter has the advantage, of a better knowledge of/
market conditions and of not being compelled to accept a settlement it does not. de£fre,7whil'.0: thymine
has the advantage of being able to ship heavily.or
lightly according to conditions on the usual contract.
This is one small nigger in the fence, the advantage i
being rather on the side of the miner, if he knows the
game.
TREATMENT  CHARGE.
In quoting you a treatment rate, the smelter
makes various deductions, which are supposed to
cover marketing costs, losses in smelting and so on.
Presumably these are the costs and losses actually
incurred by the smelter in operation, acting as your
agent, and do not theoretically leave any profit for
the smelter, that is from the deductions alone. In
addition a straight treatment charge is made, which'
presumably covers actual cost of smelting plus profit.
If the smelter makes an unusually low treatment
charge, it probably makes up the difference by high
deductions and vice versa. A low treatment charge
does not necessarily mean that you are getting your
ore smelted cheaply. The nigger in the fence I will
explain later in speaking of deductions.
In the meantime; what is a' fair treatment
charge? This depends on the ore, and can only be
answered very generally. On copper ores, with immense tonnages of easily smelted ore, the direct cost
of smelting may be as low as $1.25 per ton, as at
Grand Forks. With high grade concentrates it may
run up to $4.00 or even more. On the general run of
ordinary ores somewhere about $3.00 would not be
excessive. Adding one or two dollars for profit a
charge of $4 or $5 is reasonable in most cases, provided an extra profit is not also made on excessive
deductions.
On lead ores which require roasting, as most B.
C. ores do, the direct costs of smelting, not including
■ refining, may run as high as $8 or even more but are
even more difficult to average up than copper, depending on the grade of the ore, and treatment
charge is often on a sliding scale varying from $8 to
$12 in general, which, including profit, is not usually
excessive if deductions are fair. 35
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
MOISTURE.
Ores as received at the smelter in railway cars,
etc., are first weighed, giving the gross weight, then
in turn go through the sampling mill being crushed,
run over samplers etc., in the course of which they
dry out to some extent. The sample is taken, part
of which is weighed and dried in an oven, and the
per cent.of moisture determined. From this and the
gross weight the dry weight is calculated, the assay
is made on the dried sample and payment is made
on the dry weight, which is fair and accurate. In
the sampling and handling however, the ore dries out
somewhat and there is often a considerable dust loss.
To cover these losses the smelter sometimes makes a
deduction of ahout y% per cent., which is called yard
loss. The loss is real, but just what it really amounts
to is hard to determine, impossible in fact. One
must judge its fairness by circumstances. Tt is, however, not a dishonest deduction in principle—it is a
question of amount.
MARKETING CHARGES.
What is a fair marketing charge? This is
rather a knotty question to answer. Let us see what
marketing charges consist of. Refining either lead
or copper is usually considered as part of the marketing. Copper refining probably costs about V20
per lb. in the East, and somewhat higher in the West,
depending on labor and electric power costs largely,
as well as scale of operations, say not over %c.
Freight from the west to New York would account
for another ^2° to %c. Three months interest brokerage and commissions bring the total up to about
l-V&c. to l%c. for the great big fellows, while the
smaller smelter might be out 3c. or even more. On
custom ores the deduction is usually from 3c. to 4c
per pound. In general the smelter probably plays
safe on this* and makes from % to lc per lb. equivalent to from 30c. to 60c per ton on 3 per cent. ore.
A high deduction on this account is all right if the
treatment charge is low by a corresponding amount.
In the case of lead, refining is less costly being a
minimum of 0.2c. per lb. under most favorable conditions of cheap fuel and labor. In the west it might
run up to 0.5c. Freight from the west would be to
the east, where the chief market is, another 0.5c or
0.6c. besides selling expenses. The Trail, B. C,
smelter deducts lc. per lb. for marketing, on which
they evidently make no profit. American smelters
usually deduct ll ic to l%c-> on which, with better
marketing conditions, they should make a considerable profit, and can make apparently low treatment
charges on ore in consequence. There is a mutual
tariff wall between Canada and the U. S. on lead,
hence marketing conditions. are somewhat artificial,
whereas in copper there is free interchange.   Lead
ores as shipped usually contain from 25 per cent, to
70 per cent, lead, whereas copper ores run from. 1 per
cent, or 2 per cent up to not over 10 per cent, or 15
per cent, as a rule, hence the marketing charge on
lead usually figures out much higher per ton of ore,
even though less per pound of metal. It therefore
looks much worse than it is. In fact it is rather surprising that miners will cheerfully pay 3c. per pound
on copper, and yet make vigorous objection to lc. per
pound on lead, which is a -much more favorable'
charge. The reason is probably because it looks
worse per ton of ore.   The difference is plain.
METAL DEDUCTIONS.
Smelters usually make deductions from the metal
assay to cover losses in smelting. In the case of copper, losses are chiefly in the slag, and partly mechanical, flue dust handling etc. Slag in the furnace
seems to hold a certain minimum amount of copper
varying to some extent with the grade of the ore.
Considering all the operations which time prevents
my considering in detail, the loss seldom runs very
much below 0.3 per cent., and may be considerably
more on high grade ores. We may take 0.3 per cent,
as a fair average deduction on which the smelter is
not making much if any profit. Except on high
grade ores, 20 per cent, to 30 per cent, copper or more,
any deduction over about 0.3 pei' cent, represents a
profit for the smelter. In many cases it will be found
that the smelter is making a deduction of 1 per cent,
to 1.3 per cent, usually with a low treatment charge
to correspond since few smelters would have the
nerve to make this deduction and a full treatment
charge as well.
The reason for making this high deduction is
threefold—First, 1.3 per cent, is an old standard deduction which has been adhered to, and the difference made up by reducing the treatment charges.
Second a low treatment charge looks attractive,
many miners looking at that more closely than at the
deductions; the treatment charge may even be zero
in this case which looks very fine.
Third reason depends on the price of copper.
The smelter is evidently making a profit of 1 per cent,
copper, or 20 lbs. At 12c. net per lb. the smelter is
getting $2.40 per ton of ore, and at 24c. it is getting
$4.80 per ton. Your treatment charge is automatically rising with the price of copper. Fine for the
smelter on a rising market and vice versa. On the
24c. price 0.3 per cent, deduction and $4.80 treatment
is equivalent to 1.3 per cent, deduction and zero
treatment. In the latter case you are getting your
ore treated for nothing, I don't think. The cathode
price is %c. less than electrolytic.
Lead deductions are on quite a different basis
chiefly because lead and lead compounds, unlike
copper, are volatile at furnace and roasting heats. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
36
Lead smelters make various rates. We are only concerned with Canada and Selby, whose rates I am not
familiar with. The Trail smelter pays 90 per cent,
of the lead; that is it deducts 10 per cent, for losses,
which losses mostly occur in smoke. Certain U. S.
smelters smelt Mexican lead ores in bond and are'
required to export the equivalent amount of lead
metal. The U. S. Government therefore cheeks them
up, and makes an allowance for losses in smelting and
refining. In 1914 these were as follows:—Balbach
New Jersey, 8.52 per cent.; Perth, Amboy, N. J.,
22.32 per cent.; El Paso, Texas, 18.56 per cent. This
is pretty good evidence. In the case of Trail, I know
that the losses are away over 10 per cent., that is
why they are spending so much money on Cottrell
smoke plants to reduce the loss.
As a matter of fact the losses depend on the ores;
they are much less on very pure ores. In Missouri
they may be less than 5 per cent., but on impure
zincy ores such as we have in Canada, in the west,
10 per cent, is a fair deduction, more than fair in fact, :
in spite of the text books, which tell you that the
smelter saves .93 to 95 per cent, of the lead.
On silver and gold the deduction is usually 5
per cent., at which figure there is little profit or loss
for the smelter on the average, so that we need not
go further into it.
PENALTIES AND BONUSES.
Zinc penalty—Lead furnace slags can carry
about 6 per cent, or 7 per cent, zinc without much
detriment. Above this point the zinc has two bad
effects, first it tends to carry silver into the slag,
and second it tends to make the slag infusible and
pasty, which results in slow furnace running, greater
slag losses, and difficulties in running, which add
materially to the costs and troubles, of which there
are plenty in lead smelting in any case, and cuts down
capacity. This rapidly gets worse as the zinc gets
higher. With over 12 to 15 per cent zinc it becomes
next to impossible to run the furnace at all. A
smelter which gets low zinc ores on the average can
stand a few lots of high zinc without much detriment,
and should not charge a high zinc penalty. Where
the zinc in ores averages high anyway, extra lots of
very high zinc are a serious matter and necessitate
a high penalty, even with which they are not desired
very much. The usual penalty is 25c. to 50c per
unit (1 per cent.) on all zinc over 8 per cent- to 10 per
cent. The miner should of course take the difference in zinc penalty into account in comparing rates.
SILICA IRON AND LIME.
In order to run a furnace properly the smelter
must keep an even balance between silica on the one
hand and iron and lime on the other. If ne cannot
get this balance in the available ores, he is compelled
to make the balance with barren fluxes, such as
quartz iron ores (free from sulphur- if possible to
obtain) or limestone. Few smelters can get an even
balance, or self-fluxing mixture, from ores c.nly, and
have to offer special inducements in order to attract
the kind of ore they need, and make it possible to
ship low grade ores of the needed class, by offering
a bonus on the kind of material they need. They
usually at the same time charge a penalty on ores of
opposite character.
The proper method is to have the penalty and
bonus equal and opposite, usually 5c. to 10c per unit,
payable or chargeable on the excess of one side over
the other, that is silica excess over iron plus lime or
vice versa. One or two little jokers may occur here.
Where the silica excess is penalized, the contract
sometimes-forgets to mention the lime and refers to
iron only, so that too much penalty is paid. Some
times the penalty is made larger than the bonus, and
all the silica, say, is charged with penalty, and all the
iron and lime credited with bonus. In the case of an
ore running even there should be neither penalty or
bonus, but by this joker, if there is, say, 30. per cent,
of each, you pay 30 x say 10c. penalty and get only
30 x say 7c. bonus a difference in favor of the smelter
of 90c.
Instead of silica, also the contract may specify ■
insoluble which latter means . merely that portion of the ore insoluble in acids which, may be
materially higher than the true silica in some cases.
This point will bear watching where.this kind-of contract is made, both in the contract and in the subsequent checking of the smelter sample analysis.
Dry ores are sometimes smelted on the. basis of
a low treatment charge and a penalty of 50c. per
unit for sulphur. The fairness of this depends on circumstances and cannot readily be discussed on a general basis.
I have by no means exhausted the subject. I
have said nothing about zinc smelting, smelting
mixed lead-copper ores, by-products, and minor
metals such as antimony, grading of ore shipments
for maximum returns and so on.
SALT DEPOSITS IN CANADA.
The Canada Department of Mines has published a report on the Salt Deposits of Canada and
the Salt Industry, by L. H. Cole, the volume consisting of 152 pages with plates and maps. Ontario is
the only province at present producing commercial
salt, the output for 1914 being 107,028 tons.
Economic deposits of salt are derived fom evaporation of brines. In Ontario salt deposits occur
over an area of 3,000 square miles. The Windsor
beds are of great thickness, one being 200 ft.    The 37
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
thickness of the Salina formation ranges from about
300 ft. at Niagara Falls' to 500 ft. at Kincardine, and
775 ft. at Goderich. Salt was first found in Ontario
in 1866, when druling for oil- the drill passing 60 ft.
into a layer of salt at a depth of 1,000 ft. The development of the salt industry in Canada met with as
strenuous opposition in those days from New York
manufacturers as the establishment of new industries
in Western Canada meets with opposition from Eastern manufacturers who have hitherto supplied the
markets. In 1878 the first shipment of 200 barrels
of Ontario salt was made to Winnipeg.
In Manitoba salt has been produced by evaporation from brine springs, and J. B. Tyrrell noted, in
1889, the production of salt in this manner from
springs west of Lake Winnipegosis. Salt springs
have been found in Westbourne and Neepawa districts. The Manitoba Government drilled a well for
gas at Neepawa- and struck brine at 1,225 and 1,455
ft. It is remarkable that bromine and iodine were
contained in these brines.
In Mackenzie Basin in Alberta, Saskatchewan
and N. W. Territories numerous salt springs occur.
Salt was struck in boring for oil at M.cMurray. One
of the most noted salt areas is on Salt River, which
flows into Great Slave Lake. At Cypress Hills numerous lakes are more or less saline.
The most notable salt discovery in British Columbia is at Kwinitsa, on the banks of the Skeena
River, close to the route of the Grand Trunk Pacific
Railway. The location was drilled and strong brine
found. A. Sharp, M. E., reported on the occurrence
in the interest of P. Burns and Co., Ltd., and recommended further drilling. The location is held by the
British Columbia Salt Company, of Prince Rupert,
who placed the property on the market, but it does
not so far appear to have been taken up by investors
prepared to establish a salt refinery. Salt springs
occur at Nanaimo and Saltspring Island. The Hudson Bay Company attempted to produce salt from
the spring at Naniamo. Saline lakes are reported
from Chilcotin and on Maiden Creek, Bonaparte
Valley, near Ashcroft.
EFFECT OF SMELTER FUMES ON LIFE AND
VEGETATION.
alleged injury to crops and vegetation.
An exhaustive and valuable report published on
the subject is the Report of the Selby Smelter Commission, by the late J. A. Holmes, E. C. Franklin and
R. A. Gould issued by the U S. Bureau of Mines.
The volume consists of 548 pages, with maps, diagrams and plates.
The report states that in the past considerable
damage has been done to horses from lead emanating
from the smelter- and in two cases had fatal results
followed inhalation of food particles. Cattle and
hogs were not injured. The smelter is doing no damage to live stock at present. Lead and arsenic, as
factors in destruction of plants through the soil or its
contamination with smelter wastes are negligible,
the effect being on the contrary a stimulating one.
Potatoes are not sensitive to smelter smoke. Orchard
varieties and truck crops are less sensitive to smoke
than barley or oats. Sulphur dioxide, to do material damage in dry weather to vegetation within half
an hour must be so strong as to be almost unbearable
to a human being, or, if dilute, must be frequently
repeated, or almost constant over the area injured
in order to affect vegetation at all.
The Commission points out that nearly all the
injurious conditions alleged to be due to smelter
smoke are rather due to bad cultivation, poor soil, or
insect pests and fungoid diseases in the farms and
orchards within what is described as the "smoke
area."
We may add that when the Tyee Copper Company was operating its smelter at Ladysmith the
writer investigated the conditions with a view to
ascertaining whether there were any injurious effects
on the farms and gardens in the vicinity. The leaves
of some of the trees showed markings -'esembling
those of sulphur dioxide, but the consensus of opinion
was that the vegetation suffered little if any; while
the effect in the atmosphere was considered to be
disinfectant and favorable to the health of the community. The prevailing wind, however, carried the
smelter smoke to sea across Oyster Harbor, so that
the presence of sulphur dioxide on the agricultural
area was intermittent and the fumes in such dilute
condition that it is improbable they were capable of*
an injurious effect on the surrounding vegetation.
WHITE ISLAND SULPHUR COMPANY
A fertile source of litigation has been the damages claimed by farmers for injury to their crops by 	
smelter fumes. On several occasions the farmers In 1912 the White Island Sulphur Company was
have succeeded in getting injunctions which have organised in Vancouver to develop and operate deforced smelters out of business. Some litigants have posits of sulphur at White Island, New Zealand,
taken up land near smelters rather with a view of The promoters were advised at the time that the
trying to farm the smelter companies than the land, danger ahead of the company was the possibility of
and too often they have been supported by the courts, volcanic outbreak which might, destroy the lives of
Even in British Columbia the Trail Smelter has been the workmen and ruin the plant and equipment of
the subject of a claim for damages on account of the Company.   Kempthorne, Prosser and Co.   and MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
38
other New Zealand firms had repeatedly tried to
work the sulphur deposits on White Islanc5 but the
schemes had always failed from the cause suggested,
bo it happened with the Company organised in
Vancouver. By an eruption on Sept. 9th, 1914, the
whole of the employees on the Island were killed, and
the Company's property destroyed. After the Vancouver organisation, the Company was reorganised
as the New Zealand Sulphur Company, Ltd, under
which title the company was operating when the
eruption occurred and put it out of active business.
The sulphur produced at White Island was sold
mainly for fertiliser purposes and to the manufacturers of explosives and chemicals.
BEAR CREEK MINING COMPANY. LTD.
C. A. Erickson, of Dawson, Y. T., informs us that
he has raised the necessary capital for the equipment
and operation of the lode gold property in the Yukon
held by the Bear Creek Mining Company, Ltd., a
company organised in Dawson, with a capital stock
of $500,000 in shares of $1.00. The property includes 8 mineral claims each 1,500 ft. square, also a
fractional elaim,the claims being known as Virgin
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4- Bear Creek, Snow Bird, Russell and
Premier. The ore zone is about 60 ft. wide consisting of bands of quartz. The location is on Discovery Gulch, a tributary of Bear Creek. N. J. Boond,
M. E., who reported on the property, states there, is
a water supply of 180 in. available, and a mile and
a half of ditches and flumes have been constructed.
Residences have been built for the manager and mill-
man, also a storehouse, four bunk houses, mill building, boiler house and assay office. Ore is transported from the mine to the mill by 500 ft. of tramway, laid with steel rails, and an iron lined chute
2 ft. square and 250 feet long built on trestles connected with Ohe mill bunkers. Power is supplied by
the North Fork Power Company's sub-station at the
junction of Bear Creek and Klondyke River over a
transmission line two and  a half miles in length.
The original plant consisted of a Dodge crusher,
electric driven- and a Little Giant quartz mill of two
stamps with a capacity of four tons a day. This
plant is being replaced by a ten stamp mill with
stamps weighing 1150 lbs., manufactured by the
Traylor Engineering Company. This mill is at
Whitehorse awaiting transportation to the property.
In a report by J. R. Fraser, Mining. Inspector, of
Dawson, it is stated the property was located on May
13th, 1909, on an outcrop of quartz in an old hydraulic cut. The lead was traced a considerable distance
and two shafts sunk—one known as Discovery No.
1 sunk to a depth of 55 ft., and the other to a depth
of 15 ft.
Development work mainly consists of three tunnels—No. 1, driven 30 ft.; No. 2, driven 60 ft.} and
No. 3, driven as a crosscut for 80 ft., and then drifting on thejiead for 208 ft'
Mr. Fraser states the average of a large number
of assays to be $20 a ton in gold. The original mill
is stated to have produced 408 ozs. gold. The company has clear title to the property, which was acquired for 325,000 shares. The Yukon Council has
constructed a good wagon road from the trunk road
to the mine. The vein is stated to lie between
porphyry and schist. Where the ground has been
hydrauliced for placer gold about 50 stringers are
exposed. Mining operations can be carried on the
year round.
The officers of the company are:—President,
M. S. Eades, of the Royal Alexander Hotel; vice-
president, W. Edwards, manager for White Pass
and Yukon Railway and Navigation Co.; secretary,
D. A. Matheson, C. E.,; C. S. Phillips and C. A.
Erickson, all of Dawson.
Replying to a telegram of enquiry from the
Western Bond and Share Co., of Seattle, John R.
Frazer, Government Mining Inspector, wired under
date, Dawson, October 1st, 1915, as follows:—■
"Bear Creek Company's tunnel at lower level
two hundred eight feet long crosscut eighty-three
long, all in ore. Large number assays taken from
end to end by competent assayers general average
per ton about twenty dollars. Large quantity of
ore in sight almost inculculable, tens of thousands of
tons."
Discovery Gulch, Y. T., showing Bear Creek Mining Co.'s Mill 39
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
MONARCH MINE AT FIELD, B. C.
For the past twelve months the Monarch Mine,
at Field, has been operated by the Great Western
Mines Development Company, Ltd., of Vancouver, a
company organised with a capital stock of $25,000
in shares of $10 each. It has been decided to reorganise the company and increase the capital, with
a view to more extensive development, increase of
ore production and improvement in milling iacilities.
The name of the company has been changed to Minerals Recovery, Ltd., with an authorised capital of
$100,000 in shares of $10. These shares are now
being placed before investors- to carry out improvements suggested in a report on the property recently
made.by Professor Turnbull- of the Mining Department of the University of British Columbia.
THE PAST YEAR'S OPERATIONS.
The shipments of lead and zinc concentrates during the past year gave the company a return of about
$30,000. The lead concentrates have been smelted at
Trail, and a contract has been entered into with an
American smelter to purchase the company's zinc
concentrates for the next two years. About 158 tons
of lead concentrates were shipped to Trail.
HISTORY  OF  THE  MINE.
The Monarch Mine is the second oldest location
in British Columbia, having been originally located
about 1884. The location overlooks* the C. P. R.
track, three miles east of Field. Spasmodic shipments were made from it since the date of its discovery, but owing to the zincy character of the ore its
treatment was not attended with economically satisfactory results. Within the last two years zinc has
come to the front, and, next to copper, is the industrial metal most in demand, with prices abo-.t 200 per
cent, over normal mainly due to its value as.an alloy
with copper in the manufacture of brass for use in
munitions of war.
When the movement started in zinc the Great
Western Mines Development Company, Ltd., of which
Wm. Gray is secretary and managing director, arranged to take up the property with a view to milling
the old dumps which had accumulated from the former workings of the mine, and which consisted mainly
of zincy rejects from the days when zinc was one of
the most unwelcome constituents of the ores which
the miner was seeking to turn to account. The
smelters penalised zinc heavily, and precautions were
taken by shippers of silver-lead ores to send out as
little zinc as possible.
The ores mainly shipped from tjie Monarch
Mine in the earlier years of its operation were extracted for the lead values, the silver being in merely
nominal quantity, averaging not more than 5 ozs. per
ton.
The Great West Mines Development Company
did not carry out its original intention of working
the old dumps for zinc, as it is only recently that arrangements have been made with the C. P. R. to cross
their tracks, but they found sufficient lead and zinc
ores remaining in the mine to keep the mill running
fairly steadily.
GEOLOGY OF THE ORE DEPOSITS.
J. A. Allan, of the Canada Geological Survey, has
reported on the economic geology of the ore deposits
at Field.* The ore occurs in a brecciated zone in
limestone on Mt. Stephen, the zone being 500 ft. at
its widest part. The ore minerals, consisting of
galena, sphalerite and pyrite, occur in and near the
major and cross fissures, and also in the cementing
material. There is generally an enrichment at the
junction of two fissures. In other places there is a
replacement of the carbonate rock by ore and pockets
of almost pure miaeral occur up to 10 ft. in diameter.
It seems possible the ore enrichment will continue
irregularly as far as the shattered zone extends both
laterally and vertically. The galena' contains an
average of 5 ozs. silver per ton, but the zinc contains
no silver.
PROFESSOR   TURNBULL'S   REPORT.
Professor Turnbull considers the chances of developing further ore reserves good, justifying an expenditure of from $5,000 to $10,000 in development;
while the mineral contents of any new ore bodies
discovered are likely to be higher than the present
average. By making improvements to the mill,
estimated to cost $20,000, recoveries can be inproved
20 per cent., meaning an increase in income of 50
per cent., with practically no increase in operating
costs.Mining and milling costs can be cut in two with
improved plant. The old dump offers a chance of
becoming an asset of considerable importance.
Mining operations to date have resulted in opening up a large, flat stope or chamber 350 ft. long and
40 to 100 ft. wide, average thickness of ore having
been from 10 ft. to 15 ft. The 700 tons of ore re-
mining in pillars to support the roof are of best
quality. Possibilities are of sufficient importance
to justify the development of an area 600 ft. x 400 ft.
