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A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean : in which the coast of Asia, from the lat. of 35 North… Broughton, William Robert, 1762-1821 1804

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to tiie lat. of 52° north,
the island of insu,
(commonly known under the name of the land of jesso,)
the north, south, and east coasts of japan,
the lieuchieux ajnd the adjacent isles,
as well as the coast of corea,
in the years 1795, 1796, 1797, 1798.
L 0 ND 0 Nt
•   *
 Printed by A. Su-afuiij
Nevr-Street Square.
Voyages of Difcovery juftly claim the public attention, becaufe they open new fources of knowledge
and trade, and confequently are interefting to a
fcientific and commercial people: but it would be
unneceffary at any length to expatiate upon the utility
of fuch expeditions, fince that has been fo ingenioufly
and convincingly difplayed in the Introduction to
Cook's third voyage.
Highly pre-eminent in the fcale of Europe, not
only for her military character but for her celebrity
alfo in the arts of peace, Great Britain has long
maintained her envied fuperiority among the nations,
from the encouragement fhe has given to fuch enter-
prizes, and for the many illuftrious navigators ihe has
produced.    The perfevering refearches and unwearied
a 2 activity
activity of our immortal Cooke advanced her reputation for fuch voyages far beyond thofe of his prede-
ceffors; and had not his unfortunate death deprived
the world of his abilities, or the advanced feafon of
the year prevented one of his fuceeflors in command,
* Captain King, from fuch an attempt, there would
have been little opportunity perhaps for the detail of
the following journal, or the moft important part of
the voyage of La P6roufe. It Ihould be remembered
that, in the third volume of Cooke's laft work* Captain
King obferves that the navigation of the fea between
J-apan and China afforded the largeft field for dif-
covery : and the furvey of this unknown part of the
North Pacific Ocean was particularly recommended
by the Honourable Dailies -j- Barrington in his Mif-
cellanies, where he. fays, " The coaft of Corea, the
northern part of Japan, and Lieuchieux Iflands, mould
be explored." Captain £ Vancouver remarks, p that
the Afiatic coaft, from about the latitude of 35° to
52* North, is at prefent very ill denned ; and the
American coaft, from about the latitude of 44° South
to the fouthern extremity of Terra-del Fuego, is very
little known."
* See Vol. III. of Cooke's laft voyage, page 383.
f See page 8th of the Preface.
X See his 3d Vol. page 489.
Such fuggeftions and obiervations as thefe would'
naturally have their due weight with a navigator who
was zealous to extend the bounds of geography, and
who was well aware that little was to be done in any
other part of the Pacific Ocean except that of fettling,
the petition of fonie few iflands,. in themfelves of little
eonfequenee.. He might indeed have hefitated to
which fiMvey he fliould give the preference, either
that of the Afiatic coaft from 55° to 52° N. latitude,
or of the American coaft about 44° S. latitude to
Terra del Fuego, had he not been convinced that
Captain Vancouver would have completed the laft
by his returning to England round Cape Horn. Yet
here the curfory and faftidious reader may obferve,
that however laudable the defign of the following
journal may have been, yet it can claim no merit
from the novelty of its difcoveries, as that is already
pre-occupied hy La Peroufev In anfwer to fuch an
obfervation, it is to be hoped that a little attention to
this work would convince him of his miftake, and induce him to allow, that' although the fame feas may
have been explored by the two navigators, yet their
feparate discoveries and furveys ftamp a peculiar and
charadteri&ic difference between the voyages. Even
had the fame* track been followed entirely, great advantage might have arifen by it to the interefts of
fcience and geography : the errors of the former, if
any, might have been corrected by the latter navigator ; and the merit of his difcoveries have been more
completely eftablifhed by later obfervations tending
to confirm their authenticity. This advantage, it is
prefumed, may be found in the prefent work ; and as
the Englifli commander could not poflibly have known
the inftructions given to La Peroufe by the French
Government, he is perfectly clear of the charge of
imitation. If however the idea (hould ftill prevail,
that La Peroufe's voyage has fuperfeded the neceffity
of this prefent publication, perhaps a brief ftatement
of the difcoveries or furveys made by both navigators
in the fame feas may remove fuch ill-founded prejudices, and afcertain the degree of merit due to each
voyage feparately.
The French editor remarks, that " the examination
of the eaftern coaft of Tartary, and the difcovery, as
it may be called, of one of the moft extenfive * iilands
on the globe, feparated from the continent by a ftrait,
which was traverfed in all directions, give La Peroufe's
voyage importance and individuality f but here it
may be obferved without any undue prefumption, that
the eaftern coaft of Tartary has been examined alfo
* Tchoka, or Sagaleen.
by the Englifli commander, and that the furvey of
the extenlive iiland of Tchoka or Sagaleen is not fu-
perior in point of general intereft to that which has
been made by him of Chica, Jeffor or Infu, to the
South of it; an ifland indeed of lefs extent, but more
an object of curiofity to Europeans. The caufe of
geography, in refpe£b to thefe hitherto undefined
parts, feems to have been equally benefited by the
two navigators; for their feparate furveys will mutually correct the errors relative to thefe two iflands,
which have been laid down with fuch little attention
to accuracy in former maps of the world.
By the paflage of La Peroufe through the ftraits;
which bear his name, the infularity of Tchoka was
determined; as that of Chica or Infu was alfo, by
the failing of the Providence through the ftraits of
Sangaar. The weftern coaft of Infu was furveyed by
the Providence, which La Peroufe omitted by going
thrdugh his own ftraits. And in their progress to
52° N. latitude, the boat of the Engliih. veffel went
fifteen miles further than thofe of La Peroufe; nor
did its crew relax from their furveys till they were in
two fathom water, and the fhoals, together with the
nearnefs of the furrounding mores, prevented any
further advance.    As to their uefpe&ive surveys of the
Kurile Iflands,   Marikan feems   to have   been   the
boundary of both.
So far it has been thought proper to introduce this
brief ftatement: but the furveys of the north, fouth,
and eaft coafts of Japan, the Lieuchieux and the adjacent ifles of Madgicofernah, together with the examination of ihe coaft of Corea, belong, exclufively to
the following Journal; for La Peroufe, when he left
Kamfchatka, gave* -up the idea of exploring any more
$he gulph of Tartary or the Japanefe feas, but purfued
his courfe to Maoiina, one of the Navigator iilands.
The lofs ffl La Peroufe will ever be a fource of regret, and his exertions infure to <Ms memory the admiration of all civilized nations. The refpect he mows
for our immortal Cooke, and other navigators who
preceded him in his honourable employment, fufh-
ciently prove the candour of his mind and fuperiority
to national prejudices. Nor, while this juft tribute of
applaufe is paid to his" liberality, mould we, as Eng-
lifhmen, forget the intereft which his Government
took in the fnccefs of Captain Cooke's voyage. The
benevolent will ever with pleafure recollect, that, even
amidft the horrors of war, an exemption from them
was allowed in favour of an enterprize which was intended
tended to promote a further knowledge of the globe,
to foften the ferocity of our  unenlightenjfd   fellow-
creatures,   enlarge the intercourfe of mankind,  and
bind together the remoteft nations by the connections
of commerce.    The extnenie caution of the Japanefej
and tlfigir  inflexible ohfiiinac.y in excluding any foreigners, except the  Dutch,  from  landing on  the^j
•territories,   are fufficient apologies for the  want of
•knowledge of that empire, obfe;ryable  in the voyages
t>Jf botH) the! .Erfaseb.and Engliili navigators.    And if
iLa Peroufe was fearful of igfrudi^g upon their coafts,
though commanding two frigates furnimed with every
requifiitS for  defence,   aiftd   manned  with  numerous
crews,   the apprehenfions   of the Englj|h are  more
allowable, when it is recollected that, after the wreck
of the Providence floop, her tender had but thirty-five
men as her compliment, and might, from the fmall-
nefs of her fize, have been m-iftaken by the Japanefe
for a pjf%te.    The fame unremitted jealoufy of foreigners feems to have pervaded every place in thpfe
feas where the Providence touched at; and although
the  defies of the  crew  for  wood  and  water were
readily complied with, y$t.any wifh of exploring the
sniejiijor of the country, and of gaining a more perfect
knowledge of its government, produce, $nd nianners,
was invariably and per^inacioufly refilled.
a Ksempfer,
Kaempfer, in his defcription of Japan, dwells much
upon the ftormy nature of the feas which furround it;
and they have been proverbially reckoned the moft
dangerous in the world. La Peroufe, though he made
his voyage in the midft of fummer, in two large frigates full of boats, and furnilhed with every necefTary
for fuch voyages, complains much of the thick fogs
and bad weather, and of the danger of being embayed before his return. After the lofs of the Providence floop, the Englifh navigator had only a fchooner
of 80 tons, with one fmall boat, to encounter fuch
perils, and that not in the fummer feafon, but in the
midft of equinoctial gales, and the moft unfavourable
time of the year.
After this fhort fummary of what it has done for
the promotion of geography and navigation, the following voyage is fubmitted to the public. It is a true
unexaggerated ftatement of nautical occurrences ; nor
are there any inferted which are not founded on fact,
and the ftricteft regard to veracity. If the reader only
looks for amufement he will probably be difap-
pointed; but it is prefumed that he may gain fome
nautical information. Such voyages, as thofe in the
collection of Prevoft for inftance, are defective by
their omiffion of aftronomical and nautical remarks,
8 which.
which, though they may be detailed with dry, minute,
and fcrupulous accuracy, are never failing fources of
inftruction to the navigator and man of fcience.
The Providence floop of war was of 400 tons in
burthen, carried 16 guns, and her compliment was
115 men. On her leaving England fhe was fupplied
with provisions for two years, and every necefTary
article that was required. Every thing, which in
fimilar voyages had been found of utility, was liberally
granted by the Admiralty, in regard to articles of
barter, and the prefervation of the feamens' health;
and it is only to be lamented that the unfortunate
fhipwreck of the Providence, by the lofs of fo many
irretrievable requifites for fuch a voyage, mould have
rendered it in any degree incomplete. The fhip's
company confifted entirely of young men, who were
univerfally fober, attentive, and well-behaved; and
here it is melancholy to relate, how very few of them
ever revifited their native country, as may be feen by
the following lift of their names and fate.
a 2
Officers, Sailors, and Marfti'es, embarked on board H. M. Sloop
Providence, under the Command of Captain'Broughton-.
Names and Qualities.
Willw. Robt. Broughton, Commander,
Zachary Mudge, ift Lieutenant,
G. J. T. Young, ©d Lieutenant,  '.
James G. Vafhon, 3d Lieutenant,
William Chapman, Mallei*,
JoKh xiouff, StiVgebn,
George Young, Lieutenant of marines,
John Crofle^c, Aftsonsajnen,
William Mitchell, Boatfwain,
William Forfter, Carpenter,
J68&1 CawleyyMafter's mtitfe, ,:
John J. Haywood, Midmipman,
Reginald B. Hopkins, ditto,
James B. Boyde, ditto.
Lord George Stuart, ditto,
Honourable Alexander Jones, ditto,
T. Coulfton, Carpenter, Surg. 2d mate*;
Time when and Place where difcharged, &c.
28th May   1798,  Difcharged at  Trin-
comalee to retulWlio'hie
10th June 1797, Went home with leave
from China
nth Juijte 1797, Ditto
23d May 1798, Difcharged per fentence
of Court-Partial
28th May 1798,, Difcharged to H. M.
Ship Trident
I-Mrr-May 1798, Diftffiarged to 'H.l$r.
-Ship Orpheus
10th June 1797, Went home with leave
from Cfiliia •'»
icth June 1797, Difcharged at CJhina
13 th   Went home with leave
from Chlnat't
e8th  May   1798,   Difcharged  at  Trin-
comalee -
/38fli.Ma$*n*798, Di&barged to H. M.
Ship Suffolk
28th May 1798, Difcharged to H. Tt/l.
Ship La Sybille
28th May 1798, Difcharged to  H.  M_
Ship Victorious
10th June 1797, Went home with leave
from China
loth June 1797, Ditto
nth Ditto
10th i   Ditto
Nantes and Qualities. •-.
Stephen Bones, Cleric,
John Dining, Mailer at arms,
George Randal, tCarpenteHs mate,--
Edward MiHsr, .'ditto,
Thomas Belcher, Boatswain's -mate,
Martin Neal, ditto,
Jofeph Mott,'ditto,
Thomas Morrifon, Gtraner^s mate,
Robert Miller, /hip's Corporal',
Charles Bruee, Sail-maker^s mate,
John Oldro^S, able Seaman,
David Hendetfon, ditto,
James Steel, ditto,
John Graham, ditto,
William Bryan, ditto,
Andrew Mitchell, ditto,
John Williafcs, ditto,
JohirWilfon, ditto,  i
Matthew Leonard, ditto,
Thomas French, ditto,
James Edwards, ditto,
Thomas Stevens, ditto,
Nathaniel Ireland, ditto,
John Hopkins, ditto,
James Don&Rl,-ditto,
Samuel Re&SBy ditto,
Hugh M'Doriald, ditto,
Patrick Shftvyy Landfoi«»,  *
Daniel Dell, private Marine,—
Jonathan Birdpditto,
Hans Oldfon, able Seaman, '
Robert Og^rft Maftef'sMnate,
John Dela&oy$e, ditto,
Time when and Place'f^etv-djjlfcfiarged, JsV.
28th May  1798,   Difcharged at  Trin-
10th June 1797, Difcharged at China
28th May   1798..   Difcharged  at  Trici-
comalee to H. M. Ship Suffolk
28th May 1798a .Ditto        ditto
i . —    Ditto        ditto
. Ditto        ditto
    Ditto        ditto
 Ditto        ditto
     Ditto        ditto
- 1 ■    Ditto        ditto
 Ditto        ditto
. Ditto ditto
■ Ditto        ditto
 Ditto        ditto
     Ditto        ditto
 —    Ditto     yditto
■ Ditto        ditto
 ■     Ditto    iii-iditto
     Ditto        ditto
 Ditto        ditto
 Ditto to His Maje%'s
Schooner Providence
28th May 179?, Ditto
Ditto        ditto
Ditto to retaimhjoroe
Ditto '     ditto
25th March 1795, Died«at fea
16th June 1795, «Killed by falling-from
the main-topfail yard
6th June 1796,   KlBed by f&Hing from
the mizen top
30th July 1796, KiUed by the natives of
30th July 1796, Ditto        ditto
Sept. 29th, Killed by^iSoMent at In'fii
June 1797, Loft in^-H.*1??!. Ship Swift
Names and Qualities.
Robert Mearing, Midlhipman,
Francis Coufins, Surgeon's firft mate,
William Clerk, Capfeuii's mate,
George Cadman, Carpenter's crew,
David Starke, ditto,
George Allen, Gunner's mate,
John Thomfon, Quarter-mafter,
Henry Jones, ditto,
Peter Swords, ditto,
William Owen, ditto,
Robert Gamble, ditto,
William Coleman, able Seaman,
Thomas Capper, ditto,
Henry Shewman, ditto,
Abraham Graves, ditto,
David Stevens, ditto,
Robert Burn, ditto,
Alexander Graham, ditto,
James Clerke, ditto,
William Dring, ditto,
Peter Murry, ditto,
John Davis, ditto,
Jofeph Kennedy, ditto,
John Moon, ditto,
Alexander Ducas, ditto,
James Butcher, ditto,
Benjamin Braid, Corporal of marines,
John Cook, Drummer,
James Wilkie, private Marine,
Jofeph Whiles, ditto,
Francis Clerk, ditto,
William Julford, ditto,
John Lloyde, ditto,
William Hertekoal, ditto,
Peter Johnfon, ditto,
John Haiton, ditto,
John Bacon, ditto,
William Bacon, ditto,
Thomas Weftwood, ditto,
Time when and Place where dijbbarged, &c.
June 1797, Died on board
     Loft in H. M. Ship Swift
Names and Qualities.
John Pickwick, Marine,
William Thomas, ditto,
Thomas Horn, ditto,
William Walker, Carpenter's crew,
Thomas Mullen, Gunner,
Alexander Bifhop, Cook,
John Garland, Quarter-mailer,
John Outridge, Armourer,
Jofeph Grimftiire, Gook's mate,
James Long, able Seaman,   !
John Martin, ditto,
Samuel Hudfon, ditto,
Time when and Place where difcharged, &V.
June 1797, Loft in H. M. Ship Swift
 .    Ditto ditto
July 14th,   Died at fea on board the,
Killed by accident at China on board the
1 Glatton
Killed by accident on his paffage from
China to England
1798, Died in the hofpital at the Cape
of Good Hope
13th June 1797, Difcharged at China to
the True Briton, Indiaman
3d Jan.  1798, Difcharged at China to
H. M. Ship Sybille
14th June 1797, Difcharged at China to
the Carnatic Indiaman
14th June 1767, Ditto        ditto
i Ditto ,      ditto
loth Ditto to the  Crefcent
William Anderfon, ditto,
June 1797, Ditto
to  the  Glatton
William Eaftwood, ditto,
June 1797, Ditto
Edward Carpenter, ditto,
WiUiam Smith, ditto,
William Hurvart, ditto,
Miles Kimber, ditto,
Solomon Pollock, ditto,
Samuel Reed, ditto,
Thomas Allen, ditto,
Robert Shaw, Landfman,
Jofeph Bernard, ditto,
Jofeph Alhton, ditto,
'            Ditto
John Lawfon, able Seaman,
'"    •    Run from the Schooner
Thomas Graham, ditto,
at Macao
21ft June 1797, Ditto
 [   xvi    ]
Mailer's Mates,
Surgeon's Mates,
Captain's Clerk,
Mailer at Arms,
Boatfwain's Mates,
Carpenter's, ditto,
Gunner's ditto,
Carpenter's Crew,
Cook's Mate,
Able Seamen,
Transactions from the beginning of the Voyage
till our first Arrival at Macao in China.
Preparations for the Voyage.—Paflage to the Canary Hands.—Departure for Rjo Janeiro.—Tranfa&ions there.—Gough's Ifland
feen, and its Appearance defcribed.—Arrival at Port Stephen's,
on the Coaft of New Holland.—Aftronomical Obfervations.—Port
Jackfon.—Remarks on its Produce, Animals, &c.—Aftronomical
Paffage to Otaheite.—Remarks there.—Arrival at ihe Sandwich*
Iflands.—At Mowee.—Its wretched State.—At Wohahoo.—Vifit
of Tamaahmaah.—Account of the Wars and Ambition of that
Chief.—Anchor in Yam Bay, Onehow,
Departure for Nootka Sound.—Search for the Ifland of Donna Maria
<■ liajara.—Maquinee's Vifit to us at Nootka.—Intelligence of Captain
Vancouver.—Stage raifed on Shore by the Carpenters for repairing
the Ship.—-Excurfion to Ship Cove.—At Anchor in Juan de Fuca's
Inlet.—Sir Francis Drake's Station, 1579-—Arrival at Monterey.—
Plan adopted for the Voyage,
PafTage from Monterey to Owyhee.—Arrival at Wohahoo.—At Wy-
moa Bay, Atooi.—At Onehow.—Inhuman Murder of two Marines
. by the Natives of the laft TflaHoT—Departure for Japan.—Vilited
by fome Inhabitants of Infu.—Anchor in Volcano Bay,
Remarks on the Country and Inhabitants round Volcano Bay.—
Courtefy of the Japanefe.—Defcription of the Harbour of En-
dermo.—Obfervations on the Natives—their Drefs—Ornaments—
Habitations—Food—Boats—Articles of Commerce—Agriculture.
j—Remarks on the S&U—Trees—Plants—Birds—Fifh—Quadrupeds.—Aftronomical Obfervations.—Range along the Coaft of
Infu.—Spanberg's Ifland,
PafTage to Mareekan, one ofthe Kurile Iflands.—Through the Straits
of De Vries.—Company's Land.—Staten Ifland.—Unfavourable
Weather prevented our going through the Straits of Sangaar.—
Range the eaftern Coaft of Japan.—Bay of Jeddo.—Japanefe
Boats.—Jatfifco Iflands,
Paflage to the Lieuchieux Iflands.—Off Formofa. — Arrival at the
Typa,   Macao. —Purchafe of a Schooner.—Preparations for the
further Profecution of the Voyage.—Nautical Obfervations in the
Transactions during our second Expedition to
the North through the Straits of Sangaar, and
on our Return home bv the Coast of Corea,
and the Yellow Sea, to Madras*
CHAP. r.
Delay to the Voyage arifing from the Prevalence of eafterly Winds	
Ifland of Lamay.r—Off Formofa.—Land at the Ifland of Pachu-
fan.—Obfervations on it.—The Ship unfortunately wrecked on a
coral Reef, near the Ifland of Typinfan,. 162
Singular Humanity of the Natives of Typinfan to us in our diftrefTed
Situation.—Defcription of their Country, Manners, and Habitations.—Groupe of the Madjicocemah Iflands tributary to thofe of
Liquieux Arrival in the Typa.—Difpofal- of part of the Crew on
board His Majefty's Ship Swift—Departure from China to furvey
the Coafts of Tartary and Corea,, 185
Pefcadore Iflands In Napachan Harbour, Great Lieuchieusr..—Defcription of the Inhabitants* &c.—Departure from it -towards
Japan, 209
Paflage along the fouth and eaftern Coafts of Japan—White Point.—
Arrival for the fecond Time at Endermo Harbour, Infu.—Sufpi-
cious Behaviour of the Japanefe fettled there, 233
Off the Town of Matzmai in Infu.—Proceed through the Straits of
Sangaar.—Range along the weftern Coaft of Infu.—Peaked Ifland,
or Timoftiee.—Advance to 52° N. latitude, 257
Impracticability of getting to Sea by the Northward.—Determination
of returning.—Remarkable Hazinefs of the Atmofphere, 281
Off the Ifland of Tzima, fituated between the Coafts of Corea and
Japan.—-Arrival at Chofan, on the Corean Coaft.—Defcription of
its Harbour—Inhabitants—'Soil—Cultivation — Produce, 8tc.—
Anxiety of the Natives for our Departure.—Obfervations for longitude, &c, 307
CHAP. Vffl.
Find ourfelves in a Chrfter of Iflands.—Vifited by the Natives.—Off
the Ifland of Quelpaett.—In the Yellow Sea.—Arrival at Macao.—
Transactions from the Beginning of the Voyage
till our first Arrival at Macao in China.
Preparations for the Voyage.—Pajfage to the Canary Ij1ands.—Departure for Rio Janeiro.—Tranfaclions there.—-Gouges IJland
feen, and its Appearance defcribed.—Arrival at Port Stephen's
on the Coaft of New Holland.—Ajlronomical Obfervations.'—
Port Jackfon.—Remarks on its Produce, Animals, &c.—Aftro*
nomical Obfervations.
The Navy-board recommended his Majefty's fhip  bookl
Providence for the voyage on which I was to be em-   <—j—-
ployed.    She had been commanded by Captain Bligh,
and had lately returned from the  Weft Indies after
b | having
j 794.
having conveyed the bread~fruit there from Otaheite.
This fhip had been originally intended for the Weft-
Jndia trade, and was parch-afed by Government on
the flocks, for the exprefs purpofe of bringing the
bread-fruit trees from the South Seas, in which fervicc
Ihe had been engaged for two years. She was river-
built, of about 420 tons in btfrthen, and was fingfy
fheathed with copper, though I think it would be
proper, that all mips employed in diftant voyages
mould be fheathed with wood, and coppered over
the fheathing. The Providence was taken into dock
at Deptfoatl for one tide, and thence traufported
to Woolwich, at which yard (he was ordered to be
fitted. On the 3d October 1793, I received my appointment to command her, and the fame day com-
miffioned the ftiip. l&e ^tfcfog her out detained us at
Woolwich thearemaiaier ofthe year; and early in
3794, the fhip being ready, we dropped dow» to
TjTravefend, as a more- convenient place for entering
feamen. Here we remained tilt the end of March,
when we proceeded to the NTore, faluting Vice-Admiral
Bal-rymple, whofe flag was flying on board the Sandwich. Daring &e month of April we completed oifi
complement with v-^ftttrteers froi»%e Sandwich; and
having orders to proceed to Spkhead,r we accordingly
% failed
failed with a convoy of merchantmen under our protection. During the night, in patting through the
Gull Stream, the pilot run the fhip upon the Brake
Sand : we were not able to heave off till the morning's
tide, when, foon after, we anchored in the Downs,
the fhip appearing to have received no damage.
Vice-Admiral Peyton's flag was flying on board the
•fjeopard, which we faluted; and in the evening, our
fhip and the convoy worked through the Downs to
the weftward, with a light wefterly wand. In the
fligtit the wind drew round to the eaftwaid, and we
made all fail at day-light, repeating fignals for the
convo^r to do the fame. We paffed through the grand
fleet lying; in Sand-down Bay, under the ctimmand of
Lord HoWe; and anchored at Spithead, having faluted
Admiral Sir Peter Parker, whofe flag was flying on
t>oard the Royal William. Du-iing the month of May
the fhip was docked, but had received no damage in
her paffage to the Downs: fhe continued in every
refpecl, ready for fea; and the fhip's company, as well
as the officers* were paid their wages to the end of
July. In tMs month his Majefty vifited PortfJEnouth-r
fco-yiew the grand fleet after the action of the lfl of
June; and every captain had the honour of being
piiefented fot>:>faim.
B 2
I re*
I received my orders, which were fecret, with an
additional one to put myfelf under the command of
Oaober    Captain Drury, of his Majefty's fhip Trufty, and to
a proceed to fea with his convoy, then bound for the
Mediterranean; nor was I to feparate as long as our
courfes were the fame.
21 ft. We failed from St. Helen's with a fine breeze from*
the eaftward. After clearing the Channel the wind
veered to the N. W. when the Trufty ordered us to
proceed to Falmouth. In the night we feparated from
the men of war, and reached Falmouth; when, not
feeing the Trufty, we failed for Plymouth Sound,
where we found her and the convoy at anchor. Vice-
Admiral M'Bride's flag was flying on board the Minotaur, and Rear-Admiral Cotton's flag on board the
Cambridge in the harbour.
November. During this month, the gales were ftrong and the
weather variable ; and as we were anchored in Cawfand
Bay, we could not have joined the convoy, had they
gone to fea from the Sound with an eafterly wind : we
therefore endeavoured to work into the Sound ; but
the fhip miffing flays off Red Point, we came to with
both bowers all Handing in foul ground, not the lengthy
of two cables from the fhore.   In this unpleafant fitu-
ation we were prevented moving by ftrong eafterly CHAP.
winds,    till  the  mafter-attendant,   Mr.    Hemmings, j—|—
brought an anchor lighter to windward of us, and, November.
fending the end of a cable on board, we were enabled
to heave off in fafety, and run in between Duke's
Ifland and the Main**!?*
We continued in this ftation till the following month,
when we run into the Sound. During January 1795,
the weather was cold, with frequent gales. Rear-
Admiral Parker,  in  his  Majefty's  fhip  Raifonable,
made the fignal for failing.
In the night we had a ftrong gale from "W. N. W. February
parted our beft bower cable, drove on board a tranf- 5
port, fprung the cathead, and damaged the main
channels. Moderate weather, the next day, enabled
us to recover the anchor and fplice the cable. We
again moored the fhip, as there was no probability of
failing till the wind came to the N. E.; when the fignal
was made for unmooring, and for all officers to repair
on board.
The whole fleet was under way; nor could any
wind have been more favourable than this from the
North, as it enabled every fhip from Hamoaze and
BOOK    Catwater to proceed to fea, amounting to-more than
I—^-|   400 fail, which had been detained equally with our-
Vrltv.   felves fince October.    As^we flood out to fea, we ob-
ferved the grand fleet under the command of Lord
Howe waiting for the convoy
16th. The wind and weather were favourable ; the Li
zard Point at noon bore from us W. by S.; our ob-
ferved lat. 50° 13' 30" N. The co-fcvoy from Falmouth
joined us.
jrpth. In the evening the grand fleet, confining of 34 fail
of the line and feven frigates, parted company with
us. The convoy for Portugal feparated alfo the next
morning, with the Trufty and Fly floop. We continued with the Weft-India convoy, confifting of the
Raifonable, Medufa, Iris, Cormorant, the Dromedary
ftore-fhip, and 200 fail of merchant vefTels,
21ft. Frefh gales from the S. W. obliged us to reduce our
fails, and difperfed the merchant fhips.
22d. The wind kept increafing, and veered to the N. W.
5.4th. The gales were ftrong and variable from the S. W. :
the following day it was calm; but on the next to
that, thebaic commended again ftom the Weft and    chap.
N. W.    This bad weather feparated half the convoy.
We parted company with Admiral Parker's fleet,
failing with the Iris frigate, Reliance, and Supply.
We generally found our fhip fail as well as the trie-fa
i ft.
With a fine breeze from the eaftward, we purfued
our courfe to the fouth.
Early in the morning, faw the Canary Iflands; at
noon, the Peak of Teneriie bore N. S86 SO' W*.    Baffling Avinds prevented our anchoring till the morning
of )the 6thy when we came to off Santa Crag in 35
fathoms ;   the Church bearing Weft, Punta de Nago
E. by ~$'.    As our flay wasilkely to fee fliort, we did
note moor.    In pajifig our refpects to the Governor, he
made feme trifling erx-c&fe for not inviting us to his
table; we howevep;iffie*t with that civility, and many
others, from Mr. Rooti&y, an Irifhman, who had been
fettled here fome years.    The contractor,  Mr. Cal-
loghan, fupplied us with excellent wine for the lhip's
company, and beef daily.     We alfo took fome live
cattle on board.    Vegetables were in great plenty :
onions and potatoes were the moft falutary and ufeful
for fea-ftore. The foil of the country, as far as I
could perceive, is rocky, very fcarce, and covered with
ftones; yet vegetables grow here with a confiderable
degree of vigour and luxuriancy, principally aiiflng
from the fertile quality of the volcanic mould. Frefli
water is good here, and may be procured in great
quantities for fhipping. Landing is often difficult, on
account of the furf that breaks on the fhore. Some
few days before we made this ifland, the flyihg-fifh
firft appeared. Owing to the yery heavy furf, there
was little communication with the fhore.
The Iris and her convoy failed.
We failed from Teneriffe with light airs from the
S. W. quarter, baffling at times in every direction;
nor did we lofe fight of the Peak till the 16th, when
at noon the wind veered to the northward, and continued a fteady breeze. The Reliance and Supply
were our infeparable companions. The ifland of
Gomera bore from N. 20°. E. to N. 60° E., and the
ifland of Ferro N. 50° W. diftant 10 or 12 leagues.
In the forenoon we made St. Anthony, one of the
Cape de Verd Iflands : at noon the fouth-weft point
hore S. 8° E. five or fix leagues.   Its lat. 179 0' 4.6" N.
-11-L [MM
long. 25° 16' 26" W.    The fteady frefti trade-wind foon CHAP.
carried us out of fight of this ifland,  and we purfued 
a S. S. E. COUrfe. March'.
Died Samuel RedrifFe, a fine young lad of 18 years     25th.
of age :   a fever of only three days' continuance was
the caufe of his death.
Sultry weather.     The wind variable   from  N. to     29th.
N. W.    Frequent calms impeded our progrefs : at intervals the fqualls were heavy, with thunder,  lightning, and rain.
We croffed the equator with gentle breezes from  April 8th.
theS.E.   - -    a v|:
The trade-wind became frefh and fteady; our courfe      1 ith.
S. S. W. a very good one.
Wind more eafterly, and continued E. S. E. when      ls^,
to fouthward of 10° S. latitude.
Made the ifland of Trinidad; at noon it bore of     22d.
us S. 41° E.    Obferved lat. of this ifland 21° 21' 41" S.
long. 29° 29' E. of Greenwich.
We loft fight ofthe land in the afternoon ; next day     23d.
had light airs from the N. E.    The wind foon veered
c to
April 29th.
May 1 ft.
to the Eaft, and became fteady. As we purposed to
reach Rio Janeiro, we fleeted more to the weftwar^,
and in lat. of 23° S. fliaped our courfe due Weft, in
fearch of an ifland faid to lie in that parallel.
Variable winds in all directions. At day-light five
ftrange fhips were difcovered : they proved to be
Brazil merchantmen bound to Lifbon, and had left
Rio Janeiro five days before.
2d. Early this morning the land was feen, and at noon
Cape Frio bore N. by W. eight or nine leagues ; at
the* fajaae tnfie*, we feiimded in 70 fathoms fine fand.
By our obfervations we pla'ce this Cape in the lat. of
22° 59' 41" S. long. 41° 53' 12" E.
5th. The variablenefs of the weather prevented our
reaching the entrance, of Rio Janeiro harbour before
this day, when we came to an anchor in 28 fathoms
fandy bottom. Round Ifland S. 88° W.; Sugar-loaf
Hill N. 55° W.; extremes of Brazil coaft from N. 64°
E. to S. 64° E.    The weather was now calm.
^ In the afternoon a pilot came off, and we got under
weigh; but calm weather obliged us to anchor
in $he entrance of the harbbiaar.    The next day we
8 were
Were nlore forfc&nate, coming to an anchor within the    <?|HAP.
ifland. of Cohras ia &&. fathora-s:   T
nere were lying
here a Portug^ege- -frigate, and feveral merchant fh-ips
of di$ere|it nations. The $eliaa$e, Captain Hunf^,
faluled us comingin, wh^ch wejje^prned with an equaj.
number of guns.
We remained at Rio Janeiro till this day, having
employed ourfelves^ja. overhauling the rigging, ca-ulk-
ing the fhip, and preparing for fea in every other
refpect. The fhip's crew were conftantly fupplied
with freih provjjjpns ; an^-we purchafed at a reasonable rate wine, rum, and fugar. In the procuring of
thofe articles we had every indulgence we could wijfh
for; but we had alfo the mortification to be watched
by guard-boats day and night; nor could any officer
land unlets he was attended by a Portu-gueze officer of
equal rank. Thefe reftriclions were fo urneafonably
fufpicious, that I went but once on fhore, except with
Govejqapr Hunter to pay our refpecls to the Viceroy.
The foil about Rio Janeiro is generally good, producing great crops of oranges, pine-apples, jp$lons, fugar-
eanes, and other tropical plants. There is a gfif^t
variety of bk$s ; fuch as parrots, cockatoos, fea-fowjl,
£$?{¥£ and men-of-^ar bty^ds. There' are feveraj J?4nds
of the monkey tribe; one remarkably fmall, cal-led
c 2 the
BOOK the wefhtu, fcarcely feven inches in length. As
Captain Hunter's fhips were not ready I proceeded to
fea alone, taking his orders for Port Jackfon; as I intended, in confequence of the latenefs of the feafon,
to proceed to the Sotith Seas by Van Diemen's land.
The fituation of Rio Janeiro is in lat. 22° 53' 17" S'.
and long. 42° 51' 16" E.
25th. A breeze fpringing up from the north-eaftward, we
foon loft fight of the Brazil coaft.
A fine gale carried us to the fouthward rapidly; and
in the latitude of 31° S. the wind veered to N. and
N. W.    We fhaped our courfe S. E., reducing our
fails as the gale increafed.
June ad.        We had a large following fea, the wind increafing
to a ftrong gale at S. W.
A ftrong breeze at N. W. with continual rain. In
the latitude of 40° S. we fleered Eaft, intending to make
Gough's Illand, and fix its fituation. A heavy gale
from the N. N. W. obliged us to bring the fhip to
the wind in the morning. After laying to under a
balanced mizen four hours, we again bore away as the
violence of the gale fubfided.
The gale from the Weft returned with redoubled    CHAP.
violence; and as the fhip had not fufficient velocity
through the water to efcape the fea, we again brought
to under a mizen fray-fail. In the evening the weather
became more moderate, and we bore away*
. June.
At If pall noon, we difeovered Gough's Ifland bearing Eaft five or fix miles. Our obfervation at noon
made the lat. 40° 19' S., which was indifferent. The
gale increafed; yet being defirous of making further
remarks upon the ifland, at If paft 3 we brought to
the wind under the lee of it, bearing from us N. N". W.
The fea was irregular and confufed; during the night
the gale fubfided; our foundings were at 155 fathoms.
No obfervation at noon.
The following day we were equally unlucky, the
weather being rainy and hazy; and as there was no
chance of its clearing, we refumed our courfe to the
eaftward. The breezes were ftrong at N. N. W.
and the rain conftant. Gough's Ifland is high and
much broken, not more than two or three miles in
circumference or extent. We could not perceive the
leaft fign of vegetation ; but as the weather prevented
landing, we could not make the remarks we wifhed,
and our idea of its circuit is even doubtful.    By our
i rib.
BOOK    time-pieces we place it in the lat. 40° 19 S. and long.
9° 27' W.; which may err two or three miles, as the
June.      horizon was very confufed.
Strong breezes from the N. N. W. We fleered to the
Eaft, preferving nearly the parallel of lat. 41° 30/ S.
although we could not get an obfervation more than
once in three days. The weather became more moderate, with the wand variable to the S. W. after we got
into eaft longitude.
The wind again returned to its old quarter with
increafibg violence : in reefing the naa-in-topfail, Hugh
MaeDonald fell off the yard upon the deck, and was
moft unfortunately killed on the fpot. About this
time we had the firft appearance of the albatrofs, and
the beautiful bird called the pintado or Cape pigeon;
alfo great numbers of fea-gulls, fheerwater§., &e.
The breeze was variable at Eaft and S. E., with foggy
weather. Several feals came about the fhip, fmd we
pafled fome rodk-weed. A very fevere gale from the
N. and N. W. attacked us; and in the forenoon, to
avoid the fea, we furled the fbrefail, and brouglft
the fhip to the wind under a ftorm flayfail, it blowing
iremendoufly  hard from  the   N-  W.   quarter,   and
Light breezes and cloudy weather induced us to
get up the top-gallant malls and yards; and we fet all
ourfmall fails, which had been of very little ufe during
this turbulent paflage.
raining violently.    In the night we carried away the    CHAP.
tiller. —•—'
July 14th,
Wind veered to the Weft : fqually and cold.
Wind at S. S. E. increafed  to a ftrong gale; fhip       28th.
Was   under ftorm  ftayfails; fqualls, always attended
with rain.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather;  lat. 44° 18' S.   Auguft2d.
At  1 P. M. we  faw Van  Diemen's  land generally       3d.
covered with fnow; it bore N. by E., the wind at
N. N. E.: at noon the extremes bore from N. 5° W. to
62° W.; lat. 44° 5' S. ^P
In the evening the land bore from W. 54° W. to
71° W.; and the wind remaining at North prevented
us feeing any more of it, as we %ad only to keep our
wind to the eaftward. We fleered N. NT. W., intending to make Furneaux Ifle, and explore the
unknown fpace between  it and Cape Howe, if the
'wind permitted.
Strong gales from the Eaft ; by which we continued
our courfe to the North, not having been able to make
Furneaux's Ifland. At funfet we faw the land,
and altered our courfe to N. N. E. in confequence;
the next morning we had the mortification to find
ourfelves deceived, as we had clear weather, and nothing to prove that we were near the coaft of New Holland : lat. 34° 50/ S.
The wind from the N, W. blew direct from the
land.    We were to the North of Port Jackfon.
At day-light made the land to the N. W. of us ; at
noon we had clear fine weather, and Cape Hawke bore
N. 88° W. The extremes of coaft from S. 22° 30' W. to
N. 2° E.    Obferved lat. 32° 11' S.
We kept plying to the windward; at noon Cape
Hawke bore N. 25° W. Iflands off Port Stephens
S.71°W.    Lat 32° 38'S.
The wind ftill remaining fixed in the S. W. quarter,
I found there was no chance of beating to the fouth-
ward: I therefore determined to enter the port which
was in our power. We entered in fafety Port Stephens,  and anchored in 5f fathoms fandy bottom.
Points of entrance were open from S. 12° E. to 85° E. CHAP.
;We fteadied the fhip with the ftream anchor, and fent
the boats in fearch of water. We remained here one
week, and completed our watering from a lake
,on the northern fhore with giseat facility. During our
flay, we had ft equent intercourfe with the natives. They
were the fame race of people as thofe defcribed to inhabit Port Jackfon and Van Diemen's land. They were
inoffenfive, quiet, and docile; and whenever we approached them, removed their women and children.
We found here refiding with the natives four Englifh-
men, who had deferted in a boat from, Port Jackfon
five years before. Five came originally, but one had
died; thofe that remained were miferable half-ftarved
objects, depending on the hofpitality of the natives
for their fubfiftence, who occafionally fupplied them
with a part of their provifions, at all times in no great
abundance with the inhabitants. Notwithftanding the
wretched ftate in which they exifted, the man who
had enticed them to defert refufed to come on board.
We collected fome articles to leave with him to make
his fituation more comfortable; but in the meanwhile,
being aflured he fhould be well treated, and probably
not fuffer for his former conduct, he agreed to come
off with the others. One or two of thefe men were
married, and left their wives and children with little
d regret.
regret. The foil round Port Stephens is compofed
chiefly of fand and decayed vegetables, though- in the
fwamps it isrisather of a better kkid; &ut upon the
•whole the nature ofthe place is Very barren, and unfit
for any great degree of cultivation. The fea produces a good variety of fiili; fuch as mullet, toad-fifh,
a kind of torpedo, flounders, &c. In the woods, were
feveral fpecies of beautiful paroquets ; and a final 1 bird
of a brown plumage, fomewhat refembling the Java
fpai4!Qw. The quadrupeds that we faw**9ere the kangaroo, dogs, &c. On the beach WBiobferved a; variety
of curioufly marked flielk; fuch as the buecimim or
whelk, limpets, mufcles, oyfters, and beautiful fpeci-
mens of the Venus fhell. The natives live chiefly upon
fifli, fern roo^, dog's flefli; and mould a dead wiiale
happen to drift upon the fh@re, it forms a moft delicious repaft for them. The aftronomer made the
folio wing sojbfervations on fhore at the watering' place
abreaft of the fhip :
Lat. by mean of 4 merid. alt. of the O
Long, by mean 4 time-keepers
Long, by mean 12 fets of lunar diftances
Long. *by mean difE, of long, between'this place
and Port Jackfon, taking the longitude of Port
Jackfon at 1510 10' 3"E. that being the mean W
between Sign. Mallefpina and Mr. Crofley, and
kak diff. by the 4 watches in long, at 33" 46'W.J
32° 4i' $?&
JSI? 44' 44" &
4' 47
15l0 43' 49"
At noon we hoifted in the boats, and made fail to
the fouthward with the wind eafterly. Port Stephens
bore N. 76° W. and the extremes of land N. 24° E. to
S. 75° W.: lat. 32° 51'S. At midnight we tacked to
the northward till daylight, when we again fleered to
the South and S. S. W. as the wind permitted. We
had ?0 fathoms water.: the forenoon wa& hazy, the
weather raln>yyand!wind.increafing, with every profpect
of a gale from the S. E. whieh blew directly upon the.
land. We carried all fail to fecure our port before
da-rk. At noon the fignal-houfe on the South head of
Port Jackfon harbour boreS,32° W., andwe weathered
the North h#ad half a mite by carrying a prefs of
fail; $ paft noon we were in the entrance of the
harbour, and at 1 P. M. in running up, a pilot came
on bofard. In the afternoon we moored with our
bower cables in Sydney Cove, and ftruok yards and
topmafts. In the night, the gale (as predicted) increased to a perfect hurricane, and continued the next
day with' extreme ^ioleo&gpifor coillll^We fend a boat
on fhore. We could not be too tftaiikful for our
fafety: for had we remained at fea, moft probably the
fhip never would have cleared t-he land; as at no time
from our run here, were we more than tvfe leagues
from the coaft. We found -itt-ajer Paterfon, commanding the New South Wales corps, acting as gover-
nor; who received us in>the moft welcome manner,
fhewing us every civility and attention in his power*.
Indeed. I in particular cannot fufficiently exprefs my
gratitude for the hofpitality fhewn to me both by
Major Paterfon and his lady during our long flay
here. We immediately commenced refitting the fhip,
caulking her within and without, together with
overhauling the rigging, &c, and landed tents at
Cattle Point for the aftronomer to ascertain the rates of
the time-pieces. The hauling the feine was continually in ufe for fupplying the fhip's company with
fifh; and by order of Major Paterfon, we daily and
amply received vegetables for our people by fending
a boat to Garden Ifland.
Governor Hunter arrived With his fhips, having
been 97 days from Rio de Janeiro.
We faluted his excellency Governor Hunter with
13 guns, on reading his commiffion that appointed him-
Captain General of New South Wales, &c. &c.
oaober The fhip being ready for fea we unmoored and
6th. '   J      ■ °
fhifted our birth to the Fair Way, cheering the Reliance as we left the Cove.
We took our final  leave of Port Jackfon in the    CHA<P.
morning;: at noon the fouth head of Broken Bay v—$—'
bore N. 34° W., lat. 33° 50' S.; North head, Port Jafck- oaobcr
fon, S. 88° W. During our flay we entered feveral
good fcamen from merchant iMps and the colony to
complete our complement: our fliip's company was
in perfect health. We abftained from following the
example of other fhips that have touched at this colony, by not taking away any of the convicts: a practice
very general in merchant fliips, Which has tended to
corrupt the morals of the South Sea iflanders; for in
the voyages of the traders to the north-weft coaft of
America, thefe men have generally deferted by the
way, flopping either at the Society or Sandwich
Ifles. The foil round Port Jackfon is light and fandy
generally ; though, «fn the more inland parts of the -
country, it is much better, and produces good crops of
corn and other vegetables. Tropical friifts do not
anfwer well here, it being too cold in the winter feafon ;
fuch as have arrived from the Cape grow luxuriantly.
The bread-fruit and cocoa-nut have lately been
brought here, but did not fucceed. Plantains and
the fugar-cane have done better, but in all probabilit}7
will never arrive to any great degree of perfection.
There are feveral kinds of other fruits and vegetables
which might deferve a trial here ; fuch as goofeberries
BOOK and currants, a greater variety of apples, pgars,plums,
j—|—| limes, peaches, &c. Experiments might alfo be made
OOober. of the tarro root, yams, and fweet potatoes. Annual
and perennial flowers are ftill defiderata here. Thfe
birds of this place are of feve^tl kinds ; fuch as the
black and white cockatoo, variety of paroquets,
crows, gulls, fhags, &c. The emu is a bird belonging
to the genus of the caffowary, grows to a large fize,
and like the reft of the genus is unable to fly.
Quadrupeds are chiefly the kangaroo of two kinds,
opoJTums, flying fquirrels, mice, kangaroo rats, and
a fpecies of ferret. Reptiles are fnajses, fome of
a large fize, guianoes, lizards, frogs, &c. The
bays are well-ftored with fifh; fuch as falmon, eels,
mullet, the leather jacket, flounders, &c. The fliores
contain oyfters, mufcles, cogchs, and other fliell-
fifh. Sharks are fometimes caught here of a large
fize, which produce the only oil the people have
to ufe.
The following aftronomical obfervations were made
on fhore at Cattle Point; one of thofe forming Sydney
Cove, and where the Spaniards had before fixed their
Lat. by mean of merid. alt. of the Q
Long, from mean of 90 fets 450 to the Eaft
and 450 to the Weft of B
Variations by compafs « »
33° S1' 471" S.
510   9' 48" E.
tl°    9'Eaft,
The flag-ftaff on the South head bearing by compafs
N. ?3° 45' E.; dittant feven miles.
BajTage to Otaheite.—Remarks there.—Arrival at the Sandwich
Iflands at Mowee.—Its wretched State.—At  Wobakoo.—Vifit
of Tamaahmaah.—Account of the Wars and Ambition of that
Chief.—Anchor in Tarn Bay.—Onehow.
W e directed our courfe to the North of New Zealand, intending to touch at Otaheite in our route to
Nootka Sound. At 3 P. M. the land extended from
N. W. i Weft to Weft, and we foon after loft fight of
the coaft.
In lat. 33° 10' S. and long. 169° E. the S. W. wind
changed to a gale from the N. E. quarter. It was
of no continuance; for on the following day it
veered to N. W., and we again purfued our eaftern
In 32° 51' S. and 175° E. the winds were northerly,
with moderate weather, continuing at N. E. till this
day, when the wind again veered to the N. W. with
a ftrong breeze.
n« ■
We flood to the  Northward,  as the wind became
more- eafterly ; lat. 35° 45' S. and long. 192° 30' E.
■ Wind now altered to the N. N. E.; our lat. 34° 15*    chap.
&  and long. 189° 35' E. by the time-piece agreeing
with our accounted longitude.
It blew fo hard as to oblige us to lay to under the   November
main-fail.     The gale moderated :   we  wore  fhip at       ,j]
noon and flood to the S. E. in lat. 32s 46' and  192°
25' long.
In 30° 33' S. and 197° 53' E. we flood to the S. E.,      13th.
having had no obfervations fince the 9th for the lat.;
we found ourfelves 1° 30' further north than we expected, in which direction only we had experienced
any current: bar. 7° 49' E.    In the night we flood to
the Northward ; lat. 31° 27' S. and long. 197° 27' E.
The wind grew more favourable for our courfe, and
on this day at noon, in the lat. of 28° 33' S. and long.      18th.
by watch 201° 27' E., we obferved diflances o and j       19th.
making the longitude agree nearly with the watch.
At 2 hours 40 minutes after midnight we made the
ifland of Ohetorea bearing N. E. 6° N., which as it
was in our courfe we flood off for two hours, and again
e tacking
tacking made fail towards it.    At noon it bore from
S. 3° E. to S. 3° W.    Our latitude was indifferent; it
lumber,  made 22° 0' 54" S. and long. 208° 32' 48" E.
a8thi Frefh breezes from the Eaftward brought us in fight
of the ifland of Otaheite, bearing to the N. N. E. At
11 A. M. we tacked fhip, Eaft-point of the land bearing N. N. E.; Low-point, in the centre of the ifland,
N. f W. off fhore; Tiarraboo eaft point, N. 74° 10'.
Lat. obferved 17° 47' 32" S. long. 210° 44' 20" E.
Account 208° 53' E.
29th. The wind foon after noon fprung up favourably for
our courfe, and we made all fail. As we paffed Ohi-
tepehah Bay we were furrounded by canoes. In the
evening at 5 we anchored in 5 fathoms, in Matavai
Bay at 8 fathoms; and the next morjaing, warped into
good anchorage. In fo doing, we fwept an iron
•flocked anchor, wl^ch had belonged to the Bounty,
when fhe cut her cables, and went to fea from the Bay
with the remaining naiatineers. In the courfe of the
day we raifed our tents ia Point Venus, to afcerta-m
the rates of the time-pieces, and compleating our water. The natives afforded us every afliftance in our
•various purfuits, and amply fuppljed lis with provi-
iions and vegetables.
We left Otaheite with moderate breezes and plea-    chap.
fant weather.    At noon,   Point Venus bore E. \ N.
three or four miles : we hove to, to hoift our boats in, December
and take leave of our friends. As it gave the natives
pleafure, I faluted them with four guns on our departure. Not a man was unwell among the crew,
and the decks were full of hogs and vegetables : many
of thefe hogs weighed more than 200 wt. Otaheite, and the manners of its inhabitants, have been
fo amply defcribed by preceding navigators, that any
further account anight be deemed unneceffary. A few
obfervations may therefore be fufficient. The foil of
the ifland is excellent, confuting of a reddifh argillaceous loam, fometimes fandy and of a black colour.
