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A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean: in which the coast of Asia, from the lat. of 35 North… Broughton, William Robert, 1762-1821 1804

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Array         VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
TO   THE:
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN
IN WHICH
THE COAST OF ASIA,   FROM THE LAT. OF 35° NORTH
TO THE LAT. OF 52° NORTH,
THE  ISLAND  OF INSU,
(COMMONLY  KNOWN   UNDER   THE NAME   OF   THE LAND   OF JESSO,)
THE NORTH,   SOUTH,   AND EAST COASTS OF JAPAN,
THE LIEUCHIEUX   AND THE ADJACENT ISLES,
AS  WELL AS THE  COAST OF COREA,
HAVE BEEN EXAMINED AND  SURVEYED.

PERFORMED
IN HIS MAJESTY'S SLOOP PROVIDENCE,
AND HER TENDER,
in the years 1795, 1796, 1797, 1798.
By WILLIAM ROBERT BROUGHTON.
LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR T. CADELL AND Vf. DAVIES IN THE STRAND.
1804. Printed by A. Stratum
Nevr-Street Square. PREFACE.
Voyages of Difcovery juftly claim the public attention, becaufe they open new fources of knowledge
and trade, and confequently are interefting to a
fcientific and commercial people: but it would be
unneceffary at any length to expatiate upon the utility
of fuch expeditions, fince that has been fo ingenioufly
and convincingly difplayed in the Introduction to
Cook's third voyage.
VI
Highly pre-eminent in the fcale of Europe, not
only for her military character but for her celebrity
alfo in the arts of peace, Great Britain has long
maintained her envied fuperiority among the nations,
from the encouragement fhe has given to fuch enter-
prizes, and for the many illuftrious navigators ftie has
produced.    The perfevering refearches and unwearied
a 2 activity PREFACE,
activity of our immortal Cooke advanced her reputation for fuch voyages far beyond thofe of his prede-
ceflbrs; and had not his unfortunate death deprived
the world of his abilities, or the advanced feafon of
the year prevented one of his fuceeflors in command,
* Captain King, from fuch an attempt, there would
have been little opportunity perhaps for the detail of
the following journal, or the moft important part of
the voyage of La P6roufe. It fhould be remembered
that, in the third volume of Cooke's laft work* Captain
King obferves that the navigation of the fea between
J-apan and China afforded the largeft field for discovery : and the furvey of this unknown part of the
North Pacific Ocean was particularly recommended
by the Honourable Daines -f Barrington in his Mif-
cellanies, where he. fays, " The coaft of Corea, the
northern part of Japan, and Lieuchieux Iflands, fhould
be explored." Captain £ Vancouver remarks, p that
the Afiatic coaft, from about the latitude of 35° to
52' North, is at prefent very ill defined ; and the
American coaft, from about the latitude of 44° South
to the fouthern extremity of Terra-del Fuego, is very
little known."
* See Vol. III. of Cooke's laft voyage, page 383.
f See page 8th of the Preface.
X See his 3d Vol. page 489.
Such PREFACE.
Such fuggeftions and obfervations as thefe would'
naturally have their due weight with a navigator who
was zealous to extend the bounds of geography, and
who was well aware that little was to be done in any
other part of the Pacific Ocean except that of fettling,
the pofition of fonie few iflands,. in themfelves of little
eonfequenee.. He might indeed have hefitated to
which fiMvey he mould give the preference, either
that of the Afiatic coaft from 55° to 52° N. latitude,
or of the American coaft about 44° S. latitude to
Terra del Fuego, had he not been convinced that
Captain Vancouver would have completed the laft;
by his returning to England round Cape Horn. Yet
here the curfory and faftidious reader may obferve,
that however laudable the defign of the following
journal may have been, yet it can claim no merit
from the novelty of its difcoveries, as that is already
pre-occupied hy La Peroufev In anfwer to fuch an
obfervation, it is to be hoped that a little attention to
this work would convince him of his miftake, and induce him to allow, that' although the fame feas may
have been explored by the two navigators, yet their
feparate discoveries and furveys ftamp a peculiar and
charadteri&ic difference between the voyages. Even
had the fame* track been followed entirely, great advantage might have arifen by it to the interefts of
fcience PREFACE.
fcience and geography : the errors of the former, if
any, might have been corrected by the latter navigator ; and the merit of his difcoveries have been more
completely eftablifhed by later obfervations tending
to confirm their authenticity. This advantage, it is
prefumed, may be found in the prefent work ; and as
the Englifli commander could not poflibly have known
the inftructions given to La Peroufe by the French
Government, he is perfectly clear of the charge of
imitation. If however the idea fhould ftill prevail,
that La Peroufe's voyage has fuperfeded the neceflity
of this prefent publication, perhaps a brief ftatement
of the difcoveries or furveys made by both navigators
in the fame feas may remove fuch ill-founded prejudices, and afcertain the degree of merit due to each
voyage feparately.
The French editor remarks, that " the examination
of the eaftern coaft of Tartary, and the difcovery, as
it may be called, of one of the moft extenfive * iflands
on the globe, feparated from the continent by a ftrait,
which was traverfed in all directions, give La Peroufe's
voyage importance and individuality f but here it
may be obferved without any undue prefumption, that
the eaftern coaft of Tartary has been examined alfo
* Tchoka, or Sagaleen.
by
jflRfe PREFACE.
by the Englifh commander, and that the furvey of
the extenfive illand of Tchoka or Sagaleen is not fu-
perior in point of general intereft to that which has
been made by him of Chica, JefTo, or Infu, to the
South of it; an ifland indeed of lefs extent, but more
an object of curiofity to Europeans. The caufe of
geography, in refpect to thefe hitherto undefined
parts, feems to have been equally benefited by the
two navigators; for their feparate furveys will mutually correct the errors relative to thefe two iflands,
which have been laid down with fuch little attention
to accuracy in former maps of the world.
tlM
By the paflage of La Peroufe through the ftraits;
which bear his name, the infularity of Tchoka was
determined; as that of Chica or Infu was alfo, by
the failing of the Providence through the ftraits of
Sangaar. The weftern coaft of Infu was furveyed by
the Providence, which La Peroufe omitted by going
through his own ftraits. And in their progrefs to
52° N. latitude, the boat of the Englifh. veflel went
fifteen miles further than thofe of La Peroufe; nor
did its crew relax from their furveys till they were in
two fathom water, and the fhoals, together with the
nearnefs of the furrounding fhores, prevented any
further advance.    As to their uefpective surveys of the
Kurile PREFACE.
Kurile Iflands,   Marikan feems   to have   been   the
boundary of both.
So far it has been thought proper to introduce this
brief ftatement: but the furveys of the north, fouth,
and eaft coafts of Japan, the Lieuchieux and the adjacent ifles of Madgicofernah, together with the examination of ihecoaft of Corea, belong.exclufively to
the following Journal; for La Peroufe, when he left
Kamfchatka, gavonkpthe idea of exploring any more
$he gulph of Tartary or the Japanefe feas, but purfued
bis courfe to Maoiina, one of the Navigator iflands.
The lofs ffl La Peroufe will ever be a fource of regret, and his exertions infure to <Ms memory the admiration of all civilized nations. The refpect he fhows
for our immortal Cooke, and other navigators who
preceded him in his honourable employment, fufh-
ciently prove the candour of his mind and fuperiority
to national prejudices. Nor, while this juft tribute of
applaufe is paid to his" liberality, mould we, as Eng-
lifhmen, forget the intereft which his Government
took in the fnccefs of Captain Cooke's voyage. The
benevolent will ever with pleafure recollect, that, even
amidft the horrors of war, an exemption from them
was allowed in favour of an enterprize which was intended PREFACE.
ix
tended to promote a furtiftfl knowledge of the globe,
to foften the ferocity of our  unenlightenjfd   fellow-
creatures,   enlarge the intereourfe of mankind,  and
bind together the remoteft nations by the connections
of commerce.    Tbe exteenie caution of the Japanefej
and tlfigir  inflexible ohfia*iacy in excluding any foreigners, except the  Dutch,  from  landing on  thfgj
territories,   are fufficient apologies for the  want of
knowledge of that empire, obfervable  in the voyages
■of bofH) thef Ir&aeJi.and Englilli navigators.    And if
•La Peroufe was fearful of intruding upon their coafts,
though commanding two frigates furniflied with every
requaditS for  defence,   aa|d   manmfd  with  numerous
crews,   the apprehenfions   of the Engl|pi are  more
allowable, when it is recollected that, after the wreck
of the Providence floop, her tender had but thirty-five
men as her compliment, and might, from the fmall-
nefs of her fize, have been miftaken by the Japanefe
for a pjf%te.    The fame unremitted jealoufy of foreigners feems to have pervaded every place in thpfe
feas where the Providence touched at; and although
the  defies of the  crew  for  wjpod  and  water were
readily complied with, yet any wifb of exploring the
antefljjor of the country, and of gaining a more perfect
knowledge of its government, produce, and manners,
was invariably and per^inacipufly refilled.
a Ksempfer,
A PREFACE.
Kaempfer, in his defcription of Japan, dwells much
upon the ftormy nature of the feas which furround it;
and they have been proverbially reckoned the moft
dangerous in the world. La Peroufe, though he made
his voyage in the midft of fummer, in two large frigates full of boats, and furniihed with every neceflary
for fuch voyages, complains much of the thick fogs
and bad weather, and of the danger of being embayed before his return. After the lofs of the Providence (loop, the Englifh navigator had only a fchooner
of 80 tons, with one fmall boat, to encounter fuch
perils, and that not in the fummer feafon, but in the
midft of equinoctial gales, and the moft unfavourable
time of the year.
After this fhort fummary of what it has done for
the promotion of geography and navigation, the following voyage is fubmitted to the public. It is a true
unexaggerated ftatement of nautical occurrences ; nor
are there any inferted which are not founded on fact,
and the ftricteft regard to veracity. If the reader only
looks for amufement he will probably be difap-
pointed; but it is prefumed that he may gain fome
nautical information. Such voyages, as thofe in the
collection of Prevoft for inftance, are defective by
their omiflion of aftronomical and nautical remarks,
8 which. PREFACE.
which, though they may be detailed with dry, minute,
and fcrupulous accuracy, are never failing fources of
inftruction to the navigator and man of fcience.
The Providence floop of war was of 400 tons in
burthen, carried 16 guns, and her compliment was
115 men. On her leaving England fhe was fupplied
with provifions for two years, and every neceflary
article that was required. Every thing, which in
fimilar voyages had been found of utility, was liberally
granted by the Admiralty, in regard to articles of
barter, and the prefervation of the feamens* health;
and it is only to be lamented that the unfortunate
fhipwreck of the Providence, by the lofs of fo many
irretrievable requifites for fuch a voyage, fhould have
rendered it in any degree incomplete. The fhip's
company confifted entirely of young men, who were
univerfally fober, attentive, and well-behaved; and
here it is melancholy to relate, how very few of them
ever revifited their native country, as may be feen by
the following lift of their names and fate.
XI
111
a 2 LIST OF THE  NAMES
OP   THE
Officers, Sailors, and Marftres, embarked on board H. M. Sloop
Providence, under the Command of Captain'Broughton;.
Names and Qualities.
Willw. Robt. Broughton, Commander,
Zathary Mudge, ift Lieutenant,
G. J. F. Young, ©d Lieutenant,  t
James G. Vafhon, 3d Lieutenant,
William Chapman, Mallet,
Jotai xlouff, SuVgebn,
George Young, Lieutenant of marines,
John Crofle^c, Aftsonsajien,
William Mitchell, Boatfwain,
William Forfter, Carpenter,
^ifei CawleyyMafter's miXa, ,:
John J. Haywood, Midmipman,
Reginald B. Hopkins, ditto,
James B. Boyde, ditto.
Lord George Stuart, ditto,
Honourable Alexander Jones, ditto,
T. Coulfton, Carpenter, Surg. 2d mate*;
Time when and Place where difcharged, &c.
28th May   1798,  Difcharged at  Trin-
comalee to retulWhohie
10th June 1797, Went home with leave
from China
nth Juijte 1797, Ditto
23d May 1798, Difcharged per fentence
of Court-Partial
28th May 1798,, Difcharged to H. M.
Ship Trident
$&lrr4v{ay 1798, Diftffiarged to 'H.'^T.
-Ship Orpheus
10th June 1797, Went home with leave
from Cfiiiia •'»
icth June 1797, Difcharged at ..CJhina
13 th   Went home with leave
from Chlnat't
e8th  May   1798,   Difcharged  at  Trin-
comalee -
/38Ch Maylt-798, Di&barged to H. M.
Ship Suffolk
28th May 1798, Difcharged to H. "M.
Ship La Sybille
28th May 1798, Difcharged to  H.  M_
Ship Victorious
10th June 1797, Went home with leave
from China
loth June 1797, Ditto
nth Ditto
10th i   Ditto
Stephen' A LIST OF THE NAMES, &c.
filil,
Nantes and Qualities. •-.
Stephen Bones, Cleric,
John Dining, Mafter at arms,
George Randal, >CarpenteHs mate,--
Edward MiHsr, .'ditto,
Thomas Belcher, BoatCwain's -mate,
Martin Neal, ditto,
Jofeph Mott, .'ditto,
Thomas Morrifen, Girane^-'s mate,
Robert Miller, /hip's Corporal,
Charles Bruee, Sail-maker^s mate,
John 01droy>3, able Seaman,
David Hendetfon, ditto,
James Steel, ditto,
John Graham, ditto,
William Bryan, ditto,
Andrew Mitchell, ditto,
John Williafcs, ditto,
JohuWilfon, ditto,  i
Matthew Leonard, ditto,
Thomas French, ditto,
James Edwards, ditto,
Thomas Stevens, ditto,
Nathaniel Ireland, ditto,
John Hopkfris, ditto,
James DonSRl,-ditto,
Samuel Re&SBy ditto,
Hugh M'Don&d, ditto,
Patrick Shftvjy Landfoi«»,  \
Daniel Dell, private Marine,—
Jonathan Birdpditto,
Hans Oldfon, able Seaman, '
Robert OgHv^1 MafbeKsMnate,
John Dela.&oy$e, ditto,
Time when and Place'st/ier^-j^^jharged, JsV.
28th May  1798,   Difcharged at  Trin-
comalee
loth June 1797, Difcharged at Chiija
28th May   1798..   Difcharged  at  Trici-
comalee to H. M. Ship Suffolk
28th May 1798a Ditto        ditto
i . —    Ditto        ditto
. Ditto        ditto
    Ditto        ditto
 Ditto        ditto
     Ditto        ditto
 1 ■    Ditto        ditto
 Ditto        ditto
. Ditto        ditto
■ Ditto        ditto
 Ditto        ditto
     Ditto        ditto
 —    Ditto    A)ditto
■ Ditto        ditto
 ■     Ditto    ;iiiditto
     Ditto        ditto
 Ditto        ditto
 Ditto to His Maj^%'s
Schooner Providence
28th May 179?, Ditto
ditto
Ditto        ditto
Ditto to retain-home
Ditto '     ditto
25th March 1795, Died«at fea
16th June 1795, «Eilled by falling-from
the main-topfail yard
6th June 1796,   KlBed by f&Hing from
the mizen top
30th July 1796, Kikd by the na£wes of
Onehow
30th July 1796, Ditto        ditto
Sept. 29th, Killed by^Soklent at In'fii
June 1797, Loft in^H.'1??!. Ship Swift
Ditto
ditto
Robert A LIST OF THE NAMES, &c.
Names and Qualities.
Robert Mearing, Midfliipman,
Francis Coufins, Surgeon's firft mate,
William Clerk, Capfeuh's mate,
George Cadman, Carpenter's crew,
David Starke, ditto,
George Allen, Gunner's mate,
John Thomfon, Quarter-mafter,
Henry Jones, ditto,
Peter Swords, ditto,
William Owen, ditto,
Robert Gamble, ditto,
William Coleman, able Seaman,
Thomas Capper, ditto,
Henry Shewman, ditto,
Abraham Graves, ditto,
David Stevens, ditto,
Robert Burn, ditto,
Alexander Graham, ditto,
James Clerke, djtto,
William Dring, ditto,
Peter Murry, ditto,
John Davis, ditto,
Jofeph Kennedy, ditto,
John Moon, ditto,
Alexander Ducas, ditto,
James Butcher, ditto,
Benjamin Braid, Corporal of marines,
John Cook, Drummer,
James Wilkie, private Marine,
Jofeph Whiles, ditto,
Francis Clerk, ditto,
William Julford, ditto,
John Lloyde, ditto,
William Hertekoal, ditto,
Peter Johnfon, ditto,
John Haiton, ditto,
John Bacon, ditto,
William Bacon, ditto,
Thomas Weftwood, ditto,
Time when and Place where atjbfiarged, &c.
June 1797, Died on board
     Loft in H. M. Ship Swift
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto,.
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
John A LIST OF THE NAMES, &c.
xv
Names and Qualities.
John Pickwick, Marine,
William Thomas, ditto,
Thomas Horn, ditto,
William Walker, Carpenter's crew,
Thomas Mullen, Gunner,
Alexander Bifhop, Cook,
John Garland, Quarter-mailer,
John Outridge, Armourer,
Jofeph Grimftiire, Gook's mate,
James Long, able Seaman,   !
John Martin, ditto,
Samuel Hudfon, ditto,
Time when and Place where difcharged, &V.
June 1797, Loft in H. M. Ship Swift
 .    Ditto ditto
July 14th,   Died at fea on board the,
Schooner
Killed by accident at China on board the
1 Glatton
Killed by accident on his paffage from
China to England
1798, Died in the hofpital at the Cape
of Good Hope
13th June 1797, Difcharged at China to
the True Briton, Indiaman
3d Jan.  1798, Difcharged at China to
H. M. Ship Sybille
14th June 1797, Difcharged at China te
the Carnatic Indiaman
14th June 1767, Ditto        ditto
i Ditto ,      ditto
loth Ditto to the  Crefcent
Packet
William Anderfon, ditto,
10th
June 1797, Ditto
to  the  Glatton
In
diaman
William Eaftwood, ditto,
10th
June 1797, Ditto
ditto
Edward Carpenter, ditto,
Ditto
ditto
William Smith, ditto,
William Hurvart, ditto,
Ditto
ditto
Ditto
ditto
Miles Kimber, ditto,
 Ditto
ditto
Solomon Pollock, ditto,
Ditto
ditto
Samuel Reed, ditto,
 Ditto
ditto
Thomas Allen, ditto,
Ditto
ditto
Robert Shaw, Landfman,
Jofeph Bernard, ditto,
Jofeph Alhton, ditto,
 Ditto
'            Ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
    Ditto
John Lawfon, able Seaman,
2lft'
'"    •    Run from the Schooner
Thomas Graham, ditto,
at Macao
21ft June 1797, Ditto
ditto.
COM- [   xvi    ]
COMPLEMENT OF THE PROVIDENCE.
u
Captain,
i
Lieutenants,
1
Matter,
i
Boatfwain,
i
Carpenter,
i
Surgeon,
i
Gunner,
I
Matters Mates,
i
Midfhipmep,
6
Surgeon's Mates,
2
Captain's Clerk,
I
Mafter at Arms,
I
Corporal,
I
Armourer,
X
Sail-maker,
I
Boatfwain's Mates,
I
Carpenter's, ditto,
3
Gunner's ditto,
2
Carpenter's Crew,
3
Cook,
i
Cook's Mate,
r
Quarter-Mafters,
6
Able Seamen,
47
Landfmen,
4
Marines.
Lieutenant,
i
Corporal,
i
Drummer,
i
Privates,
16
114
Aftronomer,
1
Total,
115
CON- CONTENTS.
BOOK ft
Transactions from the beginning of the Voyage
till our first Arrival at Macao in China.
CHAP. L
Preparations for the Voyage.—Paflage to the Canary Hands.—Departure for Rjo Janeiro.—Tranfa&ions there.—Gough's Ifland
feen, and its Appearance defcribed.—Arrival at Port Stephen's,
on the Coaft of New Holland.—Aftronomical Obfervations.—Port
Jackfon.—Remarks on its Produce, Animals, &c.—Aftronomical
Obfervations,
CHAP. II. "^
Paffage to Otaheite.—Remarks there.—Arrival at tihe Sandwich*
Iflands.—At Mowee.—Its wretched State.—At Wohahoo.—Vilit
of Tamaahmaah.—Account of the Wars and Ambition of that
Chief.—Anchor in Yam Bay, Onehow,
CHAP. III.
Departure for Nootka Sound.—Search for the Ifland of Donna Maria
<■ liajara.—Maquinee's Vifit to us at Nootka.—Intelligence of Captain
Vancouver.—Stage raifed on Shore by the Carpenters for repairing
b
Page
25 XV111
CONTENTS.
the Ship.—-Excurfion to Ship Cove.—At Anchor in Juan de Fuca's
Inlet.—Sir Francis Drake's Station, 1579-—Arrival at Monterey.—
Plan adopted for the Voyage,
CHAP. IV.
Paflage from Monterey to Owyhee.—Arrival at Wohahoo.—At Wy-
moa Bay, Atooi.—At Onehow.—Inhuman Murder of two Marines
. by the Natives of the laft TflaHoT—Departure for Japan.—Vifited
by fome Inhabitants of Infu.—Anchor in Volcano Bay,
CHAP. V.
Remarks on the Country and Inhabitants round Volcano Bay.—
Courtefy of the Japanefe.—Defcription of the Harbour of En-
dermo.—Obfervations on the Natives—their Drefs—Ornaments—
Habitations—Food—Boats—Articles of Commerce—Agriculture.
j—Remarks on the §clil—Trees—Plants—Birds—Fifh—Quadrupeds.—Aftronomical Obfervations.—Range along the Coaft of
Infu.—Spanberg's Ifland,
CHAP. VI.
Paflage to Mareekan, one of the Kurile Iflands.—Through the Straits
of De Vries.—Company's Land.—Staten Ifland.—Unfavourable
Weather prevented our going through the Straits of Sangaar.—
Range the eaftern Coaft of Japan.—Bay of Jeddo.—Japanefe
Boats.—Jatfifco Iflands,
CHAP. VII.
Paflage to the Lieuchieux Iflands.—Off Formofa. — Arrival at the
Typa,   Macao. —Purchafe of a Schooner.—Preparations for the
further Profecution of the Voyage.—Nautical Obfervations in the
Typa,
Pase
49
66
91
114
ewsbjwwm
W3SSP
K ..CONTENTS;
BOGKNH.
Transactions during our second Expedition to
the North through the Straits of Sangaar, and
on our Return home bv the Coast of Corea,
J '
and the Yellow Sea, to Madras".
Page
CHAP. r.
Delay to the Voyage arifing from the Prevalence of eafterly Winds	
Ifland of Lamay—OrT Formofa.—Land at the Ifland of Pachu-
fan.—Obfervations on it.—The Ship unfortunately wrecked on a
coral Reef, near the Ifland of Typinfan,. 162
CHAP. ir.
Singular Humanity of the Natives of Typinfan to us in our diftrefled
Situation.—Defcription of their Country, Manners, and Habitations.—Groupe of the Madjicocemah Iflands tributary to thofe of
Liquieux Arrival in the Typa.—Difpofal of part of the Crew on
board His Majefty's Ship Swift—Departure from China to furvey
the Coafts of Tartary and Corea,, 185
chap. m.
Pefcadore Iflands In Napachan Harbour, Great Lieuchieux.—Defcription of the Inhabitants* &c.—Departure from it -towards
Japan, 209
CHAP. IV.
Paflage along the fouth and eaftern Coafts of Japan—White Point.—
Arrival for the fecond Time at Endermo Harbour, Infu.—Sufpi-
cious Behaviour of the Japanefe fettled there, 233 CONTENTS.
CHAP. V.
Page
Off the Town of Matzmai in Infu.—Proceed through the Straits of
Sangaar.—Range along the weftern Coaft of Infu.—Peaked Ifland,
or Timofhee.—Advance to 52° N. latitude, 257
CHAP. VI.
Impracticability of getting to Sea by the Northward.—Determination
of returning.—Remarkable Hazinefs of the Atmofphere, 281
CHAP. VII.
Off the Ifland of Tzima, fituated between the Coafts of Corea and
Japan.—Arrival at Chofan, on the Corean Coaft.—Defcription of
its Harbour—Inhabitants—'Soil—Cultivation — Produce, 8tc.—
Anxiety of the Natives for our Departure.—Obfervations for longitude, &c, 307
CHAP. vm.
Find ourfelves in a Chrfter of Iflands.—Vifited by the Natives.—Off
the Ifland of Quelpaett.—In the Yellow Sea.—Arrival at Macao.—
Conclusion.
331
A VOY- VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
TO THE
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
BOOK I.
Transactions from the Beginning of the Voyage
till our first Arrival at Macao in China.
CHAP. I.
Preparations for the Voyage.—Pajfage to the Canary Iflands.—Departure for Rio Janeiro.—Tranfaclions there.—^Goughfs IJland
feen, and its Appearance defcribed.—Arrival at Port Stephen's
on the Coaft of New Holland.—Ajlronomical Obfervations.—
Port Jackfon.—Remarks on its Produce, Animals, &c.—Aftro-
nomical Obfervations.
The Navy-board recommended his Majefty's fhip  bookl
Providence for the voyage on which I was to be em-   <—j—-
ployed.    She had been commanded by Captain Bligh,
and had lately returned from the  Weft Indies after
b | having %
ft
2
book
I.
i/93-
j 794.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
having conveyed the bread~fruit there from Otaheite.
This fliip had been originally intended for the Weft-
India trade, and was purchased by Government on
the flocks, for the exprefs purpofe of bringing the
bread-fruit trees from the South Seas, in which fervicc
fhe had been engaged for two years. She was river-
built, of about 420 tons in burthen, and was fingfy
fheathed with copper, though I think it would be
proper, that all mips employed in diftant voyages
ihould be fheathed with wood, and coppered over
the fheathing. The Providence was taken into dock
at Deptford for one tide, and thence traufported
to Woolwich, at which yard (he was ordered to be
fitted. On the 3d October 1793, I received my appointment to command her, and the fame day com-
miffioned the fliip. lEhe-.&&feg her out detained us at
Woolwich the remainder of the year; and early in
3794> the fhip being ready, we dropped dow» to
Tjravefend, as a more- convenient place for entering
feamen. Here we remained frit the end of March,
when we proceeded to the NTore, faluting Vice-Admiral
Balrymple, whofe flag was flying on board the Sandwich. Daring &e month of April we completed oifi
complement with v^fcrfffceers fk)i»%e Sandwich; and
having orders to proceed 1o Spkhead,r we accordingly
% failed
ss«mi
mi TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
failed with a convoy of merchantmen under our protection. During the night, in pafling through the
Gull Stream, the pilot run the fliip upon the Brake
Sand : we were not able to heave off till the morning's
tide, when, foon after, we anchored in the Downs,
the fliip appearing to have received no damage.
Vice-Admiral Peyton's flag was flying on board the
•fjeopard, which we faluted; and in the evening, our
fhip and the convoy worked through the Downs to
the weftward, with a light wefterly wand. In the
flighit the wind drew round to the eaftwaid, and we
made all fail at day-light, repeating fignals for the
convo^r to do the fame. We paffed through the grand
fleet lying; in Sand-down Bay, under the ctimmand of
Lord HoWe; and anchored at Spithead, having faluted
Admiral Sir Peter Parker, whofe flag was flying on
hoard the Royal William. Dming the month of May
the fhip was docked, but had received no damage in
her paflage to the Downs: flie continued in every
refpecl, ready for fea; and the fhip's conipany, as well
as the officers* were paid t^ieir wages to the end of
July. In this month his Majefty viflted PoitfJEnouth*
toyiew the grand fleet after the action of the 1ft of
June; and every captain had the honour of b^ing
piiefented fot>:>faim.
i.
1794-
n
W
B 2
I re* BOOK
I.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
I received my orders, which were fecret, with an
additional one to put myfelf under the command of
Oaober    Captain Drury, of his Majefty's fhip Trufty, and to
a proceed to fea with his convoy, then bound for the
Mediterranean; nor was I to feparate as long as our
courfes were the fame.
21 ft. We failed from St. Helen's with a fine breeze from-
the eaftward. After clearing the Channel the wind
veered to the N. W. when the Trufty ordered us to
proceed to Falmouth. In the night we feparated from
the men of war, and reached Falmouth; when, not
feeing the Trufty, we failed for Plymouth Sound,
where we found her and the convoy at anchor. Vice-
Admiral M'Bride's flag was flying on board the Minotaur, and Rear-Admiral Cotton's flag on board the
Cambridge in the harbour.
November. During this month, the gales were ftrong and the
weather variable ; and as we were anchored in Cawfand
Bay, we could not have joined the convoy, had they
gone to fea from the Sound with an eafterly wind : we
therefore endeavoured to work into the Sound ; but
the fhip milling flays off Red Point, we came to with
both bowers all Handing in foul ground, not the lengthy
of two cables from the fhore.   In this unpleafant fitu-
ation
K—«rw«—— TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
ation we were prevented moving by ftrong eafterly CHAP.
winds,    till  the  mafter-attendant,   Mr.    Hemmings, j—|—
brought an anchor lighter to windward of us, and, November.
5
fending the end of a cable on board, we were enabled
to heave off in fafety, and run in between Duke's
Ifland and the Main**!?*
23d.
We continued in this ftation till the following month,
when we run into the Sound. During January 1795,
the weather was cold, with frequent gales. Rear-
Admiral Parker,  in  his  Majefty's  fhip  Raifonable,
made the fignal for failing.
1795-.
January
29th.
In the night we had a ftrong gale from "W. N. W. February
parted our beft bower cable, drove on board a tranf- 5
port, fprung the cathead, and damaged the main
channels. Moderate weather, the next day, enabled
us to recover the anchor and fplice the cable. We
again moored the fhip, as there was no probability of
failing till the wind came to the N. E.; when the fignal
was made for unmooring, and for all officers to repair
on board.
The whole fleet was under way; nor could any
wind have been more favourable than this from the
North, as it enabled every fliip from Hamoaze and
Catwater
15th* e A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    Catwater to proceed to fea, amounting to-.inore than
I—^-|   400 fail, which had been detained equally with our-
Vrltv.   felves fince October.    As^we flood out to fea, we ob-
ferved the grand fleet under the command of Lord
February
Howe waiting for the convoy
16th. The wind and weather were favourable ; the Li
zard Point at noon bore from us W. by S.; our ob-
ferved lat. 50° 13' 30" N. The co**voy from Falmouth
joined us.
jrpth. In the evening the grand fleet, confining of 34 fail
of the line and feven frigates, parted company with
us. The convoy for Portugal feparated alfo the next
morning, with the Trufty and Fly floop. We continued with the Weft-India convoy, confifting of the
Raifonable, Medufa, Iris, Cormorant, the Dromedary
flore-fhip, and 200 fail of merchant vefTels,
21ft. Frefh gales from the S. W. obliged us to reduce our
fails, and difperfed the merchant fhips.
22d. The wind kept increafing, and veered to the N. W.
5.4th. The gales were ftrong and variable from the S. W. :
the following day it was calm,; but on the next to
that, TO THE NORTH PAC^IC OCEAN.
that, thebaic commended again Mm the Weft and    chap.
N. W.    This bad weather feparated half the convoy.
We parted company with Admiral Parker's fleet,
failing with the Iris frigate, Reliance, and Supply.
We generally found our fhip fail as well as the trier*
ehantmen.
i.
1795'
March
i ft.
With a fine breeze from the eaftward, we purfued
our couffe to the fouth.
2d,
Early in the morning, faw the Canary Iflands; at
noon, the Peak of Teneriie bore N. S86 SO' W»    Baffling Avinds prevented our anchoring till the morning
of the 6thy when we came to off Santa Crag in 35
fathoms ;   the Church bearing Weft, Punta de Nago
E. by $.    As our flay wasilkely to fee fliort, we did
»0t moor.    In payifig our refpecls to the Governor, he
made feme trifling ex-c&fe for not inviting us to his
table; we howevep;iffie$ with that civility, and many
others, from Mr. Roofley, an Irifliman, who had been
fettled here fome years.    The contractor,  Mr. Cal-
loghan, fupplied us with excellent wine for the fhip's
company, and beef daily.     We alfo took fome live
cattle on board.    Vegetables were in great plenty :
onions and potatoes were the moft falutary and ufeful
for
5th,
A 8
1795*
March.
£>>
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
for fea-ftore. The foil of the country, as far as I
could perceive, is rocky, very fcarce, and covered with
ftones; yet vegetables grow here with a confiderable
degree of vigour and luxuriancy, principally arming
from the fertile quality of the volcanic mould. Frefli
water is good here, and may be procured in great
quantities for fhipping. Landing is often difficult, on
account of the furf that breaks on the fhore. Some
few days before we made this ifland, the flyihg-fifh
firft appeared. Owing to the yery heavy furf, there
was little communication with the fhore.
Sth.
The Iris and her convoy failed.
13th.
16th.
3.1&.
We failed from Teneriffe with light airs from the
S. W. quarter, baffling at times in every direction;
nor did we lofe fight of the Peak till the 16th, when
at noon the wind veered to the northward, and continued a fteady breeze. The Reliance and Supply
were our infeparable companions. The ifland of
Gomera bore from N. 20°. E. to N. 60° E., and the
ifland of Ferro N. 50° W. diftant 10 or 12 leagues.
In the forenoon we made St. Anthony, one of the
Cape de Verd Iflands : at noon the fouth-weft point
hore S. 8° E. five or fix leagues.   Its lat. 179 0' 4.6" N.
long.
--U-L [MM
4NH1 TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 9
long. 25° 16' 26" W.    The fteady frefli trade-wind foon CHAP.
carried us out of fight of this ifland,  and we purfued *-—v—■•>
a S. S. E. COUrfe. March'.
Died Samuel Redriffe, a fine young lad of 18 years     25th.
of age :   a fever of only three days' continuance was
the caufe of his death.
Sultry weather.     The wind variable   from  N. to     29th.
N. W.    Frequent calms impeded our progrefs : at intervals the fqualls were heavy, with thunder,  lightning, and rain.
We croffed the equator with gentle breezes from  April 8th.
theS.E.   - ^    ; •      . -•■   V ■ :.;• v§;
The trade-wind became frefh and fteady; our courfe      1 ith.
S. S. W. a very good one.
Wind more eafterly, and continued E. S. E. when      ls^,
to fouthward of 10° S. latitude.
/■I
Made the ifland of Trinidad; at noon it bore of     22d.
us S. 41° E.    Obferved lat. of this ifland 21° 21' 41" S.
long. 29° 29' E. of Greenwich.
We loft fight of the land in the afternoon ; next day     23d.
had light airs from the N. E.    The wind foon veered
c to
m 10
April 29th.
May 1 ft.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
to the Eaft, and became fteady. As we purpofed to
reach Rio Janeiro, we fleeted more to the weftwat^,
and in lat. of 23° S. fliaped our courfe due Weft, in
fearch of an ifland faid to lie in that parallel.
Variable winds in all directions. At day-light five
ftrange fhips were difcovered : they proved to be
Brazil merchantmen bound to Lifbon, and had left
Rio Janeiro five days before.
2d. Early this morning the land was feen, and at noon
Cape Frio bore N. by W. eight or nine leagues ; at
the- fajaae ti^ie^ we founded in 70 fathoms fine fand.
By our obfervations we pla'ce this Cape in the lat. of
22° 59' 41" S. long. 41° 53' 12" E.
5th. The variablenefs of the weather prevented our
reaching the entrance, of Rio Janeiro harbour before
this day, when we came to an anchor in 28 fathoms
fandy bottom. Round Ifland S. 88° W.; Sugar-loaf
Hill N. 55° W.; extremes of Brazil coaft from N. 64°
E. to S. 64° E.    The weather was now calm.
^ In the afternoon a pilot came off, and we got under
weigh; but calm weather obliged us to anchor
in $he entrance of the harbbiaar.    The next day we
8 were
S!S!HP! TO TOE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
II
Were nlore forfc&nate, coming to an anchor within the    <?|HAP.
ifland. of Cohras m &&. fathorn?:   T
Til
nere were lying
here a Portugu^ege; ffrigate, and feveral merchant llyip&
of di^erent nations. The $elian$e, Capl^jn Hunf^,
faluled us comingin, wru'ch we turned with an equaj.
number of guns.
i.
*795-
May-
We remained at Rio Janeiro till this day, having
employed ourfelves^ja. overhauling the rigging, cajuik-
ing the fhip, and preparing for fea in every other
refpect. The fhip's crew were conftantly fupplied
with freih provjjjpns ; an^-we purchafed at a reasonable rate wine, rum, and fugar. In the procuring of
thofe articles we had eve^cy indulgence we could wifli
for; but we had alfo the mortification to be watched
by guard-boats day and night; nor could any officer
land unlefs he was attended by a Portugueze officer of
equal rank. Thefe reftriclions were fo urueafonably
fufpicious, that I went but once on fhore, except with
Govejcnpr Hunter to pay our refpecls to the Viceroy.
The foil about Rio Janeiro is generally good, producing great crops of oranges, pine-apples, jp$lons, fbgar-
eanes, and other tropical plants. There is a gfi§at
variety of bk$s ; fuch as parrots, cockatoos, fea-fowjl,
£ppj£ and men-of-^ar b,i#ds. There' are feveraj J^nd-s
of the monkey tribe; one remarkably fmall, cal^d
c 2 the
24th.
a 12
*795-
Mav.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK the wefhtu, fcarcely feven inches in length. As
Captain Hunter's fhips were not ready I proceeded to
fea alone, taking his orders for Port Jackfon; as I intended, in confequence of the latenefs of the feafon,
to proceed to the Sooth Seas by Van Diemen's land.
The fituation of Rio Janeiro is in lat. 22° 53' 17" S'.
and long. 42° 51' 16" E.
25th. A breeze fpringing up from the north-eaftward, we
foon loft fight of the Brazil coaft.
26th.
29th.
A fine gale carried us to the fouthward rapidly; and
in the latitude of 31° S. the wind veered to N. and
N. W.    We fhaped our courfe S. E., reducing our
fails as the gale increafed.
June ad.        We had a large following fea, the wind increafing
to a ftrong gale at S. W.
5th.
7th.
A ftrong breeze at N. W. with continual rain. In
the latitude of 40° S. we fleered Eaft, intending to make
Gough's Ifland, and fix its fituation. A heavy gale
from the N. N. W. obliged us to bring the fhip to
the wind in the morning. After laying to under a
balanced mizen four hours, we again bore away as the
violence of the gale fubfided.
The
msi TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
13
The gale from the Weft returned with redoubled    CHAP.
I.
violence; and as the fliip had not fufficient velocity
through the water to efcape the fea, we again brought
to under a mizen ftay-fail. In the evening the weather
became more moderate, and we bore away*
*795-
. June.
At If pall noon, we difeovered Gough's Ifland bearing Eaft five or fix miles. Our obfervation at noon
made the lat. 40° 19' S., which was indifferent. The
gale increafed; yet being defirous of making further
remarks upon the ifland, at If part 3 we brought to
the wind under the lee of it, bearing from us N. N". W.
The fea was irregular and confufed; during the night
the gale fubfided; our foundings were at 155 fathoms.
No obfervation at noon.
loth.
VI
The following day we were equally unlucky, the
weather being rainy and hazy; and as there was no
chance of its clearing, we refumed our courfe to the
eaftward. The breezes were ftrong at N. N. W.
and the rain conftant. Gough's Ifland is high and
much broken, not more than two or three miles in
circumference or extent. We could not perceive the
leaft fign of vegetation ; but as the weather prevented
landing, we could not make the remarks we wifhed,
and our idea of its circuit is even doubtful.    By our
time-
I rth*. S*Sj
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    time-pieces we place it in the lat. 40° 19 S. and long.
9° 27' W.; which may err two or three miles, as the
June.      horizon was very confufed.
Strong breezes from the N. N. W. We fleered to the
Eaft, preferving nearly the parallel of lat. 41° 30/ S.
although we could not get an obfervation more than
once in three days. The weather became more moderate, with the wind variable to the S. W. after we got
into eaft longitude.
The wind again returned to its old quarter wkk
increafibg violence : in reefing the uiaM-topfaii, Hugh
MaeDonald fell off the yard upon the deck, and was
moft unfortunately killed on the fpot. About this
time we had the firft appearance of the albatrofs, and
the beautiful bird called the pintado or Cape pigeon;
alfo great numbers of fea-gulls, fheerwater §., &e.
The breeze was variable at Eaft and S. E., with foggy
weather. Several feals came about the fhip, fmd we
pafled fome roek-weed. A very fevere gale from the
N. and N. W. attacked us; and in the forenoon, to
avoid the fea, we furled the fbrefail, and brouglft
the fhip to the wind under a florm flayfail, it blowing
iremendoufly  hard from  the   N-  W.   quarter,   and
raining TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Light breezes and cloudy weather induced us to
get up the top-gallant mails and yards; and we fet all
ourfmall fails, which had been of very little ufe during
this turbulent paffage.
15
raining violently.    In the night we carried away the    CHAP.
tiller. —•—'
1795.
July 14th,
Wind veered to the Weft : fqually and cold.
19th.
Wind at S. S. E. increafed  to a ftrong gale; fhip       28th.
Was   under ftorm  ftayfails; fqualls, always attended
with rain.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather;  lat. 44° 18' S.   Auguft2d.
At  1 P. M. we  faw Van  Diemen's  land generally       3d.
covered with fnow; it bore N. by E., the wind at
N. N. E.: at noon the extremes bore from N. 5° W. to
62° W.; lat. 44° 5' S. ^P
In the evening the land bore from W. 54° W. to
71° W.; and the wind remaining at North prevented
us feeing any more of it, as we %ad only to keep our
wind to the eaftward. We fleered N. INT. W., intending to make Furneaux Ifle, and explore the
unknown fpace between  it and Cape Howe, if the
'Wind permitted.
Strong
4th.
6"th. 16
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
3795.
Auguft
12th.
13th.
14th.
15th.
18th.
Strong gales from the Eaft ; by which we continued
our courfe to the North, not having been able to make
Furneaux's Ifland. At funfet we faw the land,
and altered our courfe to N. N. E. in confequence;
the next morning we had the mortification to find
ourfelves deceived, as we had clear weather, and nothing to prove that we were near the coaft of New Holland : lat. 34° 50/ S.
The wind from the N. W. blew direct from the
land.    We were to the North of Port Jackfon.
At day-light made the land to the N. W. of us ; at
noon we had clear fine weather, and Cape Hawke bore
N. 88° W. The extremes of coaft from S. 22° 30' W. to
N. 2° E.    Obferved lat. 32° 11' S.
We kept plying to the windward; at noon Cape
Hawke bore N. 25° W. Iflands off Port Stephens
S.71°W.    Lat 32° 38'S.
The wind ftill remaining fixed in the S. W. quarter,
I found there was no chance of beating to the fouth-
ward: I therefore determined to enter the port which
was in our power. We entered in fafety Port Stephens,  and anchored in 5| fathoms fandy bottom.
Points TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
17
I79S-
Auguft.
Points of entrance were open from S. 12° E. to 85° E. CHAP.
;We fteadied the fliip with the ftream anchor, and fent
the boats in fearch of water. We remained here one
week, and completed our watering from a lake
,on the northern fhore with giseat facility. During our
flay, we had ft equent intercourfe with the natives. They
were the fame race of people as thofe defcribed to inhabit Port Jackfon and Van Diemen's land. They were
inoffenfive, quiet, and docile; and whenever we approached them, removed their women and children.
We found here refiding with the natives four Englifh-
men, who had deferted in a boat froni. Port Jackfon
five years before. Five came originally, but one had
died; thofe that remained were miferable half-ftarved
objects, depending on the hofpitality of the natives
for their fubfiftence, who occafionally fupplied them
with a part of their provifions, at all times in no great
abundance with the inhabitants. Notwithftanding the
wretched ftate in which they exifted, the man who
had enticed them to defert refufed to come on board.
We collected fome articles to leave with him to make
his fituation more comfortable; but in the meanwhile,
being affured he fhould be well treated, and probably
not fuffer for his former conduct, he agreed to come
off with the others. One or two of thefe men were
married, and left their wives and children with little
d regret. IB
A VOYAGE' OF DISCOVERY
1795-
Auguft.
regret. The foil round Port Stephens is compofed
chiefly of fand and decayed vegetables, though in the
fwamps it isrisather of a better kind; &ut upon the
•whole the nature of the place is Very barren, and unfit
for any great degree of cultivation. The fea produces a good variety of fifh; fuch as mullet, toad-fiih,
a kind of torpedo, flounders, &c. In the woods, were
feveral fpecies of beautiful paroquets ; and a final 1 bird
of a brown plumage, fomewhat refembling the Java
fpajfrow. The quadrupeds that we faw^ere the kangaroo, dogs, &c. On the beach w®>obferVfed a; variety
of curioufly marked flielk; fuch as the buccimim or
whelk, limpets, mufcles, oyfters, and beautiful fpeci-
mens of the Venus fliell. The natives live chiefly upon
fifh, fern roo^, dog's flefli; and mould a dead wiiale
happen to drift upon the fhore, it forms a moft delicious repafl for them. The aflronomer made the
folio wing <^bfervations on fhore at the watering' place
abreaft of the fhip :
Lat. by mean of 4 merid. alt. of the O
Long, by mean 4 time-keepers
Long, by mean 12 fets of lunar diftances
Long. *by mean difE, of long, between'this place
and Port Jackfon, taking the longitude of Port
Jackfon at 1510 10' 3"E. that being the mean W
between Sign. Mallefpina and Mr. Crofley, and
ilk diff. by the 4 watches in long, at 33" 46'W.J
320 41' jjr'BC
JSI? 44' 44" &
ri»
m
4' 47
15l0 43' 49"
At TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
At noon we hoifted in the boats, and made fail to
the fouthward with the wind eafterly. Port Stephens
bore N. 76° W. and the extremes of land N. 24° E. to
S. 75° W.: lat. 32° 51'S. At midnight we tacked to
the northward till daylight, when we again fleered to
the South and S. S. W. as the wind permitted. We
had ?0 fathoms water.: the forenoon wa& hazy, the
weather ralB>yy#nd!wind.increafing, with every profpect
of a gaje from the S. E. whieh blew directly upon the.
land. We carried all fail to fecure our port before
dark. At noon the fignal-houfe on the South head of
Port Jackfon harbour boreS,32° W., andwe weathered
the North head half a mite by carrying a prefs of
fail; $ paft noon we were in the entrance of the
harbour, and at 1 P. M. in running up, a pilot came
on bofard. In the afternoon we moored with our
bower cables in Sydney Cove, and ftruok yards and
toprriafts. In the night, the gale (as predicted) increased to a perfect hurricane, and continued the next
day with' extreme vroleo&gpifor coillll^We fend a boat
on fhore. We could not be too tftaiikful for our
fafety: for had we remained at fea, moft probably the
fliip never would have cleared tne land; as at no time
from our run here, were we more than tvfe leagues
from the coaft. We found 'Majer Paterfon, commanding the New South Wales corps, acting as gover-
19
CHAP.
I.
I79S-
Auguft
26th.
*7thv
D
9.
nor; *795-
Auguft.
A VOYAGE^F DISCOVERY
nor; who received us in>the moft welcome manner,
fhewing us every civility and attention in his powert
Indeed. I in particular cannot fufficfently exprefs my
gratitude for the hofpitality fhewn to me both by
Major Paterfon and his lady during our long flay
here. We immediately commenced refitting the fhip,
caulking her within and without, together with
overhauling the rigging, &c, and landed tents at
Cattle Point for the aftronomer to ascertain the rates of
the time-pieces. The hauling the feine was continually in life for fupplying the fhip's company with
fifh; and by order of Major Paterfon, we daily and
amply received vegetables for our people by fending
a boat to Garden Ifland.
Governor Hunter arrived With his fhips, having
been 97 days from Rio de Janeiro.
We faluted his excellency Governor Hunter with
13 guns, on reading his commiflion that appointed him-
Captain General of New South Wales, &c. &c.
oaober The fliip being ready for fea we unmoored and
6th. '   J      ■ °
fliifted our birth to the Fair Way, cheering the Reliance as we left the Cove.
e
September
8th.
12th. TO THEM?ORTH PACMC ocean.
21
We took our final  leave of Port Jackfon in the    CHA$\
i.
morning: at noon the fouth head of Broken Bay v—~.'—'
bore N. 34° W., lat. 33° 50' S.; North head, Port Jatek- oaobcr
fon, S. 88° W. During our flay we entered feveral
good fcamen from merchant fMps and the colony to
complete our complement: our fliip's company was
in perfect health. We abft-ained from following the
example of other fhips that have touched at this colony, by not taking away any of the convicts: a practice
very general in merchant fliips, Which has tended to
corrupt the morals of the South Sea iflanders; for in
the voyages of the traders to the north-weft coaft of
America, thefe men have generally deferted by the
way, flopping either at the Society or Sandwich
Ifles. The foil round Port Jackfon is light and fandy
generally ; though, «fn the more inland parts of the -
country, it is much better, and produces good crops of
corn and other vegetables. Tropical friifts do not
anfwer well here, it being too cold in the winter feafon ;
fuch as have arrived from the Cape grow luxuriantly.
The bread-fruit and cocoa-nut have lately been
brought here, but did not fucceed. Plantains and
the fugar-cane have done better, but in all probabilit}7
will never arrive to any great degree of perfection.
There are feveral kinds of other fruits and vegetables
which might deferve a trial here ; fuch as goofeberries
f\
2
and _
22
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK and currants, a greater variety of apples, pgars,plums,
j—|—| limes, peaches, Sec. Experiments might alfo be made
OOober. of the tarro root, yams, and fweet potatoes. Annual
and perennial flowers are ftill defiderata here. Thfe
birds of this place are of feveml kinds ; fuch as the
black and white cockatoo, variety of paroquets,
crows, gulls, fhags, &c. The emu is a bird belonging
to the genus of the caflbwary, grows to a large fize,
and like the reft of the genus is unable to fly.
Quadrupeds are chiefly the kangaroo of two kinds,
opoJTums, flying fquirrels, mice, kangaroo rats, and
a fpecies of ferret. Reptiles are fnajses, fome of
a large fize, guianoes, lizards, frogs, &c. The
bays are well-ftored with fifh; fuch as falmon, eels,
mullet, the leather jacket, flounders, &c. The fliores
contain oyfters, mufcles, cogchs, and other fliell-
fifh. Sharks are fometimes caught here of a large
fize, which produce the only oil the people have
to ufe.
The following aftronomical obfervations were made
on fhore at Cattle Point; one of thofe forming Sydney
Cove, and where the Spaniards had before fixed their
obfervatory;
Xat. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
£&
Lat. by mean of merid. alt. of the Q
Long, from mean of 90 fets 450 to the Eaft
and 450 to the Weft of B
Variations by compafs « »
33° S1' 471" S.
CHAP
510   9' 48" E.
I.
tl°    9'Eaft,
*795-
Oclober,
The flag-ftaff on the South head bearing by compafs
N. ?3° 45' E.; diftant feven miles. r^2**£^3s^BH
24
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
1795.
O&ober
14th.
19th.
11
CHAP. II.
■
BajTage to Otaheite.—Remarks there.—Arrival at the Sandwich
Iflands at Mowee.—Its wretched State.—At  Wohakoo.—Vifit
of Tamaahmaah.—Account of the Wars and Ambition of that
Chief.—Anchor in Tarn Bay.—Onehow.
W e directed our courfe to the North of New Zealand, intending to touch at Otaheite in our route to
Nootka Sound. At 3 P. M. the land extended from
N. W. i Weft to Weft, and we foon after loft fight of
the coaft.
In lat. 33° 10' S. and long. 169° E. the S. W. wind
changed to a gale from the N. E. quarter. It was
of no continuance; for on the following day it
veered to N. W., and we again purfued our eaftern
courfe.
24th.
In 32° 51' S. and 175° E. the winds were northerly,
with moderate weather, continuing at N. E. till this
day, when the wind again veered to the N. W. with
a ftrong breeze.
Wind
n« ■ TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
We flood to the  Northward,  as the wind became
more- eafterly ; lat. 35° 45' S. and long. 192° 30' E.
OK
■ Wind now altered to the N. N. E.; our lat. 34° 15*    chap.
IX*
&  and long. 189° 35' E. by the time-piece agreeing
with our accounted longitude.
I795-.
O&obeK
28th.
{bih
It blew fo hard as to oblige us to lay to under the   November
main-fail.     The gale moderated :   we  wore  fhip at       ,j]
noon and flood to the S. E. in lat. 32s 46' and  192°
25' long.
In 30° 33' S. and 197° 53' E. we flood to the S. E.,      13th.
having had no obfervations fince the 9th for the lat.;
we found ourfelves 1° 30' further north than we expected, in which direction only we had experienced
any current: bar. 7° 49' E.    In the night we flood to
the Northward ; lat. 31° 27' S. and long. 197° 27' E.
The wind grew more favourable for our courfe, and
on this day at noon, in the lat. of 28° 33' S. and long.      18th.
by watch 201° 27' E., we obferved diflances o and j       19th.
making the longitude agree nearly with the watch.
At 2 hours 40 minutes after midnight we made the
ifland of Ohetorea bearing N. E. 6° N., which as it
was in our courfe we flood off for two hours, and again
e tacking
25th. 26
BOOK
I.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
tacking made fail towards it.    At noon it bore from
S. 3° E. to S. 3° W.    Our latitude was indifferent; it
Somber,  made 22° 0' 54" S. and long. 208° 32' 48" E.
a8thi Frefh breezes from the Eaftward brought us in fight
of the ifland of Otaheite, bearing to the N. N. E. At
11 A. M. we tacked fhip, Eaft-point of the land bearing N. N. E.; Low-point, in the centre of the ifland,
N. f W. off fhore; Tiarraboo eaft point, N. 74° 10'.
Lat. obferved 17° 47' 32" S. long. 210° 44' 20" E.
Account 208° 53' E.
29th. The wind foon after noon fprung up favourably for
our courfe, and we made all fail. As we paffed Ohi-
tepehah Bay we were furrounded by canoes. In the
evening at 5 we anchored in 5 fathoms, in Matavai
Bay at 8 fathoms; and the next moaning, warped into
good anchorage. In fo doing, we fwept an iron
ftocked anchor, wl^ch had belonged to the Bounty,
when fhe cut her cables, and went to fea from the Bay
with the remaining mntineers. In the courfe of the
day we raifed our tents m Point Venus, to afcerta%
the rates of the time-pieces, and compleating our water. The natives afforded us every afliftance in our
¥arious purfufts, and amply fuppljed lis with pro*i-
ikins and vegetables.
We TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
27
We left Otaheite with moderate breezes and plea-    chap.
ii.
fant weather.    At noon,   Point Venus bore E. \ N.
I795-
nth.
three or four miles : we hove to, to hoift our boats in, December
and take leave of our friends. As it gave the natives
pleafure, I faluted them with four guns on our departure. Not a man was unwell among the crew,
and the decks were full of hogs and vegetables : many
of thefe hogs weighed more than 200 wt. Otaheite, and the manners of its inhabitants, have been
fo amply defcribed by preceding navigators, that any
further accountnnight be deemed unneceffary. A few
obfervations may therefore be fufficient. The foil of
the ifland is excellent, confuting of a reddifli argillaceous loam, fometimes fandy and of a black colour.
The inner part of the country being mountainous, its
foil is worfe than nearer the fea. Here are various
fpecies of trees ; and universally over the ifland,
abundance of fpriijgs and rivulets. There are great
quantities of cruftaceous and teftaceous fifh ; different
fpecies of birds and fea-fowl. Geefe are naturalized
here; but no European cattle, as far as I could learn,
have multiplied at Otaheite excepiang goats. The
jiiatives confider dogs and cats as proper to be eaten.
j At 4 P. M. Point Venus bore S. 53° E. 12 miles |
at 5 A. JfcL we faw the ifland of Tetfywroa bearing
e 2 from Fw
H      .   A
IP*
H ■
|
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
from S. 74° E. to S. 60° E. four or five leagues ; the
body of Otaheite ifland, S. 20° E.; and the ifland of
Eimeo, S. 4° E.    The wind continued moderate from
anations^   ^e £j £  quarter, and at noon' we had no fight of
28
BOOK
1.
1795-
December.
p. N° 3.
nth P.M.
4° 19'E.
Adams 30 7
E.
land.
At $ pa.fl 4, P. M. N°l. made the long. 210° 12'
03", when Point Venus bore S. 53° E. 12 or 13 miles ;
which will make its longitude 210° 32' E., the fame as
by Captain Cooke. On the 28th it agreed within 3'
of the longitude of Ohitepeha Bay, the day after we
made the ifland, the elapfed time being only 12 days :
of courfe we had no reafon to fuppofe it had altered
its rate fince our leaving Port Jackfon, and made us
the lefs regret that the aftronomer could make no obfervations on Point Venus, where he was prevented by
the tumbling motion of the quickfilver, caufed by the
ftriking of the furf which affected the point of land
where his tent was raifed.
16th
Weather moderate, with flight fqualls at intervals.
At j pafl 9 we faw an ifland upon our weather-beam,
bearing N. 78° E.; at J pafl 11 we tacked towards it,
and it bore from us at noon E. to E. 19° S., juft in
fight from the main-top. I eftimated its diflance to
be 5 or 6 leagues.   The fouthern extremity was the
»# higheft TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
29
II.
higheft part, covered with trees, moft probably cocoa-    chap
nut from their appearance, as, they flood in detached
clumps along the fhore.    Thefe bearings will place it   d
in the latitude of 9° 57' S.  and long. 209° 35' E. ;
179
ecember.
v amnions.
16th A. M.
but it fhould be recollected, that they were taken by   N°3. 40 33' i <s
Adams 50 48'    h
a fmall compafs from the maft-head, the angle fub-  Walker5037'
tended by a quadrant. pe  lon5
The ifland bore from E. f S. to S. E. by E. 2° E.
about five leagues ; it appeared to be low, and covered
with trees, and if I am right in its eftimated diflance,
its length will be about five miles in a north and fouth
direction. I napied it Carolina Ifland in comprijnent
to the daughter of Sir P. Stephens of the Admiralty.
17th.
We had a fwell from the N. E. which was not
experienced before, and which I attributed to the
low iflands that extend in a parallel towards the
Marquefas. The Pacific Ocean is covered in fome
parts with low iflands, and as the wind blows from
them it caufes the water to be fmooth, for when there
is no impediment of land the fwell is obferved to in-
creafe according to the wind.
We
18th.
rii 1J \
i li
| (1
JJ
30
1795.
December.
19th.
24th
Variations.'
N° 3, 50 29'
Adams 6° 2 8'
Walker6°38'
Infpea.S°   J
<s
W
January ift,
1796.
ad.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
We had feveral birds about us this day,: particularly*
boobies. By the careleflhefs of my fervant the barometer Was rendered ufelefs this morning, as unluckily
he had broke the glafs tube, a misfortune we could not
rem&ty.