I 10 ft. Ore bodies may also exist in the upper
formations.
Flotation is suggested as a means of making
higher recoveries.
FLOTATION.
Tests on the dump have been carried out by
several processes, the most promising, however, being
the Minerals Separation American Syndicate, of San
Francisco* who obtained a recovery of 95.8 per cent,
sulphide zinc of the total zinc contents in the sample.
Plans are prepared and construction work is now MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
40
under way to handle the dump this summer, A. J.
Colclough Nettell, formerly with Vivian & Sons,
Swansea, and latterly engaged on the flotation plant
at Britannia Beach, has been retained to take charge
of the operation. He estimates that there are in the
entire dump 2,240 tons of zinc (metal) which represents, taking zinc at ten cents per pound, $448,000,
and that he can retreat the whole dump in less than
six months. It is gratifying to know that stock already sold has been subscribed locally showing that
Vancouver people are beginning, to realise the importance of mining in British Columbia. The present
offering is 3,000 shares, which it is also hoped to
have taken up locally.
The following is the report on the test of the ore
made under the  Minerals Separation process:  —
MINERALS SEPARATION AMERICAN SYNDICATE  (1913)
LTD.
San Francisco, California,
April 12th, 1916.
Great Western Mines Development Co., Ltd.,
1417 Dominion Building,
Vancouver, British Columbia.
Gentlemen:—
With reference to your sample of zinc ore from
the Monarch Mine, I beg to advise you that we have
now completed some preliminary flotation tests the
results of which indicate that the ore, as represented
by the sample submitted, is easily amenable to concentration by our methods. The following results of
one test may be taken as characteristic of the response this ore gives to flotation:—
TEST 7182
Products        Weight] Assay Valuation    Recovery
Pet. I Au. I Ag. | Pb. [ Zn.
Heads     |  100.0  | Tr.  | 0.7  |  3.2  | 23.6
Cones     I     38.4  |  Tr.  I  1.4      6.6  I  49.2
Midds     I     19.2  I  Tr.  I  0.6      2.8      14.5
Tails     I    41.5  |  Tr.  |  0.1  ]  0.3  |     4.1
ASSAYS:—Silver in ounces per ton, Lead, Zinc, Iron and Insoluble in percentages. Recovery in percentage of total
Zinc contents of heads.
In another test on the same sample, we made a
zinc recovery of 88.7 per cent, of the total contents
in the form of a 50.5 per cent, concentrate. Treatment in both cases was carried out in a cold circuit
under a simple and cheap set of flotation conditions.
In practice, no middlings would be made, as the
product so designated in the test is continuously returned, to the head of the flotation circuit for retreat-
ment and eventually splits up into finished concentrate and final tailing of the respective orders indicated above. The total recovery, therefore, is arrived
at by combining the recovery in both concentrate and
middling products, which in the above test amounts
to 91.8 per cent, of the total zinc contents of the
sample. The recovery of sulphide zinc figures out
at 95.8 per cent., there evidently being a small amount
1 Fe.
Ins.
An.
3.8
100.0
4.4
1.0
80.0
4.0
11.8
3.8
7.2
of zinc oxide present in the ore.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) Edward H. Nutter,
Chief Engineer.
.. DOMINION OF CANADA ASSAY OFFICE.
The following Gold Bullion was deposited at the
Dominion of Canada Assay Office, Vancouver, B. C,
during the fiscal years ending March 31st, 1915, and
March 31st, 191.6 :—
SOURCE NUMBER OF DEPOSITS
1915. 1916. 1915.
British   Columbia    ..1'063 1,454    $1,213,380.67
Yukon    Territory    ..   210 411 885,339.4i
Alberta
Alaska
10
6
6-416.04
VALUE
1916.
$1,241,647.83
1,542,028.96
1,925.94
3,747.98
1283 1880    $2,105,136.12     $2,789,350.71
Increase in total number of deposits and value
fiscal year 1915-16 over 1914-15, viz:—597 deposits,
value $684,214.59.
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GEORGE CRAD0CK& Co.
Limited
169 Cordova St. W.    -   Vancouver, B.C.
Phone: Seymour 1456
!h   1 THE MINING, ENGINEERING AND
ELECTRICAL RECORD
Established 1895 E. A. HAGGEN, Editor
Published Semi-Monthly by TECHNICAL PRESS, LID.
World Building, Vancouver, B. C.
Telephone Seymour 3625
Cable Address: " Kanagan," Vancouver, B. C.
Subscriptions payable in advance: 13.00 per
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Subscribers requiring change of address must
notify the office of the publishers in writing.
Advertising Rate Cards supplied on application
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Volume XXI, No. 3.
Single copies,  20c.
VANCOUVER, B.C., JUNE, 1916
Index to Advertisers—Page   VIT
Directory of Engineers, etc.—Page VII
EDITORIAL.
NOTES
Page
. .   45
FRENCH ZINC PROCESS
45
MINERALS SEPARATION AND MINING IN CANADA  . .   46
The Patent Claims of the Minerals Separation have
been successfully contested in the I United States
Court, and plants are using the process without paying royalties pending hearing of -...ppeal. The Dominion or Provinial Government should acquire the
rights of the process for the free use of the mineral
industry in this country. A German firm with whom
British subjects have been forbidden Dy the British
Government.to do business, is the advertised agent
for the process on this side of the Atlantic, and if
that firm controls the process here it is pointed out
that royalty payments for Canadian operators are
illegal*, while the Dominion Government would also
be justified in annulling the patents.
'riRITANNIA   MINING  AND   SMELTING   COMPANY   ..   49
The Annual Rep6rt is very complete and informative, reviewing the developments, ore reserves and
values thereof in this important property.
MINE   VENTILATION   STOPx-lNGS    53
CLAYBURN   COMPANY   LTD    54
♦URANBY   CONSOLIDATED' MINING,   SMELTING   AND
PO v, ER    COMPANY,    LTD    54
The appointment of Mr.'P. M. Sylvester as Managing
Director and his assumption of the duties of President are announced. A review is given of the history and development of the Granby Company, and
a statement of its extensive' ore reserves.
HERB  LAKE AND BEAVER LAKE  GOLD. FIELDS       5S
ALLOY   STEELS
GENERAL ARTICLES
DIVIDENDS OF B. C. MINING COMPANIES FOR 1916   . .
These   make   the   best   showing   in   the   history   of
mining in British Columbia.
♦CANADA  COPPER  CORPORATION',   LTD.
This annual review of the operations of this company
is of exceptional interest especially in regard to the
results of development on Copper Mountain in
Similkameen. Details of the ore reserves and their
values are  supplied.
MUNICIPAL   CONTRACTS     47
B.   C.   COPPER   CO.,   LTD  48
Annual Report on the Company's Operations.
♦HOWE SOUND  COMPANY     4S
HEDLEY GOLD MINING COMPANY.
68
The production of this Company for the year made
a splendid showing. The company has now ore
reserves of about $5,000,000 in value and is extending the cyanide plant with a view to larger production and  greater  economies iri  costs.
METAL MARKET       64
♦Illustrated. LIBRA.K
Mining, Engineering a^d Electrical Record
Established October, 1895.
Vol. XXI
VANCOUVER, B.C., MAY & JUNE, 1916
No. 3
EDITORIAL NOTES
The policy of Hon. Lome Campbell, Minister of
Mines, in opening up the mineral sections of the
Province by means of roads and trails cannot fail to
have a beneficial effect on prospecting an dthe obtaining of information of Imuch value to engineers
and investors. Mr. Campbell also declares in favor
of having all metals produced in the country refined
within its border. This policy will stimulate manufacturing industries using the various metals besides
adding largely to the employment of labor and tine
market for hydro-electric power in doing here work
that has hitherto been for the most part performed
in the United States.
The strike of coal miners at Fernie, if not settled,
may have a serious effect on mining by shutting off
the supply of coke for the smelters, reducing the
number of furnaces in blast and perhaps shutting
dowin1 plants altogether. This in turn will cause-
suspension of mining operations. At a time like
this when progressive wealth production is all important to carry the burden of the war, the outlook
in this respect is serious. The cause of the trouble is
stated'to be the demand of the coal miners for a
war bonus of 10%. The coal mine operators have,
not benefitted by the war, but have offered to pay
'a present bonus of 5% and a further 2%% later on,
which seems fair.
The metal market quotations appearing in the
daily press are useless as a'guide to the value of the
metals. As a matter of fact when electrolytic copper has been quoted in New York at from 25 to 29c
per lb. the smelter returns based on actual sales of
the metal are around 23c. The result is the public
have a grossly exaggerated idea of the selling value
of copper, and the same remarks apply to other
metals.
On the representations of H. H. Watson, M. P. P.
for Vancouver, Hon. Lome Campbell, Minister of
Mines, has decided on opening up Indian River bv
a trail built to wagon road grade. Indian River
is a prolmising mineral section, the Pairview Schist
belt of the Britannia Mine crossing the. river about
12 miles above the confluence of Indian River with
tie North Arm of Burrard Inlet.
In his address to the electors of North Vancouver,
"W. McNeish, Independent Candidate, advocates as
part of his policy "That the assistance to miners and
prospectors be extended further than is proposed
by the present Government, by the ■ Government
owning, say, six diamond drills, and on recommendation by furly qualified mining experts a certain
amount of work may be done on the property with
the diamond -drill, the Government bearing the
initial cost, being fully recompensed on the sale or
shipment of ore from the \mline.''
\.M
The proclamation of the British black list of
American firms with which British subjects are prohibited from doing business on account of their
enemy alliances includes the German firm of Beer
Sondheimer and Co., who advertise themselves as
sole agents for the Minerals Separation Company,
and control the National Zinc Corporation owing
spelter works, to which British Columbia - mines
have been considerable exporters of zinc ores and
concentrates. If the Dominion Governlmtent endorses
the proclamation as it should, companies in British
Columbia will be unable to pay further royalties
under the Minerals Separation contracts if such
payments are handled directly or indirectly by Beer
Sondheimer and Co. Under such circumstances it
would also appear to be the duty of the Dominion
Government to cancel any patent rights controlled
or operated by such interests, also any contracts
with them for zinc shipments from Canada, as was
done by the Autralian Government at beginning of
the war.
FRENCH ZINC PROCESS.
The announcement that the Government of British
Columbia has decided to bonus the company exploiting the French Patents for the electro-chemical production of zinc places the Provincial Bureau of
Mines in a peculiar position. "When the late S. G.
French was demonstrating his process at Nelson in
1911, a strong effort was made by those interested
in the Company to get Government assistance, and
the Provincial Mineralogist was instructed to investigate the process. He went to Nelson to do so,
and reported unfavorably. Thomas Kiddie,_ a well-
known metallurgist, was also retained to investigate 46
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
it and he too, reported unfavorably. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company took an option
on the patents and spent a great deal of time and
money in investigation with the result that they
dropped it. An experimental plant was installed at
Silverton, and the results were not considered
satisfactory. ifiill
We understand the main difficulty with the process is an excessive consumption of electrical power,
a point in which the process adopted by the Trail
Smelter compares favorably with it.
There is, of course, room for all the processes that
can be economically adopted for the treatment of
zinc ores, and the Provincial Government is doing
the, right thing in subsidizing such processes. But
the principle is one that must be surrounded with
the utmost precautions and should be free of any
suspicion of political influence. The Provincial
Bureau of Mines should have the process thoroughly
investigated by competent metallurgists to ascertain
whether it has a reasonable prospect of being successfully operated. If so, the subsidy is justified.
If not, the subsidy is a waste of public funds.
The owners of the patents have always insisted on
surrounding the process with a halo of mystery very
like /that of the Indian medicine man; and any person who has dared to comment on it in any way unfavorably has been threatened with all kinds of pains
. and penalties. Such threats do not savour of honest
business methods, and have created a prejudical view
againstthe manner in which it 'has been sought to
exploit these patents. We may be sure if the French
process had all the merits claimed for it the Trail
Smelter would have been only too glad to have exercised its. option. The development of the process
under Government subsidy will be watched with
much interest.
MINERALS SEPARATION AND MINING
IN CANADA.
The oil flotation process as applied under the
patents of the Minerals Separation Company, Ltd.,
has been successfully adopted at two plants in British Columbia, namely, the Britannia Mine, on Howe
Sound, and the Silverton Mines, Ltd., at Silverton.
The United States Supreme Court has held that the
patent Is invalid as it does not cover an original discovery, but is simply an adaptation of what has been
known for many years; namely the capacity of oil
for collecting and floating freshly broken fine sulphides. This decision has not been as yet heard or
altered by the Appeal Court.
Meantime American companies using the process
refuse to pay royalty; and the general belief among
American mining men is that the company must, in
view of the history of the process in that country,
fail in its attempt to maintain its patents. In that
event American mine operators will be in a position
to use the process free of royalty cost. The company's methods of business are stated to have had
much to do with the hostility developed by the mining companies.
Unfortunately for Canada mine operators in this
country are at a disadvantage as compared with
those in the United States in regard to the patents of
the Minerals Separation Company. A decision has
been given by the Privy Council upholding these
patents. If they are invalid in the United States
they should be invalid in Canada. The control of
the Minerals Separation Company is in the hands of
a London Syndicate, who have handed over to the
German firm of Beer, Sondheimer and Co. thte control
and operation of the claim to patent rights in Canada
and the United States, so that the mine owners using
the process of this company are virtually compelled
to pay tribute to German interests at war with this
country. The British and Australian governments
have both taken proceedings against the branches of
this firm operating within their jurisdiction, the
latter cancelling all their metal contracts by special
legislation.
It is an unfortunate experience of the outlying portions of the British Empire that where the interests
of London financiers are involved the decisions of the
Privy Council have for the most part had an appearance of being influenced thereby. It would be
grossly unfair to mine operators in Canada that they
should be compelled to pay heavy royalties to a firm
with enemy alliance and submit to annoying exactions and lopsided contracts imposed by the Minerals
Separation Company, while mining operators in the
United States are free from these burdens on their
industry.
The Minerals Separation Company has endeavored
to surround its contracts with a Sialo of secrecy,
banding users to give out no information. These
users may, and do, conduct experiments and make
discoveries for the improved use of the process; yet
under the contracts with the Minerals Separation
Company all such original discoveries become its
property, though it has done nothing to further these
improvements. Such contracts should be illegal
They are distinctly against the best interests of the
mineral industry, and hinder that incentive towards
improvement and economy which should be encouraged in every possible way.
There is probably n o mining problem which so
urgently calls for attention by the legislative power;
amid either the Provincial or Dominion Government
should institute a thorough investigation into the
operations of the Minerals Separation Company and MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
47
its contracts. The Company claims the protection
of the law; and the people who make the laws
through their representatives in parliament assembled are entitled to the fullest information as to any
attempted abuse of these laws.
Following this public investigation full information
would be available as to any abuse of the patent
laws, if such exists, and a continuation of such abuses
as may be found to exist could at once be ended by
fair remedial legislation.
It is of the utmost importance to the mineral industry of Canada that it should not be hampered by parasitic burdens; and probably the best way to remove
them is for the Dominion Department of Mines to
initiate steps for the acquisition by the Government
of the rights of the Minerals Separation Gompany, so
that these may be made freely available to mine operators throughout the Dominion. This suggestion is
no new idea in British practice. When the McArthur-
Forrest cyanide patents were in force similar trouble
was experienced by gold miners, and the New Zealand and Australian Governments did much to relieve
the situation by the action they took in the direction
of acquiring the rights in those countries, so that the
mineral industry should be relieved of the provocative and onerous terms wnioh the holders of the process sought to impose.
The Minerals Separation Company should, of
course, be fairly treated, and a just compensation
awarded it for the transfer of any rights it might
have to the Government. It is the duty of the government to protect, the mineral industry against unfair and excessive burdens, and n/o injustice would be
done the company in legislative enactment to remove
these and place the mineral industry in Canada on
as favorable a footing as in the United States in regard to the application of any improvements in _ the
process.
We ask mining men throughout the Dominion to
support this view of dealing with a problem which
has become of exceeding importance to the mineral
industry of Canada. It only requires to be presented
in its true light to the government and members of
parliament to secure their co-operation and support
in devising the remedy.
DIVIDENDS OF B. C. MINING COMPANIES FOR
1916
The dividends paid and declared by the mines of
British Columbia during the half year ending June
30, 1916, amount to $1,966,354.60. This is about
double the amount of dividends for the corresponding period of previous year. Consolidated Mining
and Smelting has increased its dividend rate to
10% per annulmi as compared with 8%  for corres
ponding period of last year. Granby Consolidated
M. S. and P. Co. increased its June declared dividend payable in August to 8% per annum as compared with 6% for last half of 1915. The Crows
Nest Pass Coal Company has resumed dividends at
rate of 6% per .annum. Hedley Gold maintains its
usual distribution at the rate of 5% per quarter, in
addition to which it pays at the end of tJhe year a
bonus of from 5% to 10%. Rambler Cariboo has
doubled its dividend for last quarter. Standard
Silver Lead maintains its distribution at the rate
of 2%% per month. The dividends from the
mines of the Province for this year will probably
aggregate about $4,000,000, the largest dividends
earned in any one year in the history of mining in
British Columbia. The following are the dividend
payments for the past half year:
Date       Amount     Rate     Total for     Grand Total
per .ann.   Half year   to June 30,-16
Granby Consolidated M. S. & P. Co.
Mar.       $224,978        6%
June        224,978        6%
Aug. 299,970       .8%        $749,926 $6,473,124
Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co.
Mar. 209,830      10%
June        209,830      10% 419,660 2,739,796
Crows Nest Pass Coal Co.
Mar. 93,189        6%
June
93,181
6%
186,378
2,405,242
Hedley Gold Mining Co.
Mar. 60,000      20%
June 60,000      20% 120,000 1,943,520
Rambler Cariboo.
Mar. 17,500        1%
June 60,000  .     2% 52,500 472,000^
Standard Silver Lead.
Jan. 50,000      30%
Febr. 50,000      30%
Mar. 50,000      30%
April 50,000      30%
May 50,000     30%
June 50,000      30% 300,000 2,100,000
Surf Inlet Gold Mines.
Jan.    137,890.60      14%      137,890.60 137,890.00
$1,966,354.60   $14,471,572.60
MUNICIPAL CONTRACTS
On flhe recommendation of Engineer. F. L. Mac
Pherson, Burnaby accepted the tender of the Columbia Bitulithic Company for repairs and coating Kings
way at $4,045.25, though M. P. Cotton and Co. tendered at $2,320. The reliable manner in which the
former company had been found to carry out its contracts was responsible for the decision to pay nearly
double the price of the lowest tender. 48
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
BRITISH COLUMBIA COPPER £0., LTD.
L. W. Mayer, President, reports for year 1915 :—
Due to the unsettled condition of business, and
particularly the copper market during the early
months of the year under review, the company's
smelter at Greenwood remained idle. It was decided
in July last to place one of the Company's furnaces
in operation, and the total amount of ore smelted
during the period was 122,514 tons dry weight and
consisted of:
Company's ores 115,140 tons
Customs ores     7,374 tons
The Profit and Loss Account shows a profit from
operations during the five lmonths of $66,033.87,
from which is deducted general expense incurred
during the non-operating period of $23,378.49, and
amount payable under power contract with the South
Kootenay Water Company of $67,572.20, making a
total of $90,951.59, thus showing a deficit for the
year of $24,917.72.
Of the above mentioned $67,572.20, charged unde"
power contract, $27,957.25 was incurred during the
year 1914, but as it was not definitely known at that
time whether the company would be called upon to
meet this liability, it was therefore not charged
against the operations of that year. Had this amount
been taken care of during the year 1914 the accounts for 1915 would have shown a profit of
$3,039.53. The smelter at the present time is beins;-
operated at a satisfactory profit.
The known ore remaining in the mines is limited in
extent and of low grade. With existing high prices
for copper, it is anticipated that smelting operations
can be profitably continued for approximately five
months. In the meantime, exploration for new ore §1
being carried on and efforts are being made to fur
ther develop the custom ore business.
Since the first of the year, negotiations for the disposal of the Emma Mine, one of the company's properties, have been concluded, resulting in a sale of
the property for the sum of $55,000.
A year ago a revaluation of all the company's
properties was made and reports and surveys of the
engineers, on which the revaluation was based, show
that the book value at that time was smaller than
their intrinsic worth, and as the value of the ore in
sight on Copper Mountain had materially increaseo,
there was every justification for making a revaluation and re-arrangement of the book value of all
the Company's properties, hence the book value of
'the Copper Mountain property was increased $1,100,-
000, making the total on December 31st, 1915, $3,-
285,551.32, while there was set aside to provide for
depreciation of Greenwood properties the sum of
$1,100,000, showing balance on same date for that account of $272,014.01, or a grand total for property of
$3,557,565.33, as shown in balance sheet.
The Company's engineers estimate as of Decembe-
31st 1915, that there are on Copper Mountain 9,075,-
000 tons .of reasonably assured ore and 2,000,000 tons
o.f probable ore making a total of 11,075,000 tons, the
grade of both classes of ore being 1.75 per cent, copper and 20c. recoverable values in gold and silver.
THE   BALANCE   SHEET.
The balance shows assets: Smelter and mining properties, $3,557,565.33; metals and smelter products,
$116,626.55; copper on hand and in transit, $92,-
581.01; prepaid insurance and taxes, $4,572.48; accounts receivable, $14,273.72; cash on hand $17,-
776.20; total, $3,803,395.20.
Liabilities are: Capital stock issued,, 591,709
shares at $5.00, $2,958,545; accounts payable, $277,-
597.29; loans, $99,854.28; Canada Copper Corporation, advances under mortgage, $460,000; reserve
for sundries, $2,227.55; reserve for employers liability, $6,518.44; total, $3,804,782.56.
Profit and loss account showed operating disburse- -
ments, $366,172.38; custom ore purchased, $36.218.02;
proceeds of metal shipments, $466,599.50; miscellaneous, $1,824.77; profit for period plaint was in operation, $66,033.87; less expense and power charges
during time plant was shut down, $90,951.59, showing
loss for year, $24,917.72.
Riddel, Stead, Hodges and Winter, oi Vancouver,
are auditors for the Company.
The officers and directors are as follow:—Chairman of the Board, Newman Erib; president and consulting engineer, L. W. Mayer; first vice-president,
C. Hoyt; second vice-president, A. J. Ronaghan;
secretary-treasurer, R. H. Eggleston; director, August Heckseher, all of New York; general manager,
O. Lachmund; superintendent of Mines, J. S. Nor-
cross. jr., Greenwood, B. C. -
HOWE SOUND COMPANY.
G. B. Schley, President of Howe Sound Copper
Company, holding Company for Britannia and El
Potosi Mines, reports:
The dissolution of the Britannia Copper Syndicate
and the Britannia Land Company, Limited, was
effected early in the' ydar, so that now all operations
are conducted by the Britannia Mining and Smelting
Co., Limited.
* The suspension of production for three months
due to the snow and landslide of March 21, 1915, reduced the Britannia Company's earnings and made
it necessary to negotiate temporary loans with which MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
49
to meet that Company's commitments for material
and equipment and to carry to completion the extensive plan of new construction adopted early in the
year. •
PURCHASE OF EL POTOSI MINE.
An opportunity presenting itself in December to
acquire a majority of the outstanding shares of El
Potosi Mining Company, it was availed of, your
directors authorizing an issue of Twenty-year Six
Per Cent. Gold Bonds (5 per cent. Sinking Fund) of
the Howe Sound Company dated January 1st, 1916,
to take up that stock—with so much in excess of a
majority as might be offered—at a price of $100 per
share, under which arrangement 53,800 shares out
of a total outstanding capitalization of 60,000 shares
of El Potosi stock have been deposited, so that the
total amount of bonds to be issued will be $5,380,000,
to be secured by the Company's holdings of Britannia and El Potosi stock deposited as collateral
with the Union Trust Company of New York, as
Trustee.