The inner part of the country being mountainous, its
foil is worfe than nearer the fea. Here are various
fpecies of trees ; and universally over the ifland,
abundance of fpriijgs and rivulets. There are great
quantities of cruftaceous and teftaceous fifh ; different
fpecies of birds and fea-fowl. Geefe are naturalized
here; but no European cattle, as far as I could learn,
have -multiplied at Otaheite excepiiing goats. The
jiiatives confider dogs and cats as proper to be eaten.
j At 4 P. M. Point Venus bore S. 53° E. 12 miles |
at 5 A. JfcL we faw the ifland of Tethwroa bearing
e 2 from
H      .   A
from S. 74° E. to S. 60° E. four or five leagues ; the
body of Otaheite ifland, S. 20° E.; and the ifland of
Eimeo, S. 4° E.    The wind continued moderate from
anations^   ^e £j £  quarter, and at noon' we had no fight of
p. N° 3.
nth P.M.
4° 19'E.
Adams 30 7
At $ paft 4, P. M. N°l. made the long. 210° 12'
03", when Point Venus bore S. 53° E. 12 or 13 miles ;
which will make its longitude 210° 32' E., the fame as
by Captain Cooke. On the 28th it agreed within 3'
of the longitude of Ohitepeha Bay, the day after we
made the ifland, the elapfed time being only 12 days :
of courfe we had no reafon to fuppofe it had altered
its rate fince our leaving Port Jackfon, and made us
the lefs regret that the aftronomer could make no obfervations on Point Venus, where he was prevented by
the tumbling motion of the quickfilver, caufed by the
ftriking ofthe furf which affected the point of land
where his tent was raifed.
Weather moderate, with flight fqualls at intervals.
At j paft 9 we faw an ifland upon our weather-beam,
bearing N. 78° E.; at J paft 11 we tacked towards it,
and it bore from us at noon E. to E. 19° S., juft in
fight from the main-top. I eftimated its diflance to
be 5 or 6 leagues.   The fouthern extremity was the
rita higheft
higheft part, covered with trees, moft probably cocoa-    chap
nut from their appearance, as, they flood in detached
clumps along the fhore.    Thefe bearings will place it   d
in the latitude of 9° 57' S.  and long. 209° 35' E. ;
v amnions.
16th A. M.
but it fhould be recollected, that they were taken by   N°3. 40 33' i <s
Adams 50 48'    h
a fmall compafs from the maft-head, the angle fub-  Walker5037'
tended by a quadrant. pe  lon5
The ifland bore from E. f S. to S. E. by E. 2° E.
about five leagues ; it appeared to be low, and covered
with trees, and if I am right in its eftimated diflance,
its length will be about five miles in a north and fouth
direction. I napied it Carolina Ifland in compli](nent
to the daughter of Sir P. Stephens of the Admiralty.
We had a fwell from the N. E. which was not
experienced before, and which I attributed to the
low iflands that extend in a parallel towards the
Marquefas. The Pacific Ocean is covered in fome
parts with low iflands, and as the wind blows from
them it caufes the water to be fmooth, for when there
is no impediment of land the fwell is obferved to in-
creafe according to the wind.
 1J \
i Ii
| (1
N° 3, 50 29'
Adams 6° 2 8'
Infpea.S°   J
January ift,
We had feveral birds about us this day,: particular*]^
boobies. By the careleflhefs of my fervant the barometer Was rendered ufelefs this morning, as unluckily
he had broke the glafs tube, a misfortune we could not
Strong trade wind and very pleafant Weather, Whi6h
continued till the 1ft January, 1796, when we came off
*t3   the Sandwich Iflands.
We experienced ftrong breezes and fqually weather,
'•With a fwell from the Eaft. At 2 A. M. we faw the
land diftfoctly. On approaching the weftern fide
■of Owyhee, we loft the trade Wind, and the weather became variable with light airs in every direction.
Calm and cloudy Weather continued da-ring the
evening, enabling "feveral canoes from the fhore to
fHrmfll us Wffh pigs and vegetables. At 10 P. M. a
!%ht air fprung up from the land ; we fleered along
the fhore till day-light, experiencing a ftrong cu¥fent
to the N. W. At 7 o'clock we faw a fail in the N.
W.  quarter.    The  natives   informed   us  it  was an
Englifh brig which had failed from the bay in the
Light and viable airs prevented ou$ reaching the
bay; I therefore difpatched an officer in the pinnae^
to gain information refpecting Captain Vancouver, as
we underftood there was an American veffel which
could give us ioJeJjUgence of him. The pinnace on
her return confirmed what we had before heard,
that Captain Vancouver with the Difcovery and
Chatham had failed fo^.J&ngland.. This, intelligence
was proceed from t^e Englifh brig* who reported
that they failed from Valparaifo in Jujy or Auguft
1795 for England, by the way of Cape HatjOu
We flood to the S. S. W. all night, and at 7 A. M,
drifted to the N. W.
Notwithftanding we had run in for the land 5 leagues
by the log, we did not feem to have approached it,
and our diftance preveuted any communication*
Light ajos and calmjs,alternafejv" prevented us froxa
reaching -$e fhore !^11 the 8th.
The wind varied to the K^:th, ?H>d mth theaffiftance
of boats we anchored in the bay. Here an American,
brig,  the  Lady Wafhington, faluted us with feven
BOOK    gutis, which  we returned  wiwlfive.    Ou£ fhip  was
^—'.-—    inftantly furrounded with canoes  filled with women,
January-,    fruit, and vegetables.    In the afternoon we moored
with  the  ftrea-n^-a^Ker-'-ih   18 fa-t-homs,  the  points
forming Karaka-akooa bay bore from S. 7° W. to W.
3° N.: off fhore 150 fathoms. :
Our teWt was pitched in a field adjoining Ihe Morai,
for the aftronomer to afcertain the rates of the watches.
Lieutenant Young of the Marines, with a corporal
and feven privates commanded the party for their
protection. The ground being taboo'd, no perfons
were permitted to come within the limits, befides the
priefts of the Morai: a more retired fituation for the
purpofe could not have been found,
Since we crofted the equator, the fhip had made
from two to four inches water per hour, we therefore
took this opportunity of finding out the caufe, by
unftowing the holds and heeling the fhip, Sec; all
our efforts however proved unfuccefsful. The Bread
room was alfo cleared, that the weevils might
be deftroyed by fire, and we were mortified that
this could only be effected in fome flight degree.
We fired a falute in honour of her MaiefiVs birth-    CHAP.
1    J il
day.    The weather became more favourable for the    '—W&
aftronomer's  obfervations, and on the  20th he got   January.
equal altitudes for the firft time. From the 26th to
the 31ft the weather prevented any obfervations : on
the evening of that day he had correfponding altitudes. The tents were immediately ftruck, and with
the aififtance of double canoes (for our boats could
not land) we got every thing from the fhore, and
failed from the bay at 4 A.M. with the land-wind.
During our anchorage in this bay for three weeks, we
experienced conftant land-winds during the night,
which gradually died away by 8 A.M.; and during
.the day very light airs and breezes prevailed from the
fea. The furf feldom permitted our own boats to
land, which put us to no great inconvenience, as the
natives readily offered their canoes, which were
fafer coiweyances. I had every reafon to be fatisfied
with our reception, and the general behaviour of the
natives. No theft of confequence was committed,
nor any interruption given to our purfuits. Though
nearly the whole of the fhip's company were at
different times on fhore, yet they were never infulted,
but treated with uniform good-will and kindnefs.
Ample fupplies of hogs for our daily confumption
were fent to us from Ta-maah-maah, by the influence
f a Bri-
book    a  Britifh  feaman  had over him.    This man (whofe
!—,-w    name   was John  Young)  had  been  refident  in   the
ifland for fix years. Tamaahmaah, with all his
chiefs, and fixteen thoufand men, had been abfent on
an expedition againft the iflands to the leeward,
all of which he had conquered but Atooi. We could
not therefore buy any hogs, as thefe chiefs had
taboo'd all their property. A blind chief, whofe
name was Mahoa, carried on the executive power of
the flate under the fuperintendance of Young, and
conducted himfelf with every attention to our wants.
The priefls at the Morai were alfo particularly kind
to the gentlemen ftationed there, and the people
in general fpoke very highly of Captain Vancouver.
From the good impreflion his conduct made upon
them, and the favourable fentiments inculcated by
Europeans who have or now do live here, I am led
to believe that any veffel may now touch at this
ifland in fafetj7, and be amply fupplied with refrefh-
ments ; as every article of European manufacture is
confiderably fallen in value. The cattle left here
by Captain Vancouver had bred and were in excellent
order : it is probable they will flock the ifland, as a
taboo is placed upon them for ten years. The goats
multiply prodigioufly; I added a male and female to
their number, leaving them under the care of Young,
-k3 ; with
with a breed of geefe and ducks: the firft lieutenant    CHAP.
& ii.
alfo fpared them his pigeons. Some grape-vines
from Port Jackfon and vegetable feeds were planted January.
and fown during our ft ay. Pumpkins and melons
were in no great plenty, though we had excellent
cabbages weighing near 2 lbs. They had been culti-
vated at fome diftance, and wore brought as a
The thermometer on board the fhip varied from
74° to 78°; at the tents on fhore it was from 79° to
86°. On the 20th January, No. 1. made the longitude
of Karakakooa 203° 46' 45", which differs only 11'.
from the true longitude, as fettled by Captain King
and Mr. Bayley; an error only of 11' in 108 days,
being the time fince her rate was fettled by Mr. Crofley
at Port Jackfon.
On the 31ft January at noon, N° 1. was flow for
mean time at Karakakooa Bay 14 h. 31, 29» 19** and
lofing 6".594 per day on mean time.
The variation on board fhip, mean of 3 compafles,      8°' 15' E.
Do. on ihore at the tents, by Adam's large do.     -     90 12' E.
Eaft by time-keepers.    Obfervations by
the aftronomer.
N° 1,
Box A,
5<*»   -
Box E,
48, J
19" I
36" j
f m
The above account will fliew what the different
watches made the longitude of the Bay, by the rate
that was given at Port Jackfon. Arnold's box time-
piece keeps fo uncertain a rate as to render it ufelefs.
Long, of Bay 2030 57' 45" E. by King and Bayley.
Lat. of Karakakooa Bay, mean of 6 merid. alt. of fun>  190 28' 9". 5 N.
Mean of 13 diftances of Aldebaran weft of moon,    2040 27' 30" E.
1 ft.
With a light wind from the land we run out of the
Bay, leaving the American fhip at anchor. By 8
A. M. it was calm, and we experienced a current fet-
ting us to the N. W. At noon we made the latitude
19° 3l' N.; when the north point of Karakakooa
Bay bore S. 72° E. five or fix miles.
Variable winds prevented our reaching the S. W.
part of Mowee before funfet, when we came to anchor
off the village of Bahina, in 20 fathoms fandy bottom,
dlftant from the fhore about a mile.
As this place feemed a favourable one for procuring fruits and vegetables, we remained here till the
6th, having moderate and light winds, with a ftrong
current fetting to the N. W. The village extends two
miles along the fhore. Off the weftern point is a final!
reef in the direction of the village, which affords a
landing for boats or canoes within it. At each end
is an excellent ftream of water; but that to the weft
is the moft convenient for fhips, as they can anchor
to the Weft of it in a fine bay with clear ground, at
5 fathoms clofe in. Our excursions on fhore were
frequent, and the natives civil. The cultivation was
excellent; and the extent of ground made ufe of for
that purpofe reminded us of the fcenery of our native
country. There were the various productions of Tarro,
fweet potatoes, melons, fugar-canes, gourds, and pumpkins, amidft groves of the bread-fruit trees and cocoa-
nuts, which univerfally afforded us fhady walking.
As this village was the refidence of a Chief, fince
dead, it had been entirely deftroyed on the arrival of Tamaahmaah, and prefented a fpectacle of
wretched hovels which fheltered the inhabitants, who
occafionally lived there, till the conqueror had made
a diftribution of the ifland among his followers. No
hogs were to be feen; and our fupplies were in all
refpects inferior to our expectations. The anchorage
in the bay, abreaft of the river, is from 10 to 7 fathoms, in a clear fandy bottom ; and fhips may water
here with great convenience. The ground is fo clear,
that it may be feen in 20 fathoms ; and there are
feveral fpots within the reefs well adapted for hauling
the feine. I fhould, from its local advantages, prefer
fe'r  this anchorage  to   any   other in   the
At dav-light we got under way, with a light air
from the land ; by 10 A. M. we were in the paflage
between Morotoi and Mowee ; and § paft 10, we met
the ftrong trade-wind fetting in from the Eaft. At
noon we had a frefh gale and clear weather, when the
weft point of Morotoi bore N. 74° 10' ten or twelve
At 2 o'clock P. M. we pafled the weft point of
Morotoi, and fleered W. by N. for Wohahoo. At 5
P. M. we were abreaft of the eaft point of that ifland ;
and at J paft 6 came to an anchor in Whytetee Bay.
Tamaahmaah fent oft* to know if he fliould fire his
great guns in honour of our arrival; but I advifed
him to fave his powder. In the morning he paid us
a vifit, attended by all his chiefs, dreffed for the oc-
cafion in cloaks and helmet caps. He himfelf wore
European clothes, with a beautiful cloak compofed
of yellow feathers, which nearly covered him. He
made me a prefent of one of his dreffes, and liberally
offered fupplies of provifion and water : neither would
he trouble us to fend our boats, but made ufe of his
own canoes for the purpofe.    We received from him
twenty hogs,   and fome cocoa-nuts;   but roots  and
vegetables we could not procure.
In the morning we got under way, and came to an
anchor abreaft of a fmall harbour called Fair Haven,
in 16 fathoms fandy bottom. As my only motive for
anchoring here was to make a fketch of the harbour,
we employed the boats in that fervice for three days.
It was difcovered by a Mr. Brown, commander ofthe
merchant fhip Butterfworth, in 1794. On the 1ft of
January 1795, he laid at anchor in this harbour, with
the merchant veffels, named the Jackall and Prince
Lee Boo, which were under his direction : the Butterfworth had been previoufly fent home. Thefe
veffels were left in a defencelefs flate, as the crews
were on fhore falting hogs, &c.; and Mr. Brown implicitly confided in the natives, becaufe he relied on
their gratitude to him for his affifting them in their
wars. The natives were fully aware of the unprotected flate of the veffels, and boarded them with
numerous canoes. They killed the commanders,
Brown and Gordon, wounded feveral, and took pof-
feflion of the fhips. They then took them out of this
harbour into Whytetee bay, where the remaining part
of the crews that were on fhore furprifed the natives
who had taken poffeffion ofthe veffels, drove them
I rth.
BOOK overboard, and regained the fhips, which then failed
for China. Many reafons have been given for this
unhappy event; but the principals concerned in the
deed having fince loft their lives, there is no afcertain-
ing the truth of it. The harbour, though of final 1
extent, is fafe and convenient, with 5 fathoms fandy
bottom within the fpits. It is formed by an opening
through the reefs, with a clear channel, in a N. N. E.
direction. The wind generally blows frefh out of the
harbour, rendering it neceffary to warp in, as there is
not room for working. A fine ftream of frefh water
empties itfelf at the head. It bears S. 57° E. from
Whytetee bluff five or fix miles.
Having completed taking in our water, we got
under way, parting with our numerous vifitors who
came to us from Whytetee the day after the taboo
ceafed. Indeed there was no inducement, as we
could not procure refrefliments. The fituation of the
natives was miferable, as they were nearly ftarving;
and, as an additional grievance, univerfally infected
with the itch. No cultivation was to be feen on
fhore; and, confequently, little profpect of their future
fubfiftence. The attention of Ta-maah-maah was entirely engroffed by the veffel which the Englifh carpenters  were   conftructing for him.     She was  juft
7 planking
planking in the hartoaan- as we failed, and was about    CHA&
40 tons burthen.    In this veffel and his boats it was    i—•—■
his intention to proceed to Atotii,naaid to complete f^ruary.
his conquefts by the inaction of itbat ifland. In the
valdey above the gbarbour the decifive battle was
fougfot, that fecured to Tamaahmaah the poftefiion of
Wohahoo. IHannaLwas killed ih the conteft, with 300
of his party* who, though they came wrthTamaahnaaahi
afterwards joined the people of Wohahoo in defence
of their<-country. Trytooboony and Koroklanee, h-fe
brother, were the principal chiefe so f Wohahoo who
had eicaped to Atooi. Thi* Trytooboony was ilfofc
pHief who, by the of the unfortunate Mr.
Brown's crew, had defeated Tatyo, ihe'lujMeme chief
of Atooi and brother to tw£-former chief of Wohahotk
IStereey; dead fome tiihe fince? W»as chief of Mowee,
andiucceededirfxhis^biiKorokranee. I endeavoured but
in viih to diffuade Tamaahmaah from HiS ■expediti&d.
Mis ihbjefls.will feverely lament his< ambition, as it
is impoffibJe that they can ever retttPfl to the iflands
to the windward. It wiM be Iheir'fete to catty famine
and difeafe t& the territories theipmay cotoquerr where
they muft remain. European veffels have futnifhed
ifei&fffaief with fo large a fnpply of ifrufkets and an>
munition, togethetnwith fbai©o8and 4 pounders for
his* boate, that he prefumes his force is equal to ari.£
o attempt;
attempt; particularly as he has fixteen Europeans
with him. His intention was, after the reduction of
Atooi, to proceed to Bola Bola, one of the Society
iflands. An American veffel had left with him three
natives of Bola Bola, by whofe fuggeflions, moft probably, he had refolved upon the enterprife. During
our flay, excepting the taboo day, he refided on
boardyi^Ui&'i^iJits were very great; <he requefled his
veffel to be rigged, fitted for fea, and made proper
in every refpect. I affifted him as much as was in
my power, but, am afraid, ineffectually. From the
beft information Incould collect, it appeared that
Tamaahmaah profeffed a great friendfhip. for the
Englifh, and feetned to fpeak with abhorrence of the
different murders which had been committed without
his knowledge; and exprefled his determination to
prevent thern in future, or punifh their perpetrators.
He mentioned alfo, that one of the men who had been
acceflary to the murders of Mr. Gooch and Lieutenant
JJergeft had been put to death by his people, and
that another had efcaped to Mowee. He alfo explained, that the men who were executed alongfide
the Difcovery had not committed thofe murders, but
were unfortunate bein'gs whom the chief felected to
fatisfy Captain Vancouver. Tamahmoto, who had
taken an American veffel fome time fince, was always
refufed admiflion into** our fliip. This man openly
avows he will take the firft veffel he can ; though he
has been cautioned to avoid thofe of America, left he
fhould fall a victim to their vengeance. The other
chiefs came frequently on board; and by themfelves,
or deputies, bartered pearls and trinkets : many were
purchafed, but few of any quality. The attendants
of Tamaahmaah did the fame; The object of all
feemed to be the acquirement of every thing that was
ufeful; and the liberality of that chief and others, fb
hahdfomely recorded by Captain Vancouver, feems to
be forgotten in their prefent eagernefs for conqueft
and dominion.
The entrance of the harbour is fituated in lat. 21^ 18' N.
Long, per watch, N° i, - - 20 20   o' 30" E.
Variation of the compafs, - 90 40' 40" E. mean
3 compaflesl1*-
Flows full and change at 3 h. rife of tide 4I feet.
At noon we obferved in the latitude of 21* l6'45"
N. The mean of two meridian altitudes of the fun in
Whytetee bay made the lat. 21° 15' 35" N., and the'
long, per No. 1. 202° 3' 30" E.
I faluted   Tamaahmaah  with four   guns,   on his'
leaving us ; and we made fail to the weftward with a
g 2 fine
i?>fo& foreeze from the N. E. quarter. It was. fiiaguJar
Wjf had. not difoovqred tfyds haj&oj-j-ir-ef Fair Have%
whejt we aisehored' h^ in 1792*. in the Chatham iw&h
the D^sovei:^,. Captain Vaneofljiver:, we did not hair
deedcfeaBch for one, though-X-remeiaaiber. a break; was
noticed m the reef afej we failed through Whytetee
bay. At 6 PJVL the: eaft point ©f Wohahxao* bare
IS. 9a E* three drifour mS)es,c and! We fteeredLN.. W* foy
W. £ W. &8T Atooi. After? muniing 58 milesi iia thafc
courfevflceifaw therdfland bearihg?{M. W- by W- to Wu
three or four leagues chftance.. We hauled our vrmd
tot the Nontb falls 7? ^M..T whefi tfeet extremes of land
bore from N. 27° W* to S. 30° W. off fhore* fifeee miltesv
After palling fome high rocky land, we fleered more
to the weftward. Jiuft to» tifce KLEeJosfi this land there
was a fmall* opening, feemingfy favourable for anchorage, but the entrance was expofed to
We had 13 fathoms, after roundang- the- eaftern point,
which fhoals gradually to within f of a mile of the
f$l®r%, Sooij) after? maom w<ei came to an-anchor it^29
fathoms, fandy audi muddjjp bottom. Wirfbrlainately
forusi the ifland was HKa.ftateidf wart. A chiefTfeoni
Wohahoo, named Taa«a, had: taken up. arms againfli
Tamoerrie, the fon of Tayo, and at prefent pofleffed
the diftrict abo-nfc, Wymoa. The Europeans of his
gartyj came to us;; andl %& their afft-ftaqee iauemploy
in-g the natives, we; completed &mt watering, which GHAP.
we eou-kl not effect at Wfehafooo. Taava fent us a !—$i&
great abundance of vegetables, and forty hogs ©.£ February,
various fizes. He himfelf paid us a vifit, and I made
him a fuitaible ,re%&rn for his attentioii«> We perceived feveral canoes Under ijaijy coming round the
eaft point of the Bay. Tnefe^ we understood, contained the oppxjfitir pajfiy5: intending to pay us a vifit
alfo- Taava m$a*n?tly left tis, with? his attendants*-, On
perceiving them. I fent the firfij. LieufeenajaJt to meet
Tamoerrie, who came oty board in the pinnace, followed by his fquadron : in. one of its veffels a fwivel
was mounted. Thifr young chief preferated me with a
fmall feasbhered cloaky and remained on board aU
ni^Mfv in coni^tiencev w»e had* not any more vifitor9
We got undej? way with al moderate* land wind, fuO
ceeded by a* ligh-fc fea air, on. Which we plied to
windward. As the wfod A.M. came from the North*
wefteered to the.ifland of OnehoKv. The young chief?
Tamoerrie and his pasty now left us* ffedrningly gratjrf
fied with^tfceirrprefents and reception* He was very
anxious to have fome powder, but I refilled every
application for thafe article durhag my ftay among,
thefe iflands.    I endeavoured^ but ha.-vain, to reconcile
■tm   r '-M
book the   contending   parties.—Lat.  at  anchor, mean of
—^-> 2 merid. alt. 21° 56' 18" N.	
l796- I  -r,
February. 48   E.
Long.  No. 1. 200° 12'
19th. We paffed  the S. E.  point  of  Onehow   in   35
fathoms; obferved in the latitude of 21° 45' 50" N.
when the S. E. point bore N. 77° 30' E. two or three
miles,   the extremes to the- N. 10° W.   We fleered
along fhore, and at length came to in Yam Bay at
2 P.M. in 29 fathoms, coarfe, fandy bottom.    Some
canoes   came    off   the   next   day   bartering   yams,
potatoes,   water-melons,  and   pumpkins:   our   boat
alfo in the evening arrived  laden with roots.    The
weather from the South occafioned a great fWll in
the Bay, and prevented us from receiving the fupplies
we had been promifed.     However  the   boat   went
on fhore with the European who had accompanied us
from Atooi for the purpofe of collecting yams.    But
nothing being ready, we got  under way  and flood
out  to  fea.    The wind increafed, and we had rain
with ftrong fqualls that fplit the main-topfail.    After
hoifling in the boats and fecuring the anchor, we flood
in fhore and bent another main-topfail.    The European   returned   on   board,   faying  every   thing  was
ready; but the furf was fo great that canoes could
not reach us without rifque.     I  therefore gave up
the idea of anchoring, as there was no probability    chap.
of doing fo while this wind continued, which feemed    j—-—*
likely to be the cafe.    The European now left us in    February.
his canoe with fome recompenfe for his attentions:
this man had been tranfported to Botany Bay, and
came from thence in an  American brig called the
Mercury ; he deferted from her at this ifland, and is
much courted by Taava, whofe caufe he has preferred
to that of the young, chief Tamoerrie.
The lat. at anchor in .Yam bay was 21 ° 51/ 28" N. mean of 2 fex-
Long, at do. per N° 1,       - 1990 37' 24" E.
Variation of the corirpafs,       -       ip° 54'29"   mean of AdamV*
and N° 3.
Walker's compafs could not ftand fteady, on account of the fhip's motion.
2 2d.
-ifjo.'- >
Departure for Nootka Sound.—Search for the Ifland of Donna
Maria Lajara.—Maquina's Vifit at Nootka.—IntetUgence of
Captain Vancouver.—Stage raifed on Shore by the Carpenters*
for repairing the Ship.—ExcStrpbn to Ship Cove.—At Ancmr
in Juan de Fuca's Inlet.—Sir Francis Drake's Station I579-—
Arrival at Monterey.—Plan adopted for the Voyage.
W E failed for Nootka Sound. The flg|p's crew was
generally healthy, excepting thofe who were infected
with the venereal difeafe, contracted at the Sandwich
Iflands. IPhe fymptoms of this djtfbider were not
very violent.
We altered our courfe to the Weft, intending to
fearch for an ifland called Donna Maria Lajara, faid
to be difcovered by a Spanifh fhip, the Hercules, in
1781; and laid down in Arrowfrnith's charts, from the
authority of Mr. Dairymple. The centre of it is fitu-
ated in 28° 30' N., and in long. 202° 30' E. By the
chart it is of confiderable extent, in a north and fouth
direction.    The afternoon fights for the watch made
-.our long, at noon 204° 1'SO" E.; and  we could  fee chap.
•half a degree to the Eaft.    There was a large fwell in :—•*-—'
that1 direction, but no indication that could induce us February.
to fuppofe there was land in that quarter.    Captain
Cooke's track, on his return to the Sandwich Iflands,
was in 206° E.
We had now run and feen 5° of long, nearly from
200° Eaft to near 205° E., in the parallel of 28° 30'
N. : the fituation of this ifland muft therefore be to
ther>Eaft or Weft ofthe above longitude; moft probably Y
to the Eaft of .206° E., as Captain Cook paffed the N<
parallel in the long, of 200° 15' E., and manjr other
navigators to the weftward of that longitude. I theref
fore did not think it neceffary to crofs their tracks,
but altered our courfe to North with a fine breeze
at E. S. E.
,i nations.
3-io° 39'
0 i{ E.
We fleered N. E. by N.; the wind at South.    A Tr Vth-
I Variations.
large fwell from the S. E. quarter obliged us to pump      a.m.
the fhip every tpyo hours.     At midnight the  wind » iao .6,
lhifted to the N. W., and moderated gradually, brings AS?8*/^
° J j ° 48' E. Imp
ing on fine weather
48' £•. imp
After a fucceffion of variable, and latteply of very     March
damp weather from the 26th ult., we tried for found-
ings with 100 fathoms of line; and at 8 A. M. faw
the land about Nootka bearing N. N. E. When we
obferved in 49° 9' 42" N.; lat. account 49° 22' N.
long, ditto 233° 17' E. Point breakers N. 8° 10' four
leagues, and the extremes of land from N. 28° W. to
N. 58° E.    Port San Raphael N. 35° E.
The wind fixing at N. N. E. we anchored in 34
fathoms. The whole country being covered with
fnow, had a moft defolate appearance. I fent an
officer into the cove for intelligence, who returned at
noon, and reported there were no veffels in it; and
that the fpot on which the Spanilh fettlement formerly
flood was now occupied by an Indian village.
The wind fluffing to the Weft we got under way,
and anchored in the Sound at 50 fathoms. Macquin-
na, the chief of Nootka, paid us a vifit here : he and
Clupanutch, another chief, brought me feveral letters,
dated March 1795, which informed me that Captain
Vancouver failed rVom Monterey the 1ft December
17945 for England ; and that the Spaniards had delivered up the port of Nootka, &c. to Lieutenant
Pierce of the Marines, agreeably to the mode of refli-
tution fettled between the two Courts. A letter from
the Spanifh trmcer, Brigadier Ala¥a, informed the of
2 their
their failing in March 1795, from hence. In the
evening we had calm weather* affording us good
fhelter between an iflot and the fliore of Nootka,
where the fhip was made fteady with hawfers, and
laid in 7 fathoms water. On an examination of the
harbour, we found the beach perfectly convenient for
laying the fhip on fliore ; we tj^erefore fhifted our
birth, and warped into Mawinee harbour. At low
water we had 3| fathoms, and ^ere protected from
all winds. -'
Our tents were fixed oppofite the fhip, and provi-
fions fent there with a guard. In the courfe of the
week our anchors, cables, and 14 guns, were alfo
landed on a convenient flage, which the carpenters
had made for that purpofe.
2 2d.
We vifited the Sound to the eaftw&rd, while another
party went to Nootka, where they met with the Lady
Washington brig. She had been out 31 days from
the Sandwich Iflands, and flie arrived at this place
With the intention of repairing her leaks. Her appearance gave us great pleafure, as we could mutually
anrft each other.
April 10th,
H 2f
boctk        Pine weather enabled  lis to prepare the fhip for
i—~^—.    heavino* down, as it was impoflible to get at the leak
April9i4th.   which had troubled us fo long by any other means.
16th. The Lady Wafhington  came along-fide ; into her
we put our fpirits, hops, and perifhable ftores, fitting
our capftern on board of her.
18th. The carpenters completed a wharf, ninety feet in
length and twelve in height, from which was fuf-
pended a flage forty feet in length, for the purpofe of
relading the fhip.
20th. We had fine weather, which enabled us to clear the
fhip of the coals and fhingle ballaft.
We hove out the larboard fide as low as the gar-
board ftreak, found 14 feet of the falfe keel car- '
ried away, and plugged up a bolt-hole in the
ftreak, whence the leak was fuppofed to proceed.
In the carpenter's opinion, no bolt had ever been
drove through the planking to the floor timber,
as the augur hole boring remained perfect; nor
was there any appearance of decayed iron. The
thinnefs   of   the   copper   which   covered   it   had
cracked round the hole, and by that means the water    CHAP.
was admitted.'   It was alfo exactly in the fame place
the carpenters had fuppofed, on examining the limbers, and whence the coming in of the water was per-
ceived. Indeed there was no other part of the bottom
of the fhip that appeared to be bad : the copper
looked well, though in fome parts much worn. Another bolt below the forechains, was decayed through,
the planking ; and that part which remained indicated
that it had been corroded by the copper. The fhip
was righted ; and four pumps continually worked for
three hours, befides bailing with buckets, to free her
from the water that had flowed in through her upper
works, whilft lying down on the careen. Her draught
of water was 9 feet 3 inches forward, and 10 feet 3
inches abaft. When the fhip was hove out, only
15 chaldrons of coal and one ton of bread were left in
her. The ftage was taken in from the wharf, the
veffel cleaned throughout, and the flore-rooms and
magazines well dried. Windy and rainy weather for
feveral days impeded our operations, though in time
we received our iron, ballaft, &c. Soon after we
cleared the Lady Wafhington brig, and fhe hauled
from us.
We made an excurfion to Ship Cove where C;
tajn Cook remained on his firft entering the Sound
during the month of April; we Teemed to have
experienced fimilar or rather worfe weather at the
fame time of the year. We could difcover no veftiges
to prove that any fhip had ever been there fmce.
During a fuccefflon of uncertain weather for fome
time, at another of.-favourable dayfetiii the 21<fit imfkj
we reladed our fhip and compleated our waterpgj:
when we left Nootka where fre had an opportunity of
examining the ftate of the fhip, repairing the leak,
and making her in every refpect better fitted for th$
The foil of Nootka is generally of a thin con-
fiftence, chiefly compofed of a ftratum of coarfe gravel,
and over that another of decayed vegetables. The
country is covered with large trees, with a con-
fiderable quantity of brufh-wood growing below,
producing wild rafberries, &c. Of Quadrupeds there
are the fea and land otters, grey foxes, bears*tfieer, and
the lynx, together with raccoons, fquirrels, &c.: the
wild fosd abound in vaft quantities, The corvus
iriftatus, which I believe is only found in North
America, is alfo to be met with here.   Whales are
frequently feen on the coaft, and of common fifh CHAP.
there are falmon, cod, flounders, &c. On fifh the |—i§§»
natives chiefly exift, and on vegetables. ^ay.*
We obferved in lat. 49° 19' NI, Pomt Breakers bore
N. 33° E. three or four miles. The point of Nootka
Cove, together with a wooded one to the N. W. of
Point Breakers bore N. 28° W. five leagues. This
eftimation will place Point Breakers in lat. 49° 21' 35"
N. mean of two fextahts. The aftronomer made the
ill of the obfervatory 49° 39'3^'.7 N. long, from
90 diftances on each fide of the moon 233° 25' 11"
At anchor in the bay of Nunez Gaona; inlet of
Juan de Fuca. The flrip wasafurrounded with numerous canoes laden with hatfcbiAt and cod, whidh abound
on a bank that bears about W. by N. three or four
leagues from Tatouche Ift&nd. By having lefs fwell
at-'t-hat time, I rather fuppofe we had palled over
the foiflj&ferti' part of it, as feveral canbtes ftill remained
^iMng to the North. We run in three miles, hoifted
the boat out, and hauled our wt<nd to the foutixw-fiid,
but 'Hie flood-tide fet$*hg in very ftrong, caufed over-
ififlls throfigh the paffage.    The boat got 1& fathoms
Ik. ay.
within 50 feet of the rock, but further from it there
was no bottom with 30 fathoms. This rock is in the
fame bearing with the centre of Tatouche Ifland and
Cape Claffct N. 36° W., and S. 36° E. about § a mile,
and bears frofin the ifland of Nunez Gaona S. 80° E.
about fix miles or a little more. We paffed witfein a
mile of the Claffet fliore, and at 4 P.M. came to
an anchor in the entrance ofthe bay at 12 fathoms.
The weftern extreme towards the Cape bore S. 80° W.,
and the north point of the ifland which forms the
bay N. 76° E., off fliore nearly a mile. It was in this
bay that a Spanifh fhip remained 4 months, 1792.
There is good anchorage in it, plenty of wood and
water, with an extenfive beach for hauling the feine.
Off the ifland are feveHal reefs of rocks fliowing
themfelves by the weeds, with a good paflage between
them and the main carrying 5§ fathoms. The N. W.
part of the ifland is in lat. 48° 22' 43" N., and long.
235° 15' 45" E.; var. per amp. 22° 34' E. If Duncans
rock is kept well on the Claffet fhore, and the ifland
open with it, there is a clean paflage to the nprth-
ward of it, where the bay may be entered with
fafety, and the anchorage chofen at pleafure. It flows
at full and change lh. 30m., rife and fajl of the tide
about 10 feet.    There is little or no tide in the bay,
i>ut  without^' it runs  ftrong,  and   caufes  a  rifling
jefhich breaks when it blows frefh againfl the ftream.
In the morning we weighed with the ebb, and at noon
Tatouche Ifland bore S. 30° E. two or three leagues.
At $ paft 5 P.M. we flood towards the ifland,
which at 6 P.M. bore S. 5° W.; at 8 P.M. it bore
S. 7° 10' off the north fhore three or four miles. On
approa<Biihg the ifjasad we had no ground with 100
fathoms/ At 4 A.M. Tatouche Ifland bore S. 25° E.
three leagues, weShad 65 fathoms, and 56, 53, and 37
to 8 fathoms when Cape Clafiet bore S. 43° E.: N.
extreme N. 58° W. At noon the weather was thick and
calm : three or four miles from the fhore.
'Alight breeze from the S. W/Jqisdbter carried us to
■the S. E. nine miles, when the ifland of Nunez Gaona
bore S. 85° E.; Cape Claffet S. 65° W. and Tatouche
Ifland S. 77° E. three miles : we had no foundings.
When the Cape bore S. S. E. f E. the pinnacle rock
. withoutiSt appeared very remarkable. At 8 o'clock
we tacked, and having run 41 miles N. W. by N.
.\3e.*had 43 fathoms coarfe gravel and coarse fand,
but as we fhoaled our water the coarfe ground de-
1 Our
June 4th.
BOOK Our foundings were, at 34 fathomdjjpilrid oufr
*.—.'<-—> diftance from the nortb'iihore about five miles. '\)h&
May^th. 8 P.M. the Cape bore S. 46° E., and the N. extreme
towards Berkeley Sound N. 64° W. At 8 A.M. the
Cape bore S. 56° E., and the N. estieme N. 65° W.
At | paft nine we were five or fix miles from the fliore,
incareafing our foundings frssro 34> to 35, 48 and 42
fathoms : final! ftones ik the fbrmerj in the fatter flielis
intermixed with ftones. At noon the obishrvaTion
•made the lat. 48° 32' 10"; the meridional altitude being
62° 38'. Cape Claffet bore S. 70° E. about four
leagues: ifland of Nunez Gaona S. 82° 30' E. Ex>
treme of the land towards Berkeleys Sound N. 62° W;
By keeping the ifland open with the Claffet fhofig^
there is.a good mark for being on the bank; and
foundings may be carried clofe home to the north
We fteerd S. E. by E. and E.S..E.; half paft 9,
faw Punto de los B,Cyos in that direction. We pafted
3#!tJ$4fr. a mile of it, carrying regular foundings. At
I paft 7 we came to an anchor in 15 fathoms, when
the Punto de los Beyos was juft fhut in with the S. E.
point of Sir Francis Drake's Bay, bearing S. 81° W.;
River entrance, N. by W.; and the extreme, towards
aavf" —   -■ .,,.-_;. „.,n
Port Francifco, bore S. 81° E., our diftance from the
point of bay being about a mile and a half. At noon,
obferved latitude was 37° 58' 46" N. With two boats
we explored the fliore, where I conceive the place is in
'which Sir S&aneis Drake anchored 1579- We explored
ife-^o a remarkable fandy patch, bearing N. 60° E., from
the fhip four or five miles, and found nO opening except
the river, A bar broke entirely acrofs; we had no more
than 9 feet in palling it, and it did not appear fafe
even to ventre a boat there. Herds of deer were
feen feedi»g on the hills and in the vallies ; and a
communication commenced between us and the natives, who were walking on the fhore. The furf prevented our ian'&ihg; but one of the failbrs fwam to
land, prefenting them with totfres,. trinkets, &c. with
which they were highly gratified. They were flout
well made men, darkly coloured, and perfectly naked.
The women were in fome degree clothed.
This bay affords good fhelter, except from the
eafterly winds ; but the fea cannot be very great even
with them, as they blow over the land about San
Francifco. There is anchorage here, wnen the fouth
point of the bay bears S. 50° E. off fhore.
At 1 ■ P. M. we -got under way^. and fleered IS. E.
At 6 P. M. wej were within two leagued of the land,
to the fouth of PopC ifeancifco^pbut we could not (<$&
the entrance, on accouii^-of the hsSge or thffqso^ft^
which lie to leeward, called Fa£illon£&. Athjalfpaffc
7 P. M. the extremes of -I^Jan^i. bore from N. 21° E.
to S. 76° E., off fliore about nine m4l$§«1<
About 9 P. M. we had the misfortune to loih
Patrick Sherry, fea$ian : by accident he fell fromjjthe
mizen-top upon the deck, and was killed inftantly.
This was the fecond cafualty of the fame kind that
had happened to us fince we l$$t England. lie wag>
the only man who did not volunteeRjfjr. the fervjce, as-
he was fent on board the flag-fhip at Plymouth by the
o I J J
civil power, whence he came to us.
At half paft 1 A. M. it blew ftrong, with a great
fwell of fea; at half paft 4 A. M. we wore and fleered
E. N. E. for the land ; at 6, we faw it bearing N.< 48°
E. five or fix leagues. At 9, being well in with the
land about Punto Nuovo, we flood to the S. W. in
hopes of an obfervation, as I did not think it right to
run into the bay with the wind blowing hard at N. W.;.
and I could not diftinguifh Point Pinos. We observed
ferved in latitude 36° 45' 32", alt. 75° 38' 40", and
faw the point bearing S. 73° E. four or five leagues. J,We fleered eaft for the bay of Monterey :
i&3 P/M. came to an anchor in 11 fathpms, and>
moored fhip, after fainting the fort with 18. guns,
•which was returned with an equal rMmber. Prefidio
bore S. 13° E.; and the flag-ftaffon the fort, S. 30° W.
half a mile from fliore.
We remained here a fortnight, and we're moft- amply
fupplied with excellent frefh beef,3lmutton, vegetables,
and milk. The crew, was alfo ferved with fpruce beer;
The0; Governor1, Signor Don Diego Bc-riea, a colonel
?■ CD O J
of cavalry in the Spanifh arniy, was .ahfent on our
firft arrival; biitXhe returned two days after, when I
requefted of him to erect a tent for the aftronomer,
for fettling the rates of the watches, which he refufed
to grant, faying, that his orders were #>■ relieve our
abfolute want of neceflaries, but in no other inftance
were they allowed to affift us. We were prevented
either from riding or walking into the country; nor
did we receive the leaft civility or attention from -any
officer in the fettlement: There was no intercourfe
between us fcarcely : they did not vifit our fhip, or
we intrude on their fociety. So unfocial was their
conduct, that-1 thought myfelf juftified in not faluting
the fort on our failing, though it was evident that they
expected the compliment, from the preparations they
made there. Excepting this fort, which jjs very incomplete, there beiiig only eleven guns mounted en
parbet twelve-pounders, I faw no difference in the
place fince I was here in 1793- They complained
mueh of the dryness of the feafon, which was very
evident from the arid flate of the couptry. The water
We procured was obliged to be rolled down near half
a mile, which gave us much trouble. We bought
fome bufhels of Indian corn : they had no flour; and,
exclufive of their cattle and fheep, the other articles
we purchafed were very expenfive^ vegetables alone2
during our ftay, coft 40 dollars. The weather wa^s
continually foggy; the wind wefterly, but generally
fell during the night.
Although in the midft of fummer the air was ge-ae*-;
rally cool, and fkies pleafant both morning and eve§T
ing, the fun feldom appealed to enliven the fcenes
of beauty which the furrounding country prefented.
I receiyed one prefent of a bullock with vegetables,
from the Fathers at the miflion of St. Carmelo; but
the rigid conduct of the Governor prevented them
from fending any more. They were the fame hofpi-
table priefts whom I  met with in  1792.     Several
fpecies of fi*§it, fuch as peaches, nectarines, plums,
apjfles, and grapes, abound here. The country is
pleafingly diverfified ; though, except in the vailies
where the gardens are cultivated, the foil is rather dry
and fandy. The inhabitants are flout and well made,
flupid in look, and of a dark colour like thofe of New
Holland. They are exeeflent*markfmen with thei&ow
4and arrow; and their bafket-work fhews no fmall
fliare of ingenuity. The watches fliewed the longi-
iWde of Monterey as follows :
N° i,—238° 49'   6""
2,-238° 30' 36"
VTrue long, is 238° 2C'E. by Capt. Vancouver..
5<5)_237° 26' 16" f 6        J       3 I      f .,
248,-2.38° 25' 27"J
N° 1, flow for mean time at Monterey,. June 17th
at noofij 16° 30' 33".78, and gaining from five days rate
6".582 per day on mean time. N° 248, $ow for mean
tttme at Monterey, June 17th at noon, 1° 39' 4".73,
and gaining from five days rate 14?{|>25 per day on
-mean time.
The other watches, N° 2 and 56,. I delivered to the
Governor, with fome nautical inftruments,. See: who
was authorifed to receive them by Don Juan de la
Bodega   y   Quadra,   my late much valued and la-
6 mented
-B'0 O K
. I.
mented friend. I moft fincerely regretted his lofs, and
was much hurt to deliver to his executor what I hoped
to have done to him in perfon.
It was now neceffary I fhould come to fome determination refpecting my future proceedings. My orders from the Admiralty were, that I fhould furvey the
fou#iesix coaft ofthe fouth-weft part of South America,
upon the idea that Captain Vancouver, who had
fimilar orders, would not be able to fulfil them. But
as I now had certain intelligence that he had left this
port eighteen months before, and that both the fhips,
Difcovery and Chatham, under his command, were
in a good condition, I had not the fmalleft doubt of
his ability to comply with his inftructions ; particularly
as I had information of his failing from Val. Paraifo,
in lat. 33' S. for that purpofe. As this was the cafe,
my proceedings in future depended upon my own
difcretion ; and I wifhed to employ his Majefty's floop,
under my command, in fuch a manner .as might be
deemed moft eligible for the improvement of geography and navigation* I therefore demanded of the
officers their fentiments in writing, refpecting the manner in which thefe difcretionary powers allowed to me
might moft effectually be employed.    The refult of
their opinions, I was happy- to find, coincided with    CHAP.
my own, which was to furvey the coaft of Afia^ commencing at the ifland of Sakhalin, fituatedah 52i N.
lat., in the fouthern part of the fea of Ochotz, and
ending at the Nanking river in 30° N. lat.    My  in-
CD O **
tention was alfo to complete the furve}* of the adjacent iflands, viz. the Kuriles, and thofe of Jefo and-
Japan, left unfinifhed in Captain Cook's laft voyage.
I thought fuch a furvey would be very acceptable1
to geographers; for the limits of both the continents*
of Alia and America would then 'be known as far
as navigation was practicable, and a knowledge of
the Northern Pacific Ocean would be completed.
Another reafon for my undertaking, this voyage was-,
that as yet the aftronomer had met with no opportunity of complying with his inftructions from the
board of longitude, in making obfervations and afcer-
taining unknown places, our line of navigation having, hitherto led us to follow the track of Captain
Vancouver. In any other part of the Northern
Pacific Ocean there appeared little to be done, except
that of fettling the pofition of a few iflands, in them-
felves of little confequencc; but a furvey of the
coaft of Afia and the adjacent iflands, promifed to be
of more  fervice  to the fcience  of geography  than
k-: that
BOOK $hat of any iflands left unexplored in thefe feas.
As this furvey could not probably be completed before
the middle of the year 1798, I propofed fpending my
time in that purfuit till Chriftmas, then to go to Canton for flores and provifions, and to continue the furvey
early in the year.
Paffage from Monterey to Owyhee.—'Arrival at Wohahoo.—At
Wymoa Bay, Atooi.—At Onehow.—Inhuman Murder of two-
Marines by the Natives of the lajl Ifland.—'Departure for Japan*
—Vifited by fome Inhabitants of Infu.-—Anchor in Volcano Bay.
xl)?$ the 20th June we failed from Monterey bay CHA
in California, having left to the care of the commanding officer there, a pacquet of letters containing an
account of our proceedings fince we failed from
Port Jackfon in October 1795.. This pacquet was
addreffed to Evan Nepean, Efq. Secretary to tiie
Admiralty. In our route to the Sandwich Iflands, we
fearched for the iflands of Paxaros or Bird Iftand,
and that of Donna Mafia* Lazara unfuccefsfully, and
on the 6th of July after, a favourable jj&ffage, anchored
in Karakakooa bay.
M'y inducement for flopping here was to afcertahai
the rate of the time-pieees, and to complete taking'
ia^ftir water.till we departed for the coaft of Japan.
k2, Oa»
On our arrival the taboo had exifted for four days,
.and   continued to  the   10th,  when our  tents   were
pitched in their old fituation near the Morai.    We
commenced our different employments for the  completion of our wTater, and the regulation of the timepieces.    The fhip was foon furrounded by numerous
vifitors, who were much rejoiced at our return; and it
being  Sunday,  after divine  fervice was  performed,
our people had permiffion to amufe themfelves  on
fliore.     The following day we  began filling  water,
which was brought in calabafhes by the natives from
the hills  diftant four or five  miles, for which they
were   paid   100   nails   per hogfhead :   this   mode  of
procuring water foon became too expenfive for our.
ftock, and we were unable to complete it.    Owing to
the cloudinefs of the atmofphere, the aftronomer could
feldom fee the fun, and as we were contented with
the altitudes he had already made, we did not wifh
to be detained any longer, and therefore ftruck the
tents on the 22d.    In the mean time the fhip had
been painted and fitted for fea : we failed out of the
bay the fame evening.    We experienced during our
ftay in the bay the fame kind attentions as before,
and were amply fupplied with hogs  and vegetables.
In return we gave them fheets of copper, iron hoops,
and nails.    The  ducks we left had  bred,  and  the CI^P-
cattle left by Captain Vancouver had much increafed *-—•'-yJ
in  number.     The garden feeds had failed through      J^y-
inattention; fome roots  of horfe-radifh were in high
f CD
vegetation, and the cabbages were reported to us
as flourifliing confiderably in the interior, together
with fome other plants; but we did not extend our
walks far enough to fee them. Goats were in great
plenty, and many of the fheep had bred. The Englifh
feaman, John Young, who went with me to the
ifland of Wohahoo, had returned, but Tamaahmaah
and all the chiefs were flill to the leeward. Their
abfence had much increafed the power of a chief
named Naame.tehaw (Tianna's brother), who was in a
flate of revolt, and acquiring by degrees the whole
ifland. He now poffeffed four out of its fix diflricts,
and was approaching near to Karakakooa, where there
was little chance of refiftance, as the people were
averfe to fighting, having no chief in whom they
confided to lead them on : indeed the only perfon
of that rank was Mahooa, who had loft his eye-fight.
He wifhed much to go with us to Wohahow, that
he might explain what had happened to Tamaahmaah,
but the people, having no other chief, would not
permit him.
In the laft fkirmifh witi^rthe rebels an European-
was killed, and their leader vowed vengeance againft
the four who-ftill remained on the fide of Mahooa.
It appeared extraordinary that Tamaahmaah fhould
neglect his own ifland, and leave it expofed to any
ufurper; but it was ftill more lingular, that while a.
chief of Atooi was taking poffeffion of Owyhee, he
was preparing, to invade the very ifland from whence
this ufurper and his brother Tiaana came. Such was
the abfurd conduct of this chief; who was ruining
himfelf and his friends by his ambition, yet, at the
fame time,., afraid to fend any of them to Owyhee, left
they alfo fhould fide with the revolters. A conftant
jealoufy of each other's powrer feems to be univerfal
amongft the South-Sea Iflands. No veffel had been*
in the bay fince we left it: every thing was plentiful.
The people were generally affected with the itch, but
triflingly fo Avith venereal complaints.
It was on the morning of the 25th that we arrived,
at Wohahoo,. and waited in Whytetee bay for Ta»
maahmaah to come on board,. At noon he was with*
us, attended by feveral chiefs, in a large failing boat
from the harbour of Fair Haven. This boat was buihr
by the Europeans living in this ifland, and was in-r
tended for the attack of Atooi; but as that fcheme
6 £oe
-for the prefent was given up, the chiefs determined to    CHAP.
treturh to Owyhee. They had, however, endeavoured
to reach Atooi, but the weather was too boifterous for
their canoes; and the revolt at Owyhee caufed an
^alteration in their plans for the prefent. The ifland,
in refpedt to provifions, was worfe than ever, for all
the hogs had been deftroyed when the inhabitants left
it to go to Atooi; and we could procure no vegetables,
as they had perifhed through neglect of cultivation.
This fcarcity had caufed the deftruction of many of
the unfortunate natives, who, through abfolute want,
had been induced to Ileal whatever came in their way.