Strong trade wind and very pleafant Weather, whleh
continued till the 1ft January, 1796, when we came off
*t3   the Sandwich Iflands.
We experienced ftfrong breezes and fqually weather,
'With a fwell from the Eaft. At 2 A. M. we faw the
land diftfoctly. On approaching the weftern fide
■of Owyhee, we loft the trade Wind, and the weather became variable with light airs in every direction.
Calm and cloudy Weather continued during the
evening, enabling "feveral canoes from the fhore to
fHfmfrl us wffh pigs and vegetables. At 10 P. M. a
!%ht air fprung up from the land ; we fleered along
the fhore till day-light, experiencing a ftrong cu¥fent
to the N. W. At 7 o'clock we faw a fail in the N.
W.  quarter.    The  natives   informed   us  it  was an
Englifh TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OC£AN.
Englifh brig which had failed from the bay in the
night.
Light and viable ajps prevented ou$ reaching the
bay; I therefore difpatcljed an officer in the pinnae^
to gain information refpecting Captain Vancouver, as
we underftood there was an American veffel which
could give us intelligence of him. The pinnace on
ljer return confirmed what we had before heard,
that Captain Vancouver with the Difcovery and
Chatham had failed fo^.J&ngland. This, intelligence
was procwed from tfye Engliik brig*, who reported
that they failed from VaJ^ra^ft) in Juhr or Auguft
1795 for England, by the way of Cape HatjOu
We flood to the S. S. W. all night, and at 7 A. M,
drifted to the N. W.
Notwithftanding we had run in for the land 5 leagues
by tlje log, we did not feem to have approached it,
and our diftance preveuted any communication*
Light aios and calms ^ternatejv- prevented us froxa
reaching -$e fhore !^11 the 8th.
The w*ad varied to the K^:th, and mth the affiftance
of boats we anchored in the bay. Here an American,
brig,  the  Lady Wafhington, faluted us with feven
guns
1796.
January m
-JWOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    guns, which  we returned  wiwlfive.    Ou£ fliip  was
^—'.-—    inftantly furrounded with canoes  filled with women,
January^    fruit, and vegetables.    In the afternoon we moored
with  the  ftrea^-alieher-'m   18 ifethoms,  the  points
forming KarakaTakooa bay bore from S. 7° W. to W.
3° N.: off fhore 150 fathoms. :
nth.
Our teWt was pitched in a field adjoining Hie Morai,
for the aftronomer to afcertain the rates of the watches.
Lieutenant Young of the Marines, with a corporal
and feven privates commanded the party for their
protection. The ground being taboo'd, no perfons
were permitted to come within the limits, befides the
priefts of the Morai: a more retired fituation for the
purpofe could not have been found,
Since we croffed the equator, the fhip had made
from two to four inches water per hour, we therefore
took this opportunity of finding out the caufe, by
unflowing the holds and heeling the fhip, Sec; all
our efforts however proved unfuccefsful. The Bread
room was alfo cleared, that the weevils might
be deftroyed by fire, and we were mortified that
this could only be effected in fome flight degree.
We TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
OO
We fired a falute in honour of her MaiefiVs birth-    CHAP.
1    J ll.
day.    The weather became more favourable for the    '—W&
1796.
aflronomer's  obfervations, and on the  20th he got   January.
equal altitudes for the firft time. From the 26th to
the 31ft the weather prevented any obfervations : on
the evening of that day he had correfponding altitudes. The tents were immediately ftruck, and with
the affiflance of double canoes (for our boats could
not land) we got every thing from the fhore, and
failed from the bay at 4 A.M. with the land-wind.
During our anchorage in this bay for three weeks, we
experienced conftant land-winds during the night,
which gradually died away by 8 A.M.; and during
the day very light airs and breezes prevailed from the
fea. The furf feldom permitted our own boats to
land, which put us to no great inconvenience, as the
natives readily offered their canoes, which were
fafer coiweyances. I had every reafon to be fatisfied
with our reception, and the general behaviour of the
natives. No theft of confequence was committed,
nor any interruption given to our purfuits. Though
nearly the whole of the fhip's company were at
different times on fhore, yet they were never infulted,
but treated with uniform good-will and kindnefs.
Ample fupplies of hogs for our daily confumption
were fent to us from Ta-maah-maah, by the influence
f a Bri-
% ;m
4
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    a  Britifli  feaman  had over him.    This man (whofe
i.
!—,-w    name   was John  Young)  had  been  refident  in   the
1796.
Tanuary.
ifland for fix years. Tamaahmaah, with all his
chiefs, and fixteen thoufand men, had been abfent on
an expedition againft the iflands to the leeward,
all of which he had conquered but Atooi. We could
not therefore buy any hogs, as thefe chiefs had
taboo'd all their property. A blind chief, whofe
name was Mahoa, carried on the executive power of
the ftate under the fuperintendance of Young, and
conducted himfelf with every attention to our wants.
The priefls at the Morai were alfo particularly kind
to the gentlemen ftationed there, and the people
in general fpoke very highly of Captain Vancouver.
From the good impreflion his conduct made upon
them, and the favourable fentiments inculcated by
Europeans who have or now do live here, I am led
to believe that any veffel may now touch at this
ifland in fafetj7, and be amply fupplied with refrefli-
ments ; as every article of European manufacture is
confiderably fallen in value. The cattle left here
by Captain Vancouver had bred and were in excellent
order : it is probable they will flock the ifland, as a
taboo is placed upon them for ten years. The goats
multiply prodigioufly; I added a male and female to
their number, leaving them under the care of Young,
-k3 ; with TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
35
with a breed of geefe and ducks: the firfl lieutenant    CHAP.
& ii.
1796.1
alfo fpared them his pigeons. Some grape-vines
from Port Jackfon and vegetable feeds were planted January.
and fown during our ft ay. Pumpkins and melons
were in no great plenty, though we had excellent
cabbages weighing near 2 lbs. They had been culti-
vated at fome diflance, and wore brought as a
prefent.
The thermometer on board the fliip varied from
74° to 78°; at the tents on fhore it was from 79° to
86°. On the 20th January, No. 1. made the longitude
of Karakakooa 203° 46' 45", which differs only 11'.
from the true longitude, as fettled by Captain Kipg
and Mr. Bayley; an error only of ll' in 108 days,
being the time fince her rate was fettled by Mr. Crofley
at Port Jackfon.
On the 31ft January at noon, N° 1. was flow for
mean time at Karakakooa Bay 14 h. 31, 29» 19> and
lofmg 6".594 per day on mean time.
The variation on board fhip, mean of 3 compafles,      8° 15' E.
Do. on ftiore at the tents, by Adam's large do.     -     o° 12' E.
Eaft by time-keepers.    Obfervations by
the aftronomer.
N° 1,
•■«
Pocket
Box A,
5<*» '
Box E,
48, J
203°
47'
4"!
203°
48'
19" I
42"
199°
36'
2040
44'
36" j
f m
The sSEJK
36
1796.
January.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
The above account will fliew what the different
watches made the longitude of the Bay, by the rate
that was given at Port Jackfon. Arnold's box time-
piece keeps fo uncertain a rate as to render it ufelefs.
Long, of Bay 2030 57' 45" E. by King and Bayley.
Lat. of Karakakooa Bay, mean of 6 merid. alt. of fun>  190 28' 9". 5 N.
Mean of 13 diftances of Aldebaran weft of moon,    2040 27' 30" E.
February
1 ft.
Hi
With a light wind from the land we run out of the
Bay, leaving the American fliip at anchor. By 8
A. M. it was calm, and we experienced a current fet-
ting us to the N. W. At noon we made the latitude
19° 3l' N.; when the north point of Karakakooa
Bay bore S. 72° E. five or fix miles.
Variable winds prevented our reaching the S. W.
part of Mowee before funfet, when we came to anchor
off the village of Bahina, in 20 fathoms fandy bottom,
dlftant from the fhore about a mile.
As this place feemed a favourable one for procuring fruits and vegetables, we remained here till the
6th, having moderate and light winds, with a ftrong
current fetting to the N. W. The village extends two
miles along the fhore. Off the weftern point is a fmall
reef in the direction of the village, which affords a
landing TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
landing for boats or canoes within it. At each end
is an excellent flream of water; but that to the weft
is the moft convenient for fhips, as they can anchor
to the Weft of it in a fine bay with clear ground, at
5 fathoms clofe in. Our excurfions on fhore were
frequent, and the natives civil. The cultivation was
excellent; and the extent of ground made ufe of for
that purpofe reminded us of the fcenery of our native
country. There were the various productions of Tarro,
fweet potatoes, melons, fugar-canes, gourds, and pumpkins, amidft groves of the bread-fruit trees and cocoa-
nuts, which univerfally afforded us fhady walking.
As this village was the refidence of a Chief, fince
dead, it had been entirely deftroyed on the arrival of Tamaahmaah, and prefented a fpectacle of
wretched hovels which fheltered the inhabitants, who
occafionally lived there, till the conqueror had made
a diftribution of the ifland among his followers. No
hogs were to be feen; and our fupplies were in all
refpects inferior to our expectations. The anchorage
in the bay, abreaft of the river, is from 10 to 7 fathoms, in a clear fandy bottom ; and fhips may water
here with great convenience. The ground is fo clear,
that it may be feen in 20 fathoms ; and there are
feveral fpots within the reefs well adapted for hauling
the feine. I fhould, from its local advantages, prefer
37
CHAP.
II.
1796.
February.
a
v. A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
fer  this anchorage  to   any   other in   the
Iflands.
Sandwich
At dav-light we got under way, with a light air
from the land ; by 10 A. M. we were in the paflage
between Morotoi and Mowee ; and § pafl 10, we met
the ftrong trade-wind fetting in from the Eaft. At
noon we had a frefh gale and clear weather, when the
weft point of Morotoi bore N. 74° 10' ten or twelve
miles.
At 2 o'clock P. M. we palled the weft point of
Morotoi, and fleered W. by N. for Wohahoo. At 5
P. M. we were abreaft of the eaft point of that ifland ;
and at J pafl 6 came to an anchor in Whytetee Bay.
Tamaahmaah fent oft* to know if he fhould fire his
great guns in honour of our arrival; but I advifed
him to fave his powder. In the morning he paid us
a vifit, attended by all his chiefs, dreffed for the oc-
cafion in cloaks and helmet caps. He himfelf wore
European clothes, with a beautiful cloak compofed
of yellow feathers, which nearly covered him. He
made me a prefent of one of his dreffes, and liberally
offered fupplies of provifion and water : neither would
he trouble us to fend our boats, but made ufe of his
own canoes for the purpofe.    We received from him
twenty TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
39
twenty hogs,   and fome cocoa-nuts;   but roots  and
vegetables we could not procure.
In the morning we got under way, and came to an
anchor abreaft of a fmall harbour called Fair Haven,
in 16 fathoms fandy bottom. As my only motive for
anchoring here was to make a fketch of the harbour,
we employed the boats in that fervice for three days.
It was difcovered by a Mr. Brown, commander of the
merchant fliip Butterfworth, in 1794. On the 1ft of
January 1795, he laid at anchor in this harbour, with
the merchant veffels, named the Jackall and Prince
Lee Boo, which were under his direction : the Butterfworth had been previoufly fent home. Thefe
veffels were left in a defencelefs flate, as the crews
were on fhore falting hogs, &c.; and Mr. Brown implicitly confided in the natives, becaufe he relied on
their gratitude to him for his aflifling them in their
wars. The natives were fully aware of the unprotected flate of the veffels, and boarded them with
numerous canoes. They killed the commanders,
Brown and Gordon, wounded feveral, and took pof-
feflion of the fhips. They then took them out of this
harbour into Whytetee bay, where the remaining part
of the crews that were on fhore furprifed the natives
who had taken poffeflion of the veffels, drove them
overboard,
IHAP.
II.
1796.
february.
nth.
M 40
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
1796.
February.
BOOK overboard, and regained the fhips, which then failed
for China. Many reafons have been given for this
unhappy event; but the principals concerned in the
deed having fince loft their lives, there is no afcertain-
ing the truth of it. The harbour, though of final 1
extent, is fafe and convenient, with 5 fathoms fandy
bottom within the fpits. It is formed by an opening
through the reefs, with a clear channel, in a N. N. E.
direction. The wind generally blows frefh out of the
harbour, rendering it neceffary to warp in, as there is
not room for working. A fine ftream of frefli water
empties itfelf at the head. It bears S. 57° E. from
Whytetee bluff five or fix miles.
Having completed taking in our water, we got
under way, parting with our numerous vifitors who
came to us from Whytetee the day after the taboo
ceafed. Indeed there was no inducement, as we
could not procure refrefliments. The fituation of the
natives was miferable, as they were nearly ftarving;
and, as an additional grievance, univerfally infected
with the itch. No cultivation was to be feen on
fhore; and, confequently, little profpect of their future
fubfiftence. The attention of Ta-maah-maah was entirely engroffed by the veflel which the Englifh carpenters  were   conflructing for him.     She was  juft
7 planking TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
planking in the hartoaan- as we failed, and was about    CHA&
40 tons burthen.    In this veflel and his boats it was    i—•—■
1796.
his intention to proceed to Atotii,naaid to complete   f^ruary.
his conquefts by the l^uction of ifebat ifland.    In the
valdey above  the gharbour the  decifive b&ttle was
fougfot, that fecured to Tamaahmaah the poftefiion of
Wbhahoo.    "JHannaLwas killed in the conteft, with 300
of his party* who, though they came wrthTarnaahmaah|
afterwards joined the people of Wohahoo in defence
of their<countiy.   Trytooboony and Koroktanee, his
brother, were the principal cMefesof Wohahoo who
had efeaped to Atooi.    Thia Trytooboony was iifeft
pHief who, by the afEfiance of the unfortunate Mr.
Brown's crew, had defeated Tatyo, the'lUjMeme chief
of Atooi and brother tot&ft'TOrmer chief of Wohahotk
IStereeV" dead fome tidae finee? was chief of Mowee,
andiucceeded'irfxhis^bnKorokranee. I endeavoured but
in vain to diffuade Tamaahmaah from rliS expediti&d.
Mis ihbjefts.will feverely lament his< ambition, as it
is impoflibJe that they can ever retttflfl to the iflands
to the windward.    It wiM be Iheir'fete to catty famine
and difbafe to; the territories theipmay cotoquerr where
they muff remain.    European veffels have futfnifhed
thi^iffhief with £0 large a fnpply of inufkets and an>
munition,  togethetnwifh fb«i©a8 and 4 pounders for
his- boate, that he prefumes his foree is equal to au.£
o attempt;
ii
ti BOOK
I.
February.
->l
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
attempt; pa&icularly as he has fixteen Europeans
with him. His intention was, after the reduction of
Atooi, to proceed to Bola Bola, one of the Society
iflands. An Ameottcan veffel had left with him three
natives of Bola Bola, by whofe fuggeflions, moft probably, he had refolved upon the enterprife. During
our flay, excepting the taboo day, he refided on
boardyi^Ui&'i^iJits were very great; <he requefted his
veffel to be rigged, fitted for fea, and made proper
in every refpect. I aflifted him as much as was in
my power, but, am afraid, ineffectually. From the
bell information Ihcould collect, it appeared that
Tamaahmaah profefled a great friendfhip/ for the
Englifh, and feemed to fpeak with abhorrence of the
different murders which had been committed without
his knowledge; and exprefled his determination to
prevent thern in future, or punifh their perpetrators.
He mentioned alfo, that one of the men who had been
acceffary to the murders of Mr. Gooch and Lieutenant
JJergeft had been put to death by his people, and
that another had efcaped to Mowee. He alfo explained, that the men who were executed alongfide
the Difcovery had not committed thofe murders, but
were unfortunate bein'gs whom the chief felected to
fatisfy Captain Vancouver. Tamahmoto, who had
taken an American veffel fome time fince, was always
refufed TO THE NORTKf PACIFIC OCEAN.
ftefufed admiflion into*: our fliip. This man openly
avows he will take the firft veffel he can ; though he
has been cautioned to avoid thofe of America, left he
fhould fall a victim to their vengeance. The other
chiefs came frequently on board; and by themfelves,
or deputies, bartered pearls and trinkets : many were
purchafed, but few of any quality. The attendants
of Tamaahmaah did the fame; The object of all
feemed to be the acquirement of every thing that was
ufeful; and the liberality of that chief and others, fb
haridfomely recorded by Captain Vancouver, feems to
be forgotten in their prefent eagernefs for conqueft
and dominion.
43
1796".-
February.
The entrance of the harbour is fituated in lat. 21^ 18' N.
Long, per watch, N° i, - - 20 20   o' 30" E.
Variation of the compafs, - 90 40' 40" E. mean
3 compaflesi1*-
Flows full and change at 3 h. rife of tide 4I feet.
At noon we obferved in the latitude of 21* l6'45"
N. The mean of two meridian altitudes of the fun in
Whytetee bay made the lat. 21° 15' 35" N., and the'
long, per No. 1. 202° 3' 30" E.
Ktll.
I faluted   Tamaahmaah  with four   guns,   on his'
leaving us ; and we made fail to the weftward with a
g 2 fine A VOYAGE OF DISOOYSRY
i?>fo& foreeze from the N. E. quarter. It was finaguJar
Wjf had. not dtfoovered tfyds haj&oaafl-ef Fair Have%
when we aisehored hsee in 1792*. in the Chatham iw^fct
the D^sover.^,, Captain Vancouver;? we did not inn-
deedcfeaBch for one, thtiu^h;I.;reraenaiber a break;was
noticed m the reef afe we failed through Whytetee
bay. At 6 PJVL the: eaft point ©f Wohahxaoi bore
IS. 9a E* three detfour m^fes^andl We fteeKedLN.. W.foy
W. £ W. &8T Atooi-. After? minnaing 58 railesi iaa: tha*
courfevflceifaw therdfland bearing?{fiULW- by W- to W.
three or four leagues chftance.. We hauled our winii
<te the- N»ntla falls 7? A-M.,- whefi tfeet extremes of land
bore from N. 27° W* to S. 30° W. off fhore* fifeee miltesv
After pafling fome high rocky land, we fleered more
to the weftward. Jiuft to» tifce KLEeJosfi this land there
was a finall- opening, feemingfy favourable for anchorage, but the entrance was expofed to thg.teade-wind.
We had 13 fathoms, after rounding- the- eaftern point,
which fhoals gradually to within f of a mile of the
f$lor%, Sooib after? nojom w«er came to an-airchor it^29
fathoms*, fandy and! rmidkfy' bottom. Wnfbrtnnately
forusi the ifland was h*a.ftateidf wait A chiefTfeom
Wohahoo, named Taa«a, had: taken up. arms againfli
Tamoerrie, the fon of Tayo, and at prefent poflefled
the diftrict abottf, Wyonoa. The Europeans of his
Darty came to us;; andi IjjT their afftftaqee iauemploy
s'
mg TO THE NORTH. PACIFIC OCEAN.
45
ing the na?tis(es, we; completed ©xw wa^eiritig, which CHAP,
we eonW not effect at Wcbhattoo. Taava fent us a !—s-—>
great abundance of vegetables, and forty hogs ©.£ February,
various fizes. He himfelf paid us a vifit, and I made
him a fuitaible ,re%&rn for his attentions* We perceived feveral canoes Under ijaijy coming round the
eaft point of the Bay. Thefe^ we underwood, contained the oppxjfi&r paBfly»: intending to pay us a vifit
alfo- Taava m$an?tly left tis, with? his attendants^ On
perceiving them. I fent the firfij. lieutenant to meet
Tamoerrie, who came on» board in the pinnace, followed by his fquadron : in. one of its veffels a fwivel
was mounted. Thi# young chief presented me with a
fmall feasbhered cloaky and remained on board all
nighty in confluences w*© had* not any more vifitor9
feona^Wympa.
We got undej? way with a) moderate' land wind, fuO
ceeded by a* ligh£ fea air, on. which we plied to
windward. As the wfod A.M. came from the North*
wefteered to the.ifland of OnehoW. The young chie|
Tamoejsrie and his pacty now left us* ffedtiiingly gratjrf
tied witlutheirrprefents and reception. He was very
anxious to have fome powder, but I refitted every
application for thafe article dnrhag my ftay among,
thefe iflands.    I endeavoured^ but ha.-vain, to reconcile
the
18th.
■tm   r '-M
a m
WM A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book the   contending   parties.—Lat.  at  anchor, mean of
—^-> 2 merid. alt. 21° 56' 18" N.	
l796- I  -r,
February. 48   E.
Long.  No. 1. 200° 12'
19th. We paffed  the S. E.  point  of  Onehow   in   35
fathoms; obferved in the latitude of 21° 45' 50" N.
when the S. E. point bore N. 77° 30' E. two or three
miles,   the extremes to the- N. 10° W.   We fleered
along fhore, and at length came to in Yam Bay at
2 P.M. in 29 fathoms, coarfe, fandy bottom.    Some
canoes   came    off   the   next   day   bartering   yams,
potatoes,   water-melons,  and   pumpkins:   our   boat
alfo in the evening arrived  laden with roots.    The
weather from the South occafioned a great fwell in
the Bay, and prevented us from receiving the fupplies
we had been promifed.     However  the   boat   went
on fhore with the European who had accompanied us
from Atooi for the purpofe of collecting yams.    But
nothing being ready, we got  under way  and flood
out  to  fea.    The wind increafed, and we had rain
with ftrong fqualls that fplit the main-topfail.    After
hoifling in the boats and fecuring the anchor, we flood
in fhore and bent another main-topfail.    The European   returned   on   board,   faying  every   thing  was
ready; but the furf was fo great that canoes could
not reach us without rifque.     I  therefore gave up
the TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
47
the idea of anchoring, as there was no probability    chap.
of doing fo while this wind continued, which feemed    j—-—*
likely to be the cafe.    The European now left us in    February.
his canoe with fome recompenfe for his attentions:
this man had been tranfported to Botany Bay, and
came from thence in an  American brig called the
Mercury ; he deferted from her at this ifland, and is
much courted by Taava, whofe caufe he has preferred
to that of the young, chief Tamoerrie.
The lat. at anchor in .Yam bay was 21 ° 51' 28" N. mean of 2 fex-
tants.
Long, at do. per N° 1,       - 1990 37' 24" E.
Variation of the compafs,       -       ip° 54'29"   mean of AdamV*
and N° 3.
Walker's compafs could not ftand fteady, on account of the fhip's motion.
fi i79<5-
February.
2 2d.
25th.
A VOYAGE OF BJSCOVERY
CHAP. III.
-ifjo.'- >
Departure for Nootka Sound.—Search for the Ifland of Donna
Maria Lajara.—Maquina's Vifit at Nootka.—IntetUgence of
Captain Vancouver.—Stage raifed on Shore by the Carpenters*
for repairing the Ship.—ExcStrpbn to Ship Cove.—At Ancmr
in Juan de Fuca's Inlet.—Sir Francis Drake's Station I579-—
Arrival at Monterey.—Plan adopted ftir the Voyage.
©'"*£'
W E failed for Nootka Sound. The flg|p's crew was
generally healthy, excepting thofe who were infected
with the venereal difeafe, contracted at the Sandwich
Iflands. The fymptoms of this djtfbider were not
very violent.
We altered our courfe to the Weft, intending to
fearch for an ifland called Donna Maria Lajara, faid
to be difcovered by a Spanifh fliip, the Hercules, in
1781; and laid down in Arrowfmith's charts, from the
authority of Mr. Dairymple. The centre of it is fitu-
ated in 28° 30' N., and in long. 202° 30' E. By the
chart it is of confiderable extent, in a north and fouth
direction.    The afternoon fights for the watch made
our TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
49
-.our long, at noon 204° 1' SO" E.; and  we could  fee chap.
hi.
•half a degree to the Eaft.    There was a large fwell in :—•*-—'
that1 direction, but no indication that could induce us February.
to fuppofe there was land in that quarter.    Captain
Cooke's track, on his return to the Sandwich Iflands,
was in 206° E.
We had now run and feen 5° of long, nearly from
200° Eaft to near 205° E., in the parallel of 28° 30'
N.: the fituation of this ifland muft therefore be to
ther>Eaft or Weft of the above longitude; moft probably   ^
o ' x rrw
to the Eaft of .206° E., as Captain Cook paffed the N<
parallel in the long, of 200° 15' E., and manjr other
navigators to the weftward of that longitude. I therep
fore did not think it neceffary to crofs their tracks,
but altered our courfe to North with a fine breeze
at E. S. E.
26th
,i nations.
P.M.
3-io° 39'
Adams
0 i' E.
We fleered N. E. by N.; the wind at South.    A Tr Vth-
I Variations.
large fwell from the S. E. quarter obliged us to pump      a.m.
the fliip every tpyo hours.     At midnight tfye  wind » iao .6,
fhifted to the N. W., and moderated gradually, brings ^^TV^'
° K?        ' ° 48' E. Infp
ing on fine weather
h
ings
48' £•. imp
i3°3o'E.
After a fucceffion of variable, and latteply of very     March
damp weather from the 26th ult., we tried for found-
1
Jl 50
A VOYAGE Ot DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
1796.
March.
ings with 100 fathoms of line; and at 8 A. M. faw
the land about Nootka bearing N. N. E. When we
obferved in 49° 9' 42" N.; lat. account 49° 22' N.
long, ditto 233° 17' E. Point breakers N. 8° 10' four
leagues, and the extremes of land from N. 28° W. to
N. 58° E.    Port San Raphael N. 35° E.
1
17th.
The wind fixing at N. N. E. we anchored in 34
fathoms. The whole country being covered with
fnow, had a moft defolate appearance. I fent an
officer into the cove for intelligence, who returned at
noon, and reported there were no veffels in it; and
that the fpot on which the Spanifh fettlement formerly
flood was now occupied by an Indian village.
The wind fluffing to the Weft we got under way,
and anchored in the Sound at 50 fathoms. Macquin-
na, the chief of Nootka, paid us a vifit here : he and
Clupanutch, another chief, brought me feveral letters,
dated March 1795, which informed me that Captain
Vancouver failed from Monterey the 1ft December
17945 for England ; and that the Spaniards had delivered up the port of Nootka, &c. to Lieutenant
Pierce of the Marines, agreeably to the mode of refli-
tution fettled between the two Courts. A letter from
the Spanifh tracer, Brigadier Ala¥a, informed the of
2 their TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
51
their failing in March 1795, from hence. In the
evening we had calm weather* affording us good
flielter between an iflot and the fhore of Nootka,
where the fhip was made fteady with hawfers, and
laid in 7 fathoms water. On an examination of the
harbour, we found the beach perfectly convenient for
laying the fhip on fhore ; we tj^erefore fhifted our
birth, and warped into Mawinee harbour. At low
water we had 3| fathoms, and w^re protected from
all winds. -'
CHAP.
III.
1796.
March.
Our tents were fixed oppofite the fliip, and provi-
fions fent there with a guard. In the courfe of the
week our anchors, cables, and 14 guns, were alfo
landed on a convenient flage, which the carpenters
had made for that purpofe.
2 2d.
We vifited the Sound to the eaftw&td, while another
party went to Nootka, where they met with the Lady
Wafhington brig. She had been out 31 days from
the Sandwich Iflands, and flie arrived at this place
with the intention of repairing her leaks. Her appearance gave us great pleafure, as we could mutualry
Snrft each other.
April 10th,
ii
H 2f
Fine 52
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
boctk        Pine weather enabled  lis to prepare the fliip for
i—~^—.    heavinc down, as it was impoflible to get at the leak
April9i4th.   which had troubled us fo long by any other means.
16th. The Lady Wafhington  came along-fide ; into her
we put our fpirits, hops, and perifliable ftores, fitting
our capftern on board of her.
18th. The carpenters completed a wharf, ninety feet in
length and twelve in height, from which was fuf-
pended a ftage forty feet in length, for the purpofe of
relading the fhip.
20th. We had fine weather, which enabled us to clear the
fhip of the coals and fhingle ballaft.
*
We hove out the larboard fide as low as the gar-
board ftreak, found 14 feet of the falfe keel car- '
ried away, and plugged up a bolt-hole in the
ftreak, whence the leak was fuppofed to proceed.
In the carpenter's opinion, no bolt had ever been
drove through the planking to the floor timber,
as the augur hole boring remained perfect; nor
was there any appearance of decayed iron. The
thinnefs   of   the   copper   which   covered   it   had
cracked TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
53
cracked round the hole, and by that means the water    CHAP.
TTT
was admitted.'   It was alfo exactly in the fame place
the carpenters had fuppofed, on examining the limbers, and whence the coming in of the water was per-
ceived. Indeed there was no other part of the bottom
of the fhip that appeared to be bad : the copper
looked well, though in fome parts much worn. Another bolt below the forechains, was decayed through,
the planking ; and that part which remained indicated
that it had been corroded by the copper. The fliip
was righted ; and four pumps continually worked for
three hours, befides bailing with buckets, to free her
from the water that had flowed in through her upper
works, whilft lying down on the careen. Her draught
of water was 9 feet 3 inches forward, and 10 feet 3
inches abaft. When the ftrip was hove out, only
15 chaldrons of coal and one ton of bread were left in
her. The ftage was taken in from the wharf, the
veffel cleaned throughout, and the flore-rooms and
magazines well dried. Windy and rainy weather for
feveral days impeded our operations, though in time
we received our iron, ballaft, &c. Soon after we
cleared the Lady Wafliington brig, and fhe hauled
from us.
1796.
April.
a
We A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
fA
We made an excurfion to Ship Cove where C;
tajn Cook remained on his firft entering the Sound
during the month of April; we Teemed to have
experienced fimilar or rather worfe weather at the
fame time of the year. We could difcover no vfeftiges
to prove that any fliip had ever been tfcere fmce.
During a fucceflion of uncertain weather for fome
time, at another of.-favomiBable dayfetiii the 21<fit imlkj
we reladed our fhip and compleated our watsq.agf.i
when we left Nootka where fre had an opportunity of
examining the ftate of the fliip, repairing the leak,
and making her in every refpect better fitted for th$
voyage.
The foil of Nootka is generally of a thin confluence, chiefly compofed of a ftratum of coarfe gravel,
and over that another of decayed vegetables. The
country is covered with large trees, with a con-
fiderable quantity of brufh-wood growing below,
producing wild rafberries, &c. Of Quadrupeds there
are the fea and land otters, grey foxes, bears*tffeer, and
the lynx, together with raccoons, fquirrels, &c.: the
wild fosd abound in vaft quantities, The corvus
iriftatus, which I believe is only found in North
America, is alfo to be met with here.   Whales are
frequent- TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
55
frequently feen on the coaft, and of common fifh. CHAP.
'there are falmon, cod, flounders, &c. On fifh the |—i§§»
natives chiefly exift, and on vegetables. jyjL*
We obferved in lat. 49° 19' N£, Pomt Breakers bore
N. 33° E. three or four miles. The point of Nootka
Cove, together with a wooded one to the N. W. of
Point Breakers bore N. 28° W. five leagues. This
eftimation will place Point Breakers in lat. 49° 21' 35"
N. mean of two fextahts. The aftronomer made the
ill of the obfervatory 49° 39'3&V7 N. long, from
90 diftances on each fide of the moon 233° 25' 11"
E.
2lft.
a
At anchor in the bay of Nunez Gaona; inlet of
Juan de Fuca. The fliip was furrounded with numerous canoes laden with hafibiAt and cod, whidh abound
on a bank that bears about W. by N. three or four
leagues from Tatotiche Ifland. By having lefs fwell
at-'t-hat time, I rather fuppofe we had paffed over
the fotiEater'n' part of it, as feveral canbtes Hill remained
jfelMng to the North. We run in three miles, hoifted
the boat out, and hauled our wt<nd to the fouthW-Srd,
but 'Hie flood-tide fet$hg in very ftrong, oaufed over-
«Mls throiigh the paflage.    The boat got 1& fathoms
within
1 o
6
SOOK
I.
3796.
Ik. ay.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
within 50 feet of the rock, but further from it there
was no bottom with 30 fathoms. This rock is in the
fame bearing with the centre of Tatouche Ifland and
Cape Claffct N. 36° W., and S. 36° E. about § a mile,
and bears frofin the ifland of Nunez Gaona S. 80° E.
about fix miles or a little more. We palled witfein a
mile of the Claffet fliore, and at 4 P.M. came to
an anchor in the entrance of the bay at 12 fathoms.
The weftern extreme towards the Cape bore S. 80° W.,
and the north point of the ifland which forms the
bay N. 76° E., off fliore nearly a mile. It was in this
bay that a Spanifh fliip remained 4 months, 1792.
There is good anchorage in it, plenty of wood and
water, with an extenfive beach for hauling the feine.
Off the ifland are feveHal reefs of rocks fliowing
themfelves by the weeds, with a good paflage between
them and the main carrying 5§ fathoms. The N. W.
part of the ifland is in lat. 48° 22' 43" N., and long.
235° 15' 45" E.; var. per amp. 22° 34' E. If Duncans
rock is kept well on the Claffet fhore, and the ifland
open with it, there is a clean paflage to the nprth-
ward of it, where the bay may be entered with
fafety, and the anchorage chofen at pleafure. It flows
at full and change lh. 30m., rife and fajl of the tide
about 10 feet.    There is little or no tide in the bay,
but TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OC^AN.
i>ut  without^' it runs  ftrong,  and   caufes  a  rip'Ung
jefhich breaks when it blows frefh againfl the ftream.
In the morning we weighed with the ebb, and at noon
Tatouche liland bore S. 30° E. two or three leagues.
At $ pafl 5 P.M. we flood towards the ifland,
which at 6 P.M. bore S. 5° W.; at 8 P.M. it bore
S. 7° 10' off the north fhore three or four miles. On
approaxBiihg the iflasad we had no ground with 100
fathoms/ At 4 A.M. Tatouche Ifland bore S. 25° E.
three leagues, We*had 65 fathoms, and 56, 53, and 37
to 8 fathoms when Cape Clafiet bore S. 43° E.: N.
extreme N. 58° W. At noon the weather was thick and
calm : three or four miles from the fhore.
CHAP
hi.
1796.
May
24th.
57
25th.
'Alight breeze from the S. W/Apsakter carried us to
■the S. E. nine miles, when the ifland of Nunez Gaona
bore S. 85° E.; Cape Claffet S. 65° W. and Tatouche
Ifland S. 77° E. three miles : we had no foundings.
When the Cape bore S. S. E. f E. the pinnacle rock
. without iiilt appeared very remarkable. At 8 o'clock
we tacked, and having run 41 miles N. W. by N.
:v3e.*had 43 fathoms coarfe gravel and coatee fand,
but as we fhoaled our water the coarfe ground de-:
-ereafed.
1 Our
26th. 28th.
June 4th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK        Our  foundings   were, at   34   fathomdjjpilrid   oufr
^—.'<-—>   diftance from the nortfariihore about five miles. '$&
May^th.   8 PM' the CaPe b0re S* 46° E'' and the N* extreme
towards Berkeley Sound N. 64° W.   At 8 A.M. the
Cape bore S. 56° E., and the N. estieme N. 65° W.
At | pafl nine we were five or fix miles from the fhore,
incxeafing our foundings frssni 34> to 35, 48 and 42
fathoms : final! ftones in. the fbrmerj in the fatter flielis
intermixed  with  ftones.     At noon   the  obishfvaTion
fcnade the lat. 48° 32' 10"; the meridional altitude being
62° 38'.     Cape  Claffet bore  S.  70° E.  about  four
leagues: ifland of Nunez Gaona S. 82° 30' E.    Ex>
treme of the land towards Berkeleys Sound N. 62° Wl
By keeping the ifland open with the Claffet fhofig^
there is.a good mark for being on the bank; and
foundings may be carried clofe home to the north
fhore.
We fteerd S. E. by E. and E.S..E.; half pafl 9,
faw Punto de los B,eyos in that direction. We paffed
3#!tJ$4n. a mile of it, carrying regular foundings. At
I pafl 7 we came to an anchor in 15 fathoms, when
the Punto de los Beyos was juft fhut in with the S. E.
point of Sir Francis Drake's Bay, bearing S. 81° W.;
River entrance, N. by W.; and the extreme, towards
Port
,-■ .,, ..j	 TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Port Francifco, bore S. 81° E., our diftance from the
point of bay being about a mile and a half. At noon,
obferved latitude was 37° 58' 46" N. With two boats
we explored the fliore, where I conceive the place is in
Which Sir S&aneis Drake anchored 1579- We explored
ife-^o a remarkable fandy patch, bearing N. 60° E., from
the fliip four or five miles, and found nO opening except
the river. A bar broke entirely acrofs; we had no more
than 9 feet in palling it, and it did not appear fafe
even to ventre a boat there. Herds of deer were
feen feeding on the hills and in the vallies; and a
communication commenced between us and the natives, who were walking on the fhore. The furf prevented our landing; but one of the failbrs fwam to
land, prefenting them with totfres,. trnikets, &c. with
which they were highly gratified. They were flout
well made men, darkly coloured, and perfectly naked.
The women were in fome degree clothed.
This bay affords good fhelter, except from the
eafterly winds ; but the fea cannot be very great even
with them, as they blow over the land about San
Francifco. There is anchorage here, wnen the fouth
point of the bay bears S. 50° E. off fhore.
m
CHAP.
III.
1796.
June.
I
Q
At A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERYO*
At 1 ■ P. M. we -sot under way^, and fleered IS. E.
At 6 P. M. wej Were within two leagued of the land,
to the fouth of PopC feancifco^pbut we could not (<$&
the entrance, on accouii^-of the luSge or tliffq^oj^^
which lie to leeward, called Fa£illon£». Athjalfpaffc
7 P. M. the extremes of i$lje>das$. bore from N. 21° E.
to S. 76° E., off fliore about nine m£l£i.ic
g"    ■     _ -     .   _   . 3 lijiiO OA'AI'i VVA.T .■        J.*f31fH
About 9 P. M. we had the misfortune to loih
Patrick Sherry, feaffian : by accident he fell fromjjthe
mizen-top upon the deck, and was killed inftantl\A
This was the fecond cafualty of the fame kind that,
had happened to us fince we l$$t England. lie wag>
the only man who did not volunteeRjfjr the fervjce, as-
he was fent on board the flag-fhip at Plymouth by the
o I J J
civil power, whence he came to us.
At half paft 1 A. M. it blew ftrong, with a great
fwell of fea; at half paft 4 A. M. we wore and fleered
E. N. E. for the land ; at 6, we faw it bearing N.< 48°
E. five or fix leagues. At 9, being well in with the
land about Punto Nuovo, we flood to the S. W. in
hopes of an obfervation, as I did not think it right to
run into the bay with the wind blowing hard at N. W.;,
and I could not diftinguifh Point Pinos. We observed TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
61
ferved in latitude 36° 45' 32", alt. 75° 38' 40", and
faw the point bearing S. 73° E. four or five leagues. J,We fleered eaft for the bay of Monterey :
i&3 P/M. came to an anchor in 11 fathpms, and'
moored fliip, after fainting the fort with 18. guns,
•which was returned with an equal iMmber. Prefidio
bore S. 13° E.; and the flag-ftaffon the fort, S. 30° W.
half a mile from fliore.
CHAP.
III.
l"l96.
June.
We remained here a fortnight, and we're moft- amply
fupplied with excellent frefli beef,3lmutton, vegetables,
and milk. The crew, was alfo ferved With fpruce beer;
The0; Governor', Signor Don Diego Bc-riea, a colonel
f CD O J
of cavaffry in the Spanifh army, was .abfent on our
firft arrival; biitXhe returned two days after, when I
requeued of him to erect a tent for the aftronomer,
for fettling the rates of the watches, which he refufed
to grant, faying, that his orders Were #>■ relieve our
abfolute want of neceflaries, but in no other inftance
were they allowed to aflift us. We weite prevented
either from riding or walking into the country; nor
did we receive the leaft civility or attention from any
officer in the fettlement: There was no intercourfe
between us fcarcely : they did not vifit our fliip, or
we intrude on their fociety. So unfocial was their
conduct, that-1 thought myfelf juftified in not faluting
the 62
\
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
the fort on our failing, though it was evident that they
expected the compliment, from the preparations they
made there. Excepting this fort, which jjs very incomplete, there being only eleven guns mounted en
barbet twelve-pounders, I faw no difference in the
place fince I was here in 1793- They complained
mueh of the dryngfs of the feafon, which was very
evident from the arid flate of the couptry. The water
We procured was obliged to be rolled down near half
a mile, which gave us much trouble. We bought
fome bufhels of Indian corn : they had no flour; and,
exclufive of their cattle and fheep, the other articles
we purchafed were very expenfive^ vegetables alone2
during our ftay, coft 40 dollars. The weather wa^
continually foggy; the wind wefterly, but generally
fell during the night.
Although in the midft of fummer the air was gene~;
rally cool, and fkies pleafant both morning and eve§T
ing, the fun feldom appeared to enliven the fcenes
of beauty which the furrounding country prefented.
I received one prefent of a bullock with vegetables,
from the Fathers at the miflion of St. Carmelo; but
the rigid conduct of the Governor prevented them
from fending any more. They were the fame hofpi-
table pripfts whom I  met with in  1792.     Several
fpecies TO THE NORTH PACIFIC? OCEAN.
fpecies of fi*§it, fuch as peaches, nectarines, plums,
apjfles, and grapes, abound here. The country is
pleafingly diverfified ; though, except in the vailies
where the gardens are cultivated, the foil is rather dry
and fandy. The inhabitants are flout and well made,
flupid in look, and of a dark colour like thofe of New
Holland. They are exeeflent*markfmen with thei&ow
4and arrow; and their bafket-work fheiws no fmall
fliare of ingenuity. The watches fliewed the longi-
iWde of Monterey as follows :
63
CHAP.
III.
1.796.
June.
N° ti—238° 49'   6""
2,-238° 3.0' 36"
K*
i>Trufi long, is 238° 25'E. by Capt. Vancouver..
56,-237° 26' 16" f 6        J       3 1     f .,
248,-2.38° 25' 27" J
N° 1, flow for mean time at Monterey,. June 17th
at noofij 16° 30' 33".78, and gaining from five days rate
6".582 per day on mean time. N° 248, $©w for mean
tttme at Monterey, June 17th at noon, 1° 39' 4".73,
and gaining from five days rate 14?{|>25 per day on
-mean time.
The other watches, N° 2 and 56,. I delivered to the
Governor, with fome nautical inftruments,. See: who
was authorifed to receive them by Don Juan de la
Bodega   y   Quadra,   my late much valued and la-
6 mented
■UK 64
-B'0 O K
. I.
.1796.
June.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
mented friend. I moft fincerely regretted his lofs, and
was much hurt to deliver to his executor what I hoped
to have done to him in perfon.
m
It was now neceffary I fhould come to fome determination refpecting my future proceedings. My orders from the Admiralty were, that I fhould furvey the
fou#ieSH coaft of the fouth-weft part of South America,
upon the idea that Captain Vancouver, who had
iimilar orders, would not be able to fulfil them. But
as I now had certain intelligence that he had left this
port eighteen months before, and that both the fhips,
Difcovery and Chatham, under his command, were
in a good condition, I had not the fmalleft doubt of
his ability to comply with his inftructions ; particularly
as I had information of his failing from Val. Paraifo,
in lat. 33' S. for that purpofe. As this was the cafe,
my proceedings in future depended upon my own
difcretion ; and I wifhed to employ his Majefty's floop,
under my command, in fuch a manner as might be
deemed moft eligible for the improvement of geography and .navigation* I therefore demanded of the
officers their fentiments in writing, refpecting the manner in which thefe difcretionary powers allowed to me
might moft effectually be employed.    The refult of
their
=^aaBs»: iMo6«
Jjune..
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.. 65;
*
their opinions, I was happy- to find, coincided with    CHAP.
my own, which was to furvey the coaft of Afia^ commencing at the ifland of Sakhalin, fituatedah 52i N.
lat., in the fouthern part of the fea of Ochotz, and
ending at the Nanking river in 30° N. lat.    My  in-
CD O **
tention was alfo to complete the furve}* of the adjacent iflands, viz. the Kuriles, and thofe of Jefo and-
Japan, left unfinifhed in Captain Cook's laft voyage.
I thought fuch a furvey would be very acceptable1
to geographers; for the limits of both the continents
of Alia and America would then oe known as far
as navigation was practicable, and a knowledge of
the Northern Pacific Ocean would be completed.
Another reafon for my undertaking, this voyage was^
that as yet the aftronomer had met with no opportunity of complying with his inftructions from the
board of longitude, in making obfervations and afcer-
taining unknown places, our line of navigation having, hitherto led us to follow the track of Captain
Vancouver. In any other part of the Northern
Pacific Ocean there appeared little to be done, except
that of fettling the pofition of a few iflands, in them-
felves of little confequencc; but a furvey of the
eoaft of Afia and the adjacent iflands, promifed to be
of more  fervice  to the fcience  of geography  than
k, that
mmm §6
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK $hat of any iflands left unexplored in thefe feas.
As this furvey could not probably be completed before
the middle of the year 1798, I propofed fpending my
time in that purfuit till Chriftmas, then to go to Canton for flores and provifions, and to continue the furvey
early in the year.
1796.
June. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN-
m
IV.
1796.
July.
CHAP. IV.
Pajfage from Monterey to Owyhee."—'Arrival at Wohahoo.—At
Wymoa Bay, Atooi.—At Onehow.—Inhuman Murder of two-
Marines by the Natives of the lajl JJland.—'Departure for Japan*
•—ViJited by fome Inhabitants ofhifu.-—Anehor in Volcano Bay,
xl)?$ the 20th June we failed from Monterey bay CHA
in California, having left to the care of the commanding officer there, a pacquet of letters containing an
account of our proceedings fince we failed from.
Port Jackfon in October 1795.. This paequet was
addreffed to Evan Nepean, Efq. Secretary to tlie
Admiralty. In our route to the Sandwich Iflands, we
fearched for the iflands of Paxaros or Bird IfJand,
and that of Donna Mafia* Lazara unfuccefsfully, and
on the 6th of July after, a favourable paflage, anchored
in Karakakooa bay.
M'y inducement for flopping here was to afcertaiot
the rate of the time-pie&es, and to complete taking'
ki^ftir water.till we departed for the coaft of Japan.
K.2: Cki» 6B
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
1796.
July.
On our arrival the taboo had exifted for four days,
.and   continued to  the   10th,  when our  tents   were
pitched in their old fituation near the Morai.    We
commenced our different employments for the  completion of our wTater, and the regulation of the timepieces.    The fliip was ft*011 furrounded by numerous
vifitors, who were much rejoiced at our return; and it
being  Sunday,  after divine  fervice was  performed,
our people had permiflion to amufe themfelves  on
fliore.     The following day we  began filling  water,
which was brought in calabafhes by the natives from
the hills  diflant four or five  miles, for which they
were   paid   100   nails   per hogfhead :   this   mode  of
procuring water foon became too expenfive for our.
ftock, and we were unable to complete it.    Owing to
the cloudinefs of the atmofphere, the aftronomer could
feldom fee the fun, and as we were contented with
the altitudes he had already made, we did not wifh
to be detained any longer, and therefore ftruck the
tents on the 22d.    In the mean time the fhip had
been painted and fitted for fea : we failed out of the
bay the fame evening.    We experienced during our
ftay in the bay the fame kind attentions as before,
and were amply fupplied with hogs  and vegetables.
In return we gave them flieets of copper, iron hoops,
and TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
69
and nails.    The  ducks we left had  bred,  and  the CI^P-
cattle left by Captain Vancouver had much increafed *-—•'-yJ
in  number.     The garden feeds had failed through J^y-
inattention; fome roots  of horfe-radifli were in high
f CD
vegetation, and the cabbages were reported to us
as flourifhing confiderably in the interior, together
with fome other plants; but we did not extend our
walks fkr enough to fee them. Goats were in great
plenty, and many of the fheep had bred. The Englifh
feaman, John Young, who went with me to the
ifland of Wohahoo, had returned, but Tamaahmaah
and all the chiefs were flill to the leeward. Their
abfence had much increafed the power of a chief
named Naametehaw (Tianna's brother), who was in a
flate of revolt, and acquiring by degrees the whole
ifland. He now pofTeffed four out of its fix diftricts,
and was approaching near to Karakakooa, where there
was little chance of refiftance, as the people were
averfe to fighting, having no chief in whom they
confided to lead them on : indeed the only perfon
of that rank was Mahooa, who had loft his eye-fight.
He wifhed much to go with us to Wohahow, that
he might explain what had happened to Tamaahmaah,
but the people, having no other chief, would not
permit him.
'A
I
In -I
70
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
In the laft fkirmifh witl^rthe rebels an European^
was killed, and their leader vowed vengeance againft
the four who frill remained on the fide of Mahooa.
It appeared extraordinary that Tamaahmaah fhould
neglect his own ifland, and leave it expofed to any
ufurper; but it was ftill more lingular, that while a.
chief of Atooi was taking poffeflion of Owyhee, he
was preparing, to invade the very ifland from whence
this ufurper and his brother Tianna came. Such was
the abfurd conduct of this chief; who was ruining
himfelf and his friends by his ambition, yet, at the
fame time,., afraid to fend any of them to Owyhee, left
they alfo fhould fide with the revolters. A conftant
jealoufy of each other's power feems to be univerfal
amongft the South-Sea Iflands. No veffel had been*
in the bay fince we left it: every thing was plentiful.
The people were generally affected with the itch, but
triflingly fo Avith. venereal complaints.
It was on the morning of the 25th that we arrived,
at Wohahoo,. and waited in Whytetee bay for Ta»
maahmaah to come on board,. At noon he was with*
us, attended by feveral chiefs, in a large failing boat
from the harbour of Fair Haven. This boat was buiitr
by the Europeans living in this ifland, and was in-r
tended for the attack of Atooi; but as that fcheme
6 £oe TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
71
-for the prefent was given up, the chiefs determined to    CHAP.
treturn to Owyhee. They had, however, endeavoured
to reach Atooi, but the weather was too boifterous for
their canoes; and the revolt at Owyhee caufed an
iteration in their plans for the prefent. The ifland,
in refpedt to provifions, was worfe than ever, for all
the hogs had been deftroyed when the inhabitants left
it to go to Atooi; and we could procure no vegetables,
as they had perifhed through neglect of cultivation.
This fcarcity had caufed the deftruction of many of
the unfortunate natives, who, through abfolute want,
had been induced to fteal whatever came in their way.
For thefe thefts they were murdered by the chiefs in
the moft barbarous manner, and many were burnt
alive. It -was computed that Tamaahmaah had loft
fix thoufand of his people by the conqueft of this
ifland, and fubfequent calamities. As the veffel built
in the harbour by the Europeans was not quite complete, Tamaahmaah was very anxious I fhould leave
with him every necefTary article for her equipment,
even to guns and powder. I prefented him with feveral things much more ufeful; and we parted in the
moft friendly manner, with his permiflion to make a
fettlement on any of the iflands I pleafed.
Wohahoo
1796.
July.
HMMi 72
BOOK
I.
1796.
July.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Wohahoo feems moft favourable for a firfti eftablifh-
ment, on account of the harbour.; and in Whytetee
bay, to the weftward of Fair Haven, is another which
is formed in a large bafon when the reefs are. paffed.
Pearls of a good quality and fize are collected in this
bafon. The ifland of Owyhee has alfo two or three
harbours, but they ean only receive fmall veffels. The
beft of them is in the diftrict of Ahudo, on the eaft fide
of the ifland, of which the entrance is formed by a
reef that, Captain Cook fays, in fome degree endangered his fhip.
25th. In the afternoon we parted with our friends, making
fail for the ifland of Atooi, where I purpofed to complete our water. On the following day we anchored
in Wymoa bay, in 23 fathoms ; the extremes bearing
from S. 60° E. to N. 72° W., off fhore 1| mile.
26th. Early in the morning we commenced taking in our
water ; but the natives ftrongly maintained it was private property, and that we fhould not take any away
unlefs we paid for it with powder. When their re-
folution was reported to me, I fent an armed force to
protect the watering party, and to convince the natives that I was determined to take what they would
not TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
73
not grant voluntarily.    In confequence of this meafure    CHAP.
IV.
1796.
no further objection was made :   fome of the inhabitants, who affifted us in filling and rolling the calks, m.
were paid for their trouble;   and our watering was
completed in twenty-four hours.
This ifland, fince~ we laft touched here, had been
entirely conquered by a chief, named Teavee, grand-
fon to Perorannee. The depofed king, Timoree,
livod with him, divefted of all power. We faw nothing of them, as they were on the other 'fide of the
ifland, under fome reftrictions of the taboo : but we
underftood, orders had been fent over to prevent the
felling of any article, unlefs we paid for it either by
mufquets or powder ; of courfe we made no pur-
chafes. A fliip from Briftol, called the Ruby, had
bought hogs at this price, and was the only veffel that
had touched here finee our departure, except the
Lady Wafhington brig.    On the evening of the 27th,
•/ CD O O
an European came on board, who faid, a perfon w©uld
come the next day from the Chief, with directions to
fupply us with provifions, who had no objection when
he knew it vtks our fhip which had arrived. As I did
not bejieve this mans account, I thought it ufelefs to
wait; but defired him to follow us to Onehow with
whatever provifions he could procure.
l In
11 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
In the morning we got under way, and made fail
CD CD <J *
for the ifland of Onehow, where we anchored in the
afternoon at Yam bay, in 15 fathoms fand}r bottom;
the extremes bearing from N. 29? E. to S. 10° E„
one mile and a half from the fliore. As I intended to
remain here but 48 hours, for the purpofe of procuring
37ams, I fent the boat on fliore after breakfaft, with a
fmall tent, and three armed marines to protect the
articles they might procure, which I thought would be
abundant, as we had purchafed but few on board.
In the evening I landed, and was forry to find fo fmall
a collection : ■willing, therefore, to make it larger, I
walked to fome of the plantations, but was told there
was a general fcarcity over the ifland. On my return,
I met with a party which had juft come from Atooi,
and with them Tupararo, the man who was directed
to follow us, that he might fupply us with provifions.
I enquired after Hughes, the European. Tupararo
affured me he would join us in the morning, when we
fhould have plenty of yams and potatoes; begging
me at that time to come on fhore, and to bring with
me, as a prefent to him, fome red cloth. I told him,
the boat would be on fhore to bring off the tent, &c.
when he might come on board to receive his prefents.
The midfhipman went on board at funfet, and I
walked along fhore to the South, where the pinnace
waited TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
the natives accompanied me; and I walked unmo-
lefted, meeting feveral of the inhabitants, till I reached
the boat, which was further off than I had imagined.
As I had vifited this ifland twice before, and many of
the officers had made fhooting parties in the interior
without any interruption, I had not the leaft fear for
myownfafety; but the unhappy event which took
place the next day will fhew my fortunate efcape.
75
waited for me about one mile diftant.    Only one of   CHAP.
IV.
1796.
July«
In the forenoon I received fome yams from an
elderly man, who, it was faid, was father to Teavee :
I alfo received fome provifions from Tupararo, who
left the fhip with a defign, as he faid, of fending me
more. The cutter was ordered to bring whatever- he
might have to fend; and the mate was commanded
to go on fliore with two marines properly armed, another man to barter, and the boat's crew with a nrid-
fhipman to remain off at a grapnel. They were fta-
tioned fo as to affift in cafe of need, to be upon their
guard, and, if any thing occurred, to make a fignal.
They had not been gone an hour when I was acquainted by the officer on deck, that moft of the
canoes were gone on fhore. I therefore gave directions for the boat's fignal to be made: it was then
eleven o'clock; we faw them ftrike the tent, and im-
l 2 mediately
10th. 76
*796-
July.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    mediately after heard a firing from the boat.    As no
fignal was made, I thought this firing was intended to
recall thofe who were abfent; but foon after, the fignal
was hoifted for khe pinnace, when I feht an officer
W-fth marines to their afliftance. On the return of
one of the boats, I heard wir!h much concern that the
two marines were killed ; and that the mate, With the
botanift, who went to barter, had efcaped with the
greateft difficult. The pinnace remained on fhore
to protect the dead bodies from the natives, who
feemed anxious to get them, though ffiey 'were funk
below the furf. As this unhappy tranfaction took
jjylace without the fmalleft provocation on our part, I
confulted with the -officers on the meafures neceflary
to be purfued. Their advice was, at all events to
prevent the natives from getting the bodies, and for1
X^ CD O ?
us to proceed to Atooi, where, by getting fome of the
chiefs in our power, we might obfige them to deliver
up Tupararo, and the other principals in thefe horri$
murders : we alfo thought it neceffary to make fome
example on the fpot. The boats were therefore manned,
and directions given that the marines fhould burn
every houfe, canoe, and plantation, within a mile from
the beach where the boats were, and fhould return
before funfet. As they went we heard fome firing
from the pinnace, which occafioned the boats to land
without
L ■ *MI I   —W^» TO THE' NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
77
The natives took care to keep    chap.
IV.
without fgfiflanee
out of the reach of the fliot; or if they were near, to
drop down on feeing the flafli, and then to ran away.
The houfes were foon in flames, and fixteen canoes
on the beach were burnt or deftroyed. All this time
the natives affembled in great numbers, armed with
fpears : two of them had the ill-fated marines' mufkets
and accoutrements. As our people advanced they
fled, and fo prevented any perfonal jj atonement for
their treachery. In the mean while, the bodies were
found in about 9 feet water. At 3 P. M. Mr. Mudge
returned, when the natives immediately ruflied into
the water, fearching for the bodies, and found the
grapnel our people had loft in the attack.
1796.
July.
Of all the murders that have been committed in thefe
iflands, this feems as unprovoked as any. The caufe of
it I cannot account for; but3the manner of committing
it was related to me in the following manner, by Mr.
Cowley, the mate, and the botanift, Alexander Bifliop,
who efcaped. The mate, on feeing the fignal, ordered
the boat in, and flruck the tent. The marines unfixed
t£ieir bayonets ; and one of them gave his firelock to
the botanift, while he put the tent in the bag. At this
inflant, while they fufpected no danger, the botanift
was knocked down from behind; and Tupararo run
away A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    away with the mufket, which the botanift had dropped.
Hi^-~—'    The marines were ferved in the fame manner.    After
1796.
July.
they recovered themfelves, there was not time to fire
the remaining mufket, as the natives preffed upon
them with the greatefl eagernefs on their retreat to the
furf. The mate reached the boat in fafety, and the
botanift efcaped by ftabbing a man in the water who
had feized him ; but the ill-fated marines, incumbered
by their accoutrements, were murdered in the water
by the favages. On examining their bodies, one
appeared to have received feveral ftabs with his
own bayonet; the other, who could not fwim, had
got a violent contufion on his head, and feemed
to have been drowned. They were taken up perfectly naked, excepting fome few fragments of their
trowfers.
