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Vancouver Island and British Columbia, where they are; what they are; and what they may become. A sketch… Rattray, Alexander 1862

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Array         VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
BRITISH COLUMBIA. EDINBURGH:
PRINTED BY BALLANTYNE AUD COMPANY,
PAUL'S WORK.   VANCOUVER ISLAND
AND
BRITISH COLUMBIA,
WHERE THEY ARE; WHAT THEY ARE; AND 
WHAT THEY MAY BECOME.


BY
ALEXANDER RATTRAY, M.D. Edin., RN-
LONDON
ITE   1L DEE, % &&.»   CORNHILL

  VANCOUVER ISLAND
AND
BRITISH COLUMBIA,
WHERE THEY ARE; WHAT THEY ARE; AND
WHAT THEY MAY BECOME.
A SKETCH OF THEIR HISTORY, TOPOGRAPHY,
CLIMATE, RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, AND ADVANTAGES,
ESPECIALLY AS COLONIES FOR SETTLEMENT.
BY  
ALEXANDER RATTRAY, M.D. Edin., R.N.
LONDON:
SMITH,  ELDER,   &  CO.,  CORN HILL.
M.DCCCLXII.  PEEFACE.
The following historical and geographical account of Vancouver Island was written towards the end of 1861, and is
now published in the hope that the facts it contains may
be generally instructive and entertaining. Many erroneous
impressions are prevalent with regard to these, the last
settled and least known of the British colonies, to which
imperfect or faulty information has hitherto deterred many
from emigrating. A desire is now apparent in,England and
elsewhere for more accurate acquaintance with their characteristics than a few scattered letters and newspaper articles
are able to furnish. A perusal of this volume may possibly
serve this most reasonable wish, and will at least satisfy
all as to the great importance of these colonies. The present work does not profess to go beyond the ordinary pretensions of a general " sketch," and lays claim only to the
merit of accuracy: the facts it contains having been obtained on the spot, and the author's experience of the locality VI
PREFACE.
he describes having been assisted by a residence of nearly
two years, and association during that period with the most
practical and best-informed men around him.
The recent settlement and present comparatively undeveloped state of both colonies will account for the manner
in which the subject has been handled. It is necessary to
view them more as they will be than as they now are; and
to treat their importance and position rather as a prospect
of the future than a fact of the present. The apparent prominence given to Vancouver Island over British Columbia
arises from the circumstance that the former was the original
subject of the writer's inquiries and research, while facts
with regard to the sister colony have since been added. The
two settlements, however, are not to be regarded as rival,
but as combined colonies.
Esquimau, Vancouver Island,
May 1,1862. CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION,
PAGE
1
CHAPTER I.
HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY AND COLONIZATION OP VANCOUVER
ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA, .... 5
CHAPTER II.
THE TOPOGRAPHY OP VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA ;
THEIR PRINCIPAL TOWNS, HARBOURS, RIVERS, &C,    . .12
CHAPTER III.
ON THE CLIMATE OP VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA *
ITS NATURE AND SALUBRITY, ....
22
CHAPTER IV.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AGRICULTURAL
AND PASTORAL COLONIES; THEIR ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE
PRODUCTIONS, AND THEIR CAPABILITIES AS FOOD-YIELDING
COLONIES,       ...... 56 VU1
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER V.
THE MINERAL PRODUCTIONS OP VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH
COLUMBIA; AND THEIR RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, AND ADVANTAGES AS MINERAL-YIELDING COLONIES,
84
CHAPTER VI.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA AS MANUFACTURING
COLONIES; THEIR RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, AND ADVANTAGES, ....•••
96
CHAPTER VH.
VANCOUVER   ISLAND   AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA   AS   COMMERCIAL
TAGES, .......     119
CHAPTER VIII.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA AS UNITED COLONIES";
THEIR CAPABILITIES AND RESOURCES, . . .     137
CHAPTER IX.
THE POLITICAL IMPORTANCE OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH
COLUMBIA : ESQUIMALT AS A NAVAL STATION, AND AS A SANATORIUM FOR THE PACIFIC AND CHINA FLEETS, . .     144
CHAPTER X.
SUMMARY : THE PRESENT CONDITION OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
BRITISH COLUMBIA ; THEIR RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, ADVANTAGES, AND PROBABLE FUTURE AS COLONIES FOR SETTLE-
"^ 157
CHAPTER XL
THE ROUTES TO VANCOUVER BLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA,        .     177 I
t*7—It
|KAjlWl#OPS
iP
s&»
RH I   C \ D   L   T^MJ JPf \lk.SL
I    (3f
S   H   I   N   G   T   O   N
4ITED STATES
48 ¥ VANCOUVEK ISLAND AND
BEITISH COLUMBIA.
INTRODUCTION.
The history of the rise and progress of the colonies of a
nation, especially of those which, like Vancouver Island
and British Columbia, are far from the parent country, and
therefore within less easy reach of its influence and aid, is
only equalled in interest by that of the nation itself. Their
prosperity or adversity is a subject of general concern,
whether we regard its bearing on the advance of commerce,
the spread of civilization and religion, or on the distribution
and ascendancy of particular races. Nor does it lessen in
importance when we hold it as furnishing a more or less
just index of the prosperity, and the political, moral, and
religious influence of the parent country, and of the industry, intelligence, and capabilities of the race from which the
colony has sprung.     '-\£j
■ Especial interest usually centres in the colonies of large
and influential nations.    Hence the attention with which
these offshoots of British enterprise are watched, the care
A VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
taken to cherish their infancy, and the encouragement, both
temporal and spiritual, already so liberally afforded them.
Without a right direction, the efforts made by local
governments, as well as by individuals, to advance colonial
interests will be in a great measure lost. The geographical
position of a colony, its geological structure, physical conformation, the nature of its soil, and other conditions which
combine to give character to a country, undoubtedly adapt
it for development in a particular direction. Probably there
are not two whose resources, capabilities, and advantages are
alike, or likely to lead to similar wealth and importance.
One is fitted for agricultural, a second for pastoral pursuits, while others become distinguished for their commerce,
manufactures, or mineral wealth. We thus perceive that
colonies differ in their capabilities, and consequently in
their aims. Hence how important, in dealing with the
early career of those now under consideration, to estimate
correctly their distinctive characteristics and natural advantages, in order to determine with something like certainty
the appropriate means to be employed for turning their
resources to the best account, so as thus to advance both
private interest and public good.
The intending emigrant of the present day has a wide
choice; and many of the colonies to which he may resort
have been long and favourably known. It becomes absolutely
necessary, therefore, in the interests of British Columbia, to
supply some sufficient inducement to turn.his steps in this
direction, and with this view, to recount the advantages
which these countries possess. To the emigrant himself, its
results are of much importance.   It is not to be expected BRITISH COLUMBIA.
that every locality will be found equally adapted for his
calling, or suited to his taste, and it cannot be a matter of
indifference in what direction he may turn his steps. A
mistake once committed is not easily remedied, for it is
both inconvenient and expensive to re-emigrate. He, therefore, stands in need of some guidance to enable him to make
at the outset a judicious and decisive selection.
- Our unhappily imperfect knowledge of the greater part of
Vancouver Island necessarily renders any inquiry respecting it both incomplete and unsatisfactory. A large part of
it remains to be explored; our knowledge, indeed, of the
island is limited to that comparatively small portion of its
southern extremity which is bounded on the north by Port
San Juan and Nanaimo. Of its geology, its arable land,
the nature of its fisheries awaiting development, and even
the character and value of its harbours, we' can give but
little account; while even with the parts already settled our
acquaintance is in many respects very deficient.
The results of the coast survey now in progress will dispel much of this uncertainty, more especially as to the character of the harbours. An urgent. necessity exists for a
complete survey of the interior of the island ; and until both
countries have been thoroughly explored, geologically and
topographically, any general conclusion arrived at must, from
the very nature of the case, be crude and premature.
A large part of British Columbia is thoroughly unknown.
Fur-trading settlements have long existed in its interior,
which has therefore been partially explored; and the gold-
diggings of more recent date have opened up the country in
the neighbourhood of the Eraser River; but the north-east, 4
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
north, and western districts, including nine-tenths of its
surface, are still unsettled, and much of it unvisited. The
nature of the geology and value of the mineral wealth of
British Columbia have yet to be determined; gold and silver
have been discovered, and an abundance of timber and fine
tracts of arable land are said to exist in the interior. Its
resources are undoubtedly valuable, but all details with
reference to them must be held to be at ■ present in abey
ance.
•Notwithstanding, however, these difficulties at starting,
enough material remains to furnish reliable and satisfactory
inducements to our friends at home. There is ample evidence to shew that the known resources of British Columbia
and Vancouver Island are both varied and valuable; that
their capabilities for development are of a high order—Vancouver Island chiefly as a commercial, manufacturing, and
mineral-yielding colony, and British Columbia in agriculture,
pasture, and mining; that both offer superior advantages
for settlement; that their present condition is eminently
prosperous, their future equally promising; and that the
prospective emigrant, uncertain in his choice, may advantageously fix it here, whether for purposes allied to those
particular activities already enumerated, or simply with the
idea of seeking a comfortable and pleasant home in a healthy
climate, and under a good government. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CHAPTER I.
HISTORY  OF   THE   DISCOVERY AND  COLONIZATION OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Minute details of the history of these colonies,—necessarily
intimately connected with that of the progress of modern
maritime discovery, the spread of races, and of English colonization,—although interesting, are unnecessary here. The
discovery of Vancouver Island and British Columbia was
from the southward, and by sea; its settlement from the
eastward, overland. The two events must therefore be
separately traced.
The time, mode, and source of America's first occupation
by the aboriginal Indian races are lost in obscurity; and
now form a fertile theme for conjecture and controversy.
The discovery of the continent in modern times, and the
progress of its subsequent colonization from Europe by the
more civilised races, who are fast supplanting its earlier inhabitants, are much better known.
Iceland, Greenland, and the east coast of North America,
probably as far south as 30° N. lat., were unquestionably
first discovered and subsequently settled by the Scandinavians of North Europe, and probably the Celts of North
Britain, as early as the year 861. Columbus and his followers, by sailing from the south of Europe in 1492-1502, 6 VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
subsequently encountered the West Indian islands, Central
and South America. Bilboa, by crossing the Isthmus of
Darien, was the first to discover the Pacific beyond; and
Magellan to enter and navigate it by sailing through the
Straits of Magellan in 1520. Crossing the neck of land, he
led the way in the circumnavigation of the globe, and solved
the long-vexed question as to the practicability of arriving
at the fabulously rich Cathay by a westward route. The
subsequent progress of discovery along the western coast of
America was slow; and it was not till 1592 that Vancouver
Island was first reached by San Juan de Fuca, who sailed
along the strait which now bears his name, at the southern
end of the island.
In 1776, Captain Cook roughly surveyed the coast; and
since then Vancouver Island has been more or less frequently
visited, as by PortJock and Dixon, Meares, Berkeley, &c.; and
in 1791 by Vancouver and Quadra, who gave the island the
double name it once bore; and more recently by whalers and
vessels of war. But although known to occasional travellers,
it was not until a comparatively recent period that these
regions were brought into prominent notice, and their capabilities for settlement recognised
The history of the first settlement of the two colonies embraces much of that of the Hudson's Bay, Montreal, and
other fur-trading companies, who first paved the way by their
settlements for a more general occupation of the country •
nd have in many respects been to North America, both for
good and for evil, what the East India Company was to India.
After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492
Mexico, Central  and South America became  extensively BRITISH COLUMBIA.
settled by the Spaniards and. Portuguese from Southern
Europe; and the east coast of North America by the English, French, Dutch, &c, from Northern Europe. In 1629,
the French or Quebec Fur Company was formed; in 1669,
the Hudson's Bay Company; and subsequently, the North-
West or Montreal Company ;-for the purpose of trading in
the furs of animals, which abound in the northern parts of
this continent.
Thus it happened that settlements multiplied westward
and northward, but the Rocky Mountains formed an impassable barrier until Sir Alexander Mackenzie first crossed them
in 1790, near the north end of the range, while tracing the
Peace River and the head-waters of the Fraser River to their
source; and was thus the first to enter British Columbia.
Further south, Lake Michigan was long the extreme
boundary of European knowledge of the west; and still
downward, the AUeghanies formed an insurmountable obstacle to emigration to the regions beyond. In 1714,
however, they were crossed from Virginia; the wide and
fertile valley of the Mississippi was discovered, and, soon
after, settled. In 1804, that river was first traced to its
source in the Rocky Mountains by Lewis and Clarke, who,
pushing their discoveries, were the second to cross the
range: and. descending the south branch of the Columbia
River, were probably the first to reach the Pacific by the
overland route. The regions beyond the Rocky Mountains,
previously untraversed and unknown, soon became studded
with fur-trading settlements. In 1803, the Montreal or
North-West Company formed trading-posts on the north
branches of the Columbia River.   In 1806, Mr Fraser estab- 8
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
lished Fort Fraser, a Hudson's Bay station, at the head of the
river of that name, probably the first fur-trading establishment
ever opened in British Columbia. These two powerful companies, long rivals, became united in 1821; and, under the
title of the Hudson's Bay Company, their territory extended
over the greater part of Northern America, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Gradually spreading over British Columbia, trading-posts were formed on the lakes in the interior,
and along the Fraser River. In 1849, Vancouver Island was
granted to the Hudson's Bay Company under stipulation that
they were to colonise it; and the island was first settled by
their erecting a fort at its southern end, on the site of the
present Victoria, while smaller stations at Nanaimo and
Fort Rupert were subsequently formed. Fort Victoria soon
became the principal depot for the exportation of the furs
collected on the west side of the Rocky Mountains; but their
ill success in colonising the island may be learnt from the
fact, that, in the end of 1853, its entire white population,
men, women, and children, was only 450, chiefly Hudson's
Bay employe's. Vancouver Island remained in obscurity;
few, with the exception of these agents and traders, settled
there, owing to the many restrictions of the company, who
governed the island, and were necessarily opposed to tie
intrusion of any but those connected with themselves. Its
commerce was limited chiefly to the annual Hudson's Bay
vessel with goods for barter to the Indians, and the transport
of furs to England. British Columbia was still more scantily
peopled, and even less known, except to the same traders,
who had frequent occasion to traverse it. It was not the
interest of a commercial company who monopolized a highly BRITISH COLUMBIA.
9
lucrative sale of European goods, and an equally profitable
barter of furs, to make known the fine climate, valuable resources, and ample capabilities of the country. Such tidings would bring about colonization and competition, and
a decrease and ultimate extinction both of the fur-bearing
animals, and fur-hunting Indians.
It was not, therefore, till 1859, when the charter of the
Hudson's Bay Company had expired, and with it their license
of exclusive trade, that active colonization began, forming a
marked contrast to what previously prevailed. Vancouver
Island and British Columbia, now under the management of
the home government, were declared separate colonies, but
placed under one governor; and since the removal of the
restrictions on commerce and the discouragements to immi-
gration, the progress of both colonies has been steadily
progressive. Victoria has become the capital of Vancouver
Island, and is the future commercial depot for both colonies.
In the previous year (1858) a discovery of rich gold-diggings
up the Fraser River, attracted thousands from California.
These made Victoria a place of call and depot for provisions,
and to this, the capital of Vancouver Island, and the colony
itself, are unquestionably indebted, not only for the temporary
prosperity they then enjoyed, but for being first brought prominently into notice, for the first development of their commerce, and for a large part of their present success.
While Victoria has thus risen within the short space of
three or four years from an unimportant Hudson's Bay Company's trading-post to a flourishing commercial town, fair
progress is evident in the colony elsewhere. An industrious
agricultural population now farms much of the fertile south-
(mechanics)
L_ 10
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
I
It
ern end of the island; Esquimalt, in the vicinity of Victoria,
has become the naval station of the Pacific; Nanaimo—
the Newcastle of the island, probably of the Pacific—has
sprung into existence as a flourishing mining and coal-
exporting township; while a rising settlement for the exportation of spars and timber has been formed at Barclay
Sound on the west coast; and, although the interior of the
island and its northern three-fourths are not yet settled,
and but very imperfectly known, new resources and capabilities are being rapidly discovered and developed; the
colony is steadily increasing in population and importance,
and its present prosperity may be fairly taken as an indication of an equally prosperous future.
Progress is likewise evident in the sister colony of British
Columbia. As in* Vancouver Island, its population is fluctuating, and largely composed of miners, who make only a
temporary stay in the colony : but permanent settlement has
also made considerable progress, surpassing that even of
Vancouver Island; and the rudiments of future populous
and flourishing commercial towns are springing up, principally in the gold districts and along the Fraser River and
its tributaries. Such are New Westminster, the capital,
near the mouth of that river, well situated, and eminently
fitted for becoming the commercial centre for the traffic of
the lower Fraser River district. Further up the same river,
and along the Harrison Lake route, we find the rising townships of Hope, Yale, Douglas, Lytton, Lilloet, local commercial centres for more limited districts; and although the
greater portion of British Columbia is still unexplored, especially its interior and its northern part, (settlement having pro- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
11
gressed principally in the southern districts,) this colony gives
ample evidence of great agricultural and pastoral capabilities,
and of valuable mineral resources, which combine to render
the future of British Columbia as promising as that of Vancouver Island; although the development of the two colonies
will necessarily, from the difference in their resources and
character, be in a totally different direction.
Both colonies now enjoy a remarkable and steadily increasing prosperity ; and the combined resources of the two
indicate a future success that will probably surpass that of any
of England's colonies,—a success that will be accelerated.by
the spread of more accurate information, and the removal of
many erroneous impressions that have so long prevailed in
England as to the nature of the country, the character of its
chmate, the extent of its resources and capabilities, and its
many advantages as a colony for settlement.
If
lii
III
I   it
(1 12
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
Si
CHAPTER II.
THE TOPOGRAPHY OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH
COLUMBIA; THEIR PRINCIPAL TOWNS, HARBOURS,
RIVERS, ETC.
Vancouver Island lies on the west side of North America,
5068 miles due west from London; and occupies in the
Pacific very much the same position that England does in
the Atlantic. London and the south of England lie nearly
in the same latitude as Victoria and the southern end of
Vancouver Island. Canada and British Columbia together
occupy the entire breadth of North America; the former
lying to the east, and the latter to the west, of the Rocky
Mountains. If a traveller were to leave London and travel
westward, first crossing the Atlantic, then panada, and then
the Rocky Mountains, he would enter British Columbia;
and by continuing his westerly course, would arrive at Vancouver Island
British Columbia consists of a tract of country nearly
twice the size of Great Britain, with an area of 200,000
square miles. It extends from lat 49° to lat. 57° north,
and is contiguous on the south to the territories of the
United States, and on the north to Russian America. The
Rocky Mountains, lying from 350 to 400 miles inland, form BRITISH COLUMBIA
13
its eastern boundary; on the west, its coast borders the
Pacific, the coast fine being about 450 miles long. This is
deeply indented by numerous narrow inlets or arms of the
sea; and appears still more irregular from the presence of a
chain of off-lying islands, of which the two largest are Vancouver Island and Queen Charlotte's Island; the latter lying
off the north part of its coast; while the former lies along,
and close to, its southern half.
The present population of British Columbia—miners included—is probably from 5000 to 6000; of which the miners
form about one-third.
Vancouver Island is elongated and hilly, 270 miles in
length, and from 40 to 70 miles in breadth; with a superficial area of 14,000 square miles,—scarcely one-fourth of
the size of England and Wales. Its long axis lies along
the coast of British Columbia, the lower and larger end being
received into a deep notch in the mainland. Its coast, especially on the west, is irregular and deeply notched by different bays and inlets; its streams are few and unimportant.
The white population of the island, including that of Victoria,
is about 4000 or 5000; but no accurate returns can be obtained for either colony. The Indian population is said to
number 16,000, but this is doubtful; and the native population of British Columbia is still further beyond the reach of
present calculation.
• A narrow but navigable channel separates this island from
the adjacent colony; too narrow and intricate at its north
end to be of much use, but broad and deep along the south
coast and the lower half of the east coast of the island, so as
to permit of easy and safe access by the Strait of Fuca to Vic- 14
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
I
toria, the commercial harbour of the colony,—to Esquimalt,
its naval harbour,—and by the Gulf of Georgia, to Nanaimo
and its coal mines,—and to the Fraser River, the largest and
most important stream in British Columbia, and the principal outlet for the commerce, and the agricultural, mineral,
and other products of that colony.
Vessels arriving off the coast will find the access to Victoria and Esquimalt Harbours, safe, easy, and comparatively
free from danger. There is deep water till within fifteen
miles of the land, when it suddenly shoals to ninety fathoms
and under,—a good guide to the distance from the shore in
foggy weather. A snug harbour—viz., Port San Juan—exists
at its entrance, convenient and safe in stress of weather.
The entrance of the strait is thirteen miles wide, and can be
readily distinguished at a distance by the appearance of the
land on either side. A lighthouse has been placed on its
right or American side; and as it is neared, the beholder
can easily discern the irregular rugged Olympian mountain
range and the jagged hilly surface of Oregon, with its snowcapped peaks, from the more undulating and less lofty pine-
clad hills of Vancouver Island, which increase in elevation
towards the north. The Strait of Fuca varies from eight to
eleven miles in width, and the scenery preserves the same
character throughout. On the right is the American territory of Oregon, its hilly surface increasing in height as the
vessel proceeds; the hills often appearing to rise cliff-like
from the shores of the strait, and culminating in Mount
Olympus, opposite Victoria. The snow-clad ridges of this
peak rise to a height of 8000 or 9000 feet, and slope gradually down on the east towards Puget Sound, and on the west,
I BRITISH COLUMBIA.
15
towards Cape Flattery. Here they attain the level of the
sea, after forming a continuous wall which stretches for 100
miles east and west, and constitutes the southern boundary
of the Strait of Fuca. On the left is the rounded, hilly, and
pine-clad, but less lofty surface of Vancouver Island, which
gradually slopes and diminishes in height towards its southeast corner: while beyond the further end of the strait in
the far distance, the snowy ridge of the Cascade range may
occasionally be seen, running in a north and south direction.
At night, the strait is very fairly lighted. At its entrance is
Cape Flattery light, visible eighteen miles at sea. Fifty miles
up is the Race Rock light, seen both from Victoria and along
the Strait of Fuca. Rounding this, the vessel enters Royal
Bay, and sights another placed at the entrance of Esquimalt
Harbour,—a safe guide both to that port and to Victoria
Harbour, nine or ten miles off. Both are situated within
three or four miles of each other at the south-east corner of
the island.
Esquimalt Harbour is roomy, safe, and deep; of easy access by night or day, and at all states of the tide; and is
one of the snuggest along the entire American coast, and
perhaps in the world. Vessels may he and unload close
to the rocks. It is now the naval station, and ought to
have been the commercial harbour. Indeed, it must be so
for large vessels drawing more than seventeen feet of water,
which Victoria cannot admit. The difficulty may. be overcome by a railway communication between the two, and
smaller vessels may then unload in Victoria Harbour, and
larger ones in Esquimalt. As yet, Esquimalt village is small
and unimportant. 16
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
II
Victoria Harbour is confined, crooked, and small, its approach narrow, intricate, and somewhat unsafe owing to the
presence of rocks and a sand-bank off its entrance, and rocks
in its channel. It is capable, however, of much improvement. Greater obstacles have been overcome in the Clyde.
at Glasgow, the Mersey at Liverpool, and the Thames at
London, with a view to improved accommodation; and
the increasing trade of Victoria will soon lead to similar
remedies being adopted here. Rocks may be blasted and
removed,—the entrance dredged, deepened, and widened,—
dry and wet docks may be constructed,—lighthouses erected,
and steam-tugs kept in readiness to tow vessels up and down
the strait.
Victoria, the capital of Vancouver Island, is built on a
well-chosen site, on elevated ground which commands a fine
prospect of the Olympian mountains,—the Strait of Fuca,
and entrance to Puget Sound,—the celebrated San Juan
Island, uninteresting as far as scenery is concerned,—the
snow-clad ridges of the Cascade range in the far interior,—and the nearer hills of the interior of the island
itself. It is a free port, and already enjoys a thriving
trade, and is the depot for the local and foreign traffic of
both colonies, the source of supply, and the usual place
of arrival and departure. Its population, which is variously
estimated at from 3000 to 5000, consists of many different
races; but mainly of English, Irish, and Scotch, especially
the latter, with a considerable admixture of Americans,
French, Germans, Jews, and coloured people. These came
eagerly to this colony, on its first settlement, from San
Francisco, and now form a well-behaved and industrious BRITISH COLUMBIA. 17
,part of the community. Victoria is the seat of government,
iand the residence of the governor.
Nanaimo is yet small; and its population, which numbers
from 150 to 200, consists chiefly of coal miners and their
families. Its harbour is good, and its export trade in coals
already considerable. The development of its coal-fields,
now in progress, will ultimately make it a place of great
importance, with an extensive traffic, and a large mining
population. Nanaimo boasts of two places of worship—an
English church and a Wesleyan chapeL
The Barclay Sound settlement—where a saw-mill has been
erected for the manufacture of spars, and cut timber, for
exportation—has a population of about 100. The company
has an extensive grant of land from the local government,
and both the trade and settlement are rising in importance.
Fort Rupert, at the NE. corner of the island, is an unimportant Hudson's Bay Company's fur-trading station, with a
few employes.
New Westminster, the capital of British Columbia, occupies a commanding and well-chosen position on the north
bank of the Fraser River, fifteen miles from its mouth. The
anchorage is good, the water deep, the wharfage facilities
fair, and steamers of eight hundred tons and drawing fourteen
feet have proceeded some miles up the stream, as far as
Langley. The shifting sand-banks, however, and the intricate
navigation at the river's mouth, will unquestionably prevent
this town from becoming a place of extensive foreign trade.
Still, it enjoys the daily inqreasing traffic of the Fraser
River, and derives a large revenue from its custom duties ;
and will probably become of importance, but only as a local
B
ll 18
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
f
V
commercial depot for the traffic of the " lower Fraser" district. The greater part of the trade in connexion with the
mines in the interior has hitherto passed through this capital; but it appears probable that the recent discovery of
routes to the gold-diggings, and to the agricultural districts
O OO        O    ' O
in the interior, shorter and cheaper than those by the Fraser
River, will greatly diminish both the traffic and importance
of this place. A company of Royal Engineers is camped
about a mile higher up. The population of New Westminster with its garrison is about 700. It has an English
church and two clergymen.
Hope and Yale, formerly fur-trading settlements, have
become developed within the past few years, since the discovery of the Fraser River gold-fields, into small* townships,
with a considerable trade, which chiefly depends on the
traffic connected with the gold-diggings higher up.   The for-
O OO        O O J.
mer has a population of 250, and the latter of 400. Hope
will become of importance as an outlet for the Similkameen
district — a rich agricultural and pastoral country along
the Columbia River. Both Hope and Yale have English
Church clergymen, and the former a Wesleyan minister.
Yale, 87 miles above New Westminster, 102 miles from the
mouth of the Fraser River, and 15 miles above Hope, is the
head of steamboat navigation on this river.
Douglas, at the head of Harrison Lake, is a rising place
with 200 inhabitants, through which passes the traffic of
the " Douglas route " to the mines beyond. A Church of
England clergyman is stationed here.
Lilloet; Seton; Lytton, with a population of 200; Cayoosh,
with 350; and Quesnelle, with 200 inhabitants, are all thriving
m 1
BRITISH COLUMBIA
19
places farther up the Fraser River and Harrison Lake routes,
developed since the rush to the gold-fields, and principally
supported by the diggings and the traffic they cause. Although most of the towns in British Columbia depend for
their existence and support on the gold-fields, they serve to
encourage and aid agricultural settlement, which is slowly
spreading round them.
The Fraser River, and its tributary the Stuart River, with
other smaller streams, arise in and drain the northern part
of the interior or agricultural district of British Columbia.
Uniting at Fort George, the main stream continues to run
in a general southerly direction, and traverses the entire
length of the interior, receiving in its course various important accessories, especially the Thompson River, till, arriving
at the south-west corner of the agricultural region, it enters
the hilly district, and soon takes a sudden bend and runs in
a westerly direction through the Cascade and other ranges,
emptying itself into the Gulf of Georgia opposite Victoria.
The entire length of the river is about 450 or 500 miles ;
and may be divided into the f upper Fraser" and the " lower
Fraser," the former consisting of that part which drains the
interior, and the latter of that shorter portion which reaches
from Yale downwards. It is the only stream of magnitude in'
British Columbia, except the north branch of the Columbia
River, which occupies the south-east corner of the colony.
The river is navigable by steamers as far as Yale, 102 miles
from its mouth. The Fraser River district may be said to
be the only permanently settled portion of British Columbia.
On it or its tributaries are the principal settlements of this
colony,—e.g., New Westminster, Hope, Yale, &c. &c.; its bed
ii
f
; n
tl 20
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
and banks have yielded the greater part of the gold, and it
still forms the principal route to the gold-bearing gullies and
" creeks" of Cariboo, along the upper Fraser, in the interior.
The Cariboo country, named after a small lake, is a tract
lying about the centre of the " interior " of British Columbia,
and to the east of the Fraser River, in the bend formed by
that stream before it takes its southerly course. The Quesnelle River, a tributary of the Fraser, forms its southern
boundary, and the latter its western and northern. The
district thus circumscribed is hilly and mountainous, and is
drained by innumerable streams and rivulets which appear
to radiate from its centre and flow into the Fraser and Quesnelle. The valleys which these drain, and the beds of the
streams, are the " creeks" which are now proving so highly
auriferous,—e.g., Williams' Creek, Antler Creek, Lowther
Creek, &c. &c.
Many of the numerous inlets, canals, and arms of the sea
which penetrate the coast of British Columbia, and not a few
of which are only imperfectly explored, will become of importance at a future day; and as convenient sites for fishing-
stations, seaports, and depots for the commerce of the interior,
and for the exportation of its timber and other produce, they
will prove of the greatest value not only to that tract of
country which lies between the coast and the Cascade range,
which has no outlet except by these and a few unimportant
rivers, but also to the interior or agricultural and the gold-
mining country, access to which has hitherto been chiefly
along the " Fraser River" and " Harrison Lake" routes. The
latter are probably the shortest and easiest to the southern
parts of the region now alluded to; but better and cheaper BRITISH COLUMBIA.