For thefe thefts they were murdered by the chiefs in
the moft barbarous manner, and many were burnt
alive. It was computed that Tamaahmaah had loft
fix thoufand of his people by the conqueft of this
ifland, and fubfequent calamities. As the veffel built
in the harbour by the Europeans was not quite complete, Tamaahmaah was very anxious I fhould leave
with him every necefTary article for her equipment,
even to guns and powder. I prefented him with feveral things much more ufeful; and we parted in the
moft friendly manner, with his permiffion to make a
fettlement on any of the iflands I pleafed.
Wohahoo feems moft favourable for a firfti eftablifh-
ment, on account of the harbour.; and in Whytetee
bay, to the weftward of Fair Haven, is another which
is formed in a large bafon when the reefs are. pafled.
Pearls of a good quality and fize are collected in this
bafon. The ifland of Owyhee has alfo twTo or three
harbours, but they can only receive fmall veffels. The
beft of them is in the diftrict of Ahudo, on the eaft fide
of the ifland, of which the entrance is formed by a
reef that, Captain Cook fays, in fome degree endangered his fhip.
25th. In the afternoon we parted with our friends, making
fail for the ifland of Atooi, where I purpofed to complete our water. On the following day we anchored
in Wymoa bay, in 23 fathoms ; the extremes bearing
from S. 60° E. to N. 72° W., off fhore 1| mile.
26th. Early in the morning we commenced taking in our
water ; but the natives ftrongly maintained it was private property, and that we fhould not take any away
unlefs we paid for it with powder. When their re-
folution was reported to me, I fent an armed force to
protect the watering party, and to convince the natives that I was determined to take what they would
not grant voluntarily.    In confequence of this meafure    CHAP.
no further objection was made :   fome of the inhabitants, who affifted us in filling and rolling the calks, m.
were paid for their trouble;   and our watering was
completed in twenty-four hours.
This ifland, fince~ we laft touched here, had been
entirely conquered by a chief, named Teavee, grand-
fon to Perorannee. The depofed king, Timoree,
livod with him, divefted of all power. We faw nothing of them, as they were on the other 'fide of the
ifland, under fome reftrictions of the taboo : but we
underftood, orders had been fent over to prevent the
felling of any article, unlefs we paid for it either by
mufquets or powder ; of courfe we made no pur-
chafes. A fhip from Briftol, called the Ruby, had
bought hogs at this price, and was the only veffel that
had touched here fmee our departure, except the
Lady Wafhington brig.    On the evening of the 27th,
•/ CD O O
an European came on board, who faid, a perfon wo.uld
come the next day from the Chief, with directions to
fupply us with provifions, who had no objection when
he knew it "\\ias our fhip which had arrived. As I did
not bejieve this mans account, I thought it ufelefs to
wait; but defired him to follow us to Onehow with
whatever provifions he could procure.
l In
In the morning we got under way, and made fail
CD CD <J *
for the ifland of Onehow, where we anchored in the
afternoon at Yam bay, in 1.5 fathoms fand}r bottom;
the extremes bearing from N. 29? E. to S. 10° E„
one mile and a half from the fliore. As I intended to
remain here but 48 hours, for the purpofe of procuring
37ams, I fent the boat on fliore after breakfaft, with a
fmall tent, and three armed marines to protect the
articles they might procure, which I thought would be
abundant, as we had purchafed but few on board.
In the evening I landed, and was forry to find fo fmall
a collection : willing, therefore, to make it larger, I
walked to fome of the plantations, but was told there
was a general fcarcity over the ifland. On my return,
I met with a party which had juft come from Atooi,
and with them Tupararo, the man who was directed
to follow us, that he might fupply us with provifions.
I enquired after Hughes, the European. Tupararo
affured me he would join us in the morning, when we
fhould have plenty of yams and potatoes; begging
me at that time to come on fhore, and to bring with
me, as a prefent to him, fome red cloth. I told him,
the boat would be on fhore to bring off the tent, Sec.
when he might come on board to receive his prefents.
The midfhipman went on board at funfet, and I
walked along fhore to the South, where the pinnace
the natives accompanied me; and I walked unmo-
lefted, meeting feveral of the inhabitants, till I reached
the boat, which was further off than I had imagined.
As I had vifited this ifland twice before, and many of
the officers had made fhooting parties in the interior
without any interruption, I had not the leaft fear for
myownfafety; but the unhappy event which took
place the next day will fhew my fortunate efcape.
waited for me about one mile diftant.    Only one of   CHAP.
In the forenoon I received fome yams from an
elderly man, who, it was faid, was father to Teavee :
I alfo received fome provifions from Tupararo, who
left the fhip with a defign, as he faid, of fending me
more. The cutter was ordered to bring whatever he
might have to fend; and the mate was commanded
to go on fliore with two marines properly armed, another man to barter, and the boat's crew with a mtd-
fhipman to remain off at a grapnel. They were fla-
tioned fo as to affift in cafe of need, to be upon their
guard, and, if any thing occurred, to make a fignal.
They had not been gone an hour when I was acquainted by the officer on deck, that moft of the
canoes were gone on fhore. I therefore gave directions for the boat's fignal to be made: it was then
eleven o'clock; we faw them ftrike the tent, and im-
l 2 mediately
book    mediately after heard a firing from the boat.    As no
figfial was made, I thought this firing was intended to
recall thofe who were abfent; but foon after, the fignal
was hoifted for -the pinnace, when I feht an officer
w*ith marines to their afliftance. On the return of
one of the boats, I heard wi$h much concern that the
two marines were killed ; and that the mate, with the
botanift, who went to barter, had efcaped with the
greateft difficul-tjr. The pinnace remained on fhore
to protect the dead bodies from the natives, who
feemed anxious to get them, though tTiey 'were funk
below the furf. As this unhappy tranfaction took
jjyrace without the fmalleft provocation on our part, I
confulted with the -officers on the meafures neceftary
to be purfued. Their advice was, at all events to
prevent the natives from getting the bodies, and for1
X^ CD O ?
us to proceed to Atooi, where, by getting fome ofthe
chiefs in our power, we might oblige them to deliver
up Tupararo, and the other principals in thefe horri$
murders : we alfo thought it neceffary to make fome
example on the fpot. The boats were therefore manned,
and directions given that the marines fhould burn
every houfe, canoe, and plantation, within a mile from
the beach where the boats were, and fhould return
before funfet. As they went we heard fome firing
from the pinnace, which occafioned the boats to land
The natives took care to keep    chap.
without fgfiflance
out of the reach of the fliot; or if they were near, to
drop down on feeing the'flafh, and then to urn away.
The houfes were foon in flames, and fixteen canoes
on the beach were burnt or deftroyed. All this time
the natives affembled in great numbers, armed with
fpears : two of them had the ill-fated marines' mufkets
aud accoutrements. As our people advanced they
fled, and fo prevented any perfonal jj atonement for
their treachery. In the mean while, the bodies were
found in about 9 feet water. At 3 P. M. Mr. Mudge
returned, when the natives immediately ruflied into
the water, fearching for the bodies, and found the
grapnel our people had loft in the attack.
Of all the murders that have been committed in thefe
iflands, this feems as unprovoked as any. The caufe of
it I cannot account for; but3the manner of committing
it was related to me in the following manner, by Mr.
Cowley, the mate, and the botanift, Alexander Bifliop,
who efcaped. The mate, on feeing the fignal, ordered
the boat in, and flruck the tent. The marines unfixed
t£ieir bayonets ; and one of them gave his firelock to
the botanift, while he put the tent in the bag. At this
inftant, while they fufpected no danger, the botanift
was knocked down from behind; and Tupararo run
BOOK    away with the mufket, which the botanift had dropped.
IU^-~—'    The marines were ferved in the fame manner.    After
they recovered themfelves, there was not time to fire
the remaining mufket, as the natives preffed upon
them with the greatefl eagernefs on their retreat to the
furf. The mate reached the boat in fafety, and the
botanift efcaped by flabbing a man in the water who
had feized him ; but the ill-fated marines, incumbered
by their accoutrements, were murdered in the water
by the favages. On examining their bodies, one
appeared to have received feveral flabs with his
own bayonet; the other, who could not fwim, had
got a violent contufion on his head, and feemed
to have been drowned. They were taken up perfectly naked, excepting fome few fragments of their
During the time of the maffacre the boat, by the
midfliipman's account, was within fifty yards of the
fliore, and her crew were pulling in, whilft a part
of them were keeping up a conftant fire with two
mufkets ; neverthelefs they could not fave thefe
poor fellows from the fury of the natives, and only
wounded one man out of twenty who followed them
into the water. I am afraid they were in too great a
confufion, and the boat too far from  the  fhore  to
give the afliftance that was ncceflary on fuch an
unfortunate occafion. Had the boat been placed as
I directed, about one hundred yards from the tent
placed on an eminence, it would have been a certain
refouree; for had the natives rufhed down the bank,
they would have been expofed to its fire. It is
therefore moft probable the boat was farther diftant;
for the mate, though he could fwim very well, called
to them that if they did not pull in more he fhould
be drowned, and when he reached the boat the
grapnel rope was then cut having 25 fathoms out,
and the wind was from the land. He found them in
confufion, and defired the fignal to be made to the
fhip, which the midfliipman had neglected doing.
The natives fired fome mufquets at the pinnace, whofe
balls went, through her; but a fliot or twTo from her
fwivel difperfed the crowd, and all was quiet. It was
extraordinary that the two women, Rahina and Ti-
marroe (whom Captain Vancouver brought from the
N. W. coaft) fhould have come with us from Atooi,
when Tupararo was the hufband of the firft, and
whofe child had been fent on board that we might
fee him. They were much alarmed, and defired to
be fent on fhore; which requeft we complied with,
giving each a letter, begging they would entruft
them to the firft vefiel that arrived there, but upon
book    no account to let them be feen by the Europeans at
We were anxious to reach Atooi before the melancholy news could arrive there, but the wind being
Eaft was directly oppofite to our courfe. This was
unlucky, for we could not fuppofe thofe at Atooi who
were privy to the tranfaction, would truft themfelves
on board, it being our opinion that the fcheme was
concerted at that ifland, and Hughes the European
had knowledge of it by his not coming with Tupa-
CD */ \-r JL
raro. I was therefore obliged to give up the idea
for the prefent, intending to take the chance of
a favourable wind, fhould it have happened in a
few days, and in the meanwhile to fettle the fituation
of Bird and Montague Iflands. We therefore
made fail for that purpofe, fleering W. by S. The
ifland of Orehoua is in lat. 22° 02' N.; long. 199°
50' E. "        'ziW^:
At 6 P. M. we faw a fmall ifland bearing S. 65° W.
about twelve leagues. At 10 we hauled our wind,
and remained plying under our topfails till day-ligh-fc
when the ifland bore S. 62° W. feven or eight
leagues. We made fail in that direction, at noon
we pa-fiecl it  within  two  miles, whelf* it bore from
2 S. 23°
Auguft i ft.
As the wind kept invariably fixed to the eaft ward >
I found there was no profpcct of again feeing Atqoi,
without too great a delay ; I therefore gave up the
idea, and made failxto the Weftward, meaning to
keep in the parallel of 28° 30' N.; a tract we had no
reafon to imagine had ever been croffed before, and
which might lead us to fome new difcoveries. As we
had not found the ifland of Donna Maria Lagara to
the Eaft, I alfo thought it probable we reught ftill -fall
m in
S. 23° E. to S. 41° E., and we had 25 fathoms fandy    CHAP.
• .    . iv.
bottom.    It is not more than a mile in extent in any
direction, rifing abruptly to a confiderable elevation
at each extreme, and low in the middle.    It appeared
inacceflible to boats, and inhabited only by various
fea-birds, who made their nefts in its perpendicular
This ifland was feen in 1789> and is well defcribed
and placed by Captain Douglas. The charts make
two iflands near this fituation; we could only fee
one with a clear horizon.    Bird Ifland we place in
23° 3' 50" N.; long. 197° 54' E. by No. 1.
At 6 P. M.  the ifland bore S. 32° E. nine or ten      2d.
leagues : many birds in fight.
W    /A
BOOK    in with it during our run.    We faw no birds this day,
|—\—'   or any indication of land.
8th. In the forenoon a turtle was feen, and many tropic
birds continued the whole day about the fhip.
At 2oh. 45 m. I made the long, mean of 3 fets Q
weft of D
Mr. Chapman mean of 5 fets
Mr. Crofley mean of 4 do.
N° 1. fame time -
190° 50' 30" E".
191°   3' 36" E.
1900 52' 30" E.
As we had confumed the frefh provifions procured
at Owyhee, our people were ferved with fait meat,
and a proportion of four-krout and portable foup>
boiled with peafe. On opening the cafk we found
our muftard-feed entirely fpoilt, the air having got
into it.
a 7th. Several fharks  about the  fhip.     We   hoifted   a
boat out to try if there was any current, but could,
find none.
aa<j. At 2 P. M. we fleered more to the North, paffihg^
about 30 leagues to the N. of Captain Gierke's track
in this fituation. A bird like a plover, with flying fifh
and tropic birds, were feen in the forenoon.
Being in the parallel of latitude of an ifland called
Rica de Plata, but to the Eaft 2° of its fuppofed
fituation, we fleered W. by S. to fall in with it.
The weather was cooler than we had experienced
for fome time, though we had never found the heat
oppreflive, as the fmoothnefs of the fea enabled us
to carry our ports up both day and night. We ought
to have feen this ifland at noon had it been rightly
placed in Captain Cook's chart, notwithftanding
we had been fet 16 to the South of our eftimation
by a current.
As we had run 7° to the Weft of the fituation da
which Rica de Plata is placed, without obferving the
leaft indication of the vicinity of land, we altered,
at 7 P. M., our courfe to the Weft. A current feemed
to have fet us flrongly to the N. E. thefe 24 hours.
On an examination of the ftore-rooms, we found
feveral flops and fome of our new fails damaged. The
conftant heat had occafioned a dampnefs in every part
of the fhip, and the humidity of the air increafed it.
After burning fires in the fore cockpit, we got rid of^
the foul air by the extractor. The thermometer generally in the cockpit flood at 85° and 87°. A current
this day to the N. W.
BOOK        We kept our wind to the weftward, that we teS^ht
make fure of the tSortli part of Japan.
5th* PafTed feveral trees floating on the water, and fper
maceti whales of a large fize.
We kept our wind to the weftward, in hopes of feeing the land, fhould the haze have cleared away. The
fudden faifi of the barometer foretold a change of
weather. At 5 the breeze increafed, and we took in
three reefs in the topfails, getting the top-gallant yards
down. At 6 the wind veered to South, with a hard
gale, when we clofe-reefed the topfails, and hauled up
the mainfail to found. Before we could try for foundings, the forefail and fore-topmaft ftayfail were fplit;
and the fqualls increafing in violence, we furled the
mainfail, during which time the fore-topfail blew fairly
away from the roping. The main-topfail fliared the
fame fate, by a fudden fhifting of the wind from S. to
N. W. This was our fecond beft fail, and only bent
the day before. The fliip's careen was fo great, and
the wind blew fo tremendoufly, that we were afraid
of lofing our malls ; and having no fail to fet, we
were left entirely to the mercy of the weather, in the.
hollow of the fea. The waves went over us with fuch
force, that we could not ftand their violence : luckily
6. - we
we experienced no other misfortune than the total lofs    CHAP.
... . IV-
of our fails, which in our fituation was much to be    <—--"-—t
regretted. In no inftance have I experienced fo un- September.
common a gale, for the hour it lafted, though unattended with lightning, thunder, or rain. At 8 P. M.
it gradually abated to a fteady breeze from the N. W.
quarter, and the night was fine. At day-light -we
defcried the land of Japan, bearing from W. by N. to
S. W., feven or eight leagues diftant; and at noon we
obferved in 39° 55' N.,  with the following bearings :
Extremes from N. 69° W: to S. 46° W.; an inlet with
an ifland in its entrance, fuppofed to be Nambu,
S. 52° W., off fliore five or fix leagues.    Our fituation
' CD.
will be in the long, of 142° 50' E., by Captain King's
chart of this coaft, which, is nearly the mean of the
watches. Our d-iftance from the land prevented any
further remarks ; but we perceived by the obfervation,,
and the alteration of ,our fituation,. that a current fet
us ftrongly to the South..
We employed ourfelves in fitting up the riggih*
and repairing our other defects occafioned by the late
hurricane. The extremes at 6 h.. bore from N 40° W.
to S. 40° W., five or fix leagues off fhore.. We frequently tried for foundings with 120 fathoms of line,
during the nighty without ever reaching.the bottom.
8th*. ■
The extremes at noon bore from N. 42° W. to S. 16*
W.; the entrance to Port Nambu S. 35° W., three or
SepVember. four leagues. Inftead of being to the N. N. W. thirty
miles, as we expected by our account, we found our-
felves more to the S. W. than we were yefterday ; the
current fettiug along the fliore in that direction.
At 4 h. the wind veering to the S. E. we made fail
to the northward. Port Nambu ftill preferved the
fame bearing, about feven or eight miles diftant. It
appeared extenfive and capacious ; but the gloominefs
of the weather prevented our feeing any thing dif-
tinctly. The barometer alfo falling, made us appre-
henfive of bad weather. At 6§ the extremes of Japan
bore N. 50° W., fix or eight leagues. The wind fud-
denly fhifted, and foon increafed to a frefh gale, with
cool -weather. At 1.7h. 30m., we could juft difcern the
land of Japan bearing S. 30° W., ten or twelve
The fituation of Cape Nambu, by Captain King's
■chart, is 39° 47' N. lat., and 142° 30' E. long., from
•Whence I take a new departure. The watch, N° 1,
makes it 58' more to the Weft. The current fet us to
the S. W. about 15 miles.
At 15 h. we faw land bearing North -r and at day-    C H AP.
light it bore from  N. 5   W.  to N. 40° W.,. about   -——'
five leagues.    The North point was low ;  but to the   September
Southward,  it was of confiderable  elevation.     The      I0
fhores were bold and rocky.    The land at noon bore
from N. 12° W. to N. 40° W, about fix leagues.    The
current fet us to the S-. W. by the land, from which we
gradually increafed our diftance.    In the afternoon
we had tried and found the current run to the South,
at the rate of 3 miles per hour.    The whole day we
tried for foundings, with 100 fathoms offline,
In the evening a light air from the weftward carried us towards the land; at midnight it veered to
N. N. E.; and at day-light we were near the S..E.
point of the land. At20h. the extremes bore from
N. 23° E. to N. 43° W.; a rocky point N. 30° E.,
two or three miles; and we had 22 fathoms, fmall
ftones and fand. After paffing this point we fleered
N. 50° W., which was nearly the direction of this fide
of the land- The point was low and flat, and feveral
recks above water projected from it to feaward ; two
of them refemble afles ears-:: they bear N. 15° E. and
S. 15° W., from the N. E..fide of the land.. Within
them, to the North, the coaft forms a fmall bay.
From the point the low land continues two or three
book    leagues  to a fandy beach,  when the  country rifes
gradually/from the fhore to a great height, in various
I *70O*
September,  ridges, clothed with wood, prefenting a pleating pro-
fpect.    Several houfes were fcattered along the fliore,
tand boats upon the beach.    We alfo remarked feveral
people fifhing.    At noon the Point bore S. 73° E.,
about three leagues : water at 30 fathoms.
12th. In the afternoon we were vifited by three fifhing
boats. The people in them were of a light copper
colour, with dark hair, very thick and cut fhort behind. All of them had long beards, and expreffive
good-natured countenances. They were of a middling
ftature, and clothed in gowns woven from the barks of
trees, and edged at the cuffs and collars with blue
linen. A piece of cloth was tied round their waifts,
iimilar to the Maros at Owyhee. They wore filver earrings ; and each of them had a knife in a fheath hanging from their middles. They did not come on board
the fhip till they had previomfly faluted us in a folemn
refpectful manner, agreeable to the Oriental courtefy
of falams. We prefented them wtith beads and trinkets, with which they feemed much pleafed ; but we
could not underftand each other. I fhould imagine,
from their behaviour, that they had never feen a fhip
before, as they feemed alarmed, and fat down clofe
to the gangway, where they entered without uttering a   chap
word.    We enquired of them, ifsthe ifland was called
Matfinai, wlhich tbey>«iMverfalJy pohited to be to the September,
Weft; and, as we could gather from their pronunciation, called their own laa$ Infu *.    Having remained
"tefl-Sffisfs the famous land of Jefo, only known to Europeans before
tlfis and La Perotrfe's voyage, by the journals of the Caftricom and
Brefkes. The following extract is quoted from Rheinhpld Fofter's voyages to the North. J* In 1643, ^e Dutch Eaft Company gave orders for
two fhips to be fent from India to the North, in order to explore the route •
from Japan northward, and even to go as far as to North America, and
to feek for the paffage there. In confequence of thefe orders, the two
IMps fet fail together from the harbour of the ifland of Ternate : their
names were the Cajlricom, commanded by Captain Martin Herizoom
Van Vriez, and the Brejkes, under tiie command of Captain Hendrick
Corn^Kus Shaep. On the 14th of May, the'two fhips were feparated by
a 'ftorm, at the diftance of 56 leagues from Jeddo, the capital of Japan }
and both faw the land of Jefo. The Brelkesfailed through the ftraits of
Sangaar, in 41 ° 50' N. lat., and in long. 1640 18' Eaft of TenerifFe, 1. e.
t4§° o' Eall of Greenwich. They faw land again in 430 4' latitude. In
440 4' lat. fokie boats came off from fhore to the fhip. In lat. 430 45'
they:cfe£cried land again, as alfo in the lat. of 440 xi', and long. 1670 21 'E.
In,450 12' N. and i6g° 36' E.,"the land appeared ata diftance like a great
number of iflands; but on coming nearer, it appeared one continued tract
of country. In lat. 46° 15' and 1720 i<5' E., as alfo in long. 1720 53' E.,
they had fighfc of fome high mountains : they alfo faw ftill more land in
lat. 470 8' N. and 173.° 53' E. *We fee from, this relation, as well as
from'that of the Caftr'ebm, that the land of Jefo contains in fact a quan-
N tity
with us an hour they took their leave, faluting us in the
fame ceremonious way as before, till they were at fome
diftance. Their boats, like canoes, were hollowed out
of a tree, with upper ftreaks fewed on round them, in-
creafing their width aloft, and fpreading fore and aft,
tity of iflands, at prefent known to the Ruffians under the name of the
Kuriles. The Dutch imagined they had difcerned in Jefo a large ex-
tenfive country ; and in the lateft accounts we have from the Ruffians,
this defcription is likewife given of the land of Matzmai, in which the
Dutch mention there is a place named Acquis, which the Ruffians call
•• The ftrait between Matzmai and Japan is about 60 verfts, or 34 geographical miles broad, and has a very ftrong current, as have almoft all
the ftraits between the Kurile iflands.
" This country feems to. have got the name of Jefo or Yefo, from the
hairinefs of its inhabitants. Efo in Dutch has the fame fignification
as Efau."
On this extract the following obfervations may be made:
It does not feem to be the fact that the Brefkes ever pafled the Straits of
Sangaar, as fhe was eaft away on the north part of Japan attempting it.
Jefo or Infu, inftead of being parcelled out into fmall iflands, is one
connected land, divided from Japan by the Straits of Sangaar, and from
the ifland Sagaleen to the North by the ftraits of La Peroufe.
The Kuriles, inftead of being comprehended under Jefo, are diftindt
iflands, extending from the N.E. part of Jefo to Kamfhatfcha.
In Les Decouvertes faites par les Rufles by Muller, torn, i, page 362,
is the journal of the Breikes, publifhed by Witzer. A ftriking fimilarity
may be obferved in the defcription it gives of Jefo, and in that of the
prefent publication : it fays— •     P Le
being of the fame fhiape both ends.    They were pulled    chap.
in the fame manner the paflage boats at Plymouth
are, one perfon making ufe of a pair of fkullers.   They  September.
did not make ufe of their oars together,  but firft'with<
one hand, then with the other: this mode prevented
8 Le vaifleau le Brefkes avoit ete envoye l'an 1645 avec la Cajlricom
a la decouverte de la Tartaric Pres de la cote orientale du Japon'
ils furent fepares par la tempete, et le Breikes decouvrit de fon cote auffi
la terre de Jefo. Ce fut a'uonois de Juin qu'il fit voile par le detroit qui
fenare la terre de Jefo du Jaoon a 410 50' de latitude & a 1640 48' long.
La pointe qu'on decouvrit la premiere fe faifoit remarquer par 8 au 1 o
rochers femblables a. des voiles, et dela s'etendoit nne chaine d'ecueils
jufqu'a. mille en mer. On vit la. des petits batimens. Les rameurs avoient
une rame a chaque main qu'ils tiroient tour a tour. Ils alloient extreme?
ment vite. Ce peuple paroiflbit avoir d'intelligence. Leurs harbes etoient
longues, noires, & fortjsg. - Ils avoient le teint brun & la tete rase, il la re-
ferve d'une toufe de cheveux de deux doigts de large qui reftoit fur le
devant de la tete. On remarque qu'ils joignoient les mains par deffus Ia
tete en figne de reconnoiflance. Ils etoient vetus de peaux d'ours, et
armes d'arcs et des fleches. De la le vaifleau angla affez avant a. l'Eft. Les
matelots prirent beaucoup des cabeliaux. A la hauteur de 430 4' ils
virent terre. A 440 4' ils furent abordes par des barques: ceux qui les
montoient etoient d'une bonne taille, robuftes, et montroient de l'intelli-
gence. Les femmes qui les accompagnoient avoient le teint brun, les levres
et les mains peintes en bleu, les cheveux coupes tout a l'entour de la tete,
a trois doigts egviron au deflbus de l'oreille. On les auroit pris pour les
jeunes hommes. L'eau de vie etoit fort de leur gout a tous. Quelques-
uns portoient auffi des habits a la Japonnoife.   D'autres avoient des croix
n 2 fur
their going in a ftrait line, yet they went very faft.
During the night we plied to the weftward. The
S. E. Point at noon bore N. 65° E., and the other ex-.
treme N. 28° W., eight or ten leagues.
We flood within two miles of the fhore, and tacked
in 42 fathoms; the extremes bearing N. 6l° W. to
S. 62° E. Two large boats wrere riding at anchor;
they had each one maft, rigged a midfhip's, on which
they made ufe of a fquare fail of cloth or canvafs :
they were fimilar to a fmall Chinefe junk in fhape,
fur le dos. Outre Tare et la fleche ils avoient encore des fabres faits
comme ceux du Japon, dont la poignee etoit incruftee d'or, la garde en-
touree d'un bord d'argent, et le fourreau ouvrage a ramage. Leurs bau-
driers etoient brodes en argent. Ils portoient aux oreilles des anneaux, et
des pendans de verotterie de Nurembourg. Ils avoient avec eux des peaux
de chiens de mer et de caft!ors, et quelques etoffes des Indes. Leur bateaux etoient des troncs d'arbres creufes, et fans ancV A 430 45' de latitude on vit encore terre, mais on n'y defcendit point. Cette eft fituee 1200
plus a 1'Eft' que la pointe orientale du Japon, qui eft a 3 8° 4'. Difference
en latitude 90 38'. Direction, Nord Eft quart d'Eft, & Sud Oueft quart
Spanberg, the Ruffian navigator, landed, he fays, in a great'ifiand from
430 to 500 latv, fpeaks-oPthe uncommon hairinefs of the natives, and of
-their wearing rings of filvervift*,t-heir ears. In tfie inftructrons given to La
Peroufe, he is defired to confute the* various accounts for the land of Jefo
collected by Phillip Buaghc in his Confideratiohs geographiques et phyfi^
ques.    P-Sge- 75.
bufrwe were not near enough to obferve them par- chap.
ticuterly.    At - dfey-ligfet we faw more land, bearing j—-—'
from N. 15° W. to N. 50°W.; and a very confpicuous September.
headvland bore S. 70° W., apparently unconnected
w<*th e&eh other.   We had no fo'umfings with all our
At I paft 6 we tacked in 42 fathoms, within four 14th.
or* five miles of the land, which bore from N. 22° W.
to N. 70° E., and from N. 35° W. to N. 75° W.;' the
larid to the North apparently joined by the lownefs of
the fliores. During the night we kept plying under
eafy fail, having foundings from 4cFto 56 fathoms.
At d ay-light'fthe land of'Tnfu bore from N. 7° W^ to
S. 78° E., and the weftern fliore N. 22o W. to N. 87° .
W., Bluff Point S. 38a W. : we were nearly in''the
centre ofthe bay, the fli ores'being difiant fiVe leagues
each Way. rrom the rigging we could jinx difcern
the lowland forming the head ofthe bay to the North.
We fleered to the Weft; and at noon a point of land
made like an iflarid S. 80° W., Bluff Point S. 18° W.,
feven or eight leagues. Extreme of Infu Eaft, and a
volcanic motihtain S. 63°''W.
At 6 P. M. we weathered the land] fet atrrioon S. 8°      15th.
W.; arid at 9 P.M. wefwere* #elftfji' with the volcano.
1 In
BOOK In the moving we found ourfelves in a fpacious bay,
•—-^—~> the volcanic mountain bearing S. 10° E., and the ap-
September. parent ifle N. 64° E. five leagues; the extreme towards the Bluff Point S. 48° E. A great .quantity of
fmoke iffued from the north fide of the mountain,
from which we were diftant three or four miles. To
the weftward were feveral houfes fcattered along
fhore ; and before noon feveral of the inhabitants
paid us a vifit. They were the fame kind of men we
had before feen, befides fome who refembled the
Chinefe, excepting in their hair, which was long on
the /ides, and tied up behind, much greafed with oil,
while the crown and forehead were fhaved. They had
all a pipe and tobacco box, and feemed much pleafed
with the internal part of the fhip; but a breeze fpring-
ing up they foon left us, and we flood over to the
north fide of the bay, with a gentle wind from the
fea. At noon the apparent ifland bore N. 87° E.;
and the extremes towards the Bluff Point S. 50° E.,
diftant from the volcanic mountain about four leagues.
Our watches this day differed fo confiderably, that we
could place no dependence upon them. Having run
N. E. 14 miles, we were abreaft of a village : a junk
was at anchor off it, in the entrance of a fmall opening. A reef of rocks extended to the N. W.: we
tacked in 10 fathoms to avoid them; and fending a
boat ahead, bore up to the weftward for a bay that
promifed good anchorage.    At 4 h. we came to in
7 fathoms water, muddy bottom, about f of a mile  September.
from the fhore,  and oppofite  an  extenfive village.
The outer part of the reef bore South, and the volcano
5° to the Weft of it, about 10 leagues diftant.
We had feveral vifitors from the village, and foon
after a Japanefe, who immediately fent away our Infu
friends. We attempted to converfe with our new
acquaintance, but to no purpofe : before dark he
left us.
 II l{i
III Jul    ' 1
j 6th.
Remarks on the Country and Inhabitants round Volcano Bay.—
Courtefy of the Japanefe."—Defcription of the Harbour of En~
dermo.—Obfervations on the Natives—their Drefs—Ornaments—
Habitations—Food—Boats—- Articles of Commerce—Agriculture.—
Remarks on the Soil—Ifraxs—(Plants—Birds—Fifh—Quadrupeds.
'—Aflronort\i^.{Obfervations.—Range along the Coqfl of Infu.—
Spanberg's Ifland.
A.T funrife the boats were fent in iearch of water,
which was found oppofite our fituation ; and the Japanefe who attended, fignified it was very good.
Several Of the natives accompanied us ; but the
jealoufy of this man would not let them approach
within a certain diftance. They fpread mats ^>n the
beach, while we were filling water; and entered into
converfation with us, fmoking fmall pipes of tobacco
at the fame time. Their inquiries feemed to allude to
our departure, and to fhew their anxiety for our
going away. On our proceeding towards the village
they ftrongly objected; and to avoid any difference,
we gave up the point.
* *
We rowed along the beach to the weftward about    CHAP.
. . v.
two miles;   the   coUfltry   gradually  rofe  in   Hoping    *-——-
hills, covered with verdure and inte-Hfperfed with September;
wood. We came to a fine ftream of water*near fome
houfes; on our landing, the natives with great humility brought us mats to fit upon, and fortunately
there was no Jarjanefe prefent to interrupt their
civility. This part of the coaft being more convenient for Ifakihgnin water and wood, I determined to
CD i
move the fhfep towards it; and after obfervifig the
fun's meridional altitude, we returned on board.
During ray abfence feveral Japanefe had arrived at
the village with horfes carrying; merchandize; in the
O */ CD *
afternoon they came on board, \PitIi fome degree of
ceremony, to pay us a vifit. They were clothed
in dark-coj&u'red cottons, with filk^Mhes round their
waifls; and each of them wore two fabres richly
ornamented with gold and filver, whofe fcabbarere
t^re highly japanned : their fandals were of ftraW
aa-d; wood matted. They alfo carried their pipeH
and fans with them. They were very particular in
enquiring what nation we belonged to, and what our
ii*teri$©«s we're in coming among them ; ahd as mey
^elUed to comp^eftend our aritwers they imme-
di&Wjtenoted tlfemy JrmWri^like the Chirfefe, Iriffian
fo-fe-fbttthat pfiir^ofe.    After fmoa&rng out theifpipes,
o and
book and taking fome refrefliment they returned on fhore^
In the. evening a junk anchored near us: liie was
laden with fea-
the fame night.
September, laden with  fea-weed  (fucus faccharinus), and failed
15th. This morning we hauled the feine with indifferent
fuccefs, and were alfo employed in wooding and
watering* I vifited the opening we -had perceived
coming in, which proved to be a fmall harbour
having within it 3 fathoms, and the entrance to it
CD <
was between fome rocks above water. It is a very
convenient port for fmall veffels, and furrounded with
houfes; one of a larger kind was inhabited by fome
Japanefe, with a garden producing French beans and
turnip raddifhes* On our return we landed at the
large village, and met our Japanefe acquaintance,
who appeared very uneafy in feeing us fo near
their habitations, and flrongly preffe.d us to return
to the fhip: we however walked to the watering
place, where we embarked to their great fatisfac-
jgth. In the morning  we  moored, the fhip nearer the
watering place, and for the firft time faw fome
women. They were fifhing with the men and affifting
them in rowing.   Their hair was cut very fhort,. clofe
..l>.v...iv....i.. Strand..
Fubti/hed Jfayj"fj6o4 by Cadett, SzJ/ayiej Strand.
round their heads; their lips were punctured with a CHAP.
blue   colour,   and  their   clothing   feemed   in   every I—<k—•'
refpect fimilar to the men's. September.
Through the whole day we were employed in wooding l9th°
and watering.
In the morning we proceeded to examine the north-
weft fide of the bay. After rowing three nfifes we
came to a fmall village fituated at the mouth of
a rivulet; this for fome diftance we traced along the
beach. It appeared to flow from the North, and we
imagined its fource to be at a confiderable diftance,
from the depth of the water and the rapidity of the
ftream. The country through which it meandered
prefented a \ery beautiful autumnal profpect; the hills
were clothed with verdure, which was varied with
clumps of trees difpofed in the manner of an Englifh
park, and appearing as if arranged by the hand of
art The inhabitants of this fmall village received
us with great civility, but in no part did we fee any
We returned on board in the afternoon again ft a
ftrong wind from the S. E. quarter; occafioning
a large fwell, and increafing in the night.
0 2
2 2d.
The fame wind and weather continued, and the
furf on the beach was fo high we could not get off
either wood or water. • 4 ■
The furf on the beach remained fo high, that
our parties could not land till Saturday; when the
winds both from fea and land became moderate, and
enabled us to complete our taking in wood an4r water.
The natives conflantly attended our people on fhore,
bartering grapes for buttons; and fomptimes we
were able to perfuade the fifhermen as they palled
by the fhip, to fell us fome fifh ; but this we could but
feldom obtain.
25th- The mafter was fent to examine the fliore between
the fhip and the apparent ifland. In the morning we
were vifited by a new party of Japanefe, fuper^or-
to the others in drefs, and equally fo in behavioupj
We derived not only pleafurc, but information alfo,
from their fociety. They fliewed us a chart of Ihe
world, which appeared to have been conftructed in
Iluftia;   and   having  a   book  with   them   in   which
were  drawn   the   arms  of different   countries,   they
m   immediately   pointed   out   thofe   of Great   Britain,
to which country they fuppofed us to belong,    They
had alfo a Ruffian alphabet, and. by what I could
ftn-derftarid,   one   o^ them  had  been  at Peterfburg,    chap.
We had on board a feaman of that country, who con-    &&&—-
veiled with them in his native language.    They per-   September.
mitted me to 'copy a la-fge chart of the iflands to ^-.i
the North of Japan, and promifed me to bring one of
their o^n doing the next day.    After mutual civilities
they went on fhore.     The   mailer  returned in the
evening, having found a very good harbour in the N. E.
corner of the bay, formed by the apparent ifland, which
he difcovered to be a peninfula.
Pine weather enabled us to get every thing from
the fhore, and we prepared for going to fea. Our
Japa-nefe friends joined our party at dinner, and
prefented me with a chart of theft* own doing; in
return I gave them Captain Cook's general
chart of the world, which gratified them extremely.
Thev were curious in making remarks on wK&tever
they faw; and what they could not comprehend,they
immediately reprefented in India ink draw^frgs. They
feemed higlfly pleafed to hear that we intended to depart fliortly. p*
The aftronomer on this day completed his obfervations   for   the   regulation   of   the   time-pieces,
-28 th.
in   every   refpect   the    fhip    was    ready    for
At day-light we got under way, and with the fea-
wind plied to the fouth-eaftward. Latitude at noon
was 42° 18' 20" N.; the extreme, forming the. fouth
entrance of the harbour, bore N. 89° E. four leagues ;
and the fouthern volcano S. 2° W.; northern volcano
N. 50° E. Before dark we came to anchor in 11
fathoms, muddjr bottom, about two miles off the entrance of the harbour. The fea being open from
S. 22° E. to S. 27° E.; the fouthern volcano S. 25* W.;
a fmall ifland on with a village S. 37° E.; the head of
the harbour E. S. E., one mile off the north fliore.
Throughout the night it blew ftrong from the S. E.
I examined tbe harbour: it affords good fhelter
from all winds, bringing the bluff on the extreme part
ofthe ifthmus (which forms the ftarboard point coming in) to bear N. W. In this fituation we found
four or five fathoms; and the larboard entry point on
the north fhore was on with the bluff. In running
for the harbour, the ifland mull be kept open with the
ftarboard entry .point till within I a mile of a fmall
1 iflet
iflet (which is only fo at half tide), and then you muft    CHAP.
fleer in to the S. W. where your water will, be fhoaled,;  ;—%—\
and any birth taken }tou may prefer.    Tiie foundings  September.
gradually decreafe from 10 to 2 fathoms,; foft bottom.
A' few houfes are fcattered on the  fouth fide of the
harbour ; and towards the head the fhores are low and
flat, fo much fo as to prevent boats landing within one
hundred yards.    In all other parts wood and  water
are procured ydth the utmoft convenience.
This morning Hans Oldfon, feaman, died. He was
a Dane^by birth ; and his death unhappily occafioned
by a tree falling upon him. After lingering in torments for fome days, a mortification took place; and.
we had the misfortune of lofing a very willing and
well-behaved man. He was buried in the fmall ifland,
to which, in confequence of the event,, I gave his
name.. r>J6j
The harbour is called Endermo by the natives.
It is fituated on the N. E. corner of the bay, formed.
by the apparent ifland which is an extenfive peninfula
of a circular figure.
latitude of the entrance,       420 19' 29" N.
Longitude, -       -        1410   7' 36" E.
High water, full and change of the moon, 5 h. 30'
apparent time ; rife and fall 6 feet.
The entrance into this extenfive bay is formed by
the land, "making the harbour, which the natives call
Endermo, and the fouth point of entrance, which they
named Efarmi. They bear from each other N. 17°
W. and S. 17° E. eleven leagues. There are no lefs
than three volcanoes in the bay, which induced me
to call it by that name. There are 50 fathoms
of water in trie centre, and the foundings gradually
decreafe on the approach to eifciaer fliore : b^t'-'-^rfef
fketch to which I refer will beft explain, though it
has no pretenfioos to any great accuracy.
During our flay, at tbe period of the equinoxes, we
experienced generally very fine weather, with gentle
land and fea winds from the N. W. and S. E., and no
fwell to prevent a fhip riding in fafety even in the
bay ; and the harbour of Endermo is perfectly Ihel-
teresi*from all bad weather. *;^
I have feen few lands that bear a finer afpect tharl*
the northern fide of Volcano  bay.    It prefents  an
agreeable diverfity of rifing grounds, and a moft pleaf-
feg^vaiaety of deciduous trees fhedding at this time    chap.
a      r <.,. v.
their fummer foliage. i—r—j
The natives feemed to anfwer to the defcription
given by Spanbe'rg, the Ruffian navigator, who vifited
an ifland in 43° 50' N. The men in general were of a
fliort flature, their legs inclining to bend outwards,
and their arms rather fliort in proportion to their
bodies. Their beards were thick and large, covering
the greater! part of the face, and inclining to curl.
The hair of the head was very bufliy, wjbich they cut
fliort before on the forehead, and below the ears :,
behind it was cut ftrait. Their bodies were almoft
univerfally covered with long black hair;  and even
•/ CD t *
in fome young children we obferved the fame appearance. The women have their hair cut fliort
round their heads, but much longer than the men:
the back of their hands and forehead were tatooed, as
well as round the mouth. They ha^j firings of giafs
Iggads round their necks, and other ornyapients. The
dref&fOf th$ men confifls of a loofeiigown, made of the
inner bark of the lime tree ; it reaches down to their
knees, and is fattened round the middle by a belt, in
.which they carry a tobacco-box, pipe, and knife.
Some of them had filver rings in th#ir ears, with beads
p hanging ■
Their drefs is only worn in cold
hanging from them
CD        CD *•■
weather, which they flip off and on as may be moft
September, convenient: in the hot feafon they only wear a piece
of linen round their ^aifts. The female drefs differs
little from that of the men, except that thenr/gowns
reach to the middle of their legs : fome of them were
formed of feal or deer fkins, adorned with pieces of
blue cloth. The features of the women were pleafing,
though much disfigured by the mode of cutting their
hair. Their behaviour was modeft, referved, and becoming their fex." The children went entirely naked.
The men faluted us in the moft humble manner, fitting down crofs-legged, ftroaking their beards after
ftretching forth their hands, and bowing nearly to
the ground.
Their houfes were built of wood, and the walls
formed of reeds, as well as the thatch. In the centre
was the fire-place, and fmall openings at each end of
the roof to carry off the fmoke. Over the fire-place
copper fauce-pans for cooking were fufpended, and- a
flight fcaffolding for drying fifh and grain. A platform was raifed above the ground, covered with fkins
and mats, on which they flept. Their dwellings were
generally of an oblong form.
Their food confifts chiefly of dried fifh, boiled with    CHAP.
fea-weed, and mixed with a little oil made from the    !—v—•
liver of the fun-fifli.    They alfo feed upon feveral kinds   September*
of fruits and vegetables, fuch as grapes, winter berries,
the fruit of the bramble, and others, with millet feed,
&c.     At the villages   they  kept   young bears  and
eagles in cages, probably for food, as we could not
prevail upon them to part with any.    Indeed their
poverty feemed to allow little in the way of barter;
for even fifh we could feldom procure, though it was
their  conftant   employment  to   catch  them.     Wild
grapes were plentiful, and a fpecies of garlic or chives.
Their  boats  were  built   chiefly   of fir,  with  upper
ftreaks, increafing their width aloft, and continuing
fore and aft,  making them fliarp at each end.    They
were fewed together with" twilled  willows,   and the
feams filled up with mofs.    In pulling they made ufe
of fkullers ; but inftead of pulling them together, they
moved one  after  the other,   which prevented  them
from going in a ftrait line.    Their nets were made of
the twilled bark of the lime tree, dyed with oak bark.
Their hooks, harpoons,  Sec. were procured from the
Japanefe.    The repairing of their boats feems their
chief employment, added to their collecting and drying the fea-weed, of which a large quantity is exported
p 2 to
to Japan, as a valuable article  of food,    Birch bark
is alfo an article of commerce.
The women are employed in weaving cloth for
garments, and othser necefl-ary domeflic work. The
finoking tjobacco is a favourite amufement with both
Thefe people of Infu wrere tributary, and in great
fubjection to the Japanefe, who prevented them as
much as they could from having any intercourfe with
us; for whenever they appeared, the Japanefe duove
them away. They appeared a moft harmlefe inoffen-
five race of men ; and we regretted much the jealoufy
of the Japanefe, which entirely prevented us from
acquiring the information we wifhed concerning their
e-uftoms and manners. They fpeak in a flow timid
manner; and their language contains many Japanefe
words. There were fome trifling plantations of Indian
corn and millet, but few other figns of cultivation.
This we the more wondered at, as their diet feemed
very fcanty and precarious ; and the ground produced
abundance of vegetables, as we obferved in the gardens belonging to the Japanefe.
jWe faw no other animals but hotfes-, dogs, deer, CHA*,
bears, foxes, and babbits? but from the drefs of the *£***—
natives, it would appear that the ifland is not deficient Septembfeft
in various kinds of peltry.
The foil is good, and the produce luxuriant. The
woods produce elm, oak, afli, maypole, birch, beach,
lime, yew, filver fir, pines, poplars, hornbeam, and
the faffafras tree, with a great variety of flirubs.
There are few plants that grow fpontanCoufly in England which are not to be found here.
Birds were few in number, fuch as eagles, crows,
a yellow bird of the linnet kind, doves, wild geefe,
ducks, fhags, herons, fand-pipers, fea-gulls, &c. The
fifh were more numerous, fuch as whales, turtle, por-
poifes, cod, fword fifh, fun and flar fifh, and many
fpecies of cruftaceous fifh.
The aftronomer made the following obfervations on
fhore, oppofite the anchorage, for the longitude,,
&c. &c.
Mean of obferved latitudes,              - 42°33'n"N.
Longitude deduced from many obfervations, 1400 50' 32" E.
Variation on fhore by 3 compafles,          - o° 16' 30" W.
Ditto on board by all the compafles         - i° 27' 20" E.
.BOOK High water at the full and change of the moon at
s—-*-—' 4 h. 30' apparent time ; rife and fall between four and
September, five feet.    We experienced no tide at anchor.
1 ft.
Frefh breezes and fqually weather. In the afternoon, the wind being fteady and blowing ftrong, we
got under way, carrying two. reefs in the topfails, and
made fail for Point Efarme. At 5 h. 7' the fouth
point of Endomo harbour bore Eaft three miles, and
at 6 h. 30' it bore N. N. W., the volcano S. 78° W.
It was now dark, which prevented any remarks towards Point Efarme : we therefore, at 8 h., altered
our courfe, fleering for Infu, purpofing to explore it
to the northward. At 18 h. we faw the land bearing
from N. to N. 75° E. fix or feven leagues.
Strong breezes and cloudy weather. At 2 h. 30/
Ave rounded the rocks off the point, and fhaped our
courfe in the direction of the fliore, at two or three
miles diftant. At 6 h. the S. E. point of Infu bore
S. 25° W. five or fix leagues ; and the extreme to the
North, N. 25° E. to 30° E.; and we had 20 fathoms.
The night was moderate, and we kept plying under
eafy fail, having regular foundings from 20 to 46
fathoms. We were much in the fame fituation at
day-jjght: to the South, the land was high and rocky;
and to the north-weft, it became low and cliffy.    At   chap.
a confiderable diftance over the low land, we faw very    ^#3—i
mountainous   land   entirely covered  with fnow.     In    oaober.
general, the coaft was very indifferently wooded.
Extremes from S. 37° W. to N. 30° E., three leagues
off fhore.
The breeze came in from the fea, and we fleered
along the fhore, which continued low and level. To
the N. W. appeared the entrance of a river, or a deep
bay, clofed by low land; but I rather think the former. At funfet we had very little wind, and the extremes bore from N. 62° E. to S. 36° W.; an opening,
N. 30° E. ; and we were off fhore three or four
At 7 h. we were taken aback with the wind from
the land.
At day-light the extremes bore from N. 40° JE. to
N. 62° W. feven or eight leagues.
At noon   the  extremes   N. 70° E. to S. 76° W.
ftarboard point of an opening in the land N. 21° W.
off fhore four or five leagues ; Peaked Hill N. 9° W.
At 2 P. M. the opening bore off us N. N. W
with the peaked hill; it appeared to be clofed by low
land. From it the coaft tended to the eaftward, very
flat and fteep clayifli cliffs. At 7 h. we were abreaft
of an opening promifing good fhelter: an ifland lay
in the centre, with an hummock on its eaft extreme.
A fmaller ifle was to the Weft of it, on which the fea
broke. At funfet the north extreme bore N. 50° E.;
ifland, N. 35° E.; and the fouth extreme, N. 80° W.
At 8 h- we hauled our wind for the night, and in the
morning fleered N. E. At day-light the ifland bore
N. 84° W., five leagues ; and the extreme, N. 30° E.
Some low flat iflands appeared between us and the
fhore ; but we could not pofitively afcertain them, for
the hazy weather over the land. The coaft prefented
a bare profpect, with a, few fcattered trees, See. of
very little elevation.
At noon the extremes bore from N. 40° E. to S. 74°
W., three leagues off fhore.    Light breezes and fair
5th. We fleered in the direction of the land, about two
leagues diftant. At funfet we had paffed two ifiands
near the main, bearing from W. to N. 41° W.; and
the extremes from N. 55° E. to S. 64<> W., fij-fe#r'§$
2 miles.
UM^-l ■■!— -1*1-. up
mUes. At 7 b. we hauled off under eafy fail, having
25 fathoms fandy bottom. At 18 h. the extremes
made like iflands, bearing from N. 11° E. to N. 34°
W. By 20 h. we were well up with them. To the
Weft, we faw the continuation of the flat land wnich
we fuppofed the main. The iflands prefented a barren
fiifface, with rocks above and under water, projecting
from their extrJemes to a confiderable diftance, covered with oceanic birds. We alfo faw a good many
At 21 h. we faw high land to the north-eaftward; and
ajt noon we were nearly abreaft of fome rocks detached
from the flat land, but feemingly connected by a reef:
they bore North to N. 34° W. three or four miles, and
we had 45 fathoms. To the North we faw high land ;
and an ifland bore from N. 15° E. to N. 40° E.
At 3 h. we were abreaft of the extreme fet, N. 15*
E. as an ifland; and we loft the continuation of coaft,
which tended to the N. W. At 5 h. the wind fliifted
to the N. E. quarter, with gloomy weather. The
ifland, at 6 h., bore from N. 25° E. to N. 60° W. four
or five miles;   and the roclis fet at noon S, 70" W.
We flood to the S. E. durihg the night.
3* J
Thick foggy weather prevented our feeing the
ifland diftinctly till near noon. At noon it bore from
N. 12° W. to N. 42° E. four or five miles, and the rocks
from S. 67° W. to S. 80° W.; by which it appears we
had been fet to the W. S. W.
We fleered to pafs to the weftward of the iflands,
which afforded rather a barren profpect of a moderate
elevation. They were very rocky towards the fea;
but in the hollow ridges formed by the hills we faw
fome trees; and as we paffed the fouth point we perceived a fmall village. At funfet the ifland bore S.
5° E. to N. 74° E. four or five miles ; and we had 37
fathoms, fine fandy bottom. JI|P
After midnight wre preferved our fituation, making
fliort boards till daylight, when the ifland bore from
S. 22° E. to S. 42° W. five or fix miles. In the morning we had the wind from the S. WL, and we plied to
windward. We faw land to the N. N. E. and N. W.,
but indiftinctly.