During the time of the maffacre the boat, by the
midfhipman's account, was within fifty yards of the
fliore, and her crew were pulling in, whilft a part
of them were keeping up a conftant fire with two
mufkets ; neverthelefs they could not fave thefe
poor fellows from the fury of the natives, and only
wounded one man out of twenty who followed them
into the water. I am afraid they were in too great a
confufion, and the boat too far from  the  fhore  to
give TO "THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
79
give the afliftance that was ncceflary on fuch an
unfortunate occafion. Had the boat been placed as
I directed, about one hundred yards from the tent
placed on an eminence, it would have been a certain
refouree; for had the natives rufiied down the bank,
they would have been expofed to its fire. It is
therefore moft probable the boat was farther diflant;
for the mate, though he could fwim very well, called
to them that if they did not pull in more he fhould
be drowned, and when he reached the boat the
grapnel rope was then cut having 25 fathoms out,
and the wind was from the land. He found them in
confufion, and defired the fignal to be made to the
fliip, which the midfhipman had neglected doing.
The natives fired fome mufquets at the pinnace, whofe
balls went, through her; but a fliot or two from her
fwivel difperfed the crowd, and all was quiet. It was
extraordinary that the two women, Rahina and Ti-
marroe (whom Captain Vancouver brought from the
N. W. coaft) fhould have come with us from Atooi,
when Tupararo was the hufband of the firft, and
whofe child had been fent on board that we might
fee him. They were much alarmed, and defired to
be fent on fhore; which requeft we complied with,
giving each a letter, begging they would entruft
them to the firft vefiel that arrived there, but upon
no
iv.
1796.
July.
a
n A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    no account to let them be feen by the Europeans at
i.
Atooi.
We were anxious to reach Atooi before the melancholy news could arrive there, but the wind being
Eaft was directly oppofite to our courfe. This was
unlucky, for we could not fuppofe thofe at Atooi who
were privy to the tranfaction, would truft themfelves
on board, it being our opinion that the fcheme was
concerted at that ifland, and Hughes the European
had knowledge of it by his not coming with Tupa-
CD */ \-r JL
raro. I was therefore obliged to give up the idea
for the prefent, intending to take the chance of
a favourable wind, fhould it have happened in a
few days, and in the meanwhile to fettle the fituation
of Bird and Montague Iflands. We therefore
made fail for that purpofe, fleering W. by S. The
ifland of Orehoua is in lat. 22° 02' N.; long. 199°
50' E. "       v'"ifl*Wf^
At 6 P. M. we faw a fmall ifland bearing S. 65° W.
about twelve leagues. At 10 we hauled our wind,
and remained plying under our topfaits till day-ligh£i
when the ifland bore S. 62° W. feven or eight
leagues. We made fail in that direction, at noon
we palled it  within  two  miles, whelf* it bore from
2 S. 23°
Auguft i ft. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
81
As the wind kept invariably fixed to the eaft ward >
I found there was no profpcct of again feeing Atooi,
without too great a delay; I therefore gave up the
idea, and made failxto the Weftward, meaning to
keep in the parallel of 28° 30' N.; a tract we had no
reafon to imagine ^ad ever been crofled before, and
which might lead us to fome new difcoveries. As we
had not found the ifland of Donna Maria Lagara to
the Eaft, I alfo thought it probable we might ftill fall
M in
1796.
Auguft.
S. 23° E. to S. 41° E., and we had 25 fathoms fandy    CHAP.
• . iv.
bottom.    It is not more than a mile in extent in any
direction, riling abruptly to a confiderable elevation
at each extreme, and low in the middle.    It appeared
inacceflible to boats, and inhabited only by various
fea-birds, who made their nefts in its perpendicular
cliffs.
This ifland was feen in 1789> and is well defcribed
and placed by Captain Douglas. The charts make
two iflands near this fituation; we could only fee
one with a clear horizon.    Bird Ifland we place in
23° 3' 50" N.; long. 197° 54' E. by No. 1.
At 6 P. M.  the ifland bore S. 32° E. nine or ten      2d.
leagues : many birds in fight.
54.
1
itt
W    /A
11
n
l-jj-
«£= ih
82
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    in with it during our run.    We faw no birds this day,
|—\—'   or any indication of land.
1796.
Auguft
8th. In the forenoon a turtle was feen, and many tropic
birds continued the whole day about the fliip.
At 2oh. 45 m. I made the long, mean of 3 fets Q
weft of D
Mr. Chapman mean of 5 fets
Mr. Crofley mean of 4 do.
N° 1. fame time -
1900 50' 30" E".
191°   3' 36" E.
1900 52' 30" E.
14th.
As we had continued the frefh provifions procured
at Owyhee, our people were ferved with fait meat,
and a proportion of four-krout and portable foup>
boiled with peafe. On opening the calk we found
our muftard-feed entirely fpoilt, the air having got
into it.
a 7th. Several fharks  about the  fliip.     We   hoifted   a
boat out to try if there was any current, but eould.
find none.
aa<j. At 2 P. M. we fteered more to the North, paffi'ng^
about 30 leagues to the N. of Captain Gierke's track
in this fituation. A bird like a plover, with flying fifh
and tropic birds, were feen in the forenoon.
Being,
gaflmiaggga TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
83
Being in the parallel of latitude of an ifland called
Rica de Plata, but to the Eaft 2° of its fuppofed
fituation, we fleered W. by S. to fall in with it.
The weather was cooler than we had experienced
for fome time, though.we had never found the heat
oppreflive, as the fmoothnefs of the fea enabled us
to carry our ports up both day and night. We ought
to have feen this ifland at noon had it been rightly
placed in Captain Cook's chart, notwithftanding
we had been fet 16 to the South of our eftimation
by a current.
CHAP.
IV.
1796.
Auguft
25th.
As we had run 7° to the Weft of the fituation da
which Rica de Plata is placed, without obferving the
leaft indication of the vicinity of land, we altered,
at 7 P. M., our courfe to the Weft. A current feemed
to have fet us ftrongly to the N. E. thefe 24 hours.
29th.
On an examination of the ftore-rooms, we found
feveral flops and fome of our new fails damaged. The
conftant heat had occafioned a dampnefs in every part
of the fhip, and the humidity of the air increafed it.
After burning fires in the fore cockpit, we got rid of^
the foul air by the extractor. The thermometer generally in the cockpit flood at 85° and 87°. A current
this day to the N. W.
September
2d.
M
We 84
i,
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK        We kept our wind to the weftward, that We teS^ht
make fure of the tSortli part of Japan.
September
5th* Paffed feveral trees floating on the water, and fper
6th.
maceti whales of a large fize.
We kept our wind to the weftward, in hopes of feeing the land, fhould the haze have cleared away. The
fudden fall of the barometer foretold a change of
weather. At 5 the breeze increafed, and we took in
three reefs in the topfails, getting the top-gallant yards
down. At 6 the wind veered to South, with a hard
gale, When we clofe-reefed the topfails, and hauled up
the mainfail to found. Before wre could try for foundings, the forefail and fore-topmaft ftayfail were fplit;
and the fqualls increafing in violence, we furled the
mainfail, during which time the fore-topfail blew fairly
away from the roping. The main-topfail fliared the
fame fate, by a fudden fliifting of the wind from S. to
N. W. This was our fecond beft fail, and only bent
the day before. The fliip's careen was fo great, and
the wind blew fo tremendoufly, that we were afraid
of lofing our malls ; and having no fail to fet, we
were left entirely to the mercy of the weather, in the.
hollow of the fea. The waves went over us with fuch
force, that we could not ftand their violence : luckily
6. - we TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
85
we experienced no other misfortune than the total lofs    CHAP.
... . IV-
of our fails, which in our fituation was much to be    <—--"-—t
regretted. In no inftance have I experienced fo un- September.
common a gale, for the hour it lafted, though unattended with lightning, thunder, or rain. At 8 P. M.
it gradually abated to a fteady breeze from the N. W.
quarter, and the night was fine. At day-light -we
defcried the land of Japan, bearing from W. by N. to
S. W., feven or eight leagues diftant; and at noon we
7 CD CD
obferved in 39° 55' N.,  with the following bearings :
' CD CD
Extremes from N. 69° W: to S. 46° W.; an inlet with
an ifland in its entrance, fuppofed to be Nambu,
S. 52° W., off fliore five or fix leagues.    Our fituation
' CD.
will be in the long, of 142° 50' E., by Captain King's
chart of this coaft, which, is nearly the mean of the
watches. Our dfrftance from the land prevented any
further remarks ; but we perceived by the obfervation,,
and the alteration of ,our fituation,. that a current fet
us ftrongly to the South..
We employed ourfelves in fitting up the riggih*
and repairing our other defects occafioned by tlie late
hurricane. The extremes at 6 h.. bore from N 40° W.
to S. 40° W., five or fix leagues off fhore.. We frequently tried for foundings with 120 fathoms of line,
during the nighty without ever reaching.the bottom.
The
8th*. ■
ti 86
BOOK
I.
1796.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
The extremes at noon bore from N. 42° W. to S. 16*
W.; the entrance to Port Nambu S. 35° W., three or
SepVember. four leagues.' Inftead of being to the N. N. W. thirty
miles, as we expected by our account, we found our-
felves more to the S. W. than we were yefterday ; the
current fetting along the fliore in that direction.
CD CD
$th.
At 4 h. the wind veering to the S. E. we made fail
to the northward. Port Nambu ftill preferved the
fame bearing, about feven or eight miles diftant. It
appeared extenfive and capacious ; but the gloominefs
of the weather prevented our feeing any thing dif-
tinctly. The barometer alfo falling, made us appre-
henfive of bad weather. At 6§ the extremes of Japan
bore N. 50° W., fix or eight leagues. The wind fud-
denly fluffed, and foon increafed to a frefh gale, with
cool -weather. At 17h. 30m., we could juft difcern the
land of Japan bearing S. 30° W., ten or twelve
leagues.
The fituation of Cape Nambu, by Captain King's
chart, is 39° 47' N. lat., and 142° 30' E. long., from
Whence I take a, new departure. The watch, N° 1,
makes it 58' more to the Weft. The current fet us to
the S. W. about 15 miles.
At TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN;
87
At 15 h. we faw land bearing North -r and at day-    C H AP.
iv.
light it bore from  N. 5   W.  to N. 40° W.,. about   -——'
five leagues.    The North point was low ;  but to the   September
Southward,  it was of confiderable  elevation.     The      I0
fhores were bold and rocky.    The land at noon bore
from N. 12° W. to N. 40° W, about fix leagues.    The
current fet us to the S-. W. by the land, from which we
gradually increafed our diftance.    In the afternoon
we had tried and found the current run to the South,
at the rate of 3 miles per hour.    The whole day we
tried for foundings, with 100 fathoms offline,
In the evening a light air from the weftward carried us towards the land; at midnight it veered to
N. N. E.; and at day-light we were near the S..E.
point of the land. At20h. the extremes bore from
N. 23° E. to N. 43° W.; a rocky point N. 30° E.,
two or three miles; and we had 22 fathoms, fmall
ftones and fand. After paffing this point we fleered
N. 50° W., which was nearly the direction of this fide
of the land- The point was low and flat, and feveral
rocks above water projected from it to feaward ; two
of them referable afles ears-:: they bear N. 15° E. and
S. 15° W., from the N. E..fide of the land.. Within
them, to the North, the coaft forms a fmall bay.
Erom the point the low land continues two or three
leagues
:ith.
r*ci
IS %&
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    leagues  to a fandy beach,  when the  country rifes
gradually/from the fliore to a great height, in various
I *70O*
September,  ridges, clothed with wood, prefenting a pleating pro-
fpect.    Several houfes were fcattered along the fliore,
tand boats upon the beach.    We alfo remarked feveral
people fifhing.    At noon the Point bore S. 73° E.,
about three leagues : water at 30 fathoms.
12th. In the afternoon we were vifited by three fifhing
boats. The people in them were of a light copper
colour, with dark hair, very thick and cut fhort behind. All of them had long beards, and expreflive
good-natured countenances. They were of a middling
ftature, and clothed in gowns woven from the barks of
trees, and edged at the cuffs and collars with blue
linen. A piece of cloth was tied round their waifts,
iimilar to the Maros at Owyhee. They wore filver earrings ; and each of them had a knife in a fheath hanging from their middles. They did not come on board
the fhip till they had previomfly faluted us in a folemn
refpectful manner, agreeable to the Oriental courtefy
of falams. We prefented them with beads and trinkets, with which they feemed much pleafed ; but we
could not underftand each other. I fhould imagine,
from their behaviour, that they had never feen a fliip
before, as they feemed alarmed, and fat down clofe
to TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
to the gangway, where they entered without uttering a   chap
word.    We enquired of them, ifsthe ifland was called
Matfinai, wlhich tbey>«iMver&lJy pointed to be to the September,
Weft; and, as we could gather from their pronunciation, called their own laa$ Infu *.    Having remained
with
-■rKQiriSi^i the famous land of Jefo, only known to Europeans before
tlfis and La Peroufe's voyage, by the journals of the Caftricom and
Brefkes. The following extract is quoted from Rheinhold Fofter's voyages to the North. J* In 1642, &e Dutch Eaft Company gave orders for
two fhips to be fent from India to the North, in order to explore the route •
from Japan northward, and even to go as far as to North America, and
to feek for the paiTage there. In confequence of thefe orders, the two
IMps fet fail together from the harbour of the ifland of Ternate : their
names were the Caftricom, commanded by Captain Martin Herizoom
Van Vriez, and the Brejkes, under the command of Captain Hendrick
Corn^Kus Shaep. On the 14th of May, the'two {hips were feparated by
a -florin, at the diftance of 56 leagues from Jeddo, the capital of Japan }
and both faw the land of Jefo. The Brefkesfailed through the ftraits of
Sangaar, in 41 ° 50' N. lat., and in long. 1640 18' Eaft of TenerifFe, 1. e.
148° o' .Eaft of Greeiiwich. They faw land again in 430 4' latitude. In
440 4' lat. fobie boats tame off from fhore to the fhip. In lat. 430 45'
theyicte&ried land again, as alfo in the lat. of 44012', and long. 167° 21 'E.
In,450 12' N. and 1600 36' E.,the land appeared ata diftance like a great
number of iflands; but on coming nearer, it appeared one continued tract
of country. In lat. 46° 15' and 1720 io*' E., as alfo in long. 1720 53' E.,
they had fighfc of fome high mountains : they alfo faw ftill more land in
lat. 470 8' N. and 173.° 53' E. *We fee from, this relation, as well as
from"that of the Caftr'ebm, that the land of Jefo contains in fact a quan-
N tity A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
with us an hour they took their leave, faluting us in the
fame ceremonious way as before, till they were at fome
diftance. Their boats, like canoes, were hollowed out
of a tree, with upper ftreaks fewed on round them, in-
creating their width aloft, and fpreading fore and aft,
being
tity of iflands, at prefent known to the Ruffians under the name of the
Kuriles. The Dutch imagined they had difcerned in Jefo a large ex-
tenfive country ; and in the lateft accounts we have from the Ruffians,
this defcription is likewife given of the land of Matzmai, in which the
Dutch mention there is a place named Acquis, which the Ruffians call
Atkis.
" The ftrait between Matzmai and Japan is about 60 verfts, or 34 geographical miles broad, and has a very ftrong current, as have almoft all
the ftraits between the Kurile iflands.
" This country feems to. have got the name of Jefo or Yefo, from the
hairinefs of its inhabitants. Efo in Dutch has the fame fignification
as Efau."
On this extract the following obfervations may be made:
It does not feem to be the fact that the Brefkes ever paffed the Straits of
Sangaar, as fhe was eaft away on the north part of Japan attempting it.
Jefo or Infu, inftead of being parcelled out into fmall iflands, is one
connected land, divided from Japan by the Straits of Sangaar, and from
the ifland Sagaleen to the North by the ftraits of La Peroufe.
The Kuriles, inftead of being comprehended under Jefo, are diftindt
iflands, extending from the N.E. part of Jefo to Kamfhatfcha.
In Les Decouvertes faites par les Ruffes by Muller, torn, i, page 362,
is the journal of the Brefkes, publifhed by Witzer. A ftriking fimilarity
may be obferved in the defcription it gives of Jefo, and in that of the
prefent publication : it fays— •     P Le TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
91
being of the fame fhape both ends.    They were pulled    chap.
1796.
in the fame manner the paflage boats at Plymouth
are, one perfon making ufe of a pair of fkullers.   They  September.
did not make ufe of their oars together,  but firft with-
one hand, then with the other: this mode prevented
their
8 Le vaiffeau le BreJkes avoit ete envoye l'an 1645 avec la Caftricom
a la decouverte de la Tartaric Pres de la cote orientale du Japon'
lis furent fepares par la tempete, et le Brefkes decouvrit de fon cote auffi
la terre de Jefo. Ce fut a'uonois de Juin qu'il fit voile par le detroit qui
fenare la terre de Jefo du Jaoon a 410 50' de latitude & a 164° 48' long.
La pointe qu'on decouvrit la premiere fe faifoit remarquer par 8 au 1 o
rochers femblables a. des voiles, et dela s'etendoit nne chaine d'ecueils
jufqu'a. mille en mer. On vit la. des petits batimens. Les rameurs avoient
une rame a chaque main qu'ils tiroient tour a tour. lis alloient extreme^
ment vite. Ce peuple paroiffoit avoir d'intelligence. Leurs harbes etoient
longues, noires, & fortjsg. - lis avoient le teint brun & la tete rase, ii la re-
ferve d'une toufe de cheveux de deux doigts de large qui reftoit fur le
devant de la tete. On remarque qu'ils joignoient les mains par deffus la
tete en figne de reconnoiffance. lis etoient vetus de peaux d'ours, et
armes d'arcs et des fleches. De la le vaiffeau angla affez avanf a. l'Eft. Les
matelots prirent beaucoup des cabeliaux. A la hauteur de 430 4' ils
virent terre. A 440 4' ils furent abordes par des barques: ceux qui les
montoient etoient d'une bonne taille, robuftes, et montroient de l'intelli-
gence. Les femmes qui les accompagnoient avoient le teint brun, les levres
et les mains peintes en bleu, les cheveux coupes tout a l'entour de la tete,
a trois doigts etwiron au deffous de l'oreille. On les auroit pris pour les
jeunes hommes. L'eau de vie etoit fort de leur gout a tous. Quelques-
uns portoient auffi des habits a la Japonnoife.   D'autres avoient des croix
n 2 fur
(•ci 92
BOOK
I.
1796.
September.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
their going in a ftrait line, yet they went very faft.
During the night we plied to the weftward. The
S. E. Point at noon bore N. 65° E., and the other ex-.
treme N. 28° W., eight or ten leagues.
13th.
ill
We flood within two miles of the fhore, and tacked
in 42 fathoms; the extremes bearing N. 6l° W. to
S. 62° E. Two large boats were riding at anchor;
they had each one maft, rigged a gjidftiip's, on which
they made ufe of a fquare fail of cloth or canvafs :
they were fimilar to a fmall Chinefe junk in fhape,
fur le dos. Outre Tare et la fleche ils avoient encore des fabres faits
comme ceux du Japon, dont la poignee etoit incruftee d'or, la garde en-
touree d'un bord d'argent, et le fourreau ouvrage a ramage. Leurs bau-
driers etoient brodes en argent. Ils portoient aux oreilles des anneaux, et
des pendans de verotterie de Nurembourg. Ils avoient avec eux des peaux
de chiens de mer et de caflors, et quelques etoffes des Indes. Leur bateaux etoient des troncs d'arbres creufes, et fans aife& A 430 45' de latitude on vit encore terre, mais on n'y defcendit point. Cette eft fituee 1200
plus a 1'Eft' que la pointe orientale du Japon, qui eft a 3 8° 4'. Difference
en latitude 90 38'. Direction, Nord Eft quart d'Eft, & Sud Oueft quart
d'Oueft."
Spanberg, the Ruffian navigator, landed, he fays, in a great'ifiand from
430 to 500 latv, fpeaks-oPthe uncommon hairinefs of the natives, and of
•their wearing rings of filver^i'M-heir ears. In t$te inftructrons given to La
Peroufe, he is> defired to confute the' various aeeounts for the land of Jefo
collected by Phillip Buacfie in his Confederations geographiques et phyfi^
ques.    Pa'ge- 75.
but TO THE NORTH PACIFY OCEAN. 93
bufrwe were not near enough to obferve them par- chap.
tictrtarly.    At - dmy-lignt we faw more land, bearing j—-—\
from N. 15° W. to N. 50°'W.; and a very confpicuous September.
headvland bore S. 70° W., apparently unconnected
w^th e^ch other.    We had no fo'uiftfKhgs with all our
line.
At I paft 6 we tacked in 42 fathoms, within four 14th.
or* five miles of the land, which bore from N. 22° W.
to N. 70° E., and from N. 35° W. to N. 75° W.;' the
latod to the North apparently joined by the lownefs of
the fliores. Duling the night We kept plying under
eafy fail, having foundings from 4cFto 56 fathoms.
At d ay-light'fthe land of'Tnfu bore from N. 7° W^ to
S. 78° E., and the \veftern fliore N. 22o W. to N. 87° .
W., Bluff Point S. 38a W. : we were nearly in''the
centre of the bay, the fliores'being difcant five leagues
each Way. rifom the rigging we could jinx difcern
the lowTand forrning the head of the bay to the North.
We fleered to the Weft; and at noon a point of land
made like an ifland S. 80° W., Bluff Point S. 18° W.,
feven or eight leagues. Extreme of Infu Eaft, and a
volcanic motihtain S. 63°''W.
At 6 P. *M. we weathered the land] fet atArifoon S. 8°      15th.
W.; arid at 9 P.M. wefwere" welftfji' with the volcano.
1 In 94
HfcK^B
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK In the moving we found ourfelves in a fpacious bay,
*—-^—~> the volcanic mountain bearing S. 10° E., and the ap-
September. parent ifle N. 64° E. five leagues; the extreme towards the Bluff Point S. 48° E. A great .quantity of
fmoke iffued from the north fide of the mountain,
from which we were diftant three or four miles. To
the weftward were feveral houfes fcattered along
fhore ; and before noon feveral of the inhabitants
paid us a vifit. They were the fame kind of men we
had before feen, befides fome who refembled the
Chinefe, excepting in their hair, which was long on
the /ides, and tied up behind, much greafed with oil,
while the crown and forehead were fhaved. They had
all a pipe and tobacco box, and feemed much pleafed
with the internal part of the fhip; but a breeze fpring-
ing up they foon left us, and we flood over to the
north fide of the bay, with a gentle wind from the
fea. At noon the apparent ifland bore N. 87° E.;
and the extremes towards the Bluff Point S. 50° E.,
diftant from the volcanic mountain about four leagues.
Our watches this day differed fo confiderably, that we
could place no dependence upon them. Having run
N. E. 14 miles, we were abreaft of a village : a junk
was at anchor off it, in the entrance of a fmall opening. A reef of rocks extended to the N. W.: we
tacked in 10 fathoms to avoid them; and fending a
boat TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
CHAP.
IV.
boat ahead, bore up to the weftward for a bay that
promifed good anchorage.    At 4 h. we came to in
7 fathoms water, muddy bottom, about | of a mile  September.
from the fhore,  and oppofite  an  extenfive village.
The outer part of the reef bore South, and the volcano
5° to the Weft of it, about 10 leagues diftant.
We had feveral vifitors from the village, and foon
after a Japanefe, who immediately fent away our Infu
friends. We attempted to converfe with our new
acquaintance, but to no purpofe : before dark he
left us. II l{i
III Jul    ■ 1
K
96
1796.
September
j 6th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
CHAP. V.
Remarks on the Country and Inhabitants round Volcano Bay.—
Courtefy of the Japanefe.'—Defcription of the Harbour of En~
dermo.—Obfervations on the Natives—their Drefs—Ornaments—
Habitations—Food—Boats—Articles of Commerce—Agriculture.—
Remarks an the Soil—%tti£S—(Plants—Birds—Fifh—Quadrupeds.
'—Aftronort\i^.Obfervations.—Rapge along the Coaft of Infu.—
Spanberg's I/land.
A.T funrife the boats were fent in iearch of water,
which was found oppofite our fituation ; and the Japanefe who attended, fignified it was very good.
Several Of the natives accompanied us ; but the
jealoufy of this man would not let them approach
within a certain diftance. They fpread mats ^>n the
beach, while we were filling water; and entered into
converfation with us, fmoking fmall pipes of tobacco
at the fame time. Their inquiries feemed to allude to
our departure, and to fhew their anxiety for our
going away. On our proceeding towards the village
they flrongly objected; and to avoid any difference,
we gave up the point.
We
\i Tl
A  TO THE NORTH PACIHC OCEAN.
97
We rowed along the beach to the weftward about    CHAP.
. . v.
tWQ miles;   the   country   gradually  rofe  in   Hoping    f——-
hills, covered with verdure and inteHfperfed with September;
wood. We came to a fine ftream of water-near fome
houfes; on our landing, the natives with great humility brought us mats to fit upon, and fortunately
there was no Jarianefe prefent to interrupt their
civility. This part of the coaft being more convenient for Ifakihenin water and wood, I determined to
CD i
move the fhfep towards it; and after obfervifig the
fun's meridional altitude, we returned on board.
During ray abfence feveral Japanefe had arrived at
the village with horfes carrying merchandize; in the
O */ CD *
afternoon they came on board, \flith fome degree of
ceremony, to pay us a vifit. They were clothed
in dark-cOl*ftfted cottons, with filk^Mhes round their
waifts; and each of them wore two fabres richly
ornamented with gold and filver, whofe fcabbaras^
t£^re highly japanned : their fandals were of ftraW
an*! wood matted. They alfo carried their pipe's*
and fans with them. They were very particular in
enquiring what nation we belonged to, and what our
ii*teri$©fis wejte in coming among them ; ahd as mey
leeliied to comp^eftend our am%ers they imme-
di&Wjtenoted tlfemy JrmWri^like the Chinefe, Irfffian
iftte-fbttthat pG3?j$ofe.    After fmoa&mg out theifpipes,
o and m
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book and taking fome refrefliment they returned on fliore.
In the. evening a junk anchored near us: flie was
laden with fea-
the fame night.
September,  laden with  fea-weed  (fucus faccharinus), and failed
15th. This morning we hauled the feine with indifferent
fuccefs, and were alfo employed in wooding and
watering., I vifited the opening we haid perceived
coming in, which proved to be a fmall harbour
having within it 3 fathoms, and the entrance to it
CD <
was between fome rocks above water. It is a very
convenient port for fmall veffels, and furrounded with
houfes; one of a larger kind was inhabited by fome
Japanefe, with a garden producing French beans and
turnip raddifhes.. On our return we landed at the
large village, and met our Japanefe acquaintance,
who appeared very uneafy in feeing us fo near
their habitations, and flrongly prefle.d us to return
to the fhip: we however walked to the watering
place, where we embarked to their great fatisfac-
tion.
jgth. In the morning  we  moored, the fhip nearer the
watering place, and for the firft time faw fome
women. They were fifhing with the men and aflifting
them in rowing.   Their hair was cut very fhort,. clofe
round  J*aQ&$6.
a>w
*JJ/ )      J? 1    /   ^
lfea<*sc.33t Strand..
Fubti/hed Jfayj"fj6o4 by Cadett, JbMat-iej- Strand. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
99
round their heads; their lips were punctured with a    CHAP.
blue   colour,   and  their   clothing   feemed   in   every    ■—~*~~—•'
H    li
refpect fimilar to the men's. September.
Through the whole day we were employed in wooding      l9th°
and watering.
In the morning we proceeded to examine the north-
weft fide of the bay. After rowing three utiles we
came to a fmall village fituated at the mouth of
a rivulet; this for fome diftance we traced along the
beach. It appeared to flow from the North, and we
imagined its fource to be at a considerable diftance,
from the depth of the water and the rapidity of the
ftream. The country through which it meandered
prefented a \ery beautiful autumnal profpect; the hills
were clothed with verdure, which was varied with
clumps of trees difpofed in the manner of an Englifh
park, and appearing as if arranged by the hand of
art. The inhabitants of this fmall village received
us with great civility, but in no part did we fee any
cultivation.
We returned on board in the afternoon again ft a
ftrong wind from the S. E. quarter; occafioning
a large fwell, and increafing in the night.
20th.
o
©
0 2 rWO
I796.
September
21ft.
2 2d.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
The fame wind and weather continued, and the
furf on the beach was fo high we could not get off
either wood or water. : -. ■
The furf on the beach remained fo high, that
our parties could not land till Saturday; when the
winds both from fea and land became moderate, and
enabled us to complete our taking in wood an*!; water.
The natives conflantly attended our people on fhore,
bartering grapes for buttons; and fometimes we
were able to perfuade the fifhermen as they paffed
by the fliip, to fell us fome fifh ; but this we could but
feldom obtain.
25th- The mafter was fent to examine the fliore between
the fliip and the apparent ifland. In the morning we
were vifited by a new party of Japanefe, fuperi,©?
to the others in drefs, and equally fo in behavioupj
We derived not only pleafurc, but information alfo,
from their fociety. They fliewed us a chart of Ike
world, which appeared to have been conftrucled in
Iluflia;   and   having  a   book  with   them   in   which
CD
were  drawn   the   arms  of different   countries,   they
m   immediately   pointed   out   thofe   of Great   Britain,
to which country they fuppofed us to belong,    They
had alfo a Ruffian alphabet, and. by what I could
underftand, TO THE NOB(1?H PACIFIC OCEAN.
101
Itimerflarid,   one   o^ them  had  been  at Peterfburg,    chap.
v.
We had on board a feaman of that country, who con-    &&&—-
vcrfed with them in his native language.    They per-   September.
mitted me to 'copy a la^ge chart of the iflands to "f^-.;
the North of Japan, and promifed me to bring one of
their 0Tvn doing the next day.    After mutual civilities
they went on fhore.     The   mailer  returned in the
evening, having found a very good harbour in the N. E.
corner of the bay, formed by the apparent ifland, which
he difcovered to be a peninfula.
Pine weather enabled us to get every thing from
the fhore, and we prepared for going to fea. Our
Japanefe friends joined our party at dinner, and
prefented me with a chart of theft* own doing; in
return I gave them Captain Cook's general
chart of the world, which gratified them extremely.
Thev were curious in making remarks on whatever
J CD
they faw; and what they could not comprehend,they
immediately reprefcnted in India ink dra\#ifrg8. They
feemed higlfly pleafed to hear that we intended to depart fhortly. p*
The aftronomer on this day completed his obfervations   for   the   regulation   of   the   time-pieces,
and
26th.
27th 102
BOOK
I.
1796.
September.
-28 th.
39th.
and
fea.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
in   every   refpect   the    fliip    was    ready    for
At day-light we got under way, and with the fea-
wind plied to the fouth-eaftward. Latitude at noon
was 42° 18' 20" N.; the extreme, forming the. fouth
entrance of the harbour, bore N. 89° E. four leagues ;
and the fouthern volcano S. 2° W.; northern volcano
N. 50° E. Before dark we came to anchor in 11
fathoms, muddjr bottom, about two miles off the entrance of the harbour. The fea being open from
S. 22° E. to S. 27° E.; the fouthern volcano S. 25* W.;
a fmall ifland on with a village S. 37° E.; the head of
the harbour E. S. E., one mile off the north fliore.
Throughout the night it blew ftrong from the S. E.
quarter.
I examined the harbour: it affords good fhelter
from all winds, bringing the bluff on the extreme part
of the ifthmus (which forms the ftarboard point coming in) to bear N. W. In this fituation we found
four or five fathoms; and the larboard entry point on
the north fhore was on with the bluff. In running
for the harbour, the ifland muft be kept open with the
ftarboard entry .point till within I a mile of a fmall
1 iflet
s. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
103
iflet (which is only fo at half tide), and then you muft    CHAP.
fleer in to the S. W. where your water will be fhoaled,;  ;—ti—'
and any birth taken }rou may prefer.    Tlie foundings  September.
gradually decreafe from 10 to 2 fathoms,; foft bottom.
A' few houfes are fcattered on the  fouth fide of the
harbour ; and towards the head the fhores are low and
flat, fo much, fo as to prevent boats landing within one
hundred yards.    In all other parts wood and  water
are procured ^ith the utmoft convenience.
This morning Hans Oldfon, feaman, died. He was
a Dane^by birth ; and his death unhappily occafioned
by a tree falling upon him. After lingering in torments for fome days, a mortification took place; and.
we had the misfortune of lofing a very willing and
well-behaved man. He was buried in the fmalLifland,
to which, in confequence of the event,, I gave his
name. t-M
30th.
The harbour is called Endermo by the natives.
It is fituated on the N. E. corner of the bay, formed.
by the apparent ifland which is an extenfive peninfula
of a circular figure.
latitude of the entrance,       420 19' 29" N.
Longitude, -       -        1410   7' 36" E.
High A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
High water, full and change of the moon, 5 h. 30'
apparent time ; rife and fall 6 feet.
The entrance into this extenfive bay is formed by
the land, "making the harbour, which the natives call
Enderfno, and the fouth point of entrance, which they
named Efarmi. They bear from each other N. 17°
W. and S. 17° E. eleven leagues. There are no lefs
than three volcanoes in the bay, which induced me
to call it by that name. There are 50 fathoms
of water in the centre, and the foundings gradually
decreafe on the approach to eifcfeer fliore : b$£'-'$£&?
fketch to which I refer will beft explain, though it
has no pretenfions to any great accuracy.
During our flay, at the period of the equinoxes, we
experienced generally very fine weather, with gentle
land and fea winds from the N. W. and S. E., and no
fwell to prevent a fhip riding in fafety even in the
bay ; and the harbour of Endermo is perfectly Ihel-
tereiofefrom all bad weather. *;^
I have feen few lands that bear a finer afpect thari<
the northern fide of Volcano  bay.    It prefents  an
agreeable diverfity of rifing grounds, and a moft pleaf-
ing TO THE. NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
105
fog^vaiaety of deciduous trees fhedding at this time    chap.
■   °.   „ 5 v.
their fummer foliage. '—/—-*
1796.
September.
The natives feemed to anfwer to the defcription
given by Spanbe'rg, the Ruffian navigator, who vifited
an ifland in 43° 50' N. The men in general were of a
fliort flature, their legs inclining to bend outwards,
and their arms rather fliort in proportion to their
bodies. Their beards were thick and large, covering
the greateft part of the face, and inclining to curl.
The hair of the head was very bufliy, wjbich they cut
fliort before on the forehead, and below the ears :,
behind it was cut ftrait. Their bodies were almoft
univerfally covered with long black hair;  and even
•/ CD t *
in fome young children we obferved the fame appearance. The women have their hair cut fliort
round their heads, but much longer than the men:
the back of their hands and forehead were tatooed, as
well as round the mouth. They ha^j firings of giafs
Iggads round their necks, and other ornyapients. The
dref&fOf th$ men confifls of a loofe^gown, made of the
inner bark of the lime tree ; it reaches down to their
knees, and is fattened round the middle by a belt, in
.which they carry a tobacco-box, pipe, and knife.
Some of them had filver rings in th#ir ears, with beads
p hanging ■ BOOK
I.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Their drefs is only worn in cold
hanging from them
weather, which they flip off and on as may be moft
September, convenient: in the hot feafon they only wear a piece
of linen round their "Waifts. The female drefs differs
little from that of the men, except that thenr/gowns
reach to the middle of their legs : fome of them were
formed of feal or deer fkins, adorned with pieces of
blue cloth. The features of the women were pleafing,
though much disfigured by the mode of cutting their
hair. Their behaviour was modeft, referved, and becoming their fex." The children went entirely naked.
The men faluted us in the moft humble manner, fitting down crofs-legged, ftroaking their beards after
ftretching forth their hands, and bowing nearly to
the ground.
Their houfes were built of wood, and the walls
formed of reeds, as well as the thatch. In the centre
was the fire-place, and fmall openings at each end of
the roof to carry off the fmoke. Over the fire-place
copper fauce-pans for cooking were fufpended, and- a
flight fcaffolding for drying fifh and grain. A platform was raifed above the ground, covered with fkins
and mats, on which they flept. Their dwellings were
generally of an oblong form.
Their TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
107
Their food confifts chiefly of dried fifh, boiled with    CHAP.
v.
fea-weed, and mixed with a little oil made from the    !—-"-—'
liver of the fun-fifli.    They alfo feed upon feveral kinds   September*
of fruits and vegetables, fuch as grapes, winter berries,
the fruit of the bramble, and others, with millet feed,
&c.     At the villages   they  kept   young bears  and
eagles in cages, probably for food, as we could not
prevail upon them to part with any.    Indeed their
poverty feemed to allow little in the way of barter;
for even fifh we could feldom procure, though it was
their  conftant   employment  to   catch  them.     Wild
grapes were plentiful, and a fpecies of garlic or chives.
Their  boats  were  built   chiefly   of fir,  with  upper
ftreaks, increafing their width aloft, and continuing
fore and aft,  making them fliarp at each end.    They
were fewed together with" twitted  willows,   and the
feams filled up with mofs.    In pulling they made ufe
of fkullers ; but inftead of pulling them together, they
moved one  after  the other,   which prevented  them
from going in a ftrait line.    Their nets were made of
the twitted bark of the lime tree, dyed with oak bark.
Their hooks, harpoons,  Sec were procured from the
Japanefe.    The repairing of their boats feems their
chief employment, added to their collecting and drying the fea-,weed, of which a large quantity is exported
p 2 to BOOK
I.
1796.
September.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
to Japan, as a valuable article  of food,    Birch bark
is alfo an article of commerce.
The women are employed in weaving cloth for
garments, and other neceflsary domeflic work. The
finoking tobacco is a favourite amufement with both
fexes.
Thefe people of Infu were tributary, and in great
fubjection to the Japanefe, who prevented them as
much as they could from having any intercourfe with
us; for whenever they appeared, the Japanefe duove
them away. They appeared a moft harmlefe inoffen-
five race of men ; and we regretted much the jealoufy
of the Japanefe, which entirely prevented us from
acquiring the information we wifhed concerning their
e&ftoms and manners. They fpeak in a flow timid
manner; and their language contains many Japanefe
words. There were fome trifling plantations of Indian
corn and millet, but few other figns of cultivation.
This we the more wondered at, as their diet feemed
very fcanty and precarious ; and the ground produced
abundance of vegetables, as we obferved in the gardens belonging to the Japanefe.
We TO THE NORTH PAOMC OCEAN.
109
jWe faw no other animals but horiesy dogs, deer, chM,
bears, foxes, and fabbilasj but from the drefs of the «-^*^—
natives, it would appear that the ifland is not deficient Septembfeft
in various kinds of peltry.
The foil is good, and the produce luxuriant. The
woods produce elm, oak, afli, maypole, birch, beach,
lime, yew, filver fir, pines, poplars, hornbeam, and
the faffafras tree, with a great variety of fhrubs.
There are few plants that grow fpontanCoufly in England which are not to be found here.
Birds were few in number, fuch as eagles, crows,
a yellow bird of the linnet kind, doves, wild geefe,
ducks, fhags, herons, fand-pipers, fea-gulls, &c. The
fifh were more numerous, fuch as whales, turtle, por-
poifes, cod, fword fifh, fun and flar fifh, and many
fpecies of cruftaceous fifh.
The aftronomer made the following obfervations on
fhore, oppofite the anchorage, for the longitude,,
&c. &c.
Mean of obferved latitudes,              - 42°33'n"N.
Longitude deduced from many obfervations, 1400 50' 32" E.
Variation on fhore by 3 compaffes,          - o° 16' 30" v7.
Ditto on board by all the compaffes         - i° 27' 20" E.
High 110
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
.BOOK High water at the full and change of the moon at
s—-v—; 4 h. 30' apparent time ; rife and fall between four and
1796.
September, five feet.    We experienced no tide at anchor.
Oftober
1 ft.
Frefh breezes and fqually weather. In the afternoon, the wind being fteady and blowing ftrong, we
got under way, carrying two. reefs in the topfails, and
made fail for Point Efarme. At 5 h. 7' the fouth
point of Endomo harbour bore Eaft three miles, and
at 6 h. 30' it bore N. N. W., the volcano S. 78° W.
It was now dark, which prevented any remarks towards Point Efarme : we therefore, at 8 h., altered
our courfe, fleering for Infu, purpofing to explore it
to the northward. At 18 h. we faw the land bearing
from N. to N. 75° E. fix or feven leagues.
©
Strong breezes and cloudy weather. At 2 h. 30/
Ave rounded the rocks off the point, and fhaped our
courfe in the direction of the fliore, at two or three
miles diftant. At 6 h. the S. E. point of Infu bore
S. 25° W. five or fix leagues ; and the extreme to the
North, N. 25° E. to 30° E.; and we had 20 fathoms.
The night was moderate, and we kept plying under
eafy fail, having regular foundings from 20 to 46
fathoms. We were much in the fame fituation at
day-jjght: to the South, the land was high and rocky;
and TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
in
and to the north-weft, it became low and cliffy.    At   chap.
v.
a confiderable diftance over the low land, we faw very    v—~.—'
-i    r\
mountainous   land   entirely covered  with fnow.     In    oaober.
general, the coaft was very indifferently wooded.
Extremes from S. 37° W. to N. 30° E., three leagues
off fhore.
The breeze came in from the fea, and we fleered
along the fhore, which continued low and level. To
the N. W. appeared the entrance of a river, or a deep
bay, clofed by low land; but I rather think the former. At funfet we had very little wind, and the extremes bore from N. 62° E. to S. 36° W.; an opening,
N. 30° E. ; and we were off fhore three or four
leagues.
At 7 h. we were taken aback with the wind from
the land.
At day-light the extremes bore from N. 40° JE. to
N. 62° W. feven or eight leagues.
3*-
At noon   the  extremes   N. 70° E. to S. 76° W.
ftarboard point of an opening in the land N. 21° W.
off fhore four or five leagues ; Peaked Hill N. 9° W.
At ■11%
BOOK
I.
1796.
October
4th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
on
At 2 P. M. the opening bore off us N. N. W
with the peaked hill; it appeared to be clofed by low
land. From it the coaft tended to the eaftward, very
flat and fteep clayifli cliffs. At 7 h. we were abreaft
of an opening promifing good fhelter: an ifland lay
in the centre, with an hummock on its eaft extreme.
A fmaller ifle was to the Weft of it, on which the fea
broke. At funfet the north extreme bore N. 50° E.;
ifland, N. 35° E.; and the fouth extreme, N. 80° W.
At 8 h. we hauled our wind for the night, and in the
morning fleered N. E. At day-light the ifland bore
N. 84° W., five leagues ; and the extreme, N. 30° E.
Some low flat iflands appeared between us and the
fhore ; but we could not pofitively afcertain them, for
the hazy weather over the land. The coaft prefented
a bare profpect, with a, few fcattered trees, Sec of
very little elevation.
At noon the extremes bore from N. 40° E. to S. 74°
W., three leagues off fhore.    Light breezes and fair
weather.
o
5th. We fleered in the direction of the land, about two
leagues diftaxit. At funfet we had paffed two iflands
near the main, bearing from W. to N. 41° W.; and
the extremes from N. 55° E. to S. 64<> W., fif&#r"$«x
2 miles.
UM^-l ■■!— -1*1-. i.p TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
113
mibes. At 7 b. we hauled off under eafy fail, having
25 fathoms fandy bottom. At 18 h. the extremes
made like iflands, bearittg from N. 11° E. to N. 34°
W. By 20 h. we were well up with them. To the
Weft, we faw the continuation of the flat land Which
we fuppofed the main. The iflands prefented a barren
flifface, with rocks above and under water, projecting
from their extremes to a confiderable diftance, covered with oceanic birds. We alfo faw a good many
whifles.
chap.
V.
1796.
Oftober.
At 21 h. we faw high land to the north-eaftward; and
ajt noon we were nearly abreaft of fome rocks detached
from the flat land, but feemingly connected by a reef:
they bore North to N. 34° W. three or four miles, and
we had 45 fathoms. To the North we faw high land ;
and an ifland bore from N. 15° E. to N. 40° E.
At 3 h. we were abreaft of the extreme fet, N. 15*
E. as an ifland; and we loft the continuation of coaft,
which tended to the N. W. At 5 h. the wind fliifted
to the N. E. quarter, with gloomy weather. The
ifland, at 6 h., bore from N. 25° E. to N. 60° W. four
or five miles;   and the rocHs fet at noon S, 70" W.
We flood to the S. E. dujjihg the night.
Q
Thick
6th.
3* J 114
BOOK
I.
1796.
October.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Thick foggy weather prevented our feeing the
ifland diftinctly till near noon. At noon it bore from
N. 12° W. to N. 42° E. four or five miles, and the rocks
from S. 67° W. to S. 80° W.; by which it appears we
had been fet to the W. S. W.
We fleered to pafs to the weftward of the iflands,
which afforded rather a barren profpect of a moderate
elevation. They were very rocky towards the fea;
but in the hollow ridges formed by the hills we faw
fome trees; and as we pafled the fouth point we perceived a fmall village. At funfet the ifland bore S.
5° E. to N. 74° E. four or five miles ; and we had 37
fathoms, fine fandy bottom. JI|P
After midnight we preferved our fituation, making
fhort boards till daylight, when the ifland bore from
S. 22° E. to S. 42° W. five or fix miles. In the morning we had the wind from the S. WL, and we plied to
windward. We faw land to the N. N. E. and N. W.,
but indiftinctly.
At 20 h. we pafled the north fide of the iflands ; and
before noon we fent a boat on fhore.    On their return, they  reported they had  feen fprings of good
&iii 8 water, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
115
water, and the land covered with coarfe grafs ;  the chap.
foil a rich mould, compofed of decayed vegetables, s—-—'
They found abundance of crow-berries and billberries, October,
with a fpecies of cranberry, and great quantities of
the fabina.    At noon the N. W. point bore N. 80° W.
three or four miles ; and the other extreme S. 23° W.
The crew of the boat found a fpecies of juniper,
fome yew trees, and the filvef pine. The fhores
abounded with wild fowl; and they faw many paths,
as they fuppofed; of animals.
This is moft probably the fame ifland vifited by
Spanberg: vide Cook's 3d voyage, Vol. IIJL p. 388;
fee alfo Muller, Voyages et Decouvertes, &c p. 210,
and feq. After noon we fleered N. N. E. for the
land, bearing in that direction. At funfet it bore
N. 10° E., and a remarkable peaked mountain covered
with fhow N. 65° W. Spanberg's Ifland from S. 30s
W. to S. 50° W. about five leagues. At daylight
we were nearly in the fame fituation, and we fleered
N. N. W. for a paflage which appeared to divide
the peaked hill land from the other to the N. E.
We tried for foundihgs in the paflage unfuccefsfully,
and pafled through feveral ftrong riplings. At 21 h.
the peak bore Weft.-   At noon we were well clear
q 2 of
8th. 1796.
October.
1
116 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY^
of the ftraits, which are four or five leagues wide ; atM
we brought to the wind, having 45 fathoms, to obferve
the latitude, having the following bearings : Spanberg's
Ifland S. 17° E. 41 miles; a rocky point which forms
the weft entrance of the paflage, and from which
extends a reef fome diftance S. 20° W. 5 or 6 miles.
Peaked hill S. 52° W., and the extreme of the fame
land S. 82° W. The high land making like an ifland
9th.       from N. 48° E. to 6l°E.
Conceiving the peaked.hill land to be the N. E. part
of Infu, as it plainly took, a direction to the weftward,
^id the wind being fixed at S. W., we embraced the
opportunity of proceeding to the N. E. in the further
exploring of the iflands. In the bearing of the
peaked hill the coaft formed a bay, with a fine fandy
beach ; and the mountain, which in this point of view
formed a faddle hill, prefented a very magnificent
appearance from its great height, and extenfive
bafe.
Our courfe lay in the direction of the ifland which
was broken and elevated, and at 4 h. we were abreaft
of a hill which rofe from the fea fliore, with a fleep
afcent to a confiderable elevation of a conical fhape,
and evidently volcanic : we pafled wfthin two miles of
it, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
117
it, and plainly perceived it covered with ftones and    chap.
cinders down to its bafe, as if an eruption had lately    —-—j
happened.     Round  the  crater it  prefented  ragged    October,
and misfliapen points; and  fome fmall flirubs were
growing on the  S. W.   fide  very   low   down.     This
abrupt hill was connected with the ifland by a low
ifthmus, which receded from it on each fide, fo as to
form circular  ba\/s;   and   the   land   continued  low
to   fome   diftance.     At   funfet   the  extremes   bore
from N. 55° E. to the volcano S. 24° W. two leagues.
•Throughout the night we had very fqually weather;
and at 16 h. we flood in for the ifland, which at
daylight we faw to thfe E. N. E., very indiftinctly
from the obfcurity of the weather, which was fqually
and rainy, preventing any meridional obfervation.
At noon the extremes were from S. 5° E. to N. 8° E.
three or four leagues.
It threatened to blow hard ; at 4 h. it increafed to a
ftrong gale with conftatf^Tain : the ifland then bore of
us S. E. two or three leagues the N. extreme, and Ave
had 95 fathoms water when we furled the topfails.
At midnight it was more moderate, and at daylight we
made fail. In the morning the wind fhifted to the
N. W., and we faw the land bearing from us S. 6l° E.
to
10th.
Ir/f
fi
if A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    to S. 27° E.: a low point S. 8° W., off fliore four or five
i—j&ji    leagues.    The weather foon became thick and hazy,
October,    and we loft fight of land very foon after feeing it; and
the wind increafing without any profpect of its clearing
away, we clofe-reefed the topfails, and flood  to the
N. N. E. with dark, gloomy, and uncertain weather.
Srong breezes, and very dark gloomy weather with
an increafing gale in the evening, obliged us to reduce
our fail, and ftrike the top-gallant mails.
At daylight we faw land bearing from S. 5° W. to
S. 22° E. eight or ten leagues; but the gale continuing,,
we wore fliip and flood to the N. E.    We faw this
ifland very indiftinctly from the flate of the weather.
Towards midnight the weather became more moderate, and at 11 h. we wore fliip. At daylight we faw
more land, extending from S. 80° E to a low point S.
30° E.; and at the fame time the ifland feen yefterday
bore from S. 20° W. to S. 37° W., and foon after a
third appeared; this we conjectured to be the fame
we pafled on Sunday. We flood towards them till 8
A. M. to convince ourfelves they were not connected
with each other, when we altered our courfe to N. E.
with a gentle wind, which induced us to get up the
top-gallant TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
119
top-gallant mafls and make fail. At noon we were 12
miles South of our eftimation, when the extremes of the
northernmoft ifland bore from N. 70° E. to S. three or
four leagues; it appeared very high, and broken land
in parts with projecting rocks, and in general very bare.
We alfo obferved fnow in the cavities of the hills.
CHAP.
v.
img6.
October.
The other ifland was equally high and barren : it
bore from S. 32° W. to S. 46* W. feven or eight leagues,
but was  of very little extent.    The other ifland was
not in fight.
I3*b-
The extremes preferved nearly the noon bearings
the head fwell having  impeded our progrefs.     No
foundings.
1:!1«
At daylight we faw more land to the N. E„ but a
thick fog-bank from the horizon upwards prevented
our remarking its connection with the other land, which
at noon bore from S. 20° W., to S. 40° W. fix or eio-ht
leagues ; outer land making an ifland N. 63° E. By
an indifferent obfervation we were 15 miles North
of account. Dark and very gloomy weather. No
foundings with 115 fathoms. 120
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
1796.
Oaober
14th.
b6$*AP. VI.
Pa/age to Marikan, one of the Kurile Iflands—through the Straits
of De Vries.—Company's Land.—Staten Ifland.—Unfavourable
Weather prevented our going through the Straits of Sangaar.—
Range the Eaftern Coaft of Japan.—Bay of Jeddo.—Japanefe
Boats.—Fatftfto Iflands.
At l paft 4h. a frefh wind fprung up from the S. E.
quarter, and we made fail for the eafternmoft land,
which at 5 h. bore N. 67° E.: founded frequently without reaching the bottom.   At f paft 9 h., being well up
as we imagined with the land, we tacked, and continued
plying under eafy fails.    At midnight we had heavy
ifqualls of wind ; and at 14 h. we flood to the eaftward
under clofe-reefed topfails.   At day-light we perceived
plainly the outer land to be an ifland high and round
and very fmall; it bore Eaft  from   us.    The   fame
weather ftill continued, and it was fo very hazy we
could not difcern any other land.    At 22 h. 30 m. we
had nearly loft fight of the round ifland, bearing S. 6°
W. four or five leagues.
The TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
The fame unfavourable weather, with a cold damp    chap.
VI.
air.    At noon we had no land in fight, and we tacked    (—-j—-*
I TOO
to  the S. W.    The  hazy atmofphere prevented any    oaober.
obfervation.
Frefh breezes and fqually weather, with a dark and
hazy atmofphere. At 3 h. we fetched well up with
Round Ifland, and again flood to the eaftward, under
eafy fail, expecting the weather to clear up, to admit
our making fome remarks upon the iflands we had
hitherto imperfectly feen. In the evening the wind
moderated, and we had heavy fhowers of rain.
At funrife Round Ifland bore S. by W. four or five
leagues ; and we difcovered new land to the eaftward.
We kept upon a wind to the S. E.; and at noon the
Round ifle bore S. 60° W. five or fix leagues ; another
ifland S. 24° W.; and the land difcovered in the morning bore from S. 84° E. to N. 56° E.; and we had no
foundings.
The wind not permitting our palling South of the
ifland to the N. E. of us, at 3 h. we made fail in the
direction of it. The fouthern part of it was very
high, floping gradually from its elevation, and terminating in broken ridges at the bafe.    A neck of low
r land 122
1796.
October.
17th
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    land connected this ifthmus with the other part of the
*d&.—i    ifland.    At funfet it bore from S. 36° E. to N. 50° E.;
and Round Ifland S. 63° W. The night was a fine
moon-light night, and we run along fhore till 10h., when
O O        J CD '
we plied as ufual, having no foundings with 100
fathoms. At day-light the ifland borejfrom S. 9° E.
to N. 75° E. four or five leagues ; a.hall of a circular
form, nearly in the centre of the ifland, S. 77° E. The
morning was fqually, with variable weather; and at
noon we had pafled the north extsemity of the ifland,
and hauled up for a paflage that divided it from an*
other ifland : unfortunately we had no obfervation.
A fmall opening bore S. 48° E. three miles; the ifland
(fuppofed Maruchan) from S. 25° W. to S. 59° E.;
the northern ifland N. 47° E. to N. 67° E. three or
four leagues.
At 1 h. 30^ the entrance of a fmall opening bore
S. S. W. two miles, and we had 55 fathoms. As I
conjectured this to be the harbour which is mentioned
by Captain Cook to be fituated on the N. E. fide of
$h$ iflaiid of Maruchan, and where the Ruffians are
f&id to have a fettlement, in 471° N. lat., wie hove to
and fent a boat on fliore. At funfet the entrance
bore S. 5° W. threeaniles-i and!we opened the S. W.
point of Mafuchan on with the N. W. point, making
8 them TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
123
CHAP.
VI.
i^6.
them in one bearing N. 40° E. and §. 40° W. The
N. W. point fell abruptly to the fea, with fome rocks
fcattered off &fe>j. and £he N. E. point bore S. 30° E. four aa»be*
or five miles. Thenother ifland bore from S. 36° E. to
S. 66° E. three or four leagues. The eaftern point
runs out into low land, but the vtteftern point ibrmed
a high rugged bluff head. The paflage between thefe
iflands is perfectly clear to all appearance, but tshe
abfence of the boat prevented our proving it. At
7 h. 30' we had the pleafure to fee her returning, and
we kept our wind to the N. W. The night was calm ;
and in me morning we had the wind at S. S. E., with
thick, hazy, threatening weather, wmeh induced me to
Hand to the S. W. At 21 h. 30' Marukan fouth point
bore S. 26° E.
Strong breezes, with foggy and threatening weather,
ma^e us expect another gale, in which we were not
deceived. At 3 h. 30' we faw Round Ifland, bearing
S. 10° W.; and the gale increafing, we pafled it at
5h. 30' to the eaftward, leaving another fmall ifland
to the Eaft, bearing from Round Ifland S. 45° E.,
which makes in two hummocks.
18th.
At 7 h. 30' being clear of the iflands, .we furled the
"Fdrefail, and brought to under the ftorm ftay-fails, in
a 2 a very
Hugi —I
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
a very hard gale of wind, with continued rain. At
9h. from the motion of the fliip I fell down upotfthe
quarter-deck, by which unlucky accident I had the
misfortune to fracture my right arm above the elbow:
The gale gradually, at 15 h., began to moderate; and
by the next hour it veered round to the W. N. W^
leaving a confufed fea. At .day-light we faw Round
Ifland, and we made fail to the North. At 20 h. it bolre
S. 70° E., and Hummock Ifland S. 36° E.
At noon we had light breezes and a large fwell from
the Eaft, Round Ifland bearing S. 40° W. to S. 64° W.
three or four miles.
The winter feafon being now fet in we proceeded
to the South, intending to explore the eaft fide of the
Kurile Iflands, if poflible.
The officer reported the harbour in the ifland
of Maruchan to be only calculated for fmall veffels,
having a bar in the entrance with no more than
two fathoms water; but within the bar it formed a
fpacious "bafon, with regular foundings of five and feven
fathoms.
The fettlement of the   Ruffians he   found  abandoned ; but there flail remained crofles erected in different TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
125
ferent places, and the Ruffian arms carve\l and painted,    chap.
VI.
1796.
The nafiyes were'firbilar to thofe in Volcano Bay, fotiri
fpoke apparently a different  language.     They were    October.
clothed in bear fkins, and wore b66ts of Ruffian manu-r
facture, and cotton handkerchiefs round their heads^/
Thefe people were equally gentle in their manners^
and in appearance poffeffed the fame degree of poverty in their manner of living, and the conftruction
of their habitations, as thofe we had before remarked
at Infu.
The land was covered with long grafs and mofs^
fome trees of the dwarf pine, alder, bill, and crow
berries.
There were many feals, and abundance of fea eggs.
It is to be remembered, we had traced the land of
Infu or Jeflb from Volcano Bay, to the N. E. point
of what we conceived to be one ifland, extending
from 41° 49' N. to 44° 30' N., and from 140° 30' E. to
146° 22' E., an extent of 100 leagues of its S. E. coaft;
which agrees very weUfiwithithe account of De Vries's
voyage, fuppofing he made the land in the fame fituation we did about the* S.E. point.    Captain K&ng,
in
m A VOYAG& @F DISCOVERY
book in the notes to Cook's 3d voyage, page377» remarks, that
I—r—I in this part Captain Spanberg's difcoveries place the
Odober. &and °f Matimaa, Kunafbir, and Zellany ; and that probably the miftake of De Vries in fuppofing it one land
was owing to the foggy weather. I am of a different
opinion ; for we faw no ifland of any fize till we came
to one in 43° 50' N. and 146° 50' E., and which I
fuppofe to be theikme Spanberg watered at, and is
called in Cook's voyage Nadeegsda. >
In October the 12th we were in the latitude of
46° 1' N. and 148° 45' E., which is nearly the fituation
of the ftraits of De Vries ; and we conjectured the
northern land to be what he calls the Company's land;
and the fouthern land Staten Ifland, but which is
named Nadeegsda in the above voyage and chart.
