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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

The British Columbia mining record. Christmas, 1899 British Columbia Mining Record 1899

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Array  *
The Bank of British North America.
Established iu 1S36.
Incorporated by Royal Charter in 1840.
-    £1,000,000 Stg.
300,000   "
London Office,
3 Clement's Lane, Lombard St., E.C
J. H. Bkodie.              gasfabd Fabrar.   Richard H. Glynn.    H. J. B. Kendall.   Fred'k Lubbock.
John James Carter.   HenbyR. Farrar.   Ed. Arthur Hoare.   J. J. Kingsford.      Geo D.Whatman.
Secretary, A. G. Wallis.              *»*
Head Office in
General Manager.
Canada, St. James Street,
J. ELMSLY, Inspector.
London, Ont.
Bram ford.
Montreal, Que.
Halifax, N.S.
Sydney.                   Winnipeg, Man.
St. John, N.B.       Brandon.
Frederic I on.          Ashcroft, B.C.
Yukon District—    Atlin.
Dawson City.     Bennett.
Greenwoai.     T'ail,
Victoria.            Sub-Agency.
Drafts on Dawson City, Klondike, can now be obtained at any of the Bank's Branches.
AGENTS IN THE UNITED STATES.—New York, 52 Wall St., W. Lawson and J. C. Welch, Agents :'
San Francisco, 120 Sansome Street, H. M. J. McMichael and J. R. Ambrose, Agents.
London Bankers.—The Bank <>f England and Messrs. Glyn & Co.
Foreign Agents.—Liverpool—Bank of Liverpool.   Australia—Union Bank of Australia. New Zealand
—Union Bank of Australia.    Bank of New Zealand—Colonial Bank of New Zealand. India, China
and Japan—Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, London and China ;  Agra Bank, Limited.    West
Indies—Colonial Bank.   Paris—Messrs. Marcuard, Krauss & Co.   Lyons—Credit Lyonnais.
^jgp- Issue Circular Notes for Travellers, available in all parts of the world. Weiler Bros.
VI6T0RIA, B.6.
rnrnituro of a11 kinds for Parlor.
rUINIlUIC Bedroom, Dining Room,
Office, etc., in Golden Oak, Antique, Mahogany or Cherry.
Morris Easy Chairs—Many styles.
Reedand Rattan Furniture, Chairs, etc.
Brass and Enamelled Bedsteads — now the
most popular—we issue a special circular
of these—send for it.
Some of our Specialties.
Crossley & Sons—Carpets, Rugs, Squares, etc., in Ax-
minster, Wilton, Brussels, Velvet, Tapestry, etc.
M. Nairn a Co's Scotch Linoleums and Oilcloths, all
widths and prices, Inlaid, Printed and Plain.
Haviland & Co.—Finest French China—world famous.
Dinner Sets, cups and saucers, odd pieces—new this
Libbey's—Rich Cut Glass Tableware, most brilliant
Liberty & Co.—Art Fabrics, Serges, Cretonnes, Silts,
Muslin, etc.
Joseph Rodgers & Sons—Renowned Table Cutlery—a
full line.
Bradley & Hubbards—(The B. & H.)—Reception, Banquet, Piano, Library and Hall Lamps.
Meriden Britannia Co.—"1847 Roger Bros." —Silver
Plate that wears equal in design and finish to sterling silver.
Palms and Grasses—For decorative purposes, everlasting, preserved in their natural state.
Water Filters—The "Pasteur" germ proof.—Doulton's;
Manganous Carbon.
Whitney and other makes—New ADJUSTABLE Go-
Carts, Baby Carriages, etc.
Japanese Cotton Warp Mattings—Handsome patterns
and great variety.
Window Shades—In popular colors—All sizes made to-
order, mounted only on Hartshorn Reliable Spring
Blankets—White and Grey.—Complete line from best
mills only. English Down Comforters, Satin and
Marcella Bed Covers, Sheets, etc.
Pillow Shams, Bureau Scarfs, Toilet Covers, Tidies, etc.
Table Linens, Napkins, Glass Cloth, Towels and Crash".
Mirrors, Mantels and Overman ties in stock and made
to order.
Agate and Enameled Ironware of Domestic and Foreign makers.
Pictures, Picture Frames, Mouldings, etc.
Gold Medal Camp Furniture—Steel reinforced, lightest
and strongest.
Wallpapers from leading manufacturers In Canada and the United States.
We are headquarters for everything we handle and carry th&
largest stock in the Province.    Samples sent free to any address.
-_J    Ua+aIc furnished complete.    Counters,,
ana    noicls back  bar,    everything In   Oak,.
Curtains, Table Covers—Piece goods-
Gobelin Art Draperies in Denims, Sateens, Muslins
Draperies made to order.    Send for Ulustrated'Catalogue
Walnut or Cherry.
Glassware. Crockery, etc., to please all.
Traders taking goods into the Yukon or elsewhere, will find'
our goods the most profitable to handle. Anyway give us a call
or send for Catalogue.
Bobbinet Ruffled Curtains. —The Swell Drapery from $2.75
to $6.50 per pair.
Nottingham, Swiss and French  Lace Curtains and Nets in
Arabian, Renaissance,Cluny's Irish points,Tambours, Brussels, &c.
in Chenille, Silk, and Mercerized Cotton, Tapestry, Negus, Derby, etc.
! ^mmmm
The Patented Locked^Coil Cables
and Webber Compression Grips
are features of the patented
Bleichert Tramway of Virginia & Pittsburg Coal and Coke CoM Fairmontj W^ Vat ADVERTISEMENTS.
35   FORT   ST.
Mining and Stock Brokers.
Real  Estate and Insurance.
Codes Used: Bedford McNeill.
Cable Address:  " FOUVAN."
Victoria, B.C.
Uictoria novelty OJorks
150 Government St.       VICTORIA, B.C.
Wrought  Iron   Fences  and  Gates,  Special   Tools
made to order. Model making. Repairing of Engines.
Testing and  Repairing of Steam  Gauges.
Valves, Pumps, Hydraulic Jacks, Bicycles, Cash Registers,
Type-writers,  Sewing Machines, Rifles and
Shot Guns.    Key Fitting, etc.
C. M. Cookson,
Up country orders promptly attended to.   Sanitary, Gas, Steam and Hot Water Engineer.
Jobbing and Shipping Work a specialty.
Telephone 674.
Corner Johnson and Broad Sts.
W. R. Robertson. F. M. Robertson.
Robertson Bros,,
Cable Address:   "ROBERTSON"   Vancouver.
Broomhall;  Moreing & Neal; Bedford Mi-Neil.
MacKinnon Bldg. VanCOUVer. f
1 1
Surveys of Mines and Mineral Claims. jl
.   I
ryn   Hastings Street, 1
Dl9 (OverTisdaii's.) Vancouver, B.C. h
1 Ernest A. Cleveland,
UJ Dominion and
I Provincial Land Surveyor
Ask Your Grocer for
"Swiss Food."
Made of selected Canadian White Wheat, dessi-
eated, partly cooked and put through a process
that separates all impure and foreign matter from
the grain, only retaining what is healthful and
nutritious, giving it a flavor and rooking qualities possessed by no other food. We especially
recommend it for children is it possesses the
very elements that are required for the building
up of a strong and healthy constitution. With
some people oatmeal is too heating, Swiss Food
is cooling to the blood especially iu summer.
Manufactured only by
Put up in 2-lb. packages.
& SON,
The Greatest Cleaning Soap
Removes all Grease, Smut or Stains of any kind—
other than Ink Stains—from the finest Silks, Carpets, etc., without injury to the texture or color.
Invaluable also in the Kitchen, Laundry, Bathroom, etc., or for washing windows. Unequalled
for cleansing painted or varnished wood-work as
it removes all dirt without wearing varnish or
paint and gives it a fine polished look.
Try a tin only 15 cts. or two for 25 cts. IV
Old Post Office Building, Government Street.
(js&j >    Fac-simile of Trade Mark. ■55
Sole Agents for B.C. for MANSON 3-CROWN BICYCLES, Iver Johnston's Sager
Gear, Chainless, Coasters and Brake, and Cushion Frame Bicycles.
BeanChamberlain Manufacturing Co., Hudson,  (3  Krown), Senawee and Voxal
SEWING  MACHINES.—Raymond  Manufacturing   Company
for Victoria.
CASH REGISTERS—Hamilton Brass Mfg.  Co.; Hough Cash
Recorder Co., Victoria.
Naeker Manufacturing Co. for B. C.
CROWN MACHINE WORKS, Birmingham, England.
Acetylene Gas Supplies, Generators, Lamps, etc.
Incandescent Gas Supplies.
of a// /c/ncis   afutays
Sn Stock.
Agents -wanted for all unoccupied territory for all our   B. C. Agencies. ADVERTISEMENTS.
O the  gift
That God would gie us,
To see ourselves
As others see us.—Barns,
The Ramsey Swing Pedals are the Pullman Cars of Cycling.
Automatic Ankle  Motion  and 25 per
cent, more driving power guaranteed.
It gives ankle motion where there was none before,
And those who ankled some, can't help but ankle more,
Then do not pump your life away while with the hills you tussle,
Use the Ramsey Swinging Pedals and save both time and muscle.
Sole Agents for B. C
Old P. O. Building; Government St. VICTORIA, B.C.
Agents wanted in all unoccupied territory.    Correspondence solicited.
Ask for booklet entitled " As Others See Us."
Canadian General
Electric Co y i
Capital, $ 1.500.000.
Head Offices: Toronto, Ont.   Factories: Peterboro, Ont.
Branch Offices:
Halifax, N. S.,     Montreal, Que.,   Winnipeg, Man.,     Rossland,  B. C.,
Vancouver, B.C.
Manufacturers of
Electrical p
Hoists, Pumps, Blowers, Fans,,
Blasting Apparatus,
Dynamos for Lighting and Power and Motors for all purposes.
Electrical Transmission of Power successfully operated up to 50 miles
by our
Three Vhase Transmission System.
Branch Offices in British Columbia:
iaa ^tl)
Life IesurairiC(
FmilfSHSinig a Oraed Mission!.
,HE records show that The Mutual Life Insurance Com-
1T pany of New York is not only holding its place as the
leading and largest Life Insurance Company of the United States
and worthily fulfilling its high and grand mission as a benefactor of
mankind ; but, also, that it is keeping pace with the increased demands of the insuring public and with the rapid development of the
material resources of this country, the phenomenal growth of its
population, its wealth, its commerce and its industries ; and supplying to the business communities of all countries, where it has
established agencies, the best forms of life, endowment and investment insurance, at the lowest cost, and the most profitable results
at the maturity of its policy contracts, with the largest guaranteed
values   in case of lapse or surrender   for the  immediate years of
Stanley Henderson,
Manager for Mainland, Vancouver.
General Agent,
J. B. Ferguson, Special Agent, Vancouver.
tbtb^btb^Tbtb^tb^^tb^ VIII
Which make them run easier and weir better
than any other Car made. If you are in the market for Machinery, Iron or Steel work of any kind
write us, we shall be pleased to quote you prices.
Rivetted Steel Pipe
'Phone 25
P. O. Box
.s Our Specialty.   ARMSTRONG & MORRISON,
Gordon H. Hardie.
Hardie & Thompson
Marine and General Consulting Mech. Engineers 3
Telegrams " Gardie."
Telephone 767.
Inns of Court Building,
Plans, Specifications, Estimates. Working Drawings. Surveys and Reports.     Also contracts
taken for supply, Erection, Supervision, or Repairs and Alterations to Steamboats and all
classes of  Machinery.
000000000000000000        „ .„ , „  . „ .   -jM
0 Patentees and Designers of the
Propellers DeSrgned.    2   Hardie=Thompson Water Tube Boiler,
Engines Indicated and      Q m u*   t    c j  r» • r-»
Adjusted. $ New High Speed Reversing Engines, ©/
■OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO and Special Machinery in light sections for Mines.
So  Sole Agents in 'B.C. and N. W. Territories for the United JlexMe Metallic Tubina Co
Ltd., London, E. C.
Best Goods at Rock Bottom Prices.
SrocerSj ffiutcherjj etc.
Our stock is complete and heavy, comprised of Groceries, Flour, Feed, Tin and Enamelware, Glass
ware. Crockery, Brooms and Brushes, Patent Family Medicines, School Supplies,
Fresh  and Salt  Meats,  etc.
Being in a position to buy in larger quantities we give special attention to Miners' Supplies.
Stnr***;' Cor- KinS's Road and Douglas St. \/lf"Ti~M?l A    R C
OIUI C3 . Cor  Discovery and Douglas St. V IV., I Vji\IA\,  OXs.
Omo/ce the Capital^^s^
HAVANA   MAIL.   r\//
M5^^ All orders by mail or otherwise will receive prompt attention. "Tfc3|
THOS. F. GOLD,    Proprietor. 35 Johnson St., VICTORIA, B.C.
The Hickman-Tye §
Hardware Co., ltd.
Late T. H. Tye & Co.
32 and 34 Yates St., VICTORIA,  B.C.
Mining and
A Specialty.
Iron, Steel Pipe
and Hardware.
Agents for F. C. Atkins & Co's Celebrated  Saws.
Mann & Co's Red Warrior Axes.
Rubber and Leather Belting, &c. ADVERTISEMENTS.
J. PlERCT ™* CO.,
Wholesale Dry Qoods.
21 -29 TdTES 5T.
Specialties in Miners' Clothing;.
Manufacturers of the celebrated IRONCLAD Overalls.
R. W. MORE & CO.,
-- 86 »
I    Government,   (J.
<V §
%K      Street.      fig
ununngr and
Special attention given to the handling of MlningTShares in all
British Columbia Mines.
YieT©Rm, b. e.
ririfnn--inTw~ni ADVERTISEMENTS.
Henry Croft,
Associate Member Institute Civil Engineers, )
Member Federated Institute Mining Engineers,        r
Member Institute Mechanical Engineers, Ungland.
Member S. Staffordshire and E. Worcestershire
Inst, of M. E. J
Estimates  Given on Mining   Machinery.
Telegraphic Address: " CROFMINE."
Codes Used:
Moreing and Neal,  A. B.  C,   4th   Edition,  Bedford  McNeil!
515 Hastings Street., west,
Financial and
Real Estate Agents.
Representing the following reliable compahies:
The Caledonian Insurance Company of Edinburgh,
The Manchester Insurance Company of Manchester,—Fire,
The Standard Life Assurance ^Company of Edinburgh,
The London and Guarantee and Accident Co. of
London, Eng.
The Canada Accident Assurance Co, of Montreal,
The  Lloyds Plate Glass Insurance Co. oflNew
The Provincial Building and Loan Association of
j        Toronto.
.V The   Identification and  Protective Company of
Vj        Canada.
J. IVL Mackinnon
Mines, Real Estate.
cMines Bought
and Sold.
For authentic information call or address :
Mackinnon Building, Granville St.,
Cable address : " Cortez," Vancouver.
Codes : BrownhalPs ; Moreing & Neal.
Mines and
My list includes some of the best' developed and undeveloped Gold, Silver.
Copper and Hydraulic properties in
British Columbia.
Will be pleased to furnish reports, plans
and full particulars on application.
Correspondence solicited.
Cable Address "VANBEN" Vancouver, B.C.
The Yorkshire
Huddersfield, Eng.,
Vancouver and
Chilliwack, B. C.
Manager in British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C.
Nominal Capital,
Subscribed Capital,
This well-known English Corporation
has been established  in B. C. a  number
of years  doing a
Mortgage and  Guarantee
Bank of Montreal.
Established 1817.
Incorporated by Act of Parliament.
Capital, (all paid up),
Reserved Fund,    -
Undivided Profits,   -
-   6,000,000 00
-   1,102,792,72
Board of Directors :
Rt. Hon. Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal,
G.C.M.G., President.
Hon. G. A. Drummond,   /ice-President.
A. T. Paterson, Esq., Hugh McLennan, Esq., Edward
B. Greenshields, Esq.,  Sir William C. Macdonald,
B. B. Angus, Esq.,  A. F. Gaolt, W. W. Ogilvie, Esq
E. S. CLOUSTON, General Manager.
A. Macnider,
Cciief Inspector and Superintendent of Branches.
W. S. Clouston,    -    -   Inspector of Branch Returns.
F. W. Taylor,      - Assistant Inspector.
I AMES AIRD, Secretary.
MONTREAL,        -      -        H. V. Meredith, Manager.
Deseronto.    Lindsay.    Sarnia.
Ft.William   London.    Stratford.
Goderich.     Ottawa.     St. Mary's.
Guelph.        Perth        Toronto
Hamilton.     Peterboro.       "     Yg.St..B-.
Kingston.     Picton.     Wallaceburg.
Montreal, Montreal West End Br., Montreal Seigneurs
St. Br., Montreal Point St. Charles, Quebec.
Chatham, N, B Moncton, N.B.      Amherst, N.S
Fredericton, N.B.        St. John, N. B.       Halifax, N.S.
Winnipeg, Man.,      Calgary, Alta.     Lethbridge, Alta.
Regina, Assa.
Greenwood.        New Denver. Rossland.
Nelson. N. Westminster,     Vancouver.
Vernon. Victoria.
St. John's, Newfoundland, Bank of Montreal.
London, Bank of Montreal, 22 Abehurch Lane, E. C.,
Alexander Lang, Manager.
New York, R. Y. Hebden and J. M. Greata, Agents, 59
Wall Street.
Chicago, Bank of Montreal, W. Munro, Manager.
Bankers in Great Britain :
London—The Bank of England ; The Union Bank of
London ; The London and Westminster Bank ; The
NationalJProvincIal Bank of England.
Liverpool—The Bank of Liverpool, Ltd.
Scotland — The British Linen Company Bank and
Bankers in  the United  States:
New York—The National City Bank; The Bank of New
York, N.B. A. Boston —The Merchants' National
Bank ; J. B. Moors & Co. Buffalo—The Marine Bank
Buffalo. San Francisco—The First National Bank :
The Bank of British Columbia ; The AnBl.i-Californi-
an Bank.   Portland, Or.—The Bank of B. C.
-Established 1858-
BiSCUitS and
26 awards, including 6 gold, 5
silver and 1 bronze medal
Purity of Materials   and
Excellency  of Manufacture.
Write to us for  prices before
-. sending your money east.
1    I.   I\.   Ol    III     1   (X   V^W.,       Vancouver, B.C.
Merchants Bank   of   Halifax.
Incorporated 1869.
CAPITAL, $2,000,000 00.
REST, $1,600,000.00.
Branches in the Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario,
Quebec and British Columbia.   Also at St. John's, Newfoundland; Republic, Wash.;
Havana, Cuba, and New York.
Branches In British Columbia:
ROSSLAND.       VANCOUVER East.        YMIR.
Special facilities for transacting business in the Northern Gold Fields.
London Agents.—The Bank of Scotland, Bishopsgate Street, through whom money
can he transferred to any of our branches.
W. M, BOTSFORD, Manager, Vancouver Branch.
Soo Line.
Offer Special Advantages
TO the
Transcontinental Traveller
Being the  Best,  Safest   and Only Continuous
Route from Ocean to Ocean.
Through Tickets
From Vancouver, Victoria and all points in
British Columbia, Portland, Ore., Tacoma,
Seattle, New Whatcom, San Francisco, etc.
Halifax, St. John, N. B., Quebec, Montreal
Ottawa, Prescott, Brockville, Toronto, Hamilton, London, Ont., St. Paul, Minneapolis,
Chicago, New York, Boston, and Principal
Points in Canada and the United States.
Transconti nental
Sleeping and Tourist Cars, and Free
Colonist Cars Daily.
Royal Mail Steamship Line to Japan and China.
Sailing  every  four  weeks in  winter  between Vancouver  and  Victoria,   B. C,
and Yokohama,   Kobe  and  Nagasaki,  Japan ;   '
Shanghai and Hong Kong, China.
and with the superior speed of Empress steamers,  the trip is made  a week  to ten
days sooner than by any other route.
Canadian=Australian Royal Mail Steamship Line.
Sailing every four weeks between Vancouver and Victoria, and Australia, Hawaiian Islands and
New Zealand.
Passengers booked from London or Liverpool, New York, Boston, Montreal Toronto or anv
city of Canada and United States. ' ' "
For full particulars as to rates, time and C.P.R. publications, apply to any C.P R. agent or to
Gen. Pass. Agent, 'Winnipeg.
Asst Gen. Pass. Agent. Vancouver, B.C. ADVERTISEMENTS.
15Ue ewer b. €."
Sole Agents for
Wholesale Grocers. Provision Dealers,
Truit merchants.
^SPECIALTIES—All Imported and Domestic,
Fruits in Season.
Hams, Bacon, Butter, Eggs, Cheese,
Lard, etc.
Turbeet—Vancouver  and
Turner, Beeton & 60
Dm Goods -Miners'"Similes
6hampaan6, Port, SJierry,
~61aref and other Wines,
Liquors and Cigars.
Sole agents for Robt. Brown & Co., Ltd., Glasgow, celebrated Four Crown
Scotch, the finest "Whiskey on the market.
Sole agents for Corby & Co's Belleville Canadian Whiskey.
Agents Cariboo Gold Fields Co., Ltd., London and Barkerville.
Agents Inverness, Balmoral, Fisherman & London Salmon Canneries. XVI
E. Q. PRIOR &  CO.,
Limited Liability.
DEALERS   IN        i—
Winers' Vools Too,s   ^ Wag(ms   Carriages,
Established Camp  Outfits       ^MXR   JmplementS
a Specialty, *
and Machinery.
123 Government St.,
Vancouver and Kamloops
G. E. Macdonald & Co.,
Sole agents for Mainland of B. C. foi
The Wellington and Union Colliery Co's
offer for sale the following grades of Coal, Wholesale and Retail. j'^J
Wellington   Lump-
Recognised from Cape Nome, to San Diego
as the best Domestic Coal on the Pacific Coast
and commands $i per ton more than any
class of Coal on the San Francisco market.
Comox Lump—
The best steam fuel on the American continent as proven by C. P. R. tests. Used exclusively on China and Australian steamers and
partially by the British and American navies.
6omox Coke—
Equal, if not superior to the best English article and used in general throughout California and Mexico, also supply Egg Coke for
base burners and furnaces.
Wellington and Alexandria Washed
The only thoroughly washed screenings in
the "Wet. Parties using wood for steam purposes will find it to their advantage to substitute this grade of Coal for same.
Note.—All our Coal is loaded into box cars at the pit's mouth and can be delivered at any point
on the C. P. Ry. without break in bulk. Our well-known facilities in this respect enable us to make
cheap deliveries.
Main Office and Bunkers:
South End of Abbott St.      Tel. 200.
Branch Office:
612 Hastings St. Telephone 210.
Address all communications to P. O. Box'^204. ADVERTISEMENTS.
Henderson Bros.
Established 1858.
and CO Y H
Heating Engineers
4f  Suits and Overcoats - $12, $15, $18, 4?
A      " " $20< $22, $25,  4,
T  Trousers.   -     -     -    $3, $4, $5, $6   t
* ALLEN & CO.,        *
+$>, Fit-Reform   Wardrobe, ^
m i?
Quality *
v/everjCowered, ^
We are under constant embarrassment •*•
in telling you about the goodness of wU
" Fit - Reform " Clothing.    We don't *
want to brag and yet it is hard to stale wU
the facts to you sober-minded business *
men so that they wont seem extrava- mU
gant. Every year it is the policy of the *
makers of " Fit-Reform" Clothing to fff
raise their standard.
Suits and Overcoats (made to order or
ready to wear) were never so thoroughly good as this season's. Write for
Samples and self-measurement forms.
Should call on
Dispensing Chemists,
Cor. Yates and Douglas Sts.,
Head Office, 49-57 The Albany, Liverpool, Eng.
The Vancouver  8
Agency, p
Wholesale Dry Goods Merchants.
Shipping, Insurance and
Commission Agents.
John S. Brown & Sons, Belfast, and
The York Street Flax Spinning
Co'y, Ltd., Belfast, for
Table and Household Linens
Note.—We have the following rough goods
on hand, viz:
Calcutta Ore Sacks.   Cotton Waste.
Fire Bricks.   Fire Clay.   Portland Cement,
Smithy Coal,    Liverpool Dairy Salt,
Write for lowest prices to
The Vancouver Agency, Ltd.
605 Granville St,, Vancouver, B.C.
D. M. Stewart
Is none too good
for me. I patronize the
They   guarantee
Phone   346.
D. M. STEWART, Prop.   910-914 Richards St.
BRANCH   OFFICES at Ashcroft,   Chilli-
wack,  Eburne,   Steveston,   Nanaimo,   New
| Westminster,   Terra   Nova,   Central   Park
and Wellington.
Manitoba Produce J Butter, Eggs and Cheese
and Corn Co., Ltd.   I       a specialty.
40 Cordova St., VANCOUVER, B. C.
Head Office: Winnipeg, Man.
W. K. BUCK, Gen. Manager
jewelery« « «
Diamond Watches,
Sterling Silver and
Presentation Goods, etc.
102 Cordova Street,
Uancoiiver, B,fr
Interior View of Store. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
"The  Native Born" -
The Alaskan Question -
The   Prehistoric   Races   of   B. C.
The  Rubaiyat  of  Free  Miner's Certificate No. 65534-*
The  Assassination of  Deaf Sam's Plum-Pudding
Mac  the  Immaculate
Fooled - - By Clive Phillipps-Wolley     42
The   Unconventionality   of   Miss Churchill-Fane   -   By H. Mortimer Lamb     45
By Sir C. H. Tupper
By C. Hill-Tout, F.A.G.S.
534A     -     By LH M'G.
By David Falconer
By Arthur Scaife
Captured  Single-Handed     -
British Columbia Before Confederation
The Indians of British Columbia
The Last Indian Battle       -       - -
Victoria :   Its Natural Advantages
The Introduction of Capital in New Countries
By F. G. Farron 53
By E. 0. S. ScholeHeld 57
By /. W. MacKay 71
By G. Sheldon-Williams 84
By C. H. Gibbons 90
D. B. Bogle 97
Illustrated London News, Graphic, Queen. Review of Reviews, Strand, Black, and White, Harper's,
Munsey's, Scrlbner's. Frank Leslie's and all leading British and American Periodicals,
For Christmas
Pictorial, Amusing, }
Scientific, Theological./
or on any subject
write to
Mathematical Instruments, Artists' Materials and the largest stock of Stationery in the Province. /
Want XX
lectrfcal     I
Satisfaction guaranteed
In any and every kind of ||§
« electrical Construction, I
Mf f  Victoria and Vancouver,  B. C.
% BHfti tPemberton d Sony
jr \V  for sale.  y?   IReal Estate an£> financial agents.
good house
CHEMAiNUS   DISTRIGT.—ICO acres, 60 acres cleared,
barns and stabling, stream running through the property.
VICTORIA DISTRICT.—70 acres about three mUes from the City of
Victoria, charmingly situated with a lake at one end of the property. A
considerable amount of this under cultivation.
LAKE DISTRICT.—85 acres, about six miles from Victoria, about SO
acres under cultivation with house and out-buildings.
LAKE DISTRICT.—75 acres. This is a very rich piece of bottomland,
and is situate about ten miles from Victoria.
SHAWNIGAN DISTRICT.—211 acres close to the E. & N. Railway.
This property fronts on the sea, and is a charming piece of property as a
residential site, combined with farming.
SOMENOS DISTRICT.—On the E. A N. Railway, and overlooking
Somenos lake. This property consists of 140 acres and could be made a
very pretty property.
SALT SPRING ISLAND.—160 acres of land, several acres of this are
cleared and could be made into a good property for growiDg fruit.
LADNER'S LANDING, Fraser River.—Several pieces of Delta land
for sale in this vicinity varying in size from five to one hundred acres.
This land, is Delta land of the richest possible quality, thoroughly under-
drained and dyked and all under cultivation.
FINDLAY CREf K.—Upper Columbia take, containing over 600 acres
all open prairie and meadow land, which could be made the nucleus of a
good cattle ranch.
$ip&&4pip&&&&ip&&&&&&&&&ip&&&&^^^^&i&f  Ki
Last toast, and of obligation,
A health to the native born."
By Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper, K.C.M.G., Q.O., M.P.
VER since our neighbours
went into business on their
own account they have
been pushing their " line "
fences over upon our land.
Boundary lines have cost
England and her good
friend, the United States, a
lot of trouble and expense.
They have caused a deal of heartburning to British colonists in America.
And yet at the start of the American
Republic we find England and the
United States solemnly agreeing by
Article II. of the Treaty of 1783 as follows: "And that all disputes which
might arise in future on the subject of
boundaries of the said United States
may be prevented it is hereby agreed
and declared that the following are and
shall be their boundaries."
The record of a hundred years, is,
however, filled with disputes and fresh
treaties on the subject of boundaries.
In 1794 an arrangement "to regulate
the boundary .. . . according to justice
and mutual convenience, and in conformity to the intent of the said Treaty"
had to be entered into.
While provision was made in this
treaty for the determination of the St.
Croix River by three commissioners,
the year 1842 had come before the place
of the source of the River St. Croix
could be agreed upon.
In 1814 another treaty provided for
the appointment of two commissioners
to settle the disputed question of the
Passamaquoddy Islands "in conformity
with the true intent of the said Treaty
of Peace of 1783," and it was stipulated
that if the commissioners could not
agree the matter should be referred to
a friendly sovereign or state for decision
It was necessary for the treaty to
make thi same provision to ascertain
the north-eastern boundary.
So in the case of the Iroquois, St.
Lawrence and Lake Superior. So from
Lake Superior to the Lake of the
In 1818 the fishery boundary on the
Atlantic was dealt with by treaty. This
has been a burning question ever since.
Provision had again to be made for
the northern boundary of the United
States to the Stony Mountains, and a
special agreement was reached in this
year as to any "country that may be
claimed by either party on the northwest coast of America westward to the
Stony Mountains."
In 1827 differences regarding the
north-eastern boundary were referred
to the King of the Netherlands, but his
award satisfied neither country.
In 1842 this boundary was settled by
treaty and commissioners were appointed to mark the line between the St.
Croix and the St. Lawrence Rivers.
In 1846 a treaty provided for the
boundary line west of the Rockies.
This led to the dispute respecting the
channel between A'ancouver's Island
and the Mainland. In 1871 the question was referred by treaty to the Emperor of Germany, who in 1872 decided
that the "Chanal de Haro" formed the
channel intended by the treaty in the
words "the channel which separates the
continent from Vancouver's Island."
Undue generosity and intense
friendliness marks the- conduct of
Great Britain throughout.
Time and again colonists have in
vain deplored the spirit so constantly
displayed by Great Britain to make extraordinary concessions on this continent in order to placate or secure the
good-will of the United States. What
has been the result? Encouraged by
past successes the United States pushed
her unreasonable . and preposterous
claims until the Behring Sea contention
reached the extreme limit.
Notwithstanding these extraordinary-
pretensions Great Britain submitted her
own clear rights on the high seas to international arbitrament.
Now the century ends with a refusal
on the part of the United States to submit to an international tribunal the
Question, in the usual way and on usual THE B. C. MINING RECORD.
conditions, of a boundary line which it
was attempted to describe in 1825.
What is it about, and how do the nations stand upon it?
In 1825 Great Britain and Russia undertook by treaty to divide a part of
the Xorth American continent between
The portion of the Anglo-Russian
Treat)' referring to the boundary read
as follows :
"Article III. The line of demarcation between the possessions of the
high contracting parties, upon the coast
of the continent, and the islands of America to the northwest shall be drawn
in the manner following: Commencing
from the southernmost point of the
island called the Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of
50 degrees, 40 minutes north latitude,
and between the 131st and the 133rd
degree of west longitude (Meridian of
Greenwich) the said line shall ascend to
the north along the channel called Portland Channel as far as the point of the
continent where it strikes 56th degree
of north latitude; from this last mentioned point, the line of demarcation
shall follow the summit of the mountains
situated parallel to the coast as far as
the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude of the said meridian; and finally from the said point of
intersection, the said meridian line of
the 141st degree, in its prolongation as
far as the Frozen Ocean, shall form the
limit between the Russian and British
possessions on the continent of America
on the north west.
"Article IV. With reference to the
line of demarcation laid down in the
preceding article it is understood:
"1st. That the island called Prince of
Wales Island shall belong wholly to
"2nd. That whenever the summit of
the mountains which extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 56th
degree of north latitude to the point of
intersection of the 141st degree of west
longitude shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues
from the ocean.' the limit between the
British possessions and the line of
coast which is to belong to Russia, as
above mentioned, shall be formed by a
line parallel to the windings of the
coast and which shall never exceed the
distance of ten marine leagues therefrom."
We claim that the waters in the indentations on the Mainland are not
ocean waters, and that the line at "the
windings of the coast" should be an imaginary line across the mouths of these
territorial waters. We claim that the
coast whose windings should be followed is that of the close string of islands bordering on the ocean and actually separating the ocean from the
Mainland. In other words, Dyea,
Skagway and Pyramid Harbour belong
to us. ■
The United States bought the Russian rights in 1867, before any delimitation of the boundary was attempted.
The greed for gold is perhaps at the
bottom of all attempts between Great
Britain and the United to interpret and
apply the terms of that Treaty since:
"Gold begets in brethren hate;
Gold in families debate;
Gold does friendships separate;
Gold does civic wars create."
Apart from this there is possibly a
much more serious lion in the path, for
it must not be overlooked that Charhs
Summer, in Congress in 1867, when introducing the proposition to purchase
Alaska, suggested as a reason for getting it cheap that Russia desired to "establish forever the power of the United
States and give to England a maritime-
rival destined to humble her pride." and
he did not hesitate to say that "such a
record may be made hereafter with regard to the present cession:" He even
went so far as to add that Sir George
Simpson having stated that without the
strip of the coast the interior would be
useless to England was a provocation
on the part of the United States to buy.
For years the Province of British
Columbia and Canada have pressed for
delimitation of the Treaty boundary.
We got as far as joint survev, which
was agreed upon in 1892, "with a view
to the ascertainment of the facts and
data necessary to the permanent delimitation of the said boundary in accordance with the spirit and intent of
the existing treaties in regard to it." THE ALASKAN  QUESTION.
This survey, completed in 1895, does
not attempt a delimitation.
The United States have stubbornly
contended that the line prescribed by
the Anglo-Russian Convention cannot
be delimitated, and while attempting to
hold far more territory than this convention gives them they talk about a
Boundary Treaty for the future, insisting always upon a limit of the ten marine leagues being given them, to be
measured from the coast and heads of
inlets, such as the Lynn Canal and
Portland Canal.
Much discussion has revolved around
the words (the Treaty was in the
French larigauge)—"La crete des mon-
tagnes situees parallelement a la cote"
in Article III.
The main water-shed to which the
United States would apply these words,
"the summit of the mountains situated
parallel to the coast," is beyond the
"ten-leagues distance" referred to in
Article IV.
Great Britain contends that these
words refer to the mountains nearest to
the ocean, and then only when not exceeding ten marine leagues from the
Touching the boundary between
Prince of Wales Island and the head of
Portland Canal, the United States claim
that Portland Inlet is a part of the
Portland Channel, and Great Britain,
denying this, insists that the passage
along the coast through Pearse channel
to the ocean is part of Portland Canal.
The survey of the commissioners under the Convention of 1892 terminated
near the peak of Mount St. Elias. From
this the line of demarcation turns north
and follows the 141st meridian for some
650 miles to the Arctic Ocean.
It is along this boundary that the discoveries of extensive and valuable
placer gold mines have been found; and
it is to this field the L nited States are
permitted to hold the present ports of
ingress and egress, Dyea and Skagway,
both in British territory.
A glance at two maps, one showing
the British claim, the other that of the
United States, will indicate how far
apart the interpreters of the treaty are.
The monstrous claims made by the
United States to the sovereignty of half
of Behring Sea and to the ownership of
the fur-seals which roam over the Pacific Ocean, prevent surprise being entertained at their attitude in this case.
It was hoped, however, that the friendship so much on paper and which became so acute when war was on with
Spain, would enable the commissioners
who met at Quebec and Washington in
1898, to reach common ground and a
Boundary Treaty.
When our Prime Minister returned,
however, to Canada he read a formal
paper touching the work of the Commission, and had to confess that after
all the professions of brotherly love between the Anglo-Saxon nations "the
Commissioners acting- in the utmost
friendship and cordiality have been'unable to agree upon a satisfactory settlement."
It appeared, moreover, that not only
was our neighbour unwilling to agree
to a fair Boundary Treaty, but "The
British Commissioners desired that the
whole question should be referred on
terms similar to those provided in the
reference of the Venezuelan boundarv
line, and which, by providing an umpire, would ensure certainty and finality.