At 20 h. we paffed the north fide ofthe iflands ; and
before noon we fent a boat on fhore.    On their return, they  reported they had  feen fprings of good
$*ii 8 water,
water, and the land covered with coarfe grafs ;  the chap.
foil a rich mould, compofed of decayed vegetables, s—*—'
They found abundance of crow-berries and billberries, o&ober.
with a fpecies of cranberry, and great quantities of
the fabina.    At noon the N. W. point bore N. 80° W.
three or four miles ; and the other extreme S. 23° W.
The crew of the boat found a fpecies of juniper,
fome yew trees, and the filvef pine. The fhores
abounded with wild fowl; and they faw many paths,
as they fuppofed; of animals.
This is moft probably the fame ifland vifited by
Spanberg: vide Cook's 3d voyage, Vol. IIJL p. 388;
fee alfo Muller, Voyages et Decouvertes, &c. p. 210,
and feq. After noon we fleered N. N. E. for the
land, bearing in that direction. At funfet it bore
N. 10° E., and a remarkable peaked mountain covered
with fnow N. 65° W. Spanberg's Ifland from S. 30s
W. to S. 50° W. about five leagues. At daylight
we were nearly in the fame fituation, and we fleered
N. N. W. for a paflage which appeared to divide
the peaked hill ltnid from the other to the N. E.
We tried for foundihgs in the paflage unfuccefsfully,
and paffed through feveral ftrong riplings. At 21 h.
the peak bore Weft.-   At noon we were well clear
q 2 of
of the ftraits, which are four or five leagues wide ; atM
we brought to the wind, having 45 fathoms, to obferve
the latitude, having the following bearings : Spanberg's
Ifland S. 17° E. 41 miles; a rocky point which forms
the weft en-trance of the paflage, and from which
extends a reef fome diftance S. 20° W. 5 or 6 miles.
Peaked hill S. 52° W., and the extreme of the fame
land S. 82° W. The high land making like an ifland
9th.       from N. 48° E. to 6l°E.
Conceiving the peaked.hill land to be the N. E. part
of Infu, as it plainly took, a direction to the weftward,
and the wind being fixed at S. W., we embraced the
opportunity of proceeding to the N. E. in the further
exploring of the iflands. In the bearing of the
peaked hill the coaft formed a bay, with a fine fandy
heach ; and the mountain, which in this point of view
formed a faddle hill, prefented a very magnificent
appearance from its great height, and extenfive
Our courfe lay in the direction of the ifland which
was broken and elevated, and at 4 h. we were abreaft
of a hill which rofe from the fea fliore, with a fleep
afcent to a confiderable elevation of a conical fhape,
and evidently volcanic : we paffed w&hin two miles of
it, and plainly perceived it covered with ftones and    chap.
cinders down to its bafe, as if an eruption had lately    —•—j
happened.     Round  the  crater it  prefented  ragged    Oclober,
and misfliapen points; and  fome fmall flirubs were
growing on the  S. W.   fide  very   low   down.     This
abrupt hill was connected with the ifland by a low
ifthmus, which receded from it on each fide, fo as to
form circular  ba}rs;   and   the   land   continued  low
to   fome   diftance.     At   funfet   the  extremes   bore
from N. 55° E. to the volcano S. 24° W. two leagues.
•Throughout the night we had very fqually weather;
and at 16 h. we flood in for the ifland, which at
daylight we faw to thfe E. N. E., very indiftinctly
from the obfcurity of the weather, which was fqually
and rainy, preventing any meridional obfervation.
At noon the extremes were from S. 5° E. to N. 8° E.
three or four leagues.
It threatened to blow hard ; at 4 h. it increafed to a
ftrong gale with conftatft^Tain : the ifland then bore of
us S. E. two or three leagues the N. extreme, and Ave
had 95 fathoms water when we furled the topfails.
At midnight it was more moderate, and at daylight we
made fail. In the morning the wind fhifted to the
N. W., and we faw the land bearing from us S. 6l° E.
book    to S. 27° E.: a low point S. 8° W., off fliore four or five
i—j&ji    leagues.    The weather foon became thick and hazy,
Oftober.    and we loft fight of land very foon after feeing it; and
the wind increafing without any profpect of its clearing
away, we clofe-reefed the topfails, and flood  to the
N. N. E. with dark, gloomy, and uncertain weather.
Srong breezes, and very dark gloomy weather with
an increafing gale in the evening, obliged us to reduce
our fail, and ftrike the top-gallant mails.
At daylight we faw land bearing from S. 5° W. to
S. 22° E. eight or ten leagues; but the gale continuing,,
we wore fhip and flood to the N. E.    We faw this
ifland very indiftinctly from the flate of the weather.
Towards midnight the weather became more moderate, and at 11 h. we wore fhip. At daylight we faw
more land, extending from S. 80° E to a low point S.
30° E.; and at the fame time the ifland feen yefterday
bore from S. 20° W. to S. 37° W., and foon after a
third appeared; this we conjectured to be the fame
we paffed on Sunday. We flood towards them till 8
A. M. to convince ourfelves they were not connected
with each other, when we altered our courfe to N. E.
with a gentle wind, which induced us to get up the
top-gallant mails and make fail. At noon we were 12
miles South of our eflimation, when the extremes ofthe
northernmoft ifland bore from N. 70° E. to S. three or
four leagues; it appeared very high, and broken land
in parts with projecting rocks, and in general very bare.
We alfo obferved fnow in the cavities of the hills.
The other ifland was equally high and barren : it
bore from S. 32° W. to S. 46* W. feven or eight leagues,
but was  of very little extent.    The other ifland was
not in fight.
The extremes preferved nearly the noon bearings
the head fwell having  impeded our progrefs.     No
At daylight we faw more land to the N. E„ but a
thick fog-bank from the horizon upwards prevented
our remarking its connection with the other land, which
at noon bore from S. 20° W., to S. 40° W. fix or eio-ht
leagues ; outer land making an ifland N. 63° E. By
an indifferent obfervation we were 15 miles North
of account. Dark and very gloomy weather. No
foundings with 115 fathoms.
D6$*AP. VI.
Pa/age to Marikan, one of the Kurile Iflands—through the Straits
of De Vries.—Company's Land.—Staten Ifland.—Unfavourable
Weather prevented our going through the Straits of Sangaar.—
Range the Eajlern Coaft of Japan.—Bay of Jeddo.—-Japanefe
Boats.—Fatftfio Iflands.
At l paft 4h. a frefh wind fprung up from the S. E.
quarter, and we made fail for the eafternmoft land,
which at 5 h. bore N. 67° E.: founded frequently without reaching the bottom.   At f paft 9 h., being well up
as we imagined with the land, we tacked, and continued
plying under eafy fails.    At midnight we had heavy
ifqualls of wind ; and at 14 h. we flood to the eaftward
under clofe-reefed topfails.   At day-light we perceived
plainly the outer land to be an ifland high and round
and very fmall; it bore Eaft  from   us.    The   fame
weather ftill continued, and it was fo very hazy we
could not difcem any other land.    At 22 h. 30 m. we
had nearly loft fight of the round ifland, bearing S. 6°
W. four or five leagues.
The fame unfavourable weather, with a cold damp    chap.
air.    At noon we had no land in fight, and we tacked    (—-j—-*
to  the S. W.    The  hazy atmofphere prevented any    oaober.
Frefh breezes and fqually weather, with a dark and
hazy atmofphere. At 3 h. we fetched well up with
Round Ifland, and again flood to the eaftward, under
eafy fail, expecting the weather to clear up, to admit
our making fome remarks upon the iflands we had
hitherto imperfectly feen. In the evening the wind
moderated, and we had heavy fhowers of rain.
At funrife Round Ifland bore S. by W. four or five
leagues ; and we difcovered new land to the eaftward.
We kept upon a wind to the S. E.; and at noon the
Round ifle bore S. 60° W. five or fix leagues ; another
ifland S. 24° W.; and the land difcovered in the morning bore from S. 84° E. to N. 56° E,; and we had no
The wind not permitting our pairing South of the
ifland to the N. E. of us, at 3 h. we made fail in the
direction of it. The fouthern part of it was very
high, flopi-ng gradually from its elevation, and ter-
Tniiilating in broken ridges at the bafe.    A neck of low
r land
book    land connected this ifthmus with the other part ofthe
^4—i    ifland.    At funfet it bore from S. 36° E. to N. 50° E.;
and Round Ifland S. 63° W. Th® night was a fine
moon-light night, and we run along fhore till 10h., when
© O        J CD '
we plied as ufual, having no foundings with 100
fathoms. At day-light the ifland bore^from S. 9° E.
to N. 75° E. four or five leagues ; a. Jail of a circular
form, nearly in the centre of the ifland, S. 77° E. The
morning was fqually, with variable weather; and at
noon we had paffed the north extremity of the ifland,
and hauled up for a paffage that divided it from an*
other ifland : unfortunately we had no obfervation.
A fmall opening bore S. 48° E. three miles; the ifland
(fuppofed Maruchan) from S. 25° W. to S. 59° E.;
the northern ifland N. 47° E. to N. 67° E. three or
four leagues.
At 1 h. 30* the entrance of a fmall opfening bore
S. S. W. two miles, and we had 55 fathoms. As I
conjectured this to be the harbour which is mentioned
by Captain Cook to be fituated on the N. E. fide of
$he Iflaiid of Maruchan, and where the Ruffians are
faid to have a fettlement, in 471° N. lat., wie hove to
and fent a boat on fliore. At funfet the entrance
bore S. 5° W. three (miles.g and! we opened the S. W.
point of Mafuchan on with the N. W. poijjt, making
8 them
them in one bearing N. 40° E. and §. 40° W. The
N. W. point fell abruptly to the fea, with fome rocks
fcattered off &fe>j. and £he N. E. point bore S. 30° E. four aa»bw
or five miles. Thenother ifland bore from S. 36° E. to
S. 66° E. three or four leagues. The eaftern point
runs out into low land, but the vsneftern point ibrmed
a high rugged bluff head. The paflage between thefe
iflands is perfectly clear to all appearance, but fshe
abfence of the boat prevented our proving it. At
7 h. 30' we had the pleafure to fee her returning, and
we kept our w-md to the N. W. Tbe night was calm ;
and in me morning we had the wind at S. S. E., with
thick, hazy, threatening weather, wMe-h induced me to
Hand to the S. W. At 21 h. 30' Marukan fouth point
bore S. 26° E.
Strong breezes, with foggy and threatening weather,
ma^e us expect another gale, in which we were not
deceived. At 3 h. 30' we faw Round Ifland, bearing
S. 10° W.; and the gale increafing, we paffed it at
5h. 30' to the eaftward, leaving another fmall ifland
to the Eaft, bearing from Round Ifland S. 45° E.,
which makes in two hummocks.
At 7 h. 30' being clear of the iflands, .we furled the
"Fdrefail, and brought to under the ftorm flay-fails, in
a 2 a very
a very hard gale of wind, with continued rain. At
9h. from the motion ofthe fhip I fell down upoffthe
quarter-deck, by which unlucky accident I had the
misfortune to fracture my right arm above the elbow:
The gale gradually, at 15 h., began to moderate; and
by the next hour it veered round to the W. N. W^
leaving a confufed fea. At .day-light we Taw Round
Ifland, and we made fail to the North. At 20 h. it bolre
S. 70° E., and Hummock Ifland S. 36° E.
At noon we had light breezes and a large fwell from
the Eaft, Round Ifland bearing S. 40° W. to S. 64° W.
three or four miles.
The winter feafon being now fet in we proceeded
to the South, intending to explore the eaft fide of the
Kurile Iflands, if poflible.
The officer reported the harbour in the ifland
of Maruchan to be only calculated for fmall veffels,
having a bar in the entrance with no more than
two fathoms water; but within the bar it formed a
fpacious "bafon, with regular foundings of five and feven
The fettlement of the   Ruffians he   found  abandoned ; but there flail remained croffes erected in different
ferent places, and the Ruffian arms carve\l and painted,    chap.
The nafryes were'firhilar to thofe in Volcano Bay, btiri
fpoke apparently a different  language.     They were    o&ober.
clothed in bear fkins, and wore b66ts of Ruffian manu***
facture, and cotton handkerchiefs round their heads^/
Thefe people were equally gentle in their manners^
and in appearance poffeffed the fame degree of poverty in their manner of living, and the conftruction
of their habitations, as thofe we had before remarked
at Infu.
The land was covered with long grafs and mofs^
fome trees of the dwarf pine, alder, bill, and crow
There were many feals, and abundance of fea eggs.
It is to be remembered, we had traced the land of
Infu or Jeflb from Volcano Bay, to the N. E. point
of what we conceived to be one ifland, extending
from 41° 49' N. to 44° 30' N., and from 140° 30' E. to
146° 22' E., an extent of 100 leagues of its S. E. coaft;
which agrees very weUfjwithithe account of De Vries's
voyage, fuppofing he made the land in the fame fituation we did about the* S.E. point.    Captain K&ng,
book in the notes to Cook's 3d voyage, page377» remarks, that
I—r—I in this part Captain Spanberg's difcoveries place the
Odober. &and °f Mati-nwa, Kunaflrir, and Zellany ; and that probably the miftake of De Vries hi fuppofing it one land
was owing to the foggy weather. I am of a different
opinion ; for we faw no ifland of any fize till we came
to one in 43° 50' N. and 146° 50' E., and which I
fuppofe to be theiame Spanberg watered at, and is
called in Cook's voyage Nadeegsda. >
In October the 12th we were in the latitude of
46° I- N. and 148° 45' E., wrhich is nearly the fituation
of the ftraits of De Vries ; and we conjectured ihe
northern land to be what he calls the Company's land;
and the fouthern land Staten Ifland, but which is
named Nadeegsda in the above voyage and chart.
Captain King fuppofes the Company's land to be
Ooroop and Nadeegsda ofthe Ruffians. As we failed
round this ifland, it is moft likely to be Ooroop, in
;which if is faid there is a good harbour; and Staten
Ifland I imagine to be the Nadeegsda of theta-me nation.
The violent gales we met with, after leaving Marukan,
prevented our examination of the eaft fide of thefe
kftands, .and paffing, as I intended, through the ihaits
^which divide the: laud of In-fe-iabm the coaft of Ndpon
or iEapan.    Captain King affo imagines Staten Iiland,
feen by the Caftnitcom, to be the Three Sifter** and for chap.
•                                      • VL
which reafon, as he explains in the voyage, they are w-,—~>
fo placed in the chart.     Vide Vol. III. p. 391, &c. oa-ober.
of Coo^s 3d voyage.
J      CD*
The ifland of Maruchan W.., at midnight bore E. 1° l9^-
N.   Round Ifland, Weft.
At 20 h. the Round Ifland bore from S. 65° W. to
W,    Hummock Ifland S. 5° E.
At noon Hummock Point S. 14° W.; Round Ifland
from Weft to N. 80° W.; and the large ifland to the
South from S. 34§° W. to S. 41° W.
Light winds and clear weather, with the appearance      ^th.
of a ftrong foutherly current.
15 h.    Paffed the Hummock Ifland, which we now
plainly perceived was two iflands ;   bore S. 75-° W.
and N. 85° W. five leagues.
Centre of Marukan fouthern part N. 38° E., and
Round Ifland N. 40° W.
Sounded throughout the night  without   reaching;
the bottom;
~------. ^—~"—-
Hummock or Saddle Ifland N. W. by W. \ rpaft
18 h.: tacked.
At funfet the fouthernmoft ifland bore from S.660 W.
to N. 84° W. eight or ten leagues; Saddle or Hummock Ifland N. W. \ N.; and the fouth extreme of
Maruchan N. 27° W. : neareft land feven leagues. At
8 h. thick foggy weather.
The wind fuddenly fhifted to the weftward, and
blew ftrong, with clear weather.
13 h.    Variable, with light airs of wind gradually
veering to the fouthward.
18 h.    Made fail.
24 h.    Frefh breezes and fine weather.
1 h.    Frefh breezes and fine weather.
4 h.    Strong breeze, and hazy, fhortened fail.
6 h.    Hauled upon a wind under eafy fail.
9 h. Dark cloudy weather, with heavy rain. Wore
12 h.    Strong fqualls.   Struck the top-gallant mails.
16 h. Moderate breezes and variable, thick fog
and heavy rain, with a large fouthern fwell.
23 h.    Light airs.    Out reefs, and made faiL'c
•: 24 h.
24 h.   The fame fog ftill continued.
1 h.    Frefh breezes and very hazy weather,, with a    Oftober
fouthern fwell.      a    • *•■    "       J       §-■-;•< ^       24th'
3 h.    Thick foggy weather.    Tacked fhip.
6h. Shortened fail for the night, with moderate
and foggy weather.
8 h. Wind veered to the weftward, and increafed
to a frefh breeze, with very hazy weather at 10 h,, and
we clofe-reefed the topfails..
12 h. Wore fhip, and ftruck top-gallant mails.
Very heavy fqualls. At 13 h. furled the topfails and
courfes, and brought to under the ftorm ftay-fails.
Heavy gales of wind, attended with hail, at 15 h.,
laying to under a mizen ftorm ftay-fail.
19 h. Got the jib-boom in, and lowered down
the gaff.
24 h.    Strong gales and fair, with a large fea.
1 h.    Strong gales and fine weather, with a large fea.
3 h.    Set the forefail reefed.
9 h. More moderate. Set the main-topfail clofc
reefed. f|o>| a.»
12 h. Frefh gales and fine weather. Set the fore-
-topfail. *
15 1
15 h.   The gale gr"adually de^eaftsg;'.
CD CD *r   . <-J
18 h.    Light airs.   Made fail.    Very clear weather.
21 h. Variable and fqually weather, which increafed towards noon, writh rain, as the wind veered
to the fouth\$ard.
24 h.    Frefh breezes, with rainy weather.
1 h. Strong breezes and dark cloudy weather,,
with rain. Half paft 2 h., the wind fuddenly fhifted to
the W. N. W., with heavy fqualls, which obliged us
to clofe-reef the topfails.
In the afternoon feveral flocks of gulls were fe(en,
and two land birds came into the fhip.
12 h.    Dark cloudy weather, with fhowers of hail.
18 h. Frefh breezes and fqually weather. Made
more fail.
24 h. Frefh breezes and clear weather. 4T fouth
of account fince laft obfervation.
1 h.    Frefh breezes an^ cloudy weather.   Made fail.
4 h. A fmall land bird, of the colour of a chaffinch, was caught on board ; and a fpermaceti whale
paffed clofe to the fhip.
12 h.    Light breezes and clear weather.
19 lu
19 h. Frefh. breezes and clear weather from the
S. W. quarter ; and we made fail to the W. N. W.
24 h. Ditto weather, with an increafe of wind.
Barometer falling.
1 h. Strong tjreezes and fine weather. In fecond
3 h.    A number of porpoifes about the fhip,.
5 h. Frefh gales and dark cloudy weatiker. Clofe-
reefed topfailg, and ftrudk top-gallant mafls. At 5$ h.
wore fhip.
10 h.    Furled the fore and mizen topfails.
12 h. Heavv fai-nadls of wind and rain, with light-
n ing.
.20 h. Frefli gales and ftrong. fqualls, which obliged
us to clew up the main topfkil at times, and to reef
the forefaifr. At 23 h. it became more moderate, with
fair weashear, and the wind veered to the N. W. Heavy
fttfell from the«S. W. quarter.
1 h.    Moderate breezes and cloudy, with a great
head fea.    Made more fail.    Barometer rifing fall.
6'h.    Fcefli br«hzes and cloudy w.ea$2ier.
12 h.    Clearikeathei-, with an increajfe<o£ wind.
18 h.    Sfcco&g\ teeezes  aad   dark cloudy sr^atlifiTw
s 2 Clofe-
book Clofe-reefed the topfails, and furled the fore and mizen
*—l—-j ditto, and ftruck top-gallant mails."
Oftober.        22 h.    Barometer fluctuating this morning.
Ipf 24 h.    Frefh gales of wind, with fhowers of fleet.
3oth. 1 h.    Frefh gales and very hazy  weather,   with  a
large fea. Hauled our wind to the fouthward, undei*
• main-topfail and forefail. Got the jib-boom in and
fpritfail yard.
8 h. Thick foggy weather, with*the gale moderating. Set the topfails. The barometer, during the
night, fell confiderably.
12 h. Moderate breeze, with drizzling rain. Tried
for foundings during the night. Sea confiderably.
gone down. At 12£ h. the wind veered to the fouthward, and the fame fog remained. j|$
18 h. Got the top-gallant mafts up, jib-boom and
fpritfail yard out, and made fail. Heavy rain at 20 h.
with thunder and lightning. Wore fhip. It foon
after was calm, and we had continual rain.
24 h.   Calm and cloudy, with a fouthern fwell.
1 h. Variable weather, with a confufed fea. Several
land birds about; two of them were taken, and a wild
duck was fhot: we were alfo accompanied by fheer-
waters, peterels, and  albatroffes. "At 4 h. the wind    chap.
increafed, and we tacked.    At 5 h. we had flrong gufls    *—-*■—>
of wind from the weflern quarter, which foon obliged    oaobe'r.
us to reduce our fails | and at 6 h. to furl the fore aud
mizen topfails.
11 h. The gale again fetting in from W. and N. W.„
gave us no hopes of palling through ftraits that
divide Japan from Matzmai; and the advanced
feafon rendered it very likely we fhould not fucceed .
after further perfeverance : added to which, my confinement, owing to my broken arm, precluded any fatis-
factory remarks even were we to fucceed. I therefore
gave up the idea for the prefent year, and we fliaped our
courfe in the direction of the Japanefe coaft, purpofing
to make the land about White Point, and continue
the coaft to the fouth, as the weather admitted.
24 h.    Frefh gales and cloudy weather, with a large
following fea.
1 h. Frefh gales and fqually weather, with a heavy
fwell from the N. W. quarter. Barometer gradually
4 h.    Squally, with fhowers of hail.
6h. Heavy rain, with variable weather but more
17 h.   Light breezes, with lefs fwell;  | paft we
book    were taken aback by the wind fhifting fuddenly to
|S—|   AVeft.    Made all fail.
November.      24 h.    Light airs with fine clear temperate weather,
and fmooth water.
1 h.    Light airs and calms, with fine weather.
12 h.    Cloudy weather.
16 h.    Moderate breeze, with rain.
24 h.    Frefh breezes and continual heavy rain, with
fmooth water.
1 h.    Strong breezes.and fqually weather, With rain.
7h.    No bottom with 70 fathoms.    In twoi&efs.
12 h.    Squally weather, with fhowers of rain.
19 h. Made fail. Unfortunately the time-piece
N° 1. was neglected/to have been wound up this day at
noon, and remained ufetefs to us for the prefent;
much to be regretted, on account of the ftjong
.'£4 h.   Frefh breezes, wk%Sequent fquaflsiasid heavy
1 h. Frefh breezes and cloudy w-eajther," with
frequent fqualls of-w-md and rain ; at noon we-$:0od
Weft to make the land before night.
5 h. In third reefs, and hauled our wind under eafy
9*h.    Tried for foundings with 100 fathoms of line.
11 h.    Moderate, with continual rain.
14 h.    Light airs.
17 h.    Calm and variable.    Light fhowers of rain.
20 h. Swell from the eaftward. Barometer flation-
ary there 24 hours. A tropic bird and a duck feen in
the morning.    Small rain.
23 h. Heavy fhowers brought the wind to the North,
and we made fail to the W. N. W. to make the land of
1 h. Strong breezes and fqually, with dark, cloudy
6 h.    Moderate and fine weather.
8 h.    Tried for foundings.
10 h. Wore fhip, and kept our wind : eafy fail for
the night.
12 h.    Cloudy weather, with fhowers of rain.
14 h.    Wore fhip, and flood to the weftward.
18 h.    Made fail.
24 h. Frefh breezes and very clear weather. A fwell
from the northward.
1 h.    Moderate breezes and fine weather.
8 h.    Light
8h.    Light winds.
12 h.    Hazy, with rain ; wore fhip, and tried for
November,   foundings.
15 h.    Wore fliip : drizzling rains. :
18 h. Continual rain. Paffed feveral patches of fea*:
weed. Many land birds about the fhip. One of them
(a dove) was taken.
21 h. Variable weather, and very unfettled during
this morning.    Barometer very low.
24 h. The wind fuddenly fhifted to the N. W., and
brought clear weather.
11 If
7th. 1 h.    Moderate breezes and cloudy weather.    Va
rious land birds and many butterflies with other infects
about the fhip.
4 h. Every appearance of a ftrong northerly current.
7 h. The wind fhifted in a violent fquall, and foon*
increafed to a hard gale, which obliged us to hand
the topfails and ftrike the topgallant maft. At 9 h.
it blew a very ftrong gale, when we furled the courfes
and brought to under a ftorm ftay-fail. At 10 §h. wore
At 14 h. 30 m, the gale moderating, fet the forefail,
.      and topfails clofe-reefed. Very clear weather, when the
wind veered to the W. N. W.
At 17 h. 30 m. wore fhip, and made fail with a
ftrong breeze and clear weather. The barometer
riling fail.
22 h.    1° 14' North of account fince laft obfervation.
24 h. Ditto weather. Under courfes, and double-
reefed topfails.
1 h. Moderate breezes and fair weather. Made
more fail. Many whales about the fhip ofthe fperma-
ceti kind.
6 h. Light winds and clear, with a fwell from the
N. W. quarter.
12 h.    Ditto weather.
16 h.    Frefh breezes and fine clear weather.
24 h. Ditto weather; 36 miles to the North of
Ih. Frefh breezes and fine weather. At .2 h. we
faw the land of Japan or Nipon to the weftward from
the maft-head.
5 h. Extremes of land from S. 80° W. to N. 40° W.
four or five leagues. We alfo faw a fail to the weft,
fuppofed to he a junk-Jp Shortened fail, and fleered to
the S. W. with a gentle breeze.
12 h.    Light breezes, and cloud v.
18 h.    Made all fail.
t At
book        At 17 h. the land from N 42° W  to N. 80° W. five
*—v-w   or fix leagues.
November.       22 h.    Dark, cloudy weather,   and variable,  with-
fmall rain.
24 h.    Continual rain, and very gloomy weather.
ioth. Variable and dark cloudy weather, with continued
rain till 6h., when it was calm. After 8 h. a breeze
fprung up from the N. W., and we flood in fhore.
At 13 h. we wore and flood off; and at 3 we again
flood in fliore. At 6h. 30' A. M. the land bore from
N. 47° W. to 85° W.; a remarkable hill N. 82° W.;
and we made fail. At 21 h. 20' the S. E. point of
Japan bore N. 3° E., on with a diftant hummock.
Allowing its longitude to be right 140° 40' E., as
fettled in Captain Cook's voyage, we fet the watch,
N° 1, a-going, allowing its rate to be the fame as
The fhore from White Point tended to the S. W.
It was of moderate elevation, with chalky cliffs to an
opening, from whence came many fifhing boats; and
from thence it continued bare of wood and deftitute
of verdure. We fleered nearly in the direction of the
coaft, with fine clear weather, and at the diftance of
two leagues; and at noon we were abreaft of an ex-
7 tenfive
tenfive town.    The land about it appeared richly cul-    CHAP,
tivated, in ridges riling above one another in the fides    |—*——'
I *7Q0
of the hills. The tops of thefe hills were fleep and Novemt
craggy; and in the hollows between them we faw
fome wood, but in no quantity,- To the N. E. of
the town the coaft was indented. The extreme, South
ofthe town, S. 79° W. 10'; opening, or river, N. 9°
W. ; land about White Point, making north extreme,
N. 34° E.; Round Mountain, N. 58° W., 4 or 5 leagues
off fhore.
Moderate breezes and very fine weather. We faw
feveral iflands between the South and Weft; and at
5 h. we were abreaft of the fouth extreme, which bore
N. 30° W. fix miles. This point forms the eaftern
entrance into the bay of Jeddo. The Outer Ifland
boreJS. 20° Wy ten or twelve leagues. In the afternoon we were vifited by many fifhing boats. They
were 36 feet long, Sf wide, and 2f deep, very neatly
built of oak, elm, and fir, very fharp forward, and
with a rifing flern, which projected beyond the real
ftern, being a continuation of the fides. They have a
falfe bottom, where they contain their fifh ; and in
every refpect they were moft ingenioufly conftructed.
They were fleered in the Chinefe manner; and each
boat carried  one  maft,  with  a fquare  cotton  fail.
t 2 They
vi. W;i
They very liberally fupplied us with fifh, without
feeming to expect any return ; and having fatisfied
their curiofity, we parted mutually entertained.
There were twelve men in each boat, and they made
ufe of fkulls inftead of oars.
The night was calm; and at day-light we had a
ftrong northerly wind, with fqually weather, which
prevented our feeing the land till 19 h., when we dh%
covered the outer ifland bearing S. 59° AY.; to our
furprife, a ftrong current having fet us to the eaftward.
in the night. At noon the fouth point of Outer Ifland,
S. 8° W., five miles; fouth extreme of Volcano Ifle,
on with rocks, S. 88° W.; diftant high mountains
open, with a hummock, N. 32° W.
12th. Strong breezes and fqually weather.   After noon we
bore up for the paflage between Volcano and Outer
Ifle, which was clear of all danger. Off the weft point
of Volcano Ifle are fome detached black rocks, at two
or three miles diftance; and in the direction of S. by
J£. from Outer Ifland we faw another ifland, ten or
twelve leagues; and another fmall clufler of rocks*
bearing from Outer Ifland S. W. five or fix leagues.
After clearing the paflage we hauled up to the
W. N. W.,  to examine  the  northern iflands.     The
night was moderate, but we had no foundings throughout. At 18 h. the northern iflands bore from N. E.
to S. 79° E., and we fleered N. W. for the coaft. Some November.
of thefe iflands were of little extent, forming round
hummocks : the centre ones long and narrow, with
white cliffs, and connected by low ifthmufes. The
largeft was the Volcano, which afforded a pleating
profpect, being cultivated and clothed with verdure
towards the peak, which rofe gradually to a con-
fiderable height. We faw no frnoke iffue from the
crater, which appeared much broken.
At noon the north extreme, which I conceive forms
the weftern point of entrance to Jeddo bay, bore
N. 57° E.; and the coaft extended from thence to
W. by N., off fifrore five or fix leagues, of moderate
Moderate breezes and variable weather, and very
hazy, which prevented our obferving the main land
diftinctly. Near the fea it appeared low and level,
with very high double land to the N. W., rifing to
mountains. To the Norf^ the fhore was much brftfeen
and indented* and appeared to form an opening.
At5h. 2$ a low point, makingrithV;neareft land, bore
N. i E. five leagues ? and we had ferydark, gloomy,
threatening weather : barometer falling. At 12 h.
the wind increafed ; and at 16 h. we were under
courfes and main-topfail. At 19 h. we had fqually
weather, with a great deal of rain, and a large fea;
and foon after we. faw the rocks which are fituated to
the S. W. of Outer Ifland. At firft, we took them for
a veffel under low fail, till the iflands appearing difcovered our miftake. At 20 h. 30' they bore S. 50° E.
three leagues, when we wore fhip. At 21 h. 10' the
' wind fuddenly fhifted to W. N. W.,. and blew very
ftrong, and the weather began to clear away: we
fhaped our courfe to pais to the North of Volcano
Ifland, between it and an ifland that appeared much
broken by the inequality of its form. At noon the
rocks off the eaft extreme of Volcano Ifland bore
N. 70° E., two or three miles ; Broken Ifland N. 15°
W. to N. 29° W., ten miles; very high mountain
N. 22° W.    Mount Fufi *.
14th. Frefh gales and clear weather, with heavy fqualls of
wind.    We found the paflage five or fix leagues wide
* Thunberg, in his voyage to lapan, fays, Vol. III. p. 158, " At
Jofiwara we were nearer than any where elfe to the mountain of Fufi.
The Japanefe reckon the height of it, in the afcent from the foot to the
top, to be fix leagues. In fhape it refembles a fugar loaf; its top reaches
above the clouds, and is difcernible at many leagues' diftance.
1 betwixt
betwixt thefe iflands, and no dangers. The north
point of Broken Ifland is rather high, with perpendicular whitifh cliffs.. Off the S. W. part is a large detached rock, with feveral fmall ones about it. Its
greateft extent is in a N. E. and S. W. direction, four
or five miles. To the N. E. of it are two more iflands:
the firft is low and flat, but the northernmoft is more
extended, of moderate height, and connected in parts
by low land, which makes it appear at a diftance like
feparate iflands, with a confpicuous white mark on
the fouthern one, and a rock laying off it to the weftward. Directly North of this ifland, at four or five
miles' diftance, are the two hummocks before mentioned : the northern one is the largeft. In the afternoon we had a fine view of the famous Mount Fufi,
towering above the high land, and covered with fhow.
At 5 h. 30' it bore N. 48° W.; and a large ifland from
N. 38o W. to N. 50° W., four or five leagues. Land
to the W. N. W. feen indiftinctly. The wind preventing our entering Jeddo bay, we bore up to the South,
to explore the iflands to the South of Outer Ifland,
with a ftrong gale at Weft. At 18 h. 30' we faw the
iflands to the fouthward ; and at noon they bore from
N.,200 E. to S, 80° E., four or five miles. Variable
Frefh breezes and dark threatening weather prevented our having a meridian obfervation for the
November latitude: and the few remarks we were able to make
on thefe iflands were incomplete, on account of the
weather which prevented our having any communication with them ; and we plainly faw they were inhabited. I fuppofed them to be the iflands of Fatfifio,
fo called in the charts. The largeft bears from what
I diftinguifh as Outer Ifland N. by W. and S. by E.?
13 or 14 leagues. The wefternmoft one is only a high
peaked hill, not more than one league in circuit; and
if it.had not been inhabited I fhould have imagined
it to be inacceffible. On the north point the houfes
were furre'unded with cultivations, laid out in ridges
on the acclivity of the hill, as before remarked on
Nipon. This ifland is two or three miles to the fouth-
sfteifc of the other, and between them appeared a clear
channel. After pairing without the peaked ifle, we
basiled up to examine the other; but the wind veering to Eaft, we cou-tA not approach within three or
four leagues. It extends N. W. and S. E. three or
four leagues, and presented a very fertile appearance.
The'iragher parts were obfcured by the haze: its lat.
33° 6' E., and 140° E. long. The appearance of the
weather gave us no hopes of a change; we th^refo^
 — BB
fleered to the weftwajrd, h$ffj.n& ftrong.£alesi<*w4t-lr
grBaft/deM of Kain.
Strong ga^s of-j^ind, with thick and rajnjr weather.
/slch-    T^e,^me weather, with continual rain; and
we brouglftt to the wind under a clofe-reefed mainfail
a#jd fgrela^j ]^h our heftd to the eaftward.    Barometer ftill falling,
©jl#h.    Heavjfi fqualls,   and   a  large fealc£eom  the
18 h.    Ditto weather,   with  frequent fqua^ls  and
heavy rai&from the S. E. which broke up the gale;
ancbifoon "ftfter it became calm* with a confined fea.
and conftant rain.    Set the topfails.
23 h.    Barometer very low.
24 h.    Light breezes from the north-weft, and the
appearance of fair weather.
The wind foon increafed to a frefh gale, with very
heavy fqualls; and foon after their violence obliged us
to furl the topfails. We kept our wind under courfes,
in hopes of feeing the land ; which we difcovered at
3 h. 30' to the weftward, three or four leagues from
us. We then wore fhip, and tried for foundings.
The weather prefented a moft threatening appearance
in, the weftern quarter, and we hauled up the courfes
book to receive it. It was not fo heavy as we expected,
to&—! but fhifted in a violent fquall off the land to -*W.N. W.,
November. which clearing away the.haZe, we had a more diftinct
view of the land at funfet. It extended from N. N. E.,
ending in a low flat point, which bore Weft. It blew
ftrong with clear weather all night, and we callied
clofe-reefed topfails till midnight, when the gale iSOP
creating, with a head fea, we took in the fore?&f#l
mizen topfails. At 12 the land bore from N. h^]%. to
N. N. W.; but at day-light, to our furprife, we could
not difcern it, although the weather was fo clear as
to admit our feeing a great diftance. I conjectured
the land we had feen to be the fouth poij^^f Japan.
Paflage to the Lienquieux Iflands.—Off Formofa.—Arrival at the
Typa, Macao.—Purchafe of a Schooner.—Preparations for the
further  Profecution   of  the  Voyage.—Nautical   Obfervations  in
the Typa.
jyXoDERATE breezes and cloudy weather. Out all CHAP,
reefs and made fail, keeping our head to the weftward, <~~v-L~>
clofe upon a wind. xTI796-_
r November
6 h.    Light airs inclining to, calm, with dark cloudy      in8th-
12 h.    Light airs : § paft, tacked fhip.    Clear and
light night.
19 h.    By the obfervations the current has fet us
S. 18° E., 31 miles thefe 24 hours.
24 h.    Calm and cloudy weather.
Very clear  weather, with  light  airs  of  wind  at
13 h. Light airs from the weftward.    Made fail.
17 h. Exercifed great guns and fmall arms.
20 h. Current S. 18° E. 27 miles.
24 h. Very fine weather and fmooth fea.
u 2 Light
Light breezes and fine clear weather,
5 h. As the wind veered round to the N. E. we
had dark and hazy weather.
18 h.    Out all reefs and made fail.
21 h.    Current S. 83° W. 25 miles.
24 h. Breeze increafing, with fine weather and
fmooth water.
Moderate breezes and fine weather.
8 h.    Dark 'efoudv weather, w&h lightning in the
~ * cj o
S. W. quat-ter.
10 h.    At 10 h. 30' no bottom witfcn 115 tjrtboms;
and we^had fqually wea-thjer, with thnnder, lightning,
and continual rain.     Clofe-reefed the  topfails, and
^fought to the wind, as w'p could not fee one mile
16 h. The weather more moderate Jau'd clear Q bore
up and.purfued our former courfe. At 18h. tried for
foundings: no bottom 100 fathoms. Hazy fhdwers
of rain and fqually weather.
24 h.    Moderate and cloudy weather.
Moderate breezes and fqually weather, with fifeavy
fhowers of rain.    At 4^ti. SO^faw land to-flafe W. N. W.;
and at 5 h. 30' the extremes extended'-from S. 6l° W.
to N. 55° W., five "or -fix leagues.    It appeared of.moderate
derate elevation ; but we obferved it indifliiictly from    CHAP.
the gloominefs of the weather.    At 8 h. we hauled our   *—-*<•—•>
wind for the night, which continued  moderate, with  November.
frequent fhowers of rain; and we could not reach the
bottom with 115 fathoms of line.
13 h. Calm and cloudy at daylight: the land bore
off us W. S. W*, ten or twelve leagues; the current
having fet us to the eaftward during the night. Towards noon a breeze fpruug up, and we made fail in
for land. This morning we were fortunate in having
good obfervations for the latitude and longitude,
which determined our fituation at noon very exaiStly,
and we had  the  following  bearings :   a faddle hill
N. 24° E., and the extremes from N.400 E. to W. by N.,
appearing at intervals part of the land, made us conjecture the whole to be connected. The land to the
W.S.W. we did not fee.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather, and we flood in
for the land. At 4 hours it was fqually with rain,
which obfcured it jfrom our view. At 5 h. we tacked
within two or three leagues of a bluff point, which bore
from -us N. 12° W., but we had no foundings with.MO
fathoms. To the N. E. of the point the land appeared to recede confiderably, leaving the profpect
of an   opening ; -but the  impeyfect view   we   hafl,
book    owing to the badnefs of the weather, prevented our
I. r,
—^—   making any fatisfactory obfervations.    W$ had ftrong
November,   breezes, with   a head fea all night;   and at daylight
we had  the wind to the  North of Weft,   with fifte
clear weather; and at 19 h. 30' we faw the land exf
tending from N. 40° W. to N. 65° W. from the deck.
Made all fail.
23 h.    Current N. 76° E. 30 miles.
2(4 h.    Strong breezes and clear.    Land feen bearing N. 60° W. 12 or 13 leagues.
24th. Strong breezes and fine weather.    At 4 h. 20' the
extremes of land from N. 55° W. to Weft,, juft vifible
from the deck. At 15 h. the land extended from
N. 70° W. to N. 63° W. We judged thefe lands to be
the continuation of coaft; but the ftrong wind from
the N. W. prevented our nearer approach. They appeared to be very high in detached parts.
We tried for foundings all night unfucc$&fully,
and the breeze was now moderate. At 19 h» 30' we
were well up with the extreme fouthern land feen
laft night, bearing S. 80° W., and the north extreme
N. 12° W.; and we faw high to the S. W.,
apparently unconnected with the other. We fleered
towards a deep bay; and at noon we were three or
four leagues from the fliore,  which appeared high and    CHAP.
rugged, much broken into ridges; in general bare of
wood and rocky, but fome of the hills were clothed  November.
with .wood up to their fummits.    The extremes bore
from N. 75° W. to N. 1° W.; ftarboard point of bay
N. 53° W., two or three leagues"; Volcano Mountain
N. 65° W.;   high diftant land S. W., ten or twelve
Light breezes and variable Weather. The volcano, 25th.
which is fituated in the interior parts of the bay,
emitted vaft columns of finoke; and we obferved
feveral boats fifhing in fliore, and a junk Handing into
the bay. At 5 h. the extremes bore from N. 18° E.
to S. 75° W.; centre of bay N. 40° W., five or fix
miles; low land, juft vifible from the deck, S. 68° W.;
diftant land S. 42° W.; and more |efw land, feemingly
connected with it, S. 25° W. We fleered to the fouth-
ward and eaftward upon a wind. At daylight or 19 h.
we faw the low land bearing S. 67° W.: the fame fet
laft evening S. 27° W. ; the extremes, North of the
•bay, N. 27° W. We flood in fhore for the low land,
which was five or fix leagues, having moderate winds
and cloudy weather. At noon the extreme, North of
the bay, N. 15° W., and fouth extreme N. 72° W.;
book    and the fame diftant high°lSnd S. 58° W. : tire other
}—v—'    'extreme, on With centre of low land, five or fi& leagues.
November. The volcanic bay feemed to be capacious, attd moft
probably terminated With good fliett^, for, after taking a noithelrly direction, it turned to the eaftward.
Current -north 25 miles. Moderate and variable
winds frdm the S. E.    No fbundifegs.
26th. Moderate breezes  and fine weather,   with  fmooth
water. As we approached the fhore, more low land
appeared; and at 5 h. we Were wfthin four or five
miles of it, when it extended fronnS. 20° AY. to N. 75°
W., of little elevation, with a fafidy fhore, and covered
•with fcattered trees. The diftant high land ftill ap
peared over it, in the direction Of S. 50° W., at a co*ft>-
fiderable diftance. rS1ie extremes, North of the low
land, bore from N. 68° W. to N. 17° E., near the
north point ofthe bay; and we had 4$ fathoms. In
tnis fituation wc could not determine the connection
of the low land with the diftant h'i^h land ovefc >&,
which is moft probably the cafe : but the opening to
the North'of N. 75° YV*. was fo much contracted, and
making in low points from each fhore, I con^eiV^S the
Whole to be jointed, leaving in this indented p&rt fome
harbour we could not perfeefttej and which we were
4 prevented.
prevented determining by the wind in the morning   chap.
& &       VII.
veering to the S. W.    As we could not fetch the fame <-—v—-»
land again, at 5 P. M. we flood to the eaftward. November.
Frefh breezes   and   fqually   threatening  weather.
21' N. of account.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather.
Moderate breezes, fine weather, and fmooth wi
Clear ftar-light. In Arrowfmith's chart of 1791 are
many iflands laid down, nearly in our prefent fituation
at noon, faid to be difcovered by the Spaniards. We
faw nothing to lead us to fuppofe we were in the
vicinity of any current fince our laft obfervations, for
the time-piece (being the. interval of three days)
N. 68° E. 38 miles.
22 h. Ventilated the fhip with the foul-air extractor.
24 h.   Ditto weather.   Tropic birds and flying fifh
' *28th.
-  A
6 h.   Dark and gloomy appearance in the N. W.     2pth.
quarter, which foon produced a change of wind, and
x we
we flood to the weftward.    Lat. 28° 10' N., and jtang;
135° 15' E. at the time.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather.
6 h.    Shortened fail.
12 h.    Tried for foundings in the night.
18 h. Dark cloudy weather, with fhowers of rain.
We fleered to the weftward, to fall in with the ifland
of Great Lieuchieux.
24 h. Ditto weather. A fmall land bird and a
hawk feen.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather.
6 h. Shortened fail, and founded hourly during
the night.    No bottom.
12 h. Very cloudy weaker : at daylight we made
■fejlJ;fanda&22h. 30m. we faw;the ifland of Lieu-ehieu?*
At no@n we had fqually and rainy weather, and-
we hauled up to the S. W. being five or iijc leagu^f
ojf. F|*olm the unfavourable weather, we could difcern
very little. The fliore appeared low and even, the
wefternpoint felling.' abruptly to the fea. It extended
from S. 76° W. to Weft; and we had no foundings .wife
105 fathoms.
."". Mti.    Frefh   breezes,  with  cloudy   and   fqjually
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather, with frequent    chap.
. , ■ l VII.
fquall-s attended with rain,- which at time's bbfcured    jj—/—->
the   land.     It  appeared   broken,  the  higher 'parts
connected by low land; and to the South it was well
eultivated and diverfified by woods : towards the fea it
rofe in clayey cliffs  of a bright  yellow with  fandy
breaches.    We kept upon a wind to the S. AY., and
at 5 h. 15 m. the extremes extended from S. 80° W. to
N. 24° W. four or five leagues diftant.    The coaft ftill
prefented   the   fame   level   appearance   in   general,
very low.    At 12 h.  we  were in the lat. of 26° N.,
and as I fuppofed near the fouthern part ofthe ifland.
We plied under eafy fail till daylight.    The night was
moderate,   with  fome rain;   and  at 16 h.  the wind
fucldenly fhifted to the N. W quarter, with fqually,
unfettled weather.    At 19 h. the neareft land bore N.
30° W. three leagues, and the extremes from N. 10*
E. to N. 6?° W.    We faw no other land in any dir
rection, although the charts lay down fome iflands in
this fituation.    At 20h..we faw feveral iflands to the
W. N. W.:   the   outer one, forming like a gunner's
quoin W. by N. at 21 hours.
At noon the fouth part of the ifland Lieuchieux N.
46° E. to N. 68° E. fix or feven leagues. A low
ifland,  North  eight leagues ; from  whence they ex-
x 2 tended
tended to the ^uoin N. 34° W. in Number 5.: we
fuppofed them to be the Matqhi Iflands.    Very hazy
December,   weather.
3d. Frefh gales and dark weather prevented our making
any other remarks on Great Lieuchieux and the Mad-
jicofemah Iflands, but we fleered a courfe to fall in
with fome other iflands between them and Formofa.
At2h. 15' we loft fight ofthe Gunner's Quoin, bearing
N. by E. The gale increafed with heavy fqualls of wind
and rain, yet the barometer continued flationary.
At 9 h. we hauled upon a wind under a forefail and
clofe-reefed main-topfail. In the morning it was
more moderate, with a large fea from the northward;
and we bore away at 16 h. 15', having clear weather.
At 21 hours we faw low land to the weftward, and
at 23 h. 40' rounded a reef which extends to the eaftward of the S. E. point of this ifland, compofed
of rocks above and under water; and we had 60
fathoms coral bottom. From the maft-head an ifland
fuppofed to be feen bearing North from the reef, and
another to the N. W. : and a hummock on with S. E.
point N. 37° W. probably joined with the ifland. Juft
within the point to the weftward is a fandy bay, and
above it we difcovered a village fcattered amongfl the
trees, with fome cultivated fpots near it. At noon the
S. E. extreme N. 9° W. two or three miles. The other
extreme N. 85° W. very low. The reef N. 22° E. 45
fathoms corally bottom. Strong breezes and very
fqually, but clear and pleafant weather.
Strong breezes and fair, with heavy fqualls from the
land, that prevented our rifking any communication
with the fliore: we therefore ranged the fouth fide
at the diftance of two or three miles. This ifland
is univerfally low. On the tops of the riling grounds
were fome groves of trees, but the country in general
was covered with heath or coarfe grafs, and feveral
habitations were fcattered along fliore; we alfo ob-
ferved fmoke arifing in feveral parts. At 2 h. we had
run the extent of the ifland, and were abreaft of a
fmall iflet which is off the weft point; between it and
the fliore was a fmall reef, and between North and N.
28° W. we faw more land. An extenfive reef Avas
fituated between thefe lands, as we faw the water
frequently break; and we had 18 fathoms corally
bottom. At 5 h. 15' Ave were within five or fix miles
of a fmall ifland, bearing from N. 65° W. to N. 85°
W., and high land to the W. S. W. At 18 h. 45' the
fmall ifland bore N. 66° W. four or five leagues, and
the other ifland from N. N. E.. to E. S. E.; and the
high land extended from;$Jb?Q0WL- to itSft W^-for
which we fteeW. ■ - Alt #!' h. weWoft fight of the fmall
DeSrnber. ifland, and at neor?1 we were 'three or four miles off
•the high land, which' appeared-in •general Avell-'c-rotlied'
with Avood, and much broken;- the hills being
connected by fandy ifthmufes. The S. E. point Avas
5th. Very fine Aveather enabled  us to range1 the fliore
at a little diftance ; it lies in the direction of N. N. E.
and S. S. W., and near the S. E. extreme Ave obferved
an extenfive village. A fmall reef lies off the point,
and as we opened we difedveret?another ifland bearing
S. 75° W. from it, and falling abruptly to the fea. At
2 h. 30m. this head bore S. 88° W% the village point
N. E.: opening to fea between the ifland N. 7° E. \
and avc perceived two*rocks in the midft of breakers
X. "86s W. and S. 75° W. three or four miles, and Ave
had no bottom with 100 fathoms. 'We bore up and
paffed without them, and foon alter we law 'feVeral
low, flat iflands, extending from the■ large iflands, connected Avith each other by coral reefs ; at leaft fo much
fo in appearance as to preclude ally clear "paffage
betAveen them. At 5h. 50' we approached an ifland
of no elevation, bearing from S. 50° to S. 56° W. two
or three leagues.   The abrupt head N.;650iW.', arid in
the paflage between tAvo fmall hummocks bearing
N. 85° W. The low iflands from N. 6° W. to N. 40°
W. three or four miles ; and from N. 18° E. to N. 40°
E., on with the land about Village Point. At 18h.
30 m. the ifland fet to S.W. laft night, iioav bore N. N.
W. $ W., but fqually and hazy Aveather prevented
feeMg the high land till 19 h. 45/, when the head
bore North about five leagues, and the fame land
extended to N. 34° E.; a fmall opening N. 15° E.
Loav Ifland N. 45° E. to N. 6o E. five or fix miles.
The hwnmocks N. 27°W.; at 20 h. 30m. they bore
North, and Ave loft fight of the land..
Frefh gales, Avith dark, cloudy Aveather and
eon^nual rain, prevented our feeing more than three
or four leagues in any d&ection ; and the Avind kept
increafing to a ftrong^ gale. At 15 h. Ave furled the
topfails, and brought to the<wind under a forefail and
mizen-ftayfaii tfll-daylight.