Captain King fuppoles the Company's land to be
Ooroop and Nadeegsda of the Ruffians. As we failed
round this ifland, it is moft likely to be Ooroop, in
;which if is faid there is a good harbour; and Staten
Ifland I imagine to be the Nadeegsda of theTame nation.
The violent gales we met with, after leaving Marukan,
prevented our examination of the eaft fide of thefe
iflands, jauid pafling, as I intended, through the ibaits
^which divide the:land of Infu.ftbm the coaft of Ndpon
or iEapan.    Captain King alfo imagines Staten Ifland,
feen TOYTHE NORTH PACIFC OCEAN.
127
feen by the Caftnifcom, to be the Three Sifter^s and for chap.
•                                      • VL
which reafon, as he explains in the voyage, they are w-,—~>
fo placed in the chart.     Vide Vol. III. p. 391, &c. October.
of CooHr's 3d voyage.
J      Cj
The ifland of Maruchan W., at midnight bore E. 1° l9^-
N.   Round Ifland, Weft.
At 20 h. the Round Ifland bore from S. 65° W. to
W,    Hummock Ifland S. 5° E.
At noon Hummock Point S. 14° W.; Round Ifland
from Weft to N. 80° W.; and the large ifland to the
South from S. 34§° W. to S. 41° W.
Light winds and clear weather, with the appearance      ^th.
of a ftrong foutherly current.
I.II KB
15 h.    Pafled the Hummock Ifland, which we now
plainly perceived was two iflands ;   bore S. 75-° W-
and N. 85° W. five leagues.
Centre of Marukan fouthern part N. 38° E., and
Round Ifland N. 40° W.
Sounded throughout the night  without   reaching;
the bottom;
Hummock
~------- ^——"—- A VOYAGE *©F DISCOVERY
Hummock or Saddle Ifland N. W. by W. \ roaft
18 h.: tacked.
At funfet the fouthernmoft ifland bore from S.660 W.
to N. 84° W. eight or ten leagues; Saddle or Hummock Ifland N. W. \ N.; and the fouth extreme of
Maruchan N. 27° W. : neareft land feven leagues. At
8 h. thick foggy weather.
The wind fuddenly fhifted to the weftward, and
blew ftrong, with clear weather.
CDJ
13 h.    Variable, with light airs of wind gradually
veering to the fouthward.
18 h.    Made fail.
24 h.    Erefh breezes and fine weather.
1 h.    Frefli breezes and fine weather.
4 h.    Strong breeze, and hazy, fhortened fail.
6 h.    Hauled upon a wind under eafy fail.
9 h. Dark cloudy weather, with heavy rain. Wore
fliip.
12 h.    Strong fqualls.   Struck the top-gallant mails.
16 h. Moderate breezes and variable, thick fog
and heavy rain, with a large fouthern fwell.
23 h.    Light airs.    Out reefs, and made faiL'c
•: 24 h. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
24 h.   The fame fog ftill continued.
129
CHAP.
VI.
1 h.    Erefh breezes and very hazy weather,, with a    October
fouthern fwell.      b':   • *•■     "       J       §•:- ^        24th'
3 h.    Thick foggy weather.    Tacked fliip.
6h. Shortened fail for the night, with moderate
and foggy weather.
8 h. Wind veered to the weftward, and increafed
to a frefli breeze, with very hazy weather at 10 h,, and
we clofe-reefed the topfails..
12 h. Wore fhip, and ftruck top-gallant niafts.
Very heavy fqualls. At 13 h. furled the topfails and
courfes, and brought to under the ftorm ftay-fails.
Heavy gales of wind, attended with hail, at 15 h.,
laying to under a mizen ftorm ftay-fail.
19 h. Got the jib-boom in, and lowered down
the gaff.
24 h.    Strong gales and fair, with a large fea.
1 h.    Strong gales and fine weather, with a large fea.
3 h.    Set the forefail reefed.
9 h. More moderate. Set the main-topfail clofc
reefed. f|o>| ^.«
12 h. Frefli gales and fine weather. Set the fore-
-topfail. •
15 1
25th.
fcj A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERT^
15 h.   The gale gradually deWeaftag.
CD CD *r   . <-J
18 h.    Light airs.   Made fail.    Very clear weather.
21 h. Variable and fqually weather, which increafed towards noon, with rain, as the wind veered
to the fouth\$ard.
24 h.    Frefli breezes, with rainy weather.
1 h. Strong breezes and dark cloudy weather,,
with rain. Half paft 2 h., the wind fuddenly fhifted to
the W. N. W., with heavy fqualls, which obliged us
to clofe-reef the topfails.
In the afternoon feveral flocks of gulls were feen,
and two land birds came into the fhip.
12 h.    Dark cloudy wreather, with fhowers of hail.
18 h. Frefh breezes and fqually weather. Made
more fail.
24 h. Frefh breezes and clear weather. 41r fouth
of account fince laft obfervation.
1 h.    Frefh breezes an^cloudy weather.   Made fail.
4 h. A fmall land bird, of the colour of a chaffinch, was caught on board ; and a fpermaceti whale
pafled clofe to the fhip.
12 h.    Light breezes and clear weather.
19 h. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
19 h. Frefli breezes and clear weather from the
S. W. quarter ; and we made fail to the W. N. W.
24 h. Ditto weather, with an increafe of wind.
Barometer falling.
1 h. Strong hreezes and fine weather. In fecond
reefs.
3 h.    A number of porpoifes about the fliip,.
5 h. Frefli gales and dark cloudy weatiker. Clofe-
reefed topfahg, and ftruck top-gallant malls. At 5$ h.
w©re fliip.
10 h.    Furled the fore and mizen topfails.
12 h. Heavv fqaiadls of wind and rain, with light-
ning.
.20 h. Frefli gales and ftrong. fqualls, which obliged
us to clew up the main topfkil at times, and to reef
the forefaifr. At 23 h. it became more moderate, with
fair weashear, and the wind veered to the N. W. Heavy
£well fr©m the«S. W. quarter.
in
CHAP.
VI.
1795*
Q&ober.
28tb.
1 h.    Moderate breezes and cloudy, with a great
head fea.    Made more fail.    Barometer rifing faft.
6'h.    Fcefli br«hzes and cloudy w.ea-fihier.
12 h.    Cleaa?:<kealher, with an increa^<©£ wind.
18 h.    Sfcco&g\ teeezes  and   dark cloudy sreatlifiTw
s 2 Clofe-
2ath.
1
R 332
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
.
:
1
book Clofe-reefed the topfails, and furled the fore and mizen
i.
*—l—i ditto, and ftruck top-gallant mafts."
October.        22 h.    Barometer fluctuating this morning.
Ipf 24 h.    Frefh gales of wind, with fhowers of fleet.
3oth. 1 h.    Frefli gales and very hazy  weather,   with  a
large fea. Hauled our wind to the fouthward, undej*
• main-topfail and forefail. Got the jib-boom in and
fpritfail yard.
8 h. Thick foggy weather, with the gale moderating. Set the topfails. The barometer, during the
night, fell confiderably.
12 h. Moderate breeze, with drizzling rain. Tried
for foundings during the night. Sea confiderably.
gone down. At 12£ h. the wind veered to the fouthward, and the fame fog remained. j|$
18 h. Got the top-gallant mafts up, jib-boom and
fpritfail yard out, and made fail. Heavy rain at 20 h.
with thunder and lightning. Wore fliip. It foon
after was calm, and we had continual rain.
24 h.   Calm and cloudy, with a fouthern fwell.
3*ft-
1 h. Variable weather, with a confufed fea. Several
land birds about; two of them were taken, and a wild
duck was fliot: we were alfo accompanied by fheer-
waters, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
133
waters, peterels, and  albatroffes. "At 4 h. the wind    chap.
VI.
increafed, and we tacked.    At 5 h. we had ftrong gufts    <——>
CD CD ^
of wind from the weflern quarter, which foon obliged    October,
us to reduce our fails | and at 6 h. to furl the fore aud
mizen topfails.
11 h. The gale again fetting in from W. and N. W.„
gave us no hopes of palling through ftraits that
divide Japan from Matzmai; and the advanced
feafon rendered it very likely we fhould not fucceed .
after further perfeverance : added to which, my confinement, owing to my broken arm, precluded any fatis-
factory remarks even were we to fucceed. I therefore
gave up the idea for the prefent year, and we fliaped our
courfe in the direction of the Japanefe coaft, purpofing
to make the land about White Point, and continue
the coaft to the fouth, as the weather admitted.
24 h.    Frefh gales and cloudy weather, with a large
following fea.
•:
1 h. Frefh gales and fqually weather, with a heavy
fwell from the N. W. quarter. Barometer gradually
riling.
4 h.    Squally, with fhowers of hail.
6h. Heavy rain, with variable weather but more
moderate.
17 h.   Light breezes, with lefs fwell;  | paft we
weie
November
H
1 2d.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    were taken aback by the wind (Tufting fuddenly to
|S—|   Weft.    Made all fail.
November.      24 h.    Light airs with fine clear temperate weather,
and fmooth water.
1 h.    Light airs and calms, with fine weather.
12 h.    Cloudy weather.
16 h.    Moderate breeze, with rain.
24 h.    Frefh breezes and continual heavy rain, with
fmooth water.
1 h.    Strong breezes.and fqually weather, With rain.
7h.    No bottom with 70 fathoms.    In twoijeefs.
12 h.    Squally weather, with fhowers of rain.
19 h. Made fail. Unfortunately the time-piece
N° 1. was neglected/to have been wound up this day at
noon, and remained ufetefs to us for the prefent;
much to be regretted, on account of the ftjong
currents,.
a£4 h.   Frefli breezes, wit%iSequent fquafls'a'nd heavy
rain.
1 h. Frefli breezes and cloudy weajther," with
frequent fqualls of-wmd and rain ; at noon we-&Ood
Weft to make the land before night.
■2
m. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN^
5 h. In third reefs, and hauled our wind under eafy
fail.
9-h.    Tried for foundings with 100 fathoms of line.
11 h.    Moderate, with continual rain.
14 h.    Light airs.
17 h.    Calm and variable.    Light fhowers of rain.
20 h. Swell from the eaftward. Barometer flation-
ary there 24 hours. A tropic bird and a duck feen in
the morning.    Small rain.
23 h. Heavy fhowers brought the wind to the North,
and we made fail to the W. N. W. to make the land of
Nipon.
13^
CHAP.
VI.
1796.
November.
1 h. Strong breezes and fqually, with dark, cloudy
weather.
6 h.    Moderate and fine weather.
8 h.    Tried for foundings.
10 h. Wore fhip, and kept our wind : eafy fail for
the night.
12 h.    Cloudy weather, with fhowers of rain.
14 h.    Wore fliip, and flood to the weftward.
18 h.    Made fail.
24 h. Frefh breezes and very clear weather. A fwell
from the northward.
1 h.    Moderate breezes and fine weather.
8 h.    Light
S&.
6th.
!
>]
r=^ J36
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
8h.    Light winds.
12 h.    Hazy, with rain ; wore fhip, and tried for
November,   foundings.
15 h.    Wore fliip : drizzling rains. :
18 h. Continual rain. Pafled feveral patches of fea-:
weed. Many land birds about the fliip. One of them
(a dove) was taken.
21 h. Variable weather, and very unfettled during
this morning.    Barometer very low.
24 h. The wind fuddenly fhifted to the N. W., and
brought clear weather.
II If
ifi 1 h.    Moderate breezes and cloudy weather.    Va
rious land birds and many butterflies with other infects
about the fhip.
4 h. Every appearance of a ftrong northerly current.
7 h. The wind fhifted in a violent fquall, and foon*
increafed to a hard gale, which obliged us to hand
the topfails and ftrike the toprgallant maft. At 9 h.
it blew a very ftrong gale, when we furled the courfes
and brought to under a ftorm ftay-fail. At 10 §h. wore
Chip.
At 14 h. 30 m, the gale moderating, fet the forefail,
.      and topfails clofe-reefed. Very clear weather, when the
wind veered to the W. N. W.
At TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
At 17 h. 30 m. wore fliip, and made fail with a
ftrong breeze and clear weather. The barometer
riling fail.
22 h.    1° 14' North of account fince laft obfervation.
24 h. Ditto weather. Under courfes, and double-
reefed topfails.
181
CHAP.
VI.
1796.
November.
1 h. Moderate breezes and fair weather. Made
more fail. Many whales about the fhip of the fperma-
ceti kind.
6 h. Light winds and clear, with a fwell from the
N. W. quarter.
12 h.    Ditto weather.
16 h.    Frefli breezes and fine clear weather.
24 h. Ditto weather; 36 miles to the North of
account.
8th
y
Ih. Frefli breezes and fine weather. At .2 h. we
faw the land of Japan or Nipon to the weftward from
the malt-head.
5 h. Extremes of land from S. 80° W. to N. 40° W.
four or five leagues. We alfo faw a fail to the weft,
fuppofed to be a junk-Jp Shortened fail, and fleered to
the S. W. with a gentle breeze.
12 h.    Light breezes, and cloudv.
t^'-Sf-      CD * v
18 h.    Made all fail.
t At
9th.
h
I!
mmm 138
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book        At 17 h. the land from N 42° W  to N. 80° W. five
*—v-w   or fix leagues.
November.       22 h.    Dark, cloudy weather,   and variable,  with-
fmall rain.
24 h.    Continual rain, and very gloomy weather.
ioth. Variable and dark cloudy weather, with continued
rain till 6h., when it was calm. After 8 h. a breeze
fprung up from the N. W., and we flood in fhore.
At 13 h. we wore and flood off; and at 3 we again
flood in fliore. At 6h. 30' A. M. the land bore from
N. 47° W. to 85° W.; a remarkable hill N. 82° W.;
and we made fail. At 21 h. 20' the S. E. point of
Japan bore N. 3° E., on with a diftant hummock.
Allowing its longitude to be right 140° 40' E., as
fettled in Captain Cook's voyage, we fet the watch,
N° 1, a-going, allowing its rate to be the fame as
before.
The fhore from White Point tended to the S. W.
It was of moderate elevation, with chalky cliffs to an
opening, from whence came many fifhing boats; and
from thence it continued bare of wood and deftitute
of verdure. We fleered nearly in the direction of the
coaft, with fine clear weather, and at the diftance of
two leagues; and at noon we were abreaft of an ex-
7 tenfive TO THE NORTH- PACIFIC OCEAN.
139
700.
iber.
tenfive town.    The land about it appeared richly cul-    chap.
tivated, in ridges rifing above one another in the fides    |—*——'
I *7Q0
of the hills. The tops of thefe hills were fleep and Novemt
craggy; and in the hollows between them we faw
fome wood, but in no quantity,- To the N. E. of
the town the coaft was indented. The extreme, South
of the town, S. 79°-W. 10'; opening, or river, N. 9°
W. ; land about White Point, making north extreme,
N. 34° E.; Round Mountain, N. 58° W., 4 or 5 leagues
off fhore.
Moderate breezes and very fine weather. We faw
feveral iflands between the South and Weft; and at
5 h. we were abreaft of the fouth extreme, which bore
N. 30° W. fix miles. This point forms the eaftern
entrance into the bay of Jeddo. The Outer Ifland
boreJS. 20° Wy ten or twelve leagues. In the afternoon we were vifited by many fifhing boats. They
were 36 feet long, Sf wide, and 2f deep, very neatly
built of oak, elm, and fir, very fliarp forward, and
with a rifing flern, which projected beyond the real
flern, being a continuation of the fides. They have a
falfe bottom, where they contain their fifh ; and in
every refpect they were moft ingenioufly conftructed.
They were fleered in the Chinefe manner; and each
boat carried  one  mail,  with  a fquare  cotton  fail.
t 2 They
nth.
*a
vi. W;i
►; 140
BOOK
I.
1796.
November.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
They very liberally fupplied us with fifh, without
feeming to expect any return ; and having fatisfied
their curiofity, we parted mutually entertained.
There were twelve men in each boat, and they made
ufe of fkulls inftead of oars.
The night was calm; and at day-light we had a
ftrong northerly wind, with fqually weather, which
prevented our feeing the land till 19 h., when we dh%
covered the outer ifland bearing S. 59° W.; to our
furprife, a ftrong current having fet us to the eaftward.
in the night. At noon the fouth point of Outer Ifland,
S. 8° W., five miles; fouth extreme of Volcano Ifle,
on with rocks, S. 88° W.; diftant high mountains
open, with a hummock, N. 32° W.
12th. Strong breezes and fqually weather.   After noon we
bore up for the paflage between Volcano and Outer
Ifle, which was clear of all danger. Off the weft point
of Volcano Ifle are fome detached black rocks, at two
or three miles diftance; and in the direction of S. by
J£. from Outer Ifland we faw another ifland, ten or
twelve leagues; and another fmall clufter of rocks*
bearing from Outer Ifland S. W. five or fix leagues.
After clearing the paflage we hauled up to the
W. N. W.,  to examine  the  northern iflands.     The
night  J r
s
1
S ■i TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
night was moderate, but we had no foundings throughout.    At 18 h.  the northern iflands bore from N. E.
to S. 79° E., and we fleered N. W. for the coaft.   Some November.
of thefe iflands were of little extent,  forming round
hummocks :   the centre ones long and narrow, with
CD 7
white cliffs, and connected by low ifthmufes. The
largeft was the Volcano, which afforded a pleating
profpect, being cultivated and clothed with verdure
towards the peak, which rofe gradually to a con-
fiderable height. We faw no frnoke iffue from the
crater, which appeared much broken.
At noon the north extreme, which I conceive forms
the weflern point of entrance to Jeddo bay, bore
N. 57° E.; and the coaft extended from thence to
W. by N., off fihore five or fix leagues, of moderate
elevation.
Moderate breezes and variable weather, and very
hazy, which prevented our obferving the main land
diflinctly. Near the fea it appeared low and level,
with very high double land to the N. W., rifing to
mountains. To the Norf^ the fliore was much brftfeen
and indented* and appeared to form an opening.
At 5 h. 2$ a low point, making'the'heareft land, bore
N. i E. five leagues y and we had ferydark, gloomy,
threatening 142
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
1796.
November.
threatening weather : barometer falling. At 12 h.
the wind increafed ; and at 16 h. we were under
courfes and main-topfail. At 19 h. we had fqually
weather, with a great deal of rain, and a large fea;
and foon after we. faw the rocks which are fituated to
the S. W. of Outer Ifland. At firft, we took them for
a veffel under low fail, till the iflands appearing difcovered our miftake. At 20 h. 30' they bore S. 50° E.
three leagues, when we wore fliip. At 21 h. 10' the
' wind fuddenly fhifted to W. N. W.,. and blew very
ftrong, and the weather began to clear away: we
fhaped our courfe to pais to the North of Volcano
Ifland, between it and an ifland that appeared much
broken by the inequality of its form. At noon the
rocks off the eaft extreme of Volcano Ifland bore
N. 70° E., two or three miles ; Broken Ifland N. 15°
W. to N. 29° W., ten miles; very high mountain
N. 22° W.    Mount Fufi *.
14th. Frefli gales and clear weather, with heavy fqualls of
wind.    We found the paflage five or fix leagues wide
* Thunberg, in his voyage to Japan, fays, Vol. III. p. 158, " At
Jofiwara we were nearer than any where elfe to the mountain of Fufi.
The Japanefe reckon the height of it, in the afcent from the foot to the
top, to be fix leagues. In fhape it refembles a fugar loaf; its top reaches
above the clouds, and is difcernible at many leagues' diftance.
1 betwixt TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
betwixt thefe iflands, and no dangers. The north
point of Broken Ifland is rather high, with perpendicular whitifh cliffs.. Off the S. W. part is a large detached rock, with feveral fmall ones about it. Its
greateft extent is in a N. E. and S. W. direction, four
or five miles. To the N. E. of it are two more iflands:
the firft is low and flat, but the northernmoft is more
extended, of moderate height, and connected in parts
by low land, which makes it appear at a diftance like
feparate iflands, with a confpicuous white mark on
the fouthern one, and a rock laying off it to the weftward. Directly North of this ifland, at four or five
miles' diftance, are the two hummocks before mentioned : the northern one is the largeft. In the afternoon we had a fine view of the famous Mount Fufi,
towering above the high land, and covered with fnow.
At 5 h. 30' it bore N. 48° W.; and a large ifland from
N. 38o W. to N. 50° W., four or five leagues. Land
to the W. N. W. feen indiftinctly. The wind preventing our entering Jeddo bay, we bore up to the South,
to explore the iflands to the South of Outer Ifland,
with a ftrong gale at Weft. At 18 h. 30' we faw the
iflands to the fouthward ; and at noon they bore from
N.,200 E. to S, 80° E., four or five miles. Variable
weather.
Frefh 144
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOH
I.
icth.
Frefh breezes and dark threatening weather prevented our having a meridian obfervation for the
November latitude: and the few remarks we were able to make
on thefe iflands were incomplete, on account of the
weather which prevented our having any communication with them ; and we plainly faw they were inhabited. I fuppofed them to be the iflands of Fatfifio,
fo called in the charts. The largeft bears from what
I diftinguifli as Outer Ifland N. by W. and S. by E.?
13 or 14 leagues. The wefternmoft one is only a high
peaked hill, not more than one league in circuit; and
if it.had not been inhabited I fhould have imagined
it to be inacceflible. On the north point the houfes
were funfcfianded with cultivations, laid out in ridges
on the acclivity of the hill, as before remarked on
Mipon. This ifland is two or three miles to the fouth-
sfteifc of the other, and between them appeared a clear
channel. After pafling without the peaked ifle, we
hauled up to examine the other; but the wind veering to Eaft, we couM not approach within three or
fonr leagues. It extends N. W. and S. E. three or
four leagues, and presented a very fertile appearance.
Tdae'iragher parts were obfcured by the haze: its lat.
33° 6' E., and 140° E. long. The appearance of the
weather gave us no hopes of a change; we therefore
fleered — BB
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OC&AN:
fleered to the weftwajrd, ha>Yin& ftrong.£alesi<*w4t-lr
grBafc'deM of Eain.
a
Strong ga^s of'^d, with thick and rajnjr weather.
/slch-    Tlfe,^me we&th&r, with continual rain; and
we brouglftt to the wind under a clofe-reefed mainfail
a#jd fo^efa^j j^h our head to the eaftward.    Barometer ftill falling,
©jl#h.    Heavjft fqualls,   and   a  large fealc£eom  the
eaftward.
18 h.    Ditto weather,   with  frequent fqua^ls  and
heavy raj#.from the S. E. which broke up the gale;
andaifoon "ftfter it became calm,  with a confined fea.
and conftant rain.    Set the topfails.
23 h.    Barometer very low.
24 h.    Light breezes from the north-weft, and the
appearance of fair weather.
34|
CHAP.
VI.
in9&
November.
i6tlu.
»!
The wind foon increafed to a frefh gale, with very
heavy fqualls; and foon after their violence obliged us
to furl the topfails. We kept our wind under courfes,
in hopes of feeing the land ; which we difcovered at
3 h. 30' to the weftward, three or four leagues from
us. We then wore fhip, and tried for foundings.
The weather prefented a moft threatening appearance
in, the weftern quarter, and we hauled up the courfes
ti to
i7th 146
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book to receive it. It was not fo heavy as we expected,
»—-J—! but fliifted in a violent fquall off the land to -*W.N. W.,
November. which clearing away the.haZe, we had a more diftinct
view of the land at funfet. It extended from N. N. E.,
ending in a low flat point, which bore Weft. It blew
ftrong with clear weather all night, and we cattied
clofe-reefed topfails till midnight, when the gale iSOP
creafing, with a head fea, we took in the fore?&%ftl
mizen topfails. At 12 the land bore from N. h^]%. to
N. N. W.; but at day-light, to our furprife, we could
not difcern it, although the weather was fo clear as
to admit our feeing a great diftance. I conjectured
the land we had feen to be the fouth poi,n$*$f Japan. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
CHAP. VII.
Paffage to the Lienquieux Iflands.—Off Formofa.—Arrival at the
Typa, Macao.—Purchafe of a Schooner.—Preparations for the
further  Profecution   of  the  Voyage.—Nautical   Obfervations  in
the Typa.
jyXoDERATE breezes and cloudy weather. Out all CHAP,
reefs and made fail, keeping our head to the weftward, <~~v-L~>
clofe upon a wind. *TI796*_
r November
6 h.    Light airs inclining to, calm, with dark cloudy      in8th-
weather.
12 h.    Light airs : § paft, tacked fhip.    Clear and
light night.
19 h.    By the obfervations the current has fet us
S. 18° E., 31 miles thefe 24 hours.
24 h.    Calm and cloudy weather.
Very clear  weather, with  light  airs  of  wind  at
times.
13 h. Light airs from the weftward.    Made fail.
17 h. Exercifed great guns and fmall arms.
20 h. Current S. 18° E. 27 miles.
24 h. Very fine weather and fmooth fea.
u 2 Light
19th 148
BOOK
1796.
November
20th.
aaft.
22d.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Light breezes and fine clear weather.
5 li. As the wind veered round to the N. E. we
had dark and hazy weather.
18 h.    Out all reefs and made fail.
21 h.    Current S. 83° W. 25 miles.
24 h. Breeze increafing, with fine weather and
fmooth water.
Moderate breezes and fine weather.
8 h.    Dark 'efoudv weather, w&h lightning in the
~ * cj o
S. W. quarter.
10 h.    At 10 h. 30' no bottom with, 115 ^thorns;
and we^had fqually weather, with thnnder, lightning,
and continual rain.     Clofe-reefed the  topfails, and
bought to the wijad, as w'p could not fee one mile
a-head.
16 h. The weather more moderateJau'd clear Q bore
up and.purfued our former courfe. At 18h. tried for
foundings: no bottom 100 fathoms. Hazy fhdwers
of rain and fqually weather.
24 h.    Moderate and cloudy weather.
Moderate breezes and fqually weather, with fifeavy
fhowers of rain.    At 4#iP SO^faw land toflbfe W. N. W.;
and at 5 h. 30' the extremes extended'-from S. 6l° W.
to N. 55° W., five "or -fix leagues.    It appeared of.moderate TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
149
derate elevation ; but we obferved it indiftinctly from    CHAP.
VII.
the gloominefs of the weather.    At 8 h. we hauled our   *—-v—-'
wind for the night, which continued  moderate, with  November.
frequent fhowers of rain; and we could not reach the
bottom with 115 fathoms of line.
13 h. Calm and cloudy at daylight: the land bore
off us W. S. W*, ten or twelve leagues; the current
having fet us to the eaftward during the night. Towards noon a breeze fpruug up, and we made fail in
for land. This morning we were fortunate in having
good obfervations for the latitude and longitude,
which determined our fituation at noon very exajStly,
and we had  the  following  bearings :   a faddle hill
O CD
N. 24° E., and the extremes from N.400 E. to W. by N.,
appearing at intervals part of the land, made us conjecture the whole to be connected. The land to the
W.S.W. we did not fee.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather, and we flood in
for the land. At 4 hours it was fqually with rain,
which obfcured it jfrom our view. At 5 h. we tacked
within two or three leagues of a bluff point, which bore
from ns N. 12° W., but we had no foundings with.MO
fathoms. To the N. E. of the point the land appeared to recede confiderably, leaving the profpect
of an   opening ; -but the  impeyfect view   we   hafl,
owing
23d. 150
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    owing to the badnefs of the weather, prevented our
I. r,
—^— making any fatisfactory obfervations. W„e had ftrong
November, breezes, with a head fea all night; and at dayligh(t
we had the wind to the Nqrt.h of Weft, with fine
clear weather; and at 19 h. 30' we faw the land exf
tending from N. 40° W. to N. 65° W. from the deck.
Made all fail.
23 h.    Current N. 76° E. 30 miles.
24 h.    Strong breezes and clear.    Land feen bearing N. 60° W. 12 or 13 leagues.
24th. Strong breezes and fine weather.    At 4 h. 20' the
extremes of land from N. 55° W. to Weft,, juft vifible
from the deck. At 15 h. the land extended from
N. 70° W. to N. 63° W. We judged thefe lands to be
the continuation of coaft; but the ftrong wind from
the N. W. prevented our nearer approach. They appeared to be very high in detached parts.
We tried for foundings all night unfucc$&fully,
and the breeze was now moderate. At 19 h» 30' we
were well up with the extreme fouthern land feen
laft night, bearing S. 80° W., and the north extreme
N. 12° W.; and we faw high diftant.land to the S. W.,
apparently unconnected with the other. We fteered
towards a deep bay; and at noon we were three or
four TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
151
four leagues from the fliore,  which appeared high and    CHAP.
1796.
rugged, much broken into ridges; in general bare of
wood and rocky, but feme of the hills were clothed  November.
with .wood up to their fummits.    The extremes bore
from N. 75° W. to N. 1° W.; ftarboard point of bay
N. 53° W., two or three leagues"; Volcano Mountain
N. 65° W.;   high diftant land S. W., ten or twelve
leagues.
Light breezes and variable Weather. The volcano, 25th.
which is fituated in the interior parts of the bay,
emitted vaft columns of finoke; and we obferved
feveral boats fifhing in fliore, and a junk Handing into
the bay. At 5 h. the extremes bore from N. 18° E.
to S. 75° W.; centre of bay N. 40° W., five or fix
miles; low land, juft vifible from the deck, S. 68° W.;
diftant land S. 42° W.; and more |efw land, feemingly
connected with it, S. 25° W. We fleered to the fouth-
ward and eaftward upon a wind. At daylight or 19 h.
we faw the low land bearing S. 67° W.: the fame fet
laft evening S. 27° W. ; the extremes, North of the
<bay, N. 27° W. We flood in fhore for the low land,
which was five or fix leagues, having moderate winds
and cloudy weather. At noon the extreme, North of
the bay, N. 15° W., and fouth extreme N. 72° W.;
and
IS 1
>' im
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    and the fame diftant highland S. 58° W. : tire other
I.
}—v—'   Extreme, on With centre of low land, five or fi& leagues.
November. The volcanic bay feemed to be capacious, affld moft
probably terminated-with good fliett^, for, after taking a northerly direction, it turned to the eaftward.
Current -north 25 miles. Modei'fite and variable
winds frdm the S. E.    No fbundifegs.
26th. Moderate breezes  and fine weather,   with  fmooth
water. As we approached the fhore, more low land
appeared; and at 5 h. we Were wfthin four or five
miles of it, when it extended from?<S. 20° AV. to N. 75°
W., of little elevation, with a fhfidy fhore, and covered
•with fcattered trees. The diftant high land ftill ap
peared over it, in the direction Of S. 50° W., at a co©>-
fiderable diftance. rS1ie extremes, North of the low
land, bore from N. 68° W. to N. 17° E., near the
northi poirft of the bay; and we had 45j¥atnoms. In
tnis fituation we could not determine the connection
of the low land with the diftant h'i^h land ove^* >&,
which is moft probably the cafe : but the openftig to
the North'of N. 75° TV*, was fo much contracted, and
making in low points from each fhore, I con^eiV^S the
Whole to be joined, leaving in this indented p&ft fome
harbour we could not perceive*, and which we were
4 prevented. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
153
prevented determining by the wind in the morning   chap.
& &       VII.
veering to the S. W.    As we could not fetch the fame <-—v—-»
land again, at 5 P. M. we flood to the eaftward. November.
Frefh breezes   and   fqually   threatening  weather.
21' N. of account.
Frefli breezes and cloudy weather.
Moderate breezes, fine weather, and fmooth wi
ter.
Clear ftar-light. In Arrowfmith's chart of 1791 are
many iflands laid down, nearly in our prefent fituation
at noon, faid to be difcovered by the Spaniards. We
faw nothing to lead us to fuppofe we were in the
vicinity of any current fince our laft obfervations, for
the time-piece (being the. interval of three days)
N. 68° E. 38 miles.
22 h. Ventilated the fliip with the foul-air extractor.
24 h.   Ditto weather.   Tropic birds and flying fifh
feen.
27th
' 28th.
it
-  A
6 h.   Dark and gloomy appearance in the N. W.     2pth.
quarter, which foon produced a change of wind, and
x we 154
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
1796.
November.
30
th.
we flood to the weftward.    Lat. 28° 10' N., and JfcPg;
135° 15' E. at the time.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather.
6 h.    Shortened fail.
12 h.    Tried for foundings in the night.
18 h. Dark cloudy weather, with fhowers of rain.
We fleered to the weftward, to fall in with the ifland
of Great Lieuchieux.
24 h. Ditto weather. A fmall land bird and a
hawk feen.
December
ift.
Frefh breezes and cloudy weather.
6 h. Shortened fail, and founded hourly during
the night.    No bottom.
12 h. Vpry cloudy weaker : at daylight we made
&|l;fanda&'22h. 30m. we faw;the ifland of Lieu^hieu?*
At 1100^ we had fqually and rainy weather, and-
we hauled up to the S. W. being five or iijc leagu^f
ojf. Ffolm the unfavourable weather, we could difcern
very little. The fliore appeared low and even, the
wefternpoint falling; abruptly to the fea. It expended
from S. 76° W. to Weft ; and we had no foundings .wife
CD
105 fathoms.
."". Mti.    Frefli   breezes,  with  cloudy   and   fqjuaJly
weath&ii".
Frefli """SP"*!"
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
155
1796.
Decembci
2d.
Frefli breezes and cloudy weather, with frequent    chap.
. , ■ l vii.
fquall-s attended with rain,- which at time's bbfcured    jj—/—->
the land. It appeared broken, the higher 'parts
connected by low land; and to the South it was well
eultiyated and diverfified by woods : towards the fea it
rofe in clayey cliffs of a bright yellow with fandy
breaches. We kept upon a wind to the S. W., and
at 5 h. 15 m. the extremes extended from S. 80° W. to
N. 24° W. four or five leagues diftant. The coaft ftill
prefented the fame level appearance in general,
very low. At 12 h. we were in the lat. of 26° N.,
and as I fuppofed near the fouthern part of the ifland.
We plied under eafy fail till daylight. The night was
moderate, with feme rain; and at 16 h. the wind
fucldenly fliifted to the N. W quarter, with fqually,
unfettled weather. At 19 h. the neareft land bore N.
30° W. three leagues, and the extremes from N. 10*
E. to N. 6?° W. We faw no other land in any direction, although the charts lay down fome iflands in
this fituation. At 20h~we faw feveral iflands to the
W. N. W.: the outer one, forming like a gunner's
quoin W. by N. at 21 hours.
At noon the fouth part of the ifland Lieuchieux N.
46° E. to N. 68° E. fix or feven leagues. A low
ifland,  North  eight leagues ; from  whence they ex-
x 2 tended
■ 156
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
tended to the ^uoin N. 34° W. in Number 5.: we
fuppofed them to be the Matqhi Iflands.    Very hazy
December,   weather.
3d. Frefh gales and dark weather prevented our making
any other remarks on Great Lieuchieux and the Mad-
jicofemah Iflands, but we fleered a courfe to fall in
with fome other iflands between them and Formofa.
At2h. 15' we loft fight of the Gunner's Quoin, bearing
N. by E. The gale increafed with heavy fqualls of wind
and rain, yet the barometer continued flationary.
At 9 h. we hauled upon a wind under a forefail and
clofe-reefed main-topfail. In the morning it was
more moderate, with a large fea from the northward;
and we bore away at 16 h. 15', having clear weather.
At 21 hours we faw low land to the weftward, and
at 23 h. 40' rounded a reef which extends to the eaftward of the S. E. point of this ifland, compofed
of rocks above and under water; and we had 60
fathoms coral bottom. From the maft-head an ifland
fuppofed to be feen bearing North from the reef, and
another to the N. W. : and a hummock on with S. E.
point N. 37° W. probably joined with the ifland. Juft
within the point to the weftward is a fandy bay, and
above it we difcovered a village fcattered amongft the
c*? O
trees, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
trees, with fome cultivated fpots near it. At noon the
S. E. extreme N. 9° W. two or three miles. The other
extreme N. 85° W. very low. The reef N. 22° E. 45
fathoms corally bottom. Strong breezes and very
fqually, but clear and pleafant weather.
157
CHAP.
VII.
1796.
December,
Strong breezes and fair, with heavy fqualls from the
land, that prevented our rifking any communication
with the fliore: we therefore ranged the fouth fide
at the diftance of two or three miles. This ifland
is univerfally low. On the tops of the rifing grounds
were fome groves of trees, but the country in general
was covered with heath or coarfe grafs, and feveral
habitations were fcattered along fliore; we alfo ob-
ferved fmoke arifing in feveral parts. At 2 h. we had
run the extent of the ifland, and were abreaft of a
fmall iflet which is off the weft point; between it and
the fliore was a fmall reef, and between North and N.
28° W. we faw more land. An extenfiye reef Avas
fituated between thefe lands, as we faw the water
frequently break; and we had 18 fathoms corally
bottom. At 5 h. 15' Ave were within five or fix miles
of a fmall ifland, bearing from N. 65° W. to N. 85°
W., and high land to the W. S. W. At 18 h. 45' the
fmall ifland bore N. 66° W. four or five leagues, and
the other ifland from N. N. E.. to E. S. E.; and the
high
4th. 158
■    A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY:
•lO'dK
m
high land extended from^Jb^O0WL- to Dil187° W^-for
which we fleered. At 2@ h. weWoft fight of the fmall
Dec7emfe&. ifland, and at':uooil-Hve wer4 three "or four miles off
•the high Hand, aVMcIi appeared-in -general Avell'efotfied'
with Avood, and much -brokek";-- the hills being
connected by fandy ifthmufes. The S. E. point Avas
Ioav.
5th. Very fine weather enabled  us to range1 the fliore
at a little diftance ; it lies in the direction of N. N. E.
and S. S. W., and near the S. E. extreme Ave obferved
an extenfive village. A fmall reef lies off the point,
and as we opened we difedverex?another ifland bearing
S. 75° W. from it, and falling abruptly to the fea. At
2 h. 30m. this head bore S. 88° W% the village point
N. E.: opening to fea between the ifland N. 7° E. \
and avc perceived twa rocks in the midft of breakers
N. "86s W. and S. 7.3° W. three or four miles, and Ave
had no bottom with 100 fathoms. 'We bore up and
pafied without them, and foon arter we faw"'feveral
low, flat iflands, e^tenorng from the■ large iflands, connected Avith each other by coral reefs ; at leaft fo much
fo in appearance as to preclude ally clear "pafTage
betAveen them. At 5h. 50' we approached an ifland
of no elevation, bearing from S. 50° to S. 56° W. two
Or three leagues.    The abrupt head N.'650iWV, arid in
the TO^THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
the paflage between tAvo fmall hummocks bearing
N. 85° W. The low iflands from N. 6° W. to N. 40°
W. three or four miles ; and from N. 18° E. to N. 40°
E., on with the land about Village Point. At 18h.
30 m. the ifland fet to S.W. laft night, iioav bore N. N.
W. $ W., but fqually and hazy Aveather prevented
feeMg the high land till 19 h. 45/, when the head
bore North about five leagues, and the fame land
extended to N. 34° E.; a fmall opening N. 15° E.
Loav Ifland N. 45° E. to N. 6o E. five or fix miles.
The hummocks N. 27°W.; at 20 h. 30m. they bore
North, and Ave loft fight of the land.
Frefh gales, Avith dark, cloudy Aveather and
eondmual rain, prevented our feeing more than three
or four leagues in any d&ection ; and the Avind kept
increafing to a ftrong^ gale. At 15 h. Ave furled the
topfails, and brought to theo^ind under a forefail and
mizen-ftayfail" tfll-daylight.
Bofsel aAvay, and fet the topfails; very fqually
weather^ Avith fhowers of ri^in, which at times',
entirelyoofefcureddthe horizon. At 21 h. 30'through
thej^aze,4we faw the land of FoSmofa two or three*
league^prifing abruptly from the fea to a prodigious*
h¥fghtr    An u^e^ffifflflon 'fall   of wlter   defcendiSgf
7 from
1796.
December,
6th i6e
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK from  the  mountains   in  a perpendicular   direction j
i.
<—j—' pointed  out   our   vicinity   to  the   land   before  we
1796.
December,   faw   it.
7th. As Ave fleered in the direction of the coaft, the high
land of Formofa appeared at intervals, Avhen the fqualls
cleared aAvay ; and at 40h. 30 m. the fouthern part bore
S. 65° W., four or fix leagues : to the North it con-
tinued entirely obfcured. The gale ftill continued
with little variation, when being by eftimation, at
8 h. 30 m., in the latitude of 22° 45' N., we brought
to the Avind under low fail for the night. At 12 h.
wore fhip; and at 18 h. 30 m. the extremes of Formofa
extended from N. N. W. to Weft; an ifland of moderate elevation S. 80° W., four leagues; and the ifland
of Botol Tobago Zima S, 6° W., ten or tAvelve leagues.
The gale had confiderably abated ; and Ave made fail
to pafs between Botol Tobago and the land of Formofa, which we could fcarcely difcern for the thick
haze over the high land. At 21 h. the Loav Ifland bore
N. 50° W., four leagues; extremes of Botol Tobago
S. 23° W. to S. 27° W. Thefe iflands bore nearly
N. by E. and S. by E. of each other. At noon the
extremes of Botol Tobago South to S. 23° E., eight or
ten miles; Low Ifland North, on with Formofa; extreme point of Formofa land, making low, S. 70° W.
Soon TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Soon after Ave obferved the ifland of Little Tobago
CHAP.
VII.
bearing from the eaft point of the great ifland S. 26° E.,
Avhich is nearly the direction of the north fide. December.
At 1 h. 15' Little Tobago open Avith fouth extreme
S. 41° E. At 3 h. 15' the north extreme of Great
Botol Tobago bore Eaft to the other extreme S. 80° E.;
Formofa from North to S. 60° W. At 5h. 30' the
centre of;Botol Tobago Zima N. 75° E.; and the
fouth extreme of Formofa S. 78° W., tAVO or three
miles: and at 5 h. 45' it bore N. 80° W., on Avith a
diftant point. At 6h. it bore W. N. W. i Weft, two
or three miles. It Avas fine moon-light; and as Ave
had not feen the Vele Bete Rocks before dark, Ave
fhaped our courfes (as per log) to pafs between them
and Formofa, founding, as per column, under our
double-reefed topfails. At 7 h. 30' Ave had 35 fathoms,
gravelly bottom: the extremes of Formofa E. N. E.
to N. by W., three or four miles off fliore. At 8 h.
the land from N. § E. to E. by N.; and Ave hauled
up to the N. W., plying under fail till day-light, Avhen
the extremes of Formofa extended from N. 10° E. to
N. 60° E.; a very high round mountain N. 10° E.,
off fhore three or four leagues. The Avind increafed
with heavy fqualls, and Ave flood to the S. E., expecting
.to fee thejVele Rete Rocks ; but at 20 h. the gale had
y reduced
8th 162
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
reduced us to courfes and main-topfail^ and feeing
nothing of them, we flood to the N. W. with a ftrong.
December,  gale.    At noon the extremes bore from N. 20° E. to
N. 70° E., about fix or eight leagues.
1796.
«>th. Strong breezes and cloudy Aveather, with fhowers* >
of rain.
3 h.    More moderate.   Set the topfails..
At 4 h. 30' the extremes of Formofa bore from*
N. 50° E. to N. 75° E.; and Ave faAV no more of it,,
owing to the gloomy Aveather.
12 h.    Frefli breezes and cloudy.     No bottom with*
100 fathoms.   Strong breeze and dark cloudy weather.
Swell from the northward..
toth. Strong breezes and clbiucry weather..
l6 h.    We   pafled   feveral    Chinefe  fifhihg-boats;
and for fear of running over them Ave carried eafy faiti
till day-light, and a light at the bowfprit.    At 18 h.
ftrong breezes and hazy:: made fail.    At 22 h. 30' we
faAV Pedro Blarieo bearing N. 63° W...
24 h..   Frefli breezes and very hazy.    Pedro Blanco
N. 23*1 E., three or four miles..
nth. 4 h.    Saw the Lima iflands to the weftward.
5 h.    Dark hazy weather.    Double-reefed the top-
1j fails,., TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
16
fcls, and prepared for anchoring.    At 7 h. Ave came   CHAP.
^i vn-
to in 20 rathoms, clayey bottom, between the ifland of   '—i—'
Poo Tory and the Grand Lima,  bearing from N. E.  December.
to S. E. jj the paflage to  the fea being open in that
angle from Poo Tory If miles.
12 h.    The Avind  gradually increafed to a  ftrong
gale, but Ave rode very eafy Avith a whole cable out.
In the forenoon it Avas more moderate, with cool and
pleafant Aveather.
After niuflering the fhip's company, the officers and
feamen Avere informed that it Avas neceffary they fhould
deliver up to me their journals, remarks, or Avhatever
draAvings, &c. that related to our proceedings fince
the firft of September ult., and enjoining them alfo
to fecrecy fince that period.
Several China boats were failing among the iflands,
notAvithflanding the gale, Avhich induced us to make
the fignal for a pilot.
Soon afternoon a Chinefe boat came on board, and
agreed to pilot the fhip to Macao for 40 dollars. At
1 h. we got underway, and made fail to the weftward.
At 6 h. Ave were Avell up with the paflage between the
ifland of Lantoe and Laf-fammu ; and Ave came to an
y 2 anchor
12 th.
m 164
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
I.
1795.
December.
anchor in 13 fathoms, muddy bottom. |e The night
was moderate, and in the morning at day-light Ave
had ftrong breezes from the North. We Avorked
through the paflage with fome difficulty, having got
under Avay at day-light for that purpofe; but the
violence of the fqualls occafioned the fliip to refufe
flays twice, and Ave were obliged to Avear. Our pilot
in thefe cafes Avas of little ufe, for he did not feem
any way acquainted Avith our movements, only re-
quefting to anchor immediately. This channel from
the Lima iflands is clear of all danger; and, if ne-
ceffary, you can ahvays bring up in lefs than 2Q
fathoms. It is univerfally frequented in the N. E.
monfoon.
After Aveathering Laf-fammu, Avhich bears nearly
Weft of Macao, we made a ftrait courfe; and at 22 h.
Ave came to in the roads in 4 fathoms, foft muddy
bottom : the fort bearing N. 65° W., and Cabrita
point S. 20° W., off -fhore two or three miles. We
found the Crefcent, Company's packet, riding here,
having arrived very lately from England Avith dip-
patches. By her we had the fatisfaction of being informed of the principal events Avhich had occurred
fince our leaving Europe. Having been abfent from
thence tAventy-two months,  our curiofity Avas highly
gratified TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
165
gratified by the communication.    Our people were in    chap.
VII.
perfect health ; aud we had only to lament the lofs of   ^—,—.•
one man by ficknefs fince Ave failed from Plymouth  December;.
Sound.
On our arrival I fent an officer to wait upon the
Governor. In the afternoon the officer returned from
the GoATernor, avtio politely offered us every civility in
his power; and the folIoAving day he fent off the
mafter of the port to carry the fliip into the harbour
of the Typa. On getting under way we faluted the
fort with eleven guns, and they returned an equal
number. At funfet we came to in the harbour; and
the next morning moored the fliip, with her ltream
anchor to the weftward, in 4| fathoms. The town of
Macao juft open to us; and the harbour N. 25° W.,
tAvo or three miles.
It was the end of the month before I had fufli-
ciently recovered the ufe of my arm to leave the fhip,
when hearing there was a fmall veffel in Lark's bay
for fale, I thought it Avould be highly advantageous
to the voyage to purchafe her; and on an examination, finding fhe was very well calculated for the
purpofe, I made the agreement on the fpot, and gave
the mafter L. 1500 fterling for her.    She Avas fchooner-
rigged,
Ii >Mll
166
1796.
.December.
J797.
January.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
rigged, and regiftered at 87 tons. On the 30th
joined us in the Typa; on Avhich day arrived Rear-
Admiral Rainer, in his Majefty's fliip Suffolk, with
the SAvift floop of Avar from Amboyna, having come
from thence through Gilolo paflage, and bound to
Madrafs on the coaft of Coromandel. Four home-
Avard-bound Indiamen joined them in Macao roads
from Canton, and rfailed under their convoy on the
7th of January 1797-
The Aveather throughout the laft month was cold
and pleafant, varying in the night, the wind from
North to N. E. in the day,, with fine wieather, but very
hazy, and generally blowing ftrong from funrife till
funfet, Avhen it ufually moderated. The carpenters
Avere bufily employed caulking the fhip, and repairing
our other defects Avhere moft neceflary.
Throughout this month Ave were employed repairing
our rigging, and in other refpects refitting the fhip,
and repairing the defects of the fchooner, altering the
flep of her naain-maft, and making neAV fails both for
•her and the fhip.
On the 18th fired 21  guns in compliment to her
Majefty's birth day.   The 20th and 21ft were very
fqually, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
167
%aally, with rain; and at times foggy Aveather.    An chap.
EngHfli brig, called the Experiment, was nearly loft —$—■>
in the late blowing weather,, and only faved by the January.
aftiftance of out boats.    The winds Avere very regular
from the N. E. quarter,  and we had,  Avith very littler
variation, conftant dry and cool Aveather.
Having completed the caulking of the fhip, the February.
carpenters were employed in repairing the copper
under water, and other neceffary avocations. Chinefe
painters Avere engaged paining the fliip and boats;
and the fhip's company completing the rigging, and
receiving; fome provifions from Macao, viz. bifcuhV
callivances, rice, and arrack; failmakers at work on
fliore, oppofite the fhip, where we pitched fome tents
for their conveniently, and others for the aftronomer
to regulate the gouig of a time-piece Ave had. upon a.
trial. Winds and Aveather continued much the fame y
and at intervals Avhen the Avind was variable, we had
fome fliOAvers of rain.
The Governor of Macao, Avith feveral gentlemen,,
dined on board. His Excellency was faluted. Avith
eleA^en guns.
The month fet in Avith variable and fqually Aveather^
attended Avith frequent rain.    The fchooner, on the
8th,
March. !68
1797.
March
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK 8th, Avent up to the Boca Tigris, to bring us down
—v—i fome ftores and fait provifions, which lhe was to receive there by a chop boat from the Eaft India fhips
lying in Canton river, Avith orders by no means to
enter the Bogue, for fear of giving offence to the
Chinefe government. Several officers took this opportunity of Adfiting Canton for a few days.
13 th. A Spanifh brig arrived from Manilla, and Avent into
Macao harbour. As the weather permitted, we completed the Avatering; and in other refpects prepared
for fea. In the morning of the 18th the fchooner returned from Boeca Tigris; and Ave received by her
cordage, canyas, pitch, tar, &c. with fait provifions,
and 20 chefts of tea. The middle and latter parts of
the month the wind Avas chiefly from the S. E. quarter,
with rain. On the 26th failed a fmall cutter, called
the Dragon, for the N. W. coaft of America. The
following days Ave had a great deal of bad weather,
Avith thunder and lightning ; and we parted our ftream
cable.    Wind at South and S. S. W.
April. The fhip and fchooner being perfectly ready for fea,
Ave only waited favourable Avinds to proceed out
of the Typa, and to receive feme more naval ftores
from the Eaft Indiamen lately arrived,  for which I
Avas TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
was again obliged to fend the fchooner up to Anfon's
hay.
The weather continued moderate and pleafant from
the N. E. quarter; and on the 10th Ave Avarped out of
the Typa, and came to in the entrance, in 5 fathoms;
Macao fort upon the hill bearing N. 45° W., and
Cabarita point S. 10° W. two miles : the bar fort
being juft fliut in with the point Avhich forms the
ftarboard entrance into the Typa. This anchorage
appeared to me moft eligible for the conveniency of
communicating Avith the toAvn, and for running into
CD 5 CD
the harbour Avhen neceffary ; and if you lay two miles
more to the eaftward, you have no more water. In
this fituation you may Avater your fhip Avith great eafe
on either of the iflands going in, attending to the
tides.
We had on board fifteen months' provifions between-
the veffels, and cpnfidered ourfelves perfectly Avell
equipped for the profecution of the voyage: our
creAv being in perfect health, as when Ave arrived.
During our long refidence Ave had been conflantly fup-
plied Avith frefli beef or pork, and plenty of vegetables.
The people had alfo bread baked for them every day.
Having brought out a copper oven Avith us for that
z purpofe,
169
CHAP.
VII.
*797-
April.
I
im 170
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    parpofe, it Avas noAV made ufe of, being fet up on
fhore, where the tents  were pitched.    The Chinefe
1797.
April.
who refided on the ifland gave us no moleftation: on
the contrary, they were of great fervice to us, by lending us the ufe of their rope Avalks, and aflifting us to
makje cord^ig^ at a reafonable confideration.
The laft three months I refided chiefly on fhore,.
completing a general furvey of the Kerule iflands,
and tranfmitting; a copy of them, w$th my proceedings and future intentions, for the informa^on of
their Lordfliips.
.,J fhould be extremely remifs Avere I to neglect ex-
preffing the particular politenefs and marked attention
I received from Mr. Drummond and M^. Arthur, tAvo
gentlemen of the Englifh factory; and to acknoAV-
ledge, in the higheft terms, the refpectful good conduct
of the Governor, Seignor Don de Ponto.
The folloAving nautical obfervations Avere made here
by Mr. Crofley, the aftronomer, who had a tent pitched
in a fmall bay, at the back of the village near Rocky
Head in the Typa.
Latitude by meridian obfervations, 220   9' 40" N.
Longitude mean of obferved diftafices,   1130 32'   8" E.
By TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Byf$in|fle aMi&ides of the fun, taken by Mr. CroGey
N°~4SJ>,  box time-piece  (made by Mr. Arnold), was
flow for mean time 7h. 32' 42".ll, on the 8th of April
at noon, and gaining on meantime 0".4l9 per day.
The $des3w.eie fo variable between 9 h. and II h.,
-fi*H and change, there Avas no abfolfately fixing $be
"tfgte otfliigih waAer.r
Pleafantfoitefezes, aiid fair weather from the northward. I'd the rrtormtrg we got undet way, and faluted
the fort with 11 guns ; they returned an equal number.
We made fail to the eaftward, towards the Lantoe
paflage'V but the ebb tide having made ftrong, we
£©*ffld not Ayteather the fmall ifland of Chang-cheou,
^and-were obliged to bring up cldfeito it iifc4f fathoms
^Itbrnfealf amiile ©fits northern point; Macao beanirfg
Weft, and Linfing Ifland N. 15° E, Lathe evening,
with a 'Mght £lv from the jfduthward, we weighed,
and foon after came to in five fathoms. At day-light
Ling-ting bore N. 27° E., and the fouth point of
Lantoe S. 60° E. In this fituation 'we waited the
return of the fchooner, with the wind fouth-eafterly.
Variable weather, with heavy rains from the South,
and light winds.
9   2
7b  A3
Same m
book
I.
1.797-
April 14th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY, Sec.
Same.weather. In the night the fchooner arrifed,
and in the forenoon' we got under Avay. in company
with her; having light airs, but trifling, which obliged
us to anchor.    .
iph.
Light breezes, and fair wind at S..!iEtabWitti the
ebb tide in the afternoon Ave got under Avay, and
worked through the paflage of Lantoe. In the night
we came to, and heaving up the next morning, we
broke the iron flock of the anchor. At 8 A. M. we
came to in ten fathoms ;, Lantoe Point N. 46° W.
three or four leagues..
16th. j{N Frefli breezes and hazy weather from the eaftward.
With the tide in the afternoon we got under Avay,
and turned to windward. At dark we came to. A
large fwell came in from the eaftward; and in the
morning the fchooner having parted her 1 cable, we
remained at anchor till they recovered theij& .# mm
VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
TO THE
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
book m
Tranfactions during our Second Expedition to
the North through the Straits of Sangaar, and
on our Return home by the Coast of Corea and
the Yellow Sea to Macbas.
CHAP. I.
Delay of the Voyage ariftngfrom the Prevalence ofEafterly Winds.—
Ifland of Lamay*—Off Formofa^—Land at the Ifland ofPa-chu-
fan.-r—Obfervations- en it.—The- Ship unfortunately wrecked on a
Coml-Reef near,the Ifland of Typinfan.
A light air from the Weft on the 19th. carried "Us   bookii:
CHAP I
in fight of Poo-tory.    At dark it failed us, and we an-   —*-L.
1797.
chored in 14 fathoms.
April ipthf.
Moderate 174
book
ii.
j 797
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Moderate breezes and hazy Aveather, Avhich foon
increafed to a thick fog; and we had the wind
ApriUoth. eafterly. H$fTing sffeighed foon after nd£5n, Ave flood
over the Lima Iflands, and tacked clofe in the paflage
which divides the outer5 "tflatfds; and before dark we
came to an anchor near Poo-tory in 13 fathoms.
The fame Aveather ilfll eontmued from the E. N. E.,
and fo foggy as to prevent our feeing the points which
form the paflage to- 4ea between- Poo-tory and the
Grand Lima. I moft fincerely lamented this delay
fo contrary to my expectations. Nor had we the
leaft profpect of a change of wind to permit our
gettnigTo fea, the breeze and f&g ftm* continuing as
befdrer*6*!?
-aift.
aad.
On Sunday Ave got under way, the fog having
difperfed; and Ave fetched well up with the eaft
extreme of the Great Lima, tacking clofe in Avith a
finall bay vt*Qj,*ihe Weft of tfae-^point, Mjjiere are feveraj
feciufes. As we flood for Po«S-tory—we had fqually
&r£& thick weather #orn the N. E. quarter ;" and feeing
no profpect of cleir^hg the paflage before dark,
we bore up, and came to an anchor in 15 fathom*;
extreme point of Poo-tory bearing N. 80° E. one
mile, and the extreme of Grand Lima S. 45° E. Jx
blew ftrong in the night, and we had a large lwell
which TO THE NORTH PAC0K! OCEAN.
which ftill continued, notwiAbftancJing the wind moderated the folldwing,<lay. As the wind kept inAf&fiajjJj^
fixed in the eaftern quarter, Ave employed the boajlcssf
watering at the head of a fmall bay, within a rocky
iftet on itte Aveftesfrrpart of Poo-t,qry. Ma$ty fiftyiig-
boaffc took flielter in it for the fajiie purpofe, as
they found good anchjovage, and protection from th$
eafterly Avindsf; the foundings were regular from five to
two ifafhdBas.