The El Potosi Mining Company's property is located in the Santa Eulalia District, Chihuahua, Mexico, and is one of the richest and most important
lead-silver mines in northern Mexico. El Potosi
Company own nearly all of the outstanding stock
of the Ohilhuah.ua. Mining Ccjjipany, which
owns adjoining property and is one of the oldest producers of lead-silver ore in the district, the total mining claims of the two companies
comprising a little over 400 acres. Both El Potosi
and Chihuahua Mining Companies are free from financial obligations of any character, and have reasonable'cash balances. El Potosi Company has earned
and paid dividends for many years, and has now
larger reserves of ore in place than ever before in
its history. Owing to the unsettled conditions, and
at the suggestion of the authorities at Washington,
the American employes of all mining companies operating in northern Mexico have been withdrawn from
that country. It is expected that the political situation in Mexico will change in a reasonable time
and permit a resumption of operations and production from both properties. Your Directors regard the
purchase of El Potosi stock as an important and valuable addition to the Howe Sound Company's assets.
It is clear to your Directors that their policy of the
last two years in applying Britannia net earnings
to the upbuilding of its property should be continued, that ample appropriations be made for the conservation of all water power, general construction
and perfection of railroad facilities, bringing about
the best results in efficiency and economy. It is also
essential that the Company establish a reasonable
cash reserve for its protection. With the present
price of copper prevailing and the conditions at the
Mine developing as now promised, the outlook is
hopeful.
Your Directors commend General Manager Moodie
and the efficient organization established at Britannia for their intelligent, forceful and. untiring
efforts during periods of serious troubles and regard
the results as satisfactory.
THE  BALANCE   SHEET.
The Company's .assets are: Share investments,
$1,402,800.10; accounts receivable, $1,186,966.13;
cash on hand, $10,117.70.
Liabilities are: Capital stock, $1,984,150.00; bills
payable, $500,000.00; profit and loss account, $115,-
733.93.
BRITANNIA MINING AND SMELTING CO., LTD.
The following is the report of J. W. D. Moodie,
vice-president and General Manager of Britannia
Mining .and Smelting Co., Ltd., for year einding
Dec. 31st, 1915.
. The year opened with prospects that Britannia
would make its best showing in 1915. The snow and
landslide in March, which wiped out the Mine Camp,
upper tramway terminal, crusher building, machinery, etc., necessitated the suspension of operations
for three months until new producing and transportation facilities from the mine could be provided.
Operations were resumed in the latter part of June,
Sketch  tw*»p
I
Location of Britannia Mine, Britannia Beach, B. C.
l"^
I
*'Jii 50
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
but were interrupted m September, October, November and December because of a shortage of water
Ore   Shipping  Bunkers  at  Britannia  Mine,   Britannia  Beach,
B.  C.
for power and milling purposes, due to an unusually
protracted period of dry weather.- This condition
arose before the system of dams and intakes under*
construction had progressed so far toward completion as to be available for water storage, thus curtailing the power service seriously.
STATEMENT   OP   OPERATIONS.
Gross Value of Production (30,123 tons) : containing 9,058,045-lbs. Copper, at 17.4468c, $1,580,336.64.
50,306 ozs. Silver at 50.08c, $25,195.56.
I 397,862 ozs. Gold, at $20, $7,957.24.
Payment for Iron excess, $2,644.11.
Total production, $1,616,133.55; less Smelter
Charges, $355,380.72; shewing net smelter returns,
$1,260,752.83.
Operating expenses were: Mining and Crushing,
$275,864.04; Transportation, $33,477.57; Milling,
$139,440.32; Administration, etc., $60,563.65; total,
$509,345.5S.
Profit on operation of mine was $751,407.25, and
auxiliary profit, $58^517.26, showing total operating
profit, $809,924.51.
Charges against operations were: Depreciation
account, plant and buildings, $284,573.61; snow slide
losses and expenses (including plant and buildings
lost), $210,347; interest, $69,431.02; reserve for contingencies, $36,158.50; miscellaneous, $15,175.69.
Total, $615,686.34, leaving net profit for 1915, $194,-
238.17.
PROPERTY.
Throughout the year, by your authorization, the
Company continued its policy of acquiring by purchase and location such adjoining properties as were
considered desirable for the future welfare of the
whole operation in protecting the possible extension
of known ore bodies, as well as to conserve the many
watersheds needful and to secure rights of way for
pipe lines, tunnels, etc.   Such property purchases
entailed throughout the year an expenditure of a little in excess of $100,000. Apart from mine development the sum of $44,633.61 was expended during the
year for prospecting, exploration, surveying, etc.,
and the labor necessary for assessment work on un-
Crown granted claims. A summary of our property
holdings as of December 31, 1915, follows:—
164 Crown Granted Mineral Claims .. 7,538.16 acres
16 Beach Lots  	
167 un-Crown Granted Mineral Claims 7,500.00 acres
15,038.16 acres
8 Timber Licenses    4,366.06 acres
THE MINE.
Because the expenditures for construction and
transportation were necessarily large, only a small
amount of development and prospecting work was
done in the mine during the year, as follows:—
Drifts     1,353 feet
Raises         656 feet
Crosscuts         589 feet
2,595 feet
The total amount of ore handled during the year
from the mine to the beach by serial tramway was
199,906 tons at an average transportation cost of
$0.1674 per ton.
The average mining cost for the year per ton.1 of
ore inclusive of development (including all charges
with exception of tramming 97,045 tons of broken ore
added to stopes during the year) and crushing charges, was $1.7712
The total ore broken for 1915 amounted to 291,332
tons, of which there were drawn from the mine, 194,-
287 tons, leaving balance added to ore broken in
stopes, 97,045 tons.
Adding the above balance to total broken ore in
stopes on December 31, 1914, there is a total tonnage
of broken ore in stopes at the close of the year of
, 578,206, which should average 3.5 per cent, copper.
Your attention is respectfully invited to the fol-
Britar.nia Beach, B.  C,  Showing New Concentrating Mill, of
Britannia Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
lowing suknmary of Fairview Mine tonnage:—
Broken ore in stopes, Dec. 31, 1915.      578,206 tons
Ore developed in place   2,855,947 tons.
Probable ore    2,544,000 tons
Possible   ore     4;275,250 tons
Making grand total of  10,253,403 tons
all of which should average 2.0 per cent, copper. No
allowance has been made for ore occurrences below
1,200 ft. level, notwithstanding that the continuance
of some of the veins is shown on the 1,600 ft. and
2,200 ft. levels with only small development.
No work was done in the nature of development or.
operation during the year in the Bluff, Jane or Empress Mines, the tonnage and grade of which, with
due allowance for precious metal content, as reported
recently by engineers, and, from our knowledge of
previous operations, are shown in the following table :
Positive    Broken  Probable 'ossible .Average
Ore Reserve       Ore        Ore Total  Grade of
Mine Tons Tons Tons   Tonnage Copper
Bluff      |1,286,800|     1,386   • |4,413,200| |5,701,386| 1.50
Jane    |      96,000| |   105,000|799.000|1,000,000| 1.50
Empress    .      100,000| |   143,000| |   243,000] 3.25
Totals    . .. .|1,482,800|    1,386     |4,661,200|799,000|6,944,386| L53
MILL.
The total tonnage milled during the year was
212,158. The average cost per ton milled, including
royalty paid for use of flotation process, was
$0.6333
The product resulting from tonnage milled and as
shipped to smelter, was 30,123 tons, containing:
Ozs. gold, 397.87; ozs, silver, 50,306.00; lbs., copper
9,058,045.00; and with assay values per ton of: gold,
0.0132 ozs; silver, 1.67 ozs.; copper, 15.04 per cent;
iron,- 24.73 per cent.; insoluble, 26.11 per cent.; zinc,
3.10 per cent.
CONSTRUCTION.
Utopia Dam (at the head of Britannia Creek) with
a total length of 225 feet, was completed to a height'
of 50 feet, and a wing dam 340 feet long with an
average height of 18 feet was constructed on the
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Double Track, Standard Gauge Incline Railway between Mi
and  Electric  Railway  Terminal,  Britannia Mine.
Electric  Railway  Between  Main   Level  and  Upper  Terminal
ttj   Incline   Railway,   Britannia   Mine.
north side.
On the Park Lane Claim a concrete dam approximately 240 feet in length was constructed to a
height of 25 feet. It is the intention to continue this
dam to a length of 485 feet and the height to 40 feet
during the year 1916.
On Britannia Creek at an elevation of 1950 feet
the construction of a concrete dam was started in
September and attained a height of 10ft. x 120ft,
when work was suspended. Work on this dam will
be resumed early in 1916, and carried to completion
with a total length of 210 feet and a height of 30 feet.
To furnish adequate domestic water supply, as
well as reserve power for generating energy at the
Beach power house, a concrete dam with a total
length of 85 feet and height of 50 feet was constructed on Mineral Creek. The total expenditure on
these items during the year was $56,294.74.
Pipe lines consisting of 3,225 feet of wood stave
pipe ranging in sizes 24 in., 22 in., and 20 in.,
and 7,900 feet of steel pipe ranging in sizes
20 in., 18 in., and 16 in., were laid from
Park Lane dam to the tunnel power house,
and from the dam at the 1950 ft. elevation to the
Beach, a line 14,610 feet long, consisting of 7,700
feet of wood stave pipe ranging in sizes 36 in., 30 in.,
and 28 in., a steel pipe line of sizes 28 in. and 26 in.
for a distance of 3,710 feet, connected with two lines
of steel pipe, each of which has a length of 3,200 ft.
in sizes of 20 in. and 18 in.
A 2000-kw. steam turbine was installed in the
Beach steam plant with two Babcock and Wilcox
boilers, making a total of 2500-kw. steam power available for use during periods of low water and consequent power shortage.
The amount expended on these pipe lines and
steam plant during the year was $184,565.04.
The construction of a railroad line for ore haulage
from the tunnel to head of incline ( a distance of
three miles) as well as the inclined railway forming 52
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
the connecting link between the upper and lower
railroads and mill bins was completed during the
year. The length of the incline is 5400 feet, average
gradient 30 per cent., standard gauge, double track
and laid with 56-lb. rails. Storage bins were erected
at the head and foot( above the new mill) of the incline with a capacity of 1,000 tons and 2,000 tons
respectively. As a means for providing further storage facilities, a concrete retaining wall was constructed on the hillside back of the new mill and will
permit of placing in reserve .approximately 10,000
tons of ore.
On account of the demolition by snow slide of the
upper section tramway terminal at mine, and to harmonize with the new transportation system, whereby
delivery of the ore is made from the raise on 2,000
level, a new tramway terminal was constructed at a
point 4,000 ft. west of the tunnel portal. This building is substantially built on concrete foundations
with timber superstructure, forming bins of 1,000
tons capacity, to whjeh bins the ore is dumped from
railway cars and directly fed by gravity to .the rope
tramway. Adjoining the tramway machinery on
the lower floor is a complete blacksmith and repair
shop. There is provision for storing under cover,
freight and supplies handled from Beach via tram
line; also a spur track from the main railroad line to
lower level, providing transportation beyond the
terminal. A steam heating plant was installed in
this building to prevent ore freezing in the bins.
To complete railway, incline, storage bins and new
tramway terminal $110,061.78 was expended.
At the mine a large double drum hoist with full
motor equipment, cages, etc, was installed, which
necessitated the cutting of a largp station and
roperaise on the 1,050 level. Further, a high voltage
line with transformers was laid from the tunnel
power honse through 2,200 level and shaft to crusher
room and hoist station. On the 18o0 level a station
20 x 20 x 30 was cut in which a crusher having a capacity of 100 toins per hour was installed. The enlarged
operation at the mine necessitated an additional air
line, which was provided by the installation of 12 in.
casing laid from the tunnel power house through the
tunnel and up the shaft to the 1,050 level. In addition, a railway motor generator set, and also a 3631
cu. ft. air compressor was installed at the tunnel
power house.
On the above facilities and eauipment $62,533.90
was expended.
To accommodate these improvements, the enlargement of the power house at the tunnel was necessary
and the building was extended 30 feet and the required foundations for water wheels, generator set
and compressor laid. Also a locomotive repair shop
was constructed.   A cement-mortar powder house
22 ft. x 22 ft., was erected' alongside the railroad
line at a point about 3,000 feet from the tramway
terminal and affords storage capacity for 1,800 cases
of explosives. Rolling stock, consisting of two
electric locomotives, 15 tons each, and ten 20 ton self-
dumping ore cars, and four of 7 ton capacity were
put in service during the latter part of the year. To
control the skips on the incline a 25,000-lb. double
drum lowering and hoisting apparatus, with 75 h.p.;
motor, was installed in a station 40 ft. x 40 ft. x 20ft.
cut in solid rock at the head of the incline.
These buildings and equipment represent an expense of $64,973.56.
For the accommodation ~>f the employes, one 5-
room; sixteen 4-room, and two 3-room dwellings
were built at the Beach, and two 8-room, one 6-room,
four 4-room and thirteen 3-room dwellings erected
at the tunnel camp as well as a new 3-story store
building 60 x 26, at a total cost of $50,724.58.
The first 1,000-ton unit of the new concentrating
mill, together with slime and concentrate tanks, as
"4m
iif
Main Working Tunnel,  2200  Feet Level, Britannia Mine.
well as launder to ocean, was completed during the
year. In addition, the second unit was enclosed, all
machinery foundations completed, and a portion^of
the fcnachiery installed.
The total amount expended during the year on the
new mill, including the machinery payments, was
$222,162.47.
A new wharf, 120 feet long by 60 feet wide, with
freight house 30 x 30 was constructed at the Beach
at a cost of $7,919.60.
MISCELLANEOUS.
During the latter part of the year your company
bought the Howe Sound Power Company, which
Company owned important water rights on Furry
Creek, in South Valley, the power possibilities of
which it is the intention to develop and conserve by a
system of dams, intakes and pine lines, thus materially increasing the company's hydro-electric development. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
>3
The establishment of a telegraph office at the
Beach has proved a great convenience in expediting
the business of the Company.
A favorable contract was negotiated wi?h the
American Smelting and Refining Company, for the
treatment of our product, dated July 15th, 1915,
for a period of seven years.
Owing to the increased price of copper and the fact
that other producers had advanced wages a voluntary increase was made to our employes during the
latter part of the year. The policy of the Company
in taking the best care of the employes has enabled
us to create an efficient and loyal organization,
which is being continually built up to care for the
larger tonnages that are expected to be realized
shortly after the 1st of the year.
GENERAL.
It is proposed to carry on an extensive prospecting
campaign during 1916. This includes the driving
of a tunnel from a point near the head of the incline
in an easterly direction, to be known as the 2,700
tunnel, and simultaneously another tunnel to be
driven from a point back of the mill, to be known as
the 4,100 ft. tunnel. For the present, the latter
will be driven to a point where proper connection
can be made with the 2,700 ft. tunnel above. It is
the intention to drive these tunnels 9 ft. x 13 ft. to
serve as transportation routes from the mine direct to
the mill. These tunnels will exploit a new country
where there is a possibility of encountering I commercial ore (of which surface showings give promise) >
in which event the cost of driving will be materially
reduced or entirely offset by the value of the ore extracted.
The 1,600 ft. level will be extended westerly from
the shaft to the Jane-Bluff country, with an upraise
to the surface at a suitable point for ore extraction,
as well as the exploration and development of that
territory which has been proven by diamond drills
to contain ore of commercial value.
Also, it is the intention to do development work
to the east and south of the Fairview Claim, including a vigorous prosecution of the Beta Tunnel which
is being driven west to connect with a drift east from
the diaft on the 1600 ft. level, a distance of 3,000 ft.
The test runs in the new 1,000-ton unit of the new
'.nill showed favorable results and it is believed that
with the transportation facilities completed that
2.500 tons of ore per day can be readily delivered to
the combined milling*plants. We have a very large
tonnage of what might be termed low-grade ore, but
whether a further enlargement of our mill will be
advisable depends upon the disclosures from the developments outlined, including the two tunnels, aid
from other points in development which are contemplated. JL&&1
The further conservation of the Britannia watershed, the harnessing of the water power of South
Valley, the extensive plan of development work, and
the various items of new construction entaiied will
necessitate the expenditure of large sums of money,
but it is expected that more than enough for these
purposes will be derived from the operations.
THE BALANCE  SHEET.
The balance sheet shows:—Liabilities— Capital
Stock issued and fully paid, 91,966 shares-of $25 each,
$299,150.00; Howe Sound Co., $1,'86,966.13;
Tacoma Smelting Co., $53,000; Accounts Payable,
{,126,401.68; December payrolls, $64,873.501 Reserves
for Insurance and contingencies, $72,030.32; Depre-
' ciation, $854,634.68.
The Profit and Loss Account shows balance at
Dec. 31sf, 1914, $627,351.20;'net profit for 1915.
$194,238.17; total $821,589.37.
The Assets are:—Properties— Crofton Townsite,
$50,200; Britannia Mine, $2,070,744.31; Plant and
Buildings, $2,543,849.06; Britannia Power Co., Ltd.,
$99,453.39; Britannia Stores, $297,621.57 j Insurance
Fund, $8,663.23; Merchandise, Supplies and Construction material, $124,289.11; Accounts Receivable,
$220,686.09; Bills Receivable, $6,158.50; Cash in
Bank, $56,456.24; Taxes paid in advance, $524.18;
Total Assets, $5,478,645.68.
Helliwell, Maclachlan and Co., of Vancouver, are
auditors.
MINE VENTILATION STOPPINGS
The Bureau of Mines, in co-operation with the
State of Illinois, has issued Bulletin 99, "Mine-Ventilation Stoppings," by R. Y. Williams.
The author says:—'' One of the most obvious conclusions from (the (inspection of several >jhundred
stoppings is that the efficiency of a mine stopping
to prevent the leakage of air depends more on the
care with which the joints are made than pn the material that is used in construction. Some concrete
stoppings were found to leak large quantities of
air because they were not set into the rib. and new
tongue-and-groove stoppings were tight when carefully construed. The amortised first cost is a small
item compared with the maintenance and efficiency
charges, and the cost of cutting a latch in the rib is
only a small part of the initial expense. The preparation of grooves in the ribs should therefore always precede the erection of stoppings.
A gneral protest is being made against high velocities in ventilating currents in coal mines The
amount of power required to move a given volume of
air increases directly as the cube of the velocity. If
laky stoppings make it necessary for the fan to deliver four times as much air as would be required if 54
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
the stoppings were tight, the cost of the power to
move the larger volume of air would be sixty-four
times that for the smaller volume.
As the temperature and the relative humidity of
the upcast at any mine are approximately constant
throughout the year, the quantity of moisture extracted from the dust will vary directly with the
quantity of air in circulation. If, therefore, the fan
furnishes four times as much air as would be required if the stoppings were efficient, the amount of
water extracted from the mines during cold weather
would be increased nearly fourfold. The drying
out of coal mines in the winter causes a dangerous
condition to exist in the event of a blown-out or
windy shot or the ignition of a pocket of gas.
The weight of fine dust that is in suspension in the
mine air varies approximately as the cube of the
velocity of the ventilating current. The greater
the velocity of the air, therefore, the larger will be
the amount of fine coal dust that will be in suspension and deposited evenly along the entry way ready
to assist in the propagation of an explosion throughout a mine."
CLAYBURN COMPANY, LTD.
The Clayburn Company, Ltd. has secured a succession of orders from Trail, and is still engaged with
these orders, as well as on a quantity of other business coming from points all along the Coast from
Anyox to Portland, Oregon, and inland as far as
Medicine Hat. The Company just secured the order
for building brick for the new G. N. R. Station in
Vancouver, the color of which will be a very hand-
sofmle red.
GRANBY CONSOLIDATED MINING, SMELTING
AND POWER COMPANY, LTD.
Recent advices from New York have been to the
effect that the Board of Directors of the Granby
Consolidated Mining Smelting, and Power Company
had in contemplation important changes in the
official organization of the company, the extension of
its operations, and an increase in the dividend rate
Dr. Nichols, who has been president of the company
for some years, has been desirous of retiring from
that position on account of the numerous important
interests requiring his'attention. He has d.me magnificent work for the company during his term of
office, and the directors have been anxious to relieve
him of as much responsibility as possible while still
retaining the advantages of his services to the
company in an advisory capacity. With thin object
in view it has been, decided to make such arrangements as would place the responsible work hitherto
performed by Dr. Nichols as president on ocl.ee
shoulders, and at the meeting of the Board at New
York on Wednesday, 21st ult, it was resolved ihat
Mr. F. M. Sylvester, General Manager,, should be appointed Managing Director, with plenary powers
hitherto exercised by the President, as well as retaining the active supervision of the interests of the Company hitherto devolving-on Mr. Sylvester as General
' Manager.
MR.   SYLVESTER'S   POSITION   AS   MANAGING
DIRECTOR
The new appointment virtually places Mr. Sy ^ • s-
ter at the head of the extensive interests of the
Granby Company, whose affairs he has managed
during the past six years with such conspicuous
success. While congratulating Mr. Sylves^n- on
his well, deserved promotion, the Board of Directors
is also to be congratulated on having worked out an
arrangement which cannot fail to prove beneficial
to the best interests of the Company and its shareholders.
For the past two years, since the administration
offices of the Company were moved from Spokane to
Vancouver, Mr. Sylvester has made this city his
home, and has spent most of his time here when not
engaged in visiting the properties being operated by
the Company, or in conferring with the Directors
and officials at the New York office. His promotion means that he will in future have to spend at
least half of his time at the New York office, though
he intends also to keep in close touch with'the Company's operations in British Columbia, Alaska, and
Townsite and Smelter of Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company, Ltd., Anyox, B.  C. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
55
Mr. F. M. Sylvester, Managing Director, Granby Consolidated
Mining,   Smelting  and  Power   Company,   Ltd.
the State of Washington, and" his visits to these properties will'occupy the remainder of his time.
Mr. Sylvester was educated in the profession of
civil engineer. Prior to 1906 he was engaged in
engineering and contracting in New York city and
other points on the Atlantic coast. In 1906 he came
west on a special mission connected with the construction of the hydro-electric power plant for the
Inland Railway Company, of Spokane. This work
was finished in 1910, and on its completion Mr.
Graves, who was then vice-president and General
Manager of the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company, urged upon Mr. Sylvester
the acceptance of a position as his assistant in that
capacity.
HISTORY   OF   THE   GRANBY   MINING,   SMELTING   AND
POWER? CO.,  LTD.
It is interesting at this time to review the history
and development of the Granby Consolidated Mining,
Smelting and Power Company, and the work done by
Mr. Sylvester in directing its affairs since he became
associated with the management. The Company is
a reorganization of the Granby Consolidated Mining
and Smelting Company, originally promoted in 1899
by J. P. Graves, of Spokane, and the late S. H. C.
Miner, of Granby, P. Q., to operate the Knob Hill and
Old Ironsides mineral properties in the Phoenix
Camp of British Columbia. A smelter was built at
Grand Forks.
The Granby Consolidated' Mining Smelting and
Power Company, Ltd., was organized March 29,1901,
under special Act of the Provincial Legislature of
B. C, with a capitalization of $15,000,000 in shares of
$10, changed in 1906 to shares of $100 par, one share
of new stock being issued for ten shares of old stock.
Of the early Directors and officers of the company
Dr. NichokL J. P. .'Graves, Northrup Fowler, B.