"The United States Commissioners,
on the other hand, thought the local
conditions in Alaska so different that
some modification of the Venezuelan
boundary reference should be introduced. They thought the reference
should be made to six eminent jurists,
three chosen by each of the high contracting parties, without providing for
an umpire, they believing that finality
would be secured by a majority vote of
the jurists so chosen. They did not see
any present prospect of agreeing to a
European umpire to be selected in the
manner proposed by the British. Commissioners, while the British Commissioners were unwilling to agree to the
selection of an American umpire in the
manner suggested by the United States
Commissioners. The United States
Commissioners further contended that
special stipulations should be made in
any reference to arbitration that the existing settlements on the tide waters of
the coast should in any event continue
•to belong: to the United States.   To this
contention   the British   Commissioners
refused to agree."
Canada, however, stands firm and
united. The leader of the Opposition
in the Canadian Parliament during the
last session, when referring to the unfortunate conclusion to this part of the
international negotiations, came to the
support of the position of the British
representatives and said:
"My principal object, in rising to-day,
is that at this critical moment in these
most important negotiations, it should
be understood that my right lion,
friend does not represent the Government of Canada and the Liberal party
of Canada, but that he represents Canada in regard to this question.
(Some hon.  members—Hear,  hear.)
(Sir Charles Tupper)—"And that on
whatever side of the House we may sit,
we are only too ready to do anything and
everything" in our power to strengthen
the Government which he leads, in taking such a course as will preserve and
secure the rights of Canada against
what I consider the most unfair and unjustifiable course of the United States
on this most important question."
The discussion became interesting",
Sir Charles Tupper saying : "I am satisfied that we can find no parallel in any
country in the world for such a course
as the LTnited States have taken, namely, that in the delimitation of the boundary under a treaty, no regard shall be
had to what that treaty means, but that
if it be found to hold a meaning that
would deprive them of the places that
they have already taken possession of
without right and that belong to Canada, these places shall not belong to
Canada but to the United States if
America. There was no possible course
left for the British Commissioners, under such circumstances, but to absolutely repudiate recognizing any such position or any such terms. I was glad to
learn some short time ago, from my
right hon. friend that the commission
did not adjourn to meet on the 2nd
August, except under the perfect understanding that these questions must be,
by diplomatic means, removed to a .just
settlement that will be recognized  by
England and Canada, and I am glad to
know I am able to include Canada. It
is now shown that Great Britain has not
been willing, notwithstanding all these
efforts on the part of the United States,
to overrule the just claims of Canada;
and so far as I am able to learn, so far
as my right hon. friend has been good
enough to keep me, as a Privy Councillor, informed of the position of the
Government, I have no hesitation in
saying that I have assured my right
hon. friend that the course his Government were pursuing had my entire support, and that I believed they were taking the only course they could in justice
to Canadian interests."
The Prime Minister speaking afterwards said :
"Under such circumstances there are
only three methods of settling the difficulty on fair and honourable terms;
one is by a compromise, by giving and
taking, Canada surrendering a little of
her pretensions and the United States
surrendering a little of her pretensions,
but I have no hope, up to this moment,
or very little hope, that we can settle
the question by any compromise at all.
If we have no hope that we can settle
the dispute by compromise, there are
only two other ways in which we can
settle it. One would be by arbitration,
and the other would be by war. I am
sure that no one would think of war,
and everybody would agree that though
sometimes our patience would be sorely-
tried, though sometimes we might believe that our opponents were taking
undue liberties with us, and undue advantage over us, still, everybody will
agree that we must exhaust all peaceful
means of reaching a settlement by arbitration. In the negotiations at Washington, we have not been able to come
to terms of arbitration. Both parties
are agreed that there should be arbitration, but who should be the arbitrators,
,and what would be the questions submitted for reference, are questions upon
which we could not come to an understanding. The matter has been referred
by the Commissioners to their respective Governments, and as we have seen
from the reports in the press from dav
to day, the matter has been engaging
the attention of Lord Salisbury and the THE ALASKAN QUESTION.
Foreign Office, and Mr. Choate, the
American Ambassador at London;"
and referring to Sir Charles Tupper, he
finally said: "As I have said, I appreciate very fully the spirit in which my
hon. friend has offered his remarks. In
whatever he said in regard to our negotiations I fully concur. I maintain the
position that he has expressed to-day,
that we cannot give up the rights of
Canada; we have to maintain them as
they are; but the rights of Canada are
limited by the   rights   of   the    United
States in this matter."
"Then none was for a party,
Then all were for the State."
May we not hope, even under these
circumstances, backed by England's
might and our own good cause, to join
hands eventually with our southern
neighbour and continue Macaulay's
lines, till we repeat together
"Then lands were fairly portioned." /
By Charles Hell-Tout, F.A.G.S., etc., etc., Western Member of the Ethnological Committee
appointed by the British Association for the Survey of Canada.
HE past has a great fascination
for some minds—I mean the
past of mankind; and, by-
the-way, how immeasurably
remote has that past become
in these latter days of the
igth century. It seems but
yesterday that one was taught that this
past went back only a few, a very few,
thousand years; that the very first of our
kind came into being with all the rest of
created things, and the old globe itself,
less than 6,000 years ago. Men of the
highest intellectual attainments taught
and believed this no longer than twenty-
five years ago. It seems incredible now
with our later and wider knowledge that
men could so long have closed their eyes,
as well as their minds, to the evidences
of antiquity about them; yet such w;
know to be the case. To-day, the dullest
school-boy can tell you that the globe is
demonstratably millions of years old, and
that man's history stretches back into the
far, dim days of tens of thousands, and
perhaps hundreds of thousands, of years
ago. For we know to-day, as certainly
as we know that the sun rose yesterday,
that man was not only in existence
thousands of years before the date we
used to believe the world and all upon it
first came into being, but actually inhabited, populous and wealthy cities, and
possessed a ciyilization and culture, in
some points superior even to our own, at
least, two or three millenniums before
that time. And of the younger sciences
of this wonderful century of discoveries,
to which we are indebted for this wider
knowledge, there is none that has a
greater claim upon our gratitude than
archaeology, or the science of ancient
things. Archaeology associates itself in
many minds exclusively with Egypt and.
Assyria. The interesting discoveries
that have been made there of late years
have brought these Old World centres
before the public e\re to the partial exclusion of other places scarcely less interesting or important; and it may be
a surprise to some to know that some of
the most interesting, as well as the most
perplexing of ancient human remains,
are found, not in the Old World at all.
but in the New—on this very continent
of ours. In Central America, in the
midst of the dense, tropical vegetation,
far in the trackless forests, covered with
climbing plants and half-buried beneath
the accumulated mould of unnumbered
centuries' formation, there lie the remains of wonderful cities, spacious ornate temples and stupendous pyramids,
that vie in their solemn, silent grandeur
and mystery with the ancient ruins of
the Nile or the Euphrates. Who built
or who inhabited them is one of the unsolved mysteries of the past. But it is
not only in Central America that interesting evidences of man's past are to be
found. They lie scattered up and down
the whole continent, though perhaps
they are not all so imposing or mysterious as those of Central America. Mexico, Peru, all the great river valleys, and
even this far northwestern Province of PREHISTORIC RACES OF B. C.
ours, all possess highly interesting
monuments of man's forgotten past.
And, confining our attention more particularly to this section of the continent,
it may interest the readers of the Mixing Record if we consider briefly some
of the salient features of the archaeology
of this Province, which is not without a
special interest of its own.
It is barely a century- ago that the
first white men set foot in this Province.
Our occupation of it dates back, as it
were, from yesterday; yet human possession of it goes back we know for at
least two millenniums before our advent
here, and how far beyond it is impossible at this point to say. Who and
what the earliest inhabitants were; what
kind of monuments of the past they
,have left behind them; to what other
peoples they were related, whether to
the present tribes or to others who have
long since passed away, are questions, it
is thought, would interest the readers of
this special edition of the Mining Record. Such questions can necessarily
be but briefly treated in an article of this
kind. To write all that could be written
upon them would fill volumes; for the
learned societies of Europe and America
have of late years spent much money
and time in carrying on explorations
and investigations in this region, and
their agents have now brought together
a large body of interesting facts, some
of which are here for the first time
brought before the general reader's
The study of man's past has revealed
nothing more clearly to us than the fact
of his world-wide dispersion. From
every part of the globe, no matter where
one goes, comes evidence of man's presence, either now, or in the past. Had
we no other proof of this great antiquity
we should be warranted in assuming it
from this fact alone. When this continent was first discovered populous
tribes occupied the whole of its broad
surface from end to end, from bleak and
desolate Patagonia to the frozen shores
of the Arctic Ocean, and from its eastern confines to its farthest western
limits. Some of them, such as the peoples of ancient Mexico and Peru were
living in a comparatively high state of
civilization and culture, far higher in
deed than that which has up to the present succeeded it under Spanish influence. Others maintained a miserable
existence in the face of adverse natural
surroundings, as among the degraded.
Patagonians in the far south; or the
presence of human foes, more hostile
than nature at her cruellest, as among
those wretched, solitary individuals
whom the early pioneers met in their
journeys across the Rockies, and who
looked upon the possession of the putri-
fying entrails of game and other camp
refuse as the highest joy of their miserable existence; while between these
two extremes every degree of savagery
and barbarism might be found. Indeed,
one of the most interesting features of
the New World is the presence within
it of conditions of life which have long
since passed away and been forgotten
in the Old. While archaeological investigations reveal to us broken, fragmentary histories or dead and by-gone
races in Europe, and our \ historic imaginations endeavour to recall their
lives and conditions and circumstances,
by a study of their relics, here in America we see before our very eyes human
beings living in the simplicity, the
squalor and the savagery of primitive
man; or attaining to that degree of pastoral culture we believe the primitive
Aryan tribes had risen to before their
final separation into their present great
historical divisions. We can study the
conditions through which, early man and
our own ancestors passed in the forgotten days of long ago; and, observing
them as they actually exist under primitive conditions, correct the misconception and errors that our imaginations
are prone to lead us into. We read in
our national histories of the ancient
Britons and others living in mud and
wicker huts, clothing themselves in the
untanned skins of wild beasts, or staining their naked bodies with the juices
of plants and herbs; living upon fish or
venison and such roots and wild fruits
as nature deigned to bestow upon
them in her bounty; but how few of us
realize what life under these conditions
To rightly understand the condition
of most of the peoples of Europe when
the Roman Legions were over-running 8
and subduing it we should study the
conditions of the native races of this
continent, as they are and as they were
when we first came into contact with
them. But enough of general observation, we will now deal more particularly
with what we may gather of primitive
man from his records and monuments
as we find them in this Province. These,
generally speaking, are of two .kinds,
tumuli and kjoekken-moeddinger. or
kitchen-middens, as they are more fam-
Plate I.—Bone Implements from Midden.
iliarly called. Both are found scattered
up and down the whole Province, generally along the shores of gulfs and bays,
or on the banks of streams and rivers.
Archaeologically speaking the tumuli
are intrinsically the more interesting of
the two, though as a rule they are singularly poor in relics of their builders. The
middens of Europe and of the Atlantic
seaboard and the mounds of the great
central and eastern valleys have long
since become classic, but the middens
and tumuli of British Columbia were
practically unknown to the archaeologi
cal world a few years ago until the publication by the Royal Society of a monograph of the writer's upon them: yet
our tumuli have many interesting and
distinctive features of their own, and the
midden, from which the relics figured
in the accompanying illustrations were
taken, exceeds in mass and area the
largest middens of classic Denmark,
and abounds in interesting ethnological
data. This particular midden, now
known as the "Great Fraser Midden," is
Plate II.—Stone Implements from Midden.
upwards of 1,400 feet in length and 300
feet in breadth, and covers to an average depth of about 5 feet, and to a-maxi-
mum depth of over 15 feet, an area of
over 4-| acres in extent. It is composed
of the remains of marine shells, mostly
of the clam and mussel kind, intermingled with ashes and other earthy matter.
It is situated on the right bank of the
north arm of the Fraser, a few miles up
from its present mouth, and opposite
the alluvial islands called Sea and Lulu
Island. The existence of so extensive
a midden, composed so largely of the PREHISTORIC RACES OF B. C.
remains of shell fish that belong to salt
water,   at   such   an   unusual    distance
from the nearest clam and mussel-bearing beds of to-day, was for a time a
puzzle to  me, when my attention was
first drawn to it.    I could perceive no
satisfactory reason why these midden-
makers should have chosen this particular site for their camping ground instead of one" five or six miles farther
down the bank, and nearer to the present source of supply or this staple of
their larders.    And  upon  discovery  a
little later of other middens still higher
up the river by fifteen or sixteen miles
the     puzzle   became     proportionately-
greater.    I found it difficult to believe
that the  enormous  mass  of shell-fish,
whose remains enter so largely into the
composition   of these   great   piles,   had
been laboriously brought up against the
stream  in canoes  or  "packed"  on  the
backs of the patient "klootchmans."   It
was too contrary to the genius of the
people to suppose this.   Making a brief
survey of the district, a little later, the
fact was disclosed that the mouth of the
river was formerly- some twenty miles
higher up than it is at present, and, that
the salt waters of the Gulf of Georgia
had in by-gone days laved the base of
the declivity on which the City of New
Westminster    now    stands;    and    had
passed    on    from     thence    and    met
the fresh waters of the Fraser in the
neighbourhood of the little bayside village of Port Hammond.    And, further,
that the large islands now inhabited bv
ranchers, which bar in mid-stream the
onrush of the annual freshets, must once
have had no existence at all; and even
after their formation had  begun must
have existed for   a   very   considerable
period as tidal flats such as may be seen
to-day stretching beyond the whole delta
for a distance of five or six miles.   That
these islands were once tidal-flats is certain, from the fact that the water from
the wells dug on them by the ranchers, is
so brackish that the water of the muddy Fraser is preferred to it.    And, further, that when in this condition they
afforded shelter to shell-fish similar to
those whose remains are found in the
middens near by, is clearly evidenced by
the fact that beds of similar shells are
frequently met with, in situ, as I have
been credibly informed, when digging
for water in the interior parts of the
islands. But as this discovery seemed
to point to a rather remote past for the
formation of these middens, I was reluctant to admit this obvious inference,
until I had ascertained that the enormous stumps of cedar and fir which I
found projecting from the midden—
several of which have diameters of from
6 to 8 ieet, and indicate by their annular rings from five to seven centuries' growth—had their roots actually
in the midden mass itsell; and had obviously grown there since the midden
had been formed. Ascertaining this by-
personal excavation and realizing that
three-quarters of' a millennium had
passed away since the middens had been
abandoned, I could no longer resist the
inference that they had been formed
when the islands opposite and below
them were tidal, shell-bearing flats.
The question now naturally arises,
when and for what reasons was this ancient camping ground abandoned? Was
it at a period shortly before the appearance upon them of those forest giants,
whose size and approximate age I have
just mentioned, or was it at a much earlier date; and was it abandoned because
the particular community dwelling there
had been exterminated by their enemies,
•or was it because the clams and mussels
gave out in consequence of a sudden or
a gradual rise in the level of the neighbouring flats? In seeking an answer to
these queries the cause of the abandonment of so ancient a camping ground
may possibly be found in this last reason. The explanation seems plausible,
but the former cause suggested is more
likely the truer one. The abandonment
many centuries ago of so many other
middens, elsewhere along our bays and
inlets, where no such cause as this can
be assigned—where clams and mussels
still exist in great quantities, and have
so existed from time immemorial, as the
extensive, tree-covered midden-piles
now testify—seems to call for a more
comprehensive and less local explanation. This view is further supported by
the anatomical evidence which thesc-
middens supply. In their lower horizons skulls have been found of a type
wholh   unlike the crania to be  found 10
among the Cowichan tribes to-day. penc
They are too decidedly dolichocephali:,
or "long-headed," to be classified among
any or1 the typical crania of this district,
and suggest affinity rather with the
Eskimo or Eastern tribes, than with any
in this region north of California. Other
striking features of these midden crania,
which differentiate them further from
the Lower Fraser type, are the extreme
narrowness of the forehead and the loft}r
sweep of the cranial vault. These crania
undoubtedly lend support to the hypothesis that the middens of this region,
at any rate, were formed by a pre-Sa-
lishan people and not by the present
Salish tribes of this region. In considering the time when the abandonment
lent, extraneous evidence of the enormous tree-stumps now t'ound in the
midden, whose size, condition and other
characteristics all warrant one in saying that many of them are from 500 to
700 years old. The age of tile islands,
then, cannot be less than the age of the
midden trees, though it may not be very
considerably greater. Exactly how
much older they are it seems impossible
from the evidence at hand at present to
say with any degree of certainty. There
is nothing in their formation, a? far as I
have been able to ascertain, for which it
is necessary to assign a greater length of
time than a thousand years, "hey are
wholly alluvial and only just above the
level of the freshets and high tides and
Plate III.—Bone and Stone Implemeuts.
took place, the physical changes which were often, before they were dyked dur-
have clearly taken place in the estuary ing the annual floods, extensively inun-
since the shells which enter so largely dated.   And although they are m their
into  the   composition  of  the middens, higher parts now thickly covered with
were gathered from the tidal flats that timber I have not been able to find or
have since become tree-clad   and   cul- hear of a tree more than a few feet in
tivable islands, afford us some clue to diameter or of more than three or four
work upon in the case of the midden centuries' growth at most.    If, then, I
under consideration.    If we can arrive am  correct in  estimating   the    i.eriod
at an estimate of the age of the islands which has elapsed since the flats ceased
we shall get some idea of the period of to support shell-fish  and  took  on  the
abandonment; for there is little doubt, I form of islands at a   thousand   years,
think, that these Fraser middens were something like  this  period  has  in  all
•holly   formed  before    those  physical probability   elapsed since this   camping
changes  which   transformed   the  shell- ground was abandoned bv   ,ts  owners
bearing flat into an island took place. on  account  of the  extinction  of their
In seeking to form this estimate we are chief food supplv at this point, and pos-
assisted in some measure by the inde- sibly a very much longer period if from PREHISTORIC RACES OF B. C.
the more likely cause suggested.    But
placing   the   abandonment   at   the latest   possible   date consistent   with the
presence   and   condition   of   the   tree
stumps, when to this period has been
added the time taken to form the midden itself we find ourselves in the possession, in this extensive pile of refuse,
of a monument of the past second to
none in the country in antiquity.    That
the accumulation of such a heap of human refuse as this midden presents, to
make no mention of others alnost as
large,  occupied   a   very    considerable
period of time there can be no doubt.   It
possesses many features in common with
the Danish kjoekken-moeddinger, now so
famous, which led such eminent investigators as Worsaae, Steenstrup, Lubbock
and others to regard the period of formation of those well-known piles as extending, in the words of the learned author of the "Origin of the Aryans," over
"many  centuries  at  least,  more  probably several millenniums."   We are not
unjustified, therefore, in claiming a very-
considerable period of time for the accumulation of these similar and much
larger heaps of B.C.   Viewing it, therefore, from the most conservative standpoint,  it may be reasonably conceded
that the lower parts of this midden could
hardly have been laid down later than
the beginning of our own era.    That
particular     midden-pile     was     slowly
formed through the centuries, and was
not the rapid accumulations of a large
body of people, is more than probable
from the fact that there are on its surface, at some distance from each other,
four or five crowns or eminences—due
as 1 have personally ascertained, not to
any local elevation of the sub-soil, but
wholly to   an increase in the   midden
mass itself—which, from what we know
of the mode of formation of more recent
accumulations of the kind, we may reasonably infer were old family  centres.
From these features,  as well  as  from
many other minor   ones,   such as the
paucity  of  relics,   in   comp;i;:-:iu   with
other   camping   grounds   where   large
communities are known to have   once
dwelt, such as at Hammond, it may be
fairly concluded that this midden was
the camp-site of a few families only; and
when it is remembered what an enor
mous mass of stuff there is in it, we are
bound on any reasonable hypothesis to
allow a very considerable time for its
accumulation.    And from the fact that
the midden is found to overlie the clean,
coarse gravel of the drift—which shows
no trace of vegetable matter; while all
around the midden, outside of its own
material, and all along the bank, rich,
loamy, vegetable mould is found overlying the drift-gravel to a depth of nearly
a foot—it is  certain to my mind that
there was an aboriginal settlement on
this bank before the appearance of postglacial vegetation in this district.    The
glacial period of   this   part of   North
America was much later than elsewhere,
though exactly how long ago it was
since  the   glaciers  retreated  from   our
glens and valleys is 3'et a matter of dispute among   geologists.    That it   was
comparatively recent, is pretty certaiu,
from the fact that accurate observation
by a well-known scientist disclosed the
fact only recently that one of our largest
glaciers up the Coast has retreated over
thirty miles during   the   last    hundred
years.    That the valleys of the  Coast
Range were under ice-caps long after
the ice had retreated from the northern
half of Vancouver Island is certain from
the presence of later forms of vegetation
there,  as for example, the oak.    It is
well known, that the oak succeeds the
fir only after a long interval of time,
when the soil has become fit by the decay of vegetable matter for its growth.
The oak, so characteristic of the scenery
around Victoria, for instance, is wholly
unknown on the Mainland, and even on
the Island only reaches as far north as
Comox, or   thereabouts.     This is not
strange.   The southern end of the Island
was under the immediate influence of the
warm   breezes of   the   Japan   current,
which made its presence felt there before
it did on the Mainland, and long after
the  Island  had  become  habitable  our
Mainland valleys were still wrapped in
their ice-shrouds.    Many of the higher
ones  are  still sleeping under the  ice,
while  others  have  not  long  emerged.
The   townsite  of  Vancouver   and   its
neighbourhood was wholly covered by
a huge ice-sheet in former days as those
who have had to excavate, or make gardens know to their cost.   In the higher 12
parts, the glacial clays and gravels still
remain as they were laid down by the
melting of the great Capilano glacier,
which has left its trail behind it in the
numerous and troublesome boulders that
everywhere, but especially in the west
end, in the line of the moraines, encumber the ground. Vegetation has been
too recent in this locality for nature to
have made sufficient mould to cover
them up, and the forest which now
covers to some extent the glacial gravels
of South Vancouver had not, I believe,
made its appearance when the old midden-makers on the old bank of the Fraser first made their camp there. Every
feature of the midden bears unmistak-
five centuries old, from the position m
which they were found, but yet it would
puzzle anybody to pick them out from
others of the same kind from which the
fish were taken only a few years ago.
There are numerous other signs besides
this that speak of extreme age. It rarely
happens that a skull is taken out whole;
it generally falls to pieces in handling,
and but from the fact that certain parts
of the midden have been transformed
into a kind of dry concrete we should
not have succeeded in taking any out
whole. Then again, not a particle of
wood has been found in the midden so
far, unless it be the rotting rootlets of
the trees that penetrate the mass to a
Explanation of lettering in Plate IV.
a—Central pile over body.
e—Coarse brown sand.
able testimony of extreme age, everything taken from it, except, of course,
the stones, being found in the last stage
of decay; an instance of which is the
condition of the shell remains. Generally speaking, the shells when taken out
whole, which happens rarely, all crumble
to pieces at the touch, even when they
bear no marks of fire on them; and that
the clam shell, at any rate, is exceedingly durable is clear from the fact that
trees of many centuries' growth are
found along Burrard Inlet and elsewhere growing over shell-heaps and
gripping with their roots whole clamshells, as perfect and firm as the day
they were thrown out. I have shells in
my possession that cannot be less than
g— Dark gritty sand.
A—Outer square of boulders
depth of several feet. Axe and tomahawk-heads, which were undoubtedly
once fastened into wooden hafts or
handles, are quite common; but where
they are found there is never any trace
of their wooden hafts to be seen. ' These
and sundry ether unmistakable evidences all speak clearly of the great anr
tiquity of the accumulation. T do not
wish to exaggerate this; I desire only to
discuss the plain facts of the case for the
readers of the Mining Record as they
appear to me; and it is not unlikelv that
more extensive investigations will'make
it necessary to extend rather than curtail the age here claimed.
". In the accompanying illustrations are
ngured a few samples of the relics thus PREHISTORIC RACES OF B. C.
1 o
far taken from this midden. They are
as will be seen, simple in make and design, and such as are found among
primitive people elsewhere. No pottery
of any kind has been found in these
middens; indeed, the ceramic art appears
to have been wholly unknown to* the aborigines of B.C. The mortars or bowls
and pestles seen in the illustrations were
not as is often supposed for corn-grinding purposes. They do not appear to
have possessed such; no grain of any
kind being known, as far as the writer
has been able to discover, among the
West Coast Indians north of the Columbia. Some of their tools and utensils, such as the pestle, or more properly,
stone-hammer,  and  the  sword-like  in -
found with edges as sharp and keen as
those of a steel axe. Bone needles,
with the eye sometimes in the centre,
at other times in the end, are quite common. A favourite weapon among these
midden people seems to nave been one
formed from the young horn of the '-Ik.
These horns in their first growth are
round and pointed, and at this stage
were selected by the warriors for their
"skull-crackers." The horn was apparently inserted in the end of a rod or
otherwise secured to a haft. They are
aptly termed skull-crackers, for three
adult skulls have already been taken
from this midden with circular perfora-
Plate V—Plan of Mounds of Fifth Series.   36x36 feet.
strument in the illustrations, are beautifully made and polished. It appears to
have been customary to fashion their
bowls after the likeness of some animal.
The fish-head pattern is one of the commonest. The bear pattern was also a
favourite style. Occasionally they were
made to represent a human head. There
was one taken from the old camping
grounds at Port Hammond which had
a human face carved on one of its sides,
the top of the head rising several inches
above the rim of the recepticle. Large
numbers of barbed bone spear-points
are found. The stone edges, axes,
knives and chisels are generally of jade,
of which material I shall have something to say later, and some have been
Plate VI.—Copper Instruments from Mounds.
tions in their crowns, clearly made by
these instruments, and as clean cut as if
the piece had been taken out with a
mechanic's punch.
It may now be interesting to pass from
the middens and consider for a little
while the tumuli, or burying grounds of
this region. We cannot consider them
all; we will, therefore, select a group of
some of the more interesting ones. A
typical cluster of these was found on the
right bank of the Fraser at Hatzic and
examined by the writer a few years ago.
These sepulchres with their ancient
mode of burial belong, like the middens,
to a comparatively distant past. The
Indians now dwelling in the neighbourhood know nothing of them and dis- 14
claim all knowledge of the people who
built them; and what is more, are quite
unconcerned at their being opened or
disturbed. This indifference, in the face
of the zealous vigilance they exercise
over their own old burial ground or
depositories of the dead, is the more
striking. The difficulty of procuring
anatomical material from any of the burial grounds of the modern tribes is a
well-known fact; and this unusual indifference displayed towards these mounds
by the Indians of the district is strong
evidence of itself that they belong to
some antecedent and forgotten people.
Indeed, an aged Indian of the place in-
■ formed the writer that the traditions of
his people tell of their being there from
the earliest times, that no one knew who
made them, and that no Indian would
approach them on any account. Indian traditions, one knows, are not very
reliable data, but in this instance they
support the evidence of the mo mds
themselves and may rest upon a basis of
truth. Whether they are pre-Salishan
or not. they were undoubtedly constructed many centuries ago, as we shall
presently show.
These tumuli are interesting apart
from the question of their antiquity,
from the fact that they present to us,
either a development from simple conceptions and ideas concerning the dead
to more advanced and complex ones; or
else they mark in a most interesting
manner the different degrees of honour
their builders were wont to pay to their
dead; for they show a markedly graduated transition from interment of a body
beneath a smiple pile of clay, to the construction of comparatively elaborate
tombs, composed of a great number of
boulders arranged in precise and geometrical order, and covered with alternate layers of sand and clay of different
kinds. The simplest and first of this
cluster or series, and, as I am led to believe the oldest, was formed by placing
the dead body on the ground somewhat
below the level of its surface and then
heaping over it the soil of the immediate
neighbourhood, for there are shallow-
ditches around the base of these mounds
which show that the soil of which thev
are formed was taken from the spot. In
all these mounds throughout :he whole
series, whether simple or otherwise, p
should be stated, one corpse only was
ever interred. About this there is no
doubt; and this fact of separate, individual interment is the more striking in
the more elaborate tombs which must
have occupied the relatives of the dead
many weeks in their construction. Many
of these simpler and less conspicuous
mounds have doubtless been levelled by
the ranchers of that neighbourhood
without attracting attention; as the
bones of the body in these are always
found wholly decomposed, with the
single exception, at times, of a bit of the
lower jaw, and their matter has been so
closely integrated with the soil that the
fact that a body once lay there is only
to be discovered by the presence of a
darker shade or streak in it. Absolutely
nothing" but the teeth or their remains,
or as stated before, tiny fragments of
the lower jaw, which crumble away in
the hand has been found in these clay
mounds; not a vestige of tools, weapons
or belongings of any kind. And it may
here be stated that it is one of the singularities of these sepulchres, and a very
significant fact, that not a single relic
of stone, not so much as a single flake
of any kind has been taken from the
whole series, though the greatest care
was used in seeking for them. In this,
as in other respects, the interments in
these mounds present, as we shall presently see, a marked contrast to those of
the Salish tribes about Lytton, in which
stone and bone relics are round in considerable numbers. These clay or earth
mounds are of varying dimensions, some
of them, evidently children's graves, being only a few feet high and a yard or
two in diameter, but like the more elaborate ones are always circular in form
and sometimes have a diameter of from
20 to 25 feet. Next in the series is a
class of mounds, formed in part, like the
last, but differing from them in having
a pile of boulders heaped up over and
about the spot where the body originally lay. The plan of interment in this
class of mounds seems to have been to
place the body in the centre of the spot
chosen for the grave, and then to surround and heap over it a large pile of
boulders, and over these again to heap
up earth to a height of from 6 to 12 feet. PREHISTORIC RACES OF B. C.
The next class differs from these only
in having a stratum of charcoal extending over the whole area of the mounds
between the boulders and the outer covering of clay, evidently the remains of
a large fire. Whether these fires were
kindled for sacrificial or for some simpler ceremonial purpose it is impossible
now from the evidence to say. The
slaughter and cremation of slaves on the
death of their owners or chief is not
wholly unknown among the present
tribes of B.C., but whether we see instances o£this practice among these old
mound-builders, or whether the fires
were lighted in the belief that they comforted the shades of the departed on iheir
journey to the nether world we may
never know. The evidence of fires and
the presence of charred bones is a com-
not sparing of its employment. The
rancher on whose farm these tumuli are
found took out from one side of one of
these between 20 and 30 barrowfuls for
building purposes, and when I opened
it up later there was still a great quantity left in it. This mound is one of the
most interesting of the group, inasmuch
as it incidentally presents us with some
independent, positive evidence of their
antiquity. On one side of its crown the
stump of a large cedar tree is seen projecting, the whole in the last stages of
decay.- To anyone who knows- anything of the enduring nature of the cedar
of British Columbia the evidence which
this cedar stump offers will be very convincing. A cedar tree will lie on the
ground for 1,000 years, it is estimated by
timber men and others, and yet its wood
Specimens of Arrow Heads.etc, from Prehistoric Burial
Grounds, Lytton, B.C.   Two-thirds Natural Size.
paratively common feature of the
mounds on Vancouver Island, but no
charred bones have ever been found in
these Hatzic mounds. The next class
of mounds differed again from the last in
having a large quantity of coarse, dark
sand in their central parts. It would
seem that in constructing the particular
graves, after piling up the boulders over
the body the builders had covered them
with a deep layer of quicksand—which
in that district underlies the clay top-
soil—and over this again had strewn a
layer of this coarse, dark sand. Where
they procured this latter sand from is
not known. There is none like it in the
neighbourhood at present. It is much
coarser and darker in colour than that
now found in the Fraser near by. But
wherever they brought it from they were
Specimens of Arrow Heads from Middens of B.C.
Two-thirds Natural Size.
will be firm and good and fit to make
up into door and window-sashes. There
is now, not two hundred vards from this
living: fir tree  growing"  as
traddle over a prostrate cedar log, the
age of which from its dimensions cannot be much less than five centuries,
and yet the wood of the cedar under it is
still solid and firm enough for the carpenter's use. It is almost impossible to say how long the cedar of
this region will endure, and if a claim of
1,000 years be made for tne growth and
the complete decay of this tree whose
roots have crumbled and mouldered
away among the bones hidden beneath
them for many a long year, most British
Columbians who know anything of the
durability of our cedar will think that a
very moderate claim indeed; and it is 16
not at all unlikely that twice that period
has elapsed since the mound was constructed. Even while I am writing
this the mail has just brought me a copy'
of Science, in which it is stated that some
Egyptian boats made of cedar and assigned to a period of 4,500 years ago,
have recently been found buried' near
the banks of the Nile. Here is an interesting and independent proof of the
powei of this wood to withstand the
ravages of time. My estimate compared
with the age of these boats is a matter of
the     dav      before     yesterday.      This
abnormality is probably without a parallel throughout this region of contorted crania. It does not appear, moreover, to conform to any of the three
types of deformation known to have
-been practised in former times by the
-present race of Indians on this Coast.
And what is most curious and signfi-
c-ant about it is that it is the skull of a
-woman. Women, therefore, had as
much honour paid to them by these
'mound-builders as men, which is certainly not the case among the present
tribes.    This fact alone would seem to
Specimens of Midden Utensils
mound is also interesting from
the fact that it is the only one
that has yielded any anatomical material
of importance. Whether from the large
quantity of sand in it, which may have
acted as a drain, or from the fact that
this large tree stood over it for many
centuries, or from the combination of
circumstances, the human remains in
this mound have been better preserved,
in part, than in the others. The long
bones among others, as well as the skull,
were taken out almost entire, though,
unfortunately, all but the skull soon
crumbled away. This, happily, I was
able, in part, to preserve. It is a strangely deformed skull, and in its excessive
indicate a difference of race from the
present tribes.
The next class differs in several essential features from those already- described. The chief characteristic aeen
here is an outer, rectangular boundary
of boulders, set side by yide in the form
of a square, having each of its sides facing towards one of the cardinal points
of the compass like the pyramids of
Mexico. This square was apparently
laid off before the body was interred,
which was placed in the centre and covered as before with a pile of boulders
similar to those forming the square.
Over these again, and between them and
the outer square, a layer of quicksand PREHISTORIC RACES OF B. C.
was placed; then followed a thin layer
of dark, gritty sand, similar to that
found in the other mound; over this
again came more quicksand, followed by
a layer of coarse brown sand over the
whole extent of the mound, extending
to and beyond the outer boulders; and
on the top of this the sepulchral fire was
kindled. Over the ashes of this fire,
which extended over the whole mound,
more quicksand was heaped, followed by
the capping of clay. A section illustrative of this mound may be neen in plate
skull and bones were found, and the rectangular object (i), a pair of which was
recovered, and which was probably an
earring, was taken from a mound of the
fifth class. The ring figured on this (4.)
was taken from a mound of the second
class, _ enclosed in a fold of hide, the
whole wrapped up in a wad of cedar
bark. These five copper objects, a fragment of a blanket woven from the hair
of some animal, presumably from the
colour and texture, the mountain-sheep,
and a small quantity of human hair of
Wooden grave-posts from ne
eneral surface of
when   opened
IV. The base or floor of this mound
must have been sunk several feet
below the level of the g
the land. The mound
stood about six feet above the surrounding soil, but its height from top to bottom at the centre was nearly eleven feet,
and must have been considerably higher
when first constructed. The copper
bracelet figured on plate VI. was taken
from this mound. The copper awl, or
spindle shown in the same plate III. was
taken  from  the  mound  in  which  the
ighbourhood of Lytton, B.C.
two colours, black and brown, form the
entire collection of relics taken from
these mounds. The next and concluding class of the group shows a considerable advance upon the preceding ones.
The plan here, as seen in plate V., is
much more elaborate and complex. Instead of the outer square as in the
others formed by a single line of boulders, we have three squares, one within
the other, in the innermost of which, beneath the pile of boulders, lay the body;
and the outer one is composed in this 18
instance of two parallel rows of boulders, capped and united by a third. The
superficial mass of this mound, and another alongside, and apparently like it,
had been too much disturbed before my
attention was drawn to them to allow
N'tlahapamuq, Warrior's shirt of the old days, after
drawing by Chief Mischelle, ofLytton.   Constructed from trebled Elk-hide.
Pattern of ancient dress of a chief's wife or daughter,
after drawing by Chief Mischelle, of Lytton, B.C.