175
April.
aiFfefh breezes and clear Aveather, "flftth the AvinjcJ
at N. N. E., induced me to get under wjay^ not#it&}
ftanding the he#yy fwell agah^ft us. We plied to the
eaftward ineffectually all the af|£i3gpon, gnd finding we
could not Aveather the Grand 'Lima before nig^L
Mid the anchorage being ineligible for the fehoooer^
we Avere once more nee^ffitate^ to bear up for our
former birth, and came to in 12 fathoms; the poia^
of Poo-tory E. S. E. three or four miles. Throughout
the might we had conflant lightning from the Aveft-
«-* £2 CD CD
ward. The morjiing Avas calm, with pleafant weather;
and foon after noon a Jfteeze of Avjad fpfinging up
cfiom the S. W. quarter, we Immediately got u$Kler
way, and made fail to the eaftward, with the ebb
tide in our favourr. The fchooner not being able
to weather Poo-tory* fhe pafled to the North o|St, and
6 South
26th.
27th. 1176
.&IVOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOfC   South of Way-loang, having a clear paflage, and no
—/-—*   foundings Avith  13 or 14 fathoms,  and before dark
April,     joined us in the offing.
I believe it is univerfally acknowledged the change
of the monfoon takes place in thefe feas in April, or
at leaft the Avinds are variable; but in no one inftance
have Ave experienced the obfervation, havteg had  a
regular eafterly Avind Avithout the fmalleft -variation, to
our great mortification   and difappointment:   for  it
in  the  firft place  very  much  retarded our  voyage
to the North;   and  in  the next by  the   prevalence
of the eafterly winds and foggy Aveather, Avhich concurred materially to have affected the health of our
people, wihjO were univerfally afflicted  Avith the dyfen-
tery, and fome of them in a violent degree.   We could
only attribute it to the hazy and confined flate of
the atmofphere, Avhich feldom permitted the fun to
appear.     Yet there  were  fome  who  fufpected  our
complaints   to   proceed   from   the   water   we   took
on board in the Typa.    Be that as it may, I never
faAV better water in my life, or more care taken in
procuring it.    In refpect to our flock,  Ave were more
at a  lofs to  conjecture the eaufe of their malady,
and in confequence not being able  to afford them
any relief; Ave loft the whole of our pigs, that had been
cur TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
our conftant flock fince leaving Otaheite, and ac-
CD *
cuftomed to their diet.
Light breezes and fair Aveather ; ftanding cut to fea
betAveen Poo-tory and the Great Lema.
177:
At 4 h. 30 m. the eaft point of the Great Lema bore
South three or four miles, and Ave fleered Eaft to go
South of Pedro Blanc©.
12 h. Moderate Aveather, Avith lightning to the
northward.
18h. Very little Avind : at 6 A.M. Ave fa\v Pedro
Blanco, bearing N. 18° E. three or four miles;
having run 39 miles from the time the Great Lema
bore South. Dark cloudy weather, and fqually;
the wind fuddenly fhifted to the eaft\$ard. At 22 h.
tacked, and flood to the northward.
24 h. Moderate breezes, and very hazy weather
prevented our feeing Pedro.
Frefli breezes and dark cloudy weather. At 2 h.
Ave faAV Pedro Blanco N. 15° W.; and at 4 h. we
pafled on the eaft fide of it, within half a mile, and Ave
had 22 fathoms, fine grey fand. We flood in fhore
three leagues, but the gloomy Aveather prevented our
At 6 h.  Ave tacked, having 14 fa-.
a a thorns.
feeing the land
29th. 178
BOOK
II.
1797.
April.
A VOTAGE OF DISCOVERY
thorns. At 7 h. the rock bore off us Soutfte, four or
five miles.
12 h.    Squally and variable, with4requent rain.
20 h.    Tacked and flood to the North.
24 h. Thick weather. Pedro Blanco N. 52° W.*
three or four leagues.
30th. Moderate breezes and hazy weather.    At 1 h. 30 m.
We faw the coaft of China to the N. W.; and at 2 h.
Pedro Blanco bore Weft, three or four leagues.
6 h. The land extended from N. 33° W. to *E. N. E.,
four or five leagues; and we had 13 fathoms-water.
At 6 h. 30'm. tacked Avith a very light air of Avind.
K$$3 h. Frefli breezes and dark gloomy weather.
At 22 h. 30 m. tacked in 36 fathoms, fandy bottom.
No fun vifible this morning.
May ift.        Erefh breezes and very hazy weather.    Our foundings gradually decreafed as Ave approached the land.
The coaft of China bore from N. 40° E. to Weft,
Avhich ^extreme made a fmall ifland. At f paft Ave
tacked in 14 fathoms, four or five leagues from the
fliore.
17 h. Tacked flb'ip ; and at 20 h. we fa% the land
indiftinctly through the haze: and at noon Ave tacked
hi *S5
TO JKE-NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
179
in the centre of a large bay; the points forming it    char
N. 7%° E. and S. 72° W. : an entrance to a river, or
opening for boats, bore N. 35° E. We had 10 fathoms,
tAvo miles off fliore. Off each extreme Ave obferved
a reef of rocks above \vatec.,,
24 h. Very hazy Aveather. The furface of the fea
Avas covered with innumerable fifliing-boats that Avent
out of this fandy bay.
I797-
May.
Frefh breezes and thick hazy weather, Avith rain.
17 h.    Strong breezes,  with heavy  rain.    Tacked
fliip, and double-reefed the topfails.
24 h.    Ditto Aveather.    Clofe-reefed the topfails.
'd
Frefli gales and thick hazy Aveather, with continual
rain.
6 h. The haze cleared aAvay for a fliort time, which
gave us an indiftinct vieAV of the land to the northAvard,
three or four leagues. Half paft, Ave Avore fliip and
ftood to the S. E.
12 h. Ditto gales, with thunder, lightning, and
very heavy rain, and a confufed head fea, obliged us
to take in the fore and mizen topfails. Half paft,
Avore fliip ; and the Aviiid Avas moderated and Arariable.
Set the topfails ; the gale, to all appearance, having
broke up.
a a 2 24 h.
3$ \
180
£ O O K
II.
1797.
May 4th.
24 h.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Dark and threatening weather.
Frefli breezes and dark hazy Aveather, with the appearance of heavy fqualls round the horizon, Avhich
produced inceffant rain and a calm for a feAv hours.
7 h.    Light airs, Avith rain.    Tacked fliip.
9 h.    Tacked fliip.
16 h. The wind fuddenly increafed to a ftrong gale
from the fouthAvard, which reduced us to our courfes
and main-topfail ; the fchooner being preffed with
fail to keep way Avith us. Towards noon it gradually
cleared away to the North and Weft, and Ave had
more moderate weather. This agreeable change admitted our obferving the latitude, for the firft time
fince our departure from Macao. Sounded 25 fathoms, fine fand.
|j§! The wind left us fuddenly, and we had clear pleafan t
weather. At 9 h. a gentle breeze from the S. W. permitted our courfe to the eaftward ; and Ave had 26
fathoms, fine fand and broken fhells.
Throughout the night Ave had a great deal of lightning, with frequent claps of thunder, and inceffant
heavy rain. At day-light Ave made fail, having a
moderate breeze, with dark and rainy weather.    Our
foundings TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
181
1797.
May.
foundings Avere 24 fathoms. At 22 h. we pafled over chap.
ftrong riplings, with the appearance of fhoal Avater;
and our foundings had decreafed to 15.and 10 fathoms,
coarfe gravel and broken fhells. We hove to Avhile
the fchooner went a-head of us, and afterwards followed her under a fail. Till noon we continued the
fame irregular foundings, varying every eaft of the
lead five or fix fathoms.
24 h.    Moderate breezes, Avith rain.
Variable weather, with continual hard rain. Our
foundings were unequal from 18 to 17 fathoms,
gravelly bottom. The fchooner kept a-head of us,
and in the night fhe carried a light.
CD CD
7 h. Light winds, Avith a great deal of lightning
and rain.    At 7 h. we fleered N. E.
13 h.    Variable winds, Avith heavy rain.
16 h.    Strong breezes.    Clofe-reefed the topfails.
20 h.    § paft, we had no bottom Avith 30 fathoms.
24 h. Black fand. The wind more moderate, but
ftill inceffant rain.
6th.
Moderate breezes and thick weather, with continual
rain : 55, 59, and 55 fathoms, fine fand. Thefe
foundings Avere regular till after 7 h., when we had
60
7th. 182
A-VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
1797.
May.
60 fathoms, black fand ; after which time Ave had no
bottom Avith 100 fathoms.
7h. LigJ^t aiiis-and cloudy, Avith fliOAvers of rajygL
during the might.    At day-Jight Ave faAV land extendr
CD - > OJ   I *f -CD
ing from S. E. to N. E.
19 h. The breeze died. aAvay, and Ave had calm
fultry Aveather, Avith intermitting fliOAvers of rain. At
noon the higher parts of Formofa Avere obfcured, but
the extremes bore from S. 68° E. to N. 40° E., four or
five leagues.    In this fituation we had  114 fathoms,
CD *
gravelly bottom.    Dark gloomy Aveather.
8th. Calms and light airs, Avith gentle fliOAvers of rain.   At
5 h. Ave Avere Avithin two leagues of the fliore ; and Ave
tacked in 23 fathoms, muddy bottom. The coaft Avas
Avell Avooded, Avith Tandy beaches; and Ave obferved
many habitations. After dark the Aveather cleared .up,
and AA7e had a fine moon-light, Avhich gave us an opportunity of obferving for the .latitude.
6 h. In the morning, Avith a light breeze Ave flood
in fliore, and fetched nearly the fame fituation Ave
Avere in laft evening, Avhen Ave tacked ; the extremes
extending from N. 30° E. to S. 45° E.
9 h. Finding the Avind again fixed in the N. E.
quarter, and no probability of its changing to enable
7 us mmr™m
1797.
May.
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
us pafling through the ftraits of Formofa, I thought it chap
needlefs to lofe any more time in the attempt, and accordingly altered our courfe to the fouthAvard, with a
pleafant breeze and fair Aveather, a pleafure we had
long been deprived of. As Ave fleered along fliore,
we perceived feveral people on fmall floats going out
a fifliing. Some of them came along-fide, which gave
us an opportunity to remark their curious appearance.
They Avere limply compofed of bamboos lafhed together, about 20 feet by 6 feet; the maft fixed in a
wooden flep in the centre, and they appeared to fail
fall.    Each float carried three men.
By miftake Ave loft taking the funs altitude at noon;
but the fchooner being Avithin hail, their latitude will
be nearly ours r Avhen the extremes of Formofa bore
from M 12° E. to S. 46° E.; high and ragged land,
N. 35° E. to N. 75° E. four or five miles.
Over the beach Ave faAV feveral junks at anchor; and
the country feemed Avell inhabited. The ifland, called
Lamay in the charts, S. 35° E. four or nVe leagues.
At 4h. 30m. the fouth point of the ifland of Lamay     9*-
bore Eaft.   This ifland is of moderate elevation, and not
more than five or fix miles in circumference; diftant
from
183
I
111
If 184
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
1797.
May.
from Formofa three or four leagues. It was cultivated
and inhabited, as Ave faAV many houfes: Ave alfo obferved
cattle feeding on feveral parts. By our run fince noon,
I make its latitude 22° 22' N.; and it bears from the
land fet at noon, near Fort Zealand, N. 18° W. and
S. 18° E.
I S< I
I' I
At funfet we had no foundings; and the extremes
of Formofa bore from N. 16° W. to S. 50° E.; the
ifland of Lamay, N. 10° W. to N. 7° E., off fliore four
or five leagues. This night Avas very light; airs and
calms; and Ave had no bottom Avith 120 fathoms of
line.    At day-light Formofa extended from N. 20° W.
J CD
to S. 70° E., five or fix leagues diftant. We fleered
more to the eafiward, for the fouth point of Formofa,
Avithout gaining any foundings; and at 21 h. 30 m. we
faw the Vele Rete Rocks from the maft-head. By
noon we were betAveen them and the fouth part of
Formofa, with fine clear weather, and a gentle breeze
from the AveftAvard. A good obfervation made the
latitude 21o 50' N. : the Rocks of the Vele Rete
bearing S. 34° E., eight miles ; fouth-eaft point of
Formofa, N. 63° E. ; fouth-Aveft point, N. 35° W.;
and Ave had no bottom Avith 75 fathoms. Thefe two
points bear from each other S. 85° E. and N. 85* W.
J2\    The fhore between  them is  low,  Avith  fandy
beaches; TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
beaches; and at unequal diftances are fcattered fome'
high black rocks. The land rofe gradually from the
fea, prefenting a fertile appearance, interfperfed Avith
fome rocky eminences : one of them very remarkable,
in the fhape of a friar's hood. Vele Rete Rocks bear
N. 12° E. and S. 12° W. from the fouth-eaft point,
diftant 12 miles ; and from the fouth-weft point,
N. 34° W. and S. 34° E., 15 miles. We were very
fortunate in having fb^ goo4 an opportunity for determining the fituation of the above places; as they are
not laid doAvn fufficiently correct in the charts, Avith
refpect to their latitude. In the paflage we experienced a ftrong current felting to the eaftward,
with ftrong riplings.
Soon after noon we faw the ifland* of Botol Tobago
Xima bearing N. 76° E., on with the fouth-eaft point
of Formofa; and at lh. 30m. the fouth-eaft point bore
Weft, and Ave hauled up N. N. E. At 4 h. P. M. the
wind fuddenly died away, and we had light breezes
from the northAvard. At funfet the fouth point of
Formofa bore S. 46° W.; and Botol Tobago, S. 48° E.
to S. 53° E.; Low Ifland, N.. 35° E., off the high land
of Formofa, four or five miles, N. 62° W. It was
nearly calm throughout the night, arraVe found the
effects of a ftrong current fetting to the North; for at
b b day-light
CHAP.
I.
• .$797-
May. 186
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY.
•1797.
-Maf.
m
book daylight Ave were well up with the low ifland, and we
had a gentle Av4iid &Om the fouth ward. 'J'he ifland
of Botol Tobago Xima S. 4» W. to S. 19r»'W. At
18 h. the north ex^eroe of the Ioav ifland bore Weft,
four or five miles. A rock is fituated North of it.
$his ifland was covered Avith verdure, and is of little
Extent. At noon it bore of us S. 21° W.; and the
extrern*©'feuid of Formofa, North, off the neareft fliore
-three or four leagues ; and we had no foundings.
Takiflg a departure* from Formofa fouth point, Ave are
30' North of account.
The coaft from the fouth point continues low for
eight or ten leagues; and two or three leagues North
of it, you have anchorage in 20 and 15 fathoms, half
a rxaUe from the fliore; and feveral ftreams of water
very convenient to be got at, a-breaft of you. In. 22°
3W N. the high land commences, rifing abruptly from
the fea; and the/^ery furmnftsof thef mountsjns clothed
with woocJLe Thefq>i#imenfemountains take the direction of the ifland, neaj% North and South.
South^eatftlpofntof Formofa,
Vele Rete Rocfce,
0,,m,       v.       CN. Point, 220 05'
Botol -Tobaeo Aima,. •< _ _ . •*
<* nttr* c S. Point,  220   o'
Low Ifland or Tobago,
Little Botol Tobago Xima,
Lat.
Long.
2i° 55'
3°"
120° 47'
21° 43'
c
1200 44'
12"
22° 05'
0"
121° 35'
0"
22°    O'
&
121° 41'
0"
22° 40'
0"
121?-3#
O"
21° 54'
0"
121° 47'
30"
We ■PQMI
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
fprung up from the N. E., and we flood in fhore
till paft 6, when Ave tacked within I a mile, having1
no foundings with 100 fathoms. The extremes of
Formofa, feen indiftinctly through the haze, bore from
N. 8° E. to S. 18° Wh ; a fmall ftream of water through
the vallies bore S. 18° W. Gur eftimated latitude1
was 23° 12' N.;. but the current ftill continuing, will
make our fituation more northerly.
187
We fet the rigging up fore and aft.   At 4h. a breeze    CHAP.
I797-"
May
nth.
Count Benyoufky is faid to have foqnd a harbour
on this part of the coaft, but we faw nothing wearing
that appearance. '. We lay to till 10 h., Avhen the
fchooner having joined us, we ftood to 4&e 3SF-. E.,
having the Avind at N. N. W.    After'fbidnight we had
CD" CD
a fteady wind from the N.Bl quarter, vrffit darK
gloomy we&ther, and frequent fliOAvers of tain. We
had fight of the fun about noon, but could not depend
upon it.
This oday we had the misfortune to find the fore-
maft rotten, extending through the centre of the mafi;
from the heel upwards above the mainftays. It was1
difcovered after the rigging had been fet up, by the1
mafia fettling and renting beloAv the wedges, opening
fo much as to difcover the internal part to be errarerjr
d b 2 decayed,
itth. a
188
179.7.
May.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK decayed, leaving fix inches diameter of found wood
©utfide. We prepared by fifties, and Avedging the
maft in the upper deck, to make it do for the A^oyage:
the carpenter thinking it practicable, as our fifties-
were the length of the maft; and for the prefent Ave
carried very eafy fail, and got the top-gallant maft
down upon deck. At 9 h. Ave tacked, and throughout
the night Ave had moderate Aveather.. At 21 h. we faAV
an ifland to the northward; and at noon we were
within three or four leagues of it, Avhen it extended
from North to N. 23° E.    No obfervation..
Illl       At 4 P. M. the ifland bore from N. 55° E. to N.
74° E., AvhenAve tacked in hopes of getting clofe to it
before dark, in Avhich we Avere difappointed ; for at 7
Ave were at the fame diftance from it, Avhen it extended'
from N. 18° W.   to   N. 20°  E.    Several fires were
lighted upon, it immediately after dark; and Ave had
no foundings Avith  100 fathoms.     At  midnight avO
tacked : at 5 A. M. the ifland bore from N. 38° W. to
N. 53° W., five, or fix leagues; and we faw more iflands
to the eaftward.    The forenoon Ave had light airs and
pleafant Aveather, and we flood to the North.    By our
obfervation at noon it appeared Ave had experienced
a ftrong current, Avhich had fet us N. 43° E., 88 miles
the firft day after leaving. Formofa.    As the fehooneiv
in* TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
in the morning of the 11th, had feen the above ifland,
its quartered direction was N. E. and S-. W., about five
or fix miles, of moderate elevation, falling abruptly
at each extreme, with a peaked hill in the centre.
At noon it bore from S. 86° W. to S. 76° W., about
ten miles ; Hummock Ifland, S. 46° E.; and another
more extenfive, S. 65° E. to S. 85° E., near fix or feven.
leagues.    Thefe two we had feen laft year.
189
CHAP.
I.
i797-
May.,
Light airs continued till funfet; and throughout the     Mth»
night it was clear and fultry weather.    At 6h. 10 m.
the weftern ifland bore from S. 82° W. to Weft ; Hummock Ifland, S. 41° E. ;   and the eaftern ifland,. S-.
64° E. to S.. 88° E-   At funrife a gentle breeze per-
•mitted our fleering towards the iflands ; and at 22.h.
the Hummock Ifland bore of us South,, eight or ten
■miles.    It appeared broken and rocky, and of very
•little extent.    Frem the main-top we could difcern a
fandy ifland, noticed  laft year, which now bore S.
30° E., on with the weft point of the eaftern ifland.
At noon  we Avere within three miles   of this  land,
iwhieU was highly diverfified by wood, and prefented a
;iogry  fertile profpect;   but Ave could not reach the
.bottom with 100 fathoms.    The entrances extended
ffeom South to N. 60° E.; Hummock Ifland, S. 22° W.;
a fmall bay, S. 45° E.:  the fouth point four or five
6 miles..
II ^•tl
190
*797-
M>yv
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK miles. We faAV fome canoes palling clofe m fhore;
and the fchooner was directed to keep between us and
the land.
fl| We fleered in the dArecflbion of the ifland, at a league
diftance.    At 4h. we were a-breaft of a fmall ifland
off the N. E. part.    It Avas low and flat, covered Avith
brufh-wood   and   coarfe  grafs.      An   extenfive  reef,
partly dry, extended from each extreme.    This fmall
ifle is very little diftance from the larger one,  which
tended  to the S. E. from its north extreme ; and we
fleered Eaft for another ifland,  which we had pafled
laftt^ycar on its eaftern fide.    We foon after difcovered
the range of low iflands joining each other by corai
reefs, that feemed to exclude any paflage between the
tAVO large iflands ; and yet we had no foundings.    At
7 h. the iflet bore from 53° W. to 65° W., four or five
- miles, on with the nocth extreme of the fouthern large
ifland ;  extreme of ditto, S. 18° E.;   Peaked Ifland
among the reefs, S. 25° E.;   the other ifland   about
Village point extreme, S. 55° E.,~ and extending to
N. 74° E., five or fix leagues.    At 11 h. Ave hauled
our wind, and remained plying  till   daylight, when
the extremes extended from N. 80° E. to S. 10° W.
three or four leagues off fhore; and the ifland we hati
pafled  in the  afternoon   bore from  S* 30° W.  t#
V S. 60° TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
the land; I therefore difpatched a boat to acquire
fome knoAvledge of the inhabitants, whom Ave plainly
difcerned Avith our glaffes. I Avas prevented laft year
from gaining any information refpecting them by
bad weather; and hitherto Ave could find no fafe
anchorage from the depth of water and corally
bottom.
At noon we were Avithin four miles of the fhore,
abreaft of a bay overrun Avith reefs; and Ave had
125 fathoms Avater, hard ground : the extremes
bearing from N. 56° E. to S. 48° W. The ifland
in this part Avas contracted to a narro# ■ ifthmus,
and South of it Avas a confpicuous fugi!r*-loaf hill.
Towards the evening the boat returned from the
fhore, having been protected by the fchooner during
the time they had landed. With fome difficulty
they fourid a paflage through the coral reef Avhich
extends! along the coaft nearly half a mile off: Avithin
it the boat was well fheltered; and without the
reef their foundings were irregular from fifty to five
fathoms.
&s...   ' t    '•! '|'~--   They
191
S. 60° W.    In the forenoon Ave had light airs and    chap.
& i.
fultry   Aveather,   Avhich   prevented   our   approaching
1797.
May.
16th.
ii
ill
i 192
-BOOK
II.
*797-
May.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
They had the good fortune foon after difembarking
to find a path-way, which foon led them to a fmall
village, confuting of about 30 houfes. On entering
one of them they found an elderly man, Avho treated
them Avith great civility, and offered refrefhments,
Avhich they partook of. The reft of the inhabitants
entirely deferted their houfes, but obferving the
peaceable behaviour of the mailer (Mr. Chapman),
on re-embarking they joined their party at the. water's
fide, excepting the Avomen Avho were feen at fome diftance in the country.
Thefe people were different in fome refpects in their
appearance both to the Chinefe and Japanefe. Their
hair was rolled up to the crown of the head, and
fattened with two metal pins; and they Avere drefled
in loofe linen gowns and trowfers. They faluted the
officers by joining their hands and lifting them to
their heads in a flow manner. The houfes were of
one flory, of a fquare form, ^and the roof meeting in a
point, and thatched with coarfe reeds: the infide
of them Avere neat and clean, and covered with matts
upon Avhich they flept. The name of the ifland they
called Patchufan, and the large one to the Aveft of it
Rocho-o-ko-ko. Their produce was the fame, both
iflands abounding by their defcription in rice, millet,
fweet TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
193
tfwebt potatoes and tarro.    They have alfo black cattle   chap.
and horfes, pe'&ehes and limes; and from appearances   *——*—■
I 70*7*.
our gentlemen were led to judge they pbffeffed many     .May
other articles which their fhort flay prevented -theft*
afcertaining.
They appeared harmlefs arid- indffenfive in their
"manners ; nor did they fhew any arms or weapons of
defence.
Light airs and favourable weather. At 5 h. the
boat returned, and we flood to the north-weft ward
With a frefli breeze. At 7 h. the extremes of Patch u-
fan bore from Eaft to S. 20° E., and Rocho-o-ko-ko
S: 10° W. to S. 42° W.
12 h.    Moderate weather ; Avore fliip.
17 h. At daylight the north extreme of Patchufan
bore S. 65° E., and at noon it bore S. 14° Wc fi«
leagues. The Peaked Hill S. 30° Vvr., and Ave faw
no other land. The carpenters employed hooping
the fifties on the foremaft, and the feamen woolding
the maft; which, enabled us to carry the^brefail rfefed,
and fore-topfail clofe reefed. <
i<5th
i
We fleered Eaft with the intention of examining
the nokh Me of the iflands' Ave had pafled to  thp     ****
c c South 194
BOO
II.
■ 1797-
May.
{
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
K South laft year; and the fchooner's fignal Avas made to
fleer E. by S. At tAvo P.M. we juft difcovered a
fmall fandy ifland from the deck, bearing S. 15* E.
five leagues. At 3 h. Ave faw another ifland bearing
Eaft, and we hauled E. N. E.j and at 4h. the
„ fchooner's fignal was made to haul her Avind upon
the larboard tack. At J paft 5 we hauled our Avind,.
and fhortened fail for the fchooner to come up
with us. At 7 P- M. an hummock making like an
ifland, beyond the extreme of the other ifland, bore
S. 60° E.; and the extreme point of land feen bearing
Eaft, noAv bore S. 10 W. about five leagues. At
this time the mate of the watch from the mafthead
reported there was no land to be feen to the Eaft or
North of the Hummock Ifland, nor in any other
direction; neither Avas there the fmalleft danger in
vieAv from the appearance of the coaft to the S. E.
on our lee-beam. I therefore flood on, meaning to
tack at 8 hours, and ply to the Aviradward till daylight.
The moon Ave expected to rife at midnight, and the
fchooner Avas not yet up in her ftation. The fhip
Jay N. E. f N. going 41 knots Avith her main tack
on board. Immediately after taking the bearings,
I left the deck to protract our fituation; which I
found to be on the north fide of the ifland we had
pafl&J on the 3d of December laft year (called by
the TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Wo
the natives Typinfan), and  Avhich bloAving Aveather    chap.
prevented our having any communication with. ^m^m*
About half after feven Avhite water Avas feen a-head
and upon each boAV, and reported to the officer
of the watch (Lieut. Vafhon); and almoft directly
after, the fhip ftruck upon a reef of coral rocks.
Having felt the fliock, Avhich Avas not violent, I
inftantly Avent upon deck, and by the Avay met Mr.
Vaflion coming to acquaint me with the difafter.
The officers and men Avere upon deck in a moment,
and the fails directly braced aback. It appeared
to me the helm was a-Aveather, and the fhip's head
about E. N. E., fails all full. Had the helm been
put a-lee on feeing the danger, I think we fhould have
efcaped it.
1797-
May.
1
The proper fignals were made to the fchooner, andf
the mafter fent to anchor her as near as poflible, to
heave by her. The fhip foon after paid off, with
her head to the eaftward; and Ave hauled up the
mainfail, fhivering the other fails, to let her go round
without acquiring head Avay: before the paid off to
the fouthward, flie again ftruck fore and aft, and
remained fixed at laft with her head due South.
Breakers were then upon each boAV, and we had from
c c 2 five 196
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
*797»
May.
five to fifteen fatbfcwns in the. ftarboard chains^ and
only 2f fathoms at times both a-head and a-ftern.
Having choked the rudder, the topmafts Avere 'ftruck;
and Ave began hoifipng the boats out, the loAver yards
having been kept up for that purpofe. At this time
the fliip did not ftrike violently, and had only made
19 inches Avater. Unfortunately the wjnd frefliened
from the N. N. W-9 and the fea began to break Avith
great force, Avhich foon knocked the rudder off: we
fecured it Avithhawfers. It Avas now 9 o'clock, and av£
only waited the fchooner's anchoring, to attempt
heaving off; and in the mean time began hoifting
out the long-boat: during which period the flii^
made water very fall; and the violent fhocks file
received, rendered it doubtful Avhether the mafts.
would fland. The Avater increafed fo much upon the
pumps, that before the long-boat Avas out we had
feven feet water in the hold. At th^-ei|%ne the
fchooner had anchored near us in 25 fathoms, and the-
matter returned on board, when the .fhip faddenif
changed her pofition, flinging round from South
to North by the Eaft, and flifflring more violenifcly than
ever. Before we could carry ©Sir hawfers to the
fchooner, the carpenter reported the water up to the
orlop-deck, and the fhip having bilged forward;,
we therefore gave up the idea of attempting to heave
7 off, "SP!
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
The fpare pumps were doAvn the
fore hatchway, but the water ftill increafing upon the
gun-deck, rendered all our exertions ufelefs. The
officers -were unanimous Avith me in opinion, that
nothing could be done tofave the fliip; and to cut
away the mafts Avould have no effect upon her, as aSie
Avas fettling faft forward from her being bilged, as
Ave imagined, in her larboard bow. It now "became
highly neeeftary to prefer-ve the people, and the
boats Avere ordered ready for their reception; Avhife
they were employed trying to collect arms and aramui
nition, with arfrttR&ers' and carpenters'tools. But the
fhip laying nearly on her beam ends, and the gun*-
deck being full of water Avith the wafhing of the
bulk-heads to and fro, chefts, Sec prevented their
faving many. On one fide of the fliip we had only
6 feet Avater, and on the other 3\ fathoms. The
fore part of her Avas immerfed in the fea, and the furf
breaking over the upper deck. As nothing more could
be procured for the prefent, the fhip's creAv were fent
into the boats, Avhich was happily effected Avithout
any accident; and foon after 11 o'clock they reached
the fchooner in fafety, and Avith the lofs, both officers
and men, of every thing belonging to them. The
pinnace returned for myfelf and the remaining officers;.
and
19X
off, for had Ave fucceeded, the fliip muft inevitably    chap.
have foundered;
.1797-
May.
Ill 198
ii
1797-
May.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    and at half an hour after midnight we quitted the
Providence, leaving her a perfect wreck to the mercy
of the fea.
The moon rofe at about 12 h., and the wind increafed ; but having both anchors down in foul ground,
we thought it prudent to take one of them up. At
4 A. M. we parted the other cable ; and fortunately
calling the right Way Ave made fail, and moft happily
efcaped another fhipwreck, which muft have proved
fatal to many of us. We were now doubly thankful
in our prefent fituation, miferable as our profpects
were : but by comparifon of what our fate had nearly
been, we had every reafon to be contented with our
lot, and to rejoice in our prefervation, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
CHAP. II.
Singular Humanity of the Natives of Typinfan to us, in our diflreftfed
Situation.—Defcription of their Country, Manners, and Habitations.—Groupe of the Madjicoftmah I/lands tributary to thofe of
Lieuquieux.—Arrival in the Typa—Difpofal of Part of the Crew
on board his Majefty's Ship Swift.—Departure from China to
furvey the Coafts of Tartary and Corea.
jt\t day-light we had frefh breezes and hazy Aveather;
Avind from the N. N. W., and the matter was dispatched to the Avreck of the fhip, to fee if any thing
could be preferved for our future fubfiftence, and for
the better equipment of the fchooner. In the mean
time Ave plied off the reef, and at noon obferved in
the latitude of 25° 2' N.; the Ifland Hummock, S.
35° E. four leagues; extreme land, S. 10° W.; fhip-
wreck, two cables ; outer part of the reef, N. 40*"" E.;
and Ave had 56 fathoms, rocky bottom.
In the afternoon the mafter returned from the
Avreck, Avith the long boat full of umvove cordage,
fails, &c»  which they had  unbent,  and the kedge
anchor,
1797
May 200
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    anchor, Avith a 7 inch haAvfer.    All thefe articles Avere
■—/-—-   of great ufe to us, particularlv the anchor.
1797.
May.
They found the larboard fide of the fliip entirely
immerfed in the fea, \ip to the hatchways, and the fea
making a fair break *over her. The decks Avere partly
bloAvn up, and the bulk-heads fore, and aft entirely
Avaflied aAvay. Every moveable article was gone;
nor Avas there any figns of books, nautical or mathematical inftruments of any kind remaining, to my
great mortification and difappointmenL. \
The officers and people were equally unfortunate4;
finding their property either deftroyed, or* beloAv fife
decks A\-here they could not get at it. In the cabin
the}' found feveral ftand of arms, cutlaffes, &c. Avnich,
in our jirefent flate, Avere to us of effential confe-
_)      quence. v^-,
As the Mailer found it impoffible to procure any
thing more from the wreck that could be of real ufe,
and our quantity of water being very fcanty for otfr
numbers, it became a principal confideration to procure fome from the iflands; as alfo, in the e"venx of
not gemng any provifions from the fliip, our exiftence
depended upon acraing to our flock in the" fame manner : TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
iflands.
201
ner :   and We knew Tvpmfan to be inhabited,  and    CHAP.
ii.
moft   probably   equally  productive Avith  the  other    |—#***»
*797-
May.
After clearing the boats Ave therefore made fail to
the fouth-weftward, with tfchem in Company; and at
6 P. M. Ave bore up to the foutlnvard, ranging a final!
ifland, which bears E. N. E. from Hummock Ifland,
about 12 miles the weftern point of it. There is a
paflage betAveen it and Typinfan, but it did not appear xtefr clear of dangers. At dark Ave brought to
for the night, having 50 fathoms witfein one mile of
the fliore. This ifland Avas of moderate ele¥a^ion,
and very little extent.
At day-light Ave were diftant three or four leagues
from Typinfan ; and we fleered N. E. to pafs between
it and the other ifland, in hopes of finding anchorage.
As we approached the fhore we had great overfalls,
varying from 15 to 2 fathoms ; and in many parts the
fhoals were nearly dry. By frequent tacking and
Avearing Ave at laft cleared them, and came to an
anchor in 13 fathoms, clofe in Avith the S. E part of
the fmall ifland, Avhere there appeared fome profpect
of procuring wood, water, Sec A canoe immediately
eame off to us, and to them avc expreffed our Avants,
d d which.
J
<3 202
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
■   1797.
May.
19th;
which they feemed to comprehend, as they left us
directly, and foon after returned Avith water. From
the veffel, Ave could fee tAvo large villages; and a boat,
Avith an officer, Avent to each of them. They were received in the moft friendly manner, and the boats
returned full of Avater. In the afternoon they fent in
canoes a much larger quantity, with fome wood and
large packages of canary feed, alfo fome poultry and
pigs, without aiking for any thing in return, or feem-
ing to expect it. They ftrongly expreffed a defire for
us to proceed to the eaftern village, Avhere they could
more conveniently fupply our Avants. As the weather
continued favourable, early the next morning the
long-boat and cutter \>$me, fent to the wreck of the
fhip in fearch of provifions ; and at 21 h. we got under
way, and turned to windward, Avith an eafterly wind,
towards the village fituated in that direction at tAvo
or three leagues diftant.
In our traverfes we met with a fucceflion of reefs,
having deep water betAveen them ; and at laft with
great.difficulty, and once touching upon a coral rock,
Ave came to an anchor in 3i fathoms, oppofite the village, and.near feveral fmall junks. Our friends made
us Avelcome Avith a boat-load of wood, and three large
hogs.    The afternoon Avas rainy unpleafant Aveather,
Avith TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
20t
with a ftrong foutherly Avind ; and we had no com-    CHAP.
ii.
munication Avith the fliore.    After breakfaft, on the   *—j—!
folloAving day, Ave paid'a vifit on fliore to our humane
friends, Avho received us with the greateft civility, in a
large and convenient houfe well adapted to the
country : the floors were well matted, and every thing
relating to the furniture extremely neat. On thefe
mats Ave fat in the Oriental cuftom, and partook of
the refrefliments they offered, fuch as, tea, pipes and
tobacco. Several venerable old men encircled our
party, dreffed in large loofe gOAvns of fine manufacture, fimilar to tiffany, of various colours and different
patterns. Thefe floAving garments Avere tied round
the middle Avith a fafh; and they alfo -Avore trowfers
and fandals. The crown of their heads Avere fhaved,
and the hair from behind brought up to a knot on the
top, and fecurely fattened by metal pins, in the Malay
ftyle. They made ufe of fans univerfally; and fome
wore neat ftraw hats tied under the chin. The aged
men had moft refpectable, beards.
1797.
May.
ill
The houfe appeared to belong to the principal
people, and Avas fituated in an elevated fituation, at
fome little diftance from the fea, environed by a fquare
wall of ftones 12 feet high, leaving'a gateway to enter
by,  over Avhich Avas a guard-houfe.    The rooms Avere
fpacious,
D p 2 204
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
1797.
Mav.
fpacious, opening on the fides, with projecting balconies. We found no difficulty in making them comprehend our wants ; but Cxtremfc fatisfaction in finding they had not only the inclination but the poAver
of fupplying them.
V-
After taking leave we Avere defirous of Avalking
jtbout the town, which they ftrdngly objected to; nor
could all our perfuafions induce them. Not wifhing
in our prefent circumftances to give any offence, we
gave up the point, and proceeded in the boat fome
diftance to the Avatering place, Avhere we found the inhabitants moft cheerfully aflifting our people in drawing Avater from a ftone Avell, that had been made for
Avatering the adjacent plantations. They affined us,
it would alfo anfAver for wafhing; and for drinking
they Avould fend us fome better.
ioth. The afternoon was fine, and our friends fent off rice,
wood, and water. The night was rainy, Avith unr
fettled weather; and in the morning we had the Avind
at S. W., with the profpect of fair Aveather, AAdiich induced me to Jfend another boat, Avith a party of marines, to trace the beach oppofite to the Avreck, in cafe
of any provifions coming on fliore, or to affift the
other boats if neceffary.    Strong fqualls of Avind foon
put Page 104
Weete ire J3r Strand. fc->- TO THEVNQRTH PAC^IC OCEAN.
205
put aiftop to their e&pe$jfion; and Ave Av^re obliged-
to let go another anchor, to prevent driving on fliore.
This boifterous Aveather continued fo as to alarm us
foriihe fafety of the other boats; but in the evening,
to our great joy, they returned in fafety. They had
viftted the wreck, but could not procure any provifions. from h^r, or jby tracing the coaft, j where it Ava$
naturaHy conjectured they Avould drift to. The fhip
remained Avith her ftarboard fide juft aboAre the fea;
and tbiey had cut her mafts aAvay, expecting they
would come on fliore. The matter had vifited Hummock llfland, Avhich, to $heir furprife, they found inhabited : it Avas inaccefBble except i$i one part, but
cultivated AAsifch potatoes, &c. In the building of the
houfes they obferved feveral pieces of fhip timber;
and in furrounding the rfland, they faw feveral human
fkulls in the caverns formed by the rocks, probably
the remains of fome fliip more unfortunate than om>
felves.
CHAP*
II.
*?97-
May.
Ill
Atlfl
1
* 7m
Y
fjS
Before their arrival at the ifland, the inhabitants
had brought them water and potatoes; and in many
other inftances, during their abfence, did they receive
the fame kind attentions. Thefe good people Avere
fully acquainted with our misfortune, and naturally
conceived our greateft Avants Avere the articles of life,
which,
fl 106
BOOK
II.
1797.
May.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Avhich, fuch as they poffeffed,  they parted with in a
moft friendly manner.
As it plainly appeared from the matter's reprefenta-
tion Ave had nothing to expect from the Avreck of the
fliip, any unneceffary delay here became dangerous
from the Avant of provifions, having^, very infufficient
quantity even at fliort alloAvance, confidering our
paflage to Canton Avas to be made againft the S. W.
monfoon; and for fo numerous a crew (viz. 112 fouls)
we could only carry three weeks' water: added to
Avhich, the fmallnefs of the veffel prevented more
than one fourth of the number being below at the
fame time; and Ave had to dread every complaint
among the people, who Avere Avithout clothing and
deftitute of every comfort, fhould Ave have to encounter bad weather. It was my idea, had Ave faved
a fufficient quantity of provifions from the fliip, to
have left feventy men on the ifland Avhile I profecuted
the voyage in the fchooner, returning for them in the
N. E. monfoon, after concluding the furvey to the
North: but I much fear, from the diflike the inhabitants had to our feeing the country, they Avould have
prevented the execution of my plan, at leaft with their
confent; and without their approbation it .-would not
have been advifable.
In TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
In  the morning of the 23d we received from our    CHAP
ii.
friends the remainder of (their prefents, wtiieh amounted
in all to 50 bags of wheat, 20 of rice, and 3 of fAveet
potatoes; each bag containing 1 cwt. : alfo, one
bullock of 3 cwt., fix large hogs, and plenty of
poultry. Indeed whatever we afked for they immediately fent us ; but our fmall veffel.would not admit any thing more: and what was moft acceptable,
they gave at laft all their jars full of water, containing five gallons each, at leaft as many as Ave could
ftore upon deekf a ftpl
1797.
May 23d
In the courfe of the day the heel of the fhip's fore-
maft Avent paft; alfo a great deal of her planking.
We towed the maft on fhore, and took the iron hoops
from it that Ave had fo lately put on. The maft itfelf
was perfectly rotten.
When the fchooner Avas i*eady for failing, accompanied by the officers, Ave paid our laft vifit, carrying'
Avith us fome trifling prefents, the moft acceptable
we had. We endeavoured to make them comprehend
hoAV fenfible Ave were of their kind attention, and I
believe we fucceeded, as they accepted our gifts Avith
great fatisfaction, particularly a draAving of the fliip
and   a  telefcope.    After partaking  of their refrefh-
ments, 208
BOOK
II.
1797.
May.
» (
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
ments, thefe venerable old men accompanied us to
the beach,, where the long-boat, completely rigged,
fitted: with fails, &c. lay at anchor, ready for their acceptance. They received her Avith great joy, and
directly took paffeffion. Thus did avc part moft
amicably with thefe humane civilised people, not
unaffected by the favours Ave had received from them
in our diftreffed fituatidnilv
To the N. y$. of cPypinfan is a fmall ifland called;
Coruraah, betAveen Avhich and Eraboo ifae ifland
where we firft anchored) is a paflage to the fea; but
the mafter reprefenting it Agather intricate,! Ave preferred the old channel we had come in by*3hafi*ag:
tavo boats a-head to Avarry.us of danger. With thefe
precautions Ave got under Wafynn the morning; and
at noon the rocks of Eraboo fouth point h#e Norj&y
Iavo or three miles; the ifland of Afhumah, fituated
to the Weft of the fouthern part of TypMan, S«20° E.,
three, or four mtt^st-the Aveft e^|f§me of Eraboo, N.
70° W. An indifferent obfervation ma^ie our latitude
2j4° 42' 30" N. : the^vind frqm the S. E. quarter Avith
fair Aveather. Our .foundings^ varied frenM^.to 12r
fa3hon*&; an<§» t[he cleagiefs of the water pointed out
ike flioal*§eft fpots. j^jfyen Ave brought the Aveft
point of Eraboo and the ifland of Afl^ima in one
1 bearing, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
bearing, N. W. and S. E., Ave had pafled the flioal
Avater.     The boats were called  on board,   and  we
jnajle fail to the N. W., ranging Eraboo at the diftance
of three miles.
4 After rounding the weft point of Eraboo, we hauled
up N. N. E.; and at 4 P. M. we had fight of the
Avreck, and pafled feveral planks and a cafk of hops,
Avhich the boats picked up. Before the fliip was feen
Ave plainly obferved the reef, the fea breaking upon
it very high: yet there Avas no more wind, only in a
different quarter, Avhen the fliip ftruck; and inconceivable is it may and does appear, the breakers were
hardly feen before the fhip was on fhore. Such Avas
our unhappy deftiny, to be eaft aAvay, even when Ave
had not or could not apprehend the leaft danger from
appearances, or from any forefight of mine, and depending upon a good look-out to be kept after dark,
agreeable to my Avritten orders, and conftant directions
both day and night.
We fleered N. E. from 4 to 6 P. M., Avhen the outer
breakers, Avithin them Avere rocks above water, bore
S. 15° E. on with Hummock Ifland, tAvo or three
miles diftant;. and Ave had no foundings Avith 100
fathoms.    In this fituation Ave faAV no land to the eaft-
e e ward 210
BOOK
■' II.
x797-
May.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Avard of the Hummock. Our eftimated latitude was
25° 13, 30" N., and longitude 125° 12' E. The hull
of the fliip was juft v^fible, and the fea made a continual breach over her.
This groupe of iflands, off which the fliip Avas loft,
confifts of feA7enteen iflands. They are of different
fizes, and many of them very fmall and uninhabited.
They extend from 24° 10' North to 24° 52' 30" N. latitude, and from 123°* 2' Eaft to 125° 37' E. longitude.
The inhabitants diftingndfhed them by the name* of
Madjicofemah, as Ave underflood them: they Avere
tributary to Great Lieuchieux, or the Liquieux Iflands.
Frefli breezes and cloudy Aveather. At 1 h., having
cleared the flioals, Ave made fail as per log; the boats
following under fail. At 5 h. the wreck of the Providence bore S. 31° E. three or four miles. At funfet
fhortened fail, and took the boats in toAv for the night;
Hummock Ifland, on with the outer part of the reeii
S. 15° E.; and we had no foundings Avith 100 fathoms;
the reef diftant tAvo or three miles. Our eftimated
latitude 25° 13*' N., and longitude 125° 12' E. Under
eafy fail we fleered to theAveftward; and during tths
•night we had thunder,<iigtttirMng, and rain.
Variable TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Variable Aveather, Avith rain and a confufed fea.
211
CHAP.
II.
1797.
Frefli breezes and.fqually weather: exceflive fultry,   May 25th.
with conftant rain.     The Avind at laft fixed to  the
North, and Ave fleered to the S. W.    The rain con
tinued throughout the evening.
At half paft 10 h. Ave faw land bearing from S. E.
to S. W. by S.; and no foundings with 70 fathoms.
At daylight the extremes of Pachufan from Eaft
to S. S. W. fix or eight leagues. At 22 h. 30 m. we
faAV the fmall ifland to tfie Avefiward, Avhich at noon
bore N. 57° W.; and the fouth point of Rocho-o-ko-ko,
S. 15° E. three or four miles : the other extreme,
N. 73° E.   J^;  -_.  .     ,;-,"'.-,;•.    ■   \
Soon after noon the cutter returned, having examined a fmall bay that afforded anchorage on the
N. W. fide of Rocho-o-ko-ko. A canoe brought them
off Avater and potatoes. Surely thefe iflands Avere
acquainted Avith our misfortune. At 6 h. the extremes of Rocho-o-ko-ko extended from N. 65° E. to
S. 85° E. five or fix leagues ; Hummock Ifland,
$. 55° E. eight or nine miles.    At 11 h. wore fhip.
E E
o
Light
26th. 212
BOOK
II.
1797.
May.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Light breezes, with fhowers of rain. At day-light
Hummock Ifland, S. 73° E.; Rocho-o-ko-ko, from
N. 49° E. to N. 73° E ; and Weft Ifland, N. 56° W.;
when we tacked and made fail, the boats in company.
Light breezes and dark cloudy Aveather; wind increafing at noon : Hummock Ifland, N. 65° E. fix or
feven leagues.
27th- Light breezes and cloudy Aveather, Avith fliOAvers of
rain and frequent thunder and lightning, which rendered our fituation truly uncomfortable from the
numbers obliged to be upon deck; and beloAv, the
heat Avas exceflive.
12 h.    Light airs and variable, with inceflant rain.
24 h.    Squally weather, Avith fliOAvers of rain.
28th. HeaA^y fliOAvers of rain, which brought the wind
round to the Aveflward, and Ave fleered S. S. W.
7 h.    Took the boats in tow as ufual for the night,
12 h.    Frefli breezes and fine weather.
:!
At 22 h. Ave faAV the ifland of Tobago, fituated near
Formofa, bearing N. 75° W.; and at 23 h. 30 m. we
made Botol Tobago Xima, bearing S. 34° W.    At
noon TO USE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
noon  the  former extended  from  N. 65° W.  to N.
75° W., and the latter from  S. 25° W. to S. 30° W-
213
10 or 12 leagues.
At 4 m. paft Botol Tobago Xima bore S. E. and
the fouth point of Formofa S. W. f W. about 10
leagues. At 10 h. we were by eftimation in the
latitude of it, when Ave fleered South, not intending to
pafs betAveen Formofa and the Vele Rete rocks. The
night was cloudy, Avith rain.
13 h; At daylight Ave had run 25 miles, when to
our great furprize, the fouth point of Formofa bore of
us S. W. by W. four or five leagues; and at noon
after running S. W. 21 miles, it was ftill three
leagues in the direction of S. 40° W. ToAvardjs noon
the Avind moderated* and we could make no way
againft the northerly currents, which occafioned a
confufed againft the wind. -Botol Tobagq Xima
extended from N. 84° E. to S. 88° E., and the north
extreme of Formofa N. -10° E. No foundings three
miles off fliore.
CHAP.
ii.
*797.
May.
29th*
Light airs arid cloudy weather carried us infenfibly
toAvards the land, when Ave experienced a counter-
current in our favour, which fet us in the direction
7 of
;oth. —
BOOK
II.
1797- '
May.
214 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
of the fhore to the fouthward. The cutter kept clofe
in to examine the coaft, which in this part is a little
indented. They found good, anchorage in 15 and 20
fathoms, about half a mile, Avith feveral.runs of water
and many herds of cattle feeding, but.no figns of
habitations or any cultivation.
15 h. At funfet the extremes of Formofa from
S. 25° W. to N. 5° E.; centre of Botol Tobago Xima
N. 80° E. The fouth point is Ioav, flat, and rocky
off Formofa; and at 8 h. it bore Weft tAvo miles : we
had no foundings. At 10 h. a ftrong breeze came
from the North, and Ave hauled clofe round Formofa,
pafling N. of Vele Rete rocks. After midnight
the Avind moderated, but remained in the N. E.
quarter. At noon the high land on the S. part of
Formofa N. 65° E. 10 or 12 leagues.
3itt. Moderate breezes, gradually decreafing; at 2 h. we
loft fight of Formofa.
10 h. Squally weather, with rain, which continued;
the weather fultry: a great deal of thunder and
lightning.
20 h. Fine and pleafant weather; breeze increafing.
We frequently pafled over riplings, with the appearance
of a ftrong current fetting to the weftward.
Moderate TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
7h.    Calm and clear Aveather.
11 h.    Light breezes.
20 h. The longitude fhewn by the Avatch till
our arrival, is corrected for its error off Formofa,
Avhere it fheAved the longitude too much by 1° £0'.
It has never gone well fince failing. Light airs and
variable Aveather.
215
Moderate Avinds, fmooth water, and very pleafant    chap.
weather.
1797.
June 1 ft.
Very light Avinds, inclining to calms. In the
afternoon we tried, and found the current fet to the
Avefhvard.
4 h.    Saw a Chinefe fifhing-boat.
6 h. Soundedrdn»i!iB fathoms ; fmall gravelly ftones
and fand.
12 h.    Calm and fine weather.
18 h.    Light breezes ; feveral fifhing-boats in fight.
24 h.    Smooth water, and very warm weather.
2d.
l
Frefh breezes and very pleafant weather.
4 h.   46 fathoms, muddy bottom.
7 h.    52 fathoms, ditto bottom.
12 h.    50 fathoms, ditto bottom.    Light fhowers of
rain.
22h.N    At 11 h. A.M. we faw the Lema Iflands
to
3d. A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
to  the W. N. W.,  and Ave altered our courfe.     At
noon the Grand Lema N. 47° W. four or five leagues.
Frefli breezes and very hazy Aveather. At f paft
two the Great Lema bore Weft If', and by its knoAvn
longitude 114° 26' E. We have been 1° 20' Weft of
our account fince leaving Formofa. By our run
from noon its. latitude will be 22° 4' N. We fleered
as per log till 8 hours and a half, when we hauled
up between Lafsammu and Lantoo Point, and came
to in 12 fathoms, the point bearing S. E. four
l&iles. «£>.-.'
11 h. At daylight Ave got under way with a fine
breeze, and at 20 h. we Avere abreaft of Lintin. A boat
was difpatched from hence to Macao with an officer
to acquaint the governor Avith my return, and to order
proyifions.
We fleered N. by E. f E. for Lankeet Ifland
carrying 10, 8, and 7 fathoms, till we came within
fight of SampanchoAv, and then only 5 fathoms.
Within two or three miles of Lankeet me gave it a
good birth to pafs to the Eaft of Sampanchow,"
and foon increafed our.water to 10 fathoms. At noon
Sampanchow Weft one mile.
With TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
'With a ftrong flood-tide Ave foon pafled through
the Boca Tigris, and difcovered 13 large fhips at
anchor up the river. At 5 h. Ave Avere vifited by
feveral of their boats, avIio informed us they Aver»
homeAvard-bound Eaft Indiamen. They obligingly
offered us eArery affiftance, and we purfued our courfe
up the river, having no occafion to accept their
civilities at prefent. At 8 h. when above the fecond
boAV, keeping toox near the ftarboard fhore, Ave got
a-ground, and remained fo till 10 h., Avhen we hove off
into the flream, and continued at anchor till day-light ja
at Avhiteh time we got under way, and by 8 A.M.
came to at Whampoa in four fathoms. Here we
found two fhips from Port Jackfon, having laden
with tea on the Company's account, the Alfred
and Crefcent, Eaft India fhips, going down the river.
I immediately proceeded up to Canton in the
pinnace, to confult with the fupercargoes in procuring
provifions, and to regulate the diftribution of the
feamen into the India fhips. About noon I reached
the Englifh factory, and waiting upon Mr. Hall, the
chief, I foon arranged my bufinefs (the captains of the
Indiamen being on the fpot); and in the afternoon
the fchooner left Whampoa to remain at the Second
Bar till I returned in the pinnace.   The night Avas
e e rainy,
m
CHAP.
II.
1797-
June;
IE
ll
I; Wi6
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book   rainy, which continued at intervals during, the day.
i—/-w   Early  in  the morning of the! 6th. ajgited the firft
ju^.      Lieutenant of the Swift floop of Avar, with difpatfches
from   Rear  Admiral  Rainier,   which contained  the
intelligence of a Spanifh.i-fiac.
>
6th. In the morning I had a conference with one of the
principal Hong merchants, Avho was deputed from the
city to enquire into the particulars; of my arrival,
with the reafons for fo doing. In the prefence of
Mr. Hall I e*x*f>lained the caufe of mytffHtmt*g(!up to
Whkmpoa^ requefling at the fame time the Chmefe
government, would fupply my rSKants before Liquified
rthe river.    He then left us to report the jfame;
7th- The afternoon was cooLaaad pleafant after the rain,
but the following day we had exceffive heat. Not
finding k'sJuMeiraff^- tq> remainoaoyjloirigfir; to expedite
■pan receiving refreflimentfej whieh Mr. Hall Avas
pleafed to take upon hinifelf, I tookagny leaf*# of
ithe gentlemen of-the factory, to Avhom I am under
great obligation for their, Hind atten£|OB8; and ija
fouifooubs and a half I reached the Second Bar.
8th. "\y€ ha<| frefh breeees foomithe northward th#ti#©
foHo^wljig days, and we were employed inf rkctsmng
fait TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
fait prdvifions from the' Eaft India fhips; alfo in
diftributing the officers and men Avho Avere to take
their paflage to England in them. In the morning Ave
were viftted by a mandarine of the firft rajnk, who
feemed very defirpus to fee the veffel, which being
permitted, he affured us our Avants fh'ould be immediately fupplied, now he was convinced Avho and what
Ave were ; but from the reporlgiven into the city, they
were in doubt, and he Was obliged to come on board
to fatisfy himfelf before permiflion could be granted.
Thefe good intentions were of little ufe to us as I pur-
pofed fai&n^Mith all expedition to Macao, after receiving Avhat Ave required from the Eaft India fhips.
219
I
B
The lieutenant of the SAvift carried with him om
marines, and" abetter to Captain HayAvard acquainting
biniwiwith my intentions.
In the morning fome of the E&ft India fhips failed
down the riser, and in the afternoon the fchooner Avent
doAvn ta-Anfon's Bay to wait the arrival of the cuilser
from Macao. She had.been fo long abfent I was
anxious for her fafety. The next day I folloAved in the
pinnace, and vfcEjr luckily met. the Clatter coming to me
as we pafled the Boca Tigris. Thte officer eixcufed
himfelf for not returning fooner owing to the fti'ong
northerly
II;
FF.2
i oth. 1797-
June.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK   northerly winds, Avhich I did not admit as a fufficient
reafon, but I had great pleafure in her fafe arrival.
At 2 P.M. Ave got under Avay, and the Avind veering
to the S. E. Ave turned doAvn towards Macao roads.
At half paft 8 A. M. Ave came to in five fathoms ; the
town bearing W. J N., and Cabarita Point S. S. W. f
S. Soon after, his Majefty's floop Swift anchored near
us. The forenoon Avas attended with heavy fqualls of
Avind and rain.
We remained here till the 14 h., the Avinds conftantly
from the fouthward, which prevented the Indiamen
coming down fooner. In the morning of this day the
fleet got under way, and at noon the tide having done,
Ave came to an anchor: Cabarita Point N. W. three
miles. I difcharged into the Swift for the difpofal of
Admiral Rainier 4 petty officers, 24 able and good
feamen, Avith 15 marines, leaving 35 officers included to
complete the fcliooners compliment. The remaining
officers and men of the creAV, amounting to 30, went
home in the Eaft India fhips.
In the afternoon the Swift with 14 fail of Eaft India
men, the Crefcent pacquet, and two fhips from Port
Jackfon, got under way, intending to go the eaftern
paflage TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
paflage for Europe.    We parted company Avith them*   Q
and made fail for the Typa..
I had great pleafure in acknoAvledging the kind
attentions of many of the commanders of this fleet,
Avho fo obligingly accommodated feveral of the officers
with paffages to England, and in every other refpect
fupplied our Avants Avith great chearfulnefs, as far as
their means extended-.-.
221
HAP.
II.
i/97*
June.
The next morning Ave anchored in the Typia.off the
Avatering place, having the nine iflands jufl open,, bearing N. E. | N. Macao harbour N. by W. f W. two
miles. Clofe in Avith the entrance of the harbour,, Avas
a Spanifh fhip bound to Manilla.. Seeing the SAvift
coming into the Typia,. fhe run for ftielter under protection of the fort. We remained here to the 26th
completing our provifions, wood and water; but
unfortunately Ave could not contain more than five
months ; we hoAvever filled every part of the veffel,
to infure keeping the fea as long as poflible in our
refearches to the North of Japan. The Avinds Avere
variable, with frequent rain and a great deal of thunder
and lightning, with ftrong winds from the S. E. The
Avinds were feldom from the weftward, and this I under-
ftOod had been the cafe fince our failing in April laft.
The m%
' Y
BOOK
II.
1797.
June.
26th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERT
The heat on fliore w^as exceffive, and weuld have been
infupportable if not refrefhed by the rains.
We now Mled a fecond time in the profecution of
our voyage, not with the"' moft flatf^fl^ hopes of fuc-
ceeding, from the featbn being fo far advanced, arid the
veffel inadequate in many refpetts to the purpofe".