Hochschild, W. A. Paine, W. H. Robinson, G. W
Wooster-; S. H. Steel, and Edward Thome are still
members of the Board. J. P. Graves was vice-president and General Manager till 1914. Mr. Fowler is
secretary, with headquarters at the New York office,
Mr. Wooster is treasurer, with headquarters at the
Company's offices at Vancouver. Of the original
staff, Mr. O. B. Smith, jr., remains with the Company as General Superintendent of Mine®. Mr. W. A.
Williams is Superintendent of Smelters; Mr. C. M.
Campbell is Superintendent of the Phoenix Mines.
On the retirement of Mr. Graves in 1914, Mr. Sylvester was appointed General Manager, and to a seat
on the Board. ! Since his appointment as,Assistant-
General Manager in 1910, however, Mr. Sylvester has
been responsible for the administration of the company's affairs in British Columbia. At the time
of his appointment the affairs of the Granby Company were at their lowest ebb. Dr. Sussman had
made a special report on the Phoenix properties, reducing the amount of ore reserves and their values
much below the figures formerly announced. The
stock had tumbled from a premium over par to about
$20 a share, representing a valuation of the company
on its issued stock of about $3,000,000. Copper
prices had slumped from 20c per lb. in 1907 to 13c
in 1910.
Smelter of Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power
Company, Ltd., Anyox, B. C. 56
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
. «RE    DtPOSVTS, HV*St)£N  CR5.UK N\m£,GRANBY BAX,6.C.
7     Af-nr tnCCONneLL
State:    +0oyr = AiT>
Ore Deposits at Hidden Creek Mine, Anyox, B.  C.
It was evident that new assets must be secured to
save the company. The Boundary country had been
searched for new ore bodies tributary to the Grand
Forks plant, but without success. Little better results had been obtained from investigations in the
neighboring State of Washington. Many properties
were examined without satisfactory results till the
Hidden Creek Mine at Anyox was submitted by M.
K. Rogers, who had been developing it under bond.
An option was secured on favorable terms. Extensive development was carried out, proving up a valuable mine. Steps were taken to build a smelter
and power plant, equip the mine for operation, and
place it in productive condition. The first unit of
the smelter was in operation by the middle of March
1914. The effect was magical. The shares began to
climb and today are quoted at about 90 on the exchanges, an "increase of over $10,000,000 as compared with the market value in 1910.
THE   COMPANY'S    ORE   RESERVES.
In actual assets the company's position has improved to such an extent that its properties now
rank amongst the world's leading copper mines.
The actual reserves of ore of economic value are:—
Property         Ore Reserves Copper Precious Metals    Gross
"  Tors Per cent $ Value
Phoenix            4,232.045 8/10 0.85 $23,733,691
.Anyox               •       8,628,000 2.2 0.30 98.8S5.360
Bonanza               414..T75 2.6 0.30 1,650,802
Prince of Wales '
Island    . .          130,000 1.5 .0.30 1,428,000
Diamond drilling has proved ore of economic Aralue
to a depth of 150 ft. below sea level at Anyox, whereas the above estimate for that mine is for the area
at an elevation of 500 ft. above sea lev, I. The reserves at the Bonanza are certain to be considerably
increased and the Prince of Wales Island reserves
will probably be trebled. The Midas Mine in Alaska
has also important reserves.   The conservative es
timates placed on the quantity of ore proved up were
vouched for by Messrs. F. R. Weekes and C. M. Weld,
mining engineers, of New York, who examined the
company's properties last year for a New York
hanking house. .
Costs of mining and smelting at Grand Forks are
$3.77, and at Anyox $2.72, or an average of about
$3.00 per ton, so that the company's assets are equivalent to $85,535,713, or a net value of $78,500,000,
after allowing for refining and marketing charges.
This is equivalent to assets representing 400 per cent,
on the capital stock and outstanding bonds of the
company on present prices of copper; or allowing for
the value of copper at the average price of 14c per
lb., the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and
Power Company has sufficient assets now available
to refund its shareholders 100 cents on the par value
of their shares and pay them 10 per cent, dividends
for ten years to come, so that the shares are at present worth about 50 per cent, over their market
value. This is a record not equalled by any other
copper mining company..
METALLURGICAL   ACHIEVEMENTS.
The Granby Company now holds the record for the
profitable mining of the lowest grade of copper ores
yet achieved, and its costs are being steadily reduced
till it is believed a cost of about 7c per lb. for refined copper will be attained at the Anyox plant,
this figure being the record for cost of copper production on the North American continent.
In metallurgical improvements recently effected
the agglomerator installed at Anyox is stated to be
giving good results in effecting an increased saving
in copper values from the flue dust, the increase in
recovery being about 4 lbs. per ton of ore treated.
The agglomerator is illustrated herewith. It was
constructed by the Ross and Howard Iron Works,
of Vancouver, on plans prepared by the company's
engineers'.    The flue dust is mixed with the molten
Agglomerator  at   Plant  of  Granby  Consolidated   Mininj
Smelting and Power Company,  Ltd.,  Anyox,  B.  C.
Manufactured by Ross and Howard Iron Works Ltd.,
Vancouver. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
57
slag and delivered in the form of nodules, which are
returned to the furnaces.
COPPER PRODUCTION.
The Granby Company has supplied the British
Empire with its two largest copper smelters. That at
Grand Forks has a capacity of about 4,000 tons a
day, and has smelted about 12,000,000 tons of ore to
date. The plant at Anyox has a capacity of 3,000
tons a day, and the smelter is treating about 70,000
tons a month. The copper production at Grand
Forks is at "the rate of about 16,000,000 lbs. a year,
and that at Anyox about 34,000,000 lbs. or a total of
about 50,000,000 lbs. copper per year. The Granby
Company is the largest producer of copper not only
in Canada but in the British Empire.
DIVIDENDS.
The company has distributed in dividends to date
$6,175,154, or rather better than 40 per cent, on its
capital. This is equivalent to about 25 per cent, of
the total dividend distribution of the mines of British Columbia. The company employs about 2,500
men, and distributes a payroll of about $3,000,000 a
year. It pays its miners the top wages of $4.50 per
day, while the present high price of copper continues. The rate of dividend has been increased to 8
per cent, for the current quarter.
COMPANY'S   FINANCIAL   POSITION.
Owing to the high price of copper the company's
net earnings for the financial year ending June 30th
will amount to about $3,000,000, with the copper in
stock valued^t 20c per Lb. This is equivalent to 20
per cent, on the issued capital, and is the balance
c.fter making provision for interest and sinking fund
on the outstanding bonds of $3,390,000.
NEW   POWER' PLANT   AT   ANYOX.
Owing:  to  the   difficulty  of  securing  a  reliable
Mines   of   Granby   Consolidated  Mining,   Smeltirg  and  Power
Co.,   Ltd.,   Phoenix,   B.   C.
water supply at Anyox during the severe cold of the
northern winter, steps are being taken to install a
large steam plant of sufficient capacity to ensure
mining and smelting operations being carried on
under all weather conditions'. The plant will be
constructed to use oil as fuel to start with, but the
furnaces can be converted to coal burners when required. The capacity of the plant will be about
7,000 h.p.
General notes.
The company is interested in the Crows Nest Pass
Coal Company, Ltd., in which it has invested $300,-
000. A satisfactory feature of the investment is
that the Crows Nest Pass Coal Company is again
paying dividends, the present distribution being at
the rate of 6 per cent.
The management and employes of the company
have done heroic work in the way of contributions
to the patriotic funds raised in connection with the
Smelter and Slag Dumping Plant of Granby Consolidated
Mining, Smelting and Power Co., Ltd. Grand Forks, B. C. 58
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
war, and the company has reserved their positions
for all employes enlisting for service at the front.
The company has made arrangements for transportation of its ore supplies to the Anyox smelter
and its blister copper from Anyox to the Great
Northern railway terminal at Seattle, having purchased barges and tugs to handle the business.
Financially the company has never been in such a
strong position as it is today. Its management is
progressive, and at the same time conservative in its
financial methods. Its finance is now so strong that
the Directors are in a position to handle all their
own banking business, which will result in further
important economies. The operations of the company have done much to develop the mineral industry
in British Columbia and to attract the attention of
outside capital to the opportunities here existing for
investment in legitimate mining. The company is
heading for great achievements in the. future, and we
wish it the success its management deserves.
HERB LAKE AND BEAVER LAKE GOLD FIELDS
By G. R Bancroft.*
Gold in the Beaver Lake district was first discovered in the fall of 1913, but not generally known till
the spring of 1914. During the summer and fall of
1914 considerable prespecting and developing work
has been done, and a large number of claims recorded. The area generally is a large one, and gold values have been found over an area of fifteen square
miles however the prospecting and. development
work has been confined to two important areas,
known as the Beaver Lake and Conner Lake Districts'
GEOLOGY.
The general formation of the district is gneiss-
granite, diorite, porphyry, schist, and affinative and
metamorphosed rocks, accompanying mineral formations of those embraced in the Laurentian and Huron-
ian groups. ■'■*%§£
The prevailing rock is a mica schist of upper
Laurentian age^ very hard and well mineralized,
running north and south, and dipping west. It is
much distorted and foliated, showing the action of
great heat and pressure, this metamorphism occur-
ing simultaneously with the vein formation. The
veins outcrop in this older schist and parallel a contact with an earlier and less metamorphosed green
and grey schist of the Keewatin or lower Huronian
age. The Keewatin overlies the Laurentian. in a
great many places.
The veins in most instances in this district are of
good average width, and can be traced in many
places for hundreds of feet.
DEVELOPMENT
Of the developing work done, on one property in
particular, a shaft has been sunk 67 feet on a vein of
about five feet wide. The assay values run from $7
per ton to $1,600.00 per ton in gold. The average
values would be about $25.00 to $30.00 per ton.
On many properties surface work—trenching and
cross cutting — has been done, showing veins of
from 4ft. to 10 ft. in width with an average value of
from about $8.00 to $20.00 in gold, and about $2.00
per ton in silver.
The necessary machinery for the working of one
property is now on the ground, but is not yet installed.
BEAVER   LAKE.
is a large body of fresh water several miles in length.
It will insure for all time to come ample water for
steam and domestic purposes. The whole area is
well covered with spruce, pine j and birch of large
size, large enough to provide all necessary timber for
building and mining purposes.
TRANSPORTATION
to Beaver Lake is an easy problem. The railway
runs to the Pas, from there to Beaver Lake Portage.
-Steamers of a capacity to handle passengers, freight
and machinery run twice a week in the open season.
The Portage is 17% miles to the lake, over which a
good wagon road has been cleared and built. At
the end of the Portage there are two gasoline boats
that can be utilized to go to and from the different
properties. Good stopping houses are in operation
at each place, where good meals and bed can be
secured.
A few men in the camp have done surface work on
their respective claims, but the camp generally is at
a standstill, owing to lack of men and. money caused
by present war conditions.
HERB LAKE.
Interest in Beaver Lake District has been somewhat
overshadowed by a new gold find in the region of
Herb Lake, about 80 miles east, in the same belt,
where a number of men were vigorously prospeting
during the past season.
Herb Lake District is reached by going north on
the Hudson Bay Railway to Mileage 86.    From there
to the lake a portage trail has been cut and prospect- ■
ors can walk to the Lake, a distance of twelve miles.
The general formation of this district is much the
same as the Beaver Lake section, but the auriferous ■
deposits seem concentrated and follow the east shore
of the Lake, running north east.
On the properties already located some development work has been done. Showings of* good-sized
ore bodies have been uncovered. The first locations
consisted of two 50 acre claims and have four veins
fif   ■■'*-. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
59
running parallel, about 150 feet apart. They have
been uncovered for about 800 feet and have a probable width of about five feet. Assays from these
veins give values from $3.00 to $25.00 per ton. A
portion-of the veins and a part of the sections between are heavy in sulphides and arsenopyrites and
these seem to carry most of the values. Solme very
high assays have been taken from the vein filling
materials, especially the arsenopyrites. Galena is
also disseminated through the quartz and veins.
Farther north along the strike one vein has been
uncovered for about 3,000 ft. which would give an
average width of 4 ft. to 5 ft. 1 Free gold is plentiful
along all these veins and some spectacular specimens
have been found.
The latest find of native gold was made in a new
section midway between Beaver Lake and Herb
Lake, known as Island Lake District, showing the
auriferous deposits of the districts have a general
north-east and south-westerly direction'. This new
find was in quartz and a very fine chlorite schist, also
carrying galena disseminated through it.
The field generally is a large one and opens unusual chances for the prospector and investigator.
Good canoe routes in the open season run to all these
sections easily reached from the Pas, where supplies
of all kinds can be purchased at reasonable prices.
Quite a few men have been investigating these sections, during the seasons of 1914 and 1915. but being
a large area more men are needed to give the district
anything like good prospecting.
ALLOY STEELS.
"Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels," is the
title of Bulletin 100, issued by the United States
Bureau of Mines, Henry D. Hibbard, the author, remarking :—
'' Probably the first useful alloy steel was Mushet 's
self-hardening tungsten tool steel, patented in 1868.
Fifteen years later chomium steel, really containing
chromium, was struggling for recognition for some
purposes, the chief of which was for the manufacture
of solid shot for piercing armor. In both of these
steels the effect of the alloying element as used was
in a way proportional to the amount, obtained.
\ In 1882 Hadfield made his epoch-making discovery
of Manganese steel and demonstrated that in iron
metallurgy it is not safe to take for granted anything
as to the properties of an alloy of iron with other-
elements, basing one's opinion on past experience
and knowledge, and that the effect of an alloying
element may not be proportional to its content. The
development of useful nickel steels followed in a
few years and the field thus opened has since been
worked by many able and zealous men, with results
of great importance and value."
The bulletin treats of simple tungsten steels, simple chromium steels, manganese steel, simple nickel
steels, nickel-chromium steels, silicon, steels, highspeed tool steels, and chromium-vanadium steels.
In conclusion, the author says: "Further advance
in the development of new alloy steels, as well as
many new applications of those alloy steels already
established, are to be expected. Trials are continually being made of new alloys of promise, some of
which will doubtless win place in the list of useful
alloy steels. Hadfield's iron alloy, containing 5 per
cent, manganese and 15 per cent, nickel, although
not at present of use, may become so in the future, as
its properties are rather remarkable."
CANADA COPPER CORPORATION, LTD.
In addition to his review of operations of B. C.
Copper Co., Ltd., appearing in the annual report on
the affairs of that company, President L. W. Mayer
reports:
The exhaustion of the ore deposits adjacent to
Greenwood was foreseen some years ago when options were secured on the Copper Mountain properties and satisfactory progress has been made in
developing ore at the latter point. As of December
31st, 1914, there had been disclosed 6,200,000 tons
of reasonably assured and probable ore averaging
1.82% copper, and in addition to this, some 750,000
tons of 1.54% copper.
As of December, 31st, 1915, it is estimated that
there are 9,075,000 tons of reasonably assured ore
and 2,000,000 tons of probable ore of an average
grade of 1.75% copper and 20c recoverable values
in gold and silver, the average value of both classes
being the same. It will therefore be seen that the
estimate for assured and probable ore reserves has
been increased approximately 60% within the year.
In connection with the programme for installing
the proposed concentrating plant at Copper Mountain, it has been decided to proceed forthwith with
an underground development campaign which will
not only serve to confirm the diamond drilling already done but will also be of a permanent character
looking to the eventual extraction of the ores. A
tunnel will be started of sufficient size to handle
a large tonnage and at an elevation which will serve
the upper horizon of ore. The Shaft on the Sunset
Claim will be sunk to a sufficient depth to connect
with this tunnel, and, in addition, drifts and crosscuts will be run to block out the ore.
Steps have already been taken looking to the
purchase of the necessary equipment to proceed
with this work and it is anticipated that the tunneL 60
MINING.   EN0ENEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
:**,
~'y
IV
n
r^^-^V-^-J&L
^'
Mm
COPPER
MOUNTAIN.
&3  Dc\mT£s   PmiHtlPAL  Mlt/EflALIZBn
J Im. . •«• !•■
Mines of Canada Copper Corporation, Copper Mountain, B. C.
which will have a length of approximately 2,000
feet, will be completed in less than 6 months from
date of commencement and will be started, as soon
as the equipment can be installed. To cover the expense of this work, arrangements have been concluded with hankers, whereby the sum of $400,000
is available for the purpose, this money being borrowed by the Canada Copper Corporation, Ltd., for
a period of two years, bearing 6% interest. In order that financial arangements could be made, it became ne.cessary to retire, as far as possible, the
Company's outstanding debentures, and upwards
of 87%% of the $600,000 original issue has thus far
been converted into stock under the plan as set
forth in the circular mailed to debenture holders
bearing date November 16th, 1915.
Attention is called to the loyal and energetic action of the operating force in working out the problems which have arisen during the year, for which
the Directors take this opportunity of expressing
their appreciation.
GENERAL MANAGER'S REPORT
The following is the report of O. Laehmund, General Manager for year to Dec. 31st, 1915.
The mines and smelting plant were inoperative
during the first six months of the year. In June,
preparation was made to partially resume mining
and smelting operations, with the result that on July
26, 1915, one furnace at the smelter was blown in.
Since that time, and until the end of the year, both
imining and smelting operations were carried on
continuously.
MOTHER  LODE  MINE
Work preparatory to resumption of operations
was begun on June, 15tJh, 1915. The lower levels
were unwatered, tracks relaid and trolley wires replaced.   The hoists were moved to the opposite side MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
61
of the shaft, in order to recover certain pillars of
ore beneath them.
The ore .shipments from this mine were 105,085
tons, dry weight.   The average grade was:
Gold, 0.037 ozs.; Silver, 0.21 ozs.; Copper, 0.8746%;
Silica, 28.5% ; Iron, 21.2% ; Lime, 17.7%; Sulphur,
3.15%.
A rock fall from the hanging wall in the "quarry"
cut off the ore supply from that source for the time
being, and most of the ore shipped was stoped underground from the territory south of the "quarry".
Hand sorting was used to a large extent to bring
the ore up to commercial grade.
DEVELOPMENT
Drifting and raising was resumed to develop ore
bodies, and during December some prospecting with
diamond drills was carried on. The development
work disclosed no new ore bodies; drilling is being
continued with the hope of finding ore bodies. The
footage gained was as follows:
Drifting, crosseutting and enlarging drifts 433 feet
Raising *.  666  ''
Diamond Drilling 711  "
COSTS
Operating expenses compare favorably with those
of last year. The cost of new construction, also the
expense of putting the mine in shape for production
has been charged to operating expense, bringing the
cost per ton up to $0.8437 f. o. b. R. R. cars at the
mine. The freight to the smelter was $0.1245 per
ton, making a total of $0.9682 per ton of ore delivered at the smelter.
ORE xtESERVES
The aimiount.of ore remaining in the Mother Lode
mine is difficult of calculation. The ore having
previously been mined by numerous methods, the
workings now represent a series of honeycombs. The
ore being taken from the shaft pillar under the old
hoist foundations is rapidly becoming exhausted. The
remaining avaiable ore will be found in irregular
bodies in a few floors and pillars, amounting in all
to possibly 50,000 tons. In the quarry, we have a
large amount of material that is a mixture of ore
and waste. Experiments have shown, that this can
be drawn, and by hand sorting be made to yield a
profit at the present high price of copper. As long
as the high prices prevail, it is fair to count on an
additional 50,000 tons from the quarry, making the
total ore reserve under present conditions 100,000
ions. This means a trifle over five months operation, unless new ore, at present unknown, is discovered.
Last year's report placed the estimate at some
315,000 tons of ore likely to be-available under favorable  conditions.    Work  during the  year under
review necessarily changed this estimate and it is
not now considered likely that all this ore can be
mined at a profit.
LONE STAR MINE
The ore shipped from this property amounted to
6,510 tons dry weight and was of the following
grade: Gold, 0.032 ozs. per ton; Silver, 0.193 ozs.
per ton; Copper, 2.60% ; Development work consisted of 697 feet of drifting and raising. A sorting
belt was installed and 14% of the material passing
over same was rejected as waste,
The ore reserves are estimated at 170,000 tons
available and probable ore, with a good prospect of
increasing this tonnage by further development
work. The average copper tenor of this ore is
1.60%. j
NAPOLEON  MINE
Preparations were made during December to place
this mine in shape for early operations, the need for
extra sulphide ore at the Greenwood Smelter having
arisen. No ore was shipped in 1915 from this mine,
and the expense incurred in preparatory work will be
charged against future shipments.
QUEEN VICTORIA MINE
This mine was let under lease, and shipments to
our smelter began in September. These amounted
to 754 tons, dry weight, and averaged 0.0037 ozs.
gold; 0.77 ozs. Silver; 2.28% Copper.
EMivxA   MINE
The Emma property has lain idle since fire destroyed the head frame and hoisting plant in February, 1912. The ore is of such character as not to be
desirable for spnelting operations at Greenwood, and
it was therefore decided to offer the property to
parties in need of such ore. The mine was unwater-
ed for the purpose of examination and negotiations
are now under way to sell the property. (This property has been sold.)
SMELTING OPEK^TIONS
Average metallurgical conditions were fair during the period of operation. A slightly reduced
tonnage per furnace over former operations was obtained, due to running a more refractory charge
than formerly. The supply of ore available only permitted the operation of one furnace.
The total amount of ore smelted during the period
under review was 122,514 tons, dry weight, and consisted of:
Company Ores  115,140 tons, dry weight
Custom Ores       7,374 tons, dry weight
The coke used represented 14.44%  of the    total
charge and averaged 22% in ash.
The time of actual operation was    158    furnace
mm 62,                                  MINING,   ENGINEERING AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
days and the actual amount of ore smelted per day the "Outlying Ore Bodies."   The reasonably assur-
per furnace was 775.4 tons. The work was performed ed and probable ore reserves are estimated as of
by-an average of 49.2 men per day with an average December 31, 1915, as follows:
wage of $3.48 per day. Reasonably Assured Ore.
There were produced 1,850 tons of matte, averag- GrouP No- | Main 0re Bodies ... .8,670,000 tons
ing 48% copper per ton.   The amount of slag made        GrouP No- 2> Outlying Bodies    405,000 tons
was 105,280 tons, containing 0.0043  ozs.  Gold per Total        9,075,000 tons
ton; 0.072 ozs. Silver per ton; and 0.286% Copper.
Probable Ore:
The balance of the analysis was as follows:  Silica, Group No. 1, Main Ore Bodies- ..   1,735,000 tons
38.5% ; Iron, 23.5% j Lime, 20.5%. Group No. 2, Outlying Bodies      265,000 tons
, The production of metals amounted to: Total     2,000,000 tons
Copper (fine)    1,734,385 pounds m , , ^       -r,           ,,    A          j^-nx,
. **     v      '                                   '     ' Total Ore—Reasonably Assured and Prob-
Silver     23,002.62 ozs. ,,                                                 ,. p.nt- mrt  .     „
' ■ able     11,075,000 tons
Gold     5,417.0839 ozs. '     '
The average grade of the Reasonably Assured Ore
copper mountain | estimated. Copper 1.75% ; Gold and Silver 20c per
Work at this property consisted principally     of ton (recoverable value.) The average grade of the
diamond drilling and trenching.    Extensive topo- Probable Ore is estimated to be the same as that of
graphical surveys were made, with a view to out- the Proven Ore.
lining the installation of surface    equipment,    etc. conclusion
Comprehensive glass models  of the ore bodies,  as A '..     ,.      .       ,,   -, ,    ,,    e    , ,,    , ,,           n,    <>
r                         ... Attention is called to the tact that the profits irojm
disclosed by trenching,  drilling  and  underground .,    n               -,   .     ,,.        ,     ,  »     ,,    £             ,,      £
J                 °'             ° the Greenwood slmelting plant tor the five months oi
work, were constructed. S                ,        n     j       ,     ,,          |        ■,.      .,
' operations are largely due to the  extraordinarily
ore reserves high price of copper. On account of the rapid de-
Commercial ore was found at greater depths than Potion of your Company's ore reserves in the Green-
heretofore, the drills having penetrated such bodies wood District, the period of smelting activity is
at 900 feet below the collar of the Sunset shaft, limited, unless a profitable custom ore business can
This divides the known ore zones into two horizons,' be developed or new ore found. The high price of
one above a line approximately 3,900 feet above me metals has stimulated the mining industry, and
sea level, or to an average depth of approximately | is not unlikely that the market for custom ores
300 feet, below the surface, and the bulk of the re- wiil further improve during the coming year,
maining ore extends from the 3,900 feet elevation to It | due the operating staff to mention the ef-
3,600 feet elevation, or approximately to an average ficiency and loyalty in which they have manifested
depth of 600 feet below the surface. their desire to asgist in working out the problems
It is intended to mine the upper ore bodies by open that have arisen during the year, and your Manager
cast or gloryhole methods while the lower ore will avails himself of this opportunity to acknowledge
probably be extracted by stoping methods similar to his appreciation of their efforts,
those in operation in the Greenwood District, and THE balance sheet
by modified forms of the shrinkage system.    Prom
.,      i             j i      §        e ,s The balance sheet shows that of the authorized
the shape and location of the ore occurrence, as at .