Bojsei aAvay, and fet the topfails; very fqually
weather^ Avith fhowel-s of ram, which at times',
entirelyoofefcureddthe horizon. At 21 h. 30'through
thej^aze,4we faw the land of FoSmofa two or three-
league^prifing abruptly from the fea to a prodigious*
h¥fghtr    An  u^ooffifflfliOH tfall   of water   defcendi^
7 from
BOOK from  the  mountains   in  a perpendicular   direction j
<—j—' pointed  out   our   vicinity   to  the   land   before  we
December,   faw   it.
7th. As Ave fleered in the direction of the coaft, the high
land of Formofa appeared at intervals, when the fqualls
cleared aAvay ; and at 40h. 30 m. the fouthern part bore
S. 65° W., four or fix leagues : to the North it con-
tinued entirely obfcured. The gale ftill continued
with little variation, when being by eftimation, at
8 h. 30 m., in the latitude of 22° 45' N., we brought
to the Avind under low fail for the night. At 12 h.
wore fhip; and at 18 h. 30 m. the extremes of Formofa
extended from N. N. W. to Weft; an ifland of moderate elevation S. 80° W., four leagues; and the ifland
of Botol Tobago Zima S, 6° W., ten or twelve leagues.
The gale had confiderably abated ; and Ave made fail
to pafs between Botol Tobago and the land of Formofa, which we could fcarcely difcern for the thick
haze over the high land. At 21 h. the Loav Ifland bore
N. 50° W., four leagues; extremes of Botol Tobago
S. 23° W. to S. 27° W. Thefe iflands bore nearly
N. by E. and S. by E. of each other. At noon the
extremes of Botol Tobago South to S. 23° E., eight or
ten miles; Low Ifland North, on with Formofa; extreme point of Formofa land, making low, S. 70° W.
Soon after Ave obferved the ifland of Little Tobago
bearing from the eaft point of the great ifland S. 26° E.,
Avhich is nearly the direction of the north fide. December.
At 1 h. 15' Little Tobago open Avith fouth extreme
S. 41° E. At 3 h. 15' the north extreme of Great
Botol Tobago bore Eaft to the other extreme S. 80° E.;
Formofa from North to S. 60° W. At 5h. 30' the
centre of;Botol Tobago Zima N. 75° E.; and the
fouth extreme of Formofa S. 78° W., tAVO or three
miles: and at 5 h. 45' it bore N. 80° W., on Avith a
diftant point. At 6h. it bore W. N. W. i Weft, two
or three miles. It Avas fine moon-light; and as Ave
had not feen the Vele Rete Rocks before dark, Ave
fhaped our courfes (as per log) to pafs between them
and Formofa, founding, as per column, under our
double-reefed topfails. At 7 h. 30' Ave had 35 fathoms,
gravelly bottom: the extremes of Formofa E. N. E.
to N. by W., three or four miles off fliore. At 8 h.
the land from N. § E. to E. by N.; and Ave hauled
up to the N. W., plying under fail till day-light, Avhen
the extremes of Formofa extended from N. 10° E. to
N. 60° E.; a very high round mountain N. 10° E.,
off fliore three or four leagues. The Avind increafed
with heavy fqualls, and Ave flood to the S. E., expecting
to fee theiVele Rete Rocks ; but at 20 h. the gale had
y reduced
reduced us to courfes and main-topfail*; and feeing
nothing of them, we flood to the N. W. with a ftrong.
December,  gale.    At noon the extremes bore from N. 20° E. to
N. 70° E., about fix or eight leagues.
§th. Strong breezes and cloudy Aveather, with fhowers*
of rain.
3 h.    More moderate-   Set the topfails..
At 4 h. 30' the extremes of Formofa bore from*
N. 50° E. to N. 75° E.; and Ave faAV no more of it,,
owing to the gloomy Aveather.
12 h.    Frefh breezes and cloudy.     No bottom with*
100 fathoms.   Strong breeze and dark cloudy weather.
Swell from the northward..
toth. Strong breezes and clbtucly weather..
l6 h.    We   paffed   feveral    Chinefe  finding-boats;
and for fear of running over them Ave carried eafy fail
till day-light, and a light at the bowfprit.    At 18 h.
ftrong breezes and hazy:: made fail.    At 22 h. 30' we
faAV Pedro Blarico bearing N. 63° W...
24 h..   Frefh breezes and very hazy.    Pedro Blanco
N. 23*Q E., three or four miles..
nth. 4 h.    Saw the Lima iflands to the weftward.
5 h.    Dark hazy weather.    Double-reefed the top-
1j fails,.,
Hals, and prepared for anchoring.    At 7 h. Ave came   CHAP.
^i vn*
to in 20 rathoms, clayey bottom, between the ifland of   '—i—'
Poo Tory and the Grand Lima,  bearing from N. E.  December.
to S. E. jj the paflage to  the fea being open in that
angle from Poo Tory If miles.
12 h.    The Avind  gradually increafed to a  ftrong
gale, but Ave rode very eafy with a whole cable out.
In the forenoon it Avas more moderate, with cool and
pleafant Aveather.
Afterrnuftering the fhip's company, the officers and
feamen Avere informed that it Avas neceffary they fhould
deliver up to me their journals, remarks, or Avhatever
draAvings, &c. that related to our proceedings fince
the firft of September ult., and enjoining them alfo
to fecrecy fince that period.
Several China boats were failing among the iflands,
notAvithflanding the gale, which induced us to make
the fignal for a pilot.
Soon afternoon a Chinefe boat came on board, and
agreed to pilot the fhip to Macao for 40 dollars. At
1 h. we got underway, and made fail to the weftward.
At 6 h. Ave were Avell up with the paflage between the
ifland of Lantoe and Laf-fammu ; and Ave came to an
y 2 anchor
12 th.
anchor in 13 fathoms, muddy bottom. |e The night
was moderate, and in the morning at day-light Ave
had ftrong breezes from the North. We Avorked
through the paflage with fome difficulty, having got
under Avay at day-light for that purpofe; but the
violence of the fqualls occafioned the fhip to refufe
flays twice, and Ave were obliged to Avear. Our pilot
in thefe cafes Avas of little ufe, for he did not feem
any way acquainted Avith our movements, only re-
quefting to anchor immediately. This channel from
the Lima iflands is clear of all danger; and, if ne-
ceffary, you can ahvays bring up in lefs than 2Q
fathoms. It is univerfally frequented in the N. E.
After Aveathering Laf-fammu, Avhich bears nearly
Weft of Macao, we made a ftrait courfe; and at 22 h.
Ave came to in the roads in 4 fathoms, foft muddy
bottom : the fort bearing N. 65° W., and Cabrita
point S. 20° W., off fhore two or three miles. We
found the Crefcent, Company's packet, riding here,
having arrived very lately from England Avith dispatches. By her we had the fatisfaction of being informed of the principal events Avhich had occurred
fince our leaving Europe. Having been abfent from
thence tAventy-two months,  our curiofity Avas highly
gratified by the communication.    Our people were in    chap.
perfect health ; aud we had only to lament the lofs of   ^—,—.*
one man by ficknefs fince Ave failed from Plymouth  December;.
On our arrival I fent an officer to wait upon the
Governor. In the afternoon the officer returned from
the GoArernor, Ayho politely offered us every civility in
his power; and the folIoAving day he fent off the
mafter of the port to carry the fhip into the harbour
of the Typa. On getting under way we faluted the
fort with eleven guns, and they returned an equal
number. At funfet we came to in the harbour; and
the next morning moored the fhip, with her ftream
anchor to the weftward, in 4| fathoms. The town of
Macao juft open to us; and the harbour N. 25° W.,
tAvo or three miles.
It was the end of the month before I had fufli-
ciently recovered the ufe of my arm to leave the fhip,
when hearing there was a fmall veffel in Lark's bay
for fale, I thought it Avould be highly advantageous
to the voyage to purchafe her; and on an examination, finding fhe was very well calculated for the
purpofe, I made the agreement on the fpot, and gave
the mafter L. 1500 fterling for her.    She Avas fchooner-
rigged, and regiftered at 87 tons. On the 30th
joined us in the Typa; on Avhich day arrived Rear-
Admiral Rainer, in his Majefty's fliip Suffolk, with
the SAvift floop of Avar from Amboyna, having come
from thence through Gilolo paffage, and bound to
Madrafs on the ooaft of Coromandel. Four home-
Avard-bound Indiamen joined them in Macao roads
from Canton, and rfailed under their convoy on the
7th of January 1797-
The Aveather throughout the laft month was cold
and pleafant, varying in the night, the wind from
North to N. E. in the day,, with fine weather, but very
hazy, and generally blowing ftrong from ftrarife till
funfet, Avhen it ufually moderated. The carpenters
Avere bufily employed caulking the fhip, and repairing
our other defects where moft necefiary.
Throurghout this month Ave were employed repairing
our rigging, and in other refpects refitting the fhip,
and repairing the defects of the fchooner, altering the
ftep of her naain-maft, and making new. fails both for
•her and the fhip.
On the 18th fired 21  guns in compliment to her
Majefty's birth day.   The 20th and 21ft were very
%aally, with rain; and at times foggy Aveather.    An chap.
Enghfli brig, called the Experiment, was nearly loft —$—J
in the late blowing weather,, and only faved by the January.
afliftance of out boats.    The winds Avere very regular
from the N. E. quarter,  and we had,  Avith very little
variation, conftant dry and cool Aveather.
Having completed the caulking of the fhip, the February.
carpenters were employed in repairing the copper
under water, and other neceffary avocations. Chinefe
painters Avere engaged paining the fhip and boats;
and the fhip's company completing the rigging, and
receiving; fome provifions from Macao, viz. bifcuhV
callivances, rice, and arrack; failmakers at work on
fliore, oppofite the fhip, where we pitched fome tents
for their convenien^y, and others for the aftronomer
to regulate the gouig of a time-piece Ave had. upon a.
trial. Winds and Aveather continued much the fame ^
and at intervals Avhen the Avind was variable, we had
feme fhoAvers of rain.
The Governor of Macao, Avith feveral gentlemen,,
dined on board. His Excellency was faluted. Avith
eleA^en guns.
The month fet in Avith variable and fqually Aveather^
attended Avith frequent rain.    The fchooner, on the
BOOK 8th, Avent up to the Boca Tigris, to bring us down
—v—i fome ftores and fait provifions, which fhe was to receive there by a chop boat from the Eaft India fhips
lying in Canton river, Avith orders by no means to
enter the Bogue, for fear of giving offence to the
Chinefe government. Several officers took this opportunity of Adfiting Canton for a few days.
13 th. A Spanifh brig arrived from Manilla, and Avent into
Macao harbour. As the weather permitted, we completed the Avatering; and in other refpects prepared
for fea. In the morning of the 18th the fchooner returned from Bo.cca Tigris; and Ave received by her
cordage, canyas, pitch, tar, &c. with fait provifions,
and 20 chefts of tea. The middle and latter parts of
the month the wind Avas chiefly from the S. E. quarter,
with rain. On the 26th failed a fmall cutter, called
the Dragon, for the N. W. coaft of America. The
following days Ave had a great deal of bad weather,
Avith thunder and lightning ; and we parted our ftream
cable.    Wind at South and S. S. W.
April. The fhip and fchooner being perfectly ready for fea,
we only waited favourable Avinds to proceed out
of the Typa, and to receive feme more naval ftores
from the Eaft Indiamen lately arrived,  for which I
was again obliged to fend the fchooner up to Anfon's
The weather continued moderate and pleafant from
the N. E. quarter; and on the 10th Ave Avarped out of
the Typa, and came to in the entrance, in 5 fathoms;
Macao fort upon the hill bearing N. 45° W., and
Cabarita point S. 10° W. two miles : the bar fort
being juft fliut in with the point Avhich forms the
ftarboard entrance into the Typa. This anchorage
appeared to me moft eligible for the conveniency of
communicating Avith the toAvn, and for running into
the harbour Avhen neceffary ; and if you lay two miles
more to the eaftward, you have no more water. In
this fituation you may Avater your fhip Avith great eafe
on either of the iflands going in, attending to the
We had on board fifteen months' provifions between-
the veffels, and cpnfidered ourfelves perfectly Avell
equipped for the profecution of the voyage: our
creAv being in perfect health, as when Ave arrived.
During our long refidence Ave had been conftantly fup-
plied Avith frefh beef or pork, and plenty of vegetables.
The people had alfo bread baked for them every day.
Having brought out a copper oven Avith us for that
z purpofe,
book    parpofe, it Avas noAV made ufe of, being fet up on
fhore, where the tents  were pitched.    The Chinefe
who refided on the ifland gave us no moleftation: on
the contrary, they were of great fervice to us, by lending us the ufe of their rope Avalks, and aflifting us to
makje cord^igj? at a reafonable confideration.
The laft three months I refided chiefly on fhore,.
conapleting a general furvey of the Kerule iflands,
and tranfmitting; a copy of them, w$th my proceedings and future intentions, for the informa^on of
their Lordfhips.
.,J fhould be extremely remifs Avere I to neglect ex-
preffing the particular politenefs and marked attention
I received from Mr. Drummond and M^. Arthur, tAvo
gentlemen of the Englifh factory; and to acknoAV-
ledge, in the higheft terms, the refpectful good conduct
of the Governor, Seignor Don de Ponto.
The folloAving nautical obfervations Avere made here
by Mr. Crofley, the aftronomer, who had a tent pitched
in a fmall bay, at the back of the village near Rocky
Head in the Typa.
Latitude by meridian obfervations, 22°   9' 40" N.
Longitude mean of obferved diftattces,   1130 32'   8" E.
Byf-*firi|fle aMi&ides of the fun, taken by Mr. CroGey
N°~4SJ>,  box time-piece  (made by Mr. Arnold), was
flow for mean time 7h. 32' 42".ll, on the 8th of April
at noon, and gaining on meantime 0".4l9 per day.
The $des3w.ere fo variable between 9 h. and II h.,
-fijH and change, there Avas no abfolfately fixing itihe
"tfgte offhigih waAer.r
Pleafant'biJeezes, aiid fair weather from the northward. I'd the rnbrnirrg we got undet way, and faluted
the fort with 11 guns ; they returned an equal number.
We made fail to the eaftward, towards the Lantoe
paflage'V but the ebb tide having made ftrong, we
C^uld not wteather the fmall-ifland of Chang-cheou,
^and->frere obliged to bring up cldfeito it iifc4f fathoms
°#ltbHi%al"f amiile ofits northern point; Ma'cao beanirfg
Weft, and Linfing Ifland N. 15° E, In the evening,
with a 'Mght air from the jfduthward, we weighed,
and foon after came to in five fathoms. At day-light
Ling-ting bore N. 27° E., and the fouth point of
Lantoe S. 60° E. In this fituation 'we waited the
return of the fchooner, with the wind fouth-eafterly.
Variable weather, with heavy rains from the South,
and light winds.
9   2
7b  A3
April 14th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY, Sec. In the night the fchooner arrifed,
and in the forenoon' we got under Avay. in company
with her; having light airs, but trifling, which ot>hged
us to anchor.    .
l ph.
Light breezes, and fair wind at S..-StabWith the
ebb tide in the afternoon Ave got under Avay, and
worked through the paflage of Lantoe. In the night
we came to, and heaving up the next morning, we
broke the iron flock of the anchor ~ At 8 A. M. we
came to in ten fathoms ;, Lantoe Point N. 46° W.
three or four leagues..
16th. j{N Frefh breezes and hazy weather from the eaftward.
With the tide in the afternoon we got under Avay,
and turned to windward. At dark we came to. A
large fwell came in from the eaftward; and in the
morning the fchooner having parted her 1 cable, we
remained at anchor till they recovered theij& .#
book m
Tranfattions during our Second Expedition to
the North through the Straits of Sangaar, and
on our Return home by the Coast of Corea and
the Yellow Sea to Macbas.
Delay ofthe Voyage arifingfrom the Prevalence of Eqflerly Winds.—
Ifland of Lamey:—Off Formofa^—Land at the Ifland ofPa-chu-
fan.-r—Obfervations- en it.—The- Ship unfortunately wrecked on a
Coml-Reef near ,the Ifland of Typinfan.
A light air from the Weft on the 19th. carried "Us   bookii:
in fight of Poo-tory.    At dark it failed us, and we an-   —*-L.
chored in 14 fathoms.
April 19$,
Moderate breezes and hazy Aveather, Avhich foon
increafed to a thick fog; and we had the wind
ApriUoth. eafterly. H$fTing sffeighed foon after nd£5n, Ave flood
over the Lima Iflands, and tacked clofe in the paflage
which divides the outer^flailds; and before dark we
came Jo an anchor near Poo-tory in 13 fathoms.
The fame AA-eather It-fll continued from the E. N. E.,
and fo foggy as to prevent our feeing the points which
form the paflage to- 4ea between- Poo-tory and the
Grand Lima. I moft fincerely lamented this delay
fo contrary to my expectations. Nor had we the
leaft profpect of a change of wind to permit our
gettnigTo fea, the breeze and fog ftm* contfeuing as
On Sunday Ave got under way, the fog having
difperfed; and Ave fetched well up with the eaft
extreme of the Great Lima, tacking clofe in Avith a
finall bayvifoB,$he Weft of tfae-^point, Mfhcre are feveraj
^tefes. As we flood for Po«S-tory—we had fqually
arfd thick weather #orn the N. E. quarter ;" and feeing
no profpect of cleatmg the paflage before dark,
we bore up, and came to an anchor in 15 fathom*;
extreme point of Poo-tory bearing N. 80° E. one
mile, and the extreme of Grand Lima S. 45° E. Jx
blew ftrong in the night, and we had a large rwell
which ftill continued, notwifelaftanding the wind moderated the folldwing,d.ay. As the wind kept in«afiftbJ^
fixed in the eaftern quarter, Ave employed the boafesf
watering at the head of a fmall bay, within a rocky
iftet on -iHe Aveftesfrrpart of Poo-i,qry. Many fifhifg-
boatfe took flielter in it for the fa-pie purpofe, as
they found good anchorage, and protection from th$
eafterly Avindsf; the foundings were regular from five to
^IFfefh breezes and clear Aveather, "flftth the v«rin$
at N. N. E., induced me to get under wfty* notftith}
ftanding the he#yy fwell againft us. We plied to the
eaftward ineffectually all the af|£i3gpon, g-nd finding we
could not weather the Grand Lima before ni^L
Mid the anoh^rage being ineligible for the fehoonerj,
we Avere once more nee$ffitatefl to bear up for our
former birth, and came to in 12 fathoms; the poigt
of Poo-tory E. S. E. three or four miles. Throughout
ihe might we had conftant lightning from the Aveft-
«-* £2 CD CD
ward. The mopping Avas calm, with pleafant weather;
•and foon after noon a Ifteeze of Avjad fp^inging up
:from -the S. W. quarter, we immediately got u-ader
way, and made fail to the eaftward, with the ebb
tide in our favourr. The fchooner not being able
to weather Poo-toryi flie paffed to the North o0t, and
6 South
BOOfC   South of Way-loang, having a clear paflage, and no
—/-—*   foundings Avith  13 or 14 fathoms,  and before dark
April,     joined us in the offing.
I believe it is univerfally acknowledged the change
of the monfoon takes place in thefe feas in April, or
at leaft the Avinds are variable; but in no one inftance
have Ave experienced the obfervation, havteg had  a
regular eafterly Avind Avithout the fmalleft .variation, to
our great mortification   and difappointment:   for  it
in  the  firft place  very  much  retarded our  voyage
to the North;   and  in  the next by  the   prevalence
of the eafterly winds and foggy weather, Avhich concurred materially to have affected the health of our
people, whjp were univerfally afflicted  Avith the dyfen-
tery, and fome of them in a violent degree.   We could
only attribute it to the hazy and confined flate of
the atmofphere, Avhich feldom permitted the fun to
appear.     Yet there  were  fome  who  fufpected  our
complaints   to   proceed   from   the   water   we   took
on board in the Typa.    Be that as it may, I never
faAV better water in my life, or more care taken in
procuring it.    In refpect to our flock,  Ave were more
at a  lofs to  conjecture the caufe of their malady,
and in confequence not being able  to afford them
any relief; Ave loft the whole of our pigs, that had been
our conftant flock fince leaving Otaheite, and ac-
CD *
cuftomed to their diet.
Light breezes and fair Aveather ; Handing cut to fea
betAveen Poo-tory and the Great Lema.
At 4 h. 30 m. the eaft point of the Great Lema bore
South three or four miles, and Ave fleered Eaft to go
South of Pedro Blanco.
12 h. Moderate Aveather, Avith lightning to* the
18h. Very little Avind : at 6 A.M. Ave faAV Pedro
Blanco, bearing N. 18° E. three or four miles;
having run 39 miles from the time the Great Lema
bore South. Dark cloudy weather, and fqually;
the wind fuddenly fhifted to the eaftward. At 22 h.
tacked, and flood to the northward.
24 h. Moderate breezes, and very hazy weather
prevented our feeing Pedro.
Frefh breezes and dark cloudy weather. At 2 h.
Ave faAV Pedro Blanco N. 15° W.; and at 4 h. we
paffed on the eaft fide of it, within half a mile, and Ave
had 22 fathoms, fine grey fand. We flood in fhore
three leagues, but the gloomy Aveather prevented our
At 6 h.  Ave tacked, having 14 fa-.
a a thorns.
feeing the land
thorns. At 7 h. the rock bore off us Sou-tte, four or
five miles.
12 h.    Squally and variable, with4requent rain.
20 h.    Tacked and flood to the North.
24 h. Thick weather. Pedro Blanco N. 52° W.*
three or four leagues.
30th. Moderate breezes and hazy weather.    At 1 h. 30 m.
We faw the coaft of China to the N. W.; and at 2 h.
Pedro Blanco bore Weft, three or four leagues.
6 h. The land extended from N. 33° W. to *E. N. E.,
four or five leagues; and we had 13 fathoms-water.
At 6 h. 30'm. tacked Avith a very light air of Avind.
r^3 h. Frefh breezes and dark gloomy weather.
At 22 h. 30 m. tacked in 36 fathoms, fandy bottom.
No fun vifible this morning.
May ift.        Frefh breezes and very hazy weather.    Our foundings gradually decreafed as Ave approached the land.
The coaft of China bore from N. 40° E. to Weft,
Which ^extreme made a fmall ifland. At f paft Ave
tacked in 14 fathoms, four or five leagues from the
17 h. Tacked ffeip ; and at 20 h. we faw the land
indiftinctly through the haze: and at noon Ave tacked
in the centre of a large bay; the points forming it    char
N. 7%° E. and S. 72° W. : an entrance to a river, or
opening for boats, bore N. 35° E. We had 10 fathoms,
tAvo miles off fliore. Off each extreme Ave obferved
a reef of rocks above \va±ec.,,
24 h. Very hazy Aveather. The furface of the fea
Avas covered with innumerable fifliing-boats that Avent
out of this fandy bay.
Frefh breezes and thick hazy weather, Avith rain.
17 h.    Strong breezes,  with heavy  rain.    Tacked
fhip, and double-reefed the topfails.
24 h.    Ditto Aveather.    Clofe-reefed the topfails.
Frefli gales and thick hazy Aveather, with continual
6 h. The haze cleared aAvay for a fliort time, which
gave us an indiftinct vieAV ofthe land to the northAvard,
three or four leagues. Half paft, Ave Avore fhip and
ftood to the S. E.
12 h. Ditto gales, with thunder, lightning, and
very heavy rain, and a confufed head fea, obliged us
to take in the fore and mizen topfails. Half paft,
Avore fhip ; and the Aviiid Avas moderated and variable.
Set the topfails ; the gale, to all appearance, having
broke up.
a a 2 24 h.
£ O O K
May 4th.
24 h.
Dark and threatening weather.
Frefh breezes and dark hazy Aveather, with the appearance of heavy fqualls round the horizon, Avhich
produced inceffant rain and a calm for a feAv hours.
7 h.    Light airs, Avith rain.    Tacked fhip.
9 h.    Tacked fhip.
16 h. The wind fuddenly increafed to a ftrong gale
from the fouthAvard, which reduced us to our courfes
and main-topfail ; the fchooner being preffed with
fail to keep way Avith us. Towards noon it gradually
cleared away to the North and Weft, and Ave had
more moderate weather. This agreeable change admitted our obferving the latitude, for the firft time
fince our departure from Macao. Sounded 25 fathoms, fine fand.
-th. The wind left us fuddenly, and we had clear pleafant
weather. At 9 h. a gentle breeze from the S. W. permitted our courfe to the eaftward ; and Ave had 26
fathoms, fine fand and broken fhells.
Throughout the night Ave had a great deal of lightning, with frequent claps of thunder, and inceffant
heavy rain. At day-light Ave made fail, having a
moderate breeze, with dark and rainy weather.    Our
foundings Avere 24 fathoms. At 22 h. we paffed over chap.
ftrong riplings, with the appearance of fhoal Avater;
and our foundings had decreafed to 15.and 10 fathoms,
coarfe gravel and broken fhells. We hove to Avhile
the fchooner went a-head of us, and afterwards followed her under a fail. Till noon we continued the
fame irregular foundings, varying every call of the
lead five or fix fathoms.
24 h.    Moderate breezes, Avith rain.
Variable weather, with continual hard rain. Our
foundings were unequal from 18 to 17 fathoms,
gravelly bottom. The fchooner kept a-head of us,
and in the night fhe carried a light.
7 h. Light winds, Avith a great deal of lightning
and rain.    At 7 h. we fleered N. E.
13 h.    Variable winds, with heavy rain.
16 h.    Strong breezes.    Clofe-reefed the topfails.
20 h.    § paft, we had no bottom Avith 30 fathoms.
24 h. Black fand. The wind more moderate, but
ftill inceffant rain.
Moderate breezes and thick weather, with continual
rain : 55, 59, and 55 fathoms, fine fand. Thefe
foundings Avere regular till after 7 h., when we had
60 fathoms, black fand ; after which time Ave had no
bottom Avith 100 fathoms.
7h. Light ains -and cloudy, Avith fliOAvers of rajgL
during the rnght.    At day-Jight Ave faAV land extendr
CD - > OJ   I *f -CD
ing from S. E. to N. E.
19 h. The breeze died. aAvay, and Ave had calm
fultry Aveather, Avith intermitting fliOAvers of ragi. At
noon the higher parts of Formofa were obfcured, but
the extremes bore from S. 68° E. to N. 40° E., four or
five leagues.    In this fituation we had  114 fathoms,
CD *
gravelly bottom.    Dark gloomy Aveather.
8th. Calms and light airs, Avith gentle fliOAvers of rain.   At
5 h. Ave Avere Avithin two leagues ofthe fliore ; and Ave
tacked in 23 fathoms, muddy bottom. The coaft Avas
A\ell Avooded, Avith Tandy beaches; and Ave obferved
many habitations. After dark the Aveather cleared .up,
and we.had a fine moon-light, Avhich gave us an opportunity of obferving for the latitude.
6 h. In the morning, Avith a light breeze Ave flood
in fliore, and fetched nearly the fame fituation Ave
were in laft evening, when Ave tacked ; the extremes
extending from N. 30° E. to S. 45° E.
9 h. Finding the Avind again fixed in the N. E.
quarter, and no probability of its changing to enable
7 us
us pafling through the ftraits of Formofa, I thought it chap
needlefs to lofe any more time in the attempt, and accordingly altered our courfe to the fouthAvard, Avith a
pleafant breeze and fair Aveather, a pleafure we had
long been deprived of. As Ave fleered along fliore,
we perceived feveral people on fmall floats going out
a fifhing. Some of them came along-fide, which gave
us an opportunity to remark their curious appearance.
They Avere limply compofed of bamboos lafhed together, about 20 feet by 6 feet; the mail fixed in a
wooden flep in the centre, and they appeared to fail
faft.    Each float carried three men.
By miftake Ave loft taking the funs altitude at noon;
but the fchooner being Avithin hail, their latitude will
be nearly ours r Avhen the extremes of Formofa bore
from M 12° E. to S. 46° E.; high and ragged land,
N. 35° E. to N. 75° E. four or five miles.
Over the beach Ave faAV feveral junks at anchor; and
the country feemed Avell inhabited. The ifland, called
Lamay in the charts, S. 35° E. four or nVe leagues.
At 4h. 30m. the fouth point of the ifland of Lamay     9*-
bore Eaft.   This ifland is of moderate elevation, and not
more than five or fix miles in circumference; diftant
from Formofa three or four leagues. It was cultivated
and inhabited, as Ave faAV many houfes: Ave alfo obferved
cattle feeding on feveral parts. By our run fmce noon,
I make its latitude 22° 22' N.; and it bears from the
land fet at noon, near Fort Zealand, N. 18° W. and
S. 18° E.
Ff '
I' I
At funfet we had no foundings; and the extremes
of Formofa bore from N. 16° W. to S. 50° E.; the
ifland of Lamay, N. 10° W. to N. 7° E., off fliore four
or five leagues. This night Avas very light; airs and
calms; and Ave had no bottom Avith 120 fathoms of
line. At day-light Formofa extended from N. 20° W.
to S. 70° E., five or fix leagues diftant. We fleered
more to the eaftward, for the fouth point of Formofa,
Avithout gaining any foundings; and at 21 h. 30 m. we
faw the Vele Rete Rocks from the maft-head. By
noon we were betAveen them and the fouth part of
Formofa, with fine clear weather, and a gentle breeze
from the AveftAvard. A good obfervation made the
latitude 21o 50' N. : the Rocks of the Vele Rete
bearing S. 34° E., eight miles ; fouth-eaft point of
Formofa, N. 63° E. ; fouth-Aveft point, N. 35° W.;
and Ave had no bottom Avith 75" fathoms. Thefe two
points bear from each other S. 85° E. and N. 85* W.
J2'.    The fhore between  them is  low,  Avith  fandy
beaches; and at unequal diftances are fcattered fome'
high black rocks. The land rofe gradually from the
fea, prefenting a fertile appearance, interfperfed Avith
fome rocky eminences : one of them very remarkable,
in the fhape of a friar's hood. Vele Rete Rocks bear
N. 12° E. and S. 12° W. from the fouth-eaft point,
diftant 12 miles ; and from the fouth-weft point,
N. 34° W. and S. 34° E., 15 miles. We were very
fortunate in having fc^ goo4 an opportunity for determining the fituation of the above places; as they are
not laid doAvn fufficiently correct in the charts, Avith
refpect to their latitude. In the paflage we experienced a ftrong current felting to the eaftward,
with ftrong riplings.
Soon after noon we faw the ifland* of Botol Tobago
Xima bearing N. 76° E., on with the fouth-eaft point
of Formofa; and at lh. 30m. the fouth-eaft point bore
Weft, and Ave hauled up N. N. E. At 4 h. P. M. the
wind fuddenly died away, and we had light breezes
from the northAvard. At funfet the fouth point of
Formofa bore S. 46° W.; and Botol Tobago, S. 48° E.
to S. 53° E.; Low Ifland, N.. 35° E., off the high land
of Formofa, four or five miles, N. 62° W. It was
nearly calm throughout the night, arraVe found the
effects of a ftrong current fetting to the North; for at
b b day-light
• .$797-
book daydight av©were well up with the low ifland, and we
had a gentle Av4iid &Om the fouth ward. ^*he ifland
of Botol Tobago Xima S. 4» W. to S. 12*'W. At
18 h. the north eStferrie of the Ioav ifland bore Weft,
four or five miles. A rock is fituated North of it.
$his ifland was covered Avith verdure, and is of little
Extent. At noon it bore of us S. 21° W.; and the
extrenwiand of Formofa, North, off the neareft fhore
-three or four leagues ; and we had no foundings.
Takiflg a departure1 from Formofa fouth point, Ave are
30' North of account.
The coaft from the fouth point continue!* low for
eight or ten leagues; and two or three leagues North
of it, you have anchorage in 20 and 15 fathoms, half
a loUe from the fliore; and feveral ftreams of water
very convenient to be got at, a-bre-aft of you. In. 22°
SXy N. the high land commences, rifrag abruptly from
the fea; and the/^ery funrrnftsof thefmoua-Jajns clothed
with AvoocjLr Thefe>i#i6ienfe mountains take the defection of the ifland, nea-% North and South.
Sout-h-^atft'point of Formofa,
Vele Rete Rocfce,
0,,m,       v.       CN. Point, 220 05'
Botol -Tobaeo jXima,. •< „ _ . J
<* nttr* £ S. Point,  220   o'
Low Ifland or Tobago*,
Little Botol Tobago Xima,
2i° 55'
120° 47'
21° 43'
1200 44'
22° 05'
121° 35'
22°    O'
121° 41'
22° 40'
21° 54'
121° 47'
fprung up from the N. E., and we flood in fhore
till paft 6, Avhen Ave tacked within I a mile, having1
no foundings with 100 fathoms. The extremes of
Formofa, feen indiftinctly through the haze, bore from
N. 8° E. to S. 18° Wh ; a fmall ftream of water through
the vallies bore S. 18° W. Gur eftimated latitude1
Avas .23° 12' N.;. but the current ftill Continuing, will
make our fituation more northerly.
We fet the rigging up fore and aft.   At 4h. a breeze    CHAP.
Count Benyoufky is faid to have foqnd a harbour
on this part of the coaft, but we faw nothing wearing
that appearance, i We lay to till 10 h., Avhen the
fchooner having joined us, we flood to 4&e 3SF-. E.,
having the Avind at N. N. W.    After ttiidnight we had
^3 CD
a fteady wind from the N. Hi quarter, Arifii darK
gloomy weather, and frequent fliOAvers of tain. We
had fight of the fun about noon, but could not depend
upon it.
This oday we had the misfortune to find the foreman: rotten, extending through the centre of the mafi;
from the heel upwards above the mainftays. It was1
difcovered after the rigging had been fet up, by the1
mail; fettling and renting beloAv the wedges, opening
fo much as to difcover the internal part to be eriwrwp
b b 2 decayed,
BOOK decayed, leaving fix inches diameter of found wood
outfide. We prepared by fiflies, and Avedging the
matt in the upper deck, to make it do for the A^oyage:
the carpenter thinking it practicable, as our fillies-
were the length of the maft; and for the prefent Ave
carried very eafy fail, and got the top-gallant maft
doAvn upon deck. At 9 h. Ave tacked, and throughout
the night Ave had moderate Aveather- At 21 h. we faAV
an ifland to the northward; and at noon we were
within three or four leagues of it, Avhen it extended
from North to N. 23° E.    No obfervation..
Illl       At 4 P. M. the ifland bore from N. 55° E. to N.
74° E., AvhenAve tacked in hopes of getting clofe to it
before dark, in Avhich we Avere difappointed ; for at 7
Ave were at the fame diftance from it, Avhen it extended'
from N. 18° W.   to   N. 20°  E.    Several fires were
lighted upon, it immediately after dark; and Ave had
no foundings with,  100 fathoms.     At  midnight W&
tacked : at 5 A. M. the ifland bore from N. 38° W. to
N. 53° W., five, or fix leagues; and we faw more iflands
to the eaftward.    The forenoon Ave had light* airs and
pleafant Aveather, and we flood to the North.    By our
obfervation at noon it appeared Ave had experienced
a ftrong current, Avhich had fet us N. 43° E., 88 miles
the firft day after leaving Formofa.    As the fchooneiv
in the morning ofthe 11th, had feen the above ifland,
its quartered direction was N. E. and S. W., about five
or fix miles, of moderate elevation, falling abruptly
at each extreme, with a peaked hill in the centre.
At noon it bore from S. 86° W. to S. 76° W., about
ten miles ; Hummock Ifland, S. 46° E.; and another
more extenfive, S. 65° E. to S. 85° E., near fix or feven.
leagues.    Thefe two we had feen laft year.
Light airs continued tillfun-fet; and throughout the     Mth»
•night it was clear and fultry weather.    At 6h. 10 m.
the weftern ifland bore from S. 82° W. to Weft ; Hummock Ifland, S. 41° E. ;   and the eaftern ifland,. S*.
64° E. to S.. 88° E-   At funrife a gentle breeze permitted our fleering towards the iflands ; and at 22.h.
the Hummock Ifland bore of us South,, eight or ten
■miles.    It appeared broken and rocky, and of very
•little extent.    From the main-top we could difcern a
fandy ifland, noticed  laft year, which now bore S.
30° E., on with the Ateft point of the eaftern ifland.
At noon  w^e Avere within three miles   of this  land,
iwhieU was highly diverfified by wood, and prefented a
nmry  fertile profpect;   but Ave could not reach the
.bottom with 100 fathoms.    The entrances extended
ffeom South to N. 60° E.; Hummock Ifland, S. 22° W.;
a fmall bay, S. 45° E.:  the fouth point four or five
6 miles..
BOOK miles. We faAV fome canoes pafling clofe ia fhore;
and tbe fchooner was directed to keep between us and
the land.
fl| We fleered in the ddreibion of the ifland, at a league
diftanc®.    At 4h. we were a-breaft of a fmall ifland
off the N. E. part.    It Avas low and flat, covered Avith
brufh-wood   and   coarfe  grafs.      An   extenfive  reef,
partly dry, extended from each extreme.    This fmall
ifle is very little diftance from the larger one,  which
tended  to the S. E. from its north extreme ; and we
fleered Eaft for another ifland,  which we had paffed
laft.fearon its eaftern fide.    We foon after difcovered
the range of low iflands joining each other by corai
reefs, that feemed to exclude any paflage between the
two large iflands ; and yet we had no foundings.    At
7 h. the iflet bore from 53° W. to 65° W., four or five
- miles, on with the nocth extreme of the fouthern large
ifland ;  extreme of ditto, S. 18° E.;   Peaked Ifland
among the reefs, S. 25° E.;   the other ifland   about
Village point extreme, S. 55° E.,~ and extending to
N. 74° E., five or fix leagues.    At 11 h. Ave hauled
our wind, and remained plying  till   daylight, when
the extremes extended from N. 80° E. to S. 10° W.
three or four leagues off fhore; and the ifland we ha'U
paffed  in the  afternoon   bore from  S* 30° W.  to*
V S. 60°
the land; I therefore difpatched a boat to acquire
fome knoAvledge of the inhabitants, whom Ave plainly
difcerned Avith our glaffes. I Avas prevented laft year
from gaining any information refpecting them by
bad weather; and hitherto we- could find no fafe
anchorage from the depth of water and corally
At noon we were Avithin four miles of the fhore,
abreaft of a bay overrun Avith reefs; and Ave had
125 fathoms water, hard ground : the extremes
bearing from N. 56° E. to S. 48° W. The ifland
in this part was contracted to a narrow' ifthmus,
and South of it Avas a confpicuous fugi!r*-loaf hill.
Towards the evening the boat returned from the
fhore, having been protected by the fchooner during
the time they had landed. With fome difficulty
they fourid a paflage through the coral reef Avhich
extends! along the coaft nearly half a mile off: Avithin
it the boat was well fheltered; and without the
reef their foundings were irregular from fifty to five
&s...   ' t    '•! '|'~--   They
S. 60° W.    In the forenoon Ave had light airs and    chap.
& i.
fultry   Aveather,   Avhich   prevented   our   approaching
They had the good fortune foon after difembarking
to find a path-way, which foon led them to a fmall
village, confuting of about 30 houfes. On entering
one of them they found an elderly man, Avho treated
them Avith great civility, and offered refrefhments,
Avhich they partook of. The reft of the inhabitants
entirely deferted -their houfes, but obferving the
peaceable behaviour of the matter (Mr. Chapman),
on re-embarking they joined their party at the. water's
fide, excepting the Avomen Avho were feen at fome diftance in the country.
Thefe people were different in fome refpects in their
appearance both to the Chinefe and Japanefe. Their
hair was rolled up to the crown of the head, and
fattened with two metal pins; and they Avere dreffed
in loofe linen gowns and trowfers. They faluted the
officers by joining their hands and lifting them to
their heads in a flow manner. The houfes were of
one ftory, of a fquare form, ^and the roof meeting in a
point, and thatched with coarfe reeds: the infide
of them Avere neat and clean, and covered with matts
upon Avhich they flept. The name of the ifland they
called Patchufan, and the large one to the Aveft of it
Rocho-o-ko-ko. Their produce was the fame, both
iflands abounding by their defcription in rice, millet,
tfwebt potatoes and tarro.    They have alfo black cattle   chap.
and horfes, pe'&ehes and limes; and from appearances   *——*—>
I 70*7*.
our gentlemen were led to judge they poffeffed many     .May
other articles which their fliort flay prevented -then'
They appeared harmlefs arid- indffenfive in their
taanners ; nor did they fhew any arms or weapons of
Light airs and favourable weather. At 5 h. the
boat returned, and we flood to the north-weftward
With a frefh breeze. At 7 h. the extremes of Patch u-
fan bore from Eaft to S. 20° E., and Rocho-o-ko-'ko
S. 10° W. to S. 42° W.
12 h.    Moderate weather ; Avore fhip.
17 h. At daylight the north extreme of Patchufan
bore S. 65° E., and at noon it bore S. 14° Wc fi«
leagues. The Peaked IIill S. 30° W., and Ave faw
no other land. The carpenters employed hooping
the fifties on the foremaft, and the feamen woolding
the maft;-which enabled us to carry thctbrefail rfefed,
and fore-topfail clofe reefed, v
We fleered Eaft with the intention of examining
the nokh Me of the iflands' Ave had paffed to  thp     llth-
c c South
• 1797-
K South laft year; and the fchooner's fignal Avas made to
fleer E. by S. At tAvo P.M. we juft difcovered a
fmall fandy ifland from the deck, bearing S. 15* E.
five leagues. At 3 h. Ave faw another ifland bearing
Eaft, and we hauled E. N. E.j and at 4h. the
„ fchooner's fignal was made to haul her Avind upon
the larboard tack. At J paft 5 we hauled our wind,,
and fhortened fail for the fchooner to come up
with us. At 7 P- M. an hummock making like an
ifland, beyond the extreme of the other ifland, bore
S. 60° E.; and the extreme point of land feen bearing
Eaft, noAv bore S. 10 W. about five leagues. At
this time the mate of the watch from the mafthead
reported there was no land to be feen to the Fiaft or
North of the Hummock Ifland, nor in any other
direction; neither Avas there the fmalleft danger in
vieAv from the appearance of the coaft to the S. E.
on our lee-beam. I therefore flood on, meaning to
tack at 8 hours, and ply to the Avindward till daylight.
The moon Ave expected to rife at midnight, and the
fchooner Avas not yet up in her ftation. The fhip
Jay N. E. f N. going 41 knots Avith her main tack
on board. Immediately after taking the bearings,
I left the deck to protract our fituation; which I
found to be on the north fide of the ifland we had
pafl&J on the 3d of December laft year (called by
the natives Typinfan), and  Avhich bloAving Aveather    chap.
prevented our having any communication with. ^m^m*
About half after feven Avhite water Avas feen a-head
and upon each boAV, and reported to the officer
of the watch (Lieut. Vafhon); and almoft directly
after, the fhip ftruck upon a reef of coral rocks.
Having felt the fliock, Avhich Avas not violent, I
inftantly Avent upon deck, and by the Avay met Mr.
Vaflion coming to acquaint me with the difafter.
The officers and men Avere upon deck in a moment,
and the fails directly braced aback. It appeared
to me the helm was a-Aveather, and the fhip's head
about E. N. E., fails all full. Had the helm been
put a-lee on feeing the danger, I think we fhould have
efcaped it.
The proper fignals were made to the fchooner, and
the mafter fent to anchor her as near as poflible, to
heave by her. The fhip foon after paid off, with
her head to the eaftward; and Ave hauled up the
mainfail, fhivering the other fails, to let her go round
without acquiring head Avay: before fhe paid off to
the fouthward, fhe again ftruck fore and aft, and
remained fixed at laft with her head due South.
Breakers were then upon each boAV, and we had from
cc2 five
five to fifteen fathbms in the. ftarboard chaipi£, and
only 2f fathoms at times both a-head and a-ftern.
Having choked the rudder, the topmafls Avere 'ftruck;
and Ave began hoifip-ng the boats out, the loAver yards
having been kept up for that purpofe. At this time
the fliip did not ftrike violently, and had only made
19 inches Avater. Unfortunately the wjnd frefhened
from the N. N. W-9 and the fea began to break Avith
great force, Avhich foon knocked the rudder off: we
fecured it Avithhawfers. It Avas now 9 o'clock, and av£
only waited the fchooner's anchoring, to attempt
heaving off; and in the mean time began hoifting
out the long-boat: during which period the •flii^
made water very fall; and the violent fhocks file
received, rendered it doubtful Avhether the mafts.
would fland. The Avater increafed fo much upon the
pumps, that before the long-boat Avas out we had
feven feet water in the hold. At th£$o1$me the
fchooner had anchored near us in 25 fathoms, and the-
matter returned on board, when the ihip fnddenijr
changed her pofition, fAvinging round from South
to North by the Eaft, and flifflring more violenifcly than
ever. Before we could carry oiir hawfers to the
fchooner, the carpenter reported the water up to the
orlop-deck, and the fhip having bilged forward;,
we therefore gave up the idea of attempting to heave
7 off,
The fpare pumps were doAvn the
fore hatchway, but the water ftill increafing upon the
gun-deck, rendered all our exertions ufelefs. The
officers •'were unanimous Avith me in opinion, that
nothing could be done totave the fhip; and to cut
away the mails Avould have no effect upon her, as The
was fettling faft forward from her being bilged, as
Ave imagined, in her larboard bow. It now "became
highly neeeffary to preferve the people, and the
boats Avere ordered ready for their reception; Avhife
they were employed trying to collect arms and ammui
nition, with arrrttHSrers' and carpenters'tools. But the
fhip laying nearly on her beam ends, and the gun*-,
deck being full of water with the wafhingof the
bulk-heads to and fro, chefts, Sec. prevented their
faving many. On one fide of the fhip we had only
6 feet Avater, and on the other 3\ fathoms. The
fore part of her Avas immerfed in the fea, and the furf
breaking over the upper deck. As nothing more could
be procured for the prefent, the fhip's creAv were fent
into the boats, Avhich was happily effected Avithout
any accident; and foon after 11 o'clock they reached
the fchooner in fafety, and Avith the lofs, both officers
and men, of every thing belonging to them. The
pinnace returned for myfelf and the remaining officers;.
off, for had Ave fucceeded, the fhip muft ineyitably    chap.
have foundered.
BOOK    and at half an hour after midnight we quitted the
Providence, leaving her a perfect wreck to the mercy
of the fea.
The moon rofe at about 12 h., and the wind increafed ; but having both anchors down in foul ground,
we thought it prudent to take one of them up. At
4 A. M. we parted the other cable ; and fortunately
calling the right Way Ave made fail, and moft happily
efcaped another fhipwreck, which muft have proved
fatal to many of us. We were now doubly thankful
in our prefent fituation, miferable as our profpects
were : but by comparifon of what our fate had nearly
been, we had every reafon to be contented with our
lot, and to rejoice in our prefervation,
Singular Humanity ofthe Natives of Typinfan to us, in our diftreffed
Situation.—Defcription of their Country, Manners, and Habitations.—Groupe of the MadjicoJimah Iflands tributary to thofe of
Lieuquieux.—Arrival in the Typa—Difpofal of Part ofthe Crew
on board his Majefty's Ship Swift.—Departure from China to
furvey the Coajls of Tartary and Corea.
jt\t day-light we had frefh breezes and hazy Aveather;
Avind from the N. N. W., and the mafler was dispatched to the Avreck of the fhip, to fee if any thing
could be preferved for our future fubfiftence, and for
the better equipment of the fchooner. In the mean
time Ave plied off the reef, and at noon obferved in
the latitude of 25° 2' N.; the Ifland Hummock, S.
35° E. four leagues; extreme land, S. 10° W.; fhip-
wreck, two cables ; outer part of the reef, N. 40<> E.;
and Ave had 56 fathoms, rocky bottom.
In the afternoon the mafler returned from the
Avreck, Avith the long boat full of umvove cordage,
fails, &c»  which they had  unbent,  and the kedge
book    anchor, Avith a 7 inch haAvfer.    All thefe articles Avere
■—/-*—■   of great ufe to us, particularlv the anchor.
They found the larboard fide ofthe fhip entirely
immerfed in the fea,'up to the hatchways, and the fea
making a fair break *over her. The decks Avere partly
bloAvn up, and the bulk-heads fore, and aft entirely
Avaflied aAvay. Every moveable article was gone;
nor Avas there any figns of books, nautical or mathematical inftruments of any kind remaining*, to my
great mortification and difappointmenL. {
The officers and people were equally unfortunate4;
finding their property either deftroyed, or below tfHe
decks A\-here they could not get at it. In the cabin
the}'- found feveral ftand of arms, cutlaffes, &c. Avhich,
in our prefent flate, Avere to us of effential confe-
_)      quehee. v^-,
As the Mailer found it impoffible to procure any
thing more from the wreck that could be of real ufe,
and our quantity of water being very fcanty for otfr
numbers, it became a principal confideration to procure fome from the iflands; as alfo, in the gverii of
not getting any provifions from the fhip, our ejriftencc
depended upon a<raihg to our flock in the7 fanie manner :
ner :   and We knew Typmfan to be inhabited,  and    CHAP.
moft   probably   equally  productive Avith  the  other   |—*i*p»
After clearing the boats Ave therefore made fail to
the fouth-weftAvard, with them in Company; and at
6 P. M. Ave bore up to the foutlnvard, ranging a fmaH
ifland, which bears E. N. E. from Hummock Ifland,
about 12 miles the weftern point of it. There is a
paflage betAveen it and Typinfan, but it did not appear xtefr clear of dangers. At dark Ave brought to
for the night, having 50 fathoms witfein one mile of
the fliore. This ifland Avas of moderate elevation,
and very little extent.
At day-light Ave were diftant three or four leagues
from Typinfan ; and we fleered N. E. to pafs between
it and the other ifland, in hopes of finding anchorage.
As we approached the fhore we had great overfalls,
varying from 15 to 2 fathoms ; and in many parts the
fhoals were nearly dry. By frequent tacking and
AA'earing Ave at laft cleared them, and came to an
anchor in 13 fathoms, clofe in Avith the S. E part of
the fmall ifland, Avhere there appeared fome profpect
of procuring wood, Avater, Sec. A canoe immediately
came off to us, and to them avc expreffed our Avants,
d d which-
' 1797-
which they feemed to comprehend, as they left us
directly, and foon after returned Avith water. From
the veffel, Ave could fee tAvo large villages; and a boat,
Avith an officer, Avent to each of them. They were received in the moft friendly manner, and the boats
returned full of Avater. In the afternoon they fent in
canoes a much larger quantity, with fome wood and
large packages of canary feed, alfo fome poultry and
pigs, without alking for any thing in return, or feem-
ing to expect it. They ftrongly expreffed a defire for
us to proceed to the eaftern village, Avhere they could
more conveniently fupply our Avants. As the weather
continued favourable, early the next morning the
long-boat and cutter \>$me, fent to the wreck of the
fhip in fearch of provifions ; and at 21 h. we got under
way, and turned to windward, Avith an eafterly wind,
towards the village fituated in that direction at tAvo
or three leagues diftant.