21
ways are now necessary for access to its middle and northern
parts, and to the Cariboo mines. This the inlets alluded
to will supply; and Bentinck's Arm, but especially Bute's
Canal, already promise to be those most frequently made
use of. In a subsequent page the different routes to the
interior of British Columbia will be more fully discussed.
II
11 22
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
CHAPTER III.
ON THE CLIMATE OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH
COLUMBIA; ITS NATURE AND SALUBRITY.
The nature of the climate of Vancouver Island and British
Columbia, putting entirely out of sight its effect on their
animal and vegetable productions, is of importance to the
emigrant in a sanitary point of view; and is, moreover,
likely to have a material influence on the progress and ultimate prosperity of the colonies themselves: for the great
majority of emigrants will of course prefer a temperate and
genial climate, more especially if it be at all similar to that
of their native place. A large proportion of those who sail
for these colonies will no doubt come directly or indirectly
from the parent country, and will desire a climate at least as
mild as that of England. That they may enjoy this on our
shores is perhaps as little imagined as any hitherto unascertained fact connected with the history of these places.
Not only in England, but even in Canada, the opinion prevails that the climate of these colonies is cold and inclement, and the country itself bleak and inhospitable; and
that both are so uninviting that the formation of a settlement here appears as unpromising an idea as the foundation
of one in Banks's Land, the Sundra, or Tierra del Fuego. &
CLIMATE   C|
to iUastra
THE
PREVAJLINC
VANCOUVER
South
South. "West
North
Nortti Easf
-</7
Vincent Brooks, litu.
"
'IS'
tl
i
■mi m  1
METEOROLOGICAL ABSTR!
>meter.
Thermometer.
Difference between wet and
dry bulb Thermometer.
a
i
d
o
H
J
SI
Is
■J
a
ii
a
d
I
g
g
SEt
bo
a
"S
o
3
O
4*=   QO
OQ  H
|l
2£>
03
g
|
«
64
g'
a
'3
a
s
*3
<D
0
bO
d
cs
2
0
-P bo
IS
i
is
[
0-23
0-69
1*0
61*5
43*5
51-74
18-0
9
14
3^
5
34
...
...
t)-03
076
0*2
625
46-5
55-50
16-0
|l
H
0
H
n
54
2
D-06
0-71
0*2
68*0
52*5
59-44
15-5
10
8f
i
3|
n
5!
)-10
0-30
01
68-5
54*5
61-01
15-0
10
H
i ■
a
3£
8
64
)-04
0-73
0*2
72-0
65-0
62-10
17-0
114
H
0
2
6
64
...
.
)-08
0*94
0-4
65*5
50-0
57-97
15*5
Hi
24
0
3
TIT
24
2i
...    1;
i-01
0-62
0-2
60*5
45-5
54-11
15-0
8
H
0
2
H
3i
5
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1-57
0-6
61-0
40-5
4916
20-5
11
5
0
u
5
Si.
2
2
•96
1*11
0-2
59-0
28-5
42-62
30-5
29
7
0
If
7
6
21
15
•11
0-99
0-3
51*5
23-5
39-19
28-0
22
6
0
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6
5
4
20
•03
1-50
0-4
50-5
29-5
43-17
21-0
224
94
0
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94
74
4
lr
1-17
0-41 59-0
34-0
45-31
25-0
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5
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07
1-50
1-0
72'0
23'5
51-77
48-5
29
94
0
9 1
74
38
37 BEITISH COLUMBIA.
23
The results of a continued spread of this delusion in retarding emigration are too obvious to require comment. Hence
the, importance, not merely to the intending emigrant, but
to the colonies at large, of correcting the erroneous impressions in circulation.
It is not our purpose to enter into a very lengthy or scientific discussion on this point, or to consider in minute detail
the causes which affect it, but rather to illustrate the subject
by a practical and intelligible sketch: consisting, first, of an
abstract of the usual characteristics of our climate; and,
secondly, a comparison of it with others well known, especially that of England.
In the table opposite will be found a statement of the
prevailing weather at Esquimalt for one year,—viz., from
the 1st April 1860 to the 1st April 1861 inclusive,—which
may be taken as a fair specimen from which to form an
average conclusion.
This goes far to prove that we enjoy, as a rule, fine
weather. Of the 365 days of the year no fewer than 187, or
51 per cent., were fine, the remainder being dull, showery,
rainy, &c. During the winter months, fine weather accompanying frost is by no means uncommon or of short duration.
Rain fell on 118 days, or once every 3^f days; most heavily
and frequently during the winter months from October to
February. Snow fell on twelve days only, and then neither
heavily nor for any length of time. The thermometer fell
only eleven times below freezing during the year—a good
indication of the mildness of the winter.
Heavy and prolonged fogs prevail during October and
November.    In the summer, mists are usually rare, par- 24
VANCOUVEE ISLAND AND
tial, and transitory. The highest summer temperature
shewn in the table was 72°, (9th August;) June, July, and
August being the warmest months of the year. The lowest,
23^°; the coldest months being December, January, and
February. The annual thermometric range was 48^°, while
the greatest daily range (23°) occurred in March, and the
smallest during October. The extremes of temperature are,
therefore, by no means great,—a good index of the equable
character of the climate, and of the absence of sudden and
violent changes.
The columns indicating the difference between the wet and
dry bulb thermometers (a good criterion of the amount of
moisture in the atmosphere) shew that during the entire
year, even during the winter months and the rainy and foggy
weather of October and November, the air is not unfre-
quently very dry. The greatest difference between the wet
and dry bulbs was 8f °, (June,)—it has been observed as high
as 13°, (5th May 1861,)—and the least maximum difference,
2^° (September.) The dampest months of the year were
from September to January inclusive, the dampest of all
being October, when fogs are often prevalent.
The barometric variations are neither great nor frequent,
the range for the entire year being only 150 inch.
The wind columns shew the great frequency of calm
mornings and evenings; while entire calm days occurred
about once in every ten. The average force of wind for the
entire year was only 1^—scarcely equal to a light breeze;
the highest being 9. High winds and squally weather are
unusual in summer; they chiefly visit us in the spring and
winter months.    The following table will shew the direction BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of those winds which occurred during the year with a force
equal to a fresh breeze:—
Table 2.
EsquvmaM, Vancouver Island, 1860-61.—Table of Winds
with a force at and above 5, (fresh breeze?)
':■■
Direction of Wind.
—
11
IS-!
5
1
6
6
7
CQ
at
<
6
u
o.
4*
o
OQ
2
O
•g
o'
O
2
2
V
5
1
1
1
U
<o
a
o
ft
3
>>
5
3
3
>
St
5=.
4
2
1
7
1
1
1
2
11
Total and
Per-centage.
Southerly, (chiefly S.W.,)
Uortherly,	
56 = 67-47 p.c.
11 = 13-25   „
6= 7-23  „
6= 7-23  „
4
Easterly,	
1
1
1
i
5
Totals
6
6
3
4
8
3
11
13
6
83
ci
Thus it appears that high winds are commonest in April,
and blow chiefly from the south and south-west, forming 67
per cent, of the strong breezes which occur during the entire
year. Strong northerly winds are rare even in winter. The
per-centage from the west is, however, unusually large. When
westerly winds do occur they are often violent.
■^Southerly winds prevail, as a rule, during the year, and
occur in the proportion of 67 per cent. Next to these in the
order of frequency are the northern, eastern, and western.
The southerly winds, which blow nearly all the year round,
and those in winter from the north, may be said to prevail
in the southern extremity of Vancouver Island. The less
prevalent easterly and westerly winds usually occur during 26
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
If
'k    >
i
the winter months, especially December and January; in the
summer, very rarely.
Table 3.
Esquimalt, Vancouver Island, 1860-61.—Winds which
accompanied Rain.
Direction of Wind.
<f
1
§
1-5
g
bo
■3
t*
St
5
Q
OQ
3
o
o
O
U
O
o
o
<D
O
0)
ft
Pa
3
S
[
Summary.
S.W.,	
4
1
1
1
2
4
2
4
1
2
2
2
2
2
o
3
1
5
4
29^
s.,	
14
2
7
7
^Southerly, 59.
H
S.S.W.,	
S.E.,	
S.S.E.,	
N.E.,	
1
1
...
2
1
1
2
4
i
3
2
2
2
2
1
2
41
N.,	
1
5
3
3
1
1
2
2
N.W..	
5
5,
11 '
.JNortneriy, as.
N.N.W.,	
E.,	
1
1
1
9
E.S.E.,	
W.S.W.,	
.     1
j £ Easterly, 12.
2   Westerly, 2.
1
16
2
1
Vancouver Island
2
1
1
2
1
3  1
2
2
1
Total,..,
9
10
6
8
4
I
9 1413
r
10
64
13
14
8
118
The above table shews that the winds which most frequently accompany rain are southerly or sea breezes, principally S.W. These almost invariably accompany the showers
of spring and summer, and often occur with the heavier and
more prolonged winter rains—although northerly and east- BEITISH COLUMBIA.
27
-2     1
erly winds, both land breezes, are those which usually
follow the latter, and together form about one-third of
the winds which succeed rain.
The following are the usual characteristics of the different
seasons:—
The spring is short, and lasts from the beginning or
middle of March, to the end of April or beginning of May.
In early March the weather undergoes a marked change,
and a drier and milder atmosphere forms a decided contrast
to that of the cold and wet winter months that precede it.
Trees bud and come into leaf; and, towards its close, various
wild plants—e.g., the Colinsia Tullium, &c.—are in flower.
The prevailing weather is characterized by fine mild days,
still alternated, however, with occasional rain and squalls.
Towards the latter end of April, fine weather has fairly set
in, with mild dry south and south-west winds; but farming
operations may' usually be commenced with the utmost
safety in the beginning or middle of March, as the keen
biting "March winds" of the English climate, so detrimental to the budding fruit and vegetation generally, are
seldom, and never severely, felt here.
Our beautiful and more protracted summer begins with
May, and ends with September. During these glorious
months we are cheered by a bright sun, a clear, and often
cloudless sky, lasting frequently for days together, with gentle
sea and land breezes. Rain falls seldom, and never heavily;
fogs and mists are rare; the season is delightful. Sometimes, indeed, the power of the sun becomes excessive, and
the soil very arid from the want of rain; but these drawbacks are but trifling, and do not interfere, to any appreci- 28
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
II
able extent, either with individual arrangements, or agricultural or horticultural operations. The heavy English
" harvest rains " of August and September are unknown in
Vancouver Island; and the crops are usually sown, reared,
cut, and housed with fine weather.
The autumn, which lasts during: October and November,
presents a marked change. Cold and moist northerly winds
succeed the dry southerly breezes of summer; fogs begin in
October, and occasionally during the latter end of September,
with a moist atmosphere and frequent rains. These, however, alternate with periods of fine mild weather, sometimes
lasting for ten days or a fortnight, and forming what, in the
aggregate, is termed the " Indian summer/'    So mild, how-
OO        O * '
ever, is the temperature, comparatively speaking, even at the
latter end of November, that wild strawberries may occasionally be seen in bloom.
During the winter, which lasts from the beginning: of
o * o o
December to the end of February, cold, moist northerly
and southerly winds prevail, with frequent rain and occasional fogs ; the latter, however, less common than in the
autumn. This state of things is often pleasantly varied by
periods of fine, clear, frosty weather, lasting from two to four,
or even eight or ten days. The thermometer is seldom
much below _zero_; snow is uncommon, and neither falls
heavily nor lies long; nor are the frosts intense or long-'
continued, ice being seldom more than one inch thick. So
mild is the usual winter weather of this colony, that most
farmers leave their stock unhoused and at large, during the
o * o
entire season. More severe and prolonged winters occasionally occur, however, as during the past year of 1861-62, and BEITISH COLUMBIA.
29
during 1852-53; but these are exceptional, and do not happen
more frequently here than in England and other countries
with similar climates.*
The climate of the southern extremity of Vancouver
Island may be more simply ascertained:—
1. The summer, or dry season, (including spring,) which
lasts during seven months of the year—viz., from the beginning of March to the end of September; and,
2. The winter, or wet season, (including autumn,) which
lasts from October to February inclusive.
The former is dry and mild; the weather usually fine in
the extreme; the atmosphere clear and serene; the winds
dry, light, and southerly; fogs, mists, and rain, rare: while
the latter forms a marked contrast, with its moist atmosphere, cold northerly winds, frequent fogs, heavy rains, and
occasional frosts and falls of snow, alternating with short
periods of fine, clear, frosty weather.
In addition to latitude,—unquestionably of first importance
in determining the temperature and climate of a country,—
the following are among the most prominent causes which
combine to influence that of the southern end of the island:—
1. Its proximity to the Pacific gives an essentially insular
character to its chmate, and is the principal cause of its mildness and uniformity, its freedom from extremes of heat and
cold, and the absence of that variability so characteristic of
England.
The following table will shew—first, the low temperature
* During the past -winter, 1861-62, the falls of snow were heavy and frequent. Snow was on the ground from the middle of December to the
middle of March, and the thermometer occasionally down to 3° at night. I ll
30
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
of the sea which bathes the coast, as compared with that of
the air; second, its relatively high temperature in winter;
third, its limited annual range; and fourth, that its average
annual temperature is about the same as that of the land:
thus proving, as a whole, its general uniformity throughout
the year:—
Table 4.
To contrast the Temperature of the Air with that of the Sea.
Esquimalt, 1860-61.
Temperature of Air (shade,)
Do.           Sea,
Maximum
(in Summer.)
Minimum
(in Winter.)
Range
(Yearly.)
j
Average of
Year.
72
62
23£
41
484
21
51$
5
The temperature of the sea which surrounds the island is
more uniform than that of the land, and varies only 21° during the entire year, while the air ranges 48|°. Its influence
on the surrounding climate is as important as it is unques*-
tionable. By communicating to it its own uniformity of
temperature, it lessens the annual range; cools it and prevents it from becoming oppressively hot in summer; warms
it during winter, and tends to diminish the otherwise extreme
cold of that season ; in a word, renders the island warmer
and less changeable than it otherwise would be. The greater
annual range of the temperature of New Westminster (only
fifteen miles inland) when compared with that of Victoria,
shews the effect of even a trifling distance from the ocean in
diminishing the equalizing influence of its temperature. The
chilly evenings so frequent during the summer, especially
after sultry days, may be similarly accounted for.   The land BRITISH COLUMBIA.
31
and its atmosphere heats rapidly, but as soon as the sun's
influence is gone, it as quickly cools ; the comparatively cool
temperature of the sea having full sway, and speedily reducing
that of the land to its own level.
This proximity to the sea undoubtedly affects the moisture
as well as the temperature of the atmosphere. Local circumstances modify this considerably as regards the southern
end of the island, more especially the nearness of the Olympian range; but it is more felt towards the north and northwestern coasts, and also at New Westminster, where the air
is damper and the annual fall of rain greater.
The influence of the gulf stream in increasing the warmth
and salubrity of England is now well recognized. Although
the ocean currents of the North Pacific are not yet mapped
out with the same accuracy as those of the Atlantic, it must
be evident that a warm current running along this coast
o o
from a tropical latitude would have a sensible effect on
the climate of Vancouver Island; and that a current of this
kind actually exists, there is every reason to believe. A current, analogous to the gulf stream, and supposed to have its
origin among the numerous islands which lie along the coast
of Eastern Asia, runs in a north-east direction across the
North Pacific towards the shore of Russian America, where
it sets to the southward along the mainland, and, after bativ
ing the coast of Vancouver Island and British Columbia,
o *
finally joins a westerly equatorial current to recommence
the circuit.
The great irregularity of the tides at the southern end of
Vancouver Iskmd, resulting from the irregular influx of
different currents from the Pacific, at the upper and lower
ends of the strait which separates the colony from the main-
d' 1.9
A
\M
32
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
land, has unquestionably a certain, though not very appreciable effect on the temperature, moisture, and salubrity of
its climate.
The large bodies of fresh water, consisting chiefly of
melted snow or rain, originally deposited on the sides of the
mountain ranges of the interior of British Columbia, and
carried down by the Fraser, Harrison, Salmon, and other
rivers that empty themselves in the strait which separates
this island from the adjacent mainland, have a marked influence on the temperature and climate of this colony. The
Fraser, which is the river of British Columbia, and its tributaries, the Bonaparte, Thompson, and other streams which
drain the greater part of that colony, including the western
slope of the Rocky Mountains, and partly the Cascade, Coast,
and Harrison ranges, has an especial influence on the temperature of Vancouver Island, particularly its southern end,
opposite which it empties itself into the Gulf of Georgia, sixty-
five miles from Victoria. The river has one, and occasionally two freshets during the year. The first or principal one,
which occurs in May and June, is caused by the melting of the
snow on the mountain ranges; while the second and inferior
one, which happens in October, is the result of heavy falls
of rain in the upper country. So large is the body of water
carried down during the first of these, that the river rises
from twenty-five to thirty feet at Hope, and forty feet at Yale,
fifteen miles higher up. The effect of this may be noticed
by a marked change in the sea-water of this vicinity, which
during winter is clear and transparent, but in spring and
summer dirty, as if from admixture with melted snow. The
cooling influence of the Pacific on the temperature and cli-
Wm\ ■ SI i
■ BRITISH COLUMBIA.
33
mate of this colony has already been alluded to. The effect
of a still colder body of water carried down by the Fraser
River during two or three of the summer months is equally
great; and both no doubt combine to give the summer temperature of the southern end of Vancouver Island its characteristic coolness, although it would be difficult to allot to
each its separate measure of influence.
2. The proximity of Vancouver Island to the adjacent continent, combined with the influence of the vast body of water
which bathes its coast, has a material effect on its climate,
and is the principal cause of its most prevalent winds.
As is usually the case in temperate latitudes, the winds
of this coast are essentially variable. We never have prolonged breezes blowing constantly in one direction, like the
trades of tropical regions, or the regular north-east and
south-west monsoons of India and China. Very rarely indeed do they blow more than three or four days in one
direction; and they often vary several times both in direction and force during the same day, while intervening
morning and evening calms are frequent. The great prevalence of southerly and northerly currents is, however,
peculiar, and the cause of it worth inquiring into. The
influence of the trade-winds of the Pacific is lost, many
degrees nearer the equator than Vancouver Island; and
although the more prolonged winds, both northerly and
southerly, may occasionally have some distant affinity to
those upper and under currents which blow to and from
the pole in connexion with the trades, the ordinary winds of
this coast are of a different nature, and their origin is to be
otherwise explained.   They partake more of the character of
ill 34
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
sea and land breezes. Morning and evening calms are frequent both in summer and winter. Their true character and
course is best marked in summer. About eight or nine A.M.
a sea breeze usually springs up, which blows towards the
land, and lasts till afternoon or evening, when it declines,
and is succeeded by a calm, to be followed during night by
a contrary current blowing from the land.
Table 5.
To shew the relative Frequency of Northerly and
Southerly Winds.
Direction.
%  N.N.W.
*» ' -vr
•g  |N.,	
|1n.n.e.,
Hn.e.,...
Totals,...
S.S.W.
as.,	
-g 18.S.E.
5    or
-2 ^S.iS.,..
Totals,
12
.117 17
s s
!5 R
221
215
22 34
2
920
46
...
|S2
21
on i;
5
59
4
15
7126
10
3790
69
is I 3
.3 \£
0>
2819
6   1
Totals
and Per-Centage.
38
37
° cs
C.-S
CO    ■
189=5333 p.c.") S,
4 J-
56 = 17-29p.c.J
38120 324
234=7222 p.c. of the
northerly winds.
40
20125
7
22
10
4 25 28
1   5
5
1
6...
10
99 113113 981118162 37J3210
641=68-05 p.c. of the
southerly winds.
2748
38
31 271 = 34-09 p.c.) |
5 345=43*39 p.c.J
57
I  94
795 MV
mmmm
■■■■
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
35
This table will shew that north is the most frequent of the
northerly winds, and next to it N.E.; N.W. and N.N.W currents being less common : while of the southerly winds south
is the most frequent, and next to it S.W.; S.E. and S.S.E.
breezes are of rarer occurrence. Of the northerly and
southerly winds therefore, currents blowing due north among
the one and due south among the other are the most frequent,
and next to them, the two opposites, N.E. and S.W.
The geographical position of Vancouver Island readily
explains the nature of these winds, and accounts for their
direction and great prevalence over easterly and westerly
currents.
The long axis of the island, and the general trend of the
North American coast along which it lies, take a N.W. and
S.E. direction. A perpendicular to this would point on the
one hand to the centre of the North Pacific, and on the other
to the interior of the N.W. corner of America; corresponding to the direction in which the prevailing southerly and
northerly winds of the island blow. This is the identical
route that we should expect the sea and land breezes of this
coast to take; the N. and N.W. winds, so prevalent in winter,
being land winds, and the S. and S.W. currents, common in
summer, sea breezes. The difference which usually exists
between the temperature of the sea and that of the land,
and the unequal extent to which the two surfaces become
heated by the sun's rays during the day and cooled during night, account for their origin, direction, and character,
and the relative prevalence of the two through different
seasons.
During the day, especially in summer when the sun is in s i^r^?
mW-
■
If
36
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
the northern hemisphere, the land becomes more rapidly and
intensely heated than the ocean, its atmosphere is rarefied
and rises, and a sea breeze is the result. Throughout the
summer the temperature of the land is usually higher than
that of the sea, except for brief periods at night, and hence
the great prevalence of S. and S.W. winds during this season.
Table 5 shews that 68 per cent, of the southerly winds occurred
during the five summer months from April to August inclusive. The facility with which the land becomes heated even
by the winter sun at mid-day, and the consequent fact that
its temperature is occasionally higher than that of the ocean,
account for the less frequent southerly and south-westerly
currents of winter. And it is worthy of notice that at this
season the southerly winds assume still more of the sea-
breeze character and direction than those of summer, and
blow chiefly from the S.W.,—i.e., more directly from the
ocean; winds from due south being rare. Hence these are
emphatically the winds of summer.
During winter, when the sun's influence is weak, contrary
currents prevail. The sea seldom cools to the same extent
as the land : the relatively warm water of the Pacific heats
the superincumbent atmosphere, which rises and gives place
to a cool current from the land, (whose temperature is perhaps below the freezing point,) which forms the N. and N.W.
winds of winter; 72 per cent, of which occur during the four
coldest months of the year;—viz., from November to February
inclusive. Hence the winter winds are from the north. During summer they seldom occur—especially in June and July
—as if the balance of temperature at this period were principally in favour of the land. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
37
The southerly winds, blowing from the sea and from a
warmer latitude, are necessarily warm and moisture-laden;
while the northerly winds from colder northern regions, and
which have blown over land whose temperature may be below the freezing point, are cold. The thermometric range of
these winds resembles to a certain extent that of the surfaces
over which they blow. The southerly winds partake of the
oceanic equability of temperature, and vary less during the
year than the northerly or land winds. Their difference in
character during different seasons, though partly owing to this
cause, is principally relative. During summer, the southerly
winds, with their ocean temperature, lower than that of the
land heated by the sun's rays, although mild, are relatively cold.
This is increased by their passage across the snow-clad Olympian range, on which they are deprived of much of their caloric and rendered still more chilly. During winter, the same
winds, although actually colder than in summer, feel relatively mild in contrast with the low temperature of the land
and the northerly winds: their passage across the Olympian range deprives them of much of their high ocean temperature, but does not cool them sufficiently to prevent their
relative warmth from being apparent. So these winds modify
the rigour of the winter, and of the cold northerly gales which
prevail during those months^ Were there fewer southerly
breezes, the winter climate of this colony would be less mild
and less healthy than it now is.
The difference in the character of the northerly winter and
summer winds is still more marked. The latter are transient
and mild, especially in contrast with the chilly breezes from
the south; while thoseof_ winter partake of the low tempera-
ass Ml
38
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
ture of the land, and are excessively cold, especially in contrast with the relatively warm southerly winds with which
they occasionally alternate.
The chilly character of the southerly winds of summer is
thus more relative than actual; they appear chilly in contrast
with the warmth of the summer sun. Their mildness in
winter is both actual and relative; they still retain much of
the ocean temperature, and appear warmer from contrast
with colder northerly breezes. On the other hand, the cold
of the northerly winds of winter is more actual than relative ;
and although'contrast with the milder southerly currents of
this season makes them appear more, chilly, they are essentially severe in themselves.
The principal proofs in favour of the belief that the two
prevalent winds of Vancouver Island are merely ordinary sea
and land breezes are—
a. The direction in which they blow with reference to the
adjacent land and ocean—viz., directly to and from the
warmer parts of the Pacific, and to and from the neighbouring continent.
b. Their ordinary accession, course, and decline, and the
occurrence of intervals of calm.
c. Their change in direction according as the sea or land
becomes relatively the hotter; "and the greater prevalence of
southerly winds in summer, and of northerly or land currents
in winter.
3. The relation which the colony bears to neighbouring
mountain chains has an important influence on its climate.
The lofty Olympian range, which lies opposite the lower end
of the island, and which, running in an east and west direc-
ILU BRITISH COLUMBIA.
39
tion, forms the southern boundary of the Strait of Fuca,
lying from 15 to 20 miles south of Victoria and Esquimalt,
has a special influence on the climate of the southern extremity of the island. The effect of this range is chiefly
marked by an influence exerted on the prevailing southerly
winds, to which it acts as a barrier by stretching across their
course, and producing a change in their force, warmth,
moisture, and direction. These continue warm and moist
until they meet with this obstruction, which first reduces
their power and perhaps alters their course; while, on its
cold sides, they part with a portion of their warmth and
their superfluous moisture, which is precipitated in the form
of rain or snow,—thence journeying onwards as the dry and
chilly south and south-west winds of summer. The rare and
scanty rains, and the dryness of the summer at this end of
the island, are thus explained.
No similar mountain range obstructs and modifies the
most northerly winds of autumn and winter, and their
moisture is spent on the island in the form of fog, rain, or
snow. The hills tend to make the autumn and winter, and
the prevailing winds of that season, more damp and rainy
than they otherwise would be, by attracting and condensing
moisture. Local differences may also be observed,—e.g.,
Esquimalt, lying some miles nearer the 'hilly part of the
island, is more damp and rainy in winter than Victoria,
situated at a greater distance, and on an open and partially
cleared plain.
The effect of the more distant Coast and Cascade ranges,
of which Mount Baker forms the loftiest peak, and of the
still  more  distant Rocky Mountains,  on   the  climate  of
BJn 40
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
i A
I
m
I
the southern part of this colony, is more indirect than direct,
acting chiefly through the snow and rain which the rivers,
especially the Fraser, carry down from their sides to bathe
its coast, and aid the Pacific in producing that equability of
temperature which is one of the characteristics of the essentially insular climate of Vancouver Island.
4. The prevalent winds of Vancouver Island exert a
most decided influence. The extent to which the climate
is affected by the southerly winds that prevail all the year
round, and blow cool and dry in summer, and relatively
mild during winter, is too obvious to need re-assertion; nor
less so, by the cold, damp northerly winds of winter. To
the former the colony is, to a certain extent, indebted for
the mildness and uniformity of its temperature and its cool
summers, and to the latter for much of the rain, fogs, and
snow of the autumn and winter months.
5. The effect of the small annual fall of rain at the southern
end of the island, and the unfrequent and scanty showers of
summer, in contributing to render the weather drier, though
occasionally somewhat hot, and the climate more salubrious
than it might otherwise be, and of the opposite effect of the
dense fogs and frequent rains of autumn and winter in rendering that season more damp, colder, and less healthy, must
be very apparent.
6. The geology of the country, its physical geography,
the nature of its soil, &c, all affect its climate.
The influence of the former is more indirect than direct
The dense impervious trap-rocks and metamorphic clay slate
formations which prevail in the vicinity of Victoria, and the
conglomerates and sandstones which abound about Salt- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
41
spring, Nanaimo, &c, and the volcanic rocks which form
the central mountain chain, are all evidently better adapted
for the formation of a dry and healthy climate than, for example, porous granite or gneissic formations. These, from
their tendency to dampness, and to the formation of unhealthy malaria by the decomposition of their component
particles, are said to be a fertile cause of disease in some
countries.
The scantiness of the soil in many places, its frequent
gravelly or sandy nature, combined with the hilly and rocky
character of the island, and the absence of extensive swamps
and low lands, all combine to prevent excessive moisture,
and to aid in carrying off the superfluous water of the
autumn and winter rains. Hence the atmosphere becomes
drier, less malarious, and more healthy than it would otherwise be; although the evident effect of the northern hilly
part of the island, removed from the influence of the
Olympian range, is to attract and precipitate moisture,
which is nevertheless rapidly carried off. The substratum
of dense tenacious blue clay at the southern end of the
island, tends to make its surface moist in winter by preventing absorption, and dry in summer by facilitating
evaporation.
7. The gradual spread of settlers, the gradual clearing
away of superfluous brushwood and timber, which tends to
make the climate damp and unhealthy, especially in the
valleys and low lands, and the drainage, tillage, and general
improvement of the soil, will all combine to increase still
further the dryness and general healthiness of the colony.
The climate of the southern end of Vancouver Island Ill
42
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
I
presents certain features for which latitude alone will not
entirely account.
Its remarkable mildness, equability, and essentially insular character, are particularly noticeable; and are the
combined result, first, of the equalising influence of the
adjacent ocean; second, the cooling effect of the waters
of the Fraser River, which tends chiefly to prevent a too
elevated summer temperature; third, the prevalence and
equalising influence of southerly winds, cool in summer and
relatively warm in winter; and fourth, the rarity of cold,
damp northerly winds in summer, and then frequent alternation during winter with warmer southerly currents by which
their rigour is modified.
Its dryness, especially during summer, is also remarkable,
and the small annual fall of rain; both principally the effect
of contiguity to the Olympian range, which precipitates the
superfluous moisture of the prevailing southerly winds before
they reach the island.
Although the above data refer, strictly speaking, to Esquimalt and its vicinity, they may for general purposes be
considered applicable to the colonies generally; local differences not being of great importance in taking an extended
survey of the climate of a country.