Material soft doe-skin.
me to speak with any certainty of anything beyond their ground plan; but
judging from the sandy condition of the
soil on them, I should be inclined to say
that they resembled those of the fourth
class in their upper parts. It is interesting to note in this connection that a
number of mounds have recently been
opened up on the St. Johns River,
Florida, the chief characteristic of which
seems to be the employment of different
kinds of sand in distinct layers in their
To give an idea of the labour involved
in the construction of one of these
mounds it may be stated that it took a
man, with the help of a wheel-barrow
Drawing of stone figure found in the Indian burial-
grounds at K a in loops, B.C. Said by the old Indians
to have been used in former days in Puberty ceremonies. On the back of the sitting figure, which
is supposed to represent a woman giving birth to a
child, is a lizard-like animal in relief. In the forehead of the lower figure is a deep hole, which, according to my informant,held the sacred water with
which the Shaman sprinkled the giri on her return
from retirement in the woods. The material is a
kind of granite. Figure now in the Provincial
and other suitable tools, eight days to
remove a few yards off the soil only
from the underlying boulders of the
mound whose ground plan is given in
plate V. What time it must have taken
the native builders to erect one of the
more elaborate sepulchres with their inferior tools can easily be imagined.   To PREHISTORIC RACES OF B, C.
bring and place the boulders alone must land.    As already stated, the bones in
have taken a long time, and many days our tumuli are rarely recovered and so
must have been consumed in bringing little anatomical  material  of this  kind
such large quantities of sand in their has thus far been collected that no con-
simple receptacles and m digging the elusive results can be reached as to their
clay which caps the structure through- relationship to the present tribes of the
out its whole area, even now, after all LVovince.   What little has been done in
these years of erosion, to a depth of this way is too meagre to have much
several feet.    Some of the mounds on weight.    There is, however, one strik-
Vancouver    Island   arc   pyramidal   in ing fact which seems to suggest that
form.   Whether any* of these Fraser ones these old mound-builders and the mod-
were of that form originally cannot now ern tribes are not related and that is that
be determined.   Exteriorly they present none of the tribes now found in B.C.
the    appearance    o>    truncated    cones bury, or have buried, as far as we can
rather than   four-sided   pyramids,  but learn, in this way, and there are no more
this may easily be due to time and ele- conservative peoples in the world when
ments.    The boulders, it may be stated, it comes to customs of this kind than
found in these  mounds, weighed  from the uncultivated races.    The mode of
25 lbs. up to 200 lbs each, and must have sepulture followed by all the tribes in-
been brought from some of the mouii- habiting-   the   districts   wherein    these
tain stream beds, no stone of any kind, tumuli are found has been from time im-
not even a pebble, being found   ;mv- memorial,    either   tin.-burial  or slab-
where   in   the  neighbourhood   of  the tomb burial, mainly the former.    The
ranch.    Other   groups   of   lumuli,   dif- dead body was doubled up till the knees
fering- in some points from these of Hat- touched  the  chin   and    thus   securely
zic and resembling them in others, are bound and placed in a box or otherwise
found in manv other parts of the Pro- wrapped in a blanket, according to the
vince, particularly on \ ancouver Island, locality, and afterwards suspended from
There is a particularly interesting Main- the branches of a fir tree.   There was no
land group near Boundary Ba)r.    One commoner sight a few years ago than
feature in which these differ from those these suspended boxes or bundles. Now,
described, and in which the)' resemble under missionary influence, the dead of
many of the cairns on Vancouver Island, the natives are invariably interred after
is the existence in  them of a cist, or the manner of our own dead.   In other
stone coffin, in the centre of the mound, instances  the  remains,   treated  as  be-
formed bv slabs of rock, m which the fore, would be placed in a little shed or
body was placed.   Rarely are the human hut built of cedar slabs, sometimes   li-
remains in any of these tumuli recdv- rectly on the  ground,  and  sometimes
ered entire, at best a few of the harder raised a few feet above it, or else, in
bones onlv remain. We gather from this some instances among the Coast tribes,
fact, as well as from many other features a small island some lit lie distance from
of them, that these tumuli are very old the camping-ground, would be chosen
and contain  the  remains of men and and set apart for the reception of the
women who, whether they are allied 10 dead.   In no instance that has come to
the present tribes or not, were very prob- the writer's  knowledge did  they ever
ably    contemporaries   of    the   tumuli- bury the body under the ground in this
builders of Europe.    Historic data in- region.      In    the     interior,      among
forms us that these tumuli-builders of the Shuswaps and Thompsons,  it  was
the  Old World  could not   have lived otherwise,  the numerous  sand-hills  of
later than 2,000 or 3,000 years ago; and that locality suggesting and offering to
as all the conditions of these structures, these tribes an easy way of disposing of
and the remains found in them, closely their dead.    From this fact, then, that
resemble those of B.C., where much the the present Coast tribes never  buried
same climatical conditions are found as their dead in the ground we have strong
obtain in England, there is great like- reason for thinking that they and the
lihood that in mam   instances those of old mound or tumuli builders are not
this region are as old as those of Eng- of the same race, or, if so, have been 20
much modified by contact with other
alien races.
I said that the Shushwaps and Thompsons of the interior took advantage of
the numerous sand hills in the vicinity of
their camp-sites to dispose of their dead,
and a few remarks on these burial places
may now be interesting. M
Of all the fields in the Province ifi£,
which I have worked there are nopg so
rich in relics as those of this region. During the last twenty years, or so, many
hundreds of the most interesting specimens have been taken from these centres.   Up to the present there is no evi-
these were mostly of stone or bone and
the sands of that region being generally
dry, they have in numerous instances
been preserved in as good a condition
as when placed in the graves generations
ago. It would take a good-sized volume
to figure and describe the relics alone
that have been recovered from the old
-prehistoric camp   sites around   Lytton..
. Beautifully-formed arrow-heads of jasper, agate, chalcedony, crystal, and a
kind of obsidian, of all known shapes
and sizes, from the tiny barbed point of
less than half an inch in length up to
points of 2 or 3 inches long; jade celts,
Specimens of Haida workmanship in copper, ivory and bone.
dence that the older prehistoric graves
of this region contain the remains' of a
race differing from the present tribe; the
later burials were apparently carried out
on the same plan as the earliest that
have been discovered. This briefly,
consisted in doubling up "the body and
wrapping it in a blanket made, sometimes from the fibrous matter of the
sage-bush plant, sometimes from the
wool of mountain sheep or goats, then
laying it in a hole in the sand and placing about the head a greater or less number of specimens of household and other
utensils, weapons, tools and charms. As
axes and knives, polished like burnished
metal, figurettes, quaintly carved bone
charms, pestle-hammers of a dozen different patterns, polished steatite pipes in
animal forms, straight tubular pipes resembling huge cigar-holders incised
with mystic lines, carved and decorated
bone utensils and ornaments, stone clubs
of various forms, exquisite leaf-shaped
javelin points, two-edged stone swords,
and a host of other objects in stone and
bone, such as needles, hair-pins, awls
for basket-making, horn and wooden
spoons, grind-stones, skin-scrapers, perforated   discs,   "ceremonials," and last, PREHISTORIC RACES OF B. C.
but not least, blocks of cut and partially
cut jade are amongst the relics recovered here. These last are extremely interesting, for until the writer's discovery
of them at Lytton, together with similar
uncut boulders of the same material
taken from the adjacent Fraser bed, the
presence of jade tools and weapons
among our tribes had given rise to many
surmisings as -to their place of origin.
The only locality on this part of the con-1*
tinent where jade was known to exist up
to this time in its native beds was in
Alaska, but the large proportion of jade
utensils among the natives of this region
seemed, in the opinion of many, to suggest that the material must be found
nearer than Alaska. My fortunate discovery of blocks of this material in the
bed of the Fraser makes this quite certain. We know now that the Fraser is
the source of this stone. It is found in
the form of smooth, water-worn boulders between Lillooet and the junction of
the Fraser with the Thompson. It was
from these boulders that the old-time
natives cut, with infinite pains and no
small skill, the choicest of their stone
tools and weapons. When it is stated
that typical jade is several degrees harder than good steel, it will easily be understood that the ancients had no easy-
task to perform when they set themselves to cut out an adze, :an axe, or a
chisel from one of these boulders. For
a long time the method of cutting these
tools by the ancients was a puzzle to
archaeologists, but after a time some
celts were discovered, which had shallow grooves on one or both of their faces.
From this it was clear that the pieces
forming their tools had been ground
bodily out of the block. The question
then f arose, . how was the cutting or
grinding done? It was the present
writer's good fortune to be able to throw
some light on this question also, by the
discovery of specimens in various stages
of cutting recovered from the old" campsites about Lytton. Briefly, the cutting
was performed in two ways, by grinding
with narrow, bevelled grit-stones, and
by cutting with a rock crystal of some
.kind, commonly an agate. The former
methods made the grooved adzes
or axes, the latter the clean-cut
ones.      The    cutting    was    done    on
both sides of the stone, and when
the cuts or grooves approached
each other the piece was broken off by
a sharp blow, the jagged edge being
ground down smooth by rubbing on a
block of sandstone. Water was used in
both instances to keep the cut clean.
This is clear, both from the evidence of
the stciqes themselves as well as from the
assertions of the older Indians. You
• wilfcstill hear it frequently stated that
these cuts or grooves were effected by
means of a bow and sand. The absurdity of the statement is readily seen when
an attempt of the kind has been made.
Imagine a wabbling bow-string cutting
out a groove in the rounded surface of
a slippery, polished boulder, off which
the sand, the effective cutting material,
would roll quicker than it could be
poured upon it, water notwithstanding.
We cannot wander round the Province much further, but no description
of the archaeology of B.C. could be attempted without saying a few words
about the Gihangs or totem-poles of the
Haida and Tsimsean, but especially of
the former. Two capital specimens of
these may be seen in the Provincial
Museum. These structures are likewise monuments of the past, though
later in time, than the tumuli and middens we have already considered. They
are a kind of "Family Tree," a sculptured, genealogical record of the blood
relations of their owners.. No two of
them are, therefore, exactly alike. Some
of these poles are from 50 to 60 feet high
—a few even higher. They are formed
from the trunks of enormous cedar trees
and are covered from top to bottom with
grotesque sculptures of various marine
and land animals. They stand in the
forefront of the old houses, and in their
base is constructed the door-way or entrance to the building. This is usually a
huge hole cut out of the solid block and
represents the gaping mouth of some
huge monster. The sculptures are conventionalized beyond all recognition of
the creatures intended by most white
people, but. are as readily perceived by a
native as are the different letters of our
alphabet by us. No two artists make
the same animals alike, and yet there is
always something characteristic in them
which  reveals  to the  Indian  the  ani- 22
mals portrayed. These creatures represent the different totemic relations of the
individual, to the perpetuation of whose
memory the pole is erected, and convey
to the native mind very much the same
information that a. printed family7 pedigree does to us. Besides these Gihangs
—some of which are many generations
old, and all of which are now fast disappearing "either by acts of vandalism, or
by being carried away bodily to fill some
niche in the large museums of the East,
or even, in a few instances, those of
Europe—the Haidas are justly renowned for their general artistic skill.
of course), and carved in the most
spirited and finished style; suggesting
rather the sceptre of an Oriental potentate than a mere fish-club. The Haidas
were also skilled in the art of tatooing.
Some of the figuring upon the bodies of
the older men are extremely quaint and
artistic, a few examples of which are
here reproduced.
It is impossible in the limits of this
short article to do more than touch upon
a few of the more striking points of our
subject, but it would not be possible to
close our account before adding a few-
words upon the tribal divisions of our
Mythological Creature. Bear.
Specimens  of
Some specimens of this may be seen in
the accompanying illustrations, the
beauty and richness of design of which
will readily be seen and appreciated. The
artistic Chinese and Japanese are hardly
more skilful in carving than are the
Queen Charlotte Islanders, not only in
wood, but also in stone and ivory and
bone. Their commonest tools and utensils were formerly highly decorated with
carving and sculpture. As an instance
of this it may be mentioned that their
baton-like fish clubs, employed for
knocking a troublesome fish on the head
when landed in their canoes, were
frequently formed   from ivory (marine,
Haida Tattooing.
■ natives and their ethnic relations. It
will probably be scarcely believed by
some that the native races of this continent, North and South, number not
less than 160 distinct linguistic stocks
or families. This does not take into account the hundreds of dialects spoken
by the different divisions of the family.
In B.C. alone we have six different
stocks, and some of these, like the Sa-
lish, have from 50 to 100 dialects, some
of which differ from each other as widely as does English from German. This
great number of linguistic families becomes the more striking and significant
when we remember that in the whole of PREHISTORIC RACES OF B. C.
Europe there are found at most but four
distinct families; and it is one of the most
perplexing problems of American linguistics to account satisfactorily for this
great number of independent languages.
The ethnic names by which our six Columbian stocks are known are the Haida-
Tlingit in the North, Tsimseans on and
about the Skeena, Kwakiutl-Nootka on
the northern half of Vancouver Island
and adjacent parts of the Mainland, Sa-
lish, which comprises the tribes on Vancouver and other islands south of Co-
mox, those of the Coast as far south as
the Columbia and the tribes on and
about the Fraser, up to and inclusive of
the Thompsons and Shushwaps, Koote-
nays, of the Kootenay Lakes and district, and the wide-spreading Dene, or
Athabascans, who, strangely enough, are
related to the fierce and blood-thirsty
Apaches of New Mexico, etc. To the
casual observer, all the members of these
different stocks present much the same
appearance, and they do undoubtedly
share many traits in common, but yet,
there are well-drawn lines which mark
off the members of one stock from those
of another quite as widely as the lines of
difference mark off the several races of
Europe from  one   another;   and their
diversified languages clearly show them
to have had different origins. What
these origins were is a problem which
has exercised the mind of scholars since
our discovery of this continent, and the
theories which have been put forward
from time to time would fill a good
many volumes. Some of these are
bizarre and irrational in the extreme,
and some are as amusing as they are
naive. I cannot forbear quoting one of
these, it is so thoroughly original and
whimsical. It is that propounded by the
learned Dr. Cotton Mather. He believed
that the aborigines of this continent had
been lured here by the arch-fiend Satan,
who saw in the spread of Christianitv
the loss of his own hold upon mankind.
He therefore seduced the ancestors of
our natives to these shores, where they
would be shut off and lost to the rest of
the world and would be entirely beyond
power of the gospel, and he would have
them always for his, very own. Since
the learned Doctor' some little advance has been made on more scientific
lines than these towards the solution of
this perplexing problem, but a discussion of this subject would take us beyond the scope of our article /*!25s». J-T-
C f^0~
!fv® <5he I^UBXVIYAT
""^oHpree Miners, (^ertiricscte. -are*
No. 65534 A
Year after year has come and gone again.
As buckets passing on an endless chain
Laden with rock, or poor or rich the vein.
Some smoothly bore me gold in goodly sums,
And others !   iron rust to clog the drams.
Now creaking slowly, 1900 comes.
And that same year to me may represent
The final clean-up—well, I am content.
Pate cannot rob me of the wealth that's spent.
There's wealth and wealth, I've sampled and I know,"
Some things I valued not, long years ago   .
Paid from the grass roots though they assayed low.
And others, running thousands to the ton
Pinched out before assessment work was done.
Lord, what a many mines I've seen begun.
That's life' as I have seen it, here and there,
In mining camps and cities, everywhere,
That I could find the samples to compare.
I'm'old, you're young, a specimen or so
I'll give you, that may guide yon as you go,
Seeking you know not what, but what I know
Be a Free Miner, but maintain the pact
That gives you license, common sense and tact.
Say, " set your stakes according to the Act."
" Jump not and be-not jumped" the Golden Rule
For all Free Miners is—but be no fool,
Keep one eye out for fractions, and keep cool.
Don't go by books entirely—if it fall
That you have struck pay ore with ne'er a wall,
Dig deep and take your profits, great or small.
I'm old and garrulous—to make amends,
I'll tell you this, choose not your mine or friends
Thro' experts', if you seek for dividends.
Nor choose by outward show a mine or wife
Deep hidden in the veins of rock and life,
Lies gold or barren quartz, sweet peace or strife.
By David Falconer.
Illustrated by T. Bamford.
N uhe 4th of
Dec, A. D.
1868, Samuel
Johnson Robinson, of Barker v ille, district of Caribco
British Colum-
bia, in the
Pioneer Grocery Emporium
of that historic
town, opened his mouth and ate three
i-lb. tins of "Little Neck" clams. Upon
retiring for the night the psychic proper-
fluence that lifted him to a dizzy
height—dreams of gloomy disaster that
bore him down and buried him, flat,
broke and shivering, in gloomy crypts,
far beneath the grass-roots, and teeming with uncouth reptiles. Suddenly
appearing on the surface again the homing instinct of the clams asserted itself,
and he started across country, three
thousand miles, on a visit to the far
eastern home of himself and the clams,
on the coast of Maine, in the United
States of America; arriving just in
time for an old-fashioned Christmas
dinner of the year 1842.
—=_-    <s>
y////^i*&> - - -"^"-V*
" Hello, Sam, ain't you got the stuff for that thar pudden bought yet?"
ties of the clams developed to a remark- On returning to Barkerville at day-
able   degree.    He   "saw   visions,   and     break the following morning, Sam was
dreamed dreams"—dreams of joy and af-     only able to recount to his partner a 26
very vague and confused outline of the
trip'." He knew he had met the whole
family, and a number of neighbours.
All were hearty and prosperous. But,
most miraculous of all, he had met himself—a tow-headed sturdy boy of the
usual village type, squirmingly bashful
when looked at, and unable to articulate
when spoken to.
Out of the confused hurly-burly,
however, one picture remained, clear
and distinct. It was the snap-shot view
of the Christmas dinner party which he
had taken immediately on entering the
room. He could close his eyes at any
time and see the homely gathering—his
father, at the head of the table, carving
a huge fat turkey, with more goodwill than epicurean nicety; his mother,
smilingly, helping to cranberry sauce
Mr. Ezekiel Grant, a neighbour, who
flattered himself he knew his rights, and
delighted to1 rehearse the arguments of
counsel in the celebrated cause of Grant
against Barker, a suit arising out of a
boundary dispute, and ending three
years later in the foreclosure of a mortgage on "all of that certain piece or
parcel of land belonging to the said
Ezekiel Grant, and known as Sunny-
dale Farm"—a sad result, obliging the
hitherto prosperous Mr. Grant to become a free boarder at the table of his
son-in-law, but in no wise lessening his
faith in the righteousness of his cause,
nor his ability to present its most difficult phases before a patient, if uncomprehending audience, at the local store.
Sam could, also, see in his mental
picture the old prints and pictures on
the walls, seasonably decorated with
evergreens; the china dogs on the
chimney-piece—one of them with a chip
off his nose, for which his (Sam's) person had been blistered with a cow-
strap; the family Bible, on a little table
by itself, carefully dusted always, but
opened only on Sundays, when, in the
presence of his parents, he and his
brother Tom were permitted to turn
over its leaves and look at the pictures.
How well he remembered those pictures—Elijah, in a bright red shawl and
blue worsted petticoat, ascending the
pale saffron mountain, while two polar
bears waited patiently beside the trail in
full view of the children they were there
to  devour.    On  one occasion  he had
asked his mother why the children did
not run away, instead of walking right
into the mouths' of the bears, but she
explained that God had made them
blind so that they could not see
the animals. Still seeking information he wanted to know how
two bears could hold seventy-six
children, but his father spoke up sharply, with a hint of the cow-strap, so he
was, thereafter, obliged to form his own
conclusions, which he did, figuring out,
from the weight of the grindstone in
the wood-shed, that the tables of stone
carried down out of the mountain by
Moses must have weighed twelve tons.
The effect of the dream was to fix in
Sam's mind a firm resolution to have a
first-class Christmas dinner in his own
cabin, and he set about preparing for it
without regard to cost, for at that time
Barkerville was a wealthy camp, and
Deaf Sam's claim one of the best on
Williams Creek.
After arranging for a large turkey,
two geese and a quantity of sausages-—
the two last-named items being purchased on general principles—Sam
came face to face with the most formidable obstacle in his way. How was he
to make a plum-pudding? His partner,
a good judge of placer ground, a hard
worker and trusty friend, took little
stock in the proposed celebration. He
had been for thirty years a wanderer
and a dweller in the bush. He had forgotten all about his old home, and experienced not that festive thrill which
seems to permeate the air, exerting its.
influence upon good and bad alike as
the joyful season approaches, impelling
the devotional to church and the unre-
generate to theatres or "scenes of
revelry and din." He was a man utterly destitute of sentiment or imagination, and with an extremely narrow capacity for what' is popularly- considered
enjoyment. A good "clean up" at the
end of the day, a large portion of bacon
and beans, a pannikin of stout coffee,
and a three-hours smoke, not too much
interrupted by conversation, before
turning in, filled up the half-pint measure of his desires. Therefore Sam had
to go outside for advice, and, in a short
time it became known all over the district that Deaf Sam Robinson was going
to   make a plum-pudding   for   Christ- DEAF SAM'S PLUM PUDDING.
mas; furthermore, that he was having
difficulty about it.
In the doorway of the Bonanza Grocery Emporium, wherein a few weeks
before he had joyfully renewed his acquaintance with "Little Neck" clams,
Sam stood staring at the landscape
with that blank expression of countenance usually succeeding the lengthened
and fruitless efforts of a slow mind. The
tonnage capacity of an abnormal overcoat had been taxed to accommodate a
formidable quantity of parcels, various as
to size and the nature of their contents.
main street, and dismounted, with easy
adroitness, at the emporium.
"Hello, Sam, ain't you got the stuff
for that thar puddin' bought yet?"
"I don't know; I ain't sure, it seems
to me it wants some sage or sweet
majoram, or somethin' of that kind;
but how the blazes do I know what
it wants? I've had the opinion of the
whole town on it, an' bin settin' up
enough drinks to wash a claim. Solomon
says: 'In multitood of counsel there's
babblins an' contentions an' redness of
eyes,' and dog-goned if he ain't about
'A figure had appeared in the doorway—a tall, sinister looking individual.'1
The purchase of these parcels had occupied the entire forenoon and was not
completed without sundry journeyings
to and from the "Buzzard's Roost." an
establishment combining the advantages of hotel, restaurant and saloon,
whereat "coffee like your mother made-'
clamoured feebly for a popular recognition bestowed freely without the asking, on beverages less healthful if more
Presently a muffled figure, mounted
on a shaggy cayuse, came rapidly up the
right, for one blamed idiot says one
thing, an' another contradicts him an'
says somethin' else, and then there's a
fight, an' we've bin argyin' an' fightin'
an' chewin' the rag all day. Now what
do you say, Jim? Let's hear what you
think about it. Can't you recollect the
ingreegints of a plum-puddin'?"
"Well, I dunno; I've eat my share o'
many's the one back home, an' they
was corkers, but what they was made of
blamed if I'll ever tell you. I know
there   was   raisins,    an'    allspice,   an' 28
cider—no, not cider, that was in the
mince meat; an' citron, an' ginger, an'
cloves, an' cinnamon "
"Them's easy—I got 'em all yesterday." g|i
"Well, let's see; there was prunes, an'
orange peel, an' beef suet, an' vanillar—
hev'you got the vanillar?"
"Sent down the road for it last week."
"Well, it seems to me you've got
pretty near the whole works. Why
don't you go ahead an' put her together?"
"There's just where the trouble comes
in. How do I know whether its a
pound o' cinnamon to a quart o' flour
an' a pint o' brandy, or if its only two
quarts o' flour to three pound of suet
an' a pound of allspice. Then, here's
another thing, should she be riz with
yeast or bakin' powder? Besides, how
about eggs? Whose hens is layin' in
ten feet of snow an' the mercury pretty
near freein'?"
"I kin put you onto' some eggs.".
"Where—who's got 'em?"
"Sam Wong. Been keepin' hens
warm in his wash-house all winter with
hot bricks, an' feedin' 'em on raw beef
an' pepper corns to make 'em lay, but
you kin bet your perishin' soul he won't
sell 'em for no two bits a dozen. Judge
Begbie offered him a dollar a piece for
all he had, but he stood bold for two
and a half."
"Well, I won't be stuck if I pay two
an' a half, but I can't pack the whole
wash'ouse up the creek to my cabin;
how can I get 'em home without freez-
"Dead easy—stow 'em inside your
"So I ken. Well' let's go over an' see
In the dining-room of the Buzzard's
Roost some thirty or forty miners,
teamsters and gamblers were seated at
the mid-day meal. The mean devices
of the European Plan, now so generally
in vogue, would not have been tolerated
for a moment at that time and place.
One long table, extending from end to
end of the room, easily accommodated
the guests. At its head sat the landlord,
Joe Clarke, carving an immense roast
of beef, while along its length, on large
platters, were vegetables, pies, heaps of
juicv steak, chunks of corned beef and
other substantials, which were sliced
and distributed by those happening to
sit nearest them. The conversation was
boisterous, and the wit of the company
directed by common consent against the
landlord, who, usually, held his own or
a little more.
"They say Joe's goin' to set up free
wine all day Christmas, boys—Mumm's
Extry Dry," remarked a popular teamster to the company at large.
"You'll be extry dry afore you taste
any of it, Shorty," replied the landlord.
The crowd laughed and Shorty wilted
under the laugh, for he was known to
be perennially dry.
With such light pleasantry the meal
passed off, and Sam, with the assistance
of a neighbour, was getting into his
coat when the fat, red-faced cook came
bustling in from the kitchen and demanded to know whether anyone had
seen "Teaf Sam."
"I'm Deaf Sam, cook; what do you
want with me?"
"I hear you vos make some blum-
buddings, undt you know not how she
vos made.   Yes?"
"Why, who told you I didn't know
how to make a plum-puddin'?"
"I hear dem shpeak on all sides dot
Teaf Sam blows in two hundred tollar,
undt efen den he may not dot budding
make.    It is very true!"
"Well, what have you got to say
about it?"
"I say noddings at all, any more, if
dot vos some lies dey tell me. Ef you
can make dot budding, all right, make
dot budding. Ef not lies—ef it is very
true dot you cannot comprehend dot
budding, come mit me in mein kitchen,
I soon show you how dot budding you
shall make." And the cook with quiet
dignity awaited a reply.
Several of those in the room who had
been assisting Sam with advice gathered
"Well, Sam, do you know if it's any
colder in winter than it is in summer?
because if you do you know more'n I
do. To think of the whole crowd wor-
ryin' an' argyin' an' fightin' over your
blamed puddin' instead o' comin' here
to Julius an' gettin' directions for the
whole business in five minutes."
"I thought of Julius long ago, but DEAF SAM'S PLUM PUDDING,
bein' a Dutchman, I never supposed he
could make a plum-puddin'."
"Well, don't let us git into an argy-
ment, come along an' git the specification."
And so it was that after an infinite
amount of worry and expense Sam got
straightened out and fully directed how-
to produce a successful English plum-
stantial rather than an elegant repast.
The table did not glitter with silver and
cut-glass, nor were the guests in evening dress. But it was "a bang up dinner," as one gentleman remarked, and
it would hardly have been safe for a
stranger to come along and express any-
other opinion.
"Well,  Sam, what do you say;  will
we dish her up?    Hello, who in'blazes
'I'll fix you, Sam Robiason, same as I fixed Jim Ross."
The Christmas dinner of Samuel
Johnson Robinson would, at six o'clock,
be served. The invited guests to the
number of twelve had arrived, in twos
and threes, and with pipes in their
mouths were assisting their host to get
the table laid and put the finishing
touches to the cookery.    It was a sub-
is this?"
A figure had appeared in the doorway—a tall, sinister-looking individual,
in whom the company immediately recognized a stranger who had arrived a
few days before and put up at "Buzzard's Roost."
What followed is best told in the Ian- 30
guage of Jim Bennet, one of the guests.
"The feller never said a word but
hauled out a number forty-four navy revolver, an' let drive at the things that
was cookin' on the stove. There wasn't
no dum-dum bullets in them days, so
when the feller let drive at the bean pot
he only just made a clean hole through
it. Then he looked hard at the crowd,
but no one let on they seen him; we
just kept on smokin' awayr an' sayin'
nothin'. The next three shots fetched
the coffee-pot, the sarspan o' pertaters
an' a big plate o' slap-jacks that was
keepin' warm on the back o' the stove.
The broken plate flew in all directions,
an' a stray piece cut Sam under the left
eye. The coffee, of course, run ont'on
the stove an' cracked one o' the lids, an'
you must remember stoves was worth
money at Williams Creek in them days.
But Old Sam never winced—just sat
smokin' his pipe, with a small red streak
colorin his whisker. Then the feller
took another look at the crowd.
"Quiet people around here," he says.
"Jest the same in the other cabins t
called at—Quakers' meetin's everywhere. Do I see a murshom pipe in that
old gent's mouth? Why, what sinful extravagance these hard times." Bang
went the big navy revolver aefin an'
Deaf Sam's pipe, that no money could
ha' bought from him, flew in pieces all
over the cabin, except part of the
mouth-piece he held in his teeth, an'
went on pullin' at same as if he was
enjoyin' his smoke first rate. Then the
strange feller turned to the stOA'e agin'
an' the powder can with the plum-pnd-
din' in it give a little jump an' a hitch
to one side as the bullet went slap
through it an stove in the side o' the
tea kettle.
"Whether it was that the old man
kep' track o' the shootin' an' knew the
strange feller's gun was empty, an'
judged there was time to jump him
afore he pulled the ether, or he was
clean desperate at havin' his plum-
puddin' spiled after all the trouble he
took, I don't know: but the very minute
the stransre feller fired his last shot, a
can o' French soup "de Bull Yong,"
fetched him on the brido-e o' the nose
an' knocked him as cold as a wedge.
Then all hands was on top of him afore
he could draw breath, an'   we had more
raw-hide an'  rope   around   him    than
would hold a bear.
| 'Now, boys,' says Sam,  'this feller
has spiled our dinner; what will we do
with him?'
" 'Shoot him.'
" 'Sit him on the stove an' roast him.'
I 'Take him out an' string him up.'
" 'There's no doubt in my mind he
desarves all we can do to him an' more
besides, but we're in a British country,
though I'm an American citizen myself,
and we've got to obey British law an'
conduct ourselves like law-abidin' citizens.'
'What's your name, stranger?'
" 'None o' yer d—d business.'
" 'Ain't you the mizable cur that
killed Jim Ross in Sacramento in '59—
got him foul an' stabbed him when he
didn't hev no weepon to defend himself? You'd chuck bananner skins in
front of a blind man an' kick him after
he was down."
" 'I'll fix you, Sam Robinson, same's
I fixed Jim Ross, an' don't you forget
" 'No you won't, because I won't let
you. Well, boys, it's no use chewin' the
rag, I'm agoin' to take upon myself the
dooties an' responsibilities of a policeman an' a magistrate both, so you can
range yourselves in them cheers an' I'll
open court. Jest hist the prisoner ud
on that table where we kin all see him.
I'll be judge and prosecutin' attorney
rolled into one, an' we won't have no
attorney for the defence, because we're
all unanimous an' there ain't no occa-.
sion for no defence.'
" 'Prisoner at the bar, you are charged
with the offence of spilin' a good Christmas dinner, more particularly a certain
plum-puddin' which cost two hundred
an' fifty dollars, besides a lot of worry
an' anxiety o' mind in puttin' the same
together an' cookin' the same. What
do you say, guilty or not guilty? Of
course you don't say 'not guilty,' because we seen you do it.'
" 'Gentlemen of the jury, pay attention to the sentence o' the court.'
" 'I judge the prisoner guilty of wilfully, treacherously, cowardlv an' maliciously assassinatin' a .food' Christmas
plum-puddin', an' more particularly a
plum-puddin', bought, nut toeether and
cooked by the said plaintiff (that's me). DEAF SAMPS TLUH TODDING.
and I hereby sentence the said prisoner
to the follerin' sentence, in like manner
follerin'; that is to say, that he shall eat
the said puddih' as it now lies in that
powder can, stranded, sunk or burnt,
and that he shall eat the puddin', the
whole puddin', an' nothin' but the pud-
din', savin' only the can, as hereinafter
" 'Jim Bennet, I appoint you sheriff,
with power to add to your number, and
hereby order you to proceed at once and
carry out the sentence of the court,
usin' all proper despatch, for the puddin' is gettin' cpld.'
"Well, we put one of his own guns
to his head an' started to feed him with
hot puddin', an' you bet it was hot.
First he shut his teeth, but the hot puddin' made him open his mouth to roar,
so we got the handle of a sheath knife in
an' he couldn't shut it again. You bet
Sam made him take his medicine, an'
when he couldn't hold another spoonful
we lugged him down to the skookum
house an' gave him in charge."
"What did he git? Ten solid years.
He might have got off with five, but he
started to sass the court—and—you've
heard of Matthew Baillie Begbie?"
"They say when Judge Begbie heerd
of the trial at Sam's cabin he said the
man ought to be liberated an' Sam put
in his place, but he laughed fit to bust
just the same. I really believe he enjoyed the story as much as anybody."
"Did any more 'bad men' ever visit
"Not that I ever heard of." MAC THE IMMACULATE.
A Relic of the Rockies.
By Arthur. Scaife.
Illustrated by T. Bamlord.
HEY all loathed the sight of him in the London
Except the directors, who appraised him at his
weight in gold.
His fellow clerks thought and did not scruple
to say that he was "as mean as ," but we all
know how exaggerated, not to say on occasion
how irreverent, are the similes indulged, in by
bank clerks.
Angus Donald Macpherson was his name, but
they called him "Mac the Immaculate."
He never drank, he never swore, he never
smoked, he never spent more than two-pence on
his lunch, all of which was greatly to his credit,
though it did net serve—as is ought to have
done—to enhance the affection in which he was
held by his colleagues.
Now the bank had been unfortunate in its
management "out west," particularly at Aber-
crombie, British Columbia.
Though the town was still young, not having
as yet celebrated its fifth birthday,  it was  already an important mining centre.    The bank's
profits ought consequently to have been large, but the bank managers—there had
been three of them—one after the other had taken to drink.
As a result the profits had taken to flight and the agency didn't even pay
Not one of them was a
"We must have  a teetotaller,"  said the directors,
total abstainer himself; but that didn't matter.
So they sent for "Mac the Immacu late" and offered him the post-
over several names which stood before his on the list.
He accepted at once; his chance had come and he took it. He had neither
kith nor kin (save a brother who had gone abroad when he was a boy and of
whom he had never since heard) and left the same night for Liverpool.
"Always ready and prompt," said the directors.
"Just like his infernal luck," said the clerks; "hope he'll get tomahawked by
a bloomin' injun."
When Brigstock, his predecessor, had gone out the year before the whole staff
assembled at the station to see him off  and he had  started  on his
midst a mighty chorus of "He's a Jolly Good Fellow."
No one went to .see Mac off.
And now, to the infinite sorrow of the clerks in the London office, Briostock
was a broken reed and Angus Donald Macpherson reigned in his stead at
Abercrombie to their even more infinite disgust.
On arrival at Abercrombie, Macpherson. instantly reduced the bank staff bv
half He sized up the situation at a glance. He and one other could in local
parlance     run   the     whole    shooting match."
They could and they did, but the "one other" did not have a good time
At the  end of the first six months figures began to show on th
of the ledger, at the end of the first year the  branch  stood  at  the
agencies as a dividend-payer.
The directors were   delighted;   they-voted the
way  west
e right side
head  of the
manager a bonus and an in- MAC THE IMMACULATE.
crease of salary, but never a word of
congratulation did he get from his late
colleagues, not even a post-card.
As for the "one other," he was informed by his rtianager that he might
consider himself very fortunate that his
services were not dispensed within Abercrombie, Macpherson was no
better loved than he had been in London, though opinions about him were
far more forcibly expressed.
The Queen's English loses nothing In
power by transportation over seas and
strong language is quite a feature "out
When the hat went round for the
widow and children the day after Brig-
stock died in hospital, Macpherson refused to subscribe anything on the
bank's account though the dead man
had seen seven years' servcie.
He gave a dollar bill on his own account; no one else had given less than
What they said about him that night
round the hotel bars and at the club—
an institution recently established but
not specially select—would fill a volume,
but it is none the better fitted for publication on that account.
Some of the members vowed vengeance and swore unhofy oaths that they
would even up on him yet.
Macpherson did not care. He had a
"cinch" on the whole town, for every
one owed the bank, thanks to Brig-
stock's management.
If he was not loved, at least he was
feared, and that was more than enough
for him.
He only hugged himself the closer in
his little room over the bank premises as
he warmed some porridge left from
breakfast on his stove.
Then he buried himself in the bank's
books till three in the morning.
Truly a model bank manager.
One Sunday morning as he walked
home from the Presbyterian Church, at
which place of worship he had constituted about a fifth of the total congregation, he saw an old man, evidently a
miner from his appearance, riding down
the main street on a "cayuse."