,      ,r     , ,     ,,     -, W.    m    ,       it          ,, capital of $5,000,000 there has beeri issued $3,001,000.
present outlined by the drills, the two    zones    are »,-                                      ^^jj
s    ,     ,          i,                 n-uu^i        ji and of the authorized debentures of $1,000,000, there
of about equal tonnage,  although future develop- Ms                                         '      '
,        ,            ,,          ., •       ,• has been issued $600,000.   The Assets consist of in-
ment work may change this ratio. _  \                                     wooi.uj.ui
vestment in B. C. C. Co. Stock $3,000,000, Notes
The ore as developed to date is divided into two receivable,  secured by mortgage $460,000, Mining
groups—one, the main ore occurrence found along Property $13,554.84, Incorporation and Legal Ex-
the strike of a system of instrusive dikes, principally pense $60,415.08, Taxes paid in advance, $1,375.00,
on the Sunset, Vancouver and Gardner claims,— Debenture coupons 1, 2 & 3 $54,000, making total,
while the other group comprises ore bodies found less $37,712.22  interest  received,  $78,070.86,   Cash
to one side or the other of the principal ore zone, on hand $49,374.30, Grand total $3,601,000.
Future developments may establish a distinct con- ~°^     /....                 31
,•      ,   ,           ,,        ,    -,. The Officers and Directors are the same as for
nection between these bodies. ,'-Wm^%           ^       •
the B. G. Copper Co. with the addition as Directors
For the sake of distinction, Group No. 1 will be of C. H. Burke, C.*A. Starbuck, and C. I. Starbuck,
called the "Main Ore Bodies" and Group No. 2 a J of New York. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
63
HEDLEY GOLD MINING COMPANY.
The following is the report of the President, I. L.
Merrill, of Los Angeles, Cal., for year ending Dec.
31st, 1915 :—
During the past year everything at the mine and
mill has gone along very well. The lower levels of
the mine look strong and healthy. The present de
velopments on these lower levels, however, are probably in the richer portions of the shoots, and with
full development of these levels we only expect to
maintain the general average of, say, around $10.00
to $11.00 per ton.
The increased baseness of the ore with depth, which
increases concentrate tonnage, and lowers the grade
of same, necessitates a change in our milling system.
We have carefully tested out straight cyanidation of
all our ore with fairly good results and we plan to
install the necessary machinery for this treatment
during the early part of 1916, which we believe will
be some improvement over present method of shipping concentrates to smelter.
REPORT OF GENERAL SUPERINTENDENT.
Gomer P. Jones, General Superintendent, reports:
For the year ending December 31st, 1915, your mill
at Hedley, B. C, has treated 74,265 tons of ore all
mined from the Nickel Plate property. The acsav
value and extraction are as shown in the Treasurer's
statement.
The Dickson Incline in the Nickel Plate Mine.
through which all ore from below the No. 4 Tunnel
is hoisted, has been extended to 825 feet., and stations per
cut at the 700 and 800 ft. levels. At the 700 ft. level, not
ore was encountered close to the station and a crosscut was run through the intervening andesite sheet,
to the ore beyond, which-is the extension of the ore
in the 600 ft. level. This ore is highly satisfactory,
having a width, at the 600ft. level of 25 ft., between
walls, and the whole, where opened up, will maintain
an average of $12.00 per ton. We have stoped
laterally to the west of the incline for a distance o1'
175 ft., but so far the stope has hot been extended
easterly, although we have no doubt but that it will
extend in that direction for a considerable distance.
Below the 600 ft. level, where stoping was commenced on December 1st, 1915, the values are satisfactory and we expect to maintain an average value
of about $13.00 per ton. An inclined raise on the ore
will be started at once to connect the 600 and 700 ft.
levels. No work on this ore has been done beiow
the 700 ft. level, but, as it is very strong, we do not
expect it to cut out for some distance. This will be
determined in the spring by diamond drilling, when
another cross-cut can be run from the 800 ft. level.
Below the 700 ft. ore, and separated from it by an
andesite sheet, lies another valuable ore body. This
was cut right in the 800 ft. station. A cross-cut put
through it, together with a drill hole from the surface
would indicate it to be as large as the 600 and 700
ore, but the values are higher, averaging $15.00 per
ten. To date this is all that has been done on the
800 ft. level. The intention now is to sink the incline 50 ft. more, put in a suitable pocket, complete
all shaft timbering, then develop both these ore bodies below the 600 ft. level. At the same time advance
information may be gained by diamond drilling
Most of the diamond drilling was done last year"
with a view to ascertaining just what tonnage of ore
could be found in the lime silicate beds below the
present -stopes. This work, although not complete,
was very" satisfactory, indicating a tonnage of 88,400,
and a milling value of $12.50 per ton of ore. A crosscut 200 ft. long was rum. from the No. 4 level to the
No. 5 incline, which intersected this ore, and it is
now being mined. -
Several small, payable ore bodies were discovered
in other sections of the mine, and there is but little
question that others will be found.
The reserve tonnage above the No. 4 tunnel level,
in the old workings is 35,025 tons; averaging $8.25
per ton.
The reserve tonnage below the No. 4 tunnel level
is 388,527 tons, averaging $10.55 per ton, making a
total of 423,522 tons, averaging $10.39 per ton.
The above includes our estimate of 75,000 ton* of
ore, having an average assay value of $11.00
ton, below the 800 ft. level. We have
drilled this ground as thoroughly as we
planned nor has it been opened up by
drifting and sinking; but with an experience
of fifteen years at this property, we think it sat j to
assume that the reserve tonnage will be as shown
above.
Conditions in the low levels of the mine have, within the last two years changed considerably. While
the ore bodies are larger than in the upper levels, and
stronger in every way, and, contrary to the rule in
most gold Inuines, maintain at least the same grade
per ton; the specific gravity of the ore has increased
so that it requires only 10 cubic feet of ore to the
ton, where formerly it required more than 12 ft. to
make a ton. This is caused by the increase in arseno-
pyrite, and adds considerably to the cost per ton of
ore milled, as the concentrate tonnage has increase.!
from 3,831 tons in 1913 to 6,218 tons in 1915. Thh
condition, together with- war prices and mim r<
wage increase, all tend to reduce the profits.
METALLURGICAL    PROBLEMS.
For this reason tests have been made to determine 64
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
the most profitable method of treating this ore. For
two months 25 per cent, has been treated by ir>tal
cyanidation with very satisfactory results. As soon
as this system is adopted the cost will reduce and the
surplus increase correspondingly. We feel confident
that when the necessary changes in machinery are
made the operations will show a greater profit per
ton of ore milled and the equipment will then be suitable for years to come.
On account of the ore change, as explained'above,
it was found necessary to add more machinery to
the cyanide plant. This-was done and put in operation in the latter part of October, the total expenditure being $34,290.80. Additional expenditures for
additions to plant amounting to $10,976.27 are shown
in the Treasurer's report.
The whole plant has been brought up to its highest
efficiency. Power plant, mill, tramway, flumes, etc.,
were put in good shape and when the additions
planned for 1916 are made at an estimated cost of
I proximately $60,000.00, it should run, with but few
i epairs for many years.
DEVELOPMENT.
All development at the mine.was charged to oper
ating. This development included the following:
Sinking 175 feet
Raising        60  feet
Drifting    200 feet
Cross-cutting      200 feet
Diamond Drilling    2,784 feet
REPORT   OF   TREASURER.
C. D. Fraser, Treasurer, reports:—The net profits
for the year were $374,745.52. The dividends for
the. year aggregated $300,000.00, or 25 per cent, upon
the issued capital stock. Undivided profits, after
all dividends, were $435,070.40 at January 1st, 1916.
The sum of $6,328.64 was expended in perfecting
the hydro-electric power plant; and- this sum was
charged to Capital Account. The sum of $3,135.67
was expended in completing the installation of the
new Traylor jaw crusher; the sum of $1,511.96 was
expended on a house at the mine for the mine superintendent, and the sum of $34,290.80 was expended
on additions to the cyanide plant, and these sums,
$38,938.43 in all, were charged to Capital Account.
All other expenditures, including extending the
Dickson incline 175 feet, raising, drifting, cross-
cutting and diamond drilling, were charged to operating expenses.
During the year 74,265 tons were milled, of an
average value of $11.65 per ton, giving a gross return of $796,591.78, at an expenditure of $421,846.26.
THE  BALANCE  SHEET.
The balance sheet shows:—Assets—Original investment in mines and plant, $920,000; additions to
machinery and plant, $175,291.39; new mining
claims, $145,913.13; new power plant, $198,337.99;
cash in hand, $114,892.78; accounts receivable,
$80,635.11; total, $1,635,070.40.
Liabilities are:—Capital stock 150,000 shares, par
$10, less 30,000 shares in treasury, $1,200,000; undivided profits at January 1st, 1915, $360,324.88; earnings for year 1915, $374,745.52, less dividends for
1915, $300,000, showing surplus on January 1st, 1916,
$435,070.40.
METAL MARKETS
New York London
Copper, electrolytic.          22% to 23V4c. 25.9c
Lead, per lb.                   6% to 6y2 6.07c
Silver, per lb.                        62%c 29%d.
Zinc, per lb.               8.37% to 8.87%c 10.65c.
LEAD AT MONTREAL
June 12  8.52
June 13   8.46
June 14   8.46
June 15   8.46
June 16  8.28
June 19    8.21
MINERAL PRODUCTION
The following are the ore receipts at Trail Smelter
for half year to June, 30th, 19161
AINSWORTH MINING DIVISION
Tons
Blue Bell   3,561
No. 1 2,381
Highland      917
Florence    656
Utiea   290
Comfort    59
Martin
50
Crescent   28
Gallagher   21
Cork-Province   6
7,949
NORTHEAST KOOTENAY
Lead Queen   137
ivronarch    65
Giant  „ 20
919.9.
NELSON MINING DIVISION
Eureka     553
Emerald   435 MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
Queen     228
Perrier     29
Granite Poorman 112
Molly Gibson      72
Hudson Bay 112
1,542
ROSSLAND
Centre Star ,  93,918
Le Roi   70,580
Le Roi No. 2  8,247
Velvet   71
172,816
SLOCAN
Standard       3,
Ranmbler-Cariboo	
Galena Farm   	
Slooan Star 	
Ruth  	
Lucky Thought  	
Hewitt   	
Noonday 	
Wonderful   	
Reco   	
Slocan Payne	
Enterprise  	
Black Prince  	
Idaho-Alamo  	
Apex   	
No. 1 	
Molly Hughes	
Yakima	
Meteor  	
Comstock  	
Jo-Jo   	
716
898
643
560
407
300
258
121
71
70
31
29
28
2
ARROW LAKE MINING DIVISION
.Millie Mack   8
Grand Total from British
Columbia Mines      236,372
WASHINGTON
San Poil   5,219
United Copper  4,980
Ben Hur    2,099
Knob Hill     1,577
Bonanza       345
Tom Thumb   267
Delphia       29
Norman       28
Lead Trust      9
Kokomo       5
14,558
IDAHO
Keystone       126
Venezuela  35
Lakeview 33
preen Monarch  15
Edwards  13
Sandpoint       5
229
SINGLE VALVE
Chipping
Hammers
7,294
SOUTHEAST KOOTENAY
Sullivan   ....'.    36,838
St. Eugene   422
Park Group   12
'&x£m$t&g88&
37,272
BOUNDARY
Emma       173
Golden Eagle       26
Circular  " W"
. shows complete
line. Made in 5 f|
sizes 1 in. to 5 in.
ABCDE
Foundry
Chipping Hammers
Our Offer:
30 Day Free Trial
199
REVELSTOKE MINING DIVISION
Lanark    371
KAMLOOPS  MINING  DIVISION
Iron Mask       2,607
Fog Horn       52
The
Sfcw Line.
Consists Of
2,659
Piston Air Drills; Reversible, Flue Rolling,
Reaming, Tapping and Wood Boring Machines ;
Close-Quarter Drills ; Grinders ; Pneumatic Riveting ; Chipping, Calking and Beading Hammers;
Stay-Bolt Hammers ; Pneumatic Holders-On ;
Hose and Hose Couplings; Rivet Sets and Electric
Drills.
FRANK DARLING & CO., ■»1 MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
The Pleasure
of Travel
is fully realized in travelling on the Canadian
Pacific Railway. By its lines can be reached all
Canadian points, and its arrangements with
American railroads enables its agents to issue
tickets to all points in the United States.
It operates its own Sleeping and Dining Cars,
and has its own Hotels and Steamships. Its
magnificent scenery, and the excellence of its
service have made it the favorite route across
the American Continent. |
Illustrated publications as to its route, Banff,
Yobo Valley, Glacier, etc., sent on application
to any agent.
L. D. CHETHAM H. W. BRODIE
City Passenger Agent  General Passenger Agent
Victoria, B. C. Vancouver, B. C.
DIAMOND
DRILL
CONTRACTING
COMPANY
SPOKANE, WASH.
Contractors   for  all  kinds  of Diamond   Drill
work.    We have  complete  outfits  in  British
Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Write for Prices
ROSSLAND,
-       -       B. C.
ROtc
DAVID GETHING
Landore Copper works
LANDORE,     -    -    -    -    S.O. GLAM.
Tel. Address: "Gething, 128 Morriston, Swansea."
Code: A. B. C. 5th Edition
Wolfram Ore W03 65-70 per cent.; Molybdenite
MoS2 80-90percent.; Manganese MnOa 60per cent.;
Monazite ThOs 5-1 0 per cent.; Tantalite 80 per cent.;
Wulfenite Concentrates Mo03  1 7-20 per cent.;
Vanadate of Lead V205 10 per cent.;
Uranium Ore U308 2-5 perct.; Chrome Ore CraOs
50 per cent.
CRUSHER JAWS
Genuine § Manganese " Steel
: You can sret them right here at home."
We have patterns for the following sizes
" Hadfield " Crusher Jaws "—
9\ in.x 16 in., 20 in.x 10 in., 24 in.x 13 in.
We can make you a patteru for any other
size or make.
Mauufactured by Washington Iron  Works,
t>eattle, Wash.    Agents for B. C.—
Vancouver Machinery Depot
LIMITED
1155 Sixth Avenue West,    -    Vancouver, B. C.
Also Agents for " Crawford's " Aerial Tramway
1 3tr
The Consolidated Mining &
Smelting Company of ,
Canada, Limited §
SMELTERS AND REFINERS
PURCHASERS OF ALL CLASSES
OF ORES
TRAIL BRAND  PIG LEAD
BLUESTONE
Offices, Smelting & Refining Dept.
TRAIL, B. C.
8 to THE MINING AND ENGINEERING
ELECTRICAL RECOKD
Established 1895 E. A. HAGGEN, Editor
Published Semi-Monthly by 1ECHNICAL PRESS, LTD.
World Building, Vancouver, B. C.
Telephone Seymour 3825
Cable Address : " Kanagan," Vancouver, B. C.
Subscriptions payable in advance: $3.00 per
annum, including postage in Canada, and to Great
Britain. To United States and other countries,
$3.50 per annum, including postage.
Subscribers requiring change of address must
notify the office of the publishers in writing.
Advertising Rate Cards supplied on application
to publishers.
Volume XXI, No. 4.
Single copies,  20c.
VANCOUVER, B.C., AUGUST, 1916
EDITORIAL
NOTES
MINE INSPECTION
THE  BULLION  HOLDINGS  DISPUTE
Index to Advertisers—Page   VII
Directory of Engineers, etc.—Page VII
Pase
65
ANNUAL REPORT OF MINISTER OF MINES FOR 1915 76
The production for 1915 is stated and a comparative
review is given of the production of the various mining
divisions Nvith notes on the different metals, earthy
minerals and coal output of the different operators.
There are also notes showing the number of men
employed, and nature and extent of accidents in the
industry for the year.
HOLLINGER CONSOLIDATED GOLD MINING CO.
HOWE    SOUND    COPPER   AND    BRITANNIA   MINING
COMPANIES      68
A review of their operations for the year. 1915.
ALASKA MINING AND ENGINEERING  SOCIETY
.     SO
ERSONAL
HON.    LORNE    CAMPBELL'S      ADMINISTRATION    AS
MINISTER OF MINES         69
A review of the legislation and policy introduced by
the new Minister with successful resists.
METAL MARKETS
SO
MINERAL PRODUCTION         SO
A PUGET SOUND WILDCAT PROMOTION         68 The   tonnage   from   the   different   districts,   with   the
shipments  for the  year to date  from  the individual
mines is stated.
81
STOCK MARKETS         82
GENERAL   ARTICLES
BOARD   OF  TRADE  VISITS   BRITANNIA   MINE   	
An account of a trip by members of Vancouver Board
of Trade to the Britannia Mine, with notes on new
developments, a resume of the work already accomplished, tables of ore production, metallurgical notes,
and estimates of probable future production.
OBITUARY
DIVIDENDS
THE FERNIE  LABOR  TROUBLE
82
COLLIERY   EXPLOSION  AT   MICHEL I-J.
Mining and Engineering Record
Established October, 189S.
Vol. XXI
VANCOUVER, B.C., JULY & AUGUST, 1916
No. 4
EDITORIAL NOTES.
The award by the British firm, of Dingwall, Cotts
and Co., through their Vancouver manager John
Eadie, of a contract to the Wallace Shipyards, of
North Vancouver, for the construction of a steel ship
of 5000 tons capacity has an interesting bearing on
the establishment of the iron and steel industry in
British Columbia. Shipbuilding must become a leading industry on the Coast where not only merchant
ships but naval vessels will be constructed. The basic
necessity is the supply of iron and steel of local manufacture made from British Columbia ores. There is
no doubt about the raw material being available for
the iron and steel industry, and there is a large
market for the imlanufactured products. It is a matter of attracting capital and experienced iron and
steel men to found the industry, and in this work the
Dominion and Provincial Governments may be reasonably expected to give liberal financial assistance.
G. 0. Buchanan Dominion Lead Commissioner,
rendered splendid service to the Kootenays by the
organisation of the Associated Boards of Trade.
Many mining problems' received valuable assistance
from that organization. Now that Mr. Buchanan is
a resident of Haney. the Coast districts are experiencing his good work in a similar direction, for he
has been instrumental in organizing an association
of the boards of trade of the lower miainland, and is
doing much through these bodies to demonstrate the
value of the mineral industry in British Columbia.
Mr. Buchanan has the sympathy of the mining community of British Columbia in his bereavement by
the loss of his otoly.son, who enlisted a1 the beginning of the war, and lost his life in France.
issued by any mining company in Canada. The
monthly report is a credit to the management. P. A.
Bobbins, general manager of Hollitoger, has proved
himself to be a big man, who has successfully made
the biggest gold mine in Canada.
The Canada Copper Corporation is to be congratulated cxni the success which has attended the development of its Copper Mountain properties, begun
under the management of Fred Keffer, and continued by his successor, 0. Lachmund. The development of 11,075,000 tons of ore, averaging 1.75 per
cent, copper and 20c per ton in precious metal values
represents, at present prices of mietals, a gross value
of $95,500,000. Utnjtil the company's plant is in operation the cost of production is an unknown quantity,
but will probably be around 9c. per lb. to start with,
so that the company's assets show a pro'bable net
earning power of about $20,000,000. Canada Copper
promises to rank third among the big copper producers o'f British Columbia—an excellent record in
view of the fact that the properties formerly worked
by the B. C. Copper Company almost completely
cease to be an asset of any value.
Hon. W. T. White, Dominion Minister of Fin amice,
is to be congratulated on his selection of A. G.
McCandless, of Vancouver, to take charge of the war
tax being (levied on mining and other Companies in
British Columbia. Mr. McCandless is a painstaking
man, well qualified for the position, and likely to
secure the administration of the Act in a fair and
reasomia'ble manner.
In a paper on Engineering Education by C. S.
Howe, before the Cleveland Engineering Society,
the author remarked:"An eminent engineer, who has
been at the head of a great industrial establishment,
has said that the engineer of to-day should be accurate in his calculations, thorough in his investigations, logical in his deductions, lucid and concise in
his statements. He should have untiring energy
and an alert mind. He should be absolutely honest in
all his dealings, truthful in all his statemnts loval
to his clients, faithful to his employer's interests,
considerate of his suibordimiates, diplomatic in his
negotiations, and tactful in all his relations."
The Hollinger Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd., sends
out the most complete   statement of its   operations
The annual report of the Hedley Gold Mining Company is an ideal example of conservative mine financing and management at its best. No banking institution ■ dhows more solid financing than does the
Hedley Gold Mining Company, and no American
company operating here has done more to set a high
standard for the mineral industry of the Province.
It is encouraging to find the company able to announce its ore reserves at 423,522 tons of actual ore MINING.   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
66
of an average value of $10.39 per ton. The probable
and possible reserves are vastly greater, and the
Hedley Gold Mining Company's property may be
classed among the world's leading gold mines. It
is interesting to note the successful development of
the cyanide process in themore economical treatment
of the ore, and the company's output will doubtless
be increased in consequence. The General Superintendent, Gomer P. Jones, has made a record of which
the company may well be proud.
General Manager Wilson, of the Crows Nest Pass
Coal Company, is to be congratulated on the result
of his work im that the company has discharged its
liabilities, including the loan of $1,000,000 obtained
.from a Spokane bank, and returned to the dividend
list. The Company has 'assets which are amongst
the most valua'ble of the natural resources of the
Province. It is controlled by the Great Northern
Railway Company and for some years it was starved
by the railway insisting on having its coal supply
below cost, leaving it to the managetauent to make
what profit it could from its coke and other business.
Recently the railway company consented to paying
a fairer price for its coal, and this, with the demand
for coke by the. smelters, and the revival in American railway demand, has rescued the company from
the difficulties against which its management ■ had
formerly to contend. The reappearance of the company on the list of dividend payers meains a revival
of the interest i<n» coal mining and brighter days for
the industry.
The success attending oil development in Wyoming suggests the promise of Alberta as a prospective
oil field. The geological conditions in Wyoming and
Alberta are similar.
The Minister of Finance for British Columbia
gives notice that sales of unworked mineral claims
for delinquent taxes for 1914, 1915, 1916 have been
postponed.