The climate of Victoria, only three miles off, differs somewhat from that of Esquimalt. The former is more exposed
to the winds which blow up the Strait of Fuca, and those
from the N.E, E., and from Puget Sound: while the latter
is almost land-locked, and is sheltered from wind in almost
every direction by the trees and hills that surround it; which,
however, tend to make it more rainy. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
43
The climate of both places, and of the southern end of the
island generally, is modified by local circumstances which
probably do not affect its northern parts. The influence of
the Olympian range on the prevailing winds and atmospheric
moisture, and the cooling effect of the Fraser River, probably
do not extend beyond the southern third of the island.
The Strait of Fuca acts like a funnel, and alters their course,
causing them to blow through it more in easterly and
westerly directions. There is a perceptible difference in the
temperature at the outer end of the strait, and strong breezes
are more frequent outside. The northern part of the island is
probably more rainy, owing to its hilly nature and its greater
exposure to the moist southerly winds which blow over it unmodified by the Olympian range ; and also milder in winter,
on account of the shelter afforded by the hilly backbone of
the island from the cold northerly winds of that season.
The climate of the district along the lower Fraser River,
and probably the whole of the hilly region which forms the
coast, and about one-third of its western surface, is generally
more damp and rainy than that of the interior or agricultural districts, where it is finer, warmer, and drier, in summer, and less rigorous in winter. This is especially the case
along the valley of the Thompson River, where snow seldom
lies,—a circumstance which adds greatly to its value for
agricultural and pastoral settlement.
The following table will shew that the climate of New
Westminster, fifteen miles from the mouth of the Fraser
River, is scarcely equal to that of Victoria (the data for the
former being taken from the accurate annual meteorological
report of the Royal Engineers Camp):— 44
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
Table 6.
To contrast the Climate of Victoria, in Vancouver Island,
and New Westminster, in British Columbia.
w
Vic-    N.West-
toria,   minster,
1860-61. 1859-00.
June,	
July,	
August,	
September,	
October,	
November,	
December,	
January,	
February,	
March,	
April,	
May,	
Mean,	
i* (Maximum,
2 < Minimum,.
u (Range,	
©
m
Thermometer,
(mean,)
all in shade.
59-4
610
621
57-9
541
49-1
4262
39-19
43-17
45-31
51-7
55-5
51-7
484
65-5
68-6
69-4
60-6
50-9
359
32-7
35-7
39-7
46-7
50-7
56-8
51-1
93-0
-20-0
113-0
Days on which
Bain fell.
Victoria.
6
8
4
9
14
13
10
15
13
7
9
10
118
N. Westminster.
5
7
6
14
15
14
12
16
20
16
12
15
152
Quantity of Bain.
Victoria.
o
N.Westminster.
Inches
0-594
0-717
1-770
4-558
11-519
6-275
4-245
9-498
6-652
4-561
2-750
3-260
•a
o
Inches
56-429     26*
The average annual
fall of rain of 25 places
in different parts of
England and Wales is
374- inches.
* Clarke on Climate. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
These are for one year only, and those different years; and
therefore can only be taken as an approximation until more
prolonged observations can be obtained. The table, however,
shews that although the two capitals have a nearly similar
annual temperature, the range is much higher in British
Columbia than in Vancouver Island ; that the summer of the
former is hotter, its winter colder, and that its weather is
more frequently rainy. The great annual fall of rain at
New Westminster may be explained by the difference in its
topography from that of Victoria. The former is situated
in the vicinity of lofty, densely-wooded hills, well calculated
to attract rain; while the latter lies on a level, partially-cleared
plain, and opposite a mountain range on which its principal
winds are deprived of much of their moisture. New Westminster is out of the influence of this range, and its prevailing southerly winds blow on it as they come from the
ocean. Passing up Puget Sound, they first encounter the
hills of British Columbia, and on them they deposit their
moisture.
Vancouver Island owes its milder and more equable chmate to its insular position. New Westminster—distant
from the sea—is more out of the influence of the ocean temperature than the former; and its climate, though fine, is
therefore not equal to that of Victoria.
A comparison of the climate of these colonies with that of
other places in a corresponding latitude, still further proves
its excellence.
The chmate of Vancouver Island, on the Pacific side of
North America, is much superior to that of Canada, on its 46
VANCOUVER ISLAND AKD
eastern or Atlantic side, and finer even than that of places
having a lower latitude. A map of isothermal lines will shew
that the line for this island takes a deep southward bend as
it crosses towards Canada ; and that the mean annual temperature of Vancouver Island is only a trifle lower than that
of New York, which lies 8° nearer the Equator. This is well
demonstrated by the following table, which contrasts several
different insular and inland climates of places in nearly the
same latitude:—
Table 7.
To contrast the Climate of Vancouver Island with
that of New York, &c.
Place and Latitude.
Victoria, Vancouver Island, lat. 48° 24' north,
( Quebec,
| Montreal,
1 Halifax,
Toronto,
I New York,   .
Pekin,
46° 48'
45° 31'
44° 39'
43° 40'
40° 43'
39° 54'
Mean
A.tmual
Tempe
rature.
51°
77'
41°
85'
45°
76'
40°
08'
44°
81'
51°
58'
53°
58'
In Vancouver Island there is not the comparatively short
summer of Canada, nor the scorching heat of its mid-day
summer sun; nor its long and severe winters, its heavy
snows and prolonged, intense frosts; nor does the former
suffer from the extremes of heat and cold to which the
climate of the latter is subject. This difference is strikingjbz
shewn by the following table :—
I M
british columbia.
Table 8.
To contrast the Climates of Vancouver Island and
Canada.
47
Highest
Thermometerduring
Year.
Lowest
Thermometer during
Year.
Annual range
of
Temperature.
Esquimalt,      )
Vancouver   f
Island,1860- (
61,  )
72°
23A°
48F
Canada,	
102°
—36° (below
zero.)
138°
In Vancouver Island the chmate is comparatively mild ,as
compared with that of Canada; the summer temperature is
seldom oppressive, its highest range being 72°,* while that
of the latter is 102°. In the former, the lowest temperature
was 23^°; that of Canada was —36°, or 59° lower: and the
great difference in the annual range of the two equally shews
that the chmate of Vancouver Island is far more invariable
than that of Canada.
The climate of the south of England forms a more just
standard for comparison with that of Vancouver Island. Both
he in the same hemisphere and in nearly the same latitude ;
both are insular, and occupy a similar geographical position
on the western side of a large continent and contiguous to
an extensive ocean.
The accompanying table will shew that the temperature at
* During August 1859, the thermometer at Victoria, according to Mr
Pemberton's accurate observations, rose to 81°, and fell in January of 1860
to 17°. This difference of range between Esquimalt and Victoria arises
from the greater exposure of the latter to the sun's rays in summer and
cold winds of winter.
1 48
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
Esquimalt contrasts favourably with that of London. The
former has a slight advantage in latitude, marked by a corresponding increase in temperature :—
Table 9.
To contrast the Temperature at London and Esquimalt,
Vancouver Island.
Place.
Maximum.
Minimum.
Bange.
Average.
London, lat. 51° 30',
Esquimalt, lat. 48° 24',
86 (June)
72 (Aug.)
22 (Jan.)
23£ (Jan.)
64
48*
50-39
51-77
The weather of Vancouver Island is milder and steadier
than that of England; the summer longer, drier, and finer,
and the winter shorter and less rigorous. The mean annual
temperature of the former is higher by l-38° than that of
the latter. During the summer months the hot weather of
Vancouver Island is not so oppressive, and the maximum
temperature is less by 14° than that of London; while in
the winter the temperature never falls so low at Vancouver
Island as in London; and the annual range of the two places
differs by 15-^° in favour of Esquimalt
The following table shews that during several months, especially in summer, the difference in the mean thermometrie
range of the two places is very marked in favour of Vancouver Island. This is probably due to the cooling influence of
the waters of the Pacific, and the melted snow and rain of
the Eraser River freshets, which prevent the temperature of
the southern end of Vancouver Island from rising so high
during summer as that of the south of England :—
0 © BRITISH COLUMBIA.
49
Table 10.
To compare the Monthly Maodmum, Minimum, Mean, and
Range of Temperature of Esquimalt and London.
Esqutma.lt,
Vancouver Island.
London.
Max.
Min.
Med.
Range.
Max.
Min.
Med.
Range.
April,	
61
62
68
69
72
65
60
61
59
51
50
59
43
46
52
54
55
50
45
40
28
1 23
29
34
51
55
59
61
62
57
54
49
42
39
43
45
18
16
16 j
15 1
17
15
15
21
31
28
21
25
69
75
86
77
82
75
65
57
54
50
52
61
32
36
38
44
44
40
32
27
24
22
25
29
48
55
60
63
63
58
51
43
39£
37
40
42
37
39
48
33
38
35
33
30
30
28
27
32
May,	
June,	
September,...
October, ,.
November,...
December, ...
January,	
February,	
March,	
The entire) ~0
Year, } | 1A
23
51*77
49
86
22
50-29
64
The following table proves that, as a rule, these changes of
temperature from month to month, which are so apt to make
a chmate trying to health, are not so marked and intense in
Vancouver Island as in London; and shew that the rise and
decline of its temperature is more gradual, especially during
the summer.   Thus not only are the extremes of temperature
slighter in this colony than in England, but those incessant
variations and sudden changes from heat to cold, which often
D 50
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
Iff
prevail in the latter country, are rarer here, less sudden and
intense, especially in summer:—
Table 11.
To shew the difference between the Mean Temperature of each
month at London, in comparison with that of Esquimalt.
Place.
■a
lb
r*>2
3 2
0 P
9 .
p
■a
7*. —
May and
June.
June and
July.
C143
3 OQ
a     L     N     I*
so f • 33 3fe 3k;
= ° Pp 5 fo a g
§>a °o SS il  §S
55 a° ofc >Q §'•
p I   f r
Mean difference
of successive
months.
Difference of
moan temperature of
warmest and
coldest months.
London....
Esquimalt
8-08
8-98
2-20
214
5-36
6-48
764
876
4-86 8-48
8*9411*67
o-io
109
4*78
4-18
7-00 8-81 8-89 2-22
8-86 4-95 6-54 3-43
1       1       1
4-86
882
26*17
22*91
The atmosphere of Vancouver Island, especially in summer,
is drier than the proverbially humid climate of England;
and the heavy harvest rains of the English summer and
autumn months, (especially August and September,) which
not unfrequently damage the crops, are unknown amongst us.
The following table will shew that at Vancouver Island the
annual number of rainy days was sixty less than at London:—
Table 12.
To shew the relative Prevalence of Rain at Esquimalt and
London.
Place.
&
a
q
a
>->
14
15
a
c
o
16
13
a
-.
18
7
— —
f
14,16
910
1
c
12
6
i
1616
I
8  4
|
U
o
s
-1
m
9
2
o
O
IS
14
o
1
©
1
16
18
s
I
18
10
2
q
178
118
London, (" Clarke on Climate,")
Esquimalt, Vancouver Island,i
1860-61 ) BRITISH COLUMBIA.
51
Here we find rain falling at London once every two days,
but at Vancouver Island only once every three days. The
results of an accurately kept rain-gauge would be more satisfactory. The table, however, goes far enough to prove that
our chmate is drier and less variable than that of England,
and that rain does not occur so often or so heavily with us,
especially in March and April, when agricultural operations
are commencing, or during August and September, when the
crops are ripening. The crops in this colony may suffer,
although rarely to any serious extent, by droughts, but they
are never injured by an excess of humidity, as they occasionally
are in England. The rains of the Vancouver Island summer
have more the character of showers. Autumn and winter
may be called emphatically the | rainy 1 season, in contradistinction to the summer, which is often excessively dry;
while in England the rain is more distributed over the year,
and summer and autumn form the rainy season.
The prevailing winds of Vancouver Island are southerly,
those of England south-westerly; in the former the biting
N.E. and E. winds, which often prevail during the English
spring and early summer, give place to mild S. and S.W.
winds in April, which are followed in May and June by still
milder summer breezes. Great or sudden barometric variations unquestionably affect materially both the chmate and
salubrity of any place, although their influence may be less
apparent than that of temperature. The following table
shews that these occur less frequently at Esquimalt than at
London, which indicates a greater equability in its chmate,
and perhaps accounts in some degree for its greater salubrity :— *-
52
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
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The range during the winter months at Esquimalt is slight,
especially in October, December, and January, but during
April it is higher than for any other month at either place:
this month is known for its frequent squalls, and is the
period of struggle between the northerly winds of winter
and the southerly breezes of the approaching summer.
The salubrity of the chmate of these colonies, so intimately
associated with their physical character, is proved by experience to be equally good. No better test can be had of
a climate than its effect on the health of individuals subjected to its influence.
Epidemics, such as small-pox, scarlet fever, and other infectious diseases, are rare in these colonies, even among the
natives. Catarrhal complaints and rheumatisms occur, as in
all countries with a corresponding climate, but less frequently
and less severely than in England. Epidemics of influenza
in various forms occasionally prevail, especially during the
damp foggy weather (October and November) which succeeds the warm summer, when individuals are most apt to
neglect those sanatory precautions necessary for the maintenance of health; but these are neither lasting nor severe,
and many of the diseases which do occur may be traced to
this cause, and to the erratic and often exposed life so often
led by the floating population of both colonies. It is unquestionable that those who take the ordinary precautions
may enjoy as perfect a state of health in Vancouver Island
and British Columbia as in any part of the world.
No statistical returns are yet kept of the health of the
population, but the salubrity of the climate has been fully
proved not only by prolonged popular experience, but also 54
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
I
by its effect during shorter periods on the crews of H.M.
ships stationed at Esquimalt.
During the stay of H.M.S. Satellite (crew, 240 men) in the
colony, from June 1857 to July 1860, a period of three years,
the number of deaths which occurred was only five; of cases
invalided and sent to England, nine ; and of hospital cases,
twenty-seven; but among the whole not more than fifteen
could be fairly ascribed to the effect of chmate,—a remarkably small number for so protracted a period, while the
general amount of sickness was equally small Catarrhs and
rheumatisms were the most frequent diseases that occurred,
—the former in the proportion of one man every six days,
and the latter one man every fortnight,—the majority being
insignificant. The only epidemic was a trifling influenza.
These statistics thus indicate a degree of healthiness seldom witnessed on foreign stations, and not often experienced even in England.
The health of the crew of H.M.S. Topaze, (480 men,) during
a more limited stay, has been equally good. During twelve
months—viz., from April 1860 to April 1861—her sick-list
has averaged 131 per day = 2t per cent., or li per cent, lower
than during her four months'stay in England before leaving for
this station. The great salubrity of the chmate of the colony
is well shewn by its marked effect on the health, weight, and
general physique of this ship's company, who were weighed
individually before arriving, and again after being 9£ months
in Esquimalt harbour. On this occasion, 91 per cent, were
found to have gained weight to an average of 9£ lbs. per
man, the greatest gain being 25 lbs.    In the majority of the
1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
36 cases who had lost flesh, the falling off could be traced
'to slight accidental and remediable causes.
Actual observation thus goes far to shew that the climate
of these colonies is superior to that of England both in physical character and salubrity, and experience proves that it is
equally well adapted for agricultural and pastoral farming.
Its general mildness and healthiness, therefore, offer one
great inducement among many which Vancouver Island and
British Columbia hold out to intending emigrants. 5.6
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
X
CHAPTEE IV.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL COLONIES, THEIR ANIMAL AND
VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS, AND THEIR CAPABILITIES AS
FOOD-YIELDING COLONIES.
Clearly the progress and probable future of a colony will
depend greatly on the nature of its agricultural and pastoral
resources, and on its capabilities for yielding food. A colony
which has to draw all its supplies from other quarters, and perhaps from distant countries, at high prices, is not so likely to
succeed, whatever he its advantages in other respects, as one
which is independent of foreign resources. A period occurs
in the early history of every settlement when supplies have
to be drawn, either from the parent country or elsewhere;
but the necessity passes away with time; the colonies soon
supply their own demands, and find within themselves those
elements of growth necessary both for their present prosperity and their future progress.
Vancouver Island has thus far passed favourably through
this first struggle in her early career; and although her supplies are still principally imported, so promising do her agricultural and pastoral capabilities appear, that there need be ■■"■
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
07
no apprehension of her future, or fear that the colony will
not—and that at no very distant day—be equal for her own
supply, and perhaps for carrying on a considerable export of
surplus produce.
Though destined, however, to attain great eminence, it
will never acquire the agricultural prominence of California
or British Columbia. Her fisheries, when developed, may
become valuable as the source of an extensive export trade,
but her animal and vegetable produce will always be limited,
and that of her farms will never be much more than suflicient
for her own supply-; nor should Vancouver Island ever trust
to herself for more than the supply of her own wants, and
the development of more important resources, as well as the
provisioning that large element in her population, her naanu.
facturers, merchants, and miners.
Neither the geological structure nor the general topographical features of Vancouver Island adapt it for development as an agricultural or pastoral colony. By far the
greater part of the island is hilly and mountainous, and, in
fact, forms the prolongation of the Olympian range, which,
branching off from the Eocky Mountains to the south of
California, runs up along the coast, traversing its entire
length so as to form its backbone. A comparatively level
peninsula, containing about 150 to 200 square miles, exists
at the southern extremity of the island, in the neighbourhood of Victoria, formed by the Saanich and Sooke inlets,
on which several fine farms and sheep-stations are actively
and profitably worked; but this cannot be taken as a criterion of what prevails over the island generally.   The prob-
mm I Jll'
58
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
ability is, that such another tract, equal in size and fertility
to the Victoria peninsula just alluded to, is not to be found
over the entire island. The prospect from Victoria, which
may be taken as a fair example of the general features of
the island throughout, though fine, is by no means inviting,
in a utilitarian point of view. It presents only a series of
lofty, undulating, pine-clad hills, which rise irregularly one
behind another, and have small intervening valleys where
patches of arable land exist; but the hills themselves are
generally so scantily covered with soil, as barely to afford
root to the scattered and stunted trees on their sides and
summits.
Of the 1400 square miles which form the surface of this
island, a large part consists of mountain, rock, swamp, and
waste land, incapable of cultivation. Patches of arable land,
containing from 20 to 700 acres, are, however, found in
various parts of the southern end, as at Sooke, Beecher, and
Peddar Bays, Saanich, Point Holmes, along the banks of the
Coivitchin Kiver, and the few small streams which exist in
the island; and similar patches will probably be detected
near the numerous inlets, bays, and harbours round the entire island; but although the soil is often of fine quality,
and valuable, as in the Coivitchin Valley, as at Sooke, &c,
these tracts, being of comparatively trifling extent, cannot be
said to affect, to any appreciable extent, the character of the
island. The accompanying table will give an idea of the
proportions of available and waste land, or rock and swamp,
&c, on some of the largest and best-worked farms in the
island:— BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table 14.
59
j
Three Farms,
Under
Cultivation.
Incapable
of
Cultivation.
Still capable
of
Cultivation.
Total.
Acres.
430
Acres.
1780*
Acres.
150
Acres.
2360
Towards Esquimalt, which lies near the hilly country,
the land is not so favourably adapted for agricultural and
pastoral farming as over the Victoria peninsula generally.
Numerous rounded masses of rock crop out in almost every
field, and most of this neighbourhood has so broken and
rugged a character, as materially to interfere with agricultural operations; but although much of the land here is
rocky and incapable of tillage, it will be seen, from facts to
be hereafter stated, that what is now cultivated is highly
fertile. Towards Victoria, however, the land improves, and
in the Lake and Saanich districts arable land is more abundant, and of good quality.
The subsoil consists of a bluish clay, above which rests a
light-reddish gravelly sand, and, above all, a layer of rich
fertile black or brownish-black spongy loam, which consists
chiefly of decayed vegetable matter, the accumulation of
ages; and to the presence, absence, or relative preponderance of which is to be attributed the difference in the character of the soil apparent in different districts, and often
* Of this quantity, though incapable of cultivation, from 400 to 500
acres are woodland and open pasture, interspersed with trees, affording
shelter and some little food to cattle. 60
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
within comparatively narrow limits, and which necessarily
causes a difference in the value of even neighbouring farms.
The agricultural capabilities of Vancouver Island, however, such as they are, are good; and instances might be
given where, with selected land, farming operations on a
large scale have been crowned with success, under the energetic and persevering exertions of practical farmers. Owing,
however, to the usually scattered condition of the land of
this colony, its broken nature, and the scantiness of the soil,
it will be evident that farming operations on an extensive
scale are attended with great difficulty. In this island, large
farms are rarely met with; the smaller being more likely to
prove successful.
That the capabilities of Vancouver Island, for the purposes now under consideration, are by no means unimportant, notwithstanding these evident disadvantages, is proved
by many instances of complete success. Wheat, oats, barley, pease, and other cereals, with potatoes, turnips, carrots,
beet, &c, and all the usual products of English farming,
grow readily in the colony, and are often superior in quality
to those reared in the territories adjoining; while the market-gardens and orchards are equally successful in supplying
the table with vegetables and fruit of a very superior description. While we are on this subject, it may not be out
of place to add the testimony of one of the most practical
and energetic farmers of the colony:—" Draining is unknown *in Vancouver Island as yet; labour is so high that
it prevents the farmer from carrying on this improvement
Could he afford the luxury, the soil would be thereby rendered equal, if not superior to that of England and Scotland.
\U 1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
61
Our best soil is low and swampy, requiring nothing but
cheap labour and tile-drains to make it equally productive
with the finest lands in the old country."
The accompanying table will shew that the average yield
of good land in Vancouver Island contrasts favourably with
that of England, the finest and most productive of the three
divisions of Great Britain:—
Table 15.
Yield per Acre of Land in Vancouver Island in contrast
with that in England, Ireland, and Scotland.
Wheat,	
Yield per Acre.
Weight
per Bushel
at
Vancouver
Island
(Estimated.)
England.
Scotland.
Ireland.
Vancouver
Island.
4 qrs.
4i
5 „
64    „
20 tons
6„
25 fold
30-40 tons,
(green)
34 qrs.
5 „
6 ,,
60    „
3    1
25 tons
5   „
25 fold
35 tons,
(green)
3 qrs.
4 „
4£„
3 qrs.
25 tons
7   I
30 fold
33 tons,
(green)
3 qrs.
4i
*? »
25    „
15 tons
4 „
25 fold
35 tons,
(green)
62 lbs.
50    „
38    „
Barley,	
Oats,	
Potatoes,	
Pease,	
Clover,         )
(cut green,))
Gardens,	
Tares,...        -j ii
t ■■■ '
Mir
lit:
*■$
62
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
Table 16.
Average Prices of Vancouver Island Farm Produce
contrast with those of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
m
Wheat,....
Barley,....
Oats,	
Potatoes,.
Pease,....
Vancouver
Island.
Turnips,.
Clover,
(green,) .
Gardens, [ £23
Tares   (valu
able as' sum- >•  £8
mer feed,)
£3,15s. per qr.
£2,18s.    „
£2,   Os.    „
£15 to £18
per acre.
£2,18s. per qr.
£15 per acre.
£12
England.
Scotland.
£2,16s. per qr.
£1,16s.     „
£1, 5s.
£2, 13s. lOd.
per qr.
£1,15s. 6d. I
per qr.
£1, 3s. 9d.
per qr.
£15 per acre.
£1,14s. 2d. to    „„
w> o 5-2 per qr.
£2, 3s. per qr. \ ^   *    ^
£5 to £10 per £5 to £10 per
acre. acre.
£6 to £8 per £4 to £6 per
acre. acre.
£25 per acre.
Ireland.
£6 per acre.
£20 per acre,
-to       „
£2,10s. perqr.
£1,10s.    „
£1, 0s.      „
£1,15s. perqr.
£4 to £8 per
acre.
£3 to £5 per
acre.
£15 per acre.
£3
The high prices which the Vancouver Island farmer can
obtain for his wheat, barley, and oats, contrast favourably
with those of England, especially when the close proximity
of the colony to the eminent grain-growing and exporting
country of California is taken into account. Those obtained
for pease, tares, clover, but especially for potatoes, turnips,
and garden produce, are also worth notice; they are, however, counterbalanced by a corresponding outlay for labour. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
63
At present, the farm produce of the island is insufficient
for the supply of its own population. Few of the farmers
having any surplus to dispose of, their exports are nil; and
hence the island farms, gardens, and orchards cannot compete with those longer colonised and better cultivated neighbour States of Oregon, Washington, and California, with
their cheap land and cheap labour, which furnish the greater
portion of its supplies. When, however, it is more extensively settled, when labour cheapens and increases, and agriculture is more developed, we may anticipate such an increase
of this island's productions as will equal, if not exceed her
consumption, and contribute to a more successful competition
with the adjacent states, which it will yet surpass in the
quality, if not in the quantity of its productions. Many
tracts, both in the neighbourhood of Victoria and over the
island generally, where the land is too rocky and the soil too
scanty for agricultural labours, may be easily and profitably
converted into market gardens or orchards. Market-garden-
ing and fruit-growing on a large scale will soon be required
for the supply of Victoria, and are hkely to pay well.
Vegetables and fruit may be reared in quantities sufficient
not only for home-consumption, but for exportation. The
ordinary vegetables, and also the apples, pears, and other
varieties of fruit grown in temperate climates, are generally
much superior to those reared in warmer latitudes; and the
samples grown here are decidedly superior to much that is
at present imported from Oregon and California, and its
production as an article of export deserves encouragement.
On the other hand, the hilly character of the island generally,—the deficiency of level arable land,—the absence of
I
■■ 64
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
111
ft If W
1   f|||
extensive tracts of well-watered pasture and grassy plains,
and the scantiness of the natural grasses,—combined with
the occasional dryness of the summer, which often scorches
and withers what does exist,—all check the development of
Vancouver Island as a great pastoral colony. Large flocks
of sheep or herds of cattle, such as are common in the
Australian colonies, and such as may yet be kept in British
Columbia, with its extensive prairies well adapted for pastoral
purposes, can never be kept in Vancouver Island. The
number of cattle at the largest farms on the island varies
from 60 to 100 head. Flocks of sheep consisting of from
400 to 500 head are kept in the Lake and Saanich districts,
where the natural grasses are more abundant, and the land
more level and better adapted for sheep-farming than near
Victoria or Esquimalt. These prove most profitable, the
usual annual increase being about 100 per cent. Hogs, also,
thrive remarkably, their average annual increase being about
1000 per cent. Much is to be expected in this colony from
a more extensive clearance of the land, a more rigid economy
of soil in converting the rocky parts which are unfit for anything else into grazing ground, and from a more general
introduction of artificial grasses,—eg., alfafa, or Chilian
clover, &c, &c,—a more ample supply of winter food, and
a more frequent adoption of the practice of housing cattle,
especially in winter. The risk which now attends the keeping of stock would be thereby much diminished, and the
advantages which Vancouver Island possesses, especially as
to f ertility of soil and salubrity of climate, render it capable
of producing cattle, sheep, and farm-stock generally, of
superior quality, and sufficient for the colony, if not for ex-
M BRITISH COLUMBIA.
65
portation. The experience of the past severe and prolonged
winter (1861-62) has rendered most painfully apparent the
necessity which exists for providing a better supply of winter
food for cattle than has hitherto prevailed as a rule among
the farmers here.
Cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, &c, originally introduced
from Oregon, England, or Australia, thrive remarkably in
Vancouver Island; and no finer mutton, beef, or pork can
be had than that of this colony, except, perhaps, in England;
that of Vancouver Island certainly surpasses much of what
is now imported from American territory. The accompanying table (17) will shew the average weight attained by our
stock. The want of labour, the scanty supply of grass and
other food, &c, prevent the farmer in this colony from paying the same amount of attention to stock as in England;
otherwise we might rival the mother country. As yet,
however, much of the beef, mutton, &c, sold in the markets
of the colony, is imported from the neighbouring American
territory, although the colony itself will be able to compete
with more success when better developed.
The trifling attention paid to dairy produce in Vancouver
Island is a mistake. Colonial milk, butter,, or cheese is seldom seen as an article of sale. No cheese has yet been
made; most of the butter in the market is imported. The
milk is good and abundant in summer, the chmate favourable
as to temperature, and dairy produce would sell well in the
colony, and might also be exported.
Although the chmate of Vancouver Island is favourable
for agricultural and pastoral farming, and much of its arable
land highly fertile, its general mountainous character pre-
E 66
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^3 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
67
eludes the possibility of its ever excelling or even rivalling
countries like California and the longer known British colonies
in the southern hemisphere,—e.g., the Cape of Good Hope,
Australia, New Zealand, &c,—whose capabilities comprise a
fine, genial climate, an abundance of pasture land, and a soil
well adapted for husbandry. This colony, however, has
British Columbia on her right to fall back upon to supply
her markets,—a country in every way adapted, by its chmate, soil, fine pastures, and an abundance of arable land,
for agricultural and pastoral development, and capable of
becoming a storehouse of animal and vegetable produce able
to supply, not only this island, but the entire Pacific. For
farmers desirous of possessing large farms, or extensive
tracts of grazing land for cattle-breeding, British Columbia
unquestionably offers a better field than Vancouver Island.
Farm-labourers are much required in this colony. Labour
is scarce and expensive; and Indian labour cannot supply
the deficiency. For married men able to purchase and stock
a small farm of from twenty to sixty acres, and have that
and their family as an inducement to remain where they
settle, Vancouver Island is a fine field for emigration.
Steady, practical farm-labourers, with no capital except a
stout heart and willing hands, are much wanted, and are
sure to find ready employment, high wages, and a comfortable home, and may ultimately become independent farmers.
Cases of this kind are not uncommon; and instances might
be given of individuals in this neighbourhood who came to
the colony as farm-labourers, and are now independent,
and possess a small property.   The following is a table of
I
wages:— If
111
^■^H
m
Mi
1    ***ti^w^r
68
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
Table 18.
To contrast the Wages of Farm-Labourers in Vancouver
Island with those of England and Scotland.
Vancouver Island.
England.
Scotland.
£4 per month, with "}
rations.           f
6s. 3d. per day; no [
rations.          /
£2, 8s. per month; no j
rations.
10s. per week; no
rations.