The mud in-places was almost up to
the pony's girths, for the spring thaw
had  set in  and the  question  of street
pavement had not yet monopolized
municipal attention in Abercrombie.
There was only one street about 12
feet wide. The formation of the town
did not allow of greater width, lying as
it did in the hollow of the hills which
towered almost perpendicularly thousands of feet high, on either side.
You might have built a house of fifty
stories in Abercrombie, giving each
storey a separate entrance on the ground
As the town could not extend at the
sides without running up the face of the
mountain it extended at both ends and
lay like a long thin snake twisting its
length for the best part of a mile round
the curves of the valley.
Owing to the height of the hills Abercrombie got very little sunshine even in
summer.   In winter it got none at. all.
Down the main street came the old
miner on his "cayuse." When he
reached the bank door he drew rein and
looked round enquiringly.
No one but Macpherson was in sight,
for Abercrombie slept the sleep of the
just on Sunday mornings.
"Say," said the miner, "could you tell
me where I'd likely find Mr. Macpherson of the bank?"
As he spoke he threw his leg over the
saddle and lighted on the wood sidewalk three feet above the level of the
"My name is Macpherson," said the
manager. "Do you want to see me?
I'll come round," and he crossed over
the only crossing fifty yards lower down,
joining the old man on the other side at
the door of the bank.
The old man tied his "cayuse" to an
iron ring in the sidewalk.
"So you say you are Mr. Macpherson;
I've heard tell on you." He looked the
nanager up and down and then laid a
land impressively on his arm. A thin
wiry little old man with a scrubby iron-
grey beard and a piercing pair of eyes.
"Might your front name be Angus,
Angus Donald, now?"
"Not only it might be, but it is," said
Macpherson, somewhat amused at his
questioner's earnestness.
"Could you prove that now?"
"Well, I don't suppose I should have
much difficultv in proving it if I wanted 34
to. Everybody knows me here and what
I am."
"Everybody ain't anybodv," said the
old man sententiously. "What I mean
to say is, could you prove you was Angus Donald Macpherson to my satisfaction before one them lawyer chaps. I've
got to tell Angus Donald Macpherson
something what might be to his advantage to hear,
but I don't
to tell it to
the wr o n g
cha p , not
much. If he
proves his-
sel f to be
hisself, well
an d good
for him. If
he don't, so
much the
bett e r for
me. Fa ir
and square,
mate, fair
and square;
that's what
I am, but
there ain't
no flies on
me and dont
you for get
Macphe r -
son was
greatly in-
te r e s t e d .
Eviden t ly
the old man
h a d s ome-
thing of importance to
tell him.
inside,'' he
said, open -
ing the bank
door with his latch ■
talk in the street, Mi
not tell me your name
"No you don't," s;
"I'm not agoing in,
agoing to get the grip on what I've got
to say till you prove yourself to be yourself before one of them lawyer
Is there one of them handy?"
1 Will you vouch for my identity
:ey.      "We can't
 .    You did
id the old man.
and  you're  not
Lawyer Dickson's office was next to
the bank. Dickson himself was having
a Sunday shave at the window. .
"Mr. Dickson," said Macpherson, tapping on the pane. "Here's an incredulous old gentleman who says he has
something of importance to tell me but
won't divulge what it is till I've proved
that I'm myself.   Will you vouch for my
l./il __J3 "Is this
a lawyer
chap ?'' ask-
the old man.
1 " Oh, yes
Im a lawyer chap, "
through his
soap lather.
"Fee for
consul tation
five dollars.'
you fret
abo u t the
fee, " said
the old man,
"that's all
rig h t enough , m y
buck; fa i r
and square
is my game
every time.
What I
want to -
know is
whether this
gentleman is
what he
says he is,
Angus Don-
ald Macpherson ,
manager of
th i s   here
Angus Donald Macpherson all
said Dickson, "I can bear
ness to that."
He's got to swear it himself," persisted the old man, "afore you get a red
cent—let alone five dollars—out of me.
If you're a lawyer chap you've got the
Book handy.    If he swears it on the MAC THE IMMACULATE.
Book I'll believe'him."
Dickson, highly amused at the turn
things were taking and not in the least
averse to making Macpherson appear
ridiculous in the eyes of the "sidewalk"
committee which by this time had assembled on the other side of the street,
produced a small greasy Testament.
"Now, Mac," he said, handing him the
book, "swear away, I'm waiting for my
five dollars."
And Macpherson raising his hand,
kissed the Book and swore, to the best
of his knowledge and belief, so help him
God, that he was himself and no other.
"That's all right," said the old man,
when the ceremony was over. "Here's
your five dollars, mister," offering Dickson a villainously dirty "V" through the
"No, hang it all," said the lawyer,
drawing back, "I was only chaffing; I
can't take a fee for a thing like "
The old man cut him short.
"Then ycu ain't no lawyer chap," he
said promptly. "I never knew one on
'em refuse a dollar bill yet, let alone a
"V." All of this 'ere business will have
to be done over again," turning to Macpherson, "where shall we go now?"
But the manager was beginning to
think he'd had enough of it. Sounds of
unseemly mirth came from the sidewalk
committee on the other side of the street
and something told him that in half an
hour it would be all over the town that
he, "Mac the Immaculate," had stooped
to swear to his own identity in the public highway at the request of an unknown miner.
This is precisely what happened and
mighty were the chucklings that ensued.
• "Come, Dickson, nonsense, don't be
absurd," he said testily. "Take the five
dollars and stop this fooling. I want
to hear what the old fellow wants of
"Wants of you; wants of you!"
screamed the old miner, raising his voice
so as to be distinctly heard by the sidewalk committee on the other side of the
street. "He don't want nothing of
you. What he's got to say is all to the
advantage of Mr. Angus Donald Macpherson. If that p-entleman likes to hear
it, well and good for him. If he don't so
much the better for me. Fair and square
is my game."
A roar of laughter came from the
sidewalk committee.
The manager looked round angrily.
"Take the money quick, Dickson," he
said. Dickson hesitated. Pie owed the
bank five hundred on a note of hand
and scented the possibility of renewal.
Finally he took the money.
"That settles it," said the old miner
with a sigh of relief. "And now, sir,
we'll talk business fair and square, man
to man, at your bank if you please."
Macpherson led the way into his private room, shutting the door behind
"Lock it," said his visitor. "This 'ere's
private between you and me; I don't
want no one coming in till you and me's
through. And now, lookee here, Mr.
Angus Donald Macpherson, afore we
go any further I wants you to understand this. I ain't got anything to gain
in this 'ere deal. You have, not me.
Macpherson nodded.
'Now, first and foremost, what might
be your father's name?"
"Donald James."
"And your mother's?"
"How many sisters have you got?"
"I never had any sisters."
"Correct.   How many brothers?"
"Only one."
"Correct.    What was his name?"
"Alexander. He was called Alick for
"Correct.    Where is he now?"
"I don't know."
"Correct. When did you last hear
of him?"
"Not since he left home, when I was
a mere boy. He was fifteen years older
than I."
To the manager's infinite astonishment the old man seized him 'warmly
bv the hand and nearly shook it off.
"He's him," he cried excitedly. "This
here's Alick's brother, sure enough.
Mr. Macpherson, sir, you're a gentleman of eddication and a bank manager.
Your brother Alick, the best hearted
<map as ever tasted whiskey, he was;
but me and him was pals for well nigh
twenty years  for all  that.    He's  dead 36
now—don't take on." (Macpherson
managed to control his grief.) "He's
dead is Alick and gone where glory
.waits 'tin, and what's more he's left all
what he had to leave to you, sir. He
was always fair and square, was Alick;
>u re nis
He ha'
he knew what's what,
and I'm his executor."
"How much did he
Macpherson, who had
"I dunno. It's in
a third. She ain't been assayed yet. We
was a party of three, me and Jake and
Alick.   Jake's a half-breed."
"You haven't told me your own name
yet," said Macpherson.
"I'm coming to that, Eli Jevons is
my name—'Ole Eli,' the boys call me.
Plere's my card," and Mr. Jevons pulled
out an exceedingly well-worn miner's
certificate. "Well, me and Alick and
Jake went prospecting last fall up Cas-
siar way, and a pretty rough time we
had of it. We didn't come across anything much worth staking till well on
towards spring, and then one day all of
a sudden we had a find." The old man
lowered his voice almost to a whisper.
"We come across 1
"Well," asked Macpherson, and bank
manager though he was, he could not
altogether disguise his excitement.
"Ole Eli" looked cautiously round;
then he leant over the table and spoke
in an impressively hoarse whisper.
"We found a nugget, a monster nugget." He lowered his voice still further:
"Not a word, man, not a word; one-
third on her's yours; one's mine and
one's Jake's—fair and square. You've
got Alick's share. That's what he said,
and that's what's got to be. He caved
in, poor chap, less nor a week afterwards: got a chill I 'spect, strong 'un
though he was. It was mortal tough up
there, and he panned out sudden on the
Friday night. No, as I remember, it
was on Saturday. 'Ole Eli,' says he,
'you've been a good pal to me this'many
a year,' and so I had, Mr. Macoherson.
so I had. though I says it. 'Ole Eli.'
says he. 'I've only got one relation in
the world, as I know on. my brother little Angus Donald. I can see him now.'
he says, drawing o' hisself up. 'a pretty
little critter with long fair, hair afalling
all over his shoulders and a pink frock.
the day I come away. -The old man's
dead and the old woman likewise, and
there's only little Angus left, leastways,
if he ain't dead, too. I ain't heard nothing on him all these years, 'cept as he
went into a bank, but,' says he, 'Ole
Eli, I tell- you as I can see him now.
Angus, he's my heir and he's got to
have half my share of the nugget, if
you can find him. I know you're fair
and square, Ole Eli,' says he, 'and you'll
get on his trail if he's 'bove ground. If
you can't, why you must keep my share
for yourself.' 'Alick,' says I, 'I'll do it
or my name ain't 'Ole Eli.' '
The old man buried his face in his
hands. After a moment or two he continued.
"Then he calls out, 'Ole Levi,' says he,
'give us a drink,' and I give him one. It
was pretty nigh the last horn we had
left, and I kinder felt it was sort o'
wasted, him being that far gone. But
he swallered her down all right; he
never went back on his liquor, did
Alick, and I took a horn myself, 'cos he
never liked drinking alone, and then—
v\ ellj that was the last horn we ever had
The old man was badly broken up,
The manager gave no sign of emotion.
"When we was sure he was a goner,
me and Jake planted him up there, and
a mighty tough job we had of it, I can
tell you, a-digging of his grave: it's all
rock mostly where we was. Then we
set off to find you, and lor' bless you, I
didn't have no more idee where you was
than you did where I was. You might-
have knocked me down with a feather
when we struck your trail in Slokane
the very day we got there. On and off
AJick had told me all he knowed about
his family and you mustn't take it
crossways if I kinder put you through
your paces same as I did just now afore
I showed you my hand. When a man's
a executor he's got to be pretty spry. I
wasn't going to part with Alick's share
to the wrong man, not if I knowed it,
you bet your life."
"Certainly, certainly, Mr. Jevons,"
said Macpherson. "You are quite right
and I fully appreciate your caution. But
tell me." and he in turn lowered his
voice, "where is the nugget?"
»r>'iWell-«0m«  t0 that   directly,"  said
Ole   Eli."     "Meantime,   you   needn't MAC THE IMMACULATE.
bother about the mistering business.
'Ole Eli's' good enough for me; that's
what they've called me for well nigh
forty years and I ain't agoing to put on
any frills just because I've struck it lucky
at last. We brought her down, hid in
our traps to Slokane, Jake being in particular charge of her. He's spryer than
me is Jake and a bit handier with his
gun. I'm not so quick as I was,.though
I've done some shooting in my time.
When we got to Slokane we thought
we'd have her assayed there. We heard
quite by chance, first pop, that you was
running the bank up here, and dern me
if that derned fool Jake didn't go and
get full. There was a bit of a shindy-
over a game of draw and some shooting.
Course Jake has to let his gun off, and,
well, he was wanted in consequence by
the parlice. So we skinned out across
the border and made tracks for here,
reckoning on seeing you till things sorter' quieted down a bit. Jake's got her
cached all right."
"Where?" put in Macpherson.
"In a shack what belongs to a injun,
a pal of his, up the crik, nigh on six
miles from here."
"Is the Indian in with you?" asked
Macpherson, nervously.
"Not much, what do you take us for?
He's a derned fool. Would n't know a
nugget if he saw one. But he's all
right; he's a pal of Jake's and there ain't
no flies on Jake any more than there is
on me."
"What do you propose to do now?"
"What I say to Jake is this. 'You lie
cached up here and I'll go down to
Abercrombie and see Mr. Macpherson
and ask him to come along o' me up
here so as we three can talk things over
like and decide what's best to be done.
Take, he couldn't well come; he's a
bit skeered over this shooting business,
for we did n't rightly hear if the man he
plugged got through or not, and they're
getting plaguey particular now-a-days.
Oh, don't you get skeered of Jake," for
the manager's jaw had dropped several
degrees during the above recital. "Jake's
all right; mild as milk till he gets the
liquor in him, then he sours quick;
guess it's his injin blood. But, lor'
bless you, you can lead him with a packthread when he's sober—leastways, I
can.   You leave him to me.   You see,
added "Ole Eli" impressively, "Jake's
being wanted just now makes a difference. He feels like giving these parts
a pretty wide berth for a while. I don't
say but what we could come to a fairly
comfortable settlement with him over
his share on a cash basis."
"Could he be bought out for five
"I think so," said the old man. "I
think so; there, or thereabouts. Mind
you, I don't say but what Jake'll take
some handling. He knows a good
thing when he sees it; he's cut all his
eye-teeth has Jake, but I think it's to be
done, on a cash basis you understand."
"I understand," said Macpherson,
"and now when can we start?"
"Right away," said "Ole Eli," getting
up; "soon as ever you like. I've got a
"cayuse" outside; he belongs to the injin. I guess you can get a pony right
It was arranged that they should meet
an hour later at Thomson's Landing
outside the town.
"It's a bit of a climb up here, ain't it,"
said "Ole Eli," as they clambered up the
mountain trail—steep as the side of a
house—"but we're nearly there. See
that smoke yonder, that's the shack."
The ponies were hill bred and used
to it. Macpherson wasn't, and when,
two hours from the start, they reached
the cabin—a rough log shanty at the
mouth of an abandoned mining tunnel—
every bone in his body ached as if he
had been stretched on the rack.
An Indian stood at the door as they
drew up their steaming ponies on the
tiny clearing in front of the hut. Jake
himself was inside lying on his bunk
smoking. He sprang up—a tall ungainly figure with strongly marked Indian features and a distinctly evil eye—
as they entered and put his hand behind him.
"Friends, all," said "Ole Eli." "This
'ere is Alick's brother, manager of the
bank. He's all right; he's come to have
a look at her.    Trot her out, Jake."
Jake scowled, but said not a word. A
nervous man might have felt uncomfortable, for the surroundings were anything
but reassuring, but Macpherson knew
not the meaning of fear. Cowardice
was not one of his failings. I
The Indian had tied up the horses
and was now squatting on his haunches
with his hands spread out over the
glowing embers on the hearth.
Macpherson looked at him and then
at "Ole Eli."
"Tell him to git, Jake," said the latter.
Jake growled out an order and the
Indian went outside.
The  half-
breed    then
produced   a
canvas   bag
from   under
the  filthy
blankets on
his  bunk.
Out  came
various articles of clothing ,   each
dirtier  than
the o t her,
and last   of
all a bundle
round   in  a
pair  of dil-
api dated
bl u e jean
Macphe r -
son trembled
with excitement as Jake
unrolled   it.
There   on
the  bunk
lay the monster nugget,
begga ring
"Ole Eli's"
d e s cription
and    the
manager ' s
wildest   expectations.
"Ole Eli"
and gave it
prepared for
it fall.
"There she is
she a dandy 01
1 Its a bit of a climb up here, ain't it'
seized it with both hands
to Macpherson, who, units great weight, nearly let
get—a huge chunk of almost pure gold
—was well within the mark. He calculated it was worth fully twenty-five
per cent, more than the old man's estimate, and that if Jake's share could be
bought for anything like five thousand
dollars it would be excellent business.
Then again, where this one came from
there were certainly others.    He must
buy out Jake
and. come to
an arrangement wi t h
the old man.
His br a i n
fairlyr reeled
at the prospect.
He turned
the nugget
roun d a nd
round on the
floor; it was
too heavy to
handle comfortably .
Every look
con fi r m e d
his opin ion
as to its
Jake and
"Ole Eli"
excha n g e d
glances over
his head.
At last he
tur n ed to
the half-
he said slowly, "I un-
stand from
y o ur part-
said " oie Eli." ner that you
are willing
^. third I believe?"
said the old man.   "Is
is she not?    Did I say
too much about her?''
Macpherson could hardly believe his
eyes. His experience told him that the
value "Ole Eli" had put upon the nug-
to sell your share.
Jake nodded.
"Plow much do you want for it?"
Jake held up ten fingers.
"pome autside, sir," said the old man
bring her with you if you like."
Jake made    a   movement
reached the door.
"Hold on thar," said the
"didn't I tell you that this
as   the\
old man,
brother?" and Jake sank back on the
"See here now," said the old man
when they were outside the hut, "you
mustn't mind Jake. He's a bit skeered
of strangers—always—and don't never
talk much. I'll manage him. I told
you she was worth fifteen; so she is and
a derned sight more. You can see she
is for yourself. She'll run into twentv-
five; that's what she'll do, and," he
spoke in a whisper, "there's lots more
with five thousand in dollar bills and
plumped 'em right down in front of Jake,
he'd take 'em. I tell you, I knows it,
and what's more I'd get him to sign a
paper making over his share in them
claims to you and me."
The manager had five thousand dollars in notes in his breast pocket. He
had borrowed them from the bank safe
on the off chance of a deal of precisely
this nature. But "Ole Eli" did not
know this.
An Indian stood at the door'
where she come from. You and me '11
go into partnership over them claims
what I've staked out when we've settled
with Jake, and I tell you what it is, we '11
have a pretty tidy lay-out between us."
"But how much will he take; everything depends upon that?" said Macpherson anxiously.
"See here, now," said "Ole Eli." "If
you was to  come  up here to-morrow
"Go and offer him three," he said.
" '.Taint not a particle of use; I know
what I'm talking about. Five thou'
he '11 take and four thou' he won't, let
alone three."
"I'll give him four thousand, cash,"
he said, and he tapped his breast pocket
"What; you've brought the dosh?"
The manager nodded. 40
"Well, if that don't beat cockfight-
ing," said the old man admiringly, and
he went into the hut.
The manager promptly turned his absence to account. He took a small
phial from his pocket and poured a few
drops of liquid upon the nugget.
The result appeared to afford him
great satisfaction, for he smiled complacently as "Ole Eli" re-appeared.
"Jest what I told you," he said. "Five
thou' or nothing. I told him you had
brought four with you on the chance of
a deal, but he sticks to the extra thou'
and says you can come up again tomorrow with it, when he'll sign any
paper you like. You can talk to him
yourself if you like, but I know you
can't move him."
The manager thought of his mountain climb and that settled it.
"Wrap it up carefully and tie it on to
my saddle," he said. "You are willing
to trust me, 1 suppose, as regards your
"Alick's brother's good enough for
me," said "Ole Eli," and they went in to
The half-breed lay in the same position on his bunk, his hands behind his
head, his pipe in his mouth, staring up
at the ceiling, the embodiment of stolid
Taking a sheet of note paper from his
pocket and a stylographic pen Macpherson hurriedly wrote a dozen lines.
"Sign this," he said, "and I'll pay you
five thousand dollars."
Jake said nothing, but looked at. Eli.
"Read it," said the latter.
Macpherson read it.
"That's all right," said he, "sign
away, Jake."
Jake signed it "Jake Freeman," in a
fairly clerkly hand for a half-breed.
He held out his right hand for the
dollar bills, retaining the paper with his
Macpherson produced a good-sized
' roll of notes from his breast pocket.
"There are five thousand there," he
said.    "You had better count them."
Jake, looked at Eli. "Count," he said.
It was the first word he had spoken.
Eli slowly and deliberately counted
the bills.
"Correct," he said.
Jake handed over the paper to Mac
pherson and put the roll of dollar bills
in his pants pocket.
"We'll go now," said the manager,
and they mounted their ponies.
"She" was securely tied in a sack to
the manager's saddle bow and he never
took his eyes off her till late that night,
for they were far longer going ^own
than they had been coming up. "She
was under lock and key in the bank
"What time will we have her assayed
to-morrow?" asked "Ole Eli," as they
parted at the bank door. |
"We can't do anything to-morrow,
said the manager, "Cameron's the only
assayer in town whom I would care to
trust in a matter of this kind, and he's
down in Spokane. He won't be back
till Tuesday."
"Oh, he won't be back till Toosday,
won't he?" said "Ole Eli."
"No; you had better come in some
time in the afternoon to hear the result.
You can then execute a deed which I
will have ready for your signature.
Keep your own counsel, mind."
"Very good, sir," said "Ole Eli" respectfully.
Macpherson slept not a wink that
night. Several times he went downstairs and re-examined the nugget,
which seemed to grow in size and value
each time he looked at it. He had
weighed it on the bank scales and at the
lowest computation could not make it
worth less than twemy-five thousand
dollars. His purchase therefore of
Jake's third interest for five thousand
was a truly magnificent stroke. Then
he had a half interest in the old man's
claims and goodness only knew what
they might prove to be'worth.
He spent about four millions in imagination.
Next day the "one other" had a worse
time than usual. He had never known
the manager so exacting and irritable.
Cameron, the assayer, on his return
at noon on the Tuesday found a note
from Macpherson asking him to bring
his testing apparatus down to the bank
at five o'clock as he was wanted on
business of importance.
The bank  closed  at four.    At half- MAC THE IMMACULATE.
past the "one other" was told to his
overwhelming astonishment that he
could go. Nothing loath, away he
went and the club was very shortly afterwards in receipt of information that
"something was in the wind."
The manager and the assayer had the
bank premises to themselves.
When the latter saw the nugget he
opened his eyes.
"Great Scott!" he said, "Mac, where
did you get this?"
"Never you mind," answered the manager, "I want an assay at once; so just
get down to business."
Cameron      examined
through his glass.
"Have you made any
he asked carelessly.
"No," replied Macpherson, "but I've
been asked to."
advance yet?"
He watched the assayer's every movement as a cat watches a mouse.
Finally Cameron took a small tool
from his bag and bored deep holes in
the nugget in different places.
The boring he submitted to test.
"Hum," he said after a minute or
two, " 'all is not gold that glitters;' I
wouldn't make any advance against this
if I were you. It's about the best fake
I've seen. A brass nugget cast from a
mould, electroplated with a coating of
gold, perhaps the thirty-second of an
inch thick."
The manager fell prone on the floor
in a fit.
Of "Ole Eli" and of Jake the half-
breed not a trace was ever found, and
the name of the manager of the bank at
Abercrombie is no longer "Mac the
Immaculate." <^
Clive Phillips-Wolley.
Night in the pines, in the black bull-pines
On the. height of the bleak divide,
Where the year-long gloom of the sullen North
And the snows of the last Fall bide.
Tracks in the snow of the wandering bear;
The hoot of a questing owl;
Sobbing of winds that have lost their way,
From the lake—a grey wolf's howl.
Flakes that hiss in my dying fire.
Thoughts that burn in my brain;
"Plave I bartered my life for the World's desire
To get me a bond slave's chain?"
I see the fires of a thousand camps,
From the Rand to the Arctic Slope,
Strung over the world like a line of lamps
On an endless road of Hope.
I hear the song of a thousand creeks
Washing coarse gold from the hill,
The day-long beat of the pack train's feet,
The monotonous ring of the drill. FOOLED. 43
The mist rolled off from the red-brown fern,
As I rose with the dew in my hair,
Sodden and stiff with a long day's toil,
, I crept half-dead to my lair.
My body stained with the rust-red drip
Which dropped from my master's hold,
My soul dyed red with a deeper stain—
The stain of that devil—Gold!
My loins grew bent, my hands grew crooked,
My eyes grew blear and dim,
Away from the light of the blessed day
In the holes where I followed Him.
Toiling for millions I could not use,
While the life I might use went by;
What wonder the Devil laughs loud to-night
As he watches his bond slave die.
"Ho!   Ho!"—-Is that only the questing owl?
Or is it the thing I sought?
The Thing that promised "the world fenced in,"
That promising all, gives nought?
The Thing that blinks in the river sand,
That glares from the night-black shaft?
Was it the call of a hunting owl,
Or was it a devil laughed?
There were brave days too, when my birch canoe
Shot downward by streams unknown.
Where the alders budded, a rose grey fringe,
And the great fish flashed and shone;
When I climbed from the hot lush cedar woods
To the snows of the mountain goat—
Nature was with me in many moods—
I had only eyes for "float."
I heard no sigh in the stately trees,
No voice from the God above;
I asked no pleasure, I sought no ease;
I laughed at the dear word "love."
That was for fools in the world below,
The world I would have and hold,
With all that it knew, or  I cared to know,
When I'd won me the key to it—Gold!
Hog-like I rooted where wild flowers cling,
I drilled the earth to her core,
I found her sweet as a maid in spring,
I left her a brazen whore.
Lurid and loud the smelter rose
Where the giant Douglas grew,
From the murky gloom where the deer's-foot grows
Till it towered and dreamed in the blue. 44
Then the men swarmed in, and the wild things went,
And the voices of birds grew still,
And the ring of the builder's tool was. blent
With the miner's blasts in the hill.
Men felled God's forests, His rocks they scarred,
The silence of God they broke;
His beauty they changed to a builder's yard,
Plis sun they veiled with their smoke.
From the Heart of the Place came a roaring sound
Of engines men build and weld;
A throb and a beat, and a liquid heat,
And the scream of a power hard-held;
The upward leap of ravenous flames,
The ceaseless whir of the wheels;
The livid hues of the molten rock
That writhes like a thing that feels.
'Twas red, warm-red, gold-red all day;
It was red, blood-red all night.
No pale priest's prayer could fright men there,
No God's sword reach to smite.
Let me crawl back to the world I know,
Where the brute men strove and bled;
Give me fires of hell for your fields of snow-
It is silence and night I dread.
Thy skies, Lord Christ, are cruel clear,
Thy snows too saintly white;
I cannot bide on the mountain side—
I dare not die in the night;
The Great Assayer will rack my soul
From crucible to cupel;
I have learned the value of gold on Earth—
"Iio! Ho!   You shall learn it in Hell!" THE UNCONVENTIONALLY OF MISS CHURCHILL-FANE.
By H. Mortimer-Lamb.
Illustrated by Savannah.
FIRST met Bob
Moggridge at a
naval ball in
Vancouver two
years ago. We
were introduced;
but it was that
sort of introduction which, as a
rule, has its beginning in a casual nod and its
end—on the very
next occasion of
meeting—in that
stereotyped and irritating stare of
the " who-the-deuce-are-you" order
Moggridge, however, appeared to be
built after a different pattern from
that of the common or garden
type of being one is accustomed
to meet now-a-days in polite society.
He had a nice way with him. and
stranger still, unaffected manners; and
even when he learned that I was only a
poor devil of a down-at-the-heel journalist, he did not manifest any desire,
so far as I could judge, to drop my acquaintance. So Moggridge and I came
to be regarded as pals, and other men,
even the ultra-superior bank-clerks,
who had previously ignored me as an
graciously    pleased
thereafter to afford me some notice.
Thus I was raised in the social scale.
But while my new prestige, which I certainly owed to Moggridge, did not, perhaps, afford me any very extraordinary-
gratification, there were other reasons
why I should value his friendship.
There came a time when Providence,
destiny, or whatever else you like to call
it, gave me the opportunity to testify in
this regard; and at the same time I was
privileged to do one of the sweetest
girls I have ever met a service. How
this happened is now to be related.
Last spring the Adelaides, who, _ as
everyone knows, are great swells in "V ic-
toria society—and, I may add inadvertently, distant connections of my own,
though naturally they would hardly
vomnteer you the information—received
a letter from their cousin, Mrs. Churchill-
Pane, of Park Lane, London, W., intimating that her daughter Gwendoline
had evinced a sudden and quite extraordinary desire—from which she was
not to be moved even by the expostulations of Mr. Churchill-Fane himself—
to visit British Columbia. Why this
whim she could not imagine, for the
season was still at it height; but would
the Adelaides receive the dear child?
Of course, the Adelaides were charmed,
and in due time Miss Gwendoline arrived, accompanied by her maid.
As a mark of very special favour, and
perhaps, too, on the strength of the said
distant relationship between the Adelaides and myself, I was invited to the
humbler function of an afternoon tea,
whereat Miss Churchill-Fane was to receive her first introduction to Victoria's
most exclusive set, as represented by
the smart friends of the Adelaides. It
was all very nice but very slow, and I
was just sinking into the last stages of
boredom when I was aroused by the
touch of a light hand on my coat .sleeve.
The owner of the hand was a remarkably pretty little person, with very dark
eyes and brown hair, and a neat figure
well set-off in an equally neat dress.
"You are Mr. Elliott." She stated it
as a fact.
"Oh, yes; I knew you at once," she
went on, "Bob, that is, Mr. Moggridge,
sent me a photograph somebody took
of vou when you both made the ascent of Mount Crown at Vancouver.
Don't you remember?"
I assented dubiously. The photograph in question, if I recollected aright,
had libelled me atrociously.
"I suppose you knew Moggridge at
home?" I queried, for want of.something
better to say.
"Oh, yes; we are engaged," she answered.
This was news to me.
"Indeed?" I ventured to remark. 46
Miss Fane did not appear greatly impressed with the brilliancy of my conversational abilities. She looked at me
and hesitated. "What became of him
after he left Vancouver? do you know?"
Here, at least, I was sure of my
ground. "Oh, yes; I can tell you that
much." I answered. " Moggridge
threw up his practice to join the
first gold-rush to the new Atlin district. Up in the North, you. know," I
added vaguely
Then we were interrupted, for our
hostess hurried Miss Fane off to the
piano, and I seized the opportunity to
slip away.
One gets accustomed to surprising
things in a newspaper office, but I confess I was not a little startled the following morning to receive a message
through the speaking-tube, connecting
my room with the front office, to the effect that a lady desired to see me on
particular business. I hurried down at
once, and was directed to our library.
Miss Fane arose as I entered. She was
noticeably nervous. "I know you will
think me a A'ery extraordinary girl, Mr.
Elliott," she premised.
I demurred as in duty bound.
"Of course I must expect that; but
please listen to me patiently. I don't
want advice, mind; but I must have
your help, and you won't refuse me
that, will you?"
Who could resist such an appeal? .Not
I, at any rate.   I promised unreservedly.
"Three years ago," she began, as if
relating a story, "Bob and I became
engaged to be married. He had just
taken his degree and no one could have
had better prospects, because, as you
may have heard, his father, Mr. James
Moggridge, was at that time considered
a millionaire, and Bob really went in
for medicine more as an occupation than
for any other reason. Well, one day-
soon after my engagement was announced, Mr. James Moggridge's partner on the Stock Exchange, a man
named Bolton, suddenly disappeared,
and when the firm's affairs were gone,
into, it was discovered that this partner
had been secretly speculating for
months past. Foreseeing that detection
was inevitable and that he had hopelessly involved the firm, he converted
all the securities on which he could lay
hands into ready money and decamped.
The blow nearly killed Mr. Moggridge.
Instead of being a rich man, as he had
tondly believed, he found himself, after
meeting all the firm's obligations, a very-
poor one; but what he felt more than
anything else was the stigma that he imagined had been cast on the honourable
and old-established name of Moggridge
& Co., by the rascality of Mr. Bolton.
Bob came to me as soon as he heard
what had happened. Poor fellow, he
was most awfully cut up. He said a
penniless doctor without a practice had
no business to be engaged to a girl with
£5,000 a year of her own, and he begged
me to release him from his engagement.
I told him he must never talk such nonsense again, and that I wasn't going to
give him up just because his father's
partner happened to have acted dishonestly. And then we argued it all out,
over and over again, and when Bob
finally said he would go to Canada, I
made him promise to write to me, but
he was very sulky about it. I told my
father that Bob had wanted to break off
our engagement, and all he said was:
'Just what I expected of the young fellow, my dear. Very right and proper.
Distinctly honourable of him. I am
glad he showed such nice feeling and
saved us from taking the initiative.' So
of course, I saw it was no use to say
anything more. Bob answered my letters for a long time, until last Christmas, and he told me all about you, Mr.
Elliott, and what a 'good sort' you were;
and after I had talked with you yesterday I felt sure I could trust you."
"But," I interrupted, a sudden light
dawning upon me, "you surely did not
leave England purposely to meet Moggridge again, did you?"
She clapped her hands like a pleased
child and laugned. "Yes; wasn't! it a
splendid idea." And those stupid old
Adelaides gave me just the excuse I
wanted. It was an inspiration," and she
smiled guilelessly.
I tried to be severe. "It was hardly
 " I began. She did not let me proceed.
"I will not be lectured, sir," she broke
in, "and I am not in need of advice just
at present.   I was twenty-one last birthday, and you promised to help me, re
I certainly had committed myself and
therefore must needs regard myself
henceforward as an accomplice before
the fact with no hope even of turning
Queen s evidence. &
"You promised to help me," this interesting young person continued, "and
this is what you must do.    Yesterday
"In my hand lay a dainty purse.
you told me that Bob was in Atlin "
"But "
"Do not interrupt me, please. Bob is
in Atlin, and I am going to him and you
must come with me."
I stared at the ceiling. All power of
speech forsook me.
"Let. me see, the 'Tees' leaves for
Skagway on the 27th. I read that at
any rate in the Colonist this morning:
To-day is the 19th, so you have just one
week to prepare. Please get me a cabin
in the centre of the steamer, and buy
the ticket for Miss Julia Smith; don't
forget, and thank
you so much."
Yes, it certainly
was the dusty office
library in which I
was standing, and I
was certainly awake
and sober, for there
in my hand lay a
dainty purse, con-
- taining, I found, a
sufficient sum to defray the expenses of
Miss Fane's proposed journey. I
wandered out of the
. library in a verv
perturbed state of
mind and was ascending the stairs to
my own particular
quarters, when 1
heard the editor call
"Can you spare
me a minute, Elliott," he said.
"Of course, sir," I
replied, as I entered
his sanctum.
"Look   here,   old
chan," he said kindly, "it's time you had
a bit of a  change,
you're looking
seedy.    I am thinking   of   sending   a
man up to make a
special report of the
new   Atlin   placers,
and the job will suit
you to a T.    Todd
can easily take your
place    while   you're
away.    Here's your pass."
"Well, I'm d—." I began.
"Fh?" he queried.
"Nothing, sir, that is—er—I am
deucedly obliged to you. You're awfully good to give me the chance." 48
"Oh, humbug; get things shipshape
before you start on the 27th, and good
luck to you."
Here manifestly was the hand of fate,
ruthlessly pushing me on to connive at a
most outrageous crime against conventional custom. I murmured Kismet;
went down to the C. P. N. office, and
there I bought a ticket to Skagway and
return  in  the  name   of   "Miss   Julia
*       *        *****
"Yes, Miss, it is considerable rough
naow, but thar's nothin' the matter with
Atlin; it's all right, and we'll have a fine
city here before long."
So this was Atlin City, and we were
domiciled in the best hotel the place afforded, one owned by the British
America Corporation, and which, notwithstanding its cost—in the neighbourhood of twenty thousand dollars—was
yet nothing more than, a huge ungainly
structure, built of rough, unplaned
sheeting, covered on the inside by more
man answering to the name of Moggridge—a doctor?" I enquired.
"Guess I do," he answered; "he owns
number seven below Discovery, and I
heard tell he'd made a good strike.
You're most liable to find him at Bill
Croker's saloon; I see him thar this
mornin'." .
I enquired the direction of Bill Croker's saloon.
Miss Fane looked troubled. I glanced
across at her and injudiciously telegraphed: "Shall we go." She nodded.
j Bill Croker's saloon did not appear to
be the sort of place to which one would,
as a matter of choice, invite a lady.
As, however, it was the middle of
the afternoon, and also owing to
the fact that a stampede had
taken place that day to a new creek,
it was strangely quiet in the vicinity,
and there were no loafers about. Still
I induced Miss Fane to remain outside
while 1 went in to enquire for Moggridge.   I opened the door and tried to
'So this was Atlin City.
or less gaudy wall-paper. We had arrived that afternoon after a somewhat
toilsome journey over the White Pass.