But ftill there Avas fome profpect oFaequft-lng geogra--
phical knowledge of the Tartarean and Oc*$*8ft8fec-ahV;
and I Avas umvilling, even under the exifting circum-
ftances, not to ufe every endeavour to thetdmoft of my
poAver, IHat could tend to the imprt^m^ftvfc^ftffence
by the exploraMbn of unknown parts. The officers and
men "Were equally d2f]^fed%ithf my'felf to do their re*
fpective duties, and%e depar"fe«-in good health.
piioa^aiai; ■"flSPSW
Ill
,'11   ihAjllnliihii s:
nil   iiiiAniiirirmi-Tirf
A 1 I  TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
1MMS   /fob
CHAP. III.
fefcadoty Iflands.—In Nfpachanjfyrjbour, Great Liquteu&&
fcriptkn ,pf thpr Inhabitant*, £sV.—^Departure from it towards
Japan.
n the 14th of June, as tn   45 fheAvedTne* longitude
O
of the Typa 115° 19' E., which is too much by 1° 47',
an error acquired in 67 days. By daily obfervations
T>etAveen the 14th and 2§lji June ^er rate^WsP pretty
regular; and onll 2oth at nooS, 45 Avas flow for mean
time 7h. 40m. S6.fs.f anSlofing on mean time 6,.o8is'.
pe^day. At 2 t\ M. Ave got under Avay Avrfti a ftrong
ebt> fide, and at 5 P. M. Ave weathered Potoe witnih
half a mile,.Tiaviifg 6f fathoms.
As we pafled tAvo or three miles Weft of Xfhe Grand
Ladrone, Ave gradually increafed to 12 fathoms, Avhen
th*? fouth extreme of it bore S. 80° E?on5with the
Afs's Ears. Mr. Dalrymple maies the Rock R. bear
more foutherkfit is probable therefore Ave aid not fee
it.    At dark we boarded an Eaft India packet called
the
CHAP
III.
1797.
June
27th.
£ 224
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
I
BOOK    the  Amazon, four months and ten days from Fal-
II. J
'—|—•>   mouth.    She had paffed the ftraits of Sunda without
»797-       r   • .
June.      leemg any cruizers.
At 8 h. the Grand Ladrone bore of us N. 55° E.;
Potoe, N. 5° W.; extremes of iflands, E. $ S., off the
Ladrone three or four miles. We made fail, fleering
as per log. At*21 h. Grand Ladrone, N. 32° W.; and
the extreme iflands, N. 68° W. Grand Ladroner
22°,02' N. 113° 56'E., from whence Intake my departure.
28th. Frefli breezes and fine Aveather.    At 6h. we faw a
fleet a-head, confifting of nine large fhips upon a
wind. Conceiving them to be a Spanifh fquadron
from Manilla, cruizing for the Eaft India fleet, at
7 h. we fleered in for the land to avoid them ; and at
half paft 12 h. we pafled a fliip upon our lee-beam
that took no notice of us. At 13 h. we loft fight of
her, when we fleered more to the North.
At day-light we Avere Avithin three or four leagues
of the Weft of China, and abreaft of Piflbang, or the
great bay;   the extremes   extending from Weft to
l N. 80° E.; and we had no fight of the fleet.
8
At
\. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
At 8 A. M. we fleered nearly in the direction of the
coaft, Avhich formed feveral bays, with fcattered
iflands: and rocks at unequal diflances. At noon the
extremes of the coaft extended from N. 85° W. to
N. 42° E., two or three leagues off fliore; and Ave
had 15 fathoms water.    Fair Aveather but hazy.
225
CHAP.
III.
1797.
June.
Frefli breezes and fair Aveather, Avith fmooth water.       29th.
6 h.    The extremes to the North making high bore
N. 14° E. feven or eight leagues.
CD O
8 h.    20 fathoms, no bottom.
10 h. 24  ditto, fine fand.     The moon having fet,
we hauled our wind for the night.
14 h.    35 fathoms, fand.
16 h.    Made fail.    No fight of the land.
22 h.    19 fathoms, fand ; and at noon 20 fathoms.
24 h.    Fair weather, but no obfervation.
In the afternoon we croffed over feveral fmall rip-      30th.
lings ; and our foundings varied from  13  to 20 fa-
CD CD
thorns, hard bottom. At 12 h. Ave had three fathoms
of rocky bottom; and at half paft, feeing the land,
Ave flood off and on till day-light, having foundings
ill 22 to 26 fathoms. At~*V7 h.. the Pefcadore
Iflands extended from Eaft to N. by W. diftant from
the^eaftern one about four miles.    This ifland was low
1 g and
J<
ff
-<y BOO
II.
1797.
June.
$8§ A. VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
K and flat. With a gentle Avind Ave pafled on the Aveft
fide of the iflands; and at 22 h. 50 m. we Avere diftant
two miles from an high rocky ifland,. Avhich is connected by reefs with tAvo fmall ifles that are furrounded
by breakers : Ave. had 25 fathoms. At noon the
Avefternmoft ifland of the groupe extended from
N. 76° E. to N. 86° E. four or five miles ; and Ave
had 27 fathoms. This ifland is of moderate elevation,
rocky and barren, of little extent, and apparently uninhabited : yet Ave faAV feveral boats fifhing among
the reefs. High Ifland, in one bearing with the
eaftern one feen at day-light, now bore || 48° E.
July ift. At 3 h. Ave Avere a-breaft of Fifher's Ifland. On the
S. W. extreme we remarked an obelifk of ftones raifed,,
I fhould imagine, as a land-mark for the advantage
of the junks trading to thefe iflands.. In the courfe
of the day there Avere many of them in fight, makings
their coafting voyages..
This ifland is of fome extent, and inhabited :. it
appeared alfo to be Avell cultivated. As we pafled,
Ave obferved many cattle feeding, and numbers of
boats differently employed. At the N. E. extreme
the land falls back; and within it, to the North, pro-
mifed good fhelter. A black rock extends a league
1 from
:\ ■gyie.1
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
227
from the entrance, and feemed connected with reefs    CHAP.
North of it.     Indeed,   in this part,   the rocks and
fands could not be enumerated; and the paflage between them I fhould fuppofe very intricate. The
large ifland, called Petroe, I had no opportunity of
making any remarks upon ; the Aveather being hazy,
and our diftance too great. At 5 h. 30 m. feeing
breakers a-head, Ave altered our courfe; north extreme of Fiflier's Ifland bearing S. E. by S.: Ave had
15 fathoms, rocky bottom, feven or eight miles from
it. Bird Ifland, Avhich is the northernmoft of the
whole groupe, at half paft 6 h. bore S. 58° E.; and the
Obelifk point, S. 17° W. Thefe iflands, called Cong-
hou or Petroe by the Chinefe, and Pifcardofes by the
Englifh, extend from 23° 10' N. to 23° 40' N., by our
e'ftimation ; the Aveflernmoft in the longitude of
119° 27' E. They are a clutter of iflands and rocks
above, and even Avith, the Avater. The dangers fur-
rounding them may be avoided by attention, as they
appear to flieAv themfelves ; and you may anchor in
cafes of neceflity. They are diftant from Formofa
about eight leagues; and their extent to the Weft
O CD
nearly the fame by Van Kuelen.
1797.
3
[•CI
At midnight we hauled our wind till day-light; and
at 17 h. 30 m. Ave faw Formofa; and at 22 h. 30 m. Ave
g g 2 Avere 228
A VOYAGE/©F DISCOVERY
book    Avere within three miles of it.    The extreme to the
•—-v—'    South bore S. 6° E., making a low fandy point.    Over
1797-
July-
the beach were feveral junks at anchor; and Ave had
only feven fathoms Avater. At noon the extremes of
Formofa extended ^rom JJ. 45° E. to S. 7° E. three or
four miles; and Ave hjad 11 fathoms. The land near
the fea prefented a barren appearance of fand hills
mixed with coarfe grafs. At the back of the beach
were fome fcattered trees ; but more inland, the hills
rofe to a confiderable height, richly clothed Avith
Avoods.
2d. We continued our courfe along the coaft of For
mofa, with a ftrong current fetting us to the north-
Avard.
7 h. Calm. The extremes extended from N. 45° E.
to S. 14° W. : an opening bore S. 40° E. Off the
entrance Avere feveral junks at anchor. Thirty-one
fathoms.
17 h. Light breezes. The extremes of Formofa,
N. 58° E. to S. 18° W., off fliore feven or eight miles.
Towards the North the land gradually decreafed in
height.
22 h. At noon the extreme land, we could fee,
bore Eaft, fix or feven leagues*
At
\ TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
229
At 1 b; tacked and flood in for the land ; and at
half paft, not being able to fee the land, owing to the
haze, Ave flood off fliore. At half paft 6 h. Ave could
juft difeeru it bearing S. 40° E'. three or four leagues.
6 h. Very fqually and threatening weather obliged
us to reduce our fail.
12 h.    Strong gales, Avith a large fea.
18 h.    Throughout the forenoon it blew very ftrono*.
CD J CD7
and Ave fplit moft of our fails. We had alfo heavy
rain, and Avere obliged to pump the veffel out every
hour.
24 h. Heavy gales of Avjnd, and thick hazy
Aveather.
CHAP.
hi.
July 3d.
Strong gales of wind, Avith a heavy fea running,
and a great deal of rain. At half paft 2 h. we faw the
coall of China to the W. N. W., appearing very in-
diftinctly through the haze. We foon after .wore ; and
the gale blowing harder, we reefed the bowfprit, and
O CD  ■ * ±        - \
lay to under a clofe-reefed mainfail. Soon after
bringing to Ave fpramg a leak in the ftarboard quarter,
which filled the cabin with Avater, and kept the people
continually at the pumps.
4th.
In the n&g-ht the Avind gradually veered round to
CD CD *
the Aveflward with increafed violence, which caufed
an <-r
^f • 1
MR     *8
II.
J79.7-
July-
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
an irregular and confufed fea.    Our little veffel behaved very Avell, fhipping but little Avater.
In the morning the Avind fixed in the S. W. quarter,
and the gale broke up. At 8 A. M., the fea having
confiderably fallen, Ave bore up and made fail.
24 h. Frefli breezes and cloudy Aveather, Avith a
confufed fwell.
5th.
I Frefli breezes and cloudy weather. At 2 h. we hove
to, while the carpenters flopped the leak, Avhich Avas
found to be above Avater in the ftarboard quarter.
At 3 h. and a half we difcovered the high land of
Formofa bearing S. 30° E. At half paft 6 h. the extremes extended from S. 28° E. to S. 23° W. five or fix
leagues. At 8 h. the Avind moderated ; and at 12 h.
we faw a fmall ifland bearing S. E. by S.; and we had
no foundings Avith 25 fathoms. We plied to the Avind-
ward till day-light, Avhen the rocky ifland bore
S. 50° E.; the north part of Formofa extended from
§| 50° W. to S. 10° E. ; and two iflands bearing
N. 64° E. and S. 84°' E. We pafled between the
Rocky Ifle and Formofa Avith a gentle wind and fine
weather. At noon the N. W. point of Formofa,
S. 88° W.; N. E. point, S. 48° W.; extreme beyond
ditto,
\ TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
ditto,  appearing detached,  S. §1
leagues off fliore..
W.,.  four or five
Quelang Ifland, S. 72° W., Avhich lays off the harbour ; and the three iflands to the feaward, N. 10° W;,
N. 13° W., and N. 55° W., four to fix leagues diftant.
?-. CD    •
No current fince laft obfervations.. 60 fathoms, no
bottom-
In the direction of the ifland of Quelang, the main
land of Formofa appeared very high; and on the larboard entrance, as you fail toAvards the harbour, is a
confpicuous hill of a conic form, from Avhence the low
land commences extending to the fouthward. Some
Ioav land alfo projects from the N. W. part, which is
in general very elevated. The latitude of the north
point of the ifland may err a little, fuppofing Ave did
not fee the extent of the low land. At 6-h. it was
calm, when the N. E. part of Formofa bore S. 67° W.
The night was variable, Avith light airs, which in the
forenoon inereafed from the fouthwardv
At 11 h. feeing the appearance of broken water, we
tacked ; but having no foundings at half pafl, we
again refumed our courfe.
231
CHAP.
III.
1797-
July.
cTth.
3 BOOK
II.
*797-
J^y.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
At 15 h. Ave hove to for an hour. No bottom Avith
90 fathoms.
At22h. 30 m. Ave faAV an ifland to the E. N. E.,
which at noon pre^esyied the fame bearing, five or fix:
leagues diftant.
At 1 h. feeing fome high peaked rocks open \vijfh
the eaft extreme of the ifland : at half paft, avc bore
up aijjjj pafled to ieefvard of the ifland, ranging it
Avithin tAvo miles, without having any foundlings with
50 fathoms. The land Avas high, forming two peaked
hills. Its greateft direction Avas Eaft and Weft .three
or four miles, entirely covered Avith fmall wood up to
its fummit. To the N. E. of it, three or four miles,
is a continued chain of rocks above and under Avater,
feemingly connected with the peaked rocks. They
bear Eaft one mile from the ifland, Avhich is fituated
in the latitude of 25° 40' N. and longitude 123° 27'E.
At 3 h. we faw another ifland bearing N. 60° E ;
and at 5 h. 30 m. it bore North two or three miles.
It Avas of little extent, and of moderate elevation,
and, like the other, Avell covered Avith wood, bounded
by a rocky fliore. We place it 25° 48' N. and 123° 35'
E.    At 7 h. the firft ifland bore S. 69° W., and the
6 fecond v»<!
II  TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
fecond N. 80° W. Having fine moon-light we continued our courfe to the eaftward, founding occafion-
ally Avithout reaching bottom. At 12 h. 30 m. we faw
an high rock bearing E. J S, At 1 h. fleering E.N.E.
Ave pafled about three miles North of it, Avithout
foundings at 50 fathoms. At 2 h. it bore South ; and
at 18 h., S. 87° W., juft in fight: it refembled the rock
>/ CJ
called Pula Sapula, in the Chinefe feas. By the obfervation at noon we found the current had fet us to
the N. E. 42 miles thefe 24 hours; which being al-
loAved for, in fettling the fituation of the rock, its
latitude will be 25° 57' N. longitude 124° 30' E., al-
loAving the current to be regular to-day.
At 11 h. we faAV land bearing E. f S. At 17 h; Hit
extended from S. 49° E. to 77° E. It Avas low in the
middle of the ifland* but the fotetbera part was rather
high. We failed within three miles of the fhore,
llaving no foundings Avith 50 fathsms. Fiom each
extreme extended a long fandy fplt, Avith a detaghed
rock South of each. Ttie land appeared Avell cultivated ; and Ave could perceive feveral habitations.
In the morning the natives came off to us: Wk found
thefni the fame race of f&opte'we had teen at Typlft^fifiS,
equally docile and communicSfeiVe.    At 8 A.M. Av"e
ii ti faAV A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book faw more iflands, of which they gaAre us their feveral
names ; and enquired of us if we did not come from
Hollandia.    The ifland  they  came from Avas called
1797.
July.
9th.
Koomi-fang: their cultivations up to the fides of the
hills were in ridges ; and above them the country Avas
Avell covered Avith Avood. At noon it bore from
S. 31° W. to S. 64° W. four leagues j Tunatchi, S. 44° E.
This ifland makes like a gunner's quoin, and as fuch
it Avas remarked laft to the Aveftward of the-Lieuchieux,
among the Matchi Iflands. Karumah, S. 69° E.;
Agenhu, N. 64° E.; and a fifth, which Avas very
fmall," they called Tu-fi-mah, three or four leagues.
We found the current ftill to fet in the fame direction, but not fo ftrong.
The current ftill fetting us to the eaftward, Ave approached the iflands very faft; and at 3 h. we kept
our Avind; and at 3 h. 30 m. the Avejji; point of Karumah, on Avith Tunatchi, S. 8° E. Weft of Karumah about three miles, Ave pafled a fmall ifland. At
4 n. 30 m. Karumah and Agenlnj, . in one bearing,
N. 3° E; and S. 3° W. Thefe iflands are five leagues
apart: Ave failed between them. At 7 h. the groupe
called the Matchi Iflands  bore from  S. 16° E. to
S. 24° TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
235
S. 24° W.; Tunatchi, S. 60- W.; Agenhu, N. 58° W.;    CHAP.
in.
the   extremes of Great Lieuchieux,   from S. E.   to   |—<^->
N. E. by E. feven or eight leagues. , jS'_
At 9 h. Ave hauled our AA-ind, and plied to Avind-
ward till day-light Avith a frefli wind from the fouth-
ward, Avhen being diftant from Lieuquieux four or
Mte leagues, Ave flood for it upon a Avind. At 21 h.
Ave had fight of the harbour of Napachan, bearing
from S. 25° E. four or five miles. In this direction,
half a mile off Avas a chain of breakers. We plied to
the foutliAvard till noon, Avhen Ave obferved. off the
harbour. A Ioav fandy ifland bears N. 57° W., from
Napachanroads feven or eight miles; betAveen Avhich
and the north point of Lieuchieux Ave had foundings of
28 and 30 fathoms, corally bottom. This point bears
N. 14° W., Weft from the fouth point of Liquieux : an
hummock is on the extreme of'ft,- and a reef projects
to the Aveftward of it feme diftance. At noon the •
outer part of this reef bore S. 14° W.; Reef point,
Avhich forms the ftarboard entrance into the roads;
S. 14° E.; the harbour of Napachan, S. 64° E. three
or four miles ; Matchi Iflands, from S. 36° W. to N.
81° W.; Sandy Ifland, N. 45o W. to N. 63° W. three
or four miles ; Lieuchieux north extreme, N. 25° E.;
current fince noon of yetterdajr, 28' Eaft. Frefli
.   ' >.'- n ii 2 breezes
4\ bo o-i*;
ii.
1797.
July loth.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
breezes and  very pleafant Aveather |ora the S. W..
quarter.
After noon we bore up for the roads, keeping the
ftarboarpl fliore on board. We had irregular foundings from 15 to 2$ fathoms; and feeing rocks under
our bottom, we hauled out and brought to, till a boat
from the toAvn foil of people came off to us. They
moft willingly undertook the charge of conducting the
veffel; one of them taking the helm, and another
directing her courfe from the maft-head. We pafled
very clofe to the fouthward of a reef, which bears.
& 20° W/. from thje Reef point one mile and a hal£
having no bottom with 15 fathoms; and then fleered
in E. S, E. for a building fituated upon fome elevated
black rocks, wjbpeli appeared; Ij&e a block-houfe, Avhen*
the entrance of the opening of the harbour bore S. E^
by South. We hauled up for it, and came to an
anchor in 1$ fathoms, muddy bottom, at half a mile
diftant, with the folioAving bearings : the harbour*
S. 35° E.; Starboard point, S. 70° W. ; Low Ifland,
N. 57° W.; and reefs extending from N. 15° W. to
N. 40° W.; the iflands of Matchi, N. 60a W. to 77° W»
fix or feven leagues; north extreme of the land of
lieuchieux, N. 18° E.
£
Out TO Tm NOH1H PACIFIC OCEAN.
Our friends left us in the evening, Avith affunances    CTAP.
of beiag Supplied with Avater, Avood, and refreffaments,    —-*-^->
in the mo$nja^, but requefled us not to go on fljore.
It blew ftrong from the S. W. throughout the morning, Avith frequent heavy fquaJls; but we rode very
well fhelter©c% In the courfe of the day Ave received
water by fliore-boafs.; and in the evening, the weather
moderating, the mailer was employed founding the
roads. Early in the morning our friends fent us a
bullock, hogs, foAvls, and potatoes, Avith abundance
of Avood and Avater, and ftrongfy urging our departure.
In the forenoon a junk arrived from Typinfan; and
a Japanefe junk failed out of the harbour, and proceeded on her voyage toAvards Nipon, palling between
the reef^ to the nortliAvard.
The Avind ftill bleAV frefli from the fouth, which oc-
cafioned fo great a furf on the fhore that no boat
could laud except in the harbour, Avhich to us Avas
inadmiflible. This reftriction Avas extremely mortifying, as I Avas anxious to acquire fome knowledge of
the manners and cuftoms of thefe people j and all my
endeavours had hitherto proved ineffectual : nor
could my intreaties perfuade them to let fome of the
officers 238
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
1797*
July.
BOOK    officers go on fliore in their boats.    I therefore defer-
11.
mined to fend them in our own boat; but the principal perfon remaining on board Avould not accompany
them, and feemed extremely difpleafed at their going.
They Avere landed Avithout any objection in the harbour, and the boat returned immediately. ' In the
mean Avhile, our friend had gone afliore in one of their
OAvn boats.
In about an hour Ave favv the officers coming off,
efcorted by their friends, and gave me the folloAAring
account of their reception, &c. On their landing at
the pier-head they were met by feveral of the principal people, Avho conducted them along the caufeway
leading to the toAvn; but, after fome converfation,
they were fliewn into a large dwellihg-houfe, and entertained Avith refrefhments of tea and tobacco. Here
they remained, nor could they prevail upon their
company to let them proceed any farther: they
therefore (oppofition having no effect) returned on
board.
They found the entrance into the harbour very
narrow;-and in the fair way they had 2f fathoms,
juft after low Avater; and within the port they had
7 fathoms.    It took a Avidening direction^ to the S. W.,
and
i TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
M9±
and  Avas of confidcrable extent.    They counted   20    CHAP.
in
large junks, at anchor,, chiefly Japanefe, from 200 to   v-r^ssi,
300 tons burthen. 5glj
On each fide".of the entrance was an apparent
block-houfe, or place of defence, built of ftones in a
fquare form, Avith loop holes. The caufeway leading
to the town Avas 300 or 400 yards long, Avith arches
underneath, to give the water a free paflage ; for as
the tide floAved up to the town, over the coral banks
Avhich extended from it to the pier-head, it was ne-
ceffary to give the Avater its courfe Avithout anv ob-
ftruction. The toAvn extended along the fliore to the
North feme diftance ; and from the number of people
we faw at different times, I fhould fuppofe it very
populous. The houfes were of one flory, and the
roofs covered with a brick tiling. Trees Avere inter-
fperfed among the houfes ; and the country rifing to
a moderate elevation at the back of the town, variegated with cultivations and clumps of Avoods,
equally diverfified the view from the fea.
At the extreme of the toAvn,  to the North, Avas a
burial-ground.    The tomb-ftones were whitened, and
feemed to lay in an eaft and weft direction.    They
are confpicuous as you fail into the roads.
Thefe
M 11
#40
BOOK
II.
1797.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Thefe people perfectly underflood our having been
at Typinfan, but could not compiehend Avhat Ave had
done with our men ; not conceiving we had been fince
at China. This fuppofition may be fome reafon for
their not fuffering us to go on fliore, as they could not
alfo underfland Avhy Ave fliould be fo foon in Want of
provifions: of Avhich circumftance we only made an
excufe, that Ave might have fome communication with
f- CD
€fiem. It will alfo prove Iioav veflels in diflrefs may
really benefit by the humanity and liberality of thefe
iflanders, who confer favours, as far as I can judge,
without expecting any return for fo doing. In every
e'ther refpect, except allowing us to land, they were
obliging, civil, and attentive ; bringing off ATegetables,
and fome of their fpirits called fakki; and at all times
behaA^ng Avith a degree of politenefs, Avhich, rendered
their company very pleafing. They were alfo open
and unreferved in their manners. We hM only to
lament our ignorance of their language, Avh&h prevented our acquiring any knowledge of their gd***ern-
ment.
Every boat that came off always brought different
people, feemingly to gratify their curioflftf in fee&rg
the veffel: an® obfetving our people at their nie&ls
much excited their attention.
As TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
As v ur friends were convinced Ave had all our Avants
fupplied, they feemed very anxious for our failing;
and we took our leave of them in the afternoon. We
prefented them with a fpying-glafs, the only thing
they appeared defirous of, and a draAving of the
veffel, with a memorandum expreffing our nation
and arrival.
241
CHAP.
III.
1797-
July-
This ifland is called by the inhabitants Lieuchieux,
or Loo-choo, and extends from the latitude of 26° 4' N.
to 26° 50' N., and from 128° 12' E. to 128° 45' E.
Its greateft direction is N. E. and S. W., nearly about
21 leagues. The harbour of Napachan is on the
S. W. fide, in latitude 26° 11' N. and longitude
128° 13' 30" E. The town adjoining the harbour is
the principal on the ifland, and, as we underftood, the
feat of government. The port is convenient for commerce, and feems to be the centre of trade betAveen
Japan and the fouthern iflands. They alfo trade to
China and Formofa. The inhabitants are, in every
refpect of manners, cuftoms, and appearances, the
fame with thofe of Typinfan; and refemble more the
Japanefe than the Chinefe : fpeaking with very little
variation the language of the former, and writing after
their manner. They were alfo well acquainted with
China,   and fliewed  us  feveral  articles   from   that
11 country; -&
242
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    country; particularly Englifh broad-cloth, Avhich they
*—-V-—■   feemed to value *.
1797.
July-
Their junks are the fame with tfie Chinefe;  or at
leaft, the difference in their conftruction is hardly perceptible.
* Le Pere Gaubil, a miffionary of the Jefuits at Pekin, wrote a memoir
on thefe iflands, called by the Chinefe Lieou-kieou. See Lettres
<Edifiantes, torn, xxiii. p. 182. Some parts of the memoir are here
translated. ,Hij
" Thefe iflands, fituated between Corea, the iflepf Formofevjand Jfap^n,
are thirty-fix in number.    The chief ifland is called Lieouj^deou : all the
reft have particular names.    The great ifland is in extent from South
to North more than 440 Chinefe furlongs, and 120 or 130 from Weft to
Eaft.    On the fouth fide this diftance from "Weft to Eaft is not more
than 100.    The furlong mentioned here is themeafure of roads ufed by
the Chinefe: two hundred of them make jftgenty leagues at fm, .or a
degree of a greafc circle.    The king keepjs^his court in J&e weftern part of
the ifland; the town is named King-tghing.    The palace is fituated near
it, with four great gates fronting the cardinal points.    At ten furlongs
from the weftern is the harbour called Napakiang, or iNapachan, as named
in this voyage.    The longitude of this palace is 146^26' 27", and iaf.
2 6° 2'.    Of. the 36 Spands which are fubjeft to the king of LieoB&Aieoo,
eight are fitu§tsed to the north-eaft of ik five to the north^weft of the
part of the ifland called Cheouli,, four to the Eaft, three, to the Weft,
feven to the. South, and nine'to the fouth-weft.   The names of the feven
ifles to  the South are Tai-ping-chan  (off* which the Providence was
wrecked), Tftrima, Y-leangpa, "Koulima, Tatama,-*Miemio, Ou*&orni, Pat-
chong-cfcan, or as-it is called in this voyage Padchu-fun, is one of the nine
iflands 5W
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
243
^90
July-
ceptifele. They-make ufe of matted fails, :aaad Avork cbajt.
ihem ia^ijjhe fame manner*. The boats they brought
off Avater in AAfere large and flat-floored p iand they
made ufe of fkulls and oars. Theis Gah?oes were very
ift^irror, beidg fimply holloAved out of pine tnees:
they Avere chiefly employed-fifhinfk-out at fea. Theai
fails Avere matted, and they went very fall through the
Avater.
At Lteuebjeux they manufacture the^r^^n^garments ; and their linen/,- ched^fj appeared} :equ$l to
any of ours. i^$Q]$ing tOj^ejyyeather, they increafe
or decfeafe f^eir garments in,number; and, like the
Japanefe, the" appendages to their drefs confift in a
fan, pipe, and tdbacco-box.
Not being permitted to vifit the country, we can
gkve no account ofiimmy of their pro^HjS^ons beyond
iflands to the fouth-weft."    For a further defcription confult the whole of
Pere Gaubil's memoir.
^m Lord MacaVraey's embafly to Chlri^- edited by SIpG. Staunton,
mention is rrfade of his ih*$e¥ti6nof ArtMng Jap'an, and of the reafons'
**FhiilMSprevented him. . ?lj"here arftjalfo jia^i^ed fome remarks on the
LfeuchieUts IflandB»iand thefe mode of government t the Englifh met
with fome ambafladors "going to China, to whom they are tributary } and
there are obfervations on the propriety of fenathg an embafly from this
country to thofe iflands.—See the Embafly to China, Vol. II.
I I %
Avheat, 244
BOOK
II.
1797.
July-
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Avheat, millet, Indian corn, rice, and fweet potatoes,
in Avhich articles they feem to abound. They had
horfes and cattle, with hogs of a large breed, different
from the Chinefe, and fowls of a large groAvth. Wev
did not fee any geefe; but we left Avith them two pair
belonging to the fchooner.
The Avatch, N° 45, fhewed the longitude of the
harbour of Napachan, by two days' obfervations, to
be 127° 25' 30" Eaft. As its fituation, or at leaft the
fouth part of the ifland, was pretty well fixed laft
year, we were apprehenfive our watch muft go irregularly ; and yet we could not well account for it in fo
fhort a time. Four days after failing, when our fituation was well known, off the coaft of Ximo, by
many obfervations this year as well as the laft, N° 45
made the longitude too little by 47' 45", with every
proper correction between the interval of time; which
defect being applied to the longitude fhewn in Napachan roads, makes it to lie in 128° 13' Eaft, which
I take as the true longitude. And as the watch did
not alter for the three days we were off and on the
roads, I think there cannot be any miftake; but rather
fufpect, the violent motion of the veffel, in the gale
of wind off Formofa, muft have affected it before our
arrival.
At
— TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
At half paft 4 h. we got under way and flood out to    CHAP,
fea.    At 5 h. 22 m. the harbour bore S. 58° E. two or    !—=".—->
three miles, when we bore away and made fail.    At   juJ I2'th.
7 h. 30 m. the extreme point of Luchieux, off which
were fome breakers, bore N. 60° E.    The land from
this point tended to the Eaft,  and formed a deep
bay.    No foundings with 90 fathoms, tAvo or three
miles off fhore.
We plied under eafy fail during the night; and at
day-light, fouth extreme of Luchieux bore S. 26° W.;
the bay, Eaft; an ifland, vrith a fugar-loaf hill in the
centre, N. 35° W. "We flood into the bay till we faw
the rocks, at laft evening bearing S. 6*0° W., Avhich
plainly evinced we had a ftrong current to the N. E.
Being within four or fivemiles of the head of the bay,
we wore, feeing the fouth fide covered with breakers i
and we fleered to the W. N. W. Two fmall iflands
lay between Sugar-loaf Ifland and Lieuchieux, with
extenfive reefs projecting from their extreme points.
It blew very ftrong in fqualls, and the hazy weather
prevented our feeing very diftinctly, or we fhould have
pafled between the iflands. At 20 h. 30 m., having
rounded the Sugar-loaf Ifland, we hauled up; and at
21 Ji. Ave difcovered more iflands to the N. E.   We
8 ftill U6
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    ftill purfued the fame courfe, to pafs betAyeen them
ii. .
"—-v-w    and Lieuchieux ; and at 23h. Ave Avetfea-breaft of them.
1101*
July. Half an hour afterwards we brought to, to obferve
the latitude, having a frefli gale and a good deal of
fea. At noon the north- point of Lieuchlfeu'x bore
S. 80° E. three leagues ; Sugar-loaf, juft Aufibfe'rJfiou'gH
the haze, S. 58° W.; extreme of Lieuchieux to the
South, S. 45° W.; a fmall ifle, to appearance near tnls
fhore, South; extremes of an high broken ifland, from
N. 10° W. to N. 46° W., five or fix leagues-diftant;
Low Ifland, N. 57° W.; extremes of another ifland,
from N. 67° W. to N. 81° W., about four leagues, of
moderate elevation. The northernmoft ifland I take
to' be what is called Brimfl**on^P'Mand: ih the charts ;
which is fituated, by Van Reuben, to the Eaft of
Lieuchieux.
i3th. At 1 h. 45 m. the north point of LieuehieB-x bore
South, about four miles; and Ave faAV a low ifland to
the N. E. At 3 h. 30im. the extreme of the northern*
part, from S. 25° W. to S. 67° W. ; the low ifland,
frorrn^. 20° W. to N. 25° E. five or fix miles, Avhen we
made fail to the N. E. At 4 h. 15 m. the fouth extreme of the low ifland bore Weft, about three leasu&sl
CD
It was very Ioav at each extreme, with breakers off
the points; and in the centre, of very moderate elevation. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
hitherto feen, fertile in appearance.
At 5h. 15 m. we faw a more extenfive ifland bearing N. by W.; and at 7 h. it extended from N. to
N. W. i W., but very indiftinctly for the haze: we
eftimated it at three or four leagues diftance. 'Half
pafl, Ave brought to for the fttgbt; and in the-mornirig,
to our ffeifprife, we had no fight of the land.
247
Tation.     This ifland appeared   like thofe   we  had    chap.
hi.
*39J>
At 4 h. an ifland was feen bearing N. N. E.. At
7 h. 30m. ifcetftended from North to N. 50° W; two
or three leagues.    At 8 h. we- hauled  our Avind and
CD
plied to windward. At day-light the ifland preferred
the fame beatings; and at 18 h. 30 ra#:the north point
bore Weft: and in the direction of N. 80° W. from
the point, we fi^v another ifland. The firft ifland is
•tfliree or-fonr leagues in extent, in a N. Enjamd S. W.
line, low at each extreme, but rifing abrhaply front the
fea on the eaft fide to a confiderable elevation, and
very ro^ky. Q» thew#ft fide Avere feveral fmaHTvil-
lages feattered along fhore; and a fmall opening afforded fhelter to fome junks. Behind the villages
was cultivated land. At 20 h. the other ifland bore
from Weft to S. 66° W. three or four leagues. It Avas
moderately high, and diverfified with uneven ground;
but
14th. BOOK
II.
1797.
luiy.
248 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
but the hills appeared rather barren. At 22 h. 10 m.
we faw a rock from the main rigging, bearing S. 80° W.
four or five leagues. At 23 h. we loft fight of the
fecond ifland, bearing S. 22° W. feven leagues. Thefe
iflands feemingly were deftitute of wood.
15th. Frefli breezes and hazy Aveather.    Buried Thomas
Home, feaman, who died the day before. He was a
fine active well-behaved young man, and one of our
bell feamen. His complaint was a violent dyfentery
and billious fever, Avhich carried him off in five days.
At 7 h. we faAV two iflands making very high: they
bore N. 47° W. and N. 73° W. ten or twelve leagues.
Moderate winds and pleafant weather.
We faw land from N. 25° W. to S. 78° W.; and at
23 h. 20 m. the north extreme of it bore N. 73° W.
feven or eight leagues.
By the noon obfervations we have been fet N. 59° E.
53 miles. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
CHAP. IV.
Paffage along the South and Eaftern Coafts of Japan.—White
Point.—Arrival for the fecond Time in Endermo Harbour at
Infu.—Sufpicious Behaviour of the Japanefe fettled there.
X* resh breezes and very hazy: feeing no land to the
eaftward. At 4 h. P. M. Ave hauled our wind ; and at
half paft, Ave tacked and flood to the N. W., being
convinced the land feen in the forenoon was the
fouthern part of Ximo. At day-light the land extended from N. 10° W. to S. 64° W. ; a bay, N. 80° W.
Throughout the forenoon it was calm, and Ave had no
foundings. At 20 h. we faw more land to the N. E.,
in which direction the current fet us very faft. At
noon the coaft of Ximo extended from N. 46° E. to
S. 77° W.; the bay, S. 60° W., fix or feven leagues off
fhore.
Our fituation Avas nearly the fame as on the 22d
of November laft year, when N° 1 fhewed the longi-
k k tude
CHAP.
IV.
1797.
July 16th 25*>
1797.
July.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    tude 132° 42' E., and obferved diftances 132° 17' E.
it
N° 45 now fhewed theJongitude 1310 42' E.
And obferved diftances 1320 34' E.
Avhich will account for our not making the land we
CD
expected, having had no opportunity before of taking
lunar obfervations. Current thefe 24 hours N. 34 E.
47 miles.
17 th. Light airs and hazy weather.
16h.    Calm till near noon.
22 h. At noon the land from N. 22° W. to S. 67° W.
four or five leagues. Current thefe 24 hours N, 50° E„
31 miles.
18th. At funfet we Avere within two leagues of the land;
and Ave had 38 fathoms, fandy bottom : the extremes
extending from N. 6° E. to S. 33° W. Near the fea
the coaft was tolerably level; but the interior part Avas
very mountainous land. During the night and forenoon it continued calm, Avith light airs at intervals;
and our foundings varied from 21 to 60 fathoms, as
we increafed our diftance from 5 to 12 miles off.
In the forenoon we had four large junks in company, but they took no notice of us.
At TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
At noon it Avas very hazy, when the vifible extremes CHAP
bore from N. by W. to S. S. W., four miles off fliore. f—fc
Current thefe 24 hours N. 57° E.  l6i miles.    Ob-      |||
ferved diftances © and 5  132° 03'.
36 fathoms Avater.
At 2h. Ave came to an anchor in 28 fathoms fandy
bottom, three miles from the fliore; the extremes bearing from N. 15° E. to S. 15° W.
A fifhing-boat came on board and gave us fome fifh ;
O CD
they made ufe of fkulls inftead of oars.
With a light air we got under way; and throughout
O CD ** CD
the night we had a continual fog.
CD *—?
Hazy and calm weather throughout the morning.
At noon the extremes from S. 30° W. to N. 5° W., off
fliore three or four leagues. Current thefe 24 hours
north-eafterly 18 miles.
The breeze gradually dying aAvay to our great dif-
appointment. The extremes at noon from N. 5° W.
to S. 70° W. off fhore three or four leagues. Current
there 24; N. by E. 25 miles.
kk2
Twentv '
I ?
III '1
25.2
1797.
July 22d,
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Twenty miles to the N. of account. Our bearings
nearly the fame as yefterday.
With a light breeze Ave flood in fhore, and at 7 h.
Ave tacked clofe in Avith the low land in 15 fathoms.
The high land to the South bearing S. 4° E. three
leagues. An inlet W. by S. one mile; feveral junks
Avere at anchor Avithin it: the entrance Avas narroAV,
but it feemed to afford good flielter Avithin the points
of the beach. This does not form a bay, but each
extreme being bounded by very high land, makes
it appear fo at a diftance : and in the interval is a con-
fiderable extent of Ioav coaft. The furf broke very high
along the fhore.
The morning Avas calm, and a thick haze obfcured
the land from our \7ieAv.
Eighty fathoms water, and this day Ave experienced
no current.
I
24th. Calm till 2 h., when a fteady breeze fprung up from
the fouthAvard, and the haze cleared aAvay. At 3 h.
the high land fet the laft evening bore S. 44° W. two
leagues, when we tacked and fleered Eaft; as there
appeared no probability of our making our courfe to
the TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
the South, from the wind and current oppofing each CHAP
other fo equally till to-day, when they both were un- ^—
favourable.    Towards noon  the Avind   came  to   the      juiy.
weftward, with very hazy Aveather.
By our obfervations the current muft have fet us
N. 64° E. 67 miles, Avhich accounts for our not feeing'
the land; haAring been fet pafl it at the rate of three
miles an hour during tfte* night.    The part Ave expected
to make is in 32° 30' W.,  and ought to have bore
* CD
N. W. of us   about  five  leagues.     I imagine it to
be the eaftern extreme of the ifland Ximo.
Hauled up to make the coaft of Nipon.
We could fee diftinctly fix or feven leagues, and our
eftimated latitude was 32° 34'. Three junks were feen
fleering to the eaftward, but Ave had no fight of the
land.
Calm, Avith frequent riplings, but no foundings.
Current N. 81° E. 28 miles.
Pleafant Aveather, but hazy round the horizon. 254
r5
I  11
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
At 5 h. Ave faw the land bearing North; and at 7 h.
it extended from N. 14° W. to N. 15° E. five or feven
July 26th. leagues. At half paft 1 h. we brought to till daylight, Avhen the land bore from N. 35° W. to N. 40° E..
two or three leagues : 90 fathoms, no bottom. As the
fun rofe Ave obferved many boats in fliore under fail,
alfo feveral junks.
After pafling what appeared like an ifland, but
proved, as far as Ave could judge, to be a peninfula,
the diftant land opened Avith it in the direction of
,N. 34° E.
On the N. E. extreme of the peninfula, AArhich
prefents a level furface, are four remarkable trees, and
fome rocks detached from it to the eaftward. In
the direction of N. 30° W. from the point of the trees,
Avas a fmall harbour, in Avhich feAreral junks Avere
laying before a toAvn. On the peninfula, and in the
bays furrounding it, were feveral villages and fcattered
houfes, Avith great cultivation about the country.
Many boats were fifhing, and an infinity of various
fizes Avere failing along the fliore to the Eaft and
Weft.
The
aamm TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
The interior land Avas rather high and much
broken, forming hills with fharp ridges running parallel
Avith each other in a N. E. and S. W. direction. The
fea coaft was a fandy beach intermixed Avith rocks, and
clumps of woods appeared in the hollows of the rifing
grounds above the fhore.
255
CHAP.
IV.
1797-
July.
Several fifhing boats came off to us in the courfe
of the day to fatisfy their curiofity. They were well
fhaped with projecting flerns, and finely decorated
with paint, the ground-Avork being black. Each boat
had 13 men, with five fkulls of a fide; and they went
through the Avater with great velocity. They Avere
39 feet long, 6i feet wide. At noon, light breezes
and fine weather; the north extreme bore N. 29° E.,
and the peninfula forming the fouth extremes from
S. 70° W. to S. 88° W. three or four leagues; our
diftance from the fhore four or five miles : the harbour
bearing N. 82° W., and we had no foundings Avith 90
fathoms.
It was nearly in this fituation we made the land
on the 17th of November laft year, in a hard gale
of wind from the S. W. quarter. It is the fouth point
of Nipon, and is fituated in the latitude 33° 25'- N.,
and
1 If
k %56
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
of the peninfula will always make it knoAvn.
BOOK    and longitude 135°47'0" E. The infulated appearance
1797.
July-
27th. The fouth extreme of Nipon S. 54° W. fix leagues,
the extreme land to the North. N. 29° E.; off fhore
two or three leagues.
CD
The extremes of land from S. 69° W. to N. 20° E.;
it continued high and much broken. At noon an
opening Avith an ifland in the centre of it bore
N. 54° W. ; and the extremes extended from N. 13° E.
to S. 65° W., off fliore four leagues.
»8th. Scarcely any current: the coaft appeared indented
by projecting points. At 4 b. the north extreme,
making like an ifland bore N. 21° E., and to the north-
Avard the land became very Ioav. At 7 h. the apparent
ifland bore N. 30° W.: outer low point N. 20° E. three
leagues. South extreme S. 64° W. three or four
leagues from the coaft abreaft of us. At 9 h. Ave Avere
Avell up Avith the Ioav point, and we faw many lights on
fliore. ilfter running eight miles Ave brought to
till day-light, having no foundings Avith 75 fathoms.
The morning Avas calm, hazy, and Ave could not
diflinguifli  the land.    At 6 A.M. a breeze fpringing
up, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OC&AN.
up, we ftood in for it; and at 21 h. avc could juft
difcern it bearing from W. i N. to N. W. The Avind
fliifting Ave ftood to tlje N. E., and at noon the extremes
extended from W. § N. to N. E. Low land N. three
or four leagues.    Current N. 75° E. 35 nfi'Ies.
At 2 h. Ave fleered in the direction of the coaft, Avhich
Avas Ioav and fandy towards the Tea; bugthe interior
land Ave could not diftinguifh for the haze. At 7 h.
ttMl .Extremes, we could difcern from N. 65° E. to
N. 70° W., our diftance from the fliore three or four
leagues, and we had no foundings Avith 80 fathoms of
line. Several junks Avere feen making their different
voyages up and down the coaft.
CHAP.
IV.
1797.
J^y.
The forenoon Avas very hazy, Avhich prevented our
feeing the land diftinctly. At noon the extreme
northern points bore N. 3%° E., and Avas the extent
feemingly of the fandy fhore. The coaft from thence
fell back to the North very confiderably, as if there
Avas fome opening round it; and in Avhich direction
Ave faw feveral boats returning from fea, Avhere they
had been a fifhing. The other extreme bore N. 40° W.
four or five miles.
L L
******
Light 258
BOOK
II.
1797.
July 30th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY -
Lighfje^rejezes and very hazy Aveather. At- half
paft 1 h. the norths j extreme fet at noon riOAv bore
North, four or five mites; land open Avith it extended
to %p N. E., more diftant. At half paft 4 h. we pafled
fome higlfei$iwil, Avith fleep clayey cliffs, Avhach at 6h.
bore N. 50° E. about three leagues.
At dayfj&igi't Ave Avere Avell up with the iflands South
of Jeddo bay, extending from N. E. to S. E. by S.;
and the extreme of Nipon, N. 60° W. At 5 h. A. M.
Ave tacked to the North. T-The forenoon was very hazy
and calm, \sj|ucli prevented our feeing any diftant
objects; and at noon Avesfead the follo|v2ng bearings:
tAvo hummocks iflands in one, S. 30° E. feven or eight
miles; Volcano Ifland, N. 32° E. to N. 83° E.; extreme of Nipon, fmm N. 10° W. to S. 80° W. No
foundings..,, lining the night we had thunder and
lightning, with moft opprefliA8e.heat. Current N. 72° E.
15 miles.
31ft. A ftrong current %;us to the North, betAveen Vol
cano iflands and the Aveflern flioro. of Jeddo bay. At
4h* the north part of the ifland bore Eaft, two or
three miles; and on-the weft fide Ave obferved a large
<D
village.    This ifland was very high in the centre, rifing
gradually
ai
i .---.- - TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
pjde of tbeaeaftelrn higheft part of theTmounjt&hi. At
7h. the iflarad extended from S. 5° E. to.S. 40° E.
thre^' miles. In the moriijaig at 17 h. the eaft entrance
into Jeddo bay bore N. 5° W. to N. 20° W. The
jjpiod conl^nued-variable and calm till noon, when the
city point, forming the entrance infe© the bay, bore
S. 80° W. three leagues. Several boats came: off, and
bartered their fifh for trifles.
We made fail for White Point, which at-'-4th. bore
N. 20° W. At 7 h. we were a-breaft of it, bearing,
in one with! the round mouniaia, N. 87° W. We had
itine fathoms water, three or four miles from the fhore.
White Point is remarkable, and eafily known in any
direction, being much higher than any land nearij^R,
and terminating abruptly towards the feft, Avith) w&rite
cliffs capped with Avood ; the land on each fide receding* from it. After leaving it Ave gradually deepened our Avater to 20 and 30 fathoms*. The extremes
to the North beifcg very low, bore N. N. E., and towards the S. W. extreme point, S. 43° W. The night
Avas moderate ;. and is^he morning at 17 h. the land
extended from N. 3° E.  to N. 30° W.,  four or fix
l l 2 leagues.
25Ql^
gradftally from each extreme Tij-jsrad Ave obferved feveral    chap.
IV
times large columns of black  thiols iffuin^rfrom the   j—**-<
*797-
July-
Auguft
i ft. 260
*797-
Auguft.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    leagues.    The north extreme appeared like an ifland,
but it is not fo.    I conceive it to be Sand-down Point.
The coaft between it and White Point is very Ioav,
*/ '
falling back to the Aveflward between the Iavo points.
We faAV nothing of Avhat Captah¥' King (in Cook's
voyages) calls Hummock Ifland; but I imagine Avhat
he took for it Avas the elevated part of Sand-dowii
Point, Avhich has that appearance at a diftance, from
its forming a projecting point, and the Ioav land not
being A^ifible.
I
niaK
In  the   morning   we had   many   fifhing   boats   on
board.    They Avere much fmaller than thofe feen off
Jeddo bay, and made ufe of fine matted fails, except
a cotton cloth in the middle.    Each boat admitted
Avater for the  prefervation of their fifh.     At noon
^and-down Point bore S. 15° W., five or fix miles;
and  the north extreme,  N. 50° W.,  four or five off
fhore.    In the afternoon at 3 h.,  Avhen  White Point
bore due North,  Ave got feme obfervations  for the
watch,   Avhich fliewed the longitude 139° 46' 10" E.,
by Macao rate; White Point, 140°40'0" E., by Captain  King;. latitude 35° 13' N.     I  therefore take a
bteew departure, alloAving the point to be Avell fixed by
"j-the obfervations made in that voyage. fx$
We TO THE NORTH PACIHO OCEAN.
We fleered in the direction of the coaft, five or fix
miles from it.    At 3 h. Ave faw high land to the north?
CD
ward, and we fleered towards it. By 7 h. we Avere at
the extremity of the low land, which bore N. 70° W.
three leagues; and the high land commenced Avith an
eafy afcent : the north extreme then bore of us
N. 18° W. At 8h. our eftimated latitude Avas 36° 21'
f^jorth, Avhich is nearly the fituation of Low Point.
At 12 h&50 fathoms.
The morning wafsl a very thick fog, Avhich cleared
away at 19 h., and Ave faAV the high land-extending
from S. W. by S. to N. W. by N.; the neareft part
3 or 4 miles. At 20 h. 45 m. the fog entirely difperfed ;
and Ave fleered along the fliore, which was bold and
cliffy. Out fituation in the morning was juft to the
North of Cape de Kennis, but the fog prevented our
feeing it.    At noon the extremes of land  bore from
CD
N. W. to S. by W. | W. : neareft fliore five or fix
miles.
At 35 in.   paftr/2 h. avc faw land  extending from
N. 34° E. to N. ($5° E. feven or eight leagues ; and at
3 h. the main la'ady running out to a Ioav point,  bore
N. 15° E.,  leaving the  angle  between  the lands fo
f^uall as to renjder - the paflage between' them uncertain ; 262
A VOYAGE OF DISCdV^RlT
1797-
Aug«isft.
BOOK-    tain ; Ave therefore ha&l*e<&up to[>A*»ifether, SB^f I fup-
ii. | -ft
pofed to be, the iflands of M4tx4ih&: tlie^iteh4&n*d
on the main beanng Weft. At half pall 7 h.hgfee ooYth
part of Peeked Ifland, #hich i*J #dl thfe CeUtifete'moft,
bore*Weft, tft¥ee ■ or four miles; and our lafifttae aves
38° 15' N. This ifland was of fmall extendi and fe-
paratcd from the other, land'3 By^a narrow channel. It
prefentcd rocky flioi'd^, but A^fe well covered 'Mt!a
Avood, even up to the peak. Some low iflands bear
from it N. 4° E., but at no great diftance. Tavo flat
iflands of fome extent are five miles to the Welt of
Peaked Ifland, Avith a clear paffkge feemilrfgly'betA^Seft.
them and the other land, in the direction of N. 40° W.
When the fouth point of Peaked Ifle bore Weft, the
fouthern flat ifland bore S. 77° W; extreme hfand to
the North, N. 15°.W. Sounded Avith 90 fathoms, no
bottom. At 8 h., and at 11§ h.'. %e brought to for
the night. In the moaning Ave had moderate Aveather,
and the Peeked IflalSd bore S. 35° W.; north extreme, N. 30° W.; and Ave fleered in for the land. At
8 h. A.M. the fouth point of an opening, offAvhich
are tAvo or three nigh rocks, bore Weft three or four
CD
miles ; Peaked Ifle, S. 10° W.j the Ioav iflands Avithout
it. At 10 h. A. M. the paflage up the opening feaUde
very clear, in the direction of S. 65° Wl Th&pe «r*re
detached rocks on each fide of the entrance, and the
7 channel TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
At 1 h. Ave were a-breaft of a deep opening, running
up in a N. W*>directfen. On the fouth fide are two
hilkTr the fouthern one is bare, Av|#h a clump of trees'
upon it; the other richly clothed with Avood, extending to the point Avhich is rocky, and of moderate elevation. When to the Norths this hill refenjbles a fugar-
loaf. The north point is bare, with a confpicuous
clump of*trees on it; and off are twfe comical rocks,
wMefi are not feen when to the South. The country
wk^well cuM\ia*t*ed ; and many houfes Avere fcattered
along the fliore, arid numerous boats AvSfe fifhing. I
fhould imagine this harbour to affoi*d[r^ood 4ftelter,
and to be very eafy of accefs.    No foundings with 70
fathoms.
263
chamiel  appeared   narrow.    After  running up fome    chap.
IV.
diftanc&jit 'appeared to take a Avinding courfe. v—-v-1^
1797.
Auguft.
To the north of the opening is a fmall bay, Avith
iflots and fcattered rocks, on Avhich the fea broke.
The northern point was richly cultivated ; and on the
fea-fide Avas an extenfive town.
At noon pleafant breezes and fkir weather. Peeked
Ifland, S. 10° W.; rocks off the fouth point of the
opening, S. 28° W. nine miles ; no¥th ex**8feme, N. 30°
E,, off m§'riel&efl fliore'three or fou$ mifes.-
4th 264
1797-
Auguft
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    fathoms.    To the. North of the lwbouj&the land rofe
ii.
to a great height, forcing projecting and abrupt heatiSj
toAvards the fea, leaving bays betAveen them of conquerable e^fcejat, in a N. W.id^jction. We hadohaf-
fling Avinds and calms under the high i§n^AA^ich w^g
bokhjand rocky ; and Ave could not reacl&$kf3bottpJS1
Avith all our line.
At 8 h. Ave were abreaft of the jhigh table mountain bearing Weft, Avhen our efteemed latitude Avas
39° 16' N.; extremes from North to South 53°, off
fliore four or five miles. At dajj-light Ave hati^the
land bearing from N. 30° W. to S. 42° W ; our diftance
two or three leagues from the fliore. We continued
our courfe ; and by 20 h. Ave opened a deep inletfiithe
points in one bearing S. 75° W. four miles : at the fame
time, the eaft entrance of Port Nambu, N. £5° W. tAvo
or three leagues. A boat came off from the i$let,
and ftrongly preffed us to go into Nambu. ToAvards
noon the Avind died away, and we remained five or
fix miles from the land : the inlet bearing S. 43° W.;
Ioav point of Port Nambu, N. 87° W. 6'; extremes,
from N. 28° W. to S. 22° W. Our Japanefe friends
not fucceediaj" in perfuading us- to go into Nambu,
foon after returned to the inlet.
The TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
265
The current felting to the fouthward, we preferved
nearly the fame fituation. The inlet South of Nambu
took a S. W. direction, and to appearance afforded
good fhelter. The S. E. point of entrance is very
high bold land; the fummit covered Avith trees, and
is remarkable by being much more elevated than the
coaft to the foutlnvard. Some rocks lay off the N. W.
point, which forms a projecting hummock. The forenoon was calm and mild weather; but to our furprife
Ave faw no fifhing boats, nor junks making their coaft-
ing voyages, as Ave had before frequently obferved to
the fouthAvard. Point of Nambu harbour, S. 84° W.
four or five miles; Inlet, S. 38° W. nine miles; extremes, from N. 32° W. to S. 24° W. We frequently
tried unfuccefsfully for foundings.
CHAP.
IV.
1797-
Luguf
5th.
Auguft
Calms and light airs ftill continued, attended with
fome rain in the morning.
<Jth.
The entrance to Port Nambu was well open, bearing S. 59° W.; and the inlet, S. 28° W., off the former
three leagues.
At noon the inlet, S. 31° W.; and Nambu entrance,
S. 68° W. feven or eight miles. Muttered the people,
and read the articles of war.
m m Light 266
book
II.
1797.
Auguft
7th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Light Avinds, calms, and variable weather. During
the night Ave had a thick fog, AvMch difperfed in the
morning ; and we had cloudy Aveather, Avith fome
rain.
At noon the port of Nambu bore S. 10° W, on witli
Ioav land ; extreme land near the inlet, S. 3° W.; extremes to the North, N. 51° W., off fhore five or fix
miles ; an opening, Weft.
sth. Light airs and calms, making our progrefs along:
the coaft very tedious. At 7 h. the opening bore 35°
Weft, two leagues. An ifland is off the north point f
and Ave had 55 fathoms, black fand. The north extreme bore N. 55° W., very Ioav land ; the high land
about Nambu, S. 3° E. A junk came out of the
harbour, and in the night fpoke to us; but Ave could
not underftand them.
A fine morning gave us a diftinct view of the land,
Avnich ftill extended to the W. N. W., very Ioav. Some
high land extended from S. 50° W. to S. 80° W. : it
is the only elevated part betAveen Nambu and the
north point of Captain King's chart near the coaft.
The country Avas univerfally 'laidrout in plantations,
affording a pleating profpect.   At noon it became
very S5WS?
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
267
very hazy, over the land, when the north extreme bore CHAP.
N. 75° W.;   Near Point, Avhich projected from the !—.-^—>
high land, S. 81° W.; a white rock clofe to the fliore, AugSt.
S. 68p W. tAvo or three leagues.    Forty-five fathoms,
fand and fhells.
As the haze cleared aAvay Ave perceived the land
ftill to tend to the W. N. W.; and at 1 h. Ave difeejcned
-high land bearing from N. 24° W. to N. 34° W., which
feemed to be a continuation of Nipon. The fhore to
the North of the point fet at noon, S. 81° W., receded confiderably, and eithei formed a large bay or
harbour; but probably, from the appearance of the
low fhiores, it Avas the entrance of a river. The junk,
having accompanied us all day, entered tke;0pening.
We altered our courfe for the diftant land, tvhich at
7 h. bore N. 25° W.; high land, N. 37° W. to N. 60°
W.: and the hazy Aveather prevented our feeing the
Ioav land -any diftance. South extreme, S. 50?'-W*
In the evening the A^ftid difed away; a&d throughout
-the aight and morning Ave had a thick fog. At times
in the forenoon it cleared aAvay, Attach gave us an oj"J-
portunitly of feeing trie high land to the N. W. By
noon the fog difperfed, and.we Avere well upmffli. it;
the outer extreme bearing N. 28° W.  nine  or  ten
m m 2. miles.
9th.
<4 V-
268
BOOK
II.
1797.
Auguft.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
miles. This head land rofe abruptly from the fea to
a confiderable height, bold and cliffy. Within the
outer extreme the fliore prefented a barren appearance,
but not fo elevated, till it joined the high land, Avhich
was much broken : the extreme part of it extended to
S. W., Avhen the Ioav land continued to the South as
far as Ave could fee. An extenfive village was feen
to the W. S. W., with the cultiA^aMons furrounding ift
afcending the hills, in ridges one above another. A
fandy beach fkirted thejfhore, from whence we Avere
diftant four miles. We experienced this day a
foutherly current of 14 miles. In the evening and
morning, and during the fog, we Avere continually
troubled with a Arariety of broAvn peterels, having the
outer part of their wings tipped underneath with
Avhite. They made an unufual chattering noife, and
were in great numbers.