In our traverfes we met with a fucceflion of reefs,
having deep water betAveen them ; and at laft with
great.difficulty, and once touching upon a coral rock,
Ave came to an anchor in 3i fathoms, oppofite the village, and.near feveral fmall junks. Our friends made
us Avelcome Avith a boat-load of wood, and three large
hogs.    The afternoon Avas rainy unpleafant Aveather,
with a ftrong foutherly Avind ; and we had no com-    CHAP.
munication with the fliore.    After breakfaft, on the   *—j—!
folloAving day, Ave paid'a vifit on fliore to our humane
friends, Avho received us with the greateft civility, in a
large and convenient houfe well adapted to the
country : the floors were well matted, and every thing
relating to the furniture extremely neat. On thefe
mats Ave fat in the Oriental cuftom, and partook of
the refrefliments they offered, fuch as, tea, pipes and
tobacco. Several venerable old men encircled our
party, dreffed in large loofe gOAvns of fine manufacture, fimilar to tiffany, of various colours and different
patterns. Thefe floAving garments Avere tied round
the middle Avith a fafh; and they alfo -Avore trowfers
and fandals. The crown of their heads Avere fhaved,
and the hair from behind brought up to a knot on the
top, and fecurely fattened by metal pins, in the Malay
flyle. They made ufe of fans univerfally; and fome
wore neat ftraw hats tied under the chin. The aged
men had moft refpectable, beards.
The houfe appeared to belong to the principal
people, and Avas fituated in an elevated fituation, at
fome little diftance from the fea, environed by a fquare
wall of ftones 12 feet high, leaving'a gateway to enter
by,  over Avhich Avas a guard-houfe.    The rooms Avere
d n 2
fpacious, opening on the fides, with projecting balconies. We found no difficulty in making them comprehend our wants ; but Cxtremfc fatisfaction in finding they had not only the inclination but the poAver
of fupplying them.
After taking leave we Avere defirous of Avalking
a*bout the town, which they ftrdngly objected to; nor
could all our perfuafions induce them. Not wifhing
in our prefent circumftances to give any offence, we
gave up the point, and proceeded in the boat fome
diftance to the Avatering place, Avhere we found the inhabitants moft cheerfully aflifting our people in drawing Avater from a ftone Avell, that had been made for
Avatering the adjacent plantations. They allured us,
it would alfo anfwer for wafhing; and for drinking
they Avould fend us fome better.
oth. The afternoon was fine, and our friends fent off rice,
wood, and water. The night was rainy, Avith unr
fettled weather; and in the morning we had the wind
at S. W., with the profpect of fair Aveather, AAdiich induced me to Jfend another boat, Avith a party of marines, to trace the beach oppofite to the Avreck, in cafe
of any provifions coming on fliore, or to affift the
other boats if neceffary.    Strong fqualls of Avind foon
 Page 104
Weete ire J3r Strand.
put aiftop to their e&pej^ilion; and Ave Av^re obliged-
to let go another anchor, to prevent driving on fliore.
This boifterous Aveather continued fo as to alarm us
foriihe fafety of the other boats; but in the evening,
to our great joy, they returned in fafety. They had
viftted the wreck, but could not procure any provifions from hfr, or jby tracing the coaft, j where it Ava&
naturaHy conjectured they Avould drift to. The fhm
remained Avith her ftarboard fide juft aboAre the fea;
and trfey had cut her mafls aAvay, expecting they
would come on fliore. The mafler had vifited Hummock llfland, Avhich, to their furprife, they found inhabited : it Avas inacceffible except i-n one part, but
cultivated AAsifch potatoes, &c. In the building of the
houfes they obferved feveral pieces of fhip timber;
and in furrounding the Ifland, they faw feveral human
fkulls in the caverns formed by the rocks, probably
the remains of fome fhip more unfortunate than om>
* 7m
Before their arrival at the ifland, the inhabitants
had brought them water and potatoes; and in many
other inftances, during their abfence, did they receive
the fame kind attentions. Thefe good people Avere
fully acquainted with our misfortune, and naturally
conceived our greateft Avants Avere the articles of life,
Avhich, fuch as they poffeffed,  they parted with in a
moft friendly manner.
As it plainly appeared from the matter's reprefenta-
tion Ave had nothing to expect from the Avreck of the
fhip, any unneceffary delay here became dangerous
from the Avant of provifions, having^, very infuffioient
quantity even at fhort alloAvance, confidering our
paflage to Canton Avas to be made againft the S. W.
monfoon; and for fo numerous a crew (viz. 112 fouls)
we could only carry three weeks' water: added to
Avhich, the fmallnefs of the veffel prevented more
than one fourth of the number being below at the
fame time; and Ave had to dread every complaint
among the people, who Avere Avithout clothing and
deftitute of every comfort, fhould Ave have to encounter bad weather. It was my idea, had Ave faved
a fufficient quantity of provifions from the fhip, to
have left feventy men on the ifland Avhile I profecuted
the voyage in the fchooner, returning for them in the
N. E. monfoon, after concluding the furvey to the
North: but I much fear, from the diflike the inhabitants had to our feeing the country, they Avould have
prevented the execution of my plan, at leaft with their
confent; and without their approbation it:,would not
have been advifable.
In  the morning of the 23d we received from our    CHAP
friends the remainder of*theirprefents, wHieh amounted
in all to 50 bags of wheat, 20 of rice, and 3 of fAveet
potatoes; each bag containing 1 cwf. : alfo, one
bullock of 3 cwt., fix large hogs, and plenty of
poultry. Indeed whatever we afked for they immediately fent us ; but our fmall veffel.would not admit any thing more: and what was moft acceptable,
they gave at laft all their jars full of water, containing five gallons each, at leaft as many as Ave could
ftore upon deekia llpl
May 23d
In the courfe of the day the heel of the fhip's fore-
maft Avent paft; alfo a great deal of her planking.
We towed the maft on fhore, and took the iron hoops
from it that Ave had fo lately put on. The maft itfelf
was perfectly rotten.
When the fchooner Avas ready for failing, accompanied by the officers, Ave paid our laft vifit, carrying
Avith us fome trifling prefents, the moft acceptable
we had. We endeavoured to make them comprehend
hoAV fenfible Ave were of their kind attention, and I
believe we fucceeded, as they accepted our gifts Avith
great fatisfaction, particularly a draAving of the fhip
and   a  telefcope.    After partaking  of their refrefh-
» (
ments, thefe venerable old men accompanied us to
the beach,, where the long-boat, completely rigged,
fitted: with fails, &c. lay at anchor, ready for their acceptance. They received her Avith great joy, and
directly took poffeffion. Thus did Ave part moft
amicably with thefe humane civilised people, not
unaffected by the favours Ave had received from them
in our diftreffed fituationtlv
To the N. y$. of cEypinfan is a fmall ifland called;
Coruraah, betAveen Avhich and Eraboo ifae ifland
where we firft anchored) is a paflage to the fea; but
the mafler reprefenting it \aather intricate,! Ave preferred the old channel we had come in by*3hafiBg:
tavo boats a-head to of danger. With thefe
precautions Ave got under Wa^r-an the morning; and
at noon the rocks of Eraboo fouth point bote Nprjtiy
Iavo or three miles; the ifland of Afliumah, fituated
to the Weft ofthe fouthern part of TypMan, Stl20° E.,
three, or four mftj$s'&;the Aveft *ex|f§me of jpraboo, N.
70° W. Aji indrifferen^ obfe§vation m-a^de our latitude
2{4° 42' 30" N. : the^vind frqm the S. E. quarter Avith
fair Aveather. Our .foundifigs^-, varied frpnM^. to L2r
fftthpn*^; an<§» t[he cleagiefs ofthe water pointed out
ikie fhoalfeft fpots. ^WfeP we brought the Aveft
point of Eraboo and the ifland of Afl^jima in one
1 bearing,
bearing, N. W. and S. E., Ave had paffed the fhoal
Avater.     The boats ay ere called  on board,   and  we
_raajle fail to the N. W., ranging Eraboo at the diftance
of three miles.
4 After rounding the weft point of Eraboo, we hauled
up N. N. E.; and at 4 P. M. we had fight of the
wreck, and paffed feveral planks and a cafk of hops,
Avhich the boats picked up. Before the fhip was feen
Ave plainly obferved the reef, the fea breaking upon
it very high: yet there Avas no more wind, only in a
different quarter, Avhen the fhip ftruck; and inconceivable is it may and does appear, the breakers were
hardly feen before the fhip was on fhore. Such Avas
our unhappy deftiny, to be eaft aAvay, even when Ave
had not or could not apprehend the leaft danger from
appearances, or from any forefight of mine, and depending upon a good look-out to be kept after dark,
agreeable to my Avritten orders, and conftant directions
both day and night.
We fleered N. E. from 4 to 6 P. M., Avhen the outer
breakers, Avithin them Avere rocks above water, bore
S. 15° E. on Avith Hummock Ifland, Iavo or three
miles diftant;. and Ave had no foundings Avith 100
fathoms.    In this fituation Ave faAV no land to the eaft-
e e ward
■' II.
Avard of the Hummock. Our eftimated latitude was
25° 13, 30" N., and longitude 125° 12' E. The hull
of the fhip was juft v^fible, and the fea made a continual breach over her.
This groupe of iflands, off which the fhip Avas loft,
confifts of feA7enteen iflands. They arc of differeht
fizes, and many of them very fmall and uninhabited.
They extend from 24° 10' North to 24° 52' 30" N. latitude, and from 123^2' Eaft to 125° 37' E. longitude.
The inhabitants diftingudfhed them by the name* of
Madjicofemah, as Ave underftood them: they Avere
tributary to Great Lieuchieux, or the Liquieux Iflands.
Frefh breezes and cloudy Aveather. At 1 h., having
cleared the flioals, Ave made fail as per log; the boats
following under fail. At 5 h. the wreck ofthe Providence bore S. 31° E. three or four miles. At funfet
fhortened fail, and took the boats in tow for the night;
Hummock Ifland, on with the outer part of the reeii
S. 15° E.; and we had no foundings with 100 fathoms;
the reef diftant tAvo or three miles. Our eftimated
latitude 25° 13^' N., and longitude 125° 12' E. Under
eafy fail we fleered to the AveftWard; and during tths
•night we had thunder,<iiglitiBing, and rain.
Variable Aveather, Avith rain and a confufed fea.
Frefh breezes and.fqually weather: exceffive fultry,   May 25th.
with conftant rain.     The Avind at laft fixed to  the
North, and Ave fleered to the S. W.    The rain con
tinued throughout the evening.
At half paft 10 h. Ave faw land bearing from S. E.
to S. W. by S.; and no foundings with 70 fathoms.
At daylight the extremes of Pachufan from Eaft
to S. S. W. fix or eight leagues. At 22 h. 30 m. we
faAV the fmall ifland to the Avefiward, Avhich at noon
bore N. 57° W.; and the fouth point of Rocho-o-ko-ko,
S. 15° E. three or four miles : the other extreme,
N. 73° E.   J^; /   ,.  .     ,a •.•"";..'  -;.    ■   \
Soon after noon the cutter returned, having examined a fmall bay that afforded anchorage on the
N. W. fide of Rocho-o-ko-ko. A canoe brought them
off Avater and potatoes. Surely thefe iflands Avere
acquainted Avith our misfortune. At 6 h. the extremes of Rocho-o-ko-ko extended from N. 65° E. to
S. 85° E. five or fix leagues ; Hummock Ifland,
$. 55° E. eight or nine miles.    At 11 h. wore fhip.
Light breezes, with fhowers of rain. At day-light
Hummock Ifland, S. 73° E.; Rocho-o-ko-ko, from
N. 49° E. to N. 73° E ; and Weft Ifland, N. 56° W.;
when we tacked and made fail, the boats in company.
Light breezes and dark cloudy Aveather; wind increafing at noon : Hummock Ifland, N. 65° E. fix or
feven leagues.
27th- Light breezes and cloudy Aveather, Avith fliOAvers of
rain and frequent thunder and lightning, which rendered our fituation truly uncomfortable from the
numbers obliged to be upon deck; and beloAv, the
heat Avas exceffive.
12 h.    Light airs and variable, with inceffant rain.
24 h.    Squally weather, Avith fliOAvers of rain.
28th. HeaA^y fliOAvers of rain, which brought the wind
round to the Avefhvard, and Ave fleered S. S. W.
7 h.    Took the boats in tow as ufual for the night,
12 h.    Frefh breezes and fine weather.
At 22 h. Ave faAV the ifland of Tobago, fituated near
Formofa, bearing N. 75° W.; and at 23 h. 30 m. we
made Botol Tobago Xima, bearing S. 34° W.    At
noon  the  former extended  from  N. 65° W.  to N.
75° W., and the latter from  S. 25° W. to S. 30° W-
10 or 12 leagues.
At 4 m. paft Botol Tobago Xima bore S. E. and
the fouth point of Formofa S. W. f W. about 10
leagues. At 10 h. we were by eftimation in the
latitude of it, when Ave fleered South, not intending to
pafs betAveen Formofa and the Vele Rete rocks. The
night was cloudy, Avith rain.
13 h; At daylight Ave had run 25 miles, when to
our great furprize, the fouth point of Formofa bore of
us S. W. by W. four or five leagues; and at noon
after running S. W. 21 miles, it was ftill three
leagues in the direction of S. 40° W. ToAvards noon
the Avind moderated* and we could make no way
againft the northerly currents, which occafioned a
confufed againft the wind. -Botol Tobagq Xima
extended from N. 84° E. to S. 88° E., and the north
extreme of Formofa N. -10° E. No foundings three
miles off fliore.
Light airs and cloudy weather carried us infenfibly
toAvards the land, when Ave experienced a counter-
current in our favour, which fet us in the direction
7 of
1797- '
of the fhore to the fouthward. The cutter kept clofe
in to examine the coaft, which in this part is a little
indented. They found good, anchorage in 15 and 20
fathoms, about half a mile, Avith feveral.runs of water
and many herds of cattle feeding, figns of
habitations or any cultivation.
15 h. At funfet the extremes of Formofa from
S. 25° W. to N. 5° E.; centre of Botol Tobago Xima
N. 80° E. The fouth point is Ioav, flat, and rocky
off Formofa; and at 8 h. it bore Weft tAvo miles : we
had no foundings. At 10 h. a ftrong breeze came
from the North, and Ave hauled clofe round Formofa,
paffing N. of Vele Rete rocks. After midnight
the wind moderated, but remained in the N. E.
quarter. At noon the high land on the S. part of
Formofa N. 65° E. 10 or 12 leagues.
3itt. Moderate breezes, gradually decreafing; at 2 h. we
loft fight of Formofa.
10 h. Squally weather, with rain, which continued;
the weather fultry: a great deal of thunder and
20 h. Fine and pleafant weather; breeze increafing.
We frequently paffed over riplings, with the appearance
of a ftrong current fetting to the weftward.
7h.    Calm and clear Aveather.
11 h.    Light breezes.
20 h. The longitude fhewn by the Avatch tiU
our arrival, is corrected for its error off Formofa,
Avhere it fheAved the longitude too much by 1° 30'.
It has never gone well fince failing. Light airs and
variable Aveather.
Moderate Avinds, fmooth water, and very pleafant    chap.
June 1 ft.
Very light Avinds, inclining to calms. In the
afternoon we tried, and found the current fet to the
4 h.    Saw a Chinefe fifhing-boat.
6 h. Soundedrdn>i!i2 fathoms ; fmall gravelly ftones
and fand.
12 h.    Calm and fine weather.
18 h.    Light breezes ; feveral fifhing-boats in fight.
24 h.    Smooth water, and very warm weather.
Frefh breezes and very pleafant weather.
4 h.   46 fathoms, muddy bottom.
7 h.    52 fathoms, ditto bottom.
12 h.    50 fathoms, ditto bottom.    Light fhowers of
22 In    At 11 h. A.M. we faw the Lema Iflands
to  the W. N. W.,  and Ave altered our courfea   At
noon the Grand Lema N. 47° W. four or five leagues.
Frefli breezes and very hazy Aveather. At f paft
two the Great Lema bore Weft If', and by its knoAvn
longitude 114° 26' E. We have been 1° 20' Weft of
our account fince leaving Formofa. By our run
from noon its. latitude will be 22° 4' N. We fleered
as per log till 8 hours and a half, when we hauled
np between Lafsammu and Lantoo Point, and came
to in 12 fathoms, the point bearing S. E. four
Dalles. ȣ>
11 h. At daylight we got under way with a fine
breeze, and at 20 h. we Avere abreaft of Lintin. A boat
was difpatched from hence to Macao with an officer
to acquaint the governor Avith my return, and to order
We fleered N. by E. f E. for Lankeet Ifland
carrying 10, 8, and 7 fathoms, till we came within
fight of SampanchoAv, and then only 5 fathoms.
Within two or three miles of Lankeet me gave it a
good birth to pafs to the Eaft of Sampanchow,"
and foon increafed our.water to 10 fathoms. At noon
Sampanchow Weft one mile.
<>With a ftrong flood-tide Ave foon paffed through
the Boca Tigris, and difcovered 13 large fhips at
anchor up the river. At 5 h. Ave Avere vifited by
feveral of their boats, avIio informed us they Avere
homeAvard-bound Eaft Indiamen. They obligingly
offered us eArery afliftance, and we purfued our courfe
up the river, having no occafion to accept their
civilities at prefent. At 8 h. when above the fecond
boAV, keeping toox near the ftarboard fhore, Ave got
a-ground, and remained fo till 10 h., Avhen we hove off
into the ftream, and continued at anchor till day-light £-
at Avhiteh time we got under way, and by 8 A.M.
came to at Whampoa in four fathoms. Here we
found two fhips from Port Jackfon, having laden
with tea on the Company's account, the Alfred
and Crefcent, Eaft India fhips, going down the river.
I immediately proceeded up to Canton in the
pinnace, to confult with the fupercargoes in procuring
provifions, and to regulate the diftribution of the
feamen into the India fhips. About noon I reached
the Englifh factory, and waiting upon Mr. Hall, the
chief, I foon arranged my bufinefs (the captains of the
Indiamen being on the fpot); and in the afternoon
the fchooner left Whampoa to remain at the Second
Bar till I returned in the pinnace.   The night Avas
e e rainy,
book   rainy, which continued at intervals during the day.
i—/-w   Early  in  the morning of thei 6th. ajgi'ted the firft
ju^a      Lieutenant of the Swift floop of Avar, with difpatfches
from   Rear  Admiral  Rainier,   which contained  the
intelligence of a Spanifhti^ac.
6th. In the morning I had a conference with one of the
principal Hong merchants, Avho was deputed from the
city to enquire into the particulars; of my arrival,
with the reafons for fo doing. In the pretence of
Mr. Hall I e*x|>lained' ihe caufe of my flemiogdup to
Wh!a-mpo#$ requefting at the fame time the Chmefe
government, would fupply my -iraants. before Liquified
the river.    He then left us to report the fame;
7th- The afternoon was cooLaaad pleafant after the rain,
but the following day we had excefHve heat. Not
finding k**teeeITa<r^ tq> remamoaoyj lodged to expedite
■par receiving refrefhmentfej whieh Mr. Hall Avae
pleafed to take upon himfelf, I tookaany leal*© of
ithe gentlemen ofthe factory, to Avhom I am under
great obligation for their, Hind atten£toij$; and iji
foui-houses and a half I reached tbe Second Bar.
8th. "\y€ ha<| frefh breeecs foomifche northward th#ti#©
follo^wljig days, and we were employed in! rfacemng
fait prdvifions from the' Eaft India fhips; alfo in
diftributing the officers and men Avho Avere to take
their paflage to England in them. In the morning Ave
were viftted by a mandarine of the firft rajnk, who
feemed very defirp-us to fee the veffel, which being
permitted, he affured us our Avants fh'ould be immediately fupplied, now he was convinced Avho and Avhat
Ave were ; but from the reporlgiven into the city, they
were in doubt, and he Was obliged to come on board
to fatisfy himfelf before permiflion could pe granted.
Thefe good intentions were of little ufe to us as I pur-
pofed fai&n^M&h all expedition to Macao, after receiving Avhat Ave required from the Eaft India fhips.
The lieutenant of the SAvift carried with him om
marines, and"a*-letter to Captain HayAvard acquainting
himfiwith my intentions.
In the morning fome of the E&ft India fhips failed
down the riser, and in the afternoon the fchooner Avent
doAvn ta-Anfon's Bay to wait the arrival of the cuiijej?
from Macao. She had.been fo long abfent I was
anxious for her fafety. The next day I folloAved in the
pinnace, and vfeEjr luckily met. the ciatter coming to me
as we paffed the Boca Tigris. Thte officer eixcufed
himfelf for not returning fooner owing to the ftrong
i oth.
BOOK   northerly winds, Avhich I did not admit as a fufficient
reafon, but I had great pleafure in her fafe arrival.
At 2 P.M. Ave got under Avay, and the Avind veering
to the S. E. Ave turned doAvn towards Macao roads.
At half paft 8 A. M. Ave came to in five fathoms ; the
town bearing W. J N., and Cabarita Point S. S. W. f
S. Soon after, his Majefty's floop Swift anchored near
us. The forenoon Avas attended with heavy fqualls of
Avind and rain.
We remained here till the 14 h., the Avinds conftantly
from the fouthward, which prevented the Indiamen
coming down fooner. In the morning of this day the
fleet got under way, and at noon the tide having done,
Ave came to an anchor: Cabarita Point N. W. three
miles. I difcharged into the Swift for the difpofal of
Admiral Rainier 4 petty officers, 24 able and good
feamen, Avith 15 marines, leaving 35 officers included to
complete the fchooners compliment. The remaining
officers and men of the creAV, amounting to 30, went
home in the Eaft India fhips.
In the afternoon the Swift with 14 fail of Eaft India
men, the Crefcent pacquet, and two fhips from Port
Jackfon, got under way, intending to go the eaftern
paflage for Europe.    We parted company Avith them*   Q
and made fail for the Typa..
I had great pleafure in acknoAvledging the kind
attentions of many of the commanders of this fleet,
who fo obligingly accommodated feveral of the officers
with paffages to England, and in every other refpect
fupplied our Avants Avith great chearfulnefs, as far as
their means extended-.-.
The next morning Ave anchored in the the
Avatering place, having the nine iflands juft open,, bearing N. E. | N. Macao harbour N. by W. | W. two
miles. Clofe in Avith the entrance of the harbour,, Avas
a Spanifh fhip bound to Manilla.. Seeing the SAvift
coming into the Typia,, fhe run for fhelter under protection of the fort. We remained here to the 26th
completing our provifions, wood and water; but
unfortunately Ave could not contain more than five
months ; we hoAvever filled every part of the veffel,
to infure keeping the fea as long as poffible in our
refearches to the North of Japan. The Avinds Avere
variable, with frequent rain and a great deal of thunder
and lightning, with ftrong winds from the S. E. The
Avinds were feldom from the weftward, and this I under-
ftOod had been the cafe fince our failing in April laft.
' Y
The heat on fliore w^as exceffive, and would have been
infupportable if not refrefhed by the rains.
We now Mled a fecond time in Ihe profecution of
our voyage, not with the*' moft flatf€ft$^ hopes of fuc-
ceeding, from the featbn being fo far advanced, arid the
veffel inadequate in many refpects to the purpofe7.
But ftill there Avas fome profpect oFacquftlng geogr*a%
phical knowledge of the Tartarean and Oore'ftS^dahV;
and I Avas umvilling, even under the exifting circum-
ftances, not to ufe every endeavour to theulmoft of my
poAver, IHat could tend to the imprt^m^ft-frlo^iHence
by the exploraKbn of unknown parts. The officers and
men "Were equally d2rj^fed%ithf m^Felf to do their re*
fpective duties, and%e depar^feo^in good health.
,'m _iiirllliiliiiii.lii nf.-sViimi
nil   iiiiirniiirirmi-Tirf
1MMS   /fob
•Pefcadoti Iflands.—In Nfpachanjfyrjbour, Great Liqujezxci
fcriptkn ,pf th& Inhabitant*, Zsfc—-Departure from it towards
n the 14th of June, as rs   45 fheAvedTfoe* longitude
ofthe Typa 115° 19' E., which is too much by 1° 47',
an error acquired in 67 days. By daily obfervations
T>etAveen the 14th and 2§lji June ^er rate'WaSP pretty
regular; and onll 2$th at nooS, 45 Avas flow for mean
time 7h. 40m. S6.fs.?Wno%ng on mean time 6.feSis.
pe^day. At 2 t\ M. Ave got under Avay Avrfti a ftrong
ebt> fide, and at 5 P. M. Ave weathered Potoe witnih
half a mile,.liavirig 6f fathoms.
As we paffed tAvo or three miles Weft of Xthe Grand
Ladrone, Ave gradually increafed to 12 fathoms, Avhen
th*? fouth extreme of it fibre S. 80° E?on5with the
Afs's Ears. Mr. Dalrymple maies the Rock R. bear
more foutnerlyfit is probable therefore Ave aid not fee
it.    At dark Ave boarded an Eaft India packet called
BOOK    the  Amazon, four months and ten days from Fal-
'—|—•>   mouth.    She had paffed the ftraits of Sunda without
»797-       r   • .
June.      leemg any cruizers.
At 8 h. the Grand Ladrone bore of us N. 55° E.;
Potoe, N. 5° W.; extremes of iflands, E. $ S., off the
Ladrone three or four miles. We made fail, fleering
as per log. At*21 h. Grand Ladrone, N. 32° AY.; and
the extreme iflands, N. 68° W. Grand Ladroner
22°>02'N. 113° 56' E., from whence Intake my departure.
28th. Frefh breezes and fine Aveather.    At 6h. we faw a
fleet a-head, confifting of nine large fhips upon a
wind. Conceiving them to be a Spanifh fquadron
from Manilla, cruizing for the Eaft India fleet, at
7 h. we fleered in for the land to avoid them ; and at
half paft 12 h. we paffed a fhip upon our lee-beam
that took no notice of us. At 13 h. we loft fight of
her, when we fleered more to the North.
At day-light we Avere Avithin three or four leagues
of the Weft of China, and abreaft of Piffoang, or the
great bay;   the extremes   extending from Weft to
l N. 80° E,; and we had no fight of the fleet.
At 8 A. M. we fleered nearly in the direction ofthe
coaft, Avhich formed feveral bays, with fcattered
iflands: and rocks at unequal diflances. At noon the
extremes of the coaft extended from N. 85° W. to
N. 42° E., two or three leagues off fhore; and Ave
had 15 fathoms water.    Fair Aveather but hazy.
Frefh breezes and fair Aveather, Avith fmooth water.       29th.
6 h.    The extremes to the North making high bore
N. 14° E. feven or eight leagues.
8 h.    20 fathoms, no bottom.
10 h. 24  ditto, fine fand.     The moon having fet,
we hauled our wind for the night.
14 h.    35 fathoms, fand.
16 h.    Made fail.    No fight of the land.
22 h.    19 fathoms, fand ; and at noon 20 fathoms.
24 h.    Fair weather, but no obfervation.
In the afternoon we croffed over feveral fmall rip-      30th.
lines ; and our foundings varied from  13  to 20 fa-
thorns, hard bottom. At 12 h. Ave had three fathoms
of rocky bottom; and at half paft, feeing the land,
Ave flood off and on till day-light, having foundings
frfem 22 to 26 fathoms. At* 17 h. the Pefcadore
Iflands extended from Eaft to N. by W. diftant from
the^eaftern one about four miles.    This ifland was low
g g and
K and flat. With a gentle Avind Ave paffed on the Aveft
fide ofthe iflands; and at 22 h. 50 m. we Avere diftant
two miles from an high rocky ifland,. Avhich is connected by reefs with tAvo fmall ifles that are furrounded
by breakers : Ave. had 25 fathoms. At noon the
Avefternmoft ifland of the groupe extended from
N. 76° E. to N. 86° E. four or five miles ; and Ave
had 27 fathoms. This ifland is of moderate elevation,
rocky and barren, of little extent, and apparently uninhabited : yet Ave faAV feveral boats fifhing among
the reefs. High Ifland, in one bearing with the
eaftern one feen at day-light, now bore S.. 48° E.
July ift. At 3 h. Ave Avere a-breaft of Fifher's Ifland. On the
S. W. extreme we remarked an obelifk of ftones railed,,
I fliouJd imagine, as a land-mark for the advantage
of the junks trading to thefe iflands.. In the courfe
of the day there Avere many of them in fight, making
their coafting voyages..
This ifland is of fome extent, and inhabited :. it
appeared alfo to be Avell cultivated. As we paffed,
we obferved many cattle feeding, and numbers of
boats differently employed. At the N. E. extreme
the land falls back; and within it, to the North, pro-
mifed good fhelter. A black rock extends a league
l from-
from the entrance, and feemed connected with reefs    CHAP.
North of it.     Indeed,   in this part,   the rocks and
fands could not be enumerated; and the paflage between them I fhould fuppofe very intricate. The
large ifland, called Petroe, I had no opportunity of
making any remarks upon ; the Aveather being hazy,
and our diftance too great. At 5 h. 30 m. feeing
breakers a-head, Ave altered our courfe; north extreme of Fiflier's Ifland bearing S. E. by S.: Ave had
15 fathoms, rocky bottom, feven or eight miles from
it. Bird Ifland, Avhich is the northernmoft of the
whole groupe, at half paft 6 h. bore S. 58° E.; and the
Obelilk point, S. 17° W. Thefe iflands, called Cong-
hou or Petroe by the Chinefe, and Pifcardofes by the
Englifli, extend from 23° 10' N. to 23° 40' N., by our
eftimation ; the Avefternmoft in the longitude of
119° 27' E. They are a clutter of iflands and rocks
above, and even Avith, the Avater. The dangers fur-
rounding them may be avoided by attention, as they
appear to flieAv themfelves ; and you may anchor in
cafes of neceflity. They are diftant from Formofa
about eight leagues; and their extent to the Weft
nearly the fame by Van Kuelen.
At midnight we hauled our wind till day-light; and
at 17 h. 30 m. Ave faw Formofa; and at 22 h. 30 m. Ave
g g 2 Avere
book    Avere within three miles of it.    The extreme to the
*-—-v—'    South bore S. 6° E., making a low fandy point.    Over
the beach were feveral junks at anchor; and avc had
only feven fathoms Avater. At noon the extremes of
Formofa extended ^rom JJ. 45° E. to S. 7° E. three or
four miles; and Ave had 11 fathoms. The land near
the fea prefented a barren appearance of fand hills
mixed with coarfe grafs. At the back of the beach
were fome fcattered trees ; but more inland, the hills
rofe to a confiderable height, richly clothed Avith
2d. We continued our courfe along the coaft of For
mofa, with a ftrong current fetting us to the northward.
7 h. Calm. The extremes extended from N. 45° E.
to S. 14° W. : an opening bore S. 40° E. Off the
entrance Avere feveral junks at anchor. Thirty-one
17 h. Light breezes. The extremes of Formofa,
N. 58° E. to S. 18° W., off fliore feven or eight miles.
Towards the North the land gradually decreafed in
22 h. At noon the extreme land, we could fee,
bore Eaft, fix or feven leagues*
At 1 bv tacked and flood in for the land ; and at
half paft, not being able to fee the land, owing to the
haze, Ave flood off fliore. At half paft 6 h. Ave could
juft dh%eru it bearing S. 40° Ei three or four leagues.
6 h. Very fqually and threatening weather obliged
us to reduce our fail.
12 h.    Strong gales, Avith a large fea.
18 h.    Throughout the forenoon it blew very ftrono1,
CD J g)7
and Ave fplit moft of our fails. We had alfo heavy
rain, and Avere obliged to pump the veffel out every
24 h. Heavy gales of Avind, and thick hazy
July 3d.
Strong gales of wind, Avith a heavy fea running,
acid a great deal of rain. At half paft 2 h. we faw the
coaft of China to the W. N. W., appearing very in-
diflinctly through the haze. We foon after ..wore ; and
the gale blowing harder, we reefed the bowfprit, and
O CD   ■ * ±        - \
lay to under a clofe-reefed maaifaiL Soon after
bringing to Ave fprumg a leak in the ftarboard quarter,
which filled tiie cabin with Avater, and kept the people
continually at the pumps.
In the n&g-ht the Avind gradually veered round to
the weftward with increafed violence, Avhich caufed
MR     *8
an irregular and confufed fea.    Our little veffel behaved very well, fhipping but little Avater.
In the morning the Avind fixed in the S. W. quarter,
and the gale broke up. At 8 A. M., the fea having
confiderably fallen, Ave bore up and made fail.
24 h. Frefh breezes and cloudy Aveather, Avith a
confufed fwell.
I Frefh breezes and cloudy weather. At 2 h. we hove
to, while the carpenters flopped the leak, Avhich Avas
found to be above Avater in the ftarboard quarter.
At 3 h. and a half we difcovered the high land of
Formofa bearing S. 30° E. At half paft 6 h. the extremes extended from S. 28° E. to S. 23° W. five or fix
leagues. At 8 h. the Avind moderated ; and at 12 h.
we faw a fmall ifland bearing S. E. by S.; and we had
no foundings Avith 25 fathoms. We plied to the Avind-
ward till day-light, Avhen the rocky ifland bore
S. 50° E.; the north part of Formofa extended from
§| 50° W. to S. 10° E. ; and two iflands bearing
N. 64° E. and S. 84°' E. We paffed between the
Rocky Ifle and Formofa Avith a gentle wind and fine
weather. At noon the N. W. point of Formofa,
S. 88° W.; N. E. point, S. 48° W.; extreme beyond
ditto,  appearing detached,  S. §1
leagues off fliore..
W.,.  four or five
Quelang Ifland, S. 72° W., Avhich lays off the harbour ; and the three iflands to the feaward, N. 10° W;,
N. 13° W., and N. 55° W., four to fix leagues diftant.
?■. CD    •
No current fince laft obfervations.. 60 fathoms, no
In the direction ofthe ifland of Quelang, the main
land of Formofa appeared very high; and on the larboard entrance, as you fail toAvards the harbour, is a
confpicuous hill of a conic form, from Avhence the low
land commences extending to the fouthward. Some
Ioav land alfo projects from the N. W. part, which is
in general very elevated. The latitude of the north
point of the ifland may err a little, fuppofing Ave did
not fee the extent of the low land. At 6-h. it was
calm, when the N. E. part of Formofa bore S. 67° W.
The night was variable, Avith light airs, which in the
forenoon increafed from the fouthwardv
At 11 h. feeing the appearance of broken water, we
tacked ; but having no foundings at half paft, we
again refumed our courfe.
At 15 h. Ave hove to for an hour. No bottom Avith
90 fathoms.
At22h. 30 m. Ave faAV an ifland to the E. N. E.,
which at noon pre^esyfed the fame bearing, five or fix:
leagues diftant.
At 1 h. feeing fome high peaked rocks open \vi*th
the eaft extreme of the ifland : at half paft, avc bore
up audi paffed to ieefvard of the ifland, ranging it
Avithin tAvo miles, without having any foundings with
50 fathoms. The land Avas high, forming two peaked
hills. Its greateft direction Avas Eaft and Weft ,fehree
or four miles, entirely covered Avith fmall wood up to
its fummit. To the N. E. of it, three or four miles,
is a continued chain of rocks above and under Avater,
feemingly connected with the peaked rocks. They
bear Eaft one mile from the ifland, Avhich is fituated
in the latitude of 25° 40' N. and longitude 123° 27'E.
At 3 h. we faw another ifland bearing N. 60° E ;
and at 5 h. 30 m. it bore North two or three miles.
It Avas of little extend, and of moderate elevation,
and, like the other, Avell covered Avith wood, bounded
by a rocky fliore. We place it 25° 48' N. and 123° 35'
E.    At 7 h. the firft ifland bore S. 69° W., and the
6 fecond
fecond N. 80° W. Having fine moon-light we continued our courfe to the eaftward, founding occafion-
ally Avithout reaching bottom. At 12 h. 30 m. we faw
an high rock bearing E. J S, At 1 h. fleering E.N.E.
Ave paffed about three miles North of it, Avithout
foundings at 50 fathoms. At 2 h. it bore South ; and
at 18 h., S. 87° W., juft in fight: it refembled the rock
>/ CJ
called Pula Sapula, in the Chinefe feas. By the obfervation at noon %ve found the current had fet us to
the N. E. 42 miles thefe 24 hours; which being al-
loAved for, in fettling the fituation of the rock, its
latitude will be 25° 57' N. longitude 124° 30' E., al-
loAving the current to be regular to-day.
At 11 h. we faAV land bearing E. f S. At 17 h- it
extended from S. 49° E. to 77° E. It Avas low in the
middle ofthe ifland*, but the foutfaera part was rather
high. We failed within three miles of the fhore,
having no foundings Avith 50 fathsms. Fiom each
extreme extended a long fandy fplt, Avith a detaehed
rock South of each. The land appeared avcII cultivated ; and Ave could perceive feveral habitations.
In the morning the natives came off to us: Wk found
the*m the fame race of fjeople'We had teen at Typlft-ffifiS,
equally docile and communicSfeve.    At 8 A.M. We
ii h faAV
book faw more iflands, of which they gaAre us their feveral
names ; and enquired of us if we did not come from
Hollandia.    The ifland  they  came from Avas called
Koomi-fang: their cultivations up to the fides of the
hills were in ridges ; and above them the country Avas
Avell covered Avith Avood. At noon it bore from
S. 31° W. to S. 64° W. four leagues j Tunatchi, S. 44° E.
This ifland makes like a gunner's quoin, and as fuch
it Avas remarked laft to the weftward of the-Lieuchieux,
among the Matchi Iflands. Karumah, S. 69° E.;
Agenhu, N. 64° E.; and a fifth, which Avas very
fmall," they called Tu-fi-mah, three or four leagues.
We found the current ftill to fet in the fame direction, but not fo ftrong.
The current ftill fetting us to the eaftward, Ave approached the iflands very faft; and at 3 h. we kept
our Avind; and at 3 h. 30 m. the Avejji; point of Karumah, on Avith Tunatchi, S. 8° E. Weft of Karumah about three miles, Ave paffed a fmall ifland. At
4"h.'30m. Karumah and Agenhq, in one bearing,
N. 3° E- and S. 3° W. Thefe iflands are five leagues
apart: Ave failed between them. At 7 h. the groupe
called the Matchi Iflands  bore from  S. 16° E. to
S. 24°
S. 24° W.; Tunatchi, S. 60- W.; Agenhu, N. 58° W.;    CHAP.
the   extremes of Great Lieuchieux,   from S. E.   to   |—^—>
N. E. by E. feven or eight leagues. , jS'„
At 9 h. we hauled our AA-ind, and plied to Avind-
ward till day-light with a frefh wind from the fouth-
ward, Avhen bemg diftant from Lieuquieux four or
Mte leagues, Ave flood for it upon a Avind. At 21 h.
Ave had fight of the harbour of Napachan, bearing
from S. 25° E. four or five miles. In this direction,
half a mile off Avas a chain of breakers. We plied to
the foutliAvard till noon, Avhen Ave obferved. off the
harbour. A Ioav fandy ifland bears N. 57° W., from
Napachanroads feven or eight miles; betAveen Avhich
and the north pftfait of Lieuchieux Ave had foundings of
28 and 30 fathoms, corally bottom. This point bears
N. 14° W., Weft from the fouth point of Liquieux : an
hummock is on the extreme of'ft,- and a reef projects
to the Aveftward of it feme diftance. At noon the •
outer part of this reef bore S. 14° W.; Reef point,
Avhich forms the ftarboard entrance into the roads;
S. 14° E.; the harbour of Napachan, S. 64° E. three
or four miles ; Matchi Iflands, from S. 36° W. to N.
81° W.; Sandy Ifland, N. 45o W. to N. 63° W. three
or four miles ; Lieuchieux north extreme, N. 25° E.;
current fince noon of yefterdajr, 28' Eaft. Frefh
.   ' >.'- n ii 2 breezes
July loth.
breezes and  very pleafant Aveather |ora the S.W~
After noon we bore up for the roads, keeping the
ftarboard fliore on board. We had irregular foundings from 15 to 2$ fathoms; and feeing rocks under
our bottom, we hauled out and brought to, till a boat
from the town foil of people came off to us. They
moft willingly undertook the charge of conducting the
veffel; one of them taking the helm, and another
directing her courfe from the maft-head. We paffed
very clofe to the fouthward of a reef, which bears.
& 20° W/. from the Reef point one mile and a hal£
having no bottom with 15 fathoms; and tjien fleered
In E. S, E. for a building fituated upon fome elevated
black rocks, wjbpeh appeared; Ij&e a block-houfe, Avheu
the entrance of the opening of the harbour bore S. E..
by South. We hauled up for it, and came to an
anchor in 1$ fathoms, muddy bottom, at half a mile
diftant, with the following bearings : the harbour*
S. 35° E.; Starboard point, S. 70° W. ; Low Ifland,
N. 57° W.; and reefs extending from N. 15° W. to
N. 40° W.; the iflands of Matchi, N. 60a W. to 77° W»
fix or feven leagues; north extreme of the land of
lieuchieux, N. 18° E.
Our friends left us in the evening, Avith aftimances    OB A P.
of beiag Supplied with Avater, wood, and refrefliments,    —-*-^—>
in the mopping, but requefled us not to go on fhore.
It blew ftrong from the S. W. throughout the morning, Avith frequent heavy fquails; but we rode very
well fheltereA In the courfe ofthe day Ave received
water by fliore-boafs.; and in the evening, the weather
moderating, the mafler was employed founding the
roads. Early in the morning our friends fent us a
bullock, hogs, foAvls, and potatoes, Avith abundance
of Avood and Avater, and firengly urging our departure.
In the forenoon a junk arrived from Typinfan; and
a Japanefe junk failed out ofthe harbour, and proceeded on her voyage toAvards Nipon, palling between
the reef^ to the nortliAvard.
The Avind ftill HIcav frefh from the fouth, which oc-
cafioned fo great a furf on the fhore that no boat
could laud except in the harbour, Avhich to us Avas
inadmiffible. This reftriction Avas extremely mortifying, as I Avas anxious to acquire fome knowledge of
the manners and cuftoms of thefe people j and all my
endeavours had hitherto proved ineffectual : nor
could my intrealies perfuade them to let fome of the
BOOK    officers go on fliore in their boats.    I therefore defer-
mined to fend them in our own boat; but the principal perfon remaining on board Avould not accompany
them, and feemed extremely difpleafed at their going.
They Avere landed Avithout any objection in the harbour, and the boat returned immediately. ' In the
mean Avhile, our friend had gone afliore in one of their
OAvn boats.
In about an hour Ave favv the officers coming off,
efcorted by their friends, and gave me the folloAving
account of their reception, &c. On their landing at
the pier-head they were met by feveral of the principal people, Avho conducted them along the caufeway
leading to the town; but, after fome conversation,
they were fliewn into a large dwelling-houfe, and entertained Avith refrefhments of tea and tobacco. Here
they remained, nor could they prevail upon their
company to let them proceed any farther: they
therefore (oppofition having no effect) returned on
They found the entrance into the harbour very
narrow;-and in the fair Avay they had 2f fathoms,
juft after low Avater; and within the port they had
7 fathoms.    It took a Avidening directioKto the S. W.,
and  Avas of confidcrable extent.    They counted   20    CHAP.
large junks, at anchor,, chiefly Japanefe, from 200 to   v-r^ssi,
300 tons burthen. 5glj
On each fide of the entrance was an apparent
block-houfe, or place of defence, built of ftones in a
fquare form, Avith loop holes. The caufeway leading
to the town Avas 300 or 400 yards long, Avith arches
underneath, to give the water a free paflage ; for as
the tide floAved up to the town, over the coral banks
Avhich extended from it to the pier-head, it was ne-
ceffary to give the Avater its courfe  Avithout anv ob-
j ****• ^
ftruction. The toAvn extended along the fliore to the
North fome diftance ; and from the number of people
we faw at different times, I fhould fuppofe it very
populous. The houfes were of one flory, and the
roofs covered with a brick tiling. Trees Avere inter-
fperfed among the houfes ; and the country rifing to
a moderate elevation at the back of the town, variegated with cultivations and clumps of Avoods,
equally diverfified the view from the fea.
At the extreme of the toAvn,  to the North, Avas a
burial-ground.    The tomb-ftones were whitened, and
feemed to lay in an eaft and weft direction.    They
are confpicuous as you fail into the roads.
Thefe people perfectty underftood our having been
at Typinfan, but could not comprehend Avhat Ave had
done with our men ; not conceiving we had been fince
at China. This fuppofition may be fome reafon for
their not fuffering us to go on fliore, as they could not
alfo underftand Avhy Ave fhould be fo foon in Want of
provifions: of which circumftance we only made an
excufe, that Ave might have fome communication with
f- CD
•them. It will alfo prove how veflels in diflrefs may
really benefit by the humanity and liberality of thefe
iflanders, who confer favours, as far as I can judge,
without expecting any return for fo doing. In every
0fcher refpect, except allowing us to land, they were
obliging, civil, and attentive ; bringing off ATegetables,
and fome of their fpirits called fakki; and at all titnes
behaA'iftg Avith a degree of politenefs, Avhich, rendered
their company very pleafing. They were alfo open
and unreferved in their manners. We h#d only to
lament our ignorance of their language, Avh&h prevented our acquiring any knowledge of their government.
Every boat that came off always brought different
people, feeUringly to gratify their curiofiftf in feeing
the veffel: an® obfetving our people at their meals
much excited their attention.
As v ur friends were convinced Ave had all our Avants
fupplied, they feemed very anxious for our failing;
and we took our leave of them in the afternoon. We
prefented them with a fpying-glafs, the only thing
they appeared defirous of, and a draAving of the
veffel, with a memorandum expreffing our nation
and arrival.
This ifland is called by the inhabitants Lieuchieux,
or Loo-choo, and extends from the latitude of 26° 4' N.
to 26° 50' N., and from 128° 12' E. to 128° 45' E.
Its greateft direction is N. E. and S. W., nearly about
21 leagues. The harbour of Napachan is on the
S. W. fide, in latitude 26° 11' N. and longitude
128° 13' 30" E. The town adjoining the harbour is
the principal on the ifland, and, as we understood, the
feat of government. The port is convenient for commerce, and feems to be the centre of trade betAveen
Japan and the fouthern iflands. They alfo trade to
China and Formofa. The inhabitants are, in every
refpect of manners, cuftoms, and appearances, the
fame with thofe of Typinfan; and refemble more the
Japanefe than the Chinefe : fpeaking with very little
variation the language of the former, and writing after
their manner. They were alfo well acquainted with
China,   and fhe wed  us  feveral  articles   from   that
11 country;
BOOK    country; particularly Englifh broad-cloth, Avhich they
v—-v~—'   feemed to value *.
Their junks are the fame with tfie Chinefe;  or at
leaft, the difference in their conftruction is hardly perceptible.
* Le Pere Gaubil, a miffionary of the Jefuits at Pekin, wrote a memoir
on thefe iflands, called by the Chinefe Lieou-kieou. See Lettres
<Edifiantes, torn, xxiii. p. 182. Some parts of the memoir are here
translated. ,Hij
" Thefe iflands, fituated between Corea, the iflepf Formofevj-andsJEap^n,
are thirty-fix in number.    The chief ifland is called Lieoupjdeou : all t^e
reft have particular names.    The great ifland is in extent from South
to North more than 440 Chinefe furlongs, and 120 or 130 from Weft to
Eaft.    On the fouth fide this diftance from Weft to Eaft is not more
than 100.    The furlong mentioned here is themeafure of roads ufed by
the Chinefe: two hundred of them make jftgenty leagues at fm, .or a
degree of a greafc circle.    The king keeps^us court in J-he weftern part of
the ifland; the town is named Kingtghing.    The palace is fituated near
it, with four great gates fronting the cardinal points.    At ten furlongs
from the weftern is the harbour called Napakiang, or Napachan, as named
in this voyage.    The longitude of this palace is 14^26' 27", and iaf.
2 6° 2'.    Of. the 36 Spands which are fubjecl: to the king of LieoB&Aieoo,
eight are fitu§t|ed to the north-eaft of ik five to the north^weft of the
part of the ifland called Cheouli,, four to the Eaft, three, to the Weft,
feven to the. South, and nine'to the fouth-weft.   The names of the feven
ifles to  the South are Tai-ping-chan  (off which the Providence was
wrecked), TFMma, Y-leangpa, Soulima, Tatama,-*Mienno, dtji^oim, Pat-
chong-cfcan, or as-it is called in Ads voyage Padchu-fun} is one of the nine
ceptifele. They-make ufe of matted fails, :aaad Avork cbajt.
ihem i&Mr4he fame manner*. The boats they brought
off Avater in AA^ere large and flat-floored p iand they
ma'de ufe of fkulls and oars. Then*1 Gatajes were very
ife^ifi'or, beidg fimply holloAved out of pine trees:
they Avere chiefly employed fifliinfk-out at fea. Theii
fails Avere matted, and they went very fall through the
At Lteuebjeux they manufacture their^fn^garment's ; and their linen//ched^fj appeared} equ^l to
any of ours. i^tgijjling tOj^ejweather, they increafe
or decfeafe t^eir garments in, lumber; and, like the
Japanefe, the appendages to their drefs confift in a
fan, pipe, and tdbacco-box.
Not being permitted to vifit the country, we can
gkve no account ojrmany of their pro^ujS^ons beyond
iflands to the fouth-weft."    For a further defcription confult the whole of
Pere Gaubil's memoir.
■^In Lord Macartney's embafly to Chin**- edited by SIpG. Staunton,
mention is rrfade of his iffte¥ti6nof ArtMng J&p'an, and of the reafOna<
^FhiilMSprevented him. . ?l"*here arftjalfo j^r^ed fome remarks on the
"UfeuchieUts IflandRkiand thefe mode of government t the Englilh met
with fome ambafiadors "going to China, to whom they are tributary } and
there are obfervations on the propriety of fenSuig an embafly from this
country to thofe iflands.—See the Embafly to China, Vol. II.
I I %
Avheat, millet, Indian corn, rice, and fweet potatoes,
in Avhich articles they feem to abound. They had
horfes and cattle, with hogs of a large breed, different
from the Chinefe, and fowls of a large groAvth. Wev
did not fee any geefe; but we left Avith them two pair
belonging to the fchooner.
The Avatch, N° 45, fhewed the longitude of the
harbour of Napachan, by two days' obfervations, to
be 127° 25' 30" Eaft. As its fituation, or at leaft the
fouth part of the ifland, was pretty well fixed laft
year, we were apprehenfive our watch muft go irregularly ; and yet we could not well account for it in fo
fhort a time. Four days after failing, when our fituation was well known, off the coaft of Ximo, by
many obfervations this year as well as the laft, N° 45
made the longitude too little by 47' 45", with every
proper correction between the interval of time; which
defect being applied to the longitude fhewn in Napachan roads, makes it to lie in 128° 13' Eaft, which
I take as the true longitude. And as the watch did
not alter for the three days we were off and on the
roads, I think there cannot be any miftake; but rather
fufpect, the violent motion of the veffel, in the gale
of wind off Formofa, muft have affected it before our
At half paft 4 h. we got under way and flood out to    CHAP,
fea.    At 5 h. 22 m. the harbour bore S. 58° E. two or    !—■"-.—--
three miles, when we bore away and made fail.    At   juJ 12\h.
7 h. 30 m. the extreme point of Luchieux, off which
were fome breakers, bore N. 60° E.    The land from
this point tended to the Eaft,  and formed a deep
bay.    No foundings with 90 fathoms, two or three
miles off fhore.
We plied under eafy fail during the night; and at
day-light, fouth extreme of Luchieux bore S. 26° W.;
the bay, Eaft; an ifland, vrith a fugar-loaf hill in the
centre, N. 35° W. "We flood into the bay till we faw
the rocks, at laft evening bearing S. 6*0° W., Avhich
plainly evinced we had a ftrong current to the N. E.