—though the hardships encountered
there were more than compensated for
by the enchanting and exhilarating sail
down the lakes. We were both very
tired. Miss Fane, nevertheless gave me
my cue, and after helping myself to
mustard—we were discussing pork and
beans at seventy-five cents per capita—I
cleared my throat and obediently addressed our fellow-diner, whose remarks I have above quoted.
"Do. you happen to know a gentle-
shut it again quickly; but I was not
quick enough. Miss Fane had caught
a glimpse of the sight that had met my
eyes, and with a set and curiously pale
face she pushed past me and stood in
the shadow of the door. Then I realized
fully for the first time the almost criminal folly of which I had been guilty
in actually assisting this rash girl to
carry out her mad-cap scheme. The
room was badly ventilated bv one small,
dirty   window,   but   there
enough to take in all that was going on.
At a greasy table sat two men and a
woman—a brazen-faced   and    gaudilv- MISS CHURCHILL-FANE.
dressed creature. The men were playing cards—at least, one of them was,
the other was too hopelessly drunk to
know what he was doing. He was leaning heavily against the woman by his
side, while she deliberately instructed the man across the table how to play
his cards. It was after all rather a
waste of time, for it would have been just
as easy for the precious pair to have
quietly relieved their luckless and inebriated   victim   of   his     nuggets    and
but for the first time in my life I regretted that I had not be'en born a
woman. Our rooms at the hotel adjoined, and the intervening board partitions were thin; thus through the
dark hours of that very ghastly night I
was compelled to listen -with, God
knows how much pity and sympathy, to
that pitiful and heart-breaking sobbing
by which a woman is mercifully enabled
to obtain relief for sorrows which a man
must perforce bear in silence.
ritiful and hear I-breaking s-obbing.'
notes, without going through the form
of playing for them. But then possibly
it occurred to them that the bar-keeper,
who was looking on, might in that case
have   required  a  share  of  the   booty.
The drunken man was Moggridge.
but fortunately he was so hopelessly
drunk that he "did not recognize us.
Somehow or other I managed to get
Miss Fane out of the dive. She uttered
no  word, ?rd I dared net look at hei;
It was a lovely morning, and I felt
decidedly better after my swim in the
lake. At the hotel I met Moggridge.
His eyes were bloodshot, his cheeks
disgustingly puffy, and his whole appearance was dishevelled and anything
but agreeable to look upon. I greeted
him not, I fear, altogether effusively,
for last night's scene was yet fresh in
my mind; but he walked moodily past
me, either ignorant of my presence, or 50
appearing to be so. In the breakfast-
room was Miss Fane. She was very
pale, but otherwise no traces of the past
night were visible. She talked with unnatural vivacity on every conceiveable
subject, only succeeding, however, in
. making us both more uncomfortable. It
was a difficult position. Once I suggested a return to Victoria, but she
adroitly changed the subject by asking
permission to accompany me on a round
of visits I
making to
the various
the object
of obtaining material for my
series of
special articles. Under the circumstances
she could
not be bet-
t e r e m-
ployed, so
I consented at once.
Three days
by. Miss
Fane seemed actually
t o regain
some tone
and colour,
and I be-
ga n to
hope that
she Would
recover in
time from
her disappointment,
and presently return with me to Victoria. I even went
so far as to invent several plausible tales
for her to relate to the Adelaides to account for her sudden disappearance.
Still I felt a good bit
Victoria police are
idiots, and no doubt by
had made the discovery
f- f
He walked moodily past
worried.     The
not      exactly
' this time they
that Miss Julia
Smith   and  Miss   Churchill-Fane
one and the same young lady; that,
worse still, I had purchased the ticket to
Skagway; ergo, they would conclude
that we had deliberately eloped to a
sort of American Gretna Green. Alas,
for my future prospects, for the Adelaides had influence with my proprietor!'
Plowever, I had brought the whole business on myself, and I was not going to
funk the consequences. Yet I made
one more attempt to induce Miss Fane
to take the
next boat
back t o
Victoria. I
knew of a
wife who,
for a consideration ,
would act
for the occasion. I
put the
matter del-
ica te 1 y.
But Miss
Fane begged me to
that she
m an aged
her own affairs ; that
while she
fully a p -
preciat e d
the evident
kindness of
my m o-
tives, she
had no
present intention of
to Victoria.
I subsided.
Meanwhile, we had seen nothing of Moggridge but we had heard a good deal of
him. These accounts were not, on the
whole, discreditable. He was a hard
worker; had slanged the Government on the score of the Alien Bill and
the maladministration of the district
more effectively than any other speaker
at the public meetings convened for this MISS CHURCHILL-FANE.
purpose; and last, but not least, he was
reproached with not being addicted to
the practice of the "Jamboree" (at least,
so our informant deposed), the only occasion upon which he had been known
to   go on  a regular "spree' was   just
after he made the big strike on Number
Seven below Discovery, and then he did
the thing handsomely, and was drunk
for the matter of several days.    When
Miss Fane
heard   this
ment    her
eyes    softened.
once again
the hand
of destiny
News was
brought to
town of the
sickness of
Jack Taylor, who
Four, o n
Spruce. It
was either
scurvy or
typhoid, no
one could
defini t e 1 y
say which,
b ut Moggridge had
his claim
an d w a s
doctor i n g
and nurs-
ingthe sick
man. One
day I mis-
se d Miss
Fane at the
hotel. I was not greatly surprised thereat; and in the evening I rode out to the
patient. There were two cabins on
Number Four, and in one I found Moggridge lying on the floor, gaunt, unshaven, and half undressed, in a dead
sleep. Miss Fane had seen me ride past.
"Her head   on Moggridge's shoulder
She came to the door of the other cabin,
looking almost cheerful.
"I made Dr. Moggridge go and lie
down," she remarked, obviously to prevent me questioning her. "Do you
know he has never relaxed his watcn
night or day for nearly a week." At
the far side of the room was the shadow
of a man, moaning fretfully, and
stretched on a rough raw-hide pallet.
"How is
he?" I asked.
" Who,
Dr. Moggridge?"
"I meant
your patient," I replied.
doctor i s
very anxious, i n -
deed," she
said gravely. "It is
a very bad
attack of
and pneumonia, and
it is difficult to get
wine and
the right
sort of
food for a
sick man
here, you
I suggested that I
might assist in the
thank you,
she said,
"some of
the miners came up to help, but the doctor sent them all away. He told them
that in a case of this kind, untrained assistance is worse than useless."
"But you have had no ex ." She
stopped me with a glance.
"I am not a rough, stupid man," she
remarked conclusively. 52
the b. c. mining record.
I made a point of visiting the little
hospital regularly every evening after
that, and of bringing with me from the
town what articles were needful, or
rather obtainable.
Just as I was preparing to make this
customary journey on the third evening,
the Government Agent came up to me.
"I have been asked by the authorities,"
he said, "to at once institute enquiries
regarding the young lady who' arrived
here with you. Her real name is
Churchill-Fane, is it not?"
He was a decent chap, and I thought
it wise to take him into my confidence,
up to a certain extent.
"Well," he remarked, as I mounted
my horse, "that's all very fine and large.
Of course, I must make my report soon;
but if, as you say, things are shaping
right, I will find it difficult to procure
the information during the next two
days. But it's a deuced unconventional
"Make it a week," I suggested.
"What do you mean, sir," he laughed,
"trying to tamper with the morals of a
Government official?"
When I arrived at the hut, Miss Fane
was applying cold-water bandages to
the sick man's head and Moggridge was
apparently feeling his pulse. The Doctor motioned me back as I entered. I
waited, and presently I heard him say:
"Poor chap; it's all over.   You had bet
ter go away now, dear," and then came
a sound of hysterical weeping. I rode
down the creek for a bit before I went
back to see if I could help Moggridge.
I hoped that I had given Miss Fane
sufficient time to recover herself, and
to leave the cabin, but she was still there
when I returned, with her head on Mog-
gridge's shoulder, sobbing as if her
heart would break, but—and strangely
incongruous it seemed in that room of
death-—there was also a proud and
happy smile on her face,
"Little woman," Moggridge was saying—(they were both, naturally enough,
unnerved, remember); "darling, for
heaven's  sake  don't  cry  like  that;  we
did our best and "
"But it isn't that, Bob; it isn't that!"
Then I fled, silently and swiftly,  regretting that I  had already overheard
more than was intended for my ears.
We stood on the quarter-deck of the
"Tees," watching the grand and ever-
changing panorama of coast scenery;
Dr. and Mrs. Moggridge and I.
:'Wel],but what will the Adelaides
say to you, madame?" queried Moggridge.
"Oh, bother the Adelaides," replied
his wife.
But she didn't for long, because when
she arrived in Victoria, Victoria society
was, very properly, scandalized. CAPTURED SINGLE HANDED.
By F. G. Farron.—Illustrated by T. Bamford.
LD Geordie Cavanagh was ranchers had left, but others having re-
drunk, very drunk, and the ceived their mail, were discussing the
village loafers were having papers and wondering if the grasshop-
their usual time "joshing" pers would leave a blade of grass in the
him. Geordie had a small valley.
HHF pre-emption not far from A large number of passengers had ar-
"3X" ranche and managed rived that day and Geordie had conse-
to pick out a living and a little over quently enjoyed himself. Every arrival
through it, for he had no hired assist- meant a drink, every departure two- or
ance on the farm; &nd his daughter, a three, so, as I have said, Geordie Cava-
pretty little thing, ministered to his do- nagh was drunk, and as was customary
mestic wants, while the boys around the with him when in that condition, verv
" He managed to pick out a living."
big ranches branded his few cattle at the talkative.   Some time in the dim past he
round-ups \\&& been a special policeman on election
The stage passed through Quilchena day and the party employing him had
from Spence's Bridge every Friday, and won.   Since then Geordie thoroughly be-
Geordie    came    for    his    mail    every lieved himself a heaven-sent politician,
other trip.    This  was  the other  trip, and every time he got tipsy he would ex-
Quilchena consisted of an hotel, a store, plain how by his influence the victory
a town-hall, a few corrals and stables and was achieved.
a blacksmith shop. The stage had passed Geordie's name, put there by some-
through some hours before.   Most of the body else, was on every petition that 54
went through that part of the country.
He had often begged the members by
petition to introduce a free trade measure, and as frequently prayed the Governor-General to veto it should it go
through. For "Sabbath Observance"
he was an "old stand-by," on temperance
and prohibition petitions, for closing
country saloons on Sundays and for
closing them always, "George Cava-
nagh" might have been stereotyped,
while as "For doing away with the brand
in marking cattle" his was the only name
obtained in the valley. His mail, too,
was a large one. When things were
slow in Quilchena, as they usually were,
it was the customary thing on the part
of the  more  facetiously  inclined  rest
ing from the back room into the bar
wakened him fully. He had his own,
and during a discussion over the game,
lowned his neighbour's drink; then bid- i
ding them all good-bye staggered over
to the store, where he had left his mail.
Now, Geordie was an old man. Though
it was only fifty yards across the road it
was a long fifty for Geordie, but persevering he got there, and lurching into
the store looked about for his mail. The
proprietor and postmaster was out, so
Geordie walked over to the counter
where the mail was lying and grabbed
the largest bunch. Carefully closing one
eye, he tried hard to make out the addresses. He saw, or thought he saw,
"George Cavanagh,   Esq.,    Quilchena,
'The stage.passed through every Friday."
dents to answer in Geordie's name patent
medicine advertisements for the cure of
afflicted humanity—bald-headed men,
fat people who wished to- get thin, thin
ones who wished to get fat, and the like.
Hence his mail was always large. He
had samples of nearly every cure-all on
earth, and his house was filled with self-
measurement blanks.
He had luncheon at the hotel and was
sitting outside in a very, befuddled condition. There was a card game going
on inside and Geordie, of course was "in
on the drinks," whence the necessity of
keeping at least partly awake. Somebody had just got stuck, and the noise
of the moving chairs and the crowd fil-
B.C." He was sure about the "Esq.,"
and sure about the "Quilchena," and as-
he said to himself, he was the only "Esq."
in Quilchena, the letters must be for
him. Out of the store he went, around
the cornerand up the road homeward
bound. His ranche was only a couple of
miles away; half of the distance lav
through some brush over an old Hud-
son's Bay trail. The wind was blowing
down the valley half a gale, and dead
against Geordie. He was taking a zigzag course, and from a distance, with
his white coat distended he looked like
a fishing boat beating to windward.
Though the sun was low, and most of
the road in the shelter of the mountains, CAPTURED SINGLE HANDED.
the dry alkaline ground was hot and
dusty. The sun was sinking lower and
lower, the shadows crept across-the
fields, beyond the ripples of the lake
grew . bright and dark again, and the
mountains on the far side shone in the
last rays of the setting sun.
Geordie trudged up the road, muttering to himself as he went. His "load"
was a bigger one than usual and was
getting heavy. He wished, with all his
heart, he was safely at home. As he
turned off the road and up the trail he
was tired and sleepy. Used to going to
bed at sundown he could hardly keep
his eyes open, while his standing powers
were sadly weakened before leaving the
hotel. The trail was crossed by a small
creek about a half mile from the road,
and to cross it without getting wet was
a feat for an
old man at
any time, and
to-day Geordie was handicapped. He
sat down and
looked at the
small narrow
log across the
water, and
wondered how
on earth he
was going to
walk it. Oh,
i f somebody
would only
lift the lower
end of the hill
up and spill
the creek out,
or if the valley were but turned around so that he
might be on the other side, or—or—if—
his thoughts grew more and more muddled, the rippling of the creek fainter and
fainter, the bottle he carried from the
hotel slipped from his hand, and leaning
back against a stump, Geordie slept. •
* * * * *
The stage had been held up again by
the same old lone-handed rustler. This
day luckily for the company, they had
despatched two stages, one with the mail
and passengers, the other with the supplies and wages for the Stump Lake
mines.    About two miles from Quilch-
Geordie slept.'
ena as the stage came over the hill, just
where the trail branches off to Douglas
Lake, the horses shied. The driver, old
Murphy, knew what was up in a minute,
and almost before he was hailed pulled
up. Sure enough, there was the highwayman. A short, cut-off shot gun,
pointed, so it seemed to the startled passengers, at each one of them.
"Out with the stuff, Murph," came
from under the flour-sack mask. "Dump
it quick so you can make Morton's on
"They didn't ship to-day," said Murphy. "No stuff here. Only mail." He
thought it best to say nothing about the
other .stage.
"I guess I'll see for myself." And
making the passengers get out the desperado "lined them up,"  and pointing
his gun at one
young fel-
1 o w's head,
made him
search the
other passengers. Jewellery was returned, but all
money was
quickly transferred to the
"Now Mur-
SfliLfC phy, out with
, j£***p the      mine
money and registered mail."
"No mine
money here I
tell y o u,"
growled Murphy. "Look for yourself."
"No," said the highwayman, who
seemed quite at his ease and well acquainted with his business, "I'll send my
agent," and he made the young man
climb into the stage and throw out the
mail. The registered mail he knew at a
glance, for he grabbed it at once and let
the other sacks lie on the ground. "Now
gee up, and gents, don't look back."
Murphy gee'd up, and the gents didn't
look back.
Upon the arrival of the stage at Kam-
loops the. story  of this  latest robbery 56
created a profound sensation. Though
very little money had been taken, the
appalling frequency of these robberies
rendered extraordinary measures necessary. The large rewards already offered
for the bandit's capture were doubled.
Posses were organized and started to
scour the country, almost before the
horses had been taken out of the stage.
Now, there were two young Englishmen in the town at the time, just out
from home, good-natured, strapping
young fellows, but woefully green as to
the ways of the country. They had been
working up-country, but coming to
town with their wages, and receiving a
small remittance, had promptly proceeded to enjoy themselves as far as the limited capacity of the town permitted. But
here was a chance of a more exciting experience. Why not capture the robber and earn the reward? The conception was a grand one, and they speedily
proceeded to carry it into effect.
They came upon Geordie just as he
was awakening from his slumbers, and
he rose up with two rifles levelled at his
head. Geordie wondered was it a bad
dream, but before he could make up his
mind, he was bound and thrown over a
horse, with his ankles tied to the cinch.
The young fellows were jubilant. There
was the robber with the stolen mail in
his possession addressed to' the most
prominent rancher in the valley. Plis
captors promptly gathered up the letters
as evidence, finding also just off the trail
the registered bag, cut open. The evidence was complete; they had the robber and theirs would be the reward.
Hooray! and they took a drink out of
Geordie's bottle.
The Kamloops posse had reached
Quilchena and were coming back up the
road with several of the cowboys of that*
place, Ned, the hotel-keeper, at their
heacl. when the Englishmen with their
captive caught sight of them.
"For Heaven's sake. Sheldon," exclaimed one, "take this fellow awav and
hide him, or these men^will claim the reward.   Wait till I go and explain to the
sheriff that we made the capture."
The explanation evidently took some
time, and meanwhile Geordie resumed
his slumbers. This was Sheldon's opportunity to satisfy his curiosity as to
what was going forward. So tying the
horse on which the unfortunate, though
unconscious prisoner peacefully reposed,
securely to a tree, he made his way cautiously to the road. Sheldon, however,
had hardly got out of sight, before a man
sprang out of the bush. It was the genuine highwayman! The man ran towards Sheldon's horse, and intent upon
escape, began hastily to cut loose Geordie's bonds. Poor Geordie, being thus
rudely aroused, and for the second time,
gave a wild whoop and lurching suddenly forward, fell heavily on the top of his
The posse hearing the yell, rushed up,
to find the two men oh the ground locked
in each other's arms.
"Where's your robber?" asked Ned,
the hotel man.
"There," pointing to Geordie, who occupied the uppermost position in the picturesque and recumbent group of combined rascality and alcoholism. "Quick,
get him; he's trying to escape."
Geordie was raised with more energy
and less respect than should be properly
accorded to the venerable grey hairs of
the father of a promising family. But,
so fast was the grip of the inebriated one
upon his prostrate foe that the latter was
lifted, too, and, being "up-ended" in the
process, there gushed from his greasy
pockets a torrent of Her Britannic Majesty's registered mail; mingled with
which was a mask of dirty sacking. In
the limp hand (for Geordie was no- feather-weight and the man was half-stunned)
was a murderous-looking "bowie" knife.
"Bandit, you chuckle-headed tender-
feet," Ned bawled, "this here's old Geordie Cavanagh, who never robbed anyone
but himself and family. But, by the holy
poker, he's, caught our man, this cove
down here. Geordie's caught him, and,
by thunder, Geordie gets the reward."
Some Odds and Ends of Early History (1776 to 1864).
By E. O. S. SCHOLEFrjELD, Provincial Librarian.
HlLE the annals of British
Columbia are generally free
from those exciting stories
of stirring incidents that
usually live in the traditions
of nations, yet the history
of our Province will be
found by no means devoid of interest,
and is often fascinating. Little or nothing is known of this portion of the coast
of western North America previous to
the year 1776, when that great circumnavigator, Captain Cook, visited and
explored its shores. At that time the
country was divided among savage tribes
of Indians, who from time immemorial
had held undisputed sway over the land.
The ascendancy of the Indians, however,
has long since waned and they are now
fast disappearing from our midst.
Much romantic interest attaches to' the
history of the discovery of the Pacific
Ocean in the 16th century. Spain was
then in the very zenith of her fame as a
mighty maritime nation. But the lustre
of her glory was about to be dimmed and
later totally eclipsed by England's rising
naval power, which in after years was
destined to astonish and awe the world.
The Spaniards were undoubtedly the
pioneers of discovery on the Pacific
Coast and their explorations were the result of endeavours to reach India by a
western route. Vague accounts, too, of
the wealth of China and Japan had come
to the ears of these hardy adventurers,
and they determined to monopolize the
commerce in the gold, silks, spices and
precious stones that rumour had it were
produced in fabulous quantities by these
Stories of Spanish successes on the
Pacific Coast reached the shores of England and incited the sturdy seamen of
that nation to visit these waters and take
a hand in the game there being played.
Expeditions under well-known commanders were fitted out and despatched
to the Pacific, more it must be confessed
in the hope of reaping a rich reward by pillaging Spanish settlements than with any peaceful intention
of exploration and discovery. These
grim old privateers harried the Spanish
Main, striking terror into the hearts of
their enemies. Their names have been
handed down in many a legend of bloo^d
and fire. But the narrative of their adventures is too well known to be repeated
here even though space permitted.
The Pacific Ocean was discovered by
Vasco Numez de Balboa in the year 1513.
From that date the work of exploration
and discovery was continued at intervals.
In 1532 the Spaniards fitted out an expedition under the command of Grizalva
and Becerra, which succeeded in sighting
the peninsula of Lower California. In
1535 the famous Cortez took possession
of this peninsula in the name of His
Catholic Majesty. A little later Spanish
settlements were established on the
coasts of Mexico and from one of these
an expedition was despatched in 1542 to
explore the coast to the north. It is
claimed that this expedition reached the
vicinity of the 43rd parallel and discovered Cape Blanco, named by Captain
Vancouver at a later date, Cape Orford.
In virtue of a Papal bull, conferring on
Ferdinand and Isabella "all the new
world to the westward of a meridian
drawn a hundred leagues west of the
Azores," Spain claimed possession of the
territory thus explored. The remaining
portion was assigned to Portugal by
Pope Alexander VI. But when England renounced allegiance to the Roman
See she ignored the validity of any
title thus conferred "by donation by
the Bishop of Rome." and maintained the
right of British subjects to settle in any
country not in the actual occupation of
another Christian nation.
This policy having been officially de- 'I
clared by Queen Elizabeth, Sir Francis
Drake, with the sanction of the authorities, started on his historic voyage to the
Pacific with the object of harassing the
Spanish fleet, which had hitherto held
undisturbed control over the western
coast of America. In 1577 this heroic
buccaneer, who was the first Englishman
to navigate the Straits of Magellan, sailed from Plymouth on his adventurous
Drake,   after   hardships   and   losses
likely that this daring Englishman,
whose romantic adventures will always
live in the annals of British seamanship,
paid very much attention to objects of
less practical concern. His sole aim was
to return safely with his plunder. With
this end in view, rather than run the
gauntlet of the Spaniards to the south,
whom he well knew were burning to revenge the indignities suffered at his
hands, Drake decided to return by way
of the northwest passage, in the exist-
Hudson's Bay Company's Steamer Beaver.
The Beaver arrived at Astoria on April 4th, 1836.
which would have broken the spirit of a
man less brave and determined, reached
the Pacific and sailing north discovered
California, which he named New Albion.
His voyage, however, was not primarily one of discovery, but made rather
with the object of plundering the richly
laden galleons of Spain returning with
spoils gathered from the ancient cities of
South America, whose inhabitants were
treated with such refined cruelty by their
Iberian conquerors.   It is, therefore, un-
ence of which he, in common with the
mariners of his age, had a firm belief
Eventually he was forced to abandon his
attempt and return by way of the Phil-
lipines and the Cape of Good Hope, thus
completing the first voyage round the
The precise parallel of latitude reached
by Drake on his northward vovage has
been the subject of much discussion,
more particularly in connection with the
Oregon boundary.   The chaplain of the B. C. BEFORE CONFEDERATION.
expedition specifies that "the height of
forty-eight degrees" was attained. It is
impossible, however, to ascertain at this
late date the exact spot arrived at by
Drake; but it is altogether probable that
to him belongs the distinction of having
been the first to lay claim to the land between the 43rd and 48th parallels of
north latitude.
While reviewing the early history of
the Pacific Coast, it would be improper,
even in such a cursory resume as the
present, to pass without notice the story
of the first reputed navigation of the
channel separating the Mainland of Brit-
Queen Charlotte Sound. De Fuca imagined as he emerged into these
waters that he had passed from the Pacific to the Atlantic and accordingly
claimed to be regarded as the discoverer
of the celebrated northwest passage, the
search for which has only terminated in
recent years. Interesting as the account
of this voyage must always be it is nevertheless somewhat mythical; although, in
justice to Juan de Fuca, it is but fair to
state that in the light of modern research
the story of his voyage has met with
acceptance among those who have studied the early history of these waters.
Wreck of the Beaver, Brockto'h Point.
ish Columbia from the Island of Vancouver. It has been asserted that this
voyage was accomplished by a Greek
named Apostolos Valerianos, better
known now as Juan de Fuca. In an exciting narrative published in 1625 by one
Michael Lock it is set forth that this
Greek, having been commissioned by the
Spanish Governor of Mexico to explore
these northern waters, entered the
strait which bears his name, sailed
through the Gulf of Georgia, and, having
navigated safely the intricate passage to
the north of the latter, at last reached
Cook, in his third great voyage, having, of course, heard of the voyage of
Juan de Fuca, determined once and for
all to dispose of any doubt in regard to
the existence of the sheet of water claimed to have been navigated by the old
Greek pilot. He therefore examined the
coast with much care as far north as the
48th parallel. Finding no opening corresponding to De Fuca's description, he
gave up the search and declared the
story of this reputed discovery to have
been altogether fictitious. Cook then
continued his voyage up the coast, oasc- 60
ing on his way north the entrance to th;
very strait in the existence of which he
had averred his entire disbelief.
During the 18th century the British
and Spanish prosecuted with more or
less vigour the work of exploration along
the west coast and many expeditions
were despatched with a view to obtaining
information concerning those wild, unknown waters. In 1774 Juan Perez set
sail from Monterey on one of these exploratory surveys. Heading north he
passed without notice the entrance to the
Strait of Fuca and on the 18th of July
sighted the Queen Charlotte Islands. On
his  homeward   journey,  it   is   alleged
believing that the latter was the one in
vogue among the natives.
As previously mentioned, in the story
of Captain Cook's great undertaking,
which was given to the world in 1782,
we have the first authentic description of
an important part of the coast of British
Columbia. Although Juan Perez had
preceded Cook, yet little is known regarding the results attained by him
owing to the fact that the records of his
discoveries were never made public by
the Spanish Government. Beyond the
knowledge .that Perez discovered the
Queen Charlotte Islands and anchored
in    the    vicinity    of    Nootka    Sound,
Government House, Victoria, destroyed by fire in May, 1899.
by Spanish and American writers,
he discovered Nootka Sound, and
anchored in a bay named by him Port
San Lorenzo, in honour of the Saint on
whose day it was discovered. Some
years later Captain Cook visited this
spot, which he named King George
Sound, after the king who had done so
much to encourage among his subjects
the exploration of far distant and little
known lands. Cook, however, subsequently changed the name to Nootka,
which latter place was destined at
a later period to play an important part
in the history of this coast, we have
little information respecting his expedition.
In succeeding years Captains Portlock
and Dixon, Lieut. Meares, and many
other traders and navigators, all more or
less well known, visited and explored our
coasts, many of whom have bequeathed
to posterity interesting and valuable accounts of their adventures B. C. BEFORE CONFEDERATION.
In the year 1788 Meares erected at
Nootka a small building, which he fortified against the Indians. He then proceeded to the Strait of Juan de Fuca,
leaving a portion of his crew to construct a small vessel to be used for trading purposes. This little sloop, christ-
- ened the "Northwest-America," was the
first vessel ever constructed in the country north of California. It may be interesting to add that it was built by the aid
of Chinese carpenters, being, in all probability, the first instance of Mongolian
employment in our Province. From this
time on, Nootka derived some importance from becoming the rendezvous of
Spaniards determined to put a stop to
all encroachments. Martinez was ordered to proceed to Nootka and in the
name of Spain take possession of the
Sound. Trouble arose between Martinez and Colnett and Hudson, who had
been sent thither by Meares under the
British flag. Finally, their ships, the
Princess Royal, the Argonaut, and the
Northwest-America, were seized and
their cargoes placed on board the Spanish ships of war. Colnett was arrested
and suffered many indignities at the
hands of his captors, and, later, was sent
to Mexico, where he was at last liberated
by order of the Viceroy.    The piratical
m,       11   1 -   m "'"
Old Post Office and Custom House, Victoria, thirty years ago.
the traders, who had already begun to
frequent these waters for the purpose of
procuring the valuable fur of the sea
otter and other animals, in which a large
and lucrative trade was soon established.
The Spanish authorities, who claimed
the sole right to navigate the Pacific on
the northwest coast of America, becoming aware of the visits of the various
traders, sent an expedition in 1788 in
command of Estinez Martinez and Gonzales Haro to obtain information regarding the reputed depredations of these adventurers.    In the   following year the
action of the Spanish commander, as
soon as it became generally known,
evoked the greatest indignation amongst
the British people. In an inconceivably
short space of time a large fleet was assembled and for some months the whole
civilized world was in suspense and anxiety as to the issue. Eventually, however. Captain Vancouver was despatched
in charge of the ship Discovery and the
brig Chatham to determine with the
Spanish Commissioner what indemnity
should be made to the British subjects
who had suffered on account of the un- ijjf
toward action of the emissary of the
Spanish Government. It was in connection with this difficulty that Meares presented to the House of Commons his
somewhat celebrated "Memorial on the
Nootka Affair." The Spaniards eventually relinquished their extravagant
claims, war was averted, and British supremacy was finally and firmly established.
In addition to the official business upon which he had been despatched, Vancouver was directed to explore the coast
of the Pacific from the 35th to the 60th
parallel of north latitude, and to keep a
look out for the northwest passage. Pie
was    particularly    ordered to examine
into the open waters of Queen Charlotte
Sound. Ariving at Nootka, Vancouver
and the Spanish Commander, Quadra,
compared together the notes and charts
of their voyages through the Strait of
Fuca; and it was agreed between them
that the great island which that arm of
the sea separated from the American
continent should bear the names of both.
And thus it appeared on maps and
charts for many years as the Island of
Quadra and Vancouver, although the
former name has now been dropped, and
it is known to the world simply as Vancouver Island.
Vancouver-departed on his homeward
voyage in  1794.    During the years he
The old jail, Bastion Square, Victoria, since pulled down.
with great care
the Strait of Juan de
Fuca. After a futile search for1 the
mouth of the Columbia River, which was
subsequently discovered by Captain
Gray, after whose vessel this magnificent
river was named, Vancouver proceeded
to survey the Strait of Fuca. On the
22nd of June, 1792, as he was returning
from Jervis Inlet he met the Sutil and
Mexicana, two Spanish men-of-war, in
command of Galiano and Valdes. Vancouver received a most courteous reception and information was exchanged in
the most friendly manner. Then separating, Vancouver threaded his way
through the islands of the Gulf of Georgia and Johnstone Strait, sailing at last
spent in the northwest American waters
he was indefatigable in prosecuting the
surveys, for which his name has since become justly famous.    The explorations
which he carried to such a successful issue have not been excelled by any other
navigator.     They   were   faithfully  and
thoroughly performed.    The charts and
plans drawn under his direction will always stand a lasting monument to the
patience and industry displayed by this
great navigator,  often under very adverse circumstances.  Vancouver died in
May, 1798, completely worn out with his
labours, before his report was quite finished.
It is impossible in the space allotted
to this article to discuss at any length, or
even mention all those "forgotten worthies" who gave their time, and too often
their lives, in exploring this coast. In
many instances their only monuments
are the names which they have left scattered up and down the shores of the
Pacific. There is much to be admired in the characters of these rugged old sea dogs who braved the dangers
of the unknown deep in their frail vessels, with scanty accommodation, and
faulty instruments, in the vague endeavour to satisfy the restless, adventurous
prosperous communities along the coast
of Northwest America.
the Hudson's bay company and
colonial days.
The history of the Great Northwest
from Hudson's Bay to the Pacific is in-
dissolubly linked to that of the powerful
corporation, which for so many years
guided the destinies of this great wilderness. On the 16th of May, 1669, Charles
II. conferred a royal charter on the "The
Governor and Company of Adventurers
of England Trading into the Hudson's
Government House, New Westminster, in 1860.
spirit working within them. The spirit
of the age in which they lived imbued
them with a love of travel and adventure,
which resulted in discoveries of vast importance to all mankind.
The search for the northwest passage,
the desire for new and rich dominions by the rulers of the Old
World; covetousness for the trade in the
rich furs so greatly prized by all civilized
nations; the thirst for gold; these were
the potent causes that led to the exploration of these northern waters and resulted in the establishment of free and
Bay." This immense concern received
many rights and privileges, the vast import of which was scarcely thought of
when the grant was made.
By the terms of the charter, provisions
were made for the election of a governor,
of a deputy governor, and a committee
of seven members, who were to have the
direction of all voyages, sales, and other
business of the company—for the election of new members—and for holding
at particular periods a general court of
the company. The first company and
their successors were made lords pro- 64
prietors of the territories which had been
granted them, holding the lands "in fr»e
and common socage, and not in capite, or
by knight's service;" and they were empowered to make laws and regulations
for the government of their possessions,
which may "be reasonable, and not contrary or repugnant, but as near as may
be agreeable, to the laws, statutes, and
customs," of England. The whole trade,
fishery, navigation, minerals, etc., of the
countries under their control was grantel
to the company exclusively, all others of
the King's subjects being forbidden to
Majesty's    plantations    or   colonies,   in
America, called Rupert's land."
Thus it will be seen that the Hudson's
Bay Company possessed by its charter
almost sovereign powers over the
portion of America drained by rivers
flowing into Hudson's Bay. This great
company gradually extended its sway
until trading posts and forts were established on the shores of the Pacific itself.
With the advent of the Hudson's Bay
Company the history of British Columbia really commences. The early history
of Canada on the Pacific is, in fact, but
Government Street, Victoria, in the Sixties. -
"visit, haunt, frequent, trade, traffic, or
adventure," therein, under heavy penalties, and the company was, moreover,
empowered "to send ships, and to build
fortifications, for the defence of its possessions," as well as to make war or
peace with all nations or people, not
Christian, inhabitating those territories,
which are declared to be thenceforth
"reckoned and  reputed   as  one of Plis
the story of the occupation of this western land by that company.
As early as 1842 Chief Factor James
Douglas (afterwards Sir James), had recommended the Indian village of Camo-
sun (now Victoria) as a very proper site
for a trading station and fort. The situation, to quote his own words, is not
faultless or so completely suited for a
place of settlement as it might be; but, B. C. BEFORE CONFEDERATION.
as he observes in his report of July 12th,
1842, after discussing the merits of various other ports on the Sound, "he despaired of anything better being found
on the coast, and was confident that
there was no seaport, north of the Columbia, where so many advantages could
be found combined."
This favourable opinion was confirmed
by Sir George Simpson in his despatch
of the 21st of June, 1844, in which he
says: "The situation of Victoria is peculiarly eligible, the country and climate
remarkable, and the harbour excellent."
And in June, 1846, he wrote: "Victoria
promises to become a very important
After some consideration Sir James
Douglas's recommendation was accepted, and in 1843 the company built a rude
trading station, which was named Fort'
Victoria, opposite the Indian village of
Camosun. Oddly enough this village
exists to-day in sad contrast to the stately pile of Government buildings a few
hundred yards distant across the water.
The Indians hold treaty rights with regard to the reservation which the various Governments of the Dominion have
felt it incumbent upon them to respect,
although it would undoubtedly be better
for all concerned if the Indian reserve
could be shifted to a more suitable locality.
In 1848 a grant of Vancouver Island
was made to the Hudson's Bay Company upon the condition that active
measures should be taken within five
years towards its colonization. The
steps taken in this direction, however,
failed to prove very successfwl, and beyond the somewhat prosperous station
and farm at Victoria, a trading post at
Fort Rupert, and a small settlement at
Nanaimo. little use was made of Vancouver Island by British colonists.
By the deed of grant from the Crown,
previously- referred to, the company were
allowed absolute control of the Colony
of Vancouver Island for a period of ten
years, from January, 1849. On the execution of the document, Mr. Richard
Blanshard, an English barrister, received
Her Majestv's commission as first Governor of the Island. He- had a peculiar
and difficult mission to perform in establishing constitutional government in
a land little more than an unexplored
wilderness. Mr. Blanshard arrived in
Victoria in March, 1850, and, it must be
confessed, that he received a somewhat
rude awakening with regard to the country over the destinies of which he had
come to preside in his gubernatorial capacity. Victoria was simply at this date
a very small trading post with
scarcely a soul residing there who
was not connected with the Hudson's Bay Company. There being
no Government house or other lodging set apart to' receive him the newly-
installed Governor was compelled to remain on board H.M.S. Driver during her
stay in the colony. One of the Governor's first official acts was to appoint Dr.
John Sebastian Plelmcken a magistrate
of the colony. This is our first introduction to Dr. Helmcken, who was for years
so intimately and honourably connected
with our early history.