Vancouver Island has no attractions for amateur farmers,
especially during the present scarcity of labour. Difficulties
have to be encountered in clearing heavily-timbered land,
fencing and draining it, in building houses, making roads,
&c, with which energetic practical farmers alone are able
successfuUy to cope. Setting these aside, and the deficiency
of labour,—both great inconveniences, especially on first
settling—the emigrant will find that farming in Vancouver
Island very much resembles what it is in England. The
usual time of sowing and reaping is almost the same in the
former as in the latter, with the exception of spring wheat,
sown in England in February, and of which there is little or
none sown in this colony.
Vancouver Island.
Time of Sowing. Time of Reaping.
Wheat, 1st November. ^
Oats, "j
Barley,  I    From middle of March to     y 1st August to end of Sept.
Pease, [ end of April.
Tares, J
Potatoes, 1st to 25th Day. ( -, j. ■      .,,,     ,. ,T        ,
J > 1st to middle of November.
Turnips, 1st June to middle of July.     ) BRITISH COLUMBIA.
69
In England and Scotland the farmer has the advantage
from his land being mostly all drained, which enables him
to get on with his operations so much earlier in spring.
The principal market for the farm produce of Vancouver
Island will necessarily be found in the colony itself, and-
chiefly in its capital, the population of which is rapidly increasing and will soon be great.
For any surplus produce China will be a good market:
first, among the colonists, chiefly English and American,
resident at Hong-Kong, Shanghae, and the other free ports
along that coast; secondly, among the more numerous floating populations which man the merchant and royal navies of
England, France, America, &c, on the China station.
Butter and cheese, when manufactured, will find a ready
sale in China, and will supplant much of that now sold there,
which is expensive and often bad. Australia imports a large
quantity of butter chiefly from England; Vancouver Tsland
and British Columbia are closer at hand. Potatoes, carrots,
turnips, &c, superior to those grown in such climates as that
of China, especially along its sultry, sub-tropical southern
coast, will find a ready market there, like those now sent
across from San Francisco. Cattle, sheep, &c, much superior
both in weight and quality to the dwarfish cattle of China,
would meet with a ready sale among the Europeans. The
regular steam communication which must soon be opened
between Vancouver Island and China, and a short passage
of three weeks, will give both this colony and British Columbia, every facility for sending a regular and abundant
supply.
The above remarks on the agricultural and pastoral capa- tames
■r
II
70
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
bihties of Vancouver Island are equally apphcable to British
Columbia as far as the quality of the soil and the nature and
value of its productions are concerned, but not as to their
quantity.
British Columbia possesses every facility for becoming a
great agricultural and pastoral colony. It may be roughly
described as consisting of the coast or hilly country, which
embraces about one-third of its surface, and the interior or
agricultural district, comprising the inner half or two-thirds
next the Rocky Mountains. In the former, which is comparatively unknown, some level arable land exists along the
small rivers which drain it, and also near the numerous inlets
which penetrate this coast; but its general features are hilly
and mountainous. The "Lower Fraser," as far as Yale,
(which may be said to be the only tract of British Columbia
yet settled,) lies in this hilly country. Its chmate is rainy,
and any level land which does exist, though fertile, is densely
wooded and difficult to clear.
The interior or agricultural region has a different character,
and is the country of the "Upper Fraser," where the Hudson's
Bay Company's forts have long existed, and where the Cariboo mines are. Its principal characteristics are extensive
tracts of fine woodland and of open prairie, highly fertile,
and well adapted for farming or pastoral purposes; and well
watered and drained—first by the Fraser River, which traverses its entire length from north to south; and, second, by
an innumerable number of lakes, many of which are of considerable size, but the majority small and unimportant, and
most numerous towards its northern part. In the interior
the chmate is fine, mild, and dry, and superior to that along
Lib BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the " Lower Fraser," which still forms the principal route
to the agricultural country. The difficulty of access is the
chief obstacle to settlement: trail and canoe are still the
only modes by which it can be reached; and waggon roads
leading from some part of the coast will be necessary for its
development. When more accessible and better known, the
interior of British Columbia will become rapidly colonised
by agricultural and pastoral settlers. The land is highly fertile, open, and clear of heavy timber, well watered and grassy;
the chmate fine and healthier than along the "Lower Fraser,"
and especially invites those desirous of farming or stock-
keeping on an extensive scale.
Owing to the dryness of the soil in the agricultural districts of British Columbia, irrigation is necessary for successful farming or gardening; otherwise the grass, &c, becomes
parched and withered. Fortunately, rivulets and streams
abound, and the character of the country is such that this
task is easily accomphshed.
In both colonies the value and tenure of land varies according to whether it consists of town-lots, suburban, or
rural land, and whether it is surveyed or unsurveyed. The
town and suburban lots in both colonies are nearly all sold,
and can now be obtained only at high prices. Town-lots in
Victoria vary from £200 to £500 per acre; and, during the
gold-digging excitement of 1859, much higher prices were
obtained; in several instances reaching many thousands.
The average price of suburban lots at Victoria is £20 per
acre. The upset price of surveyed rural land in both colonies
is 4s. 2d. (one dollar) per acre, one-fourth of which must be
paid at once, the remainder by instalments within four years. mrt
n
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
In Vancouver Island, the greater part of the land at its
southern or settled end, within a circuit of eight to ten miles
from Victoria, is already surveyed and sold, though not all
cultivated, and unfortunately is mostly in the hands of speculators, not actual settlers, which is a great loss to the colony.
Emigrants desirous of settling in this neighbourhood may
probably purchase land at from £2 to £3 per acre. Some of
the land at and near Nanaimo has been surveyed; but with
this exception, Vancouver Island is still unsurveyed, and the
emigrant who intends to farm may have land in almost any
part of the island by " pre-emption." In British Columbia likewise much of the land within a certain distance of its different
townships and settlements is already surveyed and sold, but
pre-empted land may be had anywhere else Pre-emption
enables the emigrant to hold and farm a limited amount of
land, for which he is not required to pay until it be surveyed,
when he becomes liable for the usual government price of
4s. 2d. per acre, payable by instalments. The pre-emptor
must record his claim at the land-office on occupation, for
which he has to pay a small fee. A single man can pre-empt
150 acres; a married man, whose wife is resident in the
colony, 200 acres; and for each of his children under 18
years of age, and resident in the colony, an additional 10
acres. The emigrant has thus every facility for obtaining
cheap land and settling in either colony: and a wide choice
in both, very little comparatively of either being yet settled.
The fertile land in the interior of British Columbia is a good
and extensive field for the farmer or cattle-breeder; little of
it has yet been settled.
Various causes may be assigned for the slow increase of BRITISH COLUMBIA.
73
the agricultural and pastoral population of these colonies.
The chief reason undoubtedly is that neither the colonies
themselves nor their capabilities are yet sufficiently known
to induce emigration to the extent that will sooner or later
prevail. A second is, the great distance of the colony from
England, and the expense of the voyage. This obstacle, however, is decreasing as the colony advances, and much of it
might be removed by the aid of " Emigrant Societies,"—
similar to those which contributed so much some years ago
to the development of Australia, New Zealand, Canada, &c,
by providing good accommodation in comfortable, safe, and
speedy vessels,—the passage money to be paid partly after
settlement, as the success of the colonist enables him. The
gold-diggings of British Columbia also undoubtedly allure
many from this and other less exciting pursuits, and diminishes the available labour of the colony.
THE TIMBER-PRODUCE OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The timber-produce of Vancouver Island and British
Columbia will soon be of great value in the colonies themselves—especially in the former, likely to possess a large
mercantile navy. In- addition to this, the increasing scarcity,
in many countries, of timber adapted for mast and spar-
making, and for ship-building purposes generally, makes the
produce of these colonies of peculiar value, especially to
extensive ship-building countries like Great Britain,
Both colonies are, for the most part, forest-clad, and much
fine timber exists. The pine, or cone-bearing family, predominates throughout, and forms a marked feature in the
mechanics; I
I
t\
74
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
scenery.   The following list comprises the most useful and
important trees:—
1. Coniferce (Cone-bearing family.)
Pinus Douglassii,
„    Balsamea,...
„    Strobus,   ...
„     Canadensis,
„    Mitis.
Nis-ra
„     Nobilis,
„     Grandis.
„    Monticola.
Thuja Occidentalis,
Cupressus Thuoldes,
Taxus Bacchata,
Douglas pine.
Canada-balsam pine.
White, or Weymouth pine.
Hemlock pine.
Black spruce.
Noble fir.
Bed cedar.
Common cypress cedar.
Western yew.
2. Amentaceoz (Catkin-bearing family?)
Platanus Acerifolia,
Populus Tremula,
„      Balsamea,
Quercus Nigra,  ...
„     Alba.    ...
'Plane.
Aspen.
Cotton-wood.
Black oak.
White oak.
3. Ericaceae.
Arbutus Laurifolia,              Arbutus.
The Douglas pine preponderates at the southern end of
Vancouver Island, and along its east and west coasts, with
occasional patches of oak, and a few maple, cypress, arbutus,
yew, and other varieties. Maple is said to abound towards
its north end. Many of the trees on the hilly ground are
of stunted growth; but in the valleys and low ground,
especially along the west coast, heavy timber is plentiful—
especially the lofty Douglas pine, admirably adapted for BRITISH COLUMBIA.
mast and spar making. Messrs Stamp & Co., at Barclay
Sound, are actively pushing the timber trade, and are exporting cut timber to Australia, &c.; and are also under
contract to supply the English Government with spars.
Much of the oak of this colony is of good size and quality,
and well adapted for knee-timber and general ship-building
purposes.
Their wood has been of incalculable utility to these
young colonies, where it still forms the principal fuel, and
the most generally employed material for house-building,
land-fencing, &c, &c. Saw-mills are much required at the
southern end of Vancouver Island to supply the colony with
sawn timber; much of that now in use is imported from the
neighbouring American territory. The principal difficulty
in this colony is the scarcity of labour.
The timber-produce of British Columbia is both varied
and valuable; the country, along the lower Fraser especially,
is densely wooded. The forests of this colony may be said
to be inexhaustible, and will long yield timber in abundance
when the timber-produce of Vancouver Island has been
consumed. British Columbia has superior facilities for the
development of an export trade in timber. By its large and
rapid rivers, especially the Fraser and its tributaries, and
the Harrison and other lakes, which usually communicate
with them, the timber of the north-east, east, and southern
parts of the interior, and of the whole of the extensive tract
of wooded country which the Fraser River drains, may be
floated down to New Westminster or Victoria for shipment;
while that of the hilly region which lies between the western
coast and the Cascade and Harrison Lake ranges may be 76
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
similarly transported by the smaller streams and those
numerous arms of the sea which are found in that direction
—e.g., Bentinck Arm, Howe Sound, Bute's Inlet, &c., where
saw-mills may easily be established for the manufacture of
spars and timber, similar to that now in operation at Barclay
Sound. The timber found in British Columbia, though
more varied than that of Vancouver Island, is even less used,
except for fuel and house-building.
•Several markets may be found for the manufactured timber of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, In England,
spars, oak, and other woods are much required for shipbuilding ; in Australia and South America timber is scarce;
and in China, especially in the south, whose teeming population are compelled to sacrifice everything to agriculture,
and where wood is therefore scarce, valuable, and in great
demand for house, junk, and boat-building. In China, the
soft woods of Vancouver Island will'find a ready sale; and
also charcoal, the principal fuel used by the Chinese for
culinary and general domestic purposes.
The collection of turpentine, an exudation from various
species of pine, might be profitable in these colonies. The
Douglas pine yields it in considerable quantities, though
probably not so abundantly as the Carolina pine, the ordinary source of the turpentine of English commerce. The
manufacture of tar, invaluable to Vancouver Island as a commercial and fishing colony with a numerous shipping, has
not yet been attempted in either colony. In the Southern
States of America, it is made from the heart-wood of dead
pines, which become charged with resinous juice long after
the tree has died; from which it is extracted by an easy BRITISH COLUMBIA.
process usually carried on in the forest.   From tar thus obtained, pitch may be procured by distillation.
The manufacture of potash or pearl-ash, (the black-salts of
commerce,) now extensively carried out in the forests of
Canada, might be attempted in those of British Columbia and
Vancouver Island with their surplus wood. In Canada, the
hard woods yield it in greatest abundance, especially elm,
ash, birch, beech, and maple, and the salt is made by dissolving and evaporating the ashes left on burning the trees.
This salt will be useful in the colony for the soap, candle,
and other manufactures.
THE FISHERIES OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH
COLUMBIA.
Both the coast and deep-sea fishing of Vancouver Island
will yet become of great importance to the colony, and be
one of the most fertile sources of her wealth. This colony
offers one of the most promising fields that could be found
for the immediate commencement of fishing operations on a
large scale, and holds out superior inducements both for
energetic private and combined labour and capital and for
the settlement of an industrious fishing population.
1. No attempt has yet been made to develop them, and,
with trifling exceptions, they still remain in the hands of the
native fish-eating Indians, who subsist almost entirely on
salmon, cuttle-fish, shell-fish, &c, caught in the vicinity of
the island.
2. Vancouver Island is eminently adapted for becoming
a fish-catching, curing, and exporting colony. Her insular
character, indented coast, and the numerous harbours and 78
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
M
inlets which exist along her coasts, many of which (e.g., Port
San Juan, Alberni Canal, Barclay, Clayoquot, and Nootka
Sounds, Hespod, Koskeema, and other bays along the west
coast, Sooke, Esquimalt, and Victoria, along the south coast,
and Nanaimo Harbour, &c, along the east coast) are well
adapted for convenient and sheltered fishing stations; and
her proximity to an extensive fishing field which exists round
the coast and in the North Pacific, all afford extraordinary
facilities for development of the colony in this direction.
3. Fish are caught in abundance. Herrings abound all
round the island. Several varieties of salmon are caught,
and thousands die annually in the Fraser, Coivitchin, and
other rivers of both colonies while passing up the stream to
deposit their spawn. Sturgeon are caught in the lower
Fraser River, and on the banks and shallow water near its
mouth; while halibut, skate, rock-cod, smelt, whiting, bass,
and many other varieties of fish, are .caught along the coast
Very little is yet known as to the varieties existing in the
deep water at a short distance from the coast, but they are
probably abundant. Cod are found, and extend as far north
as the Aleutian Islands; and an energetic prosecution of the
cod-fishery may yet make it as valuable as that of Newfoundland.
4. The development of the fisheries of Vancouver Island
is both necessary and judicious. The requirements of an
already large and daily increasing colony necessitate a speedy
development of its fisheries. Victoria, with its 3000 inhabitants, now depends for its scanty and irregular supply of
fish on a few Italian fishermen and the native Indians, and
the other settlements are still worse off.   Moreover, salmon* BRITISH COLUMBIA.
79
herrings, sturgeon, and the other fish caught near the island,
may be easily cured by materials which the colony itself can
furnish, and exported in the sun-dried smoke-dried, salted,
or preserved state. British Columbia, when more densely
peopled, will become a good market for Vancouver Island
cured fish. Preserved fish may be exported to Chili, Peru,
&c, where they are now imported from England and the
States. The preserved salmon of this colony would soon
supersede the too frequently inferior preserves in use among
the Europeans along the coast of China. The Chinese,
Japanese, &c, themselves, all great consumers of fish, would
readily purchase dried or salted fish. An export of this kind
will soon be practicable; the fisheries of Vancouver Island
cannot long remain undeveloped; the relations between this
colony and eastern Asia are likely soon to be intimate, and
the intercourse frequent; for, undoubtedly, it is in these
countries that Vancouver Island, as a manufacturing and
commercial colony, will find the best market for her manufactured goods, and the busiest field for her commerce. Another market will be found in New Zealand and Australia,
where an attempt is now being made to introduce salmon
and several other varieties of fish, as well as grouse and other
game, from England and Europe—an attempt which this
colony may possibly aid.
5. The development of the fisheries of Vancouver Island
will indirectly originate several useful and lucrative manufactures. Various oils are obtained from the herring,;
sturgeon, &c, &c, but especially from the cod; and the
production of cod-liver oil might be carried on. From the
sound, or swimming-bladder, of the sturgeon fine isinglass is ^11 '11
i
1 j
■
HW JIUII.
■ : '"
HI
80
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
made, like that largely exported from the eastern States of
America; and a coarser kind is made from cod sounds.
Both will be useful for fining malt liquor, likely soon to be
abundantly made, and even now largely in demand in the
colony, and which may also be exported to England, Australia, &c. Caviare, a favourite article of diet in Southern Russia, and made of sturgeons' roes, may also be manufactured
for exportation.
Vancouver Island will become an important depot for the
prosecution of whale, seaL and walrus fishing.
The " right whale" fishing ground in the North Pacific
extends from lat 30° north. We have seen a shoal of
whales within eighteen hours' sail of Victoria. Seals abound
on the shores of the Aleutian Islands, and in the vicinity of
Behring's Straits. And the morse or walrus, valuable on
account of its ivory, exists in greater numbers there than in
any other part of the world. Vancouver Island is only
2000 miles, and fourteen or fifteen days' sail from Behring's
Straits, which may be considered the farthest range of her
fishing ground; a shorter distance by 580 miles, and four
days' sail, than England is from her fishing ground in Davis*
Strait. The "sperm" or South Sea whale-fishing ground
extends from lat. 20° north to lat. 20° south; and to and
from thence to Vancouver Island, in lat. 48° north, whalers
would have a comparatively short and safe run, with the
trade-winds to aid them, and an open sea, free of danger, to
traverse.
San Francisco and the Sandwich Islands are the principal
rendezvous for those whalers that prosecute their fishino- in
the Pacific.   The harbours of this colony—e.g., Esquimalt BRITISH COLUMBIA.
81
and Victoria, offer equal safety and superior facilities for
refitting, provisioning, &c.; with greater proximity to the
whaling ground, at least to that of the North Pacific, and a
better chance for accurately timing an early arrival at the
commencement of the fishing season. Also the development
of Vancouver Island as a manufacturing colony, and the
introduction of those by no means complicated processes
necessary for making the products of whaling available,—
e.g., the manufacture of spermaceti, ivory, whalebone, oil,
&c, &c,—will make this colony of still greater importance as
a whaling station. Many of those trades which depend
directly or indirectly on the supply of such products—e.g.,
the manufacture of soap, candles, combs, umbrellas, &c.—
may be introduced into the colony by developing its whale
fisheries. An additional inducement to urge their development is found in the fact that the " right whale " is fast disappearing in the Greenland seas; and can now be caught
in numbers barely sufficient to make the whale-fishing of
Great Britain and the United States a paying affair. The
fishing ground of the North Pacific is more extensive, little
occupied, and that only by whalers with no fixed headquarters, and who, having to carry their cargoes to a distance for sale and manufacture, prosecute their labours
under disadvantages which would not attend the ships hailing from this colony.
The fisheries of British Columbia, still undeveloped, will
also become of importance; and are probably equal in value
to those of Vancouver Island, though different in character.
They consist of the river, coast, and deep-sea fisheries. The
rivers of this colony, especially the Fraser, and the coast of
F hflili,
82
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
ml»-c
British Columbia generally, abound with salmon, which are
caught by the natives all the year round, but more particularly during the salmon season, in the months of September and October, when they obtain their winter stock.
The salmon caught in the rivers are said to be finer, and
better adapted for curing than those of Vancouver Island
and the coast. The sturgeon is plentiful in the lower Fraser;
and both the sturgeon and the salmon fisheries of this colony
are worth developing as the source of an export trade in
cured fish, isinglass, caviare, &c. Carp and the " white fish"
(Corrigonus alba) abound in the lakes and streams of the
interior, and form an important article of food.
British Columbia has a coast line of 400 miles, indented
with numerous inlets well adapted for fishing stations; and
herring, whiting, &c, &c, may be plentifully caught for the
supply of this neighbourhood when it becomes settled; while
along the northern half of the coast, which is open to the
Pacific, deep-sea, whale, seal, and walrus fishing may be
carried on at some future day when the north-western
regions of this colony become settled; although in this,
Vancouver Island is evidently better fitted to take and keep
the lead. British Columbia will ultimately excel in river
fishing; Vancouver Island in deep-sea, whale, and seal
fishing; while both, besides supplying their own population, and giving a mutual exchange, are capable of developing an extensive and lucrative export trade in cured
fish.
An abundance of game is found all over both colonies;
and deer, grouse, &c, and an infinite variety of wild fowl
are shot and sold at a cheap rate by the Indians.
kli-i BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Victoria has long been the seat of a valuable export trade
in furs, and is to the country to the west of the Rocky
Mountains what Fort York on Hudson's Bay has been to
the tract lying to the eastward of that range. The furs
collected at the various stations in the interior, and transmitted to this fort for annual shipment to England, consist chiefly of beaver, otter, fox, bear, marten, lynx,, and
minx skins. This trade has hitherto been entirely in the
hands of the Hudson's Bay Company; and, although their
charter has expired, their capital and position will long
enable them almost to monopolise this trade—the importance
and value of which, however, are gradually on the decline.
Twenty or thirty years ago, the exportation of the valuable
skins of the sea otter from California to China was most
lucrative; but the spread of this settlement, the colonization
of Washington and Oregon, and lastly, of Vancouver Island
and British Columbia, has both driven the fur trade and
fur-bearing animals, as well as the native Indians who hunt
them, further north, and reduced their numbers, and will
ultimately lead to their extinction.
Vancouver Island and British Columbia thus possess
valuable animal and vegetable products, and good agricultural and pastoral capabilities; valuable fisheries and eminent
food-producing capabilities; while good markets exist in the
Pacific for their surplus produce, with every facility for its
exportation. Few colonies can offer better inducements than
these. Their ultimate prosperity and development can only
be a question of time. 84
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
1
lr
;|
U
1
TOn
m
CHAPTER V.
THE MINERAL PRODUCTIONS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
BRITISH COLUMBIA; AND THEIR RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, AND ADVANTAGES AS MINERAL-YIELDING
COLONIES.
Both colonies are rich in undeveloped mineral wealth. The
mineral resources of Vancouver Island, though less attractive
than those of British Columbia, will ultimately become of
greater importance to both, especially to the island itself, the
successful development of whose manufacturing and commercial capabilities they will materially aid. It is to these,
in connexion with her manufactures and commerce, that we
must look for much of her future prosperity: and their true
value and importance will become apparent only when the
island has attained the position of a commercial and manufacturing colony; when her railways and steamers, her
manufactures, her smelting operations, and the requirements
of a largely-augmented population have increased the demand,
more especially, for her building materials and coal.
The geological structure of this island consists of a central
axis of dense erupted masses of igneous origin, resting on
the flanks of which are conglomerates, sandstones, and other
sedimentary rocks  of a carboniferous deposit.    But our
111  ^^=
I
V
■m !l
V
3APTE1
csiogns of
THEIR
AL-Y
■ :   . . :'li&'h'Tb.e
■ slaad, th'..- -s attractive
i.u- o \&- will ultimately become of
raaanulacturinj
[dally Daid°f*;
- wherfme
steaine-s,   her
m
d,
CdTcoair
S'fc'CTlral
on
er
four
jes, sandstones,
III *MHS'V-n 1
i
is;
.1
WR?!
m
m**. I
11. I,
■jy
It
1
\\flk
■ *■ ii v BRITISH COLUMBIA.
85
knowledge of her mineral wealth is still very limited; no
part of the island, not even her coal-fields, having yet been,
carefully surveyed.
Occasional rumours have told of the discovery of gold and
silver; but the geological and physical features of the island,
the probable widely spread existence of the coal formation,
(in which they are seldom found,) and various other circumstances, appear to suggest that neither of them will ever be
obtained in such abundance as to rival the mines of British
Columbia; if, indeed, they be found in quantities sufficient
to remunerate the miner for his labour.
Copper is more likely to be obtained in paying quantities;
and would prove of greater value. A metalliferous vein,
containing traces of copper, crops out at Esquimalt Harbour
—perhaps valueless in itself, but still of importance as an
indication of the presence of this metal, and of its probable
existence elsewhere in richer veins. Copper has more
recently been discovered at Barclay Sound in the form of
peacock ore, containing sulphurets, which is very favourably
viewed. The only sample yet assayed contained 26 per cent,
of copper. The locality has been only partially prospected
but a company has been formed to follow up the discovery,
and work the mines, if practicable. Fine specimens of
peacock copper ore, containing from 20 to 68 per cent, of
copper, and apparently equal in value to much of that now
so profitably worked in Chili, have been brought from Queen
Charlotte's Island—one of the same group as Vancouver
Island, and possessing a similar geological structure.
The frequent occurrence of iron in connexion with coal
in other countries, and the probable prevalence of the coal I
r
f.\
86
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
formation over a large part, perhaps the greater portion of
Vancouver Island, appear to indicate that this, the most useful of all the metals, which is said to have been lately discovered along the west coast, will be found in abundance.
It is to her insular position, her coal-fields, and her iron that
England owes much of her greatness. Two of these this
colony possesses; the third she may, and probably does possess, and it ought therefore to be well searched for. With
iron for machinery, coal to work it, and eminent commercial
capabilities, Vancouver Island might become second only to
England in manufacturing and commercial prosperity.
Coal, unquestionably the most important of the known
minerals of this colony, crops out at various parts,—e.g., at
Cape Bonilla, near Port San Juan; at Nespod,-to the north
of Nootka Sound, both on the west coast; at Fort Rupert,
and at Nanaimo, on its north-east and east coasts; and these
indications of its presence near the north and south extremities of the island, and on her east and west coasts, render it
probable that this fossil is very generally distributed, especially along its east coast, where the seams are apparently extensive and valuable, although Nanaimo is the only place
where it has been ascertained, as yet, that mines can be
readily, profitably, and extensively worked.
The coal of Vancouver Island is of fair quality, decidedly
superior to some of the Scotch coal, but cannot be compared
with that of the North of England, or more especially with
the Welsh. The following is an analysis and comparison of
it with other varieties:— BRITISH COLUMBIA.
87
Table 19.
Analysis of Vancouver Island and other varieties of Coal.
Variety.
Welsh (Craigola) 	
Newcastle (Can's    \
Hartley). J
Scotch (Fordel Splint)..
Borneo (Labuan)..
Chili (Conception Bay)
Sydney	
Vancouver Island..
i
o
1
ho
O
43
*H
Sa
a,
a
s>
bo
H
OQ
<
a ©
o o
OQ bo
O
fc
m
O
<D
1-30
1-25
84-87
79-83
3*84
5-11
0-41
1-17
0-45
0-82
7-19
7-86
•3-24
5-21
85-5
60-63
1-25
79-58
5-50
1*13
1-46
8-33
4-00
52-03
1-28
64-52
5-74
0-80
1-45
20-75
7-74
1-29
70-55
5-76
0-95
1-98
13-24
7-52
43-68
82-39
66-93
5-32
5-32
1-23
1-02
0-70
2-20
8-32
8-70
2-04
15-83
It is a bituminous coal, lighter than Welsh coal by about
10 per cent., consumes rapidly, and answers well for steaming purposes, especially with fires and boilers made to suit
it. Although a good gas coal, it is apt to form clinker, leave
a large ash, and does not coke well for smelting purposes or
foundries. The large proportion of sulphur it contains is a
disadvantage; that of Fort Rupert, where the coal was first
discovered, is said to contain less. All hitherto raised, however, of which the above is an analysis, is little else than
surface coal, and cannot be fairly taken as a criterion of the
Nanaimo coal, which is perceptibly improving as the mines
deepen. An extensive seam has lately been discovered of
superior quality. Unfortunately no general survey of the
coal formations of the island has yet been made.
For developing the manufactures, commerce, and mines of 1
88
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
the colony, the importance of an unlimited supply of cheap
coal must be obvious. Machinery may be generally introduced, and many manufactures and processes in the arts
originated which would otherwise be impossible. Instead of
tedious sailing craft, the colony may have steamers, railways,
and greatly facilitated land and water carriage, machinery
for cotton-spinning, saw and flour mills, and many manufactures. Her minerals, both native and imported, may be
smelted and made available on the spot, instead of being
sent in the rough state to a foreign market, and sold at a
great disadvantage; while by these means her commerce
will receive an impulse, and the traffic of her merchant
steamers will be greatly increased.
The exportation of Vancouver Island coal is increasing,
and will soon be valuable in itself, besides aiding the development of commerce and shipping by its carriage. Nanaimo fortunately possesses a commodious, safe, and easily
accessible harbour, in which vessels of 1500 tons can he
close to the mines, and load with facility, and will soon
become an important coal-exporting depot, the Newcastle of
the colony. Energetic measures are now in progress to develop the resources of its mines.
The export of coals from Nanaimo will be immensely increased when a supply can be furnished commensurate with
the demand, and the price be somewhat reduced. The following statement of the imports of coal into San Francisco
will shew that the quantity of Nanaimo coal imported during the first three months of 1862 nearly equalled that for
the whole of the previous year:— BRITISH COLUMBIA
89
Table 20.
Statement of Coals Imported into San Francisco.
Variety.
English,	
Cumberland,	
Chili,	
Sydney,	
Japan,	
Coos and Bellingham Bay, (imported free of duty,)	
Anthracite, (New York,)	
Vancouver Island, (Nanaimo,)..
Jan. 1 to Dec. 16,
1861.
Tons.
24,895
2,662
12,254
12,304
25
16,183
26,291
5,204
Jan. 1 to Mar. 15
1862.
Tons.
5,036
2,876
3,942
125
2,535
5,176
4,235
The following table will shew the advantage, as to price,
which the coal of Nanaimo will have in the San Francisco
and other markets in the Pacific, when its first cost at the
mines, which is now so very high, can be reduced:—
Table 21.
Prices of Different Varieties of Goal at Vancouver Island,
San Francisco, <$cc.
Variety.
Price at the
Mines.
Price at
Victoria.
Price at San
Francisco.
Price in
China.
Nanaimo Coal,
Chilian       „
English      „
Dollars.
6 to 7
Dollars.
9 to 10
Dollars.
12 to 15
12 to 15
15 to 20
Dollars.
15 to 20
Her proximity to the markets of the Pacific, and the ulti- jit!
90
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
mate cheapness of her coal will enable Vancouver Island to
compete successfully in supplying the greater part of that
Ocean, in many parts of which colonies are springing. China
and Eastern Asia generally is being opened up to commerce;
steamers now ply frequently across its previously little-
traversed waters, and the consumption of coal is daily increasing. The demand has hitherto been supplied at high
prices by the coal-fields of the Pacific itself, but principally
by England.