Sir Thomas White, Minister of Finance for Canada will issue the second Canadian war loan next
month, and it is the duty of the Canadian people to
pull together to imake it a 'big success by investing
in it what funds they can spare. There is no better
adjunct to the Canadian armies in the field than a
big war chest, 'and nothing will make Germany
realize more quickly the folly of her campaign of arrogance and blood lust. The evdence of a bumper subscription to the war loan will show that the Mother
Country is supported whole-heartedly by the people
of Canada as well as other parts of the British Empire.
The mines of British Columbia are short of
labor. Railway construction is being delayed from
the same cause. The coal mines are so short-handed
that a shortage is threatened iii the coke supply with
a possible curtailment of smelter operations. The new
shipbuilding industry is hampered for want of labor.
In these days, when the British Empire is bearing
the strain of the greatest war of history, wealth production should be pushed to its limit, and it is the
duty Of the Dominion Government to remove the ban
that has been put on the importation of labor into
this country when there is at the present time not
sufficient labor available to meet the demands of the
various industries.
Premier Hughes, of Australia, advocates a
bounty or preferential tariff in Britain on zinc to develop zinc production' of the British Empire by
maintaining the London price around £23 per long
ton.
It is gratifying to find some of the leading
Canadian bankers taking a broader stand than
hitherto for the development of natural resources
and the industrial and manufacturing life of the Dominion. At the annual meeting of the Merchants
Bank of Canada the general manager said, "I understand we can build steel ships in this country cheaper than they caw south of the line, and we can provide men to man them, which they find difficult. Was
there ever a time in the history of the world when
so grand an opportunity offered to a maritime
country with coal, iron and flux at her seaboard,
to take up-such an industry? In this matter British
Columbia has made a beginning. A main desideratum
in the building of modern ships we know to be'steel
plates. Besides the native iron and coal in millions
of tons we have steel mills at tide water. This is a
felicitous combination of requisites as a starting
•point,—Government help will be necessary, and if
railways can be richly assisted, would it be a great
matter if the builders of steel ships were given the
necessary initial support ?''
The economic aspect of the question of foreign
oil as against home produced coal is coming home to
financial men. At the annual meeting of the Merchants Bank of Canada the general manager.said,
"Needless purchases outside the country are a contravention of sound economic law." Our manufacturers and politicians might well examine their past
policy in this respect when they will perhaps be
surprised to find many of them have been traitors
to the best interests of the country which they profess to be anxious to up-build. 67
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
IS M
I
Vancouver should aim at becoming an international metallurgical centre. With the demand here
for tin plate in the packing business, and as a port
commanding the Asiatic and Australian markets a
'metallurgical industry worthy of attention is the
smelting of the tin ore of Australia, Bolivia and the
Straits Settlements and the zinc ores of Australia and
the Pacific Coast of the American Continents. Seattle
is establishing a smelter to handle Alaskan tin ores.
Electricity is playing an increasingly important part
in tin smelting and the power plants here would find
such plants a valuable customer for power. An
American metallurgical company has under consideration establishing smelter works at Vancouver to
handle Australian and Coast ores.
That mining is as safe and healthy an occupation
as any is shown by statistics of the Calumet and Hec-
la Company, of whose foree 160 men have worked for
the company 40 to 50 years; several hundred have
been with the company 30 to 40 years, and nearly a
thousand have been on the payroll for between 20
and 30 years.
The J. Z. Lajoie Company, whose organization
we criticised some years ago, has gone into liquidation where it belongs. It should never have seen the1
light. The money of the pu'blic was obtained by representatives of the concern on the grossest misrepresentation and those responsible for the losses incurred thereby should not be allowed to get off
simply with the winding up of the company, but
should be the subjects of proceedings by those whose
money they obtained. The matter is one in which the
Attorney General's Department should take a hand.
Lajoie has been residing in Spokane for the past
year-and a half, and the U. S. Postal Department had
his schemes under advisement.
President Runciman, of the British Board of
Trade, is reported to have said in a recent speech ;
"Neither Canada nor Britain can stand any longer
for a foreign concern controlling our nickel ores and
being allowed to export it in matte, unrefined outside of our country and beyond our control and
by a company with German affiiliations and shareholders."
The records of all drill holes for coal, oil and
wator should be required by law to be filed with the
C^.^rnment, and be accessible to parties requiring
the information. Much drillidg has been done on
Vancouver Island for instance, which would afford re
liable information and perhaps save future waste of
large sums of money in doing work to obtain information which a prior drill log would give.   The Gov
ernment of Alberta require drill holes for oil or gas
to be shown with relation to workings of any mine
approaching within 2,000 ft., but this is not sufici-
ent.
MINE INSPECTION.
Under "Protective Legislation and its Enforcement" the Russell Sage Foundation report on "Industrial Conditions in Springfield, Illinois," says:—
'' Of the work performed by the mining inspectors
no reports are issued. The annual coal reports of
the State Mining Board, though they run over 275
pages, and give detailed statistics regarding coal
output, number of employes, days of operation, cost
of mining number of accidents, kegs of powder used
for blasting etc., contain no data regarding the number of violations found, orders issued, or prosecutions brought.' If there is one thing above all others
which these reports should tell it is the nature and
results of the work of the state and county mining
inspectors in their most important function'—the
safeguarding of life in the dangerous occupation of
mining. The public every year pays thousands of
'dollars for the service of these officers and should
have some means of knowing with what faithfulness
they are performing their duties.
"Judging from local accidents, the data contained
in State reports, and the hazardous character of
these occupations generally, accident prevention
work in Springfield and the State needs especially to
be centered upon railroads and coal mining. It
seems particularly unfortunate, therefore, that the
work of the railway safety inspectors and mining
inspectors is not better organized, more carefully
checked up, and reported on from time to time."
THE BULLION HOLDINGS DISPUTE.
An attempt has been made by interested parties
through the daily press and otherwise to create the
impression that R. T. Ward and the Guggenheim
Exploration Company" have been the victims of an
injustice in regard to eei'tain placer interests in Cariboo. The matter has been the subject of a parliamentary investigation, when it was shown that before giving their decision Attorney-General Bowser
had taken the advice of E. V. Bodwell, one of the best
authorities on (mining law in the Province.
The facts are undisputed that the Guggenheim
Exploration Company did not renew its annual
license as required by law if it wished to retain its
holdings; that the lapse occurred over a period of
18 months, and that the company had failed to carry
on mining operations or applied for a lay-over as required by the law.   These omissions would be fatal MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
68
to the rights of the individual miner as well as a
corporation, and the company's laches in these matters had the appearance of deliberate intent to abandon the holdings.
It was contended that the company's rights were
preserved by a special private Act, but no such Act
can over-ride the general law regulating the operation of placer iand lode mineral claims, and the
'annual license fees required to maintain the right to
operate; and this feature of the mining law has been
upheld by the Privy Council.
a gross value on present  prices for the metal of
$143,205,896.
The Vice-president and General. Manager, J. W.
D. Moodie, is to be congratulated on the splendid
record made for Britannia under his management, in
which he has been ably supported by Assistant Manager E. J- Donohue.  j
A PUGET SOUND WILDCAT PROMOTION.
HOWE SOUND COPPER AND BRITANNIA
MINING AND SMELTING COMPANIES.
The annual reports of the Howe Sound Company,
the holding company for the Britannia Mine in British Columbia and the El Potosi Mine in Mexico, appearing in last issue afford interesting information.
The El Potosi Mine was mainly held by Mr. Schley
and associates, and is one of the richest mines in
Mexico. Even under the present unfortunate conditions in that country this mine is operated under
lease on terms which enable it to carry itself and
when normal conditions are resumed there the mine
will again be one of the most profitable enterprises
in Mexico, being capable of earning profits of $200,-
000 a month on average metal markets. The mine
has larger reserves than at any time in its history.
The Britannia Mine made an excellent showing for
the year considering the difficulties and losses encountered in the disastrous snowslide of March 1915,
and the shortage of water for power in the fall, both
of which conditions seriously interfered with t lit*
operation of the mine during half the year. Notwithstanding these difficulties, the Britannia Com-
• pany earned a gross profit of 35 per cent, on its capital stock, but the losses due to the snowslide were
charged to it on one hand, while certain improvements not completed at the time the balance sheet
was prepared did not go to credit of the property
account till after the close of the year, though paid
for from profit and loss account.
The first units of the new mill went into oi^eration
on Nov. 11th, too late in the year to figure much in
the year's results. The third unit went into operation on July 15th, and the fourth iihrj will shortly be
in operation, when the mine will be handling 2,500
tons a day, making the Britannia Mining and Smelting Company the second largest copper producer in
Canada.
The Company publishes for the first time estimates
of its ore reserves. These amount to 10,253,403 tons
for the Fairview Mine, averaging 2 per cent, ami
6,944,386 tons for the other properties averaging 1.5
per cent, a total reserve of 622,634,331 libs, copper, of
We direct the attention of the Minister of Mines
and Attorney General to the floating in Seattle and
Tacoma of the Thompson River Placer Gold Mining
Company Ltd. The promoters named are :President,
John F. _ Murphy, former prosecuting attorney for
King County, Wash., Dr. J. F. Austin, of Tacoma,
and J. W. Robinson, described as "Lawyer" Seattle.
The office is at 902 Lowman Building-, Seattle. We
are informed the promoters have striking exhibits
of gold in the windows of Seattle and Tacoma, and
are selling stock at a lively rate. Mining men from
British Columbia do not believe these exhibits came
from the locality stated. (Sftirtii
The prospectus tells us, "There is a Gold Mine
in British Columbia which promises to bring a fortune to several well-known Seattle men in the immediate future. Not only that. Some other men—how
many depends upon the men*—are likewise going to
take money out of this mine to make them independent and remove them from the '' worry'' class.''
We are next told: "Two Swedish boys who
joined the rush to the Caribou district happened upon a Canadian Government mining report while on
the way north. In that report the engineer and geologist set .down as a probable fact that at some time
in the past the North Thompson River broke through
a rim' of ground and made a new bed for itself. The
old bed which held the rushing wafers of a. mighty
stream is still there, but its sides are dry. Criss Creek,
a stream small by comparison, but containing ample
water for sluicing and hydraulicing, now wends its
way down the discarded gorge.
"Abandoned river beds are the sweethearts of
the miners. History records that they yield generously of that medium which provides ease, comfort
and pleasure. So these Swedish boys halted. They
.permitted the mad rush to the Caribou to go on.
They determined to explore the old bed of the North
Thompson River alone and undisturbed. So it happened that a lew months ago these boys said "Goodbye" to worry and began to take glittering flakes
and weighty nuggets out of the old river bed.
They constructed a crude dam, built a small flume
and now are making clean-ups regularly.
"Then they came to see the greater possibilities.
They came to Seattle, consulted one of the men who 69
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
.
are talking to you through these lines, and arranged
for operations on a larger scale. One of the immediate results was the despatching of three expert mining men to the field. These men came back after a
few weeks of thorough examination and testing with
reports which verified the glowing tales of these
Swedish discoverers in every particular. Leases were
staked and the rights to operate secured from the
Canadian Government.
"Therefore we now have the Thompson River
Placer Gold Mining Company Ltd., with a capital
stock of $500,000. Its organizers have tested the
ground, allmost every foot of it. Not a single pan has
failed to show its gift of gold—gold by the way which
brings $17.85 per oz. wherever offered, and many
pans taken varied from 60c to $1.80 per pan. Do a
little figuring and see what this would amount to
per yard, then per thousand yards. Figure 140 pans
to the yard.
'' Now please do not gasp. What we are about to
tell you is the truth. Our holdings are of such size
and .depth to bedrock as to make the work of hy-
draulicing a FIFTY YEAR JOB. This company
owns leases on Criss Creek extending more than
two and a quarter miles."
Such is the imagination of the promoters. Their
prospectus on the face of it stamps their proposition
as an ignorantly devised and dishonest attempt at
misleading innocent people to place their money in a
scheme whose only merit appears to make a little
easy money for the promoters by gross misrepresentations.
The shares 'are offered at 2 l-2c, so that if all the
stock were disposed of they would not have enough
money to make a good irrigation ditch, let alone
equip a hydraulic mine. The Swedish "boys," if
they ever existed, must be pretty ancient as the
Caribou rush dates back over 50 years. Nor were
they likely to quit panning gravel running 60c to
$1.80 per pan to start a wildcat in Seattle and Tacoma.
Before a company can operate in this country
it must register. The Thompson River Placer Gold
Mining Company Ltd. has not been registered, and
cannot legally acquire any rights or do business in
this country. Then we are told rights have been secured from the Canadian Government. As that Government has nothing to dot with mining rights in
this Province, that part of the story is a lie. If the
gravel is as deep as the prospectus says it cannot be
operated by hydraulic mining, so that fact will afford the promoters a good excuse for spending the
money raised from shares in some other way than in
buying a useless plant.
Such wildcat promotions injure legitimate mining investments and the Mines Department of British
Coulmbia should spare no effort to expose this concern, while it is the duty of the United States Postal
Department, whose mails it undoubtedly uses, to
have a full! investigation made of the officers and
men connected with the concern, for the protection
of the public, and act accordingly.
HON. LORNE CAMPBELL'S ADMINISTRATION.
AS MINISTER OF MINES.
For some years this journal has complained of
the inefficiency of the administration of the portfolio
of Mines in the British Columbia Cabinet and urged
,that, jini Ivdjew of the importance of the mineral industry, the portfolio should be separated from other
Cabinet positions and placed in the hands of a capable man. These suggestions were endorsed by the
Vancouver Board of Trade and Vancouver Chamber
of Mines in deputations and resolutions to the Govern
ment. When Hon. W. J. Bowser became Premier, one
of his first public acts was to give effect to the suggestions, and during the short time the policy has
been adopted it has been more than justified.
Hon. Lome Campbell, member for Rossland, a
man of technical training as an electrical engineer,
and of an experience of over 20 years in the most active mining centres of the Province, was chosen for
the new portfolio. During the short time he has
been Minister of Mines he has taken steps to obtain
estimates to provide for the more efficient work of
the Department. He has provided for opening up new
fields of promise to the prospector by roads and
trails. His policy has attracted new capital to the
development of the mineral resources of British
Columbia. Prospectors and miners from different
sections of the Province write us that he has fulfilled
his undertakings and carried out his pledges as few
ministers have done, with the result they have been
assisted in the exploration of the vast unknown areas
of the country. Reverted mineral claims, hitherto tied
up and laying idle, have been re-opened to prospectors and investors for exploration and development.
The production of'spelter has been established for
the first time. The Province has secured its first
copper refinery, and the Minister has announced it
as his policy to secure the establishment on the Coast
of copper, lead and zinc plants and refining in the
Province of all the minerals produced so that the
waste power resources may be used to greater extent,
and the field open to home labor 'broadened. The
mining sections have been covered with a corps of
capable engineers, who are investigating the resources of the different districts and are advising
prospectors on the development and prospects of
their holdings. The information will be compiled and
published with the backing of the Department, and MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
'70
cannot fail to be of further assistance in attracting
capital, the purchase from the prospector of his holdings, and the further development of our mineral
resources.
The first half year of the administration of this
vigorous policy by Hon. Lome Campbell is already
showing most gratifying results. Mining is making
such progress that the production will jump this year
from $30,000,000 to nearly $40,000,000. New metallurgical plants are under construction, providing for
the additional treatment of 6000 tons of ore a day, an
increase of 75 per cent over the production of the
past year, and bringing the mineral production, when
they are completed, to $50,000,000 per annum. There
are 60,000,000 tons of ore estimated to be proved up
in the Imines of British Columbia today, of an average
value of $8 per ton, or $480,000,000. The coal reserves
are placed at $216,000,000,000. The copper production will be increased this year to little short of
100,000,000 lbs., or nearly double last year's production. For the first half 0f the year the coal produc-.
tion shows an increase of 44 per cent, and coke production 48 per cent over corresponding period of
last year. When it is considered that the mineral
industry has contributed heavily from the pick of
its men to the Canadian Army supporting the British
forces on the battle fields of Europe, and that there is
in consequence a serious shortage of labor, these figures make a remarkable showing, and should dispel
any doubts as to the immense wealth, variety of resources aind great future ahead of this country. The
dividends from mining this year will be nearly
double those of last year. These are facts which cannot be disputed, and while the high prices for the
metals due to the war are largely responsible for
this magnificent showing and outlook, it is fair to the
Hon. Lome Campbell to say no Minister of the
Crown could have any more satisfactory record of
progress and prosperity to the credit of his Department, and he 'is entitled to that appreciation due to
the administration under which such an encouraging outlook is brought about.
This journal is not a party political organ, but
we must say the articles appearing in the Sun condemning the Minister for encouraging American capital to invest in mining are the silliest nonsense which
could be put forth in the interest of a political party.
Where is British Columbia to get its capital if not
from the United States? Even Great Britain and her
Allies go there. European sources are not available
during the war, and if they were what greater advantage is there in obtaining capital from there
than from our neighbors to the south? We cannot
believe the responsible leaders of any political party
would endorse such an insane cry. If they did, it
would mean putting the brake on the wheels of
progress, shutting down development, throwing
people out of employment, and bringing ruin .and
disaster on the country at a time when the stability
of the British Empire and its success in the great war
so much depends on new wealth production in order
to finance and sustain the great burden imposed on
our nation by a mad European emperor and .his
proteges. Such a policy is unpatriotic, in the interest.
of the national enemy, and discreditable to any man
or party responsible for it.
There is $100,000,000 of American capital invested in the mineral industry of British Columbia.
That capital has given British Columbia its three
largest mines and the three largest copper mines
and two Jjargest copper smelters in the British Empire ;prod aces 70 per cent of our mineral wealth, employes 75 per cent of our miners; supplies our merchants with 35 per cent of their markets; supplies
under the control of our own Government a great
deal of the copper, zinc, and lead necessary to the
manufacture of British munitions of war; prevents
foreign nations producing these metals from robbing
our own nation by monopolistic prices;and marketing conditions. Surely such an investment is a blessing and benefit to a country and its people, instead of
a cause for condemnation by an irresponsible journalist who would sacrifice the interest of the country at
the shrine of rotten political partyism, which is the
curse of any country supporting and adopting such
methods of pu'blic polity.
BOARD OF TRADE VISITS BRITANNIA MINE.
By E. A. Haggen.*
The ignorance of leading business men of the
Coast cities as to the mineral resources and development of British Columbia is too often surprising. For
instance we recently heard of an incident in which
the head of one of the oldest and best established
mercantile houses in Vancouver asked our informant
where the Britannia Mine was situated, .as he had
always understood it was at Nanaimo? Last fall
the Editor of this journal, at a meeting-of the Board
of Trade, suggested that when the improvements at
the Britannia Mine were sufficiently far advanced
to enable the members to see the property to advantage it would be well, with a view to educating them
as to the importance of the undertaking to the Coast
cities and the Province, that a trip should be arianged
to Britannia Beach. The secretary of the Board^ W.
A. Blair, was instructed to request the permission of
the management to visit the mine, and with that
courtesy which is extended to representatives of public institutions by the officials of the Britannia
Mining and Smelting Company, an invitation to the
"Editor  Mining  and  Engineering  Record. 71
MINING, <ENGINEERING   AND   ELEGTRICAL .RECORD
W
the Board to visit the mine was extended for August
2nd.
The Secretary of the Board of Trade made arrangements with the Terminal Steam Navigation
Company Ltd. to place the Ballena, the flagship of
the company's fleet, at the disposal of the members
and their families for the trip, of which about 200
availed themselves, and there would have been 'more
but the weather was not propitious. Dinner was
served on board the steamer, which was timed to arrive at Britannia Beach about 1 o'clock.
OVER THE BEACH ELECTRIC RAILWAY.
The party was headed by N. Thompson, President of the Board of Trade, and was welcomed on
arrival by J. W. D. Moodie, Vice-president and General Manager of the Company, E. J. Donohue, Assistant General Manager, C. P. Browning, General
Superintendent, and other members of the staff.
Bridge on Electric Railway, Crossing Britannia Creek, Britannia Beach
An electric railway train was provided, and was
boarded by the visitors. This train ran the party up
the switchback electric railway to the top of the mill,
at the lower terminal of the double-track incline
railway, where a car was in waiting to transfer them
to the top of the incline, which rises on an average
grade of 30 deg. for 5,400 ft.
THE 4100 FT. LEVEL.
At this terminal the visitors saw the first of the
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72
mining operations, as a tunnel is now being driven
at the 4,100 ft. or mill level. This work is being done
by contract and is being pushed forward at the rate
of about ten feet a day. The object of driving this
tuxnel at present is two-fold, to connect with the
Electric Haulage, Britannia Mine
lower terminal of the electric railway by a shaft and
ore chute, through which ore can be delivered from,
and supplies shipped to the mine under all weather
conditions, and in case of a recurrence of a severe
winter like the last, when the operation Of the incline railway might be interfered with by snow and
ice. The other object is to explore the company's
holdings between the portion of the mine now being
worked and the mill, and so obtain information as
to the possible extension of the ore-bodies in a westerly direction besides ascertaining their behavior as
they attain depth toward sea level, where the influences of secondary enrichment will probably be
found to have attained their maximum development.
For the present the tunnel will be run to a point immediately beneath the terminal of the electric railway, a horizontal distance of about 5000 ft.
Plans as to its subsequent extension will depend
on the developments, but it is probable that it will
eventually be extended right under the heart of
Britannia Mountain;, a distance of seven or eight
miles. The size of this tunnel is 9x13 ft. A diorite
dyke, mineralized with copper, was crosscut within
150 ft. of the portal of the tunnel. Should payable
ore be proved to extend to this level the Britannia
will become one of the world's deepest mines, as this
tunnel is at a depth of 4.100 ft. below the outcrop on
the summit of the mountain.
: This tunnel is now in a length of about 2000 ft.,
and it will take nearly another year to reach the
point for which it is at present being driven. When
that work is completed there is a still bigger task
ahead, and that is raising 1,600 ft. to connect this
level with the 2700 ft. level. This is the greatest work
of its kind ever attempted in mining history. The
raising of the shaft between the 2200 ft. level and the
1050 level, completed last year was, up to that time,
the greatest feat in that class of work ever attempted
in mining. The shaft between the 4100 ft. level and
the 2700 ft. level will exceed that work by 400 ft. in
vertical height, and an ore chute will also be driven
between the same levels. The cost of running and
equipping the tunnel will be little short of $150,000,
and the shaft and raise will probably cost as much
more.
THE  INCLINE  RAILWAY.
The 20-ton cars which- carry the ore over the
incline railway could only accomodate a portion of
the visitors each trip so that several trips had to be
made to land them all at the upper terminal of the
double track incline railway, which is also the lower
terminal of the electric railway leading to the portal
of the present working level.
Those who relnained waiting for the next car
spent their time examining the objects of interest,
among which were the 2000-ton ore bin at the top of
the mill, and a new ore bin cut out of solid rock
which will accomodate 10,000 tons of ore in reserve
for the mill. Into this big bin goes the surplus from
the aerial tralmway and incline arilway.
As the visitors ran up the incline railway they
were much interested in the aerial tramway operating alongside, whose buckets were steadily passing
laden with ore on one cable, or running back empty
along the other cable. This tramway is 13,000 ft. in
length and in crossing the ravines and valleys the
cable sometimes stretches several hundred feet overhead. Part of the supplies for the mine and camps
are sent up over this aerial tramway, and the rest
over the incline and electric railways. It delivers
froto 800 to 1000 tons, of ore a day at the mill.
THE 2700 FT. LEVEL.