Unfortunately from the very first friction occurred betwen the Governor and
the officials of the company, which, perhaps, was not altogether to be wondered
at, when it is considered that he was appointed in direct opposition to the expressed wishes of the chairman, Sir John
Pelly, who had desired the appointment
for Chief Factor Douglas.
After a residence of two years in the
country Plis Excellency, Governor Blanshard, who, it is only fair to state, had
always endeavoured to discharge the duties appertaining to his high office con-
scientiously.resigned his commission. Pie
left for England by way of California in
H.M.S. Daphne in September, 1851. Before, leaving, however, he appointed a
Council of three to carry on the Government of the Island until a new appointment might be made. This Council was
composed of James Douglas (Senior
Member), James Cooper, and John Tod,
all of whom rendered distinguished service to their adopted country. Thus
ended the first chapter of the colonial
history of Vancouver Island.
Nothing of any great note happened
during Governor Blanshard's regime
with the exception, perhaps, of some depredations committed by the Indians in
the neighbourhood of Fort Rupert. V
gunboat was despatched, however, to
the scene of the disturbances; the law- 66
breakers were punished and peace and
order restored.
Governor Blanshard, while he may not
have been exactly fitted for the difficult
position to which he had been called,
was, undoubtedly, a very intelligent and
able man.    It must be borne in mind
by    his    detractors,    that    during   his
brief sojourn in the colony he enjoyed
wretched  bodily health, and,   therefore,
was often unable to give adequate attention to public affairs.    The peculiarity
of Mr. Blanshard's situation as pioneer
Governor  necessitated  that  he   should
unite in himself the
functions of executive and judge.    In
the   latter   capacity
he  was   chiefly  occupied  in adjusting
differences  between
the   company   and
their   servants.     It f
must be added that
the few independent
settlers expressed
great regret at the
departure of the first
Colonial Governor.
There is one figure who will always
stand forth clearly
and distinctly in the
annals of our Province. Reference is,
of course, made to
His Excellency, Sir
James Douglas, the
second Colonial Gov- <—
ernor of Vancouver
Island. Endowed
by nature with remarkable administrative ability and a
forceful and energetic character he
was in every respect admirably
fitted to perform the task of founding in a far distant and little known
land thriving settlements and establishing therein those principles of political
liberty and religious freedom that have
always distinguished British colonies.
While, of course, it cannot be expected
that all his official actions were marked
with the same keen insight and sagacity,
vet, it is but just to say that he was al-
ir James Dougla
ways guided by a stern sense of duty
and a love of justice. His eminent merits were recognized by all who lived under his wise and beneficent administration. In his capacity as a private citizen
he "wore the white flower of a blameless
The personal appearance of Governor
Douglas was very striking.    He was a
fine specimen of nature's nobleman—tall,
broad-shouldered.     muscular,   with    a
grave bronzed face, yet kindly withal. His
stalwart figure was a familiar sight in the
early days as he walked down the streets
of Victoria followed
at a respectful distance by his orderly in uniform.
Many anecdotes
are related  of   this
sturdy old representative of Her Majes-
■v ty.     One   at    least
may bear repeating
here, well illustrating, as it does, his
great coolness and
readiness in moments of danger —
qualities which often
stood him in good
stead, when white
men were few in
these regions and
the Indians by no
means the harmless
individuals that they
have since become.
On one occasion,.
when in command
» —i of an outlying trading post, his subordinate officer be-
c a m e exceedingly
over the behaviour of the
who had for some time
past displayed symptoms of rebellion. Becoming more violent than usual
the savages forced their way into
the enclosure itself. Rushing to Sir
James the officer r
reported, in a very excited manner, that the It
possession  of the
Indians were m
. and requested
permission to call the men to arms to repel the expected attack. But to his complete surprise his superior officer quietly
remarked in those measured and delib- B. C. BEFORE CONFEDERATION.
erate tones so characteristic of the man:
"Give them a little bread and treacle,
Mr. Finlaison; give them a little bread
and treacle." Strange to relate this remedy soothed the turbulent crowd, when,
in all probability, the entire garrison of
the fort would have been unable to accomplish the desired end by resort to
arms. Many illustrations might be
given, but space forbids.
Sir James Douglas received his commission as Governor of Vancouver
Island in November, 1851. For several
years, however, on account of the sparse-
Finlaison, and Mr. John Tod. In 1856
in accordance with his instructions, ne
called together the first Legislative Assembly of the colony. For this purpose
the Island was divided into four electoral districts, Victoria, Esquimalt, Na-
naimo and Sooke. These constituencies
returned seven members between them,
viz.: J. D. Pemberton, James Yates, E.
E. Langford (who some time later gave
place to J. W. McKay), Thomas Skinner, Dr. J. F. Kennedy, John Muir, and
Dr. J. S. Helmcken. The Assembly met
for the despatch of business for the first
Evacuation of San Juan Isltnd, 1872.
ness of the population, the labours attaching to his office were not very arduous. ' In 1853 the total population of the
whole Island did not exceed four hundred and fifty settlers.
Governor Douglas set about the business of establishing a suitable form of
government with energy and despatch.
He was assisted by an Executive Council composed of Mr. John Wark, Mr. R.
time in a room in the old fort, on the
12th of August. In such manner was responsible government established in the
infancy of the colony by this somewhat
primitive parliament.
In the following years the celebrated
San Juan boundary dispute assumed
threatening  proportions.
Both   Great 68
Britain and the United States claimed
possession of this Island. The contention respecting this strip of territory extended over a period of twenty years
and was conducted with much bitterness on both sides. For many years
the island had been occupied by the
Hudson's Bay Company, but by degrees
it had become more or less populated by
the citizens of the United States, chiefly
miners, who had drifted thither from the
Fraser River gold fields. The newcomers certainly did not form a very desirable element, and troubles soon occurred between the latter and the officials
of the company. The Americans at last
despatched an armed force to occupy and
hold the island. The excitement in Victoria on the receipt of this intelligence
was intense. It was entirely due to the
good judgment displayed by Governor
Douglas and Captain, afterwards, Admiral Prevost, of H.M.S. "Sutlej," that
a collision, which would have been
fraught with direful consequences, did
not at once ensue.
Admiral Baynes and Governor Douglas finally agreed to a joint military occupation of the Island; and in March,
i860, a detachment of Royal Marines
was disembarked on San Juan. After a
long diplomatic discussion between the
Imperial authorities and the Government
of the United States, it was aranged that
the whole question should be submitted
to the arbitration and award of Emperor
William of Germany
The final awari
was not made, however, until October
21st, 1872, when to the complete chagrin
of the British authorities, judgment was
given in favour of the United States. This,
decision, as might well be expected,
caused the keenest disappointment in
British Columbia. However, after the
result of the negotiations was made
known, San Juan was immediately evacuated by the British garrison. It may be
interesting to add that this island was the
last piece of United States territory to be
occupied by British troops. Although
this dismtte created much animosity between Great Britain and the United
States, yet the greatest cordialitv existed
between the officers and men of both nations during their joint occupancy of the
Great credit is due to Sir James Douglas for the manner in which he conducted
affairs during this crisis. It is certain
that only by his diplomacy and tact a
great disaster was averted.
The existence of gold in British Columbia had been known to the Hudson's
Bay Company many years before the
news became generally public. The Indians had been accustomed to offer considerable quantities of the precious metal
at the various fur trading depots in _ exchange for articles of food and clothing.
In 1857 a party of Canadians, having
heard vague rumours on the subject,
prospected the banks of the Thompson
and Fraser Rivers. Their efforts were
rewarded with some success. Intelligence
of their good fortune spread like wildfire and excited in thousands the thirst
for gold. In the following year vessels
from California began to disembark immense crowds of gold-seekers at Victoria. This peaceful hamlet, containing
at the most but two or three hundred
inhabitants, was suddenly7 converted into
a scene of bustle and excitement. In the
short space of four months the population was augmented by nearly twenty
thousand souls. This motley throng included gamblers, loafers and desperadoes; but it must not be imagined that
this class alone found its way to Victoria.
On the contrary among the immigrants
were to be found many honourable and
trustworthy men who made splendid
settlers. The rich came to speculate and
the poor in the hope of quickly amassing-
fortunes. One of the first consequences
of this mad rush was a shortage in the.
supply of food. Exorbitantly high prices
were asked and realized for goods of
everv description. The value of staple
articles reached an extravagant figure,
and twice a famine was threatened.
The inrush was unprecedented and occurred so suddenly that the immigrants
on their arrival were unable to secure
lodgings of any sort or description. In
everv direction innumerable tents dotted the ground. As a contemporary
writer puts it: "Victoria had at last been
discovered, everybody was bound for Victoria, nobody could stop anywhere else,
for there, and there alone, were fortunes,
and large fortunes to be made." The
news spread far and wide and new steamers landed fresh crowds. Even sailing
vessels, old ships and tubs of all descrip-
tions, were actively employed in carrv-
ing passengers to the new El Dorado.
And it is only to' be wondered at that the
number of appalling disasters at sea were
not more numerous.
Shops, storehouses, and wooden shanties of every description were now going
up on all sides and the din of the hammer and saw was perpetual. In six weeks
two hundred and twenty-five buildings
if all sorts and sizes were constructed.
The price of land rose, too. Those who
had purchased land before its rise in
value reaped small fortunes. Business
was flourishing, which was greatly owing to the fact that Victoria had been
made a free port by Governor Douglas
in years gone by. In fact the
place was in the throes of a mighty boom,
the reaction of which in after days was
to cause much cursing and misery.
As can be readily imagined Governor
Douglas was not an idle man during
these feverish days. The responsibility
of his office had increased an hundredfold. But he was indefatigable in his
endeavours to preserve law and order vn
the land—a task the magnitude of which
cannot be properly comprehended at the
present day. The country had been
flooded by a roving population, among
whom might be found the off-scourings
of the world—desperate ruffians who had
been accustomed to the lawlessness of
American mining camps, and to whom
the Meaning of the word "lustice" was
unknown. Sir James Douglas by his firmness and impartiality during this trying
time evoked the admiration and respect'
of all right-minded men, and they were
generally in the majority. Into the
breasts of the riotously inclined he instilled a wholesome dread of the majesty
of British law.
The bubble burst at last. Owing to
the melting of the snows on the hilltops during the summer months the bars
on the Fraser River, the Mecca of the
gold-hunters, are covered with water
until winter sets in. Those, therefore,
who reached the mining region during
March or April succeeded in securing
large quantities of gold from the bars
and sands not yet covered with water.
Unfortunately the mass of miners failed
to arrive until a month or two later, and,
consequently, found the auriferous parts
submerged.     Ignorant of the   periodic
rise and fall of the streams, many, crestfallen and disappointed, returned to Victoria. Still the arrivals were numerous
and the town flourished until bad news
commenced to arrive from the diggings,
when the gloomiest foreboding soon began to prevail among the less venturesome spirits. The rumour took wing
that the river would never fall, and as
placer mining cduld only be prosecuted
on bars, "the state of the river became
the barometer of public hopes and the
pivot on which everybody's expectations
turned." This news acted as the first
severe check to immigration, which, perhaps, was not an unmixed blessing.
Thousands of miners lost all hope and
wended their way back to California,
broken in spirit and in purse. Victoria
had fallen upon evil days, and affairs
grew yet more distressing. The unemployed element became overbearing and
created disturbances. On one particular
occasion a party of disaffected citizens
of the United States even went
so far as to rescue a prisoner from
the hands of the police, after the rough-
and-ready manner in/ vogue in California,
and actuallv had the audacity to propose
that the Stars and Stripes should be
hoisted over the fort. But a gunboat
from Esqujmalt soon quelled the rfot
and brought the pugnacious Americans
to a proper state of mind.
It was some time ere Victoria recovered from this set-back; but before long
better news arrived from the placer gold
fields of newly discovered Cariboo, and
Victoria once again began to assume
importance as a.rendezvous for miners.
From this time her growth, if slower,
was more permanent. Brick buildings
began to replace the wooden structures
so hastily built in the days of the gold excitement. From that time Victoria has increased in size and importance, until, .it
oresent, its suburbs stretch miles distant
from the site of the old fort. The old
landmarks are fast disappearing and few
wouhl recognize in the modern city of
to-dpy the rude backwoods trading post
of fifty years ago.
In 1858, at the request of Lord Lytton,
Secretary of State for the Colonies, Sir
James Douglas severed his connection
with the Hudson's Bav Company, as it
was deemed incompatible for him to attend to the duties of both Governor and ijfi
Chief Factor, especially as it was feared
that the interests of the Hudson's Bay-
Company and the Imperial Government
might sometimes clash. On the 2nd of
September, 1858, the Crown revoked mm
privileges of exclusive trade with the Indians granted to the Hudson's Bay Company some twenty years previously, and
an Act to provide -for the government of
British Columbia was • passed by the
House of Commons. In the same year
Sir James Douglas was appointed Governor of the new colony thus .created. Pie
was duly7 sworn in by Chief Justice Begbie (afterwards Sir Matthew Baillie) at
Fort Langley. Sir James now divided
his time between the two colonies, building roads and bridges and attending to
other matters of importance. In spite
of his increasing years he was almost as
active as ever, making tours through
the country and reporting thereon to the
Colonial Secretary, Lord Lytton, who always exhibited the liveliest interest in
the welfare of the two colonies on the
In 1863 Sir James Douglas's commission as Governor of Vancouver Island
lapsed. In that year he received the
honour of knighthood in just recognition
of the great services which he had so
faithfully rendered. Mr. Arthur Ken-
ney was appointed Governor of Vancouver Island in his place.
In 1864, Mr. Frederick Seymour was
appointed to succeed Sir James is
Governor of the Colony of British Columbia. In the same year the latter retired from public life, and many were
the manifestations of regret and found
expression on the severance of his connection with official affairs. Thus we take
leave of the strongest personality in the
history of our Province, to whom we are
indebted for the peaceful establishment
of constitutional government in this distant part of the empire. Sir James died
in 1867, full of years and honour.
It might be said in conclusion that it
has been altogether impossible to more
than refer in most general terms to a few
interesting points connected with the
earlier history of British Columbia.
Many well-known names and many important events have been left tinmen--
tioned, not for lack of appreciation on
the part of the writer, but simply because
it is impossible to- cover the whole ground
in an article of this description.
A Brief Review of their,e Origin, History and Customs.
(By J. W. Mackay.)
|E find that in several important particulars these Indians differ widely
from the race so often described by authors and travellers as the
typical North American Indian.
The changes consequent on the opening of the country for settlement have largely modified their circumstances and habits, but in
their pristine condition they mostly lived in large communities on
and near the sea coast, depending mainly on the products of their
fisheries for their sustenance. Their abodes were substantially built of wooden
dwellings, and they were industrious, active and keen traders. Although they had
frequent forays and occasional wars, they seldom entered on these from motives
of bravado and rarely took scalps; but for mercenary
purposes they took all the captives possible, whom
they sold as slaves, and many of them by such means
amassed considerable wealth in kind. When they
made a successful foray for revenge they decapitated
their victims and brought the heads home as trophies.
Sometimes, however, they were unsuccessful, in
which event some of the attacking party would be
brought home without their heads, as happened 'n
the case of the Sooke chief, in 1848, who led a strong
armed party to attack Tsu-hay-lam, a Quamichan
chief. The attacking party numbered about 150
armed men, comprised of contingents from the Sooke,
Songhees, Clalam and Skatchet bands. Tsu-hay-lam
was at the time living at his stronghold on a rocky
point which juts into Cowichan Bay with a garrison
of six men besides himself. The attacking party
landed at night and surrounded his premises. The
Sooke chief and a young Songhees brave, both armed
and carrying material for setting Tsu-hay-lam's pali-.
sades on fire, had nearly succeeded in igniting the
material, when one of the main party displaced a
stone on the hillside at the back of Tsu-hay-lam's enclosure, and the stone rolling down made noise
enough to disturb the garrison, one of whom ventured to reconnoitre the enemy through a loop-hole.
He was just in time to see the Sooke chief blow the -
smouldering embers of sil-tsip, or friction stick, into
flames and shot the incendiary instanter, mortallv
wounding him. Tsu-hay-lam oromptlv sortied and
cut the dying man's head off. He then hailed his now
alarmed and fleeing assailants and intimated to them
that they were at liberty to take away with them what
was left of the slain warrior.
It has been mentioned that some of the Indians in
former days amassed considerable wealth by trading
and by selling into slavery the captives taken in their
forays on their neighbours. In those times the Indians were largely communists within the circle of
each   band,   and   but   for   a   habit,   which   I   shall
^•^S^jfe?^' 72
A lypinal patriarch of the tribes.
describe, any person holding more than
the ordinary quantity of property was
liable to be forced to divide with his
neighbours, or he might be killed and his
property would then be appropriated by
his slayers. But under a long-established
habit the_ wealthy Indian periodically
:divided his surplus wealth. He would
collect large quantities of food, invite
his friends and acquaintances from other
bands, give a great feast and thereat •
distribute his goods and chattels to his
assembled guests.    At these assemblies
Comiakans, from Cowichan, and Sush-
waps, from Kamloops. During the feast
a disturbance took place with two.
bands who had a long-standing feud between them, which now culminated
and ended in a fight. In the melee the
Cowichans and Sushwaps decamped:
but an excited young Sushwap got into
a Comiakan canoe and was some distance off shore, sweeping down the
swift Fraser before the mistake was discovered. The Comiakans, expecting the
chief, suggested throwing the stranger
A Group of Vancouver Island Indians, in the sixties.
there was much ceremony, feasting and
speech-making; much importance being
attached to such functions, and the Indians looked forward to attending them
with great eagerness, sometimes travelling several hundred miles to reach the
objective point. About the beginning
of this century the chief at Lytton gave
a feast of this kind, to which Indians
from all parts of the Province, speaking
dialects of the so-called Salish language,
were   invited.      Among     them   were
overboard, but the chief proposed making a slave of him. His daughter objected, however, and her father sarcastically remarked that perhaps she would
like the Sushwap stranger to be her husband. She acquiesced to the proposal
and the matter was thus arranged to the
satisfaction of all concerned. The eldest
son of the happy couple was chief of the
Comiakan band until he died a few
years ago. The property divided at
these meetings had to be variously ac- 74
counted for. Articles distributed to the
indigent, old, and afflicted were given
gratis; articles distributed to the commonalty were expected to be recouped
by service when hereafter required to
the value of the property given, with interest added; articles given to persons
A group of Victoria Indians.
of consequence were to be repaid by
property of equal value, plus interest,
which would be reckoned according to
the length of time occupied by the recipient in reimbursing the donor. It
will thus appear that this distribution
of property was of great importance to
Indians of all classes, as it not only
affected   them socially, tending to en-
Making Oolachan Grease, Naas River.
large their ideas by the opportunities
afforded for the interchange of information, but was really the foundation of
their fiscal system and had a primary
influence in directing their intertribal
The several  dialects spoken  by the
Indians of this Province would appear
to be derived from three distinct languages, to which writers on the Subject, from want of more appropriate
terms, have given the somewhat arbitrary names of the Salish Kuak-yohl
and Tinneh languages. Added to these
is the Haidah, a fourth and distinct
language, of which only one dialect exists. All the Indians speaking dialects
- of these languages hold traditions to the
effect that they pushed their way from
the north southward, the Tinneh Indians, whose congeners are still to be
found in the Yukon and Mackenzie valr
leys, being the last migration. Their
legends point to their having partly
destroyed and partly intermarried with
tribes who had occupied the country be-
Thompson River Indians.
fore them, and whose very names are
now nearly wholly forgotten. The consequence of these intermarriages is
shewn in the wonderful modifications
which their original languages have
sustained, changes being observed in
the words used by bands who are near
neighbours. A remarkable instance of
the comparatively short period in which
an Indian language may be lost is exhibited in the case of the Similkameen
band of Indians. About one hundred
and twenty years ago a party of Chil-
cotins, mostly young men with their
wives but no children, left their country
on the war-path against the Sushwaps
of the Bonapare (Tluhtans). On their
arrival at Tluhtans they found no In- THE INDIANS OF B. C.
dians.     The  salmon  season  had  been
earlier   than   usual   and  the   Sushwaps
had left for their fishing grounds on the
Fraser at the foot of Pavilion Mountain.
Finding no Indians the Chilotins, who
were strangers to the locality, imagined
that they had not gone far enough. They
consequently extended their  excursion
down the Thompson and encamped opposite the mouth of the Nicola, near the
present site of Spence's Bridge on the
Thompson River.   In the meantime the
Sushwaps hearing of the raid sent scouts
on their trail,  followed   by   the   main
body  of  their  armed  men,   down  the
Thompson to the encampment  of the
raiders. The N-hla Kapm-uhs, of Lyttoi,
who are friends of the Sushwaps, came
up the Thompson to their assistance at
the   same  time.    The   Chilcotins  were
then between two armed forces of enemies  with  inaccessible   mountains  behind them and the swift Thompson in
front.    Their enemies delayed the final
attack until night; but as soon as it was
dark the   Chilcotins   tied   their   bowstrings  to the top  knots  of their hair
and  swam  the  river,   landing  on  the
other side thereof before their enemies
were aware of their movements.    They
now strung their bows   and   prepared
for battle,  but their opponents  would
not attack them at such disadavantage.
Under cover of the night they moved up
the river and then crossed over.    This
delay gave the   Chilcotins   the   opportunity of moving away from them, and
they  retreated  southward,- keeping  up
a running fight for several days, until
they  reached  the  Allison  fork  of the
Similkameen,  where,  in  a  defile,  they
ambushed their pursuers and defeated
them with great slaughter.   There were
no inhabitants  in  the Upper Similkameen Valley at that time and they held
their own there through the winter.   In
the spring they made   common  cause
with    the     Okanagans      (Ukanakane)
against   the   two   tribes   above_ mentioned.     After   a   successful   raid, the
Sushwaps were driven from the Okana-
gan  (Ukanakane)    valley,   which  they
had occupied as far south as the Mission.    Then at Mission on the Okana-
gan ' Lake the  Chilcotins  and  Ukana-
kanes made a treaty, offensive and defensive.   They exchanged wives, and in
three generations the Chilcotin dialect
was lost to the now named Simil-a-ka-
muh, who speak the U-ka-na-kane dialect, there being only two or three of
the old men of the second generation
from the raiders who know a few words
of the Chilcotin dialect.
The Haidah band is unique amongst
the B.C. Indians as regards their language, as there does not appear to be
any affinity between it and the dialects
of the other tribes. Some of their
words are said to be of the same sound
and signification with words in some
Japanese dialects, and there may
be foundation for the contention.
Since this Coast has been frequented by
white traders, three junks, manned by
Japanese crews, have been wrecked between Victoria and the mouth of Columbia River. The last wreck of this kind
occurred in 1858, when the "Caribbean," an English vessel from San
Francisco, consigned to the Hudson's
Bay Company at Victoria, and laden
with provisions, picked up the Japanese
crew of a water-logged junk off
the coast near Gray's Harbour.
The crew, seven in number, were, at
Esquimalt Harbour, made to stand in
line with the Haidah crew of a canoe
on the quarter-deck of the "Caribbean,"
and as they were all costumed alike,
there did not appear to' be'any physical
difference between the members of the
two races under examination.
The Haidahs may be the descendants of Japanese shipwrecked
sailors and women of the so-called
Tlinkeet race inhabiting Alaska. The
Haidahs are found on the Queen Charlotte group of Islands in B.C. and it
Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. The
Haidah and their neighbours, the
Tsimpsians, who are of Tinneh origin,
made neat and highly characteristic carvings in wood, ivory and
stone. Silver and gold bracelets
and bangles were also engraved
by them for their own uses and
for sale to curiosity hunters. Their totem (Indian Tua-tame) poles are curious as representing their family pedigree for several generations, the connecting links of history being given orally by the historian of the sept concerned, who is usually an elderly uncle 76
or other near relative to the head of the
A few words in explanation of the
application of the so-called to-tems may
not here be out of place. Much unnecessary obscurity has been thrown on
the meaning of Indian legends which
have been rendered into the cultivated
tongues, owing to the translations having been made literally, giving no consideration to the construction and idioms
of the Indian language. Vocabularies
of Indian words may readily be obtained,
states that a crow married a woman
(whose name is probably not given) and
had progeny who became distinguished
for certain attributes, he means that
some chief or other Indian, the crest of
whose family or sept represented a
crow, married so and so, and so on. As
to intermarriages of Indians with bears,
wolves, foxes and other impossible and
unnatural marital connections, an appreciation of this fact would render intelligible and interesting many translations of these legends, which otherwise
Totems at Skidegate
although the spelling and pronunciation
of such is usually very defective, but it
takes years of study and practice to enable the stranger to apply Indian words
idiomatically and to give their true
meaning when used in sentences, and
no narratives can be more untrustworthy
than are Indian legends which have
been rendered literally into written languages by indifferent translators.
When an Indian narrator, following the
words of a legend as repeated to him,
appear nonsensical and unnatural. The
construction of all the Indian dialects
in this Province differs totally from that
of any of the modern cultivated languages. Literal translations are therefore impracticable in the way of
conveying the sense intended. The
translator to be successful must
thoroughly understand the idiom
of the dialect he is treating, then
he may by paraphrasing the subject
matter from the Indian into the culti- THE INDIANS OF B. C.
vated language succeed in conveying to
the mind of the reader or hearer the substance thereof.
The important personage known as
the Indian Doctor or Medicine Man
was certainly not a doctor in the proper
sense of the term, unless by straining
the application of the title he might be
called a Doctor of Duplicity, as he certainly was the incarnation of deception.
He neither used nor applied medicines,
and therefore could not properly be
called a medicine man.    His method of
least $30. The young men before paying
the fee applied to Chief John Silheetsa,
for advice. After silently considering the subject for a few minutes he told
the young men that he was of opinion
that there were already liars enough in
the band for all practical purposes and
advised them to turn their attention to
some subject that in the advancing circumstances of the band would probably
prove of more lasting benefit to them,
it being, moreover, very unlikely that
the   Indians  would  much  longer   sub-
Manhousett Indians, at Refuge Cove, Vancouver Island.
(From a photograph taken in the sixties.)
curing consisted in uttering protracted
howls and making violent gesticulations
and contortions of his body over his
prostrate patient. There are comparatively few of his faculty now in existence. A few years ago E-cha-hau, the
Indian doctor of the Spahamin band
offered to teach two of his nephews the
secrets of his profession, provided they
each paid him $100, he also wanted
from each of them a retaining fee of on"
cood    saddle    horse,   to  be   worth   -it     hand-power   craft    th
mit to being deceived by such false pretenses as are exhibited by the Indian
doctor. The Indians" know of herbs
found in the country which have valuable medicinal effects, and it would appear important that these remedies br
enquired into and their properties, if
valuable, scientifically demonstrated.
Many of the Coast Indians are good
workers  in  wood.     Their  canoes  are
capacious and well modelled,   and    as
" ey   attain     great 78
speed in proportion to their  carrying
The B.C. Indians all believed in a
Supreme Being, the Creator of the Universe, Invisible, Omniscient and Omnipresent, but mostly quiescent, i.e., at
rest, and only in times of incomprehensible danger was this great being considered by them. Every locality had its
good or bad spirit. These were the constant objects of the Indian's fears or
favours as the case might be. Some
twenty-three or twenty-four years ago
the writer when. half way through the
Stikine Canyon and at the most dangerous part, in a canoe with a crew of
Stikine Indians, was delayed about fifteen minutes, holding on to the rocky
Indian Johnnie, Queen Charlotte Island.
walls of the gorge, on account of a sudden darkness caused, on a cloudy day,
by a total eclipse of the sun. During
that interval the Indian crew bowed
their heads and prayed continually.
The phenomenon was beyond their
comprehension, and they appealed to
the Great and Good Father of All for
help. On another occasion, with a crew
of Cape Fox Indians, the writer on the
way from Wrangel to Port Simpson,
had taken the inside channel between
Wrangel Island and the Mainland, and
when opening out the long reach which
leads to Cape Spencer the sea appeared
smooth, the weather being calm, with
a   contrary   tide.     The   steersman   of
the crew was a "Wind Maker," and was
asked to invoke the Spirit of the locality for a fair wind. He remained silent
for a few minutes and then steered for a
half-tide rock which was just awash,
there being a gentle swell on. When
nearing the rock he uttered some
words of incantation and then the crew-
each threw an offering thereon—some
tobacco, bread, an old hat, and other
articles. The "Wind Maker" next
struck the rock three times with his
paddle, uttering the while some strange
words. The crew splashed the water
with their paddles in the direction in
which they wanted the wind to blow,
and immediately a gentle zephyr rippled the water.    The wind steadily in-
Indian Mary, Massett, B.C.
creased and in ten minutes the crew
ceased paddling and sat in the bottom
of the canoe for ballast. The wind blew
steadily until Cape Spencer was
reached, the distance being from fifteen
to twenty miles. On inquiry it transpired
that the "Wind Maker" did not understand the meaning of the words he used,
they were to him empty sounds of
mighty import.
The Indians possessed woolly dogs,
who were periodically sheared, their
wool being spun by distaff and woven by
hand into blankets. The mountain goat
wool was used for the same purpose.
The inner bark of the yellow cedar was
also made into a soft,   warm   blanket. THE INDIANS OF B. C.
which was sometimes fringed with fur
by way of ornament. But little clothing was worn in warm weather, the men
frequently going naked. They made
waterproof hats and waterproof vessels
of the roots of the black spruce, and also
a black dye of roasted iron pyrites
boiled with alder bark. Yellow and red
dyes were obtained from native plants.
The Indians used to paint pictures of
faces, canoes and figures on the outer
walls of their dwellings with red ochre.
They painted their faces also with ver-
of native nettle, a plant commonly
known as the fireweed, and from, the
fibre of the inner bark of the red and
yellow cedars. The long flexible stem
of the common kelp was also used for
fishing lines; the inner bark of the willow was used for strapping stones for
sinkers in deep-sea fishing. Some willows yielded a stronger and much more
pliable fibre than others, the present site
of Victoria, particularly that portion
which lies between Wharf and Douglas
Street and in the neighbourhood of the
Indian Types.
million, copper oxide, copper carbonate,
molybdenum sulphide, and with finely pulverized iron glance and hydrated
iron oxide. These colours were also
applied as pigments to their ornaments
and dwellings. They boiled water by
means of heated stones plunged into
water held in the water-tight buckets
above mentioned. They produced fire
by the friction of one piece of wood on
another. They made twine for fishing
lines and nets from the fibre of a species
junction of Cook Street and Belcher
Street, yielded a willow with very strong
fibre, hence the Indian name for the city
of Victoria is Ku-sing-ay-las, meaning
the place of the strong fibre.
The Tamanawas dance—their great
winter function—was a hideous exhibition with no redeeming feature to recommend it, excepting in the case of
some of the more advanced Indians,
who, by clever jugglery and sleight of
hand, deceived even the more knowing 80
ones amongst the Indians, and certainly
made it appear to the new-comers from
abroad that the evil one was either present or was very closely connected with
the exhibition. The ceremonies involved
an attempt at initiation into some mystery named Tamana-was amongst
the Songhees and Cowichan speaking bands, but beyond deceiving
themselves and deceiving others the initiated learned nothing, saw nothing
and heard nothing more   extraordinary
cotic properties, and was smoked and
otherwise used as tobacco, its name being that now applied to imported tobacco. It is not certain when potatoes
were introduced amongst them, but as
they have a native name for the vegetable it is probable that they may have
-obtained the plant from the south before the white man made his appearance. The kamas and other roots,
bulbous and tuberous, were also extensively used by them  as  food.      They
mm: f*|
Chilarin (old man) and To! Ramault (old woman) of Somenos Indian Village—both over 100 years of <
than their own howling. They experienced a feeling of ecstasy for a short
time, more or less intense, according to
the condition of their nervous system;
this being induced partly- by their wish
to be so affected and partly by hypnotic
influences produced by the howling,
drumming and other proceedings to
which they were exposed from day to
day during the progress of the function.
In some parts of the Province the Indians cultivated a plant which had nar-
trapped deer and bear and caught
them in pits, and hunted the seal,
killing them with bow and arrow and spear; they harpooned the
whale and netted ducks and geese,
thus their time was fully occupied in
hunting, fishing, fighting and trading.
As they did not wear much clothing
they spent little time and means on the
fashions, though the painting of their
faces and bodies was sometimes an
elaborate operation, but was only done THE INDIANS OF B. C.
in times of leisure, after a return fro.-i
a foray and when the larder had been
-well replenished.
The probable origin of the Haidah
race has already been given. The
Kuakyohl, Salish and Tinneh races
probably came from the continent of Asia by way of the northern portion of Behnng Sea, crossing
from Asia to St. Lawrence Island, and
thence to the nearest point on the coast
of this continent, thence they probably
ascended the Yukon and tributary valleys and extended southwards and
eastward, following the streams to and
from the   several   water    sheds.      The
River. The Salish border the Tinnehs
in the north, on the south they extend
far into the United States territories,
and in British Columbia from the Rocky
Mountains to the shores of the Gulf of
Georgia. Three bands of Salish are
found on Dean's Canal, and at North
and South Bentick Arm they appear to
have pushed the Kuakyohl races westward to the outer sea coast on the Pacific Ocean. In this part of the Province
these three bands of Salish are separated from their congeners to the south
by the Tinnehs of Chilcotin and kindred bands. The Kuakyohl bands occupy the country   beginning    a    little
Indian Passion Play, St. Mary s Mission.
Tinnehs were the last migration, their
affiliated bands to this day covering the
northern portion of the continent
south of the Innuits (Eskimo) on the
coast of the Arctic Ocean and extending from Chesterfield Inlet on the east
to nearly the mouth of the Yukon in the
west. Of these the Chilcotin and kindred bands reach the Fraser River as
far south as the mouth of the Chilcotin
north of Milbank Sound and extending
southward immediately on the sea
coast to Campbell River on the east side
of Vancouver Island to Port San Juan,
on the south after following the
whole west coast of that island;
on the Mainland they reach to
the neighbourhood of Bute Inlet.
There are evidences that other races occupied  British  Columbia prior to  the 82
advent of the tribes or races under consideration, some of these older bands
being mound-builders; but so far nothing tangible regarding their history iias
been developed. Much active inter-tribal
intercourse existed amongst the B.C.
Indians before the white man discovered the country. Pee-la-ku-mu-la-uh.
a Spokane chief who guided the two
Canadian hunters, Finnan McDonald
and Pierre Lagace from Hell's Gate in
Masoula to Colvile, about the bepin-
ning of this century, was known from
Masoula, in Montana, to Lillooet, in
B.C. He was slain at the latter place
by an Indian from Anderson Lake.
Marine shells are found in old Indian
graves as far into the interior as Kam-
loops. The native intercourse between
the tribes on the east coast of Asia and
those about the mouth of the Yukon byway of St. Lawrence Island still continues, parkies (leather shirts) made of
the skin of the tame reindeer being
found amongst the Indians of the Yukon Valley to this day.
The changes in habits and ideas developed amongst the Indians consequent on the influx of civilized people
are truly remarkable. Previous to that
period the B.C. Indian on the Coast
wore little clothing, went bare-footed,
lived in dirty, smoky, ill-lighted, ill-
ventilated dwellings, and any Indian
outside of his band might be his enemy
and might at any time kill him or sell
him into slavery. He was imposed upon
by the so-called medicine men, who in
their turn were liable to prompt execution if an influential patient died whilst
under their treatment. He was haunted
by a constant dread of evil spirits and
was frequently afflicted by epidemics,
under which diseases hundreds died.
Now he and his family are well clothed
and well fed. Many of our Indians today are well-to-do farmers. Schools
are established for the education of their
children. They have learned to cultivate the soil with great success where
the land is fertile; they own cattle,
horses, sheep, pigs and poultry. Their
wives dress in imported fabrics made
into gj(rments by themselves on sewing
machines.. Many of them live in frame
built houses, well warmed, well lighted .
and well ventilated. They travel on the
public roads in spring waggons, and in
many respects exist under better conditions than do the poorer people in older
civilized countries. Their circumstances
have in every respect been vastly improved under the beneficent system organized for their care and advantage by
the Government, and in some districts
their numbers are steadily increasing.
The interior Indians, who in early
days lived or more correctly, starved
during the winter in filthy underground
dwellings, wearing the scantiest clothing, and often having little else besides
frozen cactus and inferior species of fish
for their sustenance, are now owners of
large herds of horses and cattle, cultivate extensive fields and live in the
style of the prosperous and civilized
white man.
The Indians did not quietly acquiesce
in the appropriation of their unoccupied
lands by the Government and at first
showed ill-will on the slightest provocation. Such as lived near the Hudson's Bay Company's trading posts had
by frequent intercourse with the traders
learned to regard the whites as their
superiors in every way and their best
friends, but in the outlying districts considerable friction at times prevailed between them and the incoming settlers.