The more important coal-fields of the Pacific are those of
Panama, Chili, Australia, and New Zealand, Labuan, and
the more recently discovered mines of Nanaimo. The Labuan coal is of inferior quality; moreover, the chmate being
unhealthy, the mines are imperfectly worked, and are not
likely ever to rival those of this colony. The coal of Panama, Chili, New Zealand, and Australia, is good; but the
many obvious advantages which this island possesses for
exporting coal, together with its abundance, cheapness, and
quality, will ultimately enable it in a great measure to supplant the English, Chilian, and other coals now sold in the
San Francisco and other markets, and Vancouver Island will
thus become the chief source of supply, if not for the entire
Pacific, at least for all but the countries in the more immediate neighbourhood of these other mines.
The Coos Bay coal is a lignite or brown tertiary coaly
similar to that found in a thin seam on the south bank of
the Fraser River, near its mouth; and the Bellingham Bay
coal now imported into San Francisco in considerable quantities, is inferior to that of Nanaimo; so that neither of these
can prevent the latter from monopolising the supply. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
One of the principal markets for the coal of Nanaimo
will be the coast of Eastern Asia, and the large and rapidly
increasing steam-fleets, naval and mercantile, which ply along
that coast; which now draw their supply principally from
England, at high prices.*
In addition to coal, Vancouver Island possesses several
other minerals that will yet become of great value to the
colony.
Sandstone is found at Salt-spring Island, thirty miles from
Victoria, and is said to be abundant at Fort Rupert, and, as
one of the rocks of the coal formation, is probably widely
diffused. The stone is of good quality and fine grain, hard
and durable, and well adapted for architectural and monumental purposes, &c.
A fine tenacious blue clay, suitable for the manufacture
of bricks, roofing and drainage tiles, coarse pottery ware,
&c, is diffused over the southern end of the island, often
close to the surface, and ready for manufacture on a large
scale for colonial use or exportation.
The slate or fire-clay found in thick layers between the
coal seams of some of the Nanaimo mines may be converted
into fire-bricks, like those extensively manufactured in the
coal-fields of the Western States of America.
The imbedded masses of concretionary limestone often
found in the trap rocks of the southern end of the colony
and its adjacent islets—e.g., San Juan—yield a limestone
well adapted for mortar or cement, manure, and various
* On the 31st August 1861, the British fleet in China consisted of eleven
gunboats, and nineteen of larger size, making a total of thirty, and 6340
horse-power. I
¥
Mm
92
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
processes in the arts,—e.g., sugar-refinihg,—and which may
be carried on in the island at a future day. The importance
of so abundant a supply of sandstone, limestone, brick and
fire clay, all well adapted for building purposes, must be
obvious in a chmate which, though not rigorous, is still such
as to require warmer and more substantial dwellings than
those of wood.
British Columbia is also rich in mineral wealth, and
already noted as a mineral-yielding country. To its gold-
fields both that colony and Vancouver Island are indebted
for much of their present prosperity; and enough is known
to prove that its mineral wealth will become of still greater
value. The Rocky Mountains which form its eastern boundary, the Cascade and other minor mountain ranges that
traverse it, usually in a north and south direction, are continuations or spurs of the Cordilleras of South and Central
America, part of a mountain range which runs through the
entire length of this continent, and in which are found the
gold, silver, copper, and quicksilver of Chili, Peru, Mexico,
and California; and the mountain ranges of British Columbia will probably become equally productive of valuable
minerals. But, although gold has been found in abundance,
and silver has been discovered, so little is yet known of the
geology of this colony, that it would be fruitless to speculate
as to the nature and value of the minerals it may yield.
Limited tracts have been prospected by private-individuals,
chiefly along the Fraser River; but a small part of the
Harrison Lake district is all that has been scientifically
explored.   Neither sandstone nor coal has been detected; BRITISH COLUMBIA.
and if found at all, it will probably be along the coast opposite to that of Vancouver Island.
The gold-fields of British Columbia are even now of worldwide celebrity. The " Fraser River " and " Cariboo " diggings
are names which have already become almost as familiar in
England as were the "Sacramento River" of California, and
the "Ballarat" of Australia, a few years back. They are
probably the richest in the world; and their history goes far
to prove, not only that the auriferous region extends over
a wide tract, but that even richer diggings than those of
Cariboo will be discovered closer to the Rocky Mountains.
The fine grain gold of the lower Fraser in 1858 has given
o o o
place to "nugget" gold at Cariboo, 300 miles higher up.
All of it has been found in the alluvial sand and gravel of
streams, and none in imbedded rock. Nugget gold is never
carried far from its source ;* and if we may estimate from
the quantities already found at Cariboo, this metal will be
found in quantities to which those obtained from the mines
of California and Australia will bear no comparison. The
aggregate yield during the summer of 1861 of three of the
principal creeks at Cariboo,—viz., "Antler," "Williams,"
and " Lowhee " creeks,—mined by from 90 to 100 men, fell
little short of one million dollars, (£200,000;) while " Lightning," "Van Winkle," and "Last Chance" creeks, discovered
later in the season, likewise proved remarkably rich.    So
* The largest nugget yet found was dug in the Cariboo mines, and
weighed 17 ounces, its value being about $16, (= £3, 5s. 4&) The maximum fineness of British Columbia gold dust is 940, or $19 :43 :15 per
ounce; the minimum fineness $17 :15:76 : it is, therefore, sufficiently fine
for conversion into coin, wire, or jewellery. W&
Jil
|ij
I
94
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
much of the gold is carried out of the colony in private
hands, that it would be impossible to ascertain accurately
the total quantity which the British Columbia mines have(
yielded; but the following table will give some approximation to it:—
Table 22.
Gold-dust Shipped to San Francisco from Victoria.
Year.
M'Donald & Co.
Walls, Jargo,
&Co.
Total.
1858 	
Dollars.
259,815
349,292
602,734
Dollars.
337,765
951,489
1,303,329
1,339,895
Dollars.
1859	
1860	
1861	
Total, ,
1,207,841
3,932,978
5,140,819*
The greater part of the gold of British Columbia passes
out of the colony to San Francisco, New York, and England;
and the value of the gold-fields to the colonies arises chiefly
from the crowds thus attracted, which contribute in many
different ways to increase the traffic and develop the agricultural and other resources both of the colony itself and of
the adjacent island, from which it is chiefly supplied.
Silver has been discovered near Fort Hope, and also f (in
1860) along the base of a mountain range which skirts the
eastern shore of the Harrison Lake, where seven veins of
argentiferous ore were found in a comparatively limited dis-
* About £1,028,164; exclusive of that taken away in private hands,
t By Dr Charles Forbes, E.N. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
9-'
trict. A mining company is now attempting to develop the
Harrison Lake mines. The ore contains galena in small quantities, and the silver in the form of black oxide; and samples
from outcroppings have assayed at the rate of from $60 to
$300 per ton, (£12 to £60.) The Fort Hope Silver Ore
contains galena with traces of gold. Choice specimens have
assayed as high as $2000 (£400) per ton, but the average results will not exceed $100 (£20) per ton. Silver undoubtedly
exists, but in both localities the value of the mines has still
to be proved.
The development of the mineral wealth of these colonies,
though proceeding but slowly, is creating a eonstantly-in-
creasing demand for labour; and high wages and steady
employment are among the inducements held out to encourage an influx of miners, labourers, and artizans connected
with the extraction, manufacture, or applications of these
different mineral products. Both colonies are highly attractive as a field for emigrants of this as well as other classes;
and miners and labourers generally can find few in which to
settle equal to Vancouver Island and British Columbia, where
wages generally average from $3 to $o (12s. 4d. to 20s. 5d.)
per day. 1
96
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
CHAPTER VI.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA AS MANUFACTURING COLONIES ; THEIR RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES,
AND   ADVANTAGES.
M
The manufactures of Vancouver Island, likely to be of great
importance at a future period, are still few and rudimentary;
while those which may become of the greatest value have not
yet been introduced.
The capabilities which this island possesses for development
as a manufacturing colony go far to compensate for her deficiencies as an agricultural and pastoral settlement. There is
but little hope for the future of a colony which owns neither
mineral wealth nor coal, nor is it likely to excel in manufactures or commerce.
Vancouver Island fortunately does not labour under any
of these disadvantages, and therefore has most of the requirements for development. It has valuable mineral wealth,
especially coal; a favourable maritime position, and other
advantages for shipping and commerce.
While the prospects for the introduction and successful
prosecution of many valuable manufactures, and for 'the
general development of Vancouver Island as a manufacturing colony, are highly encouraging, British Columbia, on the BRITISH COLUMBIA.
97
other hand, has little chance of ever becoming important in
this respect. British Columbia may have her local and limited
manufactures in connexion with her farm and river produce,
but the absence of coal, and her limited commercial f acilities,
will hinder her development. The following remarks will
therefore apply principally to the former, as the manufacturing colony, strictly so called.
A glance, first at the history and capabilities of Vancouver
Island, and, secondly, at its position and probable future, will
shew that an urgent necessity exists for developing it as a
manufacturing colony.
1. A necessity, already apparent in the island, for the
development of certain manufactures,—e.g., food, clothing,
ind other necessaries of life,—usually manifests itself in the
aarly history of every colony, and is especially to be expected
n distant settlements like Vancouver Island, far from the
parent country and other sources of supply.
Altogether independent of this, however, there are other
reasons. Its distance from England, whence a large portion
both of her population and supplies are derived; the expense
and irregularity of the supply; the danger of losses, &c.; all
tend to discourage importation from abroad, and to create a.
necessity and desire for making the colony self-supplying—
especially as her population is daily increasing, and is likely
;o be soon large.
The weakness of Vancouver Island as an agricultural and
pastoral colony,—in which she is at present surpassed by
California, and ultimately will be far excelled by British
Columbia, with both of which it will be difficult for her to
compete,—tends still more to urge her development in this
G
ii 1
98
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
direction. Unable to trust to her agricultural and pastoral
capabilities alone, the interests of the settlement imperatively
demand for it an impetus to manufacturing prospects.
Moreover, Vancouver Island cannot depend on what has
been the chief source of her past, as it is of her present
prosperity, as a permanent element of progress and advancement. Victoria was first developed, and now prospers chiefly
by the commerce created by the discovery of the gold-fields
of British Columbia. The gold mines of the latter are probably the most valuable in the world. They may, however,
ultimately be exhausted ; and, with them, most of the mining
population will disappear. The past history of the colony
(1858) furnishes an instance of a rush of 30,000 gold-diggers
from California, and the speedy return of the majority as
disappointed miners. The discovery of new gold-fields elsewhere might at any day speedily deprive these colonies of
their mining population, and it would, therefore, be unwise
in Vancouver Island to trust permanently to so uncertain a
source of prosperity as the resources of a neighbouring colony.
The present welfare of this island appears to rest on a very
insecure basis; and her development as a manufacturing,
colony is, therefore, a matter of necessity.
This course, too, will benefit the shipping, and thus aid
commercial progress. For her manufactures the island will
draw many of her supplies of raw material from the islands
and countries in and around the Pacific; while she will be
able in turn to supply the same countries, which will thus
furnish, not merely raw materials, but regular demand for
her manufactured goods.
2. A further necessity for the development of the manu- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
99
facturing capabilities of this island is found in the position
which the colony is well fitted to hold in the Pacific.
The market for Vancouver Island manufactured goods
may yet become world-wide, like that of England; but the
principal seat of demand will long be more local, and confined chiefly to the Pacific, of which this colony should endeavour to become the manufapturing centre.
The neighbouring colony of British Columbia will soon
become one of the chief markets for the manufactured, as it
now is for the imported goods of Vancouver Island. Its
population is already considerable; farms, villages, and
towns are rapidly springing up along its rivers and lakes;
and when its agricultural and pastoral capabilities are better
known, when cultivated fields take the place of the universal
forest which now covers it, and agricultural and pastoral
labours share the interest and importance at present attached
to the pursuit of gold, British Columbia will become a highly
populous colony, and, doubtless, a good market for Vancouver Island manufactured goods.
When overland access has been facilitated by road, river,
arfd railway communication, Canada will make her demands
on adjacent colonial produce; and these can be more easily
met by Vancouver Island than by the United States or the
mother country.
In the numerous and highly populous British colonies in
the Pacific,—e.g., Hong-Kong, Singapore, Australia, New
Zealand, &c,—and also in California, Chili, Peru, and other
densely-peopled countries which lie along the west coast of
America, at present supplied from England, Europe, or the
United States, the cheaply made and cheaply exported manu-
/-vETtT c
ft m
III
IB  >■»*
Me
IP.
A
100
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
factured goods of Vancouver Island will yet find a ready
market.
China, Siam, Japan, and other countries now being gradually opened up, will yet be among the best markets for the
manufactures of Varicouver Island. The events which have
occurred within the past few years on opposite shores of the
North Pacific are of vast importance, and appear singularly
significant as regards this colony. A new era seems to have
lately dawned on that hitherto httle-traversed ocean, now become one of the great highways for the extension of com^
merce, civilization, and religion. On its western or Asiatic
shore those barriers that have so long prevented several
numerous and highly-interesting races from holding intercourse with their fellow-men, have been demolished, and
countries have been more or less completely opened up to
influences that will gradually bring them within the pale of
civilised nations. On its eastern or American shore a new
colony, with eminent commercial and "manufacturing capabilities has been formed, and that within the same year, by
a race that has long taken the lead in commercial and
manufacturing pursuits—a colony well-fitted for supply-
ng the commercial and manufacturing wants of the opposite shore. With the settlement of Vancouver Island, a
field for her industry appears to have been at the same time
discovered.
The slower but equally certain effect of commerce and
religion is gradually bringing about among the inhabitants
of Polynesia what has been accomplished by other means in
China and Japan, and is breaking up those impediments
that have hitherto obstructed mutual confidence  and re- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
101
ciprocal commerce. Civilization is spreading over Polynesia, and will ultimately bring its numerous tribes to a
position in the social scale similar to that which the Sandwich Islanders now hold. We shall witness another extensive field for the manufactures as well as the commerce of
more civilised nations ; with which Vancouver Island, close
at hand, and well qualified in position to spread her- manufactures over the Pacific, is quite able to compete.
The supply of the Pacific with manufactured goods has
hitherto been monopolised by distant countries, especially
England and the United States. The development of Vancouver Island, as a manufacturing colony with eminent
commercial capabilities, and a favourable geographical position on the shores of the Pacific, would unquestionably
divert much of this commerce to her own shores; and might
ultimately lead to her rivalling, as a manufacturing colony,
the larger and longer-established countries of the East and
o o
West Atlantic, and thus make her the England of the West.
Again, while many parts of the Pacific have been longer
settled and are more populous, and at present more important than Vancouver Island, this colony is likely to
become the principal, and perhaps the only important seat
of manufactures in the Pacific. The United States has
colonised California; Spain and Portugal—South and Central
America; Russia—Kamschatka and the north-west corner of
America; and England—Australia, New Zealand, and many
other islands: but none of these is ever likely to acquire a
manufacturing fame. Apathy and revolutionary tendencies
will prevent Chili, Peru,, and Mexico from excelling in this
direction.     The  Russian  territories may boast  of their VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
fisheries; but with an unfavourable position, a bad climate,
and no coal, they need hope for little else in the way of
prominence. California, eminent as an agricultural and
mineral-yielding colony, is a more formidable and more
probable rival; but the absence of coal as one of the resources of the colony is sufficient of itself to make her ultimate manufacturing prosperity questionable.
No country at the present day which, like California, has
to import coal at high prices, has any fair prospect of becoming a great' manufacturing centre, especially when it is
called upon to compete with a neighbouring colony in which
coal can be obtained at half the price. None of the other
English settlements in the Pacific are likely to attain a
similar success. Hong-Kong and Singapore are purely commercial ; New Zealand and Australia, principally agricultural
and pastoral.
Happily, this great object is as feasible as it is desirable.
Vancouver Island has many facilities for the purpose on
which we have been dwelling j first, in her commercial capabilities ; and, secondly, in her resources, both internal and
acquired.
1. The eminent commercial capabilities of this colony
offer many advantages which will aid the development of her
manufactures. Her maritime position, her abundance of
timber for the formation of a commercial navy, and her coal
for steamers ; her superior harbours and favourable geographical position in the Pacific, all combine to give her
facilities, on the one hand, for the carriage from foreign
countries of those supplies of raw materials necessary for her BRITISH COLUMBIA.
10?
manufactures; and on the other, for the supply of her
numerous markets scattered over the Pacific.
2. Nor are the internal -resources of the colony less calculated to promote the same great end.
The various manufactures connected with the agricultural, pastoral, and fishing capabilities of the island we need
not recapitulate. Its known mineral resources will render
material aid. Over the coal formations of all well-developed
manufacturing countries we usually find their busiest and
most important manufacturing towns. On those of England
are situated Newcastle, Sunderland, Birmingham, Sheffield,
Leeds, and other great emporiums, those great centres of
activity, the source of British wealth and power.
The acquired resources of the island will also materially
aid in its development as a manufacturing colony; many of
them indeed are indispensable for this purpose. The commerce of the colony is still rudimentary and trifling; and
Vancouver Island as yet has little, and very often no intercourse with those countries and islands of the Pacific from
which she will derive many of the raw materials for her
manufactures. This Island, as a commercial colony with
numerous shipping, will, like England, be able to draw her
supplies from all parts of the world. But even were she
limited to the Pacific as a source of supply, almost everything
necessary to enable her to carry on extensive and valuable
manufactures, calculated to raise her to great wealth and
position, might be drawn from its varied climes and countries alone. For example, from China, Japan, Siam, and
Eastern Asia generally, sugar may be procured, to be refined 104
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
in the colony. China can supply silk; and Manilla, hemp.
Leather, wool, &c, may be imported from Australia; from the
Sandwich Islands, cocoa-nut oil and fibre, pulse, &c, may be
obtained; from the Society Islands, arrow-root; from Banca,
tin and iron ; from Java, indigo, and many other articles of
native produce; from Sumatra, turmeric, dyewoods, sulphur,
and many other products: all to be manufactured for the
colony or again exported.
It would be unnecessary, and indeed impossible, to attempt
to point out the direction which the manufacturing energies
of Vancouver Island is likely to take, or the particular manufactures in which it will excel. Its peculiar resources; facilities for special manufactures; a demand for particular kinds
of manufactured goods, either in the colony itself or in its
markets ; with many other circumstances—some at present
unforeseen—will all tend to determine this. Curious instances
have occasionally occurred where the discovery of resources
and capabilities, previously unsuspected, in a colony, has originated manufactures of which it was previously thought incapable.
Those which may hereafter be introduced are divisible into
two classes:—
1st, Those which are easy of introduction, and which are
imperatively necessary for the convenience or comfort of the
colony; as the source of its own supply for many of the
necessaries of life, at present imported from abroad,.
2d, Those not at present so necessary, but which ought
to be introduced at a future day as a fertile source of wealth.
It would be unnecessary even to enumerate the many different manufactures for the successful introduction of which BRITISH COLUMBIA.
105
this colony appears capable, or to enter into the different processes connected with them. Acute practical men will more
readily perceive than we can point out many facilities for the
introduction of different manufactures; or, on the contrary, •
the difficulties which stand in the .way. We shall here merely
take a few to serve as examples of what the colony is capable.
Tanning might be profitably carried on in Vancouver
Island until the colonies themselves can furnish a supply.
Hides, calf, sheep, or goat skins, can be readily and cheaply
imported from California, Chili, Australia, &c. Both colonies
can supply buck and doe skins, and an abundance of oak
bark. Morocco for book-binding, glove leather, wash-leather
for gaiters, leather for saddlery, and ordinary leather for boots
and shoes, might thus be readily made. Boots and shoes are
in great demand, and are either imported or made in the
colony of imported leather. They are expensive, and often
of inferior quality; and for boot and shoe making, and the
allied trades, this island offers a good field both for individual
labours and wholesale manufacture, and exportation to many
ports in the Pacific.
Nor is this island without facilities for brewing and distilling. The demand for liquors is great. Some very indifferent colonial beer is brewed in small quantities, but the
greater part of the supply is from abroad, chiefly from England and the States. A practical brewer would find every
encouragement in this colony. The climate is sufficiently
cool for such operations ; grain, wheat, barley, oats, rice,
potatoes, apples, &c,—the requisite ingredients can be supplied on the spot, or may, if necessary, be imported. California can readily furnish them all, and ultimately they \l
11
106
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
will be procurable from the adjacent colony. Sugar for the
manufacture of rum may be imported from the Sandwich
Islands, China, Siam, &c.; wine or grapes for the manufacture of brandy, from California or Australia. Coal, for distilling, is cheap and abundant. Vancouver Island beer, spirits,
&c, may be extensively exported to California, Australia, and
India.
Vinegar, for the manufacture of pickles and preserves, may
be made in the colony from imported sugar, &c.
Sugar-refining mav be easily carried on in this colony,
which possesses all the materials for its prosecution : lime
for clarifying, charcoal for decolorizing, steam for evaporating and re-crystallizing ; while raw sugar may be imported
from many places in the Pacific, to be exported in the refined state.
Salt.—The manufacture of 'this necessary of life, now imported chiefly from California, might be easily and cheaply
carried on in Vancouver Island by a simple method which
has long prevailed in Scotland,—viz., by evaporating sea-
water with the aid of artificial heat. Salt-pans may be procured from England or America at no great cost; and the
coal and wood of the island will furnish a cheap and abundant fuel for evaporation. The indirect application of salt
for various chemical manufactures,—e.g., soda, bleaching-
powder, alum, the manufacture of which may with equal
facility be introduced into Vancouver Island, will make the
production of common salt still more important.
Soap, now imported from England or America, may be
readily made in this colony, both for colonial use and for
exportation to Chili, Peru, Anstralia, the coast of China, &c.
m
:!' BRITISH COLUMBIA.
107
All the conveniences and necessaries for its manufacture
may be readily procured within the limits of the Pacific,
most of them in the colony itself. Tallow, the island can
partly supply. Ultimately larger quantities will be obtainable
in British Columbia; and till then, it may be imported from
Oregon, California, Australia, Peru. Palm oil: since varieties of soap may be procured from many of the Polynesian
Islands, where the culture of the oil-palm might be introduced in the same manner as the olive and vine have been
imported into California. Thus England will be able to
procure this most important article of traffic from the islands
of the Pacific in as great abundance, and with as much ease,
as from the coast of Africa. Cocoa-nut oil can be had from
the Sandwich group, Fanning, and many other of the islands
of Polynesia; and olive oil from California, Chili, and Peru,
&c. Seal, whale, cod-liver, and other oils used in the manufacture of soft soap, will soon be available in the colony from
the products of its fisheries. Linseed oil, (for soft soap,) and
various other vegetable oils,—e.g., oil of aniseed, hempseed,
rapeseed, &c, all employed in soap-making,—may be procured in many parts of the Pacific. The potash ingredients
the colony itself yields, and also resin for yellow and soft
soaps.. Few colonies thus have more ample facilities for the
soap manufacture than Vancouver Island.
Candle-making, equally simple in its details, would be as
easy of introduction. Tallow may be procured from sources
already indicated; cotton for wicks, from the American cotton-growing Southern States vid California, or from China
and Bengal. The fisheries of the colony will soon supply
spermaceti for fine candles, and California can supply wax,. 108
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
while the fatty matter from the seeds of the tallow-tree of
China, (Stillingia Sebifera,) extensively employed in that
country for candles, may be obtained for re-exportation to
China in the manufactured state. The oil or wax of the'fruit
of the candleberry-tree, (Myrica Cerifera,) employed by the
natives of Polynesia for illumination, will furnish another
material for candlemaking—a demand for which would soon
cause a more careful cultivation of those trees which yield
them, and a more plentiful supply of their products.
Starch-making may be commenced with little trouble or
expense. Potatoes are abundant and cheap for the manufacture of common starch, while, for fine starch, corn and
other cereals may be cheaply imported from California, or
rice and sago from China, Manilla, &c. This manufacture
will become most valuable when that of the textile fabrics—
e.g., cotton, linen, &c.—has been introduced.
Biscuit-baking on a large scale, by steam-power, ought to
be attempted in Vancouver Island, especially for exportation.
The naval and merchant fleets, and the European residents
in China, as at Hong-Kong, Singapore, &c, procure their
present supply from native bakers, who often furnish very
inferior bread.
Glass might be readily manufactured in this colony. For
crown, plate, or bottle glass, the island possesses sand and
sandstone in abundance. Potash may be made in the colony,
or imported from British Columbia or Canada Soda may
be abundantly manufactured in the colony from common
salt. Clay, for melting-pots, we have in abundance, and
coal or coke for the furnaces. For domestic and other purposes in this rapidly-increasing colony—a colony likely to BRITISH COLUMBIA.
109
develop many manufactures and chemical processes requiring
the use of glass bottles and other utensils—the importance of
this manufacture will be obvious. Looking-glasses and mir-
rors might thus be manufactured from glass made in the
colony, and silvered 'by mercury from California, and tin
from Banca.
A coarse pottery and porcelain manufacture may be easily
introduced,—e.g., that of plates, jugs, and many culinary
and domestic utensils,—both for colonial use and exportation,—e.g., to China, Polynesia, &c, whose inhabitants would
eagerly purchase such articles. The colony possesses an
abundance of blue clay and coal.
Ship-building in all its branches, block-making, sail-making,
rope-making, &c, are likely soon to become important in this
colony, whose shipping and whose capabilities as a commercial colony, and as a fishing station, are only beginning to be
recognised and developed. For rope-making, hemp may be
imported from Manilla or India, flax from New Zealand, &c.
Flat ropes for mining purposes, as well as cord, twine, &c,
may thus be made. River-steamers and sailing craft, up to
200 tons, are now built in Victoria, and will soon be in
greater demand,—e.g., for fishing, coasting, and the exportation of coals. A good slip or floating dock is much required
at Victoria or Esquimalt.
Cabinet-making generally, and also the manufacture of
implements of husbandry, and that of carts and other vehicles,
are much wanted in this colony, where such articles are all
imported, and therefore expensive.
Gas-making is soon to be commenced. Besides the light
it yields, it  furnishes  coke for locomotives and certain ft
110
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
chemical and metallurgic processes; coal-tar, useful for
shipping; naphtha and paraffin, for illumination; prussic
acid, used for making Prussian-blue—a valuable dye, especially when the colony becomes the seat of the manufacture
of the textile fabrics ; and ammonia, useful as a manure.
Metallurgy.—As a mineral-yielding colony likely soon to
yield copper, and probably iron ore and other minerals in
abundance, and intimately associated with the neighbouring
colony with her silver mines and other mineral wealth, the
introduction of the metallurgic processes for the smelting
and separation of metals from their ores becomes imperatively
necessary to obviate the necessity of the ores being carried
to California and elsewhere, and this colony thus deprived
of all the benefit of the smelting and refining processes.
The colony supplies coal and coke in abundance. Ores should
be smelted on the spot when practicable.
Assaying of gold, silver, copper, and other ores, is carried
on in Victoria by private individuals, but the equally important operation of reducing and refining the metals is yet to
be tried. Commercial facilities and a good supply of coal at
Victoria will adapt it for becoming the seat of extensive
smelting operations, such as no other place in either colony
or along this coast can offer. The present rapid transit of
the metals through the colony would thus be prevented, and
many manufactures in gold, silver, and other metals might
be originated, as, e.g., those of gold and silver wire, leaf,
jewellery, and other articles of utility or ornament, (although,
in the present rudimentary state of the colony, comfort and
convenience are more looked to than elegance and ornament)
Copper-smelting would originate several manufactures in m
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Ill
copper, brass, and other mixed metals—e.g., those of bells,
buttons, pins, wire, &c, &c.; while iron, if yet found in
sufficient abundance, will prove equally valuable, and may
originate various iron and steel manufactures like those now
carried on so extensively in the coal .and iron districts of
England—e.g., of cutlery, guns and other fire-arms, saws,
files, wire, screws, nails, and innumerable articles of utility
and convenience—as well as the manufacture of machinery
for steamers, and miles of rails for railroads, &c, &c. Iron
can be procured from China, Siam, or Borneo, till it is found
in this colony, or in British Columbia. A foundry, employing from twenty to forty men, is now in active operation at
Victoria, and is capable of making small engines, but heavier
work has still to be sent to San Francisco. As a commercial,
manufacturing, and mining colony where engines, boilers,
&c, are likely soon to be in great demand for steamers,
railways, engines, saw-mills, &c, &c, foundry work will
become an important branch of manufacture in Vancouver
Island. The present wages of founders and fitters average
five dollars—£1, Os. 5d.—per day.
Among those manufactures which ought to be introduced
when the colony becomes sufficiently developed, that of the
textile fabrics—cotton, linen, silk, &c.—is among the most
important. If iron for machinery is found in sufficient
abundance either in this colony or in British Columbia, this
will be comparatively easy. Vancouver Island need not be
without imported iron, which may be obtained from many
places in the Pacific, and machinery may be made in the
colony. The introduction of foreign-made machinery, however, would form a comparatively trivial obstacle to enter- ft
1  III i
112
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
prising manufacturers, especially when counterbalanced by
corresponding advantages which are sufficiently evident.
Cotton and other fabrics are exported in incredible quantities
to China, Australia, Peru, Chili, &c, and many other places
in the Pacific; and this trade, now carried on chiefly by
England and America,—whose Manchester and Lowell find
in the Pacific a lucrative market for their productions,—
might be easily shared by this colony, possessing, as it does,
the double advantage of greater proximity both to the raw
materials and to the markets.
For cotton-spinning, the island may procure cotton from
Carolina, &c, whence lines of railway will soon be opened to
San Francisco, or from Siam, Manilla, Formosa, Birmah,
Peru and the west coast of South America generally, the
Fiji islands, &c, &c. The colony may thus manufacture all
those cotton fabrics, especially printed calicoes, which now
obtain a ready sale among semi-civilised nations. It is said
to be inattention to the favourite width that makes the
cottons of England have a less extensive sale in China than
they otherwise would.
For her woollen manufactures, Vancouver Island may
obtain her supply of materials from British Columbia ; and
till then, from California, Australia, New Zealand, Chili,
or Peru. The best market for woollen goods will be found
in British Columbia and Canada, and also the north of China
and Japan, where cold, and often rigorous winters prevail.