Being within four or fivemiles of the head of the bay,
we wore, feeing the fouth fide covered with breakers i
and we fleered to the W. N. W. Two fmall iflands
lay between Sugar-loaf Ifland and Lieuchieux, with
extenfive reefs projecting from their extreme points.
It blew very ftrong in fqualls, and the hazy weather
prevented our feeing very diftinctly, or we fhould have
paffed between the iflands. At 20 h. 30 m., having
rounded the Sugar-loaf Ifland, we hauled up; and at
21 h« we difcovered more iflands to the N. E.   We
8 ftill
book    ftill purfued the fame courfe, to pafs between them
ii. r l
"—-v-w    and Lieuchieux ; and at 23h. Ave Avetfea-breaft of theni.
July. Half an hour afterwards we brought to, to obferve
the latitude, having a frefh gale and a good deal of
fea. At noon the north- point of Lieuchifeucfc bore
S. 80° E. three leagues ; Sugar-loaf, juft vifib!ei!$fiougH
the haze, S. 58° W.; extreme of Lieuchieux to the
South, S. 45° W.; a fmall ifle, to appearance near tne
fhore, South; extremes of an high broken ifland, from
N. 10° W. to N. 46° W., five or fix leagues*diftant;
Low Ifland, N. 57° W.; extremes of another iftand,
from N. 67° W. to N. 81° W., about four leagues, of
moderate elevation. The northernmoft ifland I take
to' be what is called Bri*mft^oin^'Mand: ih* the charts ;
which is fituated, by Van Keul'en, to the Eaft of
i3th. At 1 h. 45 m. the north point of LieUehieu-x bore
South, about four miles; and Ave faAV a low ifland to
the N. E. At 3 h. 30-m. the extreme of the northeM
part, from S. 25° W. to S. 67° W. ; the low ifland,
from-Jf. 20° W. to N. 25° E. five or fix miles, Avhen we
made fail to the N. E. At 4 h. 15 m. the fouth extreme of the low ifland bore Weft, about three leasueMJ
It was very Ioav at each extreme, with breakers off
.the points; and in the centre, of very moderate elevation.
hitherto feen, fertile in appearance.
At 5h. 15 m. we faw a more extenfive ifland bearing N. by W.; and at 7 h. it extended from N. to
N. W. i W., but very indiftinctly for the haze: we
eftimated it at three or four leagues diftance. Half
paft, Ave brought to for the fttgbt; and in the- morning,
to our ffe-rprife, we had no fight of the land.
nation.     This ifland appeared   like thofe   we  had    chap.
At 4 h. an ifland was feen bearing N. N. E.. At
7 h. 30m. itVetftended from North to N. 50° W; two
or three leagues.    At 8 h. we* hauled  our Avind and
plied to windward. At day-light the ifland preferred
the fame beatings; and at 18 h. 30 ma the north point
bore Weft: and in the direction of N. 80° W. from
the point, we fi^v another ifland. The firft ifland is
•tfliree or-fetor leagues in extent, in,a N. Ejijand S. W.
line, low at each extreme, but rifing abrhaply from the
fea on the eaft fide to a confiderable elevation, and
very rot^ky. Q» thew#ft fide Avere feveral fmaHTvil-
lages feattered along fhore; and a fmall opening afforded fhelter to fome junks. Behind the villages
was cultivated land. At 20 h. the other ifland bore
from Weft to S. 66° W. three or four leagues. It Avas
moderately high, and diverfified with uneven ground ;
but the hills appeared rather barren. At 22 h. 10 m.
we faw a rock from the main rigging, bearing S. 80° W.
four or five leagues. At 23 h. we loft fight of the
fecond ifland, bearing S. 22° W. feven leagues. Thefe
iflands feemingly were deftitute of wood.
15th. Frefti breezes and hazy Aveather.    Buried Thomas
Home, feaman, who died the day before. He was a
fine active well-behaved young man, and one of our
beft feamen. His complaint was a violent dyfentery
and billious fever, Avhich carried him off in five days.
At 7 h. we faAV two iflands making very high: they
bore N. 47° W. and N. 73° W. ten or twelve leagues.
Moderate winds and pleafant weather.
We faw land from N. 25° W. to S. 78° W.; and at
23 h. 20 m. the north extreme of it bore N. 73° W.
feven or eight leagues.
By the noon obfervations we have been fet N. 59° E.
53 miles.
Paflage along the South and Eaftern Coafts of Japan.—White
Point.—Arrival for the fecond Time in Endermo Harbour at
Infu.—Sufpicious Behaviour of the Japanefe fettled there.
X* iiesh breezes and very hazy: feeing no land to the
eaftward. At 4 h. P. M. Ave hauled our wind ; and at
half paft, Ave tacked and flood to the N. W., being
convinced the land feen in the forenoon was the
fouthern part of Ximo. At day-light the land extended from N. 10° W. to S. 64° W. ; a bay, N. 80° W.
Throughout the forenoon it was calm, and Ave had no
foundings. At 20 h. we faw more land to the N. E.,
in Avhich direction the current fet us very faft. At
noon the coaft of Ximo extended from N. 46° E. to
S. 77° W.; the bay, S. 60° W., fix or feven leagues off
Our fituation Avas nearly the fame as on the 22d
of November laft year, when N° 1 fhe wed the longi-
k k tude
July i6*th
book    tude 132° 42' E., and obferved diftances 132° 17' E.
N° 45 now fhewed theJongitude 1310 42' E.
And obferved diftances 1320 34' E.
Avhich will account for our not making the land we
expected, having had no opportunity before of taking
lunar obfervations. Current thefe 24 hours N. 34 E.
47 miles.
17 th. Light airs and hazy weather.
16h.    Calm till near noon.
22 h. At noon the land from N. 22° W. to S. 67° W.
four or five leagues. Current thefe 24 hours N, 50° E„
31 miles.
18th. At funfet we Avere within two leagues of the land;
and Ave had 38 fathoms, fandy bottom : the extremes
extending from N. 6° E. to S. 33° W. Near the fea
the coaft was tolerably level; but the interior part Avas
very mountainous land. During the night and forenoon it continued calm, Avith light airs at intervals;
and our foundings varied from 21 to 60 fathoms, as
we increafed our diftance from 5 to 12 miles off.
In the forenoon we had four large junks in company, but they took no notice of us.
At noon it Avas very hazy, when the vifible extremes CHAP
bore from N. by W. to S. S. W., four miles off fliore. f—fc
Current thefe 24 hours N. 57° E.  l6i miles.    Ob- |||
ferved diftances © and 5  132° 03'.
36 fathoms Avater.
At 2h. Ave came to an anchor in 28 fathoms fandy
bottom, three miles from the fliore; the extremes bearing from N. 15° E. to S. 15° W.
A fifhing-boat came on board and gave us fome fifh ;
they made ufe of fkulls inftead of oars.
With a light air we got under way; and throughout
O CD ** CD
the night we had a continual fog.
Hazy and calm weather throughout the morning.
At noon the extremes from S. 30° W. to N. 5° W., off
fliore three or four leagues. Current thefe 24 hours
north-eafterly 18 miles.
The breeze gradually dying aAvay to our great dif-
appointment. The extremes at noon from N. 5° W.
to S. 70° W. off fhore three or four leagues. Current
there 24; N. by E. 25 miles.
I ?
III '1
July 22d,
Twenty miles to the N. of account. Our bearings
nearly the fame as yefterday.
With a light breeze Ave flood in fhore, and at 7 h.
Ave tacked clofe in with the low land in 15 fathoms.
The high land to the South bearing S. 4° E. three
leagues. An inlet W. by S. one mile; feveral junks
Avere at anchor Avithin it: the entrance Avas narroAV,
but it feemed to afford good flielter Avithin the points
of the beach. This does not form a bay, but each
extreme being bounded by very high land, makes
it appear fo at a diftance : and in the interval is a con-
fiderable extent of Ioav coaft. The furf broke very high
along the fhore.
The morning Avas calm, and a thick haze obfcured
the land from our A7ieAv.
Eighty fathoms WTater, and this day Ave experienced
no current.
24th. Calm till 2 h., when a fteady breeze fprung up from
the fouthAvard, and the haze cleared aAvay. At 3 h.
the high land fet the laft evening bore S. 44° AY. two
leagues, when we tacked and fleered Eaft; as there
appeared no probability of our making our courfe to
the South, from the wind and current oppofing each CHAP
other fo equally till to-day, when they both were un- ^—
favourable.    Towards noon  the Avind   came  to   the      juiy,
weftward, Avith very hazy Aveather.
By our obfervations the current muft have fet us
N. 64° E. 67 miles, Avhich accounts for our not feeing'
the land; haAring been fet paft it at the rate of three
miles an hour during tfte* night.    The part Ave expected
to make is in 32° 30' W.,  and ought to have bore
* CD
N. W. of us   about  five  leagues.     I imagine it to
be the eaftern extreme of the ifland Ximo.
Hauled up to make the coaft of Nipon.
We could fee diftinctly fix or feven leagues, and our
eftimated latitude was 32° 34'. Three junks were feen
fleering to the eaftward, but Ave had no fight of the
Calm, Avith frequent riplings, but no foundings.
Current N. 81° E. 28 miles.
Pleafant Aveather, but hazy round the horizon.
I  11
At 5 h. Ave faw the land bearing North; and at 7 h.
it extended from N. 14° W. to N. 15° E. five or feven
July'26th. leagues. At half paft 1 h. we brought to till daylight, Avhen the land bore from N. 35° W. to N. 40° E..
two or three leagues : 90 fathoms, no bottom. As the
fun rofe Ave obferved many boats in fliore under fail,
alfo feveral junks.
After paffing what appeared like an ifland, but
proved, as far as Ave could judge, to be a peninfula,
the diftant land opened Avith it in the direction of
,N. 34° E.
On the N. E. extreme of the peninfula, AArhieh
prefents a level furface, are four remarkable trees, and
fome rocks detached from it to the eaftward. In
the direction of N. 30° W. from the point of the trees,
Avas a fmall harbour, in Avhich feAreral junks Avere
laying before a toAvn. On the peninfula, and in the
bays furrounding it, were feveral villages and fcattered
houfes, Avith great cultivation about the country.
Many boats were fifhing, and an infinity of various
fizes Avere failing along the fliore to the Eaft and
The interior land Avas rather high and much
broken, forming hills with fharp ridges running parallel
Avith each other in a N. E. and S. W. direction. The
fea coaft was a fandy beach intermixed Avith rocks, and
clumps of woods appeared in the hollows of the rifing
grounds above the fhore.
Several fifhing boats came off to us in the courfe
of the day to fatisfy their curiofity. They were well
fhaped with projecting flerns, and finely decorated
with paint, the ground-Avork being black. Each boat
had 13 men, with five fkulls of a fide; and they went
through the water with great velocity. They Avere
39 feet long, 6i feet wide. At noon, light breezes
and fine weather; the north extreme bore N. 29° E.,
and the peninfula forming the fouth extremes from
S. 70° W. to S. 88° W. three or four leagues; our
diftance from the fhore four or five miles : the harbour
bearing N. 82° W., and we had no foundings Avith 90
It was nearly in this fituation we made the land
on the 17th of November laft year, in a hard gale
of wind from the S. W. quarter. It is the fouth point
of Nipon, and is fituated in the latitude 33° 25'- N.,
111 II
ofthe peninfula Avill always make it knoAvn.
BOOK    and longitude 135°47'0" E. The infulated appearance
27th. The fouth extreme of Nipon S. 54° W. fix leagues,
the extreme land to the North. N. 29° E.; off fhore
Iavo or three leagues.
The extremes of land from S. 69° W. to N. 20° E.;
it continued high and much broken. At noon an
opening Avith an ifland in the centre of it bore
N. 54° W. ; and the extremes extended from N. 13° E.
to S. 65° W., off fhore four leagues.
»8th. Scarcely any current: the coaft appeared indented
by projecting points. At 4 b. the north extreme,
making like an ifland bore N. 21° E., and to the north-
Avard the land became very Ioav. At 7 h. the apparent
ifland bore N. 30° W.: outer low point N. 20° E. three
leagues. South extreme S. 64° W. three or four
leagues from the coaft abreaft of us. At 9 h. Ave Avere
Avell up Avith the Ioav point, and we faw many lights on
fliore. ilfter running eight miles Ave brought to
till day-light, having no foundings Avith 75 fathoms.
The morning Avas calm, hazy, and Ave could not
diftinguifli  the land.    At 6 A.M. a breeze fpringing
up, we ftood in for it; and at 21 h. avc could juft
difcern it bearing from W. i N. to N. W. The Avind
fliifting Ave ftood to tlje N. E., and at noon the extremes
extended from W. § N. to N. E. Low land N. three
or four leagues.    Current N. 75° E. 35 nfi'les.
At 2 h. Ave fleered in the direction ofthe coaft, Avhich
Avas Ioav and fandy rewards the Tea; bugthe interior
land Ave could not diftinguifli for the haze. At 7 h.
ttMl .Extremes, we could difcern from N. 65° E. to
N. 70° W., our diftance from the fliore three or four
leagues, and we had no foundings Avith 80 fathoms of
line. Several junks Avere feen.making their different
voyages up and down the coaft.
The forenoon Avas very hazy, Avhich prevented our
feeing the land diftinctly. At noon the extreme
northern points bore N. 32° E., and Avas the extent
feemingly of the fandy fhore. The coaft from thence
fell back to the North very confiderably, as if there
Avas fome opening round it; and in Avhich direction
Ave faw feveral boats returning from fea, Avhere they
had been a fifhing. The other extreme bore N. 40° W.
four or five miles.
July 30th.
Lighfjje&reezes and very hazy Aveather. At- half
paft 1 h. the notftl&iextreme fet at noon hoav bore
North, four or five miles; land open Avith it extended
to tjijp N. E., more diftant. At half paft 4 h. we paffed
fome higlfei$iwi, Avith fteep clayey cliffs, Avhach at 6h.
bore N. 50° E. about three leagues.
At dayf$giit Ave Avere Avell up with the iflands South
of Jeddo bay, extending from N. E. to S. E. by S.;
and the extreme of Nipon, N. 60° W. At 5 h. A. M.
Ave tacked to the North. T-The forenoon was very hazy
and calm, \sjhich prevented our feeing any diftant
objects; and at noon Avesfead the follo|vitog bearings:
tAvo hummocks iflands in one, S. 30° E. feven or eight
miles; Volcano Ifland, N. 32° E. to N. 83° E.; extreme of Nipon, fmm N. 10° W. to S. 80° W. No
foundings..,, I>u$jn.g the night we had thunder and
lightning, with moft oppreffi\8e.keat. Current N. 72° E.
15 miles.
31ft. A ftrong current %;us to the North, betAveen Vol
cano iflands and the Aveftern fliore. of Jeddo bay. At
4h* the north part of the ifland bore Eaft, two or
three miles; and on*the weft fide Ave obferved a large
village.    This ifland was very high in the centre, rifing
i ---- .-- -
pjde of tbe?eaftern higheft part of the-^nohnffiahi. At
7h. the iflajid extended from S. 5° E. to.S. 40° E.
thre^' miles. In the morning at 17 h. the eaft entrance
into Jeddo bay h&re N. 5° Wv to N. 20° W. The
jjpiod continued-variable and calm till noon, when the
city point, forming the entrance infe© the bay, bore
S. 80° W. thtee leagues. Several boats came: off, and
bartered their fifh for trifles.
We made fail for White Point, which at xtih. bore
N. 20° W. At 7 h. we were a-breaft of it, bearing,
in one with! the round moun#Bm, N. 87° W. We had
itine fathoms water, three or four miles from the fhore.
White Point is remarkable, and eafily known in any
direction, being mueh higher than any land nearij^R,
and terminating abruptly towards the feft, Avitht w&rite
cliffs capped with Avood ; the land on each fide receding from it. After leaving it Ave gradually deepened our Avater to 20 and 30 fathomst. The extremes
to the North being very low, bore N. N. E., and towards the S. W. extreme point, S. 43° W. The night
Avas moderate ;. and is>(pie morning at 17 h. the land
extended from N. 3° E.  to N. 30° W.,  four or fix
l l 2 leagues.
gradually from each ex>&eme-yiJ"»ad Ave obferved feveral    chap.
times large columns of black  thiols iffuin^from the   j—s~—
i ft.
BOOK    leagues.    The north extreme appeared like an ifland,
but it is not fo.    I conceive it to be Sand-down Point.
The coaft between it and White Point is very Ioav,
*/ '
falling back to the Aveflward between the Iavo points.
We faAV nothing of Avhat Captain*' King (in Cook's
voyages) calls Hummock Ifland; but I imagine Avhat
he took for it Avas the elevated part of Sand-dowri
Point, Avhich has that appearance at a diftance, from
its forming a projecting point, and the Ioav land not
being A^ifible.
In  the   morning   we had   many   fifhing   boats   on
board.    They Avere much fmaller than thofe feen off
Jeddo bay, and made ufe of fine matted fails, except
a cotton cloth in the middle.    Each boat admitted
Avater for the  prefervation  of their fifh.     At noon
^and-down Point bore S. 15° W., five or fix miles;
and  the north extreme,  N. 50° W.,   four or fiVe off
fliore.    In the afternoon at 3 h.,  Avhen  White Point
bore due North,  Ave got feme obfervations  for the
watch,   Avhich fliewed the longitude 139° 46' 10" E.,
by Macao rate; White Point, 140°40'0" E., by Captain  King;. latitude 35° 13' N.     I  therefore take a
bfeAv departure, alloAving the point to be Avell fixed by
7the obfervations made in that voyage. fx$
We fleered in the direction of the coaft, five or fix
miles from it.    At 3 h. Ave faw high land to the north--*
ward, and we fleered towards it. By 7 h. we Avere at
the extremity of the low land, which bore N. 70° W.
three leagues; and the high land commenced Avith an
eafy afcent : the north extreme then bore of us
N. 18° W. At 8h. our eftimated latitude Avas 36° 21'
f^jorth, Avhich is nearly the fituation of Low Point.
At 12 h&50 fathoms.
The morning wag a very thick fog, Avhich cleared
away at 19 h., and Ave finv the high land-extending
from S. W. by S. to N. W. by N.; the neareft part
3 or 4 miles. At 20 h. 45 m. the fog entirely difperfed ;
and Ave fleered along the fliore, which was bold and
cliffy. Out fituation in the morning was jufl to the
North of Cape de Kennis, but the fog prevented our
feeing it.    At noon the extremes of land  bore from
N. W. to S. by W. f W. : neareft fliore five or fix
At  35 in.   pafl//2 h.  avc faw land  extending from
N. 34° E. to N. (&5° E. feven or eight leagues ; and at
3 h. the main land-, running out to a Ioav point,  bore
N. 15° E., leaving the  angle  between  the lands fo
^ssoall as to render • the paflage between' them uncertain ;
BOOK-    tain ; Ave therefore liafttedi-up to[>v8ifether, 3$t®lt I fup-
ii. | •«
pofed to be, the iflands of M-atZum: tlie^iteh4ain'd
on the main, bearing Weft. At half pall 7 h."8fcfe ooYth
part of Peeked Ifland, wliioh i*J &dt the *£0u"tMr&*m§ft,
bore*Weft, three or four miles; and our latit?dae aves
38° 15' N. This ifland was of fmall extent;1 and fe-
paratcd from the other land'3Bj^h narrow channel. It
prefentcd rocky fhore^, but a*a*&s well covered 'Mt!h
Avood, even up to the peak. Sonie low iflands bear
from it N. 4° E., but at no great diftance. Tavo flat
iflands of fome extent are five miles to the Welt of
Peaked Ifland, Avith a clear paffkge foemilrfgly betA^eea
them and the other land, in the direction of N. 40° W.
When the fouth point of Peaked Ifle bore Weft, the
fouthern flat ifland bore S. 77° W; extreme hfand to
the North, N. 15°.W. Sounded Avith 90 fathoms, no
bottom. At 8 h., and at 11§ h.i, %e brought to for
the night. In the moaning Ave had moderate AAseather,
and the Peeked IflarSd bore S. 35° AY.; north extreme, N. 30° W.; and Ave fleered in for the land. At
8 h. A.M. the fouth point of an opening, offAvhich
are tAvo or three !bigh rocks, bore Weft three or four
miles ; Peaked Ifle, S. 10° W.j the Ioav iflands Avithout
it. At 10 h. A. M. the paflage up the opening -made
very clear, in the direction of S. 65° Wl The*re -a^e
detached rocks on each fide of the entrance, and the
7 -channel
At 1 h. Ave were a-breaft of a deep opening, running
up in a N. Wadirectfen. On the fouth fide are two
hilkTr the fouthern one is bare, av|$i a clump of trees'
upoti it; the other richly clothed with Avood, extending to the point Avhich is rocky, and of moderate elevation. When to the Norths this hill refenjbles a fugar-
loaf. The north point is bare, with a confpicuous
clump of-^rees on it; and off are twfe comical rocks,
white?* are not feen when to the South. The country
waWwell cuMviated ; and many houfes Avere fcattered
along the fliore, arid numerous boats AvSre fifhing. I
fhould imagine this harbour to afford[r^oodJ*ffifelter,
and to be very eafy of accefs.    No foundings with 70
channel  appeared   narrow.    After  running up fome    chap.
diftanc&jit'appeared to take a Avinding courfe. v—-v-1^
To the north of the opening is a fmall bay, Avith
iflots and fcattered rocks, on Avhich the fea broke.
The northern point was richly cultivated ; and on the
fea-fide Avas an extenfive town.
At noon pleafant breezes and fair weather. Peeked
Ifland, S. 10° W.; rocks off the fouth point of the
opening, S. 28° W. nine miles ; no¥th ex-fifeme, N. 30°
E,, off m§ neareft fliore'three or fou$ mil$&.7;
book    fathoms.    To the. North of the haffbouj&the land rofe
to a great height, forcing projecting and abrupt heatiSi
toAvards the fea, leaving bays between them of conquerable e£ftej&t, in a N. W.jdkl^ction. We hadob'af-
fiing Avinds and calms under the lrigh iaja-^vfhjch ^g
bold^nd rocky ; and Ave could not reaclj|$kf3 bottpJS1
Avith all our line.
At 8 h. Ave were abreaft of the >bigh table moun-
taiVi bearing Weft, Avhen our eiieemed latitude Avas
39° 16' N.; extremes from North to South 53°, off
fliore four or five miles. At d%$j-light Ave had-, the
land bearing from N. 30° W. to S. 42° W ; our diftance
two or three leagues from the fliore. We continued
our courfe ; and by 20 h. Ave opened a deep inlets ithe
points in one bearing S. 75° W. four miles : at the fame
time, the eaft entrance of Port Nambu, N. £5° W. tAvo
or three leagues. A boat came off from the i$let,
and ftrongly preffed us to go into Nambu. ToAyards
noon the Avind died away, and we remained five or
fix miles from the land : the inlet bearing S. 43° W.;
Ioav point of Port Nambu, N. 87° W. 6'; extremes,
from N. 28° W. to S. 22° W. Our Japanefe friends
not fucceedinjj in perfuading us* to go into Nambu,
foon after returned to the inlet.
The current fefeting to the fouthward, we preferved
nearly the fame fituation. The inlet South of Nambu
took a S. W. direction, and to appearance afforded
good fhelter. The S. E. point of entrance is very
high bold land; the fummit covered Avith trees, and
is remarkable by being much more elevated than the
coaft to the fouthward. Some rocks lay off the N. W.
point, which forms a projecting hummock. The forenoon was calm and mild weather; but to our furprife
Ave faw no fifhing boats, nor junks making their coaft-
ing voyages, as Ave had before frequently obferved to
the fouthAvard. Point of Nambu harbour, S. 84° W.
four or five miles; Inlet, S. 38° W. nine miles; extremes, from N. 32° W. to S. 24° W. We frequently
tiled unfuccefsfully for foundings.
Calms and light airs ftill continued, attended with
fome rain in the morning.
The entrance to Port Nambu was well open, bearing S. 59° W.; and the inlet, S. 28° W., off the former
three leagues.
At noon the inlet, S. 31° W.; and Nambu entrance,
S. 68° W. feven or eight miles. Muttered the people,
and read the articles of war.
m m Light
Light Avinds, calms, and variable weather. During
the night Ave had a thick fog, AvMch difperfed in the
morning ; and we had cloudy Aveather, Avith fome
At noon the port of Nambu bore S. 10° W, on Avith
Ioav land ; extreme land near the inlet, S. 3° W.; extremes to the North, N. 51° AY., off fhore five or fix
miles ; an opening, Weft.
sth. Light airs and calms, making our progrefs along
the coaft very tedious. At 7 h. the opening bore 35°
Weft, two leagues. An ifland is off the north point f
and Ave had 55 fathoms, black fand. The north extreme bore N. 55° W., very Ioav land ; the high land
about Nambu, S. 3° E. A junk came out of the
harbour, and in the night fpoke to us; but Ave could
not underftand them.
A fine morning gave us a diftinct view of the land,
Avnich ftill extended to the w. N. W., very Ioav. Some
high land extended from S. 50° W. to S. 80° W. : it
is the only elevated part betAveen Nambu and the
north point of Captain King's chart near the coaft.
The country Avas univerfally^laid^out in plantations,
affording a pleating profpect.   At noon it became
very hazy, over the land, when the north extreme bore CHAP.
N. 75° W.;   Near Point, Avhich projected from the !—.-^—>
high land, S. 81° W.; a white rock clofe to the fliore, AugSt.
S. 68p W. tAvo or three leagues.    Forty-five fathoms,
fand and fhells.
As the haze cleared aAvay Ave perceived the land
ftill to tend to the W. N. W.; and at 1 h. we difeefcned
-high land bearing from N. 24° W. to N. 34° W., which
feemed to be a continuation of Nipon. The fhore to
the North of the point fet at noon, S. 81° W., receded confiderably, and eithei formed a large bay or
harbour; but probably, from the appearance of the
low fhores, it Avas the entrance of a river. The junk,
having accompanied us all day, entered the^qpening.
We altered our courfe for the diftant land, Avhich at
7 h. bore N. 25° W.; high land, N. 37° W. to N. 60°
W.: and the hazy Aveather prevented our feeing the
Ioav land 'any diftance. South exfreme, S. 56$-W*
In thfe evening the v$iiid difed away; and throughout
•tiie aight and morning Ave had a thick fog. At times
in the forenoon it cleared aAvay, Av4»eh gave us an o$-
portunitly of feeing trie high land to the N. W. By
noon the fog difpserfed, and.we Avere well upmffli. it;
the outer extreme bearing N. 28° W.  nine  or  ten
m m 2. miles.
miles. This head land rofe abruptly from the fea to
a confiderable height, bold and cliffy. Within the
outer extreme the fliore prefented a barren appearance,
but not fo elevated, till it joined the high land, Avhich
was much broken : the extreme part of it extended to
S. W., Avhen the Ioav land continued to the South as
far as Ave could fee. An extenfive village was feen
to the W. S. W., with the cultivations furrounding it
afcending the hills, in ridges one above another. A
fandy beach fkirted thejfhore, from whence we Avere
diftant four miles. We experienced this day a
foutherly current of 14 miles. In the evening and
morning, and during the fog, we were continually
troubled with a Arariety of broAvn peterels, having.the
outer part of their wings tipped underneath with
white. They made an unufual chattering noife, and
were in great numbers.
10th. At 7 h. Ave Aygre only abreaft of the outer extreme
head fet at noon, now bearing, N. 65° W. At the
extremity of the Ioav point beyond it are fome detached rocks ; they bore N. 40° W. five or fix miles.
Some very diftant high land Avas obferved to the
W. N. W.   The night was very foggy.
We  experienced this   day 27 miles   of  foutherly
In the morning Ave had a frefh breeze (from the S. E., chap.
.     . iv.
which increafed the fog till near noon, Avhen it entirely —-
At 18 h. we juftgot fight ofthe rocks, bearing 'Weft
five or fix miles j but we got no view of the land, the
fog coming on again fo immediately. We purfued
our courfe for Volcano Bay ; and at 22 h. Ave faw
Point Efarme to the W. N. W. At noon it bore
N. 80° W.; abrupt head on the N. E. point of Nipon,
S. 30° W.; high mountain, S. 47° W. 8'; the extremes
of Nipon very high, S. 67° W.
r «tt
Soon after  noon  the  wind  fhifted   to  the  Aveft-
Point Efarme, S. 37° W. The fhore from this point
took a S. W. by W. direction. Our diftance was
three or four leagues off.    Variable weather.
At noon Point Efarme, S. 15° W., on with the main
land of Nipon; north point of Volcano bay, N. 63° W.
four leagues ;  extremes of Infoo, from N. 15° E. to
8 N. 80$
book   N. 80° ET.;  fouth Volcano, S. 78° W.;  mountain in
<—---«—\   Nipon, S. 10° W.    Calm Aveather and fair.
I2th* At 6h.  30 m. the high mountain in Nipon and
Point Efarme bore S. 8° W.
Variable weather. We fleered in for the bay, as
wind permitted. At 7 ha30 m. Point Efarme bore
The wind favouring us, we fteered for the entrance
of Endor'mo harbour; and at 3 A. M. Ave came to in
nine fathoms, muddy bottom: Hans Oldfon Ifland
bearing S. 77° W. two miles.
In the forenoon the boat was employed up the
harbour, feeking the moft convenient place for our
wooding, watering, and making obfervations, Set}.
Fair and pleafant weather. Obferved the latitude
on fhore.
In the afternoon .we got under aasay and run up
the harbour, where we moored in three fathoms water,
perfectly fheltered from every Avind, and xr-khm two-
Cables' length of the fhore, a-nd a-Jbreaft of.a fine
ftream of water.    Sevet^al houfes Were fcatteresL along
the fliore, inhabited by the inoffenfive natives ofthe    chap.
• n JV.
ifland, Avho very foon paid us a vifit. I—-v-w
We immediately commenced our operations, but
the bad Aveather much impeded our progrefs. The
winds Avere chiefly from the S. E. quarter, with fome
iain; and on the 14th it blevv very ftrong. The con-
ftant gloominefs of the weather Avas extremely unfavourable for the regulation of our time-piece; but
we embraced every opportunity of taking equal altitudes.
Tavo days after our arrival we were vifited hy fome
Japanefe, Avho came from the toAvn of Matzmai, as
we^underftood them, on purpofe to find out of Avhat
nation Ave were, and our intentions in coming here.
And on the 18th our old friends arrived; the fame
we bad noticed laft year for their civility. They
feemed much furprized at feeing us in; fo fmall a veffel,
and could not Avell accouat for our coming here again.
As they came exprefsly to look after us, and to prevent our intercourfe with the natives, we had always
their company either on board or on fhore, where
they refided oppofite the veffel. They were anxious
for our departure, and ftrongly. urged it every day,
but in a A'ery civil manner. I had to regret Ave could
not underfland each other better, this man being
equally intelligible and communicative. I acquired
from him a very compleat map of the Japanefe
iflands, with ftrong injunctions not to acknowledge
from whom I procured it ; as they explained the
parting Avith it would bring them into difgrace and
punifliment, were it knoAA'n.
Thefe people informed us that the proper name of
this extenfive ifland was Infu or Infoo, and univerfally called fo by the natives :v Matzmai applying
only to the town and diftrict inhabited by the Japanefe, fituated oppofite to the coaft of Nipon, in
the ftraits. They alfo informed us of the Ruffians
trading to Ago-dad-dy, a port on the ifland to the
N. E. of Matzmai, which they reprefented as a very
good harbour, much fuperior to Endormo. There is
another town in the ftraits belonging to the Japanefe,
but I did not learn the name.
The peninfula about Endormo is very thinly inhabited ; and in the harbour the men feemed to
have no other employment but fifhing for their daily
food, while thofe who lived on the other fide of the
ifthmus, open to the fea, Avere always found collect- chat,
ing the feed-weed (fucus facharinus), Avhich they
dried in the fun and made up in bundles for exportation. Great quantities of this Aveed dries upon the
fhores of Volcano bay, which makes a confiderable
trade to Matzmai, from A\tience it is exported to
Off the Town of Matzmai in Infu.—Proceed through the Straits
of Sangaar.—Range along the Weftern Coaft of Infu.—Peaked
Ifland or Timofhee.—Advance to 520 North Latitude.
n Monday we had completely refitted the fchooner
for fea, amply provided Avith Avood and Avater; and by
laying her on fliore we had repaired the defective
copper on her bottom. The folloAving morning we
took leave of our Japanefe friends, and to their
great fatisfaction Ave failed out of the harbour. The
wind bloAving frefh at S. E. with dark, gloomy
Aveather; Ave came to in nine fathoms off the entrance,
Hans Oldfon Ifland bearing S. 5° E. one mile.
23d. In the morning it Avas moderate and fair, with the
wind from the eaflward. At 8h. A.M. Ave got under
way, and ftood over for Point Efarne. The harbour
at noon bore N. 37° E. nine or ten miles, Avhere our
7 elevation
elevation made the latitude 42° 12' 7" N., mer. alt.
58° 56' 30".
We had no opportunity of making any other
obfervations for the longitude of Endormo harbour
than thofe which were taken laft year in Volcano Bay,
Avhich fix its fituation to be in the latitude of 42° 19'29"
N., and 141° 7' 36" E.
By equal altitudes taken on fliore betAveen the
13th of Auguft and the 21fl, the watch No. 45, appeared Arery materially to have altered her rate. And
on the 21ft of Auguft at noon, was flow of mean
time at GreenAvich Oh. 7tin. 10s.59, and gaining
per day 1.26s. on mean time. The Avatch made the
longitude on our arrival 140° 5' 0:c/i.h the harbour,
which is an error of 1° 2' 30". in 46 days. Thermometer
from 65° to 80°.
At 2 h. 30 m. Ave tacked clofe in with the fouth
Volcano in feven fathoms. Calm Aveather and very
hazy, 48 fathoms. Rocky and fandy. Light airs.
At noon the fouth Volcano bore N..&80. W. Extreme
towards MsAsirhak'jS. 69° W., and the main land
of Nipon S. 15° E. to S. 34° W. No bottom with 50
n n 2      * The
The Volcano Weft, and Point Efarne 16° E. at
daylight. By noon it bore Weft two or three miles.
It forms a remarkable round head land,'the upper
part bare, Avhich is occafioned by the lava that has run
doAvn it on the fides : between the drains it is covered
Avith Avood, and on the N. W. fide avC faw the fmoke
afcending from the crater.
Frefh breezes and fair Aveather enabled us to ftretch
acrofs the ftraits for Nipon : at 5 h. we tacked in
70 fathoms; the N. E. point of Nipon or Cape
Nambu bearing S. 40° E. tAA'O leagues; the other
extreme W. § N. The high land S. 40° W. betAveen
*3tts land-and Cape Nambu is an extenfive bay Avith a
low coaft between them : the bay is of no depth. We
continued plying to the earhvard during the night,
but in the morning Ave found Ave had loft ground. At
llh. 40 m. we had 40 fathoms, coral and ftones.
At2h. A.M. 48 do.
At 4 h. do. 60, fahed'atfd ftones.
Point Efarne, Weft Iavo leagues; no ground with
80 fathoms.    Within the point in Volcano bay is a
^ftnall bay, and many houfes fcattered about it.
ail    Calm
Calm till 4h. Avhen a fine breeze fpringing up, Ave CHAP,
flood over for Nipon. At 7 h. Cape Nambu, S. 10° W.;
and Point Efarne, N. W.; and foon after Ave tacked.
By the altitudes taken this afternoon for the Avatch,
fhe fhewed the longitude of Point Efafne 9' 10" too
much. The true latitude of the Point is 41° 49' 20" N.,
and longitude 141° 20' 0" E. By applying the Maeao
rate from Endormo harbour, it agrees Avithin 1' 30" of
Moderate and cloudy Aveather.
At day-light Ave found a ftrong eafte'rHy current
ftill prevented our getting to the Aveftward ; and at
noon Point Efarne bore S. 14° W. one mile. No
foundings, at the fame time, with 90 fathoms of
Cape Nambu and Point Efarne bear from each
other N. 22° W. and S. 22° E. nine leagues.
We kept plying in Efarne bay, which affords good
anchorage clofe in, and well flieltered from the
Avefterly winds. We found many junks riding here,
with cargoes of fea-weed, waiting for a fair wind to
book    profecute their voyage.    The inhabitants paid us a
ii* . . rr
>—v-^'   vifit;   but only the men came into the veffel, the
Auguft. Avomen remaining in the boats. A fine ftream of
Avater is at the back ofthe fandy beach, which is procured with great convenience. The A^olcano ftill continued burning ; and the Aveftern fide of the hill Avas
entirely covered with pumice ftones, appearing perfectly Avhite. As the fmoke afcended, Avhen to "leeward we experienced a ftrong fulphurous fmell. In
Jhe evening Ave ftood over for Nipon; and at daylight Cape Nambu bore South. At noon the Cape
bore 56° E.; Point Efarne, N. 5° E. ; extreme of
Nipon, running out to a Ioav point, Weft: and we
had very little current againft us.
28th. Soon after noon Ave had light Avinds, which enabled
us to keep in Avith the coaft of Nipon and avoid the
current, Avhich we could plainly diftinguifh without
us running Avith rapidity. Before Ave came a-breaft
of the high land Ave paffed two large towns, and obferved feveral junks at anchor within the beach, and
,ijjg»| off the eafternmoft town, which is fituated at the
commencement of the high land to the W. S. W. of
the N. E. Cape.    The whole country in this part Avas
culti Abated.
Bearings at noon : the ifland, S. 87° E., juft in
fight, three or four leagues ; eaft point of the harbour
of Agodaddy, N. 17° E., about four leagues ; extremes of Nipon, S. 2° W. five leagues, making high.
<Hazy weather obfcured the diftant lands.
At 6h. the Avind failed us, and Ave immediately
came to in 11 fathoms, rocky bottom ; a fmall ifland
off the north point of Nipon, bearing S. 40° W. one
mile; Cape Nambu, S. 66° E \ Point Efarne, N. E. .:
extreme toAvards Matzmai, S. 75° E; and ditto of
Nipon, S. 56° E. At 18 h. we got under way, palling
clofe to the ifland, in four fathoms, to avoid the cur-,
rent, Avhich run very ftrong, breaking in oArerfalls
againft  the wind.     Moderate   breezes and   cloudy
Light winds and hazy Aveather. The north point
of Nipon is a Ioav flat point, and is fituated in the
latitude 41° 31' N. and 140° 50' E. of Greemvich : from
it the coaft takes a S. W. direction. Cape Nambu
bears S. 70° E., from the north point ten or eleven
Light airs and calms throughout the night; and in
the morning Ave found the current had drifted us to
the North, when the eaft point (which makes abruptly to the fea) of Agodaddy harbour bore N. 12° E.
tAvo.or three leagues.
Our foundings during the night varied from 42 to
24 fathoms : fand and ftones.
Frefh breezes and fqually Aveather, Avtth heavy rafejj.
which entirely obfcured the land from our vieAV.
[11 il
30th. Light airs, with heavy rain, which fubfiding at 3 h*
Ave had calm and clear Aveather; and our foundings
Avere 15 fathoms, Avithin two miles of the fliore: the
entrance of Agodaddy bearing N. E. On the Aveft
fide we remarked feveral villages in the vallies formed
by the riling grounds ; and toAvards the* weft point of
entrance the fhore was well wooded. A light air
carried us towards fome hi^h broken land, and Ave
Avere neceffitated to bring up near it in 56 fathoms,
to avoid the current, Avhen it bore S. 78° W. three
miles ; and a high falling point, on the coaft of Nipon,
bore S. 22° W.
We got under way with hazy and gloomy Aveather,
keeping clofe in Avith Matzmai fhore, Avhich prefented
clayey cliffs, very elevated, and covered Avith a thick
s VXfi
At 22 h. <$& paffed an extenfive village^ Avith feveral
junks at anchor off it. Several boats put off from
the fliore to .vifit us; but haA'ipg the advantage of a
CD   . O
fine breeze* »ore did not Avait for/jfeni.    This village
Avas fituated in a bay, the Aveft point of it being rockyi'
An ifland opened with it in the direction of S. 85° W.;
mid foon aftje*if we-opened the town of Matzmai : this
roc^y point forfpftJPg-ithe eaft extreme of the baff.c MF&
alfo opened another ifland to the feaward.    Matzmai
bay is about four miles in  extent:   the two points
forming it ffear N. 70° W. and S. 70° E. from each
other.    At  Jfce Aveft extreme is a very fmaHlifland,
connected Avith the fliore by a reef of rocks.    A fmall
building upon it fen*es as a look-out houfe in the dajft
and  a light-houfe by night.     Our  foundings   AArere
regular, with fix fathom&. clofe; .in.    A  great  nllny
junks Avere lying- along-fidc  of each  other,   moored
clofe to the fb^re;  ^g4>:J°n $& beachj^/qfre feveral
building and   repairing..   At^soonj we  obfqr^'f&i in
41°22'N.;   the poinjfc.of the bay,   E.\5°N.   to..^,
65° W.; jcentre of t^pj tow$}   N. N. W.   twoj^njles ;
Ifipon extremes, S. 15° ^a^Q S. .61° E. five,lf§gftj®t
foliage of Avoods.     Many runs of Avater Avere  pre-   chap.
cipitated from thefe hills, which gave them a romantic   ■—£—
The* merging Avas fpjhazy w@fGould fcareely diftinguifh
the coaft of *£&j}p0vi:
Frefh breezes and hazy Aveather. We failed clofe
ill along thefhore to the town of Matzmai: and before Ave dreAv near am oSferved feveral ^©tCemen,
richly dreffed, galloping into tiie-' tOAvn; and it fhould
feem by tiireir numbers, the Avhasle of thfe jt&habjtants
werfa-collected to take notice of ustfK
Near the centre of the towtf, at a landing place,
was a body  of troops in  regular order,*  with  the#*
colours flying, as if they expected us to land.
JSke town Avas of confiderahle magnitude, extending
along the margin of the beach, and afcending gra-
^fia-fty to fome':d?rftance up the riling grounds, inter-
fperfed Avilh-trees and gardens.
The houffes were of wood, with the fame kind of
roofing, and univerfelfy covered wiih ftones. The
fuperior dwellings Avere defcdrated with long pieces of
coloured cloths, of various patterns, fpread lengthways, Avhich had a very cKearrul effect; ihe ground
work being chiefly white. The temples or public
edifices were equally adorned, and colours f$hig all
2 over
over the town, as if dreflbd for our amufement.    The   chap.
hills at the   bad? rife to   a  good height,  but Avere   '—v~—/
deftitute of wood, and uncultivated, excepting fome    Auguft.
parts that wdretfaidfreut in gardens.
The eaftefftj. wind brought in a number of junks and
boats: they all kept clofe in fliore to avoid the cut*'
rent,   whiph appeared to run to  the Aveffovard very
ftrong in the offing.    At 3 h. Ave ftood to the fouthward.     After running* hen mites the N. W. pdfi¥t of,
Nipon bore S. 34° E. three leagues, and extended up
the Straits to Eafbs but Ave could not difbern more
than four leagues in that quarter' for the haze.    Th&
extreme of Nipon, Avhich the Japanefe call Sangarop?
projectslfrom fome bold high rocky land,'*aJnd makes
in hummocks at a diftance; the e&treme himj£ Hi^iieft,
and falling abruptly to the fea.    It bears S.S. E. from
Matkmai about fix leagues.    In the ev^flifig, rh.jnhe
Hght-houfe bore of us N. 54° W. ihree vtmes, and Ave
CD J ■
had 65 fathoms,  when the^Jjpiflcl of Matzmai took a
N. M. W. direction.    In the  morning, at da^-ld^ht,
-we^eije within f&axio-tt&ve miles of ifio fliore,- without
foundings.    The S. W. extreme of Mate&ai, S. 36° EP$
land pf Nipon, ijxift opeinl, extreme of Itefoo, North-I*
an ifland, N. N. W.; another, S. 4° W.; to the Weft
0 o
II.     .
of it, a fmall rock;   third ifland,  S. 70° W.    Thefe*
two iflands are high, but of no eMent.
Soon after 1 h. the Avind Ihjfted to the eaftward,
and bleAv a ftrong breeze, Avith dark cloudy Aveather.
The coaft of |< formed a bay from the land, and
Ave were a-breaft of it at noon, extending to the North
feveral miles; but the haze over the fliore prevented
our obfervjqg any thing diftinctly. The land Avas in
general high, and bare of wood towards the fea.   i
We paffed betAveen the ifland, which at noon bore
N. N. W., and the north point of the bay, having a
clear paflage three or four leagues Avide. The ifland
Avas low* rat each extreme, and tolerably elevated : its
greater! extent two or three leagues, in a N. E. and
S.W. direaion. At 7 h. it bore from S. 50° W. to
N. 67° W.; north point of the bay, N. 15° E. three
leagues. The night was fqually, with threatening
Aveather; and at midnight Ave brought to till daylight, Avhen the extremes of Infoo extended from
N.48°E. to S. 18° E.: the coaft receding very confiderably to the eaftward. The ifland bore from
S. 8° W, ~, neareft land of Infoo, four or five miles.
We made fkft to the N. E., but the forenoon w$s   chap.
*a#able:and-tealm at times: at laft it fixed in tiie"   '—*—'
eaftern quarter.
A junk accompanied us, continuing the fame courfe
along this coaft. At noon the north point of tbe bay
We paffed yefterday bore South ; and the extreme,
N. 52° E.; neareft land, S. 10° E. two or three
leagues; the ifland, juft in fight, S. 50° W. Current %2 miles North.
Strong breezes and very fqually weather; and the
gloominefs of the atmofphere prevented our diftin-
guifliing the coaft very accurately. The country appeared highly diverfified by hills and vaiiies; but no
openings promifing fhelter that we could difcern till
4 P. M. At 7 h. we were within tAvo leagues of the
land, fet at noon N. 52° E., Avhich makes high, de-
fcending gradually to a low point near the fea, off
which is a fmall ifland and a rock aboA7e Avater.
From the point the land of Infoo takes the direction
of N. 60° E.
1 i&wi d"i r fSj|'!-
At 8 h. the noon point bore°S.-E. two^Teagues; and
it became calm. At 9 h. the Avind frefhened up from
the eaftward,   with gloomy weather,   whiefh  in  the
BOOK   $prenoon increafed to a freih gale*) f^itli heavy rain
I—i*m   from the N. E. quarter; and Ave ftood to the N. W.,
Septembre having no fight of the land.
By the Japanefe chart, in the bay Ave cr^Te'd in the
afternoon is a river of fome extent; and at 4 h. an
opening round a high point, S. 5° E.; and at 6 h. it
bore S. 30° E., but fo indiftin^Jy Ave could not afcer-
tain Avhether Ave were right in our coiije^yires. The
wind bloAving ftrong from the land, prevented puj^
approach to the fliore to prove any thing Avith certainty.
3d. Strong breezes and cloudy Aveather: extrcmejy hazy
round the horizpn, anjd a large fwell from the North.
More moderate.    Tacked fhip. S«J
10 h.    Half paft, tacked.
20 h.    SAvell much abated.
24 h.    Frefh breezes and hazy weather.
4th. Moderate breezes and very cloudy Aveatkerv
3 h.    Tacked fhip.
11 h.   Dark cloudy weather, with rain.
15 h. )0JfIove to an4r^mnded.
At noon Peaked Ifland, N. 8° E.$x leagues.
Two flat iflands, S. 70°E. to S. 87^° E. tAvo ditto.       chap.
Extremes of Infoo, from S. E;ofco N. 60° E. about September.
feyen leagues.
We faw an ifland to the eaftward; and foon after
another, with a high peak in the centre, bearing N.
by E. At 22 h. Ave faw the main land of Infoo from
Eaft to S. E.
We fleered for the n#th extreme of Infoo, pafling
to the Weft of %wo Ioav flatriflands that bore a barren
appearance, and\ were uninhabited. The main land
continued high and irregular, gradually decreafing towards the extreme, Avhich appeared low and well
wooded. At 7 h. the ypnd died aAvay, and itoiwas
calm till 11 h.; the extremes of Infoo then bearing
from N. 37° E. to S. 14° E., diftant four leagues from
the neareft parts.
Flat iflands, S. 12-W. and S. 34° W.
PeakedJfland, N. 15° W.
Towards midnightothe wind came tfrom the Eaftv
and Ave ftood to the  northward.    At daylight the
» I7^
and Ave made fail
book   extreme, North of Infoo, N. E
to get up Avith Peaked Ifland; but the wind veering
to E. N. E., av?j 5#ere unable to Aveather it: and at
22 h. we bore away to the Weft, ranging the ifland at
•/ f o       CD
If miles diftant, in 45 fathoms, rocky bottom. We
foon after opened isnother aiflfanfl, bearing N. 30° W.,
.tkwo leagues jfiroin the S.'W. po^it of Peaked Ifle. At
noon Ave.flhavd hmry .ptetjfant AV^atheiv • The extremes
of Peaked Ifland extended from N. 10° E. to S. 69° E.;
the Peak, N. 6'1° E.*, two miles the neareft part; the
other ifland, N. 2° to 20.° W3; ex'-tS&iites ot Infoo,
S. 37° E. The northupart Avev^coulo? not'Mfee, Being
fliut in Avith the Peatl, ff®&h 3"?*&fchP9£ bears north-
eafterly.   jfjj|j|
Soon after iWQtl a c^neW^from Peeked Ifland came
on-board. Thefe people were iri^-everjr- refpect tB3
fame Avith thofe of Volcano bay. They Called the
Peaked Ifle, Timo-fliee; and the otH6&^ "Tee-fliee?
Timo-fhee is of an irregular figure, fix or feven leagues
in circumference, rifing graduaHy^Aom its^baTeM-Pan
uncommon high peaked hill, prefenting evidently a
volcanic crater. Beneath it the moulftlralAvas much
broken into cragged points, and to appearance rocky
baMSway dowd, dbrmirig drains o*rd§fflh*¥si WMch exhibited various colourfedijearths, cinfiterSj p-unwie^ife^
and fulphurous matter.    The fhore of the ifland was    chai
fkirted Avith rocks ; but well clothed with wood, even   gg
halfway up the mountain.
The woods Avere diverfified Avith pine trees; and
the verdure on the land gave it an agreeable profpect
from the fea, the bare parts of the mountain being
generally obfcured by the clouds.
As Ave opened the paflage between the iflands we -
obferved fome houfes, to which our vifitors returned;
and we flood over for the other ifland, but calms
during the night prevented our approaching it; and
in tl^e morning Ave had heavy rains, with a ftrong
wind from the N. E. quarter. At noon Tee-fhee
bore from N. 63° E. to S. 76° E.; and Timo-fhee,
S. 55° E. three leagues.
Tacked, in hopes of Aveathering the ifland of Tee-
fhee, which at 7h. bore from S. 50° E. to Eaft. It
extends about four leagues in a N. by E. and S. by W.
direction, very moderate in elevation Avhen compared
Avith Timo-fhee. It rifes abruptly from the fea in
rocky cliffs. The northern part is low and very rocky'..
On the fouth part we faw fome habitations. The
paflage dividing thefe iflands is to appearance free
p p from
BOOK    from all danger, running in a N. E. and S. W. line of
ii. .
v—W0   direction.    At midnight the ifland bore to the South
of us about tAvo leagues. Soon after, the wind failed
us; and Ave had light airs from the eaftward, which
prevented our approach to Infoo. We therefore tacked
and ftood to the North: and at 5 A. M. Ave faw an
ifland bearing N. by E.; and the north, extreme of
Infoo, S. 72° E. feven or eight leagues. At noon the
wind increafed, with cloudy Aveather: Timo-fhee Peak,
S. 8° E. twelve feagues ; Tu-fhee, S. 2° to 12° W.; the
north extreme of the ifland of Infoo, juft vifible,
S. 50° E.; and in the direction of N. 60° E. we juft
difcerned more land : ifland to the North, N. 13* E.