In the winter of 1852-3 two young Indians, a Cowichan and a Nanaimo,
wantonly shot and killed a Scotch shepherd, Peter Brown, at Lake Hill. They
were captured with the assistance of a
detachment of marines and blue jackets
from 11. M.S. Thetis and were hanged
on the south point of Protection Island
opposite to the present town of Nanai->
mo. Much difficulty was experienced
in arresting the young Nanaimo Indian,
but he was hounded out of the Nanaimo
village by constant raids being made
thereon by his pursuers and took to the
woods. A few inches of snow had fallen and his footprints being traced to
where he had descended to Chase
River to allay his thirst at the stream,
his trail was followed to a heap of
driftwood which crossed the bed of the
little river. Here the scout Basil Bottineau, who was on the Indian's track,
found himself at fault, and as it was after sunset and getting dark would
have abandoned the search had not the
Indian, who was in hiding under the
driftwood, snapped his revolver at him. THE INDIANS OF B. C.
The cap and gunpowder in the charge
were damp and neither exploded.    The
scout   followed   the   direction    of    the
. sound, but m the gloaming could not
distinguish the object of his search.    In
the meantime the latter tried a second
shot, when the cap only exploded, the
flash thereof indicating his hiding place.
The  Indian  was  discovered,   knocked
down and handcuffed in an instant, and
the next morning he and the young Cowichan Squeis, who had been arrested
at Cowichan by the party on their way
up to Nanaimo, were tried for murder
on the    quarter-deck   of    the   steamer
Beaver,   found   guilty   and    executed,
these  events   happening    between   the
hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. on a frosty
day in January, 1853.
In 1856 a white settler in the Cowichan Valley was shot by the Somenos
chief. An armed party from H.M.S.
"Monarch" and "Trincomalee" was
sent in the latter vessel, towed byr the
steamer "Otter," to investigate the matter. The party numbered about 500
blue jackets and marines, fully equipped
with small arms and two 12-pounder
brass field pieces. The force landed at
the mouth of the Cowichan River, near
the Comiakan village, on a Sunday-
afternoon and encamped there. During
the night a friendly scout passed the
sentries and reaching the tent occupied
by the Governor's staff communicated
to Governor Douglas some important
information, which determined his
course of action. The next day the
forces moved to the plain beyond
Quamichan. After passing through the
Quamichan village about one thousand
Indians came forward to meet them according to their mode of warfare, naked
and painted, armed with smooth-bore
guns, bows and arrows and spears, and
taking advantage of each tree for cover
as they advanced firing their guns. Fortunately their aim was high, and the
whooping and veiling did no execution. The naval forces were ranged in
several detachments over the plain with
artillery in position ready for service.
As soon as the Somenos chief was recognised a detachment of marines were
so manoeuvered as to surround him
with     his      body-guard     of      several
other Indians. The chief's gun
had been discharged and he had no
time to reload, but he cut a sergeant of
marines badly with his dagger knife and
wounded two of the officers before he
was finally captured. As soon as it was
known that he was taken his followers
disappeared like magic and the day was
won. The scene whilst it lasted was extremely picturesque. The chief was
caught a little before noon, when
the forces were piped to dinner.
At 1 p.m. his trial began. He
was convicted at 2 p.m. and sentenced to be hanged. The execution took place at 3 p.m., the
was hanged to the bough of an oak tree
in his war-paint and feathers, and met
his death with stoical indifference. He
was an active, well-proportioned, muscular young man and had only lately
assumed the duties and responsibilities
of chief of his band. When a boy he had
been betrothed, ■ according to Indian custom, to a Comiakan girl. When he
succeeded his father as chief he claimed
his promised bride, who was now a
young woman. She, though not fair,
was false, and had listened to the wiles
of the white settler. The chief then
acted according to his lights and revenged himself on his rival, but in doing so he outraged the law of the white
man and lost his life' in consequence.
In 1858, during the rush to the Fraser
gold diggings, many encounters occurred between the miners and Indians
and a number of lives were lost on both
sides. In time, however, matters quieted down, the laws were extended
through the settlements, the Indians
soon learned to appreciate the advantages of law and order, and excepting
when occasionally under the influence
of intoxicants they are remarkably well
The following list shows the approximate number of the different races in
this Province :
PTaidah       625
Tinneh     7.000
Salish   io,735
Kuakyohl      5-231
A True Story—By G. Sheldon-Williams.
Illustrated By t. Bamford.
(All rights reserved.)
ND it happened
last January.
To be correct,
the bed-plates
of the awe-inspiring tragedy were laid
the 31st of
D ecember,
1898. The
first flurry of
snow was be-
ginn ing to
fall; a precursor of the big storm which ushered in
January of this year of grace, 1899. The
dashing of the night-tide on the rock and
shingle beach mingled with the howling"
of the wind to form a most soul-harrowing and depressing dirge for the dying
year. In the little frame building at the
head of the bay, a building which combined the qualities of saloon, hotel and
store, the sense of depression did not,
however, seem to be strongly in evidence. True, the store was closed, but
the saloon half of the building shed
through its windows a cheery light on
the dreary scene outside. In the warm, •
well-lighted bar sat some half dozen
men. On the rough deal bar-counter
lay a miscellaneous assortment of firearms and cartridge-boxes; also several
tumblers, and several bottles with labels
of more or less startling hues pasted on
their fat sides. A half-empty box of
cigars completed the arrangement.
The gentlemanly inhabitants of this
Palace of Ease were engaged in the sinful and seductive game known as "Black
Jack." It is a game which a slight acquaintance with will cause you to lose
half your monthly salary; but if you
know it thoroughly, or think you do,
you stand a good chance of losing your
entire salary, your job, and sometimes
your liberty as well. I do not recommend it for Sunday Schools, but for
healthy adults, taken in moderate doses,
it is not very harmful.
A partially wrecked clock behind the
bar chimed half-past eleven. The Trader,
who was about to deal, laid down his
"Getting on for time, boys, I guess,"
he observed. "We can go on with the
game next year, eh? Let's all have a
drink now. Say, Pete, how are the fire- .
arms fixed. Is there lots of cartridges
all right?"
"You bet," answered the personage
addressed, a lean, sunburnt individual
with a tow-coloured moustache. "An'
three sticks of powder tied together an*
ready fixed as well. We won't do a
thing to-night."
"Well, you'd best be careful with that
dynamite," remarked the Trader, indifferently. "I'm not fit to go to Heaven
in a chariot of fire, not yet, and I'm too
poor a man to be able to afford to have
my place blown to the other place, where
it's no good sueing the Devil for damages.    You're too reckless, Pete."
The other man laughed. He was foreman contractor-inspector of that promising copper-gold proposition, the "Sabbath Joy," some miles down the Coast.
It was owned by four poor Jews and one
rich Englishman, and salaries were not
paid the employees with that regularity
they should have been.
The Trader got up and went to the
door. The view outside was distinctly
dismal. Far down at the entrance of the
bay, a few lights still twinkled in the
Indian rancherie, visible for a moment,
then swept out by fresh gusts of driving
snow. The small house of Jamie Mc-
Pherson, half-way down the bay, was
not visible either from the store or the
rancherie, as it lay at the end of a small
cove. Jamie held the responsible position of postmaster. He was a strict
Presbyterian, who would not drink, and
had vigorous .opinions of his own re- THE LAST INDIAN BATTLE.
garding the vexed question of prohibition. "That moder-ren ceety of the
plain, that Sodom and Gomorrah,
Veectoria," he would observe, "shall yet
repent in sackcloth and ashes her r-re-
jection of proheebeetion last fall." Jamie
had a mouth-organ and a collie dog,
and he and the dog and the mouth-organ used to handle the ancient hymns
of the Scottish Covenanters in such a
fashion that neither man, beast of devil
durst approach Her Majesty's Post-Office while Jamie was at his devotions.
Withal, he was a good fellow, and did
principles on New Year's Eve. But
it will be rather a lonesome New Year
for the old man, I'm thinking, and he not
a year from the East."
"Jamie McPherson don't drink, Jim,"
said a small, sandy-haired man, who had
just emptied a pretty stiff horn of rye
whiskey with an air of satisfaction that
plainly showed his superiority to Jamie
in that line, at all events. "He'd want
to fast and pray; and just look at that
feed in there!"
Jim, the Trader, glanced with a complacent air at the vista of the room be-
The Sinful and Seductive Game.
not meddle with the affairs of his few
neighbours; even when, as sometimes
happened, they slightly transgressed the
The Trader stepped back inside and
closed the door.
"I wish old McPherson could have
come to-night," he said. "I asked him,
but he refused.   Said it was against bis
yond the bar, where stood a table heaped
with cold wild goose, deer meat, bear
meat, dried salmon, cold grouse, and all
that could tempt hungry men.
"Well, Doc," he observed, "you're
about right there, I guess. And it is a
pretty good spread, too, though I say it
as shouldn't, seeing I got it up myself.
Still, I feel kinder sorry for the old man, 86
and it hi:; first new year here and all."
The "Doc" only grinned. He had been
in the district several years, and was a
well-known character. His qualification for the medical profession consisted
of an unfailing belief in Perry Davis'
Painkiller and Epsom Salts as remedies
for all known ailments our frail flesh is
heir to, and the possession of a set of
lancets, which he used unsparingly on
man and beast, with perfect impartiality.
He had done fairly well at first, but a
prolonged carouse on the proceeds of a
successful operation led to a slight obscurity in the "Doc's" mind as to the relative merits of quinine and strychnine.
The drugs are much alike in appearance,
and, in the full belief that he was prescribing the former, he prescribed the
latter. The results were disastrous and
cannot be printed; but they still say in
that district that the unfortunate victim
of "Doc's" mistake was so acted upon
by the strychnine that his heels beat the
tune of "God Save the Queen" on the
back of his head. Be that as it may, the
"Doc's reputation as a healer of human
ills was thenceforward at a discount in
his locality.
"Well, boys," said the Trader, "I
guess it's close on another year. Get
the guns ready. Fill up the magazines
of the Winchesters, and you chaps with
the shot-guns just mind where you're
pointing them when you're re-loading.
Pete, you get down along the beach
with your blamed dynamite, and set the
fuse for five minutes. Wait a sec, boys,
we'll uncork this demi-john and give the
old year a 'deoch an doruis,' as the Scot-
ties call it."
The dram was disposed of. the reckless Pete dispatched • on his dangerous
mission, and the motley crowd lined up
on the little piazza outside the bar-room
"All set, boys?" asked the Trader, who
bore in each hand one of those lengthy
four-barrelled pistols which are the peculiar invention of Messrs. Charles Lancaster & Son, of London, England.
"All set, Jim," came the reply, and at
the same moment, the decrepit clock in
the bar struck the knell of the departing
"Pire, boys. Happy New Year, and
God save"the Queen!" and the driving
snow was reddened by burning powder
and the cruel winter wind driven aside
by a fiercer hell-blast than its own. The
reckless Pete's three sticks of powder
exploded on the beach with great effect,
and their roar was followed by the whiplike spang of Winchesters, the tuberculous cough of superannuated Snider
rifles, the bang of io-bore Greeners and
the Lancaster pistols, and the crack-cr-
rack 'of Colt's revolvers. Interspersed
were the howls and yells of the celebrants. The biting snow melted on the
fire-hot barrels, and trickled down in
streams on to powder-blackened hands
that gripped stock and lever, but
the joyous exiles kept things up with
laugh and yell and gun-shot till the last
shell was fired and the New Year nearly
half an hour old.
"Best New Year's salute in this Godforsaken place since the Lord made it,"
opined the "Doc," closing the lever of
his empty rifle.
"Come on, boys, now for supper,"
said the Trader, and the piazza and.
beach were left once more to the howling storm.
*       *       *       * -     *       *       *
That snowstorm was a good one. So
was the celebration inside a good one..
It was not till 9 a.m. on the morning of
the 2nd of January that a figure loomed
up on the little piazza, and surveyed the
waste of snow, water and pine-trees. It
was the Trader. His voice was hoarse
with singing "Auld Lang Syne," and
every other national and patriotic song
he could recall from his varied experiences by aid of a retentive memory. He
surveyed the scene with only one eye,
I must admit. That eye was of a fiery
red, but the other was closed and of a
funereal black. This was the result of a
brief but animated discussion among his
guests as to the respective merits of Irish
and Scotch whiskey.
After a prolonged inspection of the
wintry scene, the Trader re-entered the
bar, helped himself generously from a
bottle, and remarked to his still somnolent guests: "Boys, guess I'll row over
and see how old Jamie McPherson is.
I feel pretty tough, and I guess a pull
across will do me good. Any of you
fellows like to come?"
From the floor arose a dishevelled fig- I
ure. It was Pete, the reckless. A flying bit of shingle when he exploded the
dynamite had scarified his forehead, and
-the blood from the honourable wound
had trickled down his face and mingled
with his tow-coloured moustache.
"I'm with you, Jim." he remarked,
laconically, and made for the bottle out
of which his host had just quenched his
thirst. The remainder of the guests gave
no sign of acquiescence or refusal. To
quote the Wizard of the North:
" Deep-slumbering on the hostel floor
Oppressed with toil  and  ale,  they
And thev did snore, too.
ishment. The house had an odd unaccustomed look. In front of it was propped upon a sugar barrel a lengthy sapling, roughly trimmed of its branches.
From said sapling, half-way up, floated a
large red bandana handkerchief, a piteous appeal for aid from the chance
"What in blazes can be up?" said
Pete. "I hope the old man ain't frozen
to death."
*' What in blazes can be up
The Trader and Pete waded through
the snow on the beach to a make-shift
boathouse some twenty yards away.
Dragging therefrom a small double-
ender and launching her, they proceeded
to pull down the bay towards the domicile of the devout descendant of the
The wind had dropped, and they were
soon in sight of the little cove, at the
head of which stood the building which
was at once McPherson's home and Her
Britannic -Majesty's Post-Office.
Arrived at this point, however, the
two rested on their oars in utter aston-
" Frozen,
quoth the trad- •
er. "Can't you
see the smoke
coining from
the chimney—
the reek frae the
urn, he'd call
it. But something must be
wrong. Come
, on "
A few strokes
ran the boat up to the little beach, and
the two men jumped out.
"What in old Sam Hill has Jamie been
doing with his windows?" said the
Trader. "Looks as if he had all the
driftwood in the bay piled behind 'em."
They advanced to the door, and Pete
dealt it a thunderous kick. An outburst
of indignation from the collie dog inside
was the first result, then spoke a quavering voice:
"In the name of the Lor-rd, wha gaes
there?   Speak, or I fire."
.And   before   the   astounded-   couple
could reply, the roar of Jamie's sole wea- 88
pon of offense, an antiquated muzzle-
loading shot-gun, was heard inside the
house. A round, home-made bullet
splintered the frail wood-work of the
door, and passed between the heads of
the two visitors.
This was past a joke. "You old
Scotch fool," roared the Trader, "is this
the way you welcome your friends on
a New Year's call?"
An exclamation was heard inside, then
the sound ol many barricades and obstructions being removed. Finally, the
door flew open, and the descendant of
the Convenanters stood upon the threshold. The sweat of mental anguish was
on his wrinkled forehead, and from his
eyes the big tears hopped down his
cheeks, over his grey moustache, and
lost themselves in the wintry stubble of
a three-weeks beard.
Pie made a plunge forward and grasped the hands of his mystified and somewhat indignant visitors.
"Eh, my dear laddies," he g"asped,
"the Lord be praised ye are presairved.
I had no thocht to see ye again in the
flesh. But you, nion, Jim," pointing a
denunciatory finger at the Trader, "mon,
I hae winked at muckle, and maybe the
speeritual agony o' the last twa nichts
an' a day is my punishment, but this sel-
lin' o' liquor to them Indian deevils must
be stoppit richt here. Ye mind? It's
Jamie McPherson tells ye."
"What the blazes are you talking
about, anyway?" demanded the Trader,
whose conscience was not quite clear on
the subject of selling liquid damnation
to the guileless and unwashed siwash.
"I've heard of no trouble among the Indians. What the devil are you giving
"Mon, Jim," said the Scot, "did you
no hear the soond o' the awfu' fecht on
New Year's Eve? Did ye no hear the
guns and the screaming and yelling?
Eh, but auld Jamie McPherson heard it,
and he barricaded the hoose, an' called
in the bit collie dog, and commended his
soul to the care o' the Almichty, an'
waited in sore treebulation o' the flesh
(whilk is weak, ye ken) till this blessed
mor-rn, an' But what dae ye see to
laugh at, ye graceless sinners?"
For Jamie's two visitors had collapsed
in a heap in the snow, and peal after
peal of uproarious merriment echoed
round the bay, and was returned tenfold by the everlasting hills.
"Jamie McPherson," gasped the Trader, "you'll be the death of me yet. This
is twice you've near killed me and Pete
in ten minutes. Man alive, the firing
and yelling was at my place, not at the
rancherie. We were just saluting the
New Year. And you thought it was an
Indian uprising? Oh, Lord, oh, Lord!"
—and Jim again rolled on the snow.
Well, it took some time to get the
rights of the matter into Jamie's head,
after which he proceeded to dismantle
his fortifications. He then besought
Jim and Pete to mention no word to
the other boys. "The laddies micht
laugh at me," he observed. The laddies
did. Either Pete or the Trader must
have blabbed, and that is how the tale
By C. H. G
ibbons, City Editor of the Daily Colonist.
IFTY years ago, before immigration to the shores of
the Pacific was attracted by
the discovery of gold in
California, Fort Victoria
:ljj|F had an existence. The gold-
^p1 seekers  were  preceded  by
fur-dealers, and the first house in what
is now the queenly capital. of British
Columbia was that of one of the adventurous traders of the 11 udson's Bay
Company. As years rolled on, the importance of the post at the southern extremity of Vancouver Island became
more defined and recognized. Population increased; the Hudson's Bay Company, with its storekeepers, trappers and
traders, forming one important class,
while another, drawn from the ships of
the Royal Navy, which paid frequent
visits to the shores of the Island, more
gradually became a noticeable feature of
its society.
Then came the news of gold discoveries in various parts of the country tributary to the struggling settlement—
Leech River, only about ten or twelve
milrs from Victoria being one of the
earliest of the placer mining camps of
the Pacific Coast—and then the influx
of the army of the Argonauts. From
California, where they had tasted the
sweet and the bitter of the search for
gold, these treasure-seekers with pick
and shovel poured into Victoria, equipped themselves, and passed on in hundreds and in thousands to Leech River,
the mighty Fraser, golden Cariboo, or
more distant Cassiar. The history of
Victoria's life during "the sixties" is the
history of many places in the wonderful
West which gold-finds have made famous in a day. It was then, too, that her
pioneer business men laid the sure,
foundation of their knowledge and experience in the selection and packing
of the necessities of a miner's life, an
experience that enables them to this day
to compete at an advantage in the equipment of miners destined for the Northern treasure lands.
The mad search for riches in "the
sixties" made the village a city -and
one, while the excitement was at its
height, of considerable population and
constantly changing' character. After
the fever came the re-action, which even
more tried the young and struggling
city. Its citizens knew its worth, however, and Victoria passed the crisis
safely, and commenced the persistent,
substantial growth which has led to its
recognition to-day "as the wealthiest
city, for its size on the American continent.
Located at the southern end of Vancouver Island, the situation of Victoria
is remarkable alike for its beauty and
its adaptability to the purposes of commerce. The city rises gradually from
the Straits of Juan de Fuca and from
the land-locked harbour in which its extensive shipping, not forgetting the sealing fleet, which is the greatest in the
world, lies in safety.
An elaborate scheme of harbour improvement, to the perfection of which
Mr. Thomas C. Sorby has devoted the
best years of a busy professional life, is
now on the eve of inauguration and will
make the harbour and shipping facilities
unsurpassed the continent over. By
the expenditure of hundreds of thousands of dollars, private enterprise has
already constructed at the entrance of
the harbour proper, docks capable of
accommodating and sheltering in the
roughest gale that blows the largest
steamships and sailing vessels to be
found on the waters of l he Pacific—
docks, the equal of which cannot be
found elsewhere on the Coast, not even
in San Francisco. A few miles out
from the city, a magnificently equipped
quarantine station safeguards the health
of this province, and, in fact, all Canada.
At the outer dock, for the construction of which Mr. R. P. Rithet deserves
the lasting gratitude of Victorians, abundant water and excellent wharfage are
afforded for shipping of any draught.
The shore line of Victoria harbour,
which is entirely protected by the natur- 90
al conformation of the land, is about
seven miles in length, good anchorage
being found in many places, while well-
appointed wharves extend for a mile or
more in almost unbroken succession.
Here it is that dozens of steamers, including the fine fleet of the Canadian
Pacific Navigation Company, and sailing craft are to be found at all seasons
of the year receiving or discharging
freight. The majority of the wharves
are lighted by  electricity,  and  all  are
anything in steel or iron from a poker to
a steamship may be turned out.
Victoria's business streets are wide
and handsome. The policy of the people
has been not to concentrate the business
life of the city upon any one street,
hence, Government, Fort, Yates, Douglas, Broad, and Johnson Streets are
all busy thoroughfares, while a vast
amount of substantial business is transacted daily—with very little show—on
Wharf street,  the mart of the whole-
Victoria City, B. C, Looking North
provided with the most approved appliances for the quick dispatch of business. Along the waterfront, too, are
found many of the manufacturers that
are doing their part towards advancing
Victoria's commercial importance—the
Brackman & Ker mills, the Chemical
works, the Weiler Bros, furniture factory, the paint factory, the Pendrav
soap works, and the Albion Iron Works,
foundries and machine-shops, in which
salers.    Government   Street bein
first  avenue,   still   retains   its  pi
importance; while for substantial
tur'es  of brick,  stone  and  plate
Douglas    Street    is    rapidly   att
prominence.   All of the business
boast buildings of imposing desig
the city differs materially from ;
the neighbouring States, in that it
from being   built to   meet   prosj
rather   than   existing   demands.
? the
n, but
iny in
is far
and five story blocks are uncommon,
but every foot of accommodation provided is utilized.
In this particular point will be seen an
illustration of the conservative policy
that has made the city's credit what it
is; the boom policy so common to the
cities of the West is thoroughly lacking
here; the business atmosphere is different; credits are maintained, and Eastern
merchants express a preference for Victoria orders over any others in the West.
of the war in the Transvaal an even
better bargain might have been made,
while it is worthy of note and significant of the character of Victoria business men, that the purchasers were a
home financial organization—the British Columbia Land' and Investment
From the heights upon which many
of the wealthiest residents have
built their homes, the scene presented is
G overnment Street, Victoria, B C
So high indeed is the credit of the
city, which naturally takes its colour
from the credit of the individual, citizens,
that when a consolidation of various outstanding municipal loans was brought
about only a few weeks ago, the Council
was able to place the new debentures,
amounting to $210,000, with a life of
only twenty years, bearing 4 per cent,
interest, at I per cent, above par. Had
it not been for the disturbing influences
truly a majestic one. The well ordered,
picturesque city in the foreground; beyond, the shimmering harbour and
straits, reflecting the deep blue of the
sky; across this grand body of water,
the Straits of Juan de Fuca, is seen
the glittering, snow-capped, uneven line
of peaks of the Olympic range, extending over the westerly part of the State
of Washington; to their East, on the
other side .of Puget Sound, the forest- 92
covered foot-hills, and then the mountains themselves of the Cascade range
towering into sight, and presided over
by the great snow sentinels, Mount
Baker, Mount Hood, the Sisters, and
Mount Rainier, the pride of Washington.
Further to the North loom up the white
saw-tooth peaks of the great ranges of
British Columbia—the Fraser and the
Selkirks—while between them and the
point of vision   extend   the  Straits  of
clamations of the visitor is, "Why, how
many handsome homes you have."
And so there are. Probably no other
avenue in Canada possesses more costly
and magnificent yet home-like mansions
than does Belcher Street; and besides
Belcher .Street there are the Gorge
Road, Rockland Avenue, Oak Bay
Avenue, Cadboro' Bay Road, Esquimau:
Road, and hall a dozen others of similar
attractiveness.     Each  resident  of  Vic-
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B. C.
Georgia,    dotted
Such continuous scenic splendour
can be viewed at no other place in the
Northwest; every variety of scenery is
familiar to Victorians—from the calm
and pleasing pastoral to the stern imposing and majestic panorama of mountain or of sea.
One of the first and most natural ex-
toria aims to own his own home, the
percentage of householders who are the
owners of their premises being greater
here than in any other city of the Dominion.
Each residence is set like a jewel in
its own. well-appointed and well-cared-
for grounds, and the taste of the owners
is apparent in the beauty of their home
surroundings as well as in the architecture of the houses themselves. In parks VICTORIA—ITS NATURAL ADVANTAGES.
and drives, too, the same love of beauty
is apparent. Beacon Hill Park has few
rivals on the continent. It comprises
two or three hundred acres, well-wooded
in part, and intersected with carriage-
drives, lined by royal old oaks, over
whose heads centuries have passed.
Two or three miniature lakes, bordered
by green lawns and pebbly beaches, are
the home of a choice collection of
waterfowl; while in the deer park and
ten to the excellent music furnished by
the local bands.
The establishment of a second park
in the city's western suburb is now
under consideration; while a strong syndicate, represented locally by Mr. Henry
Croft, has secured an option that will
probably be taken up within a very few
days, for the transformation of what arc
known as the James Bay tide flats, a
tract of thirteen acres or thereabouts in
fcv...--i *^^^
Scene in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria, B. C.
the bear-pit are to be found specimens
of many of the animals and birds native
to the Province.
The sides of Beacon Hill proper afford a recreation ground
for the city, unsurpassed for cricket,
baseball, lacrosse and kindred sports,
which are in progress almost
every afternoon nine months out of the
year. In the summer time thousands
meet under the spreading trees and lis-
the very heart of the city, into a most
complete and handsomely equipped
general recreation park. Its attractions will include a magnificent theatre;
a cinder track for cycle and foot
racing; a large green for lacrosse and
kindred sports, and provided with the
finest grand stand and club house accommodation; bowling alleys, bath
houses, horticultural gardens, etc. This
park will extend from   the   new   Post
I 94
Office to the Parliament Buildings, a
substantial steel and stone causeway,
replacing the present bridge between the
points mentioned.
The Gorge, formed by the outgoing
and incoming tides, on Victoria Arm,
which runs inland from the sea for four
or five miles is another attractive natural
park, which is popular with Victorians.
Here it is that the regattas take place
each 24th of May,  for Victoria is an
fortifications and the barracks of the
Royal Artillery; here are the marine
railways, provided by private enterprise
for the accommodation of merchant
shipping; and here, in Esquimalt proper,
the naval yard and dry dock, the latter
built of huge blocks of stone and capable
of accommodating the largest ships jf
wrar that visit the Pacific Ocean.
Oak Bay is still another popular seaside suburb connected bv the busy elec-
' The Gorge," Victoria, B. C.
eminently loyal city and
of the Queen's Birthday
and wide.   Beautiful driv
the city in all directions—
to various points on the
to Esquimalt, three miles
connected by electric rai
the most perfect harbour
in  which  the warships
constantly to be found,
in the near vicinity, are
its celebrations
are famous far
es extend from
to Goldstream,
sea coast, and
away, and also
lway.    Here is
on the Coast,
of Britain arc
Here, too, and
the Esquimalt
trie road. This is rapidly becoming the
summer resort of many wealthy citizens,
its charming surroundings, attractive
beach and facilities for every form of
seaside enjoyment bringing it into constantly growing favour. There is a
thoroughly first-class tourist hotel here
also, which commands the patronage of
the best classes of visitors from all parts
of America.
1 he city possesses an extensive sys- VICTORIA—ITS NATURAL ADVANTAGES.
teni of water works, operated by the
corporation, and which, with the 'well-
equipped and admirably disciplined fire
department reduce the fire risk to a
minimum. The water supply is drawn
from a succession of spring-fed lakes,
and passing over the filter-beds is distributed through steel mains to steel
mains, purity being thus assured. Improvements to the system have been
constantly in progress in years past and
it may now be classed in consequence
as approaching very closely to perfection. The receipts under waterworks'
account form one of the principal items
in the civic revenue.
Sewerage is upon the separate system, the general scheme being as recommended by the eminent engineer,
Mr. Rudolph Hering, of New York, the
sewage of the city being carried far
out to sea by the tide.
The paving of the principal city
streets is also under way, Fort Street
being at the present time the model
business thoroughfare of the Province,
and a sample of what all will be at a
very early date—probably within the
next twelve months.
In the matter of electric railways the
city is again specially favoured, the system of the British Columbia Electric
Railway Company, under the efficient
local management of Mr. A. T. Goward,
giving quick and cheap communication
between all parts of the city, as well as
to the suburbs of Oak Bay, Esquimalt,
Victoria West, Spring Ridge, Oakland,
Beacon Hill, etc.
A loop is also projected to accommodate the residents of the Gorge
Road, and enable holiday-makers and
picnickers to reach The Gorge at a
merely nominal cost, and expeditiously.
The system has been in operation since
1890, and was the third electrical road
established west of the Mississippi—the
second in the Dominion of Canada. The
tramway company also supplies light to
private consumers, while the streets are
illuminated by means of an independent
system owned and operated directly by
the corporation.
An excellent telephonic service is provided for the city and suburban towns;
while a long-distance line to the cities
of Nanaimo, Vancouver and New West
minster is promised for 1900. The C.
P. R. and the G N. W. telegraph companies—the former operating in conjunction with the Postal Telegraph
Company's system and the latter with
the Western Union—maintain telegraphic connection with all the world.
By steamboats of elegance and speed,
the city has daily connection with the
Canadian Pacific Railway at Vancouver; the Northern Pacific and Great
Northern at Seattle and Tacoma; and
the Union Pacific and Southern systems at Portland; while a regular service is also maintained with San Francisco and other Coast points to the
south, direct steamers between Victoria and San Francisco, sailing every
five days. Alaska and the Northern
way ports, the keys to the Klondike, Atlin and Cassiar gold fields, are served by
another first-class fleet of steamers,
man}'- of which are owned locally: the
rapidly growing trade of the West
Coast of Vancouver Island demands the
service of another fleet; still others (and
among them the handsomest steamers
afloat), are required for the maintenance
of regular connection with China and
Japan, Hawaii and Australia, and Cape
Nome, Victoria enjoying the proud
position of first port of call and last of
departure for practically all trans-Pacific lines, as well as all Northern lines.
Two railway systems at present enter the city; the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
road connecting Victoria with the centres of the coal mining districts, the
promising gold-copper mines of Mount
Sicker, and the outlet of the Alherni
road; while the Victoria and Sidney
road traverses the rich agricultural district of the Saanich peninsula having its
terminus at Sidney, from which point a
railway ferry connection with some
point on the Mainland is looked for in
the near future.
A number of projects are at the present time receiving attention, having for
their object the securing of direct connection with the trans-continental systems to the North and South, either by
railway ferries, transferring cars over
the Straits, which narrow to but nine
miles in width at one point; or by extension to the Northern end of rail and
ferry to the south and all rail to the 96
North to connect with the trans-continental lines.
Meanwhile the steamer service in connection with the various through-roads
practically makes Victoria one of the
termini of these lines,, and places her
upon the same footing and with the
same trans-continental freight and passenger rates as are now enjoyed by-
cities having rails laid to their doors already. The Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway will be continued very shortly
to the Northern end of the island, opening up a large area of agricultural, mineral, and timber land; and enabling the
gold-seekers to and from the far North
to reduce their journey by days.
With this north-of-the-island connection, Victoria merchants will unquestionably command practically all of the
Northern outfitting and supply trade,
their past experience in the selection of
stocks and in the packing of goods giving them so appreciable advantage in
the race for this trade that the Sound
cities are no longer in the running. The
experienced miner well knows that Victoria is the best outfitting city and the
inexperienced miner wisely prefers to
defer to the better judgment of his
veteran brother.
Of course the duty that has to be paid
on American goods going into the Klondike or other Northern Canadian gold
districts gives the Canadian cities a great
advantage and constitutes another nail
in the coffin of the Puget Sound outfitting trade.
The climate of Victoria compares very
favourably with that of California, and
has been more generally contrasted with
the south of England. It is temperate
at all seasons, the summer heat being
softened by breezes from mountain or
sea; it is never oppressive and the hottest days of the summer are invariably
followed by cool and delightful evenings.
In the matter of public buildings, as
well as residential structures, Victoria
leads the Pacific Northwest, for the new
Parliament block is beyond doubt the
most magnificent architectural pile in all
the West. Besides, there may be mentioned the new Post Office, Custom
Plouse, the Provincial Jail, and Reformatory, the Law Courts, the City Hall,
the Drill Hall, Jubilee Hospital, St.
Joseph's Hospital, St. Ann's Convent,
and many others, all of which reflect in
a manner the solidity that is characteristic of the city.
The number of churches has, within
the last few years, been increased by the
erection of several whose superiors in
tasteful architecture cannot be found on
the Coast. Prominent among these may
be named St. Andrew's (R.C.) Cathedra], the Metropolitan Methodist and St.
Andrew's Presbyterian churches, while
the erection is also contemplated of a
magnificent structure to crown Church
Hill, replacing the present Anglican
Cathedral there. The city schools, too,
are substantial, thoroughly modern, and
well-arranged buildings, in which every
detail of a liberal education is provided
In conclusion, Victoria offers peculiar
advantages to the capitalist, the commercial man, the manufacturer, the emigrant of moderate private means, who
has a family to bring up and educate,
and last but not least,- the tourist, to
whom the fine scenery, the magnificent
opportunities for sport in the near
neighbourhood, including excellent
trout fishing and both small and big
game shooting, lend to Vancouver
Island extraordinary attractions. On
the west coast of the Island are situated
the mining camps of San Juan, Al-
berni, Clayoquot, Bear River and Quat-
sino, where many exceedingly promising
copper-gold prospects, largely owned by-
Victorians, are being developed; and on
the East Coast the Mount Sicker mines
give everv indication of great things in
the future. Thus at a not very distant
date Victoria should become the supply
point and centre of a very important
(By D. B. Bogle;.;
O subject is more canvassed
and very few are less understood. The confusion of
ideas on all subjects economical is one of the curious     phenomena    of   our
otherwise highly
commercial system, and is reflected in
the want of defined meaning attaching in most people's minds to such common words as "capital," "wealth,"
"value" and many others. Yet there
is no subject so important to a young
country like British Columbia as
the principles governing the introduction of capital. There is one set of extremists who maintain a very remarkable position. They fall back on the
axiom that all capital is originally derived from labour, which is perfectly
true, but they conclude that therefore
all capital should be maintained and applied to production, solely in the interests of labour as they understand it;
and there is a continual pressure ap-
applied to the social fabric through the
Government to force a condition of affairs agreeable to this theory. Two
' vital considerations are altogether overlooked, one general in its bearing, the
other peculiar to a young country. The
first is that if all the product of industry,
or a very large proportion of it, is diverted to the labourers, who at the same
time will not take the responsibility of
making those accumulations necessary,
not merely to increase, but to maintain
the amount of capital in a country, but
spend it all in unproductive consumption,
that country must return to barbarism
with accelerated strides and realize in
the actual squalor of savagery the social
dreams of many estimable but illogical
minds. The other consideration is that
in a country like British. Columbia,
which imports most of the articles of
primitive wealth, through whose accumulation capital is originally formed,
and is dependent for increase of population and progress upon industries in
which capital is tied up without return
for considerable periods, unless outside
capital is offered inducements as good
or better than in other countries, not
only no progress, but immediate retrogression is inevitable.   Any cause which
increases the   remuneration of  labour
diminishes the returns to capital, provided the amount produced remains the
same.    And  it  is  very  startling  how
rapidly any such cause will act upon the
flow of capital.      The eight hour  law,
for instance, which, without in any way
increasing the productive capacity of the
mines  or  the  hope of ultimate  profit
from the development of prospects, indirectly increased the proportion of the
product paid as wages, has very greatly
decreased the output of wealth for 1899
and has diverted much capital to Cripple
Creek   and   Western   Australia, which
would otherwise have come into British
Columbia.    It may be that this  happened through the fear of further encroachments    and    through    prejudice
and class antipathy and such vulgar and
contemptible      considerations,      rather
rather than through any sufficient modification of the returns, or hoped for returns, to account for the result.   It is to
be hoped so, for then the effect will only
be temporary.   It may also be that from
a social point of view the change is a
beneficial one, even at the expense of a
slower inflow and accumulation of capital.    But the economic result is plain
enough.    There is another set of extremists who allow the aggregate production and accumulation of wealth to
dominate    every   other   consideration.