Blankets and coarse woollen materials will yet find as
ready a sale in the colonies themselves as those of England
at present enjoy.    Carpet-making may also be introduced.
Silk for the silk manufactures may be imported either
i
w BRITISH COLUMBIA.
113
from Japan, China, or Bengal, to which Vancouver Island
is in greater proximity than England, the country which at
present chiefly monopolises the silk trade. The introduction
of the manufacture of costly silk fabrics, however, is likely
to be long unnecessary in this island for the market she has
to supply, and an attempt to introduce it therefore unad-
visable. England, situated in the centre of the civilised
world, which forms the chief source of demand for such
goods, is evidently more favourably placed for their manufacture and sale than this colony.
For sailcloth, sheeting, and other flax and linen fabrics,
supplies may be readily obtained from California, where the
growth of flax has been lately introduced. Hemp may be
imported from Manilla, Formosa, Chili, or from California
This manufacture will become of even greater importance
and value to this colony than that of cotton. Canvas and
sailcloth will find a ready market, not only in the colony
itself, but in many other maritime colonies in the Pacific,
which are now supplied from England or America; while
ducks, drills, towelling, shirting, &c, will find purchasers
among the numerous populations of our Australian colonies
and many other places in the Pacific. Sacking, bagging,
and the coarser linen fabrics will be of value for purposes
connected with the commercial, manufacturing, and mining
industry of the island.
Although this island thus possesses within herself no
resources (coal excepted) with which to carry on the manufacture of the textile fabrics, and yields no cotton, silk, flax,
or hemp, it is in this respect no more conveniently placed M
than England, which imports* her wool from such distant
H
I. =SW-
...   urn    —
114.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
parts as Australia; her silk from China and India; her
cotton from India, China, or America; her flax from New
Zealand, Russia, and Holland; and her hemp from Russia.
Bleaching and dyeing are inseparably connected with the
introduction of the preceding. We shall presently speak of
the facilities for manufacturing bleaching-powder.
Dye-stuffs, for dyeing calicoes, &c, to adapt them for the
varied and often peculiar markets of the Pacific, may be
procured from many different sources. Prussian blue may
be made from prussic acid obtained in gas-making, or
imported from China. Indigo may be procured from North
CJhina, Manilla, India, Amboyna, &c. Cochineal, turmeric
logwood, and other dyewoods, from Siam, Timior, Borneo,
Panama, &c.; and various other animal and vegetable dye-
stuffs and other chemicals employed in dyeing, from other
sources in the Pacific.
. Several chemical manufactures, calculated to be of great
value to the island as a manufacturing and commercial
colony, may be easily introduced.
Sulphur, extensively used in the arts and in various
chemical manufactures, and therefore of great value in a
manufacturing colony, may be obtained by smelting the ores
of copper or iron. It is usually abundant in the vicinity of
volcanoes, and there are various sources in the Pacific from
which an abundant supply may be more easily procured
than by smelting. England obtains her supply from Italy;
and the volcano of Mauna Loa in the Sandwich Islands, and
the volcanic island of Formosa, which exports sulphur in
considerable quantities, may easily be made the source of
the supply for this island.. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
115
From the combustion of sulphur, vitriol is manufactured,
invaluable in many chemical manufactures; but the bulki-
ness and expense of the apparatus will probably long prevent
the introduction of this process, and make the purchase of
imported vitriol or sulphuric acid less costly than its manufacture.
, Soda,, for domestic purposes, and of great value and largely
employed in glass and soap making, bleaching, and other
manufactures, to be soon introduced into Vancouver Island,
may be readily made in the colony from common salt and
vitriol.
- Chloride of lime—bleaching—a disinfecting powder, may
also be manufactured from the same materials—i.e., common
salt and vitriol; and as a disinfectant, but more especially
as a bleaching agent, it would be invaluable: for the latter,
its full value will not be apparent until the cotton, linen,
and other manufactures have been introduced, and an
abundant and cheap supply of this chemical becomes necessary to enable the manufacturer to export his fabrics in the
more valuable bleached state.
Many other manufactures might be given in detail, the
introduction of which would be equally practicable and of
corresponding value. Those already enumerated will, however, suffice to shew, first, that Vancouver Island is capable
of development as a manufacturing colony; second, that it
has superior facilities for development in this direction;
and third, that the island may and is yet certain to become
a great manufacturing colony, the principal and perhaps the
only one in the Pacific.
It is not, however, to be expected that the development •*i.
116
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
of Vancouver Island as a manufacturing colony is to be
either easily or early accomplished. The island unquestionably possesses valuable resources, both internal and acquired,
and eminent capabilities for the development of her manufactures and her commerce ; but the rise of both, especially
of her manufactures, will necessarily be a work of time, and
is likely to be a comparatively slow process. The colony,
however, has the well-developed experience of the present
age, and, above all, that of the parent country, to aid and
guide her; and we may therefore expect that her development as a manufacturing colony will not be of so tardy a
nature as that of England, and that fifteen or twenty years
hence Vancouver Island will probably be a populous and
flourishing manufacturing and commercial colony, with a by
no means contemptible claim for notice.
The development of this island as a manufacturing colony
is only what the necessities of the settlement itself demand,
what its capabilities point to, what its resources encourage,
and what the wants of this part of the globe, of which it
may be considered the manufacturing centre, absolutely
require. Vancouver Island only requires manufacturing
labour and capital, with energy and talent to wield them, to
become developed as a great manufacturing colony.
Two facts will be apparent after a perusal of the above:
first, the prominent part which coal takes in the majority of
manufactures, and its great importance to the colony; and,
secondly, the importance of the commercial capabilities of the
island for aiding the development of its manufactures, and
the benefit which the manufacturing capabilities of the
colony will derive from her commercial efficiency.     Her BRITISH COLUMBIA.
117
commerce and her manufactures must go hand in hand; and
while the latter furnish a supply of manufactured goods to
promote her commerce, the former will in turn benefit her
manufactures by providing raw materials for their prosecution.
The manufactures likely to be first developed in this
colony will be more the useful than the ornamental; those
which minister to the wants of the many rather than those
which add to the luxury of the few,'—e.g., tanning, soap,
candle, salt, rope, and sail making, &c, all will probably be
early introduced. Those likely to be first commenced on an
extensive scale are such as the colony itself, or the adjacent
colony, can abundantly and cheaply supply with raw materials,—e.g., the manufacture of salt, glass, coarse pottery,
porcelain, bricks, tiles, &c, for the introduction and prosecution of which no great outlay is required, for which raw
material can be readily and cheaply procured, and the manufactured goods cheaply sold.
For manufactures generally, this colony is a yet unoccupied field, but one which offers every encouragement for
their introduction, and inducements for the immigration of
tradesmen, artisans, and a manufacturing population, such
as few colonies can present. The scarcity of labour and the
want of workmen prove great obstacles to the introduction
even of such manufactures as require but few hands. Workmen and mechanics are in great demand, and wages are
therefore high, usually averaging from four to five or six
dollars per day.
A mutual exchange of manufactured goods for native produce ought to be encouraged, and in the majority of cases 118
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
this will be comparatively easy. For example: to Manilla
and China, Vancouver Island can send wood, charcoal, fish,
and manufactured goods; and obtain in return, hemp, rice,
sugar, cigars, from the former, and tea, silk, camphor, &c,
from the latter.
The introduction of useful plants into the colony of British Columbia, and also into the various islands and countries
of the Pacific, is worthy of attention, and deserves every encouragement. The cotton-plant, the olive, and cocoa-nut
palm,.the vine, flax, hemp, and many others, may yet be
cultivated in many parts of the Pacific, to furnish a plentiful, cheap, and easily-procured supply to this colony for her
manufactures. BRITISH COLUMBIA
119
CHAPTER VII.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA AS COMMERCIAL
COLONIES; THEIR RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, AND ADVANTAGES.
So evident are the advantages which Vancouver Island possesses over British Columbia for the development of commerce, that we must regard the former as the commercial
colony.
The commerce of Vancouver Island necessarily has much
in common with her manufactures, and their interests are so
intimately connected, that a unity of aim and purpose is
necessary for their mutual development. The countries in
which this colony will find a market for manufactured goods
and the source of her raw material, are those in which she
will find the principal field for her commerce; much of the
commerce of the colony will consist in the carriage of raw
material for the supply of her manufactures, and the exportation of her manufactured goods. In speaking of the one,
we therefore cannot avoid alluding to the other; so intimate,
indeed, is the connexion, that the two might have been treated
as one subject
The local commerce of Vancouver Island is already considerable ; small steamers and coasting craft are busily en- 120
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
gaged in transporting her coal, sandstone, lime, and imported
goods, and in conveying passengers between different parts
of both colonies, and the colony will be able to keep this
traffic chiefly in her own hands.
The foreign trade is by no means unimportant for so
young a colony. Like the local commerce, it is daily increasing with the growing population, and consists chiefly of
an import trade for the supply of both colonies with food,
clothing, and other necessaries of life. The following table
will serve to shew its nature and value:—
Table 23.
Imports into the Port of Victoria during the last Six
Months of 1860.
Dollars.
From San Francisco,
,
824,221
„    London,
.
170,386
Honolulu (Sandwich Islands),
63,209
Callao,
.
51,291
Hong-Kong,              .
21,857
*
Port Townsend (American),
.
58,865
Portland           (ditto),
.
42,482
)
British. Columbia,
.
26,000
Unspecified,
'hly e;
-timated) :
10,000
£253,562 (Rom
= 1,267,811
From England and the United .States, Vancouver Island
draws her supplies of clothing and manufactured goods;
from Oregon, California, &c, agricultural produce; from the
Sandwich Islands and China, sugar, rice, &c. The growing
trade with China and Polynesia is interesting as the foreshadow of an extensive commerce to be developed at a future
day in that direction.
mr> BRITISH COLUMBIA.
121
The export trade is trifling. That of furs, however, is
valuable. One of the Hudson's Bay Company^ vessels arrives annually for their transport to England; and a late
cargo is said to have been valued at £50,000. The greater
part of the gold of the neighbouring colony passes through
Victoria on its way to the United States or to Europe; the
value of this export has already been mentioned. The only
export of purely island produce is in timber and coal.
Several cargoes of spars and timber are exported annually
from Barclay Sound to Australia, England, and elsewhere;
and the timber trade will soon be valuable, although at
present Barclay Sound is the only timber-exporting settlement in the island; but many more might be formed. The
coal trade will yet be extensive, though now comparatively unimportant, and limited to San Francisco. The
Nanaimo mines may supply a great part of the Pacific, and
will certainly be the chief source of supply for the North
Pacific; and, as is the case with Newcastle, the carrying
trade should be in her own hands. As the colony becomes
developed, the coal and timber trade will increase; while
the fisheries, and perhaps the farms of the island, its quarries, mines, and manufactures, will all yield valuable products
for exportation in colonial shipping.
Regarded as a whole, the commerce of this young colony,
though daily increasing, is still of comparatively trifling importance and value compared with what it will one day be.
The commerce of the island, in fact, must be considered
more as an event of the future than of the present. Fortunately, Vancouver Island possesses eminent commercial
capabilities, and may yet become the most important com- 122
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
mercial colony in the Pacific, every encouragement being
given for her development as such.
A more extended development of Vancouver Island as a
commercial colony is not, however, a matter of choice, but
of expediency; and it must be obvious that a double necessity exists for its development in this direction.
1. The wants, weaknesses, and requirements of the colony
itself urge its development thus; and an increase of its
shipping. A few small schooners, engaged chiefly in coasting, may be said to constitute its present fleet Its foreign
commerce is chiefly in the hands of strangers; and the
rapidly-increasing trade with California, the Sandwich
Islands, England, &c, whence these colonies draw their
principal supplies of food and other necessaries, is carried
on in British or American, and not in colonial vessels.
The surplus produce of the island, still too trifling for exportation, is likely to become more abundant, and the traffic
connected with its exportation, great The coal and timber
now exported is earried in foreign vessels; and:with the
development of the timber and coal trade, the increasing
exportation of the products of her mines and her fisheries,
and the expansion of her commerce, the necessity for developing shipping will necessarily increase.
A successful development of the manufactures of the
eolony will stimulate the development both of its shipping
and commerce. The raw materials for her manufactured
goods are in distant parts of the Pacific; the carrying trade
of both ought to be in the shipping of the colony itself. Its
remoteness from England, the United States, and other cm- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
123
lised countries, whose vessels might be so employed, will
further necessitate the formation of colonial shipping.
2. An additional necessity for the development of Vancouver Island as a commercial colony exists in the commercial requirements of the Pacific, and the countries and
islands in and around it The trade of the Pacific, already
considerable, and daily increasing, consists chiefly in the
transport of native produce to Europe and the United
States, and the return carriage and dispersion of the manufactured goods of these countries. In this, Vancouver Island
need not attempt to share in competition with these well-
developed maritime nations.
An inconsiderable, but daily-increasing traffic, limited to
the Pacific, is also carried on, chiefly by California, Chili,
Peru, &c. This commerce will soon be both valuable and
extensive. China, Japan, Siam, &c, have lately been opened
up to commerce; Polynesia is slowly becoming civilised;
new colonies are springing up, and steam and sailing vessels
now traverse parts of the Pacific formerly unknown; while,
lastly, Vancouver Island and British Columbia have been
settled, and are rapidly rising in importance, and likely, as
manufacturing and productive colonies, to increase this commerce materially. By developing her shipping, Vancouver
Island may almost monopolise this. The colony itself will
have much to import and much to export, and shipping
must be developed to enable her to accomplish this. By still
further increasing her shipping, this island might be made
to achieve both. Few places exist in the Pacific likely to
compete in commerce with Vancouver Island.    The com- 1
12-4
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
merce of Hong-Kong and Singapore is a mere transit traffic,
as entrepdts through which, the trade of Europe on the one
hand, and of Eastern Asia and China on the other, passes.
They possess an insignificant commercial navy of their own.
The ships which crowd their harbours, and the cargoes
they contain, belong, not to themselves, but to Europe and
America; nor are they likely ever to develop a local shipping
or a local commerce in the Pacific. California is a more
formidable rival That state has a growing commerce, and
the amount of her shipping is already considerable; but the
possession of coal for steam purposes will evidently enable
Vancouver Island soon to rival, and ultimately eclipse California as a commercial colony.
Should the formation of a railway across British Columbia
and Canada, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific, result as
it probably may, in diverting the commerce between China
and Europe from the-westward route by Suez and the Cape
of Good Hope, by which it is now carried on, to this overland route, the development of the shipping and commerce
of this colony will receive an additional and most important
stimulus. Vancouver Island herself is evidently the colony
best fitted and most conveniently situated of any in the
Pacific for carrying on a traffic between her own shores and
the opposite coast of Eastern Asia.
Vancouver Island will become the manufacturing depot of
the Pacific at a future day; and her commerce and shipping
must be developed both to commence and carry this on. At
present however, the Pacific is, and probably long will be,
supplied with manufactured goods which are carried to it
from Europe and the States by Panama, Cape Horn, and BRITISH COLUMBIA.
125
the Cape of Good Hope; and for this there is no convenient
depot. This colony is admirably adapted for becoming a
commercial centre of this kind, and ought to be made a mart
for the dispersion of imported manufactured goods to all
parts of the Pacific. A company possessing capital, shipping, and influence, like the Hudson's Bay Company, might
thus develop in the Pacific a trade to which that of the fur
countries in the days of their monopoly would bear no comparison. The shipping of the colony would afford every
facility for this, and would itself become augmented and
greatly benefited. It will thus be evident that the prospect
of a valuable colonial export and import trade, and of an
extensive commerce in the Pacific, renders the development
of a commercial navy in this colony absolutely necessary;
while the chance of competition, with California at least,
renders its early development prudent
While many reasons thus urge the development of Vancouver Island as a commercial colony, the island fortunately
possesses eminent facilities for development as such, and for
an indefinite extension of her mercantile navy: few colonies
possess better. The principal commercial advantages which
this colony claims are the following:—
First, The internal resources of the island favour its development as a mercantile colony. It is endowed with
superior facilities for ship-building and for the formation
and equipment of a commercial navy, an abundance of oak
and other timber, and the forests of British Columbia to fall
back upon when her own become exhausted. Her coal will
render the introduction of steamers and railways comparatively easy;—celerity in commercial pursuits and the speedy 126
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
transmission of goods is necessary at the present day for
successful competition in commerce;—while the stimulus
which coal will give to the development of this island as a
manufacturing colony, will encourage its shipping and commerce by giving them employment
Secondly, The maritime character of the island will facilitate the development and prosecution of an extensive commerce. Her insular nature permits free access to all parts
of her coast, and thus facilitates her trade. The harbours
of the island are well adapted for commercial purposes—e.g.,
Esquimalt, Victoria, Nanaimo, Barclay Sound, all capable of
admitting large ships, possessing good facilities for loading,
easy and safe access, and situated close to the Pacific. Victoria and Esquimalt, the two chief commercial harbours, are
both admirably adapted for commercial purposes, and are
not more than sixty miles and eight or ten hours' sail from
the ocean; and no other harbours in either colony are better
fitted for becoming the commercial depot for the prosecution
and concentration of their mutual commerce. It is to her
insular nature that England is principally indebted for her
position as the first commercial nation in the world; and
Vancouver Island fortunately has this, as well as many other
advantages, in common.
Thirdly, The geographical position of Vancouver Island is
favourable for her development as a commercial colony. The
position which this island holds in the Pacific very much
resembles that which Great Britain holds in the Atlantic,
and both have a wide field for their commerce; but while
the shipping of the latter only shares in the traffic of the
Atlantic, that of Vancouver Island may, and probably will, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
127
almost monopolise that of the Pacific, which at a future day
will probably rival that of the former, and this colony will
thus hold a place in the commerce of the west superior to
that which England now holds in that of the east.
. The position of the colony, at a part of the Pacific which
is comparatively free from islands, and therefore of safe navigation, will facilitate its traffic and favour the development
of its  commerce;  while  the  configuration of the  North
f O
American continent, and a bend its coast takes towards the
south-west, gives Vancouver Island both a more central
position in the Pacific and a greater proximity to the trade-
winds, and thus increases her facilities for commerce : while,
again, the comparative proximity of the colony to China and
to Eastern Asia, and to that part of the Pacific where the
busiest and most lucrative traffic over the whole extent of
that ocean will yet be carried on, will enable her to share
largely in it,—a result that will be rendered both more
certain and more speedy by the traffic between Eastern Asia
and Europe being diverted in this direction by the formation
of a trans-Canadian railway to connect the Pacific and
Atlantic, and to bring Eastern Asia in direct communication
with Europe.
Vancouver Island has a threefold aim as a commercial
colony:—
First, This island must carry on the traffic of both colonies.
Of the two, this colony alone is adapted for development as
a commercial colony ; and Victoria and Esquimalt will continue, as they now are, the commercial depots for both, the
mercantile centres of the entire coast, and the markets for
supplying the population of both colonies, including 214,000 128
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
square miles that will ultimately be as densely peopled as
Canada and many of the United States
Secondly, Possessing eminent capabilities, its aim should
be to become the principal commercial colony of the Pacific,
and to make its shipping carry on, at least, the local
traffic.
Thirdly, Her purpose should be to become the depot for
concentrating the commerce of the Atlantic and Pacific; the
entrep6t in which the traffic from Polynesia, Australia,
Eastern Asia, and the Pacific generally, meets with that
from Europe and the United States; where the produce of
the one is collected for transmission to Europe, the goods of
the other for dispersion over the Pacific
Vancouver Island thus evidently possesses many of the
elements of, and will unquestionably become, a great commercial colony, unrivalled in the Pacific The future history
of the colony, like its past, will in great part be that of a
commercial settlement. The establishment and rise of this
island marks a new era in the history of the commerce of
the Pacific. From it, as a centre, civilization and commerce
will now more rapidly spread in that hitherto little travelled
ocean, and in countries which are now scarcely known, and
which have hitherto been debarred by prejudice and ignorance
from intercourse with more civilised nations. Few countries
can be named, and certainly none exist in the Pacific, that
possess more numerous and happily combined advantages to
facilitate their development as commercial colonies, than Vancouver Island Her internal resources, geographical position,
and her manufacturing and commercial facilities, all urge
her development in this direction • and especially as a com- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
129
bined manufacturing and commercial colony: her manufactures to aid her commerce; her commerce to foster and
encourage her manufactures. Fewer difficulties stand in the
way for the development of her commerce than of her
manufactures, and the former will be more speedily accomplished. The development of the latter is for a'future day;
that of the former is already begun, is steadily increasing,
and will soon be extensive. Vancouver Island can never
expect to equal, but yet she may emulate England, both in
commerce and in manufactures. The development of the
latter is far advanced, that of the former is scarcely begun;
the one labours in a civilised field, the other in a semi-
barbarous one, in which, however, this colony has one
advantage—-the field is even more extensive than that which
England occupies, and there are fewer in it to oppose her.
As a commercial colony, Vancouver Island offers a fine
field for men of capital and enterprise; new and almost
unoccupied, with the entire Pacific for its range, in which
an extensive and lucrative trade may be developed in many
different directions; a field for commercial investment such
as probably no other colony belonging to Great Britain
can offer, and one still less likely to be met with in any of
the commercial places either of Europe or America, where
every avenue to wealth, and every field for commercial
enterprise is already occupied, and where competition is
therefore difficult. For seamen, carpenters, and others connected with shipping, content with steady employment and
high wages, and not likely to be allured by the gold-diggings
of the neighbouring colony, Vancouver Island will be a good
field    Carpenters and seamen are scarce; the shipping of
(mechanics)
a
M 230
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
the colony is often imperfectly manned by Indians; and the
rapid increase of the colonial shipping holds out to steady
men a fair prospect of advancement
The development of the commerce of this colony, and the
interests of the colony generally, may be materially aided in
many ways. These colonies much require and well deserve
government help. Their mails are carried from Panama in
American steamers, and from San Francisco to Victoria by
a hue subsidised by the colonies themselves. Both this inconvenience and expense could be saved by a government
subsidy. It is evidently the interest of the parent country,
as well as that of the colonies, to connect Vancouver Island
with Panama* and thus with England by a regular line of
English packets, and to form a complete communication between England and Esquimalt, which will not be interrupted
during war.
The local government can aid the commercial development
of this colony in many ways, e.g.:—
1. By encouraging colonial industry, and the formation of
companies to develop her fisheries, mines, and manufac-
i tures; direct importation; reciprocal commerce, &c.
2. By facilitating intercourse and internal traffic in the
colonies themselves, and also that with adjacent territories.
Roads are especially necessary to open up both colonies and
develop their resources. Nanaimo, Barclay Sound, and the
north end of the island should be thus connected with Victoria. The introduction of steamers, railways, and other
means for more rapid, easy, and cheap intercommunication
than now prevails should be encouraged To promote commerce it will be necessary to connect Esquimalt with Victoria BRITISH COLUMBIA.
31
by railway; and the latter with Nanaimo, with a view to
encourage manufactures.
3. By facilitating intercourse with foreign countries, especially those in the Pacific, the commerce of this colony will
be materially aided We anticipate the day when the means
of intercommunication and the commerce of the Pacific will
rival those of the Atlantic at the present day. The relations
between Vancouver Island and Eastern Asia, especially China,
will soon be most intimate; and a regular telegraphic and
steam communication will soon be imperatively necessary to
connect Victoria or Esquimalt with Hong-Kong and Shanghae,
the centres of the commerce of the south and north of China.
The chain of the Aleutian Islands, the Kurile Islands, and
Japan, will favour telegraphic intercommunication. When
the eastern and western shores of the Pacific become connected thus, the mails, passengers, and goods of this colony
may be transmitted to China, India, and Eastern Asia generally, instead of by the tedious route through England. The
probable diversion of the Anglo-Chinese trade to a trans-
American route will still further necessitate a double communication of this kind Steam communication now connects England with Eastern America and Vancouver Island on
the one hand, and with China on the other, and the electric
telegraph soon will; and it will evidently be in the interests
of this colony to connect them in Victoria It has been proposed to make San Francisco the connecting link; but the
political, social, and commercial inconvenience both to this
colony and the parent country of having a British telegraph
to pass through foreign territory must be obvious.
The formation of a tran&* American railway and telegraph .132
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
to connect the Atlantic with the Pacific is a project intimately
connected with the commercial interests both of these colonies
and of Great Britain itself; and the question as to whether
they should be on British or American soil is one of much
importance to both. The project is perhaps premature.
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and the western part
of British North America generally, are not yet sufficiently
peopled and developed, nor their traffic extensive enough, to
warrant it; the civilization and the manufacturing and commercial necessities of the Pacific not yet sufficiently advanced
to require more frequent and extended intercourse with their
present markets in Europe and America; and the prospect
of making Vancouver Island and Canada a new track for
the traffic between Eastern Asia and Europe too uncertain to
warrant its present formation. But in the present age, when
railways are necessary for successful competition in commerce,
and are forming a network over every civilised country, a
railway communication of this nature will soon be necessary;
and Vancouver Island should not be the loiterer in the march
of progress, or permit neighbouring nations to divert the commerce of the Pacific into their own channels,—an event that
would go far to prevent, or at least retard, the development
of Vancouver Island as a commercial colony.
Various important political reasons may be urged in
favour of the formation of a trans-American railway and
telegraph. These colonies would thus be brought into closer
connexion with Canada and England, whence political support and military aid could be more quickly and safely sent
than by Panama or Cape Horn, by both of which routes their
transit maybe prevented   Their formation is of importance BRITISH COLUMBIA.
133
in connexion with the conversion of Esquimalt into the
principal naval station of the Pacific. That ocean, and
British interests along its varied shores, would thus be
brought more under the notice of the home government.
News of the revolt of the natives of her colonies, should
such a calamity occur, would thus be speedily transmitted
to Britain, and aid or advice returned ; or the Pacific fleets
or troops from Canada distributed where required. The
communications between different parts of the Pacific will
soon be more frequent and rapid than they now are, and will
probably e,qual those of the Atlantic.
The conversion of Esquimalt into a sanatorium for the
Pacific,—a depot for the invalids both of the Pacific and
China fleets,—and its requirements as such, form an additional motive. Invalids are now sent home from China by
the tedious Cape of Good Hope route ; those of this station
by Cape Horn. The invalids on both stations have long to
wait for passage, the voyage is tedious, and the tropics, in
which many die, and all are weakened, have to be crossed
twice. A trans-American railway with steam communication with the opposite shores of the Pacific would obviate all
of these disadvantages, and afford a safe, speedy, and comfortable passage both from China and Vancouver Island.
The commercial reasons are equally weighty. The tea,
silk, and other valuable products of China and Eastern Asia,
find their way to Europe by various channels: overland,
through Siberia; by sea, round the Cape of Good Hope, or
by the Isthmus of Suez. A Euphrates valley route is also
proposed. All of them have their disadvantages and their
dangers.    The Cape route is tedious, and the cargoes are
I 134
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
liable to suffer, especially by the double passage through the
tropics. The Suez route is quicker, and will be facilitated
by the Lesseps canal now in progress; but a considerable
part of the voyage is intertropical, and therefore unfavourable. The Siberian route is shut to all but Russia. Some
safer, more rapid, and cheaper route is therefore much required, and this, steam communication between China and
Vancouver Island, in connexion with a trans-American railway, would supply. The following table will shew the distance and time by this route, and the same in contrast with
the others :—
6053 miles,
Distance from Hong-Kong to )
Vancouver Island,       .        )
Distance from Vancouver Is-) oto,    ., J
i    j j.   tt it f   •       •    2536 miles,
land to Halifax, .        )
Distance from Halifax to Southampton,   2532 miles, =    9 days steam.
21 days steam.
6 days railroad.
Totals,
11,121 miles, = 86 days.
Distance by Cape of Good Hope route
(Hong-Kong to Southampton),
Distance by Overland by Suez (Hong- )
Kong to Southampton),      .       . \
Distance by Vancouver Island (Hong- )
Kong to Southampton),       .       . )
12,000 miles,
110 davs.
9,467 miles,    = 60-60 days.
11,121 miles,
36 days
The principal advantages of this route would be—
1st The passage through the tropics would be avoided,
and part of the confinement on shipboard
2d, The time would be shortened, and the route probably
cheaper.
The commerce of the greater part of the Pacific with
England may thus be conducted at a future day. Steam communication to connect Vancouver Island and New Zealand, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
loO
Australia, &c, in connexion with a trans-American railway,
would probably divert much of the traffic of the Pacific,
now carried on by the Cape of Good Hope, Suez, Cape Horn,
and Panama, to this island,—for its onward transmission to
Europe and England; e.g.:—
Sydney to Southampton by Cape of Good Hope route,       . 11,880 miles.
Ditto ditto Suez,    .... 11,219   „
Ditto ditto Cape Horn,      . . . 12,746   „
Ditto ditto Panama, . . . 11,115   „
Ditto ditto Vancouver Island,        . . 11,794   „
A trans-Canadian railway would further benefit both
colonies by affording quicker and cheaper communication
with Canada, the United States, and England, whence they
draw their principal supplies, vid Panama or Cape Horn.
For the supply of Vancouver Island, as a depot for the sale
of European goods in the Pacific, a trans-American railway
would be invaluable; while it would also enable her, as a
commercial colony, to watch the markets of European and
American goods, in which this island may ultimately compete
—at least, in those of the Pacific.
Many social reasons urge the formation of a trans-Canadian
railway. The principal cause of the slow colonization of
these islands is their isolation. The Rocky Mountains and
an imperfectly-explored country separate British Columbia
from Canada and the United States, and a tedious passage
by Cape Horn, and an expensive one vid Panama, from
England: while with China and other countries in the
Pacific, from which immigration might come, the communications are even less frequent
A railway across Canada would permit more frequent
1 136
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
h
intercourse, and materially encourage emigration from that
colony, the United States, and England, and would increase
mutual traffic; and would, moreover, aid in opening up
those parts of the interior of British Columbia and Western
Canada through which it would pass.
The interests of both these colonies as well as British
interests generally would be benefited in many respects by
the completion of a railway of this kind. Their commerce
and political importance would be increased, and their development aided in various ways. The project is practicable as far as engineering difficulties are concerned; and
there are many evident reasons why the communication
should be across British soil. The political and commercial
reasons have already been alluded to. The possession of
coal at different places along the route—e.g., at the Red-
River settlement and at Vancouver Island—affords every
facility, both for the railway and the steamers which ply
across the Pacific ; and a field for British and colonial capital
and labour would thus be afforded.