I make the .latitude of the N. W. point of Infoo
45° 25' N., and the longitude 141° 27' E.; leaving between it and the difcovered land an extenfive ftraitj
which the wind prevented our entering.
To the South of what is fuppofed to be the N. W.
point of Infoo, between 45° 15' N. and 45° N., we
could not diftinguifh the coaft. It is therefore probable this may be only an ifland ; and the Japanefe
chart feems to confirm it. The Avind prevented me
clearing up this point. Thefe remarks are fince our
being to the North.
At half paft, the neAv land fet at noon extended    chap.
from N. 38° E. to S. 85° E.; centre of North Ifland, wi->
N. 20° W:; Timo-fhee, S. 8° W.; Tu-fliee, S. 20° W. September
about twelve leagues. 8th'
Moderate Aveather throughout the night.
We layed to till day-light.
Made fail; the extremes bearing from N. .20° E. to
S. 69° E. fix leagues.; North Ifland, N. W. four
leagues. ': By noon we Avere Avithin three miles of the
land, When it extended from N. 25° E. to S. 20° E.
eight or ten leagues, the fouth extreme; the ifland,
S. 64° W. to S. 70° W. fix or feven leagues. Very
pleafant Aveather, and a fteady Avind. As the Japanefe, in their chart, make an extenfive ifland to the
North of Infoo, I conjectured this to be the fame land.
The fouthern part of it is rather high, but in general
very moderate in elevation. I place the fouth part
in 46° N. latitude, and 141° 37' E. longitude. The
ifland laying off this part of the coaft Avas high and
Avoody, but of no extent. It lays in >the latitude of
46° 17' N., nve or fix leagues, in the direction of
S. 50° W. from Village Point, which bore N. 25° E.
p p 2 from
■ ■.UHIL-WV "^ggg^
from us at noon. As the wind preA'ented our pafimg
to the eaftward of this coaft, and examining the ftraits,
Avhich I fuppofe to divide it from Infoo, we Avere
obliged to range it on the weftern fide; and at noon
continued our courfe to the north-eaftward, for that
At half paft 6h. the extremes of land bore from
S. 15° E. to N. 15° E.; a round hill, N. 36° E.; and
the ifland, S. 32° W., off fliore four or five miles.
Cloudy Aveather.
At half paft 17 h.  tacked.     The land bore from
N. 26° E. to S. 2°E.    Tacked again.    Round Hill,
S. 45° E., four or five miles off fliore.
Light airs and calms. Round Hill, S. 28° E.: the
extremes preferved the fame bearing; and we were
two or three miles off. fhore. Soon after noon we
paffed the north extreme: to the South of it were
feveral fcattered houfes. The land tended to the
northward, bold and cliffy, of moderate elevation,
fwelling into rifing grounds, Avell clothed with Avood
and  verdure.     The coaft was fliaight and  uniform
in appearance, and nothing remarkable but the Round    chap
Frefh breezes from the land; and Ave ftood to the
North, as the Avind permitted. At 6 h. the extremes,
North, making Ioav land, bore N. 40° E.; and the
Round Hill, making the fouth extreme, N-26° E., three
or four leagues off fliore.
The night was fqually, and we began to feel the
"weather very cold.
The land extended from N. 15° E. to S. 15° E.;
and a confpicuous high mountain bore N. 37° E., four
or five leagues from the land a-breaft of us, which
appeared very low; and in fome parts we could not
difcern- any land. We hauled up in fhore till Ave
perceived the coaft connected by low land, well
Avooded; nor could we obferve any openings whatever. At 20 h. we fleered to pafs without the low
extreme, .north point, which at noon bore N. 20° E.
three or four leagues; the other extremes, S. 55° E.:
but the more diftant land was obfcured by the haze.
The mountain bore N. 51° E.    The coaft we paffed
BOOK    in the night was more indented than ufual, but did
not promife any flielter.
At 2 h. we paffed the Ioav point, making the extreme at noon. It is the only part Ave have yet feen
making a point. It projects out Avith a gradual defcent
from the high land, terminating very Ioav. It is fituated in the latitude of 48° 46' N., and longitude 141°
32' E.
At 7 h. Ave hauled off for  the  night; and at mid-
» CD *
night Ave had ftrong breezes and hazy Aveather, Avhen
Ave Avore and brought to the Avind till day-light,
our fituation being the fame as laft night:  the ex-
tremes bearing S. 5° E. to N. E. At 20 h. a fugar-
loaf hill, S. 84° E. The coaft ftill preferred, a
northerly direction; but our vieAV was much limited
by the haze. At noon the Sugar-loaf, making the
extreme, South; north extreme, N. 9° E., two or
three miles off fhore.
Squally and dark gloomy Aveather.
The high round mountain to the S. E. of the low
point, which we paffed in the afternoon,  makes this
7 part
part eafily known.    To the fouthward of it the land    chap
is of moderate elevation ; but to the nortrnvard, re-    v—I
markably  high,   and  rifing abruptly  from   the  fea.   September
Inland, the mountains were ftill more elevated : many
of them clothed with Avood up to their fummits.    The
fliore continued  bold,  and prefented no dangers to
obftruct our navigation.    We could not difcern any
openings,   or  the  fmalleft  appearance  of the  coaft
being inhabited.
I could not reconcile the extent of this land with
the ifland North of Infoo, in the Japanefe chart;
neither did it continue the fame eafterly direction :
hoAvever, to clear up the matter, Ave had only to
continue our courfe, keeping Avell in with the land.
The land to the Weft Ave could only conclude to be
the coaft of Tartary; but the extent of the land Ave
had uoav traced up for 4f of latitude Ave could not
ail comprehend. Nor had we any books or charts
to clear up our doubts, except Cook's third voyage,
which only tended to confufe us : I mean in thofe
extracts relating to the voyage of the Caftrieom -and
Breikes, where he fuppofes the former fell in with
the eaftern coaft of Tartary, when De Vries imagined
t\\ey were exploring the land of Jefo up to 49° N.
BOOK    Our doubts^ Avere noAV partly cleared   up at  noon;
--—*:—I    and Ave began to fufpect,   from the  appearance  of
September,   ihe low lands, and our decreafing foundings, (with our
northern latitude),  that Ave Avere not likely to get to
-   fea, from our prefent fituation,  Avithout returning to
the South.
12th. The extremes from N. 30° E. to S. E., two leagues
off fhore.    The land very high and uneven.
At half paft 9h. we hauled off for the night, having
dark gloomy weather and heavy rain ; and at 9 h. avc
brought to under Ioav fail.
Variable Aveather, with light airs and calms.
At half paft 17 h. the land extended from N. 22° E.
to S. 18° E. five or fix leagues ; and at the fame time,
we faw more land bearing N. 78° W., juft vifible
from the deck. I conceived this land to be the coaft
of Tartary. The forenoon Avas calm and clear
Aveather, which enabled us, for the firft time this
moon, to obferve diftances. The land to the Weft
preferved much the fame appearance; the north extreme,    terminating   Ioav    toAyards    the    fea,    bore
N. 24°
N. 24° E., fiA7e or fix leagues diftant.    At noon the chap.
fouth extreme,  S. 14° E. ;   and  a  very  remarkable *—~v-w
peaked hill near the fea, S. 64° E.; a break in the Auguft.
land, S. 40° E.; the coaft of Tartary, from N. 71° W.
to S. 80° W. about 12 or 15 leagues.   No current
have we yet experienced.*/
Impraclicability of getting to Sea by the Northward.—Determination of returning.—Remarkable Hazinefs of the Atmofphere.
Calm, and fair weather.
4 h.    Light breezes.
Extremes of Tartary, from N. 55° W. to S. 80° W.;
and the point Avhich terminated the land to the northward at noon, N. 35° E.; fouth extreme, S. 16° E.
Fine moon-light. As we fuppofed we were at the
extent of the eaftern land, we hauled our wind till
day-light; for we ftill imagined it to be an ifland.
We faw the peaked hill bearing S. 27° E.: and the
eaftern coaft ftill extended to the North, our diftance
from it three or four leagues. In the morning the
wind increafed to a ftrong breeze, with fqually
As Averun to the North the coaft became gradually    chap.
l@Aver, alAvays terminating in Ioav points ; and the in-    ■—K-j
terior land was bare of Avood.    We faw no double September,
land, which gave us reafon to imagine we were near
its extremity : and indeed the extent of this land was
much greater than Ave could fuppofe the  Japanefe
ifland to be, as laid doAvn in their chart.    Our foundings  gradually   decreafed  to   11   fathoms ;   and  w$r
hauled overrlbr  the weftern land.     At noon a Ioav
fandy point bore N. 15° E.; the extreme ofjthe coa$y
of Tar&try, N. 30° W.; a round hill, Weft; and tlfty
extreme, W. S. W.    Our diftance from the eaft fhore
two or three leagues.
Frefh breezes and very fqualJIy. In Handing to-
Avards the weftern land Ave had regular foundings,
Avhufti decreafed as we approached it: and the wind
veering to the Weft, we came to an anchor in nine
fathoms, four leagues from the land; the round hill
bearing S. 64° W., making the extreme to the Weft.
Extreme of the eaftern fhore, S. 23° E. Sea open
between North and N. 30° E.; the points ^eing very
low land.
In the night the wind moderated.
Q Q 2
BOOK      /We got under Avay at cfeay4KgM; and flood to the
—"—-'   North, deeseafingour Water to three fathoms^; when
September Ave tacked, and foon after carile to dn foui fathoms,
ha&Ji f&n<t.    The round tHill, Si58°.W.; a cotiic hifl^5
N. 50° W. H| N.#5°E.  roolNi 53° E./we faw no
lahd ;   but from t^flce a continuation of veryrilow
lan^V juft appearlflg above the Avater.    Extreme of
weft land, S. 48° Wt; eaft extreme, S. 3Q?'.Ei; neareft;
land, W&QQ* S. abouife three miles.    The fhore a-breaft
orsu« rofe abrupt^ from the "fea, rocky ahd balden.
The top of the' cliffs were paitially wooded,  as walP
tffie^conlt hil^WHich made it ee'nfpicuous.
f I P
The morning was moderate and very pleafant
Aveather: and the moment Ave?amfi£ored, ^ihe mafler
Was dif^a^che<}ai&'lftib^^. fcoatbfb- examfce the coaft
about rae, feofeie hftl^"WrSl^lJfe8M.e(i likelyi'to afford
fome fHfclter Wth^vefte?Pfi
I. .• *_>
By obf§rva"r&M¥br^^&#l6rfglt;Q^6l taken on the lltb,.
12th, and 14th of September, and reduced by the*
Avatch $0 the anefeomge, being the ^rafeafe? of 27 fets
of lunar-^ffiftances by :B^iefF,-Mr.   Chapman,   Sec.
will mew, - - © and 5* and D,        141 ° 14' if'E..
The diftances were Eaft and "Weft of "^ By watch,      -       1410 47' 20"
the moon, by the fun and ftars,     5 Do* by Macao rate, 14110   1'   5"
The mafler returned at dark, and reported his
hayjtag roAved round the point Avhich bore N. 10° E.,
whgp.he ente-fgtl a bay Avhich took a Aveflerly direction
#5 the back oil the conic hill, about three or four miles
deep. In the entrance they had five fathoms, but
the'jFJnd bloiving ftfeong they did not examine to the
head; andiit was!entirely open to the eaftward. The
•fipu^ii, poin-& and indeed the whole of the land Avh-ich
farmed the bay, Avas compofed of white and reddifh
coloured rocks, fo fleep as to prevent their landing.
The head of the bay Avas low, and whole appearance
extremely barren, only prefenting a few foxtail pine-
trees of a fmall growth upon the hills, and no figns
whatever of any habitations; neither could they
obferfe any rifgband fall by the fliore. In going in
after pafling a bank of three fathoms, they had
deepened their water* from four to eight fathoms;, and
the matter cohsceived the paflage to the North Avas
pretty evident. I cannot fay I was of the fame
opinion, butt to clear up all doubts Ave got under way
at daylight, and after making a tack Ave ftood to the
Morth.. At noon tbet fouth point of the bay bore
N. 6° W. fix or feven miles, and the conic hill N.N. W.
Our fofendings for the laft hour Avere only 3\ and
3 fathoms. The Avind Avas moderate, and we had fine
Our foundings ftill decreafing to lefs than two >
fathoms, Avhen it became expedient to tack. At this
time we plainly difcerned very Ioav land extending
over the N. E. part of what the mafler had conceived
might be a paflage leading to the fea: the neareft
part bore from us N. E. by E. t&ree or four miles,
and from thence to North within the fouth poi&tof
Chapman's Bay (fo named from the mafler) Avas a
continuation of fand banks palely dry, with fome of
them juft appearing by riplings upon the furlace.
We were noAV fully convinced there Avas no; opening £0
fea in this direction, the Avhole being clofed by low
land, which Ave could plainly diftinguifh at intervals ;
behind the Ioav land at a confiderable diftance AVe"
obferved fome high land in a N. E. direction. If any
river empties itfelf into this bay, I fhould fuppofe it-
very inconfiderable, as Ave had no appearance of any
tide, nor any figns to lead us to fufpect there were any
rivers on the coaft. As the mafler had reprefented the
bay unfavourable, even fuppofing we could get there*
which I deemed from the fhallow Avater leading to it
impracticable, without great rifk of the veffel; and
there being no profpect of any inhabitants to get information of, refpecting the country, induced me to
lofe no more time, as the equinoxes were approaching,
but proceed to the fouthward,  down the gulph Ave
3¥ere at prefent fo totally embayed in, before the bad    chap.
Aveather could materially affect us.
We kept our Avind ; and at half paft 2 h. Ave Avere
in our old'anchorage, having run fix miles, and gradually increafed our Avater from tAvo to four fathoms.
We tacked Avithin two or three leagues of the fhore.
The land in this part Avas indented, and a fmall rocky
ifland lay off it. The wind veering to Eaft, Ave
}iauled off to increafe our diftance from the land.
The night Avas A7ery fqually, and Ave had a great deal
of lightning and rain; and fortunately for us, as the
gale increafed, it came more northerly. At 14 h. Ave
brought to the Avind till day-light, Avhen Ave bore up
with a frefh gale and continual rain. The eaftern
land was feen till near noon, when Ave loft fight of the
peaked hill, bearing Eaft; and then difcovered the
weftern coaft, extending at noon from 60° W. to
N. 80° W. three or four leagues.
Hard fandy bottom: and purfuing our courfe to
the fouthAvard, Ave increafed to 15 fathoms at 6 h.
30 m., Avhen the conic hill bore N. 8° E.; and the
round hill, S. 70° W., three or four leagues off fhore.
The night Avas moderate.   A calm in the morning
8 brought
brought the Avind from the fouthward. At 18 h. we
had 25 fathoms muddy bottom, the Round Hill
bearing N. 72° W. From the hill the land projects to
the Eaft, and prefents a range of fleep, rocky cliffs.
To the north and fouth of it the land is level and
uniform, and much indented, but Ave faw no appearance of any openings. At noon the Eaft coaft extended from N. 86° E. to S. 40° E. 10 or 12 leagues.
Land about our anchorage to the N. N. 6° E.
Round Hill N. 53° W. South extreme of weft coaft
S. 29° E. three or four leagues. 27 fathoms clayey
Strong gales and very hazy Aveather, Avith a large
At 1 h. Ave brought .to under a low fail, as Ave
could not fee any thing of the land. At 5 h. it cleared
away, and the land extended from North to S. W. by
S. four or five leagues. Soon after we bore up and
fleered for it till dark, Avhen it was diftant two leagues,;
and Ave thought to: the wind Avas more moderate,
and: gradually abated toAvards midnight, when it
agai® fprung up from the eaflward, and Ave made fail
to clear tbe land.    At 17 h. 30 m. the land Avas feen
from N. to S. W.:   neareft part, Weft,. tAvo leagues,
high and rugged-
The Avind increafed to a frefh gale in the morning*
with fqually, cold, and unpleafant weather. At times
we could diftinguifh high land on the eaftern fhore;
but very imperfectly. At 22 h. the obfeurity of the
Aveather induced us to bring to; and at 23 h.r it
^tearing aAvay, we again fleered to the South. At
noon Ave had frefh gales,, Avith hazy threatening Aveather,
and heaAry fliOAvers of rain. The land Avas juft dif-
eernible to the W. S. W., four or five leagues diftant.
Some albatrofies Avere feen^.
The Avind having increafedto a hard gale, with very
feeavy fqualls and a large fea, Ave layed to under a
Ioav fail. At 5 h. Ave faw the land through the haze,
from North to S. W. by S.; and. the weather being
more moderate Ave bore aAvay, fleering a courfe parallel
with the coaft. At 6 h. the fouth extreme bore
S. 48° W.; high land' a-breaft of us, Weft, about five
or fix leagues. At 8 h. Ave brought to. The gale,
after funfet, fubfided.; and at 16 h. it Avas calm, with
a. good deal of fwell, and fine clear Aveather.
3R. li
At 17 h. the extremes, befog the fame feen laft
evening, extended from N. 5° W. to S. 56° W. four or
five leagues. We alfo perceived the high mountain
on the eaft coaft. »$*
Eight breezes, and very pleafant evening.
At noon the weft coaft, from N. 42° W. to S. 64° W.1;
and  the  mountain   on the  oppofite,   N. 82° E.   14
Aired the fchooner Avith fires.
20&. At 1 h. having remarked   the  eaftern  coaft  fuffi-
ciently, Avith which view Ave had before tacked in the
morning: to make it diftinctly, we now ftood for the
Aveftern coaft. At 6 h. the fouth/ extreme bore S. 68°
W., terminating in a hill of a conic fliape; north exj-
treme, N. 28° W. four or five leagues. The land
a-breaft of us prefented much the fame inhofpitable
afpect we had obferved up the gulph to the North.
In the night Ave had a fwell from the S. E. quarter,
with dark, gloomy, threatening weather'; and in the
morning we had an increafe of Avind, with fome rain.
Tacked at l6h. At 17 h., the wind veering to the
Eaft, we bore away; the high mountain on the eaft
coaft bearing from us due Eaft.   At 20 h. the Aveft
fide of the land bore N. W.: and the wind veering    ctfAP
& VI.
more northerly* brought with it frefh gales and rainy   m
weather, which entirely obfcured the land ; and we September-
had every profpect of an approaching gale of wind.
We reduced our fail accordingly, and increafed our
diftance from the fuppofed direction of the weft coaft,
which Ave had only feen imperfectly in the morning.
We had no foundings thefe 24 hours.
Strong gales, with heavy rain and frequent fqualls.
Judging we were fufficiently clear of the land, I
thought it moft prudent to bring to, with our heads
to eaftward. At funfet it bleAv a very fevere gale,
with conftant rain ; and we remained laj'ing to under
a clofe-reefed mainfail, Avith a Arery heavy fea. Every
hour, during the ntght, feemed to add force to the
wind, Avhich blew Avith uncommon violence; and the
weather Avas dark and gloomy to a degree, fo mueh fo-
that we could-not fee beyond the Areffel. We ha-d only
to hope the land continued a fouth-Avefterly direction, as we could not carry any fail to efcape it,
fhould it for us unfortunately tend to the South of
S. S. W. Our little veffel made very good weaklier ;.
for though the fpray of the fea blew conftantly over
ns, we did not fhip any quantify of Avater. At 14 h-
we were very happy to find the gale abating; and by
er2 16 k.
bgg-K    16 h.  Ave Avere enabled to carry fome fails : the wind
. alfo veered to S/. S. E., and Ave liad a confufed broken
1-791 •       fa
September.   10a.
At daj'-light Ave faAV the land from fhe North to
W. 5° S. about five leagues. In the morning the
wind fhifted to S. S. W., and Ave had very fevere
fqualls, tvhich fplit moft of our fails. It foon after
became calm; and Ave Avere left to the mercy of a
moft irregular fea, breaking in every direction. The
weather obfcured the land; and at noon we had light
breezes from the N. E. quarter.
Variable and threatening Aveather, with fhowers of
rain, and the fame confufed fwell. Having fplit all
.our fails, except the fore-topfails, in the gale, Ave
were bufily employed repairing Avith the remaining
fuit. The haze prevented our feeing the land; and
at 10 h. the Avind veering to the S. W., we ftood off
the remainder of the night.
Variable winds, Avhich at laft fettled in the N. W.
quarter, and bleAv a frefh breeze. At 17 h. 30 m. the
land extended from N. W. to S. 80° W.; and at 20 h.
Ave faw it bearing S. W. by W. To the North it was
high and broken, with bare rocky projections:   the
more level parts of the coaft were of a broAvnifh appearance, and coverecr with pine trees. At noon- Ave
had light airs and fine Aveather. The coaft extended
from N. 12° W. to S. 65° W. about five leagues. To
the N. W. there appeared a fmall opening; or perhaps, the land being indented, it might be a bay,
iWbieh our diftance prevented there being anJ certainty
.of; an^ it wras directly to windrward. We had no
Light breezes and cloudy, »,*vith a fouthern fwell.
We fleered in the direction of the coaft ; but the haze
prevented our diftinguifhing any thing particular in
the land, from Avhich we were diftant four or five
leagues.    At 6 h. the fouth extreme, making a high
hill, bore S. 70° W. fix or eight leagues; and we
hauled more off the land.
The night Avasifij|ually and rainy, with a great deal
of lightning, which brought the wind to the fouthward,
At 14 h. we ftood to the eaftward.
Heavy fqualls of wind, and a large fwell, fplit the
jib. By noon we had clear Aveather, which gave us
a diftinct view of the land, extending from Weft to
W*„ diftant 10 or 12 leagues.
Light winds from the land.
Squally weather. We kept clofe to the wind,
expecting to get Avell in with the land in the morning.
Freftt' breezes and clear weather. ToAvards noon
the Avind veered to N. W., and Ave Avere unable to approach the land within five leagues. It made high
in parts; and the fides of the hills were perfectly
bare, and deftitute of any verdure. The extremes at
noon, from N. 14° W. to S. 80° W.; Round Hill, fet
yefterday noon, N. 35° W.
We Avere this day to the fouthward of the eaftern
point, which forms the entrance of the gulph, in the
latitude of 46° 0' North ; and in which parallel of
latitude it is about 60 leagues acrofs, and runs up
North and South 120 leagues. I named it the Gulph
of Tartary. It is poflible there may be fome openings
that have efcaped our notice in fuch an extent; and
if any, probably on the Aveftern fide, which the bad
Aveather prevented our making too1 free Avith on mine
days ; and Avhen fair, the wind Avas* eo-n-trary. Excepting on the eaft point Ave faw no-habitations Avhat-
ever; nor had we any reafon to fuppofe the fea coaft
Avast "inhabited.    In general I have found in all coun-
tries, wherever they are inhabited,  particularly in re
mote ones,  the finoke of fires is ahvays vifible, and   September.
univerfally made wheneA^er ftrange veffels appear, as
fignals of alarm, or to aAvaken their curiofity; and I
think it moft likely no veffel ever appeared in thefe
feas before, to e^Btetheir admiration.
The feafon being too far advanced to permit our
paffi>ng through the ftraits which divide the land of
Infoo from Tartary, and procjeedin'g up to Sakuleeit
Ifland, agreeable to my firft intentions, and from
thence more fully examining the Kurile Iflands, and
afterwards to continue exploring, the Corean coaft to
the Yellow Sea. This plan being rendered abortive
by the unfortunate lofs of his Majefty's fhip Provif
dence, and the want of provifions in the fchooner;
induced me to prefer the continuation of the coaft of
Corea, as the moft eligible. For even on the fup-
pofition of fucceeding in my refearehes to-fche North,
I had every reafon to be affured the Avefterly winds
would prevent my repaffing the ftraits of Infoo, and
of courfe the Corean coaft would fy<& left uneX*
amined. I therefore continued our courfe to the
I began
I began alfo to conceive Captain King Avas right
in his conjectures concerning the Dutch fhips having
coafted the eaftern fide of Tartary, from 45° North
to 49° North, without knoAving it to be fuch. I only
regretted Ave had not Avith us Janfens map of their
difcoveries. It however appears' very evident that
the land called Efo by the Dutch naA'igator, wrhich I
believe implies Efau, or the land of hairy men, and
which the natives call Infoo, as well the Japanefe Ave
faw as before explained, is an ifland of very con-
fiderable magnitude, extending from 41° 24' North
to the latitude of 45° or 45° 25' North, and from
140° 0' Eaft to 146° .22' Eaft, being 70 leagues, in the
parallel of 44° 30' North, Avide; and wfjicb is not its*
greateft breadth. We faAV nothing of the northern
part; but as we faw no land between 45° 25' North
and 46° North, Avill. leave an extenfive ftrait betAveen
it and the peninfula. ofthe coaft of Tartary : or, fhould
the land before mentioned, in 45° 25' North,, prove to
be an iflanda. which I imagine to be the cafe, there
will ftill be a clear channel, remaining between it and
the land of Infoo,, as exhibited in the Japanefe chart,
Avhich accompanies, this j ournal.
It appears manifeftly the miftake of De Vries, in
imagining the land he fell in with, in 45° North, to
6 be<
be the land of Efo, and  Avhich,  according  to  the   chap.
weather, he might eafily fufpect; as in fhe connection   v—^—;
T 1(i1
of lands we are frequently deceived, and find openings September.
and channels where none Avere expected. For in-
- fiance": in the ftraits of Matzmai, Avhere the ifland
of Infoo is divided from Japan by a paflage not five
leagues Avide; and the north point of Japan is feven
miles North of Matzmai town, and ten miles North
of the fouth point of Infoo, which, on entering the
ftraits from the weftward, makes it appear as if there
Avas no paflage between them, the points being fliut
in Avith each other.
Tacked and flood in for the land againft a moft     25th.
unpleafant head fea.    At 5 h. 30 m., the wind again
coming to the Weft, we ftood to the S. W.; the land
at the time extending from N. by W. f W. to W.
by S.
Frefh. breezes throughout the night, Avith a confufed fea, that drove us bodily to leeward. The land
continued the fame direction and diftance; and the
wind and fea together prevented our nearer approach
to it.
s s
At noon  the  land extended  from  N. 25° W. to
N. 75° W.; high broken land, N. W. feven or eight
September.   leagues.
26th. Tacked and ftood for the land.
Stood off for the night;  the land extending from
N.25°W. toS.80°W.
Calm and hazy weather.
Light airs: foon left us.
Frefh breezes and gloomy weather, with rain. We
fleered for the outer extremity of the coaft, which at
noon appeared extending from the North to N. 85° W.;
an opening or bay, N. 66° W. fix leagues. The north
extreme Avas the high broken land.
Frefh breezes and dark gloomy weather, and very
We dreAv in with the land, which was almoft ob-
fcured by the clouds; and at 6h. the fouth extreme,
making in hummocks, bore S. 85° W.;  between it
and a hally point, bearing N. 83" W.    The coaft re- chap.
ceded, and was in that part very Ioav ; but ftill the *-—I—-
whole of the coaft appeared to us clofely connected, September
particularly the opening Ave had remarked at noon.
The land Avas much broken, forming hills and vallies,
very defolate to our view; and avc were four or five
leagues from the fhore.
At 11 h. we hauled upon a Avi&d under a low fail;
and at day-light Ave made fail: the land extending-
from N. 5° E. to S. 79° W. In the morning we had
very ftrong breezes and fair Aveather; and we frequently paffed quantities of coarfe grafs. At noon
the fouth extreme, forming a high hill from Avhich
fome low land projected, bore S. 84° E. five or fix
leagues; very high broken land, N. W. by W. four
leagues ; the extreme to the northAYard, N. 5° E.
Since the laft obferya-tiesi the current has fet us
S. 20° E. 26 miles.
At half paft 1 h.  the wind coming to the S. W.      28th.
permitted us to Hand in for .the land.    At funfet we
were clofe in,  but Ave could g-et no founjdings with
90 fathoms.    We could not perceive the fmalleft appearance of any openings,  nor any thing to lead us
s s
book to fuppofe the coaft being inhabited. The land pre-
!—;—' fented a rugged and rocky fhore, with a feAv trees
September, feattered upon the ridges of the hills. Thefe hills were
of little ele\ration, near the fea, forming abruptly at
unequal diftances ; but the interior land made very
high. The extremes, when Ave tacked, bore from
N. N. E. to W. S. W. j
The night was moderate, and the wind being fteady
from the S. W. and W. S. W., we unavoidably increafed our diftance from the coaft, Avhich was feen
very indiftinctly in the morning to the N. W.
29th. Frefh breezes and hazy Aveather.
9h.    Tacked, and ftood to the Aveftward.
12 h.    Moderate weather, with a heavy dew falling
equal to fmall rain.
18 h.    Light breezes and very hazy.
24 h.    Very cloudy Aveather.    No fight of land.
3®th. Moderate breezes and very cloudy : the atmofphere
entirely obfcured.    At half paft 4 h. Ave faw the land
to the N.W.
7 h. The extremes of land, from N. 10° W. to
N. 80° W., making in detached hills. The fun fetting
very clear gave us a diflinct vieAV of it, at feven or
^ \
We  tacked  for  the  night   chap.
6 vi.
eight leagues' diftance.
at 6 h. 30 m.
12 h.    Light Avinds, Avith gentle fhowers.
18 h. Foggy weather, which toAvards noon cleared
aAvay with -the northerly AAund; but it ftill remained
very hazy.
22 h.    Small land birds and feveral gulls feen.
24 h.    Frefh breezes.    No land in fight.
Moderate breezes and hazy Aveather.
5 h.    Light breezes.
12 h.    Light airs.
18 h. Calm weather. We diftinguifhed the land
bearing N. by W. At 20 h. we had light airs from
the fouthward, with mild weather, which permitted
the performance of divine fervice. At noon the land
bore from N. 10° E. to N. 22° W. eight leagues.
Light Avinds and very fmooth water carried us towards the land, which tended, to the weftward. We
alfo palled quantities of coarfe grafs.
The land extended from N. 33° E. to N. 23° W.
about fix leagues.    The night Avas calm and cloudy.
12 h.    Light afrs.
18 h.
18 h. Pleafant breezes from the eaftward. The
land, from N. 42° E. to N. 35° W. Low land appeared near the lea, and very high mountains
well wooded at the back. We purfued our courfe in
the direction of the fhore, which at noon extended
from N. 42° E. to N. by W. fix or feven leagues, and
the appearance of more land to the N. W.;. hut it
Avas fo dark and hazy in that direction, we could not
well diftinguifli.    The wind a fine breeze.
Moderate breezes and hazy. We ftill continued
our courfe to the weftward, in the direction of the
coaft, which was generally obfcured from our view
by the haze over it. At 6h. we could only fee a
fmall part bearing N. N. E. fix or feven leagues ; and
the Avind veered to the North, with fqually and rainy
Aveather.   The atmofphere extremely gloomy.
AtTOh. 30 m. hauled our Ayind, and hove to under
a Ioav fail.    Wore fhip.
17 h. Made fail, Avith a ftrong Avind and a confufed fea.
In the morning Ave ftill paffed quantities of coarfe
gfafs, and were vifited by many land birds.    Large
1 flocks
flocks of geefe flew over us from the N, W., going to   chap.
the fouthAvard.    At noon we had ftrong breezes and   i—~r~—>
hazy Aveather: we could juft difcern the land to the   oaobe'r.
N. W., though very faintly.    By the obfervation, we
had been fet 24 miles to the South of account; and
hy the current we had experienced, and the coarfe
grafs we had feen, I imagine fome river to empty itfelf
into the fea in this  part of the coaft.    The ftrong
northerly  wind   prevented  our   courfe   being  more
northerly, and of courfe approaching the land in the
direction I wifhed.
Light winds and fair Aveather, but uncommonly
hazy to 15° above the horizon, which prevented our
obferving any objects diftinttly upon the land. We
peered as the coaft inclined, till the wind came to
the S. E., and aftenvards to the S. W., which was
immediately oppofite to our courfe.
The Avhite rock fet at noon as we opened ; it made
a duller of different fazes : and at; 6h. the rocky
head bore N. 30° E.; and the fouthern extreme,
S.75°W. An opening, in the direction of N. 15° W.:
the fouth point, forming double land, Avas four or five
leagues diftant.
At funfet Ave ftill remarked very high mountainous
land along the coaft.
The night was clear, and pleafant Aveather; but our
wind carried us from the land, which at noon was
feen through the haze, 12 or 13 leagues diftant to
the S. W.
5th. Frefh breezes and very hazy Aveather.    Soon after
noon we faAV very high mountainous land to the weftward.
The extremes of the coaft extended from S. 30° W.
to N. 10° E. In the angle formed by two high points,
bearing N. 35° W. and S. 58° W., the land receded
very confiderably ; and Avithin the 58° point there
feemed to be a' fmall opening in the low land. All
the interior mountains were of great magnitude; and
the coaft tended to the fouthAvard, in Avhich direction
Ave fliaped our courfe for the night, having fine clear
moon-light. At day-light the land extended from
S. 10° W. to S. 80° W.; a rocky point, N. 87° W. two
or three leagues. To the North of the point, the
coaft Avas ftraight and uniformly high and rocky;
and South of it the land fell back, and was not fo
elevated near the fea, but equally barren in appearance.
pearance.    The rocky point rofe abruptly from the    chap.
fea, in horizontal ftrata of a white and red colour;    I—*—-*1
and the higher parts Avere Avooded in patches.    We   o&ober
faAV no figns of the country being inhabited : indeed
every part of it prefented  a moft uncomfortable profpect.    At noon Ave paffed a white rock, much broken
into craggy points : it is de^a^e^ about three leagues
from the fliore, and bore ofus N. 43° W. five^ or fix
miles.    The extremes bore from N. 10° E. to S. 70° W.
four or five leagues diftant.    No foundings Avith
fl! M
Off the Ifland of Tzima, fituated between the Coafts of Corea and
Japan.—Arrival at Chofan on the Corean Coaft.—Defcription of
its Harbour—Inhabitants—Soil—Cultivation—^Produce, &c.—•
Anxiety of the Natives for our Departure.—Obfervamms for
Longitude, &c.
Jb resh breezes and fair weather, but the fame haze
ftill remained. We could juft difcern the high land
to the N. W., and at 6h. the extremes of the Corean
coaft extended from N. to N. 75° W. feven or eight
leagues. More land appeared to the S. W., when we
ftood to the S. E. during the night.
Moderate weather: ftood in fhore.
Hazy Aveather.
SaAV the land to the N. W. At noon the coaft
extended from N. to N. 40° W. feven leagues, and
from S. 26° W. to S. 36> W.  "      :#^W
Frefh breezes and pleafant weather.
:—= iftnra
Frefh breezes and hazy weather; as Ave approached    chap.
n VII.
the  fhore we  found the  lands   fet   at   noon   Avere    -—-*•—-
connected, forming between the points an extenfive   oaober
bay.    At funfet Ave tacked. in the bay; the extremes      7th"
bearing from South  to N. 22° E.; but we had no
foundings Avith 50 fathoms.    The lofty mountains Ave
had before remarked,   feemed to  terminate  on  the
north fide of the bay, and in a W. N. W. direction
the coaft fell back, leaving a fmall bay within, Avhich
moft probably affords good anchorage from the appearance of the fliores.
The fouthern land rofe in hummocks to a tolerable
The Avind Avas moderate and fteady all night, In the
morning it veered to the weftAvard. Land at-noon
extended from S. 12° W. to N. 82° W. A faddle hill
S. 67° W. fiVe or fix leagues. This hill is the fouth
extremity of the extenfive bay which was fet laft
evening bearing South. Very pleafant weather, but
variable. This bay abounded in whales, and Ave could
not reach the bottom with all our fine.
Light airs, with calm and cloudy weather.
6 h.    Light Avinds.
T T 2
12 h
12 h.    Inclining to calms.
18 h.    Gentle breezes.
Our fituation nearly the fame as yeiterday.
A peaked mount S. 27° W.; extreme S.  12° W.
Saddle Hill S. 67° W. about five leagues the centre.
'9 th.
Light breezes, Avith dark gloomy Aveather,
A peaked hill South ofthe Saddle Hill bore S. 48° W.
fix or feven leagues.
The Avind having veered to the weftward, brought
with it fine clear Aveather.    Strong breezes and fqually.
The peaked hill bore of us N. 71  W. ; and the
extreme S. 12° W. four- leagues off fhore.
We fleered throughout the morning in the direction
of the coaft, \v^th a ftfohg gale and fine Aveather,
keeping at two or tftree leagues diftance. At noon tfife
land extended from S. 15° W. to N. 38° W. The
extreme fet -at 6h. A.M. bore from us N. 51° W.;
and we were five or fix mflfes from the land. The
coaft afforded a moft barren profpect, tfoe hills-w^ere
Much broken into  ridges, forming  chafms in  their chap
•                                7 vu.
Hoping tides toAvards the fea: Ave faw no appearance ■—•-—'
of any openings. oSr;
We ranged the coaft at the fame diftance four or
five miles; we obferved nothing to particularife, the
land affording the fame uniform appearance of moderate height, and rather cliffy near the fea. At funfet
the extremes bore from S. 18° W. to N. 38° W., and
Ave hauled our wind for the night. In the evening
the gale moderated,* and during the night Ave
had a great fwell, Avhich in the morning had nearly
The land preferved the fame bearings as laft
evening, but the wrind veering to the W. S. W. towards
noon, prevented our approaching within two leagues.
It extended at noon from S. 14° W. to N. 14° W. The
fouth extreme making a low point.
Still throughout the afternoon Ave Avere prefenfced
Avith the fame barren vieAV, except the A'afiation of a
yelloAvifti earth mixed with the heath and coarfe
grafs that covered the hills. At 5 h. 30 m. the land
extended from S. 33° W. to N. 30° W., and the
low point  fet  at noon  as the  fouth- extreme bore
S. 45° W.
S. 45° W. To the North of this point is a deep bay or
opening Avhich the Avinds prevented our afcertaining;
it bore S. 6l° W. feven leagues. The Avind remained
fixed in the Aveftern quarter, bloAving ftrong at times in
fqualls. At 18 h. the land was feen from N. 65° W. to
S. 65° W., and at noon fiom N. 47° W. to S. 65° W.
Some white cliffs weft feven or eight leagues.
The extremes of Corea from N, 47° AY. to N. 85° W.
eight or ten leagues.
Moderate breezes and clear weather, the Avind
veering to the N. W. quarter.
Before day-light Ave faw the land to the S. W.,
which proved to be the ifland of Tzima, fituated be-
tAveen Nipon and the Corean coaft. The coaft of
Corea, N. 33° W. to N. 50° W. nine leagues. The
ifland Tzima was feen from S. 44° W. to W. four or
five leagues ; and a fmall high ifland, vifible only from
the rigging, S. 24° E. ten or twelve leagues by eftima-
tion. At half paft 21 h. we tacked clofe in with the
ifland, the north point bearing N. 68° W. three or
four miles. Some rocks are without this point. Early
in the morning we perceived the ifland to be inhabited, by their lighting fires in every part.   This Avas
a grateful
a grateful fight, and- what we had been long unac-    chap.
cuftomed to on the coaft of Tartary.    We alfo faw   |jp38
four Japanefe junks working to the weflward, under   oaober.
the land.    The ifland Avas of moderate elevation, with
fome high land in the centre of it.    The vallies were
cultivated, and Avoods Avere thinly fcattered over the
hills.    The coaft on the eaft fide was very rocky; and
the furf broke on the fliore Avith great violence.
At noon the north point bore N. 88° W. three or
four miles; high rocks, furrounded by an extenfive
reef, and much broken, N. 75° W. five miles ; extreme of ifland, S. 20° W.; point forming a fmalfbay,
S. 30° W. 2| miles ; the coaft of Corea, from N. 15° W.
to N. 83° W. nine or ten leagues: and we had 22
fathoms, coral bottom.
Moderate breezes and fair Aveather, Avith a fwell
from the North. The -wind came from, the fame
quarter, and AAre Avere able to weather the ifland,
having a ftrong current in our favour, fetting againft
the wind and fwell. From the north point the ifland
tends in the direction of S. 60° W. fix or eight miles ;
and from thence to the S. S. W. fome fmall ifles lay
off the north point, leaving a paflage betAveen them
and the reef, through which channel the junks Avent.
J 4th.
At 1 h. the reef bore S.-560 W. fewo miles; and we
had unequal. foundifsgg', Wjith a great fea in* this fituation, occafioned by the overfalls and ftrong current.
After running in the direction of N. 41° W. 22 miles
from 1 h,, Ave were Avell. over on the Corean coafbt
the extremes extending from N. 20° E. to S. 67° W.;
an opening, to the N. W. about three miies:; and the
ifland of Tjgima, from South to S. 23° E. eight or nine
leagues. The night Avas moderate, and Ave plied
under eafy fail. At day-light Ave found the current
\i$d fet us confiderably,-to the E. N. E. We made
fair to the weftward. As Ave dreAV in Avith the land
vye obferved feveral villages fcattered along the fliore.
The coaft was much broken, and appeared li&ely to
afford fhelter; and the external view was not the
moft favourable, prefenting rather an inhofpitable
At noon Ave had dark gloomy weather, and our
fituation with refpect to the land* the fame as laft
evening. Two bays Avere open to ug-, beaipSBg N. 25°
W. and N. 65° W.; a rock, S. 70° W.
Light breezes and rainy Aveather. Soon after noon
we faAV fome fifhing boats, and prevailed upon one
of them to come on board.    By figns we underftood
2 the
the opening to the N. W. as moft eligible, and we    chap.
. VII.
bore up for it.    Off the north point of entrance we    j—•-—*
faAV fomp   ftupendous   black   rocks  detached  fome   oaober.
diftance  from the fhore :   we paffed  within half a
cable's length of them, carrying 30 fathoms, muddy
bottom; and gradually afterwards fhoaled our Avater
to 16, 10, and 5 fathoms.
In the entrance on the fouth fide is a high rocky
ifland. To the North of it is a fandy bay, Avhere we
obferved a large village, and cultivations furrounding
it; and tojthe Aveftward, through the rain and mift,
we faAV feveral fcattered rocks, Avhic^. induced us to
turn to windAvard for the fandy bay; and before dark
we came to an anchor, in four fathoms water, fandy
bottom, half a mile from the fliore.
It continued raining Avithout intermiflion till daylight, when we had fair and pleafant Aveather, with the
wini*} from the N. W. quarter. The fea was open to
us from the South to S. 23° E.; and in the angle Ave
faw very diftinctly the ifland of Tzima, at ten leagues
Early in the morning Ave Ave/e furrounded by boats
full of men, Avomenxand children, whofe curiofity had
u u brought
brought them off to fee the ftrangeveflfeJ. The^^were
univerily cloa4;hed! iii Knen garmetres made into loofe-
jackets and trowfers, quilted or efcubled ; and fome of
them Avore large loofe gowns. The Avomen had a
fhort pe#fcoat over their troAv^err^; and both fexes,
linen boots, vrtth fahJcfals made of'flee fi&iw. The
men wore their hair in a knot tied up to the crowH,.
and the women had theirs twilled and plaited round
thei? heads.
:$he features and! complexioas of thefe people re-
fembled the Cfimefe, particularly their fmall eyes;:
and in gener^aftbur vifitors Avere extremely ordinary
in their perfons : but it is to be rememherect there
were no young Women ofthe party; the females being compofed entirely of old Avomen and children.
In the morrfmg Ave went on fhore in fearclr of
water, lam-ling «=tr (ttre vifllage for tlf#t purpofe; and
ftom thence one oif1 the ^inhaMtants edhdu^te^ hs* to
a fine run isf' watery moft coKV^ehle«^y' fituated foir
our purpofe. We were*fe want hefth ofijwood ajnd:
water; but of the former article the country feemed;
very deficient. After taking fome altitudes for the
wa&h, and obfenrmg^e diftances for the lougi'tHde,.
we took a walk, attended by a numerous .party* of the
8 villagers..
villagers. The harbour, Jwe perceived, extended fome
diftance to the weftward of the rocks Ave had noticed
in coming in, and alfo to the N. E. and S. W. of them,
terminating in fmall bays that afforded fhelter from
all Avinds. Many villages Avere fcattered round the
harbour; and in the N..-W. part Ave obferved a large
town, encircled with ftone Avails, and battlements
upon them<: Several junks were laying in a bafon
near.itij iprote'cted by a pier. Another mole or bafon
appeared to the S. WJiof the other, near fonae wii-Me
honfesn&f a fuperior cffinflirusction, enclofed by a "thick
wood, ilp
The villages feemed to abound with people, and
the harbour fuU of boats failing about on their dif-
r^fient avocatiwaS.1 * They Avere fimilar in figui^
though .inferior in woj>kmamTii|>, to tiie Cfeteefe
boats; and dike them made ufe of fkulls and matted
As we came near another village they Hopped kud
begged Ave would not proceed any farther; and we
'iepmp'iifid w&h: t&teir requ^ftl On em retft-rn we remarked feveral grayes, .whrefeffthe natives had ported
out and explained to us: thejvT(were tpiaced inj an Eaft
and Weft dicBttion,  and ftfae ground  elevated  ovlk
u u 2 them*
 1 !'t
I'll '   1
book    them^'j:Trees were  planted in,, a femi-circular form
!—*—j    round moft of them, and univerfally diftifiguiflied by
oaober. <"fome ftone work.
[)We got on board to dinner; and in the afternoon?
we were vifited by fome fuperior people, who came
from up the harbour. The"y were dreffed in large
loofe goAvns, and Avere paid great deference to by the
common people. They had on large black hats, AvitJi
high crowns, manufactured Avith a ftrong gauze not
unlike horfe hair, very ftiff and ftrong. They tied
them under the chin ; and thefe hats, ferving as
umbrellas, were three feet in diameter*
Each perfon carried a fan, Avith a ?mall <§Ilagree
.box attached to it, containing perfume; and a knife
hand fomely mounted Avas fattened round tiieir waift.
A boy attended each of them, who had charge of
their tobacco pipes; and whofe occupation was to
keep their dreffes fmooth, Moft of them wore their
beards long.
Their inquiries feemed t<pntend to a knowledge of
what brought us to&heir country; but I fear our
replies gave them very little fatisfaction, as we could
fo littlf comprehend each other.   They wiere feem-
fijxgly pleafed with their reception, and foon after took    chap.
leave of us. offe &§£ && *—-■——*'
We Avent on fliore to afcend the high land near us
to the South, and from thence to take fome bearings.
Our vieAv from the top Avas very extenfive; and Ave
faAV diftinctly over every part of the harbour. Our
angles were however ufelefs, the needle being fo
ftrongly affected as to point Eaft inftead of North,
owing to fome magnetic power in the mountain, which
would not admit the needle pointing true in any fitua-
tioirls This hillcwas high and rocky; but the fides
produced coarfe grafs, on Avhich cattle were feeding;
and in the loAver parts, fome paddy fields.
: i
On our return on board in ° the evening Ave found
the veffel crowded with vifitors, nor could Ave get rid
of them till dark, and even Avith great difficulty,
ufing almoft violence to induce them to go into their
boats.   At laft they went on fliore.
Soon after dark we Avere furprized feeing thefe boats
coming off from the fhore, full of men, and very de-
-firous to come on board. I did not chufe to permit
them, and they came to an anchor along-fide. As
we were unacquainted  with their intentions, their
conduct appeared to usJkfpiciaus; and we prepared
for the worft, having every body ftationed at their
•quarters. In a fhort time a boat came to them
Scorn, the fhote Avith 3^ht§,<- which being diftributed
.amongft the others, afrer fome confutation, they
took upr 4&eir anchors and rowed on fliore to the
tjfth. Frefh breezes and very pleafant Afeather from the
N.W. quarter: the nights were cool and ihe days
-warm, having a clear fun. We had no boats: 6ff till
afteir breakf&ftj when tAvo came full of vififeors, drefted
in a fuperior ftyle to any we had yet feen.', i&a each
were fome foldiers carrying, fmallfpears, that werfeas
ftaffs to their colours, which were a blue fattin field,
'"with their arms in yellow characters. The hats of *the
Coldiers Avere decorated wi^'peacock's feathers. They
made me a prefent of fait fifh, rice, and fea-&eed
(fucus !fethari<nus.)* >.
After many inquiries refpecting us, we plainly faAV
they wtere extremely anxiftus:*for -our deparijfere, wfe&ch
I explained to them; was/impoffible, as Ave were -naruoh
iaa want of Avood, wtater* ato-d.tefreffliRients;' -They im>
'dfedia'tieiy offered to fend us any quantity of the
tbrmer; baln€; could notf|Jsrfuade them to fend any
ofthe cattle we piointed out to them, gragang on the chap.
fliore.   As money appeared of no value, and wet had :—<j—>
no other means to induce them,  Ave were under the oailxaO
necemty of bearing with the difappomtment, of feeing
daily Avhat-^e'cbifildnot procure*
Tftefe great merVjwere dreffed in the fa-me form aV
the others Ave h&d before feen, but the^r garments
were much -finer; and the outer one was of a light
Mue gauze or'^ffa^fy*.
Undei^-fceh^ncliin-s, as if tying their large &ia©k
hatipri^e^feaid a Jfcriiig''enlarge beads, either agate,
amber, or black wood, which was fufpended in :sk
bow over their right ears. Some of their hats Avere
tippedowitb:filA^tBOnmlr .the crown.
ii33h&li.t#estda&ts an$ tho^ "in offline paid thefe*>-men
tile moft ful^fiftiflSy*© respect,, always .Ipe&kiijgijian.d
anlwejing thfe-qw^ip&S pvtt htPri4&e©i in a Roping
pofture, looking upon the deck.
}i^tjn<o#'e«curre64ito-me thefe ^people .muft have arrived after dark laft evening, and Avere the ;feme tf
whom we had refufed admittance, while our fufpicions
fifef? led
led us to fuppofe they had fome other view to gratify
than mere curjofity, by coming fo late.
The arrival of our*b.4se?ids; prevented our bei-pgj
troubled Avith fo many vifitors, much to our fatisfac-
tion. But unfortunately the fame interdiction extended toujour AvaJkingi>o;^ fliore, but not fo much fo
as to preclude our making aftronomical obfervations,
or taking off water**' yet the affemblage of people was
fo great as to materially affect our operations, not-
withftanding the military were fo flationed as to keep
off the crowd, which they did ca^i:times .'mQ"9f;effeo
tually, by exercifing upon their perfons large bamboo
flicks. aoow
In the afternoon they fent us waterin jar^iand tubs,
and took our calks with them aftenvards, as a more
expeditious way of fupplying us, which Avere brought
off in good order. A foldier conftantly attended in
thefe boats, Avho feemed to have the principal direction.
The night was moderate, and fair weather from Ihe
gndioiqf'     '/Ot   af^©^ii|K!||^h
Frefli breezes and very fqually from the N. E.
quarter, with dark cloudy Aveather, Avhich prevented
our having much communication rwith the fliore.
Our friends, notwithstanding the violence ofthe Avind,
fent us both Avood-and water.
'$>- O'li fo Ij3^-;^9S^f^V^j-o   ...
The Av^ud remained in the fame quarter, but more
ng.o^deratc; and in the afternoon Ave Avere vifited by
deputies from the great men, to knoAv if Ave had Avood
and water enough to permit our failing. I told them,
it Avas not my intention to fail for three days. They
Avere then def