Their idea of a prosperous country is
one   in   which  the   greatest  possible
amount of wealth is being produced at
the least possible cost, without considering for a moment who is getting the
benefit of that production, or, in other
words,   how  it  is  distributed.     They
would, in reference to a new country,
have the inducements to outside capital
increased at the expense of the comfort
and prosperity of the people who live in
it.    The two main ways in which this 98
can be done in a new country arc by the
alienation of large tracts of land and by
the importation of coolie labour.    The
first of these is economically sound; it
effects its purpose.    But it is at great
cost to the country and is nn expedient
which should never be resorted to except in the last extremity.    That such
extremity has existed and may exist is
doubtless  true.     The  case  of  the   inducements necessary for the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway is
one in point.    Of course the alienation
of land to be utilized for productive purposes is not what is referred to, nor indeed the alienation of land for building
towns upon.   Under a .-ystem of private
property the quicker land Js alienated,
at a fair price, as soon as it can he used
the better.    But the tendency of land is
to rise in value as population increases,
and although it may be necessary to give
away large tracts of land to induce capital to engage in productive enterprises, it
is always costly and should be <he *iost
jealously guarded prerogative  of  Government in a new country.   The second
method, that of decreasing cost of production  by  the  importation   of  coolie
labour, is of very doubtful value economically, and is socially a most disastrous
step.   Into the labour cost of any ai tide
two factors enter, one the money wage
and the other the efficiency of the labour
purchased.     The   latter  is    frequently
overlooked, nor is it often calculated just
how far the increase of cost of superintendence,  and  the  increased  depreciation of the capital employed, together
with the diminished output go to counterbalance the supposed saving on actual money wages.   So far as the matter
may be judged by results in controlling
the world market the dearest money labour   has    always   proved   the    least
costly and most profitable.    But when
the cheap labour expedient is  considered from a social point of view no defence whatever can be made for it.   The
labour imported must either remain in
the condition of servitude in which it exists at the time it enters the country or
it must advance finally to the level of the
labour supplanted.    If it advances to
the level of the labour it replaces, no advantage is gained to its importers.    If
it does not so advance it remains a dan
gerous  and  detestable  social  element.
Now the statesman and citizen are supposed to have the general material interests of the community at heart in any
tolerable form of civil government. This
is and ought to be paramount.   The in->
flow of capital, however, in a new country is the main   means   by   which   the
general material interests of the community may be furthered.    Because, as
. already remarked, the country depends
upon industries, which require the locking up of capital for a length of time,
and has no means of accumulating that
capital itself under a couple of centuries
at least.    So that no step should  be
taken to benefit the community at the
expense of this inflow without the most
careful inquiry as to whether the loss
sustained by the check given capital's
inflow is not greater than the gain afforded by the presumed ameliorated conditions of life in the country itself.   But
at the same time expedients to encourage that inflow like the importation of
cheap labour, which are absolutely bad-
from a social point of view, should never
under any circumstances be resorted to,
even if their economic result were temporarily advantageous, which is extremely doubtful.    This   preliminary discussion has not only cleared away a little of
the confusion of ideas which surrounds
the question of the introduction of capital into a new country, but has to some
extent elucidated the nature of the problem itself.   It has at least shown its vital
It has been sufficiently established by
economic writers that profits tend always to diminish until finally theyr reach
a minimum, that minimum being arrived at when the returns to fresh capital
are so small as to counterbalance the effective desire of accumulation in the
minds of producers, so well established
that there is no necessity of reducing the
law to first principles here. This brings
about a theoretical economic condition
known as the "stationary state," at
which it is true no country has yet arrived, but to which all are tending, the
one that has progressed or retrogressed
furthest in this direction being probably
Holland. At the same time, every
European country would rapidly arrive
at the stationary state were it not for CAPITAL IN NEW COUNTRIES,
counteracting, such as improvements in production, which increase profits and thus allow the utilization of more capital without diminishing its returns, drafts made on the country for foreign investment, with which
this paper is mostly concerned, and
periods of over-speculation, which are
always periods of enormous unproductive consumption, and are followed by
the reactions known as commercial
panics. The last of these destroys the
surplus capital, the two others merely
allow of its profitable use in larger
quantities, either within the country itself or in some other country. It may
be noted here that during periods in
which improvements in production and
distribution have caused a "boom in industrials," as it is called, it is hopeless
to attempt to attract capital to foreign
countries. A very good instance of this
was the late industrial boom in Great
Britain, of which the cause was not any-
particular improvement, such as the m-
troduction of machinery or railways,
but simply a refinement of the business
mechanism by the consolidation of rival
concerns into joint stock companies, or
what are known in America as trusts.
A similar movement has been going on
in the United States during the present
The surplus capital of a country-
seeks investment in new countries
when there is no longer room for it in
its native country without its employment reducing the returns to capital below what the man of business is contented with. There is one peculiarity
about the action of this obvious principle that the capital is not distributed
amongst all countries which can show
a higher rate of profit, but it all goes into
the country which can show the highest,
or hopes of the highest, rate of profit.
That is to say, a new country desiring
to attract capital must compete against
every other new country and will receive
none until it is able to offer better inducements than any other; but as soon
as it is in that position it will receive all
the available surplus capital until the
rate of profit is lowered by the action of
that capital itself, and some other country takes its place as the lodestone to
capital.   It is evident that the problem of
inducing capital to   come into a   new
country is the problem of enabling that
country to offer a higher rate of profit
than any other new country, and also
the most important matter of bringing
to the knowledge of investors the fact
■ that it  can  offer the  highest rate  of
profit.    The two  main   considerations
that affect the mind of the investor in
conection with the rate ofl profit are the
time delay in realizing a profit and the
security offered of not losing any of the
capital.   The first of these elements, +hat
of time, is largely affected in new countries by the means of communication af-
. forded to and from the world's market;
and the collective credit of the country
can be very beneficially used in improving this.   In this respect British Columbia has shown itself far-sighted and courageous.    Too little care has, perhaps,
been shown in avoiding the dangerous
expedient of large grants of land, but to
a large extent these were dictated by
necessity rather than by want of apprehension of the dangers involved.    But
this element of time is also affected by
the business expedient of stock speculation, which enables the individual investor to realize at any time, taking that
portion of the profit represented by the
less time remaining before the investment becomes profitable.    This is the
rationale of trading in non-productive
shares, and this trading performs one of
the most important and salutary  economic functions in the development of
new countries.    The invincible conservatism of   ignorance,   however,   leads
many people to look upon this feature
of modern industrial life with suspicion
and distrust; while governments, as a
rule, tend to place vexatious restrictions
upon the freedom of joint stock enterprise, forgetting that these restrictions
have their exact parallel in the foolish
and disastrous restrictions upon trade
enforced    by   mediaeval   governments.
Joint stock speculation has the effect of
so far eliminating the time risk to the
individual, and spreading it over an indefinite chain of investors, willing to accept it at a greater or a lesser price, that
it is of the greatest importance in facilitating the introduction of capital, because, however the variation of risk involved may be the subject of specula- 100
tion, the country has the benefit of the
capital subscribed. Therefore, joint
stock enterprise should be at least as
free and unhampered as other modes of
business. And yet in British Columbia,
as elsewhere, joint stock companies are
made subject to disabilities which may
best be described as embarrassing restrictions and predatory taxation.
Besides the almost uniform discrimination against joint stock companies
there are other respects in which the
Governments of new countries frequently make disastrous mistakes in thrir
treatment of capital. But from those
British Columbia is practically free, and
indeed with regard to companies it has
not yet gone far in error. Still it is not
inopportune to point out that all questions of taxation, particularly in the
shape of royalties on gross >>utput,
should be very carefully investigated as
to their ultimate effect before being decided and acted upon.
The second element involved in the
"highest   rate   of   profit"   is   security
against ultimate loss of the capita! itself.   This, of course, cannot be guaranteed in any industry or country.    But
certain of the more obvious risks of loss
may be avoided.    It is the function of
the Government to give security to person and property.   The character of the
Government of British Columbia in this
respect, fortunately, gives the country'
an unimpeachable position. But another
matter of the greatest importance is the
prevention of the obtaining of capital
under false pretences.   This may be pre-
ented in a negative way by the frequent
publication of reliable statistics and by
the investigation of the true facts when
misrepresentation is suspected.    There
are certain people whose minds are so
painfully misguided as to argue that a
swindle  on  outside  capital  is  a good
thing because it brings money into the
country.    But the capital which it introduces is destroyed absolutely, except
that portion of it diverted into the swindler's pocket, where it seldom remains
for any good purpose, while every such
occurrence increases the average risk of
the ultimate loss of capital by investing
in such a country, and  therefore increases the   demands made upon   the
productive capacity of every enterprise
contemplated in the country. The josses
which British Columbia has sustained
through this cause alone during the
last ten years no tongue could tell nor
any pen describe. It is true these losses
have been sustained largely through the
operations of outsiders, who have used
the resources of the country as a stalking-horse to dupe confiding investors;
but the effect upon the country is not
altered by that consideration. That era
is fortunately over. The growing industries of the Province are now sufficiently great to support a technical
press, the only device yet adopted by
society for protection against this particular form of crime.
If capital went by some instinctive
and automatic   process   wherever   the
economic conditions justified it, everything required of a new country would
be to provide those conditions.   But the
flow of capital is dependent, not only
upon the existence of these conditions,
but on the knowledge of their existence'
on the part of investors.    It is seldom
or never recognized by new countries
that successful methods of advertisement
are essential to attract capital; that it is
equally useless to be able to offer the
necessary   economic   inducements and
not to make the fact known, as it is not
to have them at all.   And the making of
them known adequately is not by any
means an easy task, the pressure of different competitors for capital is so great
in the financial centres of the world.   In
this particular respect British Columbia
has by no means been as alive to its own
interests as other countries.      The real
bearing of the problem does not seem
to   have ever been fully   understood.
That there is a scientific economic reason for heavy and judicious advertising
has never as yet appealed to the common sense of the community, either as
represented by the Government or by
those in possesion of the country's great
resources without the capital to develop
them.    Nor must it be forgotten that
capital is frequently, it might almost be
said, invariably attracted to new countries in the first instance by a hope of
profit transcending altogether the ordinary economic considerations.    Thus
it is generally the speculative chances of CAPITAL   IN NEW  COUNTRIES.
mining    that    first    attract    investors; to invest.    It is to be hoped that the
therefore the opportunities afforded by people of British Columbia will learn to
this   class   of   investment   cannot   be take a wider, and at the same time, a
pressed home too strongly upon those more scientific view of their interests in
communities which have surplus capital this direction in the future.
Gold, silver -
copper Mines
...FOR SALE,...
Investors, Brokers and Company Promoters can obtain reliable information by
Tortting us. Orders by ivire promptly
Telegrams, Cuthbert,  Victoria,
c/ttl Mining Codes used.
itchettj jC^ew/a
(X f^taver Co.
Seattle, Wash.
The Pioneer Drug Store of Victoria.,
J* Established 1862. J*
Twining    and   9P/HI   Machinery   and
s* -j Ooitctted.
59 Johnson Street,      -     VICTORIA, B.C. XXVIII
13. &k:
Large white flakes, no hulls, no
black specks. Very nutritious.
Our Brands are so far ahead of
all others that we have no
If you require Oats, Wheat, Hay,
Mill-Feed, Seeds, or anything
in the Cereal line, DON'T
buy without first getting our
prices. We want to get your
The Brackman * Ker
Milling Co., Ltd.
In plain Chocolates, equally good for eating or drinking, we carry among other lines the goods of such
well-known English firms as
79 Government St., UlHlOCOlateS.
Cor. Trounce Ave. \^"*~—__g^-
In addition to the plain Chocolate we have imported
for tne Christmas trade afine line of Caiibury's Chocolate Bon Bons, and we can give you nice hoses of
these choice goods at 20c, 25c. and 40c. each. If you
want something finer for a gift we have them up to $1
ftjbolesale Stationery.
British Columbia   Stationery Co..
The only legitimate WHOLESALE   STATIONERY in
British Columbia.
407 Cordova St., W., Vancouver, B. C.
Bet.  Gamble and Beatty Sts.,  Vancouver.
Tel.  509.
lust fl$R for it.
Doering & MarstrancTs
Brewing Co., Ltd. Ly.
Cager Beer and Porter.
Sold all over the Province W^^Si^^^
Manufacturers of
Blasting,   Mining   and   Sp°rting   Powder.
Sole Licensees
Manufacturing Agents for
Works: NANAIMO, B.C.
Branch Office: VICTORIA, B.C.
R. P. RBbet ii Co.,
'Victoria Lumber & Manufacturing Co.,
Victoria Canning Co, of B,C, Ltd,
English and American Fire and Marine
Insurance Co's,
Seagram's Whiskies—Distillers Co, Ltd.
Whiskies — Anheuser Busch   Brewing
Veuve Cliquot Champagnes,
Proprietors: Enderby & Vernon
Flour Mills.
Staple and Fancy Groceries.
Wine and Liquors, Havana and
Domestic Cigars,
A Turkish Bath opens the pores and lets out the
impurities, it causes poison-laden Suid to flow from
five million openings at once.
The effect is to help Nature's methods. This help is
made necessary by modern methods of living, we
accumulate Impurities faster than Nature intended.
There is only one other way for purifying the blood,
and that is through the kidneys. But the kidneys become overworked. They get weary and lax. They clog
up and break down, simply from lack of help irom the
This help should come regularly, for impurities are
constant. About all our illnesses result from them; and
it is far easier to eliminate them before they cause a
disease, than to cure the disease they cause.
STOPPING COI.D9.—A cold need never get started
if you take a Turkish Bath soon enough. Catching
cold means the stopping up of the pores. Then the
blood becomes conjected and trouble ensues. By opening the pores, about as soon as you feel the first symptoms, all these after-effects are avoided.
If you used the Turkish Bath only for the saving
of colds, it would be worth a hundred times what the
facilities cost you.
COMPLEXION.—In countries where the Turkish
Bath is commonly used, the personal charms of their
women are especially noted. The hair is peculiarly luxuriant, the complexion is delicate, the eyes brilliant.
The Vapor Bath used in disease, has been attended
with Immense success. Especially is this true when
used in Nervous Disorders, Rheumatic and Skin
Heretofore Turkish Baths were available only to
people of means. Now, however, rich and poor alike
may share in the boon at small expense in their own
We invite all to inspect our portable Vapor Bath
Cabinets, when we will be glad to explain their merits
more fully. 1
CYRUS  H. BOWES, Chemist,
Hastie's Fair.
77 Government St.
opp. Bank of Monrea
Victoria, B.C.
For everything you want.
Telephone 425.
Near Yates Street.
Your inspection is invited whether you
buy or not.
B. Williams & Co., | flcHH-UlN
Slaughter Sale
before moving.
Overcoats,  Hacintoshes and
Suits at half price for Cash.
Noted for high-class
Bakery and Confectionery.
We use nothing but
the best and purest
Give us a trial order.
84 Yates St., Victoria. B.C. ■•,'.' I
British Columbia Mining Record
Is admittedly the leading mining and technical periodical
published in Western Canada. Numerous commendatory letters
have been received from the principal mine managers and engineers in British Columbia testifying to this fact.
Special effort is made to publish information which can be
depended upon; and consequently the Mining Record has
earned a reputation for reliability and honest criticism.
The subscription price is $2 per annum for Canada and the
United States, and $2.50 for other countries.
The circulation of the publication is very wide, and fully
covers all the mining districts of British Columbia and the
Northwest. The circulation in Europe and the United States is
very creditable, and consequently as an advertising medium for
the use_of machinery manufacturers, wholesale dealers, brokers
and others, the British Columbia Mining Record offers exceptional opportunities.
The B. C. Mining Record.
Like all Standard Goods, GIANT POWDER is
imitated, but as a reliable EXPLOSIVE, with the
least possible FUMES consistent with FULL
STRENGTH, GIANT POWDER easily takes the
lead, and has done so for nearly forty years.
As above stated there are imitations, but, after all
is said and done they are but imitations.
The following named firms carry stocks of GIANT and will be pleased to
serve  you: WB&
Hunter Bros., Rossland.
" Kaslo.
Wi. Hunter Co., Ld., Silverton.
" I Three Porks.
" | Alamo.
Co., Slocan City.
"    Thompson's Ldg.
E. G. Prior & Co., Kamloops.
McLennan, McPeeley & Co., Vancouver.
Stockham & Dawley, Clayoquot.
" "       Ahouset.
W. P. Jaynes, Duncans.
T. D. Woodcock &
C B. Hume & Co.,
H   Byers & Co., Nelson.
Russell Hdw. Co., Greenwood.
The Wynkoop-Stephens Co., Phcenes.
W. K. C. Manley. Grand Porks.
Eholt Trading Co., Eholt.
B. C. Mining & Mercantile Synd., Cascade.
" " "       Gladstone.
Carlin & Durick, Port Steele.
Port Steele Mercantile Co. , <Cranbrook.
P. W. Foster, Ashcropt.
T. J. Trapp & Co,, New Westminster.
C. A. Warren, Golden.
Chatterton & Coleman, Trail.
Victoria Lumber & Meg. Co., Chemainus.
Alberni Trading Store, AlberKt.
The Giant Powder Co., Consolidated.
VICTORIA, British Columbia. XXXII
Sole Agents for ....
1 <&M
*€W4#; e^©.^.
Wholesale Dealers in
Call and see
us for Show
Window Dis-
make aspe-
cialtyfor the
next few davs of getting up something nice foreshowing off your Christmas Goods.
T. WATSON, Christmas
Douglas St.,      Vernon Block.
Established 1885
Paisley Steam Dye Works.    Vv . TONES
/3T HE only fully equipped Dye Works
v|/ in the City. All kinds of Fancy Dyeing
' and Cleaning. Ladies'and Gents' Clothing Cleaned, Dyed and Repaired. Mackintoshes Cleaned and Dyed.
French and Dry Cleaning are our Specialties.
All work guaranteed*
H4h Yates St., VICTORIA, B. C
The Excelsior
APPRAISER j» J> j* j»
73 and 73" ■
Yates Street.
Tel 254.
Biscuit Co.
Manufacturers  of all kinds of
The City
Auction Mart.
Auction Sales of every description conducted at our
spacious rooms; or at Vendor's own premises, highest
prices obtained, satisfaction guaranteed before disposing
of your goods. You will find it greatly to your interest to
consult us. 5 £ 2 £ 3 3
Highest   of  References from  past and
present clients.
Houses, etc., to rent and for sale in all
List your properties with us, good clients
always waiting.
All  business  entrusted  with us  receives
strict and  personal attention.
Late  Jamieson's.
61 Government Street, VICTORIA, B. C.
Carry one of the largest stocks in Canada of General and Office Stationery, also splendid line Leather Goods
for Presentation purposes.
Agents for Smith's Typewriter. Webster's Multikopy Carbon.    Webster's Star Ribbons.
Little's Cobweb Carbon.   Stephens & Sandford's Inks.   Whiting's Fine Note Paper.
Special attention paid to
mail orders
Graniteware and
House Furnishing Goods.
88^ Douglas St.,
TEH" ■
The B. C. Cold Storage
and Ice Works.
White Labour
Bonded and ordinary warehouse cold storage.
Ice manufacturers from distilled water.
Hydrox re-distilled water for Table use.
Advances on Warehouse receipts.
Cable Address: "HYDROX" Victoria
P. 0. Box 329. Tel. 44-
26 and 28 Store Street,
Ramrnpley § Scott
Produce and
Commission Merchants.
Tel, 113.
F. O. Box 93.
Flour, Feed, Hay,   Grain, Butter, Eggs
and Poultry, Hams, Bacon, etc,
3 and 5 Store St., VICTORIA, B.C.
Charles tiaoh
Manufacturer of and Dealer in
Furniture, Upholsteru, Mattresses,
Window Blinds, Carpets, GroGkeru
and Glassware.
Warehouse and Store:   iFanrmiupI> r a
50 to 59 Cordova st., Vancouver, D. I). w	
Residence  122.
Office   557.
Lewis Hall,
Dr. Dental $mwy,
Corner Yates and Douglas Streets,
T/ictoria u/est
Hirrsif .■■-
Drug Store.
Attendance Day or Night.
Snvalid and Sic/c Room Requisites.
A Thorough Delight for Breakfast.
w w w M) w w w
Pioneer Steam Coffee and
Spice Mills.
Scientific Optician, 67 Fort St., Victoria, B. C.
Pvf QlO'll'f Every form of defective eye-
«-<j Colglll. sight accurately diagnosed
        and corrected.
Examination and Consultation Free.
J 5 years practical experience. '
o. Jincternach,
Jeweler, Watchmaker
3ewelery Repawns and Optician,
a Specialty. '
*•• Watch Repairs
Carefully attended to.
Eyesight Tested with Latest Appliances Free of
90 Douglas Street,
ain Branch: 152 Government St.
Direct importers of the leading
brands of Wines and Liquors.
Large stock always on hand.
Agents in British Columbia for
the celebrated G. H. Mumm's
Extra Dry, Lemps St. Louis
Beer and other leading brands of
Wines and Liquors.
Kilmarnock Scotch,
the finest on earth.
Havana  Cigars.
Sanitary Plumbing, 0asa%En°gtWater
Cor. Pandora and   Douglas Sts
P. O. Box 122.
Telephone 226.
John Pawson, Fred. S. Whiteside,
Pres. Sec.
Henry Reifel, Manager.
£bo Union««
Brewing (Zo.
Lager and
Steam Beer
Porter and Ice.
Drawer 45 —    11—»
I Incorporated by Special Act of Parliament, 1883.     Contractors lo H. If. Army.
Victoria Transfer Co., Ltd.. 19, 21 and 23 Broughton street, foot of Broad.    This Company has the largest
and finest stock of Horses, carriages, Buggies and Phaetons in the Province.     Two, four and six-hor».e omnibuses furnished for parties on snort nonce.    Baggage transferred to all parts or stored.    Furniture and
freight moved, etc.   Telephone 129.
Manufacturers of All kinds ofSanitaryFittings, Agricultural Drain Tile, Flow-
lj>.   .£.     ■  o    ix f*i -I  e »• ' er Pots, Fire Roofing Tile, Terra Cotta, Chimney Pipe and Flue
Vitrified bait-blazed oewer Y\ pes. Lining, Chimney Tops, Fire Brick, Fireclay. All kinds of Fire
Clay Goods, Assayers' Furnaces, eic, made to order.
Repressed Bricks.   Ornamental Garden Border Tiles, Vases, etc.
Cement, Plaster of Paris, Lime, and all kinds of Ornamental Plaster Work.
Capital SPtan/ny 7/filia.
Orchard St., Rock Bay, VICTORIA, B.C.
Manufacturers of
Doors, Sash, Blinds,
Window and Door Frames.
i    Mouldings,  Brackets,
Balusters, Mantels,
Stair Railings,
Newel Posts, etc.
<£emony   Sonnason dc  Co.j
Scroll Sawing, Turning: and Planing. Wood Finishing- of every
variety for Stores, Dwellings, etc., executed to order.
3   Telephone, 77.
i ?. O. Box. 363.
Boxes of every Description to Order.
Tel. 101.
Fort  Street.
Call and inspect our dainty and elegant *
Bon Bons and  Confectionery.
P   Choice  "to
| Christmas | NewYork>
H Goods, il
111        H
We are noted for the excellence of our %
Christmas Cakes and Plum Puddings.
Christmas Presentation Cakes a specialty. ^
Charles Budden
(£ate Artist with Mendelssohn,
Old Post Office,
Government Street,
'Photographs enlarged and artistically finished in Water
Colours or Crayon.
Etc., Etc.
Canadian       |
Bank of Commerce
Capital Paid Up, -  $6,000,000.
(Six million dollar*.)
Hon. G. A. Cox,
B. E. Walker,
Gen. Mgr.
In   British   Columbia:
atlin, cranbr00k, fernie, fort steele,
Greenwood,  Vancouver.
In Yukon : Dawson.
In Alaska : Skagway.
Gold Dust andAmalgamPurchased.
Manager Vancouver BraDCh
SPope , , ,
119 Sovernment Street,
Jtyoctem Office iSuppiies,
Oxford S&ihies,
grayer SftooJcs,
Jfa/mn Sffoo/cs,  £tc,
ScAooi S&ooJes,
ScAoot S/Pcqruijit&s.
!P. 0.  'Drawer 665.
Pacific Cigar  Factory-
^.k  Pt0^^ j£jUST  OUT-
OUR   BRANDS——~—~-~*
"Native Sons of B. C
N U G G ETS Big and 111
Office and Factory :   103 Johnson Street, VICTORIA, B.C.
;j8 ,v 4. f/fl      (From Klondike with) |
'~~*>m We also manofactare "PLANTA  DE  SANTIAGO.'
Ragstad & Oldershaw, «***!&£&«
96$ Yates St., Victoria, B.C.
and Diamond Setters,
All  Work Guaranteed  to  give Perfect
David Lindsay,
Importer and Dealer in
Ready-made Clothing, Hats and Caps,
Gents' Furnishings and Staple Goods.
Cor. Johnson and Store Streets, £ £ £ £ VICTORIA,   B.C.
Erskine, Wall
& Co.,
The Leading
I  Grocers of
I  British
1  Columbia,!
fl. 5TEWART,
New Building being erected   for them. ft*
J Full line of Staple and Fancy
* - *^
■• IfP
p*L«?* '■ ■--
Letter Orders for specialties always  receive     S>
prompt attention.
Cor. Yatcsand Blanchard Sts. J IC I OR I/?, D.C
\J>   Stamps.   4\
F|. Firth,
Golden Rule
I Cash
1 Grocery
165  Douglas  Street.
Fresl) and complete stocK always
■    or) harjd.
pull lirje of Teas. Coffees, Spices,
Dried fruits, Raisirjs, Nuts, etc.
fill  Kinds of Xmas  Goods   of   the
very best quality and Lowest Cash Prices.
Give us a trial.
hjorrje-made Pieces a specialty.
REMEMBER   we   give   Trading
Stamps or 5 per cent, off for cash at
165  Douglas St.
1 Stores*
Hillside Avenue
First Street.
Deaville, Sons & Co.,
Canned Fruits, Canned Meats, Flour, Corn
Feed, Potatoes, Teas, Coffees,
Spices, etc.
We are Importers of British-made Goods.
Washing, Mangling and Sewing Machines,
Iron and Brass Bedsteads, Carpet Sweepers,
Brass Fenders, Fire Sets, etc.
Above goods will be found exceptional both
in style and price.
of the Manufactures of
Fruit Preserving
and Confectionery
Our goods are the f n1XT
most popular in thewU V.
miniug districts.
Miners want the best and
they get it, if it is labelled
Okell & Morris. Our Preserves, Marmalade, Pickles,
Sauces, Ketchups, Vinegars,
have been awarded more first
prizes than all the other manufacturers in West'n Canada.
If you are a miner ask for the
Okell & Morris brands. If
you are a merchant sell them
and treble your business.
Victoria Chemical
Manufacturers  of
Sulphuric Acid,
Nitric Acid,
Muriatic Acid.
Chemical Manures,
Quotations on Application. XI,.
Bank of British  Columbia.
Incorporated by Royal Charter, 1862.
CAPITAL, (with power to increase)
RESERVE,       .--..-
Head Office, 60 Lombard St.,  London,  England.
In British Columbia. — Victoria, Vancouver, New Westminster, Nanaimo,
Kamloops, Nelson, Sandon,  Rossland.
In the United States.—San Francisco and Portland.
In Canada.—Canadian Bank of Commerce, Merchants' Bank of Canada, The Mol-
sons Bank, Imperial Bank of Canada, Bank of Nova Scotia and Union Bank of Canada.
In United States.—Canadian Bank of Commerce (Agency), New York; Bank
of Nova Scotia, Chicago. In Australia and New Zealand,—Bank of Australasia.     In Honolulu.—Bishop & Co.
Drafts, Letters of Credit, etc., issued direct on Dawson City, Atlin City and Skagway.
Savings Bank Department. — Deposits received from $i and upwards, and
interest allowed thereon.
Gold dust purchased and every description of bank business transacted.
The Union Steamship
Co. of British Columbia, Ld.
The well-known and first-class steamer
Sails every 10 days from
Without stop, connecting atSkaguay with trains and river boats to SHI!
Carrying passengers with SPEED, SAFETY, COMFORT,
Freight, Machinery, Cattle, carried in steam-cargo boats at through rates.
Regular weekly passenger line to all British Columbia Coast Mining Camps,
For rates, fares and sailing dates apply at
Company's Wharf,
Fronts on Two Streets. Ground Floor, 80x240 feet
English Axministers -                                   -         -       $1 So
English Body Brussels -          -     -         -       -       -          85 to $1 25
English Tapestries      - -                    35 to      85
Scotch Linoleums      - -      -      -      -      -      -      -         65 to   1 25
Oilcloths       - -         -                  -            25 to      50
Table Linens and Napkins, best Irish and Scotch make. Sheetings
and Cottons, best Canadian and English qualities. Blankets and
The finest stock in Western  Canada.    All the most fashionable
materials shown.   Samples sent on request.
French made for women.   English made for men.   Wear guaranteed.
Best English makes stocked.
Very large stocks of fashionable goods shown; prices as low as
consistent with good qualities.
Laird, Schober & Co.'s Ladies' Shoes.     Strong & Garfield's Men's
Shoes.     We consider these makers the best in the world.
Ladies^ Jackets and Costumes, Men's Furnishings, Art Goods,
Laces, Embroideries, Handkerchiefs are the most complete and fashionable in the West.
Toys by the thousands at Xmas time. Can satisfactorily fill all orders whether for single articles or school treat. §
D. SPENCER^        Government and broad Sts. Cable Address: " GOLD PROP.'
Motto: " Risk Minimum, Proft Maximum."
Mining Code used: Bedford-McNeill's.
The British Pacific Gold Property
Company, Ltd. Lty.
Incorporated March 1897.
Divided into 5,000,000 shares at $1.00 each issued fully paid and non-assessable.
Provision made for the issuance of the second block of Treasury Stock at 10 cents per share.
Head Office,   Williams'  Building,   V/l/^Tr^PI A       R C*
28 Broad Street, Y Iv^ I Wl\l/~\,    D.V^.
President: Alex. J. McLellan, Esq., President of the Kimberley Mining Company and Vice-President of the
San Jauquin Mining Company;
Vice-President: K. T. Williams, Esq., Alderman, Publisher of William's Directory of the Province.
Hon. T. R. McInnes, Victoria, B. C. Frank Hall, Esq., M. D., Victoria, B. C.
W. H. B. Aikins, M. D., Toronto, Ont. Chas. Hayward, Esq., Alderman, Victoria, B. C.
B. M. Britton, Esq., Q. C, M. P., Kingston, Ont. Lawrence Goodacrk, Esq., Victoria, B. C.
A. T. Watt, Esq., M. D., Victoria, B. (j. James Muirhead, Esq., Victoria, B. C.
. Consulting Mining Engineer :—W. M. Brewer, Esq., M.N.E.I.M.E..M.A.I.M.E.
Assayer and Metallurgist:—W. P. Best., Esq., (Heidelberg & Leipsic), 68 Broad Street, Victoria, B. C.
Consulting Civil Engineer:—H. P. Bell, Esq., C. E., M. I. C. E.
SOLICITORS: &       „   .     „„
For British Columbia:—Messrs. Tupper, Peters &    I   For Eastern Canada:—A. W. Briggs, Esq., B. A., ss
Potts, Victoria, B. C Richmond Street, W., Toronto, Ont.
Bankers:—The Molsons Bank, Victoria, B. C.
Representatives in all the Chief Centres of Canada, the United States and Great Britain.
The Company has been organized for the purpose of acquiring and developing only first-class mineral prop- j
erties in the Province of British Columbia, so as to make shipping mines of them as soon as possible, and to distribute thftir wealth, not only to residents of this country, but of the United States and Great Britain, and to
everyone wherever he may be who has manifested a material interest in the Company's undertaking.
The " Seattle," "Tacoma," " Omahat "Brooklyn," "New York," "Grey Mule," and "Rebecca" mineral
Claims known as the New York Group, situate 2}^ miles from Port Hughes at the head of Bedwell Sound, west
coast of Vancouver Island. There are mineral outcrops on all the claims, some of which are from 10 to 15 feet
wide and are traceable for hundreds of feet, without a break.   The ore bodies so far discovered eonsu-t of chalco-
¥yrite, iron pyrite, and magnetite, also free-milling quartz outcrop containing gold visible to the naked eye.
ne ore bodies in the majority of instances rise at a convenient angle for tunnelling, the geological formation
• being similar to those of the leading mines of Rossland. Timber for all purposes at hand in abundance. Water
power unexcelled, flowing through the Seattle, Omaha and Tacoma claims within about 100 feet from the mouth
of the adit sufficient to run air compressors, electric tramway, saw mills, and for any other purpose for which it
may ue required. It is the dnly water power in the locality capable of utilization without extensive outlay and
practically available by this company only. It will prove a valuable source of revenue in supplying power to
other companies.   The best natural townslte for the entire districtis contained in the Tacoma Claim.
The natural shipping facilities are all that could be desired. The shaft on the Seattle is 600 feet, (aneroid)
above the level of Bear River bottom. The course is thence by easy grad S alcng Bear River valley about 2 miles
to deep salt water. Wharf site, 26 acres, comprising the whole of the deep water frontage at the head of Bedwell
Buildings: 1. Dining Room and Kitchen. 2. Sleeping House. S. Assay Office 4. Blacksmith Shop. 5.
Stable.   6. Warehouse at Wharf.   7. Floating Dock.
Development work done, 34 feet of shaft sunk 198 feet of drifts, besides several open cuts. Estimated tons of
ore on dump 200.   No finer specimens of copper sulphide ore can be found in the world.
Assays—Average samples taken from the dump, yielded 13.92 per cent, and 15.65 per cent, copper
besides gold and silver. Selected samples from dump 32-62 per cent, copper [verified by Provincial Mineralogist]
assay for gold only of a portion of the ledge matter on the dump, $25.50 per ton. No finer specimens of copper
sulphide ore in the world.
Ore from this property has recently obtained a Medal and Diploma of Honor at Earls Court Exhibition, London
Respecting new issue of 2i0,000 sh>- res of Treasury Stock at ten cents per share.   The Company has by a liberal
capitalization provided against exhaustion of its capital resources and has at the same time enhanced the value
of the stock offered to the public by making such stock preferential to the extent of the price paid for it.
The Company's offer is to return the amount paid for Treasury stock to subscribers therefor in dividends
in full before any dividends are declared in re>pect of any other portion of its stock.
Persons preferring to do so, may purchase shares within the next three months upon the instalment plan,
that is to say, by paying one cent per sha-e per month until the full amount is paid. Suitable forms supplied on
application. Proceeds from sale of stock to be devoted to further development work. For specimens of ore,
photographic cuts and assays prospectus, engineers reports, and quarterly statements and annual financial
statement and other information respecting ti>e Company's properties and the Company itself, apply-at the
Company's office, No. 28 Broad Street, Victoria, B. C.
Brokers wanted to handle the Company's stock in markets where it has not yet been introduced.
Address all communications and applications for shares to the Secretary-Treasurer of The B. P. Gold Property
Co., Ltd. Lty., Box 112, Victoria, B. C. 4?
The New
Land Co.
Formerly the Vancouver Coal Co.
The  Largest  Producers   on *
the Pacific Coast. i*
Used principally for Gas and Domestic purposes.
Steam Fuel.
Protection Island Coal and
Wellington Coal.
House and Steam Coal, are mined by this  Company
THE NANAIMO COAL gives a large percentage of
gas, a high illuminating power, unequalled by any
other bituminous coal in the world, and a superior
quality of coke.
THE SOUTHFIELD COAL is now used by all the
tding steamship lines on the Pacific.
THE NEW WELLINGTON COAL, which was introduced in 1890, has already become a favourite fuel
for domestic purposes. It is a clean, hard coal,
makes a bright and cheerful fire, and its lasting
qualities make it the most economical fuel in the
New Wellington Coal. This coal is raised from the
submarine workings under the Gulf of Georgia and
is shipped from wharves both at Protection Island
and Nanaimo.
The several mines of the Company are connected
with their wharves at Nanaimo, Departure Bay t
Protection Island, where ships of the largest tonng
are loaded at all stages of the tide.   Special despji
given to mail and ocean steamers.
i*^^^^^^fy^^^^^^^^i?^^i?i?fk-'bfkff& jtancftaeaf;^^
^m em Bmtish Columbia
*** Yukon Territory
ihotc f
tatem 4
Co., Ltd. L,
Bfe^»_ ^...    T       .    .,


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