Arrived at the upper terminal of the incline railway the visitors were shown the air drills at work on
the 2700 ft. level, which is being run to a point under
Britannia Beach in 1916 73
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
the ore chute leading from the upper workings to
the 2200 ft. level and to develop this portion of the
feline. The distance between the portal and that point
is about 6000 ft., and the tunnel is of the same dimensions as that on the 4100 ft. level. This tunnel
New Town near Main Mine Level
will be extended when required under the present
workings to open the mine to that depth, and will
eventually have a length of about six miles. The cost
of the work now planned will'be about $175,000.
This new level will be connected with the 2200 ft.
level above by a shaft of a vertical depth of 500 ft
besides an ore chute. The completion of this work
■will relieve the electric railway, if required, and, together with the 4100 ft. level, "will enable all mine
and ore transportation to be done underground, thus
making the mine absolutely independent of winter or
other weather conditions. These new works just outlined, and now being carried out on this level will
cost about $600,000.
The huge electrical machinery controlling the
operation of the lineline railway was explained. This
includes every device necessary to ensure safety of
operation, and as to economy the power generated
by the descending load is utilized to generate and
store electric energy.
THE  ELECTRIC  RAILWAY.
Having inspected the 2700 ft. level, which has
been driven about 800 ft., the entire party was provided with seating accommodation on the cars of the
electric railway. This line has a switchback and two
loops to make grade, and is three and one half miles
long, rising on an average grade of 3 per cent.
At its upper end it passes through the Mine
Townsite, where about 200 cottages have beeni built
to accommodate the employes with families. These
cottages are well built, and are fitted up with the
most up-to-date sanitary appliances. The upper terminal of the aerial tramway is also passed. A spur
from the electric railway leads to the upper terminal
of the aerial tramway to supply it with ore. The
power generated by gravity in operating the tramway is taken1 up and used to drive a compressor.
THE MINING CAMP.
Arrived at the upper end of the electric railway,
a visit was made to the boarding house and bunk
house, where it was seen that the best of accommodation and board are provided for the company's
employes. The huge bakery was a source .of mucin
interest. The separate bed rooms, reading rooms,
baths and sanitary appliances are characteristic of
the most up-to-date and generous provision for the
comfort of the employes.
The compressor house, power plant and machine
shops were next examined and it was a surprise to
the visitors to see such modern) and complete equipment some miles back in the mountains.
The miner's shift was just coming off, the outgoing shift being carried out of the long tunnel,
and the incoming shift going in over the electric
railway. It was a common- remark among the visitors
that they had never seen such a fine lot of men together before, and it was evident the company's
system secures it the best class of mine labor. Exceptionally high wages are being paid following the
high price of copper, miners earning $4.50 a day and
muckers $3.75.
THE  2200  FT.   LEVEL.
The 2200 ft. level is the maim working level. It
is 9x13 ft. and has been driven as a crosscut tunnel
for 4336 ft., when it enters the downward extension of the Fairview Schist zone in which the principal Britannia ore bodies occur. This tunnel cost
$20.74 a foot. It is equipped with armored power
cables, air pipe lines, water supply lines, telephone
lines and drainage.
At the portal of the 2200 ft, level the party was
met by Mine Supt. W. A. Wylie, and by D. McDonald, Chief Electrician, who assisted in showing them
through the mine workings.
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Smelting Co., Ltd. MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
74
The visitors were run to the face, where they
witnessed the automatic loading of the big train of
25 ton ore cars frotm the ore chute extending from
the 1050 ft. level, 1200 ft. overhead. They were taken
Leschen & Sons Aerial Tramway, Telephone Lines aud Pipe Line
between Britannia Beach and Mine
in hatches up the 3-4 compartment shaft at the top of
which they were shown the enormous electric hoisting engine and electric appliances. The mine was
found to be brilliantly lighted throughout by electricity. This shaft is 10 x 20 ft. and was driven by
raising a vertical height of 1200 ft. It is stated to be
the biggest work of its kind so far undertaken. It
has three compartments—two for hoisting cages, and
one for manway, air telephone, lighting, water and
other services. It cost $60 a foot.
1050   FT.   LEVEL.
At the top of the shaft the visitors found themselves on the 1050 ft. level, where they were taken
into the portion of the mine from which ore is being
extracted, and saw the power drills and stoping operations, almost everyone taking a sample of the ore
away with him. The ore trains were seen dumping
their loads of ore into the mouth of the ore chute delivering it at the 2200 ft. level.
On the down trip the cages stopped at the 1800
ft. level where an excavation has been made to accommodate the huge Gates rock erusher installed to
break the ore to a size ready for shipment to the mill.
This operation having been examined the visitors
were taken back to the mill through which they
were guided by Mr. Donohue, who explained the entire process of sorting, crushing by rolls and tube
mills, concentrating by jigs, tables and flotation.
Two 500-ton units of the new mill are in operation, and two other units are only awaiting some
extra parts to go into commission, the rest of the machinery having been almost all assembled. The new
mill is treating about 1000 tons of ore a day, and the
old mill is treating about 600 t ons a day, 1600 tons in
all. On the sorting belt the hard ore is picked off and
thrown into bins from which it is conveyed to the
tube mills where it forms the grinding agent for the
softer ore. There is thus no barren material in the
tube mils, their entire contents yielding values. The
ore averages 26c a ton in gold, 0.33 oz. silver and
2.25 per cent copper, and an extraction of 94 per
cent is obtained. Smelters have difficulty in handling
flotation:.' concentrates alone owing to the flue loss
from the fine character of the concentrates. The
Britania gets over this difficulty by carrying launders from all sections of the mill, whereby all classes
of concentrates are mixed together ir.1 one bin at a
time, and the feed changed to another bin as the
former is filled up. Through tunnels the electric railway cars pass under the bins,' which are unloaded
into them, and the railway cars in turn are discharged into the bunkers at the dock for shipment to
Tacoma ^smelter, which has the contract for treatment of the production of the mine over an extended period. The management of the Britannia is well
satisfied with the manner in which the Tacoma
smelter has been handling its ores. As the Tacoma
smelter has a refinery the matte is converted and
refined into electrolytic copper, in which condition
it is sold to the British Government for manufacture
of mlunitions of war.
When the remaining units of the mill are completed it will have a capacity of 4000 tons a day, the
same as that of the Grand Forks plant of the Granby
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, which
is the largest copper simelter in the British Empire.
The cost of'producing copper is about 7.3 c per lb.
which is, with the exception of the Utah Copper
Company, the lowest cost of production on the continent.
After seeing through the mill it was getting late,
and the visitors rushed back to the Ballena, where
Terminal Steam Navigation Co.'s Ballena, providing daily transportation
between Vancouver and Britannia Beach 75
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
they had tea served and returned   to   Vancouver,
which was reached at about 9:30 p. m.
Before leaving their hearty thanks were tendered to the staff of the Britannia Mining and Smelting Company for the interesting afternoon which
had been spent on the property. The visitors were accompanied all over the property by Mr. Donohue
who, with the assistance of Mr. Browning, explained
all operations, and had to answer as many questions
on technical and cost operations as the victim of an
inquisitive lawyer in a court witness box. The kindness and courtesy extended to the visitors by these
gentlemen was mluch appreciated, and the management of the Britannia Mine has done a great public
service in demonstrating to the business mem of Vancouver one of the most important industrial operations tributary to the city, and a property which is
one of the most valuable copper properties on the
North American Continent. This property will, before the yelar is out, be producing at the rate of 40,-
000,000 lbs. of copper per annum, ranking with the
Granby Company as the largest copper producer in.
the British Empire. These two companies can produce between them 90,000 000 lbs. of copper per
annum, or nearly double the total production of
British Columbia for last year, which was the largest
in the history of mining in the Province.
While the members of the Board of Trade were
at the Mine Mr. Moodie entertained the ladies of the
party at afternoon tea, and showed them over the
mill, store and towinlsite. The Board of Trade has
written the Britannia Mining and Smelting Company, acknowledging their kindness in entertaining
the members and thanking the Company's officials
for the trouble they took to give the visitors the
information they desired. Hitherto the Britannia
Mine will be recognized by the business community, and deservedly so, as one of the big enterprises
of British Columbia. Already between $6,000,000 and
$7,000,000 has been invested in the development and
equipment of this great mine, and the end is not
yet, the investment probably representing about
$10,0,00,000 before the property is placed on a dividend paying basis. The mine has been made in the
last three to four years, and is now earning profits
representing about 40 per cent on the capital stock.
These profits are all, however, being put back into
the mine, and while the shareholders have not as
yet had any divedends they have an asset
which is making wonderful strides in the added
Aralues of its ore reserves, and which will, in time,
pay dividends ranking with the best copper stocks
on the market. The company's conservative policy
will be appreciated by all who want to see honesty
of imanagement and strict business methods applied
to mining as to any other industrial development,
which looks to building itself on a sure foundation
and creating great financial strength to meet the
vicissitudes of the future, such as comte to all mining
companies with their years of prosperity.
PRODUCTION  OF  BRITANNIA  MLNE.
The Britannia Mine has produced metals to the
value of over $10,000,000 to date, and has ore reserves estimated at about 20,000,000 tons, of an average value of 1.53 per cent copper, or a recoverable
value of 600,000,000 lbs. copper, 260,000- ozs. gold
and 6,600,000 ozs. silver, a gross total value on present prices of copper and silver of $158,000,000. The
cost of mining and treating this ore may be placed
at about $50,000,000, and if we allow for the,probable drop in copper at the close of the war the Britannia Company has ore reserves representing a probable profit of about $50,000,000. Assuming that the
company's investment will amount to $10,000,000 by
the time the imine is on a dividend paying basis, and
as it will handle about 1,000,000 tons a year, we have
a probable earning power of 26 per cent for 20 years.
Allowing for amortisation, the company's shareholders can probably figure on a return of 15 per cent
per annum on their investment in.the mine, or about
60% on the paid-up share capital of '$2,299,150
It must be remembered the estimates of ore reserves
are based on the development a'bove the 1050 level.
Ore is proved on the 2200 level, at 1200 ft. greater
depth, though not sufficiently developed to justify estimates on it. In the 2700 ft. level a shoot of ore has
been encountered 12 ft. wide and carrying some of
the richest ore found in the mine, so that the reserves
will probably be vastly increased as development proceeds. From the limited development done on the
length of the ore zone as compared with the distance
over which ore is indicated—some five miles—it
seems probable that the present reserves will be increased at least tenfold with further exploration.
Of great magnitude as are the present plans for
development, they pale into insignificance in view of
the possibilities of the future. It is probable that ere
long quarrying and gloryhole methods of mining will
be applied and railway tracks carrying steam shovels will traverse the slope of Britannia Mountain
which will be gradually quarried down under 'the
most economical methods of mining large bodies of
ore. There is every reason to believe operations comparing in magnitude with those of the Utah Copper
Co. will be used on Britannia Mountain as the enlarge
ment of milling operations calls-for yet greater supplies of ore. By the mining and metallurgical plans
of the Britannia Mining and Smelting Company it
will be possible to handle ore carrying 1 per cent
copper at a pr-ofit of say 50c per ton on average prices
for copper, and the greater part of the Britannia MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD 76
^rmn * *° mineraliZ6d &S t0 COme up to that re' of the Grant>y Company and the gold ores of Hedley.
"            ' The East Kootenay returns are mainly from the ?ul-
The following is the record of the production of livan Mine> operated by the Consolidated Mining and
the Britannia Mine to Dec. 31st, 1915. Smelting Company Ltd., and the mines of the Crows
•Year            Tons ore.      Gold oz. Silver oz   Cop   lbs         Value ^eSt ^&ss Goal Company Ltd. The big jump in CaS-
im' ^IjL6 I'Ml lS'?loB lloillf * Ulill siar returns is due to the operations of the Tranbv
mi ii28?90o°o0 1^1 46'oo°o s'lls'ooo i o?4'«34 Gom^^7 at Anyox. The Cariboo returns are mainly
ml 2i!;ooo ~^ Jf'foo- VAX iilflll from Placer g°ld> and the copper and silver-lead
"is 2!o°;i27f Hi !o8'lol 'litlfd (Mm toin6S °f Hazelton- Building materials make the poor-
Totals gsmiT W$ -smaos 63,68t!70i fio^s^m est sihowing for s°me years owing to the cessation of
 j  construction of new buildings and railways. The item
ANNUAL REPORT OF   MINISTER   OF   MINES is mainly made UP  of eement manufactured,  and
■mri-D mic building stone quarried in the Coast districts.
jf uit iyio.
mi        a              t   -r.                     ,    I     ,   .    . GOLD.
I he Annual Report of the Minister of Mines for
British Columbia for 1915 is to hand. The statistics Tke 'placer gold output was the highest siace
are valuable as the returns which mining companies l9°7 ^ shoWS an merease of nearly 50 Per cent
are required to send in to the Government furnish the °Ver Previous ^^ 0f the production 90 per cent
only authentic figures available from year to year Was from Atlin and Gariboo. The Boulder Creek Hy-
The production was as follows:— drauhc Mining Company,    operating    on    Thibert
MINERAL PRODUCTION i^OR 1916 Creek, produced $20,000 and Ball and Finn and Mit-
Quantity           Value el1611 Br0S' made sma11 outPuts   in   same    locality.
Gold, placer,                                                   $  770 000 Parties worked on Laird River, McDame and Rosella
Lode   ozs!                            250 021            5167'934 creeks" Indians mined gold on the Tahltan. Similka-
Silver, ozs.                               3,366,506            l'588'991 m6en and Tulamei1 showed   improved   production.
Lead, lbs.                               46,503,590            l'939200 Yevnon made a Produetlon from Siwash Creek. Yale
Copper lbs.                             56,918,405            9,825 500 dld well from the Fraser bars;    and   Fort   Steele
Zinc,lbs.                                  12,982,440            1,460^524 sh°Wed imProved retuM«-
Coal tons                                  1611129            5 638 952 Lode gold showed an increase of $58,930 over
Coke, tons                                   245 871            1475 226 Previous year The Hedley Gold Mining Company
Miscellaneous                                                      1 57l'l81 was-thie largest producer, with over $900,000, an in-
'          crease   of  $120,000   over previous year.   Rossland
$29 447 508 snowed an increase of $80,000 and Boundary of $160,-
The tonnage mined was 2,690,110, the highest on 00°; Nelson feU off $120>000, or nearly 40 per cent
record. The production for 1915 shows an increase mamly du.e to the closing of the Mother Lode on
of $3,058,683 over previous year, and is $848,890 SheeP Creek- Skeena shows an increase of 75 per
less than the output for 1913, hitherto the banner cent> due to the Granby Company's operations at
•year                                                                          .<&&$£ Anyox. 76.5 per cent, of the gold production comes
Gold leads all other minerals in production to from smelting gold-copper ores. The following ad-
date the amount being $160,803,053. Coal and W dfctional mines operate stamp mills :-Granite Poor-
make a close second with $156,928,640. Copper ranks man> at Nelson; Queen, on Sheep Creek; Second
third with a value of $96,774,870. Silver production Rehef at Ene; JeweL Greenwood; Coronation, Lil-
has amounted to $39,298,273; lead to $33,407,662. looet; Engineer Atlin. Producers of smelting ore are:
building materials to $25,398,282, and other metals Granby, B. C. Copper, Jewel, Carmi, Union and Div-
to $3 659 473. West Kootenay was the largest pro- idend-Lake View, Boundary; Le Roi, Le Roi No. 2,
ducer for 1915 with $7,308,793. The Coast districts and Centre Star> Rossland; Marble Bay Mine, Tex-
rank next with $6,682,057, followed by Boundary- ada Island; Rocher de Boule, Hazelton. Production
Yale, with $5,470,689. East Kootenay produced a of the districts was:—
value of $4,420,988: Cariboo $885,502 and LiUooet DIVISION                                                     Ozs. Gold.
$25 643 Rossland    142,595
The West Kootenay returns are mainly from the    Boundary    87,870
gold-copper mines of Rossland and the silver-lead    Nelson    9,233
mines of Slocan and Ainsworth. The Coast produc-    Skeena    5,034
tion is mainly from the copper ores of the Britannia    Coast    2,490
Mine and the coal mines of Vancouver Island. Bound-    Omineca    1,524
ary-Yale returns were mainly from the copper mines    All others  1,275
mm 77
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL  JfcECORD
i
fi
SILVER.
The silver production was 235,674 ozs. less than
for previous year, and owing to the lower price the
value shows a deficiency of $287,745. The decline in
price which set in in 1913, continued through 1914
and 1915, the average falling off each year being 5c
per oz., or a reduction of 10c per oz. in the two years.
Slocan produced 62.9 per cent, and Fort Steele 14.3
per cent of the total. The following is the production
of the different districts :—
DIVISION ozs. Silver Per cent
of total.
Slocan    1,812,550 53.84
Fort Steele 481,258 14.30
Ainsworth    289,565 8.60
Boundary  273,795 8.13
Skeena    175,179 5.20
Trail    159,584 4.74
Omineca   79,155 1.38
Coast 66,033 1.96
Trout Lake Revelstoke 16,740 0.49
Nelson 9,405 0.27'
All others 3,242 0.09
LEAD.
The lead output was 4,121,458 lbs. less than previous year, but owing to the higher price the value
was $167,323 greater. The following shows the production and ratio of the respective districts:—
DIVISION lbs. Lead Per cent
of total.
Fort  Steele    26,582,050 57.20
Slocan    14.925,345 32.10
Ainsworth    3,436,184 7.37
Nelson 967,775 2.07
Omineca  249,279 0.53
All others   342,957 0.73
The copper production was the largest in the
history of the Province by nearly 5,500,000 lbs., while
the value was nearly $1,500,000 over 1912, the best
year previously. The increase in quantity was 26.46
per cent over previous year and in value 60.7 per cent.
The price averaged 22.25c per lb. the highest price
in 40 years. The following was the production of the
principal copper mines:—
COMPANY Tons Ore        lbs. Copper.
Granby Consolidated M. S. & P. Co.—
Anyox 645,989        24,760,112.
Phoenix 1,035,225        16,046,000
Britannia Mining and
Smelting Co. 209,971       9,058,045
Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Co.
Le Roi Mine 131,319       2,735,512
Centre Star 180,508 985,626
Rocher de Boule Copper Co.       17,000       2,788,000
B. ('. Copper Co. Ltd. 122,5-14       1,734,385
Le Roi No. 2 Ltd. 26,538 927,616
The following   is   the   production   of the different districts and ratio to total production:—
DIVISION lbs. Copper Percent
of total.
Coast Districts 34,516,957 60.65
Boundary    17,402,662 30.57
Rossland   4,651,681 8.17
Yale-Kamloops    295,164 0.52
Nelson and others 51,941 0.09
The B. C. Copper Company operated only one
furnace out of three, and that for only six months
of the year.
AINC.
The following were the principal producers:—
COMPANY lbs. Zinc
Standard Silver Lead Mining Co 3,778,857
H. B 2,387,514
Silverton Mines   1,385,859
Zineton    739,695
Retallack Mines 576,000
Lucky Jim  788,695
Rambler-Cariboo    540,660
The close of the year saw the inauguration of
spelter production in the Province through an electro-'
chemical plant being successfully established at
Trail, with an initial capacity of 25 tons of spelter
a day, about to be increased to 50 tons a day. Except
for the ore treated at this plant all ore had to be
shipped to American spelter works.
OTHER METALS.
The Tulameen River produced platinum to a
value of $2000. 24 tons of molybdenite was shipped
from the Molly Group on Lost Creek and averaged
12.26 molybdenite. This mine has several thousand
tons of 2 to 4 per cent ore. A molybdenite deposit
is being worked at Alice Arm, where a mill has been
installed and regular shipments are being made to
Seattle where fused metal and various salts of molybdenum are produced.
Two cars of antimony ore were mined by W. J.
McMillan' at the Alps-Alturas Mine, on the north
fork of Carpenter Creek. One lot was shipped to
Great Britain and the other shipment was sent to
Chicago. The ore averaged 50 to 55 per cent anti- .
(mony.
OTHER MINERALS.
Armstrong and Morrison^ of Vancouver, mined
several hundred tons of magnesite at Atlin and shipped the mineral to Vancouver, but were unable to
find a market for it as expected. The development of
the pulp industry is likely to afford a market for
this mineral.
About 300 tons of Epsom salts were shipped
from the Bitter Lakes deposit in the Similkamenn. MINING,   ENGINEERING  AND   ELECTRICAL  RECORD
18
COAL AND  COKE.
The following shows the production of the different companies:—
Vancouver Island.
Company and Mines Coal 1915 Coke 1915.
Tons Tons
Western Fuel Company-
No. 1 Shaft 387,009
Reserve Mine 28,714
Canadian Collieries
(Dunsmuir) Ltd.
Extension                                   166,971 5,450
Cumberland                               260,841
Pacific Coast Coal Mines.
Fiddick Colliery 129,431
Vaneouver-Nanaimo Coal Co. 47,976
Total Output of Vancouver
Island
1,020,942
5,450
511,904
147,129
278,124
93,292
62,544
47,803
34,710
1,005
15,548
MAINLAND MINES
Crows Nest Pass Coal Co.-
Coal Creek
Michel
Corbin Coal & Coke Co.
Middlesboro Colleries Ltd.
Inland Coal and Coke Co.
Coal Hill Colliery
Pacific Coast Coal Syndicate
Princeton Coal & Land Co.
Total output of Mainland Mines   951,638        240,421
Grand Total, less 361,451
tors made into coke— 1,611,129        245,871
The Western Fuel Company is the only coal company to show an appreciable increase and this company's output increased by 100,000 tons, or about
30 per cent over previous year's production. Pacific
Coast Coal Mines and Crows Nest Pass Coal each
made a slight increase.
The Crows Nest Pass production was seriously
affected by the Hosmer Mines, owned by the C. P. R.,
being closed down for good.
The Princeton Coal and Land Company was affected by the loss-, of the coal supply for operating
the Hedley Gold Mining Co's stamp mill, electric
power having been substituted. The Crows Nest Pass
Goal Co. increased its coke output by nearly 40,000
tons, almost making up the deficiency caused by the
closing of the Hosmer Mines.
The Crows Nest Pass Coal Co. mined 40.05 per
cent of the total coal production; the Canadian Collieries 21.7 per cent and the Western Fuel Company
21.07 per cent.
It is interesting to note that 10.43 per cent of the
production was by machines, one company, the West
ern Fuel Company, alone producing 89.39 per cent
of the total.
BUILDING MATERIALS.
Sand and gravel used in the Coast cities fell
from $300,000 to $80,000. The cement output of the
Vancouver Portland , Cement Co. and Associated
Cement Company, operating on Tod Inlet, Vancouver
Island, dropped heavily, the value of the former being $200,000 as against $550,000 for the previous
year, while the value of the latter dropped from
$300,000 to $260,000.
The two leading manufacturers of clay products
are the Clayburn Company, on the Mainland, and the
B. C. Pottery Company at Victoria. The Clayburn
Company, made 1,800,000 firebrick, and 250,000 face
brick. They had the contract for the supply of the
whole of the firebrick for the extensive additions to
the Trail Smelter. This Company has been doing remarkably well notwithstanding the dull times, having a large credit balance at its bankers. The B. C.
Pottery Company curtailed its production last year
by 30 per cent as compared with previous year. In
its works last year were used 670 tons of fireclay
shipped by the Canadian Collieries Ltd. from its
Cumberland mines. Rough building stone showed an
improvement in production, being 300 per cent over
previous year, due to the use of several thousand tons
of large granite blocks in the construction of the
pier for the outer breakwater at Victoria.
The production of building materials was just
about half of previous year.
The report contains reports by W. M. Brewer
M. E. on portions of New Westminster, Similkameen,
Nicola and Kamloops districts. The Assistant Provincial Mineralogist, J. D. Galloway, covered a large
amount of ground, taking in Northeast and Southwest Kootenay, Nelson Silverton, Trail Smelter,
and Boundary. The report contains a lot of valuable
information compiled by him.