1*1 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
131
CHAPTER VIII.
VANCOUVER   ISLAND   AND   BRITISH   COLUMBIA   AS   UNITED
COLONIES ; THEIR CAPABILITIES AND RESOURCES.
We have hitherto confined our attention to Vancouver
Island as a colony distinct from the large and, in some
respects, not less important sister colony of British Columbia We have pointed out the political importance of the
former,—the many advantages which both offer to intending emigrants ; we have shewn what their resources are,
and what their capabilities for successful competition with
neighbouring colonies in agriculture, in manufactures, in
commerce, and as mineral-yielding colonies,—and have indicated the encouraging prospect which their flourishing,
though still comparatively undeveloped present condition
holds out of a still more prosperous future, and the direction
which their industry and efforts are likely to take.
Although we have every confidence in their future prosperity, and a firm belief in their being capable of ranking,
each by itself, among the most important, wealthy, and influential of England's settlements, still it is in Vancouver
Island and British Columbia united that we place our chief
hope. We allude, not so much to a union of their governments,—the prudence of which is a question which does not 138
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
i
materially affect our present inquiry,—but to such a union
of aim and object in a common cause as would mutually
benefit both, would bring them into notice and raise them
in public estimation, and ultimately advance them to a
supreme position; and we believe, accordingly, that their
policy should be, not to work singly, but conjointly, and
thus encourage, aid, and firmly establish each other. To
unite the two colonies would be to obviate the necessity for
a double staff of government officials with large salaries, and
cancel an item of expenditure which is wholly unnecessary.
Were British Columbia to apply her surplus revenue to promote the development of Vancouver Island, she would but
indirectly further her own interests; and such an expenditure in the one colony would be well repaid by future more
solid and lasting benefits to the other.
Public opinion in the two colonies is, on the whole, in
favour of a union. Perhaps the best argument on this side
may be shewn by a simple review and contrast of their different resources and capabilities. To those who can calmly
and dispassionately examine the respective claims and relative
value of the resources and capabilities of each colony separately, it must be evident that, while the qualifications of both
are of a high order, their respective resources and capabilities
are widely different, and that therefore their, aims must be,
to a certain extent, of an opposite character; that, while
the great objects of both—viz., present progress and future
prosperity—are identical, their endeavours in particular
directions to develop resources so dissimilar are totally
distinct Hence it must be apparent that Vancouver Island,
on the one hand, with her fine harbours, especially Esquimalt BRITISH COLUMBIA.
139
and Victoria;, which afford easy and safe access at all times,
and are situated within a few hours' sail of the Pacific, combines advantages which no harbour along the whole extent
of the western seaboard of North and South America can
offer, and may become not only the centre of supply for
British Columbia, and the adjacent Russian and American
territories, and Western Canada, but also the commercial
depot of the Pacific. Moreover, we may yet see here a great
commercial colony which neither British Columbia, with its
capital, New Westminster, nor any of the numerous inlets
and harbours along its coast, can ever expect to rival. New
Westminster, situated on a narrow river, difficult and even
dangerous of access, and distant from the sea, may become
a local depot for the supply of a limited extent of territory;
but its capabilities as a commercial centre for the entire
coast can never equal those of Victoria, while the latter may
command a much wider range.
The possession of coal gives to Vancouver Island another
source of pre-eminence over British Columbia. In her coalfields the former colony possesses an element of wealth and
power that will aid immensely in developing her manufactures, in making her mineral wealth available, in developing
a steam navy, and in expanding her commercial capabilities.
British Columbia, on the other hand, possesses, in her
mineral wealth, in her gold-fields,—probably second to none
that have yet been discovered,—in her silver-mines, in her
stores of plumbago, &c, elements of wealth such as probably do not exist in Vancouver Island, and that fit her for
becoming, under judicious management, a most important
mineral-yielding colony.
a* Wr
140
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
It is obvious that Vancouver Island possesses some resources and capabilities unattainable by British Columbia;
while, again, the latter has others of which the former cannot boast. Very few of the characteristics of these colonies
are alike in nature or value. Those which they own in
common differ so much in relative importance, as to place
that colony in which any advantage is particularly prominent beyond the fear of rivalry in that respect from the
other.
Both have certain leading distinctive resources, and certain marked capabilities, which point out the direction in
which they will ultimately excel It is evident that Vancouver Island and British Columbia are fitted for development in totally different directions; and that while the resources of both are such as to lead to the belief that they will
yet become of great importance and attain to great wealth,
they are such also as promise eminence in very different
fields of industry. For example, both colonies possess valuable mineral wealth; but while Vancouver Island has her
coal, her copper, her sandstone, limestone, &c, all of inestimable value to a manufacturing and commercial colony,
British Columbia, on the other hand, has her valuable gold
fields, her silver mines, her plumbago, &c, all valuable and
more direct sources of wealth. Vancouver Island has good
agricultural and pastoral capabilities as far as they go, but
these are far surpassed, in extent at least by those of British
Columbia. The former has every prospect of development
as an eminent commercial colony, both .for local traffic and
for foreign trade ; but British Columbia may also expect to
possess an extensive, though more local, commerce in supply- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
141
ing the requirements of her own and neighbouring populations. While the political importance of British Columbia
is very apparent, it can never equal that of Vancouver Island,
whose insular position and maritime character render invasion unlikely or difficult, with her fine harbours to shelter
"her naval fleet, and her favourable geographical position,
which commands the whole of the Pacific. And again, while
British Columbia may have her local manufactures in common with Vancouver Island, it will be readily perceived that
the favourable position and advantages which the latter possesses as a commercial colony, and the peculiar facilities
which the nature of her resources, especially her coal, confers upon her for development as a manufacturing colony,
secure to her a great advantage over British Columbia, and
impart manufacturing capabilities such as the latter can
never possess.
A disinterested survey of the respective resources and
capabilities of both colonies, like that now taken, cannot fail
to lead to the conclusion, that while these are so different,
their aims as colonies are, from one point of view, equally
distinct. Though separate, however, their interests agree in
another point of view; and both colonies should be united
in one great purpose,—viz., mutual advancement and the
common good,—and with this object each may greatly aid
and advance the other. While Vancouver Island by her
commerce may attract emigrants, goods, wealth, &c, to
spread over both colonies; the sister colony, on the other
hand, by her agricultural and pastoral produce, her gold and
silver, her timber, and other valuable resources, may benefit
the commerce and manufactures of Vancouver Island: and
1
f ill 142
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
while the latter, as a manufacturing colony, may render
eminent service by furnishing a supply of useful manufactures at cheaper rates than they can be imported from other
countries; British Columbia will be useful in her turn by
the demand which a numerous and widely-scattered population will create for supplies and manufactured goods, as
well as by the supplies of raw materials which that colony
will soon be able to furnish.
A friendly emulation between the two may do good, may
have a healthy stimulus, and benefit both ; but carried too
far it must have a contrary effect, and, notwithstanding the
eminent capabilities and ample resources of both, a deplorable mediocrity may follow. Vancouver Island and British
Columbia combined have within themselves many of those
elements which are to be reckoned among the chief sources
of England's greatness, and which made her conspicuous for
commerce, manufactures, agriculture, and mining operations.
They are endowed with a climate equal, and in some respects
superior, to that of England; an abundance of the more precious metals,—gold, silver, &c,—and of the baser, but not
less useful—copper and plumbago, with others as yet undiscovered. They possess coal to make these available on the
spot; an abundance of fine arable land, capable of rendering
them not only independent for supplies of agricultural and
pastoral produce, but sufficient to furnish an important source
of wealth by exportation; an extensive seaboard and productive fisheries; an insular and maritime position on the
part of Vancouver Island, and excellent harbours on the part
of both for their merchant navy; and a fine geographical
position, giving them not only a most important political BRITISH COLUMBIA.
143
influence, but affording facilities for commerce such as could
not without difficulty be found in any part of the Pacific.
Many other reasons might be adduced in support of a
union of the two colonies ; and we are strongly in favour of
a union under one government, one talented energetic head,
of these two colonies, evidently intended by their mutual and
relative position, by the nature of their resources and eminent,
yet distinct capabilities for such a union. Until this can be
effected, however, we believe that the best policy of these
colonies, though politically separate, is to be one in their
social and secular aims, the efforts and actions of each tending rather to strengthen than to weaken its neighbour;
and that they should endeavour to develop the commercial,
mineral, agricultural, and manufacturing capabilities of this
highly-favoured portion of North America, not as separate
colonies, working singly, and opposed in aim and object, but
as the united colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Politically separate, .but still one in aim and
purpose, let each colony, therefore, strive to encourage, aid,
and strengthen the other, and materially work for the common good. 144
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
11
;.;
■1: i
II
1     '
'
I    K ii'
■vL^'
|r\
CHAPTER IX.
THE POLITICAL IMPORTANCE OE VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
BRITISH COLUMBIA: ESQUIMALT AS A NAVAL STATION,
AND AS A SANATORIUM FOR THE PACIFIC AND CHINA
FLEETS.
Whatever future success may attend these colonies, there
cannot be a question as to their vast importance to Great
Britain in a political and strategetic point of view; more
especially Vancouver Island, possessing a favourable geographical position in the Pacific, and a convenient naval
harbour—that of Esquimalt.
Until recently the English navy had really no harbour of
their own along the whole of the lengthy western coast of
America in which to coal, refit, provision, or concentrate,
if necessary, during war. Vancouver Island and British
Columbia, though known, were only occasionally visited ; and
were heretofore so unimportant as never to require the constant presence of even a small naval force for their protection.
H.M.S. Satellite, in 1857, was the first to make a prolonged
stay in Esquimalt, in connexion with the Anglo-American
Boundary Commission ; while the conversion of these territories in 1859 into British colonies, and the subsequent San
Juan dispute, first led to the occupation of that harbour by sal ■Bfe'si ' ■-' --o       '■
|HAPTER IX.
]oi? VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
ooy.nMftfA: I^QIHM; : ... -gmmm STATION,
i   :-•.    "■ ■   :V.-.   .-:'■     'aNl'  ;       ■ --:  AND CHINA
What--•;:■ ftt&ote saegess t%f atcead ^     •■   "   ---- bnere
cannot l-c a question as to their vs.-;   h.
Britain in. a political and strategetie point of view; more
5T>eciall.v Vancouver Island, possessing a favourable geo
.       ■ •* ration ia the Pacific, and a convenient
It.
pKt   !iab hays had really no harbour of
|»1)NMi|j    o  j§.e kugtby western coast of
■:   provision oncentrate,
itorl
*1  12£b¥ . •.i. .'.'.'l!
■ ■■, an-os-     •    .'4^; and
never '■ •      ; iive the con-
Pf;their protection.
. ' ■ :   a.iatl>:    e^if;make a prolonged
ait. ■---.     • onexioii with the Anglo-American
'•■ ■ I  i   .     bfe ■ • • conversion of these terri
fied to the   -opadon of that harbour 1 hi
II /vl BRITISH COLUMBIA
145-
a British fleet, and to a recognition of its capabilities and
importance as a convenient naval station. Esquimalt is now
the principal naval rendezvous on the American side of the
Pacific''; and, from its comparative proximity to China, it
appears by no means improbable that it will also become a
depot for the still'larger and-more important China fleet,
where ships -may refit, coal, &c, more conveniently and more
easily than in China, which possesses no regular naval depot.
This harbour may thus become, at a future day, the principal
naval depot of the entire Pacific.
Esquimalt Harbour, where both fleets can rendezvous, may
materially affect, not only the future success, but even the
possession of Vancouver Island and British Columbia themselves, which lie in close proximity to the Russian and
American territories,—a rupture with either of which might
lay those colonies, if unprotected, completely at their mercy.
The daily increasing importance of British interests in the
Pacific, but more especially the varied and interesting occurrences of the past few years that have caused the hitherto
little-noticed North Pacific to assume a prominence to which
it was formerly a stranger, render the possession of Esquimalt of increased importance to Great Britain. The fatal
disaster of Petropaulski, and the subsequent operations
against the Russians during 1853-55; the second rupture
with China in 1856, which led to hostile proceedings that
have only recently terminated; significant naval demonstrations, and the formation of treaties in Japan during the years
1855-58; the foundation of these colonies in 1859 on the
opposite side of the ocean; and the subsequent San Juan
difficulty,—proceedings in all of which Great Britain has
I 146
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
Wi
taken the chief share,—have caused an increased concentration and activity of naval force never before witnessed in
this part of the globe, and indicate a necessity for the possession of a naval harbour in the position which Esquimalt
occupies; and the importance of that harbour to Great
Britain, in a strategetic point of view, is daily becoming
more evident. Erom this depot her fleets can readily proceed to any part of the Pacific, and have a more complete
command of that ocean than if Hong-Kong, Australia, or
any other of her colonies were made their rendezvous,
In addition to the direct benefit to be derived from the
presence of a naval force, the development of these colonies
will be greatly aided by the political importance which the
conversion of Vancouver Island into a naval station will give
them, and by the security thus afforded to their commerce.
By combining the Pacific and China squadrons, a fleet can
be formed superior in force to that of any other nation; and,
with such protection, Vancouver Island will be able even in
time of war to continue her commerce without fear of interruption.
Vancouver Island may, however, become of still greater
value to Great Britain, by its conversion into a sanatorium
for the ships of the Pacific fleet and their crews; which,
even in time of peace, consist of a large body of men, the
preservation of whose health and lives becomes of the greatest
importance, whether regarded in a Christian, or in a more
secular point of view.
The great salubrity of the climate of this island, and the
hospital conveniences it can afford, add much to the value of
Esquimalt as a naval station.   The hospital accommodation BRITISH COLUMBIA.
147
on this station has long been unsatisfactory, and Valparaiso,
the former head-quarters of the Pacific fleet, and Callao,
were the only ports to which invalids might be sent for
treatment, or sickly ships be transferred to recruit the
health of their crews ; until 1857, when the sick of H.M.S.
Satellite first occupied the hospital at Esquimalt, previously
erected in 1853 for the Petropaulski squadron, but never
used The convenience of ample hospital accommodation at
the head-quarters of the squadron and on British soil, and
in a chmate whose salubrity is unsurpassed on the entire
station, is therefore evident. Esquimalt thus supplies a want
long felt on this station.
The unhealthiness of the climate of China, and the sickness and mortality which usually prevail in the China fleet,
when contrasted with the great salubrity of Vancouver
Island, and the fineness of its climate, make it a question of
great importance whether or not Esquimalt, with its hospital
accommodation, its conveniences as a naval harbour, and its
comparative proximity to China, with which communications
both naval and mercantile will soon be more frequent than
at present, might not become the recruiting station and
sanatorium for the China as well as for the Pacific squadron;
and whether the healthy climate of the eastern coast of the
North Pacific might not be made available to counteract the
unhealthy influence of that of its western coast.
'. The heavy sick-lists of ships stationed along the coast of
China, the large per-centage of invalids sent home, and the
great mortalitv, are often unequalled even on the once so
sickly, and still so much dreaded, coast of Africa. The following table will contrast the large sick-list of ships on that
1
'  'ft! 148
VANCOUVER ISLAND .AND
station with those of Esquimalt, and will prove the un-
healthiness of the one and the salubrity of the other:—
Table 24
To contrast the Sickness in H.M: Ships in,-China with that
at Vancouver Island.
Ship.
Average
Sick-list.
H.M.S. Nankin (50), China Station, 1855-58,
H.M.S. Topaze (51), Esquimalt, Vancouver
Island, 1860-61,	
42
1 Q2
Average
Crew.
443
482
:   Pai*-»
centage
of Sick.
9j
9*
The ships sent on commission to China not unfrequently
return with one-half, one-third, or even fewer of their
original crew; and many of these with broken health, the.,
remainder having succumbed to the unhealthy climate of*
the station, some of whom had to be invalided, and the
others consigned to their last resting-place. The following
table will shew the extent to which the ships on the China
station are often disabled :—
Table 25.
To shew the extent to which H.M. Ships on the China
Station are often disabled by Sickness.
Years,
1855—58.
Average
crew,
443
men.
V
Deaths ..
Invalided
Sent to
Hospital
39=1 in\
ll of the
crew.
From Dysentery, Diarrhoea,
and periodic fevers,     22 r
From other diseases,       17 )
( For Dysentery, Diarrhoea,    \ a.    . .
\ / .64 = 1 in
<    and periodic fevers,     32 > 7 of the J
( For other diseases, 32 )    crew
(For Dysentery, Diarrhoea,
290, or 65'j
per cent.
of the
crew.
/   187=1
•J    and periodic fevers,     76 > in 2} of
(For other diseases, 111)the erew' BRITISH COLUMBIA.
149
The question as to the possibility of saving much of this
suffering and mortality is a subject of great importance
every way. The principal effect of a prolonged residence on
the coast of Eastern Asia, especially in the humid subtropical south of China, is to weaken and enervate the
system, to make it less and less able to resist the unhealthy
influence of the chmate of that country, and gradually to
succumb to the diseases which prevail there. The slightest
exposure, or error of diet, may then cause an attack of
diarrhoea, dysentery, or ague, which is not unlikely in a
subject thus weakened to become serious, and perhaps terminate fatally. Whatever it may be in other climates, acclimatization appears for the most part nugatory in China;
and a long residence fails to inure the system to the chmate,
or to prevent or even modify the prevalent maladies. The
longer a ship remains on the station, the more susceptible
of disease does her crew become, the larger cceteris paribus
are her sick-lists, and the more numerous her hospital cases,
her invalids, and her deaths. Popular experience among
those resident in China has arrived at the same conclusion;
and the custom, when it is practicable, is to take an occasional voyage to England for change of air, or to spend a
portion of every year in some healthier climate near at hand
—e.g., that of Macao, Manilla, or Japan. A similar practice
is followed in Her Majesty's navy, and vessels are frequently
sent for a cruise to Japan, or the north of China, with a
view to benefit the health of their ship's company; and the
beneficial and bracing effect of such a trip on their health
can be credited only by those who have witnessed it. Men
return to the station as if with a new lease of life, apparently 150
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
able to resist the debilitating and sickly influence of its
chmate, and to ward off diseases under which they might
otherwise have been speedily laid prostrate.
The prudence of this occasional change of climate, with a
view to prevent or lessen disease in Her Majesty's ships, is
not more decided than its efficacy. The great aim of the
medicine of a former age was the cure of disease; the characteristic object of that of the present day is its prevention.
The cruise to Japan, however, has its disadvantages, especially those which arise from the jealousy and peculiarities
of its people; and to obtain hospital accommodation there
is, and probably will long be, impossible : and in many cases,
perhaps in all, a similar voyage to Vancouver Island might
be advantageously substituted, and a cruise to Esquimalt of
two1 and a-half or three months, there and back, be con**-
veniently taken instead of that to Japan; with the quadruple
object of refitting, provisioning, coaling, and recruiting the
health of the ship's company.
The beneficial result of a cruise of this kind would be
manifold. It would save much suffering and many deaths.
By occasional visits to Vancouver Island as a combined
naval station and sanatorium,—say twice or thrice during a
commission,—the health and efficiency of the crews of ships
on the China station would be better preserved, and much
of the sickness and mortality which is an unfailing result of
a prolonged stay in China prevented. A voyage of this
kind would insure much of the benefit of a return to
England, with little of the inconvenience, only part of
the delay, and none of the danger to health from passing
through the tropics.   It would cause a considerable pecuni- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
151
ary economy; for it must be obvious that so much sickness and mortality is attended by a corresponding expenditure for hospital expenses, transportation of invalids to
England, &c.; and to lessen the one would be to diminish
the other.
Whatever the origin of the severe and often fatal dysenteries, diarrhoeas, agues, &c, of China,—whether electrical,
meteorological, miasmatic, or animalcular,—the first indication in their treatment, unfortunately seldom a practicable
one, is to remove the patient from the unhealthy climate,
and the specific morbid influence which produced his disease.
The hospital at Hong-Kong, though an invaluable institution, has many disadvantages; and in addition to the confinement which necessarily attends that most inconvenient
form of sick-quarters, a | ship " hospital, invalids remain for
treatment in the very focus and centre of the unhealthy
climate, which undoubtedly both retards their cure, and adds
to the mortality.
To remedy this it has been proposed—
1st, To invalid more speedily and more frequently, and
thus remove the sick, at an early stage of the disease, from
the unhealthy climate. This, however, though judicious
enough in itself, would rapidly and materially weaken the
squadron when the loss cannot be readily supplied, and
has other disadvantages as to the length and danger of the
voyage to invalids, as will presently appear.
2d, A better and more practicable plan would be to remove the sick temporarily from the unhealthy locality, by
sending them to some sanatorium; the principal requirements of which are, a healthy climate, comparatively safe,
i "1
152
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
easy, and not too distant access, and good hospital accommodation, where the patients might be either quickly restored
to health and returned to the service, or whence they could
be sent home if their .disease were persistent.
Various places have been suggested as suitable for the
formation of a sanatorium for the China station ; e.g.—
a. The Cape of Good Hope, which has a healthy climate,
and good hospital accommodation; but the passage is.6840
miles long, and sixty days' sail; while the transit through
the tropics forms an additional drawback, and an,occasional
rough ,and tedious voyage through the China Sea against
the monsoons.
6. Others have proposed some part of Australia,—e.g.,
Sydney; which is less distant, the passage being 4440
miles, or forty days' sail; but the navigation is intricate, the
tropics have to be crossed, and the climate of Sydney is said
to be apt to excite or aggravate dysentery and diarrhoea, and
is, therefore, unsuitable.
c. The south of Japan,—e.g., Nangasaki,—which possesses
a mild and healthy climate, fine scenery, and a latitude
similar to that of Madeira, would be better than either;
while its proximity to China would give it an important
advantage over Vancouver Island. That country, however,
is now only passing through that stage in its existence in
which China was twenty years ago, while being slowly
opened up, and exhibits a similar jealousy of the intrusion
of foreigners; and the formation of a sanatorium in Japan
will, therefore, be long impracticable.
d. Vancouver Island is, in several respects, superior to
the first two, and even excels the last on the whole, and is BRITISH COLUMBIA.
153
admirably adapted for becoming a sanatorium for the'China
station.
1st, It has a mild and healthy climate, similar but superior to that of England, to which the men have been
accustomed; one which is neither apt to cause, nor aggravate, nor retard the cure of the diarrhoeas, dysenteries, agues,
and rheumatisms, &c, from which the great majority of the
China invalids suffer.
2d, It possesses good hospital accommodation, where the
sick are more likely to recover, and to be cured more speedily
and more permanently than if treated at Hong-Kong. Instead of fancying himself in a foreign land, the invalid might
feel at home in Vancouver Island, the good effects of which
upon him would be incalculable.
3d, The distance, viz., 6053 miles, and the voyage, viz., 40
days' sail and 21 days by steam, are comparatively short;
and have the advantage of being both safe and free from
danger, as far as the navigation is concerned, and altogether
within the temperate zone, and therefore, as far as salubrity
goes, more likely to be safe, comfortable, and healthy than
the passage to the Cape or Sydney, The voyage alone, with
its gradual transition from sub-tropical Hong-Kong to the
mild, English-like climate of this colony, would contribute
much to cure and recruit the invalid. Many slight cases of
dysentery, &c, if at once sent to Vancouver Island, might
thus be prevented from running into the more severe and
more fatal forms of disease, and much permanent organic
mischief and mortality obviated. Those slight but tedious
chronic cases so common in China would also be benefited
by a voyage of this kind, with its change of air and scene; "**!
154
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
and the men returned to their own ship on recovery able to
prosecute the remainder of the commission.
4th, The communication between Vancouver Island and
the coast of China will soon be more frequent than between
China and either the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, or Japan.
H.M. ships will occasionally cross the Pacific to refit, coal,
provision, &c, in Esquimalt; mail steamers will soon ply
between Hong-Kong and Vancouver Island ; while an extensive trade, carried on between this colony and the opposite
shores of the Pacific, will soon cause a more frequent passage
of sailing vessels.
5th, If permanent invaliding should ultimately be necessary, invalids may be sent to England as easily, cheaply, and
speedily from Esquimalt as from Hong-Kong. From both
places they are sent by one of two routes: from the former
by the Cape of Good Hope or Suez, and from the latter
either by Cape Horn or Panama; the two short, or " overland" routes being by steamer, and the two long, or Cape
routes by sailing vessel.
The following table will contrast the distance and time
by these different routes. The Cape Horn is somewhat
longer than the Cape of Good Hope route, but the difference
is too trifling in a voyage of this length to be worth notice.
The Panama route, on the other hand, is considerably shorter,
both as to distance and time, than the Suez route. The
short are preferable to the long routes for both stations, as
the invalids are thus saved the inconvenience, anxiety, and
danger of detention in the chmate which may have first
originated their disease, the tedium of a long voyage, and
the (to them) dangerous double passage through the tropics;
U- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
155
and government much of the expense which necessarily
^attends their detention while waiting for passage:—
Table 26.
To contrast the Distance and Time of different Routes from
Hong-Kong and Vancouver Island to England.
Route.
Miles.       Average
Passage.
Hong-Kong to England by Cape of Good Hope,
Vancouver Island to England by Cape Horn,
Hong-Kong to England by Suez,
Vancouver Island to England by Panama, .
Hong-Kong to  England by Canada and trans-
American Railway,	
12,600
13,267
.9,467
8,447
11,121
Days.
123
126
50
42
42
The formation of a trans-American railway will afford
superior facilities for the homeward transmission of invalids
from both stations, and will probably be the route followed
in all cases. The passage from China, though slightly longer
as to distance, will be shorter as to time, and probably
cheaper; part of the sea voyage will be saved; and a comfortable -passage obtained, with a gradual transition from
warm to cool weather.
In a large proportion of those cases of sickness which
occur in China, therefore, not only in severe but in slight
cases likely to prove serious; and not only in those that
will ultimately require invaliding, but also in those which
may be sent back to the station, a speedy transmission to a
sanatorium at Esquimalt would be most judicious ; and the
combined bracing influence of the voyage and of the chmate
of the colony would unquestionably prevent much invaliding, VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
save much sickness, and -perhaps many lives. Treat such
cases in China, and the invalid undergoes a lingering and,
perhaps, dangerous illness, and may be either invalided or
die. Send him forthwith to Vancouver Island, and the
bracing influence of the voyage, and the climate of Esquimalt, and its hospital comfort, may probably save his life;
may obviate the necessity for permanently invaliding him;
and will certainly more speedily and more effectually restore
his health, if this be possible. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
157
CHAPTER X.
SUMMARY : THE PRESENT CONDITION OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
AND BRITISH COLUMBIA; THEIR RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, ADVANTAGES, AND PROBABLE FUTURE AS COLONIES
FOR SETTLEMENT.
The history of Victoria, the capital of Vancouver Island, its
rapid rise and present prosperity, may be fairly taken as a
criterion of the future career and success of both colonies.
Within the short space of four years it has risen from a
small Hudson's Bay Company's trading settlement to a large
thriving and important commercial town, with a population
of three or four thousand souls. Few of those rapidly-
developed cities of which the history of colonization during
the past twenty or thirty years has given some well-marked
instances, can boast of so great an increase within so short a
space of time; and those who visited this island some years
back would now have some difficulty in recognising in its
present capital, with its bustling streets, its busy harbour,
and its already large and industrious population and thriving
trade, the " Tsomus " village of a former day, or the I Fort-
Victoria" of 1856 or 1857,—a paltry settlement with a scanty
white population, and a harbour disturbed only by the canoe
of the Indian, the occasional visit of some small and adven-
1 mmummmu
158
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
turous trading craft, and the annual arrival of the Hudson's
Bay Company's store-ship, with supplies, and for the homeward transport of furs. The introduction of gas into Victoria, now in progress, is an event which of itself goes
far to indicate the already advanced state of these young
colonies.
We have previously pointed out, however, that the present
commerce and prosperity of Vancouver Island depends chiefly
on the supply of the large but fluctuating mining population
of the adjacent colony; while British Columbia itself has
been developed, and still principally depends on the traffic
and supply of her mining population.    New Westminster
and the rudimentary towns along" the Fraser Eiver and
Harrison Lake routes were originated chiefly by local traffic,
and are still principally commercial places.    In both colonies
the agricultural districts are only partially settled, while the
manufactures, foreign commerce, fisheries, and all the principal sources of their future wealth, are still undeveloped.
Although the present flourishing condition of both evidently j
rests on a very uncertain footing, (to obviate which no effort
should be spared to develop their capabilities and resources
in other directions,) their population is steadily increasing,
their trade gradually extending, new sources of wealth and
new fields of industry are being rapidly discovered, the
valuable resources of both, and the readiness and ease with
which they can be made available, are becoming more and
more evident, while a feeling of security and confidence in
their capabilities,  and an increasing belief that they are
destined to enjoy a highly prosperous fdture, appears to
pervade the entire community. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
159
Although both colonies enjoy well-marked present prosperity and give evidence of future greatness, equal advance
is not so apparent in every direction, and their resources and
capabilities generally are capable of greatly increased development. Their agricultural, pastoral, and food-yielding
capabilities, e.g., have not yet been fairly tested, and their
development in this direction is proceeding very slowly;
only limited tracts of both have yet been cleared and cultivated, while the scarcity of labour has prevented the full
development of that already settled, and they are still far
from being able to feed their own population. Few agriculturists or farm-labourers emigrate hither; the influx has
hitherto consisted principally of gold-diggers, tradesmen, and
artizans. Farm-labourers being scarce, the farms are imperfectly worked; Indian labour can be had, but it is unskilful,
fitful, and not to be depended on; and not much better success has attended those who have brought farm-labourers from
England with them, the facilities for settlement and farming
on their own account being too great to keep them. The
circumstances of the agricultural population, however, evince
an amount of comfort and plenty which is rarely seen in the
agricultural districts of most parts of the old country; and
a farm-labourer or small farmer, with ordinary intelligence
and industry, has a better chance in colonies like these of
ultimately becoming his own master than he can ever have
in densely-peopled countries like England, where land is
valuable, and usually out of reach of all but wealthy individuals, and farms therefore unattainable to the majority.