10th. At 7 h. Ave Aygre only abreaft of the outer extreme
head fet at noon, new bearing, N. 65° W. At the
extremity of the Ioav point beyond it are fome detached rocks ; they bore N. 40° W. five or fix miles.
Some very diftant high land Avas obferved to the
W. N. W.   The night was very foggy.
In
•kg**" TO THE NORTH PACIEIC OCEAN.
We  experienced this   day 27 miles   of  foutherly
current.
269
In the morning Ave had a frefli breeze<from the S. E., chap.
. iv.
which increafed the fog till near noon, Avhen it entirely —-
difperfed.
1797.
Auguft.
At 18 h. we juftgot fight of the rocks, bearing 'Weft
five or fix miles j but we got no view of the land, the
fog coming on again fo immediately. We purfued
our courfe for Volcano Bay ; and at 22 h. Ave faw
Point Efarme to the W. N. W. At noon it bore
N. 80° W.; abrupt head on the N. E. point of Nipon,
S. 30° W.; high mountain, S. 47° W. 8'; the extremes
of Nipon very high, S. 67° W.
r «tt
Soon after  noon  the  wind  fhifted   to  the  Aveft-
Avard.
nth.
Point Efarme, S. 37° W. The fhore from this point
took a S. W. by W. direction. Our diftance was
three or four leagues off.    Variable weather.
At noon Point Efarme, S. 15° W., on with the main
land of Nipon; north point of Volcano bay, N. 63° W.
four leagues ;  extremes of Infoo, from N. 15° E. to
8 N. 80$ A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book   N. 80° ET.;  fouth Volcano, S. 78° W.;  mountain in
<—ip||\   Nipon, S. 10° W.    Calm Aveather and fair.
1797.
Auguft
I2th* At 6h.  30 m. the high mountain in Nipon and
Point Efarme bore S. 8° W.
Variable weather. We fleered in for the bay, as
wind permitted. At 7h. 30 m. Point Efarme bore
South.
The wind favouring us, Ave fleered for the entrance
of Endor'mo harbour; and at 3 A. M. Ave came to in
nine fathoms, muddy bottom: Hans Oldfon Ifland
bearing S. 77° W. two miles.
In the forenoon the boat was employed up the
harbour, feeking the moft convenient place for our
wooding, watering, and making obfervations, Szo.
Fair and pleafant weather. Obferved the latitude
on fhore.
In the afternoon .we got under '*gsay and run up
the harbour, where Ave moored in three fathoms water,
perfectly fheltered from every Avind, and rrdthin two-
Cables' length of the fhore, and a-Jbreafl of.a fine
ftream of water.    Several houfes jflere fcatteroi along
the TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
271
the fliore, inhabited by the inoffenfive natives of the    chap.
• n IV.
ifland, Avho very foon paid us a vifit. I—-v-w
1797.
Auguft.
We immediately commenced our operations, but
the bad Aveather much impeded our progrefs. The
winds Avere chiefly from the S. E. quarter, with fome
iain; and on the 14th it blew very ftrong. The con-
ftant gloominefs of the weather Avas extremely unfavourable for the regulation of our time-piece; but
we embraced every opportunity of taking equal altitudes.
Tavo days after our arrival we were vilited hy fome
Japanefe, Avho came from the toAvn of Matzmai, as
we ;tmderftood them, on purpofe to find out of Avhat
nation Ave were, and our intentions in coming here.
And on the 18th our old friends arrived; the fame
we bad noticed laft year for their civility. They
feemed much furprized at feeing us int fo fmall a veffel,
and could not Avell account for our coming here again.
As they came exprefsly to look after us, and to prevent our intercourfe with the natives, we had always
their company either on board or on fhore, where
they refided oppofite the veffel. They were anxious
for our departure, and ftrongly. urged it every day,
but 979
BOOK
II.
*797-
Auguft.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
but in a A'ery civil manner. I had to regret Ave could
not underftand each other better, this man being
equally intelligible and communicative. I acquired
from him a very compleat map of the Japanefe
iflands, with ftrong injunctions not to acknowledge
from whom I procured it ; as they explained the
parting Avith it would bring them into difgrace and
punifliment, were it knoAA'n.
Thefe people informed us that the proper name of
this extenfive ifland was Infu or Infoo, and univerfally called fo by the natives :v Matzmai applying
only to the town and diftrict inhabited by the Japanefe, fituated oppofite to the coaft of Nipon, in
the ftraits. They alfo informed us of the Ruffians
trading to Ago-dad-dy, a port on the ifland to the
N. E. of Matzmai, which they reprefented as a very
good harbour, much fuperior to Endormo. There is
another town in the ftraits belonging to the Japanefe,
but I did not learn the name.
The peninfula about Endormo is very thinly inhabited ; and in the harbour the men feemed to
have no other employment but fifhing for their daily
food, while thofe who lived on the other fide of the
ifthmus,
IB TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
ifthmus, open to the fea, Avere always found collect- chat,
ing the feed-weed (fucus facharinus), Avhich they
dried in the fun and made up in bundles for exportation. Great quantities of this Aveed dries upon the
fhores of Volcano bay, which makes a confiderable
trade to Matzmai, from Avhence it is exported to
Nipon.
M'797.
Auguft.
N N Sf4
A VOYAGE OF ffifSCOVERY
BOOK II.
1797.
Auguft
2lft.
22d.
CHAP. V.
Off the Town of Matzmai in Infu.—Proceed through the Straits
of Sangaar.—Range along the Weftern Coaft of Infu.—Peaked
Ifland or Timofhee.—Advance to 520 North Latitude.
sr Monday we had completely refitted the fchooner
for fea, amply provided Avith Avood and Avater; and by
laying her on fliore we had repaired the defective
copper on her bottom. The folloAving morning we
took leave of our Japanefe friends, and to their
great fatisfaction Ave failed out of the harbour. The
wind bloAving frefh at S. E. with dark, gloomy
Aveather; Ave came to in nine fathoms off the entrance,
Hans Oldfon Ifland bearing S. 5° E. one mile.
23d. In the morning it Avas moderate and fair, with the
CD
wind from the eaflward. At 8h. A.M. Ave got under
Avay, and flood over for Point Efarne. The harbour
at noon bore N. 37° E. nine or ten miles, Avhere our
7 elevation
B TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
elevation made the latitude 42° 12' 7" N., mer. alt.
58° 56' 30".
We had no opportunity of making any other
obfervations for the longitude of Endormo harbour
than thofe which were taken laft year in Volcano Bay,
Avhich fix its fituation to be in the latitude of 42° 19'29"
N., and 141° 7' 36" E.
By equal altitudes taken on fliore betAveen the
13th of Auguft and the 21ft, the watch No. 45, appeared Arery materially to ha ve altered her rate. And
on the 21ft of Auguft at noon, was flow of mean
time at GreenAvich Oh. 7tin. 10s.59, and gainifflg
per day 1.26s. on mean time. The Avatch made the
longitude on our arrival 140° 5' 0:c/i.h the harbour,
which is an error of 1° 2' 30". in 46 days. Thermometer
from 65° to 80°.
At 2 h. 30 m. Ave tacked clofe in with the fouth
Volcano in feven fathoms. Calm Aveather and very
hazy, 48 fathoms. Rocky and fandy. Light airs.
At noon the fouth Volcano bore N..&8"0. W. Extreme
towards MatantoaaiaS. 69° W., and the main land
of Nipon S. 15° E. to S. 34° W. No bottom with 50
fathoms.
n n 2      • The
1797.
Auguft. BOOK
II.
I797-
Auguft.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
The Volcano Weft, and Point Efarne 16° E. at
daylight. By noon it bore Weft two or three miles.
It forms a remarkable round head land,'the upper
"part bare, Avhich is occafioned by the lava that has run
doAvn it on the fides : between the drains it is covered
Avith Avood, and on the N. W. fide Ave faw the fmoke
afcending from the crater.
Frefli breezes and fair Aveather enabled us to ftretch
acrofs the ftraits for Nipon : at 5 h. we tacked in
70 fathoms; the N. E. point of Nipon or Cape
Nambu bearing S. 40° E. tA\ro leagues; the other
extreme W. § N. The high land S. 40° W. betAveen
3Ms land-and Cape Nambu is an extenfive bay Avith a
low coaft between them : the bay is of no depth. We
continued plying to the eaftward during the night,
but in the morning Ave found we had loft ground. At
llh. 40 m. we had 40 fathoms, coral and ftones.
At2h. A.M. 48 do.
At 4 h. do. 60, fahdL-atfd ftones.
Point Efame, Weft Iavo leagues; no ground with
80 fathoms.    Within the point in Volcano bay is a
-"♦finall buy, and many houfes fcattered about it.
ail    Calm 1797-
Auguft
26th.
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Calm till 4h. Avhen a fine breeze fpringing up, Ave CHAP,
flood over for Nipon. At 7 h. Cape Nambu, S. 10° W.;
and Point Efarne, N. W.; and foon after Ave tacked.
By the altitudes taken this afternoon for the Avatch,
flie flieAved the longitude of Point Efarne 9' 10" too
much. The true latitude of the Point is 41° 49' 20'' N.,
and longitude 141° 20' 0" E. By applying the Maeao
rate from Endormo harbour, it agrees Avithin 1' 30" of
longitude.
CD
Moderate and cloudy Aveather.
At day-light Ave found a ftrong eaftefly current
ftill prevented our getting to the Aveftward ; and at
noon Point Efarne bore S. 14° W. one mile. No
foundlflgs, at the fame time, with 90 fathoms of
line.
Cape Nambu and Point Efarne bear from each
other N. 22° W. and S. 22° E. nine leagues.
We kept plying in Efarne bay, which affords good
anchorage clofe in, and well fheltered from the
Avefterly winds. We found many junks riding here,
with cargoes of fea-weed, waiting for a fair wind to
profecute 278
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    profecute their voyage.    The inhabitants paid us a
ii- . . rr
>—$*&■>   vifit;   but only the men came into the veffel, the
T TOT
Auguft. Avomen remaining in the boats. A fine ftream of
Avater is at the back of the fandy beach, which is procured with great convenience. The A^olcano ftill continued burning ; and the Aveftern fide of the hill Avas
entirely covered with pumice ftones, appearing perfectly Avhite. As the fmoke afcended, Avhen to "leeward we experienced a ftrong fulphurous fmell. In
„the evening Ave ftood over for Nipon; and at daylight Cape Nambu bore South. At noon the Cape
bore 56° E.; Point Efarne, N. 5° E. ; extreme of
Nipon, running out to a Ioav point, Weft: and we
had very little current againft us.
28th. Soon after noon Ave had light Avinds, which enabled
us to keep in Avith the coaft of Nipon and avoid the
current, Avhich we could plainly diftinguifli without
us running Avith rapidity. Before Ave came a-breaft
of the high land Ave pafled tAvo large toAvns, and obferved feveral junks at anchor within the beach, and
,ig&| off the eaflernmoft toAvn, which is fituated at the
commencement of the high land to the W. S. W. of
CD
the N. E. Cape.    The whole country in this part Avas
culti Abated.
Bearings TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Bearings at noon : the ifland, S. 87° E., juft in
fight, three or four leagues ; eaft point of the harbour
of Agodaddy, N. 17° E., about four leagues ; extremes of Nipon, S. 2° W. five leagues, making high.
<Hazy weather obfcured the diftant lands.
At 6h. the Avind failed us, and Ave immediately
came to in 11 fathoms, rocky bottom ; a fmall ifland
off the north point of Nipon, bearing S. 40° W. one
mile; Cape Nambu, S. 66° E \ Point Efarne, N. E. :
extreme towards Matzmai, S. 75° E; and ditto of
Nipon, S. 56° E. At 18 h. we got under Avay, palling
clofe to the ifland, in four fathoms, to avoid the current, Avhich run very ftrong, breaking in oArerfalls
againft  the wind.     Moderate   breezes and   cloudy
CD v
Aveather.
Light winds and hazy Aveather. The north point
of Nipon is a Ioav flat point, and is fituated in the
latitude 41° 31' N. and 140° 50' E. of Greenwich : from
it the coaft takes a S. W. direction. Cape Nambu
bears S. 70° E., from the north point ten or eleven
leagues.
CD
Light airs and calms throughout the night; and in
the morning Ave found the current had drifted us to
the
1797.
Auguft. 280
1797-
Auguft.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
the North, when the eaft point (which makes abruptly to the fea) of Agodaddy harbour bore N. 12° E.
tAvo.or three leagues.
Our foundings during the night varied from 42 to
o
24 fathoms : fand and ftones.
Frefh breezes and fqually Aveather, wHh heavy rafejj.
which entirely obfcured the land from our vieAV.
)
[11 it
11;
30th. Light airs, with heavy rain, which fubfiding at 3 h.
Ave had calm and clear Aveather; and our foundings
Avere 15 fathoms, Avithin two miles of the fliore: the
entrance of Agodaddy bearing N. E. On the Aveft
fide Ave remarked feveral villages in the vallies formed
by the rifing grounds ; and toAvards the-weft point of
entrance the fhore was well wooded. A light air
carried us toAvards fome hi^h broken land, and Ave
Avere neceffitated to bring up near it in 56 fathoms,
to avoid the current, Avhen it bore S. 78° W. three
miles ; and a high falling point, on the coaft of Nipon,
bore S. 22° W^
We got under way with hazy and gloomy Aveather,
keeping clofe in Avith Matzmai fhore, Avhich prefented
clayey cliffs, very elevated, and covered Avith a thick
foliage
Ik! TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
appearance.
evsi*
At 22 h. <$& pafled an extenfive village^ Avith feveral
junks at anchor off it. Several boats put off from
the fliore to .vifit us; but haA'ipg the advantage of a
CD   . O
fine breeze* ,cve did not Avait for jfcbem. This A-illage
Avas fituated in a bay, the Aveft point of it being rockyi'
An ifland opened with it in the direction of S. 85° W.;
and foon aftje^ wej opened the town of Matzmai : this
roc^v point forfnftlPg'ithe eaft extreme of the bafy.c MF&
alfo opened another ifland to the feaward. Matzmai
bay is about four miles in extent: the two points
forming it tjear N. 70° W. and S. 70° E. from each
other. At Jfce weft extreme is a very fmaHlifland,
connected Avith the fliore by a reef of rocks. A fmall
building upon it fer\*es as a look-out houfe in the dajjQt
and a light-houfe by night. Our foundings AArere
regi^ar, with fix fgthomfe. clofe; .in. A great nj|ny
junks Avere lying- along-fidc of each other, moored
clofe to the fbjore; jm^.en $& keach{<$$gre feveral
building and repairing.. Atj^orij we obfqr^'f&i; in
41°22'N.; the poinds, of the bay, E.\5°N. to.%;
65° W.; ^entre of t^pj to\yn> N. N. W. twojdnjjes;
{f^pon extremes, S. 15° ^a^Q S. .61° E. five,l&£08§9
foliage of Avoods.     Many runs of Avater Avere  pre-   chap.
cipitated from thefe hills, which gave them a romantic   ■—£—
1797.
Auguft.
R
■
00
T
The
*~-m 282i
BOOK
*-!$:
\p7-
Auguft
qift.
.   A VOTAOE OF DE50GVERY
The| merging Avas fpjhazy w@feould fcareely diftinguifh
the coaft of i£&j}p0vi:
Frefh breezes and hazy weather. We failed clofe
ifa; along the fhore to the town of Matzmai: and before Ave dreAv near am oSferved feveral *4i(HCemen,
richly dreffed, galloping into tlie- tOAvn; and it fhould
feem by their numbers, the Avhasle of the &habjtants
wejfe, collected to take notice of ustfK
Near the centre of the towtf, at a landing place,
was a body  of troops in  regular order,' with  the#-
colours flying, as if they expected us to land.
JSke town Avas of confiderahle magnitude, extending;
along the margin of the beach, and afcending gra-
^Saifiy to fome':d?rftance up the rifing grounds, inter-
fperfed Avilh-'trees and gardens.
The houffes were of wood, with the fame kind of
roofing, and univerfelly covered wiih ftones. The
fuperior dwellings Avere decorated with long pieces of
coloured cloths, of various patterns, fpread lengthways, Avhich had a very chearrul effect; ihe ground
work being chiefly white. The temples or public
edifices were equally adorned, and colours flying all
2 over TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
283-'
over the town, as if drefled for our amufement.    The   chap.
v.
hills at the   baGfi? rife to   a  good height,  but Avere   '—v~—/
deftitute of wood, and uncultivated, excepting fome    Auguft.
parts that wdretfaidfroUt in gardens.
The eaftefftj* wind brought in a number of junks and
boats: they all kept clofe in fliore to avoid the cift*'
rent,   whiph appeared to run to  the* Aveffovard very
ftrong in the offing.    At 3 h. Ave ftood to the fouth-
ward.     After running* ben mites the N. W. pdfi¥t of,
Nipon bore S. 34° E. three leagues, and extended up
the Straits to Eafbs but Ave could not difcern more
than four leagues in that quarter for the haze.    Th&
extreme of Nipon, Avhich the Japanefe call Sangaroo?
projectstfrom fome bold high rocky land,vand makes
in hummocks at a diftance; the extreme bimj^ Hl|nefr,
and falling abruptly to the fea.    It bears S.S. E. from
Matkmai about fix leagues.    In the evening,'T^h.jnhe
Hght-houfe bore of us N. 54° W. itiree nffles, and Ave
CD J ■
had 65 fathoms,  when the^Jjpifla1 of Matzmai took a
N. M. W. direction.    In the  mdrlftng, at da^-light,
-we^eije within foxmok^ve miles of ifio fliore,' without
foundings.    The S. W. extreme of Matzmai, S. 36° EP$
land pf Nipon, ijxift ope&j* extreme of Itefoo, North-I*
an ifland, N. N. W.; another, S. 4° W.; to the Weft
B
[•C]
0 o
of lit
284
BO O K
II.     .
1797.
September
ift.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
of it, a fmall rock;   third ifland,  S. 70° W.    Thefe*
two iflands are high, but of no eMent.
Soon after 1 h. the Avind Ihjfted to the eaftward,
and bleAv a ftrong breeze, Avith dark cloudy Aveather.
The coaft of |<B.foo formed a bay from the land, and
Ave were a-breaft of it at noon, extending to the North
feveral miles; but the haze over the fliore prevented
our obfervjqg any thing diflinctly. The land Avas in
general high, and bare of wood towards the fea.   i
m
We pafled betAveen the ifland, which at noon bore
N. N. W., and the north point of the bay, having a
clear paflage three or four leagues Avide. The ifland
Avas lowaat each extreme, and tolerably elevated : its
greateft extent two or three leagues, in a N. E. and
S.W. direaion. At 7 h. it bore from S. 50° W. to
N. 67° W.; north point of the bay, N. 15° E. three
leagues. The night was fqually, with threatening
Aveather; and at midnight Ave brought to till daylight, Avhen the extremes of Infoo extended from
N.48°E. to S. 18° E.: the coaft receding very confiderably to the eaftward. The ifland bore from
S. 8° W, ~, neareft land of Infoo, four or five miles.
W$ TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
285
We made fkft to the N. E., but the forenoon wais   chap.
LP V.
•payable:and-tealm at times: at laft it fixed in the   '—■—'
eaftern quarter.
1797.
September,
A junk accompanied us, continuing the fame courfe
along this coaft. At noon the north point of the bay
We paffed yefterday bore South ; and the extreme,
N. 52° E.; neareft land, S. 10° E. two or three
leagues; the ifland, juft in fight, S. 50° W. Current 22 miles North.
Strong breezes and very fqually weather; and the
gloominefs of the atmofphere prevented our diftin-
guifliing the coaft very accurately. The country appeared highly diverfified by hills and values; but no
openings promifing flielter that we could difcern till
4 P. M. At 7 h. we were within tAvo leagues of the
land, fet at noon N. 52° E., Avhich makes high, de-
fcending gradually to a low point near the fea, off
which is a fmall ifland and a rock aboA7e Avater.
From the point the land of Infoo takes the direction
of N. 60° E.
At 8 h. the noon point bore°S.-E. two^Te&gues; and
it became calm. At 9 h. the Avind frefliened up from
the eaftward,   with gloomy weather,   whicn  in  the
forenoon
ad. s~
_
286
A VOYAGE OF BS5COVERY
BOOK   $prenoon increafed to a freih gale*) f^itli heavy rain
I—i*m   from the N. E. quarter; and Ave ftood to the N. W.,
September having no fight of the land.
By the Japanefe chart, in the bay Ave cr^Te'd in the
afternoon is a river of fome extent; and at 4 h. an
opening round a high point, S. 5° E.; and at 6 h. it
bore S. 30° E., but fo indiftin^Jy Ave could not afcer-
tain Avhether Ave were right in our conje^jires. The
wind bloAving ftrong from the land, prevented puj^
approach to the fliore to prove any thing Avith certainty.
3d. Strong breezes and cloudy Aveather: extremely hazy
round the horizon, anjd a large fwell from the North.
More moderate.    Tacked fhip. S«J
10 h.    Half paft, tacked.
20 h.    SAvell much abated.
24 h.    Erefh breezes and hazy weather.
4th. Moderate breezes and very cloudy Aveatherv
3 h.    Tacked fhip.
11 h.   Dark cloudy weather, with rain.
15 h. )f;|IoAfe to an4^mnded.
At noon Peaked Ifland, N. 8° E.fe leagues.
Two TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
287
Two flat iflands, S. 70°E. to S. Sfd° E. tAvo ditto.       chap.
Extremes of Infoo, from S. E;ofco N. 60° E. about September,
feven leagues.
We faw an ifland to the eaftward; and foon after
another, with a high peak in the centre, bearing N.
by E. At 22 h. Ave faw the main land of Infoo from
Eaft to S. E.
We fleered for the n#th extreme of Infoo, pafling
to the Weft of $wo Ioav flatriOands that bore a barren
appearance, and\ were uninhabited. The main land
continued high and irregular, gradually decreafing towards the extreme, Avhieh appeared low and well
wooded. At 7 h. the ypnd died aAvay, and itoiwas
calm till 11 h.; the extremes of Infoo then bearing
from N. 37° E. to S. 14° E., diftant four leagues from
the neareft parts.
5th,
»ti
Flat iflands, S. 12-W. and S. 34° W.
PeakedJfland, N. 15° W.
Towards midnightothe wind came tfrom the Eaft,
and Ave ftood to the  northward.    At daylight the
extreme^ 288
» I7^
September
A VOYAGE OF DISGOVE&YO
and Ave made fail
book   extreme, North of Infoo, N. E
to get up Avith Peaked Ifland; but the wind veering
to E. N. E., av?j 5#ere unable to Aveather it: and at
22 h. we bore away to the Weft, ranging the ifland at
•/ f o       CD
If miles diftant, in 45 fathoms, rocky bottom. We
foon after opened (another aiffeufl, bearing N. 30° W.,
fys/o leagues jfiroin the S.'W. po*%it of Peaked Ifle. At
noon Ave.flha'd hmry pteafant weather.-: The extremes
of Peaked Ifland extended from N. 10° E. to S. 69° E.;
the Peak, N. 6'1° E.*, two miles the neareft part; the
other ifland, N. 2° to 20.° W3; extt>erltes ot Infoo,
S. 37° E. The northwpart Av<F'could! not'Mfee, BeifSg
fliut in Avith the Peatf, frttfe ^MchPSl? bears north-
eafterly.   jfjj|j|
45th.
Soon after tWOR a c^nO&^from Peeked Ifland came
on-board. Thefe people were ■irf,iJeVerjr refpect tB3
fame Avith thofe of Volcano bay. They Called the
Peaked Ifle, Timo-fliee; and the otflefi^ "Tee-flie*©*!
Timo-fhee is of an irregular figure, fix or feven leagues
CD CD * CD
in circumference, rifing graduaHy^Aom its^baTeM-Pan
uncommon high peaked hill, prefenting evidently a
volcanic crater. Beneath it the lnou^ttfiflTAras much
broken into cragged points, and to appearance rocky
hal££wsiy dowft, dbrmirig drains o*rd§fflh-¥si <WMch exhibited various colourfedr>earths, cino'terij pfoi&$£e^ifeS£
and TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
and fulphurous matter.    The fhore of the ifland was    chai
fkirted Avith rocks ; but well clothed with wood, even   gg
halfway up the mountain.
*797-
September
The woods Avere diverfified Avith pine trees; and
the verdure on the land gave it an agreeable "profpect
from the fea, the bare parts of the mountain being
generally obfcured by the clouds.
As Ave opened the paflage between the iflands we -
obferved fome houfes, to which our vifitors returned;
and we flood over for the other ifland, but calms
during the night prevented our approaching it; and
in tl}e morning Ave had heavy rains, with a ftrong
wind from the N. E. quarter. At noon Tee-fhee
bore from N. 63° E. to S. 76° E.; and Timo-fhee,
S. 55° E. three leagues.
Tacked, in hopes of Aveathering the ifland of Tee-
fhee, which at 7h. bore from S. 50° E. to Eaft. It
extends about four leagues in a N. by E. and S. by W.
direction, very moderate in elevation Avhen compared
Avith Timo-fhee. It rifes abruptly from the fea in
rocky cliffs. The northern part is low and very rocky*.
On the fouth part we faw fome habitations. The
paflage dividing thefe iflands is to appearance free
p p from 1
290
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    from all danger, running in a N. E. and S. W. line of
ii. .
v—W0   direction.    At midnight the ifland bore to the South
1797.
September.
of us about tAvo leagues. Soon after, the wind failed
us; and Ave had light airs from the eaftward, which
prevented our approach to Infoo. We therefore tacked
and ftood to the North: and at 5 A. M. Ave faw an
ifland bearing N. by E.; and the north, extreme of
Infoo, S. 72° E. feven or eight leagues. At noon the
wind increafed, with cloudy Aveather: Timo-fhee Peak,
S. 8° E. twelve feagues ; Tu-fhee, S. 2° to 12° W.; the
north extreme of the ifland of Infoo, juft vifible,
S. 50° E.; and in the direction of N. 60° E. we juft
difcerned more land : ifland to the North, N. 13* E.
I make the .latitude of the N. W. point of Infoo
45° 25' N., and the longitude 141° 27' E.; leaving between it and the difcovered land an extenfive flraitj
Avhich the wind prevented our entering.
To the South of what is fuppofed to be the N. W.
point of Infoo, between 45° 15' N. and 45° N., we
could not diftinguifli the coaft. It is therefore probable this may be only an ifland ; and the Japanefe
chart feems to confirm it. The Avind prevented me
clearing up this point. Thefe remarks are fince our
being to the North.
1
iiL-'fe
At TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
91
At half pafl, the neAv land fet at noon extended    chap.
from N. 38° E. to S. 85° E.; centre of North Ifland, w^
N. 20° W:; Timo-fhee, S. 8° W.; Tu-fliee, S. 20° W. September
about twelve leagues. 8th*
Moderate Aveather throughout the night.
We layed to till day-light.
Made fail; the extremes bearing from N. .20° E. to
S. 69° E. fix leagues.; North Ifland, N. W. four
leagues. ': By noon we Avere Avithin three miles of the
land, When it extended from N. 25° E. to S. 20° E.
eight or ten leagues, the fouth extreme; the ifland,
S. 64° W. to S. 70° W. fix or feven leagues. Very
pleafant Aveather, and a fteady Avind. As the Japanefe, in their chart, make an extenfive ifland to the
North of Infoo, I conjectured this to be the fame land.
The fouthern part of it is rather high, but in general
very moderate in elevation. I place the fouth part
in 46° N. latitude, and 141° 37' E. longitude. The
ifland laying off this part of the coaft was high and
Avoody, but of no extent. It lays in the latitude of
46° 17' N., five or fix leagues, in the direction of
S. 50° W. from Village Point, which bore N. 25° E.
p p 2 from
■ ■.uwu—'wyg "agSB'S^ ill
11
292
BOOK
II.
1797.
September,
pth.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
from us at noon. As the wind preA'ented our pafimg
to the eaftward of this coaft, and examining the ftraits,
Avhich I fuppofe to divide it from Infoo, we Avere
obliged to range it on the weftern fide; and at noon
continued our courfe to the north-eaftward, for that
purpofe.
At half paft 6h. the extremes of land bore from
S. 15° E. to N. 15° E.; a round hill, N. 36° E.; and
the ifland, S. 32° W., off fliore four or five miles.
Cloudy Aveather.
At half paft 17 h.  tacked.     The land bore from
N. 26° E. to S. 2°E.    Tacked again.    Round Hill,
S. 45° E., four or five miles off fliore.
Light airs and calms. Round Hill, S. 28° E.: the
extremes preferved the fame bearing; and we were
two or three miles off. fhore. Soon after noon we
pafled the north extreme: to the South of it were
feveral fcattered houfes. The land tended to the
northward, bold and cliffy, of moderate elevation,
fuelling into rifing grounds, Avell clothed with Avood
and  verdure.     The coaft was ftraight and  uniform
in TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
in appearance, and nothing remarkable but the Round    chap
Hill.
Erefli breezes from the land; and Ave ftood to the
North, as the Avind permitted. At 6 h. the extremes,
North, making Ioav land, bore N. 40° E.; and the
Round Hill, making the fouth extreme, N.260 E., three
or four leagues off fliore.
The night was fqually, and we began to feel the
weather very cold.
The land extended from N. 15° E. to S. 15° E.;
and a confpicuous high mountain bore N. 37° E., four
or five leagues from the land a-breaft of us, which
appeared very low; and in fome parts we could not
difcern- any land. We hauled up in fhore till we
perceived the coaft connected by low land, well
Avooded; nor could we obferve any openings whatever. At 20 h. we fleered to pafs without the low
extreme, north point, which at noon bore N. 20° E.
three or four leagues; the other extremes, S. 55° E.:
but the more diftant land was obfcured by the haze.
The mountain bore N. 51° E.    The coaft we pafled
in
1797-
September
loth.
M
■=*«=* 294
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
ii
1797.
September
"nth.
BOOK    in the night Avas more indented than ufual, but did
not promife any flielter.
At 2 h. we pafled the Ioav point, making the extreme at noon. It is the only part Ave have yet feen
making a point. It projects out Avith a gradual defcent
from the high land, terminating very Ioav. It is fituated in the latitude of 48° 46' N., and longitude 141°
32' E.
At 7 h. Ave hauled off for  the  night; and at mid-
» CD *
night Ave had ftrong breezes and hazy Aveather, Avhen
Ave Avore and brought to the Avind till day-light,
our fituation being the fame as laft night:  the ex-
CD CD
tremes bearing S. 5° E. to N. E. At 20 h. a fugar-
loaf hill, S. 84° E. The coaft ftill preferred, a
northerly direction; but our vieAV was much limited
by the haze. At noon the Sugar-loaf, making the
extreme, South; north extreme, N. 9° E., two or
three miles off fhore.
Squally and dark gloomy Aveather.
The high round mountain to the S. E. of the low
point, which Ave pafled in the afternoon,  makes this
7 part TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
part eafily known.    To the fouthward of it the land    chap
v.
is of moderate elevation ; but to the nortliAvard, re-    v—
markably  high,   and  rifing abruptly  from   the  fea.   September
Inland, the mountains were ftill more elevated : many
of them clothed with Avood up to their fummits.    The
fliore continued  bold,  and prefented no dangers to
obftruct our naAdgation.    We could not difcern any
openings,   or  the  fmalleft  appearance  of the  coaft
being inhabited.
I could not reconcile the extent of this land with
the ifland North of Infoo, in the Japanefe chart;
neither did it continue the fame eafterly direction :
hoAvever, to clear up the matter, Ave had only to
continue our courfe, keeping Avell in with the land.
The land to the Weft Ave could only conclude to be
the coaft of Tartary; but the extent of the land Ave
had uoav traced up for 4f of latitude Ave could not
all comprehend. Nor had we any books or charts
to clear up our doubts, except Cook's third voyage,
which only tended to confufe us : I mean in thofe
extracts relating to the voyage of the Caftricom -and
Brefkes, where he fuppofes the former fell in with
the eaftern coaft of Tartary, when De Vries imagined
t\\ey were exploring the land of Jefo up to 49° N.
Our 296
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    Our doubts^ Avere noAV partly cleared   up at  noon;
*-—*—I    and Ave began to fufpect,   from the  appearance  of
1*707*
September,   fhe low lands, and our decreafing foundings, (with our
northern latitude),  that Ave Avere not likely to get to
-   fea, from our prefent fituation,  Avithout returning to
the South.
12th. The extremes from N. 30° E. to S. E., two leagues
off fhore.    The land very high and uneven.
At half paft 9h. we hauled off for the night, having
dark gloomy weather and heavy rain ; and at 9 h. avc
brought to under Ioav fail.
Variable Aveather, with light airs and calms.
At half paft 17 h. the land extended from N. 22° E.
to S. 18° E. five or fix leagues ; and at the fame time,
we faw more land bearing N. 78° W., juft vifible
from the deck. I conceived this land to be the coaft
of Tartary. The forenoon Avas calm and clear
Aveather, which enabled us, for the firft time this
moon, to obferve diftances. The land to the Weft
preferved much the fame appearance; the north extreme,    terminating   Ioav    toAvards    the    fea,    bore
N. 24°
H'l TO THE NORTH PACIMC OCEAN.
297
N. 24° E., fiA7e or fix leagues diftant.    At noon the chap.
v.
fouth extreme,  S. 14° E. ;   and  a  very  remarkable *—~v-—/
peaked hill near the fea, S. 64° E.; a break in the Auguft.
land, S. 40° E.; the coaft of Tartary, from N. 71° W.
to S. 80° W. about 12 or 15 leagues.   No current
have we yet experienced.—
«1
QQ <r
liii
29s
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
ii
1797.
September
13th.
CHAP. VI.
Impraclicability of getting to Sea by the Northward.—Determination of returning.—Remarkable Hazinefs of the Atmofphere.
Calm, and fair weather.
4 h.    Light breezes.
Extremes of Tartary, from N. 55° W. to S. 80° W.;
and the point Avhich terminated the land to the northward at noon, N. 35° E.; fouth extreme, S. 16° E.
Fine moon-light. As we fuppofed we were at the
extent of the eaftern land, we hauled our wind till
day-light; for we ftill imagined it to be an ifland.
We faw the peaked hill bearing S. 27° E.: and the
eaftern coaft ftill extended to the North, our diftance
from it three or four leagues. In the morning the
wind increafed to a ftrong breeze, with fqually
weather.
As
m TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
As Averun to the North the coaft became gradually    chap.
l@Aver, al\Arays terminating in Ioav points ; and the in-    ■—£$-4
terior land was bare of Avood.    We faw no double September,
land, which gave us reafon to imagine we were near
its extremity : and indeed the extent of this land was
much greater than Ave could fuppofe the  Japanefe
ifland to be, as laid doAvn in their chart.    Our foundings  gradually   decreafed  to   11   fathoms ;   and  w$r
hauled ovenlbr  the weftern land.     At noon a Ioav
fandy point bore N. 15° E.; the extreme ofthe coa$y
of Tar&try, N. 30° W.; a round hill, Weft; and fifty
extreme, W. S. W.    Our diftance from the eaft fhore
two or three leagues.
Frefh breezes and very fqualJIy. In Handing toAvards the weftern land Ave had regular foundings,
Avhufti decreafed as we approached it: and the wind
veering to the Weft, Ave came to an anchor in nine
fathoms, four leagues from the land; the round hill
bearing S. 64° W., making the extreme to the Weft.
Extreme of the eaftern fhore, S. 23° E. Sea open
between North and N. 30° E.; the points ^eing very
low land.
In the night the wind moderated.
Q Q 2
We 300^ A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERT '
BOOK      /We got under Avay at cfeayMbghl and flood to the
—"—-■   North, deeseafingJour Abater to three fathoms^ when:
1797.
S#ttem*sgsa Ave taeked, and fooii after caine to dn fourf fathoms,
ba^i n*n<t.    The roundtlJill, Si58°.W.; a coiirc hifl^5
N. 50° W. H| N.#5°E.  toolNi 53° E./we faw no
lahd ;   but from t^flfce a continuation of veryxilow
lan€V juft appearlHg above the Avater.    Extreme of
Aveft land, S. 48° Wt; eaft extreme, S. 3®?l>Mi; neareft;
land, We*©* S. abouife three miles.    The fliore a-breaft
ors,u« rofe abrupt^ from the "fea, roeky ahd balden.
The top of the' cliffs were partially wooded, as wa&>
tne^conlt hfll^WHich made it cSmpicuous.
f I P
The morning was moderate and very pleafant
Aveather: and the moment Ave7 amfiSored,^"flhe mafter
Was dir^a^che<}ai&'lftib^^. t)oatb§> examfce the coaft
about the, feohie hftl^"WlQl^lJfe8M.efi Iike?y*'to afford
fSme ftlelterfbl^h^vefreJPfi
-.
I. .• *_>
By obf§rvair&M¥bT^^&#l6rigltn^6l taken on the lltb,.
12th, and 14th of September, and reduced by the-
Avatch *fo the arrcnomge, being the -%f«eair9 of 27 fets
of lunar'^ffiftances by 'n^iefp,-Mr.   Chapman,   Sec
willfhew, - - © and 5 * and D,        141 ° 14' i7"E..
The diftances were Eaft and "Weft of "j) By watch,      -       1410 47' 20"
the moon, by the fun and ftars,     5 Do- by Macao rate, 14110   1'   5"
The
•sv-
I— TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
The maftfer returned at dark, and reported his
having roAved rogmd the point Avhich bore N. 10° E.,
whgp.he entejgfl a bay Avhich took a Avefterly direction
#*>the back oil the conic hill, about three or four miles
deep. In the entrance they had five fathoms, but
the'wind blowing fijrpng they did not examine to the
head; andlit was!entife'ly open to the eaftward. The
■fipu^ii, poin& and indeed the whole of the land Avhich
farmed the bay, Avas compofed of white and reddifli
coloured rocks, fo fleep as to prevent their landing.
The head of the bay Avas low, and whole appearance
extremely barren, only prefenting a few foxtail pine-
trees of a fmall growth upon the hills, and no figns
whatever of any habitations; neither could they
obferf e any rifgLand fall by the fliore. In going in
after palling a bank of three fathoms, they had
deepened their water* from four to eight fathoms;, and
the matter coficeived the paflage to the North Avas
pretty evident. I cannot fay I was of the fame
opinion, butt to clear up all doubts Ave got under way
at daylight, and after making a tack Ave ftood to the
Morth.. At noon tbet fouth point of the bay bore
N. 6° W. fix or feven miles, and the conic hill N.N. W.
Our fofendings for the laft hour Avere only 3\ and
3 fathoms. The Avind Avas moderate, and we had fine
fmootliijVffater.
Our--
$01
CHAP.
VI.
1797.
September.
i
■M
•CI 302
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
1797.
September.
16th.
Our foundings ftill decreafing to lefs than two *
fathoms, Avhen it became expedient to tack. At this
time we plainly difcerned very Ioav land extending
over the N. E. part of what the matter had conceived
might be a paflage leading to the fea: the neareft
part bore from us N. E. by E. t&Tee or four miles,
and from thence to North within the fouth poi&tof
Chapman's Bay (fo named from the matter) Avas a
Continuation of fand banks palely dry, with fome of
them juft appearing by riplings upon the furface.
We were noAV fully convinced there Avas no; opening (b
fea in this direction, the Avhole being clofed by low
land, which Ave could plainly diftinguifli at intervals ;
behind the Ioav land at a confiderable diftance Ave"
obferved fome high land in a N. E. direction. If any
river empties itfelf into this bay, I fhould fuppofe it-
very inconfiderable, as Ave had no appearance of any
tide, nor any figns to lead us to fufpect there were any
rivers on the coaft. As the mafter had reprefented the
bay unfavourable, even fuppofing we could get there*
which I deemed from the fhalloW Avater leading to it
impracticable, without great rifk of the veffel; and
there being no profpect of any inhabitants to get information of, refpecting the country, induced me to
lofe no more time, as the equinoxes were approaching,
but proceed to the fouthward,  down the gulph Ave
Avere TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
,303.
3v*ere at prefent fo totally embayed in, before the bad    chap.
Aveather could materially affect us.
We kept our Avind ; and at half paft 2 h. Ave Avere
in our old'anchorage, having run fix miles, and gradually increafed our water from tAvo to four fathoms.
We tacked Avithin two or three leagues of the fliore.
The land in this part Avas indented, and a fmall rocky
ifland lay off it. The wind veering to Eaft, Ave
Jiauled off to increafe our diftance from the land.
The night Avas A7ery fqually, and Ave had a great deal
of lightning and rain; and fortunately for us, as the
gale increafed, it came more northerly. At 14 h. Ave
brought to the Avind till day-light, Avhen Ave bore up
with a frefli gale and continual rain. The eaftern
land was feen till near noon, when Ave loft fight of the
peaked hill, bearing Eaft; and then difcovered the
weftern coaft, extending at noon from 60° W. to
N. 80° W. three or four leagues.
Hard fandy bottom: and pnrfuing our courfe to
the foutrnvard, Ave increafed to 15 fathoms at 6 h.
30 m., Avhen the conic hill bore N. 8° E.; and the
round hill, S. 70° W., three or four leagues off fhore.
The night Avas moderate.   A calm in the morning
8 brought
VI.
1797.
September.
la
**»» 304
BOOK
II.
*797-
September.
18th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
brought the Avind from the fouthward. At 18 h. we
had 25 fathoms muddy bottom, the Round Hill
bearing N. 72° W. From the hill the land projects to
the Eaft, and prefents a range of fleep, rocky cliffs.
To the north and fouth of it the land is level and
uniform, and much indented, but Ave faw no appearance of any openings. At noon the Eaft coaft extended from N. 86° E. to S. 40° E. 10 or 12 leagues.
CD
Land about our anchorage to the N. N. 6° E.
Round Hill N. 53° W. South extreme of weft coaft
S. 29° E. three or four leagues. 27 fathoms clayey
bottom.
Strong gales and very hazy Aveather, Avith a large
fea.
At 1 h. Ave brought .to under a low fail, as Ave
could not fee any thing of the land. At 5 h. it cleared
away, and the land extended from North to S. W. by
S. four or five leagues. Soon after we bore up and
fleered for it till dark, Avhen it was diftant two leagues,;
and Ave thought to: the wind Avas more moderate,
and: gradually abated toAvards midnight, when it
agai® fprung up from the eaflward, and Ave made fail
to clear tbe land.    At 17 h. 30 m. the land Avas feen
from
■K
S»
tffia
-^r- TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
from N. to S. W.:   neareft part, Weft,. tAvo leagues,
high and rugged-
The Avind increafed to a frefli gale in the morning*
with fqually, cold, and unpleafant weather. At times
we could diftinguifh high land on the eaftern fhore;
but very imperfectly. At 22 h. the obfcurity of the
Aveather induced us to bring to; and at 23 h.r it
clearing aAvay, we again fleered to the South. At
noon Ave had frefh gales,, Avith hazy threatening Aveather,
and heaAry fliOAvers of rain. The land Avas juft dif-
eernible to the W. S. W., four or five leagues diftant.
Some albatrofies Avere feen^
The Avind having increafed to a hard gale, with very
heavy fqualls and a large fea, Ave layed to under a
Ioav fail. At 5 h. Ave faw the land through the haze,
from North to S. W. by S.; and. the weather being
more moderate Ave bore aAvay, fleering a courfe parallel
with the coaft. At 6 h. the fouth extreme bore
S. 48° W.; high land' a-breaft of us, Weft, about five
or fix leagues. At 8 h. Ave brought to. The gale,
after funfet, fubfided.; and at 16 h. it Avas calm, with
a. good deal of fwell, and fine clear Aveather.
R li
Jx%- 306
BOOK
II.
September
19th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
At 17 h. the extremes, befog the fame feen laft
evening, extended from N. 5° W. to S. 56° W. four or
five leagues. We alfo perceived the high mountain
on the eaft coaft. *"*$*
Eight breezes, and very pleafant evening.
At noon the weft coaft, from N. 42° W. to S. 64° W.1;
and  the  mountain   on the  oppofite,   N. 82° E.   14
leagues.
Aired the fchooner Avith fires.
20&. At 1 h. having remarked   the  eaftern  coaft  fufli-
ciently, Avith which view Ave had before tacked in the
morning: to make it diftinctly, we now ftood for the
Aveftern coaft. At 6 h. the fouth/ extreme bore S. 68°
W., terminating in a hill of a conic fhape; north ex*-
treme, N. 28° W. four or five leagues. The land
a-breaft of us prefented much the fame inhofpitable
afpect we had obferved up the gulph to the North.
In the night Ave had a fwell from the S. E. quarter,
with dark, gloomy, threatening weather'; and in the
morning we had an increafe of Avind, with fome rain.
Tacked at l6h. At 17 h., the wind veering to the
Eaft, we bore away; the high mountain on the eaft
coaft bearing from us due Eaft.   At 20 h. the Aveft
fide
a« TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
fide of the land bore N. W.: and the wind veering    chap
& VI.
more northerly* brought with it frefh gales and rainy   *—
weather, which entirely obfcured the land ; and we September-
had every profpect of an approaching gale of wind.
We reduced our fail accordingly, and increafed our
diftance from the fuppofed direction of the weft coaft,
which Ave had only feen imperfectly in the morning..
We had no foundings thefe 24 hours.
Strong gales, with heavy rain and frequent fqualls.
Judging we were fufficiently clear of the land, I
thought it moft prudent to bring to, with our heads
to eaftward. At funfet it bleAv a very fevere gale,
with conftant rain ; and we remained laj'ing to under
a clofe-reefed mainfail, Avith a Arery heaA7y fea. Every
hour, during the ntght, feemed to add force to the
wind, Avhich blew Avith uncommon violence; and the
weather Avas dark and gloomy to a degree, fo mueh fo-
that we could-not fee beyond the Areffel. We h&d only
to hope the land continued a fouth-Avefterly direction, as we could not carry any fail to efcape it,
fhould it for us unfortunately tend to the South of
S. S. W. Our little veffel made very good wfe^fier ;.
for though the fpray of the fea blew conflantly over
ns, we did not fliip any quantity of Avater. At 14 h-
we were very happy to find the gale abating; and by
a n 2 16 h„
Zlft:
.jtemm. A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
bgg*K    16 h.  Ave Avere enabled to carry fome fails : the wind
ii. J
. alfo veered to S/. S. E., and Ave liad a confufed broken
1-791 •       fa
September.   10a.
At daj'-light Ave faAV the land from the North to
W. 5° S. about five leagues. In the morning the
wind fhifted to S. S. W., and Ave had very fevere
fqualls, tvhich fplit moft of our fails. It foon after
became calm; and Ave Avere left to the mercy of a
moft irregular fea, breaking in every direction. The
weather obfcured the land; and at noon we had light
breezes from the N. E. quarter.
Variable and threatening Aveather, with fhowers of
rain, and the fame confufed fwell. Having fplit all
.our fails, except the fore-topfails, in the gale, Ave
were bufily employed repairing Avith the remaining
fuit. The haze prevented our feeing the land; and
at 10 h. the Avind veering to the S. W., we ftood off
the remainder of the night.
Variable winds, Avhich at laft fettled in the N. W.
quarter, and blew a frefli breeze. At 17 h. 30 m. the
land extended from N. W. to S. 80° W.; and at 20 h.
Ave faw it bearing S. W. by W. To the North it was
high and broken, with bare rocky projections:   the
more TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
more level parts of the coaft avere of a broAvnifh appearance, and covered? with pine trees. At noon- Ave
had light airs and fine Aveather. The coaft extended
from N. 12° W. to S. 65° W. about five leagues. To
the N. W. there appeared a fmall opening; or perhaps, the land being indented, it might be a bay,
iWhieh our diftance prevented there being" any certainty
.of; an§i it wras directly to windrward. We had no
foundings.
Light breezes and cloudy, »,*vith a fouthern fwell.
We fleered in the direction of the coaft ; but the haze
prevented our diftinguifhing any thing particular in
the land, from Avhich we were diftant four or five
leagues.    At 6 h. the fouth extreme, making a high
CD CD. CD
•hill, bore S. 70° W. fix or eight leagues; and we
hauled more pff the land.
The night Avasifij|uaIIy and rainy, with a great deal
of lightning, which brought the wind to the fo uth ward.
At 14 h. we ftood to the eaftward.
Heavy fqualls of wind, and a large fwell, fplit the
jib. By noon we had clear Aveather, which gave us
a diftinct view of the land, extending from Weft to
&o3#
W*„ diftant 10 or 12 leagues.
Light
1797.
September. a
r
ii
\M
i«f
310
BOOK
II.
1797.
September
24th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
Light winds from the land.
Squally weather. We kept clofe to the wind,
expecting to get Avell in with the land in the morning.
Ereftf breezes and clear weather. ToAvards noon
the Avind veered to N. W., and Ave Avere unable to approach the land within five leagues. It made high
in parts; and the fides of the hills were perfectly
bare, and deftitute of any verdure. The extremes at
noon, from N. 14° W. to S. 80° W.; Round Hill, fet
yefterday noon, N. 35° W.
We Avere this day to the fouth ward of the eaftern
point, which forms the entrance of the gulph, in the
latitude of 46° 0' North ; and in which parallel of
latitude it is about 60 leagues acrofs, and runs up
North and South 120 leagues. I named it the Gulph
of Tartary. It is poflible there may be fome openings
that have efcaped our notice in fuch an exftent; and
if any, probably on the Aveftern fide, which the bad
Aveather prevented our making too1 free Avith on flouie
days ; and Avhen fair, the wind Avas* eon*trary. Excepting on the eaft point Ave faw no-habitations Avhat-
ever; nor had we any reafon to fuppofe the fea coaft
Was CHAP.
VI.
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 311
Avast "inhabited.    In general I have found in all coun-
CD
tries, wherever they are inhabited,  particularly in re
mote ones,  the finoke of fires is always vifible, and   September.
univerfally made wheneA*er ftrange veffels appear, as
fignals of alarm, or to aAvaken their curiofity; and I
think it moft likely no veffel ever appeared in thefe
feas before, to-e^jftte, their admiration.
The feafon being too far advanced to permit our
pafBng through the ftraits which divide the land of
Infoo from Tartary, and proceeding up to Sakuleeit
Ifland, agreeable to my firft intentions, and from
thence more fuity examining the Kurile Iflands, and
afterwards to continue exploring, the Corean coaft to
the Yellow Sea. This plan being rendered abortive
by the unfortunate lofs of his Majefty's fliip Provif
dence, and the want of provifions in the fchooner;
induced me to prefer the continuation of the coaft of
Corea, as the moft eligible. For even on the fup-
pofition of fucceeding in my refearehes to-*he North,
I had every reafon to be affured the Avefrefly winds
would prevent my repaffing the ftraits of Infoo, and
of courfe the Corean coaft would fy<& left uneX*
amined. I therefore continued our courfe to the
fouthAVwrd,
I began
1WWV 312
BOOK
II.
1797.
September,
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
I began alfo to conceive Captain King Avas right
in his conjectures concerning the Dutch fhips having
coafted the eaftern fide of Tartary, from 45° North
to 49° North, without knoAving it to be fuch. I only
regretted Ave had not Avith us Janfehs map of their
difcoveries. It however appears' very evident that
the land called Efo by the Dutch naA^igator, wrhich I
believe implies Efau, or the land of hairy men, and
which the natives call Infoo, as well the Japanefe Ave
faw as before explained, is an ifland of very considerable magnitude, extending from 41° 24' North
to the latitude of 45° or 45° 25' North, and from
140° 0' Eaft to 146° 22' Eaft, being 70 leagues, in the
parallel of 44° 30' North, Avide; and wrjicb is not its.
greateft breadth. We faAV nothing of the northern
part; but as we faw no land betAveen 45° 25' North
and 46° North, Avill. leave an extenfive flrait betAveen
it and the peninfula. of the coaft of Tartary : or, fhould
the land before mentioned, in 45° 25' North,, prove to
be an iflanda. which I imagine to be the cafe, there
will ftill be a clear channel, remaining between it and
the land of Infoo,, as exhibited in the Japanefe chart,
Avhich accompanies, this j ournal.
It appears manifeftly the miftake of De Vries, in
imagining the land he fell in with, in 45° North, to
6 be<
■Nil
mm
lii SMSR
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
313
be the land of Efo, and  Avhich,  according  to  the   chap.
vi.
weather, he might eafily fufpect; as in the connection   v—^—;
I "*70*7
of lands we are frequently deceived, and find openings September.
and channels where none Avere expected. For in-
ftance": in the ftraits of Matzmai, Avhere the ifland
of Infoo is divided from Japan by a paflage not five
leagues wide; and the north point of Japan is feven
miles North of Matzmai town, and ten miles North
of the fouth point of Infoo, Avhich, on entering the
ftraits from the weftward, makes it appear as if there
Avas no paflage between them, the points being fliut
in Avith each other.
Tacked and flood in for the land againft a moft     25th.
unpleafant head fea.    At 5 h. 30 m., the wind again
coming to the Weft, we ftood to the S. W.; the land
at the time extending from N. by W. f W. to W.
by S.
^A
m
Frefli breezes throughout the night, Avith a confufed fea, that drove us bodily to leeward. The land
continued the fame direction and diftance; and the
wind and fea together prevented our nearer approach
to it.
s s 314
A VOYAGE OF DKCOVERY
At noon  the  land extended  from  N. 25° W. to
N. 75° W.; high broken land, N. W. feven or eight
BOOK
H.
1797.
September.   leagues.
26th. Tacked and ftood for the land.
Stood off for the night;  the land extending from
N.25°W. toS.80°W.
Calm and hazy weather.
a
27th.
Light airs: foon left us.
Frefh breezes and gloomy weather, with rain. We
fleered for the outer extremity of the coaft, which at
noon appeared extending from the North to N. 85° W.;
an opening or bay, N. 66° W. fix leagues. The north
extreme Avas the high broken land.
Frefh breezes and dark gloomy weather, and very
fqually.
We dreAv in with the land, which Was almoft ob-
fcured by the clouds; and at 6h. the fouth extreme,
making in hummocks, bore S. 85° W.;  between it
and TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
and a hally point, bearing N. 83" W.    The coaft re-   chap.
ceded, and was in that part very Ioav ; but ftill the   ^—I—-
whole of the coaft appeared to us clofely connected, September
particularly the opening Ave had remarked at noon.
The land Avas much broken, forming hills and vallies,
very defolate to our view; and avc were four or five
leagues from the fhore.
At 11 h. we hauled upon a Avind under a low fail;
and at day-light Ave made fail: the land extending-
from N. 5° E. to S. 79° W. In the morning we had
very ftrong breezes and fair Aveather; and we frequently pafled quantities of coarfe grafs. At noon
the fouth extreme, forming a high hill from Avhich
fome low land projected, bore S. 84° E. five or fix
leagues; very high broken land, N. W. by W. four
leagues ; the extreme to the northward, N. 5° E.
Since the laft obferyatiesi the current has fet us
S. 20° E. 26 miles.
At half paft 1 h.  the wind coming to the S. W.      28th.
permitted us to ftand in for the land.    At funfet we
were clofe in,   but Ave could g-et no foundings with
90 fathoms.    We could not perceive the fmalleft appearance of any openings,  nor any thing to lead us
s s
9.
to 316
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
book    to fuppofe the coaft being inhabited.    The land pre-
!—;—'   fented a rugged and rocky fhore,  with a feAv trees
1707. » r»
September, fcattered upon the ridges of the hills. Thefe hills were
of little ele\ration, near the fea, forming abruptly at
unequal diftances ; but the interior land made very
high. The extremes, when Ave tacked, bore from
N. N. E. to W. S. W. j
The night was moderate, and the wind being fteady
from the S. W. and W. S. W., we unavoidably increafed our diftance from the coaft, Avhich was feen
•very indiftinctly in the morning to the N. W.
29th. Frefli breezes and hazy Aveather.
9h.    Tacked, and flood to the Aveftward.
12 h.    Moderate weather, with a heavy dew falling
equal to fmall rain.
18 h.    Light breezes and very hazy.
24 h.    Very cloudy Aveather.    No fight of land.
3®th. Moderate breezes and very cloudy : the atmofphere
entirely obfcured.    At half paft 4 h. Ave faw the land
to the N.W.
7 h. The extremes of land, from N. 10° W. to
N. 80° W., making in detached hills. The fun fetting
very clear gave us a diflinct vieAV of it, at feven or
eight
^ \
-v*— TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
We  tacked  for  the  night   chap.
6 VI.
eight leagues' diftance.
at 6 h. 30 m.
12 h.    Light Avinds, Avith gentle fhowers.
18 h. Foggy weather, which toAvards noon cleared
aAvay with -the northerly AAund; but it ftill remained
very hazy.
22 h.    Small land birds and feveral gulls feen.
24 h.    Frefli breezes.    No land in fight.
Moderate breezes and hazy Aveather.
5 h.    Light breezes.
12 h.    Light airs.
18 h. Calm weather. We diftinguifhed the land
bearing N. by W. At 20 h. we had light airs from
the fouthAvard, with mild weather, which permitted
the performance of divine fervice. At noon the land
bore from N. 10° E. to N. 22° W. eight leagues.
Light Avinds and very fmooth water carried us towards the land, Avhich tended, to the weftward. We
alfo pafled quantities of coarfe grafs.
The land extended from N. 33° E. to N. 23° W.
about fix leagues.    The night Avas calm and cloudy.
12 h.    Light afrs.
18 h.
1797.
September.
Oftober
ift.
2d. A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
18 h. Pleafant breezes from the eaftward. The
land, from N. 42° E. to N. 35° W. Low land appeared near the lea, and very high mountains
well Avooded at the back. We purfued our courfe in
the direction of the fhore, which at noon extended
from N. 42° E. to N. by W. fix or feven leagues, and
the appearance of more land to the N. W.;. hut it
Avas fo dark and hazy in that direction, we could not
well diftinguifli.    The wind a fine breeze.
Moderate breezes and hazy. We ftill continued
our courfe to the weftward, in the direction of the
coaft, which was generally obfcured from our view
by the haze over it. At 6h. we could only fee a
fmall part bearing N. N. E. fix or feven leagues ; and
the Avind veered to the North, with fqually and rainy
weather.   The atmofphere extremely gloomy.
AtTO'h. 30 m. hauled our AySnd, and hove to under
a Ioav fail.    Wore fhip.
17 h. Made fail, Avith a ftrong Avind and a confufed fea.
In the morning Ave ftill pafled quantities of coarfe
gfafs, and Avere vifited by many land birds.    Large
1 flocks
mmmTMBmmiS
uaa ^WS*";
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
319
flocks of geefe flew over us from the N. W., going to   chap.
the fouthAvard.    At noon we had ftrong breezes and   i~-~r~~>
hazy Aveather: we could juft difcern the land to the   odober.
N. W., though very faintly.    By the obfervation, we
had been fet 24 miles to the South of account; and
by the current we had experienced, and the coarfe
grafs we had feen, I imagine fome river to empty itfelf
into the fea in this  part of the coaft.    The ftrong
northerly  Avind   prevented  our   courfe   being  more
northerly, and of courfe approaching the land in the
direction I wifhed.