LABOR  IN MINES.
There were 4,144 persons employed in the metalliferous mines, and 4,99.1 in the coal mines, 741 less
than 1914, a total of 9,135, exclusive of those engaged
in the metallurgical industries and supply business.
The number of tons of coal produced per man
employed underground was: East Kootenay district 721 tons; Coast districts 446 tons.
MINE INSPECTION.
Thomas Graham, Chief Inspector of Mines, reviews the mine accidents for the year. The greatest
coal mining fatality list was at the Reserve Mine of
the Western Fuel Company, where 25 men lost their
lives, nearly all in the explosion. The next highest
fatality list was at the South Wellington Mine of
the Pacific Coast Coal Mines, where 20 lives were 79
MINING;   ENGINEERING nA^roolLECTRIGAL   RECORD
lost, all but one by the flooding of the mine.;
Of the other fatalities, five were in the mines
of the Canadian Coll fries Ltd. two at Crows Nest
Pass Coal Co. one each al Coal Creek and Michel.
The fatalities from falls of rock and coal were reduced to 15.38 for 19.15 as compared with 64.72 in
1914 and 85.111 in 1913. The number of fatalities was
the highest since 1909, and the ratio was 10.42 per
1000.
The accidents in metal mines show an improvement, having been 4.10 per thousand as compared
with 4.55 for previous year, and 4.40, the average
for the past ten years.
y, ■■ There were three fatalities in the Granby Company's mines at Phoenix and two at Anyox; two each
at the Standard Silver-Lead Company's mine at Silverton and Britannia one each in Nickel Plate, War
Eagle, Queen, Utica, Le Roi and Centre Star mines
of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company.
Of these picking into unexploded charges accounted
for 11.77 per cent; falls of ground 29.41 per cent;
falling into chutes, rises and winzes 23.53 per cent
and sliding material in chutes 11.77. Fatalities from
powder fumes, returning on unexploded shots, mine
fire and flying rock were each 5.88 per cent.
EXPLOSIVES.
It is notable that of 330,193 lbs. of explosives
used in coal mining, the Crows Nest mines broke
down 42.17.tons per lb. of explosive, while the Coast
Mines only obtained 3.75 tons, and the mines at Mer-
ritt only 2.6 tons.
SAFETY   LAMPS.
Of 3,335 safety lamps used 3,311 are of Wolf
type, fitted with internal igniters, and 24 electric
lamps, of which 22 are used in Coast mines and two
at Nicola.
MINE RESCUE  APPARATUS.
There are 84 sets of mine rescue apparatus at
the coal mines and 16 sets at metal mines. Of these
86 are Draeger and 10 of Fleuss or proto type. All
ctoal mines are equipped;with the apparatus and the
following  metal   mine's;   Consolidated   Mining  and
HOLLINGER CONSOLIDATED GOLD MINES,
.;„« LTD.
Smelting  Co
(TS/OSSl
ind.   Kimberley,. Ainsworth
Trail; Granby Consolidated at  Phoenix, and Anyox
Britannia, and Standard Silver eLad.
FIRST  AID   WORK.
Britannia, and Standard. Silver Lead,
reports 700 having atendedhis eourse-of instruction,
of whom 301 passed the St. Johns Ambulance examinations, as follows; Fernie 63, Coal Creek 53,
Rossland 31, Nanaimo 25, Miehel 23, Bevan. 21, Lady-
smith 20, Merritt 17, Hedley 15, Van Anda 13, Extension 9, South Wellington 8, Cumberland 3,
The report is, as usual, well illustrated with
maps, diagrams and plates.
Hollinger Consolidated Cold Mines, Ltd.. has published a Review, of its operations for portion of year
January 1st last to June 16th. The consolidation of
Hollinger Gold Mines, Ltd., Acme Gold Mines, Ltd..
Millerton Gold Mines, Ltd., has been completed, and
the property of the Canadian Mining and Finance
Co., Ltd., including Claim 1347 and plant, has been
purchased. By the terms of consolidation Hollinger
Gold Mines, Ltd., became bodily a part of the new
company, contributing its properties, plant, cash and
all other assets and receiving therefor its share of
stock in tihe new company; while the shareholders of
Acme Millerton and Canadian Mining and Finance
Company were to receive in cash an amount equal
to aE dividends paid Hollinger shareholders for
1916, until the consolidation should be completed,
constituting a liability of $750,000, to be reduced a*
circumstances permit. The plant is being increased
by a capacity of 1,600 tons a day, to handle a total of
1,900 tons per day, making the plant much the largest gold mining plant in Canada.
THE BALANCE SHEET.
Current assets show cash in hand $274,421.93, to
be increased by payment of $164,000 from Canadian
Miming and Finance in final adjustment of accounts.
The balance sheet shows assets: Capital Account:
Mining Properties, $21,150,244.17 ■ Plant, $1,517,321.-
64; Developtment, $565,462.48; Deferred Development
$264,185.75; Town Real Estate, $2,950; total, $23,-
500,164.04.
Current Assets: Canadian 5 per cent. War Loan,
$146,250; Cash on hand, $274,421.93; Accounts receivable, $201,503.62; Material and Supplies, $190,-
490.38; Charges Paid in Advance, $15,027.60; Guarantee Deposit, $300; Town of Timmins Debentures,
$83,202.95; total, $911,196.48.
Bullion assets: Bullion in transit, $145,358.11; Solutions, $49,564; Precipitates, $97,000; Slags,.$10,000;
total, $301,922.11; grand total assets $24,713,282.61.
Dividends paid for year-amounted to $720,000, and
a similar amounl is to be paid to shareholders of C.
M. & F., Acme and Millerton. Profit on operation
from January 1st to June 16, was $1,261,900.83.
Liabilities are: Capital and stock issued, $24,000,-
000; wages $47,559.40; accounts payable, $118,822.-
4D; Due shareholders ('. M. & F., Acme and Millerton
$720,000; patriotic contributions, $5,000: total $24,-
891,381.80.;
Operating; costs were: General charges, administration, management, consolidation and insurance, $80,-
210.96; Clearing surface, roads, etc. $3,022.50; Mining
$534,804.94; Milling, $23").112.49;' Camp, $10,182.88;
Boarding-house, $776.47; Fire protection, $3 758.39; MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD 80
S^r^ COStS'$^'6f-05; Alterations to plant, Belmont Development Company, has been on a visit
Twin   ™XPr      nt    arg6S' $4'°62-84; H0Spita1' t0 the Surf Met Mi™ °* Pr^eess Royal Island
$5 000   rST        ' f9S?5Jvfa?i0tiC fUQd reS6rVe' G- ^"^ ge0l°giSt t0 the Tonopah Belmont *#
!l3 2?3 85 Vrrjr'nfJnt' Lo>^ service b°*^ velopment Co, has examined the Queen   Mine   of
$13,233.85; total, $950,590.24 Sheep Creek, the Dundee Mine at Ymir,and the
. Union Mine in Franklin Camp
The mine is worked to the 1250 ft. level.   40,791 E.    C.    Cartwright has returned from England
tons ore were mined in development, and 224,699 tons where he was on a .visit in his professional capacity
extracted from stopes, making total of 265,000 tons in connection with an important arbitration case
mmed, as well 'as 20,468 tons waste hoisted. Sir Colttingwood Schrieber, Chief Engineer Railway
There were expended on: Exploration, !p2,499.46; Department at Ottawa, has been on a visit to the
development,  $149,459.17; production,  $382,846.31, Pacific Coast.
a total of $534>804-94milling J. B. Tyrrell, Canadian representative of the Anglo-
illing. French Exploration Company, Ltd, of London and
ihe mill ran 92.5 per cent, of the possible time, South Africa, has been on a visit to the Pacific Coast
treating a total of 263,356 tons, of an average value While here he examined the molybdenite deposits at
of $8.89 per ton, at a cost of $0,893 per ton. Stave Lake", and left for the north, intending to visit
The following are the directors of Holinger:— the Granby Company's plant and mines at Phoenix,
Noah A. Timmins, of Montreal, president; Jolhn also the Rocher de Boule Copper Company's Mine at
McMartin, Cornwall, Ont, vice-president; David A. Hazelton, returning East by the Grand Trunk Pacific
Dunlop, Toronto, secretary-terasurer; L. H. Timmins, Railway. His company is not investing in new pro-
Montreal, and J. B. Holden, Toronto, directors. P. perties during the war, but looks forward to an in-
A. Robbins is General Manager. creased field of activity in Canada thereafter.
ALASKA MINING AND ENGINEERING MINERAL  PRODUCTION.
SOCIETY. The following are the receipts of Trail Smelter
The Alaska Mining and Engineering Society, of for the year t0 Aug" liBI
T                    l,                       J                    T    *•                   x     x-                    -x AINSWORTH.
Juneau, has passed a resolution protesting against Mine
the criticism, in Congress, by Delegate Wickersham, Bliuebel.                                                                     o a   '
of the action of the Engineering Societies regarding    Comfort      'o
amendment of the mining laws of the United States. Cork-Province
The resolution includes the following clauses. Crescent
"Whereas, the Hon. James Wickersham, Delegate Early Bird
from Alaska, who also appeared before the House Florence
Oolmmittee on Mines and Mining, chose to attack the Gallagher
personalities of these engineers, as well as their hon-    Highland  i
esty and motives, and through his abuse and ribaldry    Martin      'on
brought the people of Alaska into ridicule and con- Nicollet
tempt; now therefore, be it No. 1   9 ofi1
"RESOLVED, that the Alaska Mining and Engin-    Retallack ..........         5
eering Society, assembled at Juneau, go on record as Utica
expressing its earnest    disapproval of the    tactics
adopted by the Hon. James Wickersham, and to ex- Total                                                                   q i er
press also a feeling of humiliation at being repre- £ „
r                                              ^                                          .     . EAST  KOOTENAY.
sented at Congress by one whose, chief method of ar- Min^                                                                       ™
Tons,
gument against the bill was personal abuse. Giant  nk
"RESOLVED, That we, as engineers of Alaska,    jj6ad Queen       iq7
are convinced that the efforts of the engineers ap-    Monarch   fic
pearing before the House were honest and sincere^    Park   -ip
and that the passage of the bill would have resulted    St. Eugene i  4go
in good not only for the  entire country,  but  for Sullivan                                                                    ki kav
.  01,04:/
Alaska in particular. 	
Total 52964
PERSONAL. nelson.
  Mine                                                                    Tons.
F. Bradshaw, General Manager for the Tonapah    Emerald      509 iftr
II
81 MINING,   ENGINEERING
Eureka 1,194
Granite Poorman  112
Hudson Bay   112
Molly Gibson  72
Perrier  29
Queen     292
Spokane  30
Total 2,350
OMINECA.
Silver Standard  385
ARROW lakes.
Millie Mack     8
BOUNDARY.
Mine Tons.
Emma 1,200
Golden Eagle       26
Sally      70
Total 1,296
KAMLOOPS.
Mine Tons.
Iron Mask 2,648
Fog Horn      52
Total 2,700
REVELSTOKE.
Mine Tons.
Lanark        371
ROSSLAND.
Centre Star 120,589
Le Roi  1  87,421
Le Roi No. 2  10,548
Velvet           71
Total 218,629
SLOCAN.
Mine Tons.
Apex           26
Black Prince        57
Comlstock           13
Enterprise        29
Galena Failm   1,000
Hewitt      291
Idaho Alamo         99
Jo-Jo     7
Lucky Thought     403
Meteor-      15
Molly Hughes ..      26
No. 1       55
Noonday       121
Ottawa      43
Rambler Cariboo    1,195
Reco        71
Richmond Eureka      36
Ruth-Hope <    562
AND   ELECTKICAL   RECORD
Slocan Payne       31
Slocan Star    791
Standard 4,734
Wonderful       239
Yakima         22
Total 9 866
Grand Total from British
Columbia Mines 297,034
ONTARIO.
Hewitson, Olive, Ont       78
IDAHO.
Mine Tons.
Green Monarch, Bayview       15
Keystone, Bayview    240
Lakeview, Lakeview      33
Sandpoint, Lakeview          5
Venezuela, Lakeview       35
Total ' 338
WASHINGTON.
Ben Hur, Republic  2,099
Bonanza, Bossburg  ,   345
Columbia Turk, Davenport      48
Deer Trail, Davenport        4
Delphia, Danville...'      29
Edwards, Valley      13.
Electric Point, Boundary  1,047
Iron Creek, KeUer      21
Knob Hill, Republic   1,729
Kokoma, Boundary           5
Lead Trust, Boundary      9
Loon Lake, Loon Lake      30
Monarch, Chewelah   •      18
Norman, Northport      28
San Poll, Republic  7,728
Tom Thumb, Republic    267
United Copper, Chewelah 6,600
Total 20,020
Grand Total from aU sources 317,460
GRANBY CON. MINING AND SMELTING CO,
LTD.
The July production of the Phoenix mines was
about 105,000 tons; and of the Hidden Creek Mine
63,000 tons; and of the Mamie Mine, on Prince of
Wales Island, 5,000 tons. The total copper production was about 3,800 000 lbs. for the month.
THE METAL MARKETS.
New York     London
Copper electrolytic, per lb. 261£ to 27e     26.7c
Lead, per lb. 6V2 to 6.65c      6.38c
Silver, per oz. 66%c     31%d
Zinc, per lb. 8.75 to 9.25c      11.69c Augus
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
MONTREAL LEAD QUOTATION.
1   	
82
d    .
4 .
7 .
8 .
9 .
10
11
14
.60
.60
.33
.33
.33
.33
.20
.20
.36
THE STOCK MARKE.
The following are quotations on Vancouver Stock
Exchange:—
Alberta Petrol   Con
01
V4 to .Oli/a
Athabasca  Oil
.12
.16
Beaver Oil
.001/2
.00%
B  C Life
96.50
" 30.00
.15
1.50
B   C   Refinine-
Canada Copper
1.75
Can. Oil & Venture
Consl. Mining & Smelting
.01
38.00
37.00
.Drum Luimmon
j Granby
.25
87.00
85.00
Great West Permt.
Harris Mines j
65.00
09
Howe Sound Copper
4.50
5.00
I International Coal
.06
.11
Lucky Jim
.06
.07 .
1 Nugget
.05
Pacific Coast Fire
65.00
Pitt Meadows
.07
! Prudential Oil
.07
.12
MeGillivray Coal
.09
.16
Rocher de Boule
70
Slocan Star
.22
.24
■ Snowstorm
.35
.42
Southern Alberta
2 50
; Standard Lead
1.05
1.25
fSurf Inlet
.23
) Trojan Oil
.006%
.008
OBITU
A.RY.
C. A. Stoess, a pioneer civil engineer, died at Vancouver where he had been a resident some time.
Hon. E. Dewdney, President of the Britannia Mining and Smelting Company; died at Victoria on Aug.
8th. He was-widely known as the builder of the
Dewdney Trail, which opened up southern British
Columbia. In the nineties he was Lieut-Governor of
this Province. He was a public official in the early
days of Cariboo, and took an active part in the exploration and development of British Columbia, having been connected with, many mining enterprises.
Leslie Hill, who died April 25th at Penticton
was a prominent mining engineer in the earlier days
of the Province. Up to a short time before his death
he was manager of the Arlington Mine, representing the Hastings Exploration Company, of London,
which was interested in gold and coal mining here.
At one time he had an option for an English company on the Lome Mine, at Lillooet and took in the
present stamp mill. He reported on the St. Eugene
Mine in 1898.
DIVIDENDS FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA MINES.
Standard Silver Lead declared its usual dividend of 2V2 per cent per month for July and August,
making' a total of $400,000 for the first eight months
of the year and a grand total of dividends paid by
this company to date of $2,200,000, making 110 per
cent paid in dividends in four years.
Granby paid a dividend at the rate of 8 per cent
on August. 10th, bringing the amount of dividends
paid so far this year to $749,926. The total dividends
. paid by the, company to date almount to $6,473,124,
or 43 per cent paid on the issued capital of the company over a period of about 15 years, an average of
about 3 per cent per annum.
• A. J. L. Evans and George Revell, who went with
|the mining engineers from Kootenay to the front,    i
; have both been killed in action.
Thos. William O'Brien, a Klondike pioneers own-
;er of No. 1 Eldorada, from which he cleaned up
'■ $250,000 died on Aug. 26 at Dawson. He built the
^Klondike Mines Railway, Klondike Ferries and trails,
and owned breweries and steamboat lines.
THE FERNIE LABOR TROUBLE.
A conference of the executive of the Coal Operators ' Association and officers of District 18 United Mine Workers, took place at Calgary and resulted
in an amicable adjustment of the strike at the mines
6f the Crows Nest Pass Coal Co.
The Operators were represented by :—-L. Stockett,
President; W. R. Wilson, Vice-President, O. E.
Whiteside of Coleman, M. Charboniere, Blairmore;
A. McGibbon, Coleman J. Shausis, Brageon; E. Den-
son, Hillcrest; J. Pitcher, Imperial Coal Co. Kipp;
W. F. McNeill, Calgary.
The United Mine Workers were represented
by:— W. Graham, Coleman, President; T. Briggs,
Fernie; Vice-President; A. J. Carter, Fernie, secretary; J. Johnstone, Coleman; A. Logan, Leth-
bridge; F. Wheatly, Bankhead; D. Rees, Fernie.- S3
MINING,   ENGINEERING   AND   ELECTRICAL   RECORD
COLLIERY EXPLOSION AT MICHEL.
At 11:30 p. m. on Aug. 8th a terrific explosion
took place in the new No. 3 East Mine of the Crows
Nest Pass Coal Company at Michel. The night shift
had just gone to work. Twelve men were killed. Only
seven bodies have been recovered.
The mine was seriously damaged and it will
take a month to have it re-opaned and the remaining
bodies recovered. Every window was broken within
a quarter mile radius and the shock felt for a radius
of two miles. At first the cause was attributed to
lightning during a thunderstorm firing the mine.
Owing to telegraphic interruption the Government
rescue corps at Fernie did not reach the mine till 6
o'clock the following morning. The dead included
Thos. Phillips, fire boss, T. H. Evans, T. Hampton,
Daniel Hall, D. Davis, Geo. Kometse P. Hepka, John
Mikuse. The bodies recovered were badly burned and
Imutilated.
The Coroner's jury heard evidence on.Aug. 28,
29 and 30 and returned the following verdict::—
"We the jury empanelled to enquire into the death
of Thomas Phillips- and others find that these men
met their deaths-as a result of explosion in No. 3
East Mine about 11:30 on the night of Aug. 8, the
cause of which we are unable to ascertain from the
evidence adduced.''
Over thirty witnesses gave evidence, the most
important being that of Thomas Russell, manager of
the mine who expressed the opinion that.the explosion was propagated by coal dust containing a small
per centage of explosive gas. Inspector George O'Brien said the mine was one of the most gaseous
known, analyses of the return. air showing it contained an enormous quantity of methane, which was
being continually given off from the coal faces.
Chief Inspector Thos. Graham expressed the
opinion that till the remainder of the mine at present
inaccessible could be inspected the cause could not
be ascertained with any degree of certainty.
&•;.
RE   PROHIBITION   ACT
The Passage of the B. C. Prohibition Act would
be a Direct Blow at British Columbia Firms
dealing in Mining Equipment or Supplies.  :  :
In British Columbia the Prospector, Mine Superintendent, or other persons who desire
to purchase mining equipment or supplies, generally have their working headquarters located
at some point at a considerable distance from the centres of trade of the province.
It is only occasionally that these men come in to place their orders, but when they do
come the business they transact is always of considerable magnitude.
Isolated, as many of them are for month after, month, when they come to the city to
place their orders they will naturally go to centres of trade where they may enjoy their
| change " according to their personal inclinations.
It is calling "a card a card and a spade a spade"
when it is stated that the passing of the Prohibition
Act would tend to make British Columbia cities
unpopular as business centres for Mining Men
Read the Act
VOTE "NO." MINING AND ENGINEERING RECORD.
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ACCESSORIES
CAR WHEELS AND
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Newson, Keen & Townley
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N. E.  CONNAUGHT  BRIDGE
VANCOUVER, B. C.
ii
Britannia Mine,
Howe Sound,
British Columbia"
24 Pages with Supplement
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Price: 25c. a copy
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MINE ON VALDEZ ISLAND
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PRESENT PRICE OF SHARES GIVEN
UPON APPLICATION MINING AND ENGINEERING RECORD.
CRUSHER jJAWS
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Mauufactured by Washington Iron Works,
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Also Agents for " Crawford's " Aerial Tramway
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SMELTERS AND REFINERS
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Illustrated publications as to its route, Banff,
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L. D. CHETHAM H. W. BRODIE
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DIAMOND DRILL
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LANDORE, -    -    S.O. GLAM.
Tel. Address: "Gething, 128 Morriston, Swansea."
Code: A. B. C. 5ih Edition
Wolfram Ore WOg 65-70 per cent.; Molybdenite
MoSa 80-90 per cent.; Manganese Mn02 60 per cent.;
Monazite ThO; 5-10 per cent.; Tantalite 80 percent.;
Wulfenite Concentrates MoOs 1 7-20 per cent.;
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Uranium Ore U8Og 2-5 perct.; Chrome Ore Cr2 Os
5 per cent.
DAI THOMAS, 538 Harbinger Avemir, Victoria
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HER THE MINING AND ENGINEERING
RECORD
Established  1895 E. A. HAGGEN, Editor
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Volume XXI. No. 5.
Single copies,  20c.
VANCOUVER, B.C., SEPT. & OCT., 1916
CONTENTS.
WITH   SUMMARY ,OF   PRINCIPAL   ARTICLES
EDITORIAL
NOTES
REPORT  OF  THE  MINISTER  OF  MINES         92
The output of the various minerals is compared .with >
previous  records,  and changes  in productive importance of different districts  shown,  the most notable
being the advance-made By Coast mines.
■VANCOUVER    STOCK   MARKET        102
The financial condition of the various companies
whose stocks are quoted on the exchanges is discussed,
and an opinion given of the investment and speculative value of the shares.
PERSONAL        105
COAL MINES INSPECTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The inefficiency of this branch of the work of the
Provincial Bureau of Mines is pointed out, with the
startling fatality ratio of 10.42 per thousand men
employed as compared with United States figures of
4.78 per thousand for 1914, the last year for which
complete returns are available. The appointment of
a technical man, with special training in the mining
and chemistry of coal is urged. Certain irregularities
in  mine  investigations are reviewed.
GENERAL   ARTICLES
BLACK  DAMP  IN  MINES         95
NITROGEN  FROM  AIR  AND  COAL         95
ELECTRICITY   AND   POWER          95
♦SLOCAN   STAR   MINE    .      96
An exhaustive report on this mine has recently been
made by A. G. Larson and Arthur Lakes, Jr., Mining
Engineers,- and this article is compiled from it. Development aggregates 13,000 ft. of drifting and 4,000
ft. of raises and winzes. Cost of mining is placed at
$1.50 per ton, milling 40c, and marketing at $1—a
total of $2.90. The ore averages $11.50 per ton on
average prices of metals. Proved ore is placed at
about 149,000 tons. The notes on the geology and mineralogy of the deposits are valuable and should prove
helpful to managers of mines in Slocan carrying
similar ore deposits.
'NEW LEAD CORRODING INDUSTRY 	
This is a description of the recently invented Eyton-
Barratt Process, for production of white lead, put in
commercial  operation for the first time by Hodgson
THE  BULLION  HOLDINGS   DISPUTE   	
American investors who have been alarmed at the versions circulated on the outside concerning this case
have written us for a concise statement of the facts,
which we endeavor to give. The case followed the
usual course where the