Their mineral wealth is equally undeveloped. A large
amount of gold has  been  taken from the Fraser Eiver ™«
160
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
I  !
diggings in British Columbia; but, with this exception, the
mines' and mineral wealth of both colonies are very imper'-
ffeetly developed. Their coal-fields and quarries have been
worked only to a triflnug' extent, while their copper and
silver mines are only being j explored, and their value is not
yet known.. Neither colony has yet been thoroughly geologically explored, and both may possibly be* rich in still'
undiscovered minerals.
Their manufactures, strictly so called, are still limited and
rudimentary. Several useful trades are, however, actively
carried on, (e.g., brewing, cabinet-making, bread-baking, &c.,)
both by private individuals and companies, who maintain a
more or less successful competition with their neighbours.
Many trades and tradesmen give evidence of great prosperity. Their profits are large; raw materials are readily
procured in the colony or imported from California, while
the expense of freight on articles imported from Europe goes
on the side of profit to the colonial manufacturer. Trade
and manufactures generally are likely to be equally successful in this extensive and rapidly increasing field, where the
demand for manufactured goods will be long much in advance
of the supply which the colonies can furnish and occasionally
even import. There is ample room in both for the introduction of many new trades and manufactures.
Their commerce is limited in comparison to what it will
ultimately be, although that of Vancouver Island is wonderfully advanced for so young a settlement. Its active commerce is, indeed, the principal feature of this colony. In
addition to its local traffic, vessels frequently arrive with
passengers and cargoes from England, California, the Sand- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
161
wich Islands, China, &c.; and the amount of shipping connected either directly or indirectly with the colony is already
surprising. Victoria Harbour usually contains one or two
ships of considerable size, with numerous coasting craft and
river steamers; while shipbuilding of small craft is pretty
actively carried on to supply a steadily-increasing demand
for shipping, and the busy scene which this port frequently
presents is such as many a longer established colony and
maritime town in any country would be pleased to witness
in their own case. The means of intercommunication
between Victoria and different parts of both colonies, as
well as with the south-west coast of America, the United
States, and Europe, are already ample. With the commerce
the shipping is rapidly increasing, and promises to become
one of the most important sources of their wealth: the
commerce and shipping of British Columbia, however, is
likely to be unimportant.
Such is, briefly, the present state of development of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Their probable future,
a subject of equal importance to the intending emigrant, is
promising in the extreme. Few colonies could have better
prospects; and few can offer a better field for labour, or a
more certain prospect of success—an impression which the
following summary of what has been treated more at length
in the former pages, will go far to strengthen:—
1. We have shewn that their climate is good, much
superior to that of Canada, and equal, perhaps superior, to
that of the south of England ; that its salubrity is equally
marked, and probably-furpasses that of England and the
majority of England's colonies, and is not only favourable
I
I
el 162
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
for health, but well adapted for agricultural and pastoral
purposes, as evinced by the quantity and superior quality of
their animal and vegetable productions, and also admirably
adapted by its temperature for many manufacturing processes
—e.g., brewing, soap and candle making, &c.—which could
not be so readily carried on either in a warmer climate or in
a colder one.
2. While British Columbia has eminent agricultural and
pastoral resources, and is emphatically the agricultural and
pastoral colony, Vancouver Island, on the other hand, has
no prospect of excelling in this respect, but its principal
strength and importance as a colony will he in a totally
different direction. The hilly nature of the island and its
scanty soil preclude the possibility of extensive farming; its
available land is limited, and only adapted for farming on a
small scale. The soil of both is highly fertile, and much of
it superior to that of England, while the crops are fair both
in quantity and quality. Both have eminent capabilities as
food-yielding colonies. Their fisheries will become of great
value, and also their timber produce
3. Their known mineral wealth is most valuable. Vancouver Island has an abundance of useful and readily available building material admirably adapted for the climate.
In her coal-fields she possesses a valuable resource calculated
to promote the welfare and prosperity of both colonies, and
of especial importance to the island itself, to aid and stimulate
the development of her manufactures and commerce. British
Columbia, on the other hand, has her gold and silver mines,
the former probably the most valuablein the world
4. Vancouver Island is capable of, and will probably BRITISH COLUMBIA.
163
become an eminent manufacturing colony. Her chmate
is suitable for it; her internal resources are equally favourable ; her coal will be of inestimable value for many manufactures and processes in the arts which could not be
developed without it; the Pacific alone offers a well-stored
field in which to procure such raw materials as she is most
likely to require; while in the same wide sphere, as well as
in the future dense population that will cover the 214,000
square miles of the united colonies, and also the interior of
Canada, she will find an ample market for her manufactured
goods. If properly developed in this direction, this colony
may be almost without a rival in the Pacific; while her
proximity to the markets will give her an advantage over
more distant countries, which furnish the present supply, that
will ultimately enable her to supplant them.
5. The prospects for the development of Vancouver Island
as a commercial colony are also of a superior character.
She has abundant resources for the equipment and safety of
a merchant navy, and her shipping will yet be one of the
most fertile sources of her wealth ; her maritime position,
insular nature, fine harbours, and favourable geographical
position, all admirably adapt this island for the development
of an extensive commerce. The colony is perfectly competent to carry on its own import and export trade, and to
take the principal share in that of the Pacific. Her proximity to Polynesia, Eastern Asia, &c, will enable Vancouver
Island better than any other country or colony in the Pacific
to develop an extensive commerce with China and many
other fields now gradually springing up for commercial
energy and competition.   The colony is favourably situated 164
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
for becoming an emporium in which the mutual commerce
of Asia, America, and Europe, may be concentrated; by
which this valuable traffic may be diverted to her own
shores and capital as the medium for its onward transmission
across Canada. When Western North America becomes as
populous as the Eastern States now are, when Polynesia becomes civilised, and China, Japan, and Eastern Asia generally
are fully opened up, Vancouver Island, as the principal
commercial and manufacturing colony of the Pacific, will
probably assume an importance and position second to none
of the British colonies, and to be compared only with that of
countries like England.
6. Vancouver Island, of great political importance, and
valuable to England in a strategetic point of view, is admirably adapted for a naval station and sanatorium for the
Pacific generally. Its character as such will benefit both
colonies, both directly and indirectly, and will especially
give great security to their commerce.
7- While Vancouver Island and British Columbia are individually valuable and important, their resources, on taking
a general survey, are evidently widely different, and their
capabilities adapted for development in totally different
directions. While Vancouver Island is fitted for becoming
a commercial and manufacturing colony; British Columbia,
on the other hand, is adapted principally for agricultural,
pastoral, and mining operations. Although the great aim of
both—viz., mutual advancement and prosperity—is therefore
identical, their individual interests cannot be antagonistic,
because widely dissimilar, and their soundest policy will be
as united colonies to mutually aid the common progress, the BRITISH COLUMBIA.
165
chief aim of both being to encourage and strengthen rather
than to rival and weaken its neighbour.
8. As united colonies, they possess valuable internal
resources and eminent capabilities for development, not in
one, but in many different directions,—in agriculture, in
mining, manufactures, and commerce,—such as probably no
other colony belonging to Great Britain can ever possess.
The Australian settlements, Cape Colony, and Canada, are
eminent agricultural and pastoral colonies, but it is doubtful
if they will rival British Columbia when fully developed.
Singapore, Hong-Kong, &c, are eminent commercial colonies,
but they will probably soon be surpassed in importance by
Vancouver Island. Few of England's colonies have, or are
likely ever to have, many claims to be styled manufacturing
colonies, and therefore will never equal Vancouver Island as
such. Many possess valuable minerals: gold is abundant
in Australia, and copper in Cape Colony, &c.; but none possess a similar amount of varied and valuable mineral wealth
as united Vancouver Island and British Columbia, with
their coal-fields, gold, silver, copper, plumbago, &c, &c.; and,
certainly no other colony belonging to Great Britain possesses so many valuable combined advantages for development in many different directions as these colonies united.
9. Vancouver Island and British Columbia, regarded as
rapidly-increasing settlements in which labour is scarce, and
as colonies whose fisheries, mines, commerce, manufactures,
&c, will soon become important, and furnish an ample field
both for labour and capital, evidently offer advantages for
settlement such as few colonies can offer. Both are new and
extensive fields for industry; and the colonist who emigrates
I
. k
I
fr 166
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
In
/
while these settlements are still young and scantily peopled
ps more likely to find the field in which he labours unopposed.
No tradesman or working man can err by emigrating to
either. On the contrary, the labourer has a sure prospect
of high and steady wages, a comfortable home, and, with
steadiness and perseverance, may ultimately possess a comfortable independence, with the additional advantage of
being able to make an equally good provision for his family.
While Vancouver Island and British Columbia possess
many of the elements of future greatness and wealth, they
do not enjoy all the natural advantages, and therefore can
never equal England either in manufactures or in commerce;
although, united, they may surpass her in agricultural and
pastoral pursuits. Their mineral productions, gold and
silver perhaps excepted, are less numerous, less abundant,
and less valuable ; while their commercial and manufacturing capabilities can never either equal or resemble those of
the parent country, as they will probably never have an
equally civilised and wealthy, though possibly more extensive, market to supply. Their capabilities for development,
however, are such that they will yet hold a high position
among the wealthiest, most populous, and most important
of her dependencies. In one respect these highly-favoured
colonies have an advantage over England: their starting-
points differ; and while inexperienced England rose from
a small beginning, by long and tedious steps, with little aid
and much opposition, to the place she now occupies in the
commercial, mining, and manufacturing world, Vancouver
Island and British Columbia, with the same energetic race
to develop them, have the accumulated experience of the BRITISH COLUMBIA.
167
parent country to guide them, the sympathy and aid, if
necessary, of the most wealthy and influential nation that
ever existed, and a new and almost unoccupied field iri
which to labour.
While evidences of present success and future prosperity
combine to invite working men generally to these colonies,
they offer other manifest advantages. The moral and religious tone which pervades the community, the state of
society, and the amount of social and domestic comfort
which the colonies are likely to afford, are subjects obviously
of importance to emigrants generally, especially to married
men with families.
Wages are high, and vary from three to as much as five
dollars (12s. 3d. to 20s. 5d.) per day; while the price of
provisions and other sources of unavoidable expenditure are
sufficiently moderate to enable the colonist, if he chooses, to
save money. Comfortable boarding or lodging-houses, and
French and English restaurants abound both in Victoria and
New Westminster, and are such as would not disgrace
London or Paris for cleanliness, comfort, and variety. The
following table will shew the usual charges in Victoria for
comfortable board and lodging:—
Table 27.
Charges for Bed and Board in Victoria, Vancouver Island.
I
Uk
Breakfast,   .
| dollar
per day,
)
Dinner,
3
4
tt
••
>    6 to 8 dollars
Tea,     .
1
S
**
5*
1
Bed,    .
1
**
,1
Bed and Board,   .
2
•*
31              •
8 to 11       „
The dollar,
4s. Id
British
currency;
the cent, about Jd.
s *
4 of
\ufv
L
7 168
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
Luxuries are generally dear, but the usual simple and unostentatious style of colonial life renders such articles less
necessary than might be supposed. Ordinary necessaries,
such as bread, tea, rice, sugar, &c, are on the whole cheap;
and were it not for the supplies required by the gold mines
of British Columbia, provisions would be much cheaper than
at present As the resources of the colonies, especially their
farms and fisheries, become developed, the supply will be
more abundant, and living correspondingly cheaper; both
can yield farm and garden produce similar to that of England, and plenty of fish and game. The following table will
give an estimate of their average price:—
Table 28.
Cost of Provisions at Victoria.
Loaf, per 21b.
Potatoes, per bushel, ...
Onions, per lb.
Butter, per lb.
Cheese, English, per1 Ib.
„     American, per lb.
Eggs, per dozen,
Tea, per lb.
Coffee, per lb.
Sugar, lump, per lb.   ...
„    coarse, per lb. ...
Molasses, per gallon,  ...
Candles, per lb.
Soap, fine, per lb.
Currants and Raisins, per lb.
Bacon, per lb.
Ham, per lb.
Beef, per lb.
Veal, per lb.
Mutton, per lb.
Lamb, per lb.
6d.
Is. to Is. 3d.
ljd. and 2d.
Is. 3d. to 2s.
Is. 3d. to Is. 6d.
9<L to Is. Od.
Is. to 2s.
Is. 8d. to 3s.
1 (id. to Is. Id.
7d. and Sd.
•Id. and 5d.
Is. 3d. to Is. 6d.
18. Id. to Is. 3d.
5d. and 9d.
6<L, 7d. and 9d.
7(1., '.'il. and l.s.
6d. to Is.
•M to Is.
fid. to Is. Sd.
•id. to la.
fid. to la. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
169
Pork, per lb.
4d. to 8d.
Ale, Bass, per quart,  ...
Is.
Porter, per quart,
Is.
Whisky, per quart bottle,         ...
2s.
Gin, per quart bottle, ...
2s.
Wine, Port, per quart bottle,    ...
3s. to 5s.
„     Sherry, per quart bottle,
5s. to 8s.
Up country, especially at Cariboo, where everything has
to be carried by " trail," (packing from Yale or Douglas
being 50 cents = 2s. per lb.,) provisions, &c, are enormously
high. The following table will shew the price of pork, and
beans, and bread, the usual miners' fare at the Cariboo
mines:—
Table 29.
Price of Provisions, &c, at Cariboo.
Flour,
Beans,
Bacon,
Tea,
Boots,
Woollen Shirts,
0 dollars 80 cents.
0 1      80    1
1 1     25   „
3 I       0   „
12 to 20 dollars.
4 dollars.
The ordinary productions of the island, and its imported
supplies of food, &c, very much resemble those of England.
Ready-made articles of clothing are expensive; those made
in the colony still more so. Boots, shoes, &c, are much
dearer than in England; often double the price. Almost
everything can be purchased in Victoria; and so regular
and frequent are its communications with the Eastern States
and Europe that no want or discomfort need long be felt;
and all the necessities, conveniences, luxuries, and even the
elegances of life can be either readily procured in Victoria
or easily imported.   Many of the well-stocked shops of this
in:
I i 170
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
port would be no disgrace to any first-class commercial city
in Europe or the States. And these colonies possess in their
capital advantages which few settlements could offer the
emigrant, and which those resident in distant parts of either
colony share by being able to hold more or less frequent
communication with it. Few colonies have a centre of
supply equal to that which these as yet comparatively thinly
peopled settlements possess in their chief town Victoria
The mildness and healthiness of the climate, and the comparative rareness of those diseases which are apt to decimate
in the periods of infancy and childhood, encourage emigration. Hither the emigrant may come without that dread
which is occasioned by the more frequent occurrence of these
diseases; and the married man especially, who intends to
proceed to either colony, has the comfort of knowing that
his family is to reside in a country with a climate at least as
healthy as that of England, and probably more salubrious
than that of any other colony to which he could resort.
One of the first and strongest impressions that will be
produced oh the minds of emigrants after arrival here will
be to all, or most of them, of a very agreeable character,
arising from the remarkable regularity, quiet, and order that
prevails in Victoria, New Westminster, and over the colonies
generally, and even at the mines; and which contrast most
strikingly with the conduct which is said to have disgraced
the early career of several of the large and rapidly-developed
cities in Australia and elsewhere; There is none of that
feverish excitement said to have characterised the industry
of many of the cities just alluded to; although, taking
Victoria as an example, its fluctuating population exhibits BRITISH COLUMBIA.
171
a corresponding prominence of the mining element, and a
constant passage to and fro of more or less erratic and unsettled gold-diggers; while business is carried on with such
energy as would do no discredit to any commercial town,
even in England.
The general tone of society and style of life is, with some
not very important exceptions, thoroughly English, tinged,
however, with occasional slight manifestations of American
tendencies; and a similarity of race and character, of manners and customs, of sympathies and aim, in those among
whom the newly-arrived emigrant from England is cast, all
combine to make him feel more at home, and less discouraged, than he otherwise would on first landing at
Victoria.
The religious tone which pervades the community in both
colonies, and in Victoria their capital, is probably as healthy
as that of most towns in England. The Sabbath is well
observed; shops are closed during divine service, and business suspended; and the churches are fairly attended. Victoria is well supplied with places of worship. The English
Church, the Presbyterians, the Congregationalists, Wesleyans,
and Eoman Catholics have their churches and their representatives, all for the most part endeavouring to aid reformation, and to advance moral and religious good. Owing to
the early and liberal endowment of a mission, by the munificence of an English lady,* the dominant Church of the
community is that of England.
The moral tone of these colonies and their capital is good,
taking all things into consideration, and especially making
* Miss Burdett Coutts.
I
I Ill''   11
172
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
allowance for the presence of a very considerable floating
population of miners/ and of erratic fortune-hunters, who
often infest newly-founded colonies; and of many idle Indians and half-castes, who are too frequently influenced by
bad example. Intemperance is by no means a very prominent vice; nor is there any of that ruffianism and defiance
of law and order once common in other colonies. Serious
crimes are rare, and both life and property may be said to
be almost as secure as in England. All resident here,
whether Europeans, Americans, Chinese, or native Indians,
are equally amenable to the colonial laws, which are based
on, and in most cases identical with, those of England.
The natives are quiet and inoffensive to a degree, unless
provoked or made victims of intemperance by unscrupulous
traffickers, who manage to evade the law which forbids the
sale of intoxicating liquors to Indians. Murders occasionally occur, usually among hostile tribes of Indians, and is
often the direct or indirect effect of intemperance. White
men, especially "King George's men," as distinguished by
the Indians from the " Boston men," or Americans, run no
danger from the native Indians, provided they treat them
with the kindness and justice which is their due.
Parents need have no fear that the morals of their children
or friends will be liable to be more corrupted here than in
England or the colonies generally, and certainly there is less
danger of this here than in many settlements of longer
standing. The firmness of the Hudson Bay employed, who
have so long lived among the native Indians, and taught
them to fear as well as to respect " King George's men;"
and of the present colonial authorities, who have insisted on BRITISH COLUMBIA.
173
a strict regard to the laws of the colony and of civilised life,
and have promptly punished every transgression; together
with the felt superiority of the white race on the part of the
Indians themselves, and the usually inoffensive Indian character,—all combine to render both life and property secure.
The educational institutions are unquestionably in a wonderfully advanced condition for so recent a settlement; and
in Victoria a sound and even refined, though somewhat expensive education, may be obtained for the young of either
sex Several well-conducted schools, both sectarian and
non-sectarian, already exist, where the youth of the colony—
its future tradesmen, merchants, and manufacturers—may
obtain a suitable education; and one in particular, conducted under the auspices of the colonial bishop, where a
superior elementary education may be had such as will fit a
youth for entering on a college education elsewhere. The
formation of a college at a future day is in contemplation.
The well-attended Sunday-schools connected with the various
churches and sects prove that moral and religious education
is equally cared for.
Victoria has two daily newspapers, and New Westminster
one. Reading-rooms and a pubhc library have already been
projected for the former. Weekly winter-evening lectures
on interesting and instructive subjects are delivered by the
talent of the colony, and give ample opportunities for improvement to all who desire it: nor need any emigrant fear,
therefore, that his children will not be virtuously trained,
and only imperfectly educated. In few colonies, even those
of longer standing, is the moral, religious, and educational
welfare of youth better attended to than in Vancouver Island.
i
f if m
174
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
These advantages are not confined to Victoria, but extend to
most of the smaller settlements in both colonies; several of
which have now both churches and schools. Nanaimo, with
its 150 or 200 inhabitants, has two churches and a school;
Craigflower, an agricultural settlement three miles from Vic-
toria, has a school and church service; and Saanich will soon
have a clergyman and church. The larger towns and settlements in British Columbia are fairly supplied with clergymen ; every care being taken, as far as possible, to make the
spread of schools and churches, and of moral and religious
instruction, follow close in the rear of settlement.
The superior prospect which these colonies afford the
emigrant of obtaining not only a better position, but also
an easier and better start in life for his children than could
be managed in England, where every avenue to prosperity
and wealth is crowded, presents another favourable inducement. Here a youth can usually be more readily apprenticed and have a wider choice of trades than in England,
where the candidates are more numerous and the openings
relatively fewer. On the other hand, these improving colonies offer the youth, who has grown with their growth, a
field for his exertions superior to any he could have in the
mother country; he has a better chance of succeeding and
of attaining an independence, and, perhaps, becoming a man
of standing and position, than in the crowd with whom he
would have to compete in the same struggle at home.
Speaking generally, the younger the colony the less is the
competition, and the greater consequently are the chances of
the commencing tradesman or professional man to succeed,
always assuming, of course, that' the colony of his choice BRITISH COLUMBIA.
175
possesses the elements of success within it; and hence the
benefit of early emigration.
It is not the design of these pages, however, to conceal the
fact that both British Columbia, and Vancouver Island have
their disadvantages and drawbacks like other colonies, and
-especially recently-settled ones. House rent is necessarily
high. Rapid immigration and limited capital render it difficult to erect even wooden-built houses with sufficient rapidity
to keep pace with the demand. Capital might be profitably
laid out in Victoria, and the colony greatly benefited by the
erection of suitable dwellings for the working classes. The
scarcity of labour and of domestic servants forms another
source of inconvenience to many, especially on their first
arrival, and until they have become inured to colonial customs and to emigrant life. Indian labour and native or
half-breed servants can be had, but they are often too obtuse,
dirty, and untidy, to be of much use. English servants are
at a very high premium ; indeed they can scarcely be had at
all, or but for short periods; most of them get married soon
after arrival in the colony. Emigrants of both sexes are
nearly all brought to a level, and must perform many menial
offices which might not be required of them in England.
Servants' wages vary from £50 to £90 per annum, with board
and lodging, which the majority of emigrants cannot afford;
washing costs 8s. to 10s. a-dozen; a carpet hag can be carried ^
a moderate distance for a dollar (4s. Id.); shoes brushed for
Is., and so on : the economical colonist brushes his own. It
is after arrival in the colony that the married man, especially
if farming, finds his family of growing-up sons and daughters
of use to him in the absence or scarcity of servants.   Those
I VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
so situated can carry on their farming operations, while
others not so fortunate, though possessing ampler means and
larger property, are compelled by the scarcity of labour, if
not entirely to cease, at all .events to limit their operations
and work their farms imperfectly.
The married emigrant need have no fear of the future for
his daughters. Probably the greatest want here, as in young
colonies generally, is that of Women. The arrival of a few
cargoes at Victoria would create a jubilee; and good wages
for even a moderate amount of work, together with a cer-
tainty of marriage, can be found for all ranks and almost all
ages.
The great distance of these colonies from England, especially apt to discourage the emigration of women and children,
is a serious disadvantage; and is one leading cause of the tardiness with which their colonization proceeds. A large pror
portion of their present population is derived from California
and Canada—closer at hand and easier of access. The aid of
colonial "Emigrant Societies," however, and the increasing
competition for a share in the commerce of the colonies, are
daily affording greater facilities for emigration,, and safer,
quicker, and cheaper passages ; and ultimately railway communication across Canada will bring them still closer to
England, and by facilitating emigration, and lessening its
expense, will more rapidly increase their population. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
177
CHAPTER XI.
THE ROUTES TO VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA.
«
Emigrants may have a choice of three routes from England
to Vancouver Island:—
1st, By Sailing-vessel, vid Cape Horn.
2d, By Steamer, vid the West Indies (St Thomas's) and Panama.
3d, By Steamer, vid New York and Panama.
The first route is longer and more tedious than the others,
but cheaper, and in some respects better adapted for families,
especially those with limited means. The distance by this
route is 12,746 miles, and the voyage lasts from four to five
or six months, according to the stoppages (if any are made)
to provision or water. Opportunities for passage by this
route are not numerous,—seldom more than five or six
vessels a-year sail for these colonies,—but they are increasing gradually. The Hudson's Bay Company's ship
Princess Royal usually makes the voyage and back within
the year; affording the best accommodation, and as safe a
passage as can be obtained, at the following fares :—
Cabin, £70^
Intermediate, £40 I   Provisions
Steerage, £30 f    included.
Children under fourteen, half-price, J
Goods, per ton, £6
M 178
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
For families an arrangement may possibly be made. A
regular line of packets is much required to facilitate emigration to these colonies.
The formation of " Emigrant Societies," to supply a cheap,
comfortable, and safe passage would aid materially in peopling
these colonies,—a benefit they conferred some years ago on
our Australian settlements. The passage-money in this case
is usually paid by instalments—part of it before departure,
and part after arrival in the colony.
The term "overland," as applied to the other routes,
vid Panama, is a misnomer,—only forty-two miles across
the isthmus being by land, the remainder by sea. The
difference between the two as to distance and time is too
trifling to be worth notice in a voyage of this length; but
the New York appears to be the preferable route, as the
sickly chmate of St Thomas's, the chance of yellow fever,
the longer stay in the tropics, and a probability of detention
at Panama, are all avoided. The passenger by either route,
on arriving at Aspinwall, crosses the isthmus by railway, and
from Panama on its Pacific side is conveyed by an American
line of steamers to San Franeisco, and thence to Vancouver
Island, where he is landed at Esquimalt, three miles from
Victoria.    The following are the present rates of passage to
England:—
New York Route.
1st Cabin. 2d Cabin. Steerage.
England to New York, £26            £20 £6 (without rations.)
£62             £46 £31
($308-50) ($230-75) ($153-75)
New York to Victoria,
Total,	
£88
£66 BRITISH COLUMBIA. 179
West Indies and Panama Route.
1st Cabin, £75 10   0
2d Cabin,   59   0   0
Steerage,      45   5   0
Government aid is much required to subsidise an Enghsh
line of steamers to carry the mails and passengers between
Panama and Vancouver Island,—transport by American
steamers being less safe, comfortable, and regular than by
Enghsh mail-boats.
On arrival, the emigrant will find that both Vancouver
Island and British Columbia already enjoy some good roads
and fair means of conveyance. Wagon roads have been
made from Victoria to Esquimalt, and thence onwards to
Metchosin and Sooke; thence from Victoria, through the
Lake and Saanich districts, onwards to Coivitchin, 35 miles
off. This includes the greater part of the southern end of
the colony, which has already been surveyed and extensively
settled. No roads are made beyond, and the further parts
of the island are still unopened, the only access being by
,water, or by the circuitous "trails," or foot-paths of the
Indians. A small screw-steamer affords occasional conveyance to Nanaimo, 70 miles distant, the fare being $5 (£1) ;
while to Barclay Sound—the only other settled part of this
colony—less frequent access may be had by sailing craft.
There is frequent communication between Vancouver
Island and the adjacent colony. Several steamers run
from Victoria to New Westminster, 82 miles distant, daily
in summer, and thrice a-week during winter, when the river
is navigable; and from the latter river steamers ply up
the Fraser as far as Hope and Yale,—the latter 102 miles 180 VANCOUVER ISLAND AND
off,—as well as along the Harrison Lake to Douglas and
Lilloet. These form the two principal routes hitherto
followed to the gold-diggings of the upper Fraser. The
following will shew the usual fares:—
Steam-boat Fares in Vancouver Island.
Passengers. Goods, per Ton.
Victoria to Nanaimo, 5 dollars.* 3 dollars.
„       North Westminster, 5     „ 3     „
*,       Hope, : \
„       Yale, [ 10    „ 20     „
„       Douglas, )
Access to the settlements beyond, and to the diggings at
Cariboo, is less easy and more expensive, and is usually
had, either by canoe or " trail/' according to circumstances.
Miners usually travel in company. The canoes are large,
and well adapted for river navigation; and, prior to the introduction of steamers on the Fraser River, they afforded
the only mode of transport to the mines, and, even now,
many miners prefer going from Victoria in this way. Many
go by trail in company with "pack trains,"—i.e., mules or
camels laden with provisions and other goods for sale at the
mines, i"
The principal route to the gold-diggings since 1858,
when these were on the lower Fraser about Hope and Yale,
has been by the Fraser River itself. Since the discovery in
1861 of the Cariboo mines, 300 miles higher up, this route
has been found tedious, difficult, and expensive, and new
* For facility of calculation a dollar may be roughly calculated as = 4s.
English currency.
*|* The latter have been lately introduced from the Amoor. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
181
ones have been projected. Shorter routes to these diggings
are practicable by Bute's Canal, Bentinck Arm, and other
inlets along the coast, which are navigable for a long distance inland, and afford access across the coast-range by
trails or wagon roads leading from their further end.
Many miners have already gone by these routes, and they
will be universally followed soon. Of the Fraser River
routes, that by the " brigade trail" is said to be the best,
being less mountainous, and capable of affording good
camping ground, and plenty of grass for the pack mules.
The expenses for an ordinary miner to and from Cariboo
from Victoria by the Fraser River route amount to between
$300 and $350 (£60 or £70.)
Of the coast routes, that by Bute's Inlet appears the best,
being the quickest and shortest, and, probably, the cheapest
and easiest. The following table * will go far to prove the
superiority of this over the Fraser River and other projected
coast routes:—
Table of Routes from Victoria to Cariboo.
Fraser River route,	
North Bentinck Arm route, I 506
West Road River route, | 506
Bute Inlet route,	
n
Sea.
istance
Eiver.
Land.
Total.
Time
employed
in Days.
Miles.
Miles.
Miles.
Miles.
92
90
359
541
37
506
54
173
738
28
506
54
155
715
222
83
158
463
22
A few good roads have been made in British Columbia,
* Extracted from Mr Waddington's clearly-written pamphlet. 182
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA
but only for short distances. Longer ones are much required, and will be necessary to aid in opening np and developing the resources of both colonies, more especially the
interior of the former.
Emigrants should endeavour to time their departure from
England so as to arrive in spring—the best season both for
comfort and convenience. The weather is fine, the roads good,
and travelling easy from March to September or October,
but otherwise during the rest of the year. The winter,
however, with its fogs, rain, snow, and muddy roads, and ini-
passable trails, is apt to discourage the newly-arrived emigrant, and to give an unfavourable impression of the colony.
Before the month of May, the miner cannot have easy or safe
access to the diggings, where operations are usually suspended from the middle of October till the beginning of
June ; nor can the farmer or agricultural labourer commence
their farming operations until early spring.
THE END.
BALLAJJTYNE  AMD COMPANY, MUSTERS,  EDINBURGH. 65, Cornhill, London^
September, 1862.
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