Light winds and fair Aveather, but uncommonly
hazy to 15° above the horizon, which prevented our
obferving any objects diftinctly upon the land. We
peered as the coaft inclined, till the wind came to
the S. E., and aftenvards to the S. W., which was
immediately oppofite to our courfe.
4th.
The Avhite rocik fet at noon as we opened ; it made
a clufter of different fizes : and at; 6h. the rocky
head bore N. 30° E.; and the fouthern extreme,
S.75°W. An opening, in the direction of N. 15° W.:
the fouth point, forming double land, Avas four or five
leagues diftant.
At 320
•BOOK
II.
1797.
October.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
At funfet Ave ftill remarked very high mountainous
land along the coaft.
The night was clear, and pleafant Aveather; but our
Avind carried us from the land, which at noon was
feen through the haze, 12 or 13 leagues diftant to
the S. W.
5th. Frefli breezes and very hazy Aveather.    Soon after
noon we faAV very high mountainous land to the weftward.
I
The extremes of the coaft extended from S. 30° W.
to N. 10° E. In the angle formed by two high points,
bearing N. 35° W. and S. 58° W., the land receded
very confiderably ; and Avithin the 58° point there
feemed to be a' fmall opening in the low land. All
the interior mountains were of great magnitude; and
the coaft tended to the fouthAvard, in Avhich direction
Ave fhaped our courfe for the night, having fine clear
moon-light. At day-light the land extended from
S. 10° W. to S. 80° W.; a rocky point, N. 87° W. two
or three leagues. To the North of the point, the
coaft Avas ftraight and uniformly high and rocky;
and South of it the land fell back, and was not fo
elevated near the fea, but equally barren in appearance. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
321
pearance.    The rocky point rofe abruptly from the    CHAP.
fea, in horizontal ftrata of a white and red colour;    I—*—-1
and the higher parts Avere Avooded in patches.    We   o&ober
faAV no figns of the country being inhabited : indeed
every part of it prefented  a moft uncomfortable profpect.    At noon Ave pafled a white rock, much broken
into craggy points : it is de^c^^l about three leagues
from the fliore, and bore of us N. 43° W. fivei or fix
miles.    The extremes bore from N. 10° E. to S. 70° W.
four or five leagues diftant.    No foundings Avith
fathoms
■*»..**
M
^^mbS^tM?
jff« aox
fl! M
•.-flSIRtfL.. 323
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
1797.
October
<Sth.
CHAP. VII.
Off the Ifland of Tzima, fituated between the Coafts of Corea and
Japan.—Arrival at Chofan on the Corean Coaft.—Defcription of
its Harbour—Inhabitants—Soil—Cultivation—^Produce, &c.—•
Anxiety of the Natives for our Departure.—ObfervaWms for
Longitude, &c.
Jb resh breezes and fair weather, but the fame haze
ftill remained. We could juft difcern the high land
to the N. W., and at 6h. the extremes of the Corean
coaft extended from N. to N. 75° W. feven or eight
leagues. More land appeared to the S. W., when we
ftood to the S. E. during the night.
Moderate weather: ftood in fhore.
Hazy Aveather.
SaAV the land to the N. W. At noon the coaft
extended from N. to N. 40° W. feven leagues, and
from S. 26° W. to S. 36> W.  "      :IS1|1I
Frefh breezes and pleafant weather.
I
Frefli
:—= iftnra TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
323
Frefli breezes and hazy weather; as Ave approached    chap.
n VII.
the  fhore we  found the  lands   fet   at   noon   Avere    -—~•—-
connected, forming between the points an extenfive   o&ober
bay.    At funfet Ave tacked. in the bay; the extremes      7th"
bearing from South  to N. 22° E.; but we had no
foundings Avith 50 fathoms.    The lofty mountains Ave
had before remarked,   feemed to  terminate  on  the
north fide of the bay, and in a W. N. W. direction
the coaft fell back, leaving a fmall bay within, Avhich
moft probably affords good anchorage from the appearance of the fliores.
The fouthern land rofe in hummocks to a tolerable
elevation.
The Avind Avas moderate and fteady all night, In the
morning it veered to the weftAvard. Land at-noon
extended from S. 12° W. to N. 82° W. A faddle hill
S. 67° W. five or fix leagues. This hill is the fouth
extremity of the extenfive bay which was fet laft
evening bearing South. Very pleafant weather, but
variable. This bay abounded in whales, and Ave could
not reach the bottom with all our fine.
Light airs, with calm and cloudy weather.
6 h.    Light Avinds.
T T 2
12 h
Kci 324.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK-
II.
1797.
O&ober.
12 h.    Inclining to calms.
18 h.    Gentle breezes.
Our fituation nearly the fame as yefterday.
A peaked mount S. 27° W.; extreme S.  12° W.
Saddle Hill S. 67° W. about five leagues the centre.
'9 th.
Light breezes, Avith dark gloomy Aveather,
A peaked hill South of the Saddle Hill bore S. 48° W.
fix or feven leagues.
The Avind having veered to the wefiward, brought
with it fine clear Aveather.    Strong breezes and fqually.
The peaked hill bore of us N. 71  W. ; and the
extreme S. 12° W. forar-leagues off fhore.
We fleered throughout the morning in the direction
of the coaft, A#i?th a ftrong gale and fine Aveather,
keeping at two or tftree leagues diftance. At noon tfi&e
land extended from S. 15° W. to N. 38° W. The
extreme fet at 6h. A.M. bore from us N. 51° W.;
and we were five or fix mflfes from the land. The
coaft afforded a moft barren profpect, tfoe hills-w^ere
much TO THg NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
325
Much broken into  ridges, forming  chafms in  their chap
• 7 vii.
Hoping tides toAvards the fea: Ave faw no appearance ■—.-—-■
of any openings. OdS'r.
We ranged the coaft at the fame diftance four or
five miles; we obferved nothing to particularife, the
land affording the fame uniform appearance of moderate height, and rather cliffy near the fea. At funfet
the extremes bore from S. 18° W. to N. 38° W., and
Ave hauled our wind for the night. In the evening
the gale moderated,* and during the night Ave
had a great fwell, Avhich in the morning had nearly
fubfided.
The land preferved the fame bearings as laft
evening, but the wind veering to the W. S. W. towards
noon, prevented our approaching within two leagues.
It extended at noon from S. 14° W. to N. 14° W. The
fouth extreme making a low point.
Still throughout the afternoon Ave Avere prefenfced
Avith the fame barren vieAV, except the A*afiation of a
yellowifli earth mixed with the heath and coarfe
gi-afs that covered the hills. At 5 h. 30 m. the land
extended from S. 33° W. to N. 30° W., and the
low point  fet  at noon  as the  fouth- extreme bore
S. 45° W.
nth 326
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
1797.
October.
^J2th.
S. 45° W. To the North of this point is a deep bay or
opening Avhich the Avinds prevented our afcertaining;
it bore S. 6l° W. feven leagues. The Avind remained
fixed in the Aveftern quarter, bloAving ftrong at times in
fqualls. At 18 h. the land was feen from N. 65° W. to
S. 65° W., and at noon fiom N. 47° W. to S. 65° W.
Some white cliffs weft feven or eight leagues.
The extremes of Corea from N. 47° W. to N. 85° W.
eight or ten leagues.
k
Moderate breezes and clear weather, the Avind
veering to the N. W. quarter.
Before day-light Ave faw the land to the S. W.,
which proved to be the ifland of Tzima, fituated betAveen Nipon and the Corean coaft. The coaft of
Corea, N. 33° W. to N. 50° W. nine leagues. The
ifland Tzima was feen from S. 44° W. to W. four or
five leagues ; and a fmall high ifland, vifible only from
the rigging, S. 24° E. ten or twelve leagues by eftima-
tion. At half paft 21 h. we tacked clofe in with the
ifland, the north point bearing N. 68° W. three or
four miles. Some rocks are without this point. Early
in the morning we perceived the ifland to be inhabited, by their lighting fires in every part.   This Avas
a grateful TO THE' NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
327
a grateful fight, and- what we had been long unac-    chap.
cuftomed to on the coaft of Tartary.    We alfo faw   -~^~>
four Japanefe junks working to the weftward, under   oaober.
the land.    The ifland Avas of moderate elevation, with
fome high land in the centre of it.    The vallies were
cultivated, and Avoods Avere thinly fcattered over the
hills.    The coaft on the eaft fide was very rocky; and
the furf broke on the fliore wit|i great violence.
At noon the north point bore N. 88° W. three or
four miles; high rocks, furrounded by an extenfive
reef, and much broken, N. 75° W. five miles ; extreme of ifland, S. 20° W.; point forming a fmalf bay,
S. 30° W. 2| miles ; the coaft of Corea, from N. 15° W.
to N. 83° W. nine or ten leagues: and we had 22
fathoms, coral bottom.
Moderate breezes and fair Aveather, Avith a fwell
from the North. The -wind came from, the fame
quarter, and AAre Avere able to weather the ifland,
having a ftrong current in our favour, fetting againft
the wind and fwell. From the north point the ifland
tends in the direction of S. 60° W. fix or eight miles ;
and from thence to the S. S. W. fome fmall ifles lay
off the north point, leaving a paflage betAveen them
and the reef, through which channel the junks Avent.
At
13th.
^*»«v 328
A VOYAGI OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
1797.
October.
J 4th.
At 1 h. the reef bore S.-560 W. fewo miles; and we
had unequal, founding!", w>ith a great fea iiai this fituation, occafioned by the overfalls and ftrong current.
After running in the direction of N. 41° W. 22 miles
from 1 h,, Ave were AveU- over on the Corean coafbt
the extremes extending from N. 20° E. to S. 67° W.;
an opening, to the N. W. about three miies:; and the
ifland of Tjgima, from South to S. 23° E. eight or nine
leagues. The night Avas moderate, and Ave plied
under eafy fail. At day-light Ave found the current
i>ad fet us confiderably ,-fo the E. N. E. We made
fair to the weftward. As Ave drew in Avith the land
vye obferved feveral villages fcattered along the fliore.
The coaft was much broken, and appeared li&ely to
afford fhelter; and the external view was not the
moft favourable, prefenting rather an inhofpitable
profpect.
At noon Ave had dark gloomy weather, and our
fituation with refpect to the land* the fame as laft
evening. Two bays Avere open to u^ bea$i?g N. 25°
W. and N. 65° W.; a rock, S. 70° W.
Light breezes and rainy Aveather. Soon aftfeer noon
we faAV fome fifhing boats, and prevailed upon one
of them to come on board.    By figns we underftood
2 the TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
329
the opening to the N. W. as moft eligible, and we    chap.
. VII.
bore up for it.    Off the north point of entrance we    j—•-—*
faAV fomp   ftupendous   black   rocks  detached  fome   oaober.
diftance  from the fhore :   we pafled  within half a
cable's length of them, carrying 30 fathoms, muddy
bottom; and gradually afterwards fhoaled our Avater
to 16, 10, and 5 fathoms.
In the entrance on the fouth fide is a high rocky
ifland. To the North of it is a fandy bay, Avhere we
obferved a large village, and cultivations furrounding
it; and tojthe Aveftward, through the rain and mift,
we faAV feveral fcattered rocks, Avhic^. induced us to
turn to windAvard for the fandy bay; and before dark
we came to an anchor, in four fathoms water, fandy
bottom, half a mile from the fliore.
:m
It continued raining Avithout intermiflion till daylight, when we had fair and pleafant Aveather, with the
Avino! from the N. W. quarter. The fea was open to
us from the South to S. 23° E.; and in the angle Ave
faw very diftinctly the ifland of Tzima, at ten leagues
diftance.
Early in the morning Ave Ave/e furrounded by boats
full of men, Avomenxand children, whofe curiofity had
u u brought
W»"\
KSKE S-3&
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
•If.1-"
1797.
October.
brought them off to fee the ftrange-Veflfel. The^were
univerily eloathed! hi Knen garmerres made injjo loofe-
jackets and trowfers, quilted or efcmhled ; and fome of
them Avore large loofe govvns. The Avomen had a
fhort pe#fcoat over their troA*Hfer^; and both fexes,
linen boots, vrrth fanJcfals made of'flee fi&iw. The
men wore their hair in a knot tied up to the ctowh,.
and the women had theirs twifted and plaited round
theip heads.
:$he features and? conrprexioas of thefe people re-
fembled the Chmefe, particularly tKeir fmall eyes;:
and in genera aft Bur vifitors Avere extremely ordinary
in their perfons : but it is to be remembered there
were no young Women of'the party; the females being compofed entirely of old Avomen and cfrBdren.
In the morrrrhg Ave went on fhore in featfe-h* of
water, landing ctr'ttie vifllage for tlfaJt purpofe; and
ftom thence one off1 the^ -rofhaMtants eondu&ecl k& to
a fine run m' Avatt^,:moft coKV^Ien^y' fitusfted foir
our purpofe. We were*fe want hefth of'-'wood ajnd:
water; but of the former article the country feemed;
very deficient. After taking feme altitudes for the
wasrch, and obfeiTmg^e diftances for the longftude,.
we took a Avalk, attended by a numerous parijy'of the
8 villagers- TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
villagers. The harbour, Jwe perceived, extended fome
diftance to the weftward of the rocks Ave had noticed
in coming in, and alfo to the N. E. and S. W. of them,
terminating in fmall bays that afforded fhelter from
all Avinds. Many villages Avere fcattered round the
harbour; and in the N..-W. part Ave obferved a large
town, encircled with ftone Avails, and battlements
upon them<: Several junks were laying in a bafon
nearly "protected by a pier. Another mole or bafon
appeared to the S. WJiof the other, near Tome wl^ie
houfesiftf a fuperior c^ffcriiction, enclofed by a "thick
wood, ilp
The villages feemed to abound with people, and
the harbour full of boats failing about on their dif-
ri^fient avocafawaS.1 * They Avere fimilar in figui^
though inferior in woj*knaamTii|*s to tbV Cfeteefe
boats; and dike themamade ufe of fkulls and matted
fails.
As we came near another village they Hopped and
begged Ave would not proceed any farther; and we
'jepmniifid wfth- t&teir requefit On owr retftrri we remarked feveral graces, twhrefe'fthe natives had ported
out and explained to us: thejyT(were priced inj an Eaft
and Weft dirBBttion,  and 'the ground  elevated  OA"$r
u u 2 them* 1 !'t
^mm
I
k
$82
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
l-H 'if'
1
il
m
book    therms: Trees were  planted in,, a femi-circular form
ii.
!—*—j    round moft of them, and univerfally diflifiguiflied by
October, t'fome ftone work.
if We got on board to dinner; and in the aftera^on.?
we were vifited by fome fuperior people, who came
from up the harbour. The"y were dreffed in large
loofe goAvns, and Avere paid great deference to by the
common people. They had on large black hats, AvitJi
high crowns, manufactured Avith a ftrong gauze not
unlike horfe hair, very ftiff and ftrong. They tied
them under the chin ; and thefe hats, ferving as
umbrellas, were three feet in diameter-
Each perfon carried a fan, Avith a ?mall <§Ilagree
.box attached to it, containing perfume; and a knife
hand fomely mounted Avas fattened round tiieir waift.
A boy attended each of them, who had charge of
their tobacco pipes; and whofe occupation was to
keep their dreffes fmooth. Moft of them wore their
beards long.
Their inquiries feemed tor .tend to a knowledge of
what brought us tojftheir country; but I fear our
replies gave them very little fatisfaction, as Ave could
fo littlf comprehend each other.   They vtfere feem-
ingly
^"B-
-=~ TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
3
iOn>
fijxgly pleafed with their reception, and foon after took    chap.
leave of us.olis &§£ && *—-■<-—'
We Avent on fliore to afcend the high land near us
to the South, and from thence to take fome bearings.
Our vieAv from the top Avas very extenfive; and Ave
faAV diftinctly over every part of the harbour. Our
angles were however ufelefs, the needle being fo
ftrongly affected as to point Eaft inftead of North,
owing to fome magnetic power in the mountain, which
would not admit the needle pointing true in any fitua-
tioirll This hiflowas high and rocky; but the fides
produced coarfe grafs, on Avhich cattle were feeding;
and in the loAver parts, fome paddy fields.
1797-
October.
: i
On our return on board in ° the evening Ave found
the veffel crowded with vifitors, nor could Ave get rid
of them till dark, and even Avith great difficulty,
ufing almoft violence to induce them to go into their
boats.   At laft they went on fliore.
| \ f i;» i - -  -   *■
Soon after dark we Avere furprized feeing thefe boats
coming off from the fhore, full of men, and very de-
-firous to come on board. I did not chufe to permit
them, and they came to an anchor along-fide. As
we were unacquainted  with their intentions, their
conduct 334
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
1-797.
October,
conduct appeared to usJkfpiciaus; and wfe prepared
for the worft, having every body ftationed at their
■quarters. In a fliort time a boat came to them
Scorn, the fhote Avith 3|ght§,<; which being diftributed
.aniongft the others, afrer fome confultation, they
took up ^Eieir anchors and rowed on fliore to the
•village.
rjth. Frefli breezes and very pleafant Afeather from the
N.W. quarter: the nights were cool and the days
-warm, having a clear fun. We had no boats: 6ff till
afte6* breakf&ftj wlien tAvo came frill of vififeors, dreffed
in a fuperior ftyle to any we had yet feen.-,i&a each
were fome foldiers carrying, fmallfpears, that werfeas
ftaffs to their colours, Avhich were a blue fattin field,
""with their arms in yellow characters. The hats e€the
Coldiers were decorated witfe [peacock's feathers. They
made me a prefent of fait fifh, rice, and fea-&eed
(fucus jfecharki-us)* >.
After many inquiries refpecting us, we plainly faAV
they wtere extremely anxiftus-$br -oar depar^fere, winch
I explained to them; was ;impoflible, as Ave were j&aruoh
iaa want of Avood, Ttftater* ato.d.i'efrefflime*ots;'' -They im*.
"dfedialiery offered to feisd us any quantity of the
""former; balfc€; could notf|Jsrfuade them to fend any
of lm*»
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. $S5
&t the cattle we piointed out to them, grafting on the chap.
fliore.   As money appeared of no value, and wet had :—•«—>
no other means to induce them,  Ave were under the o&obeiQ
necefhty of bearing with the difapporotment, of feeing
daily Avhat'^e'ebii&d'&ot procure*
Tftefe great met¥jwere drafted in the fafcaae form aV
the others Ave h&d before feen, but then- garments
were much liner; and the outer one was of a light
blue gauze &£'>$&&&?.-
Undyr>-f^h©hfm^hii)S, as if tying their large &la©k?
hatipri^ey^feaid a Jfcri^g"'enlarge beads, either agate,
amber, or black wood, which was fufpended in iaf
bow over their right ears. Some of their hats Avere
tippedowitb:filA^*tEX>"andr .the crown.
ii33*e*dt4estdaJtts an$ tho^ •*& office paid thefef.men
tile moft ful^fiftifliy*© respect, always ^ej^ki-ggiiiand
anjfwferiag titer-: <fafeftipfis pv|t htoji^jens in a Roping
pofture, looking upon the deck.
[IOI.J
}i5tjjao#-e«*curre64ito-me thefe ^people .muft have arrived after dark laft evening, and Avere the tfeuie %
whom we had refufed admittance, while our fufpicions
wjm
KtPIK
9
«:
"?4
,.
V 3J01
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
8
BOOK
II.
X79t^
October.
led us to fuppofe they had fome other view to gratify
than mere curjofity, by coming fo late.
The arrival of our lieA&jS^nds prevented e>ur being*
troubled Avith fo many vifitors, much to our fatisfac-
tion. But unfortunately the fame interdiction extended toujour Avajkingj>q^ fliore, but not fo much fo
as to preclude our making aftronomical obfervations,
or taking off water>; yet the affemblage of people was
fo great as to materially affect our operations, not-
withftanding the military were fo flationed as to keep
off the crowd, which they did ca^i:times .'mQfjif;effectually, by exercifing upon their perfons large bamboo
flicks. aoow
In the afternoon they fent us waterin jar^iand tubs,
and took our cafks with them aftenvards, as a more
expeditious way of fupplying us, which Avere brought
off in good order. A foldier conftantly attended in
thefe boats, Avho feemed to have the principal direction.
The night was moderate, and fair weather from ftie
norfK^ard.
Frefh
mm TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCF.AN.
Frefli breezes and very fqually from the N. E.
quarter, Avith dark cloudy Aveather, Avhich prevented
our having much communication rwith the fliore.
Our friends, notwithstanding the violence of the Avind,
fent us both Avood-and water.
'$>- O'li fo I.J3jyh\;^93^f:J(SV^j- ©   ...
The Av^nd remained in the fame quarter, but more
ngjO^deratc; and in the afternoon Ave Avere vifited by
deputies from the great men, to knoAv if Ave had Avood
and water enough to permit our failing. I told them,
it Avas not my intention to fail for three days. They
Avere then defirous I fliould make it t\vo days, Avhich
I Avould not agree to.    After taking fome refrefhmenr,
CD O r
they Avent on fhore to deliver the anfwer. The deputies Avere gayly and handfomely drefled; their outer
garments being chiefly fea-green, light blue, and
French grey, highly glazed ; and the manufacture, of
cotton, not very fine. They alfo Avore very neat
leather flippers, ornamented Avith filver and golden
fpangles.    They Avere affable and converfable men.
We landed oppofite the fchooner, to obferve the
latitude; and inftantly Ave had a military guard from
the1 village, Avho attended to our motions till we re-
turned on board. We Avere employed in the afternoon receiving Avood and Avater.
Strong 338
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK
II.
1797.
Oaober
18th.
Strong breezes and cloudy Aveather from the N. E.
quarter. Our friends Avere ftill employed bringing us
water. ^Of Avood we Avere already complete; it wafc
all of the fame fort, and what is called the fox-tafl.
pine. Some of the logs Avere very large timber, which
gave us a great deal of trouble to cut and fplit. In
the afternoon we had all our water on boai$: in con-
fequence we had another deputation from our friends',
who Avere made to underftand I fhould flay two days
longer to obferve the fun.
In the evening the wind moderated; and the heavy
clouds produced rain, Avhich continued throughout
the night.    ??■.
19th. Moderate  breezes from the N. E., Avith conftant
rain. We had another deputation refpecting our departure, equally unfuccefsful Avith the others : for the
rainy weather entirely prevented our taking any altitudes to regulate the going of our Avatch.
Thefe people made ufe of parchment covers for
their hats, to exclude the rain; and they had umbrellas of the fame kindU; The rain ftill continued
without intermiflion, Avhich induced me to make an
excurfion up the harbour, in hopes of not being mo-
1 lefled. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,    j
lefted. O unfriends were not inattentive to our motions, for Ave foon perceived two boats in purfuit of
us. Tlhey hoAvever did not join our party till we
were returning; wMch the increafing bad Aveather induced me to do, without attending to then* felicitations.
We had moderate and very cloudy Aveather, and
the rain had fubfided. Our friends came off in the
morning, and flrongly urged our departure; but not
havkig feen the fun, Ave could not oblige them. The
weather alfo remained unfettled; and there was a
great fea in the offing, which caufed a fwell in the
entrance of the harbour.
They talked about our excurfion in the boat yefter-
day, Avhich they difapproved of, and explained that
if Ave fended at the Avhite houfes up the harbour Ave
fhould be very ill treated, if not put to death; and
begged us not to go aAvay in the boat any more.
Soon after they landed; and, as if they ftill fufpected
our intentions, they immediately fent off four boats^
having a foldier Avith their colours in each. I Avould
not fuffer them to come along-fide, and they remained at anchor as guard-boats upon our boAVs and
quarter.    Towards the evening they left us to our-
x x 2 felves.
CHAP
VII.
1797.
October.
-20th. 340
1797
21 ft.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    felves.    We only landed and took off fome water, to
which  they had no objections.    The night Avas mo-
October,    derate and fair; and the heavy clouds gradually dif-
perfed, leaving toAvards the  morning a clear atmo-
- fphere. §^|
Frefh breezes and very pleafant weather. Before
day-light I left the veffel, unperceived by our Corean
guards, and proceeded up the harbour to complete
a fketch of it. At day-light Ave faAV fires near our
village, which Ave fuppofed Avere fignals refpecting the
boat. We however, having landed on the fouthern
fide, and continued examining that fide of the harbour, remained unperceived by them, as there Avere
no habitations near us, and returned on board to
breakfall. It appeared our abfence had throAvn the
village into great confufion : boats Avere difpatched
in every direction after us, but Ave had efcaped them
all. The morning was favourable, and Ave took our
laft altitudes. Soon after, Ave received a vifit from one
of our principal friends, Avho feemed particular!^
pleafed at our preparations for failing. I prefented
him Avith a telefcope and a piflol, the only articles he
feemed defirous of poffefling; and we. parted with
mutual fatisfaction. We foon after got under Avay,
and made fail out of the harbour, toiAhe great joy of
ouv
>waai 34
CHAP.
VII.
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
our Corean friends, Avho were affembled in great numbers on the adjacent hills obferving our departure.
laj^gjig* T *7 O *7
We  felt  ourfelves  much   obliged   by their  fupplies   oaober.
of Avood andte&ater, without expecting any thing in
return. $Mfe
This harbour is called Tfliofan, or Chofan, by the
'Mnabitants. It is fituated in the S. E. part of the
coaft of Corea, in the latitude of 35° 2' N., and 129°
7' E. longitude ; and bears S. S. E. and N. N. W.
from the north part of the ifland of Tzima, at ten
leagues' diftance. M has a fafe entrance, and no
dangers to be apprehended on either fhore. Two
miles to the Weft of the black rocks, on the north fide
of entrance, is an abrupt high head-land, Avhich I
named Magnetic Head, from its affecting ourcompafs
needles. North of this head is a fine fandy bay, with
good anchorage, where Ave rema&ed during our flay,
having the fea open for tAvo points of the compafs,
in Avhich ah^le Ave faw diflinctly the ifland of Tzima*:
The chart will beft explain the harbour, which, Avithout any pretenfions to great accuracy, Avill anfwer
eA'ery purpofe to the 'navigator. It is the beft our
time, and the reftrictions Ave Avere under, enabled us
to make : and to the fketch I refer for further particulars.
IS it
I:
1 ijljlj 342
«797-
October.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
It will be obferved how little opportunity we had
to make any remarks upon the tessftoms and manners
of thefe people, from their avoiding as much as
pofiitiifet any intereourfe Avitfe us. Indeed this treatment Ave have been univerfally accuftomed to* both
at the land of Infoo and the Lieuchieux iflands. It
appeairs by their behaviour they aic by no means
defirous of cultivating any intercourfe whatever with
Grangers. They feemed to look upon us witfa great
indifference, Avhich 1 fuppofe Avas owing to the infig-
nificancy of our veffel; or perhaps, their not comprehending what nation Ave belonged to, orAvhat our
jmituits were, made them folicilous for our departure,
probably from a fufpicion of our being pirates; or
fome other reafon we could not divine.
The land furrounding the harbour was much in-
fulated, rifing in parts to Ajery hig&L hills, deftitute of
wood and verdure in general; but in fome places
were a few fcattered pine trees. On the fouth fide,
which is a peninffola, it was better .Afjooded ; and
amongft the pines were other djeiderous trees, but
of Avhat kinds Ave were Unacquainted, as the jealoufy
of the people entirely prevented our acquiring any
knoAvledge of. the productions of the country. Indeed in no inftance would they admit our refearches.
There
UBife^A ^«r«i
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
There were feveral large Tallages, fcattered about    chap.
VTT
the harbour, all of them feemingly very populous, !—^w
and generally feated in pleafant fituations, with trees October,
interfperfed among the houfes. aThe houfes wete
fmall, all of one ftory, and thatched. The lands
were cultivated in the Japanefe manner, rifing in
ridges above each other between the hills, which gave
them an opportunity of eafily conducting water to the
rice grsunds. We faw horfes, hogs, poultry, and
black cattle, of which articles much as we were in
want we could not procure. Money, at leaft of
European coins, they had no idea of; but they perfectly underftood the value of gold and filver, their
knives, &c. being ornamented in the workmanfhip
Avith thofe metals.
. They were well acquainted -with guns and firearms, but we faw no appearance of offenfive weapons
amongft them, nor did they feem any way appre-
henfive of the fmall force Ave poffeffed. AW their
attention was paid to expedite our departure; and
yet many articles of European manufacture excited
Tneir curiofity, particularly our woollen clothing.
f%d
As a commercial nation, of courfe they Avere Avell
acquainted and converfant in trade ; but Avith us they
did 344
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK*    did not feem defeepus of making any exchanges Avhat-
II. . , ° I
v—-v-.—>    ever, Avhich mayipe oAving, probably, to_the article^
October.    Ave*i poffeffed. being of no   value in their eftimafion.
Indeed Ave had nothing to excite their attention,-ifff
fatfefy their .curiofity, 'except otir  Avearingi  apparel.
4Fhe foliowingfn'afofervations Avere madeiifor the longi-
Variation for Azimjiths with, two compsSes, 2°   8'   o" W.
Ther. 62° to 70°
Mean latitude of the fouth point of entrance, 350   2" o" N.
"Mean of 3 7 fets of diftances, talcen before our arrival, 1290 24' 18" E.
Mean of 42 fets on each fide ofitheifrioon, at anchor, 1280 46' 49"
Mean of 20 fets, taken after leading the harbour, 1290 18' 15"
The mean of the 99> reduced by the Avatch, will
make 129° 7' 7% which is taken for the true longitude
of Tchofan harbour.
Ey fingle altitudes taken on fliore, betAveen the
13th and 21ft of October, the Avatch N° 45 was Aoav
for mean time at GreenAvich Oh. 12 m. 33s.2., on the
21ft of October at noon; and was found to be lofing
per day 9".80. on mean time. On the 13th, the Avatch
fhewed the longitude, at anchor, by Endomo rate,
130° 26 21" E.; by Macao rate, 128e40'33" E.
As TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
As it appears the watch goes fo irregularly, or that chap.
rr                          s                 & .         . VIL
the rate acquired at Endomo harbour is fubject to I—m—*
fome   error,   I have fhewn  daily the longitude  by o&ober.
Macao rate, correcting its error in longitude at Endomo, which makes it agree better with all the obfervations Ave have made fince leaving Volcano bay. 34&
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
s
BOOK
II.
1797.
October
22d.
CHAP. VIII.
Departure from Chofan.—Find ourfelves in a Clufter of Iflands.-—
Viftted by the Natives.—Off the Ifland of £>uelpaert.
X* besh breezes and fine clear Aveather. At half paft
2 h. we faAV fome rocky ifles and ledges in our courfe :
Ave therefore fleered more foutherly, to pafs without
them. At 3 h. the extreme part of the main land
bore Weft; and we could diftinguifh the coaft no
longer for a clufter of iflands in that direction, with
many rocks between them : fome only even Avith the
water. At 5h. an high rock bore N. 49° W., in one
with the iflands fet at noon without the extreme of the
Corean land. After rounding it very clofe Ave hauled
up to the weftward; the ifland of Tzima then bearing from S. 40° E. to S. 60° E. At funfet the extreme of Corea, to the North, N. 16° E.; and the extreme of Rocky Iflands, N. 76° W. three leagues.
At
—- TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
347
At 6h. 30m. Ave hauled our Avind, and plied under    chap.
> VIII
eafy fail for the night.    It bleAV ftirdng, Avith a good    i—<—^>
deal of fea ; and at day-light the high rock bore N. E.    oSer.
four or five miles.    The weather Avas fo hazy we could
not fee in any direction more than tAvo leagues..   We
hauled up W. N. W. for the rocky iflands;  and at
8h. 30 m.  A.M.  we faw them  to the N. W.    Soon
after Ave faAV a fingle rock to the  Weft,  Avhich   Ave
pafled to the South of Avithin a mile.    It was high
and perforated.    Before  Ave loft fight of it we faw
another, in fhape like a haycock; and more iflands
to the Avefiward.    At noon Ave had ftrong breezes and
thick hazy Aveather.   The haycock rock bore N. 76° W.
two miles; and the Aveflern iflands, from N. 44° W.
to .88° W.
J<4
m
Frefli breezes, and uncommonly hazy round the
horizon. At 1 h. Ave faw another rocky ifland to the
South. As it appeared Ave were completely fur-
rounded by a clufter of iflands, Avhich. rendered our
navigation very intricate, and indeed ufelefs, I
thought it beft to haul up and feek for fhelter among
the iflands to the N. W. We gradually fhortened our
water as Ave approached them ; and after pafling the
eaftern point we had fmooth Avater.    We foon pei%
Y y 2 ccived
23d.
um
mam A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    ceived them to  be  inhabited,  and very Avell culti-
ii.. J.
!—p^    vated:   Ave alfo faAV  feveral boats   a-fifhing.    Thefe
October,    iflands were rather high,   and in parts Avell Avooded,
and feparated from each other by very narrow paf-
fages.
I
At 4 h. Ave Avere clofe in with the land ; the noon
extreme bearing S. 32° E., when Ave fleered to the
W. S. W., in the direction o£a Avoody ifland, off AA'hich
were fome ledges of rocks fcattered at unequal diftances. At funfet the extreme, fet at noon N. 88° W.,
noAv bore S. E.; high land, S. 50° W.; and the extent
of the Avoody ifland, N. 50° E. two miles. We plied
during the night to pr.efer.ve our flation off the" Avoody
ifland. At 18 h. it bore from us N. 26° W. two or
three miles ; and Ave had the fame hazy Aveather. A£
k9h. 30 m. we were entangled. with rocks and iflands :
we could proceed no further tcTthe N. W., Ave therefore fleered to pafs Avithout the high land, and narrowly efcaped two rocks, even, with the water, to the
N. W. of it. As Ave fleered to the S. W. Ave could juft
difcern, through the haze, fmall iflands and rocks in
every direction; and. after paifing. between two that
are South of the high land we hauled up to the N. W.
At 21 h.   Ave  loft fight of the   high   land,    bearing
6 N..700
^=» TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
Ifland, S. to S. W. by W
349"
N. 70° E. two leagues: and at noon two iflands in    CHAP.
one bore  S. 29° E.;   two more,   N. 48° E.;   Long   M®&
W x797-
Oftober.
Light breezes and very hazy Aveather. We kept
our wind for the only clear paflage Ave could fee
amongft the iflands. At 3 h., finding a current againft
us, Ave came to an anchor in ten fathoms, muddy
bottom. The extremes, forming the paflage at noon,-
bore from S. 5° E. to S. 60° E.; the latter point, in
one with two iflands, twtf-'or three miles diftant. In
every other direction Ave Avere furrounded by land,
but our vieav'was very imperfect and limited.
On the iflands Ave obferved villages and cultivations, and many boats on the water pafling to and
fro; but they did not come n'e'&r us. We found the
current continued regular from the N. W. about
If miles per hour. ''4mm
The night was moderate and cloudy; and in the
morning Ave had a frefli breeze at N. N. W., Avith the
ftream or tide'in our favour. We got under at 7h.
A. M. and turned to the N. W., keeping the land to
the North clofe on board in our traverfes, Avhich appeared  bold j   and  after pafling  fome  fmall rocky
ifland
24th. y&>
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
1797..
Oftober.
BOOK iflands Ave opened a channel to the Weft, about two
miles Avide, much indented with fmall bays, and many
rocky iflands lying in the fair wfay, brffrfree of all dajf$£
ger, having regular foundings, and gradually flioaling
as Aye a^pproa&h eitheivfhore from fifteen to feven and
f&ve fat^ms. The land on each fide afforded a pleaf-
iftg vieAv; many fpo,ts being rielfdy cultivated, and the
country interfperfed with villages. Various boats
"(ailing in every defection.
Before noon Ave ejjfeie to in ten fathoms mud,
Avhejfi the ifbfeds that bore N. AV. by N. at our laft
anchorage iioav b'o#e S. 74° E. tA*^> or three leagues ;
and our prefent fituation was fo encircled by iflands
that Ave could fee no ope&tng-.whatever leading to
fea. The matter AAient to the neareft, to obferve th&
latitude and make other remarks; but the hazy
agpseather preMnted his feeing any; nj^pe iflands to the
Weft, which prevented our making any conc^&on
refpecting the paflage.
Frefh breezes and ha>gy Aveather; and toAvards the
evening it partly cleaned a$$ay. The A§ind rema^e^
in the N. AY. quarter. After noon Av^rFfgre vifited by
a boat from a large to^nsiwMgfr bore N. 16°^. Iavo
miles from us.    They brougHjWf^t.feem a paper in
written m
TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
ool
.written characters, perfectly unintelligible, to Avhich    chap.
,A ' ii i , a i , VIII.
«te could make no reply. About mi hour afterwards. '—.—-'
• WTaw feveraLboats coming off, and one of them in oaote'r,
a gay ftile, Avith feveral foldiers carrying filken flags,
and a larger one of red an<d purple in the bow. They
ptfjfed to the mufic of truhipets ; and the military
were armed Mrith fabre& Under a canopy Avas feated
a very confequential man upon a leopard's fkin, Avith
cufhions to reft upon, and a fuite of attendants about
him, all habi^d in the fame ftile Avith thofe at
Chofan.
They came on board Avithout any ceremony, and
immediately transferred his m&tts, &c. wfflle one of
his train held a large umbrella over-nim to keep off
the fun, and the reft kept at a moft refpectable
diftahce. He afked many queftions that I did not
underftand, excepting inquiries rela&ng to our a$*
rival, Sec and his anxiety to know our numbers,
vya^feh he Avas not fatfefied v$kh from my arjiwers, but
infifled upon having them counted before him ; and
immediately defired his people to begin. This liberty
Pw-oftld not permit, which feemed to difpleafe him.
He appeared very defrfpus we fhould flay fome
days, and begged we would fend the boat on fhore i
and 352
A VOYAGE OF,DISCOVERY
book    and on his departure repeated theJfame requeft.    On
i—as—'   my objecting to it he feemed much furprifed.    This
1797.
October,    man   Avas particulary   haughty   in  his  manner,   and
treated us by his behaviour Avith the moft fovereign
contempt. After flaying about half an hour he went
aAvay, leaving two boats Avith us as fpies, as Ave fuppofed, u$on our conduct. They^ anchored clofe to
us, and two; others Avere fent aAvay Avith meffages.
•Inftead of goirtg to the village, Ave obferved the
O CD O    '   ■*
•great man remained with his boat at the point of the
ifland. The Aveather being much clearer in the afternoon, at 3 h. P. M.jjjve got under Avay, and ftood
between the iflands to the vyeftward, having a fine
breeze from the North.
The inftant Ave made fail, the boat from the ifland
folloAved u,s, hooting and hollowing and founding their
trumpets for us to flop; we paid no attention to them,
and finding they could not come up, they relanded
again at the other extreme of the ifland.
What this man's intentions Avere I cannot determine}
but to me I muft oAvn they appeared fufpicious; and
I did not think it neceffary to wait the refult of them
at the expence of the clear weather : as we underflood
them TO THE NORTH PACIHC OCEAN.
353
them they called this part Chofan-go.    At 4h.  Ave    CHAP.
. . VIII.
pafled.an opening*.*leading to fea betAveen fome rocks   !—<—■>
and iflands laying off the Aveft end of an high ifland; Q&ober.
and at funfet we had run near 12 miles in a W. S. W.
direction. The land to the N; N. E. appeared high
and much broken, and connected by ranges of hills at
the back. At 6h. Ave were oppofite to another
opening leading to fea, and Ave came to in feven
fathoms, muddy bottom. The ifland on Avhich Ave
obferved the laiitwde bore N. 67° E., and a deep
entrance in the high land, leading probably to a
river, N. N. E. Our foundings in the afternoon
varied from 17 to 7 fathoms, according to our diftance
from the land; and the paflage Avas extenfive and
free of all danger from Latitede Ifland to our prefent
fituation. The flood-tide eamea from the S. AY., and
it run much ftronger than the ebb; the rife and fall
Avas about nine feet. The morning was moderate and
hazy, and Ave could fee about three or four leagues;
the Avind Avas a gentle breeze from the North, Avi^
Avhich Ave -got under yffly, and fleered- tQfjtJhe S. S. W.,
having iflands and ro.g&s on^each fide. On tjje continental fide we faw feveral villages ;.a large.one &**,<#*%
Weft of us at anchor. At 21 h. 30 m. Ave came abreaft
ofappjfit of lajn^/ifroniit Avhence./thenftpjaft, tQftds to
th/e Avefj^ard.   An infijiity of f^nall iflands layqin the
z z fame 354
6
i
LH
R
1797.
Oaober.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
fame   direction,   and   we   had    not    wind   enough
to enable us to follow the direction of the coaft.
At noon it bore from us N. 21° E. fix or feven
miles the point, and an high hummock ifle S. W. one
mile; we had the fea open to the S. S. E. and S. S. W.;
in every other direction we faw iflands, fome juft
appearing through the haze. I counted thirty of
various magnitude. On the large ones were extenfive
villages, fituated in fmall bays well wooded with
fandy beaches, and every acceflible part feemed to
be cultivated. Boats were fifhing, and the water
was perfectly fmooth, with fcarcely any wind to
difturb it or aflift our motion. Our foundings
before Ave cleared the paflage increafed to 12, and
15 fathoms, and after decreafed to 10 fathoms,
mud.
26th. Light airs and  calms, with a current fetting us
to the S. W.; Ave pafled Avithin 30 yards of the
Hummock Ifland, which appeared to us inacceflible ;
we however faw fome people upon it whom I fuppofe
were fifhermen.
In the evening' we had  the wind wefterly,  and
we kept plying through the opening in a S. S. W.
direction.
mmm TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
direction. At 8 h. we anchored in 15 fathoms, clofe
in Avijfcji the Aveftern iflands. The night Avas moderate,
and the current fet to the N. E. one mile per hour.
In the moaning the Aveather Avas more clear than
ufual, and Ave faAV many iflanq^/rand rocks to the
S. AY.; and an extenfive ifland rifing to a great
height in the centre bore from. S. 6° W. to S. $6? W.
000
CHAP.
VIII.
1797.
Oaober.
The- iflands between Avhich we anchored werevfour
or five miles apart, and of confiderable extent; they
Avere alfo Avell cultivated, but no wood appeared,
except round the villages : Ave ftill obferved feveral
boats employed fifhing, but we could not induce
them to come near us. At I9h. Ave got under way,
and made fail to the S. W.; as I fuppofed the large
ifland to be Quelpaert, I Avas defirous to examine it.
By noon it bore from S. 18° E. to S. 25° W. Hummock Ifland juft vifible N. 40° E. eight leagues. A
groupe of rocky iflands N. f 1° W. to S. 78° W. A
fingle one S. W.; a fmall flat ifland S.j35° E. two
miles.    Another ifland due eaft.
Erefh breezes, which foon brought on the fame hazy
weather.
z z
9<-
We 356
'A-VOYAGE OF DISCO\TERY
BOOK
II.
1797.
Oaober.
We juft weathered the rock fet at noon S. AV., and
foon after we faw another in the fame direction tAvo or
three miles; and the haze entirely obfcured the ifland
of Quelpaert. At funfet thefe rocks were to the
eaftArrfrd of us five or fix miles; and we could
juft difeern the groupe to the N. N, E. at the fame
diftance.
We plied to windward during the night, having the
fame Aveather.
I
The haze cleared aAvay partly, which gave us a vieAV
of Quelpaert' irom S. 5° W. to S. 72° E. four or five
leagues 5 the rocks bore N. 70° E. and N. 40° E. three
or four miles, and'fhe groupe N. b. E.; we had been
fet towards the rocks five or fix miles in the night.
We fleered for the ifland, which at the weft extreme
isi- low and rocky; before you come to it you pafs
a final! ifland clofe in fhore, with a green furface;
and off the extreme point is another, but rocky and
fmaller ones within it. We remarked feveral patches
of white fand fome diftance from the fea; and in many
parts were rifing hillocks or mounts well cultivated
up their fides. A round high roek bore of us at noon
S..850 E.; this Avas remarkable on the fliore. Green
Ifland N. 36° E.    The rocky ifland off the weft
extreme
A, TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
extreme N. 27° E. two or three miles.   A hummock
point making the other extreme S. 68° E., and the
centre hill N. 72° E.   The fmoke of fires was perceived   «§3xjr.
in eA'ery part of the land.
357
CHAP.
VIII.
I
At 1 h. the fouth extreme bore Eaft, and Ave hauled
up for the land. After running four miles we perceived two Ioav flat iflands off the fouth point, fur-
rounded by reels, and to appearance connected wilh
the point by flioals. AYe alfo faAV breakers to the
fouth ward at a very little diftance. We tacked, and
fleered out the fame diftance we came in, and after-
Avards fleered to the S. E. The Avhole of the flat land
was entirely covered Avith habitations, but Ave faw
no boats, or junks. At 6 h. the outer flat ifland bore
N. E., and we hauled off to the Weft for the night,
plying as ufual under an eafy fail. At 20 h. Ave made
fail, having the fame bearing as laft evening. We
pafled Avithin two miles of the outer fiat ifland in 50/
fathoms, and continued our courfe in the direction of
the ifland of QueJpaert. 'At noon the fouth point bore
N: 55° AV.: outer flat ifland N. 81° W. ten leagues.
Centre of the peak N. 12° E., and the extreme
N. 55Q E. off fhore four or five miles. The greateft
extent of this ifland is an E. N. E. and AV. S. AY.
direction 11 or 12 leagues long.   The peak is remark-
6. able
28th 358
BOOK
II.
1797.
Oaober.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
able high land, rifing gradually from the extremes,
and is nearly in the centre of the ifland. The fouth
point is fituated*" in the latitude, of 33° 11' N., and
126° 20' eaft longitude.-
29*- The eaft extreme bore of us N. 30° E. five or fix
leagues, and we had noAv feen the extent of Quelpaern.
In no direction could Ave fee any other land, although
the Aveather Avas tolerably clear.;j*fc As I was defirous
of again making the Corean coaft, we tacked and
ftood to the Aveftward.
The night Avas moderate, and after the moon fet we
plied to windAvard as ufual till daylight. The
morning brought with it very thick, hazy weather,
Avhich entirely hindered us from feeing the ifland.
The ifland of Quelpaert is encircled by a rocky
fhore, chiefly of coral of a burnt or fcorched colour,
not vquite black. In feveral parts on the flat land
were rocks of great magnitude and uncommon forms;
the effects to appearance of fome natural convulfion,
from which circumftance I conclude the ifland to he
Folcanic.l
We
am TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
We faw no opening nor any boats, but the anchorage on the fouth fide is very good, when to the eaftward of th& flat iflands. The ifland may be feen at
25 leagues diftance, if not more from its. great
elevation.
Light breezes and very cloudy.
6 h.    The weather clear and pleafant.
12 h.    Light winds.
13 h. Tacked and ftood to the N. N. E. at 1 h.
30 m.
At half paft 15 h. tacked.
18 h.    Smooth water and fair Aveather.
20 h. Pafled many blubbers, and quantities of fea-
weed. ^gg^
24 h.    Ditto winds and weather.
Moderate^ breezes and clear weather.
8 h.    The haze came on again very thick.
14 h. Light airs and calms. Soundings per
column. |jp
l6h.    Brought to till daylight.
19 h.    Made fa^.j
20 h. The fea appeared very white through th&
haze, and in the morning Ave faw many land-birds,-
amongft them a dove and a quail.
24 ho I
.560
BOOK
II.
1797.
"MevCTftber
1 ft.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
24 h.    Fair Aveathe^ but very hazy.
Erefh breezes and the fame hazy weather.
5 h. As'".we deepened our water the fea in fome
degree loft its whitifli appearance, and became more
green.
12 h.    Light airs, .andanore clearsormd the horizon
16 h. TackCd fliip bill dagtiight, when we again
ftood to the Aveftward.
24 h.    EreHh breezes and clear Aveafther.
I
2d. Light breezes and clear Aveather.
12 h.    Calm and>*fe,i?r Aveather.
B^pfe.    In theniowamg Ave examined our provifions,
and found, excepting fait meat, Ave had not enough to
laft the month of any other fpeciete; nor fpfirits, eAren
at half allowance.
24 h.    Light airs at noon, Avith fair weather.
3d. ^.s we were by  our longitude nea'K'&he coaft  of
China, and the wind remaining fteady from the S. W.
quarter, I thought it beft to keep our wind in TOrHhe
land, founding conftantly every hour. We gradually
decreafed our Avater; and at midn!%ht, having fhoaled
to 11 fathoms, hard fandy bottom, Ave tacked and
flood off till the mornings under an* eafy fail.    Not-
withftanding TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
m
■tt4thftanding Ave fleered out in the fame direction we    CHAP.
i, • VIIL
had   come   in,   Ave had  lefs water for tAvo  or three   i—~—'-
leagues,   Avhich I imputed   to   a current  fetting  us  November.
to the North of our eftimation.     At  day-light Ave
tacked and made fail in for the land, having a ftfonc
* CD O
breeze and very hazy Aveather, Avith a confufed fea,
feemingly agitated by a ftrong tide or current. The
water Avas of a dirty yelloAvifli colour, and very thick,
which made me conclude Ave Avere off the Nanking-
river. 5
11
In the morning wre faw feveral junks at anchor and
under fail ; and at 22 h. 45 m. we faw the land.
Upon a nearer approach it proved to be a ledge of
rocks, bearing Weft; and Ave had only five fathoms
Avater. At 23 h. 30 m. we tacked in lefs than four
fathoms, Avhen the ledge bore S. 78° W. four or five
miles; and the tide fet us to the North, among the
junks at anchor. AVe faAV low land to the North and
AVeft of the rocks ; and at noon the ledge Avas juft
yifible from the deck, fix or feven miles, bearing
S. 78° AV.    Arery thick hazy Aveather.
This eftimation Avill make the rocks in the latitude
of 31° 56' 31" N. and 122° 4' 32" E.
3 a At
•!»R*v 362
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
■
BOOK        At 1 h. we had deepened our Avater, and we fleered
<-—v—;   to the N. E., intending to range the coaft of China
November   up f° the northward.    In half an hour's fail Ave fhort-
4 ened again to five fathoms : we then hauled our Avind
till we increafed our water to 13 fathoms, when we
again bore away to the E. N. E. I fufpect the tide
had fet upon a bank, as Ave obferved a fixed buoy upon it, when we had the leaft water; but when the haze,
ot more properly the fog, prevented our judging very
correctly of any thing, from the perpetual obfcurity of
the Aveather.
a
IM
At 9 h., the wind blowing fteady and ftrong from,
the S. AV., we hauled our Avind till day-light, in hopes
of more favourable weather. In thefe hopes Ave were
much difappointed, as the haze or fog was much
thicker ; and the Avjind veering to the Weft and N. AV.
prevented our feeing or approaching the coaft of
China. We liOAvever ftood to the North, as the wind
permitted.
In the forenoon we pafled feveral junks, Handing
on different courfes ; and all of them we had yet feen
had three mafts. One of them had a fourth: this
Avas fixed clofe forward and outfide the veffel, upon,
the TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OC&AN.
the bow.    They were painted differently to thofe we
-were accuftomed to ^fee at Canton.
We had loft the thick yellowifh appearance of the
fea, but the water Avas much difcoloured in patches,
as if difturbed at the bottom.
AAre pafled clofe to the leeward of a large junk,
whofe after-fails were of cotton inftead of matts. She
was painted in the fore part and flern only, and on
her quarters were fome characters in black. They
had lee-boards ; but notwithftanding, fhe Avent bodily
to leeAvard, and fhe failed very heavily. There Avere
about twenty men to navigate her.
In the morning Ave had fine, clear, pleafant Aveather;
and having deepened our Avater, the fea refumed its
natural colour.
23 h.    Large fwell from the N. AV. quarter.
24 h.    Moderate and fair Aveather.
Moderate wind and very clear Aveather.
7 h.    Light airs inclining to calms.
12 h.    Calm and clear Aveather.
18 h.    AVe faw, an ifland to the N. E. ten or twelve
leagues.
3 a 2
19 h.
W5V-* 364
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
19 h.    Light airs.
24 h.    At noon the ifland from N. 48° E. to 53° E.
BOOK
II.
I797-       f \  , I T
November,   feven (*r eight leagues
7th. Light airs and fair weather.
The ifland from N. 62° to N. 69° E.
12 h.    Dark cloudy weather.
13 h. Very fqually Aveather, with heavy rains.
The Avind fuddenly fhifted to the N. AV. quarter.
During the violence of the Avind Ave lay to.
CD %/
SaAV the ifland to the eaftward.
At noon the ifland from N. 31° E. to N. 52° E.
four or fh7e miles: a large fea from the North. This
ifland, upon a nearer vieAv, appeared to us much
higher than we at firft fuppofed : it Avas alfo rocky
and barren. Off the north extreme, which is the
higheft part, are feveral detached rocks at a little
diftance; one of them much larger than the others :
but the ifland itfelf is very inconfiderable in extent.
It is fituated in the latitude of 34° 2' N., and longi-
tude 125° 5' 0" E.,
8th. Erefh gales and very fqually Aveather, Avith a large
fea from the North,  in  Avhich  quarter it remained
tolerably
^gi^^^^- TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
305
161
tolerably clear; but Ave could fee no other land.    The    chap.
Avind  totally   preventing   our  progrefs   towards   the   ——w
Corean coaft, except" in  our former track, arid  the  November.
wind being fleadily fixed in the North, I thought it
needlefs to perfevere any longer, as Ave had only provifions to the end of the month, even at half allowance.
In  confequence  of this  circumftance we bore aAvay
to the S. E. ;   and  at  funfet we faw the   ifland   of
Quelpaert bearing S. 55° E.; and the ifland Ave had
left, N. 24° AV. tAvelve leagues diftant.
At midnight,  being to the foutliAvard of Quelpaert
Ave hauled up again to the S. E.,  having a fine cleg
moon-light. -
At day-light the peak on the ifland of Quelpaert
bore N. 43° E. eight or ten leagues ; and at noon the
fame mountain bore N. 15° E. 21 leagues.
CD
m
I
more mo-
Eine clear cold weather, and the wind
derate.
Frefli breezes and fine Aveather.    Squally at times.
5 h.    The peak on Quelpaert, at funfet, bore due
North, 24 leagues. \
12 h.    Moderate and clear Aveather. &
At
H^k-. 366
BOOK
II.
1797.
November
10th.
A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
At half paft 18 h. altered our courfe to Eaft.
24 h.    Very pleafant weather at noon.
Moderate breezes and fine Aveather.
4 h.    SaAV land from the maft-head.
Some rocky iflands bore off us S. 65° AV.  feven or
eight leagues.
At half paft 9 h. hove to for an hour, to wait the
moon's rifing.
The iflands bore off us N. E. by N. three leagues.
Hove to at half paft 15 h. to wait day-light.
The iflands bore from N. 17° W to N. 33° W.
They were five in number, and clofely connected.
The largeft were thofe to the North and South. The
fouthern one was high and peaked; and the whole
clufter, of very little extent. At 22 h. 55 m. Ave loft
fight of them, bearing from N. 75° W. to N. 80° AV.
eight or ten leagues : at the fame time Ave faw high
land to the E. S. E. At rioon the land extended from
S. 59° E. to S. 69° E.; and we faAV more diftant land
to the eafiward, unconnected Avith the other.
24 h. TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.
24 h.    Frefh breezes and very pleafant weather this    chap.
J r VIII.
morning.
Frefh breezes and fqually Aveather, Avith frequent
rain, Avhich at times entirely obfcured the horizon.
At 3 h. 30 m. we faAV an high peaked rock bearing
S. by E.: we altered our courfe to pafs Avithout it.
At the fame time Ave had violent fqualls, and the Avind
veered more northerly. At 5h. 30 m. Ave hauled our
Avind for the night; the peaked ifland bearing S. 25° E.
four leagues ; and the land fet at noon, from N. 60° E.
to N. 70° E. The more diftant land Ave could not
fee.
It bleAV ftrong all night, and Ave had a great fea,
with much rain. At day-light the peaked ifland bore
N. 88° E. : and feeing no more land, we bore up with
a ftrong gale and fqually Aveather.
The only chart Ave had on board was one of Aran
Keulehs, wherein he places the ifland of Meaxema
in 32° 0', and Avhich is moft probably the fame land
that bore to the E. S. E. of us yeflerday, and to the
N. E. laft evening, in which bearing it appeared
like an ifland of confiderable eleA^ation; and on the
eaft fide of it the hills were peaked.    But the fqually
2 obfcure
1797.
November
nth.
^•fa^y*'
fPT A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY
BOOK    obfcure Aveather, in the afternoon, almoft excluded
l-———'    our feeing any thing; and I could not reconcile the
November,   fituation of the peaked ifland Avith his chart.
12th.
AVe hauled up as near the Avind as the fea permitted.
At half paft 2 h. Ave faw an ifland a-head, very high,
and round at top. At 5 h. Ave faw four more in different directions, from S. 30° E. to N. 60° E; the
neareft about 10 leagues. At half paft we Avore and
hauled our Avind, having no foundings with our line.
*-. O CD
12 h.    More moderate Aveather.
13 h.    Tacked fhip.
Made fail at day-light for the iflands, extending'
from S. 15° E. to  N. 43° E., eight in number.    At
* CZj
2] h. the Avefternmofl, off. Avhich is a pinnacle rock,
bore S. 5° W. two leagues; and Ave tacked to the
Weft. _' -.....:
Moderate breezes and fair weather.
At noon we counted ten iflands extending from
S. 10° E. to N. 45° E. They Avere of different magnitudes ; and three of the largeft emitted fmoke at
intervals throughout the morning. They were very
elevated, and in general much broken, and prefented
a barren
■mm TO THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN,
a.harien rocky fnfface.    The higheft one, the fame
avc   firft  remarked,  and noAV bore S. 58° E., -was a
round lofty mountain, rifing Avith a fleep afcent to its
fummit from the northern part of the ifland.    It may
be diftinguifhed at a great diftance, and is the fame
Ave faw on  July the 15th,  when  we pafled  on the
eaftern fide of them,  going to the North.    We experienced  to-day,   for   the  firft tiqie   fince   leaving
Tfhofan harbour,  a ftrong curifent, Avhich had fet us
S. 38° E. 39 miles;   and which,   in   addition to the
contrary wind,   entirely prevented   our  making   the
fouthern part of the Japan ifles.
We faAV another ifland .bearing S. 10° W.: and the
former iflands extended from S. 49° E. to N. 50° E.;
the neareft five leagues. AVe hauled to the AA'eftward'
at funfet.
A moderate Avind fpringing up we made fail to the
S. AV. The iflands prefcrved nearly the fame bearings ; and at noon they extended from S. 29° E. to
N. 66° E. ten or twelve leagues.    EaSteny current of
CD **
20 miles fince yeflerday.
Light